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Montana. Governor's Coramission on 

the Status of Women. 

Montana women, their future role. 


930 East Lyndale Avenue 
Helena, Montana 59601 



Letter of Transmittal 1 

Statement of The Honorable Tim Babcock, Governor of Montana 2 

Proclamation 3 

Montana Governor's Commission on the Status of Women 4 

Introduction 5 
Areas of Study: 

Area 1 Legal Treatment of Women in Regard to 

Political and Civil Rights 7 

Area 2 Women as Volunteer Workers 9 

Area 3 Working Opportunities and Problems of Women 

in Rural Areas 10 

Area 4 State Labor Laws Dealing with Hours, Wages 

and Working Conditions 11 

Area 5 Policies and Practices with Respect to 

Education, Counselling and Job Training of 

Women 14 

Area 6 Availability of Child Care Facilities for 

Working Mothers 15 

Conclusion , 16 

Acknowledgments 18 

Great Seal of the State of Montana 19 

* * * * 

The Honorable Tim Babcock 
Governor, State of Montana 
State Capitol 
Helena, Montana 

Dear Governor Babcock: 

It is with a great deal of pleasure and pride that we 
submit this report of the Commission on the Status of 
Women, which you appointed in November 196 5. We con- 
sider it an honor to have served on this Commission. 

Our tenure has not been without misfortune and sadness. 
Within the first year, Mrs, Jane Bukvich became seriously 
ill and died on January 31, 1967. We were greatly grieved 
over the untimely loss of this excellent young member. 
Shortly after her appointment. Miss Mary Moore resigned 
from the Commission, due to the press of business. Mr. 
Robert Thompson later was transferred by the Telephone 
Company to their head office in Denver, and Dr. Marjory 
Brooks took an assignment outside of Montana, which nec- 
essitated the resignation of these valuable members. 

We held six meetings, one of which was a day-long workshop 
on the campus of the University of Montana. Here we had 
the benefit of excellent advice and assistance from members 
of the University faculty on our various panels. 

Six areas which we considered of particular interest to 
Montana women have been explored: legal treatment of 
women in regard to political and civil rights; women as 
volunteer workers; working opportunities and problems of 
women in rural areas; state labor laws dealing with hours, 
wages and working conditions; policies and practices with 
respect to education, counseling and job training of women; 
and availability of child care facilities for working 
mothers . 

Our report is a summary of our findings and recommendations 
in these six fields. 

We trust our work has developed some thought-provoking 
ideas whereby the women of Montana, in all walks of life, 
can become more effective citizens, sharing to the fullest 

their responsibilities in today's society and insuring 
full realization of their rights and potentials. 

We thank you for your interest and cooperation. 

Most sincerely, 


Mrs. Edna/a, Hinman, Chairman 




"The Governor's Commission on the Status of Women is a 
step to inform the citizens of the State of Montana of 
women's role in the governmental, civic and recreation- 
al development in the state .... a trail leading to 
new discovery for those who wish to avail themselves." 



WHEREAS, the State of Montana, in continuing to improve 
the economic condition of all of our citizens, must utilize the 
highest skills of all citizens; and 

WHEREAS, the women of the State of Montana have made 
outstanding contributions to the growth and welfare of this 
state and have made further contributions to the social advance- 
ment of our state; and 

WHEREAS, the full utilization of women's talents and 
the full realization of women's rights as full citizens should be 
respected and enhanced in this full partnership; and 

WHEREAS, women's opportunity to fulfill their business 
and professional aspirations should be assured, as well as the 
development of their talents and capabilities, free from prejudice 
based on sex; and 

WHEREAS, the President of the United States of America 
has recognized the distinguished service of women through the 
creation of the President's Commission on the Status of Women; 

NOW, THEREFORE, I, Tim Babcock, Governor of the State 
of Montana, by virtue of the authority vested in me, do hereby 
order and direct the establishment of the Montana Governor's 
Commission on the 


Said Commission to serve until it makes its recommendations as 
hereinafter provided. 


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set 

my hand and caused the Great Seal of the 

State of Montana to be affixed. 

