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Full text of "The fulfilment of a dream of Pastor Hsi's; the story of the work in Hwochow"

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THE FULFILMENT OF A DREAM 

OF PASTOR HSI'S 



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Fr9^ispiece. 



THE FULFILMENT 
OF A DREAM 

OF PASTOR HSrS 
THE STORY OF THE WORK IN HWOCHOW 

BY 

A. MILDRED CABLE 

Of the China Inland Mission ^ Z^,^-^ 



^ 






Is it a dream? 

Nay, but the lack of it, a dream. 

And failing it, life's love and wealth a dream, 

And all the world a dream." 

Walt Whitman 



LONDON : 
MORGAN ^ SCOTT LTD. 
12, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.G. 

CHINA INLAND MISSION 

NEWINGTON GREEN, N. MCMXVII 



TO 

DR. G. CAMPBELL MORGAN 

THE "aPOLLOs" who 

BY PRAYER AND SYMPATHY HAS " WATERED 

THIS WORK 

THIS BOOK IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 



S^^'^ 



INTRODUCTION 



TWENTY-ONE years ago, on 19th February 
1896, Pastor Hsi, to quote the words of 
his biographer, " was translated to higher service." 
Those who read the fascinating and wonderful 
story of his life by Mrs. Howard Taylor will at 
once be interested in The Fulfilment of a Dream, 
which is the story of the work in Hwochow, and 
gives the account of the carrying on of the spiritual 
labour of that remarkable man, and of the fulfil- 
ment of his dream. I think it is equally true 
that those who have not read Pastor Hsi's life 
will desire to do so after reading this book. 

It is a commonplace observation, but none the 
less true, that the story commenced in the Acts 
of the Apostles could not be finished by Luke, 
because the great activity, the commencement 
of which he recorded, is still going forward. 
Every tale of missionary endeavour moving for- 
ward " toward the uttermost part of the earth " 
is an added chapter. It has been given to Mildred 
Cable and her fellow workers, to labour in the 



viii INTRODUCTION 

apostolic succession ; and then to Mildred Cable, 
to write this wonderful chapter. 

From my own standpoint the book is full of 
charm. While by no means its supreme value, 
the first impression made upon the mind is that 
of the naturalness of the story. The reader is 
made the friend of the writer, and listens to an 
artless and charming account of places and of 
peoples. My first reading of the book at one sitting 
(as all such books should be read), left me with 
a sense of the atmosphere of the missionary's life 
and surroimdings. I was admitted into the 
actuaUty of everyday things, and was made 
familiar with the pathos and tragedy and humour 
of life in a land and among a people largely un- 
known to me. 

As I have said, this is by no means the supreme 
value of the book. That rather consists in some- 
thing that grows upon you as you read. The 
writer does not state it in so many words, or very 
seldom, and certainly is not trying to persuade 
you to believe it, but there it is. I refer to the 
tender and yet strong revelation of the power of 
the Divine Grace, both in its sustenance of those 
who are called to missionary work, and its trans- 
forming power in the case of those who, often at 
cost, yield themselves to its call. 

In Chapters I., V., VI., VII., and VIII. the reader 
will trace the story of the development of the 
work, and a wonderful story it is. Chapters XI. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

and XII., containing first the story of Ai Do, and 
then a record of demoniacal manifestations, show 
the reader how these quiet and earnest workers 
are brought up against the big, naked, awful 
things of life ; and also how being so confronted, 
they are unafraid and unconquered in the name 
of Jesus Christ the Lord. The fact that I draw 
special attention to these chapters is not intended 
to suggest for a moment that the others are either 
uninteresting or unimportant. They are neither 
the one nor the other. For all that it is intended 
to be, the book is a whole, and is supremely 
precious, because it is manifestly a part of the 
larger whole of Christ's great emprise. 

With confidence and joy I commend the story 
to all those in whose heart burns the passion for 
the coming of the hour when our adorable Redeemer 
shall " see of the travail of His soul, and shall be 
satisfied." 

G. CAMPBELL MORGAN. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 



I WISH to acknowledge that apart from my co- 
workers, Evangeline and Francesca French, 
this book would have been impossible. To Mr. 
Albert Lutley, Superintendent of the China Inland 
Mission Work in the Province of Shansi, I am 
indebted for help and kindnesses which I can 
acknowledge, but never repay. I am also indebted 
to my Chinese secretary, Miss Wang, for her able 
reporting of the many interviews which the com- 
piling of this book has necessitated. 

The Chinese themselves say : " One mile alters 
the speech, and ten miles change the customs." 

In view of the fact that the Province of Shansi 
alone is larger than England and Wales, I wish 
it to be clearly understood that the usages and 
customs to which I refer throughout this book 
are local. 



EDITOR'S NOTE 



ALL personal names are spelt according to the 
system employed by the authoress, except 
where it has been necessary to modify this to 
retain the identity of someone mentioned in Mrs. 
Howard Taylor's Pastor Hsi. All place names 
are spelt according to the orthography of the 
Chinese Postal Guide, which system is now used 
in the standard maps of China and has been 
adopted by the larger missionary societies. Thus, 
Hoh-chau of Pastor Hsi becomes Hwochow, 
T'ai-yiian becomes Taiyiianfu, P'ing-yang becomes 
Pingyangfu, etc. 



CONTENTS 



PROLOGUE 



CHAPTER I 



Mrs. Hsi's Gift, being an Account of the Open- 
ing OF THE Station of Hwochow . . 3 

CHAPTER n 

The Big Road, indicating the Situation of 
Hwochow in the Province of Shansi . .11 

CHAPTER III 

A New Venture, in which is recorded the 
Appointment of the First Missionaries to 
Hwochow . . .... 19 

CHAPTER IV 

The Continuation of the Story, being a Record 
OF some who were counted worthy to suffer 
FOR Christ's Sake, and of Mrs. Hsi's Experi- 
ence in the Boxer Outbreak . . .27 

CHAPTER V 

Life in the Villages, an Introduction to 
Chinese Home Life. . . . .37 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VI 

FAGB 

Our Reception at Hwochow, showing Things as 
they sometimes are . . . -47 

CHAPTER VII 
A Portrait Gallery, wherein the Reader is 

INTRODUCED TO SOME OF OUR FELLOW WORKERS 57 

CHAPTER VIII 

Work Development, relating how we sought to 
encompass the work, and the work en- 
compassed us . , . . . .69 

CHAPTER IX 

Mrs. Hsi's Second Gift, being an Account of her 
Life from Widowhood . . . -77 

CHAPTER X 
The Story of an Opium Smoker . . -85 

CHAPTER XI 

The Great Furnace for a Great Soul, being 
the Story of Ai Do . . .95 

CHAPTER XII 

The Powers of Darkness, being a Record of 
some Observations in Demonology , . 109 

CHAPTER XIII 
The Life Story of Pastor Wang . . .127 



CONTENTS XV 



CHAPTER XIV 



PAGE 



A Visit to the Base, from whence we are again 

SENT forth with FRESH SUPPLIES . • 14^ 

CHAPTER XV 
The Builders, relating how the Supplies were 

USED . . . . . . 'IS' 

CHAPTER XVI 

Women's Bible Training School, which tells 
HOW a Link was established between West- 
minster AND Hwochow Bible Schools . .159 

CHAPTER XVII 

The Draw Net let down into the Sea, an 
Account of Fresh Efforts to reach the 
Multitude, and bring them to Decision , 169 

CHAPTER XVIII 

Life amongst the Upper Ten Thousand, record- 
ing Hospitality shown to us by the Official 
Classes . . . . . .177 

CHAPTER XIX 

The Revolution of 1911, and how we were 
affected by it . . . . .189 

CHAPTER XX 

Changed Conditions, wherein some, though 
following a Path of Action, failed to under- 
stand IT .,»,,. 199 



xvi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXI 

PAGB 

Another Portrait Gallery, wherein the Reader 

IS introduced to some who have failed . 211 

CHAPTER XXII 

Preaching the Gospel, Healing the Sick, telling 
OF THE Daily Routine .... 223 

CHAPTER XXIII 

A Casket of Jewels, being an Account of the 
Girls' School ..... 233 

CHAPTER XXIV 

The Treasure House, where the Reader is 
shown the Lapidary at Work . . . 247 

CHAPTER XXV 

Conclusion, being a Review of the Present 

Situation ...... 257 

APPENDIX 263 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



T 

Mrs. Hsi . 


. Frontispiece 




FACING PAGE 


A Woman Opium Smoker 


. 82 


Pastor Wang . . . . 


. 136 


Women's Bible School . 


. 160 


"Puppy" and her Mother 


. 2X8 


The Teaching Staff 


. 228 


Some Kindergarten Scholars 


• 236 



Ling Ai, her Children, and her Mother, Mrs. 
Liang ....... 252 



PROLOGUE 



THE spirit of the Confucian scholar Hsi met 
with its Master Christ, and overwhehned 
by the vision yielded all to His control. Con- 
strained by His love the souls of men were sought 
and won ; led by His Spirit, churches were estab- 
lished in the faith ; sharing His sufferings, their 
failures became his burden. 

In the darkest days the Hwochow Church has 
known, when many forsook their faith, he was 
strengthened by a dream, in which he saw a tree 
cut down to the ground, only to sprout again, and 
throw out branches stronger than before. 

In his dream. Pastor Hsi knew this tree to be 
the Hwochow Church. He knew that though it 
were brought low, it would revive, and by faith 
obtained the promise, the fulfilment of which is 
recorded in these pages. 



When Thou wouldst pour the Living Stream 
Then I would be the earthen cup, 
Filled to the brim and sparkling clear. 
The Fountain Thou aJid Living Spring 
Flow Thou through me, the vessel weak, 
That thirsty souls may taste Thy grace. 

When Thou wouldst warn the people, Lord, 
Then I would be the golden bell 
Swung high athwart the lofty tower 
Morning and evening sounding loud ; 
That young and old may wake from sleep, 
Yea, e'en the deaf hear that strong sound. 

When Thou wouldst light the darkness. Lord, 
Then I would be the silver lamp 
Whose oil supply can never fail. 
Placed high, to shed the beams afar. 
That darkness may be turned to light. 
And men and women see Thy face. 

When Thou wouldst slay the wolves, O Lord I 

Then I would be the keen-edged sword ; 

Clean, free from rust, sharpened and sure. 

The handle grasped, my God, by Thee. 

To kill the cruel, ravening foe. 

And save the sheep for whom Christ died. 

Translated from Pastor Hsi 
by F. L. F. 



MRS. HSrS GIFT 



" First love is the abandonment of all for the love which 
has abandoned all." — Dr. G. Campbell Morgan. 

"... such men 
Carry the fire, all things grow warm to them. 
Their drugget's worth my purple, they beat me." 

R. Browning. 



CHAPTER I 

MRS. HSI'S GIFT 

Being an Account of the Opening of the 
Station of Hwochow 

MRS. HSI was in great mental distress. The 
blow she feared had fallen, and her hus- 
band was a prey to the bewitching power of the 
" foreign devils." How cleverly the trap had been 
laid. Firstly, the offer of a monetary prize for a 
classical essay — which he had won ; secondly, the 
insistence of the foreigner on a personal interview 
with the writer, on the occasion of which, certain 
as her husband had been that he had tasted neither 
food nor drink under his roof, some means had cer- 
tainly been found to introduce into his system 
some of that subtle foreign drug which, as every 
one knew, must eventually compel the victim to 
embrace Christianity and follow the " foreign 
devil " to the world's end. Thirdly, he had been 
invited to become the teacher of this dreaded 
man (Rev. David Hill), and she had foolishly yielded 
her consent. She had taken every precaution 
and had, on three occasions, sent for him on plea 
of her own illness during the time he was an in- 
mate in the foreigner's household. His clothing 
had been carefully searched for traces of the 



4 MRS. USVS GIFT 

magical compound, but in vain ; nothing had 
come to light, and now here was her husband, 
one of the leading Confucianists of the district, 
declaring that, of his own free will and action, he 
had determined to follow — not the foreign 
devils — ^but this Jesus, around Whom all their 
preaching centred. He attributed this change 
of mind, evidently quite irrationally, to the reading 
of a book printed under the strange title of Happy 
Sound, — but perhaps even the sacred Chinese 
character might become a snare in their hands ! 
Nothing but the influence of some powerful magic 
could have worked so complete a transformation. 
Even his intense craving for opium was gone, the 
Confucian writings which had been his constant 
companion were now neglected, and in spite of 
her entreaties and fears, the family gods were 
destroyed. 

During his stay at home he spoke constantly, 
both to her and in her hearing to many visitors, 
of the teachings of this Jesus Wlio, he explained to 
all comers, was the Son of the only True Gk>d. 

Time passed, and gradually her fears were 
somewhat allayed, so that she even consented 
to repeat "certain sentences which, he told her, 
were to be used night and morning, kneeling, and 
with closed eyes. Her inclination to favourably 
regard what he told her grew, especially during 
his absences from home ; for, strange to relate, 
she soon began to find herself under the influence 
of an unaccountable external power, which com- 
pelled her on each occasion of a visit from her 
husband to .fly into an uncontrollable rage at 



MRS. HSrs DELIVERANCE 5 

the sight of him, and this despite her most deter- 
mined resolution to the contrary. To her husband 
it was most distressing to see so gentle a woman 
thus transformed. As his own spiritual experi- 
ence increased, he recognised in this an onslaught 
of the devil, and betook himself to prayer and 
fasting in order to discover how they had laid them- 
selves open to the attack. It was then that there 
was brought to his remembrance the fact that, 
in a room at the top of the house, there stood a 
small idol responsible for the health of the family, 
whose existence Mrs. Hsi had been careful not 
to bring to his remembrance, and which had been 
overlooked in the general destruction. The shrine 
was instantly destroyed, and Mrs. Hsi was free 
of the tormenting spirit, and shortly afterwards 
openly confessed Christ. 

From that time their home in the Western 
Chang village was a centre of Christian activity. 
Through intense suffering Mr. Hsi had freed 
himself from the craving for opium, and he 
felt that, for the evangelisation of his native 
province, some means might be devised whereby 
the treatment of opium patients might be 
combined with widespread preaching of the 
Gk)spel. 

The more he thought of this the stronger the con- 
viction grew that it was of God, and when, through 
the agency of a dream, a system of treatment was 
revealed to him, he accepted it as a revelation 
and at once prepared the medicine which proved 
successful beyond his highest expectations. After 
a time, men who had been delivered from the 
opium vice and led to Christ through the Refuges, 



6 MRS. HSrS GIFT 

were gathered into his home (which he called the 
Middle Eden) and trained for the work. 

This community life for so large a number was 
only made possible by Mrs. Hsi's enthusiastic 
devotion. The extension of the opium refuge 
work was rapid and widespread, and necessitated 
frequent absences from home on the part of Mr. 
Hsi, during which time a heavy burden fell upon 
his wife. 

Houses were rented in many towns and villages, 
and patients entering the " heavenly called refuges " ^ 
were numerous. 

The burden of one city, however, lay heavily 
upon the heart of Mr. Hsi, and he and his house- 
hold constantly prayedtogetherthat Hwochow might 
be opened to the sound of the Gospel ; but funds 
which seemed essential for the initial expenses of 
the venture were not forthcoming. His itinerant 
journeys frequently took him through this im- 
portant centre, which was situated sixty miles 
north of his home. 

Day after day prayer was made, and Mrs. Hsi 
often heard her husband in the night watches, 
as he knelt alone in the court, plead with God 
that nothing might hinder what he strongly believed 
to be the Divine Purpose. 

One Sunday night she was wakened by the familiar 
sound. She knew that her husband, like herself, 
had gone to bed tired out by a long day of preach- 
ing, during which large numbers had joined their 
household from more or less distant villages. Ac- 
cording to their custom, they had spent the day 
fasting ; it was Pastor Hsi's habit to refer to the 
* Heavenly Invitation Office (" Pastor Hsi's " translation). 



A REVELATION OF DUTY 7 

Scriptures direct for guidance on matters of daily- 
conduct, and in the early days of his faith he 
feared to sin against the law of God by allowing 
fires to be lighted and meals to be prepared on 
Sunday. In accordance with his habit, he had arisen 
soon after midnight to give himself to prayer, 
and her ear caught the murmured sentences, " I 
beseech Thee, O Lord, open a way for Hwochow to 
hear the Gospel." As she listened, the sound of 
his voice brought conviction to her own mind 
that she was to be the human agency by which 
the Divine Will should now fulfil itself. In a flash, 
the path of duty was clear. 

At the back of her cave were large painted cup- 
boards which contained the whole of her worldly 
possessions : bundles of handsome silk, satin, and 
embroidered garments, and a box holding the 
heavy jade and silver ornaments, which had been 
her husband's marriage gift. Leaving her 
kang ^ Mrs. Hsi unlocked the cupboards and 
spent the rest of that night in sorting their con- 
tents. All except a few cotton gowns were put 
to one side, and as the voice in the courtyard 
still pleaded for Hwochow, even the earrings were 
taken from her ears, the rings from her fingers, 
and the ornaments from her hair. 

He Who is worthy to receive accepted the 
offering, and her heart sang a song of thanksgiving 
as she murmured to herself, " Hwochow shall have 
the Gospel." 

Morning prayers at Middle Eden was an hour 
of jojrful worship, and on this day Mrs. Hsi's 

^ The raised brick or mud platform, heated by a fire, used as 
a bed in North China. 



8 MRS. HSrS GIFT 

heart was so full of happiness that she could scarcely 
wait until the full congregation had assembled 
before she, laden with her bundles, entered the 
room and placed them on the table, saying, " I 
think God has answered our prayers ; I can do 
without these, let Hwochow have the Gospel." 

Every heart present must have been moved, 
for all could judge accurately what the sacrifice 
must be. She had offered her only worldly 
treasures, articles which her husband could not 
ask her to sacrifice, ready as he was to use in 
God's service all that pertained to their home. 

Surely the angels joined their song to that of 
the little Christian community that morning, as 
the words of their own pastor's hymn ascended 
with the sacrifice of praise : 

" I hung for thee on Calvary, what dost thou still withhold 

from Me ? 
Thy strength, thy time, thy goods ? 
Oh say, what dost thou yet deny. My heart of love to 

satisfy ? " 



THE BIG ROAD 



" Aliens ! whoever you axe, come travel with me ! 
TraveUing with me you find what never tires. 
Whoever you are, come forth ! a man or a woman, 

come forth 1 
You must not stay sleeping or dallying there in the house, 
though you built it, or though it has been built for 
you." 

Walt Whitman. 

" The Master said : With coarse rice to eat, with water 
to drink, and my bended arm for a pillow ; — I have still 
joy in the midst of these things." — Confucian A nalects. 



CHAPTER II 

THE BIG ROAD 

Indicating the Situation of Hwochow in the 
Province of Shansi 

THE city of Hwochow is situated on the main 
road which connects Taiyiianfu with Sian- 
fu, the direct route from Peking to the north- 
western provinces. Along this road pass strings 
of camels, laden with the merchandise of Mongolia ; 
thousands of donkeys, carrjang bags of flour from 
the more luxuriant southern plains ; cartloads of 
tobacco and paper from the large cities in the 
south of the province, and caravans of travellers ; 
whole families packed into large carts moving to 
some new home ; mat-covered litters swung 
between two mules and heavily curtained, in 
which the wives of an official are transported to , 
their new abode ; pedestrians, clad in sky-blue 
cotton, " yamen runners " yelling as they ride at 
furious speed to clear the way before them, and 
bearers of burdens combine to form a moving 
picture of interest and beauty upon the Big 
Road, as it is called. 

Not least interesting among the wayfarers 
are the Lhamas from distant Thibet nearing the 
end of their long pilgrimage to the famous holy 



12 THE BIG ROAD 

mountain Wutai, where each one hopes to be 
granted the vision of the famous opening lotus. 
For many months, stretching into years, this hope 
has sustained them through the weary pilgrimage. 
From the threshold of their Lhama home they 
have walked every step of the thousand and 
more miles, some at every tenth, some at every 
fifth step, touching the ground with their forehead, 
and some measm-ing the whole length of the way 
with their outstretched body on the road. 

As the traveller enters Hwochow from the 
north, he crosses a bridge, passing on his right 
a large metal cow. Beyond, flows the Fen River, 
and before him is the city gate. To this brazen 
image is committed the important function of 
guarding Hwochow from flood, and so successfully 
does it accomplish its task that dryness and 
drought are the normal condition of the country- 
side I 

Turning to the east he faces the magnificent 
range of the Ho Mountains, in winter covered 
with snow, and in warmer seasons touched with 
the beauty of ever - changing colour. These 
mountains are part of the range which, farther 
north, is traversed by the famous Lingshih Pass. 

Excepting in the early summer months when 
patches of vivid green indicate the fields of grow- 
ing wheat, the landscape is of a uniform shade 
which is best described as khaki. Owing to the 
friable nature of the soil formation known as 
loess, the traveller, whether journeying from 
north or south, finds himself in a succession of 
deep gullies. 

This wheat-growing land was formerly given 



THE OPIUM POPPY SUPERSEDED 13 

over to the cultivation of the opium poppy, and 
for miles over the plain the wonderful iridesc«it 
bloom gave the appearance of a sea of changing 
light and shade as the wind passed over it. 

In the year 1908 a proclamation was issued 
forbidding the growth of opium under penalty 
of death, and so vigorously has the law been 
enforced that the poppy has completely dis- 
appeared from view, and no man is bold enough 
to openly grow that which has been forbidden by 
the authorities. 

For ten months in the year brilliant sunshine 
can be counted upon, and during that time, 
except for dust combined with heat or cold, the 
physical condition of a journey may be com- 
paratively easy. Ease of mind, however, can 
only be attained by the philosopher who, putting 
away all thought of unseemly haste, shares the 
Easterner's pleasures of observation, contempla- 
tion, and wayside intercourse. 

The journey from Taiyiianfu to Hwochow is 
accomplished in five stages, and nothing will 
induce the carter to shorten or change them, 
though hours may have been wasted in some 
narrow gully where, spite his warning yells, his 
cart met another at a point where advance or 
retreat on either side were alike impossible. 
After fierce recriminations the two men each 
produce a pipe, and it is good practice for the 
impatient Westerner to see them sit on their 
heels and talk the matter over. Time passes, 
but the carter is untrammelled by any artificial 
measure thereof, and after endless discussion, 
amid comforting whiffs of tobacco, he proceeds 



14 THE BIG ROAD 

to think of a plan whereby the deadlock may be 
overcome. How they manage to extricate them- 
selves, one never knows I Some of the bank 
comes down, yells and shouts do their part, and 
at last the traffic, which may now amount to 
fifty waiting carts, slowly passes by. It is an 
everyday occurrence, and you ask, " Why do 
they not widen the road ? " " Nobody's busi- 
ness," is the reply. " Who would spend the 
money ? " 

It is, however, the rainy season that reveals 
to the full the horrors of Chinese travelling. 
The loess is slippery beyond description, and 
the litter or cart in which you travel may be 
stuck for hours in a pit of greasy mud, black by 
reason of the coal dust so plentiful throughout 
the district, so deep that nothing but the mule's 
head is visible, the plunging body being hidden 
in the black mass. Your only hope at such a 
moment is to throw yourself with the grace of 
an expert gymnast on to the bank, thankful if 
you escape unhiui; and only bespattered by mud. 
These pits are carefully kept in condition by a 
small group of men who appear, as by magic, to 
offer assistance at the suitable moment. No 
plight, however, excites their pity sufficiently to 
induce them to render help apart from a pecuniary 
reward of an exorbitant nature. Once within 
the city gates there is hope that you will soon 
find a shelter. You will have accomplished 
"the stage" which has been allotted from time 
immemorial. Marco Polo himself followed these 
stages in the year 1280 as we do to-day in the 
twentieth century. 



WAYSIDE EXPERIENCES 15 

The main road runs through the city of Hwochow 
from north to south, and many inns invite the 
traveller to rest, the red scrolls at the door assuring 
him that " From the four seas men all gather to 
this great hotel," and that the fame of its food 
is far-reaching. 

Crossing this road from east to west is another 
important street where the official residence is 
situated. Here, most of the large shops are to 
be found and in the centre of the city is a fine 
tower, but all the smaller streets are alike, running 
between blank walls, from which access to as 
many as twelve courtyards may be through one 
small door. Numerous pigs walk unhindered up 
and down, acting as scavengers, and as such are 
not unneeded, for every one throws the refuse of 
the household out of the court door, caring nothing 
for the convenience of the public. 

Parallel with the Yamen street is another 
important thoroughfare known as Prospect Hill. 
Here stands the largest and most important 
temple in the city, and almost next door to 
this, with the money given by his wife, Mr. Hsi 
secured small premises and announced that he was 
opening an opium refuge, and was willing to 
receive patients. Particulars as to rules and 
expenses were widely published, and in this place 
the first results of the love and self-sacrifice of 
Mrs. Hsi were seen. 



A NEW VENTURE 



" Love has a hem to its garment 
That touches the very dust : 

It can reach the stains of the streets and the lanes, 
And because it can it must. 

It dares not rest on the mountain ; 
It is boimd to come to the vale ; 
For it cannot find its fulness of mind 
Till it kindles the lives that faU." 

George Matheson. 

" The world had begun to stare, she half apprehended 
the fact, but she was in the presence of the irresistible. 
In the presence of the irresistible the conventional is a 
crazy structure, swept away with very little creaking of its 
timbers on the flood." — George Meredith. 



CHAPTER III 

A NEW VENTURE 

In which is recorded the Appointment of 
THE First Missionaries to Hwochow 

THE first endeavour to bring the people of 
Hwochow within sound of the Gospel 
proved in every way encouraging. Numbers of 
men entered the Opium Refuge, and before long a 
nucleus of twenty were calling themselves Christians. 
The effort was, however, sterile so far as women 
were concerned, and Pastor Hsi knew the im- 
possibility of establishing upon a solid basis a 
work which left untouched those who so largely 
controlled the home. 

The power wielded by the woman in China is 
immense, for while she may be despised and, in 
her young days, even ill-treated, her day of power 
surely dawns, and woe betide the man who has 
to combat the determined will of mother or wife. 

The question of providing women workers for 
Hwochow became a pressing one, and a visit from 
the Rev. Hudson Taylor was the occasion chosen 
by Pastor Hsi to bring before him the urgency 
of this claim.i His suggestion was that single 

1 It was on the occasion of this visit that Mr. Hsi was ordained 
pastor. 



20 A NEW VENTURE 

women missionaries should be appointed who 
could give their time unreservedly to the teaching 
of women, and preaching. Mr. Taylor pointed 
out the difficulties and the misunderstanding 
which would make their lot far from easy, but 
these difficulties. Pastor and Mrs. Hsi felt, might 
be overcome, and willingly promised to give all 
the help which lay within their power. In any 
case, the claim of the women constituted a call 
to make a forward movement, and Mr. Taylor 
promised to give the matter serious consideration. 
By the end of that year, 1886, two Norwegian 
ladies had offered for the post. 

Miss Jacobsen, an idealist, strong, capable, and 
critical, gave herself whole-heartedly to the work 
for which she had come. Enthusiastic and in- 
dependent in thought and action, she soon acquired 
the spoken language to a remarkable degree, and 
with a praiseworthy tenacity she studied the 
classical works of the Chinese, and at the same 
time could vie with most of the women in all 
branches of their domestic activities. Her extra- 
ordinary ability is a byword to this day amongst 
the people who knew her. 

She was accompanied by Miss Renter, a lady of 
education and refinement, whose grace of manner 
and goodness of heart speedily endeared her to all 
with whom she came in contact. Varied as were 
the gifts and circumstances of the friends, they 
were one in desire and purpose. Their home was 
one small room, and here they dwelt and received 
all who came to them. They wore the Chinese 
dress, ate the Chinese food, and whether in their 
own home or in the villages where they preached, 



WOMEN PIONEERS 21 

ever kept before them the one object of the 
salvation of souls. 

As pioneer workers, enthusiasm sometimes 
overstepped discretion, and the violation of 
Chinese custom in such matters as the public 
playing of stringed instruments and open-air 
preaching to mixed congregations, led to mis- 
understanding, and even to the gathering around 
them of some whose presence was far from helpful. 

Desire on the part of Miss Jacobsen to encourage 
in every way possible those who were already 
faced with persecution as they left idolatry, led 
to the preparation, each Sunday, of a simple 
meal which might be shared with any who walked 
long distances to attend services in the City 
Church, and who arrived weary and tired. Others, 
however, apart from the Christian family heard 
of this, and if matters of business brought them 
to the city, Sunday was considered an appropriate 
day to transact them, as thereby dinner might 
be obtained free. This naturally led to criticism 
on the part of the heathen, and many of the 
more independent and self-respecting people re- 
frained from intercourse with a community of 
whom it could be said : " They believe for their 
food's sake." Acting upon the advice of Pastor 
Hsi, this practice was discontinued, the missionaries 
themselves willingly taking no food from morning 
until evening, that all might fare alike. It could 
but be evident to all concerned that the mistakes 
were those of love and enthusiasm, and such 
qualities do much to counteract any harm that 
might arise from unwise methods of expression. 
In every land, the world might well see more of 



33 A NEW VENTURE 

the love that defies criticism, and forgets its own 
interests in whole-hearted devotion. 

Miss Reuter felt the importance of at once 
reaching the children, and opened a small school 
for the daughters of Christians. Three little 
girls were committed to her care, and these she 
faithfully taught, not despising the day of small 
things. 

She, with Miss Jacobsen, travelled from village 
to village with the evangelist Cheng Hsiu-chi, 
and preached the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Cheng 
was a native of Hwochow, and had, at Pastor Hsi's 
request, made ready the house for the missionaries 
when they came. As a young man he had wandered 
far in the paths of sin, and his mother, eager for 
his reformation, had spent no mean sum of money 
upon incense with which to seek the favour of 
the gods on his behalf. Seeing her devotion, his 
heart was touched, and he considered seeking 
refuge in a Buddhist monastery from the " fire 
of passion, hatred, and ignorance always burning 
in his heart." With this in view, he took counsel 
of a friend who had harboured similar ideals. 
This man had lately been a patient in the Refuge, 
where he had learnt of a stronger power to break 
the bonds of sin than fasting, penance, and self- 
discipline. With him Mr. Cheng attended a 
meeting of Christians where, meeting with Christ, 
he became a disciple. He returned home to face 
bitter persecution for refusing to pay the temple 
taxes ; it was understood that no robbery of his 
crops, or ill-treatment of his person, would be 
punished by the village elders. He had finally 
no option but to leave his home and seek refuge 



A RACE PROBLEM 23 

elsewhere, rejoicing that he was counted worthy 
to suffer " for the Name's sake." 

He then helped Pastor Hsi in the Hwochow 
Refuge, and later took charge of the same work 
in new and hitherto untouched districts, returning 
from time to time to his own city. 

A strong admiration for Miss Jacobsen and her 
whole-hearted devotion awoke a consciousness that 
this feeling was not entirely on his side, and 
gradually, but surely, the difference of race and 
outlook was obliterated in the love which revealed 
to each the other's secret. 

Those to whom Miss Jacobsen in honour bound 
confided her purpose, did all in their power to 
prevent what it seemed might prove to be a 
catastrophe to the work. She was asked to leave 
Hwochow, and was sent to another province. Some 
years passed, but nothing could change the de- 
termination which saw in this union a possible 
wider sphere of usefulness and understanding of 
the people she had come to love ; moreover, the 
mysterious something which caused her to know 
that " one man loved the pilgrim soul " in her, 
could not be ignored. To her trusted friend 
Pastor Hsi, however, she did turn for advice, and 
while many fellow- workers found it hard to express 
their indignation and regret, he, with a clearness 
of outlook only possible where there is absence 
of prejudice, told her that while he could not 
regard it as a sin for a Chi-istian man and woman 
of different races to marry, he felt convinced that 
the time had not come for such unions to be 
desirable. 

As is usual in such cases where inclination 



24 A NEW VENTURE 

runs contrary to the advice given, the latter was 
ignored, and in the year 1898 Cheng Hsiu-chi and 
Anna Jacobsen became man and wife. Painful 
as must have been the attitude of Westerners to 
Mrs. Cheng, a greater trial awaited her when she 
came to realise that the Chinese, both Christian 
and heathen, regarded her action with disapproval, 
and adopted so unappreciative an attitude both 
towards her husband and herself, that she found 
only critical antagonism where she had looked 
for sympathetic understanding. Mr. Cheng proved 
himself worthy in all ways of the confidence she 
had placed in him, and by self-sacrificing toil 
he, both before and after his wife's death, faith- 
fully served the Lord to Whom he had yielded his 
hfe. In the year 1915 he too passed to his reward. 
Miss Renter had some time previously married 
Mr. Stanley Smith ; young workers who had 
joined Miss Jacobsen for short periods had been 
moved to other places, and when fresh appoint- 
ments were made it was a time of great difficulty. 
It was not easy to replace those whose absolute 
devotion had won the love of the people amongst 
whom they lived ; and while Miss Jacobsen's 
action necessitated her withdrawal from the staff 
of the China Inland Mission, and made further 
residence in Hwochow impossible for her, they could 
not forget that she was the first missionary who 
had come to them, and that they were losing 
with her the man who had been a help to so many 
of them in their early Christian life. 



THE CONTINUATION OF THE STORY 



-- Death is short, and life is long ; 
Satan is strong, and Christ more strong. 
At His Word, Who hath led us hither. 
The Red Sea must part hither and thither. 
At His Word Who goes before us too, 
Jordan must cleave to let us through." 

C. ROSSETTI. 

" On the other side of the River was also a meadow, 
curiously beautified with lilies, and it was green all the year 
round." — Pilgrim's Progress. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE CONTINUATION OF THE STORY 

Being a Record of some who were counted 

WORTHY to suffer FOR ChRIST's SaKE, AND 

OF Mrs. Hsi's Experiences in the Boxer 
Outbreak 

CHANGES in the staff at Taiyuanfu 
released for the oversight of mission 
work in Hwochow, Jane Stevens and Mildred 
Clarke. 

They might well shrink from the task facing 
them. Work in the provincial capital had been 
of so totally different an order, and life in a large 
community of foreigners had limited their sphere 
to the oversight of a small school for girls, and 
the instruction of women inquirers. 

None had felt more strongly the seriousness of 
the step taken by Miss Jacobsen, and they came 
to Hwochow with the determination that all should 
early understand the impossibility of intercourse 
outside the most rigid observance of etiquette, 
Chinese and Western. Feeling strongly that such 
an attitude on their part would be the most 
helpful factor in the gathering around them of 
better-class women, they faithfully carried it into 

practice. Men who were connected with the 

27 



28 THE CONTINUATION OF THE STORY 

Church were received by them only under the 
most formal restrictions. Finding it impossible 
to eat Chinese food, a simple, but foreign mMaget 
took the place of the hitherto free-and-easy con- 
ditions. 

It was a severe test for Chinese and foreigners 
alike ; desire for renewal of the former conditions 
of intimacy met with no encouragement from 
those who could not but constantly bear the past 
in mind, and who felt that, for the highest interests 
of the work, a new relationship must be established. 
This attitude was naturally regarded as aloof- 
ness, and was galling to those whose love had 
been set on the young missionaries fresh from 
Norway, with all the enthusiasm of youth, to 
whom they themselves had taught the language 
and who belonged to them as others could not. 

