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A manual for the student and 
mechanic, covering the design, 
construction and finishing of 
practically all the articles used 
in the furnishing and equip- 
ment of the modern home, 
porch and grounds with hints 
on upholstering 




231-241 WEST 39th STREET 







Copyright, 1914 
David Williams Company 




JAN -2 1915 ^y^ 



TT is gratifying to realize that the period in which the series 
of articles under the heading: "Cabinet Work for the Car- 
penter" occupied frequent space in the columns of "The Build- 
ing Age, " has been noticeably the period in which the taste of the 
public has been pressed back into the good old mould from which 
so much of our enduring art was cast. To this subject and 
homage to the old masters of furniture building, deference is 
paid in the opening chapter, where a short review is attempted 
of that portion of the history of furniture showing examples best 
designed to inspire us for the work to be considered. 

Much additional matter has been added to the original arti- 
cles and all arranged in the form of a handbook in order to meet 
more general requirements under the title "Furniture for the 
Craftsman." In addition to the carpenter and the manual 
training student there is the day-fagged business man as well 
as many others who are likely to find refreshment from com- 
mercial and professional pressure in the increasing skill of doing 
things and in the joy of their accomplishment. 

The subject matter is comprised in sixteen well-arranged 

and carefully illustrated chapters, one of which considers the 

essential tools and equipment necessary for doing the work, 

while others describe various kinds of furniture as well as bath 

room accessories. The concluding chapters are given up to 

finishing and upholstery. Not the least interesting portion of 

the work is that which deals with the furnishings for the porch 

and the grounds about the house. 

Paul D. Otter. 
Chicago, May 15, 1914. 



Influence of Antique Models on Present Day 

Furniture 7 


Essential Tools and Equipment — Ornament on 

Furniture 41 

Certain Furniture Forms — Value of Spare Time and 

Observation 67 

Tables and Stands 88 

Stools and Other Useful Furniture 103 

Furniture for the Hall 131 

Sitting Room Furniture 157 

Furniture FOR THE Parlor 173 

The Dining Room iq5 

Bedroom Furniture AND Conveniences . . . . . 217 

Bathroom Accessories 230 



Certain Kitchen Accessories 247 

Bookcases and Holders ...255 

Furnishings for the Porch and Grounds .... 265 

Finishing 293 

Upholstery 297 




]MAN becomes a responsible factor in life when he en- 
gages an interesting side partner to help and con- 
fer with him in his plans and future welfare. The 
home then becomes a talked-of subject and very 
soon a reality. The endeavor in this preliminary 
article will be to consider the subject of furniture as tools and 
equipment of domestic use, requiring the same intelligent con- 
ception and selection of each piece for one's needs in establishing 
the home as would be given to the selection of some necessary 

Following this review the purpose is to later detail various 
pieces of furniture in such a manner that those interested may 
construct them; also to present illustrations of good types of 
furniture which will enable them to more readily select from 
dealers such patterns as will prove satisfactory to present needs 
and future refinement of the home. 

As life and the establishment of the home is begun with much 
sentiment and always with the substantial thought of perma- 
nence, so should the selection and gathering together of all 
things be attended with the same substantial thought of perma- 
nence. Too often a home is thoughtlessly established by buy- 
ing things hurriedly or getting possession of nondescript pieces 


— this to a lasting regret when loving association attaches by 
use even to a chair or a table of a poor pattern. 

By considering the subject carefully at the time of purchasing, 
one may secure neat furniture of a plain form and design which 
will be in harmony with other furniture forms one may desire to 
make from time to time. To illustrate, compare a quite possi- 
ble selection of sideboard which you bought ten years ago — say 
Fig. I — and then Fig. 2, which you wish to make or buy. Fig. 

Fig. 1 — An Ornamental Sideboard of Very Questionable Design. 

2 has in its direct lines and quiet surfaces the dignity of service 
and it will always be in favor. Fig. i — well, it is quite like 
some overdressed, slangy person, and there will soon come a day 
when you will cut his acquaintance. 

How to know furniture is a leading question to one who is 
refurnishing, or to the home planner. Be he ever so fastidious 


in matters and correctness of dress, he may feel quite at a loss 
in furnishing the rooms of a new home. Heretofore insufficient 
attention has been given to style or architectural type of our 
exteriors in the selection of furniture. Now we do see evidence 

Fig. 2— a Buffet Sideboard. 

of more regard in relation to exterior and interior harmony and 
in the arrangement as well as purpose of each room. 

To more clearly illustrate recent discrimination in selecting 
furniture, one may take up various back numbers of magazines, 
which so frequently open, as it were, the door of our homes, 
permitting us to look within. Do you not see that this living 
room or that library contains an odd assortment of mismatched 
furniture? It is true, such an array does not always indicate 
absence of a developing taste for good things in furniture; far 
from it. I should now, while writing, dislike mightly to have a 


newspaper photographer come in and snap-shot some of my 
furniture, for way back in the early partnership days did not 
the low income decide the selection of this chair or that table? 
I guard them as jealously as a dog with his foot over a well- 
earned bone; they represent much that is hallowed with senti- 
ment. The high chair is fondly tolerated ; the old rocker, though 
it be of a "passe" factory pattern, the daughter would not per- 
mit of its banishment, as it pictures in the mind many hours 
and days of rockaway rides into story and sleepland with mother. 
No, do not put them away in the attic, but let us suggest to the 
newly married to appreciate the great opportunity of this period 
to secure furniture of good outline and plain surfaces. Good 
furniture is now so prevalent that you will unconsciously know 
it when you go out to look for it intently. To know it more in- 
timately is the purpose of what follows. 

Pictures Rather Than Description 

In studying good furniture we will avoid getting into the 
depth which an antiquarian might lead us in such an extensive 
subject by resorting, with a brief description, more to pictures 
labelling them as we go along. The desire will be to show char- 
acteristic prototypes of furniture prevalent during the years 
gone by, and, as we discuss in detail later on, in a parallel way, 
an example of a possible or modern treatment of a similar form 
or article made today. 

In surveying the history of furniture as a treatise intended for 
information and inspiration to many desiring to make furniture, 
I am inclined to confine our study almost entirely to English 
styles and periods — not that little merit is to be found in the 
work of Germany, Italy and France, and particularly France, 
but that French examples represent much elaborate detailed 
treatment and extravagance of outline which would carry us far 
beyond our purpose. French influence, however, should not be 
discredited and is strongly reflected or worked in, as we shall see 
in our comparisons. 

Beginning with the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558- 1603) we 
have the "Elizabethan Style," which in its influence extends far 



into the reign of her successor, James I., and indeed it is hard in 
many cases to tell "t'other from which" — the Elizabethan from 
the "Jacobean," as it was called. 

Political and social conditions were reflected more in articles 
of domestic use in those days than they are now. The arts and 
industries were encouraged and patronized more by the royalty 
and people of the court, and such patronage continued for a long 
period during each reign. It is to this royal fostering of the arts 
and industries of the political divisions and periods of former 
times that we derive much of our inspiration and influence in 
matters of art and literature — we draw deeply from these well 

Furniture Much Ornamented 

The early part of the Elizabethan period was characterized by 
much ornamentation, principally carving, the frames designed 
quite with the purpose of having the cabinet work a foundation 
for elaborate ornament of enriched turnings, carved panels, 

Settle of the Cromwell Period. 

Strap work, bands and borders. Not until well into the period 
of the "Jacobean" Style — James I (1603-1625) — was there evi- 
dence that the carver worked for the joiner instead of the joiner 
building frames for the carver to decorate. 



The cabinet maker was then beginning to work for recogni- 
tion more in the excellence of his joinery and by the display of 
molded and mitered panel work, and while the general forms of 
the over-enriched and the plain are quite similar, as the Jacobean 
Style is reviewed and we sit back and read of the history of the 
time, we are impressed that political and social conditions do 
have an influence on the character of the clothes we wear and 
the furniture we use, for when Cromwell became Protector he 
and his followers certainly would have none of the things of the 

Fig. 4. 

court — its grandeur, extravagance, tinsel, carvings and foolish- 
ness — and we look into the homes of his time and see that there 
was considerable modification to conform all things to the simple 
and useful. Note the severely plain paneled settle in Fig. 3. 
By referring to the carved "court cupboard" in Fig. 4, the 
essential features of the Elizabethan are shown. There are 
few surfaces of rest. Under analysis, however, the sturdy form 
of the structure or carcase commands attention when brought 
into comparison again with Fig. i, for example. 

Figs. 5 and 6 represent the character of carving employed, 
being much in the nature of bands or squares, the design being 



cut into the wood much after the manner of type, with the main 
detail left quite flat. 

Fig. 7 is a chair much in vogue during this period and is here 
used to illustrate how much our village chair makers in Colonial 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7. 

days employed the lathe in producing similar patterns for com- 
mon use. Figs. 8, q, lo and ii in their order illustrate quite 
sufficiently the developed features of the Jacobean Style, while 
Fig. I 2, although Jacobean, is of the time of Charles II., showing 
considerable French influence, particularly in the full carving 
and the shape of the legs. 

By the use of illustrations Figs. 8, q, lo, 1 1 and 12 in the pre- 
ceding article, indicating the character of the Jacobean period, 
which includes the reign of James II, Charles I, the Common- 
wealth period, Charles II and James II, and also embracing what 



Fir. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 11. 



is called the Stuart and Tudor style, we immediately note a 
change in style when William, the Dutch Stadtholder, comes 
over from Holland with his wife Mary and possesses himself of 
his father-in-law's throne (1689-1702). 

He was a man of decided ideas and a determined way of put- 
ting them in motion. The period of "William and Mary 
presents a study in furniture very different to preceding forms. 
Here again the illustrations will more quickly show the distinc- 

FiG. 12. 

Fig. 13. 

tion, and it hardly needs the attention to be called to note the 
difference in the leg of chair. Fig. i 3. This pattern denotes par- 
ticularly the Flemish or Dutch influence, which in turn was bor- 
rowed by them from the French. 

There are many modifications of this, the cabriole leg, as it is 
called. The reader will note that the upper part of the chair 
indicates it is quite a different type in the transition still 



of the former Jacobean, for it must be appreciated that while 
we are quickly reviewing this subject and are now stopping at 
a particular period that possesses many imported features to a 
marked degree, yet during all these periods the impressions and 
suggestions of former styles in point of fact require a number of 

Figs. 14 to 18 — Forms of Chair Seats 

of years to be eliminated. For the accepted classification 
we must know the style under discussion as "Queen Anne" — - 
however little she had anything to do with the change of art 
brought over by her Dutch brother-in-law, William. 

Fig. 19 — Queen Anne Splatback Chair 

The "William and Mary, " however, or "Queen Anne," as we 
will call it, must necessarily strongly attract our attention, for 



with the constant preference for the "Colonial" in our present 
day furnishings we have in it the results of an early king's foster- 
ing care of his home arts in cabi- 
net making, as seen when consider- 
ing the furnishings of an early 
colony home. 

Another marked feature of the 
"Queen Anne" style was a change 
from a square or rectangular out- 
line to a rounded or curvilinear 
form in the shape of the seat 
frames, as indicated in Figs. 14, 
15, 16, 17 and 18. Also the chair 
backs were of a baluster or "splat" 
like character instead of solid pan- 
els as in Figs. 13 and iq. 

The "Windsor" type of arm 
chair brought out at that time 
shows such baluster or splat in the center. This form of chair, 
Fig. 20, is greatly identified with Colonial homes. 

Fig. 20— Windsor Type of 
Arm Chair 


Fig. 21 
With the introduction of the arm chair, formalism and stiffness 
gave way and the upholsterer developed his craft more. I n Fig. 2 1 



is shown a "Queen Anne" settee which is very popular 
today, the picture indicating the peculiar scroll roll arm which 
in those days had their purpose of accommodating the full or 
hoop skirt of the ladies. Cane came into considerable use about 
this time for filling backs and seats to chairs. 

The toilet mirror and writing desk in Fig. 22 and what was 
then special furniture also came into favor. Men of prominence 

Fig. 22. 

Fig. 23. 

and writers had furniture or chairs built to meet personal whims 
or needs, just as one would order a suit from his tailor. Fig. 23 
illustrates such a chair made for the poet Gay. Note the cabri- 
ole leg, a French shape but cut in a more restrained manner than 
the carved leg shown on the chair in Fig. 13. 

And so we come along in the years and enter the "Georgian 
period, " so-called, properly beginning with the reigns of the four 
Georges from 17 14 to 1830. In this century much of the very 
best work was executed, and after a period of two hundred yearo 
the modern designer is holding up the work of Chippendale, Hep- 
plewhite and Sheraton as masters unexcelled. 



More is known today of "Chippendale style" than is known 
of the man Thomas Chippendale, who was born in 1708 and 
died in 1779. With little knowledge of his private life and per- 
sonality, we can, however, arrive at an estimate of the man when 
we review the years in which he lived and accomplished so much 
that found favor among his wealthy patrons, which leads us to 
believe that he would be a rare success today; for while not es- 
pecially original, he possessed great ability to put "this and 
that" together with results which produced a style that has car- 

Fig. 24. Fig. 25. 

ried his name along through the years. While a clever adapter 
of parts and pieces we like to think that the product of his brain 
and hands still bears his name rather than that of a patron king. 
He must have shown some executive ability to bring this about 
— some might call it egotism, but why should not a man be 
known by the chests and tables he makes — particularly if he 
makes good chests and tables — just as much as a good painter 
is recognized by his signed painting? This man and his con- 
temporaries lived mind, body and soul in their work, and we sus- 
pect their enduring work was greatly stimulated by personal 
praises and substantial patronage; they lived in a period when 
men of mental ability were also equally capable with their hands. 
In Fig. 24 is shown a plain type of Chippendale chair which 
is considered quite characteristic, although it is not his favorite 



form, for the leg which he delighted in using was the French 
leg, but treated less elaborate and more suggestive of the "Queen 
Anne" cabriole type as in Fig. 25, which terminates in a ball 
and claw. 

While Chippendale showed great preference for French detail, 
he used it in many cases in a very skilled and restrained manner 
on his cabinet work, the forms of which were usually plain and 
well proportioned. In a condensed treatise of this kind, chairs 
are pictured to show the character of a period as they naturally 
offered a more frequent medium of expression on the part of the 

Fig. 29. 

Fig. 27 

Fig. 28. 

designer for his particular tendency. A clearer impression of 
Chippendale ornament may be obtained by referring to Figs. 26, 
27, 28 and the group iq The detail in the first chair back is 
quite of the Louis XIV and Louis XV order, and again in the 
back. Fig. 27, he uses in a simple way certain French motifs as 
shown in the group Fig. iq in clever union with an original 
Gothic treatment of the open banister, and then in Fig. 28 he 
combines this French influence with the Chinese lattice treat- 
ment, and so in pilaster, rails and panels of other furniture forms 



he utilized these fragments, leafage, scrolls, shells and scallop- 
ing with rare grace and skill. 

Fig. 29. 

As with all who became enamored with French ornament, 
particularly the excessive overladen character of Louis XV style 
and "Roccoco, " so Chippendale left behind him many drawings 
and examples of his work which we would now consider decided- 
ly erratic and overdone, but we have evidence in drawings and 
examples of so much of his better work that we readily overlook 
his fancy flying to questionable heights, and his contemporaries 

Fig. 30. 

Fig. 31. 

were undoubtedly influenced by the versatility of this man. 
Figs. 30, 3 I and 32 show other forms of this designer's work. 
Men following Chippendale a little later no doubt were more 


under the spell of the Louis XVI style, which was considerably- 
restrained in form and detail to that of Louis XV, and in con- 
sidering Hepplewhite and Sheraton we find little to criticize in 
extravagance of outline and surface embellishment. 

-Chippendale " pie crust" Table. 
Hepplewhite and Sheraton 

From certain glib usage by novelist and salesman, Chippen- 
dale is thought to be quite the "entire show," when as a fact 
two other men occupied the stage and played well their parts, 
at least in the last act of the Chppendale setting. How well 
the three have played, copied or vied with each other our present 
day furniture stores will show. It is truly Chippendale, Hepple- 
white or Sheraton which the manufacturer aims to reproduce 
with all their characteristic features. 

The marked and individualizing feature of the Hepplewhite 
style in contrast to Chippendale is in lighter parts, graceful out- 



line and delicate ornament, and to be just, very little pirating 
from the work of his own countryman, yet dominated much by 
French work and motifs. To arrive at a quick comprehension 

Fig. 33. 

Fig. 34. 

Fig. 35. 

Fig. 36. 

Fig. 37. 



of the difference, Fig. 33 serves as full evidence of general form, 
and this designer's work may be recognized by the shield form 
of back; rarely if ever was the back imbedded in the back seat 
rail. See Figs. 34, 35 and 36. 

Fig. 38. 

Fig. 39. 

Fig. 40. 

Contrast these forms with those of Sheraton, shown in Figs. 
37, 38, 39 and 40, whose tendency was more to straight lines 
and tapering members. 

As regards the identification of furniture forms, Hepple- 
white may always be recognized by his use of the concave cor- 

Fig. 41. 

ners in writing desks and sideboards, as indicated in Fig. 41, 
while Sheraton used the convex shape as shown in Fig. 42. 



It has been the endeavor to sort over the work of these three 
great English cabinet makers and show the salient features 
of each. 


The "Colonial" as a term applied to furnishing and furniture 
would make an interesting story. In description it is traceable 
to the influences of three recognized periods — the Greek "Clas- 
sic," which inspired the French "Empire" style, to in turn 
undergo still greater elimination and refinement during the 

Fig. 42. 

"Georgian" period in England, when it finally developed into 
its present known characteristics of simple form and plain sur- 
face, and as time passes the term "Colonial" is given greater 
recognition in the list of the world's creative or architectural 
periods. The open museums and the private collection show 
a goodly harvest of many early examples in which there are the 
genuine work of the best English designs imported by the 
colonists, as well as the work of the early American cabinet 

To have proper conception of the "Colonial" we must dismiss 
from our minds Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, Adam 
and other English workers and gradually draw together the 



composite type of these workers and the work of our own colony 
craftsmen who were locally handicapped and otherwise unable 
to work in any but a restricted manner. We will find that the 

type resolves itself Into 
a most satisfactory form 
in which the simple ele- 
mental forms of base 
pediment, column and 
scroll are marked incon- 
stant consideration giv- 
en to the "Colonial" as 
the prevalent style. 

The simple outlines 
of the table in Fig. 45 
and workstand, Fig. 44, 
are used as examples of 
distinctly American Co- 
Fi-. 34. lonial. 

Fig. 44. 

The "sleigh" bed in Fig. 45 is another type, yet showing an 
Empire" influence. Fig. 46 shows the inventive tendency 



when the early colony chair maker devised the rocker, yet was 
under the spell of Chippendale in the design of the back. Fig. 

Fig. 45. 

47, however, is quite independent of mother country suggestion 
except that it indicates slightly the "Windsor" type, yet it is so 

Fig. 46. 

Fig. 47. 



pronouncedly rural colonial that it and its variations hold our 
patriotic attention. 

In articles following it is the purpose to take up more in detail 
the goodly influences of the eighteenth century designers and to 
be more at home with our "Colonial. " 


Our theme would not be brought up to the present day should 
no mention be given to the unquestionable influence of the very 
few furniture forms found about the early American missions. 

Fig. 48. Fig. 49. 

We are all living to experience the marked transforming ten- 
dency of what we now call the "mission style." Owing to its 
refreshing simplicity and to the sparcity of architectural types 
and interior detail, architects and designers have in many recent 
instances overstepped and "gone to Spain" for much the old 
friars either did not intend to bring with them or have on or 
within their community buildings, or for good reasons were un- 
able to skilfully execute conventional forms. 

Figs. 48 and 49 show the original inspiration for what we term 
"Mission, " and any decided departure from the direct construc- 
tive character ceases to be "Mission." From the restlessness 



of our day we are developing a modified interpretation familiarly 

known as the "Arts and Crafts," of which more will follow 



In the two previous articles a general view and discussion of 
furniture forms was given. Time has tested these forms and 
other general characteristic features described in those articles, 
and it will be found that the influence of these "periods" actively 
determines our form of furniture as does the period ^tyle of 
the building determine the nature and decoration of the room 
within, and so it is with the intention of dividing the furniture 
family under headings that the subject of tables is now consid- 
ered. It is not so much what we make for ourselves in unre- 
strained enthusiasm, urged 
on by watching the clean 
shavings curl from our plane, 
but it is what others might 
think of our product when 
we get through with it that 
impels us to consider, with 
some deference, what is in 
the market? — what kind of 
furniture is the home fur- 
nisher seeking ? 

In this inspection of pres- 
ent furniture it will inspire 
the practical tool user with in- 
creased confidence that many 
of the furniture forms bought 
by discriminating purchasers 
he can make for his own 
home and use them also as 
models for private orders. 

Fig. 50— Table Chair 293^ In. High 
Shown with Top Down 

With this idea in mind the present subject has been prepared, 
presenting types of simple construction and of the character 
which will harmonize well in the furnishing of the modest home; 
particularly will others fit in well with the bungalow and concrete 


order of home, the character of which originally springs from 
the same source as shown in many under consideration. 

Having a two-fold use, Fig. 50 is very desirable in the small 
cottage or bungalow home where the dining room is frequently 
the living room. It is well adapted for beginners in the home 
life and when not in use looks well against the wall as a settle, 
particularly when the room has a timbered or paneled treatment. 

It might be well to note here in passing that all such pieces of 
furniture never look well in natural or light finish, even golden 
oak finish, for much of the square furniture is too light. The 
main purpose and most satisfactory color finish is to get age- 
brown tones immediately, as they blend well with drapes, rugs 
and all other furnishings. Such a tone, you will notice, accords 
well with standard tones adopted by the architect and decorator. 
This age tone is commonly known under the name of "fumed 
oak." "Cathedral oak" is another pleasing shade of brown. 
Oak is also a safe wood to use for furniture of a medieval type, 
or that which partakes of a sturdy character and possesses a 
combination of square and round-turned parts. 

It is assumed a sufficient working drawing be made showing 
the end view of the subject and also one-half of the front view. 
With the skill of a workman and the experience in getting out 
and handling stock much of unnecessary and familiar detail need 
not be placed on the drawing if time does not permit. The use 
of the drawing will be to pencil in between determined measure- 
ments unknown detail of form and outline. Other simple parts 
may with judgment be arranged for and fitted as the work pro- 

These remarks do not, of course, minimize the value of a 
clearly defined working drawing, should there be any need of re- 
ferring to it at some later time or of making a modified interpre- 
tion of the same class of subject. 

Well seasoned wood should at all times be made use of and 
generous well fitting tenons be given to the cross stretchers 
which should go clear through the thickness of cross legs and 
further secured either by a headless brad or a hardwood peg. 
The top of the table may operate on a bolt or lag screw secured 



through a hole in the enlarged part of batten and pass into arm 
or back post. This is a matter of experimenting and also the 
location of top in central position over the base when down in 

Little need be said of the settle table in Fig. 5 1 except to call 
attention to another use of the compartment under the lift-up 
seat. This is entirely of K-in. boards. The drawing here 
shown represents a familiar type of early English or early colony 
utility table. It admits, however, of varied outline and more 
elaborate treatment. Sometimes the 
seat is padded and upholstered with 
a padded and upholstered panel 
treatment, covering much of the 
space within the battens of the un- 
derside of the top. This, then, to use 
an expression, "puts it in another 
class" and identifies it more with the 
furnishings of a craftsman's living ^ 

It is desired by the aid of the cuts 
shown to excite individual expression ^ 
as much as possible. Much of the _L 
old furniture is interesting from the Fig. 51— A Settle Table 29 ^In. 
ingenious devices or construction, de- ^igh Shown with Top DoWn 

signed just as much then as today, to serve a double purpose, and 
it is hoped that the spark of inventive genius may be fanned into 
fiame of enthusiasm for other simplifying means or comfort- 
giving features. Meanwhile curb any desire to change good 
form for some untrained outline or erratic profile to your turn- 
ings; rather seek out and make a rough pencil sketch of a bit of 
turning or an approved outline which you think would apply to a 
particular form of furniture needing a little more grace or live- 
lier expression to it by a change of outline, or an added bit of 
modest carving or moulding. 

Fig. 52 presents an English breakfast table which is coming 
again into renewed favor. It has its advantages of looking well 
when not used as a meal table and of being useful for other purposes. 



The marked revival of needlework among ladies demands at- 
tractiveness in table designs and for this reason the antique 
models are more than ever being reproduced, fashion dictating 
that luncheons be served on bare table tops over open lace work 
doilies and scarfs. A becoming design of table is therefore much 
in demand. A simple turned shape to the posts of the Jacobean 
period is shown, although other profiles may be used. Two 
specially fitted hinges screwed firmly in the usual way to ends of 
leg strainers and brought together by a central pin covered by 

Fig. 52— An English Breakfast Table with 36x36 Inch Top 

finishing cap will provide one of the many ways of throwing open 
the legs to a square position under the table top. 

Certain unobtrusive stops and a locking device to be provided 
to check the posts at a determined position. Whatever may be 
the diameter of the table, make the center of the table about 3 
in. less than a third of the diameter. 

The size of leg stock shown on cut is for the larger size of table, 
48 in. X 48 in. 

Fig. 53 is now one of the very popular forms of gate leg tables 
— most frequently made in mahogany. This fits in well with 
furniture of a mahogany order, as does most of the William and 
Mary style, of which this is a suggestion. 

The gate with the halved out post A fitting into cross rail cor- 
respondingly halved in a loose fitting manner, pivots or swings 



out from post, loosely pivoting on top of rail. The correspond- 
ing gate on other side of table swings out in a similar but alter- 
nating direction, stopping at a check at right angles with the 

Fig. 53— A Gate Leg Table 


Fig. 54^A "Sheraton" Dining Table, 42 or 48 Inches in Diameter 

table frame. All dropleaf tables should be treated with a rule 
joint contact with leaf and top of table. 

Fig. 54 meets with favor now even though its class was re- 
placed by the pedestal table^ yet it, too, has the merit of side 
wall attractiveness which the modern table cannot have. The 



leaves are usually supported by a stiff swinging cross bar set into 
top of apron rail. Care should be used in the selection of dry 
lumber for the tops and also to screw on a batten, using no glue, 
but setting each screw in a small slot so that the top may shrink 
and expand unretarcled. 

Mahogany, or birch finished mahogany, is properly the wood 
for this table and more particularly if it is made in a smaller size 
than a 42-in. top. 

We used to feel very well satisfied with the ordinary dining 
table and a direct communication to the kitchen and the pantry, 
but now our needs, through a process of refinement, must take 
on considerable complexity, all of which acids to home charms 

and the wife's pleasure in displaying 

^°' J in an attractive way and on suitable 

, furniture her growing collection of sil- 
ver, cut glass, decorated ware, and 
last but not least, her linen, for every 
day or on festal occasions. This re- 
ci quires us to show Fig. 55, a serving 
table, which is very simple and plain, 
being a sort of second cousin of the 
more aristocratic sideboard. It is one 
remove from the buffet and conse- 
quently about fits in with our modest 
ideas of living and the useful furni- 
ture we need about a bungalow or 
that class of home. 

Little need be said about this except that a form of frame 
made similar to one suggested in Fig. 62 is to be used as a base of 
construction and the t\\'o lower shelves are to be cut out and 
fitted in a similar manner. The shelves may be secured to 
posts from the underside by means of a counter-bored screw hole 
bored on a long slant. This simple sideboard is becoming a 
necessity, as in a home without servants it permits of extra 
table furnishings and the desserts to be placed in readiness before 
the meal is begun, thus creating greater repose for the housewife. 
Fig. 56 offers a good substitute or even an adjunct to Fig. ^^, 



being a tray table which provides a proper resting place for the 
glass filled tray when not in use. 

We do not pass the social 
hour or two without on many 
occasions being served with 
refreshments, and the tray has 
truly become a necessary 
article, and like everything 
else an object of attractive- 
ness and friendly rivalry as to 
who will own the prettiest 

Fig. 56 may properly have 
a second drawer, although 
where the lower shelf might Fig. 56. 

be used for a fruit bowl such an addition may destroy the dec- 
orative effect. 

The glass tray, Fig. 57, which in this instance determines the 
size of table top for Fig. 56 consists of a moulding of oak or ma- 
hogany cut from a stick ^4 in. x i>4 in. of a section, preferably 
the one shown. These pieces are cut to a mitered frame meas- 
uring over all 16 x 25 in. 
Long brads properly set in 
and concealed, or a Vk in. 
saw kerf run across the 
glued up frame at an angle 
of 45 deg. with a slip of wood 
set in glue and trimmed off, 
will probably produce a 
more dependable joint. A piece of good, clear, clean, single, 
thick glass, a piece of attractive figured cretonne with birds, 
foliage or flowers, a piece of dry thin board or flat stiff straw 
board, are to be cut to fit not too tightly within the rabbet 
size of the frame, then with a number of stiff thin brads 
securely nail in position; a small round reed or stick is some- 
times used to brad in over the backing. As a final covering 
of this surface and also to extend over the bottom face of frame. 

Fig. 57 



Fig. 58 

glue on an extra large piece of corduroy, preferably brown, green 
or gray, starting from one end, and using some stiff paste, or 
rather thick prepared glue, which has little moisture. After 
this covering is set and dry use a sharp knife in trimming off the 
material overhanging outer edges. Brass handles are now to be 

had for such trays and care should 
be taken to set the screws into the 
light frame in a prepared hole small 
enough to make the screw draw up 

Fig. 58 is a collapsible table or 
stand to support tray in kitchen or 
pantry when receiving contents pre- 
vious to carrying to dining room tray 
table. Fig. 56, or in to guests during 
some social gathering. It is quite a 
useful article for large gatherings 
where other table space is being used 
and is also necessary for the welfare of a handsome tray when 
away from its proper place. 

The Sewing Table 

Among the many kinds of tables the sewing table provides 
an orderly place for materials and 
ample space to lay out work on the 
top and extending leaves. The 
plain and less expensive type shown 
in Fig. 59 in Mission style is here 
used as a basis for any different 
treatment the reader may wish to 
give it and not depart from form 
or size of parts. The legs may be 
treated with a squared neck or les- 
sening of stock under the lower 
drawer frame and the major part 
of post reduced to a taper and ex- 
panded again before it reaches 
the floor into a square ball effect; or this full length may 

Fig. 59 



be turned by using some well selected taper form. The shelf 
and top may then be treated with a moulded edge and slightly 
rounded corners and the rulejoint be used instead of plain 

Fig. 60 is a more pretentious table 
properly made in mahogany. This 
is the type the interested worker 
will find gives him the opportunity 
for skilled workmanship and in the 
drawers he may insert various small 
compartments and specified divi- 
sions which would delight the future 
possessor of such an article. 

By the use of Fig. 61 the manner 
of glueing up stock is shown and may 
be restored to produce a fiowing 
shape or outline which is frequently 
wider than stock obtainable. The 
heavy line shows the proposed shape of one-half of lyre pedes- 
tal to work table, Fig. 60 allowing length for large tenons, top 

and bottom "A" to fit in mor- 
tise in frame, Fig. 62, and the 
lower tenon to fit in moulded 
base above scroll feet in Fig. 60. 
Before the outline indicated in 
heavy line is sawed out, unite the 
two halves by glueing. This 
will enable you to use long clamps on fiat surfaces. When dry 
saw out on band saw and cut tenons. 

The frame. Fig. 62, here shown is a base in most all forms of 
modern construction of carcase work. If the reader will in- 
spect any available piece of furniture of a case of like nature, he 
will find this frame to be a convenient one upon which to secure 
other constructional parts. In many instances it is not in out- 
ward evidence, while in the case of the sewing table. Fig. 60, it 
appears between the two drawers and above and below. Where 
thus exposed to view the stile should either be faced with veneer 

-" ^ 




Fig. 61 

Fig. 62 


or be of the same kind of wood as the entire construction ; these 
frames otherwise may be made of inferior wood, generally of 
^ or % in. thickness and 2 or more inches wide, judgment show- 
ing whether one or more cross bars will be needed for extra stiff- 

A preparatory working drawing which you should make will 
indicate where you are to relish out the corners, as instanced in 
Fig. 62, to provide a place for the jamb blocks on each side of 
drawer. The ends of the carcase hidden by the drop leaves in 
the cut are glued and secured by screws to these frames by 
screws countersunken or set in, as shown at "B. " 

Use of Corner Blocks 

A double insurance of strength and stiffness is always secured 
in cabinet work by setting in frequent corner blocks; these may 
be made of neatly cut triangular blocks or strips two or more 
inches in length. 

The upholding of the drop leaves may be secured by various 
means and I take it that if it is a pleasure to construct an article 
it is equally interesting to study out and provide certain in- 
genious devices which further embody personality in one's pro- 
ductions. Various holding-up methods are used on such tables, 
the simplest possibly being a swing bar, space for which must be 
provided for its action under the middle part of the table top, or 
sufficient space may be provided on your drawing so that the 
middle top shall hang over sufficient to hinge to each side of the 
case a ^ in., swing bracket long enough to properly support the 
drop leaf when drawn up. 

Our broad-handed way of living makes the subject of tables 
very varied, as each room appears to demand a special form of 
table, but I am going to give the parlor scant attention at pres- 
ent, for that room is falling much in disfavor. Fig. 63 shows a 
very popular and approved form of convenience table for the 
living room: It is of the Mission order, yet to those who wish a 
less heavy effect, the left leg is shown turned in the Elizabethan 



style, which will he found to modify the over-weighty appear- 
ance, and permit of its use in greater harmony with a mixed 
assortment of furniture patterns, which are generally to be found 

Fig. 63 

in a living room. Such tables are generally made in three sizes, 
40 in. X 30 in., 42in. x 28 in., and 36 in. x 26 in. 

Fig. 64 is a graceful form of table adapted to a ladies room, 
parlor or reception hall and should 
be made in mahogany or other rare 

The top is semi-circular and the 
apron is sawed in conformity and set 
under very slightly, about ^ in. ; 
the legs are i yi in. square and mor- 
tised between the aprons and reduced 
by a taper to 3:^ in. at floor. By 
making a small grooving tool or 
plane a groove of -h in. square 
may be plowed in X ii^- away from 
edges of legs on front and also on 
apron front and one groove in edge of table top, into which may 
be set in glue a strip of wood or veneer of a lighter color. Let 
dry and then scrape flush with cabinet scraper and sand smooth 
with No. 00 sandpaper. 

Fig. 64 



The Telephone Table 

The telephone table, Fig. 65, I am sure will be highly valued 
in the home, particularly by the feminine members of the family. 

The style is a modified 
type fitting in well with 
the "Mission, " "Quaint" 
or " Arts and Crafts " style 
so prevalent. The simple 
general form is one per- 
mitting various changes 
in leg treatment and shape 
of outline to apron, the 
interposition of turning 
above and below the 
stretchers of a character 
similar to the "Early 
English" or "Jacobean" 
patterns shown on page, 
14, will enable the inter- 
ested reader to produce a 
variety of styles of this 
most useful table and 
stool to match. An undershelf in table provides for the tele- 
phone book. The top, shelves and side rails are of ^ in. 
material. The table stand is so made with the side strainers 
or stretchers provided with a groove and projecting lower lip to 
carry top of stool when it is slid in out of the way. A i ^ § in. hole 
is bored into center of stool top to facilitate withdrawing it. A 
wooden arm represented in "C" and a turned disk to hold tele- 
phone stand is secured by a bolt with nut and washers to 
table top at back so that instrument may be swung back or 
forward for convenience. 






O later call attention to certain essential tools, an apt 
subject for illustration is the hall seat, this being 
largely within the province of the joiner and the 
general scheme of interior case work, and indeed it 
may be made a feature of the wainscot of the hall 
if so desired. In this instance we will consider it as a movable 
piece and use it as a model with which to convey to the reader 
certain information regarding detail which he will doubtless ap- 
preciate if he proceeds to lay out the drawing and construct one. 
The style is plain, almost severe, as shown in Fig. 66, the 
charm depending solely on the easy line of the end piece and 
foot in its relation to the 
arm. The rare beauty in 
good furniture is to cre- 
ate that smooth round- 
ness or undulating surface 
which the worker, an en- 
thusiast, alone knows has 
not been produced success- 
fully by mere machinery. 
It is this changing surface 
which even the artisan does 
not fully comprehend until 
after the final finishing to 
a dull polish, when the 
effect of the lights and 
shadows brings out the Fig. 66.— General View of Hall Seat. 




personality of the work. This grades it far ahead of the "cut 
and dried" mill work, how ever much we may admire the 
monotonous precision. 

As the drawing is sufficiently explanatory, little need be said 
other than to enlarge it upon the drawing paper. Starting with 
the vertical center line and the floor line, as indicated in Figs. 67 
and 68, lay off from these measurements taken from the cut — 

Fig. 67.— Half of Front. 

Fig. 68.— Side Elevation with Detail 
of Arm at the Right. 

height of seat and arm first — and as a guide against going very 
much astray on a changing line we have thrown out a few light 
lines and measurements from the floor line of front and end views. 
This, with a little judgment and observation of relative points, 
will enable the workman to enlarge that portion of the detail 
w hich cannot be done by a straight edge. Draw the arm as 
though it were closely related to the end and front line; it will be 
finished flush, as it joins to the front edge. The bottom line of 
the end must also be made with a free curve and as though it 
were cut from a solid width. However many pieces one may 


use in joining the board, it will be surfaced and considered as 
one piece. The back part consists of a square framing, as 
shown, with stiles continued to the floors. Through these and 
the bottom rail screws are put in from the back and secured to 
the end piece, seat and the arms. Below the seat line and at the 
back and under the exposed bottom rail a cheap paneling, and 
then a bottom rail must be embodied in the construction of the 
back framing. Through this rail screws hold the bottom of the 
box under the seat. The bottom may be of whitewood or other 
low-grade lumber, the seat ends being gained to receive it and 
the front edge snugly fitted to front board and held with a few 
glue blocks underneath. Stiles and rails in the back framing 
should be joined by a mortise and tenon joint, the end pieces 
secured to the front panel under the seat by three flathead 
screws, sunken and flush plugged with wooden plugs to match 
the grain. 

The seat is raised from the front and hung by three i>^-inch 
butts screwed to a 2-inch strip, which in turn is screwed to the 
back rail. A resting cleat should be neatly fitted in directly 
under the seat and screwed to the inside of the ends. It will 
be noticed in Fig. 68 that the back center panel is inclined for- 
ward at the bottom. This inclination is more restful to the 
occupant than a vertical position and adds much to the design. 
The edges are worked off to a long round. When measuring 
stock for this panel 2 inches extra should be allowed on the 
ends of the panel, these to be cut off and glued to the ends on the 
back and a strip glued on at the bottom. This gives stock 
on the edges to produce the long round and to advance the bot- 
tom edge as shown. The entire panel being fitted, slip into 
the opening ofthe frame on this bevel and it is then held by glue 
blocks in the rear. 

Aside from the drill it gives in laying out a correct working 
drawing, the foregoing description need not be expressed on the 
drawing, merely the definite points and marking outlines being 
required. The minor details are much a matter of trade ex- 
perience and judgment. If the drawing is to go into other 
hands all features should be intelligently drawn. 


There are several ways of transferring irregular detail or orna- 
ment from the drawing to the stiff paper which one may cut out 
as a pattern to mark the stock. Closely prick the marking lines 
of the drawing and, laying stiff paper underneath, use chalk or 
charcoal dust held in a piece of linen tied in the form of a loose 
ball. This is pounced over the punctured lines, thus iniprint- 
ing the dots on the paper underneath. Another way and one 
very satisfactory is to place the pattern paper under the draw- 
ing with a sheet of typewriter's carbon paper between and then 
trace over the outline with a steel or agate tracing point, the 
transferred outline being then carefully cut out with scissors 
or by following the line with a sharp-pointed knife over a hard 

With the patterns secured, the stock surfaced to the right 
thickness and the edges jointed, it will be found very satisfac- 
tory while the drawing is still pinned to the level table to mark 
off the points, placing each piece represented up to the line and 
with a fiat square marking the line or bevel, also at same time 
marking the position of dowel, screw centers or mortise and 
tenon. Should there be two or more pieces alike bring them 
together on the level surface, and by the point marked line them 
all with try square and do other necessary gauging, which will 
not make it necessary when at the bench to interrupt operations 
by taking off more measurements. Care should be taken when 
using marking gauge not to run out onto an exposed surface, as 
this is a weakness with some workmen and shows up badly in 
the finish. 

The band saw, whether driven by foot or power, is nowadays 
in use by many carpenters, or at least they have easy access to 
one, and the simple outlines of this pattern may be readily cut 
out. In the absence of it, however, it is not so intricate but 
that it may be cut out, even though roughly, with a keyhole or, 
better still, a 'turning" saw and the outline worked true in the 
after dressing. Using a band or scroll saw, the ends may be 
glued up in a solid width and sawed true to line. Should the 
line have to be cut in some other way it would be well to figure 
the front edge from a 6-inch width, securing the line and that of 



the under line before gluing together. The foot, or modified 
type of "bandy leg, " is obtained by gluing to both sides of each 
end with a rub joint a piece of equal thickness and 43^ inches 
long. In order to get a similarity in grain use blocks from the 
same piece of stock, arranging them, if necessary, to joint with 
reference to the grain. An even shade will at least be assured 
even if it be impossible to satisfactorily match the grain. It is 
sometimes possible to carry along all details in the construction 
to a "knock down" condition — that is, assemble it for a trial 
fit before giving attention to working off the edges. In this in- 
stance the various parts had better be worked up to the final 

Fig. 69. — View Showing Half of Stock Dressers' Scraper. 

sanding, this involving the branch of furniture work termed 
"stock dressing," the producing of changing surfaces and mold- 
ed edges, which cannot be done by machinery without consider- 
able preparatory expense. 

The tool illustrated in Figs. 6q, 70 and 71 is very essential in 
performing this class of work. It is strange that, with the many 
uses to which it may be applied, it is seldom found in the hands 
of others than skilled cabinet makers and particularly chair 
makers, where twists and winds in the construction render it a 
necessity in creating a beautiful curved or sinuous surface across 
two glued-up parts, as in shaping sawed legs, and many other 
uses as an after finisher of roughed-out work from the draw knife 
or spoke shave, or in tapering off plain molds. 

The tool is not to be obtained through regular hardware 
supply houses, it being one of the instruments "handed down," 
so we give the detail and would state that it is very easily made. 
The part marked No. i in Fig. 6q represents a little more than 
one-sixth of the full length and size of the handle portion. The 
wooden parts, Nos. i and 2, the latter being shown in Fig. 70, 


are made of beech or maple, the center part in Fig. 6q being cut 
out, as shown, to half the thickness, and a corresponding piece, 
shown in Fig. 70, fitted neatly within it. These two parts are 
protected on the working face by small plates of heavy sheet 
brass, or much better, a piece of bone, as shown at the bottom 
in Fig. 6q, flat-head screws being sunk, used flush and filed 
smooth to the plate. Previous to fitting these plates the two 
wooden pieces are slightly beveled away from the center, as 
shown at No. 3 in Fig. 71. The inner face of Fig. 70 is cut out, 
as shown by No. 3 in Fig. 7 1 , the length of the recess on the pro- 


J^ -1 

^ m 




If m 


"^ J^" 2' "^ ^ 

Fig. 70. 

Fig. 7] 

tecting plate seen in Fig. 70. This is similar to the throat of the 
plane. The protecting plate in Fig. 6q is a straight strip similar 
to that in Fig. 70, hut without the recess. 

The manner of holding the parts together and binding the 
blade to a set position is by means of two i j4-inch stove or slot- 
head bolts, passed through hole shown in Fig. 6q, and in a cor- 
responding position through Fig. 70. The nut of the bolt is 
sunk flush on the outside in Fig. 6q, as shown by the dotted lines. 
Small washers are imbedded in the sides of Fig. 70 to prevent 

The tool is now ready to receive the blade, and when all parts 
are brought together the part No. 2 in Fig. 70 should almost 
come in contact with the part shown in Fig. 6q when screwed up 
tight with a driver. The scraper blade. No. 4 in Fig. bq, is set 
between the two wooden parts, Nos. i and 2, and may be made 
from a broken hand-saw blade, about the gauge of a finishing 
saw, or a regular hand-scraper blade of good steel may be used. 
When sharpened for use the edge would appear as shown in an 
exaggerated way in No. 5 of Fig. 71, the edge having previously 
been ground on an emery wheel or grindstone to a firm, long 
round on one side only, then trued on an oil stone, leaving a 
heavy edge, sharp and square. The object then is to turn down 


this keen edge, not simply making it a wire edge, as practiced on 
a cabinet scraper, but by means of a polishing steel turn it over 
evenly and with considerable pressure produce an extended 
edge of some permanence. 

