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Triangle Area Mushroom Club 
c/o Mary Beall 
68 Fernwood Ln. 
Chapel Hill NC 27516 




UNC 

Couch Biology Library 
CB#3280 Coker Hall 
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280 



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The Fungifile 
January/February 2002 
The newsletter of the Triangle Area Mushroom Club 




"Chicken on Dryer" courtesy of Judy Johnson, 
(Durham, North Carolina, Fall 2002) 



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d MycologyVolume 3(2), April2002 



ected a day after prolonged rains and all Together with Giampaolo Simonini we plan appeared to be fresh. Most seemed young or a detailed study of the 
roscopic character- not fully matured but three appeared mature is tics of the American and several Italian and a spore deposit was obtained. The 
ections. 

owing is a description based on this Among European boletes BoletUs dupainii collection, appears somewhat similar to B. queletii, 
2.5- 7.5 cm in diameter, at first especially the variety rubicundus Ma ire 

dspherical, becoming convex; surface (Watling, 1970). The North American dark blood red, becoming somewhat lighter B. .frostii has a similarly coloui s 
1 also blood red and developing small yellowish viscid) cap but it differs sharply in the red, areas in maturity; glabrous, smooth, very strongly alveolate - 
:ulate stem. BoletUs viscid when moist (and pileipellis detersible), rubroglutinosus Corner (1974) from Sarawak shiny and as if lacquered when dry; 
gin seems very close to B. dupainii in overall incurved at first, even, colors and viscid cap, but its spores are 

aenophore adnate to narrowly smaller (9.5-12 x 3.7-4.51.Lnl). In view of Roy depressed, with short, decurrent tooth; pore Watling's comment of a possible 
ish surface dark blood red at first, lighter red to collection, we urge our colleagues to search orange red at maturity, bruising dark blue; for this beautiful 
;te in the British Isles. 

:s small, more or less circular, 2-3 per We thank Giampaolo Simonini for provid- mm; tubes 5-6 mm long, greenish yellow, ing information on European 

irts and bluing when cut; spore deposit dark olive illustrations of Boletus dupainii. The collec- brown, tion from North Carolina is on deposit at the 

jn 3-7 x 1-2 cm, equal to clavate, hard Bolete Herbarium of the Buffalo Museum of and firm; ground colour yellow, golden Science as Both 4488 (BUF). 

aw in the apical area and there reticulated 

)me specimens from decurrent tUbes, Reference"". 

)ming streaked .and sponed with-'red Breitenba()h,]. and-F;-Kranzlin (1991). - downward, finely doned red to cinnamon, Fungi of Switzerland. Val. 3. 
tl area white and basal mycelium white; Boletes and agarics. First part. Lucerne, surface bruises'dark blue when handled. Corner, E.].H. (1974). Boletus 

h up to one cm thick at the disc, pale Phylloporus in Malaysia: further notes and lemon yellow, bruising dark blue rapidly, descriptions. The Gardens' 
\etJn, becoming blackish blue; odor not distinctive, Singapore XXVII (Part 1) : 1-16. 

t mild. Le Gal, M. (1950). Observations sur Boletus Spores (1 0)-l 1-16.5-(18) x (3.3)-4.4-5.5- dupainii Boud. Bull. Soc. myc. de France 
) l.Lnl, with prominent guttules, fusiform- 66: 96-98. 
»soid, ochraceous in KOH. Watling, R (1970). Boletaceae: 

i the exception of Breitenbach and Gomphidiaceae: Paxillaceae. British Kranzlin ( 1991) , most reports of spore sizes Fungus Flora. Agarics and Boleti. in 
iterature seem to be based on Boudier Edinburgh, or on Le Gal's study of the type. There are discrepancies among the original measures - we list the mean 
s and mean length/width ratios (Q): 



idier 14.5 x 6 Q = 2.41 Le Gal 13.7 x 5.8 2.37 Breitenbach 

Kranzlin 12.9 x 5.6 2.35 Simonini 

s. comm.) 12.3 x 4.9 2.50 Both 12.7x4.7 2.65 



Field Mycology Volume 3(2), April 2002 



BOLETUS DUPAINII 
in North America 

Owen L. McConnell 1 & Ernst E. Both 2 

1 . 2808 Butner St., Durham, N.C. 27704-3110 2. Division of Mycology, Buffalo Museum of Science, 
1020 Humboldt Parkway, Buffalo, N.Y. 14211-1293. 
Email: opmcconnell@att.net & eboth@sciencebuff.org 



1 oletus dupainii was published by 
l-£ Boucher in 1902 as having a shiny, 
JLJ viscid, blood red cap, blood red pores, 
yellow stem that is red-punctate, pale yellow 
flesh slowly bluing when cut, especially above 
the tubes. He reported the size of the spores 
as 13-16 x 5-7 urn, with 2 to 3 large guttules. 
The type was studied by Le Gal (1950), who 
found the spores to be 1 1-16 x 4.7-6.5. 

