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'<^an^" u^ 



"Connoisseur Extra Number. 






Francis Wheatley, R.A. 


From the painting by himsclj in 
the Saiional Portrait Gallery 
(15 in. X 12)^ in.) 


His Life and Works 

With a Catalogue of His Engraved Pictures, 


W, Roberts 

(Joint Author of " Romney," "John Hoppner," &c.) 



W 1 

; . ■■ ^ — 



M / 

Published by 



Kht Cranforb |3rE55. 



From a Draioing by Francis WUeallcy, K.A., in tin- Btilisli Mnsmn 

Engravcii hy R. Sliinifr 



List of Illustrations , , , , 

I. — Early Life . , , , , 

II. — In Ireland , , , , , 

III- — Return to London . , , . 

IV. — Work for Boydell, Bell, Bowycr and Macklin 
V. — Wheatley and the Royal Academy ' 
VI.—" The Cries of London " > 
VII. — Pictures Exhibited by Wheatley - 
VIII.— Wheatley's Sale at Christie's 
Engravings after F. Wheatley , , . 

Addenda .,'.,, 
Index ....,, 



Preceding Text 







Cribs of London — 

Milk below Maids ..... 

Two bunches a penny primroses, two bunches a penny 

Sweet China Oranges, sweet China 

Do you want any Matches ? - - - 

New Mackrel. New Mackrel 

Knives, Scissors, and Razors to Grind 

Fresh Gathered Peas, Young Hastings 

Old Chairs to mend .... 

A New Love Song, only ha'penny a piece - 

Hot Spice Gingerbread Smoaking hot! 

Turnips and Carrots, ho • - - 

The Schoolmistress - - - - 

Summer (Mrs. Trovvard) - - - - 

The Fair ...... 

Facing page i 






.. „ 12 


„ iS 

.< ,. 20 


„ 30 

.> iii 

Francis Wheatley, R.A. Portrait of himself 

Mrs. Wheatley ("The Miniature"), a/tir F. WheatUy, R.A. 

The Mistletoe Bough (by permission of Messrs. Shepherd) - 

The Marriage ....... 

The Harvc&t Home {by permission of Messrs. Shepherd) - 

The Rustic Lovers ...... 

The Disaster {by permission of Messrs. Colnaghi)- 

Cries of London : Hot Spice Gingerbread 

Sir Henry Pigot, G.C.M.G. {by permission of Messrs. Agiietc) 

The Volunteers of Dublin. Interior of the Shakespeare Gallery 

The Sailor's Return. The Soldier's Return 

The Woodman's Return {by permission of Messrs. Maggs) 

The Itinerant Potters {by permission of Messrs. Miiggs) - 

Spring {lifter R. Westall) --..-- 

Autumn {after R. Westall) ..---- 

Winter {Mrs. Wheatley) ...... 

The Encampment at Brighton ..... 

The Departure from Brighton {by permission of Messrs. Maggs) - 

Going out Milking. The Return from Milking • 

Nymphs Bathing. Rural Repose .... 

The Relentless Father ....-- 

The Tender Father ...... 















































The Milkmaid .... 

The Goldfinch .... 

Setting off to the Fair. The Fairings 

Alms-giving - - - 

St. Preux and Julia. The companion plate 

Fisherfolk. Fidelity Rewarded - 

The Temptation {by pt:rmission of Messrs. Maggs) 

Love in a Mill. The Discovery .... 

The Careless Servant {by permission of C. Bechmann, Esq.) 

Preparing for Market. Returned from Market - 

Rustic Sympathy. Rustic Benevolence 

The Deserted Village ..... 

The Full of the Honeymoon. The Wane of the Honeymoon 

View in Priory Gardens. Cottage in Cumberland 

The Watercress Girl. Shakespeare, The Tempest 

Four Title Pages to Bell's " Theatre " - 

The Basket Makers. The Alpine Lovers 

Preparing for Market. Thais. Sigismunda 

The Return from Shooting 

Portrait of Henry Grattan, by F. Wheatley, R.A. 

The Benevolent Cottagers. Watercress Gatherers 

Preparing for Market {by permission of Messrs. Shepherd) 

The Mower. Haymaking .... 

The Riots in 1780. Irish Peasantry 

Shakespeare, Winter's Tale. Juvenile Opposition 

Itinerant Peasants ..... 


- xxiii. 

- xxiv. 


- xxvi. 

• xxvii. 

• xxviii. 

- xxix. 


- xxxi. 

- xxxii. 

- xxxiii. 

- xxxiv. 

- XXXV. 

- xxxvi. 


- xxxix. 


- xliii. 

- xlv. 

- xlvi. 

- xlvii. 

• xlviii. 

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VERY many ai'tists, in common with so many people in other ranks of 
hfe, owe their posthumous fame to some particular incident in their 
careers. They become associated for all time with some special 
personal event. Romney is known as the painter of Lady Hamilton, 
Gibbon inevitably suggests the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, 
Cruden is almost synonymous with Concordance, and how is it possible 
to think of Dr. Johnson without Boswell ? Francis Wheatley, R.A., is now 
chiefly remembered as the artist of "The Cries of London"; and, apart 
from print collectors and dealers, probably few, even of those who have 
made a special study of English art, could name off-hand half a dozen of his 
works other than the " Cries." And yet his career as an artist was neither 
brief nor unprolific. A constant exhibitor at the Society of Artists, at the 
Royal Academy and elsewhere from 1765 to 1801 — a period of 36 years — his 
works, when engraved, enjoyed an immediate and widespread popularity. 
In respect to numbers and popularity, prints after his works are probably 
second only to those of George Morland. The engravings after these two 
artists must have been the chief pictorial decorations of the homes of the 
less wealthy classes of English folk during the last quarter of the 18th and 
the earlier part of the 19th century — until, indeed, the tasteless horrors of 
the early Victorian period crowded the Wheatleys and Morlands to the 
bedrooms, the garrets, or— best fate of all — to the portfolios. Having 
regard to the enormous quantity and variety of his work, it seems strange 
that Wheatley has never attracted much attention from writers on art. 
Morland had scarcely been dead a year when four or five substantial 
biographies of him appeared, and at the present time Morland books form 
quite an imposing array on the shelves of an art library. Beyond two 
notices in The Gentleman''s Magazine, which have served as the source of 
subsequent biographies, Wheatley has been left severely alone. 

Wheatley was by no means a recluse or an anchorite. He was, says the 
writer of the notice mentioned above, " a very personable man, fond of 
dress, and polite in his manners, which made him a great favourite "; and 
" Mrs. W. is a very handsome woman," continues his biographer with 
a charming naivete. Of his early career very few particulars have come 
down to us. He was the son of a master tailor, and was born in 1747, in 
Wild Court, Covent Garden, where doubtless his father's business was 
situated. Wild Court, according to Elmes' "Topographical Dictionary 
of London," 1831, was not in Covent Garden, but in Clare Market, " about 
twelve houses on the left-hand side of Great Wild Street, going from Great 
Queen Street." Great Wild Street, according to the same authority, was 
" the first turning on the right-hand side of Great Queen Street, going from 
Drury Lane," and Little Wild Street " is the second turning on the left- 
hand side." All these courts have long since been swept away ; but in 

Wheatley's time they were, if not exactly aristocratic quarters, at least 
good residential and business parts. Wild (or Weld) Court com- 
memorated the site of the handsome residence in the latter part of the 
17th century of Mr. Humphrey Weld, of the ancient family of Lulvvorth 
Castle, Dorsetshire. 

Wheatley's father appears to have encouraged the youth in his artistic 
bent, and sent him to Shipley's Drawing School for a course of lessons. 
William Shipley (1714-1803), it may be mentioned, was the originator 
of the Society of Arts, and the founder of the famous St. Martin's 
Academy, better known in the early days as " Shipley's School," where 
so many artists of the latter part of the 18th century received their 
training. Francis Wheatley was one of these, and he appears to have made 
rapid progress. The following entries, extracted from the archives of the 
Society of Arts by the well-known author and former assistant secretary of 
that institution, Air. Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A., will be read with interest, 
seeing that they are now printed for the first time : — 

1762. Premium for Academy Figures — first share to Francis 
Wheatley, pupil of Mr. Wilson. 

1763. Premium of 7 guineas for Historical Painting, to 
Francis Wheatley. Abroad. 

1767. Premium for Views from Nature — 2nd share to Francis 
Wheatley. In Ireland. Subject unknown. 

From the first of these entries it will be seen that Wheatley was a pupil 
of " Mr. Wilson," who was doubtless none other than Richard Wilson, one 
of the original members of the Royal Academy, and perhaps the greatest 
landscape painter of the Early English school. To him it may be assumed 
that Wheatley owed much of his excellence in landscape painting, in which, 
as Redgrave tells us, he evinced "considerable taste." In 1769 Wheatley 
was studying in the Royal Academy School, to which he was one of the first 
students to be admitted. "The first essays" of Wheatley, according to 
Anthony Pasquin {i.e., John Williams) in his " Memoirs of the Royal 
Academicians," 1794 (p. 135), "were of that inferior class as not to ensure 
much promise ; his original principles of the art were exceedingly erroneous ; 
and I have much reason to believe that his principal attainments have been 
made since he turned the corner of his thirtieth year." 

With Wilson as an instructor in landscape drawing, Wheatley also had 
the advantage of the early and intimate friendship and counsel of John 
Hamilton Mortimer (1741-1779), who, as Anthony Pasquin tells us, "left a 
high reputation behind him as an historic painter." In company with 
Mortimer and Durno, Wheatley assisted in the decoration of Lord 
Melbourne's fine seat at Brocket Hall, Herts ; and as Durno left England 
for Italy (where he died) in 1774 the decorations at Brocket Hall must have 
been done before that date. These decorations were of the ceiling of the 
saloon, and consist of panels of paintings representing the signs of the Zodiac, 
set in Adam's designs of plaster work. Brocket Hall is and has long been the 
residence of Lord Mountstephen, and Lady Mountstephen informs us that 
the ceiling is exactly as it was originally put up. It is also known — but 
not to what extent — that Wheatley was employed in the decoration of 

Vauxhall Gardens ; that he was on terms of intimacy with Tyers, the owner 
of the Gardens, we shall have occasion to show later on. Wheatley did not 
suffer his acquaintance with Mortimer " to pass away without reaping some 
advantages from the connection, as, by continually copying his drawings 
and paintings, he gradually acquired a style more pure than that which he 
originally practised, which was something between the manner of Hayman 
and Gravelot." 

Wheatley made much progress in his studies, and at the age of 18 was 
"hung" at the Society of Artists, his exhibit in 1765 being a three-quarter 
{i.e., 30in. by 25in.) portrait of a gentleman. At this time, and until 1770, he 
was living in Duke's Court, Bow Street, Covent Garden, one of ten London 
courts of the same name, this particular court being then and for many 
years afterwards "nine houses southward of Long Acre." His earlier 
exhibits varied considerably : sometimes it was a miniature, at others the 
medium was crayon, but generally he followed Hayman, Zoffany and others 
in painting small whole-length portraits and in producing what are generally 
called conversation pieces, varied with an occasional scene from a play. 
Unfortunately, all earlier portraits of a "lady" and a "gentleman" 
remain unidentified, and if they are still in existence it is more than 
probable that they have now been given to some better known artist such 
as Zoffany or Beechey. It is possible, however, that some of these early 
works may be signed, either with initials or in full, inasmuch as Wheatley 
was one of the few artists of the Early English school who realised the 
virtue of signatures. His progress was so rapid that in 1771 he was 
elected a Fellow of the Society of Artists, and in the following year he was 
chosen Director of that Society. 

These small groups and figures are constantly turning up in the market. 
The Heniy G. Bohn collection included a group described, probably 
incorrectly, as "Children of George IIL in a Landscape," three girls, 
including the Princess Amelia in the arms of the Princess Royal, and two 
boys, one of whom, afterwards George IV., is trundling a hoop (canvas 
16in. by 20in.) ; a family group, called " George III. and his Family " (an oval 
24^in. by 30in.), was in the Hasket Smith sale in May, 1896, and realised 
160gs. Henry G. Bohn owned a second portrait group by Wheatley — three 
children in a garden, the centre one, a girl with a flower in her hand ; on 
her right is a boy with a basket of flowers ; the other boy is behind, grasping 
a branch of a tree. This picture has been enamelled on a piece of Worcester 
porcelain. On July 13th, 1901, a group of Sir George and Lady Prescott 
and their children, on canvas 28in. by 25in., was sold at Christie's, and to 
the "Fair Children" Exhibition at the Grafton Galleries, 1895, Mr. F. T. 
Cobb lent a group of portraits of the children of Mr. Ralph Winstanley 
Wood. All these pictures were probably early examples of Wheatley. 
Quite the finest example of these small whole-length pictures which we 
have seen is the equestrian portrait of Sir Henry Pigot (1750-1840), who, 
when Major of the 8th or the King's Royal Irish Regiment of Light 
Dragoons, may have met Wheatley in Ireland; this picture, which is signed 
with initials and dated 1782, is, by the courtesy of Messrs. Thos. Agnew 
and Sons, here reproduced ; it is on canvas, 30in. by 25in. This dis- 
tinguished officer commanded at the blockade of Malta in 1800, was 
appointed General in 1812, and G.C.M.G. in 1837. 

We may now turn, for a short period, from Wheatley's artistic career 
to his domestic concerns. Nearly all the accepted authorities mention but 
one wife of the artist, but, according to Edward Edwards's " Anecdotes of 
Painters," 1808, pp. 268-270, there seems to be no doubt that Wheatley 
was married twice. Edwards, who probably was intimately acquainted 
with the artist, does not, however, mention the first one by. name. The 
registers of St. Paul's Church, Covent Garden, in which the name of 
Wheatley frequently occurs throughout the 18th century, contains the 
entry of a mari'iage which seems to be that of the artist* : — 

1774, Dec. 8. Francis Wheatley, of this parish, in the County 
of Middlesex, batchelor, and Rosamond Mann, of this parish, 
spinster. Ezekiel Rouse, curate. Witnesses, J. H. W. 
Fisher, Elizabeth Fisher. 

It will be noticed that Wheatley exhibited nothing at the Society of 
Artists or at the Royal Academy of 1781 and 1782, and there can be no 
doubt that some time in 1779 he eloped to Dublin with the wife of a 
brother artist, John Alexander Gresse, born in London, the son of a native 
of Genoa. Gresse, who studied at the Academy in St. Martin's Lane, 
and, like Wheatley, obtained premiums from the Society of Arts, died in 
1794, and among his legatees was Edwards, the writer of the above- 
mentioned "Anecdotes." Edwards tells us that, as a consequence of this 
elopement, Gresse sued for a divorce ; that in connection with this 
Wheatley was "prosecuted and cast in the Court of King's Bench," and 
that the divorced wife survived her husband. 

The second Mrs. Wheatley was an undoubtedly beautiful woman, as 
may be seen from the artist's portrait of her engraved by Bartolozzi, with 
the fancy title of " Winter." Clara Maria Leigh was the daughter of Jared 
Leigh, an amateur artist, who regularly exhibited at the Free Society of 
Artists from 1761 to 1767, chiefly views on land and at sea. His 
daughter was born " about the middle of the 18th century," according 
to Bryan. But she was probably born late in the " sixties," for she 
was married — "about 1787," according to Anderdon — at an early age 
to Francis Wheatley. To the Royal Academy of 1788 the artist 
sent a portrait of his wife (No. 396) ; and this is, presumably, the picture 
engraved by R. Stanier, in an oval, with four lines of verse, and published 
in March of the same year. The original drawing, in pencil and water 
colours (8| by 7^), is in the British Museum, where it is catalogued as 
" The Miniature " : the model is lying in bed, her neck and shoulders 
uncovered, and a blue-ribboned night-cap over her curling hair ; she is 
looking intently at a miniature held in her hands, her face is seen nearly in 
profile turned to left. This drawing, which was purchased in 1887, is 
reproduced herein. The picture of "Winter," engraved by Bartolozzi 
and published in February, 1789, is also of Mrs. Wheatley, and is an 
engaging portrait of a beautiful English girl of about 20, holding a large 

* Curiously enough, the register of the same church, eight years later, registers the 
marriage of another man of the same name, i.e., " 1782, 24 Dec, Francis Wheatley, of this 
parish, a Batchelor, and Ann Wroe, Spinster, of this parish. By license. E. Embry, curate. 
Witnesses, J. S. Wheatley, James Brounton, M. Wheatley." 


Cffaf'aiirc^ i'Y jC(i/r-^/^r,rn,T/^' 


i/^'a^/a'^ ^i/i:>^e^ Cyi^ana^ /^n&ef 

miifF, as if in very cold weather, and exclaiming, "Bless me! how 

cold it is!" \ 

Some reference may conveniently be made here to Mrs. Wheatley's 
suhsc(|iiont career. She iicrsclf developed into an artist, and first exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 17^)1), and continued to be " hung " there for over 40 
years. From 17J)« to 1807 she exhibited as Mrs. Wheatley, and from 1808 
to 1S;<H as Mrs. Alexander Pope. Siie died at 29 Stone Street, London, on 
Uecembcr 21th, IH.'<8. " 1 Icr peculiar forte," says the writer of her obituary 

notice in The Art Union of March, 1839, "was tlower-painting in water- 1 

colotu's ; and slic was for a long lime constantly employed by Mr. Curtis, the 
botanical publisher [of J'/ic lyotanical Mai^iV.iiic and other works] . Her 
pictures were drawn and painted with botanical accuracy, and at the same 
time with a brilliance ami truth of coloui' and character and artistical 
feelings inferior to none of her contemporaries. I Icr bold and richly 
coloured grouped compositions at the annual exhibitions of the Royal 
Academy will long bo rcmombercd. She was universally esteemed and 

respected by a large circle of friends and patrons in every relation of life, | 

and, being left by Mr. Wlieatley's death a widow, with an interesting family I 

[of seven children] , she had the satisfaction of seeing her children well 
established in life, through the unweai'ied exertions of her own talents and 

industry. At this time she reckoned among her patrons and pupils tiie , , 

Princess Sophia of (^loticosUr. llie I.itc Hiichess of St. Albans, and many ■{ 

other persons of distinction Siie possessed in early life much j 

personal beauty; and she was supported through many trying situations | 

by great energy of character and hi.uhly virtuous principle. Her *^ 

poi'lrait of Madame Catalani [exhibited at the Royal Academy of 1812, i 

and engi'aved by A. Cardon] had an enormous sale and was exceedingly ] 

popular, though she never paid much attention lo this brancli of the ^ 


Her second husband, Alexander Pope (he died in 1835) — she was his ' 

third wife — was also an artist and a constant exhibitor at the Royal | 

Academy from 17S5 to 1821, chieily of miniatures, but he was also an actor ] 

of considerable talent, playing the chai'acters of Othello and Henry \ III. 
with great success. A number of portraits of N\rs. Wheatley appeared in 
the Royal Academy at various times. In 1793 Mrs. CatheiMnc Bell 
exhibited owe (N(V 100) ; six years later her mini.iture was painted by Lady 
neechey, and exhibited in 1799 (No. 783), and in 1803 one was exhibited by 
Martin Archer Shoe, who, it may be added, exhibited portraits of Alexander 

Pope (long before his marriage with Mrs. Wheatley) in 1792, and ! 

again in 1797. ■ 

To return to the earlier years of Wheatley's career: one of his i 

biographers refers to the artist's early association with actors, and it is ^ 

curious to note that his first engraved pictui'c was inspired by the production 
of Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night " (.\et IV.), in which Miss Younge (after- 
wards Mrs. Alexander Pt)pe), with ^\essrs. Dodd, Love and W^aldron, as 

Viola, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Sir Toby Belch and L'abian, whole-length, \ 

figures in a landscape, Miss Vovmge in a turban with plume. This was 
engraved by ,1. R. Sniith, and published by Robert Sayer in 1774. Two 
years previously WM\eatley had exhibited a picture of the Duel Scene in the 
same play at the Society of Artists?. 

It was in connection with this exhibition of 1772 that we have the 
eadiest contemporay criticism of Wheatley's work, a fact, combined with his 
election to membership of that Society, which shows that he had attained to 
considerable prominence in his profession. The criticism is to be found 
in a pamphlet entitled " Candid Observations on the Principal Performances 
now exhibited at the New Rooms of the Society of Artists, near Exeter 
Change," 1772. The notices are very curious as illustrations of what passed 
as art criticism 138 years ago. Of the above-mentioned Duel Scene, the 
writer observes : " Pictures of this nature are always pleasing, when a good 
choice is made; this gentleman has been very happy in that particular. The 
portraits are all very like, the actions spirited, but upon the whole an effect 
is wanted." Of No. 375, a small whole-length of a lady, we are assured 
" there is great merit in this picture, it is boldly pencilled, but has the same 
defect as the last-mentioned"; whilst Nos. 376-7 "are both very clearly 
coloured, and touched with spirit. This artist bids to be one of the first- 
class, especially in this walk." 