Miss Clarke gave her time to the Girls' School, 
the pupils of which now numbered nearly twenty, 
and those who followed her have reaped where 
she sowed. Often sad and weary she plodded 
on, but Gk)d in His time gave the increase. Miss 
Stevens, to the limit of her strength, and often 
beyond it, faithfully worked in the city and 
villages, suffering much which to her was intense 
hardship, and feeling keenly the isolation and 
lack of confidence amongst the people who mis- 
understood the course of action deliberately 
adopted. Thus, while bringing heartache to 
themselves, these missionaries were enabled to 
make easy the way to all who followed them. 

The year 1900 dawned. In the month of June 
the ladies closed school and gladly accepted an 
invitation from friends in their old station to 



THE BOXER RISING 29 

visit them. To Taiyuanfu they went, and after 
many anxious days spent with the missionaries 
gathered there they, in obedience to the Governor's 
comimand, helpless to disobey, even though they 
suspected his treacherous promises of protection, 
moved to a house near his Yamen.^ 

" Arrived at the house chosen for them, they 
made themselves as comfortable as possible for 
the night ; and the next morning (Sunday, 
July 8) were able to examine their surroundings. 
They found that for their whole number (twenty- 
six, including children) there were only two 
comparatively small courts, the two inner courts 
being already occupied by the Roman Catholics. 
. . . When the fateful day (Monday, July 9) 
dawned, the foreigners evidently had no inkling 
as to what was to happen. Just before noon 
the sub-prefect called and took a list of all who 
were in the house, both foreigners and Chinese, 
saying it was by order of the Governor. . . . 
As was ascertained just a year later, when other 
Protestant missionaries returned to the province, 
the Governor had determined that on that day 
he would kill all the foreigners in Taiyuanfu. 
He evidently only took a few of the officials into 
his confidence, and one at least — the Tao Tai — 
strenuously opposed the course he was about 
to pursue, but unfortunately without result. 

"It must have been about two o'clock in the 
afternoon when he ordered a number of officers, 
with their soldiers, to accompany him, and 
mounting his own horse, led the way. He made 
as though he would go out of the city by the 
' Yamen =law courts or Mansion House. 



30 THE CONTINUATION OF THE STORY 

North Gate, but before reaching that point, he 
suddenly wheeled round and went to the house 
where the missionaries were confined. He there 
ordered their immediate arrest, and they appear 
to have made no resistance — as, indeed, it would 
have been useless. All who were found within 
the compound (Protestants and Roman Catholics) 
were seized ; and it so happened there were 
several Chinese there on business. . . . No excuse 
was listened to, and all were marched off to the 
Governor's Yamen between files of soldiers, where 
they were taken into the courtyard adjoining the 
street and surrounded by soldiers — not Boxers. 

"As to what really occurred, the whole truth 
will probably never be known, but from inquiries 
made on the spot, it seems certain that the 
Governor did not assault any with his own hand ; 
but, having asked the missionaries where they 
came from, and being answered, ' From England,' 
and ' From France,' just gave the order, ' Sha ' 
(kill) to the soldiers, who answered with a shout 
and immediately fell upon their defenceless 
victims, killing them indiscriminately." ^ 

The Church in Hwochow, Chaocheng, and Fensi 
had a marvellous escape. The Boxers, practising 
their mystic rites, overran the district. Whole 
families fled to the mountains, and no one was 
safe from robbery and violence. The mandarin 
of Chaocheng, fearful lest massacres should take 
place in the county under his jurisdiction and 
desiring at any cost to keep the peace, called 
together some of the leading gentry and asked 
for advice as to the problem facing them. " I 
* From Fire and Sword in Shansi, by Dr. E. H. Edwards. 



MANDARIN DIPLOMACY 31 

know," said he, " that calling upon the Christians 
to recant will be useless, but can we not issue 
tickets to them upon which are the very words 
they use in entering the Church, ' I promise to 
repent ? ' There should be no difficulty in getting 
them to take these, for it will mean to them 
what they themselves preach, while to the anti- 
Christian fanatic it will be sufficiently satisfactory." 

Orders were accordingly issued that all Christians 
were to receive this official paper whereby their 
safety would be ensured. Large numbers in the 
Church regarded the mandarin's action as the 
overruling of Providence on their behalf, and 
accepted tickets which involved no verbal recanta- 
tion of their faith. Others, amongst whom was 
Mrs. Hsi (now a widow), with more sensitive 
spiritual perceptions, refused to take advantage 
of even the semblance of a subterfuge. 

The Chaocheng mandarin, surrounded by his 
bodyguard, went outside the city gates to the 
place where the Boxers were practising their 
rites with the intention of burning incense in 
their presence, by which act he would acknowledge 
them as invulnerable and holy men. At the 
critical moment, however, one of them was said 
to have made a move as if to attack the official, 
who instantly called upon his bodyguard to 
seize the men, exclaiming : " These are insurgents, 
and no holy men ; bind them, they are prisoners." 
As such they entered the city, and Boxerism never 
spread in the district. Thus did the Hand of 
God protect the hundreds of men and women 
who in these three counties were called by His 
Name, and while in many places few escaped 



32 THE CONTINUATION OF THE STORY 

the sword, the numerically largest Church in the 
province of Shansi was spared. 

Mrs. Hsi was in Chaocheng seeking to help the 
women in their troubles, when news reached her 
that her brother-in-law, Elder Si, was stabbed by 
one of the local Boxers. Rumours followed 
rapidly, and she heard that her mother-in-law 
was in serious danger. She hastened to her home, 
and found matters worse than she had feared. 
There was no place in which to live, the house 
was destroyed, her clothes were stolen, and had 
it not been for the thoughtfulness of one 
missionary who, in the midst of personal danger, 
found time to buy and send to her some garments 
and bedcovering, she would have been in a sad 
plight. Her old mother could not walk, so badly 
had she been beaten by the robbers, and terrified, 
the two women crept to the fields and hid them- 
selves. When night fell they returned to shelter 
and to get a little food, crawling out to their hiding- 
place before the cock crew each morning. Terror 
was upon the whole populace. The official had 
not been successful here, as in Chaocheng, in 
dealing with the movement, and the party of mis- 
sionaries who had for some time been gathered 
in Pingyangfu were openly attacked and robbed 
by Boxer bands as they left the city under oiB&cial 
escort. 

In loneliness and peril Mrs. Hsi and her aged 
mother cried to God, as the anxious, weary days 
passed by. The missionaries were gone, very 
many killed, others in hiding, and some, after perils 
and sufferings unspeakable, had reached Hankow. 
After some months came the additional sorrow of 



AFTER THE STORM 33 

the death of her brother-in-law, Elder Si, who had 
managed for her all matters in which she required 
help. 

Gradually the storm blew over, but those who 
passed through that period can never forget ^it. 
For Christ's sake they had suffered, and they 
could not again be as before. The Church in 
Shansi " had a new and powerful weapon " in 
her hands, " the power of her sufferings." : H l-'-^ 

A few months later, as soon as passports were 
available, the missionaries were back at their 
posts. There was much to tell and to^hear, as 
old friends met and were able to recount all the 
wonderful deliverances of the past year. But 
how many vacant places there were ! How could 
they be filled ? Ripe experience and Christlike 
sympathy were needed to deal with the new 
situation. 

Some had, under pressure, in a weak moment, 
recanted ; others had resisted this temptation, 
but fallen over the more subtle question of in- 
demnity for property destroyed. The situation, 
moreover, was changed ; foreigner and Christian 
alike were now in the ascendancy. Compensa- 
tion for life and property was granted, and though 
the members of the China Inland Mission declined 
to accept this, their action was made the occasion 
of a laudatory proclamation which called upon 
the people to note and imitate such an exemplifi- 
cation of self-forgetting goodness. 

In the providence of God the lives of a few 
missionaries had been spared to return, and with 
the benefit of their experience, to help new 
workers to an understanding of a situation which, 

3 



34 THE CONTINUATION OF THE STORY 

mishandled, would inevitably lead to disastrous 
consequences. 

Nothing could give Mrs. Hsi greater pleasure 
than to hear from her friend, Miss French, that 
Hwochow was to be her future centre. I, as a new 
worker, was to accompany her, and together we 
reached the city which was to be henceforth our 
home. 

The reception given by the very few Christians 
who gathered to meet us, was both cordial and 
critical. Miss French was welcome as being one 
whose reputation had long ago reached them, 
who had already paid several visits to the station, 
and whose Chinese, they soon remarked, was " as 
good as Miss Jacobsen's ! " Of me they knew 
nothing, and I had to meet the gaze of many eyes 
and listen to the remark, before I opened my 
mouth to speak, that it was impossible to under- 
stand my words. I had only one asset, and that 
was the fact that this being my first station I 
should belong to them, and when the day dawned 
that would release my stammering tongue, the 
honour of having taught and trained me would 
be theirs I 



LIFE IN THE VILLAGES 



3S 



" Great things are done when men and mountains meet 
These are not done by jostling in the street." 

William Blake. 

" Arrived there, the little house they fill. 
No look for entertainment where none was ; 
Rest is their feast, and all things at their will ; 
The noblest mind the best contentment has." 

William Spenser. 



30 



CHAPTER V 

LIFE IN THE VILLAGES 

An Introduction to Chinese Home Life 

THE house at Hwochow, which we were to 
inhabit, was still in the hands of work- 
men. We therefore decided to delay the un- 
packing of our boxes, and to spend several months 
in visiting the homes of the Christians throughout 
the four counties for which we were then respons- 
ible. Our travelling paraphernalia was simple, 
luggage being limited to the amount that a small 
donkey could carry in addition to a rider. Clothes 
and books were tied up in large square handker- 
chiefs and distributed as evenly as possible, along 
with a folded, wadded quilt in a long bed-bag 
which, thrown over the donkey's saddle, reached 
nearly to the ground on either side. On the 
early morning of the day decided on for our 
departure, two donkeys thus laden stood at our 
gate. On to one of them I was hoisted, and took 
my first lesson in how to sit happily, perched 
high on the voluminous luggage with neither 
reins for my hands nor stirrups for my feet, for 
sometimes as long as twelve hours' travelling 
with but a short break for food and rest at midday. 
From village to village we wandered, received 

37 



38 LIFE IN THE VILLAGES 

everywhere with cordial hospitality, pressed to 
extend our visit, and followed on our departure 
by the reiterated cry : " Come again, come again, 
come again soon ! " 

All was fresh and delightful to me and brimful 
of interest, from the hour when I rode through 
the city gate, passed the great tanks of lotus bloom 
to the edge of the swift, shallow river, where my 
servant stripped off his shoes and socks to lead 
my donkey knee-deep over the ford. 

By narrow roads we travelled where the tall 
grain stood like a wall on either side, ripening in 
the fierce sunshine which bathed the landscape 
in a dazzling glare. Through occasional villages 
we rode, where the women called to each other 
to hurry and see the strange sight, and groups 
of naked and semi-naked children commented 
freely on the appearance of the " foreign devils." 

A few miles farther and the first stage was 
reached — a deep courtyard backing the hillside, 
from which had been hollowed a row of caves 
according to the economical method of the country. 
Scarcely any bricks are required for such building, 
and the deep, lofty, arched room affords the 
warmest shelter in our bitter Shansi winter cold, 
as it does the coolest refuge from the burning 
summer heat. 

" Come again, come again soon," and we were 
off again, refreshed by a delicious, beautifully 
cooked meal, and our hearts warmed by the evident 
pleasure which our visit had given and the cordial 
hospitality which had sought to let us know how 
welcome we were. And now we left the fertile 
plain and well-watered land which lay all along 



WITH A PRIMITIVE PEOPLE 39 

the river-bed to climb steep, stony roads, and 
follow narrow footpaths, where the difficulty of 
its broad load made my donkey step gingerly as 
near to the chasm's edge as she could secure a 
foothold, and I dug my knees into the soft bed-bag 
and longed for something on which I could get 
a grip. How pleasant and easy such journeying 
became before the end of that autumn's wandering, 
and how familiar the life of the village homes. 
Almost day by day the confused sounds took 
form to my unaccustomed ears, and I was soon 
able to differentiate quite clearly between the 
two inevitable questions, " How old are you ? " 
and "How many brothers and sisters have you ? " 
I ceased to cover myself with confusion, by answer- 
ing that my brothers and sisters numbered twenty- 
three, and that my age was six — though now that 
the days of helpless shame are passed, I would not 
not have made these mistakes, so keen is the enjoy- 
ment still felt when some one repeats the old joke, 
and all laugh merrily at the recollection. 

Happy, irresponsible days, in which I learned to 
know and love the Chinese. I saw them now to 
best advantage, simple, patriarchal, industrious 
and thrifty, extraordinarily resourceful, and in- 
dependent of all that their own fields and farm 
do not supply. I saw the women's activities, 
and how they picked the cotton in the fields, spun 
and carded it, then wove it into strong cloth on 
the loom made for them by their own husbands ; 
how they dyed the cloth with indigo of their own 
growing, and finally converted it into the garments, 
and even the shoes and socks, worn by the whole 
family. I saw how those same garments were 



40 LIFE IN THE VILLAGES 

wadded with a layer of cotton-wool as the cold 
season approached, and behold, the whole family 
was made proof against the severe onslaughts of 
the keenest frosts and bitterest winds. I saw 
how a measure of wheaten or maize flour, a vessel 
of water, and a few vegetables dug from the field 
were daily converted into the three meals on which 
young and old alike thrived, the men showing a 
muscular development and endurance and an 
agility unequalled by anything I had met in other 
countries. I learned to recognise their simple, 
unexpressed joys, and to realise the deep tragedies 
which lay beneath the surface of their laborious 
lives. 

I was in the midst of the province which — in 
the very year when I was born — had been swept 
by the horrors of a famine and pestilence which 
left whole villages with no other survivor than 
perhaps two or three wailing children, feeding on 
garbage torn from the grasp of the dead hand. 

My servant remembered the time well. His 
whole family had been wiped out, and he had 
escaped as by a miracle. " In those days, dogs 
ate dogs and men ate men," was the refrain of 
his tale, only too literally and absolutely true, 
for no man dared to venture on the lonely path 
leading from one village to another, knowing that 
the likelihood was that murderers lay in wait, 
and that a few picked bones alone would tell the 
tale even if, satiated with horrors to the point 
of indifference, any one cared to inquire of it. 

When I expressed surprise at the many rows 
of caves allowed to fall into utter ruin, and the 
traces of whole villages now returned to waste 



HARDSHIPS AND DANGERS 41 

land : " Famine year," he would briefly answer, 
" dogs ate dogs and men ate men." 

I learned, too, why it was that no merry groups 
of children wandered away from the village, even 
now when no evil-doers lay in wait, upon some 
game or exploring adventure. I first discovered 
the reason of this through meeting a woman 
whose face was scarred and mutilated so as to bear 
small likeness to the human, and on inquiry I was 
informed that, as a little girl, she had strayed 
away from home and been attacked by a wolf ; 
men had rushed to her rescue, but her face, which 
is generally the part first attacked, was torn 
beyond recognition. I then learned what a 
common thing it is for wild beasts, wolves or 
leopards, to come down from the hills, and steal 
children even as they play around the courtyard 
grinding-stone. I could not be surprised at the 
intense anxiety of a woman whose son was half 
an hour late returning from an errand, when I 
heard that her eldest child had strayed off one 
day, and never been seen again. I was told of yet 
another woman who, nursing her baby in the 
cave, saw a leopard spring on her eldest child 
in the courtyard. Frantic, she left the baby to 
raise the alarm, and when she returned bearing 
the little mangled body in her arms, she found 
that the wild beast's mate had noted her absence 
and carried the baby off to its lair. 

I also heard, and found myself compelled to 
believe, things which I should have dismissed with 
an incredulous smile some few months earlier. 

It was now that I found myself brought face 
to face with the strange phenomenon of demon 



4» LIFE IN THE VILLAGES 

possession. There is so much to be said on this 
interesting topic, that it will require a chapter 
under its own heading to note even a portion of 
what has come under my personal notice. For 
the first time I heard, often in the midnight still- 
ness, the high-pitched voice, intoning the magic 
incantations whereby some young woman yielded 
herself to be the medium of communication be- 
tween the spirit and the material, the wild chant 
sometimes dying away in the distance, as she 
led a group of inquirers over wild mountain paths 
in obedience to the directions of her control. 

A few weeks were spent in the home of an elder 
of the Church, Giang by name, as from this centre 
it was easy to make daily itinerations in the 
neighbourhood. What a welcome we received 
there ! The deep cave set apart for our use was 
decorated with flowers, everything was clean and 
comfortable, and we were made to feel " at home." 
Being guests in the house, our meals were always 
served separately, but we liked to take our bowls 
into the courtyard and enjoy the family life. 
We were able to consult with our host concerning 
many whom we had visited during the day, and 
discuss our plans for the morrow. 

As the daylight faded we joined in prayer and 
praise, and listened to much that was of interest 
to us as the Elder told of early years spent in 
dissipation, opium smoking, and gambling ; of 
his conversion through Pastor Hsi, and of fkst 
efforts to preach the Gospel. Meanwhile, the 
shepherd folded his sheep, carefully counting them 
lest one should be missing, and the women pre- 
pared the millstones for grinding on the morrow. 



NEW TESTAMENT SCENES 43 

I saw much illustrated that had been familiar 
to me from childhood in the Gospel stories, even 
to the midnight cry announcing the arrival of 
the bridal party to a neighbour's house. A little 
oil was added to our long-extinguished lamp, as, 
being first to hear the clanging of the cymbals, 
we hastened to the bridegroom's home to help 
arouse the drowsy guests. 

We returned in due course to Hwochow, urged 
by our kind hostess to come again at any time. 
Such homes are resting-places to those who have 
left home for the Kingdom of God's sake, and are 
part of the literal fulfilment of the promise : " An 
hundredfold now in this time." 

Nowhere are we more sure of a welcome than in 
some of these Chinese courts, and for the Church 
of Christ in the home of Elder Giang, I for one 
shall ever be thankful. 



OUR RECEPTION AT HWOCHOW 



" The Master said : At first, my way with men was to 
hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. 
Now, my way is to hear their words, and look at their 
conduct." — Confucian A nalects. 

" The Master said : A man should say, I am not con- 
cerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may 
fit myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, 
I seek to be worthy to be known." — Confucian Analects. 



46 



CHAPTER VI 
OUR RECEPTION AT HWOCHOW 

Showing Things as they sometimes are 

IN spite of the valuable help given by study- 
circles, training-colleges, and other means by 
which the candidate for the mission field is equipped 
for his work, I question if many are fully prepared, 
when they arrive at the station to which they 
have been appointed, to find themselves studied, 
summed up, and criticised by the people to whom 
they have come in the capacity of teachers, and 
from whom they unconsciously expected some 
measure of deference. 

The Westerner, as such, has no prestige in the 
eyes of the Chinese, and though his wealth, educa- 
tion, and business capacity may command more 
or less respect, the deep-rooted feeling is a sense 
of the intrinsic superiority of the Middle Kingdom 
and its sons to the barbaric subjects of a vague 
territory known as the " Kingdom without " — 
that is, without the pale of the ancient civilisa- 
tion. By grace, the Christian will welcome you 
as a fellow-subject of the Kingdom of God, but 
on this ground only, and on no preconceived 
assumption of your superiority, will you be 
accepted. 

47 



48 OUR RECEPTION AT HWOCHOW 

The fact that you have come several thousands 
of miles in order to preach the Gospel, is not suffi- 
cient to place you unquestionably on a pedestal. 
By temperament you are either impetuous or 
slow, easy-going or exacting, courteous or brusque, 
and you will prove to be by nature more or less 
reasonable or unreasonable when the Chinaman 
seeks to make you understand li, an untrans- 
latable word, which embodies the idea of the 
complete range of all that it is suitable that you 
should be and do, on every occasion. 

Failure to readjust your mind to such conditions 
during the first years of your missionary life may 
prove an eventual fatal barrier to mutual sym- 
pathetic understanding, and the establishment of 
that barrier has been one of the difficulties which 
has not been much spoken of by those with whom 
you have conversed, though they have doubtless 
been keenly conscious of it themselves. 

We returned to Hwochow. The house was ready 
for us, and so were the Chiu-ch members. " New 
people," said some, " we are unaccustomed to 
each other; they do not understand our circum- 
stances, and we do not know them." 

" Why did they spend months in another district 
instead of coming at once to make themselves 
acquainted with us, our affairs, and our homes ? " 
" It is a case of clear neglect," said another. 
"I have been a Church member for fifteen years, 
and all the notice they have taken of me is to spend 
one paltry day in my home, whereas they were 
three whole days in the village of Peace and Har- 
mony, where there are only heathen and not a 
Christian to receive them. "I," complained 



A MILITANT CHURCH MEMBER 49 

another, " have been unable to attend Church 
service for two weeks, and neither of them has 
been near, as yet, to inquire the cause of my 
absence." 

" Well," chimed in an old gentleman, who by 
reason of his seniority in the Church carried a good 
deal of weight, " had our beloved teacher of former 
days been here, our homes would have been visited, 
and I will take the first opportunity of telling 
them my mind on the subject." 

The close of the following Sunday morning 
service found us sad enough. The congregation 
numbered thirty, and while some were loyally 
ready to help, there was a section of malcontents 
who since the early days had been a source of 
difficulty to Pastor Hsi and his friends, and from 
whom, in the light of past knowledge. Miss French 
knew that trouble would come. 

The first indication of the brewing storm was 
the entrance to our guest-room of an aged Church 
member who, by reason of his rank as military 
mandarin, was one of the glories of the Hwochow 
Church. Vigorous and stalwart, his seventy years 
sat lightly on him, his bearing and the play of 
his facial muscles affording proof of the brilliancy 
with which he had passed the necessary examina- 
tions for the obtaining of his degree. Unlike the 
civil mandarin, whose examinations require such 
arduous study of classical writings, the military 
honour was conferred as a reward for physical 
prowess. The competitor was required to exhibit 
great skill in archery, shooting at the target from 
the back of a galloping horse, and to lift stones of 
immense weight ; meanwhile throwing the body 
4 



50 OUR RECEPTION AT HWOCHOW 

into such postures as, coupled with a terrifying 
expression of the countenance and accompanied 
by blood-curdling yells, would strike such terror 
into the heart of the opponent that he would flee 
without striking a blow. 

After such training he had little to fear, and 
felt, no doubt, that a few moments' interview 
would be sufficient to reduce two young women 
to reason, and place matters on a more satis- 
factory basis. 

When the old gentleman entered, we invited 
him to the seat of honour, ourselves taking chairs 
at the lower side of the table. He asked for an 
explanation. Had he been informed correctly 
that we had been appointed to carry on the work 
in Hwochow? "Yes," we replied, "that is the 
case, and also to help the women in the counties 
of Chaocheng, Hungtung, and Fensi, until such 
time as lady workers shall be in residence there ; 
moreover, our schools are to be for the women 
and girls of these counties as well as Hwochow." 

This item of information fell as a severe blow. 
Hwochow is a curious district, its natives physically 
and mentally being of a totally different type to 
all around, in all relationships with whom there 
exists mutual distrust and suspicion. It was 
odious to men and women of this exclusive type 
to hear that the foreigner, in coming, viewed the 
nurturing of a small band of discontents as of very 
secondary importance to the opportunity of spread- 
ing the news of the Gospel far and wide amongst 
the heathen. It was at this point of the conversa- 
tion that the fu*st traces of that terror-striking 
expression began to flit across his features, and 



A DETERMINED STAND 51 

his eyebrows gathered themselves into a most 
terrifying bunch. "Are you aware that I have 
been a Christian for twelve years, and that I am 
known far and wide by Chinese and foreigners 
alike ? " "I am fully aware of it," said Miss 
French, and might have added, " known and 
dreaded of all men." 

" Should not the missionaries' conduct be regu- 
lated in accordance with the command, ' Seek the 
lost until it be found ' ? " " It should," acquiesced 
Miss French. " Then are you aware that during 
the past three months we have been as sheep with- 
out a shepherd, left a prey to wolves, with no one 
to care for us, our homes have been unvisited, and 
members who have absented themselves from 
Church service have had no inquiries made as to 
the cause of their non-appearance ? " 

" Did you say twelve years a Church member ? " 
inquired Miss French. " Nearly thirteen," he 
replied. " Then no longer a babe in Christ, but 
yourself able to seek the lost, and to come to our 
assistance as we take up the responsibilities of 
our new work. We have come here," she added, 
" for the people who need us, whether Chaocheng 
or Hwochow." 

" Then go to Chaocheng and leave us alone ; 
our missionaries must shepherd our Church." At 
this point wrath overcame him, and throwing 
himself into the classical position of the Chinese 
brave, " A couple of youngsters," he yelled, " un- 
taught in the wisdom of Confucius." With 
these words he flung himself out of the room. 
His spirit was too much perturbed to call to mind 
the wisdom of the sage, " In archery we have 



52 OUR RECEPTION AT HWOCHOW 

something like the way of the superior man. When 
the archer misses the centre of the target, he turns 
round and seeks for the cause of his failure in 
himself." 

The loud clanging of a gong was shortly heard, 
and the tones of a well-known voice alternately 
carolling forth a familiar hymn with a recital of 
the wrongs needing redress. 

" The Gospel way is the best of all, hark ! I loud proclaim 
the same." 

(Loud beating of the gong.) " Call that love ! 
I vow to report them at headquarters ! '* 

" Heaven's joy bestowed on earth, saves poor sinners and 
sets them free." 

(Again the gong.) " Much they care for our 
souls 1 Let them go to Chaocheng ! " 

The sounds gradually ceased, as those who were 
truly grieved that we should be thus insulted 
pacified the old gentleman, begging him to have 
a care for his aged body, and refresh it with food 
and rest. 

Miss French's mind was made up. " We shall 
soon make another tour of villages outside this 
district," she said, " and it shall be a long one. 
These old members have stood in the way long 
enough. New converts will join themselves to the 
Church ; if they be welcomed, all the better, if 
not, the old ones must go ; we can allow them to 
hinder no longer." 

Miss French's method was fully justified, for 
when they saw new adherents keen with the flush 
of first love and enthusiasm they, with very few 



GOODWILL ESTABLISHED 53 

exceptions, awakened more fully to their responsi- 
bilities. 

Time heals many wounds, and when we returned 
from England our old friend, the military mandarin, 
came in full official dress to welcome us. 

" Good to have you back," he said ; "we are 
accustomed to each other, and you know how to 
manage this place 1 " 



A PORTRAIT GALLERY 



ss 



"We must be as courteous to a man as we are to a 
picture, which we are willing to give the advantage of a 
good light." — Emerson. 

" He asked them to come with Him, and they came ; 
and Jesus did not begin by raising questions in their minds 
as to whether they were worthy to come. It was the 
purpose of Jesus to make them worthy to stay. Now 
the Church of Christ ought to be as hospitable as Christ 
was. I do not see for what other purpose she exists. 
And the Church ought to be as confident and beUeving 
as Christ was, that many a one whom it may be was 
unworthy to enter has at length become worthy to remain." 
— Dr. John Hutton. 



CHAPTER VII 

A PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Wherein the Reader is introduced to some 
OF OUR Fellow Workers 

IN meeting the members of an infant and 
unsophisticated Church, it is dehghtful to 
observe the directness of their spiritual character- 
istics, unfettered by the artificiality which grows 
up with theological phraseology and the adoption 
of sectarian conventionalities. 

So strongly individualistic a band of men met us 
at Hwochow, that Christian himself on his Heaven- 
ward journey encountered, I think, no more varied 
a company, nor more striking, in the various 
ways in which Christ had met them and called 
them to discipleship, and turned their strongly- 
marked characteristics into the way of His 
service. 

Evangelist, Fu by name, keen and even fierce 
in his determination to compel men to hear the 
truth concerning the City of Destruction and the 
burden of sin which rests upon them, would go 
from place to place with a bundle of books, preach- 
ing and warning sinners " to flee from the wrath 
to come." He asked no remuneration from the 
Church or foreigner for the time he gave, but 



58 A PORTRAIT GALLERY 

realising that necessity was laid upon him, he 
pointed men to the Saviour. His best work was 
done alone for he was easily offended, but, true 
and straight, he ruled his house in the fear of the 
Lord. 

His conversion was characteristic of the man. 
Having business to transact in the small city of 
Great Peace, he found that large crowds had 
gathered to listen to a man proclaiming strange 
doctrines. Every one knew why Pastor Hsi, for 
it was he, had come that day to the city. A 
family had professed their willingness to destroy 
idols, and asked him to be present on the occasion. 
When the Pastor arrived, however, the man had 
changed his mind, and fear of consequences had 
proved too much for him. Nothing could hinder 
the Pastor from preaching the Good News, and 
he made much of this opportunity. When he 
had finished speaking, Mr. Fu went to him and 
asked him what was this new doctrine, and Mr. 
Hsi told him the story of the harden of Eden, 
and the Fall of man. 

" In Adam all have sinned, and in Christ all 
can be forgiven." It was a strange story, and 
yet as Fu listened he felt it was true, and as he 
took the long, lonely walk over the mountains to 
his home, he meditated much upon it. He had 
not as yet seen the wicket -gate, but he had seen 
the direction in which it lay, and a subconscious 
desire was in his heart to know more. 

Home affairs claimed his attention, and he had 
no time to give to the further investigation of 
new religions ; and yet the seed which had been 
sown was gradually germinating, so that when 



MR. FU 59 

after a few months he found himself again near 
Great Peace, in a small place where was an opium 
refuge, Mr. Fu went in to see the man who was 
in charge. Although he had never smoked opium 
himself, Mr. Fu was on this occasion in possession 
of some of the crude drug, and was on his way 
to the hills to sell it, and hoped by the transaction 
to profit considerably. The Refuge-keeper, seeing 
he was interested, asked him to share his evening 
meal, and when he found out the errand on which 
his guest was bent, he told him to sell the opium 
he had and avoid any further dealings with so 
deadly a poison. Mr. Fu was deeply touched by 
the kindness of this man. " I have no claim 
upon him, and yet he treated me as a brother," 
was his reflection. From that day Mr. Fu never 
sold opium again. 

He started on his homeward journey, and once 
more as he walked the lonely roads he was con- 
scious of the constraining presence of One who 
has so often met with men as they travel, 
walking through the fields, and inviting them 
to leave all and follow Him. Thus untram- 
melled by the words and requirements of men, 
Mr. Fu met with his iod ; but still questioning, 
he reached home to find that his wife was 
dangerously ill. He went at once to a neigh- 
bouring village to fetch a doctor, and found him 
unwilling to come until he had taken a dose of 
opium which was then due. Finding that all per- 
suasion was useless, Mr. Fu suddenly decided to 
go to Hwochow and see if the foreign missionaries, 
or the Opium Refuge -keeper there, had any 
medicine. He walked the twelve miles, and was 



6b A PORTRAIT GALLERY 

directed to the missionaries' house. The decision 
to go to Hwochow was made suddenly, not so the 
resolution to enter the open door of the house. 
Perhaps he had been wrong after all I It was 
serious to so openly come in contact with foreigners 1 
It might be that the stories he had heard of their 
magical powers were correct ! And yet his heart 
had borne him witness, in that lonely walk, that 
what he heard in Great Peace was true. 

After walking up and down for some time, 
unconscious that Goodwill was watching him 
from within, he heard some one call and ask him 
to come in. The call came at the right moment 
and he entered, knowing as he did so that a definite 
step was being taken and life would never be for 
him the same again. 

" My wife is ill, and I have come to ask for 
medicine," he said. After some talk he was 
taken to see Miss Jacobsen, who told him that 
God could, and would, heal sickness in answer 
to prayer. She and the evangelist prayed with 
him, gave him medicine, some books, and made 
him promise to come again. He left them, saying 
that he would do so. Again the long, lonely walk 
had to be faced, and Beelzebub gave orders that 
arrows should be shot at him, and all manner of 
doubts took possession of his soul. " I must go 
again, for I have given my word," he reflected. 
*' What folly ! " and then again the words which 
he could not doubt reasserted themselves, and he 
considered, yielded, and believed. 

As he entered his courtyard, he saw his wife 
grinding corn ! " I am well," she said. " And 
I," he said, " have believed in Jesus." To his 



MR. GING 6i 

surprise, not one word of anger escaped her lips. 
** I am glad," was her only comment. 

There was no time to be lost ; if he delayed, 
others might hinder him, and before his evening 
meal he tore down the idols, and together husband 
and wife prayed to God. 

Fu was the youngest of four brothers, and the 
three other families were not of the same mind ; 
he was unceasing in his efforts to bring them to 
the Saviour, but at the Chinese New Year festival 
they, as custom required, burnt incense to the 
idols. 

Serious illness seized upon various members of 
all three families, and their liv6s were in danger. 
Fu, seeing his opportunity, offered to go to the 
city and ask the evangelist to come and pray for 
them, and to this they consented. When Mr. 
Fu returned, he was accompanied by Mr. Cheng, 
and in response to his exhortations their idols 
were destroyed and the three brothers professed 
their willingness to become disciples. That place 
has been signally blessed of God. All have given 
liberally of their substance to the work of the 
Lord, and they have now their own church, a 
cave cut from the loess cliffs by their own hands, 
where Sunday by Sunday men and women gather 
from the neighbouring villages to hear the word 
of God, and many have been added to the Church 
as a result. 

Mr. Ging, little of stature, so short-sighted as 
to be almost blind, had recently been a patient 
in the Opium Refuge. A scholar of note, holding 
a high degree, we first knew him when he was 



62 A PORTRAIT GALLERY 

about forty years of age, and the only Christian 
in his village. He was more than any Chinaman 
I have met impregnated with the teachings of 
Confucius ; and filial piety was for him no mere 
doctrine of words, but a ruling factor in his life. 

Shortly before the time of which I write, he had, 
one day, given some cause of offence to his aged 
mother, in consequence of which she commanded 
that, in recognition of his fault, he should kneel 
on the ground before her until such time as she 
should see fit to excuse him. 

For half a day she kept him in that position, 
and he knelt quietly, giving to all an example and 
illustration of the sacred duty of son to parent 
as taught in the Chinese Classics, and as under- 
stood by those who earnestly follow their teachings. 

By virtue of his learning and position, no 
matter of importance would be settled in the 
village without him, and he enjoyed great respect 
as a teacher of the young, notwithstanding the 
fact that he was handicapped in his work as school- 
master by reason of his defective eyesight, the 
boys taking full advantage of his disability and 
failing to appreciate as they should the virtue 
of the " Princely Man " of whom they read so 
much in their classical studies, and of whom they 
daily witnessed so striking an example. 

For some of these pupils of his, examination- 
day dawned, and the results were disastrous. 
The consequences of much undetected mischief 
were now made clear in the light of day, and the 
indignant examining missionary called upon Mr. 
Ging to aid in devising a punishment adequate to 
the circumstances. "Is it by extra imposed 



MR. LAN 6$ 

work, or by the public disgrace of the rod, that 
their misdeeds will be made most heinous in their 
own eyes ? " he was asked, the remarks being 
accompanied by a look which could not fail to 
assure the trembling band of offenders that the 
method of Solomon met with unqualified ap- 
proval. " I think," replied Mr. Ging, " that the 
case does not call so much for punishment as for 
exercise of greater patience on our side ! ! ! " 
This answer was to the unbounded delight of the 
scholars, and discomfiture of the missionary. 

