Skip to main content

Full text of "Fruit notes"

See other formats


BlEDbb DlDl DflfiV b 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prapored by Pomology Sfoff 
Deportment of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



JANUARY - 1959 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 





SMALL FRUIT MEETING 

Your 1958 Federal Income Tax (Farmers) 

Thoughts on Pruning 

Notes on New Varieties 

The Aphids on Apple II 

Prices - Last Five Years 



^: 



^:/',->: 



'J i/Ul 



vV' 



V// 









x: 



//i 





-^4 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and J 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agrlcultire and County Extension Services cooperatfr 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



une 30, 1914; 
ng. 



POMOLOGY SECTION = DEPARrfoEN-r OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James F. - Instructor 

Teaches courses in peat control, smnill furlt culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties* 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breading, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J, - Extension Fruit Specialist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses „ Currently also doing research on fruit 
marketing. 

Southwick, Franklin W. •- Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



Contributors to This Issue From Supporting Fields 

Lawrence D. Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 

Ellsworth H. Wheeler - Extension Entomologist 

Frederick E. Cole- Extension Marketing Specialist 



SMALL FRUIT MEETING 

A Small Fruit Meeting will be held in the Middlesex Room of the Student Union 
Building at the University of Massachusetts on Wednesday, Janxiary 21, 1959. The 
meeting will be an all day session beginning at 10:00 A.M. and ending at 4:00 P.M. 

The topics discussed at this meeting will be as follows: 

Chemical Weed Control 

Newer Small Fruit Varieties Worthy of Trial 

Soil Fumigation 

Blueberry Maggot Control 

Fruit Rot Control 

Cyclamen Mite Control on Strawberries 

General Recommendations for Insect Control 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

YOUR 1958 FEDERAL INCOME TAX (FARRIERS) 

If you had gross income of $600 or more during your tax year and you are a 
citizen or resident of the United States, you must file a Federal Income Tax return 
even though no tax is due. This also applies to minor children. There is only 
one exception to this rule. If you are 65 years of age or over at the end of your 
tax year you are not required to fil«-* a return unless your gross Income is $1200 or 
more. 

When to file your income tax return 

If at least two-thirds of your gross income is from farming and your tax year 
starts January 1, you have two choices. 

1. File your return and pay the tax on or before February 15, 1959; or 

2. File an estimate of your tax and pay this amount by January 15, 1959. 
Then file your return and pay any balance due by April 15, 1959. 

Where to file 

Mail your return to the District Director of Internal Revenue for the district 
in which you live. For Massachusetts, this is Boston, Massachusetts. 

The forms you use 

As a farmer you use these forms for filing your tax return. 

Form 1040 - this is your return on which you compute your tax. 

Schedule F. This form gives you a place to list all your farm income and 
deductions and determine your net farm profit or loss. Attached to this form is 
the form on which you figure your social security tax. 

Schedule D. This form is used to show your gains and losses from sales of 
capital assets and certain property used in your farming business such as dairy, 
or breeding animals and farming equipment. 



-2- 

Form 1096 and 1099 - information returns are used to report payments to 
individuals of $600 or more in the course of your trade or business in any calendar 
year for wages, interest or rent. Separate copies of Form 1099 are to be given to 
each individual to whom you made payments which total $600 or more. 

If you are a member of a partnership then the partnership uses Form 1065 
together with Schedule F and Form 1040. 

Tax 

One major change which affects farmers is an optional first year depreciation 
allowance on new or used tangible personal property purchased after December 31, 1957, 
with a useful life of _6 years or more . The additional allowance is 20 percent of 
the cost (not reduced by salvage) and may be obtained only in the first tax year , 
that a depreciation allowance is allowable on such property. The aggregate cost 
upon which the additional allowance may be based may not exceed $10,000 on a separate 
return and $20,000 on a joint return. The additional allowance may be taken even 
though the property was not owned the full year . After taking this additional 
allowance you may also take the regular depreciation to which you are entitled for 
the year, computed after adjusting the basis of the property for the additional 
depreciation allowance. The property must have been purchased. If part of the 
basis of the property is determined by reference to the basis of other property 
such as a non-taxable exchange, that part cannot be considered for the additional 
allowance. If, for example, you are allowed $600 on an old tractor which you 
trade in on a new $3,000 tractor only $2400 will qualify. 

Example 

On November 1, 1958 you bought a truck for $4,000. You estimate the useful 
life at 10 years and a salvage value of $500. Your depreciation deduction on a 
separate return, using the straight-line method, may be computed as follows, if 
you so elect : 

20% of $4,000 $800.00 

107o of $2,700 ($4,000 less 800 less 500) 
Depreciation for 2 months (2/12 x 270) 45.00 

Depreciation for 1958 on separate return $845.00 

For 1959 and later years if there are no other adjustments to the basis of 
this property, your depreciation deduction would be $270. After figuring your 
special depreciation allowance you can use the sum-of-the-years-digits or declining 
balance method of depreciation, if you wish. 

Social Security Taxes 

You must file a return and pay a social security tax on your earnings as a 
self-employed farmer even though you would not other^jise be required to file an 
income tax return. The rate of tax is 3 3/8 percent of earning up to the maximum 
of $4,200. (The rate increases after January 1, 1959 to 3 3/4 percent and the 
maximum earnings are increased to $4,800). 



-3- 

If you employ someone to work for you, you must deduct 2 1/2 percent of his 
wages if they total $150 for the year or if he worked on 20 different days during 
the year on a time basis. You also pay 2 1/2 percent of his wages as a social 
security tauc. You do not withhold social security tax on your father's or mother's 
or your wife's or your husband's wages if they work for you nor on wages of your 
children if they are under 21 years of age and work for you, 

—Lawrence D. Rhoades 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

THOUGHTS ON PRUNING 

Pneumatic pruning equipment is used in a number of fruit orchards. Growers 
who have used such equipment report labor savings ranging from 25% to 50%, How- 
ever, the time spent in the decision phase of pruning cannot be shortened by 
modern equipment. This phase depends upon the man doing the pruning. The ability 
to "size-up" each tree and to arrive at a quick but sound pruning decision is 
reflected in the number of trees pruned in a day. 

Growers should be on the alert to avoid becoming "trigger happy" with power 
pruners. Due to the ease of cutting with power tools there is a tendency to 
make excessive cuts. This results in branches with the fruiting area located 
mainly as a fringe near the terminals. This is brought about by the removal of 
too many lateral branches from the scaffold limbs. The process begins near the 
trunk and often continues nearly to the end of the scaffold branches. 

Many Massachusetts fruit growers report favorably on the use of rotary 
mower-shredders for shredding prunings and mowing in the orchards. The prunings 
are collected in the aisles between the trees and the limbs over 2 1/2 inches in 
diameter are hauled away. However, when piling the prunings in the aisles high 
windrows should be avoided because of the difficulty encountered when passing 
over them. 

This is the logical year for growers anticipating a snow-ball bloom to do 
heavy pruning where the need exists. The objective of the apple grower is to 
obtain a high percentage of fruits of the size, color and quality demanded by 
the market. The grower cannot afford to grow small, poorly colored fruits. There- 
fore, pruning to eliminate weak wood and thereby many potential culls is in order. 

The most common pruning suggestions made by the writer during visits to 
orchards involve the pruning of young trees, filler trees and tall trees. 

Too many instances apple trees of bearing age receive first attention and 
the grower does not get time to prune the young trees. The longer the young 
trees are neglected the more difficult it is to shape them. If a tree is allowed 
to go unpruned for four or five years, it is frequently impossible, without drastic 
pruning, to develop a well balanced framework with scaffold limbs properly spaced, 
and a modified leader. 

In the case of filler trees it is generally suggested that they be pruned as 
lightly as possible in order to hasten fruitfulness and to obtain maximum production 
before removal. However, when filler trees begin to crowd the permanent trees or 



_4- 

Interfere with orchard operations they should be pruned heavily on the sides 
adjacent to the permanent trees. By adopting this system of pruning the filler 
trees may be left two or three years longer before removal. However, in many 
orchards the suggestion is to prune the filler trees close to the ground. 

The main problems of caring for tall trees is how to lower their height 
and how they should be pruned once the height is lowered. Some growers are still 
attempting to lower tree height by cutting off all branches above a certain level. 
This will not accomplish the desired results 1 Instead, a large number of water 
sprouts will develop near the pruning cuts and many of these will grow to a height 
greater than before lowering was attempted. To reduce tree height growers should 
remove entirely tall branches or cut back to well placed strong lateral branches, 
depending on the tree under consideration. 

In some cases growers are attempting to lower the tree height in one year and 
are not leaving enough branches or water sprouts to shade exposed limbs. Such a 
procedure results in considerable sunscald. If a tree has a number of tall branches, 
all of these should not be removed in one year. Remove over a 2 or 3 year period. 

One of the objectives of lowering tall trees is to replace old wood on the 
remaining limbs with young, vigorous fruiting wood. Some growers have left too 
many water sprouts which are poorly placed. These water sprouts are in a key 
position to receive the water and nutrients that othen^ise would go to the parent 
scaffold branch. If too many of these water sprouts are left they may dwarf the 
parent branch beyond their point of origin. Growers should remove all but the 
most desireably located x^ater sprouts. It is the hope of the growers that as the 
water sprouts develop side branches they will settle toward the outside of the 
tree. Sometimes the water sprouts can be trained toward the outside of the tree 
by heading back to an outward growing lateral branch. 

---W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

NOTES ON NEW VARIETIES 

APPLE 

Beacon - A seedling of Malinda introduced by the University of Minnesota. Beacon 
is a fairly attractive early apple of Early Mcintosh season or later. It may 
warrant limited trial as an early apple. The Fenton and Miller's Red varieties 
are indistinguishable from Beacon and in all probability are Beacon renamed. 

Crandall - A Rome Beauty x Jonathan cross introduced by the Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station. Crandall is a late winter apple. It has not done well for us. 
The fruit runs small and is poorly colored. Fruit quality is poor. Crandall does 
not appear to be worthy of trial. 

Monroe - A Jonathan x Rome Beauty cross introduced by the New York Agricultural 
Experiment Station. Monroe is a late winter cooking apple of only fair quality. 
It is a fairly attractive apple with good color. The tree is very susceptible to 
powdery mildew. Monroe does not look like a promising variety for Massachusetts. 



-5- 

Ruby - A Gallia Beauty x Starking cross from the Ohio Agricultural Experiment 
Station. Ruby is a winter apple. The fruit has good size but it has a dull un- 
attractive red color. Fruit quality is poor. Ruby does not appear to be an 
outstanding variety under our conditions. 

W. D. Weeks 

PEACH 

Richhaven - An attractive, well colored, yellow fleshed peach of Halehaven season. 
The fruit has good size and quality. Worthy of extensive trial. 

M. A. Blake - An attractive yellow fleshed peach which ripens a few days ahead of 
Elberta. Fruit has good size, quality, and very little pubescence. This peach 
looks very promising as a late-season variety to replace Elberta. Worthy of 
extensive trial. 

---W. D. Weeks 

PEARS 



Alexander Lucas - An attractive French winter pear which is large, yellow with 
a blush and good quality. It's season is late fall and early winter. 

Chap in - A seedling of Seckel which resembles Seckel in general characteristics 
but ripens nearly a month before Seckel. It is very sweet and excellent in 
quality. 

Ewart - A large greenish yellow pear netted v;iLh russet and has a fine, melting, 
tender, juicy flesh. The season is a month later tlian Bartlett. 

Gorham - Fruit resembles Bartlett in size, color, and shape. Ripens two weeks 
later than Bartlett and keeps a month longer. The quality is good to excellent. 
This variety is particularly recommended for dessert and canning. 

Red Bartlett - A sport of Bartlett which resembles Bartlett in every respect 
except color which is red rather than yellow. 

0. C. Roberts 

RED RASPBERRIES 

Early Red - An early, medium sized fruit of medium red color, moderately firm 
and fairly good quality. Growth and production are satisfactory. Winter hardiness 
is fairly good. No virus disease has been observed on it as yet, but it is moderate- 
ly susceptible to spur blight. Worthy of limited trial. 

Muskoka - A midseason variety, with medium sized attractive red fruit which is 
moderately firm and good quality. Canes are moderately winter hardy and show 
little spur blight. No virus found on it to date, 

Fuyallup - From the fruit standpoint this variety is outstanding in size, firmness, 
distinctive flavor and very good quality. It ripens about with Latham, but 

preli.uinary cvi-cncc sugsesis thrX it D::ay aoc be sufficiently winter hardy for 
commercial use. 



-6- 

Other new varieties under test but still not ready for evaluation include 
Canby, New Hampshire and Sumner, Crimson Cone has been quite inferior in size, 
firmness and quality. It is not recommended even for trial. 

A. P. French 

STRAWBERRIES 

Armore - This University of Missouri introduction looks very promising. The 
plant is very vigorous, and forms many runners. The fruit is large, firm and of 
fine flavor. Armore has been one of the top producers in our trials but falls 
short in fruit appearance and is not resistant to red stele. 

Blaze - An introduction of the New Hampshire Experiment Station. The plants are 
vigorous, productive and produce a moderate number of runners. The fruits are 
large, light in color with white centers, fair in firmness and good quality. Blaze 
is not resistant to red stele, but is worthy of trial where this disorder is not 
present. 

Ear li dawn - This U.S.D.A. introduction has been the earliest ripening variety in 
our trials. The plants are moderately productive, of fair vigor and form a satis- 
factory number of runner plants. The fruit is of medium size, firm, tart and of 
fair to good quality. Earlidawn is susceptible to the common strain of red stele 
but may be of value where red stele is not a factor, because of its earliness. 

Redglow ~ A U.S.D.A. introduction for the midseason. The plants are tall, vigorous 
and produce numerous runners. The fruits are attractive, of medium to large size 
and of good quality. Redglow is resistant to the common strain of red stele but 
is susceptible to mildew. 

Surecrop - An introduction of the U.S.D.A. and the Maryland Experiment Station. 
The plants are tall, vigorous and produce numerous runners. The fruit is of medium 
size, attractive and of good quality though tart. Surecrop show promise where red 
stele is a problem. 

Pocahontas - An introduction from the U.S.D.A. The plants are of moderate vigor 
and runner production, the berries were of medium size, attractive, firm, sub-acid, 
but of very good quality. Pocahontas was one of the top producers in this season's 
trials at Amherst. 

Vine land - An introduction of the Ontario Experiment Station. The plants are of 
moderate vigor, yield and runner production. The fruit was of medium size, with 
prominent raised seeds, tender and of good quality. 

Merrimack - This New Hampshire introduction may have a place as a very late ripen- 
ing variety. The plants are tall, vigorous and form a moderate number of runner 
plants. The fruit is of medium size, attractive and of good quality. 

---J. F. Anderson 



BLUEBERRIES 

Earllblue is the earliest of the new varieties as its name suggests. The 
bush is upright, vigorous, well shaped, easy to prune, and propagate, but not 
quite so productive as some of the older early varieties. The fruit is light 
blue and very firm, hangs to the bush well, and has good flavor. The clusters 
are medium size and medium open. The birds as well as humans appreciate its 
earliness. Earliblue is recommended for trial until more is known about its 
adaptability in various parts of the State. 

Blueray is a second early following Bluecrop in the Rancocas-Stanley season. 
The bush is erect, somewhat spreading, vigorous, and productive. The berries are 
very large, firm, light blue, hang to the bush well, have very good flavor, but 
have a poor scar, and are subject to mummy berry. The clusters are small and 
compact. It has considerable cold resistance. Recommended for trial till more 
is known of its adaptability over the State. 

Bluecrop is an early mid-season variety following Blueray. Ripens about 
Stanley season. The bush is upright, vigorous, productive, and easy to prune 
and propagate, but a bit slow in getting started. The fruit is very light blue, 
very firm, has a small scar and very good flavor. The clusters are large and 
medium loone which makes for easy picking. Ripening is quite uniform. Bluecrop 
is outstandingly resistant to spring frosts. It is considered a promising com- 
mercial variety by those who have tried it. Recommended for trial till further 
tests prove its adaptability to all parts of the State. 

Berkeley is a mid-season variety to follow Bluecrop, a few days ahead of 
Jersey. The bush is upright, vigorous, productive, and easy to prune and prop- 
agate. The fruit is very large, round, light blue, and firm with a mild, sweet 
flavor. The berries are about the most attractive of any cultivated variety. 
So far, it has not suffered unduly from winter cold. It is recommended for both 
commercial and home planting. 

Herbert is a late variety ripening with Rubel. The bush is spreading and a 
bit slow growing, but productive and easy to propagate. The fruit has a good 
scar, is slightly flattened, a bit dark in color, large and fine flavored, but 
too tender skinned for distant shipment. It is almost as frost resistant as 
Bluecrop. Because of its frost resistance, productivity, and excellent flavor, 
it is recommended for trial. 

Coville is a very late variety ripening about ^ TT^^k after the peak of the 
Rubel season. The bush is upright, spreading, vigorous, productive, easy to 
prune, and relatively easy to propagate. The fruit is large, round, a bit dark, 
firm, a good shipper, ripens rather slov/ly, and is tart until fully ripe. It 
has a highly aromatic flavor which is very pleasing. When picked on the tart 
side, it is outstanding for pie making. Recommended for commercial and home 
planting. 

Ivanhoe is an early variety of about Stanley season. Not many have been 
planted in the State which is probably fortunate. It is better adapted farther 
south. Here it is subject to frost damage, tends to drop when ripe, and cracks 
badly after rains. Not recommended. 

John S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



-8- 

THE APHIDS ON APPLE II 

Apple Grain Aphid 

The apple grain aphid causes very little damage to foliage and no damage 
to fruit. And yet, usually, it is the most abundant aphid on apple buds, spur 
leaves and blossom clusters until shortly after bloom. 

Many times, growers spend money for materials and labor to control this 
harmless aphid. And often such applications are too late to prevent losses from 
any rosy apple aphids which may be present. 

The effective, preventive programs for rosy aphid, outlined. in the November - 
December issue of Fruit Notes, will eliminate grain aphid infestations completely. 
Worry and unnecessary expenditures also should be eliminated by carrying out these 
"insurance" programs. 

More About the Aphid Itself 

Last fall, during September and October, v/inged females produced on grains 
and g^rcaea left those plants and migrated to apple. Here they produced living 
progeny which were wingless females. After having been mated with winged males 
from grain and grass host plants these females laid overwintering eggs. 

The eggs resemble those of the rosy apple aphid. The tiny, black ovals are 
found now (December) tucked into crevices around buds on slow growing terminals, 
on fruit spurs, and wherever there is rough bark along the branches. 

Hatching starts early, even before any green tissue is showing. Literally 
hundreds of young apple grain aphids may be found clustering on swollen buds in 
the Silver Tip and Green Tip stages of bud development. Normally hatching is 
completed within 7 to 10 days. 

The nymphs feed on the sap of leaves, flower buds and bud stems but do not 
cause distortion of these parts. 

The growth of these first generation nymphs into stem mothers is completed 
in about 2 weeks, sometime early in the Up~to-Pink stage. Stem mothers are 
yellowish green with a distinct row or band of diamond- shaped, darker green 
areas extending lengthwise along the mid-line of the back. 

Sometime before Pink the stem mothers, without mating, start to produce 
living young, 2 to 3 per day for up to a month. Under favorable conditions 
enormous populations may be present during bloom and shortly after. 

Most of the second generation nymphs, and all of those in the third genera- 
tion on apple, develop into winged females which migrate to grains or grasses and 
there produce living young, which represent the first of a series of summer broods 
on these host plants. 

Here again is a complicated life cycle involving two host plant types, one 
egg laying generation, three winged forms, and many broods in which are found only 
the non-mating females capable of producing living young. 



-9- 

There is the one big difference as compared to the rosy apple aphid. There 
is no damage . 

Oh, a few of the big basal leaves on new terminals may be curled or distorted 
a little along about first cover time. And aphids may be found underneath them. 
But they are apple grain aphids, with developing wings. In a week or so they will 
be gone. 

It is not necessary to control the apple grain aphid'. 

Carry out one of the "insurance" programs suggested for rcjsy apple aphid 
and get the fringe benefits of apple grain aphid kill and freedom from worry'. 

---E„ H. Wheeler 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

120s 140s 160s ^^^ '^'2 inch and up 
Prices - U. S. Fancy - Faneuil Hall and Country Point 
1953 - '54 - '55 - '56 ~ '57 

A comparison of the crate and the cell pack on recent markets provides some 
interesting information on price relationships. The Special Apple Market Report 
as published by the Mass. Department of Agriculture provides the data. 

The cell-pack has increased in popularity during the last five years and 
the crate is not used as much now as formerly. Not every market report had prices 
on all four packs so that prices were tabulated on days in 1955, 1956 and 1957 
when all four packs were reported. In the two previous years, 1954 and 1953, the 
120s and I40s were not quoted frequently enough to be tabulated. 

Number of Reports Tabulated 

Years Faneuil Hall Country Point 

1953-54 ^\* 20* 

155-55 21* 13** 

1955-56 26 26 

1956-57 39 22 

1957-58 38 20 
*cell-pack 160s and eastern crates 1\ inch and up only 

**cell-pack 140s and 160s and eastern crates 2^ inch and up only 

The make-up and representativeness of the quotations and the quality of the 
contents of the packages will, of necessity, have to be assumed to be constant 
throughout the period although neither assumption may be valid through no fault 
or oversight of the market reporters. 

The chances are good that a count of the 2\ inch and up in the crate would 
average close to 140, so that a comparison of the 140 cell-pack price would be 
the more appropriate if qualities were the same. The prices of the 1\ inch and 
up in the crate are closer to the 160 count in the cell pack and will be used in 
comparisons. No evidence is available as to why a "2);. inch and up pack sells for 
less than a straight 1\ inch pack although some persons mav have olausible reasons. 



-10- 

Average Prices, Mcintosh, U. S. Fancy grade 
Cell-pack 120s lAOg leOg and Eastern crate V^ inch and up 
Faneuil Hall and Country Point - Five years. 

FANEUIL HALL COUNTRY POINT 

Ysars 120s 140c 160^ 2^" up 120.^ 140.; 160« 2k" up 

1953-54 - - $3.27 $2.82 

1954-55 - - 3.03 2.59 

1955-56 $2.63 $2.44 2.09 1.92 

1956-57 4.14 3.96 3.70 3.56 

1957-58 2.54 2.41 2.17 1.89 



- 


- 


$3.33 


$3.22 


- 


$3.90 


3.56 


3.28 


$2.91 


2.61 


2.23 


2.11 


4.32 


4.15 


3.76 


3.70 


2.99 


2.88 


2.41 


2.09 


3.41 


3.21 


2.80 


2.63 


- 


3.38 


- 


. 


- 


- 


3.06 


2.88 



3 yr. /v,3.10 2.94 2.65 2.46 

4 yr. Av. - 

5 yr. Av. - - 2.85 2.56 

Several observations are possible: 

Ik" and up and 160s 

The Ik" and up in the crate averaged 29c less than the 160s in the cell-pack 
at Faneuil Hall for the five years and 18c less at Country point. This dif- 
ference is 19c and 17c in an average of the last three years at city and 
Country point. 

The difference between the 2V' up crate and the 160 cell-pack in each of the 
five years at Faneuil Hall was 45c, 44c, 17c, 14c and 28c respectively and at 
Country point lie, 28c, 12c, 6c and 32c respectively. 

Faneuil Hall and Country Point 

The difference between Faneuil Hall and Country point prices for the 120s 140s 
160s and 2V up respectively was 31c, 27c, 15c and 17c in the recent three years, 

120s and 140s 

Three year differences between 120s and 140s, city and country, were 19c, 18c 
and 13c - average 16.6c in the city and 30c, 17c and lie - average 19.3c in the 
country - 1955, 1956, 1957. 

140s and 160s 

The three year differences between 140s and 160s, city and country, were 35c, 
26c and 24c - average 28.3c in the city and 38c, 39c and 47c - average 41.3c 
in the country - 1955, 1956, 1957. 

Price of 100 apples 

Per 100 apple price differences might bring out another angle of the differences 
in price due to size. On the basis of quotations for the last three years 
100 apples of the 120 count size, average, both city and country, may be calr 
culated to be $2.71; 100 apples of the 140 count size - $2.20 and 100 apples of 
the 160 count size $1.70. Calculating returns from a 3,000 apple tree on the 
basis of price differences due to size, emphasizes the Importance of size. 

These figures also considered in connection with an assumed average cost of 
production and marketing, wholesale, of $2.60 ($1.25 plus $1,35) er-ohasize the 
importance of the larger sizes and the pack used. 

The above figures also illustrate that average returns for average packs are. 
tor a portion of the industry, close to the break-even point. Better returns than 
average - above the break-even point - through better than average selling of 
better than average packs is the aim and result of good marketing. 

Frederick E. Cole 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



FEBRUARY 15, 1959 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Fruit Promotion in Hampden County 

Fruit Outlook 

Trees on East Mailing VII Maintain High Yields 

Stacking Apples in Refrigerated Storages 

Orchard Pest Control by Air Dusting 

The Aphids on Apples — III 

Control of Orchard Mice Sometimes Necessary 
in Winter 



^' 




mm 



WJiimr^ 




^^^. 



-^TsftT^ 




i| 



'% 



am 





■;v/^' 



^^^ 



loued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acta of May 8 and June 30, 1914j 
University of Maasachuaetts, United Statea Department of Agrlcultire and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTirSITr OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology, Active in the testing of new varieties, 

Bailey, John S, - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P, - Head, Dspartincnt of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J, - Extension Fruit Specialist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses. Currently also doing research on fruit 
marketing, 

Southwick, Franklin W, - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D, - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



Contributors to This Issue From Supporting Fields 

C, Lyman Calahan, Extension Horticulturist, University of Vermont 
E, J. Rasmussen, Extension Horticulturist, University of New Hampshire 
G, Everett Wilder, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, Hampden County 
E. H. Wheeler, Extension Entomologist 
Frederick E. Cole, Extension Marketing Specialist 

John W. Peterson, Mammal Conservation Supervisor, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 

Service 



-2- 

The Hampden County Fruit GroTrers Association had a display and booth in the 
Massachusetts Building at the 1958 Eastern States Exposition. Apples and Certified 
Cider were sold and Johnny Appleseed (John O'Shauahnessy, Loomis Street, Southwick, 
Massachusetts) demonstrated the art of grafting, A 10 or 12 year old apple tree 
with fruit of different varieties attached was displayed. 

The Greater Springfield Chamber of Coxjr.erce Breakfast f^^ October first h«ld at 
the Highland Hotel saluced the Hampden County Fruit Industry. This was the high- 
light of our advertising campaign and was a spectacular affair. Some 250 business 
men and women were present at the Chamber of Cc^iTnerce Breakfast, where cider was 
served in the place of orange juice and apple pie v;as part of the menu. 

Russell P, Dale, Jr, as chief greater, saluted the H-nmpden County Fruit 
Growers and gave a brief history of the organiza" Ion, He also ccninented on the 
fact that Hampden County Gro-ers could cc-npete v/ith growers anytJhere in the 
country when it came to growing fine apples. 

The dining hall was decorated with apple posters and a Hampden County Fruit 
Growers sign. 

A bag of fancy Macs was passed to each person present at the breakfast by 
Johnny Appleseed, as he or she passed from the dining hall to the lobby. 

—Everett Wilder 
County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

FRUIT OUTLOOK 

An improved employmsnt situation and relatively high consumer incomes will 
be favorable factors in the marketing of apples stored from the 1958 crop. Apples, 
generally, were put into storage in good storage condition. 

Operators of controlled atmosphere storages face their most critical market- 
ing season, so far, in the spring and early sunnter carkets. Ho;/ever, consumer 
acceptance of crisp apples from controlled atmosphere storage has been the most 
significant developT.ent in apple marketing since standard cold storage methods 
became prevalent over twenty years ago. 

There is a reported increase of 225,000 bushels in the quantity of apples in 
"CA" storage in Massachv^t^etts which is more than double the quantity stored with 
this improved method from the 1957 crop. This increased tonnage, together with 
increased tonnage reported to other New England states and New York, places an 
unusual responsibility on the marketers of apples during the winter, spring and 
early summer months. Most of the apples in the new type of storage are of the 
Mcintosh variety. 

Condition of the apples, as placed on the market, will continue to have an 
important bearing on prices received. The rate of consumer acceptance of apples 
since harvest will also have a bearing on the rate of out-of-storage movement 
of late apples. 



-3- 

Adjustments are being made in the handling of standard storage apples to have 
them cleared from storage before the "CA" apples start to move. The extent and 
success of these adjustments can only be knovm after the season has ended. Close 
study of available market information is necessary as individual forecasts of 
movement and price are made by packers and shippers. 

Increases in population, the concentration of the producing industry in the 
hands of skilled commercial growers and Increasing skills in marketing create a 
favorable long-time outlook for the industry as a whole. Persistent reports of 
new plantings of popular varieties in economical units indicate a growing strength 
in the industry. Substantial accomplishment in keeping costs of production on a 
practically level plane in recent years has kept the local industry competitive 
and the outlook for apple production in Massachusetts is favorable on the basis 
of expected regional competition and demonstrated consimier acceptance of good 
apples . 

-—Frederick E. Cole 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

TREES ON EAST MAILING VII MAINTAIN HIGH YIELDS 

Production records in 1958 from a block of 15 year Mcintosh on East Mailing 
II and VII Indicate that these trees are capable of producing high acre yields 
of fruit. The average yield for E.M. II was 11 boxes per tree while the average 
yield for E.M. VII was 12 boxes per tree. The spread of those trees is somewhat 
over 20 feet so that a planting distance of 20* by 30* is required. With this 
planting distance there are 72 trees per acre which at the above rates would 
produce 864 boxes per acre for E.M. VII and 792 boxes for E.M. II, 

A closer planting plan might be adopted where the slope of the orchard site 
permits sprayer travel in two directions. Under this condition it would be 
possible to set the trees 15' by 20* so that when the trees commence to crowd 
every other tree in the 15 foot row would be removed leaving a 20 by 30 planting 
distance. With this planting plan the number of trees per acre would be doubled 
and the yield could theoretically be increased to 1600 to 1700 boxes per acre 
as long as the trees were not crowded. Whether or not a grower adopts this close 
planting plan will depend on the orchard site available and his willingness to 
double the cost of trees for planting. 

— W. D. Weeks 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

STACKING APPLES IN REFRIGERATED STORAGES 

A number of apple growers in New Hampshire are stacking apples in their 
storages on pallets which certainly requires less labor and makes handling easier 
than stacking by hand. However the cost of fork lifts is considerable and the 
pallets require some space thereby reducing the amount of fruit that can be 
placed in storage. Some growers feel that the extra boxes stored by hand stack- 
ing more than off sets the extra cost of labor required. 



-4- 

William Lievens, Woodmont Orchards in Derry has worked out a good system 
of hand stacking in his new 20,000 box storage. The storage is high enough to 
stack 18 boxes high and this is done in 3 layers of 6 boxes each. 3 x 8 x 3/4 
plywood is used to walk on while stacking the second and third layers. Suffi- 
cient plywood was purchased for a walk way the length of the storage rooms 
for both the second and third layer. 

Stacking is Ptarted 4 boxes wide (the boxes set the long way with the wall) 
along the wall opposite the door to the storage. The inner 3 stacks are covered 
with plywood which leaves the stack next to the wall uncovered. Next this outer 
row of boxes is stacked 12 high. Then another row is added to the lower layer 
and the plywood moved out to cover this last row of boxes. This exposes another 
row in the second layer which is stacked 12 high. This is continued until 4 rows 
have been added to the second layer. The inner 3 rows of the second layer are 
next covered with plywood which leaves the ron* next to the wall open for stacking 
18 high. Then by adding a row of boxes first to the lower layer, and moving the 
plywood out and next to the second layer, and moving the plywood out and then 
stacking the third layer the storage can be progressively filled. 

The plywood provides a good working area and because it keeps all of the 
fruit in the top layers well covered there is less damage of bruising the fruit 
than when narrow boards are used. 

-— E. J. Rasmussen 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

ORCHARD PEST CONTROL BY AIR DUSTING 

(Editor's note - This is the first of a series of articles in which 
Professor C. Lyman Calahan discusses "Orchard Pest Control by Air Dusting".) 

The use of the airplane for the application of apple pest control materials 
has become an accepted and highly effective commercial practice by Vermont orchard- 
ists since 1949. This does not mean that the method is new because an Indiana 
orchard was airplane-dusted as long ago as 1925, and the use of airplanes for 
the application of pest control sprays and dusts to field crops and to timber- 
land has been on a commercial basis for a long time. The discovery of DDT, follow- 
ed by the opening of the so-called "organic era" of, in many instances, highly 
specific and effective insecticides and fungicides, made possible the effective 
use of dusts especially when applied by air borne equipment. 

The first air dust test blocks were in the Southern Vermont Orchards at 
Bennington back in 1949 and were a cooperative field trial project between the 
U. S. Rubber Company and Mr. Paul Bohne who managed the orchard at that time. 
It included 120 acres and Dichlone (Phygon) was the material used for primary 
scab control with spectacular results. The first air dust recommendations were 
published for use by Vermont orchardists in 1952 and the first full season air 
dust schedule was published in 1954. During the 1958 season two air operators 
applied around 300 tons of dusts to 33 orchards on a full season schedule and 
about 10 more orchards on a primary scab control season schedule. One orchard 
has not had any spray or dust materials applied to it in any other form except 
air dusts for seven consecutive seasons. Several other orchards have been run on 
this program for six seasons and are producing fine fruit without losses to scab 
or insects. 



-5- 
Some of the reasons why planes are being used In Vermont are as follows: 

1. Scab control is equal to or better than by other methods. This is because 
better timing is possible for many growers due to the fast rate of applica- 
tion (1 acre per minute), use of highly effective materials, and better cov- 
erage in the top centers of large trees. Growers are frequently able to save 
an application in the event infection conditions do not develop because the 
time required to make an application is so short, and in many instances they 
do not order an application until they are certain that an infection period 
is actually developing, 

2. With only a few exceptions, air dusting produces a very excellent fruit 
finish, especially on the more russet susceptible varieties. Many Vermont 
growers are convinced that improved finish and lack of h&rvest-time residues 
adequately offset higher material cost as compared with spraying. 

3. Dust schedules reduce the harmful effect of phytotoxicity by materials to 
foliage probably because the residual properties of a material in dust form 
do not favor a heavy build-up, and over-concentration and over-application 
are avoided. 

4. Reduced labor requirements, especially of a seasonal nature, have an import- 
ant effect especially in the smaller acreage orchards. Competition for 
qualified seasonal labor by our dairy industry and manufacturing is becoming 
quite keen. On the other hand, year-round hired labor may need to be put on 
another job. This method has been most convenient to growers when illness 
or other emergencies arose. 

5. Air dusting has definitely reduce spray machinery requirements, especially 
during the time of primary scab control when fast coverage is so essential. 
A grower may convert to spraying during the cover treatments and continue to 
get by with equipment which is otherwise too small. Lighter equipment to 
handle sunmer schedules usually means that a grower can own lighter, smaller 
and more versatile tractors. Air dusting should be a means to extend the 
serviceable life span of tractors and sprayers. 

6. The overcoming of orchard rutting, especially during the wet spring months, 
was an important reason for some of our Champlain Valley growers converting 
to air dusting. The re-establishment of a good, unmolested sod cover has 
been possible for the first time in many instances. The problem of soil 
compaction by heavy machinery during periods of wet soil conditions should 
not be overlooked. 

7. A dust schedule, whether applied by airplane or ground equipment, may solve 
a water supply problem. 

8. Airplane dusting has been a help as an emergency measure in the event of 
ground equipment breakdown during critical times. 

9. Air dusting has helped solve the problem of effective pest control with 
absentee management. 



-6- 

10. The use of the airplane make possible the convenient extension of the prun- 
ing season well Into the pre-bloom time because the brush removal problem 
to make room for ground-operated spray and dust equipment does not exist. 

— C. Lyman Calahan 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

THE APHIDS ON APPLE - III 

Green Apple Aphid 

This Is the most abundant aphid on apple. It Infests terminals, water 
sprouts and young trees throughout the season. Winged, migratory forms appear 
In every generation and relnfestatlon and build-up to damaging numbers can be 
very rapid. 

The apple aphid Infests pear, hawthorn, crabapple, quince, and other 
members of the rose family. Migration between hosts occurs throughout the 
season. 

The "Insurance" programs described for rosy apple aphid In December "Fruit 
Notes" will kill the green apple aphlds on treated trees. They do not "Insure" 
against relnfestatlon from outside sources. 

Baldwin, Red and Golden Delicious, Cortland, Gravensteln, and Greening 
are most seriously Infested but Mcintosh often serves as an Important source 
for migrating aphlds. 

Relatively cool weather with an abundance of moisture favors succulence 
and thus the apple aphid. The relative abundance of syrphld fly, lace wing 
fly, and lady beetle predators is another very important factor governing the 
extent of apple aphid build-up. Unfortunately, many present day insecticides 
kill these predators and parasites. 

Three types of Injury are caused by the green apple aphid, (1) leaves 
of terminals are stunted and distorted, terminal gro\^h is shortened and even 
crooked, (2) fruit and leaves become smutted frcsa a growth of sooty mold 
in the honey dew secretion, (3) in severe infestations aphlds may feed on the 
fruit causing gnarllng or dimpling. 

Regardless of the program followed earlier you need to watch for green 
apple aphid build-up in early and mid-summer when control can be a part of your 
regular summer schedule. 

More About the Aphid Itself 

During late September and October wingless, egg laying females and wingless 
males were produced and after mating, overwintering eggs were deposited. 

The oval, shiny, black eggs cannot be dlstinqulshed from those of rosy and 
grain aphlds. However, they are most abundant on water sprouts and the vigorous 
terminals of both old and young trees. 



-7- 

Hatching scarts soon after fruit buds start to show green, later than the 
grain aphid, but earlier than rosy aphid. In 7-10 days hatching is complete 
and the nymphs are sucking sap from the new growth of leaves, stems and flower 
parts. At this time, the green ap^ple aphid usually is outnumbered by the grain 
aphid and no injury is seen. 

The growth of these first generation nymphs into stem mothers is completed 
in 2 to 3 weeks, sometime about Pink or a few days earlier. These stem mothers 
are a uniform pale green easily distinguished from grain and rosy aphids. 

Shortly before bloom the stem mothers, without mating start to produce 
living young. This process may continue for a month or more at a rate of 1 to 
3 (naximum 10) nymphs per day. 

From 60 to 75 per cent of these second generation nymphs develop wings, 

migrate to new leaves, terminals, or threes and there produce living young 

the beginnings of new colonies. The wingless forms in each generation simply 
produce living young, thus greatly increasing the numbers of aphids at their 
original colony site. 

From 10 to 17 generations have been recorded in a season, all of them on 
apple or related plants. 

Thus we see, in the green apple aphid, a much less complicated life cycle. 
All the generations may occur on apple. Also, they contain only winged and wing- 
less, non-mating females, capable of bearing living young, except for the fall 
generation of sexual, wingless forms that mate and lay the overwintering eggs. 

The green apple aphid will bear close-watching until maturing terminals 
slow down their rate of increase. 

Control 

SPRING ; "Insurance" programs carried out over the x^hole farm w ill prevent 
all worry about green apple aphid until July. The severity of reinfestation 
will then depend upon the nearness and abundance of untreated host plants in 
the vicinity, weather conditions, varieties, presence of succulent water 
sprouts, abundance of natural enemies on nearby host plants and in the orchard, 
and your spray program. 

Early spring control of all aphids is strongly recommended for lead 
schedule orchards. The dinitros would be the least destructive to beneficial 
insects. 

Any one of the "insurance" programs suggested for rosy aphid should be 
adequate for early green apple aphid control in all orchards on the organic 
insecticide schedule. 

SUMMER ; The summer build-up of green apple aphid becomes noticeable in 
June and may continue well into July in favorable seasons. 



-a- 

Water sprouts are very susceptible to early and continuous heavy infesta- 
tions. Also, they are very difficult to spray vrall. These are two very good 
reasons for getting water sprouts pulled out of trees by early July. You will 
save money on pruning too. 

In the lead arsenate schedule, dcmeton, nicotine sulfate and TEPP are 
the preferred aphicides because they will cause the least harm to beneficial 
insects. Spraying must be thorough and should be done before extensive curl- 
ing has occurred. 

For the organic schedule, demeton in either III or IV Cover should be 
enough in most situations. It should be used before the foliage matures. 

Other phosphates, such as Diazinon, Trithion, malathion and TEPP, should 
be adequate if used in a series of 2 or 3 applications for codling moth starting 
with III or IV Cover. With TEPP and malathion, it may be necessary to shorten 
the interval between sprays because reinfestation can take place very rapidly. 

The new carbamate insecticide, Sevin, is also an aphicide and may be used 
against both codling moth and the green apple aphid in summer Cover Sprays. 
Sevin does not kill mites. 

You cannot depend upon natural enemies where materials such as methoxy- 
chlor, DDT, TDE, dieldrin and the residual phospliates are used. Susceptible 
varieties are very likely to become infested --- seriously so, if v;eather 
conditions are favorable and choice breeding areas, water sprouts, remain 
in the trees. 

Know the situation in your orchards at all times. Start sunmer control 
measures before extensive curling has been done. Repeat the application 
soon enough to prevent build-up after reinfestation. Choose materials which 
give you the advantage of added effectiveness against other pests. 

E. H. Wheeler 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

COtmiOL OF ORCHARD MICE SOIIETIIiES NECESSARY IN WINTER 

The control of meadc./ mice in orchards should be undertaken in the Fall and, 
if necessary, in Winter and Spring. The greatest damage to fruit trees is sustain- 
ed during late Fall and Winter. Damage is usually more severe during a hard 
winter with continuous deep snot/, but severe injury may occur at any season. 

One thorough application of poisoned bait in the Fall may give protection for 
the Winter, but the orchardist should re-examine his orchard after Fall poison- 
baiting, during the Winter, and in early Spring as reinfestation from adjoining 
areas may occur--thus making additional poisoning necessary. Zinc Phosphide- treated 
Oats should be used in Winter if there are many runways in the snoi'/. When pruning 
in the orchard, carry a supply of Zinc Phosphide-treated Oats and place a teaspoon- 
ful in active runs at each tree base where mouse activity is observed. In this way, 
a two- fold purpose can be accomplished and the mouse breeding potential reduced. 

The best time in Winter to inspect the orchard is usually after a thaw 
when the trails are more evident. One teaspoonful of poisoned oats should be 
placed every tx^enty feet directly in the active runuays under cover. It is not 
advisable to place bait in exposed runways because they were made under snow 
cover and are no longer in use. If trees have been girdled during the winter, 
the orchard should be treated with poisoned apple in the Spring before bridge- 
grafting; otherwise, the mice are apt to eat the grafts and continue to injure 
the trees. 



FRUIT PROMOTION IN HAMPDEN COUNTY 




Hampden County Fruit Growers booth in the Massachusetts 
Building at the 1958 Eastern States Exposition. 




Chamber of Coomerce Breakfast held in Springfield Massachusetts 
featuring Hampden County apples and cider. Shown in the picttira 
(left to right) Johnny Appleseed (John O'Shaughnessy) , Ralph Roberts 
President of Hampden County Fruit Growers Association, Mrs. Alma 
Doaoghue • Official Greeter, Mr. Sullivan - President of Chamber of 
Coomerce and Mr. Bisconti - Official Greeter. 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prsparad by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 




MARCH 12, 1959 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Cyclamen Mite - A Pest of Strawberries 

1959 Fertilizer Recommendations 

Weed Control in Small Fruits 

Blueberry Maggot 

Orchard Pest Control by Air Dusting 



^\ 



[I mm 



m^f 







^ 



& 





'^i^ 



-.'j^ 



'i >c 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Sieling, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculti»e and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of nei^ varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Fruit Specialist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses. Currently also doing research on fruit 
marketing. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



C ontributors to This Issue From Supporting Fields 

E, H, Wheeler, Extension Entomologist 

William E, Tomlinson, Jr„, Research Professor at the Cranberry Station 

C. LyiTiau Calafian, Extension Kortic'.ilfciiri.<:;t, University of Vermont 



CYCLAMEN MITE ■ A PEST OF STRAWBERRIES 

What l3 This Pest ; It is a tiny mite, practically invisible to the naked eye, 
much smaller than the common red spider or 2-spotted mite. It occurs on 
many different plants both in the greenhouse and outside. It sucks juices 
from the plant tissues. 

Symptoms of Injury ; Heavy infestations result in severe dwarfing and stunting. 
Early symptoms are a vnrinkled, deformed appearance of the new leaves. The 
plants appear dense or crowded and the leaflets are held vertical rather 
than horizontal because of the shorter stems. Finally some of the inner 
leaves are killed outright. Crops are greatly reduced, worthless or lost 
altogether. 

Seasonal Development and Habits ; Adult females overwinter in crevices between 

the bases of leaf stems. Become active in spring but all active stages avoid 
light and require a high humidity. They remain in unopened leaves in plant 
crowns or between parts of leaves or flCTjers . Eggs, nearly as large as the 
females, are laid singly but as many as 3 each day for several days. Eggs 
hatch into larvae which feed, enter a "pupal" stage and then become adults. 
At 70O F an entire generation requires only about 14 days. Just a few females 
on a plant when it is set can result in a heavy infestation before the season 
ends or before fruiting. 

How Introduced Into a Field ; Cycleimen mites get into a field most commonly on 
infested planting stock . Some infestations can be traced to movement from 
nearby infested plants or weeds. 

How Are They Spread ; (1) By migration from mother to daughter plants or adjacent 

ones, (2) carried by birds and insects, (3) wind-borne, (4) carried by workers 
in the fields. 

Some Important Points Related to Control of Cyclamen Mite 

Mites are in Protected Spots ; A majority of the populatioix. remains within crown 
in unfolded leaflets or other parts and inside sheaths at base of stems. 
Hard to reach with a spray. Impossible to reach with dusts. Low-gallonage 
sprays are not effective. 

Many Common Miticides do not Kill Cyclamen Mite ; Allen and associates in Cal- 
ifornia tested over 50 chemicals 1952-56. Found only 3 to be really effec- 
tive; endrin (available but cannot be used during bearing year except after 
harvest); isodrin (not on the market); Thiodan (available but caimot be used 
during bearing year except before bloom or after harvest) . Kelthane is only 
fair in single applications but can be used after bloom during fruit bearing 
year. 

None of the organic phosphates (parathion, malathion, etc.) or the systemics 
(demeton, etc.) give effective control and in fact their use may result in 
more trouble. 



-2- 

Control of Cyclamen Mite - Strawberries 

A. For Plant Growers and on Non-bearing Beds or After Harvest . 

Material: Thiodan - emulsifiable concentrate (2 lbs. active/gal.) 

OR endrin - emulsifiable concentrate (1.6 lbs. active/gal.) 

How Much: 1 quart per 100 gals, at 400 gals, per acre (or 1 gal. of 
concentrate in from 300 to 500 gals, per acre). 

PLUS an excess of some wetting agent. 

Note: An excess of spray mixture used to drench the plants 
is more important than high pressures. Spray directly down 
into plant crowns. 

When: On New Beds (especially for plant growers): 

Apply 3-4 weeks after setting plants. 
Repeat twice at 14 day intervals. 

OR when Infestation is Found ; i^ 

Make 1st treatment at once. f 

Repeat in 2 weeks in mid-summer, in 3 weeks if cooler. 
Repeat again if needed, 

B, Spring Treatment to Fruiting Bed , 

1, BEFORE Bloom only: 

Material: Thiodan, used as directed above and on labels. 

2, Before or AFTER Bloom: 

Material: Kelthane - emulsifiable concentrate (EC) or wettable powder (WP) 

How Much: 1 quart Kelthane EC OR 2 lbs. Kelthane WP per 100 gals. 

at 400 gals, per acre (or 1 gal. of EC or 8 lbs. of WP in 
from 300-500 gals, per acre.) 

PLUS an excess of some wetting agent. 

Note: An excess of spray mixture used to drench the plants 
is more important than high pressures. Spray directly down 
into plant crowns. 

When: Make 1st treatment when infestation is found. 
If before bloom, repeat in 2 weeks, 

— E. H. Wheeler 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



1959 FERTILIZER RECQin-IENDATIONS 

V7e are not suggesting any changes in fertilizer recommendations for 1959 over 
1958 except in those blocks which appear to have prospects of a heavy bloom. In 
blocks with a heavy bloom it may be desirable to reduce the nitrogen application 
by one third. The following table gives suggested amounts of fertilizer to apply 
to trees with an average bloom. 

Suggested Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Apple Orchards 



J^ 



proximate Amounts per Tree 



Potential bushel 
yield of tree 



Less than 15 
15 - 25 
More than 25 



Nitrogen 
required 



Potash 
required 



Pounds 

0.66 
0.66-1.00 
1.33-2.00 



Pounds 

1.3 
1.3-2.0 
2.7-4.3 



Ammonium 
Nitrate 



Pounds 

?,.0 
2.0-3.0 
4.0-6.0 



Muriate 

of Potash or 0-15-30 



Pounds 

2.1 
2.1-3.3 
4.5-7,1 



Pounds 

4.3 
4.3-6.6 
9.0-14.3 



8-16-16 



Pounds 

8 
8-12 
16 - 25 



The suggested amounts of materials to apply in the table are for band applica- 
tions under the spread of the branches. When the materials are broadcast over the 
entire orchard floor it may be necessary to increase the rate of application in 
order to obtain the same tree response as with the band applications. Fertilizer 
materials other than those given in the tables may be used so long as they are 
applied at rates which provide equivalent amounts of nitrogen and potassium. 

The tree's magnesium and calcium requirements can best be met by maintaining 
an adequate dolomitic liming program. The pH of orchard soils should be maintained 
between 6 and 6.5. If a soil test shows that the pH of soil is 5.5 or below, 
magnesium sulfate sprays should be applied to prevent possible occurrenec of m-ji- 
nesium deficiency. It takes from 3 to 5 years before dolomitic limestone is 
effective in correcting magnesium deficiency. When magnesium sulfate sprays are 
used apply 2 to 3 sprays of epsom salts at the rate of 20 pounds per 100 gallons 
of water. These sprays should be timed by calyx, first, and second cover sprays. 
To avoid possible incompatibilities the epsom salt sprays should not be combined 
V7ith the regular insecticidal and fungicic il sprays. 

Boron should be applied to orchard soils every three years. Borax is the 
most common material used. The rates of application per tree vary with age and 
size. Apply one quarter pound of borax to young trees, one-half to three- 
quarters pound to medium age and size trees, and three-quarters to one pound to 
large or mature trees. In no case should the rate of one application of borax 
exceed 50 pounds per acre. Boron may be applied as a foliar spray on a trial 
basis. Polybor-2 or Boro Spray applied at 1/2 pound per 100 gallons of spray 
one and three weeks after petal fall have given satisfactory results in Nev7 
York State, 



The amounts of fertilizer applied to trees which have received annual 
applications of 200 pounds or more of hay mulch per tree may be materially re- 
duced or entirely eliminated. Tree performance should serve as a guide in de- 
terrainins the extent to v/hich the rates of fertilizer may be reduced. 

In young non-bearing orchards it may be possible to produce sufficient high 
quality mulching material for the young trees by broadcasting 500 to 800 pounds 
of mixed fertilizer per acre. Place the mulch in a band under the spread of the 



-4- 

branches. The amount of fertilizer required for the trees with this system of 
culture will vary with the quantity and quality of mulch replied around each tree. 
If the trees are not making sufficient grov;th one-eighth pound of ammonium nitrate 
per year of tree age may be applied to the mulch. 

Recommendations for fertilizing peach orchards are given in the following 
table. The amounts given may need to be increased if the trees are in a heavy 
sod. A suggested increase would be to double the amount of nitrogen. 

Suggested Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Peach Orchards 



Tree Age 



3-6 
6-9 
9-12 
12 & over 



Ammonium 
Nitrate 



Approximate amounts per tree 



Pounds 

1 -1% 
l%-2 

2 -4 



Muriate 

of Potash or 



0-15-30 



Pounds 

1-2 
2-3 
3-4 
4-8 



Pounds 

2-4 
4-6 
6-8 
8-12 



3-16-16 



Pounds 

2-4 

4-6 
6-8 
8-16 



Wo D. Weeks 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

WEED CONTROL IN SHALL FRUITS 

In spite of considerable experimentation weeds continue to be a major 
problem in most small fruit plantings. For a time the use of chemicals looked 
so promising that we had visions of the hoe and the cultivator as collectors items. 
Like most dreams this one was short lived. Many chemicals have been tried but 
while a few have proved helpful, none are ideal. All have limitations. If these 
limitations are recognized and the best use possible is made of the materials 
available, chemicals can be useful tools in the fight against weeds. 

Whenever chemicals are used, the directions on the container should be 
read carefully and follov/ed. Thus, strav/berry plant injury from missuse of the 
chemical can be avoided. If the intended use is not mentioned on the label, the 
chemical has not been approved for that use under Public Law 518, a law which 
protects the public from the promiscuous use of pesticides injurious to human health. 



Strawberries 



For the control of summer weeds scsone is the only chemical which can be 
recommended at present. It will kill germinating seeds but after the seedlings 
are one-fourth inch high they become too tou^h to be affected. Therefore, it is 
necessary to cultivate and hoe the bed just before application and to have the 
soil moist. In a dry soil weed seeds will not germinate and the sesone may break 
do\im before it becomes effective. Use 2 lbs, per acre in very light soil, 2% lbs. 
per acre in light soil, 3 lbs, per acre in heavy soil and 4 lbs. per acre in very 
heavy or highly organic soils, Retreatment will usually be needed in 3-4 v/eeks. 
It is safest to delay the first application till 14-21 days after the plants are 
set. Injury to early rooting runner plants can be avoided by not applying sesone 
while they are rooting. 



-5- 

The usefulness of 2,4-D in the strawberry field is strictly limited. It can 
cause severe injury when runner or fruit buds are forming or when blossoms or 
fruit are on the plants. Therefore, little time is left when 2,4-D can be used 
safely. The best and safest use is In connection with bed renovation, right 
after the crop is off and fruit buds have not yet started to form. At 1/2 - 1 
pound per acre it can aid in controlling broad leaved weeds. 

In Massachusetts for the past two falls no material has been recommended for 
the control of winter weeds. The recommendation to use Chloro IPC was discontinued 
because of severe injury following its use in several states including three cases 
of injury in Massachusetts following applications made in the fall of 1957. It 
is now pretty well agreed that the injury was caused by too heavy applications. 
Chloro IPC is a powerful growth inhibitor which interferes with cell division. 
To use it in excess of one pound per acre is courting trouble. One pound per 
acre means one pound of actual Chloro IPC distributed evenly over 43,560 square 
feet. Some growers have had trouble because they sprayed over the strawberry 
rows and not between them, thus unwittingly doubling the rate of application. 
Others have had trouble following spot spraying where there is no control over 
rate. Chloro IPC is formulated so that there are 4 poundsactual per gallon. One 
quart in 20-40 gallons of water evenly distributed over an actual acre will give 
good chickweed control and there should be no injury to the strawberries. Another 
important point in avoiding injury is to be sure the plants are dormant. 

In New Jersey and further south growers are using a combination of one pound 
of Chloro IPC and 2 pounds of Sesone applied in late fall or early winter to 
control chickweed and other winter weeds. The Sesone controls some weeds which 
are not sensitive to Chloro IPC. 

Another possibility for winter weed control is one of the dinitros (such as 
Premerge or Sinox P. E.) used at the rate of one pound in 20-40 gallons of water 
per acre. These chemicals kill by contact. Their effectiveness depends on 
thorough coverage. They are much more active at high temperatures on sunny days 
but may injure the strawberries unless the plants are fully dormant. 

Small chickweeds 2-4 inchiis tall are much more susceptible to DN's than larger 
plants. If the chickweed is matted, only the top layer will be killed. 

Some soil fumigants, such as methyl bromide and VPM or Vapam, are effective 
weed control agents but because of high cost, difficulty of application or both 
have been used very little in strawberry fields. 

Blueberries 

The dinitros at 2-4 pounds per acre can be used around cultivated blue- 
berries but care must be used not to spray the young tender shoots starting from 
the base. DN's should be used while weeds are small. They will kill only the 
weeds present. There is no residual effect. 

Diuron at 2 pounds per acre applied once in early spring will keep most weeds, 
except deep rooted perennials and a few annuals such as plantain, out all season. 
Use only on plants which have been two or more years in the field. 

Raspberries 

A dinitro at 2-4 pounds per acre in 20-40 gals, of water can be used as a 
directed spray. Care should be exercised to keep the spray off young shoots. 



-6- 

Since raspberries are quite tolerant of 2,4-D, it can be used at 1/2 - 1 

pound per acre in 20 - 40 gals, of water for the control of broad- leaved weeds. 

To avoid injury to the raspberries; (1) delay spraying till the tend<?r tips of 

shoots are high enough so they viill not be sprayed, (2) do not spray during bloom. 

Chloro IPC at 4 - 8 pounds per acre in 20 gals, of water can be used in late 
fall or early winter for control of winter annual grasses and broad- leaved weeds, 
particularly chickweed. 

Grapes 

An oil-water emulsion of Chloro IPC and DN used as a directed spray at 30 
gals, per acre has given good weed control. It is made up as follows: 

Chloro IPC 6-8 lbs. 
Oil soluble DN (Dow General or 

Sinox General) 1 lb. 

Oil (fuel or diesel) 10 gals. 

Water 40 gals. 

This emulsion can be sprayed in a band 18 - 24 inches wide on each side of the 
trellis. Care should be exercised not to get the spray on young canes which have 
not yet reached the shedded bark stage. 

Diuron applied pre-emergence in early spring is also effective. Use only 
on vines 3 years of age or older. Two to 3 pounds per acre is sufficient on 
sandy soils. On clay soils use 3-6 pounds per acre. 

WARNING: Grapes are extremely sensitive to phenoxy compounds such as 2,4-D, 
2,4,5-T, silvex, MCPA and others. Do not use these on or near grapes nor use 
spray equipment which has held these materials for spraying grapes. 

—-John S, Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



BLUEBERRY MAGGOT 

In the past few seasons there has been considerable trouble in some of the 
older, larger blueberry plantings in Southeastern Massachusetts from blueberry 
maggot infestations. The surprising thing about these infestations is that they 
didn't happen sooner and oftener in the area. Possibly infestations did occur 
and were overlooked or ignored. 

This is a native insect that has been known as a pest of wild blueberries 
for many years. It has also been troublesome in cultivated blueberries in New 
Jersey and Michigan for many years. For that reason I am confident it has been 
infesting Massachusetts cultivated blueberries for some time. 

Blueberry maggot is indistinguishable from apple maggot in all stages. The 
flies developing from the smaller wild blueberries are considerably smaller than 
flies that develop in apples, but flies from the larger cultivated blueberries 
are about as large as those developing in apples. The two strains apparently 
prefer their own host for purposes of oviposition, but they have been intermated 



-7- 

In the laboratory and progeny from these crosses were reared successfully. 

For some reason, recently there has been an attempt to prettify the name 
of this insect by calling It the blueberry fruit fly. Members of the family to 
which it belongs are collectively called fruit flies and that may sound more 
delicate or even palatable to some, but it is the maggot that develops in the 
fruit that causes the trouble. 

Blueberry maggot has but one generation a year. The winter is passed in 
the pupal case as a maggot buried near the surface of the soil. The maggots 
transform to pupae in the spring and emerge as flies beginning about mid- June. 
Emergence is mostly accomplished in a month, but stragglers keep coming out 
until late summer. 

The flies are black in color, with white bands on the abdomen, reddish 
colored eyes, and the wings are marked with characteristic black bands. The 
newly emerged flies do not lay eggs until about 10 days after they have emerged, 
the first egg laying usually coinciding with the period when the first early 
ripening fruit is turning blue. 

Eggs are layed singly under the skin of the berry, and though several may 
be placed in one berry, only one maggot has ever been known to mature from one 
berry. The eggs hatch in about a week and the maggot develops in the berry, turning 
the inside into a mixture of purple juice and seeds. After feeding about 3 weeks 
the maggots leave the berries, enter the soil and form puparia in which they re- 
main until the next or some following spring when they finish development and 
emerge as flies. Some of the maggots remain in their puparia for two and even 
more years before emerging. 

During the summer of 1954, a 3-acre field in Wareham became so heavily in- 
fested with maggots that picking had to be discontinued. Maggot counts in mid- 
August were over 150 per pint of berries. 

The following summer, sticky board traps baited with yeast hydrolysate were 
maintained in this field during the main flight period of the fly. Dusts were 
applied according to times indicated by capture of the flies. A 4% Malathion dust 
was used at the rate of 40 pounds per acre and was applied by helicopter on July 7 
and 17, No maggots were found in the fruit of this field in 1955. 

During the 1957 season, another field with heavy fly populations and maggot 
counts was brought to my attention by the grm^er who had been aware of the problem 
for a year or two previously, but had been able to keep out of trouble by frequent 
and careful picking and prompt movement of the fruit. 

In 1958, ten traps were placed in this field v/ith flies being caught in 
tremendous numbers (345 fly average) from the second week in July until the 
end of the month,- and in diminishing numbers until early October in spite of 3 
Malathion dust applications. Maggot counts in early August were 33 per pint in 
this field. This was probably the result of late application of the first dust 
and too long an interval between the first and second dust applications because 
of poor flying weather. 

Another field of this same grox^er was divided into 2 one-acre plots for 
receiving spray, plus a check area of about 1/2 acre which received no spray. 
The sprayed plots received 3 pounds of 257. Malathion wettable powder plus a 



-8- 

quart of Staley Insecticide Bait #2 per 100 gallons water per acre in one plot, 
and Malathion plus a quart of Bait #7 in the other on July lA, July 24, and 
August 4. 

Flies trapped in the unsprayed area average 125 per trap during the period 
of July 18 to August 28, compared to 29 per trap in the bait-sprayed area. Quart 
samples examined for maggots in early August showed 48 maggots per quart in the 
check area and per quart in the Bait #2, and one per quart in the Bait #7 
sprayed areas respectively. 

This is not meant to condemn the present spray chart recommendation which 
has given good control when applied on time, as indicated by results in 1955 
and results in New Jersey. Where adverse conditions make dusting on time from 
the air impossible, this bait spray application will definitely do the job. We 
will be trying further refinement of the bait spray as a concentrate applied by 
airplane, helicopter, or ground concentrate spray rig. 

Other pests frequently encountered and giving trouble in 1958 were the 
cranberry and the cherry fruitworms in several fields, currant fruit weevil in 
one field, and a small amount of trouble from plum curculio and cranberry weevil 
in several fields. Japanese beetle was less troublesome than usual because of 
cool, wet weather in 1958 following the dry season of 1957, but look out in 1959 
because survival of what eggs were layed will be high. 

- — William E. Toralinson, Jr. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

ORCHARD PEST CONTROL BY AIR DUSTING 

There are some distinct disadvantages to air dusting. Perhaps some of the 
following are only precautions. At any rate, a grower who is considering the use 
of the airplane for orchard pest control should go into the practice with a full 
knowledge of the following: 

1, Very capable pilots who also understand your pest control problems are a 
necessity. They must have the courage and ability to fly at treetop level, 
fly early and late, and fly during times of bad weather. A locally owned, 
fully financed and reputable operation will greatly insure grower satisfactionT' 

2, Dust schedules from a materials standpoint are more expensive because dusts 
themselves are higher in cost and more applications may be needed, especially 
for insect control. This factor is usually easily offset by some of the 
advantages we have already covered, 

3, The weather is a factor. Good weather forecasting is essential to help you 
plan your scheduling and to help the operators plan their work. Except for 
low ceilings caused by fog, I do not believe adverse weather conditions have 
been a limiting factor in air dusting any more than with ground spray semi- 
concentrate methods in our state. 

4, A good air operator should have standby plane equipment in the event of plane 
failure or accident. You as an orchardist might well keep a spray or dust rig 
in standby status at least until your air operator has proved to be reliable. 



-9- 

5. The use of air dusting may not save labor; on the other hand, it might 
actually discourage the hiring of year-round help and therefore other 
desirable orchard operations, such as pruning, might not be accomplished for 
lack of year-round workers, 

6. The coverage of low branches in thick orchards may be poor and where these 
conditions prevail increased application rates per acre should be considered. 

7. Insect control may be difficult, especially where heavy populations of codling 
moth, mites or red-banded leaf rollers are present. In some instances, the 
use of more specific materials in spray form might well be considered. 

8. A lot of grower cooperation is necessary to make possible efficient schedul- 
ing and, above all, to avoid waste of airplane and pilot time especially if 
the grower help does not keep the dust supply to the plane loading point on 
a punctual basis. 

9. Drift of dusts is a problem. It will be necessary to coordinate with neighbors 
to prevent any possible chance of injury to humans or livestock. Remember 
that all spray or dust residues are extremely poisonous to those who do not 
know enough about them. 

10. Noise, especially in thickly populated areas, may be a problem. 

The kinds of aircraft most suitable for orcliArd vjork conntltute a controversy. 
The three most cofomoniy used kinds or types have been used in our work, each with 
success. The Cubs are less expensive than any, if purchased new, but they do not 
seem to be suited to our conditions partly because they cannot carry a very heavy 
load. The second type used is the helicopter. It is ideal in that it can land 
almost in any clearing. It may be safer to operate and can cover smaller acreages 
faster. On the other hand, it is very expensive to buy and to operate and apparent- 
ly requires an extremely high degree of pilot proficiency to operate. Like the 
Cubs they cannot carry very heavy loads. The third tyj 3 we have used is the bi- 
plane which is almost always of the war surplus PT-17 or Stearman make. To begin 
with, these are available to operators at only a fraction of their original cost. 
The Stearman seems to be the "Model A" of planes being easy to operate, easily 
serviced, reliable and inexpensive to operate. It can carry a load of 800-1,000 
pounds using a 250 horsepovjer engine which is very important. 

We have not found a significant difference in scab or insect control between 
the various types of aircraft. The use of effective materials, carefully timed 
application, flying ability of operating personnel and dependability of equipment 
are believed to be far more important then the kind of plane used. 

Space will not permit a detailed discussion of why air spraying has not been 
a practice in our orchard program instead of dusting. In the first place a high 
concentrate, low gallonage cuxture - down to less than 5 gallons per acre - would 
be necessary in order to gain an advantage from a load weight standpoint. Wettable 
powders cannot be used at such high concentrations, and the only available solvents 
seem to be toxic to apples. Sprays would be more favorable from a drift and deposit 
standpoint than dusts. Vermont growers have applied TEPP at 16X by plane, some urea 
at 5 gallons per acre, and thousands of acres of orchards have been treated with 
hormones in liquid form for fruit drop control at harvest time. 



-10- 

Our original dust formulations were made on the basis of applying 35-40 
pounds of dust per acre prepared by the trial and error method based on per acre 
dosage rates of the materials when applied in spray form at about 400 gallons per 
acre dilute. Other dusts such as 5% DDT were simply taken from the shelf and, of 
course, do not figure out to be more than the aniount of DDT applied in a 200 gallon 
per acre treatment. 

All dust mixture formulations are always given in terms of per cent actual 
active ingredient content. For example, a 37o Phygon dust contains 6% of Phygon 
XL which contains 50% active ingredient. The average per acre application rate 
last season had dropped to 30 pounds and most of our formulations are now based 
on 33 pounds per acre which very much simplifies the calculations involved, 
Vermont talc has been the most commonly used inert dilutent. 

Two basic fungicide dusts are used for primary scab control: 37. Phygon 
and 57, captan. Other fungicide dusts would include 47. Niacide M, ferbam and 
elemental sulfurs or combinations of almost any of the above. A 27. Phygon dust 
will be used this year by some growers. Phygon is seldom used beyond petal fall 
for scab control and ferbam may be combined with Phygon or captan for rust control. 
The elemental sulfurs are not used for primary scab control. The elemental sulfurs 
will be added to Phygon or captan dusts by some growers this year for mildew con- 
trol. The application of sulfur-containing dusts this next season presents a ■ 
fire explosion threat which must be taken into account by the airplane operators. 

The two basic insecticide dust formulations are 57. DDT and 1%7, Parathion. 
4% Halation dusts are also used for aphid control. Mixtures of any of the 
foregoing in addition to dusts containing 157o aresenate of lead, 5% Methoxychlor, 
47o Kelthane, 27. Thylate, 2%7o Mercury and Aramite have been used. Due to recent 
tolerance restrictions this material cannot be used under our conditions, 

— C, Lyman Calahan 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Preporod by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



APRIL 15, 1959 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chemical Thinning of Apples 

Effects of Pesticides on Honey Bees 

Strawberry Variety Notes 

Red Stele: Number One Menace of the Strawberry 

Darrow — A New Blackberry 

Growth Studies of the Cultivated Blueberries 

Factors to Consider in the Control of Brown Rot 
of Peach and Other Stone Fruits 



^' 




//'^ 




I 



!ijm 



/r-. 




-*i?'=?i> 



^V^'•Vs 



•M^ 



'.??>■ 



m^: 




■^^nf^^J"- 






%i 



% 



^iir> 






v.^ 



Jii^ 



Issued by the Cooperative Eitenalon Service, Dale H. Siellng, Dean and Director, in furtherance o( the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperatuig. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



-2- 

suppliers, almost all of the dust used is stockpiled at plane side in a shed at 
several landing locations and is not handled by the individual grower. The air 
operator has installed electrically operated mechanical dust loaders which makes 
it possible for the pilot to easily load the plane even without stopping the 
engine. Growers simply telephone in their order for an application and at that 
time state what material is to be flown and from which supplier. A duplicate 
copy of the issue slip is the basis for billing by the supplier. 

This system has greatly increased the application rate, especially where 
a number of small orchards are involved. Orchards located near Burlington are 
30 and 50 miles from the Middlebury Airport and for the last few seasons have 
never had a pound of dust material stored at the orchard. They happen to be 
single load size blocks and the material is brought by plane from the central 
stockpile for each application. 

The number of acres which can be serviced by a single plane will depend on 
many factors. Under our conditions, I believe a single Stearman can handle 700 
acres even with many 30-50 acre blocks involved throughout the three northwestern 
Vermont counties and two northeast New York counties, and our scab control 
problem is difficult, 

A few additional precautions or suggestions may be of help to newcomers to 
this modern method to make y<"ur air dusting more effective and easier. First 
and foremost, be sure to employ only skilled pilots who are backed up by a 
good concern, always use good materials and do not attempt home mixing. Do your 
part to prevent drift even if you have to wait another day for poison application 
to be made. Take care to coordinate with state agencies and do a good job of 
public relations work. Don't shave the application rate per acre to cheat the 
operator out of money he needs to be in business or to save dust because you may 
not get good control. Orchardists who are licensed pilots should never attempt 
to do their own work. Good flying proficiency is absolutely necessary and can- 
not be obtained on a part-time basis, especially from the standpoint of avoid- 
ing accidents. 

The effectiveness of air dust programs have been proven for a number of 
years for many of Vermont's leading apple growers and 1 am sure it will V7ork 
just as good for other growers. 

---C. Lyman Calahan 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

CHEMICAL THINNING OF APPLES 

Following a moderate 1958 crop we anticipate a heavier bloom generally 
on Mcintosh and some other varieties this spring. It has now been rather 
definitely proven by Dr. C. P. Harley at Beltsville, Md„ that NAA thinners 
do have a direct influence on blossom bud formation of some varieties even 
when no thinning is involved. Many of us in this area hav<^ suspected this 
for a long time on varieties which are not inherently very biennial, such as 
Mcintosh. It is certain, however, from many years' records and observations 
that NAA or NA Amide is not capab;': of inducing annual production in some 
strongly biennial varieties, such as Baldwin or Early Mcintosh, in some 
seasons even when heavy thinning is accomplished. 



-3- 

For Mcintosh it seems quite certain that these thinners applied from 10 
to 20 days after petal fall are very helpful In promoting flower bud formation 
for the following year. This Influence may be more Important in some instances 
than a reduction in fruit set since growers are not anxious to produce Mcintosh 
in excess of 3 inches in diameter. The risk of overthinning Mcintosh with 
NA Amide at suggested concentrations ie small. 

At a recent meeting at Rutgers University where chemical thinning was 
discussed by a large proportion of the research people in this field east of 
the Mississippi River, there seemed to be considerable agreement that the 
degree of thinning obtained could not be predicted on the basis of temperature 
and humidity at the time of spraying. We believe it is still best to avoid 
cool, cloudy weather and hot weather, however, when using chemical thinners. 
Many feel that a frost a week or two before spraying, even if it has no 
influence on fruit set, greatly increases the thinning potential of NAA or 
NA Amide and a marked reduction in concentration is advisable. We have some 
data contrary to this view but this may be the exception, so reduce the spray 
concentration if temperatures of 28°F have been experienced prior to spraying. 

In the Shenandoah-Cumberland area the use of Tween 20 at 1 pint per 100 
gallons as an additive with low concentrations of NAA is being suggested for 
some varieties. Our results with Tween 20 are not sufficiently outstanding 
to justify the general use of this or other additives with chemical thinning 
sprays. If you have not been able to thin Golden Delicious adequately with 
NAA, for example, the addition of 4 ounces of Tween 20 per 100 gallons of 
water to a 10 or 15 ppm NAA spray might be worth a try, but I don't believe 
many growers have had trouble thinning Gold Delicious with 20 or 30 ppm of 
NAA alone. 

As you know thinning Red Delicious chemically is a risky business and 
our results have been quite erratic. Dr. Art Thompson of Maryland is certain 
that NA Amide is not a desirable material for this variety and suggests 10 
to 15 ppm (4 to 6 ounces per 100) of NAA at about 15 to 21 days after full 
bloom (about the same as 10-15 days after petal fall). NA Amide, he believes, 
increases the tendency toward the development of "pygmy" fruit. On the other 
hand, we have seen serious overthinning with NAA on Delicious particularly 
under poor drying conditions. Unless you are having a serious biennial 
problem with Red Delicious, we advise caution when using NAA on this variety. 
It may be best to spray a different fraction of a variety like this at 3 or 4 
day intervals since we have no way of being sure which day will give the most 
desirable results. This same procedure may be followed for Mcintosh and other 
fall and winter varieties to reduce the chances of under or overthinning all 
the trees of a given variety. 

— F. W. Southwick 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON HONEY BEES 

A, HOW BEES MAY BE POISONED: 

1. Contamination of water , nectar or pollen with pesticides which have 
stomach poison action on bees. Contaminated water and pollen can kill 



-4- 

both the adults and the developing brood of bees. Probably contaminated 
nectar kills mainly adult bees but this may depend on the speed of klll» 

2» Direct contact with the pesticide during application. Primarily kills 
the field bees but brood may die from neglect. Repeated applications may 
seriously effect the colonies. 

3. Exposure to residues of pesticides that have high toxicity to bees. Under 
some conditions, high mortality to adult bees results. There is a lack 
of sufficient information to determine how serious the effects of such 
exposures may be on the brood. 

4. Effects on brood . May be direct by poisoning , or indirect from starva - 
tion or exposures to extremes of temperature . 

B. SUGGESTIONS FOR AVOIDING BEE POISONING: 

1. Proper timing . Do not spray plants that are attractive to bees during 
bloom with materials known to be toxic to these insects. 

2* Spraying in the early morning or in the evening will reduce bee losses 
since fewer will be exposed to direct contact with the pesticide. 

3. Do not use higher concentrations or more spray than is necessary, 

4o Avoid contamination of area where spraying equipment is filled, particular- 
ly if there is an accumulation of water being visited by bees. 

5» Clipping or spraying with an herbicide to prevent bloom will reduce bee 
losses if ground cover in area to be sprayed contains dandelions or other 
weeds attractive to bees. 

6. Notify local beekeepers if extensive spraying is to be done; they may be 
able to take measures to reduce bee losses. 

TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES TO HONEY BEES 

From Anderson and Atkins, 1958 California Agriculture 12 (12): 3-4 with modification 

Anderson and Atkins set up four groups of pesticides based on their varying 
toxicities to bees. Much original information was presented, some of which was 
obtained from laboratory experiments. Most of the more important materials were 
also tested in the field. It must be emphasized that weather conditions in 
California may influence the effects of most pesticides so as to give very 
different results than we might obtain in the Northeast. 



1. Materials that are toxic to bees which should not be used if there is a 

possibility of bee poisoning at the time of treatment or within several 
days thereafter: 

•Idrin dleldrin lead arsenate 

BHC ENOSBP (DN211) lindane 

calcium arsenate Guthion parathion 

chlordane heptachlor Sevln 
Diazinon 



1 



-5- 

2. Materials that are highly toxic to bees but which may be used if certain 
precautions, Involving proper method and timing of application, recommended 
dosages and avoidance of high temperatures, are followed: 



Di - Syston 
malathion 



Phosdrln 
Sabadilla 



TEPP 

phorate (Thimet) 



3. Materials that are only moderately toxic to bees which may be used if 
dosages and timing are correct. Should not be applied directly on bees 
in the field or on the colonies: 



chlorobenzllate 


ethlon 


TDE (DDD) 


Perthane 


DDT 


Tedion 


endrin 





Thiodan 

Toxaphene 

Trithion 



4. Materials that are relatively non-toxic but deliberate spraying of bees 
even with these materials, should be avoided. 



allethrln 

Aramlte 

Bordeaux mixture 

captan 

copper oxychloride 

copper sulfate 

cuprous oxide 

Cyprex 

Delnav 

Dimite (EMC) 

DNOCHP 



ferbam 

Genlte 

IPC 

Karathane 

maneb 

MCP 

methoxychlor 

chlorobenzlde (Mitox) 

CMU 

nicotine 

OMPA 



ovex 

pyrethrin 

rotenone 

Ryania 

sulfur 

demeton (Systox) 

thlram 

zineb 

ziram 

2,4-D 

2,4,5-T 



WARNING 

Most pesticides are poisonous. Read and Follow all Directions 
on Labels. Handle carefully and store out of reach of children, 
pets and livestock. 



I 



— F, R. Shaw 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

STRAWBERRY VARIETY NOTES 

Varieties reconmended for camnercial planting include Midland, Howard 17, 
Temple, Catskill, Vermilion, Robinson and Sparkle. Earlidawn, Redglow, Surecrop, 
Armore, Blaze and Merrimack are reconsnended for trial planting. 20th Century is 
suggested for trial as an everbearer. 

Your attention is again called to the fact that several new varieties being 
offered for sale are indistinguishable from older commercial varieties. A few 
examples are listed on the next page with the original name given first. 



Armore Indistinguishable from 
Robinson " " 

Midland " " 

Sparkle " " 

Gem " " 



-6- 
Red Cluster 

Kardinal King and Scarlet Beauty 

Crimson Flash and Adonis 

Paymaster 

Superfection and Brilliant 



•—James F. Anderson 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RED STELE; NUMBER ONE MENACE OF THE STRAWBERRY 

Red stele has became the nvmber one enemy of strawberries in the eastern 
states. It appeared in Massachusetts about 20 years ago. For awhile it spread 
very slowly but during the past few years it has appeared in many fields, particu- 
larly in southeastern Massachusetts. 

Red stele is a root disease which has never been found in any other part of 
the plant. It is caused by a fungus which lives in the soil as well as in the 
roots of strawberry plants. This fungus forms resting spores which can remain 
alive in the soil for 18 - 20 years till temperature and moisture conditions 
are just right and strawberry roots are present. Then these spores germinate 
and infect the strawberry roots. 

The disease gets its name from the appearance of the roots of infected plants < 
In spring when the soil is cool and wet the central core or "stele" turns a brick 
red. This can be observed by stripping off the outer "skin" of the root with 
the thumbnail or making a slanting cut with a knife. The roots of infected plants 
fail to branch so that they have a "rat-tail" appearance. The leaves of infected 
plants wilt. If the infection is not too severe and warm dry weather occurs, 
the plants may appear to recover but symptcHos are sure to reappear the follow- 
ing spring when the soil is again cool and wet. If the infection is severe 
and the soil remains cool and wet, many plants of susceptible varieties may die 
leaving bare spots in the field. 

Red stele can be spread by infested soil particles clinging to tools and 
machinery, to the feet of workers, birds or animals, by water-movement through 
drainage, washing or by irrigation with water contaminated by spores or by 
setting of infected plants. 

The red stele fungus has a sexual stage and, therefore, occasionally 
produces mutants, or "sports". As a result there are now five known "races" of 
red stele. Only four have been found under field conditions. When red stele 
was first discovered and only one race was known, several strawberry varieties 
showed considerable resistance. Among these were Aberdeen, Pathfinder, Fair- 
land, Sparkle, Temple, and Vermilion. Then other races, to which these varieties 
are not resistant, appeared and decimated these varieties. 

Plant breeders are working to develop varieties resistant to red stele. 
The first variety resistant to more than one race of red stele was Stelemaster 
which is resistant to three races. Yield and fruit quality are such that this 



mmM mm 

variety is valuable only where other varieties cannot be grot-m because of red 
stele. Later Surecrop, which is resistant to two races and partly resistant to 
a third, was introduced. Both fruit and plant characters of this variety are 
superior to Stelemaster. In fact, it looks promising as a commercial variety in 
many sections and certainly will be where red stele is a problem. 

How can a grower protect himself against red stele? If he has no red stele, 
he should take every precaution against bringing it into his fields. The danger 
of spread from nearby sources is slight unless there is actual drainage from an 
infested field or contaminated cultivation implements are used in a disease free 
field. 

The real danger lies in the setting of infected plants either from nearby 
or distant sources. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the desirability of 
obtaining disease free planting stock. It should be easy to obtain clean stock 
but because of the ignorance, indifference or carelessness of some nurserymen, 
infected stock is shipped too frequently. Recently several cases have been 
noted where red stele suddenly appeared in previously uninfested areas which 
could not have occurred except from the setting of infected plants. It pays to 
know about the source of planting stock. 

If red stele has already been found on susceptible varieties, the grower 
can either stop using the field for strawberries or he can try a resistant 
variety. If any of the varieties resistant to one race of red stele became 
infected, then it's grow Stelemaster or Surecrop or quit growing strawberries. 

The question is frequently asked, isn't there some soil treatment which will 
keep red stele under control. There are two soil fumigants, methyl bromide and 
chloropicrin which will reduce the incidence of red stele to 5 per cent or less. 
These materials are very expensive both to obtain and to apply. It is very doubt- 
ful that their use would be profitable. Many other materials have been tried but 
none has proved satisfactory under all conditions. 

The best answer to the problem is don't get red stele. Know the nursery 
that supplied your plants and let them know you want clean plants. Cheap plants 
can be mighty expensive if they bring in red stele. If you get red stele, plant 
resistant varieties or you'll probably be forced out of the strawberry business. 

—John S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

DARROW - A NEW BLACKBERRY 

On last September 18th the New York Agricultural Experiment Station intro- 
duced a new blackberry variety. It is named Darrow in honor of Dr. George M. 
Harrow who was for many years in charge of the research work with small fruits 
at the Plant Industry Station of the United States Department of Agriculture 
at Beltsville, Maryland. 

Darrow (N.Y. #24338) originated from a cross between N.Y. 15826 (Eldorado x 
Brewer) and Hedrick (Eldorado x Brewer) . As tested at Geneva N.Y. it is note- 
worthy among blackberries for its vigor, reliably heavy production, firmness and 
good quality. There it also appeared more cold resistant than other varieties 
and selections. Ripening starts early about with Eldorado and continues over a 



-8- 

long season. Tests at the University of Massachusetts are too preliminary to 
know how It will behave here. 

Few blackberries are grown In Massachusetts. To frequently nursery plants 
have turned out to be a worthless sterile seedling, a varietal mixture or a 
combination of these. The softness of the ripe fruit has made It Impossible to 
market It In good eating condition. The thornlness of the canes, which makes 
picking difficult, has discouraged some. The rapid spread of the plants after 
they get established can be a problem. 

Oarrow appears to solve some of these problems. It should be worth a trial 
for anyone Interested In blackberries. It Is unfortunate that a fruit which has 
such fine flavor and makes such excellent jelly should be so long neglected. 

-—John S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

GROWTH STUDIES OF THE CULTIVATED BLUEBERRIES 

Studies concerned with some of the growth characteristics of the blueberry 
plant and Its fruits were made by V. G. Shutak, R. Hlndle, Jr., and E. P. 
Christopher and reported In the University of Rhode Island Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station Bulletin 339 titled "Growth Studies of the Cultivated Blueberry". 
The following material was taken from that bulletin and should be of Interest to 
the cultivated blueberry growers of Massachusetts. 

In the study to determine the relationship of blueberry wood thickness to 
other characteristics, measurements of one-year-old wood were taken just above 
the basal swelling. The wood was classified as follows: (a) thin - diameter 
less than 0.1 inch; (b) medium - from 0.1 to 0.2 inches; and (c) thick - over 0.2 
inches . 

With the five varieties studied (Dixi, Atlantic, Pemberton, Rubel and Pioneer) 
it was found that blueberry blosscnns on thin wood normally opened before those on 
thick wood. Blossoms on mediimi wood usually opened scnnetime between the other two« 

In other wood thickness relationships, flower bud development in the fall was 
found to occur earliest on thin wood and latest on thick wood. There appeared to 
be no significant relationship between wood thickness and days required for a 
berry to mature. Fruit and leaf size appeared to be positively correlated with 
wood thickness. Since thick wood contains more and larger conducting vessels, the 
authors suggest that this greatly increased water conducting capacity results in 
the Increased fruit and leaf size. 

The authors report that berry growth as measured by calculated volume may be 
divided into three stages - a period of rapid growth followed by a period of less 
rapid expansion, and finally a period of very rapid increase. The last stage of 
growth was found to occur mainly after the berries turned blue. Their data suggest 
the Importance of delaying harvest as long as practical after blue coloration appean 
However, as stated by the authors "Some varieties begin to drop berries a few days 
after blue color is obtained and waiting for maximum size may result in harvesting 
a small crop." 

Ripening studies showed that the largest berries ripened in the shortest time 
and the smallest berries took the longest. "No correlation between size and 



-9- 

posltlon In the cluster was noted. The ultimate size seems to be largely deter- 
mined during the initial growth period," 

Bags of aluminum foil and white and black cloths were used to control 
light conditions for berries on the bush and special chambers were used to study 
temperature Influence on the harvested berries. They found that "alumintjm 
and both black and white cloth bags delayed maturity but resulted in larger 
fruits » Harvested berries ripen faster at high temperature and in the light. 
However, color formation will proceed in the absence of light." 

-~W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN THE CONTROL OF 
BROWN ROT OF PEACH AND OTHER STONE FRUITS 

The brown rot fungus organism attacks blossoms, twigs, and fruit to cause 
blossom blight, twig blight, stem cankers, and fruit rot. The fruit and trees 
can be protected by spraying at the right time. 

The source of spores for spring infection are mummies on the tree from fruit 
rotted and previous year, mummies on the ground, and twig and stem cankers from 
infections of the previous year. The spores on these organs may be overwintered 
spores or newly produced spores. They Infect blossoms and twigs which in turn 
produce additional spores to infect fruit and twigs later in the season. 

There are two critical periods when most of the infections take place and 
which need careful grower attention if conditions are favorable for Infection. 
They are (1) during bloom and (2) as the fruit approaches ripening. 

Blossoms are especially vulnerable during the 7 to 14 days of the bloom period. 
The fungus attacks the flower parts, especially when they start to wither, and causes 
blossom blight. It then grows down into the twig to cause twig blight and stem 
cankers . 

Infection can occur dally if there is rain or moisture from fog or heavy dews. 
Infection will take place in 6 to 7 hours when the temperature is 45°F, in 4 hours 
at 60°F, and in 3 hours at 70°F. A tight protective schedule with sulfur or dichlone 
Is necessary for control of blosscm blight If there are rains during bloom. When 
rains are heavy and wash off spray deposits, it pays to spray or dust again without 
delay. 

The other critical time for control of brown rot is when fruit approaches 
maturity and the closer to maturity the more easily it become infected and the 
faster the fruit rots. Here again, Infection depends on moisture and also there 
is more of it if insects are not controlled and there are feeding injuries. 
Beginning one month before harvest, it will pay the grower to watch the weather and 
spray to protect during rains and to renew spray if heavy rains wash off spray de- 
posits. The last spray of the season can be with captan which will delay rot longer 
than other fungicides after peaches are harvested. 

— C. J. Gllgut 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



MAY 8, 1959 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Irrigation of Strawberries 

Elements in Successful Marketing of Appalachian Apples 

Insect Control on Young Apple Trees 

Stand-by Generators for the Farm 

Farm Employers' Social Security 

Farmers' Social Security 

Employers' Payroll Records for Social Security 

Pomological Paragraphs 




"t' 




;^. 



■-•^-<"r>SK;--£ 



^>>'^;ri.xsu> 










'0JSttip.., 



L 






-■■/:i; 



tks 



)m> 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 



^^^ Xirx io 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses In pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active In the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S, - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
In small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Fruit Specialist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses. Currently also doing research on fruit 
marketing. 

Southwlck, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of stoiage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. • Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



Contributors to This Issue From Supporting Fields 
E« H. Wheeler, Extension Entomologist 
F. E. Cole, Extension Marketing Specialist 
R. W. Klels, Head, Agricultural Engineering Department 
L. D. Rhoades, Extension Specialist in Farm Management 



IRRIGATION OF STRAWBERRIES 

A Massachusetts strawberry grower states "experience has taught us that any 
Massachusetts grower engaged In the production of any crop where the return In 
dollars per acre Is high must have some method of providing extra water In time 
of need. It Is true that in many years a grower might "get by" without it, but 
under today's conditions "getting by" is not enough. To stay in business a 
grower must get the utmost in both quantity and quality from his planted acreage. 
During the decade of growing strawberries, there has not been a year that I have 
not been able to use supplemental water to good advantage whether it be to Insure 
a sufficient number of vigorous plants, for frost protection or to irrigate the 
fruiting bed." This summarizes very nicely the need of irrigation facilities 
when growing strawberries. 

Strawberry plants have the bulk of their roots in the top foot of soil, 
therefore, they are easily affected by drought. In general, strawberry plants 
require about one inch of water every seven to 10 days during their growing and 
fruiting seasons. The actual amount, however, depends upon climatic conditions and 
plant population and vigor. The writer has seen plants In a fruiting bed almost 
completely wilted after two days of a hot, dry wind. Soil type also has an 
important bearing on how often the land needs irrigation. Soils vary from loamy 
sands with low water holding capacity to silt loams with high holding capacity. 
To Irrigate successfully the grower must know the soil and plant condition and 
how to operate the Irrigation equipment effectively. 

When planning an irrigation system consult the personnel of the Soil Conser- 
vation Service and the Agricultural Extension Service, it may save dollars now 
and headaches later. Massachusetts Extension Service Leaflet No. 246 titled 
"Irrigation for Massachusetts Fainns - why, how, when" contains much valuable 
infoxmation and may be obtained through your County Extension Service or the 
Extension Service, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. 

Depth to Irrigate depends upon crop grown and in the case of strawberries 
moisture penetration of 12 Inches should be satisfactory. 

When to irrigate can be determined by making actual rainfall measurements 
plus the examination of the soil in the field. Empty coffee cans make practical 
and economical rain gauges « The height of rain in the can, as measured by a 
ruler, will give inches of rainfall. These same cans are useful for the deter- 
mination of distribution and amount of water applied with sprinkler irrigation 
systems. Soil moisture meters can be purchased which aid growers to determine the 
need and time for irrigation. 

Growers have found it advantageous to irrigate the new strawberry beds as 
soon as possible after setting in order to firm the soil around the roots. This 
was particularly valuable during 1957. During the drought of chat year, 
growers irrigated new strawberry beds as often as every 10 to 15 days. 

A high moisture level is necessary at fruiting time. However, an over supply 
of moisture may lead to large, soft, poor-keeping berries. One Massachusetts 
strawberry grower states that "If the spring is dry, the fruiting beds are watered 
heavily just before ripening of the first fruit. If the weather continues dry, 
water is applied once more in the middle of the harvest season. I like to apply 
apply water in the morning to give the plants and fruit time to dry before evening." 



-2- 

By the maintenance of high soil moisture level prior to the harvest season, Irriga- 
tion during harvest can be kept to a tninimuin. This should help reduce the occur 
rence of large, soft fruit and gray-mold rot, 

"-W, J, Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

ELEMENTS IN SUCCESSFUL MARKETING OF APPALACHIAN APPLES 

Taken from February issue — Virginia Farm Economics No. 157 

Adopted from the thesis of Robert 0. Grisso, "An Economic Analysis of the Elements 
that Affect the Success of Marketing Apples in the Appalachian Apple Belt" Decembt 
1958, by J,M. Johnson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 

Conclusions 

This study indicates some practices that producers might incorporate into 
their operations to improve their ability to compete for satisfactory sales 
outlets: 

(1) Rely more heavily on U.S.D.A. grading standards and discontinue use of 
state grading standards. State grading standards that vary ixaax state to 
state are confusing and misleading. 

(2) Put more emphasis on grading of fruit and strive to keep well within 
tolerance rather than barely complying with the grade. 

(3) Reorganize the packing operations in order that the packs preferred by 
the trade may be furnished, 

(4) Emphasize more strongly the marketing phase of the apple enterprise by 
seeking out the more desirable buyers early in the season, granting them 
the opportunity of knowing what the expected crop will be so that they 
can adjust their operations accordingly. 

The size of the grower, his location in respect to markets, and time of 
sale have effects on his ability to sell his apples to an advantage. However, 
other factors, such as the reputation of the grower, the quality of fruit packed 
and the flexibility of his operation in regard to complying with the buyers* 
demands were also definitely factors related to success in marketing. Therefore, 
it cannot be said that the small grower located in an area not considered to be 
convenient to markets, or those not having storage facilities cannot stay in the 
apple business and compete price-wise with his larger, more favorably located 
competitor with storage facilities. These apparent handicaps may be overcome 
by a reputation for a quality pack, advance arrangements for sales, and taking 
full advantage of the local market for fruit. 

In our present-day dynamic economy, new ideas and technological advancements 
are occurring almost overnight. If the Appalachian Apple Belt is to continue in 
the competitive race. It will have to anticipate the new advances in production 
and marketing techniques and adjust operations at a faster rate. 

— F. E. Cole 



-3- 

INSECT CONTROL ON YOUNG APPLE TREES 

Round-headed Apple Tree Borer, Green Apple Aphid and Buffalo Treehopper 
are the insects most likely to damage young apple trees in Massachusetts, 
Occasionally the white Apple leaf hopper, San Jose Scale, European Red Mite and 
several leaf-chewing insects such as Bud Moth, Tent Caterpillar and Gypsy 
Moth cause some injury. 

In applying insect control measures to young trees, materials that favor 
increases in some pest species, such as mites, should be avoided in so far as 
possible. 

Apple Tree Borer ; The adults of this insect are beetles about three- 
quarters inch long and with prominent white stripes on a grayish-brown background. 
Beetles emerge frcxn their tunnels in tree trunks during late May and June and do 
some feeding on foliage. Eggs are laid in the bark near the ground from late 
June until late August. After hatching, three seasons are required for full 
development of the larva or borer. Trees are greatly weakened or killed out 
right by the larval feeding. 

The most practicable control is spraying the entire young tree and ground 
cover close around it in late May and through June to kill the adults. Such 
applications might correspond to the First and Third Cover sprays in the bearing 
orchard. In severe infestations, additional applications corresponding to the 
Second and Fourth Cover sprays would be advisable. 

Lead arsenate is effective in such a program and would do little harm to 
beneficial species while controlling some leaf chewers in addition to the borer. 
Lead arsenate would have no effect upon leaf hoppers, treehopper s or aphids. 

Green Apple Aphid ; This is the most abundant of the summer aphids or plant 
lice on apple. Large numbers of wingless and migratory, winged forms are produced 
in some 15 generations from early spring until frost. Leaves on terminals become 
greatly distorted and in severe infestations the new twig growth may become twisted 
and the tree misshapen. 

Parasites and predators may be enough to check the green aphid on young, 
unsprayed trees during some seasons. In years favorable to the aphid, natural 
controls will not be adequate, damage will result and the young trees will act as 
a serious source of reinfestation for the bearing orchard. 

Systemic phosphates such as demeton and Phosdrin must be handled carefully 
but will give excellent control of the green aphid (and mites) with minimum harm 
to beneficial forms. 

Malathion is the easiest to handle of the phosphates but often gives poor 
control unless treatments are very thorough and repeated at frequent intervals. 

TEPP, Diazinon and Trithion are other organic phosphates which might be used. 
TEPP must be handled carefully and must be repeated, but is easy on beneficial 



-4- 

forms because of its very short residual effect. Both Trithion and Diazinon 
are longer lasting. 

BHC (benzene hexachloride) may be substituted for lead arsentate in one 
or more of the sprays suggested for apple tree borer and should give control 
of green aphid as well as borer. 

Leafhoppers should be controlled by any of the materials mentioned except 
lead arsenate. 

Buffalo Treehopper ; This insect damages young apple trees by slitting 
the bark of twigs and smaller branches to lay eggs. This occurs in August and 
the eggs hatch the following April and early May. The nymphs fall to the ground 
and feed on the cover crop until they become adults beginning about mid-July. 
Alfalfa, sweet clover and bindweed are favorite food plants. 

Keeping the young orchard free of suitable host plants and weeds is often 
practicable and in some situations an effective control for this insect. 

Where necessary, sprays or dusts of DDT or BHC may be applied to the ground 
cover and trees sometime in late July or as the adults appear in the trees. 
(If the cover crop is to be used as feed for cattle, substitute methoxychlor 
for DDT or BHC) . About 4 pounds of a 50% wettable powder DDT (4 pounds of a 
10-12% gamma BHC) should be applied per acre. 

— E, H. Wheeler 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

STAND-BY GENERATORS FOR THE FARM 



Electric power suppliers do an excellent job of providing dependable power 
and satisfactory service. Power failures are very infrequent and usually for 
very brief periods. But no electric power supplier can guarantee continuous 
service. Should farms which are highly dependent upon electric power have stand- 
by units? The answer depends upon the nature of the operation, the electrical 
equipment involved, the loss a power failure might cause and the dependability 
of the power supply. 

For some operations a stand-by generator may be justified and provide needed 
protection. 

Type . Small electric generators can be driven either by a direct-connected 
engine or by your tractor. Each type has both advantages and disadvantages. The 
engine-driven unite are easier to locate: you can put them in a corner of the 
basement, the garage, or any building near the main service entrance. Tractor- 
driven units must be placed where they can be belted to the tractor. It is best 
to operate the tractor inside. If it is to be operated outside, a rubber belt 
is essential. Voltage and speed of the tractor- driven unit must be controlled by 
the speed of the tractor. 

One disadvantage of the engine-driven unit is the upkeep and servicing 
that are required to keep it in operating condition. The farm tractor is ready 
to operate at all times, and it can therefore be used with little added trouble 



-5- 

and expense. Relative costs also make the tractor-driven unit more practical. 
For a given capacity It costs less than hialf as much as the engine-driven unit. 

Some units are mounted on a trailer and driven by the power take-off shaft 
of the tractor. This type can be stored out of the weather and moved quickly 
to the power center when needed. For this reason it is useful for operating 
welders, power tools, water pumps, etc., in remote sections of the farm where 
electric power is not available. It also eliminates the need for the somewhat 
troublesome belt drive. 

Size . Generators come in sizes from 3,000 to 20,000 watts. On most farms 
a 3,000 to 5,000 watt unit is large enough to operate the essential equipment. 
It would not be practical to install a unit large enough to operate all of the 
electrical equipment on a farmstead. The first thing, then, is to decide what 
equipment must be operated and how much needs to operate at one time. 

The wattage demand of motors is about as follows: 

1/4 horsepower - 300 watts 
1/2 horsepower - 575 watts 
1 horsepower - 1,000 watts 

One point to remember is that a motor requires more wattage for starting 
than for running. When you are operating more than one motor, you should start 
the larger one first and then the smaller one. 

Locating and connecting. Put the generator as near the main service entrance 
as you can. Size of wire to use will depend on size of the unit and distance it 
must cover. No, 8 or larger will probably be needed. 

IT IS ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL TO CONNECT THE GENERATOR TO THE WIRING SYSTEM 
THROUGH A DOUBLE-POLE, DOUBLE-THROW SWITCH. This switch should usually be 
between the meter and the main switch, A double- throw switch has two purposes: 
First, it prevents the unit from energizing the power line and endangering the 
lives of repairman. Second, it prevents damage to the generator when service is 
restored 

If you find that a stand-by power unit would be useful on your farm, there 
is no reason why It shouldn't provide dependable power insurance for 25 years 
or longer if you use and care for it In the right way. The cost could thus 
be small compared with the convenience and protection, 

— R. W, Kleis 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



-6- 

FAFM EMPLOYERS' SOCIAL SECURITY 

Farmers who employ hired labor are required to deduct Social Security tax 
from their employees' wages if either of two tests apply. Payment records are 
necessary as well. Taxes are to be deducted on employees' wages if pay is on a 
piecework basis whenever the total wage paid to the employee during the year 
amounts to $150 _or when the employee has worked on 20 different days during the 
year, regardless of the amount of pay. The rate is 2% percent since January 1959, 
The employer must pay 2^ percent in addition. 

Whenever the total amount of tax, the employer's 2\ percent and the employee's 
2% percent, amounts to at least $100 after any month or series of months, a deposit 
of this amount must be made in a bank authorized to accept deposits for the 
Federal Reserve Bank. You will need to write the District Director of Internal 
Revenue, 174 Ipswich Street, Boston, Massachusetts, for a Federal Depository 
Receipts form #450. 

If you do not have an employer's identification number you will need to get 
one by applying for it on Form SS-4 which you can get from the District Director 
of Internal Revenue or from the nearest Social Security office. 

Your son or daughter under 21, and your wife or husband, father or mother 
are not employees under Social Security, although you may pay them wages for 
work they do for you and dedvct these wages as a farm expense. 

You will have $100 of tax liability whenever the total cash wages of employ- 
ees amounts to $2000 during the year, 

FARMERS' SOCIAL SECURITY 

If you have been paying Social Security tax on your self -employment earnings 
from farming in the years since 1955 and you are 65 years old or you will be 65 
years old during 1959 or 1960, you should visit your nearest Social Security office. 

Social Security representatives will be glad to discuss your situation with 
you. Several Instances where farmers who were ready to request retirement in 
the last few months have shown how important this is. In these cases farmers 
have found that their retirement benefits have been less than they might have 
been because of misunderstanding. Some benefits have been lost due to delay 
in making this visit. 

You will need copies of your income tax returns for the years since 1955, 
as well as certain other information such as evidence of age and the like. 

EMPLOYERS' PAYROLL RECORDS FOR SOCIAL SECURITY 



Payroll records for Social Security tax can be in any form provided they 
contain the following information: name . address . Social Security ninnber of 
the employee, days worked , pay rate , date wn^,ea paid and tax deducted . 



-7- 

You can use your ovm form or obtain a payroll record from a stationery 
store or from most Woolworth, Kresge, Newberry or Grant stores or other chain 
variety stores. 



—Lawrence D, Rhoades 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 



Cross-Pollination 



Recently several growers have asked about the suitability of certain apple 
varieties for cross-pollination of each other. The following material about 
pollination is taken from Special Circular #247 written by Dr. Franklin W. 
Southwick. A copy of the Special Circular may be obtained from your County 
Agent or from the Cooperative Extension Service, University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst, Massachusetts. 

"The following table lists some varieties grown in New England which are 
generally suitable cross-pollinizers for each other, according to their average 
blooming season (exceptions are noted). However, most of those varieties 
listed in the early group may be suitable for many of the midseason sorts and 
the midseason are suitable for the late blosscHning varieties since considerable 
blossoming overlap will occur in most seasons. However, it would not be wise 
to rely on an early blocxning variety to cross-pollinate a late blooming variety 
or vice versa. Bud sports (red strains) of all varieties will not cross- 
pollinate each other or the parent variety even though they have viable pollen 
because of their close relationship. For example, sports of Delicious, such 
as Starking and Richared, will not cross-pollinate Delicious or vice versa." 



Early 

Cravens teln 

Mcintosh 

Milton 

Oldenburg (Duchess) 

Puritan 

Red Astrachan 



Midseason 

Baldwin 

Cortland^ 

Davey 

Delicious^ 

Early McIntosh2 

Golden Delicious 

Lodi 

R. I. Greening^ 

Spartan 

Wealthy 

Winter Banana 

Yellow Transparent 

I dared 

Melrose-^ 



Late 

Gallia 
Macoun 
Northern Spy 
Rome Beauty 



-8- 

Poor polllnlzers (trlploid varieties - produce much sterile pollen). 
^Cortland and Early Mcintosh are cross-lmcompatlble but are suitable polllnlzers 

for other varieties. 
Melrose and Delicious are cross-Incompatible but are suitable polllnlzers for 
other varieties. 

"One should not rely entirely on strongly biennial varieties such as 
Early Mcintosh, Duchess, Wealthy, and Yellow Transparent as cross-pollinlzers 
for an annual variety like Mcintosh or Cortland. Such combinations may tend 
to make generally annual varieties biennial. When a strongly biennial variety 
fails to bloom there is no suitable pollen supply to cross-pollinate the 
usually annual variety. Hence, the annual variety may fall to set a commercial 
crop In alternate years and tends to become biennial also." 

— W. J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



JUNE 8, 1959 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Dotes Worth Noting 

Advantages of Soil Fumigation in Strawberry Culture 

A Good Use For Old Tires 

Clean Tree Bases 

Prevention of Deer Damage With Fencing 

Thinning Peaches 

Fumigating The Soil For Strawberries 

Insect Topics 

Comments On The Immature Mcintosh Problem 



^\ 




f0Jttieig>- 



%- 



m' 














Wi. 





W 



-..><:. 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and J 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Aerioulture and County Extension Services cooperatfr 



une 30, 1914; 
ng. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Fruit Specialist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses. Currently also doing research on fruit 
marketing. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



DATES WORTH NOTING 



June 22 - Annual Strawberry Twilight Meeting at the University of 
Massachusetts - 7:00 P.M. 

July 16 - Summer Meeting Massachusetts Fruit Growers Association, 

Meadowbrook Orchards operated by John and Nathan Chandler, 
Sterling Junction - All day. 