We have already briefly referred to Wheatley as a landscape painter. 
The art centre of London in the mid-eighteenth century was so close to 
the country, that the artist could obtain his rural inspiration in the course 
of an easy walk. Wheatley was not content with the suburbs. He was 
constantly making expeditions into remote parts of England, and his 
exhibited and other works give us some notion of his wanderings. In 
1774, for instance, he was in the Isle of Wight, for in that year he sent to 
the Society of Artists a study of the coast of that island, with figures 
painted in by his friend Mortimer, and the two other studies were doubtless 
inspired by the same place.* In 1775 five of his exhibits were landscape 
studies from nature. In 1776 we have views of Rochester, Sheerness and 
the Medway, and in 1778 the Royal Academy contained transcripts of 
rural life at Ivybridge (Devonshire) and BexhiU (Sussex); and a water- 
colour drawing at the South Kensington Museum is a view near Ilfracombe, 
signed and dated 1778. In one of the several Wheatley pictures in the 
possession of Messrs. Shepherd Brothers, and reproduced with their per- 
mission, we have a charming view of a cottage in Cumberland (16in. by 22in.) 
which is interesting as showing that the artist knew his own county 

The large share which Francis Wheatley took in assisting in the 
emancipation of English water-colour art " from its old subserviency to 
engraving" was not fully recognised until the late J. L. Roget published 
his exhaustive "History of the Old Water-colour Society" in 1891. 
Referring to the three Irish artists of the name of Malton, and to the series 
of " Picturesque Views of the City of Dublin," published between 1791 and 
1795, Mr. Roget points out that their streets "are well peopled, and 
enlivened with the incidents of the daily life" of the time; "within their 
limits, they continue the illustrative record of domestic history which 
Sandby had been jotting down from an earlier date. The figures are, 
indeed, more conventional than Sandby's, though both these draftsmen are 
said to have been assisted in this important element by the same artist. . . 

* The earliest signed and dated picture known to us " The Harvest Waggon," 50iin. by 40in. wide, 
in the Nottingham Museum, "F. Wheatley, 1774." 





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namely, FrancisWheatley, R.A." And, again: "Asapainter of rustic landscape, 
wherein his talent chiefly lay, he must be included among a group of artists 
with whom the Maltons and their brother topographers had little in common." 
Of the many evidences of the friendship of Wheatley and Mortimer, 
perhaps the most interesting is the water colour drawing, "A View in the 
Priory Gardens, Whitehall," now in Sir John Soane's museum, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields and here reproduced. It must have been done in or before 1779, 
and is the joint work of Wheatley, J. H. Mortimer and Thomas Sandby. 
We are indebted to Mr. Walter L. Spiers, A.R.I. B. A., the curator of the 
Soane Museum, for the following documents concerning it now printed 
for the first time : — 

" The above Picture was executed under the following circumstances. Wheatley and 
Mortimer being threatened with arrest, were for many weeks sheltered under the Roof of 
Mr. Tyers at his House in Vauxhall Gardens. After the fear of the Bailiffs was over, they 
agreed to Paint the above Picture, and present it to their kind Host. At the death of 
Mr. Tyers, it became the property of his Daughter, Mrs. Barrett, who dying in March, 1834, 
left it to Mr. Wm. Freeman. By this Gentleman it was sold on his going to the West 
Indies in Sept., 1835, to Sir John Soane. 

" {Signed) J. Moore, M.D. 

" Lincolns Inn Fields." 

" Bridge Street, 

"7 March, 1836. 
" My dear Doctor, 

" On looking over some old papers this evening, I have found a memorandum 
respecting the Drawing which Sir J. Soane has, and which belonged to Mr. Wm. Freeman. 
I mean the " View of the back of the Banqueting house at Whitehall," the architecture was 
painted by Thos. Sandby, the figures by Mortimer and Wheatley. 
" I hasten to communicate this, and am, 

" Dear Sir, 

" Very truly and sincerely yours, 

"(Signed) John Knowles. 
" Doctor Moore." 

To these interesting facts it may be added that the drawing is a large 
one, 235- by 37^ inches, and is reproduced in this work. This interesting 
view of an historic part of London shows us the Old Lottery Office (now 
covered by the United Service Institution), next to which is a vacant space, 
subsequently covered by Gwydr House, a view of the back of the Banqueting 
House, and of the frequently removed statue of James II. On the opposite 
side is Pembroke House (now the Board of Trade offices), the Countess of 
Portland's House, and in the distance the town residence of the Duke of 
Richmond with his famous gallery of pictures and statues, which occupied 
such a prominent part in the education of young artists in the 18th century. 
The Soane Museum possesses a second drawing by Wheatley, a charming 
little whole-length figure of "A Milkmaid," SJ by 5| inches, signed and dated 
1793, which is also here reproduced. 

In scenes from rustic life Wheatley was the precursor of George 
Morland, who unquestionably owes much to the older artist — a debt which 
is not generally recognised. What was the contemporary opinion of 
Wheatley's landscapes? We have a fairly clear idea of this from the two 
short obituary notices which appeared in The Gentleman's Magazine of 

August and September, 1801. "He was not" (says the writer of the 
earlier notice, who was evidently thinking of Morland) " so correct in his 
representations of rural imagery as a favourite landscape painter of the 
present day ; but he was not so vulgar in his conceptions, nor so gaudy in 
his execution, as other living artists, who have contrived to raise their 
talents into higher reputation." The second notice states: "Many of 
Mr. Wheatley's late pictures present a pleasing display of rusticks, in all 
the variety of simplicity of rural avocation. His manner is easy and 
interesting ; but there is a sameness of countenance and figure, which, 
however pleasing, ought to be varied. His colouring has more delicacy 
than force, and, in aiming at elegance, he frequently . . . dresses our 
English peasants in French frippery." It is interesting to note that Sir 
Thomas Lawrence apparently had a high opinion of W'heatley as an artist, 
for at his sale on May 21st, 1830, lots 143-154 consisted of original drawings 
of domestic scenes and sketch-books of Wheatley. 

Mention may be here made to a companion pair of pictures, painted 
probably before Wheatley left England, and engraved in his absence — 
" Sigismunda," a small half-length figure, which Chaloner Smith suggests 
may represent Mrs. Siddons ; and " Thais," also a small half-length, 
which Smith suggests may be of Emma Hart (Lady Hamilton), whom it 
probably does not represent. These two pictures were engraved by 
T. Watson, and published on March 10th, 1779. 

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We are not concerned with the morality of Wheatley's elopement to Ireland 
with the wife of his fellow-painter, Gresse. This event probably took place 
in the summer of 1779. The visit had a very considerable bearing on the 
artist's career, and he developed from the painter of pretty rural scenes and 
small portraits into the more ambitious and difficult line of large groups. 
He appears to have at once found full employment for his talents, but 
his earliest great picture entirely overshadows all the others. The title of 
this picture, which is now in the National Gallery, Dublin, is "The Volun- 
teers of the City and County of Dublin as they met on the College Green 
on the 4th of November, 1779." It is unquestionably one of the most 
important and historically interesting groups ever painted in Ireland. 
The meeting was held to celebrate the anniversary of the birth and 
landing in England of William III. On the occasion of this celebration 
the Volunteers of Dublin (so runs the official Catalogue) marched to College 
Green and drew up round the statue of King William, and at the word of 
command from the Duke of Leinster, fired three rounds of musketry, which 
was followed by a salute from the Artillery. The corps which took part in 
the ceremony are fully set out in the Catalogue and occupy two pages ; among 
the portraits which have been identified are the following : — William, second 
Duke of Leinster ; Sir Edward Newenham, Luke Gardiner (so well known 
in connection with Sir Joshua Reynolds' great group of the " Three Graces " 
in the National Gallery) afterwards Lord Mountjoy ; John Fitzgibbon, 
afterwards Earl of Clare; David La Touche, John Armit, Sir John Allen 
Johnston; two booksellers, William Porter and Richard Moncrieff; James 
Napper Tandy, and others ; in the window overlooking the scene, with a 
parasol held over her, is the famous Russian Princess Daschkow, and in 
another window is Captain Sir Alexander Schomberg, who, from 1771 to 
1804, commanded the Lord-Lieutenant's yacht " Dorset." 

This picture, which is 69 in. by 127 in., was painted for the Duke of 
Leinster, and was exhibited at the Society of Artists in William Street, 
Dublin, in 1780. It was lent to the two great Exhibitions in Dublin in 1853 
and J872, and was deposited in the Irish National Gallery on loan by the 
fourth Duke of Leinster in 1875, and presented to the Gallery by the fifth 
Duke in 1891. It was engraved by J. Collyer and published on May 10th, 
1784, by R. Lane, who dedicated it to the Duke of Leinster, and also in 
London by J. Boydell. The engraving differs in some details from the 
picture, and was evidently done from a water-colour drawing (16J in. by 
25 in.) by the artist, and now in the South Kensington Museum, for which 
it was acquired in 1873, and from which our reproduction has been done. 
The subject was repeated or the engraving copied in aquatint as one of a 
series of nine views and scenes in Dublin, published in London in 1784. 

Wheatley had no sooner finished this great group than he started on 
another, a companion picture, done also in 1779 or 1780, of the interior of 
the Irish House of Commons, with portraits of the members. The time 

selected by the artist for his picture was when Grattan was making his 
motion for the repeal of Poyning's Act. Some of the members first painted 
in the group were rubbed out to give place to others who had apparently 
promised to subscribe for the engraving. The work, which was disposed of 
by raffle in Dublin, was unfinished. It was apparently at one time in the 
possession of Dr. Charlton, of Bath, at whose sale, in 1790, Redford records 
it as having appeared, but no price is stated, nor is the purchaser's name 
given, from which it may be assumed that it did not find a purchaser. It 
appeared at the Dublin Exhibition of 1853, and then again disappeared. In 
The Athenceum of December 22nd, 1906, a note stated that it had been 
recovered, and it was anticipated that it would be acquired for the Irish 
National Gallery, but so far this hope has not been realised. 

Wheatley must have paid at least one visit to England during his exile, 
for he was in London during the Gordon Riots early in June, 1780. Fully 
alive to the " actuality " of the event, he appears to have made a number of 
studies, particularly of the military firing on the mob at the corner of New 
Broad Street, on June 7th. From these he painted a large picture, probably 
in the intervals of his work after he returned to Ireland. From some 
unexplained cause, the picture was not engraved until 1789, when the Riots 
had passed into history. Writing on this engraving, Edwards, in his 
"Anecdotes of Painters," 1808, says: — "To those who collect prints, 
particularly portraits, it may be satisfactory to know that the figure 
which in the prints is represented as giving orders was painted from 
Sir Barnard Turner ; that which is receiving them is intended for 
Henry Smith, Esq., at this time one of the Bank Directors, and 
Major Commandant of the Camberwell Volunteers ; and the figure 
represented as assisting the wounded person was painted from Sir W. 
Blizzard, surgeon, Vv'ho then served in the corps, and was at that time 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Bishopsgate Volunteers. But it must be 
acknowledged that the two last-mentioned portraits are not such good 
likenesses as the first." Anthony Pasquin did not think very highly of 
the picture : " His grouping of the figures is not truly com- 
mendable when I last saw it, it struck me as an attempt to 

prove how very completely an artist could make a sky in a composition 
eclipse every other consideration." The engraving was done for Boydell, 
who gave the artist £200 for the right to engrave the picture, which was 
subsequently burnt in the house of James Heath, the engraver. Bromley 
(p. 351) mentions a whole length portrait, after Wheatley, of Sir Barnard 
Turner, one of the principal figures in the Gordon Riots picture, as having 
been engraved by J. Walker in 1783, this was probably done from the group 
now under consideration. 

Another ambitious group followed that of the Irish House of Commons. 
This time it was of a " Review of Troops in Dublin by Sir John Irwin, K.B." 
(1728-1787). This group was painted in 1781, and comprises five figures : 
Sir John Irwin, wearing the Ribbon and Star of the Bath, stands by the 
side of a horse, and is receiving a paper from an officer ; other officials and 
a servant are close by ; in the distance cavalry drawn up, and a carriage 
with two persons in it. It is signed and dated, and measures 93J in. by 69j in. 
It is doubtless the only picture exhibited in London by Wheatley whilst in 
Dublin, and this must be the " Review of Irish Volunteers in the Phcenix 


r.ond'Tn at'-'' at Che^'^fr Du-acCi Jan . ,/^.t Oy f.-^naqh A C A^fji A/.' .if.^/i . 

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Park, Dublin," which formed the artist's sole exhibit at the Society of 
Artists, London, in 1783. This picture was for many years in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London, whence it was transferred to the National Gallery, 
Dubhn, in 1898. 

Another large picture, done probably about the same time, calls for 
notice — a Review in Belam Park, Co. Kildare, the seat of Lord Aldborough, 
who is seen on horseback, in the foreground carriages with ladies and 
gentlemen, house in the background, beyond a review is going on. This 
work, 60 in. by 90 in., was lent to the Old Masters in 1888 by Mr. William 

We know from Anthony Pasquin that Wheatley "met with gre£ft 
encouragement from the persons of taste and fashion in Ireland; he chiefly 
painted in small whole-lengths." A few of his Irish portraits have come 
down to us. The most important of all, that of Henry Grattan (1746-1820), 
the orator and statesman who vehemently opposed Pitt's projected union 
with Great Britain, is now in the National Portrait Gallery, to which it was 
presented in 1888 by the executors of Mr. Doyne Courtenay Bell ; it is on 
canvas, 10-i in. by 8i in. ; and a mezzotint of it, by Valentine Green, was 
published on September 10th, 1782. A portrait of Anthony Webster, the actor 
and writer, a whole-length, in a grove as " Com us " covered with vine-leaves, 
was mezzotinted by Henry Kingsbury, and published on January 10th, 1781. 
Webster died shortly before the print was issued. It is dedicated : — 
" To the Gentlemen of the Anacreontic Society, with intent to recall to the 
mind past scenes of convivial gaiety, enriched by a convivial friend." His 
own portrait, a small three-quarter figure, 15 by 12| in., in the National 
Portrait Gallery, for which it was acquired in 1900, and is reproduced in 
this book, was evidently done at about this time, as it shows him as a young 
man of about 30, holding palette and brush. 

Wheatley's progress in Dublin was the subject of an occasional 
paragraph in the London newspapers. Among some undated paragraphs in a 
collection of "cuttings" on art, we find the following: — "Wheatley, whose 
pencil is indefatigable, is painting the inside of the House of Commons of 
Ireland, which is to contain the portraits of all the members." 

The above-mentioned works do not by any means exhaust the sum 
total of Wheatley's accomplishments in Ireland. He appears to have visited 
and made sketches of some of the most interesting country seats and places 
in the country. Many of these were reproduced in The Copper-Plate 
Magazine, and a full list will be found in the section of this book in which 
engravings after him are grouped together. As will be seen, he visited 
Kildare, Enniskerry, Malahide Castle, Howth, Marino, and other places, 
and must have returned to London with a number of well-filled sketch 
books. One of his Irish pictures was not engraved till some years after his 
death — " Irish Peasants crossing a Brook," engraved by R. Earlom, was 
issued on March 12th, 1807, by the well-known London print publishers, 
Laurie and Whittle. Probably very many of the rustic and other scenes 
which are now accepted as of English life belong to the period of his 
residence in Ireland, to which doubtless belong the "Girl Driving Cattle 
through a Brook " and " View of the Black Rock," which realised £3 5s. 
and 19 guineas respectively at the Matthew Mitchell sale in 1819. 



We know from the Catalogue of the Society of Artists, 1783, that Wheatley 
was in Dublin in that year, and from that of the Royal Academy of 1784 
that he was then in London, his address being 36 Gerard Street, where he 
probably took temporary lodgings, and whence he removed soon afterwards 
to 23 Welbeck Street, which was his address up to and including 1788. The 
scandal in connection with the elopement had blown over, and the artist 
probably felt that London was the only possible centre for the full employ- 
ment of his talents. Two of his Irish scenes, " Donnybrook Fair " and " The 
Salmon Leap at Leixlip," with three portraits of gentlemen (two of which 
were of a Mr. or Messrs. Swiney, an obviously Irish name), were in the 
Academy of 1784. He again made lengthy excursions into rural England, 
this time going North. A drawing of Keswick, Cumberland, in the South 
Kensington Museum, signed and dated 1784, and a number of views of 
Windermere, Ambleside, subsequently reproduced in Tlie Copper-Plate 
Magazine, indicate the locality and the date of his wanderings. To the 
Academy of 1785 he sent one of these Northern pictures, " A View in 
Lancashire." Probably many of the rustic scenes which were subsequently 
engraved and published with such success date from the first year or two 
after his return from Ireland. 

Wheatley executed quite an extraordinary number of companion pairs 
of drawings in water-colours and chalks at about this period of his career. 
Examples are constantly occurring at exhibitions and in sale-rooms, and so 
great is the present demand for them among collectors that dealers have no 
sooner purchased them than they are again sold. Mention may be made of 
a few. One of the first companion pairs of drawings to appear at a 
retrospective art exhibition was at Manchester Art Treasures in 1857, when 
Mr. E. G. Martin lent " Children with Birds " and " Children with Spaniel," 
one of which, signed with initials, is now in the National Gallery of Ireland. 
On June 17th, 1905,* a sale at Christie's contained three companion pairs of 
drawings, each of which measured 14in. by lOin. — "The Morning Meal " and 
" The Mid-day Meal" (72 guineas the pair), " The Faggot Gatherers" and 
"The Milkmaid" (66 guineas), and "The Picture Book" and "The Kitten" 
(58 guineas). 

The artist's " story " pictures date from the Academy of 1785, when 
he exhibited " The Amorous Sportsman," and thenceforward nearly every 
year's exhibition contained one or more pictures with a " moral" — sometimes 
it is one suggestive of charity, and at others of industry. Many of these 
exhibited pictures have been engraved, but it sometimes happened either 
that Wheatley repeated his subject or used a title more than once. Portrait- 
painting appears to have occupied very little of his time, but in September, 
1786, he drew and engraved a half-length portrait (" F. Wheatley, ad vivum 
delint et fecit ") of Christian VII. of Denmark. In this year also he etched 

* On the same day a large picture, in oils, of " Two Young Girls with a Dog in a 
Landscape," 67in. by 75in., realised 105 guineas. 

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several plates in the style of Rowlandson — " A Gipsy Encampment," 
" Fisher Folk," and its companion, and, in 1787, "A Bacchante." 

In 1786. also, he designed and etched two illustrations to Rousseau's 
" Nouvelle Heloise," of one of which the original drawing (20jin. by 14|in.), 
in Indian ink wash and pen, is in the Print Room of the British Museum ; 
one of these, with St. Preux and Julie standing on a rocky ledge over- 
hanging a torrent, and with the name "Julia" inscribed on a rock, is dated 
1785 ; and the other, with Julie and St. Prieux in a wooded dell, the girl 
seated and weeping, the youth standing and bending over her, remonstrating. 
The Print Room contains a third illustration to this story, a drawing with 
Julie sitting on the ground, and her lover seated beside her; this is dated 
1786, and apparently was not etched by the artist. 

In common with many of the other leading artists. Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Gainsborough, Sandby, Mortimer, Peters and others, Wheatley contributed 
to the second exhibition of the Society for Promoting Painting and Design 
in Liverpool, opened in August, 1787; his two exhibits. No. 110, "The 
Cruel Father," a stained drawing," and No. Ill, "The Kind Father," ditto, 
were undoubtedly the originals of W. N. Gardiner's by no means uncommon 
pair of prints, "The Relentless Father" and "The Tender Father." The 
original drawings, each 13gin. by 11 Jin., and dated 1786, are now in the 
South Kensington Museum, and are catalogued as "The Dismissal" and 
" The Reconciliation " respectively. 

The subject of country markets attracted the versatility of Wheatley. 
The first of these, " Girl Returning fi'om Market and Counting her Money," 
is signed and dated 1786, but was not exhibited at the Royal Academy until 
1788. It was exhibited at the Old Masters in 1877 by Mr. A. McKay, and 
shows a young woman standing under a tree counting her money ; beside 
her a little girl seated on a donkey laden with paniers (canvas 29iin. 
by 24 Jin.). "This was engraved in stipple by C. Knight, and published in 
April, 1789. Another picture with the title of "Returned from Market" 
(30in. by 25in.) was in the J. H. Maclaren sale at Christie's on 
February 22nd, 1902, and realised the Wheatley " record " of 530 guineas ; 
it had previously been sold in 1893 for 215 guineas; this picture discloses 
a country lane with an officer in a red coat offering money to a peasant 
girl : this is doubtless the original of R. Stanier's engraving "The Recruiting 

The originals of very few of the engraved" Market " and "Fair" pictures 
have been traced, and others inspired by the same themes, and not engraved 
are probably in existence. In many instances where the original pictures 
may be compared with the colour-prints, it must be admitted that the latter 
are often much more attractive than the former. The finest companion pair 
of pictures of "domestic" subjects which we have ever seen from 
Wheatley's brush now belong to Mrs. W. K. D'Arcy, of Bylaugh Park, 
Norfolk, and these are worthy to rank with Morland at his best. They are 
respectively titled " Return from Market" and "Return from the Fair," 
and each measures 19 by 25| in., the latter is signed with initials. The 
" market " picture is a group of four figures by a cottage door, a young man 
and woman, a boy and girl and dog, with trees and church in the distance, 
the man is holding a two-prong fork, and a cat is seen in the doorway. The 
"fair" picture is also a group in front of a rustic ivy-clad cottage, a peasant 


youth, a man seated in porch of cottage holding a roll of blue ribbon which 
is also held by a woman, a child with uplifted hands is also shown, and 
through the open door of the cottage a woman is seen at a wash-tub. 

