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Full text of "Further notes on Nepal birds [by] Robert L. Fleming and Melvin A. Traylor"

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E> R.AR.Y 





v. 35 

cop. 3 










Published by 

MAY 21, 1964 



Field Associate, Department of Zoology 



Associate Curator, Division of Birds 



Published by 

MAY 21, 1964 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 6^-22005 




Introduction 495 

Collecting Trips . 498 

Systematic List 515 

Appendix 553 

References . . 557 



1. Nepal, showing areas covered by collecting expeditions . 499 

2. Route of expedition in East No. 1 and East No. 2, Nepal . . 499 

3. Route of expedition in far eastern Nepal . 509 

4. Five males of the spiny babbler, Turdoides nipalensis 533 


The present report, like that previously published (Fleming and 
Traylor, 1961), contains taxonomic and other notes on birds col- 
lected by Dr. Fleming in Nepal, in this instance, in 1960 and 1961. 
The bulk of the specimens were taken when Dr. Fleming was working 
in cooperation with the World Book Scientific Expedition to the 
Himalayas. We are extremely grateful to that organization and to 
Field Enterprises for the assistance and financial aid that made 
Dr. Fleming's collecting possible. There are also records of a few 
birds from Kathmandu Valley that seem of special interest. 

Since our first report appeared, two important works on the 
Indian region have been published. Ripley's (1961) "Synopsis of 
the Birds of India and Pakistan" brings together the immense amount 
of material that has been published since Stuart Baker's volumes of 
the "New Fauna" appeared, and makes available in one place and 
in a modern classification revisionary work that has been scattered 
through a vast literature. It is an indispensable volume for any 
student of Indian birds. Since Ripley's "Synopsis" will be standard 
for Indian (in the geographic sense) ornithology for years to come, 
we are using his classification and nomenclature throughout, even 
though we do not in all cases agree with his generic arrangements. 
The second important work on this region, not yet complete, is 
Biswas' (1960 1961) "The Birds of Nepal", being published serially 
in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. This is not 
only a checklist summarizing all previous records of Nepal birds, 
but it also contains much original work based on the collection made 
by Biswas and Walter Koelz in 1947; the bulk of this collection is 
now in Chicago Natural History Museum and is referred to as the 
Koelz collection in this report. Unfortunately, only the first five 
parts of Biswas' paper were available during the preparation of this 
report. The remainder is eagerly awaited because it will be the first 
summary of our knowledge of Nepal birds since Gray (1846). 

The collections reported here contain 33 species and 9 subspecies 
(marked by asterisks in the Systematic List) not previously taken 
by Fleming in Nepal. This raises the totals for Fleming's collection 



to 556 species and 613 subspecies, a very respectable percentage 
of the Nepal avifauna. Among the 42 new forms reported here are 
five species and two subspecies recorded for the first time from Nepal. 
The species are Vanellus cinereus (previously known from sight 
records), Caprimulgus a. asiaticus, Indicator x. xanthonotus, Brady- 
pterus t. tacsanowskius, and Arachnothera L longirostris. The sub- 
species are: Turdus r. ruficollus and Erithacus pectoralis tschebaiewi. 

One extra-limital race is described here as new: Paradoxornis 
nipalensis garhwalensis (p. 531). 

For those readers who may have the opportunity to travel 
and collect in Nepal, an appendix is included which discusses the 
governmental requirements, conditions to be expected, equipment 
needed, and further useful information based on Fleming's extensive 
experience there. 

The descriptions of collecting trips, appendix and field notes on 
each species in the systematic list were written by Fleming. The 
identifications and taxonomic discussions were done by Traylor. 


The success of our collecting trips in 1960 and 1961 was due to 
a number of individuals. First there are members of the team: 
Sagar Rana, my right-hand bird man, and his hunter, Man Bahadur 
Gurung; Nirmal Roberts, our male nurse; Dr. James Dick, who was 
deft at bird skinning and who saved the life of a Nepalese boy who 
had cut himself and was bleeding to death; Frank Stough of San 
Diego, California, who trapped and prepared small mammal skins; 
and Mingma Sherpa from Darjeeling. 

Mention also must be made of Hans Froelich of the Swiss dairy 
project at Thodung, East No. 2, for his hospitality and help in acting 
as a guide to the higher camps; of Padam Bahadur, for his hospital- 
ity and the clue to the haunts of the honeyguide; and his brother, 
Hem Bahadur, who accompanied us to the land of the crossbill and 
crimson-horned pheasant. Kharga Dhoj Karki was very helpful at 
Biratnagar in arranging for buffalo carts; Forest Officer Basant Lai 
Das was most hospitable and mapped our final trek through Ham 

We are very grateful to the Government of Nepal for making 
these extensive and valuable trips possible. Because of the generous 
permissions of the Government, we have been able to record on the 
spot information about birds which no ornithologist has observed 


before. To date we have found about three-quarters of the birds 
which live in Nepal and have only two hundred or so to record. 
We are indebted to the Government of Nepal for having afforded 
every assistance in this extensive study. 

Collecting Trips 
(Maps 1-3) 

Early in 1960, while I was in the United States, Dr. Clifford C. 
Gregg, then Director of Chicago Natural History Museum, asked 
me, as a member of the Museum staff living in Kathmandu, if I 
would represent the Museum on a forthcoming expedition to the 
Himalayas. The expedition was being planned by the World Book 
Encyclopedia and would be under the direction of Sir Edmund 
Hillary. My particular job would be to collect birds and small 
mammals for the Museum. Since my vacation was due and I would 
be returning to Kathmandu from the United States in less than a 
month, I accepted. 

Two weeks later I was jetting to the Orient. Plans for the World 
Book Encyclopedia Scientific Expedition to the Himalayas had taken 
definite shape. The major effort would be a study by a group of 
medical men on the effect of altitude on the human body and the 
scaling, without oxygen, of Makalu, the world's fourth highest moun- 
tain. A second purpose of the expedition would be to prove or dis- 
prove the existence of the "yeti". The third part of the expedition 
would be my work for Chicago Natural History Museum. Chief 
Curator Austin L. Rand outlined a rough program for me: to enlist 
the assistance of several Nepalese helpers for my collecting, and 
to choose my own time and area of operation independently of Sir 
Edmund Hillary's group. 


I first conducted four short trial camps. One was in Rapti Dun 
at an altitude of 1000 feet, sixty miles south of Kathmandu; the 
second at 4500 feet was ten miles south of Kathmandu, the third 
at 5000 feet was at Sundarijal where the pilgrim trail starts north to 
Gosainkund; and the fourth at 6000 feet was at Tokha Sanatorium 
on the northern side of the Valley. Six of us took part in these 
camps two Americans, and our four Nepalese among whom were 
a Rana, a Gurung, a Newari and a Sherpa. Later we added a medi- 


A/ \ST-,. 



Fig. 1. Nepal, showing areas covered by collecting expeditions. 

Fig. 2. Route of expedition in East No. 1 and East No. 2, Nepal. 



cal man from India, and a Scottish doctor. I discovered that, des- 
pite varied backgrounds, these men worked well together. 

Weather is always important in planning a field trip. September 
weather had been wet and miserable. There was no reason to set 
out on our first expedition until bright, clear fall days had come. 
November is our driest month so we fixed on the first of that month. 

Zoologists at Chicago Natural History Museum had given us 
suggestions as to what type of specimens they would like. These 
included species from the higher hills, some from the lowlands, and 
birds in eastern Nepal along the Sikkim border. The Government 
of Nepal, upon our request, granted us permission to spend a month 
in Ramechap District just west of Everest and south of Guari Shan- 
kar, six weeks in Kailali-Kanchanpur in the extreme southwestern 
corner of the country and six weeks in Morang, Jhapa and Ham 
Districts in the far east. 

Sir Edmund Hillary and tons of equipment for his World Book 
Encyclopedia Scientific Expedition to the Himalayas arrived in mid- 
September. Members of his party worked hard and long at the 
airport, Hotel Royal, Surendra Bhawan and finally at Bhadgaon 
where several hundred porters started their trek toward Everest. 
Dr. Betty Milledge took charge of the store of supplies at the United 
Mission Hospital while her husband, Dr. James Milledge went with 
the medical party to the high altitude camp for the winter. Sir 
Edmund had brought our equipment from Chicago Natural History 
Museum and now we could make the necessary application to the 
Government of Nepal. 


(November 2-December 2; Map 2) 

The main route to Numche Bazaar, south of Everest, runs east 
of Kathmandu for about 115 miles. Ordinary travelers require about 
sixteen days to get there but Sir Edmund Hillary could make it in 
eight days. We were the ordinary kind and would get to Jiri on the 
sixth day at the rate of about eight miles a day. Dr. Bethel Fleming 
and Dr. Morrow Stough started at 5:00 A.M. and drove us eighteen 
miles to the end of the road at Banepa where we started to walk. 
We soon came to the rim of a valley that would take us almost all 
day to cross. There were a series of six such valleys and ridges from 
here to Jiri. 

Down we plunged to a meandering stream and, in the heat of 
the forenoon, rested under a pipal or fig tree. Soon we reached 


Panchkal and a tea shop, the only place like this we saw. They 
not only served us hot tea but softboiled eggs. That afternoon we 
climbed up to Hoxie and pressed on down the steep ridge beyond. 
Mingma, our Sherpa, found a good place along a little river where 
we pitched our tents. Porters gathered firewood while we settled 
down for the night. 

The going on the second day proved much more difficult. We 
hadn't yet gotten our "hill legs" and one of our steepest climbs was 
before us. After an hour along a narrow, cool valley we reached 
the Indravati River which flowed at this point into the Sun Kosi. 
It was a little too late in the season to learn much about bird mi- 
gration up and down these rivers, though we did see a few ducks. We 
started up from the river at 1900 feet to Choyobos at over 5,000 
feet. There was little shade and after an hour and a half we stopped 
for lunch. We decided to stop at Bhumbo Bhangyang, a mile or so 
short of our destination. Near us was a beautiful flowering bird- 
cherry tree. No one had to be lulled to sleep that night! 

Two of our porters from Temal Village, Ramechap, decided they 
had had enough and quietly stole away with a few unearned rupees 
in their pockets. But we got two strong men from the local village 
and we were soon on the road again. Most of the route that day 
lay along a crest of a ridge. We climbed another thousand feet to 
Choyobos and then ascended again to a saddle at 7,000 feet where 
we had a fine view of the snowy ranges. From here the descent was 
gradual and led through a fine oak-rhododendron forest. Toward 
evening we came to a village aflutter with prayer flags and we stopped 
for the night. This was Lesangku. Our hunter met a panther on 
the forest path below town. The kalij cock he brought back was 
like those in Kathmandu but there was less white barring on the 
rump. This character disappears completely on birds from far east- 
ern Nepal. 

We could look from our camp at Lesangku across the next big 
valley to Deorali pass at 7200 feet. It took us all day to get to the 
next rim and the porters suggested a camp site below it but fortun- 
ately we pushed over onto the other side. And what a marvelous 
view of Gauri Shankar and companion peaks to the east! It was 
chilly there but the warm pink glow on the ranges in the fading 
sunlight was a fitting conclusion to a day's trek in the Himalayas. 
Off to the northeast the top of one mighty peak, crowned with a 
snow plume, glowed longer than all the rest Everest! In the gray 
dawn, Gauri Shankar greeted us again. Down four thousand feet 


across the Tamba Kosi and up two thousand feet to Nambdu. One 
of the suspension bridges along the way had seen better days but 
we managed to cross it. Nothing but rats lived around Nambdu 
according to the count in the traps. A flight of thirty or forty kes- 
trels in the twilight was an inspiring sight. 

On the ridge above Yersa we could look ahead and see still more 
ridges of hills running into Okhaldhunga District bordering on the 
Solo Khumbu, the land of the Sherpas. But we did not have farther 
to go on the Everest route. Down at Sikrigaon we turned off to the 
northeast and up one more steep ridge until we could look over into 
the Jiri Khola where the Swiss had new installations. In the dis- 
tance we saw eighteen men working on an air strip. The Jiri Khola 
had been a swamp shortly before but Mr. Monche had over three 
hundred workers busy. They had drained the swamp and put up 
several sturdy buildings. We stopped here for a two day rest. 

The Jiri Khola runs north and south and is about three miles 
or more long and less than a mile wide. At the lower end is the town 
of Those, noted for its iron mining and refining. About half way up 
the valley, expansive wooden-shingled roofs shelter the Swiss. At 
the head of the valley is a village of well-constructed two-story houses 
bounded by cultivated fields. A ridge beyond went steeply up to 
8,000 feet. A Swiss cheese storage station lay at Kapti, 7500 feet. 
The forest on the southern slope was pretty well cut down but there 
was a heavy stand of trees over the ridge and on the northern side. 

We pitched our tents on a dry, grassy knoll, used by successful 
Swiss climbers on Dhaulagiri. Mrs. Monche invited us to tea and 
served some delicious cheese they had made. The Monche children 
had a young civet as a pet. Later, villagers brought us an adult 
specimen. There were a few jackals about and in a kodo field on the 
side of the hill about a mile away, we found the millet devoured 
by rats. In the scrub jungle bordering the Jiri Valley, we began to 
find the birds we needed, especially a race of red-headed laughing 
thrush in which we were especially interested. Early one morning a 
flock of snow pigeons landed in fields to the north and our hunter got 
one. Eleven years before we had shot several on the Kali Gandak 
River, West Nepal, but they had fallen on an inaccessible ledge and 
we were not able to retrieve them, and until now, did not have this 
species in our collection. It had been difficult to travel and to collect 
at the same time but as soon as we could stop, things began to im- 


Our next goal was Thodung, a day's journey to the northeast. 
There at 10,000 feet was a Swiss dairy center manned by Hans Froe- 
lich. Our new team of sturdy porters climbed out of the Jiri Valley 
for a thousand feet and followed a ridge for some distance, then 
picked their way down the abrupt hillside to the Tama Khola. Lovely, 
large orchids overhung the cliffs on the further side. Bulbs we 
brought back have sent out flourishing green leaves. The 5000 foot 
climb to Thodung was along an ill-defined road. At 8000 feet al- 
titude our legs were heavy and we stopped at Buddharam to catch 
our breath. 

A thousand feet higher the tall trees began and we clambered 
upward on a winding road. We met workmen coming down. The 
dairy was "just a little way" but it took another half-hour to reach 
the small, wooded pass where the building stood. 

Several Swiss milk-collecting stations lay farther into the hills 
above Thodung and Mr. Froelich suggested we visit them. The 
morning of the second day we set out for Dhoban at 12,600 feet. 
About halfway there we reached a pass at 11,600 feet and suddenly 
came in view of a dazzling snow range only fifteen miles away. 
It was complete with its own private Matterhorn. Beautiful old 
gnarled evergreen trees made a fine foreground for a perfect picture. 
Several red-throated thrushes perched on bare branches in the sun- 
shine. Here we left the trees behind and made our way through 
masses of rock. At last we came to a little hut in the shelter of a 
great knoll directly south of Gauri Shankar. From the top of a 
hill a thousand feet farther up one could see a little lake called 
Bhoot Pokhari (Lake of the Ghosts). It was here that the great 
Kansu rose finch sheltered under overhanging rocks. Our sherpas 
kept a fire going all night while the wind blew cold outside. When 
the sun returned to warm the hillside, little mouse-hares popped 
out of their burrows between rocks. White clouds formed a blanket 
below us and stretched for miles toward the southwest. That after- 
noon we retraced our steps and stopped at Tserping (10,800 feet) 
for a couple of days. 

The long, flat ridge where Tserping is situated is not suitable 
for an air strip because of the wind and the position of a nearby 
mountain peak. We saw thousands of tiny holes in the loamy 
ground. "Leeches made them," observed Mr. Froelich. In the 
rainy summer season, this place is swarming with leeches. In the 
fringe of forest along the ridge were several species of birds- 
thrushes, laughing thrushes, rose finches and grosbeaks. Blood 


pheasants clucked from the bamboo thickets a bit lower down. At 
the base of steep cliffs six or eight hundred feet farther up lived 
serow and musk deer. On sunny hillsides among underbrush were 
the holes of a vole and a pygmy shrew. More than a dozen brilliant 
impeyan pheasants dug for tubers under evergreen trees not more 
than a couple of hundred yards away. It was a wild, beautiful spot. 

All too soon we had to start moving down for a final overnight 
stop at Thodung. Our porters got a late start the following morning. 
We had hoped to go from there to the cheese storage depot at Kapti 
but had to spend the night at Yelung. There we ran into several 
coveys of chukar partridge. From Kapti we could look southward 
down the Jiri Valley and see the Swiss buildings about two miles 
away. To the west were still higher ridges and forests. For two 
days we hunted in this area. 

Our next objective was Bigu, a two day journey of about fifteen 
miles to the northwest of us. The new batch of porters did not show 
up until mid-day, then led us on a much more difficult route than 
was necessary. After hacking our way through the jungle, we reached 
the well-trodden road we should have taken. That evening we did 
not halt at the village where the men obviously wanted to stay but 
pressed on down a beautiful bit of forest road and put up camp. 
It was clear, mild night. Low in the west the moon, Venus and Mars 
made a brilliant threesome in the evening sky. 

The porter we had picked as leader started us off on the wrong 
trail, but some villagers soon set us straight, and after two day's 
march we were in Bigu. 1 The new route brought us to Bigu so di- 
rectly we almost overtook the letter boy who started out a day 
ahead of us. He had reached the headman's house only minutes 
before we did and servants were beginning to sweep up the courtyard 
when we got there. The headman was up in town and hadn't had 
word yet that we had come. Family members, however, invited 
us to come in and sit down and brought us fresh persimmons and 
tea. We looked around for a flat spot in the vicinity where we 
could pitch our tents but there was none so we decided on the floor 
in the courtyard. Tents were up and supper under way when the 
headman returned. He knew of our coming and made us welcome. 

We asked whether there were hives of bees on overhanging cliffs. 
"Oh, yes, only up the valley about three miles. My men go there 
every year to scrape off the combs and they only went yesterday. 

1 En route we collected ticks from a man's coat collar and from a rat, which have 
been described as a new species by Dr. Harry Hoogstraal, NAMRU 3, Cairo, Egypt. 


I'll send my man along tomorrow to show you." We talked about 
game in the upper hills directly above the house. Yes, it was a 
good place. Any red pandas? No, they didn't seem to know about 
that animal. As we talked into the night, prospects for collecting 
here seemed good. 

Thanksgiving Day, November 24th, we explored the country- 
side. Our host, Padam Bahadur, took us up to Rakham. This 
was a good place to build a mission dispensary plenty of land, 
sunshine and water nearby. The houses on the lower terraces were 
all occupied by Nepalese-speaking Hindus. On the upper hillsides 
lived Tibetan-speaking Buddhists, each with his own neat little house 
fronted by a fluttering prayer flag. 

When we were getting ready for supper back down at the head- 
man's house, we looked for the return of Sagar Rana who had gone 
to the cliffs where the bee combs were. Dr. Friedmann of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, had asked us to look for the orange- 
rumped honey guide. An ancient Chinese manuscript had described 
this bird in a remote valley where bees made their combs on over- 
hanging cliffs. This species had been collected both in Sikkim and 
Kumaon where it was fairly common at certain seasons of the year 
but had not yet been reported from Nepal. When we saw Sagar 
coming back he held out his hand and called, "The honeyguide is 
in Nepal ! I went up the main road and then took a side path which 
wound under cliff's to a stream. They showed me where they had 
been scraping the wax off rocks and there was a bird upside down 
on a comb!" The honeyguide at last, with its stomach crammed 
full of wax. 

Our medical man was very busy the next three days. There 
was no other medical aid in Bigu and almost half the population 
crowded around the medical tent waiting to be examined and to 
receive medicines. The remainder of our party went hunting on 
upper slopes several miles above town. Here were the crimson 
horned pheasant, several kinds of rose finches, laughing thrushes, 
fulvettas, barwings and crossbills. A small herd of ghoral or goat- 
antelope inhabited the cliffs on the southern side. Evenings up there 
were chilly but the many fallen logs provided a warm fire. 

There was no school in Bigu. When we passed through the town 
for the last time, children with garlands lined the road. "Long live 
the King. Long live the United Mission. We must have a dis- 
pensary. We must have a school." So chanted the children. On 
our way up to the 10,000 foot ridge towards Kathmandu we found 


another honeyguide. The little stream at our camp site was frozen 
over in the morning. A flock of snow pigeons settled on a dead tree. 
In the early sunshine they looked like glistening snowballs tied along 
the branches truly a lovely sight. 

Nine of the Jiri porters were still with us. Four had returned and 
were replaced by sturdy Bigu men. Tuesday, November 29th, we 
reached the pass about 9:30 A.M. and by evening were ten or twelve 
miles down the mountain to an altitude of only 2700 feet. Along 
the way we saw nutcrackers, buzzards and accentors. The streams 
were quite warm in the lower valleys so w T e had a real bath. That 
evening we added fresh milk and eggs to our menu of fresh pheasant, 
beautifully prepared. 

With four weeks of mountain trekking behind us it was easy to 
cover greater distances. On our right we looked down and saw the 
town of Barabise on the Bhote Khola and a little later arrived at 
the more flourishing town of Sun Kosi Bazaar. The Sun Kosi stream, 
flowing in from the northeast, was only a small stream but when it 
joined the large Bhote Khola it became a swollen Sun Kosi River. 
A little farther on we saw two or three hundred Nepal martins in a 
single leafless tree. The movement of this bird is not fully known. 
We crossed the river, mounted a ridge and after several more miles 
descended abruptly to Dholalghat. We camped for the night in a 
mango grove along the Indravati River. We had freshly boiled 
eggs and tea again at Panchkal and then enjoyed a real scrub in the 
stream beyond. We easily got to Banepa by four o'clock. And 
there was a truck, headed for Kathmandu; we jumped in and as we 
rolled over the last eighteen miles of our thirty mile trip that day, 
we watched a full, yellow moon rise and flood the dark hills with 
pale light. Altogether, we had had a wonderful experience in the 
Himalayan hills. 


(December 19-February 4, 1961) 

Chicago Natural History Museum wanted to secure specimens 
of the pygmy hog and fishing cat from Nepal. Sagar Rana had 
seen both in Kailali-Kanchanpur Districts when his father, Dhariya 
Shumshere, had been governor there. Upon request, the Foreign 
Department issued the necessary document, similar to the one we 
had just taken to East No. 2 and we thought everything was in order. 
It wasn't until a week later that we discovered still another document 


must be obtained from the Forest Department, so the party headed 
by Sagar Rana, his Gurung hunter and his uncle, had left Kathmandu 
without it. 

Planes sometimes fly to southwest Nepal, but there were none 
available at this time. Our party had to make a 110 mile trip by 
truck and then an 800 mile trip by rail through India to reach Dhan- 
garhi. Here they learned from the forest officer that they did not 
have the necessary permit to collect in government forests. 

Land is divided into two categories, that owned by the Govern- 
ment and that owned by private individuals. It was only in the 
latter areas that our party could operate. They decided to move 
eastward from Dhangarhi into largely non-government land. For 
two days they camped near a large pond. The comb duck had been 
seen there several years before but only the Indian gray duck was 
present. The hunter got a specimen of the small Indian fox while 
Sagar added the little grebe to our list. Then on to Beli, five miles 
eastward. The camp was on the edge of a stream where numerous 
red jungle fowl, peafowl and a hyena were seen. 

Kaneri Village, two miles distant, lay at the edge of a fine sal 
forest. The land-owner remembered Sagar from the time his father 
had been Governor and invited him to hunt in his private jungle. 
Here the tracks of the pygmy hog were in evidence. The Gurung 
hunter saw about nine altogether but try as he might, he could not 
bag one. 

The party pitched another camp near a pond where there were 
many moor hens and large cormorants as well as black partridge 
in the grassy areas. The mixed forest a little further on had trees with 
little green berries. Pintail green pigeons, in flocks of fifteen to 
twenty, were eating this food. Along the Mohana stream on sand- 
banks were several hundred brahmany duck. In a sal forest beyond, 
parrakeets were making a great disturbance. They saw a goh or 
monitor lizard with its head in a parrakeet hole while a succession 
of birds seized its tail and vainly tried to bite through the thick 
skin. The lizard apparently did not mind the concerted parrakeet 

Bhaderi Chawki was five miles farther east. It is a small village 
surrounded by cultivated fields and backed by a sal forest. In 
grassy spots, the rednaped hare was fairly common. It was nine 
miles to Satti Bazaar. Swamp partridges lived in the tall grass 
near damp places. A rustle in the grass, then a chucking of a bird 
from a bush, indicated its whereabouts. The following day in al- 


most the same place, Sagar caught a glimpse of a gray, spotted animal 
stalking a fallen bird. Two quick shots brought us the much de- 
sired fishing cat which people call "bun beerawlu." This trophy 
concluded the collecting in southwestern Nepal. 


