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This text-book is the fifth in a series of text- 
books issued conjointly by the leading mis- 
sionary societies in Great Britain for the use 
of Study Circles. Like its predecessors, 
"The UpHft of China," "The Desire of 
India," " The Reproach of Islam," and 
"The Decisive Hour of Christian Missions," 
the book has been wi'itten and edited with 
its special purpose in view. It is designed 
primarily for the use of those who study it 
chapter by chapter and meet periodically in 
Study Cu'cles for discussion. 

To the great regret of the Editorial Com- 
mittee it has been impossible, owing to the 
limitation imposed by the distance between 
Great Britain and the heart of Central Africa, 
to co-operate with the author in the final 
revision rendered necessary by the specific 
purpose of the text-book. For the final 
arrangement and selection of material the 
Editorial Committee must therefore accept 
full responsibihty. The Maps, Appendices 
(with the exception of Appendix C), and 

iv Editorial Note 

Bibliography have also been prepared by 
the Editorial Committee. Thanks are due 
to the friends who have read the manuscript 
and helped by their knowledge and experience. 
The Committee are also most grateful to Mr 
Dudley Kidd for liis help in the preparation 
of illustrations and for permission to reproduce 
those from his book " The Essential Kaffir " 
numbered 4, 5, 8, 1% 11, 18, 19, 20, 28, 
36, 37, 39. The Committee are indebted to 
Rev. C. Inwood, Livingstonia, for the loan 
of No. 9 ; Rev. J. Lennox, Lovedale, for 
No. 26 ; the Church Missionary Society for 
Nos. 13, 15, 21 ; the South African General 
Mission for Nos. 3, 23 ; and the United Free 
Church Mission, Calabar, for No. 38. 


This text-book has the disadvantage of being 
wi'itten in the heart of Africa, where there are 
few books to consult and no opportunity to 
refer to Blue books and records, which would 
make facts more definite and up-to-date. On 
the other hand, it has the advantage of being 
written when one sees conditions of African 
life and mission work as they actually are, 
without the glamour of romance, or the dis- 
tortion of a misconceived prospective. 

It has also the disadvantage of being written 
amid the strain of progressive and far-reaching 
mission work, and the advantage of thorough 
revision by a competent committee at home, 
who understand better than I can, the form 
which it must take if it would fulfil its purpose. 

" The Future of Africa " deals solely with 
pagan Africa and mission-work among the 
pagan races of Central and South Africa. 
The problems arising from the existence and 
spread of Islam in Africa do not come within 
the scope of this work, and are therefore 
practically untouched. 

vi Author's Preface 

The book goes forth with the constant 
prayer that those who study it may hear, as 
loudly and as insistent as we do on the field, 
the cry of the utter need of pagan Africa. 


Loudon, Nyasaland, 
January 1911. 


Editorial Note ...... 

Author's Preface ..... 

Chapter I. Early Discovery 

„ II. The Opening up of Pagan Africa 

„ III. The Hand of Europe in Africa 

„ IV. The Conditions revealed 

„ V. The Hand of the Church on Afric 

„ VI. Results of Mission Work 

„ VII. The Needs of Pagan Africa 

„ VIII. The Church's Task 

Appendices ..... 

Bibliography ..... 

Index ...... 








Page 85, line 17, for " name " read " fame." 

Page 92, line 26, /or " eight thousand hundred " read 
" eight hundred thousand." 

Page 110, line 2b, for "northernly" read "northerly." 

Page 111, line 12, for " Ocambo " read "Ovambo." 

Page 140, line 22, for " Garengauze "read " Garenganze." 



1. An Open-air Congregation, Central Africa 


2. A Village in Central Africa ... 6 

3. Pondo Boys . , . . . . 14 

4. Zulu Hut : Interior and Exterior . . 22 

5. An African Kraal, Natal . . . 31 

6. Building a Hut ..... 38 

7. The Completed Hut ..... 38 

8. Interior of an African Hut ... 46 

9. A Village in Central Africa ... 54 

10. African Hut ...... 54 

11. Fishers on Lake Nyasa .... 63 

12. African Boys at Play .... 63 

13. Rescued Slave Children .... 70 

14. Listening to a Gramophone ... 78 

15. A Train in Uganda 95 

16. Port Herald Station, Nyasaland . . 95 

17. Zulu Women Preparing for a Beer-drink 102 

18. An African Warrior . . . .110 

19. A Witch Doctor Dancing . . .119 

20. A Witch Doctor . . . . .127 

21. West African Idol . . . . .142 

22. Church at Loudon, Nyasaland . . 142 

23. A Mission Boat, Port Herald, Nyasaland 150 

X List of Illustrations 

24. Village School . . . . . 

25. Girls belonging to a Mission Boarding 

School ..... 

26. Training Institution, Lovedale 

27. Open-air Preaching in Nyasaland 

28. Blantyre Church, Nyasaland . 

29. Playground in West Africa 

30. A Village Church, Central Africa 

31. Grandfathers and Grandmothers Baptised 

AT Loudon Convention, 1909 

32. An African Congregation 

33. Mission Boys Crossing a River 

34. A Grandmothers' Class 

35. Camping ..... 

36. Going to School 

37. The Lesson .... 

38. Winners of the Calabar Cup, West Africa 

United Free Church Mission, Calabar 

39. A Kaffir Boy 







Africa 100 Years Ago . 

Africa — RelioioxNs 

Africa at the Present Day . 



at end of vol. 





The Fascination of Africa. 

A Closed Continent. 

Medieval Discoverers and Explorers. 

(a) Prince Henry. 

(b) Later Portuguese Discoverers. 
After the Reformation, 

(a) Trading Companies. 
(6) Colonisation by England and Holland. 
Early Missionary Efforts. 
^ (a) The Dominicans and Jesuits. 

(6) Causes of Failure. 

From time immemorial Africa has held its The Fascina 
fascination for the human race. Greece Africa, 
embodied Africa in myth ; Rome sent her 
legions thither in lust of conquest ; Gaul 
sent her traders in search of barter and 
commerce ; in North Africa there were reared 
some of the earliest leaders and saints of the 

2 The Future of Africa 

Christian Church. Looking down the early 
centuries we search vainly, however, for 
further records of Africa than dim hints of 
futile attempts to cross her sealed threshold 
The spent waves of past humanity seem but 
to have swept to her edge, and then to have 
broken and retreated with the tide. 

If we turn from yesterday to to-day, what 
have we ? Africa — but yesterday chiefly a 
name and a by- word, to-day assuming rank 
as a great world force, covered with an ad- 
vancing network of civilisation, a region of 
illimitable possibilities. The causes that have 
furthered this development, the purpose that 
underHes it, the responsibility the Christian 
world bears towards its furtherance, such 
questions constitute the theme of this book. 

Africa of to-day presents a complex picture. 
In area, a " vast ill-formed triangle," the 
continent covers eleven and a half miUion 
miles in space. Each side of the triangle is 
pierced by a mighty river ; on the north the 
Nile, on the west the Congo, on the east the 
Zambesi. An African traveller has roughly 
classified the great continent thus : North 
Africa where men go for health, South Africa 
where they go for wealth. Central Africa where 
they go for adventure. Its population of 
about one hundred and sixty miUions seems 

Early Discovery 3 

enormous. Yet, in comparison to the area 
it is small, and computed at fifteen to the 
square mile. Its races are innumerable ; its 
dialects a vast confusion. The climate of 
Africa is modified by its elevation above the 
sea-level, but two-thirds of the continent Hes 
within the tropics. The rehgions of Africa 
may be unequally divided under three heads : 
Christianity, Mohammedanism, and Paganism. 
Africa's territorial divisions are, in the main, 
a matter of recent history. Eight milhon 
square miles of its area are partitioned amongst 
the various European powers. 

To Britain the appeal of Africa is speci- 
ally strong. Pioneers, missionaries, traders, 
travellers, soldiers, civil servants, serried rank 
upon serried rank have flowed out from this 
tiny island kingdom, many of them to Hve 
and die for that far country. For all types of 
men, Africa holds an abiding fascination. The 
student, the trader, the hunter, the pliilan- 
thropist, firstly and lastly the evangehst, each 
and all have felt it, and in each case it differs. 
The riddle of the human race, its origin and 
development, the greed of gain, the desire for 
sport and adventure, the love of fellowmen, 
the sense of the mysterious awful responsi- 
bility of millions of souls still ignorant of 
Christ. All tliis is embodied in Africa and 

4 The Future of Africa 

has its sigmficance for the readers of her 

From the dawn of history, North Africa 
has been accessible and preserved in record, 
but until the Middle Ages nothing was known 
of South and Central Africa, and indeed, from 
fifteen degrees north latitude southward to 
the Cape of Good Hope its history is only 
modern, though constant attempts were made 
from the fifteenth century onwards to Uft the 
curtain which hid it from the outer world. It 
is one of the amazing facts of history that the 
greater portion of the vast continent remained 
closed for so many long centuries. Was it 
God's purpose, we may ask, to keep it closed ? 
Was it that neither the Church, nor the 
national conscience in Europe, was prepared to 
use rightly that great possession which has 
only within recent memory been revealed ? 
Had Africa been opened to the early ad- 
venturers as were Mexico and Peru, would the 
continent, Hke them, have been made a desola- 
tion ? Can we say that God, in His wonder- 
ful patience, was perfecting His preparations 
for a day when nations were able in some 
measm:e to recognise their trusteeship of 
ignorant and lower races ? To such ques- 
tions these chapters may perchance supply 
an answer. 

Early Discovery 5 

Tlie first attempt to open up pagan Africa, Mediaeva. 
came about through mediaeval adventurers, and Ex- 
The Church was slowly awakening to its wide- piof^rs. 
world responsibilities and consciousness of a 
duty towards lower and ahen races stirred in 
the hearts of the noblest of her sons. Three 
names stand out in the annals of early African 
discovery. Prince Henry the Navigator, half 
an Englishman by birth through his mother, 
a daughter of John of Gaunt ; Bartholomew 
Diaz, the famous discoverer who rounded the 
Cape of Good Hope and solved the problem 
of the southern route to India; Vasco da 
Gama, intrepid adventurer and seaman, who, 
touching a beautiful country on Christmas 
day, gave to it the name of Natal. 

In the middle of the fifteenth century, (a) Prince 
Portugal was hard pressed by the Moors. ^^^' 
After a disastrous war in North Africa, the 
Portuguese were driven back, and returned to 
their own country leaving Prince Ferdinand, a 
brother of Hemy, to die in the Sultan's prison. 
Henry withdrew to the barren Cape St Vincent, 
and there meditated deeply on the sore crisis 
that was threatening Christendom. He saw 
that all the wealth of Asia was passing through 
the hands of the Moors who held Egypt and 
Constantinople, and that if he could intercept 
this wealth, he would take from them the 

6 The Future of Africa 

sinews of war. Rumours, too, came to him 
of the possibiUty of a passage to Asia round 
Africa, and also of a wonderful Christian king 
in the heart of the continent called Prester 
John, who might become his ally. 

These stories fired his ambition, and he set 
himself to prepare for his adventure. He 
gathered about him the best scientific books 
and instruments, scholars deep in the arts of 
map-drawing and navigation, and learned in 
the mysteries of astronomy. He then got the 
finest shipbuilders in the world to superintend 
the making of his caravels, so that they came 
from his yards stronger and better than the 
best ships of Genoa. 

Soon his sailors began to go forth on their 
voyages. Down the western shore they crept 
until, in 1445, Cape Verde was reached. These 
were brave ventures for men whose imagina- 
tions were full of dreadful tales of sea monsters, 
and boihng seas, and devils who waited to 
snatch at poor sailors. But Prince Henry had 
fortified their minds with a bull from the Pope, 
which promised an immediate entrance to 
Paradise for those who met death by the way. 
It is imperative we should understand that 
Prince Henry at least was impelled by pure 
missionary zeal and a " generous eagerness 
fo-r the conversion of the savage nations to 

Early Discovery 7 

Christianity." From first to last his aim was 
high, gallant, and disinterested. His life 
was a continuous struggle with danger, the 
elements, and his unruly followers. He, in- 
deed, attempted a veritable missionary crusade. 
He planned to break the back of the threaten- 
ing Moorish power, and to spread the know- 
ledge of Christianity. As Grand Master of the 
Order of Christ, it was his duty " to conquer 
and convert all who denied the truth of their 
holy reHgion." He was also statesman enough 
to recognise that the strength and hope of 
Christianity lay in propagating it. This and tliis 
alone was its defence against Islam. When 
he sent his ambassador to Pope Martin V., 
he insisted that the taking of Christianity 
into countries unknown, " was the sole means 
of resisting the desolating progress of the false 
prophets." The clergy of Portugal became 
Henry's staunchest allies, stoutly defending 
him, and furthering his schemes in the face of 
all opposition. Voyagers started out after 
special rehgious services. Chaplains and mis- 
sionaries were carried on board the caravels, 
on whose sails the Cross was emblazoned. 
But Prince Henry's desire for the betterment 
of Africa was not universally shared by 
his captains and followers. As they cruised 
round the Guinea coast they came on the new 

8 The Future of Africa 

temptation of slaves and the immemorial one 
of gold. These two prizes, destined to prove 
the ruin of Portuguese enterprise and to cause 
irreparable harm to Africa, put an end at this 
early stage to the original rehgious aim of 
these voyages. Discovery, too, received a 
check. Ships returned to Portugal laden with 
gold and slaves, manned by sailors fired only 
with zeal for gain. Prince Hemy met them 
coldly, telling his captains he sought for know- 
ledge, not gold. His passionate cry rings across 
the centuries : " Plant the Cross on some new 
Headland ! That is what I want." Thus 
the greed of the early adventurers sowed 
the seeds of that curse of African history, the 
slave-trade. Nor did the Church condemn the 
bringing of cargoes of slaves. She indeed ap- 
proved it, for the heathen were thereby given 
the blessing of Hving in a Christian land. These 
first slave-traders httle thought that with the 
introduction of negroes they were preparing 
the way for long years of havoc to Africa. 
Nor did they reahse that they had started the 
dechne of the kingdom of Portugal, for the 
tilhng of the land now became a slave occupa- 
tion, and honest labour was despised. 

Prince Henry's ideals for Africa were thus 
crushed, and his death might well seem to be 
the consummation of a failure. But regarded 

Early Discovery 9 

in the light of Froude's reflection his efforts 
were not entirely wasted, for " the real value 
of the thought or the actions of remarkable 
men, does not lie in the material result which 
can be gathered, but in the heart and soul of 
those who do or utter them." 

After Prince Henry died Bartholomew Diaz (b) Later 

p n 1 • 1 • I T Portuguese 

and Vasco da Gama followed m ms steps, in Discoverers. 
1486, Diaz rounded the Cape, touching oc- 
casionally on the coast, and in 1497, another 
expedition was fitted out and sent forth under 
the leadership of da Gama. Before the vessel 
sailed the leaders of the expedition spent the 
whole night in prayer, and next morning walked 
thi'ough the streets in religious procession 
accompanied by the chants and prayers of the 
priests. The expedition landed at the Cape 
and opened communications with the Hotten- 
tots, at first in all friendHness, but this attempt 
ended, as was the case so often later, in fight- 
ing and bloodshed. Fired with the great pros- 
pects of wealth and glory, Portugal dispatched 
an expedition in 1510 to take possession of 
the east coast and open up trade with India. 
Various priests and a company of Dominican 
friars sailed with the expedition as missionaries 
desiring to commend Christianity to the 
natives. On the east coast the Portuguese 
came into contact with the Arabs who Uved 

lo The Future of Africa 

there in settlements pursuing the slave-trade, 
and for a century and a half the Portuguese 
lived in rivalry and warfare with the Arabs on 
the edge of the East Coast. They, however, 
fell in turn victim to the vices of those they had 
at first conquered, and at the end of the seven- 
teenth century, the Portuguese colonists were 
utterly exterminated, having effected little or 
nothing for the pagan hordes they had set forth 
to conquer and Christianise. 

All that was done for the pagan tribes 
on the north-east coast came, not through 
European and Christian channels, but through 
Arab and Mohammedan ones. What these 
brought, however, was a curse and not a 
blessing. The Arab had no capacity for self- 
discipHne and the idle luxury into wliich he 
sank when all labour was done for him by 
slaves, reduced his civiHsing influence to the 
lowest degree. It is as a slave-owner, and 
the organiser of the slave trade, that he has 
been felt most in Africa. Yet there were 
some, who, in pursuit of their brutal traffic, 
did notable deeds. They penetrated to the 
interior and actually crossed the continent, 
long before Europeans had attempted to 
pierce beyond the coast hne. 

In the sixteenth century the Portuguese, 
holding from the Pope a monopoly of all lands 

Early Discovery 

1 1 

that they might discover in Africa, were 
practically the sole traders and colonists 
from Europe, but at the Reformation, when 
the bulls of popes lost authority over the 
Protestant nations, England and Holland 
began to feel their way about the coast of 

Charters were granted by Queen EUzabeth (a) Trading 
to companies which traded with the West ^°"^^ 
Coast, but their commerce soon became 
mixed up with slaving. The famous Sir 
John Hawkins led one of the early expeditions, 
and was soon deeply engaged in the over- 
seas traffic in negroes. The Queen expressed 
her detestation of his treatment of the natives 
in forcible language, but apparently he was 
not ashamed of his deeds, nor did society 
scout him, for when he was knighted he 
adopted as his crest, " a demi-Moor in his 
proper colour, bound with a cord." 

The effect of such unprincipled trading on 
the natives was disastrous in the extreme, so 
much so that the coast tribes who were ex- 
ploited, and for three or four hundred years 
were in touch with the commerce of Europe, 
were many of them, at the end of that time, 
in a more degraded condition morally and 
physically than the untouched tribes of the 
interior. On the West Coast the traffic in 

12 The Future of Africa 

human beings rapidly approached awful 
dimensions. The articles that the negroes 
wanted for barter were gin and ammunition — 
gin to besot themselves, ammunition with 
which to overpower and enslave the neighbour- 
ing tribes. On the East Coast, when gold 
could not be got, the slave trade was started, 
and soon, as in the West, all legitimate com- 
merce died. The traffic degraded and 
brutalised every one involved in it. Thus 
these early trading companies were, with few 
exceptions, so intent on acquiring wealth 
regardless of the means used to obtain it that 
they ended in shameless exploiting of both 
Africa's peoples and resources. 

Wonderful stories now came to Europe 
of the riches of Timbuctoo, where the king 
tied his horse to a rock of gold. From 
Sofala on the East Coast came reports of the 
mines of Ophir which had enriched Solomon 
and the East ; and expedition after expedi- 
tion was dispatched to find them. In 1621 
Captain Jobson came back to England after 
a voyage up the Gambia, having bought a 
wonderful kingdom for a few bottles of his 
best brandy, telling of a land whose cities 
were roofed with gold. But he never went 
back to claim his kingdom, or unroof the 
houses ! Year by year all the gold the Portu- 

Early Discovery 13 

guese could get from their Arab middlemen 
who bought at King Solomon's mines was a 
little dust in a few goose quills. 

Meanwhile a more prosperous and soHd (b) Coionisa- 
colonisation was in progress at the Cape of England and 
Good Hope. Settlements had been started H°"a°d. 
there by the Dutch to refresh the ships' crews 
on their long voyages to India, and green vege- 
tables, plantations of limes and other fruits 
were grown for the poor scurvy-stricken sea- 
men. English officers also saw the advantage 
of Table Bay as a station on the way to India, 
and in 1620 proclaimed the sovereignty of 
James I. over the whole country. They 
placed on record their reasons for this action, 
and among others was the hope that the 
Hottentots would soon become servants of 
God. The colony, however, became Dutch, 
and remained so till the beginning of last 
century. As the number of colonists increased 
they spread over a larger and larger area, 
requiring for their own uses the lands that 
had formerly been in the hands of native 
tribes. The Dutch colonists were men of a 
very superior type, many of them sincerely 
rehgious, and lovers of home and of peace. 
Like the other Europeans at that time, 
however, they had no idea of their re- 
sponsibility towards the weaker races, or 

14 The Future of Africa 

of their natural rights. Thus their unjust 
and harsh treatment of the people, so far 
from doing anything to reconcile them 
to the Gospel of Christ rather repelled 

When the colonists first arrived they 
found two tribes in possession of the land. 
The one was called the Bushmen, the original 
inhabitants of Africa, a people who hved by 
hunting, without agriculture and without 
settled abodes. The other was the Hotten- 
tots, a pastoral race who had recently come 
into these lands and dispossessed the Bushmen 
of some of their ancestral hunting grounds. 
As colonisation increased, more land was 
required and much of the country of the 
Hottentots was seized, and the people enslaved 
by the farmers, and as the Hottentots were 
not a very beUicose race, this settlement 
of the land question gave rise to only a 
moderate amount of trouble. But as the 
colonists began to press into the hunting 
grounds of the Bushmen, fierce trouble 
arose. The Bushmen could not be enslaved. 
They were hard to captm'e, and they deeply 
resented the colonial usurpation of their 
lands. At first they were the only inhabitants 
of the Cape, and thought themselves to be 
the only people in the world. The Hottentots 

1>(JM)(J HOYS 

Early Discovery 15 

followed, passing through the hunting grounds 
of the Bushmen with herds of cattle, but they 
were no match for their cunning tactics in 
war. Finally came the Christian, as he 
was called, utterly dispossessing them of their 
old homes. They naturally resented this, and 
the colonist made no attempt at concilia- 
tion. The Bushmen attacked his property 
and stole and devoured his cattle. The 
whites then hunted them by commandoes, 
though a few of them, finding that hunting 
only made them more Hable to have their 
cattle plundered, tried pacific measures, and 
fed the Bushmen in times of severe famine, and 
found that they made most faithful herds. But 
these few were exceptional, for the ordinary 
colonist regarded the Bushman as a mere 
wild beast of the field. Towards the end of 
the eighteenth century fearful war broke out 
between the Europeans and these aborigines. 
At the sight of a Bushman the colonist spurred 
up his horses and called out his dogs and hunted 
him with more spirit than he would a wolf. 
As a consequence of this severe treatment 
fearful reprisals took place. Hunted hke wild 
beasts, driven from the game haunts where 
they got their food, the natives wandered 
about in a starving condition, feeding on roots 
and vermin, and ready at every opportunity 

1 6 The Future of Africa 

to satisfy their growing anger by acts of 
cruelty towards every Christian, and all 
his hving property, servants or cattle. The 
colonial government unfortunately approved of 
the barbarous punishments inflicted by their 
people on the Bushmen, and unwisely and 
unjustly suffered them to exercise unUmited 
power over the lives of those taken prisoners. 
One notorious example was reported to the 
authorities by the perpetrator of the deed 
himself. Having hunted the Bushmen in vain, 
he set a trap for them one day by killing a 
hippopotamus. He and his men then lay in 
wait till the starving people fell on the dead 
meat, then they closed round and massacred 
the Bushmen. He reported that he counted 
a hundred and twenty-two dead bodies, but 
that five others had escaped by swimming 
the river. 

This brutal treatment of the natives changed 
those merry dance-loving hunters into a 
treacherous and brutish race, whose hand was 
against every one, and every man's hand 
against them. Their children were kidnapped 
when it was found that the elders could not 
be kept in slavery. But so great was their 
natural love of freedom that often httle boys 
escaped from their masters, wandering for 
days in the wilds, in a country full of beasts 

Early Discovery 17 

of prey, until they got back to their own 

It was not merely a feeling of hatred towards 
the Bushmen that distorted the colonial view 
of what was due to the natives. Land- 
greed and the need for labour on their land, 
led them to trample on the just rights of 
the natives. The childi'en of all Hottentots 
who were born on the land of a settler were 
compelled to be liis apprentices for many years, 
and virtually his domestic slaves. Systematic 
raids were waged by the frontiermen on 
Hottentot tribes for the possession of their 
fountains, and the enslaving of the people. 
As the " Christians " pushed farther east, 
colhsions took place with the more warhke 
KaJS&rs, the inhabitants of the south-eastern 
corner of the continent. Sometimes the 
Europeans drove back the Kaffirs and took 
possession of their lands, and sometimes the 
Kaffirs returned with fearful vengeance and 
repulsed them. 

Thus far Europe had used Africa solely Early 
as a lever for obtaining wealth. She had^orts"**^^ 
exploited the natives, the gold mines, and 
the ivory trade. For her own base ends, 
she had washed her hands in blood with a 
callous disregard of the rights of humanity, 
sacred, however primitive its stage. Centuries 

i8 The Future of Africa 

of Christian tutelage had availed not to spare 
the victim of her avarice. Yet we cannot 
but ask if the history of the early ad- 
venturers and colonists was unrelieved by 
disinterested effort to benefit the natives ? 
Were all alike solely given up to the sordid 
search for gold ? Had none of them tried to 
bring Light to the people that sat in darkness ? 
What of those early missionaries who accom- 
panied Prince Henry and his followers ? 
Had they no share in those first struggles 
to open up Africa ? 

It is to the records of Catholic missions we 
must turn for the answer to these questions, 
for beyond one solitary attempt on the part 
of the Moravians, up to nearly the end of 
the eighteenth century, no effort was made by 
the Protestants of Em-ope to bring to the 
African the Gospel of Christ. The Church 
in Europe had not reahsed its responsibility. 
The " Christians " at the trading ports, and 
in the Cape Colony had not come to recognise 
that a black man could become a son of God. 

In the vanguard of the first missionaries to 
Africa went the friars. We find the first traces 
of their work on the Congo, whose mouth was 
discovered by Diego Cam in 1484. In 1485, 
he returned on a visit to the ancient Kingdom 
of the Congo, and personally instructed the 

Early Discovery 19 

king in the truths of the Christian reUgion. 
Accordingly when he left, the king begged 
for missionaries, and professed a desire to be- 
come a Christian. In 1491, a large party of 
Dominican missionaries, workmen and agri- 
culturists, arrived at the mouth of the Congo. 
The governor of the district, and uncle of the 
King of Congo, embraced Cliristianity and 
was baptized. There the missionaries built a 
church, containing three altars, in honour of 
the Holy Trinity. Proceeding to the capital, 
a distance of one hundred and fifty miles, 
they were received in great state by the king. 
After a gracious welcome the missionaries 
explained their errand, and gave an account of 
the baptism of the governor at the coast, and 
of the building of the church. Mass was then 
celebrated, and the vestments and ceremonies 
were watched with awe. The king decided to 
build a sanctuary, and a few months later the 
Church of the Holy Cross was consecrated. 
The king and queen were baptized, and out 
of compliment to the reigning monarchs of 
Portugal, took the names of John and Leonora. 
'Large numbers of the people, of course, 
followed their monarch's example, and though 
some of his governors and regents remained 
persistently devoted to fetichism, he was ably 
seconded in his efforts to christianise liis people 

20 The Future of Africa 

by his son, Alphonso. Pagan customs were 
suppressed by law, and armies of rebels who 
rose against the king because of their attach- 
ment to the old forms, were broken before his 
consecrated banner, which depicted the Virgin 
Mary and various saints appearing in the 
heavens to fight with the Christian army. 

Further reinforcements of missionaries were 
sent out in 1520, and a native bishop, one of 
the princes of the royal house, who had been 
educated in Portugal, was consecrated. He 
died, however, shortly after landing, and the 
experiment does not seem to have been 

The famous order of the Jesuits was founded 
about this time, and they placed themselves 
at the Pope's disposal for missionary service. 
One of their first expeditions was to the Congo, 
to which they sent a large number of mis- 
sionaries. A new bishop had also arrived, 
and was well received. But he soon found 
that a severe task of discipline was before him. 
The lives of priests and friars were scandalous. 
They would neither heed his protest nor his 
orders, and the king had to interfere, and tie 
up the unruly missionaries. Some were sent as 
prisoners to San Thome, but the result of their 
evil morals was such that, " instead of the 
Christian doctrine growing, it rather dimin- 

Early Discovery 21 

ished, and this from the fault of those who 
taught it." 

From this time onwards things seem to 
have gone all wrong. The bishop died, and 
the morals of the clergy and laity grew 
as lax as before: king, nobles, and clergy 
overstepped all moral law. Then came 
the fierce cannibal horde of Jaggas (Fans) 
who overran West Africa, raiding the whole 
land, overthrowing dynasties and overwhelm- 
ing tribes. The Congo kingdom was broken 
up, and when the Jaggas had retired, the 
starving fugitives who returned to their old 
lands sold themselves to the Portuguese. 
The scattered remnants sent to Portugal for 
more missionaries. But the response to their 
appeals was less willing now than in former 
days. Portugal was impoverished by the 
Inquisition. War, also, had broken out with 
the Dutch, and the Portuguese were driven 
from their coast settlements. 

Embassies were then sent to the Pope, and 
some answer must have been made, for in the 
early part of the seventeenth century mis- 
sionaries were very abundant in the Congo 
region. But lawlessness and immorahty broke 
out among them, and appeals had to be made 
to Europe to reduce them to order. The Pope 
sent out new Capuchin missionaries, with in- 

2 2 The Future of Africa 

structions that they were to be the only order 
there. The King of Congo received them well, 
gave them convents and churches, and slaves 
to till their gardens. But when a massacre 
of all the princes of the blood was attempted, 
the missionaries protested, and the king 
turned against them, treated them badly, and 
imprisoned them. Once more the country 
reverted to heathenism. The successor of 
this bad king was no better, and he determined 
to kill off all the Europeans and missionaries, 
but instead he liimself was attacked and 
slain. Thus the history continues, becoming 
darker and darker, until at last there is no 
Hght left. 

How fared matters elsewhere ? 

From the first the Portuguese kept in view 
the christianisation of the natives as they 
passed along the East Coast of Africa, and 
founded their settlements. But the land they 
had discovered was very great, and their 
resources limited. The whole eastern world, 
from the Cape of Good Hope to Japan, was 
under the jurisdiction of the first bishop of 
India, who resided at Goa. His available 
staff was so small that even the most im- 
portant Portuguese settlements were without 
a chaplain for long periods. In 1540, seven 
months after the foundation of the order of the 




Early Discovery 23 

Jesuits, that burning saint, St Francis Xavier, 
sailed from Lisbon for India. On his way 
there he spent a httle time at Mozambique, 
and then crossed the seas soon to be followed 
by many others of his order. 

About this time a young man, the son of 
a native chief near Inhambane, voyaged to 
Mozambique in one of the Portuguese vessels, 
and was so kindly treated that he was favour- 
ably impressed, and shortly after was baptized 
with great pomp in the church at Mozambique. 
He begged for missionaries to accompany him 
back to his native land, and the request was 
sent to Goa. Father Goncalo volunteered along 
with others for this service, and after a voyage 
of great privations and risks landed with his 
party at Inhambane. They proceeded up 
country to a tribe of the Makalanga, and then 
opened mission work. The people received 
them warmly, and responded rapidly, so that 
in a short time four hundred individuals were 
baptized, including the chief and his family. 
Leaving behind him what he believed to be an 
infant Christian community, the father pro- 
ceeded up the Zambesi to Sena, and there 
received an invitation from the great Mono- 
motapa, the " Emperor " at Solomon's mines, 
to visit him. On arrival he was hospitably 
entertained and offered gold and female slaves. 

24 The Future of Africa 

When he refused them the king soon perceived 
that he was a different type of " Christian " 
from any other he had seen, and he Kstened to 
his message. He was soon baptized, together 
with his mother and some three hundred of his 
counsellors and followers. But the king had 
no thought of abandoning his heathen customs, 
and soon wearied of his visitor. 

Some Mohammedans at his court now tried 
to poison his mind against the missionary, and 
so worked upon his creduHty that he resolved 
to put Dom Goncalo to death. The mis- 
sionary knew that his life was threatened, but 
refused to flee while the heathen were still being 
gathered to the fold. Soon afterwards, when 
some fifty more natives were baptized, the 
king took this accession to the Church as 
an act of defiance, and resolved to end the 
whole matter. The zealous priest was killed, 
and his body cast into the river. The newly 
baptized narrowly escaped the same fate. 
Meanwhile the brothers, who had been left 
behind in the young Christian community near 
Inhambane, had not prospered. The converts 
rebelled against the moral law that was urged 
upon them. They refused to change their 
former habits, and left their teacher to 
starve in neglect until, in a broken and 
miserable condition, he left the country in 

Early Discovery 25 

obedience to the instructions of his superior 
at Goa. 

In the middle of the sixteenth century the 
Dominicans also turned their attention to East 
Africa. Parties of missionaries settled around 
the Portuguese forts and at various points on 
the Zambesi. At first they confined their 
attention to the Europeans, whom they found 
in a woeful condition, morally and spiritually. 
Later, when some improvement appeared 
among them, they applied themselves to the 
conversion of the natives. Their task was no 
easy one. The tribes were constantly at war 
with one another. Away from the forts the 
missionaries had to endure privations, isola- 
tion, fever, and were in constant danger of their 
lives. Yet there began to gather round them 
httle Christian communities who lived in 
villages under protection of the forts. 

From time to time the Dominican mis- 
sionaries were reinforced by fresh members 
of their order, and Government allowed them 
a Httle subsidy, so that they were not entirely 
dependent on charity. The Jesuits, too, began 
to come into the Zambesi region, and a good 
deal of unpleasant jealousy and friction 
appeared between the two orders. Un- 
fortunately the records of these early mis- 
sionaries in the eighteenth century became 

2 6 The Future of Africa 

very dismal. The morals of the Dominicans 
seem to have sadly deteriorated, and Portu- 
guese governors had frequently to complain to 
their superiors of their lawless and immoral 

At last, in 1760, the Home Government 
expelled the Jesuits from South-East Africa, 
and in 1775, the Dominicans were also ordered 
to leave, and with their expulsion fell the last 
remnants of civilisation in that province. 
Thus we see missions in progress for over 
three centuries in both East and West 
Africa. Money had been given, efforts 
lavished, hves spent, and the result was ap- 
parently total failure. When the missionaries 
of the Baptist Society arrived at San Salvador, 
capital of the once Christian kingdom of the 
Congo, they found no traces of Christ's 
religion. The king and people were pagans, 
following dark superstitions and cruel customs. 
The ruins of the cathedral stood there, and in 
the king's compound was a large crucifix and 
some images of the saints, but they were only 
the king's fetiches. Some ceremonies were 
performed at funerals which seemed remotely 
to indicate a CathoHc ritual, and a cross was 
the favourite fetich for giving skill in hunting. 
That was all that remained of four centuries 
of mission work. 

Early Discovery 27 

Another and even more striking example 
is that given by Africa's master-missionary. 
A centm-y after the expulsion by the Portu- 
guese Government, David Livingstone visited 
some of the stations where the early 
missionaries had been. This is how he 
described Zumbo, which is perhaps character- 
istic of all the others. " The Chapel, near 
which hes a broken bell, ... is an utter 
ruin now, and desolation broods around. 
The wild bird, disturbed by the unwonted 
sound of approaching footsteps, rises with 
a harsh scream. The foul hyena has defiled 
the sanctuary. . . . One can scarcely look 
without feehngs of sadness on the utter 
desolation of a place where men have met 
to worship the Supreme Being, or have 
united in uttering the magnificent words, 
'Thou art the King of Glory, Christ,' 
and remember that the natives of this part 
know nothing of His rehgion, not even of 
His Name. A strange superstition makes 
them shun this sacred place, as men do the 
pestilence, and they never come near it. 
Apart from the ruins there is notliing to remind 
one that a Christian power ever had traders 
here, for the natives of to-day are precisely 
what their fathers were when the Portuguese 
first rounded the Cape. Their language is 

28 The Future of Africa 

still unwritten. Not a single art, save that 
of distilling spirits by a gun barrel, has ever 
been learned from the strangers ; and, if 
all the progeny of the whites were at once to 
leave the country, their only memorial would 
be the ruins of a few stone and mud-built 
walls, and that bhghting relic of the slave 
trade, the belief that man may sell his brother 
man, a belief that is not of native origin." 
Causes of In this early story of missions we see 
again the same thing which we noted in the 
story of Prince Henry and his followers. An 
enterprise, having its origin in high ideals 
for the betterment of Africa, had again ended 
in miserable failure. Unfortunately there is 
not much Roman Catholic hterature which 
honestly examines the cause. The Portuguese 
records are evidently biassed by a great hatred 
of the missionaries, and it would be unfair 
to estimate their character and work from the 
records of men whose hves and conduct were 
far from blameless, and whose policy towards 
the natives was directly opposed to Christian 
teaching. We know how valueless similar 
accounts of Protestant missions are. 

Some of the early missionaries seem to have 
been men of evangelical zeal, who faced danger 
and death for the sake of the Kingdom of 
God, and who penetrated far into the interior 

Early Discovery 29 

where no Portuguese army had ever attempted 
to go. Yet the fact remains that their record 
as a whole is one of failure. Quarrels and 
dissensions amongst themselves ruined much 
of the Christian influence that might have 
come from their presence. In addition to this, 
many of the missionaries sent out seem to 
have had neither moral nor spiritual stabihty, 
and the awful demoralisation that even in 
these days inevitably seizes upon Europeans 
living among a heathen people if they do not 
pay earnest heed to the conduct of their 
lives, stole over the early missionaries, until 
their conduct became scandalous even to 
the heathen. Again and again commissioners 
were sent out to purify the missionaries, and 
came back aghast at the disorder and im- 
morality. Another serious defect that ruined 
their influence with the natives was their 
impHcation with the slave traffic. \Vlien not 
actually conniving at the slave trade, they 
frequently employed slaves to work their 
plantations, and in some cases even took 
active part in the human barter. They 
gradually became the enemies rather than the 
friends of the defenceless natives. Nor did 
they hesitate to use threats and even the sword 
to forward their work or avenge their martyrs. 
We know what harm this policy has done in 

30 The Future of Africa 

modern days in China. But it was not less 
fruitful of disaster in Africa. The closing 
of Madagascar, the strong resentment of Arabs 
and heathen against the stern Jesuit Mondaros, 
these and many other instances could be cited 
where revenge for evil treatment of mission- 
aries has only built up a fierce wall of resent- 
ment against the messengers of the Gospel. 

Slackness and demoralisation, greed of gain^ 
the use of force, mal-organisation, such were 
the reasons of the failure of early missions 
in Africa. What lay at the root of this weak- 
ness and lack of purpose ? Why had they 
fallen so far from their high caUing ? Did 
not the degradation and demoraUsation of 
the early missions result from their losing 
sight of their initial aim ? Was it not from 
their lack of courage to maintain their tenets 
and to speak out in defence of their aim ? 

Wliere was the desire that Africa might 
receive a Gospel of peace ? Earnest individual 
souls there were indeed amongst the many, 
but the majority were swallowed up in the 
general current of wealth- seeking and exploita- 

On looking back we see that the results of 
the early opening of Africa were as a whole 
a pitiable record of failure. First came the 
Portuguese adventurers who set forth with 

Early Discovery 31 

such lofty purpose only to lower and lose 
it in the lust of conquest and greed of gain. 
England's earliest pioneers did not better 
affairs, and the Dutch States in South Africa 
were founded for the most part in cruelty. 
Yet at the outset each nation had been 
prompted by aims far from ignoble, motives 
in many instances aspiring and generous. 
Despite this, alas, the little leaven of corruption 
crept in and spread with dreadful rapidity. 
Even those whose direct purpose was to bring 
the elevating influence of Christianity into 
the new land fell victims to the low moral 
standards which prevailed. 

What was the effect on Africa ? Such 
intercourse did her no good. Her resources 
were not developed but wasted, for the three 
articles that attracted captains and colonists 
were gold, ivory and slaves. No attempt 
was made to plant or cultivate, and Europe 
left the land poorer than she found it and 
herself stained and debilitated by her traffic. 
It goes hard with a land which provides wealth 
which is discovered and not produced. 

The greed for wealth soon swamped all 
better feelings of responsibiUty towards the 
natives. Where gold failed, slaving was 
started, and in east and west legitimate 
commerce died. As a result of this un- 

32 The Future of Africa 

principled trading and exploitation, the coast 
tribes were, at the end of their three or four 
centuries of commerce with Europe, in a 
more degraded condition physically and 
morally than the untouched tribes of the 

Thus Europe for hundreds of years knocked 
in vain at the door of Africa, penetrated 
her coast-hne, exploited her peoples and 
resources, and left chaos. The first three 
centuries of Europe's contact with Africa 
close in utter night. Lamps have been lit 
but they have all gone out. Fierce and 
destructive enemies are prowling in the dark 
to the terror and destruction of the people. 
The slave traffic is eating up its scores of 
thousands of victims. Gin, guns and gun- 
powder are being poured into the continent. 
Eager colonies are pressing into the ancestral 
lands of the people, driving out the masters 
of the soil, or gathering them into slavery. 
And all the while the Church, to whom God 
has given the Light of the World, is forgetting 
to make it shine on this foul and fearsome 




Africa still undiscovered at the beginning of the 

Nineteenth Century. 
The African Association and Mungo Park. 

(a) Purpose of the Association. 

(b) Mungo Park in Africa. 

(c) Discovery of Niger Delta. 
Plans for the Regeneration of Africa. 

(a) Fowell Buxton. 

(b) Macgregor Laird. 

(c) Sir George Taubmann Goldie. 
Extension of Commercial Activity. 
David Livingstone. 

(fl) His Missionary Travels. 

(6) His Later Journeys. 

(c) His Contribution to Africa. 
Further Opening of East and Central Africa. 
H. M. Stanley. 
The Opened Continent. 

We have seen how in past centuries, Eui'opean 
nations sallied forth to conquer the mysterious 
continent. Portuguese, English, Dutch, each 
in turn had come, settled on the fringes, even 
penetrated to a certain extent southwards, but 

34 The Future of Africa 

for the most part the interior remained sealed, 
despite all their efforts. Darkest Africa was 
still a land of mystery and Ethiopia still 
stretched forth her seeking hands. 
Difficulties of At the beginning of the nineteenth centm^y 
Africa.^ "^ little was known about Africa beyond the 
edges of the coast Hne. The Portuguese 
maintained a precarious hold of the land they 
had discovered, but their control seldom ex- 
tended beyond the range of the guns of their 
forts. A number of European trading con- 
cerns were estabHshed along the West Coast, 
but in most cases the factors resided in hulks 
anchored in some river delta, or in houses 
built close by the shore. Even the interior 
of South Africa was unknown beyond the 
narrow Umit of the frontier farms. 

Various causes combined to close the great 
hinterland. The barriers were many, and at 
first glance, insurmountable. Physical barriers, 
dangers from the savage inhabitants, and from 
wild beasts, perils of drought and starvation, 
difficulties of transport, all these confronted 
him who sought to pierce a way to what lay 
behind and beyond the coast-Hne ; a sum total 
before which the hardiest adventurer might 
quail. Between the liigh plateau of the in- 
terior and the coast Hne, there lay a threaten- 
ing region of mangi'ove forest and dismal 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 3 5 

swamp, covered at low tide with black pesti- 
lential mud and long stretches of scrub and 
desert, a veritable no-man's-land where fever 
and drought bade defiance to the unwary 
intruder. The tribes of the interior had not 
broken through these barriers nor come into 
touch with the coast life, and few influences 
had penetrated from the sea-board save the 
devastating bhght of the slave trade. Again, 
there was the climate. Fever was claiming 
its victims at the coast in relentless fashion. 
Entirely ignorant of the cause, the Europeans 
were continually falling victims to the pesti- 
lence, sometimes as many as seventy-five 
per cent, of the community dying in a single 

The continent, nevertheless, continued to 
attract and fascinate the minds of men. 
Rumours of wealth beyond the dreams of 
avarice lying in the far interior tempted men 
to risk all and break through the obstacles. 
Sometimes bold spirits ventured through, 
never to return, and still the interior remained 
barred against the knowledge of Europe. 