ADVANTAGES OF SOIL FUMIGATION IN STRAWBERRY CULTURE 

(Talk presented by Joe Teeling, Middleboro, Massachusetts at the Small 
Fruit Meeting held on University of Massachusetts campus in January, 1959) 

For some years growers have been frequently plagued with poor yields because 
of one or more contributing factors. One of the major causes, which often may 
have been unrecognized, is root rot or black root. Its severity varies with the 
seasons. Black root destroys root tissues thus preventing the plant from securing 
sufficient water to mature all its fruit. The causal factor or factors in black 
root may attack the root at any point. The root tissue below this point then dies. 
In severe cases almost the entire root system is destroyed. Black root should not 
be confused with red stele, another, even more serious root disease, which also 
destroys the plant root system. Red stele is caused by a member of the soil fungi 
which apparently works its way up the root destroying it. 

At first, black root was blamed on various types of soil fungi. However, 
later investigations indicated that tiny microscopic worms called nematodes might 
be a contributing agent. There are two of these nematodes that seem serious in 
strawberry plantings. One is called the root knot nematode, which at present, is 
more of a pr9blem in the Maryland area than in Massachusetts, although it can 
exist here. The more harmful one in Massachusetts is the common meadow nematode. 

With the "spotlight" turned on nematodes, it was natural to try some form of 
soil fumigation which might destroy many of these pests in the land to be set with 
strawberries. Two of the first materials tried, and still used, were ethylene 
dibromide (E.D.B.) and D-D which were injected into the soil by special tractor- 
drawn applicators- These materials become a gas when released and as they move 
upward through the soil destroy many of the nematodes. 

In 1954, I hired a commercial applicator to treat about 3 acres with E.D.B. 
at a cost of about $50 per acre. Two of these acres did well. One did very 
poorly. There seemed to be little difference between the treated area and a 
check plot which had no treatment. In no field did E.D.B. eliminate black root. 
However, I repeated the treatment on another piece of land in 1955. At the 
same time, I fumigated approximately ^ acre with methyl bromide which was applied 
under a plastic cover. This material was very expensive and laborious to apply. 
However, it offered much more than the E.D.B. or D-D in that it had some fungi- 
cidal action as well as serving as a nematocide. It, also, destroys all weed 
seed in the soil. The superiority of the plants grown on the methyl bromide 
treated soil was very evident in both appearance and yield. This plot was also, 
nearly weed free. 

In the fall of 1956 I decided to treat an acre with methyl bromide which 
I did at a cost of over $500. It was a tedious task involving the moving of a 
plastic cover about 25 times. On the same piece of land I treated a small area 
with chloro picrin. Although results were the same, the higher cost of this 
material precluded its further use. The field previous to fumigation was heavily 
infested with weed seed and considerable "witch grass." Red stele had been 



observed in spots in a previous strawberry planting on this land. As there was 
little chance for erosion, the field was left bare over the winter. If erosion 
is a problem, a light seeding of oats, which will winter-kill, will serve to hold 
the soil in place. The following spring a rototiller was run over rows to be set 
with plants. A few days after setting, the rototiller was run between the rows. 
On June 7 another trip between the rows was made with the tiller. After this no 
further cultivations were needed. The plants were not hoed the entire season. 
Occasional weeds that appeared were easily pulled during plant spacing operations. 
A few red stele susceptible plants were scattered throughout the planting. Only 
one of these plants was infected with red stele and this was planted in a tiny 
spot that had missed fumigation. There did not appear to be any black root in the 
field. Plants grew more vigorously than any I had ever seen. They set a tremen- 
dous crop of fruit the following spring. Unfortunately, heavy rains, lack of sun, 
and vigorous plant growth resulted in heavy losses from fruit rot in spite of 6 
applications of spray materials. 

While in the process of treating the soil with methyl bromide, I placed bales 
of hay under the plastic cover which resulted in a supply of weed free mulch for 
winter cover. 

Because of the weed free condition of the field, it has been carried over for 
a second picking this spring. It looks very promising. 

r 

Because of labor involved and the high cost of the methyl bromide, I turned 
to the use of Vapam in 1957. This material, at that time, cost about $300 per 
acre and could be applied easily through an irrigation system. I treated 3 acres. 
The results were satisfactory. During the 1958 growing year the Vapam treated 
area required very little more labor than the field which had been treated with 
methyl bromide except for some spot hoeing to eliminate a few clover plants whose 
seed had not been killed by the treatment. However, we should note here, that the 
usual treatment with methyl bromide does not do a good job on clover seeds, either. 
There were more weeds on the Vapam treated field than on the one treated with 
methyl bromide. However, no hoeing around the plants was needed. The planting 
looks good. 

In the fall of 1958, I again used Vapam on the fields to be set in 1959. The 
results were not quite so good as the previous year in that more fall weeds ger- 
minated. However, in fairness, we should note that ge-nninating conditions were 
better in 1958 than in 1957 and conceivably, results in 1959 may be as good as 
in 1958. 

All of this is interesting to consider but the real question on your minds, 
I am sure, is "Does it pay?" "Can we justify the spending of $300 or more per acre 
in addition to our regular expenses which seem high enough already?" I, certainly, 
cannot answer for everyone, because every grower's situation is different. Each 
grower will have to balance the cost against the advantages which may accrue to 
him in his own environment. As for myself, I feel that virtual elimination of 
cultivation and hand hoeing, the more vigorous plant growth, better looking fruit 
and higher yields will more than off-set the additional cost. In addition to 
these advantages, I see no reason why a field cannot be cropped for 2 or 3 years 
instead of one as most of us do now. In the past, many of us have felt that it 



-3- 



was easier to set a new bed each year than to contend with the weeds and grasses 
which come into the planting in the spring of the picking year. However, if we 
start with weed free ground as a result of fumigation will it not be profitable and 
practical to harvest more than one year at a very low cost? 

Finally, with fumigation it will be possible, with the same amount of labor, 
to plant a much larger acreage. 



II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

A GOOD USE FOR OLD TIRES 



Some fruit growers encircle the trunks of young fruit trees with old tires. 
The area inside the tires is filled with sand. This practice in addition to aiding 
considerably in mouse control by suppressing grass growth, keeps the sand in place, 
and helps prevent injury to trees during mowing. 

CLEAN TREE BASES 



Clean tree bases are of value in prevention of late summer and early fall 
girdling by mice. Growers should make it a practice to clean the tree bases 
prior to the harvest season particularly when there is considerable tall grass 
around tree trunks. The writer has seen considerable late summer girdling in 
peach orchards sown with a cover crop and in young apple orchards. 

Once harvest commences mouse control is forgotten until the fruit is in 
storage. By this time considerable mouse injury may have occurred. 



PREVENTION OF DEER DAMAGE WITH FENCING 



In 1957, a Massachusetts fruit grower established a new planting of apple 
trees. By the end of the summer there was not a tree in the new planting that 
had not been Injured by browsing of deer. 

In the fall of 1957, this grower erected a 6 foot woven wire fence around the 
area, since then no deer damage has occurred. However, tree growth was still far 
from satisfactory in 1958 due to the previous damage. It is unfortunate but the 
only sure prevention of deer damage in orchards located in areas having high deer 
population is erection of a fence around the plantings. 

---W. J. Lord 



THINNING PEACHES 

Fruit thinning on peach trees is a slow and expensive job and since chemical 
thinning results have been far from satisfactory most Massachusetts growers must 
resort to hand or club thinning. 

The correct thinning distance depends on the leaf area per fruit and the 
general vigor of the tree. Research has shown that it takes about 40 healthy 
leaves of average size to produce a peach of good size and quality. When a 
tree has a uniformly heavy set of fruit, it should be thinned so as to leave 
only one peach to every six to seven inches of twig. However, if the set is 
not uniform, it is best to thin according to leaf area rather than a fixed 
spacing. 

As a commercial practice it is suggested that the grower wait till after 
the June drop is over before starting to thin. At this time, the extent of the 
thinning job can be best determined. For the best benefits, thinning should be 
completed as rapidly as possible; the early maturing varieties being thinned 
first. Some benefits may be expected from thinning even if it is prolonged 
until a few weeks before harvest. 

With a number of Massachusetts growers, hand thinning is the usual practice. 
The surplus fruit are rubbed off, picking out small and damaged fruit as the 
thinning is done. However, this is a slow and expensive job and because of this 
some growers resort to club thinning or removing excess fruit with a stick. 

Club thinning consists simply of knocking the peaches off with a club. The 
clubs are prepared by placing a rubber hose (approximately 12 inches in length) 
over one end of a four or five foot section of bamboo, broom handle, or other 
light wood. Some growers use a piece of 3/4 inch spray hose, about fifteen inches 
long, which Is forced over the end of the pole leaving about eight to ten inches 
of the hose extended beyond the end of the pole. The p aaches are knocked off by 
striking the branch with the padded end of the club. The fruit that would nor- 
mally fall during the June drop and those not firmly attached will be eliminated. 
The remaining clusters and doubles of fruits can be further thinned by striking 
the unwanted fruit. It is necessary in thinning to avoid hitting any specimens 
that are to be left. Fruits can be scarred and badly damaged by clumsy and in- 
accurate use of the club. With practice, the average workman can become quite 
efficient with the club and damage to remaining fruit can be kept at a minimum. 
Some growers find it advantageous to do a "rough job" with the club and complete 
the job with hand thinning. 

Other growers feel that thinning fruits by jarring the limbs with a heavy 
club is a somewhat haphazard process since there is no selection of the position 
and vigor of the fruits removed. They prefer to use small sticks to brush-off 
unwanted fruits. The peaches upon the upper side of a twig are somewhat more 
likely to develop good color than those upon the under side. With a sweeping 
stroke of the stick the fruits on the lower sides of the limb can be removed. 
The remaining clusters and doubles "thinned-out" by striking the unwanted fruits 
with the stick. 

---W. J. Lord 



-5- 



FUMIGATING THE SOIL FOR STRAWBERRIES 



The primary purpose of soil fumigation is to keep healthy strawberry plants 
healthy. It can't make healthy plants out of sick ones. If sick plants are set 
in a fumigated field, the benefits of soil fumigation are lost. Buying cheap 
plants just anywhere is poor economy, even in unfumigated fields; in fumigated 
fields it may waste the cost of fumigation. High quality, disease free plants 
will almost always grow faster and produce more than ordinary stocks of plaxits. 

How far can soil fumigation go toward keeping strawberry plants healthy? 
Obviously it is aimed at diseases which are soil borne and affect the roots of 
the plants. Any effect it has on the tops is the result of changes in the gen- 
eral health of the plant brought about by the soil fumigation. 

There are several soil borne diseases but only two are presently of economic 
importance in Massachusetts; red stele and black root rot. Soil fumigation for 
the control of red stele is still very much in the experimental stage. Several 
materials have looked promising under certain conditions but they are expensive 
and not yet certain. Yields must be high to make them profitable. 

Black root, on the other hand, can and has been controlled by several ma- 
terials, some of which are cheap enough to make their use profitable without 
excessively high yields. A number of growers have found D-D and ethylene 
dibromide reasonable in cost and quite effective. In experiments last summer, 
these materials gave yield increases of from 10 to 20 percent. These materials 
are chiefly nematocides. If the plants in a field have previously suffered 
from nematodes, these should help. 

If, on the other hand, the trouble is caused by a fungus, then it will be 
necessary to add a soil fungicide to one of these nematocides or use a soil 
fumigant which is both a nematocide and fungicide such as methyl bromide, 
chloropicrin or Vapam (VPM) . These materials are expensive to purchase and 
apply with the exception of Vapam, which can be applied through an irrigation 
system. In addition, however, these do have what might be called a bonus benefit 
because they give considerable weed control. If chemical weed control is wanted 
in addition to soil disease control, then the high price of these materials may 
be justified. Obviously Mr. Teeling (refer to story by Mr. Teeling in this 
publication) found the combination of weed control and disease control profitable 
or he wouldn't have continued using one of these expensive materials. 

Whatever material is used, thorough and timely soil preparation is necessary 
for good results. Frequently, this is overlooked or forgotten. Plowing should 
be done far enough in advance so that all plant remains, such as grass, weeds, 
corn stubble, etc., which harbor nematodes are completely broken down. Without 
time for this sort of material to decompose, soil fumigation cannot be thoroughly 
effective. The soil should be well pulverized, loose, friable, moist and above 
50 F, that is, in seed bed condition when the application is made. After 
application, time must be allowed for all traces of the fumigant to disappear 
from the soil before planting. This takes three to four weeks with most soil 
fumigants, however, only seven days are required with methyl bromide. 



-6- 



After all traces of the fumigant have left the soil, it is desirable to 
sow a cover crop for winter cover and green manure. It takes time for this 
cover crop to get started. 

Since soil fumigation can be done any time the soil is above 50°F and 
the soil is usually warm enough till mid-October, it may seem a bit early 
now to be talking about doing it. To do a good thorough job early enough 
to be followed by a cover crop, requires starting much earlier in the season 
than most growers have been in the habit of doing. It is not too early to be 
ordering fumigants and cover crop seed. That plowing and fitting job will 
need attention soon also. 

J. S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



INSECT TOPICS 

Blueberry Flea Beetle: This pest of wild, low bush blueberries is back 
with us this season after an absence of nearly 10 years. It will bear close 
watching in 1960. 

Adult beetles appear in June and July when they feed upon the foliage and 
deposit eggs singly in the soil litter. These eggs overwinter and begin hatching 
as the blueberry leaves unfold from the buds. Feeding by the small, dark-colored 
grubs or larvae continues throughout May with the peak damage occurring about the 
middle of the month. The larvae cause more damage than the adults. 

DDT dusts applied soon after eggs hatch, while the grubs are still small, 
has given good control. This means an application to the growing leaves before 
blossoms open thus preventing damage to bees and fruit set. Use 20 to 30 pounds 
per acre of a 5Z DDT dust; ferbam may be included for disease control if desired. 
Some cutworms, span worms and other miscellaneous plant feeders should be killed 
by the same treatment . 

Strawberry Weevil : This insect has been a pest in the Cape area nearly every 
season but this year it has appeared in damaging numbers in Hampshire County and 
perhaps elsewhere. 

The weevil, or "nipper", is a small, black snout beetle which overwinters 
in trash in or near the strawberry bed and becomes active just about as the 
buds are separating in the cluster. Eggs are laid in the buds and then the 
stems are nipped so that the buds fall over, dry up, and eventually drop. The 
"nipper" is most active when temperatures are 75 F or higher so this 1959 
season has been especially favorable for them. 



-7- 

The strawberry weevil is controlled with sprays or dusts applied as the 
buds separate in the earliest clusters. In heavy infestations a second treat- 
ment 7 to 10 days later or as earliest blossoms open would be desirable. DDT, 
methoxychlor, chlordane and heptachlor are effective and will control spittle 
bug and plant bugs also. Since DDT and methoxychlor may cause a build-up of 
spotted mite, it is well to include a miticide such as Kelthane with these 
materials. 

Fruit Tree Leaf roller : There are a number of caterpillars that attack 
the opening buds and new foliage of apple trees. Some may feed on the young 
fruit and cause considerable damage. Some roll the leaves, others do not, 
but in all cases the terminal leaves appear ragged. 

The fruit tree leafroller (a species distinct from the red-banded leaf- 
roller) is quite common this year in orchards where no insect control material 
was applied before bloom. This insect overwinters in the egg stage, hatches in 
Delayed Dormant and feeds all through pre-bloom, bloom and on into the 2nd 
Cover period. The moths appear in July when the overwintering eggs are laid 
on twigs . 

The fruit tree leafroller was difficult to control with lead arsenate 
and heavy oil applications were made against the eggs. Now, with materials 
such as DDT, BHC and the phosphates, the insect is readily stopped before 
bloom. Its control is one of the fringe benefits gained from using BHC in 
Pre-pink to control aphids. 

-— E. H. Wheeler 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

COMMENTS ON THE IMMATURE McINTOSH PROBL EM 

Ten years ago fruit growers were faced with numerous production and marketing 
problems. Concentration on production problems has solved maay of them. Now, more 
and more effort is being concentrated on marketing problems. 

One particular marketing problem that has not been solved and is receiving 
serious attention from Massachusetts to the State of Washington is that of the 
sale of itranature apples. 

The reasons why the problem exists are much the same in the various apple 
producing areas. In Michigan and Massachusetts the problem is particularly acute 
with respect to the Mcintosh variety. 

The situation appears to be that certain distributors eager to advertise 
"The Season's First Macs" and thus make a "fast buck" entice growers to sell Mcintosh 
while still immature and inedible. As happened in Michigan, consumers bought once, 
but because of poor flavor, didn't go back for a repeat purchase. Within ten days 
the price fell and this in turn set a low price pattern for apples. 

Last fall one fruit grower rather sheepishly admitted to me that he was selling 
Mcintosh apples which were much too immature but as he said, "What can I do? The stores 



-8- 






that I service regularly are demanding them, and they tell me that if I can't supply 
them, they will get them somewhere else. Naturally, I don't want to lose them as 
outlets for my apples later on so I am selling them immature Macs." 

There are several approaches to this problem but the one used in Michigan, and 
a similar one for Delicious in the State of Washington, is as follows: 

The plan was presented to the Michigan State Horticultural Society, The Horticult 
Societies of Southwestern Michigan Counties, the County Farm Bureaus and a group known 
as The Michigan Fruit Sponsors. This resulted in a committee made up of •pple growers, 
professional men and a storage specialist. The committee met about two weeks 
before anyone would even think of picking Mcintosh, visited different orchards 
and observed the fruit. Then a "tentative" harvest date was selected and announced 
in order to head off early pickers and to get the trade thinking in terms of a 
later date. Two weeks later the committee met again, visited the same orchards 
and announced a "firm" date for the harvest of Mcintosh. This "firm" date was then 
given publicity. After two years of this procedure the harvesting of immature Mclntost 
has been reduced an estimated 85 to 90%. As one member of this committee wrote me, 
"We have only public opinion and the scorn of his neighbors to keep growers from 
cheating." 

In New york State, the fruit industry is giving consideration to the immature 
apple problem. In Illinois, standards based on color have been established for 
four grades of Golden Delicious. These have been adopted as official standards by 
the Illinois Department of Agriculture. In addition to markings as to grade, 
packages of Golden Delicious ma^ be stamped: "Meets Illinois Maturity Standards". 

At the Annual Meeting of the Connecticut Pomological Society held at Berlin, 
Connecticut, December 3rd and 4th, 1958, the following resolution was adopted: 
"Some states presently have what are called 'Maturity' laws for determining first 
picking dates of certain varieties. The object of such laws is to keep premature 
and green fruit off the market. To be of value in Connecticut, surrounding states 
would need similar laws. It is therefore resolved that the Executive Committee of 
the Connecticut Pomological Society determine the feasibility of studying the whole 
question and make recommendations at our next^Annual Meeting." 

Some New Hampshire growers have given serious thought to the prevention of the 
harvesting and marketing of immature Mcintosh. Some have considered having 
legislation passed while others have proposed making it a part of the apple grading lav 

The Industry Committee of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association has the 
problem of immature Mcintosh under consideration. Other New England States recognize 
the problem but have taken no definite action as yet. 

The opinion has been expressed by some that over maturity is even more 
harmful to the popularity of Mcintosh than immaturity. These problems are not 
peculiar to any one state but should be of concern to all New England Mcintosh 
growers and appear to merit concerted action by growers and professional workers 
throughout New England in order that only apples in prime condition will be 
offered to the consuming public. 

0. C. Roberts 

Contributor to This Issue From Supporting Fields 



E. H. Wheeler, Extension Entomologist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massochusetts 
Amherst 




r//- 



JULY-AUGUST, 1959 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Prehorvest Drop Control 

Storage of Peaches 

Cold and CA Storoge Suggestioris 

Pomological Paragraphs 

Late Summer Fertilization of Strawberries 

M.F.G.A. Grower Panel Recommendations 
For 1959 Marketing 



^\ 



^ 




— ^ :v. -r >^r.v- ■ 






T^^h 



Ji-, 



^j>^ 




i"* 




'>^^ 
- *^i*** 



3r= 



!«'R»^r<'' 



% 



"%. 



w 





Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses. Currently also doing research on fruit 
marketing. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



Contributor To This Issue From Supporting Fields 
F. E, Cole, Extension Marketing Specialist 



PREHARVEST DROP CONTROL 



At this time (mid- June) it appears that we shall have a larger crop of 
Mcintosh in most orchards than we had a year ago. It is generally thought, 
and our results agree, that trees with a Ijeavy crop are generally more 
susceptible to preharvest drop than similar trees bearing a light to moderate 
crop. Therefore, one should be aware of the increased chances of serious drop 
losses in heavy crop years. 

The control material situation has stabilized and no new materials will 
be available for drop control this fall. As you know, we've been recommending 
two sprays of NAA (20 ppm each time) about 10 days apart for drop control of 
Mcintosh for those who wish to minimize drop for 3 weeks. The major weakness 
with this old recommendation is that 2 applications are required. Last year 
we combined NAA (10 ppm) and 2,4,5-TA (20ppm) and obtained as good drop control 
as occurred with 2 sprays of NAA. Consequently, we are suggesting this com- 
bination or 2 sprays of NAA for Mcintosh only, in our 1959 recommendations 
(Special Circular No. 254 - Preharvest Drop Control of Apples). Since 2,4,5-TA 
occasionally fails to work, one should watch the extent of drop after the first 
10 days (when using a NAA plus 2,4,5-TA combination) and if for some reason the 
2,4,5-TA is not adequately controlling drop, a second NAA spray (20 ppm) may 
have to be used. 2,4,5-TA is very slow in becoming effective which is why NAA 
is needed in addition to it. 

Another point that might be stressed more in controlling drop of Mcintosh 
with NAA or a NAA plus 2,4,5-TA combination is that Mcintosh typically commence 
to drop at a very slow rate (often less than 1% a day) for the first 5 to 10 
days after sound apples start falling. Then the rate of drop often rises rather 
abruptly to 2 or 3 per cent a day. Since NAA becomes effective for drop control 
within 2 days after an application it seems most logical to delay the stop drop 
application as long as possible so that its effective period is certain to pre- 
vail during the period when fruit drop is generally most serious. Since hot 
weather is a prime factor in increasing the rate of drop, exceptions to this 
general situation are possible. One should keep in mind the weather that is 
predicted for several days ahead so that stop drop sprays precede unseasonably 
hot weather. 

Another point of interest is the influence of spot picking on drop. Since 
trees with a moderate crop drop less than those bearing heavily, one might expect 
that spot picking might reduce the overall drop. Last year, however, this did 
not seem to be the case in one block where we obtained drop records. Spot-picked 
trees dropped very heavily during the warm period of September 24 to 26 even 
where 1/3 to 1/2 of the crop had already been harvested. It appears that weather 
conditions are much more important in determining the rate of drop than whether 
or not spot picking has been done. 

As usual, it is highly desirable to keep the leaves in a good healthy con- 
dition, free of mite injury and nutritional deficiencies of potassium and 
magnesium, in order to keep drop losses within reasonable bounds. 

2,4,5-TP (20ppm) is still our recommended treatment for late varieties. 
Delay its application as late as possible but be sure to apply it before the 
foliage is injured by frost. 

F. W. Southwick 



-2- 



STORAGE OF PEACHES 



Frequently growers wish to hold peaches in storage in order to extend 
the marketing period. At summer temperatures, picked fruit ripens very 
rapidly and is subject to rapid decay. Respiration studies on peaches have 
shown that the influence of temperature on the rate of respiration of peaches 
is greater than with many other fruits. 

Research workers have found that a storage temperature of 32° F is most 
suitable for peaches. There is practically no softening of fruit at this- 
temperature and frequently less mealiness and breakdown occurs than when 
stored at higher temperatures. 

Growers who have had poor results when storing peaches for two or three 
weeks might try delayed storage. If the peaches are to be sold at the road- 
side stand, hold them at 70°-80° F after harvest, until they are practically 
eating ripe before placing them in storage. This procedure as research 
results have shown may prevent the development of mealiness. Fruit to be 
sold to stores should not be held as long at 70°-80° F because firmer fruit 
are necessary for this method of sale. 

A delay in storage is not necessary if peaches are to be held in storage 
for only three or four days . 

Only peaches free of bruises and brown rot infection should be stored. 
Even under the most favorable conditions peaches cannot usually be stored 
longer than two or three weeks. 

W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



COLD AND CA STORAGE SUGGESTIONS 

Basically, cold and CA storage represents a means of slowing down the rate 
of fruit deterioration. If storage of apples were simply a question of slowing 
the rate of ripening by utilizing low temperatures and controlling the oxygen 
and carbon dioxide level, the problem of supplying the consumer with a good 
product after storage would be relatively easy. However, our apple varieties 
are subject to a variety of physiological disorders such as scald, internal 
breakdown, brown core, bitter pit, and water core that can result in serious 
losses to the grower. These troubles are influenced to a considerable degree 
by the type of growing season experienced and the maturity of the fruit. Such 
things as nutritional status of the tree and the size of individual fruits are 
involved in some cases, also. It is not often possible at harvest time to pre- 
dict with accuracy how serious many of these disorders will be after several 
months of storage. Consequently, semimonthly checking of stored fruit from 
December onward should be done much more regularly than ie now being practiced . 
This is true not only for cold storage but also CA stored fruit . Many things 



•3- 



may be happening to apples as time passes. To find out whether some disorder is 
becoming serious before it is too late requires a constant system of inspection. 
To look at the fruit in the top of one or two boxes and go no farther is not 
enough. Samples should be taken from various blocks and from various pickings. 
The fruit should be placed at room temperature for 5 to 7 days to see if any 
disorder develops at warm temperatures. Some lots of apples showing no scald 
in storage may show 90 per cent or more in a week at room temperature. Brown 
core is always a threat in late-held cold storage Mcintosh. Whenever Delicious, 
Spy, or Rome show water core in the fall, internal breakdown may develop later. 

Here is a list of a few storage troubles and some suggestions that may help 
to minimize them which come to mind following the 1958-59 storage season. 

Scald - 1, There is no possibility of clearance of DPA (diphenylamine) for 
scald control before the fall of 1960 and it may not come then. Early 
picked Mcintosh and Cortland are much more susceptible to scald when placed 
in cold storage than later picked fruit. However, when these two varieties 
are placed in CA storage the later pickings are more susceptible to scald 
than the early ones. Whether this holds for Delicious is not certain, 

2. If cold storage Mcintosh are held as long as CA Mcintosh, the 
cold storage fruit invariably scalds more than those from CA rooms. 

3. Move apples quickly from the orchard to storage at harvest time 
so that the period from harvest to storage does not exceed 24 hours. 
Scald may increase considerably if the period of delay between harvest 
and storage is prolonged. 

4. If for any reason a CA room is so leaky that the 3 per cent 
oxygen level is not reached within 20 days, the development of scald 
later in the storage period may increase markedly. It may be better to 
drop the temperature to 32° F and run such rooms as a cold storage than 
risk a marked increase in scald. Also, such apples will not 

keep appreciably better than cold storage apples anyway. 

5. Shredded oiled paper is the best control measure for scald that 
can be recommended now even though it is far from perfect. 

Water Core - The severity of this orchard and storage disorder is more 
closely related to fruit maturity than to any other factor we know of. 
Generally, late-picked fruit has more water core than apples picked 
earlier. Water core and the development of internal breakdown are closely 
associated, also. Water core often disappears to a large extent in storage 
but some may persist and internal breakdown may develop along with it. 
Delayed storage is no cure for the associated internal breakdown. (Dr. 
Lord will go into this subject further next month.) 

CO2 Injury on CA Mcintosh - This has not been a serious problem yet. To 
reduce the chances of its becoming serious, maintain the carbon dioxide 
level at about 3 per cent for the first 4 to 6 weeks before allowing 
the level to rise to 5 per cent. 



.4- 



Overrlpeness and Fruit Splitting in Storage - This problem actually starts 
in the orchard since it is most apt to occur on large apples. Large 
Mcintosh apples (anything over 3 inches in diameter) should never be 
considered suitable for long storage. Also, high nitrogen apples are 
poor keepers. They are softer at harvest and after storage than fruit 
of similar size from trees grown under lower nitrogen levels. High 
nitrogen Mcintosh apples often break down when placed at room temper- 
ature after coming from storage in February or later. It is inadvisable 
to put such fruit in a CA storage. 

F. W. Southwick 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 

A Way To Acquaint The Consumer With Apple Varieties - 

Recently the writer had an opportunity to visit an orchard in Connecticut 
where the owner sells a considerable amount of his fruit at the roadside stand. 
In an orchard adjacent to the roadside stand the grower had planted trees of 
the various fruit varieties grown on the farm. The roadside stand customers, 
especially those who are undecided as to what variety to ourcbase, are invited 
to step out to the orchard and sample the fruit. The owner tells the customer 
to bring back to the salesroom a sample of the fruit that appeals to him the 
most and that he would be glad to sell the desired amount of the variety. 

The owner feels that by giving customers an opportunity to inspect the 
orchard that they become more familiar with varieties and have a better appre- 
ciation of apple production. 

This orchard floor is kept mowed like a lawn so the customers can wander 
around without getting their feet wet. 

Watch Those Wire Guards- 

In quite a number of orchards visited in May and June, the writer observed 
tree girdling caused by the variety label which was attached to the young tree 
or by wire hardware cloth guards. The number of instances where the wire hard- 
ware cloth guards were beginning to girdle young trees were so frequent as to 
prompt this reminder to growers that they would do well to check for this sit- 
uation before serious damage is done. 

" ^Care of Scions After Grafting - 

During the first year after the scions or seedling trees are set for 
bridging-over damaged areas on tree trunks by use of the bridge graft or the 



•5- 



Inarch method of graftage, the scions should be Inspected several times and 
recoated when cracks appear In the grafting compound. After It is certain 
that the grafts are successful, rub off any shoots which start from the scions 
or seedling trees. 

Efficient Use of Mulch - 

Mulch is a commodity of limited supply for most fruit growers. The writer 
has noted that some fruit growers, when applying mulch to bearing apple trees 
place it within a foot or two of the trunk and out to a distance of two or three 
feet beyond the spread of the branches. It is true that the mulch under the 
tree will help suppress grass and protect drops but on the other hand more trees 
could be mulched if it was not applied to such a large area. It is the opinion 
of the writer that the most efficient use of mulch for nutritional purposes is 
obtained when distributed uniformly in a band 3 or 4 feet wide under the drip 
line of the tree. 

W. J. Lord 

^ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



LATE SUMMER FERTILIZATION OF STRAWBERRIES 



In Massachusetts the June-bearing varieties of strawberries initiate their 
flower buds in the fall. If conditions are favorable, many varieties produce 
several flower buds in each strawberry crown and consequently produce several 
inflorescences per plant. The extent of flower bud development seems to be in- 
fluenced by the supply of available nutrients, particularly nitrogen. 

A number of experiments have indicated an advantage of building up the nitrogen 
supply in the fall from the standpoint of increase flower bud formation. However, 
factors such as earliness of runner plant rooting, quality of plants, soil moisture, 
pest and weed control may have more effect on plant productivity than the fer- 
tilizer applications. 

Many strawberry plantings would probably benefit from a moderate application 
of a nitrogen-carrying fertilizer applied between the middle of August and the first 
of September. Approximately 30 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre should be 
adequate. This amount would be supplied by 100 pounds of ammonium i^itrate or 
200 pounds of sodium nitrate. A broadcast application of fertilizer at that 
time may damage the foliage unless precautions are taken. Apply on a clear day 
of low humidity and with a switch made from brush, shake off any fertilizer 
adhering to the leaves, or apply during a rain to avoid burning of the foliage. 

W. J. Lord 



-6- 



HARVESTING METHODS 



The harvest season is undoubtedly the most hectic season for fruit growers. 
A moment's carelessness can ruin fruit that has taken months to grow. Studies 
conducted by Professor 0. C. Roberts in which he examined Mcintosh apples at 
harvest for bruises and skin punctures showed that some pickers damage an 
unbelievable number of apples. He examined a fifty apple sample from two boxes 
harvested by each of five pickers in twenty different orchards. In one orchard 
where all pickers were considered experienced men, 46 per cent of the apples 
examined from boxes picked by one individual had bruises 1/2 inch in diameter 
or greater. On the other hand, in the same orchard 6 per cent of the fruit 
harvested by another picker had bruises 1/2 inch or larger. 

Carefully conducted studies have shown that much of the bruising which 
occurs at harvest can be reduced by close supervision. Careful supervision is 
the backbone of a good picking crew ! Take time to show pickers how to pick 
properly and avoid bruising. If you do not have copies of Special Circulars 245, 
"Harvesting Suggestions for Orchard Foremen" and 246, "Be a Better Apple Pickerl", 
they may be obtained at your County Extension Service. Poor pickers cost growers 
moneyl Have you ever figured out how many less severely bruised apples per box 
it will take to more than pay for a bonus to good pickers? 

Obviously, harvesting methods are not identical in orchards and the pro- 
cedure must be adapted to the particular orchard. The harvest operation must 
be well organized if time, cost and bruising is to be kept at a minimum. 

Following is a summary of harvest procedures currently being used by Massachusetts 
Growers. One or more of these practices or perhaps some modification of a 
practice may be practical for your situation. 

1. pickers are commonly instructed to pick the fruit from ground where 
ladder will first be placed; Then to set the ladder and pick from the lower 
to the upper part of tree, picking all apples within reach. The pickers are 
instructed not to completely fill container but to come down and finish filling 
by picking fruit from lower limbs where the ladder will be set next. 

2. Inexperienced labor is frequently used for carrying filled boxes to 
central locations for handier loading, leveling filled boxes and other time 
consuming jobs. 

3. Other growers prefer to level boxes at the packing shed. Growers have 
been observed to set up two sets of roller conveyors so that the trailer loaded 
with apples can be backed between them. The tractor driver unloads the apples 
directly on to the conveyors. The boxes are leveled and placed on pallets. 

4. Inspectors, usually women are hired by some growers to inspect random 
boxes of the pickers' fruit. A score card is made for the pickers and posted 
where they can compare their ratings with the rest of the pickers. A fourth 
of the crew with the least number of bruises is paid 5c per bushel bonus. 
Each day is a new deal. 



5. Other growers do not pay a bonus to pickers who keep damage to the 
fruit at a minimum but do hire someone to inspect random boxes of fruit. The 
names of pickers causing excessive bruising is given to the foreman. The 
foreman attempts to observe the reason for excessive bruising and then procedes 
to show the pickers how to pick properly. 

6. A bonus is frequently paid the pickers who stay through the entire season. 

7. Some growers instruct pickers to harvest only those Mcintosh apples 
having at least 25 per cent color. The apples having less than 25 per cent 
color are picked at a later date when color has improved. The growers feel 
that they are better off having the poor colored fruit on the ground than in 

the storage, so they aren't too concerned if all the fruit left is never harvested. 

8. Splint baskets are used by some as picking containers. These are carried 
to a central location where a packing crew places the apples into field crates. Low 
grade apples are removed in the process and placed in separate containers. 

9. Some growers move their field-run fruit directly into the packing 

house where it is segregated into grades and sizes before being placed in storage. 
This method has the advantage in that the grower knows the grades and sizes 
available for sale. Cull apples are removed which otherwise would take up valuable 
storage space. The disadvantage with packing fruit at harvest is that a grading 
and packing crew is required in addition to the picking crew. 

10. In one orchard where pallets are used, a crew consisting of a foreman 
and two men do the palletizing. They are preceded through the orchard by two girls 
hired to level the boxes. The foreman and two men follow with a tractor and 
trailer loaded with pallets. The foreman places the pallet near the filled boxes, 
the correct placement of which is important in facilitating ease of loading it 
onto the truck. The foreman and two men then place 36 boxes on the pallet .Excess 
filled boxes are placed on the trailer and are used to complete the pallet load 

at other locations. 

11. Double decked trailers are useful in some operations. By use of these, 
two layers of boxes can be hauled without the necessity of leveling the boxes 

in the orchard. 

12. Last year five apple growers used bulk bins to replace the conventional 
apple crate. The bulk bins were placed in the orchard in convenient locations 
and were filled by pickers. Studies conducted by Professor 0. C. Roberts showed 
that bulk bins may be used for Mcintosh apples as a harvest container and storage 
container without appreciable increase of bruising and skin punctures compared 
with conventional crates. However, dumping the bins onto the receiving belt of 
the grader is a problem. 

13. The placement of hardwood skids across the trailer bed enables the 
worker who is loading the trailer to push the stack of boxes toward the center of 
the trailer after building a stack of the desired height on the edge of the 
trailer platform. The whole load can be handled from the ground. 



I 



-8- 



14. The common method of loading trailers uses one worker on the ground to 
lift boxes onto the trailer bed. Another worker stands on the trailer bed and 
picks up the boxes and places them into hauling position. Loading time can be 
reduced by having the man on the trailer stack the center row first. He should 
then get off the trailer and assist the other worker in completing the load. 

-~W. J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

M.F.C.A. GROWER PANEL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR 1959 MARKETING 

(Summarized from notes made at the summer meeting, July 16, 1959 by Frederick 
E. Cole, Extension Marketing Specialist, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.'; 

Roger Peck, Shelburne; Walker Cheney, Brimfield; William Doe, Harvard; Charles 
Dowse, Sherborn; John Phelon, Granville; G. Stacy Gay, Three Rivers and William 
Hermann, Harvard, constituted a panel at the summer meeting of the M.F.G.A. on the 
subject, "What was wrong with 1958 and what can be done to make the most of 1959?" 

These men presented considered points for the benefit of the industry in rapid 
order. More attention was justifiably given to the coming marketing year than to the 
one just past as every year is different. 

Important in the list of deficiencies in 1958, as mentioned by panel members, 
were the following points: 

1. Season two weeks late. 

2. Too long a period of time in getting many apples down to temperature. 

3. Too many green, undersized apples in C.A. storage. 
Not enough care in selecting apples for C.A. storage. 

4. Poor C.A. storage operation. 

5. Too many poorly graded apples. 

6. Too many apples with flavor and juice gone. ,' 
Too many apples that were too ripe. 

Poor conditioned apples. j 

Too many customers not getting good quality. ' 

7. Not enough use of "out-of-storage-movement" charts in guiding the movement 
of apples. 

Too many waited until spring to sell. 

Standard storage apples held too long. * 

Did not push the sales of standard storage apples enough. : 

Mixed standard and C.A. apples on market. ^ 

1 

8. Too much price cutting. 
Non-ethical competition. 
Unrealistic margins. 



-9- 

The seven panel members made the following recommendations for making the 
most of the coming marketing year: 

1. Grow the very best apples possible. 

2. Shop around, but buy the best cartons. 

3. If you are going to build a C.A. room, build a good one. 

4. Be choosy about the apples that go into C.A. storage. Do not wait until the 
last minute to fill room. Put in good, firm, red apples. Spread the season. 



5. 



Cool apples fast. Load C.A. room fast. Put the apples into storage the day 
they are picked or the very next morning. 



6. Make the packing job more efficient. Quality packs help to keep the business 
going. If you put up quality grades, you can sell the apples. Pack and sell 
to keep the unit price up and do not down-grade the pack to a price. Find 
better packages for Fancy apples. Develop refrigerator containers. 

7. Do a better job of grading. Sort out the blemishes and keep froro bruising. 

8. Let's start selling as soon as we have apples to sell. Pack and then start 
selling. Start to sell as soon as you start packing and then keep right on 
selling. 

9. Set a realistic price on your apples and then push sales. Keep selling. Do 
not let the stores crowd you on the price. Sell to the stores on the basis 
of quality and service. If you sell to stores on price, you are lousing up 
the market. Sell with courage. Get your margin. Protect the middle man's 
price. Sell to chains at firm prices. More vociferous selling. Stop price 
cutting. Price cuts do not always lead to more volume. 

10. Sell good, sound, firm apples while they are still good. 

11. Go looking for outlets. Better service to retailers. More training for 
retailers in handling apples. Take care of your good customers straight 
through the season. 

12. Give the consumer what she wants - what she will buy and take home in volume. 
Keep customers satisfied in order to hold prices. Sell apples in better con- 
dition. Take care of complaints. Keep good apples in front of consumers all 
of the time. See our apples right through to the consumer. 

13. Do everything we can to have improved market facilities in Boston. It is very 
important to us price-wise. City wholesale prices are key prices. 

14. Maintain the price on Certified Sweet Cider and sell more of it. 

15. Do the whole job of harvesting, storing and selling better. 

16. Do more advertising. 

The above list of recommendations emphasizes that good marketing is a whole 
series of things done well. There was a wholesome, constructive and optimistic 
attitude on the part of panel members. "Selling security into the industry" was 
stated to be a pracitcal goal and within the reach of a determined industry, 

— F. E. Cole 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Mossochusetts 
Amherst 



September 8, 1959 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Consumers Don't Like Bruised 
Mcintosh Apples 

High Strawberry Yield in 1959 

DcLTyed Picking and Storage and Its Effect '^' 
on the Occurrence of Water Core and Internal 
Breakdown in Starking Delicious Apples 

Cider Notes 

Winter Weed Control In Strav7berries 





)\ 






>■'■'■ A^XCiTV 



aS^-'V- 







.«///• 






\i^', 



'% 



i 



w 



W: 



r^ 




'^4 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication app. oved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPAR'niENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses. Currently also doing research on fruit 
marketing. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



p 



CONSUMERS DON'T LIKE BRUISED McINTOSH APPLES 



For the past four years studies have been made at the Massachusetts Experiment 
Station relative to bruising of Mcintosh apples. Without resorting to a vast array 
of figures and statistics the overall results of these studies can be summarized as 
follows: 

1. Fruit growers in general are losing an appreciable sum of money because 
of bruises and skin punctures. 

2. This bruising occurs not only in retail stores but on the farm. 

3. Bruising that occurs on the farm may be due to careless pickers as well 
as sorters and packers. 

4. Excessive bruising of Mcintosh apples is unnecessary as several growers 
consistently handle their crops with a minimum of bruising. 

5. From the condition of numerous lots of apples obtained in retail stores 
and then analyzed for bruising, there must certainly be a relationship 
between the kind of apples that are offered to consumers and the decline 
In the per capita consumption of apples. 

The obvious answer to this problem of bruising is first of all for the grower 
to be bruise conscious and then to everlastingly Impress upon all those handling 
his apples the Importance of careful handling. 
1 

Under ripe and over ripe apples go hand in hand with bruising in discouraging 
housewives from buying apples. They want to buy apples and feed them to their fami- 
lies but they want good ones. It is up to the growers and handlers to see that 
they get them. 

This problem of bruising is of so great Importance not only in Massachusetts 
but in other Mcintosh producing states that it seems fitting to include here an 
article by Dr. A. B. Burrell which appeared in the August issue of "New York State 
Horticultural Society News Letter". 

This article which expresses our views so nicely is as follows: 

C UTTIMG BRUISING IN McINTOS H 
by A. B. Burrell, Peru, N. Y. 

"This is our toughest problem. Mcintosh makes up 90 per cent of our production 
and at the height of the season we must pick 4,000 to 6,000 bushels a day. Through 
painful experience over 30 years we have learned a few lessons which lead to the 
following suggestions. 

1. Don't let the trees get above medium in nitrogen level. Big soft apples 
bruise too easily. > 

2. Don't grow more Mcintosh than you can harvest at the proper stage of maturity. 
Picked too early, Macs come off hard and get too many finger marlcs. Too late, 
they get bruising from softness. 



-2- 

3. Don't let the trees get too tall. Pickers squeeze apples and handle them 
roughly when teetering precariously at great heights. 

4. Put tlie emphasis on reward for good performance rather than on penalty for 
damage: to fruit. 

5. Provide instruction. Many will accept it. Show workers how to make high wages 
while handling apples gently. Many can gain speed from learning how to set a 
ladder properly and work systematically. 

6. Show that a bruise often goes deeper than it appears and that a bruised apple 
looks very bad after it has stood a while. 

7. If necessary to move apples before boxes are leveled and stacked on pallets, 
keep the boxes in a single layer whenever possible. Coach and supervise 
loaders to set each box down gently. Show them that one high apple can cause 
bruises on every apple below the high one. 

8. Resist efforts of buyers to have you fill boxes too full. 

"Building local storages relieved our bruising problem in the Champlain Valley. 
However, we may now have too much capacity for a light crop year. Formerly, our 
apples were damaged a lot during closing of boxes, loading and unloading trailer 
trucks, and rough handling into distant storages. Now, open boxes usually are 
placed on a pallet in the orchard where grown and not handled again except on 
pallets by a fork- lift until they are packed for market. They travel well in cell 
cartons to distant markets. 

"The human problem of getting enough good supervisors is the most difficult 
aspect of our harvest season. Workers usually respond well to competent, tactful 
foremen. 

"For 2 years, we have used the scheme of Bill Doe of Harvard, Massachusetts, 
to reward careful pickers. A bonus of 5 cents a bushel is paid to the 25 per cent 
of the pickers who do the least bruising each day. Four full-time inspectors score 
the fruit. Each inspector scores the fruit of every full-time picker each day. 
Half-day pickers may be scored only twice. A fruit sampler as evolved by the 
Washington Apple Commission is used to take a 20-apple sample from top to bottom 
of each random box that is chosen. Calculations are made by Mrs. Burrell each 
night on a strictly statistical basis. The next morning the pickers find the 
winners of the previous day's contest listed on the barn door. They usually look 
to see if they made the bonus before starting work. The key to the success of 
the system is having competent impartial inspectors, preferably people who do not 
know the pickers. This year we hope to use mainly women who have packed apples 
out of storage all winter and spring; they appreciate the seriousness of bruising. 
The inspector gives the picking numbers of those with poor records to the foreman 
who helps the picker correct his errors, but sometimes the inspector has time to 
do a little work with pickers. Such troubles as stem punctures, fruit too green or 
too small and pulled stems are noted but the bonus is based on bruising alone, for 
the sake of simplicity. 



\ 



-3- 

"We found that our own inspection in the field was better than we could get 
from a State-Federal man that we hired for five consecutive years during harvest. 
He was valuable on packed fruit, but did not cover enough boxes or enough pickers 
in the field inspection. 

"We like many aspects of Bill Blackburn's plan of picking into the cartons that 
fruit is stored in, but have not seen how We could adapt it to our opetation." 

0. C. Roberts 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



HIGH STRATOERRY YIELD IN 1959 

At least one grower, Harvey Turner of Andover, Massachusetts had a bumper 
crop of strawberries this year. A total of 6,000 quarts on 18,000 sq. ft. (less 
than 1/2 acre) of fruiting bed. 

This high yield while other growers secured from no crop to not over 1/2 crop 
following losses from winter injury and rot during harvest raised the question. 
Why and how did Mr. Turner do it? 

^ Harvey states that he planted strawberries the same as each year (May 25, 
1958) 3 ft. apart in the row and rows 4 ft. apart. 

The soil is medium gravelly loam (Hinckley) well drained with a west and 
south west slope. This plot had been planted to vegetables for 4 years before 
strawberries were planted in 1958. No commercial fertilizer was used but a 
heavy application of hen manure was applied before planting sweet corn in 1957. 

Harvey uses a unique method of culture keeping a wide alley 15-18" wide 
and at least 4" lower than the narrow matted row. Throughout the first year 
each time the bed is hoed or weeded, soil is pulled around the plants so that 
the matted row is raised at least 3 to 4" above the alleys. 

Only two varieties were planted, Catskill and Robinson. Salt marsh hay 
mulch was applied in late November before the ground froze. 

I To control rot on Robinson 8 dusts of 57o Captan were applied weekly 

beginning May 1st. Four Captan dusts were applied every other week to Catskill. 
Losses from rot were negligible. 

Thus a coiTibination of factors were responsible for this high yield; well 
drained soil; high bedded, well spaced, narrow rows; early mulch; high organic 
content in well prepared soil and excellent rot control. 

Calton 0. Cartwright 



DELAYED PICKING AND STORAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE OCCURRENCE OF WATER CORE AMD 

INTERNAL BREAKDOWN IN STARRING DELICIOUS APPLES 



For the control of internal breakdown which may follow water core in apples, 
it has been suggested that better keeping varieties should be held a week or two 
at ordinary temperatures or until the water core has largely disappeared, before 
placing fruit in storage. Last fall Dr. F. W. Southwick and the writer decided 
to test the influence of delayed storage periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours on 
Starking Delicious having considerable water core. The apples were held at pack- 
ing room temperature (70-80° F) immediately after harvest for the time intervals 
previously mentioned before placing the fruits in 32 F storage. It was felt that 
longer periods of delayed storage would seriously affect the keeping period of the 
Starking Delicious apples. 

Fruit samples were obtained from the selected trees on three dates - October 
10th, 20th and 30th and to prevent preharvest drop, 20 ppm of 2,4,5-TP was applied 
on October 9, 1958. 

Table I - Water Core In Starlcing Delicious At Harvest in 1958 
University Orchard, Amherst, Mass. 



Picking 


No. 
Fruits 


Ave . 
Size 


Apples 


with Water Core At 


Harvest 


Average Flesh 


Date 


Slight 


Medium 


Heavy 


Total 


Firmness (lbs.) 


10/10/58 
10/20/58 
10/30/58 


113 

99 
87 


2.82 
2.84 
2.81 


7o 
33.6 
30.3 
43.7 


% 

7.1 
10.1 
IG.l 


7o 
0.9 
8.1 
19.5 


7o 
41.6 
48.5 
79.3 


16.8 
15.8 
14.9 



A random sample of fruit was immediately examined for water core. The amount 
of water core present was classified as slight, medium and heavy. It can be noted 
in Table I that the amount and severity of water core increased with each delay in 
picking date. A delay of ten days in harvest resulted in a one pound decrease in 
fruit flesh firmness, also. 

On February 6, 1959, the fruits were removed from storage and were immediately 
examined for the presence of water core. It can be noted in Table II that the de- 
layed storage periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours had no consistent influence on the 
disappearance of water core. The occurrence of internal breakdown was too limited 
for any conclusions to be drawn. 

Table H - The Per Cent of Starking Delicious Having Water Core When Removed from 

Storage. 



Delayed Storage (time 


\ Water Coro-2/6/59 


7c, Internal Breakdo;,m-2/6/59l 


lapse between harvest and 


Picking Date 


Picking Date 1 


placing in cold storage) 


10/10/58 


10/20/58 10/30/58 


10/10/58 10/20/58 10/30/581 


Less than 4 hourc 


2.75 


7.96 


19.19 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


24 hours 


1.71 




13.98 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


48 " 


1.30 


13.33 


14.94 


0.00 


0.00 


3.45 


72 " 


1.74 


14.71 


10.99 


0.00 


0.00 


3.30 


96 " 


0.83 


16.04 


19.54 


0.00 


1.89 


4 . 60 



•5- 



It appears that time of picl.ing has a greater influence on the presence of 
water core at the end of the storage period than delayed storage. 

Table II shows that during the period of storage, water core practically 
disappeared from the fruit harvested on October 10, 1959. Only 10 fruits out of 
the 56G apple samples had visible evidence of water core and none had internal 
breakdo^JTi. However, considerable water core was present in the fruits harvested 
at the later dates (Table II). Only the fruits picked October 30, 1958 had any 
appreciable amount of internal breakdox^n. 

Because it is thought that the fruit may appear in good condition when removed 
from storage but later develop internal breakdown when held at warm temperature, 
approximately half of the fruit in each sample removed from storage on February 
6, 1959 was held at room temperature for 7 days prior to examination for presence 
of water core and internal breakdo\m. Table III shoves that no appreciable increase 
of internal breakdown occurred during the seven days after removal of fruits from 
storage. 

Table III - The Per Cent of Starlcing Delicious Having Water Core and Internal 

Breakdown Immediately After Removal from Storage on February 6, 1959 
After 7 Days at Room Temperature. 



Picking Date 


Per Cent Apples Having 
Uatcr Core 


Per Cent Apples Having 
Internal Brea;:dovm 




Upon Removal From 
Cold Storage 


After 7 days at 
Room Temperature 


Upon Removal From 
Cold Storage 


After 7 days at 
Room Temperature 


10/10/58 
10/20/58 
10/30/58 


1.78 
13.01 
15.73 


1.06 

5.60 

14.31 


0.00 
0.47 
2.27 


0.34 
0.49 
6.41 



In summary, most of the water core disappeared from the Delicious apples 
harvested on October 10th during the 1958-59 storage period. Further research is 
needed to determine if this is generally the situation. The incidence of internal 
breakdoxTn in the Delicious apples was not increased during the 7-day period at 
room temperature after removal from storage. However, internal brealcdown was not 
severe in any of the lots and whether this would be true other years is not known. 

On the basis of one year's results, it appears that delayed storage periods of 
24 to 92 hours is no cure for water core and internal breakdox«i. Water core severity 
appears to be closely related to fruit maturity and growers should pick apples 
susceptible to this disorder before they become too mature. 



-W. J. Lord 



-6- 



CIDER NOTES 



Sanit£it:ion 

The keeping quality of cider is directly related to the sanitation practices 
observed during the operating season. Unsanitary practices foster the growth of 
micro-organisms, which cause fermentation or produce undesirable flavors in the 
final product. 

After a day's run, observe tlie following procedures in cleaning the cider plant; 

Dismantle the press for cleaning. Rinse it thoroughly with a hose to remove 
surface dirt. Scrub all parts of the press thoroughly, using a sanitizing or 
detergent-sanitizing solution. Where possible, Ujse hot water for both the rins- 
ing and the scrubbing operations. 

Sanitizing compounds may be of the chlorine or quaternary ammonium types. 
Dairy-cleaning compounds are usually of these types, and they are easily obtained. 
Directions given by the manufacturer of the solution for cleaning dairy equip- 
ment will be satisfactory for cider plants. 

Refrigeration 

Many cider mill operators including all Certified operators use refrigera- 
tion to preserve cider. Cider should be cooled immediately after pressing and 
stored at a temperature between 32° and 36° F. At these temperatures, cider 
retains its original flavor for one to two weeks without danger of fermentation. 
Settling can take place under refrigeration. 

Refrigeration is especially adaptable where cold storage facilities for 
fresh fruit are available. If a refrigerated room is not available, the operator 
can install an insulated metal or wooden tanlc and cool the cider with a small 
refrigeration unit. 

For display purposes at roadside, used upright display cabinets with glass 
doors are excellent. These self-contained refrigerated units can be often 
purchased from companies supplying equipment to retail stores. Household re- 
frigerators can also be used. The important feature when making and selling 
cider is to keep it under refrigeration at all times to maintain the quality. 

— -K. M. Hayes 



WTOTER MEED CONTROL IN STRAWBERRIES 

The control of weeds, especially chickweed in strnv/berry fields during the 
fall and winter, continues to be a vexing problem. Numerous materials have been 
tried but very few recommended. All are far from ideal. Therefore the serious- 
ness of the problem demands that growers be informed of the best solution available. 

IPC was one of the first materials to give some promise for fall and winter 
weed control in strawberries. If used according to directions, it was pretty 
safe on the strawberries, but not very effective against chickweed. At present 
it is offered for sale on the West Coast only and is not readily available. 

Some of the dinitros have been recommended for this purpose. Under the right 
conditions a dinitro can be effective. Unfortunately, the right conditions are 
hard to fulfill in our climate. The dinitros owe their effectiveness to their 
ability to kill by contact the cells in the tops of plants, their so-called "burning" 
action. They will "burn" the leaves of strawberry plants as well as those of weeds. 
After strawberry plants are dormant, this "burning" of the leaves causes no permanent 
injury to the strawberry plants provided the spraying is properly done so that the 
plant crowns are not soaked with spray. 

The dinitros are much more effective at high temperatures than at low. Early 
applications would be desirable but severe injury to the strawberries would probably 
result from an application made before dormancy is complete. One can not be sure 
of strawberry plants being dormant before mid or late November. At that time of 
year, warm sunny days which are necessary for best results with DH seldom occur. 

Since a DN kills by contact, the weeds to be killed must be thoroughly wetted 
with the spray. With small chickweed this is no problem but by the time a DN can 
be used safely, chickweed has often grovm into a thick dense mat. Only the surface 
of this mat is reached by the spray and results are unsatisfactory. 

Use no more than one pound of actual DN in 40-100 gallons of water per acre. 
Read the directions on the container for the amount to give one pound. 

The most effective material for chickweed control has been chloro IPC, often 
called simply CIPC. It is much more effective and certain for this purpose than 
either IPC or DNs. It has been quite damaging to strawberry plants where improper- 
ly handled. 

About 1954 we started recommending the use of CIPC. In the summer of 1956 
reports were received that severe injury to strawberries had occurred in New Jersey 
and Michigan, in some cases so severe that 100 per cent of the plants were killed. 
Consequently, we sent out a warning in FRUIT NOTES to refrain from the use of CIPC 
until the cause of the trouble was learned. It has since become apparent that the 
trouble was caused by careless application. The chemical was applied before the 
plants v^fere fully dormant or too much of the chemical was applied. This is very 
definitely a case where a little is good; more is NOT better. 

Chloro IPC should not be used in excess of one pound per acre in enough water 
(40-100 gallons is usually enough) to spread it evenly over a full acre, 43,560 
square feet. If the area sprayed is less than this, reduce the amount of CIPC 
accordingly. For example: An acre of strawberries is to be sprayed. The rows 



sec 6 feet on centers, are 4 feet wide and only the rows are to be sprayed. Then 
only 2/3 of iin acre is to be sprayed and, therefore, only 2/3 of a pound should 
be used. 

When using either a DN or CIPC there are two hard and fast rules which must 
be followed if injury is to be avoided: (1) do not apply till the plants are fully 
dormant, (2) never exceed the i-ecommended rates. A razor or a very sharp Icnifo is 
a very useful tool if properlj' used but cither can be very dan;^crous if improperly 
used. Chemical weed killers are likewise useful tools if properly used. 

A word of caution : Spot treating with either of these materials is risky. 
It is too easy to apply an excess. 



J. S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue Fi,om Supporting Fields 
Kirby H Hayes, Food Technologist 
Calton 0. Cartv/right, Associate County Agricultural Agent, Essex County 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



OCTOBER 10, 1959 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Apple Packing Methods In New York State 

P.A.C.A. Compliance 

Excerpts from the 1956 Peach Tree Survey 

Getting Strawberries Ready for Winter 



^' 




Wilier. 



%^ 



1 



i 






Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and Time 30, 1914, 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



APPLE PACKING METHODS IN NEl-J YORK STATE 



The Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the New York State Hor- 
ticultural Society contained an article by Max E. Brunk, Cornell University, 
titled, "Apple Packing Methods in New York State". This article contained 
many interesting comments about the various oper'ations performed in the apple 
packing operation. The following excerpts are taken from this article: 

"Packing - First, I'd like to talk about stance ... .the position of the 
packer with respect to the packing belt. Standing at a 45--degree angle as 
compared with facing the belt requires 14 per cent less time for the average 
worker to complete his work cycle. Facing the box (standing at a 90-degree 
angle to the belt) requires 13 per cent less time than facing the belt. Thus, 
there is only a slight advantage in standing at a 45-degree rather than a 
90-degree angle. Most packers in the State do it the hard way. They face the belt, 

Is there any difference when the flov^ of apples on the belt is toward 
or away from the packer? Movement of apples tov;ard the packer requires 20 
per cent less time per cycle. Moving apples away from the packer increases 
reach, distance traveled, and fumbling. About one-fourth of the packers in 

the State face the \^ong direction with a tremendous loss in efficiency. 
The space and equipment saved by having two people working a common stand is 
very costly in terms of output. 

"Few operators in the State other than the largest use central sorting. 
Controlled tests of separating and of combining the sorting and packing func- 
tion proves out by far in favor of separating the operations. Superficial 
inspection alone by packers added 14 percent to their packing time. If the 
packing operation is of any appreciable size it will pay to separate sorting 
and packing. 

The combining of sorting and packing leads to some other highly in- 
efficient movements, the most common being that which we call a transfer grasp. 
One or two apples are picked up in one hand and transferred to the other for 
release with inspection performed in the process. This motion looks a little 
ridiculous when you see it in slow motion film, yet it is extensively used by 
packers. Most packers are not aware of the way they pick up apples and still 
fewer growers are aware of its impact on output. Here are a few comparisons. 
Picking up two apples simultaneously in each hand requires 39 per cent less 
time to pack a unit than picking up one apple in each hand. Frequently work- 
ers pick up random numbers of apples. It takes more time to pick up random 
numbers than two at every grasp. There is a definite advantage in establish- 
ing a routine procedure. VJith random grasping, a worker must pick up more 
than one apple in a hand 30 per cent of the time to merely equal the output 
of consistent simultaneous grasps of one apple. Transfer grasps, picking up 
apples with one hand and transferring to the other, essentially doubles the 
time for jumble packing. 

This may impress you as being overly concerned with minor detail but I 
assure you that these minute motions mean many dollars of cost to every grower. 



-2- 



When you walk into a shed and see a worker pick up apples with her right hand 
and deposit them on her left arm until she has eight or ten and then turn to 
the box and place them one by one in the box, you begin to wonder just where 
is the management'. Automatic filling is being perfected for tray packing. 
Certainly automatic jumble filling would be much easier to perfect and thus 
eliminate much of the labor in apple packing. 

So far I have said nothing about machine bagging. This is a highly ex- 
plosive area with one packer advocating one make and another some other brand. 
We have conducted extensive tests on each of the common types of machines. 
The differences in output when operated under optimum conditions is minor 
compared with variations due to the method of operation. Therefore rather 
than discuss machine differences I will concentrate on operational differences. 

"One of the common mistakes made in using bagging machines is that the 
operator is required to stand. In all our comparisons there was a substantial 
gain in efficiency when the operator was sitting rather than standing. In- 
creased output ranged from 14 to 16 per cent depending on the type of machine. 
It should also be pointed out that the added fatigue of standing was not 
included in the comparison which makes the advantage of sitting greater. Sit- 
ting helps force a routine and serves to avoid waste motion. Of course sitting 
is not practicable with one operator running a double-head machine. 

"This brings up the question of using one or two operators on double 
headed machines. The loss in output having one operator use one head instead 
of two amounts to only 6 per cent. Considering machine investment and crew 
organization the advantages are in favor of single head operation. 

"The work station must of course be designed for either sitting or standing. 
The location of bag supplies and take away belts will differ to some degree 
for the two positions. Packers pay far too little attention to the location of 
bag supplies, stuff ers and take-away devices and these make for many ineffi- 
ciencies in fruit packing. 

"In general it can be said that finger type bag heads are slower to 
operate than dump type heads. There is also the advantage of less bag, loss 
from tearing. The advantages of the dump type head over finger type is far 
less than many growers report. It runs somewhere around 10 per cent. 

"Automatic feeding has advantages in output over manual feeding but in 
many instances the methods employed by packers do not take full advantage 
of this feature. When the machine waits on the packer automatic feeding 
loses some of its advantage. 

"I should point out that it is not essential to use bagging machines to 
operate at reasonably low cost. Some hand bagging operations with experienced 
operators can give the best of the machines a run for their money, but I 
emphasize that far more skills are required. High output hand bagging opera- 
tions are usually characterized by either family labor or piece work pay scales. 



"There are many other things which will contribute to packing efficiency. 
Time does not permit elaboration. Keeping the number of sizes and types of 
packages to a minimum increases efficiency. There is less problem with main- 
taining supplies and equipment, training packers and change-over bottle-necks. 
Conveyors should be arranged so as to permit packing directly on roller con- 
veyors to avoid unnecessary lifting and handling of containers. And probably 
as important as anything, operators would do well to give more attention to 
the correct height of work areas. Most of my attention has been given to 
packing. I will nov/ try to hit a few high spots in the other operations. 

"Dumping - Automatic dumping is becoming quite common. It does not elim- 
inate labor unless manual dumping operations require more than one person. 

"Perhaps the biggest problem of dumping is maintaining an even dump rate 
to prevent overloading and subsequent shut downs. Keeping adequate supplies 
close to the dump station aid in maintaining an even dump rate. 

"Sorting and Handling Culls - For larger sheds it is very important to 
take all the sorting load off the packers to improve efficiency. Sorting 
should be done at a central station prior to sizing. In most houses improved 
roller sorters and lane dividers are needed to give sorters definite areas of 
responsibility. Much progress has been made in doing away with overhead cull 
belts. More cull removal units need to be moved to lower levels with the 
cull fruit deposited in the area of box supply. 

"Securing Packing Materials - Packers at all times should have packing 
materials readily available. In many plants much time is wasted by packers 
having to move out of the work area to get frequently needed supplies. 
Storage above the work station is excellent. And of course standardization 
of container size would relieve much lost time in searching for proper inserts, 

"Weighing Bags - Scales are generally placed too high and require ex- 
cessive lifting by the packer. Scales should have upright supports for bags 
and be of a type which permits rapid determination of weight. 

" Closing Bags - Like scales, bag closing units are often placed too 
high and require extra motions. There are many kinds of closers on the market 
and while there are minor differences in them the main consideration in choice 
of type should be the desire of your buyer. In general, we believe, the pull- 
through taper is best for small operations and the automatic spool fed stitcher 
for large scale operations. 

" Filling Master Containers - Once again there is an almost universal 
tendency to place master containers on too high a platform. Indeed a packer's 
best friend would be a guy with a saw in his hand and a passion in his head 
for sawing off table legs, 

"My only other comment on master containers is that bulk supplies are 
often out of reach and inadequate provision is made for a hold area. It is 
rather foolish for a log jam of filled cartons to hold up the packing line, 
yet this frequently happens. 



-4- 



"Closing Boxes - Reducing the number of staples used per box by shifting 
to wider and longer types would speed up work and reduce costs of material. 
A few pennies saved here and there add up to dollars. In box make-up, wire 
stitchers are more economical than tape or glue. The difference is in labor 
requirement. 

"Summary - In conclusion I will make some general observations. There 
is an unfortunate tendency for packing sheds to be an after thought to storage 
construction. Sheds in general seem to be appendages that take all sorts of 
shape with little regard to product flow or labor efficiency. In planning 
layout remember that a straight line is the shortest distance between two points. 
Proper lighting is probably the easiest and least expensive major improvement you 
can make. Inadequate lighting exists in 95 per cent of our sheds. It results 
in poor grading and contributes tremendously to worker fatigue. Light walls 
and bright lights can serve to change the whole attitude of your work crews. 
In general insufficient attention is given to worker comfort and position. 
Management places too much emphasis on gimmicks and mechanical aids and grossly 
neglects instruction in method. Management has a tendency to constantly change 
equipment and crew organization in the hit-and-miss search for lower cost methods, 
This summer we found two houses across the road from each other and each was 
changing his layout and equipment to emulate the fellow across the road. 
Such changes add to the cost of packing apples." 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



P.A.C.A. COMPLIANCE 

Any person buying and selling fruits and vegetables in lots of one ton or 
more, which move or "might move" in interstate commerce, except buying in small 
lots at infrequent intervals for re-sale at retail, needs to become familiar 
with the provisions of the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. 

Any person selling through or to merchants, dealers or brokers covered by 
the act also needs to be familiar with the provisions of the P.A.C.A. 

The following excerpt from an article by R. L. Childress of the Federal 
Extension Service, printed in the Extension Service Review contains suggestions 
for the elimination of unnecessary expense. 

CUTTING AN AVOIDABLE COST 
R. L. Childress, Federal Extension Service 

"When U. S. Department of Agriculture inspectors find produce in packages 
marked in violation of the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA), the 
dealer is required to remove or black out the markings, repackage or regrade the 
products, and otherwise comply with the provisions of the Act. This is costly. 

"In addition, the dealer risks the cost of legal action and can lose his 
PACA license if he offers or sells misbranded or misrepresented produce in inter- 
state or foreign commerce. And he may pass back to the shipper the costs incurred 
in obliterating incorrect marks, repacking, or regrading to designated grade marks. 



-5- 



Intent of the Act 

"The purpose of the PACA is to suppress unfair and fraudulent practices in 
buying and selling fruit and vegetables in interstate or foreign commerce. The 
Act makes it unlawful to 'misrepresent by word, act, mark, stencil, label, state- 
ment, or deed, the character, kind, grade, quality, size, pack, weight, condition, 
degree of maturity, or state or country of origin of any perishable agricultural 
commodity received, shipped, sold, or offered to be sold in interstate or foreign 
;rce' . 

"These provisions were roade a part of the Act at the request of growers, 
shippers, and receivers. They recognized that USDA needed authority to elimi- 
nate unfair competition resulting from misbranding and misrepresentation of 
produce . 

Violations Occurring 

"The Agricultural Marketing Service, responsible for enforcing the PACA, 
continually spot checks fruits and vegetables on the terminal markets. Latest 
figures indicate 160 misbranding violations found in about 1,000 inspections 
and investigations in 147 cities. Of these, 55 per cent were misrepresentation 
as to the State or area of origin and 25 per cent were failure to meet the de- 
signated grade. 

"Many violations were due to containers being re-used with original mark- 
ings still present. Commodities most commonly involved were cabbages, potatoes, 
onions, apples, and sweet potatoes. 

"Regulatory workers report that most of this misbranding is on produce 
packed by growers who are not aware of the law and its possible consequences. 

"For example, a potato grower may be using sacks marked U.S. No. 1 but 
may not have his potatoes certified No. 1 by federal inspectors. 

"The PACA does not require any markings on containers. However, U. S. 
grade marks and other information shown must be correct. 

"Regulatory personnel recommend that used sacks be turned inside out and 
incorrect markings on other containers be obliterated before packing. If 
names and addresses are required by State laws, stencils, reprinted sacks, or 
cards attached may satisfy their requirements. But, cards are easily removed 
or obscured from view. And, attachment of tags or cards to used containers 
without obliterating incorrect markings does not correct a misbranding under 
the PACA." 



-F. E. Cole 
Extension Marketing Specialist 



EXCERPTS FROM THE 1956 PEACH TREE SURVEY 



In ^1956 a survey of the apple trees in Massachusetts was made by the 
Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association with the cooperation of the 
Massachusetts Extension Service. This survey recorded the number of trees 
by variety and age as of 1955. 

At the same time, a record was made of the number of peach trees being 
grown by commercial apple growers. As this survey did not include those, if 
any, who might be growing peaches but no apples, the figures obtained from th« 
survey cannot be considered as absolute. However, it may reasonably be assumed 
that the survey included a sufficiently high proportion of peach trees grown to 
provide a basis for the analysis of trends in the peach industry in Massachusetts 
as of 1955. 

The total number of peach trees reported was 51,947 distributed among the 
counties as shown in table I. 



Table I . Distribution of Peach 
Trees by Counties 



Table II . Peach Trees by Age Groups 



County 


No. of 


7, of All 




Trees 


Trees 


Middlesex 


16,992 


32.7 


Worcester 


12,756 


24.6 


Hampden 


7,215 


13.9 


Essex 


4,457 


8.6 


Hampshire 


3,451 


6.6 


Bristol 


3,152 


6.1 


Franklin 


2,098 


4.0 


Norfolk 


855 


1.6 


Barnstable 


668 


1.3 


Pljnmouth 


303 


0.6 



Age of 
Trees 


No. of 
Trees 


7, of All 
Trees 


4 yrs . & under 

5 - 9 yrs. 
10 - 14 yrs. 
15 - 19 yrs. 
20 yrs. & over 


17,266 

17,769 

12,214 

4,120 

578 


33.2 

34.2 

23.5 

7.9 

1.1 



Table I indicates that approximately three fourths of the peach trees are 
located in Middlesex, Worcester and Hampden Counties. 

The segregation of the trees into age groups is shown in table II. An 
analysis of table II shows that approximately 90 per cent of the peach trees 
in 1955 were less than 15 years of age. 

The varieties being grown were arbitrarily segregated into groups as 
shown in table III. 



Table III. Classi 


.fication 




of Var 


ieties 




Classification 


No. of 


7, of All 




Trees 


Trees 


Major Varieties 


38,492 


74.1 


Minor Varieties 


5,146 


9.9 


Old Varieties 


297 


0.6 


All Other 


8,012 


15.4 



Table IV . Major Varieties 



Variety 



No. of 
Trees 



Elberta 13,440 

Golden Jubilee 10,671 

Halehaven 6,260 

Redhaven 2,999 

Early Elberta 2,995 

J. H. Hale 1,672 



7. of All 
Trees 



25.9 

20.5 

12,1 

5.8 

5.8 

3.2 



-7- 



Varieties included as "Major Varieties" are those for which information 
was specifically requested in the questionnaire. Varieties included as "Minor 
Varieties" are those other than major varieties which were specifically named 
by growers and which could hardly be classified as "Old Varieties". The classifi- 
cation, "All Other Varieties" includes those which were in orchards at the time of 
the survey but were not specifically identified by the growers. This group may 
include trees which should have been included as "Minor Varieties" or "Old Varieties' 
or varieties which are not mentioned in any of the groups and thus accounts for the 
relatively high percentage of all trees. 

In table IV, it is quite obvious that when this survey was made, Elberta, 
Golden Jubilee and Halehaven were the three varieties most commonly planted with 
Golden Jubilee approaching Elberta in popularity. In fact, there were more Golden 
Jubilee trees 4 years and younger, than Elberta. Golden Jubilee has since lost 
much of its popularity in favor of some of the newer varieties. 

Table V. Minor Varieties 



Variety 


No. of 


7, of All 




Trees 


Trees 


Erly-Red-Fre 


1,042 


2.0 


Jerseyland 


913 


1.8 


Sunhigh 


867 


1.7 


Rio-Oso-Gem 


607 


1.2 


Valiant 


564 


1.1 


Summercrest 


455 


0.9 


Hale Harrison Brilliant 


427 


0.8 


Triogem 


407 


0.8 


Vedette 


307 


0.6 


Veteran 


279 


0.5 


Golden East 


207 


0.4 


Afterglow 


206 


0.4 


Oriole 


160 


0.3 



From table V, Erly-Red-Fre, Jerseyland and Sunhigh appear to be most popular. 
It is interesting to note that Oriole which at one time gained considerable 
popularity because of its hardiness has since become of minor importance principally 
because of its lack of size. 

Varieties classified as "Old Varieties" included Belle of Georgia, Shippers, 
Carman, Mikado, Greensboro, Crav7ford and Champion. All of these varieties together 
accounted for only 297 trees or 0.6 per cent of all trees. 

Specific information obtained from this survey is being furnished each 
county agent for his particular county. 

A list of peach varieties recommended for planting in Massachusetts, 
(Special Circular 212-B) may be obtained from County Agents, the Department of 
Horticulture or the Extension Service Mailing Room, University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst, Mass. 



-0. C. Roberts 
Associate Professor of Pomology 



GETTING STRAWBERRIES READY FOR WINTER 



Getting the strawberry field properly prepared for winter is an important 
operation as I believe most growers will agree after the troubles of last winter. 
We can't control the weather but we can do some things to reduce its bad effects. 

One thing we learned from last winter's experience is the importance of 
good drainage. Sections of a field where water collected were severely injured. 
Contrary to popular belief, this is not because the water froze and the ice smoth- 
ered the plants. Since water and ice are good conductors of heat, the crown 
freezes rather than stoothers. The injury is more severe if there is a partial 
thaw and water collects under the ice soaking the plant crowns. The remedy is 
good drainage. Naturally, the best time to provide good drainage is before the 
field is planted. A little grading to fill in small depressions may be all that 
is needed. If the plants have already been set, then consideration might be 
given to temporary ditching to drain low spots. 

The practice of mulching is becoming increasingly troublesome with the 
increased cost of material and labor. Some growers appear to get by without a 
mulch of any sort. I believe thsy are not doing as well as they think they are. 

For years the strawberry growers of Cape Cod have used pine needles as a 
mulch. As pine needles became harder to obtain, the thickness of the mulch was 
gradually reduced until it became little more than a thin layer to keep the 
berries clean. In the spring one could go thru the field, cut the plant crox^ns 
and find many badly browned by cold injury. Yields were still good but not as 
good as they were formerly. They certainly v/ould have been higher with less cold 
injury. 

In addition to pine needles there are several other materials that can 
be used for mulch, such as, straw, hay, sawdust, shavings, chipped wood, and 
certain types of leaves. Straw is probably the most commonly urad K"ulch. It 
is one of the best if it doesn't have too much chaff, crop seed and weed seeds 
in it. Hay, except certain types of mar'^'. hay, is seldom used because it 
contains too many weed seeds. This fault can be corrected by v/etting the hay 
thoroughly and fumigating it with methyl bromide which kills all v/eed seed except 
hard seeds such as the clovers. Sawdust and shavings make good mulch provided the 
field is protected from the v/ind and they are not too costly. Chipped wood, where 
it is available, has been used successfully by some growers. A material so woody 
and slow to decompose when plowed under, might cause nitrogen starvation in a 
succeeding crop unless extra nitrogen is applied. In general, dead leaves are not 
good strawberry mulch. They mat down too much. Leaves which curl considerably 
as they dry, such as elm leaves have been used with good results. 

The time to apply the mulch is important. If applied too early, it may 
retard or prevent the plants from "hardening" properly so that they will be more 
susceptible to cold injury. On the other hand, if mulching is delayed too long. 



injury to the plants may occur before the mulch is applied. The plants should 
be allowed to become dormant and the mulch applied at once. Unfortunately there 
is no quick, easy, reliable test for dormancy. The best indicators are leaf 
color and temperature. After a couple of good frosts and the leaves have started 
to turn red, it can be assumed that dormancy has set in. This usually occurs about 
mid to late November. 

Before putting the plants to bed for the winter, it might be well to con- 
sider chemical treatment for weeds. If weeds are not a serious problem, chemi- 
cals had better not be used. If weeds particularly chickweed, are a problem, 
look in the September issue of FRUIT NOTES, page 7, for directions covering the 
use of chemicals. 

J. S. Bailey 

Associate Research Professor 
of Pomology 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1959 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Winter Fruit Meetings 

Analysis of Preharvest Drop Control 

Methods for 1959 
Performance of Hardy Rootstocks in Quebec 

Revised Apple Grading Law - 

A Help to the Industry 
Fertilizer Recommendations Should be Made 

in Terms of Actual Nutrients 

Excerpts From the Pear Survey 
Grade Terms For Consumers 
A Red "Twist" For Tuesday! 




^ 



\A 



-■'f^^f^f^^,^-::^ 







'''Pa 




M 



i-/>; 






•M. 



■m 



m 



:iin 









<^: 



*v 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES, 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other departmental 
courses. Currently also doing research on fruit marketing. 

Southwlck, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



WINTER FRUIT MEETINGS 

The 66th Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' 
Association, Inc. in cooperation with the University of Massachusetts 
Extension Service will be held in the Gardner Armory, Gardner, 
Massachusetts on January 6 and 7, 1960. 



ANALYSIS OF PREHARVEST DROP CONTROL METHODS FOR 1959 



In 1959 It was suggested in our drop control reconmendations for Mcintosh 
that a S].ngle spray of 10 ppm of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) plus 20 ppm of 
2,4,5-TA (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) might control preharvest drop about 
as effectively as two separate sprays of 20 ppm of NAA applied about 10 days apart. 
Did our 1959 results continue to support this contention? In Table 1 are our 
1959 results. 

Table l.--The influence of chemicals on the preharvest drop and firmness of 
Mcintosh apples. 1959. 







Ave. yield 






Ave. flesh 




Date 
applied 


(boxes per 
tree) 


Cumulative percentage < 


Df drop 


firmness (lbs.) 


Treatment^ 


9/8 


9/14 


9/18 


9/21 


9/25 


9/25 


1. Check 




39.1 


1.5 


4.3 


5.6 


7.1 


20.7 


15.3 


2. NAA-20ppm 


9/4 


39.1 


0.8 


2.3 










NAA-20ppm 


9/14 








3.1 


4.2 


8.4 


14.6 


3. 2,4,5-TA-20ppm 


9/4 


42.4 


1.5 


4.2 


5.6 


7.1 


15.1 


14.8 


4. NAA-lOppm p'ius 


















2,4,5-TA-20ppn 


9/4 


33.5 


1.2 


3.1 


4.1 


5.4 


11.9 


15.1 



L. S. 



D. - 5% level 



5.2 



0.5 



7 trees per treatment. 

From the data shown in Table 1 it is apparent that treatment 2 (NAA applied 
twice) resulted in less total drop by September 25 than any other treatment even 
though the difference in control between it and treatment 4 (NAA plus 2,4,5-TA 
combination) is not great enough to be statistically significant. These data and 
those collected in 1958 show that the second application of NAA is slightly more 
effective than 2,4,5-TA during the latter part of the drop period. For example, 
from September 18 through 25, Treatment 2 had losses of 5.3 per cent; whereas, 
trees in Treatments 3 and 4 had a 9.5 and 7.8 per cent loss of crop, respectively. 
In other words, two NAA sprays (Treatment 2) gave 2.5 per cent better control than 
Treatment 4 from September 18 through 25 and also 3.5 per cent from September 4 
through 25. One may ask "Why worry about such small percentage differences in favor 
of two sprays of NAA since a single combination spray of NAA plus 2,4,5-TA saves 
the cost of one application?" In order to answer this question we need to know 
how many boxes are involved per acre in a 2 to 5 per cent difference in control 
and the cost of a hormone application. 

If preharvest drop hormones are applied by plane. Table 2 compares the cost 
of two NAA sprays with a single NAA plus 2,4,5-TA spray. 

Table 2. --The approximate cost per acre of applying drop 
control hormones by airplane (from information supplied 
by D.H. Marsden, Eastern States Farmers' Exchange). 



Material 



Type 



2 sprays 
NAA-20ppm 

1 spray 

NAA-lOppm plu 
2,4,5-TA-20ppnl 



Cost/, 



acre 



$4.50 



$4.13 



Airplane 
cost/acre 



$5.00 



$2.50 



Total 
cost/acre 



$9.50 



$6.63 



From Table 2 it is apparent that one saves only $2.87 per acre by making 
an application of the NAA-2,4,5-TA combination as compared to two NAA applications. 
If the NAA-2,4,5-TA combination is 2 or 3 per cent less effective than two NAA 
sprays in drop control, the use of the combination represents a loss of 10 to 15 
boxes of fruit on a block producing 500 boxes per acre or a 20 to 30 box loss in 
a block yielding 1000 boxes per acre. When apples are worth $2 a box only 1.5 
boxes of apples need to be saved by the double NAA spray to pay the extra cost of 
a second spray. Consequently, if two NAA sprays are consistently a per cent or 
more superior to the single spray (NAA-2,4,5-TA combination), two sprays of NAA 
represent a more economical proposition. We are assuming that airplane service 
is available on a 24 to 48-hour notice. 

It should be remembered that every now and then delaying the second NAA 
spray for a full 10 days may coincide with a very warm period and a sharp increase 
in fruit loss may occur for a couple of days before the second application becomes 
effective. In such a situation the one spray combination may be as effective as 
the two NAA sprays over the full three week period for Mcintosh. 

F. W. Southwick 

II I I I I I I I I I I I I 



PERFORMANCE OF HARDY ROOTSTOCKS IN QUEBEC 

This past August I had the opportunity to observe hardy rootstocks in the 
Frelighsburg area of Quebec which is about 45 miles north of Burlington, Vermont. 
That area has had in the past few years three test winters with temperatures of 
35 to 40 degrees below zero. Mcintosh trees on standard roots have suffered severe 
winter injury to the trunk and scaffold branches. Many trees are practically dead. 
Trees topworked on hardy rootstocks such as Hibernal, Robusta #5, Garnet Crab and 
Antonovka showed no evidence of winter injury and were making excellent growth. 

The preferred stock is Robusta #5. It is easily propagated in stool beds, 
vigorous, and trees topworked on it come into production at an early age. Trees 
on Robusta #5 are also very tolerant of wet soil conditions. 

Practically all new plantings in that area of Quebec are being topworked to 
Robusta #5. The only disadvantage I can see in this stock is that it is so vigor- 
ous that it may be difficult to keep the tree from getting too large. 

W. D. Weeks 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

REVISED APPLE GRADING LAW — A HELP TO THE INDUSTRY 

The revised Massachusetts Apple Grading Law is a help to apple growers in 
reaching three major objectives: (1) the building of an active demand through 
advertising and sales promotion, (2) the development of adequate outlets, and (3) 
the elimination of sub-market prices. 



Individuals can make considerable progress in reaching these objectives, 
particularly in local areas, but are restricted by situations which exist within 
the industry. Even the most progressive individuals are handicapped 25(; or 50c 
or more, year in and year out, by the situation prevailing at present in the 
market. Success in reaching all three of these objectives requires the concerted 
effort of a major part of the industry. A state grading law provides an oppor- 
tunity to do something about them. 

1. Advertising and many other forms of sales promotion are essential to a 
profitable business today. It is not enough to grow a good apple. The public 
needs to know that they are available and where, and that apples provide some 
very good eating. The public needs to know that apples are a good food as well. 

The base of all successful advertising in the long run, and mostly in the 
short run, is a product with strong consumer appeal. Success is achieved when the 
product supports the advertising and creates a buying response to the neptt adver- 
tisement. A food product which is not completely dependable in either appearance, 
internal quality or condition tends to kill its own advertising. Few advertisers 
can succeed on a basis of the first purchase only and no industry can develop on 
this basis. The packing of apples, according to known standards, can help to in- 
crease the yield from the money spent in advertising and sales promotion. 

A grade standard and a packer's good name are twin identifications to make 
advertising pay off. 

2. Any industry which has an insufficient number of outlets for its product, 
has to take the price of the insufficient number of buyers where the supply is 
greater than their needs and the game is merely one of not being under-bought by 
anyone. An apple industry with an inadequate number of outlets cannot retain 
price initiative. 

Outlets are developed on the basis of a dependable, money-making pack. 
Apples packed according to a minimum standard of appearance and identified with 
a packer's name, indicating condition and eating quality, are a better buy than 
a pack without either or both of these identifications. 

The number of outlets may be increased by extending the selling area and 
making the pack available to a greater number of buyers within the existing selling 
area. Appearance and condition standards are essential in making this sale to 
new buyers a profitable one. The buyer who tried and gave up because of appear- 
ance or condition or lack of dependability, has to be convinced that something new 
has been added. He then may be induced to try again. His repeated buying is 
determined by the profit making qualities of the pack and how easy it is to buy. 

An area reputation for good apples in a good pack is of tremendous help in 
getting new customers and reconvincing old ones that the product offers a chance 
to make money. An area reputation can be built when a major proportion of the in- 
dustry is together, in putting out a pack with high consumer appeal. 

Established standards, used by the entire industry, can be of substantial 
help in developing outlets both inside and outside of the present selling area. 



I 



•4- 



3. The market reporter is not responsible for poor prices that he has to 
quote. Neither can we argue with a price which correctly represents, in money, 
the ratio between supply and consumer demand, which we will call the market price. 
It is the sub-market prices which hurts every grower. These sub-market prices 
exist because there is no commonly used base of quality or appearance on which to 
quote a price and the associated poor selling practices. Packs containing a wide 
range of quality and size and condition are lumped together under the heading of 
"apples" or in a very rough use of the terms "Firsts" or Seconds". The result is 
a wide range of price, heavy on the low side, which is used in competitive buying 
and selling. Prices may be used between buyer and seller without either one know- 
ing the quality that is being discussed. Low prices on some mixed-quality packs 
are used to lower the price on better packs. The result is a downward spiral of 
quality chasing price which results in a low price to the producer and a poor 
quality pack being placed on display in retail stores with resulting lack of con- 
sumer appeal, slow movement and a situation set up for lower price next week. 

An inadequate selling practice is one. which does not secure market price for 
the product. Pressure on the seller due to insufficient number of outlets, and 
misleading information as to price, can and does result in some selling practices 
which add speed to the downward spiral of prices. Selling at a cut price on a 
delivered basis to avoid the sales agents' fee is but one example. Cutting the 
quality in order to under-bid on price or accept a lower price are others. The 
use of an established standard in combination with a packer's name can do much to ■ 
eliminate sub-marl;et prices and poor selling practices. ' 

A revised apple grading law cannot and will not make these changes by itself, 
particularly if growers regard the provisions of the law as further legal inter- 
ference to an independently managed business. The revised grading law is an im- 
portant tool with which the apple growers of the state can improve their industry 
and increase their returns. 

The apple industry of Massachusetts, now as a compact unit in the hands of 371 
commercial growers, is in a position to take a grading law and make money with it. 

F. E. Cole 

Extension Marketing Specialist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

FERTILIZER RECOMM END ATIONS SHOULD BE MADE IN TERMS OF ACTUAL NUTRIENTS 

When writing fertilizer recommendations based on leaf analysis it is very 
apparent that they should be in terms of actual nitrogen, potash (K2O) and 
phosphoric acid (P2O5) . For example, if this is done we can merely state in our 
recommendations the suggested amount of actual nitrogen, potash and phosphoric 
acid needed per tree. Then the grower can purchase and apply an amount of any fer- 
tilizer which gives the equivalent of the recommended nitrogen, potash, and phospho- 
ric acid. It has been noted, however, that this has been confusing to some growers 
when they try to figure how much of a nitrogenous fertilizer or a "complete" fertilize 



should be applied to equal a certain amount of actual nitrogen, potash or phosphoric 
acid. Therefore, it is hoped that the following discussion will eliminate some of 
the misunderstanding. 

In our fertilizer recommendations we state that a tree capable of producing 
25 bushels of apples should receive approximately one pound of actual nitrogen. 
If we are going to use some common nitrogenous fertilizer how many pounds must be 
applied to equal a pound of actual nitrogen? To determine this, divide the actual 
amount of nitrogen needed by the per cent nitrogen in the nitrogenous fertilizer. 
For example if you are using a nitrogenous fertilizer containing 33 per cent N, 
divide 1.0 pound by .33 which will give an answer of approximately 3 pounds of the 
nitrogenous fertilizer that must be applied to be equivalent to 1.0 pound of actual 
nitrogen. 

Similarly, suppose you want to apply 1.5 pounds of actual nitrogen and you are 
using a nitrogenous fertilizer containing 45 per cent N, divide 1.5 pounds by .45 
which will give an answer of approximately 3.3 pounds of the nitrogenous fertilizer 
to be equivalent to 1.5 pounds of actual nitrogen. 

Suppose you are using a 5-10-10 fertilizer, how many pounds must be applied to 
equal one pound of actual nitrogen? How many pounds of potash and phosphoric acid 
will be added when enough 5-10-10 is added to equal one pound of actual nitrogen? 
A 5-10-10 fertilizer contains an amount of total nitrogen as would be equivalent 
to five per cent of nitrogen, an amount of available phosphorous equivalent to ten 
per cent of r>^iosphoric acid and available potash equivalent to ten per cent of potash 
(K2O) . Since the mixed fertilizer contains an equivalent to five per cent N, divide 
one pound of actual nitrogen v/anted by .05 which will give an answer of 20 pounds 
of 5-10-10 to add in order to apply one pound of actual nitrogen. If you apply 20 
pounds of 5-10-10, two pounds of potash (K-0) and two pounds of phosphoric acid are 
added. These answers are obtained by multiplying the 20 pounds of 5-10-10 by the 
per cent potash and phosphoric acid respectively in the fertilizer. 

W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

EXCERPTS FROM THE PEAR SURVEY 



In the apple tree survey which V7as made in 1956 growers were requested to 
record information relative to the number, variety and age of pear trees which 
they had in their orchards. This information pertained to the situation which 
existed in 1955. In reporting the results of this pear tree survey it should 
be noted that only pear trees being grown in connection with commercial apple 
orchards are included in this summary. Thus the total number of pear trees grown 
in Massachusetts may be somewhat larger than is reported here. However, it is 
reasonable to assume that a sufficiently high percentage of the pear trees are 
included to indicate trends in the pear industry. 

Eighty-six apple growers or approximately twenty-five per cent of all apple 
growers also grow pears. 



Table I shows that 677„ of the pear trees grown in the state are located in 
Middlesex and Worcester Counties. In Norfolk, Barnstable, and Plymouth Counties 
the extent of the pear industry is exceedingly limited. 



Table I . Distribution of Pear 
Trees by Counties 



Table II . Pear Trees by Age Groups 



County 


No. of 


7, of All 




Trees 


Trees 


Middlesex 


8,290 


47.2 


Worcester 


3,492 


19.9 


Essex 


1,641 


9.3 


Bristol 


1,240 


7.1 


Hampshire 


1,168 


6.6 


Hampden 


740 


4.2 


Franklin 


587 


3.3 


Berkshire 


251 


1.4 


Norfolk 


114 


.7 


Barnstable 


43 


.2 


Plymouth 


16 


.1 


Total 


17,582 





Age of 
Trees 



No. of 
Trees 



7, of All 
Trees 



4 yrs. & under 2,009 11.4 

5-9 yrs. 2,974 16.9 

10 - 14 yrs. 1,434 8.2 

15 - 19 yrs. 1,730 9.8 

20 - 29 yrs. 6,034 34.3 

30 yrs. & over 3.401 19.3 

Total 17,582 



Table II shows that a little over 507, of the pear trees are twenty years 
old or older. As might be expected there was a slump in the planting of pear 
trees during the Second World War period. About 257, of all pear trees in com- 
mercial orchards have been planted within the last ten years. 

Table III indicates that 96% of all pear trees are the major varieties which 
include Bartlett, Bosc, Clapp Favorite and Seckel. There has been no significant 
planting of new varieties. 



Table III. Classification 




Table IV. 


Maj 


or Varieties 




of 


Varieties 














Classification 


No. of 


7o 


of All 


Variety 




No. of 


7„ of All 




Trees 




Trees 






Trees 


Trees 


Major Varieties 


16,796 




96.0 


Bosc 




8,961 


51.0 


Minor Varieties 


737 




3.7 


Bartlett 




5,534 


31.5 


New Varieties 


49 




.3 


Seckel 




1,203 


6.8 


Total 


17,582 






Clapp 
Total 




1,098 
16.796 


6.2 



In table IV the proportion of trees of the four major varieties is indicated. 
It is interesting to note that the number of Bosc trees exceeds the number of 
Bartlett trees by such a wide margin. Clapp Favorite and Seckel are of minor im- 
portance as might be expected. 

The proportion of trees of the minor varieties is shown in table V. All of 
them are of exceedingly minor importance. Unfortunately, in some instances, the 
variety of pear trees being grown was not specified by some growers. However, the 
percentage of these trees is so small that the trends as indicated in the several 
tables would not be materially affected even if the varieties were known. 



-7- 



Table V. Minor Varieties 



Variety No. of 

Trees 



Sheldon 85 

Anjou 76 

Dana Hovey 60 

Lincoln 40 

Conference 35 

Duchess 15 

Flemish Beauty 13 

Kieffer 8 

New Varieties 49 

Not specified 405 

Total 786 



% oi 


f All 


Trees 





.5 





.4 





.3 





.2 





.2 





.1 





.1 





.05 





.3 


2 


.3 



Summary 



1. The pear industry in Massachusetts is chiefly in Middlesex and Worcester 
Counties . 

2. Approximately 25?„ of growers who have apple orchards also grow pears. 

3. Over half of the pear trees in the state are 20 years of age or older. 

4. The principal pear varieties are Bosc, Bartlett, Clapp Favorite and Seckel 
with Bosc the pronounced favorite. 

0. C. Roberts 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



GRADE TERMS FOR CONSUMERS 

Growers have asked for the Apple Grade Specifications in terms which can 
be readily understood by the consumer. The following grade descriptions found 
in the "Know Your Grades" published by F. E. Cole, Extension Marketing Specialist 
are given below. These terms can be used by growers in advertisements and other 
promotional material to familiarize consumers with Massachusetts Apple Grades. 

U. S. EXTRA FANCY APPLES - 

SELECTED WELL COLORED APPLES, ESSENTIALLY FREE OF BLEMISHES - CHOICE EATING 
APPLES - EXCELLENT FOR GIFTS, FRUIT BASKETS FOR SHUT-INS, FRUIT BOWLS FOR HALL, 
DINING OR LIVING ROOM TABLES OR WHEREVER BEAUTIFUL APPLES I-L^Y BE USED - THE 
BEST APPLE FOR kWi USE. 

U. S. FANCY APPLES - 

THE STANDARD FOR APPLE QUALITY - GOOD COLOR - NO SERIOUS DEFECTS AND PRACTICALLY 
FREE OF BLEl-lISHES - THE APPLE OF IMsM. USES, BOTH FRESH AND COOKED - AN EATING 
APPLE FOR ANYTIME, ON A DRIVE OR IN THE OFFICE - FOR SALADS \JHERE THE RED SKIN 
ADDS A BIT OF COLOR - GOOD FOR APPLESAUCE, PIES AND OTHER APPLE DESSERTS - 
GOOD IN THE LUNCH BOX OR FOR AN AFTERSCHOOL SNACK. 



-8- 



U. S. MO. 1 APPLES - 

FAIR COLOR - NO SERIOUS DEFECTS AND PRACTICALLY FREE OF BLEMISHES - GOOD FOR 
EATING OUT OF HAND, IN SALADS AED IN PREPARED DESSERTS - APPRECIATED IN THE 
LUNCH BOX FOR DESSERT OR AN AFTERNOON SNACK - THE SAME QUALITY AS THE NEXT 
HIGHER GRADE EXCEPT FOR SOME LESS COLOR AND A LITTLE MORE RUSSETING - AN 
ECONOMICAL APPLE FOR PLAYTIME TREATS. 

U. S. UTILITY APPLES - 

THE "PEELING" APPLE FOR SALADS AND ALL COOKING USES IN THE MOST ECONOMICAL FORM - 
SOUND APPLES WITH ONLY SLIGHT WASTE IN PREPARATION - THE APPLE GRADE FOR ECONO- 
MICAL TASTE-TEMPTING APPLE DESSERTS - AN EATING APPLE FOR MANY OCCASIONS. 

The term, "Unclassified" means that no grade classification has been applied. 
Descriptions of particular lots marked "Unclassified" may be used as long as they 
are not misleading. 

Growers servicing retail stores, selling to roadside stands and other estab- 
lishments may find hand-out material on the subject of "Grade Terms For Consumers" 
an excellent promotional activity. 

W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

A RED "TWIST" FOR TUESDAY '. 

When bagging apples in polyethylene bags for servicing stores it would be 
worthwhile to use different colored "twists" or tapes for denoting packing dates. 

This would be useful to both the grower and Produce Manager in the store for 
keeping unsold apples of the previous delivery separated from the most recent 
delivered lot. 

VJhen the grower examines the fruit carrying his name in the various stores 
serviced, the colored twists or tapes on the bags will enable him to know the date 
the fruit was packed and delivered and the amount of carry-over of fruit from one 
delivery to another. Some stores have the tendency to buy too many apples at one 
time which results in fruit remaining on display long after the time it should be 
sold. This can be substantiated by facts obtained by F. E. Cole and the writer as 
a part of the study currently being conducted on the "Operational Procedures of 
Apple Growers Servicing Retail Stores and Merchandizing Practices of the Stores 
Retailing their Apples." 

Produce Managers in stores have indicated that the use of different colored 
twists or tapes would be useful. It would enable them to keep different lots of 
apples separate in the store coolers. Also, it would be easier to be sure that the 
fruit displayed longest is sold first. 

W. J. Lord 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff 
Deportment of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



JANUARY 8, 1960 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Small Fruit Meeting 

Public Liability Insurance For Farmers 

Pomological Paragraph 

Fruit Quality At Roadside Stands 

Newer Fruit Varieties Worthy of Trial 

Red-banded Leaf Roller is Threatening Again 



'^<^u 





»/t 



"f^ 



■^tii-c^-v 



•-■■•-a!-,^^, 



■V- 








A 



n. 



m^' 




'-*?■ 



.'ifV 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 

Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, active 
in small fruit variety testing. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than 
control, and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Roberts, Oliver C. - Associate Professor 

Teacher of pest control, fruit marketing and other depart- 
mental courses. Currently also doing research on fruit marketing. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses . 



SMALL FRUIT MEETING 

li 
A Small Fruit Meeting will be held in the Commonwealth Room of the Student 
Union Building at the University of Massachusetts on Wednesday, January 27, 1960. 
The meeting will be an all day session beginning at 10:00 A.M. and ending at 3:45 P.M 

The topics discussed at this meeting will be as follows: 

Newer Small Fruit Varieties Worthy of Trial 

Caneral Recommendations for Pest Control 

Strawberry Research Findings in New Jersey 

Growing Strawberry Plants for Sale and for Fruit 

Bird Control in Fruit Plantings 

Producing High Quality Disease Free Strawberry Plants 

W. J. Lord 



PUBLIC LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR FARMERS 

A farm operator may be held legally liable for injuries and illnesses in- 
cluding death arising from the operation of the farm business which are suffered 
by (1) members of the general public or (2) farm employees. 

Farmers Comprehensive Personal Liability or Comprehensive General Liability 
policies are used to provide protection to farmers against injuries to the general 
public. Employer's liability and Workmen's Compensation are both designed to give 
protection against injuries to employees. 

The decision as to the desirability of carrying these forms of insurance de- 
serves very careful consideration by the farmer. 

Public Liability Insurance 

Public or General Liability Insurance is used to cover liability resulting 
from injuries to, or death of members of the general public, or from damage to 
their property that arises out of the activities of the farmer. 

Any property owner is responsible for the safety of those on his property. 
On farms the presence of livestock, power machinery, and farm ponds add to the 
dangers involved and the need for insurance of this type. Policies may be "general" 
in that they cover the legal liability of the family of the insured on the home 
farm only or Comprehensive in that they cover legal liability of the family of the 
insured any where for their negligent acts. 

Basic coverage usually is written for $10,000 and the common medical payment 
coverage is $250. The Comprehensive policy has a $1,000 property damage feature. 

Additional coverage may be obtained by either increasing the amount of basic 
coverage or by adding endorsements to the original policy to cover other possible 
hazards. For example, liability due to accidents occurring while the farmer is 
engaged in custom work , coverage for liability that might arise from the sale of 
farm products , at locations off the farm, or delivery, moving or transportation 
of farm livestock or other similar operations may create hazards. 

As examples of what can occur consider these recent accidents. Johnny was a 
bright two-year old youngster and had gone with his mother to a roadside stand for 
produce. While Farmer Jones was waiting on Johnny's mother, Johnny ran across the 
parking area, tripped and fell face down in a rubbish pile which Farmer Jones had 
intended to burn that morning. Something sharp pierced Johnny's right eye. Johnny's 
trip to the country ended in the local hospital where the eye was removed. 
Johnny's parents brought suit against Farmer Jones. Their lawyer said Farmer 
Jones was negligent. The jury agreed and awarded $30,000 to Johnny. 

F0rwer Smith advertised "Good Apples, Pick Your Own, Bring Your Own Container." 
Harry Brown saw the ad and appeared at the farm the next afternoon. Smith showed 
him the trees and apples snd Harry began to pick them. After picking a few from 
the ground he climbed a ladder placed in the tree. He fell to the ground just as 
he finished filling his basket, injuring his hip and breaking his collarbone. After 
a stay in the hospital he sued Smith. In court he said, "The ladder was defective 
and Smith was negligent in not warning me." "Not so," said Smith's lawyer, 
"ordinary prudence should have indicated caution. Brown was at fault. He was 
careless and he should know that climbing ladders is dangerous." The award was 
$13,000 to Brown. 



-2- 

Public Liability policies offer no protection to the farmer for claims brought 
by his regular employees for injuries, accidents and the like. 

Accident vs. Occurrence 

Commonly policies protect against claims due to accidents , but some claims 
result from occurrences which are not "accidents" in the legal sense. An endorse- 
ment to change accident to occurrence throughout the policy would be wise in most 
cases . 

Every day farmers have contacts with members of the public. Experience has 
shown that the courts may hold the farm owner responsible for the safety of members 
of the public who have access to the farm. Where negligence is proven, awards can 
be large and their effect disastrous to the farmer. 

Public Liability offers protection to the farmer against a wide variety of 
risks which can result in severe losses. The cost is relatively low . 

For these reasons it is recommended that all farm owners carry this type of 
insurance probably for increased limits above the basic policy. 

Tell your insurance agent the kind of farm business you have, the sort of 
products you sell and ask him to write the proper policy form for you. 
Public Liability insurance is more than desirable for a farmer, it is essential . 

Lawrence D. Rhoades 

Extension Specialist in 
Farm Management 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPH 

Black Root Rot - Tough as the 1959 strawberry season was it now appears that 
all was not bad; at least one good seems to have resulted. Black root was at a 
minimum this fall. Strawberry fields in Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden Counties 
were visited to look for black root and practically none was found, 

J. S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

FRUIT QUALITY AT ROADSIDE STANDS 

Approximately 21 per cent of the apples grown in Massachusetts are sold at 
grower owned farm stands and salesrooms. Since direct sales to the consumer are 
most profitable to the grower from the standpoint of income and to the buyer in 
regards to quality, this method of sale warranted study in hope that the inforraatior 
obtained would assist growers to increase sales through product improvement. There- 
fore, an Extension study to "Determine Condition of Apples Offered for Sale to the 
Public at Roadside Stands and Salesrooms" was conducted in the fall and winter of 
1958-59 by Prof. F. E. Cole, Extension Marketing Specialist and the writer. 



-3- 

Fruit of 25 different growers were analyzed for mechanical injury, grade and 
condition. The fruit examined were those the growers considered to be U. S. Fancy 
or better. Many growers had marked their fruit U. S. No. 1 although they felt it 
to be of U. S. Fancy quality, ^he average of 29 different fruit samples revealed 
that only 6.67, of the fruit was U. S. No. 1 quality. This percentage was so Jow I 
that the practice of marking apples U. S. No. 1 as a precaution against faulty i 
sorting would seem to be an unnecessary down-grading of the fruit in many instances. 
For the Mcintosh variety, the grade requirements for U. S. Fancy and U. S. No. 1 
differ in only two respects - amount of typical color required and a minor differ- \ 
ence as to the amount of russetting allowed. The color requirement of U. S. Fancy 
Mcintosh is 33 per cent and for U. S. No. 1 it is 25 per cent. 

The study revealed no apparent relationship between the use of grading machines I 
and hand sorting and sizing, with regard to the amount of damage found in the samples. ' 
It is evident that apples can be sorted and sized with the aid of machinery without 
significant bruising. 

Apples in polyethylene bags at the packing plants and in nearby roadside stands 
had considerably less damage due to bruising and broken skin than apples found in 
peach baskets. This may have been due to extra care in handling of the apples placed 
in polyethylene bags or to lower standards for the baskets. Quality standards for 
apples in peach baskets needs to be stressed if this package is to retain public favor. 

The noticeable development of marginal softening or decay at the edges of cracks 
and stem punctures indicated the necessity of close watch of packed fruit stored or 
held at room temperature. It also re-emphasized the necessity of a realistic appraisal 
of the risk of decay from any type of broken skin. Fresh stem punctures continue to 
be a common cause of damage . 