(February 12-March 23, 1961, Map No. 3) 

Our personnel again included Sagar Rana for birds, his Gurung 
hunter, Man Bahadur and Frank Stough for small mammals. We 
also had a Scottish doctor from the United Mission, Dr. James 
Dick, who thus missed the visit of Queen Elizabeth to Nepal in order 
to accompany us. A. Lama, a man of experience in the field, was 
our new cook. The six of us, along with our 800 pounds of lug- 
gage, flew from Kathmandu to Biratnagar, February 12, 1961. 

It was about forty-five miles from Biratnagar to Jhapa. The 
road ran due east, just north of the Indian border. We had to cross 
sixteen small rivers, only the first of which is bridged. The water, 
which was fairly shallow in February, must flood the whole country- 
side in August and September. Rangeli, fifteen miles out, and Gauri- 
ganj were the only sizeable towns. We traveled about nine miles a 
day, passing by many cultivated fields and through several forests. 
The days were pleasant and clear with almost no wind. We found 
birds like the Indian rufous turtle dove in open areas and Chinese 
bluethroats in hedges. We saw rails and lapwings along forest 
streams. A small cormorant, which we needed, eluded us. In 
marshy ground we flushed a chestnut bittern and pond herons. One 
evening we studied a group of three kinds of egrets and white ibises, 
more than a hundred birds in all. The intermediate egret was not 
present. Along the Ratua River were numbers of terns. Then a 
magnificent black-necked stork sailed in, his bill and legs a gleaming 
red. We were glad for this addition. That afternoon at Gauriganj 
we met Santa Bir Lama, who was once a famed "robin hood" of 
Bengal and East Nepal. He was the out-going Bara Hakim of that 

By mid-afternoon of the fifth day we reached Jhapa, a town with 
a fairly good bazaar. It was market day but the selection of food 
was rather limited and vegetables were scarce. A leading citizen 
of the town invited us to camp in the courtyard of a temple for the 
night. In the morning sunlight we saw a flock of one or two hundred 
munias flying from the neighboring trees onto a threshing floor. 


8 7 30' 


Fig. 3. Route of expedition in Morang, Jhapa and Ham Districts, far eastern 

Through the binoculars we discovered they were largely the chest- 
nut-breasted variety which was new to us. 

According to our map the Kankai River should have flowed to 
the east of Jhapa. We learned that six years before, during a great 
flood, the river had changed its course and we had already crossed 
it just before reaching Jhapa. We turned north from Jhapa and soon 
came to the old river which was now a mere stream. The road was 
fairly good and we passed groves of bamboo and bananas. The 
pied minah was particularly common here. From here the road 
was full of deep ruts but our carts managed to get through to a 
fine large mango tree where we pitched camp. 


We could see the foothills rising out of the plain to the north. On 
the way we skirted a reedy swamp when three Santal boys appeared. 
They carried bows and arrows and were escorted by five hunting 
dogs, one of which had a bell around his neck. They carried a string 
of five birds which they had shot that day a hawk, a brown crake, 
a water hen, a kingfisher and a shrike. These they would have for 
their supper. 

We continued our investigation of forest areas. In a wet spot 
in scrub jungle peafowl flew up and we got a bustard quail. Fresh 
panther tracks led over the sand into the hills. Beautiful spinetails 
cut over a stream of the forest. 

Suneshchare Bazaar was only about six miles away. En route 
there we passed an extensive swamp and saw a bittern which eluded 
us. We found our settlement to be a boom town, living up to its 
name "Saturday Bazaar." After two days we had only four of the 
twelve porters we needed and settled for horses to carry the balance 
of the load to Ham. We had said goodbye to our faithful cartmen 
and started northward. 

"Saturday Bazaar" had yielded several uncommon birds, par- 
ticularly from the reedy swamps. We came upon our first ruddy 
crake along the stream which flowed through the town. Now we 
left the plain and started up a gentle incline through a belt of thick, 
tropical forest full of bamboo, tangled vines and tall trees. Small 
streams trickled through ravines and strange bird-calls echoed from 
the forest trees. We passed through this area much too rapidly 
for we were heading for Chisapani that night. A week here would 
have been profitable. The road led up and down over moderate 
hills and across little plateaus between the foothills and on up to 
within sight of Ham. We discovered that distances are short in 
Ham District with no very steep climbs except along the Sikkim- 
Darjeeling border. 

We passed a tea estate just before we got to our camping place for 
the night. Nightjars were especially common here. After this the 
road led down across a valley where there was a good bridge and 
up towards the district capital. We could see the governor's white 
residence at the top of the hill, surrounded by tall cryptomeria trees. 
First we reached a new site for the village development buildings. 
Just above this was a spacious parade ground; we camped near the 
water tap. The bazaar, five minutes beyond, followed the contour 
of the hill. In the center was an open square surrounded by shops 
where quite a variety of articles could be had. 


Hooker in his "Himalayan Journals" (1854) described Ham hill 
as "cone-shaped" but "dome-shaped" would have been a better 
word. Hooker made special mention of the many long-leafed pine 
trees which covered the hills from Ham to the Indian border. Today 
not a single pine remains. Wooded areas have given way to well- 
built homesteads surrounded by cultivated fields covering the ridges 
from their rims down to the river valleys. The only trees one could 
see were stretches of bamboo and an occasional uttis (alder) grove. 
On the northern slopes below Ham town were extensive terraces of 
tea bushes. This whole district was much more advanced than any 
other hill section I have seen in Nepal. Much the same probably 
could be said for Dhankuta which we did not have time to visit. 

We judged from the map that it was several days' journey to the 
northern border of Ham District but actually it is only a two day 
trip. About every mile or so one comes across a village, in contrast 
to other parts of Nepal, especially in the far west, where one can 
travel almost all day without seeing habitation. We couldn't find 
the Mai Khola listed on any of the maps we looked at in Kathmandu. 
It was along the Mai Khola that Stevens had made an extensive 
bird collection almost fifty years ago. Not until we reached the 
forest office did they point to the valley below and say "That's the 
Mai Khola." When facing north, this valley was on our right; on 
the left side of the ridge was the Pwa Khola. The forest men were 
quite helpful and sent a ranger along to show us the way. We set 
out northward on the crest of a series of rolling hills, each successive 
one higher that the last. We gradually climbed from 4500 feet to 
7000 feet in the distance of seven miles. Mai Pokhara was situated 
near a large pond about 125 yards long [and sixty yards wide. Here 
we camped for a day and a half. 

Remnants of a forest covered the northern slopes beyond the lake. 
There were burr oaks and other tall trees, barberries and open, grassy 
places. The hunter brought in a battered Kalij cock of the black- 
backed variety, common around Darjeeling. A newly-constructed 
road encircled the lake and in the shrubbery we added the strong- 
footed bush warbler to our list. 

Hooker had visited Jamnagaon in 1848. We could look down 
5000 feet to the Mai Khola and see this place on a ridge. To hunt 
in the upper Mai Khola we had to travel north a few more miles 
and turn right into the three mile valley which formed the head- 
waters of this river. There seemed to be much more extensive forests 
east beyond Jamnagaon so we elected to go that way. When we 


got down to the bridge we saw bees' combs on cliffs up the river. 
The birds flying there turned out to be bronze drongos rather than 

The forest ranger led the way up a narrowing valley past terraced 
and cultivated fields, home of the black-throated hill warbler. There 
were scattered groups of houses for about two or three miles and 
then we stepped into the forest. A broad, newly-constructed road 
led several miles to the border at Gauri Bhangyang pass at 9000 feet. 
We had just started up through the tall trees when our guide pointed 
to a place under a large rock and said this was our new home. There 
was a small area nearer the road which had been cleared and leveled 
on which we could pitch a tent. This was "Tindhoban," the meeting- 
place of three ravines, each with its own flow of water. Here was 
to be our base of operations for the next eight days. 

Sagar Rana and his hunter struck out at once and didn't come 
back until almost dark. Sagar had spotted a fire-tailed myzornis 
drinking sap from a large oak tree. Before he could collect it a 
chestnut-headed babbler attacked it and the myzornis took refuge 
in an extensive grove of small bamboo. It was a long time before 
the bird came out and Sagar was able to get it. Now Dr. Rand, of 
Chicago Natural History Museum, could compare the tongue of 
this species with that of a related bird from the Philippines. 

It had rained the day before we arrived, making the ground quite 
slippery. Clouds again filled the ravine our first afternoon and a 
little rain fell but each succeeding day became drier until we had 
several clear days and nights. Cliffs towered above our camp to 
the north. Vegetation on southern slopes was dry and grassy; many 
of the trees had been cut down. On western and northern slopes, 
however, much of the original forest remained. The ground was 
covered by moss and ferns with little underbrush. Fauna and flora 
resembled that of Sikkim rather than central Nepal. Small mammals 
had ruddier coats, birds often were the smaller, darker Sikkim races 
and the ferns and trees were Sikkim varieties. Large sprays of 
yellow-green orchids (a cymbidium) hung from the tree above us 
and water rushed all too loudly below us. 

A local hunter was glad to take me up and down over the ridges. 
In the heavy forest were kalij pheasants, hill partridges, flycatchers, 
laughing thrushes and myzornises. In the bamboo groves at about 
9,000 feet we found finches, bush-robins, the redheaded babbler and 
the maroon-backed accentor. Among the high trees were willow- 
warblers, tits, grosbeaks, barwings and bullfinches. Different species 


such as the slender-billed babbler, sunbirds, fulvettas and minivets 
flitted here and there on dry, grassy slopes. Along the open, higher 
spurs were redstarts and suthoras in bamboo. We saw three species 
of forktails along the streams as well as the brown dipper, shortwing 
and scalybreasted wren-babbler. Woodpeckers, flycatchers, warblers 
and a flower-pecker inhabited groves farther down the hillside. A 
fine flying squirrel glided in front of our camp at dusk while at night 
we could hear the quick notes of the nightjar. 

Basant Lai Das, head forest officer, greeted us in Ham. He had 
just returned from leave and made us feel welcome. We discussed 
with Mr. Das how to spend the rest of our time in Nepal. He 
suggested stopping a day or two on the Jog Mai below Ham where 
tropical forests fringed the river. From there we could take a foot- 
path up to the new road to Pashupatinagar and Darjeeling. This 
we were glad to do. As it was only early afternoon we decided to 
camp down there rather than in Ham. Mr. Das served us tea and 
eggs and then guided us through the bazaar to the road which led 
to a place called Mai Beni. 

Our camp in a mango grove at 2000 feet was much warmer than 
the one at 6500 feet we had had the night before. Also, the fauna 
and flora were different at a level so much lower. Ravines along the 
Jog Mai were full of creepers, ferns, palm and tall trees. We merely 
dipped into two or three such places, finding the bar-tailed cuckoo 
dove, flycatchers, babblers and shortwing. Several ducks flew along 
the river at dusk and Franklin's nightjar was in evidence. 

We pushed along eastward up the river just as a shower settled 
the dust and cooled the foliage. It smelled like a hothouse. Here 
we found a Burmese roller and a rufous piculet. From the river we 
went up through Suntala to Phikal on the new road. Here we de- 
bated about going southward for a day or two to locate the rufous 
horn-bill which, Hooker wrote, was common in this area. No one 
seemed to know anything about this bird so we concluded it must 
have gone with the forests Hooker so enjoyed. So we pressed on 
toward Pashupatinagar. We found Babu Sahib as directed and he 
permitted us to roll out our bed rolls in one of two rooms over his 
garage. We now arranged for a Land Rover to come next morning 
to pick up our party and go to Darjeeling. 

There was time for one last brief hunt before the car came. What 
a fine view we had of Kanchenjunga from a point a short distance 
above the road! Among the wooded hills below, quite a variety of 
life was present. We could look north along the border toward 


Sundakpu and south toward the terai. The car was an hour late so 
we were able to prepare our final bird skins while we waited. Then 
on to Darjeeling which I had visited thirty-one years before. A 
train journey from Siliguri to Raxaul and a flight from Simra to 
Kathmandu brought us home once again. 

Systematic List 

*Podiceps ruficollis capensis Salvadori. Little Grebe. 

Pharping Pond, 4 miles south of Kathmandu, 4300 feet: Id" ?; 
March 30, 1961. 

Dhangarhi, Kailali-Kanchanpur, 900 feet: 1 9 ; December 13, 
1960 (Sagar Rana). 

Reedy lakes and ponds are places where one finds the little 
grebe. Ducks and other water birds fly off from the margins of 
these bodies of water at the first sign of alarm while these small bits 
of down bob around and suddenly disappear under the surface of 
the water, only to reappear a little bit later. They occur in small 
numbers. One finds them fairly commonly in the Gangetic plain 
and the Nepal terai. It is rather unusual to come across them above 
4000 feet, but a few occasionally visit the one little lake between 
Kathmandu and Pharping. 

*Xenorhynchus asiaticus asiaticus (Latham). Black-necked 


20 miles east of Biratnagar, Morang District, 450 feet: 1 9 ; 
February 16, 1961. 

This stork haunts the larger rivers and adjoining fields of the 
Nepal lowlands, but it is not very common. As it majestically 
cruised low overhead, the red legs and bill were easy to see. It lit 
on an embankment with open, grassy spaces and a few acacia trees 
on one side and a bed of reeds a little distance away on the other 
side. From that vantage point it had a good view in all directions. 
The hunter elected to approach from the reeds while another made 
himself conspicuous on the opposite side. The bird slowly stalked 
a short distance and did not attempt to fly. 

Accipiter virgatus affinis Hodgson. Besra Sparrow-hawk. 

5 miles east of Jumna, Ham District, 8000 feet: Id"; March 11, 



This is the first specimen from east Nepal. The locality "Kaski" 
(Rand and Fleming, 1957, p. 53) is in the Pokhara District, west 

A pair of this species was squealing from oak trees on the sunny 
side of a hill, not far from cultivated fields. They occupied neigh- 
boring trees and sat with their heads somewhat pulled in and tails 
slanting downward. We took one bird while the other continued 
its calling which sounded like that of a kestrel. We have only oc- 
casionally seen it. 

Spizaetus nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgson). Hodgson's Hawk- 

Kapthar, Bajhang State, 8400 feet: 1 9 ; October 24, 1959. 

This is a rather high locality for this species. Ripley (1961, p. 50) 
gives the altitudinal range as 2000 to 7000 feet. 

The favorite place for this species is the top of a tall, dead tree 
which commands an extensive view. Perched almost crosswise, it 
will sit quietly, then suddenly take to the air and dive towards its 
prey. It is a very strong flier and delights in riding the air currents. 
Usually this bird is seen alone, but when flying in pairs they go 
through a variety of acrobatic turns and twists. One of the calls is 
a loud scream. Several hawk-eagles occupy wooded areas around 
Kathmandu Valley. 

*Gyps fulvus fulvescens Hume. Griffon Vulture. 

Bigu, East No. 2, 6500 feet: 1 d"; November 28, 1960. 

Just outside Bigu, the carcass of a cow attracted ten or twelve 
vultures. They were different sizes and colors. The one we selected 
had a large pale tan ruff of feathers around its neck. All were so 
engrossed in their meal that they permitted a fairly close approach. 
Even though well hit, this vulture started to glide down the valley, 
managing to cover several hundred feet before it fell. 

One sees numbers of vultures in the air at once, usually traveling 
some distance apart. They evidently keep their eyes on all other 
birds within sight, for as soon as one discovers food, others stream 
in from several directions, and in almost no time a dozen or two will 
be waddling around the carcass and fighting for a place to eat. 

Francolinus gularis (Temminck). Swamp Partridge. 

Sati, 32 miles east of Dhangarhi, Kailali-Kanchanpur: 1 cT; Jan- 
uary 23, 1961 (Sagar Rana). 


In Nepal the swamp partridge seems to be confined to the western 
terai. Its presence is disclosed by its two syllable call "kaw-care." 
Otherwise it is almost impossible to find because it frequents thick, 
tall "elephant" grass which is difficult to penetrate, let alone move 
through noiselessly. 

This particular bird was near a damp place, surrounded by grass. 
It stepped up into a small bush, then called. There were one or two 
others in the vicinity. Evidently they are found in the same place 
year after year. 

*Lophura leucomelana melanota (Hutton). Blackbacked Kalij. 

7 miles north of Ham, Ham District, 7000 feet: 1 d"; March 3, 

In Nepal the blackbacked kalij seems to be confined to the Mai 
Valley where Stevens also secured it. 

The small flock of pheasants from which this bird was taken 
occupied a cut-over forest area containing some larger trees. There 
were scattered dwellings and cultivated fields. The local people 
knew exactly in which tree the kalij roosted at night. We occasion- 
ally found places where numerous droppings indicated that the birds 
came regularly. The kalij sleeps near the top of a thickly leaved 
tree and, shortly after daylight, flies down to the ground and makes 
his way toward the nearest stream. During the day the flock rests 
in thickets, often on the ground or in low bushes. Then in the eve- 
ning they start back up the ridge to their favorite tree. They usually 
make the same circuit about the same time each day. 

Turnix suscitator plumbipes (Hodgson). Common Bustard- 

Kaneri, 8 miles east of Dhangarhi, Kailali-Kanchanpur: 1 o\ 
1 9 ; January 10 and 11, 1961. 

Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 9 ; February 22, 1961. 

Ham, Ham District, 4000 feet: 1 9 ; February 28, 1961. 

Of the three females listed above, two have the throat and breast 
colored as in the males. The third has only scattered black feathers on 
the throat and breast. Ripley (1950, p. 368) and Rand and Fleming 
(1957, p. 63) also had only cock-colored females. Baker (1930, p. 9) 
does not believe that wild hens have a non-breeding plumage because 
the species breeds throughout the year and black-throated birds 
have been taken in every month. However, captive birds are known 


to assume a white-throated non-breeding plumage, and LaTouche 
(1931-1934, p. 266) states that in the race blakistoni of south China 
the females have a white throat in winter. It is probable that in 
Nepal, where the breeding season may be more restricted than in 
peninsular India, the females also have a definite nonbreeding plu- 

All of our quail, whether in the lowlands, the duns or foothills 
have been in rather open places, sometimes not far from cultivation, 
where there is suitable scrub for cover. They have a high whistle 
and our hunter could call the females out at will. When they sense 
danger, they crouch, then fly out suddenly, describe a quick arc, 
settle and run a short distance. They are usually found singly or in 
pairs. Once we flushed a quail only to have a hawk-eagle swoop 
down after it. However, the quail escaped. 

*Anthropoides virgo (Linnaeus). Demoiselle Crane. 

Kathmandu: 1?; October 20, 1960. 

Kathmandu Valley is not a flyway for migrating birds but cranes 
occasionally pass through from the northern plateaus and beyond. 
In 1962, on almost the same date as given above, a single crane passed 
overhead, flying in a southerly direction. They seem to time their 
arrival just as the last rice is being harvested. The bird above was 

*Porzana pusilla pusilla (Pallas). Baillon's Crake. 

Kathmandu: 1 rf 1 ?; April 2, 1961. 

This is the first specimen of Baillon's Crake from Nepal since 
Scully (1879, p. 358), who found it only from July to December. 

The little lake south of Kathmandu on the Pharping road attracts 
a surprising number of migrating water birds. A visit there in spring 
revealed ducks, little grebes and two crakes. The latter were wading 
near the margin of the water, feeding among vegetation growing in 
shallow water. They were quite tame and continued on along the 
edge of the lake, even though observed. One specimen of this species 
dropped into our yard one fall. It was dead and very thin. There 
were no lakes within miles of our home at 6500 feet altitude. 

*Amaurornis fusca bakeri (Hartert). Ruddy Crake. 

5 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa District: 2 cf; February 26 
and 27, 1961. 


This is the first time that the ruddy crake has been taken in Nepal 
since Hodgson. 

Three years ago, early in July, a ruddy crake was seen walking 
through flooded rice fields at the northern edge of Kathmandu. It 
wasn't until we reached Suneschari Bazaar, last winter, that we came 
across several of these fairly uncommon birds. Just north of town 
flows a small stream containing clear water in which a number of 
kinds of aquatic plants were growing. Along the edge of the stream 
were piles of dead brush, fallen logs and tufts of grass. Three or four 
crakes, within a couple hundred yards, crossed from one brush pile 
to another, feeding in the stream as they went. They had a heavy 
flight with feet hanging; they covered only a short distance to a 
good hiding place. After five minutes or so they would venture out 
again. The time was about one hour after dawn. 

Amaurornis akool akool (Sykes). Brown Crake. 

10 miles north of Jhapa, Jhapa District: 1 cf ; February 10, 1961. 

The only previous specimens of this crake are from the central 
terai, at Hitora and Jhawani. 

In a section of swamp land full of six-foot reeds we could hear the 
tinkle of bells. A dog appeared, dripping with muddy water and with 
a bell around his neck. The reeds parted and out came three San- 
tali boys equipped with bows and arrows, followed by another wet 
dog. One boy carried a string of five dead birds, including a brown 
crake, which the dogs had flushed and the boys had brought down 
with their arrows. Another specimen flew low over the surface of 
a stream and dropped behind clumps of grass. 

*Vanellus cinereus (Blyth). Greyheaded Lapwing. 

Manora River, Kathmandu Valley: 1 ?; February 7, 1959 (Mrs. 

This is the first record of this species from Nepal. Although its 
normal wintering range is south and east of Nepal, it occasionally 
wanders as far west as Kashmir. 

Mrs. Richard Proud found the greyheaded lapwing to be a regular 
winter visitor to Kathmandu Valley. In 1961, two were standing 
with red-wattled lapwings on a little sandbar in the Manora River. 
Last year they were again along that river, only this time a small 
flock of five or six were feeding in cut-over rice fields. They flew 
with measured flight, and displayed a great deal of white in their 


wings. They settled in another field about fifty yards away and ran 
a short distance upon alighting. Their call was a hoarse version of 
the red-wattled lapwing's call. 

Capella gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus). Fan tail Snipe. 

24 miles east of Biratnagar, Morang District, 450 feet: 1 d"; 
February 17, 1961. 

5 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 9 ; 
February 24, 1961. 

These are the first fantail snipe to be taken in Nepal away from 
the central valley. From the dates it would seem that they are on 
their wintering grounds rather than on passage. 

This species prefers flooded fields rather than tall, grassy areas. 
They are always in flocks of from six to twenty or more. When 
disturbed they sit close to the ground, then suddenly burst forth 
with a squawk, and with erratic flight, describe an arc not far above 
the ground. They then drop behind stubble or clods of earth fifty 
yards distant, barely visible. The first two or three times they may 
settle in the same general area, but later wheel higher into the air 
and go off to another feeding ground. The very muddy fields along 
the Vishnumati River are among their favorite places in Kathmandu 

Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis (Linnaeus). Painted 


Dhangarhi, Kailali-Kanchanpur, 450 feet: 1 d", 1 9 ; November 
27, 1960. 

6 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 9 ; Feb- 
ruary 26, 1961. 

These are the first records from other than the central districts; 
the species is evidently generally distributed in the terai, at least in 

The painted snipe prefers lowland streams which flow through 
grassy areas bordered with reeds and finds mud banks for feeding. 
It sits closely as one approaches, then flies out suddenly, rather low 
above the surface of the stream, and soon disappears around a bend 
where it may again be flushed a little farther along. There were 
about a half-dozen snipe in the space of a mile or two, all of them 
flying up one at a time. 


*Treron apicauda apicauda Blyth. Pintailed Green Pigeon. 

Kaneri, 8 miles east of Dhangarhi, Kailali-Kanchanpur: 1 9 ; 
January 13, 1961. 

This is the first record of the pintailed green pigeon from west 
Nepal. Koelz collected five specimens at Hitora in the central dun 
(Biswas, 1961, p. 528). 

The pintailed green pigeon appears to be less common in the low- 
lands and terai of Nepal than it is in Assam. A flock of twelve or 
fifteen birds fed on the fruit of a forest tree. They move rather 
sluggishly among the branches but when alarmed, fly away with a 
strong wing beat. Local people say that the green pigeon never 
comes to the ground without carrying a twig in its claws, otherwise 
it would never get off the ground. On the contrary, we found them 
regularly visiting a stream each day to drink water and there were 
no signs of the required twigs. 

"Columba leuconota leuconota Vigors. Snow Pigeon. 

East No. 2, Jiri, 4 miles west of Those, 6000 feet: 2cf ; Novem- 
ber 10, 1960. 

A flock of thirty or forty birds circled lower and lower and came 
down in a cultivated field below a village. They came early each 
morning for several days. 