Since the dim days of antiquity men had Jhe African 
been stimulated by rumoured possibihties in and Mungo 
the region of the Niger. Somewhere hidden ^^^ Purpose 
in the interior was fabulous wealth to be°f^^^. ^. 


gained by those who could follow the course 

36 The Future of Africa 

of that mysterious river. As civilisation 
advanced, moreover, and men's thoughts 
" widened with the process of the sun," higher 
motives than mere greed of gain began to stir. 
In Europe the scientific spirit awoke after 
long slumber, and impelled by a desire for 
knowledge rather than gold, there resulted 
in England the formation of the African As- 
sociation. This body numbered amongst its 
members some of the foremost thinkers of 
the day. Their object was to lower the barriers 
that separated Africa from the rest of civiHsa- 
tion, to reveal her dark and waste places, 
to solve her mighty geographical problems. 
First amongst these last they aimed at dis- 
covering the real soiKce and course of the 
Niger. From the days of Herodotus the 
course of the Niger had held its fascination. 
On its banks lay the great city of Timbuc- 
too, founded by Arab traders, towards which 
the wealth of the northern regions flowed. 
Whether the Niger lost itself in some mighty 
lakes or flowed towards the Nile or elsewhere, 
was a question debated for centuries. By 
the end of the eighteenth century the African 
Association had made four separate attempts 
to foUow the Niger and had failed. Each 
time their expedition and its leader had 
perished without success. 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa n 

Finally they chanced on a young Scotsman (b) Mungo 
who seemed ideally fitted for the quest, injf/-^^^" 
the person of Mungo Park. Born in the 
Border country, the son of a small farmer, 
Mungo Park was a typical specimen of the 
quaHties which have planted Scotsmen far 
and wide over the face of the earth. Educa- 
tion from earhest infancy had widened his 
mind and fostered a natural desire for the 
expansion that comes of travel. He was 
educated first at Selkirk, later at Edinburgh 
University, and was fully quahfied as a doctor 
when Africa first cast her spell upon him. At 
the age of twenty-four Mungo Park offered 
his services to the African Association, was 
accepted and sailed for the mysterious Con- 
tinent in 1795. He set out full of zeal to 
solve the problem which had fascinated and 
defied the geographers of Europe since the 
days of Herodotus. The young Scot was 
prompted by an intense love of travel and 
a desire to achieve some worthy aim in life. 
He started his journey from Pisania, a small 
village on the Gambia, with two native 
companions, versed in the dialect, one a 
negro servant — " Johnson " — the other, a boy 
— " Demba." Carrying provisions for two or 
three days at a time he passed up the 
Gambia and crossed the Senegal. Innumer- 

38 The Future of Africa 

able dangers and difficulties confronted him ; 
pillage and pilfering at the hands of the tribes 
he passed through ; the cowardice of his ser- 
vants ; the greed of porters or water-carriers ; 
hardships and hindrances on all hands, fever, 
semi-starvation, thirst, each and all he en- 
dured in turn. He soon found himself among 
Mohammedan and slave-raiding tribes, and 
there his dreadful troubles began. He en- 
dured captivity, famine, and the harshest 
treatment from the natives. His description 
of his escape after four months' captivity 
amongst the Moors ends on a note of both 
humour and pathos. After getting away, 
and beyond fear of immediate pursuit, Park 
drew breath for reflection to find " even the 
Desert looked pleasant." Still he struggled 
on, though hampered by weak health, with- 
out food, or money or a guide, in rags and 
dependent on the humanity of the natives, 
yet indomitable in his pluck and determina- 
tion to achieve his object or die in the attempt. 
Then came the graphic chmax to this misery. 
One July morning as he approached the town 
of .Sego and strained his eyes for the first 
glimpse of the river, a native shouted, " Geo 
afiUi " (" See the water ! ") " Looking for- 
wards," says Mungo Park, " I saw with 
infinite pleasure the great object of my 



The Opening up of Pagan Africa 39 

mission ; the long sought-for majestic Niger 
glittering to the morning sun, as broad as the 
Thames at Westminster, and flowing slowly 
to the eastward." 

In July 1796, Mungo Park turned his face 
homewards. The journey back was as arduous 
and fraught with as many perils and privations 
as the first had been. Yet amid his bitterest 
hardships he maintained a patience with the 
natives that was marvellous, never once using 
violence in self-defence. A sense of the Pres- 
ence of God with him gave him a hopefulness 
that carried him through circumstances under 
which even a strong man would have lain 
down in despair and died. It was when he 
had been stripped almost naked by robbers 
and left in the desert hundreds of miles from 
help, that he saw that moss which inspired 
him with faith in God's Providence (a story 
which has helped the faith of many another 
tried soul since) and sent him on regardless 
of hunger and fatigue. " At this moment, 
painful as my reflections were, the extra- 
ordinary beauty of a smaU moss in fructifica- 
tion irresistibly caught my eye. I mention 
this to show from what trifling circumstances 
the mind will sometimes derive consolation ; 
for though the whole plant was not larger 
than the top of one of my fingers, I could 

40 The Future of Africa 

not contemplate the delicate conformation of 
its roots, leaves and capsula, without admira- 
tion. " Can the Being (thought I) who 
planted, watered and brought to perfection 
in this obscure part of the world, a thing 
which appears of so small importance, look 
with unconcern upon the situation and suffer- 
ings of creatures formed in His own image ? 
Surely not ! " . . . And it was this high 
spirit which never forsook the intrepid 
wanderer and sustained him even to the end. 
Some excitement was created by Park's 
return home, but he was poorly rewarded by 
Government. He tried to settle down in 
Scotland as a country doctor, but he who has 
lived and suffered in Africa can never get away 
from her siren voice. An incident related by 
Sir Walter Scott, who was a friend of the great 
African traveller, shows where his thoughts 
lay. Scott one day found him standing on 
the brink of the Yarrow tlirowing stones into 
the stream and watching the bubbles formed 
by these as they sank. " This," said Scott, 
" appears but an idle amusement for one who 
has seen so much stirring adventure." " Not 
so idle, perhaps, as you suppose," was Park's 
reply. " This was the manner in which I 
used to discover the depth of a river in Africa 
before venturing to cross it . . . judging 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 41 

whether the attempt would be safe by the 
time the bubbles of air took to ascend." In 
the year 1805 Park returned to the continent 
at the head of another Niger expedition. This 
time he went under Government auspices and 
received a grant of £5000 for his expenses. 
Incredible as it may seem to us nowadays, he 
started from the coast with a caravan of 
thirty-eight British soldiers and seamen, be- 
sides the leaders of the expedition. A company 
in all of forty-five Europeans and scarcely a 
single native with them. Disease and death 
quickly thinned his ranks, and when he finally 
reached the Niger, only seven of his followers 
were aUve. Having constructed a boat from 
native canoes he sailed down the river. But 
after coming to the countries of _SiikQto4_ 
among the Hausa-speaking natives, the enmity 
of the people increased. Finally, he entered 
a gorge which was obstructed by rocks, and 
there was attacked by the natives, and his 
whole party perished. 

Two great characteristics distinguished 
Mungo Park, raising him head and shoulders 
above the long fine of African travellers who 
had preceded him. He was possessed of an 
unwavering Christian fortitude, and coupled 
with that was an extraordinary forbearance 
and consideration for the natives, a quahty 

42 The Future of Africa 

of which we saw so Httle in those who first 
tried to open up Africa. In the years that 
came after, many were the tributes raised to 
his name and memory, but (to borrow the 
words of one of his recent biographers) " the 
most precious tribute of all to the name of 
the great traveller is one raised by strange 
hands " (the work of a passing French gunner) 
" in a land of strangers . . . the httle iron 
cross that casts its shadow on the sands of the 
majestic Niger." 
(c) Discovery Various attempts were made after this to 
Deitaf^"^ trace the mouth of the Niger, but it was 
not till 1830 that Lander sailed out at its 
delta and proved that the river flowed into 
the Atlantic. A highway to the populous 
interior was thus discovered, and a new oppor- 
tunity given to commerce and missions to 
extend their operations. Despite the efforts 
of Mungo Park and others like-minded, Africa 
was still, however, a prey to adventurers who 
sought only their own profit with Httle regard 
for the advancement of the country or its 
luckless inhabitants. Slaves, ivory and gold 
formed the burden of their dread htany ; ex- 
Plans for the ploitation continued rampant. 
Regenera- -j^g Conscience of England was now gradu- 

tion of , ^^ * _ 

Africa. ally awakening to the wrongs that were being 

Buxton! inflicted on Africa. Goverimient had at last 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 43 

been roused to action and, with a patrol of 
cruisers on the West Coast, was carrjdng out 
repressive and punitive measures against the 
overseas traffic in slaves. Yet the traffic 
went on with fearful volume. Deeply medi- 
tating on these things, FjQwell Buxton seized 
the idea that " the dehverance of the African 
is to be accompHshed through her own re- 
sources." He saw that the traffic in slaves 
was fettering all commercial prosperity in 
Africa, and that if it were to be stopped a 
better merchandise must first be found, which 
would not impoverish but enrich the land and 
show chiefs that it is more profitable to retain 
their people for the development of the natural 
resources than to sell them off to the slave- 
traders. "It is the Bible and the plough," 
he said, " that must regenerate Africa." 

Using the new interest that had been created 
in the Niger, he issued his proposals for the 
formation of a new African Association which 
would establish commercial relations with the 
African chiefs in whose dominions the slave 
traffic was carried on. A model farm was to 
be established at the junction of the Niger 
and the Benue. Government was to do its 
part, commercial companies their part, and the 
missionary societies were to evangehse the 

44 The Future of Africa 

In 184Q^the Association was formed under 
distinguished auspices, Prince Albert presiding 
at the great meeting in Exeter Hall. Thus 
the crass indifference of the previous centuries 
changed to a general and indiscriminating 
benevolence, which Dickens wittily satirised in 
" Bleak House." 

A richly-equipped expedition sailed for 
Africa in 1841 in three ships specially built 
for the purpose. Scientists, traders, and mis- 
sionaries accompanied them. The steamers 
entered the Niger and sailed up one or two 
hundred miles. Treaties were concluded with 
some of the chiefs, and valuable information 
was gathered. But disaster soon closed round 
them. Fever carried off forty-two white men 
in two months. The model farm was started 
at Lokoja, but before long the men in charge 
had to retire in broken health, and the expedi- 
tion ended in disastrous failure. Its name 
became a by-word, and Buxton never recovered 
from the disappointment. 

All tilings have their price, and the regenera- 
tion of Africa was not to be cheaply bought. 
Too many had fought for her benefits with Httle 
thought of the effect on the land itself. Too 
many had exploited her resources and her 
peoples with no aim but that of self-seeking 
and personal enrichment. 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 45 

Among those who were ready to risk their (b) 
worldly fortune to save the land and make iJrd.'^^^^'^ 
some reparation for the hideous evils of the 
past, we must mention a philanthropic Scots- 
man, by name, Macgregor Laird. He had 
been seized by the possibilities of the Niger, 
and had made many attempts to develop 
trade there. All his available capital was 
spent in his endeavours, wliich met with 
failure after failure. In lS54_Jie sent out a 
small steamer, wliich included amongst its 
passengers the negro clergyman, Samuel 
Crowther, who had also been in the African 
Association's expedition. The experiences of 
the past were not lost, several precautions 
were taken to avoid the disasters which had 
met the previous attempt, and as a result the 
Httle " Pleiad " sailed up the Niger and Benue, 
remaining there for several months without 
losing a single member of the crew. 

Several invitations were given by native 
chiefs to enter the land with the Gospel, and 
the Church Missionary Society sought to 
respond. The difficulty, however, was to 
maintain communication with the outside 
world. Mr Laird brought pressure to bear on 
the Government, and at last, in 1856^ Lord 
Palmerston agreed to send a steamer up the 
Niger once a year. With this means of com- 

46 The Future of Africa 

munication, trading stations and mission 
stations were opened. But just as the com- 
mercial undertaking was coming in sight of 
success, Mr Laird died, and with his death the 
progress of civihsation on the Niger wellnigh 
collapsed. The consular agent — X)r Blaikie — 
still remained, however, at his settlement of 
Lokoja, and missionaries established them- 
selves near the trading factories. But for 
long periods together the Httle colony was cut 
off from the outside world. 

A number of trading companies now began 
to come to the Niger delta. Their competition 
was, however, so deadly that the natives were 
soon masters of the situation, and goods were 
bartered for guns and gin as the most desired 
commodities. Commerce then ceased to work 
for the regeneration of Africa and began to 
make itself felt as a curse. Attempts were 
made to revive the philanthropic aims of 
Mr Laird, and some larger companies entered 
this sphere. But it was not until another 
great leader appeared that the trade of the 
Niger was purified and extended to the higher 
reaches of the river. 

Sir George Taubman Goldie first visited the 
Niger in 1877, and he instantly saw the evils 
that arose from disastrous competition. He 
set about amalgamating all the trading firms, 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 47 

and buying out the French companies, and at 
last was able to float the National African 
Company with a capital of £1,000,000. He 
then applied for a royal charter, and his 
company became the Royal Niger Company 
with immense territorial rights. Under the 
active administration of this Company vast 
regions were thrown open to trade, and the 
closure which slave-raiding tribes had put 
on all progress was removed by successful 
miHtary expeditions which broke their power. 

British activity on the Lower Niger greatly Extension of 
stimulated the enterprise of the French nation, Activity!^^^ 
and at this period they were rapidly developing 
the country that extended from the Senegal 
and Gambia to the upper sources of the 
Niger. In the fifties and sixties Paul du 
jChaillu. had explored the Gaboon and the 
forest regions of equatorial Africa. His 
accounts were greatly doubted at the time. 
Wonderfully vivid descriptions of the hfe of 
man and beast, however, are to be found in 
his books, and his scientific collections are 
unsurpassed for their richness and for the new 
and amazing forms they reveal. 

In South Africa the land was being rapidly 
opened up, not so much by the vigour and 
heroism of one or two explorers, as by the 
gradual increase of the population, and various 

48 The Future of Africa 

political disturbances. Laige companies of 
farmers, some of them through discontent 
with British rule, others from a restlessness 
and land hunger which could not be satisfied 
with the occupied tracts of the colony, were 
gradually pusliing their way further and 
further north. The Orange river and the 
Vaal were crossed, and they settled m lands 
where fierce tribes had formerly had undis- 
turbed possession. Their progress was not 
unarrested, and frequently severe fightmg 
took place between these restless farmers and 
the untamed tribes around them. Tlie early 
missionaries were also gradually adding to 
the world's knowledge of South Africa. Dr 
Moffat explored the whole of Bechuanaland, 
and travelled as far north as the wild land 
of the Matabele, and his journeys, undertaken 
simply from zeal for the Gospel, opened roads 
which were never closed again. 
David It was reserved, however, for another and 

Livingstone, j^^^r comer to make the chief additions to our 
geograpliical knowledge of South and Central 
Africa. David Livingstone, the greatest figm-e 
of modern history in Africa, was born near 
Glasgow in 1813, He received an excellent 
education, worked for years in cotton miUs 
in summer, qualified fully as a medica mis- 
sionary, and went out to Africa m 1840, at 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 49 

the age of twenty-eight. For the next thirty- 
three years he devoted liis whole life and 
energies to the service of Africa. He laboured 
at several mission stations, and when the 
severe toil of starting and preparing was 
barely accompUshed, passed on to fresh 
ventures, leaving others to enter into the fruit 
of his work. He made various journeys of 
exploration, each fraught with hardships un- 
known to travellers of to-day. Twice he 
crossed Africa, from east to west, and then 
back again. 

There is deathless interest in the story of 
the Httle plain Scot, a son of the people, 
brought up in a fine native tradition of God- 
fearing and hard work, who went out to 
Africa, and, unsupported and unknown, 
achieved more by his persistence than armies 
and nations had hitherto effected. Alone he 
set forth to solve the mystery enshrouding 
the vast Continent; alone wandered out to 
face perils and hardships that stagger creduhty. 
In crossing tropical Africa Livingstone accom- 
pHshed the greatest geograpliicai feat of 
modern times. The story is unmatched in 
annals of travel for its splendid courage and 
silent heroism. Unwavering Christian faith 
bore up Livingstone through all vicissitudes, 
and this, coupled with a marvellous enthusiasm 

50 The Future of Africa 

for his mission, carried him through situations 
which would have defeated any other. In 
character he was noted for tenacity to his 
word, unbaffled endurance and perseverance, 
and undying gratitude for any kindness shown 
to him or his. He gave his Hfe, his means, 
his all, to further the aim he set above all 
else, namely, the great work of Hghtening the 
darkness enshrouding the millions of Central 

In every age and country there have never 
been wanting exponents of that spirit of pure 
devotion to some high cause which triumphs 
over all obstacles. Livingstone, imbued with 
this wliite heat of missionary fervour, the 
missionary spirit in its purest form, wandered 
through tribes and courts of native chiefs. 
Even the most debased savages recognised 
in their dim fashion the strange power of 
tliis rough-hewn ragged traveller " whose 
method as a missionary and an explorer was 
based on rules of unfailing justice, good feeling 
and good manners." He passed unscathed 
through the kraals and camps of the fiercest 
natives, seldom failing to win attachment, 
even service from individuals. 

Again and again Livingstone experienced 
loneHness, discouragement, the awful de- 
pression of African fever, the deadly spiritual 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 51 

dryness that came from utter isolatioD for 

months together, with no companionship save 

that of the handful of native porters whose 

unenhghtened intelligences were but httle 

higher than those of the beasts which they 

pursued or from which they fled. Some years 

of African experience, however, convinced 

Livingstone that before missionary enterprise 

in Africa must come geographical exploration. 

" The end of the geographical feat is the 

beginning of missionary enterprise ; " and, in 

pursuance of this he determined on a certain 

course. " I will open a path into the interior 

or perish ! " he declared, and with this purpose 

he set out on those travels which, with brief 

intermissions, were to be pursued till death 

brought him rest. 

In a missionary journey, after toihng for (a) His 
two months across the arid waste of the xravds"^ 
Kalahari desert, he saw Lake 'Ngami. This 
discovery was a mere incident in his effort to 
reach the Makololo. After three attempts 
he finally reached their chief's kraal. In 
these journeys he had served his apprentice- 
ship in exploration, and was soon out again 
pressing into untrodden regions. 

The Makololo were hving far north of the 
trading routes of South Africa. Between 
them and the commercial markets lay the 

52 The Future of Africa 

dreaded Kalahari desert, on which many a 
party of colonials and natives had perished 
of thirst, and where Livingstone almost lost 
the lives of himself and his family. Living- 
stone felt that " no permanent elevation of 
a people can be effected "v^athout commerce," 
and he had to face the fact that to the south 
there was no outlet for the stores of ivory and 
cattle which the Makololo possessed. There 
was no inducement to agricultural develop- 
ment when the markets were so distant, and 
the expense of European goods was so great 
that no European could Hve there, at least 
on a missionary salary, without descending 
to the level of the natives themselves. 

He therefore determined to try to find a 
route to the markets of the West Coast, and 
started with a company of his people for the 
unknown lands that lay between liim and the 
sea. He felt that God was pushing him out 
on a mission which was inseparably linked 
to the work of evangehsation, and he wrote : 
" I will go, no matter who opposes." 

He reached the Zambesi, travelled up its 
banks, amazed to find it flowing from so 
northerly a direction. He passed through 
tribe after tribe, hospitably received among 
the pagans who were free, but opposed, 
threatened and harassed wherever the slave- 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 53 

trader was accustomed to travel. " It may 
be a coincidence," he wrote, " but we never 
suffered from impudence, loss of property, 
or were endangered, xuiless among people 
familiar with slaving." This also was the 
experience of Mungo Park and other travellers. 

At last, out of many dangers, from cHmate, 
famine, and inhospitable people, he emerged 
at Loanda on the West Coast, in rags and 
poverty, liis body worn to a skeleton with 
disease. Starting back from the West Coast, 
after practically demonstrating to his men 
how much more profitable a market for their 
ivory could be found on the West Coast, he 
returned to the country of the Makololo. 

He was not quite satisfied with what he 
had found in the west, though he knew that 
no other traveller need suffer again as he had 
done by his inexperience. So, after a short 
stay with the Makololo, he started out again 
for the Zambesi, and travelled to the East 
Coast. It was on this journey he saw the 
marvel of the Victoria Falls. His progress 
down the Zambesi was one of great danger. 
Time and again he seemed to see death await- 
ing him, and the rabid hatred of wliite men 
that the Portuguese slave-raiding had created, 
caused him frequent peril. At last, in May 
1856, he reached Quilimane, nearly four years 

54 The Future of Africa 

after he left his wife at Cape Town before 
starting out on liis journey. 

Livingstone combined to a wonderful degree 
the labours of a missionary, a physician, an 
explorer, a scientist, and a Unguist. Amongst 
his chief discoveries were Lakes 'Ngami and 
Nyasa, and the Victoria Falls on the Zambesi. 
The results of liis journey across Africa were 
tremendous for many reasons. He was the 
first European to cross Africa, to reveal the 
course of the Zambesi and the wonders of 
the Victoria Falls, but these things alone did 
not make his journey have such profound 
effect. It was also the amazing revelation of 
the kind of land that existed in Central Africa. 
Hitherto men had imagined it to be the 
poorest of continents, whose central and 
southern regions were httle more than a 
great Sahara, a region of sandy deserts mto 
which rivers ran and were lost. Durmg 
Livingstone's journeys in 1852-6, "it was 
found to be a weU-watered country, with 
large tracts of fine fertile soil covered with 
forest, and beautiful grassy vaUeys, occupied 
by a considerable population." 

But Livingstone's explorations never ended 
in mere geographical information. His ob- 
servations were detailed and accurate beyond 
most travellers, but his interest was above 




The Opening up of Pagan Africa 5 5 

all in the future of the natives who inhabited 
the lands he saw. Wherever he went, he 
opened doors by which others might enter. 
His appeal to the students at Cambridge on 
liis first visit home echoed through England 
and is as poignant to-day as it was half a 
century ago. " I go back to Africa to try to 
make an open path for commerce and Chris- 
tianity ; do you carry out the work which I 
have begun ; / leave it with you.^^ 

He started out again in 1858 for the Zambesi (b) His Later 
to extend our knowledge of the resources ofl^"*^"®^^" 
Central and East Africa, and to improve our 
acquaintance with the native people, with a 
view to introducing them to lawful commerce 
and Christian missions. During this expedi- 
tion he discovered the Shire River, Lake 
Chilwa, and Lake Nyasa, effectively opened 
up to the world regions which had been 
wantonly sealed by the Portuguese, and 
eventually caused the closed waterways of 
Central Africa to be recognised as highways 
free to all nations. But all his discoveries 
were overshadowed by the havoc of the slave 
trade, for now he saw it at its fountain head, 
decimating the population, and turning pros- 
perous valleys into desolations, and it was 
his revelations of the awful facts of the interior 
that roused Europe to check the trade more 

$6 The Future of Africa 

effectively. Exploring expeditions, the estab- 
lishment of European protectorates, and the 
pushing forward of legitimate commerce in 
Eastern and Central Africa were all results of 
those patient journeys and his strong appeals 
to overthrow the Arab and Portuguese slavers. 
Space does not permit of a detailed descrip- 
tion of Livingstone's later journeys. The 
story of Stanley's search expedition is familiar 
to all. Before it, Livingstone had twice 
visited England for short intervals, when he 
was loaded with honours and received every- 
where as a hero, but his only idea was to rouse 
interest and help for the land of his adoption. 
This task accomplished, he returned to devote 
his remaining years to Africa regardless of the 
honourable ease that might justly have been 
his at home. Worn out by sickness and 
travel, he died in May 1873,.,at Ilala on Lake 
Bangweolo, far from home or countrymen, 
tended only by faithful native porters, 
(c) His Livingstone's gift to Africa is incalculable. 

£°Africa!'°" " Fire, water, stone waU, would not stop 
Livingstone in the fulfilment of any recognised 
duty." He " never turned his back, but 
marched breast forward," deaf to the plaudits 
of far-away England, bhnd to any allurement 
of wealth or fame, striving only for the good 
of milHons of fellow creatures who must be 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 57 

brought to the Christ Whose humble faithful 
follower he was. Livingstone it was whose 
hand unlocked the sealed portal of Africa. 
He unveiled the hidden interior. He revealed 
to what extent the awful evil of the slave 
trade was laying the land waste throughout. 
Thanks to his efforts Europe was aroused at 
last to late effective measures for repressing 
this scom'ge. He was the first to draw atten- 
tion to Africa's two great plagues : Fever and 
the Tsetse Fly. But he did far more. Wliere- 
ever he went he spread and left behind him a 
gracious influence which made the path easy 
for any Eiu-opean who should follow. In his 
achievements and all their possibihties for 
Africa a marvellous variety of enterprises found 
their inspiration. Administrators, mission- 
aries, explorers, traders followed in his steps, 
and his death consecrated Europe to the 
redemption of Africa. The result mainly 
attributable to Livingstone's work and in- 
fluence may be summed up in a foreigner's 
words : "In the nineteenth century the white 
has made a man out of the black ; in the 
twentieth century, Europe will make a world 
out of Africa." 

What then was the secret of Livingstone's 
wonderful achievement ? He set out, as 
we have seen, alone, unsupported by wealth 


The Future of Africa 

Opening up 
of East and 

or worldly influence, with no experience 
to guide him, and yet in the space of a 
fleeting generation set forces working whose 
power and Umits no sage observer would dare 
to estimate, whose effects are for all time. 
Amongst the various conclusions that may 
be drawn one is unquestionable. Living- 
stone's attitude towards Africa breathed a 
wider and higher spirit than any of his pre- 
decessors had reached. He came to give, 
not to get, and the measureless bounty 
of his spirit left inexhaustible treasures 


Before Livingstone had started on his first 
expedition to the Zambesi, two German mis- 
sionaries of the Church Missionary Society 
had made explorations which had considerable 
results for the future of East and Central 
Africa. Starting out from their station near 
Mombasa, Krapf and Rebmann had under- 
taken a missionary tour to the interior, and 
had seen the snow-clad mountains of KiHma- 
njaro and Kenia. The fact was only incident- 
ally mentioned in their missionary reports, 
but it attracted wide attention in Europe 
and was received with great increduhty and 
ridicule. Shortly afterwards Rebmann sent 
home a map of the interior, drawn from the 
reports of Arab traders, on which was laid down 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 59 

a great sea, " like a monster slug," in the heart 
of Africa. When the map was- exhibited in 
the Geographical Society's rooms, it excited a 
pecuhar interest and in 1856 Speke and Burton 
were dispatched to investigate and discover 
this reported inland sea. The missionaries 
were now the means of tm^ning the whole tide 
of exploration, for they had demonstrated that 
the interior of the continent was more acces- 
sible from the east coast than from the west, 
and now all the greatest expeditions started 
from the east. Other explorers followed the 
missionaries. First, Speke and Burton, who 
discovered Tanganyika and the southern end 
of Victoria Nyanza. Speke again returned to 
explore the Nile with Grant. Meanwhile ^ir 
Samuel and Lady Baker exploring on their 
own account discovered the Albert Nyanza 
and solved the last of Africa's ancient geo- 
graphical problems, the sources of the Nile. 

Finally came H. M. Stanley, whose journey h. m. 
to Central Africa bore extraordinary fruit in ^^"^y- 
the opening up of the continent. As we have 
seen, his previous visit to Africa rescued 
Livingstone, and now again we find liim in the 
heart of Africa. He started from Mombasa, 
and in April 1875 arrived in Uganda. He 
spent a long time at the court of Mtesa, whom 
he found grown into a steady and thoughtful 

6o The Future of Africa 

man, very different from the vain youth whom 
Speke and Grant had visited. He had em- 
braced Islam, but Stanley told him that there 
was a far higher religion, and taught him the 
Christian truths. This incident prompted 
Stanley's famous latter to the Daily Telegraph, 
challenging Christendom to send a mission to 
Uganda. The challenge was accepted by the 
Church Missionary Society and the following 
year the first missionary party was dispatched. 
Before the committee of the Church Missionary 
Society finally resolved to open the mission, 
they were warned by men of experience in 
African affairs, that while Stanley might 
succeed in making a journey overland of a 
thousand miles to Uganda, others might find 
it an impossible task, and that after getting 
the missionaries there, the difficulty would be 
to maintain Hues of communication with them. 
Physically the route presented great dangers, 
and there were wild tribes, such as the Masai, 
who would seek to close the path, and put the 
caravans in grave danger of being extermin- 
ated. The risks, however, were taken, and 
missionaries were sent. In after years, when 
all communication with the interior was cut 
off, and when the deaths of the missionaries, 
and the unsettled condition of the country 
seemed to make the maintenance of the mission 

The Opening up of Pagan Africa 6i 

impossible, grave fears were entertained that 
Uganda would require to be abandoned, yet 
the story of this centre is a red-letter page in 
the annals of African missions. The names of 
Alexander IMackay and Bishop Hannington 
rank with that of Livingstone in the list of 
those who have given their hves for the peoples 
of Africa. 

Stanley left Victoria Nyanza in 1876 and 
travelled to Tanganyika, circumnavigating 
the lake and thoroughly exploring its coast 
hne. Immediately thereafter the London 
Mssionary Society accepted the offer of Mr 
Arthingion of Leeds, of £5000 towards the 
purchase of a steamer and the estabHsh- 
ment of a mission station somewhere on the 
shores of Lake Tanganyika, and from that 
date the tribes around the lake, which Burton 
had first seen in 1857, came into ever-increas- 
ing touch with the commerce of Europe 
and the messengers of the Christian Church. 
Leaving Tanganyika, Stanley struck the 
waters of the Congo in 1877, and floating down 
this mighty river for a thousand miles until 
he came to the Cataracts, he opened up an 
enormous territory which no white man had 
ever seen before, to which access was easily 
obtained by navigable waterways of fourteen 
thousand miles. The immediate result of 

62 The Future of Africa 

Stanley's discovery was the establishment of 
the Congo Mission by the Baptist Missionary 
Society, who were greatly helped to this step 
by Mr Arthington, the friend of pioneer 
missions. Next followed the foundation of 
the Congo Free State, when King Leopold of 
Belgium, whose imagination had been fired 
by Stanley's exploits, employed the great 
traveller as liis emissary in founding this 
state. Thus administration and trade were 
initiated in the Congo Free State. 
The Opened Thus inch by inch we have seen how Africa 

Continent. -i i c r^^ • ,' 

was at last unveiled to the eyes oi Christian 
Europe. The agents whose efforts led to 
this opening of the great unknown continent 
have been numerous, their motives varied, 
the results that followed sometimes gigantic, 
sometimes scarcely discernible. In the end, 
when the fulness of time had come and the 
Church at home opened her ears to the call and 
her heart to pity ; when nations had learnt to 
some extent to lead them to sometliing liigher 
and not to exploit them to their hurt, then 
and then only did God allow the revelation 
of the continent. So many different agencies 
contributed to this end, but in each case 
where progress was effected it was through 
the spirit in which Livingstone and his like, 
before and since, have wrought. 



The Opening up of Pagan Africa 6^, 

Missionary followers of Livingstone have 
helped. Commercial companies which worked 
for something more than financial dividends, 
and others which sought for nothing more 
than money, no matter at what cost it was 
got, have helped. Hunters, Hke Oswell and 
Selous, who wandered far, afraid of neither 
man nor beast, and whose safety lay in their 
kindhness and courage both in hunting and 
their relations with the wild tribes to whom 
they trusted themselves, they also helped. 
Governments hungry for expansion and the 
glory of further possession, and governments 
pestered by philanthropic people into pro- 
tective action towards down-trodden tribes, 
helped. At last, in spite of the exclusiveness 
of chiefs who hated the stranger, and slave- 
traders and Mohammedans who saw in Europe 
the deadly enemy of their trade and power, the 
barriers have been thrown down, and a great 
continent, with perhaps one hundred and 
twenty-five miUions of pagan people, stands 
revealed. Africa's long, long night has at 
last ended. 



Europe and Africa. 
The Slave Trade. 

(a) American Slave Trade. 

(b) Movement for Abolition. 

(c) Slave Trade on the East Coast and in Central 


(d) Modern Slavery. 
European Colonisation. 

(a) Portugal. 

(b) Great Britain. 

(1) West Coast. 

(2) South Africa. 

(3) East and Central Africa. 

(c) Belgium and the Congo. 

(d) France. 

(e) Germany. 

(J') The " Scramble for Africa." 
Results of European Colonisation. 

(a) Good Government. 

(b) Commerce. 

(c) Liquor Traffic. 

(d) Attitude to Labour. 

(e) Suppression of Barbarities. 

Europe and FoR the European the story of Africa holds 
Africa. f^j. more significance than the story merely of 


The Hand of Europe in Africa 65 

travellers and explorers. For good or for evil 
the Africa of to-day is bound to Europe by a 
political relationship such as the early dis- 
coverers never contemplated. The first Euro- 
pean adventurer who set foot on African soil 
welded the first Unk in the momentous chain 
of circumstance, which has extended, Hnk by 
Unk, till the greater part of the Continent, 
north and south, east and west, is now joined 
to the main body of advancing civihsation. 
From the adventures of the early discoverers 
of Africa has sprung a tremendous connec- 
tion between Africa and Europe, which has 
grown and expanded with each generation. 
To-day Africa no longer stands alone and 
isolated, but her fate is bound to Europe by 
countless indissoluble ties. Nor is this a sudden 
development. On the contrary, it is simply 
the " natural and inevitable result of forces 
that have been accumulating and growing 
in intensity over a long period of time." 
What, we may ask, has led to the position 
Africa now occupies in the pohtical and 
moral spheres of this twentieth century 

For many long years the main retarding The Slave 
factor in the development of Africa was that ^^ *' 
terrible stain upon her annals, the slave trade. 
In a book of this sort limitations of space com- 

66 The Future of Africa 

pel one only to touch broadly on the main 
features and divisions of a subject so huge in 
scope. EarHer chapters mention how Henry 
of Portugal's fine schemes of discovery and 
heroic enterprise were stopped by his followers 
becoming slave - traders. Portugal rapidly 
became involved in this deadly trade, and 
it is sad to find how this traffic was even 
condoned by Christian and philanthropic 
(a) American Spain caught the infection in the person of 
ave ra e. j^^^ Casas, the Dominican, known to fame as 
the " Apostle of the Indies." In his zeal for the 
enslaved Indians of the New World discovered 
by his father's great shipmate Columbus, Las 
Casas sacrificed the Africans, deeming them 
the hardier race, more fitted for the toil that 
was crushing the Indians out of existence. 
He Hved bitterly to rue this cruel mistake. 
Owing to his instigations the scheme of im- 
porting Africans to America was put into 
force. It was opposed by the Pope and the 
powerful Cardinal Ximenes on grounds of 
humanity, but the Emperor Charles V. sanc- 
tioned it, and granted a Hcence to one of his 
favourites to import the hapless Africans. AU 
too soon the evils of this importation became 
notorious. Las Casas, stricken with horror, 
cried out in his old age : " The slavery of black 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 67 

men is as iniquitous as that of red men, and 
I fear the wrath of Divine justice." But no 
repentance could stem the tide of evil which 
had been set flowing. From Spain the taint 
spread to the shores of Britain. Soon England, 
with the energy that distinguished her in all 
enterprise for good or evil, was in the thick of 
the traffic, which increased in volume year by 
year. Sir John Hawkins, one of the famous 
Devon sailors of Ehzabethan days, cousin of 
Francis Drake, is supposed to have initiated 
England to the disgi'aceful commerce. When 
he returned from his first voyage Queen 
EHzabeth expressed her disapproval of his 
forcibly carrying off Africans, and declared that 
" such an act would be detestable, and call 
down the vengeance of Heaven." But the 
price he got for slaves in St Domingo was too 
great a temptation for his loyalty. By burning 
towns along the coast, and helping one tribe 
to make war upon another, he collected his 
captives. When Hawkins sailed to Africa for 
the third time in 1567, he went, in fact, though 
not technically, on a national venture. From 
this day onward, Britain's share in the slave 
trade grew greater and greater. A hundred 
years after this we find Charles II. and liis 
brother James chartering a company to supply 
the West Indies with thirty thousand slaves 

68 The Future of Africa 

annually. Britain, a little later, secured the 
sole monopoly of supplying the Spanish West 
Indies with slaves. By the beginning of the 
eighteenth century slavers left Liverpool, 
Bristol, and Plymouth to the number of one 
hundi-ed and ninety-two ships annually, all 
bound for Africa, all destined to carry a 
suffering human load of captives. During 
the hundred years between Charles II.'s reign 
and that of George III. over two milHon slaves 
were imported into the Enghsh-American 
Colonies alone ! Where did they all come 
from ? From the shores of the Gambia and 
other rivers southwards of Sierra Leone, 
from the deltas of the Niger and the Congo. 
Thus arose that class of traders known as the 
" Oil River Ruffians," who formed a great 
trade at the mouth of those rivers for guns, 
ammunition, and gin, exchanging these com- 
modities for slaves. Indescribable horrors 
arose from this vile traffic. Terrible was the 
flow of tears and blood that resulted from this 
enslavement of milhons of innocent men, 
women, and children. Whole tribes and 
villages were rapidly disappearing before the 
slave raids. Peaceable and prosperous com- 
munities were degraded to the destitute con- 
dition of the wild beasts of the forest. Gardens 
were uncultivated, and not a tree was planted, 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 69 

for there was no security of life or property. 
Old Calabar, where commerce has been going 
on for tlu'ee hundred years, was declared by 
Laird, the commercial pioneer of Nigeria, to 
be the most unciviUsed part of Africa he had 

The slave trade seemed to rouse the most 
cruel instincts in men. The brutal treatment 
which the chained slaves received from their 
masters as they passed to the coast beggars 
description. Nor were their miseries over, 
for there still remained the horrors of the sea 
passage. Tliese were so great that scarcely 
one-tliird of those who embarked at the African 
coast arrived on the other side of the ocean. 
All that is best and bravest in humanity 
revolts at the record of cruelty and barbarism 
in which all connected with the slave trade 
were more or less impHcated. Mothers were 
torn from their httle ones ; strong young men 
from aged parents. Regardless of all feeUng 
and decency these poor slaves were driven 
from their country hke sheep to the shambles. 
Any means were used to press them into the 
ranks of this sad procession. To what end ? 
In order to add to the wealth and luxury of 
British sugar planters in the Indies, of cotton 
growers in South America. It is terrible to 
reflect that the fortunes accumulated by white 

70 The Future of Africa 

people of those days were literally coined from 
the flesh and blood of the wretched enslaved 
blacks. That this " sum of all villainies " 
should be tolerated by Europe, is an index 
to the undeveloped conscience of the Christian 
nations of these days. 
(b) Move- Yet there were always enhghtened men who 

ment for i i i • • i i 

Abolition, regarded the whole busmess with detestation, 
and during the whole of the eighteenth century 
an agitation was on foot for the abohtion of 
slavery, which gradually grew in influence and 
volume, until at the close of the century some 
of the foremost men in England were identified 
with the movement. A great step was taken 
as the result of the efforts of Granville Sharp, 
who contested a lawsuit in defence of a slave. 
He lost his suit in the first instance, but was 
eventually the means of procuring Lord 
Mansfield's famous judgment in 1772, pro- 
nounced on behalf of the whole Bench, which 
declared a slave free directly he set foot in 
England. In 1785 the Vice-Chancellor of 
Cambridge instigated a prize essay against 
slavery, which was won by Clarkson. Adam 
Smith, Dr Johnson, and many others added 
the weight of censure against the trade. 
In 1787 a committee was formed for the 
abohtion of slavery, amongst whose members 
were : Josiah Wedgewood, of china fame ; 

3 G 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 71 

Johnson's friend, Bennet Langton; Henry 
..Broughanij and many other notable persons. 
Bui'ke employed his eloquence to inveigh 
against it both in and out of the House. 
Finally, Pitt, the Prime Mnister, took the 
matter up, thanks partly to the urging of his 
friend WilUam Wilberforce, who became known 
as " the authorised interpreter of the national 
conscience " on the slave trade. For seven- 
teen years this man devoted his energies tire- 
lessly to forwarding this cause. In pubHc 
and in private, he pleaded for the poor slaves. 
There is a touch of romance in the tale of how, 
moved by indignation and reflection, Wilber- 
force one summer's day, under an old oak tree 
at Hollwood (a tablet marks the tree to this 
day), Pitt's country seat, formed the resolution 
to bring the matter before ParHament. Again 
and again he and his supporters, despite his 
great eloquence and immense personal popu- 
larity, were defeated. The " most rehgious 
and wittiest man in England " had almost 
despaired of winning his cause, when the tide 
at last turned, and in 1807 the Abolition Bill 
was passed. It must be remembered, despite 
the support of Pitt and others, Wilberforce had 
to contend against practically the whole com- 
mercial body, and men of influence and stand- 
ing in every great port in England, men whose 

72 The Future of Africa 

fortunes in many cases were directly or 
indirectly connected with the slave trade. 
A month after Wilberforce's death, in 1833, 
the Slavery Emancipation Bill was passed, and 
from that day forward reform crept on. 

International action against the traffic had 
also begun to advance. Denmark was the 
first to lead the way, America and then Britain 
followed. Finally, in 1817, by international 
treaty, slavers were declared to be pirates, and 
British cruisers were given the right to search 
all slave ships and set free the captives. But 
no punishment was inflicted on the captains of 
the ships, and shipowners found it profitable 
to insure their cargoes, for a single slave 
landed in Brazil fetched £50. At length only 
two nations still held out, viz. Spain and 
Portugal. But Britain, whose hands had been 
more deeply stained with the traffic than any 
other nation, bribed Spain in J 820 with 
£400,000, and Portugal in 1836 with £300,000, 
to prohibit their subjects from exporting 
African slaves. The statesmen who accepted 
the money may have been honestly desirous 
of checking the evil, but their efforts were 
practically frustrated. In 1858 it was cal- 
culated that a thousand slaves a day were 
landed in Cuba or Brazil, many of this 
number, however, succumbing to the hard- 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 73 

ships of the journey either to the African 
coast or on the voyage itself. The American 
and Portuguese trader who ventured to run 
the risk of British cruisers, and successfully 
landed his slaves on the other side of the 
Atlantic, realised a profit of a hundred and 
fifty or two hundred per cent. So futile did 
the patrol system appear to be that agitations 
were constantly arising in Britain to stop so 
expensive a pohcy as an almost useless expendi- 
ture of money. In 1849-50 there was a great 
revival of the slave traffic owing to the intro- 
duction of free trade, and especially the aboli- 
tion of duties on sugar. The cultivation of 
sugar greatly revived in Brazil and Cuba, 
consequently the demand for slaves was 
raised, and it was not till the aboHtion of 
slavery in Brazil in 1888 that the Atlantic 
traffic finally ceased. By this stoppage Africa 
was saved, for immediately legitimate com- 
merce began to revive along the West Coast, 
and in a few years it rose from an annual 
total of £20,000 in ivory and gold dust, to 
between two and three milhon pounds. 

Meanwhile on the East Coast, as in West (c) Slave 
Africa, the scourge of slavery had decimated iSt Coast"^ 
the land. Here the traffic was prosecuted ^^^ ^" ^^"■ 
by the Arabs and Portuguese. Livingstone's 
record of his travels in the Zambesi region 

74 The Future of Africa 

is an appalling record of burning villages, 
blotted - out communities, and dead bodies 
floating on the river so thickly that in the 
morning they had to clear the steamer's 
paddle-wheels of corpses which the gorged 
crocodiles could not eat. Such scenes as 
these made him use all the influence he 
had to stop Portuguese slaving. Pressure 
from London caused the Lisbon authorities 
to send instructions to the governors and 
officials in Portuguese colonies to withdraw 
from all association with this trade. Lisbon 
might legislate, and their orders be acknow- 
ledged, yet it was not convenient to obey, 
for every governor and official was deep in 
the traffic. It was the only way they could 
earn money to support themselves. Living- 
stone's denunciations naturally drew forth the 
ill-will of the Portuguese against himself, but 
the misdeeds of their colonies became so pubHc 
that they were soon compelled to cease any 
open connection with slavery. The Sultan of 
Zanzibar, however, still remained the greatest 
sinner. In the early seventies of last century 
not less than nineteen thousand slaves from 
Nyasaland alone passed through the custom- 
house at Zanzibar. " And," said Livingstone, 
" not one-fifth of the victims of the slave trade 
ever become slaves or taking the average of 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 75 

the Shire Valley, not one-tenth arrive at their 
destination." For besides those who passed 
through the custom-house " thousands are 
killed or die of wounds and famine. Thousands 
perish in internecine war, waged for slaves 
with their own kinsmen and neighbours. The 
many skeletons we have seen among rocks and 
woods, by the little pools and along the paths 
of the wilderness, attest the awful sacrifice of 
human hfe which must be attributed directly 
or indirectly to this trade of hell." At last, 
in 1872, Britain sent out Sir Bartle Frere 
to attempt a treaty with the Sultan of 
Zanzibar to stop the overseas traffic. The 
Sultan at first refused to sign, but a fleet of 
British, French, and American gunboats 
appeared off Zanzibar, and then he yielded. 
This treaty prohibited the carrying of slaves 
by sea, but did not affect the domestic slavery 
of Zanzibar, nor did it stop the sea-traffic. 
Dhows still managed to elude the cruisers, and 
a ready market was found for slaves in Arabia, 
and by the Persian Gulf, as well as within the 
Mohammedan domains of the Sultan. 

