(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "An itinerary vvritten by Fynes Moryson gent. first in the Latine tongue, and then translated by him into English: containing his ten yeeres travell throvgh the tvvelve domjnions of Germany, Bohmerland, Sweitzerland, Netherland, Denmarke, Poland, Jtaly, Turky, France, England, Scotland, and Ireland. Diuided into III parts Volume 1"

CENTRE 
for 
REFORMATION 
and 
RENAISSANCE 
STUDIES 

VICTORIA 
UNIVERSITY 

TORONTO 



The Itinerary 
of 

Fynes Moryson 

In Four Volumes 

Volume I 



GLASGOW 
PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY 
ROBERT MACLEHOSE  COMPANY LTD. FOR 
JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS, PUBLISHERS 
TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW 

MACMILLAN AND CO. LTD. 
THE MACMILLAN CO. 
THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA 
SIMPKIN, HAMILTON AND CO. 
MACMILLAN AND BOWES 
DOUGLAS AND FOULIS 

MCMVI! 

LON DON 
NEW YORK 
TORONTO 
LONDON 
CAMBRIDGE 
EDINBURGH 

One thousand copies of this book have been printed 
for sale in Great Britain and Ireland, of which one 
hundred copies are on hand-made paper. 



An 

Itinerary 

Containing His Ten Yeeres Travell through 
the Twelve Dominions of Germany, Bohmer- 
land, Sweitzerland, Netherland, Denmarke, 
Poland, Italy, Turky, France, England, 
Scotland  Ireland 

Written by 
FYNES MORYSON 
G.NT. 

VOLUME I 

Glasgow 
James MacLehose and Sons 
Publishers to the University 
MCMVII 



THE TABLE 

Publishers' Note, 

The Epistle Dedicatorie to the Right Honourable 
William, Earle of Pembroke, 

To the Reader, . 

A brief Table to understand in the First part the 
expenses in small coynes most commonly 
spent, . 

The Contents of the severall Chapters contained 
in the First Booke of the First Part. 

CHAP. I. 

Of my journy from London (in England) to Stode, Ham- 
burg, Lubecke, Luneburg: my returne to Hamburg, 
and journy to Magdeburg, Leipzig, Wittenberg ; and 
the neighbouring Cities (in Germany.) 

CHAP. II. 
Of my journy from Leipzig, to Prage, (in Bohemia) to 
Nurn-berg, Augspurg, Ulme, Lindoy, Costnetz, (in 
Germany) Schaphusen, Zurech, Baden, and Bazell, (in 
Sweitzerland.) 
V 

PAGE 
xi 

xvii 

xix 

25 



THE TABLE 

The Contents of the severall Chapters--Continued. 

CHAP. III. 

Of my journy from Bazell to Strasburg, to Heidelberg, to 
Franckfort, to Cassiles, to Brunswicke, to Luneburg, to 
Hamburg, to Stode, to Breme, to Oldenburge and to 
Embden, (the last Citie upon the confines of the 
Empire of Germany.) 

PAGE 

62 

CHAP. IIII. 
Of my journy from Embden in Germany, to Leiden in 
Holland, and through the united Provinces of the Low 
Countries. 

89 

CHAP V. 
Of my journy out of the united Provinces, by the sea 
coast to Stode, and Lubeck, in Germany, of my sailing 
to Denmarke, and thence to Dantzk in Prussen, and 
my iourny thorow Poland, to Paduoa in Italy. 

112 

The Contents of the severall Chapters contained 
in the Second Booke of the First Part. 

CHAP, I. 
Of my journy from Paduoa to Venice, to Ferrara, to Bologna, 
to Ravenna, and by the shoare of the Adriatique Sea to 
Ancona ; then crossing the breadth of Italy, to Rome, 
seated not far from the Tirrhene Sea. 

i58 

CHAP. II. 

Of my journy to Naples, and my returne to Rome, and of 
the description of both Cities: of my journy cursory 
to Sienna, Fiorenza, Pistoia, Lucca, and Pisa, and the 
description of the three last Cities. 
vi 

zz3 



THE TABLE 

The Contents of the severall Chapters--Continued. 

CHAP. II1. 
Of my journy to Ligorno, my returne to Florence, (or 
Fiorenza) and to Sienna, and the description of these 
Cities. Of my journy by land to Lirigi, (in which 
againe I passed by Lucca and Pisa) and by sea to 
Genoa, with the description of that Citie, and my 
journy by land to Pavia, to Milano, to Cremona, and 
to Mantoua, with the description of the Cities, and 
of my returne to Paduoa.. 

PAGE 

314 

CHAP. IIII. 

Of the Sepulcher of Petrarch at Arqua ; of my journy to 
Vicenza, Verona, Brescia, and Bergamo: (in Italy) 
then passing the A1pes to Chur, Zurech, Solothurn, 
Geneva, and (in my returne thence) to Berna (in 
Sweitzerland), thence to Strasburg (in Germany,) and 
to Chalon, to Paris, to Roan, and to Diepe (in France,) 
and finally of my passage by sea and land to London 
(in England).. 

373 

The Contents of the severall Chapters contained 
in the Third Booke of the First Part. 

CHAP. I. 

Of my journy to Stode, through the united Provinces of 
Netherland, and upon the sea-coast of Germany; then 
to Brunswicke, and (the right way) to Nurnberg, 
Augsburg, and Insprucke (in Germany), and from 
thence to Venice in Italy, and so by the Mediteranean 
Seas and the Ilands thereof, to Jerusalem. In which 
journy, I slightly passe over the places described in my 
former passage those waies. 

424 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Facsimile of the Title Page of the Original Edition, 
Facsimile of the Priviledge of Copyright, xxviii 
The Description of Venice, 
The Description of Naples, and the Territory, 
The Description of Rome, drawne rudely, but so 
as may serve the Reader to understand the 
Situation of the Monuments, z64 
The Description of Genoa, 360 
The Description of Paris, 48 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

FYNES MORYSON was born in I566. He was the third 
son of Thomas Moryson of Cadeby, l.incolnshire, Clerk 
of the Pipe, and Member of Parliament for Great 
Grimsby in x572, I584, 586, and I588- 9. His mother 
Elizabeth was daughter of Thomas Moigne of Willing- 
ham, Lincolnshire. 1 Of Moryson's early education 
nothing is known, but 'being a student of Peterhouse 
in Cambridge,' he tells us, ' and entred the eighteenth 
yeere of my age, I tooke the degree of Bachelar of 
Arts, and shortly after was chosen Fellow of the said 
Colledge by (ueene Elizabeths mandat. Three yeers 
expired from my first degree taken in the Universitie, 
I commenced Master of Arts, and within a yeere after, 
by the favour of the Master and Fellowes, I was chosen 
to a vacant place of Priviledge to studie the Civill 
Lawes. Then, as well for the ornament of this pro- 
fession, as out of my innated desire to gaine experience 
by travelling into forraigne parts, upon the priviledge 
of our Statutes permitting two of the Society to travell, 

1 It is suggested by Mr. Charles Hughes, whose life of the traveller 
prefaced to 8h,kespeare's Europe (London: Sherratt & Hughes, I9o3) 
is the fullest extant, that Fynes (otherwise Fines or Fiennes) was named 
after Edward Fiennes de Clinton, Lord Clinton and Saye, who was 
Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire at the time of Moryson's birth. 
xi 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

I obtained licence to that purpose of the said Master 
and Fellowes in the yeere 1589, being then full 23 yeeres 
old.' Before setting out, however, Moryson went to 
London to follow some studies ' there better taught'; 
these studies, visits to his friends, and taking his M.A. 
degree at Oxford, occupied him for the next two years. 
On 1st May, I591 , he took ship at Leigh-on-Thames 
for Germany, and, after a narrow escape from Dunkirk 
pirates, safely landed at Stade. For the next four 
years Moryson wandered through Germany, the Low 
Countries, Switzerland, Italy, Denmark, Poland and 
Austria, spending the winters at Leipzig, Leyden, Padua 
and Venice. He returned to London on I3th May, 
595- 
From my tender youth,' writes Moryson,  I had a 
great desire to see lorraine Countries. And having once 
begun this course I could not see any man without 
emulation and a kind of vertuous envy, who had seene 
more Cities, Kingdomes and Provinces, or more Courts 
of Princes, Kings and Emperours, then myselfe. There- 
fore having now wandred through the greatest part oi 
Europe, I sighed to myselfe in silence, that the 
Kingdome of Spaine was shut up from my sight, by the 
long warre betweene England and Spaine .... And how- 
soever now being newly returned home, . I had an 
itching desire to see Jerusalem, the fountaine of Religion, 
and Constantinople, of old the seate of Christian 
Emperours, and now the seate of the Turkish Ottoman.' 
In this frame of mind he found that his brother Henry 
was preparing for this very journey, 'having put out 
some foure hundred pounds, to be repaied twelve hundred 
pounds upon his returne from those two cities, and to 
xii 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

abstract of the history of the twelve countries which he 
visited, 'but when the worke was done, and I found 
the bulke thereof to swel, then I chose rather to 
suppresse them, then to make my gate bigger then 
my Citie.' 
From I6c 9 to I67 Moryson 'wrote at leasure, 
giving (like a free and unhired workeman) much time 
to pleasure, to necessary affaires, and to divers and 
long distractions.' One of the distractions was a visit 
in 6 3 to Sir Richard Moryson, then Vice-President 
of VIunster. 
Nothing is known with certainty as to how Moryson 
spent the remaining years of his life. He died on the 
2th February, t629, ira the sixtv-fourth year of his 
age. 
The Itinerary now reprinted in full for the first time 
since its publication was 'printed by John Beale, 
dwelling in Aldersgate Street,' in  6  7- Moryson 
writes that 'to save expenses I wrote the greatest part 
with my owne hand, and almost all the rest with the 
slow pen of my servant.' The book was first written 
in Latin and then translated into English, and the 
License for printing, which is reproduced here in facsimile, 
granted copyright for twenty-one years for both versions : 
the Latin version, however, was never printed. 
In 'The Table' of the Itinerary, after the Contents 
of the fourth Book of the Third Part there is given a 
brief summary of twenty-five chapters beginning 'The 
rest of this Worke, not as yet fully finished, treateth 
of the following Heads.' The MS. of these chapters, 
which were not printed by Moryson, is now ira the 
Library of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and portions 
xiv 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

of it were edited by Mr. Charles Hughes and published 
in 9(z3 under the title of'Shakespeare's Europe.' 

In accordance with the scheme of" this series, the 
edition here presented is an exact reprint of the original 
edition of" 67, except that the letters i, j, u and v 
have been altered to conf,orm to modern usage, and 
obvious printers" errors, both of spelling and punctuation, 
have been corrected. References to the pages of the 
original edition are given in the margin. The original 
edition did not contain an index, but a full index has 
now been added, which it is hoped will make the 
contents readily accessible f'or the first time. 
The publishers desire to acknowledge the assistance 
of Mr. C. Litton Falkiner in the choice of illustrations. 

GLAsoow, September, x9c) 7. 



t t. 



To the Reader. 
Or the First Part of this Worke, it 
containes only a briefe narration of daily 
. journies, with the rates of Coaches or 
Horses hired, the expences for horses 
 and roans meat, the soyle of the 
Country, the situation of Townes, and 
the descriptions thereof; together with 
all things there worthy to be seene: which Treatise 
in some obscure places is barren and unpleasant 
(espetially in the first beginning of the worke,) but 
in other places I hope you will judge it more pleasant, 
and in some delightfull, inducing you favorably to dis- 
pence with the barrennes of the former, inserted only for 
the use of unexperienced Travellers passing those waies. 
Againe, you may perhaps judge the writing of my daily 
expences in my journies to be needles & unprofitable, in 
respect of the continuall change of prices and rates in all 
Kingdoms : but they can never be more subject to change, 
then the affaires of Martiall and civill Policie: In both 
which, the oldest Histories serve us at this day to good 
use. Thirdly and lastly, touching the First Part of this 
Worke, when you read my expences in unknowne 
Coynes, you may justly require the explaning of this 
obscurity, by expression of the values in the English 
Coynes. But I pray you to consider, that the adding of 
these severall values in each daies journy, had been an 
Herculean labour; for avoiding whereof, I have first set 
before the First Part, a briefe Table expressing the value 
of the small Coynes most commonly spent, and also have 
xix 



TO THE READER 

expresly & particularly for each Dominion and most part 
of the Provinces, set downe at large, how these values 
answer the English Coynes, in a Chapter written of 
purpose to satisfie the most curious in this point, namely 
the fifth Chapter of the third Booke, being the last of 
this First Part: in which Chapter also I have briefly 
discoursed of the best means to exchange monies into 
forraigne parts. 
Touching the Worke in generall, I wil truly say, that 
I wrote it swiftly, and yet slowly. This may seeme a 
strange Riddle, and not to racke your wit with the inter- 
pretation, my selfe will expound it: I wrote it swiftly, 
in that my pen was ready and nothing curious, as may 
appeare by the matter and stile: and I wrote it slowly, 
an respect of the long time past since I viewed these 
Dominions, and since I tooke this worke in hand. So as 
the Worke may not unfitly bee compared to a nose-gay of 
flowers, hastily snatched in many gardens, and with much 
leasure, yet carelesly and negligently bound together. 
The snatching is excused by the haste, necessary to 
Travellers, desiring to see much in short time: And the 
negligent binding, in true judgement needs no excuse, 
affected curiositie in poore subjects, being like rich 
imbroidery laid upon a frize jerken; so as in this case, 
onely the trifling away of much time, may bee imputed 
to my ignorance, dulnes or negligence, if my just excuse 
be not heard: in the rendering whereof I must crave 
your patience. During the life of the worthy Earle of 
Devonshire, my deceased Lord, I had little or no time 
to bestow in this kind: after his deth, I lost fully three 
yeers labor (in which I abstracted the Histories of these 
i2 Dominions thorow which I passed, with purpose to 
joyne them to the Discourses of the severall Common- 
wealths, for illustration and ornament: but when the 
worke was done, and I found the bulke thereof to swel, 
then I chose rather to suppresse them, then to make my 
gate bigger then my Citie.) And for the rest of the 
yeers, I wrote at leasure, giving (like a tree and unhired 



TO THE READER 

workeman) much time to pleasure, to necessary affaires, 
and to divers and long distractions. If you consider this, 
and withall remember, that the worke is first written in 
Latine, then translated into English, and that in divers 
Copies, no man being able by the first Copie to put so 
large a worke in good fashion. And if you will please 
also to take knowledge from me, that to save expences, 
I wrote the greatest part with my owne hand, and almost 
all the rest with the slowe pen of my servant: then I 
hope the losse of time shall not be imputed unto me. 
Againe, for the worke in generall, I professe not to write 
it to any curious wits, who can indure nothing but 
extractions and quintessences: nor yet to great States- 
men, of whose reading I confesse it is unworthy: but 
only unto the unexperienced, who shall desire to view 
forraign kingdomes. And these may, the rather by this 
direction, make better use of what they see, heare, and 
reade, then my selfe did. If active men never reade it, 
I shall wish them no lesse good successe in their affaires. 
If contemplative men shall reade it at leasure, making 
choice of the subjects fitting their humours, by the Table 
of the Contents, and casting away the booke when they 
are weary of reading, perhaps they may finale some 
delight: only in case of distaste, I pray them remember, 
to and for whom it was written. To conclude, if you 
be as well affected to me, as I am to you, howsoever I 
deserve no thanks, no doubt I shall be free from blame. 
And so I wish you all happinesse, remaining 
Yours in due respect, 
FVNES MORVSON. 



3'HE TABLE FOR SMALL COINS 

For Sweitzerland. 
Six Rappen make a Plappart or 3 Creitzers: and 
Plapparts or 6o Creitzers make a silver gulden: two 
finferlins make a finfer, and 5 a batz: foure angster 
make a creitzer, twelve a Bemish : 6o creitzers a silver 
gulden. 
For the Low Countries. 
Foure Orkees or Doights make a stiver : two blanks 
a stiver and a halfe: six stivers a shilling: -o stivers a 
gulden or three shillings foure pence, being two shillings 
English : -o shillings a pound : and one hundred pound 
Flemish, makes sixty pound English. 
For Denmarke. 
Two Danish shillings make one Lubecke; and 66 
Danish shillings make one Reichs Doller. 
For Poland. 
Thirty Polish Grosh make a silver Gulden ; 40 a Reichs 
Doller ; three Pochanels a Creitzer, seven a Grosh. 
For Italy. 
The silver Crowne almost five shillings English, is 
given for 7 Lires of Venice; two Lires make a Justino: 
_o Soldi a Lire: one Lire and 4 Soldi a Mutsenigo. 
4 Bagatines a (uatrine: two Betsior 3 (uatrines or a 
Susine and a halfe, make a Soldo : two (uatrines make 
a Susine: three Susines a Boligneo, and z Bolignei a 
Lire. Ten Giulii, or Poali, or Carlini make a silver 
Crowne ; ten Baocci a Giulio or Paolo : foure (uatrines 
a Baocco- eight Baelli or Creitzers make a Giulio: 
twenty Soldi or Bolignei of Genoa make a Lire of Genoa, 
whereof 15 make zo shillings English; and 3 of these 
Lires with  5 Soldi, make a silver Crowne : seven Soldi 
and an halle make a Reale : foure Soldi a Cavalotto : six 
(uatrines a Soldo ; and two Deniers ot Genoa a (uat- 
rme: I I 4 Soldi ot Milan make a silver Crowne : 
xxiv 



THE TABLE FOR SMALL COINS 

Soldi a Lire: and a Lire and a halfe makes one Lire 
of Genoa. 

For Turkey. 
The silver Crowne or Piastro worth five shillings Eng- 
lish, is given heere tor 7% there for 80 or more Aspers: 
A Meidine of Tripoli, is an Asper and an halfe: a 
Meidine of Caiero three Aspers; and an Asper some 
three farthings English. 
For France. 
Twelve Deniers make a Soulz: fourteene Soulz and 
a halfe a Testoone: fitteene Soulz a uart d'escue: 
twen.ty Soulz a Franke: sixtie Soulz a French Crowne, 
or sx shillings English. 



The First Volume 
OF 
The Itinerary of Fynes Moryson 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

chosen to a vacant place of Priviledge to studie the Civill 
Lawes. Then, as well for the ornament of this profession, 
as out of my innated desire to gaine experience by 
travelling into forraigne parts, (to which course my Parents 
had given consent some few yeers past, upon my first 
declarin of my inclination to the said profession,) upon 
the pri-iledge of our Statutes permitting two of the 
Society to travell, I obtained licence to that purpose of 
the said Master and Fellowes, in the yeere 158 9, being 
then full 23 yeeres old. And presently leaving the 
University, I went to London, there to follow some 
studies fit to inable me in this course; and there better 
[I. i. 2.] taught, and these studies, the visiting of my friends in 
the Country, my going to Oxford to take the same degree 
I had in Cambridge, and some oppositions upon new 
deliberation made by my father and friends against my 
journey, detained me longer in those parts then I purposed. 
59 x. At last, in the beginning of the yeere 1591, and upon 
the first day of May, I tooke ship at Liegh, distant from 
London twenty eight miles by land, and thirtie six by 
water, where Thames in a large bed is carried into the 
Sea. Thence we set saile into the maine, and the eight 
day of our sailing, the Merchants Fleet of sixteene ships 
Sea Perih. being dispersed by a fogge and tempest, two Dunkerke 
Pirats followed our ship, till (by Gods mercy) the fog 
being cleared after some few houres, and two of our ships 
upon our discharging of a great Peece drawing towards 
us, the Pirates despairing left to pursue us. That they 
were Pirates was apparant, since as wee for triall turned 
our sayles, they likewise fitted themselves to our course, 
so as wee though flying, yet prepared our selves to fight, 
till God thus delivered us. The ninth day towards night, 
wee fell upon an Iland called the Holy-land (vulgarly 
Heiligland), and not daring to enter the River Elve before 
the next morning, wee strucke all sayles, and suffered 
our ship to bee tossed too and fro by the waves all that 
night, (which Martinets call lying at Hull.) This Iland 
hath onely one Port capeable of some sixe ships, in the 



Plentiful 
Oaks. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

malice to the English for the removing their trafficke to 
Stode, were content silently to passe by as if we understood 
them not. Hence I went out of the way to see Lubeck, 
an Imperiall Citie, and one of the above named Hans- 
townes, being tenne miles distant from Hamburg. Each 
of us for our Coach paid twentie Lubeck shillings, and 
going forth early, wee passed through a marish and sandy 
plaine, and many woods of Oakes (which in these parts 
are frequent as woods of Firre be in the upper part of 
Germany) and having gone six miles we came to a Village 
called Altslow, for the situation in a great marish or boggy 
ground, where each man paid for his dinner five Lubeck 
shillings and a halfe, our Dutch companions contributing 
halfe that money for drinke after dinner. In the after- 
noone we passed the other foure miles to Lubeck, in the 
space of foure houres, and untill we came within halfe a 
mile of the towne, wee passed through some thicke woods 
of Oake with some faire pastures betweene them, (for the 
Germans use to preserve their woods to the uttermost, 
either for beautie, or because they are so huge & frequent 
as they cannot be consumed.) When we came out of 
the woods wee saw two faire rising Hills, and the third 
upon which Lubeck was seated. 
On the top of this third Hill stood the faire Church 
of Saint Mary, whence there was a descent to all the gates 
of the Citie, whose situation offered to our eyes a faire 
prospect, and promised great magnificence in the building. 
The Citie is compassed with a double wall, one of bricke 
and narrow, the other of earth and broad, fastned with 
thicke rowes of willowes. But on the North side and 
on the South-east side there were no walles, those parts 
being compassed with deepe ditches full of water. On 
the South-east side the water seemeth narrow, but is so 
deepe, as ships of a thousand tunne are brought up to 
the Citie to lie there all winter, being first unladed at 
Tremuren the Port of the City lying upon the Baltick 
Sea. To this Port one mile distant from Lubeck we 
came in three houres, each man paying for his Coach five 
6 



COMMENTS UPON LUBECK 

Lubeck shillings, and foure for our dinner, and returned 
backe the same night to Lubeck. The building of this 
City is very beautifull, all of bricke, and it hath most 
sweete walkes without the walles. The Citizens are 
curious to avoid ill smels, to which end the Butchers have 
a place, for killing their beasts without the walles upon 
a running streame. Water is brought to every Citizens 
house by pipes, and all the Brewers dwelling in one street 
have each of them his iron Cock, which being turned, 
the water fals into their vessels. Though the building 
of this towne be of the same matter as that of the 
neighbouring townes, yet it is much preferred before 
them, for the beautie and uniformitie of the houses; for 
the pleasant gardens, faire streets, sweete walkes without 
the walles, and for the Citizens themselves, who are much 
commended for civilty of manners, and the strict execution 
of Justice. The poore dwell in the remote streets out 
of the common passages. There is a street called the 
Funff Haussgasse, that is, the street of five houses, because 
in the yeere 7 8. it was all burnt excepting five houses; 
since which time they have a law, that no man shall build 
of timber and clay, except he divide his house from his 
neighbours with a bricke wall three foot broad; and that 
no man shall cover his house with any thing but tiles, 
brasse, or leade. The forme of this Citie is like a lozing, 
thicke in the midst and growing narrower towards the 
two ends, the length whereof is from the gate called Burke 
Port towards the South, to Millen Port towards the North. 
Wee entr.ed the Towne by Holtz Port on the West side, 
to which gate Hickster Port is opposite on the East side. 
It is as long againe as broad, and two streets, Breitgasse, 
that is, Broad-street, and Konnigsgasse, that is, Kings- 
street, runne the whole length of the Towne, and sixe 
other streets make the breadth; and if you stand in the 
midst of any of these streets, you may there see both 
the ends thereof. Here I paied each meale foure Lubeck 
shillings, having my bed free; for a quart of Rhenish 
wine five Lubeck shillings, and as much for Sack, neither 

Te form of 
the dry. 



a.D. FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
I59I. 
doe I remember that ever I had a more pleasant abiding 
in Germany, either for the sweetnes of the place, the 
/`ubeck/,awes curtesie of the people, or my diet. The Citizens are 
favour very courteous to all strangers, whom the Lawes extra- 
strangers, ordinarily favour above the natives, so they onely abide 
there for a time and be not inhabitants, neither are they 
!es.se .friendly to the English, though they complaine of 
injuries (so they call them) offered them by us at Sea. 
This City hath many things worth the seeing. There be 
tenne faire Churches, whereof one was used for an Armory 
of all munitions for warre. Saint Maries Cathedrall 
Church (vulgarly Unserfraw kirke) is fairer then the rest, 
where there is a faire and artificiall Clocke, in the top 
whereof is a picture, whereof both the eares of the head 
are seene, which Painters esteeme a master worke. In 
the Porch thereof are three Marble pillars, each of them 
thirtie foot long of one stone, onely one of them is peeced 
for one foot. But the Image of the Virgin Mary in this 
Church, and of Christ crucified in Burk Kirke are thought 
workes of singular art; for which they say a Spanish 
Merchant offered a masse of money. I will confesse 
truely, that my selfe beholding the Virgins statua all of 
stone, did thinke it had beene covered with a gowne of 
white buffin, and that being altogether unskilfull in the 
graving Art, yet I much admired the workmanship. 
A notable Without Millen Port there is a Conduit of water, 
Conu#. which serves all the Towne, the more notable because 
it was the first of that kinde, which since hath 
beene dispersed to London and other places. On al 
sides out of the towne there be sweet walks, especi- 
[I. i. 5-] ally towards Hierusalem (so they call the Passion of 
Christ graven in divers pillars) where also is a pleasant 
grove, under the shade whereof Rope-makers and like 
Artificers use to worke. The Canons of the Cathedrall 
Church have great priviledges, and as it were an absolute 
power over themselves, and of old they had a gate of the 
City free to themselves to goe in or out at pleasure; till 
the Citizens finding how dangerous it was to the main- 
8 



COMMENTS UPON LUNEBURG 

I59I. 

taining of their freedome from any subjection, upon a 
good opportunitie when the Emperour came thither, did 
of set purpose lead him into the City by that gate, where 
filling on their knees they besought him that it might 
be bricked up, and never more opened, he being the last 
man that ever should enter thereat. 
From Lubeck we tooke our journey to Luneburg, being 
tenne miles distant, and the first night we lodged in a 
Village called Millen, where a famous Jester Oulenspiegell Monnment 
(whom we call Owly-glasse) hath a Monument erected: to a Jester. 
hee died in the yeere I35o. and the stone covering him 
is compassed with a grate, least it should bee broken and 
carried away peece-meale by Passengers, which they say 
hath once already been done by the Germanes. The 
Towns-men yeerely keepe a feast for his memory, and 
yet shew the apparell he was wont to weare. This 
Country is barren and sandy ground; full of thicke 
Woods of Oakes : by the way in Kasborough Castle, they 
said that a Duke of inferior Saxony lay impriso.ned by 
the Emperours command, his brother governing the 
Dukedome, charged with great debts by his prodigality; 
but his Villages hereabouts were possessed by the Ham- 
burgers and Lubeckers by right of morgae. We passed 
the Elve twice, the Coach-man paying or himselfe his 
Coach, and each one of us a Lubeck shilling, and beyond 
the Elve the round was somewhat more fertile. At 
Millen I paid for my supper foure Lubeck shillings and 
a halfe. 
The next day we came to Luneburg, which by the I, unebu,g. 
Citizens for defence of their libertie was strongly fortified, 
for it is one of the free Imperiall Cities; but the Duke 
of Luneburg challengeth a superiority over it. The 
walles built of earth are high and broad and the ditches 
very deepe. The building is very faire, especially that 
of the Senate house, and almost all the houses are of 
bricke. They have two large market places, and the 
streets are broad, but very filthy and full of ill smels. 
The City it selfe being almost of a round forme is seated 



//OW Lune- 
burg 
named. 

At alt water 
Fountaiu. 

[I. i. 6.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

in a Valley, but hath Mountaines neere it on the West 
side, and further off on the East ; An high Mountaine 
called Kalkberg hangeth over it on the North side; in 
the top whereof is a strong Castle, which the Citizens 
had got into their hands some threescore yeres before my 
being there. Not far from the City is a Monestary called 
Luna, whereof some say the Towne was named, others 
say it had the name of the River run.ning by it now called 
Elvenau, of eleven Rivers runmng into it; which 
Histories testifie to have beene called Luna of old. But 
others prove both the River and the Towne to have had 
their names of the Idol Isis, bearing two homes of the 
Moone, which was kept in the Castle upon Kalkberg, and 
worshipped by the people. Among the things best 
deserving to be seen is the Fountaine of Salt, and the 
house wherein salt is boyled, over the gate whereof these 
verses are written. 
Ecce salinarum dulcissima dona coquuntur. 
Gratuita summi de bonitate Dei: 
Mons, Pons, Fons, tua dona Deus, da pectore crescat, 
In nostro pietas, nec minuatur Amor. 
Behold of finest salt this Fount doth store afford, 
By the Almighties grace and free gift from above: 
The Mountaine, Bridge and Fountaine are thy gifts O 
Lord, 
For which let us increase in pietie and love. 
To all the poore round about, and to all the Citizens 
for their private use salt water is freely given: and they 
say this Fountaine once lost his vertue when they denied 
to give water to the poore. Every one gives the Porter 
a small reward when he comes in, not when he goes out, 
as otherwhere is used; for this is proper to the Germanes 
that they will be paied ere they begin to worke, as if they 
had done. The profit of this salt Fountaine is divided 
into divers parts; some to the City, some to the Duke 
of Luneberg, (who howsoever he be so called, yet hath 
no power over the City but onely over the Countrey;) 
Io 



COMMENTS UPON LUNEBURG 

some belongs to the Monastary, and divers Earles have 
their parts, (whereof some boyle not the salt in their owne 
name, but set it out to others :) There be fifty two roomes, 
and in each of them eight leaden pannes, in which eight 
tunnes of salt are daily boyled, and each tunne is worth 
eight Flemmish shillings. In the said Monastery within 
the Towne, they shew a table of gold, which Henry 
Leo Duke of Saxony tooke from Milan and placed 
here, and it is fastned to the Altar, being more then 
an ell and halle long, and about three quarters broad, 
and little or nothing thicker then a French crowne. 
They shew also foure Crosses of pure gold, which 
they said a certaine Qeene once tooke from them, 
but presently fell lunatike, neither could be cured untill 
she had restored them. In the open streets some Monu- 
ments are set on the walles, in honour of certaine Citizens, 
who died in a nights tumult, when the Duke hoped to 
surprize the City. I said that the Senate house is stately 
built, in which they shew to strangers many vessels of 
gold and silver, of a great value and quantity for a City 
of that quality. From Luneburg I returned to Hamburg, 
whither I and my company might have had a Coach for 
4. Dollors. But we misliking the price hired a waggon 
for three Lubeck shillings each person to Wentzon, three 
miles distant from Luneburg. Here the Duke of Lune- 
bergs territory ends, to whom each man paid a Lubeck 
shilling for tribute, my selfe onely excepted, who had 
that priviledge because I went t6 study in the Universities. 
Here each man paled two Lubeck shillings for a Waggon 
to the Elve side, being one mile, and the same day by 
water wee passed other three miles to Hamburg, not with- 
out great noysomnesse from some base people in the boat, 
for which passage we paied each man three Lubeck shillings. 
Let me admonish the Reader, that if when we tooke boat 
we had onely crossed the Elve, we might have hired a 
Waggon from Tolspecker a Village to Hamburg (being 
three miles) for two Dollors amongst six persons. Being 
at Hamburg and purposing to goe up into Misen,. because 
II 

.,4 Table 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

I had not the language, I compounded with a Merchant 
to carry mee in his Coach, and beare my charges to Leipzig 
for tenne gold Guldens. 
The first day having broke our faste at Hamburg, we 
passed seaven miles over the Heath of Luneburg, and 
lodged in a Village. In our way we passed many Villages 
of poore base houses, and some pleasant groves; but all 
the Countrey was barren, yet yeelded corne in some places, 
though in no plenty. The second day we came to a 
little City Corneiler, through a Countrey as barren as 
the former, and towards our journeis end wee passed a 
thicke wood of a mile long. The third day we went 
Magden[urg. seven miles to Magdenburg, which is counted sixe and 
twenty miles from Hamburg, and this day we passed a 
more fertile Countrey, and more wooddy; and they 
shewed me by the way an Hill called Bockesberg, famous 
with many ridiculous fables of ,Vitches yeerely meeting 
in that place. This City of old called Parthenopolis, of 
Venus Parthenea, is now called Magdenburg, that is, the 
City of Virgins, & for an Inland City is very faire, and 
the Germans speake much of the t3rtification, because 
d,trongcity. Mauricius Elector of Saxony besieged it a whole yeere 
with the Emperour Charles the fifth his Army, yet tooke 
it not. Howbeit I thinke that not so much to bee 
attributed to the strength of the City, as to the distracted 
mind of the besieger, who in the meane time sollicited 
the French King to joyne with the Dutch Princes to free 
Germanie from the Emperours tyranny, and the French 
Army being once on foot, himselfe raised forces against 
the Emperour. The forme of this City is like a Moone 
increasing, the Bishopricke thereof is rich, and the 
Margrave of Brandeburg his eldest sonne did then possesse 
it, together with the City and territory, by the title of 
Administrator, in which sort he also held the Bishopricke 
of Hall, and he lay then at Wormested, a Castle not 
farre of. In the market place there is a Statua erected 
to the Emperour Otho the Great, founder of that City, 
and Munster writes of another statua erected to Rowland, 



COMMENTS UPON MAGDEBURG 

AoDo 
I59I. 

which I remember not to have seene. In the Senate- 
house, they shewed a singular picture, made by one Lucas 
a famous Painter, dead some thirty yeeres before; where 
also is the picture of that monstrous German, with all [I. i. 7-] 
the dimensions of his body, who not long before was led 
about the world to be shewed for a wonder. This man 
I had not seene, but in this picture I could scarce reach 
the crowne of his head with the point of my rapier, and German 
many of good credit told me, that they had seene this Gians. 
roans sister halle an ell higher then he. In the Church 
that lies neere the market place, there is a Font of great 
worth, and a Lute painted with great Art : the Cathedrall 
Church of Saint Maurice was built by Otho the Great, 
very sumptuously, where his wife lies buried in the yeere 
948- and the inscription is; that shee was daughter to 
Edmund King of England. There they shew one of 
the three vessels in which our Saviour Christ turned water 
into wine at Cana in Galile. There be in all ten Churches, 
but the above named are the fairest. Hence we went 
foureteene miles to Leipzig, being a day and a halfes 
OUrney through fruitfull corne fields, and a Countrey 
11 of rich Villages, the Merchant with whom I went, 
bearing my charges: from Hamburg I might have hired Charges from 
a Coach to Leipzig for sixe persons (those of Nurnburg Hamburg. 
bearing eight) for 24. dollers, and if a man goe thence 
to Luneburg, he may easily light on a Coach of returne 
at a lesse rate, so that in respect of the cheapnes of 
victuals in these parts, no doubt I gave the Merchant too 
much for my charges in this journey. 
Leipzig is seated in a plaine of most fruitfull corne Leipzig. 
ground, and full of rich Villages, in a Countrey called 
Misen, subject to the Elector Duke of Saxony: and the 
Countrey lying open to the eye in a most ample prospect, 
onely one wood can be seene in this large plaine. The 
streets are faire, the market place large and stately, and 
such are the chiefe houses, built of free stone foure roofes 
high: there is a convenient conduit of water in the 
Suburbs, lying towards Prage, the ditch is dry, the wals 
3 



COMMENTS UPON SVITTENBERG 

meet nothing at Witteberg, but whores, students, and 
swine, to which purpose they have these two Verses: 
Ni Witeberga sues, ni plurima scorta teneret, 
Ni pubem Phcebi, queso quid esset ibi ? 
Had Witeberg no swine, if no whores were, 
Nor Phoebus traine, I pray you what is there ? 
Whence may be gathered that the Citizens have small 
trafficke, living only upon the Schollers, and that the streets [I. i. 8.] 
must needs be filthy. In the study of Doctor Wisin- 
bechius this inscription is in Latine; 
Here stood the bed in which Luther gently died. 
See how much they attribute to Luther, for this is 
not the place where hee died, neither was there any bed, 
yet suffer they not the least memory of him to be blotted 
out. Luther was borne at Isleb in the yere I483, & Martin 
certainly died there in the house of Count Mansfield, Luther. 
where after supper the seventeenth of February he fell 
into his usuall sickenesse, namely the stopping of humors 
in the Orifice of his belly, and died thereupon at five of 
the clocke in the morning, the eighteenth of February, 
in the yeere x546. the said Count and his Countesse and 
many other being present, and receiving great comfort 
from his last exhortations: yet from his sudden death 
the malitious Jesuits tooke occasion to slander him, as Jesuit 
if he died drunken; that by aspersions on his life and slanders. 
death, they might slander the reformation of Religion, 
which he first began. These men (after their manner) 
being to conjure an uncleane spirit out of a man in Prage, 
gave out that he was free from this spirit for the time 
that Luther died, and that when hee returned, they 
examined him where hee had beene that time, and the 
spirit should answere that hee had attended Luther. 
Phillip Melancthon, borne in the yeere i497. died 56o. Phillip 
and both these famous men were buried, and have their Melancthon. 
Monuments in the Dukes Church at Witteberg, which 
is said to be like that of Hieru_salem, and in that both 
5 



I59I. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Charger at 
14zi tte berg. 

of them are round, I will not deny it, but I dare say 
they differ in this, that Hierusalem Church hath the 
Chauncell in the middest with Allies to goe round about 
it, whereas the Chancell of this Church is at the East end 
of it. The Wittebergers tell many things of Luther 
which seeme fabulous, 8: among other things they shew 
an aspersion of inke, cast by the Divell when he tempted 
Luther, upon the wall in S. Augustines Colledge. Besides, 
DoctorFaustus they shew a house wherein Doctor Faustus a famous 
a.famous conjurer dwelt. They say that this Doctor lived there 
conjurer, about the yeere r Soo. and had a tree all blasted and 
burnt in the adjoyning Wood, where hee practised his 
Magick Art, and that hee died, or rather was fetched by 
the Divell, in a Village neere the Towne. I did see the 
tree so burnt; but walking at leasure through all the 
Villages adjoyning, I could never heare any memory of 
his end. Not farre from the City there is a mountaine 
called the Mount of Apollo, which then, as of old, 
abounded with medicinable herbes. In a Village neere 
the Towne there be yet many tokens that the Emperour 
Charles the fifth encamped there. I lived at Witteberg 
the rest of this summer, where I paled a Gulden weekely 
for my diet and beere, which they account apart, and for 
my chamber after the rate of tenne Guldens by the yeare. 
I heare that since all things are dearer ; the Schollers using 
to pay each weeke a Dollor for their diet, and a Dollor 
for chamber and washing. Hence I tooke my journey 
to Friburge that I might see the funerall of Christianus 
the Elector. Three of us hired a Coach all this journey 
for a Dollor each day, with condition that we should pay 
for the meat of the horses and of the coach-man, which 
cost as much more. And this we paled because we had 
freedome to leave the coach at our pleasure, though we 
returned with it to Leipzig, to which if we would have 
tied our selves, we might have had the coach for halle 
a Dollor a day. The first day wee went sixe miles to 
Torge, through sandy fields yeelding corne, and we dined 
at Belgar a Village, where each man paled five grosh for 
i6 



COMMENTS UPON TORGAU 
59 . 

his dinner, and by the way they shewed us a Village called 
Itzan, where Luther made his first Sermons of reformation. 
Torge is a faire City of Misen, of a round forme, Torg. 
falling each way from a mountaine, and seated on the 
West side of Elve. It hath a stately Castle belonging 
to the Elector Duke of Saxony, who is Lord of Leipzig, 
Witteberg, and all the Cities we shall passe in this journey. 
This Castle is washed with the River Elve, and was built 
by John Fredricke Elector, in the yeere I535. It hath 
a winding way or plaine staire, by which a horse may easily 
goe to the top of the Castle, the passage being so plaine 
as the ascent can scarcely be discerned. The Hall, 
Chambers and Galleries of this Castle, are very faire and 
beautifull, and adorned with artificiall pictures, among 
which one of a boy presenting flowers, is fairer then the 
rest. Also there is a picture on the wall, of one Laurence 
Weydenberg a Sweitzer, made in the twentieth yeere of 
his age, in the yeere i53i , shewing that he was nine foot 
high. In the Church there is a Monument of Katherine 
a Nunne, which died I552. and was wife unto Luther. 
The Village Milburg is within a mile of this City in the 
way to Dresden, where the Elector Fredericke was taken 
prisoner by Charles the fifth, in the Protestants warre. 
The lake neere the City is a mile in circuit, for the fishing 
whereof, the Citizens pay 500. guldens yeerely to the 
Elector of Saxony, and they fish it once in three yeeres, 
and sell the fish for some 5000. guldens. The beere of 
Torge is much esteemed through all Misen, whereof they 
sell such quantity abroad, as ten water-mils besides wind- 
mils, scarcely serve the towne for this purpose. 
From Torge we went six miles to Misen in our Coach Misen. 
hired as aforesaid, and we dined each man for five grosh 
in the village Starres, and wee passed through goodly 
corne hils, and faire woods of firre and birtch. The City 
Misen is round in forme, and almost all the houses are 
built on the falling sides of Mountaines, which compassing 
all the City, open towards the East, where Elve runneth 
by. Duke Fredericke surnamed The wise, and Duke 
M. 7 B 

[I. i. 9-] 

Charges fir 
Fishing. 



Dresden. 

Good watch 
kept. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

George, surnamed papisticall, are buried in the Cathedrall 
Church. Here I paid six grosh every meale. The City 
is subject to the Duke of Saxony, having the same name 
with the whole Countrey in which it lieth. Hence wee 
went three miles to Dresden in a Coach hired as aforesaid, 
and passed through sandy and stony Hils, some fruitfull 
vallies of corne, and two Woods of firre, whereof there 
bee many neere Dresden, whither being come, I paled 
sixe grosh for my dinner. 
This City of Dresden is very faire and strongly fortified, 
in which the Elector of Saxony keepes his Court, having 
beene forty yeeres past onely a village. When the first 
stone of the wals was laid, there were hidden a silver cup 
guilded, a Booke of the Lawes, another of the coynes, 
and three glasses filled with wine, the Ceremonies being 
performed with all kind of Musicke and solemnity. The 
like Ceremony was used when they laid the first stone 
of the stable. The City is of a round forme, seated in 
a Plaine, running betweene two Mountaines, but some- 
what distant, and the houses are faire, built of free stone, 
foure or five roofes high, whereof the highest roofe, after 
the Italian fashion, is little raised in steepnesse, so that 
the tops of the houses appeare not over the walles, 
excepting the Electors Castle built betwixt the North and 
West side, and the Church Tower built betweene the 
West and East side. In this Tower the watchmen dwell, 
who in the day time give notice by Flags hung out, what 
number of foot or horse are comming towards the Towne. 
To which Tower they ascend by two hundred seventy 
staires, and in the top two Demiculverins are planted. 
Wee entred on the East side through old Dresden, being 
walled about, and so passed the Elve, compassing the 
walles of new Dresden on the East side by a Bridge of 
stone having seventeene arches, under which halle the 
ground is not covered with water, except it be with a 
floud. Upon the Bridge we passed three gates, and at 
the end entred the City by the fourth ; where the garrison 
Souldiers write the names of those that come in, and lead 
I8 



COMMENTS UPON DRESDEN 

them to the Innes, where the Hostes againe take their 
names. The City hath but two little Suburbs. The 
Citizens were then as busie as Bees in fortifying the 
City, which the Elector then made very strong. The 
ground riseth on all sides towards the Towne, and the 
new City hath foure Gates; Welsh-thore, Siegeld-thore, 
New-thore, and Salomons-thore: and is compassed with 
two walles, betweene which round about there is a garden, 
from which men may ascend or descend to it at each Gate. 
Over the outward wall there is a covered or close Gallery, 
private to the Elector, who therein may compasse the 
Towne unseene. Hee hath used the best wits of Germany 
and Italy in this fortification, wherein he hath spared no 
cost. The walles are high and broad of earth, whose 
foundation is of stone, and they are on all sides furnished 
with great Artillery, yea in that time of peace the streets 
were shut with iron chaines, at eating times, and all night. 
The Electors stable is by much the fairest that ever I 
saw, which I will briefly describe. In the first Court 
there is a Horse-bath, into which they may bring as much 
or little water as they list, and it hath 22. pillars, in each 
whereof divers Armes of the Duke are graven, according 
to the divers families whose Armes he gives. The same 
Court serves for a Tilting-yard, and all exercises of 
Horse-manship : and there is also the Horse-leaches shop, 
so well furnished as if it belonged to a rich Apothecary. 
The building of the stable is f3ure square, but the side 
towards the Dukes Pallace is all taken up with two gates 
and a little Court yard, which takes up halle this side, 
and round about the same are little cubboords peculiar 
to the horsemen, in which they dispose all the furniture 
fit for riding. The other three sides of the quadrangle, 
contained some I36. choise and rare Horses, having onely 
two other gates leading into the Cities market place, 
opposite to those gates towards the Court. These horses 
are all of lorraine Countries, for there is another stable 
for Dutch horses, and among these chiefe horses, one 
named Michael Schatz (that is Michaell the Treasure) 
I9 

The dry gates. 

[I. i. o.] 
The Elertor's 
stable. 

Horses. 



perwading 
temperance. 

^.D. FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
I59I. 
was said to be of wonderful1 swiftnesse: before each 
horses nose was a glasse window, with a curtaine of 
Richfurni- greene cloth to be drawne at pleasure; each horse was 
turefor covered with a red mantle, the racke was of iron, the 
the hore. 
manger of copper: at the buttocke of each horse was 
a pillar of wood which had a brasen shield, where by the 
turning of a pipe he was watered; and in this piller was 
a cubboord to lay up the horses combe and like necessaries, 
and above the backe of each horse hung his bridle and 
saddle, so as the horses ,night as it were in a moment be 
furnished. Above this stable is a gallery on one side, 
adorned with the statuaes of horses & their riders, with 
their complete Armours fifty in number, besides many 
Armours lying by the wals. On the other side is a gallery 
having forty like statuaes, & thirty six sledges which 
they use in Misen, not only to journey in time of snow, 
but also for festival1 pompes. For in those Cities, 
especially at Shrove-tide, and when much snow falleth, 
Sledging at they use to sit upon sledges drawne with a horse furnished 
S,,-we-tide. with many bels, at the foote of which sledge they many 
times place their Mistresses, and if in running or sudden 
.turning, the rider or his Mistresse slip, or take a fall, it 
as held a great disgrace to the rider. Some of these 
sledges are very sumptuous, as of unpurified silver as it 
comes from the Mines, others are fairely covered with 
velvet and like stuffes. Above the forepart of the stable 
towards the market place, are the chambers wherein the 
Elector feasts with Ambassadors. In the window of the 
first chamber or stove, being a bay window towards the 
street, is a round table of marble, with many inscriptions 
perswading temperance, such as are these, 
Aut nulla Ebrietas, aut tanta sit ut tibi curas 
Demat 
Be not drunken in youth or age, 
Or no more then may cares asswage. 
Againe, Plures crapula quam ensis. 
Gluttony kils more then the sword. 
o 



COMMENTS UPON DRESDEN 

A.D. 
I59I. 

Yet I dare say, that notwithstanding all these good 
precepts, few or none ever rose (or rather were not carried 
as unable to goe) from that table. Twelve little marble 
chaires belong to this table, and the pavement of the 
roome is marble, and close by the table there is a Rocke 4 Rocke 
curiously carved with images of fishes and creeping things, curiously 
carved. 
This Rocke putteth forth many sharpe pinacles of stone, 
upon which the vessels of gold and silver are set forth 
at the feasts, and when the drinking is at hottest, the 
statua of a horseman by worke of great Art, comes out 
of the Rocke, and presents each stranger with a huge 
boule of wine, which he must drinke off for his welcome, 
without expecting that any should pledg him. In the 
next chamber belonging to this stove, is a bedstead of 
marble, and both have hangings of gold lether. There 
is another chamber and another stove like these, and above 
them in the up.permost loft, there be many little roomes, 
whereof one s furnished with speares, another with 
saddles (& among them I remember one which in the 4 strange 
pummell bore a gilded head, with eyes continually moving, saddle. 
& in the hinder part had a clocke) the rest are furnished 
with swords, shields, helmets, and fethers. Among the 
swords, every Prince hath his owne, which the successours 
use not to weare, and there is one belonging to the Elector- 
ship, when he exerciseth his office as Marshal of the [I. i. .] 
Empire. There was another Sword, having in the hilt 
two little Pistols. Here I saw laid up an Iron chaine, 
in which they said, that Duke Henry the Father of 
Maurice the first Elector of this Family, should have 
beene hanged in the Low Countries, who escaping, 
brought the same with him, and laid it up here for 
memory. After the Funerall of Christianus, returning 
from Friburg to this Towne, I found onely fifteene of 
those choice Horses in the stable, all the rest having beene 
given to Princes comming to the Funerall. 
The Dukes Pallace in Dresden was built by Mauricius, 
part of the City wals and the gates were built by Augustus, 
who did also lay the foundation of this Stable. But 

2I 



I59I. 

T,e 4 rmory. 

Bodt$ 
driven by 
Battledores. 