The polishing steel may be made of an 8 or lo-inch discarded 
rat-tail file, ground smooth and polished with emery cloth. 
The end has an obtuse point identical with a center-prick punch 
for metal. This instrument, which is easily made, when handled 
resembles a butcher's steel. To use the steel place the scraper 
blade, which has been squared on an oil stone, between the jaws 
of a vise or other clutch, rounded edge up and toward you. 
Starting in with a gentle pressure of the steel held in both hands, 
stroke the squared edge down and away from you, back and 
forth, in an even way, increasing the pressure for some time, 
when you will find the edge to be quite extended and beginning 
to curl against the face of the blade. Remove the blade from 
the vise and with the steel point touched with a little oil apply 
the point at one end of the blade, which should be held slanting 
against a fiat surface. With a firm and careful first stroke one 
will be able to slide the oiled point between the turned-in edge 
from end to end of the blade, thus pressing it out at any angle 
desired, stroking it several times to secure a firm, straight edge. 
What this angle is must be determined by the operator of the' 
tool, for it depends altogether on its relation to the beveled face 
shown in No. 3 in Fig. 71. It is a matter of experimenting, as 
with the adjustment of plane irons or spoke shave blades. 
When the blade is inserted, with back against recess in Fig. 6q, 
fit the part in Fig. 70 in place and insert nuts in pockets cut in 
outside of Fig. 6q. Slip the bolts with washers through the two 
holes on the side of the part in Fig. 70 and draw up tight with a 
screw driver, allowing the cutting edge to project slightly for 
a trial. By experimenting on a piece of oak one will know either 
that the edge has been pitched too low or not enough, by its dig- 
ging in to greedily or by not cutting at all. Remove the blade, 
place it in the vise and remedy with the polishing steel. 

A disposition to "chatter" is sometimes located and remedied 
by filing in a more rounded manner on the protecting plate under 



No. I in Fig. 6q. With a few peculiarities to overcome in getting 
the "just right" adjustment, one will appreciate having an ex- 
tremely useful tool for irregular surface work, or for reshaping 
hatchet or other handles to your own particular form. It is 
essentially a hard- wood tool. 

On the same basis of construction as that already outlined, 
a convex scraper may be made, by arching the central part of 
the handle to any desired curve and making the blade in conform- 
ity. This tool is used in shaping to a finish the hollow or saddle 
surface on wood-seat chairs, the roughing-out work being effected 
by a mallet and gouge, followed by a convex shave similar in 
round to the scraper. As a necessary adjunct or rather a pre- 
liminary tool, the spoke shave, Fig. 72, has much to do in pre- 
paring in an easy way the surface or edge, before using the 
scraper described. A form of this tool is to be had from hard- 
ware dealers, but like many bought tools and a few all-metal 
tools, it does not appeal to the men whose work requires a spoke 
shave. The illustration, Fig. 72, shows the form of handle, 

Fig. 72. — Details of Spoke Shave. 

section and tightening bolt, which is set in a similar way to that 
of the scraper. The blades can be bought of different sizes. 
A handle made for a small blade, such as would readily cut the 
edge of a portion of a 3-inch circle, would be found very service- 


able, with one large tool for heavy work. It is suggested that 
a plate of bone be used for the heel of the tool instead of brass; 
a strip sawed from a beef shank, inserted in the wood handle, 
held by screws and filed to a flush finish, causing the tool to 
work more freely than metal. A little oil wiped over it now and 
then will add to easing the work. 

Now to the application of these tools to the hall seat and 
other furniture forms. With the work all in the square-edged 
state, note what is desired — a reduction of certain surfaces and 
edges beyond the range of any shaper knife, universal plane or 
other tool running in a set form or along a gauge. 

The panel above the seat is the only part of the back on which 
the edges will be rounded off in a vigorous way. After having 
been fitted to the exact position it occupies in the opening of the 
frame and marked with a scribe line, remove and secure it in 
the vise, edges up, or else screw on temporary cleat blocks in 
back and catch this in the vise. This is a better way for stock 
dressing, as all edges and surfaces are up to view, and a full 
sweep is given in reducing the stock in a symmetrical way. 
This work creates a feeling for form and trains the eye to con- 
sidering an even balance of right and left. A ^-inch sliver at 
the least should come off the edge at the start, and the draw 
knife is brought into use to do it quickly and easily; then with 
the spoke shave begin the rounding, taking care not to run too 
close to the scribe mark or the edge. With an easy swing, work 
well over onto the surface, so that there is one continual round- 
ness. The surface is now reduced to a condition where the 
scraper tool is brought into use. With this remove all streaks 
and smooth over with the grain and diagonally across the grain 
at the ends. Noting the grain and being in thorough sympathy 
with the "varying moods" of wood growth is everything in 
using this tool successfully after the adjustment of the blade and 
heel plate is to your satisfaction. An after-finish with the cabi- 
net scraper blade prepares the surface for sanding with No. o 
sandpaper, using the sandpaper block and then the loose paper. 
The front edge of the seat is molded off in about the same way 
as the back panel. 


The draw knife will again be required in removing the edges 
of the end pieces. The full sweep of the line from under the 
arms to the termination by the curve above the foot will be 
molded evenly on both edges to a half round. This will make 
a contrast to the foot, or "bandy leg" below, which is rounded off 
from a square edge at A, Fig. 68, in an easy sweep to a shade off 
onto the surface at B, keeping full width of blocks at C, this 
work, of course, being carried out at both sides of the end. We 
remove the square corners of the glued-on blocks in a decided 
manner with the draw knife, thus reducing them in a roughly 
rounded condition to that of the side line. Then take a gouge 
and mallet and cut away the superfluous stock intervening of 
the glued-on blocks between A and B quite down in a slanting 
manner to the middle surface. With a pencil mark from top of 
toe a curved line illustrated in the foot, shading out at B. 
When such a line is to be marked for a number of pieces a pat- 
tern should be made of zinc, with a check or stop at B and at the 
floor line. This being slightly bent in conformity to the roughed- 
out part, the line may he marked out quickly and with accuracy. 

As the original sample is being constructed, this is a part of 
the work where the eye, and a decision as to what looks right, 
must be exercised. Using more care with the gouge, cut near 
to the line, both legs being worked away in this rough state. 
Continue with the spoke shave to round off the bottom portion 
under the marked line, almost in the same manner that a lathe 
would do it, shading off the rounding at B. Here we shall have 
to resort to a chisel, as the shave cannot be worked. This is to 
be followed by a coarse half-round wood rasp, using the flat side 
for the under part of the leg, and the round side to be brought 
into use on the upper and curved surfaces, where the shave and 
scraper will not go. Having satisfied yourself that the leg has 
been worked into a trim, evenly balanced form, finish with the 
cabinet scraper and No. >^ sandpaper. If the glue joints are 
good, the joint should be \'ery little in evidence. The arm, 
which has been fitted and scribed underneath, where it rests on 
the end, is now to be treated to a low round on the face, and the 
nose rounded off in keeping with the flowing line underneath; 



then, as shown in the illustration, it is coved out underneath on 
the outside, shading out as it nears the back. The serpentine 
edge of front board is shaped off with shave and scraper; this 
leaves no square edges on the construction except on the back 

A convenient holder for shaping arms, legs and other irreg- 
ular parts with the spoke shave and scraper is shown in Fig. 73 
of the illustrations. The outline of the wooden yoke and the 
length are optional. The one shown is in use for many purposes, 

Fig. 73.— Holder for Shaping. 

and consists of a 3-inch piece of stock, sawed to shape, having a 
long mortise in one end and a number of holes piercing it for a 
loose pin. A hard-wood stick, tapered and elastic, notched 
as shown, and provided with an extended metal prod, is adjusted 
in the mortise at any place desired and secured by the pin pass- 
ing through it. At the other end of the yoke is a projecting, 
metal stop, and, as shown, underneath another hard-wood stick 
is recessed and secured with a loose pin, and the other end 
tapered to slip in the notches. The piece to be shaped is set 
on yoke, against the stop, with the notched stick secured in 
proper hole; it is then pulled forward, both ends are sharply dug 
into, and held in that position by the swinging stick underneath 
by slipping the wedge end into a notch. 

Having completed the shaping of all parts, the work should 
be carefully glued up. A temporary clamp or squeezing device 
may be arranged on the floor in gluing up the back framing. 
Three or four bar clamps are a necessity, with several smaller 
steel or cabinet makers' clamps at hand to avoid any bungling 


in bringing the work up tight while the glue is hot. Too much 
cannot be said concerning the importance of having good, fresh, 
hot, easy flowing glue, and in real cold weather the parts well 
warmed when clamped together. 

While the trick of dragging screws over a bar of soap may be 
known to many carpenters, it is worth doing in all hard-wood 
work, as it makes them drive very easily and quickly when glu- 
ing. There is great satisfaction when all parts are united in a 
solid construction by good joinery and glue to run your hand 
over the work and feel that it has beauty combined with utility, 
or note, as a whole, where some part might be improved by 
making the line or surface easier. It is just as important for the 
joiner to inspect his work from a distance as the artist finds it 
of value to step back from his picture to note the distance effect 
of his painting. Arbitrary lines or detail expressed in a draw- 
ing may have to be modified by your better judgment when 
viewing the form complete. 

The subject having been detailed from the drawing through- 
out, the matter of finishing will be taken up, but in passing it 
might be well to state that a chair, sideboard, or other piece of 
furniture on plain lines, would be treated in much the same rela- 
tive way in drawing it full size, and the various parts shaped or 
described. On certain constructional forms, where glue joints 
are required to unite several parts in an unbroken line — char- 
acteristic of many "Dutch" chairs of the early colonies — the 
rough stock dressing is done before gluing and after jointing and 
fitting with dowels, sufficient wood being left near the jointed 
edge to insure working it away to an easy, graceful line after the 
parts have been glued up. No attempt should be made to do 
this in a trial fit. Always consider construction as a unit. 


Having treated of this subject in a slight way at the inception 
of our work, we need to particularize now that the hall seat is 
ready to finish. Assuming that it has been made in oak, par- 
ticular care should be taken that it be thoroughly smoothed over 
with at least No. >^ sandpaper, rubbing along the grain only. 


Next the color of the finish must be decided upon, as that is 
embodied in the filler. Many modern interiors are still being 
finished very near to the natural tone of the oak, and should this 
piece of furniture be made for an interior in this color it would 
be proper to finish it to match. However, this is not arbi- 
trary with movable pieces of furniture and the prevailing finish 
is in the standard golden oak, which is readily obtained from 
varnish dealers. In remote places, where golden-oak filler is 
not to be obtained, secure a gallon of white filler and add X 
pound of raw umber and Y^ pound of burnt umber; thin the 
mixture with turpentine. If, after trying one piece of wood, 
a darker shade is desired, add more umber; if a lighter shade, 
add dry raw sienna, or turpentine and oil. 

When the desired shade is secured, apply with a brush and 
leave to dry for a few minutes. Then wipe off with a coarse rag 
and clean dry with cheese cloth and leave dry for half a day. 
Sandpaper with No. o sandpaper. Treat the work with a coat 
of orange shellac, allowing a day to pass before rubbing over 
with No. CO sandpaper; then put on a second coat of shellac and 
rub down after hard and dry with sandpaper, and apply a final 
coat of hard-oil finish, and when this is thoroughly dry the sur- 
face is treated to the oil-rubbed finish, which leaves a finish which 
will always be durable and pleasing, as it does not have the in- 
tense shine of cheap-varnish finish. A rubber made of listing, 
or a long narrow strip of suit cloth about 2 inches wide, rolled up 
tight and wound through the middle with twine, is more ser- 
viceable than a loose piece of cloth or heavy felt. This rubber, 
dipped in a semi-liquid mixture of raw linseed oil and powdered 
pumice stone, is applied to the surface in a circular motion, and 
after a little practice, and wiping with a dry rag occasionally to 
watch how evenly the work is progressing, you will learn just 
the amount of energy to apply. When this entire piece has been 
worked over, clean off with a clean rag the excess oil and powder 
and go over with another dry cloth — cheese cloth preferably — 
bringing the surface to a good dull polish. This surface will 
always be benefited by after-rubbing, or dusting, and may 
be brightened after a long time by rubbing over it a mixture of a 


third quantity of turpentine in raw linseed oil, using a small 
portion poured on a part of a cheese-cloth rag. 

It may he stated without fear of contradiction that handy de- 
vices are either the result of a sudden inspiration or a "simmered 
down" way of doing a thing better than at first anticipated. 
Competition is in most cases accountable for short-cut methods 
and apparatus quick and double-acting. No live man, however 
removed from active centers or in whatever line of work he may 
be engaged, can afford to handle unnecessarily or back track on 
his work. It is unwise in these times to do things the long way, 
as one's time for rest and recreation is equally valuable with the 
same time occupied in doing work piece by piece. Those who 
lack inventiveness should cultivate observation, for many a man 
will come on the scene who attracts attention by getting through 
his work and having plenty of breathing time. Upon close 
study it will be found he has some method or handy contrivance 
which he has wrought out as the result of time and experience. 

From making boxes, one like another, all the way through the 
range of constructive work, thought should be used in "coming 
out whole" on a job, whether it be a personal expenditure of 
time and energy or figuring against a competitor. This busi- 
nesslike calculation is sure to be valuable "when out for busi- 
ness. " The modern factory is augmented throughout with ap- 
paratus and devices solely of a hand-power class, holders and 
markers being used to prepare the work for unskilled hands at 
the machine. This "setting-up" practice solves the problem of 
the ability of a factory to figure closely. In other words, brains 
think out every detail before a stick is cut. The factory mana- 
ger holds no patent right in taking a short cut across the field of 
competition; the same conservation of energy should prevail in 
the shop. 

The illustrations presented herewith are simply memoranda 
jotted down from time to time and given for the purpose of 
bringing forth other devices which the reader may have found to 
circumvent time and lessen labor. Frequently the spying-out 
of some portion of a broken-down machine will offer a suggestion 



in the making of a tool or the building of another machine adapt- 
ed to one's needs. 

In Fig. 74 a very handy clamp made from an old crippled hand 
screw, the jaws having been reduced to the shape shown and 6 
or 8 inches in length; one screw being used, the scope is limited 

Fig. 74.— Handy Clamp. 

by the filling-in block, as shown, which is connected to the jaw 
ends by a piece of belt leather glued and braded. Two or more 
of these clamps at hand will be found very useful in repairing, 
gluing up or temporarily fitting parts. To be without clamps of 
any decription is in connection with gluing up work like losing 
the oars of a boat in midocean — very embarrassing — for it may 
only require a little force in a concentrated form to send the 
parts home. This very frequently is impossible, even though 
resort is had to a block and a mallet. 

An apparatus which is powerful yet portable and which will 
be found useful when many frames are being made up is illus- 


trated in Fig. 76. The wheel, screw and nut have been parts of 
an old machine. The heavy block through which the screw 


Fig. 76. — Wheel and Screw Apparatus for Making Frames. 

passes is held firmly to the bench by two heavy staples clasping 
and passing through the bench top and washer plates under- 
neath, where they are drawn tightly by large nuts. In default of 
the wheel and screw the form shown in Fig. 75 is very effective. 
Certain holes may be made in the bench to receive the four bolts 

Another Form of Frame Holder. 

in the block A and the large bolt in the block B. This will per- 
mit of the press being readily removed or set up when needed. 
The enlarged handle is reinforced by a piece of heavy brass plate 
secured well up on both sides. The L-shaped iron C centers 
over the lever with a washer intervening on the bolt. 



A squeezing press of a permanent form is indicated in Fig. tj , 
where the principles are clearly shown. It will be found a very 

Fig. 77. — Permanent Form of " Squeezing Press." 

valuable machine, as rails and stiles to small framework can be 
quickly brought to a tight, square joint. The notched metal 
plate attached to the post, as shown, permits of the tension being 
held until the glue is dry or the boring of holes and the placing 
of dowels are accomplished. 

The sanding stick shown in Fig. 78 and found in use by a care- 
ful workman indicates what by some might be considered trifling. 

Fig. 78.— Sanding Stick. 

but is a real essential when put to use. This stick will prove on 
further acquaintance with it to be a rival of a wood rasp. The 
sand, or, better, garnet, paper is held firmly and smoothly to the 
stick, allowing every bit of surface to be brought into use. The 
paper being cut overlapping wide should be conformed to the 
stick; then, with the two laps turned in, sanded side together, the 



tube is slipped over the stick, the laps sliding into the saw kerf. 
The same principle is used on power-driven sanding spindles. 

As the carpenter does not make use of a steel scraper as fre- 
quently as a cabinet maker, he may find the proper way to 

Fig. 79. — Device for Sharpening a Scraper, 
sharpen for a continued use of that tool a little elaborate. Hold- 
ing such a well-sharpened scraper in reserve, however, another 
blade for less severe use may be kept keen on both edges by 
adopting another craftsman's plan of having a fiat, smooth file 
secured by staples to a stick and having a saw kerf just over the 
surface of the file. The blade when dull is then drawn through 
the kerf against the file, insuring a keen, square edge. A care- 

FiG. 80. — A Routing Plane. 

ful study of Fig. /q will demonstrate this point more clearly. 

While there are all varieties of metal planes of a modern type 

many of them do not give the satisfaction that can be derived 

from the use of such a one as that illustrated in Fig. 8o. In 



this case the body is made from a dry piece of maple or beech. 
There is a certain easy sHp of wood over wood which holds this 
and the smooth plane in favor with many workmen. By the 
aid of the blacksmith the manufacture of this routing tool is very 
easily accomplished and will prove of service in many ways, 
particularly in producing sunken work on panels and drawer 
fronts. The block is 2 inches in thickness. The thumb nut 
when in position on the screw which binds the cutters draws up 
against an imbedded plate, as shown. In default of the thumb 
nut an ordinary nut may be used. 

Where a considerable number of wedges are used in expanding 

Fig. 81. — Device for Making Wedges. 

tenons after parts are glued up the simple device shown in Fig. 
8 1 permits of producing many in a very short time. The sketch 
shows a I -inch board marked A laid on top of a cross-cut saw 
table, B. This board is provided with a fixed strip sliding in 
the table grooves C and permits of its movement up to the strip 
D, clamped for tiie time on the saw table. The stock E for cut- 
ting into wedges is placed against the handle F, which easily 
swings by the nut shown between the adjusted stops G G. The 
adjustment of these stops and also the wood screw inside of the 
hook end of the handle F determines the taper of the wedge, 


whether obtuse or acute. The cutting is done by holding the 
board A by means of the knob H and pushing it before the saw, 
cutting the edge, as shown. In pulling back it is only necessary 
to press the wood forward to the screw and stop on the handle, 
meanwhile swinging the handle against the upper stop G for the 
second cut. 

Having introduced the reader to certain tools quite essential 
in cabinet making, together with various handy devices other 
than ordinarily found among a kit of tools, it might be im- 
portant to stock up on other working capital. 

Before considering other forms of cabinet work for the car- 
penter, it is in place to study the subject of ornament as applied 
to furniture, and under the term, ornament, is included any 
embellishment not essential to the construction. It seems a 
fitting time to write along these lines, for at no period in the 
history of furniture, since primitive construction, has there been 
such a reaction against vitiated or excessive ornament, and it is 
a significant fact that a fad taken up by Americans represented 
in the "Mission Style," and also the strong influence of Euro- 
pean crafts and guild workers in working along plain lines, has 
brought about this happy trend of taste. 

The architect, designer or craftsman today is a free subject. 
No kingly patronage holds him to follow repeatedly the "period 
styles, " which in this country are quite out of place in the homes 
of our democratic people. We may therefore be thankful it is 
the style to be plain and be surrounded by furniture of a plain 
substantial construction and outline. This state of affairs does 
not dictate absolute avoidance of ornament, for we as a people 
are extremists in some things, and already an easing-up of the 
straight line, and rounding-off of the sharp corner incident to 
the first "Mission" patterns is in evidence, and we have now 
with us the "Arts and Crafts," or "Modern," which possesses 
features refreshing and entitling it to be classed as a "style." 
Happily the "Arts and Crafts" being the vogue, it is one to 
which the carpenter can apply himself without the bench ex- 
perience of a French cabinet maker, and to this end sketchy de- 
tails are here given to guide him in the general requirements of 
brightening case work with ornament, relief or open work. 


Co-operation is the keynote today more than ever, from the 
architect to the gas-fixture man, and the bride and groom of 
today enter the new home as one better designed and more har- 
monious than ever before, for the reason that good furniture and 
furnishing are designed in co-operation with a knowledge of the 
architect's taste. 

Coincident with the plan is the rapid development of the 
cement industry, its many varied applications in architecture, 
the results, from its very nature causing the material to be per- 
manently set in flat, plain sweeping surfaces or bold molded 
effects, or treated with openings of a square or rounded char- 
acter, which neither admits of or suggests fussy jig-saw work. 
Its enduring quality will no doubt tend strongly to hold the de- 
signer and constructionist to substantial ideas for some time to 

Supposing, then, we follow this thought in its bearing on re- 
lieving furniture from absolute severity of case. Going back to 
the "Mission Style," the old ecclesiastic carpenter in making 
the few pieces of furniture for the simple needs of his brother 
monks held to a rigid purpose of making a table from which to 
eat, a chair to sit upon — not a table or a chair of a particular 
design. Then, too, the lumber was hewn from the log and few 
tools were at hand to continue the work. These were deterrent 
influences for good design — that is utility first. However, he 
was not altogether clumsy or lacking in grace of line, for in the 
few examples from which the style is derived we see how he has 
tapered the lower part of a heavy table leg or given a square 
bulblike effect to a post, and in more elaborate pieces treated a 
back rail to easy curves with correpsonding hollows, mindful, no 
doubt, of things seen in his early days in Spain. 

The monk, as well as many another, in effecting an enclosure 
by gate or barrier, adopted the idea of the primitive man who 
fenced in his first garden from wild animal depredations by tree 
limbs set at intervals and criss-crossed by boughs in the inter- 
vening spaces as in Fig. 82, then as the nations became more re- 
fined the Grecian idea came prominently to the front, and today 
we use more than ever the thought which is given expression in 



Fig. 83 of the illustrations. This never fails to be effective and 
to the point in filling space. 

The limb and bough idea will by a little study resolve itself 
into many simple and direct means of ornamenting panels, bases 
or spandrels, as noted in Fig. 84, 85 and 86. It is not treated 

Fig. 82 



Fig. 83 



\ ! : 

Fig. 85 .^ 

Fig. 86 

Fig. 87 

Ornament in Furniture. 

in a rustic form, for it then generally becomes a bad copy of a 
good bit of detail, and we have all gone through with the rustic 
idea in its out-of-place use. Rather catch the suggestion of the 
limb or bough and conventionalize it, as indicated in Fig. 87, 
which is as a mullion between case doors and branches out alike 



on either side along a headboard. Such a treatment, as well as 
that indicated in Fig. 85 and 86, cut in thin material, say 3-32 
in., is very effective when firmly glued on and will permit of the 
carpenter producing ornamental detail of a better character 
than most incised or glued-on carving. There should be no 
trouble in these chipping or finally dropping off and becoming 
a source of annoyance if care is taken and good glue is used with 
plenty of clamps at hand. A few invisible brads should also be 

Fig. 89 


Fig. 90 

Fig. 91 
Ornament in Furniture. 

It may be difficult to convert some of the readers to "simple 
ways," when the band and jig saw, turning lathe and molder 
stand ready to turn out wonderful things in curious shapes, so a 
few parallel sketches are given to more forcibly show the de- 
sirable and undesirable. Fig. 88 is obsolete, and not only by 
reason of the difficulty in finishing such an ornamental border, 



but in keeping it free from dust. Fig. 8q takes its place and Fig. 
qi is to be desired rather than Fig. qo. The avoidance of cut- 
ting away too greatly the grain strength, even though it is a 
glued overlay, is more prominent today, while the fretted pedi- 
ment shown in Fig. qi gives way to a more rational and fortified 
treatment, as indicated in Fig. 93. 

j^^f^^ m^.^^ 


Fig. 92 


Fig. 97 

Fig. 95 

Ornament in Furniture. 

So with the foot of the stand or case, we have all suffered an- 
noyance from the breaking-off of projections seen in connection 
with Fig. 94 and q^, while we welcome Fig. q6 and 97. Such 



a foot as that shown in Fig. q6 and qz should be reinforced by a 
glued corner block from behind. The direct corner post, how- 
ever, is stronger, terminating in a semblance to a foot, hoof or 

Ornament in Furniture, 
more frequently an animal's paw, showing the claws clearly de- 
fined. Great deviation is shown in such supports. The writing 
desk, with its carcase well raised to the floor, is usually made 
with a front post which will permit of being formed with a prom- 


inent knee immediately under the case, which in its downward 
shape diminishes to a slight ankle about 3 in. from the floor, 
where in the same size of stock as shown in the knee a claw foot 
is formed. This, if detailed by carving, consists of 3 or 5 toes or 
a fanciful duck's web foot clasping a ball. When a particularly 
massive effect is desired an extra stock is glued to the two outer 
sides of the post or leg to permit of greater prominence to the 
knee and claws. Various shapes of legs and feet are herewith 
shown, which will assist in selecting various supports to chairs, 
couches or cases. 

It is hoped that within this small treatise on the extensive 
subject of "Ornament in Furniture" the main guiding thought 
has been adhered to — of watchfulness against senseless outlines. 
This thought should also enter into selection of any hardware or 
metal trimmings required, that they be of a suitably plain char- 
acter in solid metal and well finished. 



HETHER a carpenter with skill in using wood-work- 
ing tools, or the man, who, following another oc- 
cupation, knows also the joy of working in wood, 
he is ever eager, with creative desire, to fashion 
certain furniture for his own use. 

A careful examination of many patterns seen in the stores, or 
coming under his particular attention, would assure him of his 
ability to produce work on similar lines, provided a few sugges- 
tions or guiding points be given. 

Assisted by accompanying illustrations which aim for sim- 
plicity of construction, and unbroken character of outline, is the 
purpose of bringing these articles together for a ready reference, 
and it is hoped a fountain of inspiration and suggestion. 

A commendable feature of the better patterns of present-day 
furniture is the emulating of the sturdy character and sim- 
plicity of treatment of the old cabinet makers, and be it said 
here that our early American craftsmen created much that we 
of the present time are forced to admire. 

It is true we have misapplied our efforts through the medi- 
um of modern tools, but would not the model maker of a 
furniture plant of today be staggered should an apparition of 
his brother craftsman of 1 700 appear and rudely snatch away 
the power-driven rip-saw, jointer, band-saw and back-knife lathe, 
and insist upon the modern man using the tools employed in those 
days of yore! Should such be true and our twentieth century 
man begin his task under the old way, in the light of a great 
joke, is it unreasonable to suppose that long before he converted 



his log into boards the thought would come before him, as he 
curiously handled and inspected the heavy jack plane, that his 
would be no easy task in dressing his stock; but he sets to with a 
will to experience what those "old fellows" must have had to do 
before they could mark a line. While he catches his breath and 
wipes the perspiration from his face, a bright, rational idea 
comes to his mind and he says, "When I get this stock smoothed 
up I'll go over my drawings and leave out some of my 'ginger- 
bread' work and make my detail subservient to the construc- 
tion, an object for which it is intended, " and then it dawns upon 
him that this must have been the idea of the mechanic 200 years 
back, when he produced the furniture we admire so much today. 
He did it in a direct way and confined his energies to beautifying 
only such places and parts as needed it the most. 

The literature and history of the times have been very much 
directed to old Colonial landmarks and customs. This ten- 
dency has consequently created good prices for the few patterns 
of furniture that come by chance into the hands of the dealers 
and has created a demand for copies. A number of factories are 
therefore kept busy manufacturing with great faithfulness re- 
productions of "old antiques." 

The mechanic, not necessarily a cabinet maker, can do much 
in furnishing part of his home with portable or built-in furniture 
if he will but observe the chaste, simple lines of the earlier work- 
man. During the era of flashy, overestimated furniture, some 
years since, there prevailed an idea among craftsmen other than 
furniture workers that it was a special art and privilege to per- 
petuate those styles from which we have since turned. So it 
was, and we are glad of it, for such frailties soon went to pieces 
and had their short day. 

It will be noticed by the aid of the few patterns shown that 
very little intricacy is attached in laying out necessary draft 
from which to work. For the height of seats or tables refer to 
any standard piece of furniture about the house, allowance being 
made, of course, where a seat is to be upholstered, to build the 
frame less the thickness of proposed upholstered cushion. The 
same applies as to casters on chairs, couches or tables. 



Illustration, Fig. q8, showing the home writing desk is made 
on such simple lines 
that little explanation 
is needed. The car- 
penter, filling his much- 
prized tool chest with 
easy-moving drawers, is 
perfectly able to lay out 
the few drawers and com- 
partments that are within 
a parlor writing stand. 
The slant front opens out Up 
and forms the writing 
table, being hung from 
inside of ends by a chain ^^^- ^^•" 

or metal device of the elbow order. 

The hall settle or portable window seat, as shown in Fig. qq, 
is almost a necessity unless one is fortunately provided with 

-Home Writing Desk. 

Fig. 99.— Hall Settee or Portable Window Seat. 

plenty of closet room, for in this article, by raising the seat, 
the box portion underneath makes a very convenient place to 
keep overshoes, a small riding saddle, or other articles wanted 
in a hurry and desirable to have readily accessible. In this 
piece it would be better to use Norway pine, or better still. 


Southern pine with pronounced red sap, or it would be more 
satisfactory, if possible, made in quartered oak, birch or ma- 
hogany, the three kinds of standard furniture woods. 

There has been much experimenting of late in using other 
woods than the three mentioned, but any wood with a pretty 
grain or figure could be used which would be free from liability 
of indenting or checking, to which pine or bass is subject. 

The prevailing taste is for the finishing material to be quite 
dark in imitation of old-time stained and even weather-beaten 
furniture, and a return to the wax-finish or oil-rubbed surfaces 
is very much to be welcomed. 

The finishing for such pieces illustrated, after staining to the 
proper shade you desire, would be to give them three coats of 
orange shellac, the first two coats being rubbed down by No. oo 
sandpaper and the third coat of shellac rubbed down in pumice- 
stone powder and oil; this will produce a dull gloss peculiar to 
old-time furniture and one that will not show when suddenly 
struck or indented. 

Much can be said upon this subject of creative art, which is 
awakening so much keen interest in the field of cabinet or case 
work abroad. Starting originally among a small band of arti- 
sans in the European centers the desire grew to give individual 
expression to their productions, and to check the disposition of 
concentration into large factories of various lines of handicraft, 
thus losing the identity of the workman and at the same time 
training the younger workmen to know only one small operation 
incident to the line of manufacture. 

The results of these workers along individual lines have found 
expression in the Art Nouveau, or modern art. While it may 
not be at present used extensively by American manufacturers 
employing machinery for all operations, the spirit of the style is 
already giving a healthful tone to our designs, and checking a 
tiresome repetition of conventional styles and a sameness of 

It is hoped that with what will be shown an interest may be 
awakened among many who feel their ability as construction- 
ists and their inability as draftsmen to the point of drawing 


ornamental detail, that it is just as well to leave out the orna- 
mental detail and produce their frames with a directness of con- 
struction and nicety of finish, with the introduction of low 
arched lines springing from posts to rails and the joints flushed 
over. When the work is carried to completion in this way the 
worker begins to feel he is dealing with a solid piece beautifully 
outlined, and not a collection of parts inharmoniously related. 

Attention being called to the prevailing class of furniture with 
the purpose of drawing the interest of the craftsman to objects 
of household use which he may construct with very little special 
experience in the higher branches of joinery, to the end of grati- 
fying his natural desire to be occupied during much enforced 
idleness on kindred work for his own home, furnishing and exe- 
cuting many orders which are sure to come from a display of an 
article of household comfort neatly joined and properly finished. 

With no desire to "teach an old dog new tricks, " the subject 
will be taken up with the idea that the reader is a skilled wood 
worker, exchanging notes with the designer, and that the work 
under discussion will be projected with the hearty enthusiasm of 
the revived "Arts and Crafts" movement, the aim of which is 
individualism and credit to the workman. 

Unfortunately, man's work of today, in many vocations, is by 
concentration of like interests specialized, and his personal 
touch confined to doing over and over again one small part of 
the whole. This suppression of real active enthusiasm in one's 
trade often is cause for a workman sinking into mediocrity. 

Advantages of Observation 

Today it is not enough for a man to consume at his work a 
specified number of hours, or to conform to the regulations of 
the union, but more to the self-satisfaction that he has used his 
eyes to good advantage in observing the methods and work pro- 
duced by a better workman than himself. The close inspection, 
if possible, when opportunity permits, of some building recog- 
nized to be architecturally correct, the relation with which the 
inside fitting bears to the exterior treatment, and then to the 
more minute inspection of the joinery, and from this the eye 


naturally seeks the furnishing of the room; possibly the body is 
very ready to seek comfort in the substantial chair or built in 
corner seat, and then the eye notes that there is a master build- 
er's conception and a connection of thought from foundation 
walls to the portable furniture of each room. From this daily 
practice of observing we appreciate more that furniture is close- 
ly related and is one of the branches of architecture, the con- 
struction and treatment of which should no longer be debased 
and made trifling by unnecessary and insecure applied orna- 
ment, or extravagant, much-cut-into outlines, which time, 
weather and experience have taught architects to avoid in their 
work of recent years. This statement has no reference to 
churches and public buildings of the old world, completed after 
many years and beautified by sculpture and carving in enduring 
materials, but refers more to our American architecture of some 
30 years ago, a type which doubtless many readers have in 
mind, "The American Villa" style, all in wood. It looms up 
now as an example of the band sawyer's widest range of fancy, 
assisted by the wood turner, who really reached the "highest 
pinnacle" with his work; often he had one each on the seven 
gables round about. Time, as with the old woman, has made 
sad ravages with this style of head gear; each storm blows off a 
little spire or tears out a baluster. Coincident with this style 
were the same frailties embodied in furniture, much glued and 
tacked-on work, turnings halved and glued on, veneer patches 
crested top lines representing much misapplied work, and more 
to free from dust. Even the upholstery had that tacked on, in- 
secure look. Every housewife is gladly getting rid of this by 
replacing it with the "Modern Art" furniture. We don't tell 
her this, but the "Modern Art" represents a revival of the very 
best that is old and, strange to say, of early American concep- 
tion, plain, straight to the point, construction. Having thus 
brought the attention to a study of good furniture, it will be ap- 
preciated that the class of joinery embodied therein is not so 
much out of the province of the careful carpenter. 

In occupying our time on work meant for home use we gener- 
ally embody individualism and honesty of pupose to a minute 


detail. This idea should ever be present in a restrictive sense 
when it comes to duplicating your piece on an order received, 
or multiplying it for a small local trade. It would not be pos- 
sible, however, to allow you a suitable profit on your work 
should you go to the great care of picking out just the "happy 
play" of grain or quarter which is embodied in your sample; 
this may have been the result of laying aside for months back 
certain pieces which would finally match up well for particular 
work. Care today is not as discriminating in cabinet work as 
to the nicety of adjusting stock in framing, that there be a con- 
tinuity of grain or quarter marks, as in some fine old samples. 
When laying out stock a little forethought exercised will add 
greatly to the final finished appearance — as, for instance, to 
maintain balance in the figure or markings of the wood, to cause 
a right and left display; this is often easily accomplished by in- 
verting a leg or a panel, thus allowing the surface figure to "fan" 
out, or arch in, as the case may be, with the other half. Noth- 
ing looks so out of balance when using quartered oak in squares 
as to thoughtlessly frame one side plain face out and the other 
side showing the quarter. When using plain oak throughout, 
or other woods, with a large figure, marked character and added 
value is shown in the work. Oftentimes a combination of woods 
is resorted to in making up an article of furniture which materi- 
ally reduces the cost, elm, ash or chestnut frequently being 
worked in where it combines best with the more expensive wood. 
Very little so-called mahogany furniture sold today is made up 
entirely in that wood, birch being largely used and sufficient 
mahogany being used on front parts to establish some claim to 
the title. As a matter of strength, birch is much to be pre- 
ferred to cheap mahogany, both requiring the same imitation 
or darkening to the standard dark mahogany tone. The selec- 
tion of wood should be made with judgment and not without 
some sentiment. 

Dignified stability and the immediate suggestion of perman- 
ence centers about the living room, oak, even chestnut and ash, 
are alway-s identified, and considered typical of this thought. 
While for the reception hall or the bedrooms, they call to mind 


the finer woods, as mahogany, birch, gumwood and other close 
textured lumber, fitting in aptly with dainty furnishings and 

Color in Furniture 

The staining of wood in furniture is largely in practice today, 
the colors taking in quite a range of tones, most of which are 
imitative of natural conditions, such as "forest green, " a warm 
green of the woods, and "weathered oak." The last named is 
a pleasing tone of a gray brown, derived from very old furniture 
which had been subjected to more open-air changes than our 
glued-up furniture would stand today; this in consequence is 
more appropriately applied to staunch heavy or general utility 
pieces. Flemish oak color, a very dark warm brown, is also a 
harmonious tone for furniture of a sturdy class. Cathedral 
oak, fumed, and Castilian brown are other recent tones. As all 
these shades are an attempted representation of what time and 
weather conditions of several hundred years have created on 
ancient furniture, it is but consistent to adhere to the oil-rubbed 
or wax-like finish; this is advised on all special made pieces and 
will be dealt with more in detail, as this subject is touched upon 
now for the purpose of forming an idea of what woods may be 
used in furniture. While it is essential to avoid using various 
woods with known bad features, such as shrinking, swelling and 
twisting, or soft and easily indented, yet a discriminate use of 
woods other than oak, birch and mahogany, give very artistic 
results; the main point is to know that it is perfectly air or kiln- 
dried before using. 

The writer has made use of white-pine panels saved from or- 
dinary packing boxes. These work in admirably in portions of 
of cabinet work where it is not likely to be indented, and are 
well worth saving, as they are generally of the right thickness 
and simply need redressing. This, of course, is for work stained 
for walnut or mahogany. 

Having considered furniture in a general way, it is assumed 
that a certain article is under discussion. The trade knowledge 
of the carpenter will not be questioned as to the handling of tools 
or preparing of the stock, and the work will proceed with the 


necessary guidance of a rough drawing. This does not imply- 
that one should have a knowledge of designing or drawing, how- 
ever desirable the cultivation of this ability is to every crafts- 
man. It is often with settled resignation that many determine 
they are unable to express themselves by a drawing, when by a 
little trial effort interest begets enthusiasm and the rest is easy. 
In the absence of the regular Manila drawing paper, any large 
sheet free from creases or wrinkles will answer temporarily; after 
which, should your interest excite you to further trials, the best 
of materials should then be secured. How many expend $io, 
$15 or $20 on the "most complete set" of instruments without 
the slightest idea of the use of two-thirds of them. Don't do 
this now — use a good, medium, black pencil; your 2-foot rule; a 
pair of dividers with well sharpened points and a pencil attach- 
ment; a soft eraser for rubbing out trial lines; a triangle and 
a T-square. This constitutes the essential outfit, and the main 
feature is to secure your paper with common tacks or thumb 
tacks to a smooth board surface or table, the edges of which 
are perfectly square. Drawings, as a rule, are made to show 
one-half elevation, with the end or side view and section pro- 
jected to the right of this on the same base line. (See Figs. 
67 and 68, drawing for hall-seat.) This shortens the work of 
the front elevation, and the measurements are doubled when 
laying out the stock. It will be seen that when drawing the 
side elevation on the same plane it is made very simple, for 
by the aid of the T-square many of the measurements are ex- 
tended and ruled off. Now many will say, we are able to do and 
have done all this; it is simply mechanical; but what gets me is 
how to draw freehand, or the varying line portions of a drawing. 
This no doubt confronts many as a nightmare and is intensi- 
fied by the fact, generally, that the beginner starts out with the 
idea of drawing the line gracefully and with cleardecision atonce. 
He usually fails, or probably the line or lines do not occupy the 
surface intended. It would take much practicing or months of 
time to draw a finished line needing no correction; that would be 
skill. You can, however, produce your curved lines and smaller 
detail by boldly and with a light freehand touch swinging in the 


lines in a given territory, and if it falls wide off the mark, or 
doesn't please you, erase and try again. You may have to do 
this several times, when you will say, "This is just what I want ! " 
Then is the time when you can preserve the effort by carefully 
going over this, making the line heavy and clear. Rely upon 
yourself in this way rather than create the line by the aid of the 
compasses, which require aimless staking out of points to effect 
several arcs, which must necessarily be joined by hand, and the 
result is often a very mechanically stiff curve. The operator 
has the satisfaction when working from his own drawing or pat- 
terns of knowing that he can give more grace or freedom to cer- 
tain lines when sawing the stock or dressing the edges with the 
shave, for the beauty of long sweeps can be much enhanced by 
the full-arm. movement incident to cleaning up the stock. 

Previous reference has been made to the main purpose in 
directing the attention of the craftsman to a class of work with 
which, while he may not be altogether uninformed, yet the sub- 
ject heretofore has not been presented to him in a prepared con- 
dition to enable him to exercise his skill in a higher branch of 

The journal of today sent broadcast, with its articles and de- 
partments relating to self help, makes it possible, if not indeed 
certain, for every intelligent person to acquire knowledge, or at 
least to add to his knowledge along certain lines. The mother or 
the daughter in isolated districts has acquired information and 
skill in millinery or dressmaking, studying explicit directions 
and illustrations which are often self-explanatory in their clear- 
ness, while in the column for domestic science greater deftness 
is gained, together with the important knowledge of chemical 
changes incident to good cooking. From these sources a pro- 
nounced broadening of the individual is evidenced, and today the 
"mossback" is the one who pores over the only printed matter 
that comes to him — the local "weekly."' 

Value of the Correspondence Department 

The privileges allowed in the space devoted to "correspond- 
ence" in a trade journal should not be undervalued either by 


the young or the old subscriber. Its advantages are indeed 
great, and many are pulled out of dense ignorance or turned 
from a well-worn rut by a careful and thoughtful study of its 

We will suppose the carpenter or craftsman has many "off 
days" now and then, due to weather or other conditions, and 
unless he is a "captain of industry" the question of how to em- 
ploy his time to profit is uppermost in his mind. The exercise and 
higher development of ones skill at these times if not directly 
productive certainly will be later, in his being rated a first-class 
man. To this end he should have a better home work shop, 
or room, than any other tradesman. First of all the place should 
be swept up and always kept that way after work, then a good 
substantial work bench placed to the best advantage for the 
light, and all that appertains to his work should be put in con- 
venient places or shelves. Brackets should be made for certain 
tools, then a hanging shelf for lumber, so that it can be kept 
clean and flat. All these handy arrangements and ideas for 
carrying on the work, whenever spare time is given for it, will 
occur to the man who goes at the matter with the purpose of 
having an inviting place in which to work. After all is accom- 
plished in the way of convenience and order, keep it so. Every- 
thing being in readiness you will, when the opportunity offers, 
get to work like one who has an appetizing meal before him. 

Advantages to Country Carpenters 

In turning the craftsman's attention, and particularly the 
carpenter's attention, from large to small construction, such as 
portable objects about the house, what benefit may come from 
these chapters will be more to the carpenter in isolated districts 
than to the journeyman in the city, who is kept more actively 
occupied. His work then will not be so much brought into 
contact in a competitive way with the cabinet maker, who sel- 
dom locates in a small village or town. This fact should be a 
greater reason and incentive to the cultivation of his skill in the 
higher branches of joinery; for even in country towns there are 
the "upper class" people, or those of means, who generally are 


easily prevailed upon to secure some interior fitting, or article of 
furniture, particularly should it be made for a special purpose, 
which raises it above the factory commodity. 

With the essential requirements provided for, the individual 
needs are then generally gratified and the housewife with great 
pride in her plants or china will be equally interested in acquir- 
ing a plant stand or plate rack. These now are quite commonly 
sold in towns or cities, but often are poorly made or finished. 
Here, then, is the mission of the carpenter or craftsman to work 
up a local side business. 

Primiti\e Structural Idea 

The form which would suggest itself to a workman, should he 
be called upon to produce an article, is the unadorned and useful 
qualities in a piece of furniture ; this would be a natural expression 
of his ideas of construction, free from imitation. Much of the 
furniture which is sold today is strong and durable, but some of 
such a severe type that it is highly probable the demand for it 
will be short-lived. Our homes, surroundings and tastes are 
ever changing; the desire is for change of outline; the primitive 
structural furniture looks very much out of place unless a room 
was fitted up entirely in that style, or in the later interpretation 
of it, the "Arts and Crafts" school. 

The structural idea should ever be in mind in creating a piece 
of furniture, yet in our day of hard business drive the few hours 
or moments of home rest should be in rooms furnished by furni- 
ture not of the restless over-elaborated French style, nor by the 
rigid square-edge primitive style; rather design our furniture 
from this primitive type, as a dressmaker molds her cloth over 
nature's form, knowing then we are started right. 

Take, then, these old structural forms and in our mind's eye 
pick up the draw knife and round off well the edges and corners, so 
that if we ever did fall against it we would not bruise the flesh or 
or have our teeth knocked out. Possibly in some places, taking 
care to leave ample strength for the purpose, we may cut out an 
arched line, which would be a little more in keeping with our 
rounded-out lives. 