A set of four "market" pictures remain to be noticed; they were 
engraved in mezzotint in 1803, shortly after the artist's death, by W. Annis, 
the " Preparing for Market " (doubtless in the Academy of 1790) is one of 
them, and the four will be found described on page 45. Still another picture 
of this class calls for notice, the " Preparing for Market," a large Morland- 
like group of peasants and farm buildings, with market cart, etc.; this was 
engraved in mezzotint by Richard Earlom, and published in January, 1799. 
Messrs. Shepherd's picture with this title is 18in. by 22in. 

The. years 1787-9 were the artist's most prolific periods. His pictures 
and drawings were being engraved almost as fast as he could turn them 
out. The subjects are mostly of humble life such as would appeal to those 
who could afford to invest a few shillings in engravings. Soldiers, sailors 
and fishermen all in turn attracted him. His affection for these subjects 
was possibly influenced by his knowledge that in their engraved form they 
would prove remunerative undertakings. He probably sold these pictures 
outright to the engravers or to print publishers, as very few remained in his 
possession. " This gentleman," remarks Anthony Pasquin, " appears to 
have too small a portion of ambition in his system to accomplish any great 
and durable undertaking ; to copy a mean model satisfies his unaspiring 
soul. To be coldly perfect on a vulgar theme was the peculiar characteristic 
of the Flemish school ; yet the productions of that school are not of the 
first order ; and, if we except Rubens, Vandyke, and Jordaens, they had 
scarce any association of ideas, originating from a nice observance of 
nature, and regulated by the glow of fancy and prevalence of abstract 
thinking ; for even Teniers, with all his merit, was a painter without 
learning " ; and, again, according to the same writer, " as a drawback on his 
merits, Mr. Wheatley is too much a mannerist." 

One of Wheatley's earliest "soldier" pictures was the original of the 
well-known engraving "The Soldier's Return," which shows a cottage 
interior, a soldier in large hat and feathers, bandolier crossing from right to 
left, his left arm round the waist of a peasant girl ; her father, seated to the 
left, joins his hands to that of the lover; it was engraved by William Ward 
and published by J. R. Smith in June, 1787, with the legend, " Honour, 
Beauty, Love and Wealth are his Rewards." The original picture is 
probably that recorded by Seguier as having occurred in an anonymous sale 
in 1830, when it sold for the small sum of £5 15s. It is apparently a 
companion to an unengraved work, "The Soldier's Departure," which was 
in Mr. J. B. Behrens' sale at Christie's on July 26th, 1861, when it formed lot 
102. The two works, each 13| by lOjin., were among the many pictures 
lent by the executors of the late Major C. P. Teesdale to the exhibition of 
"A Century of British Art," held at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1888, Nos. 141 
and 145. "The Tired Soldier" was the title of a picture (24j by 29 in.) 
which realised 95 guineas at Christie's on May 8th, 1897; "Soldiers in 
Action" (20 in. by 16 in.) was in the W. H. Forman sale at Sotheby's on 
June 6th, 1899. At Christie's on November 19th, 1892, there were two 
camp scenes, one with an officer buying ribbons and another with an 
officer buying chickens, and these realised 185 guineas and 145 guineas 


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respectively, and to have realised such high prices they must have been 
exceedingly good examples of this artist. One of them may have been 
the "Scene from the Camp at Bagshot Heath," in the Academy of 1793. 
"The Deserter" (2Uin. by 18^ in.), which also realised a high price — 111 
guineas — at Christie's on May 7th, 1898, is another picture of military life. 
It is said to be engraved, but we have not seen the engraving. Then, again, 
there was "The Recruiting Officer," exhibited at the Royal Academy of 1787. 

But Wheatley's two most famous pictures in this respect were painted 
— or at least engraved — quite towards the end of his life. " The Encamp- 
ment at Brighton" and "The Departure from Brighton" were both 
engraved in mezzotint by J. Murphy, and published by Colnaghi & Co. in 
1796. The former, dedicated to the Prince of Wales, shows a broad view 
of the Downs, with camps, gun-carriages, etc., a group of three mounted 
soldiers in the foreground, with a number of peasants with baskets of eggs, 
fowls and other marketable merchandise. The second scene is another 
view of the Downs, with camps, military baggage, horses, with a group 
of soldiers and three women, one of whom is holding an infant; this print 
was dedicated to the Duke of York. The two were issued in black and in 
colours. It is said that the former was also engraved by W. Ward, but we 
have found no record of this. There are modern reprints of both. 

The story, in two pictures, of " Lindor and Clara" falls also into the 
category of military subjects. Wheatley's story is of a jealous lover. 
Lindor, a young officer, at a public ball fell violently in love with Clara, 
daughter of one of the principal inhabitants of the city ; but the moment he 
received the consent of her father to the engagement, he is ordered to join 
the regiment of which his father was Colonel. In the sequel, Clara 
disguised herself as a soldier and followed her lover as a private in his 
regiment. Lindor was often visited by his sister, whom Clara suspects to 
be "the other woman." Determined to be revenged, Clara, discovering the 
brother and sister together, made an attempt to shoot Lindor, but is 
disarmed, and in the scuffle her sex and identity were discovered. The " plot " 
of the story was a popular one in the eighteenth century, and Wheatley's 
two pictures are based on James Fennell's "Lindor and Clara; or. The 
British Officer," a comedy in five acts, produced, or at all events printed, in 
1791 ; and so we may safely assign the pictures either to that year or the 
next. The first of these pictures was engraved by F. Bonfoy, and the 
"sequel" by R. Stanier, and colourprints of both were published. The 
original of the second of the pair (lejin. by 13|in.) was in the Sedelmeyer 
sale held in Paris, 1907, and realised 900 francs. It should be pointed out 
that R. Stanier engraved a totally different picture with the title of "The 
Discovery," by Wheatley ; this is an interior with two figures, mother and 
daughter, the former having discovered and is reading a letter sent to her 
daughter. " Soldiers Refreshing," 20in. by 17in., is the title of a picture at 

From soldiers to sailors is an easy step, and as a. pendant to W. Ward's 
"The Soldier's Return," J. R. Smith published, in 1787, "The Sailor's 
Return," which shows us the interior of a hovel, with a bed-ridden woman 
attended by a young girl, whose right hand holds that of the sick woman, 
whilst the left is raised in astonishment at the sudden appearance of 
the visitor; the print bore the legend, " Her FiHal Duty Paid, Virtue and 


Love shall Reward his Constancy and Toil." Another "sailor" picture, 
"Sailors in Port," 16in. by 21in., was in the W. H. Forman sale, already 
mentioned. "The Fisherman's Departure" and "The Fisherman's Return " 
are the titles of a companion pair engraved by Barney ; they were in 
Macklin's sale of May 5th, 1800, and eventually passed into the collection of 
Wells, of Redleaf, at whose sale in May, 1890, they were purchased by Messrs. 
Agnew at 145 guineas; each was 18in. by 22in. According to a statement 
in The Monthly Magazine oi March, 1801, p. 155, Macklin paid "J. Barny " 
£280 for engraving these two pictures. A picture of " Fisherman's Wife 
and Children alarmed at a Storm " was lent to the British Institution 
in 1843 by a Mr. C. Brown. 

A little work, presumably a drawing, 4^in. by 4in., "The Oyster 
Woman," may be mentioned ; it was lent to the Grosvenor Gallery in 1888 by 
the executors of the late Major C. P. Teesdale, and was sold for the 
ridiculously small sum of 11 guineas at Christie's in 1889, a companion pair 
of ovals, heads of girls, going for £3 15s. at the same time. A companion 
pair, " Death of a Bird " and " Burial of a Bird" in the Victoria Galleries, 
Dundee, are further instances of the artist's fondness for subjects of 
"simple domestic pathos," which he handled " vvith considerable freedom, 
yet never loses the sense of delicacy and beauty which by nature they 

To the Academy of 1788, Wheatley contributed not only the beautiful 
portrait of his wife and "Girl Returning from Market," both of which have 
already been described, but also a picture of " Mr. Howard Offering Relief 
to Prisoners." This is a group of a dozen figures of men, women and 
children in a dungeon, with the philanthropist, John Howard, in their midst ; 
the picture was engraved by James Hogg, and published in April, 1790. The 
original (on canvas 40in. by 50in.) was lent to the British Institution in 1849, 
and to the Old Masters in 1873 by the Earl of Harrowby. "The Girl with 
Water Cresses," in the same year's Academy, must have been the picture 
which was in the Wheatley sale in 1795, when it was purchased by Molteno, 
the well-known print dealer and publisher, for £3 7s., and is no doubt the 
picture engraved by Bartolozzi and published in January, 1796. "The Flower 
Gatherers," exhibited at the Grafton Gallery in 1895 by Mr. F. Davis, may 
have been the pendant. "The Cress Gatherer" is the title of a drawing 
exhibited at Messrs. Gooden «& Fox's, 57 Pall Mall, in 1908, No. 35. The 
same subject is repeated in a work now at Turner House, and reproduced 
here : there are in this two figures, both very young girls, with a dog. 

Of the large number of engravings after Wheatley which were published 
in 1787-8, two companion pairs may be noticed. Both are based on a passage 
in the "Moral Tales," by Marmontel. "The Four Phials" and "The 
Samnite Marriages " were both engraved by William Ward, and published 
by J. R. Smith, in June, 1787. The former is an illustration of the passage : 
" Selina — where are you going — yours, allow me but one minute. The 
Credulous Alcidonias having retired into a corner, drank up the elixir in the 
purple phial to the very last drop." The text of the latter is : " These tender 
Mothers interweaved with vine-leaves and Myrtle, the beautiful tresses of 
these Young Virgins, and gave to the fouldings of their veil, that air and 
turn which was most favourable to the character of their beauty." A third 
picture was founded on an incident in Marmontel's "Tales" — "The 


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Goldfinch," engraved by Bartolozzi in March, 1789, an oval with figures on 
a balcony, the lady in light dress and large hat with feathers, holding a 
goldfinch, the youth leaning forward to seize the bird, of which he declares 
" I am jealous." The original pictures have not been traced. The second 
pair of this same year were " The Lovesick Maid " — a girl attired in white is 
reclining on a trestle bedstead, a surgeon leaning over her — and "The 
Marriage," the central figure of which is the bride in white, with pink skirt, 
and the husband by her side, with other figures around. Both pictures 
(each 18in. by 13jin.) were at Christie's on March 22nd, 1902, and realised 
50 guineas and 280 guineas respectively. Both were engraved by J. Dean 
for the " Progress of Love" series in 1787, and that of "The Marriage" 
is here reproduced from his engraving. An oval drawing of " Bride and 
Bridegroom," 16in. by I4in., was in the J. James sale at the same place in 
1880, and realised the small sum of eleven guineas. A picture also with title, 
" The Lovesick Maid," was painted by J. Opie, and engraved by W. Ward. 
" Love in a Mill," engraved by Delatre, dated June 1, 1787, and its undated 
pendant engraving, " The Discovery," by R. Stanier, are two other domestic 
scenes of rural life. 

Wheatley varied his fancy pieces with an occasional group of portraits. 
To the Academy of 1789 he sent a " Portrait of a Nobleman returning from 
Shooting " (No. 17). This is a group of Henry Pelham Clinton, second Duke 
of Newcastle, and a shooting party, with Colonel Litchfield in red coat, 
Mansell, the keeper, with the Clumber spaniels, and Clumber House in the 
background. This picture was painted in 1788, and measures 63in. by 84in.; 
it was lent by the Duke of Newcastle to South Kensington in 1867, and to 
the Old Masters in 1879. Whilst this picture was on view at the Academy, 
" proposals " for engraving it, under the title of " Return from Shooting," 
were advertised in the papers " by F. Wheatley and J. Barney." The size 
was to be 24|in. by 19in., "the portraits to be engraved in the manner of 
chalke by F. Bartolozzi," and " the animals, landscape, etc., in the aqua- 
tinta by S. Aiken " ; the price was to be 15s., 10s. 6d. with the order and 
the remainder on delivery of the print ; proofs were one guinea. Apparently 
the engraving did not appear until 1803. The picture may be described 
as having been published in two instalments in The Sporting Magazine : in 
the number of that periodical for March, 1807, the equestrian figure of the 
duke, with two dogs, was engraved as a full-page plate by William NichoUs 
(a pupil of A. Cardon) ; whilst in the issue for May of the same year, 
another plate by the same engraver shows us W. Mansell, the duke's 
gamekeeper, and the group of " springers or cockflushers by which the 
gamekeeper is so tastefully surrounded in the picture, was a gift to the 
Duke Henry when in France by the Duke de Noailles." The Duke or 
Mansell's breed of spaniels was an especial favourite of P. Reinagle the 
artist, and may be seen in some of his pictures. 

Whilst on the subject of hunting reference may be made to a picture 
in the possession of Messrs. Fores & Fores of 41 Piccadilly : this represents 
a hunting party with 11 figures and a pack of hounds, in a landscape (36in. 
by 29in.) ; this was at one time in the late Lady Currie's collection. 
Unfortunately the identity of the party has not been established. 

A later group was "The Lord Mayor proceeding by water to West- 
minster, on November 9th, 1789 (canvas 61in. by 85in.), in which, however, 


only the figures were painted by Wheatley, the rest of the picture being by 
R. Paton. This work was presented to the Guildhall, London, by Alderman 
J. Boydell, in 1793. The companion pair, " Love " and " Interest," engraved 
by Picot, and "The Benevolent Cottager," engraved by Nutter, were pub- 
lished in 1788. The large group, exhibited by J\lr. Arthur Oliver at the Old 
Masters, in 1886, and known as "The Garden Party," probably belongs to this, 
or a somewhat earlier, period of the artist's career. It represents Airs. Ward 
and family, with Dr. Layard, Dean of Bristol, and Mr. and Mrs. Oliver ; some 
of the party appear to be about to enter a boat on the river, in which one of 
their number is already seated ; the canvas is 48in. by 62in. Reference may be 
here made to a group called " The Duke of Bedford distributing Alms," a 
drawing 15| by 24 in., which was sold at Christie's on July 23, 1909, and 
purchased by Messrs. Gooden & Fox. The subject of alms-giving is also 
treated, but in a totally different manner, in the picture engraved by 

One of Wheatley's most popular pictures of 1789 was " The Disaster," 
a lady in yellow skirt, white bodice, and large black hat, entering a room 
from a garden, to find a bird-cage overturned and a cat with the bird in its 
mouth ; beside her stands a girl in white. This picture, which was 
engraved by \V. Ward in 1789, and, like so many other Wheatley engravings, 
published by J. R. Smith, was lent to the Grosvenor Gallery in 1888, and 
to the Old Masters in 1906, by the late Sir Charles Tennant ; it is on canvas, 
31 in. by 26 Jin., and was at one time in the collection of Sir Edward 
Marwood Elton, Bart. Two drawings, but much later in date, may be 
mentioned here : one, an interior with a woman showing a bird-cage to 
two children, 13|in. by lOin., signed and dated 1795; and a girl feed- 
ing a swan, 11 Jin. by 8iin., dated 1794, which was at Christie's on 
December 1st, 1906. 

The famous set of four pictures of "The Seasons" dates from 1789, 
and, engraved by Bartolozzi, appeared in February, of that year. Two of 
these, "Spring" and "Autumn," were by Westall, and the other two, 
" Summer " and " Winter," were by Wheatley. In their engraved form they 
had an immense vogue, and their popularity with collectors is greater than 
ever. A set of proofs is worth over 50 guineas, and the " W'inter " alone, in 
colours, has realised nearly that sum. As already stated on pp. 12-13, 
" Winter " is a portrait of the artist's beautiful wife. The engraved plates 
are still in existence — or were a few years ago — and are in sufficiently 
good condition for reprints to deceive all but expert collectors. The 
originals of both "Summer" and "Winter" were in the possession of 
Mr. Maskelyne, who exhibited them at the British Institution in 1867, 
Nos. 195 and 200 respectively. The " Winter" was in the Academy of 1788 
as the "Portrait of a Lady;" curiously enough in 1794, Wheatley 
exhibited another picture with the same title, and also one with that of 

Another important and still exceedingly popular pair of engravings 
appeared in 1789, "The Full of the Honeymoon" and "The Wane 
of the Honeymoon," engraved by R. Laurie, and published by Robert Sayer, 
the one a domestic interior and the other the annex of a ball-room, each a 
scene with two figures, the "moral" of each of which is conveyed in the 
"legends," which respectively run: — 


fmntcd iy f l0iiaHrv R J 


'^ Plau n 

LonJon fu/i ''as Vu Ad Jtrrcd May i //««■. iy I 'oliui;ihi k C".\''oi Fall Mail 

Engraved by Vendjumam 


(1) "The Honey-moon scarce full, the Bridegroom cloys, 

And seeks a Wanton's arms to prove new joys ; 
The Bride discovers all, and in vexation, 
Resolves to punish by retaliation." 

(2) " Fair opportunity. Love's constant friend, 

Soon offers to accomplish Madam's end; 

At masque she meets a Spark, they both retire — 

Unmask — my wife ! my spouse ! Hell flames and fire I " 

The original canvas of only one has been traced, that of " The Full of 
the Honeymoon," which now belongs to Messrs. Colnaghi & Co., it measures 
20|- by 24| in. There was quite a lull in engravings after Wheatley from 
1790 to 1792. One of his three exhibits at the Royal Academy of 1791 was 
a portrait of Mr. Bond Hopkins, with a horse and spaniel, and another was 
" A Pedlar at a Cottage Door." Wheatley was probably busily engaged 
during this year on his " Cries," for in the Academy of 1792 six of the series 
were among his 13 exhibits. The "Cries" are dealt with together 
on pp. 28-32. Among the numerous exhibits of this year were four 
domestic scenes which attracted the notice of the critic of The Morning 
Herald, and in the issue of that paper of May 5th, these four — 107, "The 
Maternal Blessing," 119, "The Offer of Marriage," 137, "The Wedding 
Morning," and 155, "The Happy Fireside" — are thus noticed: "To Mr. 
Wheatley belongs the great and peculiar praise of blending the 

' utile dulci 

Lectorem deledando parieterqiie nionendo,'* 

and, by elevating the arts to the dignity of a moral in this series of 
pictures, he has, with singular felicity, employed his pencil in delineating 
the progress and manners of humble life — pursuing and attaining happiness 
through the channels of prudence and industry. . . . The story is well told, 
and the scene in No. 155 is particularly interesting. If we knew a man 
whose mind, soured and contracted by the presence of undeserved calamity, 
was verging to misanthropy, we should place this picture before him, and 
we think his social affections would revive." The Public Advertiser, in its 
notice of the exhibition, admitted that "Wheatley, in his way, has been 
unusually successful." 

Two companion pairs of engravings made their appearance this year. 
"Setting out to the Fair" and "The Fairing," they were engraved by J. 
Eginton, and published by Jee and Eginton in November. The former 
is a picture with three figures — the mother in the doorway of a cottage, the 
two lovers setting out, the girl in blue skirt and light bodice cut low, straw 
bonnet with pink ribbons ; the youth, in light dress and red waistcoat, has 
taken off his hat to the mother, who is represented as saying :— 

" Beware, my daughter, a warm lover's wiles. 
Lest faithless flattery thy soul deceive ; 
Trust not too easily his sighs or smiles, 
Nor ev'ry vow, nor ev'ry oath believe." 

* " He has carried every point who has blended the useful with the agreeable, amusing his 
reader while he instructs him." — Horace. 


The companion is a view of the interior of the cottage, the mother seated 
reading a Bible, and the young people have returned ; the verse to this is 
supposed to be spoken by the young man : — 

"Thy daughter's injury I never meant; 
1 flatter'd not, for flattery always lies; 
See in her hand the proof of my intent, 
1 never sought for selfisli transient joys." 

The latter may be identical with "The Pedlar," 20in. by 25in., exhibited by 
Mr. J. F. Crush, at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1889, in the second series of 
" A Century of British Art," No. 15. The pair was lent to the Suffolk 
Street Gallery in 1833, by Mr. R. P. Renall, Nos. 169 and 175. These are 
not Wheatley's only " Fair" pictures, for Mr. G. F. Lyster exhibited at 
Wrexham, in 1876, a picture of a young man giving a fairing of a ribbon to 
a girl ; it is signed and dated 1799. 