DONE at the City of Helena, the Capital, 

this 25th Day of May, in the Year of 

our Lord, One Thousand Nine Hundred and 


/ U^/ 

Tim Babcock 
Governor of Montana 

Frank Murray 
Secretary of State 


Mrs. Edna Hinman, Chairman 

562 Fifth Avenue 

Helena, Montana 

Former Montana State Treasurer 

Mrs. Jean C. Crockett 
810 9th Avenue 
Helena, Montana 
Instructor of Music 

Mrs. Alma Jacobs 
615 8th Avenue South 
Great Falls, Montana 
City Librarian 

Mrs. Grace Godward 
1524 Boulder 
Helena, Montana 
Business and Professional 

Mrs. Isabel James 
Grant Star Route 
Dillon, Montana 

Mrs. Richard B. Griff ing 
1801 Fourth Avenue North 
Great Falls, Montana 
League of Women Voters 

Mr . Tom Sharpe 

108 Sixth Avenue North 

Lewistown, Montana 


Mrs. Harley Huebner 
1810 Poly Drive 
Billings, Montana 
Federation of Women's Clubs 

Miss Marion Smith 
Box 313 

Fort Benton, Montana 
Mayor of Fort Benton 

Mrs. Herb Wohl 
125 Bickford 
Missoula, Montana 



The Governor's Commission on the Status of Women for 
the State of Montana was proclaimed on May 25, 1965. 

The State of Montana has long been aware of the part 
played by pioneer women in the history of the state . . . 
aware of their role in business, professions, civic and 
family life. 

The pattern of women's lives is changing rapidly. 
Many women act as the economic "head" of the family, as 
well as housekeeper. A dual role requires that she be 
well prepared for the split in her hourly routine. 

Believing that the status of women cannot be neatly 
separated from the status of American society, the goal 
of this Commission has been to discover and promote means 
by which women may increase their contribution to society 
and their personal satisfaction in vocations suited to 
their needs and interests. 

Daily we hear of the problem of discrimination 
against women, the plea for equal rights, the "battle 
of the sexes." This Commission emphasizes that Montana 
women, by and large, are striving only to share the 
responsibilities of full citizenship, to strengthen 
family life by providing opportunities for mothers and 
wives to participate actively in affairs outside the 
home and, where necessary or desirable, to help fulfill 
the economic responsibilities which exist in every home 
today. Now that substantial formal and legal bases for 
equality exist, we recognize that the burden for ending 
vestigial discrimination is on women themselves. If 
women in numbers step forward to offer and insist on 
full participation, the entire society will benefit. 

The consensus of the Commission is that Montana 
law presents no significant legal barriers to the advance- 
ment of women. Women are essex.tially hindered by 
attitudes, first, the long-standing traditional attitude 
toward the role of women in the family, the community 

and our society in general; and, secondly, the view of 
the role of woman in her own eyes. With few exceptions, 
equality before law is a fact. It now remains for woman 
to take advantage of the opportunities offered and meet 
the challenges of her life and society's. To help woman 
achieve equality, encouragement is probably needed more 
than legislation. 

In assuming the responsibility given them and in 
developing a report and recommendations the Commission 
did not study all of the problems confronting women in 
Montana, as this would have been an overwhelming task. 
Rathex, the Commission selected topics which seemed 
appropriate with regard to employment practices and 
trends in areas worthy of immediate consideration. 

This is a summary report of the Commission's 


We recognize that Montana, being urban by definition but 
rural in character, still offering frontiers in industry and 
development of natural resources, and being both spacious and 
sparsely populated, is unique in its problems and potential. 

Historically, Montana has been in a position of leader- 
ship among the states in providing civil and political 
equality for women. Women were voting in Montana before the 
national suffrage amendment was adopted. The first woman to 
serve in the U. S. Congress was a Montana Representative, In 
state and local government, women have held a number of 
positions of major responsibility throughout the last fifty 
years . 

As voters, Montana women in 1950 ranked second in the 
nation both in numbers of eligible voters who were registered 
and in numbers of those registered who actually voted. 

In addition to voting and holding public office, women 
in this state may serve on juries, own and control property 
individually, sue and be sued. 

The principal questions in regard to the citizenship 
role of Montana women would seem to be those that occur 
nationally: (1) Is there a slight but significant degree of 
civil discrimination remaining in Montana Codes? And, (2) , 
if it is concluded, as seems likely, that women are not yet 
caking maximum advantage of their public opportunities nor 
full equal responsibility for the management of public 
affairs, in what ways should they be encouraged to do so? 