Friburg. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Christianus the Elector perfected the wals of the City, 
with the close gallery over them, and built this famous 
stable ; setting this inscription upon the wals in Latine. 
Christianus Duke of Saxony, Heire to Augustus the 
Elector of happy memory, and imitator of his vertues, 
cused this Stable to be built, and the Yard adjoyning 
to be fitted for Tilting and military exercises : the present 
age, &c. 
The Armory at Dresden is no lesse worth the noting, 
wherein were Armes and all kind of munition for seventy 
thousand men, but of late it had been somewhat emptied 
by an expedition into France, undertaken by the Duke 
at the solicitation of the Count of Turin, Ambassadour 
for Henry the fourth King of France. 
The Duke was at great charge in keeping Garison 
Souldiers at Dresden, and Officers, as well for the stable 
as the Armory. In these parts and no where else in 
Germany, they use boats of a hollow tree, driven not 
by Oares, but by battledores, whereof I saw many upon 
the Elve, as likewise water mils swimming upon boates, 
and removed from place to place, the like whereof was 
since made at London by a Dutchman, but became 
unprofitable by the ebbing and flowing of Thames. At 
Dresden I paid seven grosh a meale. 
Hence in our Coach hired, as aforesaid, we passed foure 
miles to Friburg, through fruitful Hils and Mountaines 
of corne, but few or no Woods: and here we paid each 
man sixe grosh a meale. This City is of a round forme, 
compassed of all sides with Mountaines, having many 
Vauts, or Caves under it; by which the Citizens enter 
and goe out of the City by night, to worke in the silver 
Mines. Yet hath the City two walles, and two ditches, 
but altogether dry. It hath five gates, and foure Churches, 
among which Sai,t Peters Church is the fairest. The 
Elector hath his Castle in the City: and in the Church 
(as I remember of Saint Peter) wherein the Dukes use 
to be buried ; Mauricius hath a very faire monument 
of blacke Marble, raised in three piles, whereof each 



COMMENTS UPON FREIBERG 

is decked with divers statuaes of white Marble and 
Alablaster; whereof two belong to Mauricius, the one 
in posture of praying, the other armed, and receiving a 
deadly wound. Two Monuments were begun, but not 
then perfected, for Augustus and Christianus. The 
territory of Friburg abounds with silver Mines; wherof 
some are five hundred fadomes deepe, some seven hundred, 
and some nine hundred; and after each thirty fadomes, 
the earth is supported with great beames of timber, lest 
it should fall; and from each of these buildings, winding 
staires of wood are made, to descend to the bottome. 
The Citizens live of these Mines, and grow rich thereby, 
whereof the Elector hath his proper part, and useth to 
buy the parts of the Citizens. The worke-men use 
burning Lampes under the earth both day and night, and 
use to worke as well by night as by day : and they report, 
that comming neere the purest veins of silver, they are 
often troubled with evill spirits. These worke-men goe 
out to the Mines by night, through the Caves under the 
City, and being called backe from worke by the sound 
of a bell, they come in the same way. The water which 
the worke-men use, springeth in a mountain an arrow 
shot from the Town, whence falling to a lower mountaine, 
it is convaied by hollow trees to fall upon the wheeles of 
the mils, so as a little quantity thereof driveth them. 
These Mils draw the water up out of the Mines, for the 
depth of forty fadome, whence it runneth in pipes towards 
the City. When they try & purify the silver, first with 
water they wash away the red earth, then they beat the 
mettall with a hand hammer, and thus broken, they cast 
it into the fire, which they make in the open ayre, lest 
the workmen should be stifled with the fume of the 
brimstone. Then they melt the mettall six times, by a 
fire made of whole trees, in a little house adjoyning. 
Then in another house they sever the mettall from the 
earth with a slve. Then againe they beat the mettall 
with an hammer driven by a Mill ; and thus beaten, they 
wash it upon three clothes hanging slopewise, and the 
3 

The Silver 
Mines. 

How they try 
the silver. 

[I. i. , z.] 



COMMENTS UPON LEIPZIG 

AoDo 
I59I. 

wee dined, and thence three miles to Leipzig, all through 
plaine arid fruitfull corne fields. I spent this winter at 
Leipzig, that I might there learne to speake the Dutch 
toung (the Grammer wherof I had read at Witteberg,) 
because the Misen speech was held the purest of all other 
parts in Germany. Heere each Student useth to pay for Charges fat" 
Students. 
his diet a Gulden weekly, besides beere, for which every 
man pales according to his drinking; some lesse, some 
more, most beyond measure. For the Citizens have no 
beere in their houses but one kind, which is very small, 
and buy the better kindes (as that of Torge, which the 
richer sort usually drinke) from a publike house, where 
it is sold by small measures, to the profit of the Senate. 
Besides, the !Schollers pay severally for their bed and 
chamber. My selfe lodged with a rich Citizen, and for 
diet, bed, and chamber, paled weekly a Dollar and a 
halle. 

Chap. II. 
Of my journey from Leipzig to Prage (in Bo- 
hemia) to Nurnberg, Augspurg, Ulna, Lyndaw, 
Costnetz (in Germany) Schaphusen, Zurech, 
Baden, and Bazell (in Sweitzerland). 
- -.,1 Eing to take my journey to Prage, in the 
  ' end of the yeere i59I , (after the English 
accomat, who begin the yeere upon the 
twenty five of March,) I returned ag-aine 
to Dresden; from whence I wrote this 
Letter concerning my journey, to a friend 
.  lying at Leipzig. 
Honest M. Know that after I parted from you at Torg, 
by good hap, and beside my expectation, I light upon 
a Coach going to Dresden, with which good hap, while 
I was affected, and hasted to hire a place therein, I had 
forgot to pay for my Coach for the day before. But when 
we were ready to go, remembring my errour, and 
intreating my consorts to stay a while for mee, I ranne 
5 

[I. i.  3.] 



I59I. 

From Dresden 
to Prague. 

Prage. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

from the river to the Inne, I light upon this commodity 
of a Coach, which hath freed me from the annoyance of 
the water and Marriners. Imbrace an my name our 
common friend G. B. and of nay loving hosts family, let 
not a whelpe goe unsaluted. Farewell honest M. and 
returne me love for love: from Dresden the seventh 
of March, 159I. 
My selfe aJad foure consorts hired a Coach for 14. 
dollers from Dresden to Prage. The first day we went 
three miles to Gottleben a Village, where we paid five 
Bohemian groshe, that is sixe white groshe each man for 
his dinner. Halle the way was on the West side of the 
River Elve, in a fertile plaine, then we passed the Elve, 
a.nd travelled through mountaines, yet fertile, and a 
boggy wood. After dinner we went two miles, to a 
Village, where we lodged, through sto.ny mountaines 
without any wood, and in the mid way there was a 
woodden pillar, which divided the territory of the Saxon 
Elector fro-m the kingdome of Bohemia. 
The second day we went two miles through stony 
Mountains, bearing not one tree, to Ansig a little City, 
where we paid for our breakefast foure Bohemian gro.shes. 
The same day we passed three miles in a straight between 
rocks, lying upon the Elve, & two short miles through 
fruitfull corn fields, to Wedin lying upon the river Aegra, 
which runs a little below into the Elve, but was here at 
this time so deep, by a floud or melting of snow, as our 
Coach in comming to the bridge of Wedin by the baak 
side, tooke water. The third day we passed z miles to 
a village called Welber or Welberg, through fruitfull hil.s 
of corn without any wood, & there each man paid 5 
Bohemian rosh for his dinner. 
In the atternoone wee went three miles, for the most 
part through fruitfull hils of cor.ne, the rest through 
Rockes and MountaJnes planted with Vines, and so came 
to Prage, through which the River Molda runneth, but is 
not navigable. On the West side of Molda is the 
Emperours Castle, seated on a most high Moiantaine, in 
28 



I59I. 

4 monument 
reverenced. 

anlou$ 
English 
llcumht. 

The City 
.drmes. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

14I 9. Ladislaus in the yeere I4ar 9. Ferdinand the fourth, 
in the yeere 1564. Maximillian the second, in the yeere 
1577. (all being Arch-dukes of Austria, and Emperours) 
and George Pogiebrachius a Bohemian, and King of 
Bohemia. To all these is one Monument erected, and 
that of small beauty: In the same Church is the Monu- 
ment of a Bishop, who being the Q_qeenes Confessour, 
was cast into Molda because he would not reveale her 
confession to her husband Wenceslaus. They doe so 
reverence the Monument of this Bishop (since made a 
Saint by the Pope). as they thinke he shall die with shame, 
that passeth by it without reverence. In Old Prage 
towards the South, and upon the East side of Molda, 
there is an old Pallace, where they shew a trap-doore, by 
which the Qeene was wont to slide downe into a Bath, 
where shee used to satisfie her unlawfull lust. In the same 
place is graven the leape of a horse, no lesse wonderfull 
then Byards fabulous leape. The House of Kelley a 
famous English Alcumist, was of old a Sanctuary, and 
built for an order of Friers, upon the gate whereof these 
verses are written, 
Has edes veterum favor & clementia Regum, 
Omnibus exemptas Legibus esse dedit : 
Audeat ergo jugum nemo his servile minari, 
Q.qos hic cure Urabsky curat alitque Deus. 
This house through old Kings Clemency 
Free from all Lawes no threats respects; 
Dare not fright them with slavery, 
Whom under God Urabsky protects. 
In the Senate house the City Armes are painted, being 
a Castle with three Towers ore; and two Lions argent 
Langed gules, are the supporters, and these Verses are 
written upon the Armes ; 
Q.qi dedit hec veteri turrita insignia Prague, 
Omina venture sortis arnica dedit. 
Mole sua ut celsa: tra.nscendunt mcenia Turres, 
Sic famam superas inclita Praga tuam. 
3 2 



Pihen. 

Charge in 
Bohemia. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

belongs to the family of the Poples. The second day 
wee went foure miles to Zudermont, all through Moun- 
taines and Groves, and two great Woods, yet reasonably 
fruitfull in Corne, and by the way" we saw the City Bodly, 
and the City Spil, the fairest of that Kingdome next to 
Prage, both belonging to the Emperour, and two Castles, 
belonging to the Barons Popeles and heere each man 
dined for sixteene Creitzers. After dinner we went two 
miles to Pilsen, halle the way through Woods, where is a 
little City Ruchtsan, and halle through Hils and Plaines 
fruitfull in Corne, (almost the whole Countrey of Bohemia 
being hilly, and rich ground for Pasture and Corne) and 
here we supped each man for twenty three Creitzers. 
The third day wee went three miles to Kladen, through 
pleasant Hils of Groves, pasture and corne, where each 
man dined for eighteene Creitzers. After dinner we 
went three miles to Frawenberg, through high Moun- 
taines and great Woods, having no great store of corne; 
in all which territory, the Cities and Villages acknowledge 
the Emperour for their supreme Lord, as he is King of 
Bohemia. For this Kingdome is not divided (as others 
be) into Provinces and Countries, but into Noble-mens 
Territories. Here we paied each man eight Creitzers for 
our supper, and twelve for wine. 
The fourth day wee went a mile and a halle to a little 
river, dividing Bohemia, or Boemerland from Germany, 
through rocky Mountaines, and many Woods of tall Fir 
trees, fit to make Masts for Ships. Then wee entred a 
Countrey belonging to the Elector Palatine of the Rheine, 
which Elector is called vulgarly the Phaltz-grave, and we 
came within halle a mile to Weithawsen, where each man 
dined for eighteene Creitzers. After dinner we went two 
miles in the Phaltzgraves Countrey, through woody 
Mountaines, and one mile in the Landgrave of Leyten- 
berg his Countrey, through fruitfull corne fields, and 
lodged at Shonhutton, where each man paled six Creitzers 
for his supper, and thirteene for wine. For in these parts 
they drinke no beere (as before) but wine, and that at 

34 



COMMENTS UPON NURNBERG 

a lower price, then other where, whether it bee native or 
forraine : yet no man must wonder that wee spent more 
in wine then meat, all my consorts being Dutch-men. 
The fifth day wee went in the Phaltzgraves Countrey, 
foure miles to Amberg: through fruitfull Hils of corne, 
and some few Woods, and this City belongs to the 
Phaltzgrave, being seated in the upper Palatinate. After 
dinner we went in the Marquesse of Anspach his Country, 
(who is also called the Burgrave of Nurnberg) two miles 
to Hous-coate, a Village, where each man paid six Batzen 
for his supper. The sixt day we went three miles, passing 
by Erspruck, a Citie subject to the Nurnbergers, and 
many villages belonging to divers Lords, and a fort in the 
mid way called Schwang, belonging to seventy two Lords, 
and being then by course in the Phaltzgraves keeping ; 
for all these Lords keepe the same by course for three 
yeeres. The first and greater part of the way, was 
through fruitfull Hils of corne, the rest through sandy 
pastures, and a Wood of a miles length. Wee dined at a 
poore Village, each man for six Batzen. After dinner 
we went two miles to Nurnberg, through sandy corne 
fields, and passed by many houses and gardens of the 
Citizens, whether they use to come out of the City, 
sometimes to recreate themselves. The Wood which we 
passed in the morning, lay on our left hand towards the 
South ; as wee entred the Citie on the east side, and not 
farre from the City, turneth it selfe and runneth farther 
towards the South. 
The City of Nurnberg, seated in a barren sandy ground, 
yet is very rich by the Citizens industry. For as 
commonly few be rich in a fertile Countrey, (either because 
having enough for food, they are given to idlenesse, or 
because abundance makes them prodigall,) so the Nurn- 
bergers planted in a barren soyle, by their subtile inven- 
tions of Manuall workes, and cunning Art, draw the 
riches of all Countries to them. The River Bengetts 
runnes by the Citie, but is not Navigable, nor beareth 
any the least boats. This River runnes from the East 
35 

l mberg. 

Erspruck. 

Nurnberg. 
[I. i. I8.] 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

(where wee entred the Towne) towards the gate Lau- 
thore, and so compasseth the suburbs towards the South, 
where dividing into two beds, it entreth the City, and 
comming out againe at the West, washeth the Citie walles. 
On the East side, the Margraves of Brandeburg, besieged 
the City, at the command of Charles the fifth; therefore 
Nurnberg on this, and the South side, besides a dry ditch, and two 
u,ellfortifled, stone walles compassing the whole City, divers Bulwarkes 
are built upon the wall. On all sides as you come up 
to the City, the earth riseth, and almost at every gate there 
is a long suburbe. Upon the walles there be many 
Towers, distant one from the other some Iooo ordinary 
walking paces, and the whole circuit of the City is lesse 
then a German mile. Among the said Towers, three are 
stronger then the rest, and furnished with Artillery. The 
first is on the East side neere the gate Lauff-thore. The 
second is on the South side, under the gate Fraw-thore, 
(and on the same side is the gate Spittle-thore.) The 
third is on the North side under the gate New-thore, (and 
on the same side is another gate called Burk-thore.) 
There is a Castle called Burk, which by Nero the 
Noricum Emperour, was of his name called Noricum Castrurn. It 
Cnstrum. is certaine, that this Castle stood in the time of Charles 
the Great; and the City being of it selfe not ancient, 
is thought to have had his name of this Castles old 
Latine name. On the West side is the gate Haller-thore, 
so called of him that caused it to be built; where is a 
pleasant walke, thicke shadowed with trees, where the 
Citizens use to walke for pleasure. 
The City is absolute of it selfe, being one of the free 
Cities of the Empire, and mee thinks the chief, or at 
least second to Augsburg: surely it may perhaps yield 
to Augsburg in treasure and riches of the City, but it 
must be preferred for the building, which is all of free 
stone sixe or seven roofes high: I speake of the whole 
City of Augsburg, for one street thereof is most beaufi- 
full, and some Pallaces there are fit for Princes, of which 
kind Nurnberg hath none. The Tower which I said was 
3 6 



COMMENTS UPON NURNBERG 

of old called Noricum Castrum, hangs over the City, 
which being seated in a plaine, hath no mounts neere it, 
and is of a round f'orme. The said Tower is compassed 
with a drie ditch very deepe, upon the wall whereof they 
shew a Spaniards blood there sprinkled, who undertooke 
to betray the Castle to Charles the fifth : as also the print 
of a Horses feete in memory of a wonderfull leape from 
the Castle side to the other side of the bridge. The 
Senate House lies under the side of this Castle or Tower, 
as it were under the shield of _Ajax, and under the same 
house and under the earth be the publike prisons. The 
_Armory is built on the South side of the Towne, and is 
.opened to no man without consent of the Senate, (which 
an all other Cities of Germany is readily shewed to 
strangers.) _And in that _Armory by the Citizens report 
they have 4oo. great peeces of _Artillery, with great store 
of all Munitions. The City hath also a Granary, which 
is so large, as divers yeeres provision (or corne may be 
laid up therein. It hath ten Churches, whereof onely 
foure are used for prayers and preaching; and in one of 
them lies buried Zebalemus King of Denmarke, who first 
converted the City to Christian Religion. Neere the 
Church of Saint Laurence is the golden fountaine, so 
called of the beauty and .magnificence, and it distils water 
out of twenty leaden pipes. Neere the Church called 
Frawenkirk, is another faire Fountaine guilded over, and 
compassed with an iron grate. It is unlawful to walke in 
the night without a torch, or a candle and lanthorne. In 
the Innes they give no beere at the table, but divers 
kinds of wine, and a large diet, if not delicate : for which 
every man paieth sixe batzen a meale, and besides for his 
chamber or lodging (which he may have private to him- 
selfe) three creitzers by the day. In the Alines-houses, 
out of gifts by the last testament of those that die, they 
maintaine great numbers of poore people, and in one of 
them twelve old men apart, and in another twelve old 
men, and as many old weomen. 
Whilst I lived at Prage, and one night had set up very 
37 

The hmory. 

Charges in 
the Innes. 

[I. i. 9-] 



At strange 
dreame at 
Prage. 

d like dreame 
at Cambridge. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

late drinking at a feast, early in the morning the Sunne 
beames glancing on my face, as I lay in bed, I dreamed 
that a shadow passing by, told me that my father was 
dead ; at which awaking all in a sweat, and affected with 
this dreame, I rose and wrote the day and houre, and all 
circumstances thereof in a paper booke, which Booke with 
many other things I put into a barrel, and sent it from 
Prage to Stode, thence to be convaied into England. And 
now being at Nurnberg, a Merchant of a noble family, 
well acquainted with me and my friends, arrived there, 
who told me that my Father died some two moneths past, 
I list not write any lies, but that which I write is as true 
as strange. When I returned into England some foure 
yeeres after, I would not open the barrell I sent from 
Prage, nor looke on the paper Booke in which I had 
written this dreame, till I had called my sisters and some 
friends to be witnesses, where my selfe and they were 
astonished to see my written dreame answere the very day 
of my Fathers death. 
I may lawfully sweare, that which my kinsmen have 
heard witnessed by my brother Henry whilst he lived, 
that in my youth at Cambridge I had the like dreame of 
my Mothers death, where my brother Henry lying with 
me, early in the morning I dreamed that my mother 
passed by with a sad countenance, and told me that shee 
could not come to my commencement ; I being within 
five moneths to proceed Master of Arts, and shee having 
promised at that time to come to Cambridge : And when 
I related this dreame to my brother, both of us awaking 
together in a sweat, he protested to me that he had 
dreamed the very same, and when wee had not the least 
knowledge of our Mothers sickenesse, neither in our 
youthfull affections were any whit affected with the 
strangenesse of this dreame, yet the next Carrier brought 
us word of our mothers death. 
Being (as I have said) certified of my Fathers death at 
Nurnberg, and thinking not fit to goe on my journey 
into Italy, and yet being loath to returne into England, 
3 8 



COMMENTS UPON NURNBERG 

before I had finished my purposed voyage, I tooke the 
middle counsell, to returne into the Low Countries, that 
in those neere places I might dispose of my small 
patrimony (fbr in England gentlemen give their younger 
sonnes lesse, then in lorraine parts they give to their 
bastards) and so might leave the same in the hands of 
some trusty friend. Yet lest I should loose the oppor- 
tunity of seeing Augsburg, meaning to returne some 
other way into Italy, I resolved to goe from hence to 
Augsburg, and then to crosse over the West parts ot 
Germany, and so to passe along the River Rhein into 
the Low Countries. 
To Augsburg (being two dayes journey and a halfe) 
I hired of the City Carrier (in whose company I went) an T& City 
Horse for two Dollors, as I remember. The Merchants Carrier. 
of Nurnberg and Augs.burg, give pensions to eight of 
these Carriers, daily passing betweene those Cities, besides 
the profit they make of letters, and other things they 
carry by horse. The first day after breake-fast, we rode 
one mile in a thicke wood, and another mile through 
sandy corne fields, somewhat wooddy, both in the territory 
of the Nurnbergers, and foure miles more in the territory 
of the Margrave of Anspach, to Blinfield, where each 
man paid for his supper and horse meat sixe batzen. The 
second day we rode foure miles to Monheime through a 
wood of Juniper, full of blacke berries and barberies, 
at the end whereof was a free City called Wassenberge, 14/assen&rge. 
and after through fruit full hils and valleies of corne, all 
the territory, excepting the free City, belonging to the 
Marshall of the Emperour (not of the Empire): when 
we came almost to our journeies end, the Carrier had a 
guide given him, according to custome, for theeves using 
to lie by that way. Monheime belongs to the Phaltz- 
grave of Newburg, being of the family of the Phaltz- 
graves of Rhein, and there we paid each man for his 
dinner and horse-meat thirty foure creitzers, which make 
eight batzen and a halle, and there we tasted Juniper wine, .luniperwine. 
which I never remember to have tasted else where. After 

39 



[L i. 

Augsburg. 

Augsburg. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

dinner we rode two miles and a halle through fruitfull 
hils of corne, and a small wood of Okes (though all the 
woods of upper Germany be commonly of firre, bearing 
greene leaves all winter, as those of inferiour Germany 
towards Denmarke, be all of Okes.) By the way we 
passed a Monastery granted to the Phaltzgrave of Rhein 
by the Emperour, and a free City of the Empire, called 
Donaward, of the two Rivers Danow & Werd, meeting 
there, and there we passed by bridge the Danow, running 
by the City. Then wee rode to Weschendorff two miles 
and a halle more, through fruitfull fields of corne & 
pastures, the Country belonging to the Fugares (Citizens 
of Augsburg) & to divers other Lords. The Castle of 
this place belongs to the said Fugares, who are rich & 
famous for their treasure; & though they have princely 
revenues, & the title of barons, yet stil are merchants: 
here each man paid for his supper & hors-meat 8. batzen 
& a half. 
The third day in the morning we rode three miles to 
Augsburg, through a fruitfull plaine of corne; without 
the wals whereof on the East and North, and some part 
of the South sides, the fields are drowned with waters, 
and men passe to the Citie by causies, for on these sides 
the ground lieth low: but on the west side is all the 
beauty of the City, where the houses are seated upon a 
hill, and ther is a place for the Merchants to meet, called 
the Berle, and likewise the Senate house in the street 
Weingasse, so called of the Wine cellars. There also be 
many Pallaces stately built, of the Fugares and other 
Citizens: all the building is of free stone sixe or seven 
roofes high; but in other parts it is more poorely built 
of timber and clay. On this West part of the City is the 
Gate called Kuknerthore, and the ditches are dry, as they 
be round about the City; the wals are of stone, which 
being on all other sides narrow, are on this side broad: 
for upon the wals of this side there be little houses built 
for five hundred Garrison Souldiers to dwell in, with their 
wives and families: which place is vulgarly called Die 

4o 



I592. 

The Senate 

[I. i. 2I.] 

lugsburg 
destroyed by 
lttila. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

letters, that the bowels of Otho the Emperour are buried 
there. Also there is a curious picture of Christ praying 
in the garden, whilst his Disciples slept ; and upon a very 
faire Clocke are three statuaes of the three Kings of 
Colen, (so they call the Wise Men of the East) and these 
carried about by a circle of iron, worship Christ when 
the Clocke strikes. In the Senate House (where the 
imperiall Parliaments vulgarly called Reichs-tagen have 
often beene held) I found nothing to answere the mag- 
nificence of this City ; onely on the gates this is written : 
Wise men build upon the Rocke, Fooles upon the Sand: 
(for I said this part of the City on the West side was built 
upon a stony hill.) In the Jesuites Church the Al.tar is 
of silver.gilded over, and another Altar of Christs 
Nativity Is curiously painted like the barks of trees. 
Augsburg (called of the Vandals, for distinction from 
Augsburg Rauracorum in Sweitzerland,) is divided from 
the Vandals by the Brooke Lycus, and being of old a City 
of Rhetia, now is reckoned the metropolitane City of 
Suevia, vulgarly Schwaben, & is said to have beene built 
by the sonne of Japhet, sixe hundred yeeres before Rome 
was builded. Of old they had a yeerely feast to Ceres, 
and now upon the same day they have a Faire: and for 
the fruitfulnesse of the soyle, the City gives a sheave of 
corne for their Armes. This City was utterly destroyed 
by Attila, King.of the Hunnes, and when he was dead, 
was rebuilt agame. It is a free Citie of the Empire, 
(which are .vulgarly called Reichs-statt,) and as other free 
Cities, it is governed by Senators. There bee many 
Almes houses for the poore, and one, wherein foure 
hundreth are nourished, by rents of land and houses, 
given to that house of old by good men. The Citie is 
seated upon the Northern mouth of the Alpes, in a 
fruitfull plaine of corne and pastures, and Hils full of 
game for hunting, and it may bee gathered how populous 
it is, by that a German Author writes, that in a yeere when 
no plague raigned, 17c 5 were baptized, and I227 buried. 
Being constant in my purpose taken at Nurnberg, to 
4u 



COMMENTS UPON ULM 

1592. 

goe.from Auspurge, to the West parts of Germany, and 
so nto the Low-countries; yet I wil remember the 
Reader, that he shall finde the journey from Augsburg 
to Venice, described in my voyage from Stode to Venice, 
and thence to Hierusalem. From Augspurg I rode to 
Ulme, and thence .to Lindawe, and all the way hired my 
horse for sixe or seven Batzen a day, paying for the daies Horsecharge. 
in which my horse returned, and hyring footmen to bring 
them backe, and bearing their charges. The first day l 
rode foure miles thorow the territory of the Fugars, and 
the Bishop of Tilleng, and one mile in the territory of 
the Arch-Duke of Austria, of the house of Inspruch, in a 
mountainous Countrey full of Woods, of Juniper, Ashes, 
Oakes, and Beaches, to Burg; where each man paid for 
his dinner and horsemeat, eight Batzen. 
In the afternoone I rode foure miles to Ulme, through ulne. 
a fruitfull plaine of corne. Entring the City, we passed 
by a Bridge, the River Danow, which (though running 
in a plaine) yet hath a most violent course, so as boats Barkes on the 
carried downe the streame, use to be sold at the place Rie'crDanow. 
where they land, it being very difficult to bring them 
backe again; yet some Barkes of burthen are sometimes 
drawne backe, by the force of horses. My selfe have 
seene tenne horses drawing one Barke, but they use a 
greater number, according to occasion, some thirty or 
more, as they report ; and he that rides on the horse 
neerest the Barke, is called Wage-halse, that is, Necke 
venturer, because hee and the horse are often drawn under 
the water, till the other horses draw them out again. 
This River hath foure great water fals, whereof the 
greatest is at Struddle, eighteene miles from Vienna, 
which is hardly to be passed, except it be in a floud. And 
the multitude of Bridges are very dangerous for boats, .4 dangerou 
by reason of the violent streame, and especially because Rieer. 
the Marriners are many times drunken, or negligent. 
They use for a charme, to sprinkle their drawing horses 
with water, and use with continuall loud cries to make 
them draw. This Navigation is very necessary that the 
43 



The order of 
the Dutch 
Knight. 

[I. i. zz.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

lower Oestreich, being fertill, may supply the upper being 
barren, with wine and corne. Munster writeth of two 
fals of this River, one below Lintz, where the waters 
make a terrible noyse, beating upon the rocky bed, the 
other at Gryn, where the water makes a dangerous whirle- 
poole of unsearchable depth. Ulme is seated in Schwaben 
or Suevia, as Augspurge is, and hath his name of Elme- 
trees. Charles the Great built a Monastery in this Village, 
which in time grew to a City, and under the Emperour 
Fredrick the third, bought their freedome of the Monkes. 
The building thereof is of wood and clay. The order of 
Knights called in Latine, Teutonicus, was in old time 
of great power, and ha.th yet a house in this Citie. It 
hath one stately Church, in the Yard whereof the Mount 
Olivet is curiously ingraven. It hath a faire Senate 
house, and the Armory hath such store of Ordinance and 
all Munitions, as it yeeldeth not therein to the proudest 
City in Germany. The writing Tables, made in this 
City, are famous for their goodnesse, and are thence 
carried into lorraine parts. The diet o.f the Innes of this 
.City (seated in a most fertill soyle) is very plentifull, both 
m meats and banquets, where each man paied for his 
dinner, seven Batzen. In this Country they drinke 
nothing but wine, (as they doe in all upper Germany,) 
but it is sharpe, and the Masse or measure is sold for 
three Batzen. When wee were at dinner, a Tumbler 
came in, and being admitted to shew his cunning, hee 
stood upon his head and dranke a measure of wine, which 
seemed strange to the beholders. 
After dinner, we rode a mile in a pleasant valley upon 
the Dow, which wee passed, and rode two miles further 
in the like fertill plaine, which is very large, and by all 
men much commended for the fruitfull pastures thereof. 
And so wee came to Baltring, subject to a li.ttle free Citie 
called Bubery, and here each man paied five Batzen for 
dinner, and three for horse-meat. Next morning, after a 
miles riding, we came to the City Bubery and rode two 
miles further to Waldshut, through woody Mountaines, 
44 



COMMENTS UPON LINDAU 

and corne rallies, which were so boggey, as many times 
wee had almost stuck fast. The Countrey belongs to the 
Arch-Duke, of the family of Inspruck; and heere wee 
paled each man nine Batzen for dinner and horsemeat. 
After dinner wee rode two miles through . woody 
Country, to Rvenspurg,  free Citie, seated betweene 
Mountaines, whereof one hangeth over it, and the River 
Ach runneth by it, in a narrow bed; so as the waters 
falling from the Mountaines very swiftly, doe many times 
overflow, to the great damage of the Countrey ; .nd from 
the Mountaines many woodden pipes convey water to 
the City. In these parts bee many Almes houses, for 
those that are infected with Leprosie, who may not come 
neere the Passengers, but doe beg of them a farre off, 
with the sound of a woodden clapper. Heere each man 
paid for his supper and horse-meat, twelve Batzen and a 
haJfe. The first day of May, we rode three miles, one 
through a Wood, the rest through a plaine of corne and 
inclosed pastures, and Hils planted with Vines, to the 
City Lindaw. By the way we saw the house of Count 
Montfort, and passed the River A_rba by . Bridge, which 
doth often overflow the plaine, doing great hurt; nd 
there wee paid halle a Creitzer tribute to the said Count, 
for each man. We were now come out of Suevia, and 
had rode two miles in Algoia, and on the left hand towards 
the South, we discovered the mouth of the Alpes, which 
in this place is called Spliego. 
Lindaw is a free City of the Empire, which freedome it 
bought in the yeere  166, and it is almost an Iland, seated 
in the lake called Acronius (vulgarly Bodensea) being 
joyned to the continent by a Bridge of stone on the North- 
east side, where it hath onely one gate, called Burg-thore, 
by which wee entred. On this fide, the fields are very 
pleasant, and planted with Vines, and neere the Bridge 
there is a Rampier, so old, as they say, it was erected by 
the Heathen, before any Christians were. Hence the 
City lies in length towards the South West: partly on 
the West, and altogether on .the South side lies the lake 
45 

I592. 

llmes houses 
for Lepers. 

Linda=,. 



COMMENTS UPON LINDAU 

money by deceit. Thus my case standeth. Being at 
Nurnberg, asd purposing thence to goe to Bazell, there 
to study, I dealt with a Merchant, that hee would 
exchange my money thither, retaining onely so much as 
would plentifully serve mee for my expences thither. 
There I met with M. B. a Citizen of Lindaw, who told 
me that the gold Guldens of Rheine were not to be 
spent in these parts without losse. So as I finding him 
acknowledged by the Carriers of this City (then being 
there) and by many Nurnbergers, for the sonne of a 
Senator in this Towne, was induced to deliver him some 
gold Guldens, to be paid mee heere in French Crownes, 
and wee comming in company together to this Towne, 
when I saw many principall Citizens gratulate his returne, 
I was induced to deliver him the rest of my gold Guldens, 
which I had kept for the expence of my journey, upon 
his promise to exchange them into French Crownes. So 
as in all hee is to pay mee thirtie two French Crownes 
wanting six Creitzers, (.for twenty seven of which French 
Crownes, and thirty six Creitzers, I tooke his bill at 
Nurnberg, but the rest I delivered him here upon his 
bare word.) Heere I expected his payment eight dayes, 
and when I was instant with him to put off the payment 
no longer, he is stoln out of the Towne, and his brothers 
give me no hope of payment: being not so noble, as 
to ponder the case rightly, or to have any due feeling of 
my state. Being in this case, not able without money to 
goe on my iourney, or indure the delayes of a sute in Law 
against him heere ; all my hope is in your just helpe, which 
failing me, I know not what course to take. Therefore 
I desire earnestly of your worthinesse, to assist mee, and 
give expedition to my cause, that I may be delivered by 
your goodnesse. 

I592. 
.4 Petition to 
the Consuls. 

My debtor, while he lived in the publike Inne with 
mee, used mee with all curtesie; but finding himselfe 
disinherited by his father lately dead, and so dispairlng of 
means to pay me, he was now fled to the Monastery 
47 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANCE 

44, yet was there condemned of Heresie, and burned. 
On the West side of the Citie, within the walles, in the 
Monastery called Barfussen Cloyster, is the Tower wherein 
he was imprisoned; and without the walles on the left 
hand, as you goe out, is a faire meadow, and therein a 
stone upon the high-way, to which he was bound, being 
burnt the same yeere 4x4, in the month of July. 
Where also his fellow Jerom of Prage was burnt xn 
September, the yeere following, both their ashes being 
cast into the Lake, lest the Bohemians should carry them 
away. The Senate-house in which this Councell was held, 
is of no beauty. When the Emperour Charles the fifth, 
besieged this Citie, it was yeelded to the hands of 
Ferdinand King of Bohemia, and brother to Charles, who 
made the Citizens peace for them. Heere each man paid 
eight Batzen a meale, and for wine betweene meales, 
eight creitzers the measure. 
Hence I went by boat, two miles to Styga, and paied 
for my passage two Batzen. We tooke boat at the end 
of the Lake close by the City; where the Rheine 
comming againe out of the Lake, and taking his name 
therein lost, doth runne in an narrow bed ; and when wee 
had gone by water some houre and a halle, wee entred 
the lower Lake, called Unden-sea. Neere Costnetz is an 
Iland called little Meinow, and in this lower lake is 
another Iland called Reichnow, of the riches, the 
Monastery thereof having of old so much lands, as the 
Monkes being sent to Rome, used to lodge every night in 
their owne possessions. This Iland is said to beare nothing 
that hath poyson, so as any such beast dieth presently 
in it: and in the Monastery are some reliques of Saint 
Marke, for which (as they say) the Venetians have offered 
much money. Writers report that of old, a Monke 
thereof climing up a ladder, to looke into a huge vessell 
of wine, and being overcome with the vapour, fell into 
the same, with a great bunch of keyes in his hand, and 
that shortly after this wine was so famous, as Princes and 
Nobles, and many sickly persons usually sent for the same ; 
M. I 49 D 

[I. i. 24. ] 

John Hus 
burned. 

Meinow and 
Reichnow. 

t Monke 
drowned in a 
huge yes, ell of 
wine. 



COMMENTS UPON ZURICH ^.D. 
1592. 
get for no money the Booke of Semlerus de Repub. Seralerux 
Helvetica, which you commended unto me: at last I ;e Repub. 
found it in a friends study, who esteemed it as the apple ttelvetica. 
of his eye, yet I so prevailed with him, as he let me have 
it, upon my faithfull promise ; that because I meant to blot 
the same with notes, I should procure him a new Booke ; 
wherein if you doe not disingage me by sending 
the same unto me, I shall forfet the small credit of a 
stranger. Farewell good Sir, and I pray you let us not 
suffer this sparke of our love to goe out, but rather with 
often writing, let us set all the coale on fire. Againe 
farewell: from Bazell the z4- day of May t59 z. 

From Schafhusen I tooke my journey on foot (as is 
above written) and went halle a mile in the territory of 
that City, and a mile and a halle in the territory of the 
Count of Zultz a Sweitzer, the lands of Zurech lying on 
the South side from us; and so wee passed through [I. i. 26.] 
Mountaines yeelding come, and planted with vines, and 
through woods, pastures, and a large valley of come, and 
in route houres space (for the miles of Sweitzerland are 
so long, as they reckon the journeies of horse or foot 
by the houres, and not by the miles) came to Eglisaw, 
and entering the same, passed the River Rheine by a 
Bridge, where I paide two creitzers for tribute, and there 
I supped for five Batzen. 
The next morning I went two miles on foot in six Zurech. 
houres space to Zurech, through a long wood, and hils 
of come (which they say are often blasted with haile) 
and through wooddy Mountaines, and hils of inclosed 
.pastures, with store of Vines planted neere the City, which 
is one of the Cantons of Sweitzerland, having on the 
West side the Lake called Zurechsea, and the Brooke 
Limachus, having his head eight miles further on the same 
side, runneth into this lake, and after comming out, 
divideth the City into two parts, called the greater and 
the lesse City, having three brides for passage, the greater 
whereof the Merchants use tot their meetings. The 



and ouw of 
ZurecA. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

foresaid Lake is three miles long, and hath on each side 
pleasant hils planted with Vines. The foresaid Brooke 
neere the City beareth onely small boates, and is all taken 
up with water mils, but above towards the is 
deeper, and below neere Baden runneth into the Rheine. 
The streetes of Zurech are narrow, and the Houses 
builded of timber and clay, and the City it selfe is seated 
upon and betweene hils, which on the East side of the 
Brooke grow higher from it. On the North-west side 
is a pleasant Mountaine, and a faire meadow for shooting 
with gunnes, and other exercises, wherein is a faire Lynden 
or teyle tree, yeelding large and sweet shadow, where the 
Citizens meete to recreate themselves, and to feast 
together. The Armes of the City are a Man and Woman, 
called Falix & Regula: without the City on the South, 
is the foresaid Lake, and beyond it the Alpes covered 
with snow. On the West side is a plaine, and the Moun- 
taines farre off, but on the North and East sides the 
Mountaines lie neere. The Citizens have a custome that 
when they goe forth against the enemy, they place the 
Ministers or Pastors in the front, or where they may 
partake the danger, and there is a place two miles from 
the City towards Lucerna, where Zwinglius a famous 
Preacher and reformer of Religion was killed in the field. 
Here I paid each meale six batzen. 
I rode three miles to Baden in three houres, and so hired 
my Horse as besides the price of six or seven batzen the 
day, I paid as much for the dales in which he returned, 
and also paid the hire and charges of one to bring him 
backe. Most part of our way was in the territory of 
Zurech, through hils of corne and vines, and a plaine of 
inclosed pastures. Entering the City we passed the 
brooke Limachus by a bridge: the Suburbs are built 
upon the ascent of a Mountaine, and the City on the 
top of it, where there is a Castle upon a Rocke, of old 
very strong, but now ruinated: on the North side 
descending into a valley by the brooke on the right hand, 
or upon the East side, within a musket shot lie the Baths, 

54 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

parts, and the boate was drawne by a cable running upon 
a wheele, by reason of the waters swift course: where 
I paide for my passage sixe creitzers: and when I came 
neere Bruck, I passed the Brooke Ara by a bridge, paying 
one creitzer for tribute; and here I paid five batzen a 
meale. From hence hiring a horse as before, I rode in 
Hornsea. two houres space to Hornsea, through steepe Mountaines, 
and a wood of Oake: by the way lies Kingsfeld, that 
is Kinglyfield, a Monastery so called, because Widowe 
Qgeenes, and Kings, forsaking their Scepters, and inferiour 
Princes were wont of old to enter into this place for the 
solitary profession of Religion. In the same Cloyster 
of old, lived the Friars of Saint Francis order, in the 
building on the right hand as you come in, and the Nunnes 
of Saint Clara on the left hand, and both came to the 
Themolaste,y same Chappell, the Friars to the body of the Church, 
of Kingsfeld. and the Nunnes to close galleries above, looking out and 
hearing through grates. The Emperour Albertus being 
killed by his Nephew in the yeere i38o. at Santbacke 
three miles distant, this Monastery xvas built for his 
memory, though his bones were buried at Spire. The 
revenewes of this monastery grew in time to be yeerly 
forty thousand Guldens, which are now appropriated to 
the common treasure of the Sweitzer Cantons. Leopold 
Duke of Austria lies here buried. Ferdinand of 
Insprucke, one of the Arch-dukes of Austria, is Lord 
of Hornesea; all the rest of the territories from 
Schafhusen to this place, belonging to the Cantons of 
Sweitzerland: and here I paid sxe batzen a meale. 
Hence I hired a horse as before, and rode in five houres 
to Rheinefeld through fruitfull hils of corne, having on 
all sides wooddy Mountaines in sight. Here againe I 
passed the Rheine, and paid two raps for my horse and 
my selfe ; foot-men paying but one. The Rheine passeth 
by with a violent course, and washeth the Towne on 
the East side. Here I paid sixe Batzen a meale. 
Hence hiring a Horse as before, I rode in two houres 
.Bazell. space to Bazell, through a faire plaine of corne and pasture, 
56 



COMMENTS UPON BASEL 

lying upon the Rheine, having on all sides woody Moun- 
taines in sight, and neere the City were most pleasant 
fields planted with vines, to the which fields the territory 
of the said Arch-duke extendeth on the East side of the 
Rheine. I entered by little Bazell seated in a plaine on 
the East side of Rheine, and so passed by a bridge of 
wood into the greater Bazell, seated upon pleasant hils 
on the Vrest side of Rheine. This City of old was one 
of the imperiall free Cities, but now is joined to the 
Cantons of Sweitzerland, and was built in the yeere 382. 
having the name of a Basiliske, slaine by a Knight covered T& nanle of 
with cristall, or of the word Pasell, which in Dutch Bazell. 
signifies a beaten path, or of the greeke word/Sco-,w, as a 
kingly City. The lesse Bazell was of old built by an 
Arch-duke of Austria, in prejudice of the greater, and 
after being sold to it for thirty thousand guldens, was 
incorporated thereunto: The greater hath many caves 
under the hils, and suffered a great earth-quake in the Great 
yeere 1346 , at which time the Pallace neere the Cathedrall Eartlluake. 
Church fell into the Rheine, and another Earth-quake in 
the yeere 1356. wherein 18o. persons were killed, all the 
people flying out of the Towne. Eugenius the Pope held 
a Councell in this City, the yeere 1431. The Bridge 
of wood joyning the little and great City, divided by 
the Rheine, is broad enough for two carts to passe at 
once; and towards little Bazell six Arches are of stone: 
but towards great Bazell where the Rheine runneth most 
swiftly, eight Arches are built of wood, that they may 
be more easily repaired, and upon any warre from 
Germany more readily broken downe. This City is of 
the forme of an half Moone, (I meane the great City, 
reckoning the lesse for a Suburbe) and being seated upon 
divers hils on the West side of the Rheine, imbraceth 
betweene the two homes the lesser City, seated in a plaine 
on the East side of Rheine. On the West side of the 
greater, the Emperor Rodulphus of Habspurg besieged [I. i. 28.] 
the City, and on this side something towards the North, 
within the walles, is a most pleasant greene for walking, 



I592. 

[I. i. 29. ] 

Ludovicus 
Pontc, nus. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

kindes of Arts, joyned with like wisedome, ages to 
come shall admire and celebrate, Boniface Amen- 
bachius, Jerome, Frobenius, Nichol : Bishop, heire 
and Executors of his last Will and Testament : to 
their Patron of happy memory, which by his 
writings he hath got, and so long as the world 
stands shall retaine : for the reposing of his mortall 
body, have Iayed this stone. He died the fourth 
of the Ides of July, being now seventy yeeres old, 
in the yeere of our Lord, MDXXXVI. 
These two Verses are written upon the Tombe of 
Lodovicus Pontanus : 

Hic jacet arte Plato, Cato, vita, TulIius ore, 
Vermes corpus alit, spiritus astra petit. 

Here lies Plato, Cato, Tully, 
For his Art, life, and eloquence, 
Wormes doe feede upon his body, 
His soule to heaven is mounted hence. 

Ot&r There be also the Monuments of Henricus Glarianus, 
Monuments. and of Bishop Hatto, whom the Emperour Charles the 
Great, sent Ambassadour to Irene Empresse of the East. 
In this City a stone is shewed, called the hot stone, 
vulgarly Heisteine, upon which the Consuls, and divers 
others were beheaded, who had conspired to betray the 
Citie, if the clocke striking false had not prevented, and 
deceived both them and the enemies, lying in ambush 
without the City, & expecting a signe to be given them 
at the houre appointed. And for this cause (or as others 
say, to hasten the Councell held in the Senate house) 
the clocke to this .day strikes one, when it should strike 
twelve. Neere the staires of the Senate house is an old 
Statua on foot, armed, but without a sword, bearing a 
Scepter, clad with a loose gowne, with a birde sitting on 
the Helmet, and hath this inscription; 

6o 



COMMENTS UPON BASEL 

Hono. & virtuti 
L. Munatij. L.F.L.N.L. Pron: 
Planci 
Cos: Imper: & Ter VII viri 
Epulonum 
Qui triumph: ex Retis 
Edem Saturni F. ex 
Manub: 
Agros divisit in Italia 
Beneventi. 
In Galliam Colonias Ded: 
Lugdunum atque 
Rauracum. 

Civitas Basiliensis 
Ex bellicosiss: gente 
Alemannorum 
In Rauracorum fines 
Transducta 
Simulachrum hoc ex 
Senatus Auct: 
Dicandum statuendumque 
Curavit 
Anno salutis Christiame 
CIDIDXXC. 

Of Lucius Munatius the sonne of 
Lucius, grand-child of Lucius, great 
Grand-child of Lucius, surnamed 
Plancus ; 
Being Consul, General, and thrice 
One of the seven Presidents of the 
holy Banquets 
Who triumphed of the Rhetians. 
Built Saturnus Temple with the spoyles, 
Divided the Land in Italy 
at Benevento, 
Deduced Colonies into Gaul, 
To Lyons, and about Bazel. 
The City of Bazel deduced 
Of the most warlike Nation 
Of the Alemans ; 
Into the Territories of the 
Rauraci (or Basilians,) 
By authority of the Senate, 
Procured 
This Statua to be consecrated 
and heere set. 
In the yeere of Christ, 
CIDIDLXXX 

61 

592. 
Luciu 
Munatiu. 



COMMENTS UPON STRASSBURG 

the foot of the Alpes, yet this City hath a fountaine, 
where water is sold, and a certaine price is given for the 
watering of every beast. 
We passed the other eight miles to Strasburg, the same Strasburg. 
day in eight houres, being helped with the same swiftnesse 
of the Rheine, which being oft divided by the way, makes 
many little Ilands. The bridge of Strasburg over the 
Rheine, is more then a Musket shot from the City, on 
the East side thereof. The bridge is of wood, and hath The Bridge 
threescore five Arches each distant from the other twenty over the 
Rheine. 
walking paces, and it is so narrow that an horse-man can 
hardly passe by a cart, it lying open on both sides, and it is 
built of small pieces of timber laid a crosse, which lye 
loose; so as one end being pressed with any weight, the 
other is lifted up, with danger to fall into the water. It 
is like they build no stronger bridge, either because 
they have tryed that the swift course of the Rheine 
will easily breake it downe, or because in the time 
of warre it may be good for them to. breake it : in which 
case it were farre greater charge to rebuild it with 
stone, then with wood. The Rheine lying thus farre off 
from the City, the boats are brought up to the same by 
a little channell. The brookes of Bress and Elb, passe 
through many streets of the City, and fill all the large 
ditches thereof with water. The City is very well 
fortified, having high walles of earth, the bottomes 
whereof are fastned with stone, and the sides with trees 
planted on the same. On the West side towards France, 
are the gates Weissen-thore, and Rheine-thore. On the The City 
East side toward the Rheine, is the gate Croneberg-thore, Gates. 
at which, though it be out of the way, for the jealousie 
of neighbour-hood, the French must enter, and at no 
other. On the East side is the Butchers gate, called, 
Metsiger-thore. On the same side is the Cathedrall 
Church. The circuit of the City is three houres walking. 
The buildings and Churches are faire and high, of free 
stone ; most of the streets are narrow, but those diviled 
by water are broader. I paied six Batzen a meate, and 
63 



[I. i. 3.] 