Suggestion and Incentive 

Have the main line in furniture clearly define its purpose. 
Probably the main thought embodied is in a plain sweeping 
line which meets an untimely fate in some meaningless jumble 
of scallops and coves. Rather have the design motif creep up 
to and join in with this main line in the shape of surface carving, 
or applied carving, properly shaded off and brought into definite 
relation with the prevailing outline. 

From observing good, sensibly designed furniture the crafts- 
man is aided and inspired to evolve from a primitive structural 
form something which immediately has individual character, 
and it may solely spring from a pure curved outline of his own 
shaping, one not previously conceived, but wrought by strength 
and tool to the material. The main construction is determined 
by the purpose for which it is intended by his effective outline 
worked out of the material to lighten the effect of the whole, 
and thus he becomes designer of his work. 

We have no doubt that many intelligent carpenters refuse 
special jobs, or do not appreciate the fact that a great increase 
of revenue could be acquired, simply because they always did 
the work but never attempted to conceive it. We know of one 
builder who as a carpenter made a name as a builder by planning 
at night neat drawings of porch and bay additions. These he 
showed to people whom he knew had denied themselves those 
attractive features when involved in their home building. A 
man with funds barely sufficient to surround and shelter himself 
with a home will leave out the porch in his calculations, but 
both himself, and particularly his wife, are bound to have it 
added later on. This same businesslike spirit can be cultivated 
relative to furniture. This desire to make our interiors more 
attractive is just as uppermost with many as it is to follow styles 
in dressing. Accompanying this series illustrations are offered 
with the thought in view that the pieces can be carried out as 
shown, or modifications made on the same constructional forms. 
The first subject will be that of a fuel chest. 

The subject here illustrated exemplifies the idea which should 
be uppermost, as expressed by the great master of arts and 



crafts, William Morris: "Have nothing in your house that you 
do not know to be useful or believe to be ornamental. " 

Certainly a frowning black coal hod standing in the corner 
of one's sitting room jars on the sense of propriety. It looks 
bad enough behind the kitchen stove, and is only tolerated be- 
cause it is a useful article — an instrument of torture from which 
the man of the house cannot very well flee. The coal chest is 
an "accessory to the fact," yet in having one we find that in 
itself it is pleasing to look at and also serves a double purpose 
of a comfortable seat under the window sill or where one has a 
mind to place it. We have then to consider an article of furni- 
ture which admittedly is useful and in harmony with our better 
desire to banish the unsightly useful necessity. It will be found 
not only desirable for the stove-heated room, but for the gentle- 
man who, in his steam-heated residence, likes to run a little fire 
department of his own in the library grate just for "auld ac- 
quaintance" sake and watch again the glow in the chimney 

As here shown it will be very readily constructed. It is seat 
high — that is, i8 inches from the floor to top, without cushion. 

Fig. 100. — Fuel Chest and Window Seat. 

The width at the ends, outside, is i8 inches, the front 22 inches. 
The construction is held between four posts, 2 inches square, 



i\}i inches long, making the end frames 14 inches wide by 15^ 
inches, the back frame i5>i x 18 inches and the front frame 15 
X 18 inches. 

The frames for the ends and back are made of % x 2-inch rail 
and stile, with a ^.g-inch plain panel set in a groove 3/16 inch 

Fig. 101. — Showing the Chest Open. 

from front face. Allowance should, of course, be made in get- 
ting out the frame stock to permit of dressing the edges to size 
given after the frame and panel are glued up and handled as 
one part. The back and end frames are secured to posts iM 
inches from floor line by means of //ibx 2-inch dowel pins, 
three pins to a joint. Set the frame % inch back from face of 
posts. Care should be taken in edging evenly the post and 
frame before scribing and properly locating the boring points 
on each part. In this way there will be no failure in having 
projecting dowels drive into their corresponding holes when set- 
ting up for trial and gluing. Long bar clamps should be used 
in drawing up tightly after gluing. 

The plan. Fig. 102, shows open bottom framing, which is to 
be secured even with lower edge of outside framing. This con- 
sists of some soft wood cross rails, as shown, 2 inches wide, and 
the two front to back stiles are to be of i x 2 -inch hard maple or 
other hard wood not easily worn by the rolling of the two casters 



seen on rear corners of fuel box end, Fig. 103. Secure this 
framing, after it is glued and dressed to fit, by means of three 
2^-inch screws, driven on the inside edge of the two maple 




Fig. 102.— Plan of Chest and Fuel 
Box in Position. 

Fig. 103. — End View of Box, Showing 
Front Frame and Metal Bottom. 

Strips, glue having previously been applied to the parts. Shoul- 
der the projecting ends of the maple pieces, front and back, to 
fit corner of posts and secure by screws to posts. The front 
ends are to be trimmed afterward to stop the front frame, which 
is part of the box, as shown in Fig. 103, from moving back more 
than y^ inch from face of front posts. The outline of end of 
the box proper, with section of front-panel framing, is shown 
in Fig. 103. In Fig. 102 the plan and measurement of box are 
shown directly over bottom framing of chest. 

With the exception of the front of this box is constructed 
from J/g-inch pine or whitewood and is put together with nails 
in the back. The front frame is similar in construction to the 
other frames, with the exception of intervening rail, to which the 
handle is applied. This frame is rabbeted on the back face of 
the stiles to within i^g ii^ch of the front to accommodate the 
front ends of side pieces and through which screws are driven 
diagonally into framing, the parts being glued before so doing. 
To further strengthen this part of the construction, which is 
subjected to a pulling strain, apply with glue and nails triangle 
corner blocks on back in line with the middle rail and at lower 
corners, as indicated in Fig. 103. 


We have now a box frame without a bottom. Where the 
cleat is marked in Fig. 103 glue and nail a piece ^ x i x q>^ 
inches. From the top rail of front frame and in a curved man- 
ner, as shown by dotted line, neatly bend and secure with tin- 
ner's ^-inch nails a sheet of galvanized iron or sheet steel, 
about No. 20 gauge. The size of the sheet is 18 x 25 inches. 
Previously prepare the sheet for proper bending by cutting out 
notches to permit of bending to the curve and where it is bent 
up against the back of the box. The allowance is for i inch to 
turn up on each side, which do by hammering on a square edge, 
punching nail holes on this turned-up margin ready to drive the 
nails into the wood. By making careful calculation in bending, 
the sheet should go in the box opening with ease, and when se- 
cured to top rail of front frame it may be made to readily con- 
form by pressure with the curve and lay against the angle made 
by cleat at bottom. Bend an easy corner up onto back of box, 
where finally secure by row of nails along the margin. By the 
use of the metal bottom the usual annoyance of digging coal from 
at least two corners will be overcome and the curve causes the 
coal to center to a position most convenient when the box is 
drawn out, as shown in Fig. loi. Upon the rear corners of the 
box, and in line to "track " along the maple framing underneath, 
secure firmly a caster on each corner. In this instance it will 
require casters which will not raise the box above ^ inch. A 
single-wheel caster, such as those used on a dressing stand or 
trunk, will do nicely. 

The top of the chest, which if used without the cushion should 
be of good figured i-inch stock, is jointed to a finished panel 
18 X 22 inches, shouldered at the corners to fit between the posts 
and the edges molded to a quarter mold and even with outer 
face of posts. 

The Cushion 

The illustration shows an unconventional way of providing 
a cushion for this primitive structural form. It is one which 
may be made by the handy craftsman or handed over to a car- 
riage trimmer should there be no upholsterer available. It 
consists of a covering made of the prevailing Spanish brown 


leather, a soft material harmonizing well with oak whether it 
be finished "natural," "golden" or in the "weathered" tone. 
The cushion for this would be very much like a flat stuffed pil- 
low, the filling made of hair or moss. The leather cover is made 
of better grade leather on top, with a lower grade leather, or 
"pantasote, " in color to match, for the under part. The two 
pieces are cut out and sewed in length to fold and form a mail- 
bag-like pouch, with ample flaps over the opening. Sew edges 
of material, when folded to size of seat, with the good sides face 
to face, then when finished turn inside out. Insert the cushion 
and lay the pouch on seat, with flap side against the seat and at 
back. With two soft leather straps of same color tack under 
back edge of seat and draw them down across the bag, as shown, 
and secure on the front edge. 

A lower cost covering could be made altogether of imitation 
leather or "pantasote," corduroy or velour in tans or brown. 
As an article of furniture in close proximity to heat, the wax, 
or dull gloss, is a preferable finish. 

The Handle 

There are a number of plain cast-bronze or brass handles 
kept by hardware dealers answering this purpose. It should, 
however, be strong and drilled to secure it through the middle 
rail with a washer and rivet or by a round head bolt with nut 
and washer from back. A hand hole in a corresponding position 
on back of box should be made, which will permit of the box 
being taken from the room for more coal. 

Another Suggestion 

In Fig. 104 is offered another idea for a coal or wood box of 
an ornamental form and yet a part of the room furnishing. It 
is given for the reader to lay out the section of the fuel contain- 
ing space as it best suits his purpose, the form of this four-sided 
box being somewhat dependent on the idea of ease in using the 
shovel and also in forming in a pleasing manner the outline of 
the end pieces. The carving of a claw foot on the two base 
pieces would be proper and pleasing. A generous opening in 



the sides over the slanting top suggests its use as a handle, 
strip of i-i 6-inch thick 
polished brass, almost 
covering the edge of side 
panels from under front 
point and down to sup- 
port in back, will add 
much to the appear- 
ance. The stock for 
this piece should be not 
less than i inch, better 
I }/s inches thick. The 
proper dimensions of 
the box would be contained 


Fig. 104 
within iq inches square. 

A Screen 

In these days of "high protection" the screen may seem un- 
necessary, but there is just as much need of guarding from drafts, 
or of screening a portion of the room which unavoidably is un- 
tidy, as in early times, when by the very hugeness of the rooms 
a portable screen afforded protection to the occupant of a chair 
drawn to the fire. As our homes are today more evenly heated 
the screen still remains an article of great service for other pur- 
poses than to screen drafts. Artistically it breaks the square 
character of a room by the ease with which it may be adjusted 
as a background. From the standpoint of general utility in 
the modestly furnished home, it will be found indispensable in 
emergency when a room must be converted temporarily into 
a sleeping room, or in case of sickness, the privacy or protection 
from a high screen will be readily appreciated. 

Fashion in future dictates the screen, and its importance is 
such that it is keeping a few small factories turning them out 
to supply the demand. The screen which you will make will 
possibly be more substantial than those made to sell in dozen 
lots. It will also have individuality, and your patron will be 
the more pleased in this fact as it represents her taste also. 

No detailed description is necessary to the carpenter in con- 
structing the screen here shown, as it represents simply the care- 



ful joinery incident to making a door frame and the fitting of 
panels and rails. 

Fig. 105— General View of Folding Screen. 

The subdividing of the interior space, as shown in the illus- 
tration, by the paneling at the top and bottom, is offered, sug- 
gesting a medieval treatment peculiar to interior finish at the 
time when screens were much used. There is no arbitrary size, 
the usual proportions for a serviceable screen being 22 inches 
to 24 X 70 inches outside of each frame; the frame stock is of 
I inch to ij^-gx i}4 inches. To guard against too much weight 
the panel and structural features should occupy little space at 
the top. A very pleasing treatment would be to have such 
filling at the bottom only. 

As to the main surface this is a matter of taste or expense. 
The higher-priced screens are generally filled with leather of 


an antique finish, hut a rich effect is oftentimes produced with 
low-cost materials; and the work incident to it entirely within the 
range of the intelligent worker. A mortised and tenoned frame 
of pine, not glued or pinned, and made to fit loosely in >2-inch 
rabbet ^ inch off the face of framing, is required, over which 
the material selected is stretched, tacking it with 4-ounce 
tacks upon edge of stretcher, the same way an oil painting on 
canvas is stretched; small wooden keys or wedges are then 
driven in the corners along the tenoned strip, giving the final 
stretch to the surface. 

A screen made by the writer has the stetchers covered with 
a heavy grade of linen dress stiffening, which was treated to 
three coats of ordinary paint, the last coat being an olive green. 
Two inches away from and conforming to the inner edge of the 
frame a >^-inch striping of gold paint was lined over this painted 
surface, giving what proved to be a simple, inexpensive treat- 
ment, which in combination with the mahogany frames pro- 
duced a pleasing and substantial appearance. 

A good grade of heavy burlap so treated is very satisfactory. 
While the painted surface is a little "tacky, " lightly fleck some 
gold powder with a cotton wad in a careless way about the sur- 
face, and this on a warm, brown surface will produce an antique 
bronze peculiar to old leather or metal. Detail of treatment 
is generally confined to one side of the screen, and the reverse 
finished in a more simple way. Raised molded panels inserted 
in chamfered framing may be shown as the front, with flat sur- 
face and square edges on the reverse. The painted paneling 
should be covered by a one-colored piece of "pantasote, " denim 
or other lower but good-grade material, this to be tacked and 
stretched along a ^-inch margin on the outer frames with small 
tacks. As a covering to the tacked edge a gimp band of some 
color is secured by evenly-spaced fancy head upholsterers* tacks. 

Wrought brass, double-acting screen hinges must of course 
be used, three to the fold, and nothing of a projecting character 
on the framing should prevent them coming together, as a foot 
rule would when folded either way. These hinges run in size 
from 'j/ito \}4 inches, in eighths. 



TRENGTH in the wheel is radiated from the hub, so 
the light from the center-table lamp throwing out 
its cheer over the family circle is remembered in 
after years as having much to do in strengthening 
family ties. It is then an article of furniture which 
assuredly the carpenter and artisan should construct, embody- 
ing in its assembling his especial fancy and requirements. The 
table of today is not clothed with a long overhanging skirt or 
cover, though this may be justified should the table be a tem- 
porary makeshift. Beauty of wood and good joinery should 
never be hidden by an all-over cover, and while the craftsman's 
wife or sweetheart may be an excellent needlewoman, anything 
of an applied nature should be subservient — used as a narrow 
overhanging band, scarf, or centerpiece— to show in contrast. 

Importance, then, should be particularly directed to selecting 
the best obtainable stock for the top. When a table is contem- 
plated it is sometimes possible to secure a quartered oak which 
has, although rarely, a curly figure in combination, and the 
table top is just the place to do honor to this whim of nature. 
The edges of all table tops should be molded with an easy round 
shape on the upper edge, as an accidental indentation is less 
noticeable and it is more congenial to the touch. 

In the case of small side tables, where the top would not be 
subject to heat or accidental spilling of liquids, as would be the 
case with a dining table, veneers of marked figure or crotch may 
be used with great success, permitting of a lower cost of material 
to be used for the solid part. When veneers are thus used the 
mold selected must be of a profile which cuts a decided edge 
through the veneered surface — that is to say, a quarter mold, or 



one rounded still lower, generally presents a destructive edge to 
the veneer and does not show up well in the finish. It is ex- 
pected that by the guidance of the measured drawings here given 
the workman will receive inspiration to lay out his working de- 
tails, and if fancy dictates, modify as he thinks best. His re- 
quirements may be for a larger or smaller table, in which case a 
height of 27 to 30 inches is adhered to, and top measurements are 
generally increased indefinitely by 2-inch additions. 

Fig. 105 offers a suggestion for the display of grain and figure 
in the top, on the rails underneath and on the turned shafts. If 
made of solid wood the opportunity of well rounding all edges is 
particularly offered to enhance the finish of this pattern. The 
top is apparently heavy, this being produced by false under 

Fig. 105.— Front and End Views of Table. 

stock projected and molded in advance of the top, as shown. 
This false framing is carefully selected as to figure, fitted, glued 
and afterward molded, when it is then glued and screwed to top. 
The steady and rapid advance in lumber cost necessitates a 
careful study of the uniting of thin, or, what was in times past, 
refuse cuttings, into glued-up dimensions, and where, by a defi- 
nite finish of molding, as in the case of the reinforced table top, 
considerable is saved. The old notion that great strength was 
to be found only in the solid piece is dispelled by modern prac- 
tice in wood economy. 



The illustration, Fig. 105, is sufficiently self explanatory, ex- 
cept we might suggest that the cross rails be cut long enough to 
have deep-set tenons, and also the turned posts be provided with 
a long square tenon as it enters the foot pieces. The bracket 
supports are secured to posts and under top by screws sunk and 
blind plugged. 

Our next illustration, Fig. 106, is of a style suitable in a small 
or large size, and while shown with only the cross strainers, 
may have substituted a lower shelf for books or magazines. 
The rugged claw foot is in pleasing contrast to the plain por- 
tions of the table; the leg however may be left uncarved but 
shaped in a graceful, symmetrical manner. The size given for 

Fig. 106.— View of Round Center Table. 

this leg is 2 X 2 5/ 16 inches. This, however, is sufficiently heavy 
that the addition of side blocks will not be necessary to produce 
a gracefully formed ankle and foot. The reinforced framing to 
the top is also used in this table, this being ^yi inches wide, and 
to which are screwed the rails, and into which are secured the 
legs by dowels. 

The height of these tables having been given, the plan in Fig. 



107 will facilitate making up a working drawing. In this illus- 
tration the top is 23 inches in diameter by i inch thick, and the 
projected under part 24 
inches in diameter by J/g 
inch thick. The rails be- 
tween legs can be made of 
2-inch material glued up to 
admit of securing a width suf- 
ficient to produce the quarter 
ring shown, which is i>^ 
inches wide. Secure these 

Fig. 107.— Half Plan of Round Table. 

rails by glue and three countersunk screws to each quarter. 

In Fig. 108 is shown an easily constructed table of a plain 
character relieved by the carving on side panels. This carving 

Fig. 108.— a Parlor Table. 

should have a dull finish, with plain surrounding surfaces pol- 
ished. Fig. loq shows what can be done by using properly se- 
lected stock patterns of moldings under the top, a pattern that 
will be somewhat in contour with an easy line given to the leg. 
This leg is diagonally placed under the corner of the top and is 
secured from stock 2^ inches thick, reduced to shape and 
taper as shown. The rounding or stock dressing is accom- 



plished by a draw-knife, shave and scraper previously described. 
Fig. I lo affords the basis of many modifications dependent upon 

Fig. 109— Another Style of Center Table. 

the constructional features being kept in evidence. This makes 
a good serviceable family reading or library table, where one can 
poke away an unfinished book on the open shelf at ends. Such 

Fig. 110. — Family Reading or Library Table. 

a pattern finishes most properly with a dull surface, fumed tone. 

Den and Writing Tables 

A table for the general living room, library, or we might call 
it "den" should be serviceable and strong, for here it is that the 
man, like the pursued animal, seeks retirement and rest at the 



close of the day. Bamboo furniture and spider-legged chairs do 
not appeal to him — even the feminine mind has discarded the 
flimsy, for the simple modern style is to her liking. Four legs 
and a board is the first logical thought, and additions other than 
necessary members used to connect these parts in the construc- 
tion are useless. By this is meant brackets and other glued-on 
parts having no relation to the purpose of the table. 

An added value may be given the table, however, by inserting 
a drawer under the top and providing an under board or shelf 
where naturally in its place a strainer would be a part of the 
construction for purposes of strength. 

The dusting and wiping over of a table along simple lines is 
more of a pleasure than source of irritation, for if properly fin- 
ished it is improved by wiping. The suggestions indicated in 
Figs. Ill, 112 and 113 are offered as a basis of the plain ser- 
viceable style which can be modified in many ways yet retain a 
simple character. 

Many prefer a round leg or post. This should be of a simple 
shape, leaving a square top for inserting rails and having the 
shaft a perfectly plain round, the fullest size of square diminish- 
ing on a slight sweep as it comes to the floor. The simplicity of 
an Ionic column should be ever in mind to restrain one from the 

Fig. 111. — Table for Living Room or Den. 
tendency to overbeading and hollows, which frequently mean 
nothing in turned work and are difficult to clean. 

The table indicated in Fig. 1 1 1 of the illustrations is of the 



simplest type of construction, and for a room of little open space 
it will be found very serviceable, both for a reading and a card 

Fig. 112. — Table for a General Reading Room. 
table as well. Fig. 112 shows a table designed for a general 
reading room. The Japanese feature of overhanging shelves 
gives a generous space for current journals which usually become 
dog-eared when left lying on the table top. 

There are times when in dusting, as in other things, "a lick 
and a promise" is given between regular days, and a free table 

Fig. 113. — Another Form of Reading Room Table, 
top is very desirable for an orderly appearance. This thought 
is suggested in the whim shown in the style, Fig. 113, with the 



built-up center shelf for the lamp or electrolier base and maga- 
zine pockets on either side which will partly conceal the ruffled 
condition of paper-covered magazines. 

The form of writing table shown in Fig. 1 14 is becoming pop- 
ular. It cannot be overfilled by papers and other matter not 
actua. correspondence. In this respect it is desirable for the 
living room or reception hall or a small size is very appropriate 
in a spare guest room. The top always remains as a table top, 

Fig. 114. — Writing Table with Drawer Open. 

the writing being confined to the center tablet panel flush with 
the top of the drawer when drawn out to a set stop. Under this 
panel is the larger compartment for paper and envelopes, while 
on either side of the partition are compartments full size or sub- 
divided, as the fancy dictates, into a small space for loose pens, a 
long till for pen holders and pencils, while at the back end either 
at the right or left of the center writing tablet a fixed division 
should be made for a square glass or some appropriate form of 
ink well. 

For neatness of finish, which should be in marked evidence on 
such a piece of furniture, the tablet and other divisions having 
been made of >^-in. paneling, the walls should be fitted with a 
scant 3^-in. material of the same or another kind of wood. The 
width of this paneling should allow for the >^-in. thickness of 
top or till covers and form a rabbet for these to set upon. Usu- 



ally such a table is made in mahogany and the drawer compart- 
ments in that wood also. The oak tables should have mahog- 
any drawer divisions also, as this wood is very desirable for small 
work and a good after-finish. In this form of writing table the 
sides of the drawer must be of the full length permitted by the 
interior of the table frame, but the drawer itself must be made 
to withdraw only to a certain fixed stop or check provided for 
the purpose. This is to avoid an overbalance when the drawer 
is being used as a writing bed. Some tables made are provided 
with a concealed counterweight, but this is unnecessary if the 
table frame is of a substantial pattern and the drawer stop is 
properly located. 

The apparent waste space of the rear end of the entire drawer 
readily suggests a private drawer or compartment secretly ac- 

FlG. 115. — Details of Checking Device. 

cessible by throwing off the check or stop, which can be con- 
trolled by a simple mechanical device of an elbow joint or spring 
push button variety placed entirely out of view at one or both 
sides under the drawer and somewhat to the rear. The drawer 
operates as an ordinary drawer, and the check is never used ex- 
cept when it is desired to use the private compartment. 

A checking device which is at present in satisfactory use is il- 
lustrated in Fig. 1 1 5 of the drawings. Here the plate D is held 
in checking position by the stop screw properly located as shown. 
It is thrown forward when it is desired to pull out the entire 
drawer. This is done by swinging out under the drawer slide 


the shaped metal piece D. This when erect with the drawer 
stop screw pulled against it prevents further withdrawal. 

In making such a piece of furniture there is opportunity for 
personality in the design as well as in ingenious devices which 
will characterize the article and give it increasing value. 

The best of reading in the way of magazines and periodicals 
will gradually accumulate upon the family center table, and if 
there be no reserve place set aside for them they become a shift- 
ing nuisance to the tidy housewife, and when the good man of 
the house has an extra desire to wade into some back numbers, 
while enjoying the warmth and cheer of the home, he may be 
provoked to learn that his missing numbers formed part of a 
bundle of reading which his good wife gave to some worthy poor 
of a literary bent. To a busy man the flood of literature within 
paper covers comes altogether too swift at times and it needs a 
stormy Sunday to catch up. So we have arranged for the 
craftsman to construct a stand which may also be used for sheet 
music or portfolios of prints if desired. 

This article of furniture has not until recently been on sale and 
is classed among the special pieces for which there is an increas- 
ing demand similar to the plate rack which, in truth, we do not 
need, but, like the monthly magazine, we get them nowadays in 
large quantities, and would any man deny his wife the pardon- 
able pride of showing her pretty plates, which were bought, pre- 
sented or won at her card club? So she has her rack for plates 
and the oncoming monthlies create a new demand also, which 
gives rise to the display of the accompanying sketches and neces- 
sary description. Referring to Fig. ii6 it may be stated that 
the position of shelves, which are of ^-inch material, is optional. 
The three may be put in evenly spaced or varying as best suits 
particular need. To avoid securing them on the ends from the 
outside, thus marring the plain panels of the case, it is best to 
have them nicely fitted and resting upon a quarter round cleat 
under each end. The arched framing consists of ^^-inch stock 
fitted over the edges of the case, glued and held with sunken 
brads. This breaks the angular crudeness which most primi- 



tive structural pieces possess. The inner edge of this arch is 
well rounded off, and the outer edge should have the sharp edge 

Fig. 116. — Magazine or Music Stand. 
struck off also. Main dimension figures are merely given for 
the general proportion to this and to Fig. 1 17. 

When the detail is laid out in full working drawing the most 
direct constructional features can then be studied. If it is for 

Fig. 117.— Another Style of Stand. 
personal use these articles of furniture will no doubt represent 
more labor and material than would naturally be expended in 


making them in quantity. This does not imply that to manu- 
facture in quantity one should resort to questionable methods, 
with attractive features on the outside only. In all work to be 
placed on the market scheming in careful detail is very necessary 
and the outward essential features must be presented in an at- 
tractive and, in furniture, the most substantial way possible. 
With solidity of appearance the sale is more than half consum- 
mated, and it matters little with the average customer how this 
same piece of furniture is held together, whether by the old way 
of mortise and tenon, or the now generally accepted practice of 

Judgment must be exercised in using some of the modern ways 
of securing a joint. In the primitive forms of furniture now so 
popular it certainly is a sham to represent the main structural 
parts as piercing another member by a sturdy projected tenon 
with a cross pin. The temptation to do this in imitation only 
by the easily applied dowel joint on one side and a glued-on/ac- 
simile of the tenon and taper key on the other is just as liable to 
be met with as graining maple furniture in imitation of oak. 
The latter is less reprehensible than the former by reason of 
equal strength to oak; but a sham is sham for all that. 

Relative to the magazine stand, Fig. 1 16, the case itself con- 
sists of practically the two ends and top board, with the front 
trimming and bottom rail. These brought together in a solid 
construction would still make a weak body, with great liability 
of ends, and possibly the top, splitting by overweight, or rough 
handling. The construction must be held together by a framing 
immediately under the lower shelf. The making of this framing 
is an illustration, then, not necessarily confined to this particu- 
lar article, of the value of utilizing the least amount of material 
to secure the proper support for the outer case. 

Turning again to the stand, the ^-inch shelving may be used 
with equal reason for the lower shelf, when immediately sup- 
porting this is constructed a skeleton framing consisting of two 
I X I >^-inch strips held apart, the width of the stand back of the 
foot board, by three %-inch dowels chucked and glued. Screws 
from the inner edge of these strips may be driven into inside of 


foot board and to the bottom, upon which the back filling is 
tacked, this of a sheet of heavy white wood veneer, or low-grade 
^-inch tongue and grooved lining. On the line of, and fitting 
between this dowel framing, a similar strip is glued and screwed 
from inside to the end panels. Arrange for bottom shelf to fit 
over this framing snugly and set in a >^-inch rabbet on edge of 
foot board. Through end strips and dowels underneath screws 
should be driven to hold the shelf board securely. 

It will be seen that many under structures can be held to- 
gether by the use of dowels, rather than dimension stock and 
the extra work of mortising and tenoning; in fact, some in- 
stances of making joints which are not absolutely depended upon 
for strength. The use of the "corrugated steel fasteners" is very 
successful, as it oftentimes is desirable to use a cheap mitered 
framing, which is used in the nature of a reinforcement, the 
facility of driving them in across the freshly glued joint being 
accomplished much more readily than the work of halving, or 
attempting to drive long brads. 

The Serving Stand 

When living rooms are necessarily small, heavy furniture 
oftentimes proves to be a "white elephant." The cost of 
ground, particularly in large cities and towns, is a factor in com- 
pressing our ideas, and in building it is frequently required to 
plan a certain number of rooms within a given space, with so 
many windows and doors that are communicating, that the 
usual large sideboard for the dining room is found to be a misfit. 
This living in "band box" style among city dwellers and flat 
occupants has created a demand for intermediate-sized pieces 
or the "patent back action" all around utility furniture. While 
it is not on record that the apartment dweller has as yet been 
supplied with a folding bed to be converted, on arising, by the 
turn of a lever into the breakfast table, yet the general utility 
idea does provide a bed by night and to all appearances a mantel 
by day. The "much-in-little" space requirements have in- 
cited many bright ideas, and the carpenter has exceptional ad- 
vantages by his constructive ability to study and experiment in 



this field of compressed utility. The invention of the most com- 
pact kitchen cabinet, containing everything needed, from a nut- 
meg to a half barrel of flour, is undoubtedly a blessing to the 
housewife of a lo x 12-foot kitchen. 

The serving stand is a modified type of the sideboard, or, 
properly speaking, it was the original food-serving stand, from 
which, with a desire to inclose some articles of food or drink, the 
buffet was designed, with its drawers and cupboard-like inclo- 
sures, it was a transition as wealth and the family increased to 
have this piece of furniture made very large, and the sideboard 
became a repository of riches in family plate and silver. 

These are a valued inheritance to the few who are fortunate 
in having one left to them, but it is feared that many were not 

Fig. 118. — Elementary Pattern or Serving Stand. 

properly appreciated to be in evidence today, on account of the 
weight and size, and so, like the old four-post bed, modern re- 
quirements call for something which does not quite take up the 
entire room. The illustration, Fig. 118, is an elementary pat- 
tern from which many modifications can be made leading up to 
the pattern in Fig. i iq, which approaches the so-called buffet. 
This in turn offers sufficient suggestion to use the same size 
treated in various ways and still have the same directness of 



construction. The two pilasters in front offer a good field for 
variety in outline and in surface for carving. By the exercise 

Fig. 119. — Design for a Buffet. 

of a little study on paper it is surprising how two such members 
will present great variety in treatment. 






INTER interests and outside occupations are fre- 
quently interrupted by weather conditions, and, 
as the various holidays come and pass, suggestions 
enter the mind of the many things which might be 
made — articles not only highly essential but many 
which might be classed as luxurious comforts were we to buy 
them for our own use. The purpose of this article, at what may 
be termed the shut-in time of the year, is to consider a few of the 
many pieces of household equipment which partake more or less 
of the nature of gift pieces — the things which the housewife 
would like to have you make for her; features to the home which 
aid her to plan and make it attractive and modern. 

I am writing intimately on this subject, for there has just been 
a decorative upheaval in one of the living rooms, and before the 
paperhangers had cleaned away their sticky mess feminine de- 
sires called for another bookcase of special size to house the many 
books which had accumulated, so not a few fragments of even- 
ings and Saturday afternoons were used to bring about this par- 
ticular piece of furniture. 

I think the cedar chest and the bed box will be the most de- 
sired and needed, whether the home be amply provided with 
closets or store room or is so compact that the space under the 
bed must be used. Whether it be entirely true that red cedar 
repels moths and insects, the wood itself has enough virtues in 
its color and markings as well as lightness to recommend it for a 
storing chest for woolens and furs. 




Little need be said to the carpenter about its construction, as 
it is simply a box of the acceptable form and size, the parts of 
which may be assembled by the usual box construction, or more 
elaborate joining may enter into it. Whatever the method, be 
it dovetailing, mitering or lap-jointing the corners, a small tri- 
angular strip set in glue around the inner corners helps the finish, 
while frequently the outer corners, as shown in Fig. 120, are 

— *-. 

Fig. 120.— a Cedar Chest. 

given an added finish by bending a heavy plate of brass to fit the 
corners. A simple scroll or other ornament may be filed out or 
cut on the jig saw, according to taste. 

As our experience with the cedar chest partakes somewhat of 
the revival of the old dower chest, much license and personal 
whim may enter in the final ornamenting by brass bands, hinge 
plates or some decorative escutcheon plate. 

Another size of chest than that shown is 24 in. high, 24 in. 
wide and 48 in. long; still another is 17 in. high, 16 in. wide and 
32 in. long. 

The more modern Utility Box is of the same shape and pro- 
portions as the cedar chests but smaller and lighter, being: 
14 in. high, 15 in. wide, 27^ in. long. 
i5>^ in. high, ib}^ in. wide, 32 in. long. 
ib}4 in. high, iq^ in. wide, 36 in. long. 
These are for ladies' shirtwaists and other apparel of a light 



In Fig. 121 is shown a light sliding upper tray about two- 
thirds of the length of the chest and 3 in. deep. This sets on a 

Fig. 121.— Cedar Chest with Sliding Tray. 

neat strip secured to the inside of the chest, the material of the 
tray being yi in. in thickness. 

Living in flats or small homes will soon create a desire for more 
storing space and the under-bed box offers a very ready means 
of laying away ladies' skirts or any other long garment. With 
the small wooden wheels projecting slightly over bottom edge 
of box, it may be drawn out very easily from under the bed by 
means of a handle secured to the front panel. Cedar may be 

_22y. 4 5 

Fig. 122.— An Under-Bed Box. 

used for this also, but as it is not on dress parade other woods, 
such as pine, sycamore or basswood can be used, and with care- 



ful surfacing of the boards and final smooth sanding, such a box 
may represent good carpentry just as well in inferior wood as if 
it were in mahogany. The wheels are either sawed or turned to 
4 in. in diameter and yi in. thick, provided with a ^-in. hole, 
through which is passed a short wood axle with a round button 
head, the end of the axle being driven into a tight hole in the 
ends of the box. An offsetting wood washer should be placed 
between the wheel and the side of the box. 

One thing suggests another, and to provide a proper place for 
ladies' hats Fig. 123 will be given the greatest consideration in 


Fig. 123. — Stand for Millinery. 

Fig. 124.— An Umbrella 

a lady's bedroom, for in the three boxes she may find ample 
space for the modern hat. What the size of these boxes shall be 
no man will ever know, but make them big enough; that is, the 
stand, for it consists of four i-inch posts, two center boards and 
top and bottom fitted as shown. As to the boxes, they should 
be three of the same size pasteboard boxes covered on the out- 
side with a figured cretonne. The stand may then be made 



large enough to permit of the boxes being set in and taken out 
readily. Oak, mahogany or white enamel finish will create a 
very attractive article of furniture when completed. 

A place for umbrellas eventually becomes a necessity, and 
Figs. 1 24 and 125 represent two forms. This is one of the many 
objects which also prove an acceptable gift. Fig. 124 is 12^ 
X 14 in. and 29 in. high, outside measurement, while Fig. 125 
stands within 14 in. quare and is 32 in. high. The posts are 
set at an angle of 45 degrees with the sides. 

The shape of the posts which are secured from stock dressed 
I in. thick and the curve of the foot contained within a width of 
2j^ in. should be laid out on paper and a pattern drawn and cut 

H 144= scj 

Fig. 125.— An Umbrella Stand. Fig. 126.— A Plant Stand. 

out. The lower framing in each style. Figs. 124 and 125, con- 
tains a light galvanized iron or copper drip pan, which can be 
made to fit. 

Another form of furniture which the winter months suggest 
as quite necessary is some orderly place to hold the plants which 
we desire to have. Fig. 1 26 admits of a very simple treatment, 



as shown in the three plain Mission style of posts, or they may be 
given an Early English turned form as suggested. A loose fit- 
ting galvanized pan should be made, provided with lift-up rings 
at each end. Oak with the customary finish is the usual wood 
for this article, although it is very attractive made in basswood 
and enameled white or old ivory. 

A beautiful fern or rare plant is to be found in every home and 
Fig. I 27 or a similar form of tabouret stand enhances greatly the 

Fig. 127.— Lamp or Plant Stand. 

furnishing of a room. With a top 17 in. in diameter and the 
base 1 5>^ in. the shaft should be turned out of solid or glued-up 
stock, not less than 7 in. square. The four feet are sawed from 
i>'4-in. stock 234-in. wide, and are fastened to extend \y^ in. 
beyond the base. 

Fig. 128 is within the ability of those who are not equipped 
with a turning lathe to turn such a pattern as shown in Fig. 127. 
In Fig. 1 28 the four posts are marked from a pattern drawn out 
as shown at A within a width of 4>^ in. It may be marked out 



on a board i yi in. thick, dressed, and two legs secured in a length 
of 32 in. The view of the stand shows the form of construction. 
It might be suggested that joining with the lower shelf should be 
by the use of a /s-in. dowel with the greatest length passing 
slantwise through the cross grain of the post. This would in- 
sure strength at a point that is considerably cut into. The pat- 

FiG. 128.— A Small Stand. 

Fig. 129.— a Smoker's Stand. 

tern is offered as an expression of the very popular Colonial type. 

A man of tools seldom gets an opportunity to make anything 
for himself, but it may be barely possible that he can slip in at 
odd times a smoker's stand to care for his smoking outfit. Fig. 
I2C) is a simple form which can be elaborated on if desired. It 
is 32 in. high and stands within a square of 13^^ in. The con- 
struction is evident and requires no explanation. 

For the proper care of sheet music a cabinet should be pro- 
vided. Fig. 1 30 illustrates one form which is very simply made, 



using in connection with the i^-in. square posts, boards 3^ in. 
thick throughout, or making up Js-in.x 2 in. front door frame, and 
putting in a thinner panel having some particularly fine mark- 
ing, or figure, or inlaying some simple square or diamond of 

Fig. 130.— a Music Cabinet. 

lighter wood as a distinctive feature. The bottom consists of 
a board shouldered out to receive the corner posts and the sides 
and back are secured to it by sunk screws and glue corner blocks. 
The back may be made up of basswood into a paneled frame 
like front door. The disposition of shelving is much to be de- 
cided by personal needs and ideas and in view of the prevalence 
of automatic piano players and phonographs, some thought 
might be given to spacing for such records. 

Little need be said of the three forms of book holders except 
that they suggest quickly-made articles for friends, or the various 
members of the family, for the holding of choice personal and 
often-used books. From their size some cherished piece of wood 
may enter into the construction, and in the making and after- 
finish develop some hidden beauty of color and grain. 



Fig. 131 is an instance of some simple form in which rare grain 
marking often occurs when wood is worked into a simple undu- 

FiG. 131.— Book Blocks. 

lating surface. The three blocks when fitted and glued up form 
the end of a hook support which is simply used for a few favored 
books on one's sitting room table. Fig. 132 shows a colonial 

Fig. 132.— a Book Rack. 



treatment of a common form of rack. Fig. 133 is a revolving 
book holder built on the plan of an Indian "Swastika" over a 
i2-in. square base board which revolves about a central pin or 
bolt with a washer, held to a base as shown. This offers a very 

Fig. 133.— a Revolving Book Holder. 

convenient holder for certain books which come in sets, or for 
the student who uses several books which he desires to have at 

Workstands and Sewing Tables 

The sewing stand or work table is like the wholesale ware- 
house — not drawn upon constantly but a place of last resort 
when the stock of little things is exhausted in the small basket 
the ladies like to carry about. The stand, however, in large 
operations of dressmaking and also when sewing is laid aside 
is quite indispensable and is a part of the furniture equipment 
of a well furnished home. 

In the construction of the workstand the early colonial mod- 
els are perhaps the best because of simple pattern and because 
the industrious women of those days knew more of the require- 
ments than unfortunately do many women of the present day. 
Fig. 1 34 represents such a type with two drawers and drop leaf 
on each side. 

What few original pieces are to be found and the many copies 
made from them in recent years are always made in mahogany 



or are examples of careful veneer work in crotch or cross-band 
veneers. Custom has so dictated the use of material or color 
for certain purposes that it is no whim to say — from a selling 


Fig. 134.— Colonial Work Table. 

Standpoint — that such a piece of furniture would prove accept- 
able to critical taste even if made in any other wood than ma- 

The work stand while infrequently used takes up space and 
for this reason should be a sightly piece, while the idea of utility 
and beauty are equally important. 

Referring again to Fig. i 34 it may be interesting to state 
that it consists of four 2-inch square posts turned, as shown. 
Three open frames are made shouldered to receive the squared 
portions of the posts, as indicated in the drawing; one for the 
bottom, one to divide the two drawers and one fitted flush with 
the top of the posts. These frame rails, which are 13-16 in. 



thick, may be immediately doweled into posts or made into 
glued-up frames and the corners cut out to receive the posts, 
the latter being then drawn up to the corner by counter-sinking 
screws in a diagonal hole. The sides and back having been 
relished on the inside edges are set in grooves prepared for them 
in the posts. The top then is pulled down tight by means of 
screws set in from under the top open frame. In passing it may 
be stated that it is not advisable to glue any table top to its 
frame or bed as it is unable to go or come in different tempera- 
tures. True surfaced and well fitted to the case or apron with 
screws properly located will be sufficient. 

The drawers are made in the usual way, lap dovetailed for 
the front corners and common dovetailed for the rear corners. 
The fronts, however, are i^ in. thick to permit of a well 
rounded mold that is generally faced with a nicely selected piece 
of veneer jointed in the middle of the drawer in crotch effect — 
that is, burl veneer edge jointed in a diagonal manner with the 
figure taking the directions of an inverted V. It will be noticed 
that the rule joint is one of the features of such table tops. It 
certainly is desirable in comparison with the square edge and 
should be so treated if a pair of planes can be improvised to 
make the hollow and concave mold. 

Another feature which is good enough to copy is one manner 
of holding up the two side flaps of the table, as shown in Fig. 135. 

In order to provide for this. 

the panels on each side of the 
drawers are set into posts 
sufficiently to allow of the 
three pieces i, 2 and 3 of 
3 4 -in. thickness to set i-i6in. 
within the face of the posts. 
The parts marked 2 and 3 are 
glued and fastened to the 
side panel, while No. i oper- 

FiG. 135.- 

-Detail of Table Leaf 

ates in a loose double "tongued" and groove joint provided 

in No. I, a steel wire holding them in place. In operation 

No. I is swung out when the table leaf is raised in position and 

forms a firm support for it. 



The construction of the work stand shown in Fig. 136 is very 
similar to that of Fig. i 34, having the two small drawers for 
materials and the large lower drawers for more bulky goods. 

Fig. 136.— Colonial Workstand. 

The two seven-faced compartments on each end of the stand 
offer ample room for sewing under way or in progress or for 
rolls of material which accumulate at dressmaking time. The 
cover or top of the two compartments hinge and lay back on 
top of the table when open. 

In Fig. 1 37 is shown a very serviceable wall stand which takes 
into consideration ample top drawer space for scissors, spools, 
needles, books and other equipment, leaving the large lower 
drawer free to put away unfinished work. As will be seen the 
sides of the drawers are parted from the outside of the case by 
the thickness of sliding strips of % in. hardwood, one being 
secured to the drawer side and operated between a top and bot- 



torn Strip fastened by screws to the inside of the ends. These 
closely fitted and rubbed with soap or paraffin will cause the 
drawers to work smoothly and evenly. 

Fig. 138 is another form of sewing stand quite common in 
colonial clays, and now meets with favor as a gift piece which 

Fig. 137.— Workstand. 

spare moments may bring about and afford an immense satis- 
faction not only to the recipient but the giver in making it. 
The posts of 1 3^-in. dressed stock are placed diagonally to the 
frame, and a top frame is secured over all to which are hinged 
two panels, which when closed form the top. A removable 
tray as shown sets over a small cleat on inside of apron. Below 
this tray is tacked the bag of dark green baize, to contain dress 
work and materials. The two table tops when open may be 
supported by a very thin swing-out bracket hinged to the table 
legs and fitting under the center table frame. This stand and 
all forms of sewing tables are most appropriate made in mahog- 
any or walnut, and when made in oak the dark nut brown or 
fumed finish is always pleasing. 



While in more modern times the stool is sought after as the 
most serviceable piece of furniture upon which a child may em- 


Fig. 138.— a Sewing Stand. 

ploy its nervous energy in swinging and balancing around on 
all sides, it is also a very comfortable addition to an easy rocker 
or armchair to rest tired limbs. As an article of furniture it adds 
much to the various ways the tactful housewife likes to "shift 
scenes and set pieces" of her rooms to create an entire change. 
The woman of today has little use for the three or five-piece 
suit — that and nothing more — arranged severely about the par- 
lor, as we remember it years ago. Stiffness and unwelcoming 
formality has given way to an easy, haphazard arrangement of 
a room's belongings, and with plenty of small furniture easily 
carried about there is an invitation in every corner to be com- 
fortable, and certainly not to "stand on ceremony." Then, 



too, the Stool or stools about the house help out amazingly 
when the young folks have their parties and chairs are at a pre- 
mium. Even the flower stand or tabouret may be pressed into 
service on these occasions. 

In our compact way of living in some communities double 
service is demanded even of the stool, and the open space under 
the seat may just as well be made use of to hold slippers and 
shoes, or for the smoking outfit, while a commonplace stool 
about the kitchen, used to stand upon in reaching high shelves, 
may do duty in an enclosed box for a shoe-blacking outfit. 