There exists a noticeable variance of practice in regard to color standards for 
striped apples. Color requirements for grades permit a wide variation in appearance 
between an apple with striped color and one with solid color. A striped apple should 
have twice the area with striped coloration in order to have nearly as good an appear- 
ance as the blush type. It is assumed that the striped coloration or the blush color 
on the apples is a good shade of red characteristic of the variety. The grading 
practices of the growers in regards to color varied in relation to the color of the 
apples being packed. Close adherence to color standards does not provide packs of 
similar attractiveness. 

---W. J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

NEWER FRUIT VARIETIES WORTHY OF TRIAL 



The following report briefly describes the newer fruit varieties under test 
in the University plantings that are worthy of trial by commercial growers and 
home gardeners . 



-4- 

These notes should be considered as supplementary information on varieties 
recommended for planting in Massachusetts as given in Extension Service Special 
Circulars #212-A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H which are available from your County 
Agent or the Mailing Room, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 

APPLE 

Red Melba - A red sport of Melba which is superior in color. Good quality for an 
early apple. Season early August. Recommended for commercial planting where an 
early variety is desired. 

Beacon - A seedling of Malinda introduced by the University of Minnesota. Beacon 
is a fairly attractive early apple of Early Mcintosh season or later. It may 
warrant limited trial as an early apple. The Fenton and Miller's Red varieties 
appear to be indistinguishable from Beacon. 

Spartan - A Mcintosh x Newton seedling from British Columbia. It is an attractive 
dark red apple with Mcintosh shape and quality. Spartan retains quality in storage 
much better and longer than Mcintosh. The fruit may have a tendency to be small. 
The tree is a vigorous Mcintosh type. Harvest season is late September. It will 
pollinate Mcintosh. Spartan shows great promise as a variety to extend the Mcintosh 
season and should be given serious consideration for future plantings. 

Idared -k promising Wagener x Jonathan cross from Idaho. The fruit has an attrac- 
tive bright red finish. Fruit quality good but somewhat on the mild side. It has 
a long storage season. Harvest season is early October. Idared is one of the more 
promising late keeping dessert and general purpose apples. 

Melrose - A high quality winter apple introduced by the Ohio Experiment Station. 
Melrose is a Jonathan x Delicious cross. The fruit is well colored, has good 
size and shape. It may develop some russeting unless given a mild spray program. 
The fruit has excellent dessert and cooking qualities and a long storage season. 
The tree is productive, has good structure, and is annual. Harvest season mid- 
October. Melrose is cross incompatible with Delicious but will pollenize other 
varieties. Melrose shows much promise as a replacement for Baldwin. It should 
be given extensive trial. 

Spencer - A Mcintosh x Golden Delicious cross introduced by the Dominion Experiment 
Station, British Columbia. Spencer is a promising late keeping winter apple. It 
is harvested about three weeks after Mcintosh. The tree has desirable growth charac- 
teristics and produces annual crops. Fruit of Spencer is large and fairly well 
colored. Spencer is worthy of extensive trial. 

W. D. Weeks 



Peach 

Sunrise - An early, attractive, medium size yellow peach which ripens a few days 
ahead of Early East. Fruit quality varies with season, but fairly good for an 
early peach. A clingstone unless fully ripe. Suggested for limited trial where 

an early peach is desired. 



■5- 



Early East - A rather attractive good sized yellow peach. Fair quality, semi- 
cling, somewhat irregular in shape. Early East ripens about 10 days ahead of 
Golden Jubilee. Suggested for limited trial. 

Sunhaven - An attractive early yellow fleshed peach which ripens 10 days earlier 
than Redhaven. The fruit is semi-cling unless fully ripe. Suggested for trial 
where an early variety is desired. 

Richhaven - An attractive, well colored, yellow fleshed peach of Halehaven season. 
The fruit has good size and quality. Worthy of extensive trial. 

M. A. Blake - An attractive yellow fleshed peach which ripens a few days ahead of 
Elberta. Fruit has good size, quality, and very little pubescence. This peach 
looks very promising as a late-season variety to replace Elberta. Worthy of 
extensive trial. 



W. D. Weeks 



BLUEBERRY 

Collins - A new blueberry variety was named and introduced by the U.S.D.A. October 1, 
1959. It was tested as 18-116, a cross of Stanley x Weymouth made by the late 
F. V. Coville in 1936. It ripens between Earliblue and Bluecrop. The plants are 
said to be erect, vigorous and moderately productive with about the same winter 
hardiness as Berkeley and Pemberton. The fruit is borne in medium-sized, rather 
tight, attractive cluster. The berries are as large as Earliblue, firm, light 
blue in color and are highly flavored with sweet to mild subacid taste. Fruit 
does not drop or crack. It is recommended by the U.S.D.A. for trial as a second 
early large fruited variety for the northeast. Bushes of this variety at the 
University of Massachusetts are still too young for fruit evaluation. 

John S. Bailey 

RED RASPBERRY 

Early Red - This variety looked very good in spite of very unfavorable weather this 
past year. During the very severe winter of 1958-59, injury to the canes was slight. 
This past summer the fruit softened slightly but did not crumble (good cdherence) 
during the very wet, humid harvest season. Its yield in 1959, was highest among 37 
varieties and selections under test. It ripened in early mid-season about the same 
time as the spring crop of Indian Summer. The fruit has fair flavor, and is medium 
in size and red color. Vigor is satisfactory. No virus infection has been observed. 
It is worthy of trial. 

Musk oka - It suffered considerable winter injury during the past year and yield was 
cut as a result. Firmness and coherence of the berries was excellent in spite of the 
wet season. Flavor was passable. Fruit size was good. A small amount of leaf curl 
was found. 

Puyallup - Severe winter injury cut the yield in 1959 almost to zero. Puyallup is 
not cold resistant enough for this climate. 



-6- 



Canby - This new variety from Oregon looks promising. Cold resistance in 1958-59 
was almost as good as Latham. Yield was heavy. Fruit ripened just ahead of Latham, 
had fairly good size and good flavor, firmness and coherence. Its one weakness 
appeared to be a susceptibility to leaf curl. Recommended for limited trial. 

Sumner - Another Oregon variety. It appeared fully as cold resistant in 1958-59 
as Latham but produced a very light crop. Unless production picks up it will be 
of no value in Massachusetts. 

New Hampshire - A late variety, ripened in 1959 just before Milton. It suffered 
considerable winter injury and crop was light. Flavor was fair, fruit size about 
the same as Milton. Fruit was attractive, firm and did not crumble. No virus or 
spur blight was found. Plant vigor was medium. Its most serious weakness was 
lack of cold resistance. 



•-J. S. Bailey 



STRAWBERRY 



Earlidawn - Our earliest ripening variety. The plants are vigorous, productive 
and form a satisfactory number of runner plants. The fruit is of medium size, firm 
attractive, tart and of good quality. Earlidawn shows much promise as a very early 
variety where red stele is not a factor. 

Cavalier - This Canadian introduction did not look promising in our trials last 
summer. The fruit was firm, of good flavor but only medium to small in size and 
variable in shape. The plants were lacking in productiveness, vigor and runner 
production and were quite susceptible to leaf spot. 

Pocahontas - The plants were vigorous, productive and good runner producers. The 
berries were firm, large and maintained their size well during the season. The 
fruit was rather unattractive, having a dull, light red color. Pocahontas is a 
mid-season variety. 

Vine land - The plants of this variety are of good vigor, moderate yield and moderati 
runner production. The plants showed susceptibility to both leaf scorch and mildew 
this past season. The fruit was of medium size, fair firmness and of fair to good 
quality. 

Redglow - This early-midseason variety is resistant to the common strain of red 
stele but shows susceptibility to mildew. The plants are vigorous, productive and 
form runners freely. The berries are attractive, of good size and good quality. 



Surecrop - A mid-season variety with fruits that are of medium size, firm, attract 
and of good quality though tart. The plants are productive, vigorous and make nu- 
merous runners. Surecrop is especially valuable because of its resistance to two 
strains and partial resistance to a third strain of red stele. 

Midway - This newly named variety is an introduction from the U.S.D.A. and the 
Maryland Experiment Station. The plants are vigorous and productive. Midway is 



-7- 



resistant to the common race of red stele, but showed susceptibility to mildew In 
our trials. The fruit Is of deep red color, glossy and firm. The strawberries 
are above medium in size, of fair flavor and somewhat variable in shape. Midway 
is being introduced as a possible replacement for Fair land and Temple. Plants 
should be available from nurserymen in the fall of 1960. 

Or land - The most productive variety in our trials last summer. The plants are 
vigorous and good runner producers. The main weakness of this variety is Its very 
poor flavor and only fair appearance. Many of the late berries were badly mis- 
shapened and green tipped. 

Jerseybelle - A late ripening variety that produces very large, glossy berries. The 
berries are firm, of fair flavor and fair color. The plants are vigorous, make a 
good bed and are productive. Jerseybelle appears to be most promising as a late 
ripening variety where red stele is not a factor. 

---J. F. Anderson 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



PEARS 

Alexander Lucas - An attractive French winter pear which is large, yellow with 
a blush and good quality. Its season Is late fall and early winter. 

Chapln - A seedling of Seckel which resembles Seckel in general characteristics 

but ripens nearly a month before Seckel. It is very sweet and excellent in quality. 

Ewart - A large greenish yellow pear netted with russet and has a fine, melting, 
tender, juicy flesh. The season is a month later than Bartlett. 

Gorham - Fruit resembles Bartlett in size, color, and shape. Ripens two weeks 
later than Bartlett and keeps a month longer. The quality is good to excellent. 
This variety is particularly recommended for dessert and canning. 

Red. Bartlett - A sport of Bartlett which resembles Bartlett in every respect 
except color which is red rather than yellow. 

— -0. C. Roberts 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER IS THREATENING AGAIN 

During the past couple of years, apple growers in Massachusetts have noted 
an increase in the red-banded leaf roller population and also increased diffi- 
culty In controlling this pest. 



-8- 

In attempting to understand the reasons for this situation, I think a brief 
review of what we know about the red-banded leaf roller is in order at this time. 
First of all, the red-banded leaf roller has a history of being cyclic, that is, 
being abundant for a few years and then fading away for a few years only to pop 
up again at some future date. Secondly, successful control of this pest is de- 
pendent on thorough coverage, with particular emphasis on under-leaf coverage 
in all parts of the trees. The switch to air-blast type machines has increased 
our problem of getting thorough coverage. Pruning practices are also an important 
factor in the spray coverage that we achieve. If pruning is haphazard or neglected 
and the trees are allowed to become too thick, adequate coverage may be difficult. 
Thirdly, there has also been some tendency for growers to reduce gallonage and 
amount of toxicant per tree to minimum levels in recent years. 

However, the factors I have just enumerated do not fully explain the serious 
difficulties some growers have gotten into with respect to control of the red- 
banded leaf roller during the last two seasons. TDE which has done such a good 
job for us in the past appears to be falling down even where thoroughly applied 
at the proper times with the correct dosage. In New York and some other states, 
it has been shown that some leaf roller populations have developed a tolerance 
to TDE, in other words, the red-banded leaf roller is resistant to TDE. This 
appears to be the case in orchards where TDE has been used for several years. 
In Massachusetts, we believe that leaf roller resistance to TDE is the factor 
responsible for our recent troubles in controlling this pest in some orchards. 

Life History 

Before discussing control program, let's briefly review the life history 
of the red-banded leaf roller. The insect overwinters as a pupa on the ground 
in trash and debris under trees. Moths emerge in the spring soom after the first 
green tissue shows in the buds. The greatest numbers are present from late delayed 
dormant through bloom. Egg laying begins soon after emergence and usually continues 
through bloom. Eggs are deposited chiefly on the bark of the trunks and main scaf- 
fold limbs. Hatching usually starts about petal fall and the majority hatch over 
a period of 10-14 days after bloom. First brood larvae feed on the under surface 
of leaves especially along the mid-rib or along one of the larger veins. Some 
migrate to and injure developing fruit. Fully grown larvae pupate in a protected 
site such as a rolled leaf or between leaves on which they fed. 

First brood moths begin to emerge about the second week in July and are most 
numerous during the last two weeks of the month. They disappear rapidly in early 
August but an occasional moth may be seen as late as early September. Egg deposi- 
tion by the first brood moths begins shortly after emergence and continues until 
late August, although most second brood eggs are laid in late July. These eggs 
are chiefly deposited on the upper surfaces of leaves and are very difficult to 
find. Second brood larvae feed on the undersides of leaves as with the first 
brood. However, later nearly all of them move about the tree and feed on the fruit. 

During some seasons, some second brood larvae pupate and the moths that emerge 
may lay eggs for a partial third brood. |j^ 

Recommendations for control of the red-banded leaf roller in 1960 will be 
discussed in the next issue of FRUIT NOTES. 

W. D. Tunis 

Extension Entomologist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



FEBRUARY 10, 1960 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Standard and Controlled Atmosphere 
Storage Holdings and Bi-Weekly Movement 
of Mcintosh Apples in Massachusetts 

Results of Leaf Analyses of Orchards in 1959 

Control of Red-Banded Leaf Roller 








^ "-stil-fi^A 



■"^■"•v^ 



;ii:.l^ 



ii»*«^- 



~n 



mt'. 



%- 




■...•\y 






'^^ 



.Ml', 



-■„>&' 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and J 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperatlr 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



une 30, 
ng. 



1914; 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 

Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control. Also, teaches and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



STANDARD AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE 
Storage Holdings and Bi-Weekly Movement of Mcintosh Apples 

in Massachusetts 

The objective of growers is to sell all of their apples at the highest 
possible net return. The lure of higher prices In spring markets is well re- 
cognized and understandable. These higher prices do not occur, however, every 
year, nor with any regularity. Also, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that 
steadily rising prices are not realized when too many apples are held for the 
spring market. 

How many is too many? How can the crop be sold to realize the greatest 
return? 

These questions may be asked for the industry as a whole and they may be 
asked by every individual seller. The industry figures are the total of indiv- 
idual actions. Results for an individual seller are influenced, either up or 
down, by how the industry as a whole sells the stored crop. 

A look at the record may help individual sellers to make decisions as to 
how they would like to sell. Current information as to price and movement of the 
state crop is essential for profitable current decisions by Individuals. Strate- 
gic actions, by enough sellers, changes the situation for the industry as a whole. 
Individuals may adopt a selling strategy to minimize the effects of a poor in- 
dustry trend and to maximize their own returns. 

The fall price of apples seems to settle to a stable point about October 15th 
of each year and is the result of an interplay of supply and demand, with the 
level of expendable consumer income and the total apple supply as important fac- 
tors. What happens to price from October 15th on, either up, level or down, is 
largely dependent upon how (rate and time of selling) the crop is sold. 

The changes in price which occurred in the average of the years from 1924 
to 1949 and the changes in price which occurred from 1949 to 1958 are indicated 
in the following table. Firm Mcintosh U.S. Fancy 2V' up were used as a base pack. 

Price Changes October 15 to April 1st 

Mcintosh U.S. Fancy 2%" up, Massachusetts 

1924 - 1949 and 1949 - 1958 



Oct 




Nov 




Dec 




Jan 




Feb 




Mar 




Apr 


1924 - 1949 15 


1 


15 


1 


15 


1 


15 


1 


15 


1 


15 


1 


15 


Price: $2.17 


- 


$2.33 


- 


$2.40 


. 


$2.39 


- 


$2.50 


- 


$2.62 


- 


$2.53 


Gain over 


























Oct. 15 


- 


.16 


- 


.23 


- 


.22 


- 


.33 


- 


.45 


- 


.36 


1949 - 1958 



























Price: $2.46 2.72 2.72 2.63 2.54 2.50 2.53 2.54 2.67 2.74 2.73 2.78 

Gain over 

Oct. 15 - .26 .26 .17 .08 .04 .07 .09 .21 .28 .27 .32 



You will notice that the average October 15th price for the first period 
(1924-1949) was $2.17 and that the average price for the second period, was 
$2.46. You will also notice that the increase in price during the period from 
October 15th to March 15th was 45 cents in the first period and 27 cents in the 
later period. 

You will also notice that in the period between 1949 and 1958, the price 
jumped about 25 cents by November 1st and then sagged to only 4 cents over the 
starting price by January 1st. It then rose gradually to the equal of the 
November price in March. The average of those who sold in late October was 
about the same as the average of those who sold in March. This price trend may 
have been due to a desire to hold too many apples for the spring market which 
created an artificial shortage in late October. Much of the spring rise, if any, 
in this period was due to the rise in price of a relatively small percentage of 
firm apples. The tendency to hold apples, together with the inescapable ripening 
of apples, apparently resulted in a market considerably influenced by soft apples. 
The price of apples on the ripe side, shows the reverse trend, from that indicated 
for firm apples, from the middle of January on. 

In order to visualize the variability of the markets, each of the years 
from 1949 through 1958, the start of 1959 and the average of the ten-year period 
is charted on an accompanying page. Only the change in price is used. All years 
were started equal on October 15th and this point is used for the base line. 
Any change in price, up or down, from October 15th is noted by a vertical bar, 
above or below the base line. 

The accompanying charts show two years of rising price, one year of falling 
price and seven years of variable price. The period is characterized by the 
holding of too many, too late and too soft for the desired increase in price as 
the season advanced. 

You will notice that there is little of a pattern of price behavior in this 
most recent of ten years. The average shows a sag in the middle that should be 
of concern. The average shows little difference in price between fall and spring. 



October 15th Price 
Mcintosh U.S. Fancy 2%" up, Massachusetts 



1949 






$1.75 


1954 




$3.37 


1950 






1.62 


1955 




1.62 


1951 






1.87 


1956 




3.37 


1952 






4.25 


1957 




1.80 


1953 






2.69 


1958 
1959 




2.25 
2.12 








Standard Cold Storage Holdings November 1st 












Mcintosh - Massachusetts 








1949 


1 


,463 


,000 Bushels 1954 


584 


000 


Bushels 


1950 


1 


,494 


000 ■ " 1955 


1,430 


000 




1951 


1 


,429 


000 " 1956 


730 


000 




1952 




402 


000 " 1957 


1,362 


000 




1953 


1 


,258 


000 " 1958 

1959 


1,012 
1,023 


000 
000 

















•tJ in 

o 

O 




u-i 




ON 



J L 



■ « ■ ■ 1 1 J 1 1 1 1 






J L 



J L 



<u 

00 

ni 
u 

> 

< 

00 

in 

ON 






J L 



CO 






C 
cd 



u 

0) 
Q 



Z 



o 

o 



™ ,-1 



<u 

(X4 



►-5 









o 

ON 




J L 




ON 

o\ 



uT o i?I o in 




in 

ON 




in 




J I f L 



J I 



J L 



in 
in 

ON 



in o in 
r^ in CN4 



"in o in o o in 



± 



00 

in 

ON 



~o in 
in CM 



in o 
cN in 



-4- 
OUT OF STORAGE MOVEMENT 

It is with this backpround of price that we can consider the question of 
when to sell. 

The accompanying chart shows: 

1. Solid base line for measuring out-of -storage movement of standard storage 
apples. 

2. Solid base line for measuring the out-of-storage movement of C.A. apples. 

3. Dotted line showing movement, in percent, of Mcintosh apples out of Mass. 
storage in the 1959 season to January 1, 1960. 

4. Bi-weekly movement of Mcintosh apples in thousands of bushels in the 1959 
season to January 1, 1960. 

5. Calculated possible movement of standard storage Mcintosh to April 1st 
according to base line. 

6. Calculated possible movement of C.A. Mcintosh in the spring of 1960 
according to the base line for C.A. apples. 

7. The blending of the two movements into one apple marketing season with 
constantly decreasing supply of apples on the market from January 1st 
which in the past, has been associated with favorable price changes. 

The value of the base line for standard storage apples has been confirmed 
over the years since it was developed in 1948. Storage movements noticeably 
slower than indicated by the base line have been associated with unfavorable 
price changes. 

The figures seem to prove the intolerable weight of too many apples on the 
desired increase in price on the spring market. 

It would seem that a suitably proportionate movement of apples in the fall 
and early winter for each size of crop was essential for favorable price changes 
during the season. 

The development of C.A. storages to a point where nearly 40% of the stored 
apples in Massachusetts are stored in C.A. rooms has added considerable significance 
to the rate of fall and early winter movement. 

It is obviously not desirable to have a sagging apple market at the start 
of the C.A. season. It would seem desirable not to have to regain an apple 
movement partially lost by too few apples in front of consumers in February. 

It is essential that C.A. apples be clearly identified as Controlled 
Atmosphere apples when they are first marketed. All available methods of accom- 
plishing this consumer knowledge of product change would seem to be necessary to 
secure full price advantage. 

The fall and early winter movement of standard storage Mcintosh in the 1959 
season is indicated as very close to the base line which in the past, has been a 
favorable factor. 

The price of Mcintosh has increased by gradual steps since October 15th which 
has not discouraged movement. The movement in the period between Dec. 15 and Jan. 1 
of 170,000 bushels is the largest of any bi-weekly period this season. 

It is suggested that you follow the price and movement of both standard and 
C.A. Mcintosh closely and develop your selling strategy to your advantage. You 
can plot the movement of your crop on the chart for comparison. 



» 


<0 


Q) 




O 


< 


in 


G 


pr^ 


o 


• 


(d 


•H 




f-~* 


u 


to 


■-( 







i • 










s 


in 








0) 


o 


.-1 








or 


M 


0) 








nl 


M-l U) 


J3 






OT 


U 


0) 


03 






iJ 


o 


•d C 


3 






4J 


jj 


(U ^ 


XI 






0) 


w 


4J ^ 






u 


U) 




(« 


U-l 




3 


• 


r-l 4) 


O 




b] M 


J3 


<: 


3 W 






Pi S 


U 




o rt 


V) 




i] U 


« 


* 


r-4 JD 


T3 




s & 


w 


o 


CO 


C 




oi o 


U) 




u 


m 




O 




1 


!:i:r^ 


(0 

3 




^^ 




1 


X*I* 










00 


iSifi 


C 

•r-l 




rJ ■ 




cd 


o 






n M 




u 


vO 


4J 




o n 




o 


O ON 


a 




od 




4J 


U .-1 


H 




l^g 




CO 


"O • 


g 




o < 




•o 


(U r-4 


> 




o 




M 


u 


o 




w 




<4 


M >> 


X 




p o 




•X3 


O M 




• 


S z 




C 


O. «) 


( 


to 


^ M 




rt 


0) 3 




<U 


a 




4J 


^s 


4J 





Q ^ 




to 


c 


•r4 


§.§ 






•-> 


<u 


f-) 




1 




u 








1 




M 


4) 


Z M 




1 




(U 


to 


^ ^ 




1 


u 


a, 


CO 


M 2 


Si 


, , 




a 


Xl 


o 


(0 


«! 




■r4 


Q 


H 


o 


0) 






o 


CO 


4J 


C 


>. •• 


CO 


M 




c 


^r^ 


•-> 4J 


(U 


CM 




M 


l-l 


M. C 


d 






o 




0) <U 


•r4 


tJ 




S 


4) 


^§ 


1-1 


0) 
4J 






(0 


1 > 


<u 


CO 






PQ 


•r-l O 


to 


f-l 








oa B 


CO 


3 
O 

n 

u 



-6- 

RESULTS OF LEAF Ai'JALYSES OF ORCHARDS IN 1959 

Leaf analysis is regarded as an effective guide to more economical and 
efficient fertilizer practices and as an aid in diagnosing specific problems 
in individual orchards. For the last several years, leaf samples have been 
obtained from problem blocks of trees in a limited number of orchards in this 
state as an aid in diagnosing nutritional problems. 

In 1959, the Pomology Staff with the cooperation of the Control Service 
at the University of Massachusetts was in the position to increase the Leaf 
Analysis Service. County Agents and the ^/riter obtained leaf samples in the 
orchards that warranted analysis. One hundred and eighty three leaf samples 
were obtained from 49 orchards and analyzed for nitrogen, potassium, calcium 
and magnesium. 

The standard mineral contents desired in Mcintosh leaves expressed as 
per cent dry weight are as follows: nitrogen - 1.80-2.00; calcium - ,90-1.40; 
potassium - 1.25-1.60; and magnesium - .25-. 40. Analyses of Mcintosh leaf samples 
from 43 orchards showed nitrogen was above the desired range in 24 orchards and 
below in 18. Potassium was below the desired range in 14 and magnesium in 34 of 
the orchards , 

The amount and severity of magnesium deficiency may increase in years which 
have excessive amounts of rain during the growing season. Our acid soils are low 
in magnesium and it is readily leached. Also magnesium deficiency is generally mort 
prevalent and severe in heavy crop years. In 1959, most orchards had large crops 
and rain in June and July was considerable above normal. In several orchards, visiu 
symptoms of magnesium deficiency were apparent at time of sampling (July 15 - 
August 15). By September, this deficiency was observed in many Massachusetts 
orchards . 

Although potassium was below the desirable range in 14 of the 43 orchards, 
no deficiency symptoms were noted at time of sampling. The studies conducted by 
Dr. W, D. Weeks have shown that fruit color of Ifclntosh is associated with the 
relative amounts of nitrogen and potassium found in the foliage of the trees. The 
poorest colored fruit was produced by trees which had a high leaf content of 
nitrogen and low potassium. Trees with a low to medium leaf nitrogen and high 
leaf potassium produced the highest colored fruit. 

High rates of nitrogen fertilization increase fruit set, increase total 
yield, decrease fruit color and firmness. Nitrogen can decrease fruit size if 
it produces an excessive fruit set in a yec.r of heavy bloom. In a talk titled, 
"Some Business Aspects of Apple Production' presented at the 65th Annual Meeting ' 
of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association in 1959, Dr. A. B. Burrell of f 
Cornell stated that "With dessert apples, there is no way to go broke faster than \ 
by producing high yields of soft, green apples that bruise easily and keep poorly. 
Discretion in the use of nitrogen is a prime essential for apples that will reach 
the consumer in good condition". 

The value of leaf analyses as an aid in diagnosing specific problems in 
individual orchards is shown in the following example. In 1957, a grower requested 
leaf analyses in a block of Mcintosh trees, 30 years of age. The trees were making 



so little growth, collection of samples was difficult. The results of the leaf 
analyses are sho\m below: 

Mineral Content of Leaves Expressed as °L Dry Weight 





Nitrogen 


Potassium 


Magnesium 


Desired Range 


1 


.80-2.10 


1.25-1.60 


.25 


-.40 


Sample No. 1 




1.77 


1.34 




.41 


2 




1.75 


1.49 




.32 


3 




1.68 


1.20 




.49 


4 




1.62 


1.11 




.36 


5 




1.95 


.90 




.39 


6 




1.87 


.81 




.43 



It can be noted in the table above that the nitrogen and potassium levels 
were low. The nitrogen levels may have been partially influenced by the light 
crop. Nitrogen level is apt to be higher on trees having large crops. 

The grower had been applying 6 pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer per tree. 
However, in 1958, 10 to 12 pounds of 8-16-16 fertilizer was applied per tree and 
during the summer the trees were heavily mulched. Only 4 or 5 pounds of 8-16-16 
was applied per tree in the spring of 1959 because of the heavy mulch application 
of 1958. Observations made by the \jriter in July of this past summer revealed 
the trees sampled in 1957 had a large crop and were vigorous. Out of curiousity, 
three of the six trees sampled in 1957 were re-sampled and the results shown below: 

Mineral Content of Leaves Expressed as % Dry Weight 





Nitrogen 


Potassium 


Magnesium 


Desired Range 


1.80-2.10 


1.25-1.60 


.25-. 40 


Sample No. 1 
2 
3 


2.08 
2.12 
2.18 


1.3 
1.2 
1.5 


.34 
.31 
.30 



It can be noted above that the nitrogen level was considerably higher than 
in 1957. The grower made a wise decision when he reduced the fertilizer application 
rate in the spring of 1959 because of the heavy mulch program of 1958. If the 
fertilizer rate had not been reduced the per cent leaf nitrogen might have been 
higher and fruit color and firmness reduced. 

-— W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Control of Red-Banded Leaf Roller 

In the January issue of "Fruit Notes", we stated that leaf roller resistance 
to TDE was the factor responsible for our troubles in controlling this pest in some 
of our orchards. Research in another state has shown that newly hatched red-banded 
leaf roller worms are still easy to kill with TDE, however, the older and larger 
worms are resistant to TDE, while the young newly hatched worms are still susceptible 



-8- 

In the past, it didn't make any difference whether the worms were large or 
small - TDE did a good job. In fact, we used to recommend that growers wait until 
all the eggs had hatched and then apply TDE. However, under present conditions, 
to make TDE do the best job against leaf roller, growers must get it on when the 
first eggs start to hatch and then continue to maintain a deposit of TDE on the trees 
during the egg hatching period. 

At the present time, there are no really good alternatives for TDE for leaf 
roller control. However, Guthion, when used in an all - season program from petal fall 
on, has given satisfactory control. 

The following is a summary for the control of red-banded leaf roller in 1960. 
Include other materials as recommended in the Spray Chart for control of plum curculi 
- other insects and mites. 



First Brood Control; 

Time 



Materials and Amount 



Petal Fall 
First Cover 
Emergency Use 
(at second cover 
on large worms) 



TDE- 50% 
TDE- 50% 
Phosdrin 



2 lbs. 
2 lbs. 
1 pt. 



Second Brood Control: 



Sixth Cover 

(July 25-August 1) 



Seventh Cover 
(August 7-10) 



lead arsenate 2 lbs. 
plus TDE-50% 2 lbs. 



On Mcintosh 

TDE-50% 2 lbs. 

plus 

malathion-25% 2 lbs. 

or phosdrin-257o 1/2 pt . 

On Varieties Maturing After 

Mcintosh 

lead arsenate 2 lbs. 

plus TDE-50% 2 lbs. 



Emergency Use 

(for late infestations) 



phosdrin-507o 



1 pt, 



Another important consideration in red-banded leaf roller control is to 
know the situation in your orchard. Examine all blocks thoroughly before you 
make your dec is ion I 

Thorough coverage, especially the undersides of leaves, is essential to 
good control. 

WARNINGl Phosdrin is dangerouB . Follow safety precautions when using 
this material. 

l.'.D. Tunis 

Extension Entomologist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



MARCH 15, I960 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Research Findings From Other Areas 

Is Mcintosh Being Challenged? 

Research Findings on Bird Control in 
Small Fruit Plantings 

Apple Storage Seminar 

Apple Varieties in Eastern New York 

1960 Fertilizer Recommendations 

Out-of-Storage Movement to March 1, 1960 



^' 



*^^ 




-■rmm. 




UnrA 






m> 



% 




'i^'Xt'^ 



* -"* .V.' 





w 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



RESEARCH FINDINGS FROM OTHER AREAS 

Potassium Aids in Developing Better Apple Color 

The September-October issue of Ohio Farm and Home Research contained an 
article by Dr. J. M. Beattie, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, 
Ohio, titled, "Potassium Aids in Developing Better Apple Color". The informa- 
tion obtained in this article should be of interest to the apple growers of 
Massachusetts because the results presented by J. M. Beattie are similar to 
the findings of Dr. W. D. Weeks, University of Massachusetts in his work on 
Mcintosh Apple Tree Nutrition. 

"Better colored apples - the kind modern consumers want - are being grown 
at the Ohio Experiment Station. Experiments are showing that naturally red apples 
develop better color if ample amounts of potassium are supplied to the trees. By 
raising the level of potassium in the leaves of Rome Beauty apple trees well above 
one per cent, not only was fruit color but also total yields and shoot growth 
improved. 

"The eight-year-old trees used in the experiment grew on a site where another 
orchard had been removed. These original trees were known to be abnormally low 
in potassium. Foliage analysis showed this to be true. This situation afforded 
an excellent opportunity to study methods and rates of potassivmi fertilizer appli- 
cation under conditions of known deficiency of this element. 

Three Treatments 



"Trees received one of these three fertilizer treatments: 

1. Nitrogen plus muriate of potash at the rate of one-fourth pound per 
year of tree age. 

2. Nitrogen plus four sprays of potassium sulfate applied to the foliage. 

3. Nitrogen only. 

"The foliar sprays were made by dissolving 16 pounds of potassium sulfate in 
100 gallons of water. They were applied at 10-day intervals starting the last 
week of May. 

"Leaf samples taken each year since 1952 showed that the soil potassium 
treatment was the most effective in raising the leaf content of potassium. Foliage 
sprays of potassium sulfate also helped to raise leaf potassium levels over check 
trees, but not as high as the soil applications. Average potassium content of the 
leaves for six years was 1.78 per cent for the trees receiving soil applications of 
potassium; 1.36 per cent for trees receiving foliar sprays; and 1.04 for check trees. 
A leaf concentration of one per cent potassium has been generally considered as the 
level at or below which response from applications of potassium fertilizers can be 
expected. These results suggest the fruit color improvement can be obtained by 
raising leaf potassium well above this one per cent level. 

Yields in Order 

"The yields of trees ran in a corresponding order. In fact, trees fertilized 
with nitrogen and muriate of potash produced almost twice as many apples as the 



check trees. Total production for the four-year period of bearing was 73.4 

pounds for the soil potassium treated trees; 58.4 pounds for foliage-sprayed trees; 

and 39.2 pounds for trees which received nitrogen but no potassium. 

"The fruit was graded according to the amount and quality of red color at har- 
vest. Trees treated with soil applications of muriate of potash consistently pro- 
duced the highest percentage of well colored apples, again followed by sprayed 
and check trees. 

"The value of leaf analysis as a means of diagnosing nutritional troubles 
before a deficiency reaches the stage of exhibiting usual symptoms is emphasized. 
In this case greater growth, higher yields and improved fruit color have all been 
made possible." 

---W. J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

IS McINTOSH BEING CHALLENGED ? 

Recent planting surveys in the United States indicate a 45 per cent increase 

in production of Red Delicious by 1965. In this same period an increase of only 

2 per cent is indicated for Mcintosh. By 196 5 the forecast indicates a 26 per 
cent increase in total apple production. 

In the past and currently, Delicious tops the market. Is this the reason 
for increased plantings? Will this advantage continue? Plantings of Delicious 
on marginal soil or marginal sLtes will produce poor quality fruit. Early pick- 
ing of some new red sports of Delicious may also put poor quality fruit on the 
market. Will the consuming public rebel resulting in lower overall prices for 
Delicious. The Delicious is a "one-use" variety, namely, to eat out-of-hand. 
It does have merit as a salad apple but rates poorly for other uses. 

The Delicious variety is unique in that among all varieties it can be grown 
in a wider range of climatic conditions than any other variety. It is similar 
in this respect to the Elberta peach. 

The Delicious can be and should be grown in the Northeast. However, great 
care should be made in selection of a strain (the new red color sports may be 
too "black" when grown in New England), and in selection of soil and site. 

The Mcintosh, unlike the Delicious, is greatly influenced by climate. This 
climate limits regions in which good Mcintosh can be grown. The greater Northeast 
is a natural Mcintosh region. This could work to the advantage of Mcintosh region 
growers. Growers in some competing areas cannot grow good Macs. Although they 
can grow excellent Delicious. 

Basic economic factors of production, storage, distribution and marketing 
affect and influence any apple grower regardless of location. 



-3- 

All wide-awake growers are familiar with the follcwing factors: 

Continuing cost price squeeze; integration; quantity buying; per capita 
consumption of apples declining; fewer but larger growers; applied effi- 
ciencies; increased capital investment; group selling; maturity laws; 
marketing orders; improved quality, etc., etc. 

Are you on the Mac Team? Can the Mac Team meet the challenge? 

Climate designates and defines the area in which Mcintosh can be grown. This 
can be an advantage - in that everybody cannot grow the Mac. Our geographic area 
is relatively small offering opportunities of sticking together and working together 
in meeting the challenges of today's changing fruit industry. To lick many of these 
challenges, group and cooperative action is the only answer. Much is being done with 
advertising, promotion, marketing orders, etc. A real challenge, however, is improv- 
ing distribution and being geared to meet the new marketing requirements. Consumers 
newly introduced to the Mcintosh like it. So the market challenge is available. The 
Mcintosh, unlike the Delicious, can be used for more than eating fresh. A research 
challenge, also, faces the Mcintosh area. Research in studying the Mcintosh as a 
processing apple; conceivably for applesauce, pie, etc., is needed because the con- 
sumer is demanding more and more processed (built-in maid service) goods. 

The final and real challenge, however, is: Can Mcintosh growers as a group 
supply the leadership in finding the right answers and finding them before it's too 
late? 

Personally, I'm glad I'm on the Mac TeamI 

Arthur C. Bobb 
Extension Pomologist 
University of Connecticut 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RESEARCH FINDINGS ON BIRD CONTROL IN SMALL FRUIT PLANTINGS 

(Talk presented by Dave B. Pike, Research Assistant in Wildlife Management, at the 
Small Fruit Meeting held on University of Massachusetts campus in January, 1960) 

Complaints of bird damage to various crops have been voiced for many years, to 
agencies such as: The Audubon Society, the Division of Fisheries and Game, and the 
Department of Wildlife Management at this University. By the spring of 1956, these 
complaints had attained such volume as to instigate a meeting of University personnel 
and some fruit and vegetable growers concerned with the bird problem. The outcome 
of this meeting was the Bird Control Project which was initiated in July, 1956, and 
will be continued as long as it is justified. The project has three main objectives: 
(1) To determine the species of birds doing the damage, (2) to determine the extent 
of the damage, and (3) to attempt to find means of reducing or eliminating said damage, 
The period of time during which observations on bird damage can be made is relatively 
short, one crop cultivated blueberries which suffer heavily from bird damage was 
selected to receive attention. 



-4- 

The species of birds doing damage to cultivated blueberries and its extent 
were determined by means of a questionnaire sent to all known growers. The question- 
naire summary based on grower observations and tally revealed that songbirds, in- 
cluding robins, bluejays, chewinks and sparrows; and blackbirds including starlings, 
grackles and redwing blackbirds were the depredating species. Of all species noted, 
the robin and the starling are by far the most harmful. 

Through the same questionnaire and personal contact, it was determined that 
thirty-eight per cent of the total cultivated blueberry crop was lost to birds in 
1955. In 1956, twenty per cent; in 1957, nineteen per cent; and in 1958, twenty seven 
per cent of the total cultivated blueberry crop was lost due to depredating birds. 

Simultaneous with the success of accomplishing the first two project objectives 
was the relative failure in the third - that of finding methods of eliminating or 
reducing bird damage. To date no completely satisfactory method of bird damage 
prevention, short of total enclosure, has been found. 

A number of bird damage prevention devices were used by growers and/or myself 
in the research projects. A carbide exploder is effective only against starlings 
and grackles and will protect up to 3 acres. They must be cleaned regularly and 
are objectionable in populous areas. Rope firecrackers are good against starlings 
and grackles but start fires if used in sawdust or chip culture. Shotguns are per- 
manent but costly. The following are all ineffective: Rags and papers on strings, 
scarecrows, balloons, garden hose - to simulate snakes, reflectors and spinners. 

After the elimination of the devices previously mentioned and others, a live 
Cooper's hawk which is the natural enemy of the robin and starling was tried in the 
cherry orchard and blueberry planting on University property. The hawk was tethered 
to a seven foot perch pole and placed about twenty feet from a cherry tree, which 
was of a different variety and ripening later than the trees surrounding it. The 
hawk was tethered to the pole for alternating half hour periods. A tally was made 
of the number and species of birds visiting the tree under both conditions. During 
five afternoons of such observations, a total of 192 birds were observed feeding 
while the hawk was absent and only two when it was present. The next step was to 
substitute a stuffed hawk for the live one. During four afternoons, 154 birds 
were observed feeding in the absence of the stuffed hawk and only 8 tried to feed 
when the hawk was present. In the blueberry planting, results were similar with 
229 birds being tallied while the stuffed hawk was absent and 14 while it was present. 
These counts were made during 6 afternoons. 

Due to the success with the stuffed hawk, the next step was to construct a 
hawk decoy which would withstand weathering. Therefore, 12 plastic models were pre- 
pared at the American Museum of Natural History and hand painted to resemble Cooper's 
hawks. Used in the cherry orchard, the plastic decoys gave equally as good results 
as those previously obtained with the live and stuffed hawk. An attempt was made 
to measure the maximum length of time the decoy hawks would be effective. A decoy 
on a 22 foot pole was placed in the middle of 5 cherry trees. These trees were in 
a row and the decoy was placed up through the branches of the middle tree and le ft 
in this position night and day. The cherries were ripe six days before the robins 
dared to approach the nearside of the trees adjacent to the tree having the hawk in 
it. No starlings or grackles entered any of the 5 trees during the 6-day period. 
Plastic decoys distributed to 4 growers for trial were initially effective but lost 



-5- 

their effectiveness as time went on. 

The initial success with the stationary hawks led me to believe that if one 
could be simulated in flight, a satisfactory deterrent might be the outcome. A 
full size motor driven hawk decoy was erected over and around a small blueberry 
planting with a circumference of 300 feet. When completed however, its effective- 
ness could not be determined due to a late season lack of birds and malfunction 
of the apparatus. 

Another apparatus which has shown promise is the "bird snapper", a device in 
which an electric current jumps a gap between two parallel wires, causing a loud 
snap. A serious drawback in its use is that it causes radio interference in nearby 
homes. When this radio interference is a problem, the bird snapper is being used 
without the snapping effect. Where formerly an electric current jumped a gap be- 
tween the 2 parallel wires at predetermined points, now the wires have been sepa- 
rated equally. And whereas in the snapper it was the noise which kept the birds 
away, in the latter, it is an electric shock which occurs when a bird lights on 
the wires. This apparatus is now being used by two growers with apparent satisfaction. 

Earlier mention was made of complete enclosure of the planting. One material 
used for this is chicken wire and though it is very durable, its cost is prohibitive. 
Tobacco cloth is also effective but is not durable. Another material is "Protect-0- 
Net", formerly called "Lenonet", which is a twisted paper netting of %" mesh. The 
cost of erection of "Protect-0-Net" over one acre is approximately $1,000. While 
the initial cost is high, projected tests have shown that the netting should last 
about seven growing seasons with reasonable handling care. A fourth material that 
might prove satisfactory for covering a crop is a new product called "Vexar" plastic 
netting. However, this product is still in the experimental stage. It is a poly- 
ethylene which is extended directly into a mesh or netting. It is flexible, chemi- 
cally inert and has a high resistance to rot, moisture and mildew. No standard line 
has been established. The company claims they are prepared to manufacture products 
to their customer's specifications within limits of course. 

In summary, the bird problem is a very complex one involving not only birds 
and crops but also a public relations problem. Based on a wealth of negative know- 
ledge accumulated during the past four years, solution of this problem points strongly 
toward total enclosure of the crop involved. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



APPLE STORAGE SEMINAR 

A Controlled Atmosphere Seminar has been an annual event at the University 
of Massachusetts for the last two years. The seminars have helped to increase 
grower understanding of CA Storage Management and Construction. However, the 
Controlled Atmosphere Storage Seminar Committee feels that the scope of program 
should be enlarged to include construction and management problems of both, CA 
and Regular Refrigerated Storages. It is our opinion that the program being 
planned will be of interest to all operators of apple storages. 

The Apple Storage Seminar will be held at the University of Massachusetts on 
April 21st, beginning at 10:00 a.m. and ending at 4:00 p.m. 



-6- 

Tentatively, the morning program will consist of discussions on V/ater Scrubbers 
and Storage Scald. Two speakers from out of state are being contacted to discuss 
these topics. 

In the afternoon, Prof. J. W. Zahradnik, University of Massachusetts, will give 
Research Progress Reports on - Programing Blowers, Water Scrubbers and Fill Insulation, 
In addition, the topics of Heat Leakage in Cold Storages and Methods of Increasing 
Cooling Capacity will be on the agenda. 

An official program will be announced at a later date. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

APPLE VARIETIES IN EASTERN NEW YORK 

The New York State Horticultural Society News Letter published in February, 
1960 contained an article by M. B. Hoffman and B. A. Dominick, Cornell University 
titled, "Apple Varieties for the Future." The following information was taken 
from the article. 

"APPLE TREES BY VARIETY, EASTERN N. Y. , 1959 * 

Bearing trees Non-bearing Proportion 
10 years & trees under of variety 
older 10 years non-bearing 
Per cent of total Per cent 

Mcintosh 42 31 16 

Delicious 16 27 32 

Rome 10 14 28 

Golden Delicious 4 10 43 

Cortland 12 6 12 

Others 16 12 ii 

Total 100 100 21 

No. of Trees (000) 906 242 

* Source: New York Crop Reporting Service 

"In the eastern counties non-bearing trees make up 21 per cent of the total. 
Golden Delicious has figured prominently in the new plantings of this section. 
However, the three varieties, Mcintosh, Delicious and Rome make up 72 per cent of 
the non-bearing trees. 

"Mcintosh has been and should continue as one of our more profitable varieties 
when it is stored in good condition. Growers who have more Mcintosh than they can 
harvest within 10 days, are likely to run into a condition problem in many years . 
Condition is very important in our winter marketing program . In other fruit areas 
of the United States, Delicious has been more widely planted than any other variety. 
The national production of Rome is also expected to increase by significant amounts. 



"This poses the question of what new variety might be considered for the 
Hudson Valley area which caters largely to the fresh fruit trade. In this cate- 
gory Idared continues to attract attention. Of course, the planting in quantity 
of any relatively new variety will always be a calculated risk. In spite of this 
fact the Hudson Valley variety situation, twenty years hence, could be better, 
certainly no worse, if Idared occupied some of that percentage now held by the 
leading three of the non-bearing group." 

Editor's Note - There would be a definite advantage to harvesting the Mcintosh 
crop X'/ithin a 10-day period. However, rate of cooling of harvested fruit may be 
a limiting factor for some growers. In order to harvest the fruit within 10 days 
means either less volume of Mcintosh or increasing cooling capacity of present 
storages or additional storage space. 

Idared is one of the newer fruit varieties worthy of trial in Massachusetts. 
The fruit has an attractive bright red finish. Fruit quality good but somewhat 
on the mild side. It has a long storage season. Harvest season is early October. 
Idared is one of the more promising late keeping dessert and general purpose apples, 

-— W. J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



1960 FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS 



Results of leaf analyses from 43 Mcintosh orchards taken in Massachusetts 
this past summer indicate that over half the trees were above the desired range 
for nitrogen. With so many trees too high in nitrogen for the best development 
of fruit color and firm apples of good storage quality, we are suggesting that 
growers reduce nitrogen applications by 1/3 to 1/2. This reduction in nitrogen 
should help improve fruit color in those blocks which have been producing poorly 
colored fruit in the past. The suggested amounts of fertilizer shown in the 
following table are given as a guide. 

Suggested Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Apple Orchards 





Ap 


proximate Amounts per 


Tree 






Potential bushel 
yield of tree 


Nitrogen 
required 


Potash 
required 


Ammonium 
Nitrate 


Muriate 

of Potash or 0-15-30 


8-16-16 


Less than 15 
15 - 25 
More than 25 


Pounds 

0.66 
0.66-1.00 
1.33-2.00 


Pounds 

1.3 
1.3-2.0 
2.7-4.3 


Pounds 

2.0 
2.0-3.0 
4.0-6.0 


Pounds 

2.1 
2.1-3.3 
4.5-7.9 


Pounds 

4.3 

4.3-6.6 
9.0-14.3 


Pounds 

8 
8-12 
16-25 



Each grower will have to adjust the suggested amounts up or down to meet 
the requirements of the trees in his blocks. If the trees are over vigorous and 
fruit color and quality poor, reduce the amount of fertilizer by 1/3 to 1/2. 
However, if the trees are weak in vigor and yields are low, apply the amounts 
suggested or increase the rates slightly. 



The suggested amounts of materials to apply in the table are for hand applica- 
tions under the spread of the branches. When the materials are broadcast over the 
entire orchard floor it may be necessary to increase the rate of application in 
order to obtain the same tree response as with the band applications. Fertilizer 
materials other than those given in the tables may be used so long as they are 
applied at rates which provide equivalent amounts of nitrogen and potassium. 

The tree's magnesium and calcium requirements can best be met by maintaining 
an adequate dolomitic liming program. The pH of orchard soils should be maintained 
between 6 and 6.5. If a soil test shows that the pH of soil is 5.5 or below, 
magnesium sulfate sprays should be applied to prevent possible occurrence of mag- 
nesium deficiency. It takes from 3 to 5 years before dolomitic limestone is 
effective in correcting magnesium deficiency. When magnesium sulfate sprays are 
used apply 2 to 3 sprays of epsom salts at the rate of 20 pounds per 100 gallons 
of water. These sprays should be timed by calyx, first, and second cover sprays. 
To avoid possible incompatibilities the epsom salt sprays should not be combined 
with the regular insecticidal and fungicidal sprays. 



Boron shoul 
most common mate 
size. Apply one 
quarters pound t 
large or mature 
exceed 50 pounds 
basis. Polybor- 
one and three we 
York State. 



d be applied to orchard soils every three years. Borax is the 
rial used. The rates of application per tree vary with age and 

quarter pound of borax to young trees, one-half to three- 
o medium age and size trees, and three-quarters to one pound to 
trees. In no case should the rate of one application of borax 

per acre. Boron may be applied as a foliar spray on a trial 
2 or Boro Spray applied at 1/2 pound per 100 gallons of spray 
eks after petal fall have given satisfactory results in New 



The amounts of fertilizer applied to trees which have received annual 
applications of 200 pounds or more of hay mulch per tree may be materially re- 
duced or entirely eliminated. Tree performance should serve as a guide in de- 
termining the extent to which the rates of fertilizer may be reduced. 

In young non-bearing orchards, it may be possible to produce sufficient high 
quality mulching material for the young trees by broadcasting 500 to 800 pounds 
of mixed fertilizer per acre. Place the mulch in a band under the spread of the 
branches. The amount of fertilizer required for the trees with this system of 
culture will vary with the quantity and quality of mulch applied around each tree. 
If the trees are not making sufficient growth, one-eighth pound of ammonium nitrate 
per year of tree age may be applied to the mulch. 

Recommendations for fertilizing peach orchards are given in the following 
table. The amounts given may need to be increased if the trees are in a heavy 
sod. A suggested increase would be to double the amount of nitrogen. 

Suggested Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Peach Orchards 







Approximate ainounts per tree 


Tree Age 


Ammonium 
Nitrate 


Muriate 

of Potash or 0-15-30 


8-16-16 


3-6 
6-9 
9-12 
12 6i over 


Pounds 

1 -Ik 

2 -4 


Pounds 

1-2 
2-3 
3-4 
4-8 


Pounds 

2-4 
4-6 
6-8 
8-12 


Pounds 

2-4 
4-6 
6-8 
8-16 



-9- 



OUT-OF-STOIIACE MQVEllENT TO MARCH 1, 1960 



The out-of-storage movement of Mcintosh in Massachusetts as indica- 
ted by the dash line on the out-of-storage movement chart (next page) 
is closer to the base line than for any year since the chart was first 
designed in 1948. 

This movement has several very important influences on the current 
market situation: 

1. As a result of this movement, there is no large pile-up of apples 
at the end of the season. There were only about 36,000 bushels 
of standard storage Mcintosh to be sold on March 1 according to 
market reports. 

2. Because there was no pile-up at the end of the season, the price 
was firm on firm Mcintosh. 

3. The favorable situation in regard to standard storage Mcintosh 
provided a firm base for the sale of C.A. Mcintosh. 

It is noteworthy that the necessary movement of apples was accom- 
plished on a gradually increasing or firm price from October 15. The 
level of price has been lower than grov/ers would like. It is the changes, 
however, that are important and that are influenced by the rate of move- 
ment and the resulting quantity left in storage. 

Competition from the Hudson Valley has made the season difficult 
because of the somewhat less than firm condition of the apples from that 
area. There would seem to be no reason to believe that the public will 
not continue to pay a premium price for firm C.A. apples from Massachusetts. 

It V70uld seem from figures to date that the growers have been 
successful in moving this crop to the best advantage considering the level 
of price which was established in the fall. Condition is an important 
factor this year as well es every other year in influencing price and price 
changes. 

It would seem an orderly movement of C.A. apples out-of-storage is 
possible for the rest of the season, with a constantly decreasing supply 
on the market . 



-F. E. Cole 
Extension Marketing Specialist 




ITl 



C 

o 
o 
w 

c 
2. ^ 

< 
O 



a 

a 



p^ 
ra 
S 



o 

3 






n) 



0) 







w 






o 






cu 


r— 1 


c 
« 


0) 


1— 1 




< 
0) 

.-1 
a 




o 


a 


lij 


(U 


< 

t-i 
Id 
fi 
o 






< 


r-l 


> 
o 


<u 
o 

3 


I-l 




O 
(A 

Id 

4J 




4J 


CO 


l-l 


o 
O 


Q 



§3 



o 

o 

C4 



o 

00 



o 



o 



o 



o 
o 



o 

CO 



o 



o 

<t 



o 

csi 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Deportment of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



APRIL 15, 1960 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

What About Your Pollinators? 

Watch Out For the Strawberry Weevil in 1960 

Strawberry Plants and Berry Production 

Apple Powdery Mildew Expected To Increase 
in Massachusetts in 1960 

Chemical Thinning 

New England Apple Storage Seminar 

Liability Insurance For Fruit Growers 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



WIIAT ABOUT YOUR POLLINATORS ? 

If you are to have a satisfactory fruit set, you must have sufficient insects 
to distribute the pollen during the period of bloom. Bees are the only insects of 
significance in distributing pollen to deciduous fruits. There are three principal 
groups of bees, the bumble bees, the honey bees and the solitary bees. All are of 
value but from a practical standpoint, the honey bee is the only insect that can be 
increased in numbers and distributed where wanted and when needed in the orchard. 

Much has been done to determine the type of colony best suited for pollination, 
Farrar, 1931, demonstrated that on the basis of equal weights of adult bees, over- 
wintered colonies are superior to package bees for pollination. He proved that a 
single overwintered colony, having 3.5 pounds of bees, would send more bees to the 
field than four 3 pound packages. Farrar's conclusions have been substantiated by 
other investigators in New York, California and in other areas. For adequate pol- 
lination, a grower should obtain strong, overwintered colonies. Such colonies will 
require a minimum of two hive bodies, and some will need three for sufficient room 
for expansion and storage of nectar and pollen during bloom . 

In order to establish a suitable standard of strength and to provide a basic 
rental price, Farrar in 1931 proposed that colonies for pollination should occupy 
5-6 frames when the air temperature is 60 - 65° F. The basic price, in 1931, 
was set at $5.00. Colonies having fewer than five frames would have $1.25 deducted 
for each frame less than five. 

If the colony occupies over six frames, Farrar suggested that a premium of 
$1.00 be given for each additional frame. This was a good basis in 1931 but most 
beekeepers at present feel that a base price of $5.00 is now too low. 



I 



Since most growers would not wish to open a colony, an alternative method for 
determining colony strength can be used. Colonies of adequate strength, if exposed ■ 
to direct sunlight and protected from the wind, should be sending from 40 - 70 bees 
per minute to the field at air temperatures of 70 - 90° F. during fair weather. If 
fewer bees are flying under these conditions, the grower might question the strength 
of the colonies being rented. 

The distribution and number of colonies per acre has been discussed frequently. 
Under ideal conditions it would probably be best to distribute colonies 1 per acre 
throughout the orchard. However, since many orchards are windswept, it may be pre- 
ferable to seek sheltered locations, or even to provide temporary windbreaks and 
place the colonies in groups of 4 - 6. They should not be located in the shade and 
should face south or southeast. 

The recommendation of one colony per acre is quite general. It does not take 
into account the presence of other pollinating insects, the number of colonies in 
adjoining orchards or the weather. All these factors vary with individual orchards 
so a grower must decide for himself his need for pollinators, f 

In order to provide good relationships between fruit growers and beekeepers, 
some suggestions have been offered as to what a fruit grower and a beekeeper might 
do to make certain that both groups will be satisfied. 



1. The grower and the beekeeper should have a formal contract, preferably 
in writing, concerning the renting of the bees. Among the matters to 
be considered might be the following: 

a. Number of colonies, when wanted and how to be distributed in the 
orchard. 

b. Minimum strength of colonies to be provided. 

c. Rental charge with terms of payment. 

d. Number of days notice for delivery and removal of colonies. 

e. Extra compensation, should heavy loss occur as a result of pesticide 
application while bees are in the orchard. 

2. The beekeeper can make certain that 

a. Colonies are above minimum strength agreed upon and are distributed 
in the orchard as the grower wishes. 

b. Colonies are delivered and removed on time. 

c. The grower is advised not to disturb colonies and to wear protective 
clothing, at least a veil, if he has to work close to the hive location. 

d. The grower has your correct name, address and telephone number so that 
he can contact you easily if the need arises. 

3. The grower should consider the following items to facilitate good working 
relationships. 

a. Insist on strong colonies and be willing to pay a satisfactory price 
in order to get them. 

b. Order the bees early and give the beekeeper an adequate amount of 
time to deliver and remove the bees. It is particularly important 
that the bees are removed prior to any insecticide application after 
bloom. 

c. Do not disturb or move the colonies without the consent of the beekeeper, 

d. Carry out the terms of payment. 

e. Provide someone familiar with the orchard layout to make certain that 
the bees are distributed where desired and to aid the beekeeper in 
locating the colonies when he removes them. 

f. Avoid the possibility of poisoning the bees. Insecticides should not 
be applied during bloom. Some insecticides, if applied during a late 
pink spray, may leave residues highly toxic to bees. Most fungicides 
can be used during bloom but if possible, avoid application while bees 
are actively flying. 

Many orchards contain weeds, such as dandelions mustard, etc. If the bees have 
been collecting nectar and pollen from these, they will continue to do so. Since this 
can reduce the number of bees visiting fruit blossoms, a grower might consider the 
removal of such competing bloom by clipping or other means. He must make certain 
that an adequate supply of suitable pollen is provided. 

In conclusion, if a grower has had a problem of inadequate pollination which 
seems to be caused by too few pollinators, he should consider securing colonies of 
bees to overcome this problem. Many of the counties have active beekeeping associa- 
tions. Your county agent can provide the name of the secretaries of such organiza- 
tions. Through the secretary you can contact beekeepers who are willing to provide 



-3- 



colonics for pollination. In addition to the county associations, there is a 
state Federation of Beekeepers Associations whose secretary is Wallace Parker of 
West Boylston. The Chief Inspector of Apiaries, Milo Bacon, 41 Tremont Street, 
Boston, may be able to provide names of beekeepers who will supply colonies. If 
you need bees, act now. 

F. R. Shaw 

I I I I I I I I I I I I ( I 

WATCH OUT FOR THE STRAWBERRY WEEVIL IN 1960 



The strawberry weevil, which has been a pest on Cape Cod, caused some damage 
to strawberries in western Massachusetts in 1959. In view of the mild winter we 
have had, growers should be on the alert for the strawberry weevil this season. 

The weevil is a small, reddish-brown or black beetle, about 1/10 of an inch 
long, with the head prolonged into a slender curved snout. Just before bloom, 
the weevils leave their overwintering quarters in hedgerows and woodlands and 
move into strawberry plantings. They lay their eggs in the buds. The stems of 
the buds are then cut so that they hang by a mere thread or fall to the ground. 
The developing larvae feed on pollen in the unopened buds. 

The strawberry weevil is controlled by making two pre-blossom applications 
of an insecticide. The first when the buds in the clusters start to separate and 
the second when the earliest blossoms open. The beetles are most active when 
temperatures reach 70° or higher so it is most important to apply an insecticide 
just before or at the beginning of a period of high temperature. 

Effective materials, in dusts or sprays, are DDT or methoxychlor . Use a 5% 
methoxychlor or DDT dust or a SOX wettable powder of either material at the rate 
of 2 lbs. per 100 gallons of water. Since DDT and methoxychlor favor increases 
in mite populations, a miticide such as Kelthane should also be included in these 
sprays or dusts to prevent this mite build-up. Consult the 1960 Strawberry Pest 
Control Chart for further details. 

W.D. Tunis 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS AND BERRY PRODUCTION 

(Talk presented by Roger Lewis, Andover, Massachusetts at the Small 
Fruit Meeting held on University of Massachusetts campus in January, 1960) 

The experiences of many growers during the 1959 season convinced me that we 
should place more emphasis on some simple practices in strawberry growing. 

A grower near me picked a bumper crop of berries on 1/2 acre of land. He re- 
ceived at wholesale fifty cents or more a quart- for all his crop. This crop was 



-4- 

grown on rather heavy soil without any commercial fertilizer. The land did have 
manure and green crop residues ploughed under the previous year. The plants were 
set on raised beds which prevented water from standing on the plants at any time 
during the growing period. These raised beds also prevented ice formation over 
the plants, a condition which proved fatal to so many plantings even on light soil 
during the winter of 1958-59. Also, the plants were mulched early, before the 
hard freezes that occurred iti December of 1958. These early mulched plants were 
not injured. This checks with the experience of another grower who mulched early, 
but failed to cover a fifty foot by fifty foot section of plants. A good crop was 
produced on the mulched area. On the area not mulched the plants survived but 
produced virtually no berries. 

Another grower set plants on new land broken up two years before. A month 
later half of these plants had died or were dying. Soil test and a check on his 
fertilizer practice showed the plants were damaged by an excess of soluble salts 
that had not leached away the previous winter. The presence of the salts was 
due to very large quantities of commercial fertilizer applied to vegetable crops 
the previous two years. This grower decided to salvage what plants he could by 
moving all surviving plants from 20 rows into 10 rows. Heavy rains leached out 
the salts, and the plants took hold and made up good fruiting rows which should 
yield well in 1960. 

I have set plants successfully in every month except January and February, 
so that, I know with the right conditions, it can be done. However, I have seen 
a number of cases in widely scattered locations where plants set in late April, 
twenty four hours or less before a bad freeze, failed to survive, while other 
plants set two weeks earlier survived as if there were no freezing weather. 

To sum this all up, I believe it is desirable, especially on heavier soils 
or areas where land is flat to: 

1. Use raised beds for drainage. 

2. Mulch thoroughly and earlier than we have been accustomed to doing before 
heavy freezes. 

3. Avoid excessive use of commercial fertilizer ahead of, or at time of setting 
new plants. 

4. When weather is liable to be severe, in either spring or fall, watch the 
forecasts and do not set plants unless you are sure of 48 hours of tem- 
perature above freezing. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



APPLE POWDERY MILDEVJ EXPECTED TO INCREASE IN MSSACHUSETTS IN 1960 

Indications are that there will be more apple powdery mildew in Massachusetts 
orchards this year than in 1959. The winter has been relatively mild so that very 
little mildew which wintered in the terminal buds has been killed. 



-5- 

Terrainals pruned from Red Delicious trees in a block that had a little pow- 
dery mildew last summer showed no mildew on the bark or on the buds when the 
terminals were brought into the laboratory. When placed in water and forced, 
the new leaves showed an abundance of powdery mildew threads and spores. It is 
obvious that the powdery mildew in overwintering buds is alive and ready to in- 
fect new growth early in the season as soon as conditions are favorable. 

To keep mildew from building up and becoming serious, it will be necessary" 
to begin mildew control early, especially in orchards where there was even a 
small amount of mildew last year. In orchards where there was no mildew last 
year, prevention could be started in the early scab sprays, otherwise, control 
should be started as soon as mildew is discovered. A small amount of sulfur, 
one or two pounds, in the pre-cover scab sprays, with Karathane, 1/4 to 1/2 
pound at 7 to 10 day intervals, in the cover sprays to about the 4th cover when 
terminal growth slows down, keeps powdery mildew under satisfactory control. 
On sulfur-sensitive varieties, such as Red Delicious, Baldwin and others, it is 
advisable to change from sulfur to Karathane in Pink to reduce russetting. 
Specific directions for various situations will be found on the inside cover of 
the last page of the Apple Spray Charts for 1960. 

The following information about mildew will be helpful in controlling it: 

Unlike scab, mildew does not need free water for spore germination and in- 
fection and, in fact, free water hinders and prevents spore germination. A 
high relative humidity, over 90%, however, is necessary and such conditions do 
exist on foggy, damp, and dewey nights. 

Infections occur at temperatures between 55 and 80° F. with best mycelial 
growth and spore germination at about 70°F. Infections become visible in two 
or three days. 

The best control is obtained with sprays applied regularly and thoroughly 
so that the mildew is wet. For better wetting, some glyodin or wetting agent, 
such as Triton B-1956 or Du Pont spreader-sticker, may be necessary. 

C. J. Gilgut 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



CHEMICAL THINNING 

By this time I'm sure you have received word that all the common chemical 
thinning (and preharvest drop control) materials for both, apples and peaches 
have been cleared for use through 1960. VJhether these materials will have 
clearance beyond 1960 from the Food and Drug Administration will depend in some 
measure on work that is to be carried out during the 1960 growing season at 
several experiment stations. 

Special Circular No. 189 on Chemical Thinning of Apples has been revised 



and is now available. Our suggestions for the chemical thinning of apples with 
Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Naphthalene acetamide (NA Amide) are essentially 
the same as they have been for the past few years. The principal' precaution that 
has been added is that these materials should not be used shortly after low 
temperature injury has occurred to the foliage even though no apparent Injury to 
flowers or young fruit has taken place. Low temperature injury to the foliage 
may occur at temperatures of 28-30° F and below, resulting in some crinkling of 
the young spur leaves. Eventually this tissue will heal but for at least four 
or five days after this injury has occurred the usual application of NAA or 
NA Amide (Amid-Thin) may greatly increase the amount of thinning and leaf injury 
obtained. We observed this phenomenan in one block last year and now suspect that 
this is probably the reason for occasional isolated cases of foliage injury from 
NA Amide . 

Last year we found (with Golden Delicious) that an application of NAA about 
two weeks after petal fall results in a temporary slowing do\-m of the rate of 
growth of persisting fruit. This influence lasts about 10 days. In other words, 
these thinners appear to have a temporary growth inhibiting action on non-shedding 
fruit and for a time the average size of persisting fruit on chemically thinned 
trees may be smaller than similar fruit on unthinned trees. This temporary re- 
pressive action of NAA may result in a loss of approximately 1/8 of an inch in 
diameter growth. However, it may be expected, because of the ultimate increase 
in the leaf to fruit ration following the use of thinners that the size of fruit 
from thinned trees will eventually surpass that of fruits on comparable heavily 
set, unthinned trees. Also, the benefits of these sprays in improving the degree 
of flowering of many apple varieties the following year still makes the use of 
these materials desirable in years when oversetting occurs. 

There is another material, which appears to be a post-bloom apple thinner. 
The material is the insecticide, Sevin. Reports in quite a few areas indicate 
that Sevin may reduce the set and total yield when applied anytime from peta- 
fall up to 25 to 30 days after bloom. It is our suggestion that you avoid the 
use of Sevin during this period until more complete knowledge of its thinning in- 
fluence is gained. We plan to conduct several experiments with Sevin to determine 
what its thinning capacity is in comparison to the NAA type materials. Until there 
is information of this sort with our varieties, Sevin should not be considered for 
thinning purposes. 

F. W. Southwick 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Dr. Lord on Sick Leave 



During the extended absence of our able Extension Pomologist the rest of 
the Pomology Staff will attempt to handle urgent Extension requests. Dr. Lord 
is recovering satisfactorily from his operation at the Farren Memorial Hospital 
in Montague City. However, several x^^eeks of recuperation at his home in 
Sunderland will be necessary before he will be back on the job of serving you 
fruit growers. 

A. P. French 



-7- 

NEW ENGLAND APPLE STORAGE SEMINAR 

The following is our 3rd successive program relating to apple storage. 
This year both, cold and CA storage problems will be discussed and will be 
Nev7 England-wide in scope. 

Everyone interested in apple storage problems is welcome. Hope we'll 
see you at the Student Union at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst on 
Thursday, April 21. 

MORNING PROGRAM 

Chairman - Prof. Rudolph A. Poray, Extension Fruit Specialist 
University of Maine, 

10:00 - Construction. Operation and Role of Water Scrubbers in CA Rooms . 
Dr. R. M. Smock, Pomology Department, Cornell University. 

Discussion 

10:50 - The Present Status of Storage Scald and Its Control . 

Dr. R. M. Smock, Pomology Department, Cornell University 

Dr. V. Shutak, Horticulture Department, University of Rhode Island 

Dr. F. W. Southwick, Horticulture Department, University of Massachusetts 

Discussion 

12:00 - Lunch available at the Student Union Cafeteria. 

AFTERNOON PROGRAM 

Chairman - Prof. W. W. Irish, Extension Agricultural Engineer 
University of Connecticut 

1:00 - Maintaining. Servicing and Increasing the Capacity of the Refrigeration System . 
Mr, Frank Adler, Harding and Gross, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Discussion 

2:00 - A Review - Heat Leakage in Apple Storage . 

Prof. Curtis A. Johnson, Extension Agricultural Engineer 
University of Massachusetts 

Discussion 

3:00 - Progress Report - Blower Programming, Outside Type Water Scrubbers and In 
Place Study of Fill Type Insulation 

Prof. J. VJ. Zahradnik, Agricultural Engineering Department 
University of Massachusetts 



— F. W, Southwick 



LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR FRUIT GROWERS , 

As an owner or occupier of property a person must maintain his holdings with 
due regard to the safety of others. If he is a farmer or businessman he has even 
more responsibility because the risk of daniage of injury to others or their pro- 
perty may be greater. 

This duty applies particularly to the upkeep of buildings and the farm sur- | 

roundingSjin the control of livestock including pets on the farm, in the whole- J 

someness of the products he sells as well as to the work undertaken by him both, S 
on and off the premises. 

Among other things under personal liability, a farmer is responsible for 
such things as these: i' 



1. To safeguard visitors, members of the public, and their property on his ,1 
premises. (His highest responsibility is to those persons he directly 
or indirectly invites to his place; he is less responsible for licensees 
such as salesmen; and he owes trespassers at least the duty of not 
knowingly harming them.) j 



I 



2. To keep his livestock off highways where they may cause accidents result- 

ing in injury to motorists or to property. 

3. To provide safeguards in handling vicious animals. 

4. To warn his tenant of any hazard on the premises that would not ordinarily 
be detected. 

5. To prevent fire from spreading from his property to the premises of another, 

6. For his own negligence if an employee is injured while at work. 

7. To his employees and under certain circumstances, those of a contractor 
doing work on his farm, even though the contractor might carry insurance. 

8. To the public for the v/holesomeness of his products. (Farmers who sell 
farm prepared food products such as ready to cook poultry, frozen chicken 
pies, pastries, candy, apple juice, farm made sausage and farm products 
of any sort may assume this liability as a result.) 

In general two policies are used: 

1. In the case of smaller farms where the farmers do no processing and who 
sell their own products, satisfactory coverage may be obtained by buying 
a Farmers' Comprehensive Personal Liability policy and securing suitable 
endorsements under the policy. This policy does not insure any automobile 
liability away from the premises nor does it insure farm employees unless 
an endorsement is secured as part of the policy to insure them. 



2. In the case of larger farms, insurance for the various risks and others 
can be secured by a Comprehensive General Liability Policy. Farmers who 
process farm products for themselves and others, who retail milk, make 
sausage, chicken pies, preserves, candy, freeze and dress poultry, and 
the like, should be sure to discuss their operation with their insurance 
agent so he can write the proper policy. 

In several fairly recent cases rather substantial awards have been made by 
the courts to injured parties who either visited the farmer's premises to buy farm 
products, to pick apples, or were sold unwholesome products. 

By all means consult your insurance agent as to possible coverage for risks 
and be sure you tell him about your farm and orchard operations. Tell him who is 
involved and the location and conditions under which they work or where the public 
buys your products. 

Liability insurance is necessary, often overlooked and not expensive. 

— -L. D. Rhoades 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue From Supportin,'^ Fields 

C. J. Gilgut - Extension Plant Pathologist 
L. D. Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 
F. R. Shaw - Professor of Entomology and Plant Pathology 
W. D. Tunis - Extension Entomologist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



MAY 13, 1960 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Storage Scald - Present Status of Control Measures 

Apple Publicity 

Color and Yield of Different Mcintosh Strains 

Plastic Mulch for Strawberries 

In Days of Yore 

What Happened to the Raspberries? 

Strawberry Twilight Meeting 



^: 




,'V//M 





I 



"^iti^r-SiA 



,:£5V«y4 



vVlf, 



■>'Ti» 



i 



11;- 



jm. 




■y- 






^1 



fe 



i 



'fm, 





n> 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director. In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



STORAGE SCALD - PRESEOT STATUS OF CONTROL MEASURES 



At the New England Apple Storage Seminar on April 21, a discussion of 
storage scald led by Dr. R. M. Smock of Cornell, Dr. Vlad Shutak of Rhode Island 
University and the author made it possible for those in attendance to get some 
idea of where we now stand on this problem. Here are some of the important points 
that were brought out; 

1. The past season with its hot weather jusc prior to harvest was one which 
apparently caused many varieties to be very susceptible to scald. 

2. The material Santoquin when used at 1000 to 2000 ppm as a preharvest spray 
failed to give commercial control on Cortland and Mcintosh. Even diphe- 
nylamine (DPA) was not as effective as it has been in the past. 

3. Attempts to control scald by manipulation of the nutritional status of 
the tree have not been successful. 

4. Scald on cold storage Mcintosh is invariably much more serious than it 
is on CA Mcintosh if both lots are harvested at the same time from the 
same trees, stored promptly after harvest and stored for the same length 
of time. 

5. The key to scald control on CA Mcintosh seems to be related to harvest 
date (much more scald if picked late) and quick cooling after harvest . 

The importance of picking Mcintosh for CA storage on the early side and cool- 
ing them within 24 hours of harvest can hardly be over-emphasized. Recent data 
indicate that if this is done, scald control on CA Mcintosh can be obtained with- 
out having to rely on special wraps, chemical sprays or dips. However, scald 
control on cold storage Mcintosh and other varieties, regardless of whether they 
are cold or CA stored, is often impossible by such a simple procedure. 

The data shown in the following tables illustrate these points. 

Table 1. The influence of picking date on the percentage of total scald on 
cold and CA stored Mcintosh and Cortland. 1959-60. 

Firmness (lbs.) Per cent Scald 



After 7 days at room temp . 



Storage Picking at harvest 

Conditions Date Mcintosh Cortland Mcintosh-*- Cortland 

320F in air 9/9 16.4 18.6 81.4 21.3 

9/16 16.1 17.4 33.1 77.1 

9/23 15.4 16.8 29.5 95.1 

9/29 14.2 15.8 45.3 97.5 

32-360F in air 9/29 14.2 15.8 71.1 100.0 

CA-38°F 9/9 16.4 18.6 2.0 40.9 

3% 02/5% CO2 9/16 16.1 17.4 1.2 32.5 

9/23 15.4 16,8 4.8 43.3 

9/29 14^2 15,^8 44.1 33.2 

^Removed from storage in April, 1960. 

Tlemoved from storage in March, 1960. 



Table 2. The influence of delayed storage on the percentage of total scald 
on cold and CA stored Mcintosh and Cortland. 1959-60. 

Hours elapsed Per cent scald 

Storage between harvest Picking After 7 days at room temp . 

Conditions and storage Date Mcintosh^ Cortland'^ 

32-360F in air 6 9/2A 46.5 100.0 

24 9/24 52.1 100.0 
36 9/24 

48 9/24 43.5 100.0 

72 9/24 53.8 100.0 



46 


.5 


52 


.1 


55 


.3 


43 


.5 


53 


.8 





.0 


2 


.2 


5 


.0 


15 


.9 


21 


.3 



CA-380F 6 9/24 0.0 19.7 

3Z 02/5% CO2 24 9/24 2.2 27.0 

36 9/24 ' " 

48 9/24 15.9 43.8 

72 9/24 21.3 54.1 

^Removed frorn storage in April, 19&0. 

iletnoved frorn storage in March, 1960. 

It is our present suggestion that for those storing CA Mcintosh that fruit 
be picked for such storages when its flesh firmness ranges from 15 to 17 pounds. 
This new standard is a pound higher than the firmness standard suggested a few 
years ago. This may mean that in order to have adequate color spot picking of 
Mcintosh for CA storage will have to become more prevalent. Also, fruit should 
move rapidly from the orchard to storage so that the time lapse between harvest 
does not exceed 24 hours. This is a problem where fruit must be trucked to a 
storage some miles away and undoubtedly accounts for more serious scald on some 
of such lots of fruit in CA storage. 

If it is difficult to cool fruit rapidly in storage it is probably better 
to delay sealing the room, if the temperature is at 38 to 40°F, until the tem- 
perature of the fruit has been brought down to 32 to 35'^F. This may mean a de- 
lay in sealing of several days but we suspect that less scald is apt to occur 
and fruit condition will not be impaired by such a procedure. A faster rate of 
fruit cooling may be obtained for those who have more than one CA room and sepa- 
rate compressors for each room, if all rooms are filled simultaneously rather than 
to fully load each room in sequence. 

F. W. Southwick 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

APPLK PUBl.ICITY 

The best apple publicity event of the year (1959) v/as the featuring of apples 
by the Rockingham Hotel in Portsmouth, Hew Hampshire at their Saturday evening 
smorgasbord during National Apple V/eek. Apple display material decorated the 
dining room, apple cut outs were used au place mats and Mcintosh apples were used 
as part of the table decorations. 



Apples were featured in many of the buffet dishes. A past Apple Queen 
from Maine was present and the management announced that it was National Apple 
Week and mentioned a few things about the apple industry in New Hampshire. I 
am sure that everyone went away that evening with the feeling that apples have 
a real place in many appetizing dishes. To me it was a real promotional stunt 
for apples, and I would like to see the various Fruit Grower Organizations use 
this idea nect year and get all hotels and restaurants that serve smorgasbords 
to feature apples during National Apple Week and on other occasions whenever 
possible. In fact, it could be made a real promotional event for a number of 
agricultural crops. Some one could be present from the industry, the Department 
of Agriculture or the University to talk briefly about the particular crop being 
featured. 



I 



-E. J. Rasmussen 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



COLOR AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT McINTOSH STRAINS 
Horticultural Farm, Durham, New Hampshire 

A three-year survey of color of four strains of Mcintosh apples grown at 
the Experiment Station Horticulture Farm at Durham, New Hampshire gave the fol- 
lowing results which show the fraction of fruit (in per cent) from each strain 
that graded into each of four color ranges. 



STRAIN 



Per cent range of Red Color 



0-24 


25-49 


50-74 


75-100 


-1% 


5/% 


19/% . 


74/% 


57. 


21% 


41/% 


33/% 


0% 


3/% 


30/% 


65/% 


-1% 


9/% 


45/% 


44/% 



Farley Red Mcintosh 
U.N.H. 231F Mcintosh 
Rogers Mcintosh 
Black Mcintosh 



V/hile the total amount of fruit with over 50 per cent color does not differ 
greatly in any of the strains it is evident that the Farley strain produced much 
more fruit carrying from 7 5 to 100 per cent color than the other strains. This 
difference was very promounced on visual observation of boxes of fruit from the 
various strains. 

Average total yield in bushels per tree of the different strains for a two- 
year period was as follows: 

Farley Mcintosh 23.7; U.N.H. No. 23 IF 34.7; Rogers Mcintosh 13.26 and Black 
Mcintosh 15.5. 

All trees of the Farley, Rogers and Black Mcintosh are the same age and are on 
seedling roots. Trees of U.N.H. 231F have tops one year younger than the others, 
and their roots are Malus robusta No. 5. Tops of the U.N.H. 231F trees are at 
least fifty per cent larger than the others. 

All strains are now growing on each of several root systems to determine 
which will produce the best yield and color. 



PLASTIC MULCH FOR STRAWBERRIES 



The use of plastic mulch is so new as a mulch for strawberries, that there 
is some confusion as to just what its place is and how it should be used. It is 
being tried on a number of crops such as vegetables, nursery stock and small fruits. 
In the case of strawberries it has been tried most extensively in California where 
the hill system of culture is used. 

Plastic mulch has been slow to come into use in the northeast because straw- 
berries are usually grown in matted rows. Plastic mulch is not adapted to this 
system of culture. The runner plants will not root through the plastic. If the 
runner plants are spaced and set thru slits in the plastic, the system bec6mes a 
spaced row rather than a matted row. 

The hill system of culture where the mother plants are set and all runners 
removed is the system best adapted to plastic mulch. After the plants are set 
and the mulch put in place, there is no problem with setting runner plants thru 
the mulch. Spaced rows can be mulched with plastic but the setting of runner 
plants presents more of a problem. 

The thin plastic used for mulching comes in two colors, clear and black. The 
black is usually preferred for two reasons. First, the black does not deteriorate 
quite so rapidly in the hot sun. And second, it holds weeds in check better. 

Plastic can be purchased either perforated or unperforated. Which should be 
obtained is a matter for the individual grower to decide based on cost and con- 
venience. Holes of some sort thru the plastic are necessary to allow rain or 
irrigation water to penetrate. If the price differential warrants it the grower 
can buy the unperforated mulch and easily perforate it himself. 

Plastic mulch ordinarily is sold in three or four foot widths. The desirable 
width will depend on the planting system used. Two suggested arrangements for hill 
system are; 





■5- 



Suggested arrangements for spaced rows; 



6" 12" 12" 6" 
0X0 

12" 



0. 



12' 



\ 



aught er 
plants 




4 



3 ft. 



4 ft. 



In preparing to use a plastic mulch remanber that under Massachusetts con- 
ditions, side dressing with fertilizer through the mulch is not practical if not I 
actually impossible. Therefore, the soil fertility must be built up before the 
plants are set. 

Planting through the mulch is a very difficult procedure. Where the hill 
system is used this problem is solved by setting the plants first, then immediate- 
ly following the first cultivation and weeding, the plastic is laid over the row, 
slits are cut over the plants and the plants pulled through. To keep the plastic 
in place it will be necessary to weight down the edges with soil or stones. If a 
spaced row system is used the same procedure is followed except that later the 
daughter plants must be set. It is practically impossible to set runners through 
slits in the plastic, if they are allowed to develop much of a root system. There- 
fore, it is important that the runner plants be put in place and held in place in 
slits in the plastic before roots have formed or at least when they are very short. 
This necessitates going over the bed to set runner plants more frequently than 
would be necessary if plastic mulch were not used. 

Plastic mulch usually reduces greatly the weed problem but may not eliminate 
it entirely. Clear plastic allows the weeds to get sunlight and may act like a 
greenhouse. Black plastic cuts off sunlight and usually shades out many weeds. 
Some very persistent weeds such as quack grass will find the holes in the plastic 
and grow right thru them. 

The reduction in number of decayed berries during a wet season is one of the 
big advantages of plastic mulch. It keeps the berries out of contact with the soil 
which is so full of rot organisms. It also dries off much faster than soil and 
allows the berries to dry faster. Dry berries in contact with dry mulch are much 
less subject to rot than wet berries in contact with soil. 

Plastic mulch has several advantages if it is used with a hill or spaced row 
system. Since not all the problems connected with its use have been solved, it 
would be well to make some small scale tests before investing too much in what to 
the grower will probably be an entirely new system of growing strawberries. 



IN DAYS OF YORE 



The pruning of fruit trees is by no means a recent orchard practice. 
When cleaning out my files at the time of my retirement, I discovered this poem 
which was \^rritten by a Franklin County wit after Professor Sears, former Head 
of the Pomology Department, had given a pruning demonstration. It appealed to 
the Editor of "Fruit Notes" as worthy of insertion in this issue. 



The Lament of the Apple Tree 



Oh I was once an apple tree 
And I grew and grew as the Lord made me. 
But the professors down at the M.A.C. 
Know better how things ought to be. 

So they cut off my limbs and branches too 
And scraped my bark, and I tell you 
I looked as much like an apple tree 
As a monkey looks like a bumble beel 

I'm ashamed to stand where folks can see 
What the professors did - from the M.A.C. 
What's good for trees ought to be good for man, 
And I'd like to try the professor's plan. 

I'd like to take Professor Shears 
And trim him up in spite of his tears. 
I'd cut off his ears and shorten his nose, 
I'd shave his head and trim his toes 
And I'd set him up for the boys to see 
Just how a professor ought to be I 



Rusticus 



Deerfield - 
January 21, 1914 



-0. C. Roberts 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



WHAT HAPPENED TO THE RASPBERRIES? 



The winter of 1959-60 would generally be considered a mild winter. When 
compared with that of 1958-59, the cold was not so prolonged nor was the mini- 
mum temperature so low. It is, therefore, somewhat of a shock to find that, in 
some places at least, raspberries suffered severely. In fact, injury has been 



very severe on some varieties which ordinarily are injured very little. This 
raises the question, why? What happened? 

Experience has demonstrated that open winters are likely to be much harder 
on raspberries than severe winters with steady cold. Since we had a very mild 
open winter till the end of February it is probable the raspberries lost a lot 
of cold resistance which they never regained. Thus, they were ill prepared for 
the very cold weather of March. 

Cold injury is not the only trouble which can cause canes or parts of canes 
to die during the winter. Disease can also do this, particularly spur blight. 
Our chief commercial variety, Latham, is very susceptible to this disease. Spur 
blight frequently girdles the canes, often near the ground, and the cane dies 
above this girdle. In the spring what appears to be cold injury is actually the 
result of disease. Spur blight was certainly a major factor in cane killing in 
several varieties in the University planting last winter and undoubtedly was in 
others. Good control of spur blight during the summer would result in less cane 
injury to susceptible varieties during the winter. Unfortunately present control 
methods Sometimes fail to give satisfactory results. Nevertheless, they are the 
best we have and should be used as diligently as possible. 

J. S. Biiley 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



STRAWBERRY TWILIGHT MEETING 



On Tuesday Evening, June 21 at 7:00 P.M., there will be a Strawberry 
Twilight Meeting at Fisher laboratory (the cold storage) on the University 
Campus at Amherst. Details will be made available later. 



J. S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 

E. J. Rasmussen, Extension Horticulturist, University of New Hampshire 
Russell Eggert, Professor of Horticulture, University of New Hampshire 
0. C. Roberts, Associate Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 

JUNE - JULY, 1960 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Many Massachusetts Farmers Not Complying with 
The Social Security Low 

Research Findings From Other Areas 

Consumer Preference and Demand for Different 

Sizes of Red Delicious Apples 
Fruit Development of the Red Raspberry and Its 

Relation to Nitrogen Treatment 

Earnings of Wage Earners are Credited From Reports 
of Employers for Social Security 

Organization and Management of 42 Maine Commercial 
Apple Farms 

Workmen's Compensation Insurance 

Nematode Survey of Strawberry Plantings in 
Connecticut Valley and Their Control 




^\ 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Sleling, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication apfa-oved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 

Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control. Also, does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 



Lawrence D. Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 

Richard A. Rohde - Assistant Professor of Entomology and Plant Pathology 



MANY MASSACHUSETTS FARMERS NOT COMPLYING WITH THE 
SOCIAL SECURITY LAW 

John and Mary Farmer had worked hard to pay for the little farm they owned, 
but it had been worth their many hours of toil. They both knew John couldn't 
work forever. He was getting older and his health was likely to decline, but 
there seemed to be plenty of time to think about retiring. Several of his older 
neighbors had already retired and were drawing social security checks based on 
only two years of farming. That seemed simple enough to John. He had never 
bothered to file tax returns for social security purposes as he had never made 
enough to pay income tax. But that shouldn't be a problem, he thought. John 
continued to farm and kept putting off filing his tax returns. 

Eventually the day came when John realized that age had caught up with him. 
He didn't have the strength and energy to raise a crop next year. He would just 
have to let his sons take over the farm. In 1960, he filed tax returns for his 
last two years of farming. He then went to see his social security office to 
find out what he would have to do to get his and Mary's checks started when he 
became 65 in a few months. 

John was shocked when the social security representative told him the two 
returns he had filed were not enough to qualify him for benefits. It was true 
that some farmers were able to qualify with two years, but they were older than 
John, Many of the younger farmers would have to report as much as ten years to 
qualify. Being 65 in 1960 meant John had to file for 5 years. Since he did not 
file for 1955 and 1956 on time, John's carelessness prevented his qualifying for 
benefits. Unless he can keep farming for two more years and files a delinquent 
return for 1957, he will never collect. 

Unfortunately, John is not alone in his carelessness. More than one-half 
of Massachusetts farmers, especially the younger ones, are failing to file tax 
returns and report their farm income for social security purposes. By not 
filing these returns, they are depriving their loved ones of the financial pro- 
tection afforded by the Social Security Act. 

There are several reasons for this carelessness. Many young farmers are 
like John in believing they can wait until they are near 65 or become disabled 
and then "go back" and file returns for a couple of years and try to qualify. 
They will learn the hard way, just like John did, that their tax returns must be 
filed on time. Social security credits cannot be included for more than three 
years in the past on the basis of late tax returns. This is especially distressing 
where younger farmers file for disability benefits or their widows try to file for 
survivors benefits. Younger farmers should carefully consider the advantage of 
filing under the optional method every year for the sake of their families - in the 
event of their untimely death or disablement. 

This plan of filing Social Security tax returns only during the years from 
age 55 to 65 is a very shortsighted one. Younger farmers are leaving their fam- 
lies unprotected against two major risks, while the cost of the single premium 
against all their hazards is nominal under the option. 

Many younger farmers are not filing returns because they still do not real- 
ize the valuable protection provided their families in case of their death or 
disablement. For example, payments to a widow with two small children range from 
$53 to as much as $254 per month. It's not uncommon for survivors benefits to 



amount as much as $30,000 or $40,000. There are now over 111,900 survivors of 
deceased workers in Massachusetts, many who were farmers, receiving over $73 
million yearly. 

For more information on social security benefits and how to report farm in- 
come, farmers should contact their local social security office. Addresses of 
social security district offices in Massachusetts can be obtained from the Exten- 
sion Service office in your county. 

Lavrrence D. Rhoades 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RESEARCH FINDINGS FROM OTHER AREAS 

Consumer Preference and Demand for Different Sizes of Red Delicious Apples to 
Retail Stores. Salt Lake City. Utah. 1957 

E. W. Lfunborn and W. L. Park found in their study of consumer preference and 
demand for different sizes of Red Delicious apples in retail stores in Salt Lake 
City, Utah, that differential pricing increased the sale of apples. In this study, 
when 3-inch and 2%-inch Red Delicious apples were placed in separate bulk displays 
and priced at 19c a pound, 40 lbs. of apples were sold per day. When the 2%-inch 
Red Delicious apples were reduced to ISo a pound and the 3-inch apples kept at the 
same price, the store sold 71 lbs. per day. This represented a 77?. increase in 
quantity of apples sold. 

When the two sizes of apples were priced the same, the 3-inch Red Delicious 
sold 2 to 1 over the smaller apples. The reduction in price of the 2%-inch Red 
Delicious apples to 15c a pound, leaving a 4-cent differential, resulted in the 
sale of nearly double the amount of this size apple as compared to the 3-inch 
size. 

EDITOR'S REMARKS ; Although in the work reported above, the Red Delicious 
apples were in bulk displays, differential sizing and pricing would be of an 
advantage in New England where most of our apples are displayed in polyethylene 
bags. In the retail store study conducted by Fred E. Cole and the writer last 
fall and winter, one of the most common suggestions of the produce managers was 
for less apple size variation in the individual packs. F. E. Cole and the writer 
measured Mcintosh apples in many polyethylene bags last year and found size var- 
iation of 2^" to 3%" in many bags. A number of produce managers felt that this 
variation detracted from appearance and decreased sales. Also, there appears to 
be a tendency of more "pawing over" of the displays which results in more bruised 
fruit when considerable apple size variation exists in the polyethylene bags. 

Produce managers stated that 1\" apples bagged separately would make an 
excellent item on display. In addition, by apple sizing, the stores would be 
selling more items of apples. 

---William J. Lord 



-3- 

Frutt Development of the Red Raspberry and Its Relation to Nitrogen Treatment 

Studies concerned with fruit development of the red raspberry were reported 
by Robert G. Hill, Jr., in the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station research 
bulletin 803, titled, "Fruit Development of the Red Raspberry and Its Relation 
to Nitrogen Treatment". The following material is taken from this bulletin and 
should be of interest to the raspberry growers in Massachusetts. 

In this study, three definite stages of growth determining the development 
of the fruit of the red raspberry were found: (1) a rapid period of growth be- 
ginning at the time of full bloom, (2) a period of reduced growth rates during 
which the seed hardens, and (3) a final stage of rapid growth which continued 
to maturity. 

Robert G. Hill, Jr. stated "of special interest to the red raspberry grow- 
er is the time of initiation of the final growth phase, 'final swell' of the 
individual berries. This knowledge should aid him in obtaining maximum berry 
size and hence maximum yields. There are undoubtedly a number of environmental 
factors that influence the development of these berries during this growth period. 
One of the most important of these is that of available soil moisture. If a 
grower expects to obtain riaximum berry size he must insure that ample soil moisture 
will be available during this critical phase in the development of the crop. The 
results of this study indicate if he is to obtain maximum benefits from any special 
soil management practices designed to conserve soil moisture or from supplemental 
irrigation these practices must be initiated at least twelve days before the first 
picking or twenty days after first bloom. Further, as the raspberry bloom and 
harvest seasons extend over a two or three week period, these practices should be 
continued throughout the harvest season in order that they may have the greatest 
possible effect." 

---William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

EARNINGS OF WAGE EARNERS ARE CREDITED FROM REPORTS 
OF EMPLOYERS FOR SOCIAL SECURITY 

Some farm workers in Massachusetts are not receiving social security credit 
for their earnings and are depriving their families of valuable financial protection, 

Many employers have been reporting their employee's social security regularly 
since 1937. In many cases, this is not true with employers in occupations more 
recently covered by social security - especially farmers. 

Farm workers who receive cash wages of not less than $150 in a year, or 
who worked on a time basis on 20 or more days during the year for one farm employer, 
should receive social security credit. When the worker meets these requirements, 



the fanner is required by law to report the total cash wages paid such workers to 

the District Director of Internal Revenue, together with the social security tax 

due on these wages. Farmers are required to report annually. The 1959 report 

was due January 31, 1960. 

All employees, but especially farm workers, should keep a record of their 
own wages. At least oncc; every three years they should check their social se- 
curity records to assure that all cash wagen have been correctly reported. They 
can do this by contacting the local social security office and asking for the 
postcard designed for this special purpose. Your local postmaster anywhere in 
the State will be glad to furnish you with the location of the nearest Social 
Security District Office. Or you may obtain the address by calling the office 
of the County Agent of the State Extension Service. Delay may be costly, be- 
cause after three years, it may not be possible legally for you to correct your 
account. Act now, it is already too late to correct 1955 and 1956 records, un- 
less the farm operator for whom you worked, failed entirely to file any Social 
Security tax returns for those years. 

Lawrence D. Rhoades 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF MECHANICAL INJURIES TO McINTOSH APPLES 

Bulletin 520 written by 0. C. Roberts titled, "Causes and Effects of 
Mechanical Injuries to Mcintosh Apples" is now available to fruit growers 
on request by writing the Mailing Room, Agricultural Experiment Station, Uni- 
versity of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts. This publication contains 
the compilation of Prof. 0. C. Roberts' study of the handling of Mcintosh apples 
in orchards, storages, packing houses and retail stores in Massachusetts from 
1954 to 1959. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF 42 MAINE COMMERCIAL APPLE FARMS 

Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 589 titled, "Organization 
and Management of 42 Maine Commercial Apple Farms", published in February, 
1960 and written by Frederick A. Perkins contains considerable data of interest 
to fruit growers. The following is Frederick Perkin's summary of the data 
obtained from the study: 

"Maine ranks twenty-first in importance as an apple producing state and 
accounts for approximately 1 per cent of the United States commercial 
apple crop. Farm receipts from the sale of Maine apples during the 5- 
year period 1954-58 averaged $2,540,000 and represent about 1.4 per cent 
of the average annual cash value of receipts for Maine farm commodities. 



"This study deals with orchard farm management practices and the costs and 
returns of producing apples on small, medium and large sized farms. The 
basic information covers the period July 1, 1956 to June 30, 1957. Appro- 
ximately one-third of the commercial apple growers in Maine are represented. 

"The 1956 commercial apple crop for the state at 820,000 bushels was 18 per 
cent under the 10-year average for 1948-57. 

"A smaller crop both in the state and nationally, however, resulted in rela- 
tively favorable prices for apples during the 1956-57 season. The average 
price received by Maine growers for the 1956 crop was $2.60 per bushel and 
ccmpares to $2.44 for the previous 10-year average. 

"The average acreage of the farms in this study was 260 of which 71 acres 
were in crops. Sixty per cent of the cropland was in apples, 37 per cent 
in hay and 3 per cent was in miscellaneous crops. 

'•The farms ranged from 6 to 250 acres of orchard per farm and averaged 43 
acres. Farms with less than 20 acres of orchard were designated as small 
while those with 21 to 40 acres were considered medium sized. A large 
farm was one with over 40 acres of orchard. 

"Twenty-eight per cent of the trees reported were under ten years of age and 
were classified as non-bearing trees. The average number of trees per acre 
was 43. The 1956 yield for all varieties averaged 284 bushels per bearing 
acre and 6.6 bushels per bearing tree. Two-thirds of the apple crop was of 
the Mcintosh variety. 

"The average capital investment per farm was $41,432. Land and buildings 
accounted for approximately three-fourths of the capital investment. Or- 
chard land was valued at an average of $287 per acre. Machinery and equip- 
ment represented nearly 16 per cent and supplies plus livestock approxi- 
mately 9 per cent of the average investment per farm. 

"Average annual receipts amounted to $23,043 per farm. Apple sales averaged 
$17,798 and represented 77 per cent of the receipts. Wages from work off 
the farm was an important source of income to growers with small orchards. 

"Average annual expenses per farm were $18,213. Containers and supplies, 
labor, and spray and dust materials were the most important items of ex- 
pense. Labor alone accounted for 34 per cent of the total expense. 

"The average labor income per operator was $2,805 and ranged from a loss of 
$8,000 to a gain of over $12,000. Over one-third of the operators had la- 
bor inccmes in excess of $4,000, and twelve operators experienced minus 
labor incomes . 

"The cost of producing and marketing apples during the 1956 season ranged 
from $373 to $730 per acre of bearing trees and averaged $601 per acre or 
$2.12 a bushel. Of the total costs in producing and selling apples 40 per 
cent was accounted for by the growing operations, 17 per cent was spent in 
harvesting the apples and 43 per cent was represented by marketing costs. 



-6- 

"The average cost of growing apples ranged from $187 per acre on the me- 
dium sized farms to $261 on the large farms and averaged $239 per acre 
or 84 cents per bushel for the 42 farms. The two most important cost items 
were labor and spray or dust materials. Together they represented 52 per 
cent of the total growing cost. 

"Average harvesting costs ranged from $64 per acre on the medium sized 
farms to $121 per acre on the large farms. The harvesting cost on the 
small farms was $68 per acre and the average for the 42 farms was $101 
per acre or 36 cents per bushel. 

"Marketing costs were computed for the various size groups and averaged $88 
per acre for the small farms, $122 for the medium group and $348 for the 
large farms. The average for all farms was $261 per acre or 92 cents per 
bushel. The three largest marketing expense items were labor, containers 
and supplies, and commission sales and services. Other studies are planned 
to provide a more detailed analysis of cost and market outlet information. 

"The return from the sale of apples for the 42 farms ranged from $319 per 
acre for the small farms to $874 on the large farms and averaged $691 per 
acre or $2.44 per bushel for all farms. Returns per bushel averaged $1.34, 
$1.94 and $2.69 on the small, medium and large farms respectively. 

"The larger farm businesses had an average net gain of $144 per acre or 45 
cents per bushel. This compares with a net gain of $22 per acre or 10 cents 
per bushel for the medium sized farms and to an average loss of $7 6 per acre 
or 33 cents per bushel for the small farms. The net gain for all farms 
averaged $90 per acre or 32 cents per bushel. 

"The average orchardist used 49 hours of labor per acre for growing apples 
and caring for his orchard. The pruning and brush removal operation re- 
quired 15.7 hours per acre. Spraying and dusting ranked second at 6.6 
hours. Thinning was third and averaged 4 hours per acre. All other opera- 
tions each required less than 3 hours per acre. 

"Eighty-eight per cent of the labor required was hired and 12 per cent was 

performed by the farm operator and his family. The hourly wage rate 
ranged from 75 cents to $2.00 per hour. The most common value given for 
labor was $1.00 per hour. 

"Growers applied an average of 12 spray or dust applications during the 
1956 season at a cost of $51 per bearing acre. The cost per application 
ranged from $3.55 per acre for the small farms to $4.83 on the large farms 
and averaged $4.25 per acre for the 42 farms. The cost per tree was appro- 
ximately 10 cents per application and the average cost per bushel harvested 
was 18 cents. 

"Farmers whose orchards yielded less than 200 bushels per acre had a growing 
cost of $1.39 per bushel. With yields of 300 bushels or more per acre the 
growing cost averaged 73 cents per bushel. The average yield per acre for 
all farms was 284 bushels and the average cost of growing apples was 84 cents 
per bushel. 



-7- 



"Net returns ranged from a loss of 16 centsi per bushel for yields under 
200 bushels per acre to a gain of 54 cents when the yields were 300 bu- 
shels or over. 

"A comparison of six selected high income farms (average labor income of 
$10,196) with the average of all fairms (average labor income of $2,805) 
shows the high Income farms to be well above the average of the 42 farms in 
yields and in all measures of size. The per bushel growing, labor and har- 
vesting costs on the six farms, however, were very similar to the average 
for all farms. The high income farms received an average premium of 15 
cents per bushel from selling their entire crop of apples and spent 11 cents 
per bushel less than the average for marketing purposes. 

"It would appear that most apple growers can substantially enhance their 
incomes and increase their chances for success by (1) aiming for larger 
sized businesses (2) increasing yields and (3) improving overall farm 
management efficiency." 

---William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION INSURANCE 

Under a recent emergency Act signed by the Governor, All farmers and those 
who carry on farming are required to secure Workmen's Compensation Insurance if 
they employ one or more persons full time or if they have one or more persons 
who work for them part time . In short, if any one is employed by you in farming 
you must have Workmen's Compensation Insurance. 

---Lawrence D. Rhoades 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



NEMATODE SURVEY OF STRAWBERRY PLANTINGS IN CONNECTICUT VALLEY 

AND THEIR CONTROL 



A survey of strawberry plantings in the Connecticut Valley last fall and 
this spring has shown that plant parasitic nematodes occur in almost every field. 
Often they are there in large numbers, but distribution within a field may be 
spotty with most of the nematodes concentrated in small areas. Two parasites 
occur most commonly; lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) and stunt nematodes 
(Tylenchorhynchus spp.). Root-knot nematodes, the most serious nematode para- 
sites in Maryland and further south, have not been found as yet on valley 
strawberries. 



Lesion nematodes burrow into strawberry roots and lay eggs in small 
"nests" in the cortex. Since these nematodes are threadlike and only 1/50 
of an inch long, they cannot be seen with the naked eye. Reddish lesions 
develop where penetration occurs and the entire plant becomes stunted. The 
plant is opened up to secondary invaion by fungi and several investigators 
feel that nematodes may be involved in black root rot. 

Stunt nematodes have been shown to cause injury to plants such as 
tobacco and azaleas, but little Is known of their effect on strawberries. 
These nematodes are found in the soil and feed on the surface of the root 
without entering. 

Control of nematode injury revolves around a good preventative program. 
Use of clean planting stock and preplant soil fumigation prevent a build-up 
of these animals. If numbers are held down, injury is usually slight. A fall 
treatment with a soil fumigant such as EDB or D-D will not only kill most of 
the nematodes present, but will give the added bonus of kill of many soil 
fungi, bacteria and insects. 

Much interest has been expressed recently in DBCP (sold as Nemagon by 
Shell or Fvmiazone by Dow). This material is a fumigant which can be used 
safely on strawberry plants, and a waiting period after soil treatment is 
not necessary. An additional advantage of this material is that in granular 
form it can be applied with ordinary side-dressing equipment, either mixed 
with fertilizer or alone. 

Demonstration plots have been applied at several locations in the valley 
to determine how well DBCP will work under local conditions. These results 
will be reported soon. 

Richard A. Rohde 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Mossochusetts 
Amherst 



AUGUST 10, 1960 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Apple Scald Control with "Stop-Scald" 

A Guide to Determine Optimum Harvest 
Date of Apples 

Preharvest Drop Control for 1960 

Social Security 

Fly Control In and Around Roadside Stands 

Before Harvest is a Good Time to 
Evaluate One's Cultural Practices 



^: 





M 



~n 



% 



««^ 



Ik 



mh 



S'r 




w 





c^^ 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service. Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Poraologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control. Also, teaches and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES, 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 



Lawrence D. Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 
William D. Tunis - Extension Entomologist 



APPLE SCALD CONTROL WITH "STOP-SCALD " 

It is expected that this fall at least two distributors will have available 
a chemical material called "Stop-Scald", which can either be sprayed on the fruit 
just before harvest or applied after harvest as a spray (as the fruit passes over 
a roller sorter or while it is in a field box prior to storage) or dip after har- 
vest. The active material in "Stop-Scald" (formerly called Santoquin) is 1,2 di- 
hydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4 trimethylquinoline. The material was cleared for use in July, 
1960 by the Pure and Drug Administration and a tolerance of 3 ppm has been set. 

"Stop-Scald" appeared to be promising for scald control in several states 
for some varieties since 1955 but during the 1959-60 season the results with it 
were disappointing in both New York and New England. This was particularly true 
when the material was applied as a preharvest spray. Also, Dr. Shutak of Rhode 
Island University and I noted that preharvest sprays of this material left a very 
noticeable dark, ring-type residue where droplets collected and dried on tree 
sprayed fruit . 

It is possible that the scald susceptibility of some of our apples was so 
great last year that no material was capable of controlling this disorder. 
Diphenylamine, (DPA) which has not been cleared , gave the poorest control it has 
ever given. Prior to that time DPA had given excellent control if applied as a 
dip or sprayed on the trees v/ithin 24 hours of harvest. 

Dr. Smock in New York has applied "Stop-Scald" to apples in a variety of 
ways and his data indicate that running the fruit through a dip tank will yield 
the best control. Spraying the fruit in or out of an orchard container after 
harvest is the next best method and tree spraying within 48 hours of harvest is 
the least effective. Regardless of the method you choose, simply wet the fruit 
completely and quickly. Fruit receiving the post-harvest dip or spray treat- 
ment can be stored wet after allowing the surplus emulsion to drain off. Some- 
times drainage is not complete and fruit in the bottom of a box may set in the 
liquid for a long time and cause some skin injury at these points. Of course, 
the amount of "Stop-Scald" used per 100 gallons should not exceed that indicated 
on the label. If you are interested in trying this material in a limited way, 
be sure to store comparable apples that are untreated so that the performance of 
"Stop-Scald" can really be determined. 