The Clecke ef 
Strasburg. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

for wine extraordinary three Batzen the measure. Many 
things in this City are remarkable. The Steeple of the 
Cathedrall Church is most beautifull, and numbred 
among the seven miracles of the world, being begun in 
the yeere 1277 , and scarce finished in twentie eight yeeres. 
In the building of one gate thereof, they say, three Kings 
treasure was spent, in whose memory three statuaes are 
there ingraven. The Church is covered with lead, which 
is rare in Germany, where the chiefe Churches are covered 
with brasse, growing in the Countrey. The brazen gates 
of this church are curiously carved. 
The Clocke thereof is of all other most famous, being 
invented by Conradus Dasipodius, in the yeere I57I. 
Before the Clocke stands a globe on the ground ; shewing 
the motion of the heavens, starres and planets; namely, 
of the heaven carried about by the first mover, in twenty 
foure houres, of Saturne by his proper motion carried 
about in thirty yeeres, of Jupiter in twelve, of Mars in 
two, of the Sunne, Mercury and Venus in one yeere, of 
the Moone in one month. In the Clocke it selfe there be 
two tables on the right and left hand, shewing the eclipses 
of the Sunne and Moone, from the yeere I573, to the 
yeere i6o 5. The third table in the midst, is divided into 
three parts. In the first part the statuaes of Apollo and 
Diana, shew the course of the yeere, and the day thereof, 
being carried about in one yeere. The second part shewes 
the yeere of our Lord, and of the world, the Equinoctiall 
dayes, the houres of each day, the minutes of each houre ; 
Easter day, and all other feasts, and the Dominicall Letter. 
The third part hath the Geographicall discription of all 
Germany, and particularly of Strasburg, and the names 
of the Inventor, and of all the worke-men. In the middle 
frame of the Clocke is an Astrolobe, shewing the signe in 
which each Planet is every day; and there be the statuaes 
of the seven Planets, upon a round piece of iron lying 
flat, so as every day the statua of the Planet comes fbrth 
that rules the day, the rest being hid within the frame, tB1 
they come out by course at their day; as the Sun upon 
64 



COMMENTS UPON STRASSBURG 
59 . 
Sunday, and so for all the weeke. And there is a 
terrestriall globe, and the quarter, and halle houre, and 
the minuts are shewed. There is also the skull of a dead Statuaes on 
man, and two statuaes of two boyes, whereof one turnes the Clocke. 
the houre-glasse when the Clocke hath strucken, the other 
puts forward the rod in his hand at each stroke of the 
clocke. 5,1oreover there be statuaes of the spring, 
summer, Autumne, and winter, and many observations 
of the Moone. In the upper part of the clocke are foure 
old mens statuaes, which strike the quarters of the houre, 
the statua of death comming out each quarter to strike; 
but being driven backe by the statua of Christ with a 
speare in his hand, for three quarters, but in the fourth 
quarter that of Christ goeth backe, and that of death 
strikes the houre, with a bone in the hand, and then the 
chimes sound. On the top of the clocke is an Image of 
a Cock which twice in the day croweth alowd, and beateth 
his wings. Besides, this clocke is decked with many rare 
pictures, and being on the inside of the Church, carrieth 
another frame to the outside of the wall, wherein the 
houres of the Sunne, the courses of the 5,1oone, the 
length of the day, and such like things are set out with 
great Art. 
Besides in the City there is a faire house, in which Otkernotable 
citizens and strangers at publike meetings or otherwise, Sight. 
use to feast their invited friends. Neere the gate 
Rheinethore, is the Armory, vulgarly Zeighauss, which 
aboundeth with Ordinance and all Munitions. They 
have a Theater for Comedies, and a Tower to lay up 
their treasure, called penny Tower, vulgarly Phennig- 
thurne. They say this City is called Argentina in latine, 
of the word Argentum, because the Romans of old lail 
up their treasure here, and Strassburg in Dutch, of the 
word strass (that is way) and Burg (that is City) as being 
buil.t where many waies lead to many Provinces. I had 
almost omitted one remarkeable thing, namely the faire 
House of the Cannons, called Bruderhoff, that is the 
Court of the Brethren. 
.  65 



Heiddberg 
er.F 
unhcalthfidl. 

[I. i. 33-] 

Epitaph to 
Rodulphus 
lgricola. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Monastery, and neere the same is a ruined Cloyster of 
Nunnes (as commonly their nests were not farre distant) 
and there is a passage under the Earth from one Cloyster 
to another. This is a most high Mountaine, and hath a 
thicke wood. The City of Heydelberg, by reason it is 
compassed with Mountaines, hath a very unhealthfull 
aire, which maketh Funerals very frequent therein; but 
the water is held very healthfull. In the Innes they aske 
seven batzen the meale, but the Students have their diet 
in Citizens or Professors houses for two guldens, or one 
doller weekely: and the fame of the Professors drew 
many Students at this time to this University. There is 
(to my remembrance) but one Church used for prayer and 
preaching, and there is a monument with this inscription 
in Latine, 
] Viglius Suicherius laid this to the memory of 
Rodulphus Agricola, borne in Friesland: he 
died in the yeere x485, the 28 of October; he 
lived 4-2 yeeres and two moneths. 
There is another Epitaph to this Rodulphus Agricola, 
made in verse by Hermolaus Barbarus Patriarke of 
Aquilegia. 
Invida clauserunt hoc marmore rata Rodulphum, 
Agricolam, Frisii spemque decusque soli, 
Scilicet hoc uno meruit Germania laudes, 
Qicquid habet Latium, Grecia quicquid habet. 
Envious Fates under this stone have closde 
The Frisons joy Rodulph Agricola, 
By whom all praise on Germans is imposde. 
That Italy or Greece had to this day. 
While I lived here the rest of this summer, I made a 
journey of pleasure to see the Cities lying upon the West 
side of the Rheine, and hiring a Horse after the wonted 
price at Heydelberg, I rode two miles and a halfe to the 
Rheines side, and then halle a mile further to the City 
of Spire, where the imperiall chamber is held, in which 
68 



COMMENTS UPON WORMS 

Court the chiefe differences of the Empire are judged, 
and the Electors themselves, or any absolute Princes under 
the Empire, may bee called thither to triall of law. The 
City is built in a plaine, on the West side of Rheine, and 
hath more antiquity then beauty, or magnificence. Here 
I paid eight batzen each meale. 
From hence I rode one mile to the City of Wormz, 
famous for many imperiall Parliaments held there of old : 
and by the way we passed Frankendale, a little City newly 
and very fairely built, which place Casimire the Elector 
gave unto the Flemmings of late, who then had built 
many faire bricke houses there, and then compassed it 
with a wall; and Casimire taking upon him the tutorship 
of his Nephew, against the will of the Lutherans, who 
rejected him as a Calvinist, tooke some of these Flem- 
mings to guard the Castle of Heidelberg. The building of 
Wormz shewes great antiquity, and wanteth not magnifi- 
cence, where I paid seven Batzen a meale. This territory 
on the West side of the Rheine is very fruitfull, and 
yeeldeth the best Rhenish Wines, so called of the Rheine 
by which they grow. From hence againe I passed the 
Rheine, and returned to Heydelberg. 
Then I tooke my journey to Franckfort Faire. The 
first day I passed foure miles to Bentzon, having hils on 
my right hand toward the East, planted with Vines, and 
fields set with roots; and upon my left hand towards the 
West, a faire and fruitfull plaine: and here I paid seven 
Batzen for my supper. The second day in the morning 
I passed foure miles in the territory of George Landgrave 
of Hessen, to Arhelygen, through wooddy mountaines, 
planted with some Vines, and a plaine for one mile sandy, 
but the rest good pasture. We passed by Dormstat, 
where the said Landgrave holds his Court, and there each 
man paid sixe Fenning tribute. At Arheligen I paid sixe 
Batzen for my dinner. In the afternoone I passed some 
three miles to Franckfort, through a sandy plaine, and a 
wood of Oakes and Beeches, and by the way they shewed 
us a strange leape of a Stagge, which being chased, did 
69 

AoDo 
I592. 

ll'orraz. 

4rkelygen. 



Fran( k fort. 

[I. i. 34-] 

t Sanctuary 
for bankrupts. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

leape over a cart (if you may beleeve them) loaded with 
hey. 
Franckfort is a free City of the Empire, famous for the 
Electors meeting there, to choose the Emperour, and for 
two yeerely Faires, as also for many larliaments of the 
Empire held there, and it is called Franckfort upon the 
Mene, to distinguish it from another City of the same 
name, built upon the Brooke Odera, and named thereof. 
For the River Mene running from the East to the West, 
divideth the great City from the lesse called the Saxons 
House, vulgarly Sachsen-hausse, and betweene them is a 
bridge of stone upon foure narrow Arches. Both the 
Cities are governed by the same Senate and Law, and 
have the same name, either of Francus rebuilding it, or 
of a Foord for passage of the Franckes or French. The 
City is compassed strongly with a double wall, and upon 
the East side is the gate Heilegthore, where is the Jewes 
street, who are permitted to dwell in this famous Mart- 
towne, and sucke the blood of Christians by extortion. 
There is another gate called Freydigthore : On the North 
side of the City is the gate Brickenport, and a large place 
for an Horse Faire. On the West side is the gate of 
strangers, vulgarly Welsh-thore, so called because the 
French enter that way: it is very strong; and without 
the gate there is a very pleasant walke upon the banke 
of Mene, among Vineyards and Meadowes, with sweet 
Groves. On the South side the Mene runneth by, 
dividing (as I said) the new City from the old. In the 
new or lesse City called the Saxons-house, is a house of 
old belonging to the Teutonike order of Knights, which 
by old priviledge is to this day a Sanctuary for banckrupts 
and manslaiers, so they be not wilful and malicious 
murtherers; but they enjoy this priviledge onely for 
foureteene dales, so as when the time is neere out, or upon 
any opportunity during the time, they use to steale out, 
and returning after an houre, begin a new to reckon againe 
the foureteene dales. A little before my comming thither, 
a certaine bankrupt of Colen entered the same f3r a debt 



COMMENTS UPON FRANKFORT 

of twenty thousand Guldens. On this side some ground 
without the wals belongs to the City, but on other sides 
it hath almost no Land without the wals. The City is 
of a round forme, seated in a large plaine, the streetes 
are narrow, and the houses built of timber and clay, the 
foundations of some being of stone. In the Innes they 
aske seven or eight batzen a meale, but Merchants and 
many strangers use to hire a chamber, and buy their meat 
of the Cookes. 
From hence to Hamburge I and foure others hired a 
Coach for fifty Dollers, and besides were to pay for the 
coach-mans diet, for here first the coach-man conditioned 
to be free from paying his diet, vulgarly Maulfrey ; that is 
free for the mouth, whereas in other parts our coach-men 
paid for themselves. Alwaies understand that at the times 
of the faires, Coaches are set dearer then any time els. 
The first day after breakfast, wee went three miles to 
Freideburge, through come fields set with cabages and 
rootes, and by the way we passed a Village belonging to 
the Count of Hanaw. Freideburge is a free City of the 
Empire, and the buildings are of timber and clay: here 
each man paid seven batzen for his supper, and for his part 
of the coach-roans supper. The second day in the morn- 
ing, we went three miles to Geysen, through fruitfull hils 
of come. Phillip Landgrave of Hessen left three sonnes, 
William of Cassiles, whom Maurice his sonne succeeded, 
and was now living, axed Lodwicke of Marpurg, and 
George of Dormstat. This territory belonged to the 
Landgrave Lodwicke, (for all the brothers in Germany 
have the same stile of honour) and he was also at that 
time Lord of this City Geysell, which is fortified with wals 
of earth, and deepe ditches, but the building, is base of 
timber and clay, and for the most of meere clrt. These 
verses were written upon the gate of the City. 
Captus erat Princeps non marte sel Arte Philippus, 
Cum bene munitum destrueretur opus. 
Nominis hoc patrii Lodovicus amore refecit, 
Anno his septem lustra sequente nono; 
7I 

I592. 

Charges for 
the Coack. 

Freideburge. 



Kirnham. 

[L i. 35.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY" 

Principe dignus honos, patrias surcire ruinas, 
A quibus Hassiacos Christe tuere polos. 
Prince Phillip captiv'de not by warre, but Art, 
This worke of strength was then demolished; 
In Countries love Prince Lodwicke for his part 
Rebuilt it, seventy nine yeeres finished, 
Ruines repaire is for a Princes hand, 
From which disasters Christ shield Hessen land. 
Iiere I paid sixe Batzen for my dinner, and my part 
for the Coach-man. 
In the afternoone we went three miles through high 
stony mountaines and woods of oakes, to Kirnham, 
belonging to the Landgrave Lodwicke, whose Court at 
Marpurg lies a mile from thence. All of us at supper 
drunke sixe measures of wine, besides beere, and from 
henceforth wee paid severally for meat and drinke, and 
at this time each of us paid ten Weissenfenning for both 
together. The third day we passed three miles to Drest, 
through high mountaines with woods of Oake, and many 
fi'uitfull valleies of corne, and each man paid with his 
portion for the Coach-man foure Weissenfenning for meat, 
and as much for wine. This territory belongs to Land- 
grave Maurice of Cassiles. After dinner we passed three 
miles to Fesler, through high mountaines full of oake 
woods, and entered the City, seated upon a mountaine 
by a bridge of stone, upon which side great store of water 
fals from the mountaines, the houses were of timber and 
clay, each one for the most part having a dunghill at the 
doore, more like a poore Village, then a City: but such 
are the buildings of the Cities in Hessen, the houses of 
Villages being of meere dirt, and thatched. Here eacti 
man paid for his meat and old wine; and his part for the 
Coach-man an Orts Doller, or fourth part of a Doller. 
The fourth day we passed three miles to Cassiles, a 
City where the Landgrave Maurice holds his Court, all 
our way lying through fruitfull hils of corne. The City 
is strongly fortified with wals of earth and deepe ditches, 
7 



COMMENTS UPON CASSEL 

but the houses are basely built like the rest in Hessen. 
Phillip his grandfather built the castle, and William his 
father the wals. For my dinner and my part for the coach- 
man I paide the fourth part of a Doller. 
In the afternoone we passed two miles through woody 
mountaines, to Myndaw, in the territory of the Duke of 
Brunswike, who is also Lord of the City. The River 
Visurgis runnes by it, over which there is a bridge of 
stone upon five Arches. Here each man paid for himselfe 
and his part for the coach-man, seven maria-groshen f'or 
meat, and as much for wine. The beere of this territory 
is very bitter, and like a potion makes one laxative. The 
fifth day we passed three miles and a halfe, through 
Mountaines for halfe the way, and the rest through corne 
fields most fruitfull, and dined at Norton, each man paying 
five batzen and a halle. After dinner we passed two 
miles and a halle to a poore Village, through a like 
ffuitfull plaine of come, and by the way we passed 
Namerton, a City belonging to the Duke of Brunswicke. 
In this Village each man paid five Maria-groshen. The 
sixt day we passed two miles to the City Zeason, through 
hils and fields of come, the building of the City is of 
meere clay, covered with thatch, but our diet was plenti- 
full, and each man paid sixe Maria-groshen for himselt, 
and his part for the Coach-man. After dinner we passed 
three miles to a poore village, through wooddy moun- 
taines, yet fruit full of come and pasture, and through 
a great Fen, and here each man paid seven Maria- 
groshen. 
The seventh day we passed three miles to Brunswike, 
through a fruitfull plaine of come, end a large Fen set 
with willow trees neere the City. Many fields as we 
came besides the corne, were set with cabage and rootes, 
and within a mile of Brunswike we left on the right hand 
toward the South, the City Wolfenbieten, where the Duke 
of Brunswike keepes his Court, and though he be so 
called of an old title, yet he is not Lord o" Brunswike, 
which is a free City of the Empire seated in a plaine, all 
73 

Norton. 

Namerlon. 

Brunswicke 



.AoDo 
I592. 

Five Cities in 
Brunswicke. 

[I. i. 36.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the territory round about it being most fruitfull in corne. 
The City is of a quadrangle forme, and in circuit containes 
two miles, being held greater then Nurnberg, and lesse 
then Erford. It hath high wals of earth fastened with 
willowes, and is very strong, having the wals on some 
sides double, and otherwhere treble, besides that it hath 
a wooddy valley between deepe ditches filled with water, 
and is compassed with the River Ancur. Within this 
wall and river are five Cities, distinguished by priviledges, 
but united by lawes. The first seated towards the west, 
is called Altstat, that is Old city, having almost at the 
entrance a faire market place, and neere it the cathedrall 
Church, called Martinstifft. The second lying towards 
the North, is called Newstat, that is New city. The third 
lying towards the East is called Imsacke. The fourth 
lying towards the South is called Imhagen. And the 
fifth, which was built first of all, and lieth also towards he 
South, is called Altweg, that is, The old way. This city 
of old was the metropolitan city of Saxony, and had the 
name of Bruno, and the Dutch word Vuick, signifying 
a Village. It hath twelve Churches, whereof two have 
the steeples covered with lead, which being very rare in 
Germany, is held to be magnificent; the rest are covered 
with tiles, one excepted, which (to my remembrance) is 
covered with brasse, which being lesse rare with them is 
lesse esteemed, and the houses are built of timber and 
clay. In the yard of the Cathedrall Church there is a 
statua of a very great Lion, which the Emperour Henry 
the first, surnamed Lyon, erected there. 
From Brunswike I went to Luneburge, and the first 
day in the morning passed foure miles to a certaine Village, 
through a sandy plaine, and fenny wild ground, and by 
the way we passed Getherne a village, where the Duke of 
Luneburge (Lord of this territory) hath a Castle, and he 
holds his court some five miles off, at Sell. Here each 
man paid for his dinner five Lubecke shillings. In the 
afternoone we passed five miles to a countrey house, 
through like Fenny and woody wild grounds, seeing but 
74 



FROM BRUNSWICK TO HAMBURG 

one Village in the way; and here each man paid for 
supper three Lubecke shillings. Next morning we passed 
foure miles to a Village Empsdorff, through like grounds : 
and here each man paid for dinner five Lubecke shillings, 
the coach-mans part being reckoned: for I formerly said 
that hiring a Coach from Franckfort to Hamburg, we 
were tied to pay for the coach-mans diet, himselfe paying 
for his horse-meat, as commonly they doe. After dinner 
we passed three miles to Luneburge, through a soyle as 
barren as the former, where each man paid for himselfe 
and his part of the coach-mans supper, eight Lubecke 
shillings. I speake nothing of the City, which I have 
described before, but goe on with my journey. 
The next morning we passed three miles to Wintzon, 
through a Fenny ground, and woods of Oake, yeelding 
some corne, but sparingly, and here our coach-man paid a 
Lubecke shilling for his Coach to the Duke of Luneburge, 
whose territory endeth here. Then we passed a mile 
further to Bergendorff, and by the way our coach-man 
passing over the Elve, paid a Lubecke shilling to the 
Officers of the Cities of Lubecke and Hamburg, to which 
Cities this territory is subject, and governed by them in 
course, the soyle whereof after the passage of the Elve, 
is more fruitfull, the fields being full of corne, and ditches 
of water planted with willowes: here each man paid six 
Lubecke shillings for our dinners. In the afternoone we 
passed three miles to Hamburgc, having on the left side 
towards the West, faire pastures, and on the right hand 
towards the East, woods of oake, and fruitfull hils of 
corne. From hence I passed by boat with a faire wind 
in three houres to Stode, and paid for my passage three 
Lubeck shillings. These things I briefly set downe, 
having described these Cities before. 

AoDo 
x592. 

Charger oJt 
the way. 

Hamburge. 

75 

[-From Stode 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

From Stode I wrote this Letter to Francis Mark- 
ham, an English gentleman, whom I left at 
Heidelberg. 
A Letter to ",']'Oble Sir, I gladly take this occasion of witnessing 
l;,'ancis 1 my love to you, which in a word I have done, 
Markham. omitting all ceremonies as your selfe have given me 
example: Onely for my promise sake, I will trouble you 
with the short relation of my journey. When we parted 
at Franckfort, you know I had for companions of my 
journey two Flemmings, poore Merchants of Linnen 
cloth, and a Dutch Rider, and a Booke-binder of Den- 
marke. I comming first to the Coach, tooke the most 
commodious seat, which these my worthy companions 
(forsooth) tooke in ill part, yet neither their murmuring 
nor rude speeches could make me yeeld the place to them. 
Wee passed through Hessen to Brunswike, which journey 
since you purpose to take, I advise you to passe as soone 
as you can, that you may be out of your paine, and come 
to more pleasant Countries: for there you shall have 
HatdFare. grosse meat, sower wine, stinking drinke, and filthy beds, 
and were not the way free from robberies, and the people 
curteous, I know not what other inconvenience might 
happen to a stranger in any passage. Your diet shall be 
for most part of cole worts, which was so strange to me, 
and so hard of digestion, as it greatly troubled me, and 
wrought upon my body like physicke. At Brunswike I 
saw a lamentable sight, which I dare scarce relate to you, 
knowing your tendernes in those cases, yet for promise 
sake I must tell you, that I saw a very faire maide of 
fifteene yeeres, married to mine Host an old churle of 
seventy yeeres. Be not discouraged, I will tell you a 
Amerry merry accident. Who would have thought that my 
4ccident. companions had dissembled so long their malice to mee, 
that now it might breake forth with more bitternes ? You 
know Brunswike is a free city of the Empire, and one 
of those, which for priviledge of trafficke upon these 
coasts, are called Hans-steten. Here out of custome 
76 



LETTER TO FRANCIS MARKHAM A.D. 
I592. 
passengers comming at first to enter trafficke, use to give 
the wine to the old Merchants, to which custome gentle- 
men for sociablenes have submitted themselves, so as the [I. i. 37.] 
custome is almost growne into a Law. Now, for this 
purpose, salt being pt about the table, for all to sweare 
whether they were free or no, I confessed that I had not 
yet paied for my freedome, yeelding my self to their 
censure. To be briefe; after they had fined me some 
cannes of wine, and with many ceremonies, had made 
me free, it remained that he whom they had chosen to 
be my God-father, making a grave Oration, with some 
rude jeasts after their fashion, should instruct me with 
some precepts how to recover this expence. One of my 
companions easily tooke this charge upon him; and after 
many circumstances, he concluded in this manner: You /t gra,e 
are an Englishman, and because your countrey men love Oration. 
to sit easily, and to fare delicately, I advise you, that 
both at table and in coach, you be carefull to take the 
best place, which if you be diligent to performe, you shall 
bee soone satisfied for this expence. By chance my place 
then at table was betweene the coach-man and his servant, 
for you know the Dutch are not curious of place, and little 
regard strangers in that kinde; but I knew where my 
Gentlemans shooe wrung him, namely in that I had chosen 
my place in the coach. And thus I answered him; Sir /1 wise 
I take thankefully your grave counsell, and will make /1nswer. 
use of it ; but me thinkes it is too generall, making no 
distinction of degrees, for if I have Gentlemen to my 
companions, who are not willingly overcome in courtesie, 
I should rather yeeld them place: but if I fall into base 
and clownish company, I will not faile to make use of 
your counsell. The Gentlemen at Table smiled, and 
so we ended this ceremony with a health. Hence 
I passed to Luneburg, and so to Hamburg; where 
the people after dinner, warmed with drinke, are 
apt to wrong any strang.er, and hardly indure an 
English-man in the morning when they are sober. 
Therefore without any stay, I passed hence to Stode. It 
77 



A.D. FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
592. 
Railers on is strange how the people raile on English-men in these 
Englishmen. parts. For that which we call warre at sea, and the royalI 
Navy, that they terme robbery and Pirats ships: neither 
have they the patience to heare any justification or excuse. 
You see what toyes I write, rather then I will leave you 
unsaluted, and if you use not like freedome to me, farewell 
friendship. So I take my leave, from Stode the first of 
October, r 592. 
From Stode I passed to Emden, and for the better 
explaning of that journey, give mee leave to prefix the 
following Letter; out of the due place, being written 
from Emden, and directed 

./Egidius 
Hoffrman. 

Land 
Dangets. 

To _/Egidius Hoffman, a Gentleman of Flaunders, 
my deare friend, Student at Heidelberg. 
'Oble ]Egidius, the Letters you gave me to deliver 
at Breme, have produced a comicall event, (such 
may all the passages be of our love,) which you shall 
understand in a word. When in my purposed journey 
I came to Stode, more tired with the base companions 
I had, then the way; it happened, whilest I spent some 
dayes there with nay friends, every man spake of Spanish 
theeves, vulgarly called Freebooters, who stealing out of 
their Garrisons upon the Low-countries, lay in the villages, 
and upon the high-wayes, by which I was to passe in my 
journey to Emden, from which Citie a Merchant was 
newly arrived, who terrified me more then all the rest, 
affirming that in one day he had fallen thrice into these 
cut-throtes hands, and though he were of a neutrall City, 
yet had paled many Dollers for his ransome, adding,.t.hat 
they inquired curiously after English-men, prom.smg 
rewards in the villages, to any man should give them 
notice when any such passed. I knew not what counsell 
to take. There was no lesse danger from the Pirats of 
Dunkirke, if I passed by sea, especially in a ship of 
Hamburg, no other being in the harbour, & they being 
like to betray me, out of malice to our nation. Besides, 
78 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

would have locked the doore, I took my Letters againe, 
saying I had promised to deliver them with my owne 
hand; and so I entred with him, and gave them into the 
hands of your mother and sister, who inquired much after 
you, and so much after my master, as I might perceive 
you had made friendly mention of me in your Letters. 
They entertained me with much curtesie, being thus 
disguised for my owne servant; and when I went away 
your mother would needs give mee six batzen to spend, 
neither would any refusall prevaile, but I must needs 
take them. So I set a marke upon these peeces, lest I 
should spend them; and am not out of hope, ere I die, 
to shew them to you. To the purpose; at the dore I 
met your brother, whom I had seene at Frankfort, and 
was not a little afraide lest for all my disguising, he would 
have knowne me. Let it not trouble you, that I tell you 
Another another merry accident I had in the same City of Breme. 
merry Disguised as I was, I went to the house of Doctor 
accident. Peuzelius, desiring to have the name of so. famous a 
Divine, written in my stemme-booke, with his Mott, after 
the Dutch fashion. Hee seeing my poore habite, and a 
booke under my arme, tooke me for some begging 
Scholler, and spake sharpely unto me. But when in my 
masters name I had respectively saluted him, and told 
him my request, he excused his mistaking, and with all 
curtesie performed my desire. I will trouble you no 
longer, but hope by some good occasion to imbrace you, 
& tell you all the other passages of my journey. In the 
meane time I go. forward to Leyden in Holland, you 
(as you do) ever love me, and as my soule, live and 
farewell. From Emden the twenty one of October, 1592. 

I paied twenty foure Stivers for my passage eleven miles 
in a waggon from Stode to Breme. And the first day 
after breakefast, wee passed three miles to Ford, a poore 
Citie, subject to the Bishop of Breme: t.hrough wilde, 
fenny, and woody grounds. The Towne is seated in a 
Fenne, having a long paved Causey to passe unto it ; and 
8o 



COMMENTS UPON BREMEN 

the gate being opened to us by night, each man gave 
the Porter two Lubeck shillings, and by the way in a 
village each man paied, six Fenning for his person. At 
Ford the Bishop of Breme hath a Castle, strongly fortified 
with Rampiers of earth, and deepe ditches full of water; 
and here each man paied for his supper three Lubeck 
shillings and a halle. The waggoner taking me thus .4 waggoner 
disguised (as formerly I have said) for a poore Bawre; deceived. 
said these words to me in Dutch: Du knecht hilff zu 
tragen die packe hye: that is Ho good fellow, helpe here 
to carry this pack; I answered, ya gar gern, yea most 
willingly; and smiling laied my shoulder to the burthen, 
and groned deepely, but helped him very little. Next 
morning early, by Moone light, we passed on three miles, 
through large and wilde woods, to a Countrey house; 
and by the way my companions fell in talke of English 
affaires, so foolishly, as my laughter, though restrained, 
had often betraied me; if twi-light had not kept mee 
from being seene. Their ignorance greatly shortned my 
way, with the pleasure I took in their answeres to some [I. i. 39-] 
such questions propounded by me, whereof my selfe had 
many times beene forced to give an account to others. 
By the way they shewed mee a Hill called Meineidig, 4 sinking 
of certaine false witnesses, of old sinking there into the ill. 
ground. At this Countrey house, each man paied for 
his breakfast three Lubeck shillings and a halle. Then 
from sixe of the clocke in the morning, till nine, we passed 
five miles to Breme; through an Heath, and many huge 
Woods of Oake; having towards the South a Fenne of 
tenne miles length, which of the vastnesse and wildenesse, 
is called the Divels Fenne. By the way within a mile of 
Breme, each man paied halle a Sesling tribute, to the 
officers of the City ; and from thence wee passed a winding 
paved Causey, to the very City. Men may also passe 
from Hamburg to Breme by water. 
This Citie is one of the Imperiall free Cities, and of B,'eme. 
them which upon this Sea-coast, are called Hans-steten, 
for freedome of trafficke, and it is very strongly fortified 
M ! 8! F 



x592. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

with high walles of earth, and deepe ditches filled with 
water: besides that the Citizens may drowne the Fenny 
fields almost round about at pleasure. The building of 
this, as also of the neighbour Cities; is partly of bricke, 
partly of stone, and very faire, but the streets heere are 
filthy. The Citie is five miles distant from the sea; And 
the river Visurgis running from the South-east to the 
North West, by the South west side of the City runneth 
al the length of the same. On the North east side, the 
7e ,lls ,, walles of earth are broad, and there bee three faire gates, 
gates, with strong Rampiers. Upon the South West side, being 
compassed all with Fennes, there bee no walles. In the 
furthest angle or corner towards the North west, where 
the City growes narrow there is a strong Fort built, 
& the gate is within an Iland, beyond which lies a plaine 
of faire pastures. Osen-bridge lies not farre hence, from 
which towne .reat quantity of narrow linnen cloth is 
brought into England. At Breme I paied halle a Doller 
for dinner, supper and breakfast; and a stiebkin or 
measure of wine extraordinary. 
The custome They had heere also the custome of making strangers 
of making free, and the same ceremony of giving salt to sweare by; 
strangers free. and I confessing t.hat I was not free, committed my fine 
to their censure, hoping they would deale better with 
mee, for my poore disguised habit, but it saved me 
nothing; the chiefe man saying to mee in Dutch: Gutt 
gesell du must gedult haben, es gelt gleich bistu knecht 
oder here, deise gewonheit betrefft beyde zu gleich. That 
is, good fellow thou must have patience, it is all one 
whether thou beest a servant or a master, this custome 
toucheth both alike. 
After dinner, taking nay journey from Breme, wee 
passed a mile upon a stony Causey, called Steinweck, 
that is, stony way ; and there each man paled to the officers 
of Breme, a quarter of a Stiver. Then entering the 
Territory of the Grave (that is Count) of Oldenburg, we 
passed a mile through falre pastures, compassed with 
ditches of water, to a village, where each man paid a 
82 



COMMENTS UPON OLDENBURG 

Sesling to the Count, and to this place each man paid. for 
his Waggon five groates. Here when my compamons 
had drunke their fill, and had slept a while in the straw, 
as my selfe did upon a bench, to shun the stinking heat 
of the stove, we hyred another waggon for three miles, 
paying fifteene groats: and that we might more securely 
passe, wee tooke our ]'ourney at midnight, through a heath 
of huge woods of Oake, and came to Oldenburge, early 
in the morning before the gates were open. 
The Citie is built of meere clay, but the Counts Castle 
is built in a round forme of stone, with deepe ditches of 
water, over which they passe by a drawing bridge, and 
both the Castle and the City are strongly fortified. 
Heere we had English beere, the goodnesse whereof made 
my companions speake much in honour of England, and 
of the Q.geene, with much wonder that shee being a 
Virgine, was so victorious against the Spaniards, till in 
this discourse they all fell fast asleepe. 
After breakfast the next morning, wee having hired a 
waggon for eighteene groates, passed route miles in the 
territory of the said Count; and one mile to Stickhausen, 
in the territory of the Count of Emden, who had a Castle 
there. Then because we could get no waggon in this 
place, wee went one mile further on foot, which being 
very long, and my selfe having some gold Guldens in 
my shooes, which I could not remove without suspicion; 
the way was very irkesome to mee, and we came to a 
countrey house, but wee found good cheere, each man 
paying for his supper seven groates. My selfe sitting last 
at the table, by reason of my poore habit, paied as much 
as the best, and fedde on the worst, but I had more minde 
of my bed, then of my meat. And one of my com- 
panions after supper, having streight boots, when I had 
taught him to pull off one by the helpe of a staffe, for 
recompence of my counsell, desired mee to pull off the 
other, which being disguised as I was, I could not well 
refuse. The next morning we hired a waggon for eleven 
stivers, and passed a long mile to Leere, a towne subiect 
83 

Oldenbu. 

[I. i. 

Poor kabit 
and wore 



Spanish 
Free-booters. 

Hans Jacob 
the Captaine 
of te 
Freebooters. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

to the Count of Emden, who dwelt not far off, at Dunort 
a strong Castle. Our way through a Fen, was so deepe, 
as the waggon wheeles being pulled off, we went good 
part of the way on foot. 
Here we understood that the Spanish Free-booters 
(called by the English, Male-contents) lay at Aurick, 
another castle of the said Count, and being loded with 
booty, had taken a barke by force, to passe over the Emsz. 
These cut-throates used at this time to raunge out of the 
Spanish Garrisons upon the Low-countries, & to spoile 
all passengers in these parts, which they did with 
more confidence, because the Count of Oldenburg, being 
offended with the Citizens of Breme, permitted these 
theeves to rob them, who were also very malicious against 
those of Breme, because they had lately taken thirty foure 
Free-booters; and beheading them altogether, had set 
up their heads upon stakes. Besides the Count of Emden 
having beene lately drivenout of Emden by the Citizens 
in a tumult about religion, did permit these Free-booters 
to lie in his Country, and spoyle the Merchants of that 
City. The chiefe Captaine of the Free-booters then lying 
at Aurick was Hans Jacob, a notable roge, and very 
malicious to the English, whom he used to spoyle of their 
very apparell, & to handle them cruelly; mocking them 
with these English words ; I cannot tell, and swearing that 
he would make them tell, both of themselves, and of 
their countrey men passing that way. Some few dayes 
before hee had taken foure English wollen clothes, and 
many Flemmish linnen clothes; which they divided by 
the length of a ditch, in stead of a better measure, and 
we were glad to heare that in this division they fell at 
variance, for when this Hans Jacob would have stopt a 
part, for the chiefe Captaine of the Garrison, the rest cryed 
out in Dutch: Wir wollen dein mawger kopff lieber in 
zwey kleiben : Stelen wir fur andern und hangen fur uns 
selbs ? That is, wee will rather cleave thy leane pate in 
two. Shall we steale for others and hang for our selves ? 
And they used many reproches against him and their chiefe 
84 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

upon the top of the Banke, lying upon an arme of the 
Sea, or rather upon the River Emsz running into the Sea, 
and in this passage the tempestious winde was like to beare 
us over, and blinded us with driving salt water into our 
eyes, besides that wee went over the shooes in dirt. The 
second passage was on the side of the banke, from the 
water, somewhat fairer then the other, but in that most 
troublesome, that wee were forced continually to leane 
upon a staffe, which every one had in his hand, lest being 
not staied with th staffe, we should fall into the lower 
way, which was intolerably dirty. The lower way, or 
D,,gerous third passage, in the bottome of the banke furthest from 
p,,ge, the water, was for the passage of waggons, but the fields 
round about being overflowed in winter, this passage was 
now intolerably dirty. In this way we passed a very long 
mile, from the little City Leere, to the Village Aldernsea, 
from seven of the clocke in the morning to twelve. We 
came out at first tenne companions in this journey, but 
at the very comming out of Leere, six of them left us, 
despairing to passe against a contrary winde, in a foule 
rainy day, and their feet sticking fast in the dirt, and they 
mocked at our obstinacy in going. Within a while, my 
selfe was wet to the skinne, and my shoes at every 
step, were almost torne off, so as I was forced to 
binde them on with foure points, neither did any of 
us looke backe at his fellow, to helpe him if hee could 
not follow, and if I should have fallen into the Sea, 
I am confident none of them would have come back 
to succour me. After we had gone halfe a mile, one 
of our foure companions, being a yong man with a blacke 
beard, & able body, would not goe one foot further, though 
he had but one Stiver in his purse, and was forced to 
borrow money of us, that he might stay in a poore Ale- 
Freebooter house. When we came to Aldernsea, the Free-booters 
sidles, spies, came to the Inne & gaped upon us, so as though 
I were wet to the skin, yet I durst not pull off any thing 
to dry, lest my inward garments better then my upper, 
should betray my disguise: neither durst I call for wine 
86 



COMMENTS UPON EMDEN 

and spend freely lest they should thinke I had store of 
money. Each of us paied seven Stivers for his dinner. 
Here another of our companions left us, being so tired, 
as hee went to bed without eating one bit. So as now I 
had onely one companion left, called Anthony, a man of 
little stature, and a Citizen of Emden. We to be free 
of this dangerous journey, went forward, and as we came 
out of the Village, the Free-booters spies came close to 
us, and beheld us narrowly; but seeing us all covered 
with dirt, they tooke us for poore men, and a prey unfit 
to be followed. Wee gathering up strength went on, 
till at last wee were so weary, as having no strength to 
chuse our way, wee cast away our staves, and went almost 
up to the knees in dirt, in the lower way. 
At last, having gone one mile (as me thought wondrous 
long) from one of the clocke in the afternoone to five, 
wee came to Emden, where my selfe entring the gate, 
could not stand till the Souldiers writ our names, but 
had lyen downe on the ground if they had not given mee 
a seat. Now being out of all danger of the Free-booters, 
in giving my name, I wrote my selfe an English-man; 
the standers by not a little wondring, that I had put my 
self to this dangerous passage. And truly this journey, 
if it were free from all danger ; yet the ill diet and lodging 
would yeeld trouble enough, for which I appeale to 
Lipsius, who hath pleasantly written of the entertainement 
in West-phalen, and Oldenburg. The Citie of Emden 
lies in the utmost border of the Empire, and is onely 
divided by the River Emsz, from the united Province of 
Netherland, and by an inland Sea from West Freez-land, 
being one of them. The Countrey about Emden 
aboundeth with villages, and from a Tower at Goricome, 
a man may see at once upon a faire day, twenty two 
walled Townes. Not farre from this City, neere 
Immengen, is the place where the Duke of Alva defeated 
the forces of Lodwick of Nassaw, his Dutch-men refusing 
to fight, except they were first paied. All the fields about 
Emden are drowned in winter, and the City lying upon 
87 

l bundance 
of Villages. 



[I. i. 42.] 
Curteous 
Citizens. 

Charges at 
Emden. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the Sea; for want of flesh waters they dresse most of 
their meat with raine water. The aire is very unhealth- 
full, but the City is fairely built of bricke, and the Citizens 
are very curteous. On the South side the River Emsz 
washeth the City with his salt streames, on which side is 
the Haven, and the Citizens are said to have some three 
score ships of a hundred tunnes a peece, and some six 
hundred barkes of their owne. In the Church-yard on 
this side, many peeces of Ordinance are laid, towards 
Leere and Dunort the Counts Fort, and the like are laid 
upon the Haven, and some places of advantage: for the 
City hath no walles on this side. On the West side, 
beyond the water lyeth Marish ground to the mouth of 
the Sea, and upon this side is a strong old Castle. On 
the North side the City is compassed with a wall of earth, 
and deepe ditches full of water, and there be two strong 
gates, Belgar-port, and New-port, without which the fields 
are Fenny. On this side there is a passage by boat, to 
the suburbes on the East side, where the fields without 
the towne are faire pastures in summer, but all over- 
flowed in winter; and upon the Rampier of the wall, are 
many Winde-mils. The City is of a round forme, if it 
were not somewhat longer from the East to the West. 
At Emden they pay ordinarily six Stivers a meale, three 
stivers for a quart of English beere, eleven Stivers for a 
quart of Spanish wine, thirteene Stivers a quart of Rhenish 
wine, and seven Stivers for French wine: my selfe paid 
for supper and breakfast twenty three Stivers. 

88 



COMMENTS UPON HARLINGEN 

I592. 

receive them backe when they goe out of the Towne. 
The Villages hereabouts paid yeerely contribution to the 
Spanish garison of Groning, lest they should breake in, 
and spoile them. Here (they say) the first sermon of 
reformed religion was made, in the Monastery of the 
Jacobines: and here I paid for my supper foureteene 
stivers. 
From Lewerden we went by water from eight a clocke 
in the morning, to five in the afternoone, two miles to 
Froniker, an University of Friesland, lately renewed, and Fronic,'. 
one mile to the City Harlingen, and we paid six stivers Harlingcr.. 
for our passage. Entering this City, we left our swords 
with the guard of souldiers, who restored them to us 
when wee went away. It is a little City, and lieth in 
length from the East to the West, but is somewhat more 
narrow towards the North, where the houses are thinly 
built. On the west and North sides, lies an arme of the 
Sea, comming out of the German Sea, and here inclosed 
with the continent and Ilands. On the South and East 
sides without the gates, are faire pastures in a large plaine. 
I lodged in an Englishmans house, the chiefe Host of the 4, 
City, who either dispising England and Englishmen, or Hot. 
too much respecting his masters of Friesland, gave me 
such entertainment, as I tooke him for one of the old 
Picts: for having placed his gentlemen of Friesland at 
one table, he called me to the second, and seeing that 
I tooke it in ill part, lest I should no lesse dislike my 
lodging, he intreated a gentleman of Friesland to admit 
me partner of his bed, but I hearing the gentleman con- 
dition with him about the cleannesse of my body and 
linnen, for very scorne would not trouble his worship, but 
chose rather to lie upon a bench. And it was most 
ridiculous, that this Host excused himselfe to me, as 
having for countries sake made bold with me, whom he 
had never seene before. I paid for my supper and 
breakefast with wine, thirty stivers, and one of my 
consorts drinking no wine, paid sixeteene, whereof nine 
was for beere. 

91 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

most of the Cities in these Provinces have like houses. 
Here I lodged with an English-man, and paid for dinner 
and supper twenty stivers, and for a guest invited to 
supper, ten stivers, and for three pints or chopines of 
Spanish wine, twenty one stivers. 
From Amsterdam I went in a boat three miles to 
Harlam, and paid for my passage foure stivers: we had 
not passed farre from Amsterdam, when we came to a 
Dammesfor damme, shutting out the flowing of the sea, for the waters 
sutting out are salt thus farre, though the ebbing and the flowing of 
tZe sea. the sea can hardly be discerned at Amsterdam, for the 
depth of the River Tay; and because Inland seas shew 
little ebbing or flowing. Our boat was lifted over this 
damme by ropes, and so let fall into the water on the 
other side, for which the Mariners paid tribute. There 
is another damme for greater Barkes, and as by these 
dammes they let in waters to the Land at pleasure, so 
they have other dams at Torgay to let them out againe 
into the Sea, when the Land hath too much water. From 
hence we had the Sea-shore all the way on the North side, 
not farre distant, and on both sides of the water in which 
we passed, were faire pastures, parted with ditches of 
water. 
The River running from Amsterdam, from the East 
[I. i. 45-] to the North, doth turne neere Harlam towards the South, 
Harlam. and divideth the City, which on all sides is compassed with 
Navigable waters. On the North side neere the gate 
Jans-port, Don Frederick, sonne to the Duke of Alva, 
pitched his tent in a meadow, when he besieged the City 
with the Spanish forces, and much spoiled those parts, 
beating downe Gentlemens faire houses (dwelling fre- 
quently in that part) with his Artillery, playing into this 
street, having the name of the Knights of Saint John. 
On the same side are two other gates, Sayle-port, and 
Cruyse-port, and without them toward the sea, being 
halle a mile distant, are very faire pastures, but there is no 
river nor ditch that leads from the City to the sea. For 
these Provinces have onely three passages to goe to sea: 
94 



Leyden. 

Charges far 

[I. i. 46.] 

Leyden. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

their leaves of the Virgins. And in the mid way towards 
Almer, is another Hil, where the Counts of Holland were 
wont to bee consecrated. In the market-place, over 
against the Pallace, they shew the house for one Laurance 
John, whom they brag to bee the first inventor of the 
Presse for Printing ; and they shew two bels of the brasse 
of Corinth, which they say were brought from Pelusium, a 
City in Affrick upon the Nyle. 
From Harlam wee hired a waggon for eight stivers, 
and came five miles in five houres space, to Leyden, our 
waggoner baiting his horses in the mid way, but staying 
very little. In the way we had on all sides faire pastures, 
and passed by the Lake, or Mere of Harlam, lying 
towards the South, and the sea bankes within sight 
towards the North. The high wayes in these Provinces 
seeme to be forced, and made by Art; being sandy and 
very dry, though all the pastures on both sides bee 
compassed with frequent ditches of water. At the gates 
of Leyden, the men goe out of the waggon, and onely 
women may be carried into the City, lest (as I thinke) the 
wheeles of the loaded waggons, should breake the bricke 
pavements of the streets. 
Hence I returned presently to Amsterdam, that I might 
receive money sent me by exchange. So I hired a waggon 
for eight stivers my part, from hence to Harlam, and 
by the way I observed, that the waggons having past 
more then halle the way, must have the way given them 
by all the waggons they meet, because their horses should 
in reason be most weary. At Harlam I paled for supper, 
bed, and breakfast, twenty five stivers. Hence I went 
by waggon, and paled for my part of it sixteene stivers, 
for three miles to Amsterdam, and there receiving my 
money, returned to Harlam, drawne over the snow and 
ice (which had plentifully fallen) on a sledge: for which 
I paid foure stivers; and I observed many markes set up 
in the fields, to direct the way to passengers. 
From Harlam I returned to Leyden, where I lodged 
in a French-roans house, for intending to bestow all my 
96 



I Roman 
.4rmory 
covered with 
sand. 

Leyden. 

..4n. 93- 

[I. i. '1-7-] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

on the maine sea. Upon the same shore further towards 
the North, is a place where they say the. Romans of old 
had an Armory, the ruines whereof (some musket shot 
from the shore) more or lesse appeare, as the wind covers 
them with sand, or blowing from another quarter, drives 
away the sand, and so hies them open. Hereabouts they 
say that many coines of the Romans are oftentimes digged 
up, and neere the Hoch-landish Church is a Monument 
built by Caligula the Emperour, which now belongs to a 
Gentleman of that Countrey. Upon the North side of 
this city the Villages Warmond and Nortwicke, lie upon 
the. aforesaid Downes, but the City hath no gate that 
directly leades to them. Leyden hath five gates, Regens- 
purgport, on the West side, which leadeth to Harlam, 
and to Catwicke; and white port which leadeth to Hage, 
betweene which gates there is a low water-gate of iron 
grates, for boates to passe in and out. Neere White Port 
lies a house, where they exercise shooting with the Peece 
and Crosse-bow. On the South side is the gate Kow- 
port, leading into the pastures. Upon the East side is 
the gate Hochwertz-port, more fortified then any of the 
rest, and it leadeth to Uberden, Gonda, and to Alphen. 
There is another gate Zillport, which leadeth to Utretcht. 
whither you passe by water or land. The foresaid street, 
which I said was the beauty of the Towne, lieth from the 
West to Hochwertzport, on the East side, and is called 
Breitstrat, that is Broadstreete. 
In the spring time of the yeere  593- purposing to see 
the Cities of the united Provinces, I hired a Waggon for 
sixe stivers, and went from Leyden to Delph, three miles 
in three houres space, through corne fields and rich 
pastures, and having gone two third parts of the way, we 
passed over the water that runnes from Leyden to Delph. 
In all these parts the high way hath ditches on both sides, 
and is very plaine, sandy, and very dry, being daily 
repaired by the countrey people.. By the way is a mill, 
in which they make oyle of rape and line seedes minglec] 
with wallnut shels, and they have many such mills in those 
9 8 



COMMENTS UPON DELFT 

parts. Not farre of, at Voberg, the Histories write of a 
holy Grove, famous for a conspiracy against the Romans. 
The City of Delph, lyeth in length from the North to 
the South, and the fairest street called Come-mart, lies 
the same way. Here (as in all the Cities of these parts) 
the buildings are of bricke, but the houses of Delph are 
more stately built, and seeme to have more antiquity then 
other where. In the New Church is a Monument of the 
Prince of Orange, the poorest that ever I saw for such a 
person, being onely of rough stones and morter, with 
posts of wood, coloured over with black, and very little 
erected from the ground. Neere the Church is a large 
market-place, and within a little Iland the Senate house 
is built. The Haven is on the South side. The Prince 
of Orange dwelt heere in a Monastery, and used to eat in 
a low parlor, whence as he ascended the staires into the 
chamber, a wicked murtherer gave him his deaths wound, 
who flying by a backe doore, was after taken in the Citie, 
and put to a most cruell, but most deserved death. The 
Countesse of Buren, daughter to this said Prince, now 
lived in this Monastery with her family. Here I paied 
for one meale, for my selfe and a guest invited by me, 
and two pots of Rhenish wine, three guldens, and five 
stivers. When the Spanish Army most pressed the united 
Provinces, the Prince of Orange then lying here, to 
shunne a greater mischiefe from the Spaniards, brake 
downe the bankes of the sea, and let in the waters, which 
did much hurt to the Countrey, but saved them from 
the Spaniards, who with great feare hasted away, giving 
great rewards to those that guided them to the firme 
continent. At Delph are about three hundred Brewers, 
and their beere, for the goodnesse, is called Delphs- 
English; but howsoever they had Brewers, and the very 
water out of England, they could never make their beere 
so much esteemed as the English, which indeed is much 
bettered by the carriage over sea to these parts. 
Hence I went to Sluse, so called of the damme to let 
waters in and out, and came thither in two houres, paying 
99 

Delp. 

TAe Printe 
of Orange 
murdered. 

The Countrey 
drowned to 
drowne the 
Spaniards. 