The second companion pair of 1792, also engraved by J. Eginton, had 
for titles " Filial Piety" and " The Affectionate Daughter." The theme of 
parental affection was frequently illustrated by Wheatley, particularly in his 
later years. In Macklin's sale there was a pair of drawings " The Tender 
Father " and " The Relentless Father." The former of these may be 
identical with " The Father's Admonition," engraved by Schiavonetti in 1803. 
The original water-colour drawing was sold at Foster's, Pall Mall, on March 
20th, 1901, for 42 guineas, and is signed and dated 1798. It appears to have 
been engraved also by Field ; examples in colours sometimes occur in 
the salerooms. "Father's Supper" (35in. by 27^in.) was the title of a 
picture in the Haskett Smith sale of May 9th, 1896, and realised 95 guineas. 

Domestic scenes of nearly every description attracted Wheatley's 
attention at one time or another. Lord Wolverton possesses two 
characteristic examples, " The Cottage Pump," and " Fruit Gatherers, each 
llin. by 14in. ; and two others, "The Mistletoe Bough," and "The Harvest 
Home," are reproduced in this book by permission of Messrs. Shepherd 
Bros., each measures 22in. by ISin. 



'ymrnA/i of (^am^ 


flan I!, 
L^ifiMn /W'afUf ~^c^ </irecfj May / //(*/ ^ Co^na^^ Sa/a i-C' N'/32 /a// Ma// 




'jni>!'rffi/ /■}/ 1/. ^f/i 



In no instance was Wheatley's extraordinary versatility and industry more 
marlied than in connection with Boydell's great Shaliespeare enterprise, to 
which he was one of the most prolific contributors. It may be recalled 
that in 1786 Boydell elaborated a scheme for a magnificent edition of 
Shakespeare's works, to be illustrated by all the most eminent masters of 
the English school. In this scheme Boydell embarked a capital of £150,000. 
A number of commissions were given out, and the first 34 pictures were 
exhibited at the Shakespeare Gallery, Pall Mall, in the spring of 1789, 
and included works by Wright of Derby, the Rev. W. Peters, Rigaud, 
Hamilton, Smirke, Fuseli, Wheatley, Downman, Hodges, Opie, Barry, West, 
Northcote, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and others. Wheatley was represented 
by no less than three works :—" Midsummer Night's Dream," Act 
IV., Sc. 1; "Taming of the Shrew," Act III., Sc. 2; and "Winter's 
Tale," Act IV., Sc. 3. In 1790 two more of his were added to the exhibition — 
"Tempest," Act V., Sc. 1 ; and "All's Well that Ends Well," Act V., 
Sc. 3. These five do not anything like represent Wheatley's contribution 
to Boydell's great scheme, for which he painted 13 pictures. Not all of 
these were engraved, but they were all included in the sale of the 
Shakespeare Gallery at Christie's on May 17th, 18th, and 20th, 1805. The 
artist probably received an average of not much less than £200 each for the 
larger pictures, a distressing contrast to the prices which they realised at 
auction. From an interesting autograph receipt in the Anderdon collection, 
in the British Museum (Print Room), we have an idea of what Wheatley 
received for the smaller Shakespeare pictures. The receipt is dated 
October 28th, 1793, and runs thus: — 

Received from Messrs. Boydell eighty-four pounds for four 
pictures from "All's Well " and " Much Ado," in full. 

£84.- F. Wheatley. 

As the sale catalogue is very rare, we cannot do better than quote the 
whole of the entries, so far as Wheatley is concerned, with their respective 
lot numbers each day, the prices realised, and the buyers' names, omitting 
only Mr. Christie's commendations : — 

Lot. Title. 

May 17. 18 Antonio, Heio and Beatrice .. .. .. 

,, 19 Barocliio, Conrade and Watcliin, the companion .. 

,, 40 Theseus and Hippolyta .. 

May 18. 8 The Countess and Helena 

,, 9 The King, Helena and Lords 

,, 39 Polixenes and CamiUe disguised at the Shepherd's Cottage 

,, 46 Ferdinand and Miranda playing at Chess 

May 20. 12 Dull Holophernes, Sir Nathaniel, Janquetta and Costard 

,, 13 The Princess and Ladies, from " Love's Labour Lost" .. 

,, 22 Scene from " The Comedy of Errors " 

23 The Duke of Ephesus, from ditto 

,, 36 Katherine and Petruchio leaving Baptista's House 

37 Scene from "All's Well that Ends Well" 



None given. 


5J gs. 
18 gs. 


5 gs. 


41 gs. 


45 gs. 


124 gs. 

9 gs. 

104 gs. 

50 gs. 



52 gs. 



The first of the Shakespeare pictures to be engraved was the scene 
from "Winter's Tale," Act IV., So. 3 [i.e., 4], illustrating the passage 
spoken by Perdita : — 

" Sir, welcome: 
It is my father's will I should take on me 
The hostess-ship o' the day." 

This, a composition of 18 figures, was engraved by James Fittler, and 
dated August 1st, 1792. 

Two more of the Shakespeare Gallery pictures were published in 1793, 
both dated June 4th, and each inspired by passages in " Love's Labour Lost " 
— one. Act IV., Sc. 2, engraved by J. Neagle ; and the other. Act V., Sc. 2, 
by W. Skelton. 

One only appeared in 1794, and this illustrated a passage in " All's Well 
that Ends Well," Act V., Sc. 3 :— 

" O my good lord, when I was like this maid, 
I found you wondrous kind. There is your ring ; 
And, loots you, here's your letter." 

In this picture there are 14 figures, and the engraving, by G. S. and F. G. 
Facius, is dated June 4th. 

Five appeared in the following year, 1795, the earliest on January 1st — 
"Taming of the Shrew," Act II., Sc. 2, engraved by J. P. Simon ; and this 
was followed by a pair from "Much Ado About Nothing," Act III., Sc. 3, 
engraved by George Noble, and Act V., Sc. 4, engraved by James Fittler, 
both dated June 4th ; and two on December 1st, "Tempest," Act V., Sc. 1, 
engraved by C. Watson, and "All's Well that Ends Well," Act I., Sc. 3. 

During 1796 and the two succeeding years three more plates were 
published: "Comedy of Errors," Act I., Sc. 1, engraved by J. Neagle; 
another scene from "All's Well that Ends Well," engraved by L. 
Schiavonetti, and another from " The Comedy of Errors," engraved by 
J. Stow. Out of the thirteen pictures painted for Boydell's Shakespeare 
Gallery, nine were actually engraved and published, and two others were 
published by John Murray in 1817, many years after the artist's death. 

But long before Boydell, Wheatley had been attracted by Shakespeare, 
for Redford records the sale in 1781 of a scene from "Twelfth Night" 
(probably "the duel" picture exhibited at the Society of Artists in 1772, 
No. 374) for ten guineas to a Mr. Tassant. It would be interesting to 
trace the present whereabouts of Wheatley's Shakespeare pictures, but 
this is not now possible. Doubtless many of them have appeared in the 
various picture sales held since 1805, changing hands at small prices, " Pros- 
pero and Miranda " for instance, sold for the small sum of 20 guineas in 
the Fitzherbert sale of 1811. "Catherine and Petruchio," from "The 
Taming of the Shrew," was lent to the British Institution in 1817, by 
Mr. Thomas Pares. One of the engraved pictures in the Boydell series 
was in the J. B. Behrens sale at Christie's, July 26th, 1861, "Scene from 
Shakespeare," a composition of four figures, signed and dated, but the 
entry in the catalogue is not very illuminating. At the W. Cox sale of 
1862, a scene from "The Two Gentlemen of Verona " sold for 9 guineas, 
and this, with that of "Antonio, Hero, and Beatrice," appears to have been 
owned at one time by a Mr. Clark who lent both to an exhibition in Suffolk 


Street in 1832, where, in the following year, the picture of "The Countess 
Rousillon and Helena" appeared, on loan, from Mr. L. Dulacher. 

In connection with the Shakespeare Gallery, afterwards and for many 
years the British Institution, Pall Mall, there is at the South Kensington 
Museum a water-colour drawing (12^in. by 18;|in.), by Wheatley, of the 
Interior of the Gallery as it was in 1790; it includes portraits of the 
Dukes of York and Clarence, the Duchess of Devonshire, Countess 
of Jersey, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sheridan, Alderman Boydell, and his 
nephew, Josiah Boydell. A reproduction of this historically important 
drawing will be found among our plates. 

Concurrently with work for Boydell, Wheatley was also engaged by 
John Bell, the publisher, to execute a number of vignettes for the charming 
little series of " Bell's Theatre," and five of these vignettes are by him — a 
complete list of these will be found in the section dealing with Engravings — 
and the dates extend from 1791-1792. Whilst on the subject of plays, 
reference may be made to the J. James sale of 1880, when a scene from 
Colley Gibber's " Careless Husband," circle, sold for £20, and two small 
portraits of actresses for 33 guineas. 

Although not in strict chronological order, we may group together here 
a brief reference to the work which Wheatley did for Bowyer and Macklin. 
To Bowyer's ambitious " History of England," the pictures for which 
were exhibited at the Historic Gallery, 87, Pall Mall (a house in which 
Gainsborough had resided), in 1793, or earlier, the artist painted two 
subjects, "Alfred in the House of the Neatherd" (Hume, Vol. I., p. 80, 
octavo edition), and "The Death of Richard the Second" — "it was the 
prevailing opinion that Sir Piers Exton, with others of his guards^ fell upon 
him in the castle of Pomfret, where he was confined, and dispatched him " 
(Hume, Vol. III., p. 49). Macklin was a generous customer of Wheatley, 
for at his sale in May, 1800, there were three of his pictures, " Fisherman 
Going Out" and the " Return," and " The Schoolmistress," and two pairs 
of companion drawings, "The Tender Father" and "The Relentless 
Father," and "Lauretta" and "Goldfinches"; to some of these more 
extended references will be found elsewhere in this volume. 



We may for a moment turn aside from the constant stream of Wheatley's 
engravings to his connection with the Royal Academy. He was elected an 
Associate in 1790, and, with an unusual rapidity, a full member in 1791. 
The higher distinction was not owing to any extraordinary progress in his 
career as an artist, but to an accidental circumstance which caused 
widespread discussion and comment at the time. The facts were briefly 
these : The Royal Academy, by a law of its own, could not elect a member 
under the age of 24. The King, who had "taken up" Thomas Lawrence 
with an enthusiasm which largely contributed to his early success, was 
anxious that he should become a member of the Royal Academy. But 
Lawrence was only 21, and therefore ineligible. A way out of the difficulty 
seemed to have presented itself when it was suggested that Lawrence 
should be elected a supplementary Royal Academician ; this was supported 
both by Sir Joshua Reynolds and Benjamin West, but opposed by 37 
members, who brought forward " one Wheatley " (as Allan Cunningham 
phrased it) and elected him in teeth of the Royal and Presidential 
candidate. According to Peter Pindar, who celebrated the event in the 
following verses, only three votes were cast for Lawrence, as against 
16 for Wheatley : 

" So dear to monarchs is that idol pow'r I 
So dear is prompt obedience to a King ! 
Far, of resistance be the trying hour ! 
God help us ! what a melancholy thing ! 

" Yet opposition-fraught to royal wishes, 

Quite counter to a gracious King's commands, 
Behold I th' Academicians, those strange fishes, 
For Wheatley lifted their unhallow'd hands. 

" So then, those fellows have not learnt to crawl, 
To play the spaniel, lick the foot, and fawn — 
Oh ! be their bones by tigers broken all ! 

Pleas'd, by wild horses could I see them drawn." 

Wheatley appears to have discharged his duties as a member of the 
Royal Academy with diligence and zeal, so that during the last few years of 
his life, when poverty overtook him, owing to his long and frequent attacks 
of illness, he was helped from the funds of the Academy. His Diploma 
work was a picture of a peasant boy. 

A few of his pictures of 1793-4 have come down to us. In the 
Albertina collection is one with the title "The Letter" (" Der Liebesbt;ief "), 
a rustic scene, with a small whole-length figure of a young girl in pinkish 
white low dress with red straw hat, seated on a stile, holding a letter ; it is 
signed and the date 1793 (the last figure is somewhat indistinct) on a milk- 
pail (see also p. 46). A companion pair of water-colour drawings, signed 


o j: 

o ^ 

t ^ 
</> . 


and dated 1793, "Wood Gatherers" and "The Apple Gatherers," were 
sold at Foster's on February 20th, 1901, the purchaser being Mr. F. Sabin. 
About this period he painted several pictures of school life, village 
scenes, and cottage life. One of the most popular of these at the time in its 
engraved form was "The Schoolmistress," in illustration of a passage in 
Shenstone's poem : 

" In every village, marked with little spire, 
Embower'd in trees and hardly known to fame, 
There dwells in lowly shed and mean attire, 
A matron old whom we schoolmistress name. 
Who boasts unruly brats with birch to tame." 

This was purchased by Macklin, who published an engraving of it by Coles, 
in March 1794; it was afterwards in Macklin's sale in 1800. "The School 
Door" (with the second title of "Tenderness persuading Reluctance") is 
another work by this genre; it shows us the exterior of a dame's school, 
with a young woman persuading two children to enter, one a boy, the other 
a little girl, who is crying ; a church spire is seen in the distance. This was 
engraved by G. Keating, who also engraved the pendant, "The Cottage 
Door" ("The Family Dinner"), in which a peasant is seated at table, whilst 
the mother and two children are standing round. The two children are the 
same in both pictures, and were probably the artist's own. The former plate 
is dedicated to the Marquis of Hartington, and the other to Lady Georgina 
Cavendish. Among the drawings at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1877-8, was one 
by Wheatley, " Going to School," lent by Mr. J. E. Taylor. A much larger 
picture, embodying the sentiment expressed in "The School Door," was 
engraved by J. Alais in 1804, and published by Falser; the title was 
" Juvenile Reluctance," it is a group of two women and two children by 
the side of a cottage, with view of extensive landscape to left, a little girl 
crying and being persuaded by her little brother to go to school. There 
was a companion to this, and by the same engraver, with the title " Juvenile 
Opposition," a group of five figures by a cottage, three children with two 
boys fighting. Within the last few years, quite a number of these cottage 
scenes by Wheatley have come into the market; "Cottage Interior," with 
figures, a drawing 16^in. by 21in., dated 1794, realised 100 guineas at 
Christie's in December 1906; "Village Gossips," canvas 20in. by 26in., 
realised 480 dollars in New York, in February of the same year ; whilst 
" Benevolent Cottagers," a picture 30in. by 25in., engraved by Nutter, 
was sold at Christie's in June, 1900. 

Haymaking and other scenes of farm life were the subject of 
Wheatley's pencil or brush. One of these, " Morning : Cottagers going out 
to Haymaking," was engraved in mezzotint by J. Yeatherd (a pupil of 
Valentine Green) in 1794; another, on a smaller scale, "Haymakers Going 
Out " with " Cottagers Returned," formed a companion pair of engravings 
by J. J. Van den Berghe (a pupil of Bartolozzi), issued by Molteno in 1800. 
"The Pretty Haymaker" is the title given to an unfinished proof (and one in 
colours) of a picture of a hayfield with a young girl making hay, and looking 
coyly down as a young waggoner comes up close behind her, a waggon and 
horses seen in the middle distance ; of this plate only two or three are 
known, one of which is in the collection of Mr. E. E. Leggatt. " The Little 
Gleaners," the title of a drawing in the British Museum, is a group of three 


children in a cornfield, and is reproduced in G. R. Redgrave's " History of 
Water-colour Painting in England," 1894, p. 41. A companion pair of 
water-colour drawings, " The Mower " and " Haymaking," each 8.Un. by 6in., 
are in the British Museum and will be found reproduced among our illustra- 
tions ; as each of these is signed and dated 1800, they are among the artist's 
latest works, done a few months before his death. "Gleaner and Child" 
was the title of a picture sold at Christie's on June 24th, 1861. 

" Going out Milking " and " The Return from Milking " are the titles of 
a companion pair of large mezzotints engraved by Charles Turner in 1800 ; 
"The Milkmaids," 17^in. by 21 in., was the title of a picture sold at 
Christie's on December 17th, 1904, for 80 guineas. In 1894, M. C. Sedelmeyer 
was the owner of "The Visit to the Farm," a landscape, the background 
of which consists of trees with dense foliage ; in the centre the farmer's 
wife is pouring out milk into a jug which a lady is holding ; another 
lady presents a cup to the child sitting in her lap, and several children are 
filling their jugs from a large tub, whilst animals and several figures are 
seen in the distance; the canvas measures 24iin. by 30in. This is one of 
several pictures by Wheatley which have passed through M. Sedelmeyer's 
hands. Another is a Morland-like scene on a lake, with a ferry-boat con- 
taining several figures, two cows on the edge of the water, and low buildings 
and trees in the distance ; this picture, 17iin. by 21iin., realised 1,850 francs 
at the Sedelmeyer sale in 1907. Other rustic scenes — or such as have been 
engraved — will be found in the chapter on " Engravings after Wheatley" ; 
and the titles of yet others will be found in the list of his exhibits at the 
Royal Academy. 

A few portraits were exhibited at the Royal Academy by Wheatley 
during the last six or seven years of his fife. The names of those which 
have been identified will be found in the list of his exhibits. Mention may 
be here made of a portrait of Charlotte, youngest daughter of the Right 
Hon. E. Goulding, in white dress with blue sash, a water-colour drawing, 
29in. by 24iin., which realised 30 guineas at the Goulding sale on May 13th, 
1899. After the sale of his furniture and effects in 1795, the artist retired 
to Bath, probably in the hope that the waters would effect a cure for his 
chronic enemy, the gout. He sent nothing to the 1796 Academy, and only 
one picture to that of the following year, when he had returned to London 
and was living at 20 Charles Street, Middlesex Hospital. 

To the Academy of 1800 he sent two scenes from Goldsmith's " Deserted 
Village," executed for Du Roveray's edition of Goldsmith. One of these, 
described as " a scene from a novel, circle, admirably painted," and as " from 
Duroveray's collection " was in the Matthew Hutchinson sale of February 
22nd, 1861. William Hamilton also contributed illustrations to the same 
edition of Goldsmith, and the Academy of 1800 contained three of his 
original designs, which, with those of Wheatley, gave that edition, published 
in the same year, an excellent advertisement. Curiously enough, five years 
before the appearance of these Academy pictures, Bartolozzi engraved, 
and Macklin published, an engraving after Wheatley with the title " The 
Deserted Village," with the lines : 

" Good heavens ! what sorrows gloom'd that parting day, 
That call'd them from their native walks away." 


Wheatley's last exhibit appeared in the Academy of 1801, the set of four 
pictures, " Morning," " Noon," " Evening," " Night," of which engravings by 
H. Gillbank appeared in the autumn of the same year. Traces of this 
series of paintings were lost until the present year ; at the Barrett Sale at 
Milton House, Steventon, Bucks, on June 8, 1910, the four oil paintings, each 
17^in. by 21in., dated 1799, were purchased by Messrs. Parsons, for 200 
gns. In this year (1910) also two of them, " Morning " and " Evening " were 
reproduced in colours from Gillbank's engravings in The Practical Teacher, 
February, pp. 435 and 438. 

At the time of Wheatley's death, on Sunday, June 28th, 1801, several of 
his pictures were being engraved. The most important of these, perhaps, 
is " Mary's Dream," an interior of a bedroom ; a young woman in bed is 
starting up at the apparition of a young man standing by her bedside, the 
legend being : 

" She from her pillow gently raised 
Her head to ask who there might be, 
And saw young Sandy shiv'ring stand, 
With pallid cheek and hollow eye.'' 

This was engraved by W. Ward, and published by R. Ackermann at the 
Repository of the Arts, Strand. The original picture, now in the National 
Gallery of Ireland (17|in. by 21|in.), is doubtless identical with that in the 
W. H. Forman sale at Sotheby's on June 27th, 1899. 

The Montague Guest sale of April 8th, 1910, revealed the existence of 
a companion pair of drawings by F. Wheatley, signed and dated 1800, 
"The Farmer's Daughter" and "The Miller's Daughter" (each 
8|in. by 6in.), which Messrs. Ellis & Smith purchased. 



The series of pictures of " The Cries of London," which appeared at the 
Royal Academy, 1792-5, if not exactly the rock on which the artistic fame of 
Wheatley is erected, may at least be described as the chief factor in the 
preservation of his name from oblivion. Street cries cannot be described 
as a lofty source of inspiration, but they have in all countries in the Old 
World for centuries past attracted artists and versifiers. The earliest recorded 
reference to London street cries is found in Lydgate's " London Lickpenny," 
or Lackpenny (Harl. MSS., 367, written probably early in the 15th century), 
and of which a modernised form of one verse may be quoted : — 

" Then unto London I did me hie, 

Of all the land it beareth the prize ; 
Hot peascods 1 one began to cry ; 

Strawberry ripe 1 and cherries in the rise I 
One have me come near, and buy some spice ; 
Pepper and saffron they gave me heed ; 
But for lack of money, I might not speed," 
(" Cherries in the rise " meaning cherries on a bough or twig.) 