It was in his own village and home that he 
shone. Before many years had passed, the people 
who were formerly unwilling to receive us had 
many of them become Christians. One of their 
number had lent his room, rent free for ten years, 
as a meeting-place for worship, and a good work 
had begun. If you spoke to them of the cause of 
this change, they would tell you of Mr. Ging and 
the force of his example, and how even his old 
mother had, before her death, renounced idolatry 
and asked for a Christian funeral. 

What can I say of Mr. Lan ? One is tempted 
to question, " How shall the superficial enter into 
the Kingdom of God ? " 

One of the aristocratic families, no longer 
enjoying the prosperity of former days, yet en- 
deavouring to impress upon all its grandeur whilst 
inevitably sinking, gave us Mi. Lan. 

Contact with Pastor Hsi had been the turning- 
point in his life, and from the early days he gave 
himself assiduously to the study of the Bible. 
Few have more accur^t^ knowledge of the Scrip- 



64 A PORTRAIT GALLERY 

ture than he, his addresses are well and carefully 
prepared, and he has been the means under God 
of leading many men to a knowledge of the 
Saviour. His kind disposition and good-nature 
have given him many friends, but love of money 
and appearances have crippled his usefulness. 
Any Christian work he now does is independent 
of the missionaries, and he will sometimes be 
invited to the official's residence to help some 
one to leave the opium habit, he and his father 
before him having been doctors of no small re- 
pute. He is constantly in debt, and will often 
remain away from his home during the Chinese 
New Year when debts are settled, but when he 
does return, he enters the house with such per- 
fect manners, and is attired in such gorgeous 
silk, that few would venture to mention anything 
so unpleasant as the settlement of a debt. 

Easily led, he loves the glories of this present 
world and is fearful lest, by too great zeal, the 
rulers of Vanity Fair may regard him as a stranger 
and outcast. And yet, in his high moments, he 
finds himself longing for the things that abide, 
and his affections and desires are for the time 
being upon these, but as a morning cloud they 
pass. In other lands, where the line of demarca- 
tion is less clear, he might be considered a good 
Churchman, but neutral tints are rare here, and 
a man must clearly show on which side he stands 
or he will get the benefit of neither. 

He is ever faithfully served by his dependant 
and sycophant, Mr. Diao, who is a weak, physically 
decadent man who can neither offend by word 
nor deed the man from whom he has had so much, 



MR. TU 65 

His manner is too servile to allow one to place 
much confidence in him, but he is a believer, and 
proves by many actions that he is truly following 
Christ. If only he could get free from the net of 
the rich man, and yet — what Church has not 
such members ! 

]VIr. Tu, weak, good, always trusting the Heavenly 
Father to supply his needs, temporal and spiritual, 
and ever ready to bear witness that He has done 
so, in spite of the fact that life's outlook is always 
grey ! Very poor, he was the leader in his village 
by virtue of his sincerity. Is some aggressive 
movement proposed ? " The time has not yet 
come," is his ever-ready answer. Do the crops 
seem to fail for lack of rain, and the farmers, 
anxious and worried, speak of the famine con- 
fronting them, and him ? " Fear not, the Lord 
will provide," he will say, and though he may 
have to eat the coarsest flour, and little of that 
sometimes, he never doubts, and never rejoices ! I 

On the occasion of the marriage of his son, even 
a short time before the bride arrived, nothing was 
ready — he had so little — and all he said was : 
" We must wait and see how the Heavenly Father 
will provide." When the moment came every 
one was ready to help him, and he would be a 
discontent indeed who was dissatisfied with the 
result. Mr. Tu was full of praise to God for His 
goodness, and will quote the incident to those 
who may have doubts. 

I have reflected much upon Mr. Tu and his 
ways, and I am reminded of the ravens, " who 
sow not nor gather into barns," and our Heavenly 
5 



66 A PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Father cares for them; and I come to the con- 
clusion that to us is granted on rare occasions 
the privilege of being the medium by which our 
Father will prove His care to the weak, yet trustful 
souls. Good, faithful old Tu, he could teach many 
of us of the active, energetic temperament a lesson ; 
for he will tell you, and truly, that he has no 
strength, yet he has never asked from man, and 
he has perfect confidence that the Good Shepherd 
will lead him safe to the journey's end. 



WORK DEVELOPMENT 



"No Church is fulfilling its responsibilities to God, or 
preparing itself for its best and most effective work, which 
does not regard itself in some respects as a great Training 
School for Christian workers." — Rev. A. Swift. 

"And He gave — 
Some indeed to be apostles. 
And some prophets. 
And some evangelists. 
And some shepherds and teachers, — 
With a view to the fitting of the saints 
For the work of ministering. 
For an upbuilding of the body of the Christ." 
The Letter of Paul to the Ephesians. 



CHAPTER VIII 

WORK DEVELOPMENT 

Relating how we sought to encompass the 
Work, and the Work encompassed us 

THE events of 1900 resulted in an extra- 
ordinary quickening of interest amongst 
those who had a contact of some kind with 
Christianity. We very soon found ourselves quite 
overwhelmed by the many openings and oppor- 
tunities which presented themselves on all sides. 
Hitherto untouched villages begged for a visit, 
idols were destroyed by those into whose homes 
we had never penetrated, leaders in the Church 
were begging us to devise some means by which 
the women might be taught, fathers were prepared 
for any sacrifice so that their daughters might 
be received as scholars. 

For some time, at vast expenditure of strength, 
we attempted by travelling in different directions 
to spend, at any rate, one or two days in the 
various centres we were begged to visit. Each 
month we became more strongly impressed with 
the fact that the work of evangelisation was 
being carried on with tremendous aggressive 
force, not by us, but by the native Church, we 
being unable to even follow up the openings made 
by them. 

«9 



70 WORK DEVELOPMENT 

Such a mass movement afforded an unparalleled 
opportunity, provided sufficient teaching were 
given to establish and build up in the faith those 
who believed ; but if left to itself, this large 
numerical increase might prove a serious menace 
to the spiritual life of the Church. We had to 
seriously consider our ways. Should we con- 
tribute our small part to the widespread preaching 
of the Gospel and visiting of those who had 
already heard through the Chinese evangelising 
agencies, or should we leave to the Chinese 
Church the responsibility of propagating itself, 
reserving ourselves to " preparing saints for the 
work of ministering " ? 

Chinese Christians going from place to place 
spread the Good Tidings more effectually than 
we could hope to do, and where such conditions 
exist, it is surely an indication that the people 
of the land should hear the Gospel first from 
the lips of their own countrymen. Moreover, the 
Government was seriously considering the establish- 
ment of girls' schools, and we had to decide as 
to whether the work amongst the young should 
be an unimportant branch of our scheme of 
missionary activities, or whether our schools 
should be established with the object of becoming 
training-centres for Christian helpers. 

We were faced with this fact : unless we trained 
some Christian teachers, the education of the 
young would be in the hands of heathen ; no 
small matter when the exalted position of the 
teacher in China is borne in mind ; and the, if 
possible, more urgent fact, that unless we seriously 
prepared some Chinese missionaries we should 



AN INTENSIVE POLICY 71 

go from year to year, decade to decade, with no 
trained Chinese staff. The material was there, 
and the Chinese Church was supplying young 
men and women, earnest devoted servants of 
Jesus Christ, who, given the training and granted 
the blessing of God, could do a work which it 
would be impossible for the most earnest Westerner 
to accomplish. Chinese of the Chinese, with 
neither linguistic nor climatic difficulties, under- 
standing the minds of the most subtle of people, 
they enter their work with a flying leap which 
we may envy, but cannot attain. The Holy 
Spirit will deal with them as He does with us, 
and recognising them as fellow-workers together 
with God, we shall cease to hinder them by 
perpetual criticism and doubt. Faults they will 
have, as we, and while of a different order, who 
shall say that these failings make them in God's 
sight more unfit for the work of preaching the 
Gk)spel than ours have made us ? 

We therefore accepted the form of ministry 
which pressed with strongest necessity on us, 
and from the free and irresponsible life of the 
itinerant missionary, accepted the calling of 
teachers, and allowed ourselves to be tied to 
the numberless claims and responsibilities of in- 
stitutional life. In addition to the girls' school, 
a plan was formed whereby we agreed to accept 
married women for terms of varying length — 
twenty to thirty days — as far as possible classify- 
ing them according to ability and previous know- 
ledge. The teaching was graded from the first 
elements of Christian doctrine to fairly advanced 
New Testament classes. From amongst the first 



72 WORK DEVELOPMENT 

groups of women who came to us, it was evident 
that some were capable of receiving a far more 
advanced training,' and the zeal they exhibited 
in teaching the little they knew on their return 
home, promised well for future usefulness.' Two 
small rooms in our own living-court supplied the 
only accommodation for these station classes, 
and as each group scattered it was almost im- 
mediately replaced by other eager inquirers. [^ p^ 
A small inner court containing two good rooms 
was set apart for the use of the girls' school. 
Every term brought an increase in the numbers, 
and it was soon evident that more suitable 
accommodation was essential if we were to meet 
the growing need. Though we knew it not, the 
necessary provision was already made. We sat 
together one evening in a shady spot adjoining 
our premises, sharing our home letters ; we 
opened one to find it contained a cheque from 
a friend who could know nothing of our need, 
marked: "For use in any necessary buildings." 
The very spot on which we sat, later on proved 
to be the site of the John Holt Skinner Memorial 
Court in the new school buildings. By the next 
term Chinese rooms, providing for the accom- 
modation of sixty, were erected; the old school- 
court was given over to women's station classes, 
and we saw scope for the realisation of our wildest 
dreams. The work amongst the men was in- 
creasing in a similar proportion. Mr. Wang, who 
was in charge when we arrived at Hwochow, was 
now appointed Deacon of the Church, and after- 
wards Elder. We soon recognised in him a man 
of no ordinary influence. Like Barnabas, he 



A TRAINING CENTRE ESTABLISHED 73 

was " a good man filled with the Holy Spirit," 
and like him might well be called the " Son of 
Consolation." 

The large numbers who were baptized upon 
profession of faith each year entailed many 
responsibilities — new families to be visited, more 
visitors to be received, marriages and funerals 
to be attended. Cases of persecution, real or 
supposed, called for many hours of patient 
listening, and, withal, the constant stream of city 
women who desired to inspect all that was going 
on, parents to see children in the school, friends 
and relatives of opium patients, who lost no 
chance of visiting the member of the family under 
treatment, changed the once quiet house into a 
beehive of activity. 

In many Shansi houses there is a large, well- 
built room, open to north and south, which is 
set apart for the observance of the prescribed 
family rites connected with ancestral worship. 
Here are the wooden ancestral tablets, image of 
the soul and tangible symbol, erected to the 
memory of the deceased, affording thereby a 
fixed object for filial piety. This room on our 
compound was dedicated as a church for public 
worship ; enlarged once, and again the second 
time, it still proved too small for our growing 
congregation. 

The strain attendant on such a rapid develop- 
ment was severe, but each year found us supplied 
with increasingly able help from our Chinese 
co-workers. We found ourselves driven to the 
practical testing of the principle : " When the 
pressure of the work is too heavy, then extend the 



74 WORK DEVELOPMENT 

work," and we found it to be sound and workable. 
Each term some extra responsibility was thrown 
off on to the shoulders of willing helpers, that 
we ourselves might be free to undertake fresh 
enterprises. 



MRS. HSI'S SECOND GIFT 



" It is Jesus who has introduced into virtue a passion 
before which vice is not condemned but consumed as by 
fire." — Rev. Carnegie Simpson. 

" Round the cape of a sudden came the sea, 
And the sun looked over the mountain's rim: 
And straight was a path of gold for him, 
And the need of a world of men for me." 

Robert Browning. 



CHAPTER IX 

MRS. HSI'S SECOND GIFT 

Being an Account of her Life from 
Widowhood 

ONE direct result of the lack of foreign 
workers was the appointment of Mrs. 
Hsi to the oversight of the women's work in 
Chaocheng. During her husband's lifetime she 
had been eager to learn all she could, and had 
with difficulty mastered some of the Chinese 
characters. She often expressed to him her desire 
to learn more, but he told her to remember that 
the need for her to attend to the domestic side 
of the large establishment at the Middle Eden 
was essential, and her life until his death was 
largely a busy domestic one. 

Not entirely, however, was this the case. When 
it became necessary to open a Refuge for Women 
in the city of Hungtung, it was to his wife that 
the Pastor looked for help, and she, there and in 
other places, did a truly Christlike work. It was 
in the city of Hsugo that she accomplished her 
most difficult task. It seemed as if the devil 
had a special power there, and Pastor Hsi was 
almost in despair. Man after man, amongst 
them some of his most trusted helpers, fell into 



78 MRS. HSrS SECOND GIFT 

sin, or were overcome by difficulties in that 
place. 

How to hold it at all was a problem. He solved 
it by sending his wife, and alone she went to live 
six days' journey from the place where he was, 
and for the first time the work in Hsugo was 
successful. 

Almost immediately after her return home, 
Pastor Hsi developed the illness from which he 
never recovered. He was at work on some Refuge 
accounts when he felt unwell, and his spirit became 
conscious that the messenger had come with a 
command " that he must prepare for a change 
of life, for his Master was not willing that he 
should be so far from Him any longer." 

For nearly six months he lingered still, making 
preparations for the journey ahead ; he gave 
directions for the temporary closing of the Refuges, 
recognising, doubtless, that the time while he was 
still on earth, but unable to exercise control, might 
be an even more perilous period than that which 
would follow his death. Mrs. Hsi herself fell ill, and 
so seriously that her life was at one time despaired 
of. She was barely able to stand the fatigue of 
the public funeral to which hundreds gathered, 
yielding to their grief and sobbing as children who 
had lost a parent. She herself was bowed with 
sorrow, for they had been truly one in God's 
service, but strength was sent to her through a 
dream in which she saw her husband, in glory 
beyond her imagining, and with him the boy who 
had been their only son and had died in childhood. 
When she desired to join them he rebuked her, 
saying : " Nay, but you must return " ; and 



DAYS OF TRIAL 79 

obedient, she turned her back on the heavenly 
glory and faced " the need of a world " of sin. 

Mrs. Hsi was now to realise to the full the un- 
fortunate position of a childless widow. According 
to the custom of the country, the nearest male 
relative on her husband's side should have been 
her protector, but this duty devolved on a nephew 
who was an opium smoker, gambler, and unre- 
generate heathen, and what should have been 
protection took the form of persecution. 

Elder Si, her brother-in-law, took over the 
control of the opium refuges and the preparation 
of the medicine used. Days of prayer and fasting 
always preceded the compounding of the drugs 
which were prepared in Pastor Hsi's own home, 
and sent out in the form of pills. It was in con- 
nection with the medicine that Mrs. Hsi's first 
difficulties occurred. Large quantities of the 
various ingredients were stored at Middle Eden, 
and the said nephew claimed possession of this 
stock, declaring his intention of defending his 
rights by stabbing any one who dared to touch it. 

The time came when the drugs were required, 
and arrangements were quietly made for the 
removal of the material to the home of Elder Si. 
Before touching the goods, Mrs. Hsi called the 
young man to her, and addressing him by name 
told him to fetch his knife, as she intended to 
carry out her husband's wishes and supply the 
Refuges with the necessary medicine without 
delay. Abashed, and half-ashamed by her self- 
confidence and dignity, he muttered excuses and 
left her presence with an apology. 

Nevertheless, it required all her wits and most 



8o MRS. HSrS SECOND GIFT 

of her time to prevent this ne'er-do-weel from 
robbing her of all she possessed. Opium he would 
eat, his gambling habits were strong, and how 
could she prevent him from stealing that which, 
as one of the family, he could partially claim as 
his own ? The problem weighed upon her mind 
and she decided that division of the land, each 
taking half the produce of the farm, was the only 
solution. Even so she was not safe ; there is a 
Chinese proverb which says : " It is hard to deal 
with a thief who is one of the family," and she 
proved it to be true. If she left home for a few 
days she would return to find her door broken 
open, her clothes stolen, and her grain visibly 
less. Although the Chinese law would offer her 
redress, she, by reason of Christian principle and 
the example of her husband, never appealed for 
help to an earthly tribunal, but daily prayed : 
" Lord, have mercy on him, and change his heart." 
In the early days of her faith, Mrs. Hsi had 
earnestly desired to unbind her feet as witness 
that she was a Christian, but her husband, fearful 
lest any should be misled to regard Christianity 
as conformity to foreign customs rather than to 
a change of heart, was strongly opposed to her 
doing so. He strictly forbade the binding of 
children's feet, but saw no need for outward 
change of shoe in the foot already disfigured. 
During his lifetime she yielded to his wish, but 
after his death refused to let her mature judgment 
be held in abeyance by the dead hand of the 
past, and did that which she felt was a testimony 
to many of her weaker sisters. She unbound her 
feet and adopted a normal shoe and sock, and 



THE SACRIFICE OF HOME 8i 

many who had made her supposed attitude on 
the question an excuse, now followed her example. 

In order to give the Gospel to Hwochow Mrs. Hsi 
had parted with the most valuable of her worldly 
goods, and when the call came for the second 
great renunciation in response to the need for 
a woman worker in Chaocheng, she was ready 
to move into that city, knowing as she did so, 
that by leaving the family home she would finally 
close the way of return. She well knew that no 
seal on the door would prevent her nephew from 
stealing her goods, and her worst fears were 
realised when, a few years later, on the occasion 
of the erection of a memorial stone to Pastor 
Hsi, she revisited what had once been Middle 
Eden. All was gone, and she was thankful to 
hurry away and leave the scene that could only 
cause her pain. 

On entering her new sphere of work, the mis- 
sionaries at Hwochow assured her that all the love 
and sympathy which she had promised Mr. Taylor 
years before should be given to the first ladies who 
came to that city, was now to be bestowed on her. 
The loyal affection of the Chinese Church was hers, 
for she is regarded by them with an admiration 
and reverence which they consider the right of so 
worthy a woman. She knew that she could count 
upon a welcome, but it was a costly step. 

City and village visiting, weekly classes for 
inquirers, and a Women's Opium Refuge occupy 
Mrs. Hsi's time in Chaocheng. A sentence easy 
to write, but only He to Whom the offering is 
made can know the cost at which ladies, with the 
refinements of their class, give themselves to the 
6 



82 MRS. HSrS SECOND GJVI 

Christlike work of rescuing the opium sots who 
find their way to the Refuge. Women of the 
lowest moral type at times appear, dirty, coarse, 
and repulsive, and yet gladly and graciously they 
are received. The lady in charge will sleep with 
them in order to comfort and pray with them 
during the night watches, and no service is too 
menial for these saintly women to render. The 
impression made is never forgotten by those to 
whom they minister ; and even if they return again 
to the ways of sin, the vision of that gentle lady 
with her kind heart will remain, a reflection, faint 
it may be, yet a reflection of the love of God, ever 
ready to welcome the wanderer from the far 
country. 




A WOMAN OPIUM SMOKER. 



To face page &. 



THE STORY OF AN OPIUM SMOKER 



83 



--' I know that, because of this money-grasping, trade- 
compeUing feature of England's dealings with my country, 
millions of wretched people of China have been made more 
miserable ; stalwart men and women have been made 
paupers, vagrants, and the lowest of criminals ; and 
hundreds of thousands of the weaker ones of my race — 
mainly among the women — have been sent to suicide 
graves. All this because gold and territory are greater 
in the eyes of the British Government, than the rights and 
bodies of a weak people.!' — H. E. Li Hung-chang. 

-- O my brothers and all my friends. 
If you would hearken to good advice. 
Avoid the poppy juice for ever and aye. 
As it is a plague most noxious and vile ! 
It will eat out your minds. 
It will rot away your vitals. 
It win shrivel up your bowels. 
It will make you walk as a leper. 
It will cast you into prison. 
It will send you to your death ! " 

H. E. Li Hung-chang. 



CHAPTER X 

THE STORY OF AN OPIUM SMOKER 

THE first man to enter the Opium Refuge 
in Hwoehow, as patient, was named Fan 
of the village of Southern Springs. He came 
from a once wealthy clan, now reduced through 
opium smoking to comparative poverty. He 
had not yet reached the stage of positive want, 
but that condition is never far from the habitual 
heavy smoker, and should he continue a few years 
longer, beggary will be the ultimate fate of his 
wife and family. 

The temptation was at his very door, for all the 
best-watered land surrounding Southern Springs 
was given up to poppy cultivation. During the 
time when the plant was in flower, the village 
nestled amidst some hundreds of acres of exquisite 
iridescent bloom. The beauty was shortlived, 
even as the seeming prosperity of the grower, 
and but a few days later Southern Springs stood 
amidst bare brown fields of dry poppy heads, 
scarred by the cutter's knife, exuding in thick 
drops the poisonous juices — a striking picture in 
the eyes of all men of the fate awaiting the smoker, 
who, lulled by the insidious charm of the fascinating 
drug, would finally be the only one unable to see 
himself a hopeless, helpless, degraded wreck. 

8s 



86 THE STORY OF AN OPIUM SMOKER 

At the close of three weeks' treatment in the 
Refuge, Fan returned home a new creature, re- 
stored in body and mind, and with a heart renewed 
in hope. In his own immediate family were 
several members, victims as himself of the deadly 
drug, and amongst these was his nephew, adopted 
into the family on the footing of a son since death 
had robbed him of the last boy who might pay 
the filial sacrifice of tears and lamentations at his 
tomb. Moreover, his wife's keen intelligence and 
strong will were gradually being subjugated by 
a growing apathy, result of her secret habit. On 
these two Fan urged a plea to give the Refuge a 
trial, and his nephew, impressed by the evident 
good result in his uncle's case and the assurance 
that the treatment had induced very slight suffer- 
ing, pronounced himself willing to try the ex- 
periment ; his wife, on the other hand, repudiated 
with scorn any such suggestion. Another few 
weeks saw the young man return to Southern 
Springs loud in praise of all he had seen and heard 
in Hwochow. He recounted all his experiences, 
every detail of the treatment, the number of pills 
swallowed, and the care with which the strength 
of the pills was graded from the powerful " Pill of 
life " to the lesser " Pill of strength " and the 
final " Pill of restoration." 

He also knew by heart a number of verses 
from the New Testament, and could sing hymns 
written by Pastor Hsi on the subjects of salvation 
and the sin of opium smoking, several of which 
numbered twelve verses in length. 

All this caused much stir in the village, and 
became the general subject of conversation when 



THE REFUGE INFLUENCE Zy 

the men were home from the fields, during the 
twilight hour devoted to social intercourse. He 
was referred to as a competent authority on all 
matters relating to the ways and habits of those 
" foreign devils " who went to and fro between 
the various stations which they had opened, and 
even penetrated into the villages amongst the 
homes of any who were rash enough to risk having 
them under their roof. 

Both uncle and nephew had secretly entirely 
changed their opinion concerning the foreigner 
and the Christian doctrine which he inculcated. 
Fear had given place to confidence, and one or 
other would frequently walk the four miles to 
Hwochow on a week day, or better still on Sunday, 
to sit an hour with the Refuge-keeper, whom it 
was hard indeed not to trust, and who always 
had some good matter to unfold and kind, earnest 
words with which to help a man in the hour when 
his old vice threatened to ensnare his soul afresh. 
Little sympathy was to be gained at home. Mrs. 
Fan still took opium, endangering her husband's 
and nephew's principles as they returned, weary 
from work, to a room reeking with the odour so 
attractive to them. 

She was a woman of no ordinary character, 
exceptionally intelligent, strong - minded and 
wilful, capable in every duty which falls to the 
woman's share in the home ; by nature hard 
working and ambitious, in physique of a pro- 
nounced Jewish type. Not easily led, and im- 
possible to drive, she flew into such a passion 
when her husband ventured to tell her that two 
lady missionaries had arrived, and were prepared 



88 THE STORY OF AN OPIUM SMOKER 

to receive women as patients in the Hwochow 
Refuge, and gave such rein to her tongue that 
he, poor man, was thankful to escape beyond 
earshot of her loud recriminations and curses. 

If his words were silenced we may believe that 
his actions were speaking louder and more effectu- 
ally, for influences stronger than the woman 
realised were even now at work, preparing to 
overturn all her preconceived prejudices and 
hatred of Christianity and its followers. 

The climax came more suddenly than could 
have been anticipated, revealing to herself and 
others the extraordinary change of viewpoint 
which had been silently working during weeks 
of apparently unchanged opposition. 

On returning from the fields one evening, Fan 
found his wife in an unusual state of activity, 
whilst the three little girls who constituted his 
family formed a tearful group on the kang. 
With characteristic abruptness Mrs. Fan delivered 
the information : "I am preparing to go to the 
city Opium Refuge." Scarcely able to credit her 
statement the husband stood aghast, and she 
explained :" It is no good, the children are taking 
it too." 

A terrible statement, yet true, for whereas she 
knew that she had often pacified the tiny baby's 
fretfulness by puffing a few whiffs of the smoke 
into its mouth, she had that day made the dis- 
covery that, as soon as she herself lay down to 
sleep off the effect of her dose, the two elder girls 
would seize on the opium pipe and share all they 
could get from it, so that already, unknown to 
herself, the craving was well developed in them. 



CHILDREN OPIUM SMOKERS 89 

To the Refuge they must all go, and the next 
evening saw a cart at the door into which were 
being stowed various bundles of clothing wrapped 
in blue-and-yellow cloths, each bundle having 
attached to it a small piece of scarlet cotton to 
ensure luck on the journey. Flour and millet 
for food, and other necessaries were piled up 
behind the cart, and the children were packed 
inside and told to keep quiet, for they were leav- 
ing at night to avoid the jeers of the villagers. 
The father sat upon the shafts, the mother cross- 
legged inside, and after an hour's drive the city 
gates were sighted, and soon the party was wel- 
comed at the Mission House. 

A very few days in the Refuge served to largely 
alter the tenor of Mrs. Fan's mind. The woman 
who took charge of her was a kind, confidence- 
inspiring body, with nothing of the " foreign 
devil " about her. She would hear no harm of 
the missionaries, and flatly denied that children 
were enticed on to the premises to be done 
to death by foul means, or that the foreigner's 
blue eye could see corpses in their coffins, or 
that magic incantations were used by means of 
which all who drank their tea must become their 
followers. 

All these questions and many others relating to 
the personal character of the strange beings 
were asked during the long night watches when 
sleep evades the opium patient, and the nurse 
helps to while away the dreary hours by satisfying 
her curiosity. Then at dawn the longed-for dose 
of medicine is administered, after a prayer that 
the " medicine may heal her body, and the blood 



90 THE STORY OF AN OPIUM SMOKER 

of Jesus cleanse her soul," and she may settle to 
a doze which daily becomes more natural and 
peaceful as the body returns to a normal con- 
dition of being. 

Mrs. Fan saw that much was introduced by 
the foreigner in the wake of Christianity which 
her alert mind recognised as being all to the 
advantage of women. Even the old Refuge-keeper 
could read a little, but she was quite dull and 
slow, whereas without much trouble Mrs. Fan 
herself could master quite a number of new 
characters every day, and a few hours had been 
enough for the initial lesson of reading the large 
print rhyme : 

-' There is but one true God, the Heavenly Father He, 
"Who feeds and clothes and pities me. 
The only Saviour, too, who can my sins forgive, 
I trust and hearken to His word, Jesus my Lord and 

Saviour. 
Jesus loves the sinner, Jesus pities me, 
He gave His life. He washed me clean, He verily hath 

loved me." 

It was quite evident that a certain amount of 
education lay within her own grasp, and quite 
unlimited possibilities were open to her three 
daughters. The sinfulness of binding up the 
feet of girls was touched upon, and a strong deter- 
mination took form in her mind that her girls 
should be among the first who would have natural 
feet in the neighbourhood, in spite of the lurking 
fear that all three might be left as old maids upon 
her hands if no man might be found bold enough 
to risk the disgrace of a wife with normal feet. 
A short length of white cotton material was pro- 



ElilANCIPATED LIVES 91 

cured, and the three little ones were soon free of 
compressing bandages, each wearing a pair of 
calico socks and little red-and-yellow shoes, orna- 
mented on the toe with a grinning, whiskered, 
tiger's face. 

These girls were all destined to lives of signal 
usefulness in the Church. Two of them labour 
still as teachers and evangelists among their 
own people ; the third was early prepared by 
intense suffering and deep wrongs to be removed 
by death to the realm where the " wicked cease 
from troubling and the weary are at rest." 



THE GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT 
SOUL 



93 



-- Happy the pure in heart, for they shall see God." 

-■ A white bird, she told him once, looking at him gravely. 
A bird which he must carry in his bosom across a crowded 
public place — his own soul was Uke that ! 

-- Would it reach the hands of his good genius on the 
opposite side, unruffled and unsoiled ? " — Walter Pater, 

-' To radiate the heat of the affections into a clod, which 
absorbs all that is poured into it, but never warms beneath 
the sunshine of smiles or the pressure of hand or Up — ^this 
is the great martyrdom of sensitive beings — most of all 
in that perpetual auto-da-fS where young womanhood is 
the sacrifice." — O. W. Holmes. 



94 



CHAPTER XI 

THE GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT 
SOUL 

Being the Story of Ai Do 

MRS. FAN'S second daughter came into 
the world under the shadow of sorrow, 
for apart from the fact that she was a girl, whereas 
a boy had been ardently desired, her first lusty 
yells revealed the fact that she was born with a 
tooth visible. This was well known by every 
woman in the village to indicate antagonism to 
her mother's life, and disaster would surely ensue 
were she not promptly drowned or thrown out 
to perish by the riverside. 

Her fate seemed sealed, but that a woman 
seeing what a dear little baby she was, was moved 
with pity, and declared herself willing to take 
the responsibility of asserting that the child was 
hers in order that the demons which were order- 
ing these events might be deceived, and thus 
her real mother would escape the fate which 
threatened her life, if the baby were not killed. 

An incredible amount of ingenuity is expended 
in China on deceptions practised to mislead the 
gwei or demon, whose influence you have 
cause to fear. Being a malignant spirit, his 



96 GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT SOUL 

object is to hurt that which you specially value, 
therefore it is well to deceive him into thinking 
that your precious son is only a useless girl, or 
even a little animal. This is not difficult to 
manage, for the grvei, though powerful to work 
evil, is a simple creature, and it is sufficient for 
him to see earrings dangling from your boy's 
ears to make him think he sees a girl, or if you 
call the child by some such name as " puppy," 
" little pig," " kitten," or " goat," he will quite 
fail to perceive that the object of your affection 
is two legs short of what one might be led to 
expect. 

When a gwei has really determined to 
injure your child, it is sometimes necessary to 
kill a dog and wrap your boy in its skin, that 
it may be perfectly evident to the whole spirit 
world that if you are bestowing any affection, 
it is only on a valueless beast. In the case of 
Mrs. Fan's little girl, no gwei could reasonably 
be supposed to attach much value to her, and 
it was therefore sufficient for this neighbour to 
pronounce herself willing to stand in the place 
of a mother. She was allowed to live, and with 
painful frankness given the name of " One too 
many." 

After the month spent in the Opium Refuge, 
Mrs. Fan often saw the lady missionaries either 
at Hwochow or in her own house, and when they 
were joined by a lady who had no previous know- 
ledge of the Chinese language, Mrs. Fan was 
asked if little " One too many " might come and 
live with the missionary so that her childish 
prattle should help the newcomer in recognising 



HER NEW NAME 97 

the difficult sounds and tones. She was now 
eight years old and permission was readily 
granted, so to Hwochow she went and became an 
inmate of the Christian household there, her 
name being altered to the now appropriate one 
of " greatly loved " — in Chinese, Ai Do. 

The years passed by, and little Ai Do won the 
love and approval of all. She received her educa- 
tion in the girls' school, and there grew up in her 
the ambition to be a teacher, as her elder sister 
was. At fourteen years of age she sat one Sunday 
evening reading her Bible, and came to the words : 
" The Lord seeth not as man seeth ; man looketh 
on the outward appearance, the Lord looketh on 
the heart." She stopped and pondered, realising 
with the force that can only come with conviction 
of the Spirit of God, that while in "the outward" 
no one had fault to find with her, yet the Lord 
looking on the heart saw her full of sin and un- 
reconciled to Him. In that hour her peace was 
made, and henceforth she served and trusted 
God through all the vicissitudes of her short life. 
She remained a pupil in the school until the year 
1900, when Miss Stevens and Miss Clarke went 
to Taiyiianfu, never to return. It was a reign 
of terror during which rapine and murder stalked 
unhindered through the land, and young women 
fled to the remotest districts where they might 
claim a shelter. 

The matter of Ai Do's marriage had been under 
consideration for some time, she having now 
reached the age when custom exacts that this 
important matter should be settled. Various 
suitors presented themselves, but in most cases 

7 



98 GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT SOUL 

there was some hitch which prevented the engage- 
ment from being finally settled. In one case 
the man lived on the other side of the river, and 
this would cause difficulty in the girl's frequent 
journeys from one home to the other ; in another, 
the matter of the sum required as dowry could 
not be finally fixed; in a third, she would have 
been required to worship idols. 

Amongst the number was a young man, favoured 
by Mrs. Fan but known as a wild and dissolute 
youth, and the missionaries who had cared for 
Ai Do so many years refused their consent to 
the engagement. Now they were dead, and Mrs. 
Fan had scope for the exercise of the domineering 
will which made her ruler of the home, for while 
she was an enthusiastic follower of the Church 
she had never given evidence of personal con- 
version. 

It was certainly advisable that a young woman 
of Ai Do's age should not be unmarried at that 
difficult time. Christians went in daily peril of 
their lives, and the soldier was scarcely less to 
be dreaded than the Boxer. 

" No one uses good iron to make nails, and no 
one will use a good man to make a soldier," says 
a Chinese proverb, which has been proved to be 
only too true in many cases. 

Hastily, and almost secretly, the formalities of 
the engagement were performed, cards were 
exchanged which fixed the contract, and the 
earrings, rings, and silk and satin garments were 
brought from the bridegroom's home. Ai Do 
had heard much of this man, and his reputation 
was such as to cause her the gravest misgivings. 



A FATE OF HORROR 99 

The household which she was to enter as a bride 
would not require her to join in the offering of 
nuptial sacrifices to idols because her future 
mother-in-law had come under the sound of the 
Gk)spel, but more than this can scarcely be said. 
The son to whom she was engaged had been 
brought up on a regime of such extreme indulgence 
as can only be met with amongst an Oriental 
people. His mother had never once restrained 
him in a childish selfishness nor a manly vice. 
From a spoilt, inconsiderate, wilful childhood he 
passed to a cruel, passionate, licentious man- 
hood ; finally, he took to opium smoking and 
ruin threatened the home. His mother reaped 
a bitter harvest of sorrow from the planting of 
those wasted years, and now her urgent plea 
was : " My son is good at heart, and a virtuous 
bride will soon work a reform in him." 