The report of the President's Commission on the Status 
of Women and reports of other State Commissions have sug- 
gested that governmental employment of women can reasonably 
be taken as an index of and example in general employment 
practices. A description of offices and positions currently 
held by women in state and local government and of the avail- 
ability of governmental employment would seem to promise some 
useful information. 

The single suggestion of the Commission for legislation 
has to do with bringing Montana codes into agreement with 
Federal law and with legislative review of current statutes. 

It is the recommendation of this Commission that the 
Montana Fair Employment Practices Act be amended to read: 


"The right to be free from discrimination because of race, 
creed, color, sex, or national origin is recognized as, 
and declared to be, a civil right." 

The prevention of discrimination on the basis of sex 
as an integral part of this Montana Act would agree with 
the Federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, which provides basic 
equality of opportunity for employment and would also 
prevent sex discrimination in those areas which are not 
presently covered by the Federal law, such as employees 
of state and local governments and businesses employing 
fewer than twenty- five people. 

An amended Montana Fair Employment Practices Act should 
provide for equality in employment and compensation without 
sex discrimination. To assure that the intent of such a 
modified Act could be realized under existing State Labor 
Laws, it would be advisable for the State Legislature to 
study these laws and determine whether there are outmoded 
restrictions existing which prevent women from reaching 
their full potential in employment. 

It is not the intention of this Commission to suggest 
that valid protective laws be eliminated but rather that a 
determination be made to ascertain whether these laws are 
relevant to present-day technology and to the expanding 
role of women in our economy. 

The Commission believes that there is little legal 
or political discrimination in Montana laws and that 
Montana and Federal laws adequately provide for fair and 
equal treatment for men and women, but that more study 
and consideration should be given to compliance with the 
laws and to the equality of opportunities for employment 
of women in local and state government. 


It has been said,, with a good deal of justification, chat 
community volunteers and organizations of volunteers are more 
than partly an American invention. Whet-her the invention 
springs from our frontier experience, as some claim, or from 
other historical sources, the volunteering of time, effort, 
talent and money to maintain and improve community and indiv- 
idual well-being has become traditional m our society as a 
part of civic responsibility. In fact, the dependence of 
churches, schools, youth organizations, health and welfare 
agencies and cultural groups on volunteers, especially womer; 
volunteers, has come to be taken almost for granted. And yet, 
there are probably no more than a handful of other nations that 
can view such contributions of voluntary activity and interest 
as less than miraculous c 

As American society changes, as community institutions and 
agencies become increasingly professionalized and specialized, 
the basis of voluntary activity changes, too, m regard to 
what needs to be done, how it is to be done, and who is to do 
it,- There continue to be more jobs to be done than there are 
funds or professional staff to do them This gap must, in- 
creasingly, be filled by trained volunteers in order to meet 
the social needs of communities effectively. New ways of work 
will have to be devised to make possible the best use cf this 
woman powe r . The changes bespeak the need for energetic joint 
planning and coordination. 

It IS suggested that, to provide new and increased oppor- 
tunities for volunteers and to make volunteer service con- 
tinuously attractive and satisfactory to Montana women, all 
voluntary agencies and institutions that rely on women volun- 

(1) Reevaluate their programs ir order to offer 
volunteers new and more challenging opportunities 
to develop their talents and derive satisfaction 
from volunteer service 

(2) Provide better volunteer education and training 
to assure more valuable contributions and leader- 
ship development and in order to help the vol- 
unteer relate her specific tasks and tangible 
contributions to the over-all work of the agency 
and the community. 

(3) Give more attention to the estabiishm.ent of 
Volunteer Bureaus at the .i.ocal level, to assure 
every interested wcmar. an opportunity to con- 
tribute to community life and, at the same time, 
to grow as an individual,, 

* * ■.*■ * ■* * *■ * 



Farm and ranch women are generally closely associated as 
active working partners in the family businesses. Traditionally 
an independent group, they have for the most part solved any 
problems they might have. There are many instances where jobs 
are available as mother's helpers or ranch cooks. 