It is only with the advent of this century 
that the traffic has really ceased. If this 
iniquity was first started by independent 
European adventurers, who acted at fir&t 
without Government sanction, but afterwards 

7^ The Future of Africa 

under special charters from their Government, 
the time at last came when the national 
conscience of Europe awoke, and refused to 
allow itself to be identified any longer with so 
nefarious an exploitation. Then, when the 
evil instead of decreasing became too profit- 
able, and continued to work havoc on the 
Continent, the Governments began to take 
official action for the suppression of the trade, 
and finding that cruising in the waters of the 
coast was not effectual, they entered the 
Continent, and began to administer large 
areas. It was from this desire to undo the 
wrongs of Africa that a good many of the 
protectorates were founded, and colonisation 
was developed. The European protectorates' 
action proved the most elective means that 
have as yet been used. Germany carried on 
active operations in the east, burning down 
centres of the trade and scattering the leaders. 
Britain worked from north and south, until 
at last the main body of the traffic was crushed. 
The estabHshment of European protectorates 
has thus in some ways been one of the greatest 
philanthropic achievements of the nineteenth 
(d) Modern But the traffic in human beings is not 
Slavery. ^^^ extinguished. Caravans of slaves are 
still conveyed from the interior of the 

The Hand of Europe in Africa tj 

Continent to the West and North coasts. So 
long as there is a demand for slaves a supply 
will be found. In the hinterland of the pro- 
tectorates of the West Coast, especially in 
Northern Nigeria, where European power has 
not yet penetrated, slaving for human sacrifice, 
for domestic use, and for the markets of North 
Africa still goes on. Slave dhows still carry 
on a trade in the Red Sea despite the presence 
of three or four gunboats. Slaves are still 
carried to TripoU from Darfur and Wadai in 
the Sudan. Slave caravans move along the 
Shari River between West Africa, Central 
Africa, and Mecca. Slaves are still sought in 
Angola with the tacit consent of the Portuguese 

It is a rehef to turn from this sad chapter European 
in Africa's history to the brighter pages telling 
of colonial enterprise. Africa's emergence 
into the light of civilisation is one of the 
most vivid episodes in the great world- 
story. Europe it was who first led on 
this path of development. The relation- 
ship of Africa and Europe was no mere com- 
mercial or even philanthropic one, though 
both were revealed in the slave trade and the 
movement for its aboHtion, but the connec- 
tion had gradually merged into the larger 
sphere of political expansion. Europe had 

78 The Future of Africa 

sent her sons to Africa, impelled thither by the 
age-old land hunger, which has attracted 
human beings since the days of Lot and Noah. 
Africa had become the land of the white 
settler. Not merely lust for gold, or en- 
deavours to right the evils which forerunners 
had wrought on this adopted country, but the 
desire to make a new home there brought 
shoals of colonists. 
(a) Portugal. Colonisation in Africa started in mediaeval 
days, when Portugal, the earhest and greatest 
coloniser prior to modern times, planted the 
flag and the cross on Africa's bays and head- 
lands east and west. At various points along 
the West Coast she erected forts and opened 
trade, but the record of her three centuries of 
occupation is that of failure. It is a story of 
continued native rebellions and massacres, 
resulting finally in the ignominious retreat of 
the Europeans. On the East Coast matters 
were Httle better. Here the Portuguese had 
to contend against Arabs as well as natives. 
The prevailing gold lust seized on the colonisers. 
Rapid degeneration ensued owing to various 
causes, such as luxxu-y, prevalence of slaving, 
fever, and all the drawbacks of residence in a 
foreign country removed from the restraints 
of European civihsation. Official corruption 
and the imposition of heavy taxes on coffee- 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 79 

growing and other industries strangled trade. 
Till mtliin recent date owing to these causes 
the natives within Portuguese territory were 
the poorest and most degraded of any pro- 

Although Portuguese rule was so ineffective 
it has left great results in Africa, especially by 
the introduction of many plants which have 
become the staple food of the natives and 
Europeans over a great part of the Continent. 
It was they who introduced the orange, the 
lemon, and the hme. From Brazil they 
brought the Chilli pepper, maize (now grown 
over all Africa, even where the European has 
neither been seen or heard of), tobacco, the 
pine-apple, tomato, sweet potato, and many 
other vegetables. Take away from the 
African's food all that the Portuguese have 
introduced and he would be left very poorly 
supphed with the necessaries of hfe. 

Hard on the heels of Portugal followed (b) Great 
Britain. Nowadays colonists from this (")west 
country are accompanied by all the panoply Coast, 
of civil and military authority. In those days 
of Ehzabeth and the Stuarts, much bold 
pioneering was done by private enterprise. 
Adventurers and merchants sailed over the 
Atlantic, and crept round the West Coast, 
landing again and again, planting their gallant 

8o The Future of Africa 

sparse little settlements, retm-ning to Britain 
for further supplies of men and merchandise, 
slowly broadening and founding these stations. 
Thus arose the colonies, so familiar on the map, 
Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, Nigeria, 
stretching downwards and southwards to 
Cape Colony, a veritable Britain beyond the 
seas. The development of these colonies 
varied, but in the main, the record is one of 
order and progress slowly evolving from bar- 
barism and chaos. To the average man the 
words " West Coast " represent a dim picture 
of natives, shining sands and rivers sparkhng 
under pitiless sun, swarming with crocodiles. 
One's imagination runs riot in a confusion of 
gold dust, ivory, cannibals, torrid skies and a 
dim pageant of fetichism and jujus. These 
isolated details all belong to the reaUty, but 
British colonisation has added much to the 
picture. The colony of Gambia flourished at 
first by the slave trade. The rivers of Senegal 
and Gambia, forming the principal route to the 
Upper Niger, provided the main body of slaves. 
When the trade was abohshed the colony fell 
on evil days. Since 1843 its legitimate trade 
has considerably revived, and although there is 
but a sinall population of 100,000 the total 
value of the imports and exports now reaches 
over a quarter of a million pounds. 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 8i 

Sierra Leone, on the contrary, owed its 
foundation and development mainly to the 
aboHtion of slavery. English philanthropists 
started a settlement here for emancipated 
slaves. At first, the riot and demoraHsa- 
tion of the young colony was notorious, 
but missionary societies set zealously to work 
and the Crown took over the administra- 
tion. Despite the difficulties of missionaries 
faced with a welter of innumerable dialects, 
a fearsome climate, and general moral dis- 
order, the colony has gradually risen to a 
state of considerable prosperity. Very much 
land yet remains to be possessed, in every 
sense, but the outlook is hopeful. 

The Gold Coast was a region of similar 
drawbacks, harassed in addition by continual 
wars with the interior tribes. Yet its com- 
mercial prosperity is now out of all proportion 
in advance of the other colonies. 

Nigeria is a familiar household word to 
British readers. In the past, two great evils 
prevailed, leaving a deadly trail. First and 
greatest, the slave trade; second, the palm 
oil trade, which was promoted through the dis- 
astrous currency of gin. At the present day 
Nigeria is a great colony directly under British 
administration, enjoying its benefits, develop- 
ing under its fostering care. Wheat and tares 

82 The Future of Africa 

have flourished side by side here as elsewhere, 
and until the importation of gin is suppressed, 
no real advancement in the arts and comforts 
of civilisation can take place. 

In passing to Cape Colony we come to a 
country whose soil teems with interest for 
every British patriot. Names are written in 
her deathless record aHve with interest to 
every lover of the land. Great soldiers, able 
administrators, intrepid explorers, eager 
scientists, uniformed and plain clothes soldiers 
of the Cross, of every order and degree, each 
and all have added their quota to the develop- 
ment of that dearly-bought, hardly-held 
country. There is a quiet grave in the lonely 
Matoppo Hills under that benign sky, a modern 
Mecca to EngHsh-speaking travellers to-day, 
where Cecil Rhodes, the Bismarck of African 
annals, sleeps his long sleep, unheeding the 
threads his fingers set aweaving in the broad 
loom of empire that widens on and on, con- 
trolled by invisible Destiny. 

When the Cape Colony passed under British 
rule the population consisted of about 26,000 
Europeans, with 30,000 Malay and native 
slaves, and about 200,000 Kaffirs, Hottentots, 
and Bushmen. One of the first benefits of 
British administration was seen in the efforts 
made to keep back the tide of the Kafi&r 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 83 

invasions, for the Bantu races were at this 
time steadily flowing over the southern part 
of the Continent, driving the Bushmen and 
Hottentots before them. The first of the long 
series of Kaffir wars took place in 1809, and 
during the next three-quarters of a century 
these broke out again and again, arising 
partly from the restlessness of the fighting 
tribes, and partly from the advance of colonists 
into lands to which the natives considered they 
had ancestral rights. 

In 1838 the passing of an Act freed all the 
slaves in South Africa. The Abohtion of 
Slavery Bill passed thirty years before, had not 
affected the holding of slaves in the British 
Colonies, and this new enactment led to great 
discontent on the part of the Dutch Colonists, 
who were dissatisfied with the amount 
Government paid in compensation to slave- 
holders. This led to the famous " Boer 
Trek " when they withdrew in a body from 
Cape Colony to cross the Orange River and 
West Vaal, and founded their new repubhcs 
beyond these streams. The history of South 
Africa for the next generation speaks chiefly 
of the plough. The settlers then were mainly 
farmers, whose days passed cliiefly in contest 
with the soil and with African droughts and 
cattle disease, and in contention with the 

84 The Future of Africa 

natives who were continually raising disputes 
to prove encroachments on their rights. Then 
came a fresh impulse to colonisation, when, in 
1870, diamonds were found at Kimberley 
and wliite settlers flocked to the Colony. Men 
no longer regarded South Africa as a vast farm 
country, but with increasing eagerness they 
crowded to besiege a hidden treasure house. 
From tliis time the presence and trade of 
Europeans greatly advanced, and the natives 
began to feel the pressure of an ever- advancing 
civihsation, which demanded large tracts of 
land, and an ever-increasing labour supply for 
the maintenance of its interests. 

Slowly yet surely, civihsation spread her 
subtle ramifications north and south, east and 
west, covering the country with a network of 
townships, homesteads, railways, mining plant, 
diamond factories. The old order was chang- 
ing, giving place to the new with its hydra- 
headed phases of domestic, civil, commercial, 
and administrative development. Expansion 
everywhere ; everywhere the waste was being 
(3) East and Elsewhere in Africa this history was repeat- 
Central j^„ itself. Thanks to the initiative of mis- 
sionary societies Nyasaland was formed mto a 
British protectorate. In 1878, the Sultan, 
impressed by Britain's victory and power in 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 85 

the suppression of slaving, effected a cession 
of all his mainland territory opposite Zanzibar. 
Thus in due course British East Africa was 
formed and added to the chain of protectorates 
this country was founding in Africa. After 
much initial difficulty it was felt that the 
administration of so great a territory which 
yielded so little return was becoming too costly. 
It was feared that the country must be allowed 
to lapse to its former uncontrolled condition. 
Then the ChiKch Missionary Society entered 
the field and took up the cudgels so ably on 
behalf of East Africa that the British Govern- 
ment felt compelled to shoulder the burden 
and " see it through." 

From East Africa one's eyes travel across (c) Belgium 
the map to a region whose name is notori- congo. 
ous. Stanley httle dreamt when he set forth to 
lay the foundations of the Congo Free State, 
that its name would one day be bruited across 
Europe as a synonym for the worst forms of 
exploitation and atrocity. The story had 
such a good beginning. Every reader who has 
heard the name, knows how the great traveller 
went out primed with the highest hopes and 
most philanthropic aims, the accredited repre- 
sentative of an international European Com- 
mittee, headed by the King of the Belgians. 
Stanley went out to open a new era of pros- 

86 The Future of Africa 

perity and development for the Congo Free 
State in which Britain was to play the chief 
part of administration. Stanley laboured to 
estabhsh relations between traders and the 
native chiefs, to form possible openings and 
helps to those pioneers of progress, the mis- 
sionaries. In 1885, the Congo Free State was 
recognised by all leading European powers. 
Stanley retired, feehng the task fairly started, 
leaving it to be carried out by English hands. 
Gradually, however, the international char- 
acter of the state declined. The British, 
French, Portuguese, and German officials were 
replaced by Belgians. Several severe re- 
belHons broke out in the Upper Congo, and the 
Belgian outposts were destroyed. In 1892, 
a notable campaign was fought against the 
Arabs and rebelhous natives, which led to 
the expulsion from the Congo of the Arab 
leaders. Before this time all the indigenous 
products, such as ivory and rubber, had become 
state monopohes. This crippled the inde- 
pendent traders and consequently all com- 
merce was soon in the hands of the State. 
Then large tracts of country, with complete 
rights over the native produce and stock, and 
even over the hves of the natives, were con- 
ceded to companies, a goodly number of whose 
shares were held by the state. Gradually 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 87 

stories began to leak out of atrocities com- 
mitted by these monopolists in the prosecution 
of their trade. It was said that, in order to 
increase the supply of rubber, hands were cut 
off from those who did not bring in a sufficient 
supply ; that entire villages were extermin- 
ated, and that the poHce employed were 
cannibals, not yet disciphned out of their 
savage habits, and that they were allowed, 
without hindrance, to devour the bodies of 
those slain in war. These charges were sub- 
stantiated by a commission of inquiry, and 
by several independent British observers. 
Europe, roused to horror as these terrible 
stories of cruelty multipHed, was stirred to 
consider reform. Year by year the agitation 
grew in volume, and year by year dreadful 
details of the exploitation of the hapless 
Congo natives increased. Yet the outcry 
availed but little to lessen the iniquitous state 
of things, and the Congo butchers continued 
to take their toll of countless hves. One of 
the worst examples of such murders is that of 
the King of Katanga, a notorious slave-trader, 
whose country had been occupied for some 
time by the Garenganze mission. Finding that 
several expeditions desired to gain conces- 
sions from him, the King applied to Britain 
to establish a protectorate. Before his letter 

88 The Future of Africa 

however, reached the authorities an emissary 
from Belgium, one Captain Stairs, arrived to 
demand Katanga on behalf of Belgium. When 
the King of Katanga refused to cede his 
country Captain Stairs summarily shot him 
and annexed the rich mineral land of Katanga 
to Belgium. It is impossible, owing to hmita- 
tions of space, to cite individual instances of 
atrocities, but so numerous did these become, 
that the Congo Reform Association at last com- 
pelled Britain to interfere. Matters improved 
sHghtly for a time, but chiefly on the surface ; 
underneath it the tide of cruelty flowed on. 
The advent of this century and the death of 
King Leopold, whose name will go down to 
infamy in African annals, promise better 
things for the Congo, but the country is terribly 
distant, and the tide turns but slowly. It 
will be long before this open sore heals, and 
it will leave an indelible scar. At present 
more humane rule is bound to reflect on 
Belgian action in her colony, but there can 
be no sure cure till the concessionary com- 
panies are sifted or compelled to alter their 
retrogade standard of commercial methods. 

The French contact with the West Coast 
dates very far back. Traders and explorers 
were busy in the regions of the Senegal as far 
back as the sixteenth century, and founded 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 89 

several settlements. Most of the French posses- 
sions were lost, regained, and lost again during 
the Napoleonic wars. But after peace was 
restored they were given back to France. In 
the time of the Second Empire some attempts 
at expansion were made, but it was not until 
the recent revival of interest in Africa that 
France became ambitious. From the Ivory 
Coast she extended inland, and did great 
service by subduing Dahomey, a country which 
won an unenviable reputation for blood- 
thirstiness, and which had successfully defied 
British and Portuguese attempts to conquer it 
from the coast inland. From the Senegal 
she advanced to the Upper Niger, and by a 
bold campaign, in which she suffered severe 
losses, she conquered Timbuctoo, broke the 
power of the natives, and then descended the 
Niger, opening up a populous and rich land 
which connected her northern with her southern 
dominions. France is also making consider- 
able headway in her administration of French 
Congo. Madagascar first came into French 
possession in the seventeenth century. Her 
occupation of the island has been a history of 
ups and downs, and ins and outs, but at last 
she is once more firmly estabhshed. Her 
retrograde policy in commerce and rehgion, 
however, has alienated the sympathy of 

go The Future of Africa 

Europe with France's efforts to civilise 
) Germany. In the early eighties Germany entered the 
field of African colonisation. At this time there 
was an awakening in Germany, a new spirit, a 
desire for colonies beyond the seas which woiild 
provide a market for her growing industries, 
and a home for the vigorous population. The 
j&rst effort at settlement was in Damaraland 
and Namaqualand, in South- West Africa. The 
natives there, however, were unruly and the 
hves of Europeans were frequently in danger. 
Britain, who already occupied Walfisch Bay, 
on the East Coast, was requested to occupy and 
administer the whole of the surrounding unruly 
territory, but the British Colonial Office were 
unwilhng to increase their immense colonial 
1 esponsibilities. Germany, on being appealed 
to, instantly stepped in and annexed the 
whole territory. At the same time she took 
over the Cameroons and proclaimed her pro- 
tectorate over a great tract of country 
adjacent to Zanzibar. In East Africa the 
German pioneers were commercial companies, 
the chief of which was called the German 
East African Association. They were not well 
led, and the Germans had not yet learned 
the art of dealing with savage peoples. 
The result was that severe distm^bances were 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 91 

fomented by the Arabs and Swahili, and in a 
few months the Germans held few posts in the 
interior. The Government now took up the 
reins, and sent out Major von Wissmann, who 
succeeded in quelling the rebelHons. He 
proceeded to organise the administration of his 
great province, and now, as German officials 
are gradually learning the art of dealing with 
subject races, the protectorate is approaching 
some prosperity, and considerable agricultural 
markets are being developed. 

In the Cameroons and German South- West 
Africa the occupation has been a story of revolts 
and punitive expeditions. The Germans are 
not born colonial administrators and have had 
to learn several lessons, but peace and trade 
are now increasing in their African possessions. 

Before Germany started her attempts at (f ) The 
colonisation, colonial expansion had followed for Afrka." 
a more or less even course of slow, uneager 
advancement. Britain had been quietly 
occupying her colonies and most unwilHngly 
extending where she was actually forced to, 
and delaying where there was no pressure. 
Portugal was asleep in the dilapidated forts 
which still stood at the ancient points of her 
colonisation. France and Belgium seemed to 
be content with their share. 

The sudden action of Germany in annexing 

92 The Future of Africa 

territory, however, startled the other Powers 
into activity, and there ensued the famous 
scramble for Africa, which resulted in a 
series of conferences and boundary commis- 
sions, which are now completing the work 
of exactly dehmiting the spheres of influence 
of each Power in Africa. These spheres of 
influence divide out eighty per cent, of the 
inhabitants of Africa and affect the entire 
pagan population. The claims of the Powers, 
which were readjusted at the British Conference 
of 1884-5, were founded on the following : 
Prior occupation, exploration, missionary effort 
and contiguity of territory. France's share 
was three millions of square miles, with a 
population of twenty-seven millions. Her 
share is the greatest in area, but not in wealth 
or possibilities. Britain received as her portion 
two and a quarter millions square miles. 
Belgium a Httle under nine hundred thousand 
square miles, all situated in the Congo Basin, 
and containing an estimated population of 
sixteen miUion souls. Germany got a huge 
sUce of land, a great part of which is unfit for 
human habitation. Her area is over eight 
thousand hundred square miles, but only about 
six milHon people live within her sphere. 
Portugal, Italy, and Spain have together about 
one and a half million square miles, and a 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 93 

population about equal to that of Germany's 

The future of Africa must therefore rest Results of 
largely with Europe and her administration colonisation, 
of the Continent given over to her charge. 
The results of this relationship during the last 
quarter of a century are thus of no inconsider- 
able importance if we are to estimate aright 
the part which Europe is to play in the eleva- 
tion of Africa to a right position among the 
nations of the world. Has the administration 
of Africa by European Powers been for good 
or evil ? Has it helped or hindered the 
evangehsation of the lands ? 

First there is the part played by govern- (a) Good 
ment. Good government has achieved much 
for Africa's harassed peoples. Government 
has suppressed war, estabHshed social safe- 
guards, fostered increase of population, and 
raised the general morale of the African, 
wherever it has had scope and sway. One 
of the most striking factors in African history 
to-day is the general and secured peace that is 
gradually extending over the whole country. 
It is true that the attempt to control the tribes, 
and to check slave-raiding and internecine 
war, has not been achieved by gentleness or 
moral suasion only. Where government 
unaided has tried to check tliese evils, war or a 

94 The Future of Africa 

display of armaments has been necessary. But 
there are several cases, especially in South 
Africa and Nyasaland, where peace has been 
estabHshed, and the raiding habits have been 
for ever abandoned, not by any costly action of 
government, but by long peaceable teaching 
of the Gospel by missionaries who have pre- 
ceded administration. Thereby many thou- 
sands of pounds and many painful pages of 
history have been saved. But when missions 
have not pioneered there have necessarily been 
petty wars and punitive expeditions before 
peace was estabhshed. There is not a single 
colony or protectorate which has not its history 
of fighting. Sometimes the wars have been 
caused by the persistent raiding of untamed 
peoples, sometimes by the struggle of slaving 
chiefs to throw off poUce measures that Govern- 
ment had taken to suppress the traffic in 
human beings, sometimes through simple mis- 
understandings and lack of patience, and, 
unfortunately, sometimes by the atrocities of 
native poHce, or the wicked scheming of white 

Every picture has its darker side, and it 
is true that the expansion of empire has 
not always been prompted by high or dis- 
interested motives. The reins have not always 
been guided by firm hands, and in certain 



The Hand of Europe in Africa 95 

protectorates, notably the Congo, pioneering 
has been synonymous with gross exploitation, 
with disastrous consequences to the native 
peoples. There are various undeniable evils, 
such as the condoning of slave traffic by 
authorities in Angola, and France's adoption 
of the Belgian method of parcelUng out land 
to concessionaire companies who exploit the 
country with no thought save of selfish gain. 
Still the advantages accruing to beneficial 
government are incalculable. Vast tracts of 
country which the lawlessness of tribes and 
the havoc of slavery were fast depopulating 
have been given fresh life, thanks to European 
administration. There are still great reaches 
in our hinterlands into wliich European 
policing has not reached, but almost univer- 
sally, where the land is administered by British, 
French, or German, a new security of Hfe and 
property has been established, and howling 
wildernesses are smihng again with the sound of 
village work and play. 

When we come to the Government's control (b) Com- 
of commerce, again, with the exception of the "^^^^^' 
Congo regions, we must conclude that the 
protectorates have worked in greater or less 
degree for righteousness and progress. The 
Powers have exerted an active influence for 
good in widespread directions and the prophecy 


g6 The Future of Africa 

of an enthusiast on the subject bids fair to be 
fulfilled. " It is a new Africa brought within 
the range of missionary and commercial 
enterprise . . . matters are taking rapid 
strides every year, and if we mistake not 
future generations will witness miles upon 
miles of roads and railways. There will be 
large European colonies on its highest plateaux. 
There will be great cities and large manu- 
facturing centres on its rivers. Wlieatfields, 
cotton-fields, and coffee plantations will be 
found everywhere. The great and valuable 
forests of timber will be coined into untold 
wealth everywhere. Africa ... let us hope 
and pray, will be covered with the white robe 
of a Christian commerce, and occupy an im- 
portant place in the counsels of the world." ^ 
What has commerce already done for Africa ? 
Thanks to Europe, trade has been encouraged, 
harbours have been improved, roads have been 
made, railways have been built, steamers have 
been floated on rivers and lakes, and the means 
of communication have been so improved that 
commerce is penetrating rapidly to the furthest 
recesses of inner Africa. Buxton and 
Livingstone, and all thinkers on the problem 
of the slave trade, saw that this penetration of 
commerce, and the means of communication 

1 " Daybreak in Livingstonia/' by Rev. J. Jack. 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 97 

would do far more than fleets of cruisers to stop 
the slave trade. This has been done by proving 
to chiefs how much more profitable it is to keep 
their people for labour than to depopulate 
their country by seUing their people to be 
slaves. Tlie merchants no longer need the 
great slave gangs to transport their ivory to 
the coast, when it can be bought in the 
interior by traders and conveyed by estab- 
lished Unes of communication. 

There is one terrible drawback connected (c) The 
mtli commerce which must be noted ere leav- xrlffic. 
ing this subject, and that is the hquor traffic. 
Drink was introduced not by governments but 
by irresponsible traders. In a short time it 
increased to alarming dimensions, and un- 
fortunately Christianity became associated 
with the traffic, just as Islam is with slavery. 
The ship that conveyed the first missionaries 
to the Congo was loaded with a cargo of gin, 
and she discharged it and her missionaries at 
the same time. In the wild days when men 
bought and sold with no regulating govern- 
ment to control them, alcohol and ammu- 
nition were the chief and almost the only 
means of barter in the rivers of the West Coast. 
In 1884, seven million gallons of spirits were 
exported to Africa from Hamburg and Bremen 
alone. Gin was practically the only currency 

98 The Future of Africa 

on the Delta of the Niger, so that if a man 
wished to buy provisions he must be provided 
not with a purse of money, but with a case or 
two of gin. It paralysed missionary effort, 
it swamped legitimate commerce, it demoral- 
ised the people and it decimated whole tribes. 
At Bimbia in the Cameroons, in the early days 
of the Baptist mission, there was a population 
of 10,000, but as a result of the free consump- 
tion of gin the population has dwindled to 
two hundred in a few years. 

What steps, one next asks, have been taken 
to Hmit this evil ? Various conferences have 
been held by the Powers, but so far no agree- 
ment has been come to as to total prohibi- 
tion of the traffic. In certain parts of Africa 
no spirits are allowed to be sold or given to the 
natives. This holds good of the East African 
protectorates, in the Upper Niger, and in nine- 
tenths of the entire area of the Congo Basin ; 
but in Angola and Southern Nigeria Hcjuor 
is largely imported, and the Portuguese in 
Angola have proposed supplying all the rum 
needed in West Africa from their numerous 
distilleries. Despite commissions appointed 
by the British government and others little 
headway in reform has been made so far, as 
the moneyed interests in the traffic are so 
great and the governments depend largely 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 99 

on the revenues derived from the duties on 
spirits. Yet the future is brightening. 
Germany and France are beginning to join 
with Britain in a desire for united action 
against this scourge. Africa can be best 
helped by total proliibition, not by raising the 
duty on spirits. This latter expedient does not 
affect the sale. In Southern Nigeria and else- 
where, despite higher duties, it is increasing. 
The problem of the Uquor traffic is one of the 
most important issues confronting Christian 
government in Africa at the present day. 
The victory will not be won without " dust 
and heat," and it becomes every Christian 
citizen of each Power that has undertaken 
responsibilities in Africa to see that no sordid 
financial reasons defeat the ends of righteous- 
ness and the saving of a people. 

One of the most serious points of contact (d) Attitud( 
between the natives and European govern- 
ments is in the control which governments 
exercise over labour, especially where there 
is a growing white population, and industries 
that requhe a considerable labour supply. 
In most protectorates, recruiting of labour, 
especially for any distant centre, is not per- 
mitted without a Hcence, and the conditions of 
the hcence compel the recruiters to explain to 
the native the nature of the work, the pay, the 

loo The Future of Africa 

length of the labour day, the care in case of 
sickness, and provision for the return home. 
Commissioners are also appointed to super- 
vise the relation of labourers and employers. 
Such stringent regulations are necessary if 
the government is to prevent private in- 
dividuals from exploiting the natives for their 
own ends, for the tendency of a superior race 
is always toward taking advantage of an 
inferior one. Many a case is known in every 
protectorate, before labour regulations were 
made and appHed wth some vigour, where 
deception and perhaps violence were used to 
get the necessary labour for the European, and 
where the workers were so neglected that 
disease and famine carried off large numbers. 
Of course the regulation of the native labour 
supply is apt to become a considerable source 
of revenue to a government whose chief 
asset is its population. Registration fees and 
capitation taxes, for men proceeding to the 
labour centre are so increased that it almost 
seems as if Government were exploiting the 
natives. This is pecuHarly so with the Kru 
boy, who is the most reliable worker on the 
West Coast, and without whom the coast 
trade could scarcely be carried on. The French 
Government, in whose country most of the 
Krus live, have charged a heavy fee for any boy 

The Hand of Europe in Africa loi 

leaving the country, and the native state of 
Liberia practically robs the labourer on leaving 
and on returning. On the Ivory Coast a tax 
of 25 francs per head is levied on each labourer, 
and in French Congo a passport rate of 100 
francs. In the latter state, unlike other French 
colonies, the natives are not allowed to work 
their own forest products. Other Govern- 
ments have also found it necessary to control 
this source of supply. When the natives of 
Nyasaland were allowed to tap the rubber 
in the forests without any restrictions, large 
quantities were exported by traders, but the 
methods of the people were so destructive 
that in a few years no rubber would have been 
left in the forests, and it was found necessary 
to apply severe restrictions on the gathering. 
Unfortunately, in the French Congo the con- 
cessionaires who control the rubber supply have 
been allowed to force labour by violent means. 
In the Congo Free State the administration 
is unfortunately interested too deeply in the 
labour supply, and regulations, wliich are to the 
advantage of government but to the great 
disadvantage of the native, are in force. The 
contract period lasts for seven years, and for 
a breach of contract the native is liable to a 
fine of 500 marks and six months' imprison- 
ment. When the State railway was being 

I02 The Future of Africa 

built natives were taken by force to work on 
the railway, but were paid for their services. 
One of the worst types of forced labour 
systems until lately was that employed in 
Angola, which amounted to a practical form of 
slavery ; but the new Portuguese Government 
has immediately taken in hand the scandalous 
conditions under which labour was recruited 
for San Thome and Principe. The RepubUc 
has attacked not only the miserable conditions 
under which the natives Hve or travel, but has 
also taken definite steps to prevent the forcible 
abduction of natives for work and to supervise 
further recruiting, so that in future workers 
will only go to these islands of their own free- 
will and be returned at the expiry of their term. 
The RepubUc evidently means to make these 
reforms actual and practical. 

So long as the countries are governed by 
paternal administration, the officials should be 
perfectly uncompromised in their relations to 
labour, so that the people will always feel that 
they can appeal to the magistrate against any 
injustice that the employer may do them. 
Experience has proved, on the part of mis- 
sionaries especially, that by a careful educa- 
tion the wants of the people are always 
increasing, and this means a greater desire for 
work that they may have wages to buy their 

The Hand of Europe in Africa 


necessities. There is no missionary or friend 
of the natives who would wish to encourage 
laziness. Without industry and commerce there 
can be no permanent elevation of the people. 
But the work must be voluntary and not forced. 

The final result of European occupation on (e) Suppres- 

which we would touch is the suppression of Barbarities. 

barbarities. Magisterial courts in all the 
protectorates recognise native law in so far as 
it is in line with civiUsed and humane rule. But 
the atrocities arising from native superstition 
or custom, however useful they may have been 
in maintaining social order in barbarous days, 
are now being suppressed. The poison and 
other ordeals are made criminal offences. 
Infanticide, cannibalism, human sacrifice, and 
many evil practices are disappearing before 
the stern arm of European government as far 
as it can reach. The charges of witchcraft, 
which terrorised Pagan society, are now 
rapidly disappearing. Many other brutal 
customs which rendered hfe a misery and 
claimed a dreadful toll of victims yearly are 
being rapidly ehminated. 

All this Africa owes to Europe and her conclusion, 
colonisers who have crowded thither from 
every sort of reason and motive to build up 
fresh social structures and develop a new 
country from soil iiitherto virgin, unclaimed by 

I04 The Future of Africa 

civilised man. Such is the story of Europe's 
connection with Africa. A story of failure 
side by side with splendid achievement ; a 
story in which gross exploitation and dis- 
interested devotion side by side have dug chan- 
nels for Africa's future forces to flow through. 
It is the story of a battle-ground of conflicting 
forces ever at work. Looking back we wonder 
what lessons are to be gained from these 
unfolded results. In the past, Europe has 
wrought much evil and even more good. Much, 
therefore, devolves clearly upon her, in view of 
all she has achieved in the past, in view of the 
heroic efforts of our forefathers, to suppress the 
slave trade. The duty that Hes before Eiuope 
is twofold : that of reparation for havoc in the 
past, that of preparation for right development 
in the future. One plain task confronts her. 
Weighty issues depend on her pursuance of that 
task. European character, capacity and 
experience can lead Africa to the " strength 
and matm'ity of nationhood." A momentous 
stage has been reached in the vast growth of the 
" dark continent." Europe must bring all her 
treasures of influence, insight, and experience 
to bear on the development of this great 
country. Europe has received her summons, 
and for weal or woe the trend of Africa's 
future will be decided by Europe. 




The Peoples of Africa. 

(«) The Bushmen. 

(6) The Hottentots. 

(c) The Negroes. 

{(I) The Bantu. 
Tribal Revolutions in Eighteenth and 
Nineteenth Centuries. 

(a) West Africa. 

(h) East Afi-ica. 
The Beliefs and Customs of Paganism. 

(a) Idea of God. 

(6) Spirit- Worship. 

(c) The After-Life. 

(d) Fetich-Worship. 

(e) Sacrifices. 

(/■) Witch-Doctors, 
(g) Secret Societies. 
(k) Infanticide. 
(«) Cannibalism. 
(.;") Polygamy. 
(k) Drunkenness. 
(/) Lifeof httle Value. 
The Appeal of Paganism. 

Thus far we have looked at Africa largely 
because of its close connection with our 

io6 The Future of Africa 

he Peoples European civilisation and with many of the 
Afnca. bright names in the history of our country. 
Africa has thus presented itself to us a 
united whole, and the actual conditions 
prevailing in the country itself may have 
seemed to be of little interest. At first sight 
we seem to see nothing more than a seeth- 
ing mass of black humanity. As the mists 
and obscurity gradually clear, we learn, how- 
ever, to distinguish individual grouping in 
what at first glance appeared a mere con- 
fused human mass of strange wild people 
akin to the savage beasts amongst which 
they wandered. Of the six great groups 
into which the population of Africa is 
divided, two do not concern this textbook. 
These are the Semitic and Hamitic, for the 
races who come under these headings are 
almost entirely Mohammedan. The remain- 
ing groups are four in number. The Bush- 
men, the Hottentots, the Negroes, and the 
a) The The Bushmcu, or Pygmies, were the original 

Bushmen, i^l^abitants of Africa. They are identified 
by some with the pre-historic savage of 
Europe. In the museum at Brussels one 
can see stone implements and drawings of 
the dwarfish cave - dwellers of Europe, 
which are exactly similar to the imple- 

The Conditions Revealed 107 

ments and dramngs of the Bushmen. They 
seem to have come in a great movement 
out of Asia, divided into two streams, one 
going through Europe where they were de- 
stroyed by stronger races, the other passing 
into Africa. Signs of their presence can still 
be found throughout the continent, and, 
though they are fast disappearing, sections 
of the same race are known to exist in South 
Africa, in the forest region of the Gaboon, 
the Masai and the equatorial regions of the 
Congo. All the members of this Uttle race 
present physical features which are totally 
distinct from negro characteristics. Their 
skin is a light brown and their average height 
four feet seven. Their habits are neither 
pastoral nor agricultural. They are simply 
hunters who wander perpetually, hving in 
caves or Httle huts of branches, eating the 
game they capture, or grubbing for roots and 
insects when meat fails. The language of the 
Bushmen is one of the most primitive forms of 
articulate speech, consisting chiefly of clicks 
and diphthongs. They have no numerals be- 
yond two, and express the plural by repetition 
of the singular, as for dogs : dog dog. Yet 
alone of all races in Africa they possessed high 
artistic qualities, and much of their history can 
still be read in the cave drawings and carvings 

io8 The Future of Africa 

which are to be found in many places of South 

After the Bushmen came the Hottentots. 
They seem to have come down from the north 
after a great lapse of time. Tlieir language 
has some affinities in general structure with 
that of the Bushmen, but they had advanced 
from the hunter stage to the pastoral, had 
increased in stature, possibly by mixture with 
negro blood, and had learned the practical 
arts of smelting iron and copper. Their 
earliest traditions take us about a thousand 
years back, when they w^ere living in the 
neighbourhood of the great Lakes. The 
Hottentots called themselves the KhoiKhoi — 
the men of men — as they prided themselves 
in their superiority over the Bushmen. As 
they increased in numbers they threw off little 
communities who sought new lands. But each 
community seemed to Hmit itself to a few 
hundred or a thousand souls. 

Tlie religion of the Hottentots was animistic 
like that of all pagan tribes. They lived in 
continual dread of evil spirits, and prayed 
to the moon for blessings. After contact with 
the Bantu they became worsliippers also of 
ancestral spirits. Tliey believed in two gods — 
one beneficent, who lived in the red sky, and 
one malevolent, who lived in the dark sky. 

The Conditions Revealed 109 

Tlieir prayers were to the black god for he did 
them harm. Tliey had a myth about the 
conflict of the red god with the black god — 
perhaps arising from the conflict of dark and 
dawn. Tliere is curious identity between this 
belief in two gods with one which is found 
among the Masai. 

Socially, the Hottentots were very de- 
graded — " a more impro-sddent, unstable, 
thoughtless people never existed." The 
greater part of the tribes became serfs 
to the early Europeans, and mixed with 
negro and other races so much that they 
became known as the " bastard " race. 
Considerable power was gained by some 
of these mongrel tribes, and they occupy a 
goodly part of South Africa. Most of the 
tribes' names end in qua^ which means " the 
people 01 " — as " Namaqua," the people of 

The Negroes are the people who live chiefly (c) The 

. Neeroes 

in the north of Central Africa, from the fifteenth 
north parallel southwards to the fifth. They 
again di\'ide into various sub-groups, such as 
the Sudanese, Nilotic and Ethiopian. To 
these groups belong some of the greatest and 
most interesting of the African tribes, such as 
the Mandingos, whose language was the lingua 
franca of the Western Soudan, where Mungo 

no The Future of Africa 

Park explored the Niger. Among other tribes 
belonging to these groups are the Hausa, whose 
language is spoken by perhaps fifteen millions 
of people. 

Now we come to the greatest group of all — 
the Bantu— of whom there are fifty miUions in 
Africa. The tribes of this group extend from 
the latitude of the Cameroons south to the 
Cape of Good Hope. There is a far closer 
alHance between all their languages than 
between those of the Negro group. The 
distinction that lies between members of 
the Negro group and of the two main races, 
while scarcely discernible physically, is so 
great hnguistically that the Bantus of the 
Cameroon frontier and the negroes of the 
Niger, although hving so near to one another, 
have no more in common with one another 
hnguistically than Enghsh and Chinese. The 
word Bantu means " people," and the three 
hundred languages and dialects which the 
people speak all show a striking uniformity of 
construction. The origin of the Bantu race 
is uncertain, but tradition seems to point to a 
northernly direction. They probably entered 
the continent long after the Bushmen had 
settled in its central and southern parts. As 
horde after horde passed down they mingled 
with the tribes they harassed or conquered. 


The Conditions Revealed 1 1 1 

The race, therefore, is not pure and distinct ; 
Negro, Haniitic, and Semitic blood are evi- 
dently mixed with the original stock. It was 
only about 800 or 900 a.d. that the vanguard 
of this race came across the Zambesi, and the 
main tribes who now form the predominant 
races of South Africa have mostly come since 
the occupation of the coast by Portuguese. 
One great horde came down by the west, 
and their names will be recognised by the 
prefix ova, which is simply the plural of the 
nouns which indicate people. The Ocambo 
Ovahereros, are just " The Mbos," or the 
Hereros. The tribes of the eastern invasion 
may be recognised by the prefix ama or aba, 
as Amazulu, Mashona, or the Abapedi, Basuto, 
meaning the Zulu, the Shona, etc. 
While Europe was exploiting the coast of Tribal 

. p • . 1 1 1 • ■ • ii • 'IT Revolutions 

Airica the whole interior was seetmng with re- in Eighteenth 

volutionary changes, swarms of savages were JJineteenth 

sweeping hither and thither in irresistible waves. Centuries. 

under wliich whole tribes were submerged and 

lost for ever to the world. Kingdoms rose 

under the organising skill of some great warrior, 

who, by the power of his spear, affected a new 

combination of scattered peoples, carved out 

a kingdom for himself, devastated great 

tracts of country, and maintained his power 

by the terror of wholesale pillage and butchery. 

1 1 2 The Future of Africa 

His kingdom seldom lasted beyond the second 
generation, and then liis besotted successors 
fell before the advance of some new Napoleon. 
People who speak of the happy innocence of 
the savage should read a little of the internal 
history of Africa, in the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries especially, and they would 
see how Africa ran with blood, and a night of 
cruelty and terror covered its people. 

On the west coast the Portuguese at the 
ports were sometimes startled by the appear- 
ance of the vanguards of tribes that burst 
through the barriers of the interior and 
carried desolation to the coast ; these visits 
were but the spent waves breaking on the 
beach, but they told of a mighty hurricane 
of war which was devastating the interior, 
whose progress we can only faintly trace now. 
In the seventeenth century the Yaggas ap- 
peared on the coast. These were probably 
the Paris who had come from the north- 
east ; they were a fierce cannibal tribe who 
spread along the Congo basin, south to the 
Loanda province, and north to the regions 
of what is now French Congo. As they 
passed on their wild progress they wiped out 
tribes, and broke up ancient kingdoms, the 
old dynasty of the Congo falHng amongst 

The Conditions Revealed 1 1 3 

Up to recent years the history of many 
tribes on the west coast is one of blood. The 
Dahomie, for example, with its Amazon 
soldiers, famous for their courage and cruelty, 
devastated neighbouring tribes, not so much 
for love of empire, as to find victims for 
slaves, and for human sacrifice. The capital 
was a city of human skulls, which were stored 
up in piles of thousands. 

In the eastern provinces the Masai attained (b) East 

• • p rm Africa. 

a position of great power. They were once 
divided into two sections, the agricultural 
and the pastoral. A conflict arose between 
the two in which the agricultural was annihil- 
ated. The pastoral formed themselves into 
a miHtary tribe of wliich all the youths be- 
tween seventeen and twenty years of age had 
to serve in regiments and abstain from 
strong drink and marriage. These hardened 
warriors spread over eastern Africa, carrying 
death and desolation everywhere. In the 
middle of the nineteenth century they had 
acquired great importance. They success- 
fully resisted the slaving Arabs, and making 
themselves masters of some of the main 
routes, exacted tribute from all travellers or 
effectually closed the interior. History tells 
of a devastating horde of cannibals, the 
iVIazimba, who towards the end of the six- 

114 The Future of Africa 

teenth centurj'^ arrived at the Zambesi. Here 
they split into two sections, one passing 
north-east the other crossing the Zambesi 
and sweeping southwards. The northward 
section passed over an immense tract of 
country, committing frightful ravages, until 
they reached the shores of the Indian Ocean. 
Here they besieged the Portuguese at Mozam- 
bique, wiped out Kilwa in the north and 
nearly destroyed Mombasa, but the Portu- 
guese finally ralHed and checked them at 
Mehnde and almost exterminated them in a 
crushing defeat. The section which crossed 
the Zambesi proceeded southward, solving 
horror and bloodshed till they in turn were 
conquered by another savage host, the Abambo. 
Out of these ferocious tribes others arose, 
the most notable being the Zulus who were 
captained and led by a great chief, Chaka, 
about the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
Chaka formed armies out of the tribes under 
him, which over-ran and devastated all South 
Africa. At least a miUion people were wan- 
tonly exterminated during his terrible reign. 