This very distinctive bolete is distributed 
from northern Bavaria to central and south- 
ern France, from the Pyrenees into Spain 
and across the southern Alps into Italy, 
reaching Sicily in the south. Thus it ranges- 
from latitude 50° north to latitude 38" north 
(Giampaolo Simonini, personal communica- 



tion). So far it has been reported only from 
Europe. Watling (1970) stated that "it may be 
in the British Isles to judge from a colour 
transparency of a British collection; no 
material is available for examination." 

We now report the first occurence of this 
bolete outside of Europe and its first report 
from North America. Owen McConnell 
collected 1 2 specimens on August 3, 2000 at 
the picnic area of John Umstead Hospital at 
Butner, North Carolina (latitude 35.6° 
north), 15 miles north of Durham. All were 
fruiting within 5 meters of one another, irreg- 
ularly scattered under Post Oak (Quercus 
stellata), with little vegetation at ground level, 
except mosses and grasses. They were 




Boletus dupainii, with its sticky, cherry-red caps, blood-red pores and yellow-red stems it is one of the most attrac- 
tive of boletes. Collected for the first time in the U.S.A., it grew under Post Oak (Quercus stellata) in Butner, North 
Carolina. Photograph © Owen McConnell. 



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UNC - CHAPEL HILL 



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Triangle Area Mushroom Club 
c/o Mary Beall 
68 Fernwood Ln. 
Chapel Hill NC 27516 



UNC 

Couch Biology Library 
CB#3280 Coker Hall 
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280 



The Fungifile 
March April 2003 

The newsletter of the Triangle Area Mushroom Club 




Morelophiles" courtesy of Jen Mahan, 
(French Lick, Indiana, Spring 2000) 





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(t7 'on '£ 'PA) 2002 uuin^nv 







Triangle Area Mushroom Club 
c/o Mary Beall 
68 Fernwood Ln. 
Chapel Hill NC 27516 




UNC 

Couch Biology Library 
CB#3280 Coker HaJJ 
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280 



Botany Section 

jUM * u 2003 

UN c- chapel ma 

) The Fungifile 

June /July 2003 
The newsletter of the Triangle Area Mushroom Club 




"Never eat anything bigger than your head" 
(Giant Puffball photo credits and stories inside) 



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mushroom mycelium may continue 
to thrive for decades until its original 
home completely succumbs to 
decomposition. 

| A portion of a herbarium specimen 
l.sent for analysis for polysaccharides to 
.the Japanese Food Sciences 
Laboratories in Tokyo, revealed that it 
contained 38.5% beta glucans. The 
significance of this is not yet known. 
Reshi commonly contains approxi- 
mately 25% beta glucans, however 
some have been grown by the author 
that tested at 40%. Studying the 
juoble polypore's biology, especially its 
longevity, may lead to novel medi- 
cines, antibiotics, enzymes, or insights 
into the intricacies of communities 
within old growth forests. Ongoing 
studies seek to determine its genomic 
signature and possible close relatives. 
Ais it stands now, the noble polypore 
remains one of the great mysteries in 
ke field of mycology as scientists 
begin to explore the depths of the old 
growth forest for other mycological 
measures. ^ 




Paul Stamets sits at base of a polypore mother-colony 
of the noble fir: This specimen was originally found in 
the late 1 940s, only to be recently re-discovered.The 
location was lost due to the incorrect registering of a 
forest service road, a practice not uncommon when 
mycologists, after a long day in the field, rack their 
brains to accurately record the locations of their dis- 
coveries. Often, the uniqueness of a field collection is 
not noticed until the specimens are brought back to 
the laboratory. Global positioning systems have now 
become a valuable tool for mycologists' recordkeeping. 
Photo © 2000 C. Dusty Yao 