The literary and, so far as it goes, the artistic history of London cries 
may be read in the late Charles Hindley's little book on the subject, 
published in 1881, although, curiously enough, Wheatley's "Cries" are not 
even mentioned. In 1885 the late A. \V. Tuer published a curious little 
volume, " Old London Street Cries," with " heaps of quaint cuts," and here, 
again, the variety, antiquity and longevity of street cries are demonstrated, 
both by text and by illustration. 

In the more important Continental cities, as in London, street cries 
have received the attention due to their antiquity and to their human 
interest. Annibal Caracci (who died in 1609) has preserved for us records 
of the street cries of Bologna, although, as may he seen from a long and 
interesting article (with numerous facsimiles) in // Libro e la Stampa of 
Gennaio-Febbraio, 1907, there were picturesque street cries long before his 
time. The most famous collection of all Italian " Cries " was the series of 40 
plates by Gaetano Zompini, " Le Ariiche vaiino per via, nclla Cittadi Vc7iezia," 
published in Venice in 1785. In Paris also, particularly during the earlier 
part of the 18th century, the " Cries " attracted the notice of leading artists, 
and we have a series of twelve, engraved after Bouchardon, and another dozen 
after F. Boucher. Many of these " Cries " have their English counterparts, 
the chief exceptions being " floor polishers," vinegar and charcoal vendors. 

Many pages might without difficulty be written on street cries in the 
various cities of Europe, and of the changes which the ever-altering 
conditions of life among the humbler classes have brought about — the 
decline of some of these curious industries and the rise of others. But we 
must return to Wheatley and his " Cries." A mere glance through any of 
the published books of " Cries " — Hindley's and Tuer's more particularly — 
will sufficiently demonstrate the exceedingly inartistic character of the 


illustrations which preceded Wheatley's. They are, indeed, so far as 
England is concerned, of the chap-book order, and utterly devoid of that 
touch which only a clever artist could impart. This Wheatley accom- 
plished with his unfailing artistic instinct, and at once removed the whole 
thing from the banal to the picturesque. Books of the Italian and French 
" Cries " had found their way into this country — brought home, doubtless, by 
many a wealthy traveller on his return from the Grand Tour — and it is 
probably these which suggested to Wheatley the idea for his series. Six of 
his pictures were at the Royal Academy of 1792, six in that of the following 
year, and two in 1795. The series, therefore, consists of fourteen pictures, 
and fourteen were actually engraved ; but, as there are two versions of one 
subject (" Gingerbread "), it may be that one of the set of fourteen exhibited 
pictures never was engraved. It is impossible to tell the sequence of the 
series from the Royal Academy catalogues, as each is entered as " One of 
the Cries of London," but the order of the published engravings may be 
taken to indicate that of the pictures in the Academy lists. The published 
set of thirteen was issued in a portfolio, with the title, " The Itinerant 
Traders of London, in thirteen engravings, from the first artists, after 
paintings by Wheatley. London : Published by Colnaghi & Co., Pall Mall" 
(no date). In the British Museum a set of the first two plates are not 
numbered, but both appeared together, the list of plates being as follows : — 



Title of Subject. 



I ' 

Milk below Maids ... 

July 2nd, 1793. 

L. Schiavonetti. 


Two bunches a penny, primroses 

July 2nd [year not 

stated] the same. 


Sweet China Oranges 

July, 1794. 

the same. 


Do you want any Matches ? 

July, 1794. 

A. Cardon. 


New Mack'rel [sic] ..; 

Jan. 1st, 1795. 

R. Schiavonetti, jun. 


Knives, Scissors, and Razors to Grind 

Jan. 1st, 1795. 

G. Vendramini 


Fresh Gathered Peas.Young Hastings 

Jan. 1st, 1795. 

the same. 


Round and sound, fivepence a pound, 

[Directed by L. Schiavonetti] 

Duke Cherries ... 

June 25th, 1795. 

A. Cardon. 


Strawberries, scarlet Strawberries ... 

June 25th, 1795. 

[Directed by L. Schiavonetti] 


Old Chairs to mend 

Sept. 1st, 1795. 

the same. 


A New Love Song, only ha'penny 

a piece 

March 1st, 1796. 

A. Cardon. 


Hot Spice Gingerbread, Smoaking hot 

May 1st, 1796. 



Turnips and Carrots, ho 

May 1st, 1797. 

T. Gaugain. 

The extra plate of " Gingerbread," to which reference has already been \ 
made, differs from the usual one in having a different background and an 
additional figure. The tradition at Messrs. Colnaghi & Co.'s is that after 
a time the engraved plate was damaged, • and, to make it good, it was 
in part re-engraved. This extra plate, however, is extremely rare. 

It is reasonably certain that Wheatley's six " Cries " in the Academy of 
1792 attracted a good deal of attention and comment, and the idea of 
engraving them was warmly taken up by Messrs. Colnaghi & Co. In a 
newspaper cutting of June, 1795, we find the following advertisement : " In 

* Note. — The most beautiful set, in colours, and in the origfinal cardboard case, that we 
have ever seen of the " Cries " belongs to Mr. P. T. Sabin, There are two states of the first and 
second plates. In the earlier, there is printed at the bottom left-hand corner of the one, 
" First Plate of the Cries of London," and in the other " Second Plate of the Cries of London," 
and in the centre of each of the English and French titles there is a script flourish. It maybe 
here mentioned that the rarest single plate of the set is the " Turnips and Carrots." 


the civilized countries of Europe, the prevalence of polite manners softens 
down the rough originality of feature, and produces a similarity very 
unfavourable to the picturesque. It is among the lower ranks of life we 
are to look for the strong trait of national character. The Courts of 
St. James or St. Petersburg, or Vienna or Rome, equally produce gentle- 
men, but the peasant of Switzerland, the poissard of Paris, and the lazzarone 
of Naples are genuine and original characters ; and, in this point of view, 
few natural characters are more boldly marked than the lower order of 
people in the City of London. With a view to delineate these features, so 
striking to the foreigner of every country, and to the philosopher of this, 
Messrs. Colnaghi & Co. respectfully beg leave to inform their friends and 
public that they have undertaken an uncommonly beautiful and highly 
ornamental work, which is purposed to consist of a series of plates engraved 
by L. Schiavonetti," and so forth. The advertised prices of the plates 
were : 7s. 6d. each plain, or 16s. coloured, and, at the time of the advertise- 
ment, the six plates ready were: "Sweet Pinmroses," "New Milk," 
" Card Matches," " China Oranges," " Knives to Grind," and " New 

The demand for the engravings must have been so great that the 
plates got worn out ; and some years afterwards Messrs. Colnaghi & Co. 
issued anew series engraved by " Tam Alliprandi," whoever he may have 
been; the plates measure llfin. by 9xVn., and are of very little commercial 
value. In the "eighties" of the last century Messrs. Field and Tuer 
published a " List of Plates engraved by and after Bartolozzi and School," 
and in this list there were six " after Wheatley," dated 1812; these were 
"Potatoes, full Weight," "All a Blowin'," "Milk O!" "Fresh Straw- 
berries," "Chairs to Mend," and "Fine Rabbits." These were described 
as belonging to "The Cries of London," and the plate measurement 
of each was 5iin. by 5^in. But " after Wheatley " may have been a 
bookseller's flight of imagination ; and, as we have neither seen these 
engravings nor those of "Alliprandi," they are mentioned here "without 

Six of Wheatley's " Cries," and perhaps more, were engraved by 
P. Bonato and A. Gabrielli, and examples sometimes occur in French 
salerooms, but we have not come across them in this country. 

The pictures were doubtless purchased as they were painted by 
Colnaghi, who, having had them engraved, would in the course of business 
dispose of them to his customers. And yet, so far as we are aware, only 
two or three of them have been seen in a public exhibition since their first 
appearance at the Royal Academy upwards of a century ago. " Oranges " 
was lent to the Grosvenor Gallery in 1888, No. 229, by the executors of the 
late Major C. P. Teesdale, and at the Teesdale sale in the following year 
it realised only 21 guineas — scarcely the price of a good impression of 
the engraving to-day ! In 1896, Mr. Greville Douglas lent to the Old 
Masters Exhibition at Burlington House one of them, " Primroses " (canvas 
14in. by llin.). Anderdon was at one time the owner of the original of 
" Chairs to Mend." 

In common with all classes of 18th century colourprints, the " Cries of 
London," after Wheatley, have enormously increased in value during the 


^,i»^e</ iy S'fySta^i,, 

,v \ 

C-7rf^^ra,^<) ^jU ^'. /yivrf^^z/^e /t^ On^r-/i ve'^ i^ /lui .^^^u/d^ 

'mri^ m ^^m/6/A 

'Mi£^ (Muzar OM^ L&zi/m^:^ 

last quarter of a century. When Mr. Tuer published his little book on the 

various cries of the metropolis in 1885, he then declared that the set after 

Wheatley " will now readily fetch £20," and " if coloured, £30 would not be 

considered too high a price, though five-and-twenty years ago they might 

easily have been picked up for as many shillings." Even within the last I 

ten or fifteen years the advance has been great, and a single fine impression 

in colours will realise as much as a complete set in 1885. In 1892 a set in n 

colours was worth about £200 ; in 1899 a set realised 610 guineas; in 1900, '■''^ Af»«^ e:*v»u^^^ j 

810 guineas was paid, and in the year following the record figure of 1,000 7- ?Vv ^r^'%K>*fiu^K^ 

guineas was reached. They form, when appropriately framed, charming llicrp f-r^ *i U4-J,j2 ! 

wall decorations and harmonise well with the old-fashioned furniture now ^^oO^i^^^ 4r*^^firtit 

so popular. (^ti. ^^. S-L^'<^. ^^ 

Complete sets of uniformly fine impressions rarely occur together, and ' '■ 

the difficulty of making up sets is only too well known to the collector. In 

1906, Messrs. Graves published the 13 " Cries " engraved, for the first time, in I 

mezzotint, by the well-known engraver, Mr. Thos. G. Appleton, who devoted 
many years of careful labour to their production ; the edition was limited to 

250 sets of artist's proofs in black, and 250 sets printed in colour direct from 1 

the engraved plates ; the price of each set was 30 guineas. 

Reference has already been made to the obsolete character of nearly 
all the various " Cries " as pictured by Wheatley. The knife and scissors 
grinder and the hawker of turnips and carrots are the sole survivors of the 
13 trades ; but the former no longer " cries " his calling, and the raucous- 
throated hawker of carrots and turnips is not at all reminiscent of the 
picturesque ruffian of Wheatley's time. 

Books and portfolios of "London Cries" constitute a considerable 
literature, but we can only refer to a few. In 1804, Richard Phillips, the 
well-known publisher, issued a folio of 29 coloured plates of the " Cries of 
London," by Craig and others, each figure depicted before a noted building, 
street or square of the Metropolis, i.e., St. James's Palace, Portman, Hanover 
and Russell Squares, Newgate and Billingsgate, Covent Garden, Blackfriars 
Bridge, and so forth, with text describing both the subject and the district. 
Another work, published in 1819, was T. L. Busby's " Costumes of the 
Lower Order of London," designed and engraved from nature, with 
descriptive letterpress; there are 24 coloured plates of "Cries" in this 
book. One of the last books of " Cries of London " was published in 1824 
by Harvey and Darton (a new edition was printed 12 years later), and in 
this little book 44 "Cries" are illustrated, and of these, only two — 
" Muffins " and " Sweep " — have survived. A still later book on the subject, 
and one of the best of its kind, was published in 1839, with 30 fine etchings, 
from rare engravings or drawn from the life, by John Thomas Smith, at one 
time keeper of the prints in the British Museum. 

Mr. W. G. Menzies has compiled an interesting list of the sales in 
London since 1901 of the separate " Cries," and these prices will show, not 
only the various fluctuations during the past eight years, but, in a way, act 
as a guide to those who are collecting. The examples quoted were 
all printed in colours: 








C s. 



s. d. 


... 1901 

17 17 

Milk Below, Maids 

.. 1904 




... 1902 

24 3 

Sweet China Oranges ... 

.. 1904 


4 6 

New Mack'rel 

... 1902 

28 7 


.. 1904 



Sweet China Oranges ... 

... 1902 

46 4 

New Mack'rel 

.. 1904 


7 6 

Milk Below, Maids 

... 1902 


Milk Below, Maids ... 

.. 1904 


New Mack'rel 

... 1902 

39 18 

Sweet China Oranges ... 

.. 1904 



... 1902 

17 17 


.. 1904 




... 1902 

13 13 

Milk Below, Maids 

.. 1905 


2 6 


... 1902 

35 14 


.. 1905 


1 6 


... 1902 


Sweet China Oranges ,. 

.. 1905 




... 1902 

32 10 


.. 1905 



Sweet China Oranges... 

... 1902 

32 10 


.. 1907 




... 1902 

23 10 

Sweet China Oranges ... 

.. 1907 



Milk Below ... 

... 1902 

26 10 

New Mack'rel 

.. 1907 



Sweet China Oranges... 

... 1903 

35 14 

Milk Below, Maids 

.. 1907 


New Mack'rel 

... 1903 

40 19 

Sweet China Oranges ... 

.. 1907 


New Mack'rel 

... 1903 

23 12 


New Mack'rel 

.. 1907 



... 1903 

25 4 

New Mack'rel 

.. 1908 




... 1903 

29 8 

Milk Below Stairs 

.. 1908 


Milk Below, Maids 

... 1903 

33 12 

Sweet China Oranges ... 

.. 1908 



New Mack'rel 

... 1903 

30 9 

Sweet China Oranges: 
and New Mack'rel 

.. 1908 


5 6 


... 1903 

15 4 


New Mack'rel 

... 1904 


New Mack'rel 

.. 1908 



[Proof with single line of inscription in etched letters.] 



[It must be pointed out that the earlier Catalogues of the Royal Academy were compiled with the 
greatest carelessness. Different issues of that of one year frequently show serious differences. The 
same remark applies to the Catalogues of the Society of Artists; in the case of the latter, some of those 
of 1775 only enumerate nine exhibits by Wheatley, in others twelve works are given under his name. 
The Anderdon set of Catalogues of both institutions in the British Museum appear to be of the earlier 
issues. We have taken Mr. Algernon Graves' entries in the " Royal Academy Exhibitors," and the 
companion volume of "The Society of Artists" as likely to be the fullest.] 


Duke's Court, Bow Street, Covent Garden. 

1765. 155 Portrait of a gentleman ; three-quarters. 

1766. 184 Miniature of a gentleman. 

1768. 179 Small whole-length of a gentleman. 

At Mr. Turner's, Surgeon, St. Martin's Lane. 

1770. 148 A Conversation. 

149 Portrait of a child ; in crayons. 

150 ditto gentleman ; ditto 

1771. 184* Portrait of a lady ; in crayons. 
185* ditto 

186* ditto 

(Elected F. S. A.) 

The Corner of the Little Piazza, Covent 

1772. 374 A Scene in " Twelfth Night," Act III. 

(The Duel). 

375 A small whole-length of a lady. 

376 A portrait of a lady ; in crayons. 

377 ditto gentleman ; ditto 
(Director F.S.A.) 

1774. 322 A portrait of a gentleman ; small whole- 


323 ditto ditto 

324 ditto ditto 

325 A Study on the Coast of the Isle of 

Wight, the figures by Mr. Mortimer. 

326 ditto from nature ; a landscape. 

327 ditto ditto 

328 A Kitcat ; small whole-length. 

1775, 299 A portrait of a gentleman. 

300 ditto small whole-length. 
















310 A 

portrait of a lady. 
n Offering to Concord — A family, 
small whole-length of a gentleman. 
Landscape — A study from nature. 

ditto ditto 

ditto ditto 

ditto ditto 

ditto ditto 

portrait of a lady, whole-length {large 

as life, in the character of the Muse 

View near Battersea. 

Jermyn Street. 


1776. 133 Portrait of an Officer. 

Mr. Webster in the character of Comus. 
Gentlemen Returned from Hunting. 
A View of the Breakwater at Sheerness. 
Ditto, part of Rochester Bridge Castle. 
A Landscape ; study from nature. 
Ditto, view on the Banks of the Medway. 
A lady and her two children ; small 

161 A family ; ditto. 

162 A Landscape ; a study from nature. 

163. Ditto. 

164. Portraits of two gentlemen. 


1783. 320. Review of the Irish Volunteers in the 
Phoenix Park, Dublin. 


1779. 176 A whole-length of a lady. 


Jermyn Street. 

1778. 333 Portraitsofa family; small whole-length 

334 ditto ditto 

335 A Wood Scene, with Gypsies Telling a 


336 View near Ivy Bridge, Devonshire. 

337 View near Boxhill, Surrey ; and 

1780. 407 View of Conway Castle ; and drawing. 
408 ditto ditto 

36 Gerrard Street. 

1784. 55 Portrait of a gentleman (Mr. Swiney). 
91 Part of Donnybrook Fair, in Ireland. 


1784. 100 View of the Salmon Leap at Leixlip, in 

178 Portrait of a gentleman (Mr. Swiney). 
214 Portrait of a gentleman. 

23 Welbeck Street. 

1785. 147 View in Lancashire. 
163 An Amorous Sportsman. 

1786. 66 Portrait of a gentleman ; small whole- 

107 ditto ditto 

194 Brickmakers. 

237 Girl Making Cabbage Nets at a Cottage 

458 Portrait of a lady ; drawing. 




1787. 133 A Girl Feeding a young Bird. 

212 The Recruiting Officer. 

178S. 8 Girl with Water Cresses. 

12 The Rescue. 

31 Mr. Howard offering Relief to Prisoners 

37 Girl Returning from Market, and Count- 
ing her .Money. 

95 Peasants Relieving an Old Soldier. 

39S Portrait of a lady (Mrs. Wheatley). 

49 Upper Charlotte Street. 

1789. 17 Portrait of a nobleman returning from 

shooting. (Duke of Newcastle), and 
Col. Litchfield; View of Clumber 
60 Children with a Bird-catcher. 

145 Study; from nature. 

217 Wheelwrights Shop ; study from nature 

1790. 34 The Charitable Milkmaid. 
161 Preparing for Market. 

196 Jaques and the Wounded Stag. From 

" As you Like It." 
241 Evening. From Cuningham's Poem. 
247 A Cottage in Cumberland. 
290 A Pilgrim. 

436 Portrait of a gentleman. 

(Elected R.A.) 

1791. 30 Cottage Children called to Supper. 

85 Portrait of a gentleman with a horse 
and spaniel (Mr. Bond Hopkins). 
223 A Pedlar at a Cottage Door. 

1792. 56 One of the Cries of London. 
72 ditto ditto 

107 The Maternal Blessing. 
116 One of the Cries of London. 
119 The Offer of .Marriage. 
137 The Wedding .Morning. 
147 A Harvest Dinner. 
155 The Happy Fireside. 
169 One of the Cries of London. 
383* ditto ditto 

384* ditto ditto 

437 Morning — a farmyard. 
453 Evening — a farmyard. 

1793 8 One of the Cries of London. 

10 ditto ditto 

14 ditto ditto 

27 ditto ditto 

81 Portrait of a gentleman, his lady and 



114 Ploughing. 

125 Companion. 

131 One of the Cries of London. 

135 ditto ditto 

202 Baptism. 

303 Morning — Cottagers going out Hay- 

314 The Fairing. 

326 Scene from the Camp at Bagshot Heath. 

547 The Farmyard. 

66 Queen Anne Street, East. 

122 Spring. 

187 Winter. 

215 Portrait of a lady (.Mrs. Donaldson). 

312 Portrait of a lady (.Mrs. Woodcock). 

407 The Redbreast ; vide Thomson's 
" Seasons " — Winter. 

53 One of the Cries of London. 

63 The Good-natured Boy. 

92 The Hospitable Farmer. , 

97 One of the Cries of London. 

412 Portrait of a lady (.Mrs. Monro). 

610 Portrait of a lady (.Mrs. Wheatley). 

Bath, or at Mr. Farington's. 

1797. 126 A Gypsie's Theft Detected. 

51 Warren Street, Fitzroy Square. 

1798. 568 A Landscape. 

20 Charles Street, Middlesex Hospital. 

1800. 311 Scene from the " Deserted Village," for 

Du Roveray's edition of Goldsmith's 

"The good old sire, the first prepar'd 

to go 
To new found worlds, and wept for 

others' woe, " etc. 
Scene from the " Deserted Village," for 

Du Roveray's edition of Goldsmith's 

'Ah, turn thine eyes 
Where yon poor houseless shiv'ring 

female lies," etc. 




♦ The Times of May 28. 1789, in noticing this picture said : *' Wheatley shines in his portrait of the Duke of Newcastle returning 
from Shooting, The lilteness of his Grace is inimitably well-preserved, and the horses, dogs and dead game are excellent. This is one of 
the best in the room." 