These tribes split up again owing to fright- 
ful dissensions among themselves. Tlie three 
main divisions were the Matabele, the Angoni, 
and the Mantiti. The last named were the 
most savage of all these savage races. They 

The Conditions Revealed 1 1 5 

appeared suddenly, formed by the welter of 
Chaka's wars, and were in turn wiped out, 
but not before they had caused frightful 
slaughter. The missionary, Moffat, to whom 
wild rumours had come of this savage horde, 
gathered together forces of the Griqua and 
Bechuana, and a great battle took place in 
which the Griquas fought with firearms 
slaying great numbers of the Mantitis. The 
enemy fought with desperate valom", single 
men fighting with a dozen assegais sticking 
in their bodies against a score of Bechuana. 
But in the end the invading army was broken 
and driven back. Now they spread them- 
selves among other tribes, forty to fifty 
thousand savages, moving along in dense 
masses, parties scouting and seeking for 
plunder on all sides as they advanced. But 
the immense herds of cattle that they cap- 
tured were not sufficient to feed this mighty 
army, and they passed on Uke Hving skeletons 
whose very famine drove them to fiercest 
brutalities, leaving their dead and dying 
strewn in the bush. Their route for hundreds 
of miles could be traced by human bones, and 
soon they melted into nothing. 

These are a few of the events that were 
happening in the interior of Africa, not, be 
it noted, in the centuries before the continent 

ii6 The F'uture of Africa 

was known to the world, but in these last 
centuries, and in this generation. As Living- 
stone passed through such devastating scenes 
he cried " Blood, blood, everywhere blood." 
His own peculiar people the Makololo were just 
such another tribe that arose out of Chaka's 
wars, flourished by marauding, were scattered 
or blotted out. When he preached " Peace 
on earth and good will to men," to the Batoka 
on the Zambesi, they cried out, " We are 
tired of flight ; give us rest and sleep." 
The Beliefs In order to understand aright the tribal Hfe 

and Customs e x j u j. ±. xiiii*i» i 

of Paganism, o* to-day wc have to turn to the belieis and 
customs upon which that whole Hfe is founded. 
The system is, roughly speaking, what is 
known as Paganism, and the future of this 
system carries with it much of the whole 
future of the Continent. To present a com- 
plete picture of Paganism is hard, for in spite 
of the gross superstition and cruelty bound up 
with the rehgion of Africa, there are many 
things that are " broken Hghts " of God. 
Also there are social customs and individual 
characteristics that are wholly admirable. 

But we cannot be blind to the utter 
inadequacy of Paganism to satisfy men. 
" Though simple in form," wrote Dr Stewart 
of Lovedale, whose words were always cautious 
and measured, " Paganism is a terrible fate 

The Conditions Revealed 1 1 7 

spiritually, and an oppressive power under 
which to hve. To all the ills of Hfe it adds 
the terrors of a world unseen, whose agents 
are always actively engaged with human 
affairs. The poorness and hardness, narrow- 
ness and joylessness of human existence in 
Paganism must be seen to be understood." 
The rehgion of the African Pagan is animistic. 
His object of worship consists of souls 
or spirits. The Pagan worships and fears 
his own soul or souls (some tribes believe 
that each individual has several), and the 
souls of his ancestors. He beheves that men, 
animals, plants, all the forces of nature, 
animate and inanimate, possess spirits which 
must be worshipped and propitiated. This 
worship may also include the behef in a 
Supreme Spirit or Supreme Being. 

He has a dim vague idea of a far-away (a) idea of 
Supreme God who created the world. Almost 
every tribe names the Great God, but none 
know Him. At the best. He is an absentee 
God who made the world and now takes no 
concern with it. Prayers are never made to 

In many tribes there is a belief in one or 
many sub-gods. These control some great 
natural element, and reside frequently in 
some awesome spot. There are gods of rain, 

1 1 8 The Future of Africa 

of thunder, of the sea, and their dwelling- 
places may be on some cloud-capped mountain, 
in rushing torrent, or in thundering sea. In 
West Africa every dangerous place is the 
residence of a god, rocks and whirlpools in 
the river, swamps, the surf, etc. Their con- 
cerns with men are very intimate, and to 
them sacrifice and prayer are made by the 
priest or the cliief of the clan. The occasions 
of the sacrifice will be before some great 
need, or under some calamity. Fear is the 
usual motive, sometimes gratitude for deliver- 
ance, but never the hunger of the soul for 
communion with what is good and holy. 

Among all the Bantu tribes, and in many 
of the Negro, the spirits of the dead are wor- 
shipped. When a man dies liis soul Uves on, 
and that soul is peculiarly active about the 
affairs of his relatives. Little temples may 
be prepared for his residence or he may live 
again in the form of a snake or a Uzard, and 
abide in the hut of his relatives. In many 
parts of Africa it would be a capital offence 
to kill one of the snakes or hzards or iguanas 
which have become the dwelHng-place of a 
departed soul. Offerings of food and drink 
are made at the grave that the soul may eat 
and drink in his new existence the things 
that dehghted him during his corporal Hfe. 

- 'o, 

1 O 

I ^ 

- c« 


The Conditions Revealed 119 

In some parts of the Congo region, when a 
body is buried a long stick is placed in the 
mouth of the corpse, and when the grave is 
filled up, the stick is withcbawn, and thus a 
channel is left through wliich beer and food 
may be poured. The belief is not that the 
soul actually eats the material offerings, but 
only their essence. Among some tribes the 
worship of ancestral spirits is the chief item 
in their reHgion. There is no order of priests 
to minister to these spirits but each family 
has its own set of spmts which are added to 
by every death in the family. Each spirit 
has its own responsible priest. The constant 
activity of the spirits is the cause of all the 
anxieties and calamities of the people. Sick- 
ness, drought, death and all disasters come 
from their malevolence. ^Vhen, however, 
good fortune comes, the spirits have been 
appeased, and look with favour upon their 

This behef in the after-Hfe of the soul (we (c) The 
must not call it immortality, for the soul fades the Soui. 
off with the memory of the family) has led 
to some of the most awful horrors of African 
social life. The spirits Hve in some dark 
forest-land, or under the sea, much the same 
Hfe as men on earth. Tliey must have com- 
panions when they enter the unknown world, 

I20 The Future of Africa 

slaves to maintain the chief's dignity, and wives 
to cook for him. Thus many a time the 
death of a gi'eat chief has meant the slaying 
of a multitude. When a king of Bakuba 
died, three hundred slaves were killed, and 
their bodies buried with him. When Chaka's 
mother died the rivers were said to run blood, 
so great was the slaughter in her honour. 
Wlien the widows were buried it was not by 
a voluntary immolation, but by force and in 
the wild terror of the victim. Poor indeed is 
the lot of the widows, even when no such 
killing horror takes place. They sit for days 
in the hut with the decomposing corpse, and 
for months or a year afterwards are secluded, 
and forbidden to wash. 

Fetichism and charms also play a great part 
in animistic religions. On the west coast 
among both Bantu and Negro people fetichism 
has attained an all pervading pre-eminence. 
The word fetich is not native. It is a Portu- 
guese word feitico, wliich was used for the 
httle relics or images of the saints, and the 
Portuguese sailors adopted it to describe the 
charms of Africa in which they recognised 
some similarity. Juju is another word used 
for much the same form of animism. It is 
French, and comes from the word for a toy 
or doll. But those charms, which have so 

The Conditions Revealed 121 

large a place in the religion of West Africa, 
are not influential because of any doll-like 
prettiness in them. Indeed the greatest 
jujus are intensely ugly, and are strange 
conglomerations of all sorts of roots, cloths, 
and broken ware. They are not reverenced 
for anything that they are, but for the spirit 
that has taken up his abode within them. 
This indeed is the essence of all the worship 
of animism. The old trees, the waterfalls 
and whirlpools, the mountains and breaking 
surf, are but the temples of some more or 
less potent spirit, and hence the worship of 
them. Every man has his fetich and a man's 
authority, influence, and wealth depend on 
its power. Some of the great fetiches or 
jujus may become enormously influential, 
and the spirits that dwell in them control 
the Ufe not merely of the individual, but of 
whole communities. When war or pestilence 
break out, elaborate sacrifices are immedi- 
ately made to the fetich. Charms are made 
for every desire and every need and danger in 
life — for loving and hating, for hunting and 
fishing, for sailing and walking, for buying 
and selling, against thieves and assassins, 
against wild beasts, against disease and 
death, and the terrors of the elements. These 
charms gain their supposed power from 

122 The Future of Africa 

some special dedication by a witch-doctor or 
from being imbued with some soul-stuff. 
Even hair and nails are held by the animist 
to contain this essence of " soul-stuff." 

The idea of sacrifice is common to all these 
spirit worshippers whether they reverence the 
spirits of ancestors for whom no fetich is 
made, or the spirits who dwell in elaborated 
charms. To these blood is offered. A fowl 
or an ox may be killed. In the south the blood 
is carefully kept in a calabash, and the meat 
divided between the villagers and the elders. 
In the west the blood is sprinkled at the door 
of the fetich hut or at the entrance to the 
village. And though food is offered, it is 
but the essence the spirit eats, the villagers 
eat the meat. The sacrifice is the blood, for 
" the blood is the hfe." 

The greater the juju the greater the sacri- 
fice that must be offered. Hence arose the 
necessity for human sacrifice. Oxen were 
better than goats, and human beings than 
oxen. In Ashanti and Benin, and in the upper 
reaches of the Niger, the tale of human victims 
was terrible, and where European power has 
not suppressed it the custom still goes on. 
After war hundreds or thousands of victims 
might be offered to the great juju. They 
were his captives, for he had fought with the 

The Conditions Revealed 123 

\dctorioiis army, and he demanded their blood. 
So also when disease swept through the village, 
the angry spirit was demanding victims, and 
the plague could only be stayed by satiating 
him with the blood of men. 

Surrounded as the native is by fearful and (f) Witch- 
unkno^vn powers who are the begetters of 
all his misfortimes and sicknesses, it is no 
wonder that the witch-doctor famihar with 
the secrets of this liidden world, acquires a 
mighty influence. There are tribes, such as 
the Masai, and some of the Congo and west 
coast people, among whom the witch-doctor 
is the most influential man in the tribe. His 
decision is absolute and to disobey would be 
certain death. These doctois are not all 
impostors though in many cases they maintain 
their power by melodramatic impositions on 
the creduhty of the people. The profession 
may run in famihes, descending from father 
to son, who guard its secrets most jealously, 
or by some prolonged and most arduous 
course of instruction the old doctors initiate 
their apprentices. They are usually highly 
neurotic men or women, perhaps with a touch 
of madness and a large supply of slyness. 
Their cures and influences may only be effected 
when they have worked themselves into an 
hysterical state, wliich possibly grips hold of 

124 The Future of Africa 

the spectators also, and theu- wild appearance, 
with painted bodies covered with trappings 
made from claws and bones and skins of wild 
animals, excite fear and reverence in the 
audience. Various are the functions of the 
witch-doctors. They interpret the minds of 
the spirits and can tell why they are offended 
and working havoc ; as exorcists they will 
say what sick devil has come to the sufferer, 
and they will cast it out. Often also they 
have no small skill in administering native 
cures and medicines, but fearful is the pain 
they must cause at times when they pass 
from pharmacy to surgical operations. Dr 
Nassau cited this case to Miss Kingsley. " A 
man was accidentally shot in the chest. . . . 
The native doctor who was called in made 
a perpendicular incision into the man's chest, 
extending down the last rib ; he then cut 
diagonally across, and actually Hfted the wall 
of the chest, and groped about among the 
vitals for the bullet which he successfully 
extracted. The patient died. No anaesthetic 
was employed." 

The witch-doctor is also supposed to possess 
supernatural abihty in the detection of crime. 
Here Hes the main secret of his dread power. 
His word is law, and when a crime is committed 
he points oat the victim, and the unfortunate 

The Conditions Revealed 125 

wretch must then pass through some testing 
ordeal or suffer some barbarous punishment. 
In cases of sickness or misfortune the natives 
invariably suspect witchcraft. The witch- 
doctor is applied to, and paid to discover the 
author of the malady or misfortune. Accord- 
ingly he produces a culprit, who, whether inno- 
cent or not, must undergo some test proscribed 
by the doctor. This may be either drinking 
poison, or picking stones out of a caldron 
of boihng water, or some such fiendish device. 
Irmocence is proved by the victim vomiting 
the poison, or escaping bhsters. Failure to 
prove innocence results in immediate death. 
The awful evil of witch-craft cannot be ex- 
aggerated. It has killed and still kills more 
men and women than the slave trade. The 
only escape from the penalty of these awful 
accusations is to fly to some neighbouring 
clan at enmity with the village where the 
accusation has been made, or to take refuge at 
one of the few sanctuaries among the west 
coast tribes. 

Another terror is found in the secret societies (g) Secret 
which abound in the west. Many of these are °^'^*^®^- 
founded and centre round the cult of some 
great juju, and are the pohce who punish 
crime and maintain order. Others are bands 
of robbers and libertines, who by their secret 

126 The Future of Africa 

discipline and loyalty, as well as by their 
supposed control of potent spirits, terrorise 
neighbourhoods. The initiation of youths and 
maidens to these secret societies are periods 
of hard endurance for the apprentice, and also 
of unrestrained vice. They menace, or ab- 
solutely destroy what little of modesty and 
purity might still be left after cliildhood in 
a native village. The dances, too, which be- 
guile the bright moonhght nights are too often 
plays whose sport and cHmax are posturings 
of loathsome obscenity. As one has looked 
on these some clear night, when the villagers 
are gathered, excited by beer, the old women 
leading the dance, the Httle children looking 
on with wild laughter, one felt as if the air 
breathed of the foulness of hell, and one 
wondered how the whole social cohesion of 
the people is not wrecked by the moral 
rottenness of the school in which these Httle 
ones are trained. 

Infanticide is common throughout Africa, 
where it has not been suppressed by Christian 
influence or European administration. The 
little children whose upper teeth appear before 
the lower are buried aHve or cast into the bush. 
In many tribes twin children are destroyed, 
as well as the mothers who bare them. 
The twin is reckoned to have returned to the 


The necklace of buck-thorns contains his various medicines 

The Conditions Revealed 127 

state of the beast, and is cast away as an 
enemy. Sometimes the mother is spared, but 
she is driven from the village to Hve by her-" 
self in the bush, and none hold any com- 
munication with her. In many tribes when a 
poor woman dies in childbirth her body is 
cast aside unburied, for the hyenas to devour. 
And all over the continent this calamity 
certifies the guilt of the woman, and her name 
is only remembered in infamy. 

CannibaKsm has been found in many parts (i) Canni- 
of the continent among the tribes of the 
Upper Nile, in West Africa, in the equatorial 
forests, along the affluents of the mighty 
Congo, by the Luapula. Among some it 
is a rehgious ceremony. The flesh of the 
human victim is eaten, just as the flesh of the 
ox offered in sacrifice was formerly. Among 
most it was a dreadful appetite. To satisfy the 
hunger for human flesh, internecine war was 
continually going on. In the Congo markets 
human flesh was always exposed for sale. 
The Fans eat instead of burying their dead. 

There are many other evils which are not (jiPoiygam; 
atrocities, and therefore do not come under 
the ban of government, but yet are gangrenes 
in the social body. Polygamy may be excused 
by some as essential to the African. But 
where polygamy exists it increases indolence 

128 The Future of Africa 

and sensuality. It lowers womanhood and 
makes family life impossible. 

Drimkenness is all-prevailing, not simply 
from gin-drinking, for Europe has not intro- 
duced the African to intoxication. He makes 
liquor of his own from palms, or bananas, or 
maize, or millet, and where beer can be got 
whole villages Uve in a state of intoxication 
for days on end. Drunkenness, daily, is the 
regal condition of an African chief. Drunken- 
ness is the cause of m'ne-tenths of the crimes 
of violence that come before the native courts. 

There is also a type of slavery other than 
the commerce in slaves. There is domestic 
slavery which prevails over the continent. 
In some cases this is only a mild state of 
serfdom which Eiu-opean governments do 
not disturb. In other cases the serf is the 
absolute property of his master, and may be 
bought and sold to others. The captives of 
war who were incorporated in the tribe 
become members of the household of their 
master. For them and their children the 
master may provide wives and gardens, 
but their children become the property of 
the master of his family. The owner is 
called "the father," and he is responsible 
for the conduct of his serfs. If they get into 
trouble he pays their fines. When their 

The Conditions Revealed 129 

children grow up he provides the dowry for 
their wives. On the other hand, he can 
claim all or the greater part of their earnings, 
and they help him in hoeing his fields, and 
building his houses without any remuneration. 
He also receives the dowry for the girls who 
might be taken in marriage by others. Of 
com"se such a system has great evils. The 
power of individual progress is severely hmited 
and great injustice is done to one who may 
in any way be ambitious of progress, or desire 
to retain his Uttle children about him. Some- 
times this serfdom is pushed to extremes 
which amount to nothing more or less than 
slavery. But in many tribes, if the master 
is guilty of cruel treatment of his serfs, the 
serf may escape to another master. 

The bartering of human lives often occurs 
in marriage. Men who are rich in goods and 
cattle may buy girls from their fathers. They 
pay dowry, which is often simply purchase 
money, and the wife becomes the absolute 
property of her husband. In other tribes 
the system of dowry is a healthy and necessary 
protection for the wives, for in the case of 
ill-treatment the wife can return to her 
father's house, and the husband has no claim 
for the return of the dowry. 

Another custom of pawning hves has be- 

I30 The Future of Africa 

come very common in West Africa. When a 
man has got into difficulties over a crime, or 
by debt, he pays sometimes by pawning 
himself to the creditor, or by pawning his own 
children. Thus for years, or all his hfe, a 
man may Uve in slavery, receiving no re- 
muneration, and paying off his debt by means 
of servitude, 
i Appeal These are some of the horrors and diseases 
aganism- ^| African paganism. Yet the doers are 
unconscious of shame. There is no rebuke 
for what their religion sanctions, and their 
customs have become stereotyped. They are 
bHnd with no sense of what vision might 
mean. They grope through darkness as yet 
unenlightened by truth. 

Animism, Uke all other phases of human 
development, has its lights as well as its 
shades. The terrible darkness of Paganism 
is reheved here and there by quahties and 
virtues not unworthy of Christianity itself. 
It should never be forgotten that Animism, 
base and terrible as many of its tenets are, 
is yet " an effort of fellowmen to grapple 
with the great problem of existence, and we 
are told by a great student of Paganism, that 
" a longing and seeking for God runs through 
Animistic religion Hke a vein of gold in the 
dirty rock." The Animist also does un- 

The Conditions Revealed 131 

deniably extract some consolation from follow- 
ing certain observances and rites " meant 
to appease the angry spirit," and has the 
satisf nction of f eehng that he has done all that 
is possible to ensure harmonious relations 
between himself and the spirits. 

Animistic superstition has also developed 
practices which have been maintained because 
they have strengthened the respect for govern- 
ments, and thereby contributed to the estab- 
Hshment and maintenance of civil order. 
Such practices have strengthened the respect 
for private property, and allowed men to 
enjoy its possession. They have strengthened 
respect for marriage, and a stricter observance 
of the rules of sexual morahty. They have 
even strengthened the respect for human 
life, and contributed to the security of its 

Although it may seem on the sm-face a con- 
tradictory statement, there is no doubt that 
in the brutal condition of tribal life many 
an unfeeUng practice and many an atrocity 
seems almost to have been necessary to 
bulwark the rotten society in which the 
native hved. This is illustrated by an 
incident which occurred on the Upper Congo. 
" A certain man went mad with sleeping 
sickness and was very troublesome to his 

132 The Future of Africa 

neighbours. They would gladly have put 
him on one of the islands in midstream and 
left him to starve, but superstition came to 
his aid and prevented the unfortunate man 
being maltreated. His neighbours beheved 
that if anything violent were done, his spirit 
would return to trouble them after death, 
perhaps in the shape of a crocodile or a 
leopard, or by some evil and unaccountable 
smell, or mysterious noise, or by sickness. 
Anything that tends to more humane be- 
haviour must have its germs of secret good, 
and even Animism cannot be regarded from 
every point as altogether and absolutely 
evil. There is indeed a danger in the Africa 
of to-day that when European government 
and crusading civilisation are suppressing 
customs which are immemorial but contrary 
to our ideas of justice and morality, the very 
safe-guards of social order are being removed. 
Despite any " vein of gold," however, we 
are thrown back on the overpowering and 
terrible evidence gathered by all who study 
it, of its terrible social degradation and 
misery, its lack of consciousness of sin, the 
very baseness of the superstition which yet 
blindly strives to fill the yearning for some- 
thing beyond him, at times felt by the 
lowest type of human savage. We reflect on 

The Conditions Revealed 133 

the close contact of Eui'ope and civilisation in 
these last centuries with Africa, and wonder 
what they can give to remedy this fearsome 
state of things ? A yet graver consideration 
must force itself upon us. What message 
can Christianity bring to meet this inadequacy 
of Animism to satisfy the needs of men ? For 
an answer to this question we turn to the 
chapters that follow. 




The Story of Missions in Africa. 
(fl) The Moravians. 

(b) Pioneer Work by the London Missionary 


(c) Pioneers in West Africa. 

The New Era of Missions. 

(a) West Africa. 

(b) South Africa. 

(c) East and Central Africa. 

Methods of presenting Christianitv. 

(a) Industrial Missions. 

(b) Medical Missions. 

(c) Educational. 

(d) Production of Literature. 

(e) Preaching. 

(i) Its Value. 

(ii) The Appeal of the Gospel. 

We closed last chapter with the question as to 
what message Christianity is bringing to meet 
the needs of Africa ? For an answer to this 
we must turn to the story of what has been 


The Hand of the Church on Africa 135 

done by the representatives of Christianity in 
the past; we must also survey the work 
which missions are doing in the present. 
We look back to the pioneers of the days that 
are gone to enable us to grasp the present 
situation and how it came about. We look 
to the present, the mission field of to-day, to 
teach us by its various agencies and methods 
what is actually being done at this moment, 
and to guide us in di'awing some forecast of 
the possibiUties still veiled in the future. 

The history of modern missions in Africa The story of 

J , V 1 ,1 J J. 1 J Missions in 

dates back exactly one and tliree-quarters Africa, 
of a century ago, when the first attempt of the (^) The 
EvangeHcal Church to introduce the Gospel 
to Africa was made by the Moravians. These 
Christians have been described as the most 
efficacious and influential missionary organ- 
isation that ever existed. They are pre- 
eminently a missionary chm*ch, and their 
chief aim is to reach the least advanced and 
more neglected races with the Gospel teaching. 
Their main principle is striking in its good 
sense and practical Christianity. " Let us 
begin by reforming ourselves and Uve in love 
with all the brethren, and with all the cliildren 
of God in all reUgions." 

In the year 1736 they sent a missionary, 
George Schmidt, to the Hottentots, and for 

136 The Future of Africa 

seven years he laboured near Cape Town, 
founded a tiny " valley of grace " (Gnaden- 
thal), collected a few Christians round him, 
but at the end of that time was banished by 
the jealous Dutch Government. Half a 
century later the Moravians, with unbaffled 
heroism, returned to the charge and started 
work afresh in the same memorable spot. 
They lived amid constant alarms. At one 
time they were threatened by a force of a 
hundred armed men, who had come not under 
sanction of the Government, but at their own 
instigation. They soon gathered about them 
a considerable Christian community, and their 
work has spread over the colony and into 
German East Africa. 
(b) Pioneer In 1798 there arrived at the Cape Dr 
London^ ^ Vauderkcmp, the first pioneer in Africa of the 
Sodety!^'^^ London Missionary Society. So difficult were 
the means of communication in those days 
that Vanderkemp sailed in a convict ship, 
and took three months to a voyage which 
to-day takes less than three weeks. The 
unsettled state of the natives made his pioneer 
work very difficult, and he was driven from liis 
first stations by native outbreaks. At last he 
settled near Algoa Bay, but here he had httle 
peace from the Government and the Europeans. 
The colonists felt that his work for the natives 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 137 

was inimical to their treatment of the Kafifirs, 
and they beheved that the refugees who 
gathered about the training institute founded 
by Vanderkemp at Bethelsdorp were taught 
to refuse labour and to be rebeUious. 

More favourable conditions prevailed when 
the British Government took over the Colony, 
but persecution was not at an end. A tax, 
which ate up two-thirds of their possible 
earnings, was levied on the natives in Bethels- 
dorp Institute, and as the result of feeble 
staffing, the taking away of the men by force 
for work, and other causes, the Institute fell 
upon evil days. The London Missionary 
Society, however, steadily advanced its work 
in other quarters. Men Uke Moffat and Phihp 
were sent who led the missionaries in a con- 
stantly advancing hne until their forces were 
scattered over a region extending in area from 
the Cape to the far north hinterland. 

In such a brief outline of missionary 
societies and their efforts in Africa as this is 
compelled to be, special mention of any one 
society, even the foremost, would be invidious, 
but the efforts of the London Missionary 
Society were outdone by none of their suc- 
cessors. They planted and watered in certain 
instances where others have reaped. Only 
the close student of beginnings could at all 

138 The Future of Africa 

appreciate what those efforts have been. 
Vanderkemp heads a long Hst of names 
illustrious in mission annals. Not only in 
South and Central Africa did the London 
Missionary Society sow a lasting harvest but 
in Madagascar, where they first sent mis- 
sionaries in 1820 they have achieved success 
of a striking kind. 
(c) Pioneers On the West Coast the Moravians were again 
Africa. the pioucers. In 1768 they sent men to the 
Guinea coast, but those all died in a short 
time. The Edinburgh and Glasgow Missionary 
Societies followed by sending six men to the 
Susus, north of Sierra Leone. Three died, 
and one was murdered by the Fulahs, and the 
mission was abandoned. 

It was not long, however, ere the Church 
Missionary Society entered tliis field by 
sending missionaries to the Susus. We gain 
some ideas of the difficulties of travelhng 
which had to be encountered, on learning 
that it took these missionaries three years to 
reach their field. They got there to encounter 
harsh obstacles at the outset in the hostihty 
of the slave traders who regarded them as 
spies of their smugghng operations. Twice 
they attacked and destroyed the mission 
station and finally the missionaries were 
forced to beat a retreat. Work was then trans- 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 139 

ferred to Sierra Leone, the colony which had 
been founded for liberated slaves, where riot 
and confusion prevailed. In spite of these 
unfavourable conditions, however, the work 
prospered, and in the course of a few years 
there was a large Christian community. In 
this work the Wesleyans also had a share. 
They had, in fact, preceded the Church Mis- 
sionary Society's missionaries, for they had 
sent out their first party in 1811. Ten years 
later they extended to the Gambia River. 
Other missionary societies now followed, and 
slowly the work extended along the coast 
through recruits from Europe and by mis- 
sionary extensions of the native churches. 
But owing to the difficulties of advance, 
especially the antagonism of the slave traffic 
and the great unrest caused in the interior 
by the intertribal conflicts, no work was done 
beyond the fringe of the coast, and there it 
was of the most Hmited character. 

It was with the suppression of the slave The New 
trade on the West Coast and the activity of Missions. 
exploration begun by Livingstone and Krapf 
that the new era of serious and far-flung mis- 
sionary enterprise began in Africa. From this 
time onwards the record of African missions 
is "no barren series of Church annals but an 
account of a movement always in vital touch, 


The Future of Africa 

(a) West 

(b) South 

with the growth of Christianity or with the 
advance of civihsation." 

In the West, Lagos, the last stronghold of 
slaving, was occupied by the Wesleyans and the 
Church Missionary Society. Expeditions led 
by Samuel Crowther, the first African Bishop, 
began to develop work among the tribes of the 
Lower Niger. The United Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland extended its Jamaican mission 
to Calabar. The Basel mission got over 
its initial difiiculties on the Gold Coast, and 
began to spread its ramifications further and 
further into the interior until it reached 
Ashanti. The Baptist Society opened work 
in what is now German Cameroons, and from 
there extended to the Congo. The American 
Presbjrterians opened work at various points 
along the West Coast and on the Congo. The 
American Board entered Portuguese Angola, 
and began work at BiHe. Further into the 
interior the Plymouth Brethren have been 
working in what is known as the Garengauze 
Mission in the region of Lake Miveru. In this 
wide field of West Africa there are now twenty 
missionary societies at work and a native 
Christian community of at least 175,000 souls. 

In South Africa, the Wesleyans followed 
after the London Missionary Society, and in 
1832 were organised into a South African 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 141 

Society whose administration is conducted 
locally. Two German societies were next 
in the field. Meanwhile, the Dutch Reformed 
Church was caring for the coloured population, 
but its great missionary awakening did not 
take place until comparatively recent times. 
The Chiu-ch of England was represented by 
the agents of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, who began in 1820 working for 
the Em'opeans, but soon extended their efforts 
to the Kaffirs. The Presbyterian Churches of 
Scotland took up and developed the work of 
the Glasgow Missionary Society. In Natal, a 
large number of societies are at work, the first 
to begin there being the American Board. 
They were followed by Norwegians, Swedes, 
Germans, English and Scottish societies. In 
Basutoland the French Protestants have been 
resident since the beginning of the thirties, 
and have won a unique influence there. In 
South Africa there are now some thirty 
missionary societies and they claim a member- 
ship of a Httle over a quarter of a million 
natives. Tlie Government census, however, 
gives a far larger number of Christian natives. 

Krapf was the fhst missionary to arrive in (c) East and 
East Africa. He reached Mombasa in 1844, a1?^&! 
after having been expelled from Abyssinia. 
Out of his modest beginnings have grown the 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 143 

the tribes they formed the first point of con- 
tact with civiUsation. As Sir Harry Johnston, 
the well-known colonial administrator has put 
it, " When the history of the great African states 
of the future comes to be written, the arrival 
of the first missionary will, with many of these 
states, be the first historical event." Often, 
however, they failed and seemed to have made 
no impression on the iron surface of ignorance 
and sin. Yet, despite all discouragements, 
they persevered and the number grew. One 
society led the way speedily to be joined by 
another, first singly, then in twos and threes, 
and ever increasingly volunteers swelled the 
ranks in this campaign where gains seemed 
always overshadowed by losses and discourage- 
ment. From these struggles and trials a way 
was paved for organised effort. Slowly but 
surely methods at first experimental were 
evolved and proven by the test of time and 

To gain an estimate of the Church's influence Methods of 
in Africa, we must study the means she has chStianSy. 
adopted to further her great end. In all mis- 
sions the first stages of progress are necessarily 
slow. The missionary must grasp at whatever 
tool is hkehest to open the closed African mind 
and heart. To arouse spiritual interest he is 
often compelled to cultivate the craving of the 

144 The Future of Africa 

African for secular advantages, and little by 
little train him to the larger view. What 
agencies then does the Church employ to gain 
and civiHse the people whose conversion to 
Christ is her chief end and aim ? 
(a) Industrial From the first, missionaries have worked by 
the introduction and development of industry 
and commerce alongside of the more purely 
evangeUstic work in Africa. The back- 
ward and unproductive condition of African 
civiHsation has been the cause of all her 
miseries, for Europeans did not come to the 
African coast for anything that Africa was 
manufacturing, but for that which could be 
picked up. First, it was gold and ivory, then 
it was human beings, and so Africa was 
producing commerce for the world only by 
stripping herself bare. 

Philanthropists saw that if the slave traffic 
was to be stopped, Africa must work out her 
own salvation by the introduction and develop- 
ment of new industries. Men must be taught 
that there was more wealth to be got from 
retaining a working population in the land, 
than by selHng off its people to slavery. 
Missionaries also recognised that there could 
be no permanent improvement of the tribes 
whom they sought to evangelise unless new 
commerce and industries were introduced. 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 145 

Expensive and disappointing experiments 
have been made to raise the people by the 
civiHsing influences of commerce, but if the 
world needs a forcible example of the utter 
failure of so one-sided and insufficient a 
method, it has only to look at certain regions 
of the West Coast. There for three centuries 
commerce has had her opportunity to prove 
what she can do unaided. With what result ? 
The native has again and again been exploited 
by unscrupulous traders. He has been debased 
by the introduction of civiHsed vices, such as 
gin-drinking. Commerce pursued for mere 
monetary ends with no thought of developing 
Africa's resources for the sake of her people, 
tends merely to the destruction of the land 
and deterioration of the inhabitants. Com- 
merce alone such as had sway on the West 
Coast for all these centuries has not availed 
to stop cannabalism, infanticide, human sacri- 
fice, and a host of other evils. Indeed, there 
are parts where she seems to have left the 
people worse than she found them. Civilisa- 
tion alone is not enough for the moral regenera- 
tion of a country Kke Africa. Too often it is 
mixed up with selfishness on the part of those 
who bring it ; nor does it in itself contain the 
power which is required for the moral elevation 
of a people. The late Dr Stewart has stated, 

146 The Future of Africa 

" If we are to try to make a New Continent, 
we must have a new man to put into it, other- 
wise it will be the old story. We may sweep 
the house and garnish it with such ideas, 
inventions, or furniture as the twentieth 
century can supply. Yet with all this there 
is no guarantee that the renewed continent 
may not be, if not as bad, yet very Httle better 
than before. Such things have happened ere 
this. Non-Christian civilisations have come to 
grief, and disappeared off the face of the earth 
for want of some essential moral element." 

Now the Church fully recognises the neces- 
sity of associating industry with the teaching 
of the Gospel. But the problem instantly 
arises — of what kind should that connection 

There are two types of industrial missions 
in Africa. One is the trading kind ; the other 
the educational. The first type, while seeking 
to use industry as an aid to the regeneration 
of Africa, requires especially to make its in- 
dustries a commercial success. An impression 
has seized the minds of many people that 
the resources of Africa are so abundant, that 
missions can be supported and extended by 
the profits of the missionaries' own industry. 
Under this delusion many attempts have been 
made to run cheap missions, in which not only 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 147 

the necessities of the staff, but of the more 
religious and educational work are supposed 
to be forthcoming from the profits made by 
trading operations. I do not think that any- 
such attempt has yet been successful. Bishop 
Taylor's Mission in West Africa is a notorious 
example of the wastage of Hfe and the dis- 
appointments that are seen to follow a rash 
and unconsidered attempt on these lines. 

In Nyasaland there are several trading 
missions which work on this principle, but 
they have been backed by contributions from 
home, which have aided their efforts towards 
self-support, and have helped them to continue 
their work. One of these missions, the Zam- 
besi Industrial, has attained fair success in 
its work of evangehsation. Experience has 
shown, however, that there are two or three 
grave dangers before a trading mission. One 
is, that the pressure to make a commercial 
profit is so great that it absorbs too much of 
the missionary's time and thought. Another 
is, that its efforts must be confined to spheres 
which are near a market for its goods. The 
questions, therefore, of prior occupation by 
another society and of the clamant needs of 
regions far afield, cannot have so much im- 
portance as this question of a market. Again 
there is the serious prejudice which is created 

148 The Future of Africa 

in the minds of other traders, if missionaries 
subsidised by philanthropic money enter into 
unfair competition with them. 

These dangers are so obvious that mis- 
sionary societies of experience have avoided 
this type of industrial mission. When Buxton 
opened up his famous scheme for the Niger, he 
made the commercial enterprise a thing by 
itself, but asked the Church Missionary Society 
to assist with the reHgious side of the work. 
So also Venn, the famous secretary of the 
Church Missionary Society, who keenly felt the 
necessity of developing the commercial possi- 
bilities of Africa, took care that the Missionary 
Society was not involved in his schemes. He 
got specimens of the products of Africa sent 
home, and submitted them to experts and 
produce brokers. Whilst impressing on mis- 
sionaries the importance of advocating and 
encouraging trade, he was strenuously careful 
to avoid any actual business connection for 
them lest it should distract or monopoUse 
their thoughts. He estabHshed small in- 
dustrial institutes at Lagos and Abeokuta 
where the natives were taught handicrafts. 
In 1859 two or three hundred cotton gins 
were at work at Abeokuta, and out of this 
little beginning there has grown the extensive 
trade of Lagos with Britain. 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 149 

The educational industrial mission work 
has no temptation to seek a commercial 
profit. It is, therefore, free to develop those 
industries which may be of Httle service to the 
mission, but of great service to others. Its 
aim is not to retain its trained journeymen 
for its own profit, but to thrust them forth 
into the world to be useful citizens who help 
in the general advance of their country. 

The industrial mission trains the African 
to labour in two ways. One is by teaching 
a few in a shght manner some skilled industry, 
the other by introducing to systematic labour 
gangs of people through the ordinary daily work 
of the station. If a missionary would build his 
station, equip it with necessary furniture, open 
a garden and plant fruit trees, he must himself 
superintend the work, and to a large degree 
initiate his labourers in their tasks. All the 
year round he is teaching the African to work. 
The lessons in wage-earning labour, as well 
as in the more skilled work of building: or 
gardening or carpentry, are making their 
contribution to the new civiHsation of Africa. 

In connection with most systematic and 
well-staffed missions, there is a central train- 
ing institute where skilled trades are taught 
by European artisans. Promising boys are 
apprenticed for three or five years and are 

150 The Future of Africa 

taught printing, carpentry, tailoring, building 
and numerous other trades. When their 
apprenticeship is over they go forth to serve 
other employers, or to become independent 
master workmen. Critics of missions who 
are very emphatic about the necessity of 
industry for the Africans, seem pecuHarly 
ignorant of how much is done by these 
great central institutes, and how much the 
European's very existence in tropical countries 
depends on the services of boys trained in 

In some of the South African missions the 
training of skilled native labour is severely 
handicapped by the action of trades' unions of 
the white labourer. There was a time when 
the Natal Government decreed that no educa- 
tional grant would be given to mission schools 
unless industrial training were given in them. 
Some societies immediately sent for plant to 
equip their schools. But the plant had 
scarcely arrived before the agitation of white 
artisans, who feared that cheaper skilled 
labour would diive them out of the field, led 
to the Government passing a law the exact 
opposite of the former one. The result of this 
opposition to native labour is seen in the 
housing of Europeans in Southern Rhodesia, 
say, as contrasted with their housing in 


The Hand of the Church on Africa 1 5 1 

Nyasaland. To build a good house in 
Nyasaland will not cost one-fifth of the 
sum it would cost to build the same type 
of house in Southern Rhodesia, because the 
skilled labour in Nyasaland is done by natives, 
while in Rhodesia it is done by Europeans. 
The wage of a skilled Em^opean artisan may 
be £1 a day, and of the native £1 a month. 

The great need for unskilled labour in the 
mines and farms of South Africa, and the fear 
of white men that native competition will be 
disastrous to them, has greatly compHcated 
the question of industrial training. But we 
must acknowledge that the presence of white 
men in an African country ought not by any 
means to hinder the rise of the native to a 
competent and self-respecting manhood. So 
far the African artisan has not yet shown 
liimself as efficient as the European. His 
initiative faculties are great, but his power 
to progress, when left to himself, is hmited. 
You will find natives running the steamers on 
the Niger, building the houses of Europeans all 
over Africa, making their furniture, printing 
their books. You will find them acting as 
clerks and telegraphists. But they always 
require European superintendence to guide 
them, and keep them from deteriorating. Yet 
when one sees a great institution like Tuskegee 

152 The Future of Africa 

in Alabama, U.S.A., where the buildings have 
not only been erected but planned by Africans, 
in wliich technical classes in thirty industries 
are taught by competent Africans, one must 
admit that the future may yet see African 
leaders of industry who will be able to plan, 
direct and develop the future of a high and 
advancing civihsation. 

If the industrial mission has accompHshed 
anything it has only been by its being per- 
meated by a spiritual and Christian atmosphere. 
" Permanent societies of Christians," said 
Dr Phihp, " can never be maintained among 
a civihsed people without imparting to them 
the arts and habits of civihsed hfe . . . but 
if missionaries lose their religion and sink 
into mere mechanics, the work of civilisation 
and moral improvement will speedily retro- 
grade." Hence it will be observed that 
in every successful industrial mission the 
spiritual tone has been kept high, and the 
whole work subordinated to the supreme aim 
of making Jesus Christ known, and of forming 
the character of the pupils. 

It is well that this be emphasised. The 
superficial reader places great value on the 
testimony of officials and travellers who com- 
mend this and that mission because of the 
carpenters, cooks, or tailors it has turned out, 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 153 

whose services have helped to make their 
residence in Ahica less troublesome. The 
mission whose industrial work has given most 
help to the European is far more praised than 
the mission which has helped to turn men to 
Christ and form them after His image. But 
to the true missionary there has neither been 
advance in civihsation, nor has his work been 
done, if the supreme result of characters 
established in Christ has not followed from 
his industrial training. 

Another all important branch of mission (b) Medical 
work in Africa is the medical agency. Africa Missions, 
abounds in native doctors of which there are 
two classes : one which has some skill in medi- 
cine and surgery, varying according to the in- 
dividual, the other the exorcists, who believe 
that all disease emanates from an indwelling 
devil. What Africa has suffered at the hands 
of her " medicine men " it would be hard 
to reckon. To them she owes not only 
barbarous surgery and deadly medicine which 
may kill as soon as cure, but wild orgies of 
superstitious practices and charges of bewitch- 
ing brought against others, which have led to 
the scattering of villages, and to the death 
year by year of numbers of innocent people. 
It was Livingstone and others like him, who, 
moved by the awful evils instituted by this 

154 The Future of Africa 

cult of medicine men, urged unweariedly the 
absolute necessity of medical missions. These 
men saw the countless benefits that would 
ensue from enhghtened and humane treat- 
ment of native ailments and diseases. They 
saw that many deadly evils would be banished 
by the crushing of the superstitious practices 
of these witch-doctors. Livingstone and his 
contemporaries also saw that for those who 
attempted travel and exploration in Africa or 
sought to pioneer among shifty and antago- 
nistic chiefs, a knowledge of medicine was 
well-nigh indispensable. 

The work which medical missions have done 
cannot be exaggerated. They have led to the 
sure exposure of the deceptions, superstitions, 
and barbarities of the native medicine men. 
The kindliness of the missionaries to the sick is 
a continual revelation of the new law of mercy. 
In more than one instance the medical mis- 
sionary, by his skill, has opened doors which 
were locked against Christian missions. By 
creating a sense of obhgation for life saved and 
pain reheved, the doctor has bound the natives 
to the missionaries by strong cords of friend- 
ship. Medical missions have lessened count- 
less hardships both for the native and also for 
the European. They have paved the way for 
the missionary's higher activities in countless 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 1 5 5 

instances. They have, in God's providence, 
prolonged his Hfe and increased his store of 
health, so necessary for buoyant and active 

Although most missionaries in Africa acquire 
a smattering of medical knowledge and dabble 
a good deal, through force of circumstances, in 
medical and surgical work, there is less special- 
ised medical work done than in India and some 
other countries. Almost all the doctors in pagan 
Africa are compelled to divide their energies 
amongst all classes of work. Few are provided 
with efficient hospitals, and few are allowed 
the time or opportunity for the scientific 
investigation of those ravaging scom'ges that 
sweep over Africa. Yet there are some 
notable exceptions. The great hospital at 
Mengo in Uganda, under the brothers Drs 
A. R. and J. H. Cook, has one hundred and 
thirty beds, is very fully equipped, and attracts 
patients from all over Equatorial Africa. At 
Blantyre in Nyasaland, there is a large 
hospital with two doctors in charge. In 
South Africa nearly all the medical work for 
natives is done by Government medical men, 
but the Victoria Hospital at Lovedale does 
very helpful though somewhat limited work. 
Altogether there are scattered over the Con- 
tinent about one hundi'ed hospitals and dis- 

156 The Future of Africa 

pensaries, most of them in charge of doctors, 
some in charge of trained nurses ; but in only 
a few of these is the doctor given an oppor- 
tunity to speciaUse in his medical work. At 
many of the hospitals systematic training is 
given to natives who are afterwards put in 
charge of hand-dispensaries or who act as 
hospital assistants, or are sent to assist 
employers of labour in caring for the sick and 
maimed among their employees. So far, how- 
ever, no fully quaHfied native doctors have yet 
been trained in African schools. Most of the 
protectorates and colonies have made laws 
which forbid any one practising who has 
not received the diploma of a recognised 
European School of Medicine. 