It is very apparent that, even if this or some other chemical ultimately 
acquires general acceptance for scald control, such chemicals are not going to 
be a substitute for good harvesting and storage practices. For example, scald 
control chemicals should never be thought of as a way of avoiding the necessity 
of proper picking maturity and quick cooling for CA Mcintosh. Perhaps scald mi^ht 
be controlled on apples which are really too ripe for CA storage, were not moved 
rapidly to storage after harvest or were not cooled quickly but the problem of 
soft, mealy CA Mcintosh would then take its place. 

Frankly, it is our present belief that scald on CA Mcintosh can be controlled 
without having to rely on special wraps, chemical sprays or dips. In order to do 
so, however, means picking Mcintosh at 15 to 17 lbs. flesh firmness (on the early 
side), storing them within 24 hours of harvest and cooling them to 32-34° F within a 
few days thereafter. However, scald control for cold storage Mcintosh and other 



varieties, regardless of the tjrpe of storage cannot be obtained by merely follow- 
ing these management practices. 



Franklin W. Southwick 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

A GUIDE TO DETERMINE OPTIMUM HARVEST DATE OF APPLES 

Various guides such as calendar date, ease of separation of fruit from the 
spur, days from full bloom, flesh firmness, ground color, accumulated heat units, 
seed color, etc. are used to determine apple maturity with varying degrees of 
success. Dr. G. D. Blanpied, Cornell University, presented a talk at the New 
York State Horticultural Society in January, 1960 in which he discussed the var- 
ious maturity guides and the relative merits of each method. In addition, he 
presented data in which he plotted the date of full bloom against the days from 
full bloom to optimum harvest date. (Figure 1). The correlation between these 
two factors was found to be highly significant. In years of early bloom it takes 
longer to mature a crop than in years of a late bloom. 

G. D. Blanpied considers this new method of predicting the optimum harvest 
date for Mcintosh based on the date of full bloom as another tool in determining 
proper harvest date in order to have Mcintosh hold in good condition in regular 
refrigerated storages. 

The maturity tool presented in Figure 1 might be used by Massachusetts 
growers as a guide as to when to plan for harvest of Mcintosh for regular refri- 
gerated storages. Harvest of Mcintosh apples for CA storage would probably be 
earlier than the optimum for regular storage which many years means spot-picking 
for color. In addition, Mcintosh apples for CA should pressure test between 
15 to 17 pounds. 

No matter what guides are used for predicting or determining apple maturity, 
there is no replacement for common sense and experience. Some years like 1955 
and in some areas in 1959, growers had to sacrifice condition for color. The 
nutritional level can effect such guides as red color, ground color, flesh firm- 
ness considerably. As G. D. Blanpied stated "I have shown you a new method of 
predicting the optimum harvest date for Mcintosh based on the date of full bloom. 
Don't wait too long for red color. If the pressure tester, ground color and all 
the other guides you know tell you the fruit should be picked, start picking". 



-W. J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



Figure 1. Guide when to pick Mcintosh at Ithaca, New York. Relation of date 
ot full bloom CO days from full bloom to best harvest date. For 
example, if bloom date is May 15, pick 131 days after full bloom. 



138 ■ 






1 ^ 
















137 - 
136 


- 






















- ' 


\ 
















135 . 


- 


1 


) \ 

















134 ■ 






\ 














133 . 


- 




















1 10 










V ~ 












131 . 


- 


















130 










































>s> 


129 . 


- 










\ 






n 




128 • 














\ 








127 


- 












\ 


s 






126 
















\ 


c 




125 























124 















































1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 II 


I \ 


1 1 1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 1 1 


\ 



10 



15 



20 



25 



30 



May 
Date of Full Bloom 



PREHARVEST mOP CONTROL FOR 1960 



Our printed suggestions for preharvest drop control of apples (Special 
Circular No. 254) will be identical with those of 1959. In the November - 
December, 1959 issue of FRUIT NOTES, the pros and cons of two separate sprays 
of NAA (10 days apart) are compared to one combination spray of NAA and 2,4,5-TA. 

As you may recall we are inclined to favor two sprays of double strength 
(20 ppm) NAA in order to control Mcintosh drop for 3 weeks. Invariably two 
such NAA treatments result in at least 2 or 3 per cent better drop control than 
the NAA plus 2,4,5-TA single spray combination. As shown in Table 1, the dif- 
ference in estimated per acre costs of these two methods of obtaining drop 
control amounts to only $2.87 in favor of the single spray combination. How- 
ever, if the NAA plus 2,4,5-TA combination is 2 or 3 per cent less effective 
than two NAA sprays in drop control, the use of the combination represents a 
loss of 10 to 15 boxes of fruit in a block producing 500 boxes per acre or a 
20 to 30 box loss in a block yielding 1000 boxes per acre. When apples are 
worth $2.00 a box, only 1.5 boxes of apples per acre need to be saved by the 
double NAA spray to pay the extra cost of a second spray. Consequently, if 
two NAA sprays are consistently a per cent or more superior to the single spray 
(NAA plus 2,4,5-TA combination), two sprays of NAA represent a more economical 
proposition. We are assuming that airplane service is available on a 24 to 48- 
hour notice. 

It should be remembered that every now and then delaying the second NAA 
spray for a full 10 days may coincide with a very warm period and a sharp in- 
crease in fruit loss may occur for a couple of days before the second appli- 
cation becomes effective. In such a situation the one spray combination may 
be as effective as the two NAA sprays over the full three week period for Mcintosh. 

Table 1. The Approximate Cost per Acre of Applying Drop Control Hormones by 
Airplane (from information supplied by D.H. Marsden, EgStern States 

Farmers' Exchange) 





MATERIAL 






AIRPLANE 


TOTAL 


Type 






Cost 


./acre 


Cost/acre 


Cost/acre 


2 sprays 




$4. 


50 


$5.00 


$9.50 


NAA - 


20 


ppm 










1 spray 




4. 


13 


2.50 


6.63 


NAA - 


10 


ppm plus 










2,4,5 


-TA 


- 20 ppm 











•-F.W. Southwick 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



SOCIAL SECURITY 

Here are questions and answers which explain disability coverage for farmers. 

Questions and Answers on Disability . 

Q. I farmed until I became paralyzed from an accident in June, 1959. I finished 

the year by having my farm work done. Last October I filed a claim for disability 
payments 1 When will I get my first check? 

A. If you qualify for disability payments, your first check would be for the month 
of April, 1960. You should receive it soon. You did not meet the requirement 
of 5 years or work under social security until October, 1959. A 6-month waiting 
period is necessary after the work requirement is met. The months of October, 
1959 through March, 1960 represent your waiting period. 

Q. I became totally disabled in January, 1960 following a stroke. I farmed for 
myself in 1957, 1958 and 1959. I had no other social security coverage except 
for two years of factory work in World War II. I will be 65 years old in October, 
1960, but understand that I might qualify for disability payments before that 
time, since I have 5 years of coverage. Is this correct? 

A. No. The social security disability provisions state that you must have five years 
of coverage out of the ten year period immediately preceding your total disability. 
However, five years of coverage will be sufficient to qualify you for a retirement 
benefit effective in October, 1960. 

Q. I am 60 years old and have farmed for myself since I was 20. I paid social secu- 
rity taxes ever since farmers were included in the program. For many years I have 
operated on a fiscal year ending June 30. Following a severe heart attack in 
August, 1959, I have been able to do nothing. When can I qualify for disability 
benefits? 

A. As of March, 1960. The fact that you were on a fiscal year permits you to qualify 
somewhat sooner than the lifetime farmer whose taxable year is the calendar year, 

Q. I have filed an application for disability payments. I had to quit farming at the 
end of 1959. I understand there is a 6-raonth period before I can receive my first 
check, but what I want to find out is whether the first check will include back 
payments for the 6 months. 

A. No, there will be no payments for the 6-month waiting period. The law says the 
first month for which payment can be made is the month after the waiting period. 

Q. My farmer neighbor has multiple sclerosis. Last fall several of his friends 

finished up his field work for him because he couldn't do it himself. He is 53 
years old. When can he start getting social security benefits? 

A. Farmers who become disabled should call or write the social security office promptly. 
Self-employed farm operators who have been farming all years, 1955 through 1959, 
may be eligible for disability benefits if they are between 50 and 65 years of age. 
Your neighbor may be eligible for payments starting with April, 1960. 



Q. I am 62 years old. I operate my own farm. Much of the work has been done by 
hired help because of my chronic asthma. Now my asthma has become so bad that 
I can't do anything. Last fall I gave up and moved to town. Can social security 
help me any? 

A. You should call at your social security office right away and ask about disability 
benefits. You may be eligible for benefits beginning with April. Because of the 
time required to process a disability claim, you should act at once to get your 
claim started. 

Lawrence D. Rhoades 

Extension Specialist in 
Farm Management 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

FLY CONTROL IN AND AROUND ROADSIDE STANDS 

1. SANITATION - Clean U2 and Keep Clean . 

Flies are attracted to moisture - especially juices from fruits, vegetables, 
milk and meats. Decaying fruit, vegetable or meat scraps are also attractive 
to flies. 

Use galvanized cans with tight lids for wastes. Empty and clean out these con- 
tainers every day. Bury or burn wastes immediately. 

Clean out and remove empty boxes, baskets and cartons. Store them as far from 
the stand as possible. 

2. RESIDUAL SPRAYS ON SURFACES 

Apply residual insecticides to surfaces in and around the stand on which 
flies commonly rest. Do not contaminate edible food products . Follow direc - 
tions on labels . 

Diazinon is probably the most effective residual material. Malathion is safe 
and effective but has a short residual life. Both, Diazinon and malathion 
are more effective if sugar is added to them as directed on the labels. DDT 
or methoxychlor are still effective against many flies including fruit flies. 

3. BAITS 

Baits containing malathion, Diazinon, or Dtpterex are available. Use them 
lightly but frequently on surfaces where flies tend to gather. Baits are 
useful where over-all residual spraying is not desirable. Read and follow 
label directions. 



A. SPACE SPRAYS 

Stands that can be closed up completely or enough to prevent cross ventila- 
tion may be space treated with a fine spray or aerosol. All flies then in 
the building should be killed but there is no residual effect. 

Pyrethrin or allethrln synergized by materials such as piperonyl butoxide, 
sulfoxide, etc. are the killing agents. Some products contain methoxychlor, 
DDT, or other materials - these should not be used unless edible foods are 
covered. 

Apply space treatments by using pyrethrin or allethrin fly sprays in hand 
or electrically operated atomizers or by using aerosol bombs. 

Read the list of active ingredients and follow label directions. 



W. D. Tunis 

Extension Entomologist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

BEFORE HARVEST IS A GOOD TIME TO EyALUATE ONE'S CULTURAL PRACTICES 

Careful observations of the apple trees and fruits before harvest can tell 
the grower considerably about his fertilizer and pruning practices. In addition, 
the grower can determine what alterations, if any, should be made in these practices 
for the coming year. 

The amount of terminal growth, the fruit and foliage color are visual guides 
by which the grower can make future adjustments in his fertilizer program. Only 
vigorous trees can produce good crops regularly. An apple tree of bearing age 
should make 8 to 18 inches of terminal growth per year, depending upon variety. 
Eight to 15 inches is desired with the Mcintosh while 12 to 18 inches of terminal 
growth is preferred on Delicious trees. An annual terminal growth of 20 to 30 
inches should be made by young non-bearing apple trees. When twig growth is 
meager on bearing trees (less than 6 inches) try to determine the cause. Droughty 
soil, insufficient rainfall or pruning, low fertility, root injury, girdling or 

other factors may be the cause of poor vigor. 

r 

Visible evidence of magnesium deficiency can be seen if the deficiency exists. 
Necrotic brown blotches between the veins of older leaves on shoots or spurs and 
gradual loss of these leaves in late summer are common symptoms of magnesium 
deficiency. 

Fruit color is an important consideration. The color of Mcintosh apples has 
been found to be associated with both the nitrogen and potassium levels in the 
foliage. The fruits from high nitrogen low potassium trees are apt to be poor in 
color, softer than those from medium nitrogen high potassium trees and have shorter 
storage life. 



-8- 



Our nutritional work with Mcintosh trees has shown that fruits of high 
color are produced by trees with medium levels of nitrogen and high levels of 
potassium. 

Before fruit color is blamed on nutrition the grower should first determine 
if insufficient pruning and tree crowding are affecting color. The size, color 
and quality of fruit are affected considerably by pruning. The number and loca- 
tion of small, poorly colored apples show which branches or parts of branches need 
attention during the pruning season. 

Tree crowding is very evident at harvest. Note if the filler trees a^e 
beginning to interfere with fruit color and productiveness of permanent trees. 
In addition, they may be interfering with harvest operations. 

The time and effort spent trying to pick those apples on the high branches 
of tall trees should be a forceful reminder that something should be done. 



W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

DETERMINATION OF PICKING MATURITY OF PEARS 

Pears should be harvested before softening occurs. If left on the tree 
until yellow, such varieties as Clapp Favorite are frequently soft and decaying 
on the inside. Pears ripened on the tree are likely to be of poorer quality than 
those ripened off the tree. 

It is difficult to state an index of maturity that is infallible, therefore, 
growers must combine experience with several of the maturity indices stated be- 
low in order to determine the proper date of harvest for pears. Fruit firmness, 
the ease with which the stem can be separated from the spur, the change in ground 
color from dark green to a lighter shade of green on some varieties, the number 
of days between full bloom and maturity for the variety are indices of maturity 
that can be used by growers. 

Some growers and most County Extension Services have fruit pressure testers 
which can be used as a guide for determining when pears should be picked. The 
pressures suggested for several varieties (using a 5/16 inch diameter head) are 
as follows: 

Anjou 13 - 15 lbs. 

Bartlett 17 - 20 lbs. 

Bosc 14 - 16 lbs. 

Seckel 16 - 18 lbs. 

Winter Nelis 14 - 16 lbs. 

W. J. Lord 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Departmerit of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 




SEPTEMBER 8, 1960 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Blueberry Varieties - Where Are We Going? 

Social Security For Farm Families 

Fun With a Pencil 

Water Core Studies on Red Delicious Apples 

Rodent Control in Apple Storages 



^' 




!>im 



iiw*i<?-. 



v'fc's'a 



Wilf' 



r^ 



*V 





^^ 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Dale H. Slellng, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 19. 



BLUEBERRY VARIETIES - V7HERE ARE WE GOING? 



Since variety selection in an important factor in the success of any fruit 
planting, the variety question is always interesting. With a short-lived plant 
such as the strawberry, mistakes can be corrected promptly and the loss may not 
be serious. With a long-lived plant such as the apple, mistakes can be very costly 
and difficult to correct. The life span of the cultivated blueberry lies somewhere 
between these two, probably nearer that of the apple. Therefore, the choice of 
blueberry varieties merits careful consideration. 

New varieties of cultivated blueberries have been introduced at a relatively 
rapid rate as the result of a very active breeding program. It is more than likely 
that this rate will be maintained or perhaps increased. The question might be 
asked, "Plant now or wait for better varieties?" At a growers' meeting several 
years ago, a prominent horticulturist advised delaying of planting because better 
varieties were coming. An equally prominent grower immediately took him to task, 
reminded him that the grower must make his living today and that if the grower 
kept waiting for the better variety, he would never get started. While certain 
trends may influence the choice of varieties, the choice must still be based on 
the best varieties available at the time of planting. 

Recently, a blueberry conference was held at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. Because of the importance of the variety question, a panel of experts 
attending this conference discussed varieties at length. A summary of their con- 
clusions which represent the combined thinking of specialists from several blueberry 

growing areas, was distributed at the meeting and appears below. 

* 

***************** 

From Panel Discussion on Blueberry Vari,eties at 
Small-Fruit Workers' Conference, July 6, 1960 

Blueberry Varieties to Discard In Northeastern United States 

1. Pioneer - Bluecrop much better, larger, bluer, better scar, less disease 

2. Cabot - Earliblue much better, larger, better flavor, more vigorous 

3. Rancocas - Blueray far better, larger, better flavor, hardier 

4. Stanley - Blueray much larger, more acceptable flavor 

5. June - Collins more vigorous, larger berry 

6. Scammell - Bluecrop larger, better cluster, hardier and more drought resistant 

7 . Wareham - Herbert much larger and hardier 

8. Weymouth - Earliblue lighter blue, better flower, more vigorous 

9. Dixi - Coville holds size better and does not crack so much 

10. Atlantic - Coville higher flavor, larger, more vigorous 

11. Burlington - Coville much larger and better flavor 

12. Rubel - Jersey better 

13. Ivanhoe - Blueray better 

Preferred Varieties in Order of Season 
" BIG SEVEN " 

Earliblue - large, sweet, hardy 

Collins - large, sweet, hardy 

Blueray - large, high- flavored, vigorous, hardy 

Bluecrop - large, a good tart, hardy dependable cropper 



I 



-2- 

Berkeley - large, lightest blue, sweet 
Herbert - largest, highest flavor, hardy 
Coville - large, very good tart flavor, latest 

For Limited Use 

Jersey - dependable in Michigan and northern New England, but Coville 

larger and better in New Jersey 
Pemberton - home garden and "pick-your-own", very vigorous, scar too 

wet for general market 
Concord - still liked in New Hampohire, hardy there 

•k i'( i< it i: -It i( it •!< "k if if •)< ic -k "k 

It is not likely that Massachusetts growers will agree 100 per cent with these 
conclusions, especially in regard to a "very good tart flavor". Variety recommenda- 
tions for Massachusetts are contained in Special Circular 212-E, Varieties of Blue- 
berries for Massachusetts which will be sent on request. 

Sometimes changes in cultural practice can have a profound effect on variety 
selection. For example, the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station is develop- 
ing a mechanical picker that shakes the berries from the bush. This picker is 
being tried extensively by Michigan growers. The old variety Rubel seems to be 
well adapted to the use of this machine. Therefore, Michigan is still planting 
Rubel. Also, in Michigan, no varieties which ripen after Labor Day are being 
planted. Since youngsters go back to school and itinerant labor moves on, it is 
practically impossible to get pickers after Labor Day. 

So much fiar the present, nov/ what about the future? The blueberry breeding 
and improvement program which was started by Dr. F. V. Coville many years ago has 
been continued and intensified by his successors together with researchers in 
several State Experiment Stations. Although the immediate objectives are not the 
same in all states, the final objective, better blueberries for everyone, is the 
same. 

Florida is attempting to develop a blueberry variety with a short chilling 
requirement. The highbush blueberries with which we are familiar require about 
750 hours of temperature below 45° F to break the rest so that they start growing 
promptly in the spring and grow normally. Florida must have a variety which will 
grow normally after far less chilling. 

In Georgia the breeding is aimed at improving the native rabbiteye blueberry 
which is a different species from our highbush blueberry. In its wild state, the 
berry is small in size, dark colored, rather seedy and flat in taste. Already, its 
size has been increased materially, a nice blue bloom added and the flavor improved 
markedly. It is quite possible that rabbiteye blueberries will appear on our north- 
ern markets in a few years. 

In North Carolina the same species of cultivated blueberry is grown, that is 
grown in New England but the varieties are better adapted to their conditions. 
Their big problem is a disease called cane canker. This disease is so serious that 
it can ruin a planting in a few years. Therefore, North Carolina's main objective 



-3- 

is to obtain varietieB resistant to cane. canker. Cane canker has never been found 
in New England. Dr. J.B. Demaree, formerly Plant Pathologist with the U.S.D.A., 
once expressed the opinion that all conditions seemed favorable for the spread of 
cane canker north, even into New England. If this should occur, we would certainly 
benefit by the breeding work carried on in North Carolina. 

In Maine, the breeding program is aimed at obtaining varieties which are more 
resistant to cold. Any improvement in the cold resistance of blueberry varieties 
certainly will be immediately useful to Massachusetts growers. 

The most extensive breeding program is being carried on in the small fruit 
section of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S.D.A. This program is well 
integrated with the breeding programs in the other areas and is being conducted 
with the assistance of cooperators in several blueberry areas from coast to coast. 
The objective is a series of varieties well adapted to each region and covering the 
entire season. Such characteristics as yield, season, size of fruit, color of fruit, 
firmness, flavor and scar (point v;here the berries separate from the stem) are given 
special attention. In the North, special attention is paid to resistance to Iotj 
winter temperatures and to late spring frosts. 

As a result of this blueberry breeding program, thousands of seedlings are now 
under field tests and thousands more are being produced each year. From among these 
will come the better varieties of the future. 

J.S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

SOCIAL SECURITY FOR J-'ARI-l FAMILIES 

Social Security is not an old folks' program. While it is true that many people 
covered under social security can receive benefits after they are 65 years old in 
the case of men and age 62 in the case of women, family protection may start at 
earlier ages. Younger farmers should not overlook the protection to their families 
after death and protection to them and their families if they become too disabled 
to farm. As an example, payments to a disabled worker and his family or to a 
widow with two small children range from $53 to $254 per month. 

Social Security is not something to take or to leave alone as you choose. 
Social Security is compulsory for farmers in any year they have a profit of as 
much as $400. A farmer with a profit of $400 or more who fails to file a tax return 
is denying himself and his family valuable financial protection. A tax return is 
required for social security purposes even if a farmer does not make enough income 
to owe any income tax. 

Some few farmers have the idea that when they are 65 or have become disabled 
they can go back and file returns for a couple of years to qualify for benefits. 
This is not true for farmers under 65 or who become disabled. Most will need 
five to ten years to qualify and social security benefits cannot be included for 
more than three back years on the basis of late tax returns. 



The idea behind social security is a desire to keep families together and 
to provide some financial protection for workers and their families when earnings 
stop because of old age, death or disability. 

Two points need to be kept in mind. 

1. Families are denied substantial survivors and disability protection if 
tax returns are not filed. 

2. Filing back returns after you reach age 65 or become disabled in most 
cases will not make retirement and disability benefits payable. 

Ask your local Social Security office or your County Agent to send you 
OASI-25d -- "How Does Social Security Affect Farm Families?" 

L. D. Rhoades 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FUN WITH A PENCIL 



If ve can agree on using the following figures: 

Population in Massachusetts 5,000,000. people 

Apple production in Mass. 2,500,000. bushels 

Apple consumption per capita .5 bushels - 20 lbs, 

Apple season 40 weeks long 

Average consumption .5 lb. per week - 1 or 2 apples. 

And then use the following estimate for which there is some indication: 

pounds 

20% of the people use no apples at all 1,000,000 people use 

207. of the people use 57, of the apples 1,000,000 people use 5 

207. of the people use 107, of the apples 1,000,000 people use 10 

207, of the people use 257, of the apples 1,000,000 people use 25 

207. of the people use 607. of the apples 1,000,000 people use 60 

We can develop the following table of approximate use: 

3 pound bags pounds total 

or equivalent percent apples bushels 

1,000,000 people buy 0.0 207, 

1,000,000 people buy 1.6 207. 5 125,000 

1,000,000 people buy 3.3 207. 10 250,000 

1,000,000 people buy 8.3 207, 25 625,000 

1,000,000 people buy 20.0 207, 60 1,500,000 



-5- 



Sub-dlvlding this last group we could have: 







3 pound bags 




pounds 


total 






or equivalent 


percent 


apples 


bushels 


500,000 people buy 




13.3 


107. 


40 


500,000 


250,000 people buy 




20.0 


57, 


60 


375,000 


125,000 people buy 




26.0 


2.57. 


80 


250,000 


75,000 people buy 




33.0 


1.5% 


100 


187,500 


50,000 people buy 




40.0 


1.07. 


120 


150,000 


On this basis, 


the 


main selling prob 


lem is to get 


people 


who are now 


using some apples to 


USE MORE APPLES. 









This might best be done by having the people who buy apples 
WELL SATISFIED WITH EACH PURCHASE. 

This may be particularly important in a year of higher prices. 
Otherwise, a big crop could be made out of a little one. 

— -F. E. Cole 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

WATER CORE STUDIES ON RED DELICIOUS APPLES 

During the fall and winter of 1958-59, Dr. F. W. Southwick and the writer 
studied the Effect of Delayed Picking and Storage on the Occurrence of Water Core 
and Internal Breakdown in Starking Delicious Apples. The results of the study 
showed that delayed storage periods of 24 to 92 hours is no cure for water core 
and internal breakdown and that water core severity appears to be closely related 
to fruit maturity. Although, approximately 42 per cent of the Starking Delicious 
apples examined had water core at harvest on October 10, 1958, it practically 
disappeared by the end of the storage period. However, fruits harvested on 
October 20 and 30 had a greater amount and severity of water core and considerable 
amount of internal breakdown was present at the end of the storage period. 

The effect of harvest date on the occurrence and severity of water core in 
Starking Red Delicious was again studied in 1959-60. To prevent preharvest drop, 
20 ppm of 2,4,5-TP was applied on September 30, 1959 and fruit samples were ob- 
tained frcxn the selected trees on three dates - October 1, 15, and 29. 

TABLE I - Water Core in Starking Delicious At Harvest, 1959 
University Orchard, Amherst, Mass. 



Picking Date 


No. of 
Fruit 


Apples 


With Water 


Core At 


Harvest 


Average Flesh 




Slight 


Medium 


Heavy 


Total 


Firmness (lbs.) 


10/1/59 

10/15/59 

10/29/59 


204 
205 
184 


21.1 
48.3 
37.0 


% 

0.0 
9.3 
9.2 


7. 

0.0 

1.5 

25.0 


7. 

21.1 
59.1 
71.2 


15.7 

14.5 
14.2 



-6- 

A random sample of fruit was immediately examined for water core. The amount 
of water core present was classified as slight, medium or heavy. It can be noted 
in Table I that the amount and severity of water core increased with each delay in 
picking date. A delay of 15 days at harvest, from October 1 to 15, resulted in a 
one pound decrease in fruit flesh firmness. The reason for the slight decrease in 
fruit flesh firmness from October 15 to 29 is not known except that more mature 
apples are inclined to drop first and the mean temperature for thip period was 11.2 
degrees less than for the period of October 1 to 15. 

On March 7, 1960, the fruits were removed from storage and immediately ex- 
amined for the presence of water core. 

TABLE II - The Effect of Picking Date on the Amount of Water Core and Internal 
Breakdown in Starking Delicious After Storage, March 7, 1960. 



Picking No. of Apples with Water Core A pples with Internal Breakdown Press. Test 
Dates Apples No. Apples Per Cent No. Apples Per Cent 3/7/60 

10/1/59 279 0.0 0.0 12.5 

10/15/59 293 17 5.8 55 18.8 12.4 

10/29/59 265 54 20.4 54 20.4 10.2 

Table II shows that during the storage period, water core disappeared from 
the fruit harvested October 1, 1959 and no internal breakdown developed. The 
water core disappeared from most of the fruit harvested October 15, 1959 but 
18.8 per cent of the fruit eventually had internal breakdown. On the other hand, 
20.4 per cent of fruit harvested October 29, 1959 had water core and the same per 
cent had internal breakdown. 

There was no difference in the per cent of apples having either or both, 
water core and internal breakdown for the two harvest dates, being 23 per cent 
for fruit harvested October 29 and 18.8 per cent for those harvested October 15. 

Ninety-seven per cent of the apples with internal breakdo\ra at the end of 
the storage period of the lot harvested October 29, 1960 also had water core pre- 
sent. Eighty-seven per cent of the apples with internal breakdown of the lot har- 
vested October 15, 1960 had water core. 



' f 



In order to determine effect of 7 days of room temperature on the fruit 
approximately half of the fruit in each sample removed from storage on March 7, 1960 
were held 7 days prior to examination for water core and internal breakdown. 

TABLE III - The Per Cent of Starking Delicious Having VJater Core and Internal 
Breakdown Immediately After Removal from Storage oi March 7, 1960 
and After 7 Days at Room Temperature. 



y. Apples Having Water Core 7. Apples Having Internal Breakdown 

Picking Upon Removal From After 7 Days at Upon Removal From After 7 Days at 

Date Cold Storage _ Room Temp. Cold Storage Room Temp. 

10/1/59 0.0 0.4 0.0 3.6 

10/15/59 5.8 5.4 18.8 28.1 

10/29/59 20.4 « 15.6 20.4 28.6 



~7- 

Table III shows a decrease in the amount of water core present after the 7 
days at room temperature for the fruit picked October 29, 1959, and that internal 
breakdown increased in the fruit picked on all three sampling dates. 

In summary, most of the water core disappeared from the Delicious apples 
harvested on October 1, 1959 during the 1959-60 period. Water core disappeared 
from most of the fruit harvested October 15, 1959 but considerable internal break- 
down developed. Twenty per cent of the fruit harvested on October 29, 1959 had 
water core and the same per cent had internal breakdox^m at the end of the storage 
period. In the 1958-59 storage tests the later picked fruit (October 20th and 30th) 
had a greater incidence of water core than those harvested October 10, 1958, 
However, internal breakdown was not severe in any of the lots. The storage tests 
indicate that the occurrence and the severity of water core and internal breakdown 
present in Starking Delicious after storage varies considerably from year to year. 
In addition, water core severity appears to be closely related to fruit maturity. 
With Starking Delicious apples, water core and internal breakdown appear to be 
associated and apples seriously affected with water core may develop internal 
breakdown some years. 

On the basis of two years results, it is suggested that growers watch the 
maturity of Red Delicious apples carefully. The amount and severity of water core 
may be observed by sampling and cutting of the larger and more mature Delicious 
on the trees. A suggested picking guide is - when some of the apples show slight 
water core the fruit should be harvested. When the disorder is limited to a 
series of small soaked spots around the core it can be classified as slight water 
core. In the advanced stages of this disorder the water-soaked spots are united 
to form a continuous band or the spots cover thirty per cent or more of the cross 
sectional area of the fruit. Water core is apt to persist in storage and be fol- 
lowed by internal breakdown when much water core is evident at harvest. 

— W. J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RODENT CONTROL IN APPLE STORAGES 

In protecting apple storages from rodents, usually it is necessary to rid the 
premises of four kinds of rats and mice. For control purposes, these can be grouped 
into two groups: (1) rats and house mice, which normally occupy buildings; and (2) 
meadow mice and white- footed mice which are brought into the storage with the boxes 
of apples. A general movement of white-footed mice into buildings is also a regular 
fall occurrence here. The following steps are recommended: 

BEFORE HARVEST 

i. Poison Rats and Mice in Buildings . The first group (rats and house mice) 
should be brought under control long before the harvest begins. At least a month 
before picking, one of the anticoagulant rodent baits should be used in permanent 
bait stations, in the storage building and in all buildings nearby, in this first 
attack. It is especially important to kill rats (unless fumigation is planned), 
since the mouse bait used later in the storage room is not a good rat bait. A 
special rat bait station might be maintained in the storage as a precaution the 
year around. Details concerning the use of anitcoagulant baits are available on 
request. 



-8- 



2. Clean Up . About a week before harvest, clean up all debris near the 
loading doors. Bags, lumber, and stacked boxes provide shelter from which 
rodents may dash through open storage doors. 

3. Rodent-proof the Storage . Before storage begins, the storage room 
should be inspected to discover ways in which rodents might enter. If you go 
inside and shut off the lights, light leaks from the outside may make it easier 
to spot small holes. Remember that a hole the size of a dime will admit mice. 
Check carefully around pipes, floor drains, ventilating ducts and breaks in the 
insulation. Plug all such holes with metal flashing or 1/2-inch wire mesh 
(hardware cloth). Pack insulating materials against these, if necessary, but 
do not count on a wad of insulation to stop rodents. 

DURING HARVEST 

1. Move Filled Boxes Quickly . Mice are frequently brought in from the 
orchard in boxes of apples. Meadow mice and white-footed mice may scramble 
into boxes within a few minutes after they a re set on the ground. If filled 
boxes are left in the orchard overnight, mice will almost always be carried into 
the storage room. It may not be practical to rush each box into the storage, 
but an effort to avoid leaving filled boxes on the ground overnight may pay off 
in terms of reduced mouse damage. 

2. Bait the Storage as It is Being Filled , At least a few mice usually 
get inside the storage room despite all reasonable precautions. It is, there- 
fore, necessary to dispose of them in one of two ways: 

(A) Fumigation with poisonous gas. Since this must be done carefully 
to prevent damage to fruit or injury to the operator, the services 
of a ccmmercial exterminator should be considered, (Details of 
effective fumigation methods are available upon request,) 

OR 

(B) Baiting the storage as it is being filled, STRYCHNINE-TREATED 
STEAM CRUSHED OATS are' the recommended bait for mouse control 
in storages. They maintain their poisonous quality under the 
humid conditions inside. Teaspoonful quantities of this bait 
should be placed in stations such as cigar boxes, short lengths 
of pipe, or sections of rolled roofing paper. These stations 
should be placed under the pallets, as well as along the walls. 
Since mice may not travel more than a very few feet during the 
entire winter, numerous bait stations should be used, A room 
20' X 20' should have at least 15 bait stations. One applica- 
tion of this bait ordinarily provides adequate protection for 
the winter. 



Strychnine-treated Steam Crushed Oats may be obtained from: 

Rodent Control Fund 
University of Massachusetts 
Liberal Arts Annex 
Amherst, Massachusetts 

They are priced at 35 cents per pound and are available in 10, 25, and 50- 
pound bags. As poisons are not mailable, all shipments are made via Railway 
Express, with the shipping cliarges COLLECT. 



Edward R. Ladd 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 
F. E. Cole - Extension Marketing Specialist 

E. R, Ladd - Supervisory Animal Control Biologist, Western Massachusetts 
L. D. Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massochusetts 
Amherst 



OCTOBER 10, 1960 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

D«er Control 

Rabbit Repellent 

A Spare Time Job for Fruit Growers 

Improved Orchard Mouse Bait Now Available 

Pomological Paragraph 

Social Security Law Amendments 1960 

Strawberry Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot 

Cider Notes 



^• 






^__ 



wmi, 



W^^d 






■^n 



m 



Mi. 




ft'/ 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Apiculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology, Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control. Also, teaches and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES, 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preh&rvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research In nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 



F, E. Cole - Extension Marketing Specialist 

C. J. Gilgut - Extension Plant Pathologist 

William R. Goss - Worcester County Extension Agent 

Kirby M. Hayes - Food Technologist 

Edward R. Ladd - Supervisory Animal Control Biologist 

Lawrence D. Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 



DEER CONTROL 

Most growers are not seriously bothered by deer. However, Chose orchards 
where deer become prevalent can receive substantial losses. 

There have been many attempts at controlling deer. Perhaps all the methods 
tried are satisfactory to a degree but only one is 1007, effective. This exception 
is too costly except under unique circumstances and consists of fencing the entire 
orchard area that is being affected. 

Chemical control remains among the most practical methods, and experience by 
a small number of central Massachusetts growers indicates that Arasan 42S is one 
of the most practical chemicals. It Is reasonably priced, fairly persistant and 
non-toxic to the user. 

Deer damage occurs more severely in winter and the Arasan 42S formula appears 
to do its best job under dormant conditions. 

Two orchards were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the material several 
winters ago. Both orchards had experienced unusually high deer damage losses 
every year before the test. The past three seasons have shown that commercial 
control is possible even under unusual stress. 

Arasan 42S appears to be a taste repellent as deer will come into the orchard 
and nibble slightly before moving on to unsprayed trees or back into the woods. 

Although the formula has not been worked out perfectly for all conditions, 
our central Massachusetts growers have been successful with two gallons of Arasan 
42S, one gallon of Rhoplex AC-33 (sticker Rohm & Haas) in 100 gallons of water. 

Control has lasted for a full season in some cases but it appears two appll" 

cations applied under non-freezing, good drying conditions are safer. Apply the 

first application when damage begins; repeat if necessary when deer again start 
to feed. 

The application should be thorough and extend from the ground line up to 
approximately 6 feet, making particularly certain that terminal growth is protected. 

RABBIT REPELLENT 

Nurseries have had considerable success with Arasan 42S as a rabbit repellent 
and some indications are that it works in orchards. 

Used on dormant trees only, you can mix one quart of Arasan 42S and one pint 
of Rhoplex together. Apply it to the trunk and lower branches subject to rabbit 
feeding. 

William R. Goss 

Worcester County Extension Agent 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I 



-2- 



A SPARE TIME JOB FOR FRUIT GROWERS 

Currently, fruit growers are selling Mcintosh npples from 6<: to 12c 
a pound. An increase of ^c a pound would seem to be a modest attain- 
able Increase. 

What does %c a pound mean? 

Let's take a crop of 10,000 bushels. 
That crop would weigh 400,000 pounds. 
One-half cent a pound would be $2,000. 



If a person spent 8 hours a day, five days a week (40 hours) for 10 
weeks (400 hours) to get $2,000, he would be earning $5.00 an hour 
for 8 hours a day for 10 weeks'. 

This is being done. More can do it. 

Probably the most profound and yet the most practical counsel a grower 
could get, as a way of increasing his returns, would be "Get out and 
sell 'em", and get the half cent or more. It is a winter time job that 
pays good money, provided, of course, that he did not already have a 
job that paid more. As a spare time job, it has its points. 



•--F. F. Cole 

Extension Marketing Specialist 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



IMPROVED ORCHARD MOUSE BAIT NOW AVAILABLE 

This year the Zinc Phosphide-treated Steamed-crushed Oats are being mixed at a 
higher toxicity level (1.87. instead of 1%) to insure a greater kill. Zinc Phosphide 
has a very pungent odor which is disagreeable to humans and most domestic animals. 
This factor combined with its rapid loss in toxicity (less than one month when ex- 
posed to weather) makes it a relatively safe bait to use. 

Meadow mice are a continuing problem and control of these animals should be 
considered an important part of standard orchard practices. Experience indicates 
that the best method of mouse control is trail baiting. Placing poisoned bait, 
either Zinc Phosphide-treated oats or apple cubes, in the natural or artificially- 
made mouse trails will give the best control. Mouse control should be done early 
in the Fall and, if necessary, in Winter. Zinc Phosphide-treated Oats should be 
used in Winter if there are many runways in the snow. 

As cost and availability of labor have become more of a problem, effective trail 
baiting is difficult — especially in the larger orchards. For the trail baiting 
method to be effective, a conscientious search for mouse trails is a must. In using 
the Trail BuiMder, proper adjustment of the machine is of paramount importance in 
attaining control. 

A new method of Meadow mouse control now recommended is the mechanical broad - 
cast syste'P . The use of a hand seeder, tractor-drawn seeder, or fertilizer spreader 
will give good control if application is made evenly under perfect wind and weather 
conditions. No matter which method of mouse control is used, it is best to apply 
the bait under ideal conditions. A series of three warm sunny days with little wind 
is considered best. 

In the event that mechanical methods of broadcasting Zinc Phosphide-treated 
Oats are not available, broadcasting may be done by hand . Simply walk down each tree 
row and throw a handful of oats into all heavily-grassed areas under and around the 
trees. There should be at least 4 treated spots per tree. Although this method 
is slower than machine distribution, it produces effective control when proper place- 
ment of bait is made. 

HAND-BAITING INFORMATION ; 

1 Can ZINC PHOSPHIDE RODENTICIDE (1-Ounce Can) 

- 16-20 quarts of treated apple. 

~ 1600-2000 apple baits (1/2-inch apple cubes). 

- 400-500 trees baited with apple only. 

■ 800-1000 trees baited with apple and oats. 

10 Pounds of ZINC PHOSPHIDE-TREATED STEAMED-CRUSHED OATS (1.87.) 

= 900 teaspoon-sized bait placements. 
= 225 trees baited with oats only. 
' 450 trees baited with apple and oats. 
(Uso 2-3 pounds of oats per acre.) 



-4- 



TRAIL-BUILDER BAITING INFORMATION ; 

(a) 1 Acre requires 5-1/2 quarts of apples only. 

(b) 1 Acre requires 6 pounds of oats only. 

(c) 1 Acre of combination baits requires 3 quarts of apples and 3 pounds of 
Zinc Phosphide -treated Steamed-crushed oats. 

BROADCASTING BAITING INFORMATION ; 

ZINC PHOSPHIDE-TREATED STEAMED-CRUSHED OATS 

Use 6-10 pounds per acre for tractor- drawn equipment. 

Travel at a moderate speed, approximately 3 m.p.h. Dry grass conditions 
will insure penetration of oats into mouse trails. IN ANY BROADCAST METHOD, 
THE OATS SHOULD NOT BE PLACED ON OPEN, BARE GROUND. 

Use 6-10 pounds per acre for broadcast by hand. 

Another product of the machine age that can be used to distribute bait for mouse 
control Is the airplane. This method of distribution is the most expensive out- 
lined here and produces the most varied results. Penetration to surface mouse run- 
ways is generally good, and adequate coverage is easily obtained. However, caution 
must be used in selecting the day of application — more so than for any other broad- 
cast method. A calm, warm day with dry ground cover is very desirable. The Improved 
Zinc Phosphide-treated Steamed-crushed Oats broadcast by airplane In a field test 
last year gave favorable results. An average of 717. control was obtained. 

Zinc Phosphide-treated Corn is another bait that has been broadcast by airplane. 
Here again under ideal conditions Meadow Mouse control has been effective but the 
results have not been consistent. Perhaps the strongest reason for its failure to 
achieve good control is that corn is not a highly preferred mouse food compared to 
oat and apple bait. This would have considerable bearing in orchards where drop 
apples are numerous. Another reason for failure is that in treating corn, only the 
hard, outer shell of the kernel is coated with poison; the inner portion, which is 
eaten by the mice, has very little. 

Pine Mice spend most of their lives underground; thereby, they are very difficult 
to control. For the control of Pine Mice , it is recommended that both poisoned 
apple and poisoned oats be used . They may be placed side by side in active trails, 
or the apple bait may be placed in active trails on one side of the tree, and the 
poisoned oats placed in active trails on the other side of the tree. Since Pine 
Mice store food during the F^ill to supplement their winter food supply, it is 
advisable to make additional bait placements and to use more bait at each placement. 
The broadcast method of bait distribution for Pine Mouse control is not recommended . 

Field tests will be conducted this Fall by the personnel of the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service using the improved Zinc Phosphide-treated Steamed-crushed Oats 
as a broadcast bait for Pine Mouse control. 

Edward R. Ladd 

Supervisory Animal Control Biologist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPH 

Plastic Mulch 

The July, 1960 Issue of Horticultural News published by the New Jersey State 
Horticultural Society stated that polyethylene mulch is being tried In several 
New Jersey orchards this year. The article stated that one grower is conducting 
extensive tests with the material used mainly on newly planted apple trees. 

"He has left some trees as checks and we have measured these and also some 
one and two-year old peach trees on the same farm and two-year apple trees in 
another orchard. The trees are grooving well as expected and it appears to be 
an excellent labor saving practice. The question of moisture has been asked and 
we can report only that in the original research, there was no moisture problem 
and the plastic contained no holes. The question of fertilization is another 
matter and this does present a problem if a heavy plastic is used to last several 
years. The 1.5 mil plastic is supposed to disintegrate in one season." 

—William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

SOCIAL SECURITY LAW AMENDMENTS 1960 

Congress made a number of changes in the Social Security laws which affect 
fanners. Some of the principal ones are described in the following paragraphs. 

Benefits Can be Paid to Disabled Workers At Any Age 

Before the amendment a disabled worker could apply to have his social security 
record fror.en and then had to wait until he was age 50 before he and his family 
were paid benefits. 

Now, if you are disabled and under age 50 and have had your record frozen , 
you will get a letter telling you what to do. 

If you are disabled and under age 50 and have not had your record frozen , 
find out from social security right away whether you are eligible for monthly 
benefits. 

If you have worked under social security for at least 5 out of the last 10 
years (as a self-employed farmer you would be covered for 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958 
and 1959 if your earnings were large enough) you should apply for benefits if 
disabled. 

Chanp.e In Earnings After Retirement 

Beginning with 1961, if you are employed and are receiving benefits under Social 
Security, you get all your social security checks if you earn less than $1200 per year. 



If you earn more than $1200 per year you will have $1.00 of benefits withheld for 
each $2.00 of wages above $1200 up to $1500. For each $1.00 above $1500, $1.00 of 
benefit will be withheld. Under the new law, you will always receive more in com- 
bined earnings and benefits if you have more than $1200 in wages, besides your so- 
cial security. For example, with present maximum benefits monthly of $180 to husband 
and wife some benefits will be paid if the husband earns less than $3510 per year. 

The Amount of Work Required to Get Benefits Is Reduced 

How long you must work depends on your date of birth (or if you die or become 
disabled, upon the date of your death or disability). 

If you reach retirement age (65 for men, 62 for women) or die, in 1956 or 
earlier you will need 1% years of work; in 1960, 3 years of work; in 1963, 4 yearfl 
of work and so on. For disability the 5 years out of last 10 years rule applies. 

Parents Who Work For Sons or Daughters Are Covered Beginning in 1961 - Except for 
Work Around the House 

Beginning in January 1961, work that a parent does for a son or daughter 
In the course of a trade or business will be covered by social security. Work in 
the household of a son or daughter is still not to be covered. Parents will need 
a social security card if they work for the son or daughter on a farm or roadside 
stand, or in preparing farm products for sale. The son or daughter must withhold 
S. S. tax from parents' wages and pay the employer's share of tax just as is re- 
quired for other employees. 

Remember : 

1. Social Security taxes are compulsory, if the work is covered under the law. 

2. You must apply to get benefits. 

3. You must have earnings that meet the tests for benefits. 

Your county agent can give you the name of the nearest social security office 
and you should plan to see them to find out your position , if, 

1. You become disabled and can't work. 

2. If your husband dies and you have children under 18 or who are disabled. 

3. If you are 65 or your wife is 62 years of age. 

---Lawrence D. Rhoades 

Extension Specialist in 
Farm Management 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



► 



STRAWBERRY LEAF SPOT AND FRUIT ROT 

Growers can get a head start in the control of leaf spot and fruit rot for 
the coining year by applying a dormant spray this fall. The objective is to re- 
duce the amount of disease that winters over so that there will be less disease 
to infect new growth. In repeated experiments, it has been found that dusts and 
sprays applied in the bearing year have given considerably better control of leaf 
spots and fruit rots when a dormant spray has been applied than when there was no 
dormant spray. 

The materials for dormant sprays are Liquid Lime Sulfur, 2% gallons to 100 
gallons of water (7 tablespoonfuls to 1 gallon) or the organic mercuries used to 
eradicate apple scab, at the strength recommended on the label for apple scab. 

The fall application should be made when the plants are dormant and about 10 
days or a week before the winter mulch is put on. For good eradication, all parts 
of the strawberry plant need to be wet with spray. This cannot be done through 
a mulch. 

Where no winter mulch is used, the dormant spray may be put on in the spring. 
It must be before soft tender growth starts if injury is to be avoided. 

"-C. J. Gilgut 

Extension Plant Pathologist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

CIDER NOTES 

Another cider season is here. Are you ready for it? Many of you readers 
have been making cider for a number of years, yet do things around the cider mill 
the same way that you did in years past. Have you ever taken time to look close- 
ly at your sanitation program, your method of operation, and your selling techniques? 
Are there improvements that you could make in the mill itself? Are your drains 
clean and working? Do the floors slope to the drains? Are your windows and doors 
fly-proof? Is the mill as neat and bright as you can make it? Do you carefully 
clean the mill after each days pressing? Or do you just hose it down? Look in 
many of the nooks and crannies and other spots where pomace can get caught. These 
are all breeding spots for fruit flies. Have you changed your method of selling? 
Are you using glass or cartons? Do you ever run a cider special? Many items can 
be changed for the betterment of your business. Occasionally, look at the adver- 
tlsments by retail stores to see how they sell certain items. Have you ever thought 
of running a 1 cent sale? One unit for your regular price plus 1 cent more for 



-8- 



another unit, or a special price for 2 cartons or jugs? Is the display of your 
cider such that the customer Immediately sees it and wants to buy? Have you 
thought of using spotlights to highlight your cider display? In other words, 
are you doing everything possible to increase your business and make the customer 
a satisfied one who will return again and again. 

Wax and Cartons 

For those cider operators using waxed cartons — handle carefully! 1 1 
Do not bend or knock excessively since this causes wax on the inside of the car- 
ton to break off. It is advisable to turn the carton upside down prior to filling 
to make sure any loose wax will fall out. Another method is use a low pressure 
air blast to blow out any wax or dust in the carton. The fact that a consumer 
finds a piece of wax floating on top of the cider does not mean that it is harm- 
ful, but it does make him wonder how carefully you are handling your product. 

Container Caps 

Some mill operators using glass jugs reuse the old caps that come with the 
jugs. For a very small investment, you may buy new lacquered caps. This gives 
a neat sanitary appearance to the container and at the same time assures the 
customer that the product is being handled properly. Use of old caps may impact 
an off-flavor to the product which you have made to the best of your ability. 

Fly Contro l 

During the early fall months when the days are warm and the nights are cool, 
there is a tendency for flies to gather in the cider press room. To control the 
flies in and around your press room, be sure to read the article in the August 10th 
issue of FRUIT NOTES. This is an excellent article on the control of flies in and 
around roadside stands. By following the methods described in the article you can 
control both regular house flies and fruit flies that are so annoying to your 
customers. 

Salesmanship 

On certain weekends throughout the fall offer cider samples to your customers. 
Let them sample a small glass of your cider. You will find that it will pay off 
in increased cider sales. Or if you do not want to give it away, charge a nickel 
for a small glass, served in paper cups. This works extremely well and will also 
add to your stand income. Be sure however, that the cider is well refrigerated 
since cold cider on a warm fall day adds to the sales appeal of your product. 

Kirby M. Hayes 

Food Technologist 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Departmerit of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 

NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1960 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Opportunities in the Food and Agricultural Sciences 

Storage Capacity for Apples in Massachusetts 

A Windfall 

The Condition of Apples in Storage 

Prevent Carry-Over of Fruit on Retail Counter 

Federal Income Tax for Farmers 

Apples were Damaged in Nineteen Different Ways 
Between Grower Packing Sheds and Retail 
Store Counters 

The Go-By 

A Hole in An Apple 

An Encouraging Thought 

Stored Supplies 

Winter Fruit Meetings 




^ 




Wi£ttii 



m^i 







%' 



i'yy-^ 



'>'>;%. 



f^T-T?'.-.. 



W 
mil 










r^ 




a-v 



■/'t 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



STORAGE CAPACITY FOR APPLES IN MASSACHUSETTS 

From the latest information obtainable, the storage capacity for apples 
by counties is as shown in the following table: 

FARM LOCATED STORAGES 

Regular Cold Controlled Atmosphere 

County Storages Storages Totals 

(bu.) (bu.) (bu.) 

Barnstable 3,600 3,600 

Berkshire 20,000 20,000 

Bristol 20,500 20,500 

Essex 74,500 74,500 

Franklin 99,000 45,500 144,500 

Hampden 157,600 34,650 192,250 

Hampshire 119,000 11,000 130,000 

Middlesex 443,800 47,000 490,800 

Norfolk 42,900 42,900 

Plymouth 8,500 8,500 

Worcester 400,500 119,600 520,100 

Totals 1,389,900 257,750 1,647,650 

COUNTRY POINT COMMERCIAL STORAGES 

573,000 222,000 795,000 

GRAND TOTALS 1,962,900 479,750 2,442,650 

The C.A. storage capacity increased approximately 25,000 bushels from 
the 1959 storage season by the construction of four new storages during 
the summer. 

—William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



THERE ARE UNEQUALED CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN 
THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

IT WILL BE WORTH YOUR WHILE TO INVESTIGATE THEM! 



There was a time when the College of Agriculture was the place a student went to study only 
farming. This just isn't so anymore! Those days are now long gone! 

The College of Agriculture at the University of Massachusetts could be called a College of 
Food and Agricultural Sciences. 

It offers a wide variety of programs of study which train young men and women for many varied 
and well-paying positions in scientific fields and in many branches of the food industry, including 
distribution, processing, management, and production. Starting salaries are averaging over $5000 
a year. 

Graduates are making excellent reputations for themselves in research, promotion, sales, 
managing, engineering, teaching, product development, and many other rewarding areas of work. 



The opportunities for you? 

• If you like to work with people and have interest in management of an enterprise dealing with 
food and agricultural products, there are career opportunities in FOOD DISTRIBUTION, FOOD 
iVIANAGEMENT, and AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS. . . 

In supermarket organizations, wholesale food distribution firms, and other 
food marketing agencies, the food service industry, cooperatives, and a 
variety of other agricultural business careers. There are additional oppor- 
tunities in teaching, research, and public service positions inthest fields. 

• If you find chemistry and botany interesting, investigate the career opportunities in the PLANT 
SCIENCES - FLORICULTURE, POiVIOLOGY, OLERICULTURE, PLANT PATHOLOGY, FOOD TECH- 
NOLOGY, FORESTRY, AGRONOMY, and AGROSTOLOGY . . . 

In teaching, research, management of business, plant disease control, 
sales, product development, production, government work in markets, 
inspection, and market news reporting, administration and management 
of forest lands, and utilization of wood products. 

• If your interest in biology is considerable, check the career possibilities in VETERINARY SCIENCE, 
ENTOMOLOGY, ANIMAL SCIENCE, POULTRY SCIENCE, and WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT . . . 

In state or federal quarantine and regulatory work, teaching, research, 
public health and pest control agencies, sales, agricultural chemicals 
industry, food production, feed manufacturers, pharmaceutical firms, and 
conservation agencies. 

(over) 



• If you consider physics and mathematics interesting subjects, look into the career opportunities 
in AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING . . . 

In research, design, development, testing, sales, consulting, service, 
teaching or management work with large manufacturers, small businesses, 
public agencies, and universities. 

• If you like science, see what the career opportunities are in FOOD TECHNOLOGY, DAIRY TECH- 
NOLOGY, and AGRONOMY . . . 

In technical and production work in the food industries, control and ana- 
lytical work related to food products, government food inspection work, 
technological research work in government, industry and education, work 
with equipment and supply firms, public agency sanitation and public 
health work, and private testing businesses. 

• If you want to be a producer of food, look for career opportunities in ANIMAL SCIENCES, PLANT 
SCIENCES, and FARM MANAGEMENT ... 

In dairy cattle, livestock, flower and flowering plants, vegetable crops, 
poultry, and fruit farm operations as owners, managers, or key workers. 

• If you have on interest in drawing, in ornamental plants, in architecture or construction, investi- 
gate career opportunities in LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE . . . 

In the landscape architecture profession, nurseries, park departments, 
public and private institutions, city and town planning, landscape con- 
tracting and construction. 

• If you are interested in working for the government, there are opportunities in most of these areas 
of study . . . 

In research, regulatory and control work, market news reporting, and other 
programs in state and federal agencies, and in international services. 



Whatever your interest and whichever of these areas of work you investigate, you will find in 
the College of Agriculture a program of study that can lead you to responsible, well-paying, and 
rewarding positions in the many industries, educational institutions, and public agencies concern- 
ed with food and agricultural services. 

For more information — 

If you want more information about these career opportunities, the course offerings, the 
entrance requirements, or any other information, contact: 

Dean, College of Agriculture 

Stockbridge Hall 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst, Massachusetts 



A Windfall - 

Some growers have made an almost Impossible job for themselves, 
This job takes time, costs money and prevents them from doing 

things they like better. 
Their business continues to have an uncertain outlook. 
The business hardly ever makes as much money as it should and 

appears capable of making. 
It is a steady job, though, and allows them to meet new people. 
The job? 

Getting new customers as fast as they discourage the old onesl 
It is theirs, to answer why. 



F. E. Cole 

Extension Marketing Specialist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

THE CONDITION OF APPLES IN STORAGE 

Regular check of apple condition in storage is good storage manage- 
ment procedure. The apples should be checked twice a month starting about 
December 1st to determine firmness and the presence of scald, bitter pit, 
brown core and internal breakdown. 

Growers and County Ageats have pressure testers for determining the 
comparative firmness of one lot of a variety with another. To get an 
accurate picture of the firmness of a given lot of fruit, use at least 
twenty apples. The apples should be selected from several boxes of apples in 
the lot being tested. A common error on the part of some growers using 
pressure testers is the failure to use a sufficient number of apples from 
several boxes and consequently an inaccurate picture of the firmness of the 
fruit is obtained. 

Bitter pit on apples is a disorder that may be present at harvest but 
makes further development after the fruit is placed in storage. Since the 
amount increases during the storage period, a close watch should be kept on 



•3- 



bitter pit susceptible varieties. 

In order to be sure scald is not developing on such varieties as Cortland, 
R, I. Greening, Rome Beauty and Mcintosh, it is necessary to place apples at 
room temperature for several days. The placement of the samples in unsealed 
polyethylene bags is suggested. Apples may show no scald in storage but with- 
in several days at room temperature have 100 per cent scald. In case of 
regular storage Mcintosh, the immature fruits usually scald worse. The opposite 
is true with Mcintosh in CA storage. 

internal breakdown which in some years follows water core in Delicious 
apples and strains of the variety may be a problem during the 1960-61 storage 
season. The following table shows the amount of and severity of water core 
present in Starking and Richared Delicious apples on September 29, October 10 
and 20, 1960 in the University orchard. 



TABLE I - WATER CORE IN STARKING AND RICHARED DELICIOUS APPLES AT HARVEST 



PACKING 
DATE 


APPLES WITH WATER CORE AT HARVEST 


AVERAGE FLESH 
FIRMNESS (LBS.) 


SLIGHT 


MEDIUM 


HEAVY 


TOTAL 


STARKING DELICIOUS 


Sept. 29, 1960 


22.27. 


5.17o 


1.37, 


28.67, 


18.4 


Oct. 10, 1960 


24.77, 


8.07, 


15.67, 


48.37, 


17.3 


Oct. 20, 1960 


40.77, 


3.77, 


6.37, 


50.77, 


15.3 


RICHARED DELICIOUS 


Sept. 29, 1960 


29.67, 


3.8% 


3.67, 


37.07, 


17.6 


Oct. 10, 1960 


34.37, 


19.77, 


31.37, 


85,47, 


17.3 


Oct. 20, 1960 


23.27, 


24.27, 


42.17, 


89.57, 


16.9 



Because of the limited number of trees, etc., the data in the table are 
insufficient to draw any conclusion as to any difference in Delicious strains 
and their susceptibility to water core. 

However, the data presented in the table show the necessity of examining 
various lots of apples from different trees In the orchard to get an accurate 
picture of the water core situation. 



A - 



Lots of fruits suspected of having water core should be sold early in 
the season. Even though water core may disappear in cold storage internal 
breakdown may occur later. If it is necessary to store Delicious apples 
suspected of water core for a considerable period, apple storage operators 
should make inspection of the fruit throughout the storage season not only 
for the presence of internal breakdown but for other storage disorders. 
Regular inspections at regular 2 or 3 week intervals, starting about 
Thanksgiving time, would help to eliminate serious losses late in the storage 



period. 



— -William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

PREVENT CARRY-0\nER OF FRUIT ON RETAIL COUNTER 



Broken skin and bruises were the principle defects of apples found on 
retail counters in a retail store study conducted by F. E. Cole and W. J. Lord 
in 1959-60. Fruit condition, inadequate rotation of the packs by the produce 
manager, and failure to remove packages of apples from the display counter 
having de:teriorated fruit, account for a large percentage of bruised and 
punctured fruit. 

Frequently when discussing the apple displays with the produce managers 
they would remove bags of apples and say, "Oh, these apples should not be on 
display". However, it is the opinion of the writers that the apples would 
have stayed on display if not brought to the attention of the produce manager. 
The stores appeared reluctant to remove bags of fruit having deteriorated 
apples. A close check on fruit quality is necessary by produce managers and 
the growers servicing these stores. 

Growers can continually stress "quality control" with the stores serviced. 
Poor fruit on display depresses apple movement. All growers servicing retail 
stores, except those who make tailgate delivery only, could well remove any 
bags of fruit on display containing deteriorated apples. An adequate arrange- 
ment can be made between the store and the grower in regard to replacement. 

It would appear that the problem of deteriorated fruit on the retail 
counter could be partially solved if no bag stayed on a non-refrigerated 
counter more than twenty-four hours. Many produce managers say, "I replenish 
my display two or three times a day". However, if this is true why are so 
many bags on display that have been there for several days? The only apparent 
reason is that there are some bags left each time the display is refilled and 
they continue to be left on the display. Customers leave them there tool 
Close cooperation between the produce manager and the grower helps to prevent 
this carry-over. 



-5- 

An extra carton of apples may be taken along when making store deliveries. 
These apples can be used as replacements for apples taken off the store display | 
by the grower. The grower can take the displayed apples home in order to 
inspect the fruit quality. This method will give growers a better idea as to 
what is on sale. You cannot tell what is in the bag from the outside I Many 
times the writers were amazed at what the bags contained, that was not 
apparent from the outside, even though they were currently examining packages 
carefully. 

In the November-December 1959 issue of FRUIT NOTES it was suggested that 
when bagging apples for servicing stores it would be worthwhile to use 
different colored "twists" or tapes for denoting packing dates. This would 
be useful to the produce manager in the store for keeping unsold apples from 
the previous delivery separated from the most recently delivered lot. Colored 
twists or tapes on the bags will enable the grower to know the date the fruit 
was packed and delivered and the amount of carry-over of fruit from one 
delivery to another. 

Since the above article was written, several growers have tried the use 
of a coding device and report the results to be very satisfactory. 

W. J. Lord and 

F. E. Cole 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

FEDERAL INCOME TAX FOR FARMERS 

The Farmers Income Tax Guide, 1961 edition, will be available on request 
from your county extension office. Since the Internal Revenue Iws were not 
changed by Congress, changes are few for the year. 

The important ones are: 

A change in medical expense deduction for persons over 65 may mean that 
you would have no income tax to pay. 

All references to Bulletin F on depreciation are dropped. 

The F.I.C.A. tax (or the social security tax paid on income from self- 
employment) rate for 1960 year is A%% which is an increase over 1959. 

You may capitalize (spread cost over more than one year) or you may treat 
as current expense , the cost of fertilizer and lime used on your farm. 

If you property was damaged by hurricane Donna, you should write to 
District Director, Internal Revenue Service, 174 Ipswich Street, Boston, 



6 - 



Massachusetts for Internal Revenue Service Document No. 5174. 

If you don't do your own return, you should get these two bulletins for 
your income tax accountant. 

Lawrence D. Rhoades 

Extension Sepcialist in 
Farm Management 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



APPLES WERE DAMAGED IN NINETEEN DIFFERENT WAYS BETWEEN GROWER PACKING 

SHEDS AND RETAIL STORE COUNTERS 

There were nearly six times as many bruises and twice as many broken skin 
injuries on apples on the retail store counters than on apples as they left 
the packing shed according to a study of retail store servicing made by 
W. J. Lord and F. E. Cole in the late fall of last year. Only damage which 
placed the apples below specified grade was counted. 

Observations were recorded in regard to color, broken skin, bruises, pest 
damage, russet, rot and miscellaneous reasons for lower quality. Records of 
damage due to pest, russet and miscellaneous were low and remarkably close 
considering that records were necessarily made on different lots. Some rot 
was found in bagged apples. The increased damage was in broken skin and 
bruises. The record is as follows: 

Below Specified Grade Damage to Apples at Growers Packing Sheds 
and in Retail Stores Based Upon Examination of 150 Lots oc" Apples 

November and December 1959 



Checks Made At: 






Below 


Grade Due To: 




1 


Lack of 
Color 


Broken 
Skin 


Bruises 


Pests 


Russet 


Shape 


Rot 


Misc. 


Growers Packing House 


6.77, 


14.1% 


5.27, 


.97. 


2.47, 


1.67, 




1.17, 


Retail Store 
Poly bags 


7.67o 


29.67. 


29.67, 


1.17, 


1.57, 


3.67, 


1.67, 


1.97, 


Retail Store 
Apples sold in bulk 


5.07o 


31.47. 


5.97, 


2.27, 


1.57. 


3.87. 


-»« 


1.57. 


Retail Store 

Apples bagged in stores 


8.17. 


25.27, 


7.87, 


2.27, 


1.37, 


1.47, 




1.47, 



- 7 - 



Below grade damage due to other than physical injury present no particular 
problem. 

The increase from 5% to 297. for bruises and 14% to 297, for broken skin in 
the poly bags is a significant difference. Apples sold in bulk or bagged in 
the store did not show significant increases in bruises in the lots checked in 
this study. These apples did have more broken skin on the display counter. 
A relatively small number of lots were in the "bulk" and "store bagged" 
categories. Other studies have shown more damage in store bagged apples and 
instances of this were recorded in this study. 

The problem of broken skin and bruises was discussed with growers and 
produce counter managers. Also observations were made of handling procedures. 
The following list of places where damage to apples may occur, with suggestions 
for reducing the damage, is made from these discussions and observations. 

Places where injury takes place and suggestions (S) for reducing damage . 

FROM PACKING SHED TO STORE COOLER: 

1. Bags packed in vertical position in master cartons - bruises occurring 
in loading, jouncing on truck, unloading, handling and stacking. 

(S) Lay bags on side. 

2. Master cartons or boxes not strong enough. 
Weak from re-use. 

Not made strong enough. 

Interior partition too low. 

Interior partition not strong enough. 

Cartons weakened by standing in water or moistened. 

(S) Use only strong master cartons with partitions capable of 
carrying load of stacked cartons. Secure more careful 
handling, try to avoid dropping and throwing, use conveyors, 
stack on slatted platforms in wet coolers. Avoid having to 
sell soft apples (less than 10 lbs. pressure test). (11 lbs. 
is better because about a pound is lost in the retail 
operation.) 

3. Staples in master cartons. 

(S) More care in placing of staples in closing master cartons. 
Use of tapes to seal cartons. 

4. Bottom bruising in wooden crates. 

(S) Use pads in bottom of wood boxes. 

5. Apples too loosely packed in bags - bruising, broken skin. 

(S) Improve techniques of tightening bag in closing process. 

6. Increased damage on apples damaged in packing. 

(S) More careful sorting and handling in packing operation. 



7. Freezing in transportation. 

(S) Insulate truck or otherwise protect apples from cold. 

8. Loss of condition due to high temperature in back of store resulting 
in increased damage at all subsequent points. 

(S) See that apples are placed in cooler immediately or avoid 
deliveries of more than 3 days supply when stacking in warm 
back room is unavoidable. 

9. Loss of condition due to lack of rotation in cooler. 

(S) Use a code on the outside of master cartons or boxes to 
assist store personnel in maintaining rotation. 

FROM COOLER TO DISPLAY COUNTER 

10. Damage by wire sides and bottoms of grocery cart. 

(S) Line cart with corrugated board or take bags to counter in 
master cartons. 

11. Burning due to heat labelling device. 

(S) More care or different labels. 

12. Rough handling in store bagging and traying operation, 

(S) Better training of store help, 

ON THE D].SPLAY COUNTER 

13. Rough handling by customers due to variations in color, condition and 
size of apples in bag, 

(S) More uniform apples in bags to elirainate as much as possible 
of "choice" between bags, 

14. Loss of condition on non-refrigerated counters and increased injury 
due to this loss of condition, 

(S) Smaller displays, more careful rotation with aid of coded 
bag closures. Use a pad on the counter. Raise bottom in 
display rack to give the appearance of a large display. 
Use refrigerated counters when possible. 

15. Loss of condition due to piling too high on refrigerated counters. 

(S) Limit piling to cooling capacity of counter, usually no more 
than two high. 

16. Loss of condition and continued rough handling due to faulty rotation 
of bags on the counter. 

(S) Code bags and train store personnel to use the code. 

17. Rough handling in stacking retail counter. 

(S) Train store help in careful handling (not like cord wood) . 



- 9 - 



18. Bruising against partitions and front of display counter. 

(S) Train store help in handling apples. 

19. Loss of condition and subsequent increased damage due to over-buying 
and slow moving supplies. 

(S) Discourage over-buying particularly at times of sales. 

HIGH POINTS 

Increased and serious damage was directly associated with loss of 
condition. Hard apples maintained in hard condition are important in reducing 
injury. 

More uniformity of apples in the bags and between bags in the same lot 
reduces customer injury to apples. 

Code packages to improve rotation in cooler and in displays. Lack of 
adequate rotation on retail counter is an important cause of damage. 

Constant training of help is necessary to avoid rough handling. 

W. J. Lord and 

F. E. Cole 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

THE GO-BY 

To get something by a wholesale or even a retail buyer is relatively easy 
in comparison to getting something by a consumer. 

You can argue with a wholesale buyer and promise him more ntxt time. 
SHE, the consumer, just gives your product the "go-by" and picks u? another 
product if she did not like what she bought last time. No argument -- just, 
no sale. 

F. E. Cole 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

A HOLE IN AN APPLE 

There seems to be a difference of opinion in regard to the seriousness 
of broken skin in apples. 

Let's put these points on the sorting table and roll them around: 



10 



** People buy products that are not absolutely necessary 

because they like them 
because they produce satisfaction 
food products, because they are good to eat 

because they can buy them and use them at their 
convenience and feel that they get their money's 
worth. 

** A broken skin on an apple provides easy entrance for molds and rots. 

The flesh of an apple, behind a hole thru the skin, is an ideal place 

for many molds and rots to develop. 
Room temperature is well suited to develop molds and rots at a rapid 
rate. 

** An apple with a broken skin is an apple with a hole in it. 

** At room temperature, even a fresh puncture is a rotten spot in a week or ten 
days. Such an apple is not a sales-promoting product. 

** Eaten when fresh, the stem puncture is hardly noticeable to those who handle 
apples. To consumers it is damaged goods . 

** No amount of pooh-poohing the damage by a grower has any effect on a consumer. 
No excuse as to why is accepted by a consumer who has paid money for good 
apples. 

** An apple with the tag "Fancy" or "Number 1" is not an apple with a hole in 
it. These labels do not mean "damaged goods" to a consumer. "Utility" is 
a better classification! 

** Selling an apple with a hole in it is tampering with the most valuable asset 
an apple grower can have - consumer confidence in the product. 

SO, apples with holes in them are of concern to growers, 

those who are concerned about consumer acceptance and net returns, that is, 

F. E. Cole 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT 

In all of the studies made of Massachusetts apples, in packing houses, on 
the market, in retail stores and on roadside stands, there have been very few 
instances of apples being out of grade for insect or disease damage, russet or 
similar type of injury. 

There have been differences of opinion in regard to color and some mis- 
understandings in regard to shape. 



- 11 



PHYSICAL INJURY - broken skin and bruises - has been the chief reason 
for low scores. 

Apples, too green and too ripe, have hurt sales. Lack of adequate sizing 
Is also a handicap. 

LOSS OF GOOD MARKET ACCEPTANCE DUE TO PHYSICAL INJURY, LACK OF CONDITION 
AND POOR SIZING IS PREVENTABLE . 

More care in handling is all that stands between Massachusetts growers 
and as fine a grade and pack as put out anjrwhere. Improvement in handling is 
vital to improved consumer pcceptance and improved net returns. This improve- 
ment is within the reach of a determined industry .. All that is necessary is the 
will to do it. 

F. E. Cole 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

STORED SUPPLIES ^ 

The October 15th storage figures are known to the industry. By the time 
this is read, the November 1st storage figures will be available. The selling 
job is defined. 

In order to avoid "too many, too ripe, too late" at least 85% of the 
standard storage supply should be sold by the time CA apples hit the market in 
volume. Those who have CA apples might say 100% of standard storage apples 
should be sold at that time. Then CA apples need to move right into consumption 
at a steady rate in order to be sold to full advantage. 

With 15 weeks of selling between October 15 and February 15 and 14 weeks 
of selling between February 15 and Memorial Day, the selling job is outlined by 
weeks . 

With 702,000 bushels (Massachusetts) in standard storage on October 15, 
a simple division by 15 means an average movement of about 47,000 bushels a 
week from standard storage. With 473,000 bushels in CA storage, a simple 
division by 14 means an average movement of nearly 34,000 bushels a week. As 
all weeks do not have the same selling potential, it would seem that sales of 
standard storage apples should approach 60,000 bushels in some weeks and CA 
apples should approach 50,000 bushels in some weeks. 

A close watch of movement out of storage appears to be necessary if the 
operation is to secure the greatest net returns. 

Out of storage movement is the most valuable guide as to the happy 



I 



- 12 - 

combination of price , selling effort and the apples for sale . 

-—F. E. Cole 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



WINTER FRUIT MEETINGS 

The 67th Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association, 
Inc. in cooperation with the University of Massachusetts Extension Service will 
be held in the (;ardner Armory, Gardner, Massachusetts on January 4 and 5, 1961, 

The following is the tentative program: 

Wednesday, January 4, 1961 

Forenoon 

10:00 Call to Order 

Greetings from President Dewey Frost 

10:15 The Latest in Apple Nutrition 

Dr. W. D. Weeks, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 

10:45 Is Our Present-Day Fungicidal Program Doing More Than Just Controlling 
Plant Diseases? 

Dr. M. T. Hilborn, University of Maine, Orono 

11:30 Disease Control Recommendations for Apples and Peaches 

Dr. C. J. Gilgut, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 

Lunch 12:00 - 2:00 P.M. 

Afternoon 

2:00 Pesticide Legislation in Massachusetts - A Look at the 1961 Situation 
Dr. Ellsworth Wheeler, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 

2:20 What's New in Chemical Thinning? 

Dr. F. W. Southwick, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 

2:40 Apple Promotional and Advertising Activities 

A. Ed O'Neill, J. P. Sullivan Co., Ayer, Massachusetts 

B. John Lyman, Jr., Laurel State Fruit Growers' Packing 
Association, Middlefield, Connecticut 

C. Rockwood Berry, New York and New England Apple Institute 

3:30 What's the CA Storage Deal Going to Be? 

A. Analysis of Appl2 Movement and Price 

Prof. F. E. Colo, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



- 13 - 

B. How Some CA Operators See It? 

Evening 

7:00 Annual Banquet - Chetwood Restaurant - Route 2, Templeton 

Speaker: Dr. Mack Drake, University of Massachusetts, who 
has recently returned from a two-year assignment 
at Hokkaido University in Northern Japan. 

Thursday, January 5, 1951 

Forenoon 

9:45 Recent Research Results 

Prof. W. D. Whitcomb, University of Massachusetts Field Station, 
Walt ham 

10:05 Drift Residues - A Problem in Orchard Pest Control 

Dr. G. B. MacCollum, University of Vermont, Burlington 

10:45 Peach Nutrition and Cultural Methods 

Dr. C. M. Ritter, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 

11:30 Business Meeting 

Lunch 12:00 - 2:00 P.M. 

Afternoon 

2:00 Consumers Are Smart 

Dr. W. J. Lord and Prof. F. E. Cole, University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst 

2:45 A Review of the Apple Business and Where It is Headed 

Prof. E. J. Rasmussen, University of New Hampshire, Durham 

3: 15 Insect Control Recommendations for Apples and Peaches 

Dr. W. D. Tunis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 

F. W. Southwick 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue From Supporting Fields 

Frederick E. Cole - Extension Marketing Specialist 

Lawrence D. Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 



FRUIT NOTES 



Preparad by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



JANUARY 3, 1961 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Varieties of Peaches for Massachusetts 

Newer Fruit Varieties Worthy of Trial 

Research From Other Areas 

Varieties of Strawberries for Massachusetts 

Getting Quick Bearing in Apple Orchards 



"^' 



'^^a 



W^t 



w, 





n 



!]m^.. 



r*is>>*?: 



rx.?s^-v 



/^'-V? 



■■^.-^ 



^:^' 












■.xy 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculme and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS IN SUPPORT OF THE FRUIT PROGRAM 
(Please contact the agent in your county for fruit information) 



BARNSTABLE Oscar S, Johnson, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Cape Cod Extension Service, Barnstable (Tel. - FOrest 2-3255) 

BERKSHIRE Richard L. Boyce, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Berkshire County Extension Service, Federal Building, Pittsfield 
(Tel. Pittsfield 8285) 

BRISTOL Harold 0, Woodward, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Bristol County Agricultural School, Segregansett 
(Tel. Dighton - NOrmandy 9-3611 or 9-2361) 

DUKES Ezra I. Shaw, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Dukes County Extension Service, Vineyard Haven 
(Tel. Vineyard Haven 694) 

ESSEX James F. Gallant, Director of Essex County Extension Service 
Essex County Agricultural School, Hathorne 
(Tel. Danvers - SPring 4-0050) 

FRANKLIN Donald T. Thayer, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Franklin County Extension Service, Court House, Greenfield 
(Tel. PRescott 3-9698 or 2-4066) 

HAMPDEN ) G. Everett Wilder, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
HAMPSHIRE) Hampden County Improvement League, 1499 Memorial Aveniie, 
West Springfield (Tel. REpublic 6-7204) 

MIDDLESEX Max G. Fultz, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Middlesex County Extension Service, 19 Everett Street, Concord 
(Tel. EMerson 9-4845) 

NORFOIK Peter W. Larson, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Norfolk County Agricultural School, Walpole 
(Tel. - MOntrose 8-0268 or 8-0269) 

PLYMOUTH Dominic A. Marini, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Plymouth County Extension Service, Court House, Brockton 
(Tel. - juniper 6-4993) 

WORCESTER William R. Goss, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Worcester County Extension Service, 36 Harvard Street, Worcester 
(Tel. - PLeasant 3-5477) 



VARIETIES OF PEACHES FOR MASSACHUSETTS 



Variety 



Recommended for 



Color 



Harvesting Season 



Sunrise T 

Erly-Red-Fre C & H 

Sunhaven T 

Coronet T 

Jerseyland C & H 

Raritan Rose C & H 

Redhaven C & H 

Goldgem T 

Triogem C & H 

Sunhigh C 

Halehaven C & H 

Richhaven T 

Garden State (Nectarine) C & H 

Summercrest C 

Blake T 

Elberta C & H 

Fowler T 



Y 
W 
Y 
Y 
Y 
W 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 



-hi 
-40 
-39 
-32 
-31 
-28 
-24 
-23 
-18 
-16 
-16 
-10 

- 9 

- 6 


/ 3 



T - Trial Y - Yellow Flesh - - Days before Elberta 

H - Home Garden W - White Flesh / - Days after Elberta 

C - Commercial Elberta about Sept. 15 

Varieties so marked are not necessarily equally adapted to all sections of 

the state. 



Sunrise 



Variety Notes 

Attractive yellow peach of good quality for its season; clings 
unless tree-ripe. 



Erly-Red-Fre 



Tree large and productive. Fruit medium to large, attractive, 
fine textured, white flesh, freestone, flavor excellent. Bud 
hardiness above average. 



Sunhaven Tree hardy and productive. Fruit attractive, highly colored, 
good quality, variable in size. 

Coronet Very attractive, highly colored peach. Fifuit quality excellent. 

Jerseyland Tree large, upright, very productive. Bud hardiness above average, 
Fruit firm, juicy, excellent flavor, freestone. 



Raritan Rose 



Tree large, upright-spreading, productive. Bud hardiness above 
average. Fruit large, round, attractive; flesh juicy, firm. 



Redhaven Tree tall, upright, very productive. Fruit medium size, highly 
colored; flesh firm, fair flavor. Requires heavy thinning. 



Goldgem 



Large yellow fleshed peach. Fruit firmer and more attractive 
than Golden Jubilee. Description based on performance in New 
Jersey. 



- 2 - 



Triogem 



Tree medium to largo; fairly vigorous, very productive. Fruit 
medium to large, well colored; flesh smooth, firm, excellent 
flavor. Bud hardiness of Elberta. 



Sunhigh 



Tree medium size, productive, susceptible to bacterial spot. 
Fruit large, highly colored, freestone; flesh firm, excellent 
flavor. 



Halehaven 



Richhaven 



Garden State 
(Nectarine) 



Summercrest 



Blake 



Elberta 



Fowler 



Tree large, productive, bud hardy. Fruit medium to large, 
attractive, freestone, flesh firm, good flavor. 

Tree hardy and productive. Fruit large, attractive, highly 
colored, excellent quality, freestoae, 

A nectarine. Tree tall, vigorous, productive. Fruit good size, 
freestone, russeted, moderately attractive; flesh firm, juicy, 
quality excellent. 

Tree large, spreading, vigorous, very productive. Fruit large, 
round, fairly attractive, freestone; flesh firm, smooth, good 
flavor. Colors poorly on rich soils. Drops when mature. 

Fruit highly colored, attractive, medium quality. Skin has very 
little pubescence or fuzz. 

Tree large, vigorous, productive. Fruit large, fairly attractive, 
freestone; flesh firm, juicy, fair flavor. Has wide soil and 
climatic adaptability. 

Tree vigorous and productive. Fruit excellent quality, freestone, 
juicy, moderately attractive, not too well colored, 

W. D. Weeks 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



NEWER FRUIT VARIETIES WORTHY OF TRIAL 

The following report briefly describes the newer fruit varieties under test 
in the University plantings that are worthy of trial by commercial growers and 
home gardeners. 

These notes should be considered as supplementary information on varieties 
recommended for planting in Massachusetts as given in Extension Service Special 
Circulars #212-A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H which are available from your County 
Agent or the Mailing Room, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 

APPLE 



Red Melba - A red sport of Melba which is superior in color. Good quality for an 



early apple. Season early August. Recommended for commercial planting where 
an early variety is desired. 

Puritan - A Mcintosh x Red Astrachan cross which was made by Professor Sears at 
the University of Massachusetts about 1929. It is a handsome well colored red 
apple which ripens just ahead of Early Mcintosh. Fruit quality is good for an 
early apple. The tree is hardy and vigorous but has a tendency toward biennial 
bearing. It will pollinate Mcintosh. Puritan is being widely planted in 
Massachusetts. Growers who have it in production have been more than pleased 
with its performance and the prices it commands. Puritan is worthy of extensive 
trial. 

Spartan - A Mcintosh x Newton seedling from British Columbia. It is an attrac- 
tive dark red apple with Mcintosh shape and quality. Spartan retains quality 
in storage much better and longer than Mcintosh. The fruit may have a tendency 
to be small. The tree is a vigorous Mcintosh type. Harvest season is late 
September. It will pollinate Mcintosh. Spartan shows great promise as a variety 
to extend the Mcintosh season and should be given serious consideration for 
future plantings. 

Idared - A promising Wagener x Jonathan cross from Idaho. The fruit has an 
attractive bright red finish. Fruit quality good but somewhat on the mild side. 
It has a long storage season. Harvest season is early October. Idared is one 
of the more promising late keeping dessert and general purpose apples. 

Melrose - A high quality winter apple introduced by the Ohio Experiment Station. 
Melrose is a Jonathan x Delicious cross. The fruit is well colored, has good 
size and shape. It may develop some russeting unless given a mild spray program. 
The fruit has excellent dessert and cooking qualities and a long storage season. 
The tree is productive, has good structure, and is annual. Harvest season mid- 
October. Melrose is cross incompatible with Delicious but will pollenize other 
varieties. Melrose shows much promise as a replacement for Baldwin. It should 
be given extensive trial. 

Spencer - A Mcintosh x Golden Delicious cross introduced by the Dominion Experiment 
Station, British Columbia. Spencer is a promising late keeping winter apple. It 
is harvested about three weeks after Mcintosh. The tree has desirable growth 
characteristics and produces annual crops. Fruit of Spencer is large and fairly 
well colored. Spencer is worthy of extensive trial. 

W. D. Weeks 

RASPBERRY 

Early Red - During the winter of 1959-60 when cold injury to all red raspberries 
was very severe. Early Red was hurt no worse than Chief which is considered the 
hardiest of all red raspberry varieties. Flavor and color were good but berries 
were a bit soft with a tendency to crumble. Small size and mildew were its 
weakest points. 

Muskoka - The small amount of injury during the severe winter was a surprising 



reversal of performance as compared with the preceeding winter. Flavor was 
good, the berries were firm with no crumbling. Size was variable, small to 
medium. In general, its performance was good. 

Canby - This variety suffered very severe cold injury. Flavor and color were 
excellent but the berries wero a bit soft. Size was small to medium. It 
begins to look as if Canby is not cold resistant enough for this climate. 

Sumner - This variety from the Pacific Northwest has been outstandingly hardy 
during the past two winters. Its canes were killed back only 20 per cent in a 
winter when Chief was killed back 50 per cent. It rated with Latham in flavor 
but was not quite so firm. Color was excellent. Size medium but variable. A 
small amount of virus was observed. 

New Hampshire - Severe winter injury occurred again in 1960. Flavor and firm- 
ness were passable. Size a bit larger than Milton this year. No virus has 
been found. 

Success - This purple raspberry which originated in New Hampshire came through 
last winter with almost no cold injury. It may have been covered with snow* 
The berries had excellent flavor but were small, soft and tended to crumble. 
This was our first crop of Success. 

J. S. Bailey 

A NEW STRAWBERRY VARIETY - MIDWAY 

Midway, a new red-stele resistant, virus-free strawberry, developed coop- 
eratively by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Maryland Experiment 
Station is now available to growers from nurserymen. It was named and released 
to nurserymen a year ago but at that time the supply of plants was not adequate 
for release to growers. 

We have had three crops of Midway in our experimental plots at Amherst. The 
berries were among the best for appearance, firmness and flavor. Size was medlimi 
to large and held up fairly well thru the season. The plants were vigorous and 
produce runners freely. 

Midway ripens about with Catskill and present indications are that it will 
produce about as well. Yields per acre in quarts for Midway based on small 
experimental plots at Amherst were: 1958 - 8,916; 1959 - 8,677; 1960 - 10,534, 
These yields compared very favorably with those of some of our principal com- 
mercial varieties such as Midland, Catskill and Sparkle. 

Since the three fruiting seasons were quite different, it is worth noting 
Midway's performance under these varying conditions. The 1958 season was about 
normal thru May with a dry June. In 1959 May was dry but June and July were 
extremely wet. Growers picked in the rain to get any berries at all. Daring 
the 1960 season rain was plentiful but came at such intervals that picking was 
not seriously handicapped and spoiled berries were not a serious problem. Midway 
appears to have performed especially well under the trying conditions of 1959. 



- 5 - 



Midway Is said to perform best in soils of good moisture holding capacity. 
This suggests that it will be at its best on soils which would be suitable for 
Catskill, 

Midway is certainly worthy of trial. 

- — J. S. Bailey 

STRAWBERRY VARIETY TRIALS: 1960 

Some thirty named varieties and numbered seedlings were included in our 
1960 trials. The following Is a report on a few of the varieties. This was 
our first test of Earlimore, Grenadier, Redcoat, and Trumpeter. 

Earlimore - Origin: (fCampbell x self> x Howard 17) University of Minnesota. 
The plants of this variety were moderate in vigor and good in both runner pro- 
duction and yield. The fruits were small in size, soft, poorly shaped and of 
only fair flavor. Earlimore does not appear to be adapted to our conditions. 

Grenadier - Origin: (Valentine x Fairfax) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 
The plants appear to be fair in vigor and runner production, however, our plant 
stand was insufficient to make fair evaluation of these factors and yield. The 
fruit was moderately attractive, tending to be a little dark, of fair shape and 
good flavor. Grenadier appears to have a tender skin. This variety is being 
continued in our trials. 

Jerseybelle - Origin: New Jersey Experiment Station. The plants are vigorous, 
good in runner production and moderate in yield. The fruit ripens late and is 
very large in size. The fruit is very attractive but of only fair flavor. The 
seeds are large and very prcxninent. Although not as productive as some other 
varieties, Jerseybelle merits trial as a late ripening variety where red stele 
is not a factor. 

Midway - See preceding article. 

Or land - Origin: (Aberdeen x Howard 17) University of Maine, This has been one 
of our most productive varieties during the past two seasons. The plants are 
vigorous and form a good bed. Orland cannot be recommended because of its poor 
flavor, unattractive color and its tendency to be soft, 

Pocahontas - Origin: (Tennessee Shipper x Midland) U.S.D.A. and the Virginia 
Truck Experiment Station, The plants are vigorous, very productive and good in 
runner production. The fruit is of a light red color and rates fair in firmness 
and shape and poor in flavor. Though one of our top producers, Pocahontas does 
not seem to be suitable for Massachusetts because of its rather tart flavor. 

Redcoat - Origin: (Sparkle x Valentine) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 
This variety produces very attractive fruit, that is firm and of good flavor. 
Our stand of plants was too poor to draw any conclusions as to vigor or pro- 
ductiveness. Redcoat will be continued in our variety trials. 



- 6 - 

Trtflopeter - Origin: (Burgtindy x ^Howard x self^) University of Minnesota. The 
plants were of moderate vigor, good in runner production and fair in yield. 
The fruit is of good color and gloss but falls down in shape and smoothness. 
The flavor is good but the berries tend to be soft. Trumpeter does not appear 
to be adapted to our conditions. 

Vineland 41021 - Origin: (Valentine x Dorsett) Ontario Experiment Station, 
Vineland. The plants are of moderate vigor, yield, and runner production. The 
fruit is of medium size, with prominent seeds, of fair firmness and good flavor. 
Many of the fruits were off shaped and green tipped. Vineland 41021 does not 
appear to be promising for Massachusetts. 

---James F» Anderson 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 

(Items included under this heading are for your information and may not apply 
to Massachusetts conditions in all instances.) 

The pruning of filler trees and when to remove them has and continues to 
be a major problem. Crowding leads to tall trees which are difficult to spray 
and prune, a higher proportion of poorly colored fruit particularly on lower 
limbs, unproductive lower limbs, difficulty in mowing and other orchard cultural 
practices and the interference of the development of the permanent trees. On 
the other hand, filler trees handled correctly may be left for considerable time 
without being detrimental to the permanent trees. The New York State Horticultural 
Society Proceedings 1960 contained an article by C. G. Forshey titled "Current 
Research on Pruning and Irrigation and Fertilizer Recommendations". In this 
article Dr. Forshey describes a pruning experiment established in 1955 in a 
nineteen-year-old Mcintosh orchard. 

"The trees were planted 20' x 40' and, at the time the experiment was 
instigated, they were crowding each other badly. Three pruning treatments were 
established as follows: 

"A. Alternate fan pruning. In this treatment every other tree (filler) 
was severely fan pruned while the alternate trees (permanent) received normal 
pruning. As the permanent trees increase in size, the filler trees are further 
suppressed and eventually will be removed entirely* 

"R. Removal of alternate trees. Every other tree was removed and the 
remaining trees received normal pruning. The pruning of these trees and that 
of the permanent trees in treatment A is identical. 

"F. Fan pruning. Every tree was fan pruned only to the extent that over- 
lapping of branches of adjacent trees was prevented. The severity of pruning 
of these trees is intermediate between that of the filler trees of treatment A 



- 7 - 



and the permanent trees of the Siime treatment, 

"The interpretation of yield data from this orchard was made more diffi- 
cult by a late spring frost in 1956. This frost not only completely destroyed 
the crop for that year, but also resulted in a strong tendency toward alternate 
bearing. However, in spite of this complicating factor, two points are now well 
established: 

"1, There has been no difference between the two fan pruning treatments in 
yield for any one year or in total yield for the five year period, 

"2. Both fan pruning treatments have been far superior to removal of 
alternate trees. The fan prvoned treatments have produced 1000 boxes of apples 
per acre more than the removal treatment in five years . 

"At the time this experiment was started, it was assumed that Che difference 
in yield between the fan pruned treatments and the removal treatment woiild be 
less each succeeding year because the removal trees were expected to make better 
growth than the trees in the fan pruned treatments. However, no such tt^ndency 
is evident as yet. In 1955 the removal treatment produced two- thirds as; much 
fruit as the fan pruned treatments and that relationship has been maintained 
through the 1959 crop, 

"No filler trees have, as yet, been removed from the alternate fan pruning 
treatment and it is doubtful if any will be removed within the next thrE^e or 
four years. In spite of the fact that the permanent trees have made excellent 
growth it will apparently be possible to maintain considerable bearing surface 
on most filler trees for some time without interfering with the permanent trees. 

"The experience of the past five years in this orchard indicates that it is 
both desirable and practical to grow Mcintosh in a hedgerow system. However, 
if such a system is to be established, the following points should receive care- 
ful attention: 

"1, Fan pruning should be started before the trees grow together and 
crowding becomes a serious problem. When crowded trees are fan pruned, a great 
deal of weak, shaded-out wood is exposed and, in spite of greater exposure to 
sunlight, this wood is unproductive and will remain unproductive for several 
years . 

"2. Although this is called the hedgerow system, the branches of adjacent 
trees should not be permitted to overlap. If they are allowed to do so, weak, 
shaded wood will develop and such wood produces little fruit and fruit of low 
quality. When the trees are dormant, the lower branches of adjacent trees 
should be separated by three feet. The distance between higher branches should 
be even greater. 

"3. The upper branches should be considerably shorter than the lower 
branches. If not, the lower branches will be shaded out and a large part of 
the potential bearing surface will became relatively unproductive." 

—William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



VARIETIES OF STRAWBERRIES FOR MASSACHUSETTS 



Variety 


Recommended 


for 


Harvesting Season 


Ear 11 dawn 


C 




Very early 


Midland 


C 6c H 




Early 


Redglow 


C 




Early - Midseason 


Surecrop 


c 




Midseason 


Midway 


T 




Midseason 


Catskill 


C & H 




Midseason 


Robinson 


C 




Midseason 


Sparkle 


C & H 




Late 


Armore 


C 




Late 


J^ers£ybe^l_e 


T 




Vs£y_'ate 


20th Century 


~ ~ T 




Everbearer 


T - Trial 


H - Hcxne garden 


C - Commercial 



Varieties so marked are not necessarily equally adapted to all sections of the 
State. 



Variety Notes 

Earlidawn The earliest ripening variety in our trials. The fruits are of 
medium size, firm and of fair to good quality. The plants are 
productive and of moderate vigor. Earlidatm is recommended as 
a very early variety where red stele is not a factor. 

Midland An early ripening variety with large, firm fruit of very good 
quality. Midland produces many large coarse berries and tends 
to be dark in color. The variety though a poor plant maker 
has been a good producer. Good yields are obtained only with 
virus-free plants. 

Redglow This early midseason variety is vigorous and productive. The 

berries are of good size, attractive and of good quality. Red- 
glow is resistant to the common strain of red stele. 

Surecrop This new variety is resistant to two and partially resistant to 
a third strain of red stele. The plants are vigorous and mod- 
erately productive. The fruit is of medium size, attractive 
and of good quality though tart, 

Midway The fruit is of good size, a deep red color, glossy, firm and 

good flavor. The plants are vigorous, productive and resistant 
to the coiTimon race of red stele. 

Catskill A leading commercial variety with many growers because of its 
large size, attractiveness, good quality and vigorous, pro- 
ductive plants. Quite susceptible to leaf spot and requires 



- 9 



a high level of fertility for good production. A good 
freezer. 



Robinson 



Sparkle 



Armore 



Jerseybelle 



20th Century 



Its large, attractive, bright red fruit, high yield and 
abundant runner production have made this variety commercially 
important as a late berry in many parts of the state. The 
quality and firmness of the fruit, however, are below average. 

One of the important late season varieties. Its outstanding 
values are productiveness, firmness, good quality, and resis- 
tance to red stele diseases. Berry size is medium to large in 
early pickings but tends to decline rapidly. It is rated as a 
good freezer. 

A fine flavored, firm, late variety with large but rather rough 
fruit. Armore is vigorous, productive, and makes a good bed. 
The plants show susceptibility to mildew. 

The plants are vigorous, good in runner production, and fair to 
moderate in yields. The fruit ripens late, is of very large 
size, attractive, firm, and of fair quality. The seeds of 
Jerseybelle protrude and are very prcminent. Jerseybelle merits 
trial because of its lateness, large size, and attractiveness. 
Jerseybelle is not resistant to red stele. 

A new everbearing variety of very good quality large size, firm 
and attractive. It has good plant making ability and very good 
production for an everbearer. 

James F. Anderson 

and John S. Bailey 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



GETTING QUICK BEARING IN APPLE ORCHARDS 

The New York State Horticultural Society News Letter published in August, 
1960, contained an article by A. B. Burrell, Peru, New York, entitled "Getting 
Quick Bearing in Apple Orchards". The following are some excerpts taken from 
the article. 

"How long should it take to get a standard apple tree to the stage where 
it will produce 5 bushels? Some New York growers do it in 8 years; others in 
12 or 13. Why the difference? Can we afford the longer wait? How much should 
a young tree grow each year? 

"Some of our western competitors in irrigated areas have as large a tree 
in 5 years as we typically have in 10. Possibly they grow them too fast. At 



- 10 - 



least, their young trees were severly damaged when a cold spell occurred early 
during one recent winter, 

"Here are a few ideas for your consideration, 

"1. In the year of planting, the sum of the growths of terminal twigs 
should be at least 36 inches. We would get this if 6 branches each should 
grow 6 inches. Planting should be as early in the spring as the frost is out 
of the ground and ground is dry enough. During the first year, the earth 
around the roots never should be allowed to get dry before August. Slow 
starting usually is due to drying of the tree before or after the fruit grower 
gets it, 

"2. In each of the next 5 years, there should be growth of 15 to 18 inches 
on 6 or more branches per tree. With fewer than 7 scaffold branches, the grw-rth 
should average more than 18 inches. In colder areas of New York, 12 to 14 inches 
is safer than 15 to 18 inches. Growth should be made from later April through 
July. Growth in August or September increases the risk of winter injury. 

"3. Pruning should be the least that will produce a reasonable tree 
structure. Most young trees are delayed in bearing and dwarfed by excessive 
pruning, 

"4. Young trees need 4 to 6 sprays per year with non-injurious pesticides. 
Close observation may save a spray or two, 

"5, Continuous moisture is essential till mid-summer. During the first 3 
years, watering often pays. On most air blast sprayers a 1% inch hose can be 
slipped on in place of one of the hoses that go to the nozzles, Abou't 10 to 1!^ 
gallons should go into a hollow around the tree-trunk at a watering, BEFORE 
growth has been checked by drouth. 

"6, If a tree is allowed to become stunted. It may take 2 or 3 years Co 
•wake it up' , 

"7. The cost of bringing apples into bearing will be considerably less with 
6 to 8 years of intensive care than if it takes 10 to 15 years," 

—William J, Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



FEBRUARY 6, 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Apple Movement to January 1, 1961 

Research From Other Areas 

Research Findings on Bulk Boxes 
Reversion of Delicious Red Sports 

Peach Insects and Their Control 

What is Happening to Strawberry Growing in 
Massachusetts? 

Planting Plans for Trees on East Mailing Stocks 



^' 





( 



am 



-^ 



m:: 




■€< 










(■mk 



my. 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
1^ Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



o 

< 



I 

g 

z 

o 

2 



UJ 

z 

UJ 

> 
o 

z 



UJ 

> 



UJ 




Z 




o 


1- 


z 


bJ 




Z 


lU 


UJ 


« 


> 


< 


o 


cc 


z 


o 




1- 


UJ 




< 


a 

< 
o 


(A 


z 




2 


< 


h- 




V> 


o 



3 

UJ 

z 

CO 



UJ 



ffi 



z 

— Ul 



m 

UJ 

z 



iS 



o 
u 



Ul 

2 >: 

Ul CO 

> 
o o 



-J y 

^ 5 



UJ 
(9 

UJ 

z 

UJ < !J| 

^ o 

< 



<0 ^ 



UJ 

o 

< 
q: 

to 

u. 
o 

I- 
o 



5 

>ie 

UJ 
UJ 



85 




o 
u 

Ul 

• • 

U CO 

5 2 
o < 

< s 

u. u. « 
o o * 

•_• • '^ 
£ > 2 

UJ Z V. 
O 3 - 



< 

d 



O 

a 

UJ 

ce. 

I- 

UJ 

a: 

< 
z 






< 



Q. 



Ul 

u 

a. 

3 
O 



- 2 - 



APPLE MOVEMENT TO JANUARY 1. 1961 

A new set of percentages for gauging out of storage movement of Mcintosh 
apples became a necessity this year. In 1957 only 11 per cent of the total 
stored supply was in C.A. storages. In 1958 and 1959, 28 per cent of the stored 
crop was in C.A. storages. Forty per cent of the short crop of 1960 was placed 
in these late storage rooms. 

The Massachusetts standard storages held 701,000 bushels of Mcintosh on 
October 15, 1960 and the C.A. storages held 473,000 bushels. With a possible 
movement of one-half of the standard storage apples by Christmas this meant 
that about 820,000 bushels, or 70 per cent of the total, v/ould remain to be sold 
after New Year's. An analysis of this situation in terms of previous years 
revealed the prospect of a late-heavy selling season. A new set of out of 
storage percentages based upon a thirty-four week selling season instead of the 
old twenty-two week season was required to evaluate realistically the fall move- 
ment of apples. The Marketing Committee of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' 
Association sent a letter to all members on November 16, 1960, calling attention 
to the unusual situation. 

The out of storage percentages used between 1948 and 1959 together with the 
figures available from three years of C.A. selling were used to develop a new 
set of percentages. Starting on November 1, the new percentages are 6, 8, 10, 
10, 8, 7, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Each percentage is for the previous 
two week period. These percentages work out to indicate a movement of 34 per 
cent of the total stored crop by December 15, another 33 per cent by March 1, and 
the remaining 33 per cent by July 1. The selling record of recent years gives 
support to this balance of movement between fall, winter and spring as a basis 
for gauging movement with the desirability of a firm and gradually rising price 
in mind. 

The new out of storage percentage figures are the basis for the new "base 
line" on the accompanying out of storage movement chart. The base line is 
drawn through the percentage remaining in storage as this is the quantity given 
serious consideration at each step in the selling season. 

The dotted line superimposed on the solid black base line indicates the 
actual percentage movement of the 1960-61 season by two week periods. The 
dotted line indicates a faster than base line movement by November 15 and a 
slowing of the movement during December. 

The weekly movement of apples out of storages needed to secure the indicated 
base line percentage is shoifli in the accompanying chart by the grey background 
area. Actual movement for the 1960-61 storage crop to January 1 is indicated by 
the vertical bars for each two week period. These vertical bars show the faster 
movement in the first two weeks of November and the slower movement in the other 
periods. 

The chart may be used to gauge movement against a standard line as an aid 
in developing selling strategy. Desirable variations from the base line may 



3 - 



occur from time to time. Variations may be developed for individual grower 
circumstances in relation to the cummulative total for the industry. 

Frederick E. Cole 

Extension Marketing Specialist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 

(Items included under this heading are for your information and may not apply to 
Massachusetts conditions in all instances.) 

Research Findings on Bulk Boxes 

The Quarterly Bulletin of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, 
East Lansing, Volume 3, Number 1, August 1960 contained an article by I. J. 
Pflug and D. H. Dewey titled, "Unloading Soft-Fleshed Fruit From Boxes". 
(Pflug and Levin and Gaston in previous research found that Mcintosh and 
Golden Delicious apples suffered excessive mechanical damage when poured from 
bulk boxes by unloading devices that tilt and invert the container.) In this 
research report by Pflug and Dewey a water submergence bulk box unloading machine 
is described and data on mechanical damage using this device are presented. 

A pneiimatically operated carriage is utilized for lowering the boxes of 
fruit into a tank having circulating water. The apples are buoyed upward and 
out of the box and are carried by the flow of water, being circulated in the 
tank, to a conveyor. The apples are rinsed with a fresh water spray while on 
the wood roll conveyor and then excess moisture removed from the fruit by use of 
a commercial absorber-drier with an air blast. 

Limited tests for mechanical damage to Mcintosh and Golden Delicious apples 
handled through the unloading machine were conducted. In April 1960 fruit from a 
C.A. storage free of bruises and other mechanical injury were placed with the aid 
of a specially constructed crib into the bottom and top quarter of loaded bulk 
boxes . 

"Approximately three bushels of Mcintosh, averaging 10.3 pounds in firmness 
were placed into each of four bulk boxes of Golden Delicious, and a like amount 
of bruise-free Golden Delicious (firmness 10.8 pounds) were placed into each of 
two bulk boxes of Mcintosh and two boxes of Red Delicious apples. 

"The boxes were unloaded during the regular packing operation for the par- 
ticular variety and the test fruit removed at three points; namely, fr<»n the 
water tank just ahead of the removal conveyor, at the end of the removal conveyor, 
and upon leaving the drier. These apples were placed into tray-pack cartons, 
returned to cold storage for one week and then examined for damage. 



- 4 



"Bruised fruit were classified as slightly, moderately, or seriously damaged 
according to the criteria employed by Burt (Burt, S, W,, 1959. An experimental 
packing line for Mcintosh apples. U.S.D.A., A. M.S. Report No. 330) for the 
Mcintosh variety. The number of apples with stem punctures were recorded with- 
out regard to bruising. The percentages of damaged apples, according to variety, 
type, and degree of damage arp. summarized in Table I. The values of damage at 
the end of the conveyor include the damage of unloading as well as conveying; 
the values of damage at the end of the drier include damage of unloading, con- 
veying and drying. 



Table I - Average Percentage of Fruit With Bruises and Stem Punctures After 
Unloading From Bulk Boxes (Values for End of Conveyor and End of Drier are 
Accumulated Damage to That Point) 





DAMAGE 


VARIETY 


POINT OF REMOVAL 


GOLDEN 
MCINTOSH DELICIOUS 


Water 


Slight bruising 


25.3 18.5 




Moderate bruising .......,, 


11.1 5,9 




Serious bruising.,..,,,,,. 


7,4 1,4 




Total 






43.8 25,8 




Stem jjunctures ,,. *,,, 


4,1 0,9 


End of conveyor 


Slieht brulsine. ...... .... 


32,0 30.6 


Moderate bruising.... ,,••• 


12,4 12,4 




Serious bruising,,,,,,,,.. 


7,4 7,4 




Total . .•,•••.••••••,, 






51,8 50,4 




Stem punctures 


7,7 0,3 


End of drier 


Slight bruising ,,,, 


31,0 36,1 




Moderate bruisins,... ..... 


27.6 23.8 




Serious bruising... ....... 


21.4 3.0 




Total 






80.0 62.9 




Stem punctures 


13.0 1.7 



"Less than half of the Mcintosh, and approximately one-quarter of the 
Golden Delicious apples, taken from the water before passing onto the conveyor 
were damaged. Most of this Injury was slight bruising, and could have occurred 
to a considerable extent in the boxes before unloading. This factor, however, 
was not determined. 