Although the last decade of the 18th century appears to have been the artist's most prosperous 
period, his increasing infirmities, owing to the repeated attacks of his old enemy, the gout, would seem 
to have greatly curtailed his money-earning talents. It is difficult otherwise to account for the two 
days' sale of the "elegant household furniture," plate, linen, china, books, a "fine-toned organised 
pianoforte," and indeed the whole contents of the artist's residence generally, held by Mr. Christie on 
Monday and Tuesday, January 12th and 13th, 1795, on the premises, at "No. 14, on the west side of 
Russell Place." The following list of drawings and pictures, with prices realised and purchasers 
names, are taken from Mr. Christie's own catalogue, in which, it is curious to note, that lots 58 to 67 
are marked as being the property of Mrs. Wheatlcy, whilst lots 68 to 70 are marked as the property of 
a Mr. MiUington, who apparently bought in lot 68. 



18 Maria, a fine drawing in colours 

20 Two views in colours, Conway Castle 

25 Rural Life ; domestic scene, two interiors 

58 Farm Yard 

59 Cottage, evening 

60 Labourer's Return. . 

61 Winter 

62 ditto 

63 Camp Scene 

64 ditto 

65 Cottage and figures 

66 Ryswick Lake 

67 Girl with Water Cresses 

Prices Realised. 


.. £1 3s. 


.. £1 7s. 


.. £1 17s. 

Dr. Munro 

. . £3 3s. 


.. £3 10s. 

H. P. 

.. £3 10s. 








.. £1 Is. 


.. £1 3s. 


.. £3 10s. 


.. £3 7s. 



68 Stable 'Vard with Horses and Pigs .. .. .. .. £16 5s. 6d. Millingtcn 

69 The Potter Going to iVIarket, with a Storm Approaching;] 

morning .. .. .. .. .. • £24 3s. Thompson 

70 A Woodman Returning Home ; evening . . . . j 

rHE Fa I 

THE MISTLETOE BOUGH (canvas, 22111. X i8in.) 

Bv Francis Wheatlcy, R.A. 

Reproduced by kind permission of Messrs. Slieplierd Bros. 


By y. Dean, after F. Wluatley 

THE HARVEST HOMP; (canvas, 22111, X iSin.j 

By Francis M'hcatlty, K.A. 

Keprodiuc-:/ hy kinJ pcnxisiiiin nf Missis. Slu-plienl liros. 

[?l (ifUi F. W lua:Uy, R A. 



By II'. Il'«r,/, aft,-r F. Wlu-alln', K-A. 

From II Print in tlw [^osses^iiin nf Messrs. P. >j^ D. Colnai^lii ts^ Co. 

By Vcndraiiiliii, after F. IVIicalIfy, R.A. 

SIR HENRY PIGOT, G.C.M.G. (I75O — 184O) 

By Fiaiuis U'lualley, R.A. 

From a Ptiinlin^ in llu' f'osst'sslon ol Messrs. TIios. Agticrc (s^ Sons 



B\' I'raiicis \Vhi-atlf\\ R.A. (From a Drmving 16J /h. x 'i.S.V jy/. in lite Victoria and Albert Miisfiiii 

By Francis Wheatley, R.A. (From a Drawing 12Jih. x 18J in. in the Victoria and Alheit Muscnm) 


2 ^ 

OS r= 

3 = 

a — 


a! ^ 

a . 


in . 

a — 


Ftom n Print by J. WhesseH, afUr F. \Vlicat!,y, R A. 

Ill the possissioti of Messrs. Maggs Bros. 


From a Print by J. Wliessell, aft-r F. IVIuatUy, R.A. 
In the possession of Messrs. Mag^s Bros. 

•*^^^:t jr~ ^ 


From a Print by Bartolozsi, after Westall 

In the possession of Messrs. Parsons &> Sons 

One of the Set of Seasons, by Wheatley &■ Wesfnll 


From a Py'nit by B irtolo:.'/i. n/'tir A'. W'tsltill 

In Iht' possissiuH of Mi'isis. Parsons i^ Sons 

Lhu- of the S.t of Stusons, hv WhfatUy f- Wtstall 



F. WhealUy, R.A. 

Fmn llie engiariiig ii F. Bartolozzi 

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By C. Turner, after F. Wheatley. R.A. 


By C. Turner, after F. Wheatley, R.A. 

NYMPHS BATIHN-i, /; , R / , 

/ Wluc,ll,y. K A. 

RURAL REl'OSE By T . Gcremia, after F . WluatUy, R.A. 


By Francis Wheatley, R.A. 

From a Drawing 182 '"• X 1 1 J/h., 17S6, in llic Viitona and Albert Mnseiin 


Bv Francis W'licatUy, R.A. 

Iwom a Drawing 13^ oi. x llJJ;i., 17S«, in tin- Victjria ami Albeit Museum 



By F. W/iealhj, K.A. 

From a Druj^-ing 8^ ///. v ,S;^ ///., 17H;i, in t'u- Soauc Museum 


From a Print by Barloluzzi after F. Wlu-atUy, R.A., 

in till- fiossfssion of Messrs. Parsons &■• Sons 

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Ftnm a Print by J. .U. Delaire, aftc>- /•'. Whtatley, R.A. 

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X.W 111. 



Bv y. M. Delatrc. after /•". Wkcatlcy, R.A. 

Fioiii a Priiil ill ///(■ possession of Mfssrs. M{i<^gs Bros. 

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Ffoni a Painting by Francis Wheatley, R.A. 

In the pussi:,siou of Clias. Bulnnaun, Esq. 

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RUSTIC SYMPATHY. By C . Kfatiiii;. nflir F. Wlii-alhy. R.A 

RUSTIC tiENEYOLENCK. By . Kcattllg , UJ tir 1- . \\ licatiiy , 1< ^A . 



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VIEW IN PRIORV GARDENS. By SiUulby, \Vli,:allcy iS- Mortimer. 
From the Water-colour Drau-iiig, 23J()i. x37.i;H., in The Soaiie Museum. 

A COTTAGE 1 .\ L L Ml'.L KLAN 1 >. I r.iiii a Painting by !■' . WJuatley, R.A. {Canvas, \(.t in. \22 in.) 
By permission of Messrs. Shepherd Bros., 21 King Street, St. jfanies's, London 

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From a Painting by F. Wlicutley, R.A. 

By permission of Messrs. Shifi/icrd Bros., 27 King Street, St. James's, London 




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Till; RIOTS IN 1780. By yaiiics Hcalh, ajtcr F. Wheatlcy , R A. 

IRISH PEASANTRY CROSSING A BROOK. By K. Earlom, after !•'. W'healU) , K.A. 


SHAKESPEARE. WlNTEn's TALE, ACT IV., SCENE 111. By J . Fittlfr, after I- . W lieath-r , R.A . 

JIVENILI. OlT'USnToX. By J ■ Mar.,. ,,ju i 1 . Wluallcy, K.A. 



By Francis Whralley, R.A. 

From a Draii'iii" in the posscssiuii of Messrs. Thos. Ai^juir &• Sons 


Engravings after F. Wheatley. 

THE following list of Engravings is drawn up from a number of sources, the chief of which is the 
collection in the Print Room of the British Museum. It does not claim to be complete, but the 
number which have escaped notice cannot be large. Many of the titles are derived from such 
unsatisfactory sources as sale and print-sellers' catalogues, in which dates are rarely given ; in 
some cases the dates of publication are not given on the prints themselves, and in others the prints have 
been cut so close to the margin that the dates are wanting. The arrangement here followed is chrono- 
logical where the dates are obtainable, and aphabetical according to the titles of undated pictures. 
Generally speaking, and except where otherwise mentioned, the engravings are in stipple or line, and the 
measurements are of the engraved surface, height being given first and width following. The chief 
abbreviations are c.p. (colourprints) ; p.b.l. (proof before letters) ; and o.p.b.l. (open proof before letters). 
Companion engravings are grouped together. Owing to the haphazard way in which prmts are sometimes 
catalogued, and the difficulty of examining all which come into the market at long intervals, it is possible 
that a few appear in the following list under two titles. The " Cries of London " will be found dealt 
with together on pp. 28-32 ;— 


Date. Title. Engraver. 

Christian VII. of Denmark (1749-1808). 
1768, Sept. 19 - • - - - - F. \Vheati.e\, ad vivumdelint et fecit. 

Half-length, in oval frame, directed to front, facing and looking to right, star, sash. 

13gin. by lOin. 
[Christian VII. married Nov. 8th, 1766, Caroline Matilda, daughter of 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, and was in England for a time, during which 
Wheatley would have seen him. This print was published at one shilling] 

Miss Younge, with Messrs, Dodd, Love, and Waldron in the characters of Viola, Sir Andrew 

Aguecheek, Sir Toby Belch and Fabian. "Twelfth Night," Act IV. 
1774, March 1 - - - - - - - - - J. R. Smith. 

Whole lengths, standing, towards left Miss Younge as Viola, turban and plume, right hand 
holding sword, which trails on ground, supported by Waldron on left, black dress, white 
collar; Dodd towards right, unwillingly trying to draw his sword ; Love behind him to right, 
endeavouring to encourage him ; in background large trees, landscape in distance. 

20in. by 17in. 

1779, March 10 - - - - - T. Watson. 

Half figure, directed and facing to left, looking upwards, hair in large pleats, veil, dress loose, 
exposing bosom, holding vase containing the heart of Guiscardo. 

Mez. login, by SJin. 
[ ? Mrs. Siddons.] 1903, 1st state, 5 guineas. 

1779, March 10 - - - - - - . - - T. Watson. 

Nearly to waist, directed to right, looking to front, flowers twined in hair, loose dress, left 
hand holding lighted torch, gold band round right arm. 

Mez. 10|in. by 5Jin. 
["Conjectured" to be Emma Hart, afterwards Lady Hamilton, whom it 
certainly does not represent.] 

1779 .......... T.Watson. 

[Mentioned by Le Blanc, probably in error for one of the two preceding.] 

Old English Baron. 
1779-80. - - - - . . . . - p. Delatre. 

Interior with three figures — monk, youth and girl holding a pearl necklace and locket (" Old 
English Baron," p. 97). 

14Jin. by llin. 
[" The Old English Baron," a novel by Clara Reeve, was first published 
in 1777, underthe title of " The Champion of Virtue : A Gothic Story," which, 
in the second and subsequent editions, was renamed with the more familiar 
title. The engraving was probably published circa 1779-80.] 


DATED EJiGRXVlNGS— continued. 
Date. Title. Engrraver. 

Rustic Happiness. 
]7gQ _...----■- J. Lauder. 

Scene at a rustic stile beneath an aged tree, with distant landscape to left; peasant youth 
in smock holding large stick ; on opposite side of stile, girl in low dress, blue bodice and 
pink skirt, with inilk-pail on right arm, left hand held by youth ; dog to right. 
^ ISJin. by i:»Jin. 

[A companion to " Rustic Contentment," after Backer, by W. H. Brooke.] 

Antliony Wcbsler as " Coiiius." 

1781, Jan. 10 - ■ - - - " " " " "• Kingsbury. 

Whole-length mcz., 20in. by 14. 

1906, £1 15s. 

Henry Gmtlnii, M.P. 

1782, Sept. 10 - - - • - - - - - V. Green. 

Mez., 14|in. by lOf in. 

Sir Barnard Turner, Kt. (1784). 

J783 . . i . - - - . . James Walker. 

Whole-length as Major or Colonel of the Hon. Artillery Co. 

1908, £8 15s. 

Volunteers of the City and County 0/ Dublin. 
1784, May 10 - - - - - - - " - J. CoLLYER. 

le^in. by 25in. 

The Amorous Sportsman. 

J7S6 - • - - - • ■ - C. H. HODOBS. 

Scene in a wooded dell, with three children, two of whom are standing by a donkey, whilst 

the other is on the donkey's back ; the sportsman is embracing a young woman in low dress 

and white head-dress ; dogs, gun and rabbits or hares to left. 

1907, 7 guineas. 

A Lover's Auger. 
1786, August 29 ..------- P.Simon. 

Interior with two figures— young man in dark coat, breeches, fancy waistcoat, white 
stockings, and curly wig, seated at a table with books and writing material, holding his 
watch and pointing at the time ; young woman dressed in white with large Gainsborough 
hat ; she is standing beside his chair and exposing her bosom. 

" ' Lord bless me,' said she ; ' let a body but speak : 
Here's an ugly hard rose-bud fall'n into my neck; 
It has hurt me, and vex'd me to such a degree — 
See here I for you never believe me ; pray see. 
On the left side of my breast what a mark it has made ! ' 
So saying, her bosom she careless display'd: 
That seat of delight I with wonder survey'd. 
And forgot every word I design'd to have said." 

Prior's " A Lover's Anger." 
I2Jin. by lOin. 

Celadon and Celia. 
1786 August 29 " Love is a jest and vows are vain." P.Simon. 

fnterior with table, on which is tea-urn ; young man, with left hand lifted, making a vow to 
young woman in white dress ; another man crouching under bed to left. 
" He thank'd her on his bended knee ; 
Then drank a quart of milk and tea : 
And leaving her ador'd embrace, 
Hasten'd to court, to beg a place. 
While she, his absence to bemoan, 
The very moment he was gone, 
Call'd Thyrsis from beneath the bed 1 
Where all this time he had been hid." 

Prior's " To a 'Young Gentleman in Love." 

[This is probably the print sometimes catalogued with the title of 

" Deception," by P. Simon."] ^^^^^ ^^ ^3 ^^^ 

St. Preux and Julia. 

From Rousseau's " New Eloisa," Vol. III. p. 8. 

1786 Designed and etched by Wheatley. R. Pollard. 

20in. by H^in. 


DATED ENGRAVttiGS— continued. 
Date. Title. Engraver. 

The Companion. 
1786 Designed and etched by Wheatley. R. Pollard . 

20in. by 14|in. 

[A third engraving inspired by the same story, " Eloisa Meditating on St. 
Preux's Letter," an oval, lljin. whole length, figure in white dress seated 
under a tree, holding a letter, without engraver's name and date, is some- 
times met with.] 

1899, c.p. 5 guineas. 

Rustic Lovers. 

1787, March 31 [? after F. Wheatley.] No name. 

Interior with young woman in while low dress, striped under-dress, yellowish shawl, and 
white mob cap with red ribbon, seated at a spinning-wheel, feeding a cat with milk ; youth 
in blue coat leaning over chair and slyly pulling cat's tail. 

17in. by 14in. 

Love in a Mill. 
1787, June 1 - - - - - - - - - J. M. Delatre. 

Interior with two young peasants, the man pouring flour into a sack held by the woman ; 
dog to right. 

16|in. by 13Jin. 

The Discovery. 
[The Companion, undated] - - - - - - - - R. Stanier. 

Interior with two figures, mother and daughter, the former discovering and reading letter 
which begins "Dear Sue." 

16iin. by ISJin. 

1903-5, £25 to 28 guineas. 

The Four Phials. 
From Marmontel's " Moral Tales." 
1787, June 14 --------- W. Ward. 

12in. by 12in. 

The Samnite Marriages. 

From Marmontel's " Moral Tales." 

1787, June 14 --------- W. Ward. 

12in. by 12in. 

1902, c.p., the pair £34. 
The Sailor's Return. 
1787, June 14 - - ...... W. Ward. 

20in. by 14in. 

The Soldier's Return. 
1787, June 14 --------- W. Ward. 

20in. by 14in. 

1899, the pair, c.p., 20 guineas. 

1787, July 21 - . ..----- J. HoGG. 

Beautiful young girl under trees, in white low dress, with blue sash and slippers, straw hat 
bound with white ribbon, right hand on open rustic g-'Ue, left hand offering clover or grass 
to sheep. " As they advanced towards one of the huts, they saw a flock going that way, 
conducted by a shepherdess whose gait astonished them." 

From Marmontel's Tales, " Shepherd of the Alps." 
12iin. by 12iin. 

1908, in brown, £17 5s. 

The Love-sick Maid. 
1787, Nov. 15 --------- J- Dean. 

The Marriage. 
1787, Nov. 13 --------- J- Dean. 

[Two in "The Progress of Love" series, of which the other two were after 
G. Morland, "Valentine's Day" and "The Happy Family," by the same 
engraver, and published by him on the same day.] 

1901, 0.1. p., 8 guineas. 

The Relentless Father. 

[? 1787-8] - - - • - - - - W. N. Gardiner. 

Cottage door scene, with three figures— father, in blue coat, refusing shelter to his daughter 

holding infant, and in pink low skirt with yellowish overdress and mob-cap; behind her a 

youth in brown coat, blue waistcoat and breeches, left hand round girl's waist. 

12in. by lOin. 


DATED ENGRAVmCS— continued. 
Date. Title. Engraver. 

The Tender Father. 
Cottage interior ; elderly father with long, grey hair ; girl in pink skirt, white low bodice 
and mob-cap, weeping and holding apron up to her eyes ; beside her youth kneeling, in blue 
coat and reddish waistcoat, and knee-breeches. 

12in. by lOin. 

1909, the pair, c.p., £3 15s. 

Mrs. Wheatley. 
1788, March 4 - - - • - - - - - R. Stanier. 

Oval lengthways, with four lines of verse. 

1903-7, c.p., 16 guineas to 21 guineas. 

Benevolent Cottagers ; or, Cottagers Relieving a Beggar. 

1788, March 21 - - - - - ■ - ". '^^'- Nutter. 

Scene by cottage door, with peasant woman, surrounded by three children, pouring alms 
into the hat of a beggar, who is seated to left. 

17in. by 13Jin. 

1906, bistre, 5^ guineas. 

1788 - - - - - - - - - - V. M. PicoT. 

Two lovers surprised in a shed by the girl's mother, who is waving a broom in a 
threatening manner. 

9in. by 11 Jin. 

1788 - - - - - - - - - - V. M. PicoT. 

Interior of a bedroom, with two girls, one of whom is showing the other gifts which she has 
received ; through the open door the mother and father are seen approaching. 

9in. by llAin. 


1789, Jan. 1 - - - - - - - • ' . ''• HOGO. 

Girl in low cut dress holding lamb which she has rescued from the water. " She was in the 
happy moment to rescue the little innocent from the irresistible violence of the torrent, and 
as she fondly hurried with it up the precipice, a smile of ineffable sensibility triumphed in 
her eyes." 

12in. by 12in. 

Summer (Mrs. Troward). 
1789, Feb. 1 - - - - - - - • F. Bartolozzi. 

7Jin. by Sin. 
[The model for this picture was Mrs. Whcatley's sister, Sarah Leigh, wife 
of Richard Troward.] 

Winter {Mrs. Wheatley). 
1789, Feb. 1 - . - - • - - - • F. Bartolozzi. 

[The plates of both these engravings, with the companion pair of " Spring " 
and "Autumn," after Westall, appear to have been in existence up to a 
few years since, as a firm of booksellers was offering impressions at 12s. 6d. 
each. The size of each plate is given as 6Jin. by 4Jin., and so the originals 
may have been cut down.] 

7Jin. by 6in. 

48 guineas. 

Lauretta and the Goldfinch. 
1789, March 1 - - - ■ - - - - F. Bartolozzi. 

From Marmontel's " Moral Tales." 
I2in. by 12in. 

The Return from Market. 
1789, April 21 --■-■-■- C. Knioht. 

16Jin. by ISJin. 

The Disaster. 

1789, July 26 - ■ - - • ■ - • ^V. Ward. 

[A pendant of " The Widow's Tale," after J. R. Smith, by W. Ward ; both 

published by J. R. Smith, King Street, Covent Garden, one on June 2nd, 

and the other on July 26th, 1789.] 

21Jin. by 20iin. 

1903-5, 27 guineas to 28 guineas. 



Date. Title, Engraver. 

The Temptation. 

1789, Aug. 1 - - From Sterne's " Sentimental Journey " (Vol. II.) - - J. M. Delatrb. 

Interior, with two figures — middle-aged man wearing grey wig, seated at a writing bureau 
and holding pen, looking up at a young woman in white low dress and mob-cap; she is 
leaning on top of desk and is holding out the small ink-pot to her companion. "The fair 
fille-de-chambre came close up to the bureau where I was looking for a card — took up first 
the pen I cast down, then offered to hold me the ink ; she offered it so sweetly, I was going 
to accept it — but I durst not — I have nothing, my dear, said I, to write upon — Write it, said 
she, simply, upon anything — I was just going to cry out. Then I will write it, fair girl 1 upon 
thy lips." 

[" The Act of Charity" is the title of a print by the same engraver (? after 
Wheatley), sometimes sold with the above as a companion.] 

llfin. by llfin. 

1908, c.p., p.b.l., with large margins, £22 10s. 

Alms Giving. 
1789, Aug. 1. - - - - - - - - - - - - J. M. Delatre. 

[Apparently the companion print of " The Temptation," and published 
by Ann Bryer, 5 Poland Street, Soho.] 

12in. circle. 

The Full of the Honey-moon. 
1789, Sept. 1 ..-..-.-. R. Laurie. 

The Wane of the Honey-moon. 
1789, Sept. 1 ......... R. Laurie. 

The pair, 1904, £22. 
The Show. 

1789, Nov. 25 . - . - - . . - .p. Bartolozzi. 

Group of seven children in landscape, one boy acting as showman ; to right rustic cottage 
with birdcage. (Tuer, No. 964.) 