Education has been a necessary arm of all 
mission work in pagan Africa. Early mis- 
sionary work was confronted by a people who 
had no literature of their own, and who had 
no means of communicating knowledge to one 
another. On the West Coast it has been found 
that one or two tribes had certain signs by 
which language might be reproduced, but these 
were of a secret and Umited form. The result 
of this lack of literature was that the intel- 
ligence of peoples had httle opportunity of 
growth. War and other causes closed up the 
boundaries of each tribe, so that each lived 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 157 

in a peculiar isolation which forbade the 
intercommunication of ideas. Traditional 
superstitions alone explained natural pheno- 
mena, and custom dictated the hne of conduct. 
The lever which all missions have used to raise 
the gross ignorance of the African has been 
education. It has been recognised that teach- 
ing in schools has produced in a greater or less 
degree a more open mind to rational explana- 
tions of the world in which we live, and has 
undermined the inexorable hold of traditional 
customs and superstitions. It has also pre- 
pared a way for the Gospel. Christian truth 
does not break suddenly on the mind of the 
native with one declaration. It requires 
much reiteration, and the new intelhgence that 
schools create makes the native more sus- 
ceptible to the meaning of the Gospel. As 
education increases, the fuller meanings of 
spiritual and moral teaching are more easily 
understood. Moreover, the art of reading, 
places among them God's greatest teacher, 
whose voice need never be silenced — the Bible. 
One example of this is worth quoting. A 
mission in Africa, which despised the routine 
work of school teaching, believed that the 
daily proclamation of the Gospel would suffice 
for the creation of Chiistian hves. One of the 
missionaries, who is a first-class linguist, 

158 The Future of Africa 

translated the New Testament into the ver- 
nacular, and when it was pubHshed, he and 
his colleagues awoke to the fact, that though 
they had this inestimable treasure among 
them, no one could read it. 

The educational work of missions in Africa 
is mainly of a very elementary character, but 
it has grown to enormous dimensions. The 
schools show a constant growth in efficiency, 
but necessarily the staffing and equipment are 
of the most primitive character, especially in 
the protectorates, where the expenditure is 
limited almost entirely to the educational 
budget of the missionary societies. When a 
group of villages desire a school, two or three 
Christian lads are sent as teachers. They 
are possibl}^ young married men of tried 
character, whose education has not taken them 
beyond Standard IV. or Standard V. They 
take with them a syllable sheet, a httle black- 
board, some slates and pencils, and with this 
equipment they begin to teach. They seem 
to be poorly enough educated themselves, but 
there are one or two things about them that 
raise them high above their heathen villagers. 
They are dressed, the villagers are naked. 
They wash daily, the villagers smear them- 
selves with oil, and are coated with dust. The 
printed page speaks to them, it is silent to the 



The Hand of the Church on Africa 159 

villager. They have learned the Gospel of an 
indwelling God, and a Saviour from sin. The 
villagers know nothing of God, and cringe 
before fetiches or spirits of the dead. They 
have learned a new law of tenderness to suffer- 
ing, of sobriety and purit}^ of conduct. The 
villagers are drunken as long as they can get 
beer, are brutal to the helpless, and their very 
sport is permeated with unchastity. SHght 
then as the education of these teachers has 
been, they are already far ahead of the heathen 
villagers, and their faces are towards the light. 
They begin the school in the open air, under 
some shady tree, and as all the pupils are 
in the same class, beginning at syllables, 
it is still early morning when religious and 
secular teaching are over. When school is 
finished, the teachers lead the villagers and 
show them how to build to a large rectangular 
plan, and in a month or two the scholars have 
shifted from the open air to a school-house 
which they themselves have built, and which 
is by far the greatest and best house in the 

The school soon develops. Smart boys 
will be able to read before the year is over. 
Others drag on in the lower classes term after 
term. The slates are in daily use, and the 
mystery of counting is learned. A httle 

i6o The Future of Africa 

pressure is brought to bear on the pupils to pay 
a small fee, and soon the large numbers in the 
school have diminished to a few who are eager 
enough to learn and will not grudge to pay. 
Daily a Bible lesson is taught, and its spiritual 
and moral lessons are driven home with con- 
siderable fulness. Soon hearts are touched, 
and a httle group of enquirers begin to gather 
about the teacher. 

At the best the schools seldom take the pupils 
beyond reading of the vernacular, writing, and 
simple arithmetic. But when these have 
been learned the pupils have acquired the art 
of communicating with one another when 
absent, of making simple calculations which 
meet them in daily Hfe, and of reading the 
wisdom of others, and the message of God. 

Such is a sHght description of a pioneer 
school in Nyasaland, or in East Africa. It will 
also hold good of those in most lands in pagan 
Africa. As the scliools become established 
and the people grow in intelhgence, the pro- 
gramme is, of course, more elaborated, and 
education is given by more systematic methods. 

All missions do not follow this extensive 
method of education. There are some who 
only teach the pupils about the European 
station, and all converts are required to with- 
draw from thdr heathen surroundings and 

The Hand of the Church on Africa i6i 

settle in the neighbourhood of the station. 
In other missions large boarding-schools are 
opened, and promising children are carefully 
trained and educated there, in the hope 
that when they are ready, they may go 
back among their own people with an estab- 
hshed character, and considerably enhghtened. 
This method means a much more thorough 
education, for it is conducted under the im- 
mediate superintendence of Europeans. But 
it also means a great hmitation of the mission's 

Secondary education is a growth of recent 
days. Its necessity arises from the demand 
for better trained teachers and the higher 
efficiency required in elementary schools. 
In Uganda the professional training of teachers 
has only been undertaken on a small scale, 
and is still for the most part unorganised. 
In Southern Nigeria (" Old Calabar ") an 
Institution of the United Free Church of 
Scotland has been recently organised, but so 
far only one fully quahfied native teacher is in 
educational work. At Sierra Leone, as far 
back as 1827, the Fourah Bay CoUege was 
started for the training of native workers. 
It has since been afhhated with Durham 
University and is the only African native 
coUege which gives degrees. Several of the 

i62 The Future of Africa 

other old established missions have their 
grammar schools and institutes, such as the 
Church Missionary Society at Abeokuta and at 
Oka on the Niger, the Wesleyan High Schools 
at Freetown and Cape Coast and an Institute 
at Ibadan, and the Basel Mission on the Gold 
Coast. In Nyasaland each one of the missions 
has now a central training Institute, where the 
future teachers are given a full professional 
course in teaching. South Africa has also a 
large number of seminaries for higher educa- 
tion, and most of the strong missions have one 
or two. But, in spite of the unusual advan- 
tages for full training in teaching, a very small 
percentage of those who are engaged in school 
work in this old field have had a complete 
course. The urgent needs of schools for 
teachers and the attraction of more lucrative 
spheres of service draw the pupils away before 
their education is completed. Yet the type 
of education given in the elementary schools 
by these partially trained teachers is much in 
advance of what is found in the northern 
parts of the continent. Unfortunately in 
South Africa, as in Sierra Leone, the rehgious 
influence of the schools has not kept pace with 
their educational advance. 

An ambitious plan for a native College at 
Lovedale, South Africa, is now under con- 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 163 

sideration. Most of the great missionary 
societies have fallen in with the proposal and 
promised to do their part towards its foun- 
dation and maintenance. The government 
educational authorities have also concurred 
in the proposal, and the native states have 
offered large sums of money. It is not pro- 
posed to found the College on a European 
plan, so as to denationalise the native, but on 
essentially native hues, which, while refusing 
to lower the high standard of efficiency 
expected of a college affiliated with the Uni- 
versity, will train native leaders in the arts and 
sciences in such a way as to make them more 
capable of serving their fellows, as teachers, 
ministers, doctors, or in whatever sphere is 
open to them. 

At present the type of education wliich 
missions are giving in their schools is con- 
stantly changing. Old methods are being 
abandoned and more modern and scientific 
methods are being used. All missionaries call 
out for more manual and industrial teaching in 
the schools, so that the hand and whole body 
may be developed as well as the mind. It is 
felt that the school books used in many 
missions lose a great opportunity as they are 
not adapted to the life of the people, and that 
the general result of the system of education 

1 64 The Future of Africa 

followed does not adequately adjust the pupil 
to the new life he should Hve at home, nor does 
it help to the formation of good and useful 
citizens of the state that is arising. 

Gradually these questions will work out 
their proper solution through the lessons 
learned from the experience of the past century, 
together with the Ught that the modern science 
of teaching is throwing on the problems of the 
training of childhood. 

While the intellectual and Christian life of 
the people is rising all over Africa, it is to be 
expected that literature for the feeding of it 
will also be growing. Scarcely is a mission 
started than the need for a printing press 
appears. It may be used first for printing 
school books, and as education grows it is 
required for portions of the Bible and books 
which further the knowledge and feed the 
spiritual life of the Christians. The Roman 
alphabet and phonetic spelling have been 
adopted, thereby greatly faciHtating the pro- 
cess of learning to read and fixing definitely 
the orthography of the language. 

In many of the missions a monthy paper is 
published, in some cases a weekly, which not 
only teaches Christian truth, but widens the 
horizon of the readers by giving news of the 
outside world and scientific information. In 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 165 

Madagascar, where literary work has been 
emphasised from the beginning, a considerable 
literature is growing up. The whole Bible 
was translated in the early days, and has since 
been revised. Books on the spiritual Kfe, of 
theology, church history and apologetics, com- 
mentaries on the Bible, and even a large Bible 
Dictionary of nine hundred pages, have been 
pubHshed. In Uganda the Bible is pubUshed, 
with other devotional books, the Oxford 
helps, several commentaries and books on 
Church History. In Basutoland also there is 
a weekly newspaper which has been continu- 
ously pubhshed for forty- three years. The 
whole Bible has been translated, together with 
several commentaries, a Dictionary of the 
Bible, and other helpful books on the Bible. 

In West Africa and South Africa, the growth 
of the knowledge of Enghsh has somewhat 
restrained vernacular pubhcations, and the 
higher teaching is done in Enghsh. In every 
Protestant mission of pagan Africa, however, 
the printing press is producing some kind of 
hterature and pushing forward the pubHcation 
of the whole Bible in the vernacular of the 
people. In this there is an essential differ- 
ence from the work of the old Roman Catholic 
missions, and in some degree from those of the 

1 66 The Future of Africa 

But in spite of the apparent desire for 
education throughout Africa the educated 
people cannot be called a reading people. 
By the ordinary native little is read beyond 
their Bible and hymn-books. Possibly the 
explanation of this is the very elementary 
character of the vast majority of primary 
schools. Pupils of the first generation of 
Christians begin to learn late in hfe, and it is 
difficult to retain them in school long enough. 
Nearly all the pupils leave school before they 
have attained to much freedom in reading, 
and consequently they have not yet learned 
the deHght of books. Unfortunately far too 
many of the books printed are merely trans- 
lations. They therefore preserve a difiicult 
and foreign form which does not appeal to the 
natives. Books are required which are written 
from the native point of view, and with the 
mental and spiritual environment of those 
who are to read them. The time has not yet 
come when the African himself will produce 
his own hterature, although there are one or 
two notable examples of highly popular and 
useful books by native converts, notably 
the commentary written by the Katihiro of 

It is a significant fact for the future of Africa 
that the vernacular literature so far is dis- 

ff*^'' J. 

» « 

■laliWUtrspi- ■ - -■» ■ 
L — ,- ■ ■ , ^ 


(Churc/t of Scotland Mission) 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 167 

tinctly Christian in tone, and is almost entirely 
issued from mission presses. In South Africa 
there are two or three vernacular newspapers 
issued by natives themselves. These natives 
have all been educated in Christian schools, 
and are favourable to Christianity, so that it 
m.ay be said with confidence that in Central 
and South Africa the press is entirely Chris- 
tian, and an agency for the evangelisation of 
the land and the building up of Christian 

When one considers the more directly (e) Preach- 
reHgious work of missions, a wonderful unity '"f) its 
of aim and method is found. Tlie preaching ^^^"^* 

of the Gospel to pagan Africa must always 
remain the chief method of missionary work. 
It is probably true to say that almost the entire 
Christian community in Africa has been 
brought to Christ by the spoken word, though 
it may have been pointed and confirmed by 
the printed page. Preaching in the Church, 
Sunday by Sunday and often during the week, 
village services in the open court of the village, 
quiet talks by the wayside or in the homes 
of the people — these are the ordinary methods 
of declaring the Gospel. 

The work of preaching is, of course, not con- 
fined to the foreign missionary. It is possible 
that in many districts the preaching has 

1 68 The Future of Africa 

been done almost entirely by natives. The 
European has always to contend with the 
difficulty of speaking in a foreign tongue and 
passing his thoughts through a foreign mould ; 
but he has also on his side the prestige that 
attends the fact that he is a European, also 
that his superior education has given him a 
clearer insight into the truths of God. " He 
comes to them as the representative of the 
higher knowledge, the superior forces, the 
marvellous apparatus of the outer world 
which is breaking in upon their lower level ; he 
is associated in their minds with the deference 
due to the foreign power whose authority 
overshadows them ; the quahties developed 
in him by superior knowledge and culture, 
and still more the Christian principle which 
regulates his life and work among them, win 
their confidence, or at least compel their 

It is not good that the European minimise 
the possible power that may attend his preach- 
ing. The danger in Africa is, that the lack 
of that stimulus which an intelHgent and 
critical audience may give to a preacher tends 
to make the European esteem too Hghtly the 
greatest of his regular tasks. 

On the other hand the efficiency of the 
native as an evangelist has been amply proved. 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 169 

In many parts of Africa every church member 
is an evangelist, if not in the public proclama- 
tion of the Gospel, at least in the homely 
private talks. Pubhc speaking comes natur- 
ally to Africans. Even the small boys are not 
shamefaced to stand up and orate before their 
elders. Their ease in pubhc speaking is at 
once their weakness and their strength. It is 
easy to find your preachers when Christian 
life is awake, but it is not so easy to find 
preachers who carefully prepare, or who really 
instruct by their sermons. 

Yet these simple native Christians are the 
great propagators of Christianity, Through 
them the European may multiply himself a 
hundredfold, and there are many missions 
where, for each European who preaches the 
word on Sundays, there are a hundred native 
Christians declaring the same word in the 
scattered villages. 

The advantages of the native evangelist over 
the foreign missionary are evident. His work 
is not interrupted by furloughs and by the 
weakness and sickness that meet the European 
missionary in a foreign chmate. He under- 
stands his fellows, their type of thought, their 
attitude to the past, and to the new Gospel. 
He speaks their language fluently and idio- 
matically. Most African languages are com- 

I70 The Future of Africa 

paratively easy to learn, but their very sim- 
plicity makes the difficulty for the foreigner. 
His thought is expressed in a more formal 
mould, by illustrations, and along Unes which 
do not appeal to the native. Few men are 
able " to get at the back of the black man's 
mind " and few are able to see truth in 
his perspective. But when you get a well- 
educated native Christian, who has not been 
denationaUsed by his education, and who has 
come to understand the Gospel and is full of 
the Spirit, you have a wonderful medium for 
the presentation of the Truth. 

Besides, the native Christian stands there 
as a transformed man of their own species. 
He shows in his conduct and home life what 
the Gospel can do for him. The European 
missionary has come out of another environ- 
ment, and all the advantages of his higher type 
of Ufe seem to the Africans to have been born 
with him in his own land beyond the seas. 
The daily practice of temperance, industry, 
economy, truthfulness and the many virtues 
of a true Christian hfe, when seen in a native 
Christian whom they knew formerly as a pagan 
like one of themselves, is a more convincing 
witness of the Power of God, than any im- 
portation can be. 

Does this preaching, we may ask, awaken 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 171 

any response in the heathen heart ? Does the (ii) The Ap- 
African native show any desire to hsten to cTspei. 
the teaching of the Gospel ? Can his mind 
appreciate and understand the message which 
Christianity brings to him ? In answering 
these questions we must first bear in mind 
that the mind of the African pagan is not 
wholly unprepared for the teaching of Chris- 
tianity. The whole of Animistic reHgion is not 
in opposition to the Gospel, and there are many 
points of contact which no missionary can 
ignore. We have seen in the last chapter 
how among the rudest tribes there exists a dim 
undefined consciousness of a great unknown 
God ; we have also seen the distorted, yet 
hving, behef in an after-hfe of the soul. The 
need for atonement with the gods whom he 
has offended gives rise to the pagan's behef 
in the efficacy of sacrifice. These scattered 
fragments the Christian missionary can use, 
and weld them into the foundations on which 
he seeks to rear the City of God in untutored 
Africa. He will lead his hearers from the 
known to the unknown. If, however, he comes 
among the people in unsympathetic antagon- 
ism to everytliing and tries, by breaking their 
beer pots, to stop drunkenness, by entering 
their groves and scattering their fetiches, to 
overthrow superstition, he will only find that 

172 The Future of Africa 

he has ahenated the people from himself, and 
has not altered one bit their sensuaHty or their 
superstition. It is not by denunciation of evil 
that men reveal the truth — we do not lighten 
a room by sweeping out the dark, but by letting 
in the hght, and the best assent to truth has 
been got by emphasising what is known, such 
as the existence of God, immortahty, the need 
of sacrifice, and passing on to reveal the further 

We must not, however, be led into thinking 
that the newness of the Gospel-teaching is a 
hindrance to missionary work among the pagans 
of Africa. The Gospel message comes to supply 
something which they have never experienced 
before, and which they gladly receive. We 
have seen in a previous chapter how the 
religion of the African is one of fear ; it 
entails daily distresses, even torture for the 
sick and the defenceless ; it tramples all 
humane instincts underfoot, and leads to the 
triumph of the barbarous doctrine, " might is 
right." To this Christianity brings a message 
of sympathy and of certainty. Christ is seen 
as able to conquer the demons and evil spirits 
which prevail over man. Ears are readily 
opened to such a message, regardless at first 
even of its rehgious significance. A willing- 
ness to hear, and hope for betterance, is 

The Hand of the Church on Africa 173 

instantly kindled in hearts that otherwise 
might remain cold. These untutored peoples 
who are burdened with pain and misery 
are eagerly awaiting the Divine consolation, 
" earthly misery causes men to stretch out 
their hands for the Gospel gifts." ^ 

Another great influence at work to-day is 
the personahty of the Christian messenger. 
The African is quickly responsive to kindness. 
Unselfish love and truth for truth's sake are 
utterly strange and new conceptions, yet he 
is quick to grasp their value, and some latent 
sense of appreciation is aroused to meet this 
strange new revelation. The hardened heathen, 
famihar only with selfishness all around him, 
is imperceptibly softened by the love and 
kindness that " seeketh not his own but 
another's " good. These virtues awaken in 
the Animist feehngs of whose existence he has 
been utterly unaware. Thus " confidence in 
the person of the missionary leads to con- 
fidence in the God of the missionary " ^ and a 
readiness to accept and to serve Him. 

The evangelic message also brings the 
knowledge of a personal and loving God to the 
heathen world. The heathen frequently experi- 
ence the impotence of their own gods, and the 

* Warneck, " The Living Forces of the Gospel," p. IfJO 
2 Ibid., p. 170. 

174 The Future of Africa 

accessibility of God, His power, love and over- 
ruling providence, exert a tremendous effect 
on the heathen mind. This leads to the 
impulse to pray, hitherto unknown to him, 
now a new and joyful practice frequently put 
into use. " The heathen who has entered into 
a personal relation with God must needs tell 
Him everything that moves him." ^ A full 
understanding of the significance of the Cross 
of Christ cannot be expected among a people 
who have httle or no sense of sin. Before the 
power of Christ to redeem a man from sin can 
be reahsed in the mind of the pagan, many 
steps have to be cHmbed. Some sense of sin 
has to be created. Indeed, one of the greatest 
difficulties in preaching is to find words for our 
adequate expression of truths, such as purity, 
trust, hohness. These, however, are things 
which will only be learned as men grow into 
the knowledge of God. It is by reveahng God 
that some conception of the contents of the 
word we use for purity or hohness is learned, 
and it is as these are learned that the meaning 
of sin breaks on people and the idea of Jesus 
Christ as a present Saviour dehvering from 
sin is understood. 

1 Warneck, "The Living Forces of the Gospel," p. 219. 




The Influence of Missions on Africa. 
The Social Results. 

(a) Establishment of Peace. 

(6) Influence on African Chiefs. 

(c) Suppression of Social Evils. 
Establishment of the Church in Africa. 

(a) How a Church is built up. 

(b) Admission to Membership. 

(c) Hindrances to Church Life, 
(r/) Endurance of Persecution, 
(e) Liberality. 

(J) Missionary Zeal. 

Christianity, we have seen, has a great work The in- 
to do for Africa. That work the Christian JjfJ^^^^f^^ 
Church is seeking to do along many hnes of Africa 
activity. However feeble the effort may be 
compared with the task, we cannot but admit 
that much is being given to Africa both by 


1/6 The Future of Africa 

gifts of money and by gifts of human lives. 
What then, we may ask, are the results in Africa 
to-day of those various activities ? Is Africa 
changing ? Is there justification for the hope 
that Africa may one day take her place in the 
Christian life of the nations of the world ? 
These are momentous questions, and to answer 
them rightly demands much study and thought. 
In a country so closely Hnked to European 
civihsation as Africa is, it is difficult to specify 
definitely the actual results of Christianity, 
for God uses man}?^ forces to accompHsh His 
Will, and many who are unaware of it may 
yet be His agents. He uses the forces of 
government and of commerce in preparing a 
way for His messengers, in establishing peace, 
in giving settled government, enriching and 
enhghtening the people, and in increasing the 
accessibility of the continent. Some of these 
influences we have already noted, but we have 
in this chapter to study more particularly the 
changes which have actually been brought 
about by missionary work. It will help us 
if we divide the spheres of its influence, first, 
into those which touch inter-tribal and social 
relationships, and second, those wiiicli are more 
directly connected with the raising up of a 
Church essentially African and no mere 
foreign growth transplanted. 

Results of Mission Work 177 

First, we may see how missions have con- The Social 
tributed to the peace of the continent. Again (a) Estab- 
and again there have been cases where the pea'jr*^^ 
teaching of the Gospel, apart from the influence 
of a strong government, has tm'ned people 
from war and rebelHon, and made them listen 
reasonably to the commands of their Governors. 
In the earher days of British colonisation in 
Africa, " but for the missionaries the natives 
would have lacked all local protection. It 
was only thi^ough the missionaries that news 
of injustice or cruelty practised on a native 
could reach the ears of the British Govern- 
ment. . . . One must rejoice," the same 
African historian goes on to say, " that 
ministers of rehgion were found to champion 
the cause of the weaker race and keep the 
government ahve to a sense of one of its first 
duties." In the promotion of settled European 
government missionaries have again and again 
been the pioneers and mediators. Though 
most of them try to avoid anything that would 
make them appear the agents of any par- 
ticular power, the necessities of the situation 
have frequently compelled them to urge 
European Powers to estabUsh protectorates 
in order to save the subject people from the 
mischievous inroads of contending forces, irre- 
sponsible Europeans, and the havoc of inter- 

178 The Future of Africa 

tribal war and the slave traffic. Missionaries 
were the means of leading the Bechuana chiefs 
to petition the British nation to administer 
their country when the gold rush and the 
encroachments of the Boers imperilled their 
future. It was also the active agitation of the 
missionary societies that compelled Britain, 
reluctant as she was, to estabhsh the Nyasa- 
land, the East African, and Uganda Pro- 
tectorates. Nor can it be said that Jingoism 
was the inspiring motive in any of the above 
instances. It was a case of seeing a native 
people threatened by a wave of chaos and 
misrule, which would have submerged them, 
and of appeahng to a European nation to fulfil 
its obHgations to weaker peoples. It is also 
a striking fact that in all the tribes where the 
Livingstonia missions preceded Government, 
no mihtary expedition was necessary. The 
Tonga, Henga, Tumbuka, Angoni — the Mazitu 
of Livingstone's book — were quietly settled 
without a single display of force. The only 
place where fighting took place was at Karonga, 
and there war was waged against the Arab 
slavers, the natives fighting on the side of the 

1 The interesting case of Bishop Tucker's appeal against 
Britain abandoning Uganda should be studied in vol. vii., 
p. 75, of The Commission Reports of the Edinburgh Conference, 
or vol. iii., C.M.S. Hist., p. 445. 

Results of Mission Work 179 

For many years wliile the Germans waged a 
constant war with the Hottentots in their 
South-West Protectorate, the Hereros remained 
peaceable through the influence of the German 
missionaries, \^^len at last the costly and 
prolonged war of the early part of this century 
broke out, it was the missionaries who acted as 
peacemakers, and after the defeat of the rebels 
succeeded in bringing 12,000 of them to 
voluntary submission. 

Again and again Enghsh Governors and 
administrators have testified to the influence 
of the missionaries in the cause of peace. 
Wlien Sir Charles, then Colonel, Warren was 
engaged in pacifying Bechuanaland, he 
generously wrote : "... for the preservation 
of peace between colonists and natives one 
missionary is worth a battahon of soldiers," 
and he refused to allow the Government to 
deprive him of John Mackenzie's services. 
Warren saw that in Mackenzie he had a man 
who understood the situation better than any 
other one, and who could justly interpret the 
attitude of the natives. Bechuanaland was 
the key of Rhodesia, and its retention under 
British protection was to have far-reaching 
effects. So also when Sir Alfred Sharpe was 
appointed to the administration of the North 
Angoni in Nyasaland, he had the missionaries 

i8o The Future of Africa 

by his side to reassure the chiefs, and he used 
a mission teacher as an interpreter. The 
result was that, without the display of a single 
soldier, he took over the control of this tribe, 
once the most warlike in Central Africa. 
Similar testimonies could also be quoted from 
consuls and commissioners in other parts of 

The call upon Government has not been for 
the preservation of the lives of missionaries, 
but for the defence of helpless people whose 
future existence was at stake. The principle 
which has guided Protestant missionary 
societies is laid down by John Mackenzie, 
when he says, " The missionary who goes into 
a heathen land goes at the risk of liis own life, 
and has no right to call upon the Home 
Government for help when life seems in 
danger. And this is surely the doctrine most 
generally held by British missionaries and 
statemen. Whatever other governments may 
have done, it has not been the practice of the 
British Government to treat the murder of 
missionaries by heathen peoples as calling for 
the interference of the sovereign." It is one 
thing, however, to bring a tribe under peaceful 
administration and quite another to maintain 
peace during the days when the irksomeness of 
paying taxes, of burying the spear, and of 

Results of Mission Work i8i 

resisting temptation to revenge aggressions by 
others, begin to be felt. Now the " pax 
Britminica " is steahng over inland Africa, not 
simply because at the back of Government 
there are Httle companies of native soldiers 
officered by Europeans, but also because a new 
teaching is permeating the tribal Hfe, breaking 
up the warring and turbulent spirit, and 
inculcating a patient forbearance. 

Apart from their actual influence in pre- (b) influence 

i '^ , on African 

venting warfare, many instances might be chiefs. 
given where the destinies of tribes were saved 
by the power of wise chiefs who had been 
guided by Christian missions. 

Livingstone's father-in-law, the honoured 
missionary Robert Moffat, gained a wonderful 
influence over the noted robber chief of the 
Hottentots, Africaner. He was at the height 
of his dreadful notoriety with a price set on his 
h^ad by the Cape Government, when Moffat 
first came in contact with him. Africaner had 
begun life as a servant to a certain Penaar, a 
Dutchman. Penaar treated him with such 
harshness that in revenge Africaner one day 
murdered liim and escaped into the interior. 
There he gatliered a clan of marauding 
Hottentots about him and for years carried on 
a hfe of war and plunder. He spared neither 
white nor black, and the fame of his butcheries 

1 82 The Future of Africa 

was so terrible that they caused a trembhng 
among the natives whenever his name was 
mentioned. Moffat, however, penetrated to 
the chief's kraal and boldly began mission 
work among his people. Gradually he over- 
came Africaner's suspicion and hostihty, and 
in the end so gained his affections and respect 
that finally the chief was won over to Chiis- 
tianity, baptised by Moffat, and renounced 
his former evil ways with such thoroughness 
that he and his marauders settled down to a 
peaceable pastoral hfe. When Moffat went 
to Cape Town to visit the Governor, Africaner 
accompanied him. The favourable impres- 
sion made by this visible demonstration of the 
conquering power of the Gospel was very great. 
Another notable chief of the earher days 
was Waterboer, who had been a catechist in 
one of the missions of the London Missionary 
Society. He was elected chief of Griquatown, 
and soon rose to great power, making his clan 
the most influential in South Africa. He 
suppressed all plundering by his own people, 
and by neighbouring tribes. He absorbed 
marauding tribes into his own, and settled 
them down to a peaceful hfe. He headed the 
Griqua chiefs, and succeeded in driving off 
from Kuruman the apparently irresistible 
horde of Mantiti, who were devastating great 

Results of Mission Work 183 

stretches of South Africa. Year by year his 
fame and power increased till the Government 
recognised what an ally for peace and pro- 
gressive civiHsation it had in the Christian 
chief, Waterboer. 

We have another example in Moshesh, the 
great chief of the Basuto, whom the French 
missionaries led to give up raiding. For the 
past two generations the mission influence 
has been paramount, so that this people are 
possibly the most stable and advanced in 
South Africa. They, almost alone in South 
Africa, retain their independence. They have 
125,000 pupils at school and a rapidly increas- 
ing literature. Recently a native parHament 
has been formed among them. For years this 
tribe steadied by the presence and influence 
of their missionaries remained loyal to the 
British Empire, when the Kaffirs and other 
surrounding people were fighting British forces. 

Lastly there is Khama, the most deservedly 
famous of all Central African chiefs, who has 
stood for righteousness and Christian principle 
all through liis long and honourable life. 
There is no small romance in the record of this 
chief, who as a young man was appointed 
leader of the Bamangwato in northern 
Bechuanaland and figured largely during the 
stormy period of that province's history from 

1 84 The Future of Africa 

1878 onwards when Colonel Warren main- 
tained a military occupation there, finally 
achieving the settlement of Bechuanaland in 
1885. The effect of the British connection 
was unmixed good. Formerly a hotbed of 
war and tumults, Bechuanaland was handed 
over to Cape Colony " as safe to travel in as 
any part of England." 

Khama contributed no little to this pacific 
settlement. In youth he had come under 
missionary influence and accepted Christianity 
whole-heartedly. He had much to contend 
against, especially the machinations of his wily 
old father and his half-brother, who en- 
deavoured to raise disaffection amongst his 
followers and oust liim from his position as 
chief. He met all their plots with an admir- 
able mixture of sane dealing and forbearance, 
and his followers remained staunch. His 
appeal in a letter to the British administrator 
during the height of the unrest is character- 
istic and is no small testimony to the result of 
Christian teaching : "I ask her Majesty to 
defend me as she defends all her children. 
There are three things which distress me very 
much — war, selhng people, and diink." There 
came a day notable in African annals when 
this dusky chief crossed the seas to pay his 
homage in person to the Queen and repre- 

Results of Mission Work 185 

sentative of that great Christian country, 
whence enHghtenment and hope for present 
gain and futm-e betterance borne by the 
messengers of Good Tidings had come to 
K]iama and his faithful people. 

But we must pass from individual instances (c) Suppres- 
to the wide general improvement introduced social 
by Christian missions into African Hfe. The ^^^'^' 
unrest of Africa does not only come, as we have 
seen, from unhappy tribal relations, but also 
from social customs which are deadly and 
disturbing. Here, too, missions are saving 
more hves than can well be counted. Govern- 
ment, of coiu'se, forbids brutal practices, but 
the Gospel has reached many places which 
government has scarcely touched. The old 
missionaries in Calabar, long before Britain 
had settled in that country, got some of the 
chiefs to agree to abolish infanticide, the 
kilHng of mothers, and human sacrifice. 
Indeed, one of the most heroic tales of mission 
work is the story of Miss Slessor's pioneering 
service. For thirty-three years she has 
worked in Southern Nigeria and has made it 
her custom to live far ahead of any civihsing 
power among the most degraded and brutal 
natives. She has lived as the rescuer and 
guardian of little children who were destined 
for death. Many a time she has saved the 

1 86 The Future of Africa 

people from committing murder upon the 
unhappy mother of twins, and upon the twins 
themselves. Thanks to the teaching of 
mission schools the incalculable horrors of 
witchcraft and the poison ordeal are also being 
eHminated. A missionary known to the writer 
has seen a dozen dead bodies lying outside a 
village stockade in Nyasaland after the 
administration of the poison ordeal. Not 
many years passed before he saw the ordeal 
die out in that district because the common 
conscience of the people had been educated to 
abhor it. 

Polygamy is one of Africa's curses. Family 
life is impossible under it, and the degradation 
of womanhood is involved in it. There are 
chiefs who have as many as two or three 
hundred wives. Government never attempts 
to legislate against this social evil, but the 
voice of the Evangel is emphatic in denouncing 
it. All over Africa the custom of polygamy 
is rapidly dying. In Nyasaland hundreds of 
polygamous unions are dissolved, not by force, 
but by the new conscience that is awakening. 
Home life is also coming into being in Africa, 
through the influence of missions alone. When 
it does not exist, and it does not exist in 
paganism, there can be no purity of life, no 
true nurture of the generation that is to be. 

Results of Mission Work 187 

The African is markedly sociable ; his 
domestic virtues are latent and need only 
encom-agement and fostering. Already home 
ties are held to possess a value utterly unknown 
to the former generation. Parental responsi- 
bility, honour for parents, tender solicitude 
for the weak and sickly, and a spirit of Christian 
love and devotion hold sway wherever mission 
teacliing has gained a foothold. Children are 
being nurtured in these new standards and the 
future holds hope that one day the ideal of 
family and social relations may be reached, 
of a common weal, seeking not merely its own 
but another's good, so that " if one member 
suffer all the others suffer with it." 

Many other social virtues, which make Ufe 
brighter and more secure, are appearing to-day 
under the influence of missions — virtues which 
are essential to true Christianity. Honesty 
among people who lived to pilfer and plunder ; 
truth, where no he was dishonourable except 
when discovered ; kindliness, where cruelty 
was a habit ; care for the aged and the sick, 
where these were formerly abandoned to the 
wild beasts ; cleanliness, where filthiness was 
universal ; modesty, where abominations were 
openly practised ; clothing, where men and 
women were naked, and were not ashamed ; 
good housing, where men hved in sheds or 

1 88 The Future of Africa 

dingy huts ; industry, where none laboured 
except under compulsion ; prosperity and 
plenty, where poverty and hunger were as 
periodical as the seasons — these are some of the 
social fruits of missions, which may be seen 
wherever Christ's Gospel has been proclaimed. 

We now pass to what must be regarded as 
the most important result of missionary work 
— the creation of a Church in Africa. This is 
indeed the main object of missions, the prime 
motive of their activity though it may often 
escape mention in books of travels, Governor's 
reports, or mere smoking-room yarns of 
foreign parts. A Church has to be created 
where formerly heathendom prevailed : a 
pagan people has to be brought into Hving 
fellowship with Christ Himself. Without 
such a product mission work is still in the hard 
and barren days, and there will be httle joy in 
the missionary's heart, even though he may 
see beautiful villages arising, people acquiring 
a new wealth, and Government sitting easy in 
its seat. 

All that we have said earlier in the chapter 
is of minor importance ; now we come to the 
very heart of missions. Here is the source of 
all individual, social, and national reform. 
Wherever a Church lives which is being 
sanctified by God the Spirit, to be presented 

Results of Mission Work 189 

faultless, stainless, and without blemish, there 
is a lamp Ht, before which war, social bar- 
barities, and all types of immoraHties wither 
away, unable to bear its light. Many a time 
has the presence of one respected Christian in 
a village made an unholy dance cease. Many 
a time has the leaven of a Christian com- 
munity suppressed the poison ordeal and the 
pubHc orgies or fetichism. Not many years 
ago when the paramount chief of Northern 
Angoniland was elected, and one of the 
councillors rose to perform a wild war dance 
to incite the tribe to go out on its traditional 
raid in celebration of the coronation, the 
presence of two or three influential native 
Christians turned the dance into a silly fiasco, 
and the councillor's plan was defeated. In 
these cases, perhaps, no word was spoken. 
The mere presence of a Christlike man was a 
new conscience to the people, and suppressed 
the practices of darkness. 

" The Church is the Ark of God, and its 
companies of worshippers are the centres of the 
manifestation of His glory in the redemption 
and sanctification of the wondering children of 
men." If missions exist that the whole earth 
may be filled with His glory, they must give 
birth to those centres for the manifestation of 
it, and this is the fruit of proclaiming the 

I90 The Future of Africa 

Gospel. The Lord Jesus Christ, our first 
missionary, came to declare the Gospel. 
When He had done so He said to the Father, 
" I have glorified Thee on the earth, having 
accomplished the work which Thou hast given 
Me to do," and missionaries can feel that they 
have accomplished the high work for which 
they have been sent, when they see around 
them a people in whom God is glorified. 
(a) How a How is this Cliurcli created ? The answer 
buiUup.*^ is, by every agency which is consecrated to 
God. Those who read the annual reports of 
the Mengo hospital will see how year by year 
numbers of the patients are brought to Christ. 
Here medical work is the instrument of God 
for His Church. One can tell from personal 
experience of a carpenter in Central Africa who 
turns out splendid journeymen, and through 
his ten years' service, scarcely one of his 
apprentices has left his shop without having 
become a devoted Christian. Here industrial 
work is God's instrument for His Church. 
The testimony of many missionaries who 
reported to the World Missionary Conference 
at Edinburgh is that a great number of their 
church members have been brought to Christ 
in the school. Here educational work is God's 
instrument for His Church. And how shall we 
reckon the number of souls who have come to 



# » . 4jg 


*<m^^f: *, 

llv<!<l\ I! 

Results of Mission Work 191 

the light through quiet conversations, village 
preachings, and church services ? These have 
found God's instrument for His Chui'ch in 
personal work, and in the preaching of the 

This brings us to the actual question of W Admis- 
Church membership. We can only estimate Membership, 
aright the possibiUties of a Christian Africa 
by considering the character of those to whom 
we must look to lead the Church of the future. 
In all African churches there is a considerable 
interval between profession of faith and com- 
municating. The interval may extend, from 
six months as laid down by the Baptists on the 
Congo to at least two or three years, as in the 
case of all the Nyasaland missions. No mis- 
sionary of experience baptises men and women 
immediately on their profession of faith in 
Christ. The African is emotional beyond 
most races, and he is particularly social in his 
instincts. Consequently he may be swayed 
by some popular mass movement, nor would it 
become us to let him make vows of faith and 
desire which he has not fully understood. 

When a man first expresses his desire to 
follow Christ he is possibly received informally 
to the " Hearers Class." Here he may spend 
a year, during which he is taught by a native 
teacher the primary doctrines and the whole 

192 The Future of Africa 

of one of the Gospels. He then comes up for 
a personal examination, and if his knowledge 
and conduct are satisfactory he may be 
received into the catechumen's class. This is 
done in a public solemn way, and the catechu- 
men pubhcly professes his faith in Christ and 
desire to follow Him. He continues in the 
catechumen's class for one or two years, during 
which time he is regularly instructed by natives 
or Europeans in selected Bible Teaching and 
in some doctrinal catechism. When he has 
completed this course he again comes for a 
personal examination, and if he passes, his 
name is submitted to the native Christians or 
elders. They have seen his hfe and conduct 
during the term of his probation, and they 
know him well, for there is no privacy in 
native Hfe. If a husband has quarrelled with 
his wife, the whole village knows it. There 
little is hid, all is revealed daily. The walls of 
the small huts are not thick enough to conceal 
family conduct, and the African does not speak 
softly. His conversation with liis neighbour 
takes the form of what Miss Kingsley calls a 
" friendly yell." Hence the accuracy of the 
native Christians' knowledge and judgment 
of conduct. 

If the catechumen passes then* friendly 
inspection he is now ready for baptism. But 

Results of Mission Work 193 

there are certain public vices that must have 
been abandoned through these years of over- 
sight. For example, all worship of fetichism 
and all brutal practices must have ceased. 
Almost universally in pagan Africa no poly- 
ganiist may be admitted either to the Catechu- 
menate or the Chmch. Only one wife, and that 
the true wife, may be retained. Most missions 
would refuse anyone who frequented evil 
dances. In the Livingstonia and Dutch 
Reformed and other missions, all catechumens 
must be total abstainers from native beer. 
This is a rule made not by the Europeans, but 
by the native Church. It was they who led. 
When they saw the havoc that beer-drinking 
was working in the country, and how easily 
they themselves might forget a proper restraint, 
they resolved that the native Chm*ch must be 
purged of the evil. 

When a candidate has been approved by 
missionary and people ahke he is then baptised 
and received into the full privileges of the 
Christian Church. In Anghcan missions 
baptism is given at an earUer stage, and then 
follows a period of instruction before con- 
firmation and the taking of Holy Communion. 
In many missions it is insisted that young 
people be able to read before they are received 
into the Chui'ch. The differing circumstances 

194 The Future of Africa 

found in different localities necessarily involve 
variety of procedure in different missions. But 
all the paths by which converts are led into the 
Church are long enough to allow some testing of 
sincerity, and to give opportunity for con- 
siderable instruction. After the candidates 
for Church membership have been admitted 
by baptism in a public and solemn fashion, 
the work of the missionary is far from finished. 
There still remains the greater work of leading 
the people into some conformity to Christ and 
of developing the Church into lines of self- 
extension and independence. No missionary 
will be satisfied that his work is done when he 
has admitted men and women to the Christian 
Church. The harder task Hes before him, of 
maintaining its disciphne and of purifying its 
conduct. The power of mission triumphs 
does not he in statistical success, but in the 
amount of character that is produced. " How 
much of the mind of Christ is appearing in a 
community ? " is a more vital question than 
" How many are baptised ? " 
c) Hin- We cannot be blind to the fact that there 

Sunfh Life, are moral hindrances to real Christian pro- 
gress, and this the missionary proves daily. 
The greatest obstacle of all is the lack of any 
sense of sin. Evil, as an offence against God, 
is unknown. The only fear of evil is the fear 

Results of Mission Work 195 

of the social consequences. Certainly moral 
progress is distinctly visible in communities 
where strong reHgious movements have taken 
place and a higher ethical standard is produced 
where there are strong religious movements. 
It does not, however, always appear suddenly, 
nor is it maintained with ease. There is 
no field where the rejoicing in progressive 
religious work is not at times quahfied with 
considerable lamentation over the lack of 
conscience, or of permanent improvement. 
On the West Coast, for instance, we have 
examples of great Christian advances. Six 
communicants in one mission in 1816 had 
grown to 4500 in 1872, and about a £1000 were 
contributed by the people themselves to the 
Church fund. Yet even at that period of 
progress " not all members were converted 
people." Sensual indulgence and vain personal 
display were common. A dislike of hard work 
crowded the market for clerks and shopmen, 
while handicrafts and agriculture were 
neglected." The record of progress in the 
Uganda Church surpasses anything that has 
happened in Continental Africa, yet in its last 
year's report we find one missionary referring 
to the increasing indifference to Christian duty 
and to the growing immorality, and to how 
little is taught or understood of the vital truths 

196 The Future of Africa 

of the Faith, among the candidates for con- 
firmation or baptism. The spread of Chris- 
tianity in Madagascar between 1870-1880 was 
amazing. In 1880, just twelve years after 
the succession of Ranavalona II., the first 
Christian queen, there were 68,227 Church 
members, and 225,460 adherents. Now these 
are stirring facts, but the men on the spot saw 
them under quahfying Hghts. In their reports 
home they lament the presence of a good deal 
of ignorance, immorality, and unchristian 
conduct within the membership of the Church : 
this, too, in spite of the purifying influence of 
a great persecution which endured throughout 
a quarter of a century. Statistics, too, are 
often very deceptive. Many a young mis- 
sionary whose mind has been fed on figures, 
into which he has read his own romantic inter- 
pretation, has received such a shock when he 
came face to face with the hard reality of facts 
that his spirit has shrivelled. The native 
converts are not angels yet — they are but 
human beings, who perhaps only a few short 
years ago were soiled with vice and ignorant 
superstitions. Some of the stain of the past 
is still about them. 