Brill. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

for my waggon thirteene stivers, which I hired alone, for 
if I had light upon company, we should have paied no 
more betweene us. Hence I passed the River Mase, 
where it falleth into the sea, and came to Brill, my selfe 
and two others, paying twelve stivers for our passage: 
but the barke being presently to returne, and therefore 
not entring the Port, set us on land neere the Towne, 
whether we walked on foot. 
Brill is a fortified Towne, laid in pledge to Qeene 
Elizabeth, for money she lent the States, and it was then 
kept by foure English Companies paid by the Qeene, 
under the government of the Lord Burrowes. The 
Towne is seated in an Iland, which was said to bee 
absolute of it selfe, neither belonging to Zealand, nor 
Holland. On the North side, the River Mase runnetl'i 
by. On the East side are corne fields, and the River 
somewhat more distant. On the South side are corne 
fields. On the West side are corne fields, and the maine 
Sea little distant. Here I paied for my supper and dinner 
twenty stivers, and for a pot of wine eighteene stivers. 
From hence I returned by water to Roterodam in 
Holland, and paled for my passage three stivers. In the 
mouth of the River of Roterodam, lies the City Arseldi- 
pig, and another called Delphs-Ile, being the Haven of 
Delph, which was then a pleasant Village; but growing 
to a City, and having beene lately burnt by fire, was 
fairely rebuilded. 
Roterodam lies in length from the East to the West. 
The Haven is on the South side, being then full of great 
ships; upon which side it lay open without walles, having 
many faire houses, and a sweet walke upon the banke 
of the water. Neither is it fortified on the sides towards 
the land, nor seemed to mee able to beare a siege ; having 
low walles on the North and East sides, yet compassed 
with broad ditches. The street Hoch-street is faire and 
large, extending it selfe all the length of the Citie; and 
lying so, as from the gate at the one end, you may see 
the gate at the other end, and in this street is the Senate 



I593. 

frequented 
by Hearnes. 

Getruden- 
berg. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

flowes into it, and upon old walles of stone is a convenient 
walking place. On this side is the gate Spey-port, and 
beyond the ditch lye fenny grounds. On the West side 
is the gate Feld-port, and a like walke upon walles of 
stone, and there is a greater ebbing and flowing of the 
sea. There is a great Church built of bricke, and covered 
with slate; being stately built with Arched cloysters, and 
there of old the Counts of Holland were consecrated. 
From this part the two fairest streets Reydike-strat, and 
Wein-strat, lie windingly towards the North. Turning 
a little out of the faire street Reydike-strat, towards the 
South, lies the house for exercise of shooting in the Peece 
& Crosse-bow, and there by is a very pleasant grove; 
upon the trees whereof certaine birds frequent, which we 
call Hearnes, vulgarly called Adhearne or Regle, and their 
feathers being of great price, there is a great penalty .set 
on them, that shall hurt or annoy those birds. There is a 
house which retaines the name of the Emperor Charles 
the rift, and another house for coyning of money; for 
the Counts of Holland were wont to coyne money at Dort, 
as the Counts of Zealand did at Midleburg. Betweene 
the faire streets, Reydike-strat and Wein-strat, is the 
Haven for ships, to be passed over by bridges, and there 
is a market place, and the Senate house; which hath a 
prospect into both these streets. The houses are higher 
built then other where in Holland, and seeme to be of 
greater Antiquity. This Citie by priviledge is the staple 
of Rhenish wines, which are from hence carried to other 
Cities, so as no imposition being here paied ffir the same, 
the pot of Rhenish wine is sold for twelve stivers, for 
which in other places they pay eighteene, or twenty 
stivers. For three meales I paied heere thirty stivers. 
From hence I went by water to the States Campe, 
besieging Getrudenberg, and came thither in two houres 
space, but the windes being very tempestuous, wee saw a 
boat drowned before us, out of which one man onely 
escaped by swimming, who seemed to me most wretched, 
in that bee over-lived his wife and all his children then 

IO2 



COMMENTS UPON BERGEN-OP-ZOOM 

drowned. The besieged City lies in the Province of 
Brabant ; and the County of Buren, being the inheritance 
of the Prince of Orange, by right of his wife; and in 
this Month of June, it was yeelded to Count Maurice, 
the Spanish Arm)" lying neere, but not being able to 
succour it. 
The Sea lying upon this part of Brabant, was of old 
firme land, joined to the continent, till many villages by 
divers floods (and seventeene Parishes at once by a famous 
flood) were within lesse then 2cc. yeeres agoe swallowed 
up of the Sea, and for withes of this calamity, divers 
Towers farre distant the one from the other, appeare in 
this Sea, and according to the ebbing and flowing, more 
or lesse seene, doe alwaies by their sad spectacle put the 
passengers in mind of that wofull event. And the 
Hollanders say, that these flouds caused the Rheine to 
change his bed, as hereafter I shall shew in the due place. 
From Count Maurice his Campe at Getrudenberg, I 
sailed in six houres space to the Iland Plate, and at 
midnight putting forth againe, sailed in ten houres space 
to the Iland Tarlot, and from thence in three houres space 
to the City Bergenapzome, where we landed. By the 
way we saw one of the aforesaid Towers high above the 
water, being a steeple of some parish Church swallowed 
up in the said deluge, of which there be many like sal 
remembrances in this Inland sea. The channel] leading 
to the City is called Forcemer, and hath upon the banke 
many strong forts, and in this channell lay a man of warre 
to defend passengers from the bordering enemy. This 
City is strongly fortified, and is seated in Brabant, and had 
many castles of the enemy lying neere it, and it was 
governed by a garison of English, not in the Qeenes, 
but in the States pay, as Ostend at that time was (whereas 
Vlishing and Brill pledged to the Qeen for money, were 
kept by English Garisons in the Qeenes pay) and Sir 
Thomas Morgan was at this time Governour of this City. 
At our entrance every man gave his name to the Guard. 
Without the City on the West side, many akers of land 

I593- 

[I. i. 49.] 
Many .villages 
swallowed up 
oft& sea. 

.4 garhon 
of English. 



COMMENTS UPON FLUSHING 

but the aire is reputed unwholsome. Midleburge is the 
chiefe place of trafficke in Zealand, as Amsterdam in 
Holland. 
From hence I went in a long Waggon covered with 
hoopes and cloth to Vlishing, a long mile; and paid for 
my passage two blankes. Ten English foot companies, 
one hundred and fifty in each company, under the govern- 
ment of Sir Robert Sidney, kept this strong Towne for 
the Qqeene of England, and under her pay; being 
ingaged to her for money lent the States, and the ten 
Captaines in course watched each third night. The City 
is little and of a round forme, but very strong. It hath 
a narrow Sea on the West side, where, upon the last 
confines of Zealand and the united Provinces, is one of 
the three passages (whereof I formerly spake) to the 
Maine Sea. On this side is the Mountaine of the Mill, 
where the Souldiers watch nightly, and beyond the 
Mountaine is a damme to let in the Sea at pleasure. On 
the South side is the Gate Waterport, strongly fortified, 
lying upon the Inland Sea. On this side towards the 
North, the Sea flowing into the Towne, maketh one 
Haven, and towards the East another, and divideth the 
City into three parts, the Old, the New, and the Middle, 
whereof any one being taken by the enemy, yet the other 
are fortified for defence. Beyond these Havens or 
channels, is a Mountaine lying over the City, upon which 
the Souldiers kept guards day and night, as they did 
likewise upon the Bridge dividing the Cities, and upon 
other lower hils, at all the gates of the City, and in prayer 
time, at the doore of the English Church. This Church 
is on the East side, and is common to the English and 
Dutch at divers houres. Betweene the high mountaine 
& this Church, was the Governours House, belonging of 
old to the Counts of Zealand, and the publike house-for 
exercise of shooting, but lesse pleasant then the like 
houses are in other Cities. On the same East side lie two 
wales, one to Rammakins Castle, the other to Midleburge. 
On the North side the Downes of Kent in England may 

Flishing. 

k'lishing 
pledged to 
England. 

[I. i. 5-] 

Good watch 
kept by the 
English. 



The Citizens 
fear the 
$ouldiers. 

4 Gentleman 
famed for his 
wisdome. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

easily be seene, and there is the Hospitall or Gast-house 
for sicke people, and for sicke and maimed souldiers, of 
which a Mountaine thereby hath the name. On this and 
the East sides, are two Mils to retaine the water when the 
Sea ebs, that the ditches round about may alwaies be filled, 
and if need be to overflow the fields. These ditches are 
commonly a pikes depth, and can by no art or enemy be 
dried. The Citizens want good water, having no wels, 
nor any fresh water, but raine water kept in Cesternes. 
The foresaid number of Souldiers in the Garrison, was not 
sufficient to master the Citizens, onely their couragious 
minds dispising death, kept the Citizens in such awe, as 
they durst not attempt to recover their liberty by force, 
which they hoped to obtaine by peaceable meanes, and the 
united Provinces depended upon the opinion of the 
Qeenes aid, perhaps more then upon the aid it selfe, so 
as either failing, they were like to be a prey to the 
Spaniards. Si,lce that time I heard the Garison was 
diminished, so as it seemes the English had lesse strength 
to keepe it, if the States changing their minds, should 
attempt to surprise it. Being invited by my English 
friends, I spent nothing in this City. 
Hence I returned to Midleburge on foot, upon a paved 
causey, having on each side rich come fields, and faire 
pastures, with many orchards; and in the mid-way a 
Gentleman called Aldegondey, famous for his wisdome, 
hath his Castle, wherein he dwelt. At Midleburge I 
paid six stivers for my supper, and two for nay bed, and 
providing victuals to carry by Sea, I paid for a loyne of 
mutton twenty foure stivers, as also for my washing seven 
stivers, and staying in the Towne two daies, I spent in 
all foure guldens and route stivers. 
I tooke ship at ten in the morning, and betweene the 
Iland Der-goese, and the Inland Sea, called Zurechsea, I 
saw two Towers of Villages swallowed in the foresaid 
deluge, and sayling by the Iland Plate, and the Iland of 
Brill, we passed certaine booyes directing to find the 
channell. The next day in the afternoone, I landed at 
lO8 



COMMENTS UPON THE HAGUE 

Roterodam in Holland, and paid ten stivers for my 
passage. Thence I passed in two houres space by boat 
to Delph, and paid two stivers for my passage. Thence 
in two houres space I passed to the Hage by Waggon, 
and paid for my passage two stivers; for which 
journey one man alone may hire a Waggon for seven 
stivers. 
At the Hage Count Maurice with his mother in law T,e Hage. 
the Countesse of Orange (born of the Noble Family of the 
Chastillons in France) and the Generall States of the 
united Provinces, and Princes Ambassadours, have their 
residence, which made me desirous to stay here a while, 
to which purpose I hired a chamber, for which, for my 
bed, sheets, tableclothes, towels, and dressing of my meat, 
I paid twenty five stivers weekely. I bought my owne Charges in 
meat, and living privatly with as much frugality as The Hage. 
conveniently I might, I spent by the weeke no more then 
five guldens and a halfe, though all things were in this 
place extraordinarily deere. My beere in one weeke came 
to foureteene stivers, and among other things bought, I 
paid for a quarter of lambe thirty stivers, for a Hen seven 
stivers, for a Pigeon foure stivers, for a Rabet three 
stivers. I remember not to have seene a more pleasant 
village then this: great part of the houses are fairely 
built of bricke, though many of them in by-streetes be 
covered with thatch, and some few are stately built of 
free-stone. The village hath the forme of a Crosse, and 
upon the East side comming in from Leyden, there is a 
most pleasant Grove, with many wild walkes like a mtze, 
and neerer the houses is another very pleasant walke, set 
round about with willowes. Here is the publike house [L i. 52.] 
for exercise of shooting in the Peece and Crosse-bow, 
which hath a sweet prospect into a large greene plaine, 
where they use to spread linnen clothes in the sunne, and 
here certaine rowes of trees being planted, yeeld a 
pleasant shade to them that walke therein. One of the 
said rowes of trees called Vinareberg, leades to an old 
Castle of the Counts of Holland, compassed with a drie 

IO9 



^.D. FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
593. 
The Castle ditch, in which Count Maurice dwelt, but in the great 
of the Cont Hall thereof were many shops of Merchants for small 
of Hollnnd. wares. Upon the wals of the said Castle, and upon the 
windowes of the Church, these words were written in 
latine. 
To Charles the fifth, &c. To the most invincible 
Cesar Charles the fifth Roman Emperour, the 
victorious defender of the Catholike Religion, and 
Augustus. The Provisors of this House have 
placed this, in the yeere I547. 
Thereby was the statua of Charles the fifth, kneeling 
on his knees. In the window were painted the Armes 
of all the Knights of the golden Fleece. The Histories 
of the Countrey report the building of this Pallace to be 
wonderfull, in that the top of the Hall is not joined with 
beames, but with arches: but for my part I observed no 
reat magnificence in the worke. The second of the 
resaid rowes of trees, called Furholt, leads to a gentle- 
roans house, the fairest & most stately built in this Village. 
In the middest of the Hage lies the market place, and the 
Church. On the South side is the water that leades to 
Delph : and round about on all sides without the Village, 
are faire pastures, excepting the North-side, where the 
sandy downes of the Sea lie neere to the Village. In the 
Church is a Monument of Count Albertus, Duke of 
Bavaria, and another of a Count of Hanaw, with 
divers others, which I omit, as having no antiquity or 
magnificence. 
Lnudune. While I staied at the Hage, I walked out in halle an 
houres space to the village Lausdune, where I saw a 
wonderfull monument, the History whereof printed in a 
paper, the Earle of Leicester (as they said) had carried 
with him into England, leaving onely the same in written 
hand, the coppy vhereof I will set downe, first remembr- 
ing that two basens of brasse hanged on the wall, in 
which the children (whereof I shall speak) were baptized. 
The manuscript was in latine as followeth, 
IIO 



COMMENTS UPON THE HAGUE 

En tibi monstrosum nimis & memorabile factum, 
Qale nec a Mundi conditione datum. 
Hec lege, mox animo stupefactus lector abibis. 
So strange and monstrous thing I tell, 
As from the worlds frame here befell, 
He parts amasde that markes it well. 
The rest in latine is thus englished ; 
Margaret, wife to Hermanuus Count of Henneberge, 
daughter to Florence Count of Holland and Zealand, 
sister to William King of the Romans, and Cesar, or 
Governour of the Empire. This most noble Countesse 
being about forty two yeeres old, the very day of prepara- 
tion called Parascene, about nine o.f the clocke, in the 
yeere 276. brought forth at one birth three hundred 
sixty five children, which being baptized in two basens 
of brasse, by Guido Suffragan of Utretcht, all the males 
were called John, and all the females Elizabeth; but all 
of them together with the mother, died in one and the 
same day, and lie buried here in the Church of Lausdune : 
and this happened to her, in that a poore woman bearing 
in her armes two twinnes, the Countesse wondering at 
it, said shee could not have them both by one man, and 
so rejected her with scorne, whereupon the woman sore 
troubled, wished that the Countesse might have as many 
children at a birth, as there be daies in the whole yeere ; 
which besides the course of nature, by miracle fell out, 
as in this table is briefly set downe for perpetuall memory, 
out of old Chronicles, as well written as printed. Almighty 
God must be in this beheld and honoured, and extolled 
with praises for ever and ever. Amen. 
From the Hage, my selfe and other consorts hired a 
Waggon for two guldens, and passed to Leyden, having 
on both sides faire pastures, fruitfull come fields, and some 
pleasant groves. 

T,isyeerefell 
in a lying and 
superstitiou 
age. 

[Chap. V. 
III 



COMMENTS UPON UTRECHT 

and entred the Bishopricke of Utrecht, which is one of 
the united Provinces. Not farre from the City wee saw 
a crosse, set up for a Monument of a Bishop dying in 
battell against the Hollanders. I had almost forgotten 
the little City Werden, which they shewed us by the 
way, and told us, that the forme thereof was like the City 
of Jerusalem, which at that time I had not seene, and 
therefore mention this from their report, rather then from 
my judgement. 
The City Utrecht is seated in length from South-east, Utrecht. 
by East, to North-west by West, and upon the end at 
South-east by East, is the gate Weitefraw, where the 
Rheine enters the City. At the other end, North-west 
by West, are the rulnes of an old Castle, which the 
Spaniards kept before the wars, to bridle the City: and 
there be two gates, Saint Katherine-port, and Wert-port, 
each of them having their suburbes. On the South-west 
side are walles of earth, but the ditches were almost dry. 
On the North-east side is the gate Olske-port, and there 
bee three strong Ravelings, one defending the other. On 
this side bee two streets fairer then the rest, called New- 
graft, and Altkirkhoffe; and there is a pleasant walke 
well shaded with trees, upon the banke of the River. 
In the midst of the City is the Cathedrall Church, having 
a faire Tower, and a Bell, which they report to be of Cathedrall 
eighteene thousand pounds weight. Neere to the same curc and 
is the Bishops Pallace, wherein the Bishops dwelt before te 
the union of the Provinces ; but at this time there dwelled Pallace. 
the Countesse of Meurs, whose husband died in these 
warres. In the same part lie the market place, and the 
Senate house. The houses of the City are of bricke, and 
fairely built, but lose much of their beautie by being 
covered on the outside with boords, and they seeme to 
have more antiquitie, then the buildings of Holland. 
There be th.irty Churches, but onely three are used for 
divine service. In Saint Maries Church, (which as I 
remember is the Cathedrall Church) these verses are 
written upon a piIler. 



I593. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

upon the coast; but a faire winde then arising, all our 
shippes gladly weighed anchor. At which time it 
happened that the anchor of our ship brake, so as our 
consorts went on, but our Master, according to the navall 
discipline, not to put to sea with one anchor, returned 
backe to the harbour of the Fly, there to buy a new anchor, 
all of us foolishly cursing our fortune and the starres. On 
Tuesday morning while wee sadly walked on the shoare, 
[I. i. 55-] wee might see our consorts comming backe with torne 
stiles, and dead men, and quarters of men, lying on the 
hatches. We beholding this with great astonishment, 
tooke boat to board them, and demanding the newes, they 
told us that the little barks we saw the day before were 
Dunkirkers, having in each of them eighty Souldiers, and 
some few great Peeces, and that they had taken them, & 
spoiled their ships, of their chiefe & lightest goods, and 
Dutchmen had carried away prisoners to Dunkirk all the passengers 
tortured by & chief Marriners, after they had first wrung their fore- 
Pirate. heads with twined ropes, & with many horrible tortures, 
forced them to confesse what mony they had presently, 
& what they .could procure for ranso.m. Further, with 
mourning voice they told us, that the Pirats inquired 
much after our ship, saying that it was the bride, with 
whom they meant to dance, cursing it to be destroyed 
with a thousand tuns of divels, & swearing that if they 
had foreseene our escape, they would have assailed us by 
day, while we rode at anchor. They added, that they had 
left no goods, but those they could not carry for weight, 
and had changed their ragged shirts and apparell with the 
poore Marriners. And indeed they had just cause to 
bewaile the escape of our shippe, being laded with many 
chests of Spanish Ryalls, whereof they were not ignorant, 
using to have their spies in such places, who for a share 
in the booty, would have betrayed their very brothers. 
As we had just cause to praise almighty God, who had 
thus delivered us out of the jawes of death, so had wee 
much more cause to bewaile our rashnesse, yea and our 
wickednesse, that we had striven, yea and repined against 
ii6 



JOURNEY TO HAMBURG 

houres space, through a sandy heath ground and thicke 
woods of oake, and came to a Village; where each man 
paid for his dinner foure stivers. After dinner we passed 
more then a mile through a like wooddy Heath, and in 
three houres space came to Delmerhurst, where the Count 
of Oldenburge hath a faire and strong Castle, thoug.h it 
be a poore Village : and here each man paid halfe a stver 
to the Count, and for our Waggon ten stivers. The same 
day we passed a mile through sandy pastures, and in three 
houres space came to Breme, where each man paid for our 
Waggon foure groats, and for our supper five lubecke 
shillings. From Breme we passed foure miles through 
wild fields, yeelding some little come, and thicke woods, 
and in sixe houres space came to a poore house; where 
each man paid for dinner five lubecke shillings. Here 
those which carried any merchandise paid tole: and one 
man having a packe which a man might carry on his 
shoulder, paid foure lubecke shillings for the same: but 
all that goe to study in Universities, or be no Merchants, 
are free from this imposition. After dinner we passed 
three miles in five houres space to Furd, where each man 
aid for his supper five lubecke shillings. The next day 
om two of the clocke in the morning to seven, wee 
passed three miles through a heath and woods of oake, 
and came to Stode, where each man paid for his ,Vaggon 
from Breme twenty two Lubecke shillings. At Stode I 
paid for my dinner in a Dutch Inne foure Lubecke 
shillings and a halfe, and for a steifkin or measure of 
Rhenish wine, halfe a doller. I briefly passe over this 
journey upon the sea-coast of Germany, because I formerly 
discribed the same. 
The one and twenty of July, I passed in foure houres 
space by boat five miles to Hamburge, and paid for my 
passage by water three Lubecke shillings, for nay supper 
foure, and one for my bed. Early in the morning I 
passed six miles in sixe houres space, through wild fenny 
fields, woods of oake, and some few fields of come, and 
came to the Village Altslow, seated in a bogge, whereof 
II 9 

AoDo 
593. 

Te Ca of 
Dehnerhurst. 

$tudent and 
Merchant, 
fiee of tole. 



x593- 

A ridkulous 

Charges for 
Booke. 
[I. i. 57.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

it hath the name ; where I paid for my dinner five Lubecke 
shillings and a halle. Give me leave to tell you a 
ridiculous toy, yet strange and true: At Hamburge 
gate leading to Lubecke, we found a dogge that followed 
us, and some passengers of credit assured mee, that for 
many yeeres this dogge had lien at that gate, and every 
day without intermission, watching the first Coach that 
came forth, had followed the same to this village Altslow, 
being the bayting place at noone, and after dinner had 
returned backe to Hamburge gate, with another Coach 
comming from Lubecke, for Coaches passe daily betweene 
those Cities. 
After dinner we passed foure miles in foure houres 
space, through hils more thicke with woods, but in many 
places bearing good corne, and came to Lubecke. For 
my place in the Coach this day I paid twenty lubecke 
shillings, and this night for my supper and bed, I paid sixe 
lubecke shillings. Here I bought the foureteenth Booke 
of Amadis de Gaule, in the Dutch tongue, to practise the 
same: for these Bookes are most eloquently translated 
:.nto the Dutch, and fit to teach familiar language; and 
for this Booke I paid eighteene lubecke shillings, and for 
the binding route; and for a Map of Europe to guide 
me in my journey, I paid foureteene lubecke shillings: 
Also I paid for a. measure of Rhenish wine five lubecke 
shillings, and as much for a measure of Spanish wine. 
From Lubecke I passed two miles in three houres space, 
through fruitfull hils of come, and some woods of oake 
to the village Tremuren, and paid for my coach the fourth 
part of  Doller (which notwithstanding useth to be hired 
for five lubecke shillings) and for my supper I paid foure 
lubecke shillint, s. I formerly shewed that this village is 
the Haven, where the great ships use to be unladed, and 
from thence to be carried up to lie at Lubecke in the 
winter. 
Here I tooke ship to sayle into Denmarke, upon the 
Balticke Sea, so called, because it is compassed by the 
Land, as it were with a girdle. This sea doth not at all 

I20 



COMMENTS UPON COPENHAGEN 

ebbe and flow, or very little, alter it hath passed in by the 
streight of Denmarke, being more then twenty fbure miles 
long, so as upon the shoares of ]?russen, Muscaw, and 
Suetia, this sea seemes little to be moved, and many times 
is frozen with ice, from the shore farre into the sea; and 
the waves thereof once stirred with the winds, are very 
high, neither is the water of this sea any thing so salt as 
otherwhere, so as the ships sayling therein, doe sinke 
deeper at least three spans then in the German Ocean, as 
manifestly appeares by the white sides of the ships above 
water when they come out of this sea, and enter the said 
Ocean. And this will not seeme strange to any, who 
have seene an egge put into salt pits, and how it swimmes, 
being borne up with the salt water. The Master of the 
Lubecke ship in which I passed to Denmarke, gave me 
beere for foure lubeck shillings; for which the Dutch- 
men and Danes drinking more largely, paid but one 
lubecke shilling more, and every man had provided 
victuals for himselfe. I paid for my passage twenty foure 
lubecke shillings, and gave foure to the martinets. From 
Lubecke they reckon twenty route miles to Falsterboaden, 
and from thence seven miles to Coppenhagen, so called 
as the Haven of Merchants. We left upon our left hand 
towards the South, a little Iland called Munde, and (as 1 
remember) the third day of August, landed at Drakes- 
holme, being one mile from Coppenhagen, whether I 
passed in a Waggon through some pastures and barren 
corne fields; and neere the City I passed over the Haven 
from one Iland to another. I paid for my Waggon three 
lubecke shillings. 
At our entrance of the City, on the East-side, is the 
Kings Castle, where the Court lies, especially in winter 
time. On this side, the City lies upon the sea, and there 
is the said Haven, as likewise on the North-side the sea 
is little distant from the City. When I entered the gates, 
the guard of souldiers examined me strictly, and the 
common people, as if they had never seene a stranger 
before, shouted at mee after a barbarous fashion; among 
121 

The Balticke 
Sea. 

Cotpenhagen. 



Roschild. 

41brecht of 
Suetia and 
Margaret of 
Denmarke. 

[I. i. 58.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

which people were many marriners, which are commonly 
more rude in such occasions, and in all conversation. The 
City is of a round forme, in which, or in the Kings 
Castle, I observed no beauty or magnificence. The Castle 
is built of free-stone in a quadrangle. The City is built 
of timber and clay, and it hath a faire market place, and 
is reasonably well fortified. Here I paid for three meales 
and breakefast eight lubecke shillings, and as much for 
beere. The King at this time lay at Roschild, purposing 
shortly to goe into the Dukedome of Hoist, where he 
had appointed a meeting of the gentlemen at Flansburge, 
to receive their homage there, which uppon old priviledges 
they had refused to doe unto him in Denmarke. 
Therefore I went foure miles in foure houres space, 
through a wild hilly Country, to Roschild, so called of 
the Kings Fountaine; and my selfe and one companicn 
paid twenty lubecke shillings for our Waggon: and 
though it were the moneth of August, yet the wind 
blowing strong from the North, nd from the Sea, I was 
very cold, as if it had beene then winter. Roschild hath 
a Bishop, and though it be not walled, hath the title of 
a City; but well deserves to be numbred among faire 
and pleasant Villages. Here they shew a whet stone, 
which Albrecht King of Suetia, sent to Margaret Qeene 
of Denmarke, despising her as a woman, and in scoffe 
bidding her to whet her swords therewith: but this 
Qeene tooke the said King prisoner in that warre, and 
so held him till death. Here I paid seven Danish shillings 
for my supper. In the chancell of the Church is a monu- 
ment of blacke and white stone for this Qeene Margaret 
and her daughter, and the Danes so reverence this Qeene, 
as they have here to shew the apparell she used to weare. 
In this Church are the sepulchers of the Kings, whereof 
one erected by Frederick, for Christianus his father, is 
of blacke Marble and Alablaster, curiously carved, having 
his statua kneeling before a Crucifix, and hung round 
about with sixteene blacke flags, and one red. 
Having seene the King and the Courtiers, my selfe 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

imposition upon ships and goods comming out of the 
Balticke sea, or brought into the same, as this sole profit 
passeth all the revenewes of his Kingdome. In this 
village a strong Castle called Croneburg lyeth upon the 
mouth of the Straight, to which the other side of this 
Narrow sea, in the Kingdome of Norway, another Castle 
is opposite, called Elsburg, and these Castles keepe the 
Straight, that no ship can passe into the Baltick sea, or 
out of it, having not first paled these impositions. They 
say there is nother passage between two Ilands (for all 
the Kingdom of Denmark consists of little Ilands) but 
the same is forbidden upon penalty of confiscation of all 
the goods. And they report that three shippes in a darke 
fog passed this straight without paying any thing; but 
after, this being made knowne to the Kings ministers, 
at the returne of the said ships all their goods were 
The Dnnes confiscated. In respect of the Danes scrupulous and 
cr,pulous iealous nature, I did with great difficulty, (putting on a 
andjenlous. "Merchants habite, and giving a greater reward then the 
favour deserved,) obtaine to enter Croneburg Castle, 
which was built ibure square, and hath only one gate on 
the East side, where it lies upon the straight. Above this 
gate is a chamber in which the King useth to eat, and 
two chambers wherein the King and Q.qeene lie apart. 
Under the fGrtification of the Castle round about, are 
stables for horses, and some roomes for like purposes. 
On the South-side towards the Baltick sea, is the largest 
roade for ships. And upon this side is the prison, 
and above it a short gallery. On the West side towards 
the village is the Church of the Castle, & above it 
a very faire gallery, in which the King useth tb 
feast at solemne times. On the North side is the 
prospect partly upon the Iland, and partly upon the 
Narrow sea, which reacheth twenty foure miles to the 
German Ocean. And because great store of ships passe 
this way in great Fleets, of a hundreth more ov lesse 
together: this prospect is most pleasant to all men, bu 
[I. i. 59-] most of dl to the King, seeing so many shippes, whereof 



COMMENTS UPON COPENHAGEN A.D. 
x593. 
not one shall passe, without adding somewhat to his 
treasure. On this side lie two. chambers, which are called 
the King of Scotland his chambers, ever since his Majesty 
lodged there, when he wooed and married his Qeene. 
The hangings thereof were of redde cloth, and the chaires 
and stooles covered with the same, but they said that the 
rich furniture was laid up in the Kings absence. The 
Haven will receive great number of shippes, and it hath 
Croneburge Castle on the North side, the Castle of 
Elsburg on the East side, and Zealand (the chiefe Iland of 
the Kindome) on the West side, and the Iland Wheen 
on the South side. 
To which Iland the long straight or narrow sea lies 
opposite towards the North, .leading into the German 
Ocean. This Iland Wheen is a mile long, and not 
altogether so brod, having onely one grove in it. This 
solitary place, King Fredrick, Father to Christianus now 
raigning, gave to a Gentleman called Tugo-Brahe for his Tugo-Brahe 
dwelling, who being a famous Astronomer lived here a famou 
solitarily at this time, & was said to have some Church dstronomer. 
livings for his maintenance, and to live unmas'ried, but 
keeping a Concubine, of whom he had many children, 
& the reason of his so living, was thought to be this; 
because his nose having been cut off in a quarrell, when 
he studied in an University of Germany, he knew him- 
selfe thereby disabled to marry any Gentlewoman of his 
own quality. It was also said that the gentlemen lesse 
respected him for living in that sort, and did not acknow- 
ledge his sonnes for Gentlemen. King Frederick also 
gave this learned Gen.tleman of his free gift, many and 
very faire Astronomicall instruments, and he living in a 
pleasant Iland, wherein no man dwelt but his family, 
wanted no pleasure which a contemplative man could 
desire. Besides the aforesaid instruments, this Gentle- 
man had a very faire Library, full of excellent bookes, 
and a like faire still-house. Besides not farre from his 
house, he had a little round house of great beauty, in 
which he did exercise his speculation, the cover thereof 



Pictures of 
mold$ 
.4stronomers. 

Timocherus. 

Hipparchus. 

Ptoloray. 

l lbategnu,. 

ll#onsus. 

Copernicus. 

[I. i. 60.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

being to bee removed at pleasure, so as lying with his 
face upward, he might in the night time fully behold the 
Starres, or any of them. In this little house all famous 
Astronomers were painted, and the following Verses were 
added, each to the picture, to which they belong. 
Sulveta Heroes: vetus O Timochare salve, 
]Etheris ante alios ause subire polos. 
God save ye worthies: old Timocherus 
I greet thee, more then many venturous, 
To mount the Starres and shew them unto us. 
Tu quoque demensus Solis Lunreque recursus, 
Hipparche, & quot quot sidera Olympus habet. 
And thou Hipparchus, thou didst measure even, 
The course of Sun, Moone, and all Starres of heaven. 
Antiquos superare volens, Ptolomee labores, 
Orbibus & numeris promptius astra locas. 
Ptolomy, thou to passe old ages reach, 
The Numbers and the Orbes dost better teach. 
Emendare aliquid satis Albategne studebas, 
Sydera conatus post habuere tuos. 
Thou Albategnus somewhat yet to mend 
Didst strive, but wert prevented by thine end. 
Qod labor & studium reliquis, tibi contulit Aurum 
Alphonse, ut tantis annumerere viris. 
These got by paines and study, thou by gold 
Alphonsus, with such men to be inrol'd. 
Curriculis tritis diffise Copernlce, terram 
Invitam, astriferum flectere cogis iter. 
Copernicus, thou old said sawes didst doubt, 
Thou mak'st heaven stand, and earth turne round about. 
In the best place this Gentleman Tugo Brahe had set 
his owne picture, with the following Verses; 
Qesitis veterum & propriis, norme astra subegi, 
Qanti id: Judicium posteritatis erit. 
With old Rules and my owne, the Starres I place, 
Which after-times, as it deserves, shall grace, 



COMMENTS UPON HVEN 

Many Instruments are there placed by him, which him- 
selfe invented, and bee hath made a solemne dedication 
of the house to the ages to come, with earnest prayers 
that they will not pull downe this Monument. 
The Danes thinke this Iland Wheen to be of such 
importance, as they have an idle fable, that a King of An llle 
England shoul.d offer for the possession of it, as much t'able. 
scarlet cloth as would cover the same, with a Rose-noble 
at the corner of each cloth. Others tell a fable of like 
credit, that it was once sold to a Merchant, whom they 
scoffed when he came to take possession, bidding him 
take away the earth he had bought. The great revenew 
exacted in this straight, hath given occasion to these and 
the like fables. And in truth, if either the King of Suetia, 
or the free City of Lubeck, had the possession of this 
Iland, and were fortified therein, they might easily com- 
mand this passage, and extort what they list, from the 
Merchants passing that way, and perhaps conquer the parts 
adjoyning; but the possession thereof were altogether 
unprofitable for any Prince, whose Territories lie out of 
the Sound, the entrance whereof is forbid by the two 
foresaid strong Castles. But lest I should bee as foolish 
as they, I returne to my purpose. And first give me leave 
to mention, that there lies a City not farre distant, in the 
Kingdome of Norway, which is called London, as the 
chiefe City in England is called. 
Upon Sunday, the twenty six of August, in the yeere 
 593, I tooke an English ship heere, to saile into Prussen, 
having first bought for my victuals halfe a lambe for twelve 
Danish shillings, thirty egges for six shillings, and some 
few pots of Spanish wine, for..forty two Danish shillings, 
with some other small provlslons. From Elsinure-to 
Dantzk, they reckon eighty English miles. As soone as 
wee were come out of the harbour, wee saw two ships 
sayling two contrary wayes, and yet having both a fore- Strange 
wind, which sometimes happens upon the shoare, as 
marriners know. For of these two contrary winds, the 
one is airy, which holds when you are gone into the maine, 



The ,4ntilope 
struck by 
lightning. 

[I. i. 6.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the other is from the earth, and in short time faileth at 
the very shore: which event we presently saw with our 
eyes, one of the ships going fairely on his course, the 
other casting anchor. The English ship in which I went, 
was called the Antilope, being of one hundred fifty tuns, 
or thereabouts, and one Master Bodley was the Master 
thereof, who shewed me manifest signes, where his ship in 
two places had beene struck with lightning ; the first where- 
of passed into the pumpe, and rent it, but comming to the 
water, was by the nature thereof carried upward, and com- 
ruing out at the top of the pumpe, made two little holes; 
then passing to the great Mast, rent it, and made a great 
crany therein, from the hatches to the top. The second 
struck the top of the said maine Mast, and againe rent it, 
in such wise as it would scarcely beare saile, till wee might 
come to Dantzk, where the best Mastes are sold at a 
good rate. The first day we sayled in the Baltick sea, 
some five miles with a scant winde, and cast anchor neere 
Copenhagen. With a faire winde and good gaile, 
Marriners usually sayle some three Dutch leagues in an 
houre. On Monday early, wee sayled along the shore 
three miles to Falsterboden. On Tuesday early, wee 
sayled eighteene miles to the Iland Brentholm, and upon 
our left hands saw the land in two places, and there 
sounding with our plummet, sand of Amber stuck there- 
unto. The same day by noone, wee sayled the length 
of that Iland; and upon Wednesday, by three of the 
clocke in the morning, having sayled thirty miles, we 
passed by Rose-head, being a Promentory neere Dantzk. 
On Thurs-day by eight of the clocke in the morning, 
having sayled eighteene miles, we came to a Land called 
Kettell, and entered the Port of Melvin, where the water 
was scarce two fadome deepe, our ship drawing one fadome 
and a halfe.- the entry was narrow, and there were many 
booyes floting upon shoales & sands; and the weather 
being calme, we were drawne in by a boate with Oares. In 
like cases ships use to draw themselves in, by the casting 
and weighing of Anchors, with great labour, and slow 
i28 



Dantzke, 

The King of 
Poland in 
Dantzke. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

howsoever they excused it, by reason that learned 
Preachers could hardly be drawne to come so farre for 
meanes to live, yet I thought them not free of blame 
in this point; because our Merchants further distant in 
Asia, and living under the Turkes Empire, found meanes 
by their bounty to have learned Preachers. Neither 
indeed did I ever observe in any other place (Italy 
excepted) that our Merchants wanted Preachers, where 
they held their staples. 
From Melvin I went ten miles in one day to Dantzke, 
and we being onely two consorts, paid each of us a Doller 
for our Coach. In the morning we went sixe miles, and 
by the way passed the River Begot, comming out of the 
river Vistula, where our Coachman paid three grosh to 
have his Coach carried over a damme. Beyond this river 
we entered the territory of the King of Poland, and 
passing all this way through fruit full corne fields, and 
rich medowes, and pastures, in a Countrey abounding 
with townes and Villages, we dined in a Village where 
we two by covenant paying for our coachman, spent each 
of us eight grosh. In the afternoone we passed the rest 
of the way, one mile in the Kings territory, where we 
passed another damme of the river Vistula, and three miles 
to Dantzke in the territory of the same City. The King 
of Poland at this time was at the Port of Dantzke, called 
Der Mind, an English mile from the City, expecting a 
wind to sayle into his Kingdome of Suecia, and had with 
him his Qeene, and many Ladies and Courtiers. There- 
fore desirous to see the King and the Q.geene, with their 
traine, I walked the next morning to this Port, which is 
barred with a mountaine of sand, so as the ships must 
unlade in the roade, before they can enter this Haven; 
neither is any village built there, but onely one Inne, 
in which the King lay, with all his traine: but beyond 
the water there is a strong Castle of a round forme. 
From hence after dinner I returned on foot to Dantzke. 
The next day the King had a good wind, but before this 
(as those of the Romish religion are very superstitious) 

x3o 



COMMENTS UPON DANTZIC 

the King and the Qeen (being of the house of Austria) 
while sometimes they thought Munday, sometimes 
Friday, to be unlucky daies, had lost many faire winds. 
The City of Dantzke is a very faire City, and howsoever 
few ages past, they had not any houses built of stone, 
yet at this time many were built of free-stone, and the 
rest of bricke, with great beauty and magnificence, being 
sixe or seven roofes high. And they had publike gardens 
for sports, banquets, and exercises, which are very pleasant. 
They have a very faire Senate-house, called Hoff, that 
is, the Court; and the Citizens have a strange fashion, 
to put off their hats when they passe by it. From the 
market place being round (in which the King of Poland 
lodged some daies) to the gate Hochethore (being richly 
engraved) lieth a very faire street (called Longgasse) and 
leads up towards the Mountaines hanging over the City. 
The famous River Vistula doth not enter the City, but 
passeth by it on the East-side, and running towards the 
North, fals into the Balticke sea. But a little brook enters 
the City on the South-side, and runnes through it towards 
the North. There is a faire water conduit, vulgarly called 
Wasserkunst, where by a mill the waters are drawne up 
into a cesterne, from whence they are carried by pipes 
into all the streetes and private houses ; besides that many 
Citizens have their privat wels. The aforesaid brooke 
drives many mils, among which, one for the grinding of 
corne, belongs to the Senate, and it hath eighteene roomes, 
and bringeth into the publike treasure every houre a 
gold gulden, and another without any helpe of hands, 
saweth boords, having an iron wheele, which doth not 
onely drive the saw, but hooketh in, and turneth the 
boords to the saw. The Garners for laying up of corne 
called speiker, are very faire, and very many lying 
together, in which the Citizens lay up corne brought out 
of Poland, and according to the wants of Europe, carry 
it into man.y kingdomes, and many times relieve fruitfull 
Provinces in time of casual dearth. The Qeene of 
Poland came in a disguised habit to see these garners: 

[I. i. 6z.] 

conduit. 

4 saw mill. 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

and they have a law that no man may carry fire or a lighted 
candle into them. In the Church called Parkirk, the 
resurrection of our Lord is painted with great art, and 
the same againe is figured under a globe of glasse, which 
kinde of painting is here in use. This City compassed 
Thegove,t- with one wall, containes three Cities, governed by three 
ante of the Senates, out of which one chiefe Senate is gathered to 
city. governe the whole City; and these three Cities are called 
Furstat, that is, the fore City, and Altstat, that is, the 
old City, and Reichstat, that is, the Empires City. The 
whole City united, lies in length from the South to the 
North, and upon the South-side is Furstat, where the 
foresaid brooke dividing the City doth enter, and there 
is the aforesaid water conduit, and without the wals a 
Afaire faire village or suburbe called Scotland, in which there 
village called is a sanctuary, which offenders may enter, paying a gulden 
Scotland. to the Bishop; and none but Artificers, & for the most 
part shoomakers, dwell in this suburbe. On this side, 
and towards the East and North, without the wals, lie 
plaine fields, which may be drowned at pleasure. Upon 
the East-side within the wals, are the aforesaid garners 
for corne. On the West-side without the wals, great 
mountaines hang over the City, and upon them Stephen 
King of Poland incamped, when he besieged the City, 
which hath for defence very high wals on the same side. 
Upon the North-side in a corner lies Altstat, betweene 
which and Furstat on the South-side, lies the chiefe City 
Reichstat, in the middest whereof is the aforesaid market 
place, and a publike armory ; besides that great Ordinance 
is planted upon the wals round about the City. I said 
that from this market place, the faire street Longgasse 
lieth to the gate Hochethore. Betweene Reichstat and 
Altstat, lie the foresaid two mils, to grinde corn, and saw 
boards, both (in my opinion) very rare. The City of 
Dantzke, from the Roman superstition, hath the same 
Saint for protector of their City, which England hath; 
namely, Saint George, whom they carry in their flags 
and banners. And by the way let me remember, that the 

Saint George 
Jbr Dantzke. 

x32 



COMMENTS UPON DANTZIC 

state of Genoa in Italy, and the Iland of Chios, vulgarly 
Zio, in the sea neere Constantinople, carry also the same 
Saint in their flagges. At Dantzke I paid five grosh a 
meale, and being to passe into Poland, where good meat 
is not in all places to be had, I carried some provision in 
the Coach, and paid for two hens five grosh, and for each 
measure of wine (all kinds being of like price) I paid ten 
grosh, which measure is called a stoope, and is somewhat 
bigger then the English quart. 
The ninth of September, after the old stile (for the [I. i. 63.] 
new stile is used in Poland,) I tooke my journey to 
Crakaw, and we being foure consorts, hired a Coach for 
forty guldens. The first day in the morning we passed 
five miles in five houres space, through fruitfull hils of 
corne, and onely one wood, in that part of the Dukedome 
of Prussen, which belongs unto the King of Poland, and 
came to the City Diersaw, by which the river Vistula Diersaw. 
runneth. After dinner we passed three miles, through 
a wood and a Fen, to the Village Zunzane, inhabited by 
Hollanders, who having dried the Fen, made the fields 
much more fruitfull. And from thence the same night 
having passed the river Vistula, we went halfe a mile to 
Gratenis, a City belonging to the Sborosky, a family of 
Gentlemen. The second day in the morning we went 
five miles, through a wood and fruitfull fields of corne, 
to a little Citty Colmersea, where that day was a meeting 
of the neighbour Gentlemen. If you except Crakaw, and 
the greater Cities, the building in these parts is poore, Poore 
being of meere dirt in the Villages, and of timber and buildings. 
clay in the better townes, the houses being covered with 
straw, or tiles of wood, and the gentlemens houses be 
farre distant one from the other, and of no beauty. After 
dinner we went foure miles through fruitfull fields of 
corne, to the City Toarn. Hitherto we had given money 
to a Hollander, one of our consorts, for the paying of 
our expences, and now by his account each of us had 
spent three guldens and a halfe, for he had provided wine 
and such things which wee could not find in Villages, 
133 



FROM DANTZIC TO CRACOW 

for a grosh, and all other victuals very cheape. After 
dinner we hired two horses, and a Countrey Waggon 
for eight grosh, and passed foure miles through a stony 
way, and sandy fields of corne, to Peterkaw, where the pete,'ka. 
King hath a Castle, and there we bought for our selves, 
flesh, bread, and beere, for our supper, at a very cheape 
rate, and giving one grosh to the Hostesse for dressing 
our meat, and for butter and tier, shee was very well 
content with it. The sixth day in the morning we passed 
five miles, and in the afternoone two miles, with the same 
Waggon, for which wee paid seven grosh, and the same 
horses, for which wee paid foureteene grosh. And we 
passed through woods of high firre trees, and some few 
fields of corne. Our meat we bought our selves, and 
as formerly our Hostesse dressed it, and we fetched our 
beere without doores. I remember wee paid three grosh 
for a goose, two for a partridge, two for a loyne of mutton, 
and three for a pigge. They sold a bushel of oates for [I. i. 64.] 
two grosh, which at Thoarn they sold for six grosh. In 
these parts were great store of hop-yards. After dinner 
we passed three miles throgh woody hils, and corne fieldes, 
and paied for our horses and a country waggon twelve 
grosh. 
The seventh day in the morning, wee passed to a poore 
village foure miles, through fruitfull hils of corne, and 
many woods of firre, and one of oake, and wee hired our Many u'oc,s. 
country waggon with two horses, for fourteene grosh. 
Further wee went three miles to another village, through 
hils of corne, and a heath full of woods, and paied for 
one horse and a waggon, six grosh. After dinner we 
passed to a village three miles, through fruitfull hils of 
come; and by the way we might see a stately Gentlemans 
house, and Gentlemen hawking in the fieldes: and I 
remember not in all my long travell, ever to have met 
hawkers or hunters in the fieldes, but onely heere, and 
once in Bohemia. In this village the King hath a Castle. 
The eight day, in the morning, we passed forward with 
the same horses and waggon, which we had in the after- 
I35 



The Kings 
Castle. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

noone before, and went two miles to Pnecho, and wee 
paied for our horses and waggon fifteene grosh, and gave 
one to the waggoner. Here the King hath another faire 
Castle. From hence we passed two miles to a village, 
through mountaines and corne fields, and paled for two 
horses and a waggon foure grosh, and gave to the 
waggoner procuring our horses one grosh. 
The same day we went three miles, through little 
mountaines of corne, to Crakaw, and paied for two horses 
and a waggon six grosh. Heere wee lodged with the 
Fleming, consort of our journey, and had our diet after 
the Dutch manner, and price. Fortified Cities, are very 
rare in Poland, they placing their strength in their swords 
and horsemen, rather then in walles. Of all the Cities, 
Crakaw is the chiefe, where the King and his Councell 
reside. It is seated in a plaine, having mountaines on 
all sides, but somewhat distant, and it is compassed with 
two walles of stone, and a dry ditch. The building is 
very faire, of free stone foure roofes hye, but covered 
with tiles of wood for the most part. It is of a round 
forme, but somewhat longer from the East to the West. 
In the midst of the City is a large market place quad- 
rangular, wherein is the Cathedrall Church, and in the 
midst of the market place is the Senate house for the 
City, about which are many shops of Merchants. Upon 
the East side of the City is the Kins Castle, seated on 
a hill; being faire, and high built, atmost quadrangular, 
but somewhat more long then broad, and lying open on 
the South side, without any building above the wall. On 
the East side be the Chambers of the King and Qeene, 
with galleries adjoyning. On the North side is a faire 
gallery, some forty five walking paces long, where they 
use to feast and dance. On the West side are the 
chambers of the Qeene Dowager; from whence are 
private staires to the gate of the Castle; by which the 
French King, Henry the third, stole away secretly into 
France. On the same side is a Chappell, in the which 
the Kings are buried. Upon the East side of this City, 
3 6 



COMMENTS UPON CRAKAW A.D. 
I593. 
where this Castle is seated, lie foure suburbes; namely, 
the Jewes little City, and Cagmen, which is divided by 
the river Vistula, from the other two, called Stradam and 
the Stewes. And Stradam belongs to the City, but 
the rest have their own Magistrates and priviledges. 
Towards the South and South-west, lies the suburb 
Garbatz, belonging to the City, which of late was burnt 
in the civill war, by the forces of Zamosky, one of the 
Palatines, and Chancellor of the Kingdome, defending 
the Election of Sigismund now King, against Maximilian 
of Austria, chosen King by another party. On the North 
side are the suburbs Biskop, and Clepart, which have their 
owne Magistrates. 
From hence being to take my journey for Italy, I 
bought a horse for eighteene Guldens, and he that sold Charges.for a 
him, according to the manner there used, caused his bridle 
to be put on, and so by the same delivered the horse into 
my hands. I paied fifteene grosh for a paire of shooes, 
fifty for a paire of boots, nine for spurs, two guldens and 
a halle for a saddle, a gulden and a halle for other furniture 
for my journey, nine grosh for stirrups, eight grosh for 
route horse shooes, and eight grosh for each bushell of 
oates. An Italian Gentleman being to returne into Italy, 
bought likewise a horse; and with this f'aire companion 
I tooke my journey. The first day towards evening we 
rode two miles through fruitfull hills of come, to a [I. i. 65.] 
Country house, where I paied for my supper two grosh, 
for hay a grosh & a halle, for a quarter of a bushel of 
oates, two grosh, .and gave to the Ostler halle a grosh. 
The second day an the morning we rode three miles, 
through woods of firre, to a village, where I paied for 
my dinner two grosh, for hay halle a grosh, for the third 
part of a bushell of oates a grosh and a halle. After 
dinner we rode one mile and a halfe through a great wood, 
having the Mountaines of Hungary on our left hand, 
and passing the river Vistula, wee rode a mile through 
fenny fields, and woods of firre and beech, and came to a 
little Citie Opsenson, where I paid for my supper eight 
I37 



I593. 