"Bruising was increased slightly on Mcintosh by passing over the conveyor 
and almost doubled for Golden Delicious; however, passage through the drier 
added much bruising to Mcintosh and a relatively small amount to Golden 



- 5 - 



Delicious. Further study to ascertain why the several components of the un- 
loading machine cause differences in the amount of damage between varieties 
is desirable, 

"Stem punctures were not serious at any point for Golden Delicious apples. 
The quantity of stem punctures for Mcintosh, after removal from the boxes, was 
relatively low for this variety; it was approximately doubled by passage over 
the conveyor, and then almost doubled again through the drier, 

"The percentages of bruised apples in Table I may appear to be large; how- 
ever, the percentage of apples showing serious bruising is relatively small. 
The amount of bruising incurred using this water unloader is only a small 
fraction of the bruising that occurs in a tilting type bulk box dumper." 

—William J, Lord 

Editor's Comments - The bruise criteria used by Pflug and Dewey is similar to 
that found in the Apple Sorters' Manual used by Massachusetts growers. The 
data presented show that further work is necessary in the development of a 
satisfactory unloading device for apples. In personal correspondence with Pflug, 
he stated that both the conveyor and the drier need to be improved and last fall 
the conveyor was rebuilt and a new drier is now being used. 

Reversion of Delicious Red Sports 

An interesting report by Brown and Hesse of California discusses the rever- 
sion of red sports of Delicious back to the parent Delicious type. The reversion 
may Involve isolated spurs, small branch units, scaffold limbs or entire trees. 
As much as 20 per cent of the entire crop may be affected. While they found that 
both Starking and Richared sports reverted, the Starking sport showed a much 
higher incidence of reversion than did Richared. Reversion was more serious with 
Starking which is striped sport, as the reverted fruits have more pronounced 
striping than reverted fruits of Richared which is a solid red sport. Since re- 
versions of Richared were found much less frequently than Starking reversions 
the authors believe that Richared is the more stable sport. 

One extreme example of reversion was found on a Starking limb which pro- 
duced fruits with no red color. These fruits are truly "Yellow Delicious". 
Fortunately, such extreme reversions are rare. It is possible that climatic 
conditions in California are favorable to reversion of color sports of Delicious. 

We have not been aware of frequent or severe cases of reversion of color 
sports of Delicious in Massachusetts. We probably have more Richared than 
Starking trees which may account for fewer cases of reversion or our climate may 
not be conducive to reversion. 

While we do not have any direct evidence on the incidence of reversion of 
Starking or Richared in Massachusetts, it might be wise to play it safe and 
plant only Richared and sports of Richared which has less chance of reverting 



- 6 - 

to the striped type, 

---Walter D. Weeks 

I I I I I I I I I I I U I I I 



PEACH INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL 

This is the first in a series of articles on peach insects which will appear 
in FRUIT NOTES this winter. 

Plant Bugs 

There are three species of plant bugs that are injurious to peaches in 
Massachusetts. They are the tarnished plant bug, the oak plant bug, and the 
hickory plant bug. 

In general, the adult plant bugs are small, brownish bugs about 3/8 inch 
long. 

Damage 

By puncturing the fruit with their sucking mouth parts, a condition known 
as "cat-facing" is produced. The damaged fruit is scarred and distorted. 

The injury may be the result of not one, but of several, feeding periods. 
The greatest damage would appear to be done within six weeks after petal fall. 

In general, the tarnished plant bug is the most destructive of the three 
species. The oak and hickory plant bugs are most destructive where peach blocks 
are close to or surrounded by woods. 

The adult tarnished plant bugs puncture the very small fruits as soon as 
the petals fall, causing them to drop or to bear deep scars or to be badly 
deformed if they remain on the tree. 

The oak and hickory plant bugs feed on young fruits in June and July. As 
a result of the feeding, strings of gum exude from the punctures and, as the 
fruit enlarges, shallow brown scars develop. 

Life History 

The adult tarnished plant bug overwinters in or around the orchard. They 
appear on the trees about bloom time and remain up until a short time after 
shuck-split. 

The other species, such as the oak and hickory plant bugs, come into the 
orchard at a later date, usually mid- June, after reaching maturity on their 
respective host trees, oak and hickory. 



- 7 



Control 

Materials for control of plant buj^s should be applied at Pink, Petal Fall, 
Shuck-spllt, I, H, and III Covers. The effective materials Include DDT, 
dieldrin, and parathion. On the basis of limited observations, Guthlon also 
appears to be effective. 

In some cases, where the oak and hickory plant bugs are a severe problem, 
additional applications are required in the Later Cover sprays in July, 

- — William D, Tunis 

Extension Entomologist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



WHAT IS HAPPENING TO STRAWBERRY GRWING IN MASSACHUSETTS? 

Most of the larger strawberry growers in Massachusetts are using pro- 
gressive methods and are obtaining good yields. On the other hand, there are 
many small growers who are not getting such good yields. Evidence of this is 
contained in the low average per acre yield of strawberries for the state. The 
area in strawberries has decreased till during the past few years it has re- 
mained at or near 500 acres a year. What are the reasons for the acreage 
decline and poor yields? 

First, let's look at the area situation. The reduction in acreage is not 
surprising when all the facts are considered. The following factors are 
involved: 

First, with the urbanization of many farming areas, strawberry fields have 
been converted to house lots or are being swallowed up by industrial areas. 
This trend will continue and eventually result in a further reduction in straw- 
berry acreage or a removal of the producing areas farther away from urban 
centers. 

Second, labor for picking the crop is becanlng increasingly difficult to 
obtain. This has discouraged some growers. Others have adopted the "pick-your- 
own" method of marketing and find it very satisfactory. 

Third, many of the children of strawberry growers not only have no Interest 
in strawberry growing, but also have no interest in agriculture. 

Fourth, competition from other areas is keen, especially from California, 
It has been reported that California growers can ship berries across the con- 
tinent, undersell local berries and still make a profit. This is a situation 
which has developed during the past five years. Previous to that California 
shipped few berries east. 

Fifth, overproducing In local areas with consequent drastic cutting of 
prices. This usually occurs at the peak of the season, in good years, where a 



number of small growers in a limited area offer berries for sale by the road- 
side. Such a situation is usually corrected by some of the growers changing 
to other crops. 

Sixth, insect and disease problems which have lowered yields. 

Seventh, uneconomic units which have gone out of production. These are 
usually small units where the grower is faced with the problem of replacing 
hand labor with mechanical equipment but the unit is not large enough to 
justify such an expense. 

Why are some strawberry fields producing so poorly? There are several 
reasons for this. First, and most important, there are several diseases which 
are extremely serious. The several virus troubles are first on the disease list 
because they are not readily detectable and are usually brought in with the 
plants. Red stele and black root rot are two serious root troubles. Red stele 
is usually introduced into the planting on infected plants; black root rot may be 
so introduced. Other diseases also attack the strawlserry; leaf spot and leaf 
scorch which affect the leaves and the several rots which attack the fruit. 

Second, there are numerous insects which may attack strawberries. Among 
these cyclamen mite is often brought in with the plants. Two spotted mite 
often becomes serious; white grubs, strawberry weevil and a few others may at 
times become serious. 

Fortunately, plants free of the viruses, the root troubles and cyclamen 
mite are available but unfortunately, many growers are not making use of these 
good plants. It is not enough to know that plants were grown from virus-free 
stock. It is necessary to know how many generations the plants are removed 
from virus-free stock and what precautions the nurseryman has taken to keep 
them virus free or nearly so. The more generations the plants are removed from 
the virus-free foundation plants, the more likely it is that they have become 
virus infected. Although obtaining plants from a neighbor may prove satisfactory, 
a reliable nurseryman can usually supply plants which will be more healthy and 
vigorous. The importance of starting out with healthy, vigorous plants cannot 
be overemphasized. Purchasing cheap plants can be very expensive in the long run. 

Third, pest control is often inadequate in the smaller planting. The 
producing unit may not be large enough to warrant the purchase of the proper 
equipment. As a result, the equipment is inadequate or there is none. In the 
latter case, either a neighbor or a custom sprayer must be obtained to do the 
spraying in which case it is probably poorly timed and ineffective or it is not 
done at all. 

Fourth, soil preparation for the strawberry field is sometimes inadequate. 
The successful grower who has been in the strawberry business for a number of 
years knows the value of a fertile, well-prepared soil, well supplied with 
organic matter. The newcomer in strawberry growing is all too often not aware 
of this. Since 75 per cent of the roots of the strawberry plant are in the top 
three inches of soil and 90 per cent in the top six inches, it is obvious that 



- 9 - 

this top six inch layer supplies most of the water and nutrients for the plants. 
Tills layer should be plugged just as full of fertility as it will hold whether 
it be by manure, sod crops, green manure crops, commercial fertilizer, or any 
combination of these. 

Fifth, most growers are aware of the danger of damage by white grubs 
following plowing under a sod. Occasionally a nevrcomer fails to grub proof 
the land after plowing a sod and loses a considerable number of plants. 
Following sod with strawberries has proved very satisfactory with some growers 
provided (1) there are not too many noxious weeds in the sod, (2) the land is 
grub proofed, and (3) extra nitrogen is added to prevent a deficiency while the 
sod is decomposing. 

Sixth, blossom removal during the first year of a strawberry bed is 
extremely important. It is often haphazardly or Inadequately done. The 
development of fruit the first year weakens the plant, slows its development, 
and results in lower yield the second year. Even the development of the flowers 
is a drain on the plant. Blossom buds should be removed as soon as they show 
above the crowns. 

Seventh, short water supply is often a factor in low yield. A sprinkler 
system can be used to prevent spring frost as well as supply moisture at 
critical times during dry seasons. The value of such a system is recognized by 
most growers. Yet, there are still many who for one reason or another have 
Inadequate systems or none at all. 

Eighth, weed control is the place where many growers lose out. Good weed 
control is practiced during the spring and early summer but during late summer 
and fall when the job becomes more difficult Inadequate attention results in 
the weeds taking over, sometimes to the point where cropping becomes hopeless. 
Good weed control still has to be obtained with some use of the cultivator and 
hoe. Chemicals can reduce the work but cannot be expected to entirely replace 
these useful implements. 

Nineth, a grower frequently finds himself with the wrong size unit. It 
is too small for mechanical equipment but larger than he can care for ade- 
quately alone. Some operations have to be skimped or omitted. This Is the sort 
of situation which often results in a very weedy field. 

If the object of growing strawberries is merely to have a few berries, 
they are a relatively easy crop to raise with comparatively little effort. On 
the other hand, if the object is the maximum net return, the various factors 
mentioned require careful attention for it is high yield per acre at minimum 
cost per unit which gives a high net Income, 

John S, Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



10 - 



PLANTING PLANS FOR TREES ON EAST MALLING STOCKS 

With continued grower interest in using trees on E. M. VII and II for new 
orchard plantings, it seems desirable to present several planting plans which 
growers may adopt to fit their particular situations. The following plans offer 
several choices which should meet most situations. 

Plan A 

-VII VII VII VII 



VII VII VII VII VII 

For a permanent planting of E. M. VII or II. Trees are spaced 20* x 30' 
which requires 7 2 trees per acre. 

Plan B 

VII 20' VII VII VII VII 



T 



15' 

I 
VII VII VII VII VII 

Where the slope of the orchard site permits travel with spray equipment 
in either direction, trees may be set 15' x 20' so that when the trees commence 
to crowd every other tree in the 15 foot row would be removed. This leaves a 
20' X 30' planting distance. Crowding can be expected to occur in about ten 
to twelve years. The initial planting calls for 144 trees per acre. 

Plan C 



I 



-20' — VII 20' — S VII S VII S VII 



VII S VII S VII S VII 



Varieties on standard roots are planted 40' x 40". Trees on E. M. VII or 
II are used as fillers in the row. This gives a 20' x 40' planting with 27 
standard trees and 27 E. M. trees per acre. Trees on E. M. stocks to be removed 
when tree crowding occurs. 



11 



Plan D 



A2.5' 



VII 



S— 42.5' — S 



VII 




VII 



VII 



S 



s 



With Plan D the varieties on E. M. VII or II are planted in the center of 
the square. With this planting plan, it should not be necessary to remove the 
E. M. trees as soon as would be the case in Plan C. 48 trees per acre. 



Plan E 



VII 



VII 



42.5^ 



VII 



VII 



S VII S 



VII 



s 


VII 


s 


30. 


/ \ 


^30. 


VII 




VII 


30 '^ 




/ao' 


S 


vfi 


s 



VII 



VII 



VII 



VII 



vn 



VII 



VII 



VII 



VII 



42.5" 



Plan E: With this plan the grower has the option of removing either the 
trees on seedling roots or those on E. M. stocks when crowding begins. 48 trees 
per acre (trees on seedling roots removed); 24 trees per acre (E. M. trees 
removed) . 

—Walter D. Weeks 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



Contributors to This Issue From Supporting Fields 
Frederick E, Cole - Extension Marketing Specialist 
William D, Tunis - Extension Entomologist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Sfoff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



MARCH TO, T961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Treatment of Girdled Trees 

Winter Losses of Honey Bees Expected 
to be Above Normal 

Can the Keeping Quality of CA Mcintosh 
be Improved by Further Modification 
of the Atmosphere and Temperature? 

Pomological Paragraphs 

1961 Fertilizer Recommendations 

Is There a Best Time for Orchard Mouse 
Control? 

New York - New England Joint CA Conference 

Peach Insects and Their Control 11 




'^■'. 







/ 



rah 




iV5?ii 



y^-. 



?2~^i 






'•*? 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 



Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology, Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S, - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries. 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding* 

Lord, William J. > Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other than pest 
control. Also, teaches and does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES. 

Southwick, Franklin W. - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 

F. R, Shaw - Professor of Entomology and Plant Pathology 

J. W. Peterson - Asst. District Agent, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau 
of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 

W. D. Tunis - Extension Entomologist 



TREATMENT OF GIRDLED TREES 

Girdling or partial girdling of trees is apparent in some orchards this 
year. Limited observations indicate that the damage is most severe on young 
trees where the snow remained above the wire guards to late February in some 
areas. These trees should be repaired or replacedl You can't afford to have 
trees of low production in orchards today. 

How Much Damage is Necessary to Warrant Repair? 

How much of the trunk circumference may have the bark removed and still 
leave the tree capable of its functions is not known for certain, but it is 
estimated that if the bark is removed from a quarter of the way around the trunk 
the tree will be somewhat crippled. On the girdled side of the tree, the roots 
will eventually become starved since there is no appreciable lateral movement of 
food materials. If the amount of removed bark and cambium is not great in extent, 
however, the uninjured cambium should form new wood and bark to replace that 
which has been destroyed. Wound dressing in the early spring is always helpful 
even to these less extensive injuries. 

It usually does not pay to bridge graft trees that have been completely or 
almost ccHnpletely girdled for a year or more. These trees are generalljf in such 
a low state of vigor that they will not respond to the treatment. However, some 
success has been reported when apple trees were bridge grafted the second spring 
after winter injury to the trunk. 

In the case of complete girdling of the trunk, the trees may be treated in 
any one of several different ways, the choice depending on the age of the tree, 
species of tree, tree vigor, and the grower's preference. 

Determining the Treatment 

1. The tree may be pulled out and replaced by a better one. 

2. If the apple or peach tree is only one or two years old it may be cut 
off two or three inches above the surface of the ground or below the girdled 
area. Usually many shoots will develop from the remaining stub. One of these 
may be selected next spring and a new tree grown from it. Care must be taken, 
however, to see that the shoot selected comes from above the union of the stock 
and scion; otherwise the grower will get a seedling tree instead of a new tree 
of the variety originally set. 

3. If the apple tree trunk is one and a half to two inches in diameter, the 
trunk may be cut off and two scions of the desired variety may be cleft grafted 
into the trunk. 

4. When the trunks of girdled apple trees are more than two inches in 
diameter and where the top is worth saving, bridge grafting is probably most 
feasible. 

5. When the roots of an apple tree are so badly injured that scions cannot 
be readily attached to them, inarching should be done. 



6. Peach trees generally do not respond so satisfactorily to bridge 
grafting. 

Season for Repair Grafting 

Repair grafting should be performed when the bark is slipping readily which 
is about the time the trees are starting growth. If and when attempting to 
bridge graft the bark doesn't slip readily, the inlay graft may be used. 

Selection of Scion Wood for Bridge Grafting 

It usually is necessary to obtain scions in advance of their use in order 
to have them dormant. Water sprouts or well ripened one year terminal growths 
make good scions for bridge grafting. Scions can vary in size from tliat of a 
lead pencil to one-half inch in diameter, the largest scions being used on 
larger wounds. Scions may be taken from the same tree or any other available 
compatible sort, but preferably from a winter hardy variety such as Cortland or 
Mcintosh. 

Seedlings for Inarching 

Use dormant small seedling or nursery trees 3 to 6 feet in height. 

Mechanics of Repair Grafting 

Farmers' Bulletin #1369 U. S. Department of Agriculture gives in detail 
methods of bridge grafting and inarching. A limited number of this publication 
can be obtained from the Horticulture Department, University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst, or from your County Extension Service. 

Grafting Compound 

For the protection of grafting wounds, many growers now use asphalt emulsion 
instead of a grafting wax. It can be obtained from most distributors of farm and 
gardening supplies. Asphalt emulsion should be applied on the tip ends of the 
scions and the exposed edges of the bark on the trunk when bridge grafting is 
completed. Applying the emulsion on the injured section of the trunk will prevent 
weathering. 

The Number of Scions 

The following are about the right number of scions for different sized trees: 

(1) Tree 2 inches in diameter, 3 scions. 

(2) Tree 3 inches in diameter, 4 scions. 

(3) Tree 6 inches in diameter, 6 scions. 

(4) Tree 10 inches in dieimeter, 8 or 10 scions. 

On partially girdled trees use a proportionate number of scions. Tree one- 
quarter or more girdled should be bridge grafted. 



Care of Scions After Grafting 

It is necessary to keep the scions from producing shoots. As buds on the 
scions swell, rub them off. 

General Considerations 

1. As soon as the injury is discovered, it may be possible to save some of 
the cambium layer cells by promptly applying the asphalt emulsion or grafting wax. 

2. Occasionally suckers are present or arise later from the area below the 
wounds. Some of these suckers that extend above the wounded surface may be used 
as "inlay scions" at the top end. 

3. Trees leaf out and often fruit the first season after the bark and 
cambium layer are destroyed around the tree trunk I However, the vigor of these 
completely girdled trees vary considerably. On some trees the foliage and fruit 
appear normal; foliage may be light in color but fruit size normal; and on 
other girdled trees the foliage may be light in color and sparse and the fruit 
small. 

The reason why completely girdled trees leaf out and often fruit the first 
season after the bark and cambium layer are destroyed around the tree trunk is 
because water and other materials which are taken up by the roots from the soil 
pass up to the leaves through the wood. In the leaves the water and the carbon 
dioxide taken from the air by the leaves are united chemically, through the action 
of sunlight, into glucose sugar. This sugar is the starting point for the synthe- 
sis of all other carbohydrates and in turn for proteins, oils, waxes, and other 
organic compounds which make up the bulk of the apple tree. After the manufacture 
of the plant foods by the leaves, they move to other parts of the tree through the 
phloem which is found in the bark. From the facts presented, it can be seen that 
complete girdling will not deprive the top of the tree of water and other materials 
necessary for the manufacture of plant foods and that these materials will be trans- 
ported to all plant parts above the injured area. 

Reserve food stored in the roots enable the roots to function for some time, 
often a year or two, thus keeping the top of the tree alive. However , a completely 
g irdled tree , unless repaired , will eventually die from starvation of the roots 
for carbohydrates I 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

WINTER LOSSES OF HONEY BEES EXPECTED TO BE ABOVE NORMAL 

All available information indicates that the losses of bees during the 
1960-61 severe winter will be above normal. Such losses result from excess con- 
sumption of stores, greater activity within the winter cluster and dysentery. If, 
in addition, we have a late spring, we can expect many more weakened or dead 



colonies. 

Fruit growers who depend on rented colonies for pollination would do well to 
contact beekeepers soon to make certain that sufficient colonies will be avail- 
able. If sufficient colonies are not available, the grower might consult his 
county agent or, in an emergency, Mr. Mllo Bacon, Chief Inspector of Apiaries, 
41 Tremont Street, Boston, Massachusetts, who may be able to furnish names of 
beekeepers having colonies for rent. 

In an emergency, package bees can be used for pollination, but they are in- 
ferior on the basis of weight of adult bees to overwintered colonies. If package 
bees are to be used, they should be ordered sufficiently early so that they can be 
installed In hives at least a month before bloom, and they should be fed sugar 
sirup. 

Fruit growers who own their colonies would do well to check them by lifting 
one end of the hive. Light weight colonies can be fed dry sugar or candy (see 
Mass. leaflet 148 for directions) at present. As warmer weather approaches, 
sugar sirup is preferable. 

F. R. Shaw 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



CAN THE KEEPING QUALITY OF CA McINTOSH BE IMPROVED BY 
FURTHER MODIFICATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND TEMPERATURE 

The present recommendations which CA operators follow in regard to temper- 
ature and atmospheric gas levels for CA storage of Mcintosh are largely those 
found suitable by Dr. R. M. Smock in New York. There is, as with most everything 
else in the apple business, always the question of whether some modifications of 
the present standard of 37-38° F, 3-5% CO2 and 3% Oo might be Improved upon. 

For example, if the oxygen level were to be dropped to 3 per cent in a matter 
of thirty-six hours or less after sealing the room would the apples keep better 
than they do when the oxygen level doesn't reach 3 per cent until fourteen to 
seventeen days after sealing? If the temperatures were kept at 32° F along with 
very low CO2 levels could brown core be avoided and because of the lower temper- 
ature a better keeping Mcintosh be obtained? Can we improve CA Mcintosh by 
gradually lowering the temperature as the storage season progresses? 

In order to obtain Information concerning the above questions we stored 
Mcintosh in rooms where such modifications were made during the 3-year period 
1957-58 through 1959-60. Quick oxygen drops in our small 200-bushel test CA 
rooms were obtainable in as little as six hours by purging the rooms with nitro- 
gen gas at a cost in material of about 10 cents a box. In March of each year all 
rooms were opened at the same time. Fruit from composited samples were then held 
at 74° F for varying lengths of time and the extent of deterioration of samples 
from each room was determined. The results of these tests are sximmarized in 
Table 1. 



vO 



o o 

O 00 



o r^ 



(^ o o 



fo o o 
CT> o\ r». 



lO 00 tn 00 

• • • • 

O 00 00 r^ 



O r». -d- rH 
--4 C>J 



00 ri o 



fO CO O 
a> r^ \o 



N* 00 ■-I r^ 
• • • • 

o 00 00 r^ 



O r>» «* r-l 



P^ ro O 



vO fO o 

ON 00 r*. 



o o\ <n (>. 

• • • • 

■-4 oo 00 r» 



O 1^ «* iH 



I 

in 
I 



C7N 
CM 



00 r-l 

• • 

CO 00 



CO O rO 



tM <J- CS 

0> 00 -st 



r^ CO m CO 
* • • • 

O 0> CT> CO 



rO vO h^ 



C>J 00 lO 

ON r^ ro 



r^ r^ CM «* 

• • • • 

O ON ON 00 



o r-. r-t 



lO vO 00 

r^ vo ^d' 



O O NO 

• • • 
o ON 00 



O 00 



o 00 m oi 

--• CM 



o 00 in CM 

-4 CM 



O 00 to (S 



o o 

O O 



CM -d- vO 
• • • 

ON r^ m 



o o 



O m 
o r^ 



ON ON NO 

• • • 

ON 00 r>. 



O O 



IT) U-| 

00 00 



t-. <!• «* 

• • • 

o ON 00 



o o 



O IT) 
O NO 



CO i-i r-. 

• • • 

o ON r* 



O ON o 

CM 



o ON o 

CM 



O 3N O 
CNJ 



O CJN O 
CM 



O b 

(a O 

•O CO 

.-I I 

O CNJ 

CO 

>j *4 • 

01 Id M 

3 (u rt 

00 00 

01 cd c 



I 

Xi • 
>0 -H >, 

uco ^-^ 



•o oo "V >t 

C CO T -H 

m I CM 

*J rN. O C 

oj CO O -f^ 

CM 



CMJ3 5^ 
O u 00 

•r4 CO 

J<! S /-N • 

t) 'CM 

•i-< CMCO O 

3 O M O 

tr ^ 

J3 CO NO iri 

iJ N— 'CO I 
1-1 I CO 

^ O.NO 

o -o 
< u a a 

O "O -H ffl 



<u 



NO 



I 



J3 to Cl, 

Oj r-l 6 

•rJ NO 

1-1 ' CO 

nj PL, • 

>o C W 

00 (U ^ 

JC CO J3 S 

4J 4J 



« (d 



x: 
o 



CL •• NO 

8 o w fa 

4J CM U)<V 
CO --H CM 

» CM 

r^ cMo a 

O U 0) 



Na 



o 



NO 

S- • « fr ^ 

(U ^ fl CM O 

*J S CM CO 4J 



<: 



CM 

O 

(r^ 43 

CO o 

CM 
O -H 



C!<^ 



CM CM 
O O.CO 
O O 

a -S P 

O CO 

•-H CM 

o o 



^ o. u to 

S •r^ >. 

■< <u 3 ^ 

u 4J cr'o 



u) O 

rH CO CM • 

I fO O J3 
CM O 

a i^ u 

O <u CO rt 

. 43 4 :g 

5^ U CI 

m O r-4 

• o -H 

(0 JJ 

1 4i! ^s (3 

O S lO 3 



- 6 - 

The fruit was placed in humid containers at 74° F and examined for internal break- 
down, rot, scald, fruit splitting, and brown core at intervals thereafter. The 
per cent of sound fruit represents that fraction which was entirely free of the 
above defects. 

From the results shown in Table 1 we see no important benefits in any of the 
CA modifications tried in comparison to the present standard of 37-38° F with 3 
per cent oxygen and 3 to 5 per cent carbon dioxide. In fact, use of 32° F instead 
of 37-38° F (Table 1 - No. 5), even with low carbon dioxide levels merely increased 
the incidence of brown core. Rapid lowering of oxygen does not appear to be of 
practical value, either. Obviously, CA storage markedly improved the storage life • 
of Mcintosh in comparison to regular cold storage fruit in all years. 

- — F. W. Southwick 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 

Rapid Cooling of Strawberries 

> The rapid cooling, or precooling, of fruit is not a new practice. It was 
being tried in the early twenties. Unfortunately, this important part of fruit 
marketing is often given too little attention. A recent release from California 
shows that after a rapid cooling to 40° F and a five to six day refrigerated 
shipping period, their strawberries arrived on Eastern markets with 8 to 21 per 
cent more marketable berries than those handled without the rapid cooling before 
shipment. Also, the fast cooling increased their shelf life from four to six 
days. These berries were placed in the cooler within an hour after picking. 

J. S. Bailey 

Strawberry Imports and Exports 

Did you know that we import strawberries from Mexico and export to Canada? 
According to the Foreign Agricultural Service we imported from Mexico 24,576,000 
pounds of frozen strawberries in 1960, an increase of 10,512,000 pounds over 1959. 
Imports of fresh strawberries increased from 207,000 pounds in 1959 to 597,000 
pounds in 1960. In 1959 we exported to Canada 19,300,000 pounds of fresh and 
5,300,000 pounds of frozen strawberries and during the first nine months of 1960 
the amounts were 17,780,000 pounds of fresh and 2,052,000 pounds of frozen 
strawberries. 



■ — J. S. Bailey 



Semi- Dwarf Trees 



Trees on dwarfing rootstocks are becoming increasingly popular. A local 
nursery reports that approximately 50 per cent of the trees currently being sold 
by them in New England are on East Mailing VII roots tock. Trees on E.M. VII 



- 7 - 

rootstock, under our conditions, are approximately 60 per cent the size of a 
given variety on a standard seedling rootstock. The size of the tree depends 
considerably on the variety. More vigorous varieties, like Mcintosh, Macoun, 
and Northern Spy, are d\>7arfed less on E.M. VII than less vigorous varieties 
] ike Cortland and Rome. 

In many instances the trees on E.M. VII are used in a permanent planting 
system not as fillers. The trees are spaced twenty feet by thirty feet making 
seventy-two trees per acre. 

W. J. Lord 

A Pear for a Penny 

Many roadside stand operators display a basket of small apples, pears or 
some other fruit with a sign stating free samples and make it a practice to give 
a, fruit to children of customers. However, selling a small pear or apple for a 
penny to children, who stop by is something new to the writer. This is not a 
case of selling a fruit for a penny to children accompanied by parents but to 
children in the vicinity wishing to have some fruit to eat. In the writer's 
opinion, this practice will create future customers for our fruit as well as 
being good from the standpoint of health. Apples certainly are better for 
children than candy or soda. The children aren't getting something for nothing. 
They purchase these fruits and a demand for fruit in the future is being created. 

W, J, Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



1961 FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS 

Results of Mcintosh leaf analyses for the season of 1960 indicate that 
nearly half of the trees sampled were too high in nitrogen for the best devel- 
opment of fruit color. This would be especially true in a season of heavy crops 
and above normal temperatures just prior to harvest. Since we have abundant 
fruit buds for a potentially large crop in 1961, we are suggesting that growers 
reduce nitrogen applications this year. 

Growers do not need to worry about reduced nitrogen fertilization inducing 
biennial production of Mcintosh in a heavy crop year. Evidence in controlled 
fertilizer experiments indicates that high rates of nitrogen enhance biennial 
production while low rates encourage annual production. However, more control 
of annual production is acccnnplished by chemical thinning than by nitrogen 
fertilization. 

Suggested rates of fertilizer are shown in the following table. 



- 8 - 
Sur.Rested Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Apple Orchards 





Ap 


proximate Amounts per 


Tree 






Potential bushel 
yield of tree 


Nitrogen 
required 


Potash 
required 


Ammonium 
Nitrate 


Muriate 

of Potash or 0-15-30 


8-16-16 


Less than 15 
15 - 25 
More than 25 


Pounds 

0.66 

0.66-1.00 

1.33-2.00 


Pounds 

1.3 

1.3-2.0 

2.7-4.3 


Pounds 

2.0 

2.0-3.0 

4.0-6.0 


Pounds 

2.1 

2.1-3.3 

4.5-7.9 


Pounds 

4.3 

4.3- 6.6 
9.0-14.3 


Pounds 

8 

8-12 
16-25 



Each grower will have to adjust the suggested amounts up or down to meet 
the requirements of the trees in his blocks. If the trees are over vigorous and 
fruit color and quality poor, reduce the amount of fertilizer by 1/3 or 1/2. 
However, if the trees are weak in vigor and yields are low, apply the amounts 
suggested or increase the rates slightly. 

The suggested amounts of materials to apply in the table are for hand appli- 
cations under the spread of the branches. When the materials are broadcast over 
the entire orchard floor it may be necessary to increase the rate of application 
in order to obtain the same tree response as with the band applications. 
Fertilizer materials other than those given in the tables may be used so long as 
they are applied at rates which provide equivalent amounts of nitrogen and 
potassium. 

The tree's magnesium and calcium requirements can best be met by main- 
taining an adequate dolomitic liming program. The pH of orchard soils should be 
maintained between 6 and 6.5. If a soil test shows that the pH of soil is 5.5 
or below, magnesixmi sulfate sprays should be applied to prevent possible occur- 
rence of magnesium deficiency. It takes from three to five years before dolomitic 
limestone is effective in correcting magnesium deficiency. When magnesium sulfate 
sprays are used apply two to three sprays of epsom salts at the rate of 20 pounds 
per 100 gallons of water. These sprays should be timed by calyx, first, and 
second cover sprays. To avoid possible incompatibilities the epsom salt sprays 
should not be combined with the regular insecticidal and fungicidal sprays. 

Boron should be applied to orchard soils every three years. Borax is the 
most common material used. The rates of application per tree vary with age and 
sir.e. Apply one-quarter pound of borax to young trees, one-half to three- 
quarters pound to medium age and size trees, and three-quarters to one pound to 
large or mature trees. In no case should the rate of one application of borax 
exceed 50 pounds per acre. Boron may be applied as a foliar spray on a trial 
basis. Polybor-2 or Boro Spray applied at 1/2 pound per 100 gallons of spray 
one and three weeks after petal fall have given satisfactory results in New York 
State. 



The amounts of fertilizer applied to trees which have received annual 
applications of 200 pounds or more of hay mulch per tree may be materially re- 
duced or entirely eliminated. Tree performance should serve as a guide in 
determining the extent to which the rates of fertilizer may be reduced. 

In young non-bearing orchards, it may be possible to produce sufficient 



- 9 - 

high quality mulching material for the young trees by broadcasting 500 to 800 
pounds of mixed fertilizer per acre. Place the mulch in a band under the spread 
of the branches. The amount of fertilizer required for the trees with this 
system of culture will vary with the quantity and quality of mulch applied 
around each tree. If the trees are not making sufficient growth, one-eighth 
pound of ammonium nitrate per year of tree age may be applied to the mulch* 

Recomrriendations for fertilizing peach orchards are given in the following 
table. The amounts given may need to be increased if the trees are in a heavy 
sod. A suggested increase would be to double the amount of nitrogen. 

Suggested Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Peach Orchards 

Approximate Amounts per Tree 



Tree Age 



3-6 
6-9 
9-12 
12 6t over 



Ammoniimi 
Nitrate 



Muriate 
of Potash 



Pounds 

%-l 

1 -Ih 
l%-2 

2 -4 



or 0-15-30 



Pounds 

1-2 
2-3 
3-4 
4-8 



Founds 

2- 4 
4- 6 
6- 8 
8-12 



8-16-16 



Pounds 

2- 4 
4- 6 
6- 8 
8-16 



-W. D. Weeks 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



IS THERE A BEST TIME FOR ORCHARD MOUSE CONTROL? 

Now that the snow has melted, mouse damage — trunk girdling--to fruit trees 
will be very conspicuous. If a grower sees evidence of real recent girdling, 
it might pay to do some emergency broadcasting with Zinc Phosphide-treated 
Steamed-crushed Oats to prevent further damage. Usually this practice is not 
worth the effort at this time of year because the majority of the tree girdling 
has already occurred; and with the absence of snow cover in the orchards, the 
mice will turn to the green grass which is appearing. In other words, tree 
girdling is a temporary subsistence-type of feeding which usually takes place 
during the winter months when food is scarce. 

Oftentimes we are asked: "Will reducing the mouse population at other times 
of the year help to reduce the mouse breeding population and thereby prevent 
damage the following winter?" The answer is: "No". The population dynamics of 
orchard mice are so great and migration so rapid that any control effected during 
spring and summer would only be temporarily effective and would not prevent damage 
the following winter. 

In summary, we do not recommend putting out poisoned baits now unless you 
have definite signs of fresh girdling and only as a stop-gap to prevent further 
damage from occurring. We do not recommend baiting in the orchard until the 



- 10 - 

fall when the mouse population l£ at its peak and before the mice have switched 
to their winter diet. 

— -John W. Peterson 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



NEW YORK - NEW ENGLAND JOINT CA CONFERENCE 

A Controlled Atmosphere Seminar has been an annual event at the University 
of Massachusetts for the last three years. Last year it was suggested that the 
seminar in 1961 be a cooperative New York and New England effort. This winter 
Dr. Robert Smock, Cornell University, extended an invitation to the New England 
apple growers and others interested in CA storage to have the program in New 
Paltz, New York. Below is the program for the New York - New England Joint CA 
Conference. 

New York - New England Joint CA Conference 
9:30 A.M. March 29, 1961 
Student Union Building 
State University College of Education 
New Paltz, New York 

Program 

9:30 Registration (Coffee and doughnuts) 

10:00 Greetings from New York, Chairman 
Al Zimmerman, Clintondale 

10:05 Greetings from College of Education 

10:10 Water scrubbing the CA room. 
Dave Blanpied, Cornell 

10:45 Programming the blower. 

J. S. Perry, University of Massachusetts 

11:15 What determines power costs in a storage? 
Harry Cornish, Central Hudson Electric 
and Gas Co., Kingston, New York 

12:00 Can CA apples be identified? 

Frank Southwick, Univ. of Mass. and 
Bob Smock, Cornell 

12:30 Scald control in regular and CA storage. 
Frank Southwick, Univ. of Mass, and 
Bob Smock, Cornell 



- 11 - 

1:00 P.M. Lunch College Cafeteria 

(Paid for by registration fee) 

2:00 Checking insulation dryness. 

J. S. Perry, University of Massachusetts 

2:30 Refrigeration trouble shooting. 

Frank Adler, Harding & Gross, Inc. 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

3:15 The CA marketing picture. 

Monte Marvin, New York - New England 
Apple Institute 

March 30, 1961 

There will be a tour of Hudson Valley CA rooms during 
the morning of March 30. Cars will meet at 8:00 at 
Reggies Restaurant on Route 299 just outside of New 
Paltz on 299. 

If you can come to this conference, tear off pre-registration slip below 
and mail to William Palmer, County Agent, 7A John Street, Kingston, N.Y. before 
March 21. We must have pre-registration to plan for the lunch, etc. See program. 

New Paltz is at exit 18 on the New York State Thru-way. It is south of 
Kingston on Route 32 and west of Poughkeepsie on Route 299. 

There will be a one-half day tour cf CA storages in the area the next 
morning (March 30) . If you plan to spend the night in New Paltz, make your own 
reservations at either of the following motels in New Paltz. The Huguenot ($6.00 
single and $8.00 double) on Route 299 at New Paltz or College Motor Inn ($8.00 
single and $14-16 double) also on Route 299 (the main street of New Paltz). 

Cars will gather for the start of the tour at Reggies Restaurant which is 
between New Paltz and thru-way exit on Route 299 at 8:00 A.M. 



I will attend the CA Conference_ 
1 will participate in the tour_ 



Name 



Address 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



- 12 - 

PEACH INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL II 

Oriental Fruit Moth 

Damage 

The oriental fruit moth produces two types of damage on peaches, namely in- 
jury to twigs and injury to fruits. During June and July, when the terminal 
parts of rapidly growing twigs are soft, they are often attacked by the oriental 
fruit moth. The larvae tunnel in the twigs and these infested twigs usually have 
one or more wilted leaves. The damage to the twigs by the early broods is not 
usually serious except that in severe infestations, it tends to produce a bushy 
tree instead of one of normal growth. 

Damage to the fruit, however, can be serious. "Wormy" or injured fruit may 
vary from less than 5 per cent to more than 90 per cent of the crop. "Worminess" 
is not always apparent from external examination. Fruits infested early result 
in unsightly scars which exude gum and make the mature peach unsaleable. 

Life History 

The oriental fruit moth overwinters as a larva in a small cocoon beneath bark 
scales or on the ground. Pupation takes place in early spring and the moths emerge 
in late May and early June. Noimally, it requires about one month to complete a 
generation so that the second flight of moths occurs in early July and the third 
in September. During warm summers, a partial third brood may appear In September. 

Egg laying usually begins 2 to 5 days after the females emerge and will con- 
tinue for 7 to 10 days or longer. The eggs are laid singly usually on the under 
surfaces of leaves. Eggs hatch in 3 to 14 days depending on the temperature. In 
warm weather, hatching occurs in 3 to 6 days. 

The duration of the larval stage in mid-summer is 6 to 15 days but in cool 
weather may be greatly prolonged. 

The average duration of the pupal stage during the summer is 14 days. 

Hot, humid weather is favorable to the oriental fruit moth. Cool evening 
temperatures, below 70° F., may cut down on the size of ■ a brood because fewer eggs 
are laid. 

Control 

Materials for the control of the oriental fruit moth should be applied at 
Shuck-split, I, II, III, and Later Covers. The Later Cover sprays should be 
applied at 10 to 12 day intervals beginning about July 10. The effective materials 
include DDT, Guthion, malathion, parathion, and Sevin. DDT is recommended through 
III Cover only due to possible excess residue problems. Sevin, a new recomendation, 
has been effective and is particularly useful late in the season, since it may be 
used up to 1 day of harvest. 

William D. Tunis 






Prepared by Pomology Stoff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



APRIL 5, 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Bird Damage to Fruit 
Research from Other Areas 
If 

Random Notes on 1959 and 
1960 Retail Store Study 





■'■-^"m^^ 



'i^-'::x.-z'.:i^ 










m\.. 



'm. 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



BIRD DAMAGE TO FRUIT 

Crop damage by birds is not a new problem. However, only within the past 
ten years has the problem been given much consideration. No one knows why there 
has been an increase in bird depredation but one theory is that increased 
building of homes and factories has reduced the birds' natural food supply. 
This causes them to seek food elsewhere. Another theory offered is that in 
addition to food reduction, many bird predators have been destroyed. Many hawks 
and owls are destroyed needlessly, each being a predator that nature provided to 
keep bird population in check. 

Many growers believe that increased winter feeding of birds by the public 
is a major cause of increase in numbers of destructive species. This is un- 
likely for the majority of species causing damage to fruit are not seed eaters 
and they migrate each fall. 

Often it is asked if birds are beneficial. Thirty years ago the majority 
of people would emphatically say yes. Today with our increased knowledge and 
use of insect sprays, some would say no. When looking at an animal objectively 
we should look at its good and bad points. When looking at birds as a group, 
one should realize that they have good qualities. They are beneficial in con- 
trolling insects. They have a great aesthetic value to many people and are help- 
ful in seed dispersal. Against these good points, they are very destructive to 
crops; they can spread disease; and they can cause disagreeable conditions with 
their roosting habits. Still, it is only when bird numbers overpopulate their 
habitats that they become undesirable. 

Most of our common species of birds have been accused of depredation at one 
time or another. Ducks, orioles, starlings, robins, sparrows, tanagers, and etc. 
all have been reported causing damage, A great deal depends upon the type of 
crop and where it is planted in relation to surrounding habitat. In work at the 
University of Massachusetts last summer, it was found that a great number of 
birds are present in plantings bordering woodlots. Fewer are found in open areas. 
It was also determined that different species cause damage in open areas than in 
areas surrounded by cover. 

Pillaging of the fruit crop in Massachusetts last summer was primarily done 
by robins, Baltimore orioles, starlings, and catbirds. Many other species 
caused damage in isolated cases. Each species has different characteristics and 
a control program designed for one might not work for another. 

To date, control measures have centered around three methods: Control by 
scaring devices, repellents, and by the reduction of numbers. The first two 
seem most desirable, if effective. All but a few species are protected by 
Federal 3 aw and a program of reduction cannot be carried out under existing laws. 

Numerous scaring devices have been tried in Massachusetts but have had 
limited success. The carbide exploder has been tried under varied conditions. 
It makes a loud noise which is supposed to scare birds. Some growers have had 
good results with the exploder while others have not. It often works with 
starlings but is not effective with songbirds. Songbirds seem to learn quickly 
that the noise is harmless and pay little or no attention to the exploder. It 
probably has limited use in fruit plantings. 

Firecrackers have been tried often with varying success. Birds soon become 



accustomed to firecrackers and ignore them. 

A great many growers have been using firearms. These give good results, if 
used throughout the day, but most growers have insufficient time to patrol their 
fruit plantings. Few can afford to hire men to do nothing but shoot at birds. 

Reflectors have been unsatisfactory. Some growers report success but the 
majority consider them useless. 

Decoy hawks and owls were effective when first placed in a fruit planting 
at the University of Massachusetts but after a few days birds become used to them, 

A study was conducted at the University of Massachusetts using a hawk 
decoy and starlings to determine the length of time needed for habituation to 
occur. However, it was recognized that this experiment under caged conditions 
may not be indicative of bird behavior in the field. Individual starlings were 
introduced into a cage containing two perches, on one of which was placed a 
gosha^^?k decoy. All birds were tested in the cage without the decoy before the 
experiment began. Testing time for each bird was ten minutes per trial. The 
number of times each bird landed at a perch was counted and used to determine 
when the bird became habituated to the decoy. 

For experimental purposes the birds were divided into two groups. Birds of 
Group I were tested fifteen consecutive days while those of Group II were tested 
eight consecutive days. Results showed initial fear of the decoy by all in- 
dividual brids, but after repeated tests all eventually became acclimated to it. 
All but two of the experimental birds became accustomed to the decoy after three 
trials. Perhaps this is one reason that hawk decoys soon lose their effective- 
ness when used as bird control devices. 

Various types of protective netting have been used by growers of small 
fruit. The cost of better types of netting is high and many growers feel it is 
too expensive. However, growers who have used netting of good quality have had 
excellent results. 

Investigations at the University of Massachusetts last summer were directed 
at learning the various aspects of bird population turnovers in fruit plantings. 
It was suspected daily, weekly, or monthly turnover of individuals causing 
depredations might well determine effectiveness of certain scare techniques. 
Therefore, an effort was made during the summer to determine the composition of 
bird population feeding in the fruit plantings. Japanese mist nets were erected 
throughout the cultivated blueberry plantation at the University. One hundred 
sixty-seven birds were netted, banded, and released. Of these one hundred 
fifty-nine were robins, starlings, and Baltimore orioles. 

Pertinent data was obtained by the use of this netting. Only one of eighty- 
one robins banded was recaptured. It was significant that as many robins were 
caught the last day as the first day of netting. Seventy-three robins banded 
were immature. Nine recaptures were made of forty-eight Baltimore orioles that 
were banded. 

A similar banding program was carried out at the University vineyard. Two 
hundred and twelve birds representing twenty-seven species were caught of which 



- 3 - 

Baltimore orioles, thrushes, catbirds, and robins were the most numerous. None 
of the ba-nded birds were recaptured. However, ten Baltimore orioles banded at 
the blueberry planting were recaptured at the vineyard. 

The data demonstrated that the population turnover of depredating robins was 
high. In contrast, it showed chat depredating Baltimore orioles apparently ♦ 
were comprised of a local resident population. From these observations and 
results, it is possible that deterrent devices might be effective every day on 
a species with a daily turnover in the depredating population. In areas where 
there is less frequent turnover, a species may become immune to scaring devices. 
Therefore, the composition of a population causing agricultural damage may well 
be a vital factor in assessing effectiveness of scare techniques. 

The ultimate aim of research work in this line is to determine a method of 
reducing damage to agricultural crops by birds. A device is needed that will: 

1. Repel or control birds. 

2. Be safe to man and wildlife. 

3. Not injure plants that are being protected. 

4. Not affect the crop so that it will be harmful to man. 

5. Withstand the elements. 

6. Be economical to use. 

Richard N. Smith 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 

(Items included under this heading are for your information and may not apply to 
Massachusetts conditions in all instances.) 

Research findings of Robert G. Hill, Jr. (Ohio Agricultural Experiment 
Station Research Bulletin 857 titled "Red Raspberry Growth and Yield as Affected 
by Soil Management - Nitrogen Fertilization - Training Systems) show that mulch 
was superior to cultivation as a soil management system for raspberries. The 
mulched plants made better growth and produced more and larger fruit. 

The mulch system of soil management at the establishment of the experiment 
consisted of a late fall application of straw on the entire row and aisle area 
to the depth of eight inches. Four inches of straw was applied in the fall of 
the succeeding years to maintain the mulch. The straw used was either wheat or 
rye . 

The cultivation system of soil management consisted of cultivation with a 
summer cover crop of soybeans folloii^ed by a winter cover crop of rye. 

Hill also studied the effect of three levels of nitrogen fertilization on 
yield, fruit size and quality, and ripening season. He concluded: 



"The actual rate of nitrogen fertilization was not as important as the 
maintenance of proper level of nitrogen within the plant. The best indication 
of the nitrogen status of the planting was foliar nitrogen level. For best 
growth and yield the foliar nitrogen content in non-bearing shoots in midsunmer 
appeared to be within the range of 2.9 - 3.2 per cent on a dry weight basis. 

"Leaf color in the red raspberry was directly related to the foliar nitro- 
gen content. As the nitrogen content increased the green color became more 
intense. Unless some type of color standards are made available, leaf color 
cannot serve as an entirely satisfactory guide to nitrogen fertilizer practices." 

William J. Lord 

Editor's comments - Other materials such as sawdust, hay, or leaves would make a 
satisfactory mulching material for raspberries. Mulch may be applied at any 
time of year when the need is indicated. 

Hay may cause a weed seed problem. When a woody material such as sawdust 
or shavings is used, it may cause a temporary tie-up of nitrogen in the soil. 
This may be partially prevented by doubling the amount of nitrogen fertilizer 
applied for a year or two until materials start to break down. 

What effect does apple promotion have on sales is frequently a question 
asked by growers. Henderson, Brown and Hind, Agricultural Economists, Market 
Development Research Division, Agricultural Marketing Service have reported in 
Marketing Research Report 446 the results of their study "Special Promotional 
Programs for Apples - Their Effects on Sales of Apples and Other Fruits". The 
summary of their findings is given below. The apple promotion included tele- 
vision programs on Wednesday and Friday of each week, the use of point-of-sale 
material related to the advertising themes, and special displays in the stores. 
Also, cooperating retailers supported the promotion program by featuring apples 
as part of their regular advertisements in local newspapers serving their usual 
market area. 

"Controlled experiments in 7 2 food supermarkets in 6 midwestern cities in- 
dicated that advertising and promotion sponsored by the VJashington State Apple 
Commission, using two specific themes, were associated with substantial in- 
creases in sales of all apples handled by the stores, as well as of Washington 
apples. 

"Compared with periods of no promotion, sales of Washington-grown apples 
per store in a 4-week period were 32 percent higher for the "apple use" promo- 
tional theme (emphasizing use of the fruit in salads, pies, and other dishes), 
and 21 percent greater for the "health" promotional theme. 

"Sales of all apples (from Washington and other areas) were 20 percent 
greater when the apple-use theme was used than when there was no promotion, and 
9 per cent greater for the health theme. 

"Advertising based on either theme for a 4-week test period did not affect 
sales of apples in the succeeding 4-week period. 



"There appeared to be a slight increase in sales of oranges when either 
theme was employed for apples. Sales of grapefruit remained relatively stable 
when the "use" theme was featured for apples, but showed a large increase when 
apple promotion stressed the health theme. Use of the health theme for apples 
seemed to add emphasis to the "Fresh for Health" promotional materials fur- 
nished by another organization and featuring grapefruit. Banana sales were 
slightly lower for both the apple-use and health themes. 

"Changes in sales of apples, oranges, grapefruit and bananas were signifi- 
cantly related to changes in some but not all of the practices employed by stores 
in merchandising and promoting these fruits, such as amount of display area, 
newspaper advertising, and prices. 

"Sales of apples from Washington State and from other areas were signifi- 
cantly affected by changes in the respective price of each; however, price of 
apples from one area did not affect sales of those from other areas. Changes 
in amount of display space for either Washington apples or apples from other 
areas affected the sales of both. Varying the display space for grapefruit was 
the only in-store merchandising practice used with other fruit which signifi- 
cantly influenced sales of apples. 

"Practices directly employed by the stores in merchandising apples did not 
have a measurable effect, adverse or beneficial, on sales of bananas, grapefruit, 
and oranges. The amount of display space devoted to grapefruit was directly or 
positively related to grapefruit sales and in addition inversely related to 
sales of apples and oranges. Similarly, the display space devoted to bananas 
was directly related to banana sales and inversely related to orange sales. 
These findings indicate that grapefruit competes with apples, oranges, and 
bananas, and bananas compete with oranges for display space and sales," 

William J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



IF 

Do you mix concrete or mud? IF you mix sand, gravel and cement together 
and then throv/ in enough water to make the concrete flow where you want it, there 
is a goo4, chance you mix mud. IF you are careful about how much water and how 
much cement you use and then throw in sand and gravel to make it flow where you 
want, then you probably mix concrete. IF you fall into the first group, then 
continue reading. Jff you are in the second group, go on to another article and 
keep this one for reference. 

Good concrete, of uniform strength throughout, is mixed by careful selection 
of ingredients, proportioning of ingredients, and mixing. 

SELECTION OF INGREDIENTS 

The ingredients of concrete are portland cement, water, sand and gravel: 



The Portland cement should be free flowing and powdery. Any lumps which cannot 
be crushed easily in your hand will not make good concrete. For most purposes, 
ordinary cement supplied in one cubic foot (94 pound sacks) can be used. In 
situations where quick drying is needed or salt is used, a different specialized 
Portland cement is needed. 

If water is fit to drink it is probably fit for use in concrete. 

Sand and gravel should be clean, hard and sound. Soft gravel will soon break 
up. Loam and other vegetable matter reduce the concrete strength. Clean bank 
run will work, but often there is too much fine sand for economical concrete. 

PROPO RTIONING OF INGREDIENTS 

The most important aspect of making concrete is to have the correct water- 
cement ratio. It is this ratio which will determine how strong and hOT«; water- 
proof your concrete will be. The ratio is expressed as gallons of water for 
each sack of cement. Smaller than one sack mixes require a proportionately 
smaller amount of water. Allowance must be made for the water in the sand or 
the water-cement ratio will not be that desired. A test for determining whether 
sand is damp, wet or very wet is to press some together in your hand. If the 
sand falls apart when your hand is opened, it is damp; if it forms a ball which 
holds its shape, it is wet; if the sand sparkles and wets your hand, it is very 
wet. 

The table below gives the water-cement ratio and the reduction of water for 
each condition of sand wetness. 



Kind of Work 



Gallons of Water per Sack of Cement 

When Sand is 
Dry Damp Wet Very Wet 



Concrete subjected to severe wear, 
weather, or weak acid and alkali 
solutions 



4% 



3% 



Floors (such as home, basement, dairy 
barn), driveways, walks, septic tanks, 
storage tanks, structural beams, columns 
and slabs 



5% 



% 



Foundation's walls, footings, mass 
concrete, etc. 



6^ 



5% 



4-3/4 



Sand and gravel when mixed three parts gravel to two parts sand gives a 
good mix. 

I trial batch is important. Using a carefully measured water-cement ratio, 
sand and gravel are added to get the desired consistency for handling. Once the 
proportions of sand and gravel are determined, buckets with lines drawn in them 
will make it easy to mix concrete that is uniform in consistency and strength. 



- 7 - 

MIXING 

The ingredients should be mixed thoroughly so that all sand and gravel has 
a coating of cement paste on it. Then there will be a good binding of particles 
to form good concrete. 

Pour the concrete in less than 60 minutes after mixing. After placing, it 
possible, keep the surface damp for as long as a week. Keeping it damp this way 
can double its strength after it has set. 

Norman T. Odden 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RANDOM NOTES ON 1959 AND 1960 RETAIL STO R E STU DY 

Many growers mark their apples U. S. No. 1 which seems to be an unnecessary 
down-grading of the fruit. In 1959, 12 of 18 growers cooperating in the study 
marked their packages U. S. No. 1 but only 10.9 per cent of the fruit in the 
packs examined at the packing sheds were of this grade. In retail stores during 
the same year, 5.8 per cent of the fruit in 86 polyethylene bags were of the 
U. S. No. 1 grade. In 1960, 1348 apples were graded from 110 polyethylene bags 
obtained in retail stores and only 13 apples were found to be U. S. No. 1 grade. 
Basically, the only difference in the grade requirements for U. S. No. 1 and 
U. S. Fancy Mcintosh is a difference of 8 per cent color. There is a difference 
in grade requirements regarding russetting but this generally is not a serious 
problem. Down-grading the pack from U. S. Fancy to U. S. No. 1 might be quite 
a price to pay for so few apples of the lower grade. 

Sizing of the fruit revealed wide variations in individual packages in 1959 
(2^ - 3-^ inches in diameter). Many produce managers stated that 2^" apples 
bagged separately made an attractive item for sale. Wide size variations were 
also found in 1960 as shown in Table I. 

Table I - The Number and Per Cent of Apples of Various Sizes Found in Polyethylene 
Bags, Marked 1\ Min., in Retail Stores, 1960. 

Size No. of Apples Per Cent 

Over 3 inch 99 7.37, 

3 inch 263 19.57. 

2-3/4 inch 508 37.77, 

2-1/2 inch 380 28.27, 

2-1/4 inch 93 6.97, 

Under 2-1/4 inch 5 .47, 

There was a wide range of size in the packages with approximately 27 per 
cent of the apples 3 inch or over. The packages were all marked minimum size 
2-1/4 inch and only five apples were found to be below this size. Only 7 per 
cent of all the apples were 2-1/4 inch apples. Packages from nine growers con- 
tained apples from 2-1/4 inch to 3 inches. Fourteen growers had included apples 



- 8 - 

of 3 inch in size. It is our observation that the greater the variation in 
size, the more damage accrued from customer handling. Reduction in variation in 
size may be an important way to reduce damage of apples on display counters. 

Larger apples are softer than smaller apples under similar cultural con- 
ditions. Table II shows that this held true at retail store level in 1960 even 
though the fruit came from a number of orchards and varied in the number of days 
from storage to the time the fruit were purchased and examined. 

Table II - The Relationship Between Fruit Size and Pressure Test of Mcintosh 
Apples Rirchased from Fifty-five Retail Stores in 1960. 



Number of Apples 

99 
263 
508 
379 

92 



Fruit Size 
Over 3 inch 
3 inch 
2-3/4 inch 
2-1/2 inch 
2-1/4 inch 



Pressure Test 

10.4 lbs. 
10.9 lbs. 

11.5 lbs. 

11.6 lbs. 
12.0 lbs. 



The 3 inch and over 3 inch apples were softer than the smaller fruit (2-1/2 
and 2-1/4 inch). There was no difference in the flesh firmness between the 
2-3/4 inch and the 2-1/2 inch apples. 

The results of the 1960 Retail Store Study as seen in Table III show that 
as the size of apples increased, the percentage of apples below grade also 
increased. 



Table III - Relationship Between Fruit Size of Mcintosh Apples in Retail Stores 
in 1960 and Per Cent of Apples Below U. S. No. 1 Grade. 

Increase in Fruit Below Grade in Relation- 
ship to the Below Grade 2-1/4 Inch Apples 

2.8 times increase 
2.4 times increase 
2.2 times increase 
1.8 times increase 



Size 


Number of 


(Inches) 


Apples 


Over 3 inch 


99 


3 inch 


263 


2-3/4 inch 


508 


2-1/2 inch 


380 


2-1/4 inch 


93 



The data indicate relatively little difference between the 2-3/4 and 3 inch 
apples in relationship to the per cent below U. S. No. 1 grade. The reason for 
a higher per cent of larger apples below U. S. No. 1 grade was due to more 
bruises on the larger than smaller apples (Table IV). 

Table IV - Relationship Between Fruit Size of Mcintosh in Retail Stores in 1960 
and Per Cent of Apples Below U. S. No. 1 Grade Because of Bruises. 



Size 
(Inches) 
Over 3 inch 
3 inch 
2-3/4 inch 
2-1/2 inch 



Number of 

Apples 

54 

94 

160 

77 



Increase in Fruit Below Grade in Relation- 
ship to the Below Grade 2-1/2 Inch Apples 

0.61 times increase 

0.31 times increase 

0.24 times increase 



Because of the small number of Mcintosh apples 2-1/4 inch in diameter below 
U. S. No. 1 grade because of bruises, the comparison in Table IV was made between 
2-1/2, 2-3/4, 3, and over 3 inch apples. There was no relationship between fruit 
size and per cent of apples below U. S. No. 1 grade because of broken skin. 

During December 1959 the average price per pound for Mcintosh received by 
the growers servicing retail stores was 3.16 cents and in 1960, 10.4 cents. The 
average store price per pound in December 1959 was 11.7 cents for Mcintosh and 
in 1960, 14.8 cents. The average store margin vjas approximately the same during 
both years being 30.1 in 1959 and 29.6 in 1960. 

Mcintosh apples displayed in 86 polyethylene bags on retail counters in 50 
stores during November and December 1959 had an average pressure test of 9.8 
pounds. In 1960 during the same time period, Mcintosh apples in 100 polyeth- 
ylene bags obtained from 55 stores had an average pressure test of 11.4. 

The average per cent of fruit in grade in the 55 retail stores in 1960 was 
13 per cent higher than in 1959. Even with Mcintosh averaging 1.5 pounds firmer 
in 1960 than in 1959, the damage from bruises was not reduced and only a 9 per 
cent reduction occurred in case of stem punctures. 

Fruit condition in 1960 as indicated by flesh firmness was better than in 
1959. One wonders how much effect this had on movement and price in 1960. 

William J. Lord and 

Frederick E. Cole 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 
Richard N. Smith, Research Assistant, Department of Forestry and Wildlife 
Norman T. Odden, Agricultural Engineering Department 
Frederick E. Cole, Extension Marketing Specialist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



MAY 5, 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

The Chemical Thinning Situation for 1961 

Bird Damage to Massachusetts Cultivated 
Blueberry and Peach Crops 1960 

Chemical Grass Control in the Orchard 

The Relation of Crop Size to Nutrient Content 
of Apple Foliage 

Silver Leaf 

Pomological Paragraphs 

Peach Insects and Their Control III 



^: 





'<?^ 



[ij^//m 



v// 



//I 



y 



■ / 



•^^ 




^>y^;:i^^z^ 



:y^^k 



'W.' 






-■^y^. 



-^■\ 






--^> 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



TILE CHEMICAL THI^HIIIIG SITUA TION F OR 1961 

Following a moderate crop of apples on many major varieties in 1960 we 
can expect a rather heavy bloom in 1961. Certainly, Mcintosh in many orchards 
appear to have a heavy bloom potential and with favorable weather a heavy set 
is likely. Most growers now recognize that one of the prime reasons for using 
a chemical thinner such as Amid-Thin (NA Amide) on Mcintosh is not only to 
improve the size of persisting fruit but also to help insure annual blossoming 
of the variety. In fact, this may be the primary reason for chemical thinning 
this variety since Mcintosh in excess of 2-3/A inches in diameter do not store 
well and are in less demand than they once were. 

Some of you may wonder whether the standard thinning materials, NAA and 
NA Amide, have been cleared by the Pure Food and Drug Administration for use 
this year. Both these materials have been cleared for thinning and labels 
covering them for this purpose have been printed. The label on Amid-Thin 
(NA Amide) no longer allows for use of this material in excess of 50 ppm, (1/2 
lb. per 100 gallons of water) or beyond about 2-1/2 weeks after bloom. In 
addition, there is no allowance for more than one application of this material. 
The upper concentration limit for NAA is 20 ppm. (usually 8 ounces per 100 
gallons of water except for a few double strength formulations where A ounces 
per 100 gallons would be the limit) as a single spray. In order to comply with 
these labels we have had to modify our thinning recommendations for some heavy 
setting varieties. For example, we can no longer recommend two 75 ppm. NA 
Amide applications for Early Mcintosh and Wealthy at early petal fall and 10 to 
14 days later. However, there appear to be no regulations preventing an early 
50 ppm. NA Amide spray followed by a NAA spray 10 to 14 days later if you so 
desire on these or other varieties. 

Our current recoiranendations concerning both NAA and NA Amide are now 
available (Chemical Thinning of Apples, Special Circular No. 189, 1961) through 
your county agent and/or this department in Amherst. 

Some of you may wonder about the possible use of Sevin (1-Naphthyl 
N-methylcarbamate) as a thinner. Our results obtained in 1960 indicate that it 
is a very mild thinner at rates of 1 to 2 lbs. per 100 gallons. This material 
probably won't come close to thinning any heavy setting varieties adequately 
but it may have a place on such varieties as Mcintosh and Delicious applied 14 
to 28 days after petal fall. We are not going to recommend the use of 50 per 
cent wettable Sevin until we have more experience with it and are satisfied that 
its use will result in suitable "repeat" blossoming as well as adequate thinning. 
However, if thinning of Delicious or Mcintosh is a problem with you and you are 
not satisfied with either NAA or NA Amide for this purpose the use of Sevin may 
be worth a limited trial. The chance of overthinning does not appear to be 
great with Sevin and it caused no apparent foliage injury at the 1 or 2 pound 
level in 1960. 

We want to warn those who may wish to use Sevin as an insecticide that it 
thinned Mcintosh up to at least 30 days after bloom in 1960 and at what point 
beyond this date it no longer thins Mcintosh does not appear to be certain. In 
other words, an NA Amide application on Mcintosh at two weeks after petal fall 
followed by a treatment of Sevin a week later might result in more thinning 
than desired. We are quite certain Sevin will not thin beyond June drop time, 
however . 

F. W. Southwick 



^ 2 . 

BIRD DA^tAGE TO MASSACHUSETTS CULTIVATED BLUEBERRY AND PEACH CROPS 1960 

A bird control project pertaining to agricultural crop damage is in 
progress at the Massachusetts Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, Amherst, 
Massachusetts. 

In conjunction with this project, data of cultivated blueberry and peach 
losses incurred by birds have been collected. Questionnaires were sent to all 
commercial peach and cultivated blueberry growers in Massachusetts requesting 
information concerning total acreage planted, estimated loss of 1960 crop by 
songbirds and blackbirds, and control measures used. Forty-one per cent of the 
questionnaires were returned. 

Table I gives the loss of cultivated blueberries and peaches by birds in 
Massachusetts during 1960. Individual growers varied greatly in estimated per- 
centages lost. Several reported no loss while others reported total loss of 
their crop. Nearly all damage to peaches was to early varieties. Observations 
indicated that Baltimore orioles were causing most of this damage. Later vari- 
eties escaped excessive damage because this species had begun to migrate. 

Table I - Loss of Cultivated Blueberries and Peaches by Bird Damage in Massachusetts in 1960 

as Determined From Questionnaires 

Total Acreage 
Lost Due to Birds % Acreage 7. Acreage 
Tot. Acreage Tot. Acreage Blackbird Songbird Lost Due to Lost Due to 
Reported Lost Loss Loss Blackbirds Songbirds Value Lost 



Blueberries 
Peaches ^ 



(1) 



310 
150 



84.4 
12.9 



46,0 
2.6 



38.4 
10.3 



54.5 
20.1 



45.5 $84,400^-'^ 
79,9 $22,640^^^ 



(1) based on 53 returned questionnaires 

(2) based on 15 returned questionnaires 

(3) based on $1000/acre 

(4) based on $4/bushel, 4 bushels/tree and 100 trees/acre 

Table II shows the estimated effectiveness by fruit growers, of deterrents 
utilized in Massachusetts against birds as determined from questionnaires per- 
taining to the 1960 season. Data indicates that except for Protect-0-Net, few 
devices used were successful. Apparently a large number of individuals use no 
deterrent even though these growers sustained a loss. 



Table II - Estimated Effectiveness, by Fruit Growers, of Deterrents Utilized in 
Massachusetts Against Birds as Determined from Questionnaires (1960) 



Deterrent 


Good 


Fair 


Poor 


Total 


Shotgun 




4 


16 


23 


43 


Tobacco Cloth 


Netting 


1 


6 


4 


11 


Reflectors 




1 


7 


23 


36 


Protect-0-Net 




8 








8 


Firecrackers 




1 


7 


13 


21 


Exploders 




1 


3 


4 


8 


None 










42 



■-Richard N, Smith 



- 3 - 

CHEMICAL GRASS CONTROL IN THE ORCHARD 

The elimination of grass and weeds under young fruit trees may aid materi- 
ally in tree growth and mouse control. 

With chemical weed control it is necessary to - read the label - follow 
instructions - apply only on crops specified - not apply more than the suggested 
amount - make applications only during suggested seasons and calibrate your 
sprayer to insure proper rate of application. 

The following table on number of tree areas to cover with 100 gallons or 
with one gallon of spray solution was taken from an article by Dr. Elwood Fisher, 
Cornell University, titled "Extension Suggestions for Trial Use of Herbicides on 
Young Non-Bearing Fruit Trees" that appeared in the 1960 Proceedings of the New 
York State Horticultural Society. 

Number of trees to cover with 100 gallons or with 1 gallon of spray solution 
when applying at the rate of 100 gallons per acre and spraying the stated number 
of feet from the tree trunk on all four sides of the tree (calculated as a 

square) ; 

Distance sprayed Number of trees Approximate 

from the trunk per 100 gallons number of trees 

p er gallon 

3 feet 1210 12 

A feet 681 7 

5 feet 436 4 

6 feet 303 3 

7 feet 222 2 

8 feet 170 1-3/4 

9 feet 134 1-1/3 

10 feet 109 1 

11 feet 90 9/10 

12 feet 75 3/4 

13 feet 64 2/3 

14 feet 56 3/5 

15 feet 48^ 1/2 

Apples a n d Pears 

Dowpon is recommended for the control of grass under apple and pear trees at 
least four years old . Use Dowpon at the rate of 1 pound to 10 gallons of water. 
Apply 10 pounds of Dowpon per acre on area treated. The grass should be sprayed 
when it is 4 to 6 inches high which is usually in May. Re-treat later if 
necessary. 

On non-bearing trees Simazlne may be added with the Dowpon at the rate of 4 
to 5 pounds (80% wettable powder) per 100 gallons of water. Simazine has no 
label for use under bearing tree s. 

Simazine may be used along under non-bearing apple and pear trees following 
cultivation or any other method of weed and grass removal. Apple Simazine (80% 
wettable powder) at a rate of 3-3/4 to 5 pounds per acre on the area treated. 



- 4 - 

Peaches 

Although Dowpou has a label for use under bearing peach trees, it should be 
used with care because peach trees are easily injured with this material. 

- — William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

PO MQLOGICAL PARAGRAPH 

Pollin a tion 

A question was asked recently on how long the apple stigmas are receptive 
to pollination. The stigma is the flower part on which the pollen must land for 
pollination to occur. If the stigmas have turned brown, they are no longer re- 
ceptive. In other words, bees in the orchard are of no value if the stigmas 
have turned brovm prior to bee activity. 

Research workers have found tliat apple stigmas are apparently receptive as 
soon as the flower petals unfold, or shortly thereafter, although weather con- 
ditions are somewhat influential. The length of time that the apple stijjma is 
receptive also depends upon the weather. Most sources of information indicate 
the stigma may be receptive from two to five days. The stigma may be receptive 
longer during cool than warm seasons. 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



THE RE LATION OF CR OP SIZE TO I JU TRIENT CONTENT OF APPLE FOLIAGE 

In our fertility studies with apples the past ten years, we have found that 
crop size can have considerable effect on the quantity of several elements in 
apple foliage. Trees which have received the same fertilizer treatment for 
several years will have a nitrogen level which is .2 to .3 of a per cent lower in 
a light crop year than it is in a heavy crop year. The foliage in a light crop 
year will have a pale green or light colored cast in contrast to the dark green 
of a heavy crop year. Calcium content follows the same trend as nitrogen and has 
about the same difference in foliage content between light and heavy crop years. 
Crop size has a small effect on magnesium. Magnesium is slightly higher in a 
heavy crop year than in a light crop year. 

Crop size has as much effect on potassium as nitrogen, but the relationship 
is negative. Leaf potassium is higher in a light crop year and lower in a heavy 
crop year. Differences of as much as .4 per cent in leaf potassium can occur be- 
tween heavy and light crop years. There is also a negative relationship between 
crop size and phosphorus, but the difference between a heavy crop year and a 



- 5 - 

light crop year is very small. 

Since crop size can have considerable influence on the quantity of elements 
in apple foliage it is very important to know the crop size of any tree from 
which leaf samples are taken for diagnostic purposes. For example, an analysis 
which showed 1,60 per cent nitrogen and 1.30 per cent potassium would indicate 
adequate nitrogen and low potassiimi for a tree with a light crop, whereas for a 
heavy crop tree nitrogen would be low and potassium would be adequate. 

VJ. D. Weeks 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



SILVER LEAF 

The silvering of apple leaves, the color of unpolished silver or the color 
of lead, is sometimes found on one branch, sometimes involves an entire tree, 
and, in some orchards, there may be more than one tree with it, 

"True" silver leaf is caused by the fungus Stereum purpureum . But the 
silver leaf condition does not always have a fungus associated with it. It 
may be caused by winter injury and other agents which disturb the function of 
the tree. Not all trees with silver leaf die. Dr. Burrell and Dr. Hilborn 
report that orchards which had silver leaf in 1934, progressively showed less 
and less and now show no trouble or an insignificant amount. 

The following treatment deals with the silver leaf caused by the fungus, 
Stereum purpureimi ; 

Plants Attacked - Silver leaf is most serious on apples and plums but also af- 
fects peaches, pears, cherries, quinces, gooseberries, currants, and other 
plants including forest trees and ornamental shrubs. Some varieties of apples 
appear to be more susceptible than others. 

Distribution and Economic Importance - Silver leaf is not considered of serious 
importance in the eastern United States. There is more in the Northwest and in 
Canada and it is serious in New Zealand and, especially on plxmis in European 
countries. In England, the Silver Leaf Order of 1923 compelled fruit growers to 
destroy all dead wood of fruit trees killed by Stereum purpureum before July 15 
every year. 

Symptoms - The first external sign of infection is a silvering of the larger 
veins of the leaf and later the entire leaf. All leaves of the infected branch 
have a silvery metallic lustre which distinctly contrasts with the normal green 
color of healthy leaves. The silvered appearance is the result of air spaces in 
the leaf tissue and can be produced by injecting healthy branches with extracts 
of the fungus. Death of trees infected v;ith the fungus takes place a year or so 
after the silvering appears and may be preceded by some stunting. In some cases 
of infection, hov/ever, there is no silvering of foliage. 

The fungus invades the heartwood and may turn nearly all of it dark brown 



or almost black or the Invasion may produce only small dark colored streaks in 
the heartv/ood. The fungus progressively enters the sapwood and finally kills 
the branch, or if it has entered the trunk, kills the tree. If a section of 
branch v;ith discolored heartwood, where the fungus is present, is set in water 
and enclosed to provide a humid atmosphere around the branch, the brown dis- 
coloration diffuses from the heartwood into the water and the fungus grows out 
on the surface of the branch as a white cottony mold. 

The fruiting bodies of the fungus may appear before or after the branch 
or tree dies or may not appear at all. They develop on dead parts of the trunk 
and branches and are extremely variable in size and form. They may be 1/4, 1/2, 
or 1 inch in diameter, circular or elongated. They may lie flat on the upper 
surface of the branch with reflexed margins or may project, overlapping and 
shelf-like, from the sides, or may be flat against the underside of a branch. 
The upper surface of the brackets is usually hairy and grayish or buff in color. 
The under surface, V7hich is the fruiting layer, is smooth and purplish when 
young or may have tinges of light blue or rose. It turns dingy with age. Tre- 
mendous quantities of spores are produced from the fruiting surface of the fruit- 
ing bodies. 

I^JFECTIOH 

Stereum purpureum spores land on, germinate and enter through dead wood 
produced by winter injury, declining vigor such as caused by "v/et feet" or 
mouse injury, sunscald, and pruning v/ounds, particularly dead stubs where side 
branches have not been cut close or where branches have been "headed back". 
It first attacks the heartvrood, then the sapwood, and finally the bark. 

COI^rrilOL 

Good cultural practices help keep damage to a minimum. There is no effective 
chemical treatment. The following practices are suggested; 

1, Keep trees in good grovjing condition. It gives trees a chance 
to resist the disease and often infected trees vjill survive. 

2, Remove all branches in the tree that are dead or have fruiting 
bodies on them. If fruiting bodies are on the trunk, even 
though part of the tree may be alive, remove the entire tree. 

3, Remove all branches showing silvered foliage beyond the point 
showing brown discoloration in the heartwood . If the brown dis- 
coloration extends into the trunk, remove the tree. 

4, It is a good practice to burn all dead wood and prunings in an 
orchard because not only the silver leaf fungus but other rots 
continue to live on dead wood. 

5, Make pruning cuts close so that there are no stubs which may die 
back later and provide a place for infection. Remove all dead 
stubs when found, making cuts in live vigorous tissue so they 
have a chance to heal over. 



- 7 - 

6, Treat all pruning cuts that are too large to heal over in one or 
two Seasons. A commercial tree wound paint is satisfactory and 
so is homemade Bordeaux paint made by mixing Bordeaux powder with 
water or linseed oil. Retreat the larger wounds at intervals 
until they heal over. 

7. Remove dead bark and rotting wood from cankers or large wounds, 
where infections may start, and keep them treated with tree wound 
paint or Bordeaux paint at regular intervals until they heal over. 

C. J. Gilgut 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 



Pear Decline 



Paul F. Sharp, Director, University of California Agricultural Experiment 
Station reports in an article in California A griculture , Volume 15, Number 1, 
January 1961 that 150,000 California pear trees have been killed by pear decline 
since the outbreak. These trees were mostly 30 to 40 years of age. He stated 
that from the experience in Washington it is highly probable that all pear trees 
on Oriental rootstocks, and a certain number on imported French, may be killed 
eventually by the decline. 

The cause of pear decline and factors affecting its spread and development 
have not been definitely proven. The February 1961 issue of the Blue Anchor 
published by the California Fruit Exchange contained a reprint from Oregon' s 
Agricultural Pr ogress and Oregon State College in which the cause of pear decline 
was discussed. It was stated that decline is probably caused by one or a com- 
bination of several things - faulty cultural practices, a fungus disease, a graft 
union disorder which may be a virus disease. 

Paul F. Sharp in the article in California Agriculture stated that at 
present the only practical means of controlling pear decline is by replanting 
on resistant rootstocks. There is evidence that Old Home pear roots are not 
affected by pear decline. 

---William J. Lord 

Weed Control in Cultivated Blueberries 

Although there are other materials which can be used for weed control in 
cultivated blueberries, Diuron is probably the most useful. Applied in early 
spring at 2 pounds per acre, it will keep most weeds, except witchgrass, deep 
rooted perennials, and a few annuals such as plantain, out all seasons. This 
material should be used only on plants which have been one or more years in the 
field and is most effective if applied to a field which has already been freed of 
weeds. Be sure to read and follow the directions on the container. 

John S. Bailey 



- 8 - 

Spring Round-Up o£ Ideas 

Approved Farm Stand operators, wives, and stand assistants met recently to 
discuss retail stand selling. 

The group was of the opinion that newspapers constituted the best adver- 
tising medium for their purpose supplemented by radio on special occasions. 
There seemed to be no uniform agreement about the placement of newspaper ad- 
vertising. The back page, front page, woman's page, second page and along side 
the obituary column were listed as favorite spots, it was stated that having 
the advertisement in the same place appeared to be an advantage. One operator 
indicated that he featured one pack each week and in that way was able to judge 
to better advantage the pulling power of a particular ad. 

A special insert will be used by the Approved Farm Stand operators next 
year. This insert will be used periodically in packages on display at the 
stands. The insert will be used to explain the Approved Farm Stand Sign and to 
list the names of the stands in the program. In addition, the back page of the 
insert can be used by individual stand operators for personal advertising, 

William J. Lord 

New Certified Sweet Cider Cartons 

At a February meeting of the Certified Sweet Cider Program members, held in 
cooperation with the Massachusetts Extension Service, it was voted to change the 
printing on one side of the cider cartons to allow for individual advertising. 

Also, a square quart container identical to the new type two-quart cider 
carton was approved for the cider program. 

---William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I 



PEACH INSECTS AND TliEIR CONTROL III 

Peach Tree Borer 

Damage 

Peach, wild and cultivated cherry, plum and nectarine are some of the fruit 
trees that may be damaged by the peach tree borer. Presence of borers is indi- 
cated when masses of gum containing red-brown larval droppings are found on the 
tree trunks. The larvae destroy inner bark of trees from just below the soil 
surface to about ten inches above the soil line. 

Partially girdled trees are weak and produce off-color foliage. This re- 
sults in lowered fruit production and poor fruit quality. If the trunk is 
completely girdled, the tree is killed outright. 



- 9 - 

Life History 

Moths can be found flying In the orchard from late June Into September. 
The eggs are laid shortly after emergence. Each female te capable of laying 
from 200 to 600 or more eggs and the eggs are deposited singly or in small 
groups on the trunk of the tree. The eggs hatch in 9 to 10 days and the young 
larvae start their burrows under the bark, usually near the soil surface. The 
larvae feed on the cambium or growing tissues of the tree, tunneling partly in 
the inner bark and partly in the sapwood. Some of the earlier hatching larvae 
become mature by fall, but most of them are not half grown. In the spring, 
feeding is resumed and the larvae complete their development. Pupation occurs 
in June, 

Weather apparently does not affect the peach tree borer. Alternate host 
trees such as wild black cherry in the immediate vicinity of a peach block may 
be a factor in abundance of this pest. Also, any abandoned peach planting near 
a producing orchard is a serious menace. 

Control 

To control the peach tree borer, special spray applications are required 
and these sprays should be applied thoroughly to the bark of crotches and trunks. 
Effective materials include DDT 50% wettable powder (3 lbs. -100), parathion 15% 
wettable powder (2 lbs. -100), and Guthion 25% wettable powder (1 lb. -100). 
Applications should be made at the following times: July 5-12 and August 1-7. 
Dusts are not effective against the peach tree borer. 

William D. Tunis 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Contributors to this Issue from S upporti n g Fields 
Richard N. Smith, Research Assistant, Department of Forestry and VJildlife 
C. J. Gilgut - Extension Plant Pathologist 
William D. Tunis - Extension Entomologist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



JUNE 8, 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Strowberry Twilight Meeting 
Summer Meeting of the Massachu- 
setts Fruit Growers' Association 
Child Labor Laws 
Gasoline Tax Refunds 
Programming the Blower in CA 

Storage 
Pomological Paragraphs 
Fertilization of Apple Trees 

with Poultry Manure 
Location of Cambium 
Hard Rooms 
Apple Color Sports 



Research From Other Areas 
Experiments with Bulk 
Boxes for Mcintosh 

Certified Sweet Cider and 
Approved Farm Stand 
Rograms 

Chemical Control of Weeds 
in Fruit Plantings 




^ 











x-*f>J 



1 



w 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 

Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses in pest control, small fruit culture and 
systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on strawberries 
and blueberries, 

French, Arthur P. - Head, Department of Horticulture 

Does some teaching in Pomology and in Plant Breeding, 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers* problems, other than pest 
control. Also, does research. Editor of FRUIT NOTES, 

Southwick, Franklin W, - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical thinning, 
preharvest drop, several aspects of storage and nutrition. 
Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, root stocks, variety and 
strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches certain 
advanced courses. 



Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 

Lawrence D, Rhoades - Extension Specialist in Farm Management 

John S. Perry - Associate Professor, Agricultural Engineering Department 



STRAWBERRY TWILIGHT MEETING 

The annual strawberry twilight meeting will be held at the University of 
Massachusetts on Tuesday, June 20, 1961 at 7:00 p.m. The tour of the strawberry 
plantings will start at the Fisher Laboratory (Cold Storage building near 
University of Massachusetts orchards). 

Things to be seen: 

Mulching with plastic 
Fruiting plots of new varieties 
Planting systems 
Weed control 

A short speaking program will be held after the tour of the strawberry 
plantings. Plastic mulch, planting systems, nutrition research, variety per- 
formance, and virus-free strawberry plants will be discussed briefly. Growers 
will be given the opportunity to ask questions pertaining to their strawberry 
problems . 

"-William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

SUMMER MEETING OF MASSACHUSETTS FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 

The annual summer meeting of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association in 
cooperation with the Massachusetts Extension Service will be held on Thursday, 
July 20th, at the orchard of Derwood Frost, Gleasondale, Massachusetts. The 
meeting will begin at 10 a.m. and end at 4 p.m. 

An orchard tour and exhibits are being planned for the morning part of the 
program. The afternoon will be devoted to a speaking program with Dr. Arthur J. 
Heinicke, former Director of the Geneva Experiment Station in New York, as the 
feature speaker. The ccmplete program will be announced at a later date. 

-—William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

CHILD LABOR LAWS 

For farmers, particularly fruit growers, who employ children under 18 years 
of age. 

In general there are two classiflcatlonB of laws or regulations which apply, 
they are: 

1. Laws and regulations having to do with minimum wage provisions. 

2. Laws relating to employment of minors. 



Under (1) Massachusetts laws farm labor is exempted from minimum wage pro- 
visions with this language "labor on a farm -- (and) the growing and harvesting 
of agricultural, f loricultural and horticultural commodities". 

The Federal law exempts farm workers, who cultivate the soil or grow or 
harvest crops or who raise livestock, bees, furbearing animals or poultry and 
who do this work in greenhouses, nurseries and hatcheries from both minimum wage 
and overtime provisions. Incidental work in connection with farming operations 
is also exempted if work is done only on the employer's products. 

Under (2) Massachusetts law a child is defined as a person under 18 years of 
age -- permits the employment of children between the ages of 14 and 16 on a 
farm outside of school hours with certain limitations on the number of hours and 
the time of day they may work provided they have an employment permit issued by 
the Superintendent of Schools or his representative. The employer is required 
to get permits for children between 14 and 16 and keep them on file during the 
time they are employed . 

Massachusetts prohibits employment of children under 16 for work on certain 
hazardous machines or in certain occupations. 

Federal law permits employment in certain hazardous occupations or on 
certain machines only if the person is over 18 years of age and prohibits farm 
employment if under 16 years of age. 

A minor related by blood or marriage to the owner or operator of the farm 
where employed is exempt from the Massachusetts law provisions as to hours and 
hazards. Under the Federal Act the farmer's own children are exempt. 

Farmers have two situations to consider: 

1. Penalties are provided for violation of both State and Federal laws, and; 

2. In the event he employs a child illegally such a person may not be an 
"employee" under his Workmen's Compensation insurance and hence he may not have 
insurance coverage. In the event such a person is injured while on the job the 
employer might have to bear the full cost of court proceedings and any award 
that the court might make. 

Farmers who employ workers under 18 years of age should be careful to comply 
with the federal or state statutes on child labor whichever apply and if any of 
their operations fall under the minimum wage provisions, they need to be careful 
to be informed of the provisions of the wage-hour laws. 

A farmer would be wise to consult his attorney and his insurance agent if 
he employs children under 18 on his farm who are not members of his immediate 
family . 

Federal statutes apply to products in interstate commerce, fruit, vegetables, 
milk, etc. 

Massachusetts statutes apply to all farms in the Commonwealth. 



apply. 



- 3 - 

Whenever the state laws are more restrictive than the federal laws, they 



Lawrence D. Rhoades 

Extension Specialist in 
Farm Management 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

GASOLINE TAX REFUNDS 

Farmers who use gasoline in farm trucks, tractors, spray equipment, dusters, 
wood chippers, on farms for farming purposes, can get refunds of both the 
Massachusetts gasoline tax and the Federal gasoline tax. 

Refund requests must be filed after July 1, 1961 and before September 30, 
1961 for gasoline used between July 1, 1960 and June 30, 1961. 

A farmer gets his refund by filing both a federal gasoline tax refund 
request and a state refund request. 

How this is done: 

1. File federal claim form No, 22A0 after July 1, 1961 and before September 
30, 1961 for gasoline for the period July 1, 1960 through June 30, 1961 with 
Internal Revenue Service, 174 Ipswich Street, Boston 15, Massachusetts. 

2. File Massachusetts form GT-9A after June 30, 1961 and before September 
30, 1961 for the same period as the federal form. Attach a copy of the federal 
form and send both forms to the Department of Corporation and Taxation, Bureau 
of Excises, Room 614, 50 Court Street, Boston 8, Massachusetts. 

3. Wait for refund check frran Internal Revenue Service - then 

4. Within three months after getting the federal refund, file Massachusetts 
form GT-9B which is an affadavit form with the Department of Corporation and 
Taxation. 

If the forms are not sent to you, write for them to each of the above 
addresses. 

Federal tax rate is 4c per gallon. Massachusetts rate is 5%(f per gallon. 
For every $3.00 spent for gasoline, about $1.00 is paid for taxes. 

Lawrence D. Rhoades 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



PROGRAMMING THE BLOWER IN CA STORAGES 

Wien apples have been placed in CA storage in Massachusetts, the usual 
practice is to allow the evaporator blower to run continuously to insure uniform 
temperatures and uniform air composition throughout the storage. The necessity 
for this continuous blower operation has been questioned as less electricity 
would be needed to operate a blower intermittently. Since heat is added to the 
storage whenever the blower circulates air, additional savings accrue because the 
refrigeration system can operate for shorter periods and still maintain proper 
storage temperatures. Operating the blower intermittently rather than contin- 
uously, is termed "programming" the blower. Blowers may be programmed in various 
ways. One of the simplest and easiest ways is for the blower to run only when 
the control thermostat calls for the refrigeration system to operate to remove 
heat from the storage. 

To investigate the feasibility of programming blower operations with the 
refrigeration control thermostat, observations were made in the fall of 1959 
on two similar 12,000 box storages. The blower in one storage was programmed 
while that in the second operated continuously. In October the programmed 
blower operated 45 per cent of the time and in November, 16 per cent of the time. 
It was estimated that a $30.00 savings in electrical costs was realized in this 
period. Analyses of composite apple samples indicated that the reduced air 
circulation did not effect the quality of the fruit in storage. Furthermore, 
periodic temperature measurements in the two storages by means of thermocouples 
indicated a satisfactory uniform temperature distribution within 2°F throughout 
the storages. 

Observations on the same two 12,000 box storage rooms from January 18, 1961 
to February 16, 1961 indicated that the blower operated only 13.2 per cent of 
the time. This was not considered typical, however, because of an extended cold 
period. The total number of times the blower was "off" during this period was 
16 with the longest "off" period being 18.1 hours. Composite samples from these 
two storages, one of which was programmed for the entire storage season, 
indicated no observable difference in quality of fruit. For the two months of 
operation observed, it is estimated that for the blower alone, $12-15 savings per 
month in electrical energy was realized. 

In a comparison of two 30,000 box CA storage rooms in which the blower in 
one of the storages was programmed with the refrigeration thermostat, it was 
observed that between November 29, 1960 and January 17, 1961, the programmed 
blower operated 60.5 per cent of the time. The maximum length of "off" period 
was 23.6 hours. The construction of these storages, however, is not typical of 
Massachusetts so that this data must be considered as approximate. Temperature 
measurements within the storages by means of thermocouples located both in air 
and within apples within the storages indicated no observable difference in 
temperature variations. Composite samples of apples from the two storages indi- 
cated no difference in quality of the apples from these two storages. 

These limited data so far obtained indicate that it is feasible to program 
blowers in CA storages. Additional information is needed before firm recommen- 
dations can be safely established. Observations are to be continued during the 
coming storage season. 

John S. Perry 

Associate Professor 
Agricultural Engineering 



POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 

(Most of the subjects discussed in this section of Fruit Notes are based on 
grower questions and field observations.) 

Fertilization of Apple Trees with Poultry Manure 

Questions have arisen this spring about the use of poultry manure for fertil- 
ization of apple trees. 

First, what is the nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash content of poultry 
manure? Research findings of Stanley Papanos and B. A. Brown (Care and Use of 
Poultry Manure, Publication PR12, January 1956, University of Connecticut) show 
the following to be the average composition of hen manure in regard to nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid •and potash. 

Kind of Manure Nitrogen Phosphoric Acid Potash 

\ 1 7. 

Fresh Droppings 1.47 1.15 0.48 

Droppings 4-28 weeks old 1.22 1.84 0.94 

Floor litter 6 months old 3.00 2.60 1.40 

Papanos and Brown estimate that a mixture of the winters manure accumulation 
consisting of material from the untreated dropping board and floor board litter 
will contain 2 per cent nitrogen, 2 per cent phosphoric acid and one per cent 
potash. 

Second, how much poultry manure should be applied In an orchard? Using the 
above figures, a ton of fresh droppings contains approximately 30 pounds of 
actual nitrogen while 6 month old floor litter has twice this amount. Since one 
pound of actual nitrogen Is suggested as the need of a Mcintosh tree capable of 
producing 25 bushels of apples, one ton of fresh droppings should be adequate for 
thirty 25 year old Mcintosh trees having this producing capacity. One half of 
the amount would be required if old floor litter were used. 

Poultry manure must be used with caution as many growers have already found 
out. The application of too much poultry manure may result in nitrogen becoming 
available late In the growing season, causing poor fruit color and immaturity of 
wood. 

A number of growers use poultry manure regularly and through experience 
know how much to apply without getting into difficulty. On the other hand, 
growers using poultry manure for the first time should do so with caution. It 
may be best to experiment on just a few trees. Poultry manure applied sparingly 
and broadcast over the area between trees will improve tree and grass growth. 

It is stated by some sources, nitrogen in poultry manure becomes available 
to the trees more slowly than in most commercial forms and may benefit the crop 
for several seasons. Approximately one-half of the plant food in the poultry 
manure will be utilized by the first crop; one-fourth will be available the 
second year and one-fourth the third year. 

William J. Lord 



Location of Cambium 

Where is the cambium was a question asked at a recent twilight meeting 
during which grafting was discussed. The cambium is a single layer of living 
cells which lies between the bark and the sapwood. If you peel the bark on an 
apple tree this time of year, a slippery, sticky substance on the wood (sapwood) 
and inside of the bark can be detected by eye and feel. This substance consists 
largely of cells which make up the cambium region. 

As the tree grows, cambium cells divide to produce bark on the outside and 
wood on the inside. 

---William J. Lord 

Hard Rooms 

On the tour of Hudson Valley CA rooms in March, it was noted that some 
growers had what they called "Hard Rooms". These CA rorans are operated at 32°F, 
2.0 to 3.0 per cent carbon dioxide and 3.0 per cent oxygen. Red and Golden 
Delicious, Rome, Northern Spy, and Stayman can all be stored together in such 
roans* 

One storage operator used polyethylene box liners for his Golden Delicious 
to prevent shrivel. The box liners were not folded over the top of the apples 
in order to prevent too high a humidity which may increase the incidence of rots. 

Dr. Robert Smock (Cornell University) favors a heavily waxed paper liner over 
the polyethylene box liners. He has found that the htjmidity will be higher in the 
polyethylene box liner but if the fruit is inoculated with spores, rots like blue 
mold can grow rapidly. He has found that waxed paper liners have given results 
intermediate between no box liner and the polyethylene box liner in the reduction 
of shrivel, scald and decay. 

—William J, Lord 

Apple Color Sports 

Several growers recently asked about the color sports of Delicious that are 
now being tested by the various Agricultural Experiment Stations. Some of these 
Delicious are early coloring and others in addition to being early coloring are 
"spur- type". It has been reported that the spur- type Delicious trees develop 
more lateral fruit buds than regular Delicious, are more productive and have 
trees that are 2/3 or 3/4 the size of regular Delicious at maturity. The main 
difficulty is that it requires considerable testing of the various sports before 
recommendations can be made. Many of the observations made on these sports have 
been made in Washington. A sport that does well in Washington does not neces- 
sarily do well in Massachusetts. At the present time many of these apple color 
sports are being tried in the University orchard and when Information becomes 
available as to the results of these trials, it will be made available. Some 
growers may want to try some of these apple color sports on their own farms. 



- 7 - 

Richared is preferred to Starking Delicious by the Pomology staff and most 
growers because of the bright red color. The only new early coloring budsport 
of Richared, that I know of, is Royal Red. 

The new early coloring budsports of Starking Delicious are numerous; how- 
ever, the ones frequently mentioned are Starkrimson (Bisbee), Wellspur, and 
Redspur, which are spur-types. 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 

(Items Included under this heading are for your information and may not apply to 
Massachusetts conditions in all instances.) 

Experiments with Bulk Boxes for Mcintosh 

The Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the New York State Horti- 
cultural Society contained an article by G. D. Blanpied, David C. Ludington, and 
Martin I, Potter titled "1960 Experiments with Bulk Boxes for Mcintosh". In the 
introduction of the article, the authors stimmarized the conclusions derived from 
three previous experiments on handling Mcintosh apples in bulk boxes. The con- 
clusions drawn from the first three experiments were as follows: "1) Mcintosh 
apples harvested, handled and stored in 30 inch deep bulk boxes had 38 per cent 
more total bruises than COTiparable apples handled in regular field lugs. 2) 
Pressure bruising of Mcintosh apples stored in bulk boxes was directly propor- 
tional to the depth of fruit in the box. That is, the deeper the box, the 
greater the extent of bruising of apples in the box. 3) Picking, handling and 
storing apples in 4' x 4' x 20" and 4' x 6' x 20" bulk boxes did not significantly 
increase the number of bruises over the number normally encountered on comparable 
apples handled in field lugs. 4) Picking, handling, storing and dumping apples 
through the end-gate of 4' x 4' x 20" bulk boxes did not significantly increase 
the extent of bruising." 

In the 1960 experiment the authors tested the end-gate dumping and the 
water flotation methods of removing Mcintosh apples fran bulk boxes. Twenty 
and 24 inch inside depth boxes were tested using these two methods. Smooth and 
slotted sides on bulk boxes were tested to determine their effect, if any, on 
bruising. Also, data were obtained on amount and severity of mechanical damage 
that occurred during handling, storage and dumping of bulk boxes in comparison 
with field crates. 

The following conclusions were drawn from the 1960 experiments with bulk 
boxes : 

1. "Mcintosh apples can be handled in bulk boxes without significantly 
increasing the extent of bruising." 

2. "There were significantly more skin punctvires when the apples were 



- 8 - 

dumped through the end-gate. With the 20 inch deep boxes, there was no differ- 
ence in the total damage, but when 24 inch deep boxes were used, there was less 
total damage with the water submersion dumper." 

3. "There was no significant difference in the amount of bruising of 
apples handled and water submersion dumped from the slotted and from smooth sided 
bulk boxes of the same inside depth." 

4. "The data show that increasing the depth from 20 to 24 inches will not 
materially increase the extent of bruising of apples in the box. There was, 
however, a significant increase in the number of skin punctures in the deeper 
box when end-gate dumping was used," 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



^ 



CERTIFIED SWEET CIDER AND APPROVED FARM STAND PROGRAMS 



(yyvj ■ 



The Approved Farm Stand and Certified Sweet Cider Programs were developed 
'and initiated by growers under the sponsorship of the Marketing Committee of the 
Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association, Inc. 

The cider program has a stated objective of raising the standard of quality 
of sweet cider within the state as a means of increasing the sale of clean, 
sound apples of inferior appearance in the form of sweet cider. The program has 
been successful in that the standard of the quality of cider has been raised, the 
sale of cider has increased, and the quantity of inferior apples sold in this 
form has increased. During the 196,0-6t marketing season there were thirteen " 
Certified Cider Mills in Massachusetts. Also, there were three growers who had 
f' certification to be distributors of Certified Sweet Cider. ^^ ' 

The Approved Farm Stand Program has the stated objective of raising the 
standard of roadside and farm salesroom selling of apples and to provide appro- 
priate promotional devices and techniques for increasing sales at cooperating 
stands and salesrooms. The standards were adopted for quality, packs, advertising, 
selling facilities, identification, and operation of stand or salesroom. A 
minimum of 60 per cent of home grown products was established. A code of ethics 
was developed for publication and posting in the stand or salesroom as a public 
statement of operating policy. An inspector was hired by the Massachusetts Fruit 
Growers' Association to check on compliance of minimum requirements of the 
program. 

During the 1960-61 marketing season there were thirteen Approved Farm Stands" 
in Massachusetts. Quality of products, of service, of display, of business 
methods is basic in selling in order that customers may buy with complete con- 
fidence and guaranteed satisfaction. The advertising of the Approved Farm Stand 
Sign and what it stands for in conjunction with stand advertising has been 
helpful to program members. 
^^< -'" 

/'The volume of business at these Approved Farm Stands has increased and new 



facilities have been added. The cooperating stand owners have confirmed and 
re-confirmed the basic principles of program operation. Some of the Approved 
Farm Stand members have stated that the program is worthwhile just from the 
standpoint of the voluntary inspection of apple packs displayed for sale and 
for compliance to the other program requirements.' 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN FRUIT PLANTINGS 

Chemicals are becoming an increasingly useful tool in controlling weeds. 
This is true in fruit plants as well as elsewhere. Although the point has not 
been reached where entire reliance can be placed on chemicals, they can be a 
great help if properly used . 

Proper use involves not only application in such a way as to give good weed 
control without injury to the crop but also in such a manner that the public is 
protected against undesirable residues. Chemical companies have spent vast sums 
to obtain information which will protect both the grower and the public. This 
information has been digested, condensed, and placed on the label of every 
package of herbicide as well as on other pesticides. Read it . Follow its 
instructions . 

Strawberries 

Sesone is the best of available materials for weed control during the summer. 
Since it kills weeds only when the seeds are germinating and must be changed by 
soil bacteria to its active form, it is most effective when applied to moist, 
weed- free soil. Retreatment in 3 - 4 weeks is usually necessary. 

The usefulness of 2,4-D in the strawberry field is strictly limited. It 
can cause severe injury when runner or fruit buds are forming or when blossoms 
or fruit are on the plants. Therefore, little time is left when 2,4-D can be 
used safely. The best and safest use is in connection with bed renovation, right 
after the crop is off and fruit buds have not yet started to form. At 1/2 - 1 
pound per acre it can aid in controlling broad- leaved weeds. 

Some weeds, particularly chickweed, make a very rapid growth in the fall. 
If these are not controlled at that time, they may choke out the strawberries in 
the spring. The most effective material for this purpose is chloro-IPC (or CIPC) . 
Severe injury to the strawberries can result from applying too much. One pound 
per acre of ground actually covered is enough, applied after the plants are 
dormant . 

Blueberries 

One application of diuron in early spring while the plants are still dor- 
mant will control most weeds except deep rooted perennials, for most of the 
summer. 



- 10 - 

Chloro-IPC can be used in the fall after the plants are dormant to control 
late fall and winter weeds and some grasses. 

Raspberries 

Since raspberries are quite tolerant of 2,A-D, it can be used to control 
broad-leaved weeds. To avoid injury to the raspberries delay spraying till the 
new shoots are tall enough so the tender tips will not be sprayed. Do not spray 
when the raspberries are in bloom, 

Chloro-IPC can be used in late fall to control winter annual grasses and 
broad-leaved weeds, especially chickweed, 

A dinitro (or DN) can be used as a directed spray but must be kept off the 
young shoots to avoid damage. 

Grapes 

Chloro-IPC can be used effectively in the early spring when the grapes are 
still dormant. 

Likewise diuron applied pre-emergence in early spring is quite effective. 
It should not be used around vines less than 3 years old, 

WARNING: Grapes are extremely sensitive to phenoxy compounds such as 2,4-D, 
2,4,5-T, silvex, MCPA, and others. Do not use these on or near grapes nor use 
spray equipment which has held these materials for spraying grapes. 

Apples and Pears 

Dalapon is effective for grass control, particularly for perennials such as 
quack grass, Diuron can be used with it for control of other weeds, 

Non-Bearing Apple, Peach, Pear, and Sour Cherry Trees 

Simazine (4% granular) has been recently accepted for weed control in 
non-bearing orchards of the above fruits. It is a very good weed killer but care 
is necessary not to use too much. 

Poison Ivy in Orchards 

Unfortunately the situation here is still very unsatisfactory, Amino 
Triazole which is very effective has clearance for use only in early spring before 
bloom or in fall after the crop is off. At neither time is it very effective, 
Ammate still has no clearance. 2,4,5-T is effective against the poison ivy but 
its use has resulted in severe damage to trees at times. 2,4-D has given variable 
results. However, around an orchard where no fruit trees are involved any of 
these materials can be used. 

Whatever is used, read the label and follow directions. 

John S. Bailey 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology StoH 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 



JULY - AUGUST 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Dr. French Retires 

Facts for Farm Readers 

Pear Ripening 

Storage of Peaches 

"There's No Doubt About It" 

Mcintosh Apples for CA Rooms 

Pomologicol Paragraphs 

Effect of Frost on Fruit Size 

Preharvest Drop Control of Apples for 1961 

Notes on Strawberry Varieties 



'^' 






Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



DR. FRENCH RETIRES 

Dr. Arthur P. French, Head of the Department of Horticulture, retired on 
July 1, 1961 after forty years of service to the University and the fruit growers 
of the nation. 

A native of Ohio, he served in the U, S. Army from 1917 to 1919, seeing 
action in Europe. After graduating from Ohio State University in 1921, he 
joined the staff of the then Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst as an 
instructor in Pomology. After receiving his M. S. degree at this University in 
1923, he advanced to the position of Professor in Pomology and Plant Breeding in 
1936. In 1947 he assumed the duties of Head of the Department of Pomology when 
the late Dr. Ralph A. Van Meter became President of the University. He obtained 
his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1950. 

In 1957 when the Departments of Floriculture, Olericulture, and Pomology 
were combined into a Department of Horticulture, he accepted the task of guiding 
the new department. 

Dr. French is probably best known for his study of the vegetative characters 
of apple, pear, piimi, and cherry varieties. He was closely associated with the 
late Dr. J. K. Shaw in the development of the Trueness-To-Name Nursery Inspection 
Service and has served as the leader of this program for many years. For his 
contributions in this field he was awarded the Marshall P. Wilder medal by the 
American Pomological Society in 1960. Dr. French has also conducted research on 
the genetics of the peach and the nasturtium and has been very active in the 
variety testing program at this station. 

He holds membership in the American Society for Horticultural Science, The 
Genetics Society, The American Pomological Society, Sigma Xi, and Alpha Zeta. 
His service as Secretary of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association since 
1953 has been outstanding. 

Dr. French plans to continue his service to the fruit growers of Massachu- 
setts as Secretary of the M.F.G.A. and to the fruit industry of the nation 
through the nursery inspection program. Also, it appears, with the new trailer 
he has recently acquired, that he and Mrs. French plan to travel and visit many 
other areas of the country. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FACTS FOR FARM READERS 

More and more people, it seems, are taking advantage of the Treasury regu- 
lation permitting exchange of Series E Savings Bonds for H bonds, while 
deferring Federal income tax liability on the accumulated E bond interst. 

The new privilege is especially helpful to farmers who are getting along 
toward retirement years, probably cutting down on their operations and thus 
needing more income from other sources. If you've been saving E bonds for 
future needs, letting your interest accumulate, but now would like to receive 
your interest checks regularly, here's what you do: 



- 2 - 

Take your E bonds to the bank and ask to EXCHANSE them for H bonds. (You 
must have at least $500 worth, cash value). Remember, you don't want to redeem 
them and buy H bonds with the money. It must be a straight swap to get the tax 
deferment privilege. With the new H bonds, you'll start getting an Interest 
check from the Treasury each six months. This, of course, must be reported as 
income each year. BUT - the interest you earned on the E bonds over the years 
need not be reported for tax purposes until the H bonds are cashed or mature. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



PEAR RIPENING 

In contrast to many fruits, pears must be harvested while immature and 
ripened off the tree in order to have potentially good eating quality. One of 
the problems with pears is the development of a system of handling them which 
will result in a good edible product for the consimier. 

If the consumer purchases green, immature pears from a grower and has re- 
ceived no instructions concerning the proper procedure for ripening the fruit, 
the chances of these pears reaching a good edible condition are not high. How 
then should pears be handled so that good pears will eventually reach prime 
eating quality? 