Over against this somewhat pessimistic 
picture we have, however, to place two great 
positive facts. In the first place it is 

Results of Mission Work 197 

proved again and again in Africa that this 
sense of sin, so often lacking, is certainly 
created by the revelation of God in Christ. 
As the knowledge of God increases, so does the 
sense of sin and the desire for purity and 
strength of character. The height of the 
ethical standard is measured by the height of 
the knowledge of Christ. As we have seen in 
the previous chapter the preaching of the 
spiritual doctrines of the Cross has power in 
Africa as elsewhere, and it is this that pro- 
duces a better moraUty, not the mere preaching 
of the higher moral laws. As a result of simple 
evangehcal preaching great religious awaken- 
ings have taken place and have not expended 
themselves in mere emotionahsm. Lives have 
been changed. Honesty, chastity, and quiet 
have taken the place of pilfering, impurity, 
and quarrelHng. Men who were notorious for 
indolence have become notable for strenuous 

Again, it is necessary in estimating the 
Christian life of the convert to compare it with 
that of his pagan neighbour, not with the highly 
educated European Christian who has centuries 
of Christian life behind him. When we take 
this reasonable method we find triumphant 
proof of progress and real results. Many there 
are amongst these African Christians whose 

198 The Future of Africa 

lives are shining lamps, whose courtesy, con- 
secration and gentle Christian spirit, or burning 
zeal, are a daily witness that God dwells in 
(d) Endur- One of the best tests of the sincerity of the 
Persecution. Christian faith is to watch how it endures 
persecution. The African Church has not had 
to bear such great outbursts of persecution as 
some other churches, but there have been 
several notable outbreaks. We have already 
mentioned the great persecution of Madagascar 
which lasted for a quarter of a century. During 
this period the Church instead of diminishing 
increased tenfold. 

At Bonny, in 1875, a severe persecution 
broke out. It was raised by the juju priests 
who had grown alarmed at the number of 
Christian baptisms. One convert who per- 
sisted in going to church and refused to eat 
of the juju sacrifices was thrown into the river. 
Another was starved to death. Two others 
were chained and confined in the bush for a 
year until they were liberated at the instiga- 
tion of an English trader. It was one of these 
martyrs who replied to the persistence of the 
juju priests, " Jesus Christ has put a padlock 
on my heart, and has taken the key to 

The great persecution in Uganda took place 

■^1 c 

Results of Mission Work 199 

in 1885. Some were burned alive and one of 
the members of the Church Council died at the 
fire exhorting liis executioners to beHeve in 
Jesus Christ. Scores of others, some of them 
not yet baptised, scarcely even recognised as 
Christians, went to death for the Gospel. 
Such heroic devotion stands out as an incon- 
testable proof of the reahty of the faith of these 
converts, however feeble and undeveloped 
their Christian hfe might be on other hues. 
There is another form of persecution Christian 
Africans sometimes have to bear which is not 
only more common but more bitter. In certain 
villages they are almost ostracised. Many 
are subjected to accusations of unfriendliness, 
or even mtchcraft, and continual tempta- 
tions to sin are thrust in their way. Yet 
rather than be disloyal to Christ some have 
gone through these triumphantly, growing 
more Godlike by the bitterness of their situa- 
tion, and perhaps in the end winning the great 
victory of turning their persecutors into 

Christianity is also beginning to teach the (e)Liberaiity. 
African the dehghts of giving. The forms of 
self-help which are found in Africa vary greatly 
in kind and degree. In most tribes, especially 
where the pressure of European civiHsation 
has not come, the native is poor in coin, but 

2 00 The Future of Africa 

rich in time. He cannot give money, but he 
can give time and labour, and this is his first 
form of hberahty. You will find him doing 
evangeHstic work, building his churches and 
schools, carrjdng loads of produce to a market, 
acting as messenger for his teacher, hoeing 
roads through the bush, and by numerous 
little jobs gratuitously performed, making his 
contribution to the independent hfe of the 
native Church. Then comes the contribution 
in produce and other forms of marketable 
wealth. Scarcely any pagan tribe of Africa 
had originally a coinage of its own. In 
Uganda the cowrie shell had been introduced, 
but in most other lands the means of payment 
in barter were brass rods, beads, or calico. 
Wlien, therefore, the Church begins to give 
collections, the variety and bulk of the gifts 
are fearful and wonderful ! On the days of 
great conferences when the people give out of 
a full heart, whether it be on the West Coast, 
or in British Nyasaland, the church door is 
blocked with gifts of food stuffs, live stock, 
barter goods, trinkets and ornaments, the 
primitive wealth of a primitive people. 

As civiUsation advances and European 
governments estabHsh their administration, 
coins begin to be used. The giving of the 
people then reaches a more recognisable 

Results of Mission Work 201 

standard. Some missions clothe, feed and 
educate their pupils, asking no fee, build 
churches for the people, and pay for the 
evangehsts and native workers. Nowadays, 
however, most are agreed that such a system 
breeds a pauperised community, which can 
never be vigorous. It is always hard to ask 
the people to pay for what they have hitherto 
received for nothing. The first pressure may 
possibly seem to threaten the collapse of the 
mission's work, yet in the end foundations 
thus laid are found to be firmer. 

When Dr Stewart first proposed in 1870 
that all the pupils at Lovedale should pay 
fees, it seemed as if the institution would be 
emptied of pupils. At last, after a two days' 
talk, one man rose and offered to pay £4 for his 
son's education, and soon others followed. In 
the first year £200 were received in fees. Four 
years after £1300 were received, and in 1908 
over £5000. 

Just three years after this experiment in 
fees had begun, the Fingoes, who live beyond 
the Kei River, encouraged and guided by 
Captain Blyth, their magistrate, and Mr Ross, 
their missionary, became ambitious to have 
an institution of their own. They apphed to 
Dr Stewart to help them. He promised to do 
so if they would raise £1000 as a proof of their 

202 The Future of Africa 

sincerity. In four or five months Dr Stewart 
was called by them to come and receive the 
money, and when he arrived he saw a table 
standing on the veldt with £1450 in silver, 
which the people themselves had contributed. 
As the buildings rose, the people grew 
ambitious to see a larger institution, and 
collected again about £1500 in silver. Thus 
one creation of self-help gave birth to an 
offspring which annually grows larger and 
more numerous. 

In Uganda there is one of the most striking 
examples of the financial independence which 
can be reached when it is aimed at from the 
first, and the type of the work is guided into 
an African, rather than a European mould. 
There all the educational, all the church 
work, the teachers, evangelists and clergy are 
paid by the native Church. The salaries are 
very low, yet an agency is there which is fit 
to do the work, and a mighty elevation of the 
people has taken place, through agents paid 
by the people themselves. 

When we come to consider the work of 
propagating the Church, we find the African at 
his best. Throughout the world the great 
accessions to the native Church have not been 
so much the direct outcome of the evan- 
gelistic work of the European as of the native 

Results of Mission Work 203 

evangelist. The power of a missionary has 
lain more in his capacity for inspiring and 
organising the work of others than in the 
direct preaching he himself has done. 

A missionary of a somewhat unorganised 
mission in Central Africa once said to the 
writer as he came up from school in the 
evening, " Why do you waste your time 
teaching the rudiments of education to that 
handful of pupils ? On my station we only 
need to stand on the verandah and we have a 
congregation. We spend our days in preach- 
ing to the heathen." Next day we were out 
on tour together. As we drew near to a distant 
village we found a congregation assembled, and 
a native preacliing to them. In the morning 
we were awakened by the horn blowing for 
pubUc worship, and before my friend was out 
of bed he heard the sound of praise and the 
Gospel being declared by a native Christian. 
Then I answered him. "In a hundred 
villages the same Gospel is being proclaimed 
by native preachers this morning while we sit 
here. That is why I teach in the school." 
" And in my villages," he said, " there is no 
one to preach, because I am here." 

Some of the best advances in the history 
of Africa's evangelisation have taken place 
through the energy of the native Church. The 

204 The Future of Africa 

Calabar mission was started there by the Freed 
Slaves of Jamaica. The Yoruba and Niger 
missions were sent forth by the native Chm-ch 
of Sierra Leone, and not only were the mis- 
sionaries natives of Africa under an African 
bishop, but the expenses of the mission were 
almost all borne by the native Church. The 
Basutoland Church opened its famous mission 
in Barotseland as an extension under M. 
Coillard. In Uganda the evangelisation of the 
neighbouring kingdoms has been done by 
missionary parties of the native Church, who 
sent forth their own teachers, and paid their 
salaries. In Livingstonia each station has 
attached to it a foreign mission hinterland, 
which is worked by native teachers, and 
towards the expenses of which the native 
Church makes a grant from year to year. 
How effective these indigenous extensions are 
may be seen in the history of many a local 
mission. Churches have been organised, the 
heathenism of whole provinces has been 
scattered, and the people who were evangelised 
by the parent Church have in turn become 
evangehsts of others. 

It is not only by paid evangehsts that the 
work is done, for in most hving churches there 
is a vast, unpaid, and unappointed agency 
always at work. In Calabar, "it is seldom 

Results of Mission Work 205 

that in any outlying districts there will not 
be found a house that is used for a meeting 
place, and although no paid evangehst has 
settled among them, one man will make it his 
duty to hold regular service on the Sabbath." 
In Nyasaland hundreds of unpaid preachers 
hold services every Sabbath in the Uttle village 
chapels, and in the open spaces. It is largely 
through such agency that the great increases 
to the Church take place, and the Christian 
life is kept Hvely and extensive. 

One of the most wonderful Christians in 
Africa whom the past century saw was Bishop 
Samuel Crowther. Sold as a slave, he was 
rescued by a British cruiser and landed at 
Sierra Leone. There and in Britain he re- 
ceived a thorough education and proved 
himself a man of exceptional ability. He was 
sent with the earher expeditions to open work 
on the Niger and proved his devotion and 
sanity over and over again. He got con- 
cessions from Mohammedan chiefs, whose 
minds seemed steeled against the European. 
He seemed to know exactly what to say at the 
critical moment, and by which avenue to find 
a favourable approach to enemies. His zeal 
for the conversion of Africa burned brighter 
and brighter with his advancing years, and 
when he died he left a name which wilJ 

2o6 The Future of Africa 

always be honoured in the annals of the 
African Church. 

Experience seems to teach, however, that 
the African is most efficient as an evangehst 
when guided and controlled. The time has 
not come yet, when his mental balance, or his 
religious character, are ready for entire and un- 
guided responsibiUty. The greatest and most 
permanent extensions have been made, where 
his zeal and energy have been allowed great 
scope, a wise and fatherly superintendence 
being maintained by the European. Of 
course, as in all societies where the human 
mingles with the divine, there are obvious 
drawbacks, and this is true of the young 
African Church even where its growth seems 
most promising. There is a risk in a certain 
case of a mistaken presentation of great 
Christian truths owing to merely partial 
education. There is a risk of insufficient 
emphasis on the great matters of Christian 
conduct such as temperance, truthfulness and 
industry. There is the risk even of moral 
lapses on the part of the evangelist himself, 
for old tendencies remain strong and the 
African evangehst though usually victorious 
has a constant struggle with temptation. 

Yet everywhere imperceptibly, yet surely, 
the Church is growing. New chm*ches are 

Results of Mission Work 207 

being founded, old foundations are being 
strengthened. We have mentioned the harvest 
of Uganda. Special mention of particular 
societies in a work of this kind may seem 
invidious yet we may perhaps give one 
example. In South-East and West Africa 
the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society 
report over 2600 fully accredited local 
preachers. Their West African missions cost 
the parent society about £10,000 annually, 
and about £35,000 a year is raised in the field 
itself. One church on the coast has installed 
electric hght at its own expense — a source 
of much innocent gratification to the dusky 
congregation ! 

From reflections on these results and the 
encouraging side of missionary life we pass 
to the most important consideration of all — 
the urgent need for effective preparation of 
the African evangehst. The training of a 
native ministry is the consummation of all the 
church and educational work of the missionary. 
For the ordinary native evangehst there are 
usually short courses of instruction in Bibhcal 
and doctrinal subjects. In Uganda there 
are five centres where catechists and evan- 
gelists are trained. In Livingstonia, besides 
the weekly sermon lesson which is given at 
the various stations to the voluntary village 

2o8 The Future ot Africa 

preachers, a three years' course is given at the 
Institution to the evangeUsts. In Lagos the 
course is for two years, and during their 
training the men engage in itinerating and 
evangehsing. On the Gold Coast all Christian 
workers are prepared by attending a three 
years' course at one of the two seminaries. 

Very few missions, however, have a properly 
systematised college course. At Sierra Leone 
there is the well-known college of Fourah Bay, 
from which a continuous stream of clergy has 
poured out. No less than one hundred and 
fifty African clergy have been ordained in the 
Church Missionary Society missions of the 
West Coast. It must be held in mind that 
this mission is now nearly a hundred years old. 
The Wesleyan missions on the West Coast 
are slightly older than the Church Missionary 
Society and have sixty ordained natives at 
work. In the Uganda mission, which is about 
the same age as the Nyasaland missions, there 
are thirty-one ordained clergy. Numerically 
the development of the native Church in 
Madagascar far exceeds anything on the 
continent of Africa. Here there are con- 
nected with the L.M.S. 121,613 Christian 
adherents, and 29,588 ^ communicants, and for 

^ These figures are less thau those on p. 196. This is partly 
accounted for by the fact that in 1896-7 half of the congrega- 
tions of the L.M.S. were handed over to the Paris Society. 

Results of Mission Work 209 

these there are now 503 ordained native 

It is difficult to generalise about the pro- 
duction of a native ministry. Differences 
must of course appear under the ecclesiastical 
poHcy which various missions follow. But for 
all, there must always be a guiding principle 
of caution, which will not suddenly lay hands 
on any man. A long knowledge of the char- 
acters of each candidate for ordination is more 
essential than in Europe. But the idea of how 
much special theological training is necessary 
seems to differ as much in Africa as in the Home 
Church. On one main point all, however, are 
agreed. To secure an efficient Christian 
Church in Africa, founded on sound and 
enduring Unes, no pains must be spared in 
training and preparing an earnest, zealous and 
united pastorate. The office-bearers in the 
Church of Africa must be thoroughly equipped 
and qualified for the tremendous responsi- 
bihty that is theirs. The goal may seem 
distant for some, but all aim towards that day 
when the African Church will be led by its own 
pastors, and when the wide surrounding 
paganism will be penetrated by the pro- 
clamation of the Gospel by Africa's own 

We have wandered full circle and return in Conclusion. 

2IO The Future of Africa 

retrospect to the question confronting us at 
the outset. Is Africa changing ? Are there 
possibihties of a Christian Africa which the 
results thus far of mission work unfold ? We 
have learnt, in however sketchy a survey, 
something of the manifold activities and 
widely varying results of missions. As pioneer, 
as peacemaker, as civihsing and moral agent, 
lastly and chiefly as Christ's messenger, the 
influence of the missionary has penetrated 
into the deepest recesses of the land and is 
gradually permeating its whole life. " First 
the seed then the ear." At present it is mere 
seed-time, but " under the soil the green shoots 
are moving." There still remains so much to 
achieve, such an incalculable amount to be 
done ere any harvest may be looked for, but 
in each of these results wliich we see — social, 
tribal and rehgious — can we not realise the 
infinite possibilities of a Christian Africa, should 
the efforts on her behalf be strengthened and 
advanced by the members of the Christian 



The Extent of Missionary Occupation. 
(a) Spanish West Africa. 
(h) French West Africa. 

(c) British West Africa. 

(d) German West Africa. 

(e) Liberia. 

( f) The Congo. 

(g) Portuguese Angola. 
(A) South Africa. 

(i) Madagascar. 

(;■) Portuguese East Africa. 

(k) German East Africa. 

(/) British East Africa. 

(w) The Sudan. 

(ra) Summar3% 

Difficulties of Missionary Work. 

(a) Geographical and Climatic. 

(b) Tribal Hindrances. 

(c) Scattered Po{)ulation. 

(d) Language. 

(e) Ethiopianisrn. 

2 1 2 The Future of Africa 

Urgency of the Situation. 

(a) The Population. 

(b) The Advance of Islam. 

(c) Advance of Civilisation. 


The A HURRIED glance over pagan Africa, with 

Extent of • , • • ... t 

Missionary I'S numerous missionary societies and con- 
Occupation. si(jerable staff of agents, might give one the 
impression that the continent is fairly well 
occupied, and that an adequate force of 
missionaries is now in possession. Such a 
wrong impression is gained through the fact 
that the map of Africa is chiefly filled in 
at points where European contact has made 
names famihar, and at these known points 
there is a certain adequacy of occupation. 
A detailed examination of the known popu- 
lation soon convinces one, however, that 
numerous tribes have never been touched by 
the Christian Church, and in most places of 
occupation the staff is terribly inadequate. 
(a) Spanish Beginning in the north-west, we have the 
* Spanish Protectorate of Rio de Oro, with 
a population of perhaps 400,000, and here 
there are no Christian missions. Tlie island 
of Fernando Po was occupied in 1840 by the 
Baptist Missionary Society, but, after a few 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 213 

years, Roman Catholic missionaries came, 
and the Protestants were driven out of the 
island. Since 1870 the Primitive Methodists 
have had a Httle mission which has met with 
some success. Apart from this island occupa- 
tion Spanish Africa is without a missionary. 

Next we come to a great stretch of a con- (b) French 
tinent which belongs to France. This huge ^^ "*^*' 
sHce is equal to three times the size of France, 
and has a population of over nine milhons. 
It includes the old settlements of the Senegal, 
the fabled regions of the Upper Niger, and the 
great territory of the Sudan. On the Senegal 
river there is a small mission of the Paris 
Society. On the Guinea Coast, Ivory Coast, 
and the eastern extremity of the Dahomey 
Coast there are small missions. The whole 
interior, however, is untouched, and with the 
exception of those occupying a fringe of the 
coast line, these nine millions of people are 
^vithout the Gospel. 

Glancing at the map we notice that British (c) British 
rule begins in North-West Gambia, a small 
protectorate with a population of 91,000. 
This colony has only one httle mission with 
two Europeans. The natives are partly 
pagans and partly Mohammedans. As we 
travel south. Sierra Leone is the next British 
colony which we meet. Here we have beliind 

2 14 The Future of Africa 

us a century of mission work, and there is an 
adequate occupation near the coast. Attempts 
to reach the heathen tribes of the interior 
are, however, only of recent date. With the 
force of native Christians now available in 
Sierra Leone, what is wanted for full occu- 
pation is probably a deeper feeling of re- 
sponsibiHty among the native Christians for 
those pagan tribes in their immediate hinter- 
land. On the Gold Coast the Wesleyans and 
Basel Mission are working among the two 
milhons of natives. Before they may ade- 
quately overtake their field their staffs would 
require to be doubled. In Lagos and the 
Yoruba country, now known as part of 
Southern Nigeria, a number of missionary 
societies are at work, but the whole district 
east of the Yoruba country, as far as the west 
bank of the Niger is absolutely without the 

In Northern Nigeria the people are mostly 
Mohammedan, though a few short years ago 
they were entirely pagan. Still, there are 
considerable pagan tribes who have hitherto 
repulsed the advances of Mohammedanism. 
There are the Adamawa, for example, who 
live in the Highlands to the south of the 
Benue. From their high level they have been 
accustomed to issue forth to raid the Hausa 

k " 

;'.>'■' ■ ^^ 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 215 

caravans and to defy the Mohammedans. 
Along the south bank of the Benue are several 
pagan tribes, amongst all of whom no mission 
work has yet been done. 

What missions there are on the Lower Niger 
and on the Cross River have so far clung to 
the coast and water highways and have not 
succeeded to any large extent in reaching the 
interior tribes. Between the Cross River 
and the Benue there are no missions. The 
delta of the Niger is covered by swamps and 
impenetrable forests pierced by streams and 
creeks, along which numerous pagan tribes 
Hve, bound by every evil custom, includ- 
ing cannibalism and human sacrifice. Here 
neither missionaries nor traders have settled 
nor influenced the natives to any degree. 
The history of this region has been one 
of perpetual revolts and insurrections, and 
after forty years' intercourse with Europeans 
scarcely any improvement can be observed 
ten miles from the river banks. 

Togo, a German colony, has a population ^g^TFrica 
of a million. Here the North German Society 
is working energetically, but its furthest north 
station hardly reaches the centre of the colonv, 
and the two northerly provinces are still 
unevangehsed. In the German Cameroons 
there is a population of four millions. Here 

2i6 The Future of Africa 

the Basel and American Presbyterian Missions 
are working. The Government is friendly 
and encourages the educational efforts of the 
missions. Here again the missions' influence 
has scarcely penetrated beyond the coast Hne, 
and seven-eighths of the land is entirely un- 

(e) Liberia. The free state of Liberia has the name of 

being a Christian state. The immigrant 
negroes, freed slaves from America, make 
profession of being Christians, but they are 
somewhat decadent Christians, and the great 
majority of the two million natives proper of 
the country are still untouched by Christian 

(f) The The French Congo is a territory equal to 
C°"8-°- two and a half times the size of France, and 

with a population of perhaps twelve millions. 
In this vast territory there are only four small 
stations worked by the Paris Society. These 
are situated on the navigable part of the 
Ooforve, and conduct a fine spiritual work which 
has met with some success. Ten years ago 
there were 1600 Church members. But the 
whole of that vast territory between the Ogorve 
and the Congo is without a single missionary. 
To the north of the Ogorve are the Fans (or 
Mpongwe), a cannibal people, whose ^vild 
incursion from the east to the west over- 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 217 

turned nations and spread the wildest terror. 
The French mission has been touching their 
outskirts, and the whole Bible is translated 
into their language. This important tribe, 
which, if won for Christ, would act as a strong 
bulwark against the approach of Islam, is 
still, alas ! largely out of the reach of Christian 
missions. Missionaries in the French Congo 
reckon that to make an effective advance 
from Ogorve 180 new European missionaries 
would be required and a similar number to 
advance from the Congo as a base. 

The Belgian Congo is a great region of 
900,000 square miles. Its population was once 
estimated at thirty million, but the massacres, 
scatterings, and famine that have followed on 
the oppression of the Government have greatly 
diminished the population. Here the Baptists 
were the first Protestant missionaries. They 
have been followed by the Swedish Mission, 
American Presbyterians, Congo Balolos and 
other societies. But nearly all their work is 
along the left bank of the river, and there are 
no missions beyond the Stanley Falls. The great 
affluent — the Kasai — has only two or three 
stations, and the Ubangi is entirely unoccupied. 
Many of the tribes are cannibahstic but with 
high artistic skill. Most of them are morally 
of a very low type. Some are ready for 

2i8 The Future of Africa 

occupation, others are absolutely opposed to 
the presence of the missionary, and meanwhile 
the great opportunity of these 9500 miles of 
navigable waterway is not being properly 
used. The impression left by Europe on 
those great regions has been one of in- 
ordinate greed for the products of their soil, 
a disrespect for native rights, and a readiness 
to shed blood. The peaceable message of the 
Gospel has only been heard at a few isolated 
points. In recent years considerable obstacles 
were placed in the way of Protestant mis- 
sionary societies, sites were refused to them, and 
their adherents subjected to some persecution. 
Tliey were reaping the reward of their brave 
exposure of administrative atrocities. Now 
a better day seems to be dawning, and new 
opportunities are being offered to the 
messengers of the Gospel, 
(g) Portu- Portuguese Angola extends over an area of 

guese . . '--' 

Angola. half a million square miles. It has a scattered 
population of perhaps seven milHons. Three 
and four hundred years ago flourishing Roman 
CathoHc missions were carried on at various 
centres, but these collapsed, and Httle of their 
fruit remained. The interior became a great 
hunting ground for slaves, and the port Loanda 
flourished as a collecting market for them. 
This province has scarcely yet recovered from 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 2 1 9 

the degradation of these days, when the 
stronger people learned to live by raiding their 
neighbours, and weaker peoples were cut off 
entirely. There are missions in the St Salvador 
and Loanda districts at Benguella and Bihe, 
and at long intervals between the latter and 
Miveru. But these are only isolated points, 
and many of the tribes that He between these 
stations are not yet occupied. Other opposing 
forces meanwhile are gathering power. Slave- 
raiding for the San Thome plantations still 
goes on. Great rum distilleries have been 
started which distribute then- ciu-se over 
the whole province, and a certain amount of 
opposition has been roused against the Pro- 
testant missions owing to their connection 
with the agitation against slavery. 

In German South- West Africa and in British (h) South 
South Africa there are now goodly missionary "^*" 
forces. But the task which hes before them 
is greater than ever it was. Owing to the 
rapid increase of the population, as well as 
owing to the lack of aggressive work by many 
of the Christian churches, there are probably 
more heathen in South Africa to-day than 
there were a century ago. Out of a native 
and coloured population of over five million, 
there are only 150,000 communicants, though 
possibly nearly a million would call themselves 


The Future of Africa 

(j) Portu- 
guese East 

Christians. This leaves at least four milhon 
heathen for the churches to conquer. 

Crossing the ocean we come to the great 
island of Madagascar, the scene of the most 
remarkable Christian movement of the past 
century. The high levels about the capital 
have had large opportunities of hearing 
the Gospel, yet the surprising fact remains 
that after all these years of triumphant pro- 
gress, three-quarters of the island is still 

In the nine northern provinces, with a popu- 
lation of half a million, there are only two 
European missionaries. One of the southern 
provinces has neither a European nor native 
evangehst. In addition to these unoccupied 
parts we must consider the great inadequacy 
of the present staff for the work of guiding and 
consohdating the numerous offshoots of the 
native Church. Great lapsing has taken place 
through the activity of the CathoUcs and the 
strong opposition of the late governor to all 
forms of rehgious work. A better and more 
tolerant administration, however, is Hkely to 
be carried on by the new governor. 

When we come to Portuguese East Africa 

' we find a huge field almost without missions. 

At Delagoa Bay and Beira and inland from 

Inhambane there are mission stations, but the 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 221 

interior south of the Zambesi has none, and 
beyond a httle work on the shores of Lake 
Nyasa the northern province of Mozambique 
is entirely unoccupied. Here IMohammedanism 
is rapidly making headway among the Yao, 
but other great tribes, such as the Anguru, who 
border on British territory, are wholly pagan, 
and present a very degraded and restless type 
of tribal hfe. The Swiss mission at Delagoa 
Bay has proved that it is possible to work 
harmoniously with the Portuguese Govern- 
ment, and even to get their friendly 

German East Africa is a vast territory equal (k) German 
to nearly three times the size of the German ^^^^ Afnca. 
Empire. Missions are strategically situated 
for the future conquest of the land, but as yet 
they are only touching small portions of the 
population. Other forces are rapidly extend- 
ing into every corner of the land, adminis- 
tration agents, commercial enterprises and 
an active Mohammedan propaganda. The 
Christian forces are totally inadequate to 
the great task of rapid evangehsation. The 
populous region to the south and west 
of Lake Victoria Nyanza could furnish 
ample room for two hundred new European 

When we come to British East Africa we East Africa. 

222 The Future of Africa 

find a country five times the size of England 
and Wales, with a population of about nine 
millions. Here eight missionary societies are 
at work with a delightful spirit of comity, 
but their operations are far from reaching 
all the pagan populations. In the protec- 
torate which is known as British East Africa 
three-fourths of the territory is unreached 
by Christian missions, although three-quarters 
of a century have passed since Krapf began 
at Mombasa his ambitious plans for the evan- 
gehsation of Central Africa. In Uganda, 
in spite of the vast extensions of the Church 
there, one-half of the population is still un- 
evangeUsed. Bishop Tucker estimates that a 
hundred European missionaries and three 
thousand native evangelists are required before 
the waiting fields can be overtaken. Other 
forces wliich are inimical to Christianity and 
the very existence of the tribes are rapidly 
extending all over the country. Hollis, in his 
preface to The Masai, emphasises the need 
of Christian work among tliis most interesting 
people, " for it is only by the gradual and 
peaceful civihsation of the tribe that they can 
be saved from extinction. ... It has often 
been proved in other parts of the globe that 
the native, on the advent of the white man, 
alters Ms habits or ceases to exist, and it is 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 223 

to be hoped that the Masai will choose the 
first of these alternatives." 

Finally we come to the Sudan, which (m) The 
extends from the Nile to the Niger. Within " ^* 
this vast region, which is partly under British 
and partly under French protection, there is 
scarcely a single mission. Yet here we have 
great tribes settled in lands as large as 
many of the great states of Europe, now 
in the crisis of their hfe, fighting an 
encroaching Mohammedanism, whose inroads 
are as yet undisputed by the Christian 

The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan covers 950,000 
square miles, and aheady Mohammedanism is 
rapidly getting complete sway and its progress 
has been by a most bloody path. Sir Reginald 
Wingate estimates that prior to the Mahdi's 
power there was a population of 8| milhon 
here : of these 3 J milUon were swept away by 
famine and disease, and 3j milhon were killed 
in engagements with British and Egyptian 
troops and intertribal wars. Several pagan 
tribes were wellnigh obhterated. Up to the 
present mission work has been proliibited 
among the Mohammedan peoples, but pagan 
tribes are open to the messenger of Christ. 
The Church Missionary Society has attempted 
work among the Dinkhas, an interesting 

2 24 The Future of Africa 

Nilotic race, who live in the deepest social 

At the Edinburgh Conference Dr Karl 
Kumm mentioned the names of twenty-six 
tribes whom he had visited in the Central 
Sudan who are as yet without the Gospel. 
In the northern parts Islam has been trium- 
phant, but the pagan tribes, driven out of their 
rich valleys, have taken refuge in the moun- 
tainous regions and the Sudd country and 
parts of the Shari Valley. Here they maintain 
their independence. Now that the warring 
and enslaving by Mohammedan tribes is being 
suppressed by European governments, the more 
subtle forces of superior education and prestige 
are threatening to conquer where warlike 
measures failed. If the tribes are to be saved 
from becoming fanatical Mohammedans, and 
so presenting a more impenetrable barrier to 
Ciiristianity, as well as a continual menace 
to the peace of the continent, the Christian 
Church must waken at once, to dispute with 
Islam possession of these pagan peoples. 

Even this scanty sketch serves to show 
,n, ummary. ^y^qX large areas of pagan Africa there are in 
which the gloom of fetichism is unreHeved 
by the bright hope of the C3iristian faith. 
Minions shrouded in hopel«5S and fearsome 
superstition still send their great voiceless 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 225 

appeal to Christendom. Tiie ligures turn the 
imagination dizzy. We glance down the map 
whose httle patches of colom' hold such signifi- 
cance, representing vast stretches of country 
teeming with thousands and thousands of God's 
creatm-es who as yet know Him not, and 
are '' fast bound " in the " misery and iron " 
of paganism. In Portuguese Guinea there are 
800,000 people without a Protestant mis- 
sionary. In Dahomey it is the same. In 
French Guinea and on the Ivory Coast and 
its hinterland the figures rise higher and 
higher. Wherever the name of some great 
protectorate catches the eye, it is the same. 
Eastern Liberia, Nigeria, parts of the Came- 
roons, in French and Belgian Congo, in Angola. 
In each case the sad total of unevangehsed 
heathen runs into miUions. This too, alas, 
holds good of the East Coast in almost equal 
degree. In aU it is calculated that at least 
seventy millions of pagan Africans have never 
heard the name of Christ, and when we add 
to this the insufficiency of occupation in 
regions where workers are bravely toihng, 
the task that lies before the Christian Church 
seems as tremendous as it is imperative. 

" Africa has suffered many wrongs in the 
past at the hands of the stronger nations of 
Christendom, and she is suffering wrongs at 

226 The Future of Africa 

their hands to-day ; but the greatest wrong, 
and that from which she is suffering most, is 
being inflicted by the Church of Christ. It 
consists in withholding from so many of her 
children the knowledge of Christ. The flags 
of Christian nations float over nearly the whole 
of Africa, but there are large domains in which 
not a mission station has been planted. The 
untouched regions of Africa are a clamant call 
to the Church." 
Difficulties of What is it in Africa which hinders the 
Missu>nary ^.^^-^ extension of the Kingdom of Christ ? 
These days have seen the removal of many 
insurmountable barriers, but with all the pre- 
parations that have been made, there still 
remains this vast task to be undertaken. No 
one with the least experience of African 
missions would deny for a moment the many 
and serious difficulties that confront the worker 
in this field. Various obstacles and hindrances, 
some of them very serious, bar progress at every 
turn, and must be met with a statesmanlike 
directness and determination to conquer them. 
No one supposes this can be done in a day, or 
even a lifetime, but the faith that can remove 
mountains can help even here beyond the behef 
of man. If we examine the chief of these 
difficulties in some detail, we will gain a clearer 
idea of what lies before the African missionary. 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 227 

First, there are geographicaJ and climatic (a) Geo- 
impediments. Many of the unevangehsed fndcirmatic. 
tribes Uve in countries where no European 
can settle with safety — in swampy low levels 
where malaria breeds and in which no con- 
tinued residence is possible for a European. 
Happily a strong band of efficient native 
evangelists is rising, and theirs must be the 
heroic task of entering these deadly regions. 
They will not be immune to fever, and they too 
must lay down their lives if the people are to be 
evangehsed, but the climatic conditions will not 
be so disastrous to them as to the European. 

The presence of sleeping-sickness in a dis- 
trict is now beginning to have very large 
bearings on the relation of missions to the 
natives. Fifteen years ago it did not attract 
much attention, and the extent of its ravages 
were not known. It was known in the old 
slaving days as " negro lethargy," and for some 
centuries it has been known on the West Coast. 
Now with a slow and irresistible progress it is 
spreading itself over the Continent. It crept 
along the West Coast from Senegambia to 
Loanda ; it spread up the Congo, decimating 
villages and leaving a dreadful spoor of death. 
When it appeared in Uganda widespread 
attention was drawn to its havoc, and govern- 
ment commissions were sent to investigate. 

2 28 The Future of Africa 

After careful research the carrying agent was 
discovered to be a species of the tsetse fly. 
In Uganda islands were depopulated, and 
specially by the Lake shore tens of thousands 
of the natives died. It has now spread south 
to North-Eastern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. 
It is still at its earher stages there, and 
the governments are making strenuous efforts 
to stay its progress. When it breaks out 
Europeans are forbidden to travel and villages 
are shifted out of the infected belt of country. 
Medical science has entered the field and 
maintains strenuous warfare against the 
scom'ge by means of preventive and allevi- 
ating measures, but so far no sure cure has yet 
been found for the disease. 

Then there are the regions in the far interior 
with which there are no established hues of 
communication. It would be folly to pene- 
trate there without maintaining a constant 
contact with the outside world. Too many 
hves have been lost and too much money 
squandered in unwise attempts to reach the far 
interior before the places nearer the lines of 
communication with the outside world have 
been occupied. The Church must proceed 
strategically, developing its missions farther 
and farther into the interior, taking care that 
no impassable gaps are left which would cut off 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 229 

its further stations from all contact with the 
civiHsed world. 

We speak of all Africa being open to the (b) Tribal 
messengers of Christ, but this is not an exact ^° ^^"ces. 
statement. Tliere are still many powerful 
chiefs who have an inveterate hatred of the 
Gospel and waU not permit missionary occupa- 
tion. Most of these chiefs are now under 
European Governments, and the general 
policy of the administration is not to permit 
missionaries to enter where the local chiefs 
win not have them. The officials feel that 
whether the missionary acknowledges it or not, 
they are responsible for the lives of Europeans 
in their districts, and they will not allow a 
rash hazarding of Hfe among those who have 
declared their opposition. Besides, they are 
responsible for peace, and when a war breaks 
out, though it may be for the sake of opening 
doors which are wilfuUy closed against civilisa- 
tion, they know that they will be in danger 
of reprimands from a timorous and economical 
home government. Especially do they feel 
the necessity of guarding the people from 
strife in fanatically Mohammedan countries. 
Tlie eager pioneer will therefore find many a 
people, whose darkness calls out to liim for 
immediate help, closed against him by the 
attitude of the native chief. 

2 30 The Future of Africa 

Even supposing his presence and teachings are 
tolerated, the missionary will find tribal loyalty 
a great barrier where the chief hates his doc- 
trines. This has been proved in East Africa, 
when in some cases no progress is made among 
the people because the heart of the chief 
is hardened. The following illustrates this 
loyalty to the chief. " When will you come 
to Clirist ? " said a missionary to a young 
native. " \Mien my chief does," he rephed. 
" But what if he goes to hell," again asked the 
missionary somewhat injudiciously. " Then 
I shall go with him." The consequence of this 
soHd loyalty is that missionaries often feel 
that the whole mass of the people present a 
united front against his appeal. There seems 
an entire absence of those who have the 
courage to take independent action. To the 
African the unit is not the individual but 
the clan or tribe, and independent action is 
anti-social and difficult beyond anything we 
experience in our higher ci%'ihsation. 

On the other hand, when some leader is 
brought to Christ, it appears as if a stream 
had burst its banks and all the waters were 
flowing. One of the causes of the great 
progress in Uganda, for example, has been that 
the chiefs and leaders of the people have 
yielded to the Gospel. In mass movements 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 231 

of this nature, there is, of course, a grave 
danger. It is so difficult to distinguish those 
who have come into personal touch with Christ, 
from those who are only following a chief, 
and the admission of large numbers who 
follow others and have not yet been united 
to Christ must mean the permanent lowering 
of the tone of the Church. 

Some peoples, especially the broken and 
disorganised peoples, are more responsive to 
the Gospel than others. The raided Manganja 
on the Shire Highlands have answered the 
gospel more rapidly than the more warHke 
Yao. The harassed Bechuana responded more 
rapidly than the military Matabele. Where 
tribes have lived and grown rich and famous 
by their marauding Hfe missions find great 
obstacles to progress. Perhaps it is simply 
the organisation of the people, as with the 
Masai or Matabele, into regiments of young 
warriors who hve and are trained for the 
shedding of blood, that presents the wall of 
opposition. With these tribes the whole social 
structure of the people is built on lines which 
cannot be harmonised with the message of the 
Gospel, and before Christianity can make any 
headway the tribal life must be completely 
revolutionised. Perhaps there are customs, 
especially connected with the initiation of 

2 32 The Future of Africa 

youths to manhood, and girls to womanhood, 
which are cherished as essential to the pros- 
perity of the tribe, and these must be 
aboHshed before any youth can become a 
Christian. Such obstacles seem for a time in- 
surmountable. But the advance of civihsation 
and the estabHshment of European adminis- 
tration are rapidly disintegrating the ancient 
tribal organisations and social customs, and 
by this very disintegration are preparing a 
way for the messengers of the Gospel, 
(c) Scattered Another hindrance is the scattered nature 
opua on. ^1 some populations, a situation which neces- 
sitates a far greater army of European 
missionaries than is required for the same 
population in the crowded areas of India and 
China. All India could be accommodated 
within the three Congo territories, yet the 
entire population of the continent of Africa is 
not equal to two-thirds of that of India. In 
Africa the average population is only fifteen 
to the square mile, wliile in China it is two 
hundred and fifty. In Spanish Africa there 
are only three persons to the square mile, and 
in large tracts of German West Africa there is 
a still smaller population. 

Besides this scanty distribution of the people 
there are tribes which, from their wandering 
pastoral occupations, cannot be held to one 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 233 

place, and others, such as the Bushmen and 
Pygmies, who hve in very small communities, 
without settled abodes, and at vast distances 
from one another. The coming of the mis- 
sionary invariably leads to the gathering 
together and settlement of these wandering 
peoples, but before they can be gathered they 
must first be sought and their confidence gained. 
For men who have learned the infinite value 
of a human soul this task will be stimulating 
enough, for it is not in masses we find the thrill 
of seeking the lost, but in single men and 
women who speak to us out of a Hving iiistory 
and appeal to us as individuals. Did not 
Christ give His hf e for them ? 

Another impediment to rapid evangelisa- (d) Lan- 
tion is the multipHcity of African languages. 
It is calculated that in Africa there are no less 
than 843 languages and dialects. The wide 
difference in the language of neighbouring 
tribes is accounted for by the great migrations 
of tribes, especially in the past century. When 
people with widely different fiistories and 
origins have come to live near one another, 
the wide variety of these languages make 
evangehsation a great difficulty. In East 
Africa, tribes of Nilotic and of Bantu races 
will be found close to one another, with httle 
similarity in the structuie of their language. 

234 The Future of Africa 

In West Africa Bantu and Negro races actually 
touch one another, yet between them there can 
be no communication. In one misson-field 
there are no less than thirty different tongues, 
and it is quite a common thing for missionaries 
to use two distinct languages on the one 

But while there are districts where widely 
varied languages are used, we must remember 
on the other hand, that many of the dialects 
are as closely allied as the provincial dialects 
of England and Scotland, and however they 
may confuse the European foreigners, a dozen 
varieties may make Httle difference to the 
freedom of communication which one native 
may have with his feUows. As tribal war 
ceases, and paths which were closed by 
feuds in the past are opened, the intercourse 
of tribes with one another is increasing, and 
many a dialect is being lost by its merging 
into that of its more robust neighbour. This 
is a matter of regret to the philologist, but not 
to the evangehst. 

The diffusion of languages ought to be a 
guide towards missionary extension, more than 
the geographical distribution of tribes. For 
example, the Basuto Mission extended to 
Barotseland, nearly a thousand miles to the 
north, because they found that the language 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 235 

was one. The Basuto off-shoot called the 
Makololo, the tribe so deeply associated with 
Livingstone, had passed on its wild marauding 
career as far north as the Zambesi. Among 
other tribes which they conquered were the 
Barotse. Wherever they conquered they im- 
posed their language on the people, and long 
after the Makololo had disappeared, and the 
Barotse had, in turn, become a mighty people, 
the Sesuto language remained. Hence when 
M. Coillard opened work among the Barotse 
he was able to use the Sesuto literature, and 
to give the people at once the whole Bible 
in their own language. 

So also the Angoni of Nyasaland have passed 
in their conquering raid from Zululand to 
Tanganyika, and when the Livingstonia 
Mission came among them they were able to 
use South African natives from their mission 
at Lovedale as their first evangehsts, and to 
give the people at once a literature and the 
entire Bible. 

The advantage of having a language, already 
reduced to writing, with grammars, diction- 
aries, and a literature is enormous. The lack 
of these always means long years of slow and 
patient labour for which all missionaries are 
not equally suited. Thus in the vast regions 
of the Congo basin only one language has as yet 

236 The Future of Africa 

a translation of the Bible. Scores of languages 
must first be learned and reduced to rules and 
to writing before the tribes there can be 
adequately evangelised and a church nurtured. 
Finally, a considerable set-back to mis- 
sionary progress has been seen in that native 
Christian revolt against the control of the 
European, which has been called Ethiopian- 
ism. The f eehng of revolt may appear in some 
form or other in most countries, but it is in 
South Africa that it assumed organised hfe 
and brought sad disaster to the Chm"ch. A 
large number of native ministers seceded 
from the parent Church, and, carrying with 
them many of their members, sought to 
organise a Church of Africa controlled entirely 
by Africans. This would have been a useful 
ambition, perhaps, had it not been debased by 
an intense hatred of Europeans. Tliis antagon- 
ism has overclouded the spirit of their Church, 
and the division that has been caused has 
weakened the Christian forces. Congrega- 
tions have spent their energies in spiteful 
acts against one another, instead of aggressive 
service for the heathen. The one body has 
undermined the influence of the other, and the 
torn and divided Church has been weakened, 
its testimony discounted and the eager spirit 
of brotherliness sadly dwarfed. 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 237 

In some cases the ecclesiastical revolt has 
taken the form of seditious teaching against 
the rule and presence of the European in the 
country, and when this has been done Govern- 
ment has stepped in with repressive measures. 
In Natal, especially, the alarm about the spread 
of Etliiopianism has caused Government to put 
very severe limitations on mission work with a 
view to controlhng the work of native evange- 
Hsts and teachers. In 1902 it was enacted 
that no mission work could be carried on 
within a native reserve unless under a resident 
European. So disastrous was this law that 
several churches had to be pulled down, 
because there was no resident European in 
charge. Etliiopianism, however, is righting 
itself. The bitterness is disappearing, and a 
recognition of the degeneration which has 
begun in all the work which the Africans have 
controlled themselves, is leading many to come 
back to a sense of their need of the European. 
Such, then, are some of the main difficulties 
which render mission work so much more com- 
plex than those at home can realise. We must 
also remember that after all these difficulties 
have been considered there still remains the 
root one, namely, the fetters of ingrained 
custom. Polygamy, drunkennesf?, evil dances 
and iniation ceremonies, all these provide the 


The Future of Africa 

Urgency of 
the Situa- 

(a) The 

joy of life for the African, and the love for all 
the pleasure they bring to him hinders him 
from accepting the Gospel. 