* Now the largest known basidiocarp 
(Tigidioporus ulmarius (Sow.:Fr) 
Imazeki, Polyporaceae) weighs more 
than 600 lbs, and resides at the Royal\ 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey, 
England. 
References: 

1. the Natural Heritage Network. 
Standardized data on endangered 
species and communities (The 
Oregon Natural Heritage Program. 
Rare, Threatened & Endangered 
Species: Online Tables/Non vascular 
plants/Fungi). 2000 May 25 [cited 
2001 Feb 21]. Available from: URL: 
http ://listserv.abi. org/ nhp/ us/ or/ vnon 
.htm. 

2. Cooke WB. Oxyporus nobilissimus 
and the genus Oxyporus in North 
America. Mycologia 1949;41:442-5. 

3. Burdsall H, Volk T, Ammirati J. 
Bridgeoporus, a new genus to accom- 
modate Oxyporus nobilissimus 
(Basidiomycotina, - Polyporaceae). 
MycoTaxon 1996, Voi.. DG3087-395, 

4. Hilber C, O'Dell TE. Survey Protocols 
for Bridgeoporus ( = Oxyporus) nobilis- 
simus. Portland (Ore.): USDA Forest 
Service Regional Ecosystem Office; 
1998. 



Vnti-Viral Mushroom Compounds 

Continued from page 24 



References: 

Piraino F, Brandt CR. Isolation and partial characterization of an 
antiviral, RC-183, from the edible mushroom Rozites caperata. 
Antiviral Res 1999;43:67-8. 

Arora M. Mushrooms Demystified. Berkeley (Calif.): Ten Speed Press; 
1986. 

Brandt CR, Piraino F. Mushroom Antivirals. Recent Research 
Developments in Antimicrobial Agrents & Chemotherapy 2000;4:1 1-26. 
Suzuki H, Okubo A, Yamazaki S, Suzuki K, Mitsuya H, Toda S. 
Inhibition of the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human immun- 
odeficiency virus by water soluble lignin in an extract of the culture 
medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM). Biochem Biophys Res 
Commun 1989; ! l 1 >60:367-73. 

Sarkar S, Koga f, Whidey RJ, Chatterjee S. Antiviral effect of the 
extract of cultiirejmedium of Lentinus edodes mycelia on the replication 
of herpes simplex virus. Antiviral Res. April 20, 1993; 4:293-303. 
Tochikura TS. A' biological response modifier, PSK, inhibits immun- 
odeficiency virus infection in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 
1987;148:726-33. 

1 Collins RA, Ng TB. Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has 
potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infec- 
tion. Life Sciences \1997; 60(25):PL383-7. [Editor's note: Trametes ver- 
sicolor, syn. Coriolus versicolor] 



8. Ghoneum M. Anti-HIV activity in vitro of MGN-3, an activated 
arabinoxylane from rice bran. Biochem Biophys Res Co?nmun 
1998;243:25-9. 

9. Hattori M. Inhibitory effects of components from Ganoderma lucidum 
on the growth of human immunodeficiency virus (FirV) and the 
Protease Activity in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium 
oh Gdndderfna Lucidum in Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 17-18, 1997, 128-35. 

10. Nanba H. Immunostimulant activity Ln-vivo and anti-HIV activity in- 
vitro of 3 branched fi-1-6 glucans extracted from Maitake mushroom 
(Grifola frondosd) in Proceedings of the VIII International Conference 
on AIDS and the III STD World Congress, 1992. 

11. Wang HX, Ng TB. Isolation of a novel ubiquitin-like protein from 
Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom with anti-human immunodeficiency 
virus, translation-inhibitory, and ribonuclease activities. Biochem 
Biophysl Res Commun 2000;276:587-93. ,„ „,„. „„„ 

12. Aoki M, Tan M, Fukushima A. Antiviral Substance with systemic 
effects produced by Basidiomycetes such as Fomes fomentarius. 
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 1993;57:278. 

13. Kahios K. et al. Preliminary tests of antiviral activity of two Inonotus 
obliquus strains. Fitoterapia 1996;6(4):344-7. 

14. Yan SC. Clinical and experimental research on Polyporus umbellatus 
polysaccharide in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. Chung Kuo 
Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa ChihU.21 1988;8(3):l4l-3,131. 