Every relation and friend and neighbour had 
a say in the transaction, only Ai Do must not 
be consulted, and though she weep and plead to 
be left unmarried for a time yet, her tears and 
supplications can cause no effect. In vain were 
the silver ornaments and fine clothes displayed 
before her; she refused to take food and wept 
bitterly, not with the conventional tears of the 
Chinese girl bewailing her virginity and begging 
that she may not be torn from the shelter of 
her maiden home, but with a real horror of the 
fate which awaited her. 

The day dawned when she was dressed in the 
scarlet bridal clothes, a voluminous embroidered 
satin gown over all ; this came with the sedan 
chair which was to carry her to her future home, 



•#*• 



lOO GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT SOUL 

being hired for the occasion. Scarlet shoes were 
on her feet, a high tinsel crown on her head, 
and covering her tear-stained face was a scarlet 
veil. In accordance with the custom which 
demanded that the forehead of the bride must 
be perfectly smooth, her front hair had been 
dragged out by the roots and left her with an 
aching head. 

At last all was ready, and she was in the 
embroidered sedan chair and caught the last 
glimpse of the familiar faces. They disappear, 
and alone she meets a cruel, loveless, unknown 
world. 

A Chinese village wedding is a terrible ordeal 
for the bride. Her life until that day has been 
guarded from every contact with the outer world, 
and she has never spoken with a man outside 
the family circle. Her arrival at her mother- 
in-law's home is the signal for a wild rush of 
rough men to surround her chair. The curtain 
is lifted, insolent faces stare, her personal appear- 
ance is commented upon in vile terms, her feet 
being specially noticed because the artificial 
compression of this member has resulted in giving 
it sexual importance in a woman's appearance. 
Ai Do had a normal, unbound foot, and had to 
listen to lewd insinuations levelled at her on 
this subject. All the while she must patiently 
sit and wait until the appointed women of the 
bridegroom's family are ready to conduct her 
indoors. The waiting is often for a considerable 
time, for these new relations are going to make 
her feel that she is a most unimportant and un- 
desirable person, and her mother-in-law is not 



THE MARRIAGE ORDEAL loi 

even going to see her until the next day ; more- 
over, the longer she waits, the greater her chances 
of longevity. 

When at last she is told to leave her chair she is 
followed by a crowd, and holding the end of a 
scarlet sash which is thrust into her hand, she 
finds herself in a courtyard where the ceremony 
is to take place. 

In accordance with the contract made by the 
middleman, she is not asked to worship heaven and 
earth nor the tablets of her husband's ancestors, 
but two cups of wine are placed on the table, and 
she and her bridegroom must each take one and 
sip the wine, the cups being joined together by a 
scarlet thread. When this ceremony is over, she 
follows her bridegroom to a room, still led by the 
sash, and when he enters he stands upon the 
kang and by walking around it demonstrates his 
position as head of the new home. 

Meanwhile the chair-bearers are clamouring 
for her dress, as another young woman is waiting 
for the same gown and chair, and delay may cause 
trouble. The bride is assisted on to the hang 
by the women, her husband having departed to 
make merry with his friends, and the ragged 
opium smokers who carried her there leave, one 
wearing the crown of tinsel on his head, laugh- 
ing and joking at much which they have seen 
and heard. From the moment that she is seated 
upon the hang, the bride becomes the centre 
of attraction to an insulting crowd. Her shoes 
are stolen, but knowing that this is likely she 
has provided herself with additional pairs. For 
hours she sits there and hears the remarks made. 



102 GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT SOUL 

One will whisper that she is married to an irre- 
sponsible idiot, others will tell her that he is blind 
or dumb, and knowing how often the middlemen 
deceive, she waits with dread the moment when 
she will see for herself more than she was able to 
do on arrival. At last the room is cleared, and 
she has to face the final ordeal when she is left 
alone with a totally unknown man. Even the 
hours of darkness are not respected, and every 
youngster in the village has the right to enter the 
courtyard at any hour of the night, tear down the 
paper windows, and heap shame upon her head. 

Christianity and the influence of the foreigner 
has done much to revolutionise the wedding 
customs, but all this and more was endured by 
Ai Do, and she found herself withal the wife of a 
depraved and vicious man. 

It was indeed a deliverance when the Hwochow 
girls' school reopened and Ai Do was invited to 
teach in place of her elder sister, whose family 
claims had increased so as to prevent her holding 
the post as formerly. School was opened in a 
small courtyard which adjoined our own, and 
twenty girls entered as pupils. Ai Do had all the 
characteristics of a natural leader, and she easily 
controlled the girls and was much beloved by 
them, for she had a kind disposition and the hidden 
sorrows of her life had made her both strong and 
tender. 

I think that her life in school was a time of un- 
mixed happiness to her, but the holidays had to 
be faced and contact with the man whom she 
could only strive not to hate. His opium smoking 
habits increased, and the pinch of poverty was 



SORROW UPON SORROW 103 •*;* 

felt in the home from which he was able to steal 
so cunningly every article of value which might 
be exchanged for money and spent on the 
drug. 

A great joy came into Ai Do's life with the birth 
of a little son, and she realised for the first time 
that matrimony was not solely a horror, since it 
brought so much compensation in its train. The 
child was publicly dedicated to God, and was its 
mother's joy for six brief months. 

At the end of that time, in the hot weather, it 
sickened with dysentery, and in spite of her 
prayers and entreaties that she might be allowed 
to deal with the disease as she had seen me deal 
with similar ailments, she had to endure the torture 
of seeing it operated upon by a heathen Chinese 
doctor, whose method of treatment was to use long 
needles which he ran into its tender flesh. The 
needles were of course unclean, and the child's 
death was doubtless hastened by the shock thus 
sustained. 

She was spared the last sorrow of seeing its body 
thrown out to be devoured by dogs and wolves 
through the fortunate advent of her father, who 
insisted at her request that decent burial be given. 
This was a cause of thankfulness for her to her 
life's end. 

A year later, when her second son was born, 
the home was in a pitiful condition. All the land 
which provided daily bread for the family was 
gambled away, furniture and clothes had been 
sold or pawned for opium, the wages she earned 
were all turned to the same use, and the poorest, 
coarsest food was all that was procurable at a time 



104 GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT SOUL 

when her strength was quite insufficient to the 
strain imposed upon it. 

As soon as the required month of purification 
was over, she returned to us and then received 
all the care that love could suggest, but we soon 
saw that she was going to escape from our poor, 
inadequate efforts to protect and comfort her, 
into the care of the only One who could save her 
from further sorrow. Phthisis took a rapid hold 
of her constitution, and her strength daily declined. 
During this time she for the first time opened 
her heart, and spoke out her sorrows and sufferings 
and those deepest wrongs she had suffered which 
women have from time immemorial hidden as a 
shameful secret. She spoke it all out now, and 
left me with a determination that henceforth 
any one placed as she was should find an advocate 
and protector in me to the extent of my ability. 

Three months later she was carried back to her 
home, a dying woman, to end her days. We were 
able to ride out and see her almost daily, and once 
we found her very happy because in a dream 
she had seen a messenger who called to her to cross 
the river, and when she shrank back I had been 
there to assure her that angels would receive her 
to her Heavenly Home. 

That day her husband came into the room, and 
in my presence she for the last time pleaded with 
him to leave the ways of sin and seek forgiveness 
through repentance. To our care she committed 
her child, asking that we would see that it was 
brought up as a Christian, and she also begged us 
to insist on a Christian burial for herself. To 
the schoolgirls she sent the message that they 



ENTRANCE INTO JOY 105 

must meet her in her Master's presence, and a few 
hours later " the bells of the city rang out for joy, 
and it was said to her : * Enter into the joy of thy 
Lord.' " The wail that went up from the school- 
girls when I told them, I shall not forget ; she was 
the first of our company to pass over. Two days 
later the pupils of her class and ourselves gathered 
with the family for a simple service in the courtyard 
of her home. On the coffin the words were written 
at her own request, " Until He come " — symbolic 
of the hope which sustained her through those 
years of suffering, and kept her eyes ever upward 
turned to the promise of the great day of deliver- 
ance. A congregation of some hundreds assembled 
to see the unique sight of so many girls mourning 
for a teacher and following the bier to the border 
of the village. The girls and their parents showed 
their appreciation of Ai Do and her work by pre- 
senting a large banner to the school in her memory. 
It was unveiled on their behalf by the elders of the 
Church, and above the names of one hundred girls 
who had been her pupils were inscribed the words : 
"She rests from her labours, and her works do 
follow her." 

vVe returned to take up the work which she had 
left, but with heavy hearts, and the school and 
my study seemed empty without her presence. 
I missed her help in consultation over difficulties 
and dealings with the raw material which came 
into our hands at the beginning of each term. 

Who could replace her ? Her friend and com- 
panion who had helped her during the past months 
was the only one to whom I could look, and she was 
seemingly of too retiring a disposition to bear 



io6 GREAT FURNACE FOR A GREAT SOUL 

such responsibility ; but the '* trees of the Lord are 
full of sap," and if a leaf has fallen there is always 
a fresh one developing to replace it, and Ling Ai 
was preparing for a development which was going 
to make her that which she still is, my faithful 
and beloved fellow-missionary in this place. With 
her quiet, gentle spirit she has won the confidence 
of her pupils, and made possible for me that which 
apart from her comradeship would have been 
impossible, the establishment of a large school and 
training-college where in happy fellowship Chinese 
young women are working together for the women 
and girls of their country. 



THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 



"Of 



" What name hast thou ? And he said, Legion ! " 

-- Whensoever the impure spirit goeth out from the man 
it passeth through waterless places seeking rest ; and not 
finding it there, it saith — 

•' I will return unto my house whence I came out : 
'-' And coming, findeth it empty, swept and adorned. 
Then goeth it and taketh along with itself other spirits 
more wicked than itself — ^seven, and entering it, findeth its 
dwelling there ; and the last state of that man becometh 
worse than the first." — The Gospel according to Luke. 



1*8 



CHAPTER XII 

THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

Being a Record of some Observations 
IN Demonology 

THE Chinaman, though perhaps the most 
materialistic of Easterners, is no exception 
to his neighbours in the large place which the 
occult takes in his outlook. For him, the physical 
world is peopled with spirits good and evil, capable 
of exercising the most far-reaching influences 
on the fortunes of men. These spiritual beings 
are bound up in the forces of nature, and combine 
to constitute that geomantic system known by 
the Chinese as Feng-shui (wind and water), 
by reference to which, matters of human life, 
inasmuch as they are designed to court the good 
influences and avoid those which are inauspicious 
to the man, the time, and the place, are decided. 

The Chinaman can never experience the feeling 
of complete solitude which the Westerner knows 
in wild and lonely places ; for him the hillside, the 
ravine, and the mountain gorge are peopled with 
presences best described as fairies, though in 
nothing resembling the light-hearted beings which 
this description generally conveys to the Western 
mind. To him they present the appearance of 



no THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

aged, venerable beings, short of stature, with 
white beards. Country, town, and human habita- 
tions are ahke haunted by psychic beings whose 
condition cannot be exactly expressed by the 
word spirit, neither form of Chinese belief admitting 
of the conception of a pure spirit without matter. 

These beings may be grouped into three classes. 
Gwei is the term most constantly used by 
the common people to indicate the being whose 
influence is feared by all, and who receives from 
every family some measure of propitiatory sacrifice. 
We read in the /" li chao chuan,^ or Divine Panorama, 
that " every living being, no matter whether it 
be a man or an animal, a bird or a quadruped, 
a gnat or a midge, a worm or an insect, having 
legs or not, few or many, all are called gwei 
after death." 

Apart from these are the shen, which have 
been defined as Emanations de la nature per- 
sonnifiSes, not, as the gwei, spirits of the 
dead, but an emanation of nature clothed with 
a personality. They possess varying degrees of 
intelligence and power. Their interest is not only 
in the affairs of men, to the knowledge of which 
they have access, but also in the secret springs 
of human action. They reside in man as well 

* The Precious Regulations, a book written under the Sung 
Dynasty. Its main tenets are derived from Buddhism, though 
some -writers inscribe the book among the Taoist documents. 
Its sub-title explains its contents : " A precious record of 
examples published by the mercy of Yu Di (the Jade Emperor 
to whom is entrusted the superintendence of the world, the 
Jupiter of the Taoists), that men and women may repent them 
of their faults and make atonement for their sins." It includes 
a description of the Ten Courts of Hell and the judgments pro- 
nounced therein. 



GHOSTLY INTERFERENCE in 

as amongst men, and witness to his good or evil 
works before the tribunal of heaven. The classics 
of Chinese literature, recognising this, urge upon 
readers the duty of decorum, purity, and care 
even when unseen by human eyes and according 
to the teachings of Confucius ; one of the char- 
acteristics of the Princely Man is the discipline 
he will exercise upon himself when alone. 

Other spiritual beings are those who, by their 
ascetic practices, have attained to a life higher 
than that of humanity ; it will endure through 
many centuries, and they are free to live in the 
pleasant places of the earth with considerable 
licence to enjoy good things, yet free from the 
material claims which govern human life. These 
are known by the term hsien, and are referred 
to above as fairies. Each and all of these beings 
touch the destinies of man at various points. 

It is, however, in the important events of life — 
birth, marriage, and death — that the interference 
of the spirits is strongest, and such occasions are 
used by the sorcerer as a means of extorting 
money from his unfortunate victim. In the 
Divine Panorama^ we read that : " It is not 
uncommon at the time of reincarnation to see 
women asking to be allowed to avenge themselves 
in the form of gwei before being changed into 
men. On their case being examined, it is found 
that as young women they have been seduced or 
have been betrayed in other ways, such as the 
husband refusing after marriage to fulfil his 
promise to support the girl's parents, and in 
consequence of her disgrace the woman has com- 
mitted suicide." From that moment terror has 



j'-y 



112 THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

dogged the steps of her husband, and he has gone 
in hourly fear of sickness, accident, or sudden 
death. If he be a student, the day of examina- 
tion presents terrors calculated to ensure failure, 
for he knows that the gwei has power to hold 
his mind in subjection so that he cannot write 
his competitive essay. The only hope he has of 
release is the taking of a vow, whereby he under- 
takes to study and make known The Divine 
Panorama or precious record transmitted to 
men to move them, being a record of examples 
published by the mercy of Yu Di, that men and 
women living in this world may repent them of 
their faults, and make atonement for their sins. 
The punishments described include all the most 
painful tortures of which Chinese ingenuity can 
conceive. Truly, idols are the work of man's 
hands, and they that make them are like unto 
them ! 

Sculptural art also has left nothing undone to 
represent the god as animated by the worst 
passions of man, but skill and ingenuity must 
inevitably stop short of the final act necessary 
to convince man that conununication is possible 
between him and the spirit world. In order to 
bridge this chasm a class of men and women 
called sorcerers {mo-han and sheng-po) has come 
into being, whose work it is to be the spokesmen 
of the gods. With deliberate intent and elaborate 
ritual they develop the mediumistic gift, and 
learn how to attain conditions of frenzy and of 
trance during which period the body is controlled 
by a spiritualistic force. Not only as the medium 
of the gods, but also as a resting-place for longer 



THE MEDIUiMISTIC OFFICE 113 

or shorter periods to the homeless, unclean spirit, 
do these sorcerers serve. At tremendous physical 
cost — for the medium is never long-lived — they 
accumulate great wealth, exorbitant sums being 
demanded in recognition of services rendered 
when freeing a family or village from the visita- 
tions of a tormenting gwei. When sickness 
enters his home, the Chinaman's instinct is to 
attribute it to any cause rather than a natural 
one ; his appeal on such occasions is to the sorcerer 
whose time is largely occupied in giving what is 
called medical advice, but is in reality the practis- 
ing of the rites of exorcism. Sometimes he will 
declare that the spirit of a sick person has strayed 
from the body, and means will be set on foot to 
secure its return. A woman I know, whose boy 
had apparently died from typhoid fever, was told 
that his spirit had been enticed away by a god 
whose shrine was built on the mountain side near 
the city where she lived. She took the child's 
coat and walked to the temple ; here, standing 
before the idol, she burned incense and begged 
that the boy's spirit might be restored to her. 
Holding the child's coat open to receive it, she 
swayed to and fro, and with heart-rending cries 
besought it to return. She waited until she felt 
her request had been granted, and with a move- 
ment as though to enfold the little wandering 
ghost, she clasped the coat in her arms and swiftly 
returning home, laid it upon the lifeless body. 
The child revived, and is alive to this day. 

Frequently, after supplication to the gods, the 
clothes of the patient are carefully weighed ; a 
procession is then formed in which one of the 
8 



114 THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

sorcerers holds a mirror directed backwards, 
others, wearing scarlet aprons, carry brooms and 
with slow and mystic movements sweep widely 
on either side with the intent of gathering up the 
wandering soul. Meanwhile crackers are fired 
to the weird sound of a minor, falsetto lilting. 
After a considerable journey over the countryside 
they return to prove the success of their venture. 
For this the clothes of the sick man must be re- 
weighed to see whether the weight of the spirit 
has been added to that of the patient's garments. 
Should the smallest discrepancy be detected all 
is well, and after feasting and opium the mo-han 
pockets his fee and departs, frequently leaving a 
prescription behind him, the results of which may 
be more or less harmful. Whatever the result, 
nothing will shake the faith of the people in these 
degraded villains, for they can, by threatening to 
call in the intervention of the gods on their behalf 
strike terror to the heart of any man, and once 
having sought aid of the sorcerer, the family is 
pitiable indeed. 

In a case which came under my personal observa- 
tion, the spirit of a young woman from a village 
at some distance from the one in which I was 
stajdng, who had recently died in childbirth, was 
said to have returned, having found herself in 
difficulties in the spirit world for lack of means 
to defray the necessary expenses. Illness became 
so prevalent that necromancers were called in 
and agreed that a medium must be employed. 
The spirit made its requirements known, and by 
promising the sacrifices ordained, the family 
passed under a bondage from which none dared 



IN THE GRIP OF THE SORCERER 115 

to emancipate himself by omitting the prescribed 
rites. Night after night, at the medium's com- 
mand a table was spread at the cross-roads, on 
which were laid the fantastic foods suitable to the 
requirements of the departed spirit. Gk)ld and 
silver paper money was plentifully burned, crackers 
were fired, and following the medium, a party of 
men left to place earthen bowls containing grains 
at various corners of the roads. i 

Nothing but the deliverance of Christianity, 
or a daring known to few, can set free those who 
have been entangled in such practices. 

I saw this medium whilst under spirit control. 
Before a table elaborately decorated on which 
incense burned, she threw herself into extraordinary 
contortions, quivering and shaking, her finger and 
thumb forming a circle, whilst the little finger 
vibrated continuously. She sustained a perpetual 
chant in the peculiar spirit voice, the minor strains 
of which I find it impossible to describe. A 
relative of the deceased acted as questioner, and 
she dictated the terms by the fulfilment of which 
the spirit consented to a reconciliation. 

Another manifestation of mediumship may be 
found in the more or less conscious yielding of 
the personality to a controlling spiritualistic in- 
fluence, known as demon possession. Remark- 
able cases have come under my own personal 
observation, and all incidents which I quote have 
been witnessed by foreign missionaries who are 
prepared to vouch for their accuracy. Those 
brought to my notice by reliable Chinese are too 
numerous to include in this book, but the fact 
that men and women who lay themselves open to 



ii6 THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

demoniacal influences become possessed, is beyond 
dispute. In many cases the possession follows 
upon a fit of uncontrolled temper, such as is not 
uncommon amongst the Chinese ; in others it is 
connected with the taking of a vow on the occasion 
of illness in the home, when service was promised 
to some particular god ; or again, it has been 
undoubtedly connected with the neglect to com- 
pletely remove idols from the home of a Christian. 

In yet other cases, a spirit may take temporary 
possession of a human body in order to find a 
means of expression for some important com- 
munication, and after delivering its message leave 
the person unconscious of that which has taken 
place. An instance of this occurred in a family 
with which I am intimate. The eldest daughter 
was married into a home where she received ill- 
treatment from her mother-in-law. For several 
years she was systematically underfed and over- 
worked, and when at last she gave birth to a son 
we all expected she would receive more considera- 
tion. The hatred of her mother-in-law was, 
however, in no degree abated, and when the child 
was a month old she brought her daughter a meal 
of hot bread in which the girl detected an unusual 
flavour which made her suspicious. She threw 
the remainder to the dog, and before many hours 
had passed both the unfortunate girl and the dog 
were dead. 

Her father was away from home at the time, 
the young men of the family meanwhile carrpng 
on the work of the farm. A few days later her 
brothers and first cousins, strong, vigorous young 
farmers, being together in the fields, her cousin, 



SPIRIT COMMUNICATION 117 

aged twenty-two, suddenly exhibited symptoms 
of distress. He trembled and wept violently. 
Those with him becoming alarmed at so unusual 
a sight went to his assistance, intending to take him 
home. He wept, however, the more violently, 
saying : " I am Lotus-bud ; I was cruelly done to 
death. Why is there no redress ? " Others of the 
family were by this time at hand, and recognising 
the effort made by the girl's spirit to communicate 
with her own people whom she had had no oppor- 
tunity of seeing in the hour of her death, spoke 
directly to her, as though present. Telling her the 
facts of the case, they explained that all demands 
must remain in abeyance until her father's return, 
when the guilty party would be dealt with by her 
family whose feeling was in no sense one of in- 
difference. In about an hour's time the attack 
passed, leaving the young man exhausted and 
unconscious of what had taken place. 

The criminal law of China can only be put in 
action under such circumstances by the girl's own 
family undertaking a long and expensive lawsuit, 
the result of which may end in the punishment of 
the criminal, or may terminate in quite a different 
way. In this case the demands took the form of 
a requirement, the granting of which constituted 
a tacit acknowledgment of guilt. The demand 
in fact was that a funereal monument should be 
erected in memory of the dead girl. This con- 
stituted so uncalled-for an honour paid to one in 
her position, as to be a public recognition that 
redress was due to her, and a law case was avoided. 

It may be remembered that in the first chapter 
of this book an incident is recorded of Mrs. Hsi 



ii8 THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

herself being tormented by a demon which had 
gained its power over her, by reason of neglect 
to completely destroy all idols at the time when 
they were removed from the home. Such a case 
is not singular. 

Our first woman patient in the Hwochow Opium 
Refuge became interested in the Gospel, and on 
her return home destroyed her idols, reserving 
however the beautifully carved idol shrines which 
she placed in her son's room. Her daughter-in- 
law who occupied this room, a comely young 
woman, desired to become a Christian and gave 
us a warm welcome whenever we could go to the 
house. About six months later we were fetched 
by special messenger from a village where we were 
staying, to see this girl who was said to be demon 
possessed. We found crowds of men and women 
gathered to see and to hear. The girl was chanting 
the weird minor chant of the possessed, the voice, 
as in every case I have seen, clearly distinguish- 
ing it from madness. This can perhaps best be 
described as a voice distinct from the personality 
of the one under possession. It seems as though 
the demon used the organs of speech of the victim 
for the conveyance of its own voice. She refused 
to wear clothes or to take food, and by her violence 
terrorised the community. Immediately upon 
our entering the room with the Chinese woman 
evangelist she ceased her chanting, and slowly 
pointed the finger at us, remaining in this posture 
for some time. As we knelt upon the kang 
to pray, she trembled and said : " The room is 
full oi gwei; as soon as one goes another comes." 
We endeavoured to calm her, and to make her 



INHABITING IDOL SHRINES 119 

join us in repeating the sentence, " Lord Jesus, 
save me." 

After considerable effort she succeeded in pro- 
nouncing these words, and when she had done so 
we commanded the demon to leave her, where- 
upon her body trembled and she sneezed some 
fifty or sixty times, then suddenly came to herself, 
asked for her clothes and some food, and seemingly 
perfectly well resumed her work. So persistently 
did she reiterate the statement that the demons 
were using the idol shrines for a refuge, that 
during the proceedings just mentioned her parents 
willingly handed over to the Christians present 
these valuable carvings, and joined with them 
in their destruction. From this time onwards 
she was perfectly well, a normal, healthy young 
woman. 

Upon recovery from illness a woman I knew 
yielded herself to the lord of hell for a certain 
period, during which time she was under a vow 
to wear black garments, to perform certain rites 
as required by the devil, and to chant instead 
of speaking. She told me once that she knew 
all I could tell her of the Lord of Heaven and of 
the death upon the cross of His Son, but that 
she served the lord of hell, and his servant she 
remained, only giving up her peculiar dress and 
manner when the time of her vow had expired. 

The yielding of personality to the possession 
of a spirit no doubt seriously weakens the will 
power. Many cases are on record of those who 
once delivered, like the man in the Gospel from 
whom the evil spirit had been cast out, uncon- 
sciously again prepare the empty house to receive 



120 THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

the evil guest, and whose latter state is worse 
than the former. 

It was to a woman, terror of the district in 
which she lived, that a Chinese evangelist was 
called. After prayer in which he and some 
inquirers took part, the evil spirit in obedience 
to their command departed. A few weeks later 
on yielding to violent temper, she fell into a 
worse state than before. The missionary of the 
district was this time begged to go himself. As 
soon as he entered the room the woman threw 
herself upon the kang, rolling about in seem- 
ingly great agony. The Chinese helper, Mr. Li, 
rebuked the spirit, saying : " We ordered you 
to leave. Why have you returned ? " "I could 
find no dwelling-place," was the answer, 
given with extraordinary rapidity, in the 
curious spirit voice. " Find me a place to rest, 
and I will leave at once." " We have come," 
said Li, " to command you to leave, not to find 
you a place." Upon this the woman laughed 
and clapped her hands, and in the struggle it 
seemed as if the powers of evil were in the 
ascendancy. As she still chuckled with amuse- 
ment, Li said : " Let us sing a hymn," and 
immediately the voice replied : "I too can sing," 
and forthwith shouted some theatrical songs. 
Mr. Li then prayed, but there was seemingly no 
power and the voice also mockingly prayed. 
The missionary then interposed, saying : "I have 
not come here to hold intercourse with demons," 
and forthwith authoritatively commanded the 
demon to leave her. There was a struggle, and 
she fell down unconscious on the kan^. 



CHRISTIAN EXORCISM 121 

She came to herself in a normal condition and 
apologised to the missionary for her state of 
deshabille. Faithfully and sternly he rebuked her 
for sin and for giving place to the devil. She 
recognised her fault, and was from that time a 
changed woman. 

An evil spirit has been known to claim a young 
girl as its possession, forbidding her marriage 
under severe threats. It was in such a case 
that a demon, driven from a man who had Jbecome 
a Christian, went to a village eight miles distant 
and possessed a young woman. Speaking through 
her, it forbade her marriage and manifested itself 
in the same manner as it had done in the man 
from whom it came, compelling him to perpetually 
rub one side of his face and head until there was 
no hair left there. When questioned as to whence 
it came the demon replied by giving the name 
of this man, and to the question : " Why have 
you left him ? " replied : "I have been turned 
out, for that man has become a Christian." 

Two methods of exorcism are used by the 
sorcerers — defiance and bribery. The Christian 
method is that of commanding the evil spirit 
in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ to release 
the victim. 

Some have been set free from the power of a 
tormenting spirit who have not been subsequently 
kept free, through refusing to yield to the control 
of the great Spirit of Liberty. Pastor Hsi, than 
whom none better understood the conflict in the 
Heavenly Places, in earlier days would cast out 
demons from all the possessed who were brought 
to him, but in later years as experience grew, he 



122 THE POWERS OF DARKNESS 

refused to do so unless idols were destroyed, and 
he had reason to believe there was a sincere 
desire to obey the commands of God. He doubt- 
less saw, as others have done, the futility of 
temporary relief during which, in that mysterious 
way so graphically described in the Scriptures, 
the demon wanders in waterless places, joining 
himself to others more evil than he. 

Pastor Hsi learned to distinguish between the 
greater and the lesser demons. With the latter 
he would deal summarily, but not so with the 
former. " This kind," he would say, " goeth 
not out but by prayer and fasting ; " and thus 
he would prepare himself for an encounter with 
the powers of evil. 

Young believers, doubtless impressed by the 
Pastor's command over unclean spirits and 
perhaps sometimes eager for a similar power, 
were, as in the instances recorded in the Acts 
of the Apostles, in serious danger. Pastor Hsi 
urged them not lightly to undertake the casting 
out of demons. He had been faced by the awful 
realities of the spirit world, and on one occasion 
at least, by reason of a thoughtless word, had 
been troubled by the very demon he had cast 
out and which attached itself to his person. 

The experiences recorded here may be un- 
familiar to many readers, and some will doubtless 
think that madness, hysteria, or epilepsy may 
account for them. To such I would suggest 
the following points for consideration : Firstly, 
the striking, detailed resemblance between the 
cases seen now in heathen lands and those 
recorded in the Scriptures ; secondly, the 



A LIFE AND DEATH STRUGGLE 123 

complete and lasting restoration resulting from 
prayer and from the command in the Name of 
the Lord Jesus that the demon should depart ; 
thirdly, the appalling sense of the reality of the 
conflict with the evil one at the moment of supreme 
test, as the missionary is called upon to prove 
his personal faith, and to give the command 
which shall decide whether God or demon remains 
conqueror on the field. 

When the promise was given by Christ that 
His witnesses should cast out demons, it was 
with the foreknowledge that such equipment was 
essential to those who obeyed His command to 
disciple the nations. Let the signs following be 
a reminder to weary warriors that the Captain 
of our salvation is actively leading His hosts ; 
and to the indifferent and half-hearted who 
profess and call themselves Christians, let it be 
a matter for serious reflection that there exist 
churches in many heathen lands, the members 
of which have not lost their first love and faith, 
and against whom the enemy has come with his 
whole strength. 

A feeble conflict may provoke a feeble resist- 
ance, but it behoves the aggressive warrior to 
prepare for the fight of his life when he invades 
the enemy's territory, where the conflict is not 
with " mere flesh and blood, but with the 
despotisms, the empires, the forces, that control 
and govern this dark world." 



THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 



" Happy the meek ; 
For they shall inherit the earth." 

I' The labourer whom Christ in His own garden 

Chose to be His helpmate." 

Dante. 

'- He went out to seek wisdom, as many a one has done, 
looking for the laws of God with clear eyes to see, with a 
pure heart to understand, and after many troubles, after 
many mistakes, after much suffering, he came at last 
to the truth." — H. Fielding Hall. 



laf 



CHAPTER XIII 
THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 

IF Pastor Hsi may be spoken of as the Paul 
of the Shansi Church, Barnabas finds his 
counterpart in Pastor Wang of Hwochow. 

Though possessing none of the pecuHar gifts 
which made Hsi a leader amongst foreigners 
and Chinese, he has exercised a remarkable 
personal influence upon hundreds of lives, win- 
ning by consistency and sincerity those with whom 
he has come in contact. On our first arrival we 
found him already in charge, conducting the 
Sunday services and generally caring for the 
Church members. 

His unfailing courtesy, consideration, and tact 
simplified many difficult situations, and the 
exercise of his natural gift for gathering people 
around him and drawing out the best in them 
soon resulted in a rapidly growing work. He 
was almost immediately chosen as Deacon, and 
before long the office of Elder was given to him. 
All turned to Mr. Wang in difficulty, sought his 
advice in perplexity, and by the unanimous 
desire of the Church he was in 1909 ordained 
Pastor at Hwochow. 

He has developed his gifts in the school of 
adversity, for trouble overtook him in his child- 



128 THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 

hood when his father died only a few years 
before the great famine which was to sweep over 
the province of Shansi. Poor they always were, 
and his love for his mother was intensified as he 
saw the self-sacrificing devotion with which she 
earned enough by her spinning to enable him to 
continue his schooling. At the age of fifteen he 
was married, and on the bride's arrival the 
falsity of the middleman through whom the 
engagement had been long ago contracted was 
revealed, for the bride was a helpless cripple and 
a serious burden on the already overpressed 
household. 

Food soon began to be scarce, for the rains 
failed and the prospect of the wheat harvest was 
poor. They endured and hoped, being mercifully 
saved from the knowledge that they must now 
enter upon a period when the inhabitants of 
Shansi should touch the depths of human suffering 
and call on death to end their woes. No pen 
can fully describe the horrors of that time. When 
summer and autumn crops had failed the rains 
were still withheld, and despair seized on all as 
they saw the impossibility of sowing the wheat 
for next year's harvest. 

The delicate bride, unable to withstand the 
privations of that time, soon died, and Wang's 
sister was married, so that he and his mother 
remained alone to care for each other. The poor 
young sister lived but a very short while in her 
new home, and the circumstances of her death 
were so tragic that Wang felt unable to forgive 
the man who had been her husband. After 
many years, when circumstances brought this 



BOYHOOD SUFFERINGS 129 

man to his home, he reahsed that Christ's com- 
mand to forgive those who have offended against 
you required of him a complete change of feehng 
towards this once hated brother-in-law, and he 
invited him to share his food as a sign of for- 
giveness and reconciliation. 

Every month the distress became more acute ; 
weeds, leaves, bark of trees, and even some 
softer kinds of wood were used as food, but 
numbers were dying and of the one hundred 
and twenty families which inhabited the village, 
at last thirty only remained. The dead out- 
numbered the living, and compelled by hunger 
the latter were driven to sustain life by feeding 
on the former. 

Wang saw his mother's vain endeavour to 
supply some kind of food on which they might 
subsist, and his heart was torn to see her deprive 
herself even now that there might be more for 
him. 

When the famine was at its worst, the most 
tragic blow fell. His mother one day told him 
it was her wish that he should accompany several 
neighbours to a near village where lived a relation. 
In those days none dared to travel alone, lest 
in their weak, half-starved condition they should 
fall a prey to man or beast. The pretext given 
was the possibility of obtaining the loan of a 
Httle grain from the aunt who lived there. Beggars 
were many and givers few, and he wondered at 
his mother entertaining any hope of such good 
fortune. 

He went, however, only to return a few hours 
later, empty-handed. As he entered the court- 

9 



130 THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 

yard, heart-sick with disappointment, he called 
for his mother and received no answer. Doors 
and windows were locked on the inside, and 
sick with apprehension he called the neighbours 
to his help. On bursting open the door, they 
saw her body swinging from a beam in the dim 
recesses of the cave. The errand had been an 
excuse to get him out of the way, while she per- 
formed this act which was the last expression 
of her love to him. She had chosen this solution 
of their impossible position, hoping that, relieved 
of her presence, he might be able to endure till 
the coming harvest. 

The body, wrapped in matting, was laid in an 
empty cave. There was no money for a coffin, 
and many were waiting like hungry wolves to eat 
the uncoffined dead ; moreover, the boy and his 
uncle were too weak to drag the body to the 
burying-ground. 

The months passed, and still the arid, sun- 
baked earth refused to bear any green thing, and 
the despairing people longed for rain which never 
came. The second year of drought had come 
and gone, and there was now nothing sown in 
the fields, but on the seventh day of the fourth 
moon of the fourth year of the Emperor Kwang 
Hsii, the longed-for rain fell and hope revived. 

At this time also a stranger came to the vil- 
lage registering the names of survivors, and 
announcing that foreigners had arrived and were 
distributing grain that the fields might be sown 
for an autumn crop. 

The worst of the famine was over, but the 
terrors of famine fever had yet to be faced, and 



FILIAL CONDUCT 131 

when the longed-for grain had ripened there were 
in many houses none left to eat it, for whole 
families had been wiped out. 