Plemn. 

Moravia. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

grosh, and for some three English pintes of wine five 
grosh, for beere a grosh and a halfe, for a third part of 
a bushell of oates, nine grosh, and for hay and straw a 
grosh and a halfe, and this City was subject to a Gentleman 
of Poland. 
The third day in the morning, wee rode three miles 
and a halfe, through fields somewhat overflowed, but 
fruitfull in corne, and a wood of firre, to Plesna, subject 
to the Barrons of Promnitz, and seated in Silesia, a 
Province of the Dutch Empire ; for after one miles riding 
we came out of Poland, into the said Province, which is 
subject to the Emperour, as likewise Moravia is, by his 
right as hee is King of Bohemia: but in Silesia they 
speake Dutch, and Moravia hath his owne language, 
little differing from that of Bohemia. Also in our way 
we passed the river Vistula by boat, and another arme 
thereof by a bridge. Here the Barrons of Promnitz have 
a Castle, wherein they reside; and here I paied for my 
dinner sixegrosh, for beere one, for hay and a third part of 
a bushel ofoates two grosh, and for a measure of wine 
(somewhat bigger then the English quart) ten grosh. After 
dinner we rode two miles, through fruitfull fields of corne, 
to a little City subject to the Emperour, (not by large 
subjection, but proper right to all the Revenewes of that 
Territory) as he is King of Bohemia: and I paied for 
supper three grosh, for a third part of a bushell of oates 
with hay and straw five grosh. The fourth day we rode 
two miles in the morning, being now entred into Moravia, 
where the miles are exceeding long, as they be in 
Bohemia: and we passed through most fruitful hils of 
corne, and some woods, and came to a little village, seated 
a little beyond the City Freestat, belonging to the Dukes 
of Tesch, and here I paied for my dinner three grosh, 
and as much for my horse-meat. After dinner we rode 
two miles through hils and mountaines, fruitfull of corne, 
and some woods of oakes: for Moravia is a pleasant 
Countrey, very fruitfull, and full of townes and villages; 
and wee came to Ostrenam, where I paled for my supper 
x38 



COMMENTS UPON MORAVIA 

three grosh, for beere two, for my horse-meat foure and 
a halle. The rift day in the morning we rode three miles, 
through fruitfull hils of come to the village Botevisa; 
being very pleasant and full of orchards, and subject to 
a Gentleman of that Countrey. By the way we passed 
on horse-backe two armes of the river Odera, which hath 
his head three miles distant. Heere wee dined with the 
Preacher (or Minister) of the Towne, because the Hoste 
of the Inne was newly dead; & I paied for my dinner 
foure grosh, for beere one grosh, and for horse-meat two 
rosh. After dinner we rode two miles, through most 
uitfull hils of come, to a pleasant village (as all Moravia 
is pleasant and fertile) and I paied for my supper five 
grosh, and foure for my horse-meat. The sixth day in 
the morning we rode three miles, through fruitful hils of 
corne, havin woody Mountaines on both hands; and in 
the midst ot the way, passed by the City Granitz, and 
came to Leipny. The Cities in these parts are built with 
Arches halle over the streets, so as in the greatest raine, 
a man may passe in the streets under them with a dry 
foot, and such is the building of this little City, where 
in some thirty families of Jewes did dwell. Here I paied 
for my dinner foure grosh, and for my horse-meat two 
grosh (hitherto I meane groshes of Poland.) After dinner 
we rode a mile and a halle in a paved way, with come 
fields on both hands, to the City Speron; where I paied 
for my supper five grosh, (I meane now, and hereafter 
groshes of Moravia,) and for my horse-meat three grosh : 
and here I paied for an Orange two grosh. In this 
journey through Poland, and from Cracaw to this place, 
we had heere the first bed, having before lodged, upon 
benches in a warme stove. The seventh day m the 
morning, wee rode two very long miles, through most 
fruitfull hils of corne, & rich pastures, to a village, having 
by the way passed by the Citie of Creitzon (wherein many 
Jewes dwelt) & by very many villages: and here I paied 
for nay dinner three grosh, & for my horse-meat one grosh, 
for a measure of wine like an English pint, three creitzers. 
39 

1593- 

Botcvia. 

.4rches built 
over the 
streets. 

[I. i. 66. 3 



COMMENTS UPON VIENNA 

.Do 
I593. 

walking paces long. Betweene the second bridge, and 
the third next to the City, is a pleasant grove, and good 
part of the ground under the bridges is many times dry; 
but when the river riseth, it doth not only fill all the beds, 
but overfloweth the fields on both sides. At the gate of 
Wien, each man paid for his horse two pochanels; and 
when wee came to the Inne, the Hoste sent our names 
written to the Magistrate. Wien the metropolitan City Igien 
of Austria, is a famous Fort against the Turkes, upon fntnouFort 
the confines of Austria, which if they should once gaine, 
Turkey. 
their horse-men might suddenly spoile the open Countries 
of Bohemia, and Moravia, and good part of Silesia. The 
Citie is of a round forme, and upon the North side there 
is an ascent to it upon a hil, otherwise without the wals 
on all sides the ground is plaine, excjt the West side, 
where mountaines lie a good distance trom the City, and 
upon that side the Sultan of the Turkes incamped, upon 
the hils neere the gallowes, when in the time of the 
Emperour Rodulphus, bee besieged the City, or rather 
came to view it, with purpose to besiege it the next 
summer. The streets are narrow, but the building is 
stately, of free stone. Two Towers of the Church are 7"e Curc 
curiously ingraven, the like whereof is not in Germany, 
except the Tower or steeple of Strasburg. The common 
report is, that two chiefe workemen had great emulation 
in building them ; and that one having finished his Tower, 
found meanes to breake the necke of the other, lest his 
workemanship should excel that he had done. One of 
the Towers some three yeeres past, was shaken with an 
earth-quake, and indeed the houses of this City are many 
times shaken therewith, and they have a Prophecy of old, 
that this City shall be destroied with an earth-quake. It 
is dangerous to walke the streetes in the night, for the 
great number of disordered people, which are easily found 
upon any confines, especially where such an army lieth 
neere, as that of Hungary, governed by no strict dis- 
cipline. Ernestas and Mathias, Arch-dukes of Austria, 
and brothers to the Emperour Rodulphus, did at this 
I4I 



[I. i. 67.] 

Newkirke. 

tyria. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

time lie here, both in one house, and did eat at one table, 
and in the time of their meales, it was free for strangers 
and others to come into the roome. I staied three daies 
at Wien to ease my weary horse, and I paid each meale 
twenty foure creitzers, for oates the day and night 
eighteene, and in like sort for hay six creitzers. 
From hence we tooke our journey for Paduoa in Italy, 
and the first day after dinner we rode six miles, in a plaine 
of vineyards, pastures, and corne fields, with some woods, 
to a village, where I paid fifteene creitzers for my supper, 
and eight for my horse. The next day in the morning 
we rode foure miles, through a wild plaine, by the City 
Newstat, and not farre thence came to Newkirke, where 
I paid twenty foure creitzers for my dinner, foure for my 
horse, and twelve for a measure of wine, like our English 
quart. Henceforward we had no more beere, but onely 
wine set on the table. After dinner we rode three miles 
through woods and mountaines, planted with vines, and 
a rich valley of pasture and corne, all in a stony soyle, 
to Schwatzen. I observed that the horses we met laded 
with wine, had their noses covered, which they said was 
done, lest they should be overcome with the vapour 
thereof. This City is seated betweene most high moun- 
taines, in a narrow streight, hewen out of a Rocke, and 
shut up with a wall of stone. Here I paid for my supper 
twenty creitzers, and for drinking after supper (vulgarly 
schlaffdruncke, that is, sleeping drinke) sixe creitzers, and 
for the fourth part of a bushell of oates, nine creitzers 
(which before we had for foure creitzers and a halle) and 
for hey and straw three creitzers. The third day in the 
morning we rode two miles, through wooddy mountaines, 
the ascent of one of them being halle a mile, .nd through 
rich pastures, to Morthusly, and I paid for my dinner 
eighteene creitzers, and for my horse-meat five creitzers, 
oates being deerer here then before. This day neere 
Spitle we passed out of Austria into Styrla. After dinner 
we rode two miles, through wooddy mountaines, yeelding 
good pastures, to a village, where I paid for my supper 



FROM VIENNA TO PADUA 

twenty foure creitzers, and twelve for my horse-meat. 
The fourth day in the morning we rode foure miles, 
through mountaines with pasture and woods, and valleies 
of corne, to the City Brucke, where I paid for my dinner Brucke. 
fifteene creitzers, for my horse-meat five creitzers, the 
third part of a bushell of oates being here sold for twenty 
foure creitzers. After dinner we rode in like way two 
miles, to the City Lowen, and I paid for my supper Lowe,. 
fifteene creitzers, for three little measures and a halfe of 
oates, foureteene creitzers, for stable three creitzers, and 
foure for dregs of wine to wash my horses feet. The 
fifth day in the morning we rode two miles in like way 
to a village, where I paid nine creitzers for my dinner, 
and foure for my horse meat. After dinner we rode in 
the like way, and over mountaines covered with snow, 
three miles and a half'e, to a village, not farre from which, 
Charles of Gratz, Arch-duke of Austria, (uncle by the 
Father side to the Emperour Rodulphus, and Father to 
the Q.geene of Poland, lately maried to King Sigismond,) 
was of late buried in a Monastery neere Knettelfeld. In 
this village I paid fourteene creitzers for my supper, and 
twelve for my horse-meat. The sixth day in the morning 
we rode one mile in like way, to Judenburg, that is, the Judenburg. 
City of the Jewes, and I paid foureteene creitzers for 
breakef'ast. Then we rode five miles in a stony way, 
through high mountaines, to Newen-markt, and I paid 
eighteene creitzers for my supper, and fifteene for my 
horse-meat. In this Countrey of Styria, many men and 
weomen have great wens hanging downe their throats, 
by drinking the waters that run through the mines of 
mettals. 
The seventh day in the morning we rode two miles 
to the confines of Styria, and entring Carinthia, passed Carnthia. 
by the City Freysacke, in which was a faire and strong 
Castle, seated upon a high mountaine, and so wee passed 
one mile further to a village, all our way having beene 
very troublesome, by reason of the stony mountaines, 
and narrow passages, we having a coach in our company. 
x43 



tAt'oats. 
[I. i. 68. 3 

4 Bishop 
illtd by 
Boleslaus 
King of 
Poland. 

Villake. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Heere I paied twenty foure creitzers for my dinner, and 
fourteene for my horse-meat. After dinner wee rode two 
miles in a plaine compassed with mountaines, to Sternfield ; 
where I paied ninteene creitzers for my supper, and 
sixteene for my horse-meat. The eight day in the 
morning we rode one mile, through a fruitfull plaine of 
corne, to a pleasant City, Saint Voyte. As in Styria, so 
here in Carinthia, the men and women have great wens 
upon their throats, with drinking the waters that passe 
the Mines. Heere I paied for my dinner and supper 
forty eight creitzers, and twenty foure for my horse-meat, 
for we staid here to rest our horses, and every day we 
tooke shorter journies, because wee had a Coach in our 
company, which could hardly passe the streights and stony 
waies of the Alpes, and in no other part of the Alpes, 
they use at any time to passe with Coaches, but here very 
seldome, in respect of the ill way. The ninth day we 
rode three miles, through a fruitful plaine of corne, to 
Feldkirken, where I paid nine creitzers for my dinner, 
and foure for my horse-meat. After dinner we rode about 
two miles, by the side of a lake on our left hand towards 
the South, beyond which lake Boleslaus King of Poland 
lies buried in a Monastery, who having killed a Bishop, 
warning him to amend his life, did upon his owne free 
will doe penance there, taking the habit of a Monke, and 
serving in the same Cloyster, as a lay brother to warme 
stoves: but the Polackes say, that the body of the dead 
Bishop did many miracles, whereupon with great expence 
of treasure, they of late obtained at Rome, to have him 
made a Saint. And so we came to a village where 1 
paid twenty creitzers for my supper, thirteene for my 
horse-meat, and eight for drinke after supper. The tenth 
day in the morning we rode about a mile, through high 
and rocky mountaines, to the City Villake, by which the 
River Draw runneth, and here I omitted my expences. 
After dinner we rode three miles, through high and rocky 
mountaines, and a narrow way; and our Coachman by 
the way shewed us uppon the left hand towards the South, 

I44 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

a benevolence of us, which we willingly gave, and our 
.companions paid foure Venetian lires for the foure horses 
jn their Coach, but wee that were horsemen paid no 
tribute. Here we had another passe-port to be shewed 
at Venzona. I paid at Pontena thirty sols of Venice for 
my supper, thirty five for oates, and ten for hey. 
And give me leave to remember, that I having for the 
cold at Dantzke, in the beginning of September, put on 
a woollen wasecoat, was forced now at the entring of 
Great heat in Italy, for great heat in the end of October, to put off 
october, the same. 
The twelfth day in the morning wee rode foure miles 
(meaning Dutch miles, though wee be now entered into 
Italy, because my Dutch companions so reckoned them.) 
[I. i. 69. ] We now had entred the Italian Province Frioly, which 
the Latines call Forum Julii; because the Legions used 
to be sent from hence over the Alpes, & the Venetians 
call Patria, that is country; because the Venetians fled 
from hence, into the Lakes of Venice, when Attila King 
of the Hurts invaded Italy, by this name acknowledging 
it to be their country, from whence they originally came. 
Aquilegia the seat of the Patriarkes, destroyed by Attila, 
was of old famous; but the Venetians by the Popes 
favour, have drawne the Patriarkes seat to Venice. By 
The River the way wee passed seven branches of the River 
Tagliamonti. Tagliamonti on horse-backe without boats, the streame 
being so violent by the waters falling from the mountaines, 
that it dazels the eyes, if the passenger looke upon the 
water; for which cause wee passed warily, turning our 
eyes from the water, and having guides passing before 
us, to try and shew us the Fordes. By the way upon a 
bridge, this was written in Latine: 
For the carrying over of Dutch merchandize, by 
the streames of Ledra, S. S. President of the 
Province, speedily built this Bridge. 
So wee came through a plaine somewhat wilde, or lesse 
fruitfull, to Spilenburg; where I paied twenty one sols 
146 



FROM VIENNA TO PADUA 

for my dinner, eight for oats, and foure for hay. After 
dinner we rode two Dutch miles, through wild stony 
fields, to Sanvocate, where I paid thirty sols for my supper, 
thirty two for oats, and ten for hay. The thirteenth day 
in the morning, we rode three Dutch, or fourteen Italian 
miles; through wilde grounds, and stony fields of corne, 
and neere our journies end, by many Orchardes and Vine- 
yards, to Konian, where I omitted my expence. By the 
way wee met a Gentleman, in his coach drawne with oxen. 
After dinner wee rode two Dutch, or eight Italian miles, 
and in a wilde field, passed two branches of a river by 
a boat, in which we sate on horse-backe; and we paied 
sixteene sols for our passage, and thence wee came to a 
village, where I paied forty sols for my supper, twenty 
three for oats, and ten for hay. And comming hither on 
All-soules evening, which they keepe with great super- 
stition, wee could not sleepe for little bels tinckling all 
night. The fourteenth day in the morning, we rode six 
Italian miles, through fruitfull hils of corne, and by 
pleasant Vineyards, to Trevigi, a City little in circuit, 
but fortified, and built of bricke, with arches hanging 
over the streets, under which men walke dry in the greatest 
raine, where I have omitted my expences. 
After breakefast we rode twenty two Italian miles, 
through a most pleasant plain, in which we passed over 
a river, and came to Paduoa. Here I sold my horse for 
twenty silver crownes, which I bought at Crakaw for 
eighteene guldens; and by the way, I might have sold 
him for twenty six crownes or more, and from the place 
where I sold him, might easily have hired a coach or 
horses to Paduoa, but my foolish hope to sell him deerer, 
and desire to save the charge of hiring a coach, or horse, 
kept me from selling him by the way, whereof I repented 
when I came to Paduoa, where horse-meat was very deere, 
and the horse-coarsers finding that I must needs sell him, 
agreed among themselves, so craftily, sending mee every 
day new buyers, to offer mee lesse then before they had 
offered, as when I had kept him fourteene dayes, I must 
I47 

I593. 

Sanvocate. 

Beh tinckling 
on lllqouh 
evening. 

Crafty horse- 
coarsers. 



Charges for 
Students at 
Paduoa. 

[I. i. 70.] 

Strangers 
spend more in 
Venice than in 
Paduoa. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

have beene forced to sell my horse at their price, if I 
had not found an English Gentleman by chance, who 
returning into Germany, gave mee twenty crownes for 
my horse. I staied all this winter at Paduoa, in which 
famous University I desired to perfect my Italian tongue, 
where a Student may have his table at an Ordinary 
(vulgarly a la dozena) and his chamber for eight, or at 
most, for tenne silver crownes the month: but few live 
after this fashion, save the Dutch, and strangers new 
arrived, and having not yet got the language; but rather 
they hire a chamber, which is to be had for a zechine, or 
tenne lires the month, or at a lower rate, the Hostesse 
being to finde linnen, and dresse the meat you buy. My 
Hoste had a large house, with a faire court, hired yeerly 
for forty crownes, and with him, my selfe and some Dutch 
men lodged, each having his chamber and plentifull diet, 
for eight silver crownes the month. 
When I went to Venice, I lodged with an Hostesse, an 
old widow, which had a house like a Pallace ; for which, 
he paied two hundred crownes yeerely, and there I paied 
for a chamber foure silver crownes by the month, every 
man there buying meat at his pleasure, which the Hostesse 
dresseth ; and findes linnen. 
But that the price of things may better appeare, it will 
not be amisse particularly to set some prices downe for 
both Cities; for howsoever strangers spend more in 
Venice, then in Paduoa ; yet that is not by reason of diet, 
but for the greater price of chambers, and extraordinary 
inticements to spend. The prices I will briefly set downe, 
in some few particulars, because in the due place treating 
of diet, I am to speake more largely thereof. It is the 
fashion of Italy, that onely men, and the Masters of the 
family, goe into the market and buy victuals, for servants 
are never sent to that purpose, much lesse weomen, which 
if the.y be chast, rather are locked up at home, as it were 
in prison. Againe, the small coines of brasse, are very 
helpefull to the poore, all victuals being sold in small 
portions, according to the smallest money, yea, the very 
148 



COMMENTS UPON PADUA 

spices, which in the shoppes are put up in papers, ready 
beaten, according to greater or the very least coynes. The 
Italians are sparing in diet, but particularly at Paduoa, 
the markets abound rather with variety, then quantities 
of meat. Some hundreds of turkies hang out to be sold, 
for six or seven lires each, according to the goodnes. And 
this territory yeelding better corn then other parts, they 
have very white bread, light, & pleasant in tast, especially 
that which is called Pan-buffetto. I remember I bought 
a pound of mutton for five sols and a halle, of veale for 
eight, of porke for eight, a fat hen for two lires, eight 
little birds for six sols, a great and fat pigeon for two 
lires, a pullet for thirty five, and sometime forty sols, an 
Eeele after ten sols the pound, krevises the pound three, 
and sometimes six sols, a pike the pound seven or eight 
sols, round cockles the hundred three sols, the longe, which 
we call rasers, the hundreth twenty sols, the skalops which 
they call holy cockels, twelve for a lire, Cheverns the 
pound foure sols, a plaise sixe sols, tenches the pound 
eight sols, sawsages the pound ten sols, sixe egges eight 
sols, butter the pound fourteene sols, piacentine cheese 
the pound six sols, and parmesan the pound ten or twelve 
sols, a measure of salt for the table foure sols, rice the 
pound three sols, ten snailes foure sols, apples the pound 
two sols, peares & wardens the pound foure sols, chesnuts 
the pound three sols, dry grapes the pound two sols, 
sometimes three; almonds the pound five sols, six orenges 
for one gaget, a pomegranat one sol, oyle the pound ten 
sols, a secchio of wine thirty five sols, or the pound thereof 
eight sols, waxe candles the ounce two sols, and ten small 
waxe candles twenty two sols, other candles the pound 
sixteene sols, or foureteene if they be little, a quire of 
.writing paper five sols. The Hostesse dresseth your meat 
in the bargaine for your chamber, and findes you napkins, 
tableclothes, sheetes, and towels; and either in your chest 
or her owne, will lay up the meat, and very bread you 
leave, more providently then any of our parts would 
require; and little boyes attend in the market places with 
I49 

Price, of 
victuals in 
Paduoa. 

The ttostesse 
ery 
provident. 



b. /Inenor. 

Paduoa spoiled 
by the Hunnes. 

[I. i. 7*-] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

baskets, who for a soll will carry home the meat you buy ; 
and dare not deceive you though you goe not with them. 
I paid to my taylor for making a cloake foure lires, and 
for my doublet and hose eight lires; to my laundresse 
for making a shirt a lire, that is, twenty sols; for washing 
it two sols; and for washing foure handkerchers one sol. 
And this shall suffice for particular expences. 
The City Paduoa, was built by Anterior a Trojan, and 
the Heneti driven out of their Countrey, joined them- 
selves to these Trojans. These with joint force drove 
out the Euganei from the fertile Euganean hils neere 
Paduoa, where Hercules left them, and these Heneti gave 
to their posterity the name of Venetians, to whom the 
Colonies of Tuscany joined themselves, then the French 
subdued all this Province, till at last they subjected them- 
selves to the Romans, and were made Citizens of Rome. 
The Roman Empire declining, the Visigothes under 
Alaricus drove the chiefe Citizens of Paduoa, into the 
lakes of Venice. Then Attila King of the Hunnes spoiled 
Paduoa, and the Longobards burnt it, which being rebuilt, 
and flourishing under the German Emperors, Acciolinus 
usurped the governement thereof, in the yeere 1237. 
But Pope Alexander the fourth helped by the Venetians, 
restored it to liberty in the yeere I2a 7. In the faction 
of the Guelphes & Gibellines, Paduoa then & from that 
time hath bin subject to many Princes of the Scaligers, 
& Cararrians, til about the yeere 14o. the Venetians 
tooke the City, which they held to the yeere I aO 9. when 
the French King Lewis made them yeeld to the Emperour ; 
but the Venetians after two moneths recovered it, and 
to this day it is subject to them, who send a Magistrate 
called Podesta, every fifteene moneths to governe it. 
Some say Paduoa was first called Antenoria (as the Heneti 
gave the name of Venice to the Countrey) till after 
Anteriors death, the Heneti called it Paduoa, of a City 
in their Countrey whence they were driven. Others say 
it hath the name from a Greeke word, upon the flying 
of Swannes: others say it is so called of the river Po, 

x5 o 



the Rivers. 

Five market 
places. 

St..4nthony's 
Chappdl. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Paduoa, the greater takes the name Bachilio, and neere 
to the wals of Paduoa, receives the waters of Brentella, 
increased with a branch of Brenta. These Rivers enter 
the City, and with divers channels drive many mils, 
compasse the wals, and not onely make the fields fertile, 
but serve to carry all commodities (abounding here) from 
hence to Venice, and to bring from thence such things 
as they want, and besides doe cleanse all filth of the stables 
and privies. 
The aire at Paduoa is very healthfull, and the building 
is with arches of stone, .hanging over the streets, under 
which they walke dry in the greatest raine; but the 
streetes are thereby made narrow, and in the middest 
are dirty. There be five market places: in the first the 
Gentlemen and Students meet and walke: in the second 
herbes are sold, in the third corne: in the fourth wood, 
and in the fifth straw. The aforesaid monastery of Saint 
Anthony, is inhabited by Franciscan Friars, and is much 
fairer then any other religious house ; the Church whereof 
was of old dedicated to Juno, and after to the Virgin 
Mary; and at last to Saint Anthony. The pavement 
thereof is of marble, and the building very stately, having 
in the top seven globes covered with lead, and three high 
towers. The Chappell wherein St. Anthony lies, is all 
of marble, & round about it the miracles are engraven, 
which they attribute to this Saint: at whose feast day 
they use to present for great gifts the hallowed girdles 
of this St., which they tie about their loyns, and attribute 
strange effects thereunto. Here is a statua of marble, 
erected to Peter Bembus; and in the large yard there 
is a horse-mans statua of brasse, which the Senate of 
Venice erected to Gatta Melata. In the Church of 
Franciscan Minorites, there is a statua erected to Roccha 
Benello, a Physitian, sitting in his chaire. In the aforesaid 
monastery of Saint Justina, the order of Saint Benedict 
was first established, and from thence dispersed into Italy, 
and the Church thereof was of old dedicated to Concord, 
and after being made the Bishops Church, was endowed 



COMMENTS UPON PADUA 
I593- 
with great rents. These Monkes have a blacke habit, [I. i. 72.] 
and in the Church they shew the reliques of the Martyr Rdiques of 
Saint Justina, of Saint Prosdosimus a Greeke, (who is Saint Justina. 
said to have beene Saint Peters Disciple, and to have 
converted Paduoa, and to have baptised Saint Justina, 
when shee suffered Martyrdome) and likewise of Saint 
Maximus (both Bishops, and protecting Saints of the 
City,) as also of Saint Luke the Evangelist, brought by 
Urius a Monke from Constantinople; but the Venetians 
say the reliques of Saint Luke are with them. Biondus 
writeth, that here was a Church dedicated to Jupiter, and 
the sepulcher of Titus Livius. In the first court yard 
of this Monastery, the incredible miracles of Saint 
Benedict are painted. In the second I found this 
Epitaph : 

Adolescens tametsi properas, 
Hoc te saxum rogat ut se aspicias; 
Deinde quod scripture est legas. 
Hic sunt Poetre Pacuvii sita ossa: 
Hoc volebam nessius ne esses: vale. 
Do M. 

Young man tho thou hastest 
This stone desires thee to behold it; 
Then to read that is written. 
Here are laid the bones of the Poet Pacuvius, 
This I would have thee know: Farewell. 
Do M. 

A large and pleasant meadow lies before this Monastery. Monasterie 
There is another of the Benedictines in this City, but inPaduoa. 
those Friers weare a white habit, & live with more severe 
rules. In the Monastery of Saint Augustines Hermits, 
before named, are the sepulchers of the Princes of the 
family Carraria. The Cathedrall Church was of old 
Magnificall, and to this day hath twelve Churches under 
it within the City. The Marble chest containing 
Antenors bones, being found when the foundation of the 



EpitaA on 
Anterior. 

TAe Trojan 
horse of wood. 

[I. i. 73-] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Alines-house was digged, was then brought to the Church 
of Saint Laurence; wherein was found a guilded sword, 
and Latine verses in a barbarous stile, shewing that the 
Letter A, should be fatall to the City; which they say 
to have proved true by Attila, Agilulfus, Acciolanus, 
Ansedissus and Albertus: under whom the City was 
much afflicted. This chest is erected upon Marble pillers 
at the doore of the Church, and upon the wall these verses 
are written in Latine: 
Inclitus Antenor post diruta mcenia Troia, 
Transtulit huc Henetum Dardanidumue fugas, 
Expulit Euganeos, Patavinam condidit trbem, 
Qem tenet hac humili marmore casa Domus. 
Famous Antenor, Troyes walles pulled downe, 
Henets and Dardans remnant here did traine; 
Expeld th' Euganeans, built faire Paduoa Towne, 
Whom this low Marble house doth here containe. 

Another Epitaph of the same Antenor, seemes lately 
written by the very name of the City, and savoureth a 
Transalpine wit, giving small credit to Livy, or their 
fabulous Antiquities : 
Hic jacet Antenor Paduana conditor urbis, 
Proditor ipse fuit hique sequuntur eum. 
Antenor Padoaes founder lieth heere, 
He was a Traytor, these him follow neere. 

The Monument of the Trojan horse of wood, is kept 
in the Pallace of the Capilist family, whereupon they are 
called the Capilists of the horse. There bee eighteene 
Cloysters of Nunnes in the City, and two of repenting 
or illuminate women, so they call whores entring Cloysters. 
About the middest of the City is a faire Pallace, where 
the Venetian Podesta or governour dwels, the gallery 
whereof (in which hee sitteth to judge causes) is very 
large, and hath a high arched roofe hanging by Art, not 
I54 



COMMENTS UPON PADUA 

sustained by any pillers, and the same is covered with 
lead, and adorned with many pictures of the famous 
Painter Zoto, and the length thereof is one hundred forty 
walking paces, the breadth forty three paces. There is 
the Statua of Julius Paulus, Doctor of Civill Law, and 
of Peter Aponensis, or, d'Abano, and of Titus Livius, 
and of Albertus the Hermitan, placed over the foure 
dores. At the West end of this gallery, is a Monument 
of Titus Livius the Historian carved within the wall, and 
these verses are written upon the wall in Latine: 
Ossa tuumque caput, cives tibi maxime Livi, 
Prompto animo hic omnes composuere tui: 
Tu famam eternam Rome, patrieque dedisti, 
Huic oriens, illi fortia facta canens. 
At tibi dat Patria hec: & si majora liceret, 
Hoc totus stares aureus ipse loco. 
Greatest Livy, thy countrey men have laid, 
Thy head and bones here with a ready minde : 
Thy Countrey, and Rome thou hast famous made, 
Here borne, while their greatest acts thou hast refinde : 
Thy Countrey gives thee this, if more it might, 
Here all in gold thou shouldst stand shining bright. 
This Titus Livius died in the fourth yeere of the 
Empire of Tiberius Cesar, and in the sixty six yeere of 
his age. Not farre from this Monument stands a brazen 
Image of the same Livy, with this inscription in Latine : 
The bones of Titus Livy of Paduoa, by all mortall 
mens consent worthy, by whose penne truely invincible, 
the Acts of the invincible Roman people should be 
written. 
Besides, they shew in the City Titus Livius his house. 
And this Monument, or these bones of him were brought 
thither from the Monastery of Saint Justina. The Court 
where the Senate meetes, lieth neere to the said gallery 
of this Pallace; where there is a stone, which they call 
the stone of Turpitude, (that is, filthines or disgrace :) 



I593. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

whereupon debtors, which disclaim the having of goods 
to pay their debts, do sit with their hinder parts bare; 
that with this note of disgrace, others may be terrified 
from borrowing more then they can pay. They have a 
Pest-house called Lazaretto, & two like houses for Lepers, 
and one Alines-house for the poore strangers, another 
for Orphanes, and a third for children cast out, or left 
in the streets. Neere the Church of Saint Lucia, there 
The Divds is a Well, called the Divels Well; which they say was 
Well. brought into the street by Art Magick, out of the court- 
yard of a Gentleman, denying water to his neighbours. 
This City hath little trafficke, though it lies very fit for 
the same, because the Venetians draw it all to themselves. 
But Gentlemen of all Nations come thither in great 
Tefa,nous numbers, by reason of the famous University, which the 
University. Emperour Frederick the second, being offended with the 
City of Bologna, planted here in the yeere i222, or there 
abouts, some comming to study the civill Law, other the 
Mathemetickes, & Musick, others to ride, to practise the 
Art of Fencing, and the exercises of dancing and activity, 
under most skilful professors of those Arts, drawn hither 
by the same reason. And Students have here great, if 
not too great liberty & priviledges, so as men-slaiers are 
only punished with banishment, which is a great mischiefe, 
and makes strangers live there in great jealousie of treason 
to be practised against their lives. The Schoole where 
the professors of liberall Sciences teach, is seated over 
against Saint Martins Church, and was of old a publike 
Inne, having the signe of an Oxe, which name it still 
retaineth. The promotion of degrees is taken in the 
Bishops hall, neere the Cathedrall Church, and the Doctors 
are made in the chiefe Church. And there bee eight 
Colledges built for poore Students of severall Provinces. 
The Athestine family of the Dukes of Ferrara, and 
[I. i. 74.] the Honorian family, of the tyrant Acciolinus, and the 
Carrarian family of their owne Princes, had their beginning 
in this City, as they write. And they doe no lesse 
triumph of divers Citizens borne heere, namely Marsilius, 
i56 



Certificatet af 
Health. 

4n.  594. 

THE SECOND BOOKE. 

Of 

Chap. I. 
my journey from Paduoa, to Venice, to 
Ferraria, to Bologna, to Ravenna, and by the 
shore of the Adriaticke Sea, to Ancona : then 
crossing the breadth of Italy, to Rome, seated 
not farre from the Tirrhene Sea. 
Hosoever comes into Italy, and from 
whence soever; but more especially if 
he come from suspected places, as Con- 
stantinople, never free from the plague; 
hee must bring to the Confines a certificate 
of his health, and in time of any plague, 

hee must bring the like to any City within 
land, where he is to passe, which certificates brought from 
place to place, and necessary to bee carried, they curiously 
observe and read. This paper is vulgarly called Bolletino 
della sanita; and if any man want it, bee is shut up in 
the Lazareto, or Pest-house forty dayes, till it appeare 
he is healthfull, and this they call vulgarly far' la 
quarantana. Neither will the Officers of health in any 
case dispence with him, but there hee shall have con- 
venient lodging, and diet at his pleasure. 
In the spring of the yeere,  594, (the Italians beginning 
the yeere the first of January) I began my journey to 
see Italy, and taking boat at the East gate of Paduoa, 
the same was drawne by horses along the River Brenta; 
5 8 



1594. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

passengers often smiled, seeing the girle not oneIy crosse 
her selfe for feare, but thrust her crucifix towards the 
old womans eyes. I said formerly that two Rivers 
Medoaci, runne through Paduoa, and that the greater 
by the name of Brenta, running to the village Lizzafusina, 
is stopped with a damme, lest it should mingle it selfe 
with the salt marshes of Venice, and that also the lesser 
Te River River by the name of Bachilio, passeth through Paduoa. 
Bacilio. This lesser streame runneth thence into the ditch Clodia, 
and going out of it makes a haven, called de Chiozza, 
which lieth in the way from Venice to Farraria, and there 
it divideth it selfe into two streames; and entring the 
salt marshes, makes the haven of Venice, called Mala- 
mocco. Besides other Rivers falling from the Alpes, 
through Frioli, do increase these marshes, which are salt 
by the tides of the sea, though the same doth very little 
ebbe or flow in this Mediterranean, or Inland sea. And 
this haven Malamocco is very large and deep, and is 
defended with a banke from the waves of the Adriatique 
sea. 

The Description of Venice. 
Upon the West side of Venice beyond the marshes, 
lies the Territory of Paduoa. On the North side beyond 
the marshes, lies the Province Frioli. On the South side 
[I. ii. 76.] beyond the marshes, lies partly the firme land of Italy, 
and partly the Adriatique sea; On the East side beyond 
the marshes lies the Adriatique sea, and the City consisteth 
all of Iles, compassed round about with the saide marshes. 
A The great channell. 
B The market place of Saint Marke, seated in the 
first Sextary of Saint Marke. 
C The Cathedrall Church of Saint Peter, the seate of 
the Patriarkes, seated in the second Sextary, called Castelli 
Olivolo. 
D The third Sextary on this side the channell, called 
di Canarigio. 
E The Church of Saint James lies neere the bridge 
i6o 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE A.D. 
594- 
joyned in one, and at this day is vulgarly called Venegia. 
That the City was first called Rialto, appeares by old T,e City 
records of Notaries, written in these wordes: After the fl,.a called 
Rialto. 
use of Venice. In the name of eternal1 God, amen: 
subscribed in such a yeere of Rivoalto, and in these 
wordes after the use of the Empire; In the name of 
Christ, amen: subscribed, dated at Venice. This stately 
City built in the bottome of the gulfe of the Adriatiqu.e 
sea; in the midst of marshes upon many Ilands, Is 
defended on the East side against the sea, by a banke 
of earth, which hath five (or some say seven) mouths or 
passages into the sea; and is vulgarly called Il Lido: 
and being so placed by nature, not made by Art, bendeth 
like a bowe, and reacheth thirty five miles; and by the 
aforesaid passages, the ships and the tides of the sea 
goe in and out, and the deepe marshes whereof I have 
spoken, are made of these salt waters, and of divers fresh 
waters falling from the Alpes, and vulgarly called, il 
Tagliamonti La livenza, la praac, la Brenta, I1 Po, 1' 
Adice, and il Bacchiglione. On the West side, the City re, ice corn- 
is compassed with marshes, and after five miles with the passed u, itA 
Territory of Paduoa. On the North side with marshes, raarses. 
and beyond them partly with the Province Frioli, partly 
with the aforesaid sea banke. And upon the South side 
with many Ilands, wherein are many 'Churches and 
Monasteries, like so many Forts, and beyond them with 
the firme land of Italy. The City is eight miles in circuit, 
and hath seventy parishes, wherein each Church hath a 
little market place, for the most part foure square, and 
a publike Well. For the common sort use well water, 
and raine water kept in cesternes; but the Gentlemen 
fetch their water by boat from the land. It hath thirty 
one cloysters of Monkes, and twenty eight of Nunnes, 
besides chappels and alines-houses. Channels of water 
passe through this City (consisting of many Ilands joy.ned 
with Bridges) as the bloud passeth through the velnes 
of roans body; so that a man may passe to what place 
he will both by land and water. The great channell is 
t6 3 



I594. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

in length about one thousand three hundred paces, and 
in breadth forty paces, and hath onely one bridge called 
Rialto, and the passage is very pleasant by this channell; 
being adorned on both sides with stately Pallaces. And 
that men may passe speedily, besides this bridge, there 
Boat cMlea be thirteene places called Traghetti, where boats attend 
Gondole. called Gondole; which being of incredible number give 
ready passage to all men. The rest of the channels 
running through lesse streets, are more narrow, and in 
them many bridges are to be passed under. The afore- 
said boats are very neat, and covered all save the ends 
with black cloth, so as the passengers may goe unseene 
and unknowne, and not bee annoyed at all with the sunne, 
winde, or raine. And these boats are ready at call any 
minute of the day or night. _And if a stranger know 
not the way, hee shall not need to aske it, for if hee will 
follow the presse of people, hee shall be sure to bee 
brought to the market place of Saint Marke, or that of 
Rialto; the streets being very narrow (which they pave 
with bricke,) and besides if bee onely know his Hosts 
name, taking a boat, he shall be safely brought thither 
at any time of the night. Almost all the houses 
have two gates, one towards the street, the other 
towards the water; or at least the bankes of the 
channels are so neere, as the passage by water is as 
easie as by land. The publike boats, with the private 
of Gentlemen and Citizens, are some eight hundred, or 
as others say, a thousand. Though the floud or ebbe 
of the salt water bee small, yet with that motion it 
carrieth away the filth of the City, besides that, by the 
multitude of tiers, and the situation open to all windes, 
The ayre e'ery the ayre is made very wholsome, whereof the Venetians 
wholsome, bragge, that it agrees with all strangers complexions, by 
a secret vertue, whether they be brought up in a good 
or ill ayre, and preserveth them in their former health. 
[I. ii. 78.] And though I dare not say that the Venetians live long, 
yet except they sooner grow old, and rather seeme then 
truly be aged: I never in any place observed more old 
i64 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

men, or so many Senators venerable for their grey haires 
and aged gravity. To conclude, the situation of Venice 
is such, as the Citizens abound with all commodities of 
sea and land; and are not onely most safe from their 
enemies on the land, being severed from it by waters, 
and on the sea being hedged in with a strong sea banke, 
but also give joyfull rest under their power to their 
subje.cts on land, though exposed to the assault of their 
enemies. 
The City parted in the middest with the great channell, 
comming in from the sea banke neere the two Castles, 
is of old divided into six sextaries, or six parts, vulgarly 
Sestieri ; three on this side the channell, and three beyond 
the channell. The first sextary on this side the channell, 
is that of Saint Marke; for howsoever it be not the 
Cathedrall Church, yet it is preferred before the rest, as 
well because the Duke resides there, as especially because 
Saint Marke is the protecting Saint of that City. The 
body of which Saint being brought hither by Merchants 
from Alexandria : this Church was built in the yeere 829. 
at the charge of the Duke Justinian, who dying, gave 
by his last will great treasure to that use, and charged 
his brother to finish the building, which was laid upon 
the ruines of Saint Theodores Church, who formerly had 
beene the protecting Saint of the City. And the same 
being consumed with fire in the yeere 976. it was more 
stately rebuilt, according to the narrownes of the place, 
the Merchants being charged to bring from all places any 
precious thing they could find fit to adorne the same, 
whatsoever it cost. The length of the Church containeth 
two hundred foot of Venice, the bredth fifty, the circuit 
95o. The building is become admirable, for the singular 
art of the builders and painters, and the most rare peeces 
of Marble, Porphry, Ophites (stones so called of speckles 
like a serpent) and like stones; and they cease not still 
to build it, as if it were unfinished, lest the revenues given 
by the last wils of dead men to that use, should returne 
to their heires (as the common report goes.) There were 
65 

Aolo 
x594. 

The City 
divided into 
Six parts. 

The Church 
of Saint 
Markc. 



The Eraperaur 
Fredericke 
Barbarosa't 
ubmiion. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

staires of old to mount out of the market place into the 
Church, till the waters of the channell increasing, they 
were forced to raise the height of the market place. On 
the side towards the market place are five doores of brasse, 
whereof that in the middest is fairest, and the same, with 
one more, are daily opened, the other three being shut, 
excepting the dayes of Feasts. Upon the ground neere 
the great doore, is a stone, painted as if it were engraven : 
which painting is vulgarly called, A la Mosaica, and upon 
this stone Pope Alexander set his foot upon the necke of 
the Emperour Fredericke Barbarossa, adoring him after 
his submission. The outward part of the Church is 
adorned with 48. pillars of marble, whereof some are 
Ophytes, that is speckled, and eight of them are Porphry 
neere the great doore, which are highly esteemed. And 
in all places about the Church, there be some six hundred 
pillars of marble, besides some three hundred in the caves 
under ground. Above these pillars on the outside of the 
Church is an open gallery, borne up with like pillars, from 
whence the Yenetians at times of Feasts, behold any 
shewes in the market place. And above this gallery, and 
over the great doore of the Church, be foure horses of 
brasse, guilded over, very notable for antiquity and 
beauty ; and they are so set, as if at the first step they 
would leape into the market place. They are said to be 
made to the similitude of the Horses of Phoebus, drawing 
the Chariot of the Sunne, and to have beene put upon 
the triumphall Arke of Nero, by the people of Rome, 
when he had overcome the Parthians. But others say 
that they were given to Nero by Tiridates the King of 
Armenia, and were made by the hands of the famous 
engraver Lisippus. These Horses Constantine removed 
from Rome to Constantinople, and that City being sacked, 
the Venetians brought them to Venice, but they tooke 
of the bridles, for a signe that their City had never beene 
conquered, but enjoied Virgin liberty. And all the parts 
of these horses being most like the one to the other, yet 
by strange art, both in posture of motion, and otherwise, 
x66 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

foresaid chest) and part of the haire of the blessed Virgin, 
and a peece of a finger of the Evangelist Luke, and a 
peece of a ribbe of Saint Peter, with many like, which 
they shew to the people to be adored certaine daies in 
the yeere. Above the Altar of Saint Clement, these 
verses are written, which shew how they worshipped 
Images in a more modest though superstitious age. 
Nam Deus est quod Imago docet, sed non Deus ipse 
Hanc videas, sed mente colas quod cernis in ipsa: 
That which the Image shewes, is God, it selfe is none, 
See this, but God heere seene, in mind adore alone. 

I594- 

Likewise these verses of the same Author, be in another 
place. 
Effigiem Christi qui transis, pronus honora, 
Non tamen effigiem sed quod designat adora. 
Esse deum ratione caret, cui contulit esse 
Materiale lapis, sicut & manus effigiale. 
Nec Deus est nec homo, presens quam cernis Imago, 
Sed Deus est & homo, quem sacra signat Imago. 
As thou Christs Image passest, fall the same before, 
Yet what this Image signifies, not it adore. 
No reason that it should be God, whose essence stands 
Materiall of stone, formall of workemens hands. 
This Image which thou seest, is neither God nor Man, 
But whom it represents, he is both God and Man. 

[I. ii. 80.] 

At the entry of the Chancell, is the throne of the 
Dukes, made of walnut-tree, all carved above the head, 
and when the Dukes sit there, it was wont to be covered 
with carnation satten, but now it is covered with cloth 
of gold, given by the King of Persia. There be two 
stately pulpits of marble, with Histories carved in brasse, 
where they sing the Epistles and Gospels. On the left 
hand by the Altar of Saint James is a place, where (if a 
man may beleeve it) the body of Saint Marke, by a crevice 
69 

the Duke. 



594- 
Gro$$ 
serstition. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

suddenly breaking through the marble stone, appeared 
in the yeere zo94. to certaine Priests who had fasted 
and praied to find the same, the memory of the place 
where it was laied at the building of the Church about 
829. being utterly lost. I beleeve that the memory 
thereof was lost about the yeere 829. when superstition 
was not yet ripe, but that it was found in the yeere z o94. 
that age being infected with grosse superstition, let him 
that list beleeve. They themselves seeme to distrust this 
miracle, while they confesse that the same body was most 
secretly laid under the great Altar, and never since shewed 
to any man, but once or twice, and that after a suspicious 
manner. To the foresaid pulpits another is opposite, 
where the Musitians sing at solemne Feasts, and from 
whence the Dukes newly created, are shewed to the people, 
and likewise the holy relikes (as they tearme them) are 
shewed twice in the yeere. The wals in the Church are 
so covered with the best marbles, as the lime and bricke 
cannot be seene: and these peeces of marble with their 
spots and brightnes, are very beautifull, whereof two 
are held for admirable Monuments, which are so joined, 
as they lively represent the Image of a man. Here 
Marino Morosini first of all the Dukes hung his Armes 
uppon the wals, whom the other Dukes after him in number 
forty three have followed, and there hung up their Armes. 
In the middest of the Church hangs a banner, given by 
the Citizens of Verona, in token of subjection, and two 
others for the same purpose given by the Citizens of 
Crema and Cremona. The Marble pillars set in Caves 
under the Church, beare up the pavement, which is made 
of peeces of the best marble, carved and wrought with 
little stones of checker worke very curiously, especially 
under the middle globe of the roofe, and neere the great 
doore. And among the rare stones opposite to the singers 
pulpit, they shew one of such naturall spots, as it is 
esteemed a Jewel1, which by change of colour (they say) 
doth shew the change of weather. Moreover they shew 
certaine Images, carved by the direction of the Abbot 



Jacob's Stone. 

The Rocke 
struck by 
Moe. 

Te chiefe 
Priest. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the yeere  o 3. I saw a saphyre of extraordinary bignes, 
and a Diamond which the French King Henry the third 
gave to this state, when he returned that way from Poland ; 
and two whole Unicornes hornes, each more then foure 
foot long, and a third shorter, and a little dish of a huge 
price, with innumerable vessels, which for price, rarenes, 
and workemanship, are highly valued. They say that a 
Candian thiefe tooke away this treasure, which is kept 
with many doores and barres of iron, but that he restored 
it, being betraied by his fellow. 
In a Chappell of this Church, is a Font of brasse, with 
a brasen image of Saint John baptizing, and the Altar 
thereof is of a stone brought out of Asia, upon which 
they say Christ did sit, when he preached at Tyrus: but 
others say it is the stone upon which the Patriarke Jacob 
did sleepe. They shew there the chaire of the blessed 
Virgin, of stone, and two peeces of marble spotted with 
the blood of John Baptist, and the marble sepulcher of 
Duke Andrea Dandoli. In the Chappell of the Cardinall 
Zeno, they shew the Rocke strucke by Moses, and 
distilling water, and two precious peeces of porphery. 
In the upper Vestry they shew the picture of the V. irgin, 
painted by Saint Lukes hand, and the ring of Saint Marke, 
and his Gospell written with his owne hand, and a peece 
of the Crosse of Christ, and of the Pillar to which he 
was tied, and Bookes covered with massy silver, and 
candlestickes, chalice, and many vessels of silver guilded, 
all set with little precious stones, and the Bishops Miter 
of great price, and many rich vestures for the Priests. 
The chiefe Priest of this Church must be a gentleman 
of Venice, and though hee be no Bishop, yet the Popes 
have given him great priviledges, and he is to be chosen 
by the Duke; because the Dukes built this Church, 
whereupon it is ever since called the Dukes Chappell. 
This Church of Saint Marke, is not unworthily called 
the golden Church, for the rich ornaments thereof, 
especially for the Images thereof, painted a la mosaica, 
like a worke engraven. For the workemen doe incor- 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

porate gold with little square peeces of glasse, and guild 
the same over ; then breaking them in very small peeces, 
they lay them upon the pictures. 
Among the Parish Churches belonging to Saint Marke, 
is the Chappell of Saint Theodore, where the Inquisitors 
of Religion sit thrice a weeke : namely the Popes Nuntio, 
and the Patriarke (an Inquisitor by his place, and at this 
time a Dominican Friar) and three Senators chosen by 
the Senate. Likewise the little, but most faire Church 
of Saint Geminian, is seated in the market place of Saint 
Marke, whose Priest, according to the custome of Venice, 
is chosen by them that have unmoveable goods in the 
Parish, and is confirmed by the Patriarke, in which Church 
the most notable things are, three Images graven upon 
the great Altar, and the sepulcher of John Peter Stella, 
Great Chancellor, and the Altar of Lodovico Spinello, and 
the Monument of James and Francis Sansovine, famous 
engravers. In the Church of Saint Mary Zebenigo, the 
Monuments of Sebastian Foscarini, a Phylosopher, and 
of Jerome Molini, a Florentine Poet, and the picture of 
the Lords Supper. In the Church Saint Vitale, the 
artificiall statua of that Saint on horsebacke. In the 
Church Saint Angelo, built by the family of the Morosini, 
the Altar of the holy Sacrament. In the Church of Saint 
Fantino, the Architecture, and among other Images, the 
head of a Crucifix, and the singular Images of the blessed 
Virgin, and Saint John, painted standing by the Crosse. 
In the Vestry of Saint Fantino (whose Monkes use to 
accompany and comfort those that are executed) the two 
Altars, and in the first of them the brasen Images of the 
blessed Virgin and Saint John, and in the second the 
excellent Marble Image of Saint Jerome. In the Parish 
Church of Saint Luke, seated in the middest of the City, 
a monument of foure most learned men, and another of 
Peter Aretine, called the scourge of Princes, are the most 
remarkable things. The Inquisitors worthily condemned 
the bookes of this Aretine, for the filthinesse of them 
(howsoever they be yet commonly sold) and the common 
73 

The PariJh 
Churches. 