Pears are best ripened at temperatures between 65 and 72^. in a humid at- 
mosphere (about 90% relative humidity). Holding pears below this temperature is 
not harmful (unless stored for too many weeks at cold storage temperature) but 
merely slows the rate of ripening. Temperatures of SO*^, or above may be quite 
damaging* With Bartlett, for example, the fruit may retain its greenish cast 
and never develop a good yellow color when ripened at such high temperatures. 
The flesh may become somewhat dry and mealy, and subject to internal breakdown 
around the core. Consequently, pears should be held in a relatively cool place 
on hot days in August and September, when attempting to ripen them. Pears will 
ripen more uniformly when held together in a box since the ethylene produced by 
one or two riper pears will stimulate the ripening of the less mature fruit. 
The inclusion of a ripe apple or two in each box will provide such a source of 
ethylene, also, and hasten the uniform ripening of all the pears in a box. 
Usually noticeable ripening will be evident within two or three days at 65 to 
72°F. 

In order to maintain a high hvmiidity around the fruit while the pears are 
being ripened, it may be simplest to pick the fruit into polyethylene lined 
boxes as is now being done by some growers of Golden Delicious apples to prevent 
fruit shrivel. These liners should be loosely folded over the top of the fruit 
and not sealed. By so doing a high humidity will be maintained without greatly 
influencing the carbon dioxide or oxygen level within the liner. 

If the grower pre-ripens pears before selling them, he should recognize 
that they cannot be held even under refrigeration, for more than a few days, 
once they are eating ripe. Consequently, ripened pears must be moved quickly. 

If one prefers to have the consumer ripen the pears after they are purchased 



- 3 - 

it would seem highly desirable that the fruit be sold in an unsealed, film- 
lined container, so that a high humidity around the pears is assured and that 
the consumer be informed that the fruit be kept out of the sun and ripened at 
65 to 72°F. 

Franklin W. Southwick 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



STORAGE OF PEACHES 

Frequently growers wish to hold peaches in storage in order to extend the 
marketing period. At summer temperatures, picked fruit ripens very rapidly and 
is subject to rapid decay. Respiration studies on peaches have shown that the 
Influence of temperature on the rate of respiration of peaches is greater than 
with many other fruits. 

Research workers have found that a storage temperature of 32°F is most 
suitable for peaches. There is practically no softening of fruit at this tem- 
perature and frequently less mealiness and breakdown occurs than when stored 
at higher temperatures. 

Growers who have had poor results when storing peaches for two or three 
weeks might try delayed storage. If the peaches are to be sold at the roadside 
stand, hold them at 70 to 80°F after harvest, until they are practically eating 
ripe before placing them in storage. This procedure as research results have 
shown may prevent the development of mealiness. Fruit to be sold to stores 
should not be held as long at 70 to 80°F because firmer fruit is necessary for 
this method of sale. 

A delay in storage is not necessary if peaches are to be held in storage 
for only three or four days. 

Only peaches free of bruises and brovm rot infection should be stored. 
Even under the most favorable conditions peaches cannot usually be stored 
longer than two or three weeks. 

---William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

"THERE'S NO DOUBT ABOUT IT" 

"There's no doubt about it", are the words of a grower when questioned 
whether or not it was worthwhile to pay a bonus to pickers who kept bruises to a 
minimum during the harvest operation. A check was made on each picker both 
morning and afternoon and the number of bruised apples recorded. One-quarter of 
the pickers with the smallest amount of picking injury got a three cent bonus on 
their pick for the day. Every day is a new deal. The grower is contemplating 



- 4 - 

Inspecting for both color and bruises when spot-picking ts done this season. A 
higher bonus will be given. 

The only difficulty with' the bonus system is that some pickers may develop 
the attitude Chat more money can be earned by picking more bushels per day less 
carefully. Adequate supervision in the orchard is needed to eliminate these 
pickers. 

The same grower mentioned above uses picker's tapes which have printed on 
their serrated sections consecutive numbers from 1 to 1000. In addition, there 
is another number for each tape which serves as the picker's identification. 
Every morning during the harvest the orchard foreman gives each picker a roll of 
the tape which is used to identify the boxes harvested by each picker. A ser- 
rated section having the picker's number and the box number is fastened to a top 
edge of each apple box. 

The orchard foreman keeps a daily record of: (a) names of pickers; (b) the 
date; (c) the name or number of the section of the orchard being harvested; 

(d) the first box number on the tape handed to each picker in the morning; 

(e) the box nianber on each tape at the end of the day; and (f) the results of 
the bruise count made by the checker. By inspecting the tape the grower can 
determine the above data for any box during harvest, storage, or packing period. 

One of the weaknesses with the picker's tape is that some pickers may 
destroy some of the tape and thereby try to be credited with more boxes har- 
vested than they actually picked. This may be avoided by having the orchard 
foreman check picking tape numbers with box count before letting pickers move 
to the next tree. 

Another difficulty that may arise with picking tapes is that the tape will 
not unroll properly after getting moist or heated in the picker's pocket during 
hot days. This can be avoided by having it attached to the picker's belt. 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



Mcintosh apples for ca rocms 

Mcintosh apples in CA rooms do not get bigger, harder, or redder. Although 
a high per cent of color on CA apples is not necessary for consumer acceptance, 
enough color is needed to meet U. S. grade requirements. Only 25 per cent 
bright red color characteristic of the variety is needed for an attractive "two- 
tone" U. S. No. 1 CA Mcintosh. One day this spring the writer saw 80 bushels 
from 250 bushels of CA Mcintosh down-graded to U. S. Utility mainly on color. 
This was particularly bad since the grower rented the storage space and the 
packing and selling was done by the storage operator. The storing of culls and 
U, S. Utility grade fruit in CA storage should be eliminated. Growers would 
benefit by pre-grading fruit stored in this type of room. 

It is fortunate that the less mature Mcintosh scald less in CA than in 



regular storage. This has enabled growers to commence harvest approximately 
a week earlier to fill CA storages with Mcintosh. 

An increasing nvmiber of growers are spot-picking Mcintosh in order to have 
well-colored, firm fruit for CA storage. In this regard, one grower is contem- 
plating paying a bonus to those pickers who keep bruises at a minimum and who 
do the best job of spot-picking for color. 

Mcintosh apples for CA storage should pressure test from 15 to 17 pounds. 
Mature, green apples are of no value. Consequently, seme growers are pur- 
posely keeping the nitrogen level on some blocks of trees low in order to have 
firm, red apples of smaller size for CA storage. The nutritional level of 
these trees should be carefully watched by visual observations and leaf analyses. 

Dr. Frank Southwick recommends that apples should be moved quickly from the 
orchard to storage at harvest time so that the period from harvest to storage 
does not exceed 24 hours. Scald may increase considerably if the period of 
delay between harvest and storage is prolonged. Also, some skin discoloration 
was noted last year on CA Mcintosh which might have been caused by the boxes of 
apples being in the hot sun too long prior to hauling to storage. Stacking and 
placement of the filled boxes in the shade may be beneficial. 

---William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

PENOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 

Effect of Frost on Fruit Size 

Frost on May 31 injured the fruit developing from the primary and secondary 
blossoms in many strawberry plantings. In later plantings, mostly the primary 
and secondary blossoms were killed. The question arose as to whether the re- 
maining blosscms would produce fruit of larger size to partially off-set the 
effect of the frost. 

With strawberry plants, the primary flower opens first, followed in order 
by secondary, tertiary and quaternary flowers, W. D, Valleau (Jour. Agr, Res, 
12:613-669, 1918) found a positive correlation between flower position, flower 
part number and size of fruit. The primary flower of the inflorescence has 
more flower parts, its pistils are more fertile, and it bears larger fruit than 
the later flowers of the inflorescence, 

V. R, Garner (University of Missouri, Agricultural Experiment Station 
Research Bulletin 57, 1923) found that early removal of the primary, secondary 
and tertiary flowers of the cluster leads to the setting of later blossoms that 
otherwise would not set, but that the berries are small and yield is corres- 
pondingly reduced, because of the small number of pistils per flower. 

The research cited above and personal observations appear to substantiate 
the statement that if the primary and secondary blossoms are killed, the biggest 



- 6 - 
fruit are lost as tertiary and quaternary fruit can never equal them in size. 

—William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

PREHARVEST DROP CONTROL OF APPLES FOR 1961 

It is now apparent that many growers in Massachusetts have trees with mod- 
erate to heavy sets of apples. Trees of varieties that are prone to drop fruit 
at harvest time generally suffer greater percentage losses when they are carrying 
a heavy crop than comparable trees producing a moderate yield. In other words, 
the possibilities for a heavy preharvest drop of such varieties as Mcintosh and 
Baldwin are greater in heavy crop years like this one than they were in 1960 
when the average set of fruit was lighter. Of course, temperature, nitrogen 
level, moisture supply and foliage condition at harvest time are other important 
factors which can markedly influence drop in spite of crop size. 

Since last year both NAA and 2,4,5-TP have been cleared by the Pure Food and 
Drug Administration for use on apples for preharvest drop control. The compound 
2,4,5-TA is no longer available for this purpose, however, since no attempt was 
made to have it cleared. 

Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) can be used at the maximum dosage of 20 ppm (up 
to 35 grams per acre) and applied no more than twice (a 0.2 per cent dust is 
equivalent to a 20 ppm spray). NAA cannot be applied within 5 days of harvest. 
The material has a 1.0 ppm tolerance. These requirements are sufficient to sat- 
isfy our recommendation of the past several years for preharvest drop control of 
Mcintosh for a period of about 3 weeks. In other words, two applications of NAA 
at 20 ppm will control Mcintosh drop for about 3 weeks with a minimum amount of 
hastened ripening if the two applications are made about 10 days apart. 

Now that CA storage is an important part of the Mcintosh deal, it may be 
possible to pick the CA Mcintosh before applying NAA for drop control in some 
years. It is now known that CA Mcintosh should be picked first (when they have 
sufficient color to meet U. S. Fancy grade requirements and at 15 to 17 pounds 
firmness. Consequently, it may be possible to spot pick the fruit for your CA 
rooms before preharvest drop is of any consequence and delay the initial NAA 
application until the CA Mcintosh are picked. Of course, Mcintosh drop may reach 
serious proportions in early September occasionally and in such years the use of 
NAA may be necessary before CA Mcintosh harvest. 

Since NAA cannot be applied within 5 days of harvest a considerable amount 
of advance planning concerning application of NAA to individual blocks should be 
done by growers of large quantities of Mcintosh. If such advance planning is 
not done a grower may easily find himself in the position of either being unable 
to pick certain blocks of Mcintosh, while waiting for 5 days to elapse after an 
NAA spray, or because of the immediate necessity for picking, allow a block to go 
unsprayed and suffer whatever natural drop losses occur. 

2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4,5-TP), at a 20 ppm dosage is the 



- 7 - 

material we have been suggesting for several years for drop control of late 
varieties like Baldwin, Delicious and Spys. This material can be applied once 
at dosages up to 20 ppra (35 grams per acre). It will usually control the drop 
of these late varieties for about 4 weeks. The single application of 20 ppm of 
2,4,5-TP should be applied when drop is about to start or before the foliage 
becomes injured by frost or mites. 

Further details concerning drop control of apples are given in our Special 
Circular No. 254 which will be available in late August. 

F. W. Southwick 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



NOTES ON STRAWBERRY VARIETIES 

The following notes were distributed at the Strawberry Twilight Meeting 
held at the University on June 20, 1961. These comments are based on past per- 
formance and on observations made just prior to the picking season this year. 
They are presented at this time so that growers might make a comparison with 
their own observations while the material is fresh in mind. A more complete 
discussion of the performance of these varieties will be found in the January 
1962 issue of FRUIT NOTES. 

Armore - Origin: (Blakemore x Aroma) Univ. of Missouri. A fine flavored, firm 
late variety with large but rather rough fruit. Armore is vigorous, pro- 
ductive, and makes a good bed. The plants show susceptibility to mildew. 

Catskill - Origin: (Marshall x Howard 17) New York Agr. Expt. Station (Geneva). 
Vigorous plant maker. Fruit is large, moderately firm, of good flavor, 
and a good freezer. Catskill is one of the more important varieties in 
Massachusetts. 

Earlidawn - Origin: (Midland x Tenn. Shipper) U.S.D.A. Our best very early 
variety. The plants are vigorous, productive and form a moderate number 
of runners. The fruit is firm, attractive and of good quality. Earlidawn 
is not resistant to red stele. 

Earlimore - Origin: (-(Campbell x self^ x Howard 17) University of Minnesota. 
The plants of this variety are moderate in vigor and good in both runner 
production and yield. The fruits were small in size, soft, poorly shaped 
and of only fair flavor. Earlimore does not appear to be adapted to our 
conditions. 

Fletcher - Origin: (Midland x Suwanee) New York Agr. Expt. Station (Geneva). 
The plants are moderate in vigor, runner production and yield. The fruit 
is attractive, good in quality and a good freezer. 

Frontenac - Origin: (Erie x -(Fairfax x Dresden)) New York Agr. Expt. Station 
(Geneva). The plants are vigorous and form a good bed. The berries are 
large, conic, a medium dark red and good flavor. Frontenac is a late 



- 8 - 

ripening variety that appears to be a good producer. 

Fulton - Origin: (Starbright x Pathfinder) New York Agr. Expt. Station (Geneva). 
Fulton is vigorous and a good runner producer. The berries ripen in mid- 
season, are attractive in appearance, firm and of good flavor. 

Grenadier - Origin: (Valentine x Fairfax) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 
The plants are fair in vigor and good in runner production. The fruit is 
moderately attractive, tending to be a little dark, of fair shape and good 
flavor. Grenadier appears to have a tender skin. 

Guardsman - Origin: (Claribel x Sparkle) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

The plants show good vigor and runner production. The fruit in last year's 
trials was attractive, firm, and the flavor was good. The berries may tend 
to be tough. 

Jerseybelle - Origin: New Jersey Agr. Expt. Station. The plants are vigorous, 

make a good bed and are productive. The fruit ripens late, is of large size, 
firm, of fair flavor and fair color. Jerseybelle looks promising as a late 
ripening variety where red stele is not a factor. 

Midland - Origin: (Howard 17 x Redheart) U.S.D.A. An early ripening variety 
with large, firm fruit of very good quality. Midland produces many large, 
coarse berries and tends to be too dark. The variety is a poor plant 
maker. 

Midway - Origin: (Dixieland x Temple) U.S.D.A. and Maryland Expt. Station. 
The fruit is of good size, deep red color, glossy, firm, and of good 
quality. The plants are vigorous, productive and resistant to the common 
race of red stele. Midway was introduced as a possible replacement for 
Falrland and Temple. 

Orland - Origin: (Aberdeen x Howard 17) University of Maine. This has been 
one of our most productive varieties during the past two seasons. The 
plants are vigorous and form a good bed. Orland cannot be recommended be- 
cause of its poor flavor, unattractive color and its tendency to be soft. 

Pocahontas - Origin: (Tennessee Shipper x Midland) U.S.D.A. and the Virginia 
Truck Experiment Station. The plants are vigorous, very productive and 
good in runner production. The fruit is of a light red color and rates 
fair in firmness and shape and poor in flavor. Though one of our top 
producers, Pocahontas does not seem to be suitable for Massachusetts because 
of its rather tart flavor. 

Redcoat - Origin: (Sparkle x Valentine) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 
This variety produces very attractive fruit, that is firm and of good 
flavor. The plants are of moderate vigor, good in runner production and 
appear to be moderate in yield. 

Redglow - Origin: (Falrland x Tennessee Shipper) U.S.D.A. The plants are 

vigorous, form runners freely and are moderately productive. The berries 
are of good size, attractive and of good quality. Redglow is resistant to 
the common strain of red stele. 



Sparkle - Origin: (Fairfax x Aberdeen) New Jersey Agr. Expt. Station. Out- 
standing characteristics: good producer, good quality, firm, attractive, 
late, resistant to the comnon strain of red stele, good home freezing 
quality. Sparkle is one of our most important varieties. 

Surecrop - Origin: (Fairland x Md-U.S. - 1972) U.S.D.A. and Maryland Expt. 

Station. A variety with vigorous and productive plants that are resistant 
to two strains of red stele and show partial resistance to a third. The 
berries are large, of good color and quality, and ripen in the mid-season. 

Trumpeter - Origin: (Burgundy x <Howard x self>) University of Minnesota. The 
plants are of moderate vigor, good in runner production and fair in yield. 
The fruit is of good color and gloss but falls down in shape and smoothness. 
The flavor is good but the berries tend to be soft. Trumpeter does not 
appear to be adapted to our conditions. 

James F. Anderson 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 

Prepared by Pomology Staff 
Department of Horticulture 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst 

SEPTEMBER ], 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Research From Other Areas 

Costs and Use of Labor in Harvesting 
Apples for Fresh Market 

Predicting Scald with Box Liners 

Dwarfing Apple Rootstocks for Cold Climate 
Q-chards 

Renaming of Strawberry Varieties 

Water Core Studies on Storking Delicious Apples 

The Suitability of Massachusetts Soils for Apple 
Orchards 

Effect of Wiping Mcintosh Apples on Keeping 
Quality 

Apple Scald Control with "Stop-Scald" 




'I'-M^'^X'- 





"^' 




* 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Fred P. Jeffrey, Acting Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication approved by Bernard Solomon, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



POMOLOGY SECTION - DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE 



Anderson, James - Instructor 

Teaches courses In pest control, small fruit culture, 
and systematic Pomology. Active in the testing of 
new varieties. 

Bailey, John S. - Associate Professor, Research 

Leader of small fruit research, working chiefly on 
strawberries and blueberries. 

Lord, William J. - Extension Pomologist 

Chiefly connected with fruit growers' problems, other 
than pest control. Also does research. Editor of 
FRUIT NOTES. 

Southwick, Franklin W, - Professor, Research 

Most of his time is spent in research on chemical 
thinning, preharvest drop, several aspects of storage 
and nutrition. Also, teaches certain advanced courses. 

Weeks, Walter D. - Associate Professor, Research 

Active on research in nutrition, rootstocks, variety 
and strain tests and winter hardiness. Also, teaches 
certain advanced courses. 



Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 
C. Lyman Calahan - Extension Horticulturist, University of Vermont 



1927-40 


$.14 


1941-45 


.26 


1946-50 


.31 


1951-55 


.34 


1956-58 


.40 



RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 

(Items Included under this heading are for your information and may not apply to 
Massachusetts conditions in all instances.) 

Costs and Use of Labor in Harvesting Apples for Fresh Market 

Van Travis and B. F. Stanton, Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell 
University in A, E. Res. 63 titled "Costs and Use of Labor in Harvesting Apples 
for Fresh Market - Hudson Valley, New York, 1959 and 1960" show that despite re- 
ductions in cost of producing a bushel of apples since 1949, harvest costs have 
continued to rise. This is shown in the table below taken from their publication. 

Costs in Harvesting and Handling Apples on 
New York Cost Account Farms (1937-1958) 

Average cost per bushel to: Harvesting Cost 

Grow, Harvest, as Per Cent of 

Period Harvest Store and Sell Total Cost 

Per Cent 

$ .81 17 

1.71 15 

1.31 24 

1.46 23 

1^46 27 

A study was made of the harvest operation on fruit farms in the Hudson 
Valley during the 1959 and 1960 period. Harvest was considered to include all 
Jobs associated with picking and moving the apples from the orchard to storage 
or packing shed. Methods of harvesting apples in the Hudson Valley are similar 
to those in Massachusetts. Seventy-eight per cent of the 49 growers interviewed 
in 1960 picked in Wells and Wade buckets which were emptied into standard field 
crates and hauled to storage in single layers on trailers or trucks. The 
leveling of boxes took place either in the orchard, when loading, or at the 
storage. 

Travis and Stanton found that the average labor cost to harvest a bushel of 
apples in 1960 was similar whether the fruit were hauled in single layers or the 
palletized system was used. The palletized or stacked system consisted of 
picking in Wells and Wade buckets which were emptied into field crates on pallets 
or stacked on trailers prior to hauling. The average labor cost per bushel for 
the stacked or palletized system was 26 cents with a range in cost from 20 to 36 
cents. The labor cost for the single layer system averaged 27 cents per bushel 
with a range of 22 to 35 cents. There was more variation in harvest costs among 
farms using the same method than between the two systems. 

Picking was the primary cost of harvesting apples being about two-thirds of 
the labor bill. Most growers paid on a piecework basis with 18 cents the most 
common rate paid in 1960. 

Supervision, leveling and hauling which are the three other tasks involved 
in harvesting the apples made up about one- third of the labor bill. Most of the 
variation in harvesting costs was found to result from differences in the way 



these three jobs are handled. The following are excerpts taken from Travis' and 
Stanton's article related to leveling costs and general observations on leveling. 

"While the range in picking costs was only 16 to 21 cents, the cost of other 
labor ranged from 3 to 17 cents per bushel. Farm to farm differences were 
obvious and striking. While more than half of the growers had costs between 5 
and 10 cents per bushel for the labor involved in supervision, leveling, and 
hauling, the degree of variability was greater than expected. Hence, further 
study of the use of this labor seemed appropriate. 

"One of the major reasons for differences from farm to farm was the leveling 
operation. Only 4 of the 11 growers who stacked or palletized their fruit had a 
separate leveling crew or treated leveling as a separate operation. Either the 
pickers or those who loaded and hauled the fruit did this job." 

Leveling Costs 

"The leveling of field crates during harvest was accomplished in a wide 
variety of ways. Of the 49 growers interviewed, 10 did no leveling as a separate 
operation. In fact they indicated no need to level as such. 

"The average cost of leveling for operators who did this as a separate oper- 
ation was 3,7 cents per bushel. Generally the more bushels handled the lower the 
cost of leveling per bushel. Of the 39 growers who leveled 29 used a separate 
crew for the job — five leveled in the orchard, nine before unloading at storage, 
15 after unloading. Ten others had the hauling crew perform the job either in 
the orchard or at storage while unloading. 

"In 1960 the lowest cost was obtained by the crews who leveled after un- 
loading at storage. The highest average cost per bushel occurred when crews did 
the job before unloading. However, there was great variation in the cost of 
leveling regardless of where the job was done. 

"It was not possible to determine leveling costs separately from hauling 
costs when the hauling crew did both jobs. By examining the cost of labor for 
hauling for those who had the hauling crew level and those who hired special 
labor for leveling, an indication of the cost of leveling may be obtained. The 
10 growers, who had their hauling crew level, had an average labor cost for both 
jobs of 5.7 cents per bushel compared with 3.4 cents for those who hired special 
labor for leveling. If it is assumed that labor for hauling costs 3.4 cents in 
both cases, then the labor for leveling would cost the remainder or 2.3 cents per 
bushel. This cost is generally lower than that experienced by growers treating 
leveling as a separate operation." 

General Observations on Leveling 

"The leveling operation was given special attention because some growers had 
successfully eliminated this job during harvest. All growers were questioned as 
to the role of leveling in their operation. Each grower was asked about the 
possibility of having his crew pick bushels which required little or no leveling. 
There was a feeling by many that the picker would not take the necessary time if 
he were asked to do the job. The cost of supervision necessary to carry this out 
successfully would be prohibitive in their opinion. On the other hand, several 



- 3 - 

of the largest growers did no leveling other than that which their pickers did in 
the £ield. They admitted that the supervision in the orchard must be constant 
and intensive. They were convinced however that their pickers were making more 
money by picking a level bushel as opposed to one with as much as 10 per cent 
extra on the top. Moreover, they felt they were also obtaining savings by elim- 
inating the leveling operation. 

"The average cost of leveling was 3.7 cents per bushel for those who did 
this job. One needs to gain an extra bushel from every five bushels picked to 
pay for leveling from extra apples alone. While most growers did not indicate 
that leveling was done to get extra apples, this was an end result. Every farmer 
must make his own decisions with respect to leveling. Physical damage will occur 
if apples are not level with or below the top of the box when another box is 
placed above it. Of all the jobs during harvest, leveling is the most open to 
question. Twenty per cent of the growers had found ways of eliminating it as a 
separate operation. Another 20 per cent had combined it with the job of hauling 
or unloading. In general these growers had lower costs per bushel for labor to 
harvest their apples. 

"One exception is worthy of note. When apples are sold direct from the or- 
chard as orchard-run, the leveling process takes on a more important role. Here 
it serves as part of a field grading operation. Shrink must be controlled at 
approximately 10 per cent. In this case four cents per bushel is a very inexpen- 
sive grading process. Depending on the sales outlet, returns from selling on an 
orchard-run basis may well merit the cost of a special crew in the orchard." 

---William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



DWARFING APPLE ROOTSTOCKS FOR COLD CLIMATE ORCHARDS 

The planting of apple trees which have been propagated on dwarfing or semi- 
dwarfing clonal rootstocks has not been a recommended practice for the commercial 
producers of Vermont. There has been keen Interest in the semi-dwarfing stocks, 
largely as a result of an intense supply of popular publicity. Three or four 
Vermont apple orchardlsts have planted trees on semi-dwarfing stocks on more than 
a limited trial basis. 

The advantages, if any, of using stocks such as Mailing VII under Vermont 
conditions may be far more than offset by the possible disadvantages. We are 
very obligated to help the commercial apple grower in his decision to eliminate 
any practice which Involves an added risk of loss of production or Income at a 
later time. 

The most Important reasons why semi-dwarfing stocks are of Interest to apple 
growers do not seem to be entirely valid. For example, tree size control of 
Mcintosh is a much less Important problem under our cold climate conditions be- 
cause vegetative growth is less than in warmer areas. Failure to control tree 
size in our climate is an admission of failure to understand how to prune standard 
trees to limit their height at maturity. 



- 4 - 

Early fruiting is not a valid reason because, except for Northern Spy, all 
the commercially grown varieties in this state are being brought into early 
fruiting unless poor cultural practices are involved. Early fruiting will not 
be obtained by the use of dwarfing stocks where poor cultural practices prevail. 

The advantages of smaller sized trees can be argued from the standpoint of 
pruning, spraying, and harvesting. However, an alert apple grower should be 
given to understand that a mature bearing age dwarfed tree will surely be a 
pruning challenge. The sparse use of dwarfing roots in the propagation practice 
by propagators has been a factor which may in turn result in a percentage of 
standard sized scion rooted trees intermixed with dwarfed trees. The use of 
longer root pieces may involve an increased risk of winter injury. This is a 
very ruinous and real threat because Mcintosh and Red Delicious trees on inter- 
mediate rootstocks have been killed out of Quebec orchards less than 60 miles 
from our area. 

Mcintosh and Delicious planted since 1955, which were propagated on Mailing 
VII, are already showing signs of being weak-rooted and are being staked to 
prevent losing them by tipping over. The performance of these stocks on the 
unusually heavy soils of the Champlain Valley remains to be demonstrated. 

Winter injury to the scaffolds and trunk of Delicious, Northern Spy and even 
Mcintosh is by far the most limiting factor in the long time production perfor- 
mance of apple plantings In Vermont. 

Injury which occurred during the 1957-58 and the 1958-59 winters to some 
Vermont mature Mcintosh plantings is now fully manifest and losses are very 
significant. The use of the hardy rootstock and stem piece, M. Robusta V/5, is 
the only clonal rootstock which Vermont apple growers are being encouraged to use. 

---C. Lyman Calahan 

Extension Horticulturist 
University of Vermont 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



RENAMING OF STRAWBERRY VARIETIES 

Reports from the U.S.D.A. and observations made in our strawberry variety 
trials at the University indicate that there are several rather new introductions 
from nurserymen that are indistinguishable from older varieties. In the list 
below the original name is given first. 



Armore indistinguishable from 

Dun lap 

Fairfax 

Gem 

Howard 17 

Midland 

Robinson 

Sparkle 



Red Cluster 

Parish 

Grandview, Cummerbund 

Superfection, Brilliant 

Polor Queen, Golden Bell 

Crimson Flash, Adonis 

Scarlet Beauty, Kardinal King 

Paymaster 



—William J. Lord 



WATER CORE STUDIES ON STARKING DELICIOUS APPLES 

The effect of harvest date on the occurrence and severity of water core in 
Starking Delicious apples was studied from 1958 to 1960. Fruit samples were ob- 
tained from selected Starking Delicious trees on three dates during the harvest 
season each of the three years. A random sample of fruit was immediately ex- 
amined for water core. The amount of water core present was classified as slight 
(less than 30 per cent), medium (30 to 50 per cent), and heavy (more than 50 per 
cent of the cross-sectional area affected). It can be noted in Table 1 that the 
amount and severity of water core increased with delay in picking date with the 
exception of October 20, 1960. 



Table 1 



Per cent of Starking Delicious having water core at harvest in 1958-60 
and per cent having water core and internal breakdown immediately after 
removal from storage and after seven days at room temperatures. 



Apples with water core 



Internal breakdown 



Picking 




At harvest 




After 


After storage 


After 


After storage 


date 


Sli. 


Med. 


Hvy. 


Tot. 


Storage 


6c 


7 days 


storage 


& 


7 days 




% 


% 


% 


% 


% 




7. 


7o 




7, 


1958 






















10/10 


33.6 


7.1 


0.9 


41.6 


1.8 




1.1 


0.0 




0.3 


10/20 


30.3 


10.1 


8.1 


48.5 


13.0 




5.6 


0.5 




0.5 


10/30 


43.7 


16.1 


19.5 


79.3 


15.7 




14.3 


2.3 




6.4 


1959 






















10/1 


21.1 


0.0 


0.0 


21.1 


0.0 




0.4 


0.0 




3.6 


10/15 


48.3 


9.3 


1.5 


59.1 


5.8 




5.4 


18.8 




28.1 


10/29 


37 „0 


9.2 


25.0 


71.2 


20.4 




15.6 


20.4 




28.6 


1960 






















9/29 


22.2 


5.1 


1.3 


28.6 


0.6 




0.9 


0.0 




0.9 


10/10 


24.7 


8.0 


15.6 


48.3 


16.6 




19.2 


3.0 




19.6 


10/20 


40.7 


3.7 


6.3 


50.7 


12.7 




10.5 


9.8 




10.5 



The amount of water core and internal breakdown present in the Starking 
Delicious apples after storage was determined during the springs of 1959 to 
1961. In general, the amount of water core and internal breakdown present after 
storage appears to be closely related to the harvest date (Table 1). The results 
indicate that if less than 30 per cent of the cross-sectional area of the fruit 
is affected with water core the disorder will disappear in storage and little or 
no Internal breakdown will occur. 



In general there is no change in the amount of water core and an increase In 
the occurrence of internal breakdown in Starking Delicious after seven days at 
room temperature following the storage period (Table 1) . 

Scald also should be considered when determining harvest dates for Delicious 
apples. Immature Red Delicious apples are more susceptible to scald in regular 
storage. Thirty-seven per cent of the Richared Delicious apples harvested in a 
test in the college orchard on September 29, 1960 had water core; however, 30 per 
cent was slight. It can be noted in Table 2 that the water core practically 



disappeared from these fruit but that scald was a problem. 

Table 2 - The effect of picking date on the amount of water core, internal break- 
down and scald in Richared Delicious apples after storage and seven 
days at room temperature, March 9, 1961. 



Picking 


Per cent apples 
with water core 


Per cent apples 
with internal breakdown 


Per cent 
scald 




date 


Sli. 


Med. 


Hvy. Tot. 


Sli. 


Med. Hvy. Tot. 


Sli. Hvy. 


Tot. 


9/29/60 

10/10/60 

10/20/60 


7, 

3.3 
28.5 
33.1 


7, 

0.0 

3.8 

11.6 


7. 7, 

0.9 4.2 

6.8 39.2 

30.4 75.1 


7. 

1.2 
4.2 
4.4 


7. 7. 7o 

0.9 2.1 4.2 

7.9 22.8 35.0 

12.1 58.6 75.1 


7. 7. 

21.6 15.0 
3.0 1.1 
0.0 0.0 


7, 

36.6 
4.2 
0.0 



On the basis of three years results, it is suggested that growers watch the 
maturity of Red Delicious apples carefully. The amount and severity of water core 
may be observed by sampling and cutting of the larger and more mature Delicious on 
the trees. As a picking guide for Delicious, it Is suggested that when some of 
the apples show slight water core the fruit should be harvested. However, the 
possibility of storage scald exists when Delicious are picked in a rather immature 
condition. When the disorder is limited to a series of small soaked spots around 
the core it can be classified as slight water core. In the advanced stages of 
this disorder the water-soaked spots are united to form a continuous band or the 
spots cover 30 per cent or more of the cross-sectional area of the fruit. Water 
core is apt to persist in storage and be followed by internal breakdown when much 
water core is evident at harvest. 

-—William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

THE SUITABILITY OF MASSACHUSETTS SOILS FOR APPLE ORCHARDS 

Growers considering new sites for apple orchards should be interested in the 
information obtained in the publication "The Suitability of Massachusetts Soils 
for Apple Orchards". The suitability groupings contained in this leaflet are a 
guide to fruit growers, county agents, and technicians dealing with proper land 
use, for the selection of the soils in Massachusetts for apple orchards. 

The publication should be used only with the Standard Soil Survey maps being 
made by the Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. These 
soil maps are made on aerial photographs that have a scale of approximately 4" - 
1 mile. The reconnaissance soil maps made mainly during the 1920' s should not be 
used. They are published at a scale of about 1" - 1 mile and give insufficient 
soil detail for use in selecting orchard sites and in the solution of soil prob- 
lems in apple orchards. 

The grouping of soils for apple orchards in this publication is based mainly 
on field observations made in the state. Apple tree growth and production were 
correlated with the soil characteristics observed in soil pits or by soil auger 



borings. The groupings are tentative until such time as research, further inves- 
tigations, or experience may indicate a need for change. 

The suitability groupings are based only on the soil characteristics and 
qualities that were observed to be significant in apple tree growth and production. 
These characteristics are texture of the solum and substratum and depth to soil 
mottling. Biotic, climatic, and other factors are not considered in this grouping. 

The publication in conjunction with the soil survey map gives certain basic 
information which can serve as a guide for initial selection of orchard sites. 
Before the site is finally selected, it should be evaluated carefully for local 
factors such as accessability, water supply for spray and possibly irrigation, and 
especially for climate which involves topographic position, air drainage, and 
aspect. 

A copy of this leaflet may be obtained from your county agent. They and 
personnel at the Soil Conservation Service Unit office can assist you in deter- 
mining the soil name or names on the land being considered and its suitability 
for apple orchards. 

— -William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

EFFECT OF WIPING McINTOSH APPLES ON KEEPING QUALITY 

A common statement heard is that wiping apples impares the keeping quality. 
Last December an apple inspector asked about this statement and if any research 
had been done on the subject. 

In the late 1920' s and during the 1930* s many experiment stations tested 
various method's of residue removal. A number of them reported that pre-storage 
cleaning of apples by washing with a dilute hydrochloric acid solution followed 
by a water rinse or cleaning by dry wiping or brushing did not impare the keeping 
quality of apples in storage. However, the maintenance of high humidity and 
proper storage temperature is important because any brushing, wiping or washing 
action removes some of the natural wax on the apple which tends to inhibit 
moisture loss. Other research data show that after storage, dry wiped apples 
lost considerably more moisture at room temperature than unwiped fruit. 

In Massachusetts, in most cases, the fruit would be wiped after storage just 
prior to sale. Also, these older studies were conducted on Jonathan, Delicious, 
Rome, and Winesap apples primarily. Since Mcintosh is the principal variety with 
which we are concerned, it was felt it would be worthwhile to determine the effect 
of post-storage dry wiping on moisture loss from Mcintosh apples at room 
temperature. 

I Hand Wiping - Regular Storage Apples 

On January 11 a demonstration was started to determine the effect of dry 
wiping Mcintosh apples with a cotton cloth on per cent moisture loss. The apples 



o 

from a regular 32 storage were wiped sufficiently to remove visible residue. 

Treatment A consisted of six groups of five apples 3 to 3-1/4 inches in diameter. 
An equal number of apples was left unwiped for checks. Treatment B was composed 
of twenty-two apples 2-1/2 to 2-3/4 inches in diameter. A similar number of 
apples was left unwiped. Treatment C consisted of six groups of six apples 2-3/4 
to 3 inches in diameter. Each group of apples was placed in polyethylene bags. 
Similar lots of apples were used for checks. 

The fruits were pressure tested at the beginning and end of the demonstration. 
The amount of moisture loss was determined daily from January 11 to 18. Table 1 
shows the pressure tests and percentage of weight loss from the wiped and unwiped 
apples. It can be noted that wiped fruit lost weight more rapidly than unwiped 
stock. 

At the end of the demonstration there was no difference in flesh firmness as 
indicated by the pressure tester or any observable difference except for cleanli- 
ness between the wiped and unwiped apples. 

Table 1 - Fruit firmness and per cent weight loss from wiped and unwiped U. S. 

Fancy Mcintosh Apples left at room temperature from January 11-18, 1961 

Treatment Fruit Firmness % Total Weight 7. Increase 

Lost Jan. 11-18 Over Unwiped 

Fruit 

A. unwiped 3 to 3-1/4" apples 9.4 8.9 4.08) 

A. wiped 3 to 3-1/4" apples 9.4 8.7 4.33) 

B. unwiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples 9.5 8.4 4.84) 



Fruit 


Firmness 


Jan. 11 


Jan. 18 


(lbs.) 


(lbs.) 


9.4 


8.9 


9.4 


8.7 


9.5 


8.4 


9.5 


8.5 



B.wiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples 9.5 8.5 5.27)" * 

C. unwiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples in 

polyethylene bags 9.5 8.3* 2.92) 

C. wiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples in ) 9.2 

polyethylene bags 9.5 8.1* 3.19) 

♦Pressure tested January 23, 1961 

II Machine, Wiping - CA Apples 

The demonstration was repeated on March 15, 1961 using U. S. Fancy CA 
Mcintosh apples. Selected lots of 2-1/2 to 2-3/4 inch and 2-3/4 to 3 inch apples 
were placed on the receiving table of a commercial grader and were allowed to 
pass under a rotating cloth wiper. The apples were recovered after passing 
through the wiper. Any fruit damaged in the process were eliminated. 

Twelve groups of six apples of each size (2-1/2 to 2-3/4 and 2-3/4 to 3 
inches) that had been wiped were placed on a table at room temperature after 
weighing. An equal number of unwiped apples was used as checks. The demonstr- 
tional set-up was repeated with apples placed in polyethylene bags. 

The 2-1/2 to 2-3/4 inch apples pressure tested 12.3 pounds and the 2-3/4 to 
3 inch fruit 11.4 pounds at the beginning of the demonstration. 

Table 2 shows that there was no consistent difference in moisture loss or 



- 9 - 

firmness from wiped and unwiped U. S, Fancy CA Mcintosh apples left at room tem- 
perature for seven days. 

Table 2 - Fruit firmness and per cent weight loss of wiped and unwiped U.S. Fancy 
CA Mcintosh left at room temperature from March 15 to 22, 1961 

Treatment Fruit Firmness 7. Total Weight % Increase or 

March 22 Lost Mar. 15-22 Decrease Over 

(lbs.) Unwiped Fruit 

A. unwiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples 

left on table 9.0 3.36) 

A.wiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples ) 4.2 incr. 

left on table 9.0 3.50) 

B. unwiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples 

left on table 9.0 3.16) 

B. wiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples ) 7.0 deer. 

left on table 9,2 2.94) 

C. unwiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples 

in polyethylene bags 8.8 2.54) 

C.wiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples )-— 4.7 deer. 

in polyethylene bags 9.4 2,42) 

D. unwiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples 

in polyethylene bags 9.2 2.22) 

D. wiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples ) ----6.3 incr. 

in polyethylene bags 9.3 2.36) 

III Hand Wiping - CA Apples 

A demcnstrational set-up similar to that used with machine wiping was re- 
peated March 23, 1961 except the wiping of the CA apples was done by hand. 

Table 3 shows that no differences developed in fruit firmness or per cent 
weight loss of wiped and unwiped U. S. Fancy Mcintosh apples left at room temper- 
ature for eevin days. 

Table 3 - Fruit firmness and per cent weight loss of wiped and unwiped U.S. Fancy 
CA Mcintosh left at room temperature from March 23-31, 1961 

Treatment Fruit Firmness 7. Total Weight 7. Increase or 

March 31 Lost Mar. 23-31 Decrease Over 
(lbs.) Unwiped Fruit 

A. unwiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples 

left on table 9.2 3,15) 

A.wiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples ) 0.1 incr. 

left on table 8,7 3.18) 
B. unwiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples 

left on table 9.4 3.10) 

B. wiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples )- 3.2 deer. 

left on table 9.1 3.00) 
C. unwiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples 

in poly bags on table 9.3 2.29) 

C. wiped 2-1/2 to 2-3/4" apples ) 3.1 deer. 

in poly bags on table 9.7 2.22) 
a unwiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples 

in poly bags on table 9.5 2.16) 

D.wiped 2-3/4 to 3" apples ) 3.2 deer. 

in poly bags on table 9.7 2,09) 



10 



Summary 



In a test with regular storage Mcintosh, hand wiped fruit lost moisture more 
rapidly at room temperature than unwiped apples. However, there was no difference 
in flesh firmness as indicated by the pressure tester or any observable difference 
except for cleanliness between the unwiped and wiped apples. CA Mcintosh, cloth 
wiped by hand or machine, lost moisture no more rapidly at room temperature than 
unwiped fruit. The placement of apples in polyethylene bags reduced their rate of 
moisture loss at room temperature. 

Conclusion 

Careful cloth wiping of Mcintosh by machine or hand after storage should not 
Impare keeping quality. Any wiping process to remove residue from apples should 
be done carefully to minimize mechanical injury. 

— -William J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 

Predicting Scald with Box Liners 

The Proceedings of the 100th Annual Meeting of the New York State Horti- 
cultural Society contained an article by R. M. Smock titled "What Can We Do About 
Storage Scald?". One of the topics discussed by Smock was predicting scald with 
box liners. 

"Samples of quite immature (to encourage scald) apples were placed in un- 
sealed polyethylene box liners and held at 70° for four to six weeks. The scald 
was then counted. Comparable apples were placed in cold storage in open crates 
in the conventional manner. These samples were held in cold storage for 5-6 
months and scald was counted after an additional holding period of 7 days at 70 F. 
The results with Greening, Mcintosh and Cortland were similar enough that they are 
not kept separate by varieties in Table 1. 

o 
Table 1 - Correlation between scald in box liners of 70 F for four to six weeks 

after harvest and scald after cold storage in open boxes. 



Scald in liner at 70 
7. 

90 

87 

83 

82 

66 





42 

27 

82 

0_ 

Avg. 51 



Scald after cold storage 

7. 

100 

96 

98 

88 

100 

6 

I 

90 

77 

92 

0_ 

68 



- 11 - 

"The correlation here is good but it is important to note that the method of 
using box liners at 70° tends to underestimate the amount of scald. The method 
has usefulness, however. If one finds 60-807. scald on apples in liners after 6 
weeks at 70° he can be pretty sure that scald will be severe in cold storage. 

"If one were using this method with Mcintosh going into CA storage he should 
use overmature apples Instead of immature ones." 

-—William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

APPLE SCALD CONTROL WITH "STOP-SCALD" 

A chemical material called "Stop-Scald" was cleared for use in July, 1960 by 
the Pure Food and Drug Administration and a tolerance of 3 ppm was set. The 
active material in Stop-Scald (formerly called Santoquin) is 1,2 di-hydro-6-ethoxy- 
2,2,4 trimethylquinoline. It can be either sprayed on the fruit just before har- 
vest or applied after harvest as a spray (as the fruit passes over a roller sorter 
or while it is in a field box prior to storage) or as a dip after harvest. 

Research results of Dr. Franklin Southwick have been disappointing when Stop- 
Scald was applied as a preharvest spray. Dipping the fruit after harvest has 
given the best results in Massachusetts and other areas. Fruit receiving the 
post-harvest dip can be stored wet after allowing the surplus emulsion to drain 
off. Sometimes drainage is not complete and fruit in the bottom .of a box may sit 
in the liquid for a long time which will cause some skin injury at these points. 

Growers wishing to try Stop-Scald in a limited way will probably find hand 
dipping of crates in a tank of solution most practical. A new solution should be 
prepared for each day's use. A cover made out of a crate bottom in which several 
holes have been bored would be useful for placing on top of the apples prior to 
plunging the crates into the solution. Allow the crates to drain after removal 
from the tank. It is recommended that plastic or rubber gloves be worn by workers 
handling the solutions or wet treated apples or boxes. 

One grower reported in the Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the New 
York State Horticultural Society that hand dipping cost him one cent per b6x or 
less for materials and 3 to 4 cents per box for extra labor. Another grower re- 
ported labor cost of approximately 2 cents a box and material cost of about 3/4 
of a cent per box. 

St6p-Scald would have most use on the Cortland and Rome varieties in 
Massachusetts. We believe the scald on CA Mcintosh can be controlled without 
having to rely on special treatments. This means picking Mcintosh for CA storage 
at 15 to 17 pounds flesh firmness, storing them within 24 hours of harvest, and 
cooling them to 32-34 F. within a few days thereafter. 

Growers who use Stop-Scald as a post-harvest treatment must declare the 
presence of this chemical on the shipping containers. No marking of the bags or 
fruit in the shipping container is required. Rubber stamp the shipping containers 



- 12 - 
with one of the following three statements which have been approved. 

Ethoxyquin, A Preservative Added. 

or 
Ethoxyquin Added as a Preservative. 

or 
Ethoxyquin Added to Retard Spoilage. 

- — William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepored by Pomology Staff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



OCTOBER 2, 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Effectiveness of Poisoned Bolts in Orchard 
Mouse Control as Determined by the 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Pomologicol Paragraph 
Strawberry Acreage in California 

Soil and Water Conservation with Orchardists 

The Fruit Grower and ACP 

The Blueberry Bush is an Interesting Plant 

Cider Notes 

Internal Breakdov 



V// 



^' 




V/y. 



^; 



% 



\iiM 




% 



<^ 





"# 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, In furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914 
University of Massachusetts, United States Bepartment of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperatine 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



EFFECTIVENESS OF POISONED BAITS IN ORCHARD MOUSE COOTROL AS DETERIIINED 

BY 
THE U. S, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Pre-Harvest Baiting : Application of poisoned bait before harvest to prevent 
orchard mouse damage to apples in cold storaijc plants is not a sound practice. 
The recommended methods of orchard mouse control do not always result in 100 per 
cent control of the species in the orchard. Therefore, some mice survive the 
pre-harvest control and may enter the boxes of apples and still be carried into 
the cold storage. The pre-harvest poison application will reduce the population 
of mice in the orchard; competition among the survivors will be greatly reduced; 
and food and cover v/ill be more than ample. The survivors, under these favorable 
conditions, will breed and the number of young per litter may be as high as eight. 
In a very short period of time, the population will build up to its original 
level, A large number of young mice will be present during the recovery period. 
These mice, having a short home range, would not be exposed to poisoned baits 
applied during the normal control season. 

The recommended control season is just prior to freezing temperatures. This 
is the best time to control the mice present in an orchard to prevent damage 
during the winter months; and this is the season when population recovery is very 
slow. Any control program that may lessen the effect of the recommended control 
program is defeating the purpose for which it was developed. A vigorous, mature 
apple tree is capable of producing up to 35 bushels of apples per season. The 
destruction of such a tree, due to girdling by orchard mice during the winter 
months, certainly is a greater economic loss tlian several bushels of apples in a 
cold storage. 

Strychnine-treated Steamed-crushed Oats ; These oats do not obtain the 
desired results for the control of meadow or pine mice in orchards because accep- 
tance of strychnine by these species of mice is less than with zinc phosphide. 
Also, a poison tolerance is sometimes developed within individual mice so that 
doses above normal limits will not kill them. 

Strychnine-treated Steamed-crushed Oats do have an advantage when used in 
apple storages because they maintain their toxicity for long periods of time 
under humid conditions. Teaspoonful quantities of this bait should be placed in 
stations such as cigar boxes, short lengths of pipe, or sections of rolled 
roofing paper. These stations should be placed under the pallets, along the 
walls, and, if possible, at frequent intervals within the stacks of boxes. Since 
mice may not travel more than a few feet during the entire winter, numerous bait 
stations should be used. A room 20' x 20' should have at least 15 bait stations. 
One application of this bait ordinarily provides adequate protection for the 
winter. Strychnine-treated Steamed-crushed Oats may be obtained only from: 
RODENT CONTROL FUND, University of Massachusetts, 107 Fernald Hall, Amherst, 
Massachusetts. They are priced at 35 cents per pound and are available in 10, 25, 
and 50-pound bags. As poisons are not mailable, all shipments are made via 
Railway Express, with the shipping charges COLLECT. 

Zinc Phosphide-treated Cracked Corn ; The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
does not recommend Zinc Phosphide-treated Cracked Corn for pine or meadow mouse 
control because field test results have demonstrated that the degree of control 
is very erratic; and the results not as good as with Zinc Phosphide- treated 



- 2 - 

Steamed-crushed Oats. Cafeteria-type acceptance tests have indicated that 
steamed-crushed oats are preferred over corn. Further acceptance tests, using 
different grains, are being conducted by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service this 
fall. 

---John W. Peterson 

Assistant District Agent 

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPH 

Strawberry Acreage in California 

According to The Packer , strawberry acreage in California has decreased from 
20,700 acres to 11,700 acres in the last four years. This is due to the large 
imports of frozen strawberries from Mexico, The acreage in Mexico has increased 
from 1900 acres in 1952 to an estimated 15,600 acres in 1961. 

—William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION WITH ORCHARDISTS 

The Northeast Worcester Soil Conservation District was formed in 1947. 
Since that time, 490 landowners have become District cooperators. Most of them 
now have a basic conservation plan which has been developed with them to utilize 
their soil and water resources. 

Soil conservation district supervisors have developed a long-range program 
which recognizes the soil and water conservation needs for the District, They 
also have an annual plan for accomplishing various parts of the total job each 
year. The District has had technical assistance from the Soil Conservation 
Service in the amount of about two and one-half men per year. Technicians' time 
has been spent about equally with orchardists and dairymen. 

The major soil and water conservation problems facing orchardists deal 
mainly with erosion control and drainage. Most orchards are located on sloping 
land. Erosion would be very severe if orchards were clean tilled. It is effec- 
tively controlled by having almost all of the orchards in sod. Thousands of feet 
of underground drainage pipe have been Installed by the orchard owners. 

In the Northeast Worcester County District, underground drainage is one of 
the most important conservation practices in orchards requiring technical assis- 
tance. Soil maps are generally made of all landholdings and a conservation plan 
is developed with each owner. Most growers know a good deal about their own land. 
They have watched their trees grow, have observed conditions in the early spring, 
know about wet areas, about operating equipment, and, of course, know how each 



section of the orchard yields. The use to be made of the land and pertinent facts 
about it are combined in developing the conservation plan. With erosion well con- 
trolled through close growing crops, major emphasis is placed on improvements in 
drainage. 

When the District first started, it was common to hear growers say, "I can't 
get through parts of my orchard as it is too muddy and wet." Many of these wet 
conditions have been corrected. As the years have gone by, we have also heard 
many owners say, "We get a better 'set' if the trees aren't in wet soil." It 
seems to be common for trees in wet areas to fail to set a good crop of fruit. 
Improvements in drainage result in a more vigorous growing tree and better pro- 
duction. The importance of drainage has also increased somewhat with the use of 
semi-dwarf trees because they will not tolerate wet conditions. 

We have generally been able to correct wet conditions in orchards. This 
allows the owners to continue to grow trees on these acres thus increasing total 
income. Through the years we have had a variety of experiences with the different 
drainage conditions on cooperators' farms. Several years ago, Sulo Sulin in 
Fitchburg had set a new orchard adjacent to an old one. A section of both of 
these orchard areas was wet. Soil borings showed that a hardpan was holding water 
in the soil. Since tile drains were installed, the trees in both sections of the 
orchard began to improve. In fact, Sulo Sulin said, "The additional crop the 
next year more than paid the cost of the installation." 

In some instances it has been possible to tie existing wells and other water 
supplies into the tile lines for irrigation. Tieing into existing wells tends to 
stabilize the water in them and often can provide additional spray water. Wher- 
ever wells have been flowing on the surface of the ground and causing wet con- 
ditions, efforts have been made to lower the water surface and tie them into 
existing ground lines to ponds. This was done on the J. A. Davis and Son farm in 
Bolton. 

Irrigation is not a common practice in the orchards in the District although 
growers say there are times when additional water could be used. Dick Gilmore of 
Westboro does irrigate his early Macs in July by trucking water. He has a 
hydrant system that is conveniently placed for watering this early Mac crop. 
Additional water supplies have been developed for several cooperators. This was 
done for Mr. Howard Gilmore who enlarged his pond to hold 10 acre feet of water 
which was sufficient to meet his requirements. 

The importance of having a conservation plan wherein soil and land use con- 
ditions have been carefully studied has increased in importance with the years. 
Growers are looking at all possible ways of producing high quality fruit. They 
also are interested in high production per acre. 

The conservation practices, especially drainage, have been exceptionally 
beneficial to orchardists. Many owners have told us how much their conservation 
practices have paid off. 

Gayland E. Folley 

Work Unit Conservationist 
Soil Conservation Service 



- A - 
THE FRUIT GROWER AND ACP 

Quite frequently as we visit with fruit growers and others throughout the 
state we hear the comment "The Agricultural Conservation Program has little to 
offer the fruit growers," or "I would participate in the ACP, but the county com- 
mittee offers no practices applicable to my operations," or "The ACP does not 
meet the needs of the fruit grower." We do not believe any of these statements 
have a basis in fact, although we recognize that county development groups in 
deciding which practices in the State Handbook they will offer within their own 
counties sometimes omit practices designed for fruit growers. In general we be- 
lieve all county programs include a sufficient variety of practices to meet the 
needs of most fruit growers. 

The State Agricultural Conservation Program for 1962 specifically recognizes 
the orchardmen of the state by offering cost-sharing on the following practices: 
Practice A-1, Establishment of a permanent vegetative cover in orchards and vine- 
yards for control of erosion; Practice A-4, Treatment of farmland through the 
application of liming materials to permit the use of legumes and grasses for soil 
Improvement and protection; Practice C-3, Establishment of orchards, vineyards, 
bush fruits, strawberries, or perennial vegetables on the contour to prevent 
erosion, and Practice E-4, Mulching to control wind and water erosion and to im- 
prove soil structure and permeability. 

In addition to these practices specifically aimed at fruit growers, there 
are many others included in the State Handbook which may have application in 
individual orchards. Such practices as constructing irrigation ponds, estab- 
lishing permanent sod waterways, constructing permanent open drainage systems or 
installing underground drainage systems, constructing erosion control dams, pits, 
or ponds to prevent or heal gullying or retard or reduce runoff of water, are 
some of the other practices which in the individual case may be needed. All of 
t;hese practices are included in 1962 and all offer cost-sharing with the farmer 
at rates not less than 50 per cent of the average cost and for some practices as 
high as 75 per cent of the actual cost of carrying out the practice. The State 
Handbook does not attempt to establish dollars and cents rates for the majority 
of practices, but rather leaves this determination to those in the county respon- 
sible for the development of the county program. 

For all practices the minimum required specifications are drawn up at the 
state level. Usually these specifications and requirements are drawn up in 
accordance with the current recommendations of the University of Massachusetts, 
Extension Service, Soil Conservation Service, or Forest Service. Additional re- 
quirements may be added within a county provided these additions make the 
practice, as applicable in the county, more restrictive than the practice as 
stated in the State Program, The Agricultural Conservation Program in 
Massachusetts can and does provide assistance to fruit growers which enables them 
to carry out more of those conservation practices which need to be done than 
would be possible without the program. 

All fruit growers are urged to contact their community committeemen, their 
county committee, or their county Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation 
Service office to find out just what is being offered in their own county. If 
there is a conservation need within a county which is not currently being met, 
certainly such need should be brought to the attention of the county ASC committee 
since they have the authority to develop local practices to meet local needs. 



- 5 - 

A good example of this type of practice Is the mulching practice, now in- 
cluded in the State Program as Practice E-4. For many years this practice 
appeared in the National Agricultural Conservation Program. Then for several 
years it was dropped. Last year one county, feeling the need for this type of 
practice, requested and obtained approval to offer cost-sharing in their county 
for mulching. Soon a request was received from an adjoining county, and it was 
obvious for the 1962 program that several counties were going to request the in- 
clusion of this practice. Apparently other counties in other states felt the 
need for this practice to the extent that the National Program itself was amended 
in 1962 to include as one of the practices offered nationally this practice of 
mulching orchards and vineyards. 

If the Agricultural Conservation Program does not provide the type of prac- 
tice and the percentage of cost-share which is necessary to correct a particular 
conservation problem, it is the responsibility of those farmers having this 
problem to make every effort to obtain the local practice required to meet this 
need. Only through this method can the Agricultural Conservation Program achieve 
its basic objective of necessary conservation of our soil and water resources. 

—Leslie C. Kimball 

State Administrative Officer 
Agricultural Stabilization 
and Conservation Service 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



THE BLUEBERRY BUSH IS AN INTERESTING PLANT 

Now that the blueberry crop is all harvested and it's too early to start 
pruning, it's a good time to take a look around and study the bushes. Even this 
late in the season you can make some Interesting observations. 

Note that the terminals where the fruit was borne have died. This is per- 
fectly normal and to be expected. A study of these dead tips will tell you 
whether the fruit was borne on the more vigorous shoots on the outside of the bush 
or on the shorter ones in the Interior of the bush. This observation is Important 
because It will show you where to look for the fruit buds which will produce next 
year's crop and thus help In deciding where and how much to cut when you prune. 

Now look over the new shoots produced this year. On some varieties you will 
observe that there is new soft growth. In fact, the shoot may be still growing. 
Some varieties have a marked tendency to make this secondary growth. The bushes 
make a first flush of growth in spring and early summer, stop for a while, and 
then in late summer and fall make a secondary growth which may continue till 
frost. This late growth is soft and tender and seldom survives the winter. 

Now take a look at the bark. On the new shoots that were grown this year 
you will find smooth, yellow, or green, or brown bark. On branches three or 
four years old you will find old, gray, rough bark. On the sections of branches 
two years old you will find a transition zone. Some of the bark will have the 
characteristics of young barl<. and some spots will be starting to get rough and 
turn darker. Sometimes the uninformed get disturbed because they think this 



- 6 - 

natural change from juvenile to mature bark Is caused by disease. 

Another occurrence which occasionally causes concern, although it can't be 
observed at this time of year, is the dropping of terminal buds from the ends of 
shoots in mid-summer. In many other kinds of plants this would be a symptom of 
boron deficiency. In the blueberry it apparently is not. It seems to be a 
natural occurrence. 

You can't see the root systems of your blueberry bushes to study them, and 
even if you could, you wouldn't notice that they are different from the root 
systems of other plants. The difference is a marked and fundamental one. The 
cells on the outside of the feeding roots of most plants have extensions called 
root hairs. These root hairs provide a large absorbing surface for taking into 
the plant from the soil the numerous elements which the plant needs. The feeding 
roots of the blueberry have no root hairs. To compensate for this lack, nature 
has provided a unique mechanism. There is a peculiar type of beneficial fungus 
which grows on and in the feeding roots of the blueberry as well as many other 
plants and trees. This fungus absorbs the soil elements and passes them on to 
the blueberry bush. In return the blueberry manufactures plant food and supplies 
the fungus with what it needs. This mutually beneficial arrangement is called a 
mycorhizal relationship. Since cultivated blueberries are propagated from stem 
cuttings, it is interesting to speculate on how the mycorhizal relationship is 
established in new plants. Some researchers have maintained that the fungus 
grows all through the plant. Others have claimed that this is not so. At any 
rate this relationship must be quickly established in the new plant. 

John S. Bailey 

Associate Professor of Pomology 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



CIDER NOTES 

Have you ever thought of cider as being liquid apples? Many times liquid 

apples can represent a liquid profit, also. Growers should consider all the 

angles when preparing to sell their crop, to determine which form will result in 
the greatest profit. 

Let's consider for a moment the total return that can be gained from cider. 
The average bushel of cider apples will produce 3-1/2 gallons of cider, although 
this does vary. The average price at retail is 75 cents a gallon or a total of 
$2.60 for a bushel of cider apples. From this return deduct the cost of growing 
the apples, the cost of labor and materials to produce the cider. The net profit 
compares favorably with that received from selling top grade apples. Take a 
little time and figure your own costs and see if cider will add to your profit. 

If your sales are lagging, check the size container being used. A gallon 
jug takes up a lot of space in the refrigerator. Would half -gal Ion or even quart 
containers increase your sales? The last glass out of a large container may be 
the deciding factor on whether the customer returns. An easily read sign showing 
container size and price is a boom to business. 



- 7 - 

Do you give special rates on quantity purchases? Many clubs, lodges and 
other organizations would increase their use of cider for refreshment if such a 
plan were available. It could also mean more individual customers, especially if 
your label is on the container. 

Just thoughts, but they may mean increased sales 1 

Clarification - Many of you like a clear cider, but one that is not polished 
or is brilliant in appearance. 

A clear cider can be gotten by allowing a tankful of fresh cider to settle 
for 24 hours and then siphoning off all but the last few inches in the tank. If 
possible, have the tank in your cold room to prevent fermentation. 

A Note on Inspection - Food and Drug Inspectors will undoubtedly be dropping 
into cider mills throughout the state during the next three or four months. Be 
sure that at all times your mill can stand inspection. We know because of the 
process a cider mill cannot always look neat and clean, but any pomace or other 
debris should be fresh rather than old dried up leavings from the previous 
pressing or two. Always when you are through, even though it may be late, give 
the mill a good hosing down and plan to finish the cleaning in the morning. If 
you let it stand overnight, then your work is almost doubled in trying to make it 
a clean, sanitary mill. Remember sweet cider can be used to attract customers to 
your stand which in turn should aid in the sale of your other products. 

— Kirby M, Hayes 
Food Technologist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



INTERNAL BREAKDOWN 

Internal breakdown is a serious storage problem in some years. During the 
1956-57 storage season, for example, there was the development of considerable 
amounts of internal breakdown in many apple varieties. In some late varieties 
such as Delicious and Spy, the susceptibility to breakdown was increased by the 
presence at harvest time of considerable amounts of water core. Also, temperatures 
in the high teens and the low 20' s, prior to picking some late varieties, in 
mid-October may have frozen some apples and increased their amount of storage 
breakdown. However, Mcintosh which in most instances were picked before temper- 
atures were low enough to freeze the fruit and which showed no signs of water core 
developed considerable amounts of internal breakdown while in storage. Other 
parts of the United States also suffered heavy losses due to the severe internal 
breakdown in 1957. 

At a conference on Factors Affecting Fruit Condition, held last spring at 
Rutgers - The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Dr. G. E. Mattus, 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute, discussed internal breakdown and what growers can 
do to avoid a similar fate sometime in the future. Below are Dr. Mattus' 
suggestions. 

"1. The season. Fruit keeping in storage is greatly influenced by the type 



- 8 - 

of growing season. We do not know the direct influencing factors as yet. Though 
the season is important, harvesting, handling and storage factors are even more 
important. 

"2. Time of harvest. The single, most important factor which tends to in- 
duce internal breakdown or mealiness is harvesting too late. In 1957, Stayman 
red color development was slow and poor. Growers delayed Stayman harvest long 
past their normal picking time. Fruits normally harvested in mid-October were 
picked in late October or November. Frosts occurred before last pickings were 
made. Undoubtedly most of the fruit harvested was of good dessert quality - when 
it was harvested, but at best it had little or no potential storage life. We can 
understand why it broke down in storage or when shipped to market after storage. 
If necessary, apple growers may need to forego some red color for better storage 
life. 

"3. Delayed storage. Some growers take several days to get fruit into 
storage after picking. Others take even longerl Such holding stimulates 
ripening and softening and adversely affects most fruit. It can be even more 
critical for nearly-ripe fruit. 

"4. Storage conditions are often poor. Fruit cooling in storage frequently 
takes several weeks when it should take only a few days. Fruit is often stacked 
too tightly so that it cools very slowly, taking weeks to cool in a 32°F. cold 
storage room. Air temperatures are at times too high - sometimes even in the 
middle of the storage season when there is no excuse for rising temperatures. Few 
accurate thermometers are to be found in most storages and they have not been 
checked for years. Storage men are recording the temperatures, but their ther- 
mometers are often not accurate. Fruit temperatures are not checked. 

"5. After fruit leaves the storage it is often held too long or at too high 
temperatures in the stores and homes. Fruit picked early, or with optimum ma- 
turity, will hold up well when sold in the fall, but has less shelf life in the 
spring and no life when removed from storage in an overripe condition. 

"Research work has not clearly indicated yet whether certain fruit conditions 
such as water core tend to stimulate internal breakdown or are only associated 
factors in late harvested fruit. Work has been going on in Massachusetts and West 
Virginia on this problem. VJe can only ray that severely water-cored fruit, and/or 
late picked fruit may develop breakdo\m. 

"What orchard factors may help reduce the internal breakdo\^m problem? Since 
most of the trouble comes from delayed picking in order to get improved red 
coloring, those practices that tend to give better coloring will help: prune to 
get more light to the apples; consider reducing nitrogen fertilizer application 
if nitrogen level is above desired levels. 

"How can I judge when fruit is being harvested too mature for reasonably 
long storage, or is getting too ripe in storage? Use a pressure tester. It will 
give the best available index of potential storage life. 

"Check late pickings at harvest and check fruit firmness and condition in 
storage during the storage season. Remove fruit samples from storage and keep at 
room temperature to check on condition after storage, for the appearance of dis- 
orders before they occur in storage." 



Editor's Note: The material presented at the Conference on Factors Affecting 
Fruit Condition was compiled by Warren C. Stiles and N. F. Childers. It is pos- 
sible to obtain a copy of this 181-page publication, as long as they are available, 
by sending one dollar by check or money order to V'arren C. Stiles, Department of 
Horticulture, Rutgers - The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

William J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



CA STORAGE CAPACITY IN NEW E NGLAND 

Estimates of the Extension Fruit Specialists in New England indicate an in- 
crease of 389,000 bushels in CA storage capacity for 1961. This is an approximate 
increase of 37 per cent CA capacity for New England for the 1961-62 storage 
season. 





CA Capacity 


CA 


Storage Capacity 


Total Capacity 


Per Cent 




Prior to 1961* 


Constructed in 


1961 


for 1961 


Increase 




bu. 




bu. 




bu. 


% 


Conn. 


64,000 




5,000 




69,000 


7.8 


Maine 


195,000 




148,500 




343,500 


76.2 


Mass. 


A86,000 




135,000 




621,000 


27.8 


N. H. 


198,000 




52,500 




250,500 


26.5 


R. I. 


_-- 




8,000 




8,000 


100.0 


Vt. 


122,000 




40,000 




162,000 


32.8 


Total 


1,065,000 




389,000 




1,454,000 





* Maximum CA holdings during the last two years as reported in the Nov. 29, 1960 
■ Special Apple Market F^.eport, Massachusetts Department of Agriculture. 

In Massachusetts, according to the writer's figures, the storage capacity for 

both CA and regular storage is 2,521,650 bushels. This indicates that approximately 

25 per cent of the total storage capacity in Massachusetts is CA. 

William J. Lord 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperotive Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1961 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

The 1961 Harvest Season 

Reminder 

The Condition of Fruit in Storage 

Pomologicol Paragraph 

Cost to Grow, Harvest, Store and 
Sell Apples on New York Cost 
Account Farms 

Radioactive Fallout 

Just Call Me ELF AC 

Winter Fruit Meetings 



^\ 





/ 



A 



mM 



WJiiSir' 



m^A 




^ 



'ik. 








Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



FIGURE I. 



THE GROWTH RATE OF APPLES 



75 



7 



5'j 



. 5fi 
in 

u 

at 

■M 

0) 

•-* 45 



« 



n 

I]) 

<i) 
B 

Q 



w 



35 



30 - 



25 



20 



15 - 



10 




E. Mcintosh - Diameter 

G. Delicious - Diameter 

O— — -O E. Mcintosh - Volume 

•- — — ♦ G. Delicious - Volume 



- 160 

- 150 

- lAO 

- IJC 

- 120 

- 110 

- 100 

- 90 

- 80 



- 70 r 



- 60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



13 
June 



27 



11 21 
July 



12 
August 



25 



29 
September 



1960 



2. 



THE 1961 HARVEST SEASON 



We've just passed through a rather unusual growing season and it may be 
worthwhile, now that we can look back on it, to try to determine what happened 
that caused our Mcintosh to mature and color so late, produce so heavily, size so 
well, and drop so little even though we experienced above normal temperatures 
from mid- August to November. 

Mcintosh blossomed perhaps 3 to 7 days later than usual. May had an average 
daily mean temperature about 3 degrees below normal but June, July and August had 
normal mean temperatures and September averaged about 6 degrees above the average 
daily mean. The puzzling question is why Mcintosh were so immature by mid- 
September and made it possible to pick so many, good, firm Mcintosh in early 
October. The prime harvest date for Mcintosh was about two weeks later than 
usual this year and the reason for this is not fully explainable on the basis of 
a bloom period that was somewhat later than usual. Frankly, we haven't got a 
suitable explanation for the late ripening of our Mcintosh this year. However, 
it does seem reasonable that this late ripening of our Mcintosh did inhibit red 
color development to some extent and reduce the tendency of fruit to drop 
seriously. This lack of preharvest drjp surprised me considerably since the 
trees bore extremely heavy crops and unusually high temperatures prevailed during 
most of September and October. In one block, where over 40 trees averaged 56 
boxes of Mcintosh per tree, only 10 per cent of the crop had dropped by October 9 
when the second picking completed the harvest. 

As growers in this area finally began to harvest the crop, many began to 
find that they had many more apples than boxes. The volume of the harvested crop 
markedly surpassed expectations in some cases and individual tree yields in ex- 
cess of 80 boxes per tree occurred occasionally. With yields of this size we 
generally expect relatively large percentages of apples under 2-1/2 inches In 
diameter but in spite of exceptionally large crops the proportion of Mcintosh 
over 3 inches in diameter is the problem. 

The marked increase in tree production and fruit size can be explained in 
large part on the basis of adequate moisture, above normal temperatures and a 
harvest period about two weeks later than usual. 

In Figure 1 are shown some typical growth curves for apples plotted on the 
basis of cross sectional fruit diameter and volume (assuming the fruit to be a 
perfect sphere). It can be seen that when one plots the growth curve on the 
basis of diameter that it appears that the rate of apple fruit growth tends to 
slow down as the fruit approaches maturity. This apparent slackening of growth 
rate is more pronounced for the later maturing Golden Delicious than for the 
earlier maturing Early Mcintosh. If the data are calculated on the basis of 
volume increase, however, it is apparent that the growth rate actually accelerates 
in July and may not taper off appreciably for early apples and only slightly be- 
fore harvest for late varieties. These data merely show that fruit volume 
increases more rapidly with each regular diameter increment as the fruit gets 
larger. This is shown more readily in Table 1 where it can be seen, for example, 
that an increase in diameter of 0.1 inch on a 2.60 inch apple represents a volume 
increase of 18.51 cubic centimeters as compared to a 17.19 cubic centimeter 
increase in volume of a 1.50 inch apple that has grown another 0.25 inch in 
diameter. Also, a 0.25 inch increase on a 3.00 inch apple represents an increase 
in volumealmost equivalent to the entire cubic contents of a 2.00 inch apple. 

Since Mcintosh may grow at the rate of 0.07 to 0.10 inch per week in 



3. 

September the addition of say 0.15 inch on a 2.50 inch apple represents a 19.1 
per cent volume gain or a 17.2 per cent increase in volume on a 2.75 apple with- 
in two weeks. In other words, the delay in harvest of two weeks this year added 
materially to the volume of Mcintosh picked and to individual fruit size. If it 
is assumed that Massachusetts had 1,400,000 boxes of Mcintosh on September 12 
with an average size of 2.75 inches in diameter and no fruit losses occurred be- 
tween then and September 26 that an additional 240,000 boxes would be added to 
the crop. 

Table 1 - The relationship of diameter increase to volume increase of apples 
(assumed to be perfect spheres) , 

Apple Increase in Cubic When Apples Grow From 

Diameter Volume Centimeters per Diameter "U Volume 

Inches Centimeters Cubic Centimeters Diameter Increase (inches) Increase 

0.5 i.27 1.07 

0.75 1.91 3.65 2.58 

1.00 2.54 8.58 4.93 

1.25 3.18 16.84 8.26 

1.50 3.81 28.97 12.13 

1.75 4.45 46.16 17.19* 

2.00 5.08 68.67 ** 22.61 

2.25 5.72 98.21 29.54 

2.50 6.35 134.12 35.91 2.50 

2.55 6.48 142.53 8.41 I \ 19.1 



1 



2.60 6.60 150.59 8.06 

2.65 6.73 159.67 ^•°^iiR<;i* 2. 65 

2.70 6.86 169.10 9.43 ] 

2.75 6.99 178.89 9.79 2.75 

2.80 7.11 188.27 9.38 I V 17.2 



i 



2.85 7.24 198.78 10.51 

2,90 7.37 209.69 10.91 2.90 

2.95 7.49 220.10 10.41 

3.00 7.62 231.76 11.66 

3.05 7.75 243.82 12.06*) 

3.10 7.87 255.32 ll.SOf 

3.15 8.00 268.19 12.87 f °-^-^-^ 

3.20 8.13 281.64 13.45 \ 

3.25 8.26 295.19 13.557 

Franklin W. Southwick 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

REMINDER 

The 24" X 36" wall charts of U. S. Apple Grades for New England are still 
available through the secretary's office of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' 
Association, Inc., French Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



4. 



THE CONDITION OF FRUIT IN STORAGE 



An unusual number of Mcintosh was harvested in October this year. Although 
the season was late, fruit was unusually firm. For example, fruit of 2-1/2 to 
2-3/4 inches in diameter from four trees were pressure tested from August 25 tb 
October 11, 1961 at weekly intervals. The changes in firmness can be noted below. 
Based on the guide that Mcintosh apples for CA storage should pressure test from 
15 to 17 pounds, the apples harvested as late as October 1 should have been suit- 
able for this type storage. By making use of pressure testers, growers can 
determine fruit condition at harvest and in storage! 

Table 1 - Average pressure test of 2-1/2 to 2-3/4 inch Mcintosh apples from four 
trees in the University orchard from August 25 to October 11, 1961. 



Date 



Flesh firmness 
(pounds) 



August 25 
September 1 
September 8 
September 15 
September 21 
September 28 
October 5 
October 11 



18.8 
18.2 
18.0 
17.2 
15.9 
15.5 
14.6 
14.1 



With the late Mcintosh harvest, naturally Delicious were picked much later 
than usual. How much water core was present? At the University orchard, only 
3.9 per cent of the Starking Delicious apples had water core on October 9 as 
shown in Table 2. 

Table 2 - Per cent of Starking Delicious having water core at harvest, 1958-61. 





Apples 


with water 


core at h 


arvest 


_ Average flesh 


Picking date 


Slight 


Medium 


Heavy 


Total 


firmness (lbs.) 




7. 


% 


% 


% 




1958 












10/10 


33.6 


7.1 


0.9 


41.6 


16.8 


10/20 


30.3 


10.1 


8.1 


48.5 


15.8 


10/30 


43.7 


16.1 


19.5 


79.3 


14.9 


1959 












10/1 


21.1 


0.0 


0.0 


21.1 


15.7 


10/15 


48.3 


9.3 


1.5 


59.1 


14.5 


10/29 


37.0 


9.2 


25.0 


71.2 


14.2 


1960 












9/29 


22.2 


5.1 


1.3 


28.6 


18.4 


10/10 


24.7 


8.0 


15.6 


48.3 


17.3 


10/20 


40.7 


3.7 


6.3 


50.7 


15.3 


1961 












9/29 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


17.7 


10/9 


3.5 


0.4 


-__ 


3.9 


16.7 


10/24 


48.0 


5.5 


4.6 


58.1 


15.5 



5. 

It can be noted in Table 2 that in previous years water core was more preva- 
lent and severe in apples from these same trees on the 10th or 15th day of 
October. The amount of water core in Starking Delicious on October 24, 1961 had 
increased to 58 ol per cent. However, 48 per cent was classified as slight and 
should disappear in storage. In the advanced stages of this disorder the water- 
soaked spots are united to form a continuous band or the spots cover 30 per cent 
or more of the cross-sectional area of the fruit. Water core is apt to persist 
in storage and be followed by internal breakdown when much water core is evident 
at harvest. Growers should watch closely those lots of Delicious having severe 
water core at harvest time. If it is necessary to store these apples for a con- 
siderable period, apple storage operators should make inspection of the fruit 
throughout the storage season, not only for the presence of internal breakdown 
but for other storage disorders. Regular inspections at regular two or three 
week intervals, starting about Thanksgiving time, might help to eliminate serious 
losses late in the storage period. 

Bitter pit on apples is a disorder which may be present at harvest but makes 
further development after the fruit is placed in storage. Since the amount 
increases during the storage period, a close watch should be kept on bitter pit 
susceptible varieties. 

In order to be sure scald is not developing on such varieties as Cortland, 
R. I. Greening, Rome Beauty and Mcintosh, it is necessary to place apples at room 
temperature for several days. The placement of the samples in unsealed poly- 
ethylene bags is suggested. Apples may show no scald in storage but within 
several days at room temperature have 100 per cent scald. In case of regular 
storage Mcintosh, the immature fruits usually scald worse. The opposite is true 
with Mcintosh in CA storage. 

William J, Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPH 

Cost to Grow, Harvest, Store and Sell Apples on New York State Cost Account Farms 

The September issue of Fruit Notes reported the research findings of Van 
Travis and B. F. Stanton in their study titled "Costs and Use of Labor in 
Harvesting Apples for Fresh Market, Hudson Valley, New York, 1959 and 1960". A 
table was presented by Van Travis and B. F. Stanton to indicate the increasing 
importance of harvesting costs. These data in the table indicated that on the 
New York Cost Account Farms the cost to grow, harvest, store, and sell apples 
during 1956 - 1958 averaged $1.46 per bushel. 

Several Massachusetts growers have asked about the cost figure of $1.46 and 
wondered if the article was misquoted. These Massachusetts growers suggest that 
costs of $2.25 to $2.65 per bushel to grow, harvest, store, and sell are nisre 
realistic. Since the writer knew the figure of $1.46 was not misquoted and that 
some of the New York State Cost Account Farms might sell apples mainly to 
processors, he wrote Prof. B. F. Stanton for his comments. The following are 
some excerpts from Prof. Stanton's reply. 

"Two-thirds of the apples produced on these farms are sold for processing. 



6, 



This accounts in part for the figure of $1.46." 



"The other point of importance however, is the fact that cost account farms 
in general are well above average in operations and hence the cost structure re- 
flects above average management. 

"As you know there is a direct relationship between yield per acre and cost 
per bushel. Yields during this period on these farms averaged slightly under 400 
bushels per acre." 

"The important point we tried to stress in our report was not the absolute 
cost figures but the relationship between harvest costs and total production 
costs. I think this point is perhaps more important than the cost figure itself, 
although I can understand your growers' concern, especially this year, with the 
cost figures themselves." 

---William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT 

The resumption of testing of atomic bombs by the Russians and probable 
future testing by the United States and some other countries has renewed our 
Interest in radioactive fallout. Even though this testing is carried on far out 
at sea, we can be effected to some degree b}' fallout materials. 

The majority of the radioactivity from atomic bombs is quite short lived, 
and two-thirds or more is dissipated within a week. Some fine particles, however, 
are carried around the world. These materials are brought back to earth weeks or 
months later in rainfall or snow and the highest concentrations from present tests 
will come back near the 40° latitude regions of the northern hemisphere. 

The most dangerous aspects of fallout for man from these far-off tests comes 
from the absorption of fallout materials by the soil and subsequent uptake by 
plants that are consumed either directly or through animal products. This sub- 
ject, especially with respect to the fallout of strontium-90, was discussed at 
the Dairy Farmers' Seminar at the University of Massachusetts on January 27, 1960 
by Dr. Ronald G. Menzel of the U.S.D.A. The following abstract of this talk 
gives the essential facts of the problem. 

To bring the matter up to date it is necessary to consider all long lived 
and dangerous fallout materials including not only strontium-90 but also barium-140 
and cesiura-137. These are the materials that react with soils and are taken most 
readily up in the food cycle. Carbon- 14 is mentioned only briefly because of the 
disagreement among scientists as to the deleterious effects of this low energy 
beta emmiter. 

It was pointed out that of the total radioactive dose rate the average man 
receives per year most comes from natural sources and only an insignificant 
portion comes from fallout. "Hot spots" of fallout and absorption could make 
departures from the average quite great. 

In the case of strontium-90 with a half-life of nearly thirty years and 



7. 

due to the fact this element is held in the bone in a way similar to calcium, there 
is an accumulation from year to year. It is thus conceivable that especially in 
some "hot spot" fallout areas damage to man could eventually result. 

It should also be pointed out that this subject is becoming quite contro- 
versial and there are those who believe that all radioactivity absorbed by man 
including that which occurs from natural sources is dangerous. Apparently, 
however, the atomic energy commission and the majority of scientists do not take 
this extreme view and believe WE WILL NOT BE SERIOUSLY AFFECTED BY BOMBS TESTED 
UP TO THIS DATE. 

Martin E. Weeks 

Extension Agronomist 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH ON RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT 

Ronald G. Menzel 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Beltsville, Maryland 

Radioactive fallout is not now an urgent problem in soil and water conser- 
vation. However, in case of nuclear accident or war, it might become more urgent 
than any other soil and water problem. What should be our attitude toward such a 
problem? 

Since the possible losses are so great if we do not know how to cope with 
radioactive fallout in an emergency situation, I believe we must maintain a 
research program; first, to learn about the behavior of fission products in soils; 
and second, to devise practical means of combating hazardous situations. Accom- 
plishment of these purposes requires field trials and applications of the results 
of laboratory and greenhouse research. 

Importance of Strontium-90 

There is one radioactive fission product, which because of its long half- 
life, soil chemistry, uptake by plants, and incorporation into animal bodies, is 
known to be one of the chief hazards in radioactive fallout. This is the 
ubiquitous strontium-90. 

Some short-lived fission products are greater immediate hazards, but they do 
not present a land-use problem. The main mode of entry for short-lived fission 
products into plants and animals is directly from the atmosphere. Soil treatments 
cannot control this situation. 

Long-lived fission products other than strontium-90 are not taken up readily 
from soils by plants. 

Strontium-90 can readily be determined both in soil^ and in plant materials 
by using a Geiger counter. Strontium-90 fallout has been about 10 mc/mi^ annually 
since 1954. It is usually higher than this in northern United States and lower in 
southern United States. The amounts presently in 1 kg. of most soils give over 
100 radioactive disintegrations per minute. 

Determination of Strontium-90 from Radioactive Fallout 

Presently, the amounts of strontium-90 entering crops by uptake from soil 
and by falling directly on the foliage appear to be roughly equal. Under field 



8. 

conditions the two sources of strontium-90 can be differentiated. We can deter- 
mine the amount of strontiiiin-90 in the harvested crop and compare that with some 
lower tissue that reflects only the specific amount absorbed from the soil. This 
is possible since strontium-90 retained on leaves or grain is not transported 
downward in the plant. The most useful tissues for determining the specific 
activity absorbed from the soil will be small grain or hay stubble where the 
leaves do not concentrate fallout near the stem base. The lower stalks of corn, 
beans, tomatoes, and many other plants can also be used. 

Reaction of Strontium-90 with Soils 

Strontium-90 is leached slowly through soils. The movement in five widely 
varying soil types averaged less than one inch per 100 inches of leaching water. 

About one per cent of the strontium falling on sloping land at Tifton, 
Georgia and LaCrosse, Wisconsin was carried down the slope in runoff water. The 
slopes were 3 per cent on sandy loam at Tifton and 16 per cent on silt loam at 
Lacrosse. However, the concentration of strontium-90 in the eroded sediment was 
10 times higher than that in the plow layer of soil left behind. Thus if a soil 
were made up of such sediments, it could have 10 times the average strontium-90 
concentrate for the area. 

Most of the strontium-90 in soils is exchangeable. This is the form of 
cations in soils that is available to plants. Exchangeable strontium-90 and 
calcium are taken up by plants in nearly the same ratio. The uptake of Sr-^ can 
be affected by additions of lime, fertilizers, organic matter, and by placement 
of these amendments and Sr'*^ in the soil. 

Factors Affecting Uptake of Strontium-90 by Plants 

Lime bearing amendments reduce the Sr^^/Ca ratio in the crop. The reduction 
is about equal to the factor by which the available calcium content of the soil 
can be raised. Even on the most acid soils, it is unlikely that available calcium 
can be tripled, and therefore Sr^O/ca ratio will not be reduced by more than a 
factor of three. If the amendment causes increased calcium uptake by the crop, 
there miay be little or no reduction in Sr^O uptake* 

Fertilizers and organic matter change Sr^^ and Ca uptake proportionately if 
account is taken of any available calcium added in these materials. Ammonium 
nitrate (140 ppm N) almost doubled uptake of Sr^O, Potassium nitrate (270 ppra K) 
decreased Sr"^ uptake by 40 per cent. 

Under field conditions, the uptake of strontium-90 may be greatly affected 
by its placement and that of calcium relative to the plant root system. Experi- 
ments are being initiated in which we plow the Sr"" as deeply as possible, and 
keep the plant roots as shallow as possible by use of lime, fertilizer, and 
irrigation. The immediate goal of these experiments is to reduce Sr-^ uptake by 
a factor of 10. 

Land Utilization in Areas Seriously Contaminated with Strontium-90 

Land seriously contaminated with strontium-90 may be utilized by changing 
production, removing contamination, fixing strontium-905 plowing deep, or 
applying amendments. None of these measures have been adequately studied. Some 
may be effective only in certain situations. 



5. 

Changes in production which are suggested for contaminated land are: 
(1) Substitute low Ca for high Ca crops, (2) substitute deep-rooted for shallow- 
rooted crops (leaving the 8trontiuin-90 as near the surface as possible), 
(3) substitute meat for milk production, and (4) substitute non-food for food or 
feed crops. The substitutions would not need to be tested in the field, but 
accurate information is needed about the strontium-90 contents of different crops 
in relation to strontium-90 and calcium contents in the soil. 

Removal of surface contamination is nearly complete if sod, thick straw 
mulch, or surface soil is removed. Only about 1/3 of applied contamination has 
been removed by harvesting standing crops of half -grown soybeans and sudan grass. 
The dependence of this type of removal on completeness of ground cover needs to 
be investigated. We are also attempting to measure the surface roughness of 
soils and to relate it to the depth of soil removal required to attain 90 per 
cent of higher removal of applied surface contamination. 

The conditions favoring fixation of strontium-90 need further laboratory 
study before trials of such methods can be made in the field. One field possi- 
bility might be to apply soluble strontium salts (about 100 pounds of Sr per acre 
is needed) and precipitate them with larger applications of sulfates or phosphates. 
Difficulties might be encountered in obtaining intimate contact between 
strontium-90 in the field and the applied strontium, and in maintaining an excess 
of sulfate or phosphate to repress the solubility of the precipitate. 

Deep plowing and application of amendments are ready for the field testing 
stage. The usefulness of such practices for repressing strontium-90 uptake needs 
to be tested on various soil types and with many crops, paying special attention 
to their rooting depths. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I u 

JUST CALL HE "ELFAC" 

The Northeastern States Cooperative E:Ktension Services are sponsoring an 
accounting service available to farmers with all the New England States, New York, 
Delaware and Pennsylvania having indicated that they will provide the service. 

The operation is quite simple. All the farmer does is jot down on the same 
pad of paper what's coming in and what's going out. Once a week these are stuffed 
in an envelope and mailed to ELFAC. 

Receipts and expenses are listed. No sorting or totaling is necessary and 
the machine does the rest. 

Records are provided of receipts and expenses, payments on debts, records of 
capital purchases and social security and labor records. 

Cost will depend on the size of the farm. A fifty cow farm will cost about 
$1 per cow for the year or a 10,000 hen poultry farm will cost about $5 per 
month. A AO-acre orchard records would cost $6.0 annually. Family records of 
groceries, clothing, and the like are for free if the dairy or poultry or other 
major enterprise is included. 

How long does it take to keep the information needed for ELFAC? 



10. 

According to several fanners they keep all their records with ELFAC in about 
15 to 20 minutes each week. 

Records for each month are summarized and returned about 3 weeks after the 
end of each month. 

Your County Agent will have further details before the sign-up date which 
begins the first of the year. 

Lawrence D. Rhoades 

Extension Specialist in 
Farm Management 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

WINTER FRUIT MEETINGS 

The 68th Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association, Inc. 
in cooperation with the University of Massachusetts Extension Service will be 
held in the Gardner Armory, Gardner, Massachusetts on January 10 and 11, 1962. 

The complete program is not available at this time. However, the program 
at present includes the following: 

Dr. A. D. Blanpied, Cornell University ~ Apple Handling Methods 

Dr. L. W. Boulanger, University of Maine. - Fruit Insect Research in Maine 

Mr. Fred Burrows, International Apple Association - The National Apple 

Situation 

Prof. Fred E. Cole, University of Massachusetts - Current Storage and Price 

Situation 

Dr. 0. F. Curtis, Jr., Geneva Experiment Station - Chemical Weed Control in 

Orchards 

Dr. C. J. Gilgut, University of Massachusetts - Disease Control Recommendations 

for 1962 

Dr. A. E. Mitchell, Michigan State University - Improving Fruit Finish 

Film on Handling Methods - Michigan State University 

Dr. W. D. Tunis, University of Massachusetts - Insect Control Recommendations 

for 1962 

Dr. W. D. Weeks, University of Massachusetts - Which Rootstock SUoulu i Use? 

---William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 

Prepared by Pomology Staff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



JANUARY 2, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Varieties of Apples for Massachusetts 
Variety Notes on Apple Varieties 
Varieties of Blueberries for Massachusetts 
Varietol Hardiness of Raspberries 
Strawberry Trials - 1961 





^: 



[im/fA 




iiRl^ir^ 



«*^*^»i 

'^^')^)^>^ 




mn 





Publication Approved by A^id C. HoliaZi%'^e P^ch^sSi A^^'„t N^.%%"'"^ cooperating. 



CO UNIY LXTENSiON AGENTS IN SUPPORT OF THE FRUIT PROGRAM 
(Please contact the agent in j'our county for fruit information) 



BARNSTABLE 



James T. Williams, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Cape Cod Extension Service, Deeds and Probate Building, Barnstable 

(Tel. FOrest 2-32i)5) 



BERKSHIRE 



Dick L. Boyce, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Berkshire County Extension Service, Federal Building, Pittsfield 

(Tel, HI 11 crest 8-8285) 

BRISTOL 

Harold 0. Woodward, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Bristol County Agricultural High School, Segreganset 
(Tel. Dighton NOrmandy 9-3611 or 9-2361) 

DUKES 

Ezra 1. Shaw, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Dukes County Extension Service, Vineyard Haven 
(Tel. Vineyard Haven 694) 

ESSEX AND MIDDLESEX 

Max G. Fultz, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Middlesex County Extension Service, 19 Everett Street, Concord 

(Tel. EMerson 9-A8A5) 

NORFOLK 

Peter W. Larson, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Norlolk County Agricultural High School, 460 Main Street, Walpole 

(Tel. MOntrose 8-0268 or 8-0269) 

PIONEER VALLEY -- FRAt'HCLIN. HAMPSHIRE. AND HAMPDEN 

G. Everett Wilder, Regional Extension Agricultural Agent 

Hampden County Improvement League, 1499 Memorial Avenue, West Springfield 

(Tel. Springfield REpublic 6-7204) 

PLYMOUTH 

Dominic A. Marlni, County Extension Agent In Agriculture 
Plymouth County Extension Service, Court House, Brockton 
(Tel. juniper 6-4993) 

WORCESTER 

William R. Goss, County Extension Agent In Agriculture 

Worcester County Extension Service, 36 Harvard Street, Worcester 8 

(Tel. PLeasant 3-5477) 



VARIETIES OF APPLES FOR MASSACHUSETTS 



Variety 



Recommended For 



Harvesting Season 



Early to Mid-August 

Early to Mid-August 

Mid-August 

Mid to Late August 

Mid-September 

Late September 

Late September 

Early October 

Early to Mid-October 

Mid-October 

Mid-October 

Mid-October 

Mid-October 

Mid-October 



Varieties so marked are not necessarily 
equally adapted to all sections of the state. 



Red Melba 


C & H 


Wellington 


T 


Puritan 


C 6e H 


Early Mcintosh 


C & H 


Mcintosh 


C 


Macoun 


C 6c H 


Spartan 


T 


Cortland 


C & H 


D^ licious 


C & H 


GoJden Delicious 


C & H 


Idared 


T 


Melrose 


T 


Spencer 


T 


Ruby 


T 


T = Trial 




H = Home garden 




C = Commercial. 


Varietie 



Red Mclba 



Wellington 



Puritan 



Early 
Mcintosh 



Mcintosh 



Variety Notes 

Although somewhat later in season than Lodi, it should make a good 
substitute for Lodi because of its more attractive color and better 
quality. 

Fruit large, fairly attractive, good quality. Annual in production, 
Blossoms early, may be subjecc to spring frost injury. 

Attractive, early red apple. Fruit Mcintosh type, good quality for 
its season, rather tart. Tree hardy, vigorous, tendency toward 
biennial bearing, will pollinate Mcintosh. 

Leading commercial variety of its season. Fruit fairly attractive, 
good quality, small if not thinned. Tree medium vigor, poor 
structure, biennial. 

Leading commercial variety. Fruit attractive and of excellent 
quality, tender, easily bruised. Tree vigorous, hardy, productive, 
annual, subject to scab. Rogers or an equally good red strain is 
preferred. 



Macoun 



Spartan 



Fruit excellent quality, dark red, keeps better than Mcintosh, 
has poor structure, biennial, requires thinning. 



Tree 



A promising new variety from British Columbia. Fruit of good size, 
color and quality; keeps better than Mcintosh. Tree reported to be 
vigorous and of good structure, annual, will pollinate Mcintosh. 



- 2 - 

Cortland Fruit attractive, good quality, very susceptible to storage scald, 
excellent for salads as flesh does not discolor. Tree hardy, pro- 
ductive, annual, good pollinizer. 

Delicious Leading dessert apple. Fruit excellent quality, keeps well in 
storage, tree medium vigor, may become biennial, often requires 
thinning. Good pollinizer. Richared or an equally good red strain 
is preferred. 

Golden Fruit excellent quality, ye) low, attractive when well grown, subject 
Delicious to russeting, shrivels. Tree medium vigor, biennial, requires 
thinning. 

Idared Attractive bright red winter apple. Good quality and size. Dessert 
and cooking. Tree productive, annual, worthy of extensive trial. 

Melrose Promising new winter appl'i introduced from Ohio. Fruit medium size, 
well colored, good quality, makes excellent pie and sauce, should 
keep well. Tree productive, good structure, annual. 

Spencer Fruit attractive bright red, quality excellent. Tree hardy, pro- 
ductive, annual. Fruit may be subject to storage disorders if held 
too long in storage. 



Ruby 



An attractive Rome type apple. Fruit lias good size and color, 
quality average. Tree has poor branch structure. Ruby is reported 
to have a long storage season. 



-W. D. Weeks 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



VARIETY NOTES ON APPLE VARIETIES 

Bancroft Introduced from Ottawa as a late winter apple. A Forest x Mcintosh 
cross. Fruit has poor color, dull red, unattractive. Fruit quality 
poor, very acid. Bancroft does not appear to show much promise as a 
commercial variety. 

Crandall A Rome Beauty x Jonathan introduction from Illinois. Fruit size and 
color quite variable in 1961. Fruit only average in attractiveness. 
Fruit flesh fine grained, juicy, good quality. 

Delcon A Conrad x Delicious introduction from Missouri. Fruit well colored, 
fairly attractive, resembles Delicious. Fruit quality about average. 
Delcon does not appear to have good storage qualities. Of doubtful 
value. 



Jonadel A Jonathan x Delicious cross from Iowa. Jonadel is similar to 

Jonathan in flavor and appearance. Somewhat more color than Jonathan 
and is not susceptible to Jonathan spot. Fruit quality average to 
good. 



Redgold A Golden Delicious x Rlchared Delicious cross. Fruit well colored 

but only fairly attractive. Skin has rough finish and is subject to 
russet. Fruit quality good, a dessert apple. 

Redwell A seedling of Scott's Winter introduced by the Minnesota station. 

Fruit color fair, average attractiveness. Fruit rather mild flavor 
of average quality. A late fall apple of doubtful value. 

Sandow An open pollinated seedling of Northern Spy from Ottawa. A late 

winter apple of poor color and finish. Fruit susceptible to bitter 
pit. Fruit quality only fair, acid. Sandow is of questionable 
value for this area, 

Walter D. Weeks 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



V ARIETIES OF BLUEBERRIES FOR MASSACHUSETTS 

Variety^^ Recommended For Harvesting Season 

Earliblue T Early 

Collins T Early 

Blueray T Early 

Bluecrop T Midseason 

Berkeley C & H Midseason 

Pemberton C & H Late 

Herbert T Late 

Jersey G & H Late 

Coville C & H Late 

*In approximate order of ripening 

T = Trial 

U = Home garden 

C = Commercial 

Variety Notes 

Earliblue Ripens early, fruit light blue, very firm, good flavor, cluster 

medium size, medium loose. Bush upright, vigorous, well shaped, easy 
to prune and propagate, fairly productive. 

Collins Ripens early, midv/ay between Earliblue and Bluecrop. The bush is 
erect, vigorous, and moderately productive. Winter hardiness is 
probably about like Berkeley and Pemberton. The fruit is borne in 
medium-sized, rather tight, attractive clusters. The berries are 
as large as Earliblue, firm, light blue in color and highly flavored. 
Fruit does not drop nor crack. Recommended for trial as a second 
early. 



Blueray Ripens early, just after Earliblue, in Rancocas-Stanley season; 

fruit clusters small, tight, attractive; berries very large, firm, 
light blue, aromatic, very fine flavored if fully ripe; bushes 
erect, somewhat spreading, vigorous and productive. Has considerable 
cold resistance. 

Bluecrop Ripens early mid-season, fruit very light blue, very firm, good 
flavor, small scar, clusters large, medium loose. Bush upright, 
vigorous and productive, easy to propagate. Resistant to spring 
frost and winter cold. 

Berkeley Ripens mid-season, fruit very large, light blue, firm, mild flavor, 
scar large and dry; bush upright, vigorous, productive, easy to 
propagate and prune. 

Pemberton Ripens late, fruit large, firm attractive, good blue, excellent 
flavor, poor scar; bush upright, very vigorous, very productive, 
hardy. 

Herbert Ripens late, fruit large, fair blue, good scar, flavor good, skin 

tender; bush spreading, vigorous, productive and easy to propagate. 

Jersey Ripens late, fruit medium to large, fair blue, attractive, firm, 
good flavor but tart if not fully ripe, good scar, open cluster; 
bush upright, vigorous, productive, hardy. 

Coville Ripens very late, fruit large, firm, good scar, highly aromatic 

flavor, tart when not fully ripe, good blue, attractive; bush up- 
right, spreading, vigorous and very productive. 

John S. Bailey 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



VARIETAL HARDINESS OF RASPBERRIES 

The raspberry industry in Massachusetts has almost disappeared. Numerous 
factors are involved. One of the most important is winter killing of the canes 
by cold and by disease. Cold injury is the most common type of winter injury. 
However, some varieties such as Latham become badly infected with spur blight 
which girdles and kills the canes so that they appear to have died from cold 
injury. 

The raspberry hardiness problem in this area is complicated by varieties 
which on the one hand have too high a proportion of cane lengths killed every 
year and on the other by a few which will stand very low temperature if the low 
temperature persists but will suffer considerably if the temperature is 
unseasonably warm or variable. The latter varieties are sometimes injured 
severely in this area but suffer little or not at all farther north. They may 
come through a severe winter such as that of 1960-61 almost uninjured but be 
injured severely in an open winter such as that of 1959-60. This is well 
Illustrated in the table. 



- 5 - 
Estimated percentage of the length of raspberry canes killed during the winter 

[bl 154 '55 '56 '57 '58 '59 '60 '61 





















■—' '*" 






Gatineau 


T 


-- 


5 


40 


55 




5 


5 


15 


45 


10 


Early Red 


T 


-- 


-- 


40 


25 




10 


30 


15 


50 


10 


September 


C 


-- 


10 


40 


45 




10 


40 


50 


90 


50 


Ma da wa ska 


C 


— 


5 


20 


10 







1 


20 


25 




Taylor 


C 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 




30 


5 


10 


45 


-- 


Muskoka 


T 


-- 


-- 


20 


50 




20 


10 


40 


30 


10 


Latham 


C 


10 


20 


-- 


5 




25 


1 


5 


75 




Milton 


T&H 


25 


45 


40 


30 




40 


25 


25 


80 


20 


Durham 


H 


5 


-- 


-- 


-- 




-- 




— 


25 


5 


Sodus (purple) 


T 


70 


30 


T = 
C = 


Trial 
Commerc 


Lai 






60 


50 


25 










H = 


FtOme gal 


rden 











In order to get some idea of the response of the various raspberry varieties 
to cold, each spring after the buds start, an estimate is made of the percentage 
of cane length which is dead. This is done before the canes are cut back. No 
attempt is made to isolate canes killed by spur blight. Since the ends of the 
canes are cut back to 4 to 5 feet as standard pruning practice, the reduction in 
yield is not so severe as the amount of dead terminal would suggest. With a weak 
growing variety 10 per cent of the cane length might be removed without affecting 
yield whereas with a vigorous variety it might be as much as 25 to 30 per cent. 

The table gives the results of these estimates made over a ten year period 
for the varieties which are recommended for Massachusetts. 

The figures for 1958-59, a winter of about average temperatures, and those 
of 1960-61, a very cold winter, can be compared with those of 1959-60, a very 
warm, open winter. Comparing the '60 and '61 estimates, there was more injury in 
the warm winter of '59- '60 in every case. Comparing the '59 and '60 figures, 
only two varieties, Muskoka and Sodus appear to have suffered worse in the 
average winter than in the warm one. However, a 10 per cent difference in estimate 
is probably too small to be significant. 

Judging from the reaction to our winters, Gatineau and Early Red appear 
worthy of further trial. Gatineau has behaved well in five out of eight winters 
and Early Red five out of seven. September hasn't survived the winters so well 
but because it produces a fall crop on the terminals of the new canes, production 
is not cut as much as the amount of injury suggests. Madawaska has consistently 
come through various types of winters in good shape. Taylor is only fair in cold 
resistance, its usefulness is limited more by susceptibility to virus. While 
Muskoka has come through only four of seven winters in reasonably good shape, its 
behavior under the conditions of 1959-60 (which severely injured most other 
varieties) indicates that it is well worth further trial. It is worth noting 
that Latliam, which is usually pretty winter hardy, was severely injured in the 
1959-60 winter. Milton produces high quality fruit but is a bit too subject to 
winter injury for commercial use except in very favorable locations. The winter 
injury to the canes of Durham need cause no concern because they are cut to the 



ground every spring to control spur blight and only the fall crop is harvested. 

One of the qualities raspberry varieties need to be successful in 
Massachusetts is the ability to come through warm and changeable winters as well 
as severe cold ones. Madawaska appears to come the closest to this of any of the 
recommended varieties. 

John S. Bailey 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



STRAWBERRY TRIALS - 1961 

Some thirty named varieties and numbered selections were included in our 
1961 trials. The following is a report on some of the newer varieties and New 
Jersey 157, a premising selection for the late season. 

Earlimore Origin: ((Campbell x self) x Howard 17) University of Minnesota. 
The plants of this variety are moderate in vigor and good in both 
runner production and yield. The fruits were small in size, soft, 
poorly shaped and of only fair flavor. Earlimore does not appear to 
be adapted to our conditions. 

Fletcher Origin: (Midland x Suv/anee) New York Agr. Expt. Station (Geneva). 

The plants are moderate in vigor, runner production, and yield. The 
fruit is attractive, good in quality, and a good freezer. 

Fortune Origin: New York Agr. Expt. Station (Geneva). This newly named 

variety is very attractive in color, of good size and quality. The 
berries have tended to be somewhat irregular in shape and to be only 
fair in firmness. Our planting stock of this variety has not been 
of the same quality as the others in our tests and any comparison of 
yield data would not be fair. 

Frontenac Origin: (Erie x (Fairfax x Dresden)) New York Agr. Expt. Station 

(Geneva) . The plants are vigorous and form a good bed. The berries 
are large, conic, a medivmi dark red and good flavor. Frontenac is a 
late ripening variety that appears to be a good producer. 



Fulton 



Origin: (Starbright x Pathfinder) New York Agr. Expt. Station 
(Geneva). Fulton is vigorous and a good runner producer. The 
berries ripen in midseason, are attractive in appearance, firm and 
of good flavor. This highly productive variety merits further trial. 



Grenadier Origin: (Valentino x Fairfax) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 
The plants are fair in vigor and good in runner production. The 
fruit is unattractive, tending to be a little dark, of fair shape, 
variable in size, and only fair in flavor. Grenadier is very firm 
but has a tender skin. 



Guardsman Origin: (Claribel x Sparkle) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. The 
plants show good vigor and runner production. The berries are 
attractive, good in firmness but poor in flavor. The berries tend to 
ripen unevenly. 



- 7 - 

Jerseybclle Origin: New Jersey Agr. Expt, Station. The plants are vigorous and 
make a good bed. The fruit ripens late, is very large, firm, and 
most attractive, Jerseybelle was not a satisfactory producer in our 
trials last summer. 



Midway Origin: (Dixieland x Temple) U.S.D.A. and Maryland Expt. Station. 

The fruit is of good size, deep red color, glossy, firm, and of good 
quality. The plants are vigorous, productive and resistant to the 
common race of red stele, Midway tended to have more rot than most 
other varieties in our 1961 trials. Midway was introduced as a 
possible replacement for Fairland and Temple, 

New Jersey 157 - Origin: New Jersey Agr. Expt, Station. This selection appears 
promising for the late season. The berries are very large, 
attractive, and of good quality. The plants are vigorous and were 
very good producers in this our first test. Several undesirable 
points are the tendency oJ the primary berries to be rough, the 
tightness of the cap and the fact that it lacks resistance to red 
stele. New Jersey 157 merits trial. 