The Fair. 
Group of five children outside a stall, and playing with various toys, the boy in centre with 
small drum ; trees and cottages to right. (Tuer, No. 963.) 

5|in. by B^in. 
These are two of four pictures of child-life, engraved after Wheatley, by Bartolozzi. The others are : 

Children Playing and Children at Play. (Tuer, Nos. 934, 957.) 

The Riots in 1780. 

1789 --........ James Heath. 

The Gorden Riots, on June 7th, with the military firing on the mob at the corner of New 
Broad Street. 

16|in. by 23Jin. 

1901, p.b.l., 10 guineas. 

jfohn Howard Relieving Prisoner. 

1790, April 9 ..--.... . James Hogo. 

22Jin. by 17Jin. 


1790 . - . . . . . . . - J. F. Bolt. 

A folio print mentioned in a German catalogue. 

Van der Myn, " The Smoker." 
circa 1790 . - (After Van der Myn) - - - F. Wheatley. 

Half-length, seated, directed and facing in profile to right, right hand holding pipe to candle 
on table, left hand holding copy of The Daily Advertiser. 

Mezzotint, 12Jin. by 9in. 
[Herman Van der Myn (1684-1741), portrait painter, born in Amsterdam; 
resided in London 1718-36 and 1741.] 

The Wheelbarrow. 

1791, Jan. 8 - . . - . . . . . J. M. Delatre. 

Group of five children in a landscape, boy wheeling barrow, in which one of the little girls 
is seated. 

5Jin. by 6Jin. 

1906, bistre, p.b.l., 5J guineas ; c.p., £13. 



Date. Title. Engraver. 

The Turkey-cock. 

1791, June 8 .--..--- - J. M. Delatre. 

Group of five children in a landscape near a cart, small boy protecting the others from a 
turkey-cock seen to left. 

Sfin. by 6Jin. 

1907, the pair in bistre, 12J guineas. 

Filial Piety, 

1792, March 12 - ■ - - - - - ' . " f EoiNTON. 

Father in sick bed, child in white dress and mob-cap with pink ribbons, kneeling by bedside. 

12in. by lOin. 

The Affectionate Daughter. 
1792, March 12 -------- - J. Eointon. 

Two small whole-length figures in a cottage, mother seated at a spinning-wheel, daughter in 
light low dress, offering her money in outstretched hand. 

12in. by lOin. 

[? 1792, May 5] 

[? 1792] 
1792, Nov. 10 

1792, Nov. 10 

1793, Feb. 

Lindor and Clara. 

I3Jin. by lUin. 

The Companion. 

Setting out to the Fair. 

21|in. by ISin. 

The Fairings. 

21|in. by 18in. 

Morn ing. 


J. Eginton. 

J. Eointon. 
1905, c.p. the pair, 42J guineas. 

J. Barney. 

Group outside farm buildings; two youthful carters, one on white horse, the other leading 
dark horse and carrying small basket in one hand and pitchfork in the other ; girl in white 
low dress drawing water from a rustic well. 

Mez., ISin. by 23|in. 

1793, Feb. ...---... j. Barney. 

Group of four figures outside farm buildings ; carter on horseback watering three horses in 
shallow pond; three women, one holding harvest rake on shoulder and small harvester's 
beer-barrel; a second is pouring milk from a small wooden pail into a larger one, the third 
woman conversing ; broom and barrow, with rustic shed to left. 

Mez., ISin. by 23^in. 

1793, Jan. 

1795, Feb. 20 

1794, March 20 

1794, March 27 

Death of Richard II. 

12iin. by SJin. 

Alfred at the House of the Xeatherd. 

The Schoolmistress. 

From Shenstone's " Schoolmistress. 

13|in. by 17|in. 


A. Smith. 

VV. Bromley. 

J. Coles. 
1908, c.p., £6 103. 


Whole-length of a child in a garden, holding with right arm pinafore of roses, and plucking 
other flowers with left hand ; basket of flowers on ground. 

Sin. by 3Jin. 

[This is probably an engraving of "Spring" exhibited at the Royal 

Academy of 1794.] 

1794, April 18 

Morning : Cottagers going out Haymaking. 

■ J. Yeathbbd (pupil of V. Green). 
Mez., 20in. by 25in. 


DATED ENGRAVltiGS— continued. 

Date. Title. Engraver. 

The Smitten Clown. 

1795 [? 1794] Jan. 1 - - . - - . - S. W. Reynolds. 

Rustic scene with two youthful figures in foreground ; youth in long smock declaring his love 

td a girl in light dress, white apron, and straw hat, fastened with ribbon, holding rake ; load 

of hay with horses in background, cottage and labourer in distance. 

" The Little God of soft desires, 
Who wounds kings, lords and country squires, 
At Colin's heart let fly. 
O gen'rous maid, assuage his pain, 
The lad is honest, fond and plain, 
'Twere pity he should die." 

Mez., 13in. by 14fin. 
[This exceedingly scarce engraving, which is not recorded in Whitman's 
" S. W. Reynolds," is very rarely found other than cut close to the plate. 
It has been ascribed to W. Ward. Mr. F. T. Sabin has an example with 
the names of artist and engraver, the date and the verses above quoted. 
The above title may not be strictly accurate, as there is none on Mr, 
Sabin's impression. The date of year is indistinct.] 

1796, Jan. 1 

1797, Jan. 1 

Rustic Sympathy. 


Rustic Benevolence, 

Watercress Girl. 

1796, Jan. 6 - - - - 

Barelegged child, with dog, by a river. 

G. Keating. 

G. Keating. 
1903-5, c.p. the pair, 36 guineas to £50. 

- F. Bartolozzi. 

1796, May 1 

1796, May 1 

lOJin. by 8in. 

The Encampment at Brighton. 

Mez., 19Jin. by 25Jin. 
The Departure from Brighton. 

1903, p.b.!., £2 10s. 


J. Murphy. 

[There are two states of this; one with the dedication, and the other a 
proof with open letters without the dedication.] 
Mez., 19,^in. by 25^in. 

1905, c.p., the pair 42 guineas ; 1906, £22 10s. 


1796, Aug. 1 - - - - - - - - - A. Cardon. 

Whole-length figure of young peasant girl, seated on a rustic style under a tree, looking up 
to right, and holding a letter in both hands, white dress, yellow bodice, straw bonnet; 
milk pail by tree to right. 1903, £2. 

llin. by S^in. 

The Itinerant Potters. 

1797, Jan. 1 - - - - - - - - J. Whessell. 

Group of man and woman, with donkey and paniers containing pots and pans; landscape 
and trees in the background ; stormy sky. 

2]ain. by 18in. 

1905, c.p., 46 guineas. 
The Woodman's Return. 
1802, March 25 [The Companion] - - - - - - - J. Whessell. 

Peasant man and woman carrying wood, two children and dog to right, sheep and 
trees behind. 

21|in. by ISin. 

1905, c.p., 20 guineas. 
Preparing for Market. 
1799, Jan. 7 - - - - - - - - - R. Earlom. 

From the original picture in the possession of B. B. Evans, in the Poultry, who published 
the engraving. 

Mez., 18in. by 23|in. 
[" Going to Labour" is the title of a print, which we have not seen, by the 
same engraver, sometimes sold with the above as a companion.] 

1907, the pair £25. 


DATED EJiGHAVlNGS— continued. 
Date. Title. Engraver. 

Rustic Conversation. 

1799, Jan. 23 - - - - - - - • - T. RiCKARDS. 

Landscape with groups of trees and rustic gate in the foreground ; three figures, two 
women, one of whom is standing and holding a rake, man seated ; cows and cottage, etc. 
to left. 

Sin. by lOin. 

Itinerant Tinker. 

[? as above] - - - - • - - - ' . ^- FREschi. 

Cottage under trees, a tinker seated in the roadway mending kettle, two women looking on. 

8in. by lOin. 
(Perhaps a companion pair.) 

Going out Milking. 

1800, Jan. l .--.----- C. Turner. 

Group of three figures, a young woman and two children. 

Mez., 19in. by 16in. 

The Return from Milking. 
1800, Jan. 1 --------- C. Turner. 

Three figures, the children apparently older than those in the pnidani. 

Mez., 19in. by 16in. 

1903, c.p., the pair, 27 guineas ; 1905, m., 10 guineas. 

[A pair of oil paintings, 13in. by lljin., with the abo%e titles were in the 
Barrett sale referred to on p. 27, and were sold together for 100 gns.] 

Haymakers Going Out. 
1800, Jan. 15 - - - - - - - - J. J. Van Den Berohe. 

Cottage doorway with two children and young peasant woman holding rake and carrying 
basket of provisions. 

12in. by 14in. 

Cottagers Returned. 
1800, Jan. 15 - - - - - - - - J. J. Van Den Berohe. 

Rustic scene at entrance of cottage, with cottager, wife and two children. 

12in. by 14in. 

Rustic Hours : Morning. 
1800, May 3 - - - - - - - - H. Gillbank. 

Five figures, churning. 


1800, June 29 - - - - - - - H. GiLLBANK. 

Five figures at repast in cornfield. 

1800, Sept. 29 - - - - ■ - - - H. Gillbank. 

Figures of labourers returning from work, and other peasants. 

1800 - - - - - • - - - - H. Gillbank. 

Six figures in cottage interior, woman putting baby in cradle, labourer asleep with his head 
leaning on table. 

Each njin. by 22|in. 

1902, set of 4, c.p., 62 guineas. 

[At least two of this series of four appear to have been again engraved by 
Thouvenin, published under the titles "Rustic Employment" and "The 
Happy Family," the latter, 15.Jin. by 21iiD., is apparently the same as 
" Evening " in the above series. They realise about £3, in colours.] 

The Basketmakers. 

1802, Jan. 21 - - - - - - - - - J.Baker. 

Two female figures in the open, one carrying bundle of willows, the other seated, in low 
dress, and mending basket, dog by her side. 

ISJin. by 12in. 



Date. Title. Engraver, 

The Alpine Lovers, 
1802 --..--- Branson [? A. R. Branston] . 

Mountainous scene with two lovers seated beneath tree, sheep to right, cottage to left. 

13Jin. by 12in. 
[A pair, published by MacUlin, of the Poets' Gallery.] 

The Dipping Well in Hyde Park. 

1802 ....-.---. GODBY. 

Group of fine female figures bathing, children, man behind, trees and landscape. 

20Jin. by 25Jin. 
[Companion to " The Drinking Well in Hyde Park," after Spilsbury, and by 
the same engraver.] 

The Return from Shooting. 
1803, Jan. 1 - - - - - - F. Bartolozzi. 

Group of five figures, Henry, second Duke of Newcastle, and others. 

Stipple, 18Jin. by 24Jin. 

1905-6, etched, l.p., 4 guineas to 5J guineas. 
[The companion engraving to "The Return from Coursing," after W. Hamilton.] 

1905, the pair, c p., £39. 

Preparing for Market. 

1803, April • - - • - - - W. Annis. 

Rustic house covered with climbers, trees to left, white horse partly harnessed, against 

which a girl is leaning and talking to driver; young mother and child on steps of entrance 

to cottage to right. 

Going to Market. 
1803, April ......... W. Annis. 

Two figures in a landscape, peasant man on brown horse, young woman in blue dress, 
old-gold bodice and bonnet, on grey horse. 

At Market. 
1803, April ■ - - - - - - - ■ VV. Annis. 

Market scene in country town, church in distance, a waggon ; a stall with woman holding a 
fowl and bargaining with man in red coat. 

Returned from Market. 

1803, April ..-..-.-- W. Annis. 

Porch doorway of same house, with old woman at a spinning-wheel and examining some 
material which the girl has apparently brought back from market ; horse, cart, and empty 
baskets to left. 

A set of four, mez., each 20^in. by 18in. 

1904, c.p., tlie four, 185 guineas. 

The Father's Admonition. 

1803, July 1 -...-.-- L. SCHIAVONETTI. 

13in. by 16^in. 
[The companion print of "The Country Clergyman," after R. Westall.] 

1897, in colours, £16. 

Juvenile Reluctance. 

1804, June 24 ......... J. Alais. 

17Jin. by 21Jin. 

Juvenile Opposition. 
1804, June 24 ......... J. Alais. 

17|in, by 21Jin. 

1906, the pair 15 guineas 

Irish Peasantry Crossing a Brook. 

1807, March 12 - - - . , - - R. Earlom. 

Landscape with cottage to left, and woman hanging out clothes, river in centre with horse 

and loaded dray, woman holding child, the elder child wading ; drover fording ; on left peasant 

with two cows. 

Mez., 18in. by 23Jin. 



Title. Erigrraver. 



The Careless Servant. 

R. M. Meadows. 

R. M. Meadows. 
1906, c.p., the pair 19 guineas. 

J. Barney. 

C. Playter. 
Group of two figures in an out-house ; girl in low white dress baling out pigs-meat from a 
trough ; pig drinking from a running beer-barrel ; youth leaning over trough and whispering 
to the girl ; well seen on the outside. 

12Jin. by lOiin. 

1897, 4 guineas. 

The Careless Milkmaid. 

J, Eginton. 
1899, 5 guineas. 

The jealous Rival. 


A pair of ovals. 

1897, c.p., 20 guineas. 


Michael Sloane. 
Group of nine figures around a church font, clergyman in white gown holding infant, aged 
clerk behind reading the christening service. 

22Jin. by HJin. 

The Conujiunion. 


Group of nine figures, mostly young people, kneeling and taking communion ; figure in black 
seen leaving church. 

22Jin. by 17Jin. 


1902-5, pair in colours, £5 10s. to £6. 

- [? A. Cardon.] 
1908, the pair, c.p., 1908, £13 6s. 

Fidelity Rewarded. 

J. Ogborne. 
Female figure in light dress and mob-cap, seated at a well, giving water to a dog. 

Sin. by 6\\a. 

Fisherman Going Out. 
• • - - - - - - - J. Barney. 

Group of six figures (three children) in front of rustic cottage overhung with trees and by the 
side of river or sea, boat anchored, boy hoisting sail. 

17^in. by 21Jin. 

In colours, £12. 

The Fisherman's Return. 

J. Barney. 
1908, the pair, c.p., £15 10s. 

Girl Reading a Letter. 

- • - - ■ ■ - - . - J. Barney. 

Girl in low red dress and mob-cap with blue ribbon, seated on a stile, holding a letter, milk 
tub beside her. 

[The original drawing, 12in. by lOin., is the property of Mr. F. Sabin. 
A picture of the same subject is referred to on p. 24 ] 

1908, in brown, margin cut to an oval, £3. 

Group of Peasants. 

Group of five peasants in a landscape, at foot of the gnarled trunk of an old tree, at foot of 
which a bare-legged woman is seated ; cows to left. 

7|in. by 9|in. 
[An example of this engraving is to be found in Anderdon's copy of Edwards' 
"Anecdotes of Painters," Print Room, B.M.] 




Henry and Jessy. 

The Industrious Cottager. 
I6Jin. by 13in, 

The Rustic Lover, 

16Jin. by ISgin. 

Lady on Horseback. 
Lady on horseback, with servant following. 

Nymphs Bathing. 


J. Hogg, acquatint by Jukes. 
1905, 12 guineas. 

C. Knight. 

C. Knight. 
The pair, 1908, £8. 

G. T. Stubbs. 
1908, £3 5s. 

R. Pollard, acquatint by F. Jukes. 
Five females, two of whom are bathing in a stream beneath trees and near waterfall, two 
dressing and the other dressed. 

Hjin. by 19Jin. 

Recruiting Officer. 

R. Stanier. 
Two whole length figures in a landscape, officer in iinifo!m oflering a purse to country girl, 
who is in low dress and cape, broad-brimmed straw hat, holding in left arm market basket 
in which the head of a dead fowl is seen. 

16Jin. by ISjin. 

O tempt me not, sir 1 pray. 
Or wish to lead an innocent astray 
To ruin first ; you are inclined, 
And then desert the injur'd maid. 
In virtue's path I wish to move 
A stranger to ungenerous love. 

Rural Repose. 

T. Geremia. 
Landscape with haymakers ; in the centre two women resting, one of whom is asleep ; in the 
background two peasants are lovemaking, dog to right. 

Stipple, IS^in. by 16|i.n. 

Rustic Courtship. 
Two figures of a shepherd and shepherdess seated beneath a tree, dog lying at their feet; 
sheep to right, cottage seen in the distance. 

14in. by ll|in. 
[A closely cut copy of this engraving at Christie's, 22nd March, 1909, lot 137.] 

The School Door. 
(Otherwise " Tenderness Persuading Reluctance.") 

G. Keating. 

The Cottage Door. 

G. Keating. 
1901-3, c.p., the pair from 29 guineas to 36 guineas. 
[" The Curate of the Parish Returned from Duty," after Singleton, by T. 
Burke, is sometimes sold with " The Cottage Door" as a pair.] 

The Strawberry Girl. 

Newly Married Couple taking Farewell of the Mother. 
Visit to the Mother with the Grandchild. 

T. Watson. 
1905, £1 Is. 






1793, June 4 


"Love's Labour Lost." 
Act v., Sc. 2. 

Stipple, lO^in. by 6Jin. 

\V. SivELTON. 

1793, June 4 

■Love's Labour Lost." 
Act IV., Sc. 2. 

Stipple, lOJin. by 6Jin. 

J Neagle. 

1795, June 4 

1795, June 4 

1795, Dec. 1 

1797, Sept. 1 

1795, Dec. 1 

1796, Sept, 29 

1798, April 23 

"Much Ado About Nothing." 

Act III., Sc. 3. 
Borachio, Conrade and Watchman. 

Stipple, 17Jby 23J. 

"Much Ado About Nothing." 

Act v., Sc. 4. 

Antonio, Hero, Beatrice and Ursula, masked. 

Stipple, 17Jin. by 23Jin. 

"All's Well that End's Well." 

Act I., Sc. 3, 
Countess of Rousillon and Helena, 

Stipple, lO^in. by 6|in. 

"All's Well that End's Well." 
The King, Helena and Lords. 

Stipple, lO^in. by 6.Jin. 

" Tempest." 

Act v., Sc. 1. 

Ferdinand and Miranda playing Chess. 


" Comedy of Errors." 

Act I., Scene 1. 

The Shipwreck and Rescue. 

Stipple, lOiin. by B^in. 

" Comedy of Errors." 
Antipotes of Ephesus, Dromio, Countryman, &c. 

Stipple, lOJin. by 6Jin. 

Geokgb Noble. 

Ja.mes Fittler. 

F. Legat. 


Caroline Watson. 

J. Neagle. 

J. Stow 

1817, Jan. 1 

1817, Jan. 1 


" Tvso Gentlemen of Verona." 
Act v., Sc. 4. 

" Ruffian, let got that rude uncivil touch." 

Stipple, 9}in. by Sin. 
(Published by J. Murray.) 

"Henry IV. "—Part IL 
Act IV., Sc. 5. 

"There is your crown ; 
And He that wears the crown immortally 
Long guard it yours." 

Stipple, Sj'in. by Sin. 
(Published by John Murray.) 

R. Rhodes. 

G. Noble. 





















Vignettes for "Bell's British Theatre." 

Title of Subject. Engraved by 

Bickerstaff's " Love in a Village " - - - Grionion. 

Beaumont & Fletcher's " Rule a Wife and Have a Wife " - Hall. 

Dryden's "Spanish Friar" - - - Delatre. 

Gibber's " Careless Husband " - - - Delatre. 

Goldsmith's "She Stoops to Conquer" - - Hall. 

Johnston's "Country Lasses " - - - Heath. 


rWHEATLEY's picture, engraved by Bartoloz^i, and published with the title of "The Deserted Village," may 
ir maynorhave been inspired by Goldsmith's poem; at all events it was ut.hsed, greatly reduced, many 
vears afterwards, as an illustration to the edition of Goldsmith published by F. J. Du Roveray, 1800. Three 
^f the lustrations were after Wheatley, and the rest were after W. Ham,lton. The foUowmg list mcludes 
the BartoTozr.i engraving of 1785. The original drawing of the first named, HJrn. by 25m., .s the property of 
Mr. Herbert H. Raphael, M.P.] 

" The Deserted Village" 

1785 M 1 - - • " ■ " ' ^' ^ARTOLOZZI. 

' ^Cottage door, with trees and flowering hollyhock ; in foreground, group of six flgures-two 
men and two women, one of the latter holding infant, her right arm round necU of elder 
child ; dog to right ; in distance, donkey-cart, with two women and child ; steeple and church 

in distance. 

ISiin. by 17|in. 
* ■' 1903, 28 guineas. 

[Another issue is dated May 1st, 1795.] 

" The Deserted Village." 

,„„„ ^ , -----[?] A- Smith. 

1800, Dec. 1 - - - - ^ ^ 


^Female figure in white low dress, seated, and in distress, on the steps of the entrance to a 
mansion ; carriage with footman seen in distance ; in illustration of the passage : 

"Ah I turn thine eyes 
Where the poor houseless shiv'ring female lies." 
4in. by Sin. 

The same. 
n I .....-- A. Smith. 