In the illustrations presented herewith Fig. 139 represents 
a handsome parlor piece, with spring upholstered top. The 

construction is simple, consisting 
of a 5-inch plain cove molding, 
mitered at such an angle as to 
produce quite an overhang at 
the top edge. Over the square 
stumps of the carved feet is 
screwed a 3^-inch pine board 
qM X 1 1 H inches. This is read- 
ily made as an inner construc- 
tion to which to fit the outermolding, securing this above the 
board with glued and nailed corner blocks. This board, as seen, 
is a substantial bottom upon which to secure with staples the 
five upholstery springs — a spring at each corner and one at the 
center. From the profile of the foot, 
shown in Fig. 140, a full-size paper 
pattern may be drawn and cut out. 
This foot is of built-up stock 5 inches 
square. The heavy sawing will re- 
quire the services of a band saw, the 
pattern being marked on the right 
and left faces of the block. After 
sawing one side do not throw away 
the scrap piece, but tack it on tem- 
porarily in place with a brad or two. 
This will be needed to hold up the stock square to the saw, 
and it also has part of the markings on the other side. 

Cushion Seat. 

Fig, 140. — Section showing 


The carving of the foot being very simple, the more rugged 
the effect, even though it he rough from amateur hands, the 
greater character will it have in contrast with the carefully 
smoothed-off knee and plain cove above. There would be more 
carving practiced by the artisan could he appreciate that by 
carving the slickness of relief work from a powerful die press 
is not being imitated. It holds in this as in any other work — 
be yourself. Cut a leaf as it looks, not as a wooden leaf; a lion 
or bear paw rough and powerful, not smoothed over as though 
it had been manicured. 

To obtain this rough hair-like effect, which shows up so effec- 
tively in the after-finish, secure first the indentations defining 
the toes, shown in the cut, by a large-sized V-carving tool; then 
with a ^-inch gouge, not too quick in curve, proceed to round 
off the corners. Then cut in again with the V-tool and work 
off to the desired round, cutting out quite a hole between each 
upper joint and toe, this throwing a shadow and enhancing the 
rugged effect. In giving the hair-like surface to these ball- 
like members press the edge of the gouge against the wood at 
almost right angles. Proceed to wriggle the edge over the 
round portions, producing a regular series of slight miscuts, 
which create an overlaid effect that is very striking. 

,The illustration. Fig. 140, shows how this stool may be up- 
holstered. The bottom of the springs held in place, the first 
thing to do is to secure them with stout twine at the top, begin- 
ning with the twine tacked or stapled to the inner edge of the 
molding at the top. Draw it across and with a slipknot secure 
it to the wire; from here across the spring and with a slipknot 
secure the other wire, and with a little pressure pull down and 
nail the end of the twine to the opposite side. In this way 
bridge over each spring, and where the twines cross secure with 
a knot. The idea, of course, has been to compress by the twine 
the four outer springs somewhat more than the middle one, 
leaving this higher to produce the round effect shown. The 
superimposed material is placed on a covering of stout muslin 
stretched over the springs and tacked along the top edge of the 
molding. Cotton batting is then laid on, and held in place here 



and there by stitches taken with a long needle. Over this place 
a little picked hair or moss, then stretch another covering of 
muslin, conforming the stuffing into an even shape while tack- 
ing. The upholstery fabric, or outer covering, may be almost 
any material strong and pleasing in color, from terry to leather. 
There are many plain figures of velour which are inexpensive 
and wear well. 

Aside from the sufficient information for construction noted 
in the illustrations, it might be said of Fig. 141 that the side 
panels consist of 3-inch material, this being blind nailed to the 

Fig. 141.— a Slipper Stool— The Legs Stand 
1 ?4 Inches from the Perpendicular at the 

edge of the end panels, and the corner edges struck well off on a 
slant with the plane. The effect of setting back the middle 
panel of the end by using a thinner material is pleasing in the 

The top, or lid under the cushion, made of ^-inch stock, is 
provided with an inserted strip at each end to prevent splitting. 
On the two corners a dowel pin is glued and sunk, projecting 
Yz inch, and acts as a hinge, being inserted into corresponding 
loose holes in the cap piece A of Fig. 142. This requires the 
lid and two end caps to be placed together over the box and 
drop between the projected end framing, when the end pieces 
are bradded onto the edges of the box, glue being used. A stiff 
paper or tin washer previously slipped over the dowel will pre- 
vent the binding of the lid. The cushion to this stool is made 



up like a bed mattress, and is held to the lid by understraps. 
In Fig. 143 is shown an end view of the framing. 

16^ LONG - A-t-r 



Fig. 142.— Plan of Top 
of Slipper Stool. 

I I 

Fig. 143.— End View of 
Slipper Stool. 

The stool and sewing stand shown in Figs. 144 and 145 will 
prove to be very desirable for the housewife, for the hinged side 
may be snapped down in an instant, covering up all traces of 
work in the parlor or sitting room should a caller arrive. The 
construction is simply four paneled frames, mitered at the cor- 
ners and supported on substantial feet as indicated in Fig. 146, 


, ui-- 

FiG. 145.— Plan of Stand 
Top and Bottom. 


Fig. 146. — Showing Con- 
struction of Feet. 

Fig. 144. — Combination Stool and 
Sewing Stand. 

with the corner edge chamfered along the dotted line. This 

gives a French leg effect in connection with a slight rounding 

of the frame edges, and a decided inturn of the lower corner 

to accentuate the profile. 



The interior finish of this stand must be left to feminine fin- 
gers. We might venture to say that in fitting up one or more 

Fig. 147.— a Window Seat. 

sides heavy pasteboard, cut to size, could be used to advantage 
upon which to sew the lining selected, and to serve as a firm 

Fig. 148.— a Window Stool. 
backing for the various pockets to hold scissors, needle cases, 
etc. This does away with the objectionable rummage incident 


to the round work basket, or, like some poor workman's box 
of tools, all thrown in a heap. 

In Figs. 147 and 148 are shown attractive seats for the win- 
dow and fireside. The construction is evident from an inspec- 
tion of the pictures and needs but little comment, except that 
in Fig. 148 any cheap top board may be secured over the posts 
and heavy upholstery nails, i inch apart, used along the edge 
of the material. The top and bottom edges of the side panels 
should be turned off with a spokeshave; also the edges of the 
corner posts struck off. This gives a hand-wrought appearance 
very much desired. 

In Figs. i4q and 150 is illustrated a handy stool made up at 
short notice — one day — to add to the length of a servant girl, 

Fig. 149. — Kitchen Stool and Blacking Stand. 

who was compelled to use a chair for high pantry shelves. By 
adding a lower board and dropping the sides on hinges it was 
made to do double duty as a shoe-blacking stand. 

The flower stand in Fig. 1 5 1 may be brought under the stool 
class of furniture, many being purchased for either purpose. 
This one with the projecting pilasters makes it distinctly a 
flower vase holder. The lower shelf makes an appropriate 
place for a less spreading plant or for ornamental shelves. The 



height to the top of the shelves is q and 24 inches, respectively, 
and their diameters 16 and 24 inches. The pilaster is from 
material 7^ x 26 inches, the thickness for all the parts being 

Fig. 150.— An End View of Fig. 149. Fig. 151.— A Flower Stand. 

i^ inches. Chamfer all edges not less than 3-16 inch. Glue 
on large flanged turned buttons over countersunk screw holes. 

No more appropriate finish could be given the serviceable 
and movable stool than the prevailing "fumed" tone, wax 
coated. The brown shade in itself harmonizes with almost 
any interior color arrangement, and the finish is such that no 
mar or scratch will show, as will be the case with it if it were 
finished with varnishes, while the dull lustre may soon be re- 
stored by using a rag wet with sweet oil, allowed to stand a 
half hour and then polished with a dry cloth. 

The foregoing remarks relative to "fumed finish" apply only 
to furniture made in oak, ash or wood of that character. To 


use the stain on birch and other close-grained woods a nonde- 
script brown would result. Supposing the article to be treated 
is oak; the fumed mixture is applied with a brush, allowing it 
to stay for a few minutes, when the surface is wiped dry. On 
the following day coat with shellac, and after this is dry rub 
down with No. oo sandpaper. Ordinary beeswax is brought to 
a melted state and applied with a brush, allowing it to stand a 
half hour before rubbing off the excess with a rag. Start the 
rubbing across the grain, and finish with a circular movement 
as a final polish. 

Comfort in Reading and Holding Reference Books 

On a closer inspection do we get well acquainted with that 
in which we are interested, but how disinclined are we to go 
after information which most usually is stored up in large vol- 
umes; for after nightfall most of us feel too luxuriously indolent 
to hold up a book of reference, much less take notes therefrom. 
There is truly some effort in the use of dictionaries and encyclo- 
pedias on account of their unusual size and weight, and what- 
ever facilities frequent inspection of them and a regular habit 
of reading varied literature, while occupying a comfortable 
chair at a restful angle, will, I am sure, impel our craftsmen 
friends to prepare plans for the making of a reading table after 
the suggestion shown in Figs. 152 and 153. I am a little in- 
clined to think that the main parts of some of these tables which 
are sold are built entirely too light, for while they are intended 
to draw easily toward you and adjust to the distance and angle 
of one's vision, yet they should have at least the four posts 
strong enough that they would not break or part company with 
base or top. 

Care then should be given to the joinery to make the con- 
struction firm, but as light and graceful as consistent, and 
it may be that some of our readers may desire to put in 
turned posts instead of those indicated. Mortising the long 
rails into the posts, and using dowels for securing the end rails 
into the posts will lock one into the other and also save the 
strength of the posts. 



Personal requirements should be considered as to not only 
the fixed height, but the extreme width inside between posts. 

Fig. 152 Fig. 153 

Fig. 152, 153 and 154. — Elevations and Details of a Reading Table. 

Some particularly restful armchair or rocker would determine 
this. The width should be sufficient to allow of the table being 
drawn readily over the arms, which frequently are more than 
30 in. over all, in a Morris chair for instance. 

It will be seen that the three parts of the table rest upon the 
framing of the rails to the posts, the two outside portions of 
the top being securely held thereto by screws counterbored 
through rails, while glued corner blocks may give the framing 
greater stiffness. 

The center of the table is a frame filled with a larger fixed 
panel shown at A in Fig. 154, and the smaller, shown at B is 
loose and swivels on steel pins properly located so that it may 
be swung up at right angles when needed to rest the book upon. 
The fitting and adjusting of this swing piece is clone in connec- 
tion with fitting up the frame, and when ready to glue up, the 
steel pins are inserted with a very thin washer between to insure 


free action. The larger panel is also set in, being fastened 
permanently with glue, and the entire frame glued together 
and held in clamps until dry. By the exercise of a little care 
the swing book support B may be so fitted that only a very 
slight crack will show on the surface of the table; for detail of 
this see Fig. 154, A and B. By experimenting you will find 
that the edges of movable and fixed parts will have to be treated 
from underneath as indicated in the section shown. After 
framed-up panel has been fully completed it is fitted in between 
the two tops, trimming just sufficiently to avoid binding. 
Then locate and mark places for two hinges on one side and 
after these have been fitted to allow all tops to be flush, pro- 
ceed to arrange for a swinging adjustable support. This is 
shown in the drawing, but many other ideas may be suggested 
while you proceed with the work. The scheming and creation 
of simple devices is a great part in the pleasure in making furni- 
ture. It may be that a small drawer or compartment would 
be desirable, sufficient to hold pencils and note paper, and 
the supporting device would have to be such as to not interfere 
— think it out. That is one of the privileges and the joys of a 
craftsman, to scheme and create simple devices that add to the 
utility or aid in the economy of space. Recently the writer 
dealt with an armchair designed for the private car of a presi- 
dent of a large railway. His desire was to have a tablet drawer 
for paper under the seat; and in the roll arm, his mechanic had 
secreted a brass tube to contain pencils, one tube working within 
another and controlled by a secret spring. That chair, person- 
ally, was gratifying and he always knew where to find his writ- 
ing material. 

Piano Stool 

The pattern of piano stool frequently on sale, or handled by 
the piano dealer, bears little resemblance to style or features of 
the piano you have selected. As the designs of pianos are now 
under the influence of more restful lines and reposeful surfaces 
the form of stool with turned legs, cast claw and glass ball fails 
to harmonize, and with this thought such a stool has been trans- 



formed and is illustrated in Fig. 155. Piano stools are not 
usually made by piano makers and we will assume that the 
reader possesses the conventional type which the piano sales- 
man has presented to him, for it is generally "thrown in" as 
a generous gift after the sale of the piano has been closed — one 
never quarrels with a gift, at the time, but surely most frequently 


1^ .4 




^" > -d 

Fig. 155. Fig. 156. Fig. 157. 

Details of Piano Stool. 

that stool does not match the piano — so withdraw the screw 
and nut, as you probably will not be able to get one elsewhere; 
also save the tops and otherwise use the general proportions 
in constructing a type of stool which will be more in keeping 
with your particular piano. As in all forms of furniture, the 
attractiveness is quite entirely in the good workmanship and 
the final finish. This simple pattern is offered, but modifica- 
tions may readily be made in introducing certain cuts or fea- 
tures that stand out as a main feature of the piano case in ques- 
tion. The central square column which is bored out to receive 
the screw and nut may be treated like a "square turning" in 
which you can introduce the predominating mold appearing in 
your piano. In this way you individualize your work and it 
becomes interesting by just that much of yourself put into it. 
In selecting the material for the four square taper legs you 
may be fortunate in finding a piece of i^s-'i^- stock in which 
the grain happens to run in a slight curve in line with the paper 
pattern you have made. Nature is often very accommodating 
that way if we take a little trouble to find it out, and this fea- 


ture of cabinet making is the secret of the "old masters," of 
getting into harmony with their work and materiaL It is the 
intuitive bump cultivated so highly which has made their work 
so prized and enduri^. Now, these legs, for instance, may, 
by a little sorting ovef'or even turning the pattern in a proper 
way, be made entirely in tune with nature's grain, assuring us 
that there would be little possibility of one or all of them split- 
ting later on by a badly selected short-grained piece. This is 
mentioned at some length, for it is the little preliminaries of 
laying out and beginning which bring about strong and satisfac- 
tory furniture. A pattern may be secured from drawing of 
the dimensions given in Fig. 157. With the pattern cut out of 
stiff paper, lay it over the selected material of i^s-ir^- squares 
and mark all of them. Then saw them on a band saw, or re- 
duce to a line by draw-knife and shave, after which they must 
again be marked, putting the pattern over the shaped surface 
and marking with a pencil. A good way to mark a re-shape is 
to have sufficient thickness of stock in your squares; then mark 
the pattern on one side; turn it over the back corner and mark 
again. Saw out and replace with small brads the first refuse 
piece which contains your marking; then proceed to saw again. 
You will appreciate this method when dealing with the situa- 
tion, particularly when proceeding to saw out a claw foot, or 
leg of various curves or indentations. It is better to preserve 
the shape of the original square when sawing the second time 
by tacking on the first waste piece. 

The pedestal block is, when finished, 2>^ in. square by io>^ 
in. long, and at the lower end a criss-cross mortise is made to 
exactly fit down over the i-in. square criss-cross stretchers 
which have been previously halved together. A lower finishing 
cap is then made i in. by 2^ in. square with a }4-in. chamfer 
mold. This cap is finally glued over the finished surface of 
pedestal block and the lower face of the cross stretchers, pass- 
ing a screw through all three parts, and small screws or brads 
at the corners into the ends of the pedestals. 

The outer ends of the stretchers have previously been cut 
to tenons on a slight slant to fit properly into the sloping legs 



of the Stool. Fig. 156 shows the plan of the stool in relation 
to contact of legs at the floor and as they enter the round cap 
block over the square pedestal. 

Piano Bench 
In a developing family, the piano bench is to be recommended. 
There is greater freedom of movement and it is condensed for 
duet purposes, or for the use of teacher and pupil, while the space 
under the seat is doing service for sheet music. As Figs. 158 
and 159 clearly indicate a simple form of construction, little 

r© X 00 

Fig. 158.— End Elevation Fig. 159.— Front Elevation of Piano Bench, 

need be said. Great care should be given the selection of a 
well-dried board for the top, as it is a free panel swinging open 
on hinges after the manner of a tool chest top. This top, 
which should have a final thickness of % of an inch, might 
represent some skilled joinery in the nature of a frame and an 
inserted flush middle panel, or if a solid panel be used it would 
be wiser to sink in two narrow cross battens and meet them 
lengthwise with battens glued to the surface, thus forming a 
slightly raised framing which would be within the outer frame 
of the bench when the top was down. 

The bottom board of the music compartment, which is 2 in. 
in depth, should also be well selected to avoid splitting, and 
cut sufficiently large to have the under edge all around relished 
down to >< in. to fit into a corresponding groove provided on 
the inside of the rails before the entire construction is finally 
brought together and glued up. Glue corner blocks fitted and 
cut away to avoid being seen, and set against the posts under 
the bottom of the compartment, will also aid greatly. 


Hall Seats, Hall Stands and Chairs 

F comfort and generous proportion are in evidence 
at a glance as one enters at the front door, the im- 
pression is conveyed to the visitor that each room 
bears evidence of its purpose. There are some 
visitors one does not invite beyond the limits of the 
hall— the book agent, for instance— and before his departure 

Fig. 160.— General View cf the Kail Seat. 



an easy seat will be welcomed. Generally the hall seat or settle 
with its straight back and little depth of seat is extremely un- 
comfortable. This style has no doubt been followed without 
much reasoning, but now in these days of rockers and reclining 
chairs and hard work, the chair that invites you by its back- 
fitting angle or curve is generally in demand. 

The hall seat, as shown in Fig. i6o of the illustrations, while 
it has a high-grade character is not an extremely difficult piece 
to make, as will be seen in the end view. Fig. i6i. It might be 



Fig. 161.— End View of the Hall Seat, Together with Partial Plan. 

placed in the frequent triangular wall space directly below the 
first landing, but this is merely a suggestion with no intention to 
be specifically followed, as such wall spaces vary greatly, but 
the leg and heavy rail feature may be embodied in a working 


drawing to fit individual requirements. The small end sug- 
gests a pleasing form to terminate the seat of indefinite length 
at the turn of the wall, or entrance to a door. This end where 
exposed to full view should have a good figure, well finished. 
The width of the rail on this and its continuation along the top 
is made by gluing on both sides of the center a mold of the shape 
shown, the top edge being worked down smooth as "one piece, " 
having a slightly crowned shape. Where a large space in the 
hall is available even iq or 20 inches is none too deep for the 
seat, instead of 16 inches, as indicated on the seat shape. The 
turn of the seat, however, into the corner makes up for an entire 
lack of the proper depth. 

As indicated in the bulging line showing the proposed up- 
holstering immediately over the seat cushion, a soft wood block 
of similar shape placed at frequent intervals will be necessary 
to falsely build out the overstuffed work into that conformity 
which is so comfortable to the back, and which few hall seats 
possess. A man familiar with upholstering or a carriage up- 
holsterer should be given such work. The needs of the uphol- 
sterer are just as great for frames as would be the needs of the 
carpenter for the work of the upholsterer, so that the combining 
of forces is very frequently the result of a satisfactory furniture 
business. Much of the furniture of the present time is provided 
with upholstery, particularly of leather, giving it greater com- 
fort and an air of sumptuousness. By closely observing the 
models about him a man skilled with tools may do very credit- 
able work in a short time, and the suggestions given in 
Chapter XVI will be of benefit, the first dealing with spring- 
cushion work, while the other has to do with the loose-bag work 
so much in favor on types of mission work. 

In Fig. 162 is presented a suggestion for a hall seat which can 
be made without cushions, although the wife may have some- 
thing of that kind on it after it is finished. The main idea here 
is not so much originality of pattern, for it may be the ordinary 
hall seat or bunker, not much more than a high-grade packing 
box in proportion, but a comfortable treatment may be given the 
back by making this into a neatly framed panel which, when not 



in use, may be pushed back as a part of the wainscot €;ffect. When 
it is desired as a seat the Hd of the bunker pulls forward to a stop, 
bringing with it the lower edge of paneled frame to an angle, 
which is more to be desired than a right-angled position, small 
butts being used to allow of a loose joint. A trimming mold 

Fig. 162.— Another Style of Hall Seat. 

should be provided at the top as a detached apron, which will 
permit the frame to move slightly forward and down without 
showing the top edge. Illustration, Fig. 162, shows the idea 
sufficiently. When removing articles from the bunker raise 
the lid slightly, push back the frame in its regular position and 


then raise the Hd to any angle desired. In the illustration A 
indicates the post to baluster rail, which would form an arm 
rest at the end of the seat in most hall arrangements. 

Hall Frames 

Were it not for the expense mirrors should be used plentifully 
about the house. It would not be with the thought of vanity, 
but one of expansiveness, seeing double, as it were; and in the 
hall, and particularly the town-house hall, or vestibule, this 
means of deception should be employed to apparently enlarge 
the rooms. Aside from the reflection the surface of a mirror, 
if placed with some thought of catching light from some distant 
opening or window, has much to do in lighting what would other- 
wise be a dark room. For this reason the console stand, dealt 
with on page 143-4 is a good piece of furniture in the reception 
hall. This brings the subject to a substitute for, or possibly 
an adjunct to the console — the hall frame — in which the mirrored 
surface plays an important part, or should play an important 
part, other than for trying on hats or arranging a necktie. 
The days for a little triangular or heartshaped patch of looking 
glass fixed in between some hooks are past, and the hooks of a 
smooth pattern are now somewhat on the outskirts of a large 
expanse of beveled mirror, the edge of which is cut to an easy 
line or square. 

The two extreme patterns of hall frames shown in Figs. 163 
and 164 illustrate the character of prevalent styles, either a 
form having an easy outline with smooth surfaces and rounded- 
off edges, or the more severe outline shown in Fig. 164, having 
a pronounced breaking away, however, from the straight lines 
and square corners of the Mission ; the surface also is broken into 
by some simple perforations, as indicated. 

It is evident from the framing of Fig. 163 that in making 
the felloe joint, either the width of the stock of the three parts 
must be sufficiently wide to provide for cutting out the rounded 
corners on the inside, or the curve secured by building on by 
glue joint sufficient width in the rough to produce this curve. 
This joint may be accomplished either by a butt joint and dowels; 
or on the reverse of such a butt joint, the stock may be gained 



out, inserting a lapping piece, which will not show from the 

The three horizontal hook molds will have to be worked out 
of stock I >^ X 3^4^ inches into shape similar to that shown. 

No attempt should be made to place the mirror in from the 

Fig. 163.— Hat and Coat Frame for the Hall. 

back into the usual rabbet, but fill the opening with thin back- 
ing, and prepare a small, neat quarter mold, which is tacked 


Fig. 164.— Another Style of Hall Hat and Coat Frame. 

snugly into place after the mirror is set in the frame from the 
front. This is more expeditious in many ways than in prepar- 
ing a rabbet. 


The attractiveness of Fig. 164 depends largely on a judicious 
selection of figure in the wood. Were this made in the factory 
the honesty of the purpose in the projected tenons might be 
questioned, as they are most frequently blocks glued on to 
make it look honest and "primitive," the bonding of the joint 
being by dowels. In this instance they happily are both a 
part of the construction and design and should be so treated. 

The hall tree or stand becomes a necessity not only within 
the spacious entrance of the house, but variations for limited 
space may be constructed, which will give greater dignity than 
the cleat provided with hat hooks so often seen in contracted 
hallways. Considerable ingenuity may be expressed in design- 
ing along the lines of the "much-in-little" idea, and from a sal- 
able standpoint compactness, with a varied range of usefulness, 
should be borne in mind. 

The mirror is a desirable addition — the ladies not only finding 
it indispensable in getting a last look, but indifferent man, from 
an unconscious look, may realize he is ready to depart for busi- 
ness, and that he would look better to exchange his skull cap 
for a street hat. 

When considering the hall tree of some pretension, a closed-in 
box under the formal seat usually made, will be found the best 
place for overshoes. At the sides a curved device of wood or 
metal should be secured, in which umbrellas and walking sticks 
may be placed, their ends resting in a hollowed metal disk 
formed and fastened to the construction. As the hall stand is 
really a mute servant, ever ready to relieve one of street encum- 
brances, it therefore should be treated with consideration and 
made to assume a "good front" as the guest enters the hallway. 
By the exercise of a little thought directed to this part of the 
house before the final finishing, the carpenter or contractor may 
develop many ideas which will accentuate the expression "the 
first impression is everything." A little extra use of finishing 
material enables him to make the hall tree a part of the house 
free from the objection of portable furniture in contracted 

The built-in china closet, sideboard and refrigerator are ex- 



amples of space saving which appeal strongly to the purchaser 
or the prospective tenant. This is just in passing over the sub- 
ject, as many will be interested in some befitting scheme for the 
wraps and hats of many hallways, unprovided with more than a 
stand or old hooks. In the accompanying illustrations is shown 
in Fig. 165 a serviceable hall piece for small space, or for the 

Fig. 165. — Front, Side and Plan Views of a Convenient Hall Tree. 

second flat hall landing, should one live in the benighted country 
of flats. The mediaeval style of the chair makes a desirable base 
to extend the banister and terminate it with a cross bar for hat 
and coat pins. Back and at the ends of the middle slat may be 
secured large metal rings for the umbrellas and sticks, or there 
may be a large ring at the side of the seat, as shown in the draw- 
ing. Reinforce the horizontal panel or back rest by battens 
glued and screwed on each side of the banisters or uprights, thus 



insuring the slat from splintering. Modifications of this may- 
be made by having the legs of square stock built on the same 
plan with panels between, and a bottom, making it into a box 
for overshoes. This is a piece of furniture which looks particu- 
larly appropriate when finished in fumed oak. 

In Fig. 1 66 is shown a piece of furniture by which great con- 
venience is secured all around and inside, within limited space. 

Fig. 166. — Front and Side Elevations of a Hall Stand. 

The construction of this, as well as that shown in Figs. 167 and 
168, is straightforward and readily enlarged to working detail. 
In making a drawing of Fig. 168, first construct the plan at the 
seat line, within a diagonally cut square, the sides of which are 
33 inches. Draw the plan of cabinet above the seat, within a 
similar triangle, the sides of which are 23 inches. In detailing 
the seat, have the depth 14 inches from the rear edge, of which 
a plain board, tapering in its length of 54 inches, 7 inches less 



where it joins the underside of cabinet, thus giving an incline to 
the back. The front of the cabinet is 1 1 inches high, and the 

Fig. 167.— Front and Side Views of Another Hall Stand. 

total height of the stand is 7 feet. Sufficient measurement and 
suggestion are given so that the length of the underdrawer is 
optional. The seat may be made to lift up, being hinged at the 
back and doing away with a drawer and pulls. 

The Console Table 

The heating of the residence today from some hidden source, 
the furnace or boiler, gives little excuse for the mantel, much 
less the make-believe chimney breast. This naturally has 



brought back the console to break the blank wall space. While 
at one time or another in its use it was somewhat of a movable 
piece classed among furniture, this was due no doubt to the fact 

Fig. 168.— a Corner Stand and Seat. 
that an elaborately framed mirror was hung immediately over 
the wall or half table, creating an opportunity for the incoming 
or outgoing to arrange their hair and wraps in a manner entirely 
satisfactory to themselves. Then, too, the mirrored expanse of 
glass reflects and apparently makes double at first impression 
one's possessions and their arrangement far more than did the 
usual small mirror above the mantel. 

The console table, as well as many other furniture pieces, has 
been remodeled along the lines of present-day thought, and the 


mirror and table are joined, having the form of a fixed wall 
framing with a table — or, more properly speaking, a shelf — 
supported by consoles, brackets, short columns or a paneled 
base in conformity with the nature of a surbase and all that is 
above partaking of the character of the interior trim. . 

In considering the building of a console table for the parlor, 
reception hall or other room not provided with mantel or fire- 
place a little thought should be given to its most favorable loca- 
tion. Very frequently the wall space between two side windows 
is an excellent situation for it. Should there also be a front 
window to throw light on the mirror the impression of much 
more light and brightness will then be conveyed. The home 
should be a reflection of the occupants. Many a remark is 
made: "Jones" house is always cheerful and cozy; I like to go 
there." Why? No doubt Jones gave some thought to the 
proper places for windows to let the good light and air do what 
nothing else ever did in place of it. 

Two drauings of consoles are offered in Figs. i6q and 170 of 
the illustrations. Fig. ibq is visibly portable, while Fig. 170 is 
constructed in such a manner as to be set flat to the wall and 
there fastened, after having cut away the surbase for perfect 
contact with the wall. Both are within the space of 35 x 87 
inches, although this is optional, the point being that of the pro- 
portion shown, or rather to have a decided mirror surface of an 
elongated form and that the top reach to the top of the window 
cap, thus forming a close relation with the picture mold and the 
general trim. The two patterns, it is hoped, will represent a 
modified type which will not disturb the general plans of a mod- 
ern room. Fig. 1 70 will fit into a room to better advantage than 
Fig. i6q, should the furniture be all of a smooth, highly finished 
character. The design shown in Fig. i6q partakes more of the 
nature of the prevailing trend of the modern style. In Fig. i6q, 
as well as in Fig. 1 70, the stiles reach to the floor and the framed 
panel under the shelf is set in by dowels as would be a rail. A 
careful selection of grain is an important feature in the paneling 
as well as in the upper portions. The lower shelf in Fig. i6q 
affords a place for a much prized urn or other object of art, 



while one of the many handsome clocks to be had may with pro- 
priety be placed on the shelf before the mirror. 

Rooms not supplied with overhead lights make it desirable to 
provide side candle sconces for ornament and for festive occa- 

FlG. 169.— Portable Console Table. 

sions. The treatment of the top rail is offered as the nearest 
approach within the range of the carpenter short of carving, 
which generally finds a place on such a surface. The panel con- 
sists of j5/2 -inch background, upon which is glued }4-\nch. fret work 
panel, as suggested. This in turn may be worked upon to all 



appearances like carving by rounding off the edges and making 
clear the scrolls, at the same time treating the design as inter- 


Fig. 170.— Fixed Console Table. 

lacing straps, then in the after finish leaving the background a 
dull finish. 

To the person executing such a console the mirror will be the 
main item of cost, but will be small in comparison to the value 
of the piece completed. Herein the craftsman has the advan- 
tage of surrounding himself with many objects at very little cost 
when the labor is not reckoned. The plate glass in the pattern 


shown is 28 x 56 inches, with beveled edges. Instead of insert- 
ing this within a rabbet provided for it from the back, a rabbet 
is cut on the stiles and top rail and filled in with ^-inch lining, 
after which the console is completed and finished. The glass is 
inserted from the front and set against the lining and a neat 
small molding is then pressed along the edge and securely 
bradded. This, it may be remarked, should previously be 

The proportions and finish given in the pattern shown in Fig. 
i6q will properly apply to Fig. 170. The bracket or console 
supports consist of a 2-inch center, with 3<4-inch scroll pieces 
glued to each edge and finished smooth on the front. The shelf 
has a slight ogee front edge. In making the stilted round to the 
top a felloe joint should be made, as a lap joint in the after 
rounding would not look as well. It will be noted that the in- 
ner edges of the stiles will require adding to somewhat below the 
joint in order to secure the finished arched line. The final 
rounding and smoothing over this joint should of course be done 
after the frame has been fitted perfectly and glued up tight: 
then, and only then, can be secured that complete "oneness" of 
line and surface which is embodied in good furniture. The pro- 
jected scroll ends may be an after application. 

The Umbrella Stand 

It is an old saying that "all things come to him who waits," 
but many acquire "things" after they have secured the 
puchasing power. The handy man's wife acquires many 
articles after patient waiting on her husband's ability to "just 
get around to it. " The umbrella stand, while not of vital 
importance, is not the least of many articles that some day we 
will get around to having. Meanwhile in the more pioneer days 
of home building the corner of the wall in the hall supported 
the umbrellas at various unsightly angles. For the large 
family the pattern shown in Fig. 171 will fulfill all requirements. 

The perforated center adjoining the middle post is cut 
from one length of board and the edges doweled and glued to 
each side of the post and flush with the front face. To the outer 



edges is secured the back part, as shown, entering the block 
corner seen in the side and front views. Before the divisions are 


Fig. 171. — Umbrella Stand for Large Family. 

placed a ^-inch batten should span the back part across the 
front of the post and between the back corner blocks, being glued 


Fig. 172.— Small Umbrella Stand. 

and firmly secured to each piece by brads. This will insure 
greater strength for the four-part back. The bottom of the base 


is floored and may be zinc-lined, or the bottom may have grooves 
running to the center hole, in which a pan is placed to receive 
the water that may drip from the umbrellas. Inasmuch as um- 
brellas properly cared for should be opened out to dry, pans in 
the homes are hardly needed. Fig. 171 is planned for four com- 
partments, but its entire length may be shortened for three 
openings if desired. For a small stand Fig. 172 will be found 
serviceable to go in a certain corner. The arrangement for the 
top is the same as shown in the plan, compartments being built 
around a 2^-inch square post and the sides set in i^-inch 
square blocks with chamfered edges. A dull oil finish will be 
found most satisfactory to apply to this character of furniture. 


"Well, sir, I am ready to sit down in my easy chair when sup- 
per is over," is the thought so frequently expressed and quite 
uppermost inone'smind as the transactions of the day are closed. 
With the older people a certain chair is often appropriated and 
in time becomes closely identified with their life, the much-used 
chair becoming more and more cherished and guarded as it is 
passed on from generation to generation. Of such chairs there 
are not a few examples which are today considered models in the 
directness of their construction. It is an exception that an 
antique chair is comfortable in which to tarry long, this impor- 
tant feature being noted more in frames which were almost 
wholly covered with upholstery material. In this there was 
greater latitude to secure comfort than in a plain chair, the lines 
of which were formed in the most direct way permissible with 
low cost and a meager equipment of tools and machinery. 
Today wood may be converted into many varied shapes; curved, 
serpentine and twisted forms being as easily produced from a 
minimum amount of stock as a piece of tin is in one's fingers 
readily made to assume any shape desired. Steam, as the means 
of softening wood, with modern metal forms and presses make 
it possible to produce in a chair of general utility a graceful line 
and proper balance, particularly to the back post. An illustra- 
tion of this is shown in Fig. 173, which represents a very old and 



common type of rush bottom rocker, many of these being made 
by the farmers in winter time for their own use or local sale. 

Note the relative position of the straight back post to the 
rocker. To give the proper balance and appearance of a sub- 
stantial base, the posts should curve back immediately under 

Fig. 173.— Early Settlement Rocker. 

the seat and have connection with the rocker some distance 
back. The straight back post required that the back be more 
at right angles with the seat, which robbed the chair of the com- 
fort and easy balance which the modern bent or curved post 
rocker possesses. However, this type of rocker was the origi- 
nal of that class of chair which is distinctly American, and little 
attempt was made to alter nature's material form. 

As these rare examples are less seen we cherish them the more, 
as we think that before the early men of the country in building 
their homes were able to take their stiff-backed ease they were 
forced to lay aside, for seasoning, stock of simple form to con- 


Struct their chairs and other furniture, and also at a certain 
time of the year, to gather from the fields and low marshes the 
rush or flag for the chair seats. In the meantime the bench, or 
form, did service, as well as other smaller and less unwieldly 
forms, such as the hassock and stool. 

The ordinary factory chair is built according to a certain 
standard of size and adherence to bevels. In the construction 
of a chair for individual use it should be very much like the suit 
made by the tailor — made to fit the individual. The regulation 
height of a dining room chair, or side chair, is i8 inches from the 
floor to the top of the seat, plain or upholstered, with a %-inch 
drop back of the seat. The angle of the back to the seat is 
usually i>^ or 2 inches, in 12 inches. 

The top of the seat in the rocking chair is in height from top of 
rocker, about 1 1 inches in front and io>^ inches at the back leg 
or post. The front edge of the seat, when the chair is not occu- 
pied should not point up more than i 7 inches from the floor. 
This is assuming that the rocker has a sweep which can be se- 
cured with about 5 inches in width of stock. A greater throw- 
back, or angle, is given the back than in the stationary chair. 

The rocking chair, unlike other chairs, must be made to bal- 
ance properly and, when occupied, give a well poised adjustment 
to the occupant, as an even weight is to the contents on a scale. 
This must be determined by the maker by trying the chair on a 
level floor. Many have probably experienced the discomfort of 
sitting in a rocker which compelled them to dig their heels into 
the carpet to avoid going out in front, or to have the embarrass- 
ment of almost flying heels up over the back. Such an article of 
furniture among the young people is often considered in the 
light of a prize "trick mule, " to be tried by the unwary as a part 
of the evening's amusement. The rocker, or "sweep," how- 
ever, on many rocking chairs is often too flat, particularly on the 
very early chair of that type. The segment of a circle found 
within a plank of 5 inches width and about 3 i inches in length 
will produce a rocker giving a comfortable swing when properly 
secured to the legs. Most any outline may be given to the top 
or concave edge. It is generally made to conform to the under- 
line until it rounds off at both ends. 



The construction illustrated in Fig. 174 represents a class of 
chair which the reader may construct without so many of the 



Fig. 174. — Front and Side Views of Chair. 

peculiar features met with in regular chair construction, par- 
ticularly that of the old turned class of chair, which requires 
much practice in dealing with the angles and the boring of round 
parts in order to have the work come out satisfactorily. Such 
a chair appears simple to make, but some amusing first produc- 
tions have resulted \\ hen the carpenter or cabinet maker has 
completed a chair of turned parts. This is traceable to the fact 
that being accustomed to almost continuously working with 
square or bevel against flat surfaces, a new proposition is pre- 
sented when he attempts to hold the tool and bore at the proper 
angle a part that is round and also bent. These points will not 


be considered, as it means an equipment to be found nowhere 
but in a chair factory. 

The idea of the illustration is to show patterns which may 
easily be constructed, or modifications of them made by the 
carpenter, to have and to hold, making his home characteristic 
and representative of his handicraft. It is well in all work to at 
first draw the subject to full working detail, laying out on sepa- 
rate paper the plan of the seat taken from the figures given in 
the illustration. From this proceed to draw in the elevation of 
the back part, one-half only being necessary, to the left of the 
center vertical line. In order to create a chair which will be 
comfortable a certain amount of curvature should be given to the 
two slats. This can be done very readily when the slats are not 
too wide faced by sawing on the band saw, or by adzing, that 
curvature which can be secured within, say, 3 inches on stock. 
In this case 5x25 inches for the top slat, allowing a thickness of 
^ inch to the finished curved panel. To mark this out make a 
paper pattern within the limit of the gross size of the stock. 
After drawing in at the proper position the shape of the top and 
bottom slat, proceed to detail the shape of the slat or small 

It must be borne in mind that in most all chairs the spread of 
the back part of the top is greater than at the seat. In the case 
of a long chair, 2 to 2^ inches greater will offset a contracted 
appearance. For the same reason the slats should be corre- 
spondingly parted at the top more than at the bottom. 

It is expected that the band or jig saw will be brought into use 
in cutting these irregular shapes, although simple modifications 
may be made thereby. In the absence of these most conven- 
ient machines outlines may be produced by the slower means of 
a draw knife on the outside and with hole borings and filing to 
effect some kind of opening within, as a feature. To construct 
more intelligently, a side-view detail should also be drawn, and 
from this mark out patterns, which may be transferred to the 
proper pattern paper. In doing this one will have absolute cor- 
rectness of measurement and true relation of back to front part 
and position of rocker. As previously mentioned, the rocker 


shape is to be drawn in its relation to the posts, within stock of 
5X X 3i>2 inches. This position of rocker to seat height, as 
before noted, will not be perfectly correct, but approximately, 
until after the chair has been finally set up, and if upholstered 
that weight and the height of the back will indicate an after-ad- 
justment of the back or front post height to a comfortable bal- 
ance when the chair is occupied. 

A shaped-out saddle seat is a very desirable form and may be 
set within the seat framing of the chair shown. The stock is 
thoroughly dry before jointing, and if oak is used the careful 
matching of the quarter in a favorable manner before gluing 
will add .much to the appearance. After removing from the 
clamps, surface to a thickness of i^s inches, then band saw to 
the outline of the marking-out 'pattern, made for the pur- 
pose out of heavy drawing paper. This pattern should also 
have cut in it a fine slotted line, which will mark the turn 
out of the interior shaping in the front, and the curved shapes, 
as shown in the back of the seat. Under the bottom of this 
plank temporarily secure with short screws a i x 5 or 6-inch block, 
which is intended to set in the jaws of a vise while carrying on 
evenly the work of scooping out the upper surface of the seat. 

As the greatest depth of the saddle will be ^ inch in the back 
part, be careful not to use screws entering the wood too far. 
The roughing-out work is done with a mallet and a i-inch gouge, 
reducing the surface in a dish-like manner, along the sides and 
back to within 3/8-i"ch of the marked line, and to a depth thought 
to be more effective. The middle and front edge of the seat is 
left uncut, and from the straight line previously centering the 
seat the wood is cut away in a sloping manner on each side, 
leaving a crown or "pommel," suggestive of a horse saddle. 
Now strike off the front edge, sloping away into an easy unde- 
fined round, which when finally shaved off will be smooth and 
congenial to the touch. 

No tool in the regulation carpenter's outfit will be found prac- 
tical in finishing this roughened-out undulating surface, and for 
this purpose the chair builder has a tool peculiarly his own, the 
construction of which has been fully described in Chapter II 


under the head of Stock Dresser's Scraper, and Details of Spoke 
Shave. The tool there described is the straight scraper; a tool 
having a convex cutting blade and holder may be made in the 
same manner, and the tool will be found very useful for more 
purposes than seat finishing. The convex shave, made with a 
similar curve, is first used to remove the ridges of the gouge 
work, and may be used to reduce the surface to a fair condi- 
tion. Then the convex scraper is taken up for final smoothing 
and working to a perfect clear edge along the marked outline. 
A little after-nursing with a steel blade, the edge of which is 
convex, may be used in places where the handled scraper can- 
not be used advantageously. In sandpapering use No. i and 
No. o paper under the palm of the hand, or under a soft 
rubber block. Avoid destroying the well defined line along 
the edge, but smooth off well the front edge. Carefulness in 
creating such conforming work will be well rewarded in after 

As the work proceeds it will be noted that in adjusting the 
rocker immediately under the side rails their extreme spread at 
the back, regulated by the side plan, is less than in front. This 
fact will cause the out-turn of the back post to set over the 
rocker, with rear outside and front inside corner hanging over. 
This is to be chamfered off to the thickness of the rocker 
sweeps. The joints in this chair are all mortise and tenon, 
with the exception of the arm and stump, where dowels should 
be used. 

After the chair has been knocked down for final gluing-up, go 
over all the edges, taking off all sharp corners. The top edge of 
the arms, front edge of the arm stumps, side rails, legs and back 
posts above the arms are to be shaped a low round. The proper 
time to do this is after the chair is glued up, in order that a con- 
tinuous smooth surface may be worked over the glue joints at 
the arm stump and where the arm enters onto the line of the 
back post. The edges between these jomts may, of course, be 
molded or shaped more readily in the vise, as loose parts, leaving 
enough stock at the ends to trim after gluing. 


The Dining Chair 

So much attaches to the moments spent about the dining 
table that the chairs used for the family should be of the same 
pattern and of a dignified, plain character, the outline free from 
unnecessary angles and the surface smooth and plain. If carv- 
ing is desired it should be of a detail clear and smooth, and low 
relief. With these particular features observed the dusting and 
polishing from time to time is greatly reduced. The chair made 
by the famous cabinet maker, Chippendale, had these desirable 
points about them, even on the open worked-backs. The carv- 
ing and rounding of edges, front and back, were smoothly done 
and easily kept clean. These chairs afford models for many 
present-day reproductions. 

The pattern in vogue in the early Dutch colonies of New York 
gives us excellent types for dining-room purposes. The con- 
struction of the earlier patterns are even more severe and to the 
point than any period before, and later the style shown with 
more elaborate treatment preserved the honest square-lined 

For purposes of simple construction, Fig. 175 is given as a 
composite of the Dutch and the English style which prevailed at 
the same time in the New England settlements. The "ladder 
back" is probably more easily constructed and more comfortable 
to sit in, although the lower slats may be left out and a 7-inch 
banister inserted between the under part of the top slat and the 
projected base on the back rail. With the seat plan given and 
shape of back post, as shown, a drawing of the entire chair may 
be made. In doing this one may be guided in some particulars, 
as in securing the back angle, spread of legs, etc., by a well con- 
structed chair about the house. The front legs have a slight 
taper. As to how much this and other matters of finish shall be 
carried along must be decided when the chair is set up loosely 
for a trial inspection. The rounding of the back posts on the 
back, as shown in section on the seat plan. Fig. 175, is recom- 
mended as giving a smooth finished appearance; also a similar 
rounding to the back edges of the slats, which are J^ inch thick, 
rounding off the front face with a low round. 



A padded slip seat cover with leather is most desirable, as it 
wears well a long time and can easily be renewed. The frame 

13 = 

^ ^.^- ^^s^ 

Post and Seat Plan. 