[I. ii. 82.] 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

Altar ingraven with brasse, and the Monument of James 
Suriani, and another of Anthony Cornari with this 
inscription : 

Antonii ad Cineres viator adsta 
I:Iic Cornarius ille, quem solebant, 
Rerum principia & Deos docentem 
Olim Antenorire stupere Athenre, 
Accitus Patrias subinde adoras, 
Ornatus titulis fascibusque, 
Doctrina venetam beavit urbem. 

Inscription to 
4nthony 
Cornari. 

At the ashes of Anthony, passenger stand, 
This is that Cornarius whom of old, 
Teaching the principles of Nature and the Gods, 
Antenors Athens was wont to admire. 
After called home to his Countrey, 
Graced with Titles and Magistracy, 
With his Learning he made Venice happy. 

These things I say are in these Churches most remarkable. 
The second sextary on this side the channell, vulgarly 
I1 sestiero di Castello, hath the name of the Castle Olivolo, 
which seated towards the sea, may seeme to be divided 
from the Citie, yet it is joyned thereto by a long bridge. 
Of old it was a City by it selfe, and therefore the Dukes 
Throne being established in the Iland Realto, the Bishops 
seat was made here, who is invested by the Duke, and 
was consecrated by the Patriarke of Grado, till that being 
extinguished, this was raised to the dignity of a Patriarke, 
in the yeere I45o. In the Cathedrall Church of Saint 
Peter, this is written upon the Chappell in Latine; 

The Castle 
Olivolo. 

Who ere thou be that approachest, worship: Within [I. ii. 83.] 
these grates of Iron the crosse is inclosed, that is adorned 
with three haires of the beard of Christ, with a halle, 
the cup in which he drunke to his Disciples, and with 
a peece of the true Crosse, &c. 
I75 



1594. 
Churche in 
the second 
Sextary. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

This Patriarcall seat hath two old pulpits of marble, 
the monuments of the Bishops and Patriarkes, which with 
the adjoining Pallace of the Patriarkes, are the most 
remarkeable things thereof. In the Church of John 
Baptist in Bragola, many curious pictures, the sepulcher 
of that Saint guilded over, the Image of Christ, the 
pictures of the lesse Altar, especially that of Christ 
baptised, that of Saint Hellen, that of Christs resurrection, 
and the lively picture of Christ sitting with his Apostles 
at his last supper. In the Church of Saint Mary Formosa, 
this inscription is read; Vincentius Capellus most skilful 
in Navigation, and Prefect of the Gallies, no lesse praised 
of old, who received signes of honour from Henry the 
seventh, King of Britany, &c. There, upon the great 
and very faire Altar, the Images of the foure Evangelists, 
and upon the top, that of Christs resurrection, and of 
two Angels. In the Church Saint Marina, the statua on 
horsebacke erected by the Senate to Tadeo della volpe of 
Imola, and the great Altar, with the pillars of porphry. 
In the Church of Saint Leone, the Images of Saint Jerome, 
of Christ at supper with his Disciples, of John the 
Evangelist, and Saint Michaell, all painted by the hands 
of most skilfull workemen. In the Church of Saint 
Anthony, foure most faire Altars (in the second whereof 
the Image of Christ, and in the third rich with excellent 
pillars, the History of ten thousand Martyres painted, 
and in the fourth the espousals of the blessed Virgin, 
are al painted with singular Art) and a foot statua erected 
by the Senate to Victor Pisanus. In the Church of Saint 
E)ominicke, the library, and pictures of the Altars. In 
the Church of Saint Francis di Paola, many things given 
upon vow, and hung upon the wals. In that of Saint 
Francis della vigna, a very faire and stately Church, the 
Altar of the Chappell belonging to the Family Grimani, 
and the pictures & brasen images of the same: and in 
the Chappell of the Family Dandoli, the picture of Saint 
Laurence martyred, and in the Chappell of the Justiniani, 
being very rich, the Images of the foure Evangelists and 
7 6 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE ^.t,. 
594. 
twelve Prophets. In the Chappell of our Lady, the C,rces i, 
monument of Marke, Anthony, Morosini, Knight and te sec0,a' 
Procurator (famous in the warre which the French King sextary. 
Lewis the twelfth, made in Lombardy, and thrice 
Ambassador from the State) also the famous library of 
this monastery, and the bels (which they say were brought 
out of England after Qeene Maries death.) In the 
Church of the Saints, John and Paul, (being one of the 
chiefe Churches) the situation, the architecture, the 
pictures, and the monuments of sixteene Dukes; and 
another of Marke, Anthony, Bragadini (who having 
defended the Iland Cyprus from the Turkes, when they 
tooke it, had his skinne fleed off, by the command of the 
tyrant, against his faith, in the yeere 57.) Also three 
horsemens statuaes, one to Leonardo de Prato, Knight 
of Rhodes, another to Nicholao Orsino Count of Pitiglia, 
both erected in the Church, the third for greater honour 
erected in the market place, to Bartholmeo Coleoni of 
Bergamo, for his good service to the State in their Warres ; 
all three erected by the Senate. Also a foot statua erected 
by the Senate, to Dennys Naldo, a most valiant Com- 
mander of their foote, an.d the stately sepulcher of James 
de Cavallis, and the Chappell of the Rossary (magnificall 
in the architecture, in rare marbles, in the art of engravers, 
and excellent pictures, especially that of Christ crucified.) 
In the Church of Saint Mary delle Virgini, (a Cloyster 
of Nunnes, built by the Dukes, and belonging to them 
by speciall right) two marble sepulchers. In the Church 
Saint Gioseppe, the admirable monument of the Grimani 
(with admirable Images engraven of the Duke Grimani 
created, and his Dutchesse Morosini, crowned, and the 
like curiously wrought:) also the Image of Christ trans- 
figured, and another of Christ buried, are the most 
remarkeable things. And whereas the graven images of 
this Church, be of rare beauty, they say that the chiefe 
of them were brought out of England, after the death 
of Qeene Mary. In the Church of Saint Justina (a 
parish Church, and yet the chiefe cloyster of Nunnes, 
M.  77  



A.D. FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
I 594. 
the great Altar, fairest of those built of wood. In the 
The fairest Church of Saint Mary of the Miracles, the fairest of any 
N,nnery. Nunnery, for the beauty and rare stones, the walles 
covered with Marble, two Marble Images of two children 
under the Organs, (the works of famous Praxitiles,) the 
Images of marble of Paros, the stones of Porphery and 
Ophytes wonderfully carved, the great Altar of Marble, 
ingraven with great Art, the brasen Images of Saint Peter, 
Saint Paul, and of Angels. These are the things most 
remarkeable. In the Church of Saint Mary of Mercy, 
Sansovine witnesseth this Epitaph, (which I will set 
downe, lest any should thinke incredible the like practises 
[I. ii. 83. ] of Papists against Emperours and John the King of 
England,) in these words: To Jerom Savina, a Citizen 
of Venice, Prior of Saint Maries, notably learned in good 
Arts; but more renowmed for piety, which bee also 
shewed at his death towards his enemy, who gave him 
poyson in the challice at the Lords Supper, by many 
arguments of his charity. He died in the yeere M D C I. 
Also in the great schoole, the same is witnessed in these 
wordes: To Jerom Savina wickedly killed by poyson 
given, (O horrible villany) in our Lords Supper, &c. 
The fou:th The fourth sextary or sixth part of the City, and first 
Sexta,y. of those beyond the channell, (meaning towards the 
Territorie of Paduoa,) is vulgarly called of the chiefe 
Church I1 sestiero di San' Polo. In which Church of 
Saint Paul, the most remarkeable things are these: the 
picture of Christ washing his Apostles feet, the pall of 
silver guilded, and the precious stones upon the great 
Altar; the pictures of the Altar of the holy Sacrament, 
and of the blessed Virgin, and the Images of Saint Andrew 
and the Apostles upon pillars. In the very faire market 
place of the same Church, of old a market was weekely 
held, and to the yeere x292 , the market was held heere 
on Wednesday, and in the market place of Saint Marke, 
on the Saturday; but at this day none is held here, but 
both in the place of Saint Marke, for the benefit of those 
that dwell there, and that the houses may bee more deerely 
I8o 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

like christall, which are esteemed for jewels. In the 
Church of Saint Mary of Charity, the rich chappell of 
San Salvadore. In the most faire Church of the 
Capuchine Friars, seated in the Iland Giudecca, the images 
of brasse, and the faire screene of the great Altar. In 
the most faire Church of Saint Mary the greater, being a 
Nunnery, the rare pictures of the greater chappell. In 
the Church of the holy crosse Della Giudecca, the monu- 
ment of the Cardinall Francis Morosini, sent Ambassador 
to the Turke, and Nuncio to Pope Sixtus the fifth, in 
the French Court: and here the rest of his Family use 
to be buried. The Monastery of the converted is for 
whores repenting. Another is built for Orphan Virgins, 
the Church whereof hath rich screenes of marble, with 
brasse images: and in the same live some two hundred 
and fifty Virgins of almes, and by the worke of their 
hands, which comming to ripe yeeres, are either married 
or made Nunnes. These things are in this sextary most 
remarkeable. 
Six great The Venetians have six fraternities or great schooles, 
schooles, such as be also at Rome, and the Gentlemen and Citizens 
all give their names to one of them, as in England at 
London, the Citizens have companies, into which the 
King, Q.geene, and Nobles, many times vouchsafe to be 
admitted. And in these schooles, as it were in Uni- 
versities, they use to have exercises of religion. The 
first of them is called Saint Mary of Charity, after the 
rule whereof, the rest are framed, and the great Guardian 
[t. ii. 85.] thereof is chosen yeerly, and weares a skarlet gowne with 
large sleeves, which they call Ducall sleeves, and he hath 
the title of Magnifico by priviledge. These schooles 
give dowries yeerely to 1500. Virgins, and distribute 
among the poore much money, meale, and clothes: for 
besides many gifts by last testaments daily given to those 
uses, each of the schooles hath some five or sixe thousand 
duckets in yeerely revenew, and they are governed like 
common wealthes. In the said schoole, the Images of 
the Apostles, and the pictures, especially one of the blessed 
I84 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

Virgin, and another of the foure Doctors of the Church, 
are very faire. In the schoole of Saint John the 
Evangelist, the passion of Christ is wonderfully figured, 
and Phillip the second King of Spaine, and his sonne 
Ferdinan.d, and Don John of_Austria, and other Princes, 
have beene of this fraternity. The third is of mercy. 
The fourth of Saint Marke. The fifth of Saint Rocco, 
passing the rest in ceremonies & pompe, and number of 
brethren. The sixth is of Saint Theodore, and each of 
these hath his Church and Pallace, and precious monu- 
ments, and these are subject to the counsell of ten; for 
there be many lesse schooles, each art having his schoole, 
and these are subject to the old Justice, and out of them 
when need is, souldiers are pressed. 
It remaines to adde something of the magnificall The Markct 
building of this City. And in the first place, the market 
place of Saint Marke is paved with bricke, and it consists 
of foure market places, joined in one; whereof two may 
rather be called the market places of the Dukes Pallace 
(joining to the Church of Saint Marke) the one being 
on the furthest side from Saint Marke, betweene the 
pallace and the great channell, the other right before the 
pallace towards the channell, foure hundred foot in length, 
and some one hundred and thirty in bredth. The third 
is before the Church doore of Saint Mark, and lies in 
length five hundred and twenty foot towards the Church 
of Saint Geminiano, and hath one hundred and thirty 
foot in bredth, which may more properly be called the 
market place of Saint Marke. The fourth is on the other 
side of the Church, towards the Church of Saint Basso. 
In this market place of foure joined in one, are solemne 
spectacles or shewes, and all processions made, and there 
on Ascention day, is the Faire held, and the markets on 
wednesday and saterday: there they use to muster 
souldiers; and there the gentlemen and strangers daily 
meet and walke. Before the doore of Saint Markes 
Church, are three peeces of brasse carved, and for bignesse 
like the bodies of trees, upon which at festivali daies 
85 



4 Remarkc- 
able Clocke. 

The Pallaces 
of te 
Procurators. 

[I. ii. 86.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

three rich banners are hung in slgne of liberty, or as others 
say, for the three Dominions of Venice, Cypro, and 
Candia. 
Under the tower of the Clocke, fifty foot distant from 
Saint Markes Church, is a passage to and from this market 
place; and this tower all covered with marble, beares 
a remarkeable Clocke, which sheweth the course of the 
Sunne and the Moone daily, and the degrees they passe, 
and when they enter into a new signe of the Zodiacke, 
and above that the guilded Image of our Lady shineth, 
placed betweene two doores, out of one of which doores, 
onely at solemne Feasts, an Angell with a Trumpet, and 
the three Wise Men of the East following, passe before 
our Ladies Image, and adore her, and so goe in at the 
other doore. Above that, there is a carved Image of a 
Lyon with wings, and upon the very top, two brasen 
Images, called the Mores, which by turnes striking with 
a hammer upon a great bell, sound the houres. 
The houses opposite to the Pallaces of the Procurators 
of Saint Marke, are called the houses of the State, and 
they belong to the Church of Saint Marke, and having 
some fifty shops under the Arches of the upper roofes 
(where men may walke dry when it raines) they yeeld 
great rents to the Church. Opposite to these are the 
Pallaces of the said Procurators, which are also in the 
said market place, which I said to be more properly called 
the market place of Saint Marke, and these being stately 
built, sixty sixe foot high, and the stones curiously carved, 
doe not onely adorne the market place, but in summer 
give a pleasant shade to passengers, besides that under 
the Arches of them, men may walke drie in the greatest 
raine, and the shops under these Arches yeeld great rents, 
and under these Pallaces out of foure little streetes there 
be so many passages to and from the market place. These 
Pallaces are built at the charge of the State, the nine 
Procurators being to have nine Pallaces." for as yet they 
were not all built; but in the meane time any pallace 
falling voide, it was given to the eldest of them that had 
186 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 
1594. 
none, yet not according to their age, but according to their 
election. 
The steeple or belfrey of Saint Marke, distant some The Be'ey 
eighty foote from the Church, and set over against it, is of Saint 
to be admired, not onely for the foundation, strangely laid Marhe. 
under the earth; but also for many other causes. It is 
built foure square, each square containing forty foot, and 
it is three hundred thirty three foot high, of which feet 
the pinacle containes ninety sixe, and the woodden Image 
of an Angell above the pinacle covered with brasse and 
uilded, and turning with the wind, containes sixteene 
ete. It is adorned with high pillars of marble, and 
with a gallery at the bottome of the pinacle, made with 
many pillars of brasse, and upon the pinacle with great 
marble Images of Lyons, and from the top in a cleere 
day, men may see a hundred miles off the ships under 
sayles ; and it beares foure great bels, whereof the greater 
called La Trottiera, is rung every day at noone, and when 
the Gentlemen meet in Senate with like occasions: but 
when a new Pope or Duke is made, all the bels are rung, 
and the steeple is set round about with waxe candles 
burning. I went to the top of this steeple, which hath 
thirty seven ascents, whereof each hath foureteene lesse 
ascents, by which the going up is as easie, as if a man 
walked on plaine ground, at the contriving whereof I 
much wondered. In the lodge of this steeple, the foure 
brasen Images of Pallas, Apollo, Mercury, and of Peace, 
and above them, the figure of Venice, with the Dominion 
by sea and land, and the Image of Venus the Goddesse 
of Cyprus, and of Jupiter the King of Candia, present 
themselves, and neere the great gate the Images of the 
blessed Virgin and of Saint John Baptist, are highly 
valued. 
Right over against the Dukes Pallace, in the foresaid Tc Library. 
second market place of the pallace, is the library, whose 
building is remarkable, and the architecture of the corner 
next the market place of the Bakers, is held by great 
Artists a rare worke, and divers carved Images of Heathen 



Two greate 
pillars. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Gods, and Goddesses in the old habit, are no lesse praised, 
as done by the hands of most skilfull workemen. On 
the inside, the arched roofes curiously painted, and the 
little study of ivory, with pillars of Allablaster, and rare 
stones, and carved Images (in which an old breviary of 
written hand, and much esteemed, is kept) are things 
very remarkeable. The inner chamber is called the study ; 
in which many statuaes and halle statuaes, twelve heads 
of Emperors, and other things given to the State by 
Cardinall Dominicke Grimani, are esteemed precious by 
all antiquaries. And in this Library are laid up the 
Bookes, which the Patriarke and Cardinall Bessarione gave 
to Saint Marke (that is to the State) by his last will, and 
the most rare books brought from Constantinople at the 
taking thereof, and otherwise gathered from all parts of 
Greece. Out of this Library is a passage, to the chambers 
of the Procurators of Saint Marke: before you enter 
them most faire statuaes, and on the inside rare pictures, 
draw your eies to them. 
Not farre from thence are two pillars (the third whereof 
in taking them out of the ship, fell into the sea, and could 
never be recovered) and they be of huge bignesse; for 
the erecting whereof, as a most difficult thing, great 
rewards were given to a Lumbard, and immunity was 
given to him by priviledge, for all that should play at 
dice under them. Since it is accustomed, that all con- 
demned men are executed betweene these pillars, which 
of old were put to death neere the Church of Saint John 
Bragola, and upon one of these pillars stands the brasen 
statua of Saint Marke, under the forme of a Lyon, and 
upon the other stands the marble statua of Saint Theodor. 
The statua of Saint George beares a shield, in token that 
Venice rather defends it selfe, then offends others, since 
the right hand carries a defensive weapon. 
Behind the Library is the Mint house (vulgarly called 
La zecca, whereupon I thinke the gold coyne of the' 
Venetians is called Zecchino) in which house it is remarke- 
able, that there is no wood in any part thereof, but for" 
i88 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

feare of fire it is all built with stone, bricke, and barres 
of iron. Here the great statuaes of Gyants, lifting up 
their massie clubs, as it were forbidding the entrance ; and 
in the court yard the statua of Apollo, holding wedges 
of gold in his hand, to shew that gold is made to grow 
in the bowels of the earth by the vertue of the sunne, 
are things remarkeable. 
From hence on the left hand is the market place, which 
I said to be the first of the Pallace, seated between the 
channel & the Pallace. And from hence on the right hand 
is the fish market, in which (as likewise in that of Rialto) 
store of good fish is to bee bought twice in the day. 
The market place in which the said Bel-frey and Library 
are built, is also adorned with the stately Pallace of the 
Duke, all covered with Marble, and most sumptuous in 
the carved Images and pictures, and in the pillers of the 
Arched walke on the outside. The first staires towards 
the second market place of the Pallace, and over against 
the said Library, are very stately, and are vulgarly called 
Scala de' Giganti, that is the staires of the Giants, so 
called of two huge Marble statuaes of Mars and Neptune, 
which the common people call Giants. But the Pallace 
hath many other staires, whereby men ascend thereunto. 
Opposite to the aforesaid statuaes, are two other of Adam 
and Eve, but not so great as they: and not farre from 
thence is a stone guilded, with an inscription which the 
Senate placed there, in memory of the French King Henry 
the third, whom they entertained, passing that way from 
Poland into France. On the left hand is the Chappell 
of Saint Nicholas, which is the Dukes private Chappell. 
Hence you ascend into a large Hall (as they call it) or 
a large Gallery ; in the middest whereof the golden staires 
shine with gold, and two marble Images and rare pictures. 
On the left hand of the said staires, is the passage to that 
part of the Pallace, which is assigned to the Duke for 
his dwelling, and in the first chamber, called the Dukes 
Armes, Sala del scudo, the pictures of Christs resurrection, 
and another of him crucified, are much praised, though 
89 

AoD. 
I594- 

[I. ii. 87. ] 

The Pallace 
of the Duke. 



The Prisom. 

The market 
place f 
Rialta. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

it hath many other rare pictures. When you have 
ascended the golden staires, you shall see foure rare 
pictures. From thence the way on the left hand leads 
to the Chancery, where many chambers are adjoyning, 
proper to divers Councels of State, all adorned with graven 
Images and pictures of the best; namely, the chambers 
of the Councell rich in the painting of the arched roofe. 
Tha.t of the Pregadi, having genera.ll rare painting and 
carving. That called La secreta, in which the secret 
writings of the State is laied up. The Chappell of the 
Colledge, where the Duke and the Senators daily heare 
Masse, and it appeares by an inscription, that the 
Antiquities were of old laid up there, among the pictures 
whereof, that of Christs resurrection, and the Map of 
the Territory of Venice, are much praised. That of the 
Councell of Term, in which the picture of the Wise-men 
offering gifts to Christ is much praised, (neere the same 
are chambers, in which many rich Armors and rare 
Monuments are laid up.) And that of the great Councell, 
one hundred fifty foot in length, and seventy foure in 
breadth, adorned round about with rare pictures, namely 
on the side towards the foresaid second market place of 
the Pallace, the History of Fredericke the Emperour, and 
of Pope Alexander the third is cursorily painted. Towards 
the foresaid first market place, lying betweene the Pallace 
and the channel, the History of Constantinople, taken 
by the Venetians and French, is painted; and the capitu- 
lation of the voyage, made in the Church, and the rest 
of the Saints in heaven, are reputed rare workes. 
The prisons of old were under this Pallace of the Duke, 
but lately a new house is stately built of the stone of 
Istria, for that use neere the bridge Della Paglia. 
The foure square market place of Rialto, is compassed 
with publike houses, under the arches whereof, and in 
the middle part lying open, the Merchants meet. And 
there is also a peculiar place where the Gentlemen meet 
before noone, as they meet in the place of Saint Marke 
towards evening; and here to nourish acquaintance, they 
I9O 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

spend an houre in discourses, and because they use not 
to make feasts one to another, they keepe this meeting 
as strictly as Merchants, lest their frinship should decay. 
The Gold-smiths shoppes lie thereby, and over against 
them the shoppes of Jewellers, in which Art the Venetians 
are excellent. There is the Pallace of a Gentleman, who 
proving a Traytor, the State (for his reproch) turned the 
same into a shambles, and some upper chambers to places 
of judgement. The fish market lies by this shambles, 
a great length along the banke of the great channell, and 
in the same shambles and fish market, as also in the like 
of Saint Marke, great plenty of victuals, especially of 
fish, i.s daily to be sold. A publike Pallace stately built 
lieth neere the bridge of Rialto. 
This bridge in the judgement of the Venetians, deserves [I. ii. 88.] 
to be reputed the eighth miracle of the world. The old TZe Bri,tge 
being pulled downe, this new bridge began to bee built in 
the yeere 1588, and was scarce finished in three yeeres, and 
is said to have cost two hundred fifty thousand Duckets. 
It is built of the stone of Istria, upon one arch over the 
great channell, and the ascent to the toppe hath thirty 
slxe staires on each side, and upon each side of these 
staires, are twelve little shoppes covered with lead: not 
to speake of the carved Images, of the blessed Virgin, 
the Angell Gabriel, and the two protecting Saints of the 
City, namely Saint Marke, and Saint Theodore. 
Thereby is a Pallace called II Fontico de i Todeschi, 
because the Dutch Merchants have it to their use. 
The Armory built for all kinde of Armes & Munitions, T,e A,'rao,'.y. 
vulgarly called 1' Arsenale, as it were the Tower of the 
Senate, is compassed with walles being in circuit more 
then two miles, where some foure hundred Artificers are 
daily set on worke about naval provisions, and they receive 
weekely for wages about one thousand two hundred 
duckets. Within the same is a several place to make 
cables, & within the circuit hereof and no where else in 
the City, they build Ships and Gallies, and there bee 
alwayes in the same about two hundred gallies ready for 



ll Ghetto. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

service. To conclude, the State of Venice, being not 
growne to full strength, did in a hundred daies space, 
arme one hundred gallies against Emanuel Emperour of 
the East, and no doubt their strength hath every day 
growne greater to this time. In the said compasse of 
the Armory, lies a great boat called I1 Bucentoro, because 
it carries about the number of two hundred; which boat 
hath upon it a kinde of chamber which useth to be richly 
hung, and covered over, when in the same the Duke and 
Senators be carried by water at some times of solemnity, 
especially at the feast of the Ascention, when of an old 
custome, they goe forth to espouse the sea, by the 
ceremony of flinging a ring into the same, and to challenge 
the command thereof, given theln by Pope Alexander the 
third. 
The Jewes have a place to dwell in severally, called 
I1 Ghetto, where each family hath a little house, and all 
have one court-yard common, so as they live as it were 
in a Colledge, or Alines-house, and may not come forth 
after the gates are locked at night, and in the day they 
are bound to weare a yellow cap. 
Though the City bee seated upon little and narrow 
Ilands, in the middest of marshes and tides of the sea; 
yet hath it gardens in great number, and abounding with 
rare herbes, plants, and fruits, and water conduits, which 
with the carved Images and pictures, (out of the Gentle- 
mens curtesie) may bee seene by any curious stranger. 
Publike The publike Libraries of speciall note are these: Di S 
a,,,pri,ate Giovanni & Paolo: di San' Francesco: di San' Stefano: 
Libraries. di San' Georgio Maggiore: and di Sant' Antonio. Also 
private Libraries may be found out by those that be 
curious, and will bee after the same manner easily shewed 
them, and are indeede most worthy to bee sought out 
for the rarenesse of many instruments, pictures, carved 
Images, Antiquities, and like rare things: For the 
Venetians being most sparing in diet and apparell, doe 
exercise their magnificence in these and the like delights, 
and these precious Monuments, they will with great 



thousand 
families 
in genice. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Dandoli, neere the bridge Della Paglia. The Pallace 
neere Saint Francis Church, which the Senate bought, and 
use to assigne it to the dwelling of the Popes Nuncio. 
That of the Dutchesse of Florence, built upon the channell 
of the Dukes Pallace. That of the Vetturi, neere the 
market place of Saint Mary. That of the Patriarke 
Grimani, neere the Malipieri. That of the family 
Georgii, neere the same. That of Francis Priuli. That 
of Lodwick Gerogii. That of the Capelli. That of 
Peter Giustiniani. That of those of Pesaro, neere the 
Church of St. Benedict. That of the Loredani neere 
Saint Stephens Church. That of Zeni. That of 
Contarini. That of Silvester Valierii, neere the Church 
of Saint Job. That of the Cornari, neere Saint Pauls 
Church. That of James Foscarini, neere the Church 
Carmeni. That of the Michaeli, neere Saint Lewis 
Church. That of Lewis Theophili, neere the Church 
Della Misericordia. The chiefe Pallaces upon the channell 
are these. That of the Loredani. That of the Grimani, 
neere Saint Lucia. That of the Delphini. That of the 
Cornari, neere Saint Maurice Church, and that of the 
Fascorini, an old building but having the best prospect 
of all the rest. In which the Venetians entertained the 
French King Henry the third. To conclude, there be 
two rich Pallaces in the Iland Giudecca, one of the 
Dandoli, the other of the Vendramini. 
In this famous City are twenty thousand families, and 
three thousand of the Gentlemen, and no age hath beene 
so barren, which hath not yeelded worthy men for Martial1 
and civill government and learning. Of this City have 
beene three Popes, Gregory the twelfth, Eugenius the 
fourth, and Paul the second, and many Cardinalls of which 
these are the chiefe: Peter Morosini, Marke Landi, 
Anthony Corari, John Amideus, and in our age John 
Baptist Zeni, and Dominick Germani. Also Peter 
Bembus was a Venetian, whom Pope Paul the third made 
Cardinal1. Heere was borne Pantalean Justinianus, Patri- 
arke of Constantinople when the French ruled there. 

194 



COMMENTS UPON VENICE 

And Venice hath yeelded many most learned men, Andrew 
Dandoli, Duke Francis Barbarigi, Andrew Morosini, who 
wrote the History of his time in Heroique Verse. And 
many famous Civill Lawyers, Lodwicke Foscarini, and 
Jerom Donati. And many rare engravers, and painters, 
Titiano, Tenterotto, and Belino. And many Commanders 
in the warre, John Bolari, Marino Gradinici, Dominick 
Morosini, (the first provisors of Military affaires,) Andrew 
Morosini, and Simon Dandoli, and many more famous 
in all kindes of vertue, to the chiefe whereof I have said, 
that the Senate erected many Statuaes and Monuments. 
Give me leave to adde this of the family Morosini, namely, 
that among the most famous men, whose pictures were 
in the chamber of publike meeting, before it was burnt; 
there were the pictures of Barbaro and Marco, and 
Antonio, Morosini. And that the same family hath given 
three Dukes, Dominico, Marino, and Michaele ; and three 
Patriarkes, and twelve Procurators of Saint Marke, (which 
number few families have attained, onely that of the 
Contarini, that of the Justiniani, and that of the Grimani, 
have a little passed it). And that my selfe being at 
Venice, found there eighty Gentlemen of this name. Let 
the Reader pardon this observation, which I make for 
the Consonancy of that name with my owne, onely 
differing in the placing of a vowell, for more gentle pro- 
nuntiation, which the Italian speech affecteth ; yet these 
Gentlemen being of one family, write their names 
somewhat diversly, some writing in their owne tongue 
Morosini, others Moresini, and in the Latin tongue, 
Morocenus, and Maurocenus. 
Of the hiring of chambers, and the manner of diet 
in Venice, I have spoken jointly with that of Paduoa, 
in the discription of that City, onely I will adde, that this 
City aboundeth with good fish, which are twice each day 
to be sold in two markets of Saint Marke & Rialto, & 
that it spendeth weekly five hundred Oxen, & two hundred 
& fifty Calves, besides great numbers of young Goates, 
Hens, and many kinds of birds, besides that it aboundeth 

I95 

I594- 
Many famous 
mcn. 

[I. ii. 90.] 



dnno.  594- 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

with sea birds, whereof the Venetian writers make two 
hundred kinds, and likewise aboundeth with savoury fruits, 
and many salted and dried dainties, and with all manner 
of victuals, in such sort as they impart them to other 
Cities. I will also adde that here is great concourse of 
all nations, as well for the pleasure the City yeeldeth, 
as for the free conversation ; and especially for the com- 
modity of trafficke. That in no place is to be found in 
one market place such variety of apparell, languages, and 
manners. That in the publike Innes a chamber may be 
hired for foure sols a day; but for the cheapenes and 
good dressing of meat, most men use to hire private 
chambers, and dresse their owne meat. That in the Dutch 
Inne each man paies two lires a meale. That no stranger 
may lie in the City more then a night, without leave of 
the Magistrates appointed for that purpose; but the next 
day telling them some pretended causes of your comming 
to the Towne, they will easily grant you leave to stay 
longer, and after that you shall be no more troubled, 
how long soever you stay, onely your Host after certaine 
dales giveth them account of you. To conclude this 
most noble City, as well for the situation, freeing them 
from enemies, as for the freedome of the Common-wealth, 
preserved from the first founding, and for the freedome 
which the Citizens and very strangers have, to injoy their 
goods, and dispose of them, and for manifold other causes, 
is worthily called in Latine Venetia, as it were Veni etiam, 
that is, come againe. 
From Venice to Farraria are eighty five miles by water 
and land : and upon the third of February (after the new 
stile) and in the yeere 594- (as the Italians begin the 
yeere the first of January) and upon Wednesday in the 
evening, my selfe with two Dutchmen, my consorts in 
this journey, went into the Barke, which weekely passeth 
betwixt Venice and Ferrara. The same night we passed 
twenty five miles upon the marshes, within the sea banke, 
to Chioza or Chioggia, or (to speake vulgarly, the better 
to be understood in asking the way) a Chioza, the first 
i96 



FROM VENICE TO FERRARA 

village on firme land, or rather seated in an Iland, where 
the Ditch Clodia maketh a Haven. The next morning 
in the same Barke we entred the River, and passed fifteene 
miles to the Village Lorea, and after dinner ten miles 
in the territory of Venice, and eight miles in the Duke- 
dome of Ferraria to Popaci, and upon Friday in the 
morning twenty two miles to Francoline, where we paid 
for our passage from Venice thither, each man three lires 
and a halfe. By the way on land upon both side the 
River, we passed a pleasant plaine, and fields of come 
divided by furrowes, in which furrowes Elmes were 
planted, and upon them Vines grew up to the tops. Such 
is the manuring of Lombardy, or the loward part of Italy 
towards the West, where the Vines growing high, yeeld 
not so rich wines, as in the other parts of Italy upon 
mountaines and hils, upon the sides whereof the Vines 
supported with short stakes, and growing not high, yeeld 
much richer wines. By this way our Barke staied many 
times in Villages, where we had time to eat, or to provide 
victuals to be carried with us; and we had an Ingistar, 
or measure of wine, something greater then our pint, for 
three sols of Venice: we boug.ht bread after the weight, 
for they have loaves of all prices, in which a stranger 
cannot be deceived. It is the fashion to see the meat in 
the kitchin, and to agree of the price before you eate it, 
which if you doe not, you shall be subject to the Hosts 
insatiable avarice, who take pleasure to deceive strangers. 
And the price of the meats you may understand, by the 
Italians, whom you shall see buy of the same. And if 
the deerenesse displease you, you may carry drie figs and 
raisons, and dine with them, the price of bread and wine 
being certaine ; but you must sup at your Hosts Ordinary, 
if you will have a bed. I said that we left our Barke at 
Francoline, where we might have hired a coach to Ferraria, 
for which we three should have paied twenty two bolinei, 
but the way being pleasant to walke, we chose rather to 
goe these five miles on foot. 
Ferraria is a very strong City of Flaminia, and neere 

197 

The growth 
af Vines. 

[I. ii. 9.] 



The PrinceJ 
of gste. 

The City of 
Ferrara. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the City, the River Po dividing it selfe, hath made a long 
and broad Iland, which now is growne to firme land. 
It was compassed with walles by the Exarches of the 
Easterne Emperors, Lords thereof, and after it was subject 
to the Bishops of Ravenna ; then it came into the hands 
of the Princes of the family of Este, the lawfull heires 
whereof possessed it to the yeer 394, when it passed 
to the line of Bastards. These Princes of Este were at 
first Marquesses, and afterwards were created Dukes, and 
Hercules of Este was the third Duke, who lived about 
the yeere x55o. At this day the family of Este being 
extinct, the Bishop of Rome hath invaded this Dukedome. 
The City seated in a plaine, is compassed with a fenny 
banke, and is of a triangular forme, the three corners being 
towards the North, West and South. On the South side 
the river Po did runne of old, but it hath now left his 
bed, which is dried up to firme land. But the lesse branch 
thereof runneth from Francoline to Chioza, where it fals 
into the sea, the greater making many lakes at Comatio, 
yeelds the Duke much profit by the fishing of eeles. In 
the heart of the City is a large market place, and joyning 
thereunto a little Iland, in which the father of Hercules 
of Este built a stately Pallace, called Belveder, and in 
the market place before the doore of the Pallace, there 
is a statua sitting in a chaire, erected to Duke Burso, and 
another of a horse-man, and of brasse erected to Duke 
Nicholas. The streets are broad, and very dirty in winter, 
and no lesse subject to dust in summer. The houses are 
built of free-stone, but according to the building of Italy, 
are almost flat upon the top, so as that upper roofe hath 
neither chambers nor windowes. The houses are not built 
one neere the other, but divided with most pleasant 
gardens, and dispersed. 
On the North side of the City without the walles, the 
Duke hath a large Parke for hunting, and to keepe therein 
many strange beasts. There be two stately Pallaces 
besides the Dukes; one of the Bentivoli, the other of 
Cesar, Nephew to Duke Alfonso, who being eighty yeeres 
x98 



[I. ii. 9z.] 

8avcnoroll. 

Mal' 
llbergo. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Ducumque curas cecinit, atque prelia, 
Vates corona dignus unus triplici, 
Cui trina constant, que fuere vatibus, 
Graiis, Latinis, vixque Hetruscis singula. 
Here Ariosto lies, whose pen still feasts, 
The Civill eares on stage with comick jeasts, 
Whose Sayters scourg'd the foule sins of his time; 
Who sung the frantick worthy, in sweet ryme: 
Great Dukes, fierce battels, and their pensive care. 
Thus hath one Poet, three crownes to his share; 
Greeke Poets, Latines, Tuscanes, each scarce one 
Of these attain'd, he hath all three alone. 
In the Monastery Certosa there is a round pinacle, the 
Monument of Duke Borso. In the Church of Saint 
Mary of the Angels, are laid up some trophies of victory 
against the Venetians, which when a Citizen of Ferrara 
shewed upon a time to a Venetian, in fashion of bragging, 
he answered pleasantly and wittily: to my remembrance, 
when you of Ferrara got this victory against us, wee tooke 
the Countrey of Poleseno from you, and though we 
were overcome yet we keepe that to this day. Jerom 
Savenorolla a Frier was born in this City, who in a late 
age was of great fame & authority among the Florentines, 
and for some opinions of religion was burnt by the Pope. 
Here I paied thirty bolinei for a meale, in the chiefe Inne, 
where we were well used, when in baser Innes we had 
paied more with vile usage. 
From hence they reckon thirty foure miles to Bologna. 
Wee went on foot three miles to the village La Torre 
della fossa, and in the midst of the way, wee observed 
the old bed of the River Po, which was now dried up. 
From hence we hired a boat for foure bolinei and foure 
quatrines, and passed in a broad ditch betweene high 
reedes, to a place called MaP Albergo, that is, the ill 
lodging, being nine miles; and we understood there, that 
foure souldiers were drowned the day before in the said 
ditch by their own folly, playing and tumbling in the 
200 



COMMENTS UPON BOLOGNA 

AID. 
I594. 

boat. We had now passed seven miles in the State of 
Bologno, and lodging here, each man paid for his supper 
sixteene bolinei. The next morning a boat went from 
hence to Bologna, but since they asked for each roans 
passage twenty two bolinei, and that the day was faire 
and the way very pleasant, we chose to goe on foot these 
eighteene miles to Bologna. In the mid-way we came 
to a Countrey Inne, where they demanding excessive Entertainc- 
prices for meat, we for sparing in the beginning of our ment at 
long journey, and loth to be made a prey out of their an Inne. 
opinion of our gluttony, tooke bread and wine of them 
at the knowne price, and dined with some provisions we 
had with us; namely, one pound of Raisons, for which 
we had paid seven bolinei, a pound of figges at the same 
price, and a pound of Almonds at the same price, bought 
at Ferraria to this purpose. After this refection we went 
the rest of our journey through pleasant fields, manured 
after the Lumbard fashion, before discribed. 
When we entred the gates of Bologna, the souldiers Bologna. 
demanded a curtesie of us, which wee gladly gave them, 
perceiving they would not search our portmanteaus, which 
otherwise by their office they may do. This is a City 
of Flaminia, of old subject to the Exarchate of Ravenna, 
til the Eastern Emperors were cast out of Italy, by the 
conspiring of the Popes with the Kings of Lombardy, 
and so the Exarchate was united to that Kingdome, and 
shortly after the Popes likewise conspiring with the French 
King Charles the Great, against the Kings of Lombardy, 
and dividing Italy betweene them, this City fell to the 
Popes share, howsoever they did not then attaine the 
possession thereof, or at least did not keepe it long: for 
afterwards the City was subject to many tyrants, some- 
times under the Vicounts of Milano, and at last invaded 
by the Citizens thereof; namely the Family of Bentivoli, 
under pretence to defend the common liberty, till the 
Pope about the time of the French King Lewis the 
twelfth, conspiring with him to invade Italy, did cast 
out the Bentivoli, and by little and little reducing the 
2OI 



COMMENTS UPON BOLOGNA 

I594- 

with arched Cloysters towards the street, under which they 
walke dry in the greatest raine. The Pallaces of Gentle- 
men are built towards the street, stately on the inside, 
but with little shew on the outside, and they all seeme 
to have beene built of old. The windowes are not glased rtrin,lo,e of 
(which the Venetians brag to be proper to their City, as oyledaer. 
a thing to be wondered at) but they are covered with 
paper, whereof part is oyled over. Towards the West- 
side of the City, is a large market place twoforked, in 
which is a faire conduit of water, with the Images of 
Neptune, and divers Goddesses powring water out of 
their mouthes and breasts, and all made of mettall. In 
this market place is the Senate-house, vulgarly called T,e Senate 
I1 palazo della signoria, on the one side whereof are the 
Courts of judgement, on the other the lodgings of the 
Governour. At the very entry is a statua of brasse, 
erected to Pope Gregory the thirteenth, a Citizen of 
Bologna, which appeares by an inscription in the Cathedrall 
Church : and within the Pallace is a statua of white stone, 
erected to Pope Paul the third, and another statua of a 
Gyant. The staires of the Pallace are made winding, 
and rising by little and little, give so easie an ascent, as 
a horse may goe up without difficulty: (the like staires 
be at Ferrara in the Dukes Pallace, and at Venice in the 
steeple of Saint Marke, and at Torge a City of Germany.) 
Within the Pallace is the statua of Julius the second, 
Bishop (or rather the God Mars) of Rome, engraven 
to his shoulders, with a leane and long face. Upon the 
doore of the Pallace is written in golden letters, that the 
Emperour Charles the fifth held his Court there, when 
the Pope put the imperiall Crowne upon his head, in the 
Church of Saint Petronius, which Church is of the old 
Lombard building: and this Saint is the protecting Saint 
of the City. Neere the stately Cathedrall Church of Saint 
Peter, is a house called the mountaine of piety, where The 
poore men may borrow money freely, bringing pawnes, raountaine 
to avoid the oppression of the Jewes usury. Among Ctiety. 
the Lombard buildings there is an old Tower, called 

2o 3 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

d' Asinelli, built of bricke with foure hundred seventy 
two staires, which they esteeme one of the highest in 
Europe. From this Tower without the gates, all the 
fields are full of Pallaces and Houses. At the gate of 
Saint Francis, is a pinacle with this inscription. The 
Sepulcher of Accursius, who wrote the glosse upon the 
Law, Sonne to Francis Hus. In the territory of this 
.4me,tici,ll City is a medicinall water, found in the yeere 375- very 
water, famous throughout all Italy, of which is proverbially said ; 
Chi beve I' Acqua della Porretta, O che lo spezza, o che lo 
netta, that is, He that drinkes the water of Porretta, 
either it bursts him, or els it cleanseth him. The strangers 
students here, call the stately Pallace of Cardinall Coup: 
[I. ii. 94-] the sinnes of the Dutch, as built by the Fines imposed 
on them. We staid in this City two daies, and being 
three consorts, hired a chamber each man for foure bolinei 
the day, the Hostesse giving us linnen, and dressing our 
meat, and we paid for an Eele by the pound five bolinei, 
(for they sell fresh water fish by the pound) for a pike 
the pound foure bolinei, for three apples two quatrines, 
Charges at for a pound of raisons foure bolinei, for a pound of small 
Bologna. nuts foure bolinei, for an ingestar of wine (a measure 
somewhat bigger then the English pint) foure bolinei, 
for a wax candle six boIinei. It was now the time of 
Lent, and so we were forced to eat onely fish, as the 
Italians did. 
In the territory of Bologna, there is a place almost an 
rorcelli. Iland, called Forcelli, which was an Iland of old, and 
Historians witnesse, that the Triumviri, Augustus, 
Antonius, and Lepidus, here divided the world betweene 
them. 
From Bologna the right way for Rome is directly to 
Florence, which way I never passed, disposing (as I 
thought) my journey more commodiously; yet for the 
direction of other passengers, it will not be amisse to set 
downe the way. From Bologna to Pianoro are eight 
miles, to Lograno sixe, to Scaricalasino five, to Caurez 
three, to Fiorenzuola twelve, to Scarperia ten, to the 

204 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Pope Julius the second by terrour of his excommunications 
extorted Ravenna and other Cities from the Venetians, 
and casting out the Lords of other Cities, the Popes from 
that time, being very skilfull to fish in troubled waters, 
have gotten possession of all the territories, from the 
confines of the State of Venice, to Ferraria, Bologna, and 
along the Coast of the Adriaticke sea, to Ancona. It is 
said that Ravenna stands not now in his old place, for at 
this time it is some two miles distant from the Sea: but 
the soyle thereof is most fruitfull in corne, and unfit to 
yeeld wine, and it is rich in pastures. The houses are 
built of bricke and flint stone, and are so old as they 
Te City seeme ready to fall. This City having been often taken 
often taken, by enemies, hath lost all the ornaments which it had, 
from so many Exarches and Kings of Lombardy, and 
from the Bishops thereof, who were so powerfull, as they 
strove long time for primacy with the Bishops of Rome. 
On the North-side of the City lies the sea, but distant 
from the same, and without the wals is a wood of Pine 
trees, and not farre thence lie the ruines of a very old 
and most faire Church, Saint Mary the Round, whose 
roofe was admirable, being of one stone, and in the same 
[I. ii. 95-] Church was the rich sepulcher of the Lombard King 
Theodoricus, which the souldiers pulled downe with the 
Church, to get the mettals thereof. On the East-side 
the sea lies some two Italian miles distant, where is the 
The Haven. Haven for ships, so much spoken of in the Roman 
Histories, where the navy of Rome did winter, yet is it 
now neither convenient nor secure for ships; neither 
indeed can any but very small boates come up to the 
Towne. On the South-side without the golden gate (built 
by the Emperour Claudius) lie the ruines of a stately 
P'allace, built by the same King Theodoricus, and likewise 
of the City Cesaria. In a Chappell of the Cathedrall 
Church is a most rich Font, and they report that many 
Kingly monuments were of old in this Church. In the 
market place lies a vessell of Porphry, a Kingly monu- 
ment, which the Citizens in the yeere x 564. brought from 
o6 



COMMENTS UPON RAVENNA ^.)- 
xS94. 
the foresaid sepulcher of King Theodoricus in the ruined 
Church of Saint Mary, neere the gate on the North-side. 
In the monastery of Saint Francis, is the sepulcher of the Tht Sepulchtr 
Poet ]3antes, with these verses in Latin; afDante. 
Exigua tumuli ]3antes hic sorte jacebas, 
Squallenti nullis cognite pen situ. 
At nunc marmoreo subnixus conderis Arcu, 
Omnibus & cultu splendidiore nites. 
Nimirum Bembus Musis incensus Hetruscis 
Hoc tibi (quem inprimis he coluere) dedit. 
In a poore Tombe Dantes thou didst lie here, 
The place obscure made thee almost unknowne, 
But now a marble chest thy bones doth beare, 
And thou appearest fresh as flower new blowne. 
Bembus with Tuscane Muses ravished, 
Gave this to thee, whom they most cherished. 
In the yeere 483. the sixth of the Kalends of June, 
Bernar : Bembus the Praetor, laid this at his owne charge : 
The strength, merit, and crowne of the Friars minorite 
covents. S.V.F. and these verses were added in Latin; 
Jura Monarchke, superos, Phlegetonta, lacusque 
Lustrando cecini voluerunt rata quousque. 
Sed quia pars cessit melioribus hospita castris, 
Actoremque suum petiit faelicior Astris. 
Hic claudor Dantes, patriis extorris ab oris, 
Qpem genuit parui Fiorentia Mater Amoris. 
The Monarchies, Gods, Lakes, and Phlegeton, 
I searcht and sung, while my Fates did permit; 
But since my better part to heaven is gone, 
And with his Maker mongst the starres doth sit, 
I Dantes a poore banishd man lie here, 
Whom Florence Mother of sweet Love did beare. 
In the Church of Saint Vitalis the pavement is of 
marble, and the wals all covered with precious stones of 
many kinds, but unpolished as they were taken out of 



COMMENTS UPON RIMINI 

goe away on foote, or take another Post-horse there, for 
no private man dare let him a horse, which makes 
passengers loth to bier post-horses of returne, though 
many times they may be had at good rate, rather then 
he will returne emptie with them ; yet if a man will walke 
a mile or two, he may easily bier a horse in other Townes, 
which are frequent in Italy. And let no man marvel, 
that these Princes favour the Post-masters and Inkeepers 
to the prejudice of strangers, because in that respect they 
extort great rents from them. By the way, in the Village 
Bel' Aria, each of us paid two bolinei for passage of a 
River. The Brooke Rubico, now called Pissatello, by 
this way to Rimini, did runne from the West into the 
Adriatique sea, and there of old was a Marble pillar, with 
this inscription in Latin ; Here stay, leave thy Banner, 
lay down thy Armes, and leade not thy Army with their 
Colours beyond this Brooke Rubico; therefore if any 
shall goe against the rule of this commaund, let him be 
judged enemie to the people of Rome, &c. And here- 
upon it was, that Julius Cesar returning out of France, 
and first stopping here, and then after he had seene some 
prodigious signes, passing over this Brooke with his Army, 
uttered words in Lattin to this effect ; Let us goe whither 
the prodigies of the Gods, and the sinnes of our enemies 
call us. The Die is cast. 
In the Market-place of Rimini is a monument of the 
same Cesar yet remaining, where words in the Latin 
tongue are graven in a stone to this effect; The Consuls 
of Rimini did repaire this pulpit, decaied with age, in 
the moneths of November and December, in the yeere 
1555. Under that is written; Caius Cesar Dictator 
having passed Rubico, here in the Market place of Rimini 
spake to his fellow souldiers, beginning the civill warre. 
In the same Market-place of Rimini is a pleasant Conduit 
of water. The Citie hath no beautie, and lyeth in length 
from the East to the West. On the West-side is a bridge 
built by the Emperour Augustus, which they hold to 
be very faire. Towards the East is a Triumphall Arke, 
M. I 209 O 

The Brooke 
Rubico. 