15. HibbettDS, Pine EM, Langer E, Langer G, Donoghue MJ. Evolution 
of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA 
sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997 Oct;94: 12002-6. 



HerbaJGram 51 



27 



I 



If 

I 
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t 



New Ajitl-yira! Compounds from Mushrooms 



by Paul Stamets 

A new class of anti-viral compounds lias been recently discovered 
in mushrooms. Frank Piraino, Ph.D., and Curtis Brandt, Ph.D., at 
the University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, found a new 
antiviral, RC-183, that shows in vitro activity in inhibiting the her- 
,-pes simplex I and -II viruses, as well as varicella zoster virus, influen- 
za A virus, and the respiratory syncytial virus. 1 The mushroom 
yielding this novel antiviral is Rozites caperata, the gypsy mush- 
room, a mycorrhizal species associated with pines {Pinus spp., 
Pinaceae) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, 
Pinaceae) with a wide range that includes the old growth coniferous 
forest in the Pacific Northwest, the East and Northern North 
America. This mushroom thrives in both coniferous and in hard- 
wood forests- and where huckleberry {Vaccinium ovalifolium Smith, 
Ericaceae) grows in the midwest. 2 

In a more recent article, Brandt and Piraino identified a new class 
of anti-viral compounds from mushrooms. 3 Antivirals from other 
mushrooms have been identified previously from shiitake (lentinan 
and KS-2 from Lentinula. edodes (Berk.) Singer, Polyporaceae), 4 ''' 
turkey tail (PSP and PSK from Trametes versicolor (L.:Fr.) Pilat, 
Polyporaceae)/" 8 reishi (ganaderiol-F, ganoderic acid-E, lucidumol 
from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Lloyd, Ganodermataceae), 5 maitake 
(3 branched fi-1-6- glucans from Grifola frondosa (Dicks. :Fr.) S.F. 
Gray, Polyporaceae), 10 and oyster mushroom (ubiquitin-like protein 
with anti-HIV activity from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jaqu.:Fr.) Kumm, 
Polyporaceae). u Other antivirals, not yet characterized, but having 
shown activity from hot water extracts of the fruitbodies include the 
ice man or tinder fungus {Fomes fomentarius (L.) I Fr., 
Polyporaceae), 12 .chaga or cinder conk [Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) 
Pilat, Hymenochaetaceae) 13 and zhu ling {Polyporus umbellatus 
Fries, Polyporaceae). 14 



Dusty Yao hunts for Rozites caperata in old growth forest in the' 
Elwa River Valley of Washington, Olympic National Park. Photo © 

2000.R..,Stamets _ . 




Rozites caperata, the gypsy mushroom, shown one quarter actual 
size. Photo © 2000 R Stamets 

The predominant mushrooms showing promise for their anti- 
viral activities are polypores — the so-called woody conks that are 
now believed, through ongoing DNA research, to be the ;.ancestors 
of most, if not all, gilied mushrooms. 15 Interestingly, no poisonous 
polypores are known, whereas there are more than 100 species of 
poisonous gilied mushrooms, of which only perhaps 20 are deadly. 
Most of these anti-viral compounds from mushrooms are water sol- 
uble, and relatively heat-stable. Furthermore, most of the mush- 
rooms mentioned and/or their mycelia can be cultured to commer- 
cially significant levels. The anti-viral compounds are present both 
in the mycelium and in the fruiting bodies. j 

The current literature points to fungi, particularly those in the 
family Polyporaceae, as a rich frontier of new medicines. Many of 
these species are long-term residents of old growth forests, playing 
an essential role in nutrient recycling by decomposing aged trees. In 
a time when new anti-viral medicines are critically needed, mush- 
rooms stand out as an untapped resource and deserve intensive 
studies. 

Paul Stamets is the author of five books, including Growing 
Gourmet & Medicinal Mushrooms, a mushrooms cultivation text- 
book used worldwide. On the editorial boards of the International 
Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms and Mushroom, the Journal, he is 
an advisor to the Center for Integrative Medicine, Tucson, Arizona. A 
pioneer in the cultivation of mushrooms, especially the ' family 
Polyporaceae, he is an active adventurer into the old growth forests of 
the Pacific Northwest, cloning and archiving mushroom strains from 
these ancient woodlands. He owns Fungi Perfecti, website: 
<http://www.fungi.com>. 

Continues on page 27 




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