It was in a narrow gorge of the Kali Gandak River, West Nepal, 
that we first saw this species. In November, a dozen birds roosted 
in a cleft of a rock above the trail at 7000 feet, a few miles north of 
Dana. We "got" four of them but the ten feet which separated them 
from us was filled with a roaring river across which there was no 
bridge. It was eleven years later when we were able to collect a snow 
pigeon. Later on this same trip, above Bigu, at about 8000 feet, 
two or three dozen birds flew into a dead tree near our camp, puffed 
out their feathers and sat like pearls in the early morning sunshine. 
We left them undisturbed. Dairymen from the higher valleys closer 
to the snows report this to be a very common bird in that area. 

*Caprimulgus asiaticus asiaticus Latham. Common Indian 

Simra airport, 10 miles north of Birganj, 500 feet: 1 d" ; March 22, 

This is the first record of the common Indian nightjar from Nepal. 
The specimen agrees well with a series from peninsular India. 


We were unable to get a flight from Simra to Kathmandu so 
stayed at the airport for the night. At dusk a nightjar called out on 
the airstrip near the wind sock. "Tuk-tuk-t-u-r-r-r-r-r" was quite 
different from other nightjars I had heard. We sent our hunter 
after it and he had no difficulty collecting it. This nightjar was 
much smaller than the others we had found in Nepal and we were 
glad we had been delayed a day. 

Caprimulgus affinis monticolus Franklin. Franklin's Nightjar. 

3 miles southeast of Ham, Ham District, 2000 feet: 1 o"; March 
16, 1961. 

In our 1961 paper (p. 469) we discussed the individual variation of 
Franklin's nightjar in Nepal. The present specimen is at the dark 
extreme of the Nepal birds but can still be matched by a dark in- 
dividual from Surguja. Ripley (1961, p. 205) does not consider 
burmanicus a recognizable race, and it appears that light and dark 
individuals are found throughout the range of monticolus. 

We camped along the Jog Mai below Ham, at about 2500 feet. 
Just before dusk we heard the call of the nightjar from the river bed. 
A half-dozen others joined in the "chorus," which lasted no longer 
than ten minutes, then all was quiet. Next evening we took our 
places and soon the first nightjar called from trees bordering the 
river. A minute or two later one flew toward the river, perched on 
the top of a large boulder and continued to call. By this time others 
could be heard. In the gathering dusk several birds began to fly 
slowly up and down the river bed about ten feet from the surface, 
calling as they went. This continued for a few minutes and the last 
one we heard was some distance up the river. 

*Coracias benghalensis affinis McClelland. Indian Roller. 

5 miles southeast of Ham, Ham District, 2000 feet: 1 d"; March 
16, 1961. 

The populations of Indian rollers in central and east Nepal, east 
at least to Jhapa, are intermediate between benghalensis and affinis 
but nearer the former. The above listed male from Ham, however, 
is much closer to affinis. It lacks the chestnut nuchal collar com- 
pletely, and the underwing coverts are deep purplish-blue flecked 
with pale blue rather than wholly pale blue. The narrow stripes 
on the throat are turquoise as in affinis but those of the breast are 
whitish like benghalensis. 


As we trekked up the Jog Mai River valley through cultivated 
fields, we were watching some kind of swift zooming overhead. Then 
from a nearby tree, this roller flew out with slow, steady wing beat. 
When we examined it, the underwing coverts were purplish instead 
of light blue and the bird was darker above than our rollers of the 
Nepal terai and places like Pokhara. Local people say that the roller 
drank poison intended for the god Krishna. In gratitude, Krishna 
stayed the progress of the poison which is reflected to this day in the 
purple sheen on the throat of the bird. 

*Indicator xanthonotus xanthonotus Blyth. Honeyguide. 

East No. 2, 3 to 5 miles above Bigu, 6000-6500 feet: 2d", 1 9 ; 
November 24 and 28, 1960. 

Although the honeyguide has been known from both Garhwal 
and Sikkim, this is the first time it has been taken in Nepal. 

Thanks to Dr. Herbert Friedmann and his volume on honey- 
guides, we were on the lookout for this species. Ancient Chinese 
literature indicated that its habitat would be deep in hidden moun- 
tain ravines. 

There is a direct relationship between this bird and bees. Most 
of our collecting in the Himalayas had been done in winter when 
clusters of bees occupied suitable branches of trees or even eaves of 
buildings, but this was in the terai where we saw no honeyguides. 
In spring the bees disappeared. Since we are able to get wild honey 
in the hills much of the year, the bees must have flown into their 
"hidden ravines" in the mountains. 

The head man at Bigu told us that his men went once a year to 
get honey from cliffs about three miles away and that he would send 
his man the next day to show us the place. Sagar Rana, of our 
party, found the location. When he scrambled down to the over- 
hanging cliff above a stream, he saw a bird, apparently standing on 
its head, pecking at the remains of a bees' comb. It proved to be 
a honeyguide whose stomach was crammed with wax. 

We visited the place again and waited for ten minutes but saw 
no movement. Then Sagar made out a bird, like a small barbet, 
sitting on a dead branch about a foot or two from the face of the rock 
near where bees were flying in and out. It was another honey guide. 
A third such bird was seen in a large fig tree, two hundred feet 
higher. This spring Dr. G. Diesselhorst of Munich got one specimen 
about three miles on up the same road at about 10,000 feet. 


Jynx torquilla chinensis Hesse. Wryneck. 

5 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 9 ; Feb- 
ruary 25, 1961. 

I have compared this specimen to four birds from Manchuria 
and Korea representing chinensis and to a long series from Europe 
representing the paler nominate torquilla. The Jhapa bird is darker 
above than even the darkest chinensis and must belong to that race. 
Of the three birds listed by Rand and Fleming (1957, p. 90) as 
torquilla, the dark bird from Chisapani is also chinensis. Their 
comparative material of chinensis included several specimens of the 
rufous japonica which misled them as to the characters of chinensis. 
I have also examined the two males from Thankot which Biswas 
(1961, p. 134) identified as chinensis. These are quite pale above 
and are torquilla. 

Suneschari Bazaar, at the northern edge of the southeastern terai, 
proved a good place for birds. It was open country, backed by heavy 
jungle about a mile or so toward the north. Small streams, culti- 
vations and extensive patches of reeds gave shelter to resident and 
winter birds. The wryneck was one of several species found in the 
reed beds. It flew fairly close to the ground with its head poked 
out and its tail wobbling a bit. Other wrynecks we have seen have 
also been in low bushes or grass, a few feet from the ground. They 
are not common and seem to be solitary. 

*Sasia ochracea ochracea Hodgson. Rufous Piculet. 

4 miles southeast of Ham, Ham District, 2300 feet: Id", 1?; 
March 15, 1961. 

The only previous record is from central Nepal. 

Clusters of large bamboo made a shelter for the piculet. We 
followed a faint tapping. We occasionally saw the piculets and they 
often clung to the side of a tree trunk like miniature woodpeckers 
or moved along a smaller branch like titmice. We collected one 
specimen from a brushy hillside above a river. Col. Richard Proud 
obtained specimens from the vicinity of Daran Bazaar, north of 
Biratnagar (about 1000 feet) several years ago. 

Galerida cristata chendoola (Franklin). Crested Lark. 

Beli, 6 miles east of Dhangarhi, Kailali-Kanchanpur: Icf ; Jan- 
uary 4, 1961 (S. Rana). 

Previous records are from central Nepal. 


Like the Indian pipit, the crested lark is a bird of the open fields 
in the border country just north of India. It runs along the ground, 
then flies thirty or forty feet into the air, to land in a field or on an 
embankment between fields, some fifty yards or more away. It does 
not seem to be very common. 

Alauda gulgula gulgula Franklin. Indian Sky-lark. 

7 and 22 miles east of Biratnagar, Morang District, 450 feet: 
2 d"; February 15 and 16, 1961. 

These agree perfectly in size and color with the specimen pre- 
viously reported from Simra (Fleming and Traylor, 1961, p. 474). 

Flocks of sky-larks were commonly seen in the southeastern terai. 
They would creep among the grassy vegetation, then fly and circle 
slowly and come down in a neighbouring field. Numbers of them 
were flying into the air and singing. A male bird we got had enlarged 

Lanius cristatus cristatus Linnaeus. Brown Shrike. 

Biratnagar, Morang District, 450 feet: 2 d" ; February 14 and 16, 

Simra airport, Gaur District, 500 feet: 1 tf; March 22, 1961. 

Biswas (1961, pp. 470-472) inadvertently omitted this species in 
his list of Nepal birds. It is a common winter visitor, and I have 
examined specimens taken between November and April. 

A common species in winter throughout the foothills and terai 
of Nepal. It perches on telephone wires or on top of bushes at the 
edge of fields sitting with head forward and tail down. It flies with 
a quick, heavy wing-beat, then flops into the top of a bush fifty yards 
away. When eating its prey, the shrike uses its feet to pin down the 
victim and pecks away with its strong beak. 

Artamus fuscus Vieillot. Ashy Swallow-Shrike. 

6 miles northeast of Jhapa, Jhapa District, 450 feet: 1 9 ; Feb- 
ruary 19, 1961. 

Previous records of this species from Nepal are all from the sum- 
mer months (Fleming and Traylor, 1961, p. 483). The present win- 
ter specimen indicates that it may remain the year round, especially 
in east Nepal. 

This species likes tall trees in sunny, open fields not too far from 
villages. There are usually several in one vicinity and when observed 


four were in a tall, silk-cotton tree. They have a heavy, slow wing- 
beat and often fly in the same circle and come back to the same place. 
We only saw them occasionally for they did not seem to be common. 

*Saraglossa spiloptera (Vigors). Spottedwinged Stare. 

Simra airport, 10 miles north of Birganj, 500 feet: 1 d* ; March 22, 

The occurance of this species in Nepal may be sporadic or its 
movements may be irregular. Koelz found it common in the central 
terai and took 11 specimens in March, June and July. However, 
this is the first specimen taken by Fleming and, except for Koelz's 
birds, the first since Hodgson. 

A flock of half-a-dozen or more stares were observed noisily work- 
ing in a fruiting tree at Amlekhganj one spring. Several years later 
this individual was singled out in the top of a tall fig tree, in company 
with two hundred gray-headed minas. The evening sun emphasized 
the reddish throat of the stare in contrast to the gray of the minas. 
The stare is fairly common in the northwestern Himalayas below 
Mussoorie, but seems to be uncommon in Nepal directly south of 
Kathmandu, where we have seen all our birds within a few miles 
of each other. 

Kitta flavirostris cucullata (Gould). Yellowbilled Blue Magpie. 

East No. 2, Kapti, 7 miles north of Those, 7300 feet: 1 9 ; No- 
vember 19, 1960. 

5 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 8000 feet: 1 d" ; March 
6, 1961. 

Ripley (1950, p. 415) had specimens of nominate flavirostris, 
with a violet wash on the underparts, from far east Nepal. The 
present specimens, even that from Ham on the eastern border, do 
not have the violet wash that is evident in four of Steven's birds 
from Sikkim. 

The raucous "barn-door creaking" call of the magpie can be 
heard for a quarter-mile. Usually in parties of three to six or seven, 
they fly with heavy wing-beat one after another among the larger 
trees. Should a magpie come across a dead animal on the ground, 
it will give a call and soon all of them will be bouncing around the 
carcass. Quick to spot a human, they will keep out of gun range, 
flying some distance across ravines to leave danger behind. 


Corvus macrorhynchos subsp. Jungle Crow. 

14 miles east of Biratnagar, Morang District, 500 feet: 1 9 ; 
February 16, 1961. 

Measurements: Wing, 298; tail, 179; culmen, 59. 

The lowlands of eastern Nepal are near the meeting place of 
three subspecies of jungle crow, intermedius, culminatus and levail- 
lanti, and intermediate specimens are to be expected. Intermedius 
is a large bird with white bases to the nape feathers. The present 
specimen is at the small extreme of intermedius and has dusky bases 
to the nape feathers. This was also true of the lowland bird recorded 
by Rand and Fleming (1957, p. 108) from Bilauri, and in Nepal in- 
termedius seems confined to higher elevations. 

Both culminatus of peninsular India and levaillanti of eastern 
India and East Pakistan have dusky bases to the nape feathers; 
they are distinguished by the smaller size of culminatus and the 
deeper, more arched bill of levaillanti. In size the Biratnagar female 
is nearer levaillanti, but the bill is only moderately arched. Paynter 
(1961, p. 384) calls central Nepal birds levaillanti, although (p. 383) 
he does not include Nepal within the range of that race. 

As we passed through the Nepal-India border region, crows were 
fairly numerous. They were not bold like C. splendens but perched 
in trees along the road and were a bit shy. The smaller size was 
noticeable, compared to C. macrorhynchos intermedius, but their 
habits were similar. At one river crossing, several hopped along 
the bank. 

Pericrocotus brevirostris brevirostris (Vigors). Shortbilled Mini- 

5 miles east of Jumna, Ham District, 7200 feet: 1 9 ; March 8, 

The shortbilled minivet, brevirostris, is much less common in 
Nepal than the sibling species ethologus. I have re-examined Rand 
and Fleming's (1957, p. 101) doubtful specimen, an immature male 
from Beni, west Nepal. It appears to be this species, but I can add 
nothing to their careful description. 

Minivets flew among the trees along the road a short distance 
from the town of Ham. It was a small flock of five or six birds and 
their mellow "tweet-tweet" indicated their presence. We saw several 
others, too, all in cultivated areas where trees bordered the fields. Oc- 
casionally one would fly down close to the ground after insects in 


low vegetation. While at rest on a branch the bird sat upright with 
the tail almost straight down. We noted males and females in these 

Criniger flaveolus flaveolus (Gould). Whitethroated Bulbul. 

4 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 d" , 1 9 ; 
February 25, 1961. 

Previous records of this species in Nepal are confined to the 
central terai and duns. 

A small party of five birds flitted through scrub forest at the base 
of the foothills. Thier sharp whip-like note could be heard for some 
distance. They did not go up into the taller trees but kept to within 
eight or ten feet from the ground. 

*Pomatorhinus ruficollis godwini Kinnear. Rufousnecked Sci- 
mitar Babbler. 

5 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 7000 feet: 1 9 ; March 
7, 1961. 

5 miles east of Jumna, Ham District, 8200 feet: 1 9 ; March 11, 

These are well marked examples of this more olive, eastern race. 

Scrub hillsides were the favorite places for this species. The 
birds worked over areas twenty or thirty yards across, in parties 
of a half-dozen or so. Sometimes they perched in low bushes but 
usually were on the ground where they noisily threw up leaves as 
they looked under them for food. When disturbed these babblers 
flew into thicker cover then settled on the ground again to resume 
their activities. We frequently heard their calls which carried for 
some distance. 

Pomatorhinus erythrogenys haringtoni Baker. Rustycheeked 

Scimitar Babbler. 
East No. 2, Jiri, 6000 feet: 1 d"; November 9, 1960. 

Mai Pokhari, Ham District, 7000 feet: 1 c?, 1 9 ; March 2 and 3, 

Rand and Fleming (1957, p. 122) and Ripley (1961, p. 352) rec- 
ognize ferrugilatus as the race of this scimitar babbler from Nepal. 
After examining over 60 specimens taken from Punjab to Bengal, 
I believe that the recognition of three races, erythrogenys, ferrugilatus 


and haringtoni, is misleading. Nepal populations are highly variable 
individually, and in central Nepal specimens matching both typical 
erythrogenys and typical haringtoni can be found. 

The five specimens from Mussoorie available to Rand and Flem- 
ing are surprisingly uniform and have immaculate white throats. 
Many specimens from Tehri and the Punjab, however, have some 
grey streaking on the throat, so that even in typical erythrogenys 
there is an approach to the condition found in haringtoni. The west 
Nepal series averages more streaking, but is hardly to be separated 
from erythrogenys. The central Nepal birds, as noted above, are 
highly variable but averaging more heavily streaked than in the 
west, while east Nepal birds are as heavily streaked as our specimen 
of haringtoni from Bengal. 

Since most of Nepal is occupied by variable, intergrading pop- 
ulations that do not warrant a name of their own, I would give the 
range of the races as: 

erythrogenys western Himalayas east to west Nepal, inter- 
grading extensively in central Nepal with haringtoni. 
haringtoni Sikkim, northern Bengal and adjoining Nepal, in- 
tergrading extensively in central Nepal with erythrogenys. 

The scimitar babbler goes about in pairs throughout the year. 
It likes wooded ravines and scrub jungle not far from cultivations. 
A great skulker, it bounces along the ground then into a bush, often 
moving into the bush top to get a better view and, if necessary, 
leaving quickly in a short flight to a more protected spot. Other 
species are usually found in the same area. The duet "took-took" 
(male), "teek" (female) also continues during the year, except at 
nesting time when the female often fails to respond. When resting 
on a branch the head and curved bill are held up while the tail 
droops down and jerks when the head is moved from side to side. 

*Xiphirhynchus superciliaris superciliaris Blyth. Slenderbilled 
Scimitar Babbler. 

5 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 7700 feet: 1 cf; March 
7, 1961. 

The range of this species in Nepal appears confined to the Mai 

We have seen this species only once, with a mixed hunting party 
including babblers and sunbirds. The group was on a steep, grassy 
hillside in the sun. It was moving through bushes and on the ground 
when a strange bird appeared at the base of a large tree trunk which 


had fallen to the ground. This bird resembled the plain-colored 
babbler of which there were many. The slender bill was not ap- 
parent from that distance as the glimpse of the bird was only mo- 

*Microura albiventer albiventer (Hodgson). Scalybreasted Wren- 

5 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 6900 feet and 
7500 feet: 2 rf 1 ; March 12, 1961. 

5 miles north of Ham, Ham District, 6000 feet: 1 9 ; March 14, 

Since Ripley (1961, p. 357) has restricted the type locality of 
albiventer to the Ham District, the above listed birds are topotypes 
of this race. As one would expect, they are much darker above than 
specimens from western and central Nepal and Tehri (pallidior), 
and are matched by birds from Sikkim and Bengal. 

We had been in our forest camp for several days before we dis- 
covered the wren-babblers. A short series of high-pitched notes, 
"tzit," at a few seconds' interval, indicated its presence under ferns 
in a wet ravine filled with fallen brushwood. In its progress under 
debris and around large boulders, it moved slowly upward from the 
stream, finally exposing itself briefly. Having once heard the call, 
it was easy to locate another in the next ravine. 

*Spelaeornis caudatus (Blyth). Tailed Wren-babbler. 

5 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 7200 feet: 1 9 ; 
March 10, 1961. 

Although Hodgson (Gray, 1863, p. 28) collected several speci- 
mens of this wren-babbler, this is the first time since that the species 
has been taken in Nepal. Its range in Nepal is probably restricted 
to those regions adjoining Sikkim and Darjeeling. 

We first saw this species creeping under a dead log and through 
underbrush just below the road where we camped. It had a higher- 
pitched "tzit" than either the chestnut headed or the scalybreasted 
wren-babblers which were both in the vicinity. In a damp ravine, 
not far away was a pair on the ground in a tangle of dead, wet 
branches. They were rather difficult to see but the call, given at 
short intervals, enabled us to follow them. The scaly breast was 
pale on the throat and upper breast and brownish lower down and 
the tail so short it was not noticed. 


*Stachyris ruficeps ruficeps Blyth. Redheaded Babbler. 

7 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 9000 feet: 1 cf ; 
March 11, 1961. 

12 miles east of Ham, Ham District, 6700 feet: 1 d"; March 18, 

This is another species whose range in Nepal appears confined to 
the Mai Valley. It was found there by Stevens, and Hodgson's 
Nepal specimens (Gray, 1863, p. 45) were almost certainly from that 
part of Nepal near Darjeeling. 

The bird found at the higher altitude frequented a thicket of 
ringal (small bamboo) where it was fairly common. The other one 
was one of a small party in scrub jungle on the sunny side of a hill. 
It resembled the red-billed babbler as well as the yellow-breasted 
babbler of central and western Nepal, as it peered through the smaller 
branches at the tops of shrubs. When disturbed it flew a short 
distance into adjoining trees. 

Paradoxornis nipalensis nipalensis Hodgson. Orange Suthora. 

Kathmandu Valley, Sheopuri, 6500 feet: 1 d"; May 21, 1958. 

As noted by Ripley (1961, p. 370), the range of nominate nipalen- 
sis is confined to the hills surrounding the Kathmandu Valley, and our 
five specimens from Phulchowk and one from Sheopuri are apparently 
the only ones taken since Hodgson's time. It is, therefore, all the 
more surprising to find three specimens taken by Koelz in the (then) 
United Provinces, a pair from Kurumtoli, Garhwal, and a female 
from Girgaon, Kumaon. As might be expected in a population iso- 
lated by several hundred miles, these birds differ considerably from 
topotypes and must be known as: 

Paradoxornis nipalensis garhwalensis subsp. nov. 

Type. Chicago Natural History Museum no. 234602, an adult 
male from Kurumtoli, Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh, India, (ca. 79 45' 
E.; 30 10' N.) collected May 5, 1948 by Walter Koelz. 

Diagnosis. Paler both above and below than nipalensis of central 
Nepal. On the upper parts, the rufous of the back is less intense, 
and the pale gray-brown of the crown fades gradually into the ru- 
fescent back rather than terminating abruptly on the nape as in 
nipalensis. The dark superciliary stripes are brown rather than 
blackish. Size as in nipalensis or possibly larger. 

Measurements of type. Wing 53, tail 56, bill 8, tarsus 18. 


Range. Restricted to a small area in northeast Garhwal and 
northern Almora, probably between 7000 feet and 9000 feet. 

Remarks. Koelz' locality "Kurumtoli" takes its name from a 
glacier in northeast Garhwal. There is no altitude on the label, 
but in Nepal the species is known from 6500 feet to 9500 feet, and 
Koelz probably was collecting at about these altitudes below the 
glacier. "Girgaon, Kumaon" is a village in northern Almora at 
about 80 10' E., 30 3' N., roughly 30 miles east by south of Kurum- 
toli. The range of garhwalensis, therefore, appears about as restricted 
as that of the nominate race. 

Measurements of the two races are given below; I have combined 
the sexes since several of the nipalensis are undetermined. 

Wing Tail Bill Tarsus 

nipalensis (6) 48-51 (50.2) 54-58 (56.2) 6.5-8.0 (7.4) 17-18 (17.8) 

garhwalensis (3) 52, 52, 53 56, 57, 57 7.5, 8.0 18, 18, 18.5 

*Paradoxornis nipalensis humii (Sharpe). 

8 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 10,000 feet: 1 9 ; 
March 9, 1961. 

This form likewise has a restricted range, being confined to far 
eastern Nepal and adjoining Sikkim and Darjeeling. 

A small party of this suthora moved very rapidly through a 
thicket of bamboo on a steep hillside. They made a shrill, high- 
pitched twitter as they passed. We had expected to find this genus 
in bamboo but search as we might, we could locate no others. On 
one other occasion, at a much lower altitude, a rather large flock 
flew over head into large bamboos. But this party of about fifteen 
members paused only a moment before moving on. 

Turdoides nipalensis (Hodgson). Spiny Babbler. 

Kathmandu Valley, Tokha Sanitorium, 6000 feet: 2 cf; Septem- 
ber 26 and 28, 1960. 

Both Ripley (1950, p. 394) and Rand and Fleming (1957, p. 126) 
have discussed the variation in the amount of white found on the 
face and throat of these birds. As noted by the latter authors, it has 
nothing to do with sex since the same range of variation is found in 
males as in females (see fig. 4). It may have some connection with 
age, but examination of the present specimens, the first in molt that 
I have been able to examine, makes me believe that this is not so. 

Both the above listed males (the two on the left in the figure) are 
in an advanced stage of the post-nuptial molt. The contour feathers 


Fig. 4. Five males of the spiny babbler, Turdoidex nipalensis, showing vari- 
ation in the amount of white in the cheeks and throat. The four on the left are 
from Kathmandu Valley; that on the right is from Doti, west Nepal, and shows 
the maximum white observed. 

for the most part are fresh, and the wings and tails are in active molt. 
However, there are still some fresh feathers coming in on the throat, 
and of these, the ones among the brown feathers are brown, and those 
among the white feathers are white. It appears that the previous 
pattern is duplicating itself, even though the white is at a minimum 
in both specimens. 

This leads to the possibility that there is some geographical vari- 
ation in the amount of white. The four specimens on the left in the 
figure are topotypes from Kathmandu Valley. Among ten specimens 
from west Nepal, the one with the least white matches the center 
bird in the figure, while the average is about like the maximum for 
the valley. With such a variable character, however, the difference 
is not worth recognizing. 