Rimini. 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the South-side is the third Mountaine, upon which is 
the Castle called Capo d Monte, built in the same place 
where the Temple of Venus stoode; and upon this side 
the Citie is narrow, there being no houses built upon the 
Mountaine, but onely in the valey upon the sea. The 
The Citie in Pope hath souldiers in this Castle, and thereby keepes 
subjextion to the Citie in subjection: for the Citizens long defended 
the Pope. their liberty, and howsoever they were subject to the Pope, 
yet secretly chose their Magistrates every yeere, to the 
yeere I532 ; at which time Pope Clement the seventh 
built this Castle against the Turkish Pirates, but besides 
he used it to bring the Citizens in absolute subjection. 
The streetes are narrow, and the wayes ill paved with 
Flint. The Haven is of a triangular forme, and is now 
very pleasant, as of old it was of great fame for a most 
secure Port, yet it seemed not to me capable of many 
or great ships. Perhaps it was of old fit to receive the 
Roman Navie of Gallies; but since they have neglected 
to preserve it. Trajane the Emperour repaired this 
Haven, and adorned it with a stately triumphall Arke 
of marble, which remaines to this day. About this Haven 
there is pleasant walking, and the place where the 
La Loggia. Marchants meete, called la Loggia, lying upon the sea, 
is as sweete an open roome, as ever I saw; but narrow, 
and nothing answerable for stately building to the 
Exchange of London. It is beautified with sweete 
pictures, among which one of an Angell, which lookes 
right upon you, on which side soever you behold it, is 
much esteemed. They have a proverb, one Peter in 
Rome, one Tower in Cremona, and one Haven in Ancona 
(for the excellency of them). Neere the gate of the Citie 
(to my remembrance) on the East-side, is a very sweete 
Fountaine, powring water out of many heads of stone. 
At Ancona, according to the custome of passengers, 
we agreed with a Vetturine, or letter of horses, that each 
of us paying him fiftie five Poli, hee should finde us 
horses, and horse-meate, and our owne diet to Rome; 
and to this end his servant followed us on foote, after the 

212 



COMMENTS UPON LORETO 

fashion of the Italians, who ride slowly, and these servants 
are called Vetturini, or Vetturali. Now we were to crosse 
the bredth of Italy, from the Adriatique to the Tyrrhene 
Sea. The first day in the Morning, we rode fifteene miles 
to a little Citie, called Madonna di Loretto, through 
fruitfull Mountaines, and passing an high Promontary. 
By the way was an Altar, with this inscription in Latin; 
O passenger, goe on merily, &c. Gregorie the thirteenth 
hath well paved the rest of the way. The like inscription 
is in the ascent of the Mountaine, upon which the little 
Citie Loreto stands: for this way (in a fruitfull Countrey 
of corne, and a dirty soile) was paved at the charge of the 
said Pope. 
A certaine chamber hath given beginning to this Citie 
and the Church thereof, then which nothing is esteemed 
more holy among the Papists; and because many gifts 
of great price use to be given by vow to our Lady of this 
Church, the City is well fortified against Pirats, who did 
once spoile the same, and were like againe to be invited 
by the hope of rich spoiles to the like attempt, if the 
Towne lay unfortified. It is of little circuit, and lieth in 
length from East to the West, so narrow ; as it hath 
almost but one streete in the bredth, and all the houses 
of this streete are Innes, or Shops of them that sell Beades 
to number prayers. On the East side, after a steepe 
descent of a Mountaine, lies a valley of two miles, and 
beyond that the sea. On the North side, towards Ancona, 
though the sea be very farre distant, yet from this Citie, 
seated upon a high Mountaine, it may easily be seene. 
Upon the dores of this Church, famous for mens super- 
stitious worship, these verses are written: 
Illotus timeat quicunque intrara, Sacellum, 
In terris nullum sanctius orbis habet. 
Enter not here unwasht of any spot, 
For a more holy Church the world hath not. 
At the Church dore is a statua of brasse erected to 
Pope Gregorie the thirteenth. As I walked about the 
213 

 594- 
[I. ii. 98.] 

Loreto. 

The Church 
of Loreto. 



hobo 
1594-. 
I priest 
catn K out 
diell. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

keleeve as he 
list. 
Woe to him 
that keleeves. 
Woe to him 
that keleeves. 

Church, behold in a darke Chappell a Priest, by his 
Exorcismes casting a divell out of a poore woman : Good 
Lord what fencing and truly conjuring words he used! 
How much more skilfull was he in the divels names? 
then any ambitious Roman ever was in the names of his 
Citizens, whom he courted for their voices. If he had 
eaten a bushell of salt in hell ; If he had been an inhabitant 
thereof, surely this Art could never have been more 
familiar to him. He often spake to the ignorant woman 
in the Latin tongue, but nothing lesse then in Tullies 
phrase, and at last the poore wretch, either hired to deceive 
the people, or (if that be more probable) drawne by 
familiar practice with the Priest, or at least affrighted 
with his strange language and cries, confessed her selfe 
dispossessed by his exorcisme. In the body of the 
Church, a Table of written hand, in the Greeke, Latin, 
and many other tongues, was fastened to a Piller, setting 
downe at large the wonderfull historie of the Chamber 
in the midst of the Church, which I confesse was lesse 
curiously observed by me, abhorring from that super- 
stition, & hastening from thence as much as I might; yet 
give me leave to set down the sum thereof out of the 
itinerary of Villamont a French Gentleman. This 
Let the Reader Chamber or Chappell (saith he) is the very house, in 
which the Q.geene Virgin of Nazaret was borne, brought 
up, and saluted by the Angell, foretelling her of Christs 
birth, and in which Christ was conceived, and in which 
the Virgin dwelt after Christs ascention, accompanied with 
the holy Apostles, especially with Saint John by Christs 
commaund, which the Apostles after the Virgins death, 
for the great mysteries done here, turned into a Chappell, 
consecrated to the sacrificing of Christ, and dedicated the 
same, and with their owne hands, made the great Crosse 
of wood, now set in the window of the Chappell, and in 
which Saint Luke made with his hand the picture and 
Image now set above it. Let mee adde: This Chappell 
from a House became a Chamber, and of a Chamber was 
made a Chappell, and it is built of bricke, and is thirtie 

214 



COMMENTS UPON LORETO ,.t). 
1594- 
upon the recovery of his health. Villamont adds that this Beoll ow 
Chapel is compassed with a wal of white Marble, curiously oly tee 
engraven, but that this wall could never by any art bee wa#es of 
bricke are, 
fastned to the Chappell, and that the Chappell is also wic cannot 
compassed with twentie pillars, bearing the Images of abide the 
ten Prophets, and the ten Sybills. Hee adds, that many impu,e touc 
miracles are heere done, and first gives instance in the 0fMarb/e. 
person of the Marques of Baden, in the yeere x584. 
Secondly he sets it downe for a Maxime, and proves it [I. il. oo.] 
by an example, that no man ever tooke any thing out of 
this Church, without great mischiefe befalling him; and 
that the robbers thereof are compelled to restore, as it 
were by infernall furies. Let me say truly (alwaies 
reserving due reverence to the blessed Virgin, to whom 
the Scriptures teach such divine worship to be most 
unpleasing, as the Papists yeeld her), I say let me with 
due reverence tell a truth. My selfe and two Dutch-men 
my consorts, abhorring from this superstition, by leave 
entred the inner Chappell, where we did see the Virgins 
picture, adorned with pretious Jewels, and the place (to 
increase religious horror) being darke, yet the Jewels 
shined by the light of wax candles. When we were 
entred, the Priest courteously left us, to give us space 
for our devotion : but when we came forth (as the Italians 
proverbially speake of the Priests avarice, Every Psalme 
ends in, Glory be, &c. as if they should say, All religion 
to end in profit) it was necessarie for us to cast almes 
into an iron chest behind the Altar, covered with an iron 
grate. Therefore my consorts, of purpose to delight the Ca'efu# 
Priests eares with the sound of money, as with musicke, Dutchmen. 
did cast into that chest many brasse quatrines, but of 
small value, and my selfe being last, when my turne was 
to give alines, did in stead thereof, gather some tenne 
quatrines of theirs, which lay scattered upon the grate, 
and got that cleare gaine by that Idoll. God forbid I 
should bragge of any contempt to Religion; but since 
it appeares, that such worship is unpleasing to God: and 
because Papists will have all their miracles beleeved, I 
217 



COMMENTS UPON LORETO A.). 
594- 
banished men, vulgarly called Banditi, who were banished 
for murthers, and such like crimes, and now had their 
pardon, upon condition, that for some yeeres they should Banditi 
serve the Emperour in Hungarie against the Turks. ardoned. 
These men abhorred in all Italy, yet (no doubt) at this 
time very devout, did make stifle vows, to expiat their 
sinnes, and to have happie returne out of Hungarie, yet 
they held their hands from giving any large alines. My 
selfe and my consorts were all this day fasting, for it had 
been an unperdonable sinne to have demaunded meate 
in our Inne, before wee had been in the Church, and 
would have given open occasion to suspect our Religion. 
At last when wee returned to the Inne, our Vetturine 
gave us our dinner. 
The same day after a slight dinner we rode foureteene 
miles, upon a causey paved with stone, and winding about [I. ii. o.] 
a mountaine, then through fields abounding with Olive 
trees, but having no vines, and we came to the City 
Macerata, where the Popes Legate lies, an.d keepes his 
chancery for this Marca of Ancona. Part of this Province 
yeelds rich wine, whereof they have onely white wine in 
the Innes. The second day m the morning, we rode 
twenty two miles to Polverina, through a pleasant way, 
and fruitfull fields, yeelding corne and olives. And by 
the way neere the City Tollentino, were the confines of 
the Marca of Ancona, and of the Dukedome of Spoleto. 
After dinner we rode ten miles to the Castle Serevallo, 
through stony and barren mountaines. The third day in 
the morning we rode sixteene miles to Fuligni, through 
most stony and barren mountaines, which are called Thelpennine 
Apennine, and divide the length of Italy, and through mountain,. 
a large plaine planted with olive trees, and compassed 
about with mountaines. This City was built upon the 
ruines of the City Forum Flaminlum. 
After dinner we rode ten miles to the City Spoleto, 
through a firtile plaine, but stony, yeelding together in 
the same field, vines, corne, Almond and Olive trees, and 
at the end of the plaine this City is seated, partly in a 



COMMENTS UPON NARNI 

things,) and that this Fen endeth in a Lake, of old called 
Velinus, now vulgarly called Lago di pie di luco, and 
that betweene the running out of the waters, there is a 
Fountaine of Neptune, (which Pliny hath described) and 
that this Lake is the Navell or midst of Italy; and lastly, Te Na,dl f 
that the water falling into the Lake (compassed with Italy. 
mountaines) by steepe discents, maketh noises like the 
groanes, yellings, and sighes of infernall spirits. From 
whence, and by other arguments, he seemes to prove 
plainely, that the verses of Virgill in the seventh Booke 
of his -Eneados, are meant of this place, and that others 
are deceived, who thinke them meant by Tenaso in Apulia, 
especially since the vallies Ansancti are in this place, 
vulgarly called Nesanto, for Ansanto, which signifies on 
all sides holy, because they are fertile. The verses of 
Virgil are these ; 
Est locus Italia in medio, sub montibus altis, 
Nobilis, & fama multis memoratur in oris, 
Ansancti valles, &c. 
Hic specus horrendum, & savi spiracula Ditis, 
Monstrantur, &c. [I. ii. o,.] 
Italies Center hath great Mounts beneath 
A noble place, which is farre knowne by fame, 
The Ansancti valleyes, &c. 
A dreadfull hole, whereat fierce Dis doth breath, 
Here may be seene, &c. 
After dinner, we rode twelve miles to a little Towne, 
lying beyond the River Tyber, namely, eight miles to 
the Castle Otricoli, through woody Mountaines, and 
Valleyes bearing Olive trees, and corne together with those 
trees; and from thence to the side of the River Tyber Te 
two miles in pasture fieldes. Here we passed to the 
West side of this so famous River, where of old the 
Emperour Augustus built a stately bridge; but now men 
and horse passe in a ferry-boate, which is drawne over 
with the force of mens hands, by a great cable fastned 
a-crosse the River. And least the boate should be carried 

22I 



4 Ferryboat 
drawne y a 
cable. 

Castel' nuovo, 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

away with the swift streame, a second cable is fastned 
a-crosse the River by postes on each side higher then a 
man; and they have a third short cable, to the one end 
whereof the boate is fastened, and the other end hath 
a strong wheele, which is put upon the second high cable, 
upon which the boat slips forward, as it is drawne with 
mens hands by the first low cable: for the bed of the 
Tyber is broade in this place, and hath his spring not 
far off, among the high Apenine Mountains, and falling 
thence with great force, would carry away any boat rowed 
with oares: But from thence the bed of the River grows 
narrow, and is such at Rome, as it scarce deserves the 
name of a Brooke, and nothing answeres the glorious 
fame which Italians have given it, who alwaies extoll their 
owne things to the skie. Hereupon it is necessarie, that 
when any store of raine falls, or much snow suddenly 
meltes, those waters falling from the Mountaines, should 
overflow the fields, and the Citie of Rome it selfe, as they 
have often done, with great danger of the Citie, the same 
being not farre distant from this Ferrey, and these high 
Mountaines, among which the river hath his spring. But 
from Rome it runs in a narrow bed I z miles to Ostia 
with a slow course, and there endeth in Lakes, the mouth 
of the haven being so stopped, as the least Barks cannot 
passe to & from the sea. Here beyond our expectation, 
our Veturine alleaged, that he had agreed with us to pay 
for our diet, not for our passages of Rivers ; by which 
captious trick, each of us was forced to pay two Giulii 
for our passage over the River. Of the foresaid twelve 
miles to the little towne where of I spake, two miles 
remained, which we rode, and there lodged that night. 
The fifth day in the morning, wee rode seventeene miles 
to Castel' nuovo, through woody Mountaines, and Valies 
of come, in a way very dirty and slippery; and here our 
Veturine tied to pay tot our diet, put a new tricke upon 
us, saying, that he would not dine, but goe on to Rome, 
yet if wee pleased to dine, hee would out of his duty 
stay for us, otherwise being ready to finish the rest of 

222 



,4 wise 
fashion. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

danger, into which if I should have fallen, I hoped to 
escape with more ease and contentment, when I had beene 
at the furthest of my journey. Therefore according to 
the fashion, I agreed with a Vetturine at Rome, for forty 
foure Giulii to give me a horse to Naples, and to pay for 
my diet and horsemeat. I say it is the fashion, especially 
in waies of danger and trouble to get meat, that passengers 
should agree with their Vetturine for their diet; which 
if they doe not, they shall be subject to the fraud of Hosts, 
in such a journey, and hardly get so good meat as they, 
who daily passing, are well acquainted in all places. And 
in this tumultuary journey to Naples, it is most of all 
necessary for strangers thus to agree with their Vetturine, 
since the Hosts are great extorters from all men, and 
especially from strangers; and it would be difficult for 
strangers not knowing the fashion of that hasty journey 
and of the Country, to provide for themselves. When 
we went out of Rome, our consorts suddenly in a broad 
street lighted from their horses, and gave them to the 
Yetturines to hold, and so went themselves to the Holy 
staires, vulgarly called Le scale sante, that they might 
there pray for a happy journey; at which time my selfe 
and my consorts slipped into the next Church, and going 
in at one doore, and out at the other, escaped the 
worshipping of those holy staires, and at fit time came 
to take our horses with the rest. They say that these 
staires were the same which Christ ascended in Pilates 
house at Jerusalem, and that they were from thence 
brought to Rome: and indeed at Jerusalem the place 
of them lies void, so as I would in this much rather 
beleeve the Romans, then in the transportation of the 
Chamber at Loreto, which they would have done by the 
.Angels, and that often and at unseasonable times, whereas 
m so many voyages into Palestine it was not difficult 
to bring these staires from thence. Yet they being of 
marble, and very rich, I would faine know how such a 
monument could be preserved, when Jerusalem was 
destroied. And if they say they belonged to that house 

224 



FROM ROME TO NAPLES 

of Pilate, which they shew at this day, ! dare be 
bold to affirme that the magnificence of these staires 
is nothing answerable to the poore building of that 
house. 
The twelfth of March we rode twelve miles to Marino, Marino. 
a Castle belonging to the Roman Family of Colonna, and 
we passed through a fruitfull plaine of come, having on 
our right hand towards the South, the ruines of old Rome, 
and the Castle Tusculo, where Cicero wrote his Tusculane 
questions, not farre from Palestrina, of old called Preneste, 
where Marius besieged by Scylla, killed himself, & we 
might often see the Tyrrhene sea: and having upon our 
left hand towards the North, an anticke conduit, made 
of bricke, lying all the length of the way from Rome to 
the Easterne mountaines, in which Marino is seated, and 
from whence the water was so farre brought to Rome, 
and upon the same side having a new conduit built by 
Pope Sixtus the fifth, when the pipes of the other were 
broken : but the same is much lower and lesse magnificent 
then the other, and upon this hand we had mountaines 
not farre distant. Marino was of old called Mariana villa, 
and from this Castle the mountaines which by the way 
we had on our left hand toward the North, crosse over 
to the Tyrrhene sea, towards the South, shutting up the [I. ii. ioL.] 
large plaine from Rome hither. And these mountaines 
planted with vines, and having a sweet prospect into the 
same plaine, are very pleasant. Whereupon there be 
very many Pallaces of Roman Senators built upon these 
mountaines, which lying high, of the fresh aire, vulgarly 
this place is called La Frescada. Among these mountaines 
in the Village Tivoli, the deceased Cardinall Hipolito 
of Este, built a Pallace and a wonderfull garden, which 
being ten mile distant from the City of Rome, the 
passengers for the most part having seene Rome, did in 
the Cardinals time, and yet many times doe passe that 
way. For it resembles a terrestriall Paradice, by reason A terrestriall 
of the fountaines, statuaes, caves, groves, fishponds, cages Paradice. 
of birds, Nightingales flying loose in the groves, and 
M. I 225 p 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the most pleasant prospect. In this Castle Marino we 
made some stay, to expect some passengers which were 
longer detained at Rome by their businesse. 
And the Pope in this place gives sixty Horsemen 
Musqueters to accompany the Carrier, vulgarly called I1 
Procaccia, and to defend him from the spoyling of banished 
Banded mc:: men, vulgarly called Banditi. And for this cause all 
danger, passengers goe in this Carriers company, neither dare any 
passe alone. For these banished men lurking upon the 
confines of the Popes State and the Kingdome of Naples, 
many times make excursions as farre as these moun- 
taines, to doe robberies, and the weeke last past they had 
killed many passengers, and had robbed the Carrier, who 
doth not onely beare letters, but leades many Mules laded 
with goods. The chiefe of these banished men was the 
Nephew (so they call Church-mens bastards) of the 
Cardinall Cajetano, who having eight thousand crownes 
yeerely rent in these parts, was banished by the Pope, 
and he understanding that a Roman Gentleman passed 
with that Carrier, who. had great friends about the Pope, 
and hoping to make his peace by taking him prisoner, 
did for that cause assaile that Carrier and his guard, till 
hearing that the Gentleman while they fought, had escaped 
to the next City, he withdrew himselfe & his men into 
the mountaines. This danger from banished men, makes 
the journey to Naples very troublesome; and it is not 
safe nor lawful for any man to leave the company of this 
Carrier. So as the passengers rise before day, and take 
horse, and so sitting all the day, yet ride not above twenty 
miles, for the slow pace of the mules, and at noone they 
have no rest, onely when they have the Inne in sight, 
so as there is no danger of theeves, they are permitted 
to gallop before, that they may eat a morsell, or rather 
devoure it: for as soone as the mules are past, they must 
to horse againe, every man not onely making hast for 
his owne safety, but the souldiers forcing them to be gone, 
who are more slow then the rest. To conclude the mules 
going a very slow pace, it was very irkesome to the 
226 



FROM ROME TO NAPLES 

594- 

passengers to rise before day, and to follow them step 
by step. 
Having dined at Marino, and our full company being 
come, we together with our guard of horse-men rode 
eight miles to Velitri, through wooddy mountaines, I/elitri. 
infamous for the robberies of banished men, and upon 
our right hand towards the South and towards the 
Tyrrhene sea, was a Lake vulgarly called Lago Nymweo , 
which the old Romans (delighted with doing difficult 
things) used to fill with sea water, and therein to make 
navall fights. One wood by which we passed was more 
dangerous then the rest, where the Pope maintaines forty 
foot to assist the Guard of horse, till they have passed 
the same. The discent of the last mountaine neere 
Velitri, was two miles long., yet pleasant by reason of the 
multitude of Vines growing upon short stakes, which 
use to yeeld the richest wine. Velitri is by writers called 
Belitre, an old City of the Volsci, and famous for the 
birth of the Emperour Augustus, and the dwelling.of 
the Octavian Family. The second day in the mormng 
we rode thirteene or foureteene miles to Sermoneta, an.d Serraoneta. 
in the midst of the way our guard of horse left us, and 
their trumpet asked of every man a gift in curtesie, which 
we gladly gave, and there new horsemen meeting us, 
tooke upon them our guard. After dinner we rode eight 
miles to a little towne La casa nuova, and five miles to 
an old City, which Livy calleth Privernum, yet other 
Cosmographers write that the ruines thereof lie in a plaine 
two miles off, whereas this is seated upon a mountaine, 
yet growing to a City by the decay of the former, is 
called Privernum, and vulgarly Piperno. We passed 
through wooddy mountaines, full of Olive trees on the [I. ii. o5. ] 
right hand, and a fruitfull plaine of corne, and many 
Orchards of Orange trees, and like fruits, on the left hand. 
And among the mountaines on the right hand, the most 
remote was called Circello, of the famous Witch Circe, 
and it is a Promontory hanging over the sea, where at 
this day they shew the cup, in which Ulisses drunke the 



x594. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

inchanted potion, and under the hollow caves of this 
mountaine, the Turkish Pirates lurke in the summer 
time, and rob the Christians. The last five miles of our 
journey, all the passengers and souldiers were put before 
the Carrier and his Mules; for then we turned out of 
the plaine towards mountaines on the left hand, where 
(as they said) the banished men had the weekebefore 
assailed the Carrier. After we had dined, the horse-men 
left us, and certaine foot did after guide us from one 
City to another. The third day in the morning we had 
Terracin. a guard of horse-men, and rode twelve miles to Terracina, 
an old City, so called in the time of the Emperour 
Tiberius, and we passed through a fertile plaine of corne 
on the right hand towards the Sea, and stony hils full of 
Olive trees on the left hand towards the Land, and many 
vineyards, and ruines of houses neere the City. After 
we had this morning rode two miles, we passed by an 
old Monastery called la Badia della fossa nuova, where 
they have a monument of Saint Thomas Aquinas, but 
his body was carried to the City Tolouse in France, when 
the French-men had the Kingdome of Naples. And after 
we had rode ten miles our guard of horse left us, and 
certaine foot meeting us, conducted us other 2 miles. In 
this way the waters in many places at the foot of the hils 
Brimston. did stinke of brimstone, but infinite Laurel trees on 11 
sides refreshed our smel. Terracina in the flourishing 
time of Rome was called Anxur, and it is seated upon 
a mountaine, as most of the foresaid Cities are, and it 
lieth upon the sea, which the land imbraceth like a halle 
Moone, this Citie lying upon one horne thereof, and the 
Citie Cajeta upon the other, of which Citie the Cardinall 
had name, who did oppose himselfe to Luther. The 
flouds of the sea make great noise, with striking upon 
hollow caves of Rocks. A souldier came out of the 
Tower of Torracina, and demaunded of every man five 
baocci, which we paid, though it were onely due from 
them, who had portmanteaues with locks. Neere this 
City we did see the ruines of a stately Theater. After 
228 



FROM ROME TO NAPLES 

dinner we rode ten miles to the City Fondi, through a 
stony way, being part of the old way of Appius; and 
upon the right hand we had a plaine towards the sea, 
and upon the left hand rockey Mountaines towards the 
land, where wee passed by the Citie Monticello. At the 
mid-way, the Popes guard having left us, we came to 
two old ruined walles, shutting up the way, and lying 
from the Mountaine to the sea. This place called 
Sportelle, devides the territories of the Pope and the $portdle. 
King of Naples, and is kept. by a Garison of Spaniards. 
I remember at our commmg backe, these Souldiers 
demaunded of the passengers a gift in curtesie, and when 
some refused it, they stopped their passage, and onely 
troubled them in the searching of their carriage, under 
pretence that they might carry some prohibited things. 
These Souldiers did accompany us to the Citie Fondi. 
I call the same and some other places by the name of 
Citie, because they were Cities of old, though now they 
be onely Villages, and have no other beautie, but the 
ruines of age. This old Citie was sacked in the yeere 
534 by Barbarossa a Turkish Pirate. It is seated in a 
Plaine, having onely a meadow and a field overflowed 
betweene it and the sea, and the houses are built of Flints 
and such litle stones, but it had most pleasant Orchards, Pleasant 
of Citrons, Oranges and Lemons. The Orange trees at Orchard. 
one time have ripe and greene fruites and buds, and are 
greene in winter, giving at that dead time a pleasant 
remembrance of Sommer. By our Veturines sparing, our 
diet was daily very short, and at Terracina we could not 
so much as get wine; and here our supper was so. short, 
as we judged our Vetturines good Phisitians, who per- 
swade light suppers. The wines of Fondi and Cecubo 
(for the mount Cecubo is not farre distant) are much 
celebrated by the Roman Poets, namely, by Horace. The 
fourth day in the morning, we rode ten miles to Mola, 
vulgarly called Nola, upon a paved Causey, betweene stony 
Mountaines, being part of the way of Appius, and through 
great woods of Olive trees, having by the way many 
229 



COMMENTS UPON CAPUA 

After we rode 8 miles to the most pleasant City Capua, 
through a most sweet Plaine, called Laborina, because 
it is laborious to the tiller, but it is wonderfull fruitfull, 
and aboundeth with Olive trees, and vines planted upon 
Elmes. Here we dined, not according to our covenant 
at our Vetturines charge, but at our owne cost, and each 
man had such meate as he chose, and that (as I thinke) 
because the passengers being now out of danger, and in 
a place abounding with all dainties, refused to. be dieted 
at their Veturines pleasure, and chose rather to feast them- 
selves as they list. And in deede we had excellent cheare, 
delicate wine, most white pure bread, and among other 
dainties, I remember wee had blacke Olives, which I had 
never seene before, and they were of a most pleasant taste. 
Here each of us paid two Giulii and a halle for our dinner. 
This City is newly built, but if you goe out of the Gates 
to Saint Maries Church towards Naples upon the South- 
xvVest side of the Towne, there you shall see a Colossus, 
and a Cave, and many Monuments of old Capua among 
the Orchards: the delicacies of which Citie were of old 
so famous, as we reade, that the Army of Hanibal grew 
effeminate thereby. This new Citie hath a Castle upon 
the North-East side, built upon the walles, wherein is 
a Garrison of souldiers, which keepeth the Citie in 
obedience, and the River Vulturnus runnes upon the same 
side of the Citie, which they passe with a bridge of stone, 
neere which there is an inscription, that Phillip King of 
Spaine repaired the way, and built the bridge. The Citie 
is of a little compasse, but strong, and it hath a faire 
Senate-House, and a faire Church called 1' Annonciata, 
with a faire Altar. 
After dinner wee had no guard, neither were tied to 
accompany the Carrier, but it was free for every man to 
take his way and company, or to ride alone at his pleasure. 
So from Capua we rode eight miles to Anversa, a new 
Citie, otherwise called Adversa, and of old called Attella, 
whence were the old Satyricall Comedies, which were full 
of baudery, and were called Attellane. And betweene 

I594. 
C apua. 

Excdlent 
cheare. 



I594- 

Naples. 

Rude 
Citizens. 

FVNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

this City and the Mountaine Vesuvius, now called Somma, 
out of the way towards the land, and neere the Castle 
Airola, is the Valley Caudine, where Hanibal put the 
Romans, drawne into straites, disgracefully to passe under 
a paire of gallowes, which were called the Caudine gallows, 
wel knowne to all that have read Livy. 
The same afternoone we rode further eight miles to 
Naples. And all this way from Capua to Naples, is a 
most fruitfull plaine of come, and vines growing high 
upon Elme trees, according to the Tillage of Lombardy, 
one and the same field yeelding come and wine, and wood 
to burne, but the other wines of this Country growing 
upon hills and mountaines, and all the other fruites, cannot 
be worthily praised. We entered Naples on the East 
side by the Gate of Capua, where the Vice-Roies use to 
enter m pompe. And this Gate is stately built, and upon 
this side, the suburbes are long and faire, and the streete 
of Capua within the wals, is no lesse faire, in which is 
the prison: and because we were attired like Frenchmen, 
the prisoners scoffed at us, and to my great marvell, the 
Citizens of good sort did not forbeare this barbarous 
usage towards us. 

The description of Naples, and the Territory. 

A Rome farre distant. 
B Capua. 
D Torre di Greco, and the 
Mountaine Somma. 
E The Mountaine Pau- 
silippo. 
F The Iland Nisita, or 
Nisa. 
G The Iland Procida. 
H S. Martino (as I thinke) 
an Iland. 
I Ischia, an Iland. 
K Caprea, or Capre, 
Iland. 

L Palmosa an Iland, and 
beyond it the Syrenes 
Iland, famous by fables. 
M The Citie Caieta. 
N Circello, a famous Moun- 
taine for the Witch 
Circe. 
P The Bay of Baie or 
Pozzoli. 
R Linternum, now called 
Torre della Patria. 
X The Promontory Miseno. 
an Y The Cape of Minerva. 
Z The old Citie Cuma. 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

a The Gate of Capua. 
b The Kings Gate. 
c The Church S. Clara. 
d The Castle of S. 
Ermo. 
eeeee Scattered houses. 
f The Haven. 
g I1 Molle. 
h The Castle devouo. 
k The Vice-Royes house. 
1 The new Castle. 

m The Lake d' Agnano, com- 
passed with the Moun- 
taine Astruno. 
n Grotta del can'. 
0 Solfataria. 
p Pozzoli. 
q Tripergola. 
r The Lake of Avernus. 
s Baie. 
t Cento Camerelle. 
v Piscina mirabile. 

w The Elisian fields. 

From the foresaid part on the East-side of the Citie, 
where we entred by the (a) Gate of (a) Capua, without [I. ii.,o.] 
the walls, towards the land. Eight miles from the Citie 
lies (D) Torre di Greco, now called Torre d' ottavio, 
where Pliny, writer of the Naturall history, and Admirall 
of the Navey of Augustus, was neere the said Tower 
choked with vapours, while too curiously he desired to 
behold the burning of the Mountaine Vesuvius, now 
called Somma. This Mountaine Somma is most high, Mountaine 
and upon the top is dreadfull, where is a gulfe casting Vesuvius. 
out flames, and while the windes inclosed, seeke to breake 
out by naturall force, there have been heard horrible 
noises and fearefull groanes. The rest of the Mountaine 
aboundeth with vines, and Olives, and there g.rowes the 
Greeke-wine, which Pliny calles Pompeies wine; and 
of this wine they say, this place is called Torre di Greco. 
The greatest burning of this Mountaine brake out in 
the time of the Emperour Titus, the smoke whereof 
made the Sunne darke, burnt up the next territories, 
and consumed two Cities, Pompeia, and Herculea, and 
the ashes thereof covered all the fields of that territory. 
It brake out againe in the yeere I538 with great gaping 
of the earth, and casting downe part of the Mountaine. 
The Pallace there, taking the name of the next Village, 
is called Pietra Biancha, that is white stone, which on 

33 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

King of Aragon, and Ferdinand his sonne, and Ferdinand 
the second. And in this place also, the Monkes in like 
sort sing, or rather houle rest to their soules. They shew 
a Crucifix, which they say, did speake to Thomas Aquinas 4 marvelous 
in this manner; Thomas, thou hast written well of me, Crucifix. 
what reward doest thou aske? And that Thomas should 
answere; No reward Lord but thy selfe onely. I have 
heard, that Saint Bernard knowing the fraudes and 
impostures of the Monkes, and not dissembling them, 
when the Image of the blessed Virgin did in like sort 
praise him, did with much more pietie and wisdome 
answere out of S. Paul, I. Cor. 14 . Let women be 
silent in the Church, for it is not permitted them to 
speake. 
Not farre thence are the publike schooles of the 
University, which the Emperour Fredericke the second 
founded there. In the most faire Church of the Monkes 
of Saint Olivet, the Images of Ferdinand the first, and 4 most 
Alphonso the second, are so lively engraven, and doe so beautifull 
motumenL 
artificially represent them, as well in the bed dying, as 
upon their knees praying, with the mourning of the 
by-standers, (the horror of Religion being increased with 
lampes continually burning,) as my selfe by chance passing 
by this Chappell, thought I had fallen among living 
Princes, not dead Images; and perhaps I have seene a 
more sumptuous monument, but a more beautifull did 
I never see. In the little Church of the Hermitane [I. ii. 
Friers, Saint John in Carbonara, is a monument of Robert 
King of Naples, and of Joane the first his sister, of white 
marble, being an Altar, which the Italians thinke the 
most stately monument of Europe; but for my part I 
dare not preferre it to some in Germany, nor to many 
in England, nor to the monuments of the Turkish 
Emperours. Many tables are hung up by vow in this 
Church. There is a faire sepulcher of white marble 
erected to N. Caraccioli Mar, hall of the Kingdome. I 
omit the most faire Church of Saint Mary of the 
Preachers, almost all of marble, and the Cathedrall 

z35 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

I594. 

fortified by Alphonso the first, King of Aragon, as it is 
numbred among the chiefe forts of Europe. The inward 
gate is most faire all of marble, and it hath a little foure- 
square hall, in which the Parliaments are yeerely held, 
and the Viceroyes weekely sit in judgement. Neere this 
hall is a faire tower, in which the Kingly ornaments are The Kingly 
]aid up; namely, a scepter of gold, with great diamonds 
upon the top, the sword with the haft and scabbard of 
gold, adorned with precious stones; the Kings Crowne 
shining with precious stones, a golden crosse, an huge 
pot of gold set with precious stones, great Unicornes 
hornes, and the chiefe kinds of precious stones. 
Further towards the West, (yet so neere, as the garden 
of the Pallace lies upon the ditch of this Castle), is the 
(k) Viceroyes Palace, which hath a large and most sweet The Ficeroyes 
garden, and delicate walk, paved with divers coloured Palace. 
and engraven marbles. And in this garden are two 
banquetting houses, whereof one is very stately built, and 
hath a sweet fountaine close to the table continually 
powring out water. Also there is a delicate cage of 
birds, wrought about with thick wyer, and it is as big 
as an ordinary stil-house, delicately shadowed round about, 
wherein are many kinds of singing birds, aswell of Italy 
as forraigne Countries. 
A little further within the water, is the (h) Castle of 7"he Catle of 
the egge, built upon a rock by the Normans, which Rocke the Egge. 
is of an ovall forme, and gave the name to the Castle, 
vulgarly called Castel' del' vuovo, which at this day is 
ruinous; and some say it was the Pallace of Lucullus; 
but it is certaine that the Normans built it, as they did 
also another Castle which is old, and called the Capuan 
Castle, of the adjoining Capuan-gate. Naples was of 
old called Parthenope, of one of the Syrens there buried, 
whom they write to have cast her selfe into the sea, for 
griefe that by no flattery shee could detaine Ulisses with [I. ii. ,z.] 
her. The Citizens of old Cuma built Naples, and lest 
it should grow great to the prejudice of Cuma, they pulled 
it down againe, till at last oppressed with a great plague, 



594. 

Naples of old 
called 
Parthenope. 

G lasse 
windowes rare 
in Italy. 

Four publike 
houses. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

upon the warning of an oracle, they built it againe, and 
changing the old name Parthenope, called it Naples, which 
in Greeke signifies a new City. It is seated at the foot 
of hils and mountaines, in length from the North-east 
to the South-west, or rather seemeth to be triangular, 
whereof two corners lie upon the sea, and that towards 
the West is more narrow then the other, and the third 
blunt corner lies towards the mountaines. Upon the 
East-side there be pleasant suburbs, and upon the West- 
side more large suburbs ; but upon the North-side without 
the wals, there be onely some few (eeeee) scattered houses 
built upon the sides of hils. 
The houses of the City are foure roofes high, but the 
tops lie almost plaine, so as they walke upon them in the 
coole time of the night, or at lest in generall the tops are 
not much erected, like other parts of Italy, and the 
building is of free stone, and sheweth antiquity: but 
the windowes are all covered with paper or linnen cloth; 
for glasse windowes are most rare in Italy, and as it were 
proper to Venice. It hath three faire broad and long 
streetes, namely, La Toletano, la Capuana and la vicaria, 
the rest are very narrow. There be eight gates towards 
land, and as many towards sea, among which the Capuan 
gate, since the Emperour Charles the fifth entered thereat, 
is decked with monuments and statuaes. There be in 
this City very many Pallaces, of Gentlemen, Barons, and 
Princes; whereupon the City is vulgarly called Napoli 
Gentile: Among these, two Pallaces are most stately, 
one of the Duke of Grevina, which the King of Spaine 
forbad to be finished ; the other of the Prince of Salerno. 
There be foure publike houses, called Seggii, in which 
the Princes and Gentlemen have yeerely meetings, and 
there also is the daily meeting of the Merchants. Almost 
every house hath his fountaine of most wholsome waters. 
Neere the market place are many Innes, but poore and 
base; for howsoever the City aboundeth with houses 
where they give lodging and meat, yet it deserves no 
praise for faire Innes of good entertainement. On all 
238 



The mountaine 
Pausilio. 

[I. ii.   3-] 

/1 assage 
under the 
mountaine. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

aswell for the houses and villages built upon it, as for 
the excellent fruits which it yeeldeth of all kinds. This 
mountaine being hard to be ascended, extendeth it selfe 
in good length from the sea towards the land, so as the 
way would be very troublesome to Pozzoli, either ascend- 
ing the mountaine, or compassing it, had they not found 
a remedy to this inconvenience. Therefore the Progeni- 
tors of these Citizens (which some attribute to Lucullus, 
as they doe all magnificall things, and others to one 
Bassus: but Leander the Cosmographer, a witnesse 
without exception, attributes it to Coccius a Roman,) 
I say, their Progenitors with wonderful Art and huge 
expence, digged a passage under this mountaine, and so 
made a plaine way to Pozzoli and those parts. This 
way Strabo cals a Cave, and it is vulgarly called La grotta 
di Napoli,. and serveth this famous City in stead of a 
gate, yet is it a musket shot distant, and alwaies lies 
open. And the foresaid Leander witnesseth, that it is 
twelve foot broad, twenty foure high, and two hundred 
long, to which length if you adde 5oo. foote more, which 
at both ends was digged, but lies not covered as the rest, 
but in open aire, this worke may well be said to be an 
Italian mile long. My selfe observed, that part of the 
passage under the mountaine, to bee nine hundred and 
sixteene walking paces long, and nine broad, and the 
hight I imagined to double the bredth, yet is it in some 
places biger then in other. And for the bredth, it is 
certaine, that two Coaches, or Carts may passe together, 
one by the other. The enterance and the going out at 
the other end, are like two gates, and of old light came 
in by many holes or windowes from the top of the moun- 
taine; but the falling of earth did by little and little 
stop this light; and in the time of Seneca this passage 
was so darke, as he compares it to a prison, and at last 
the light was so stopped by the fall of earth, by nettles 
and shrubs, as there was no light at all, till Alphonso 
the first of Aragon, King of Naples, opened two windowes 
towards the two ends, which onely light it hath at this 

4 o 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

I594. 

day to direct passengers. At the entrance of either end, 
the opposite gate seemes no bigger then a full Moone, 
and a man entering there, would seeme a little child. It 
hath no light in the middest, but like twilight, or the 
Ovidian light which is in thicke woods, and in the twilight 
of morning and evening passengers use torches, & con- 
tinually the carters or horsmen when they passe by the 
midst of the cave, use to give warning one to the other, 
crying vulgarly Alla marina (that is towards the sea) or 
Alla Montagna (that is towards the mountaine) according 
to the side on which they come. Before we entered this 
cave, among other stately Pallaces, one vulgarly called, The Pallace 
Merguilino, built by James Sanazzarro, a famous Poet Merguilino. 
almost of our age, and given by his last will to a religious 
house, contains the sepulcher of a learned man, upon 
which Bembus is said to have written these verses, 

Da sacro cineri flores, hic ille Maroni 
Sincerus, Musa proximus, ut tumulo. 

These relikes decke with flowers, Sincerus here 
In tombe as muse to Maro comes most neere. 

Upon the mountaine of Pausilippo, is the sepulcher The sepulcher 
of Virgil, shewed in two places, whom Servius writes to of I"irgil. 
have beene buried in this way neere Naples; and that 
these verses were written upon his sepulcher; 

Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 
Parthenope, cecini pascua, rura, Duces. 

Mantuan borne, Calaber dead, me holds 
Parthenope, who sung ploughs, Dukes, sheepefolds. 

Or thus ; 

Mantua gave me life, Calabry death, my grave 
Parthenope, who sung pastures, Ploughs, Captaines 
brave. 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Or thus ; 
Mantua life did lend to me, 
Calabers laid me on deaths carre; 
My bones lie at Parthenope, 
Who sung sheepe, tillage, feates of warre. 
And the best judgements hold, that he was buried in 
the Church of the Friars regular canons, at the entrance 
of the cave, as you go from Naples, & not in the Church 
at the going out of the Cave; and though both places 
shew the sepulcher, yet these verses are in neither place, 
but the inscriptions are worne out with age: the Monks 
report, that there was a statua of brasse upon his sepulcher, 
[I. ii. I I4. ] which those of Mantua stole from thence, & indeede, at 
Mantua they shew such a statua, whether stolne from 
hence or no, let them dispute. 
When we had passed this Cave, wee bent our way from 
The the Sea towards the land, and came to the Mountaine (m) 
Mountaine 
Ist,-u,o. Astruno, being of forme like a Theater, compassing a 
large Plaine. Alphonso the first, King of Aragon and 
Naples, and his sonne Ferdinand, used to invite the 
Princes, Nobles, and People of the Kingdome, to hunting 
in this place, turning the dogs and beasts they hunted, 
into the valley, himselfe and the noble men sitting in a 
pleasant Grove upon the top of the Mountaine, and the 
people being scattered round about the Mountaine, to 
behold the sport. In the same plaine compassed with 
this Mountaine, is the Lake of (m) Agnano which is 
said to be without bottome, and to have nothing in it 
but frogs. And at the foote of the inside of the Moun- 
taine next to Naples, there is a venimous Cave, vulgarly 
The Cave of called (n) la grotta del' can', that is the Cave of the dogge ; 
the dogge, because they trie the poison by putting dogs into it. 
This Cave is some eight foote high, and sixe broad, and 
goeth some foure paces under the Mountaine, where a 
signe is set, beyond which, if any living thing passe, it 
presently dies. Pliny writes, that this cave was called 
Cheronee scrobe, evaporating a pestilent aire. We gave 
242 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

part. Heere lie the ruines of a great Village of Lucullus, 
and Writers affirme, that hee brought the Sea water into 
the foresaid Lake, cutting the passage through Moun- 
taines. Here also are the ruines of the Village of Cicero, 
which retaine the old name, and the Emperour Adrian 
dying at Baie, was buried here, and his successor Anthony 
here built a Temple to him. 
Upon the top of a Mountaine neere this place, is a 
round field like a Market-place, vulgarly called (o) 
Solfataria. Solfataria, which Strabo cals Forum vulcani: & Pliny 
writes, that of old this place was called Campi Flegrei. 
It is of an Ovall forme, somewhat more long then broad, 
having I5oo foote in length, and IOOO in breadth, being 
compassed on all sides with Mountaines, except the 
enterance, lying towards Pozzoli. All the earth is hollow, 
and being beaten with a roans foote, soundeth like an 
.emptie vessell; and not only the earth by the Brimstone 
as made yellow, but it made our bootes and shooes of 
the same colour, with walking upon it, yea, when I cast 
a piece of silver upon the ground, it was presently made 
yellow, and with no rubbing could be made white againe. 
In this Ovall Market place (as I may call it) there is a 
[I. ii. ,5.] short and narrow ditch of water, which is almost round, 
and the water thereof boyles, as if fire were under it. 
They say, if any thing be cast into it, that it will be 
sodden in short space; but some part of it will be con- 
sumed: and Leander reports, that one cast foure egges 
into it, and presently tooke three fully sodden, but the 
fourth was consumed. Also he witnesseth, that this little 
ditch is not alwaies in one place, but in time workes it 
selfe from one place to another in this circuite, and yet 
is never greater, and that the old ditch is filled presently 
with new matter. An horseman cannot well come to this 
place, and as the same Leander writes, an horse-man 
A horse man comming boldly thither, was swallowed up into the hollow 
swallowed up. earth. And that the strange heate of this water may 
appeare, one of the Viceroyes Guard, a Dutchman, and 
comming hither, according to their fashion, to guide his 

244 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

Countrey men my consorts, told us, that one of his 
fellowes not long before, comming in like sort as hee 
did, to guide his Countrimen hither, either being carelesse, 
or rather (as it is most probable) having drunke too much, 
and not guiding his feete well, by chance stumbled into 
this ditch, and when one of his friends tooke him by the 
hand to pull him out, that he pulled of all the skinne from 
his hand, and that after better advice, they pulled him 
out with a cloake flung about him, but that within few 
daies he died, neither could the Phisitians give him any 
remedy or promise any hope of his life. At the foote 
of the Mountaine there is a hole, where the vapours with 
their owne motion, continually cast up little stones and 
stinking smelles; but if any man move these vapours 
by a staffe, or any thing put into the hole, the more they 
are stirred, the greater stones they cast up, yea flames of 
fire sometimes. There bee some cottages neere this place, 
where they make Brimstone, and all these parts smell of 
brimstone, and if the winde blow from hence towards 
Naples, the stinke thereof may bee smelled thither. On 
all sides here be Baths of wholesome waters, which of old 
were famous. 
After we had passed huge ruines of old buildings, we 
came at the foot of a mountaine to the City (p) Pozzoli, 
of old famous, and called Puteolis, to which all these ruines 
are said to have belonged of old, and it had the name of 
the Latin word Putnus, as also it hath the present name 
from the Italian tong, of the wels, which are frequent. 
I say it hath the present name of the Italian word Pozzo, 
signifying a well, though some will have it named 
presently of Puzzo, which signifies a stink, because of 
the smell of brimstone in these parts : but the city being 
most ancient, cannot have the old name of an Italian 
word: and it is certaine, that the Roman Princes of old 
used this part for the place of their recreation; for the 
great sweetnes of the Country, and the plenty of medicinall 
waters, whereupon they gave it the first name. Others 
say that it was of old called Diciarchium, but at this day 
245 

I594. 

guide. 

Pozzoli. 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

The Bridge 
of Baiae. 