In the rural towns there is no shortage of jobs for women 
who are steady and willing workers. Businessmen are somewhat 
reluctant to hire younger girls. This group is less likely to 
stay on the job long enough to make the recessary training period 

Women in rural businesses have no legal barriers, and we 
find those who are successful livestock ranchers as well as 
owners and operators of a variety of businesses such as real 
estate, insurance, cafes and shops. There seems to be no 
discrimination because of sex. 

The one very interesting part of the study concerns Indian 
women. Here is the one facet of rural life that does need help 
and much encouragement. The sorry plight of the Indian is the 
direct result of poor governmental policy and administration. 

The primary need for Indian women is education - both 
academic and vocational . The need for training in employable 
skills is evident. Equally important is the need for home 
economics training to enable the girls to integrate into larger 
communities with confidence. Those whose academic possibili- 
ties are superior should be encouraged to go on to higher educ- 
ation m professional fields. Increased efforts to publicize 
the many courses available at schools such as Northern Montana 
College or Custer County Junior College would be a help to 
many girls in rural areas. Also it is desirable that such 
schools have boarding departments. 

In recent years there has been some progress and improve- 
ment. There is yet a long way to go for the Indian girl or 
woman. There are no legal barriers here, nor really much 
racial discriminarion , It is instead a problem of lack of under- 
standing and information, compounded by cultural clash. Without 
more education and employment opportunities, this can change 
only little. All of us need to appreciate and understand this 
much-neglected segment of Montana ^ s population, and the contri- 
bution the Indian couid make to our culture, work force, and 
society m general . 



A revolution is occurring today in the life patterns of 
women and girls. The young girl today can anticipate a very 
different way of life from that of her grandmother or even her 
mother . 

The need for increased family income to help meet the 
higher cost of educating children, health care, and the wider 
variety of goods and services considered essential to the present- 
day American standard of living leads more and more women to seek 
paid employment. 

Increasingly women are seeking the right to choose how they 
will make their contribution to their family and their community. 

Statistics show that: 

Eight out of ten women will be employed at some time in 
their lives ... a thought-provoking statement for educators and 
for all areas of employment planning , 

In 1900 the average woman worker was single and 28 years 
old. In 1964 the average woman worker was married and 41 years 
old. Nationally, in 1900 five million women were working; in 
1963 twenty-three million women were working. It is predicted 
that in the 1970 's this 23 million is going to be increased by 
25%, which will mean that an estimated 34% of all workers will 
be women . 

Most jobs that women hold are in the low-paid categories 
In 1961 earnings of women working full-time averaged only 
about 60% of what men earned. These national figures are re- 
flected directly in the Montana situation. 

The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (which sets a minimum 
and maximum wage for occupations m interstate commerce) excepts 
most workers in hotels, motels, restaurants, laundries, non- 
profit organizations and certain retail establishments. This 
involves a large percentage of the female labor market. 

In 1963 an estimated six million women were employed m 
intrastate work not covered by minimum wage legislation. 
Montana has no minimum wage law, Montana does not have a law 
which establishes the principle of equal pay for comparable 

Turnover in women's employment is greater in younger age 
groups and in the low-paid occupations Middle-age ranges and 
women in the 40 " s show a low turnover rate. 


Nationally, less than ,5% of the eir.pioyed women m the 
United States m 1960 earned SiO.OOC or more, whereas during 
the same year 1% of all employed males were earning over 
$10,000. The percentages for Montana are almost the same, 

In April 1950. 73,400 Montana women were at work or look- 
ing for work, 21,000 ?or 44%) more than m April of 1950 (the 
national increase was only 35%> = During the same decade the 
number of men in Montana's labor force actually declined by 
some 4,500 workers, or 2,5%. 

What are the characteristics of these 73,000 plus women? 

About 3/5 were married and living with their husbands. 
One-fifth were widowed, divorced, or separated from 

their husbands. 
One-fifth were single. 
About two-thirds were employed as clerical or sales workers 

or as service employees s waitresses, cooks, household 

workers, etc. 
There were few professional workers besides teachers and 

nurses . 
The largest group was 35-44 years old; women 45-55 years 

old were second in numbers. 

According to the U, S, Department of Labor, 1960^j The 
median number of school years completed by all women 14 years 
of age and over was 11.9 years. One out of 20 had earned a 
college degree. One out of 10 had less than 8 years of formal 
education . 