Can anyone doubt the call of pagan Africa 
on the Church ? When will day dawn and the 
night be gone? Consideration of this tre- 
mendous question forces home upon us many 
things that make the call very urgent. 

First there is the population. However 
great the contribution made by explorers and 
travellers to a clearing up of the geographical 
problems of Africa, the greatest result of their 
work was the discovery of the vast populations 
that they found to exist in this once closed 
continent. That a rich land, peopled by many 
tribes, existed in the interior of Africa was a 
discovery that has influenced the whole course 
of European history. 

The population of Africa is not dense when 
we compare it with that of some Asiatic lands. 
Perhaps in the whole continent there are not 
more than one hundred and sixty milhons of 
people. That only gives a population of 
fifteen to the square mile, while China, as 
mentioned above, has two hundred and fifty 
to the square mile. There are also regions 
where vast tracks of country have no people 
at all, or only Httle hamlets scattered at great 
distances from one another. But along the 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 239 

river courses, where there has been settled 
government, and by the shores of the great 
lakes, the population is crowded. When 
Livingstone arrived at Lake Nyasa, he wrote, 
" Never before in Africa have we seen any- 
thing hke the dense population on the shores 
of Lake Nyasa. In the south-western part 
there was an almost unbroken chain of villages. 
On the beach of wellnigh every Uttle sand 
bay dark crowds were standing gazing at the 
novel sight of a boat under sail ; wherever we 
landed we were surrounded in a few seconds 
by hundreds of men, women and children who 
hastened to have a stare at the ' wild animals.' " 
But further on he saw how " the population 
had all been swept away ; ruined villages, 
broken utensils and human skeletons, met 
with at every turn, told the same tale." This 
was the result of the Angoni raids. To-day, 
when peace has been weU estabhshed for a 
generation, that desolated shore is covered 
for scores of miles by village after village, so 
closely built that they seem like one con- 
tinuous town. The native population of the 
Lower Shire River increased from one thou- 
sand in 1891 to fourteen thousand in 1896, 
because of the suppression of the slave 
This may be taken as fairly descriptive of 

240 The Future of Africa 

many other parts of Africa. Bentley describes 
much the same history in certain regions of the 
Congo. Natal, too, before the rise of the Zulu 
kingdom, had been densely peopled by the 
Abambo and others. Under Chaka it is 
reckoned that one million natives lost their 
hves, and the land was almost denuded of 
inhabitants. Now, however, under white rule, 
the population is quickly rising. 

The chart of the previous progress of 
African population makes a most varying 
diagram, but under settled government it is 
constantly and rapidly ascending. In the 
past the continent has been devastated by 
intertribal war, the slave traffic, ravaging 
pestilences, such as small-pox and sleeping 
sickness, and brutal customs, such as infanti- 
cide and human sacrifice. These all combined 
must have claimed a dreadful tale of victims 
year by year, and now when, under the paternal 
rule of European powers, most of these 
enemies of hfe are disappearing, the coming 
years must see a large increase to the popula- 
tion, for the African is proHfic beyond all 

From calamity after calamity the African 
has risen irrepressible, and now that peaceable 
government is stopping those devastations 
that slew their milHons annually, the popula- 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 241 

tion is increasing at a wonderful rate. In a 
few years the pagan population will be not 
seventy million, but one hundred million, and 
the disproportion between Christian and pagan 
population is, under the present conditions, 
bound to be a growing one, for the natural 
increase of paganism is at present greater 
than the largest possible Christian increase 
that can arise from the present hmited efforts 
of the Church. 

Most terrible of all the things that call for (b) The 
urgent action is^the swift spread of Islam in isi^*^^ ° 
Africa. It has had several hundred years' 
start of Christianity, and in these later years 
it is pressing on from the north and east with 
a tremendous force. It comes to the pagan 
Africans with a somewhat higher beHef than 
they have in their own Animism. Its mes- 
sengers, with the veneer of a higher civihsation, 
seem to belong to a great world- conquering 
power, and appeal to the pride of race. In 
the spread of Islam in Africa there is a grave 
danger, the importance of which it is difficult 
to overestimate. " Mohammedanism," says 
Sir Charles Eliot, one of the wisest adminis- 
trators who has yet been given to Central 
Africa, " can still give the natives a motive for 
animosity against the Europeans, and a unity 
of which they are otherwise incapable. Had 

242 The Future of Africa 

Uganda become Mohammedan, which was at 
one moment quite possible, the whole of the 
Nile Valley, and of East Central Africa, might 
have been in the hands of Mohammedans ready 
to receive and pass on any wave of fanaticism 
which might start in the north, and perhaps 
to start one themselves." How in the face 
of the liistory of Africa British Government 
officials can be found, who not only show special 
favour to a Mohammedan propaganda, but 
even go out of their way to distribute Korans 
among their boys, and do what they can to 
handicap Christian missions, staggers one's 
imagination. Too often the governments have 
show^n favour to the Mohammedan, using him 
alone for the police and armed forces, sur- 
rounding their stations with Mohammedan 
strangers and forbidding any educational or 
evangehstic work in tribes where Islam has 
got some footing. Such a policy is none 
other than suicidal for the whole future of 

Happily there are signs of some alteration in 
the Governments' attitude to Mohammedan- 
ism since the strong resolutions of the Edin- 
bm'gh Conference, and in Nyasaland at least, 
new facilities have been given to missions at 
work among populations which are being 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 243 

But for us Christians there is another and 
greater danger in the approach of Islam than 
merely the poHtical one. Wherever it con- 
quers, a high barrier is raised against the 
Christian religion. The spotless white robes 
that the traveller so much admires and takes to 
indicate a vast advance on the semi-nakedness 
of the pagan is too often a calico covering to 
moral and physical loathsomeness. Who that 
values Jesus Christ can agree with those that 
say Islam is more fitted for Africa than Chris- 
tianity ? It is more popular certainly, for it 
allows the African to indulge in many excesses 
to which from time immemorial he has been 
accustomed, and its moral law is easy. But 
what has Islam done for Africa during 
the centuries of its occupation ? " It is a 
rehgion without the knowledge of the Divine 
Fatherhood, without compassion for those 
outside its pale, and to the whole woman- 
hood of Africa it is a religion of despair and 

For Africa there is no redemption in Islam 
but fetters and death. And if we are to save 
the tribes from that menace which our long 
delay has made so threatening, and if we are 
not to add new and almost insufferable 
barriers to the work of evangelism, we must 
see to it that we present to Mohammedanism, 

244 The Future of Africa 

and that speedily, the barrier of an already 
Christianised people. Beyond that barrier 
Islam cannot step. | 

Lastly, the tremendous change which the ' 

inevitable advance of civilisation is daily 
effecting on Africa m^ges us to action. Civil- 
isation and commerce of themselves cannot 
elevate a people. History drives this lesson 
home only too forcibly. Commerce is indeed 
a necessary colleague of missions, but com- 
merce pure and simple has never raised a 
nation. In the case of Africa it has fre- 
quently had quite a contrary result. It is a 
very grievous reproach to us that the pioneers 
of trade are so constantly ahead of missions. 
Again and again they liave proved more 
numerous, more vigilant, more adventurous. 
Yet we have infinitely more to give and to gain 
than the best equipped trader. Africa's rela- 
tions with commerce in the past have worked 
for good and have worked for ill. She has 
had her philantliropists in commerce, single- 
minded men Hke Macgregor Laird, Goldie, 
the Moirs and Mackinnon, who have led great 
pioneering enterprises of trade refusing to 
touch any harmful import, content to Hmit 
their profits if only they might prepare the way 
for a better day in Africa. On the other hand 
she has had her " Oil River Ruffians " spread- 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 24^ 

ing an influence around them utterly deleteri- 
ous to the country and its inhabitants, and 
tending to exploitation of the basest kind. 
Yet they too were pioneers of civilisation. 
It cannot be too much emphasised that 
commerce and civilisation unaccompanied by 
Christianity can in the long run only harm 
and not benefit the awakening continent. 
As things are now, Chiistianity must be 
roused to play her part in determining the 
changes that are to be lasting. Christianity 
cannot afford to stand still, but must fight 
as she never fought before to counteract the 
harm that civilisation and commerce un- 
leavened by any spiritual influence effect on 
uncivihsed peoples. 

CiviHsation, moreover, has a disintegrating 
effect on the customs of the people and the old 
beHefs of paganism are shattered. Although 
this in itseK might be considered good its 
effect is often evil, for nothing is put in the 
place of tlie old behefs and superstitions, 
and the last state is often worse than the 
first. With the advance of civihsation the 
old reverence for the unseen spirits fades 
away. The native becomes more individual- 
istic, and the strong restraints of his social 
life cease to have any effect. The authority 
of the elders, and of traditional custom, are 

246 The Future of Africa 

scorned away. The sceptical and material- 
istic atmosphere of the Europeans among 
whom they live is readily absorbed. Now, 
however evil much of the religious and social 
life of the African is, there are restraints 
in it which are absolutely necessary for the 
race. If these are removed without being 
replaced by others which are still stronger, 
one can only foresee a moral chaos into which 
the African will be plunged, which will in- 
evitably produce the annihilation of the 

Nor is this all. CiviHsation not merely 
removes former restraints and breaks down 
old customs, but positive evils come in her 
train. A new immoraHty, loathsome com- 
pared with the old pagan conditions, is eating 
away the very fibre of the people. They are 
enervated by luxury and enfeebled by drink. 
It is true that civiHsation, European civilisa- 
tion, may not actually have introduced the 
vice of drinking, but the crying evils of the 
liquor traffic started and grew with the advance 
of commerce on the coasts. In addition to the 
moral evils brought by civilisation there are 
others, namely, physical ones, which follow 
on the adoption of new luxuries, imported 
vices, European clothing, and the native 
contact with the superior races. Already 

The Needs of Pagan Africa 247 

phthisis is slaying its thousands in South Africa. 
The Masai are threatened with extinction 
through the introduction of civihsed vices. 
Whole communities have disappeared in West 
Africa through indulgence in rum and gin. 
If these introduced scourges are to be resisted, 
the Christian Church must be there in time 
to teach the African how to reject the evil. 
The missionary must teach the African to take 
such precautionary measures as will pull him 
through the crisis of the impact of Western hfe, 
stronger and better for the new things that 
have come. 

We look back on all that the chapter has un- Conclusion, 
folded ; the appeal of Africa's untouched 
regions, the urgency of that appeal on every 
hand, the challenge of the obstacles that con- 
front us, and what is the Church's answer ? 
Is she going to rouse herself to seize the day of 
opportunity and make some adequate repara- 
tion for her cruel treatment of Africa in the 
past, and her no less heartless neglect of the 
present ? Never before has such an oppor- 
tunity faced her. 

A yet graver question arises at this crisis. 
Does the Christian Church inherently desire 
to respond to this mighty appeal ? Is she 
stirred in every fibre of her being to come to 
the rescue at this time on behalf of Africa ? 

248 The Future of Africa 

If now she folds her hands in sleep, or lazily 
moves along to her task, other more eager 
forces will not lag, and harm will be done 
which long and strenuous effort will be 
powerless to undo. 




Present-Day Opportunities in the Mission-Field. 
(a) Settled Condition of Tribes. 
(6) Development of Means of Communication, 
(c) Development of Medical Science. 

The Church's Task. 

(a) Duty towards Government. 

(b) Christianisation of Colonial Life. 

(c) Redistribution of the Missionary Forces and 


(d) Increase of Missionaries. 

(e) Development of the Native Church. 
( /) Preparation of Literature. 

The Appeal of Africa. 

We have seen some of the preparations which Present-Day 
trod has been making by many agents for the Opp°^tuni-^ 
evangehsation of Africa, and in many of the M-r'^ 
conditions existing to-day we cannot but see """''• 
great opportunities for the Church. 


(a) Settled 
Condition of 

350 The Future of Africa 

One of the greatest is the settlement of the 
Condition o, j ^ fey strong European Governments. Unce 
^'"-- ae conseience'of Europe had been roused by 
Christian agitators, the civihsed naUons set 
thTmsetves tenuously to check the havoc of 
Save trade. When they understood the 
Idministration of territories, and ound ha 
their presence there was impossible, and that 
Se could not progress until peace was es^^^ 
Ushed they proceeded to suppress mtertribal 
war and to open to the world nations whose 
Zcem not Tnly worked devastation among 
the neighbouring%ribes but also forbade J 

pntrance for the outside world. ihus tne 
;" of European Powers in Africa ha. 

on the whole, produced a quieter and more 
^ett ed tribal life, which no longer presents the 
oW mpossible conditions to the missionane^ 
,„ oeve,op- The increase of trade and European colomsa- 

z^. tion has ^^'>^^^\^^z::^L^^Vj^s 

commnnica- .jhe continent IS circumnavigateQ oy »F j 

*"• eauipped ocean Hners, which arrive at their 

ports v^th unbroken regularity, a very different 
?tate rf affairs from the days when missionar e 
had sometimes to wait two or three years for 
a ship to carry them to Africa. 

The need for efficient control, and the 
prosecution of lawful commerce have also 
Ltersected Africa with Unes of commumcation. 

The Church's Task 251 

The great waterways are used by flotillas of 
steamers and light draught barges. The lakes 
all have their httle fleets of steamers. The 
natural barriers on African rivers, as between 
Matadi and Stanley Pool on the Congo and 
over the Murchison Cataracts on the Shire, 
are being traversed by railways. The French 
have vigorously pushed on railways on the 
West Coast, most of which are built with 
direct relation to the river routes of the 
Senegal, the Niger, and their tributaries. 
On the West Coast of Africa there are at 
least nineteen short railway lines. 

Other great systems are piercing the 
interior of the Continent. The Cape to Cairo 
railway from the south is nearing the Belgian 
Congo. From Cairo it is open to Kliartoum, 
and has steamer connection to Gondokoro, 
1100 miles farther south. Victoria Nyanza 
is hnked on to Mombasa, and that long and 
hazardous journey which took Stanley a 
hundred and four days to accomplish can 
now be done luxuriously in three days. The 
Germans have also begun a railway from 
Dar-es-salaam to Tanganyika. A hne connects 
Beira with Rhodesia, and soon the Portuguese 
Angola coast will be joined to the heart of 
Africa by the Katanga railway. 

In addition to this continually growing 


The Future of Africa 

(c) Develop- 
ment of 

railway system, telegraph lines are beginning 
to cover the whole continent. In Uganda and 
Nyasaland, where the early missionaries waited 
for eight months or a year for reports from 
the outside world, or for the transmission 
home of news of critical events within their 
bounds, men can now communicate with the 
home committees more quickly than with 
their neighbouring mission station. 

The difference this has made for efficient 
mission work and for rapid evangeHsation is 
very great. The pioneer parties no longer 
present their great death roll of men who fell 
on the march into the interior, or arrived 
broken in health, only to be immediately 
sent home. Tribes that were hidden in the 
remote regions of Central Africa now seem 
to Hve at the very doors of Europe. 

Another marvellous opening has been 
made by medical science. Since the dis- 
covery of the cause of malaria and other 
fevers the health conditions of Africa have 
been entirely changed. The old records of 
the West Coast of Africa which gave it the 
name of the " white man's grave " are becom- 
ing matters of history. That land has not yet 
become a health resort, but the sickness and 
mortaUty have been greatly reduced. 

Since these discoveries of medical science 

The Church's Task 253 

were made there are men who used to be 
periodically at the gates of death with 
malaria] or tick fever, now they pass years 
in vigorous health and with scarcely a day's 
illness. The health and buoyancy and 
capacity for work of missionaries have been 
enormously increased, and the death roll 
greatly decreased. 

These are some of the wide movements 
which God has set agoing for the redemption 
of the dark continent. These roads cannot, 
however, have been opened, and this new lease 
of Hfe given, simply that Europe may grow 
richer on the wealth of Africa. Are they not 
the paths by which the Church may enter in, 
and proclaim " deUverance to the captives 
and recovering of sight to the bhnd ? " 

In view of all these opportunities let us The Church' 
consider the work to which the Church is "^^^k. 
called. How is she to use the opportunities 
thus given to her ? 

First of all she has a duty to perform to- (a) Duty 
wards those Governments who have assumed *?^^'''^s 

, . n A <• Irovern- 

the protection of Africa. It is her part to '"ents. 
help to purify and ennoble the ambitions of 
the Governments. These have not come to 
Africa for the exploitation of the natives or 
to enrich themselves, but they have under- 
taken a great trusteeship that these people 

3 54 The Future of Africa 

may learn under their tutelage to appreciate 
the blessings of Christianity and civilisation. 
Many hard things have been said about the 
motives that led to the " scramble for Africa," 
and the only way to justify the annexation is 
for the European Powers to show that they 
are steadfastly and dehberately engaged in 
raising the whole social tone of the people 
whom they have taken under protection. 

Unfortunately this has not yet been demon- 
strated by all. There still remains the mis- 
government of the Belgian Congo, and the 
remedy for this does not only rest with 
Belgium. Every European Power which was 
party to the treaty of Berlin, and five years 
afterwards, to that of Brussels, accepted a 
guardianship of the Congo, and only agreed 
to the allotment of that great territory to the 
Congo Free State, on the understanding that 
it would fulfil its beneficent professions to- 
wards the native peoples. So long as misrule, 
and the barbarous treatment of the natives 
continue, mission work will be severely 
handicapped, extensions prohibited, and the 
population itself in danger of being deci- 

None can rouse the conscience of Europe 
but the Church of Christ. Pohtical agitation 
would only be misunderstood. Only the work 


The Church's Task 255 

of those who beheve in the philanthropy of 
Christianity can remedy these great wrongs. 

The relation of Governments to the drink 
traffic is a special matter that requires con 
tinual agitation. It is not a matter which 
can be settled by one nation. The hinter- 
lands and boundaries of the various Protector- 
ates cannot be pohced, and the separating 
hnes are pencil ones on the map, not visible 
features of the earth. Hence if effective 
control is to be taken, whether by prohibition 
or by severe restriction, all the Powers should 
unite in action. A Christian people only can 
bring this about. 

Then there are relationships of Government 
to labour, where systems of forced labour, 
scarcely distinguishable from slavery, are 
permitted, or actually enforced by the Govern- 
ment itself. Where these exist there can be 
no settlement or progress in tribal hfe, and 
the natives are exploited to their hurt by 
those who have undertaken paternal duties 
towards them. Until these conditions of ad- 
ministrative control are altered the messengers 
of Christ cannot help the people forward. 

It is not that all the relations of Govern- 
ment to the native peoples are antagonistic to 
missions. On the contrary, in many countries 
there is a beneficent and paternal care exer- 

2 56 The Future of Africa 

cised over the people, and the Church is wise 
which seeks to use this help towards the 
redemption of Africa, while at the same time 
never allowing herself to be spiritually fettered 
by identification with the administration. 
The Roman Catholics of the early days made 
the profound mistake of trying to use the 
officials to force conversion, and to support 
the Church, frequently with most disastrous 
results. Yet there are functions of Govern- 
ment which greatly assist mission progress. 
For example, many of the African colonies 
give grants to education. These grants 
reUeve mission funds to a great extent, and 
in a land Hke Africa, where education is a 
necessary, indeed indispensable, adjunct to 
missions, every pound given to assist secular 
education means the releasing of other money 
for more spiritual work. 

A general attitude of friendliness between 
the Government and missions adds a great 
deal to the influence and the happiness of 
the missionary. In questions of the marriage 
law, of the rights of parents to their cliildren, 
of individual hberty, when the missionary and 
the official work in harmony it is far easier to 
maintain and nurture the life of the Church. 
A great many solutions of difficult relation- 
ships between the Government and mission- 

The Churches Task 257 

aries have been found in a patient forbearance 
and a wise and Christian courtesy. 

There are necessarily difficulties for the 
British missionary in German territory, as 
for the German in British territory, but 
these need not be insuperable. It is absurd 
for an Enghshman to expect that a French 
Government will recognise a school in which 
Enghsh is taught instead of French. The 
Enghshman who works in French countries 
must magnify French and exalt loyalty to 
France. In Angola we read of a hospital 
being closed because the medical missionary 
did not possess a diploma from a Portuguese 
medical school, and so was not allowed to 
practise. In Portuguese East Africa, on the 
other hand, we find a flourishing medical 
work connected with the Servian mission, 
because they take the trouble to send their 
missionaries to Portugal to acquire a Portu- 
guese medical diploma. 

In the great work of bringing Christ to 
Africa we must be ready to spare no pains, 
and to suppress many insular prejudices. 
The fact that parts of Africa are not coloured 
red does not save Britain from responsibility 
towards these parts. Some of the nations 
which administer these parts are themselves 
in spiritual darkness and if we do not fulfil 

258 The Future of Africa 

our duty to their colonies, they cannot. In 
France only a small minority is Protestant. 
This little Church has already undertaken 
great responsibihties for Africa. But there 
is not one missionary in the French Sudan, 
and not one in the Upper French Congo. Has 
this fact no significance for the Christians of 
Britain ? 

Another task before the Church is the 
Christianisation of colonial Hfe. In South 
Africa there are over one million whites in 
contact with five miUion natives and coloured 
people. These Europeans are all, whether 
they will or no, representatives of Christianity 
to the natives. Day by day the influence of 
their lives is working for good or evil amongst 
the native population. What would it not 
mean for the future of South Africa, if we found 
there a Colonial Church which was throbbing 
with spiritual Hfe and devotion to Christ's 
Kingdom ? Unfortunately, this is not the 
usual type in the towns and villages. And 
in the scattered mines and farms the Church 
at home has left too many of her children 
uncared for. Nowhere does denominational 
rivalry seem so wasteful. There are villages 
in South Africa where you will find Dutch 
Reformed, Presbyterian, Wesleyan, Baptist, 
Congregational, and Church of England con- 

The Church's Task 259 

gregations, organised and with their clergy- 
men in charge, while many of the growing 
out-posts of civilisation are left without a 
single pastor to guard their Christian Hf e. It is 
tragic that this should be so. The disastrous 
effect of leaving young men, keenly absorbed 
by the stress of their business, ^one among 
a population of pagans whose low morahty 
is insidiously contaminating, too often 
has direly harmful results. The Church 
has a duty to her young colonials which 
cannot be neglected without hurt to the 

Yet the service of colonial hfe is not alto-' 
gether lost. There are one or two striking 
examples of its power in South Africa. 
The Wesley an Church in England in 1882 
asked its Colonial Church to form itself into 
a self-governing and self-supporting body. 
They promised a contribution of £14,000 for 
the first year, but this was to be reduced 
year by year until it was no longer necessary. 
In 1902 it had been reduced to £250. By 
this time the Colonial Society had raised the 
local income to £10,000. At the time of the 
change the membership of the Wesleyans 
was 20,000. In 1908 it had risen to 78,000, 
the greater part of whom were natives. There 
are now 100 English missionaries, and 120 


The Future of Africa 

(c) Redistri- 
bution of 
Forces and 

native ministers, all of them paid by the 
Colonial Society. 

Throughout the Protectorates of Africa, 
there are many times more European traders 
and officials than there are missionaries. Why 
should not these men be so captured for the 
Kingdom of Christ that their influence will 
be neither negative, nor positively evil, but 
triumphantly Christian ? There are many 
traders of this type who have consecrated 
their business career to the service of the 
Kingdom, and who give a positive and 
visible service for its extension. This much 
is certain ; it is a poor and hurtful poHcy for a 
church to allow communities of fellow Euro- 
peans to congregate for the purposes of trade, 
and to be so involved in other work, that there 
are neither men nor money available for the 
helping of our own countrymen. There are 
great numbers of whites on the East Coast of 
Africa, and on the Zambesi and Shire River, 
that are left in this destitute condition. The 
Church's neglect is neither pohtic nor humane. 

We come now to the more immediate 
task which the Church must perform within 
herself and on the mission field. We have 
seen how great a tract of country in Africa 
is still unoccupied. If we are seriously and 
systematically to fuifiJ our duty to these 

The Church's Task 261 

iinevangelised parts a great change in present 
conditions is needed. 

The initial step must be a proper distribu- 
tion of the missionary forces. Tliere are 
certain strategic positions that must be 
occupied. When trade is projecting its com- 
mercial outposts missions ought to be ahead. 
They are the true pioneers of civilisation, 
and it is imperative that they precede trade 
if the people are to be prepared to meet the 
new forces of civilisation whose extension can- 
not be stopped. There is also the vigorous 
advance of Islam, but with the urgent and 
special call for missionaries to Islam we must 
not deal, as here we are only considering pagan 
peoples. Everyone knows that the barriers 
wliich a simple paganism presents to Christi- 
anity are feeble compared with a fanatical, 
though perhaps superficial, Mohammedanism. 
Before we aUow this strong wall to rise, we 
should rapidly and energetically possess the 
pagan lands which are threatened. 

There arises then tliis pressing question 
of a redistribution of the missionary forces. 
The evil of the denominationahsm of our 
Churches, and of the so-called undenomina- 
tionahsm of some evangeHcals, is that each 
body has worked too often without consulta- 
tion with its neighbour. Frequently, also, 

362 The Future of Africa 

previous occupation by, and the natiu-al line 
of advance of, older missions have not been 
respected by newcomers. In South Africa, 
and in Natal especially, this evil has led to 
great waste of effort. There are native 
locations attached to some towns where no 
less than six or seven different denominations 
conduct their own pecuHar type of service. 
Sometimes the discipline of Christians by 
one mission has not been respected by a 
neighbouring mission, and there are even 
Protestant missions which will not acknow- 
ledge the validity of the baptism of other 
Protestant missions. The available forces for 
Africa's evangeUsation are too inadequate to 
allow of such waste and friction. 

We urgently need a spirit of comity and 
economy in many parts of Africa. There 
are centres where missions are crowding 
one another, while other near and needy 
districts are largely neglected. On the Shire 
Highlands, amid a comparatively small 
population, there are five missions, besides 
the old pioneer mission of the Church of 
Scotland, and within forty or fifty miles to 
the east and to the south there are heavy 
populations among whom no missionary 

Livingstone long ago warned his committee 

WINNKliS or TlIK (Al.AHAli (11', W KST AlUUA 

The Church's Task 263 

at home against making South Africa " a 
dam of benevolence," and he consistently 
went fm-ther afield. In the early days of 
the Bechuana mission, the London Missionary 
Society withdrew from Khama's town which 
they had pioneered, when they found that the 
Hermannsburg Mission was prepared to occupy 
this area. It was not until by mutual arrange- 
ment the German missionaries had withdrawn, 
that Mackenzie finally settled there. 

The wastage is also great when one comes 
to special Unes of work ; such as hospitals, 
institutions, printing presses, and Hterary 
work. It is folly that each separate mission 
should try to develop along these special 
Hues, when an arrangement for combined 
work would greatly economise funds and 
men, and greatly increase efficiency. 

It is time that a central consultative body 
were at work, like the Propaganda in Rome, 
which will help to prevent waste and lead to 
the occupation of all strategic points. Such 
a reorganisation will make hearts sore, and 
where there is mission property involved, 
will seem to mean a large initial loss. But 
these difficulties are not insurmountable. 

It is of course not true that these overlapping 
agencies do no good. Indeed their presence 
in the field may be very productive. The 

264 The Future of Africa 

overlapping, however, tends to unnecessary 
waste, and the loss of large opportunities. 
These are days when the Church cannot afford 
to waste or neglect the openings that God 
has given. 

Happily we seem to be entering rapidly a 
period of more scientific mission work. A 
movement is going on in South Africa for 
reviewing the distribution of forces. In 
many fields conferences have started in 
which missions are agreeing on common 
principles of work, and delimiting spheres of 
occupation. Now we have the magnificent 
plan of the Continuation Committee of the 
World Missionary Conference. That all the 
bright possibilities which are in this Com- 
mittee may be fully realised, is the earnest 
wish of every Christian, whose ambitions are 
for the evangelisation of the whole world. 
(d) Increase But even the distribution of overcrowded 
ITumber of missions will not meet this day of opportunity. 
Missionaries j^^^j^y hundreds more of European mission- 
aries are necessary. The staff on most mission 
stations is inadequate for its present work. 
We need men who will relieve the strain on 
those in the field, and allow more thorough 
work to be done. We need men who will 
enter the unevangehsed parts, and we need 
men for speciaHsed work. 

The Church's Task 265 

Teachers are wanted for the full develop- 
ment of educational work. Clergymen are 
wanted to pay special heed to the training of 
native preachers and evangeUsts. Literary 
men are wanted who will produce a hterature 
for the Church and translate the Bible into 
the vernacular. 

Let us put aside for ever the idea that any 
tjrpe of man will do for Africa. The African 
missionary requires special and thorough 
training for his work. The industrial teacher 
must be master of his trade, otherwise he 
cannot teach his apprentices efficiently. The 
educationist should know the science of 
teaching, or he wastes his opportunity and 
develops his schools on futile hues. The 
doctor must be fully qualified, for he will 
find himself face to face with serious work 
which he cannot delegate to a speciahst. 
The clergyman should know his theology 
if he is to teach a properly proportioned 
doctrine and build up a Church on a per- 
manent and true basis. Everyone requires 
sufficient education to understand the structure 
of languages, and a mind open enough to 
appreciate those whose mental attitude is 
widely different from his own. 

Above all, the Church needs for Africa 
men of firmly established character, who 


The Future of Africa 

(e) Develop- 
ment of 
the Native 

have learned to stand alone with God. It is 
a sad lookout for the mental development 
of a missionary if he has not yet learned 
how to find companionship in books, for he 
may find no social comrade here. It is a 
deadHer thing for him if he has not learned 
the secret of self-control and of growing in 
Christ. Amid all the demorahsing atmosphere 
of paganism, he will find it a hard hfe if he 
has not learned to renew his soul from day 
to day in the presence of God Himself. 

In Africa, where personal influence goes 
so far, and loyalty to his master is so char- 
acteristic of the native, character counts 
for more than in most fields. If a man's Ufe 
grows daily stronger in the fellowship of the 
Holy Ghost, his missionary service will be 
of unmeasured value. For, after all, the 
lesson of missions is not that the world will 
be won by the launcliing forth of numbers 
of Europeans, but by the coming of one and 
another who have learned something of the 
wonderful power that God can give to a 
man wholly consecrated to Him. 

We must remember, however, that the 
resources of the Church do not end in Europe 
or America. Within the native Church itself 
will be found a vast army of men who must 
be used for the evangeHsation of the continent. 

The Church's Task 267 

For this is not a foreign enterprise only, 
it is African also. But the character of the 
African, at his best, is still subject to so many 
limitations that, as we have seen, it is not 
safe or wise to send him forth beyond the 
supervision and guidance of Europeans. We 
must remember that if paganism has a sadly 
downward pull on the European, in spite of 
the comparative isolation which surrounds 
him as a foreigner, and in spite of his in- 
heritance of traditions and tastes which have 
grown through centuries of Christian life, the 
pull on the native, only recently drawn out 
of the mire of paganism, and living, as he does, 
amid sights and sounds which are for him a 
very active temptation, must be much more 
insidious. If a full and special education 
is necessary for the European missionary, 
how may we expect efficiency, wisdom 
and character in the African to whom all 
this training has been short and hmited ? 
Experience has proved again and again 
how much the native Christian's zeal must 
be guided, and so sure are Government 
officials of this that in few, if any, countries 
would they allow the missionary to send 
his native agents far afield in active propa- 
gandist work, unless they could be effectively 
controlled and superintended by the European. 

268 The Future of Africa 

The Church, therefore, will not seek to 
evangehse Africa by native agents alone, 
but by means of Europeans associated with 
natives. It is well that the usefulness of 
native evangeHsts should be emphasised. 
There are missions in Africa which make 
no provision for a native agency, but send 
out their European missionaries as their sole 
evangeUsts. This seems an unwise policy, 
for, as we have already seen, the native 
possesses natural aptitudes which make him a 
more efficient evangeUst in many cases than 
the Eiu-opean can be. There is also the ques- 
tion of economy. In many parts of Africa 
twenty or thirty native agents can be main- 
tained in comfort at the same cost as one 
European. Thus one does not hesitate to say 
that a European with a score of efficient native 
helpers will be many times more valuable for 
Africa's evangelisation than two Europeans 
would be, although when we count the cost of 
their salaries, passages, and furloughs, the two 
Europeans would cost more than double as 
much as the one with his large staff of native 

Again, if the native Church is not developed, 
we do it harm by stultifying the spirit of liber- 
ahty. To allow the Christian to think that the 
work of evangeUsation is a foreign duty, and 

The Church's Task 269 

to provide foreign funds for the payment of 
all the native agents, fosters dependence on 
European wealth, and prevents the growth 
of the spirit of self-help. It is a constant 
temptation to let one's work run on ahead so 
rapidly that it becomes a necessity to grow 
only with the increase of hberaHty from 
home. The shrinking of the foreign mission 
income, and the consequent decrease in the 
allowance from home, are not always an evil. 
They may, instead, afford a new opportunity 
to press upon the native Chm-ch the need 
for more liberality on its own part. 

One of the great tasks, therefore, which lie 
before the Church, if it is to overtake the 
unoccupied parts of Africa, is to permeate the 
native Church with the evangelistic spirit, 
to train native agents thoroughly, and to 
lay more and more upon the people the duty 
and privilege of hberahty for the extension of 
the kingdom. 

Most of the African Churches are already far 
ahead of the home Church in tliis spirit of evan- 
gelisation. It took hundreds of years to lead 
the European Church to any reahsation of its 
duty to propagate the Gospel. To this day 
but a small proportion of European Christians 
reaUse the service that is demanded of them. 
But there are many African Churches where 

2 70 The Future of Africa 

the great proportion of the members are 
either giving out of their poverty, or are 
actively engaged in missionary service for 
the heathen around them. Who can tell the 
greatness of the contribution which young 
Africa may yet make for its own evangehsa- 
tion were it baptized in the spirit and fed 
with restless zeal for the redemption of the 
tribes that are still lost in paganism. 

To rouse this zeal it will be necessary to 
devolve upon the natives, as they rise into 
conscious Christian Hfe, a gradually increasing 
responsibility for the government and life 
of their own Church. As they come to realise 
for what purpose a Church exists in the world, 
and how they are responsible for its service 
and discipHne, they will learn to plan ambitious 
schemes for extension. When they have had 
some voice in the initiation and preparation 
of these schemes they are bound also to 
recognise that on them lies the duty of carry- 
ing them into execution. 
(f) The Pre- Yet another task that these days demand 
GteSref ^^ *^^ preparation of an adequate Hteratiu-e 
for the people. In pagan Africa, where no 
hterature exists, the first task is the reduction 
of languages to writing. Then follows the 
preparation of school books, the transla- 
tion of the Bible into the vernacular, and the 

A KAl'l'llJ UOV 

The Church's Task s/i 

multiplication of books of a devotional and 
expository type, and also of a general literature 
which will widen the mental horizon of the 
people, and increase their general intelligence. 
We can never have a strong Church nor an 
efficient native agency unless we give them 
a literature out of which they can feed their 
minds, especially a Cliristian Hterature which 
unites all increase of knowledge with an 
increase of character. No mission can feel 
that it has done a permanent work for the 
people until it has at least put the Bible in 
their hands. Yet not a single tribe where 
the Gospel has not been proclaimed has a 
vernacular Hterature or a portion of the 
Bible. In many tribes where missionaries 
have been at work for a quarter of a century 
and more, owing to the pressure of other 
work or the inadequate training of the 
missionaries, even the New Testament is 
not translated. Already portions of the 
Bible or the whole book are translated into 
one hundred African languages. But there 
are still over four hundied languages and 
over three hundred dialects which have not 
been given the Bible. 

If Africa is to meet the new intellectual 
and Christian awakening that has come 
to it, and to furnish means to project 

272 The Future of Africa 

God's Gospel everywhere, and feed those 
who shall come to Him, then she has a great 
and m-gent need for men who will give 
themselves to this enduring and far penetrat- 
ing work of giving a Christian literature to 
the people. 

For the accomphshment of these great tasks 
in the immediate future what is the Church at 
home to do within her own borders ? The 
mighty changes that have linked the world 
together and brought the innermost parts 
of Africa almost within sight and sound 
of Europe have added to the commercial 
activities of all lands. They have increased 
the wealth of Em-ope. They have added to 
the lustre of kingdoms and republics. But 
what have they added to the Christian 
Church ? 

They have imposed on her a new enter- 
prise which will demand her best. It would 
be a grave danger to our nation if increase of 
wealth were only to mean an increase of luxury, 
if the story of great extensions of empire were 
to settle the Chm-ch in pride and ease. Our 
nation has not been relieved of the crime of 
her slaving traffic, nor has she contributed to 
the exploration and annexation of vast reaches 
of the continent that she may sit down in 
contemplation of her new treasures with a 

The Church's Task 273 

quiet mind. That which she did in the past 
has not yet been atoned for. That which she 
has undertaken to-day has not yet been carried 

It is a striking thing that for the last thirty- 
five years the great missionary societies have 
begun no new enterprise in Africa. The 
early seventies of last century saw the begin- 
ning of some of the most notable missions. 
Uganda, Tanganyika, Nyasaland, the Congo, 
were all occupied in these days. Since that 
period, when the minds of the Church were 
greatly moved by the discoveries of Living- 
stone and Stanley, practically no new field 
has been occupied by the great societies. 
Extensions have been made on all sides from 
the base of their estabhshed work. Many 
new societies have been formed which have 
spread more or less into unoccupied territory. 
But the organised forces of most of the great 
Churches, Church Missionary Society, the 
Churches of Scotland, the Wesleyans, the 
London JVIissionary Society, the Baptists, 
have started no great mission in the un- 
occupied parts. From the West and East 
the C.M.S. are slowly attempting an entrance 
to the Sudan. The Wesleyans have entered 
Rhodesia. The Church of Scotland has taken 
over an endowed mission in East Africa. But 

274 The Future of Africa 

none of these movements have the bold, 
decided, and ambitious, featm'es which char- 
acterised the efforts of the seventies. 

Christians have not been wholly indiffer- 
ent, for a large number of undenominational 
societies have been formed in the meantime 
and have entered new fields. But these are 
sorely handicapped by the lack of sufficiently 
trained men as their workers, by inadequate 
funds for ambitious plans, and sometimes by 
lack of a broad policy which will allow them 
to develop the necessary centres out of which 
aggressive work proceeds, such as training in- 
stitutions and printing presses. While the great 
societies have been dreading that the start- 
ing and maintaining of large new enterprises 
would sap the contributions for the established 
work, independent associations of Christians 
have arisen who have captured a Uberahty 
that was waiting to be consecrated to the 
evangelisation of untouched regions. 

A new generation has come. A new Africa 
Hes at our doors. Is not the hour at hand 
when again the Churches must be boldly 
challenged, as they were by Arthington and 
Stanley, to undertake new and large missions 
for Africa. The great Sudan, the Moham- 
medanised lands of East Africa, the hinter- 
lands of the West Coast, the mighty Congo 

The Church's Task 275 

regions, Portuguese East Africa, these and 
many another field call aloud to the Chiu-ch. 
In each one of them scope will be found for 
the most ambitious society, an untouched 
field, and no others working. 

Governments have not ended their task 
at the partition. Every on,e of them is 
pushing its authority and administration 
further and further afield every year. As 
each new land has opened up its prospects 
new trading companies have entered. MiUions 
of money have been freely subscribed by this 
country to the most speculative schemes for 
new Africa, as well as to sure and sane enter- 
prises. What is wrong with the Church that 
she has not again ventured boldly in these 
past tliirty-five years ? Are there not men 
and women enough who will risk their capital 
beheving it a great return if salvation be 
brought to those that are lost ? Commerce 
and administration find no lack of men who 
will risk all for the prizes they can give. 
Traders will be found in isolated fever-stricken 
spots, with httle comfort and abundant 
danger, where no missionary is to be found. 
We speak of the sacrifice of life in West Coast 
commerce. No missionary in Rhodesia has 
Hved a more lonely and comfortless Ufe than 
many of the pioneer officials there. The 

276 The Future of Africa 

forests and fever-belts of the Congo have 
hidden from civilisation scores and scores 
of State agents for every missionary that has 
entered them. The Church has no monopoly 
of heroism. Nay, her record is far behind 
that of many a government and many a 
commercial firm. Why is it so hard to get 
men who will hazard all for Christ, esteeming 
the glory of bringing to degraded peoples 
the Uberating Gospel of Christ, a far more 
tempting service than all that fame and wealth 
may give to their servants ? 
Conclusion. Our only hope for Africa is in the awakening 
of a richer and warmer life at home. We are 
clogged and bound by the dullness and prayer- 
lessness of the Church which has sent us forth 
and to which we are Hnked. We rise in 
buoyant faith and service in its quickening. 
By God's own connecting lines, invisible but 
unbroken, the tone of the home Church 
reaches into Africa. That fire which may 
kindle by His Spirit in the home Church will 
cast its brightness and warmth into the very 
heart of the continent. 





150 . Missionary Training College founded at 

Alexandria. Amongst its Principals 
were : Origen, Clement, and Panta^nus. 

400 . Christianity flourished in North Africa. 

African Leaders in the Early Church 
were : Tertulliau, Cyprian, Athanasius, 
Arnobius, and Augustine. 

640-1000 Moslem Conquest of Egypt and North 

1100-1300 Europe awakens to Missionary Eflfort. 

1182-1226 St Francis of Assisi preached to the 

1235-1315 Raymond Lull, Missionary to North Africa. 

1394-1460 Prince Henry, the Navigator. Explorer 
of West Coast, etc. 

1484 . The Congo discovered. 

1487 . Cape of Good Hope discovered. Vasco da 

Gama rounded Cape, touched at East 
Coast points, etc. 

1497-98 . Portuguese Settlements founded on East 
and West Coasts. 

1517 . Charles V. granted a Patent for exporting 

African Slaves. 

1517 . Turks occupy Egypt. 

K »79 

28o The Future of Africa 

1578 . St Paul de Loanda, capital of Portuguese 

West Coast Colonies founded, 
1588 . First British Afi'ican Company chartered. 

1600-1700 English and French founded Trading 

Ports along Senegambia, etc. 
1652 . Dutch established themselves at the Cape. 

1737 . Moravians sent first Missionary to South 

1768 . James Bruce rediscovers Headwaters of 

the Blue Nile. 
1772 . Granville Sharp obtained the judicial 

decision declaring all slaves free on 

British ground. 
1796 . Missionary Work begins in West Africa. 

1799 . London Missionary Society enter South 

1804 . Church Missionary Society enter West 


1806 . British take the Cape of Good Hope. 

1807 . Slave Trade declared illegal for British 


1814 . Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society 

begin Work at the Cape. 

1825 . Beginning of Missionary Stations in North 


1841 . Lovedale Missionary Institute founded by 

Free Church of Scotland. 

1844 . Beginning of Missionary Work in East 


1841-73 . David Livingstone's Journeys and Dis- 

1848-75 . Opening of Central Africa, chiefly by 
British Explorers. 

1861 , Universities Mission started, 




1865-85 . Central African Protectorate founded by 

1871 . Stanley's Expedition to find Livingstone. 

1875 . Ldvingstonia Mission founded by Free 

Churcli of Scotland. 

1876 . Blantyre Mission founded by Church of 

1876 . Uganda Mission started by Church Mis- 

sionary Society. 
1875-77 . Stanley's Transcontinental Expedition and 

Descent of the Congo. 
1878 . African Lakes' Corporation established. 
1885-95 . Partition of Africa. 
1890-91 . Brussels Anti-Slavery Conference. 
1893 British Central Africa Protectorate formally 

1897 . Zululand annexed. 

1899-1902. Boer War. 
1905 . First Commission of Enquiry into Abuses 

of the Congo Free State. 

1907 . British Central Africa Protectorate became 

Nyasaland Protectorate. 

1908 . The Congo Free State taken over from 

King Leopold by Belgium, 
1910 . Union of South Africa. 