Wang now naturally became an inmate of his 
uncle's home, and gradually the conditions of 
greatest horror were relieved. As soon as strength 
had sufficiently returned, they made coffins and 
prepared to bury their dead, that the required 
rites should not be lacking which should bring 
consolation to those who had entered the land of 
shades without the necessary honours having 
been paid to their memory. Not only for the 
coffins was money required, but also to pay the 
fees of the geomancers who must decide the site 
of the graves and an auspicious day for the funeral. 
In this one family, thirteen coffins were made 
and graves dug in accordance with the following 
plan : The four quarterings of the celestial sphere 
were borne in mind, respectively governed by 
the Azure Dragon, Red Bird, White Tiger, and 
Black Tortoise, these being identified with East, 
West, South, and North. The graves should face 
the south, with White Tiger on the right and 
Azure Dragon on the left, as these respectively 
control wind and water. 

On the day of the funeral the son, dressed in 
coarse white cloth, with unhemmed garments, 
white twists plaited with the hair of his queue 
which he wore over his chest, and his head un- 
shaven, walked as chief mourner, the wailing 
relatives following the bier. In due course, 
paper money and other articles were burned for 
the use of the deceased, and fire crackers were 
exploded to ensure the soul and the mortal re- 



132 THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 

mains against the attacks of demons. The next 
year in early spring on the day known as Pure 
Brightness, in accordance with national custom, 
Wang, dressed in white, again visited and repaired 
the grave. For three years he wore signs of 
mourning in his dress, and abstained from all 
festivities. Thus he strove to leave undone 
nothing which filial piety could contrive, to make 
easier to his mother her sojourn in those mys- 
terious realms whither she had passed. 

For the next few years he worked as a silver- 
smith in his uncle's shop, this latter being a 
generous, kindly man, on whom the responsibilities 
of business life sat only too lightly, for an illness 
revealed the fact that the profits were not sufficient 
to meet the interest due on the rapidly accumu- 
lating debts. 

Moreover, the sick man, with failing health, 
had gradually acquired the use of the fatal drug 
known as " foreign smoke," which some years 
previously had been first introduced from distant 
lands, and was gaining ground every year as a 
profitable crop in the best soil. One ounce a day 
had become the necessary allowance for the sick 
man, and to Hwochow the nephew constantly went 
in order to buy the needful supply. He tells 
how he walked between the poppy fields and 
heard the chant which always accompanied the 
solving of the plant : 

•' Of ten acres, fateful plant, thou claimest eight, 
Thus only two are left for ripening grain ; 
From distant lands thou wert brought here, 
And hast devoured the best of China's sons." 

Of famine, of typhus, and of the raids of wild 



THE OPIUM HABIT FORMED 133 

beasts, the inhabitants of Shansi had tasted the 
full terrors, but now this more insidious foe was 
working havoc in their midst. Amongst the 
villagers it already counted its victims : one young 
man had recently died as a direct result of its 
use, for after taking his accustomed dose he had 
so lain down that a portion of his wadded clothes 
was touching the lighted stove. Shortly after, 
his mother entered the cave to find this, her only 
son, burned to death, the charred corpse being 
all that remained to tell the tale. Another neigh- 
bour had gradually parted with all his possessions, 
and when nothing else remained on which to raise 
money, he took his young wife and sold her to 
an innkeeper in whose house she was not mistress 
of her actions and had no choice but to obey her 
purchaser. Nothing could save her, and the 
tragedy of that broken heart still awaits His 
judgment Who judgeth righteously. 

The duty of preparing the pipe for his uncle 
devolved on the young man, and before long he 
himself was a victim of opium. 

Meanwhile the uncle was weaker than formerly, 
and a neighbour strongly recommended Wang to 
visit the China Inland Mission station at Hwochow 
to ask for some medicine, and this was how he 
first heard the Gospel story. He was cordially 
received by the evangelist, and given a dose to 
be administered according to regulation, and told 
to pray earnestly for his uncle ; this he con- 
scientiously did, kneeling in the courtyard, and 
saying : " Heavenly Father, have mercy on my 
uncle." The next day, the sick man was better, 
and continued so for many months. 



134 THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 

Troubles soon thickened around Mr. Wang. 
When his uncle died he found himself responsible 
for business and home, and overwhelmed by 
debts. 

The great spiritual crisis of his life was at hand. 
He had from childhood pursued, by what broken 
light he had, an ideal which was intensely real 
to him. In the five relationships wherein his 
teachers had instructed him as to conduct, he 
had endeavoured to be blameless : as subject to 
ruler, son to father, younger brother to elder, 
husband to wife, and friend to friend. He had 
worked beyond his strength to clear himself of 
debt, and when his best endeavours proved futile 
he had sold his goods and distributed their price 
amongst the creditors. Having taken the vow of 
an ascetic, for years he was a vegetarian. Never- 
theless, all had failed, and he bitterly reproached 
himself with having fallen into the sin of opium 
smoking. 

Now it happened that a certain man, jealous 
of Pastor Hsi's success, opened a rival opium 
refuge in which he treated patients according 
to the Pastor's methods, but with medicine of his 
own making. The scheme was a contentious one, 
and the man himself a cause of friction and diffi- 
culty to the Christian community. It was to 
this Refuge that Mr. Wang, now thirty years 
old, poor, sad, and dispirited, came as a patient. 
He found here a man who, according to the estab- 
lished tradition of the opium refuge, received 
even a degraded class of men into his house in 
order to care for them, and performed many 
menial tasks in the discharge of his duty towards 



THE GREAT CHANGE 135 

them. Also the good news of the Evangel was 
proclaimed in the house. If the preaching were 
not sincere but proclaimed a Christ of contention, 
it behoves us to rejoice that even so Christ was 
preached, for Mr. Wang heard something of the 
life of Jesus, His love, and His humility, and 
thought that he saw the very spirit of the doctrine 
exemplijBed in the man who ministered to these 
unfortunate patients. His heart was overwhelmed 
by the love of God ; and the beauty of Christ, after 
which he for so many years had blindly felt, lest 
haply he might find, was now revealed to him. 
On the ninth day, for lack of money, he was 
obliged to cut his treatment short and return 
home ; but henceforth nothing could separate 
him from the love of tiod. 

The rumour of his conversion soon spread, and 
many visited the workshop where the silversmith 
sat at his daily occupation, questioning him, 
hearing his story, and taking note of the great 
change in him. From the first he exercised a 
great influence on men, and soon a few were joining 
with him morning and evening for prayer and 
reading of the Bible. 

The last month of the year — a period dreaded 
by the Chinaman whose liabilities exceed his 
assets — found him in great straits. A fever had 
laid him low, but as soon as strength returned 
sufficiently to sit up in bed and work he was 
plying his trade once more, and it was thus his 
creditors found him when they came to press 
their claims. 

The Chinese universal system of debt does not 
allow for the exercise of mercy, as each creditor is 



136 THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 

himself a debtor, and his object in securing pay- 
ments is to relieve the pressure brought to bear 
on himself by his own creditors. Nevertheless, 
the sight of the sick man forcing himself to work, 
and the reputation he had for integrity so affected 
them that they left the house again, begging him 
to reserve his strength and free his mind from 
immediate anxiety on their account. Health and 
strength finally returned, and intercourse was 
established with the Hwochow missionaries, which 
resulted in his baptism. By the year 1900 a group 
of Christian men and women formed the nucleus 
of a church in the village. Mr. Wang this year 
became a widower for the second time, the wife 
he had taken some years previously dying in 
childbirth, leaving him the care of two small 
children. The newborn babe it was impossible 
for him to rear, and he gave it away to a friend 
whose wife had lost her own child and now took 
this one to her breast. 

As the dangers of that fateful year thickened 
and news came of persecutions and massacres, the 
Church trembled and wondered how she would en- 
dure. Finally it became known that Boxers were 
marching on the village. Mr. Wang was recognised 
as leader of the local Christians, and to him they 
would certainly come. He called his little boy 
and girl to kneel with him in the cave, and com- 
mitted the matter to iod. At sunset, a sound of 
rushing wind was heard and a violent thunder- 
storm burst on the district. Hail, wind, and rain 
were followed by a terrific cloud-burst which 
swept man and beast away in its irresistible 
violence. The narrow mountain roads were com- 




PASTOR WANa 



To face page 136. 



HELPMATE OF CHRIST 137 

pletely carried away by the course of the waters, 
and the Boxers never came. 

It was a great spiritual experience for Mr. Wang, 
to whom God spake not in the thunder nor in the 
storm, but in a still small voice which asserted 
His boundless claim on the life preserved from 
danger. From that time he was conscious of a 
new strength and power, which resulted in his 
shortly giving up his trade of metal-worker to take 
charge of the Hwochow Men's Opium Refuge. 
That position he still holds, and thanks to him 
the good name and repute of this institution is 
widespread. All his noblest gifts find their full 
development in the work which makes hourly 
claims on patience, forbearance, devotion, long- 
suffering, meekness, and all those qualities which 
are bound up in the one characteristic of love. 
From amongst the men in his charge a steady 
stream return home to destroy idols and subse- 
quently request baptism. When the question is 
asked : " How came you to believe ? " the answer 
will be : "I owe it to Pastor Wang, who taught 
me about Christ and taught me to pray." His 
methods are not those of the evangelist who 
gathers in the crowds, but one by one he wins 
them to the Lord. In one particular only did I 
hear him censured by a Christian, and that was 
on the occasion of his ordination to the pastorate. 
A Church member protested that a stronger man 
than Wang Bing-guin was needed for the work. 
" See my case," he said. " When, as you know, I 
was recently the subject of persecution, I came 
to Elder Wang for assistance. He listened to my 
story and urged me to pray and have patience. 



138 THE LIFE STORY OF PASTOR WANG 

This I did, but matters only got worse, and I re- 
turned to insist on his taking action on my behalf. 
Would you believe that he spoke of nothing more 
practical than prayer and patience again ? On 
the third occasion, when I had very nearly made 
up my mind to go straight to the Mandarin, he 
only urged : ' I fear that prayer and patience are 
your only lawful weapons, my brother.' " 

The opinion of the heathen regarding Mr. Wang 
was forced upon my attention in a rather startling 
way. We were preaching one day to a group of 
village women, and as an old lady in the crowd 
heard us explaining that " all have sinned and come 
short of the glory of God," she said : " Those 
words are untrue, for I knew a man who never 
spoke a false word and never did an unkind 
deed." Interested, we asked who he was, and 
she replied : " Oh, he afterwards followed your 
Church ; his name is Wang Bing-guin." 



A VISIT TO THE BASE 



-- Your heavenly Father knoweth that ye are needing 
all these things." .i 

" I would be undone if I had not access to the King's 
chamber of Presence to show Him all the business." — 
Rutherford. 

. " Dear children ! 

Let us not be loving in word nor yet with the tongue. 
But in deed and truth." 

The First Epistle of John. 






CHAPTER XIV 

A VISIT TO THE BASE 

From Whence we are again sent forth with 
Fresh Supplies 

IT was with mixed feelings that we came to 
realise that the days were few until that 
experience known as " taking furlough " was 
to be ours. 

It was indeed hard to leave our post. England 
seemed so far away, and the thought of having 
to readjust oneself to English ways and English 
dress was not inviting. The desire to see relatives 
and friends pulled toward the West, but I reaUsed 
that an even stronger magnet was drawing me 
with tremendous force to remain in the land^ of 
the Celestial. 

It was arranged that two experienced missionaries, 
the Misses Higgs and Johnson, should join Miss 
Mandeville who had been with us for nearly two 
years, during our absence. A year of strenuous 
effort on their part in a post requiring the exercise 
of tact and forbearance, enabled us to see marked 
progress in the work upon our return a year later. 

In order to carry out our plan of advance new 
buildings were necessary, and a consultation was 

held as to the sum required. On the most econ- 

141 

V 



142 A VISIT TO THE BASE 

omical computation this would certainly be £500, 
and we left for England with the hope and prayer 
that if it were for the glory of God this sum might 
be forthcoming. 

The ninths passed by, and sums various were 
contributed. We were due to leave England in 
March, and we were still far short of the required 
amount, when in February, my friend and Pastor, 
Dr. Campbell Morgan, arranged that I should 
have an opportunity of telling the members of 
Westminster Chapel of the work in Hwochow. It 
was Sunday morning and the usual collection for 
Church expenses had been taken, but at the close 
of the service Dr. Morgan announced that those 
who wished to do so might send contributions to him, 
which would be forwarded to me. Thanks to the 
generosity and kindness of those concerned, we left 
for China with our £500 less £50. In March we 
started on the interesting journey through Siberia, 
bringing with us that which was of more value 
than much gold. Miss French's younger sister, 
Francesca, to join us in our missionary work. 

•\Ve reached Moscow, that fascinating city with 
its churches, Kremlin, and numerous historic 
interests. We seemed to be at the parting of the 
way where East and West meet and merge. Partly 
for the sake of economy and partly for the interest 
of being more with the people of the land, we decided 
to travel, not by the train de luxe, but by the 
Russian daily post train. We were thus able with 
comfort td do the journey from London to Peking 
for £20 each, whereas by. the International train 
£35 is required for fare alone. 

How keenly we enjoyed it all ! The wide, roomy 



RETURNING WITH SUPPLIES 143 

railway compartments, the ^low, steady movement 
of the broad gauge train, enabling one to read and 
write with comfort ; the rush with a tin kettle 
for hot water from the huge tanks with unlimited 
supply, provided at each station ; the IJuying of 
the day's provision from the peasants who crowded 
to the platforms with eggs, butter, and milk; 
the reading aloud of some Russian book in the 
Slavonic surroundings, which contributed so much 
to make its disconcerting unexpectednesses seem 
the natural expression of the Russian tempera- 
ment. 

How delightful it all was ; but when we reached 
Manchuria ToAvn and found ourselves in the midst 
of Chinese, we felt the thrill which comes with 
the first sight of home. A few more days, and we 
were in Peking. 

We walked in the acres of parkland which sur- 
round the Temple of Heaven, and saw its blue-and- 
yellow-tiled roofs outlined on the azure of the 
Eastern sky. We stood in the pavilion where 
the " Son of Heaven," fasting, rested before he 
proceeded to pray for his people in the double 
office of priest and king. 

What gorgeous scenes the midnight skies have 
witnessed where the altar raises its marble carv- 
ings and mystic symbols to the open vault of 
heaven. No sign of idolatry is visible ; here he 
worshipped Heaven and Earth, and bowed before 
the Supreme Ruler, praying for the millions of 
his people to whom he stood as father. A mag- 
nificent conception ! The mind of man could 
scarcely rise higher in ethics of worship, as in 
solemn splendour the beasts are slain, and the 



144 A VISIT TO THE BASE 

prostrate Emperor uAder the starlit sky calls 
upon the unknown god. Confucius seemed to 
realise the unbridgable chasm between the offender 
and his judge when he said : " If a man have offended 
against heaven, there is none to whom he can 
pray " ; and here the ruler of this great people 
prayed, but with a recognition of limitation 
which brought him, later on, back to the famiUar 
idol shrines with an offering of incense and accept- 
able gifts. 

From the quiet dreams of that place, we returned 
to the hustle and bustle of native city life. Our 
rickshaw men, with marvellous speed and agility, 
were soon rushing us through the crowds of pedlars 
shouting, yelling, and calling on every passer-by 
to purchase their goods. Beggars, scarcely recog- 
nisable as human beings, knocked their foreheads 
on the ground, beseeching us to give them some 
cash. The moral support of a policeman is in- 
adequate to the task of protecting the newcomer 
who has yielded to an impulse of pity. 

On we rushed through massive gates, where we 
ran serious risks of an overturn in meeting a string 
of heavily laden camels, with sonorous bell hanging 
to the neck ; brightly and gaily dressed ladies 
passed and repassed in rickshaws ; men on horse- 
back, coalheavers, foreign women on bicycles, 
shining motor-cars, and glass-panelled, silk-uphol- 
stered carriages composed a moving picture, with 
the gates and huge enclosure of the forbidden 
city as background. From the pandemonium 
of Chinatown we swung into Legation quarter, 
where macadamised roads take the place of cobble- 
stones» and for this you call down blessings ou 



UNSUSPECTED RESERVES 145 

civilisation, the rubber tyfes of your rickshaw 
running rapidly and smoothly over the way. 
Without transition, you pass from East to West. 
The Wagon-Lits Hotel's fine buildings face you, 
large foreign shops abound, at night electric lights 
will blaze over the streets still filled with pleasure- 
seekers, thoughtless and forgetful, though the 
words written in days of siege can be clearly 
descried on the broken fragment of Legation wall : 
"Lest We Forget." 

At the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank we 
entered to transfer money which was to enable 
us to erect those longed-for buildings in Hwochow. 
Whilst I was transacting my business, a voice 
behind me addressed Miss French by name, and 
the cashier looked up quickly. Immediately 
upon the conclusion of my business he asked : 
" Is that Miss French of Taiyiianfu ? Fifty 
pounds have been lying to her account for three 
years, and we have been unsuccessful in tracing 
her whereabouts." Identity having been fully 
established the money with interest was paid 
to us, and with our £500 complete and some 
extra, we journeyed homewards. A strange coin- 
cidence you say I Yea, verily, unless " we take 
our courage in both hands, and call it God." 

After a train journey for the next two days, 
came slow travelling from Taiyiianfu to Hwochow. 
Long and weary days, in which one takes many 
hours to accomplish thirty miles, turning in at 
night to a Shansi inn. A wonderful place it is, 
carried on with the minimum of expense and 
trouble to the owner, whose responsibility ends 
when he has provided you with a kettle of boiling 
10 



146 A VISIT TO THE BASE 

water in an absolutely empty room, the walls 
and ceiling of which are dirty beyond description. 
In the courtyard are a few sheds where your 
mules are stalled for the night, while horses and 
donkeys, kicking and braying, vie with insecta 
in enlivening for you the hours of darkness. 
Meanwhile your landlord has sent to ask whether 
you are requiring food. The bill of fare offers 
mien,^ with accompanying condiments of salt, 
vinegar, and red pepper. Should you be a bon 
vivant you will ask for onion and a few bean 
sprouts, though this entail the reckless expendi- 
ture of the further sum of one penny. You 
lodge a protest at such extortionate charges, for, 
as your servant remarks, " at such a price we 
cannot afford to eat." Two sticks cut from a 
tree serve for table cutlery. " I hate luxury," 
said Goethe, " it kills the imagination." Here 
imagination flourishes. Through the dirt and 
grime of the wall I can decipher a poem which 
tells me that when I come to reckon with my 
landlord, my account will be as flowing river. 
Other scrawls eulogise him, and assure me : 
" Whoever sleeps upon this kang, sleeps in peace." 
(I must have been an exception !) An idol, half- 
tom, hangs in one corner of the room, and in 
another I discover a Christian tract. Who has 
passed this way before me ? I am aroused from 
my reverie by the sound of a voice, which utters, 
without seeing the humour and pathos of the 
remark : " The foreign devil is reading characters." 
I turn to see an eye filling the space of a torn 
piece of window paper, shamelessly scrutinising 

* Vermicelli — cut with a knife. 



BACK TO THE FRONT 147 

me, and as I do so the intruder withdraws to 
discuss with the muleteers my failings, virtues, 
and intimate habits. Long before light the men 
are calling us, and we arise, anxious to lose none 
of the cool morning air. Delays occur, for last 
night a portion of the harness was pawned to 
pay for the men's supper. Either we supply the 
necessary money to redeem the pledge, or wait 
there indefinitely. We first declare that nothing 
will make us produce that sum which they are 
not entitled to receive until the journey's end, 
but both they and we know that a compromise 
must be effected. Alas, it is already light and 
the sun rises glorious, but to-day we are to reach 
home, and nothing seems hard. A short stay 
for dinner, and at sunset the gates of Hwochow 
are visible. I cannot describe these homecomings ; 
the welcomers and welcomed know, and that is 
enough. 



THE BUILDERS 



*49 



' The house is not for me, it is for Him. 
His Royal thoughts require many a stair. 
Many a tower, many an outlook fair. 
Of which I have no thought, and need no care. 
Where I am most perplexed, it may be there 
Thou makest a secret chamber holy — dim, 
Where Thou wilt come to help my deepest prayer." 

George Macdonald. 

-- Toil, workman, toil ; thy gracious Lord 
WUl give thee soon a full reward ; 
Then toil, obedient to His word, 
Until He come. 

Sing, pilgrim, sing ; Christ's mighty Hand 
Will bring thee safe to that bright land ; 
Then sing — it is thy Lord's command — 
Until He come." Anon. 



»5o 



CHAPTER XV 
THE BUILDERS 

Relating how the Supplies were used 

IN an incredibly short space of time our 
compound was overrun by a gang of one 
hundred men from the province of Honan. The 
land in Southern Shansi has been too fertile and 
yielded too rich a crop of opium to leave us good 
workmen ; when therefore we want work quickly 
and well done, we inquire for a Honan or Shantung 
man. 

Our helpers searched the countryside for likely 
trees, which were felled and in a few days made 
their reappearance as pillars and beams. Old 
buildings were bought, demolished, and sorted 
into usable and unusable material, so that as the 
walls went up the empty spaces about the city 
increased in number. 

Before dawn each morning we were aroused by 
the beating of a loud gong which called the men 
to work. This work they might not leave until 
the last streak of daylight had faded, except for 
the brief space allowed for breakfast and dinner, 
when huge cauldrons of a sticky mass of boiled 
millet was ladled out in generous portions. 
Millet is the cheapest grain food procurable, and 



152 THE BUILDERS 

the Shansi man cannot thrive upon it ; to the 
Honan man it is the staff of life, and in conse- 
quence their rate of wage is lower. 

A race of giants they were, handsome, magni- 
ficently built, and well skilled in the use of their 
simple tools. In the use of the adze they were 
particularly proficient, and able to plane a section 
of wood to within a hairbreadth of thickness by 
the use of this alone. They liked to use it for 
the most delicate work, so certain are they of 
their accurate manipulation, and on one occasion 
when I supplied a bandage to bind a wound on 
the finger of a workman who had met with a 
slight accident, as I turned to take up my scissors, 
the head carpenter, without a trace of humour on 
his face, stepped forward with a four-foot long 
adze, and offered to sever the calico. 

Heavy work requiring the combined strength 
of several men, such as the beating in of founda- 
tions, or the lifting of a great beam, was accom- 
panied by the sound of the weirdest rhythmic 
chant, sustained for hours if needs be. 

A night watchman was employed, who in 
accordance with the custom of the country con- 
stantly beat a loud gong, by means of which any 
intending thief is made aware that all are not 
asleep. The English policeman's rubber sole, and 
the Chinese watchman's noisy methods, strange 
to relate, attain the same ends. 

On one occasion, hearing blood-curdling yells 
at midday, we inquired and were told that a work- 
man had caught a tramp, red-handed, in the act 
of stealing his tools. Our informant described 
him as aged, starved, and infirm, " truly pitiable," 



PROBLEMS OF LABOUR 153 

and strung up by his thumbs to a beam. The 
sound of those yells made us fear that something 
akin to the famous death by slow degrees, so 
constantly referred to in Chinese jurisprudence, 
was being carried into effect at our very door. 
Pastor Wang, the merciful, was already interced- 
ing on the man's behalf, and we sent a peremptory 
message that the thing must stop. Our desire 
was acceded to, and the wretched victim made 
his escape, more terrified than really hurt. 

The next reminder of the incident was the 
following item in the builder's final account : 
"To missing tools, unclaimed in accordance with 
missionaries' loving heart, 2s." 

One of the minor expenses connected with our 
building operations was the inviting of guests 
to a succession of feasts. The occasion of the 
stamping of the contract in the Yamen, which 
marked the conclusion of the middlemen's re- 
sponsibility in the purchase of property, was 
celebrated by a handsome meal, to which all in 
any way connected with the transaction were 
invited. 

The necessity of conciliating our neighbours to 
the inevitable trouble which the dust and litter 
of building would entail upon them, caused us 
to spread another feast, to which all who could 
shelter beneath the term " neighbour " were asked. 

By the building contract we found ourselves 
obliged to conform to the customary requirement 
made by workmen that every tenth day we should 
provide a " reward for work," which, in fact, 
amounted to supplying one pound of white flour 
and a handful of vegetable to each workman, 



154 THE BUILDERS 

This arrangement ensured pleasant relations 
between the men and ourselves, for each time 
they were our guests grievances were forgotten 
and a fresh start made. The swinging of the huge 
beams of the church roof was the occasion for 
extra festivity. 

This custom of inviting guests does much to 
smooth over difficulties, and is customary, not 
only in matters of building, but also on numerous 
other occasions. For instance, the autumn rains 
swelling the river necessitate the use of a ferry 
boat for about two months of the year. The ex- 
pense of this is met by public subscriptions from 
the more important people of the city, and a 
small fare for each passenger. Those whose 
names appear on the subscription list are invited 
to an annual banquet given by the ferrymen ; 
I have often wondered what would happen were 
some simple soul to accept the invitation, which 
in reality is only intended to serve as a reminder 
that subscriptions are now due. 

It is part of the convenient social system of this 
land that no woman would presume to put in an 
appearance on such occasions. Throughout the 
building operations the only part of the feast in 
which we were privileged to share — ^which privilege 
was unquestioningly granted — ^was the payment 
of all expenses. 

How glad we should have been to find such an 
easy solution to the problem of the importunate 
widow. This aged lady entered a claim for two 
stones occupying nine square feet of waste land, 
to the sale of which she declared her consent had 
never been given. The matter had been referred 



THE STATION COMPLETE 155 

to middlemen who decided in our favom* ; neverthe- 
less, we learned to dread the daily tap, tap, of her 
stick, and the shrill squawk of her strident voice 
as she came with fresh deeds (some of them dating 
back to former dynasties) of which she demanded 
the examination. She was generally accompanied 
by friends, all of whom were prepared to support 
her claim. 

I have seen her stand by the workmen, and 
with her nagging tongue drive them, and the 
foreman, almost to despair. It was impossible 
to recognise her rights even to the extent of 
feasting her, so we endured until the walls were 
built, and then to compensate her for her trouble 
handed her the equivalent of 2s., which sum she 
accepted, but every time we meet her she reminds 
us that we are occupying land which belongs to 
her. 

The first autumn frosts saw a large expanse of 
waste land, which had formerly lain around our 
compound, transformed into a neat series of 
courtyards, and a spacious church occupied 
seventy feet of the main street frontage, providing 
sitting accommodation for a congregation of six 
hundred. In all, we had erected fifty gien^ of 
room space, in addition to the church. 

Thanks to an unusually profitable rate of silver 
exchange which held during these few months, 
and owing to the faithful oversight and scrupulous 
economy of Pastor Wang and his helpers, our 
£500 proved sufficient to meet all necessary 
requirements of Church, School, Bible School, 
and Dispensary. 

^ The space between two beams in a Chinese building. 



■^ 



WOMEN'S BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOL 



157 



'- Woe is me if I preach not the Gk)spel." 

Motto of the Hwochow Bible School. 

*' Cornelius halted at a doorway in a long, low wall — the 
outer wall of some villa courtyard, it might be supposed — 
as if at liberty to enter, and rest there awhile. He held 
the door open for his companion to enter also, if he would, 
with an expression, as he lifted the latch, which seemed to 
ask Marius, '- Would you like to see it ? " Was he wiUing 
to look upon that, the seeing of which might define — ^yes ! 
define the critical turning-point in his days ? " — Walter 
Pater. 



«9» 



CHAPTER XVI 

WOMEN'S BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOL 

Which tells how a Link was established 
BETWEEN Westminster and Hwochow 
Bible Schools 

AMONGST the courtyards which constituted 
our new premises was one into the walls 
of which was inserted a stone, engraved with the 
words in Chinese and English : " Women's Bible 
School. Erected by the Congregation of West- 
minster Chapel, London. Jesus said : ' I am the 
Way, the Truth, and the Life.' " 

The women's rooms had never been large enough 
to hold those who were anxious to come, and now 
at last suitable premises were going to make 
possible the fulfilment of a long-cherished plan — 
that of giving adequate training to suitable women. 
It seemed a long step from the days when, freely 
roaming around the villages, we taught some of 
these women the very first character they knew, 
spelling out with them the text : " God so loved the 
world that He gave His only-begotten Son, that 
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, 
but have everlasting life." The next step had been 
attendance at a station class for twenty days, 
sometimes repeated yearly but never leading to 
advanced work. In our new premises we divided 

IS9 



i6o WOMEN'S BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOL 

the students into three groups : Firstly, those 
attending a ten days' course, who served as train- 
ing-ground to a second group of more advanced 
women who had passed the initial stage, and 
who now entered for the two years' course of 
Bible training and practical experience as evan- 
gelists. Thirdly, a picked few who, having re- 
ceived more regular teaching, were able to continue 
their own studies and help to superintend the work 
of the juniors, especially on the practical side, 
meanwhile giving a considerable portion of their 
time to aggressive evangelistic work. 

Foremost amongst these was Mrs. Liang, mother 
of Ling Ai, the headmistress of the girls' school. 
Strong, true, a woman of no ordinary ability, little 
escaped her penetrating glance. It was in middle 
age that she first heard the Gospel, an indirect 
influence of the opium refuge work; for Mrs. 
Liang had never smoked opium, nor had any 
member of her family. A neighbour, however, 
had, and on her return from the Refuge she pro- 
duced with pardonable pride the copy of St. 
John's Gospel which she had bought, and better 
still, could read. It was hard for Mrs. Liang to 
see the former degraded opium smoker ahead of 
her in learning, and she persuaded her husband 
to give her the needed help. She borrowed the 
book and started at the first chapter. She had 
not been to the Mission House nor had she seen 
the missionaries, but before she met them she 
had met their Lord. It was but one more proof 
that " the words I speak unto you they are 
spirit, and they are life," and the Holy Spirit 
illuminating the written pages brought home to 




•a '^ 



o 

Ox. 

I o£ 

111 '»<■« 

5 S^ 



MRS. LIANG i6i 

her its meaning. " He came unto His own, and 
His own received Him not," she read, and how 
can I say what took place ? She tells me that she 
was convicted of sin, and that she found her 
Saviour. 

Intercourse with Miss Jacobsen was soon estab- 
lished, and. under Mr. Cheng's influence her hus- 
band also believed. Mrs. Liang was baptized, 
her own feet and Ling Ai's were unbound, and the 
latter became a pupil in the girls' school. 

Mrs. Liang herself lived quietly at home until 
the year 1900. At that time the local Boxer 
leader was a near neighbour of hers, and he was 
prepared to kill these well-known adherents of 
a foreign religion. On recovering consciousness, 
however, from the trance which preceded the 
issuing of inspired orders, he uttered the surprising 
words : " Return each to your own place ; let each 
busy himself with his own affairs." Not daring 
to disobey his followers scattered, and the small 
group of Christians was safe. Ling Ai has described 
the experiences of those days in the following 
words : " For months we were as those whose 
hair is bound around the neck, not knowing at 
what moment we should be called upon to die, 
but after our deliverance we united in saying : 
* We have been under the shadow of the Almighty.' " 

When we came to Hwochow Mrs. Liang, realising 
our difficulties, was one of the first to come to our 
assistance, and quickly endeared herself to us by 
her thoughtful, kind, practical ways. 

To the work of preaching she gave herself with 
unusual energy and devotion, so that to-day there 
are few women in Hwochow who do not know her, 
II 



i62 WOMEN'S BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOL 

and scarcely a courtyard that has not been visited 
by her. 

Assisting Mrs. Liang is Mrs. Bah, who the first 
time I saw her refused to have any intercourse 
with us. She was the senior wife of a wealthy 
man who had died early, leaving the two widows 
to arrange matters as best they could. The 
younger one smoked opium, but was the proud 
possessor of a son who by law was the property 
of the elder wife, but it was obvious that to the 
younger was due the honour of introducing a son 
and heir to the house. 

The fact that Mrs. Bah the younger at last 
became a Christian and left her evil habits, did not 
make the elder woman more friendly, though she 
had in time to confess that life was easier for 
both under the new conditions. After some time 
the Christians of the village received her per- 
mission to use a cave in her spacious court for 
worship, in return for their offer to put it in repair. 
" It can do no harm," she argued, " and repairs 
are badly needed." Every evening they met to 
read the Bible and pray, and Mrs. Bah, prompted 
by curiosity, took her spinning to within earshot. 
She understood little, but the reiteration of the 
words " Heavenly Father " puzzled and interested 
her. "If it really" be the Heavenly Father whom 
they worship," she reasoned, " they should be 
in the best room." The thought grew upon her 
until a change was effected, and to this day Mrs. 
Bah's guest-room is the village church. She soon 
left her spinning-wheel to join the worshippers 
and gradually came to the triumphant belief, 
weak at first, but taking slow shape, that " the 



MRS. BAH 163 

attitude of the soul to its Maker can be something 
more than a distant reverence and overpowering 
awe, that we can indeed hold converse with God, 
speak with Him, call upon Him, put — to use a 
human phrase — our hand in His, desiring only to 
be led accordmg to His will." This was the 
spiritual story of Mrs. Bah. 

I could tell of many others and the theme is 
tempting, for by so many and such varied paths 
have these comrades travelled. To mention only 
our youngest student who at the age of sixteen, 
member of a heathen family, heard the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ from an elder sister, a patient of the 
Women's Opium Refuge. She determined that 
as far as in her lay she would be a Christian. 
Yielding to her wishes, her parents engaged her to 
the son of a believer. After her marriage, when 
her entrance to the Bible School was suggested 
we demurred, but agreed to her attending a station 
class, only to discover that once more the Spirit 
of God had accomplished that of which we knew 
nothing. This young woman, who had only 
heard the Gospel from a sister who herself did not 
believe, had been truly converted. Reference to 
the curriculum in Appendix A will make it clear 
that the subject which has the pre-eminence is 
Bible study. The students prepare the books there 
mentioned, and during the years they are with us 
cover also the course indicated by Dr. Campbell 
Morgan's Graded Bible, which Miss French has 
translated for their use. 

The instruction of inquirers in the village centres 
is imdertaken by those women evangelists who 
have completed their course. In places to which 



i64 WOMEN'S BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOL 

they are invited by the local church they hold 
classes of ten days' duration, following the course 
of study as in the central station. By this means 
a large number of women are under instruction, 
and heathens are brought in contact with the 
messengers of the Cross. 

City and village visiting forms an important 
branch of the training, and last but not least, 
classes taken under criticism, when it falls to the 
lot of the missionary to ask the questions which 
might occur to a heathen audience, and to impress 
upon the students the necessity of clear presenta- 
tion of the Gospel. It is desirable that they 
should express the things which have gripped 
them in an individual way, not adopting a Western 
colouring but using to the full their Eastern 
knowledge : " Originality is like a fountain head ; 
orthodoxy is too often only the unimpeachable 
fluid of the water company." 

The prodigal son, for example, naturally smoked 
opium in the far country, and the Chinese pictures 
so represent him. It was not, as we have sup- 
posed, in her confidence that oil would be supplied 
that the widow's faith was exemplified, but rather 
in her willingness at Elisha's conmiand to go forth 
on a borrowing expedition when she was already 
so deeply in debt. 