The song of the spiny babbler can be heard most months in the 
year but it is more frequent from March to September, in the early 


morning or just before dusk. In the month of May, 1962, two of us 
left Chapagaon and took the Lele road southward from Kathmandu 
Valley up through cut-over jungle. It was about 5:00 A.M. when we 
started and in the next forty-five minutes we heard nine different 
babblers calling. One climbed up on a small stump a short distance 
above the road where we had a good view of him. Strangely, we 
have never found nestlings nor located the nest. April, May and 
June should be a good time to look for them. 

Turdoides earlei earlei (Blyth). Striated Babbler. 

5 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: Id", 19; 
February 25, 1961. 

These specimens are the first record from the eastern terai. 

The striated babbler is a marsh bird, frequenting wet patches of 
reeds and coarse grass. They consort in small groups; in this group 
there were five of them. When disturbed they move up the reeds, 
fly a short distance with head poked out and wings and tail flopping, 
then pitch into the grass. They look like small jungle babblers only 
thinner and heavily streaked. We have found them occasionally in 
several other places in Nepal but they never appeared to be common. 

Garrulax ocellatus ocellatus (Vigors). Whitespotted Laughing 

Jiri, 4 miles west of Those, East No. 2, 7000 feet: 1 9 ; Novem- 
ber 10, 1960. 

I have compared our series of nine birds from east Nepal with 
four paratypes of Koelz's griseicauda (Koelz, 1950, p. 7) from Garh- 
wal and Uttar Pradesh and with a topotype of ocellatus from Sikkim. 
We have also a male from Baitidi in far west Nepal. In the amount 
of gray on the tail, the east Nepal birds are quite variable, some show- 
ing as much on the central rectrices as griseicauda and others showing 
none at all as in ocellatus. However, when properly sexed specimens 
are compared, it appears that griseicauda is longer tailed than ocel- 
latus and that east Nepal birds belong with the nominate race. Com- 
parative tail measurements are: 

9 9 

Garhwal, U.P. 157, 161, 164 

West Nepal 167 

East Nepal (6) 146-162 (155.7) 148, 151, 151 

Sikkim 151 


The west Nepal male belongs in griseicauda. The other character 
postulated by Koelz, that the spots on the back are white in grisei- 
cauda and buffy in ocellatus, is not at all apparent in our material. 

All the specimens of this species and others we have seen prefer 
scrub jungle where there is sunshine and, when possible, they like 
to be fairly close to civilization. The Jiri bird and those at Thodung 
( 10,000 feet) were in bushes either at the edges of fields or in the vicin- 
ity of herds of cattle. They hop on the ground and peck noisily among 
the leaves. They sing quite a varied series of notes in viburnum 
bushes and other shrubs. They are often associated with the black- 
faced laughing thrush. 

*Garrulax subunicolor subunicolor (Blyth). Plaincolored Laugh- 
ing Thrush. 

5 miles east of Jumna, Ham District, 7200 feet: 2 9 ; March 8 
and 10, 1961. 

5 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 8000 feet: 1 9 ; March 5, 

All recent records of this species from Nepal are from the Mai 
Valley, and this may be the extent of its range in that country. 

This was one of the most common laughing thrushes in the Ham 
District forests. They were found in groups of from ten to twenty, 
moving through tangles of bushes and vines or on the ground. At 
one place they were eating something from low shrubs. They fre- 
quented a place just above our camp above huge boulders overgrown 
with vines and thorns. 

Garrulax erythrocephalus nigrimentum (Gates). Redheaded 
Laughing Thrush. 

East No. 2, above Bigu, 8000 feet: 1 d\ 1 9 ; November 26 and 
27, 1960. 

East No. 2, Jiri, 4 miles west of Those, 6200 feet and 7000 feet: 
2 9 ; November 10, 1960. 

East No. 2, Jiri, 7 miles north of Those, 7800 feet and 8000 feet: 
1 d" , 1 9 ; November 19 and 21, 1960. 

Mai Pokhari, Ham District: 1 d"; March 2, 1961. 

7 miles north of Ham, Ilam District, 7000 feet: IcT; March 3, 

5 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ilam District, 7500 feet: 1 9 ; 
March 12, 1961. 


The three specimens from Ham district have been compared to 
a good series of nigrimentum from Sikkim and are typical of that race. 
The birds from East No. 2 are intermediate between nigrimentum 
and kali of central Nepal, combining the gray crown of the former 
with the pale underparts of the latter. The cline of increasing satura- 
tion of the color of the underparts from west to east seems to operate 
independently of the change in color of the crown; the intermediate 
population is little or no darker on the underparts than are the red- 
headed birds from the valley. There appears, however, to be no 
intergradation in crown color, all specimens from East No. 2 having 
as much gray on the crown as typical nigrimentum. 

A common species throughout Nepal, this bird prefers the more 
open places dotted with clusters of bushes. It bounces over the 
ground, then digs under dry leaves. It has two or three songs, one 
of which is "pearl-lee" given three or four times at an interval of a 
few seconds. In Kathmandu Valley it nests at about 8,000 feet and 
comes down to the foot of the surrounding hills at about 5,000 feet 
when the weather is cold. 

*Myzornis pyrrhoura Blyth. Firetailed Myzornis. 

5 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 7000 feet: 1 d" ; March 7, 

Mrs. Proud (1961, p. 804) reports seeing a pair feeding their young 
on the Gandak-Kosi watershed at 12,000 feet in May; however, the 
species is only common in far eastern Nepal. 

We ran across the myzornis in East No. 2, about 70 miles ENE 
of Kathmandu. It was above a rill of water at the edge of a forest 
at about 8000 feet altitude. It wasn't until we reached Ham dis- 
trict that we found it to be common. Here we found them between 
7000 and 9000 feet in heavy jungle, bamboo thickets and on top of 
bushes on sunny hillsides. The first one we observed appeared to 
be drinking sap from an oak tree. Another was on the lower branch 
of a large oak tree in a forest. Still another bird was teetering 
from side to side on the top of a barberry bush and looked much like 
a sunbird. The species was solitary most of the time but was found 
also in company with warblers and sunbirds. It had a peculiar high- 
pitched note that, when once identified, made it quite easy to locate. 

*Pteruthius rufiventer Blyth. Rufousbellied Shrike-babbler. 

East No. 2, Jiri, 7 miles north of Those, 8200 feet: 1 <? ; Novem- 
ber 19, 1960. 


This shrike-babbler must be quite rare in Nepal since this is the 
first record since Hodgson. 

The only time we saw this bird was in an oak forest above Kapti, 
the Swiss cheese-storage center. We had lost our way and were fol- 
lowing a small trail some distance above where we were supposed to 
be when a bird moved about two-thirds the way up an oak tree. It 
was very much like the red-winged shrike-babbler, though a bit more 
sluggish. We heard or saw nothing of any others. 

Minla ignotincta ignotincta Hodgson. Redtailed Minla. 

East No. 2, Jiri, 4 miles west of Those, 5800 feet: 2 rf 1 ; Novem- 
ber 9, 1960. 

7 miles north of Ham, Ham District, 7000 feet: 1 9 ; March 2, 

4 miles southeast of Ham, Ham District, 2400 feet: 1 d" ; March 15, 

As noted by Rand and Fleming (1957, p. 137), birds from east 
Nepal are much brighter yellow below than a series of skins from 
Sikkim and Bengal. A single male from the valley is also pale. The 
problem is to determine to what degree this variation is geographic, 
and to what degree it is due to wear and age of skin. 

All descriptions of the species in standard references speak of the 
yellow underparts, a description that certainly could not be based on 
our old (1930) Sikkim and Bengal material. There is no mention 
in Stuart Baker or Gates of post mortem fading, but Sharpe (1883, 
p. 606) speaks of "the very evident way in which the colors of the 
present species become dim," so there must have been a marked 
change in Hodgson's material at the British Museum. Within our 
material, the brightest birds are the two freshly plumaged Novem- 
ber males from East No. 2, while the more worn March male from 
Ham is noticeably paler. The even paler male from the valley is an 
April bird about to breed, and Scully (1879, p. 319) remarks of two 
May males that they were "dull yellow" below. There appears, then, 
to be a twofold change in the yellow of the underparts: a seasonal 
dulling with wear during the life of the bird, and a post mortem fading 
in the museum. Unless fresh fall specimens from the valley and from 
Sikkim show that the difference is also geographic, ignotincta should 
not be further subdivided at this time. 

The minlas formed a part of mixed hunting parties. They are 
most common in the oak-rhododendron forest in company with tits, 
warblers, and shrike-babblers. The two Jiri birds were in a little 


ravine with tall trees, immediately below a village. They rested on 
branches, hunched over with tail down, and moved about more 
calmly than the titmice did. Several other species were also present. 

Muscicapa hodgsonii (Verreaux). Rustybreasted Blue Flycatcher. 

10 miles south of Ham, Ham District, 900 feet: 1 ?; February 27, 

Previous records of this species from Nepal are all from the cen- 
tral valley. 

The belt of forest in the foothills, made up of clumps of large 
bamboos and tall trees, had numbers of birds including this one. 
It was on the lower branch of a tree above the path where it circled 
out for insects. Then it would rest for a bit, sitting fairly upright, 
and fly out again. We did not find it a common species. 

*Muscicapa sapphira (Blyth). Sapphireheaded Flycatcher. 

Mai Khola, 3 miles south of Ham, Ham District, 1600 feet: Id 1 ; 
February 27, 1961. 

This species has only been taken in Nepal east of the Arun Kosi. 

We had just crossed the Mai River and followed along the main 
path when we came to a dip in the road where it crossed a stream. 
Above was a cluster of large bamboos and several tall trees. Our 
flycatcher, along with one other, flew from the lower branches out 
after an insect and returned to the same spot. There it would sit for 
a short while, looking this way and that, then glide out after another 
insect. Its habits were like those of the common gray-headed fly- 
catcher. This was the only time we saw this species. 

Rhipidura albicollis albicollis (Vieillot). Whitethroated Fantail 

Mai Khola, 3 miles south of Ham, Ham District, 1600 feet: 1 9 ; 
February 28, 1961. 

Ripley (1955) has recently reviewed the variation and relation- 
ships of this species. He recognizes nine races, describing as new 
orissae from the hills of northern Orissa, and considers that albicollis 
is most nearly related to euryura of Java. When identifying the 
Koelz collection, I found two specimens from Mahendra, southern 
Orissa, that appeared to be hybrids between albicollis and albogu- 
laris (olim pectoralis) of southern India. Further examination of 
available material, including two specimens of orissae very kindly 


lent by Ripley, shows that not only are albicollis and albogularis 
related, but they are connected by a series of intergrading pop- 
ulations and are conspecific. 

The differences, however, between nominate albicollis and albo- 
gularis are striking, and there is little to suggest that the two are 
closely related. Nominate albicollis has the crown black and the 
remainder of the plumage brownish-black except for white supercili- 
aries, throat and tips to the outer rectrices. Nominate albogularis 
agrees only in having a white throat and superciliaries. On the upper 
parts it is dark brown, darker and more nearly black on the crown, 
but altogether paler and more brownish than albicollis. On the un- 
derparts, below the white throat, there is a narrow blackish band 
liberally spotted with white across the upper breast, and the lower 
breast and belly are pale buff. The pale tips of the outer rectrices 
are buff and blend into the brown of the remainder of the feathers, 
rather than being sharply demarcated as in albicollis. There is also 
a size difference, albicollis being larger, particularly in tail length. 
Comparative measurements are: 

rfc? 99 


albicollis (8) 76-82 (79.0) (6) 73-78 (75.2) 

albogularis (5) 72-77 (74.6) (3) 69, 71, 72 


albicollis (8) 96-109 (102.5) (6) 93-101 (97.1) 

albogularis (5) 88-96 (93.4) (3) 88, 90, 92 

Nominate albicollis is found from west Nepal to Sikkim and south 
to Bihar and west Bengal. Albogularis is found in the hills of cen- 
tral and southern peninsular India. 

In 1931 Whistler (1931) described a new race of albogularis, ver- 
nayi, from Jeypore in the upper eastern Ghats, the northeast extrem- 
ity of the range of the species. He distinguished rernayi by its 
broader pectoral band which extends down along the flanks, the re- 
duced white pectoral spotting and the darker and less extensive buff 
of the belly. The greater extent of blackish on the underparts is, 
of course, an approach to the condition in albicollis with wholly 
black underparts. Two males in the Koelz collection from Kesarpal, 
Bastar, are typical vernayi. 

The characters by which Ripley's orissae differs from typical albi- 
collis are of a type that shows an approach to albogularis. Orissae 
is brownish rather than blackish on the back and scapulars, with a 
clear line of demarcation between the back and the black crown and 
nape; the belly is paler and with a distinct patch of buff on the mid- 


line; and the pale tips to the rectrices are washed with buff. These 
tips, however, are clearly demarcated from the remainder of the 
feather, rather than blending in, as in albogularis. The range of 
orissae, the hills of northern Orissa, approaches that of vernayi. 

The two specimens from Mahendra, southern Orissa, are inter- 
mediate between vernayi and orissae. Superficially they are more 
like orissae in having the belly dark with only a limited amount of 
buff on the midline. They are, however, paler on the upperparts 
like vernayi, and the tips of the rectrices are more buffy and blend 
into the remainder of the feather. In size they also fall between: 
wing, d" 78, 9 73; tail, rf 1 95, 9 94. Although the Mahendra birds 
are not typical of either vernayi or orissae, it is not worth naming a 
third intermediate population, especially since it is not possible to 
say if it is stable on the basis of two specimens. 

Since typical albicollis and albogularis are linked by a series of 
intergrading populations, albogularis and vernayi will now have to 
be called races of albicollis, the earliest name. 

Several muscial notes which cease before the song seems to be 
complete, give a clue to the whereabouts of this bird. It is usually 
in undergrowth or lower branches of taller trees, and with tail out- 
spread flicks its body first to the left then to the right as it sits hori- 
zontally on a small branch. This one was above a stream in a small 
gully between terraced fields. We have found it throughout Nepal 
in the terai and foothills where it is common. 

Monarcha azurea styani (Hartlaub). Blacknaped Flycatcher. 

Kankaimukh, 14 miles north of Jhapa, 500 feet: 1?; February 21, 

In our 1961 paper (p. 481) we suggested that the blacknaped fly- 
catcher is only a summer visitor to Nepal. This specimen, however, 
shows that it may remain over the winter. 

This species prefers heavier foliage, usually along a stream. It 
is seen singly or in pairs. After a sally for an insect, it sits quietly 
for a time before venturing out again. It seemed to be more com- 
mon in the central foothills than in the eastern section of Nepal. 

"Cettia fortipes fortipes (Hodgson). Strongfooted Bush Warbler. 

7 miles north of Ham, Ham District, 7000 feet; Id"; March 3, 

Although the type locality of fortipes is Nepal, this is the first 
record of the species since Hodgson. 


A loud, clear call of several notes indicated the presence of this 
bird along the border of a small lake. It could not be seen at first for 
the singer kept close to the ground under fairly thick vegetation. 
Only when it flitted close to the surface of the ground to an adjoining 
bush, could one see it. Then it began its investigations again, under 
cover and close to the ground. One called from the other side of the 
pond. We heard a similar but somewhat different, loud call like this 
in thick, small-sized bamboo at 11,000 ft. but could not locate it. 

*Bradypterus tacsanowskius tacsanowskius (Swinhoe). Chi- 
nese Bush Warbler. 

5 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa district, 500 feet: 1 ?; Feb- 
ruary 25, 1961. 

This is the first record of the Chinese Bush Warbler from Nepal. 
Its normal wintering range is Burma, and there is one record from 

Just north of Suneschari Bazaar was an open area about a mile 
and a half across backed by heavy sal forests. Many fields near the 
town were cultivated, with an occasional growth of reeds about a 
quarter of a mile long and two hundred yards across. Numbers of 
birds lived among the reeds including striated babblers and this bush 
warbler. Two or three men, walking about ten yards apart, slowly 
moved through the marsh. They were able to locate several species 
not found anywhere else on our trip. 

*Prinia atrogularis atrogularis (Moore). Blackthroated Long- 
tail Hill Warbler. 

3 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 6000 feet: Id", 1 9 ; 
March 4, 1961. 

This hill warbler is another species that in Nepal is found only 
in the Mai Valley. 

A "tze-tze-tze-tze" of this warbler would come from a small bar- 
berry bush not far from a stream running through open, cultivated 
terraces. Upon closer inspection, one could see nothing, and a few 
feet away one was inclined to think there was nothing there, when out 
would fly a little brown bird with a long tail; it would quickly tumble 
into the next sign of vegetation, a few yards away. Again the call 
but nothing visible. There were at least a half dozen birds on these 
terraces within two hundred yards of each other. There were others 
among bushes immediately above the stream banks for about a mile 


but as we approached the edge of the forest we left the hill warblers 
behind. Although common in this one spot, we didn't see them 

*Acrocephalus agricola brevipennis (Severtzov). Paddyfield 

Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 d", 1 9 ; February 23 and 
25, 1961. 

Except for a single male collected by Koelz at Simra in the cen- 
tral terai, these are the first specimens of this species taken in Nepal 
since Hodgson. Mrs. Proud (1949, p. 708) records seeing it in the 
Valley on spring migration. 

As we passed through an extensive grove of shisham trees we 
came to damp reed beds which were the favored place for the paddy- 
field warbler. They would work around among the reeds then fly 
to another location a short distance away. We saw several different 
birds but they were not numerous. 

Phylloscopus pulcher pulcher Blyth. Orangebarred Leaf War- 

7 miles north of Ham, Ham District, 7000 feet: 1?; March 2, 1961. 

Ripley (1950, p. 400) recognizes three races of this species from 
the Himalayas: kangrae, from Kistwar to Kumaon, intergrading with 
the next race in west Nepal; erochroa, west and central Nepal; and 
pulcher, east Nepal through Assam. He restricted the type locality of 
pulcher to the Ham District at that time. Rand and Fleming (1957, 
p. 165) were unable to recognize erochroa, and extended the range of 
pulcher to west Nepal. 

We now have additional fresh material from Garhwal, central 
Nepal and Assam to add to that available to Rand and Fleming. 
Comparison of these series shows that kangrae is a well marked race, 
much paler than pulcher, and intergrading with the latter in the 
Kailali-Kanchampur District of far west Nepal. Across the remain- 
der of Nepal and as far east as the Khasia hills the birds are uni- 
formly darker, and there is hardly a discernible difference between 
specimens from central and east Nepal. All the populations from 
this area should be called pulcher with erochroa as a synonym. 

Of the dozen leaf warblers one comes across in Nepal in winter, 
this species is one of the easiest to recognize. It prefers the oak for- 
ests at 7,000 to 9,000 feet and moves about in mixed parties or with 


others of its own species. It is quite common. The weak flight, the 
constant movement, and the twitching of wings are characteristics of 
leaf warblers. 

Seicercus xanthoschistos jerdoni (Brooks). Greyheaded Fly- 

Ham, Ham District, 2400 feet: Irf 1 ; March 16, 1961. 

With some 45 specimens from the Punjab east to Sikkim avail- 
able for comparison, it is evident that the use of the name xanthos- 
chistos for the dark, grey-headed eastern race is incorrect. Birds 
from Punjab to central Nepal are a paler, slightly buffy gray on 
crown and back, and the change to the darker, more blue-gray race 
occurs rather abruptly in east Nepal. Hodgson's types of xanthos- 
chistos were taken when he was living in Kathmandu, and the central 
valley must be taken as the type locality. The range of xanthoschistos, 
therefore, is from Kashmir to central Nepal and albo-superciliaris is 
a synonym; the dark-headed race ranges from east Nepal to western 
Assam. Fortunately the name jerdoni (Abrornis jerdoni Brooks, 
1871, Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, pt. 1, p. 248) is available for the 
eastern race. 

This is one of the commonest species in groves in more open coun- 
try or at the edge of forests. Its bright, cheery little call discloses a 
small yellow and gray bird very busy in its search for insects. It 
usually hunts on the top side of branches and among leaves as it 
peers here and there. It is often found in a mixed hunting party 
where it confines itself to trees and upper branches, in the sunshine. 
Unlike some birds, it calls throughout the year, not just in the spring. 

*Seicercus poliogenys (Blyth). Greycheeked Flycatcher-warbler. 

5 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 8000 feet: Id"; 
March 10, 1961. 

Known only from Ham District where it has been taken by Hodg- 
son and Stevens. 

We only saw this bird once. It was working along the sunny 
surface of a thick matting of vines strung over undergrowth. It 
kept moving through the leaves looking this way and that for in- 
sects and would occasionally cling to the under side of a small twig, 
like a titmouse. The circle of white feathers around the eye was 


Abroscopus superciliaris flaviventris (Jerdon). Yellowbellied Fly- 

11 miles south of Ham, Ham District, 800 feet: 1 9 ; February 27, 

10 miles west of Indian border, Ham district, 5000 feet: Icf ; 
March 17, 1961. 

These are the first recent specimens of this flycatcher-warbler 
from Nepal. Neither Baker (1924, p. 494) nor Ripley (1961, p. 488) 
includes Nepal within the range of the species, but Sharpe (1883, 
p. 403) lists three Hodgson skins from that country. The Nepal 
specimens taken by Hodgson at the time he was living in Darjeeling 
almost certainly come from the adjacent Ham District, and that is 
probably the extent of the Nepalese range of flaviventris. 

Ripley (loc. cit.) uses the name albigularis (Blyth) for this west- 
ern race of superciliaris. However, Abrornis albigularis Blyth, 1861, 
is a junior primary homonym of Abrornis albogularis Moore, 1854, 
according to the new International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 
(Stoll, et al, 1961, p. 55). Article 58 states that, "Two or more spe- 
cies-group names of the same origin and meaning and cited in the 
same nominal genus or collective group are to be considered homo- 
nyms if the only difference in spelling consists of any of the follow- 
ing ... (8) the use of different connecting vowels in compounded 
words (e.g., nigricinctus, nigrocinctus) ;" the next available name is 
flaviventris Jerdon, 1863, which was proposed as a substitute name for 
albigularis Blyth preoccupied. 

The heavy forest belt along the foothills with numerous clumps 
of bamboo and tall trees produced a few birds of this species. A pair 
flew about in a patch of sunshine above the road. We also met with 
them in secondary growth, on the sunny side of a moderately steep 
hill. The white throat was conspicuous. 

*Brachypteryx stellata stellata Gould. Gould's Shortwing. 

6 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 7500 feet: 1 9 ; 
March 10, 1961. 

The known range of this species in Nepal is apparently confined 
to the Mai Valley. This makes even more surprising its discovery 
in the mountains north of Mussoorie at 12,000 feet by Robert Flem- 
ing, Jr. (Ali, 1956, p. 468). That specimen is now in Chicago Natural 
History Museum, and agrees closely with the bird from the Mai 


We had hoped to find several species of shortwings besides this 
one. It was moving under debris in a dark, damp stream bed full 
of moss and ferns. This habitat was quite different from the breed- 
ing area where my son found his pair of birds a steep, sunny hill- 
side covered with dwarf rhododendron bushes, at an altitude of 
12,000 feet. 

*Erithacus pectoralis tschebaiewi(Przevalski). Himalayan Ruby- 

5 miles east of Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: Id"; Feb- 
ruary 26, 1961. 

Kathmandu, 4300 feet: 1?; April 13, 1961 (Larry Christopher). 

This is the first record of this northern high altitude breeding 
race to be taken in Nepal. Its presence in winter was to be expected, 
however, since its breeding range, from Ladakh to northern Burma, 
extends along the northern border of Nepal. 

The Himalayan Ruby-throat must be a straggler into Kath- 
mandu Valley for this is the only one we have seen here. It was 
probably more common in the marshes around Suneschari Bazaar 
where we found the other one. Other members of this genus fre- 
quently are seen hopping on the ground. The one flushed out of the 
reeds was a close shot and our Gurung hunter was for throwing it 
away but fortunately Sagar Rana got hold of it to help provide a 
needed record for Nepal. 

Erithacus cyanurus rufilatus (Hodgson). Redflanked Bush Robin. 

East No. 2, 6 miles northeast of Those, 10,600 feet: 1 d" ; Novem- 
ber 16, 1960. 

5 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District: 1 imm. d"; March 6, 

There has been considerable disagreement recently over the races 
of this species in the Himalayas. Ripley (1961, p. 499) and Rand 
and Fleming (1957, p. 149) recognize pallidior as the race from Kash- 
mir to west Nepal, while Vaurie (1955, p. 13) and Biswas (1961, 
p. 656) place pallidior in the synonymy of rufilatus, type locality 
central Nepal. 