Montana's Department of Labor is responsible for adminis- 
tration of the following laws? Child Labor, Equal Pay, Hours 
of Work, Laws for Women, Prevailing Wage, Wage Payment and 
Mediation and Conciliation. The Department has a single Admin- 
istrator appointed by the Governor, with $76,325 appropriated 
for each year of the 1955-57 biennium. (Ore-half of these funds 
go to the Montana State Apprenticeship Council) . The Commission 
recommends that the resources of the Montana Department of Labor 
and Industry be expanded to compile, evaluate and disseminate 
information about employed women and opportunities for training 
and employment and to assure compliance with law. 

The Commission recommends that the Montana Fair Employment 
Practices Act be modified to prevent discrimination on the 
basis of sex„ Such a modified Act would provide for prevention 
of discrimination m both wage payments and work assignments 
and would encourage equality for employed women. 

The Commission recommends that existing State and Local 
Agencies involved m employment be provided with all informa- 
tion, regarding employment, education, vocational training, 
scholarships, loans, etc , which are available for women. 


The Commission heartily endorses and supports State and 
Community efforts to bring new, clean industries into Montana 
and other efforts which are designed to increase employment 
in Montana. 

The Commission has been privileged to learn of the expand- 
ing role of domestic services, vocational -type courses and 
child care facilities which are being offered m the State of 
Montana and we heartily endorse the continuation of such 
programs , 

The War Manpower Act and similar training programs are 
presently being used to provide a source of training for Montana 
women and the Commission recommends that these programs be con- 
tinued in cooperation with State and Local programs. 

For progress to be realized it is imperative that womer. ' 3 
organizations throughout the State become interested m the 
problems of women. A vital role of this Commission should be 
to enlist the aid of these organizations in a combined educa- 
tional effort to influence the attitudes of employment agencies 
and employers m general and develop a better understanding of 
problems of employed women 

The State and Federal Training Programs which have been 
developed to provide an opportunity for self- improvement 
should be continued and encouraged wherever possible. 

The present State Labor Laws originally designed to 
protect women should be thoroughly reviewed in an effort to 
determine whether these laws prevent women from reaching their 
full potential in employment. The Commission does not recom- 
mend eliminating protective laws but rather that these laws 
should not be restrictive. 

The Commission should encourage and develop a posxtive 
program of evaluation and enlighterunent by finding ways to 
publicize effectively the Status of Women in Montana. 




The sub-comratttee to investigate policies and practices 
with respect to education, counselling and job training of 
women in Montana began its work by making a survey of these 
policies and practices among selected large employers in 
Montana. The answers to the survey questions indicate a 
favorable climate of employment of women for jobs for which 
they are qualified and which they are physically able to 
perform; however, many employed women have expressed to the 
sub-committee the following concerns, 

1. Whether or not women are being paid on the basis of 
their competence. 

2. Whether seemingly unfavorable stereotyped barriers 
and attitudes towards women workers sometimes 
prevent promotion of women to management positions 

3. Whether positive aspects of advancing women to 
management positions are stressed enough; for 
example, the favorable absentee rate of mature 
women reentering the labor market after their child- 
bearing years. 

4. Whether there is a tendency to stigmatize all women 
workers if one woman is promoted to a top level 

job and fails in its performance. 

5. Whether there are sufficient counselling services 
that not only point out job information but also 
assist the woman applicant to assess her abilities, 
her physical capacities, her need for further educ- 
ation, and her job preference 




One out of every three mothers ts employed outsLde her 
home. Two out of five working mothers have children under 
six; two out of three have children under 18 Nine out of 
ten working mothers who have children under three, hold part- 
time jobs. 

For the benefit of children, mothers and society, the 
need for and establishment of child care services of the highest 
quality should be a prime consideration 

Ideally, day care should provide more than mere custodial 
care for the child ... it should be a family development center 
with trained personnel and parent participation. Facilities 
must meet proper standards, whether maintained in homes or in 
day care centers. Fees must be scaled to the parents' ability 
to pay. The Commission believes that working mothers should 
receive adequate tax deductions for child care expense, com- 
mensurate with the income. 

Montana passed a day care licensing law in 1953, which has 
improved standards in many aspects. Gradually all child care 
facilities in the state are being inspected and required to 
become licensed. An Advisory Committee under the direction of 
the State Department of Public VJeifare is responsible for 
carrying out the provisions of the act. "Family Day Care Homes" 
may serve from three to six children of separate families; "Day 
Care Centers" serve seven or more children. 