Front View. 
Fig. 175. — Construction of Frame of a Dining Room Chair. 

to this consists of ^ x 2-inch material, lap jointed, glued and 
nailed into a frame, giving a 3-16-inch allowance all around when 
set upon the corner and side block shown in the engraving. 

The upholstering of this is very simple, consisting of burlap 
webbing stretched tightly over the face of the frame, upon which 
is laid cotton batting, with several extra squares built up in a 
tapering manner toward the center. This mass of cotton may 
be held and molded into an arching shape by stitching with 
thread and needle, making long stitches in so doing, sufficient 
to keep the cotton from shifting. Over this is stretched the 
leather, cut sufficiently large to pull down along the edges of the 
frame, or what is now over the burlap webbing. Starting the 
tacking from the front, pull it back, meanwhile rounding or con- 


forming the surface, and secure to the hack edge. Then tack 
down the sides and trim off the surplus leather on the bottom 
edge of the lower framing. By the allowance made on the frame 
with added thickness of burlap and leather the framing should 
slip in snugly against the chair frame, where it is held by screws 
driven from the under side of the corner blocks. Note that the 
inner corners of the legs are to be cut out ]/2 inch deep and on an 
angle with the inside of the front and side rails. The straining 
rails under the seat are ^s x ij^ inches, set in with tennons to 
the front legs and back posts. 

Rush Seats 

It is rare to find an old-time workman who is able to make a 
"rush" or "flag" seat. Where such work can be secured this 
form of seat will be found very durable and artistic to embody 
in the frames of chairs. The removable frame, or the manner 
of constructing it for the chair desired, will be furnished by the 
worker in that material. 

While chair designs are endless, the main purpose of utility 
and comfort should be the first thought. With a carpenter's 
ability, many odd pieces and side chairs may be constructed, 
embodying some rare wood or treasured piece of stock having 
eccentric grain, or mayhap some rare old large piece of furniture 
which has so sunk into decrepitude that a chair or two may be 
constructed, thus continuing its service and history. 



TYLE and fashion in everything is presented for our 
inspection and in a great majority of cases we 
adopt them. Some people are ever on the lookout 
for that which is new, but others climb into the 
wagon after the "tailboard" is up, so fearful are 
they of being left behind in the procession of things and events. 
It is true we cannot divest our home of furniture as we would lay 
aside a three-button coat for a four-button furnished with slant 
pockets, but in considering the "modern" class of furniture, or 
rather the going back to the simple style, it gives us an article of 
furniture which we are not so likely to have supplanted by a 
flimsy trifle. Certainly the family sitting room table should 
have a sustaining dignity about it which the furniture of bamboo 
or Shakespeare class of table heretofore never possessed. 

Very little additional information need be given for the table, 
Fig. 177, in the simple style. The plain posts and under fram- 
ing are laid out on a drawing in a square of 21 x 40 inches, 
having the posts center along two intersecting diagonal lines, 
the open or top rails being mortised into the posts about 4 inches 
under the edge of the top. All edges should be chamfered 3-16 
inch and just above the taper of the posts treated to a saw 
kerfed line, also chamfered to give finish. The top should be 
carefully matched from i 5-16-inch lumber. Allow for the 
height of the table 30 inches to the top either with or without 
casters. The fumed oak finish is undoubtedly best for this much- 
used piece of furniture. 

The couch should not be a difficult frame to construct. In- 
deed, after the inspection of the factory-made article the crafts- 
man may, with a little practice with pencil and paper, lay out 






from observation a frame which will have a pleasing, substan- 
tial outline, yet have the joints all cut square. With this 
thought Fig. 178 is presented with the necessary measuring 
memoranda given thereon. The frame is within a size of 27 

Fig. 177.— Sitting Room Table. 

X 73 inches, making it ample in length for a "six footer," or 
generous enough for an overflow accommodation in the event of 
a surprise party. The head posts terminate in a claw foot, the 
main rails and foot rail are made of not less than i-inch boards. 

Fig. 178. — General View of Couch. 

The shape given for head posts will come from a board 7^ 
inches wide. From a previously drawn detail showing the con- 
tinuous character of lines in its constructed form procure the sepa- 


rate marking-out patterns, and right here be mindful that with 
the cut-out paper pattern allow in the wood, in case of the line 
arching from claw post joint to the horizontal rail an excess of 
stock which, when the parts are glued up, may be sawed or shaved 
to the correct free-arching line. The union of parts in this way 
creates one of the pleasing features to attract the eye, and the 
eye following this line in fancy terminates in a foliated scroll as 
suggested, and in turn is met by a like, but less forceful, line 
springing from the foot post. In like manner, the inclination of 
head rest mold may have its abruptness folded up in a similar 
termination. The couch frame, of course, is to have the same 
treatment on the other side, for a one-side couch gives but one- 
half the number of positions in which it may be placed. A 
little consultation with the wife will often save a man doing 
some foolish things, even as to furniture, for the housewife tires 
of seeing her possessions always at the same angle or on the 
same side of the room. The fullness of the clawfoot is made by 
gluing on a 2-inch block, the upper portion of which will, by saw- 
ing or shaving, invisibly shade in a natural manner into the post. 
As treated in a previous article, no set directions can be given 
for cutting or carving this claw; the carved claw is now very 
much in evidence, and, as in everything else, a careful inspection 
will aid materially in producing a good effect, even with the 
chisel or gouge in use by the carpenter. The claw as a termina- 
tion is selected, for with the inexperience of an amateur in carv- 
ing the necessary unevenness and roughness will, by contrast to 
plain parts, make a pleasing feature. A rough claw is better 
than if it were produced from a turning lathe, if that were pos- 
sible. A pleasing effect, in place of carving the ornaments on 
the side of a couch, is to jig saw the patterns detailed from a 2- 
inch block, then by passing them along a set straight gauge slit 
them on the band saw into frets 3-16-inch in thickness. Glue 
these along the proper line and direction, and after sanding the 
edges a very pleasing form of relief will result. 

The foot posts are 2^ inches square, with the three exposed 
corners chamfered. A turned ball 3>^ inches in diameter gives 
a finished termination. The head end rail, b inches wide, is 


placed in line with the side and foot rail, and then paneling or 
veneer occupies the space between that and the inclined frame. 
The molded effect along the upper edge of the head support and 
rails may either be a narrow framing surmounting the construc- 
tion or a molded strip secured as an after-finish. 

The form of upholstery shown in the cut is now very gener- 
ally a par-t of the simple class of furniture and stands for just 
what they are — bags, made in a primitive manner, filled with 
soft material. Here again the craftsman of today will be equal 
to the occasion and find little that requires special skill in mak- 

FiG. 179.— Method cf Sewing the 
Leather Covers. 

ing the cushions to fit his frames. Soft, pliable Spanish leather 
(sheep skin) in all colors may now be secured in many towns. 
Unnecessary expense may enter here as in everything else, and 
it would be well to make the selection by samples. The bottom 
cover piece may also be of the same color and grain imitation, 
but of pantasote or other substitute for leather. Likewise, 
instead of upholsterer's curled hair a half quantity with vege- 
table down may be used. It will be quite necessary as well as 
satisfactory to guard against waste and to find the exact size 
of leather to make a sample cushion one-half size of the couch 
body — that is, divide the couch into three pillows, using some 
cheap material, and cutting it ample to allow for pillow when 
filled to the width of the frame. The filling should not be less 
than 5 inches in thickness. From this bag material, if made 
to fill up properly, the exact size of the leather covers may be 
found, allowing more on these for ^ inch to be turned in on all 
sides. This yi inch extra is turned and pressed or hammered 



into a crease, and the two creases of the four edges of each piece 
are brought together, rough side in, then held for a time while 
holes are made with a belt punch about i inch apart. Through 
these holes, as shown in Fig. i yq, a thong strip, cut from the 
leather, is drawn, and in the after-finish a second thong may 
be drawn, inserted so as to produce a cross-weave effect. One 
side of the bag is of course left open to receive the inner filled 
bag, or the filling may be put in direct and the thong continued 
through the holes and finally tied in a neat manner. 

The Side Chair 

This is a pattern in the modern style, appearing well as a 
wall chair, or making a good, light chair for the table. The 
chair would be in keeping with the present primiti\'e construc- 

FlG. 180.— Details of the Side Chair. 

tion to have the back slats perfectly flat, but a more shapely 
and comfortable back will result by using curved back slats, 
as indicated in A, Fig. i8o. A flat panel is usually steamed and 
bent, but for special purpose the curve is produced from a 
heavy plank, using an adze, or in default of this a gouge and 


heavy mallet, and after shaving to curvature determined by a 
wood template, used as the work advances. Much of the con- 
vex side can be planed to line and even thickness by holding the 
work in a vise. The back post shape may be secured from a 
i-inch surfaced board. If oak is used show the quarter grain 
on the edge. In making the seat none but thoroughly seasoned 
stock should be used, and after the saddle effect is obtained 
it should not be unprotected by finish very long. As you will 
need a heavy cleat, or batten, screwed to bottom, as a means 
of holding it in the vise while shaping the hollow, it would be 
well to keep it on during construction of chair and until time 
for finishing, avoiding chance of warping. The hollow work 
is roughed out by a gouge and mallet, and then convex shaves 
and scrapers are used to bring about an even concave surface; 
these tools have been described in a previous paper. After all 
parts have been fitted with tenons and mortises, assemble them 
to see that they all come together well, also to give you an op- 
portunity to note corrections which might be desirable to make, 
and the final finish to be given each part. With the chair 
knocked apart the edges are worked off with a plane or shave, 
and the four slats in the back are greatly improved with edges 
turned off to a quarter round, likewise top edge of top slat, and 
hand hole smoothly filed in a rounded manner. The back part 
is glued up first and held in bar clamps under the seat; two square 
stretchers should be fitted at the same position, as shown, for 
front stretchers. The side stretchers are indicated on the front 
leg. The seat is now set in, as shown on seat plan, and secured 
at each post by a 2>^-inch screw countersunk. Turning the 
back part down, with seat face do vn on bench, put on the front 
portion of chair, the legs and front stretcher having previously 
been glued up, then provided with the side stretchers glued to 
legs and treated with hot glue in motise holes of the back posts. 
Drive these in them, gluing the seat motises; drive into place 
the legs. In this class of work — open and liable to spring out 
of true — it is well to have rule, or truing stick, to immediately 
square the frame before the glue has positively set, the bar 
clamps sometimes being brought into good use, to pull into place 


a refractory part. When the chair is well set, cut the back post 
at bottom ^4 inch to give proper inclination. Clean off any- 
excess of glue and hand sand from top to bottom, taking off 
any crude edges. 

An arm chair to match this pattern may be constructed from 
a drawing making the size of seat proportionately 2>^ inches 
larger than called for in Fig. 180, and the height 22 inches, be- 
tween arms iq}4 inches and the height of arms 10 inches from 


The Sitting Room Rocker 

Our foreign friends say of us that we show our restless spirit 
even when supposedly at rest in a rocking chair, purely an 
American article of furniture. However this may be, the rock- 
ing chair is finding favor in many foreign countries, and among 
our makers it is the style of chair most made and given the 
widest range of treatment. In constructing the rocker the 
main object sought should be the proper "hang" or swing. 
When attention is called to this it will no doubt be realized 
that many rockers have the annoying fault of pitching the oc- 
cupant too far forward or backward, with no particular middle 
point of restful balance. The location of this fault will have to 
be determined by the maker, and in some cases it is much like 
making the suit to fit the customer to give perfect satisfaction; 
usually the lack of balance is adjusted by removing the rockers 
and cutting either the front or back legs, as indicated by rocker 
either throwing the occupant too far forward or backward. 

The rocking chair shown in Fig. 181 will be found a very com- 
fortable resting place, even though built with flat back slats, 
the comfort being given principally from the generous curve 
to the back posts, with exception of slats in sides and back, 
the material is i inch in thickness, the slats ^ inch thick, 
arms and rockers should be i}4 inch thick, also the seat frame. 
The seat frame may be made of an inferior wood, the front and 
back edges will be covered by upholstery. The plan for the 
frame, also that of rocker and arm will be found in Fig. 182. 
The upholstery may be put on directly over the seat frame, 



as shown, or the style of leather bag described under head of 
the sitting room couch. In either case, burlap bands are tightly 

Fig. 181.— Front and Side Views of Sitting Room Rocking Chair.— Modern. 


criss-crossed over the opening this being done on top of the 

frame should the loose bag pil- 
low be preferred. If the perma- 
nent seat is desired, the bands 
are tacked to the under part of 
the seat, upon which are placed 
for this size seat eight double 
coil upholsterers' springs, three 
back, three front and two in 
middle space of opening. As the 
subject of spring upholstery has 
been treated in Chapter XVI 
it will not be again taken up. 
An inspection of an upholstered 
seat will indicate the manner of 
going about the work, the even 

Fig. 182.— Seat Plan, Rocker and and partial compression of the 
Arm of Rocking Chair. springs, however, by stout twine 


is quite an important foundation work for the after-padding 
and overlay of leather or fabric. 

The Clock 

Even though it be the exacting alarm variety done up in a 
nickeled can, everybody turns to the clock. It is their faithful, 
almost animate companion, alive to the minute, yet weak and 
failing at times if we don't do it a good turn now and then. 
It is therefore well in setting up our home, or refurnishing it, 
to give the time keeper a prominent or high place in honor of 
his long service in keeping tab on our movements. Time was 
when the old clock had to have plenty of room to stretch, as it 
were, in the matter of ballast. This gave rise to the tall 
"grandfather" look it had. While it is true some kinds of the 
best modern clocks are framed in tall cases, with cords and 
weights, the desire is uppermost to economize space, and very 
reliable spring clock movements may be bought very reasonably, 
or the works of an eight-day clock may be transferred to such 
a case, to be discussed, as is shown in Fig. 183. Here the pur- 
pose is to utilize space in a tall case, which was in former times 
given over to the movement of the long pendulum and lowering 

The sketch may be followed out in the full drawing, or modi- 
fied within outside limits as fancy or individual needs suggest. 
The back, instead of showing the wall, may be lined neatly with 
thin paneling; the lower front may also have a panel or glass 
door, protecting the magazines and books from dust. 

The structural parts to be from i-inch material, the shelves 
J^ or ^ inch thick. A satisfactory framing to the dial face 
would be of laid-up veneer cut a little less in diameter than the 
dial plate. This veneer may be made of successive layers of 
rotary cut veneer, built up to about 7-16 inch in thickness or, 
made of two 3-16-inch panels and three i-i 6-inch veneers glued 
transversely, the outer veneer being first grade in figure, or 
quarter, and placed upright as to grain. The gluing together 
of these wood layers under favorable conditions as to high tern- 



perature of the room, proper clamping or heavy weight pressing 
device will give a panel which will not split, as would a solid 

18" > OTTET^ 

Fig. 183.— The Clock Stand. 


panel, when the greater portion has been cut out, as in this 
instance of fitting the clock dial. The edges of circle of course 
would be greatly improved by rounding or chamfering. The 
fret ornaments are to be sawed out and slit to a thickness of 
3-16 inch. These should be glued on to panels before outline 
has been cut. Then saw or trim to the exposed portion of fret, 
previously chamfering the edges with file or knife; and after 
they are glued on putting in a few vein cuts in middle of leaves 
will brighten the work very considerably. 

Sitting Room Furniture 

The sitting room first appeals to us, for it is here we go to be 
at ease, to read or chat in the relax hours of the day or evening. 
Some of later day like to see it on their building plans or speak 
of it as the reception room, but this puts it in the chilly class, 
and causes "the man" to feel less likely to be admitted — with 
his cigar and dressed in his easy clothes. 

In order to deal intelligently with the subject it will perhaps 
be more interesting to offer a suggestion of each room, and to 
this end the general interior view shown on page 158 has been 
prepared. This, taken in connection with the details which fol- 
low, cannot fail to interest those mechanics who are disposed 
to improve their opportunities. 

The sitting room, or living room, should be all that the name 
implies — a room in which to truly li\e and rest, to draw cheer 
and fresh air from without through broad window openings; 
to provide ample artificial light by night, for how often does the 
good wife who represents the "purchasing department" invest 
in the lamp beautiful, possibly one of those "banquet" affairs 
something like a lone umbrella in a little topply stand, stiff and 
formal, with its pretty red silk skirts, absorbing the light? 
This gives a reason for "Pa liking the kitchen to go over the 
newspapers. " 

As the carpenter is generally accustomed to doing work "on 
the square" it is fortunate and befitting that no great departure 
from the path of rectitude be suggested, for as indicated in these 


pages the Mission style, has been favorably received. This 
"style" and its more pleasing modified forms in the later "Arts 
and Crafts" and "Modern Arts" are within the range of every 
joiner other than cabinet maker. Despite the present pro- 
nounced favor in which this clean-lined furniture is held there 
is little reason for the present-day craftsman, with modern 
equipment, repeatedly executing all kinds of furniture in that 
severely rigid manner. The form and generous proportions 
may well be adhered to, or, we will say, take the pure type of 
modern Mission, so-called, and soften it down on edges and 
corners, and we would have a much less dangerous piece of 
furniture to stumble against in the dark. There is too much 
evidence of 3 x 4 inch and scantling effect, which is hardly con- 
sistent with our rounded-out way of living. 

As the window seat shown in the illustration is simply a 
suggestion, its construction must be determined by individual 
requirements. The height, however, can be definitely set at 
16 inches, and this with soft, well filled leather bags to bring the 
seat height to 18 inches. 

The under part should not be lost space, but should do duty 
for lockers or drawers. In building such a piece of furniture 
the aim should be, whether it is portable or fixed, to maintain 
its harmonious relations with the architectural treatment of 
the house. A pleasing change may be given in the doors of the 
lockers or cupboards, when the general wood trim is of a plain 
character, by having a three-ply laid-up door, with a good 
marked figure or quarter panel without molding trim. In 
making the veneer the two outer panels should be placed trans- 
versely in grain, with a thin veneer intervening, the three pieces 
being glued under heavy pressure in this order. 

The book shelf shown in the picture needs little explanation, 
as it is a matter of easy construction. A slant top freed from 
everything but the big dictionary will be found very convenient. 
Where there is a large and growing family the medicine chest 
and the dictionary should be in a free position to which to refer 
quickly to repair our physical and mental condition. Un- 
doubtedly the modern system of "elastic" book shelves is the 



best solution in caring for books, as they are in units and dust 
proof, to be added one to another as books and the means in- 

In Fig. 1 83a of the smaller illustrations a fireside seat isoffered as 
a novel form of rest furniture not seen in the show windows, 
its chief feature being its substantial character and the low and 

Fig. 183a. — Fireside Seat, 
slanting position of the seat to the floor. It measures to the 
top of the frame q)4 inches at the back and 1 1 inches in the 
front. The entire structure is from i-inch stock, or, when sur- 
faced, %-inch thick. Careful selection of wood as to figure, 
markings and jointing is very important in patterns with broad, 
plain surfaces. If maple, birch or mahogany is used the smooth- 
ness of the work in the making is amply compensated for in the 
effect of the good after-finish, whether in dull or usual polish 
treatment. The side view that is shown is all that is necessary 
to detail in full a drawing, as the front view is 22 inches outside 
from floor to top. It is thought that from the necessary high 
and low points noted in the cuts sufficient guide is afforded to 
prepare the drawing of the side. Do this in a free-hand way, 
not hestitating to rub out and draw over until one feels satisfied 


that the curves are good. When the drawing has been com- 
pleted cut to the outHne for a marking-out pattern. A side 
will make up from three 8-inch boards jointed in length and 
shape to more than cover the pattern. Be careful that good 
glue is used, fitting the joints previously with two or more 
dowels as a precaution. It is, of course, understood that the 
boards are rough or full thickness so as to dress J^-inch in thick- 
ness and perfectly smooth. After the sides are sawn and per- 
forated to shape of pattern it would be well to glue and screw 
the 2-inch cleat upon which the seat frame rests, as shown in 
the illustration. The position of all detail will be before you 
on your drawing. 

The seat frame is i8 x 20 x % dressed size, consisting of the 
rails and stiles of 3-inch widths, and as to filling, five 2-inch slats 
equally parted. It is a matter of opinion as to how the frame 
is made up, whether by dowels, lap joint or grooving. The 
two rails shown according to the cut are now made ready, one 
for the front rail, or apron, and the other in inverse position for 
the top back rail. Cut these to a 20-inch length and provide 
each end with three 7-16-inch dowels; likewise prepare a straight 
back rail of the same width and length. The sides, bored with 
holes corresponding to the dowel holes on the rails, permit the 
frame to be glued and set up under long clamps, after which the 
seat, exactly fitting, may be set over the fitted rails and along 
the cleats, which were glued to the sides. This may be glued 
and further held by glue blocks here and there underneath, 
fitted to angle of slanting front and back rails. The back filling 
consists of A^yi X 3-inch slats evenly spaced. Each of these may 
be provided with two short 7-16-inch dowels to fit the top rail, 
and the lower ends fitted and driven up to line, where they can 
be secured by brads. The edges should now be rounded off 
from top rail to floor, or they may be treated to a 3^-inch bevel 
and smoothly sanded. The front edge of the seat should have 
a full rounding; also hand holds at top to be well filed smooth. 
The sanding stick illustrated in Fig. 78, Chapter 1 1 comes into 
good use on such outlines. 


The cushions are very much Hke a leather covered pillow, 
and their construction has been considered on pages 1 61-162. 
The desirable finish for various pieces under discussion will 
be found in Chapter XV on Finishing. 

It may not be out of place to state that the smaller illustra- 
tions represent articles of furniture slightly differing in design 
from those indicated in the large interior view, this being done 
for the purpose of giving a drawing with specific details and 
the same proportions, which will enable the worker to draw up 
in full outline the articles shown in the interior view if he so 
desires, and at the same time incline him to lean more and more 
on his own judgment and creative ability. There are many who 
are not only able to originate, but to draw up their ideas if they 
have proper standards to serve as a guide, and it is with this 
thought in mind that much time and attention has been given 
to the proper measurements and details of the work in hand. 


HE familiar caption "the parlor" has been used in 
the present instance, although the room it desig- 
nates has been outdone in recent years by the more 
formal "reception hall," which is still another for- 
bidden Eden to the tired man who pays all the 
bills. Surmising that the readers will be more at home in the 
parlor, it will be the purpose of the writer to surround it with 
substantial comfort rather than conventional flimsiness. Why 
the parlor in years past was considered more as a museum — 
"free only on Sundays and holidays" — was due largely to the 
furniture being made along lines most frail, and covered by up- 
holstery fabrics most perishable, so that it was a foregone con- 
clusion that no one but the minister and others not expected 
to tarry long were ever ushered therein. 

The drawings accompanying this and the other articles relate 
to the modern plain style, but admit in many cases of using the 
proportions for variation of details and added ornament. In 
Fig. 1 84 is shown a view of the parlor with some of the leading 
pieces of furniture. It is reasonable to believe that with the 
good influence of the modern style there will not be a sudden 
return to over ornamented, badly constructed work, for there 
is too much honesty of purpose. 

The Center Table 

Fig. 185 with the legs placed in a diagonal position at the 
corners, offers a subject for practice in varying the outline in 
case this particular pattern does not strike the fancy. What 
is wanted is a balusterlike pilaster. Six inches will be found to 
give ample width for many outlines on the drawing paper, rub- 






being out each effort until the proper combination of lines will 
appeal to you. The half plan of the top, Fig. i86, shows 
disposition of the posts at A. Great care should be taken in 
jointing nothing but well seasoned stock for top and under- 
shelf and after it has been reduced to the proper thickness, 



Figs. 185 and 186.— Detail of Corner Post "A," and Half Plan of Top. 

Stain and fill before warping ensues. A decided chamfer on all 
edges takes away the crude, factory made appearance. 

The Corner Chair 

The parlor offers a greater excuse for pieces of furniture not 
classed among the most comfortable or back resting than prob- 
ably any other room in the house. A creation which would 
come well within the category mentioned is the corner chair 
shown in Fig. 187, which has its purpose, however, in the general 
scheme of furnishing, and with the odd pillows about may, in 
a pinch, be made fairly comfortable. The size of the seat is 18 
inches square, consisting of four i ^-inch square pieces mortised 
to the four i ^^(-inch posts. The front edges are set back 14 inch 
from the face of the posts, allowing in this for thickness of leather 
or covering. There are many features which the individual 
worker may carry out with safety and after-satisfaction, but 
which, if carried out on a manufacturing basis, prove time-using 



Fig. 187.— The Corner Chair. 

and expensive. The wide board used in the back represents 
stock expense and liability of many broken-off corners before 

the member is held in its own 
construction by gluing. If there 
be any charm in this particular 
piece to redeem it from its crude 
clumsiness it is inthis bold under- 
line and the relieving open work. 
The covering in such a piece, 
without much doubt, demands a 
good piece of Spanish leather. 
The upholstery webbing is 
nailed to the under edge of the 
frame and the five or six springs 
held down in a crowned form 
by twine while the top padding 
of burlap, hair and cotton padding is nicely molded to shape 
before the leather is pulled and formed over it. It is well to 
use no gimp in this, but double under the edges as they are 
tacked down. The conforming and holding the leather may 
be done with small tacks so placed that they will occupy spac- 
ing immediately under the fancy large headed nails used for the 

The Roman Chair 

The Roman chair, so-called. Fig. 1 88, is another piece of furni- 
ture used as a sort of filling-in rather than for comfort. It may, 
however, be elaborated and made comfortable by giving it a 
back-fitting curve in the back slat and the appearance may be 
greatly improved with either a band saw, adze or in other ways. 
Shape the back from stock not less, and preferably more, than 
3 inches in thickness, keeping the thickness of the curve or 
serpentine shape 13-16 inch. While the particular sketch is in 
the simple class it is one of the forms of chairs which permits 
of varied treatment, and should any of the readers be given to 
carving as a pastime the proportions herewith indicated will 
offer a working guide for new shapes and opportunities for sur- 



face cutting. The drawing of the -front elevation is within a 
space of 27>2 x 36 inches wide, and the distance between front 

Fig. 188.— The Reman Chair. 

and back frame is 17 inches. The frames are dressed to i 3^ 

inches in thickness. Corner blocks should be glued and screwed 

in each corner under the seat. After the chair is set up and 

glued, saw off the back legs yi inch at the floor in order to give 

the proper "hang."' A bag cushion as described in another 

article gives an added finish, or the seat may be made i ^ 

inches thick and be treated to a deeply cut saddle shape, as dealt 

with on page i 52, 

The Writing Desk 

Unless one has a "den" or retiring room the parlor or recep- 
tion hall is a fitting place for a writing desk where every one, 
including the guest, may have access to the writing materials. 
In our life of today, made up of so much detail, the old-fashioned 
"lap " portfolio or writing box, is quite out of the question, and 
generally, from its portability, is not, when in a hurry, just 
where it is wanted. In Fig. i8q of the sketches reproduced 
herewith we show one so outlined that it will be in harmony 
with the severely plain or with the mixed class of furniture which 
goes to make up the furnishing of a parlor. 



With the present-day craftsman's knowledge of fitting drawers 
and compartments the same general practice applies in provid- 
ing all the necessary pigeon and cubby holes which experience 
has reminded us are so useful in disposing of answered and un- 
answered letters, stamp and pen compartments and other little 
details which will either please you, your wife or your wife to be; 
for I take it that a great many of the lonely young fellows who 

Fig. 189.— General View of Writing Desk. 

see the home ahead of them will be ambitious to have the home 
furnished largely with their own handiwork, work which they 
can back up with a guarantee. The horse lover gets no greater 
pleasure in going over the good lines of his horse than does the 
man in fondly passing his hands over a well made article of wood 
work which he has made when the home was plain, or when 
shaping itself into an actual reality of home with the partner- 
ship of a wife and all the pleasure which comes from acquiring 
one's possessions piece by piece through the years. 

The solid top constituting the rear portion of the writing 
surface back of the hinged fall is dressed 1 2 x 26^ x 15/16. The 
open frame under the drawer is 1 1 x 26^ x 15/16. The front 



of the drawer covers its front edge as an apron. The drawer has 
a space of 4>^ inches to the bottom. The lower board, lo^ 
inches wide, is cut away in a graceful sweep to a width of 5 inches 
at the center. Under this a stiff three-cornered batten should 
be glued as a support and also to prevent splitting of end pieces. 
The latter should be 1 }/s i^ch dressed, while the other parts, 
excepting the top, may be 15-16 inch thick. A 3^-inch rotary 
cut white wood veneer answers better than most any material 
as a filler for the back and is recommended for covering such 
surfaces inexpensively. Finish on both sides and it will avoid 
bulging. A chain or, what would be better, a knuckle-jointed 
brass rod or strip to hold the writing top to a level position 
should be fitted to the inside of each end. 

The Desk Chair 

This answers not only for a 
light chair at the desk, but does 
duty as the more formal recep- 
tion chair, a seat for the visitor 
to drop into to say ' " howdy ' ' and 
off again. The chair, Fig. iqo, 
should be built of the same ma- 
terial as the writing desk and be 
treated in the finish the same. 
The total height is 4 1 J^ inches. 
The posts are cut to the shape 
shown within a 5-inch board 
dressed i inch thick. The seat 
is shaped within a square of 
17 inches, and treated to a 
saddle surface as described on 
page 152. The height of the 
desk chair varies from iq to 20 
inches with the usual after cut- 
ting of the back posts ^ inch off 
level. Taper the legs from i^ 
inch to J/s ii^ch square at the 

Fig. 190.— Desk Chair. 


floor. Seat rails J-g x 2 inches are then mortised to the legs and 
to the back posts as well as between the back posts at the rear. 
The distance outside of the front legs at the seat is 1 5 inches, and 
they are spread at the floor 16^ outside to counteract the taper 
which would make them look "pigeon toed." These little 
points must of course be looked after by the maker and in the 
actual construction. Should they with this difference still look 
"pigeon toed, " draw them out more at the bottom; herein lies 
the value of careful workmanship to so set the work up K. D. 
(knocked down) that the general effect may be seen and cor- 
rections or additions made to various parts when taken apart 
for gluing up. 

The Settee 

Time was not very long ago when the settee and davenport 
were thought of like the "white elephants," but now some 
people living in flats think the space none too small to acconimo- 
date a full size davenport. Come around at night, however, and 
the stately piece of furniti.ire will be found working overtime, 
twice its width, doing duty as a first-class bed. Do not go into 
too many double-barreled affairs if you can possibly live in a 
house, or out in the country. 

So with this idea our subject, Figs, iqi and iqz, deals with 
something you can't double up or take apart, if properly made 
and glued. This too is offered as a model from which to pre- 
pare, if preferred, a working drawing, having a different back 
filling and arm treatment, the pattern shown being in harmony 
with types of furniture shown in the interior view of the parlor 
and also in the prevailing style of frames. It is true that many 
other pieces about the room of the conventional order generally 
in the home are of fanciful outline and surface treatment. This 
severe criss-cross effect in the back may put it "off key," and 
a more pleasing effect may be secured by filling the same space 
with ^4-inch square spindles spaced 3,^ inch apart. This is 
mentioned simply to excite a little originality of treatment 
suited to individual requirements, because the subject of fitness 
applied to all things is worth consideration. 





The general proportions of this settee call for a thick, soft 
cushion top in the nature of a one or two-piece bag in leather^ 

: 1 

Fig. 192.— One Half of Plan of Settee. 

corduroy or tapestry, or the upholstering may be fixed in the 
usual way. A long, loose seat, such as made by carriage makers, 
would look well, in which case this would rest on a panel seat 

The Morris Chair 

There is always one or more in the family who derive comfort 
from the Morris chair or some other form of adjustable back 
chair, while with others, like the tea or coffee drinkers, there is 
nothing so restful as the excitable rocker. When extreme com- 
fort is sought for one may have to make a personal test before 
being thoroughly satisfied. In the case of the Morris chair the 
luxurious softness of the cushions allows almost any form to 
mold itself into a comfortable position, and therefore the con- 
tents of the cushions should be of the best grade of curled hair, 
with a mixture of moss, tow or cotton. The bag form of cush- 
ion, previously mentioned, is shown in the illustration, although 
the style of the cushion with square edges like carriage cushions 
is most generally used. 

While dealing with cushions it may be said here that the seat 
cushion is supported either by a three-ply veneer panel tacked 
to the inner strip, shown on the seat frame, Fig. 193, or the same 
open space is bridged over by heavy upholstery burlap inter- 
woven and tacked to strips and corner blocks. In tacking al- 
ways start with and turn down a double thickness of the ends 
of bands to avoid stripping through the tacks. 



The back cushion is supported by an open frame rack made 
of J^ X I i-'s inch material, the frame i8 x 30_J^ inches outside, 
with four ^ X J^ inch cross 
slats evenly spaced. The bot- 
tom rail is hinged to the back 
rail of the Morris chair seat 
frame, and the inclination of 
the rack is made by resting 
it against a 3,-^-inch steel or 
brass rod, placed in any notch 
on the bracket support shown 
on the rear of the chair. 

The lower end of the back 
cushion rests on the rear end 
of the seat cushion. 

As to the chair frame there 
is a field of change of style 
from Fig. 193. Using the same seat plan create a different treat- 
ment under the arms either by square spindles or three or four 
slats or flat balusters under the arms. 

^..^ 24>ii- 

Fig. 194. — Plans of Seat and Arm of 
Morris Chair. 

Fig. 193.— General View of the Completed Morris Chair 




Following the illustration, the front and back posts and arm 
pillars are made of stock dressed i}i inches square, the back 
posts being finally cut from the bottom i >^ inches to give the 
chair proper angle. The side rails may be dressed 13-16 inch 
thick, and with the upholstery cleat on the inside of the same 
thickness they will when glued be very substantial. This 
is a matter of some consideration if more than one chair is to 
be made, as stock costs much more if requierd over i inch in 
thickness. After the chair has been tried by setting up, knock 
off all the sharp edges before the final gluing. 

The Pedestal 

As many people are debarred from occupying exalted places, 
due to many reasons, we often are obliged to go outside of 
the family to secure some effigy or bust of the great — a hero 
made famous after death — or perchance some one may bring 
into the warmth of his home a beautiful nude maiden chilled 

to marble seeking shelter behind a 
flowing gauzy streamer. Whatever 
the subject, it is either the expen- 
sive original or a copy of some repu- 
table work and in consequence 
should have a befitting support. 
One suggestion of many forms 
which the craftsman may readily 
construct is shown in Fig. iqj. 
Many patterns have little of the 
constructive element about them, 
consisting simply of feet, base, 
shaft and cap, all work of the lathe. 
What should be avoided is making 
the entire piece so small that it be 
ridiculously inadequate to appar- 
ently serve its purpose as a support. 
The elements of classic architecture 
suggest with little effort suitable 
pedestals and, indeed, no model could be better than a pure 
Ionic or Doric column. 


Fig. 195.— View of Pedestal 36 
Inches High. 


We are now very much in the time of veneer work, and if 
desired Fig. 195 offers the proper surfaces for veneering and of 
a simple character. The reader is doubtless familiar with the 
construction of the modern porch column, base and cap, so that 
little need be written. Should the decision be to make the 
pedestal a display of veneer, the construction should be in white 
pine or basswood. The shaft, top and bottom cove mold may 
be faced with a "crotch" adjustment of the veneer, or as it 
naturally is, selecting in the case of oak pieces of decided flake 
in the quarter. The fillets and edge of top and base look well 
with "cross band veneer" — a strip selected with good marking 
and cut from across the face of the veneer. 

It would be well after the cove molding has been produced to 
Hsaw these full length for the construction of cap and base, and 
before mitering face them with the veneer. To do this a 
rounded block conforming to the shape of the cove must be made 
as a "caul " or pressing block the full length of the moulding or of 
the part to be veneered. When all parts are in readiness the 
veneering should be carried to completion if possible, or if inter- 
rupted the work continued with all parts under like conditions 
such as the temperature of the room, consistency of the glue and 
even warmth of the pieces receiving the glue. This is all im- 
portant, and a little experience will cause many to appreciate 
the importance of proper caution. Care and quick action 
should enter into the work, and other things being equal, the re- 
sults will be satisfactory and lasting. 

When much veneer work is to be done several large square 
pieces of felt X inch thick are very desirable and quite essential 
when gluing to changing surfaces. A newspaper or thin sheet 
of zinc to prevent sticking can be placed over the surface when 
veneering the cove. The felt is then laid over this, after which 
the warm "caul" block and finally the fiat supporting pieces on 
top and bottom before the jaws of the clamps or press are 
brought to bear. When the pressure increases the yielding 
character of the felt will press the veneer into any slight change 
of surface. If great care is maintained in the process of mitering 
and fitting the shaft the veneer may be applied to the stock first. 



The top and the frames which constitute the fillets top and bot- 
tom are of course faced with veneer after the frames are made. 
The half oval opening may be "floored" and used as a place for 
card receiver. 

Details of a Music Cabinet and Folio Case — Disposition of Music 
Records and Loose Leaf Matter 

Fortunate indeed is the man of tools who is able to meet re- 
quirements as they arise, oftentimes being required to do things 
quickly for others, or in his more leisurely moments relieve him- 
self of a certain amount of petty slavery to ill-adapted con- 
ditions, or entire lack of conveniences in his home surroundings. 
The music cabinet and folio case which we will discuss were the 

direct outcomeof the constant 
experience of finding some 
long-searched-for subject at 
the bottom of the pack and 
vowing "When I get time I'll 
fix things differently." So 
the folio case now having been 
in most satisfactory use for 
some time, sprung into being, 
designed to take care of mat- 
ter in a parted or ' ' unit' ' man- 
ner — and the music cabinet — 
well we kept buying records 
and the song one wanted — 
that, too, was generally at 
the bottom of the pack. 

While there are at present 
but twoprominet makes of the 
phonograph, the one under consideration is the No. 8 Victrola, 
having a base measuring i 5>^ x i8J4 in. The instrument is an 
excellent one and the selection of this pattern without a lower 
stand or case was made with preference of putting more of the 
large instrument cost into buying future records rather than so 

Fig. 196. — General View of a Music 



much in an expensive outer case. With the base determining 
the size of the stand, the height, too, was also governed by the 
disposal of the lo and 12-in. records and as will be seen in detail, 
Figs. 1 97 and iq8, the height over all of the stand is 31^^ in. 
A good grade of easy running brass casters were well imbedded 
in the four places of contact with the floor, these being exposed 
about % of an inch. The work of construction will prove to be 
interesting by following the plan of making six framed-up panels, 

Back. rail ^-(S" 

Fig. 197.— Side View Fig. 198.— One-half 
of Cabinet. Front View. 

all frames to consist of J/s in material which before gluing up is 
treated with a }i-\r\. groove on the inner edge of stiles and rails 
to secure }i in. veneer panels set back }i in. from front surface. 
The top frame is without a panel, and the bottom frame has the 
inner upper edge rabbetted to receive a solid wood panel to be 
smoothed off flush with the frame. Make all frames glued up to 
a size, allowing for squaring and fitting accurately. The side 
frames being alike are set up in relation to the top and bottom 
frames in the manner indicated in Fig. iqq by bringing them 
against the edges of the back frame by means of screws. To 
avoid evidence of screws on the side frames, bring them up in glue 
to back frame by means of long clamps, and apply finishing and 


gluing Strips on the inside as shown. Through these, screws or 
brads may be set alternately. 

It will be noticed that the front door, which is finished to 1 5 3^ 
X 2 3>^ in., fits with a slight overhang in front of the side frames 
and immediately under a filling in strip J/gx i}4 ^^- wide v/hich 
is cut out to allow of the sliding shelf "A" to be drawn out to a 
proper length and stopped with a screw or checking strip. This 
shelf will be found very convenient when using the instrument 
to lay records upon. A rabbetted slide is, of course, screwed to 
the sides and top for this movable shelf to slide over. The case 
now being set up, the base may very readily be fitted and 
secured by screws to the underside of the bottom. 

By a paper or wood pattern drawn and cut out, mark and saw 
from a 2 in. dressed plank the two Colonial base pieces. Then 
give more definition to the upper part of the scroll by cutting a 
line with a V tool, and using a gouge to hollow above it as shown 
on both sides of each piece. The work of cutting a tenon on the 
back end to enter the posts, and cutting a mortise to receive the 
small front apron, may then be done; likewise fitting a tenoned 
back rail, ^ x 3 in. The back legs, which are 2 in. square, it 
will be noticed, are reduced by a slight taper below the arching 
sides. All parts being carefully fitted, they may be glued up in 
the nature of a frame and screwed to the underside of the bottom 

One glued-up panel provided with grooves and tongued bat- 
tens at each end is reduced to ^s of an inch in thickness and 
fitted loosely to the shape of the interior of the cabinet. This 
divides the height into space for 12-in. records below and lo-in. 
above the shelf board. The means of support may be by pro- 
jecting pins, similar to those used in bookcases. 

When the final carcase work is completed, a finishing strip is 
neatly blind nailed with small brads to the edge of the top 
frame all around as shown in Fig. iqq and indicated by a pro- 
jection on Fig. iq8. Prepare the strips to 3--i6 x i in. with 
miter ends and have them well warmed and applied with hot 
glue, sinking the brads and filling the holes with sawdust putty. 
Ihis strip makes a proper molding in continuation of molded 



Fig. 199. — Showing Top Frame 
and Slide Shelf "A." 

base of the instrument, which sets snugly within. Screw holes 
bored diagonally up through the top of the stand — one on each 
side toward the front and one at the back — will permit of the in- 
strument being held to the case. Great care should be used in 
making the door to the front of 
the cabinet fit very closely, as dust 
should be guarded against. Use 
two I ^-in. hinges with loose pins, 
and the new thumb spring latch 
will be found to hold the door 
tightly closed and yet readily 
opened. Two light removable 
cases to hold the two sizes of rec- 
ords should be provided to readily 
slip in on the bottom and middle shelves. These cases are made 
of thin material and cut to the outline shown in Fig. 200. The 
ends and divisions being of the same pattern, the bottom, 
ends, back and front pieces should be 5-16 in. thick, while the 
division panels, which are set in grooves 
about I in. apart may be of 3^ in. material. 
It is desirable to have the cases portable 
for several reasons, one of which is more 
readily to attach a label bearing number 
of letter to the front of each compartment 
so that there will be no difficulty in locat- 
ing or putting away records. A correspond- 

FiG. 200.— End of Port- jng ijst should be kept in a book or on a 
able Record Holder. ^^ , , , , . ,. . . 

stiff card, which indicates a certam division 

or divisions to be used for vocal, another instrumental, another 

talking, and so on. 

The Folio Case 

As this article of furniture upon first appearance suggests the 
familiar "grandfather's clock," it may properly be located in the 
hall, or jamb space near to entrance to parlor or living room. 

To those who are desirous of being in intimate touch 
with information regarding their line of work, it will be 
found after many months or years, that it becomes quite a 

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task to refer to some certain topic without spending much 
valuable time looking for it among a mass of collected matter. 
The absence of a proper storing place frequently is the reason 
for many to discontinue — shall I say the habit of collecting. 
The writer is well aware from long experience that there is a 
medium to be adopted between the extremes of not collecting 
and collecting too much. There is hardly any field of activity 
in which a man may engage but what he would be greatly bene- 
fited; in truth, progress in, by being always on the lookout for 
further developing information in that line. This source of in- 
formation is available, and is very frequently free to him in a 
pamphlet or loose-leaf form. 

I am thinking just now of the enterprising carpenter, the 
prospective contractor. You are at liberty to further inform 
yourself along any line you wish for the price of a postage stamp 
or a post card — look over the advertisements and the invitation 
is always open to you. Much information of value is thrust 
at you as you walk about an exposition of whatsoever kind. 

The most valuable form of loose-leaf knowledge is through the 
current magazines, not only your trade papers, but your family 
magazines — read and look them over for they will broaden you. 
You will say many times: "There is an article I want to keep;" 
cut it out. Building plans, or other features of home building, 
articles on sanitation, location and all kindred subjects can be 
withdrawn in this way from a mass of matter which experience 
teaches becomes a burden if hoarded in its entirety. 

So this folio case deals with the systematic accumulation of 
such loose-leaf matter withdrawn and obtained from many 
sources. In one pile it would be quite useless as that article 
you were so much interested in a year ago and which you admit 
now you can't recall just where you did see it. 

To briefly add to the information given on Figs. 201, 202 and 
203, it might be explained that the larger magazines, like the 
Ladies' Home Journal and others, decided the inner size to be 
ii>^ X 17^ in., while many years' possessions regulated the 
height over all to be 6 ft. q}^ in. These dimensions then sug- 
gested the use of a clock, and to all appearances every one takes it 



for a grandfather's clock, while in fact the clock is simply screwed 
to the reverse side of the small swinging door covering the upper 
compartment as shown, marked by a false mold on the sides and 
projecting in like manner to part the lower and larger door. 
The attractiveness of this cabinet depends upon the use of well 
selected wood in either quarter or figure of grain. This cabinet 

Fig. 203.— Plan at Top 

: MouLd A ^B 

■ ml — ^ t W-i^v vl ; J ? xm ^ 

Figs. 201 and 202. — Front and Side Elevations of Folio Case. 

is plain white oak with a pronounced figure which is interrupted 
only by a mold blind screwed to the sides, and the stiles of upper 
door are cut from same length of material as the long lower stiles. 