Redcoat Origin: (Sparkle x Valentine) Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

This variety produces very attractive fruit, that is firm and of good 
flavor. The plants are of moderate vigor, good in runner production 
and appear to be moderate in yield. Redcoat failed to maintain 
adequate berry size. 

Trumpeter Origin: (Burgundy x (Howard x self)) University of Minnesota, The 
plants are of moderate vigoj", good in runner production and fair in 
yield. The fruit is of good color and gloss but falls down in shape 
and smoothness. The flavor is good but the berries tend to be soft. 
Trumpeter does not appear to be adapted to our conditions. 

Data as to season, berry size, and yields for most of the strawberry vari- 
eties tested in 1961 are found in the following chart. Because of differences in 
soil fertility levels, yields between the West and Tower plots are not comparable. 
Data as to percent early was affected by a killing frost in late May, 

West Plots - 5 Replicates 



Variety 






Season^ ^ 


Berrv Size 


(2) 


No, 


of 


Calculated Yield 






7. 


Early 


7, Late 


! 1st 


3rd 


5th 


Picki 


ngs 


Quarts/Acre 












Picking 










Redglow 






53 





28 


52 


63 


6 




11,848 


Surecrop 






49 





29 


52 


61 


6 




7,696 


Pocahontas 




42 





33 


54 


85 


6 




15,144 


Midway 






38 


9 


32 


56 


66 


6 




12,720 


Catskill 






28 


27 


29 


41 


68 


9 




16,531 


Or land 






16 


23 


26 


49 


60 


7 




15,159 


Sparkle 






14 


34 


29 


48 


76 


8 




14,208 


Jerseybe 


lie 


. 


12 


25 


17 


30 


39 


7 




6,127 


N. J. 15' 


1 
June 20 


5 


49 


14 


24 


40 


8 




13,446 


(■'■'Season 


- July 


12 (10 


pickings 


) 












% 


Early 


» first 


three 


pickings 














7. 


Late = 


last f 


our pickings 












(2)Berry size 


- number of berries 


per pound. 











- 8 



Tower Plots - 3 Rcpl 


icates 


















Variety _ 


S 


cason 




Berrv Size 


No. of 
Pickings 


Cal< 


:ulated Yield 


Z 


Ear 


ly 7. 


LatG 


1st 


3rd 


5th 


jarts/Acro 












Picking 












Md.-U.S. 2601 


69 







47 


74 


138 


5 






6,897 


Md.-U.S. 2590 


69 







59 


83 


109 


5 






4,138 


N.J. 457 


55 







30 


46 


77 


6 






6,850 


Md.-U.S. 2700 


48 







34 


54 


103 


5 






7.986 


N.C.-U.S. 2/i92 


41 




8 


33 


67 


81 


6 






5,783 


N.J. 557 


40 




14 


29 


46 


72 


7 






9,854 


Fortune 


26 




12 


32 


60 


79 


6 






6,363 


N.J. 357 


23 




13 


40 


52 


75 


6 






8,774 


N»C. 1768 


18 




9 


33 


42 


64 


6 






9,5?.l 


Fulton 


16 




16 


22 


41 


71( 


6«^) 6 






11,917 


Fletcher 


14 




15 


33 


57 


93 


6 






8,820 


Md.-U.S. 2650 


12 




14 


40 


65 


80 


6 






4,755 


N.J. 257 


9 




25 


29 


39 


65 


7 






9,158 


Fronteiiac 


7 




37 


;:9 


44 


61 


7 






8,494 


Gn.ardsman 


2 




54 


26 


43 


74 


6 






6,654 



-James F. Anderson 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



FEBRUARY 1, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Blueberry Insect Control 

Electronic Farm Accounts 

Research From Other Areas 

Studies on Cold Hardiness of Peach Trees 
Nutritional Needs for Dwarf Apple Trees 

Gaibraith Baldwins 

The 1961-62 Out-of -Storage Movement to 
January 15, 1962 

The Fall Movement of Apples 

A Good Substitute for the Aspirator Bulb on 
the CA Storage Gas Analyzer 




^\ 



^\ 




A 



:^ 



^iRl^j^ 



If 







%U 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean end Director, in firtherance of the Acta of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



BLUEBERRY INSECT CONTROL 

Though It Is true that many of the newer cultivated blueberry plantings In 
Massachusetts are not seriously troubled with Insect problems, such Is not the 
case In many of the older plantings. The kinds of Insects that are known to 
infest blueberries at some time or other are quite numerous, but fortunately only 
a few are of enough Importance to require the use of Insecticides. In 
Massachusetts these are cranberry frultworm, cherry frultworm, blueberry maggot, 
Japanese beetle, and cranberry weevil. Several other species are encountered and 
are occasionally troublesome, such as fall webworms and Datana worms which feed 
In groups and sometimes defoliate Individual bushes. Sucking Insects such as 
heath splttlebug, plant bugs and leaf hoppers are minor drains on bushes and the 
sharp-nosed leafhopper has the added distinction of spreading the stunt disease 
virus of blueberry. Also troublesome at times are stem galls, stem borers, and 
scale Insects. 

Brief descriptions of these Insects and the damage they cause is contained 
In Massachusetts Extension Circular #240, "Blueberry Growing", and the control of 
the most important is outlined in the "Pest Control Chart for Cultivated Blue- 
berries" which is revised and reissued regularly by the Massachusetts Cooperative 
Extension Service. Some additional thoughts and recent developments is the 
excuse, if any, for this brief write-up. 

Much trouble and grief later on can be avoided during the pruning operation 
while the plants are dormant. Stem galls should be removed and disposed of in 
such a manner that they can not emerge and relnfest bushes the following spring. 
Canes infested with stem borers should be removed whenever they are noticed, but 
while pruning is an excellent time to be on the watch for any that might have 
been missed during the previous summer. Orange colored, frass pellets under the 
infested cane indicates activity and be sure to remove the cane below where it is 
tunnelled; and probe for any in the crown with a twig or wire if they have worked 
that far down in the bush. Though not a reliable scale insect control, regular 
removal of older, less productive canes low in the crown is helpful in retarding 
the development of serious scale insect infestations. When scales become abun- 
dant, a thorough spraying with superior oil in the dormant season is a reliable 
control. 

On quiet, warm, sunny days in the spring after the fruit buds swell, but 
before bloom has opened, is the time to be on the alert for cranberry weevil on 
bushes around the edges of the field. An occasional one can be ignored, but if 
they occur several to the bush, the field should be treated with dieldrln. One 
application is usually sufficient to clean up the infestation for several seasons 
if done before egg laying has occurred. This dieldrln application will also con- 
trol currant fruit weevils and plum curcullo that may be present in the field. 

Later, when the field is in bloom and berries are beginning to set and grow, 
they become attractive to egg laying cranberry frultworm and cherry frultworm 
moths. In recent years cherry frultworm has been responsible for serious crop 
losses in cultivated blueberry fields in Massachusetts and other states. An 
application of malathlon or Sevln, applied soon after mid-bloom and repeated in 
about 10 days, controls both of these species as well as leaf hoppers that are 
present during that period. These applications will also reduce or control heath 
splttlebug feeding at that time. 



- 2 - 

From the time berries begin to turn color until late in the auirnner they are 
subject to attack by blueberry maggot and Japanese beetle. Blueberry maggot is a 
serious pest in northern blueberry growing areas in both wild lowbush and culti- 
vated highbush varieties. Japanese beetles feed on the leaves and ripe fruit of 
blueberries and, in many areas where they are abundant, have become the number 
one insect pest encountered by the grower. 

Excellent control of maggots is obtainable with malathion alone or with a 
protein-hydrolysate plus malathion bait spray, but only temporary relief from 
Japanese beetles is obtained with malathion. During the 1961 season Sevin 
(1 naphthyl N-methylcarbaraate) was approved for use on blueberries with a toler- 
ance of 10 ppm, with no wait required between application and harvest when applied 
at the rate of up to 1.5 pounds actual Seven per acre. This insecticide has given 
outstanding control of Japanese beetles and also performs very satisfactorily 
against blueberry maggot, therefore in those areas where Japanese beetles are a 
problem, its use is suggested for maggot and beetle control during the picking 
season. 

Careful attention to the control of the insects as outlined will insure 
ample picking for the birds, and with some luck there may be some left for the 
grower . 

William E. Tomlinson, Jr. 

Research Professor 
Cranberry Station 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



ELECTRONIC FARM ACCOUNTS 

One of the problems of a managed farm has been that of keeping records. On 
many farms these are very sketchy due sometimes to the sheer hard work involved 
and the number of entries needed and the tedious job of adding and subtracting. 
The Northeastern States Cooperative Extension services have developed a plan to 
make it possible to use an electronic digital computor to do most of the work. 

All the farm manager needs to do is to list his income and expense items on 
a form provided by the system and mail them each week to the Extension Farm 
Management Specialist. Monthly summaries are printed by the computor and returned 
about the 20th of each month. 

The system is very flexible and provides for almost any classification of 
income and expense that a dairy, fruit, potato, vegetable or poultry farmer might 
want. In addition, accounts are kept of social security taxes, his weeks or 
months of labor, amounts of feed, fertilizers, spray material, capital items such 
as tractors and trucks as well as home accounts and credit account balances such 
as notes, mortgages and trade accounts. 

The system has been used on a trial basis for a year on many different sizes 
and kinds of farms and has worked very well. The time needed to write out the 
information for the computor on most forms is only a few minutes per week. 



- 3 - 

The cost depends on the size of the farm business. A 30 cow dairy farm 
would coat about $1.20 per cow for the year, a 5,000 bird laying flock about 12c 
a bird and a 50 acre fruit farm $1.A0 per acre per year. 

The ELFAC system will give each month a classification of all receipts and 
expenses for the month. Totals and subtotals of all income and expense items to 
the end of each month. Feed costs separated by different types of livestock, 
quantities of feed, supplies, milk, apples, labor (cwt., hours, number boxes, 
dozens, etc.). A listing and classification of credit accounts (amounts paid, 
charged and balances). Social security tax with running balance of amounts due. 
Family living expenses, if wanted. At the end of the year you will have the 
totals you need for income tax with the exception of depreciation on buildings - 
equipment and other depreciable assets. See your county agent for details. 

Lat-n:ence D. Rhoades 

Extension Specialist in 
Farm Management 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



RESEARCn FROM OTHER AREAS 

(Items included under this heading are for your information and may not apply to 
Massachusetts conditions in all instances.) 

Studies on Cold Hardiness of Peach Trees 

Cold hardiness studies of peach trees were conducted by Louis J. Edgerton 
and the results reported in Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station 
Bulletin No. 958, August 1960. Controlled freezing experiments were conducted 
for 12 years starting in 1942 and vrere supplemented by observations and data taken 
after chance winter freezes that resulted in varying degrees of injury to trees in 
the test orchard. 

Beloi^ is L. J. Edgerton' 8 summary of his studies on cold hardiness of peach 
trees. 

"The hardiness index, or temperature required to kill 50 per cent of the 
flower buds, was detennined from control led- freezing data for Halehaven compiled 
during this period. For each season this index of bud hardiness xiras plotted with 
the daily mean temperatures to show the fluctuations in hardiness in relation to 
temperature trends. 

"The flower buds increase in hardiness rapidly with the cooler temperatures 
of the fall and early winter. Maximum hardiness for the winter occasionally 
coincided with the end of the rest period, which occurs about January 1 at Ithaca. 
During tvro winters, hCT^ever, maximum hardiness was reached shortly before this 
date. Or it often occurred so^iietime after the first of January, associated with 
a period of continued cold temperature. In t\^o years, 1946-47 and 1955-56, 
maximum hardiness was reached after the middle of February. 

"Fluctuations in the cold hardiness were more frequent and extensive after 



- 4 - 

the rest period ended early In January. The reason for this is that three or 
four days of mild temperature while the buds are in rest result in little if any 
loss in hardiness, but similar conditions after the rest period can cause appreci- 
able loss in hardiness. Buds usually regained hardiness with succeeding periods 
of cold weather. This loss and gain of hardiness occurred periodically until the 
buds were advanced to the pink stage in the spring. In spite of the frequent 
periods when a warming trend during the winter caused loss in hardiness, a return 
to seasonal temperatures prevented extensive bud activity. Once the hardiness 
index for Halehaven dropped below -4*^. in late fall, it did not rise above this 
point until there was visible swelling of the buds in the early spring. 

"This fluctuation in hardiness while the buds were still dormant was of such 
magnitude that maximum hardiness developed during a prolonged cold period in 
January 1948, and 15 per cent of the Halehaven buds survived -19°F. Ti7o years 
later when above-normal temperatures prevailed during January, only moderate 
hardiness was attained and a temperature of -8°F. in February killed about the 
same percentage of buds on these same trees. 

"The effect of several orchard practices on bud hardiness was investigated. 
A reduction in fruit set by the use of chemical thinning sprays increased bud 
hardiness the follovfing winter. 

"Moderate differences in the level of nitrogen fertilization had little 
effect on peach bud hardiness. The effect of cultivation was compared with dif- 
ferent cover-cropping practices and likev^ise no significant effects on bud 
hardiness were detected within the levels of tree vigor obtained in these tests. 

"Studies on cold hardiness of the woody tissues indicated much slower 
development of hardiness in the wood than in the flo^7er buds. It was usually not 
until early December that the twigs became more resistant to Imi temperature in- 
jury than the f.la\iev buds, but from that time on, the bark, cambium, and sapwood 
of twigs and miain branches were generally more hardy than flo':;er buds. 

"Chemical thinning was found to promote wood hardiness during the subsequent 
winter. A nitrogen status high enough to cause excessive vegetative growth in a 
tree also hindered development of hardiness, but of wood more than bud hardiness. 

"Early winter pruning had a marked effect on susceptibility to cold injury 
in both twigs and main branches." 

---William J. Lord 

Nutritional Needs for IK^arf Apple Trees 

The Di7arf Fruit Tree Association News Letter , April, 1961, contained the 
follox/ing paper presented at the fourth annual meeting of the association by 
Dr. A. L. Kenworthy, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University. 

"We have often heard and read reports that rootstocks do affect the nutri- 
tional requirements of fruit trees. It is not difficult for us to accept the 
fact that different rootstocks will absorb different quantities of the various 
nutrients. For the past six years we have been studying these effects. The 
facts speak for themselves. Not only rootstocks but interstems affect nutrient 



absorption as measured by leaf analysis. The total quantity of nutrients absorped 
will vary with vigor, but not all of these differences are related to vigor. 

"Let us assume that an increased amount of fertilizer will be needed as we 
increase the number of trees per acre. Especially when we consider that until 
the orchard matures, we normally do not apply fertilizer over the entire orchard 
floor. As a greater percentage of the orchard floor is occupied by trees, a 
greater amount of fertilizer will be applied. Normally, the fertilizer suggestion 
would be to apply sufficient nitrogen to maintain the desired tree vigor. 

"Some of our results agree with other reports, from England for example, and 
some of our results are new and different. The study I will refer to was con- 
ducted as a doctorate research problem by one of our graduate students - Mr. 
Marcel Awad from Lebanon. This study involved Delicious, Jonathan, Mcintosh and 
Northern Spy on East Mailing I, II, V, VII, XIII and XVI. Nutrient absorption 
was measured by leaf analysis. Fruit from Delicious, Jonathan and Mcintosh were 
non-bearing age. 

Nutrient Absorption 

"Nitrogen - This element did not give any consistent difference of practical 
importance. Thus, the trees themselves would contain the same amount of nitrogen 
regardless of rootstock. However, the amount applied should vary according to 
the number of trees per acre. Perhaps not in direct proportion to the number of 
trees but Increased somewhat as number of trees per acre increase. 

"Potassium - EM II and V were lowest in potassium. EM VII, XIII, and XVI 
were intermediate and EM I was highest. This suggests, as previously reported, 
that trees growing on EM I would be least susceptible to potash deficiency. If 
planted on soils lon7 in potash, the deficiency would develop first for the 
EM II and V rootstocks. This would mean also, that larger amounts of potash 
would need to be applied to trees on EM II and V while trees on EM I may require 
considerably less potash. 

"Phosphorus - There were no consistent differences although EM V and VII 
showed somewhat higher phosphorus. There appears to be no consistent difference 
in the phosphorus absorption or requirement between rootstocks. 

"Calcium - There were no consistent differences in calcium absorption and 
apparently the different rootstocks were essentially equal in their ability to 
absorb this element. 

"Magnesium - Relatively large differences in magnesium absorption were ob- 
served between rootstocks. EM XVI x^as high and EM I and VII low. This confirms 
other reports suggesting that trees on EM I and VII may be susceptible to 
magnesium deficiency. This situation is readily detected by leaf analysis and 
easily corrected by use of epsom salts sprays or applications of doloniitic lime 
and other materials containing magnesium. 

"Manganese - Again, relatively large differences were found. EM II was 
lowest and EM XIII highest. This need not be of any particular concern because 
the differences were not great enough to result in manganese toxicity first. 
However, on soils having large amounts of available manganese, Delicious trees on 



- 6 - 

EM XIII would likely show sjmiptoms of manganese toxicity first. Conversely, on 
soils having a law supply of available manganese, trees growing on EM II would 
likely show symptoms of manganese deficiency first. 

"Iron - Inconsistent results were obtained. In general, EM I was highest 
and EM XVI lowest in iron. The differences, however, were of no essential 
practical consequence. 

"Copper - Only small differences between rootstocks were found." 

---William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

GALBRAITH BALEWINS 

Several Massachusetts growers and one grower from New Hampshire have reported 
encountering severe cracking near the stem of Galbraith Baldwins. On apples the 
writer has seen many of the cracks are quite deep (1/4 inch) and are triangular in 
shape . 

One grower reported that his first crop of Galbraiths in either 1955 or 1956 
were the most beautiful Baldwins he has ever seen. Since then, he reports the 
crops have been fair to not worth picking because of cracking. 

Another grower has 50 trees of Galbraith Baldwins, half of which are 7 years 
of age and the other half 4 years. The older trees have produced apples for the 
last 3 years and cracking of the fruit has been experienced each year. Approx- 
imately 50 per cent of the fruit showed cracking this year. In the block of 50 
Galbraith Baldwins there is one tree of a regular strain and none of the fruit 
showed cracking. 

A New Hampshire grower reports that for the past 3 years from 75 to 100 per 
cent of his Galbraith Baldwins have gone mainly into cider because of severe skin 
cracking near the stems. His adjacent Mcintosh, Delicious, and Cortland trees 
have had perfect fruit and his regular Baldwins have shown no cracking. 

Two growers with a small number of Galbraiths have reported no appre- 
ciable cracking near the stem. Also, the disorder is apparently worse some years 
than others. The cause of the cracking is not known and there are so few 
Baldwins now being planted in Massachusetts that the problem does not warrant 
research. However, growers planning to plant Baldwins might avoid planting the 
Galbraith strain. 

--- William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



THE 1961-62 OUT-OF-STORAGE MOVEMENT TO JANUARY 15. 1962 

The extended growing season apparently increased the size of the apple crop 
by several thousand bushels. More importantly, the lateness of the season deprived 
the industry of two weeks of normally good selling time. Yields, which were 
unexpectedly large, not only caused a shortage of boxes but provided many apples 
for the market in October which did not have the advantage of cold storage. The 
"clean-up" period lasted longer than usual and extended later into the fall than 
usual. This latter effect is thought to be an important factor in the slower 
than normal movement of apples this year. 

The base line movement of apples in the chart below was increased propor- 
tionately to make up for the loss of the two weeks of selling time between 
October 15 and November 1. There was a 50,000 bushel net increase in stored 
Mcintosh during these two weeks. 

The chart illustrates the weekly movement of apples. It reveals a slower 
rate than movement of apples in previous years would seem to be necessary for a 
favorable marketing season (base line percentage as a gauge). 

Movement of apples in the first two weeks of January was proportionately 
higher than previous periods and helped the storage situation. 

A better than usual rate of movement of apples into consumption would seem to 
be necessary for January 15 on, if the standard storages are cleared by March 15. 
A later clearing date would put the standard storage Mcintosh, at the end of 
their season, into direct competition with the full movement of C.A. to market. 

Apple crlspness can become an important factor in the apple market for the 
remainder of the season. 



Bu. Weekly (000 ) 
% Biweekly 

100 .. 
90 .. 
80 .. 
70 .- 
60 •• 
50 •- 
UO .. 
30 •- 
20 .. 
10 .- 
L 



1961 our OF STORAGE MOVEMENT — MASSACHUSETTS 

Mcintosh 

i;;;;;; Harvest est. 
Standard 
C. A. 
«» Base Line 
— - Actual Movement 




ws^kly movement ~ bu. 



liMIIkliailliliMHM 




SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE 
Total Stored Crop - 1,732, 000( Oct. 15 ) 



..^^^4<.L' 17 r>r>1i 



- 8 - 
THE FALL MOVEMENT OF APPLES 

The Mcintosh marketing situation has changed a great deal in the past five 
years. Two important shifts in out -of -storage movement have taken place with the 
development of controlled atmosphere storage. 

1) The season has been extended by about 12 weeks (from April 1 to June 30) 

2) The quantity of apples to be sold in the fall has been reduced by approx- 
imately the amount to be sold in the spring. 

The first shift was spectacular and was Inmediately recognized and utilized 
to the advantage of the industry. 

The second shift has occurred without much fan- fare and in fact has hardly 
been noticed. The chart below illustrates the change in marketing pattern. 

Without C.A., in a year like this one (1961-62), a weekly out -of -storage 
movement into consumption would have reached a peak of 130,000 bushels a week, 
during the four weeks between November 15 and December 15. With C.A., this move- 
ment has dropped to about 83 « 000 bushels a week. 

The effect of this decrca^te in fall movement and lengthening of marketing 
season is an improvement in the marketing position of the standard storage apples 
in the fall. A difficulty arises in that a smaller rate of consumer use is estab- 
lished in the fall with the possibility of a lower usage rate throughout the 
remainder of the season. A great deal of emphasis thus is placed upon the crlsp- 
ness of C.A. apples in order to maintain a movement of 30,000 bushels a week from 
the middle of January to the middle of April. A good fall movement of apples is 
of considerable importance to the entire apple marketing operation. 



Bu. Weekly (000) 



our OF STORAGE MOVEMENT WITH AND WITHOUT C.A. 
Massachusetts Mcintosh 



130 ■ 


{ 






^^^iM 




120 ■ 


I 




no ■ 


.™-„ 




100 ■ 
90 . 
80 - 


• 


I- 

m.: 1 ^ 


Shaded area » without C.A, 
Outlined area » with C.A. 


70 - 


• 


fe:W- 




60 . 
50 . 


• 






• 


1: ■ ^ 1 ' 












Uo . 

30 ■ 


■ 


Is: 

— 1 
1 




— i 














20 . 

10 ■ 

- 


• 


— 1 


1 

( 
l-J— 1 


l_l i 


1 ■ " 

1 

_4_ 














— 





SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE 
Total Stored Crop = 1,732,000 



- 9 - 

A GOOD SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ASPIRATOR BULB 
ON THE CA STORAGE GAS ANALYZER 

Hamilton Lincoln aC the Brookfleld Orchards has cone up with what appears to 
be an excellent substitute for the aspirator bulb on the gas analyzer. In place 
of the bulb he has Installed an automobile fuel pump with a simple on-and-off 
switch connected to a 6 or 12 volt battery. The rubber connection from the CA 
rooQ Is merely attached to the Intake side of the fuel pump and the outgo side Is 
attached to the analyzer. 

With this apparatus there Is a continuous gas flow from the CA room to the 
analyzer and no more problems with leaky aspirator bulbs. This set-up, also, 
eliminates the necessity of placing one's finger over the open-end of the main 
stop-cock which Is essential each time an aspirator bulb Is released. 

— F. W. Southwlck 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



Contributors to This Issue from Supporting Fields 

William E. Torallnson, Jr. - Research Professor, Cranberry Station, East Wareham 
Lawrence 0. Rhoades - Extension Specialist In Farm Management 
Frederick E. Cole - Extension Marketing Specialist 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



MARCH 8, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

1962 Fertilizer Recommendations 

Unloading Mcintosh Apples From Bulk Boxes 

Strawberries - Matted Row Vs. Hill System 

The Raspberry Situation 

Research From Other Areas 

Handling Apples From Storat© to Customer 
What's Wrong and How We Can Improve It 

Pomological Paragraphs 

Strawberry Production 

Apple Tree Roots 





y/^' 




:ijm 



*5. 



m 






Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, in fin-therance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Pix-chasing Agent, No. 44. 



1962 FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS 

Results of leaf samples obtained from growers' orchards in 1961 indicate 
that over one-half of the Mcintosh trees were too high in nitrogen for the best 
development of fruit color. A similar situation was found in 1960. It was 
suggested that growers reduce nitrogen applications by one third or one half in 
1961. In the majority of the orchards which were too high in nitrogen, growers 
had applied nitrogen at rates in excess of the suggested rates for normal 
applications. In some orchards, both normal and reduced rates produced nitrogen 
levels which were too high. 

In our fertilizer experiments, we have found that it may take two years for 
reduced rates of nitrogen to be effective. We have also found that omitting 
nitrogen applications from trees which were high in nitrogen did not significantly 
reduce yields below trees receiving normal rates of nitrogen. It appears that it 
may be necessary in some situations to omit nitrogen in order to bring nitrogen 
down to the desired level. 



We are suggesting that In 1962 growers should: 

(1) Apply no more than normal rates of nitrogen. 

(2) Omit or reduce nitrogen applications by one half in those 
blocks which have produced fruit with poor color. 

Suggested rate of fertilizer for normal applications are given in the 
following table. 

Normal Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Apple Orchards 

Approximate Amounts per Tree 



Potential bushel 
yield of tree 



Nitrogen 
required 



Potash 
required 



Ammonium 
Nitrate 



Muriate 

of Potash or 0-15-30 



8-16-16 



Less than 15 
15 - 25 
More than 25 



Pounds 

0.66 

0.66-1.00 

1.33-2.00 



Pounds 

1.3 

1.3-2.0 

2.7-4.3 



Pounds 

2.0 

2.0-3.0 

4.0-6.0 



Pounds 

2.1 

2.1-3.3 

4.5-7.9 



Pounds 

4.3 

4.3- 6.6 
9.0-14.3 



Pounds 

8 

8-12 
16-25 



The suggested amounts of materials to apply in the table are for hand appli- 
cations under the spread of the branches. When the materials are broadcast over 
the entire orchard floor it may be necessary to Increase the rate of application 
in order to obtain the same tree response as with the band applications. Ferti- 
lizer materials other than those given in the tables may be used so long as they 
are applied at rates which provide equivalent amounts of nitrogen and potassium. 

The tree's magnesivim and calcium requirements can best be met by main- 
taining an adequate dolomitic liming program. The pH of orchard soils should be 
maintained between 6 and 6.5. If a soil test shov;s that the pH of soil is 5.5 or 
below, magnesium sulfate sprays should be applied to prevent possible occurrence 
of magnesium deficiency. It takes from three to five years before dolomitic 
limestone is effective in correcting magnesium deficiency. When magnesium sul- 
fate sprays are used apply two to three sprays of epsom salts at the rate of 20 



pounds per 100 gallons of water. These sprays should be timed by calyx, first 
and second cover sprays. To avoid possible incompatibilities the epsom salt 
sprays should not be combined with the regular insecticidal and fungicidal sprays. 

Boron should be applied to orchard soils every three years. Borax is the 
most common material used. The rates of application per tree vary with age and 
size. Apply one-quarter pound of borax to younjg trees, one-half to three-quarters 
pound to medium age and size trees, and three-quarters to one pound to large or 
mature trees. In no case should the rate of one application of borax exceed 50 
pounds per acre. Boron may be applied as a foliar spray on a trial basis. 
Polybor-2 or Boro Spray applied at one-half pound per 100 gallons of spray one 
and three weeks after petal fall have given satisfactory results in New York 
State. 

The amounts of fertilizer applied to trees which have received annual appli- 
cations of 200 pounds or more of hay mulch per tree may be materially reduced or 
entirely eliminated. Tree performance should serve as a guide in determining the 
extent to which the rates of fertilizer may be reduced. 

In young, non-bearing orchards, it may be possible to produce sufficient 
high quality mulching material for the young trees by broadcasting 500 to 800 
pounds of mixed fertilizer per acre. Place the mulch in a band under the spread 
of the branches. The amount of fertilizer required for the trees with this 
system of culture will vary with the quantity and quality of mulch applied around 
each tree. If the trees are not making sufficient growth, one-eighth pound of 
ammonium nitrate per year of tree age may be applied to the mulch. 

Recommendations for fertilizing peach orchards are given in the following 
table. The amounts given may need to be increased if the trees are in a heavy 
sod. A suggested increase would be to double the amount of nitrogen. 

Normal Rates of Fertilizer for Bearing Peach Orchards 





Approximate Amounts per Tree 




Tree Age 


Ammonium Muriate 

Nitrate " of Potash or 0-15-30 


8-16-16 


3 - 6 
6-9 
9-12 
12 & over 


Pounds 

1 -1% 

lh'2 
2 -4 


Founds 

1-2 
2-3 
3-4 
4-8 


Pounds 

2- 4 
4- 6 
6- 8 
8-12 


Pounds 

2- 4 
4- 6 
6- 8 
8-16 



-Walter D. Weeks 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



UNLOADING McINTOSH APPLES FROM BUDC BOXES 



Research conducted by Prof, 0. C. Roberts, Department of Horticulture, 
University of Massachusetts in 1959 showed that bulk boxes may be used for Mcintosh 



- 3 - 

apples as a harvest and storage container without an appreciable Increase of 
bruising and stem punctures. These bulk boxes had the Inside dimensions of 
38-1/8" X 34" X 26" and held approximately 15-1/2 bushels. 

Roberts' research showed that dumping the apples with a one-half inversion 
dumper caused an excessive Increase In the percentage of apples with stem punc- 
tures from the bulk boxes compared with hand dumping of Northeastern apple crates. 

In December of this year, the writer compared hand dumping Mcintosh apples 
from northeastern apple crates with unloading bulk boxes of apples with a water 
submergence device. The hand dumping consisted of dumping apples in eastern 
boxes with the aid of a burlap bag, with one end tacked to the grader, on the 
receiving table of a commercial grader. The bulk boxes were unloaded in a water 
submergence unloading device and the test fruit were removed from the water tank 
Just ahead of the removal conveyor which carries the apples from the tank to the 
cull eliminator. 

Approximately 12 per cent of the apples hand dvmiped on the receiving table 
of the commercial grader had broken skin. Only 2.6 per cent of the apples from the 
bulk boxes had this type of mechanical injury. These data Bhcn^} that the operating 
principle of unloading bulk boxes of Mcintosh apples by water floatation is 
effective from the standpoint of minimizing damage from broken skin. 

"-William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

STRAWBERRIES - MATTED ROW VS. HILL SYSTEM 

In the East, strawberries are grown almost entirely in matted rows. The 
mother plants are set 18 to 24 inches apart (24 inches is not too much for virus- 
free plants) in rows 3-1/2 to 5 feet apart. The runner, or daughter plants are 
allowed to root where they will and fill in the row. Some growers thin the 
daughter plants in the fall; most do not. 

Under the hill system as many plants as are to be in the field are all set 
at one time. They are usually set about 12 inches apart in xcKtB 18 inches apart. 
Two or three rows are set and then a path 30 inches wide is left. With 3 ro^^s 
and a path it takes a little less than 24,000 plants to set an acre. After the 
plants are set, runners are removed periodically so that no daughter plants are 
produced. The crm^ns of the plants get very large and usually have several 
branches. This system has not been popular in the eastern United States because 
of the added labor and cost of setting so many plants and of keeping the runners 
removed. The big advantage, the one which makes the hill system popular in the 
far west and south, is higher yields. 

Several years ago Dr. John Tompkins of the New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station in Geneva using six varieties consistently obtained higher yields from 
the hill system than from matted ro^^s. Where irrigation was used the increase of 
hills over matted rows was 6,500 to 14,300 quarts per acre; with no irrigation 
the Increase was 1,900 to 7,100 quarts per acre. 



since some of these differences are quite Impressive, It seemed desirable to 
see if similar results could be obtained under Massachusetts conditions. 

This experiment was started In the spring of 1959. Virus-free Surecrop 
plants were used because of their red stele resistance. In the matted row plots 
the plants were set 2A Inches apart In rows 5 feet apart. In the hill system 
plots the plants were set 12" x 12", 3 plants across the bed, the centers of the 
beds 5 feet apart. Yields were obtained in 1960 and 1961 and are given in quarts 
per acre in the following table. 

1960 1961 

Hill 15,A40 8,350 

Matted row 12.570 5.980 

Difference in favor of hill 2,870 2,370 

In 1960 the yield of the matted row plots was unexpectedly and astonishingly 
high. Consequently, the difference in yield between the two systems, 2870 quarts, 
was not so great as anticipated. In 1961 the yields under both systems were only 
about half those of 1960. In spite of this difference in years, the differences 
In favor of the hill system were surprisingly close in the two years. These 
differences are probably not great enough to justify changing to the hill system. 

Numerous attempts have been made to solve the runner problem inherent in the 
hill system by either reducing runner production with chemicals or by cutting the 
runners with a machine. The chemical roalelc hydrazlde will suppress runner 
growth if applied properly but it has caused plant Injury and crop reduction too 
often to be recommended or used with confidence. Several runner cutters have been 
developed and tried with limited success. Certainly, the introduction of better 
chemicals or runner cutters to suppress runner production would make the hill 
system of culture look more attractive, 

John S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



THE RASPBERRY SITUATION 

At one time Massachusetts had a thriving red raspberry Industry. Many small 
farms, particularly In the hill towns, derived a considerable portion of their 
income from raspberry crops. About 1915 production began to decline and by the 
early thirties had reached such a low point that it looked as if raspberry 
growing for profit might disappear from the state. Production is still very low. 
Why this decline and why hasn't the industry revived? 

At the time of the Industry's decline Cuthbert was the principal variety. 
The fruit of this old variety is of extremely high quality and was very popular 
with consumers. It probably would have continued in production much longer in 
locations where winter injury could be kept to a minimum if it had not become so 
universally virus infected and consequently so much weakened. In spite of virus 
Infection it persisted and bore good crops in some of the hill to^ms for a number 



of years after It had been discarded elsewhere. At the present time, the Taylor 
variety which is also very susceptible to virus infection can be grown success- 
fully in the hill tovms at higher elevations although at lower levels elsewhere 
in the state it quickly declines. 

Winter injury and disease, particularly virus infection, have been the two 
chief causes for the decline of the red raspberry industry. Winter injury was 
discussed in the January 1962 issue of Fruit Notes . 

Of the several diseases which attack raspberries, virus is undoubtedly the 
most serious both because of its effect on the plant and because of the wide- 
spread prevalence of the virus troubles. Popularly, two types of virus are 
recognized, mosaic and leaf curl. These are complexes but not all the entities 
which make them up have been identified although this is now being studied in 
several places. 

The seriousness of the situation can be appreciated from the consideration 
of its several aspects. Wild raspberries are very common in New England and are 
probably universally infected. Virus is spread by aphids which are also common 
in New England, at least at certain times of year. Aphids with virus in them 
need to feed only a short time to transmit it to uninfected plants. Most stocks 
of commercial varieties of raspberries are virus infected. Some are more tolerant 
of virus than others and, therefore, are not so quickly or seriously affected. 
There is no known source of virus-free Latham plants, our most important commer- 
cial variety. 

Serious as the situation is, it is not hopeless. It has been found that 
some varieties are much less attractive to aphids than others. This together 
with greater tolerance of some varieties opens the way for the breeding of 
varieties which are less likely to become infected and will be less seriously 
affected if infection occurs. 

Research workers in the U.S.D.A. and Canada have been searching for virus- 
free stocks of raspberry varieties. Those now available in virus-free condition 
are: 

Red raspberries: 

Canby Muskoka 

Carnival Newbury 

Comet Ottawa 

Cuthbert Rideau 

Durham September 

Indian Summer Taylor 

Lloyd George Trent 

Madawaska Willamette 
Milton 

Black raspberries: 

Bristol Morrison 

Cumberland New Logan 

Dundee 



- 6 - 

At present only limited supplies of these virus- £ree stocks are available. 
They are being used for experimental purposes and are not available to growers. 

Although this list of varieties is short and most are of little value in 
Massachusetts, it indicates that a good start has been made toward finding virus- 
free plants of a longer list. It is not yet known how long virus-free plants can 
be kept in this condition under field conditions but short time experience makes 
it look hopeful. 

Severe spur blight infection has been discouraging to some growers. This is 
a fungus disease which girdles and kills the canes. Control measures were worked 
out a number of years ago and seemed very effective in some areas. Recently 
these measures have given very poor control in New England. Several varieties, 
particularly our principal commercial variety Latham, are quite susceptible. 

"Crumbles" is another trouble which bothers at times. The sections of the 
berry separate, or crumble, so that the fruit is fit only for jam making. The 
cause and prevention of this trouble are unknown. 

Because of their perishability, the handling of raspberries from grower to 
market has always been a serious problem. This has become much less of a problem 
with the development of rapid, comfortable autcmoblle travel. The consumer is 
willing to go to the grower and either buy what the grower has picked or pick his 
own berries. The pick-your-own system of marketing has also solved the problem 
of getting good pickers. 

Until recently, weeds, particularly grasses, have presented a serious prob- 
lem in raspberry plantings. Hand weeding in the rows became too time-consuming 
and too expensive. By the use of 2,4-0 for broadleaf weeds and dalapon for the 
grasses, this problem has ceased to be serious. 

While several of the lesser problems of raspberry growing have been partly 
or totally solved, the two main causes of the decline of raspberry growing in 
Massachusetts, winter injury and virus Infection, remain unsolved. Until these 
are solved, it is unlikely that raspberry growing will ever reach its former 
importance in Massachusetts. 

John S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 

(Items Included under this heading are for your information and may not apply to 
Massachusetts conditions In all instances.) 

Handling Apples From Storage to Customer - What's Wrong and How We Can Improve It 

Frederick A. Perkins reported in a leaflet of the Department of Agricultural 
Economics, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Rutgers-The State University, 



New Brunswick, New Jersey, that the ntnnber of bruises on Mcintosh apples nearly 
doubled from the farm (via warehouse) to the retail store. Sixty-four per cent 
of the apples on retail display were bruised with 20 per cent having serious 
bruising (bruises 3/4 inch and over in diameter). 

In the discussion of how bruising can be reduced, Perkins stated that 
shipping tests with Starr apples indicate that direct delivery of bagged apples 
from the farm to retail stores resulted in substantially less bruising than when 
the apples are moved through warehouses. 

Bruising is influenced by bag placement within master cartons. Perkins 
found over three times more severe bruises occurred on apples when the bags were 
placed vertically in a single tier than when the bags were laid horizontally in 
two tiers in a master carton. "The apples in the bottom layer of this carton had 
about the same per cent moderate bruising as occurred in the top layer, but 
showed five times as much serious bruising." Perkins concluded from this study 
that most of the bruising was caused by impacts in handling and trucking. 

Perkins and Underwood have shown that 50 per cent less bruising occurs on 
Mcintosh apples packaged in cellophane overwrapped trays than in polyethylene 
bags. "The cost of using these tray containers is approximately one cent per 
pound of fruit more than the cost of using polyethylene bags." 

A study conducted by R. A. Shadburn, Agricultural Marketing Service, involving 
test shipment of Mcintosh apples in fibreboard cartons from New England to Florida 
markets has revealed that better loading methods can reduce bruising and improve 
the refrigeration of apples during transit. The bruising was much less on apples 
in cell cartons than on bagged apples. Most frequently damage occurred to apples 
in containers located at the rear of trailers. "Other conclusions from this 
study suggested the need for more uniformity of carton sizes to improve loading 
patterns, and the need for closer supervision of loading by shippers." 

Perkins stated that, "It is very likely that in many cases insufficient atten- 
tion is presently being given to the importance of fruit firmness and its impact 
of bruising in determining when to harvest and sell specific lots of apples." 

The need for bulk handling techniques which can be universally applied in 
handling apples at the farm and through the warehouses and retail stores was 
suggested. 

Perkins stated that, "Any effective program aimed at supplying consumers 
with apples of high quality and pleasing appearance requires joint effort on the 
part of growers, truckers, warehousemen, produce personnel and others who handle 
apples. Our educational programs, therefore, need to reach all members of the 
trade and should strive to acquaint those actively engaged in handling apples 
with the latest, up-to-date Information essential for stimulating the most rapid 
adoption of improved practices for marketing apples." 

-"William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



PCM'IOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 

Strawberry Production 

The ten major strawberry producing states In 1960 and the portion of total 
United States crop were: California (337.), Ore;5on (16%), Washington (9%), 
Michigan (97.), Tennessee (57.), Arkansas (47.), Louisiana (37.), New York (37.), New 
Jersey (37.), Virginia (27.). 

The principal strawberry varieties of the United States based on percentage 
of commercial acreage in 1960 are shown in the following table taken from an 
article of D. H. Scott, USDA, titled "New Varieties and the Variety Picture in 
Relation to Strawberry Production" published in the 1960 Transactions of the 
Peninsula Horticultural Society . 

Variety % Variety TL 

Blakemore 18 Jerseybelle 2 

Northwest 17 Pocahontas 2 

Robinson 

Lassen 

Headliner 

Tennessee Beauty 

Catskill 

Sparkle 

Howard 17 

Shasta 

Marshall 

^These include Earlldawn, Empire, Fairfax, Klondike, Midland, Missionary, Redstar, 
Surecrop, and Vermilion. 

— -William J. Lord 

Apple Tree Roots 

The growth habit of the above-ground portion of apple trees is apparent to 
growers. However, this is not the situation with the roots and the results of 
some studies on this part of the tree may be of Interest. 

The young growing apple root is white and succulent with very short root 
hairs. Apparently, these root hairs are short lived and are able to absorb water 
and other materials for only one to four weeks. New root hairs are continually 
formed in back of the growing tip. 

The majority of the growing roots do not persist. However, some remain to 
form the framework for the new root system. 

Root growth of apple trees is correlated with soil temperature. Some growth 
occurs during the winter months when soil temperature is from 35 to 45°F. Active 
root growth commences at temperatures from about 45°F upward and Increases with 
rising temperature. The studies by Rogers in England indicate that active root 
growth begins a month or two before shoot growth and continues after shoot growth 



18 


Jerseybelle 


17 


Pocahontas 


9 


Albritton 


7 


Armore 


6 


Dixieland 


6 


Dunlap 


6 


Florida Ninety 


4 


Klonmore 


4 


Slletz 


4 


Otherl 


4 





- 9 - 

ceases. Helnlcke In New York has shown that while some root growth may take 
place during the dormant season, the amount Is relatively small compared to that 
made several weeks preceding leaf fall. 

Boynton in New York found that the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels In the 
soil affected feeder root formation. When the oxygen level of the soil was 
reduced somewhat below 15 per cent and the percentage of carbon dioxide increased 
about the same araountj the rate of new root fozmatlon decreased. 

Root systems of apple trees show large differences on different soils. 
Rooting Is shallower and tree growth poorer on poorly drained soils. 

Cultural practices can affect root distribution. Probably most striking in 
this aspect is that of mulch. Conditions under mulch appear to be very favorable 
for root growth and generally a thick mat of roots can be found near the soil 
surface under the mulch and extending into the mulch. 

Velhmeyer and Hendrickson in California have found that withholding irriga- 
tion does not force trees to send roots deeper into the soil. Light irrigation 
does not encourage shallow rooting, and irrigation of one side of the tree only 
will not result in confining the roots to that side. 

---William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



'^sut' 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massochusetts, Amherst 



APRIL 2, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Scab Fungicides 

Electric Motor Maintenance 

Comparative Grain Bait Tests for 
Controlling Meadow Mice in Orchards 

What's Wrong With Pears? 

Pomological Paragraphs 
Repair of Boxes 

Methods of Scald Control on the Apple 
Leaf Analyses 

Strawberry Planting Stock 

Size-Controlling Apple Rootstocks 




/y 



//f 









,'";>.' 



^^JX. 



,i»^. 





-^^ 







■^*t' 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Diuctor, in ftrtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts. United States Dertnrtment nf AfTrimiltiw^k ar\A nniint\/ P^tMnalnn Q**-i,i,-j>a />nnn*fati«« 



SCAB FUNGICIDES 



The following information about scab fungicides was obtained from various 
sources and should be helpful in selection and use of materials in the disease 
control program. 



Material 



RET. 



RED. 



*Infection time from beginning 
of rain 



"1^5^ 



lo^ 



55^ 



60OF 



Captan 50% 2 lbs. 
Dichlone 50% 1/2 lb. 



Dodine 
**Ferbam 
**Glyodin 



1/4 lb. 

65% 1/2 lb. 
75% 1-1/2 lbs. 
30% 1 qt. 



**Glyoxide 70% 10 ozs. 

Phenyl Mercury 

10% 1/2 pt. 
10% 1/4 pt. 



**Sulfur 
**Paste 

Thiram 



95% 5 lbs. 
70% 7 lbs. 
65% 2 lbs. 



Fair 
Fair 
Fair 
Good 
Very Good 
Good 
Good 

Good 
Good 

Fair 

Good 

Fair 



Good 
Fair 
Fair 
Good 
Good 
Poor 
Poor 

Poor 
Poor 

Good 

Good 

Fair 



40 hrs. 
60 
50 
? 
20 
20 
20 



90t 
60* 



24 hrs. 

48 

36 

28 

14 

14 

14 



72 
48 



20 hrs. 

40 

30 

25 

11 

11 

11 



65 
40 



18 hrs. 
36 
24 
20 

9 

9 

9 



60 
36 



20 
20 
36 



14 
14 
20 



11 
11 
18 



9 

9 

15 



RET. = Retention or the ability to withstand the washing action of rain. 

RED. = Redistribution or property of being washed around by rain to other parts 
of the leaf or from leaf to leaf. 

Retention and redistribution are interesting properties. Obviously, the 
most desirable combination is sufficient retention so the fungicide is not washed 
off easily and at the same time some redistribution so the spray will wash to 
parts where no spray was applied. These properties are difficult to evaluate for 
scab control. For example, the retention of captan, when subjected to rain 
washing tests in the laboratory, is only fair and yet, in the orchard, it gives 
excellent scab control. The retention of ferbam is very good and much better 
than captan and it also has good redistribution, yet it does not give as good 
scab control as captan or thiram. Nor is it as good as glyodin which has good re- 
tention but only poor redistribution. Again we repeat, the properties of retention 
and redistribution are interesting but the performance of the fungicide in the 
field is what counts. 

*Infection time in the table is calculated from the beginning of the rain and is 
for the average temperature during an infection period. The hours in the column 
for a given temperature are different for different fungicides. To be sure of 



4 



- 2 =. 

scab control, the grower should apply a fungicide before the hours for the fungi- 
cide have run out. 

A grower will need to use some judgement in deciding vrhether to depend on the 
hours in the table or whether to adjust them. For example, if the temperature at 
the beginning of the infection rain is 50°F and 2 or 3 hours later rises to 55<^ 
or higher, he would be safer to use the hours «t the higher temperature and would 
have a shorter time to apply his spray. Conversely, if the temperature drops 
shortly after the rain starts, he would be reasonably safe if he took a longer 
time to apply his spray. The smart grov^rer will not take chances but will apply 
his sprays either before the rain starts or as soon thereafter as he can even if 
he needs to spray in the rain. 

*^rhese materials are strictly protectant materials and must be applied before 
the hours for them run out. NOTE that they have the shortest infection time of 
all the materials listed. 



C. J. Gilgut 

ELECTRIC MOTOR MAINTENANCE 

Years of satisfactory service from the electric motors used on the farm or In the homo 
practically Is assured when you provide a minimum of care and maintenance. This care 
consists of cleaning, lubricating, storing, and for Chose motors so equipped, caring 
for the brushes and commutator. 

ClganlnR . Electric motor enemies are ! (1) dust, 
(2) excess oil, (3) moisture. Dust fights lub- 
rication. Every minute of every day, dust Is 
settling on motors — on housings, on windings, 
on slip rings and commutators -- trying to work 
Its way Into bearings. Oh windings, dust acts 
as a layer of Insulation, confining heat until 
It may reach dangerous temperatures. Dust also 
plugs ventilation spaces further Interfering 
with proper cooling. Otice Inside bearings, dust 
can be as harmful as sandpaper to the highly pot 
lohed surfaces. If allowed to fill up the open 
spaces In windings. It turns the whole wound sec- 
tion into a sponge for soaking up harmful oil, 
moisture, acid fumes, etc. 




THist "blankets" a motor with 
a layer of Inoulotlon, caus- 
ing heating. 



rhe time to catch dust In motors is before It has had a chance to unite with oil or 



water to form a gummy mess. 




Oil Is quick to attack In- 
sulation v/hen It reaches It, 



That means wiping off the motors on regular inspections 
-- their housings, slip rings, commutators, and occasion- 
ally blowing dust out of the end bells with fairly low 
proosure. A vacuum cleaner la a good t>ource of air under 
sufficient prcooure for this purpose. Use the suction 
end first to withdraw ao much dirt as possible. Use the 
pressure end next to force air and dust through to the 
other side. 

Useful oil inside of the bearings is the life blood of 
motors; outside the bearings, oil Is strictly poison. 
Oil catches dust. Just as flypaper catches flies. Chco a 
winding la thoroughly oil soaked, the motor Is In immedi- 
ate danger of a bum out or a breakdown. 



If oil and dust have been allowed to build up, It should be removed with the aid 
of a solvent, preferably a non-lnf Inntmable one, such as solvent no. 5.. DO NOT USE 
CARBON tetrachloride! Its fumes are dangerous to breathe and can cause blindness. 
Uoe solvents with caution; take care not to soak the Insulation on which the sol- 
vent is apt to have a softening effect. 



When dry, insula- 
tion handles volt- 
age easily - - - 



but let It 
get sonked 
and - 



voltage may be 
too much for it 
to hold. 




Avoid motor locations 
where dripping, splash- 
ing, or flooding of water 
is a possibility. 



Lubricating . Proper lubrication is a very Important step in electric motor main- 
tenance. It means the use of the right lubricant, in the right amount, and at the 
right time intervals. Over- lubrication is just ao oerious as under- lubrication. The 
correct amount of lubricant will remain in the bearings to reduce friction, heat and 
wear. Manufacturer's directiono should be follovred clooely. If manufacturer's direc- 
tions are not available, use (if there are oil holes) a light (S.A.E. 10) oil on small 
motors of less than one horsepower. Use S.A.E. 20 on larger motors that require oil. 
Always be sure the oil holes are capped or covered, to keep dirt and dust out. 

Metal to metal contact of the brooo sleeve bearing around the steel shaft is prevented 
by a film of oil. tbtors with sleeve type bearings mny have oil wick- lubricated bear- 
ings or yam packed bearings. Larger sleeve bearings may have ring oilers in them. 
Periodic oiling with small amounts of oil for thia type of bearing is necessary. Fre- 
quency will depend upon the amount of use of the motor. 

Lubrication is far less critical with a ball bearing than with a sleeve bearing motor. 
Some types of ball bearings are pre- lubricated and sealed by the manufacturer and 
should not be disturbed. 

Storing . Electric motors should be stored in a dry place and kept free from dirt. 
The following steps are recoraraended for preparing a motor for storages (a) Wipe the 
outside of the motor with a cloth to remove dirt and grease, (b) Check bearings for 
lubrication and add fresh oil or grease as required. (c) Cover the shaft extension 
with coating of grease to prevent rusting. (d) Wrap the motor with heavy paper to 
keep dust and dirt from accumulating in it. 

Caring for Commutator and Brushes. Proper care of commutator and brushes is impor- 
tant to obtain satisfactory service and long life from commutator type motors. Emery 
paper should never be used for cleaning a corrrmutator since emery dust is a good con- 
ductor of electricity and may cause short circuits. Badly worn brushes should be re- 
placed with new ones. It is important to secure the proper brushes from the manu- 
facturer or motor service agency. 

For further information, sec FE-3, Connecting and Protecting Electric Motors. 



REMEMBER, PROPER CARE MEANS LESS WEAR 

C. A. Johnson 



COMPARATIVE GRAIN BAIT TESTS FOR CONTROLLING 
MEADOW MICE IN ORCHARDS 

Cafeteria-type preference tests were conducted during October 1961 in a 
Massachusetts orchard to determine whether cracked corn or stearaed-crushed oats 
were preferred by meadov; mice. Test results indicated that at twenty- five of the 
thirty sites oats were preferred. After a 24-hour period, however, both piles of 
grain had been consumed at most stations. Although the te.sts showed that steamed- 
crushed oats were accepted first, the significance of this preference is not 
definitely knoi-m. 

Twenty-three comparative bait tests, broadcasting 2 per cent Zinc Phosphide- 
treated grain baits, v/ere conducted in the region during the fall of 1961 after 
the apples were harvested. The average per cent control of meadow mice with each 
bait was as follov^s: steamed-crushed oats, 78%; cracked corn, 67%; and a mixture 
of oat groats and cracked corn, 71%. 

It was interested to note that in 1959, twelve tests were conducted in 
orchards throughout the region by the same personnel using 2 per cent Zinc 
Phosphide-treated steamed-crushed oats broadcast by hand seeder, fertilizer 
spreader, and by aircraft. The average control of meadov; mice in these tests was 
also 78 per cent. 

These comparative bait tests pointed out that control in some orchards was 
very successful with one bait; whereas in other orchards treated with the same 
bait control was not satisfactory. The variability in control with all three 
baits makes it difficult to ascertain v/hether the differences in per cent control 
are significant. 

The importance of favorable weather for at least two days following applica- 
tion v<ras reflected in the success of the control. Further, an even distribution 
of bait is equally important to insure good control. Although broadcast baits 
can be easily and quickly applied, the degree of control attained is considerably 
less than the 95 per cent average control consistently obtained with the Orchard 
Mouse Trail Builder. 

John U. Peterson, 

Asst. District Agent 

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



WHAT'S ;^niONG WITH PEARS? 

Fruit growers are constantly asking us what variety of apple to plant. Less 
frequently, they are asking what varieties of peaches to plant, and rarely ask 
what variety of pears to plant. 

Most growers remember difficult times in producing pears. They recall poor 
production, small fruit, and worst of all, fireblight. 

Pear production in the East has followed a very dtefinite cycle. At one time 



- 5 - 

there were many pear trees, and although fireblight occasionally caused trouble 
with the more susceptible varieties, pruning seemed to take care of it pretty 
well. 

When the fertilizer industry came along with cheaper fertilizers carrying 
higher amounts of nitrogen, growers were able to increase production with the 
higher fertilizer rates which, in turn, caused a lush tree growth, followed by a 
significant increase in fireblight. 

As a result, the more susceptible varieties of pears were lost and the pears 
were neglected, while orchardists made profits in apples. 

This was yesterday. What about today? 

Orchardists should re-evaluate the pear in the light of today's knowledge. 

First of all, growers who have pears available find it very profitable, and 
very few orchardists have sufficient pears to meet their present retail 
requirements . 

This situation should continue, since the cost of getting West Coast pears 
to the East remains high, and since the mysterious malady known as "pear decline" 
is affecting West Coast production. This disease has, in effect, given us a shot 
at the wholesale pear market, also. 

We now have new varieties, such as Morgan and Carrick, which are resistant 
to fireblight, and there are many other varieties now offered that show resist- 
ance. Experiment stations and nurseries are also working on development of other 
resistant varieties. 

Furthermore, it is believed that fireblight can be minimized by maintaining 
pear trees at moderate vigor. About six to twelve inches of new growth each year 
seems to be sufficient, and light pruning with moderate fertilization will give 
adequate production while keeping the vigor from being excessive. 

New antibiotic sprays show real promise in controlling fireblight when it 
does occur. 

Although hand thinning is costly, some growers feel that it pays off, and if 
production of pears increased, certainly chemical thinners would be developed. 

Pears can be stored longer in boxes lined with polyethylene. About 80 to 90 
per cent of the pears from the Northwest are now packed in sealed, 1.5 mil poly- 
ethylene liners. The storage life is extended considerably at temperatures of 
30°F. Typically, four to six weeks can be added to the storage life. 

For these reasons, then, it would seem that growers should look into the 
possibility of raising more pears. They sell easily, they move in roadside 
stands at a good profit, and there is every reason to believe stores and wholesale 
markets would welcome them. 

William R. Goss 

Worcester County Extension Agent 
in Agriculture 



- 6 - 

POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 

Repair of Boxes 

One Massachusetts grower uses a stapling machine with 1-1/2 inch staples for 
repair of field crates. The machine is powered by an air compressor. After 
grading and packing, the empty field crates and filled master cartons are placed 
on a conveyor and transported to one end of the packing shed. At this point, the 
master cartons are sealed and any broken boxes are repaired by the use of the 
stapling machine. The crates are then removed from the conveyor and stored. 
This method appears to be an efficient way to keep boxes in good repair and may 
warrant consideration on the part of other growers. The grower suggests the use 
of nylon or rosin-coated staples for greater holding capacity. 

---William J. Lord 

Methods of Scald Control on the Apple is the title of a research report published 
October 1961 with R. M. Smock the author. This report. Bulletin No. 970, is 
available from Cornell University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca, New 
York. 



• — William J. Lord 



Leaf Analyses 



The analyses of leaf samples taken from our Mcintosh orchards for the last 
three years shov; that high nitrogen has been a consistent problem even in a light 
crop year such as 1960. Trees which have received the same fertilizer program 
for several years will have a nitrogen level which is .2 to .3 of a per cent 
lower in a light crop year than it is in a heavy crop year. 

Leaf Analyses of Mcintosh Orchards 

No. of Per Cent of Samples With; 

Year Samples High Nitrogen Low Potass ivmi Low Magnesium 

1959 136 46.3 15.4 38.2 

1960 98 36.7 10.2 9.2 

1961 108 50.0 5^^6 8^3 

Although these samples are not from the same orchards, it appears that the 
potassium and magnesium levels are improving. However, growers should not relax 
in their efforts to provide these elements regularly. 

Growers contemplating the adjustment of nitrogen level in their orchards 
must realize that it may take two years for reduced rates of nitrogen to be 
effective. Also, leaf analyses should be requested from county agents in order to 
follow the effect of the fertilizer program adjustments on the nutritional status 
of the trees. 

It is the amount of actual nitrogen applied and not the source of nitrogen 
that is Important in fertilization of apples. It may be logical to reduce the 
rate of nitrogen fertilization but to maintain the potash level. This can be 
easily done by growers using the combination of ammonium nitrate and muriate of 
potash. 

William J. Lord 



STRA1J3ERRY PIA'JTING STOCK 

The selection of planting stock to establish a strawberry bed is of major 
importance. The disadvantages of poor planting stock can never be overcome. 

Within the past 15 years, virus-free plants for most of our common varieties 
have been found. To kesp these plants free from virus and other disease and in- 
sect pests requires many special practices. Foundation stock, knoxim to be free 
of virus, is grovm in a screenhouse on fumigated soil and dusted regularly for 
aphid and mite control. These plants are indexed regularly to ascertain their 
continued freedom from virus and are also examined for red stele and other 
injurious diseases. 

The planting stock available to the strawberry grov/er is one, two or three 
years removed from this foundation stock and is gro\m in open fields. Though 
many precautions such as regular dusting and isolation are taken, some of these 
field-grOTm plants may become virus infected and as such cannot be considered com- 
pletely virus-free. Though not completely virus-free, these plants are vastly 
superior to the regular run of nursery plants and should be used when available. 

All of the varieties nov; recommended for commercial planting in Massachusetts 
such as Earlidawn, Midland, Redglow, Surecrop, Catskill, Robinson, Sparkle, and 
Armore, are available as "virus-free" plants. "Virus-free" planting stock of 
Midway and Jerseybelle, tV70 varieties suggested for trial, is also available. 

The following table is offered as a guide for future variety selection to 
those growers who have experienced trouble with verticillium wilt in past years. 



Reaction of Some Strawberry 


Varieties to Verticillium V7ilt in New Jersey (1,2). 


Most Resistant 


Intermediate Most Susceptible 


Disease 
Variety Index(^) 


Disease Disease 
Variety Index Variety Index 



Vermilion 




0.0 


Redglow 


Cavalier 




1.0 


Empire 


Catskill 




1.0 


Fairfax 


Surecrop 




5.7 


Fair land 


Robinson 




6.0 




Howard 17 


(US DA) 


9.4 




Grenadier 




10.0 




Temple 




14.6 




Howard 17 




16.7 





29.7 


Sparkle 


53.1 


30.7 


Armore 


56.8 


37.0 


Pocahontas 


59.4 


38.0 


New Jersey 157 


64.5 




Midland 


65.6 




Jerseybelle 


69.3 




Midv;ay 


71.3 




Earlidawn 


94.3 



^^^Based on a scale in which indicates all plants apparently healthy and 100 
all plants dead. 



Literature Cited 

1. Varney, E. H., J. N. Moore, and D. H. Scott. 1959. Field resistance of 

various strawberry varieties and selections to Verticillium. Plant Disease 
Reporter 43:567-569. 



- 8 - 

2. Varney, E. H., J. N. Moore, and D. II. Scott. I960. Field resistance of 29 
additional strawberry varieties and selections to Vert ici Ilium. Plant 
Disease Reporter 44:370-371. 

James F. Anderson 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

SIZE-CONTROLLING APPLE ROOTSTOCKS 

At the symposium on Size-Controlling Apple Rootstocks held at the University 
of Connecticut, Karl D. Brase, Geneva Experiment Station, discussed "Points That 
Must Receive Attention Xvhen Propagating and Planting Apple Varieties on Size- 
Controlling Clonal Rootstocks". 

Brase classified size-controlling apple rootstocks into four groups: 
(1) stocks having strong dwarfing effect - E.ll. (East Mailing) VIII, E.M. IX, 
E.M. XX, and E.M. ]CiI; (2) stocks that cause a semi-dwarfing growth of the 
variety - E.M. VII, M.M. (Malling-Kerton) 106, E.M. II, and possibly M.M. ill; 
(3) stocks that cause vigorous grovjth of the variety - E.M. I, E.M. IV, E.M. XI, 
M.M. 104, M.M. 109, and A2; and (4) stocks that cause very strong growth of the 
variety - E.M. XII, E.M. XIII, E.M. XV, E.M. XVI, and E.M. XXV. 

At the present time, only E.M. II and E.M. VII are recommended for commer- 
cial orchards in Massachusetts vrith E.M. VII being the main size-controlling 
rootstock used. E.M. IX has been recommended only for the backyard gardener. 
The M.M. (Malling-Merton) group needs further testing. 

E.M. IX - Brase stated that E.M. IX, v/hich has very brittle roots, can be grown 
without being supported provided they are properly constructed and planted. 
Deeper planting is possible by having a longer rootstock portion. 

E.M. IX requires a deep well-drained soil and mature trees on this stock are 
no larger than one-quarter of the same variety on a seedling rootstock. E.M. IX 
can be used as an interstock between a standard rootstock and the scion variety. 
Trees constructed this way are larger than when E.M. IX is used as the rootstock 
being at maturity about one-third the size of standard trees of the same variety. 

"The strong dwarfing effect of the E.M. IX clonal rootstock is not, as some 
believe, due to a shallow and limited root system, but rather to genetic char- 
acteristics; namely, the thick bark of roots and trunk that limits nutrient 
conduction from the soil but favors a storage of carbohydrates produced by the 
leaves." 

E.M. VII - One and two-year old trees on E.M. VII have thin roots which tend to 
grow downward and if planted too shallow start leaning before stronger roots can 
develop. "If planted shallow there is also a tendency to produce abundant sucker 
growth from the root system. For these reasons, particular care must be taken to 
bud the variety to E.M. VII high enough so that on transplanting to the orchard 
deeper planting is possible but still have the varietal rootstock graft union just 
above soil level. Deeper planting will prevent leaning and also suppress sucker 
growth from the root system. But, even if the tree is planted deeper, care also 



- 9 - 

must be taken to spread the fine roots when the planting hole is filled with soil. 
Too often have I seen planting operations where soil was pushed into the planting 
hole quickly forcing the roots against the rootstock trunk. If this is done, 
even a properly propagated and deeper planted tree will start leaning because the 
roots present at planting do not contribute to anchorage of the tree. E.M. VII 
appears to be best suited for heavier soils and stronger growing varieties. 
Mcintosh, Red Delicious, Golden Delicious and even Northern Spy do well on 
E.M. Vll." 

E.M. II - "E.M. II is much more difficult to root and rootstock production is 
slower than that of E.M. VII. Lining-out stock when planted in the nursery does 
not give as high a survival because of sparse rooting. All stocks that grow and 
that can be budded to a variety, however, develop a strong root system. These 
strong roots grow at a right angle to the rootstock trunk and, therefore, should 
provide excellent anchorage to the tree. Unfortunately, root distribution on the 
young tree is not always even. Often the strongest roots develop more or less in 
one direction only. Therefore, care must be taken that on planting in the 
orchard the strongest roots point towards the direction of the prevailing strong 
winds." 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I f I I I I f f I ! I 

COin'RIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE FROM SUPPORTING FIELDS 

C. J. Gilgut, Extension Plant Pathologist 

C. A. Johnson, Extension Agricultural Engineer 

John W. Peterson, Assistant District Agent, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

William R. Goss, Worcester County Extension Agent in Agriculture 



FRUIT NOTES 

Prepared by Pomology Staff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperotive Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Mossochusetts, Amherst 



MAY 7, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chemical Weed Control in the Orchard 

Chemical Thinning for 1962 

Selection of Exterior Paints 

Pomological Paragraphs 

Approved Form Stand Meeting 




nm 



W. 






!»< ' 

-y?-'/^ 



IV 



'm 



//> 



»v 



'"-^ ''^--^°f?^^^=^=^s^-s^ii^;a^/B^;;;S^o?^-i^-^i^ M- « - 



'^/? 




'^'. 



June 30, 1914; 



COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS IN SUPPORT OF THE FRUIT PROGRAM 
(Please contact the agent In your county for frutt information) 



BARNSTABLE 



James T. Williams, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Cape Cod Extension Service, Deeds and Probate Building, Barnstable 

(Tel. FOrest 2-3255) 

BERKSHIRE 

Dick L. Boyce, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Berkshire County Extension Service, Federal Building, Pittsfield 

(Tel. Hlllcrest 8-8285) 

BRISTOL 

Harold 0. Woodward, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Bristol County Agricultural High School, Center Street, Segreganset 

(Tel. Oighton NOrmandy 9-3611 or 9-2361) 

DUKES 

Ezra I. Shaw, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Dukes County Extension Service, Vineyard Haven 
(Tel. Vineyard Haven 694) 

ESSEX AND MIDDLESEX 

Max G. Fultz, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Middlesex County Extension Service, 19 Everett Street, Concord 

(Tel. EMerson 9-4845) 

NORFOLK 

Peter W. Larson, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Norfolk County Agricultural High School, 460 Main Street, Walpole 

(Tel. MOntrose 8-0268 or 8-0269) 

PIONEER VALLEY -- FRANKLIN. HAMPSHIRE. AND HAMPDEN 

G. Everett Wilder, Regional Extension Agricultural Agent 

Hampden County Improvement League, 1499 Memorial Avenue, West Springfield 

(Tel. Springfield REpublic 6-7204) 

PLYMOUTH 

Dominic A. Marini, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Pljmiouth County Extension Service, Court House, Brockton 
(Tel. JUniper 6-4993) 

WORCESTER 

William R. Goss, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 

Worcester County Extension Service, 36 Harvard Street, Worcester 8 

(T«l. PLeaaant 3-5477) 



CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN THE ORCHARD 

The elimination of grass and weeds under fruit trees may aid materially to 
tree growth and mouse control. However, successful use of chemical weed killers 
requires close attention to details. With chemical weed control it is necessary 
to - read the label - follow the instructions - apply only on crops specified - 
not apply more than the suggested amount - make applications only during sug- 
gested seasons - and calibrate your sprayer to insure proper rate of application. 

Sprayer Calibration 

Calibration of the sprayer is as important as following the directions on 
the chemical label. Over-dosage can cause injury to trees. Speed of sprayer, 
nozzle spacing, application rate and discharge rate per nozzle are the four 
major factors to consider in calibrating a farm sprayer. Farm equipment dealers 
can furnish information on sprayer calibration and proper nozzling. 

If using a hand gun, the rate of discharge can be found by determining the 
time required to fill a container of known gallonage. This procedure will enable 
the grower to time the application for each tree. 

If the amount of herbicide desired per acre is dissolved or suspended in 100 
gallons of spray solution, then each gallon of spray solution should cover the 
number of trees listed in Table 1. 

Table i . Number of trees to cover with 100 gallons or with 1 gallon of spray 
solution when applying at the rate of 100 gallons per acre and spraying the 
stated number of feet from the tree trunk on all four sides of the tree. 





:e sprayed 


No. 


Trees 


aOO Gi 


lis. 


Api 


irox. No. 


Trees/Gal. 


Dlstam 


Calculated 


Calculated 


Calculated 


Calculated 


from the trunk 


as a square 


as 


a circle 


as a 


square 


as a circle 


3 


feet 


1210 






1539 


12 




15 


4 


feet 


681 






868 


7 




9 


5 


fert 


436 






555 


4 




6 


6 


feet 


303 






385 


3 




4 


7 


feet 


222 






283 


2 




3 


8 


feet 


170 






217 


1- 


-3/4 


2 


9 


feet 


134 






171 


1- 


-1/3 


1-7/10 


10 


feet 


109 






139 


1 




1-4/10 


11 


feet 


90 






115 




9/10 


1-1/10 


12 


feet 


75 






96 




3/4 


1 


13 


feet 


64 






82 




2/3 


4/5 


14 


feet 


56 






71 




3/5 


7/10 


15 


feet 


48 






62 




1/2 


3/5 










Equipment 









Many of the herbicides used for weed control are wettable powders that form 
suspensions rather than true solutions. If agitation is not sufficient, the 
materials will settle out and result in a higher concentration of herbicides in 
the bottom of the tank. This, in turn, could cause serious Injury when the 



- 2 - 

mixture is applied around the. trees. 

Mechanical agitation cannot be provided as easily as jet agitation. Jet 
agitators have been developed which can be connected to the pressure line between 
the pump and the by-pasS valve. The agitation consists of a head with three 
orifices from which streams of spray solution are expelled. It is suspended by a 
hose to the bottom of the tank. where the expelled streams agitate the spray 
suspension. 

Herbicides should not be applied with a high-pressure spray rig unless It is 
modified. The equipment should have an operational pressure of 30 to 40 pounds 
per square inch. Low pressure and low gallonage rates help avoid forcing the 
spray into the soil - a common cause of herbicide injury. 

There are two basic types of general farm sprayers - boomless and boom 
equipped. Either of these are available with a variety of pumps and carriers and 
can be tractor or trailer mounted. The boom sprayers in common use would have to 
be modified for, orchard grass control because of the limited area to be covered. 

Herbicides 

Bearing Apple Orchards 

1. Dalapon - Recommended for control of grass under apple trees at least 4 
years old. Use Dalapon at the rate of 1 pound to 10 gallons of water. Apply 10 
pounds of Dalapon per acre on the area treated. The grass should be sprayed when 
it is 4 to 6 inches high which is usually in May. Re-treat later if necessary. 

2. Diuron - Recommended for control of certain seedling annual weeds. Use 
only under trees which have been established in the orchard for at least i year. 
Do not use under dwarf or semi-dwarf trees. Apply at the rate of 4 pounds of 
Diuron per acre of treated ground area. Continuous agitation is required to keep 
Diuron in suspension. Apply in the early spring prior to germination and growth 
of annual weeds-. 

3. Dalapon plus Diuron - Dalapon controls the grass but has no practical 
effect on weeds. The combination should insure more complete grass control and 
will control many weeds that are likely to take oi/er where the grass has been 
subdued. Apply either 10 pounds of Dalapon plus 4 pounds of Diuron or 5 pounds 
of Dalapon plus 4 pounds of Diuron per acre on the area treated. According to 
Prof. 0. F. Curtis, Geneva Experiment Station, whether Dalapon is advisable at 10 
pounds rather than 5 pounds when applied with Diuron will depend in part of the 
grower's attitude. "If he is anxious to depend on one single spray treatment in 
the spring, the 10 pound rate of Dalapon is likely to be more effective than the 
5, but if he is willing to undertake a second spray application, if needed, he 
may make better use of [)alapon by using 5 pounds with the Diuron. If this is not 
effective (i.e., the grass is still growing in height 2 to 3 weeks after treat- 
ment), then a repeat Dalapon treatment can be used. Even after apparently 
effective control early in the season, regrowth of quack grass sometimes begins 
in August and having the second 5 pound application to use at this time can be 
helpful." 

4. Simazlne - Apply Simazine (80 per cent wettable powder) at the rate of 



- 3 - 

3-3/4 to 5 pounds per acre on the area actually sprayed In the early spring. It 
is most effective when used as a pre-emergence treatment and not as effective on 
established and growing vegetation. If heavy vegetation is present, Simaztne 
should be combined with a. label-approved contact killer such as Dalapon. 

5. Simazine plus Dalapon - Apply Dalapon at the rate of 5 to 10 pounds plus 
3-3/4 to 5 pounds of Simazine per acre on the area treated. The question of 
whether to use 5 or 10 pounds of Dalapon is the same as that discussed under the 
heading "Dalapon plus Diuron" . 

6. Amizine - A mixture of Simazine and Amitrol has been cleared for use in 
bearing apple orchards. The clearance reads as follows: "Apply Amizine in the 
spring, after weeds emerge but before fruit starts to form . Mix 7 pounds of 
Amizine ii 100 gallons (1 ounce per gallon) of water. Wet weeds thoroughly^ 
treating a band at least 3 feet wide around the base of each tree. Assuming 40 
trees per acre, use about 100 gallons of this spray solution for 30 acres. Do 
not allow spray to contact stems, foliage, or trunks of these trees," 

Bearing Pear Orchards 

Dalapon, Diuron, or the combination of the two may be used in bearing pear 
orchards. The recommendations for the use of these materials ^re the same as 
those given for bearing apple trees. 

Non-Bearing Apple Orchards 

1. Dalapon - May be used for control of grass under non-bearing apple trees 
at least 4 years old. Additional information on Dalapon regarding rates of 
application and when to spray is given in the section on bearing apple trees. 

2. Diuron - May be used for control of certain seedling annual weeds. Use 
only on trees that have been established in the apple orchard for at least 1 year. 
Do not use under dwarf or semi-dwarf trees. Additional infoirmation on Diuron 
regarding rates of application and when to spray is given in the section on 
bearing apple trees. 

• 

3. Dalapon plus Diuron - This combination may be used on non-bearing trees 
at least 4 years of age. Additional information regarding the use of this com- 
bination is given in the section on bearing trees. 

4. Simazine - Apply Simazine (80 per cent wettable powder) on trees estab- 
lished 1 year or more at the rate of 3-3/4 to 5 pounds per acre on the area 
actually sprayed. Simazine controls both broadleaf weeds and grasses. It is 
most effective as a pre-emergence herbicide and should be applied just prior to 
or during weed emergence. This material acts on the roots and its effect on 
weeds is therefore dependent on rainfall to move the chemical into the root zone. 

Four per cent granules of Simazine are available. Apply these at the rate of 
50 to 75 pounds per acre. 

5. Simazine plus Dalapon - On non-bearing trees at least 4 years old, 
Dalapon may be added to the Simazine. The recommendations are the same as for 
bearing trees. 



6. Amitrole - Amicrole has label approval for the control of annual grasses 
and broadleaf weeds In non-bearing apple orchards. This should be applied at a 
rate of 4 pounds (50 per cent product weedazol or amino triazole) in 100 gallons 
of water. Apply Amitrole when weeds are growing vigorously. When weeds are not 
controlled by a first application, treat again when regrowth is 6 to 10 inches 
tall. 

7. Amitrole T - A liquid formulation composed of amitrole and ammonium 
thiocyanate. Apply at the rate of 1 gallon in 100 gallons of water. It is most 
effective when the annual grasses and weeds are growing vigorously. When these 
are not controlled by the first application, treat again when regrowth is 6 to 10 
inches tall. 

Non-Bearing Pear Orchards 

Oalapon, Dluron, Dalapon plus Diuron, and Amitrole may be used in non-bearing 
pear orchards. The recommendations for the use of these materials are the same as 
those given for non-bearing apple orchards. 

Weed Control in Peach Orchards 

Dalapon has label for use under bearing peach trees. However, it should be 
used with care because peach trees are easily injured with this material. 



Poison Ivy Control 



Bearing Apple Orchards 



The United States Department of Agriculture accepted a label claim on October 
12, 1959 for use of Amitrol^. (50 per cent product weedazol or amino triazole) to 
control poison ivy in apple and pear orchards. The label claim reads as follows: 

Special Uses for Amino Triazole (507. Formulation) 



Apple and pear orchards 

poison ivy 
Before fruit forms and 

after harvest 
Do not graze in treated 

areas 



Amount per Acre 

4 lbs. in 
100 gals. 



When to Apply 

When ivy is in full leaf, 
spray ivy on the orchard 
floor and around the base 
of each tree. Use a 
coarse spray to avoid 
drift, do not allow spray 
to contact stems, foliage 
or trunks of fruit trees. 



Apply spray before fruit 
forms or after harvest. 



While this label claim permits the vse of Amitrole in bearing orchards, it 
has never been included on the label because of the feeling that promotion of the 
product for application in bearin3 orchards before fruit forms might lead to mis- 
use by growers and possible contamination of fruit at harvest. There was also 



- 5 - 

insufficient information concerning whether poison ivy foliage is expanded enough 
before fruit forms to obtain sufficient absorption of Amitrole for effective top 
and root kill. More data were also needed to determine the limitations of 
Amitrole in regard to the timing of post-harvest application. 

Amitrole has label approval for use to control poison ivy in non-bearing 
apple orchards. Apply at the rate of 4 pounds (50 per cent formulation weedazol 
or amino triazole) per 100 gallons of water when the ivy is in full leaf. 

Ammate still has no clearance for poison ivy control under trees. 2,4,5-T 
Is effective against poison ivy but its use has resulted in severe damage to 
trees at times. 

WHATEVER APPROVED HERBICIDE IS USED, READ THE LABEL AND FOLLOW DIRECTIONS'. 

---William J. Lord 

i I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I 

CHEMICAL THINNING FOR 1962 

Most growers would agree that the probable need for chemical thinning 
Mcintosh, following the very heavy 1961 crop, will be much less this year. We 
anticipate a lighter bloom, except in occasional Mcintosh blocks where serious 
loss of crop by frost occurred last spring. As far as other varieties are con- 
cerned, the situation will be quite variable from orchard to orchard depending 
on the bloom weather at blossom time, frost injury, etc. 

During the past two years we have had an opportunity to compare the insecti- 
cide Sevin (1-Naphthyl N-methylcarbonate or NMC) as a post-bloom thinner of 
apples with our older treatments of NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) and NAD 
(naphthylacetamtde) . So far Sevin has appeared to be an excellent thinner of 
Mcintosh and less injurious to foliage than any other material we have ever tried 
for this purpose. The only variety it has failed to thin somewhat in our tests 
has been Golden Delicious. However, very heavy setting varieties like Early 
Mcintosh may not be thinned adequately by this mild thinner. Sevin can be used 
on such hard to thin varieties at petal-fall time, though, and then followed by 
an application of NAA or NAD a week to 10 days later. Remember, Sevin can thin 
apples up to about 30 days after bloom or about 25 days after petal-fall. The 
use of this insecticide for insect control on blocks within this period on trees 
which do not need thinning may result in a serious, needless loss in crop size. 
Sevin appears to thin a light or moderate set proportionately as much as a heavy 
set. 

The action of Sevin on the growth rate of persisting apples differs somewhat 
from that of NAA type materials. NAA when applied for chemical thinning purposes 
seems to have a slight temporary (about 10 days) growth-inhibiting action on the 
persisting fruit. This action doesn't cause a complete cessation of fruit growth 
for a time but merely reduces the rate of growth. The action was great enough in 
one test on Golden Delicious to reduce the ultimate size of the fruit at harvest 
by about one-eighth of an inch. Sevin does not appear to have any growth 



- 6 - 

inhibiting action on persisting fruit when applied during the period when it is 
capable of reducing the set of apples. 

Although we are reasonably enthusiastic about Sevin as a chemical thinner 
for apples, we need much more experimental data over a period of years before we 
shall be willing to suggest abandonment of a thinning material like NAD. In fact, 
NAA and NAD may continue to have a place indefinitely for certain varieties. 
Also, we need more information concerning the ability of Sevin-thinned trees to 
induce a "repeat" bloom before it can be given our "blessing". In other words, 
try Sevin on a comparative basis with older standard methods of chemical thinning 
before you eliminate any treatment which has given you satisfactory results in 
the past. 

Sevin appears to be of no value as a peach thinner. 

The 1962 revision of our Circular No. 189, Chemical Thinning of Apples, is 
now available from the Mailing Room University of Massachusetts as well as from 
your local County Extension Service office. 

Franklin W. Southwick 

I I I I I I I I I I I I 11 I I 

SELECTION OF EXTERIOR PAINTS 

When liquid paint is applied to an exposed surface and allowed to dry, a 
thin, elastic film is formed which both enhances the appearance of the surface 
and protects it against weathering. Appearance is improved by a neat, uniform 
white or colored surface. The protective power of paint helps to minimize the 
results of weathering which appear as cupSj warps, cracks, etc., in the thin 
pieces of wood ordinarily used for exterior siding. The period during which a 
paint will remain attractive and protective is markedly affected by the compo- 
sition of the paint. Paint wears through a process called "chalking". Due to the 
action of light, heat, and moisture, small particles are removed from the surface. 
If this process occurs at a relatively slow, uniform rate it is beneficial, 
because it helps to maintain a clean, bright surface. 

Composition , Paint is made up of pipments, which are finely divided insoluable 
particles, and a vehicle, which is an oily liquid. Both the quality of the in- 
gredients and the proportion of each in the mix determine the quality of the 
paint . 

The principal pigments found in most exterior paints are white lead, zinc 
oxide and titanium dioxide. A limited amount of pigment extenders are also used. 
White lead used as the only pigment is considered standaid good-quality, but is 
relatively expensive and exhibits the undesirable feature of discoloration when 
exposed to hydrogen sulfide fumes. It also becoTnes more soiled by dirt soon 
after application than most mixed pigment paints. Mixed pigment paints in which 
the pigment is a mixture of white lead, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide plus 
'pigment extenders are ordinarily cleaner and less chalky. Where hydrogen sulfide 
contamination is likely, however, paints completely free of lead pigments should 



- 7 - 

be used. 

Tinted paints, including most of the colored exterior paints, are essentially 
white paints into which a minor proportion of color pigment has been mixed. Some 
exceptions are the dull red, broxtfn and yellow paints having iron oxide pigments; 
the bright reds with organic lake pigments; the bright yellows and greens with 
chrome yellov/ or chrome green pigments; and black paints with lamp black pigments. 

The vehicle for most exterior paints is mainly linseed oil. It may be 
either raw or "boiled". Driers are added to raw linseed oil to increase the rate 
of drying and hardening, Boiled linseed oil is thicker and dries more rapidly 
because soluable driers have been incorporated in the oil through a heating 
process. 

Although there is no generally accepted standard defining the quality of 
paints, the formulas sho\*n below are ones knovm to give good performance when 
correctly used and will serve as a guide for the selection of exterior paints. 
The formulas are for white paint (or paint that can be tinted) and should not be 
used for the selection of paints having primary pigments other than lead, zinc, 
and titanium. 

EXTERIOR WHITE, READY-MIXED, WHITE LEAD AND OIL PAINT 

Federal Specification TT-P-lOA 

Percent by Weight 
Minimum Maximum 

Percent total paint 

Total pigments 71 73 

Percent pigment 

Basic carbonate white lead 99 

Matter soluble in water 0.8 

Percent total paint 

Total vehicle - 27 29 

Percent vehicle 

Linseed oil 70 75 

Thinner and drier 25 30 



EXTERIOR WHITE, READY-MIXED, TITANIUM - LEAD - ZINC PAINT 

Federal Specification. TT-P-102 

Percent by Weight 
Minimum Maximum 

Percent total paint 

Total pigments 62 

Percent pigments 

White lead 31 

Zinc oxide 25 27 

Titanium dioxide, anatase type 15 17 

All other pigments 28 

Matter soluble in water 0,8 

Percent total paint 

Total vehicle 38 

Percent vehicle 



Raw or refined linseed oil 60 

Bodied linseed oil 16 20 

Thinner and drier 20 



- 8 - 

EXTERIOR WHITE, FUME RESISTANT, READY-MIXED TITANIUM - ZINC PAINT 

Federal Specification TT-P-I03 

Percent by Weight 
Minimum Maximum 

Percent total paint 

Total pigments 59 ^ 

Percent pigments 

Zinc oxide 38 

Total titanium dioxide 19 

Titanium dioxide, anatase type 9.5 

Titanium dioxide, rutile type 9.5 

All other pigments 43 

Percent total paint 

Total vehicle - - 41 

Percent vehicle 

Raw or refined linseed oil 50 

Bodied linseed oil ---- - 20 26 

Thinner and drier 24 

J. T. Clayton 

Agricultural Engineering 

!! I I I I I I I I 1 I I J I I 

POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 
Approved Farm Stand Meeting 

To be successful, growers must merchandise their fruit any and all ways. 
There are many ways to get publicity on your orchard operation through radio, T.V. 
and newsnapers. These are but two of the many thoughts expressed by Ed Knight of 
Greenville, Rhode Island who discussed Apple Merchandising at the recent annual 
Dieeting of the Apprrved Farm Stand members. 

There was a general feeling on the part of the Approved Farm Stand members 
that a wide range of prices and packs on the retail stand would Increase sales. 
The group was of the opinion that advertising in newspapers and radio gave about 
equal returns per dollar spent. 

Franci3 Bartlett's reply to a question stated that the basis of success of 
an improved farm stand was QUALITY and ADVERTISING. He further stated, "You 
have got to think about It in order to have the right combination of sales 
promotion programs to be most effective." 

---William J. Lord 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



JUNE 1, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

A Visit to the Appalachian Fruit Industry 

Application of Exterior Paints 

Pomological Paragraphs 
Weed Control 

Weed Control in Small Fruit Plantings 




"\ 




\iUh 






V 







1110 




W\ 





Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, In fivtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



A VISIT TO THE APPALACHIAN FRUIT INDUSTRY 

It is not possible to visit another apple producing area for the first time 
and be in a position to accurately analyze the industry. However, it is quite 
apparent that the apple industry is important to the economy of the Appalachian 
area. 

The orchard and packing house size, the mechanization in the packing sheds, 
and the number of young plantings were particularly impressive. In comparison to 
our New England orchards, most of the mature trees in the orchards visited are 
tall and thick. Filler trees are used more extensively than by Massachusetts 
apple growers. The young trees in the Virginia and West Virginia orchards are 
considerably larger than trees of comparable age in our Massachusetts orchards. 

The Rice Fruit Company in Biglerville, Pennsylvania and the Cooperative 
Fruit Growers of Adams County in Aspers, Pennsylvania were visited on the way to 
the fruit areas in Virginia and West Virginia. 

Of interest at the Rice Fruit Company was the storage consisting of one room 
with 100,000 bushel capacity and another of 50,000. The doors of these rooms 
open automatically when the fork-lift trucks pass over an air hose placed on the 
concrete in front of the doors. The air activates a switch which in turn starts 
the motor for opening of the doors. Lines are painted on the floors of the 
storage and the spaces between are numbered as an aid for stacking and keeping 
track of the different lots of fruit. In a shed on the loading dock a duplicate 
of the floor plan is kept and as the fruit are placed in storage in the fall, the 
number of crates and their location are recorded. 

In Massachusetts, growers using pallets frequently tie the top tier of boxes 
together. Pallet bands of rubber, which can be purchased, are being used for 
this purpose in the Rice storage. Another concern purchases cords for this 
purpose. The cords have attached metal hooks which eliminate tying and untying 
knots . 

A water dumper for bulk bins and a Northwest drum-type dumper for regular 
orchard crates are used in the Rice Fruit Company packing sheds. These are in 
common use in the packing sheds visited in Virginia also. 

Of particular interest was the empty box trolley which is used to transport 
the empty cartons to the packing line at the Rice Fruit Company packing shed. 
These containers are assembled in the box storage loft over the packing line, 
placed on the conveyor, and carried to the packing line. The system enables the 
operator to supply several types or sizes of boxes to the packing line 
simultaneously. 

The stands on which the empty cartons are placed during the packing are of 
interest at the Rice Fruit Company. The stands are on casters and a roller is 
attached to the top of the stand. During packing, the farther edge of the carton 
being filled rests on the roller. When the carton is full, the packer pushes the 
stand to a conveyor and then pushes the box with the aid of the roller onto the 
conveyor. This eliminates any lifting of the filled cartons. 

The Cooperative Fruit Growers of Adams County have storage capacity for 
approximately 230,000 bushels. Of particular interest were the polyethylene bags 



holding 10 pounds of apples. These are placed in master cartons holding four 
10-pound bags and are sold to large cliain scores. The master cartons are not 
stapled until after filling. The bottom and top of the cartons are stapled by an 
automatic box closer. 

The Winchester Apple Growers, Inc., in Winchester, and Moore & Dorsey, 
Berryvilie, are other packing sheds visited. It was of interest to note, even 
though the varieties grown in this area are firmer than Mcintosh, the bulk bins 
in common use hold only 14 to 15 bushels arid have the inside height of approx- 
imately 25 inches. This is similar to capacity and inside height of bulk bins 
used in New England. 

At one packing shed cull apples were dropped in stove pipes that were placed 
near the packers, and these rolled to a container in back of the packers. This 
procedure can be utilized in a number of packing operations in Massachusetts. 



One packing shed sold a number of sized apples in padded crates, 
sold in bulk and trayed by the stores. 



These were 



J. Hammond McDonald of Stephens City, Virginia, demonstrated a pruning tower 
and showed ais device for raking prunings. The pruning tower shown below con- 
sists of two cat walks which can be positioned In the tree by a hydraulic lift 
attachment on the tractor. The two cat walks operate much like two prongs of 
calipers and can be spread at various distances from each other. 




The pruning rake utilizes tongs of two hay dump rakes which are attached to 
a metal bar. The bar is attached to the three point hitch of the tractor and is 
offset to facilitate raking of prunings under trees. The prunings are raked from 
under the trees and dumped by stopping the tractor and lifting the rake. Robert 
Tuttle of Warren has constructed such a pruning rake after seeing Mr. McDonald's 
device. Two pictures of the rake are shown. 



I 





Bob used a hay rake which is connected to the three point hitch of a tractor. 
The rake is offset 3 to 4 feet. He finds the pruning rake a welcome device as a 
replacement for the tedious operation of picking up prunings. It is necessary, 
however, to remove large limbs that have been pruned prior to the use of the rake. 

A Massachusetts grower recently infoirmed me that he has been raking prunings 
with a hay dump rake, with wheels removed, for several years. He stated that he 
rakes forty acres in five days. 



Dr. Edwin Gould, West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Kearneysville, 



was a very gracious host and devoted a day showing and discussing the apple in- 
dustry in his area. From Dr. Gould's comments and observations made in orchards, 
it was apparent that early, heavy production on young trees is a prime objective 
of progressive West Virginia fruit growers. Filler trees are being used exten- 
sively and "stub" pruning (dwarfing instead of removal of extra limbs that might 
compete with the desirable scaffold) is practiced. The theory behind stub 
pruning is that by leaving extra limbs in the tree, the leaf surface is increased, 
resulting in more growth and earlier production. The extra limbs also help to 
produce wide angles by forcing the scaffold limbs to grow outward instead of 
growing in a more upright position. 

Thorough soil preparation prior to planting and increasing the organic 
matter content is advocated by Dr. Gould. Dr. Gould considers that tamping the 
soil around the roots of the young tree at planting is undesirable. Instead, he 
suggested the use of water to improve the soil-root contact. The use of a 
nutrient solution at planting is advocated also. The use of three urea sprays on 
non-bearing trees is suggested at the rate of one pound per 100 gallons with the 
regular sprays before July 1. 

The use of weights to spread desirable scaffold branches on young trees is 
suggested by Dr. Gould. This might be more practical than the use of spreaders 
or tying the limbs to the desired position. 

During orchard visits a block of bearing apple trees was noted in which 
budding was used as a method of changing the variety. This system is apparently 
used when the grower wants to change the variety or strain with a minimum loss of 
production. The procedure was to bud well-placed water sprouts ("risers") at a 
point approximately 2 or 3 inches from the point of origin of these sprouts on 
the limb. Approximately 100 buds were placed in a tree. By selective pruning to 
favor the growth from these buds, the tree is gradually worked over to the new 
variety or strain. 

In one orchard, asphalt shingle strips of approximately 18 inches square 
were observed under apple trees. Dr. Gould commented that the placement of 
several of these strips per acre served as a check of mouse activity in the 
orchard. These were placed over runs and monthly checks of mouse activity were 
made. Apple and oat bait is placed under these shingles whenever mouse activity 
increases as determined by the monthly checks. 

Apparently Endrin is not used yearly in many West Virginia orchards and 
generally is used only when high mouse population exists. Other methods of mouse 
control are practiced in many instances because of lower cost. 

The Apple Pie Ridge section of West Virginia fruit industry was visited. 
The number of new plantings was particularly impressive and indicates considerable 
increase in production in the near future. 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



- 5 - 

AP PLICATION OF EXTERIOR PAItfTS 

A good exterior "paint-job" begins with the selection of a correctly formu- 
lated paint. However, even good paint will give poor service when incorrectly 
used. Factors to be considered in the application and maintenance of exterior 
paints include (1) the condition of the surface, (2) weather conditions at the 
time of application, (3) the frequency and rate of application, and (4) conditions 
which tend to increase the moisture content of the wood under the paint film. 

Condition of the Surface . Before painting make certain that the surface is clean, 
dry, and free of chalky, peeling, scaling or blistered paint. 

Ordinary grime and chalk can be removed by scrubbing with water. Heavily 
chalked surfaces should be cleaned Xi7ith a stiff brush. If scaling and blistering 
has occurred, but is not severe or widespread, the loose paint should be removed 
with a wire brush or scraper, then the surface finished by sanding with a No. 2 
garnet paper. If scaling and blistering is extensive, removal can be done easier 
and more effectively by using a liquid paint remover or by burning the paint off 
with a blow torch. CAUTION : Due to the danger of setting fire to the wood under 
the paint, the process of burning paint off should be done by a careful and 
experienced operator. 

Weath er Gonditions. Painting should be done in the summer or fall when the tera- 
perat'ure is between 50° and 90°F. and, if possible, out of direct sunlight. 
Never paint during foggy, misty weather or when rain threatens. After a rain, do 
not begin or resume painting until the surface has become thoroughly dry. Delay 
the beginning of work in the morning until all dew has evaporated from the surface. 

How Much Paint and How Often ? For new v/ork three coats of paint are usually rec- 
ommended. The priming coat should be thoroughly brushed on at a rate of about 
one gallon for each 600 square feet of surface. Zinc-free primers usually give 
better adhesion and are recommended except for use with fume resistant paints. 
When it is necessary to do so, a primer can be made by mixing one pint of linseed 
oil to one gallon of the finish coat paint. The addition of one pint of thinner 
per gallon of paint will increase workability and penetration into the wood. 

The second coat may be thinned as the manufacturer recommends (usually one 
pint of thinner per gallon) and applied at the rate of one gallon for each 700 to 
800 square feet. 

The finish coat should be applied unthinned at a rate of one gallon for each 
600 to 700 square feet. 

During good weather two or three days drying time should be allowed between 
coats. It is important, however, that the time between coats be not longer than 
one to two weeks. 

In a paint maintenance program care must be taken to prevent the build-up of 
a thick layer of paint due to frequent applications. If a build-up occurs, it 
will lead to a bad condition of cracking and scaling which can only be corrected 
by the complete removal of the paint. The ideal paint maintenance program would 
be one in which the paint is replaced at intervals as it is weathered from the 
surface. This, however, cannot be done on a practical basis, and one of two 



possible alternatives must be taken. The first of these is to allow each paint 
job to progress relatively far into a state of disintegration, even at the expense 
of appearance, before repainting. The second alternative is to apply succeeding 
coats sparingly as they are needed to preserve appearance and then to remove the 
paint down to bare wood at 15 to 20 year intervals. 

A suitable program of maintenance for white lead paints is to repaint with 
one coat every three years or to repaint with two coats everj' eight to ten years. 
Repainting V7ith mixed pigment paints cannot safely be done more often than once in 
four years with one coat or once in six or seven years with two coats. 

The repainting of well weathered surfaces should usually be done in two coats. 
The priming coat should be applied at the rate of one gallon for each 400 to 500 
square feet, and the finish coat applied unthinned at a rate of approximately one 
gallon for each 700 square feet. 

When repainting mildly weathered surfaces or those in good condition, one 
coat will usually be adequate. Apply unthinned paint at the rate of about one 
gallon for each 600 square feet. 

In any paint maintenance program repainting should be done with paints that 
are compatible with the finish coat of the previous painting. If there is any 
doubt concerning this point, consult the paint manufacturer's literature or other 
reliable sources of information. 

Moisture Build-Up In The Woo d. Fairly frequently paint falls due to an increase 
in the moisture content of the wood under the paint film. This sort of failure is 
characterized by blistering and will occur even on surfaces v;here good paint has 
been used correctly. 

Moisture may gain entrance due to faulty flashings around openings, cracks in 
the siding, around trim boards, etc. It may also pass in vapor fomi from the 
inside of the building, then condense on cold surfaces within the wall cavity. 
The control of humidity conditions within the building will help to prevent the 
passage of moisture through the walls, but in severe cases it may be necessary to 
provide a vapor proof membrane to retard the passage of moisture. Two or three 
coats of oil base paint will often reduce moisture passage to a tolerable level. 

If moisture penetration is the cause of paint failure, the only solution is 
to find the source from v/hich the moisture comes and correct the situation before 
repainting. 

J. T. Clayton 

Professor 

Agricultural Engineering 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

PGMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 

Weed Control . A grower pointed out that if you were spraying an area 3 feet from 
the trunk on big trees, the actual square footage sprayed would be more than if 



- 7 - 
yoa sprayed 3 feet from the trunk on small trees. 

Below is a table showing the area in a 3-foot band from the trunk of trees 
of various diameters. 

Approx. Number of Square Feet 
Tree Trunk Diameter in Area 3' From Trunk 

2 inches 28 sq. ft.* 

6 inches 33 sq. ft. 

8 inches 34 sq. ft. 

1 foot 38 sq. ft. 

2 feet ^7 sq. ft. 

*The area covered by the trunk is subtracted. 

It can be noted that the actual area to be sprayed is much larger when trees 
8 inches or more in diameter are sprayed. This would result in under-dosage if 
the grower had applied the amount per tree as figured in the weed control table 
given in the May issue of Fruit Notes . To eliminate this difference, the grower 
could figure the number of trees to spray under with 100 gallons of spray by two 
methods. 

1. Instead of figuring the distance from the trunk on trees with diameters of 

6 inches or more, calculate from the mid-point of the trunk diameter . Therefore, 
on large trees the area sprayed would not extend 3 feet frcrni the trunk. 

2. Calculate the footage to be sprayed and the number of trees that can be 
covered per 100 gallons; for example, 

(a) Tree trunk - 2 foot diameter 

(b) Want to spray 3 feet from trunk 

(c) The radius of the circle from the trunk mid-point is 4 feet 

(d) Area = w^r^ = 3.14 x 16 = 50.24 square feet. There are 43,560 square 
feet in an acre. 43,560 -^ 50.24 = 867 trees to spray under with 100 gallons of 
solution. If we subtracted the area covered by the tree trunk from 50.24 this 
would change the area to 47.10 square feet. The number of trees to spray under 
would be 925. The area taken up by the tree trunk is so small it can be ignored. 

---William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



WEED CONTROL IN SIIi^LL FRUIT PLAMTINGS 

Anyone who has ever grown any of the small fruits knows that weed control is 
a very important part of the operation. Strawberries are so low growing that 
without some control \jeeds often develop to the point where the grower finds it 
impossible to keep ahead of them and yields are so low and picking so poor that 
it becomes economically unsound to continue the bed. Many a bed has been abandoned 
or plowed up because weeds took over. 



- 8 - 

In a raspberry planting the problem is not one of shading out of the plants 
since it is seldom that weeds are taller than the raspberries unless the raspberry 
plants are very weak, but rather one of root competition. Since the raspberry 
plant is very shallow rooted, the roots of weeds, and particularly grasses, com- 
pete directly for water and nutrients. Therefore, when a raspberry planting 
becomes very weedy, raspberry plants lose vigor rather rapidly. 

Blueberries and grapes tolerate weeds much better than strawberries or rasp- 
berries. Grapes will grow and produce under a sod culture as evidenced by the 
fact that many a grapevine has grown and borne for years in a backyard lawi. In 
commercial vineyards, grapes are always cultivated because eliminating weed 
competition results in so much higher yields. Cultivated blueberries, after they 
become established, tolerate weeds as well or better than any of the other small 
fruit crops. Many of the commercial blueberry plantings in the state are handled 
under sod culture. Nevertheless, the blueberry will grow and produce much better 
if weed competition is removed. The blueberry bush is shallow-rooted and, there- 
fore, as with the raspberry, there is direct competition between the roots of 
weeds and the roots of the blueberries. By actual chemical analysis it has been 
shown that there is more nitrogen in the leaves of blueberry plants gro\im in a plot 
where weeds were chemically eliminated than in the leaves of plants grown in a 
very weedy plot, A darker green color of the leaves of plants x^ithout v/eed 
competition, as compared with the yellowish green of leaves on wecdj' plots, gave 
visual signs of this difference. 

Since weed couipetition in small fruit plantings is undesirable, what is the 
best and most economical method for reducing to a tolerable minimum or eliminating 
this competition? This is not an easy question to answer. Grox^ers differ in the 
amount of weed competition which they consider tolerable. There are many ways of 
going about the problem of weed control. 

Let's take a look at the tolerable minimum of weed competition. Among 
strawberry growers there are those who consider that weed control is adequate if 
they cultivate a few times in the spring and early summer until runners begin to 
interfere. Then in late summer and fall the tops of the weeds are mowed off 
above the strawberries. The bed is then mowed again before picking the next 
spring. Although the yields are not as high, the labor bill is much lower. 
Therefore, the grower feels that the method is satisfactory. At the other ex- 
treme are those grov^ers who use a hill or spaced row systera and weed their beds 
regularly so that weed competition is reduced to a very low order. The tolerable 
minimum in most beds probably lies betv/een these extremes. 

In regard to cultivated blueberries, the situation is quite different. In 
many of the plantings the bushes were set too close so that when the bushes 
matured there was not enough space left for mechanical cultivation, and since hand 
work is too costly a sod has developed in many blueberry fields. On the other 
hand, in the newer plantings where the bushes have been set sufficiently far apart, 
the fields arc kept relatively free of weeds by cultivation. 

The methods of v/eed control can be grouped under three major headings: 
(1) cultivation, (2) mulching, and (3) chemicals. Under each of those general 
headings one will find numerous variations and not infrequently the methods of 
two or all three of these groups may be combined. For example, a raspberry or 



blueberry grower may mulch the rows of plants and cultivate betx^^een the rows. A 
strawberry grower may cultivate until runner formation begins to interfere with 
cultivation and then resort to chemicals. 

Since chemical weed control is the newest of the three general methods and a 
method which involves rapid change, the remainder of this discussion will be 
limited to this method. 

First, chemicals cannot entirely replace cultivation, at least not with such 
crops as strav;berries and raspberries. Especially for the strawberry, the soil 
needs to be kept in a friable condition for the prompt and rapid rooting of 
runner plants. Second, chemicals, like a sharp knife, can be a groat help if 
properly used; improperly used they may result in severe injury. Third, spraying 
with v;eed killers is entirely different from spraying with fungicides or insecti- 
cides. With the latter, one makes up a mixture of the proper strength and sprays 
until the plant and foliage are thoroughly covered without particular regard to 
the amount of the spray mixture applied. On the other hand, recommendations for 
the application of herbicides are usually based on so many pounds or so many 
gallons of the commercial matei-ial, or so many pounds of actual acti.vc ingredient, 
per acre. Therefore, it is very unwise to get careless about amounts where 
chemicals are being applied for v/eed control. The equipment used should be cal- 
ibrated so that the required amount can be applied fairly accurately. The County 
Agricultural Agent or equipment manufacturers can usually furnish the information 
needed for this calibration. Fourth, use of chemicals on food products is 
strictly regulated by law. These laws are for the protection of both the producer 
and the consumer. To be released for sale and use, a chemical must be approved by 
the United States Department of Agriculture as not injurious to the crop and by 
the Federal Food Sc Drug Administration as not hazardous to human health. The use 
of a chemical has to be approved for each kind of plant to which it is applied. 
In many cases this use is limited to a certain region of the country. Also, 
rates of application and timing are specified. Therefore, it is extremely impor- 
tant that the user of any chemical for vjced control on or around fruit plants 
read the container label very carefully and folloxi? its directions precisely. 

Strawberries 

Sesone (SES) has been recommended for the control of summer Vi/eeds in straw- 
berries for a number of years. If used according to directions, it is a fairly 
good weed killer and is very unlikely to damage the strawberry plants. This 
chemical is in an inactive form when applied to the soil. It must be changed to 
the active form by bacteria before it becomes effective. Furthermore, it is 
effective against germinating seeds and very small weeds only. After the v;eed 
seedlings become 1/4 of an inch tall or more, Sesone is not effective. 

To obtain the best results with Sesone, the field should be thoroughly cul- 
tivated and hoed to eliminate all weeds immediately before application. Because 
of the necessity for bacterial action to make Sesone active, the soil should be 
at a moisture content suitable for a good seed bed. If the soil is very dry and 
there is no rain for several days, it may be necessary to irrigate in order to 
make Sesone effective. 

The usual rates of application for Sesone are 2 pounds per acre on very 



- 10 - 

light soils, 2-1/2 pcxinds per acre on light soils, 3 pounds per acre on mediuni 
soils, and 4 pounds per acre on heavy soils. For small areas, one level teaspoon- 
ful for 150 square feet equals one pound per acre. 

Since newly set strawberry plants are sensitive to Sesone, it is safest to 
wait two to three weeks after planting before making the first application. 
Applications made while runner plants are rooting may cause temporary injury and 
delay in the rooting process. When Sesone is used during the bearing year, avoid 
undesirable residue by not making applications later than one week before picking 
begins. 