I have available for comparison the material used by Rand and 
Fleming and also the Koelz collection used by Vaurie and Biswas. 
When series from Kashmir to central Nepal are compared, I can see 
no differences, and I consider pallidior a synonym of rufilatus. How- 
ever, a good series of Stevens' birds from Sikkim is distinctly darker 


in both sexes than rufilatus. As noted by most authors, there is a 
great deal of individual variation in males, but the darkest birds 
from Sikkim are a much darker, richer blue above than the darkest 
rufilatus. The females are more constant, and Sikkim specimens are 
darker, more reddish brown on the upper parts. This is the charac- 
ter that Baker (1924, p. 101) ascribed to rufilatus at the time that 
he described pallidior, and it is probable that he was using Sikkim 
birds to represent rufilatus. 

If two races of this species are to be recognized from the Hima- 
layas, one must be rufilatus from Kashmir to Nepal with pallidior a 
synonym, and the second would be an unnamed race from Sikkim 
east. Since we have no material from east of Sikkim, I am unable to 
say what its range would be. The immature male from Ham District 
appears as dark as the Sikkim females. 

The habitat of the bush-robin is the underbrush of thick forests 
or among barberry and viburnum shrubs at the edges of heavier vege- 
tation. It sits fairly upright on a branch, twitching its tail upward 
at three or four second intervals. It is not common and is usually 
solitary or in pairs. 

*Erithacus hyperythrus (Blyth). Rufousbellied Bush Robin. 

5 miles east of Jamna, Ham District, 7200 feet: Icf; March 9, 

The range of this species in Nepal is apparently confined to the 
Mai valley, Ham District. 

Along the same forest stream where we saw forktails, this bird 
flew from bush to bush in the more open spaces at the edge of tall 
trees. Its breast was conspicuous. It flicked its tail and its flight 
was weak, moving only a short distance to the next shrub. The 
specimen was netted the following day. This was the only time we 
saw it. 

Enicurus schistaceus (Hodgson). Slatybacked Forktail. 

1 mile east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 5500 feet: 1 cf ; March 4, 

This forktail appears to be rare in Nepal. The present specimen 
is the first to be taken east of the central valley. 

Unlike other forktails on more wooded streams, this species pre- 
fers water courses which run past cultivated areas. One usually finds 
a pair flying from stone to stone over the surface of a stream or peer- 
ing around rocks for insects. The flight is much like that of a wagtail 


but less undulating and for only short distances. It usually hugs the 
stream bed and when disturbed prefers to circle around and follow 
it in the opposite direction. 

*Enicurus maculatus guttatus Gould. Spotted Forktail. 

5 miles northeast of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 7000 feet and 7500 
feet: 2c?; March 8 and 12, 1961. 

This is only the second record of the eastern race of the spotted 
forktail. Its range in Nepal is confined to the Mai valley. 

A rushing forest stream below our camp had numerous little fork- 
tails, some of the black-backed variety and only occasionally the 
larger one. This bird also followed the stream, and when pausing to 
rest, turned its body a little to one side, then the other. The call, 
"chee-chee-chit" was rather loud, resembling that of the whistling 
thrush. When disturbed it sometimes flew into thick foliage above 
the stream, then would go out in the opposite direction. It usually 
managed to keep several large rocks in the stream between itself 
and its observer. 

Turdus ruficollis ruficollis Pallas. Redthroated Thrush. 

East No. 2, below Dhoban, 6 miles northeast of Those, 11,000 
feet: 2<?; November 14, 1960. 

These are the first specimens of the red-throated thrush, rufi- 
collis, taken in Nepal. The black-throated race, atrogularis, is a com- 
mon winter visitor from the plains up to 10,000 feet. Mrs. Proud 
(1958, p. 348) states that Turdus ruficollis was present in huge flocks 
on Nangi Danda south of the valley, but she uses the binomial with- 
out the author's name and presumably was in doubt about the sub- 

The first specimen we saw was hopping in a grassy street in the 
town of Pokhara, West Nepal. Birds in the central valley all appear 
to be the black-throated variety. As we followed up the trail in 
East No. 2, we suddenly came over a ridge in front of a beautiful 
mountain snow range, only fifteen miles away. There were several 
leafless trees standing about and a party of eight or ten thrushes was 
sitting in these. The two we got had the red throat while others 
seemed to have a pale or black throat. They flew with a strong 
flight, settling in the top of more distant trees, tilting their tails up 
and flicking their wings as they alighted. Their call was a single 
short chirp. We have never heard the song of this thrush as it is 


silent throughout the winter when it visits the foothills and plains 
of Nepal and India. 

Parus rubidiventris beavani (Jerdon). Rufousbellied Crested Tit. 

East No. 2, Thodung, 5 miles northeast of Those, 7400 feet: 1 9 ; 
November 12, 1960. 

8 miles east of Jumna, Ham District, 9500 feet: Id 71 ; March 9, 

It is surprising to find beavani as far west as East No. 2, within 
100 miles of the Gandak-Kosi watershed where nominate rubidiven- 
tris is abundant. 

The Thodung bird was one of a mixed flock working its way 
through an oak forest. In neither locality did we find them common. 

*Parus spilonotus spilonotus Bonaparte. Blackspotted Yellow 

6 miles east of Jamnagaon, Ham District, 7500 feet and 8000 feet: 
Id", 19; March 11, 1961. 

The Mai valley appears to be the only region of Nepal where this 
species is found. Spilonotus is now generally considered to be a race 
of xanthogenys. However, considering the marked differences be- 
tween them and the fact that they replace each other in east Nepal 
without intergradation, I believe that they must be considered dis- 
tinct species. Mrs. Proud now believes that her report (1949, p. 698) 
of seeing spilonotus in the Kathmandu valley was in error. 

A small flock of four birds worked its way through oak trees at 
the edge of a forest on the sunny side of a hill. They examined the 
underside of branches and leaves in a continuous movement while 
they maintained conversation as they passed along. Their flight 
was weak and the wing-beat rapid as first one then another and an- 
other flew from one tree to the next. This was the only time we 
came across them. 

An thus sylvanus (Hodgson). Upland Pipit. 

Ham, Ham District, 4500 feet: 1 9 ; February 28, 1961. 

Rand and Fleming (1957, p. 189) mention a specimen of this spe- 
cies from Szechwan that is much darker than typical birds from 
Nepal. Koelz (1954, p. 21) described the birds from Punjab as orei- 
nus, stating that they were paler than Nepal specimens. Vaurie 
(1959, p. 73) recognizes that there is a cline of increasing saturation 


from west to east, but does not feel that more than one race can be 
recognized. In order to work out the races, if any, of this form, we 
have borrowed all the Chinese material available, and we wish to 
thank the authorities of the American Museum of Natural History, 
U. S. National Museum, and Staatliches Museum fiir Tierkunde, 
Dresden, for the loan of their material. Altogether 32 specimens 
from the Punjab to Fukien are available. 

In determining geographical variation within this species, it is 
essential that only birds in the same plumage stages be compared. 
The differences between fresh and worn birds from the same locality 
are greater than those between comparably plumaged birds from the 
geographic extremes. In fresh fall birds, the dark center stripes and 
paler edgings of the dorsal feathers tend to blend in, giving a softly 
striped effect. With wear, however, the pale edgings fade markedly 
and the tips of the feathers wear off sharply giving the effect of a 
paler, much more harshly patterned bird. The color of the pale 
edgings of the dorsal feathers is apparently the only character that 
varies geographically; the ventral streaking varies irregularly, but 
is more evident, particularly on the flanks, in worn specimens. 

In fresh specimens of topotypes from Nepal, the center stripes 
on the dorsal feathers are blackish brown, bounded by a warm 
brown that grades to buff along the edges. Birds from the Punjab 
and Kumaon have the buff edges averaging paler. To the east of 
Nepal, two out of three specimens from eastern Sikang (formerly 
Szechwan) have the lateral stripes slightly darker with a reddish 
tone, while the third specimen, that mentioned by Rand and Flem- 
ing, has them almost chestnut, with virtually no buffy edgings. This 
last bird, taken by itself, is clearly separable from typical sylvanus, 
but the three together merge into the nominate race, the palest 
Sikang bird being no darker than the darkest Nepal specimen. The 
cline of increasing saturation, therefore, is so gradual as to make it 
impractical to describe the Sikang birds as distinct. 

These latter birds come from Suifu, Wa Shan, and Fi Shan Kwan, 
all marked "Szechwan" on the labels but now in eastern Sikang ac- 
cording to Vaurie (1959, map B, p. 725). These localities are all 
quite close and this appears to be an isolated population, but speci- 
mens have been taken in northwestern Yunnan and the range of the 
species may be continuous from Nepal to Sikang. 

A most unexpected specimen is a single male in the National 
Museum from Kuliang, near Foochow, Fukien, 3000 feet, which ex- 
tends the range of this species about 900 miles to the east and com- 


pletely out of its normal range in the Himalayas. The bird is in 
heavily worn breeding plumage, taken August 21, 1923, and was pre- 
sumably still on its breeding grounds. Wear and fading are too 
pronounced to permit any color comparisons, but the blackish cen- 
tral stripes of the dorsal feathers are wider than in any other speci- 
men. It would be of great interest to learn the status of this isolated 
population in east China. 

The upland pipit prefers open, grassy hills where it perches on a 
rock and gives its rasping call, then hops down and walks over the 
ground. It has a strong, undulating flight and will move off to an- 
ther part of the hillside or terrace where it swoops down, runs a bit, 
then stands quietly in a fairly erect position in a spot where it has a 
good view of its surroundings. We found it common at about 5000 
feet throughout Nepal. 

*Anthreptes singalensis assamensis (Kloss). Rubycheek. 

Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 9 ; February 21, 1961. 

Ripley (1950, p. 410) was the first to discover this species in 
Nepal, where it is confined to the eastern districts. 

The rubycheek was flitting around at the top of low bushes in a 
sunny glade beween patches of heavy forest. It was constantly on 
the go, searching the leaves as it moved through the shrubbery. 
It was solitary and we did not see any others. 

*Arachnothera longirostris longirostris (Latham). Little Spider- 

Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1^,29,1?; February 21 
and 22, 1961. 

This is the first time that the little spiderhunter has been taken 
in Nepal. These specimens are considerably darker and more green- 
ish above than a series from the Khasia Hills. The type of differ- 
ence, however, is what one would expect between fresh and foxed 
skins and is probably not of taxonomic significance. 

The spiderhunter frequented a strip of fairly heavy forest at the 
base of the first hills of the Outer Himalayas. The forest ran from 
east to west and cutting it at right angles were periodic gullies with 
small streams. Along these gullies were numerous clumps of large 
bamboos and wild banana trees. This species stayed in the vicinity of 
the banana trees, preferring to move about in the fairly thick forest. 
There were numbers of this bird here but we did not find it elsewhere. 


One of the specimens we took was pecking into a cluster of flowers 
while another was a member of a party of several other species. 

*Arachnothera magna magna (Hodgson). Streaked Spider- 

Kankaimukh, Jhapa District, 500 feet: 1 9 ; February 22, 1961. 
Mai Khola, 2 miles south of Ham, Ham District, 1600 feet: Id" ; 
February 27, 1961. 

This species appears to be locally distributed in Nepal. These 
are the first specimens from the eastern districts and, along with 
two females taken by Koelz at Hetaura, the first taken since Hodg- 
son's time. 

We first saw the large spiderhunter in a wooded ravine of the 
Rapti Dun. It was preening itself in a tangle of vines above a pool 
of water where it had had a bath. Its sharp, metallic note was quite 
loud. There were two or three in that place. It was not until we 
reached Kankaimukh that we found them really common. These, 
like the other species, are closely associated with the wild banana 
trees where they would alight and cling to maturing portions of the 
banana flower then dart off among the bamboos. The small spider- 
hunter seemed confined to forested areas but the larger species 
ranged into the foothills. We frequently saw it in more open gullies 
where apparently there were few or no wild banana plants. It would 
sit quietly in a tree and its strong, curved bill was conspicuous. It 
had a rapid wing beat and sometimes flew quite a long distance 
across ravines to trees a quarter of a mile away. 

*Lonchura malacca atricapilla (Vieillot). Chestnut Mannikin. 

Jhapa, Jhapa District, 450 feet: 2d" , 1 9 ; February 19, 1961. 

Besides the three specimens listed above, we have a female col- 
lected by Koelz at Hetora in the central terai. 

Parkes (1958, p. 289) has resurrected the name rubronigra for the 
populations of this species from the western Himalayas to eastern 
Nepal. This race is distinguished from atricapilla by the dark ma- 
roon, rather than yellow or orange, tips to the uppertail coverts and 
edgings to the central rectrices. Two of the Jhapa birds (the third 
has lost the critical feathers) and the Hetora female agree with alri- 
capilla from Assam in having yellow on the tail coverts and rectrices 
and must be kept in that race. We have no material from west of 
central Nepal and cannot discuss the validity of a red-tailed race in 


that area. However, the type of rubronigra in the British Museum 
should be examined before the name is applied to a western race. 
Most of Hodgson's birds came from central Nepal, and if his type 
has a yellow tail like the Hetora specimen, a new name will have to 
be found for the red-tailed race. 

When we camped in the town of Jhapa, a flock of mannikins, 
numbering some two hundred, flew from trees to a threshing floor 
in a neighboring yard. When disturbed, they flew in mass back into 
tree tops, then soon got restless and returned to the ground. This 
occurred several times. When we examined them through the glasses 
we found about three-fourths of them to be the chestnut mannikin 
and about one-fourth of them the spotted mannikin. They were 
eating rice from the threshing floor. 


Trekking in Nepal requires careful advance planning. There are 
government formalities to attend to, provisions, equipment and 
clothing to procure and porters to engage. All these items take time. 
The Government of Nepal now has a set of rules regarding trekking 
in Nepal. If one is to collect animals, permission must be given by 
several different departments. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 
which governs the movements of foreigners in the country, must 
sanction the trip. They require the names, nationalities and pass- 
ports of all to be included in the party. One must indicate how long 
the trip will take and the route to be followed, mentioning names of 
villages en route. The reason for this is that governors of each dis- 
trict must be informed in advance and as there are thirty-two such 
districts, many of which are remote, it is quite a task to contact out- 
lying points. This information must be in possession of the governor 
before the party arrives therefore the need of having it well in ad- 
vance. A government liason officer must also be engaged. 

The Nepal Government requires the listing of all firearms with 
the name of the maker, number and amount of ammunition. A spe- 
cial license fee is required from the Valley Commissioner, Kath- 
mandu. To shoot in any of the government areas, one must also 
petition the Minister of Forests even though it be roadside shooting. 
Documents from this department must be in the hands of the Forest 
Circle Officer of each district to be visited, who in turn, writes out 
another document to be shown to local forest personnel upon de- 
mand. Except for mountaineering expeditions, foreigners have only 
very recently been allowed outside Kathmandu Valley. It is only 
natural that care is taken regarding the movement of foreigners in 

Provisions needed on a Nepal field trip vary according to the 
area to be visited and the time of year. By and large, the higher one 
goes, the less food he will find. Some areas, such as East No. 2 and 
Ramechap District, have many chickens and eggs while others, like 
Morang District in southeastern Nepal, largely inhabited by Brah- 
mins, will have no chickens at all. Potatoes and wheat are harvested 




in spring while the wet, summer season brings fruit, vegetables and 
corn. The large rice harvest comes in the fall, along with more po- 
tatoes, and winter brings oranges and vegetables. 

It is a good plan to start out with most of one's food. Quite 
a selection is found in Kathmandu but tinned goods are expensive. 
Rice is the staple diet of many Nepalese while millets are used more 
by hill people. Dry stores such as rice, flour, sugar, etc. are available 
in border towns like Biratnagar, Birganj and Nepalganj. 

When on the move a great deal, it is well to have a substantial 
breakfast, a carry lunch and then a big meal at dusk. Porters adapt 
well to this plan, cooking rice or millet before they start out, snack- 
ing on parched corn or pounded rice during the day and then pre- 
paring their supper at the end of the day's march. 



30 DAYS 

12 packets concentrated meat 

24 tins of fish 

20 packets of cookies 

12 1 Ib. tins of jam 

4 1 Ib. packets of tea 

3 Ibs. coffee 

9 Ibs. peanut butter 

13 tins of oatmeal 
40 Ibs. sugar 

8 packets of raisins 

9 Ibs. salt 

9 Ibs. powdered milk 
15 Ibs. Swiss cheese 

50 Ibs. wheat flour 
40 Ibs. dal pulse 
150 Ibs. rice 
10 Ibs. margarine 

2 Ibs. Crisco 

2 packets pancake mix 
12 small tins sandwich spread 

4 jars sweet pickles 
2 jars mustard 

5 tins popcorn 
12 tins beans 

8 tins spaghetti 


ghee oranges 

chickens bananas 

eggs spices 

potatoes matches 

onions candles 

There are certain places along main routes where porters usually 
buy their supplies. Stop-overs should be arranged so porters can 
get the food they need. Water-bottles are a necessity. All water 
should be boiled and if done at night, will be cool by morning. Un- 
boiled water must be treated with halazone or chlorine tablets for 
one cannot count on uncontaminated well or stream water. Local 
people drink water harmful to westerners, and sometimes have dis- 
eases like typhoid and para-typhoid. 

Clothing, bedding and equipment are important items to check 
over. Shoes and socks are of first importance. Two or three pairs 


of used shoes rest one's feet. Wear tennis shoes when wading through 
streams. Boots protect one against snakes in grassy lowlands. Hob- 
nail or short-spiked soles and heels prevent one from slipping on wet, 
clay surfaces. Ordinary shoes are good for broad, well-trodden 
roads. Woolen socks with boots help prevent blisters. 

Long-sleeved shirts and long trousers protect against numerous 
thorns and insects. It is impossible for the average person to travel 
up and down the steep roads of Nepal without perspiring a great 
deal. An extra change of clothing avoids a chill at the end of the 
day's trek. One should always carry what he needs during the day 
such as a camera, food and water, for a porter will be nowhere in 
sight just when such things are wanted. Some protection should be 
made for one's eyes like a cap or dark glasses. And as the first two 
or three days are the more difficult ones, it is better to plan shorter 
journeys at first and then to speed up later on. 

Tents are a necessity when striking off the beaten trail. They 
make it possible to stop near supplies of wood and water. Zip-in 
tents keep out one's greatest enemy insects. An insect bomb will 
eliminate any insect which might have gotten in while the tent was 
being pitched. When on a main route through hills, villagers will 
invite travelers to sleep on their open verandas or in a downstairs 
room and will give a Nepalese meal at night for the cost of two 
rupees (30 cents). A tent on such a trip is not necessary. 

Air mattresses should be of a tough rubber composition; these 
make rough places comfortable. A canvas ground sheet protects 
against damage by thorns, etc. A muslin bag inside a sleeping bag 
is warm enough for mild nights. On cold nights, a double sleeping 
bag and a wool blanket are required. One may wish to wear extra 
clothing to bed; in that case, a roomy sleeping bag is better than a 
narrow one. 

When carrying scientific equipment, wet weather must be kept in 
mind. Tin trunks which a porter can cover with a ground sheet make 
good carrying cases. Things should be divided and placed in differ- 
ent containers in case a load is lost. Some of the bridges we had to 
cross caused us to wonder whether all would safely reach the other 
side. An altimeter is a bit of valuable equipment in determining at 
what altitude certain species are found. 

Porters are another important item. They can make or break a 
trip. Terms of employment must be clearly set forth before prospec- 
tive men are hired. This is usually done through a man who is in 
this business. He will often engage porters who come from the area 


to be visited and who know the trail, springs and bazaars. We 
needed on the average two for each member of our party. We had 
sixteen for the seven of us who visited Ramechap District. On this 
trip we had the men come one afternoon, record their names, agree 
on the terms and receive an advance of fifteen rupees. They came 
back the next morning, were loaded, and started a day ahead. Their 
destination was Jiri, six days away, for which they received four 
rupees a day. At the end of each day we gave "Bakshish" to the 
first ones who got to camp and to any who carried a heavier load. 
At Jiri we dismissed the Kathmandu men as planned and hired local 
men for the rest of the trip. When not on the move, rate of pay was 
two rupees a day. There were several from each caste group; all 
tribesmen from the hills, a fine type of man. 



1956. Western limits of two east Himalayan birds. Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc., 53, p. 468. 


1924. The fauna of British India. Birds, 2, xxiii +561 pp. London. 

1930. The game-birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. 3 vols. 341 pp. London. 


1960-1961. The Birds of Nepal. Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 57, pp. 278- 
308; 516 546; 58, 100 134; 441-474; 653-677 (to be continued). 


1961. Notes on Nepal Birds. Fieldiana: Zoo!., 35, pp. 443-487. 

GRAY, J. E. 

1846. Catalogue of the specimens and drawings of mammals and birds of Nepal 
and Thibet presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., to the British Museum, xi + 
155 pp. Brit. Mus., London. 

1863. Catalogue of the specimens and drawings of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles 
and Fishes of Nepal and Tibet presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., to the 
British Museum. 2nd ed., xii+90 pp. Brit. Mus., London. 


1854. Himalayan Journals; or Notes of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikhim and 
Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia Mountains, etc. 2 vols., London. 


1950. New subspecies of birds from southwestern Asia. Am. Mus. Nov., no. 

1452, 10 pp. 
1954. Ornithological studies. Contrib. Inst. Regional Expl., 1, 33 pp. 


1931-1934. A handbook of birds of eastern China. 2, xxiii -1-566 pp. London. 


1889. The fauna of British India. Birds, 1, xx+556 pp. London. 


1958. Taxonomy and nomenclature of three species of Lonrhnra (Aves: Estril- 
dinae). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 108, pp. 279 293. 


1961. Notes on some Corvidae from Nepal, Pakistan and India. Jour. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc., 58, pp. 379 386. 


1949. Some notes on the birds of the Nepal Valley. Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc., 48, pp. 695-719. 



1958. Bird notes from Nepal. Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 55, pp. 345-350. 
1961. Notes on the birds of Nepal. Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 58, pp. 798- 


RAND, A. L. and R. L. FLEMING 

1957. Birds from Nepal. Fieldiana: Zool., 41, pp. 1-218. 


1950. Birds from Nepal, 1947-1949. Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 49, 

pp. 355-417. 
1955. Variation in the White-throated Fantail Flycatcher, Rhipidura albicollis. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 68, pp. 41-46. 
1961. A synopsis of the birds of India and Pakistan. xxxvi+702pp. Bombay 

Natural History Society, Bombay. 


1879. A contribution to the ornithology of Nepal. Stray Feathers, 8, pp. 204- 


1883. Catalogue of the birds in British Museum, 7, xv+698 pp. London. 

STOLL, N. R., et al. 

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1961, xvii + 176 pp. London. 