Born at Blantyre, Lanarkshire . 19 th March 1813 
Ordained Missionary in London . 20th Nov. 1840 

Embarked for Africa . 8th Dec. 1840 

Arrived at the Cape . . . Jan. 1841 

Married Mary Moffat . . . .1845 

Discovered Lake 'Ngami . . 1st Aug. 1849 

First Great Journey, Cape to Linyauti 

June 1852 to Oct. 1853 
To open a Road to the West. Linyanti to 

Loanda . Nov. 1853 to May 1854 

To open a Koad to the East. Back to 
Linyanti — Linyanti to Quilimane 

Sept. 1855 to May 1856 
Awarded Gold Medal, Geographical Society May 1855 
First Visit Home . . . Dec. 1856 

Published " Missionary Travels " . Nov, 1857 

Severed connection with London Missionary 

Society . . . . .1857 

Returned to Africa . . 10th March 1858 

Second Great Journey, exploring the Zambesi and Shire 


Discovered Lake Shirwa . . May 1859 

Discovered Lake Nyasa . . Sept. 1859 

Universities Mission to Central Africa 

started . . . , .1861 


Appendices 283 

Death of Mrs Livingstone . 27th April 1862 

Second Visit Home . . 23rd July 1864 

Published " Zambesi and its Tributaries " . 1865 

Returned to Africa for Last Time . Sept. 1865 

Visited India .... Oct. 1865 

Last Great Journey . started Jan. 1886 

Discovered Lake Moero . . Nov. 1867 

Discovered Lake Bangweolo . July 1868 

Meeting with Stanley . 28th Oct. 1871 

Death at Ilala . . 4th May 1873 

Buried in Westminster Abbey . 18th April 1874 



It is somewliat difficult to get exact and reliable infor- 
mation about the position of Roman Catholic missions. 
Their published statistics are notoriously unscientific, 
and as they are constructed on a different basis from 
that of Protestant missions, comparisons of figures are 
more misleading than informative. 

We have seen how disorganised and antagonistic much 
of the effort of the various Catholic Orders was three 
centuries ago. Since that date the whole missionary 
enterprise of the Catholic Church has been magnificently 
organised and unified, externally at least. The first 
Jesuit Pope, Gregory XV., founded the Congregation 
for the Propagation of the Faith. This body is called 
the Propaganda, and has now complete control of all 
work in non-Catholic lands. It is composed of cardinals, 
and a secretary and notary. Its chief, the Cardinal 
Prefect, is styled, by the Roman people, the Red Pope, 
and he is virtually pope of all unbelieving lands — that 
is, of Protestant as well as heathen and Mohammedan 
lands. The Propaganda establishes and maintains mission 
colleges, where students are given special training for 
missionary work. It controls all the funds which Catholic 
people give for propagandist work, and the donors have 
no power of allocating their gifts. There are several 
auxiliary societies for the colleeting of these moneys, 

Appendices 285 

bub the contributions of Protestant Churches are many 
times larger than those of Roman Catholics. 

Much has been said in these days of the possibility 
of an organised co-operation between Protestant and 
Catholic missionary societies so as to avoid overlapping, 
but all the approach comes from Protestantism ; the 
Propaganda has not, and cannot make any overtures. 
The purpose of its existence makes any recognition of 
Protestantism as a Christian society impossible ; for it 
exists for the conversion of heretics as much as that 
of heathen, and counts the sacraments and church life 
of evangelicals as worse than useless. Yet all mission- 
aries and travellers will agree that they have experienced 
a vast amount of gentlemanly courtesy and Christian 
consideration from individual Catholic missionaries. 
That is inevitable. The essential brotherhood that 
exists between Europeans, and the true love of Jesus 
Christ, which is found in men of all creeds, will assert 
itself in spite of ecclesiastical differences ; but the 
organised body of Roman Catholicism remains in- 
veterately opposed to that of Protestantism. 

This opposition has given rise to serious difficulties 
in many parts of Africa. The familiar story of public 
slander and hatred which characterised the invasion of 
Uganda by the White Fathers has its exact parallel in 
the Congo, Madagascar, East Africa, and elsewhere. In 
these cases the Protestant missionaries were first in the 
field, and had already made headway, when the Catholic 
priests entered, passing over millions of untouched pagans 
that they might oppose themselves to what they con- 
sidered the deadlier evil of heresy. They moved forward, 
strengthened by a papal Bull that " the movements of 
the heretics are to be followed up, and their efforts 
harassed and destroyed." 

The religious war which this intrusion created has 

2 86 The Future of Africa 

been restrained in several parts of Africa by Govern- 
ment interference where Protestant nations were in 
control. In Uganda a division of territory was necessi- 
tated to prevent further collisions. In German East 
Africa, and in North-Eastern Rhodesia, spheres were 
delineated in which the opposing bodies might work. 
But in Catholic protectorates the balance of favour 
naturally inclined to the Roman priests. Thus in 
Madagascar large numbers of Protestant places of 
worship were seized by the Catholics, and have never 
been restored. In the Congo Free State, where Pro- 
testants have openly exposed the iniquities of the 
Government, and Catholics have been silent, sites ap- 
plied for by Protestant societies were deliberately 
handed over to the Catholics. In Portuguese West 
Africa marriages by Protestant missionaries were not 
recognised by the civil authorities, while Catholic 
marriages were. 

Among the Orders which are at work in pagan Africa, 
the Societas Jesu — the Jesuits — is the best known. This 
Order began with the brightest promise and most fervent 
zeal ; but the inevitable interference of its agents with 
politics led to its expulsion from every pagan country. 
Last century saw its revival at several points. In 1837 
a Jesuit was sent to Abyssinia, but he soon raised the 
suspicion of foreign interference, and all Europeans were 
expelled, the Anglican Mission ruined, and, in 1859, the 
Jesuit Order was expelled. In 1880 South Africa was 
reoccupied by this society, after more than a century's 
expulsion. Its agents tried to force themselves on 
Khama, but he refused to have them. They succeeded 
in settling among the Matabili. Lobengula was pleased 
to have them because of their industrial skill, and they 
built at Buluwayo. From there they have spread 
throughout Rhodesia, and have reoccupied their old 

Appendices 287 

fields on the Zambesi. They settled again at Tete, 
Shupanga, and other old stations, and there carried 
on useful agricultural and industrial work, and did not 
a little to revive the old Christian traditions, as well 
as to make valuable linguistic contributions. They 
worked by means of Christian settlements, forming 
villages of Christians, which in time would become 
the parents of other communities. They established 
schools for the children of colonists, thereby doing 
a necessary work which evangelical Christians had 
neglected. They opened orphanages for native children, 
and hospitals for the care of Europeans as well as 
natives, which were served by nuns. 

Since the revolution in Portugal, history has again 
repeated itself, and once more all Jesuit missionaries 
have been expelled from Portuguese dominions. 

In addition to the Jesuit Order, there are forty-eight 
other institutions at work all over the continent. 
Among these are the Benedictines, who are doing good 
service in German East Africa, and a few years ago 
suffered severely during a native rebellion, when their 
bishop was killed as well as several brothers and sisters, 
and many of their stations burned down. On the east 
coast there is also the Society of tlie Holy Ghost, known 
as the Black Fathers, under a bishop who is resident at 
Zanzibar. They have large congregations at Nairobi 
and Mombasa, especially where numbers of Goanese 
reside. On the Congo they have also extensive work, 
and tried hard to overthrow the influence of the Baptists 
at San Salvador. 

In An^'ola the Congregation of the Sacred Heart have 
their principal station at Huilla, wliere they have a 
large industrial institution, with some eighty natives 
engaged in skilled trades, such as tanning, boot-making, 
tailoring, wagon-buikling. They also do important 

288 The Future of Africa 

botanical work by the experimental cultivation of exotic 
trees and of native plants. The Trappists have a famous 
industrial station near Durban, which is one of the most 
interesting sights in Natal. 

But the most widespread operations are those of the 
White Fathers. These missionaries belong to the 
Society of Our Lady of Africa, a French Algerian Order 
which was founded by Cardinal Lavigerie about 1873, 
with a view to the evangelisation of Mohammedanism in 
Africa. His ambitions rapidly extended, and one of the 
first acts of Leo XIIL was to give Lavigerie a command 
to evangelise Africa from the Congo to Zanzibar. Since 
that time the line of the Society's occupation has also ex- 
tended south towards Nyasa along the plateau of North- 
Eastern Rhodesia. Early in the history of his society 
Lavigerie was wise enough to learn the lesson of past 
failures, and he founded a companion Order of Sisters 
of Our Lady of Africa, which has added a great strength 
to the work of the Fathers. 

One of the strongest motives with this apostle of Africa 
was the suppression of the slave trade, and to do this he 
revived the idea of a military branch of his Order, the 
Armed Brethren of the Sahara, who acted as guards to 
the brothers, and attempted by force to suppress the 
slave traffic. The history of the movements of these 
armed missionaries is not edifying. Fortifications were 
built around the stations, strong and loopholed. Of 
course it was impossible that British and German 
Governments could allow these armed French mis- 
sionaries to dispense justice within their spheres and 
to pursue fugitives. They became the pioneers of 
French territorial expansion, and other nations looked 
on them w-ith not undeserved suspicion. 

Their plan was to buy slave children, and, freeing 
them, train them to be good Catholics ; but natives 

Appendices 289 

could not distinguish between Christian slave-buying 
and Arab slave-stealing. Tribes robbed of their children 
by an Arab slaver believed that they were sold to the 
]\lissiou ; and consequently serious trouble arose be- 
tween the people and the Fathers, leading sometimes 
to bloodshed. 

Since the suppression of the slave trade, the White 
Fathers have settled down to more Christian and 
peaceable methods of operation, and have become the 
most important Eoman Catholic Order at work for the 
evangelisation of Africa. 

They live in large settlements consisting of, perhaps, 
three or four fathers and lay brothers, and some sisters, 
and carry on little boarding schools, where children are 
trained, and successful agricultural operations are carried 
on. Recently they have been learning from the Pro- 
testant missions, and are developing education by means 
of village schools. Their industries, like those of most 
of the Koman missions in Africa, have won much com- 
mendation from Europeans. And few will dispute the 
fact that the great emphasis they have put on agricul- 
ture has been a right emphasis ; for here the native is 
being trained to improve that which is his particular 
possession, and is not simply being api^rcnticed to trades 
whose prosperity entirely depends on the presence of 
the European. 

What the religious value of all the Roman Catholic 
mission work has been it is ditiicult to judge. Personally 
I have come across no product of their mission, and 
therefore cannot speak from first-hand knowledge. They 
claim to have at least six hundred thousand Catholics in 
Africa ; but what that fact signifies it is hard to estimate. 
By the recent census of Uganda, the Catholics seemed to 
be more numerous than the Protestants; and one of 
the stations on the Mehinga Plateau in North Easiern- 

290 The Future of Africa 

Ehodesia claims to have two thousand Christians con- 
nected with it, though it is but a recently established 
station, and situated in a scantily populated sphere. 
It is an undesirable task to try to depreciate the value 
of their statistical success. We would rather believe 
that many of their missionaries are themselves sincerely 
devoted to Jesus Christ, and are revealing His incom- 
parable Person to those benighted people. I have met 
many of their agents — Jesuits, Benedictines, White 
Fathers, and Black Fathers — and found a strong spiritual 
sympathy in them. Their whole-hearted devotion, and 
the light of the love of the Lord that is in many of 
them, constrained me, however unwilling they might be 
to recognise any corporate co-operation with us, at least 
to rejoice that in some " way Christ is preached," and 
the liberty of a life in Him is shown to many who knew 
no life but that of dark, cruel, and sensual superstitions. 
Most Catholic missionaries who come to Africa come 
for life, and take no furlough. This magnificent 
sacrifice is often held up in contrast to the frequent 
furloughs and comparative ease of the Protestant 
missionaries : but the sacrifice is unnecessary, and 
harmful. No European can maintain physical efficiency 
in a prolonged residence in tropical Africa ; and more 
serious still is the result on the spiritual and intellectual 
life of the missionary. Apart altogether from health 
necessities, the spiritual and intellectual tonic that is 
given to a man who has long resided among people who 
do not think or read, and among surroundings which 
are peculiarly demoralising, is more than worth the 
expense of his passage home. He should be a better 
missionary, in every way, by every visit home. 



North-East (Egypt to Somaliland) 


B.F.B.S. British and Foreign Bible Society . 1812 
C.M.S. Church Missionary Society . . 1882 

North- West (Tripoli to Morocco) 

B.F.B.S. British and Foreign Bible Society . 1824 
CM.M.L. Christian Missions in Many Lauds . 1883 

Western (Senegal to Nigeria) 
S.S.G. Society for the Spread of the Gospel 1792 

W.M.M.S. Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 

Society 1811 

C.M.S. Church Missionary Society . . 1816 

U.F.S. United Free Church of Scotland 

Foreign Mission Committee . 1846 
S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel 1852 

U.M.C. United Methodist Church Miss- 

ionary Society . . 1859 

P.M. M.S. Primitive Methodist Missionary 

Society 1870 

Q.I.M. Qua Iboe Mission .... 1887 

South- West Africa (Kamerun to German South- West 

S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel 1859 

292 The Future of Africa 


P.M.M.S. Primitive Methodist Missionary- 
Society 1870 

B.M.S. Baptist Missionary Society . .1879 

C.M.M.L. Christian Missions in Many Lands . 1881 
R.B.M.U. Regions beyond Missionary Union . 1889 

South Africa (the British Union with Basutoland 
and Swaziland) 

L.M.S. London Missionary Society . . 1799 

B.F.B.S. British and Foreign Bible Society . 1810 
U.F.S. United Free Church of Scotland 

Foreign Mission Committee . 1825 
W.M.M.S. Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 

Society 1867 

P.M.M.S. Primitive Methodist Missionary 

Society . . . . '. 1872 
B.Y.M.F.M.S. Birmingham Young Men's Foreign 

Mission Society . . .1877 
C.M.M.L. Christian Missions in Many Lands . 1884 
Y.W.C.A. British National Foreign Department 1900 
F.C.S. Free Church of Scotland Foreign 

Mission 1907 

Southern Central Africa (Five British Protectorates) 

B.F.B.S. British and Foreign Bible Society . 1810 

L.M.S. London Missionary Society . . 1860 
C.S.F.M. Church of Scotland Foreign Missions 

Committee .... 1875 
U.F.S. United Free Church of Scotland 

Foreign Mission Committee . 1875 

U.M. Universities Mission to Central Africa 1880 

C.M.M.L. Christian Missions in Many Lands . 1882 
C.S.F.M. W. Church of Scotland Women's Foreign 

Missions Association . . . 1884 

Appendices 293 


P.M.M.S. Primitive Methodist Missionary 

Society . . . . ". 1885 
S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel 1891 

W.M.M.S. Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 

Society 1891 

Z.I.M. Zambesi Industrial Mission . . 1892 

B. I. M . S. Baptist Industrial Mission of Scotland 1895 

N.I.M. Nyassa Industrial Mission . . 1896 

East Africa 

B.F.B.S. British and Foreign Bible Society . 1817 
C.M.S. Church Missionary Society . . 18-t4: 
U.M.S. United Methodist Church Mis- 
sionary Society . . . 1861 
U.M. Universities Mission to Central Africa 1864 
S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel 1893 

F.A.S. Friends' Anti-Slavery Committee . 1896 

C.S.F.M. Church of Scotland Foreign Missions 

Committee .... 1898 

Madagascar and Mauritius 

L.M.S. London Missionary Society . . 1820 

S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel 1836 

C.M.S. Church Missionary Society . . 1856 

F.F.M.A. Friends' Foreign Mission Association 1867 


Note. — The following Bibliography is confined entirely to such books 
as have direct bearing on the subject-mattei' of " The Future of Africa." 
The problem of Islam in Afnca is dealt icith only in so far as it receives 
treatment from tcrilers on West and Central Africa. The Litei-atnre on 
South Africa is selected with refei-eiice to the problem of the native races. 

The books likely to be of most service to numbers of Stvdy Circles are 
marked with an asterisk. 



*The Partition of Africa. J. Scott Keltie. (Stanford, 16s.) 

*The Development of Africa. A. SOva White. (Philip, 78. 6d. 
[Chapters IV., V., VI., and VIII.] 

*The Colonisation of Africa. Sir H. H. John-ston. (Cambridge 
Press, 6s.) [Chapters V. and VIII.] 

*The Opening-up of Africa. Sir H. H. Johnston. (Home Uni- 
versity Library, Is.) 

In Unknown Africa. P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. (Hurst & Blackett, 


Reports. — Annual Reports of the Administrator of East Africa. 
Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series. (London.) 
Colonial Office Reports. Annual Series. (London. ) 
Each Protectorate publishes an Annual Report as above, giving 
full local information. (P. S. King & Sons.) 


Somaliland. E. V. A. Peel. (Robinson, 7s. 6d.) 
British East Af-rica. M'Dermott. (Chapman, 6a.) 

296 The Future of Africa 

*The Rise of Odr East African Empire. Capt. Lugard. (Black- 
wood, 42s,) [Chapters III., VII., XVII., and XVIII.] 
•Foundation of British East Africa. (H, Marshall, 6s.) 
*The East Africa Protectorate, Sir C. N. Eliot. (Arnold, 15s. ) 
British East Africa, Somerset Playne. (Foreign and Col. Pub. 

Society, 84s.) 
Travels in the Coastlands of British East Africa, W. W. A. 

Fitzgerald. (Chapman Hall, 28s.) 
British East Africa. Lord Hindlip. (Unwin, 3s. 6d.) 
Portuguese Nyasaland. Basil Worsf old. (Sampson Low, 7s. 6d.) 


The Rise of British West Africa. G. George. (Houlston & 

Son, 12s.) 
Affairs of West Africa. E, D. Morel. (Heineman, 12s.) 
*Travels in West Africa. Mary H. Kingsley. (MacmiUan, 7s. 6d.) 
*West African Studies. Mary H. Kingsley. (Macmillan, 21s. net. ) 
Between Capetown and Loanda. A. G. S. Gibson, (Wells 

Gardiner, 3s. 6d.) 
A Transformed Colony : Sierra Leone. T. J. Aldridge. (Seeley, 

The Gold Coast, Past and Present. G. Macdonald. (Longmans, 

7b, 6d.) 
The Ashanti Campaign of 1900, C, H. Armitage and A, F, 

Monteiro. (Sands, 7s. 6d.) 
The White Man in Nigeria. G. D. Hazzledine, (Arnold, 

10s. 6d.) 
*From the Niger to the Nile. Boyd Alexander, (E. Arnold, 

2 vols., 36s. net). 
In the Niger Country. H. Bindloss. (Blackwood, 12s. 6d.) 
*The Lower Niger and its Tribes. A. G. Leonard. (Macmillan, 

12s, 6d.) 
*Cro8s River Natives. C. Partridge. (Hutchinson, 12s. 6d.) 
New Africa, E. Descamps, 

Modern Slavery. H. Nevinson. (Harpers, 7s. 6d.) 
*The Siege of Kumassi. Lady Hodgson. (Pearson, 2l3.) 
Timbuctoo the Mysterious. F, Dubois. (Heineman, 128. 6d.) 

Bibliography 297 


(Uganda, Congo, and Central African Protectorates) 

*The Uganda Protectorate. Sir H. H. Johnston. (Hutchinson, 

24s.) [Vol. II., Chapters XIII. to XX.] 
*The Story op Uganda. F. D. Lugard. (H. Marshall, Is. 6d.) 

[Chapters I. -IX.] 
*Uganda to Khartoum. A. B. Lloyd. (Unwin, 10s. 6d.) 
With Macdonald IN Uganda. Major H. H. Austin. (Arnold, 15s.) 
The Congo and the Founding of its Free State. H. M. Stanley. 

(Sampson Low, 2 vols., 21s.) 
Red Rubber. E. D. Morel. (Fisher Unwin, 2s. 6d.) 
*Great Britain and the Congo. E. D. Morel. (Smith Elder, 68.) 
The Congo Crisis. Grattan Guines.s. 

British Central Africa. Sir H. H. Johnston. (Methuen, 18s.) 
*New World of Central Africa. H. G. Guiness. (Hodder, 6s.) 
A Whitb Woman in Central Africa. Helen Caddick. (Unwin, 

Under the African Sun. W. J. Ansonge. (Heineman, 21s.) 
Among Swamps and Giants in Equatorial Africa. Major H. H. 

Austin. (Pearson, 15s. net.) 
*Tropical Africa. Henry Drummond. (Hodder, 3s. 6d.) 
Ntasaland under the Foreign Office. H. L. Duff. (Bell, 

78. 6d.) 
The Jungle Folk of Africa. R. H. Milligan. (Revell, 6s.) 
Africa from North to South, through Marotsbland. A. St H. 

Gibbons. (John Lane, 2 vols., 32s. net.) 
•Missionary Journeys. David Livingstone. (Murray, 6s.) 
The Zambesi and its Tributaries. David Livingstone. (Murray, 

Last Journals. David Livingstone. (Murray, 128.) 
•Through the Dark Continent. H. M. Stanley. (Sampson Low, 

128. 6d.) 
*lN Darkest Africa. H. M. Stanley. 

The Land of the Nile Springs. Sir H. Colville. (Arnold, I63.) 
The Tanganyika Problem. T. E. S. Moore (Hurst & Blackett, 

In Remotest Barotseland. C. Harding. (Hurst k Blaokett, 
lOfl. 6d.) 

298 The Future of Africa 

Tbavel A5D Adventubb in South-East Apmoa. F. C. Selous 

(Rowland "Ward, 25s.) 

10s. 6d.) 


(S. of Zambesi) 

History of South Africa, 1652-1903. H. A. Bryden. (Sands, 6s.) 
Britain's Title IN South Africa. J. Cappon. (Macmillan, 7s. 6d.) 
*The Beqinninq of South African History. G. M'C. Theal. 

(Unwin, 16s.) 
*The Progress of South Africa in the Century. G. M'C. Theal. 

(Chambers, 5s.) 
The Expansion of S. Africa. A. Wilmot. (Unwin, 5s.) 
*SouTH Africa : A Study in Colonial Administration. W. B. 

Worsfold. (Methuen, 6s.) [Chapters I., V., VI., and X.] 
The Story of South Africa. W. B. Worsfold. (H. Mai-shall, 

Is. 6d.) 
*HiSTOBY OP Rhodesia. H. Hensman. (Blackwood, 6s.) 
How We Made Rhodesia. A. G. Leonard. (Kcgan Paul, 6s.) 
Ancient Ruins op Rhodesia. W. G. Neal and R. N. Hall. 

(Methuen, 10s. 6d.) 
South Africa: its People, Progress, and Problems. W. F. 

Purvis. (Chapman & Hall, 5s.) 
On the South African Frontier. H. W. Brown. (Sampson Low, 

12s. 6d.) 
♦Impressions of S. Africa. J. Bryce. (Macmillan, 6s.) [Parts 

II. and IV.] 
*The Native Races of S. Africa. G. H. W. Stow. (Sonnenschein, 

♦The Renascence of South Africa. A. R. Colquhoun. (Hurst & 

Blackett, 6s.) 
♦Transvaal Problems. L. Phillips. (Murray, 12s.) 
♦The Afrikander Land. A. R. Colquhoun. (Murray, 16s. net.) 
♦The Essential Kaffir. Dudley Kidd. (A, & C. Black, 18s. net.) 
Savage Childhood. Dudley Kidd. (A. & C. Black, 7s. 6d. net.) 
Sketches of Kaffir Life. G. Callaway. (Mowbray, 2s. 6d.) 
Matabeleland. a. R. Colquhoun. (Simpkin Marshall, 28. 6d.) 
♦The Basutos. Sir G. Lagden. (Hutchinson, 248.) 

Bibliography 299 

Basdtoland : the Legends and Customs. Minnie Martin. 

(Nichols, 3s. 6d.) 
My African Journey. Rt. Hon. W. Spencer Churchill. (Hodder, 



Brinton, D. G. Religions of Primitive Peoples. (Putnam, 6s.) 
*Dennett, R. E. At the Back of the Black Man's Mind. (Mac- 

millan, 10s.) 
*Frazer, Professor. The Golden Bough. (Macmillan, 20s. ) 
*Frazer, Professor. Psyche's Task. (Macmillan, 2s. 6d. ) 
Hayford, C. Gold Coast Native Institutions. (Sweet & Maxwell, 

HiNDE, C. The Last of the Masai. (Heineman, 15s.) 
HoLLiS, A. C. The Masai : Their Language and Folk-Lore. 
Lloyd, Miss L. C. Bushman Folklore. (In prep. Sonnenschien.) 
Macdonald, Rev. Jas. Myth and Religion. (Nutt, 7s. 6d. ) 
Nassau, Dr. Fetichism in West Africa. (Duckworth, 7s. 6d.) 
*Warneck, J. L. The Living Forces of the Gospel. (Oliphant, 5s.) 
* World Missionary Conference. Report of Commission IV. 

N.B. — Religion and Folk-lore are also dealt with in a large number 
of the hool's in Section C. 



Christus Liberator: An Outline Study on Africa. (Macmillan 

*Dawn in the Dark Continent. Stewart of Lovodale. (Oliphant, 

Daybreak in the Dark Continent. W. S. Naylor. (New York, 

50 cents.) 
*The Redemption of Africa. F. Perry Noble. (Revell, 15s. net.) 
•History of Protestant Missions. J. Warneck. (Oliphant, 10s. 6d.) 

[Part II., Chapter II.] 

300 The Future of Africa 

Onk Hundred Years' History of the Church Missionary 

Society, (C.M.S.,2s.) 
History of the London Missionary Society. Sylvester Home. 

(L.M.S., 2s. 6d.) [Chapter III., VII., IX., XII.] 
Keports of the World Missionary Oonfekence, 1910. (9 toIs., 

Oliphant, 18s. 6d., or 3s. 6d. per vol. ) 


Travels, Explorations, and Missionary Labours during an 
Eighteen Years' Residence in Eastern Africa. J. L. 

"Banani" (Work of "Friends'" Mission in Zanzibar and 
Pemba.) H. S. Newman. (Headley, 2s 6d.) 


Fifty Years in Western Africa. Barrow. (S.P.C.K., 2s.) 
*Hausaland. Canon Robinson. (Sampson Low, 2s 6d. ) 
Ewe-speaking People of the Slave Coast of West Africa. 

A. B. Ellis. (Chapman, 10s. 6d.) 
Yoruba-speaking People of the Slave Coast of West Africa. 

A. B. Ellis. (Chapman, 10s. 6d.) 
TsHi-SPEAKiNG PEOPLE OF THE GoLD COAST. (Chapman, lOs. 6d.) 
Nine Years at the Gold Coast. D. Kemp. (Macmillan, 12s. 6d.) 
Mission Work in Sierra Leone. J. S. Mills. (Boston : Drayton, 

Calabar and its Mission. H. Goldie and Dean. (Oliphant, 5s.) 


Two Kings of Uganda. R. P. Ashe. (Low, 2s.) 

*DWARFLAND AND Cannibal COUNTRY. A. B. Lloyd. (Unwin, 

7s. 6d.) 
Chronicles of Uganda. R. P. Ashe. (New York, $1.50.) 
A Doctor and his Dog in Uganda. A. R. Cook. (R.T.S., 2s.) 
Through my Spectacles in Uganda. M. J. Hall. (C.M.S., 

Is. 6d.) 
Uganda by Pen and Camera. C. W. Hattersley. (R.T.S., 28.) 
*Eightbbn Years in Uganda and East Africa. Bishop Tucker. 

(Arnold, 30s.) 

Bibliography 301 

*Thk Baqanda at Home. C. W. Hattersley. (R.T.S., 5s.) 

The Wonderful Story of Uganda. J. D. Mullins. (C.M.S., 

Is. 6d.) 
^Pioneering on the Congo. H. W. Bentley. (Revell, 20s.)- 
*0n the Threshold of Central Africa. F. Coillard. (American 

Tract Society, 10s. 6d.) 
History of the Universities Mission to Central Africa. A. E. M. 

Anderson, Montreal. (U.M.C.A., Is.) 
A Thousand Miles in the Heart of Africa. J. du Plessis. 

(Oliphant, 5s.) 

Daybreak in Livingstonla. J. W. Jack. (Oliphant, 5s.) 
*Among the Wild 'Ngoni. W. A. Elmslie. (Oliphant, 3s. 6d.) 
♦Missionary Journeys. David Livingstone. (Murray, 6s.) 
*Last Journals. David Livingstone. (Murray, 12s.) 
The Zambesi AND ITS Tributaries. David Livingstone. (Murray, 6s.) 
On the Borders of Pyqmyland. Ruth Fisher. (Marshall, 3s. 6d.) 


Memories of Mashonaland. J. W. H. K. Bence. (Arnold, 10s. 6d.) 
Journals of the Mashonaland Mission. J, W. H. K. Bence. 

(S.P.C.K., 2s. 6d.) 
In the Lesuto. Canon Widdicombe. (S.P.C.K., 3s. 6d.) 
Transvaal as a Mission-field. E. Farmer. (Darton, 2s. 6d.) 
♦Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. David 

Livingstone, (Murray, 6s.) 
Missionary Labours and Tours in South Africa. R. Moffat. 
♦African Wastes Reclaimed. (The Story of the Lovedale Mission.) 

R. Young. (Dent, 4s. 6d.) 
♦Lovedale : South Africa. J. Stewart. (Oliphant, 5s. ) 
Ten Years North of the Orange River. J. Mackenzie. 
Twenty Years in Khama's Country. J. D. Hepburn. (Howden, 

Among the Matabele. D. Carnegy. (R.T.S., Is, 6d.) 


MaDASASCAR of To-Dat. W. E. Cousins. (London, 1895 • R T S 

Sign of the Cross in Madagascar. J, K. Fletcher, (London, 1901 

Oliphant, Ss. 6d.) 

302 The Future of Africa 

*Thirty Years in Madagascar. T. T. Mathews. (London, 1904 : 

R.T.S. 63.) 
The Martyr's Isle. A. Sharman. (London, 1909 : L.M.S., 2s. 6d. 
*Madagascar Before the Conquest. J. Sibree. (London, 1896 

Unwin, 16s.) 
Among the Menabe. (Thirteen Months in Madagascar.) H. Smith. 

(London, 1896: S.P.C.K., Is. 6d.) 


*Bentley, W. Holman. H. M. Bentley. (R.T.S., 6s.) 
Callaway, Henry, First Bishop of Kaffraria. M. S. Benham. 

(Macmillan, 6s.)' 
Colenso, Bishop. F. Gregg. (S.S. Assoc, Is. 6d.) 
COILLARD OF the Zambesi. C. W. Mackintosh. (Unwin, 6s.) 
*Crowthek, Samuel, "The Black Bishop." J. Page. (Hodder, 

7s. 6d.) 
Grbnfei-L, George, and the Congo. H. Johnston. (Bapt. Miss. 

Soc, 30s.) 
*Gbenfell, George, Life of. G. Hawker. R.T.S. 
Hall Martin. "In Full and Glad Surrender." Miss Hall. 

(Hodder, 6s.) 
Hannington, Bishop. W. G. Berry. (Revell, 4s. 6d.) 
*Hannington, Bishop, Life of. E. C. Dawson. 
Johnson, William and Lucy. "Faithful unto Death," P. Don- 
caster. (Headley, 3s. 6d.) 
*J0HNS0N, W. A. B. Seven Years in Sierra Leone. Life of. Pierson. 

(Nisbet, 2s.) 
*La'WS, Db, of Livingstonia. James Johnston. (Partridge, Is. 6d.) 
♦Livingstone, David. W. G. Blaikie. (Murray, 2s. 6d., also pub- 
lished at Is.) 
Livingstone, David. Thomas Hughes. (Macmillan, 2s. 6d.) 
iviNGSTONE, David. Sir H. H. Johnston. (Philip, 4s. 6d.) 
"Livingstone, David. T. Banks MacLachlan. (Oliphant, Is.) 
Mackay of Uganda. J. W. Harrison. (Armstrong, 6s.) 
*Mackay OP Uganda, Life OF. By his Sister. (Hodder.) 
Mackenzie, Charles Frederick. H. Goodwin. (Bell, 10s. 6d.) 
Mackenzie, Charles Frederick. ' ' An Elder Sister. " (Bishop Mac- 

kensde and his Sister's Lives in Africa.) (Bemrose, 3s.) 
"Mackenzie, John. South African Missionary and Statesmen : Life 
of. W. D. Mackenzie. (Hodder, 7s. 6d.) 

Bibliography 303 

Maples, Bishop, Life of. Ellen Maples. (Longmans, 7s. 6d.) 
Marttks OF Blanttre. W.Robertson. (Nisbet, 2s. 6d.) 
Moffat, Robert and Mary. J. S. Moffat. (Unwin, 3s. 6d.) 
*Pajik, MUNGO, T. Banks MacLachlan. (Oliphant, Is.) 
•PiLKiNGTON OF UGANDA. C. F. H. Battersby. (Marshall Bros., 

4s. 6d.) 
Stanley, H. M. Autobiography. (Boston, $5.00.) 
*Stewartof Lovedale. Dr James Wells. (Hodder, 5s.) 
ScOTT, W. Affleck. W. H. Rankine. ("A Hero of the Dark 

Waddell, W. T. Artisan Missionary on the Zambesi. M'Connachie, 

(Oliphant, Is. 6d.) 
Wakefield, Thomas. E. S. Wakefield. (R.T.S., 3s. 6d.) 
Whatelky, Mary Louise, Life of. Whateley. (R.T.S., 2s.) 



AboUtion Bill, 71, 83 
Abyssinia, 141 
Africa, 26. 30, 34, 37 
Aarea, 2, 3 
,, appeal, 3, 226, 247, 272 

adventxu-ers, 5, 30 
,, attraction, 35, 40 
,, connection with Europe, 

65, 77, 104, 133, 250 
,, description, 2 
,, fascination, 3 
,, opening of, 30, 32, 229, 

,, Protectorates, 80 et sen., 
93, 212 et sea. 225, 250, 
255, 260 
regeneration of, 44, 46, 
210, 253, 275 
Africa, Central, 48, 54, 138 
Africa, South, 34, 47, 83, 138, 140, 

141, 219, 258 
African Association, 36, 37 
African New Association, 43, 44 
Africaner, Chief, 181 
Albert Nyanza, 59 
American Missions, 140 
America (and Slave trade), 66 
Animism, 120, 121, 130, 241 
Arabs, 9, 10, 36 
Arthington, 61, 62 
Ashanti, 122 


Baker, Sir S., and Lady, 59 
Bantu, no Hse/f., 118, 120 
Baptist Society, 26, 62, 98, 140, 

212, 217, 273 
BarbaritieB, 103 
BasBtoU,nd, 166, 183 

Bechuanaland, 48, 178, 179, 188 
Beliefs of Paganism, 116 et sen., 

Benin, 122 
Benue, 43, 45 
Bethelsdorp, 137 
Bimbia, 98 
Blaikie, Dr, 46 
Blantyre, 155 
" Boer Trek," 83 
Burton, 59 

Bushmen, 14 el sen., 106 
Buxton, Fowell, 43, 96 

Calabar, 185, 204 

Canibalism, 127 

Cam, Diego, 18 

Capo, the, 9, 13, 110 

Cape Town, 53, 136 

Cape Colony, 18, 80, 82 

Capuchins, 21 

Chaillu, Paul du, 47 

Chaka, 114, 120, 240 

Charms, 120, 121 

Charters, 11 

Church, African, 188, 189, 190 el 

seq. , 198, 202, 206, 209, 236, 259, 

266 et seq. 
Church of England, 141 
Church Missionary Society, 45, 58, 

60, 85, 138, 142, 148, 162, 208, 

22:3, 273 
Civilisation, 244 tt seq. 
Climate, 3 
Coast Tribes, 32 
Colonists, 32 
Colonisation, 78 «l se«. 
Commoroe, 46, 95, 145, 244 


The Future of Africa 

Communication, means of, 250- 

Companies, commercial, 43, 46, 47 
Company, National African, 47 
Congo, Kingdom of, 18, 20, 26, 61 

,, Kingof, 19, 22 

,, Free State, 86, 101, 235 

„ Eiver, 2, 18 
Cook, Drs, 155 

Crowther, Bp. Samuel, 45, 205 
Customs of Paganism, 116 et seq., 
131, 231 

Dahomey, 89 

Dances, 126 

Diaz, Bartholomew, 5, 9 

Dominicans, 9, 19, 25, 26 

Drink, 97 et seq., 128, 193, 255 

Dutch, 13, 21, 33, 83, 136 

East Coast, 10, 12, 22, 25, 53, 260 
Education, 156, 157 et seq. 
Eliot, Sir Charles, 241 
England, 11, 67, 79 
English Government, 42, 45, 177, 

Ethiopianism, 236 et seq. 

Factories, trading, 46 
Fans, 127, 216 
Farm, model, 43, 44 
Fetichism, 120, 193 
Fever, 35, 44 

Fourah Bay College, 161, 208 
French Companies, 47 
French Colonisation, 89, 213 
French Protestants, 141 
Frere, Sir Bartle, 75 
Friars, 18 
Froude, J. A., 9 


Gama, Vasco da, 5, 9 

Gambia, River, 12, 37, 47, 139 

Garunganze Mission, 87, 140 

Gaul, 1 

Germany, 90 et seq., 215 

German East African Associatiom, 

Gin, 12, 32, 97 

Glasgow Missionaiy Society, 141 
Goa, 22, 25 

Gold, 12, 13, 17, 18, 23, 31 
Goldie, Sir G. Taubman, 
Gold Coast, 81, 208 
Goncalo, Father, 23 et seq. 
Government (see wider respective 

Grant, 59 
Greece, 1 
Guinea Coast, 7 


Hannington, Bishop, 61 
Hausas, 41, 214 
Hawkins, Sir John, 11, 67 
Hereros, 179 

Hottentots, 9, 13, 14, 15, 17, 108, 
135, 179, 181 

Ilala, 5, 6 

India, southern route to, 5 

,, and trade, 9, 13 
Inhambane, 23, 24 
Infanticide, 126 
Interior, 10 
Ivory, 17 
Ivory Coast, 89, 213 

Jag-gas, 21 
James I., 13 
Japan, 22 
Jesuits, 20, 23, 25, 26 



JobsoD, Captain, 12 
John, King of Portugal, 19 
Johnston, Sir H. H., 143 
Journeys, LiTingstones, 51 et seq. 
Juju, 120, 125 


Kaffirs, 17 
Kalahari Desert, 51 
Katanga, 87, 88 
Kenia, 58 
Khama, 183 et seq, 
Kilimanjai-o, 58 
Kimberley, 84 
Kingsley. Miss, 124 
Krapf, 58, 139, 141, 222 

Labovir, 99 et seq., 151 

Laird, MacGregor, 45 

Lake 'Ngami, 51 

Lake Nyasa, 

Lander, 42 

Languages, 233, 234 

Las Casas, 66 

Leonora (of Portugal), 19 

Leopold, King of Belgium, 62, 88 

Liberality, 199 

Liquor Traffic, 97 et seq., 246 

Literature, 164 et seq. , 265, 270 

Livingstone, David, 27 ; birth, 48 ; 

life and achievements, 48 et seq. ; 

gift to Africa, 56 ; death, 56 ; 

influence, 58, 74, 139, 152, 239 
Livingstonia Mission, 178, 193, 

Loanda, 53 
Lokoya, 44, 46 
London Missionary Society, 61, 

136, 140, 182, 263 
Lovadal«, 155, 162, 201, 235 


Maokay, Alexander, 61 
Mackenzie, John, 179, 180, 263 

Madagascar, 30, 89, 138, 196, 208, 

Makalanga, 23 
Makololo, 51, 285 
Mandaros, 30 
Masai, 123 
Matabeleland, 48 
Mengo, 155 
Missions — 

Catholic, 18, 26, 256 

Modern, 139, 143, 175, 176 et seq. , 
185, 186 

Ind-ustrial, 144 et seq., 152, 190 

Medical, 153, 154 et seq., 190 

Difficulties of, 226, 227, 257 
Misslonanes, Early, 9, 18, 20, 22, 

25, 28, 29 
Missionaries, Modern, 173, 174, 

177, 179, 180, 194, 230, 247, 

256, 260 
Missionary Societies, 43, 137, 207, 

215e<se«/.,222, 258, 273 
Mission Stations, 46, 203, 204, 

213, 2\betseq., 262 
Moffat, Dr Robert, 115, 137, 181 
Mohammedans, 24, 205, 213, 214, 

215, 221, 223, 241, 242 
Mombasa, 58, 141 
Monomotapa, 23 
Moravians, 18, 135 et seq., 138 
Moshesh, 183 
'Mtesa, 59 
Mozambique, 23 

Natal, 5 

Native evangelists, 168, 169 etseq., 

Negroes, 109 

New African Association, 43, 44 
N'gami, Lake, 51 
Niger, River, 35, 36. 39, 42-46, 

Niger Expedition, 41 
Nigeria, 81, 214 
Nile, 1, 59 
Nyanza, Lakes Viotoria and 

Albert, 59 
Nyasa, Lake, 54, 239 
Nyasaland, 151, 160, 162, 178, 179, 

186, 200, 208, 235, 242 


The Future of Africa 

Ophir, miners of, 12 
Orange River, 48 
Ordeals, 125, 186 
OsweU, 63 

Paganism, 116, 130, 267 

Palmerston, Lord, 45 

Paris Society, 216 

Park, Mungo, 37 et seq. ; death, 

41 ; character, 41, 42, 53 
Peoples (of Africa), 106 et seq. 
Persecution, 198, 199 
Philip, 137 
Pioneers, 31 
Pitt, 71 

Ph^mouth Brethren, 140 
Polygamy, 127, 186, 237 
Popes, 6, 7, 10, 21, 20, 21, 66 
Population, 2, 223, 232, 238 
Powers, 3, 92 

Portugal, 5 et seq., 9, 19, 21, 66, 79 
Portuguese enterprise, 8, 33 
government, 27 
settlements, 22, 218, 

219, 220 
Republic, 102 
Preaching, 167 et seq., 197, 203 
Presbyterian churches, 141 
Prester, John, 6 
Primitive Methodists, 213 
Prince Henry the Navigator, 5 et 

seq. ; death, 8, 28 
Protestants, 18 
Protestant missions, 28 

Quilimane, 53 


Railways, 251 
Rebmann, 58 
Reformation, 11 
ReUgious, 3 
Revolutions, Tribal, 111 
Roman Catholics, 28 
Rubber, 86, 87 

Sacrifices, 122, 123 

Sahara, 54 

San Salvador, 26 

San Thome, 20 

Schools, 158, 159, rf se^-. 

Schmidt, George, 135 

Scientists, 44 

Scott, Sir VV., 40 

"Scramble for Africa," 92 

Secret Societies, 125 

Sego, 38 

Selous, 63 

Sena, 23 

Senegal, 37, 47 

Sharp, Granville, 70 

Sharpe, Sir Alfred, 179 

Sierra Leone, 81, 139, 161, 205, 

Slaves, 8, 23 
Slaving, 31, 53, 76, 128 
Slave trade, 10, 11,32,43,55.65 

et seq. , 139 
Slave traders, 53, 66 
Slavery Emancipation Bill, 72 
Sofala, 12 
Sokoto, 41 
Solomon's, King, Mines, 11, 12, 

Speke, 59 

Spirit-worship, 118, et seq. 
Stairs, Captain, 88 
Stanley, 56, 59 et seq., 85 
Stewart of Lovedale, 145, 201 
Sultan, 75, 84 
Susus, 138 


Table Bay, 13 
Tanganyika, 59, 251 
Timbuctoo, 12, 36 
Togo, 215 
Traders, 10, 44 
Trading firms, 46 
Trading routes, 51 

Tribes, ill et seq., 182, 233, 252 
Coast, 11 

Interior, 35. 52, 182, 233 



Tsetse fly, 57 
Tiicker. Bishop, 222 
Tuskegee, 151 


Uganda, 59, 60, 61, 161, 165, 178, 
195, 198, 202, 207, 208, 222, 230, 

United Presbyterian Church of 
Scotland, 140, 161 

Vaal, River, 48 
Vanderkemp, 136, 138 
Verde, Cape, 6 
Venn, 148 
Victoria Falls, 53, 54 


Warren, Sir Charles, 179, 183 
Waterboer, 182 

Wesleyans, 138, 140, 259 

West Africa, 21 

West Coast, 11, 34, 43, 52, 53, 139, 

145, 195, 208, 227, 251 
Wilberforce, William, 71 
Witch- Doctors, 123 
World Missionary Conference, 190 
Worship, Pagan, 117 et seq. 
Wrongs Inflicted on Africa, 42 

Xavier, St Francis 

Yarrow, The, 40 

Zambesi, 2, 23, 25, 52 
Zumbo, 27 


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