2,A-D was one of the first of the modern weed killers used on strawberries 
and looked very promising for a time. However, it was soon found that it could 
seriously upset runner gro\7th if applied during the period of runner development. 
Furthermore, if it is applied during fruit bud formation or at any time V7hen 
there are flov;crs or fruit on the plants, the result is small misshapen berries. 
Therefore, the periods when 2,4-D can be used are quite restricted. Probably its 
greatest usefulness is in assisting to clean up the bed after the first crop 
where the bed is to be renovated and a second crop produced. The recommended 
rate is 1 to 1-1/2 pounds of actual 2,4-D acid equivalent per acre. 

Chloro-IPC (CIPC) is useful for the control of fall and v/inter vjeeds, par- 
ticularly chiclaveed. This is a material which can be extremely helpful if used 
properly but can do serious harm if not used according to directions. First, it 
should never be used until the strawberry plants have become dormant. This is 
usually the middle of November or later. Second, it should never be used in 
excess of recommended rates. Although it has been cleared for use at rates up to 
3 pounds per acre, it is felt that under Massachusetts conditions 1 pound per 
acre is much safer. 

Although chloro-IPG can be applied in the early spring before growth starts, 
it is not nearly so effective applied at this time. As the soil warms up the 
chemical breaks do\m and has less time in which to kill weeds. 

There are several of the dinitros which have been cleared and can be used 
for the control of fall and winter weeds in strawberries but in Massachusetts 
these are generally less effective than Chloro-IPC. These materials are not 
selective and act by killing the tops of plants. Because of this "burning" action, 
they are much more effective on warm sunny days than on cold days. Like CIPC, 
they must be applied after the strav/berries become dormant. Since warm, sunny 
days are not plentiful after mid-Movember, the usefulness of these materials is 
limited. Since there are several formulations of these materials, it is wise to 
follo\7 very closely the manufacturer's directions as to rate of application, 

Dacthal is the most recent material to be cleared for weed control in straw- 
berries. Like Sesone, it appears to be more effective when applied to a weed 
free soil. In Ohio satisfactory results followed four applications made in a 
single season at rates of 4 to 6 pounds active ingredient per acre. Summer 
applications have some carry-over effect into the fall for controlling chickweed 
and other fall weeds. Late October or early November applications were found to 
be very effective in controlling fall and winter weeds. Dacthal is suggested for 
trial until more is known about it under our conditions. 



rJ 



- 11 - 

Blueberr ies 

Diuron has been cleared for use as a weed killer in blueberries at the rate 
of 2 pounds per acre. It is most effective xvhen applied to a weed-free soil in 
early spring. In no case should it be applied within 60 days of harvest. Diuron 
is quite effective against most annual broadleaf weeds and grasses but is much 
less effective against the deep-rooted perennials. 

Chloro-IPC has also been cleared for use around cultivated blueberries up to 
a total of 12 pounds per acre applied during the dormant season. Since this is 
essentially a grass and chiclcweed killer and can be used only during the dormant 
season, its effectiveness is limited, 

2,4-D up to 3 pounds per acre has also been cleared for use on cultivated 
blueberries but care should be exercised not to get it on the leaves of the 
plants. Since its use is limited to fall application and it is effective only 
against broadleaf weeds, its use in blueberries is also limited. 

Raspberries 

Only two materials have been cleared for weed control in raspberries in the 
Northeast. 2,4-D can be used to control broadleaf weeds since mature canes are 
quite resistant to it. However, care should be exercised to use a directed spray 
and not to use it at a time when the gro\;ing tips of the new canes v;ill be sprayed. 
It may be applied at the rate of 1 pound actual acid equivalent per acre. 

Chloro-IPC, as with strawberries and blueberries, can be used as a dormant 
application up to a total of 8 pounds per acre. 

Grapes 

Simazine 80-W lias been cleared for use on grapevines at least 3 years old. 
It should be applied before the weeds emerge in the spring at rates from 2 to 6 
pounds per acre. 

Dalapon may be used for grass control up to 14.8 pounds per acre. The spray 
should be so directed that it does not hit the vines. 

Diuron, as previously stated, is most effective when applied in the spring 
before weeds germinate. It can also be applied in the fall for the control of 
fall and winter vjeeds. The total amount applied should not exceed 4.8 pounds per 
acre. If the application is split, half may be applied in the spring and half in 
the fall. 

The herbicidal formulas of dinitro may also be used on grapes up to a total 
of 1.9 pounds per acre active ingredients. These are most useful where most of 
the weeds are annuals. 

Amino triazole may be used as a dormant application at rates not to exceed 2 
pounds per acre on vines 3 years old or older. 

V;henever using herbicides, read th e label carefully until you thoroughly 
understand its directions. Then foll oi'; them e:c actly. 

John S. Bailey 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Mossochusetts, Amherst 



JULY 10, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

M.F.G.A. Annual Summer Meeting Program 

Harvest Management 

Pomologlcal Paragraphs 

Packing and Selling During Harvest 

Conversion of Caustic Soda Type Carbon Dioxide 
Scrubbers to Water Type Carbon Dioxide Scrubbers 

Calcium Sprays for the Control of Bitter Pit 



/A 




"\ 




Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director. In fwtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



ANNUAL SUMMER MEETING 
of the 
MASSACHUSETTS FRUIT GRCWERS ' ASSOCIATION 
in Cooperation with the 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 



Horticultural Research Center, Univ. of Mass., Belchertown* 

Thursday, July 19, 1962 



10:00 A.M. Tour of the Research Center land and its present facilities. 

12:00 NOON Chicken Barbecue and all the fixings. 

(Reservations are necessary on or before July 12.) 

2:00 P.M. A Word of Welcome - M.F.G.A. President Arthur D. Bishop 

The Horticultural Research Center - From an idea to reality 
in 6 months - Jesse Rice, Chairman, Univ. of Mass. 
Facilities Committee. 

Greetings from the University - Dr. John W. Lederle, President 
University of Massachusetts. 

2:30 P.M. What's Ahead in the Fruit Business - Dr. Norman F. Childers, 
Chairman, Dept. of Horticulture, Rutgers. 

3:00 P.M. Crop Estimate for 1962 - Warren Clapp, Massachusetts 
Department of Agriculture. 

3:10 P.M. Insect Control Problems From Now Until Harvest 

Dr. Ellsworth Wheeler, University of Massachusetts. 

3:30 P.M. For those who have the time and interest, a tour of the new 
facilities at Amherst for fruit storage research - 
Dr. Frank Southwick, University of Massachusetts. 



^Directions: - From Belchertown center, proceed on Route 181 about 2.5 
miles toward Palmer, bear left on Mt. Sears Road (Cold 
Spring Road on some maps) 0.7 miles to Sabin St., bear 
left to the Research Center. If approaching Belchertown 
from Palmer, take Route 181 from Route 20. 



- 2 - 

HARVEST MANAGEMENT 

Good organization of the harvest operation is essential if time, money, 
labor, and bruising of fruit are to be kept to a minimum. Each grower organizes 
the harvest operation somewhat differently because of circumstances and personal 
preference. However, below is a detailed account of how one Massachusetts grower 
organizes his harvest operation, and the information should be of interest to 
others. It shows that considerable thought and planning has been given to this 
important phase of orcharding. Data obtained at this grower's orchard during a 
study of mechanical Injury on Mcintosh apples during harvesting, storing, and 
packing has shown that the planning and organization has helped to minimize 
mechanical injury. 

Harvest Labor 

The ham/est crew is made up of about 15 to 20 per cent local help, 40 per 
cent transients from the south, and the other 40 per cent are workers on leave 
from service. Until this year, housing was rented for the transient help. 
Starting this fall, the help will be housed on the farm with accomodations for 40. 

The basic harvest crew is composed of 15 pickers being the better transient 
pickers and local help. At the peak of harvest, approximately 50 pickers are 
employed. 

Four picking crew foremen are used, two being full time employees and the 
others being men who have picked frviit for a number of years and have proven them- 
selves to be careful pickers and good supervisors of help. Generally each crew 
consists of 10 men and a foreman. At the peak of harvest, however, a crew 
consists of 12 to 13 men. 

Pay Rate 

Up to 1962, pickers have been paid by the hour with the better-than-average 
picker receiving an extra 10 cents an hour. The average pickers harvest 4 to 6 
bushels per hour and the better pickers 6 to 8 bushels per hour. To induce a 
little competitive spirit, the grower pays an extra dollar per day to the man in 
each crew whose apples have the fewest bruises. 

In 1962, this grower is contemplating paying piece work to get greater pro- 
duction from the pickers with an incentive for good quality (color and minimum 
bruising). He feels that the 5 bushel per hour minimum that he has set In the 
past has kept production per picker low. In addition, it is felt that the 6 to 8 
bushel pt-r hour pickers are not being rewarded enough for their extra effort. 

The foremen, other than the regular lieip who act as foremen, receive 
additional pay and are allowed to work extra hours by aiding tl>e liauiing .Jiid 
grading crews. 

Training of the IMcking Crew s 

Many pickers have never harvested <ipi)itis belore. Therefore, the grower per- 
sonally gives each picker 15 to 30 minutes of instruction. Tlie grower attempts to 
limit the number of new pickers to 7 or 8 eacli day so that he can personally 
instruct them. Each man is handed a copy of Special Circular No. 246 titled "Be a 



-3 - 

Better Apple Picker", whtcl) was prepared by the Pomology Staff, University of 
Massachusetts. They are sliown and then practice proper picking technique, place- 
ment of apples in the picking container, emptying the apples from the picking 
buckets to field crates, and placement of ladders. If the fruit arc being spot- 
picked, the pickers are shown the color requirement. During this instruction 
period, the grower has two men fill the same box to show them how to close the 
bottom of the picking bucket when the orchard box is full but some apples still 
remain in the picking container. This fulfills two purposes: (a) it shows the 
picker how full to fill the field crate; and (b) how to close the picking bucket 
without spilling apples. This grower strives to keep hand leveling of the field 
crates to a minimum which saves time and avoids spillage of fruit. 

Each man's name and assigned number is placed on the Crew Time Sheet and 
Efficiency Report, a sample of which is shown below. 

Crew Time Sheet and Efficiency Report 



Circle when: 

1. Average Bruise 21+ 

2. Average Bushel 5- 



Foreman_ 
Date 



Names 



No. 



In 



Lunch 



Out 



Bruise 
A.M. 



Bruise 

P.M. 



Avg. 
Bruise 



Bushels 
A.M. 



Bushels 
P.M. 



Total 
Bushels 



Avg/Hr 



I I 
1 _l. 
I I 



I 

± 
I 



I 

1 
I 



I 

± 
I 



I 

± 

I 



I 

A. 
I 



I 



I 



I 



The report is explained and the men informed that the bruises will be 
counted. A box from each picker is examined twice daily. The pickers are told 
that they will be fired for counts of 30 to 40 bruises per box. The maximum of 
10 bruises per box is the goal. This is counting all bruises on the apples. 

The men are told that a minimum of 5 bushels per hour is expected unless the 
picking is poor or they are "topping" trees. 

Training and Duties of Foremen 

The foremen help harvest the few early apples and haul boxes to the orchard. 
They are given a training program by the grower making use of Special Circular 
No. 245 titled "Harvesting Suggestions for Orchard Foremen", which was prepared 
by the Pomology Staff of the University of Massachusetts. A few items are added 
to the suggestions: (1) all drops are to be picked up prior to and after picking; 
(2) instruct pickers to throw all trash into empty boxes; (3) show pickers how 
full to fill boxes; (4) place field crates under trees for pickers; (5) foremen 
are to level if time permits; (6) foremen are responsible for supplying cups and 
water for pickers; and (7) foremen are responsible for distribution and return of 
all harvest equipment - buckets, leveling sticks, ladders, water buckets, picker 
tapes, etc. 



Each foreman has a basket in which are kept his instructions, a clip board 
with the daily time sheet having the pickers' names and numbers, extra leveling 



- 4 - 

sticks, picker tapes, and cups for water. 

The crew is informed by the foreman what trees to pick and that they must ask 
hira before moving to the next tree. Pickers are instructed by foremen to first 
pick up the drops, pick one corner of the tree and then place the ladder gently in 
this area. The foreman or pickers line up the boxes by the tree to be harvested - 
not underneath or in roadways. The foreman instructs the picker to stick one 
serrated section from the pickers tape in one box in the row of harvested fruit. 
This identifies the picker of these apples. The foreman records the number on the 
pickers tape, which is the number assigned the picker, and the number of bushels 
harvested. 

Bruise Counts 

Bruise counts are recorded by a woman hired for this purpose. She has a 
check list on which is written each foreman's name and the pickers' numbers. The 
counter examines the fruit that has been picked the longest. A box from each 
picker is chosen at random and each apple is examined for bruises, pulled stems, 
cuts, and stem punctures. Bruises of all sizes are recorded. When the count for 
the crew is completed, the information is given to the foreman and recorded. The 
foreman observes the harvest technique and makes suggestions to any man having 
more than 10 bruises per box. He will devote considerable time with the picker 
having 25 or 30 bruises per box. Also, the counter will immediately examine 
another box of any person with high bruise counts. Perhaps the picker was 
finishing the top of a tall tree which might account for the large number of 
bruises. 

Two high bruise counts for an individual picker is brought to the grower's 
attention. He will try to correct the difficulty and the checker will make bruise 
counts twice on the fruit harvested by this person in the afternoon or the next 
morning, whatever the case may be. If the picker continues to damage the fruit, 
it is his final day of work. 

No maximum is set for pulled stems. The grower is not concerned with 5 or 6 
pulled stems per box, but if they run 20 or more, an attempt is made to correct 
the difficulty. 

Leveling 

This grower reports that leveling is his big problem and that it is difficult 
to obtain and keep levelers. It seems to bother women's knees or backs. In the 
future he plans to use some of the poorer pickers for the leveling job. 

The levelers are given the following printed instructions. 

(a) Level oldest-picked apples first. 

(b) Shake the box gently. 

(c) Level as shown. 

(d) Keep boxes in a row if possible. 

(e) Return leveling stick at night. 

(f) Report poor apples to foremen. 

There is usually one leveler per crew of pickers. Levelers, also, must be 
watched to prevent rough handling. 



llauiinK 

Two hauling crews are used and the foreman of each is a full time employee. 
There are usually 3 or 'i men to a crew. The fruit is stacked 2 or 3 high on flat 
bed trailers which are hauled by tractors. A crew usually hauls and stores 1000 
to 1500 boxes a day, averaging about 1100 boxes. In addition, they may distribute 
a load or two of empty boxes and aid the levelers. 

The foremen of the haulinp, crews are given the following written instructions; 

(a) Get to work early enough to gas tractors and trucks before other workers 
come in. 

(b) Record time of men in crew. 

(c) Record loadings into each room. 

(d) Carry on tractor: 

Nails 

Hammer 

Leveling sticks 

(e) Be sure boxes are level before loading. 

(f) Take oldest-picked fruit first. 

(g) You are responsible to see that; 

1. Tlie crew handles the boxes gently. 

2. Th2 crew keeps working. 

3. The drops are kept separate from hand-picks. 

4. The drops are picked up in front of the tractor. 

5. The rooms are loaded properly. 

6. The apples are stacked properly. 

7. To report poorly handled apples to the picking foremen. 

8. The crew knows how to level . 

Below is a sample of the recap sheet of storage delivery kept by the foreman. 
This record is of value to the grower in helping prevent over-loading of refriger- 
ation capacity. 

Recap of Storage Delivery 



Date 



Variety 



Green' s 



Smith ' s 
CA Gold 



Room 1 



Room 2 



Room 3 



I 

1 
I 



I 

1 
I 



I 

_L 
I 



I 
L 



I 

1 
I 



I 

1 
I 



The foreman of each hauling crew has a basket in which is kept a clip board 
with the time sheet and the recap of storage delivery sheet. The baskets of the 
picking crew and hauling crew foremen are returned to a central location at night. 
They are checked for contents and made ready for the next day. The grower takes 
the time and delivery sheets home for examinaLion prior to giving them to the 
bookkeeper. 



-Wil liam J . Lord 



- 6 - 

POMOLOGICAL l'AKi\(Jl<APHS 

Packing and Selling During Harvest 

In the last few years, the writer has heard growers mention that it paid to 
pack and sell fruit during harvest and that good movement of apples in the fall 
is essential for a successful marketing season. The following are one grower's 
conments on the subject. 

"We think that grading and selling during harvest is excellent because we 
don't have enough storage capacity of our own. We have kept track of the markets 
over the years and have found that we gain nothing, in fact may lose, by paying 
for storage. 

"We are ahead financially in that we are short of money during harvest and 
have to borrow money to harvest the crop. Why not sell some of our crop at har- 
vest, if the price is as good as later in the season, and get our operating 
capital and not pay Interest on borrowed money? 

"By grading and packing at harvest, we have a better idea what is going into 
storage. We are getting a random sample because the fruit is brought to the 
packing shed by different hauling crews from different blocks of trees. They are 
never brought in by the same crew in two consecutive loads. We find out if the 
apples are being picked too green. Sometimes you see. so many green apples, you 
are accustomed to seeing only 25 per cent color. We grade for 50 per cent color. 
Therefore, by the number of throw-outs we know how well the color requirements 
are being met. 

"Grading at harvest is a check on the bruise counter to see if some pickers 
are badly bruising fruit that she doesn't know about. Bruise counts are made in 
the orchard on harvested fruit of each picker by a woman hired for this purpose. 

"We can determine the quality of fruit in the different blocks. For instance, 
we had one block where the scab was severe in the top of the trees. By grading at 
harvest, we realized that none of the fruit from this block should go into CA, 
The majority of this fruit was graded and packed during harvest. 

"One instance last year we had four new inexperienced pickers. Our bruise 
counter was sick; therefore, the foreman was told to watch these new pickers. He 
wasn't able to check their fruit for bruises. Our grading crew found apples with 
excessive bruises picked by this crew. By referring to the numbers on the 
pickers' tapes, which were iittached lo the boxes, we were able to prevent further 
damage from being done." 

William J. Lord 



I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I 



CON\a-.llSJON OF CAUSfIC SODA TYPK C ARBON DloXIDK 
SC!1IJBBI::US TO W/vTKK T^PE CARBON DIOXIDl:: SCRUBBKRS 

In the conventional caustic soda type carbon dioxide scrubljcrs, the caustic 



soda combines with the carbon dioxide in the storage atmosphere forming an 
insoluble precipitate. The reaction is rapid and effective, particularly when a 
unit is freshly charged. The water-type carbon dioxide scrubber operates on an 
entirely different principle. Water is used to absorb the carbon dioxide from the 
air in the storage room. This carbon dioxide rich water is then exposed to out- 
side air (low CO2 content) so that it loses the dissolved carbon dioxide. It is 
then reused to absorb more carbon dioxide from the storage atmosphere. 

Because of the extreme effectiveness of the caustic soda carbon dioxide re- 
action, considerable variation in design and specifications could exist in the 
caustic soda type carbon dioxide scrubbers and yet provide adequate capacity. 
With water-type carbon dioxide scrubbers, proper design is much more important as 
capacity is quite sensitive to such things as the dimensions of the absorption and 
desorption sections (towers), the amount of water circulated, the way air and 
water are mixed in the tower, and the amount of air circulated. 

In the absorption section, it is important that there be imimate contact of 
all air flowing from the CA room with a large quantity of water for sufficient 
time that carbon dioxide is absorbed. This means that the diameter of the tower 
must be restricted, the water flow be rapid, and the height of tower must be 
greater. In the desorber section where carbon dioxide is removed from the water 
circulated, there must be adequate contact of the water with outside air for 
sufficient time :;hat as much CO2 as possible is discharged. This means having a 
reasonable amount of outside air circulated through the desorber, considerable 
quantity of water well distributed, good contact between water and air for a long 
enough period to permit the carbon dioxide to be discharged. 

Since the caustic soda type and water-type carbon dioxide scrubbers differ in 
operating principle, the caustic soda type cannot be easily converted to the water- 
type. In particular, the depth of packing is often inadequate to be used for 
either the absorption or desorption tower of the water-tyne. The diameter of the 
tower is usually more than is desirable, particularly for the absorber section. 
The pumps are generally of inadequate canncity. Observations of water-type 
scrubbers in Massachusetts have indicated the desirability of increased water 
flow rates, of adequate contact between K'ater and air in the desorption tower, and 
the use of outside air of low carbon dioxide content. Work in Michigan has lead 
to recommendations of a 4-1/2 foot d(!pth of bed in pack'^d absorption and desorp- 
tion towers, and a water flow rate of 10 gallons per minute per 1,000 bushels of 
apples. Tower diameters were designed to 45 gallons per minute per square foot 
size and used with blowers of 50 cfm per square foot of tower at 4 inches water 
gauge pressure capacity. The design variables in water-type scrubbers are inter- 
related so that recommendations are somewhat arbitrary. However, the general 
principles stated above apply. In making conversions of caustic soda type to 
water-type carbon dioxide scrubber systems, they may be used as guides for 
achieving most satisfactory performance. Depending on the circumstances and the 
capacity of the water-type c.nrbon r'ioxids s-rrbber, it may be necessary to use 
caustic soda during the initial period of CA storage when carbon dioxide production 
is unusuallv high. This can normally be dons with lit'le inconvenience or alter- 
ation to the water-type carbon dioxide scrubber construction. 

John R. Perry 

Agricultural Engineering 



CALCIUM SPRAYS FOR THE CONTROL OF BITTER PIT 

Recent reports from other areas have indicated partial control of bitter pit 
with the application of calcium sprays. 

For the past two seasons we ha-v^e conducted rather extensive trials with 
calcium sprays for bitter pit control of Red Spy. 

In 1960, 5 pounds of calcium chloride in 100 gallons a^jplied as a foliage 
spray about mid-June appeared to reduce the incidence of bitter pit. Two sprays 
of calcium chloride applied in June and July did not reduce pit as much as the 
single spray. This inconsistency along with the failure of the calcium sprays to 
increase the calcium content of the foliage led us to question the apparent con- 
trol of the single application of calcium chloride. Single and double applications 
of 7.5 pounds of calcium nitrate per 100 gallons of spray were not effective in 
reducing pit. 

In 1961, 4 sprays of calcium nitrate at 6, 4, and 2 pounds per 100 gallons 
of spray and calcium chloride at 4, 2, and 1 pounds per 100 gallons were applied 
August 31, September 9 and 22, and October 5. None of these treatments were 
effective In reducing pit and one of the treatments had more pit than the control 
trees. Chemical analysis of the fruit indicated that the calcium sprays had not 
Increased the calcium content of the flesh or the peel over fruit from the control 
trees. 

The failure of the calcium sprays to Increase the calcium content of the 
fruit no doubt accounts for lack of control of the bitter pit. We have not given 
up the possibility that calcium has a relationship to bitter pit development but 
until we can show an increase in calcium content of the fruit from calcium sprays 
and a significant decrease in the incidence of pit, we question the application 
of calcium sprays as a practical method of control. 

Walter D. Weeks 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperotive Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



AUGUST-SEPTEMBER 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

M.F.G.A. Summer Meeting 

Scald Control Methods for 1962 

Preharvest Drop Control 

"Pick-Yoor-Own" Method of 
Harvesting Apples 

The Effect of CA Storage on the 
Disappearance of Water Core 
and the Appearonce of Internal 
Breakdown 



//■ 





mn 



Wk 




-^^ 



Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C, Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS IN SUPPORT OF THE FRUIT PROGRAM 



BARNSTABLE 



BERKSHIRE 



BRISTOL 



DUKES 



ESSEX and 
MIDDLESEX 



FRANKLIN, 
HAMPDEN and 
HAMPSHIRE 



NORFOLK 



PLYMOUTH 



WORCESTER 



Oscar S. Johnson, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Cape Cod Extension Service, Barnstable (Tel. FOrest 2-3255) 

Dick L. Boyce, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Berkshire County Extension Service, Federal Building, 
Pittsfield (Tel. Pittsfield Hlllcrest 8-8285) 

Harold 0. Woodward, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Bristol County Agricultural School, Center Street, 
Segreganset (Tel. Dighton NOrmandy 9-3611 or 9-2361) 

Ezra I. Shaw, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Dukes County Extension Service, Vineyard Haven 
(Tel. Vineyard Haven 694) 

Max G. Fultz, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Middlesex County Extension Service, 19 Everett Street, 
Concord (Tel. Concord EMerson 9-4845) 

G. Everett Wilder, Pioneer Valley Extension Agent in 
Agriculture, Hampden County Improvement League, 1499 
Memorial Avenue, West Springfield (Tel. Springfield 
REpublic 6-7204) 

Peter W. Larson, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Norfolk County Agricultural School, 460 Main Street, 
Walpole (Tel. Walpole MOntrose 8-0268 or 8-0269) 

Dominic A. Marini, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Plymouth County Extension Service, Court House, Brockton 
(Tel. Brockton JUniper 6-4993) 

William R. Goss, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Worcester County Extension Service, 36 Harvard Street, 
Worcester (Tel. Worcester PLeasant 3-5477) 



Annual Meeting of M.F.G.A. 



Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association 
members had a chance to look over the Robert 
Hanifin farm, Belchertown that they gave to 
the University of Massachusetts recently as 
a gift. The occasion was their annual siom- 
mer meeting on July 19. The farm will be 




Here's the Facilities Committee of the MFGA 
that raised the money to purchase the farm. 
L. to R. ,standing--Jonathan Davis, Sterling 
Junction; Arthur D. Bishop, Shelburne Falls; 
George S. Gay, Three Rivers; and Derwood 
Frost, Gleasondale. Seated — Jesse Rice, com- 
mittee chairman, Wilbraham; and Elmer S. Fitz- 
gerald, Leominster. 




used as a Horticultural Research Center and 
to replace apple orchards on campus taken by 
dormitory construction. Association members 
and other agricultural groups raised the 
$40,000 purchase price of the farm "to show 
their faith in continued fruit research." 




Two of the meeting speakers are shown here 
with Dr. Frank W. Southwick (center) depart- 
ment of horticulture and the University's 
liaison officer with fruit growers during 
the farm gift transaction. At left is War- 
ren Clapp, Massachusetts Department of Agri- 
culture; Dr. Norman F. Childers , chairman of 
the horticulture department, Rutgers Univer- 
sity, is at the right. 




Present at the meeting were: L. to R. — 
Association President Bishop; UM President 
John W. Lederle;Dean of Agriculture Arless 
A. Spielman; Commissioner of Agriculture 
Charles H. McNamara. 



"Come and get it I" This was the cry at noon 
as members and guests lined up for the bar- 
becue providing a welcome break. Farm build- 
ings and house are seen in background. 



SCALD CONTROL METHODS FOR 1962 

The approach to scald control which one uses is complicated by quite a few 
factors. From the data we and others have obtained in the past 5 or 6 years, it 
is now very apparent that we not only have to consider the variety and the scald 
control materials, Ethoxyquin (Stop Scald) and diphenylamine (DPA) , but also 
whether each variety is to be stored in regular or CA storage, how long it is to 
be stored, fruit maturity, period of time from harvest to storage, temperature of 
the fruit in storage. In addition, it appears that there may be significant 
differences in scald susceptibility among strains of a variety as well as between 
varieties. Thus it appears that even with the availability of scald reducing 
chemicals the blanket use of one or both of these chemicals on all stored apple 
varieties is not advisable. In addition, neither Stop Scald nor DPA are so 
reliable that their use means that good scald control Is a certainty on some 
varieties in any year or on other varieties in those years when scald is a very 
serious problem. 

The Present Situation With Stop Scald and DPA 

Stop Scald : This material has been coimnercially available for 2 years and should 
be used at the rate of 3 pints per 100 gallons when applied as a tree spray or 
post-harvest dip, flood or spray. If used as a spray it should be applied within 
36 hours of harvest. Unfortunately, apples given preharvest sprays of Stop Scald 
are apt to show dark-ring residue spots and in some cases preharvest sprays are 
less effective than post-harvest treatments. Also, Stop Scald is generally less 
effective in controlling scald on some varieties than DPA. Stop Scald's chief 
advantage over DPA is that it is not apt to cause injury to fruit that are box or 
bin flooded or dipped. This material appears to have no appreciable ripening 
action on apples. The residue tolerance for this material is 3 ppm. Do not apply 
to fruit more than once. Allow fruit to drain reasonably well after treatment. 
Be sure that the entire fruit surface is covered with the solution. A post- 
harvest solution of 100 gallons can be expected to treat about 1000 bushels of 
fruit. Make up fresh solutions each day. Keep all solutions well agitated. A 
diagram of a post-harvest "cascade" type application for Stop Scald is available 
upon request. All fruit treated after harvest must be labeled on their shipping 
containers, "Ethoxyquin treated to retard spoilage". The lettering must be aa 
large as other grade labels. 

DPA : This material has been cleared for use this fall and may be applied before 
or after harvest. It will be sold as an 837o wettable powder and should be used 
at the rate of 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water (2000 ppm.) on most varieties. 
The residue tolerance is 10 ppm. Since this is the first year of commercial 
availability, we suggest that it be used on trial basis. DPA appears to be gen- 
erally more effective for scald control than any known chemical method on most 
varieties. Tree sprays are nearly as effective as post-harvest treatments. Tree 
spray applications must be applied within 36 hours of harvest and thorough 
coverage of the fruit surface must be obtained. Do not use tree sprays when 
temperatures are 80°F or higher. With post-harvest applications use the same 
methods as mentioned with Stop Scald except that better drainage of excess DPA 
liquid is required. This means that apples in bins or crates may be injured 
where excess DPA liquid collects and stays around fruit in the bottoms of such 
containers when fruit is flooded, sprayed, or dipped. Repeat applications are not 
possible with DPA unless a heavy rain occurs between a tree application and 



and harvest. DPA can be applied to fruit wraps and used by those who have an 
interest in wrapping each apple. Those who work with DPA should use rubber gloves. 
Avoid inhaling DPA dust. Keep the suspension well agitated. DPA appears to have 
no appreciable ripening action on apples. All fruit treated after harvest must 
have a label on the shippinp. container statins, "Treated with dlphenylaniine to 
retard spoilage" in letters aa larRe as the grade labels used on package. 

Methods of Controlling Scald on Different Varieties 

Mcintosh : Results of the past 4 years at Amherst show that scald of CA Mcintosh 
can be kept under control in this area without the use of DPA or Stop Scald. How- 
ever, the previous statement is predicated on the assumption that the fruit is 
picked at a flesh firmness of 15 to 17 pounds, moved from the orchard to storage 
within 24 hours and cooled to 320F promptly. Data shown in Table 1 support this 
contention. 

Table 1. The influence of picking date, firmness, 
and storage method on the severity of scald. 

McINTOSH 





1959-60 




1960-61 




1961-62 






Firmness 


% Total Scald 


Firmness 


7. Total Scald 




Firmness 


7. Total Scald 


Picking 


at 
Harvest 


after Storage 


Picking 
Date 


at 

Harvest 


After 


Storage 


Picking 
Date 


at 
Harvest 


After 


Storage 


Date 


Reg. CA 


Reg. 


CA 


Reg. 


CA 


9/9 


16.4 


86 2 


9/7 


16.6 


86 


2 


9/7 


17.2 


100 


4 


9/16 


16.1 


21 1 


9/14 


16.1 


66 


1 


9/14 


16.2 


96 


2 


9/23 


15.4 


22 5 


9/21 


15.1 


45 


1 9/20 


16.0 


75 


1 


9/29 


14.2 


47 44 


9/28 


14.5 


20 


1 1 9/28 


15.1 


33 















1 10/5 


14.7 


7 






From the above data it is apparent that CA storage in itself can greatly 
reduce the development of scald on Mcintosh. The question of whether to use DPA 
or Stop Scald on Mcintosh put In regular cold storage needs answering, however. 
Our evidence indicates that there is usually no justification for the use of 
chemical scald inhibitors on any apple sold before January 1, Also, our results 
with DPA and Stop Scald on Mcintosh have not been particularly outstanding in con- 
trolling scald on fruit placed in regular storage. 

Cortland ; In contrast to Mcintosh CA storage often increases the severity of 
scald on Cortland in comparison to regular storage. Cortland keeps exceedingly 
well in CA storage (same requirements as Mcintosh) except for scald and conse- 
quently chemical scald inhibitors are a necessity if Cortland are to be stored in 
CA or beyond January 1 in regular cold storage. DPA has been distinctly superior 
to Stop-Scald for scald control on Cortland. Use at the rate of 2 pounds per 100 
gallons of water. Control is sometimes so good that DPA treated Cortland may now 
be considered for trial in commercial CA rooms. Remember, however, that in very 
bad scald situations, such as occurred in 1956-60, DPA may not give adequate 
control but the use of DPA appears to be the beat approach to Cortland scald 
control known. 

Delicious ; Work with this variety Indicates that although CA storage may reduce 
scald on Delicious somewhat, the reduction is not great enough to eliminate the 



- /4 - 

need for additional scald control mtitbods In some yo^u'i?. During tie past season 
DPA gave somewhat better scald control than Stop Scald (particularly on CA stored 
fruit) on Richarcd Dellclouo. Tree sprays of DPA gave very good control of scald 
on CA Rlchared Delicious and reduced scald 50 per cent on similar fruit placed in 
regular storage. Post-hairvest treatments of DPA were not superior to tree sprays 
during the 1961-62 season. 



Rome: 



In Tables 2 and 3 are the 1961-62 results with Rome. 



Table 2. The Influence of Picking Date and Method of Storage 
on the Scald of Rome Beauty Apples 



Storage 
Conditions 



Picking 
Date 



Per Cent Scald* 
After 7 Days at Room Temp . 
Slight Severe Total 



32° F in air 



9/29 
10/9 
10/24 



2 


12 



98 

100 

88 



100 
100 
100 



CA - 32" F 

l-TL CO2 + 37. O2 



9/29 
10/9 
10/24 



14 

23 

5 




2 
2 



14 

25 

7 



*Fruit removed from storage April 20, 1962. 

Table 3. The Influence of DPA and Stop Scald on the Amount of Scald 
Developing on Rome Beauty Apples After Storage 



Treatment 
(Ibs./lOO gals.) 



Date Date 
Applied Picked 



Per Cent Scald* 
After 7 Days at Room Temperature 



Severe Total Severe 



Total 



Sprays 

Check 

DPA - 2 lbs. 

Stop Scald - 3 pts. 

Dl£S 

Check 

DPA - 1 lb. 

Stop Scald - 3 pts. 



10/10 
10/9 10/10 
10/9 10/10 



10/16 



10/16 
10/16 
10/16 



32-360F in air 



97 100 
50 86 
63 93 



97 
95 
51 



100 

100 

87 



CA-32°F. , 37.C02+3%02 



1 











1 











*Frult removed from storage April 10, 1962. 



The data in Tables 2 and 3 seera to indicate that CA storage alone greatly 
reduces scald on Rome. Remember this is only one year's data, however. On Rome 
placed in regular storage both DPA and Stop Scald seem to be far from adequate if 
these data are typical of what we can expect in other years. DPA appears to be 
the material to use as a preharvest material and Stop Scald is suggested as a 
post-harvest treatinent, but don't be surprised if some scald develops on Romes 
placed in cold storage regardless of which material is used. Our best suggestion 
based on the data shown is to place those Romes to be sold in late winter or later 
in CA storage (same conditions as used for Delicious) Spray with DPA within 36 



- 5 - 

hours of harvest or treat with Stop Scald after harvest for additional protection 
against scald. Dr. R. M. Smock in New York suggests that Stop Scald Is the 
preferred post-harvest treatment for Rome since DPA has caused some fruit injury 
when used at the 2-pound rate. 

Franklin W. Southwlck 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



PRKHARVEST DROP CONTROL 

With moderate to heavy crops of apples on most of our drop susceptible 
varieties such as Mcintosh, Delicious, Baldwin, and Rome, it is always possible 
for us to have a rather serious preharvest drop problem. The prime factors that 
tend to Increase the severity of fruit drop are large crop size, poor foliage due 
to frost Injury, disease. Insect, and/or deficiencies of magnesium, potassiuui, or 
boron Injury, high nitrogen levels in the trees at harvest time, fruit maturity 
and high temperatures during the harvest period. Some of these factors can be 
controlled by the grower to some degree but the Important weather factor is 
beyond our control. 

At this time the foliage in most orchards is in good shape. Since full 
bloom occurred after May 10 in our orchards and the mean growing season tempera- 
tures to date have been below normal, for the most part, through July, earlier 
than usual fruit ripening is not expected. However, the severity of the drop 
problem is often unpredictable and one should be ready to use drop controlling 
hormones every year. It may be possible now that Mcintosh for CA storage are 
often spot-picked around September 10 to 15, that drop may be so slight at this 
time that the use of NAA (naphthaleneacetlc acid) can be delayed until much of 
the CA fruit Is picked. However, It would seem best to use NAA before harvesting 
fruit for CA rather than take serious losses from drop. The hastened ripening 
action from NAA Is usually very small if the fruit is picked within 7 to 10 days 
after treatment. Also, applications of NAA (naphthaleneacetlc acid) have no 
appreciable influence on the amount of scald developing on regular or CA stored 
Mcintosh last year (see Table 1). 

Table 1. The Influence of preharvest drop sprays of NAA on the 
development of storage scald In regular and CA storage 





Date 
Applied 


Date 
Picked 


After 


Per Cent Seal 
7 Days at Room 


Ld* 
Temperature 


Treatment 


Severe 


Total 


Severe 




Total 




9/5 


9/13 
9/13 


32-360F 


in air 


CA-38°F. , 


5%C02+37o02 


Check 

NAA - 20 ppm. 


27 
24 


93 
92 



3 




3 
12 


Check 

NAA - 20 ppm. 

+ 
NAA - 20 ppm. 


9/5 
9/13 


9/25 
9/25 


2 
4 


30 
35 










2 



*Fruit removed from storage on 3/21/62, 



- 6 - 

As far as drop control materials are concerned the rltuatlon has not changed 
appreciably since last year. Those who wish recommendations concerning the use 
of NAA and 2,4,5-TP (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyproptonic acid) may obtain our 1962 
revision of Special Circular No. 254, Preharvest Drop Control of Apples, from the 
Mailing Room, University of Massachusetts, Amherst or from your local Extension 
office. The most significant change is the fact that NAA (which may be applied 
twice at concentrations up to 20 ppm.) can be applied within 2 days of harvest 
this fall . Last year the last spray could not be legally applied within 5 days 
of harvest. 

In 1961 we found that NAA not only tends to inhibit the rate of fruit growth 
of persisting apples when used as a chemical thinner but also has a slight similar 
action even when applied after completion of the June drop. (see Table 2). 

Table 2. The effect of post June drop applications of NAA 
on the growth rate of Mcintosh ipples. 1961. 



Treatment 


Date 
Applied 


Average 
7/31 8/3 


Fruit Diameter 
8/10 8/14 


(Inches 
8/22 



8/25 


Avg. Fruit 

Growth (In.) 

8/3 - 8/25 


1 . Check 

2. NAA-20 ppm. 

3. NAA-20 ppm. 

plus 
NAA-20 ppm. 


8/4 
8/4 

8/14 


2.16 
2.15 

2.18 


2.23 
2.22 

2.25 


2.37 
2.36 

2.39 


2.43 
2.41 

2.42 


2.54 
2.50 

2.51 


2.58 
2.53 

2.54 


0.35 
0.31 

0.29 



Franklin W. Southwlck 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



"PICK-YOUR-OWN" METHOD OF HARVESTING APPIJS 

"Pick-your-own" method of harvesting has gained popularity with growers of 
small fruit in Massachusetts. However, only a few apple growers have tried this 
method of harvest, one of whom Is Hamilton Lincoln of North Brookfleld. He has 
allowed the public to pick in his orchards for the last three years. At present, 
approximately 3,000 bushels of Hamilton's crop are picked by the public. This 
represents a small part of his total crop. The program has gained popularity 
each year, however. Originally It was anticipated that a larger per cent of the 
crop would be harvested by the public and that many customers would pick several 
bushels to last for the season. In practice It has been found that many people 
pick only one bushel, which is the minimum allowed, but come back once or twice 
during the season. The season is approximately four weekends with about 85 per 
cent of the apples harvested on Sundays. 



A Way to Advertise 

Hamilton considers inviting the public to pick their own apples is an excel- 
lent means of advertising. "Once they have picked apples here, they have become 
identified with the orchard and vjith the crop, and they seem to have a personal 
interest in It. The people seem to consider it as their crop and trees. More 



- 7 - 

important, when the people have used all the apples harvested by themselves, they 
continue to purchase apples at the roadside stand for the rest of the season. 

"We use the pick-your-own method to help advertise our roadside stand. Any 
individual group that picks three bushels or more receives a free ticket which 
entitles them to a chance for a bonus prize given every day at the roadside 
stand. Of course this Is a gimmick because at the stand there are all grades and 
sizes of apples, jams, lellies, and homemade and unusual candies that are not 
generally found in stores. We sell penny candies for children, popcorn, candied 
apples, honey, and cheese." 

The writer might add that the roadside stand, which is in the bam. Is very 
artistically and cleverly arranged by Mrs. Proctor, who is manager. . There are 
stuffed animals featured in their natural habitat, antiques, and other gift shop 
items which are attractive to many customers. 

Ready Cash 

"The pick-your-own method of harvest furnishes us with ready cash at a time 
we are in desperate need of it." 

Apples are sold to the public at a cost approximately equivalent to the 
wholesale price for orchard-run fruit. 

Headaches! 

Any grower planning to invite the public to pick their own fruit should 
contact his insurance a gent i n order to have suitable lia b ility insurance . 

Considerable supervision is required! "We have to run the pick-your-own 
method on somewhat of a supermarket fashion. We let the people in at one gate and 
out another. We have to hire (a) policemen to direct traffic, (b) instructors and 
harvest supervisors, and (c) girls for the 'check-in' and 'check-out' gates." 

Management of Harvest 

Hamilton advertises on the radio that the public is invited to pick their 
own apples. "We may have been picking apples commercially for two weeks. We wait 
until the apples have real good flavor and color before inviting the public in to 
pick. 

"We let the people pick in blocks where no fruit has been previously har- 
vested. Our customers are the first ones to harvest the fruit. If a person 
wants all large apples or just small fruit for the children, they can have them. 
The price is the same. 

"We originally insisted that the customers bring their own containers but 
found no standardization. They would bring everything from blueberry baskets to 
washtubs. Naturally, this led to many discussions as to what was a bushel on 
which the price was based. Now we give all customers half-bushel bags if they 
have no half-bushel or bushel containers. No other size or type of container is 
allowed. 

"Ladders are furnished and the people are given instructions on how to pick. 



„ 8 - 

We intend to have one Instructor for every ZO to 30 people. In general, I think 
the people are more careful than hired pickers on piece work who are after the 
dollar and care nothing about the fruit or the orchard. 

"The cars are directed to the entrance gate of the block of trees to be har- 
vested. A girl at the entrance gives them their bags and an Instruction sheet- 
Also, cider Is sold at the gate." 

The Information on the Instruction sheet is given below. 

"Welcome To Our Picking Party" 

"This is our first attempt at 'Pick-Your-Own' -- and it calls for cooperation 
on both sides. We must protect our trees and our equipment against breakage -- 
ind wi> want to help you harvest the fruit In the best possible condition. 

Rules of the Game 

"You must have some sort of standard container to pick into. If you have 
none that approximates a bushel, wo will sell you some at cost. 

"Do not pull or yank the apple off the tree. Simply roll it up and over 
against the branch and it will drop off into your hand. This saves the fruit buds 
for next year -- and also prevents finger-bruising. One of our instructors will 
be glad to show you how to pick quickly and easily. 

" Plac e the apple gently into the container. A drop of only six inches makes 
a bruise that will cause the apple to rot in a few days. 

" Do not shake the tree . There are plenty of nice ripe apples on the ground 
if you want windfalls. Shaking the tree bruises the apples on the tree as well ao 
those that fall. 

" Never lay your ladder down . A ladder lying on the grass is very difficult 
to see and will certainly be run over and broken. Ladders are much easier to 
move in an upright position. Our instructors will help you. 

" Never place a ladder against a branch on the slant . The higher you go, the 
more weight will be placed on the branch and the ladder will slip. A straight 
ladder is a safe ladder — all the weight is on the ground. Remember — you are 
picking at your own risk. 

"Place your ladder aimed toward the center of the tree. If it does slip it 
will not go very far and you will not fall. 

"D on't hurry . There are plenty of apples — and plenty of time. Our 
instructors are anxious to help you. Give them a chance to show you how to pick. 

"All cars are subject to inspection — inside and out — Including luggage 
compartments before leaving the orchard. This enables you to have your car with 
you — otherwise it would have to be left at the roadside. 

"The cashier will take your name and address and give you a receipt for the 
apples. This protects you if stopped by a policeman and also puts you on our 



mailing list. 

"If you have never seen our packinghouse you should do so. We are open seven 
days a week during the apple season. 

"Our packinghouse and salesroom have: Toilets, lavatory, freshly picked and 
graded apples In all quantities and prices, cider, honey, preserves, soft drinks, 
gifts. 

"Plense leave all rubbish In our trash barrels at the gates. We take pride 
in our orchard and want to keep it clean. 

"Good Luck" 

There are always one or two persons who try to get by without paying for some 
of the fruit. Inspection of the car trunks Is a necessity In all fruit operations 
allowing the public to pick their own fruit. 

Summar 



The "pick-your-own" method of harvest has many headaches and requires super- 
vision. However, it is worth serious consideration in some orchard operations. 
Naturally, this system of harvest is harder to manage in orchards than in 
plantings of small fruit. Also, the accident hazard is greater. It was only a 
few years ago, however, that the growers of small fruit were against the idea. 
Pick-your-own has kept a number of small fruit growers in business, particularly 
from the standpoint of solving the problem of harvest labor. 

William J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



THE EFFECT OF CA STORAGE ON THE DISAPP E ARANCE OF 
WATER CORE AND THE APPEARANCE OF INT KR NAL BREAKDOWN 

There Is considerable interest In storing varieties other than Mcintosh in 
CA storage. However, less is known about the response of these other varieties 
to this type of storage, one of these being the effect of CA on the disappearance 
of water core and the appearance of internal breakdown. 

To study the effect of CA on the disappearance of water core and the appear- 
ance of internal breakdown, fruit samples were obtained from selected Starking 
and Rlchared Delicious trees on three dates during the harvest season. On each 
harvest date, a random sample of one bushel of Starking and Rlchared Delicious 
was Immediately examined for water core. The amount of water core present was 
classified as slight (less than 30 per cent), medium (30 to 50 per cent), and 
heavy (more than 50 per cent of the cross-sectional area affected), it can be 
noted in Table 1 that the amount and severity of water core increased with delay 
in picking date and that on October 24 more of this disorder was present in 
Rlchared than in Starking apples. Also, on October 25, five bushels of Rlchared 
apples were harvested from two trees in another block. The amount of water core 
preaent in one bushel of these apples is shown In Table 1. 



- 10 - 
Tnble 1 . Water core in Starklng and Rlchared DeHc!oun applew at barvegt, 1961. 



Pick ing Date 



Per Cent A p ples With Water Core at Harvest 
Slight I Mediuro I Heavy I Total 



Starking Delicioua 



Average Flesli 
Fimmess (lbs.) 



Sept. 29, 1961 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


17.7 


Oct. 9, 1961 


3.5 


0.4 


0.0 


3.9 


16.7 


Oct. 24. 1961 


48.0 


5.5 


4.6 


58.1 


15.5 







Rlchared 


Delicious 






Sept. 29, 1961 
Oct. 9, 1961 
Oct. 24, 1961 


3.0 
17.8 
42.0 


0.0 
2.1 
8.9 


0.0 

0.3 

25.2 


3.0 
20,2 
76.1 


17.9 
17.0 
16.4 


Oct, 25, 1961 


49.5 


r 36.6 1 


11.8 1 


1 97.9 






Immediately after harvest on each of three dates, three bushels of each 
strain were placed In regular refrigerated 32*^^' otorage and in CA storage operated 
at 32"f temperature and atmospheres of 2 to 3 per cent oxygen and carbon dioxide. 
Two bushels from the other block of trees were placed in each of the two types of 
storages. 

On April 3, 1962 the fruits were removed from the storage and were held at 
room temperature for seven days prior to examination for water core and internal 

breakdown. 

T able 2 . A comparison of storage disorders in Starking and Rlchared Delicious 
stored in CA and regular storage until April 3, 1962 and then held at room temper- 
ature for seven days. 





7. Water 


Core and 


Internal 


Breakdown 




7. Flesh 


Browning 






Rich 


ared 


Starking 


Rlchared 


Starking 


Picking 
Date 


ReKular 
Storage 


CA 
Storage 


Regular 
Storage 


CA 
Storage 


Regular 
Storage 


CA 
Storage 


Regular 
Storage 


CA 
Storage 


9/29/61 
10/9/61 
10/24/61 
10/25/61 


0.0 

3.0 

37.1 

81.4 


0.0 

2.4 

20.9 

24.3 


0.4 

0.6 

11.7 


0.4 
0.6 

4.3 


0.0 

2.1 

24.8 

7.5 


0.4 
0.6 
4.0 
9.7 


0.0 

3.0 

23.0 


0.0 

0.0 

11.4 



Water core and Internal breakdown were not serious in either Delicious strain 
harvested September 29 and October 9, 1961 (Table 2). The Delicious harvested 
October 24 and 25 had considerable water core and internal breakdown and these 
disorders were more prevalent in the fruit from regular storage than from CA. 

Browning of the flesh was evident in some of the stored fruit harvested 
in October, 1961. The severity of the disorder appears to be related to harvest 
date and was less severe in fruit stored in CA than in regular storage. Whether 
flesh browning is associated with water core that had disappeared or with 
senescence is not knowa. 



It is of interest to note that, after storage in CA, 4 per cent of the 
Rlchared Delicious harvested October 24 and 8 per cent harvested October 25 had 
water core with no internal breakdown. This disorder was slight and would not 
have been objectionable to the consumer. On the other hand, after storage in a 
regular refrigerated 32°F room, only one Rlchared Delicious apple harvested on 
these two dates had water core without the accompanying internal breakdown. 



- 11 - 

In sunnnary, the data presented Indicates that CA storage may reduce the 
severity of Internal breakdown in Delicious apples having considerable water core 
present at harvest. 

— -William J. Lord 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Stoff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperotive Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Massachusetts, Amherst 



OCTOBER n, 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Orchard Mouse Control 

A Reminder 

Approved Farm Stand Program 

Pomological Paragraphs 

Fall Care of Farm Mochinery 

Cider Notes 





Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, in furttierance of the Acta of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS IN SUPPORT OF THE FRUIT PROGRAM 



BARNSTABLE 



BERKSHIRE 



BRISTOL 



DUICES 



ESSEX and 
MIDDLESEX 



FRANKLIN, 
HAMPDEN and 
HAlirSHIRri 



NORFOLK 



PLYMOUT!! 



VJORCESTER 



Oscar S. Johnson, County Extension Agent In Agriculture, 
Cape Cod Extension Service, Barnstable (Tel. FOrest 2-3255) 

Dick L. Boyce, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Berkshire County Extension Service, Federal Building, 
Pittsfield (Tel. Pittsfield Hlllcrest 8-8285) 

Harold 0. Woodv/ard, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Bristol County Agricultural School, Center Street, 
Segreganset (Tel. Dighton NOrmandy 9-3611 or 9-2361) 

Ezra I. Shaw, County Extension Agent in Agriculture 
Dukes County Extension Service, Vineyard Haven 
(Tel. Vineyard Haven 694) 

Max G. Fultz, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Middlesex County Extension Service, 19 Everett Street, 
Concord (Tel. Concord EMerson 9-4845) 

G. Everett Wilder, Pioneer Valley Extension Agent in 
Agriculture, Hampden County Improvement League, 1499 
Memorial Avenue, West Springfield (Tel. Springfield 
REpublic 6-7204) 

Peter W. Larson, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Norfolk County Agricultural School, 460 Main Street, 
Walpole (Tel. Walpole MOntrose 8-0268 or 8-0269) 

Dominic A. Marini, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Pl3nnouth County Extension Service, Court House, Brockton 
(Tel. Brockton JUniper 6-4993) 

William R. G'oss, County Extension Agent in Agriculture, 
Worcester County Extension Service, 36 Harvard Street, 
Worcester (Tel. Worcester PLcasant 3-5477) 



2. 

ORCHARD MOUSE CONTROL 

Orch ard Mous^ Con trol Methods 

Meadow Mice are a continuing problem and control of these animals should be 
considered an important part of standard orchard management practices. Experience 
Indicates that the best method of mouse control is trail baiting; i.e., placing 
poisoned bait (either Zinc Phosphide-treated oats or apple cubes) in natural or 
artificially-constructed mouse trails. For the trail baiting method to be effec- 
tive, it is necessary to search for mouse trails. In using the trail builder, 
proper adjustment of the machine is very important in attaining control; and the 
sod conditions must be suitable to provide clean-cut trails or runways. As cost 
of labor increases, effective trail baiting becomes more expensive--especially 
in the larger orchards . 

As a compromise directed towards reducing labor costs and the time required 
to bait an orchard, the broadcast method of baiting was devised and field tested. 
Although the per cent of control attained is not as high by this method (average 
of 787o as compared to 957, control using the Trail Builder), it is much quicker, 
easier, and considerably cheaper than either hand-baiting or using the Trail 
Builder. 

Broadcasting bait can be done by using a hand seeder, tractor-dravm seeder, 
or fertilizer spreader. No matter which method is used, it is best to apply the 
bait under ideal conditions, A series of three warm, sunny days, with little 
wind, is best. Broadcasting may also be done by hand. Simply walk down each 
tree row and throw handfuls of oats into all heavily-grassed areas around and 
under the trees. Although this method is slower than machine distribution, it 
produces effective control when proper placement of bait is made. 

Baiting Information 

The following are the recommended amounts for the different control methods. 

HAND- BAITING 

1 Can Zinc Phosphide R o denticide (1-Ounce Can) 

■ 16-20 quarts of treated apple. 

■ 1600-2000 apple baits (^-inch apple cubes). 
- 400-500 trees baited with apple only. 

■= 800-1000 trees baited with apple and oats. 

iO Pounds of Zi nc Phosphide-treated Steamed-crushe d Oats 
= 900 teaspoon-sized bait placements. 
= 225 trees baited with oats only. 
= 450 trees baited with apple and oats. 
(Use 2-3 pounds of oats per acre,) 

TRAIL- BUILDER BAITING 

(a) 1 Acre requires 5-% quarts of apples only, 

(b) 1 Acre requires 6 pounds of oats only. 

(c) 1 Acre of combination baits requires 3 quarts of apples and 
3 pounds of Zinc Phasphide-treated Steamed-crushed Oats, 

BROADCASTI NG BAITING 

Z inc Phosphi de -tr eated Steamed-crushed Oats 

Use 6-10 pounds per acre for tractor -drawn equipment. Travel at a 
moderate speed, approximately 3 m.p.h. Dry grass conditions will 
insure penetration of oats into mouse trails. IN ANY BROADCAST 
METHOD, THE OATS SHOULD NOT BE PLACED ON OPEN, BARE GROUND. 



3. 
Use 6-10 pounds per acre for broadcast by hand. 

AIRPLANE BAITING 

Broadcasting poisoned grain bait by airplane has produced results 
varying from 0-100%. This variation in degree of control leaves some 
doubt as to the reliability of the method. 

The broadcast method for applying any poisoned bait is not recommended for 
an infestation comprised primarily of Pine Mice. 

Bait Pre ference 

Steamed-crushed Oats have continually demonstrated, u nder a l l field condl- 
tions, that they are more highly preferred by mice than other grains. The 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife has conducted extensive laboratory and 
field tests on bait acceptability, with the result that both meadow and pine 
mice have shown a preference for oats over corn or even wheat. In addition, it 
has been shown that pine mice are less likely to store oats than corn. 

Ground Spray s 

Some comments are in order regarding ground cover sprays. Toxaphene field 
tests by both Bureau representatives and horticulturists showed variable and 
usually inadequate control of meadow and pine mice, even when the maximum amount 
(14 pounds per acre) was used. 

The use of En drin is not recommended by the Bureau due to the hazards in- 
volved in its use, rather than its efficiency as a mouse control method. There 
have been instances of run-off of Endrin into domestic water supplies, farm 
ponds, and streams. Endrin is extremely toxic to fish at the dilution of one 
part to five million parts of water. There is also a hazard to the operator 
when mixing and applying Endrin sprays. It is suggested that any orchardist 
using Endrin follow the detailed recommendations for deviations from the 
standard recommendations have resulted in whole or partial failure to control 
mice. 

Mechanical Pro tectors 

Mechanical protectors such as hardrjare cloth (-^-inch mesh, 18 inches high) 
are the most permanent type of mechanical barriers that will help to prevent 
mouse damage by girdling. These protectors are not effective under deep snow 
and will not prevent pine mouse damage to root systems. 

Orchard Sanitation 

Clean tree bases help to prevent girdling, but are not effective against 
pine mice or when there is snow on the ground. 

P roper Tim e f^o£ Orchard Mouse C ontrol 

The recommended control season is just prior to freezing conditions or from 
the middle of October on. By controlling orchard mice at this time, VJinter 
damage can be prevented. 

T^chnj^que s_J or Eva luat ing t he Eff sctiveness of Mouse C ontro l 

Prior to poisoning, pick a row of trees, set a minimum of 50 traps (4 per 
tree) in active mouse runways and bait with freshly-cut pieces of apple. The 
trap should be placed with the trigger and bait across the trail. Traps should 
be left out for 24 hours. Then, the number of mice caught should be counted. A 
few dayt, after poisoning, another row of trees in the same block should be 
trapped using the same method. The cover and vjcather should be comparable as well 



as the time Interval and number of traps. All traps should be marked with flags 
so that they can be easily located. ]}y using this method, the per cent reduc- 
tion of the mouse population can be determined. 

Another method for evaluating the effectiveness of mouse control is to place 
50 pieces (half an apple) of freshly-cut apple in active runs and mark the loca- 
tion with a flag. These apple placements should be checked in 24 hours and the 
number of placements that have been chewed should be recorded. Several days 
after poisoning, apple placements should be repeated at the same locations that 
were previously marked with flags. This method merely gives a comparative 
picture of mouse activity before and after poisoning and should not be consid- 
ered as a mouse population index. 

Rodent Control in Apple Storages 

In protecting apple storages from rodents, It is necessary to rid the 
premises of rats and mice. For control purposes, these can be grouped as follows: 
(1) rats and house mice, which normally occupy buildings; and (2) Meadow mice 
and white- footed mice which are brought into storages with boxes of apples. 

Before harvest, anticoagulant rodent baits should be used in bait stations 
In the storage building and all buildings located nearby. About a week before 
harvest, a cleanup of all debris as well as lumber, boxes, bags, etc., should be 
made. The storage should then be rodent-proofed, sealing all openings around 
pipes, drains, and ducts with metal flashing or 'j-inch mesh hardware cloth. 
[.Xirlng harvest, it is important to get filled boxes into the storage the same 
day rather than leaving them out overnight. Despite all precautions taken some 
mice will get inside the storage one way or another and they can be disposed of 
in one of two ways . 

Fumigation with poisonous gas is an effective control but should be 
undertaken only by an experienced, reputable operator that is insured to do this 
type of v7ork. By doing this, the likelihood of damaging fruit can be minimized 
and the hazard to people lessened. A list of commercial exterminators can be 
obtained from the Entomology E)epartment at the University of Massachusetts or 
from the Better Business Bureau. 

Baiting the storage v/ith Strychnine-treated S te amed-crushed Oa ts before 
and as it is being filled is also effective. Although Strychnine-treated 
Steamed Crushed Oats are not recommended for use in the orchard because they 
are less acceptable, they do have the advantage over Zinc Phosphide-treated 
Steamed-crushed Oats of remaining toxic under humid conditions for a longer 
period of time. Strychnine-treated Steamed-crushed Oats can be put out in 
combination with Zinc Phosphide-treated Steamed-crushed Oats in teaspoonful quan- 
tities in cigar box bait stations or rolled roofing paper and placed in and under 
the pallets and along the walls at frequent Intervals. One application of these 
baits should last all Winter. 

Some Points to Remember 

1. Mouse control is an an nual practice because mice have great reproduc- 
tive capacities and migration from adjacent areas is rapid. For these reasons, 
control should be undertaken just prior to freezing conditions when the mouse 
population is at its peak. This prevents Winter damage to trees and the popula- 
tion is slow to recover at this time. 

2. Regardless of the cont^rol method employed, particular attention should 
be focussed on selecting favorable weather and following the recommendations. 



D. 



3. Any cultural practice that destroys vegetative cover will help to 
reduce meadow mouse damage by causiu}; the mice to move elsewhere. The effects 
of cover destruction on pine mice arc not fully known but it is suspected that 
if thuir food supply is destroyed that they would turn to root systems for 
food. 

4. Pine Mice infestations can only be controlled by a thorough, conscien- 
tious Job of trail baiting either by hand or machine with both Zinc Phosphide- 
tro Ated Steamed-crushed Oats and apples or by ground spraying with Endrin. If 
the latter is used, ajJ. precautions should be observed. The orchard should be 
posted with signs indicating that a highly toxic material has been used and 
strict adherence to application rates and methods should be followed. 

5. Extensive field tests with many different grain baits have clearly 
demonstrated that steamed-crushed oats are preferred by orchard mice. 

John W. Peterson, District Agent 

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



A REMINDER 

The 24" X 36" wall charts of U. S. Apple Grades for New England are 
still available through the secretary's office of the Massachusetts Fruit 
Grov7ers ' Association, Inc., French Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 
Massachusetts . 

Copies of the Apple Sorters' Manual are available from the Mailing Room, 
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, or from your County 
Extension Service Office. 



I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I 



APPROVED FARM STAND PROGRAM 

At a meeting held on August 21, 1962, the members of the Approved Farm Stand 
Program voted the following two changes in program procedure; 

1. REQUIRE MENTION OF THE APPROVED FARM STAND PROGRAM IN ALL DISPLAY ADS, 
AND ON RADIO AND TELEVISION, EFFECTIVE AT ONCE. 

2. THAT THE REGULATION REQUIRING THE GRADE MARK ON OR IN EACH PACKAGE BE 
PLACED ON A VOLUNTARY BASIS WITH AN AFFIRMATION OF THE USE OF THE GRADE SIGN ON 
EACH DISPLAY AND THE NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE OPERATOR BE ON OR IN EACH PACKAGE 
AS IT LEAVES THE STAND. 

Operational procedures of the stands were discussed and, for the benefit of 
other growers, the minutes of the meeting prepared by 0. C. Roberts are presented 
below. 



6. 

I. ADVERTISING THAT PAYS. 

The need for advertising was stressed if a stand is goi'iti to stay in busi- 
ness. A planned advertising program was strongly recommended. Kmphasis was 
also placed upon the need for advertising when people were apple minded in the 
fall. A schedule of advertising to fit expected volume of sales was also 
recommended; principally in the months of September, October and November. 

There was little enthusiasm for radio advertising except in areas where 
newspaper advertising could not be conveniently used. 

Newspaper advertising was well reported with evidence of its effective- 
ness. The larger display ads were preferred in connection with consistent use 
of smaller display ads during the entire selling season. 

Special sales were reported in connection with advertising discussion by 
two operators, one on a monthly basis and the other at the end of the season. 

The use of contests (registration at stand for free gifts of apples) was 
reported as helpful in determining the home location of customers and the 
effectiveness of advertising in letting people know of the stand. 

A preference was stated for a newspaper ad in a consistent location. 
Greater use of the Approved Farm Stand emblem and name in advertising was 
urged. 

II. BETTER USE OF CONSUMER DEMAND FOR LARGE APPLES. 

The preference of many customers for large apples was reported. Many 
operators considered present methods of "pushing" large apples was adequate. 

III. PACKS AND PACKAGE FOR THE CARRIAGE TRADE. 

One program member reported a growing demand for special baskets of apples 
and peaches as well as the mixed gift packs with special wrappings. The 
operator makes continued efforts to further develop this kind of business. 
Others reported some effort along this line. No general program was found to 
exist. Additional charges of 25 cents to one dollar were commonly made for 
these special packages in addition to the regular retail price for the contents. 

IV. SPECIAL DISPLAYS. 

It was the general procedure of the Approved Farm Stands to display various 
sized packages of single varieties in one location with lower or different 
grades in other locations. 

Most sell Utility grade In either peck or half-bushel bags. A "bushel 
discount" of twenty-five cents was practiced by several operators when two half- 
bushel bags of the same grade were purchased. 

Larger displays were reported on advertised items and items where increased 
movement was desired. Spot lights were effectively used by some. 

It was generally reported that an attempt was made to keep the various 
varieties In special locations as a means of facilitating traffic during rush 
hours . 



V. GIFT PACKS. 

Three gift packs ware displayed and discussed. It was stated that the excel 
sior pad was superior to the corrugated pad. One program member reported that 
the shredded plastic was effective and a minimum of fruit damage occurred due to 
less rattling. Insulating liners of some sort were generally used. 

Billing was generally done at time of shipping. A flat rate was used by one 
member covering shipping charges when customer preferred to pay with order. 

Parcel Post was not well recommended. Insurance does not cover freezing. 
"Rough Handling" was a preferred basis for claims. 

Express was generally used though expensive. High shipping rates were 
deplored. 

One operator reported that "Special Handling" was worthwhile but others 
had not been successful in its use. 

VI. CIDER DISPLAY GASES. 

The necessity for refrigeration was re-emphasized as a requirement of 
the Certified Cider Program and the increased consumer acceptance of the cider 
from a refrigerated case. Various types of cases were discussed. The vertical 
door type at the stand of the host of the meeting was appreciated both for 
convenience as well as appearance. The costs of such cases was discussed and 
the opportunity of securing second-hand cases mentioned. Comment was made that 
"homemade" cases would seem to be practical. It was gei^erally agreed that such 
cases were desirable. Cases with provision for rear loading as a part of the 
cool room were favored. 

VII. REGRIGERATED APPLE DISPLAY CASES. 

Observation was made that the supermarkets with refrigerated cases being 
serviced by operators had sales much greater than supermarkets without refrig- 
erated cases. Many favorable comments on the part of customers was reported 
to be encouraging for this type of case. Ease of handling and preparation for 
sale were listed as advantages. Crispness of the fruit was stated to be of 
prime importance for maximum sales. The opportunity of securing second-hand 
cases was stated to be readily available to most operators. 

VIII. OTHER PRODUCTS. 

The 607o regulation regarding sales was reaffirmed. There were no new 
pronounced views on this subject. It was emphasized that the quality of the 
purchased items be of similar quality to the other items on the stand. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POMOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 



Boron Deficien cy 



Boron deficiency in apples was in evidence in some orchards this summer, 
It was a costly reminder that periodic applications of borax are necessary. 
Several growers applied boron as a foliar spray in early August and were 



convinced the treatment was worthwhile. VJe feel that the best treatment is a 
soil application of boron every three years and that foliar sprays should be 
used as an emergency treatment. 

Approved Farm Stand Program 

Two fruit stands in Rhode Island now are members of the Massachusetts 
Approved Farm Stand Program. These are the first stands outside of Massachusetts 
to become program members. 

VJilliam J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



PM-4 M. M. Boyd 
Agr'l. Eng. Dept, 



FALL CARE OF FARM MACHINERY 



Fall is the time of year to give serious consideration to the storage and recondition- 
ing of farm machinery. The life of any machine can be lengthened considerably through 
proper Fall and Winter care. For example, suppose a certain machine cost $500 when new 
and is assumed to have a life of 10 years at the end of which it may be considered 
valueless. Based on the common straight-line depreciation methods, ownership of the 
machine costs $50.00 each year of its life. Now, if its life can be lengthened by 2 
years through proper Fall and Winter care it then costs only $41.57 per year - a saving 
of $8.33 each year. If such savings are realized for each machine on the farm it can 
add up to a rather large total. 

Listed below are some comments which will help add life to farm machines: 

1. Get the machinery under cover fo:r the winter months at least. It would be best to 
have a machinery storage shed largi; enough to store all machinery the year round. 
Where such accommodations are not available it may be possible to find space for the 
machinery in a barn, at least for the more expensive equipment. Smaller pieces, if no 
covered space is available, can be covered with tarpaulins or some of the heavier plas- 
tic films. 



9. 



2. In order to avoid lost time and to insure good work when a machine is taken into the 
field again, the polished working parts, such 
as moldboards, disks, and cultivator shovels, 
should be protected from rust. Used engine 
oil, brushed on, will serve for short periods. 
For long periods of storage special anti-rust 
compounds are to be recommended. Anti-rust 
compounds will not remove rust that has already 
formed so, in all cases, any rust formation 
should be completely removed before applica- 
tion of rust preventatives. These compounds 
are available in either grease or liquid forms 
and are marketed by most of the major oil com- 
panies. 




3. All bearings and fittings should be well lubricated prior to storage in order to 
prevent rusting while not in use, 

4. Equipment on pneumatic tires should be blocked up to take the weight off the tires. 
Keep oils and greases from coming in contact with the tires. 

In addition to the above points, if there are machines powered with auxiliary engines, 
these will warrant some extra attention. The more critical points are enumerated below: 

1. The radiator of liquid cooled engines should be drained and flushed. If radiator 
cleaner is used be sure to flush all remaining traces from the system. Remove all drain 
plugs including cylinder block drain to make sure no water remains. After all the water 
has been drained, replace the plugs to prevent dirt from entering the system and to pre- 
vent loss of plugs. Tags should be put on the engine to indicate that the system has been 



2. Drain the crankcase while still warm. Replace the oil filter if so equipped. Ref^M 
the crankcase with fresh oil and run the engine at part throttle for a few minutes to be 
sure all the internal parts have been well lubricated. 

3. Drain any gear cases on the machine while warm and refill with the proper grade of 
clean lubricant. Run the machine a few minutes to insure proper lubrication. 

4. Remove engine spark plugs and pour about 1 teaspoon of clean engine oil into each 
cylinder. Replace the spark plugs. 



5. Drain fuel from lines, tank, and carburetor and leave drains open for a few days to 
admit air so any remaining fuel will evaporate. After a few days close the drains to 
prevent dirt from entering the system. 

6. Air cleaners should be thoroughly cleaned and re-oiled. 

7. Storage batteries should be removed, fully charged, and stored in a place where they 
will not freeze. 

8. Cover or plu^ the end cff the exhaust pipe and the crankcase breather pipe to prevent 
entrance of dirt and moisture. 



10. 



The winter season Is a good time for reconditioning, repainting and adjusting field mach- 
inery. Plow shares, cultivator shovels, mower knives can be sharpened and/or replaced. The 
machines should be checked over for worn parts and these parts repaired or replaced. If the 
machinery is showing signs of rusting It should be cleaned and repainted. Winter is also a 
good time to recondition worn engines and tune-up other engines to keep them in good con- 
dition. This is also a good time to make preliminary operational adjustments on the machines 

A little care and maintenance during the Fall and Winter months will go a long way. Not 
only does it prolong machinery life but it simplifies major maintenance work by spreading 
it over a period of several months. Perhaps the biggest single advantage to be gained is 
the fact that the machinery is ready to go to work in the Spring and no time is lost on 
unexpected repairs. There is also less likelihood of frustrating and time-consuming break- 
downs during field operations. 

Remember - always carry out specific maintenance procedures in accordance with the in- 
structions in the operator's manual for the machine. Thus you will not only have an out- 
line of the correct procedures but you also have all specifications, lubrication recommenda- 
tions, and adjustment information available. 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

CIDER NOTES 

Cider Preservative i- uj • i 

A recen"t~S?ticle in the "Eastern Fruit Grower" discussed tha use of sorbic acid 

(potassium sorbate) as a cider preservative. Some of the more important findings in this 
article were: 

1. 0.05 per cent by weight is effective for preserving cider, and increasing the 
concentration up to the legal limit of 0.1 per cent does not increase its effectiveness. 

2. Compared with sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate imparts no flavor to the cider. 

3. After comparing varieties preserved with potassium sorbate and held in storage at 
35-40°F for up to 6 months, the tested varieties were classified into three groups ior 
preserving with potassium sorbate. 

Best - Stayman, Winesap, Ruby, Franklin, Melrose 
Fair - Golden Delicious, Northern Spy, Red JJelicious 
Poor - Turlcy, Rome Beauty, Baldwin, Mcintosh 

A final comment is that while potassium sorbate is an excellent preservative, cider 
made from clean, sound apples pressed in a sanitary mill and held under refrigeration 
(32°-35°F) will meet with acceptance anywhere. 

RANDOM THOUGHTS 

Don't display cider in the warm fall sun - "working" cider does not increase sales! 

Give sar-ples of your cider to the kids. You'll find they'll talk their folks into 
buying. 



11 



Make sure that organizations such as PTA's, church groups and others in your area know 
that you sell quality cider. 

If you use gallon jugs, be sure that you use only those that previously held food 
products - other materials could cause off-flavors. 

Kirby M. Hayes 

Food Technologist 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff, Department of Horticulture 

Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Mossochusetts, Amherst 



NOVEMnER-DECEMRER 1962 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Winter Fruit Meetings 

Strawberry Varieties F om Otii»-r 
Ports of the Country 

Pomological Paroqraph 

Researcli Enfomolojist 

Pomological Porograplis 

Reseorch Fron, Oth»"r Areos 

Packing Apples in tlie hlorthenst 

Pomological Parogroph 

Building Plon Service 




"^' 





'Ui/;il 



n 



m. 



1/0 






Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Purchasing Agent, No. 44. 



uiHrER yyuiy riiiiiTLN.-^.; 



The Oytli Annual iic^ti.ng oF tli'.' j'lnsr^aclnir.o.tts ,''ju i I; rowers' '-.s.soc i a L ion 
Inc. in cooperation witii the University o.C i iasiiacluisetts Extens ioa ..Jprvice 
will be held In tlie .lardner Aniiory, ilardn.ir, i ia.ssachu.setts on Januai-y '' and 10, 

iy63. 

The complete program is not avaiiabLe at this time. Hov/ever, l1\..^ provram 
at present includes the following: 

Professor \\'. D. V/hitcoinb, University o? / ,a.i;; .icliu.sett.s , 
l^eport on Fruit Insect i.esea^cli. 

Ur . W. D. Weeks, University of Hassacausetts , 
Nutrition otudies on Red Uel.Lcions. 

Professor F. A. Perkins, Rutgers University, 

Improved Packaging and Handling Practices lor Apples. 

Dr. K. G. Parker, Cornell University, 
Fire Blight and Its Control. 

Dr. S. E. Lienk, N. Y. Agricultural Etp. station ((Jeneva) , 
Results of Mite Control Experiments. 

Dr. \\ . J. Lord, University of Hassachusetts , 
Storage Studies on Water Core. 

Dr. F. W. Southwick, University of Massachusetts, 
Storage Studies on Apple Scald. 

Dr. F. W. Soutliwick, University of Massachusetts, 

Chemical Thinning with Sevin and MAA-tj'pe Compounds. 

Dr. William Tunis, University of Massachusetts, 
Insect Control R.ecommendat ions for 1963. 

Dr. C. J. Gilgut, University of Massachusetts, 
Disease Control Recommendations for 1963. 

Dr. George A. Michael, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 
Massachusetts Pesticide Lav;s and the Fruit lirower. 

Mr. H. M. Putnam, Mew York Department of Agriculture and Marl;ets, 
How the New York Apple Marketiiig Order is Working. 

Professor A. C. Bobb, University of Connecticut, 

Horticultural Observations in Eight European Countries. 



STRAWBERRY V A RIETIES FROM OTHER FA RTS OF TIIE COU!!TRY 

Fruit growers are always Interested In varieties, particularly new ones. In 
no group of fruit growers is there more interest in varieties than among straw- 
berry growers. This is quite natural because of the sho'-t H f e span of the straw- 
berry plant and the common practice among strawberrj' gror/ers of frequently 
starting new beds. Mew plantings present opportunities for trying new varieties. 
Hence, many growers both large and small use part of their land to try out one or 
more new varieties. These grower variety trials are excellent because they 
continually add to our knowledge of variety performance under local soil and 
climatic conditions. However, these trials can lea<1 to some very disappointing 
results if the grower is not aware of some of the pitfalls and is not careful to 
avoid them. For example, someone sees Florida 90's fine crops of delicious berries 
in Florida. Why not try it here? Or someone hears of the fabulous yields obtained 
in the Central Coastal area of California. Why can't we grow their Shasta or Lassen 
here and get equally high yields? Of course the easy answer is the climate isn't 
right. Why isn't it? 

To ansv/er this question we need to take a look at some of the basic reactions 

of the strawberry plant to its environment. Like all other plants and trees, it 

responds to changes in temperature and length of day or, as the scientist says, 
photoperlod. 

It has been common knowledge for years that, within certain limits, plants 
grow faster as the temperature increases and belov/ a certain temperature all grc«-.'th 
stops. Growth is not the onlj' life process in pi ants wliich is affected by tempera- 
ture. Respiration, or breathing, in a p]ant is controlled by temperature. If a 
plant is exposed to temperatures much above those to vzhich it is accustomed, its 
respiration may increase to such a degree that fast living ruins it as it does some 
humans. Cool temperatures in the fall cause plants to go into a winter rest. These 
and many other processes in plants are markedly affected by temperature. 

The effects of photoperiod are not so well knov^n although they can be seen all 
around us. It controls flo'.rering in many pl?.nts, has a marlied effect on grov.'th, 
helps to initiate dormancy, ?nd affects man}' of the chemical processes in plants. 
Anyone who has done very much gardening knows that some varieties of head lettuce 
v/hen planted in the early spring while days are short foTrm good heads. If planted 
in mid-summer when days are long, the plant goes to seed and does not form ? head at 
all. Among the flowers. Chrysanthemum blooms in the short days of fall but China 
Aster blooms in the long days of mid-suminer . Of the weeds that infest lavms 
dandelion blooms in the short days of spring while plantain blooms in the long days 
of mid-summer. These are all photoperiodic effects. 

The strawberry, like the other plants, is affected by temperature and day 
length. However, not all varieties are affected in the same way. Northern varieties, 
such as Catskill and Sparkle, foT-m their fruit buds in the short days of fall. The 
combination of short days and lov/ temperature causes them to stop grov/th and go into 
a v;inter rest. This rest is eventually broken by a period of chilling. As it v/arms 
up in the spring, they bloom and produce fruit for two to three weeks. Then, with 
the onset of long days and high temperature in mid-summer, runners are formed. 



Southern varieties behave q-iite differently'. In sonthern Florida where growing 
temperatures continue all winter and the day length is as short as 10 hours, flOTjer 
bud formation continues all winter into April or later when the days lengthen and 
temperatures become high enough to slow dovm and finally stop flower bud formation. 
Florida 90, if brought to Massachusetts, v/ould respond unfavorably to both the long 
daj'S of summer and the severe cold of winter. Conversely, CatskiH or Sparkle, 
taken to Florida, xrould not grow normally x<7ithout the winter rest and the high 
temperatures of summer would cause weakness and death. These are extreme cases. 

Moving varieties out of their normal range often causes the berries to become 
soft and have poor quality. Hoiv'ard 17, Catskill and Robinson when grown in Maryland 
are too soft to ship. Several Canadian varieties have been tried in Amherst and all 
v/ere too soft for commercial handling. The old Marshall variety, long the standard 
of excellence when grown in the north, lacks flavor vxhen gror^n in Maryland. The 
fabulous yields of the Central Coastal area of California are the result of low 
temperatures all summer. The cold water of the Pacific keeps the average summer 
temperature at 60^. At these low temperatures most strawberry varieties will form 
fruit buds even under long days, especially the California varieties such as Shasta 
and Lassen, which were bred for these conditions. Taken into the Central Valley of 
California where the summers are very hot, these same varieties will produce only a 
spring crop. 

Other examples could be given of the adverse effects of temperature and dav 
length on varieties of strawberries taken from their normal range. However, it is 
not intended to discourage grower variety trials but to encourage a more informed 
approach to such trials. 

John S. Bailey 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POMOLOGIGAL PARAGRAPH, 



Approved Farm Stand Program . A note in the October issue of "Fruit Notes" mentioned 
that two fruit growers in Rhode Island were now program members. In answer to ques- 
tions asked about this note, any operator of a roadside stand or farm salesroom in 
New England may become a member of the program if requirements are met. Information 
on procedure for leasing an Approved Farm Stand Sign can be obtained from the Secre- 
tary of the Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association, Inc., French Hall, Amherst, 
Massachusetts . 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

RESEAR CH ENTOM OLOGIST 

Dr. Herbert E. Wave, an entomologist with the US DA Agricultural Research Center 
at Beltsville, Maryland since June of 1961, has been appointed Assistant Professor 



of Entomology in the College of Agriculture at the University of Massachusetts. 
I>r. Wave assumed his new post on September 4 in the Department of Entomology and 
Plant Pathology. This appointment is of particular interest to fruit growers because 
of the recent acquisition by the University of the Belchertown Horticultural Research 
Center. 

Dr. Wave will work on fruit pests, particularly the insects and mites that 
attack apples, with major emphasis on research. Some extension work will be included, 
particularly collaboration with Dr. E. H. Wheeler in the preparation of fruit spray 
charts. 

Dr. Wave obtained his B. S. degree in forestry from the University of Maine in 
1952 and began work in entomology as a biological aide with the USDA in the old 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine where he worked on the spruce budr^Torm and 
the white pine weevil. Later he transferred to the Truck Crop Section of the bureac-^ 
where he worked for six years on insects of potato, primarily aphids. Work in this 
area included (1) preparation of spray and dust formulations, scheduling applications 
and evaluating their effectiveness; and (2) studies on the biology and seasonal 
history of aphids, their population dynamics and control measures. 

Dr. Wave attended graduate school at Rutgers University from 1958 to 1961 where 
he obtained his Ph. D. degree in Entomology in June, 1961. 

After leaving Rutgers, Dr. Wave went back with the USDA where he worked on the 
biology, ecology and control of insects and mites affecting vegetable and ornamental 
plants in the greenhouse and field. The last project he worked on involved the use 
of chemosterilants for the field control of Drosophila on tomatoes. This principle 
of control operates by rendering the insects sterile by the use of chemicals; i.e., 
it is directed against the reproductive capacity of the insects. In practice, 
control is achieved either by releasing into the native population sterile males or 
inducing sterility in native populations by the use of chemosterilant baits. 

---J. H. Lilly 

Department of Entomology 
and Plant Pathology 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POHOLOGICAL PARAGRAPHS 



Wellington 



Recently, several questions have arose about the Wellington apple variety. It 
is an early apple ripening 3 to 10 days before llelba or Duchess. \Jellington blooms 
early and is characterized by its large petals. Information received from Geneva 
Experiment Station indicates it should be a suitable pollinator for both Mcintosh 
and Delicious. However, according to Professor Roger \.'ay, Geneva E>:periment Station, 
no specific pollination tests have been conducted with Delicious as is the case with 
Mcintosh. 



Wellington is a diploid and produces viAl^lc pollen. :] Lnce ths bloom season is 
early, it would not be a suitalile pollinator jToi: ,';oine, lipy, or i^acoun. 

The question about fruit set has been asced. According to Professor '.'ay, 
Wellington has set consistently good crops at Geneva. 

Fi re Blig ht Resistant Pears 

A grower asked for information about Madness and Moong] ow pear varieties which 
are reported to be fire blight resistant. Be Low, Ls the description of these two 
varieties as given in the 1961-1962 catalog of the Mew York State Fruit Testing 
Association. 

tla gnes s - is a medium sized pear ripening about a week after Bartlett. It is 
greenish, covered with light russet, and is short pyriforrn in shape. The flesh is 
soft, juicy, and almost free of grit cells. The flavor is sweet, highly perfumed 
and aromatic and the quality is high. It will store up to three months. Ilagness 
has not fruited at Geneva, but the tree is reported to be very vigorous and spread- 
ing. It is somewhat thorny. Magness is very resistant to blight. It does not 
produce good pollen and must be planted with tx/o other varieties if all are to set 
fruit. 

Moong low - is a large, attractive pear which ripens about two weeks before 
Bartlett. The flesh when ripe is rather soft, moderately juicy, and nearly free 
of grit cells. The flavor is mild subacid and rated good. Moonglow has not fruited 
at Geneva, but the tree is reported to be upright in growth and heavily spurred, 
producing at an early age. It is very resistant to fire blight. 

According to Professor Roger Way, the liagness variety is being recommended only 
on a trial basis by the Geneva Experiment Station. He lists pollen sterility, 
slowness to come into bearing, thorny growth habit, and small fruit size as some 
defects of Magness. 

Characteristics of Apple Varieties Grown in Hassachuset t j^ 

At a recent Fruit Commodity Meeting, growers requested a list of apple varieties 
recommended for Massachusetts giving their parentage, origin, and a rating as to use. 
The information was wanted for use on signs with apple displays at roadside stands 
and to answer customer questions about varieties. 

Information listing the characteristics of apple varieties recommended for 
Massachusetts is available and may be obtained from the Editor of "Fruit Notes", 
French Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 

William J. Lord 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



-6- 

IviiSEAFCll ri;OM l)!II;^:: A OCA;; 

Packing Apples in the J[ortliea^st 

Marketing Research llcport ilo. 543 titled "Packin;j Apples in tlie ilortheast ' 
compares four types of apple packing lines in coiranon use in the Ilortheast. vhe 
studies were conducted in eight packing sheds with Iiclntosh apples. The sumiiiary 
of the report is given below. A copy of the report can be obtained by writing the 
Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Uepartment of Agriculture, Washln.^ton, D. C. 

"This report compares four types of apple packing lines in common use in the 
Ilortheast. Studies were made in eight plants that used the tender, easily' bruised 
Mcintosh variety of apples. 

"An all-manual sorting-sizing-packing operation had the lowest labor and equip- 
ment cost of the four packing, lines studied, 13.7 cents per container at a volume c ? 
50,000 crates annually. There was no mechanical damage to the apples. This method 
was the most efficient, as long as skilled packers were not difficult to obtain, the 
wage rate remained low, and the daily volume did not e::ceed the space available for 
packing stations. There were great differences in the abilities of individual worker;^ 
to sort, size, and pack apples simultaneously, so that within a given lot of packed 
fruit, a wide disparity in sizes and grades became the rule rather than the exception, 

"The packing line in which apples were dumped manually, sized by chains, and 
sorted and rechecked for size by the packers was the most costly. Many apples were 
bruised, and the sorting and sizing were poorly done. Also, the capacity of this 
packing line was below that of other mechanized lines. At a volume of 50,000 crates 
annually, labor and equipment cost 22.8 cents per packed container. 

"The other two packing lines studied showed almost identical costs. The one 
using mechanical dumping, sorting at a roller table, weight sizing, and manual 
packing from a return-flow belt, had a labor and equipment cost of 20.8 cents per 
container at an annual voliame of 50,000 crates; when the annual volume was 75,000 
crates, the unit cost was reduced to 18.3 cents per container. 

"The second mechanized line employed a drum dumper and a reverse-roll sorting 
table with dimension sizing, and packing from a return- flow belt. Its labor and 
equipment cost was 19.6 cents per container at 50,000 crates annually, and 17.4 cents 
at 75,000 crates annually. With both of these packing lines, the sorting and sizing 
were highly accurate, and bruising was not serious. Each line had a built-in 
capacity far beyond that of either the all-manual line or the one using chain sizers. 

"In all cases, labor cost more than equipment, even when the assumed wage rate 
was as low as $1.25 per hour. Should the cost of labor rise, then the manual opera- 
tions would rapidly become more costly, and the mechanized packing lines v/ould 
become relatively more efficient. Or, if skilled labor should become difficult to 
hire, the manual packing line would become less efficient, because it requires 
greater skills of its workers than do the other more mechanical lines. 

"The following comparison sununarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the 
four packing lines: 



let hod 



A'Jvaiitarie 



iJfsadv.tiil:,!.': 



. !,inu.al dumping and chain 
sizing, with sorti/i;; 
and packing from a 
return- flow belt. 

Ilechanical dumping, uort- 
ing at a roller tabic, 
weight sizing, and 
manual packing from a 
return-flow belt. 



i,ow cquiiMiuMit I'OGt, 
],ow m.'i InLvMi.incc . 



High capacity. 
High labor productivity. 
Standardize 1 quality and 
sizes . 



Low i:a|)acity. 

l>iinn;',e to fruit. 

Low productivity of labor. 

Oifficu]t to staii'lau'lizc quality 

High equipment cost. 
Division of space on return - 

flov; belt restricted. 
High total cost at ] ow volumes. 



All-manual sorting, 
sizing, and packing 



Very low equipment cost. 
Low total cost at low 

volumes and low vjage 

rates . 
Least total bruisiiig to 

fruit . 
Very little power and 

maintenance cost. 



Dependent on adequate labor 

supply. 
Wide range in grading and 

sizing. 
Difficult to increase volume. 



Drum dumper and reverse- 
roll sorting table, 
with dimension sizing, 
and packing from return- 
flow belt . 



High capacity. 

High labor productivity. 

Standardize<i quality and 
sizes . 

Wide freedom in division 
of space on return- 
flow belt . 



High equipment. 
High labor cost at lov/ 
volumes . 



-William J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



POMO LOGICAL PARAGRAPH 



Apple Slicers 

One grower reports that the distribution of apple slicers through "Welcome 
VJagons" is a good promotional technique. 

William J. Lord 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 




Aitieultml 



tn^mmn^ 



BUILDING PM N SERVICE 

A variety of plans for structures useful to a fruit grower may be obtained 
from the Agricultural Engineering Department. 

You may secure these by request from your county agent, after conferring with 
him about your needs, or when you know the specific plan number, you may wish to 
order direct from the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University in 
Amherst . 

Plans 5190, 5192, 5193 and 5699 are for roadside market structures, and 5194 for 
roadside stands. 

Plans for several trusses for structures are available. Plans 5921 (36' span) 
and 5922 (24' span) are gable trusses; number 5855 is a shed roof truss. 

Plans 5140 and 5141 are refrigerated apple storage plans. Also, you may wish 
the bulletin No. 505 on the Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Apples. 

Many plans for homes are available as Xi/ell. More detailed descriptions of 
specific plans will be provided in Fruit Notes as may be appropriate. 

The plans are usually suggestive and should often be adapted to your situation. 
As you work with your county or regional agents on your needs, he may wish to call us 
in to help with more specific details. 

Robert G. Light 

Curtis A. Johnson 
Ext. Agr'I. Engineers 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FRUIT NOTES 



Prepared by Pomology Staff, Deportment of Horticulture 

Cooperotive Extension Service, College of Agriculture 

University of Mossachusetts, Amherst 



JANUARY 4, 1963 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Research From Other Areas 
Materials Handling 

Changes in Massachusetts Apple Varieties 

Notes on New Apple Varieties 

Blueberry Varieties 

Strawberry Trials for 1962 

Plum Varieties 

Pear Varieties 

1962 Income Tax 



^' 





Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, A. A. Spielman, Dean and Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; 
University of Masfeachusetts , United States Department of Agriculture arKi County Extension Services cooperating. 
Publication Approved by Alfred C. Holland, State Plrchasing Agent, No. 44. 



RESEARCH FROM OTHER AREAS 
Materials Handling 

Materials handling was discussed by S. L. Hedden and J. H. Levin In an article 
in the 91st Annual Report of the Michigan State Horticultural Society titled 
"Efficient Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Methods of Apples, Peaches, and Pears 
That Help Maintain Quality". 

The authors stated that the best way of handling apples, peaches, and pears is 
In bulk boxes with fork-lift equipment. 

"Field crates cost about 50 cents each and last only a few years. Bulk boxes 
cost about 40 cents (including the pallet which is an integral part of the box) a 
bushel capacity and have a longer life. Bulk boxes for 10,000 bushels of fruit 
would not only cost $1,200 less than the equivalent quantity of field crates and 
pallets, but would last longer and need less maintenance. Studies show that 
approximately two cents per bushel can be saved in orchard handling and another two 
or three cents saved at the storage or processing plant handling. 

"Bulk boxes, when full, weigh 800-1,200 pounds and must be handled by fork 
lift equipment. Lift equipment is available for every size grower which usually 
pays for itself in one or two years. There is no reason for growers not to have 
lift equipment of some kind. Forks can be attached to tractors with 3-point 
hydraulic hitches. The necessary labor and materials cost approximately $50. 
Although an attachment of this sort will lift unit loads only about 18 inches, it 
can move filled boxes from the orchard or field to dock, packing house, or storage. 

"Forks can be bolted to tract or -mounted hay loaders or buck rakes for about 
$50. If this equipment is to be used in handling pallets, a third cylinder (costing 
an additional $50) enables the operator to keep the forks level while they are 
raised or lowered. Although buck rakes and hay loaders are not designed primarily 
for handling unit loads, this equipment makes it possible to raise the load 10 to 
12 feet and is satisfactory if operated with care. 

"Lift mast attachments to lift and tilt the forks are available for both the 
front and rear ends of practically every standard-make tractor. These are operated 
In the same way as those on industrial lift trucks. They can be used for lifting, 
moving, and high stacking of unit loads. Fork lift masts cost $450 to $1,000, 
depending on capacity and height to which the forks can be raised. 

"Tractors can be converted to relatively permanent fork lift units. The lift 
mast is attached to the rear of the tractor. The gears, steering mechanism, and 
driver's seat are all reversed. The driver faces the load and all normal travel is 
in that direction, 

"Soose growers make their own orchard lift units. This is usually done by 
shortening an old truck chassis, reversing the axle and steering mechanism, and 
adding a lift mast. When well built, such a unit can be operated successfully in 
the orchard or field. The cost of necessary material is about $1,000. 



-2- 

"Bulk boxea help to maintain on-the-tree quality by reducing bruising. 
Studies not only in Michigan, but also in Washington, California, British Columbia, 
New Zealand, and South Africa show this to be true. I want to emphasize here that' 
bulk boxes do make it easier to reduce bruising, but they, in themselves cannot 
reduce bruising. Supervision is all important. Drops and pressures cause bruising. 
It takes no longer to be careful than it does to be careless. Constantly reminding* 
pickers and handlers of these facts takes time but pays off in higher quality fruit. 
There are no substitutes for good supervision. Bruisiag in bulk boxes is reduced 
because there is 2/3 less wood surface in a bulk box than in field crates holding 
the same volume of fruit. There is also less top surface where fruit can roll 
than in field crates. It is easier for the picker to transfer apples into bulk 
boxes than into field crates because he does not have to bend over so far. Bulk 
boxes are lifted, moved, and set down with fork lift equipment and, therefore, can 
be handled carefully. Water flotation dumpers are now being used for removing 
tender fruit and CA storage fruit from the boxes. There are six Michigan packing 
houses and as many or more Washington packing houses that have this type dumper. 
The bulk box is submerged and as the apples float up, they are carried away to the 
packing line by circulating water. This equipment makes it possible to remove 
fruit from bulk boxes onto the packing line with practically no bruising or stem 
punctures. Tie-up dumpers do a good job at processing plants and a fair job on 
such apples as Delicious and Jonathan for fresh market. 

"Bulk boxes help maintain quality by enabling a picking crew to harvest a 
greater percentage of the crop at proper maturity. It is Impossible to pick the 
whole crop at ideal maturity. However, time studies in California, Washington, 
and Michigan have shown a given picker can harvest from eight to ten per cent more 
fruit per hour when picking into bulk boxes than when into field crates. Maturity 
affects processing quality, length of storing and eating quality. 

"Time delay between harvest and storage affects quality. Any delay, especially 
at high temperatures will shorten storage life and may lower fruit quality during 
storage due to bitter pit, shriveling, etc. Fork lift trucks in conjunction with 
pallets or bulk boxes make it possible to keep up with the harvest and move the 
fruit into storage within an average of two hours after it is picked." 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

CHANGES IN MASSACHUSETTS APPLE VARIETIES 

The kind and number of apple varieties appear to change very little from year 
to year, but over extended periods of time varieties may change in number and 
relative importance. 

In the March, 19A6 issue of "Fruit Notes" there appeared a report of a variety 
survey which was sent to fruit growers. This report represented the thinking of 
growers at that time as to what varieties they would retain or discard as well as 
varieties they would plant in the future. 

Let u8 take a look at the report again to see if we have changed our thinking in 
regards to apple varieties. Here is the report in part. "While the survey did not 



-3- 



make it possible to figure accurately the per cent of each variety which growers 
would plant in the future, it did indicate that the numbers of Mcintosh will be 
materially reduced. Growers are now thinking in terms of 50 per cent Mcintosh 
instead of 70 to 80 per cent. Baldwin will still be planted by many growers, but 
it will not figure as prominently in the variety picture as it has in the past. 
Varieties such as Cortland, Delicious or its red strains. Early Mcintosh, Rome 
and its red strains, and Red Spy appear to be slated for slight to moderate 
increases. 

"Gravenstein and its strain. Golden Delicious, Rhode Island Greening, Macoun 
and possible Red Astrachan will just about hold their own; but Wealthy, Yellow 
Transparent, Duchesa, Roxbury Russet, Winter Banana, Williams, Kendall, Stark, and 
Wegener seem to be on the way out. In general, red strains are preferred to 
standard varieties. Richared is the popular red strain of Delicious, with Starking 
meeting with little favor. 

"One other point which the survey brings out is the attempt of many growers to 
choose varieties which will extend the harvesting and marketing seasons. This is 
particularly true among those growers who now have large acreages of Mcintosh. 
Growers are beginning to see the folly of a one variety orchard." 

Before commenting on the 1946 survey it might be well to examine the figures 
on the per cent of total tree numbers of varieties for Massachusetts. Figures in 
the following table were derived in part from data presented in extension bulletin 
number 343, Massachusetts Apple Tree Survey. 



Table 1. Per cent of 


total «pp 


le tree nun 


ibers by varietic 


!S in Massach 


usetts. 


1940, 1955, 


and 


1970. 










Variety 








Year 












1925 


1940 


1955 


1970 


Mcintosh 






23.8 


39.4 


48.5 


55.0 


Baldwin 






39.3 


29.4 


14.1 


1.5 


Delicious 






4.2 


5.9 


10.8 


25.0 


Cortland 









3.2 


7.7 


2.5 


Early Mcintosh 









1.2 


3.0 


1.5 


Gravenstein 






5.0 


3.9 


2.9 


.5 


Northern Spy 






1.1 


2.0 


2.6 


.5 


ROTie 












2.4 


3.0 


Macoun 












1.6 


1.0 


Golden Delicious 









.8 


1.3 


3.0 


Wealthy 






6.6 


4.1 








Rhode Island Greening 




1.4 


.8 





---- 


Puritan 















2.5 


Summer Varieties 






5.8 


2.2 







Other Varieties 






12.3 


6.5 


4.7 


4.0 



The figures in the fourth column are my best estimates as to what the distribution 
of varieties will be in 1970. 

The most important factor responsible for the changes in varieties is price. 
Growers stop planting varieties which are no longer profitable and try to plant 



-4- 



varieties which show promise o!: giving a greater return. This factor is largely 
responsible for the decline of Baldwin, Cortland, Gravenstein, Northern Spy, 
Wealthy and Rhode Island Greening and for the increase in Mcintosh, Delicious, 
Rone, Golden Delicious and Puritan. 

The development of controlled atmosphere storage has no doubt been a factor 
in variety selection in recent years. Mow that It is possible to extend the storage 
season of Mcintosh, the planting of late keeping varieties may further decline 
unless the variety is better and more profitable than controlled atmosphere Mcintosh. 
I do not anticipate that Rome and its red sports will be planted to any extent In 
the future and its position will decline in the years ahead. 

Just what the variety picture will be 40 years fjroni now is anybody's guess, 
but if past experience is any guide we can be certain chat changes will occur. 
Mcintosh may or may not be our leading variety in the year 2003. 

---W. D. Weeks 

Associate Research Professor of Pomology 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



NOTES ON NEW APPLE VARIETIES 

Crandall A Rome x Jonathan cross introduced by the Illinois Agricultural 

Experiment Station in 1952. A medium size apple with light to medium 
dark red color. The skin is covered with some scarf skin and large 
russet dots and the fruit is only fair in appearance. The flesh of 
Crandall is white. Juicy, mild and of good quality. Its value for 
Massachusetts is somewhat doubtful. 



Delawlne A Delicious x Stayman Winesap cross which originated in Ohio by W. F. Hines. 
Introduced in 1948 by Henry Field Seed and Nursery Co., Shenaudoah, Iowa. 
Delawine is an attractive bright red apple which is similar in size and 
shape to Delicious. It has a firm yellowish flesh. It is quite tart and 
only fair in quality. It is not good enough to compete with Delicious. 

Jonadel A Jonathan x Delicious cross which was Introduced in 1958 by the Iowa 
Agricultural Station, Ames, Iowa. A well colored bright red apple 
similar in appearance to Jonathan. Not too attractive because of the 
pebbly rough finish of its skin. The flesh is yellowish, juicy and of 
good quality. Probably not good enough to compete with Mcintosh. 

Monroe A Jonathan x Rome Beauty cross from seed produced In 1910. It was 
Introduced by the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, 
New York, in 1949. Monroe is a rather attractive bright red apple. It 
was introduced primarily as a processing apple but has good dessert 
qualities. The foliage is somewhat susceptible to powdery mildew. 
Where a dual-purpose variety is desired, Monroe appears worthy of trial. 



-5- 



Ruby Am Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station introduction which waa introduced 
In 1953. A Gallia Beauty x Starking cross. Fruit variable in size from 
siMill to large. Skin color dull, dark, unattractive red. Flesh white, 
dry and only fair in dessert quality. Tree structure is poor with many 
narrow angled branches. Since Ruby appears to be only slightly superior 
to its Gallia Beauty parent, it is doubtful that it will ever becooM an 
important variety in this area. 



■--W. D. Weeks 

Associate Research Professor of Pomology 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



BLUEBERRY VARIETIES 



Therd has been no change in blueberry variety recommendations during tha past 
year. Experience with the newer varieties under Massachusetts conditions is still 
too limited to recommend them on more than a trial basis. The following observa- 
tions still apply: 



Vattety* 



Recommended for 



Harvesting Seaaon 



Xarlibloe 

Collina 

Blue ray 

Bluecrop 

Berkeley 

Pemberton 

Herbert 

Jersey 

Covllle 



T 






Early 


T 






Early 


T 






Early 


T 






Mldseason 


C & H 






Midseason 


C & H 






Late 


T 






Late 


C & H 






Late 


C & H 






Late 


roxima 


te order of 


ripening. 




T • 


Trial 






H • 


Rome Garden 






C - 


Conmercial 






Variety Notes 







Earllblne Ripens early, fruit light blue, very firm, good flavor, cluster medium 
size, tKdlum loose. Bush upright, vigorous, well shaped, easy to 
inniaa and propagate, fairly productive. 

Collina Ripens early, midway between Earliblue and Bluecrop. The bush is erect, 
vigorous, and moderately productive. Winter hardiness is probably about 
like Berkeley and Pemberton. The fruit is borne in medium-sized, rather 
tight, attractive clusters. The berries are as large as Earliblua, firm, 
light blue in color and highly flavored. Fruit does not drop nor crack. 
Recoomended for trial as a second early. 



-6- 



Blueray Ripens early, Just after Earliblue, In Rancocas-Stanley season; fruit 

clusters small, tight, attractive; berries very large, firm, light blue, 
aromatic, very fine flavored if fully ripe; bushes erect, somewhat 
spreading, vigorous and productive. Has considerable cold resistance. 

Bluecrop Ripens early mid-season, fruit very light blue, very firm, good flavor, 
small scar, clusters large, medium loose. Bush upright, vigorous and 
productive, easy to propagate. Resistant to spring frost and winter 
cold. 

Berkeley Ripens mid-season, fruit very large, light blue, firm, mild flavor, 

scar large and dry; bush upright, vigorous, productive, easy to propagate 
and prune. 

Femberton Ripens late, fruit large, firm, attractive, good blue, excellent flavor, 
poor scar; bush upright, very vigorous, very productive, hardy. 

Herbert Ripens late, fruit large, fair blue, good scar, flavor good, skin tender; 
bush spreading, vigorous, productive and easy to propagate. 

Jersey Ripens late, fruit medium to large, fair blue, attractive, firm, good 
flavor but tart if not fully ripe, good scar, open cluster; bush 
upright, vigorous, productive, hardy. 

Coville Ripens very late, fruit large, firm, good scar, highly aromatic flavor, 

tart when not fully ripe, good blue, attractive; bush upright, spreading, 
vigorous and very productive. 

John S. Bailey 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



STRAWBERRY TRIALS FOR 1962 

This report covers some 18 varieties and numbered selections. Nine varieties, 
Earlidawn, Fontenac, Fulton, Fletcher, Jerseybelle, Midway, Sparkle, Catskill and 
Vesper (N.J. 157), were included in our 1962 trials. However, land on which they 
were growing was taken for dormitory construction and results from these were not 
obtainable. Brief comments are offered on the following varieties. 



Cyclone An introduction from the Iowa Experiment Station. Our initial trial of 
this variety indicates that it has good vigor, a long fruiting season 
and productivity. The fruit was attractive, bright red in color and good 
in flavor. The berries tend to be soft and are probably not suited for 
commercial production. 

Grenadier An introduction from the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. The plants 
are good in vigor and runner production. The berries were unattractive, 
tending to be rough, dark and only fair in shape. The flavor was fair. 
On the basis of our trials in recent years we would not recommend this 
variety. 



-7- 



Guardsman An introduction from the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. The plants 
were good in vigor and runner production, the yield was poor. The fruit 
ripens unevenly, is dark in color and tends to be tough in texture. 
Guardsman has not shown promise in our trials. 

Redcoat An introduction from the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. The berries 
were very attractive but lacked flavor in our 1962 trials. The plants 
were good in vigor and runner production but fell down in yield. Redcoat 
has not shown sufficient promise to merit further trial. 

Data as to season, berry size and yield for the varieties and selections 
tested in 1962 are found in the following chart. 

STRAWBERRY VARIETY EVALUATION - 1962 
UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS, AMHERST 



TOWER PLOTS 


- 3 Replicates 
















Season 


(1) 


Berry Size' 


C2) 


No. of 


Calculated Yield 




% Early 


% Late 


Ist 


3rd 


5 th 


Pickings 


Quart 8 /Acre 


Variety 








Picking 








Md-US 2289 


40 


— 


390 


272 


171 


7 


7,296 


Cyclone 


38 


8 


368 


408 


220 


9 


8,313 


NJ 457 


32 


12 


591 


389