Finish of the Cabinet 

The entire cabinet being finished in a rich nut brown wax 
finish makes a very handsome hall piece. The long panel of the 
lower door is spoke shaved into a fiddle-back shaped from a J^-in. 
board until it is reduced to 3^ of an inch in thickness along the 


eclgesand slooping into a pretty curve to middle of board, When 
making the frame, provide a groove in the center of the inside 
edge to receive the panel, but in gluing up the frame under 
clamps or clamping device, leave the panel ungluecl to come and 
go without danger to future cracking. The disposition of parts 
is shown in the plan of under part of top, Fig. 203, which is a plain 
board, 14%^ x zz^ in., with the back construction frame con- 
tained within the solid board sides, and the front door overlap- 
ping these as shown, the sides being screwed to i x 1^4 in. cleats 
■'D," which have been glued and screwed to the top. The 
molding "A," which is secured from % x i 3^-in. stock, is then 
framed around two sides and front. It is again used in a re- 
verse manner to trim the front part of "C", which is an extended 
and exposed part of framed-up bottom contained within the con- 
struction as shown in the plan, Fig. Z03. 

The Back of the Cabinet 

The back of the cabinet consists of a construction frame with 
stiles the entire length and with top and middle rail. The bot- 
tom rail is raised from floor to be on a line with bottom frame 
"C" The frame consists of material 3 in. wide, with a rabbet 
on inner side to receive thin filling in the panels. While the 
carved claw feet make a very desirable base treatment, the 
shape of the foot "E" may be used without the carved detail, 
although a trial block may demonstrate that you have more 
skill than you think in this direction. After the block is sawed 
out both ways to shape, mark out the five toe points and cut in 
the deep gullies by a very quick curve gouge, or large V tool, 
then proceed to give the rounded form by using a low curve 
gouge giving form and expression to each division and finally 
imitating the claw in front of each ball. Amateur effort in 
carving will show^ less in imitating a bear claw by not attempt- 
ing fine detail, rather let it be reasonably rough and rugged to 
indicate strength, which is the purpose. 

The Clock in the Folio Case 

The beveled rim shown by the two diameters on the middle 
panel of the upper door was produced on a large lathe, screwing 



a I 5-16-in. board to the face plate and turning a flat bevel from 
io>^ to 7 in. in diameter doun to within % of an inch of back, 
when the inner part was removed by sawing out on a jig saw. 

Fig. 204. — General View of Folio Case. 

The panel was then fitted with a tongue on each end and the 
stiles with corresponding grooves, the three parts being glued 
up and faced off smooth and fitted with hinges to swing like 
lower door. 

A good clock works was secured back of an etched copper 
dial plate. The clock figures were from stock pattern in cast 

The cabinet has been considered up to its final completion as 
an open case, and it now remains to provide at least fifteen light 
loose panels ^^ x 1 1 >^ x i7}i '^^- of bass, or white wood, which 
when sanded all over should immediately be shellacked to keep 
them straight. These are the "unit" divisions which are sup- 
ported on four hardwood 5-16 in. dowel pins on both sides of the 
cabinet. The boring of the holes should be done before the 
cabinet is put together, boring them at a vertical distance of 3>^ 


in. centers and to a depth of ^-in. Pins may be sawed 1 3^8 ^^■ 
in length and round pointed. After your loose-leaf matter finds 
a temporary resting place on these sliding panels, later rear- 
rangement will naturally follow, when neatly printed labels can 
be glued to the panel edge, indicating that particular shelf panel 
is for certain pamphlets, another for catalogues, another for 
plans. One or more should be set aside for the use of the family, 
upon which may be stored from time to time the really beautiful 
and meritorious pictures, poems or other instructive matter 
which might be removed from magazines or other sources. The 
children should have a shelf or two for their cut-outs, their bird 
and nature pictures. Make it a cabinet not only of "last re- 
sort, "' but an ever available consulting point for every one, and 
when once installed, there will be no doubt of its value to all. 



T is a fact that cannot be gainsaid that we are, and 
probably always will be, creatures of habit. The 
point is well illustrated by Rover who, after the 
plate is cleaned, moseys back of the stove to rumi- 
nate; the old gentleman retires to the kitchen cor- 
ner for his after-dinner smoke and the children rally about the 
sitting-room table with their books and games, while Mary at 
the piano gives a quickened impulse for the evening's enjoyment. 
We are happily getting over the habit, however, of eating in a 
chilly dining room where there are just table, chairs and one 
helpful or admonishing motto on the wall. A uniform tempera- 
ture now as a rule pervades all rooms and the mother takes 
pride in all her dining-room possessions; the china closet holds 
safely all her valuable breakables and the plate racks about the 
walls display the ware and family plate. The children have 
helped purchase suitable articles for the sideboard, so where 
else could the home feeling be more strengthened than about the 
table of such a congenial room? 

Pretense, expense and extravagance may readily be evidenced 
in the sideboard, for this is a matter to be individually dealt with 
as befits circumstances. Without doubt many dining rooms 
would look better with a sideboard less lavishly designed and the 
form and detail more in keeping with other articles about the 
room. Many a woman you know will keep saving her ' " stamps' ' 
or go without an extra occasion dress to buy a certain showy 
sideboard which afterward does not keep company with the old 
chairs and table; in fact it stands out too much in relief that is 







It may be with some people the plain is little sought after, but 
in furniture the plain has the stamp of quality and is growing in 
favor, looking just right wherever it is placed. All the attention 
it is given in dusting and after-polish tends to improve its ap- 
pearance. Fig. 205 the reader may see is severely plain — on 


Fig. 205. — Front and End Elevation of Sideboard, Showing Dimensions of Various Parts. 

paper — and for this reason it is offered as a model, for within 
its measurements other forms lighter or more ornamental may 
be drawn embodying also features or compartments according 
to individual needs. Right here consult the lady of the house, 
for you are not supposed to know how few folds she may put 
into her table cloths, and the top drawer is intended for this 
purpose, giving as much space as possible. This drawer is the 
width between outside pilasters and carries with it when open a 
false cap — a portion of the middle pilaster. The drawers at the 
bottom run between the three pilasters and can afterward be 
partly subdivided for small tableware and table linen. The 
disposition of large space between drawers may also be made 
"elastic" by notched shelve strips in each corner to accomm.o- 
date two shelves regulated by the height of the dishes or silver- 
ware intended to be placed therein. 


It is a matter of fancy or later addition whether a back board 
be secured on top or some form of hanging shelves be added in 
keeping with the style of the lower case work. A broad sheet of 
beveled plate mirror glass gives tone and a reflecting surface for 
all the cut glass one expects to buy for the house as time goes on. 
It is a sort of rising barometer of a couple's prosperity. 

The back consists of a one-mullion framing of J^ x 4-inch ma- 
terial paneled with ^ g-inch clear matched and beaded boards. 
The framing over which the lower drawers slide also has a mul- 
lion or rail and a straining rail or board joining the middle pi- 
laster to the back framing. There should be no division back of 
the middle pilaster in the cupboard proper. The bottom of the 
cupboard over the lower drawers should be particularly clear 
and carefully smoothed over for the after-finish. The long top 
drawer slides over an open framing similar to the bottom frame. 
The use of a neat three-corner strip is recommended here and 
under similar supporting places, well glued and bradded. Under 
the bottom framing in the corner the stock should be built up by 
gluing in corner blocks substantial in character for heavy casters. 
Heavy corner blocks should also be glued in the corners of the 
pilasters and the ends on the opposite side of the drawers. 

For this style of case plain, solid cast brass hardware should 
be used, the new "brush finish" or "satin finish" adding greatly 
to its final appearance. It is recommended here to provide each 
drawer on the bottom in the middle with a wide-tongued sliding 
strip corresponding with a grooved strip glued to the under 
framing. This when carefully fitted avoids the sticking of the 
drawers and allows of their being readily pulled with one hand. 

The use of veneers for the under panels will undoubtedly be 
the most satisfactory for strength and a fine display of figure or 
quarter should be used. Where veneer can be obtained it is 
evident that by using the thick whitewood rotary cut veneer 
as a "filler," say Ya, inch thick, facing the inner side to be with 
rotary cut and the outer side with a select figure of sawed or 
sliced veneer, a cheaper and more durable panel will result. 
The whitewood filling should run crosswise with the oak veneers. 



The use of veneers has grown so general that there should be 
little difficulty in obtaining flat or curved veneer panels in many 
sections of the North, South and West, made up to order. As 
an equipment of heavy presses, however primitive they may be, 
is required for gluing surfaces of large extent, it is not recom- 
mended to attempt anything of this kind unless with serious 
intent of making many articles where veneers could be used to 
cheaper advantage. A more attractive and well matched figure 
would result for such a handsome piece as this sideboard by 
using plain oak or inferior grade for the top and facing it with 
well selected sawed veneer, which in a finished condition would 
have every indication of representing the board to be high grade. 

The pattern shown in Fig. 206 has been prepared with the 
idea of showing the buffet, so-called, and which shorn of the top 
trimming and lower drawer would make what is generally sold 
as a serving stand — two pieces which will suit modest require- 


Fig. 206.— The Buffet. 

ments. The serving stand, however, does duty in a well equip- 
ped establishment as an adjunct to the sideboard. 

The size of the buffet or serving stand appeals naturally to 
those occupying small homes, and for this reason they are ex- 


tensively sold to flat dwellers. The buffet illustrated may be 
made to do greater service by putting the lower drawer 3 inches 
from the floor and building within the intervening space a two- 
glass door cupboard, which would truly make it as a miniature 
sideboard of great use and beauty. The sketch, Fig. 206, is 
sufficiently explanatory in its outward form to dispense with a 
detailed description. The legs are i 15-16 x i-inch material 
with end board of same thickness jointed and flush faced. The 
top and end material is i inch dressed, the drawer fronts and 
mirror framing may be J^-inch dressed. 

The framing between the drawers and a similar framing under 
the large lower drawer, which does not show, are made without 
panels 3 inches in width with one middle stile. The back may 
be neatly filled with any thin material. 

Plain turned drawer knobs in wood with sunk brass escutch- 
eons would look well. 

A wax or oil rub gives a refined finish which will be far more 
satisfactory than maintaining a high polish. 

Dining Room Table 

The dining table is the central object in the study of the dining 
room, and just how much attention will be given this piece of 
furniture will depend upon circumstances, for it is desirable to 
have a table that is "elastic," accommodating either the slow 
growth of a family or the sudden dropping in of your wife's 
brother's family, or mayhap making it under other conditions 
small and cozy. This feature of pulling apart the main con- 
struction or contracting it is usually pretty thoroughly covered 
by patents and so well made that it probably would not be 
profitable to make a similar device. If, however, a person in 
already in possession of a dining table it might be well to remove 
the expanding and contracting device and apply it to such a 
table in contemplation. The round top table is now more m 
evidence than the square top and is no doubt more to be desired 
by the housewife in the setting and general effect. 

In the illustration, Fig. 207, is shown a modern pedestal table 
which may be equipped with the usual sliding device under all 
dining tables. The more massive tables frequently have a 



small turned or square center leg, which when the table is closed 
to the minimum size is completely enveloped by the hollow 


Fig. 207.— Modern Pedestal Dining Room Table. 

pedestal. The method of constructing this table is sufficiently 
shown in the illustration to preclude the necessity of any extend- 
ed comment. The rim under the top is generally steamed and 
bent to shape, although many makers saw kerf at frequent in- 
tervals and over a drum or form glue and clamp on a face veneer 
yi inch thick. When this has been edge-surfaced fasten to the 
glued up top by means of screws at frequent intervals sunk in 
counterbored holes. On the inside place corner blocks glued at 
intervals. The two pieces are exact halves of the surface, either 
48 or 54 inches in diameter, with the edges treated with a plain 
mold. The intervening and loose "leaves" are squared to the 
length of the top diameter and provided on one edge with 7-16 
inch pointed dowels projecting ^ inch. The opposite edge of 
each leaf is bored with holes corresponding in position to the 
dowels, each hole having the edge countersunk to permit of the 
pins readily centering. 

The square pedestal is best described by calling for a mitered 
box 24 inches long by q inches square of well figured stock care 
being given to place the figure to view. This box should be re- 
inforced on the inside by stout corner strips set in glue. On the 
lower end lay out to insert by exact fitting the 4 feet of the table 



at an angle of 45 degrees. On each corner provide the lower 
edge with a plain suitable mold, then remove the fitted legs and 
saw the pedestal from end to end in the middle. This had best 
be done on a rip saw. Now the feet may be glued and inserted 
in their proper places and fortified by corner blocking, and with 
screws well directed to produce as near as possible the equiva- 
lent of a mortise in solid wood. 

The Plate Rack 

The hanging plate rack, Fig. 208, until recently has been 
an expedient of what the permanent wall melding is for 

Fig. 208.— Plate Rack. 

the same purpose. Even with this there is a liability of 
the housewife continuing to acquire more fancy dishes than 
closet or wall molding will and the rack proves to be a 
desirable adjunct. The two end views shown in Figs, zoq and 
2 1 o, together with the sizes given will readily suggest other out- 
lines. Frequently small brackets on the outside are worked in 
the construction as a lodgment for a particular mug stein or odd 
shaped piece. In this, as in all such work, the embodiment of 
that which is particularly fitting to one's personal requirements 
puts the work on a different plane. The question will arise 
among one's friends — your helpless friends, those who do not 



know how to do things — where did you get it? who made it? 
what made you think of it? etc. You who are able to wield the 
tools of the wood trade can easily excite enthusiasm of a sub- 
stantial character, for it is a time when patrons are easily culti- 


...^ jf. 

Fig. 209 and 210.— Suggestive Outlines for Ends of Plate Rack. 

vated if you can offer them something that fits their needs and 
is given an individual stamp. 

Swing Top Table 

The swing top table, or "English breakfast table," is pa- 
ticularly useful in more ways than as a dining room accessory. 
The writer has found such a table constructed from his draw- 
ings most serviceable for writing and the ample surface it 
gives in laying open many papers makes it more desirable 
often times than the more restricted writing desk. This table, 
Fig. 211, proves to be the embodiment of utility and when out 



of service with the top swung into a vertical position it is just 
one of the pieces to break the angularity of a room, for with the 
tripod form of base one 
foot can be placed to the 
wall corner and the top 
shown to the front as a 
presented shield. This 
particular top led to a 
happy thought as to the 
disposal of a certain rare 
piece of ash burl veneer of 
an unusual size, or, more 
correctly stating the fact, 
the possession of the ve- 
neer required thought as 
to how best to use it 
its full surface, and 



oval table top was 

Fig. 211.— Swing Top Table. 

result. The shaft consists of a turning from lyi inch 




Fig. 212.— Under View of Table Top.— The Part D Represents Side 
View of Batter Showing Position of Dowel Hinge C and Catch B. 

squared stock. This draw to your own fancy, bearing in mind 
that a long, smooth, plain part with few finicky dips and knuck- 


les will be most satisfactory. The post stands, with the three 
feet attached, 17 yi inches to the squared top, upon which is se- 
cured with four screws a block i inch in thickness shaped at the 
end and the width of the post, as shown at A of Fig 212. At 
the straight end of this block is secured by two screws a i-inch 
straight round pin, C, which has been previously inserted in 
corresponding holes in the lengthwise battens, as shown at D. 
The table top operates on this pin, permitting it to be turned to 
a vertical position if desired to stand somewhat out of the way. 
In order to lock it in a level position a turn block of maple se- 
cured at B and operated as shown at D securely holds the top 
against the projection of the immovable block A. To deter- 
mine the position of the two holes in the battens the top should 
be set squarely in the middle over the post, when the hole center 
may be marked and the battens removed for boring. 

Make sure that the stock for the table top is perfectly dry. 
This should consist of not more than three widths selected to 
have the joints match well. After gluing reduce to a full inch 
in thickness and fasten with glue and screws immediately, the 
two cross battens. Furthermore, if possible put on the first 
finishing coat in order to doubly guard against any chance of 
warping while the other work is being carried on. The edge 
should be treated to a half round mold, an ogee or a part half 
round with a slight undercove mold. 

The Dining Chair 

The pattern shown in Fig. 213 is offered because it is little 
seen in furniture stores selling at a popular price and is a type 
more made to order, with specially selected upholstery covers. 
It is viery true in furniture that the solid and substantially plain 
is expensive. Good reason why if one is able to produce such 
work that he confine his efforts to that which will always sat- 
isfy — the plain and direct in construction. 

Two ways of treating the back and seat are indicated, the 
leather on the back and the heavier padded seat being the more 
desirable but more expensive treatmen:. One may choose to 
make the back with three flat splats, as shown, and the flatter 



padded seat, and at some future time change the style of the 
chairs by the more sumptuous over-stuffed treatment, as shown. 
This chair without the upholstery in the back could be fitted 

3 1 

Fig. 213. — Front and Side Views of Dining Chair. 

with a I -inch saddle shaped seat if no upholstery is desired. 
Should the chair be made for an all-over covered seat, as shown, 
the front seat and rear rails may be of some solid inferior wood. 
Before the final gluing the edges of the legs and back posts and 
top of strainer rails should be treated to a decided chamfer. 
Di not fail to reinforce the seat rails by corner blocks firmly 
fitted, glued and screwed. 

One or two arm chairs will be a desirable part of a set of dining 
chairs. With this particular pattern, and as would apply to 
most any arm chair, the front should measure 4}i inches wider 
and the back 3^2 inches wider than the dining chair, and the 
depth of the seat 2)4 inches, with the back post 2 inches higher 
than the diner. The front leg is extended to the curved front 
post, as shown in Fig. 214. In laying this out on the drawing 
aim to combine the arm and post so that the scroll end does not 



project beyond the face of the post, as it is annoying to have the 
arm strike the table. The top of the arm joins the back post 
1 1 yi inches from the top of the seat rail. The arm is secured 

Fig. 214. 

-Side View of Arm Chair. 

from stock 3>^ x i8>^ x 2 inches in width. Finish the top with 
a low round dressing. The front and back posts from the seat 
down should be i ^ inches square. 


The upholstery admittedly gives tone to such a pattern as 
shown in Figs. 213 and 214 and this work is not very difficult. 
Assuming that the back and seat are allover covered, the 
manner of giving a workmanlike edge to the seat is by fitting 
and nailing a J^-inch dowel on the seat rails, as shown. Miter- 
ing the three pieces at the front corners with the slight overhang 
as shown in the side view of Fig. 2 1 3 gives when covered a de- 
sirable effect, as will be understood from an inspection of the 
front view. On the bottom of the seat rail stretch very tightly 
burlap upholstery bands, weaving them from side to side and 
from front to back so that a solid cover is formed. This is done 


by heavy tacks, doubling the ends before nailing. Upon this 
surface evenly space six double upholstery springs and with a 
curved upholstery needle and twin sew them in this position to 
the burlap. From the top rail nail down with a staple and knot- 
ted end of heavy cord and begin tying down each spring from 
side to side and front to back. This must be done with an eye 
to the form of seat — that is, having the outer springs pressed 
down more than the center ones and maintaining that crowned 
form peculiar to all chair seats. 

First efforts may not prove entirely satisfactory and the work 
should be cut out and done over in order to secure a well bal- 
anced frame work, upon the top of which lay a piece of bagging 
or burlap cut a little larger than the frame and from the back 
proceed to tack over the cord work. When fastened along the 
back railing pull over and tack along the front rail, turning one 
edge in double, then in like manner the seat and finally tack 
down the other side. The work should now loo . balanced and 
not too highly crowned. Herein a little observation and judg- 
ment should be used to decide this part of the work. Upon the 
top of this covering is placed a generous quantity of well picked 
hair. Mold this about to the form as much as possible and with 
the curved upholstery needle secure it by a few well placed 
stitches so that it will not shift in after use. A sheet of cotton 
batting is very often used — laid upon the hair — and the work is 
then ready for the leather covering. Brown Spanish leather 
should be used for the covering. In order to ascertain the cor- 
rect size a trial should be made, using some cheap material, 
stretching and tacking it sufficiently with small tacks, which may 
easily be afterward removed, and then a paper pattern can be 
cut for use in securing the leather without waste. The smaller 
headed nails are proper should the very large nail be found too 
expensive. Whatever nail is used aim to so place the four or 
five tacks on each rail that they will be finally hidden by the 
heads of the finishing nails. 

Now start the leather from the back and proceed to place a 
few starting tacks along the back rail and then finally pull for- 
ward, meanwhile pressing with the hand. Pull down over the 


dowel edge and secure with four or five tacks along the lower 
edge of the front rail. Then after cutting out a corner of the 
leather against the back post double and tack neatly about the 
post and proceed to form down to the side rail. Then secure the 
other side in a similar manner. Possibly a smart blow with the 
hand will be necessary to correct any unevenness before the 
cover is at last held to place. The finishing tacks should now be 
correctly spaced and driven to place. At the corner a small 
square should be cut out to avoid an extra lump at that point. 

In concluding the subject of furniture pertaining to the sitting 
room, parlor and dining room the matter of stain and finish has 
been treated in detail in other chapters. The finish which 
continues to be popular is the dull finish with which every one no 
doubt is familiar and which is exemplified in connection with the 
so-called "mission," "quaint," "arts and crafts" furniture, 
while the color is under as many more terms — "weathered," 
"Antwerp," "cathedral," etc. Fumed oak, however, which is 
standard and generally seen under wax finish, is a most pleasing 
tone. Such a finish will always be satisfactory and its appear- 
ance will be improved every time it is rubbed over with a cloth. 

China Cabinets and Tea Cart — Certain Well Established Needs — 
Great Help to the Housewife 

Very frequently provision for placing and displaying choice 
table ware, and cut glass in the built-in sideboard is inadequate, 
and also without proper light to show to good advantage the 
features of some newly acquired bit, for it is well-known that a 
woman is about as eager for a new plate or bowl as a boy is to ac- 
quire some strange foreign postage stamps to add to his col- 
lection. The chief aim then will be to have the parts trimmed 
down as light as possible consistent with strength, for there 
should be no great barrier of framed woodwork to obstruct the 
view ; rather will it be a set of frames set up in case-like form con- 
taining well selected sheets of glass; in fact, many cabinets have 
the shelves of 5-16 in. plate glass, which adds much to the display 
of cut glass ware, and in place of the plain paneling of the back 
filling, a full sheet of mirror is often used to apparently multiply 
and add to the brilliancy of the displayed ware. 



Fig. 2 1 5 consists of practically four frames, the sides and back 
being blind screwed to a top and bottom board each 1 5^ x 30^ 
X J^i in. and a finished panel 5 in. wide fitted on the back edge as 
shown. The entire case is raised on a simple form of square 
cabriole leg in front, obtained from a block 4^ in. square, sawed 

out in shape as suggested 
from a pattern made from 
your drawing. The back 
foot is 4>2 in. long by 2 
in. square, slightly tap- 
ered. Both feet are at- 
tached by two dowels each, 
set in glue and further 
fortified by corner blocks 
placed in back where they 
will not show. 

Before the door has been 
laid out on your drawing, 
allow for a ^ in. wide 
strip set in under the top 
board. All these frames 
may be made up to have a 
finished size of stiles and 
rails of ^4 X 2 in. The 
inside edge is rabbeted 
to take a good grade of 
single thick glass, and deep 
enough to allow the glass 
to be set in with a neat 
^4 or 3- lb in. square strip instead of putty. The filling of 
back frames, shown in Figs. 215, 216 and 217, may be of well 
selected tongued and grooved material, or some of the new 
brands of composition board may be covered with veneer paper, 
if a regular laid-up veneer panel cannot be conveniently secured. 
The shelves can be fixed permanently at even spacing or frequent 
holes bored on the inside of the frames into which the little metal 
shelf rests may be used as in bookcases. 

Top s "BoT Tom 
Fig. 215. — One Form of China Cabinet. 



In laying out a preparatory drawing for Fig. 2 1 6, consider ttiat 
the top and bottom board is secured by four i yi in. square posts 
placed within 17x40 in. The back post, it will be observed, 


Fig, 216.— Another Style of China Cabinet. 

sets under the top shelf and the front slightly projects above. 
Place on the ends a 3 in. cross rail under the top shelf and in 
front of the lower shelf, while a rYi in, apron goes across in 
front of bottom board, and under doors. 

Before provision is made for the shelves, )4-in. strips are glued 
and secured with headless brads to the inside of the posts at the 
side, against which the side glass is set in and held on the other 
side by y^-in. strips, also invisibly secured by glue and brads. 
The front doors have a full sheet of glass up to the muUion under 
the glass panel divisions. The top rail cut out in the three-arch 
manner may have one piece of glass set in across and behind the 



lijx 24 

two divisions, if it is found difficult to cut the glass to the round 
shape, although an ordinary ten cent glass cutter will readily cut 
this. The cutter is run around a stiff pasteboard pattern with 
a firm hand and then tapped from the back of the glass until it is 
severed. Material :?4^-in. thick is used for doors, top and bottom 
to be J^ in. while the shelves may be ^ or ^ in. thick, well 

Fig. 2 1 7 will be found to be a very dainty shape in the size 
given — I 5 X 24 in. — but this width may be doubled if the style is 

desired for a more roomy cabinet. 
This size will be found more effec- 
tive than a larger cabinet often- 
times when placed in a certain 
wall jamb or put diagonally in a 
corner. This, too is built some- 
what in the same manner as Fig. 
2 lb within four lYi in. square 
posts, except it has a 3^-in. apron 
framing under the top finished be- 
tween posts by some simple suit- 
able molding as suggested, the 
apron to be set 3^ in. back from 
face of posts. The back frame 
and front door frame is made of 
^4^ X 2 in. material for stiles and 
bottom rail and in your drawing 
plan to make the top rail a full half 
circle with sun ray effect as shown, 
the strips or ribs having an exposed 
width for this interior framing 
of Yi in. The larger and lower 
part of door consists of three 
long divisions of glass. 

This door treatment is an easy suggestion of many modifica- 
tions that can be given which are now so popular, influenced 
greatly by the practice of Chippendale, and later so much used 
by Colonial cabinet workers. An arched top rail may be made 



FiG. 217.— A Dainty Pattern 
of Cabinet. 


for the sides to conform to the arch of the front, leaving out the 
grille work. To reduce the cost of a full mirror back panel, if 
mirrors are desired, the back framing may be divided by cross 
rails which are spaced to go back of the shelf division , and four 
mirrors may occupy the place of the usual wood paneling. 

In order to reduce the thickness of shelf edges without re- 
ducing the thickness, mold the ends and front edges with a wide 
ogee mold, which when adjusted in place, molded side down, 
resting on shelf supports, cause them to have a very light ap- 
pearance. Provide also on the upper side of shelves two well 
cut grooves one i in. and the other 2 in. from the back edge. 
These are to stand plates on edge, preventing them from falling. 
The new style of cabinet door handle will be the proper thing for 
such cabinets, consisting of a plain half hoop brass handle with 
a small thumb knob above, which when pressed in, releases a 
positive spring catch. This is more to be desired than escutch- 
eon knob and key. 

Tea Cart 

It is not so very many years ago that if real "plain folks" 
were seen using a tea cart they would be regarded by certain 
neighbors as "putting onairs" or getting "tony. " Considering 
the many articles which have heretofore been classed among the 
luxuries of life the tea cart when used will be found to greatly 
lighten the labors of the housewife, particularly if she is at- 
tempting much or all the labors of the home. From the kitchen 
many meals may be carried entire, while there will be a great 
reduction in the labor of removing the dishes and at the same 
time it gives the housewife greater composure at the table that 
her dessert prepared before the meal needs only to be wheeled 
to her place at the table by some other member of the household. 

This is one of the many items of conserved energy which our 
women are adopting and it will not be long before few homes 
will be without a tea cart, and where the outdoor life on porch 
and lawn is being given so much attention the tea luncheon is 
readily carried about on the cart wherever desired. 



In Fig. 2i8 is shown a tea cart which provides ample space for 
the needs of an average family. It may be found on looking 
over this illustration that it would be desirable to provide other 
features. Some have a knife box arranged under the tray be- 
tween the handles, but whatever these additions may be, aim to 
embody them in the preparatory detail drawing which should 
always be made. This drawing does not need to be elaborately 

Fig. 218.— Details of a Modern Tea Cart. 

19^" 5 

Fig. 219. — Details of One of the Pusher Supports. 

detailed, as the main thing is to obtain the constructional out- 
lines or boundaries and whatever bevels will be required to know; 
also to draw any part of the varying forms, such as the pusher 
supports, shown in Fig. 2 iq that it came from a board 14, x 4% 


X iq% in., then trace this on a heavy piece of paper, so that it 
can be cut out to the mark on the prepared board for sawing out, 
the two being sawed out together if done on a band saw. 

Considering that the removable tray on top is made first we 
will proceed to construct the cart to hold it. The tray having 
an outside measurement of 14^ x 22 in. sets in another frame 
17 X 243:4 in. which is screwed to the frame of the cart through 
the under side of the side rails, the end rails providing a rest- 
ing place for the tray. The plan of the rails and four posts 
of the cart will be found to be 16^ x 15 in. This detail being 
known it will not be difficult to proceed with drawing up the 
rest of the cart from the measurements given. 

The wheels may be made in several ways but the form con- 
structed after the manner of a wagon wheel will give the great- 
est satisfaction. A drawing should be made of this. The di- 
ameter of the wheel for this cart is 14 in., including yi in. rubber 
tire such as is used on a child's carriage. This tire is not ab- 
solutely essential and I mention this in case it is not readily ob- 
tainable. A piece of very heavy felt or flat band of rubber glued 
on neatly in a similar manner to the rubber on a band saw 
wheel will answer. The felloe should be not less than Y% in. in 
tread and ^ in. wide jointed in the same manner as in a wagon 

The spokes are worked to an oval and round shape from a Y% 
in. square and are fitted into a ry^ in. hub with a long tenon. 
Avoid turning the hub of a pattern which will project too greatly 
on the outside of the wheel as it should be just a low round to 
avoid striking the door jambs. Have the journal bearing in the 
hub bored and counter-bored to receive the nut on the axle in a 
flush manner. The axle which is held by screws to the bottom 
of the under shelf should be Y% in. square with a 2>^ in. journal 
and proper washers at each end of the hub. 

The wheels should represent careful workmanship and if it is 
possible have them so that they can readily be detached by a 
spring catch on the axle and an inserted flange bushing within 
the hub rather than the old style of threaded axle and nut which 
too frequently allows grease to collect on the outside of the hub. 


The new "steel glides" or "domes of silence" will be found 
very smooth terminations driven in on the bottom of the front 
legs. These are now largely supplanting the unsightly and 
objectionable casters on most all kinds of light furniture. 



The Bedroom 

N other chapters the principal main floor rooms of 
the dwelling have been considered; the sleeping 
room however, while less elaborately furnished, 
should be given our careful attention in that it 
should be simply furnished, the furniture being 
free from excessive ornament in the way of carvings and elabo- 
rate moldings, for the aim should be to show the beauty of the 
grain of the wood under a tinting or stain that needs no exces- 
sive drapery to set it off. 

As the "Mission" style, or now properly known as the "Arts 
and Crafts, " is very much in favor, Fig. 220 is offered as a sug- 
gestion on which to work. The size intended is 4 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 

220.— Bedstead with Chest. 

4 in. long, with the back 51 in. and the foot 41 in. in height. 
It would be well to get other points and information from a 
standard bedstead. The posts are 2>^ in. square; top rails lyi 




in. X 2 in. and tine splats yi in. thick, witii edges and openings 
smootl-ily sanded. The chest is framed into the front posts as 
shown, with the lid lifting. This will 
be found very convenient for extra 
sheets or blankets. Naturally no cracks 
or crevices should be allowed to go un- 
filled in any bedroom furniture, so for 
this purpose a mixture of glue and saw- 
dust will be found good to "putty" into 
all such places previous to finishing. 

Little need be said concerning the 
side table shown in Fig. 221, which 

Fig. 221.— Bedroom Table. 

will always be found serviceable 
for a clock, lamp or book. The 
top is 1 7 in. in diameter and stands 
2q in. from the floor; the posts 
being i Y^ in. square. A suggestion 
is made here which would turn 
this pattern to double use by box- 
ing in three sides to a height of 10 
in. above the bottom shelf and pro- 
viding the fourth side with a 
hinged door, and a top over all, 
thus making a suitable bedroom 
commode stand if so desired. 

The value of the clothes stand 
and costumer heretofore has been 
little appreciated, the apparatus 
consisting usually of a few hooks 
here and there, or a chair seat 
and back was utilized to hold the 
clothes discarded for the day. 
Either method gave little chance 


Fig. 222.— a Clothes Stand. 



for proper airing or an easy disposal of them to the hallway 
or unused room for the night. 

The arms entering the standard transversely as shown in Fig. 
222 permit of eight double hooks 
being used; a 12-inch dowel 
may be centered just above the 
braces for hosiery. The total 
height of the stand is 62 inches. 
The intersecting base is halved 
with the standard entering joint 
with a ^-inch tenon, well fitted 
and glued. The braces may be 
doweled to the standard and 
secured to the base by screws 
from underneath, counterbored. 

Nine pegs are indicated in Fig. 


223, although the number and dis- 
position is entirely optional, the main 
I % I [ point being to stagger their position 

1 % ■ so that one garment will not overlap 

li % fl\ . another when hung up. The posts 

and arch are made of i>^ x 2 in. 
material, the posts being q in. apart 
and the distance from the fioor to top 
of arch measuring 6 ft. The top 
cross bar measures 40 in. and the 
lower bar 30 in. in length, each is i 
X 2 in. wide, slightly halved out to 
fit the posts, the faces of posts and 
bars being rounded as shown. The 

base is i >2 x 2 x 6 x 24 in. raised at the corners by fiat turnings 

as shown, the pegs to project 4 in. 

Fig. 224.— Cheval Mirror. 



Occasionally a man may wish to view himself full length 
in his proud clothes — but a lady always — so a full length 
mirror must be a part of the furnishing, materially adding in its 
usefulness to the attractiveness of the room. In Fig. 224, the 
mirror shown, 20 x 52 in., is set in a frame of i)4 x 2 in., 
and swung within a stand consisting of i^ in. square posts 
mortised into bases 1^4 in. thick, and 21 in. long, and cut 
within a width of 4>^ in. according to this or similar pattern, 
the two parts being securely mortised and tenoned. The 
hanging pins may be turned in some hard wood, or be of 
metal, so placed, by experiment, between temporary posts to 
swing to stay either tipped forward or thrown back as wanted. 

The shoe and slipper chest might be dispensed with if no fur- 
ther use was made of it, but as the one shown in Fig. 225 is in- 
tended outwardly as a window seat it forms a finish to the room 
and a place to put on shoes, or keep in proper bounds shoes and 

Fig. 225. — Window Seat Shoe Chest. 

slippers when not in use. This chest is built of i in. material, 
the top and front side swinging forward to the floor on hinges as 
one piece when the chest is open, as shown. A corner bracket 
holds the top and front at each end. 

It will be noticed that the top of the chest is of panel con- 
struction, over which a light padding of cotton and hair may be 
placed in an even manner, this in turn to be covered by a piece 
of colored sheepskin cut somewhat larger than the exposed pan- 
el size, this to be neatly tacked down just within the outer 
framing by brass headed nails. 



Refinement in outline should be the first suggestion of the 
dresser. We think of it more as the ladies' work table, in fact 
there is little room left for the dear man to share it in. Possibly 
Sundays he takes a flash light of himself in the mirror to see that 
his outer rigging is extra satisfactory for an off day. In the il- 
lustration, Fig. 226, the Colonial style is uppermost. The after- 
finish is a delight to the eye and pleasant to the touch. With 
the figures given on the sketch no difficulty will be experienced 
in making the one-half drawing of the front elevation, and in 


Fig. 226. — Colonial Dresser. 

drawing the end view it is well to keep within an over-all width 
of 22 in., having for a back leg a i^/i-'^n. square post reduced to a 
slight taper. Between the front and back posts draw a framed 


panel, the width of framing being 3 in. — the panel, a well se- 
lected piece set in either a rabbet or a groove in the framing. A 
similar paneled construction constitutes the back. This should 
have one or two upright mull ions between the distance of the 
back posts, the frame and filling being of course of a cheaper 
wood. The first, second and bottom drawer divisions are simi- 
lar unfilled frames with a center mullion. The top frame is of 
the same character except that it shows a ^ in. projection over 
posts and is molded % round. This framing is glued and 
screwed onto the top, which is ^ in. longer on the ends and 
front, treated with a more than quarter round finish. 

We now have the various parts of the carcase to assemble ac- 
cording to the plan which should be prepared in connection with 
the front and end views, which will show just how much is to be 
cornered out on the drawer divisional frames to bring them into 
contact with the inside face of end and back framing, where at 
the proper place they are to be secured by diagonally counter- 
sunk screws, and further fortified by three-cornered glue blocks. 
The dividing board between the two small top drawers is now 
put in place and held by screws through middle mullion into 
bottom edge and glue blocked against back frame. The rein- 
forced top may now be put in position o\"er posts and brought 
down tight by screws diagonally placed through framing and 
also into post corners. The corner posts should not be reduced 
by the spoke sha\"e to a full quarter round, but in the final sand- 
ing and finish no evidence of flatness should be apparent. 

The drawers should properly be dovetailed and be made of 
exceptionally dry material. 

The stanchions are turned from stock i -''4 in. square, a square 
base being left to mortise with a i >^ in. cross bar immediately 
under swinging mirror. This mirror stanchion is held to top of 
dresser by a lag machine bolt secured in the ends of stanchion 
posts and passing through top of dresser to be held by a nut 
and washer. The beauty of the narrow mirror framing de- 
pends greatly on the even roundness given it, and when oak 
is used the display of quarter is everything here and on top, 
as well as on the drawer fronts. A\"oid selecting o\'erlarge 


and ornamental hardware, as the plain remains good through 
all changes in style. 

Convenient Bedroom Furniture 

It is a matter of progression rather than of unrest which cre- 
ates the desire to have about us much that is convenient and 
conducive to our comfort. The time was when the gourd dipped 
into the running stream or spring permitted the morning face 
wash right on the spot, or, later, with more shifting and appor- 
tioning of the precious fluid, the ablution was performed within 
doors. Time and even the wind mill have produced such a 
change that the small boy has no excuse to skip the wetting of 
his face because the pitcher is empty. The harnessing of the 
wind with a system of simple plumbing will give a city man's 
comfort to the ranchman on the plains. We, however, have not 
universally advanced to the time when cold, much less hot, wa- 
ter will be found in every room of a dwelling. Some have gone 
so far as to invite the pump into the kitchen, which seems by the 
way a more hospitable, as well as modern, show of civility than 
to leave it to freeze outside. 

For the rooms unprovided with the luxury of running water 
the portable wash stand, illustrated in Fig. 227, is suggested as a 
substitute for the permanent wash bowl and faucets. The main 
purpose is to avoid the always objectionable feature of lifting 
and emptying the contents of the bowl into the slop jar. This is 
accomplished, as shown in the engraving, by procuring a regular 
lavatory bowl and having a short length of drain pipe to enter 
the top of the cupboard, where the waste water is allowed to fall 
into a pail hidden from view by the cupboard door. In this 
inclosure may also be placed other articles objectionable to the 
order of the bedroom. It would be well to have a few apertures 
bored into the back paneling for the purpose of ventilation. 

The top of the stand may be made of almost any i}{-inch. 
material and covered smoothly with copper or zinc, the metal 
extending over the front edge and partly under the edge of the 
opening. The size of the hole should, of course, be determined 
after the bowl is obtained, as size, shape and make are apt to 



vary. The vessel, of sheet copper, for holding the water is 
readily constructed by a tinsmith and will add much to the 

Plan of Top 

Fig. 227.— Front Elevation and Side View of Portable Wash Stand. 

Stand when the finish is in fumed oak. The shape is a q- 
inch cylinder provided with 4-inch trunnions soldered on each 
end as axles to hang on the ends of the stand as shown in Fig. 
227. A grip handle makes it convenient to carry from the 



source of supply and the water may be directly heated in this 
vessel. Either an outlet, as shown, or a drinking fountain fau- 
cet may be provided. The material throughout, with the ex- 
ception of the bowl top, would make up well from y^ dressed 
boards; if it is to be the still prevailing fumed finish use plain 
oak; this is a wax finish desirable for such a piece of furniture 
subject to some extent to water marks. 

Another form of stand closing up entirely after using is repre- 
sented in Fig. 228 of the drawings. The construction consists 
of four 1 5^-inch square posts with paneled frames at the sides 







^ • 






' U- 

Fig. 228.— Front and End Views of Another Style of Wash Stand. 

and back and two swell paneled front doors conforming to the 
shape of the bowl top as shown. The inside of the lid and sur- 
face, as well as the edges of the bowl top, are to be covered with 
zinc or copper. Ample room will be found on the upper shelf 
for brushes, mugs and other articles of the toilet. 



An accessory to the wash stand is the towel stand, which is of 
infinite variety of form. The style shown in Fig. 229 is given as 
a companion piece to the wash stands presented in the preceding 
illustrations, and with the firm narrow base it occupies but little 

Fig. 229.— a Towel Rack or Stand. 

room. ' At right angles with the ^^-inch dowels two ^ x q-inch 
dowels may be set into the front of the post on which to hang the 
wash cloths. The post centers on a block J^s x 8 inches square. 

Bedroom Furniture 

Toilet conveniences — the modern dressing table — the shav- 
ing stand — the wash stand. 

Everything which adds to our comfort — assisting in our daily 
process of refinement — is certainly to be welcomed, and the few 
bedroom accessories which are here to be considered, in addition 
to some previously dealt with, should not be considered as more 
of vanity's machinery, but rather as furniture forms for the bed- 



room which meet the needs of the more modern exaction of the 
toilet. Our conventionaHties more than ever require the wife 
and daughter to look their best if not their prettiest, and the 
dressing or toilet table is the lady's work bench. Shaving 
among men is a daily matter of toilet and a compact and con- 
venient place for shaving articles soon creates a demand for a 
place other than the window sill or medicine cabinet. The 
open character of the present-day furniture appeals to the or- 
derly sense of the housewife, as it has recently from a cleanly 
reason appealed to the office man in the introduction of the so- 

FlG. 230.— General View of Toilet Table, 
called "sanitary desk" and other large articles of furniture 
which formerly were the means of harboring so much dust under 
the low-built structure. 

The Modern Dressing Table 

It will be noticed that the dressing tables shown in Figs. 230 
and 231 are quite approachable affairs from their open char- 
acter, and greater comfort and deliberation are to be given the 



hair dressing and other toilet operations by the use of the type of 
chair shown in front of the table in Fig. 230, which is distin- 
guished from other chairs by the low back and different height 
of seat. 

To the craftsman the construction of the articles shown in 
Figs. 230 and 23 i is obviously apparent and it is only necessary 
to call attention again as in former articles to the almost in- 

Fig. 231.— a Toilet Table or Dresser and Its Low Back Chair. 

variable use of what is referred to as a "construction frame" il- 
lustrated in Fig. 232. The outer size of this is determined on 
the detail drawing, for be it known that the worker should lay 
out some sort of drawing showing at least half of the length and 


width of the article. In this case the plan is determined by the 

size of the top, which is 20 x 34 in. Now in the drawing 20 x 1 7 

in. is sufficient to put in all needed 

detail of half the construction for 

purposes of location of posts, 

which in this and usual cases 

should set in ^ to ^ in. Then 

proceed to draw in on tie half Fig. 232.— Plan of Construction 
plan the position of the ^ in. side Frame, 

and back rails, together with the drawer front, which is also ^ 
in. thick. The rails should set in from the face of the posts 3^ 
of an inch. 

Having made this part of the plan, it will be easy to draw in 
this structural detail suggested in Fig. 231, the thickness for the 
ordinary case work for this frame being ^ in. and the width of 
both stiles and rails 2 or tyi in. Such a frame is usually jointed 
with dowel pins, and the corners to receive the posts cut out 
after the frame is made up, as indicated in Fig. 231. Here, 
again, as frequently happens, the front part of the frame is ex- 
posed to view, as will be noted under the drawer in Fig. 230, and 
this part of the frame must be of the same wood as the entire 
construction. Usually when it is not in view the frame is of 
bass wood. 

The "construction frame" is a means not only of giving a 
stiff construction, but also affording a place to secure sliding 
strips of a harder material upon which the drawers are to slide. 
The turned form of leg and mirror pillar shown to the right in 
Fig. 2 2q is offered as equally appropriate if the plain post is not 

Fig. 230 has the added attraction of the swinging side mirrors 
so much desired in dressing the hair. A certain delicate char- 
acter and finish should be given to the making of these mirror 
frames and material of J^ in. thick and having a finished width 
of 1 3^ in. will make frames amply strong, yet light in appear- 
ance. Make the rabbet for the glass 3^ in. deep and treat the 
face of frame to a low round shape. Cover back of framing 
with Yz ii^- paneling or veneer, neatly secured with round head 



brads. As thin stock is hard to secure, a certain quality of hard- 
pressed straw board is being used very generally for such pur- 
poses. The middle mirror is held and stiffened by two cleat 
strips screwed firmly to the frame and to the back rail of the 
table. Material pressed to a thickness of ^4 or 3-16 of an inch 
is universally used for most all forms of furniture, while post 
stock for the lighter carcases is secured from 1 34 to 2 in. squares, 
which when reduced to a finished size generally measure i ^ to 
1 3^ in. respectively. This allows for roughness or squaring up 
of other imperfections. The posts in Fig. 230 are dressed to a 
square of i }4 in. at the top and reduced to a curved taper of J^ 
in. at floor. 