The Commission recognizes the fundamental responsibility 
of mothers and homemakers, and society's stake in strong 
family life. Without doubt., the improvement of child care 
facilities in Montana is one of the very important problems 
facing working mothers and one which warrants continued atten- 




Direction- finding and identification of specific possible 
areas of improvement has been the goal of the Commission, 
Without the resources to conduct a full-dress study, the 
Commission has addressed itself to such perplexing questions 
as: How, if at all, does the status of women differ from the 
status of the society in which women live? If the status of 
women is lower than that of men after at least a half century 
of legal and political equality and educational opportunity, 
then why and in what ways? 

It seems clear that economic opportunity for women is 
available far beyond the supply of qualified women. If discrim- 
ination exists, it is usually a discrimination of attitudes 
rather than of policy. In Montana, as elsewhere, women who 
feel the weight of social attitudes thwarting achievement or 
advancement are most often those who are a permanent part of 
the business and professional world and who, m subtle ways, 
find their pathways to career realization poorly rewarded or 
choked off at the second or third managerial or administrative 
levels. Individual women have proved, of course, that the 
hurdles of attitude can be surmounted given patience, skill, 
determination, dependability, good health and good humor far 
beyond the measure required of male competitors. 

Of a different order are the difficulties of women who 
either must hold a job while raising children or who enter the 
labor market at middle age after giving their early adult 
lives to their families. Usually not possessing the creden- 
tials necessary for skilled employment, nor having the time and 
money or information or encouragement to secure them, these 
women are frequently relegated to unskilled service jobs with 
poor pay and little satisfaction — or to welfare. It is in 
this problem area that government, business, labor and the 
professions might devote a most productive effort. Ways of 
meshing child-rearing with income-producing, satisfying careers 
must be devised. The problem is almost impossible for the 
women concerned to solve individually. The alternatives to 
concentrated thought and effort are ever -increasing welfare 
burdens and generations of wasted talent and ability . 

Recommendations of the Governor's Commission on the Status 
of Women are found in the body of the report. In summary, they 
are these: 

1 . Education. Counselling and Training 

a. Montana women need to be better informed about the 
training and job opportunities that presently 

exist. To this end, the Commission recommends 
that the Montana Department of Labor and Industry 
be expanded to be able to compile, evaluate and 
disseminate information about women in the labor 
market and about opportunities for training and 
employment in the state. This agency is also 
charged with enforcing the laws prohibiting dis- 
crimination and should have increased resources 
to enable it to assure statewide compliance. 

b. Montana women need enlarged opportunities for 
continuing education in all areas of the state, 
both urban and rural. Problems are especially 
severe for Indian women, and the seriousness of 
these problems warrant special and immediate 

2 . Legal 

The Commission recommends amendment of the Montana Fair 
Employment Practices Act to include freedom from dis- 
crimination because of sex and to bring the statute 
into line with the Federal Civil Rights Acts of 1964 
and 1968. 

3. Child Care 

The Commission recommends that the government of the 
State of Montana concern itself with the improvement 
and expansion of facilities for the day care of 
children of working mothers. 



Mr. Knute Bergan, Director of Indian Affairs, Helena 

Dr. Marjory Brooks, Montana State University, Bozeman (former 
Commission member) 

Mrs. Dan Bukvich, Butte \ deceased) , former Commission member 

Miss Mary Moore, Ladies Fashions, Helena (former Commission 

Mr. Robert Thompson, Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph, 
Helena (former Commission member) 

Mrs. Madeline Codding Mixer, Regional Director, United States 
Department of Labor, San Francisco 

Miss Flora H. Martin, Vocational Education, State Department of 
Public Instruction, Helena 

Custer County Junior College - K. D. Smith, Dean 

Northern Montana College - Dr. J. R. Crowley, President 

Fort Harrison Veterans Administration Center and Library staff 

Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Company 

Administration Staff, University of Montana, Missoula, and 
other workshop participants 

City Administration, Great Falls 

Yogo Inn, Lewistown 

Jack Hallowell, Federal-State Coordinator for Montana 

Office of Governor of Montana 

Mrs. Mabel Bjork, artist, Helena