[This is a manipulation of the Bartolozzi engraving. The father of the 
family is here seen to left, and is raising his hands in despair and grief. It 
illustrates the passage : 

" Good heaven ! what sorrows gloomed that parting day, 
That called them from their native walks away ; 
When the poor exiles, every pleasure past. 
Hung round the bowers, and fondly looked their last." 

'•The Traveller." 
1800 D 1 - - - - ■ • " - T. Medland. 

Small whole-length figure of a man seated by a river with high banks, leaning on his walking- 
stick ; hat on ground to right ; illustrating the passage : 

" E'en now, where Alpine solitudes ascend, 
I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend ; 
And, placed on high, above the storm's career. 
Look downward where an hundred realms appear." 
4Jin. by Sin. 
[Anderdon suggests that this is an engraving of the picture, " Evening, from Cuningham's 
Poems," exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790.] 

[A pair of scenes from " The Vicar of Wakefield," c.p. proofs before letters, 
1906, 42 guineas.] 



Wheatley contributed to three collections of topographical prints: (1) Thomas Milton's "Collection 
of Select Views from the different Scats of the Nobility and Gentry in Ireland," published in London 
and Dublin before 1794; (2) "Copper-Plate Magazine, or Monthly Cabinet of Picturesque Prints, consisting 
of Sublime and Interesting Viewsof Great Britain and Ireland," 1792-1804 ; and (3) S. Middiman's " Select 
Views in Great Britain," 1784. The re-issue of 1813 of this work contains inferior impressions of the 
plates. The views are all oblong quarto in form, and perfect sets of each production are now rarely 
met with. So far as Wheatley is concerned, his contributions range in date from 1783 to 1795, and 
were respectively as follows : — 


Date. Title of Subject. Engraver. 

1783, July 1 Malahide Castle, Co. Dublin - - - - . T. Milton 

1783, July 1 Marino, seat of the Earl of Charlemont - - - T.Milton 

1786, March 1 Howth House - - - - - . T. Milton 

1786, March 1 Castle of Lismore - - - - - - T. Milton 

[This drawing is stated on the engraved plate to be by W. Pars, but Mr. 
H. M. Barnes, of 57 Kelvinside Gardens, Glasgow, has the original water- 
colour drawing, signed and dated by Wheatley.] 
1786, March 1 Glen Molaur ...... T.Milton 

1786, March 1 The Salmon Leap, near Lcixlip . . - - T. Milton 

[Examples of this engraving, dated July 1st 1831, are in existence. The 
original drawing was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1784.] 
1793, June 1 Tarbut . - . - - . . T. Milton 


1785, Jan. 21 Coniston Lalie ..... 

1785, May 25 View near Dalton ..... 

1785, May 25 Coniston Lake (another view) 

1785, Dec. 12 View near Ambleside .... 

1786, May 25 Windermere Lake . - . - . 

1787, Jan. 25 View near Keswick - - - . - 
1787, May 23 Windermere Lake (another view) 
1787, July 2 View near Lancaster Sands ..... w. Ellis 


1792, April 2 
1792, June 1 
1792, Sept. 1 


St. Wolstan's, Kildare 

W. and J. Walker 
W. and J. Walker 
Howth, seashore with boats, etc. - - . W. and J. Walker 

[The original drawings, 6^in. by lOJin., of the first and third of these three 
engravings are in the South Kensington Museum] 
Two other similar engraved drawings. Combe Bank, Kent, engraved by W. Angus, dated Februarj' 1st, 
1787, and Broom, Kent, dated September 1st, 1789, are in the Print Room, British Museum, and were 
apparently done for some similar publication of which we do not know the title. 



1785 Group in the open of three gipsies or peasants, and three children, one of a woman blowing 
at a fire with a bellows, man seated opposite, close to her another woman with two children 
standing ; trees to right, shrubs to left. 

5Jin. by 8Jin. 


1786 Seashore with beached fishing boats, two fishermen seated, one conversing with fisher, 
woman, who is standing and carries a fish-basket on her back ; ruined tower to right. 

lOiin. by 8|in. 

1786 Seashore with stranded i.shing boat (only partly seen) to left, two peasant women, man 
lighting pipe, fish baskets, etc. 

11 in. by 9in. 
[These three etchings are in the volume entitled Rowlandson's "Imitations 
of Modern Drawings," in the Print Room of the British Museum.] 

1786 Gipsy encampment, with numerous figures. 

7|in. by 9in. 

1786 Fisher-folk, three figures, two men and one woman. 

11 in. by 9in. 

1786 Companion, two women and one man. 

llin. by 9in. 

1787 Bacchante, whole-length female nude figure, seated under a tree. 

7iin. by Sin. 



The greater portion of this book has been in type for several months, and in the interval the 
following engravings have come under our notice ; others will doubtless come to light from time to time. 

The Storm, 

1791, Jan. 1 - - - - - - - - - M. C. Prestel. 

Stormy landscape with figures. 
13in. by 19in. 

The Pet Lamb, or Folding the Flock. 

1792, Nov. 1 ...-.-.. . [J.] Barney. 

Two young girls in a landscape, by a rustic fence, one holding lamb, the other leaning on a 
gate, through which a flock of sheep is passing ; little child and dog to left. 

llfin. by 11 Jin. 

The Country Girl going Reaping. 

1797, Jan. 10 - - - - ■ - - - F. Bartolozzi. 

Whole length figure of a girl standing by a rustic stile, sickle in right hand, bucket (or small 
beer-keg) and dog to right. 

lOfin. by Sin. 

Rural Tranquillity. 

1799, Jan. 23 - - - - ■ - ■ - - A. Freschi. 

Scene with dilapidated out-house, market cart, white horse partly harnessed, bare-legged 
peasant woman holding jug, boy lying on the ground. 

7iin. by lOJin. 



[The pictures marked with an asterisk are reproduced in this book. 

Ackermann, R. 

Act of Charity, The 



Affectionate Daughter, The ... 

Agne%v and Sons, Messrs. T. ... 

Alais, J.... 

Albertina Gallery ... 

Alfred and the Neatherd 

Allien, S. 

Alliprandi, Tam 


• Alms giving 

' Alpine Lovers 

Amorous Sportsman, The 

Anacreontic Society 

Anderdon Collection 

Annis, W. 

Appleton, Mr. T. G. 

Armit, J. 


AthcncFum, The 




Bacchante, A. 

Backer's " Rustic Contentment " 

Bagshot Heath 

Baker, J. 

Barnes, Mr. H. M. ... 

Barney, J. 

Barrett Sale 

BartolozEi, F. 4, 16, 17, 18, 26, 

• Basket Makers, The 
Bcechey, Lady 
Bedford, Duke of ... 
Behrens, J. B. 
Belam Park, Review in 
Belinda ... 

Bell, Catherine 

• Bells "Theatre," Vignettes for 

• Benevolent Cottagers 
Black Rock, View of 
Bohn, H. G. 

Bolt, J. F. 

Bonato and Gabrielli 

Bonfoy, F. 

Botanical Magazine, The 

Bowyer's " History " 

Boydell, J. 

Branston, A. R. 


Brighton, Pictures of 

British Institute 

British Museum 

• Broad Street Riots 
Brocket Hall 
Bromley, W. 
Brooke, W. H. 
Burke, T. 






20, 42 

3, 16 

25, 45 




















15, 34 



16, 17, 42, 46, 51 

27, 44 

40,41, 43,45, 49, 51 




14, 22 


23, 49 

25, 40 





15, 42 



9, 18 



15, 43 

... 16, 18,22 

4, 13, 21, 25, 26 

10. 41 





Camp Scenes 
Cardon, A. 

• Careless Milkmaid 

• Careless Servant, The 
Catalani, Madame ... 
Celadon and Celia ... 
Child Life, Picture of 

Christian VII. of Denmark 

Christie, Messrs. 

Clark, Mr. 

Clown, The Smitten 


Cobb, Mr. F. T. 

Coles, J.... 

Collyer, J. 

Colnaghi & Co., Messrs. 

Communion, The ... 

Concord, An offering to 

Conway Castle, Views of 

Copper-Plate Magazine 

Cottage Door Pictures 

Country Girl going Reaping 

Cox, \V, 


• Cries of London ... 
Crush, Mr. J. F. ... 

• Cumberland, Views in 
Currie, Lady 









12, 41 



12, 14, 17, 18, 21,22,25,35 






9 38 

15, 19, 29,30,35 




... 11,12,50 

... 25, 34 47 




... 28-32, 34 


6, 12, 50 


D'Arcy, Mrs. W. K. 
Daschkow, Princess 
Dean, J.... 
Death of Richard II. 
Delatre, J. M. 

* Departure from Brighton 
Devonshire, Views in 
Devonshire, Duchess of 
Dipping Well in Hyde Park 

* Disaster, The 

* Discovery, The 

* Dismissal, The 
Dodd, J. W. 
Donaldson, Mrs. 
Donnybrook Fair ... 
Douglas, Mr. G. 
Dublin ... 

Dublin National Gallery 

* Dublin Volunteers 
Dulacher, L. 
Dundee, Pictures at 
Durno, James 

Du Roveray's Goldsmith 


Earlom, R. 

Edward's " Anecdotes " 

Eginton. J. 







37, 39 

,41, 42, 49 







18, 40 

15, 17, 39 

• •• 








9 et Seq. 

11, 12, 27 

9, 10, 38 








14, 43, 45 

4, 10, 46 


20, 42, 46 


INDEX — continued. 

Elton, Sir Edward M. 

" Encampment at Brighton 

Engravings after Wheatley 

Erato, Lady as 


Evans, B. B. 

Evening ... 

15, 43 
37 et Seq. 

Facius, G. S. & F. G. 


•"Fair" Pictures ... ... 13, 1< 

1, 20, 41, 


Farmer, The Hospitable 


Farmer's Daughter, The 


Farm Scenes 



Father's Admonition 


* Fidelity Rewarded 




Field & Tuer 


Filial Piety 



Fishermen Going Out 


Fisherman's Return 


• Fisherfolk 



Fittler, James 



Fitzgibbon (Earl of Clare) 


Fores & Fores 


Forman, W. H. 

14, 16, 


Foster, iVlessrs. 



Four Phials 



Free Society of Artists, exhibits 


Freschi, A. 



Fruit Gatherers 





6 Note 

25, 44 

'.'.'. 10, 

41, 49 



6, 39, 40, 

41, 46 

... 18, 

19, 41 

18, 34 

16, 41 

Harvest Dinner, A ... 

* Harvest Home, The 
Harvest Waggon, The 

* Haymaking Scenes 
Heath, James 
Henry and Jessy 
Hodges, C. H. 
Hogg, James 
' Honeymoon Pictures 
Hopkins, Mr. B. 
Howard, The Philanthropist ... 
Hutchinson, M. ... ... ... 26 


Inattention ... ... ... 46 

Industrious Cottager, The ... ... 47 

Interest ... ... ... ... 40 

Irish House of Commons, Interior ... 9 

* Irish Peasantry Crossing a Brook ... 11,45 
Irish Scenes ... ... ... 15, 33, 50 

Irwin, Sir John ... ... ... 10 

* Itinerant Peasants 

* Itinerant Potters... ... ... 35,43 

James, J. ... ... ... 23 

Jealous Rival, The ... ... ... 46 

Jee ... ... ... ... 19 

Jersey, Countess of... ... ... 23 

Johnston, Sir J. A. ... ... 9 

Jukes, F. ... ... ... 46, 47 

•Juvenile Reluctance and Opposition ... 45 

Garden Party, The 

Gardiner, Luke 

Gardiner, W. N. 

Gaugain, T. 

Gentleman's Magazine, The ... 

George HI., Chirdren of 

Geremia, T. 

Gillbank, H. 

Girl Driving Cattle ... 

Girl Reading a Letter 

Godby ... 

•Going out Milking (see "Milking" 

•Goldfinch, The ... 
* Goldsmith's " Deserted Village " 
Gooden & Fox, Messrs. 
Gordon Riots 
Goulding, Charlotte 
Grafton Galleries ... 
•Grattan, H. 
Graves & Co., Messrs. 
Green, V. 
Gresse, J. A. 
Grignion, C. 
Grosvenor Gallery ... ... 14, 

Guest, Montague ... 


Hall, John 
Hamilton, Lady 
Hamilton, \V. 
Harrowby, Earl of ... 

• •■ 




13, 39 













'.'.' 26, 

34, 49 

16, 18 



3, 16 

■.■.'. 10, 

11, 38 


11, 38 



i's, 20, 

25. 30 





26, 45 



Keating, G. ... ... ... 25, 43, 47 

Kent, Views in ... ... ... 6 

Kingsbury, H. ... ... ... 11, 38 

Knight, C. ... ... ... 13, 40, 47 

Knowlcs, John ... ... ... 7 

Lady on Horseback ... ... 47 

La Touche, D. ... ... ... 9 

Lauder, J. ... ... ... 38 

Lauretta and the Goldfinch ... ... 16, 40 

Laurie, R. ... ... ... 18, 41 

Laurie and Whittle ... ... 11 

Lawrence, Sir T. ... ... ... 8,24 

Layard, Dean ... ... ... 17 

Legat, F. ... ... ... 48 

Leggatt, Mr. E. E. ... ... ... 25 

Leigh, Jarcd ... ... ... 4 

Leinster, William, Duke of ... ... 9 

Leixlip, Salmon leap at ... ... 33 

Lindor and Clara ... ... ... 15,42 

Litchfield, Colonel ... ... ... 17 

Little Gleaners, The ... ... 25 

Liverpool, Exhibition at ... ... 13 

Lyster, Mr. G. F. ... ... ... 20 

Lord Mayor proceeding to Westminster ... 17 

Love, James ... ... .■• 40 

•Love in a Mill ... ... ••■ 39 

Lover's Anger, A ... ... ... 38 

Lovesick Maid ... ... ••• 17. 39 


INDEX— continued. 

16, 20, 21, 23, 

13, 14, 16, 34, 


Macklin, T. 

Maclaren, J. H. 

Manchester Art Treasures 

Mansell, W. 

•" Market " Pictures 

Marraontel's "Tales" 

•Marriage, The 

Mary's Dream 

Haskelyne, Mr. 

Meadows, R. M. 

MedUnd, T. 

Melbourne, Lord 

Menzies, Mr. W. G. 

Middiman's " Select Views " ... 

"Milking" Pictures 

•Milkmaid, The 

Miller's Daughter ... 


Milton's " Select Views " 

•Mistletoe Bough, The 

Mitchell, M. 

Molteno, J. A. 

Moncrieff, R. 

Monthly Magazine, The 

Moore, Dr. J. 

Morland, G. 

Morning Herald, The 

Morning, Noon, Evening and Night 

Mortimer, J. H. 

"Mower, The {see " Haymaking " pictures) 

Murphy, J. 

Murray, J. 


National Portrait Gallery 

Neagle, J. 

•Newcastle, Henry, Duke of ... 

Newenham, Sir E. ... 

Newly Married Couple 

NichoUs, 'W. 

Noailles, Due de 

Noble, G. 

Nottingham Museum 

Nutter, W. 

•Nymphs Bathing ... 



25, 26, 45 




40, 43, 45 

16, 39, 40 









26, 44 







25, 35 




1, 7, 39 


34, 42, 44 

2, 6, 7, 33 

15, 43 


22, 48 

17, 34, 45 

22, 48 

18, 25, 40 


Ogborne, J. 

Old English Baron ... 

Old Masters Exhibition 

Oliver, Mr, and Mrs. 

Opie, John 

Oyster Woman 

Pares, T. 

Parsons, Mrs. 

Pasquin, A. 

Paton, R. 

Peasants, Group 2 ... 

Pedlar at Cottage Door 

Pet Lamb, The 

Picot, V. M. 

" Picturesque Views in Dublin " 

•Pigot, Sir Henry ... 

Pindar, Peter 

Playter, C. 

Pollard, R. 

13, 16, 17, 30 



2, 10, 11, 14 





18, 40 





38, 39 

Pope, Alex. 

Porter, W. 


Prescott Family 

Prestel, M. C. 

'Priory Gardens, View in 

Progress of Love Series 

Public Advertiser, The 

Raphael, Mr. H. H. 

"Reconciliation, The 

Recruiting Officer, The 

Redbreast, The 

Redgrave, G. R. 

Reeve's " Old English Baron" 

•Relentless Father, The 

Renall, Mr. R. P. ... 

Rescue, The 

*Return from Milking {see " Milking ' 

•Return from Shooting 

Review in Belam Park 

Review of Volunteers, Phoenix Park 

Reynolds, Sir J. 

Reynolds, S. VV. ... 

Rhodes, R. 

Rickards, T. 

•Riots, The 

Rochester Castle ... 

Rogct, J. L. 

Rousseau's " Nouvelle H^loise '' 

Royal Academy, The 

•Rural Repose 

Rural Tranquillity ... 

Rustic Conversation 

Rustic Courtship ... 

Rustic Happiness ... 

Rustic Hours 

•Rustic Lovers 

Rustic Lover 

•Rustic Sympathy and Benevolence 



35, 43 




13, 15, 34, 47 
20, 39 



10, 12, 33 

23, 24 




10, 41 

6, 33 



24 et seq. 

Sabin, Mr. F. T. ... 
" Sailor " pictures ... 

* Sailor's Return, The 
Samnite Marriages, The 
Sandby, T. 

Sayer, R. 

Schiavonetti, L. and R. 
Schomberg, Sir A. ... 
School Door, The ... 

* School Mistress, The 
Seasons, The Four... 
Sedelmeyer, M. C. ... 
Seguier, F. P. 
•Shakespeare, Illustrations to 

* Shakespeare Gallery Interior 
Shee, M. A. 

Sheerness Breakwater 
Shenstone's "Schoolmistress" 
Shepherd, Bros., Messrs. 
Shipley, W. 

* " Shooting " Pictures 
Show, The 
Siddons, Mrs. 

* Sigismunda 
Silvia ... 
Simon, J. P. 
Simon, P. 

29 note, 43, 46 

... 14, 15,39 




5, 18 
20, 22, 29, 30, 45, 48 



25, 42 


15, 26 


... 5,21,48 



6, 33 






8, 37 






Singleton, H. 

Skelton, W. 

Sloane, M. 

Small whole lengths 

Smith, A. 

Smith, Haskett 

Smith, Henry 

Smith, J. R. 

Smith, J. T. 

Soane Museum 

Society of Artists, Exhibits at... 

" Soldier " pictures... 

• Soldier's Return, The 
Sophia of Gloucester, Princess 
Sotheby, Messrs. ... 

South Kensington Museum 

Spiers, Mr. W. L. ... 


Sporting Magazine, The 

Sportsman, The Amorous 


St. Albans, Duchess of 

Stanier, R. 

• St. Preux and Julia 
Sterne's " Sentimental Journey " 
Storm, The 

Stow, J. ... 
Strawberry Girl 
Stubbs, G. T. 
Suffolk Street Gallery 

• Summer 
Suntach ... 
Sussex, views in 
Swiney, Mr. 

Tassant, Mr. 

Taylor, J. E. 

Teesdale, Major 

•Temptation, The ... 

•Tender Father, The 

Tennant, Sir C. 

•Thais ... 


Tinker, Itinerant ... 

Tomkins, F. W. 

Topographical Drawings 

Troward, Mrs. 

Tuer, A. W. 

Turner, Sir Barnard 

Turkeycock, The ... 

Turner, C. 

Tyers of Vauxhall ... 


..4, 13, 






42, 49 



14, 15, 18, 37, 40 




... 13, 14, 15 




6, 9, 13, 17, 23 





40, 42 


15, 17, 39, 40, 47 
... 13, 38-39 


22, 48 

20, 22 




33 {bis) 




16, 30 

20, 40 
8, 37 

10, 38 

26, 44 
3, 7 

Van Den Berghe, J. J. 

Van dcr M\ n, H. 
Vendramini, G. 
Vauxhall Gardens ... 
Visit to the Mother 
•Volunteers of Dublin 



25, 44 



3, 7 


9, 10, 38 

Waldron, F. G. 


Walker, J. 

10, 38 

Walker, W. & J. ... 


Ward, W. ... ... 14, 15, 



39, 40 

Water-colour Drawings 


•"Watercress" Pictures 



35, 43 

Watson, C. 

22, 48 

Watson, T. 


37, 47 

Webster, A. 


33, 38 

"Wedding" Pictures 


34, 47 

Wells of Redleat ... 


Westall, R. 



• Wheatley, Francis :— 

Early Life 



Student at Shipley's 


Premiums from the Society of Arts 


First Exhibits 



• •■ 


In Ireland 


Return to London 


Etcher and Engraver 

12, 13 

Royal Academy ... 




•Wheatley, Mrs. ... I, 4, 5, 16, 



[bis) 40 

Wheelbarrow, The ... 


Whessell, J. 


Wilson, R. 



4, 40 

Wolverton, Lord 



Wood Children, The 


Woodcock, Mrs. 


Woodman, The 


•Woodman's Return, The 



Wrexham Exhibition 



Wright ... 




Yeatherd, J. 

25, 42 

Younge, Miss 




Zompini, G. 






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