1955. Systematic notes on Palaearctic Birds. No. 14. Amer. Mus. Nov., 
No. 1731, 30 pp. 

1959. The birds of the Palaearctic fauna. Passeriformes. xii+762 pp. H. F. 
and G. Witherby, London. 


1931. [Description of a new race of Fantail-Flycather.] Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 
52, pp. 40-41. 


abbotti, Malacocincla, 479 

abbreviatus, Buteo, 91 

Abroscopus, 544 

aburri, Aburria, 93 

Aburria, 93 

Acarina, 27 

Accipiter, 91, 242, 282, 322, 375, 461, 


Accipitridae, 90, 241, 282, 321, 374 
acedis, Phyllastrephus, 195 
Aceros, 289 

Acrocephalus, 351, 542 
Actitis, 245, 327, 379 
adamauae, Chlorocichla, 188, 189 
adametzi, Phyllastrephus, 201 
Adelomyia, 106 
aedon, Phragmaticola, 480 
Aegithalos, 475 
aemodium, Conostoma, 477 
aenea, Ducula, 247, 329, 381 
aenochlamys, Sitta, 435 
aequatorialis, Baryphthengus, 107 
aequatorialis, Neomorphus, 102 
aeuiiops, Thamnophilus, 117 
Aethopyga, 304, 357, 409 
affinis, Accipiter, 515 
affinis, Caprimulgus, 522 
affirm, Coracias, 522 
affinis, Glaucis, 104 
affinis, Mycerobas, 484 
affinis, Penelopides, 289 
affinis, Veniliornis, 115 
Agelaius, 132 

agricola, Acrocephalus, 542 
akool, Amaurornis, 519 
alaris, Rhabdornis, 437 
Alauda, 342, 474, 525 
Alaudidae, 342 
alba, Motacilla, 482 
albicans, Troglodytes, 127 
albiceps, Elaenia, 125 
albicollis, Nyctidromus, 104 
albicollis, Rhipidura, 538 
albifrons, Phapitreron, 246, 328, 380 
albigularis, Abroscopus, 544 
albigularis, Synallaxis, 116 
albigularis, Tylas, 220 
albigulus, Phyllastrephus, 203, 204 
albi venter, Iridoprocne, 126 
albiventer, Microura, 530 

albiventris, Hemidacnis, 129 
albocinereus, Sirystes, 122 
albogularis, Rhipidura, 538 
albonotatus, Buteo, 91 
albo-superciliaris, Seicercus, 543 
Alcedinidae, 107, 252, 288, 338, 389 
alexandrinus, Charadrius, 244, 326 
alfredi, Phyllastrephus, 202 
alfredi, Psarocolius, 130 
amabilis, Muscicapa, 481 
amabilis, Tangara, 133 
amandava, Estrilda, 484 
amauronota, Tyto, 251 
Amaurornis, 243, 324, 378, 518 
Amazilia, 105 
Amazona, 99 

amazona, Chloroceryle, 107 
amazonica, Amazona, 99 
amazonica, Lophostrix, 103 
amazonica, Synallaxis, 116 
amazonum, Conirostrum, 129 
amazonum, Ramphocaenus, 128 
ambiguus, Ramphastos, 113 
amelis, Collocalia, 336 
americana, Chloroceryle, 107 
americana, Sporophila, 136 
americanus, Coccyzus, 100 
americanus, Merops, 339, 391 
amethystina, Phapitreron, 284, 329, 380 
amethystinus, Chalcites, 385 
amurensis, Butorides, 373 
analis, Formicarius, 118 
Anas, 241, 321, 374, 460 
Anatidae, 241,321, 374 
andapae, Phyllastrephus, 214 
andromedae, Zoothera, 294 
angustifrons, Psarocolius, 130 
angustirostris, Sayornis, 121 
Anhima, 90 
Anhimidae, 90 
Anhinga, 90 
anhinga, Anhinga, 90 
Anhingidae, 90 
ani, Crotophaga, 101 
ankafanae, Phyllastrephus, 215 
annectans, Pycnonotus, 159 
annectens, Dicrurus, 475 


anthonyi, Dicaeum, 302, 437 

Anthracothorax, 105 




Anthreptes, 408, 550 

Anthropoides, 518 

Anthus, 254, 343, 395, 483, 548 

antisianus, Pharomachrus, 106 

apicalis, Loriculus, 286 

apicauda, Treron, 521 

Aplonis, 258, 359, 411 

apo, Dicaeum, 303 

apo, Rhipidura, 298 

apo, Sitta, 435 

Apodidae, 252, 288, 336, 388 

apoensis, Pachycephala, 257, 301, 354, 

405, 434 
Apoia, 305 

aquaticus, Rallus, 464 
Aquila, 463 
Ara, 98 

Arachnothera, 304, 358, 410, 550 
Aramides, 94 
Aratinga, 98 
Archiplanus, 130 

arcuata, Dendrocygna, 241, 321, 374 
Ardea, 320, 372, 460 
Ardeidae, 90, 240, 282, 320, 372 
ardens, Harpactes, 288, 337, 389 
ardens, Piranga, 135 
Arenaria, 245, 327 
argentata, Sclateria, 118 
argentatus, Ceyx, 338, 389 
arquata, Numenius, 379 
arsinoe, Pycnonotus, 149 
Artamidae, 255, 345, 397 
Artamus, 255, 345, 397, 483, 525 
Artanidae, see Artamidae 
asiaticus, Caprimulgus, 521 
asiaticus, Xenorhynchus, 515 
assamensis, Anthreptes, 550 
ater, Daptrius, 93 
Atlapetes, 137 
atricapilla, Lonchura, 551 
atricapillus, Donacobius, 128 
atrimentalis, Phaethornis, 105 
atrogularis, Aulacorhynchus, 111 
atrogularis, Orthotomus, 297, 352, 402 
atrogularis, Prinia, 541 
atthis, Alcedo, 252, 338, 389 
audax, Troglodytes, 127 
aulacorhynchus, 111 
aurantiacus, Metopothrix, 117 
aurantio-atro-cristatus, Empidonomus, 


aurea, Jacamerops, 109 
aureiventris, Myiotriccus, 124 
aurescens, Polyplancta, 106 
aurifrons, Myiospiza, 137 
aurita, Heliothryx, 106 
aurovirens, Capito, 110 
australe, Dicaeum, 356, 407 
australis, Neomorphus, 102 
australis, Pycnonotus, 179 
Aviceda, 374 
axillaris, Myrmotherula, 118 

axillaris, Treron, 246, 328, 380 

azarae, Saltator, 136 

azurea, Hypothymis, 257, 301, 354, 404 

azurea, Monarcha, 540 

badius, Phodilus, 387 

Baeopogon, 186 

bagobo, Collocalia, 288 

bakeri, Amaurornis, 518 

bakkamoena, Otus, 287, 335, 387 

balzarensis, Geranospiza, 92 

bamendae, Pycnonotus, 182 

bangsi, Halcyon, 252, 423 

banken, Centropus, 334 

barbatus, Gypaetus, 463 

barbatus, Pycnonotus, 146, 147, 148 

bartletti, Amazilia, 105 

bartletti, Crypturellus, 90 

bartletti, Momotus, 108 

Baryphthengus, 107 

basilanica, Ficedula, 299, 403 

basilanica, Pachycephala, 257, 434 

basilanica, Rhinomyias, 431 

basilanica, Zosterops, 305, 411 

basilanicus, Oriolus, 307 

Basileuterus, 129 

Batrachostomus, 335, 387, 421 

baueri, Limosa, 326, 379 

bauharnaesii, Pteroglossus, 113 

baumanni, Phyllastrephus, 201 

beavani, Parus, 548 

Behavior of the Lizard Corythophanes 

cristatus, 1, 3 
bella, Aethopyga, 410 
bengalensis, Alcedo, 252, 338, 389 
bengalensis, Centropus, 468 
bengalensis, Houbaropsis, 465 
benghalensis, Coracias, 522 
benghalensis, Rostratula, 243, 379, 465, 


bensoni, Phyllastrephus, 196 
bergii, Thalasseus, 245, 328, 379 
berlepschi, Conopias, 122 
Bernieria, 213 
besti, Dicaeum, 257 
bicolor, Accipiter, 91 
bicolor, Dicaeum, 356, 407 
bicolor, Ducula, 247, 330 
bidentatus, Harpagus, 90 
Birds of Northeastern Peru, 85-141 
Birds of the Philippine Islands: Siqui- 

jor, Mount Malindang, Bohol, and 

Samar, 221-441 

bitorquata, Streptopelia, 247, 330, 382 
Bleda, 215 

bogotensis, Columba, 96 
Bohol Islands, 310-362 
boholensis, Coracina, 344, 395 
boholensis, Macronus, 348, 430 
boholensis, Otus, 335 
boholensis, Rhinomyias, 353, 433 



boholensis, Stachyris, 349 

boholensis, Zosterops, 358 

Bolbopsittacus, 384 

boliviana, Tangara, 133 

boltoni, Aethopyga, 304 

bonariensis, Molothrus, 131 

bonga, Dicaeum, 408 

borealis, Phylloscopus, 256, 297, 352, 


bourcieri, Chlorochrysa, 132 
Brachypteryx, 293, 544 
Brady pterus, 295, 541 
brasilianum, Glaucidium, 103 
brevipennis, Acrocephalus, 542 
brevipes, Heteroscelus, 245, 327 
brevirostris, Collocalia, 470 
brevirostris, Crypturellus, 90 
brevirostris, Pericrocotus, 527 
brevirostris, Phapitreron, 283 
brevirostris, Tanagra, 132 
Brotogeris, 98 

brunneiceps, Phapitreron, 284 
brunneiceps, Rhegmatorhina, 119 
brunnei-nucha, Atlapetes, 137 
Bubo, 387 

Bubulcus, 240, 320, 372 
Bucco, 109 
Bucconidae, 109 
Buceros, 289, 340, 392 
Bucerotidae, 289, 340, 391 
buckleyi, Micrastur, 93 
burmanicus, Buteo, 462 
burmanicus, Caprimulgus, 522 
Busarellus, 92 
Butastur, 242, 323, 375 
Buteo, 91, 461 
buteo, Buteo, 461 
Butorides, 90, 240, 320, 373, 

cabanisi, Phyllastrephus, 210 

cabanisi, Xenoctistes, 117 

cachinnans, Herpetotheres, 92 

Cacicus, 130 

Cacomantis, 250, 286, 332, 385 

caerulesceus, Geranospiza, 92 

caeruleus, Elanus, 321, 374 

cajanea, Aramides, 94 

caledonicus, Nycticorax, 241, 320, 373 

calliparea, Chlorochrysa, 132 

Calochaetes, 135 

Caloenas, 248 

calurus, Criniger, 219 

calvus, Sarcops, 259, 307, 359, 411 

campanisoma, Myrmothera, 119 

Campephagidae, 254, 291, 344, 395 

Camptostoma, 126 

canicapilla, Bleda, 217 

canorus, Cuculus, 249 

cantator, Hypocnemis, 118 

canus, Picus, 472 

Capella, 466, 520 

capensis, Bucco, 109 

capensis, Pelargopsis, 338, 390 

capensis, Podiceps, 515 

capensis, Pycnonotus, 146, 147 

capensis, Tyto, 251 

capistrata, Heterophasia, 479 

capitalis, Stachyris, 295 

Capito, 110 

Capitonidae, 110, 392 

caprata, Saxicola, 255, 347 

Caprimulgidae, 104, 336, 388 

Caprimulgus, 104, 336, 388, 469, 521 

carbo, Phalacrocorax, 460 

carbo, Ramphocelus, 134 

carcinophilus, Butorides, 240, 320, 373 

carola, Ducula, 247 

carolinensis, Pandion, 92 

Carpodacus, 485 

casiotis, Columba, 467 

castaneiventris, Sporophila, 136 

castaneus, Pachyramphus, 119 

castaneus, Trogon, 107 

castanoptera, Pyriglena, 118 

castanotis, Pteroglossus, 112 

catharinae, Tangara, 134 

caudatus, Bradypterus, 295 

caudatus, Spelaeornis, 530 

cayana, Dacnis, 129 

cayana, Piaya, 100 

cayana, Tityra, 120 

cayanensis, Leptodon, 90 

cayennensis, Columba, 96 

cela, Cacicus, 130 

celebensis, Pernis, 321, 375 

celestinoi, Megalaima, 392 

celestinoi, Phapitreron, 329 

celestinoi, Turnix, 324 

Celeus, 114 

centralis, Chlorocichla, 191 

centralis, Ninox, 251, 355, 421 

Centropus, 250, 287, 333, 386, 468 

Cephalopterus, 120 

cephalotes, Myiarchus, 123 

Cercomacra, 118 

Certhia, 476 

Certhiaxis, 117 

Certhiidae, 302, 355, 406 

certhiola, Locustella, 351, 401 

cerviniventris, Phyllastrephus, 199 

Ceryle, 107 

Cettia, 480, 540 

Ceyx, 252, 338, 389, 390 

chagwensis, Pycnonotus, 181 

Chalcites, 385 

Chalcophaps, 248, 285, 330, 382 

chalybea, Progne, 126 

Chamaepetes, 93 

Charadriidae, 244, 326 

Charadrius, 244, 326 

cheela, Spilornis, 283, 323, 376 

Chelidoptera, 110 

chendoola, Galerida, 524 

chilensis, Tangara, 132 



chinensis, Excalfactoria, 242, 283, 323, 


chinensis, Jynx, 524 
chinensis, Oriolus, 259, 361, 413 
chirurgus, Hydrophasianus, 465 
chivi, Vireo, 129 
chlorigulus, Pycnonotus, 184 
chloris, Halcyon, 252, 339, 391 
chloris, Nicator, 217 
Chloroceryle, 107 
Chlorochrysa, 132 
Chlorocichla, 187 
chloropus, Gallinula, 325, 379 
chlorosaturata, Baeopogon, 186 
Chlorospingus, 135 
Chlorostilbon, 105 
chlorotica, Tanagra, 132 
chochi, Tapera, 101 
choliba, Otus, 102 
chrysocephalus, Myiodynastes, 122 
chrysochloros, Piculus, 114 
Chrysocolaptes, 290, 341, 393, 425 
chrysocrotaphum, Todirostrum, 125 
chrysopis, Thlypopsis, 135 
Chrysoptilus, 113 
chrysotis, Tangara, 133 
chunchotambo, Xiphorhynchus, 116 
chyulu, Pycnonotus, 165, 186 
chyuluensis, Chlorocichla, 191 
chyuluensis, Phyllastrephus, 207 
cia, Emberiza, 485 
Ciconiidae, 321, 374 
cinerascens, Cercomacra, 118 
cinerea, Gallicrex, 325 
cinerea, Motacilla, 254, 343, 395 
cinereiceps, Orthotomus, 298 
cinereiceps, Phapitreron, 284 
cinereiceps, Phyllastrephus, 214 
cinereigulare, Dicaeum, 303, 356, 408 
cinereus, Crypturellus, 89 
cinereus, Poliolimnas, 243, 324, 419 
cinereus, Vanellus, 519 
cinereus, Xenus, 327 
cinnamomea, Pyrrhomyias, 124 
cinnamomea, Terpsiphone, 405 
cinnamomea, Tringa, 95 
cinnamomeus, Hypocryptadius, 306 
cinnamomeus, Ixobrychus, 321, 373 
Circus, 323 

cirratus, Picumnus, 113 
cirrhatus, Spizaetus, 462 
cisandina, Cranioleuca, 117 
Cisticola, 256, 351, 401 
citreopygius, Celeus, 114 
Clamator, 249, 468 
clarae, Arachnothera, 304, 410 
Claravis, 97 
clypeata, Spatula, 461 
Clypicterus, 130 
coccineus, Calochaetes, 135 
Coccyzus, 100 
cochinensis, Hirundapus, 469 

coelestis, Hypothymis, 404 

coelestis, Thraupis, 134 

Coereba, 129 

Coerebidae, 129 

coerulescens, Saltator, 136 

cognatus, Phyllastrephus, 207 

collaris, Halcyon, 252, 339, 391 

collaris, Trogon, 107 

Collecting, Nepal, 553-556 

collingwoodi, Poliolimnas, 419 

Collocalia, 252, 288, 336, 388, 470 

colma, Formicarius, 118 

Colonia, 121 

colonus, Colonia, 121 

Columba, 96, 247, 285, 467, 521 

Columbidae, 96, 246, 283, 328, 380 

Columbigallina, 97 

comata, Hemiprocne, 288, 337, 389 

Compsocoma, 134 

concinnus, Aegithalos, 475 

confusus, Accipiter, 242, 282, 322, 375 

congener, Pycnonotus, 177, 180 

Conirostrum, 129 

connectens, Ramphocelus, 134 

Conopias, 122 

Conostoma, 477 

Copsychus, 255, 347, 399 

Coracias, 522 

Coraciidae, 253, 289, 339, 391 

Coracina, 291, 344, 395 

cornuta, Anhima, 90 

coromanda, Halcyon, 252, 422 

coromandelica, Coturnix, 463 

coromandus, Bubulcus, 240, 320, 372 

coromandus, Clamator, 249, 468 

Corvidae, 126, 259, 308, 362, 413 

Corvus, 259, 308, 362, 413, 527 

Corythophanes, cristatus, 3 

Cotingidae, 119 

Coturnix, 463 

couloni, Ara, 98 

Cracidae, 93 

Cranioleuca, 117 

crassirostris, Forpus, 98 

crex, Megalurus, 296, 350, 401 

Criniger, 217, 479, 528 

cristata, Galerida, 524 

cristata, Lophostrix, 103 

cristatus, Corythophanes, 3 

cristatus, Lanius, 254, 292, 345, 396, 525 

cristatus, Thalasseus, 245, 328, 379 

Crotophaga, 101 

crucigerus, Otus, 102 

cruentatus, Melanerpes, 115 

cruentus, Ithaginis, 464 

Crypsirina, 475 

cryptolophus, Lipaugus, 119 

Crypturellus, 89 

Cuculidae, 100, 249, 286, 332, 385 

cucullata, Kitta, 526 

cucullata, Pitta, 473 

Cuculus, 249, 286, 332, 385 



Culicicapa, 300 

culminatus, Corvus, 527 

culminatus, Ramphastos, 113 

cumanensis, Pipile, 93 

cumingi, Macronus, 399, 429 

curtata, Cranioleuca, 117 

curucui, Trogon, 107 

curvirostris, Pycnonotus, 172 

cuvieri, Ramphastos, 113 

Cyanerpes, 129 

cyanescens, Galbula, 109 

cyaneus, Cyanerpes, 129 

cyanicollis, Tangara, 133 

cyanocollis, Eurystomus, 253, 289, 339 

391, 424 

Cyanocorax, 126 

cyanogaster, Irena, 292, 345, 397, 427 
cyanoleuca, Pygochelidon, 126 
cyanoptera, Brotogeris, 98 
cyanotis, Tangara, 133 
cyanurus, Erithacus, 545 
cyanus, Hylocharis, 105 
Cymbilaimus, 117 
Cypsiurus, 337 

Dacnis, 129 

Daptrius, 93 

davao, Orthotomus, 297 

davaoensis, Nectarinia, 258, 357, 409 


Davis, D. Dwight, 1, 9, 71 
dealbatus, Charadrius, 244, 326 
debilis, Phyllastrephus, 203, 204 
debilis, Turdus, 128 
decipiens, Leptotila, 97 
decorosa, Aethopyga, 357 
decumanus, Psarocolius, 130 
Delichon, 474 
Demigretta, 240, 320 
Dendrocolaptes, 116 
Dendrocolaptidae, 116 
Dendrocopos, 290, 341, 393, 473 
Dendrocygna, 241, 321, 374 
Dicaeidae, 257, 302, 355, 406 
Dicaeum, 257, 302, 355, 407, 437 
Dicruridae, 307, 360, 412 
Dicrurus, 307, 360, 412, 475 
didymus, Pteroglossus, 112 
dilutior, Chlorocichla, 192 
dimidiatus, Aulacorhynchus, 111 
discurus, Prioniturus, 331, 383 
dispar, Coereba, 129 
Dissoura, 321, 374 
dodsoni, Pycnonotus, 164 
doliatus, Thamnophilus, 117 
domesticus, Passer, 483 
dominica, Pluvialis, 244, 326, 466 
Donacobius, 128 

dowashanus, Phyllastrephus, 209 
Dryooopus, 115, 290, 341, 393 
dubius, Charadrius, 326 
dubusi, Leptotila, 97 

Ducula, 247, 329, 381 

dugandi, Bucoo, 109 

Dupetor, 373 

dusumieri, Streptopelia, 247, 330, 382 

Dysithamnus, 117 

earlei, Turdoides, 534 
eburneus, Phyllastrephus, 201 
Echinosorex gymnura, Placentation of 

a primitive insectivore, 9 
eduardi, Tylas, 220 
efulenensis, Pyononotus, 178 
Egretta, 240, 320, 372 
Elaenia, 125 
Elanoides, 90 
Elanus, 321, 374 
elatus, Tyrannulus, 126 
elegans, Parus, 301 
ellae, Irena, 345, 397, 427 
Emberiza, 485 
emini, Criniger, 219 
Empidonax, 124 
Empidonomus, 121 
enca, Corvus, 413 
Enicurus, 546 

epauletta, Pyrrhoplectes, 485 
episcopus, Dissoura, 321, 374 
epops, Upupa, 471 
Erithacus, 545 
ernesti, Falco, 242 
erochroa, Phylloscopus, 542 
Erolia, 328, 466 
erythrinus, Carpodacus, 485 
erythrocephalus, Garrulax, 535 
erythrogaster, Hirundo, 126 
erythrogaster, Pitta, 253, 342, 394 
erythrogenys, Microhierax, 323, 377 
erythrogenys, Pomatorhinus, 528 
erythrophthalmus, Coccyzus, 100 
erythropterus, Pycnonotus, 169 
escherichi, Pycnonotus, 156 
esculenta, Collocalia, 288, 337, 389 
Estrilda, 484 
Eubucco, 111 

Eudynamys, 250, 333, 386 
eugenius, Pycnonotus, 178 
eumorphus, Trogon, 106 
eurhinus, Tringa, 244, 327 
eurhythmus, Ixobrychus, 373 
eurizonoides, Rallina, 324, 465 
Eurostopodus, 336, 388 
Eurylaimidae, 341, 394 
Eurylaimus, 341, 394 
Eurypyga, 95 
Eurypygidae, 95 
Eurystomus, 253, 289, 339, 391, 424, 


Euscarthmornis, 125 
everetti, Hvpsipetes, 398 
everetti, Otus, 287, 355, 387 
everetti, Tanygnathus, 384 
everetti, Zosterops. 258, 305, 358, 411 



Excalfactoria, 242, 283, 323, 378 
excellens, Tapera, 101 
eximia, Bleda, 216, 256, 351, 401 
exsul, Celeus, 114 
extensus, Melanerpes, 115 
extimus, Accipiter, 375 

falcinellus, Limicola, 328 

Falco, 242, 323, 463 

Falconidae, 92, 242, 323 

falkensteini, Chlorocichla, 187 

fallax, Pachycephala, 433 

farinosa, Amazona, 100 

fasciatus, Laterallus, 94 

fayi, Pycnonotus, 157 

ferox, Myiarchus, 123 

ferrugilatus, Pomatorhinus, 528 

festiva, Amazona, 99 

Ficedula, 299, 403, 481 

fiedleri, Myiozetetes, 122 

fischeri, Phyllastrephus, 205, 206 

flammeus, Pericrocotus, 396 

flammifera, Arachnothera, 358, 410 

flava, Motacilla, 343 

flaveola, Coereba, 129 

flaveolus, Criniger, 479, 528 

flavicollis, Chlorocichla, 188 

flavicollis, Dupetor, 373 

flavicollis, Hemithraupis, 135 

flavigula, Chlorocichla, 190 

flavigula, Piculus, 113 

flavigularis, Chlorospingus, 135 

flavinucha, Compsocoma, 134 

flaviventer, Dacnis, 129 

flaviventris, Abroscopus, 544 

flavirostris, Kitta, 526 

flaviventris, Chlorocichla, 191, 193 

flavostriatus, Phyllastrephus, 202 

flavus, Celeus, 115 

Fleming, Robert L. and Melvin A. 