We are sometimes treated to illustrations truly 
Eastern in character, as the following example 
will indicate. It was accepted by the audience 
as a solemn exhortation, as was the preacher's 
intention, the missionaries being the only ones 
present to whom the humorous side was evident. 
The subject was the importance of a whole- 



CHINESE ORIGINALITY 165 

hearted acceptance of the Gospel, and the foolish- 
ness and uselessness of a half-hearted belief. A 
man, we were told, was begging by the roadside ; 
he was very ill, and a passing doctor had pity on 
him, and gave him some medicine which the man 
promised to take. Questionings, however, arose 
in his mind as to the reliability of the said doctor, 
and yet he could not but take the drug, as he felt 
so ill. A compromise was decided upon, and he 
took half the dose. For a few hours he felt wonder- 
fully well, and rejoiced in his restored condition ; 
towards night the pain was more acute than 
before, and he was at his wits' end. How he 
regretted his folly, for his illness was certainly more 
serious. A few months later the same doctor, 
travelling over the same road, met the same man 
now reduced to a bag of bones. 

" What I " said he ; " are you not the man to 
:^hom I gave medicine last time I came this way ? " 

"I am," he replied, " and I have been much worse 
ever since." 

" Worse ! " exclaimed the physician ; " how is 
that ? " 

" I only took half the dose," said the man ; " I 
did not venture to take the whole." 

" Alas ! alas ! " he replied, " how terrible ! 
Your illness is the result of parasites attacking your 
vitals. That medicine would have killed them all. 
Had you taken the full dose you would have been 
well ; had you tasted none there would have been 
hope for you. You took a small dose, and the 
parasites were sent to sleep, and later, when the 
effect of the drug had gone over, they awoke more 
hvely than ever. Having once tasted of the drug 



i66 WOMEN'S BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOL 

and experienced its effect, nothing will induce 
them to be trapped a second time. Return home, 
and prepare for a lingering death." 

In the moral drawn, the folly of an endeavour to 
serve two masters was made clear — a truth which 
all present felt to have been powerfully inter- 
preted. 



THE DRAW NET LET DOWN INTO THE SEA 



167 



" Take up God's inspired word anywhere you like, and 
while we are called upon to adore the sovereign counsel 
of God and to say constantly that it transcends and surpasses 
all that we can do and all that we can expect, yet He 
does not bring the season of refreshing without engaging 
His children to help Him. The splendour of the grace 
may sometimes conceal man's effort, but it never cancels 
it." — Rev. Elvit Lewis. 



z68 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE DRAW NET LET DOWN INTO THE SEA 

An Account of fresh Efforts to reach the 
Multitude and bring them to Decision 

METHODS in mission work are many, and 
the diversities of gifts bestowed by the 
one Spirit are manifest in the striking variety of 
means put forth to bring to a knowledge of Chrisjf 
the people of the lands in which the members of 
His Church are called to work. 

The teacher rejoices to see the change brought 
about by discipline and regular life in those com- 
mitted to his care. The doctor, exercising his 
gift, succeeds where others have failed in estab- 
lishing confidence and friendly relations which 
prepare a road for those who follow. The itinerant 
missionary sacrifices the comfort of a settled 
dwelling to carry the Gospel to those who dwell 
outside the radius touched by the central station. 

By the exercise of his peculiar gift, each expresses 
the longing that in the hearts of the people he 
sees around, without God and without hope, may 
take place that greatest of miracles called con- 
version. Nevertheless, every missionary has ever 
to guard against a most subtle and deadening 

influence which may be likened to poisonous 

169 



'^^ 



170 THE DRAW NET 

gas in the enemy's country, lulling him to a 
condition wherein the idolatrous practices of the 
people around, instead of stirring him to greater 
activity, come to be regarded as customs of the 
nations amongst whom he lives, deplorable but 
interesting practices. 

The horror experienced on first seeing men bow 
down to wood and stone may give way to a com- 
placency which ceases to expect an immediate 
response to the quickening and convicting power 
of the Spirit of God, and philosophises on the 
gradual emergence of light from the kingdom of 
darkness. The deadening of that vitality which 
drives a man to the seeking of the lost is one of 
the master-strokes of the enemy of souls, and 
one which no man doing spiritual work can afford 
to ignore. 

The sense of this urgency, and a great desire 
that our Chinese fellow-workers might realise 
the fulness of their vocation as evangelists, em- 
boldened us to move in what was then a some- 
what new direction so far as North China was 
concerned, by the holding of a six days' Mission 
for women in our new church in the spring after 
its dedication. 

Miss Gregg of Hwailu, in the Province of 
Chihli, when travelling through Shansi some years 
previously had conducted meetings for school- 
girls in several stations, upon which the blessing 
of God manifestly rested. From that time plans 
were being matured in the minds of the mission- 
aries at Hwochow for a Mission to women 
in that city at the earhest possible date. The 
erection of a church building which could hold 



THE FIRST WOMEN'S MISSION 171 

the number expected made that dream a 
possibility. The city and villages were visited 
by the women evangelists, placards were'^posted 
on the walls, and every effort was made to widely 
advertise. Prayer was offered throughout the 
Church that God would so prevent us in all our 
doings that we might see His salvation. 

The men gladly undertook the arrangements 
for catering, made necessary by the fact that 
women cannot go to the shops to buy food for 
themselves, and this department was splendidly 
managed. We prepared to receive three hundred 
guests, and about three hundred and fifty took 
advantage of the invitation, who, with school- 
girls, Bible School students and helpers, provided 
a resident congregation of little short of five 
hundred. They came long distances on donkey- 
back, in carts, or even walking many miles. 

Large numbers of heathen, attracted by the 
unique sight of so large a concourse of women, 
swelled the numbers at the daily evangelistic 
meetings, and it was an inspiration to see the 
new church packed with women and girls quietly 
and reverently listening to the Gospel message. 
A room was set apart where silence was observed, 
that those who wished to do so might pray 
without fear of disturbance. A band of helpers 
was appointed to teach the passage for the day, 
and outside the church in an adjoining court 
was a book-stall, and here a brisk trade was done 
in hymn-sheets, gospels, and block-printed texts. 

The elder scholars, anxious to do their part, 
acted as stewards ; each one had charge of some 
part of the building, so that should a baby cry 



1/2 THE DRAW NET ' ^' 

and threaten to divert attention, she could carry 
the small offender to an adjoining room and keep 
it there until such time as- it was prepared to 
enjoy the larger gathering. One of the " old 
girls " took charge of small children, and managed 
her creche so successfully that we were undis- 
turbed by the younger portion of the community. 

Each morning before seven a gong sounded 
and all assembled for prayer. After breakfast 
a short Bible - reading was given, the subject 
chosen being the sevenfold " I Am " of St. John's 
Gospel. These meetings were simple and evangel- 
istic, and many testified to blessing received as 
they saw afresh all the wealth laid up in Him 
who is the Way, the Truth, and the Life. 

It was to the eleven and four o'clock meetings 
that the crowds gathered. While the congrega- 
tion was assembling a choir of schoolgirls sang 
hymns, and after reading of Scripture and prayer 
by a Chinese lady, the address was given by 
Miss Gregg. The women listened intently as she 
talked, and illustrated her remarks by objects 
so familiar. The fan used for winnowing the 
grain is, I think, now never used by those who 
attended without the thought asserting itself 
afresh that thus He will separate the wheat 
from the chaff. 

This Mission accomplished all that we had 
hoped. Christ the Redeemer was revealed to 
some who, in obedience to the wishes of the head 
at their household, had passively substituted 
Christianity for that system of idolatrous ob- 
servances- which had constituted their religious 
liie. ^ 

* %' 



Y * THE HARVEST 173 

Chrfst the Master laid His claim upon some 
who had believed, but never served. 

Even heathen women, listening to the earnest, 
convincing words, were startled to a realisation 
that the offer of salvation with which they were 
faced compelled a decision on one side or the 
other, that the detached view with which they 
had hitherto regarded Christianity could no 
longer be maintained. Amongst the schoolgirls 
were some, daughters of Christians, who were in 
precisely the same position as girls in a home- 
land. They neither doubted nor questioned, but 
they now realised that the whole matter had 
assumed a personal aspect, and the individual 
spirit was summoned to an audience with its 
Maker. 

The Evangelists, Bible women, and ripe 
Christians amongst us suddenly saw the fields 
white, and every dilatory thought which sug- 
gested the perennial excuse : " There are yet four 
months and then cometh the harvest," was 
silenced in a sense of immediate urgency : "I 
must be about my Master's business." This 
gathering affected^a wide area, for our visitors 
came from the (countiesTof Hungtung, Chao- 
cheng, and Fensi, now all gladly welcomed by 
the Hwochow church, and missionaries from those 
districts came to share with us in the campaign. 

Six years have passed, and once more a Mission 
for women is advertised to be held on the occasion 
of an idol procession which brings thousands 
into town from the neighbouring villages. This 
time our own evangelistic band was sufficiently 



474 



THE DRAW NET 



strong to undertake the speaking to an audience 
^ almost entirely composed of heathen, who now 
sl; heard, not from a foreigner, but from their own 

people, of the Truth as it is in Jesus. Once more 
we saw decisions made and the evidence of the 
working of Gk)d's Spirit. 

Thus was a further step taken in aggressive 

, ^ \york amongst the women, and a further impetus 

«|5k given to the self -propagation of the Gospel, and 

"' to the fulfilment of the prophecy of Pastor Hsi 

that even Hwochow should see a Resurrection 

morning. 









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LIFE AMONGST THE UPPER TEN 
THOUSAND 



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" Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant 
quarters 1 " 

Confucius. 

"All within the four seas are brethren." 

Confucius. 

" Society and solitude are deceptive names. It is not 
the circumstance of seeing more or fewer people, but the 
readiness of sympathy, that imports." — Emerson. 



;J| 



176 



CHAPTER XVIII 

LIFE AMONGST THE UPPER TEN 
THOUSAND 

Recording Hospitality shown to us by 
THE Official Classes 

IN the centre of every Chinese city stands the 
Yamen, where resides the Mandarin, ad- 
dressed as " Father of the people," before whom 
their wrongs must be laid, and who, as direct 
representative of the central Government, exercises 
autocratic power. His word is law, a man must 
kneel in his presence when addressing him, and it 
is a penal offence to enter his private dwelling- 
court unsummoned. His term of office is limited 
to a few years, and a change of official entails the 
removal of his whole suite. The new Mandarin 
will bring with him his secretaries, underlings, 
men and women servants, and the prosperity of 
a city will largely depend upon the personal 
attitude of the " Great Man " to matters of 
reform. 

Our intercourse with the Hwochow Yamen has 
been frequent, and owing to the strong attitude 
taken by the leaders of the Church against inter- 
ference in law cases where Christians are concerned, 
it has been of a purely social character. 

12 



178 THE UPPER TEN THOUSAND 

My first visit was in answer to a request from 
the Mandarin that I would go to see his wife who 
was suffering from acute toothache. I was re- 
quested to make preparations for an extraction, 
and was informed that if it suited my convenience 
I should be fetched that same afternoon. Ac- 
cordingly, I made ready and in due course the 
Yamen carriage arrived, a springless, but elegantly 
upholstered cart, and accompanied by a woman 
servant we started. Ahead of us an outrider, 
dressed in a long gown, wore a hat of the inverted 
bowl shape, decorated with a spreading scarlet 
tassel. Behind followed other retainers, and thus 
escorted we passed in triumphal procession through 
the quiet Hwochow streets. After many bumps 
and anxious moments as we splashed in and out 
of mud-pits, we turned into the wide space which 
surrounds the outermost entrance of the Yamen. 
Here crowds of men were reading the latest pro- 
clamation pasted to the walls, whilst others, 
talking earnestly, discussed the case tried that 
very day, of the poor man who in vain sought 
redress from the rapacity of his wealthy neighbour. 
He had knelt, and laying his forehead to the 
ground at the feet of the Mandarin pleaded for 
justice, but only to find that his condemnation 
was a foregone conclusion. All these groups 
were scattered by the yells of our outrider and 
the cracks of our carter's whip, and the sellers 
of cooked food gathered their piles of little bowls 
and swiftly set them out of harm's way, for the 
habits of Yamen retainers are well known to the 
populace, and there is little satisfaction to be had 
when complaints are presented and compensation 



AN IMPERIAL INVITATION 179 

for destroyed goods is claimed. With ever-increas- 
ing speed and corresponding agony, we were 
driven up the steep ascent which leads to the 
outer courtyard, where after a preliminary bump 
down two steps we found ourselves on compara- 
tively smooth ground, and rolled along a broad, 
high, paved path leading to the second great 
archway where our conveyance came to a stand- 
still, and we waited whilst our cards were taken 
and presented to the ladies we had come to see. 
Many soldiers were standing about, and various 
instruments used in the punishment of prisoners 
were fastened to the walls as warning to all who 
passed that way. A very few minutes and we 
were invited to leave our cart and follow the man 
appointed to conduct us to the innermost court 
where the Tai-tais ^ lived ; slaves attended 
us on either side, whilst the retainer went ahead 
carrying our scarlet cards breast high before him. 

A vista of courtyards opened one from another, 
and we saw a number of little ladies in charming, 
brilliant, butterfly-like garments coming to meet 
us with odd, graceful, stilted movements. Every- 
thing must from this point be done according to 
the strictest etiquette, so the Tai-tai of least rank 
came first to meet us, and led us back to where 
stood the head wife, in whose presence we respect- 
fully removed our eyeglasses and made a bow. 

There were a large number of women about, 
for this Mandarin had two wives besides several 
daughters-in-law. We were invited to a reception- 
room where carpets, felts, tables, and chairs were 
all scarlet in colour, and here were served with^ 
^ The polite term for the wife of an official. 



i8o THE UPPER TEN THOUSAND 

delicious fragrant tea and small cakes, in which 
were mixed rose leaves, nuts, and sugar. All 
the preliminary questions required by good 
manners were first asked — our respective " vener- 
able ages " and details of our various near relatives — 
but soon curiosity overflowed into many inquiries 
concerning our " honourable country," and we 
were helped to more tea and cakes, and begged 
to make ourselves at home. We, on our part, 
led the conversation back to matters concerned 
with the object of our residence in this country, 
and received from our hostess extravagant compli- 
ments upon our extraordinary ability and learning, 
the reputation of which, they said, was well known 
to the Mandarin. 

The object of my visit was then mentioned, and 
I was asked to see the tooth, of whigh, being 
very loose, I recommended the extraction, and 
was able to assure the patient that the pain would 
not be very great. Many of the younger women 
gathered around her, comforting her, and covered 
her eyes that she might not see the forceps ; they 
begged her to remember that the pain would soon 
be over, and as soon as I could induce her to open 
her mouth, I removed the troublesome member. 
" How wonderful ! " they all exclaimed. " Why, 
it did not hurt at all ! " 

After such a surgical triumph, long-neglected 
and half-forgotten pains were remembered by the 
bystanders, and all the ladies on my next visit 
came to me with some complaint. We sought to 
awaken in them the sense of those far deeper ills 
which they so little realised, finding once more 
that in foUqwing the method of Christ a sense of 



GRACIOUS ENTERTAINMENT i8i 

need had been awakened: "Ye seek Me because 
ye did eat of the loaves and were filled. I am 
the bread of life." 

As soon as the operation was over, we suggested 
that we must be returning home, but this could 
not be allowed until we had partaken of further 
refreshment, and servants appeared with delicacies 
— meat balls in gravy, flavoured as only a Chinese 
cook can flavour, lotus seeds in syrup, luscious 
fruits, sweetmeats, and a drink of apricot kernels, 
gweet to excess. The meat balls were daintily 
wrapped in pastry, and as she helped me to some 
of these, the Tai-tai said : " I think you do not 
care for pork." I replied that we did not as a 
rule eat much pork. "I am so glad," she said; 
" these are fowl, and therefore you can eat them 
without fear." A few days later we heard that 
the head cook was under severe punishment and 
incarcerated in a dungeon, because he had not 
taken the trouble to find out what were our special 
tastes in matters of the table, and had served 
pork in place of fowl ! Some years later he was 
a patient in our Refuge, and told Mr. Wang 
that he would like to make a feast for us. We 
thought this extremely kind of him, considering 
what he had suffered on our behalf, and he was 
asked to our kitchen to prepare the food, while 
we invited some friends to share it with us. I 
think he was a man of preconceived ideas rather 
than a genius at making inquiries, whatever his 
talent in the culinary art, for he said he knew 
foreigners liked sweet things, and he served us 
twenty or more courses of the sweetest food it 
has been my good fortune to eat I 



1 82 THE UPPER TEN THOUSAND 

Our visit proved to be the commencement of 
a most friendly intercourse. A few days later the 
outrider, cart, and retainers were at our door 
again, this time escorting the ladies who had come 
to return the call. They enjoyed the outing 
considerably, as is easy to see they would, when 
one remembers that they had lived three years 
in Hwochow and had now crossed the threshold of 
their home for the first time during that period. 
They could have no intercourse at all with the 
bourgeoisie of the town, and apart from visitors 
staying at the Yamen, enjoyed no social life. 

In due course we were invited to an " eight times 
eight " feast, consisting of elaborate courses, in 
which the sweet, the fishy, and the meaty alter- 
nated in bewildering miscellany, whilst our vision 
was delighted by the elegant dishes, the lovely 
coral china, the pure form of the many-branched 
candlesticks, and, above all, the graceful, gay little 
ladies who manipulated the difficult, slippery food 
with such a masterly command of their nimble 
chop- sticks. Here for the first time I tasted the 
delicious birds'-nest soup, gelatinous in con- 
sistency and fishy in taste, being, in fact, a mass 
compounded of seaweed and small fish into a 
nest by a sea-bird. 

So far all was well, but we came home faced by 
the difficulty that it was now our turn to offer a 
return feast which must be equally elegant. There 
was only one cook in the city who was capable of 
the preparation of a suitable repast, and he was 
in their employ, and though some surprising 
things are possible in China, we did not see how 
we could secure his services to cook a meal for his 



A RETURN CALL 183 

own mistress. We were, therefore, thrown back 
upon our slender resources, and decided that an 
Enghsh dinner-party was the only possible solu- 
tion of the problem. Here at least we were tread- 
ing upon familiar ground, and were free from the 
snares of Chinese etiquette. We need have no 
fear of giving offence to our guests by placing 
the fish upon the table with its head toward that 
quarter which would indicate their position to be 
of military instead of civil rank, and many other 
equally subtle and delicate questions would now 
have no terrors for us. We felt it incumbent upon 
us to do all in our power to please the eye as well 
as the palate, and while we fully realised our 
inability to delight our guests with such beauty 
as that to which they were accustomed, we did 
our best. Salmon is a great asset, being decorative 
as well as tasty, and only the hard-pressed know 
the many uses of a tin of sardines. Jelly is a 
certain success, and the last plum-pudding from 
home, cut into dice and blazing in a blue flame, 
looks mysteriously clever. A bottle of cochineal 
is worth its weight in gold on such occasions, and 
the piece monUe, which none but an expert could 
have recognised as spinach, beetroot, carrot, and 
yam tinted pink, would have done no discredit 
to Benoist. The novelty of handling spoon and 
fork, and even so dangerous a weapon as a knife, 
did much to enhance the pleasure of the meal. 

The conversation was now much more intimate 
than on the earUer occasions, and both sides 
felt free to ask questions on matters which had 
excited curiosity. " Does the sun ever shine 
in your country ? " asked the Tai-tai. " I have 



1 84 THE UPPER TEN THOUSAND 

heard that England is a land of shades." " When 
I left my home in Szechwan I was very homesick. 
Are you ? " inquired another lady, but before I 
could reply, her companion answered for me : 
" The ability of these ladies is so great that they 
would be incapable of such feelings." A guest of 
their own, who had spent much time in Shanghai, 
was thoroughly conversant with foreign dress and 
manners ; she described the former with great 
originality, but admitted that even she was baffled 
by one thing : " The spotted webbing with which 
foreign ladies cover their face, is it worn for pur- 
poses of concealment or as an aid to the eye- 
sight ? " My answer that it served to keep the 
hair in place carried no conviction, for she had 
already remarked that though combs are so much 
in evidence in the foreign woman's coiffure, she 
seemingly makes little use of them ! 

The conversation turned to the subject of a pro- 
clamation recently issued which forbade the bind- 
ing of children's feet : " Alas, the people of China 
are not so easily governed as those of your honour- 
able coimitry," lamented the chief Tai-tai. " The 
Mandarin finds it impossible to enforce this one 
order, whilst he read in last week's paper that in 
England a man is imprisoned for refusing to send 
his child to school, for omitting to vaccinate it, 
and the article even stated that a parent is 
punished for refusing to call a doctor to see a sick 
child, even if it be a girl ; but the newspapers 
are full of fabulous tales ! " 

The next few months saw a growing intimacy 
and a constant exchange of presents. We were 
often able to indulge in the famous delicacy of 



THE TAI TAIS' PERIL 185 

buried eggs, of which the not unpleasant, slightly 
ammoniated flavour is so much appreciated by the 
Chinese. Once we were faced by a real difficulty 
on the occasion of receiving a present of meat, 
when conscientious Mr. Fu, fearful lest we should 
shelter under a liberty of conscience whereby we 
would eat and ask no question, hastily came to 
warn us that this had been offered to idols before 
being presented to us. Under these circum- 
stances we had no option but to crave leave to 
refuse a present whereby a brother might have 
been caused to stumble. 

How little we dreamed of the trouble which 
would so soon break over the official classes with 
the overthrow of the Empire, and the establish- 
ment of a Republic. I remember the last visit 
we paid to those friends, and our departure from 
the Yamen in the brilliant moonlight, whilst huge 
lanterns lighted our path through the archways 
and great gateways. As we left the huge en- 
closure the guard fired the first night watch. 
" Except the Lord keep the city the watchman 
watcheth but in vain." That night the Revolu- 
tion broke out in Hankow, and the next time we 
saw our hostesses they were in terrible distress, 
imploring our permission to make our house their 
shelter, should the hatred of the mob break forth 
and their residence be rioted. They were in a most 
defenceless position, for the Mandarin had taken a 
journey to Taiyiianfu, and did not return. He 
was one of the old school, and faithful to the tradi- 
tions of the Manchus whose court he had accom- 
panied to Sianfu in the flight of 1900. It was still 
far from certain which party would gain the 



i86 THE UPPER TEN THOUSAND 

ascendancy, and he, as most of his class, wished 
to refrain from an expression of opinion until the 
situation was clearly defined. This, however, was 
not allowed, and during the massacres of the 
Manchus in Taiyiianfu he was arrested, and made 
to declare himself. 

He held the Hanlin degree, the highest honour 
to which the Chinese scholar is admitted, the 
Emperor himself conducting the examinations. 
Faced by his enemies and fearing summary 
execution, he sheltered himself behind the age- 
long reverence for scholarship which exists in China 
as in no other country : " Death has no terrors for 
me," he calmly said, " but, alas, that such a scholar 
should be lost to China ! " No armed body- 
guard could have afforded him such protection 
as this transference of insult from his own person 
to the learning he represented. No man present 
was prepared to strike a blow at the embodiment 
of the Divine Right of Scholarship. 

He lived to return to Hwochow, where he faced 
death a second time and was dragged through 
the streets by an angry populace, but finally 
escaped and with his wives reached a place of 
safety. 



THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 



187 



" For an event to be great, two things must be united — 
the lofty sentiment of those who accomplish it, and the 
lofty sentiment of those who witness it. No event is great 
in itself, even though it be the disappearance of whole 
constellations, the destruction of several nations, the 
establishment of vast empires, or the prosecution of wars 
at the cost of enormous forces : over things of this sort 
the breath of history blows as if they were flocks of wool. 
. . . Hence the anxiety which every one must feel who. 
observing the approach of an event, wonders whether those 
about to witness it will be worthy of it." — F. Nietzsche. 



CHAPTER XIX 

THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 

And how we were affected by it 

THE revolution of 1911 burst on us like a bolt 
from the blue. One day we were mildly 
interested at the signs of trouble in far-removed 
provinces, and the next, the thing was in our 
very midst. The first intimation of local dis- 
turbance met me in the shape of a contingent of 
men, parents of some of my scholars, who were 
introduced to my presence with the startling 
information that they had come to fetch away 
their daughters, not daring to leave them in a 
marked place such as the girls' school would 
inevitably be, and afraid to delay, lest roads should 
become so dangerous that their removal would 
be impossible. I had no option but to agree, and 
at earliest dawn the next day a few carts and a 
string of donkeys conveyed them from a side 
door as quietly and unobtrusively as possible. 

Two days later the news of a massacre of the 
Manchu population of Taiyiianfu reached us ; 
and in accordance with the request of the parents, 
we hastily scattered all the remaining pupils 
whose homes were nearer at hand, and the 
whole city yielded itself to a condition of 



190 THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 

panic when every wild report was spread and 
believed. 

The little group of foreigners in this town is 
popularly supposed to have access to the most 
far-reaching sources of information on matters 
national and international ; therefore when we 
saw fit to scatter our resident pupils to their 
homes, the city concluded that secret information 
had been conveyed to us of trouble ahead. That 
same night, whilst we slept peacefully in our 
beds, terror so seized the populace that every 
young woman who had a village home to which 
she could withdraw, fled to it. Where horse or 
donkey was not available they escaped on foot, 
carrying the bundle which held their clothes, 
and the gates being shut at dark, numbers climbed 
down the steep incline of the city wall rather 
than risk the dangers which they feared might 
threaten them in the town. 

Certainly an anxious time was ahead for all 
of us. Postal service was interrupted, and we 
were completely cut off from intercourse by post 
or telegraph with the outer world. It was un- 
certain whether the movement would declare 
itself anti-foreign or anti- Christian, anti-dynastic 
or anti-Republican. Such uncertainty was felt 
on this latter political point, that it was a difficult 
time indeed for the large number whose plain 
object was to be on the winning side, whichever 
it might be. Even the commander of the military 
forces, sent to restore peace in a neighbouring city, 
provided himself with the badge of either party, 
that he might, at the city gate, affix that which 
was representative of the predominant feeling. 



CHINESE POLITICS 191 

The Chinaman has for so long held the view that 
polities are no individual concern of his, seeing 
that statesmen are paid to give their time and 
brains to the consideration of such questions, that 
it would seem unnatural to be expected to have 
an opinion on such a technical matter as to whether 
the Government of the land should remain Imperial 
or become Republican. 

On our compound were collected seven foreign 
women and about a dozen Chinese girls whose 
homes were in distant towns, varying from the 
borders of Mongolia in the north to places twelve 
days' journey by road in the south. 

Much anxious thought was devoted to the 
question of how the various members of our com- 
munity could be placed in safe keeping, should it 
become imperative for us to leave the place. 

Finally, Sir John Jordan's recall of all British 
women and children reached us, and feeling 
it our duty to obey orders, we hastily boarded a 
few girls in suitable Christian homes, and left 
with the others by the North road. A long line 
of nine litters swung through the great archways 
of the city gates, soon after dawn on 4th December 
1911, to convey us to our nearest point on the 
railway line, five days' journey away, passing 
en route through a city where we knew that a 
trustworthy Christian family would take charge, 
pro tern, of some of our Chinese girls. 

It was with relief that we saw the distant 
railway embankment, which indicated to us that 
we had reached the end of our litter journey, and 
might now expect to be shortly whirled back to 
the midst of Western civilisation. 



192 THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 

The time-table indicated 9 a.m. as the hour of 
departure for the morning train, and long ere this 
our shivering group assembled on the bleak plat- 
form. We were evidently not to be kept waiting, 
for the train stood ready on a siding, and our slight 
baggage was soon placed in the racks of the only 
third-class carriage attached to a goods train. 
Those who have spent years away from the sight 
of a train will understand the sense of luxury 
with which we seated ourselves, and waited to hear 
the whistle which would be the sign of our de- 
parture, and feel the swift, easy movement which 
would carry us over so many miles of road almost 
without a trace of weariness. Our number had 
increased to about twenty foreigners, assembled 
in response to Sir John Jordan's command from 
various stations, and pleasant conversation so 
engaged the time that impatience was under 
control, even though the sun was high in the 
heavens and still the train was stationary. Our 
servants, who had heard much of the marvels of 
steam-engines, still sat on patient heels at the edge 
of the platform ; but doubt of the superiority of this 
Western notion gained on their minds as the sun 
passed the meridian and they, with twelve miles 
to walk for their night's lodging, left us still 
standing motionless. " A train is a handsome 
thing to look at, and the amount of iron used in its 
manufacture must be immense, but for practical 
purposes give me a cart," was the report they 
brought home to inquiring friends at Hwochow. 
In the afternoon we steamed away, under escort 
of a young man who had just been appointed 
Secretary of the Foreign Office in the provincial 



HELD UP ON THE LINE 193 

capital by the new revolutionary party. His 
qualifications for the post consisted chiefly in the 
fact that, having been employed by a foreign 
firm as piano-tuner, he could make himself under- 
stood in the English tongue on simple subjects. 

As far as the station of Yangchuen all went 
well, but here fresh delay and the unwelcome 
announcement from our escort that a battle was 
in progress farther down the Une, the metals were 
required for the conveyance of soldiers, and he 
must beg of us to make ourselves as comfortable 
as possible for the night in our compartment. 
Protest was useless, and we had to submit to see 
the engine detached and ourselves abandoned, 
a useless derelict, on a rusty siding. The 
Secretary of the Foreign Office supplied us with 
hard-boiled eggs and biscuits, and made his exit, 
leaving in charge of the gentlemen of the party a 
packet of silver which he begged might be handed 
to his mother. By morning stationmaster, 
guards, porters, and clerks had all vanished from 
the scene, for the news had come of a reverse to 
the Revolutionary forces. 

Four days and nights we stuck to our third- 
class carriage and our siding ; for part of the 
time, trains thundered past carrying men to the 
front, and we were informed that the famous 
regiment called " Dare-to-die " had gone to crush 
the Imperial troops. With a thrill we saw these 
brave warriors pass, but a brief period sufficed 
to dispel " the great illusion," and twelve hours 
later the same men were dashing back to Taiyiian- 
fu, carrying a terrible tale. '* Had we stayed 
longer we should have been dead men ; the bullets 
13 



194 THE REVOLUTION OF 1911 

were falling in our midst." The officer, however, 
gave a different explanation of their return. 
" Poor chaps, they are worn out, and I must take 
them back to get a night's rest," he said. No one 
cared for our plight, as cold, hungry, and deserted 
we watched the weary day pass to night, and the 
yet more weary night give place to a dreary 
dawn. Such experiences are not to be desired, 
for they who know China best, and the anti- 
foreign feeling which may at any time manifest 
itself, are aware how quickly such a position may 
become critical. 

One thing only besides our miserable carriage 
had been left on the line, and that was three 
trolleys. The hour dawned on the fourth day when 
our exhausted patience refused further service, and 
we determined those trolleys should be made to 
carry us and our goods to some inhabited region, 
be it friendly or inimical. That day and the next 
we spent racing down and crawling up the gradients 
of the hne to Niangtzekwan. The " Dare- to- 
dies " boasted of having mined the line, and this 
did not conduce to ease of mind in being the first 
to travel over it, especially when we rushed 
through long tunnels. The line is one which 
taxed the ingenuity of engineers to the utmost in 
its construction, and is one succession of light 
bridges spanning deep chasms, tunnels, and long 
gradients. Luckily for us, we were travelling in 
the downhill direction, else our journey had been 
impossible. If the brave " Dare-to-dies " were 
too hurried to leave the line mined, they had 
taken time to destroy it in some places, and 
once a broken-down engine blocked our path. 



AN ADVENTUROUS FLIGHT 195 

The fleeing soldiers had found the engine-driver 
preparing to take in water, but they would have 
none of his lagging ways, and compelUng him to 
drive ahead, were soon forced to abandon the 
useless locomotive. Each such obstacle was a 
lengthy hindrance, and the kind gentlemen of 
our party were obliged to organise a breakdown 
gang to overcome the difficulty. Our trolleys, 
with all the baggage, had to be transferred to 
another line. Effort and energy were not spared, 
and the following midday brought us face to face 
with the fh*st engine carrying Imperial soldiery 
towards Taiyuanfu. At Niangtzekwan Pass 
we were under the Dragon flag once more. The 
houses of the foreigners there were completely 
wrecked, and my recollection of that place is a 
land of feathers, contents of the beds of the 
Frenchmen who had left their homes, and would 
return to find nothing but a heap of ruins and 
a htter of broken glass, china, and furniture, 
smothered in feathers and presenting a sad wreck- 
age of what had once been a home. That evening 
we reached an inn where food — warm, satisfying 
food — was to be had, and twenty-four hours later 
we steamed into Tientsin station, greeted by a 
hearty cheer from a friendly group, for we had 
been missing and untraced since we left Yutze. 



CHANGED CONDITIONS 



»97 



" The Master said : The people may be made to follow 
a path of action, but they may not be made to understand 
it." — Confucius. 

' ■ I have seen a Chinese graduate of a Western university, 
dressed in proper Western clothes, in his dress-suit, with 
an opera hat crushed under his arm, beseeching the goddess 
of mercy in her temple, with many rich gifts, to give him 
a male child." — Rev. C. Scott. 

'' From time to time Jesus was offered a place in the 
Pantheon, but Christianity perceived that the Pantheon 
was the place for dead gods." — Dr. John Hutton. 



198 



CHAPTER XX 

CHANGED CONDITIONS 

Wherein some, though following a Path of 
Action, failed to understand it 

THE very week that the British Minister issued 
passports for women to re-enter Shansi 
saw us in Tientsin on our way inland. Those 
precious documents which enabled us to return 
to our work were eagerly received, and we lost 
no time travelling over the familiar ground. How 
easily and smoothly we now sped over the iron 
rails as compared with our former journey ; we 
need now take no interest in gradients, nor fear 
that the train would not start at the appointed 
hour, nor convey us to our destination. 

We found ourselves in a strange country. In 
place of the dragon, the five-colour Republican 
flag was everywhere in evidence, which by the 
Chinese is thus explained : China's eighteen pro- 
vinces are represented by the red line, Manchuria 
by the yellow, Mongolia by the blue. Hi, Chinghai, 
and Sinkiang by the white, and Thibet by the 
black ; the ideal of the Chinese republic, a united 
territory, being indicated. 

Soldiers in semi-foreign uniform lined up on each 

station platform to salute the train, remaining at 

199 



200 CHANGED CONDITIONS 

their posts until the puffing monster was out of 
sight. At Taiyiianfu were further surprises. 
No man wearing a queue could enter the city. 
Should he make an effort to do so, the soldiers 
guarding the gates speedily removed the append- 
age with a pair of large scissors. 

The shops vied with one another in having 
the very latest " Republican " goods ; the buttons 
one bought were " Republican " ; all school- 
books were changed to the latest " Republican " 
editions ; the cloth trade mark was " Patriotic." 
Everything was Republican, and we began to 
realise that China, far from being the conservative 
country we had thought, was one of the most 
progressive. 