As to the chair shown in Figs. 230, 232, and 233, it is a dis- 
tinct part of the table, and when not in use it is placed directly 
under the table out of the way. When in use the low back af- 


Fig. 233 and 234.— Details of Toilet Table Chair Shown in Fig. 231. 

fords sufficient back support, yet does not retard the use of the 
arms in dressing the hair — considerations which give these two 
pieces of furniture growing popularity among women. As the 


back posts of this chair are secured from a 14, in. board 2>^ in. 
wide, sawed to a pattern made from shape indicated, it will not 
be a difficult chair to make as the two posts are screwed to the 
seat in a vertical outside width of i z in. and square to the front. 

The curved and tapering front legs are obtained from i yi in. 
square stock and are secured by two dowels each to the under 
side of the seat, having an outside width of 15^ in. The 
stretchers are ^ in. square. 

The seat is of a solid or jointed board dressed to a thickness of 
1 3^ in. and hollowed out in the deepest part to ^ in., forming 
the saddle effect indicated. 

The top slat may be secured by using a draw-knife and spoke 
shave in producing an even sweep of J/g in. in depth in its length 
of 13 in., and by a pattern or template previously made, mark 
out the back curve to produce a curved slat which shall have an 
even thickness of % in. and have a finished width of 3 in. and 
length sufficient to project well over the shouldered-out ends of 
posts. After the chair is set up ready to receive the slat and 
banister the excess of length may then be marked and cut off to 
have an overhang of Y^ in. on outside of posts. Use a depressed 
screw on each post and fill up after with flush plugs. 

The banister may be flat, measuring 4 in. in width and % in. 
in thickness. 

Figs. 232 and 233 will give further information about the 
building of this chair, and in passing it may be mentioned that 
the same directions apply in building a reception, or light hall 
chair, except that the back would be continued to a customary 
height of 20 in. from top of seat, and 18 in. would be the height 
from floor to top of seat, instead of iq in. as shown. 

The Shaving Stand. 

The purpose in describing the dressing table was that with 
the comforts of the ladies so well provided for, you may go on 
undaunted in providing yourself with an equipment for the bed- 
room or the bathroom, which will make the operation of shaving 
a real pleasure. The shaving stand, Fig. 235, showing front 
appearance and side view, will, I am sure, house all a man's 
toilet articles, and from its light open construction permit him 



to move it about to secure favorable light. In these days of 
lighting by electricity a cord and a bulb stand will put the 
shaving operation into a real luxury. 


Fig. 235.— Front and Side Views of the Shaving Stand. 

For its height over all, of 66 in., the foot and shaft are in this 
instance made of 134 in. material, the shaft being tapered on 
four sides from bottom to top, to i yi in. square, where it is firmly 
doweled with a large long dowel to the ends of the case which 



are also \}i in. thick. This shaft properly, however, should 
continue through the center of these end panels and be planed 
off, and scraped smooth with the main surface. This method 
would give unquestionable strength and well pay for the added 
care of producing good work. 

Make use of the "construction frame" referred to in Fig. 231 
for constructive strength and for the drawer to slide upon. 

The mirror standards are made of i in. squares of well selected 
stock for strength and are secured in the manner shown. They 
can be left straight or given a taper as shown with a neatly 
turned ball at the end. The mirror frame is plain like a picture 
frame, with the top ornament added, such as the open pediment 
shown, or some other simple Colonial feature. The foot, while 
it may properly be left smooth and square edged in its final 
finish, may be safe- 
guarded from damage 
and mar in use by giv- 
ing the top edges a well 
rounded form. In place 
of the single swinging 
mirror a tripple form 
mirror similar to that 
provided for in Fig. 231 
is often desired for shav- 
ing operations. 

The Wash Stand. 

For guest room or a 
room not provided with 
running water, a wash- 
stand and somnoe will 
be found to be a most 
necessary form of fur- 
niture. Fig. 236 indi- 
cates sufficiently the 
construction and man- 
ner of making it. This 

Fig. 236. 

-General View of Wash Stand 
and Somnoe. 

form is very frequently in harmony 


with other furniture in a bedroom when made in basswood 
or maple and given an enamel or old ivory finish. A y^ in. 
plate glass is now much used for the top of such furniture, giving 
a surface easy to clean and permitting a lace or embroidered 
doily or scarf to be laid under as an added attraction of neatness 
and daintiness. 

Clothes Chests and Wardrobe 

The disposition and care of wearing apparel is an important 
one despite the fact that very frequently little attention is given 
to the subject by those having to do with the planning of homes. 
Men do not take this into serious account, and too often a house 
is turned over to the wife as a monumental gift of the husband's 
thrift and affection — a house of roomiS, with the usual meager 
closet allowance — in many instances a room or two without a 
closet, or one the depth of which is controlled by the size of a 
chimney stack, which must be there, and were it not there pos- 
sibly the closet of one room and that of the adjoining room 
would be minus also. This is a niggardly idea, cheating the 
occupant of that room ever after, and calling for some form of 
portable wardrobe, chest or chiffonier. This subject therefore 
is dedicated to the closetless many, the sufferings of whom only 
the housewife it seems will ever intelligently know about. 

Assuming a chimney jamb closet has a depth only sufficient 
to hang up garments of daily wear, time soon develops the ne- 
cessity of a place for extra garments, suits or dresses; the sit- 
uation is relieved by making a clothes chest. Should the room 
be of ample size such a chest may be after the old fashioned 
proportions; in other words, about the size and pattern of your 
grandfather's tool chest or the chest of some seafaring grandsire. 
These chests are coming into vogue, not only as the chest for the 
bride's trousseau, but they have a satisfying amplitude which 
no chiffonier ever possessed. The drawing. Fig. 237, illustrates 
the construction. Three or four easy fitting tills, Fig. 238, give 
ready access to the contents and relieve the pressure from such 
dresses and clothing that may have been put away ironed or 



The "unit system" so much in use in modern office fixtures is 
being applied to the development of present-day wardrobe fur- 

FlG. 237.— General View of Clothes Chest. 

niture, the predominant idea being that the outer casing or pro- 
tection is necessary, but the immediate accessibility of all parts 
within is of greater necessity. The objects sought are accom- 
plished by dividing the interior space with light removable tills 
or partitions, permitting garments of a certain kind or weight to 
occupy a certain till. There is no proof obtainable that red 
cedar repels moths or insects, but from its beauty and light 
weight it is to be recommended, as the same size of chest of oak 
or other hardwood becomes an unwieldly article to move about 
or transport from one place to another. 

Fig. 238.— Tray for Clothes Chest. 

The idea indicated in Fig. 238 suggests an easily removable 
till, the corners of which it would be well to dovetail, although 
glued up in box-like manner with neatly fitted triangular corner 



pieces would make a firm joint. The material for such a tray 
should be soft wood not over >^ in. in thickness, and the trays 
set one upon another. 

Restricted floor space in some bedrooms apparently prevents 
having a clothes chest, yet a very ample chest may be construct- 
ed after the manner indicated in Fig. 239. The height from the 
floor is shown, or rather it should be determined by the space 
from the bottom of the side bed rail to the floor ; 4 or 5 in. wheels 
sawed or turned from i in. stock are hung on projected axle 
stumps turned nicely to fit with a square left or inner end which 
is tightly mortised to the sides of the chest as shown. The 
chest then becomes a wheeled affair, permitting of its being 

Fig. 239.— Another Style of Cloth Chest. 

easily run under the bed out of the way and as easily drawn out 
for use. Two tills similar to that shown in Fig. 238 should be 
provided and made of a size to fit easily. The width and 
length for this form of chest may be greater if desired than that 
shown, thus permitting of the placing away of pressed trousers 
to the full length, also coat and vest laid out, few creases being 

Now the modern wardrobe is suggested. This should appeal 
particularly to the masculine mind, for it proves to be a mute 
valet looking after the master's clothes with unconscious care, 
for in its appointments it provides for and gives quick access to 
everything a man wears in the nature of outer garments, with 
tills for washable apparel. To make this case complete and 
convenient a generous supply of coat and trouser hangers should 



be purchased, otherwise the idea is somewhat defeated. A few 
single hangers for odd garments and two or three sets of the com- 
bined coat and trouser hangers permit of an entire suit to be 

Fig. 240.— Open View of Wardrobe. 

hung and withdrawn very readily, while occupying a minimum 
of space. As these articles are and have been written for the 
progressive carpenter it is useless to go over the standard form 
of case construction considered in former articles, and in dealing 
with the construction of the wardrobe we may be permitted to 
state that the carcase is built after the manner of all bookcases, 
wardrobes, etc. — that is, a frame and panel construction, back 
and sides, with solid top and bottom, doors being framed in the 
usual manner. 


It is quite necessary to draw up a one-half working detail, and 
from measurements given or setting down such measured 
changes as individual requirements suggest. The object aimed 
at when departing from given measurements is to reduce or en- 
large proportionately. The dimensions given are ample for the 
hanging of coats, vests and trousers or skirts at their full length 
in the division marked i, while 2 represents light removable 
tills or drawers for underclothes, shirts and laundered goods. 
These tills slide on thin parting cleats. The part marked 3 pro- 
vides two drawers for cuffs, collars and small dressing materials, 
while 4 will hold two or three hats. Immediately above 4 is a 
I in. space, which allows for a light mirror, 5, to be drawn out 
and turned up into the position shown for shaving or dressing 
purposes. A loose pin joint will readily suggest itself for with- 
drawing to a definite stop. 

In Fig. 240A is shown two turn balls and wooden or metal rod, 
which is secured to the door stiles of an opposite door not shown 
in the illustration. On the bottom door rail a wooden strip 
like that shown in Fig. 240B is fastened. These two parts 
provide for an umbrella rack, which closes in with the door of 
the clothes closet. A similar rod, like Fig. 240A, may be 
secured on the upper portion of a door for a rail upon which 
to hang ties. 

After staining and filling, the usual three-shellac and three- 
varnish coat finish is most desirable. The interior is usually 
oiled natural color, with three coats orange shellac and an after 
oil rub. 



The Bathroom 

O improvement has excited our desires for nicety 

more than the introduction of porcelain in the 

bathroom. It has put an entirely new aspect on 

the matter of personal cleanliness. We now aim 

to have every appurtenance in simple keeping with 

the chaste white tub and bowl — not to say we have hitherto 

shunned the room and skipped a bath now and then because the 

tub was of zinc. 

Despite predictions, the day has been postponed when metal 
and other material displaces wood entirely in the bathroom and 
kitchen of the modest home, however refreshing and in accord- 
ance with sanitary ideas, enamel and marble facing would be. 
The furniture, however, for the bathroom — whether fixed or 
portable — should be made with easy lines and smoothly rounded 
or plain flat surfaces; dust will always find lodgment in sharp 
angles and creased moldings, and become hard set by the vapor 
from hot water, and for this reason should not be a part of the 
baseboard and window trim. The bathroom has generally 
been the designated place for a medicine cabinet, and in later 
years it has been quite properly a thought-out part of the 
room, or rather a recessed portion of it, thus avoiding un- 
necessary projection and additional cleaning surface. 

Medicine Cabinets 

Figs. 241 and 242 are suggestions for the portable cabinet 
where no such built-in provision has been made, or where per- 
manency is not desired. The interior planning and arrange- 





- --^-r^-z— — -^1 1 







1 1' 

- "ISJ^- 



i. 6' 

ment of shelving will be left to individual requirements. The 
spacing of shelves should, however, be made with some refer- 
ence to the length of vari- 
ous sized bottles likely to 
find their way there in 
bringing up a family, con- 
taining remedies for the 
croup, to preventatives of 
nervous dyspepsia. The 
drop-down shelf shown 
under the cabinet in Fig. 
241 may be found of ad- 
vantage as a resting place 
in preparing mixtures. 
Back of this cover shelf 
may be fitted a nest of small drawers to receive staple rem- 
edies or powders, which should not be allowed to lay around 
promiscuously, and in passing, such a compartment should un- 
doubtedly have a lock, for too often deadly candy -like pills at- 

FlG. 241. — Front View and Section of 
Medicine Cabinet. 


Fig. 242.— Front and End View of Another Style 
of Medicine Cabinet. 

tract childish curiosity and fancy — press notices are frequent 
of death to children from finding coated pills on high shelves. 
The material for the designs shown in Figs. 241 and 242 



should be surfaced to %-in. in thickness. The back of such a 
cabinet would properly consist of a mortised framing with thin 
tongue and grooved paneling or a laid-up veneer panel inserted 
in rabbet. The door is suitably brightened by a beveled mirror 
as shown, although a bevel panel of selected stock would look 
well if mirrors are plentiful elsewhere. 

The door shown in Fig. 242 is treated with an arched frame 
and shaped mirror, while the spandrel treatment is made from 
yi or 5-16-in. material, jig-sawed to such a shape suggested, 
glued and braded to the door 
frame. This should be smoothly 
carved or molded in a full half 
round or oval manner, making it 
free and smooth to wipe over 
with a cloth. The consol or brack- 
et-like support will add very much 
to the appearance of Fig. 242. 

Whatever finish is given to 
medicine cabinets, the same care 
should be given to the inner sur- 
faces also. 

Towel Rack 

Fig. 243 shows an original sug- 
gestion for towels and wash 
cloths. It consists of turning ^y^ 
in. in thickness and 48 in. in the 
clear, with a ^-in. pin turned at 
each end which sets easily in cor- 
responding holes in wall supports 

as shown, thus allowing a swing 

^ ^ ^, , T^, ,, Fig. 243.— Pivot Towel Rack, 

movement to the rack. I he wall 

brackets may be of such a length not objectionably in the way. 

Other Shaving Stands 

The feminine portion of the household has heretofore had 
pretty much its own way, or rather, a man's brush and comb and 
shaving outfit had scant resting place on the dressing stand, and 


more frequently were placed on a window ledge or open bracket. 
To interest the man in having "a place for everything and every- 
thing in its place," as it should be, the drawings of shaving 
stands herewith shown in Figs. 244, 245, 246 and 247 may lead 
to turning over a new leaf and emancipating man from being 
of so small importance about the toilet room. You will notice 
that each one shown is solely for his use, as there can be little 
room for others moving in when once razor, strop and other 
necessities are put away, and re- 
awakened interest in making himself 
fine will return, for you know when a 
man gets around forty he is likely to 
forget himself for others. 

Considering first Fig. 244, the less 
pretentious of the four, this is designed 
as a table stand, or to go on some 
forms of dresser tops. Where the bath- 
room is small, as frequently is the case, 
a wall side giving the best light for 
shaving purposes, a swinging about 
device may be attached to bring the 
Fig. 244. — Small Shaving mirror before either natural or artificial 
^^^"^- light. The drawer is for shaving and 

other toilet articles. The mirror is centered and pivoted Vv ith 
somewhat tight-fitting turned pins, or provided with steel pins 
and ornamental thumb screws or wheels. 

A clean-cut outline of shaving stand is shown in Fig. 245, with 
a pivoted mirror at standing height. Access to the case is by 
lift-up lid, shown in detail A, which operates over the case shown 
in plan B. A lower shelf, one-half of 17 in. in diameter, is pro- 
vided which will be found useful. 

The three curved legs are secured from 1^x3^ in. -stock, 
slightly rounded on outer edges. The two bulged sides of case 
B may be secured from solid or glued-up stock, band-sawed or 
shaped out to a diameter of 17^4 -in. or two cauls representing 
one-half of a i/J^-in. circle may be made. Within these 
glueing cauls a curved veneered panel may be produced which 



for this purpose should have a thickness of about q/i6 in., 
usually five veneers consisting of the selected front veneer of 
I -20 in.; a 3^-in. for the second; a }i-in. for the third; a 3^-in. 
for the fourth, and a i-20-in. for the fifth and last veneer. The 

Fig. 245. — Shaving Stand, with Details of Construction. 

under veneers may be of an inferior character, generally such 
"filling" being of poplar, bass, elm, gum or chestnut. Poplar 
and elm, however, are the most satisfactory in holding their 
shape. The two cauls, concave and convex, can be cut from 
a squared glued-up block of pine or poplar about i in. greater 
in width than the veneer will be when trimmed. Scribe on the 


edge of the finished block the outer half circle and the inner 
circle, representing the space to be taken up by the pack of 
veneers. This block will have' to be sawed on a band saw 
following the two lines thus marked, and removing the equiv- 
alent of the veneer thickness. Before the cauls thus made 
are put to use as conforming blocks, coat the curved surfaces 
with raw oil or grease, allow it to soak in and then wipe off. 
This will prevent any excess glue from sticking or going through 
the veneers holding down the work when you are ready to re- 
move the pressure. 

The veneers should now be laid out on a table or bench in the 
order in which they are to be bent. In passing it might be re- 
marked that the all-important point to be remembered is that 
veneer work should be carried on in a very warm room, and 
everything coming in contact with the veneers, and the veneers 
heated to a decided warmth also; then with the concave caul 
uppermost in readiness, the first or outer veneer with grain hori- 
zontal is quickly brushed over with the hot glue, not too thick, 
and laid on a little in excess. Upon this the first filling, one- 
twentieth, with grain running horizontal. The upper surface 
of this is now treated in like manner to glue; then lay over this 
the M-in. veneer, grain vertical, apply glue to this, and lay on 
the other 3^-in. veneer horizontal, glue and follow by the fifth 
and last veneer, a 1-20, with grain running vertical. All this 
having been done without waste of time, or any draft playing on 
the work, lift the flat pack of veneers and press them into the 
concave caul, keeping them squared and reasonably well to- 
gether; then insert the warmed upper or convex caul and have 
ready some means of pressure which can be maintained for a 
period of 1 2 hours or more. For temporary purposes this may 
be effected by rigging up some form of lever which may be held 
down by a chain or notched timber in place of the more effective 
screw press used for such work. When proper time has been 
given for the veneer shell to dry, remove and trim to the 6-in. width 
required for the case. This curved panel can either be cut in 
two and parted by the front leg, as shown in B, or that leg may 
be relished out from behind and the full half circle of veneer be 



used. This will make a smoother inner surface to the case, and 
for this reason there is much to be said in favor of using laid-up 
stock for many forms of case work, while beauty of figure, low 
cost and strength are also in its favor. 

The curved mirror frame is 1 2 in. in diameter and shows an 
exposed wood rim of i in. in width. The frame is made of four 

Fig. 246.— Front and End Views of Toilet Shaving Stand. 

pieces, felloe jointed. Various devices may be adopted to per- 
mit of the mirror being tilted up or down, or on either side of 
pillar or stanchion. A simple way would be to bore out end of 



pillar and turn a hard wood pin and ball to fit firmly but loosely, 
the ball part cut with a saw kerf to insert a metal lug fastened to 

frame as shown in C. A small bolt 
land thumbscrew passing through 
three parts will hold the mirror at 
any up and down angle, when it 
then may be swung to the right or 
to the left. The stand represented 
in Fig. 246 will be found a most 
serviceable one for the bathroom and 
bedroom, as all space is made use of. 
Little need be said about this to 
enable those interested in making a 
full working drawing. Much of the 
lesser detail is left out in this and 
many other illustrations heretofore 
accompanying these articles, for the 
purpose of allowing individual ex- 
pression to assert itself in preparing 
the working drawings of either this 
or modified forms. A craftsman 
frequently has hoarded up stock, or 
possibly other parts of furniture 
which will lead to creating a structure 
on original lines — this should be the 
uppermost idea — putting yourself into 
-Another Design of the work. In doing so, however, do 
not create or borrow ornament or 
features having no reasonable excuse for their application. 

The toilet stand shown in Fig. 247 is expressive of the present 
style of absolute serviceability arrived at in the most direct way. 
One will never tire of such a piece through changing styles, as 
there is nothing about it to offend — honestly made and well 
finished it improves every time it is rubbed over with a polishing 

Fig. 247.- 

Toilet Shaving Stand. 



The Kitchen 

YSTEM and convenience should be the dominant 
idea in the kitchen, for without it there is just as 
much waste of time as would probably occur in a 
poorly equipped office. In times past it has not 
been so much a lack of woman's inventive ability 
as it has been a want of interest on the part of her handy husband 
to give ear and put into execution many ideas which have lain 
dormant, for who should know better what was wanted to light- 
en and facilitate the repeated operations in and about the kitch- 
en than the good housewife? 

The card file system is now in use in the kitchen, and while 
the skilled housewife from home training may smile at this way 
of keeping in touch with her many possessions, or the where- 
abouts of the true and tried recipe passed along verbally from 
mother to daughter, yet given a fair trial the small drawer of 
file cards should have a place in the kitchen as well as in the 
office, even though solely used for recipes and not for statistics 
of living expenses. 

Many manufacturers have in recent years recognized the 
hitherto helplessness of the housewife as to her kitchen appoint- 
ments, and really the thought has been considered more by the 
manufacturer than by the architect or builder, with whom it 
should have had first attention. The kitchen cabinet is the re- 
sult, a "much in little idea," which certainly is a welcome ad- 
dition to the working equipment of a kitchen, for how often is a 
rear room designated as a kitchen, the only indication that it is 
such being the sink and water supply with a few misplaced 
shelves insecurely arranged in a closet styled the pantry? 




For a small family, and those who rent, the kitchen cabinet, 
Fig. 248, is a welcome accessory to preserve order. Bringing 
the necessaries into immediate focus, as it were, for the prepara- 

FlG. 248.— Kitchen Cabinet. 

tion of meals. Forethought should be observed in the purchase 
of a cabinet that one of ample proportions be obtained to pro- 
vide space for working equipment without over crowding, other- 
wise the orderly idea is defeated. Were it not that these ar^ 


tides are addressed to the artisan — the man who is desirous, 
apart from the economical consideration, to furnish his home 
with furniture of his own design and construction — the cabinet 
obtained from a dealer would be very satisfactory, as generally 
they are well made. The mechanic, however, has great per- 
sonality and inventiveness, and has little patience with made up 
"boughten" affairs which do not meet with his ideas and possibly 
do not come up to the requirements of his family needs. Ana- 
lyzing the kitchen cabinet, it is found to be an evolution of the 
common kitchen table making all one can out of the space under- 
neath, and adding to, from the top, as much as fancy and sense 
of proportion will dictate. Herein some study must be made, 
laying out the general lines on paper, and arranging spaces not 
according to your whim, but guided by the requirements of the 
better half — her ideas should prevail. Every housewife be- 
comes attached to certain kinds and sizes of utensils, and would 
feel handicapped, as the carpenter would, were she compelled to 
use an unfamiliar implement. With this in view the various 
drawers and compartments should be made in consideration of 
this thought. 

It will be found on examination of some styles of cabinets 
that the drawer idea has been overdone, frequently drawers 
being so small that they become awkward square holes for some 
unspecified objects to go in and a matter of great difficulty to 
get it out. They may on first sight be considered "cute", but 
are soon found to be valueless. It is better in caring for some of 
the smaller articles or supplies, to arrange for a larger sub- 
divided drawer. 

Special cleats and hooks will be suggested as the personal idea 
of the cabinet is evolved. Spice boxes, tea and coffee canisters, 
may now be bought in uniform sizes and patterns, which will 
add materially to the general orderly effect, and should be con- 
sidered in preparing shelf space. In some compartments a 
movable shelf will be found convenient, that is, resting on a 
cleat fitting at intervals into vertically notched side strips as in a 
bookcase. A one-piece sheet of zinc will be found a more satis- 
factory table covering, being more readily kept clean and bright 


than the bare wood top. The apron or top rail under table top 
should be cut out the width and thickness of the pi jposed bread 
or moulding board which when not in use finds a place well out 
of the way, or may be pulled out two-thirds its length as a table 
extension for various cooking operations. It might be well to 
provide an inserting pin or some check to avoid the board being 
accidentally pushed in. The small bins made for the different 
kinds of flour should have a rounded bottom of veneer or zinc, 
so that the last dipper full may be readily picked up, the flour 
always settling to a center. 

Owing to the scarcity of bass and white wood, gum has been 
much used in making kitchen cabinets and other fixtures, the 
greatest objection to it, however, being its disposition to warp 
and twist if not quickly finished. It is a pleasing finish to leave 
it natural, giving it a coat of boiled oil, two coats of shellac and a 
final coat of varnish. 

The movable cabinet will always find a place in the kitchen of 
many homes. As a complete repository, however, it will be 
found inadequate where extensive work is to be done and will 
fall short of expectations as did the small writing desk before it 
gave way to the better adapted form of home desk. 

As a solution to the most concentrated disposal of all that 
pertains to the kitchen, aside from a possible chair and movable 
towel rack, the illustration. Fig. 249, of a part interior is offered. 
This is submitted to the carpenter and builder as a suggestion 
which may in most cases be installed in many kitchens or be 
provided for in the plan. It would be a matter of appropriating 
from 16 to 18 in. of floor space, in building a battery of cup- 
boards and drawer divisions as indicated, or according to re- 
quirements, and personal judgment. It will be seen, and great- 
ly appreciated by the housewife, that on sweeping and scrubbing 
days the floor space is entirely free from furniture moving, and 
everything up in its place guarded from dust. 

Several divisions in the illustration are shown without doors 
to suggest their possible use. Herein feminine counsel should 
be sought that the most frequently used articles be located with- 
in free reach, and such things as fruit jars and infrequently used 



supplies and utensils find storing space on the upper shelves and 
drawers. As indicated in the illustration an open compartment 

Fig. 249.— Partial Interior View in Kitchen, Showing Equipment. 

might be found better for the coffee and tea pots to receive all 
the airing possible between meals. In this instance it is imme- 
diately over an open space above the sink drainboard. In es- 
tablishing such a system of shelving it should, of course, be built 
about a window, and a wide working shelf set in front of the 
light whereon bread making and other operations will be carried 
out under the best light possible. Supplementary to this a draw- 
out board shown on the left will always be found serviceable. 


This should have a strengthening and extension device similar to 
a table expanding fixture, or in place of this, as the board is 
drawn out to a proper stop, two light iron rods or sticks come 
with it, which can be inserted in catch or over pins thus sup- 
porting the board as a bracket. 

A proper covering for the window table is of one piece of zinc. 
In fitting this it can be so cut full between the jambs of cup- 
board, that when pressed down to the surface, the two side 
edges are given a slight up curve, tacking with brass-headed up- 
holstery nails. This provides a smooth, rounded edge which 
will wipe out clean, far better than if a square corner were made. 
Sufficient margin should be allowed to turn down in front and 
around the projecting ends. A paper pattern tried in this man- 
ner over the proposed surface should at first be cut out. As 
zinc responds very readily to bending, this will insure the exact 
size to give a workmanlike result. Brass-headed nails properly 
spaced along the front will add a pleasing finish. As will be 
seen, the main construction consists of upright boards gained 
out to receive the horizontal spacings. A cove moulding had 
better be turned out as a proper finish under ceiling and from 
this put in headings. Seven-eighths-inch lumber will be suffi- 
cient for the framing and door frames. Where veneer panels 
can be obtained they will be found desirable for door filling and 
add much to the beauty of the finished work on account of the 
varied figure in the veneer. These panels may consist of two 
outer i-i6-in. and one middle J^-in. filling; they may be cut to a 
rabbet size for the frame, using a one-quarter round mould to 
hold it in place, or they may be glued into grooves when the 
frames are made up. 

As to the small drawer ends, a neat way to provide a pull is to 
turn it in as is frequently done, brass or bronze pulls being used 
for the drawers and turn pulls for the paneled doors. 

For temporary needs or to supplement a well furnished kitch- 
en, Fig. 250 is offered, suggesting the ordinary kitchen table 
converted to a cabinet containing compartments suitable for a 
small family need of having the unsightly articles away from 



As these tables generally have turned legs a squared filling-in 
strip is screwed to the turned part from which the carcase work 

Fig. 250.— Cabinet Built Under Kitchen Table. 

may be added as shown. This is a beginning for a fully de- 
veloped cabinet, as shown in Fig. 248. The upper portion can 

Fig. 251.— Kitchen Table Seat. 

be added at any time, and following out a well studied plan 
of personal requirements. 


The kitchen settle in Fig. 25 1 will be recalled by many as hav- 
ing a double purpose, when on ironing and baking days the top 
was turned down, converting it into a substantial table, and 
again at night it became Bridget's Davenport for her gentleman 
friend. The top is usually 28 x 46 in., and stands 29 in. from 
the floor, the seat being i 5 x 32 in., and at a height of 17^4 in. 
The entire construction may be made of i-in. dressed lumber, or 
the feet, arms and top of 1 3^in., and the other portions of i-in. 
stock. Loose pins secure the top to arms or allow it to swing 
back as shown. 



The Bookcase 

T was a happy thought that brought about the book- 
case of finished units, or sectional device, for stor- 
ing books in a protected way with the thought of 
adding in height or walling the room, if desired, as 
the number of books increased. Of this form of 
construction little but a commending foreword can be written, 
as the idea is at the present time protected by patents, and the 
success of the thought has brought about the usual crop of in- 
fringement suits. However, no idea is from the first perfect and 
from someone an even better case might be evolved 

Fig, 251A.— Family Bookcase. 

The family bookcase is well illustrated in Fig. 25 1 A, and should 
the said family be of a bookloving trend, two or more of this type 
will probably be needed, or a room as a library, fitted with the 




sectional cases, be considered a necessity. In a way it is unfor- 
tunate that the magazine habit is so time-consuming that good 
enduring reading in bound form is less sought after by the pres- 
ent generation, with the result that a magazine rack is more to 
the purpose than a case for books. With this thought Fig. 252 
is offered, giving book space in upper portion and a greater 
depth to the carcase below for all average-size monthlies. With 

Fig. 252. — Combination Book and Magazine Case. 

two framed glass doors, the unsightliness of thumbed-over peri- 
odicals may be altogether shut from view by securing a piece of 
shirred silkaline or other goods of pleasing figure fastened by a 
light rod over the glass on the inside of door frames. Immedi- 
ately over the doors above the top framing of lower case a draw- 
out board may be planned for, which will be convenient for 
resting books or papers when drawn out in case of consulting 
several volumes. 



One of a studious disposition will find the combination case 
and writing desk shown in Fig. 253 will meet his requirements, 
or be useful in making up his accounts and transacting other 
business. Under the desk will be found drawers on each side of 

Fig. 253. — Combination Case and Writing Desk. 

the middle knee space which are deep enough to hold the al- 
phabetical letter-file books of such convenience in filing away 
letters, contracts and other papers. One or two drawers may be 
fitted with filing cards, for there is hardly any line of business in 
which these very accessible cards cannot be used to very great 
profit. Spacing and size of drawers must be decided by indi- 
vidual requirements. The lower bookcase division should 
properly be spaced for a set of encyclopedias or larger dictionary, 



confining weight and size to the lower shelves. No bookcase 
should be made without several of the shelves resting on mova- 
ble cleats, permitting of raising or lowering or removing. The 
saw-edged strip shown in Fig. 254, with loose cross strip fitting 

Figs. 254 and 255. — Showing Two forms of Shelf Supports. 

the notches, or a form similar represented in Fig. 255, on which 
the two strips are given the half circle notches by clamping 
them edge to edge together, and boring at intervals 1 3^in. holes 
along the line of joint. The supporting strips are then rounded 
on ends to closely fit the strips when fastened on the inside of 

Several pigeon holes and a drawer for writing materials may be 
fitted within the writing desk portion confined to the width of 
the case only and suspended 5 or b in. above the writing table, of 
which the slant cover shown when drawn out level gives the 
greatest surface. The under drawer may be arranged to sup- 
port this lid in a writing position by drawing it out, or the lid 
may have an elbow metal joint fitted to both sides closing in out 
of view with the cover. 

The form of construction in general use for such structures as 
Figs. 25 I A, 252 and 253, as well as most all case work, is to build 
in the outside against a made-up framing indicated in Fig. 256. 



Fig. 256. — Showing Panel Back. 

The material used for the back is of an inferior wood, and the 

thickness commonly used for the framing is 13-16 in. for the 

stiles and rails, which, after being mortised and tenoned, are 

grooved out from end to end on 

the inner edges, into which, in 

setting up the framing, yg-in. 

bass or whitewood panels are 

slid, forming a quickly made and 

very light backing to all classes 

of construction. The ends of 

paneled framing are treated to a 

long tenon to fit coreresponding 

groove in posts. One or more 

13-16 in. stiles should be grooved in properly spaced frames 

of considerable width, as shown in back of Fig. 251. This 

gives rigidity and prevents wide panels of cheaper wood from 

warping and shrinking into open cracks. 

In chiffoniers and dressers having considerable depth, the 
sides are built after the same manner as the back. The book- 
case, however, does not require any greater width than average 
board width, and a one-piece effect is sought for, so that the case 
is made much after the manner of a box with the inner back edge 
rabbetted out to receive the back frame, and the top and bottom 
boards fitted on a line with this rabbet permits the back frame 
to be set in neatly and tightly screwed-through rails in edge of 
top and bottom and into rabbet of ends. 

Little need be said about the door frames as there is only one 
recognized method. For bookcases the framing should be nar- 
row to properly display book titles. The trimming at top of 
doors in Fig. 251 is a superficial ornament cut in ^<+-in. material 
and glued in after the glass has been set in back of glazing strip. 

To bar out behind apparently locked doors every book in the 
house is to rob the home of much of its hospitable character, but 
for those who truly love books as well as for the children who are 
acquiring the habit of reading, many books will surely find their 
way about the table. Three forms of stands which will be found 
convenient for use are shown in Figs. 257, 258 and 259, those in 



Figs. 257 and 259 being elastic, and that shown in Fig. 258 fixed, 
and more frequently being utilized for some specified set of 

Fig. 257.— Book Stand. 

Fig. 258.— Another Style of Book Stand. 

books. A few suggestions as to Fig. 257 will probably be all 
that is necessary. The easier way to cut a groove or saw cut in 



projected ends of bottom boards, B, to receive metal projections 
shown on botii ends of middle, A, would be to joint up three 
pieces in the shape of B, allowing such a kerf to be cut on the in- 
side edge of the two outer pieces shown in the cut. When A is 
inserted a neatly set rivet brad enters the wood through slots 
shown in A, preventing slide passing a fixed position. In a full 
opened position there is of course no great lifting up strength to 
this rack, it being intended to lengthen or shorten the rack by 
the adding or removing of a volume as it stands on the table. 
The books are generally placed with title hinge up, or they may 

Fig. 259.— Closing Book Stand. 

stand erect with titles facing out. The construction of Fig. 259 
will no doubt be stronger and have greater extension. C is a 
board tenoned into molded end D. This board may be made of 
three pieces, making a full thickness of i in., the middle piece 
3^8 in. thick, terminating at the letter X or dotted line, and a 
similar filling piece 3 in. wide glued and closing up the end and 
projecting to fill up the groove marked in dotted lines on outer 
pieces E, tenoned at one end in molded end D, and slotted out 
to receive a 3^ x 3-in. strip to slide loosely in slot in board C. 
This strip is to be glued into ends, E, C, and E to be parted 
sufficiently to slide smoothly. Soapstone or soap will permit of 
a fair joint and smooth action to such work. F shows a drop- 
down hinged end secured to ends D. Many modifications may 



be given to this end — a solid board with some suitable outer 
shape, a little interior cutting, or applied ornament, suggested 
or adapted. 

A Combination Bookcase and Writing Desk 

Mission furniture is now so prevalent in many homes that 
Fig. 260 is introduced as embodying important features that a 
busy man or woman finds necessary when some of the day's work 
of writing or checking over accounts must be continued during 
the home hours. As shown in the sketch there are two book- 

FiG. 260. — General View of the Combination Bookcase and Writing Desk. 

shelves at each side of the writing desk with an overhead con- 
tinuation of book shelving having a set height for smaller books. 
According to the half carcase plan in Fig. 26 1 , the position of the 
corner and intermediate posts are clearly indicated, leaving an 
open foot space in the middle front under the desk as may be 
seen from an inspection of big. 2(30. 



The connection between the four book posts is made by con- 
structing three paneled frames of ^-in. material and stiles and 
rails 2^ in. wide. The stiles project and are fitted with tenons, 
the top and bottom to enter mortise cuts in the posts, which are 
i]4 in. square and 56 in. long. In laying out a rough working 
drawing the outside measure of the case will be 14 x 65 in. and 

Fig. 261.— One-half Carcase Plan. 

the top board arranged to fit in about the top of the posts and se- 
cured to the top of the back and side framing, will measure when 
finished i x 1 3 % x 64^ in. 

The end rails of the bookcase, top and bottom, are provided 
with sufficiently long tenons to pierce the thickness of the posts 
front and back and be chamfered off with a dull taper. To 
further secure the framing holes may be bored after gluing up to 
provide for two dowel pins to each joint, these being smoothed 
off flush in the final finish. The end filling consists of a middle 
mullion over-laying the joint of two thinner panels or it may be 
a panel of one thickness as may be desired. After the bottom 
boards are fitted over the curved apron under the bookcase the 
construction will then be far enough along to make and fit two 
doors which are frames made }i x ^^^ in. when finished. Above 
the desk compartment it will be noticed there is a continuation 
of the book shelf space measuring q in. in height provided also 
with two glass doors q x i5>^ in., meeting in the middle of the 
entire case. These doors are made of the same framing as the 
two larger side door frames; that is ^ x 2^ in. 

Four loose fitting shelf boards K in. thick will about divide 
the space properly for books of varying heights, the shelves being 



adjusted and held to different spacing by the small metal rests 
inserted in holes in the posts or on the inside of the ends. 

The writing table is 30 in. high (if casters are used allow for 
them) and the writing flap proper is the front cover of the desk 
set on hinges to the writing bed and let down, being held in a 
horizontal manner by elbow-joined brackets made for this pur- 

As a becoming cover for such a piece of furniture a framed-up 
panel door J^ x 1 5 x 30^2 in., the framing of an even width of 3 
in. for stiles and rails, could be made, which, before gluing up, 
fit with an inserted panel having the front face treated with a 
long low ogee shape similar to the back of a violin — see section 
in Fig. 262. This can be brought about by the use of a paper 
template and a curved spoke shave or gouges and a steel scraper. 

The two side compartments measure 7 x q in. outside with a 


Fig. 262. — Showing Section of Writing Panel. 

depth of q in. They are made of 5-i5-in. material and have two 
lower drawers with a front width of 2)4 ^^- The center com- 
partment, ^}i X i6>^ in., may be divided into vertical compart- 
ments by }i-'\n. panels suitable for holding the larger size busi- 
ness envelopes or some of this space may offer room for two more 
smaller drawers, according to individual desire. 



HILE the American people pursue their business 
with great intensity, there is much evidence in 
every direction of real interest in the study of com- 
fort and bodily relaxation in out-door life. The 
marked reformation in park management, the 
working together of landscape gardener and architect in pro- 
viding attractive and suitable benches and settees of a durable 
and attractive character, has influenced greatly the makers of 
portable summer furniture as well as creating a desire for other 
forms which are more massive and fixed, of which this article 
will treat. 

The benefits of out-door life can be enjoyed much later in the 
fall and even during some rare mild sunny days in the winter if 
a sheltered nook or angle is taken advantage of for a permanent 
seat or settee. This is one of the features left out of the modern 
home and its surroundings — a feature which gave such a rare 
charm to the Colonial place, with its door stoop, settees, or the 
seat under the grape arbors. 

A primitive form of bench seen in old Germantown, Phila- 
delphia, inspired amplifying the original mechanical idea until 
it resulted in detail shown in Figs. 264 and 265, and the com- 
pleted bench pictured in Fig. 263. 

The original stood weather-beaten yet inviting out on the 
open lawn nearby a box hedging. It consisted of two wide end 
planks and cleats placed V-shaped on the inside above the seat, 
so as to allow the loose bolted stanchion supporting the back to 
be swung either way. This feature was attractive as it allowed 
one to enjoy the view in two directions. 




In Fig. 263 is shown the improvement on this simple idea by 
having the back rack A of Figs. 264 and 265 hang loosely on a 
lag screw at E of Fig. 265 at top of the swinging stanchion B, 

Fig. 263. — General View of a Garden Bench Having 
a Reversible Back. 

Fig. 266, the bottom being controlled to a more comfortable back 
inclination by a loose fitting steel strap C, of Fig. 266, which has 
a screw-head slot which slips over a round head screw in the 
lower part of the stanchion as shown. Such an adjustable back 
does not require the seat to be wider than 1 5 in. The seat con- 
sists of a 1 3^-'m. thick plank with a number of 3^-in. holes bored 
to drain off the rain, and the 3 in. wide front aprons stand off the 
width of >^-in. cleats, leaving several long slits for snow and 
moisture to pass off. The bench was given four coats of white 
lead and provided with four well painted 1^4 -in. square pointed 
pickets, carefully driven in deeply into the ground, so that they 
lined up true with the front and back edges of the plank ends of 
the bench, which also were i3< in. thick. A hole was properly 



bored through each picket and a smaller hole into the bench end 

to receive a 5-in. lag screw drawn up tightly against the washers. 

When it is desired to change the position of the back to the 

opposite direction the two iron catches C are disengaged from 


Fig. 264.— End View of Garden Bench Fig. 265.— A Portion of the Front 
with Reversible Back — Scale % Showing Dimensions of Various 

in. to the Foot. Parts — Scale % in. to the Foot. 






k 7i ^ C 


the slot and drawn over round head 
screw, when the entire back, together 
with the swinging stanchion B, may 
be swung over until it rests on the 
opposite back support block D, 
shown in dotted line on Fig. 264. 

These blocks are iV^ in. square, andFiG.266.— Plan of the Swinging 
1 , , , .... Stanchion "B with Various 

have the same bevel as the mclina- Dimensions, Also Details of 
tion of stanchion B. They are, of the Iron Catch "C"— 
, . c , Scale ?i in. to the Foot, 

course, the important part or the 

construction, and are secured firmly by two countersunk screws 
in each block. A quarter round should be given the edges of 
these blocks, as well as to the edges of the seat on both sides, 
the arms and the edges of the stanchions, so that they will 



not be unpleasant to the touch after being painted. To safe- 
guard spliting from exposure, a piece of No. i8 sheet brass was 
fitted over the rounded ends of B and secured by small screws. 
A thin carriage bolt was also run clear through on the inner side 
of the loose bolt holes. This prevented any possibility of split- 
ting. The stanchion was made of maple i in. thick. The 
back boards of the back A, shown in Fig. 265, are \}i in. 
thick and are secured by long countersunk screws to hard wood 
end strips i x \}4 x ii^^ in. Through this and into the top 
panel a lag screw at E enters from B and is drawn up against 
intervening washers just tight enough to allow the back panel 
frame to operate easily. A cross cleat and heavy wood brace, 
as shown under the seat, give the bench added strength. 

As to the length of the bench, it may properly be 42 or 48 in. 
Pine is a suitable wood or well selected cypress with oak arms. 


....^^/^^^ , 

Fig. 267. — General View of a Garden Settee. 

The garden seat which has been in use in England many cen- 
turies is shown in Fig. 267. There is nothing trifling about it as 
it is made of heavy parts and so constructed as to throw off 
water. When kept painted it presents a dignified and restful 
appearance along the garden walk, or placed in some particularly 
attractive place against a hedge on the lawn. Many modifica- 




tions can be made from the general measurements given, as 
shown on the end view drawing, Fig. 268. Four horizontal bars 
may take the place of the splat back filling, as shown in Fig. 267, 
or two panels of criss-cross bars may 
occupy the back. A varied top line 
to the top slat may suggest itself as 
indicated in the bottom edge of the 
front seat rail. Some old English 
settees had a bunker space immedi- 
ately under a hinged seat, where a 
croquet set would be at hand if 
wanted. This could very well take 
up the space down to cross strainers 
on the ends. Well selected timber 
should be used, cypress being good 
wood for the front and back posts, 
as it withstands rotting better than 
most woods. 

If it is possible the back posts 
should be secured from a pattern 
drawn within a surface of 3 x 5 x 40 
in. and the front post within a sur- 
face of 3 X 4 X 25 in. drawing and cutting out patterns to 
shapes shown. They can then be marked out on a plank 3 
in. thick with a reasonable reference to position of grain. 

The seat consists of slats i yi x xyi in., kept apart about yi of 
an inch, the latter being secured by countersunk screws to the 
seat cleats, taking the shape of end rails, as shown. The splats 
shown in back should be 3^ in. thick and 2>^ in. wide, mortised 
with a heavy tenon to the top slat and back seat rail. All ten- 
ons should be long, or go clear through posts, set in white lead 
and secured by dowel pins. Heavy corner blocks should be 
placed at each corner under the seat. Before painting several 
coats of white lead it might be well to have posts stand in a pan 
of creosote or tar. 