Traylor, 441-487, 489-558 
flumenicolus, Ceyx, 338, 389 
fluviatilis, Muscisaxicola, 120 
foetidus, Gymnoderus, 120 
forbesi, Megalurus, 296, 350, 401 
forficata, Elanoides, 90 
Formicariidae, 117 
Formicarius, 118 
formosae, Crypsirina, 475 
formosus, Hieraaetus, 376 
Forpus, 98 

fortichi, Ptilocichla, 348 
fortipes, Cettia, 540 
Francolinus, 464, 516 
francolinus, Francolinus, 464 
frederici, Rhytipterna, 119 
freycinet, Megapodius, 377 
fricki, Phyllastrephus, 199 
fricki, Pycnonotus, 173 
Fringiljidae, 136, 306 
frontalis, Atlapetes, 137 
frontalis, Orthotomus, 297, 352, 402 

frontalis, Sitta, 301, 405, 434 

fugax, Cuculus, 249, 286, 332 

fulica, Heliornis, 95 

fuliginosus, Mulleripicus, 290, 392 

fulva, Pluvialis, 244, 326, 466 

fulvescens, Gyps, 516 

fulvescens, Phyllastrephus, 214 

fulvicauda, Basileuterus, 130 

fulvicervix, Tangara, 133 

fulvifasciatus, Dendrocopos, 290 

fulviventris, Phyllastrephus, 200 

fulvus, Gyps, 516 

funebris, Mulleripicus, 290, 392 

furcata, Thalurania, 105 

Furnariidae, 116 

Furnarius, 116 

Further Notes on Nepal Birds, 489- 


fusca, Amaurornis, 518 
fuscata, Sterna, 245 
fuscicauda, Cercomacra, 118 
fusciceps, Pycnonotus, 184 
fuscus, Artamus, 483, 525 

gabonensis, Pycnonotus, 152 

Galbalcyrhynchus, 108 

Galbula, 109 

Galbulidae, 108 

Galerida, 524 

Gallicolumba, 382 

Gallicrex, 325 

Gallinago, 245, 327 

gallinago, Capella, 466, 520 

gallinago, Gallinago, 327 

Gallinula, 325, 379 

Callus, 242, 283, 324, 378, 414 

gallus, Gallus, 242, 283, 324, 378, 414 

garhwalensis, Paradoxornis, 531 

Garrulax, 478, 534 

garzetta, Egretta, 240, 320, 372 

genibarbis, Thryothorus, 127 

gentilis, Accipiter, 461 

geoffroyi, Neomorphus, 102 

Geotrygon, 98 

Geranospiza, 92 

giamardii, Myiopagis, 125 

gilvicollis, Micrastur, 93 

glareola, Tringa, 245, 327 

Glaucidium, 103 

Glaucis, 104 

glaucocauda, Ducula, 329, 381 

glaucpgularis, Dacnis, 129 

godwini, Pomatorhinus, 528 

goiavier, Pycnonotus, 293, 346, 398 

goisagi, Gorsachius, 241, 282, 414 

goodfellowi, Apoia, 305 

goodi, Pycnonotus, 148 

Gorsachius, 241, 282, 373, 414 

goudotii, Chamaepetes, 93 

gracilirostris, Pycnonotus, 180 

gracilis, Prinia, 480 

gracilis, Pycnonotus, 170 



grandis, Chrysocolaptes, 425 
grandis, Nyctibius, 103 
grandis, Rhabdornis, 436 
graueri, Phyllastrephus, 202 
grenadensis, Myiozetetes, 123 
griseicauda, Garrulax, 534 
griseigularis, Anthreptes, 408 
griseisticta, Muscicapa, 256, 354 
griseogularis, Columba, 247, 285 
griseus, Nyctibius, 103 
grotei, Phyllastrephus, 206 
guimarasensis, Hypsipetes, 428 
gularis, Francolinus, 516 
gularis, Halcyon, 252, 338, 390 
gularis, Nicator, 217 
gularis, Paroaria, 136 
gulgula, Alauda, 342, 474, 525 
gustavi, Anthus, 254, 343, 395 
gustavi, Brotogeris, 98 
guttatoides, Xiphorhynchus, 116 
guttatus, Epicurus, 547 
guttatus, Tinamus, 89 
guttatus, Xiphorhynchus, 116 
gutturalis, Hirundo, 253, 342 
Gymnoderus, 120 
Gymnopithys, 119 
Gypaetus, 463 
Gyps, 516 
gyrola, Tangara, 134 

hachisuka, Lanius, 292 
haemacephala, Megalaima, 392 
haematogaster, Phloeoceastes, 116 
haematonota, Myrmotherula, 117 
haematribon, Chrysocolaptes, 425 
haematuropygia, Kakatoe, 248, 331, 

383, 420 

Halcyon, 252, 288, 338, 390, 422 
Haliaeetus, 323, 376 
haliaetus, Pandion, 92 
Haliastur, 241, 322, 375 
haringtoni, Pomatorhinus, 528 
Harpactes, 288, 337, 389 
Harpagus, 90 

harterti, Acrocephalus, 351 
harterti, Phlogophilus, 106 
harterti, Pycnonotus, 147, 153 
hastata, Aquila, 462 
hauxwelli, Turdus, 128 
helenae, Hypothymis, 404 
Heleodytes, 127 
helianthea, Culicicapa, 300 
helias, Eurypyga, 95 
Heliornis, 95 
Heliornithidae, 95 
Heliothryx, 106 
hellmayri, Pitangus, 123 
hemachalanus, Gypaetus, 463 
Hemidacnis, 129 
Hemiprocne, 288, 337, 389 
Hemiprocnidae, 288, 337, 389 
Hemithraupis, 135 

Herpetotheres, 92 
Heterophasia, 479 
Heteroscelus, 245, 327 
heterozyga, Myrmotherula, 118 
Hieraaetus, 376 
hilaris, V'eniliornis, 115 
himalayana, Certhia, 476 
himalayensis, Dendrocopos, 473 
Himantopus, 95 
himantopus, Himantopus, 95 
hirsuta, Glaucis, 104 
Hirundapus, 469 
Hirundinidae, 126, 253, 342, 394 
Hirundo, 126, 253, 342, 394 
hispidus, Phaethornis, 105 
hoactli, Nycticorax, 90 
hodgsoni, Anthus, 483 
hodgsoni, Ficedula, 481 
hodgsoni, Megalaima, 472 
hodgsonii, Muscicapa, 538 
holochlorus, Pycnonotus, 169 
holospilus, Spilornis, 283, 376 
hombroni, Halcyon, 288 
hoogstraali, Irena, 292, 427 
horsfieldi, Cuculus, 249, 332, 385 
hottentottus, Dicrurus, 307, 360, 412 
Houbaropsis, 465 
humboldti, Pteroglossus, 112 
humii, Paradoxornis, 532 
hutchinsoni, Hhipidura, 298 
hydrocorax, Buceros, 289, 340, 392 
Hydrophasianus, 465 
Hylocharis, 105 
Hylophylax, 119 

hyperrhynchus, Notharchus, 109 
hyperthra, Ficedula, 299 
hyperythrus, Erithacus, 546 
hypochloris, Phyllastrephus, 201 
Hypocnemis, 1 18 
Hypocryptadius, 306 
hypoleucos, Actitis, 245, 327, 379 
hypoleucum, Dicaeum, 303, 355, 407 
hypoleucus, Elanus, 321, 374 
hy post ictus, Heleodytes, 127 
Hypothymia, 257, 301, 354, 404, 481 
hypoxanthus, Pycnonotus, 175 
Hypsipetes, 255, 293, 347, 398, 428 

ibis, Bubulcus, 240, 320, 372 
ichthyaetus, Icthyophaga, 376 
Ichthyophaga, 376, 463 
Icteridae, 130 

icterinus, Phyllastrephus, 211 
icterocephalus, Agelaius, 132 
Ictinae'tus, 463 

ignipectus, Dicaeum, 303, 408 
ignobilis, Momotus, 108 
ignobilis, Turdus, 128 
ignotincta, Minla, 537 
illex, Pachycephala, 433 
importunus, Pycnonotus, 172, 177 
inceleber, Phyllastrephus, 213 



inconspicuus, Crypturellus, 89 

inda, Chloroceryle, 107 

indica, Chalcophaps, 248, 285, 330, 382 

indica, Sypheotides, 465 

Indicator, 523 

indicator, Baeopogon, 186 

indicus, Bustastur, 242, 323, 375 

indicus, Passer, 484 

indicus, Rallus, 464 

indus, Haliastur, 241, 322, 375 

inexpectata, Collpcalia, 336 

inexpectatum, Dicaeum, 356, 407 

infima, Certhia, 476 

inopinata, Alauda, 474 

inornata, Amazona, 100 

inornatus, Pycnonotus, 148 

inornatus, Rhabdornis, 302, 406, 436 

insignis, Xiphorhynchus, 116 

insularis, Pycnonotus, 175 

insularum, Glaucis, 104 

intermedia, Egretta, 320, 372 

intermedius, Bolbopsittacus, 384 

intermedius, Corvus, 527 

intermedius, Cymbilaimus, 117 

intermedius, Haliastur, 241, 322, 375 

intermedius, Phyllastrephus, 197 

interpres, Arenaria, 245, 327 

iohannis, Euscarthmornis, 125 

iredalei, Aegithalos, 475 

Irena, 292, 345, 397, 427 

Iridoprocne, 126 

isidori, Jacamerops, 109 

Ithaginis, 464 

itoculo, Phyllastrephus, 202, 206 

Ixobrychus, 321, 373 

Jacamerops, 109 
Jacana, 95 
Jacanidae, 95 
jacobinus, Clamator, 468 
jagori, Lonchura, 259, 360, 412 
japonica, Jynx, 524 
japonica, Ninox, 251 
javanensis, Centropus, 250, 334 
javanica, Amaurornis, 243, 325 
javanica, Hirundo, 253, 342, 395 
javanica, Rhipidura, 256, 353, 403 
javensis, Dryocopus, 290, 341, 393 
jefferyi, Pithecophaga, 283, 376 
jelskii, Picumnus, 113 
jelskii, Thalurania, 105 
jerdoni, Aviceda, 374 
jerdoni, Seicercus, 543 
johnstoniae, Trichoglossus, 285 
jugularis, Nectarinia, 258, 357, 409 
jumana, Celeus, 114 
juncidis, Cisticola, 351 
juruanus, Thryothorus, 127 
Jynx, 524 

kakamegae, Pycnonotus, 167 
Kakatoe, 248, 331, 383, 420 

kali, Garrulax, 535 
kampalili, Dicaeum, 438 
kangrae, Phylloscopus, 542 
kappuni, Thamnophilus, 117 
kavirondensis, Pycnonotus, 171 
keniensis, Phyllastrephus, 207 
kettlewelli, Macronus, 430 
kienerii, Hieraaetus, 376 
kikuyuensis, Pycnonotus, 182 
kilimandjaricus, Pycnonotus, 177 
Kitta, 526 

kitungensis, Pycnonotus, 173 
kleei, Tinamus, 88 
kochii, Coracina, 291 
kundoo, Oriolus, 475 
kungwensis, Phyllastrephus, 202 
kungwensis, Pycnonotus, 183 
kutteri, Gorsachius, 241, 373 

lactea, Amazilia, 105 
laemostictus, Piculus, 114 
Lalage, 254, 291, 344, 396 
lanceolata, Locustella, 351 
langsdorffi, Selenidera, 113 
Laniidae, 254, 291, 344, 396 
Lanius, 254, 291, 344, 396, 525 
lapponica, Limosa, 326, 379 
Laridae, 96, 245, 328, 379 
Laterallus, 94 
latirostris, Muscicapa, 480 
latirostris, Pycnonotus, 177, 178 
layardi, Pycnonotus, 159 
leclancheri, Ptilinopus, 246, 329, 381 
Legatus, 121 
lepcharum, Parus, 476 
lepidonata, Hylophylax, 119 
lepidus, Ceyx, 252 
Leptodon, 90 
leptogrammica, Strix, 469 
Leptotila, 97 

leschenaultii, Charadrius, 244, 326 
leschenaulti, Merops, 470 
leucocephalus, Aceros, 289 
leucogaster, Haliaeetus, 323, 376 
leucogastra, Lonchura, 259, 307, 359, 


leucogenys, Pyrrhula, 306 
leucomelana, Lophura, 517 
leuconota, Columba, 521 
leuconota, Pyriglena, 118 
leucophaius, Legatus, 121 
leucopleura, Thescelocichla, 193 
leucopsis, Motacilla, 482 
leucoptera, Piranga, 135 
leucoptera, Psophia, 94 
leucopus, Furnarius, 116 
leucorhynchus, Artamus, 255, 345, 397 
leucotis, Galbalcyrhynchus, 108 
leucotis, Thryothorus, 127 
leucotis, Phapitreron, 246, 283, 328, 380 
leucurus, Baeopogon, 186 
levaillanti, Corvus, 527 



leytensis, Dendrocopos, 341, 393 

leytensis, Gallicolumba, 382 

leytensis, Pericroeotus, 396 

lhamarum, Alauda, 474 

lictor, Pitangus, 123 

lilacea, Sitta, 405, 435 

limes, Pycnonotus, 154 

Limicola, 328 

limnaeetus, Spizaetus, 462 

Limosa, 326, 379 

limosa, Limosa, 379 

linae, Harpactes, 337, 389 

lineata, Escalfactoria, 242, 283, 323, 378 

lineatum, Tigrisoma, 90 

lineatus, Cymbilaimus, 117 

lineatus, Dryocopus, 115 

lineatus, Garrulax, 478 

Lioptilornis, 146 

Lipaugus, 119 

litoralis, Phyllastrephus, 202 

littoralis, Pycnonotus, 163 

Locustella, 351, 401 

Lonchura, 259, 307, 359, 412, 551 

longirostris, Arachnothera, 358, 410, 


longuemareus, Phaethornis, 105, 436 
lonnbergi, Phyllastrephus, 199 
Lophostrix, 103 
Lophotriccus, 125 
Lophura, 517 

lorenzi, Phyllastrephus, 205 
Loriculus, 248, 286, 331, 385 
luoidus, Chrysocolaptes, 290, 341, 393, 

425, 426 

lucidus, Pious, 426 

lucionensis, Lanius, 254, 292, 345, 396 
lucionensis, Tanygnathus, 248, 331, 384, 


luotuosa, Sporophila, 136 
lugubris, Anthus, 254, 343, 395 
lugubris, Surniculus, 287, 333, 385 
lunulata, Gymnopithys, 119 
lunulatus, Bolbopsittacus, 384 
lutleyi, Tangara, 133 
luzonica, Anas, 241, 321, 374 
luzonica, Gallicolumba, 382 

macao, Ara, 98 
Machaeropterus, 120 
macrodactylus, Bucco, 109 
Macronus, 295, 348, 399, 429 
Macropygia, 247, 285, 330, 468 
maororhynohos, Corvus, 527. See also 

macrorhynohus, Corvus 
macrorhynchos, Notharchus, 109 
macrorhynchus, Corvus, 259, 308, 362, 

413. See also macrorhynchos, Corvus 
macrotis, Eurostopodus, 336, 388 
macrurus, Caprimulgus, 336, 388 
maculatum, Todirostrum, 125 
maculatus, Dendrocopos, 290, 341, 393 
maculatus, Enicurus, 547 

maculatus, Myiodynastes, 122 

maculatus, Turnix, 464 

maculiceps, Chrysocolaptes, 426 

maculipennis, Pygiptila, 117 

maculosus, Psarocolius, 130 

madagascariensis, Numenius, 326 

madagascariensis, Phyllastrephus, 213 

magna, Arachnothera, 551 

magnirostrjs, Aviceda, 374 

magnirostris, Buteo, 92 

major, Crotophaga, 101 

major, Halcyon, 423 

major, SchifTornis, 120 

major, Taraba, 117 

major, Tinamus, 89 

malacca, Lonchura, 259, 360, 412, 551 

malacensis, Anthreptes, 408 

Malacocincla, 479 

malayensis, Ictinaetus, 463 

Malindang, Mount, 260 309 

malindangensis, Aethopyga, 304 

malindangensis, Apoia, 305 

malindangensis, Arachnothera, 304 

malindangensis, Brachypteryx, 293 

malindangensis, Bradypterus, 295 

malindangensis, Ficedula, 299 

malindangensis, Hypocryptadius, 306 

malindangensis, Phylloscopus, 296 

malindangensis, Prioniturus, 285 

malindangensis, Turdus, 294 

manilata, Ara, 98 

manilensis, Ardea, 320, 372. See also 
manillensis, Ardea 

manillensis, Ardea, 460, See also mani- 
lensis, Ardea 

manillensis, Caprimulgus, 336, 388 

manillensis, Nycticorax, 241, 373, 320 

manueli, Lonchura, 259, 307, 359, 412 

manueli, Nectarinia, 439 

margarethae, Ceyx, 252 

marginal a, Collocalia, 337, 389 

marginatus, Microcerculus, 128 

mariae, Pteroglossus, 112 

maroantsetrae, Phyllastrephus, 214 

marsabit, Phyllastrephus, 207 

marshallorum, Megalaima, 472 

martii, Baryphthengus, 107 

martinica, I'orphyrula, 95 

marwitzi, Pycnonotus, 169 

masawan, Dicaeum, 302, 438 

masukuensis, Pycnonotus, 167, 169 

mcgregori, Coracina, 291 

mcgregori, Kakatoe, 420 

mearnsi, Macronus, 295, 430 

megala, Gallinago, 245, 327 

Megalaima, 392, 472 

Megalurus, 256, 296, 350, 401 

Megapodiidae, 377 

Megapodius, 377 

Meister, Waldemar, 9, 71 

melancolicus, Tyrannus, 121 

Melanerpes, 115 



melanoceps, Myrmeciza, 118 
melanocephala, Pionites, 99 
melanochlamys, Irena, 427 
melanogenys, Adelomyia, 106 
melanoleuca, Lalage, 396 
melanoleucos, Circus, 323 
melanoleucus, Phloeoceastes, 115 
melanoleucus, Spizastur, 92 
melanolophus, Gorsachius, 241, 373 

414, 476 

melanonota, Pulsatrix, 103 
melanonotus, Francolinus, 464 
melanonotus, Sarcops, 259, 307, 359, 


melanope, Motacilla, 254, 343, 395 
melanops, Centropus, 287, 333, 386 
melanoptera, Thraupis, 134 
melanosticta, Rhegmatorhina, 119 
melanota, Lophura, 517 
melanuroides, Limosa, 379 
melanurus, Ceyx, 390 
melanurus, Himantopus, 95 
melanurus, Ramphocaenus, 128 
melanurus, Taraba, 117 
melanurus, Trogon, 106 
mellisugus, Chlorostilbon, 105 
menagei, Batrachostomus, 422 
mentalis, Dysithamnus, 117 
mentor, Andropadus, 176 
merganser, Mergus, 461 
Mergus, 461 

Meropidae, 252, 339, 391 
Merops, 252, 339, 391, 470 
meruensis, Chlorocichla, 191 
merulinus, Cacomantis, 250, 332, 385 
mesoleuca, Sitta, 434 
Metopothrix, 117 
mexicana, Tangara, 133 
micra, Amazona, 100 
Micrastur, 93 
Microcerculus, 128 
Microhierax, 323, 377 
microrhynchus, Batrachostomus, 422 
Microura, 530 
micrus, Pycnonotus, 161 
milanjensis, Pycnonotus, 184, 185 
militaris, Ara, 98 
Mimidae, 128 

Mindanao Islands, 260-309 
mindanaoensis, Phapitreron, 284 
mindanense, Coracina, 291, 396 
mindanensis, Bubo, 387 
mindanensis, Copsychus, 255, 347, 399 
mindanensis, Eudynamys, 250, 333, 386 
mindanensis, Macronus, 430 
mindanensis, Parus, 301 
mindanensis, Ptijocichla, 348, 399 
mindanensis, Rhinomyias, 299, 432 
mindenensis, Buceros, 289 
mindorensis, Hypsipetes, 429 
miniatus, Myioborus, 129 
Minla, 537 

minor, Halcyon, 424 
minor, Lalage, 396 
minor, Myrmothera, 119 
minor, Platypsaris, 120 
minor, Pycnonotus, 155 
minor, Rhabdornis, 355, 406, 436 
minuta, Piaya, 101 
minuta, Ptilocichla, 399 
minuta, Tanagra, 132 
Mitchell, Rodger D., 27 
Mites, water, N. Am. species, check- 
list 27, index 66 
Mitu, 93 
mitu, Mitu, 93 
mocino, Pharomachrus, 106 
modestus, Phyllastrephus, 209 
Molothrus, 131 
mombasae, Chlorocichla, 191 
momota, Momotus, 108 
Momotidae, 107 
Momotus, 108 
Monarcha, 540 
Monasa, 109 

mongolus, Charadrius, 326 
montana, Brachypteryx, 293 
montana, Geotrygon, 98 
montana, Zosterops, 305 
montanus, Chrysocolaptes, 426 
montanus, Phyllastrephus, 198 
montanus, Prioniturus, 285 
montanus, Pycnonotus, 169 
Monticola, 255, 348 
monticolus, Caprimulgus, 469, 522 
monticolus, Parus, 476 
montium, Chrysocolaptes, 425 
morio, Coracina, 291, 396 
Motacilla, 254, 395, 482 
Motacillidae, 254, 343, 395 
Mulleripicus, 290, 392 
multicolor, Bleda, 215 
multilunatus, Dryocopus, 290 
muniensis, Pycnonotus, 171 
munzneri, Phyllastrephus, 206 
murina, Phaeomyias, 126 
murmensis, Streptopelia, 467 
Muscicapa, 256, 300, 354, 480, 481, 538 
Muscicapidae, 256, 298, 353, 403 
Muscisaxicola, 120 
Muscivora, 121 
musculus, Troglodytes, 127 
mustelina, Certhiaxis, 117 
Mycerobas, 484 
Myiarchus, 123 
Myioborus, 129 
Myiodynastes, 122 
Myiopagis, 125 
Myiospiza, 137 
Myiotriccus, 124 
Myiozetetes, 122 
myotherinus, Mymoborus, 118 
Myrmeciza, 118 
Myrmoborus, 118 



Myrmothera, 119 

Myrmotherula, 117 

mystacalis, Rhabdornis, 355, 406, 436 

myzornis, 536 

naevia, Sclateria, 118 
naevia, Tapera, 101 
nana, Icthyophaga, 463 
nana, Nemosia, 135 
napensis, Chlorostilbon, 105 
nasutus, Lanius, 254, 292, 344, 396 
naumanni, Pycnonotus, 161 
ndussumensis, Criniger, 217 
nebularia, Tringa, 327 
Nectarinia, 258, 357, 409, 439 
Nectariniidae, 258, 304, 357, 408 
neglectum, Todirostrum, 125 
Nemosia, 135 
Neolestes, 145 
Neomorphus, 102 
Nepal, 447-487, 495-558 
Netta, 461 

neumanni, Pycnonotus, 183 
nevagans, Legatus, 121 
newarensis, Strix, 469 
ngamii, Pycnonotus, 158 
Nicator, 217 

nicobarica, Caloenas, 248 
niger, Capito, 110 
nigeriae, Pycnonotus, 151 
nigra, Lalage, 254, 291, 344 
nigrescens, Cercomacra, 118 
nigricans, Molothrus, 131 
nigricans, Pycnonotus, 147 
nigricans, Sayornis, 121 
nigriceps, Heterophasia, 479 
nigriceps, Pycnonotus, 183 
nigricollis, Anthracothorax, 105 
nigricollis, Busarellus, 92 
nigricollis, Sporophila, 136 
nigricrissa, Piaya, 100 
nigrifrons, Formicarius, 118 
nigrifrons, Monasa, 109 
nigrilore, Dicaeum, 303 
nigriloris, Muscicapa, 300 
nigrimentum, Garrulax, 535 
nigritorquis, Rhipidura, 256, 353, 403 
nigrocapitata, Stachyris, 349, 400 
nigrocinnamomea, Rhipidura, 298 
nigrodorsalis, Donacobius, 128 
nigrogularis, Ramphocelus, 134 
nigrolineata, Rallina, 465 
nigro-maculata, Phlegopsis, 119 
Niltava, 256, 354, 404, 481 
Ninox, 251, 287, 335, 421 
nipalensis, Aquila, 463 
nipalensis, Certhia, 477 
nipalensis, Delichon, 474 
nipalensis, Paradoxornis, 531 
nipalensis, Spizaetus, 516 
nipalensis, Turdoides, 477, 532 
niveiceps, Colonia, 121 

nivosa, Thescelocichla, 193 
noomei, Pycnonotus, 177 
notata, Bleda, 216 
Notes on African Hull mis: Family, 

Pycnonotidae: Class Aves, 143 220 
Notes on Nepal Birds, 441-487 
Notharchus, 109 

novaeseelandiae, Anthus, 254, 343, 395 
nubilosa, Sterna, 245 
Numenius, 244, 326, 379 
Nyctibiidae, 103 

Nycticorax, 90, 241, 320, 373, 460 
nycticorax, Nycticorax, 90, 460 
Nyctidromus, 104 

obscurior, Myiozetetes, 123 
obscurior, Orthotomus, 298 
obspletum, Camptostoma, 126 
occidentalis, Celeus, 115 
occidentalis, Chlorocichla, 192 
occidentalis, Crypsirina, 475 
occidentalis, Garrulax, 478 
occidentalis, Pteruthius, 478 
occiduus, Buteo, 92 
occipitalis, Ptilinopus, 248, 329, 380 
ocellatus, Garrulax, 534 
ocellatus, Xiphorhynchus, 116 
ochotensis, Locustella, 351, 401 
ochracea, Sasia, 524 
ochropus, Tringa, 327, 379 
Ocreatus, 106 
ocularis, Motacilla, 482 
ocularis, Poliolimnas, 243, 324, 419 
ocularis, Rhinomyias, 431 
Odontophorus, 93 
ogilvie-granti, Columba, 96 
ogowensis, Bleda, 215 
olallae, Phloeoceastes, 115 
oleaginus, Pycnonotus, 176 
olivacea, Amaurornis, 243, 324, 378 
olivacea, Baryphthengus, 107 
olivaceiceps, Pycnonotus, 185 
olivaceogriseus, Phyllastrephus, 202 
olivaceum, Camptostoma, 126 
olivaceus, Phylloscopus, 297, 351, 401 
olivaceus, Prionochilus, 302, 355, 406 
olivaceus, Vireo, 129 
oreinus, Anthus, 548 
orientalis, Eurystomus, 253, 289, 339, 

391, 424, 471 

orientalis, Gallinula, 325, 379 
orientalis, Mergus, 461 
orientalis, Numenius, 379 
orientalis, Pernis, 375 
orientalis, Phyllastrephus, 194 
orientalis, Streptopelia, 467 
orientalis, Upupa, 471 
Oriolidae, 259, 307, 361, 413 
Oriolus, 259, 361, 413, 475 
oriolus, Oriolus, 475 
orissae, Rhipidura, 538 
ornatus, Cephalopterus, 120 



ornatus, Myiotriccus, 124 
ornatus, Spizaetus, 92 
Orthotomus, 297, 352, 402 
oryzivora, Padda, 412 
oryzivorus, Scaphidura, 130 
Osculatia, 97 
oseryi, Clypicterus, 130 
Otus, 102, 287, 307, 335, 387 
Oxylabes, 214 