As we came to districts where the regulations 
had been less severely enforced, we found the 
queue replaced by the most extraordinary head- 
dress ; the hair, varying in length, was sometimes 
braided and sometimes held in place by a strip 
cut from a petroleum tin, and bent to a semi- 
circle. The more wealthy members of society 
affected a style similar to that of an English school- 
girl, the flowing locks reaching to the shoulders 
and held from the face by a circular comb. Others 
allowed the tresses to fall as nature dictated, 
keeping them of such a length that with very little 
trouble the plait might again appear, for as some 
remarked : " Who knows, maybe we lose tails 
to-day, and heads to-morrow ! " 

The hats were even more wonderful. In place 
of the neat, circular cap, every shape and size was 
to be seen. Round hats like a pudding-bowl, 
straw hats, hard oblong hats, soft hats, home-made 



REVOLUTION IN DRESS 201 

hats, erections of cardboard, giving proof that 
some devoted wife or mother had done her best 
to copy with the means available, probably only 
cardboard and paste, a tall hat, which her lord 
described as having seen on some journey towards 
Western communities. Women's dress was like- 
wise being revolutionised, and skirts were extra- 
ordinary. One young lady whom I met, desiring 
to be more up-to-date than the rest, wore the 
so-called foreign dress back to front, and was far 
more satisfied with her appearance than the 
charming little lady who accompanied her, dressed 
in the dignified, elegant attire of her own people. 

Not only had the style changed, but travelling 
south we missed the bright-coloured clothes which 
had always added a touch of beauty to the land- 
scape. We discovered that with the introduction 
of the Republic, sumptuary laws were being en- 
forced which CO nmanded the exclusive use of 
earth-coloured garments for the men, and forbade 
the wearing of silver ornaments to women. Pro- 
clamations followed one another in rapid suc- 
cession, several of which were framed with a view 
to altering the standing of the army. From 
ancient days China has regarded the soldier as 
belonging to the lowest grade of society ; the 
highest place is given to the scholar, and next to 
him the farmer, who on account of his labour for 
mankind ranks high. The artisan is placed third, 
but the trader, seeing that he only distributes 
and does not produce, comes just before the soldier, 
who neither producing nor distributing, but only 
destroying, ranks lowest in the social scale. One 
proclamation stated that no one was to say that 



202 CHANGED CONDITIONS 

it was infra dig. to enter the military profession. 
It certainly needed some such move on the part 
of the authorities to add to the prestige of the 
army. A few days before the recruiting agents 
had been through the district. " Only those 
wearing the queue will be enlisted " was the, to us, 
amazing dictum. Upon inquiry we found that 
former aspirants had given considerable trouble 
by running home when the labour became too 
arduous. As the donning of military uniform 
necessitated the removal of long hair, it was 
obvious that the new brigade would be freshers, 
and, as our informant said : " Never having left 
home before they will not know the way back ! " 

The next order forbade us to speak of any day 
as " unlucky." Now from time immemorial, some 
days have been regarded as good and others as 
bad for such important events as weddings and 
funerals ; in fact, almost every day of the year 
is controlled by some fortunate or untoward 
influence, governed by the conjunction of the 
" Celestial Branches " and " Earthly Stems," com- 
plicated with innumerable elemental antipathies 
and affinities. 

As an example may be mentioned wood, which is 
antagonistic to metal, but has an affinity for fluid 
from which it draws its sustenance, whereas the 
metal forged into an axe serves for its destruction. 

The "Earthly Stems" are represented by sym- 
bolic animals, and have zodiacal signs and control 
of certain hours. Of the twenty-eight zodiacal 
constellations, seven are infelicitous and no one 
will risk entering upon a new venture on these 
days. To repair the kitchen stove on a day when 



SUPERSTITION FORBIDDEN 203 

fire was in the ascendancy might cause a con- 
flagration, and to go to law on the day when water 
is the controlling element is equally foolish, for 
the tendency of water is to fall, and this may be 
the fate of the overdaring litigant. On a day 
controlled by the snake it would obviously be 
foolhardy to start on a journey, for with such a 
slow traveller as your controlling genius the 
journey might be impeded. 

The calculations necessary for the correct ad- 
justment of these various influences provide a 
livelihood for astrologers and fortune-tellers, but 
this proclamation, at one fell swoop, attempted to 
abolish their profession. The order was issued, 
and I suppose in time the yellow paper faded 
in the sun ; some read it, many talked of it, but 
they still chose the day which according to their 
calendar was the auspicious one, and no man 
hindered them. 

Other proclamations followed in due order : 
there was to be no music at weddings or funerals, 
only good cash was to be used, women were to 
unbind their feet, and brides were not to wear 
embroidered gowns. We listened respectfully, as 
in duty bound, and waited for the pendulum to 
swing. 

Upon one point, however, the powers were in- 
sistent. The Western calendar must take the 
place of the lunar. The actual change of date 
was a small matter, but this alteration upset the 
whole organisation of Chinese life. The New 
Year season is one which ensures to the Chinese 
family its annual gathering, and all the subse- 
quent festivals date from that, the greatest. 



204 CHANGED CONDITIONS 

The orders were too insistent to be trifled with, 
and we, in common with all the government 
schools, closed to enable our pupils to be at home 
for the 1st of January. New Year scrolls were 
exhibited outside every front door, but apart 
from this, the day passed unnoticed. Instead of 
paying and receiving calls, inviting guests and 
enjoying the family gathering, business was 
carried on as usual. The first day of the first 
moon, however, found the populace given up to 
revelry, shops were closed, it was impossible to 
buy food, and the children in school rebelled at 
the decree which separated them from their 
parents at such a time, and longed for the golden 
days of the past. Before another New Year it 
was quite evident that proclamations were useless, 
and we joyfully returned to the old order, and 
now all keep the first day of the first moon as our 
festival. 

Compulsory education was talked of, even 
conscription was whispered, and yet we had no 
criminal code, and no one could touch a neighbour 
of ours who, angry that her daughter-in-law 
presented her with a girl instead of the longed-for 
boy, took the child and dashed out its brains. 
The child is her property, and she has power of 
life and death in her hand. 

The new Mandarin was a native of Shansi, the 
old rule that a man might not act as magistrate 
in his own province having been repealed. He 
was not as his predecessor, carried in a sedan chair, 
but walked, or rode in a cart as a commoner. He 
wore cotton clothes in place of the gorgeous silk 
and satin embroidered gowns, and when he sent 



THE NEW OFFICIAL Rl^GIME 205 

to invite us to dine with his wives, his card was 
foreign except for the characters written upon it. 

Our first visit to the Yamen under the new 
regime revealed some of the many changes which 
had taken place during the last year. No longer 
were we escorted by outriders, but hired for our- 
selves one of the few carts that Hwochow boasts. 
The Tai-tais were dressed in black, relieved by 
fancy crochet work shoulder capes, of varied hues. 
The teacups were of white china, decorated with 
a bunch of forget-me-nots, and the well-known 
words : "A present for a good boy." The feast 
menu was as before, but instead of the beautiful 
china and Eastern decorations, we sat round a 
glass petroleum lamp and ate delicacies worthy 
of a better setting from plates of that familiar 
pattern, white with a border of blue. The ex- 
quisitely polished table was covered with a piece 
of white calico, a knife and fork lay beside the 
chop-sticks, and last but not least, the Mandarin, 
to add to our pleasure, ordered his servants to 
bring out the gramophone, which during dinner 
poured forth a selection of London street songs 
and Chinese theatrical music. Conversation was 
drowned, and we were able the more to observe. 
In place of scroll-decorated walls, brilliant paper 
met our gaze at every turn, white enamel basins 
and bowls replaced all the flowered china on which 
we had lavished so much admiration. After 
dinner we were not offered the water pipe, but 
cigarettes, all expressing surprise that we could 
refuse so foreign an indulgence. The Chinese 
proverb to the effect that " A wayfarer does not 
repair the inn nor the Mandarin his official resi- 



2o6 CHANGED CONDITIONS 

dence," was for once in fault — the workmen had 
been busy ! We spent a very pleasant hour with 
the family after dinner, receiving as on former 
occasions the utmost kindness and courtesy. 

The classical writings of Mencius were for a time 
excluded from the schools as teaching reverence 
for kings and rulers, a doctrine not to be tolerated 
in the most republican of republics. 

The friendly attitude of some of the leaders of 
the revolutionary movement towards Christianity 
lent colour to a widely spread impression that 
republican government necessitated a change of 
religion. Some favoured the Protestant, some 
the Roman Catholic Church, others preferred the 
" No-god society," which gained many adherents 
as being more modern. 

Even the Church was affected by the prevailing 
craze, and the wearing of the queue and non- 
observance of innovations was regarded as sin 
by the ignorant and superstitious. I heard a new 
convert warned by a Church member that sick- 
ness in his home might well be due to his rooted 
objection to calendar changes. 

This attitude of mind, happily for us, lasted 
only a few months, but it was followed by another 
serious danger when the question of introducing 
the Confucian Ethical Code as a state religion 
was brought forward. This would have imposed 
limitations on Christians, Mohammedans, and 
others, the alternative suggestion being that 
Christianity should be given this status, in which 
some saw far greater perils. Meetings of the 
Chinese Protestant Church forwarded petitions to 
the Central Government, protesting against both 



THE QUESTION OF STATE RELIGION 207 

proposals and craving only religious liberty, and 
the danger was averted. 

The habit of revolution is a pernicious disease 
of the human mind, and once acquired hard to 
throw off. Our political horizon has been draped 
in storm-clouds ever since 1911, and our local 
social plans liable to disintegration on account 
of rumours calculated to disturb the mind of 
the people. White Wolf, Wolf King, and other 
robber chiefs have announced their intention of 
visiting us. Our walls have been inscribed with 
the terrifying announcement that " White Wolf 
is a devourer of sheep," which in Chinese, by a 
play on the last word, can be understood to mean : 
" White Wolf is a devourer of foreigners." A 
bold sketch of a drawn sword was added that no 
doubt might be in our minds as to the bloodthirsty 
intention of the threat ! Mohammedan rebellions 
to the west, Mongolian raids to the north, have 
alternated with the political difficulties brought 
about by international negotiations, to add to 
the sense of insecurity inevitably resulting from 
the removal of the very central foundation of 
governmental stability — the " Son of Heaven " — 
to whom four hundred million subjects bowed in 
reverential obedience. 

Transition periods are difficult, and China has 
been troubled by those who in their enthusiasm 
for change have lost the sense of proportion, and 
sought to revolutionise much that is dearer than 
life itself to many of their countrymen; never- 
theless, this great nation, permeated with ideals 
so free from sordidity, will surely carve for herself 
a future worthy of her past. 



ANOTHER PORTRAIT GALLERY 



14 



-• In tragic life, God wot. 
No villain need be ! Passions spin the plot : 
We are betrayed by what is false within." 

George Meredith. 

'' Oh Christians, at your Cross of Hope a hopeless hand 

was clinging." 

E. B. Browning. 

*' After all what would he have had to sacrifice had he 
followed Jesus ? He would have had to give up his house 
in Jerusalem. He would have had to renounce society ; 
but society would soon have forgotten him, for society 
has a short memory for people who for any reason have 
fallen out of it. That is what he would have lost, and 
what would he have gained ? He would have had those 
wcdks with Jesus across the fields, and he woxild have 
heard Him say : - Consider the lihes.' " — Mark Ruther- 
ford. 



CHAPTER XXI 

ANOTHER PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Wherein the Reader is introduced to some 
who have failed 

TO the student of human nature the fact 
that man so often fails to respond to 
the highest ideals set before him comes with no 
shock. In the early Church men who had run 
well were easily hindered, and in the greatest 
series of biographies we possess, we see portrayed 
faithfully the faults and failings of those who 
now form the great cloud of witnesses, and are 
shown at the same time the possibilities of such 
Uves when brought into vital touch with the 
Divine. 

The generous, impulsive David, the man after 
God's own heart, was capable of a tragic fall ; 
Peter and John, privileged to personal intercourse 
with the Lord, in the hour of crisis were amongst 
those who forsook Him and fled, and Demas, 
" who loves this present world," is ever a dis- 
appointment to Evangelist, who hoped that for 
him such dangers were over. 

For the fact remains that the natural character- 
istics of the man are strong forces, and that while 
Grace can, and does, make possible the " new 



212 ANOTHER PORTRAIT GALLERY 

man in Christ Jesus," we remain each in our own 
order, and perhaps no point is so vubierable as 
that wherein has taken place greatest change. 

The emergence from heathendom is a difficult 
process, during which time habits, vices, and 
superstitions cling to a man's soul with a tenacity 
that would cause us to abandon all hope, were it 
not that monuments of grace abound to prove 
that the power and dominion of sin has been 
shattered. 

Sometimes the enemy will entrap a young 
Christian when there is illness in the home, and 
under pressure he will fly to magic incantations 
and heathen practices, in order to get deliverance 
from the malignant spirit which he still believes 
has power to torment him. Many a convert has 
fallen on the occasion of a funeral. It takes 
more faith than a Westerner can realise, to defy 
the legions of gwei which at that time threaten 
your home and its inhabitants with numberless 
ills ; and strength of mind is required to resist 
heathen relatives who accuse you of shghting the 
deceased. 

The test is a severe one and may well make a 
strong spirit quail, especially when, as so often 
happens, several members of one family will 
die in rapid succession, quite evidently to us 
by reason of the agency of natural laws which 
govern physical Ufe, but to the Chinaman, a 
clear manifestation of the power enjoyed by 
demons whose pleasure it is to torment men. 
Even the very dead may rise from the grave to 
confront you with horrid vengeance, should the 
body not have been buried with full rites as 



THE EASY LAPSE 213 

required for the laying of the spirit. Most subtly 
has the enemy caused many a man's downfall 
when his unmarried daughter has died, and he 
has found himself confronted with angry relatives 
and irate villagers, when he proposed to bury 
the body with the deceased of his own family. 
By the rule of ancient custom a spirit bridegroom 
should be found for this girl, or, as an imattached 
spirit, she will inevitably return to her neglectful 
relatives and trouble them in numberless ways 
in order to bring her pitiful condition to their 
remembrance. In one way, and one way only, 
can the ghost be pacified. A bridegroom of 
suitable age, hkewise deceased, must be found, 
and all marriage ceremonies be conducted with 
due pomp, a memorial tablet being placed in the 
scarlet chair in which the bride should have 
sat. Clothes, furniture, and presents, all made 
of paper, go with the chair to the home of the 
deceased bridegroom, and are there received by 
living bridal attendants. A feast is spread, and 
all make merry until a few hours later when 
mourning apparel is donned, and to the sound of 
wailing two coffins are placed side by side in the 
family tomb. The paper clothes, presents, and 
marriage-contract are burned, and thus ascend 
in smoke to the spirit world. The bodies may 
have been kept for years before a suitable match 
could be made, but from the day of the funereal 
nuptials the two families regard themselves as, or 
even more, intimately related than they would 
have been had an actual marriage taken place.^ 

^ This remarkable custom is declared by Marco Polo to be 
peculiar to North China. 



214 ANOTHER PORTRAIT GALLERY 

It is easy to say that nothing so frankly heathen 
need ever raise a question in the mind of a convert, 
but severe persecution and the responsibihty of 
every misfortune that may occur in his village 
will be his, if he defy public opinion and intro- 
duce an orphan spirit to the Valhalla where his 
ancestors, for countless generations, have never 
failed to receive the rites of filial service. 

The missionary knows the importance of 
keeping ideals high by precept and practice, and 
that his best way to help the young believer is 
by emphasising the big claim that Christ makes 
on a man. That claim once apprehended will 
create in the man's heart an everlasting dis- 
satisfaction with anything lower. 

Sad as is the case of a young believer falling into 
sin, how much more tragic that of a man who 
abandons Christ after many years of service, 
allowing sins, which he had overcome, once more 
to have dominion over him. It is an awful 
reality of life that the point on which a man 
has most conspicuously conquered is likely to 
be his weakest, for the enemy plays a waiting game, 

" And where we looked for palms to fall, 
We find the tug's to come, — that's all." 

Mr. Nieh came early under the influence of 
Pastor Hsi. He was a man of conspicuous ability, 
business capacity, and influence. In early days 
he, too, had smoked opium, but when he left 
that habit, he became a Christian and an earnest 
student of the Word of God. Few could speak 
with such power as he, and at any conference 



MR. NIEH 215 

where he was present, eager, interested crowds 
would gather to hear him. Many have been led 
to Christ by his influence, and he seemed a man 
raised up of God to carry on the work of the late 
Pastor Hsi. He administered the opium refuges 
with great ability, and the work of the Church 
for many years prospered in his hands. Every one 
turned to him for advice and help, and when 
the Boxer troubles broke out, it was to Mr. Nieh 
that both Christians and officials looked in their 
hour of need. " He was marvellously helped until 
he was strong," and then, as to Uzziah of old, 
came the decline. Power he loved, and in the 
position in which he found himself, holding office 
in the Church, was able to exercise it in many 
directions. 

Only Gk)d knows at which period the spiritual 
decay set in, which silently, and at first quite 
invisibly, began a work which has ended in the 
complete downfall of this man on whom the 
hopes of so many were set. A desire to increase 
the prestige of his name, and love of popularity 
led Mr. Nieh, as opportunity occurred, to lend his 
influence in law-cases and village disputes on behalf 
of unworthy men, with the motive of self -aggrandise- 
ment. Slowly but surely the material overcame 
the spiritual in his life. 

At this hour he is no longer even a member 
of the Christian community, having publicly 
repudiated his former profession of faith. He 
even smokes opium again, and finds his power 
and influence to be a thing wholly of the past. 
Extraordinary trials have come to him in family 
and personal life, but he remains hardened and 



2i6 ANOTHER PORTRAIT GALLERY 

untouched. The Hght has gone from his face, 
for he has ceased to walk in the Light, but as we 
look on his dissatisfied appearance, hope revives 
that he, having tasted so deep of earthly bitter- 
ness, may yet be found amongst the suppliants for 
mercy at the throne of Gk)d. May it be in the 
midst of life, and not only in the hour of death 
that he will witness the great confession : " Thou 
hast conquered, O Galilean." 

There is a failure which is partial success, and 
under this, I think, may be placed Yen Keh- 
dao, who, when once he was clear of opium himself, 
bought up eagerly every opportunity that pre- 
sented itself for evangelistic work. He had fallen 
so often, and been obliged to return to the Opium 
Refuge time after time, until new birth had made 
him a new creature. Now at last he seemed firm 
where formerly he had been powerless to resist 
temptation. When he at his own expense entered 
his name for a two years' course of theological 
training, we all hoped that a future of consider- 
able usefulness lay before him, but before that 
period was over, the craving was on him again 
and he had fallen into open sin. Another effort, 
and he was free once more, and then again he 
fell and soon was lying very ill with typhus fever. 
Christian men visited him and prayed with him, 
and he, for so long as consciousness lasted, prayed 
earnestly ; then delirium, and in a few hours 
death released his spirit from the body of its 
humiliation. According to man's statistics, he 
is tabulated a failure — " one more devil's triumph 
and sorrow for angels " — but there are many who 



PUPPY'S MOTHER 217 

loved him, and who look up in expectation to see 
him " pardoned in heaven, the first by the throne." 

" Puppy's mother " has Hved at the door of 
our mission premises since they were first opened. 
She, according to the custom of the country, is 
only known as the mother of her child, so having 
elected to call her daughter " Puppy," she must 
needs be " Puppy's mother " throughout the 
town. She has known the three generations of 
missionaries who have lived here, and has been 
dressmaker to them all. No one has been more 
deliberate in her choice of heathendom over 
Christianity than she, and no one has lent a more 
willing ear to the scandalous lies circulated con- 
cerning the foreign women, even although she 
has seen enough of their intimate life to know 
such stories to be fabrications. 

She nourishes a secret regard for Mrs. Liang, 
in whom, she recognises a woman as intelligent 
as herself, and a match for her in every respect. 
It was to Mrs. Liang she confided one day that 
there seemed little inducement to repent and be 
saved, if going to heaven would entail associating 
with foreigners for all eternity. Until two years 
ago she was a healthy, sturdy woman, scarcely 
feeling the weight of her seventy years. A slight 
dimness of eyesight caused her to raise her charges 
for dressmaking on the plea, peculiar to Chinese 
logic, that old age made her movements slower 
and more uncertain, and whereas three days were 
once sufficient to make a garment, and make it 
well, now after six days' work it was still far less 
well finished off than formerly. So we have sub- 



2i8 ANOTHER PORTRAIT GALLERY 

mitted to extra charges for inferior work, for old 
acquaintance' sake. 

Then a long and painful illness laid " Puppy's 
mother " low, and for months we did not think 
that she could recover. Nevertheless, her excellent 
constitution did finally assert itself, and now she 
is walking about again, leaning on a stick and 
on the shoulder of a small grandchild, one of 
Puppy's offspring. She is curiously softened, 
and told us once that she had endeavoured to 
pray, but could not remember the sentences we 
had taught her. 

Time, age, and weakness work many transforma- 
tions, and we feel as though the veil of flesh were 
wearing thinner, and the spirit within feeling its 
way out of gross darkness towards the light. 

Mrs. Deh had fallen so low through opium, that 
it was to save her from positive starvation that 
we admitted her to our household once more. 
She had been one of the failures of our Women's 
Refuge, and had sunk deep into the degradation 
which accompanies opium smoking in a woman's 
life, pressed as she finds herself to raise the money 
necessary for the price of her drug. 

For three years she kept herself respectable 
under our roof, living amongst Christian women 
and joining in their prayers and hymn, night 
and morning, but not a trace of the softened, 
repentant spirit could one see, and finally a distinct 
retrograde movement accompanied with physical 
disability forced us to send her home. I despair 
of Mrs. Deh except when I look into the face of 
her daughter, the good, pure girl whose life's 




PUPPY AND HER MOTHER. 



To face page 218. 



FLOWER OF LOVE 219 

prayer it is that her mother should be saved. 
She cannot admit that this one thing she hopes 
for on earth should not be granted to her. Her 
eyes are always full of tears when she speaks of 
her mother, and when I see them I know they 
must, with strong entreaty, be pleading the cause 
of the poor sinful woman before the Presence of 
the Divine Majesty at whose right Hand stands 
the Friend of Sinners and the Man who was "ac- 
quainted with grief." 

" Flower of Love " became one of my pupils 
at the age of twelve, and attended school for six 
years with unfailing regularity. Bright, happy, 
and full of girlish enthusiasm she yielded her 
heart to Christ, and with her girl companions 
rejoiced in her new-found joy. A horror of great 
darkness fell upon her soul when the news was 
broken to her that her parents had contracted 
for her a marriage with a heathen man, and 
yielding to uncontrollable grief, she became seriously 
ill. Remembrance of the promises of God, and 
the resilience of youth, caused her to arouse 
herself ; she returned to school, and begged that 
all would pray that the impossible might happen, 
and this engagement be broken. 

Prayer was answered, and to me was granted the 
joy of telling Flower of Love the good news. 
" My life shall henceforth be wholly for God," was 
her reply. Months passed, and when the Revolu- 
tion of 1911 broke out, her parents once more 
sought for her a heathen husband, a man whose 
wealth was accumulated by wrong-doing, and 
before any step could be taken Flower of 



220 ANOTHER PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Love was his bride. For months she struggled 
alone in the city to which she had been taken, 
and then his orders were given that intercourse 
with foreigners must cease. The fight was too 
hard, and weary she yielded and allowed herself 
to drift with the tide. To-day, in her husband's 
house, where men are too frequent visitors, she 
seeks to get from the life she has to lead what 
pleasure she can. She is beyond my reach, but 
her broken heart will yet, I believe, find a resting- 
place upon her Saviour's breast. 



PREACHING THE GOSPEL, HEALING 
THE SICK 



" You make a very great mistake in thinking Chris- 
tianity is a religion. It is not a reUgion, it is a person." — 
Words of a converted Mohammedan. 

" Lord ! how wouldest Thou deal with this sick man — in 
body, or spirit ? " 

S. Vincent de Paul. 

" A sick person does so enjoy hearing good news." 

Florence Nightingale. 



CHAPTER XXII 

PREACHING THE GOSPEL, HEALING 
THE SICK 

Telling of the Daily Routine 

LIKE the apostle of old, the missionary must 
be ready, however heavy the claim upon 
his time, to receive all who come. 

At any hour of the day, we may hear the clatter 
of sticks upon the ground indicating that some of 
our neighbours, whose minute feet prevent them 
from walking unaided, have found their s way 
through the open front door and brought some 
friends to see the house of the foreigner. 

The Chinese woman is an inveterate sightseer, 
but unfortunately the attractions of Hwochow are 
not many ; there is no end, however, to the 
marvels found within the walls of the Mission 
compound. 

The leader of the party is frequently our old 
friend, Gk)at's Mother, the members of her clan 
being numerous and of an inquisitive nature. 

The well-favoured Goat, aged five years, wears 
a brilliant yellow cotton jacket, on which are 
sketched in bold brush work every species of 
venomous insect. On his left shoulder is a 
scorpion, while centipedes, beetles, and other 

333 



224 PREACHING THE GOSPEL 

forms of poisonous insect life cover his back and 
chest. To his right shoulder is stitched a diminu- 
tive pair of red-and-green trousers. The yellow 
coat is his protection from stings and bites, the 
tiny trousers from measles, and longevity is 
secured by a heavy silver padlock, which hangs 
from his neck by a silver chain. 

With much assistance from the Bible-women 
the whole party climb the few steps leading to the 
verandah, and exhausted by the effort, gratefully 
accept our invitation to be seated in the guest- 
room. 

Tea is offered, but we know better than to press 
them to partake of any refreshment, for these 
women have been warned on no account to let 
food or drink pass their lips while under our roof, 
lest by a magic spell they find themselves com- 
pelled to become Christians. 

The room is furnished in conventional Chinese 
style — a square table with scarlet embroidered 
table-skirt, and backed by an ornate arrange- 
ment of banner, scrolls, vases, and teacups, with 
stiff chairs on either side. Our guests' first 
observation is to remark upon the surprising 
cleanliness of the apartment, the next is to ask 
where we sleep, and the third is to comment freely 
upon our personal appearance. 

" Have you turned sixty yet ? " I am asked, 
and much surprise is expressed at the information 
supplied by Goat's Mother that I have not yet 
seen my fortieth birthday. "It is the white hair 
that makes her look so old," is the comment 
offered in explanation of my fair complexion. 

Goat's Mother has brought her relations on a 



BIBLE LESSONS FOR VISITORS 225 

promise that they shall see the foreigner's bed- 
room and "little iron tailor," 1 hear the musical 
box, and be allowed to inspect the enormous 
saucepan in which the school food is made, ending 
up with a visit to the rooms where the women read 
the Bible. 

Before, however, these favours can be granted, 
as she well knows, the party must be prepared 
to give its attention to the one topic upon which 
the missionaries never fail to speak. This proves 
to be more interesting than they had anticipated, 
for one wall of our guest-room is decorated with 
pictures which illustrate interesting stories, the 
application of which throws light upon that 
problem which confronts every human heart : 
" How can the burden of sin be removed ? " 

The time passes quickly and most of the 
wonders have been seen, when a piercing yell 
from the young Goat indicates that the limit of 
his patience has been reached. The orders of this 
small autocrat allow of no question, and further 
intercourse is impossible, for his shrieks will not 
cease until his wishes have been complied with. 
The whole party rises, and we follow them, urging 
them to " walk slowly " and to come again on 
Sunday. " We will come, we will come," several 
answer, but others are deep in a discussion as to 
what provision is possible for our old age, seeing 
that we have neither husband nor son. 

As they disappear through the street door, they 
meet a fresh group entering who are in turn re- 
ceived by the Bible-women. Thus, from day to 
day, the Word is preached and cast as bread upon 

^ Sewing-machine. 
15 



226 HEALING THE SICK 

the waters. Sometimes a woman will return in a 
few days to hear more, and sometimes, years later, 
in a remote mountain hamlet a woman will greet 
us with a smile, surprised that we do not remember 
her visit to our house, when, as she reminds us, we 
told her about Jesus, the Son of God. 

With those women who come as patients to the 
dispensary, we enter upon a more intimate relation- 
ship. The payment of their fee entitles them to 
three visits, of which they take full advantage 
and often come under our care for a much longer 
course of treatment. 

They are an interesting crowd with their varied 
complaints. A child whose arm has been badly 
scalded months before, and who has received no 
treatment during that period but an application 
of rat oil and charred matting, is in a revolting 
condition, a pitiful sight indeed. A young woman 
who has lost her eyesight attributes her affliction 
to a fit of violent temper, when for a whole day 
she worked herself into a frenzy, and cried until 
the power of sight was gone. The victims of 
tubercular disease, the scourge of North China, 
never fail to appear, some evidently having fallen 
a prey to that form known as the " hundred days* 
illness," which will carry off an apparently healthy 
subject in three months. 

At stated periods, children may be brought for 
vaccination. The method of inoculation for the 
prevention of smallpox is said to have been intro- 
duced into China by a philosopher of Szechwan, 
and has been practised since the year 1014. 
Vaccination is now freely practised by the Chinese 



DISPENSARY PATIENTS 227 

doctors whose fees are generally 50 per cent, 
higher for boys than for girls, the lives of the 
former being of so much greater value. 

The extraction of teeth is a popular diversion, 
and the tooth is carefully preserved by the patient, 
in order that with the other earthly remains it may 
be laid in the coffin on the day of her death. 

Amongst the number are some whose diseases 
are hard to find, as in the case of one family 
whose several members persistently reappeared 
with such infinitesimal ailments that we felt com- 
pelled to tell them that no further treatment was 
necessary. The answer we received was, that the 
head of the house having become interested in 
Christianity had signified to his wife his desire 
that she should be under treatment for a whole 
year, in order that she might receive continued 
instruction in the Scriptures. They thought the 
dispensary would serve as the best face-saving 
subterfuge, therefore she said : "If there be 
nothing more serious, will you wash my ears ! " 

Broadly speaking, the patients only recognise 
two categories of illness — one described as " fire," 
and the other as " chill." Their chief desire is for 
a diagnosis which shall clearly state under which 
heading their particular ailment should be classi- 
fied, and we often receive a message to the effect 
that " inward fire " is causing trouble, and the 
sufferer would like medicine such as was given 
to her on the tenth day of the third moon, three 
years previously, which had wonderful fire-ex- 
tinguishing properties. 

Having been accustomed to the Chinese doctor 
and his methods, our patients, begging that the 



228 HEALING THE SICK 

best may be done for them, assure the helpers that 
merit will be accumulated by those who work 
towards this end. All are surprised to find that 
a uniform fee is charged and that there is 
no opportunity for bargaining, as the regular 
physician writes prescriptions for first, second, or 
third-rate medicine, according to the purse. 

The male and female principle in nature, by which 
all things are produced and which has been called 
the " warp and woof of Chinese thought," forms 
the basis of Chinese medical science, and every line 
of treatment must be in accordance with the laws 
laid down by this dualistic principle. 

Unfortunately, many of the more nutritive 
articles of diet, such as the fowl and the egg, are 
frequently denied to the sick woman as falling 
imder that principle which makes them unsuited 
to many of her illnesses, and while it is admitted 
that sleep is essential to a sick man, the female 
patient must not be allowed to indulge in it except 
at night. Milk is renowned for its heating pro- 
perties, and is most unwillingly consumed by the 
tubercular patient, who believes her disease to fall 
under the heading of " fire " and knows that any- 
thing so heating will only feed the flame. Had 
pears, cooked or uncooked, been ordered she would 
fully have appreciated the wisdom which pre- 
scribed them. 

All these startling innovations are carefully and 
intelligently explained by the dispensary helpers 
and normal students who take the practical side 
of their course in First Aid, Home Nursing, and 
Invahd Cookery, in the dispensary. Their labours 
have not been in vain, and the presence of the 




THE TEACHING STAFF. 

{See fase 233.) 



To face page aaS. 



TRAINING IN FIRST AID 229 

Great Physician has often been manifest in the 
midst, as weary, heart-sick women whose ills 
were beyond our help have found healing and, 
touching the hem of His garment, been made 
perfectly whole. 

As the patients scatter, the students impress 
afresh upon their memory how, and in what 
quantity, the medicine should be taken. Only too 
often the printed directions are entirely disobeyed, 
and the week's supply swallowed in one dose, on 
the strength of that unanswerable argument with 
which we wrestled in the days of childhood : 

If one dose = improvement, 

Twenty doses = x, i.e. complete cure. 



A CASKET OF JEWELS 



•3« 



" Happy is she who hath believed that there shall be a 
perfecting of the things which have been spoken to her from 
the Lord ! " — The Gospel according to Luke. 

"There is nothing more divine than the education of 
children. ' ' — Plato. 

*' The fate of empires depends upon the education of 
children. ' ' — ^Aristotle. 

" Take heed that ye despise not— offend not — forbid 
not — one of these little ones." — The Gjnmiandment of 
Christ. 



•3« 



/ 



CHAPTER XXIII 

A CASKET OF JEWELS 

Being an Account of the Girls' School 

MRS. HSI has never replaced the ornaments 
she sold thirty years ago. Had she 
heard the story told of Cornelia, mother of the 
Gracchi, I fancy her thoughts would have found 
expression, when she lately visited us and saw 
the many courtyards occupied by women and 
girls, in the famous words of the Roman matron : 
" These are my jewels." The interest on that first 
small gift is incalculable, and can never be tabu- 
lated in human statistics. An attempt to record 
the many activities of the Hwochow Mission station 
as it now stands, would be incomplete without 
some detailed account of the Girls' School and 
Normal Training College. 

The schools occupy four courts, and the ages 
of the pupils assembled range from the smallest, 
who is only five, to young women of over twenty. 
The Teaching Staff consists entirely of women, 
all of whom have been trained here, and we shall 
perhaps get our best view of them at the Teachers' 
Meeting held weekly in the Principal's room. A 
glance will reveal the strong individualities here 
represented, and these twelve young women cover 



234 A CASKET OF JEWELS 

as many varieties of temperament. Here all 
matters connected with the school are mentioned, 
and it is striking to see the various view-points 
taken. The loving nature which would lead, but 
never drive, a rebellious child; the puritan, who 
will smile at no infringement of the law, and whose 
stern eye has been even known to call the Principal 
to order ; the quick glance of the woman whose 
type reveals an inevitable leader, the stern dis- 
ciplinarian, and the easy-going, good-natured 
woman — all are here, their diversity of gifts 
revealing the unity of the One Spirit. Ling Ai 
and I alone know how much we have to thank 
God for the friendliness of their mutual relation- 
ships. As to myself, the loyalty, love, and unity 
of my band of fellow- workers is my joy and crown. 

Thrice already has the staff been increased by 
graduates qualifying from the Normal Training 
Class, and our students have included some from 
the borders of Mongolia — a journey of twenty 
days — from Shensi, Honan, and Chihli provinces, 
in addition to those from all the China Inland 
Mission schools in Central Shansi. 

The education given in the school is arranged 
to cover the double course required by Chinese 
and Western standards. The capacity for memor- 
ising possessed by the Chinese is well known. A 
Chinese classical scholar's memory is so trained 
for retentiveness that one who became a Christian 
was able, with ease, to commit to memory five 
chapters of the New Testament each day. Were 
it not for this capacity the mastery of Chinese 
would be an impossibility, for a small child of ten 
years old, in addition to ordinary general subjects 



CHINESE CAPACITY 235 

as taught in an English school, is required in a term 
of three months to learn to write and recognise 
five hundred new Chinese characters, and by the 
time she has completed her course can repeat by 
heart the greater part of the New Testament, 
Psalms, and the classical works of Confucius 
and Mencius. 