Time was, not long ago, when the worn-out old sitting room 
chair relegated to the attic was dusted off every spring to do 

— 20" — 

Fig. 268.— End View of Set- 
tee Shown in Fig. 267— 
Scale ^ in. to the Foot. 



crippled service on the porch during the summer. As much of 
such furniture depended originally on the honesty and integ- 
rity of glue under sheltered conditions, they often proved un- 
equal to many summer showers or even the dews. Fig. ibq 
shows two simple forms of easily constructed out-door pieces, 
intended to be bolted and treated to spar varnish, or, better 

Cj)_i^ y "" "iii^'^'^d^ 

Fig. 269. — General View of a Garden Table with Appropriate Armchair. 

still, made in pine or cypress with good fitting tenons and heavi- 
ly painted. It is unnecessary to go into much detail except to 
say that the table would look well 30 in. high and with a top 25 
X 36 in. and posts 2 in. square. 

The chair should measure 20 in. between front posts and 18 
in. between back posts, both set parallel. The back is to be 22 
in. high from top of seat. The seat is iq in. deep and to stand 
18 in. at front edge from floor. Cut off the back posts ^ in. at ■ 
floor when finished, to give the proper pitch. The arms are q}4 
in. high at front and sawed out as shown from stock z}^ in. wide. 
The front and back posts are sawed out of 2 in. stock. The 
seat slats are J^ in. thick by about 2 in. wide, parted by )4 ^^■ 
Corner blocks should go against the 4 in. seat rails underneath 
the seat. 


It is frequently desirable to have a settee which possesses a 
feature such as the criss-cross in table and chair of Fig. 269. 
Such a settee with a total length of 48 or 60 inches may readily 
be planned, having three or more cross panels similar to the arm 
chair shown. 

Furniture for Porch and Lawn 

Each year that passes witnesses greater comfort in the ar- 
rangement and equipment of the porch of the modern dwelling 
and about the lawn, or shall we say the grass plot, for many of us 
are within the high-priced territory of the city or town, where 
the usual 25 x 125 feet marks a man's estate. On this fixed 
boundary there is little space in front of the porch or in the rear 
to furnish with portable or fixed furniture, such as one may see 
about a large estate. Indeed it would be pretentious and un- 
restful to say nothing of the extra work a cluttered-up space 
always requires. There are, however, a few pieces which may 
be made and properly placed within a small area, which in con- 
nection with a well groomed grass plot gives us pleasure in our 
summer walks along a residence street. 

The chairless porch does not create the impression of restful- 
ness and hospitality; here there is no implied invitation to "come 
up and sit down." Across the way, though, there is always 
"open house," or rather open porch, chairs a plenty, husk mats 
and rugs, ever ready to lure a passing friend to tarry in comfort. 
This hospitable spirit is so much embodied in the modern plan 
that the porch is not a mere covered bracket, but has grown to 
be a room with three open sides, deep enough that special-made 
furniture will not be subject to so much damage from moisture 
as under the narrow porch. It is no doubt true that with the 
contracted porch, the carrying out and back again each night of 
the favorite chair discourages many from courting nature and 
all the benefits of the "open air treatment." 

The outdoor chair or piece of furniture has no glue in its con- 
struction, as it depends on tight mortise and tenon joints, with 
pins, or in many cases rivet nails. There would be no harm in 
gluing some joints if it is intended to heavily coat the surface 



with paint, but even then a nail should pass through the side of 
the mortise into the tenon. Naturally large parts should be 
used in the construction of exposed furniture. The general pro- 
portions of the Mission style are more appropriate for porches 
than for some interiors of limited space. 

In Fig. 270 of the illustrations is shown what in its essential 
features is an outdoor chair, and following the prevalent fancy 
might be made larger in its parts than indicated on the drawing, 
but this, however, is entirely a matter of individual preference. 


Fig. 270. — Porch Rocker, Showing Front and Side Views. 

Plain oak is the favorite wood for this style, treated in a dark 
brown tone, which now is designated as "weathered." This 
character of chair, made in ash or chestnut and treated with a 
transparent green stain, looks very attractive for the porch. 
Avoid by all means a water stain for porch furniture, for should 
a chair intended to remain for the season on the porch or one 
accidentally left out over night become wet by a heavy dew or a 
night shower much damage might be done to dresses when next 
it is used. An oil stain is preferable ; and furthermore do not use 
shellac for a preparatory coat for a wax rub; rather use the chair 
for a time with the oil stain well rubbed dry and bright. To 
brighten the piece from time to time go over it with a rag filled 
with half boiled oil and turpentine, then polish with a dry cloth. 


Now as to Fig. 270, the measured illustration is easy to follow. 
In beginning such work it is of course the proper and reliable 
way to make a rough half-size detail drawing, when no false cuts 
ensue and the various bevels may be transferred to the material 
from the paper without guesswork. 

The comfortable inclination of the back is secured by holding 
the lower ends of the back posts at a properly determined po- 
sition on the side stretcher by means of a carriage bolt, and at 
the arms also. Small head stout wire nails should be driven 
where mortise and tenon come together, and this should be done 
while the parts are held together by bar clamps. On the inside, 
where posts and rails join the seat frame, triangular corner 
blocks should be held by stout screws and one long screw should 
enter the block and the corner of each post. For outdoor re- 
quirements a slatted seat will be the most reliable, unless the 
more comfortable double cane or a splint bottom seat can beob- 
tained. A cleat must be nailed on inside of the side rails ^ s-in. 
below the edge and upon this y^ x i >^-inch slats may be nailed, 
slightly parted. The slats should have the edges well rounded 
and the top slightly crowned. Naturally a loose leather bag 
cushion would add to the comfort, and this could be readily 
taken in at night. The rockers come from a plank lyi x ^yi x 
30 inches. 

There are certain chairs which are typical of our American 
life, public and private. They have a sturdy look that sug- 
gests primitiveness. The chair shown in Fig. 271 is such a 
pattern. We would miss it if we did not see it in a country law- 
yer's office or in rows along a hotel veranda and the home porch. 
It is recommended as a good chair to make, being readily put 
together. It is very seldom made in oak, maple or walnut being 
used, although that again is a matter of individual taste. In 
maple the club arms by use become smooth and polished, which 
properly would not be the case should chestnut or ash be used. 
A frame with a slat seat is shown in lieu of the usual and more 
desirable double cane seat. The three slats, each 3 inches 
wide by 13-16 inch thick, are worked out of stock 2>^ inches 
thick, conforming to an arc of a circle within ^]/7. x i5>^ inches 



in length. This and the post should be laid out and paper 
patterns made. 

The seat is secured by a square shoulder in the back, and the 
front corners are turned out in conformity with the heavy 

I5',nside bjareacL 

Fig. 271.— Details of Porch Arm Chair. 

turned post, as shown, then secured by long, heavy screws on 
the sides of the back posts and diagonally through the front 

The porch swing appeals to many after experiencing the hor- 
rors of a hammock. However alluring these bright fish nets 
have been, they are not what they look to be, and are traps to 
double one up out of all dignity. The swing, it is true, is not 
altogether comfortable without pillows, but if care is used to 
firmly adjust the back a little greater than a chair bevel it will 
in itself be restful, with its slight swaying motion from chains 
suspended from the ceiling beams. A welded link chain of 5-1 6- 
inch iron should be used — a single chain suspended from the 
roof beam and running half the length to a double chain — as 
shown. This back adjusment to swing, shown in Fig. 272, is 
secured as directed for the back of the rocker in Fig. 270. Ar- 
range the arms so that they are 10^ inches from the top of the 
seat to the top of the arm. This will be proper support for a 



pillow placed in the corner. Bolted construction is the best for 
such a piece of furniture held in suspension. Two bolts pass- 
ing through the front pillar along the side rail and into the back 
pillar, with washers and nuts in the rear, will make a reliable 

Fig. 271.— Porch Swing 4 or 6 Feet in Length. 

framing. The front and back rails may be secured by shorter 
carriage bolts through pillars and into holes in the ends of the 
rails, with a sunken place to receive and draw up the bolt with 
a nut. Stout corner blocks should also be placed under the 
slat seat. 

As the swing fulfills a purpose in the summer, it could also 
do service for a hall or den settee by providing an under rack or 
leg and stretcher parts, to be fitted and fastened by underscrew 
blocks. This is mentioned here as it might be found desirable to 
make a complete settee, putting in double stretchers or strainers 
between posts under the seat. When completed saw off the 
posts a half inch from the under edge of the seat rail. This 
lower part may then be put away until the winter months, 
when the two parts may be reunited by loose dowel joints and 
held firmly by a tie plate or block at each post under the seat. 



Many people find pleasure in having a "Dutch lunch" on 
the lawn, and for this a few tables appropriate for outdoors 
should be made. While there can no glue enter into the con- 
struction of the table and chair shown in Fig. 273, the fitting 
of parts should not be carelessly done. The legs, dressed to 
i^ inches square, should be fitted to the proper bevel under 
the top plate or batten, which will answer also in holding the 
top from warping too greatly. For this use plenty of screws. 
Two stout square sticks may be halved to support the lower 

Fig. 273.— Lawn Table and Chair. 

shelf and this is to be held down by screws from underneath. 
By a proper selection of hickory branches a rustic effect may be 
produced, while adding greatly to the strength of the table. 
The slant of legs shown in the picture may be marked on the 
drawing at 4 inches under the ends and 3 inches under the sides, 
spreading them in line with the outer edge of the top at the 
floor line, which is iq inches under the top. Incidentally the 
German chair shown would give a good setting to the lawn. 
The companion chair, Fig. 274, should be part evidence of one's 



hospitality, not to say that in it one can become in a summer 
thoroughly acquainted with one's wife. The dimensions of 
the seat frame are i7>^ x 42 inches, 1% inches thick, provided 
with slightly parted slats. The posts, straight and curved, 
should be dressed to i >2 inches square; a sufficient curve may be 

Fig. 274. — Companion Chair. 

secured from a plank 4}4 inches wide. The height of the back 
should be 22 inches from the top of the seat. In other particu- 
lars as to bevels one may be guided by almost any house chair, 
as the one under construction should be a chair of comfort and 
the back therefore may have a greater bevel than an ordinary 
table chair. 

Sufficient size is in the posts to fit the seat into a diagonal 
gain, sawing off the corners of the seat to fit the groove firmly 
when drawn up by a long, heavy screw or lag screw. In this 
piece, which will have no doubt greater exposure, lag screws 
with washers on all the important joints would be the best to 
use. The arms, i>i inches thick, should be set in the post 
about y^ of an inch, which will materially stiffen the construction. 

In all furniture it is better to strike off all edges either by a 
clear-cut bevel or a smooth quarter round. It is pleasing to 
the touch and guards against future dents and corners breaking 



off. Should wood of no pronounced figure be used in the con- 
struction of this piece, it had better be given three coats of 
paint, the seat, arms and back being sandpapered after each coat 
to avoid a fatty condition in the hot sun. Bright red, green, 
dove or dark tan are suggested as a range to select a color. 

Fig. 275 leads us more away into that particularly shady 
place where possibly it has never occurred to us to establish 
a permanent tarrying place of some comfort for a party of six or 
eight. This may suggest to some reader who has the work of 
fitting out a picnic grounds an inkling of further ideas along this 
line, for most people nowadays have realized that "a day in a 

Fig. 275. — Lawn Settee. 

beautiful wooded grove" is a myth as far as comfort for the 
tired body is concerned. Direct construction is here used, and 
by having the seat 20 inches deep the proper back rest may be 
given by nailing the slats onto the top rail as shown and pulling 
them out at the seat 3 inches from the back edge. A bevel 
strip may then be used to nail them at the bottom. The side 
rails, I X 3 inches, extended to the corner posts of the two chairs, 
forming the rail for the small middle seats, the slats for which 



may be nailed to cleats nailed to the back rails of the two 
settees. It would be just as well in settingup this double forma- 
tion to keep off i inch on each side of the tree trunk to allow 
for expansion in growth. 

It is hoped, in conclusion, that the few pieces shown may act 
as an incentive to the creation of that which represents individ- 
ual taste and requirements about one's home. 

In a little town, tucked away in the bay along the Atlantic 
Coast, this subject was suggested by the lamp post shown in 
Fig. 276. In the mind of the genius who spied the tree as a 
likely support for one of the vil- 
lage lamps it no doubt was thought 
a mere makeshift — handy, how- 
ever, as it needed no ladder to 
attend to the light. Years ago the 
summer house and other forms of 
rustic construction were much a 
part of a well conducted estate — 
then a long period — when out- 
door accessories, useful or artistic, 
were little seen; even the dog was 
denied his special house and was 
consigned to the barn or allowed 
the warmth of the house, to grow 
lazy and unmindful of intruders. 

Now a return to these out-door 
comforts is very noticeable, being 
mainly due to the rapid acquire- 
ment of farm and suburban homes 
by the city man. His ideas of 
comfort and adornment are in 
evidence within the home, and 
without there is a seeking after 
landscape effects, if the extent of ground permits — the loca- 
tion by some prearranged plan of certain fixed features that 
will be pleasing to the eye from the central point, the 

Fig. 276. — A Rustic Lamp Post. 



These features are much in the province of landscape garden- 
ing, but as accessories the artificial, the constructive, must be 
made use of, which require the ever necessary carpenter. We 
would all be living in tepees were it not for the carpenter. 

There is a certain dignity in having some of the outdoor pieces 
of furniture fixed, immovable, as a seat inheriting the stump of a 
tree, a bench ever inviting one to tarry awhile in the sun, for 
even in February there are often exceptional days when, 
wrapped in overcoat, a seat out-doors in a wind-protected 
place is a great tonic. 

With the suggestions offered in the illustrations there can be 
no fixed dimensions accompanying them, as they will depend on 
the material in hand. Inspiration to produce the odd or quaint 
piece of rustic work must arise from the fact that a condemned 

Fig. 277.— a Quaint Settee. 

tree has upon it sections which will answer for the main mem- 
bers of the proposed construction. Take as an example the 
settee. Fig. 277. It is quite possbile to find two members which 
will ' ' pair, " giving a ready-made support to seat and back. In 
this instance, being a fixed seat, sufficient length should be left 



to set in ground, as a fence post, previously coating the buried 
portion with coal tar. 

It is more often accidental that the favorable location for a 
seat, or fiower stand, is immediately over the stump of a tree, 
which may be converted to the purpose of a support, to be more 
substantial than any other. Where such is the case, and other 
conditions congenial to establishing a seat, such a chair illus- 
trated in Fig. 2/8 may be constructed at a very comfortable 
height by sawing off at a somewhat extreme angle, making the 
front height of seat board 1 7 inches from the ground. Into this 
board, which should not be less than i ]/2. inches thick, bore holes 

Fig. 278.— Chair with Tree Stump for a Base. 

in a slanting manner near the edge, into which the spindles are 
inserted. These spindles and the bow should be, properly, of 
hickory. A young green sapling can be bent and conformed for 
the bow to an enlarged shape of the seat, securing the two ends 
to the front posts, which are natural curves, first being inserted 
in holes in the stump and secured by nailing to corner of seat. 
Spacing off the under part of bow, bore the same number of holes 
as in seat for the spindles, giving them more flare at the top. 
The spindles being selected from green hickory, averaging ^ 
inch in diameter, may now be cut. The measure of each being 



regulated by the bow slanting to the front, each end is then 
trimmed by a chuck to fit the holes into which they are inserted, 
and held by wire nails driven and clinched against an iron. A 
"fitching" may now be easily worked in and out between each 
spindle, pulling them well up under the bow, securing at inter- 
vals with a nail, and at the ends against front stakes. This is 
done with a much lighter and more pliable hickory stick; it not 
only reinforces the appearance of the bow, but strengthens it 
materially when thoroughly set and dry to shape. This is re- 
ferred to in detail, as the use of the withe assists greatly in bond- 
ing together what is at first 
pliant construction. The 
barrel hoop today is still 
the hickory strap, however 

No home is complete 
without sharing part of it 
with the birds. It is true 
since the importation of 
the English sparrow the 
little rascal has it all his 
own way; he and his fel- 
lows constitute a union 
unto themselves; no other 
bird carpenter or home 
builder is allowed to set 
up a home short of the 
woods. The purple mar- 
tin, a respectable citizen 
and "man of the house," 
has little chance, how- 
ever plucky, against this 
selfish horde. We fear the 
shotgun is the only thing to clear the way for him, but the mar- 
tin, once a tenant, will renew the lease every spring on his return 
from the South, besides bringing a fine selection of songs to en- 
tertain you at the breakfast table. The illustration. Fig. zyq, is 

Fig. 279.— An Ornate Bird House. 



away from the conventional pattern of years ago, when the at- 
tempt was generally to make, in miniature, a dwelling. The 
overhanging rain and wind-protecting roofs, it is thought, will be 
appreciated by the occupants, and the bark slab sides be more 
appropriate to bird nature. The plans for this house, when pre- 
pared, call for seven rooms ; the basement consists of a hoop or 
ring to accommodate visitors. The "elevation," 25 feet from 
the ground on top of a planted pole, or, if possible, a tree cut off 
at about this height. The situation, 75 or 100 feet in front of the 
windows of the living rooms, is everything in giving enjoyment 
to the housed-in or the invalid. 

In constructing out-door furniture the aim should be to have 
the parts sufficiently stocky to stand the sun and rain without 
warping or cracking. Therefore, very little inch material 
should be put into such work. Factory-made furniture, for this 
reason, is undesirable and will weather few seasons, although of 
late many substantial patterns are made that stand well under 
the protection of the porch or veranda. 

Fig. 280. — A Heavy Piece for the Lawn. 

In addition to the light, portable furniture of the piazza, a 
substantial heavy piece located, for the open air season, at a 
nearby point on the lawn will save much nightly carrying-in of 
chairs and rockers. Such a piece, Fig. 280, will give welcome 
dignity, placed just off the driveway or walk leading to porch 



Steps. A roomy bench or settee, Pig. 281, permanently placed 
in view of the tennis court, should not be overlooked. Here, or 

Fig. 281.— a Tennis Court Bench. 

near about, might be constructed a luncheon table. It may, 
however, be a matter of individual desire where the table shall 

Fig. 282.— Table for the Lawn. 

be located, as one spot at a certain time has a greater attraction 
over another. The artisan and we plain people may favor the 



level, grassy lawn, but the feminine portion of a wealthy man's 
household seek to give a proper setting to their functions, or 
lawn parties — the scene to look bright and gay by locating the 
table and benches in front of a bed of flowers or a hedgerow; the 
position at another time, toward the fall, transferred to the vi- 
cinity of the ripening grapes on the arbor. Once meals are par- 
taken in the open air there will be many repetitions; even at so 
late a day it is hard to shake off Adam-like habits. The table 
then. Fig. 282, should be built in no flimsy way. The under 
structure may be mortised and tenoned, then nailed, while the 

Fig. 283.— Rustic Support for 
Rose or Honeysuckle Vines. 

Fig. 284. — Seat with End Serving as 
a Lattice for Vines or Creepers. 

top is made of heavy stock, strengthened by battens. Hooks 
are then provided to catch into staples in the under part. 

Out-Door Furniture 

There are few seats made entirely of tree limbs which are com- 
fortable, unless by a rare combination of parts and considerable 
care given to whittling off the bumps. From observation rela- 



tive to the durability of any kind of open frame work the car- 
penter is well experienced, and should use rustic work in a re- 
strictive way, knowing well that material which has been milled 
and surfaced will, like the duck's back, shed water freely when it 
has been treated with oil and paint. With this thought in mind, 
tree limbs should be used in a subordinate way, and a structure 
for strength made up of framed parts with joints should, before 
being brought together, be freely coated with white lead or coal 
tar. Neither should broad surfaces be brought in close contact 
to absorb and retain moisture, but rather relish out, if possible, 
leaving sufficient stock for a good bearing. Then, as in the case 

Fig. 285.— The Rustic Writing Desk. 

of many pieces illustrated which are portable, they may be put 
under cover of the barn or outbuilding at the close of the sum- 
The pieces shown in Figs. 277, 278, 280 and 281 may be 


considered as fixtures, as Fig. 285 and particularly Fig. 283 are 
intended as a support to the rose or the honeysuckle vine. There 
is a certain charm in making nature still more eccentric by rus- 



tic work. If it is used, as at the end of Fig. 284, as a lattice for 
vines and creepers, it is more in conformity than using smooth 
lath arranged in conventional shapes. 

The writing desk pictured in Fig. 285 will no doubt be con- 
ducive to a flow of thought, and — and — ink likewise, should one 
happen, which is very often the case, to have two trees standing 
about 6 or 7 feet apart. A board, reinforced underneath with 
cleats, can then be fitted between the trunks at the proper height 
and angle for a swivel chair, which may be easily constructed, as 
shown, to set over the post. A heavy bolt welded to the iron 
plate secured to the bottom of the seat may be dropped into the 
hole in the post, having several wrought-iron washers to inter- 
vene, so as to allow the chair to swing around underneath the 
desk, while at the proper height is placed a rest for the feet. 

The swinging settee shown in Fig. 286 will be a source of 
genuine comfort on a hot afternoon, when reading is the in- 
tention, but sleep the usual ending. Devoid of padding on the 

Fig. 286.— a Swinging Settee. 

arms, there is no especial attraction for an afternoon nap. It 
is predicted, though, many fancy pillows will be found there. 
This, with the swinging motion from the chains, will make a 
more desirable resting place than the hammock. The chains 
hang from hooks in the rafters of the porch, or heavy limb of a 
tree, are secured by plates bolted to the ends of the settee, the 
front chain secured to the seat frame, while the rear chain is ad- 



justed at the proper balancing point near the arm or back post. 
Heavy No. ooo German chain should be used. The size of the 
seat should not be less than 23 x 72 inches, the framing consist- 
ing of I ^4 X 5-inch stock, the inner edge rabbetted out to receive 
slats ^8 X ^ inch, to be nailed at intervals of ^ inch. The 
upper face of these slats should be slightly ground. Another 
form of seat may be put in, like an old-time sack bottom bed- 
stead, and heavy duck, with seam and eyelets, worked in along 
the edge, through which rope is inserted in and out and around 
slots cut into the framing, stretching the material as the rope is 
pulled through the eyelets. The front and back legs are ex- 
tended 1 2 inches below the top of the seat, in so doing making 
the settee useful in the dining or smoking room as a general 
lounging couch. 

Fig. 287. — Bench for Driveway or Along a Hedge. 

In Fig. 287 is seen a very readily constructed bench for the 
driveway or along the hedge. The settee. Fig. 288, will be con- 
venient when located along the edge of the water or other place 
where the ground remains damp, the footboard being placed on 
a slight angle convenient for comfort. Should one possess a 
lake or river frontage, benches and other seat forms should be 
plentifully provided and located at positions giving the best 
view. Where the viewpoint is at an elevation toward the west, 
the greatest amount of pleasure is to be had watching the setting 
sun. This is a sentiment appreciated by all. A comfortable 



seat in nature's theatre will remind one that the last act of the 
day is the best and most beautiful of all. 

Fig. 288. — Settee for Borders of a Lake or River. 

In continuing the consideration of the subject, it may be 
stated that the construction shown in Fig. zSq is intended for a 
lounging settee, and if the head rest and sloping end be adjusted 
at the proper angle it will be found not uncomfortable for re- 

FlG. 289.— Lounging Settee. 

dining. Children are well satisfied with the ground and grass 
upon which to scamper and roll about, and the older people or 



the mother welcome such a resting place. In time the old tree 
and bench become the recreation ground for the family. Fre- 
quently two trees have grown from the same root, and it is found 
desirable to remove one of them. The stump may then be con- 
verted into such a seat as that shown in Fig. zqo. A comfort- 
able back is improvised by hewing out slightly two wings for the 

Fig. 290.— Stump of Tree as Used 
for a Seat. 

Fig. 291.— Support for 

top slat, supported by a brace from behind, and under the edge 
of these are nailed two slats on each side of the portion of the 
tree trunk forming the middle of the back. The stump should 
be sawed off at the proper inclination for comfort. In order to 
prevent hasty decay, treat the surface with paint or other pre- 
servative. In Fig. zqi is a suggestion for a stand supporting a 
jardiniere, which is usually brought from the living room during 
the summer. Many other forms will no doubt suggest them- 
selves as this interesting subject of out-door life develops in the 
mind of the home builder. 



The flower pyramid shown in Fig. 292 possesses a certain in- 
terest when a limited space is given to the disposal of many 
flowering plants. 

The frame is made of four 2 x 4-inch pieces placed in the form 
of a pyramid. In the illustration the construction is partially 
exposed, showing the intermediate studding of 2 x 4-inch lumber, 


Fig. 292.— The Flower Pyramid. 

with extended brace nailed on the ends of them, while on the 
outer face of the studding is a covering of rough boards, upon 
which, when the structure is finished, the earth will be thrown, 
filling in from the bottom box up to the top, which has a sepa- 
rate boxing. The face of the boards is finally covered with 
bark, thus obliterating all evidence of carpentry work. 

At this point, it may not be out of place to refer to the varied 
points concerning the preservation of wood work, which is a mat- 
ter of great importance. In its bearing on rustic fixed furniture, 
however, it is well to let time and the elements treat it as they 
will. It would, indeed, be like "gilding the lily" to paint it, 
although some portions may be treated with boiled oil, par- 



ticularly the end wood where decay first sets in. All benches, 
settees and other furniture of made-up stock should be painted, 

Fig. 293.- 

Settee with Lattice Back. 

and painted underneath as 
carefully as in the exposed 
port ions. Buff and shades 
of green would no doubt 
be most satisfying, while 
a settee with lattice back, 
or Chippendale style, as 
in Fig. 293, painted pure 
white, affords an agreeable 
marking point on the 
lawn. The double-back 
settee with flower sup- 
ports, such as indicated in 
Fig. 294, would also be 
appropriate in cream or 

Fig. 294.— Double Back Settee. 



HEN the builder of furniture has carried his work 
along to the point of final finishing, he has probably 
given each piece that forms part of it such careful 
smoothing with plane and steel scraper that the 
work in its entirety needs but the clearing off of 
certain glue streaks or particles, that the last rubbing over 
with No. GO sandpaper prepares it finally for the staining oper- 
ation. It is presumed he has attended to this in real loving in- 
terest to experience that rare sense, finally, of the satisfaction of 
accomplishment, for reducing the work to the smoothest pos- 
sible condition, reduces also very consideraby the various 
stages of after finish. 

The definite object of putting wood into an immediate con- 
dition of representing what the mellowing influence of time ac- 
complishes, should be the desire — and indeed it would be far 
better to leave furniture to go without stain or finish what- 
soever and allow time to finally produce that rich depth of color, 
than to stop off time coloring action by some passing furniture 
finish like so-called "antique" or "natural" which holds the 
wood in a most unnatural color for all time. 

The charm of the old furniture is in the freedom of that 
enamel, glossy, varnish finish which fills up the depth and de- 
stroys natural texture. 

In the "Arts and Crafts" and "Mission" style, a greater ap- 
preciation has developed for wood in furniture and interior 
finish which is free from the overlay of varnish or its substitutes. 

So great is oak held in favor and real sentiment that attention 
will be directed more to this wood in reference to finishing than 
to the closer grained woods. To secure this much desired 



warmth of color in oak and chestnut one need but observe the 
rich coloring in brown tones imparted to oak which has been 
used in the construction of horse stalls, where time and the 
fumes of ammonia have played such an important part, this 
then was the suggestive thought which years ago, in England, 
was worked out in a practical manner by inclosing furniture pre- 
pared for coloring in a tight box or cover to receive the fumes 
from ammonia which had been poured out in shallow dishes. 
For ordinary application of this method, when work is infre- 
quently made, a well plastered or papered closet may be made 
use of, taking care to have the door close perfectly tight against 
temporary sealing strips. Upon this air-tight condition depends 
the quality of color, as the operation requires about forty or 
fifty hours' exposure. The liquid is properly termed aqua-am- 
monia, and is about 26 per cent, strength; much stronger than 
ordinary household ammonia. 

A quicker method and one resorted to by manufacturers is the 
use of ammonia brushed on by a sponge or brush. After the 
first coat is well dried, sandpapering is necessary to remove the 
fine particles of grain which have been raised. This should be 
carefully done with fine sandpaper, and then a second coat of 
ammonia applied, and as carefully sandpapered as before. 
This operation as well as the fuming method is rather trying to 
the nostrils, and the former method is recommended as one can 
quickly close out the odor. If from the difference of open and 
close character of the wood some parts show lighter, give such 
places a third brushing. After the entire work is well dried and 
in smooth condition, apply thin coat of orange shellac; let dry 
and sandpaper lightly with fine paper; then give another coat of 
shellac treated in the same way. Finally apply one or two coats 
of floor wax of some well-known make, used according to direc- 
tions given. 

As in other work, so it is in finishing wood, that it does not 
consist in the use of a certain method, formula, or preparation 
merely, but quite as much in the intelligent handling of the sub- 
ject, for chemical action in the wood itself enters largely into 
creating an unevenness of result, the close or open character of 


one piece of wood in its relation to another, and herein indi- 
vidual judgment should be used to match up or modify for the 
desired even blending to overcome unpleasant contrasts or 
streaky condition as it might occur, as in a portion containing a 
certain amount of sapwood. However with such experiences 
met with and overcome by certain preparatory tests on scrap 
wood, which is always advisable, it is quite safe to make use of 
finishes for oak, or close-grained woods which have been pre- 
pared by reputable color and varnish makers, who give you the 
benefit, in their directions, of many years' experience in pre- 
paring their products for exacting requirements. 


Maple and birch enter so frequently into mahogany furniture 
so called that a mahogany stain must be used to create an even 
coloring. It will be found more advantageous to make use of 
the preparations or powders for mixing put up by some of the 
reliable color mixers when the mahogany stain is to be used in- 
frequently. When it is used extensively and the aim is to keep 
one established color the mixture or the proper shade should be 
prepared from one formula. Every finisher has his pet secret 
formula, which may vary as do the stains from the color houses. 
For this reason intelligence and patience must be a part of the 
mixture, frequent tests being made and finally a note as to the 
proportions when the satisfactory tint has been produced. The 
two ingredients frequently used are the aniline powders known 
as seal brown and French red. It is generally unsatisfactory to 
state how much of the red should be added to the brown in the 
water solution, as it is much a matter of testing the strength of 
color on a surface of wood similar to that which is to be stained. 
In a tin pan or vessel of very warm water sift in, while stirring, a 
small quantity of the brown, then follow with the French red, 
making a test, which should be allowed to dry before diluting or 
adding more color. The brown should be used sparingly at first, 
as it colors quickly. The red should not be too pronounced, 
suggesting that cheap Christmas toy red seen on low-priced fur- 
niture. By confining the experiments to scrap wood and match- 


ing with a sample of genuine finished mahogany no trouble 
should be found in imitating the recognized color. When the 
desired shade is obtained it is not necessary to apply it hot to the 
wood. The surface should be finished and free from any grease 
or glue spots which would hinder the stain from being absorbed. 
Some parts on the entire surface might be benefited by a second 
coat. Allow the work to stand a day before treating to a coat of 
shellac, which is allowed to dry for half a day, when it may be 
rubbed over with No. o sandpaper. With a medium-priced 
first filler varnish coat the work and allow as long as possible to 
dry, or give it not less than two days to harden. Judgment in 
this, as in everything, should be used, and plenty of time should 
be given between coats. After the surface is thoroughly hard 
rub down with sandpaper, and give a second coat with an equal 
amount of time to harden before applying the third and final 
coat of good furniture varnish. This last coat should be allowed 
to dry not less than five days, when prepare to rub down with 
pumice stone and water, using a heavy strip or square of felt, 
dipping it in a saucerful of stiff pumice stone powder and water. 
This also is an operation the information for which is secured 
solely by practice. Remove the chalk line deposit with a damp 
cloth and wipe dry with cheese cloth, after which proceed to go 
over the work with white waste dampened with a preparation for 
furniture polishing consisting of half and half of turpentine and 
raw linseed oil and plenty of elbow work. A drop of alcohol 
added to the rubbing cloth will very frequently facilitate the 



Some Suggestions Touching Upholstery Work 

LAIN upholstering of furniture may be very readily 
accomplished by following a few instructions and 
taking care to keep form and outline true and 
evenly balanced. A chair frame is taken as an illus- 
tration, and the operations necessary to upholster 

it may be enlarged upon for a settee or larger piece; practice 

and the article itself suggesting more than could be told. 

The first illustration shows the usual custom of upholstering. 

The work starts with putting on the webbing or bands on the 

bottom of the seat framing, and this should be done in a very 

firm way. For a chair seat, three strips from front to back rail 

and three interlaced through these across the width of the chair 

will be sufficient to make a firm support for the springs. Fold 

the ends of the webbing sufficient to have 

the tacks hold and then stretch across to 

the other side by hand or by means of a 

steel stretching tool, folding and tacking 

and cutting off the webbing to start 

another strip. For this use lo-ounce 

tacks. Five springs of the shape shown 

in Fig. 2q5 will be sufficient for the usual 

size of chair seats. This spring is 3^4 

inches high, and is of io>^-gauge wire. 

The position of the springs on the webbing 

should be about i inch from each corner, with one placed in the 

center. They are then held in place by stitching through the 

webbing sufficient to hold them to one position, and for this use 

an upholstering curved needle and good twine. 


295.— Shape of the 



The tops of the springs are now held in the same relative po- 
sition, and for this, use heavy cord, securing the end to the top 
of the seat rail with a matting tack or staple driven inside of a 
hard knot ; then engage the outside wire of the spring with a loop 
knot drawn so that it does not compress the spring too much. 
From here loop across the spring and then to the opposite spring 
and down on to the rail, making a hard knot and holding the 
cord down snug with a staple. In this manner do the other 
springs and then criss-cross, so that they are all bridged together. 

Cover this network with burlap or muslin, tacking the first 
edge sufficiently folded to have the tacks hold on to the edge or 
the back seat rail, and stretch forward and tack down on front 
rail, then on side rail, folding the edges as you tack. Upon this 
distribute in an even manner about 2 pounds of moss, tow or 
hair. The way it is put on is a matter of a little judgment, the 
idea being to maintain an arched shape. When this is placed to 
your satisfaction, stitch over with long stitches with a curved 
needle and twine to prevent the material from shifting. Over 
this tack down the muslin securely. Frequently this operation 
is repeated by another layer of moss, tow or hair, but this is not 
necessary where a good quantity of hair is used. Always place 
a layer of cotton batting over the muslin, covering to prevent 
the hair from coming through, and also on the edges, that may be 
sharp and liable to wear. The final outer covering being a mat- 
ter of one's own selection, nothing can be said as to this, except 
to caution when using figured goods to adjust the figure to the 
shape with some idea of balance. As to the backs of chairs when 
springs are used the same operations apply with a smaller spring 

Most chairs have backs filled in against a webbing applied 
along the inner edge of the frame, the moss or hair being care- 
fully stuffed in under a muslin covering tacked down as the work 
proceeds, then the leather or figured goods is laid over cotton 
batting intervening and tacked carefully to the rabbett on the 
outside of the framing, over which is neatly stretched gimp to 
match the material. When a corner is turned, lap the gimp 
while stretching it, so that it strikes the corner with a good miter. 


The custom is so general to use quite large metal or leather- 
headed tacks as a border finish, that care should be used to 
evenly space them and have the corner button hold down the 
miter neatly. The back of the chair is usually covered with the 
same goods, but may have a cheaper grade of the same tone 
neatly tacked on the rabbett and lined with gimp. To hide the 
unsightly webbing on the bottom of the chair, tack, with edges 
folded, a piece of chintz of suitable color, hiding all the rough 
edges on the rails. 

The spring and wire illustrated in Fig. 297 is used in later-day 
upholstering, the wire taking the place of the webbing. This 
style of creating a spring foundation is coming into great favor 


Fig. 296. — Showing Usual Method of Upholstering. 

for its general simplicity and is well adapted for square frames 
such as Morris chairs, settees and built-in hall seats. The scal- 
loped wires shown cross each other at the base of the spring, a 
"half" spring being used. The wires aresold indifferent lengths, 
bent with a crook at each end, as partly shown in the cut, having 
a sharp point which is driven into the top of the seat rail. As an 
extra precaution a stout staple should be tacked over the wire. 
It will be seen that with the peculiar shaping of the wire the 
springs, when placed and secured by a similar intersecting wire, 


occupy about the same level as though the webbing were tacked 
on the bottom of the rail. In a chair all that is necessary is to 
cross diagonally two of these formed wires of proper length, so 
that the points are driven into each corner block, then screw in 
to catch the middle spring over the intersection and place the 
four other springs about 2 inches from corner blocks, securing 
them on to the main wire by in- 
serting a cut-off section of the 
scalloped wire used for the pur- 
pose. The upper part of the 
springs are then tied with heavy 
cord, as shown in Fig. 2q6. 

Much more could be said of '^^--*^^~nN!i^^^5^ lljiriven 

upholstering. Practice on the ^J/^ bio'lT*^ 

plain work will give one many 

suggestions relative to a trial on 

more pretentious work of the Fig. 297.— Shape of Springs Used 

over-stuffed class, and dissecting i» Modern Upholstering. 

an old piece having tufted work and spring edges will add to 

one's store of information. 

Leather will always be the suitable material for the dining 
room, the den, and for library furniture on account of its wear- 
ing quality and that it does not show soil so quickly; other 
fabrics however are being used in these rooms, and particularly 
in the living room such a fulness of color and warmth may be 
had by the use of tapestries, chintz and cretonnes that they 
will always be used. 


Subjects illustrated are denoted by an asterisk.* 



"Adam Style" 25 

Antique Models 7 

Arm Chair 164, 206, *207 

''Art Nouveau" Style 70 

'■ Arts and Crafts " ' Style 29, 7 1 , * 1 6q, * 1 70 


"Ball and Claw" *iq 

Bandy Leg 45 

Bed 25, *27 

Bed Chest *2}b 

Bedroom Commode *2 1 8 

Bedroom Table *2 1 8 

Bedstead , *2 1 7 

Bench *288 

Bird House *282 

Blacking Stand *i23 

Book Case *'^55, *256, *257 

Book Holders 1 1 o, * 1 1 1 , * 1 1 2, *26o 

Buffet *io2, *iqq 


Cabriole Leg 15, *i8, *iq, *65 

Carving 11, 12, *i3, *qi, *ii9 

Chairs. . *i3, *i4, *i8, *iq, *2o, *2i, *23, *24, *28, 148, 162 

Arm 1 64 

Corner * 1 76 

Desk * 1 79 

Dining *i55 

Dressing *23o 

Garden *27o 


302 INDEX 



Morris *i82, *i83 

Rocking *2 7, *i4S, i4q, *i^o, 164, * 165 

Roman * 1 76 

Side *i62 

Charles II 13 

Chest 103, * 104, * 105 

China Cabinet 20Q, *2io, *2i i, *2i2 

Chippendale 1 8, * i q, *2o, *2 1 , *22, 1 54 

Clawfoot *b'y, *c)o, *i 18, i2q, *i5q, *i6o, *iq2 

Clock Cabinet *i66, *i67, iq2, *iq3 

Clothes Chest *io4, *io5, 23, ^235, *236 

Clothes Stand 4 *2 1 8, *2 1 q 

"Colonial" Style * 186, 188 

"Commonwealth" Period *i i , 1 2, 1 3 

Console Table 1 40, * 1 4 3 , * 1 44 

Construction Frame *37, *22q, 233, *25q 

Corner Chair * 1 76 

Corrugated Fasteners 100 

Costumer *2 1 q 

Couch *i 5q 

Court Cupboard *i 2 

Cushion 83 


Desk Chair *i 7q 

Dining Chair *i55, 205, *2o6 

Dining Room * i q6 

Drawings, 42, 68, 71, 7^, jb, *8q, *qi, 151, 170, *i75, 214 

Dresser *22 1, 222 

Dressing Table *227, *228, *22q 

Dressing Table Chair *228, *2 3o 


"Elizabethan" Style 10, *i2 

"Empire" Style 25, *26 

English Breakfast Table 203, ^204 


Finishing 52, 53, 54, 70, 74, 124, 125, 205, 2oq 

Flower Pyramid *2qi 

Folio Case i8q, iqo, *iqi 

French Leg * i q, 20 

Fuel Chest *8o, *8 1 , *82, *&$ 

Fumed Oak 30 

INDEX 303 



Garden Bench *266, 267, *268, *i6q 

Garden Chair *27o 

Garden Table *27o 

"Georgian Period" 18 

Glueing Press *56, *57 

Gothic 20 


Hall Frames 135, * 136 

Hall Seat *4i, *6q, *i3i, *i32, *i34 

Hall Stand * 1 3q, * 1 40 

Hall Tree 137, *i38 

Handy Tools *')'), *^6, *57, *58 

Hat and Coat Frame 135, *i36 

HePPELWHITE 18, 22, *23, *24 


"Jacobean" Style 11, *i4, *i5, *32 

James 1 11 


K. D. "Knocked Down" 180 

Kitchen *25 1 

Kitchen Cabinet *248, 249, 250 

Kitchen Table *253 

Kitchen Table Seat *253 


Lamp Post *27q 

Stand *io8, *ioq 

Lawn Bench *284, *285, *28q 

Lawn Chair ^276, *28i 

Lawn Settee ^t-??, *^7^, *2.8o, *283, *28q, *2q3, *2q4 

Lawn Swing *287 

Lawn Table *276, *284 

Louis XIV 20 

Louis XV 20, 21, 22 

Louis XVI 22 

Mahoganizing 2q6 

304 INDEX 


Magazine Stand q7, *q8, *i67 

Magazine Stand and Book Case *256 

Medicine Cabinet 239, *240 

Millinery Stand *io6 

Mirror *i8, *2iq 

"Mission" Style 28, 61, i6q 

Morris Chair 182, *i83 

Music Cabinet *iio, *i86, *i87, 188, *i8q 

Ornament 60, 61, *62, *63, *64, *65, /q 


Parlor 173 

Pedestal * 1 84 

Piano Bench *i 30 

Piano Stool 127, *i28 

Plate Rack *202, *203 

Plant Stand *io7, *io8, ^285, *2qo 

Porch Chair 273, *274 

Rocker *272 

Porch Swing 274, *275 

Portable Wash Stand 223, *224, *225 


"Queen Anne" Style *i6, *i8 


Reading Table *i25 

Reception Chair * 1 7q, 2 3 1 

Rocking Chair 164, *ib^, *i48 

Roman Chair *. * 1 76 

Routing Tool *58 

Rush Seat 156 


Saddle Seat *i5o, 152, * 162, 163 

Sanding Stick *S7 

Scraping Tool 45, 48, *58 

Screen *86 

Serving Stand 100, *ioi 

Serving Tray *3 5 

INDEX 305 


Settee i8o, *i8i, 275, *28o 

Settle *i i, *i8, *253 

Sewing Table 1 1 2, * 1 1 7, * 1 2 1 

Shaving Stand 231, *232, *242, *243, *245, *246 

Sheraton 18, 22, *24 

Shoe Chest *225 

Side Board *q, *24, *iq7 

Side Chair .' * 1 62 

Sitting Room * 1 58 

Table * 1 5q 

Slip Seat *i55 

Stand, Flower *i 24 

Millinery *io6 

Plant *io7, *io8 

Smokers * i oq 

Tray *36 

Umbrella *io6, *io7 

Stock Dressing *45, *46, 47, *48, 4q, 50, *$i 

Stools 1 17, *i 18, 120, *i2i, *i23 

"Stuart and Tudor" Style 15 



Bedroom *2 1 8 

Breakfast *32 

Center *22, *26, *8q, *qo, *qi, *q2, *i75 

Chair *2q 

Dining 200. *2oi 

Garden *27o, *284 

Gate Leg *32, *33 

Living Room *3q, *q2, *q3, *q4, *i5q 

Reading *i25 

Serving *34 

Sewing Table *36, *37, 203, *204 

Settle *3 1 

Side Table *3q 

Telephone *4o 

Tray *3 5 

Tea Cart 213, *2 14, 215 

Towel Rack *226, *24i 

Tray Stand *36 

Umbrella Stand *io6, *io7, 145, * 146 

306 INDEX 


Under-Bed Box * 1 05 

Upholstery *i7, 83, 84, *iiq, *i33, 155, 161, *i62, 165, 176, 

182, 207, 208, 2oq, ALSO Chapter XVI. 
Utility Box 104 


Veneer Work 185, iqq, 242, 234, 244 

ViCTROLA Cabinet *i86 


Wardrobe 234, *23 7 

WaSHSTAND 223, *224, *225 

Wash stand and Somnoe *2.33 

Wedge Machine *5q 

"William and Mary" Style *i3, *i6 

Windsor Chair * 1 7, *27 

Window Seat *6q, *8o, * 1 22 

Work Stand *2b, 112, *i 1 3, *i 1 5, *ii6 

Working Drawing 42 

Writing Desk *iS, *bq, *i78, *286 

Table *q5 

Writing Desk and Book Case *257, *262 



014 060 758 7 •»