Pachycephala, 257, 301, 354, 405, 433 

Pachycephalidae, 257, 301, 354 

Pachyramphus, 119 

Padda, 412 

paliatus, Thamnophilus, 117 

pallescens, Cplumba, 96 

pallida, Chelidoptera, 110 

pallida, Pionites, 99 

pallidigula, Chplorocichla, 191 

pallidior, Cypsiurus, 337 

pallidior, Erithacus, 545 

pallidipes, Cettia, 480 

pallidus, Pycnonotus, 160, 179 

palmarum, Thraupis, 134 

palumbus, Columba, 467 

palustris, Megalurus, 296, 350, 401 

panamensis, Nyctibius, 103 

panayensis, Aplpnis, 258, 359, 411 

panayensis, Culicicapa, 300 

panayensis, Muscicapa, 300 

panayensis, Spilornis, 323 

Pandion, 92 

Pandionidae, 92 

panini, Penelopides, 289, 340, 391 

papuense, Dicaeum, 356 

paradisi, Terpsiphone, 482 

Paradoxornis, 531 

Paridae, 301 

parkini, Passer, 483 

Paroaria, 136 

Parulidae, 129 

Parus, 301, 476, 548 

parvirostris, Chlorpspingus, 135 

parvirostris, Elaenia, 125 

parvus, Cypsiurus, 337 

Passer, 483 

pauper, Phyllastrephus, 199 

peasei, Pycnonotus, 162 

pectoralis, Cuculus, 249, 286, 332 

pectoralis, Dryocopus, 341, 393 

pectoralis, Erithacus, 545 

Pelargopsis, 338, 390 

Penelopides, 289, 340, 391 

percivali, Pycnonotus, 181 

peregrinator, Falco, 463 

peregrinus, Falco, 242, 463 

Pericrocotus, 369, 527 

perniger, Ictinaetus, 463 

Pernis, 321, 375 

peronii, Charadrius, 244, 326 

perspicillata, Pulsatrix, 103 

Peru, 87-141 

peruanus, Ocreatus, 106 , 

peruanus, Thryothorus, 127 

perusianus, Galbalcyrhynchus, 108 

peruviana, Hypocnemis, 118 

peruviana, Jacana, 95 

peruviana, Rupicola, 120 

peruvianus, Celeus, 115 

peruvianus, Trogon, 107 

peruvianus, Xiphorhynchus, 116 

phaeocephalus, Pycnonotus, 155 

Phaeomyias, 126 

Phaeoprogne, 126 

phaeopus, Numenius, 244, 326, 379 

Phaethornis, 105 

Phaetusa, 96 

phainolaema, Heliothryx, 106 

Phalacrocorax, 460 

Phapitreron, 246, 283, 328, 380 

Pharomachrus, 106 

phasianella, Macropygia, 247, 285, 330 

Phasianidae, 93, 242, 283, 323, 378 

philippensis, Bubo, 387 

philippensis, Loriculus, 248, 286, 331 


philippensis, Monticola, 255, 348 
philippensis, Ninpx, 251, 287, 333, 421 
philippensis, Podiceps, 320 
philippensis, Pycnonotus, 293 
philippensis, Spizaetus, 242, 376 
philippi, Phaethornis, 105 
Philippines, 225-441 
philippinensis, Arachnothera, 410 
philippinensis, Niltava, 256, 354, 404 
philippinensis, Pachycephala, 257, 301, 

354, 405, 433 

philippinus, Corvus, 259, 308, 362, 413 
philippinus, Hypsipetes, 293, 347, 428 
philippinus, Merops, 252, 339, 391, 470 
Phlegopsis, 119 
Phloeoceastes, 115 
Phlogophilus, 106 
Phodilus, 387 

phoenicurus, Amaurprnis, 243, 325 
phoenicurus, Myiotriccus, 124 
Phragmaticola, 480 
Phyllastrephus, 194 
Phylloscopus, 256, 296, 351, 401, 542 
Piaya, 100 

Picidae, 113, 290, 341, 392 
Piculus, 113 
Picumnus, 113 

picumnus, Dendrocolaptes, 116 
Picus, 426, 472 
picus, Xiphorhynchus, 116 
pileata, Nemosia, 135 
Pionites, 99 
Pipile, 93 
Pipreola, 119 
Pipridae, 120 
Piranga, 135 

pistra, Trichoglossus, 285 
Pitangus, 123 



Pithecophaga, 283, 376 

Pitta, 253, 342, 394, 473 

Pittidae, 253, 342, 394 

placidus, Phyllastrephus, 207 

plateni, Pachycephala, 257 

plateni, Stachyris, 295, 400 

Platypsaris, 120 

Ploceidae, 259, 307, 359, 412 

plumbea, Columba, 98 

plumbea, Icthyophaga, 463 

plumbipes, Turnix, 517 

Pluvialis, 244, 326, 466 

Podargidae, 335, 387 

Podiceps, 320, 515 

Podicipedidae, 320 

poecilonata, Hylophylax, 119 

poecilorhyncha, Anas, 460 

poensis, Phyllastrephus, 200 

poliocephala, Ducula, 382 

poliocephalus, Phyllastrephus, 201 

poliocephalus, Tolmomyias, 124 

poliocephalus, Turdus, 294 

poliogenys, Seicercus, 543 

Poliolimnas, 243, 324, 419 

poltaratskyi, Sturnus, 483 

polychopterus, Pachyramphus, 119 

polyplancta, 106 

pompadora, Treron, 246, 328, 380 

pomarina, Aquila, 462 

Pomatorhinus, 528 

pontifex, Dicaeum, 355, 407 

poonensis, Muscicapa, 480 

Porphyrio, 326 

Porphyrula, 95 

Porzana, 518 

prasinus, Aulacorhynchus, 111 

pretiosa, Claravis, 97 

Prinia, 480, 541 

Prioniturus, 285, 331, 383 

Prionochilus, 302, 355, 406 

Progne, 126 

Prosphorocichla, 194 

Psarocolius, 130 

Psittacidae, 98, 248, 285, 331, 383 

Psophia, 94 

Psophiidae, 94 

Pteroglossus, 112 

Pteruthius, 478, 536 

Ptilinopus, 246, 284, 329, 380 

Ptilocichla, 348, 399 

ptilorhynchus, Pernis, 375 

pulcher, Phylloscopus, 542 

pulcherrima, Aethopyga, 304, 357, 409 

pulohra, Pipreola, 119 

Pulsatrix, 103 

pulverulentus, Porphyrio, 326 

punctigula, Chrysoptilus, 113 

purpurata, Querula, 120 

purpurea, Ardea, 320, 372, 460 

pusilla, Porzana, 518 

pusillus, Megapodius, 377 

pycnonotidae, 145 220, 255, 292, 345, 


Pycnonotus, 146, 293, 346, 397, 428 
Pygiptila, 117 
pygmaea, Stachyris, 400 
pygmaeum Dicaeum, 257, 356, 408 
Pygochelidon, 126 
Pyriglena, 118 
Pyrocephalus, 121 
pyrocephalus, Machaeropterus, 120 
Pyrrhomyias, 124 
Pyrrhoplectes, 485 
pyrrhoptera, Pyrrhomyias, 124 
pyrrhoura, Myzornis, 536 
Pyrrhurus, 194, 306 

quart us, Lanius, 291 
Querula, 120 
quisumbingi, Rallus, 378 

rabai, Phyllastrephus, 203 

Rabor, Dioscoro S. see Rand, Austin 

L. and Dioscoro S. Rabor 
rabori, Rhabdornis, 437 
Rand, Austin L., 143 220 
Rand, Austin L. and Dioscoro S. Rabor, 

221 441 

raddei, Capella, 466 
Rallidae, 94, 243, 324, 378 
Rallina, 324, 465 
Rallus, 243, 324, 378, 464 
ramosi, Chrysocolaptes, 425 
Ramphastidae, 111 
Ramphastos, 113 
Ramphocaenus, 128 
Ramphocelus, 134 
Ramphotrigon, 124 
randi, Ninox, 251 
recondita, Columba, 96 
Recurvirostridae, 95 
regulus, Loriculus, 249 
reinwardtii, Selenidera, 113 
Rhabdornis, 302, 355, 406, 436 
Rhegmatorhina, 119 
Rhinomyias, 298, 353, 405, 431 
Rhipidura, 256, 298, 353, 403, 538 
rhodesiae, Phyllastrephus, 196, 197 
Rhytipterna, 119 
riverae, Phodilus, 387 
rivularis, Basileuterus, 130 
roehli, Pycnonotus, 168 
roseatus, Carpodacus, 485 
roseicollis, Platypsaris, 120 
rostrata, Hylocharis, 105 
rostrata, Sporophila, 137 
Rostratula, 243, 379, 465, 520 
Rostratulidae, 243, 379 
rothschildi, Osculatia, 97 
rubeculoides, Niltava, 481 
rubidiventris, Parus, 548 
rubinus, Pyrocephalus, 121 
rubricapilla, Dicaeum, 437 



rubricollis, Phloeoceastes, 115 
rubronigra, Lonchura, 551 
rufaxilla, Leptotila, 97 
rufescens, Phyllastrephus, 199 
ruficapillus, Baryphthengus, 107 
rufieauda, Ramphotrigon, 124, 298, 353, 

403, 431 

ruficeps, Stachyris, 531 
ruficeps, Tinamus, 89 
ruficervix, Tangara, 133 
ruficollis, Erolia, 328 
ruficollis, Podiceps, 320, 515 
ruficollis, Pomatorhinus, 528 
ruficollis, Stelgidopteryx, 126 
ruficollis, Turdus, 547 
rufigastra, Niltava, 256, 354, 404 
rufigularis, Hypsipetes, 293, 429 
rufilatus, Erithacus, 545 
rufina, Netta, 461 
rufinus, Buteo, 461 
rufipectus, Formicarius, 118 
rufiventer, Pteruthius, 536 
rufogularis, Garrulax, 478 
rufopunctatus, Chrysocolaptes, 341, 393 
rufosuperciliatus, Xenoctistes, 117 
rupchandi, Hirundapus, 469 
Rupicola, 120 

rustica, Cisticola, 256, 351, 401 
rustica, Hirundo, 126, 253, 342 
rutilans, Synallaxis, 116 

sacra, Demigretta, 240, 320 
Saltatpr, 136 
salvini, Crypturellus, 89 
salvini, Neomorphus, 102 
Samar Islands, 363-413 
samarensis, Ceyx, 390 
samarensis, Corvus, 413 
samarensis, Dicrurus, 360 
samarensis, Eurylaimus, 341, 394 
samarensis, Ficedula, 403 
samarensis, Hypsipetes, 398 
samarensis, Oriolus, 362, 413 
samarensis, Orthotomus, 352, 402 
samarensis, Penelopides, 340, 391 
samarensis, Pycnonotus, 346, 398 
samarensis, Rhinpmyias, 403, 432 
samarensis, Rhipidura, 353, 403 
sanfordi, Rallus, 243 
sanguiniceps, Picus, 472 
sapphira, Muscicapa, 538 
saphirina, Osculatia, 97 
Saraglossa, 526 
Sarcops, 259, 307, 359, 411 
Sasia, 524 

saturata, Upupa, 471 
saturatus, Cuculus, 249, 332, 385 
saturatus, Pachyramphus, 119 
saturatus, Pycnonotus, 178 
saularis, Copsychus, 255, 347, 399 
Saxicola, 255, 347 
Sayornis, 121 

scandens, Phyllastrephus, 194 . 

Scaphidura, 130 

schach, Lanius, 254, 292, 344, 396 

Schiffornis, 120 

schillings!, Phyllastrephus, 199 

schistaceus, Enicurus, 546 

schoanus, Pycnonotus, 149 

schrankii, Tangara, 133 

schusteri, Pycnonotus, 184 

schvedowi, Accipiter, 461 

sclateri, Cercomacra, 118 

Sclateria, 118 

scolopacea, Eudynamys, 250, 333, 386 

Scolopacidae, 95, 244, 326, 379 

scutulata, Ninox, 251 

Seicercus, 543 

Selenidera, 113 

semigaleatus, Buceros, 340, 392 

semitprquatus, Micrastur, 93 

sepiaria, Malacocincla, 479 

septimus, Batrachostomus, 335, 387, 

sepulcralis, Cacomantis, 250, 286, 332, 


sericp-caudatus, Caprimulgus, 104 
serlei, Phyllastrephus, 212 
sethsmithi, Phyllastrephus, 211 
severus, Falco, 242, 323 
sharpei, Phyllastrephus, 199 
shelleyi, Aethopyga, 410 
shelleyi, Chlorocichla, 190 
shimba, Pycnonotus, 169 
shimbanus, Phyllastrephus, 203 
sibilator, Sirystes, 122 
sibirica, Limicpla, 328 
signatum, Todirostrum, 125 
similis, Myiozetetes, 122 
similis, Thamnophilus, 117 
simillima, Motacilla, 343 
simplex, Chlorocichla, 187 
simplex, Momotus, 108 
simplex, Phaetusa, 96 
simplex, Rhytipterna, 119 
simplicicolor, Chlorocichla, 189 
sinensis, Centropus, 468 
sinensis, Phalacrocorax, 460 
singalensis, Anthreptes, 550 
Siquijor Islands, 228-259 
siquijorensis, Hypsipetes, 255 
siquijorensis, Loriculus, 248 
siquijorensis, Pachycephala, 257, 434 
siquijorensis, Zosterops, 258 
Sirystes, 122 
Sitta, 301, 405, 434 
Sittidae, 301, 405, 
smithi, Pelargopsis, 338, 390 
smyrnensis, Halcyon, 252, 338, 390 
soderstromii, Odontophorus, 94 
sokokensis, Phyllastrephus, 206 
solitaria, Mpnticola, 255, 348 
solitaria, Tringa, 95 
solitarius, Archiplanus, 130 



solitarius, Myiodynastes, 122 

somaliensis, Pycnonotus, 150, 173 

somptuosa, Compsocoma, 134 

sordida, Pitta, 253, 342, 394 

sordida, Thlypopsis, 135 

soror, Chlorocichla, 189 

sororia, Hemithraupis, 135 

sororia, Myrmotherula, 117 

soui, Crypturellus, 89 

Spatula, 461 

speciosum, Conirostrum, 129 

speciosus, Chrysoptilus, 113 

speciosus, Odontophorus, 93 

spectabilis, Celeus, 114 

spectabilis, Elaenia, 125 

Spelaeornis, 530 

sperata, Nectarinia, 258, 357, 409, 439 

spiloeephala, Ninox, 287 

spilonotus, Parus, 548 

spiloptera, Saraglossa, 526 

Spilornis, 283, 323, 376 

spinosa, Jacana, 95 

spixii, Xiphorhynchus, 116 

Spizaetus, 92, 242, 376, 462, 516 

Spizastur, 92 

Sporpphila, 136 

spurius, Pycnonotus, 156 

squamatus, Picus, 473 

Squatarola, 244, 326 

squatarola, Squatarola, 244, 326 

Stachyris, 295, 349, 400, 531 

steerei, Pernis, 321, 375 

steerei, Pyrrhula, 306 

steerii, Eubucco, 111 

steerii, Eurylaimus, 341, 394 

steerii, Pitta, 342, 394 

Stelgidopteryx, 126 

stellaris, Pygiptila, 117 

stellata, Brachypteryx, 544 

stellatus, Odontophorus, 94 

stentoreus, Acrocephalus, 351 

stenura, Capella, 466 

Sterna, 245 

stevensi, Prinia, 480 

stracheyi, Emberiza, 485 

strepera, Anas, 460 

strepitans, Phyllastrephus, 198 

Streptopelia, 247, 330, 382, 467 

striata, Coracina, 291, 344, 395 

striaticeps, Macronus, 295, 348, 399, 


striaticollis, Euscarthmornis, 125 
striatus, Butorides, 90, 240, 320, 373 
striatus, Dicrurus, 307, 360, 412 
striatus, Rallus, 243, 378 
strigidae, 102, 251, 287, 335, 387 
striifacies, Pycnonotus, 185 
striolata, Hirundo, 343 
Strix, 469 

Sturnidae, 258, 307, 359, 411 
Sturnus, 483 
styani, Hypothymis, 481 

styani, Monarcha, 540 
suahelicus, Phyllastrephus, 196 
Suaheliornis, 145 
subalaris, Pycnonotus, 174 
subminuta, Erolia, 466 
subradiatus, Thamnophilus, 117 
subunicolor, Garrulax, 535 
subvinacea, Columba, 96 
sucosus, Phyllastrephus, 209 
sulphuratus, Pitangus, 123 
suluensis, Pycnonotus, 293, 346 
sumatrana, Ardea, 320 
sumatranus, Tanygnathus, 384 
superciliaris, Abroscopus, 544 
superciliaris, Rhipidura, 298, 353, 403 
superciliaris, Xiphirhynchus, 529 
superciliosus, Accipiter, 91 
Surnicuius, 287, 333, 385 
suscitator, Turnix, 517 
sylvanus, Anthus, 548 
sylvatica, Turnix, 324 
sylvestris, Columba, 96 
sylvicultor, Phyllastrephus, 210 
Sylviidae, 128, 256, 295, 350, 401 
Synallaxis, 116 
syndactyla, Bleda, 215 
Sypheotides, 465 

tacsanowskius, Bradypterus, 541 
taczanowskii, Tanagra, 132 
tahitica, Hirundo, 253, 342, 394 
talautensis, Tanygnathus, 248, 331, 

384, 421 

talpacoti, Columbigallina, 97 
tambillanus, Dysithamnus, 117 
Tanagra, 132 
tando, Nicator, 217 
tanganjicae, Pycnonotus, 153 
tanki, Turnix, 464 
Tanygnathus, 248, 331, 384, 420 
tao, Tinamus, 88 
Tapera, 101 

tapera, Phaeoprogne, 126 
Taraba, 117 

teitensis, Pycnonotus, 165 
tenebrior, Pycnonotus, 160 
tenebrosa, Chelidoptera, 110 
tenebrosa, Pachyramphus, 119 
tenebrosa, Phyllastrephus, 214 
tenuirostris, Macropygia, 247, 285, 330 
tephrolaemus, Pycnonotus, 181, 182 
Terpsiphone, 405, 482 
terrestris, Phyllastrephus, 195, 196, 198 
tertius, Lanius, 292 
Thalasseus, 245, 328, 379 
Thalurania, 105 
Thamnophilus, 117 
Thescelocichla, 193 
Thlypopsis, 135 
thoracicus, Formicarius, 118 
Thraupidae, 132 
Thraupis, 134 



Thryothorus, 127 

Tigrisoma, 90 

Timaliidae, 295, 348, 399 

timoriensis, Megalurus, 256, 296, 350, 


Tinamidae, 88 
Tinamus, 88 

tinnabulans, Cisticola, 351 
Tityra, 120 
Todirostrum, 125 
togoensis, Baeopogon, 186 
Tolmomyias, 124 
torquata, Ceryle, 107 
torquatus, Celeus, 115 
torquatus, Rallus, 243, 324, 378 
torquilla, Jynx, 524 
totanus, Tringa, 244, 327 
toulou, Centropus, 250, 334 
trachelopyrus, Phloecoeastes, 115 
traillii, Empidonax, 124 
tranquebarica, Streptopelia, 467 
Traylor, Melvin A. ,85-141 see Fleming, 

Robert L. and Melvin A. Traylor 
Treeshrew, Pigmy, 71 
Treron, 246, 328, 380, 521 
triangularis, Xiphorhynchus, 116 
Trichoglossus, 285 
tricolor, Furnarius, 116 
tricolor, Phyllastrephus, 211 
tricolor, Pycnonotus, 153 
trigonostigma, Dicaeum, 257, 303, 356, 


Tringa, 95, 244, 327, 379 
tristriatus, Basileuterus, 129 
trivirgata, Conopias, 122 
trivirgatus, Accipiter, 375 
trivirgatus, Phylloscopus, 296 
Trochilidae, 104 
trochilus, Nectarinia, 439 
Troglodytes, 127 

troglodytes, Collocalia, 252, 337, 388 
Troglodytidae, 127 
Trogon, 106 

Trogonidae, 106, 288, 337, 389 
tschebaiewi, Erithacus, 545 
tschudii, Chamaepetes, 93 
tuberculifer, Myiarchus, 123 
Tupaia minor, Placentation of the 

Pigmy Treeshrew, 71 
Turdidae, 128, 255, 293, 347, 399 
turdinus, Heleodytes, 127 
Turdoides, 477, 532 
Turdus, 128, 294, 547 
Turnicidae, 324 
Turnix, 324, 464, 517 
tusalia, Macropygia, 468 
tweeddalei, Megalurus, 256 
Tylas, 145, 220 
Tyrannidae, 120 
Tyrannulus, 126 
Tyrannus, 121 
tyrannus, Muscivora, 121 

tyrannus, Tyrannus, 121 
Tyto, 251 
Tytonidae, 251, 387 

ucayalae, Glaucidium, 103 
ugandae, Bleda, 216 
unchall, Macropygia, 468 
underwoodi, Ocreatus, 106 
undulatus, Crypturellus, 89 
upembae, Phyllastrephus, 195 
Upupa, 471 

uropygialis, Cacicus, 130 
urostictus, Pycnonotus, 293, 346, 397, 


usambarae, Pycnonotus, 183 
ussheri, Baeopogon, 186 

validirostris, Lanius, 291 

validus, Dendrocolaptes, 116 

Vanellus, 519 

variegatus, Crypturellus, 89 

variegatus, Numenius, 244, 326, 379 

variolosus, Cacomantis, 250, 286, 332, 


vaughanjonesi, Pycnonotus, 154 
velutinus, Surniculus, 287, 333, 385 
Veniliornis, 115 
venusta, Tangara, 133 
vernans, Treron, 246, 328 
vernayi, Rhipidura, 539 
verreauxi, Leptotila, 97 
versicolor, Eubucco, 111 
versicolurus, Brotogeris, 98 
verticalis, Myioborus, 129 
virens, Megalaima, 472 
virens, Pycnonotus, 169 
virens, Thraupis, 134 
Vireo, 129 
vireo, Nicator, 217 
Vireonidae, 129 
virgatus, Accipiter, 242, 282, 322, 375, 


virgo, Anthropoides, 518 
viridescentior, Chlorocichla, 187 
viridis, Centropus, 250, 287, 334, 386 
viridis, Merops, 339, 391 
viridis, Pteroglossus, 112 
vitiensis, Columba, 247, 285 
vitiosus, Lophotriccus, 125 
vulgaris, Sturnus, 483 
vulpecula, Cranioleuca, 117 
vulpina, Cranioleuca, 117 
vulpinus, Buteo, 461 

wagae, Phaeomyias, 126 

Water mites, N. Am. species, checklist 

27, index 66 
wattersi, Alauda, 342 
weddelli, Aratinga, 98 
weddelli, Tinamus, 88 
westermanni, Ficedula, 300 
whiteheadi, Collocalia, 336 



whiteheadi, Pachycephala, 257 
whiteheadi, Prioniturus, 331, 383 
winchelli, Halcyon, 252, 339, 391 
woosnami, Bleda, 216 
Worcester!, Loriculus, 331, 385 

xanthocephala, Tangara, 133 
xanthochloris, Pteruthius, 478 
xanthogaster, Tanagra, 132 
Xanthomixis, 214 
xanthonotus, Indicator, 523 
xanthonotus, Oriolus, 307, 362, 413 
xanthophrys, Phyllastrephus, 214 
xanthopterygius, Forpus, 98 
xanthopygos, Pycnonotus, 146 
xanthorhynchus, Chalcites, 385 
xanthoschistos, Seicercus, 543 
xavieri, Phyllastrephus, 212 
Xenoctistes, 117 

Xenorhynchus, 515 
Xenus, 327 
Xiphirhynchus, 529 
Xiphorhynchus, 116 

yapura, Crypturellus, 89 
yetapa, Elanoides, 90 
yncas, Cyanocorax, 126 

zamboanga, Rhabdornis, 302, 437 
zamboanga, Rhinomyias, 298, 432 
zamboanga, Sitta, 301, 435 
zanzibaricus, Pycnonotus, 169 
zeylanica, Megalaima, 472 
zombensis, Pycnonotus, 169 
Zoothera, 294 

Zosteropidae, 258, 305, 358, 411 
Zosterops, 258, 305, 358, 411 
zosterops, Phyllastrephus, 214 

Publication 979