The Chinese are extraordinarily observant, and 
it is diflicult to mention anything which has 
escaped their notice. Nevertheless, the classifica- 
tion of their observations in a scientific form of 
nature study is an entirely new method to them, 
though this gift, once developed, should cause 
China ultimately to rank high in the world of 
science. The girls' restricted surroundings have 
yielded new joys since they learned the delight of an 
observation beehive, the ramifications of an ant- 
hill, and the notes and habits of the birds which 
visit us. A thorough knowledge of the Scriptures 
is considered of primary importance, and only 
girls who by Christian character give promise 
when trained of being missionaries to their own 
people, are accepted as Normal Students. During 
the course outlines of Old and New Testament 
are studied, with detailed work of selected books. 
The students are required to prepare their own 
analyses of various books, following the system of 
Dr. Campbell Morgan's Analysed Bible. 

The many classes which constitute the 
Elementary and Secondary schools form the 
training-ground for the necessary practice in 
teaching, which aims at being very thorough. 
The fkst lesson, given in the presence of a critical 
audience, is no small ordeal to the student who 



236 A CASKET OF JEWELS 

after elaborate preparation with diagram, black- 
board, plasticine, or sand-tray, will realise when 
the moment of free criticism comes, that in her 
nervousness she has omitted to make any use of 
that on which she had bestowed so much labour. 
Gradually, however, a new class emerges from utter 
helplessness into an encouraging self-confidence and 
resourcefulness . 

A visitor to the school could see ten or twelve 
classes at various stages on the high road of learn- 
ing, each under the control of a capable young 
Chinese woman, before the Kindergarten room is 
reached. 

Here, with merry shouts, the sixteen babies 
are all keen to display the glories of the dolls' 
house, and all anxious to sing their action songs, 
show their plasticine modelling, paper-plaiting, 
and fancy drill ; still possessing the child's heart, 
and therefore fearless of criticism. Each one 
covets the r61e of spokesman to relate the travel- 
ling adventures of the doll, which spends but little 
time in the house and is constantly undertaking 
long and difficult journeys. From this intrepid 
traveller they have obtained most of their geo- 
graphical information. 

Long hours of work are the order of the day in 
a Chinese school, the terms being short owing to 
the exigencies of the extreme climate. The wheat 
harvest falls in June, and it is necessary that wives 
and daughters should fulfil their obligations to the 
home during this busy season. 

The month of September brings the eagerly 
looked-for day when by cart, donkey, litter, or 
even on foot, from north, south, east, and west, 




SOME KINDERGARTEN SCHOLARS. 



To face page 136. 



THE DAY OF OPENING 237 

the small travellers wend their way to Hwochow. 
The babies of the Kindergarten not infrequently 
sit in the panniers, slung across a donkey's back, 
or in baskets which a man will carry balanced 
on his shoulder. Each party on arrival passes 
through the room where Mr. Gwo, a capable 
deacon, sits at the receipt of custom, and thence 
to the guest-room where a respectful bow is made 
to the missionaries and head teacher. 

The next visit is to the dispensary where 
Fragrant Incense, my head assistant in this de- 
partment, conducts a strict inquiry into personal, 
family, and village health, and where newcomers 
are being vaccinated. 

" I hear that your uncle has smallpox," may be 
the alarming accusation. 

"It is not worth speaking of," answers Snow- 
flake. 

" Have you been to the house ? " 

" A few times," says the puzzled scholar, quite 
unable to trace the connection between her uncle's 
attack of " heavenly blossoms " and our un- 
willingness to admit her to the school court. 

Once a girl has entered the school premises it 
is not to leave them again for the period of the 
term, and all that is necessary to fulfil the condi- 
tions of her life is supplied in this little world. 

One of her first visits will be to the bank where 
an account is opened in her name, it being one of 
the school rules, in order to avoid loss, that no girl 
may keep her own money ; any found on her 
person or in her box being forfeited. Every 
Saturday afternoon eager young depositors can 
be seen drawing sums varying from one to fifty 



238 A CASKET OF JEWELS 

cash for shopping purposes, or with a view to the 
Sunday service collection. At the same hour the 
school shop is open, under the care of a teacher 
with a senior pupil as assistant. 

" What do you stock ? " a newcomer will ask 
the young saleswoman. " Everything," is the 
bold answer, and indeed the few necessities of a 
Chinese schoolgirl may all be supplied. Materials 
needed for shoemaking, hemp for making string 
which is required in attaching soles to uppers, 
pretty silks for embroidery, thimbles, needles, 
hair ornaments, safety-pins, bright-coloured cord 
with which the Chinese girl holds every hair 
in place at the top of a long thick plait, which 
is her mode of head-dress ; chalk, with which to 
whiten her calico socks, and the acacia pod, the 
bean of which serves as soap. All the requisites 
in stationery can be purchased, and it is amusing 
to see the Chinese brush-pen being carefully 
tested by minute prospective buyers. A new- 
comer will try in vain to get goods on credit, 
relying upon her father's generosity at an early 
date. " No," is the answer ; " come again when 
you have the cash." 

In another room the lending library is attract- 
ing large numbers. Here again a teacher, helped 
by a pupil, is changing or renewing books. With 
surprising skill any blot, stain, or torn page is 
discovered, and for years the books will pass from 
hand to hand with but little damage done. 

The range of literature is fairly comprehensive, 
extending from world-wide favourites such as 
Little Lord Fauntleroy, Christie^s Old Organ, Just 
So Stories, and the Wide Wide World, which are 



THE SCHOOL ROUTINE 239 

eagerly passed from hand to hand — for every one 
reads them several times — to such works as The 
History of the Dutch Republic, Biographies of Great 
Men, Works on Social Economy, and many books 
of reference. For the translation of these, and 
many other works into the Chinese language, we 
are indebted to the Christian Literature Society. 
At the sound of the head teacher's gong, all business 
ceases, and the girls proceed to the playground, 
where all enjoy swings, seesaw, and games. 

Sunday opens with the delight of an extra hour 
in bed, and the wearing of best clothes. Sunday 
school and Public Service are enjoyed even by the 
smallest, and precede the happy hour when 
parents and near relatives may see the scholars. 
At its conclusion all are hungry for the dinner, 
which, though later than usual, proves well worth 
waiting for, consisting as it does of the popular 
white bread and vegetables. The afternoon closes 
with a service of praise. 

Three times a day the children assemble in the 
large dining-hall for meals. Over one thousand 
pounds of flour are used each week, and about 
one hundred pounds of vegetables, in the prepara- 
tion of the food. The bread is steamed and eaten 
hot, and the midday meal generally consists of 
flour and water, made into a paste, rolled out 
very thin, and cut into long strips which are boiled 
for a few minutes, and when cooked resemble 
macaroni. If a man's greatness consists in the 
small number of his needs, the Chinaman must 
rank high. A bowl and pair of chop-sticks is the 
sum total of the table requirements of each girl ; 
a cotton wadded quijt and a small, bran-stuffed 



240 A CASKET OF JEWELS 

pillow comprise her bedding, and a cotton hand- 
kerchief will hold her neatly folded wardrobe. 
A child usually owns no toy, and many have never 
thought of an organised youthful festivity imtil 
they spend their first Christmas Day in school. 
With bated breath they hear from their elders 
of the joys in store, and watch secret preparations 
for presents to class teachers and missionaries. 
Excitement reaches its highest point when, with 
silent footstep, they creep into our courtyard in 
the winter dawn to sing Christmas carols, and in 
place of the temple gongs and weird music of 
heathen rites, the air rings with joyful strains as 
class after class takes up the refrain : " Oh come, 
let us adore Him, Christ the Lord ! " The reputa- 
tion of the evening illumination and Christmas- 
tree is so widespread, that two small newcomers 
were heard encouraging each other, eight months 
before this event, to endure with patience in hopes 
of ^seeing the glorious sight, and becoming the 
^ possessors of a threepenny doll. 

Nearly five hundred girls have already passed 
through the school, and every few years we have 
made an attempt to gather them together for an 
informal conference ; unfortunately, the distances 
are so great, and family claims so many, that only 
a very small proportion have been able to attend, 
and we have supplemented these by instituting 
an Old Girls' Guild which includes a prayer union 
whose members receive a quarterly circular letter. 
The postal system does not reach most of the 
villages, so the letters must be entrusted to reliable 
messengers who may be going that way, and who 
are requested by words on the envelope : "Be 



MISSIONARY ENTHUSIASM 241 

so kind as to trouble yourself with this letter 
and deliver it into the hand of the Mother of 
Heavenly Bundle." The young woman whose 
identity is thus hinted at is but one of perhaps 
twenty, whose offspring bear this name in the 
one village. Below are the mystic words : " The 
name is presented inside." On the left side of 
the envelope is the urgent command : " Quick 
as fire ! Quick as fire ! " Thus nothing is omitted 
but the name of the addressee. 

From early days an effort has been made to 
impress upon the students that a Christian com- 
munity is only justified in so far as it partakes 
of the nature of a centrifugal force, extending its 
influence in every direction. The interests of 
students have been much enlarged by the residence 
in their midst of girls from other provinces, who 
are followed with prayerful interest when they 
leave us to enter their varied spheres of work. 
Beyond this, the scholar's widened sympathies 
find their expression in the zeal with which they 
follow missionary activity in other lands. Most 
earnest thought is given to the choice of destina- 
tion of the sun^ reported in hand by the mis- 
sionary treasurer. The Evangelical Union of 
South America, British and Foreign Bible Society, 
Pandita Ramabai, and Dr. Zwemer in Cairo 
have all received contributions, and latterly 
money has been sent to supply Testaments for 
the soldiers on active service. Nevertheless, the 
consensus of general opinion is, that the Moslem 
situation is at present so critical that all available 
funds must go to meet that need. Small indeed 
the sums may appear on a subscription list, but 
16 



242 A CASKET OF JEWELS 

few gifts are, I think, more thoughtfully given 
and more prayerfully followed. 

The money is contributed in various ways, the 
two most important being the school working 
party and the takings of the Debating Society, 
where debates and lectures are always sure of a 
full house. 

The instinct for personal aggressive Christian 
work finds an outlet in the following ways : The 
annual fairs and idol processions held in the town 
bring large crowds of women visitors, and afford 
a great opportunity for the senior scholars to 
take their part in preaching, as also the evangelistic 
service held each week for Dispensary patients. 
The Sunday School classes of small children are 
taught by elder girls, and the annual Summer 
Campaign has provided scope for all those who 
have a will to work. At the close of the spring 
term, every girl who so desires is entrusted with 
a printed Course of Study, suitable for the ele- 
mentary instruction of village women. At Sunday 
and weekday classes these are taught by the elder 
scholars of the village, even the younger children 
being able to take their part in helping the women 
to memorise a verse. 

In order to secure the highest spiritual and 
mental efficiency amongst those who, by the 
nature of their calling, are constantly responding 
to the claims made upon them, we have instituted 
a Teachers' Summer School, to which are invited 
all former students now holding posts as teachers 
in Mission Schools. The month of August is 
devoted to this delightful gathering when, on the 



THE SUMMER SCHOOL 243 

footing of fellow-workers, free from the restric- 
tions attendant on school discipline, we meet for 
Bible and secular study. The curriculum of the 
coming term is discussed, difficulties considered, 
some new educational subject is studied, and an 
invaluable atmosphere is created. 

In the silence of the moments of spiritual com- 
munion, lives are dedicated afresh to the service 
of God ; by contemplation of the Word, fresh 
ideals are apprehended and more of the wisdom 
that winneth souls is learned, by which a band 
of workers is equipped anew for any manner of 
service, wholly at His command. The various 
activities recorded above each contribute a part 
to the upbuilding of character and the training 
of those who will be the future missionaries, 
mothers, and teachers of their people. 

We desire that, rejoicing in the abundance of 
life which Christ came to bestow, they may by 
sacrificial service gather around them many who 
will say : " Happy the people whose God is the 
Lordl" 



•J^ 



THE TREASURE HOUSE 



«45 



" Who ranks higher than others in the Kingdom of the 
Heavens ? " 

" In solemn truth I tell you that unless you turn and 
become like little children you will in no case be admitted 
into the Kingdom of the Heavens." 

" Whoever shall occasion the fall of one of these little 
ones who believe in me, it would be better for him to have 
a millstone hung round his neck and be drowned in the 
depths of the sea." 

■ ■ Their angels in heaven have continual access to my 
Father in heaven." 

The words of the Lord Jesus Christ. 

'' The hope of the glory of God includes the responsi- 
bility of rejoicing. If we really have the anointed vision 
which sees through the travail to the triumph, and is 
perfectly assured of the ultimate triumph of God, it is our 
duty in the midst of the travail to rejoice evermore, to 
cheer the battle by song, and shorten the marches by 
music." — Dr. G. Campbell Morgan. 



S46 



CHAPTER XXIV 
THE TREASURE HOUSE 

Where the Reader is shown the Lapidary 

AT WORK 

MY study is perhaps to me the most sacred 
spot of the entire compound. Situated 
in the midst of the school court, it is accessible 
to teachers and scholars alike. For more than 
a decade this room has been sanctified by number- 
less confidences, many too sacred to record. 

At any hour of the day, or after dark when it 
is easier for the girl to knock unseen at my door, 
I may hear the words, sometimes timidly whispered : 
" Has the Teacher time to let me speak to her ? " 
A welcome being extended my young guest will 
usually begin to talk upon general topics, and 
after a considerable time will gently hint that 
there is also one small matter in particular of 
which she wishes to speak. On receiving en- 
couragement she proceeds to unfold the matter, 
which may vary in gravity from a message con- 
veying a request that employment should be 
found for a neighbour of hers, to a tearful pleading 
that I will use all my influence to prevent her 
parents from engaging her to a heathen bride- 
groom ; it has even been to tell me of a brother 



248 THE TREASURE HOUSE 

who, having entered a College in the provincial 
capital, is now in jail and likely to lose his life 
for revolutionary tendencies. 

It is during the hour when the schoolgirls are 
at play, or in the evening when they are in bed, 
that the teacher will come to me who desires to 
be certain of no interruption. One whose father 
was formerly a deacon, but having relapsed into 
opium smoking has lost his office and Church 
membership, comes with her sad story. " How 
can I hope to influence my scholars when this 
sin is in my own home ? " she asks me ; and goes 
on to tell of the downward steps taken, and of 
the good mother who, with herself, has done all 
that love could suggest to save the father from 
public disgrace. A letter from her distant home 
will sometimes bring her when the work of the 
day is done, that together we may share its con- 
tents. How plain it is to me, that this scorching 
furnace of shame which seals her lips and makes 
her blush before her own pupils, is the very test 
she requires for her perfecting. I know that this 
is a spiritual crisis when in the thick darkness 
she will either meet with God, or losing the 
hope whereby we are saved will grow cold and 
indifferent. 

It is always a personal refreshment when 
Fragrant Clouds or Pearl Drops comes to see me. 
A warm friendship exists between these two senior 
Normal Students, strong, robust young women, 
prospering in body as in soul. Pearl Drops, 
keenly humorous, is a famous mimic and I once 
had the delight of, unnoticed, joining an audience 
which she was fascinating by her mimicry of an 



TALKS IN THE STUDY 249 

old man well known to us all. Fragrant Clouds 
is a more serious type, and entered the High School 
here in answer to her prayers to God for many 
months, at a time when innumerable obstacles 
barred her way. She has proved " barriers " to be 
" for those who cannot fly," and possesses that 
quiet dignity and confidence which tells of character 
formed by difficulties overcome. She knows the "All 
great " to be the "All loving too," and is strong. 

Little Goodness is the boldest girl in the school. 
She is only five years old, but will any moment 
that she can run away from the Kindergarten 
Court unseen push open my door, and show me 
with great delight and most disconcerting self- 
assurance some treasure she has found — a grub, 
or maybe some one else's new handkerchief. The 
frown I summon to my aid when the offence is 
repeated more than once a day, is rather a failure, 
but poor Goodness has had to learn by sterner 
methods that the teacher's word is law. It is not 
easy to be stern with her for she is a most fascina- 
ting little creature, and yet her parents wanted 
her so little that she was found, as a wee babe, 
buried alive. With difficulty her life was saved 
by the missionary to whom she was taken, who 
has cared for her ever since. Her most serious 
offence in this school, and a cause of scandal to 
the whole Kindergarten, was the helping of herself 
to five cash from the collection plate when it was 
handed to her in the Sunday service. 

When a new graduate who has been faced for 
the first time by her class appears at my door, I 
know before she begins to speak that her errand 
is to inform me she has found herself to have 



250 THE TREASURE HOUSE 

accepted a burden and responsibility which she 
is utterly incapable of bearing. I make no great 
effort to hide my amusement, and call to her re- 
membrance the complete assurance with which 
she was prepared to enter upon her career during 
her last term as a Normal Student. I also tell her 
I have been expecting this interview and, needless 
to say, from the humorous side we naturally turn 
to the serious. 

Teachers are constantly coming to me for 
advice as to the best method of dealing with those 
symptoms of original sin which cause small children 
to bewilder their elders by the utter depravity 
of their moral nature. What, for example, could 
I say to Kingfisher who was heard, when praying 
audibly, to petition heaven that Rosebud ^vith 
whom she had quarrelled might lose all her good 
marks ? 

The weeping Butterfly was peremptorily ushered 
into my presence, accused of using bad language. 
I could see by the expression on the teacher's 
face that it was no trifling matter. She had said : 
" Chrysanthemum, when you walk it is like the 
hopping of a frog." She had thus compared a 
fellow-scholar to an animal, a form of speech which 
in Chinese, as I well knew, amounts to a curse. 

Peach Blossom, ever since the first day she 
came to me has been a care and responsibility. 
Conscious of her good looks and of her capacity 
to secure a following of devotees, she has conducted 
her small court with increasing joy to herself, 
and annoyance to me and my Staff. It was 
impossible to ignore her presence, and while she 
was scrupulously within the rules and regulations 



A MOTHER'S PART 251 

of school discipline she somehow managed to sail 
so near, and yet avoid, the point of defiance 
that we were baffled. 

I am sometimes called upon to fulfil the vocation 
of motherhood in a very real sense, as when I have 
to announce to some child who has no mother 
that the arrangements for her engagement are 
about to be completed, but that her father, who 
feels he could not expect her to speak of such a 
matter, has asked me to find out her desires re- 
garding the proposed bridegroom. After an in- 
evitable tear, shed at the suggestion that she must 
some day leave her father's home, she asks me if I 
am satisfied with the plan ; on my answering in 
the affirmative her face brightens, though she 
conventionally begs me to use my influence to 
dissuade her father from any such intention. I, 
seeing that no difficulty presents itself, change the 
subject and bring her a few days later the gifts 
and silver ornaments which indicate that all is 
settled. She, having no mother to do the necessary 
grumbling at the inferior quality of the bride- 
groom's presents, comes to my room later on, and 
says : "I have been examining these, and perceive 
that the silver used is not pure in quality." Having 
shown that she, though motherless, is not easily 
taken in, she accepts my exhortation to be a good 
child and to be thankful for what she has, and 
without further ado begins her preparations for the 
day when she will " change her home." 

The more modern parent is sometimes desir- 
ous that his daughter, who has reached years of 
discretion, should from time to time correspond 
with her fianc^. The letters all being sent to the 



252 THE TREASURE HOUSE 

girl's father, he forwards them to me, and the 
fear lest any fellow-student should know of so 
immodest a proceeding always leads the girl to 
read them in my room, and place them in my hand 
for safe keeping. It was enlightening to receive 
a request on one occasion that I would, at the 
close of term, return " those letters which are of 
no possible use." I knew to what she referred, 
^rid mentally noted that the "useless " paper found 
a very safe place in the recesses of her luggage ! 

Tragedy is interwoven with the life of almost 
every woman in this land. Disappointment at 
her birth finds its only consolation in the recogni- 
tion of her value in the home as family drudge. 
Only as mother of her son does she enter on an 
inheritance of sufficient consideration to make her 
well worth the clothes she wears and the food she 
consumes. 

How pathetic it is to see the efforts put forth 
by a child whose school life has been interrupted 
to endeavour to find some means of paying the 
necessary fees ! One girl of thirteen, by making 
hair-sieves during the summer months renders it 
possible for her father to send her to school ; and 
many weave during the holidays all the cloth 
necessary for their own clothes. One little girl 
who had no other means of helping herself, gleaned 
so industriously that she gathered sufficient for 
her first month's expenses, only to find one day 
that her little hoard had been used by her opium- 
smoking father for his own indulgence. 

Even the high ethics of Confucianism can 
recognise no higher position for woman than one 
of obedient dependence throughout life. In youth 




LING Al HER CHILDREN, AND HER MOTHER, MRS. LIANQ. 

To /ace f age 252. 



A NEW ERA FOR CHINESE GIRLHOOD 253 

she must be subject to her father, in middle age 
to her husband, and in old age to her son. The 
revolutionary power of Christianity has established 
a new order, and in the Christian community we 
see her welcomed in babyhood, cared for in child- 
hood, and receiving the honour due to her woman- 
hood when she becomes a bride. I have been 
amazed at the sacrifices I have seen made by parents 
for their daughters. I have known a father, too poor 
to afford the hire of a donkey, carry his little girl 
nearly thirty miles to school. I have known the 
only bedcovering in the home to be spared for the 
use of the little daughter during term, and a man 
to endure the winter cold with the scantiest cloth- 
ing that his child might be warmly clad. 

One class, a small one, has outstripped me in the 
race, and graduated to a higher school to render 
service more needed there than here. I can think 
of each one with joy as in the Great Teacher's 
Hand, learning lessons which as yet are beyond me. 

The one it seemed I could least spare was needed 
by Him, and since most of this book was written 
my beloved Ling Ai went to serve, face to face, the 
Lord she loves. 

The intimate sympathy required to enter into 
the joys and sorrows of so many lives is perhaps 
the heaviest strain laid upon the missionary, and 
the mental discipline necessary to hold all in right 
proportion can only be exercised where there is 
true adjustment of spiritual vision, whereby we 
see "through the travail to the triumph, perfectly 
assured of the ultimate victory of God," and rejoice, 
" cheering the battle by song and shortening the 
marches by music." 



*A,^ 



CONCLUSION 



" That Church controls the future which can demand of 
her members the greatest sacrifices." — Dr. John Hutton. 

'' When earth's last picture is painted, and the tubes are 

twisted and dried, 
When the oldest colours have faded, and the youngest 

critic has died — 
We shall rest, and faith, we shall need it — ^lie down for 

an aeon or two. 
Till the Master of all good workmen shall put us to work 

anew. 

And only the Master shall praise us, and only the Master 

shall blame ; 
And no one shall work for money, and no one shall 

work for fame ; 
But each for the joy of the working, and each, in his 

separate star. 

Shall draw the Thing as he sees It for the God of Things 

as They are." 

RuDYARD Kipling. 



«S6 



CHAPTER XXV 

CONCLUSION 

Being a Review of the Present Situation 

IT is now thirty years since foreigners came to 
reside in Hwochow, during which time three 
generations of women missionaries have succeeded 
each other. The period has been divided accur- 
ately at the fifteenth year by the Boxer riots 
and massacres. The many who have helped in 
varied ways to make this work possible may 
rightly ask : " Is not this period sufficient to 
establish a self-propagating Church independent 
of foreigners ? " 

It would be hard to over-emphasise the need of 
the wisdom required at the stage immediately 
preceding the final lapse of total responsibility 
upon the shoulders of the native Church, that 
the move should not be made too hastily or at 
an inopportune moment ; even more emphatically, 
that the Church should not be driven to establish 
on a factional basis a so-called independent sect 
in opposition to the foreigner, in order to secure 
the freedom and control for which it was ripe. 
Faith, hope, and courage, without which the 
pioneer missionary's work must inevitably fail, 
find their counterpart in the spirit of wisdom and 
17 



258 CONCLUSION 

understanding required for the proper adjustment 
of the new relationship, whereby the Chinese 
Christian, not in word, but in deed and in truth, 
may take precedence. It is easy to gain ready 
acquiescence to this theory of equahty, but as 
was immediately evidenced when the strong and 
independent Pastor Hsi arose, the situation in its 
practical bearing is not easily handled. 

A word to the intending missionary : Be ready 
to lay aside your preconceived ideas as to how 
the Gospel should be preached, how Church 
matters should be handled, discipline enforced, 
and your own position in the Church. 

Come as a learner, and men who were Christians 
before you emerged from childhood will give 
you the benefit of a ripe experience, and if you 
prove worthy of it, admit you to fellowship in 
service. 

In view of the preceding chapters, few words 
will serve to review on general lines the situation 
as it has developed during these thirty years in 
Hwochow. 

The first fifteen called for unremitting effort in 
breaking up new ground, broadcast sowing of 
the seed, and establishing between Chinese and 
foreigner some measure of confidence. The second 
period has been one of reaping from the very 
commencement. Extraordinarily rapid develop- 
ment on every hand brought about new conditions 
which in turn necessitated new methods, so that 
the missionary is no longer the main instigator of 
Church activities, but takes liis place in a large and 
far-reaching organisation. 

The work of evangelisation and all elementary 



THE PLACE OF THE MISSIONARY 259 

teaching require no foreign help, but we^ still 
seem to be necessary for the organisation which 
is giving training and advanced teaching to the 
men and women whom we hope to see equipped 
in every respect as well, and better, than we 
ourselves have been. 

All non-institutional work amongst men is 
already in Chinese hands. Pastor Wang and 
eight deacons take entire oversight of the Church of 
nearly four hundred members, the examining and 
accepting of candidates for baptism, as well as 
arrangements for Sunday services in each of the 
eight out-stations, where the local Christians have, 
at their own expense, supplied a building for 
public worship where daily service is held. In 
addition to this, the entire evangelistic organisa- 
tion, Elementary Boys' School and Opium Refuge, 
form part of their responsibility. 

The more aggressive work includes a Chinese 
Evangelistic Society entirely free from foreign 
money and control, the object of which is to open 
up new districts, preach at fairs, and widely 
distribute Gospels and tracts. 

In the busiest thoroughfare of the city, a preach- 
ing hall is daily opened which is freely frequented 
by merchants and travellers. 

The systematic instruction of men, both Church 
members and inquirers, is supplied by means of 
short station classes held at convenient times by 
the Pastor, or by some foreign missionary whom 
he may invite. 

With the exception of the Elementary Boys' 
School just mentioned, the men's institutional 
work is carried on in the neighbouring city of 



26o CONCLUSION 

Hungtung, where, under the presidency of the 
Rev. F. Dreyer, a Bible Training Institute for 
men has been estabhshed. The students are drawn 
not only from our own, but other provinces, and 
during the two years' course a careful and thorough 
training is given in theoretical and practical work. 
A long preaching list is served by these men 
in conjunction with a large band of local preachers. 
To Mr. Dreyer's influence amongst these men we, 
as many other stations, owe some of our best 
helpers. The Hungtung institutional work is 
supplemented by a Higher Grade School for boys, 
the pupils of which are largely drawn from the 
fourteen Elementary Schools scattered throughout 
the district. Mr. E. J. Cooper, assisted by Chinese 
graduates of Weihsien University, is responsible 
for this department. Many former pupils are in 
charge of village schools, the examining and 
superintendence of which is conducted from the 
centre. It is thus possible for the sons of Church 
members to obtain a thorough and Christian 
education in their immediate neighbourhood. 
The necessary demands for institutional work 
for the several counties mentioned throughout 
this book, are thus met by the two stations of Hung- 
tung and Hwochow. United with these to form a 
(Jeneral Allied Council to secure unity of action 
in all far-reaching enterprises, and to avoid multi- 
plication of work (though each local church remains 
independent and self-governing), are the stations 
situated in the cities of Chaocheng, and Yoyang, 
now severally in charge of Mr. and Mrs. Ernest 
Taylor and Mr. and Mrs. F. Briscoe, whose time is 
occupied with pastoral and evangelistic work. 



THE CHURCH IN HWOCHOW 261 

Mrs. Hsi still remains in Chaocheng, and carries 
on her work amongst the women of that city. She, 
in company with Mrs. Liang and three others, 
has been chosen by the Church to be set apart to 
the office of deaconess. She is now sixty-four 
years of age, and her physical strength is visibly 
failing. 

Mrs. Hsi's life and example is one of the treasures 
of the Shansi Church. She has served faithfully 
and long in active Christian work, and she recently 
told me that she is now giving herself to prayer 
and fasting more than was possible during the most 
active period of her life. 

For this effectual share in the present conflict, 
for her love and friendship, and for her continued 
presence amongst us, we give thanks unto Gk)d. 

Thus we believe the Church has been rooted 
and established, no longer propagated by any 
external energy, but whose seed is in itself. 

The dream is so far fulfilled. More than thirty 
years ago Mr. and Mrs. Hsi, in faith, brought 
their small offering as a child once offered his 
barley loaves and laid them in the Master's Hand, 
Who gave thanks and blessed. 

In these pages the story is recorded of the sower, 
the waterer, and the reaper, who laboured in 
tears and in joy. 

Of the increase which God alone can give, no 
human record can tell, but told it shall be in the 
day when those from every nation, kindred, and 
tribe shall unite to ascribe honour and glory unto 
Him who liveth and reigneth for ever and ever 1 



i 



" So have I dreamed ! Oh may the dream be 

true! 
That praying souls are purged from mortal 

hue . . . 
And grow as pure as He to Whom they pray." 

HARTLEY COLERIDGE. 



a6a 



APPENDIX 

CONTAINING 

BIBLE TRAINING SCHOOL COURSE OF 
STUDY 

AND 

SPECIMEN QUESTIONS OF THE NORMAL 

TRAINING COLLEGE 

FINAL EXAMINATION PAPERS 

{INSERTED BY BEQUEST) 



HWOCHOW WOMEN'S BIBLE TRAINING 
SCHOOL 



COURSE OF STUDY 

FIRST TERM 

Book of Genesis. 

Gospel according to St. Luke or St. Mark. 

Acts of the Apostles, chapters i. to ix. 

" A Synopsis of the Central Themes of the Holy Bible." 

Reading Lessons, with necessary Explanation and Writing 

of Chinese Character. 
Arithmetic. 
Singing and Memorisation of Hymns. 

SECOND TERM 

Book of Exodus, Numbers, and 1 Samuel i. to xvi 

The Gospel according to St. John. 

The Epistle of St. James. 

" A Synopsis of the Central Themes of the Holy Bible " — 

(continued). 
Reading Lessons, with necessary Explanation and Writing 

of Chinese Character. 
Arithmetic. 

Singing and Memorisation of Hymns. 
Practical Work. — Assist in conducting Elementary Classes 

for Women. 

THIRD TERM 

Book of Leviticus, Joshua, and 1 Samuel xvii. to xxxi. ; 
Ezra and Nehemiah. 

The Gospel according to St. Matthew. 

265 



266 HWOCHOW WOMEN'S BIBLE SCHOOL 

The Epistle to the Hebrews. 

" A Synopsis of the Central Themes of the Holy Bible " — 

(conclusiony 
Studies in Christian Doctrine. 
Reading Lessons, with necessary Explanation and Writing 

of Chinese Character. 
Arithmetic. 

Singing and Memorisation of Hymns. 
Memorisation of Psalms. 
Pilgrim's Progress. 
Practical Work. — Conduct Elementary Classes for 

Women, Teach under Criticism, City and Village 

Visiting. 

FOURTH TERM 

Book of Judges, Ruth, Esther, and 2 Samuel. 

Life of Elijah and Elisha. 

Acts of the Apostles, chapters x. to xxviii. 

Studies in Christian Doctrine. 

Arithmetic. 

Singing and Memorisation of Hymns. 

Memorisation of Psalms. 

Pilgrim's Progress, Part H. 

Practical Work. — As Term HI. 



CHINA INLAND MISSION NORMAL 
TRAINING COLLEGE, HWOCHOW, SHANSI 



SPECIMEN QUESTIONS 

(^Draivn from Final Examination Papers, 1915) 

SCRIPTURE 

What answer did Christ give to the following ques- 
tions ? — " What must we do that we may work the works 
of God ? " " How can this man give us His flesh to eat } " 
" Hast thou seen Abraham .'' " " How can a man be bom 
when he is old ? " 

Name five incidents in the Gospel according to St. John 



CHINA INLAND MISSION COLLEGE 267 

which illustrate the statement : " He knew what was in 
man." 

Name some of the abuses in the Corinthian Church, and 
briefly state how Paul dealt with each. 

What period of human history is covered by the Book 
of Genesis ? 

Briefly trace the degeneration of the Individual, the 
Home, and the Nation, as recorded in the Book of 
Genesis. 

Give an outline of the Book of Ezra. 

State briefly the teaching of Christ on the following 
subjects : — Fasting, Riches, Rewards, and the Forgiveness 
of Sin. 

The establishment of the Church by Constantine proved 
to be its spiritual loss. Quote five verses from Scripture 
to show this might have been anticipated. 

Mention four reasons which conduced to the spread of 
the Gospel in the days of the Early Church. 

HISTORY 

State clearly the advantages and disadvantages of 
Feudalism. 

What do you know of the Spartan methods of treating 
children .'' 

What do you know of the following : — Chaucer, Rienzi, 
Savonarola, Simon de Montfort, Gladstone, Li Hung- 
chang, Bruce ? 

What do you understand by the term " Ostracism " ? 

Who were the combatants in the following battles : — 
Crecy, Hastings, Marathon, Bannockburn, Waterloo .'' 

Give an account of the causes which resulted in the 
Crusades, or in the French Revolution. 

PHYSIOLOGY 

What are the various uses of the Cerebrum, Cerebellum, 
and Med ulla Oblongata ? 

Explain the process of "Hearing." Illustrate with 
diagrams. 

What do you know of the Crystalline Lens of the Eye ? 

What is meant by "Long Sight" and "Short Sight"? 



268 HWOCHOW WOMEN'S BIBLE SCHOOL 

What is the cause of each, and how may each be 
remedied ? 

Give a list of the Cranial Nerves, 

ZOOLOGY 

Draw a diagram of the Blood Vessels of a Fish. 

State clearly the main divisions of Zoology, and in detail 
those of the Bird Family. 

Give a detailed account of the Ant and its habits ; 
illustrate with diagrams. 

Describe the Fauna of the Arctic Regions. 

CHEMISTRY 

What weight of each of the following compounds is 
necessary to prepare 50 litres of Oxygen? — Water, 
Mercuric Oxide, Potassium Chlorate. 

Explain the principle of the Dewar bulb. 

Define the term "Acid." Enumerate the character- 
istics of a " Base." 

Two compounds were found to have the following 
compositions: =43*64 per cent, phosphorus = 56*36 per 
cent, oxygen = 56*35 per cent, phosphorus = 43*65 per 
cent. Show that the Law of Multiple proportion holds 
in this case. 

Classical Essay Subjects, — "The Path may not be 
left for an instant ; if it could be left it would not be 
the Path. On this account the superior man does not 
wait until he see things to be cautious, nor see things to 
be apprehensive." — Confucius. 



MORGAN AND SCOTT LTD., 12 PATERNOBTER BUILDINGS, LONDON, E.C. 



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