[I. ii.  t6.] 

it is called Pozzoli, or Puzzoli. Here we dined, and 
were forced to give our swords to the Host, there being 
a great penalty set upon any that carry their Armes. The 
City hath nothing worth the seeing, but the old Church, 
first built to Heathen Idols, and after by Christians 
dedicated to Saint Proculus, and it hath the names of 
the workemen that built it graven upon it, and there be 
The lonesofa shewed the bones of a Giant of wonderfull bignes. The 
Gian. Haven of this City was of old very commodious, but 
by negligence is growne of no use. 
Here the sea entring betweene two Mountaines, was 
of old called the Creeke of (P) Baie, of that Citie seated 
on the opposite shore, or the Creeke of Pozzoli, of this 
Citie. Suetonius v/rites, that the Emperour Tiberius 
consulting about his successor, and inclining more to 
his true Nephew, Thrasyllus the Mathematitian should 
answere, that Caius should no more raigne, then he should 
ride over the Creeke of Baie. Wherefore Caius being 
Emp.erour, and hearing of this divination (not as others 
say, m emulation of Xerxes, who made a Bridge over 
Hellespont, nor to the end that with the fame of this 
great worke, he might terrifie the rebellious Germans and 
Britans) did build a Bridge over this creeke of the sea, 
being about three miles long, that hee might thereupon 
passe from Baie to Pozzoli. Of this Bridge thirteene 
piles of bricke may bee seene neere the shore at Pozzoli, 
and as many on the other side neere the shore of Baie, 
and some of these piles have yet arches upon them, but 
ready to fall. And from these piles the Inner part of the 
bridge was founded upon two rankes of shippes fastened 
with ancors, and covered over with a bancke of earth, 
to make the passage like the way of Appius. The rest 
Suetonius addeth in these or the like words. Over this 
bridge he went to and fro for two daies; the first day 
upon a trapped horse, having his head adorned with a 
Crowne of Oake leaves, and bearing an Hatchet, a Sword, 
and a Garland, and a robe of cloth of Gold. The next 
day in a Coch-mans habit, driving a Coch drawne by 
246 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

I594. 

foure famous horses, carrying before him Darius a childe, 
one of the pledges given by the Parthians, his Pretorian 
Souldiers accompanying him, and his friends following 
him in a Coach, &c. He that desires to comprehend the 
magnificence of this work, must first know, that the 
Mediterranean sea is very calme, having little or no ebbing 
or flowing, and that this Creeke is yet more calme, and 
that this bridge was built in the furthest part of the 
Creeke, very neere the land. These things considered, 
(if my judgement faile not), there is greater cause of A greater 
wonder at the Bridge built by the Duke of Parma Bridge at 
besieging Antwerp, being in like sort built upon barkes Antwerp. 
fastened one to the other, and also at the Bridge of 
London, bearing a great ebbing and flowing of the sea, 
and built of free stone, upon so firme a foundation, as 
it beareth many great and faire houses upon it: but 
whatsoever the magnificence were, surely the vanitie of 
this worke was great, to spend so much upon this Bridge, 
the way by land being not a mile longer then by the 
Bridge. Give me leave to digresse so farre, as to 
remember, that the Territorie of Falernum is not farre 
from Pozzoli, the wine whereof called Falernum, is so The wine of 
much praised by Horace. After dinner we went from Falernum. 
Pozzoli, to view the Antiquities lying upon this Creeke ; 
and first we came to the Labyrinth, a building under 
ground, which hath the name of the multitude of roomes, 
with such passages to and fro, as a man may loose himselfe 
in them; and here wee had not onely neede of the thread 
of Ariadne, but of light also to conduct us. Leander 
thinks, that all this building was to keepe fresh water: 
Then we came to the Amphitheater, being of an Ovall 
forme, the inner part whereof is t72 foot long, and 88 
broad, the building wherof is little ruined : And Suetonius 
writes, that this was built for the Plaies of Vulcan. Not 
farre thence, neere the shoare, is a fountaine of cleare 
and sweete water, flowing plentifully out of the sea, so 
that for a great distance we might with our eies distinguish 
the same from the sea water, which Leander thinks to 

47 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

I594- 

But the French Gentleman Villamont worthily ]udgeth 
this to be fabulous, and likewise the miracle of the 
Crucifex here, bearing the markes of Christ, yet doth 
he give too much credit to the miracles of Loreto. 
Upon the shore of the creek of (r) Baie, lies the [I. ii. 117. ] 
Lake (as Virgil saith) of the foule stinking Avernus. The t.akeof 
This Lake is a naturall Haven, but is not used, because Avernus. 
the Haven of Lucrinus is betweene it and the sea. It 
is compassed with high hils on all sides, but onely where 
the Sea enters on the South-side at a passage fifty paces 
broad, and the forme of it is round, and the hils that 
compasse it now seeme pleasant, but of old were all 
covered with a thicke wood, which shutting up the aire, 
and by the shadow drawing many birds to it, was thought 
to be the cause that these birds stifled with the smell of 
brimstone, fell suddenly dead, till the Emperour Augustus 
caused the wood to be destroied. And of the birds thus 
killed, the Lake was called Avernus. For this smell 
brimstone, and the shadow of the foresaid wood, darkening 
the Lake, and the blacke colour of the water, and because 
the sunne is shut out from the Lake by the hils, this 
Lake was reined by the Poets to be one of the Lakes of The Lake of 
hell. Leander wrxtes of a fountaine here, the water Hdl. 
whereof no man would drinke, because they thought it 
came from hell, derived by the heat of Phlegiton, where- 
upon an Oracle was built here, as in a place consecrated 
to Pluto, and the Cymerians living here in a Cave, entered 
this place when they had sacrificed to the Gods for the 
soules of the dead. Leander also saith, that they used 
to sacrifice men in this place, and nameth Elpenor sacrificed 
by Ulisses (for he understands Homer to meane this 
place,) and also Misenus sacrificed by /Eneas, though 
Virgil write that he died here. Some will have this Lake 
to be the famous Fen of Acheron, of which Virgil writes ; 
Tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso. 
The darke Fen of Acheron powred out. 
This also Servius affirmes, and shewes that this Lake 

49 



AoDo 
I594. 

The dwellings 
of te 
C imerians. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

comes from the infernal River Acheron, so called as 
without joy. But Leander shewes that Acheron faigned 
by the Poets to be a river of hell, is a river of Calabria, 
and that there is another river of that name in Greece. 
They say that the water of this Lake Avernus seemes 
blacke, because it hath no bottome : but Leander affirmes 
that some by a long rope found the bottome to be three 
hundred and sixty fathome deepe. The hils that compasse 
Avernus are very steepe, with a head-long fall, whereupon 
Virgil saith ; 
Facilis discensus Averni. 
The discent of Avernus is easie. 
Under the hill towards the West side, is a Cave, which 
they call the cave of Sybilla of Cuma; and among many 
roomes there is one, in which shee is said to have attended 
her devotion, but Leander thinkes this place to have been 
a sweating Bath. Of this cave Virgil thus writes: 
Horrendeque procul Secreta Sybilla: 
Antrum immane petit. & inferius : 
Excisum Euboic latus ingens rupis in Antrum, &c. 
Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibilla. 
Of dreadfull Sibill the farre distant rites 
To the vast cave he goes. And after 
An huge den cut out in the Euboyan rockes vast 
side, &c. 
Whence rush so many voyces, Sybill answering. 
From these hilles to the neighbour Citie Bale, they 
say the earth is all hollow with caves under it, and that 
the Cimerians of old dwelled under an hill towards the 
sea-shore. And Leander thinkes that cave to have 
belonged to them; and surely whether it belonged to 
them or any old Prophets, or to the Prophetesse Sibilla, 
or whose worke soever it was, the wonderfull Art 
and huge expence therein do plainely appeare. These 
Cimerians of old did leade strangers under the earth to 
the Oracle, and were diggers in mines, and reputed to 
250 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

have the spirit of divination; whereupon the King gave 
them penslons for revealing secrets unto him. These 
men never saw the Sunne, but came abroad onely in the 
night; whence is the proverb of Cimerian darkenesse, 
and the fiction of the Poets, that they did leade strangers 
to the Court of Pluto. They write, that these having 
deceived the King by false divination, were by him 
destroyed. Upon the Hilles of Avernus, they shew the 
ruined Temple of Mercurie, and another Temple of 
Apollo, little broken downe. Nero began a ditch to be [I. ii. !8.] 
made from the Lake Avernus to Ostia, to avoide the 
trouble of going by sea. From the said Lake there was 
a sluce of old into the Lake Lucrinus, by which when 
there was any floud of the sea, the water passed out of 
Lucrinus into Avernus Lake: but this is now stopped 
since the foresaid Earthquake of Tripergula. The Lake The Lake 
Lucrinus is so called in Latin, of the gaine made by fishes Lucrinus. 
sold. Suetonius writes, that Julius Cmsar let in the Sea 
to this Lake as also into the other. For the Senate of 
Rome making great gaine of the fish sold here, (till the 
Sea did once breake in with such force, as the fish went 
out of these Lakes at the ebbing of the Sea) did thereupon 
commaund Cesar to give remedie thereunto, which he 
did, raising bankes against the Sea, at which time he 
made a passage for the fish out of one Lake into another. 
Wee gave a Clowne three poli for leading us through 
the Cave of Sybilla. 
Upon the Sea shore lies the bath, commonly called of The Bath of 
Cicero, which the Phisitians call the bath of Tritoli, of a Cicero. 
Latin word for rubbing, the letter F being changed into 
T, and this Bath lieth neere the ruines of the Village 
of Cicero, called his Academy. I know not whether 
this Village (or rather Pallace) had the name of Academy 
or no; for I finde in my notes a Village of Cicero in the 
way from Naples to Pozzoli, and likewise the mention 
of this bath of Cicero, and his Academy, neere the Lake 
of Avernus. And Leander mentions a village of his, 
in both places: but Villamont speakes of a Village neere 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Pozzoli, and of a Pallace in this place called Accademy ; 
and these differ not much from my notes: but others 
confound the Village and the Bath, putting both together, 
so as writing of these intricate caves under the earth, 
my selfe am fallen into a Laberinth, wherein I had much 
rather die, then goe backe to Naples for searching the 
truth. We entered this Bath Tritoli, and gave a Clowne 
one Poalo for conducting us. The passage to enter was 
straite, and extendeth farre under the Mountaine, and 
there is a marke set, which they say no man ever passed. 
We did sweate extreamely, yet I desired to come to that 
marke, till at last feeling my spirits begin to faile me, 
I was glad to returne, and to creepe upon the earth, where 
the aire was more cold then above. They say that this 
bath is very healthfull, and much frequented in the spring 
time, and that Nero had of old a Pallace built over it. 
The ruins of Neere this lie the ruines of Baulos or Boaulia, named 
Baulos. of the oxen stolen, by Gerion, for here was the Temple 
of Hercules, and Servius, expounding Virgil, saith that 
Eneas did here speake with Hercules. Leander writes 
that Hortensius did here make cesternes, wherein hee kept 
his so much prised Lampreyes. Tacitus and Suetonius 
in the life of Nero, make mention of this place. For 
Agripina mother of Nero, passing by water from the 
Village of Piso to this Baulos, was of purpose and by 
The the commaund of Nero put into a rotten boate, that she 
wickedness of might be drowned, which boate splitting in the middest 
Nero. of the passage, Agripina perceived the intent, and silently 
(the height being darke) slipped into another boate, and 
so for that time escaped: but her waiting-maide being 
in great danger, and crying out that shee was Mother 
to Nero, found death by that name, by which she hoped 
to save her life, being presently struck into the water by 
one of the conspiratours. At last when wicked Nero 
resolved to kill his Mother, he invited her to a feast, 
entertaining her lovingly on the Sea shore, and when she 
returned, out of shew of duty attending her to this Baulos, 
lying betweene the Misene Promontory, and the Lake 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 

of Bale ; but at the same time he commaunded that she 
should be killed, and here under the earth we did see 
her sepulcher in a cave, curiously carved, and one of the 
finest old monuments I did ever see. 
Hence we passed to (s) Bale, an ancient Citie, and for Bale. 
the sweetenesse preferred to Rome by Horace: 
Nullus in urbe locus Baiis prelucet anaanis. 
No place of Rome sweete Bale doth excell. 
The situation of this Citie is most sweete: but all 
the houses neere the shoare are drowned, except the Baths, 
and the houses upon the mountaine are all ruined, neither 
doe any dwel here, but some few poore and miserable 
people (such as the husbandmen of Italy are commonly) 
yet these ruines shew the pride and magnificence of that 
old time. This Citie is said to have the name of a friend [I. ii. 9-] 
of Ulisses there buried. Here bee the foresaid ruines 
of Caligula his Bridge, which I said doe lie on this side 
the Creeke. Here we did see the stately., ruines of two 
Senators houses, where the excellent pctures did yet 
remaine upon the highest roofe. They shewed us a tree 
(as they said) turned into a stone and the ruines of the 
Temples of Diana and Venus. 
From hence we walked towards the Mountaine The 
Misenus, and neere the dead sea; first, wee came to Mountaine 
(t) a hill, made hollow by the building under it, which Mienus. 
is vulgarly called of the number of the roomes Cento 
camerelle, that is, One hundred little chambers. Leander 
saith, that it was a Cesterne to keepe fresh-water, whereof 
the Romans had great store in these parts, whether they 
came certaine seasons of the yeere to recreate themselves ; 
and all this Territorie on both sides neere this Creeke 
or Bay of the Sea, are so full of ruined Palaces, Temples, 
and Sepulchers, as a man would say, they were not severall 
Villages, but one great Citie. The said building is large, 
and foure square, and sustained by foure rankes of foure 
square pillars, into which wee were let down at a hole in 
the earth. Round about the entrance there were many 
253. 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Celles, almost foure square, and of an unequall bignesse, 
parted with enteries winding about, and because the 
building is intricate, some thinke it was a Laberinth. 
(v) The ruines of a stately building are opposite to 
this, into which wee descended by fortie staires; it hath 
no windowes, but all the light comes in at crannies, and 
it hath foure rankes of fouresquare pillars to beare up the 
arched roofe. Every ranke hath twelve pillars, and in 
all they be fortie eight, and each one is twelve foote distant 
from the other, and twelve foote high; to which if you 
ad the high roofe of the building, the roome is twenty 
five foot high, which I beheld not without being amazed 
at the magnificence of the Romans in these buildings. 
This house is little broken downe, and the plaister of the 
wall is so hard, as I could not pierce it with my dagger, 
and it is vulgarly called la piscina mirabile. It is certaine, 
that the Romans of old bestowed great charge in building 
places for the keeping of fish, and some thinke this was 
built to that purpose by Antonia, the wife of Drusus; 
others say by Hortensius: but Leander saith, that it 
was built to keepe fresh water, and he (with other Writers) 
doth judge it a stately monument of the Pallace of 
Lucullus built neere Bale, which he proveth out of 
Plutarch, who mentions one Pallace of Lucullus in his 
foresaid village for his Summer dwelling, and another 
here neere Bale for his Winter abode. And Tacitus saith, 
that the Emperour Tiberius foreseeing his death, and 
often changing places, at last came to this place, and here 
died. It were an infinite worke if I should severally 
describe the Pallaces of Marius, Caesar, and Lucullus. 
I will not omit, that our Guides (I know not how 
credibly) shewed us certaine round (w) fields, compassed 
round with Mountaines, and at this time plowed, which 
they said were the Elisian fields. 
We are now come to the (x) Misene Promontary, which 
hath the name of Misenus, friend to Eneas, buried here, 
or rather by him sacrificed to the gods at the Lake Avernus 
as is aforesaid. Upon the top of this Mountaine was 
254 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES 
 594- 
was of old called Linternum, whether Scipio the Affrican Linternm. 
retired into vuluntary banishment, to flie the envy of 
the ungratefull Romans, and there he built him a stately 
Pallace, and a sepulcher in which he would be buried; 
saying, that the ungratefull Romans should not have so 
much as his bones. Livy in his twenty two Booke cals 
Linternum a sandy soyle, beyond Vulturnus from Rome: 
but Leander thinkes that hee spake this of the territory, 
not of the place it selfe ; and that the rather, because 
in his twenty three Booke, he writes; that Sempronius 
the Consull, did lead the forces to Linternum beyond 
Vulturnus, and there doth agree in the situation thereof 
with all writers; and the sharpe fountaine like vineger, 
whereof Pliny writes, is found among these ruines, which 
water he saith makes them drunken that drinke thereof, 
though others write that they have taken it moderately 
without any such effect. Pliny also writes, that this water 
moderately taken, hath the vertue to cure the head-ach..4 cure for 
While Scipio lived here in solitude, Livy and Plutarke head-ach. 
write, that certaine bold and valiant Pirats, upon the fame 
of his vertue, came to see the face, & heare the words of 
so great a Captaine. Livy in his thirty eight Booke, 
writes that he did see two sepulchers of Scipio, this at 
Linternum, and the other at Rome, neere the gate Capena, 
both decked with carved Images; and that these verses 
were written upon his Tombe at Linternum ; 
Devicto Annibale, capta Carthagine, & aucto 
Imperio, hoc cineres marmore tectus babes. 
Cui non Europa, non obstitit Africa quondam, 
Respice res hominum, quam brevis urna premat. 
Hannibal foild, Carthage sack'd, and th' Empire 
Inlarg'd, thine ashes in this marble lie, 
Whom Europe or Afrique, nere made retire 
How short a chest holds? see marts vanity. 
Leander thinkes that Scipio was buried in this place, 
aswell because Livy writes it, as for the words of 
Scipio related by Valerius Maximus, that his ungratefull 
*.  57 

[[. ii.  z, .] 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Countrey should not have so much as his bones. And 
he thinks that the monument at Rome was either built 
by Scipio in the time of his prosperity, or by his friends 
long after, in memory of so worthy a kinse-man. As 
we walked from Cuma to Linternum, we did see no 
memorable thing, but tooke this iourney onely out of 
desire to see the monument of this famous man, neither 
did we know the danger from banished men in this place, 
1 dangerous who often resort to this poore Inne ; yet for that cause 
lnne. this way from Naples to Rome, more commodious then 
the other, and therefore having post-masters appointed 
there for publike affaires, had long beene forsaken by 
passengers. This way to Rome is thus distinguished 
rot. miles. From Naples to la Patria sixteene miles, 
to la Rocca foureteene, to la Fratta eighteene, to Ponte 
Curt., ten, to Capetano eight, to Frusalone eighteen, 
to Piedavani three, to val' di Montone twenty two, to 
la Ficha foureteene, to Rome eight. There is no house 
at Linternum but the foresaid base Inne, and there we 
lodged, and found not our supper answerable to the 
Miserable fruitfulnesse of Campania, neither had we any beds, and 
Lodging. could hardly get cleane straw, which inconveniences were 
accompanied with the feare to be surprised by the banished 
men, so as we slept not one winke that night. Here 
we did see two Towers, one compassed with water, and 
neere the Tower della Patria, we did see the ruines of 
a stately Pallace, which they said was the Pallace of 
Scipio, and that he was buried there. Also we did see 
a pillar, upon which were the Armes engraven of the 
Kings of Spaine and Naples, and we did see the ruines 
of a bridge, which shewed the old magnificence thereof. 
But there was nothing to be seene, that might counter- 
vaile the danger we had runne. Our journey the day 
before from Naples to Baie was very pleasant, through 
most fruitfull hils of corne and vines. But from Cuma 
to this Tower, the way upon the sea shore was wild and 
barren, yet not farre distant within land we might see 
most pleasant and fruitfull hils. 
258 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

594- 

When we had passed a night without sleepe at 
Linternum, we returned early in the morning to Naples, 
by the same way we came, but with a more right line. 
And there I made no stay, because England then had 
warres with Spaine, but tooke the next opportunity to 
returne to Rome with the Carrier, after the same fashion 
I came hither; and I paied to my Vetturine fifty two Chargefl'om 
poli for my horse and horse-meat, and my owne diet Napleto 
from Naples to Rome, and beyond my covenant (to Rome. 
gratifie him) I was content to pay for my diet the first 
and last meale, which I promised of my owne free will, 
yet should have beene forced thereunto, for otherwise 
he would have carried me fasting to Rome, and have 
given me slender diet at Capua, being a plentifull place; 
and I observed the other passengers to doe the like in 
these places, where they were out of danger. 
I passe over the journies, which I have discribed 
before, and wil only say in a word, that we returned to 
Rome, where that I might stay with more security, to Rome. 
see the antiquities thereof, it hapned very fitly, that the 
Cardinall Allan an E. nglishman, having used to persecute 
the English commlng thither, and therefore b.eing ill 
spoken of by them, had changed his mind, since the 
English had overthrowne the Spanish Navy, in the yeere 
1588. and there was now small hope of reducing England 
to papistry, and therefore to gaine his Countrey-mens 
love, did not onely mislike that they should be intrapped 
at Rome, but did himselfe protect them, though suspected 
for religion, so they would seeke his favour: whereof I 
being advertised by the experience of others, when I 
had in silence, and through many dangers seene Naples 
subject to the King of Spaine, and was now returned 
to Rome, I presently went to the said Cardinall, and 
after the fashion, having kissed the heroine of his vesture, 
I humbly desired, that according to this his curtesie, for 
which bee was much honoured in England, bee would 
receive mee into his protection, till I might view the [I. ii. 122.] 
antiquities of Rome. He being of a goodly stature and 
59 



A.). FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
I594. 
Cardina! countenance with a grave looke and pleasant speech bad 
'/an. me rest secure, so I could commaund my tongue, and 
should abstaine from offence. Onely for his duties sake, 
hee said, that he must advise me, and for the love of his 
Countrey intreate me, that I would be willing to heare 
those instructions for religion here, which I could not 
heare in England. I submitted my selfe to these con- 
ditions, and when (after due reverence made) I would 
have gone away, the English Gentlemen and Priests there 
present, overtooke me in the next roome. Among these 
was an Englishman, a Priest of Calabria, who in my 
journey from Naples hither, had been my consort by the 
way, at the table, and even in bed, whom I had often 
/,0,t heard talking with the Italians of English affaires, but 
Priest. more modestly and honestly then any man would expect 
of a Priest. He taking my selfe and one Master 
Warmington an English Gentleman by the hands, with 
an astonished looke, did congratulate with me, that I, 
who had bin his companion at bed and boord, and whom 
he had taken rather for any countriman, was now become 
an English man. All the rest commended my judgement, 
in comming to the Cardinall, and inquiring after my 
lodging, promised to be my guides in Rome, and for 
Countries sake, to doe me all good offices, and so after 
mutuall salutations, I went from them. I well knew, 
that such guides would be very troublesome to me, for 
they (according to the manner) disputing of Religion, 
I must either seeme to consent by silence, or maintaine 
arguments ful of danger in that place, besides that to 
.gratifie them for their courtesie, I must needes have runne 
into extraordinary expences. Therefore having told them 
my lodging, I presently changed it and tooke a chamber 
in a vitling house, in the Market-place, close under the 
Popes Pallace, where I thought they, or any else would 
least seeke mee, and so being free from that burthen, 
and yet secure in the Cardinals promised protection, I 
began boldly, (yet with as much hast as I possibly could 
make) to view the Antiquities of Rome. 
26o 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

in length, and some fiftie paces in bredth, and it is full 
of stately Churches and houses. 
If you draw a line from the East-side of the Mountaine 
Capitolino (XXII) to the Gate del popolo, (IIII) lying 
towards the North; and from the said Mountaine draw 
a line to the furthest part of the Bridge upon the West 
side of the Iland of Tyber, this compasse may truly be 
called Rome, as at this day it is inhabited; for the rest llthabited 
lies wilde, having only ruines, and some scattered Churches 
and houses, and towards the South, fieldes of corne within 
the walles. They say, that Romulus did onely build upon 
three Mountaines, the Palatine, the Capitoline, and the 
Celian, yet others adde the Esquiline, and that he com- 
passed them with walles, and that he built the Gate 
Carmentalis, so called of the mother of Evander, which 
lies under the Capitoll upon the right hand betweene the 
rock Tarpeius and the River Tiber, and was also called 
the cursed-Gate, of the 3oo Fabii, which went out of 
the same to fight, and were all killed in one day. And 
that he built the Roman Gate lying neere the Mount [I. ii. z4. ] 
Pallatine, towards the Amphitheater, called Obelisco, and 
the Gate Pandana, so called, because it was alwaies open. 
After, seven Mountaines being inclosed, Rome had eight 
Gates, and after thirtie foure (as Livy writes), and at last 
thirtie seven Gates. 
At this day the first Gate is called (IIII) del popolo, Te Gates. 
lying on the East-side of Tiber towards the North, which 
of the River was of old called Flumentana, and of the 
way of Flaminius, to which it did leade, was called 
Flaminia. The second Gate is called (V) Pinciana, of 
a Senator of that name, and of old was called Collatina 
of a Pallace adjoyning, and it is a mile distant from the 
former Gate. The third Gate is called (VI) la Salaria, 
of salt brought in that way, and was of old called 
Qirinalis, of the Temple, or the Mountaine adjoyning 
of the same name, and also called Agona of a Mountaine, 
or as having no corner; and also called Collina of a Hill, 
and it is lesse then a mile distant from the last named 

63 



594- 
The Gates. 

FYNES MORVSON'S ITINERARY 

Gate. The fourth Gate is called (VII) la Pia, of Pope 
Plus the fourth, who repaired it, and the way without 
it, and it is more then halfe a mile distant from the last 
named Gate. At this day it is many times called Saint 
Agnese of a Church lying neere it. And it was of old 
called Viminalis of Oseyres growing there, and also called 
Figulensis of Potters dwelling there, and also called of 
old Numentina of a Castle. I will omit the Gate, of old 
called Inter Aggeres, because almost no ruines therof 
remaine at this day. The fifth Gate is called (VIII) 
di S. Lorenzo of the Church neere it. It was of old 
called Tiburtina (though others think that Gate was neerer 
to Tyber on this side) and Esquilina of a place neere it, 
and Taurina of a bulles head which still is graven upon 
it ; and it is a mile and a halfe distant from the last named 
Gate. The sixth Gate is called (IX) Maggiore, and was 
of old called Nevia, and Labicana, and Prenestina. The 
seventh is called (X) di S. Giovanni, and it was of old 
called Celimontana of a Mountaine, and Q.gircotulana 
of an Oake, and Settimia, and Asinaria. The eighth is 
called (XI) Latina of Latium to which it leades, and was 
of old called Firentina, and is more then a mile distant 
from the seventh Gate. The ninth from the eighth more 
then halle a mile distant, is called (XII) di S. Sebastiano, 
of the Church to which it leades, and was of old called 
Capena of the Citie or River of that name; and also 
Camena of a Church, and Appia of the way which Appius 
the Censor paved, and Fontinale of the Fountaines; and 
some write it was called Trionfale for part of the 
Triumphes that did enter there. And the brother of the 
Horatii escaping in the fight against the brothers Curiatii, 
did returne at this Gate : without the same is the Sepulcher 
of Scipio the Africane, whereof I spake describing 
Linternum neere Naples (where he would be buried, farre 
from his ungratefull Countrey). The tenth Gate is called 
(XIII) di S. Paolo of the Church whither it leades, and 
was of old called Trigemina of the 3 Horatii going out 
there, and called Ostiensis, as leading to Ostia where 
264 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

Tyber runs into the Sea, and it is a mile from the twelfth 
Gate, and as much distant from the River Tyber. The 
eleventh Gate lies on the West side of Tyber, in that 
part of the Citie which I said is called (II) Trastevere, 
and is distant from Tyber halle a quarter of a mile, being 
called (XIIII) di ripa, and was of old called Portuensis, 
as leading to the Haven of Rome, made by the Emperour 
Claudius. The twelfth Gate almost a mile distant from 
the former, is called (XV) di S. Pancratio, and of old 
was called Aurelia of Aurelius the Emperor, or of the 
way Aurelia, and of others called Pancratiana, and it lieth 
neere the Mountaine Janiculo. The thirteenth Gate halle 
a mile distant from the former, is called (XVI) Settimiana, 
of the Emperour Settimius, whose name is engraven upon 
it, & it was repaired by Pope Alexander the sixth. Some 
think this Gate was called Fontinale, others Festinale, 
and it is the last Gate in Trastevere. The fourteenth 
Gate is called (XVII) di S. Spirito and it is the first 
in that part of the Citie called (I) Borgo. The fifteenth 
gate is called in the map (XVIII) Fornacum, but I find 
it called by Writers del Torrione, and Posterula, and to 
be repaired by Pope Nicholas the fifth. The sixtenth 
Gate is called (XIX) la Portusa, being neere to the Popes 
stables. The sevententh is called (XX) di Belvedere, 
lying neere the Popes Pallace and (3) Garden, and it is 
called in some Mapps Angelica, and by others Giulia, 
of the Pope Giulius. The eightenth is called (XXI) 
di S. Angelo, and del Castello, of the Castle S. Angelo, 
and it was of old called Enea, and more lately di Cenello. 
I passe over the Gate called of old la Trionfante, where 
the greatest triumphs did enter, because no ruines remaine 
thereof, but onely it is said to have bin seated neere the 
Triumphall Bridge. (XXXVI) 
It remaines to speake of the waies leading to Rome, 
which I will note with the letters of the Gates leading 
to them. And first I will onely name the wayes that are 
within the walles. 
The first la Suburra begins at the Amphitheater, called 
265 

594. 
The Gate. 

[1. ii.  z5. ] 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

x594. 

it was joyned with the way called Claudia, and of old 
was called the large way. Where the way of Flaminius 
endes, there begins the way !Emilia, made by his fellow 
Consul !Emilius Lepidus, leading to Bologna, and paved 
to the very Alpes. Yet there is another way of the same 
name neere Pisa. The way Collatina is without the Gate 
(V) Pinciana; the way Salaria without the Gate (VI) 
Salaria ; the way Tiburtina without the Gate (VIII) Saint 
Lorenzo, the way Prrenestina without the Gate (IX) 
Maggiore, on the left hand or East-side; and the way 
Labicana on the right hand or South-side of the same 
Gate. In the way Prrenestina is the stately Conduit, or 
Aqueduct of Pope Sixtus O43intus, extending it selfe many 
miles upon the next Plaine, where lie the ruines no lesse 
wonderfull, whereof I spake in my journey from Rome 
to Naples. To conclude, the way Latina is without the 
Gate (XI) Latina; the way Ostiensis without the Gate 
Saint (XIII) Paolo; the way Aurelia without the Gate 
(XV) Saint Pancratio; which (if I be not deceived) was 
called also the way Vitelia, paved from the Mount Janiculo 
to the Sea. But who would not wonder, that from the 
Gate (XIX) Portusa, the way should leade into the Valley 
of Hell (for so it is called), close to the holy Seate of the 
Popes. 
Rome was of old called Septicollis, of seven Hilles, The Se,cn or little Mountaines contained within the walles, namely Hilles. 
Capitolinus, Palatinus, Aventinus, Celius, Esquilinus, 
Viminalis, and Q.girinalis. Hereof the first and chiefe 
is (XXII) Capitolinus, of old called Saturnius, of the 
Citie Saturnia, and Tarpeius of the Virgin Ter.p.eia, which 
betraying her Countrey to the Sabines, giving them 
entrance at that place, was for reward there killed by 
them. And at last in the raigne of Tarquin the proud, 
it was called Capitolinus of a head digged out of the 
ground. At this day it is vulgarly called I1 Capidoglio. 
It is divided into two parts, namely, the Capitolium, and 
the Rocke Tarpeius, lying on the North side of the hil. 
And it had sixty Churches, wherof the chiefe was of old 
267 



594. 
The Eight 
Bridgt. 

[I. ii.  27. ] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

tyrant Maxentius. Also this bridge was famous for the 
night lusts of Nero. The second bridge is called (XXXV) 
di Castel' Sant' Angelo, and it was of old called Elius, 
of the Emperour Elius Adrianus, who built it; but Pope 
Nicholas the fifth built it as now it stands, and set upon 
it the Image of Saifit Peter with his keyes, and of Saint 
Paul with his sword. The third bridge is called (XXXVI) 
Vaticanus, as leading to that Mount, and was also of old 
called Triumphalis, of the Triumphes passing upon it, 
and it was not lawfull for the Countrey people to enter that 
way, but at this day onely the ruines thereof are seene. 
The fourth bridge is called (XXXVII) Ponte-Sisto of 
Pope Sixtus the fourth, who repaired it. It was of old 
called Janiculensis of that Mount, and Aurelius of the 
way of that name, and it was built of marble by Antoninus 
Pius, and after being decaied, was long called Ponte Rotto, 
that is, the broken bridge, till the said Pope repaired it in 
the yeere I475- and it is two hundred and fifteene foote 
broad, and is built upon three Arches of stone. The fifth 
bridge joining Rome and the Iland, and next to the 
Capitolium, is called (XXXVIII) Ponte di quattro Capi, 
and was of old called Tarpeius, of the Rocke Tarpeia, 
which is in the Mount Capitolino, and was called Fabricius 
of the repairer, and it is seventy foot long, and hath but 
one Arch of stone. The sixth bridge of a Church neere 
it is called (XXXIX) di S. Maria /Egittiaca, and was of 
old called Senatorius and Palatinus, and it is somewhat 
longer then the bridge Sisto. The seventh bridge of a 
Church neere it is called (XL) di S. Bartolomeo, and it 
is opposite to the fifth bridge, and joineth the Iland with 
that part of Rome called Trastevere, and of old it was 
called Esquilinus, and Cestius, and it is sixty foot long, 
havin but one Arch of stone. The eight bridge at the 
foot 'f the Mount Aventine, was of old called (XLI) 
Sublicius, because it was built of wood, in the warre with 
the Tuscanes, that it might be more easily broken and 
repaired. And we read that the Tuscanes being Victors, 
had taken Rome, if Horatius Cocles had not defended 

270 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

the bridge, till it was broken downe behind him, which 
done, he saved himselfe by swimming. After that 
Emilius Lepidus built this bridge of stone, and called 
it Emilius ; and when it was broken with floods, first the 
Emperour Tyberius repaired it, and then Antoninus Pius 
built it very high of marble, & condemned men were 
cast from it into the water. This bridge being the first 
that was built over Tyber, now is not to be seene by 
any ruines. 
Rome by the great power of the Emperours, and since Thefirst 
of the Popes, hath beene long most famous, and was building of 
first built in Latium upon Tyber, fifteene miles from the Rome. 
Tyrrhene sea, (as the Greekes write) by Ascanius, 
Eurilantes, Romulus, and Remus, Nephewes to /Eneas, 
or (as other Greekes write) by the Achivi, or (as other 
Greekes write) by the sonnes of Roma, a woman of Troy, 
married to the Latine King of the Aborigenes, which 
sonnes were Romulus and Remus, or (as Xenagoras writes) 
by the sonne of Ulisses by Circe, to omit many other 
opinions of the Greekes. The Latine Historians doe no 
lesse vary. Some say it was built by the sonnes of/Eneas, 
namely, Romulus and Remus. Others say that Ascanius 
built Alba, and Remus built Capua, and Romulus built 
Janiculum, after called Rome. But I omit these divers 
opinions, and will follow Leander the Fryar, who saith 
that Roma the daughter of the King in Italy, built Rome 
the same yeere that Moses was borne. And when the 
City had beene long forsaken, for the unwholsome ayre 
of the Fennes adjoining, that Evander comming from 
Arcadia into Italy, seated himselfe upon the Mount 
Palatine, and built a City called Palantium, of his City 
in Arcadia, and he being dead, that Hercules comming 
with an Army, left some of his consorts here, who built 
upon the Mount of Saturnius, after called Capitolinus. 
Before the destruction of Troy, for the unwhols0me aire, 
Rome being againe forsaken, that the Albani began to 
dwell there in Cottages, and feed their flockes there. For 
by the continuall overflowings of Tyber, the field was 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

is tenne men) ruled for two yeeres, and the Tribunes for 
Military affaires, having Consular power, ruled forty three 
yeeres, and in the time of any difficult warre, a Dictator 
was chosen, who with absolute power ruled till that 
businesse was ended, and there were no Magistrates for 
foure yeeres. At last Julius Cesar with the title of per- Julius Caesar. 
petuall Dictator, invaded the Empire, which being after 
divided into the Orientall and Occidentall Empire, and 
the Occidentall being destroied by the incursions of 
barberous Nations, the Bishops of Rome by little and 
little cast their Orientall Lords out of Italy, and erected 
a new Occidentall Empire in France, that they might 
invade the power of the Roman Emperors, and of the 
heavenly jurisdiction upon earth, under pretext of 
Religion, by a new monster of a Roman wit, drawne 
fi'om the supremacy of the Apostle Saint Peter. 
Pliny in his time makes the circuit of Rome twenty Te circuit 
miles, and Vopiscus in the time of the Emperour Aurelius, of Rome. 
makes the circuit fifty miles, but he joyned to Rome all 
the neighbour villages. At this day if you adde to Rome 
the two parts beyond Tyber, called Trastevere and Borgo, 
the circuit at the most is fifteene miles, for others say 
thirteene or fourteene, besi.des that a very great part of 
this circuit within the walles is not inhabited: and the 
walles notwithstanding lie not upon their old foundations, 
neither are built of that matter, but as it pleased those 
who repaired them. Among which Belisarius governour 
of Italy, under the Emperour Justinian, built Rome 
demolished by the Gothes, and made the circuit of the 
walles lesse; and Pope Adrian the first, a Roman, the 
wals being fallen, built them as now they stand, and many 
of his successours have since added new ornaments to 
decaied Rome. But the old wals (as appeares by some 
ruines) were built of foure square stone, the rest are of 
divers building, as it pleased the repairers, and have a 
bricke gallery to walke upon, under which men may stand 
dry when it raines; and they being ready to fal with age, 
have many round Towers, which in like so't are ready 
M.  3 s 



AoD. 
I594. 
.flowings of 
Tyler. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

to fall. Rome at this day is troubled with the old over- 
flowings of Tyber, by reason of the Tybers narrow bed, 
not able to receive the waters, falling suddenly from neere 
mountaines, after great raine or melting of snow. For 
memory whereof, these inscriptions are upon the wals 
of the Church of Saint Mary sopra Minerva. In the 
yeere i53o. (if I be not deceived; for the first words 
are raced out) the Ides of October, Clement the seventh 
being Pope. 
Huc Tyber ascendit, jamque obruta tota fuisset 
Roma, nisi celerem virgo tulisset opem: 
Thus farre came Tyber, and all Rome had drown'd, 
Had we not from the Virgin, swift helpe found. 
And there in another place this verse is written, in the 
yeere MVD. 
Extulit huc tumidas turbidus Amnis aquas. 
Thus farre this muddy brookes water did swell. 
4 ,,,a,e of In each place is a red marke upon the wals how high 
teflo,,cl, the water ascended, by which it appeares, marking the 
seat of the Church, that all the plaine was overflowed 
betweene it and the Tyber. By reason of these flouds, 
and for that the City is built upon the caves of old Rome, 
(which makes the foundations to be laid with great charge) 
and also by reason of the vapours rising from the Baths, 
[I. ii. ,z9. ] the aire of Rome is at this day unwholsome. The Romans 
drinke raine water, and the troubled waters of Tyber, 
kept in Cesternes, and they bragge that it is proper to 
the water of Tyber, the longer it is kept to grow more 
pure. Surely strangers doe not like that water, howsoever 
the Romans (making a vertue of necessity) doe say that 
it was onely made good to drinke at Rome, and no where 
els, by the blessing of Pope Gregory the Great. 
Now being to describe the antiquities of Rome, I will 
first set downe out of order the seven Churches, famous 
for the indulgences of Popes, which they say were built 
by the Emperour Constantine the Great. Then I will 
274 



AoDo 
I594. 
The chie 
relikes. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

of Saint Peter, a Cup in which Saint John dranke poyson 
at the command of Domitian, and had no hurt. The 
cloth with which Christ dried his Disciples feet, the heads 
of Peter and Paul, the rodde of Aaron, the Arke of the 
covenant, the table at which Christ supped; three marble 
gates of Pilates house, the Image of Christ being twelve 
yeeres old, with the like. Part of these (they say) were 
brought from Hierusalem by the Emperour Titus, yet 
he was no Christian, nor like to regard the monuments 
of Christ. One Chappell of this Church is called, 
Sanctum Sanctorum, and is thought to have beene the 
Chamber of Constantine, neither may any woman enter 
it. To conclude, the place is shewed here, in which many 
counsels have beene held, and the Popes long dwelt here, 
before the Pallace in the Vaticane was built. 
T,e Church The Church of (B) Saint Peter in the Mount Vaticano, 
of sai,t Peter. joines to the Popes Pallace, they say it was built by 
Constantine the Great. The Popes have given full 
remission of sinnes to them that pray here upon certaine 
daies, and like remission for certaine yeeres sinnes, praying 
on other daies; and the remission of the third part of 
all sinnes, praying there upon Saint Peters even. And 
you must understand that all these Churches have some 
like indulgences. Here they shew the bodies of Saint 
Simeon, and Saint Jude the Apostle, and Saint John 
Chrysostome, and of Pope Saint Gregory the Great: and 
the head of Saint Andrew and of Saint Luke the 
Evangelist, and halle the bodies of Saint Peter and Saint 
Paul, and Christs face printed upon the hand-kercher of 
Veronica, and the head of the speare thrust into the 
side of Christ; and among many pillars brought from 
Hierusalem, one upon which Christ leaned, when he did 
preach and cast out Divels, which yet hath power (as 
they say) to cast out Divels. Alwaies understand that 
[I. ii. 3o.] in Italy Priests that cast out Divels, are most frequent, 
neither are they wanting in any place where the Papists 
can hide their impostures. Great part of these relikes 
they say were sent by the Turkish Emperour to Pope 
7 6 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

Innocent the eight. But I omit these things, into which 
none but Papists may safely inquire, and returne to the 
monuments which lie open to every mans view. The 
Chappell is most rich in which Gregory the xiii. lies, and 
the stately sepulcher of Pope Paul the third hath most 
faire statuaes. The statua of Saint Peter of brasse placed 
under the Organs, was of old erected to Jupiter Capi- 
tolinus. In the Court of the Church (for I cannot call 
it a Church-yard) the Emperour Otho the second lies 
buried, in a low sepulcher of Porphry. There is a most 
faire Pine apple of brasse, guilded, more then five cubites 
high, which they say was brought hither from the monu- 
ment of the Emperour Adrian, in the place where the 
Castle of Saint Angelo now stands, (as likewise the 
Peacockes were brought from the Monument of Scipio.) 
The third Church of St. Paul is without the (XIII) 
gate of St. Paul, about a mile from the City, in the way of st. Paul. 
to Ostia, and they say it was built by Constantine, and 
it stands uppon eighty eight pillars of marble, in foure 
rowes, each pillar being but one stone, and it is adorned 
with marble staires, and pictures Alla Mosaica, as if they 
were engraven, which are onely in the chancell and neere 
the doore. The Popes have given great indulgences to 
these Churches, as well as to others. They shew here 
the bodies of Saint Timothy, Saint Celsus, and Saint 
Julian, Disciples to Saint Paul, and halle the bodies of 
Saint Peter and St. Paul, and a Crucifix which of old 
spake to Saint Briget, the Qeene of Suevia, and many 
armes and fingers of Saints. Neere this Church is that 
of Saint Anastatius, where the head of Saint Paul being 
cut off, made three leapes, and in the place where it fell, 
they say there sprang up three fountaines, which are there 
to bee seene. 
The fourth Church of Saint (C) Mary Maggiore, is Te Church 
upon the Mount Esquiline: I will omit hence forward of SaintMary 
the indulgences and relikes, lest I be tedious. This Maggiore. 
Church is adorned with forty pillars of Marble. The rich 
Chappell di presepio, (so called of the cratch in which 
277 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Christ was borne, being kept here) is stately adorned with 
the pavement engraved, the arched roofe guilded, pictures 
Alla Mosaica as if they were engraven, the stately 
sepulcher of Pope Nicholas, and his statua of white 
marble. The Chappell of Pius Qintus, built for him 
after his death by Sixtus the fifth, is adorned with the 
Victory painted in golden letters, which he and his con- 
federates had by sea against Selimus Emperour of the 
Turkes, and is adorned with statuaes guilded, with foure 
Angels guilded, and precious stones, together with the 
rare Art of engravers and Painters. 
The Church The fifth Church S. Lorenzo, is without the (VIII) 
8. Lorenzo. gate of that name, in the way to Tiburtina, something 
more then a mile from the City, and it is said to be built 
by Constantine the Great. He that goes to this Church 
every wednesday in a whole yeere, shall deliver a soule 
from Purgatory, if the Pope keepe his promise. It is 
adorned with a Pulpit of white marble, and most faire 
ophite stones, and at the doore, xvith a sepulcher of Saint 
Eustacius, of white marble curiously carved, and another 
sepulcher opposite to that. 
T,e C,,rc The sixth Church S. Sebastiano, is without the (XII) 
8. Sebastiano. gate of that name, more then a mile out of the City, 
in the way of Appius. Here is a place called Catacombe, 
and there is a well, in which they say the bodies of Saint 
Paul and Saint Peter did lie unknowne a long time, and 
here is a way under earth to the Church yard of Calixtus, 
where they say the Christians lay hid, in the times of 
persecution; and that there were found 74- thousand 
which had beene made Martyres, and that eight of these 
were Bishops of Rome. Here on all sides with amaze- 
ment I beheld the ruines of old buildings, and the 
sepulcher of the Emperour Aurelius is not farre from this 
Church. 
Te C,,,c The seventh Church (D) di S. Croce in Gierusalem, 
di S. Crote. is seated between the gate Maggiore, & the gate S. 
Giovanni, upon the Mount Celius or rather Celiolus, 
being part of it, and it is said that Constantine the Great 
78 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

I594. 

built it. Here they shew a little vessell filled with the 
blood of Christ, and the spunge which they gave him 
with vineger upon the crosse, and the title which Pilate 
writ upon the Crosse, and one of the thirty pence which 
Judas tooke for betraying Christ. And no woman may [I. ii. j1.] 
enter into the Chappell wherein Helena is said to have 
praied, but once onely in the yeere upon the twelfth of 
March. And this Church gives the title to a Cardinall. 
The second day we began the view of Rome with the 
(Q) Popes Pallace, seated in the part of the Citie, called The Popes 
I1 Borgo; which Pallace Pope Nicholas the third built, 
and Nicholas the fifth compassed with walles, and the 
Pallace is of great circuit, and the staires are so easie, 
that Horses and Mules may goe up to the top of the 
Mountaine, and with easie ascent and descent beare the 
Popes carriage. At the enterance there be three galleries 
one above the other, whereof the two first were built by 
Leo the tenth, and Paul the third, and the third and 
highest by Sixtus Qintus, and they are all fairely painted 
and guilded. Upon these lie two large chambers, and 
beyond them is a vast and long gallery of foure hundred 
seventie and one walking paces, in the middest whereof 
is the famous Librarie of the Popes In vaticano; and 
therein are many inscriptions of the Pope Sixtus Qintus Librat@. 
who repaired it, and it is adorned with many faire pictures 
guilded all over. I did see the severall roomes thereof. 
The first one hundred fortie and seven walking paces long, 
had three rowes of Cubbards filled with bookes: the 
second was thirtie nine paces long; and the third con- 
taining the bookes of greatest price locked up, was twentie 
paces long. Pope Sixtus the fourth built this Librarie, 
with the Chappell of the Pallace, and the Conclave. The 
wall of the Chappell shineth like a glasse with precious 
stones: where the Pope Sixtus Qintus commanded 
Michael Angelo to paint the day of Judgement,. and the 
common report is, that this Pope promised this famous 
Painter, that he would not come into the Chappell, till 
he had finished his worke; yet by some Cardinals 
279 



I594. 

The Massacre 
of Paris 
painted. 

The Chappell 
of Pope Paul 
the third. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

perswasions that he broke his promise, and that the Painter 
thereupon made the pictures of the Pope and the Cardinals 
in hell amongst the Divels, so lively as every man might 
know them. Betweene this Chappell and the Conclave, 
(where they chuse the Popes) lies a Kingly Gallery, not 
unworthily called vulgarly Sala Regia, (which others call 
Sala del Conclave). The wall of this Gallery in like sort 
shineth with pretious stones, and the pavement is of 
pretious marble, the arched roofe all guilded, and at the 
upper end I wondred to see the Massacre of Paris painted 
upon the wall, with the Popes inscription greatly com- 
mending that detestable cruelty. At the same upper end 
the foresaid Chappell (as you come up) lies on the left 
hand, and the Conclave on the right hand; in which 
Conclave the Cardinals meete to chuse the Pope, devided 
into severall roomes, but meeting at a common table, and 
when they have chosen him, they leade him into a Chappell 
at the lower end, and neere the dore of the said Kingly 
Gallery, and place him there upon a hollow seate of 
Marble. I know not whether this be the chaire, in which 
the sex of the Pope is tried, but I am sure it is hollow, 
with a hole in the bottom. After they put a Banner out 
of a high window, and there make knowne to the people 
the name that the Pope hath chosen, and then his armes 
are hung up round about. This Chappell at the lower 
end of the said Gallery, hath the name of Pope Paul the 
third, of the Family of Farnese, and it is little, and of 
a round forme (as I remember), but it is beautifull beyond 
imagination. The images of the Apostles seeme to bee 
of silver, and Paradice painted upon the arched roofe, with 
Angels flying, being the worke of Michael Angelo, seemed 
to me admirable. Upon the other side of the said Library 
is the private Gallery of the Pope, looking into the Garden 
(3) Belvedere, which is seated upon the side of the Mount 
Vatican, where Pope Innocent the eight built part of the 
Pallace, and called it Belvedere, of the faire prospect of 
all Rome subject to the eye. And Pope Julius the second 
placed in this Garden many very faire statuaes, namely, 
280 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

to lay them up at their returne. And neere this place 
lie the meadowes, given by the people of Rome to Mucius 
Scavola, for his valiant behaviour with King Porsena. 
Hence turning to the left hand, we came to the (III) 
Iland of Tyber, in which the Church of S. Bartholmew 
(of old consecrated to /Esculapius) is adorned with 4 
stately pillars of porphry, it gives the title to a Cardinall. 
At the foot of the bridge (XXXIX) S. Maria, as you 
Te ouse of come out of the Iland and enter into Rome, is the ruined 
PotltiusPilatc. house of Pontius Pilate, and opposite to that is the most 
ancient Church consecrated to the Moone, and upon the 
other side another to the Sunne. Here also is the Theater 
of Marcellus, and the porch of Mercury. 
Te mouth Not farre thence is a marble head, called Bocca della 
of Truth. verita, that is, the mouth of truth, of a woman (as I 
remember) falsifying her oath, and bewraied thereby; but 
others say it is the Idoll of Rhea. Here also is the Church 
of Saint Mary, called the Greeke Schoole, in which Saint 
Augustine is said to have taught, but it is shut up. At 
the foot of Mount Aventine, (where the Jewes use to 
fish) if you looke backe, you shall see the ruines of the 
old bridge Sublicius (XLI.) Thence going to the gate 
of Saint Paul, among vines, you shall see the ruines of 
one hundred and forty garners for come, built of old 
by the Romans. In the pleasant meadow wherein the 
(XXXIIII) mount Testaceus lies, the Romans were wont 
of old to keepe their Olimpike games. The sepulcher 
7"he sepulcher of (6) Caius Cestius is most ancient, rising in a pyramis, 
of Caius and the inscription shewes it was built in three hundred 
Cestius. and thirty daies, which the common sort falsly thinkes 
to be the Monument of Romulus. This monument of 
stone is compassed with wals, and it hath an inscription 
in great letters, but raced out. Some also thinke that 
it is the monument of Publius Sestius. From the gate 
of Saint Paul we returned into the City, and under the 
Church of Saint Gregory, where Laundresses continually 
wash, they say that of old the (7) Circus Maximus, (or 
greatest Theater) did lie betweene the Mount Palatine 
.084 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

gate of this Church they shev a place where the whores 
keepe a feast upon the twenty of August, and there of 
old was the Temple of Venus. The Theater of bricke 
which is in this Church, they say was built by Statilius 
Taurus. Hence returning into the City, we passed by 
a place, where of old was a monument called Trofei 
di Mario, erected to Caius Marius, triumphing upon 
Jugurtha and the Cymbri, and they say that the ruines 
thereof were admirable, but now it is all defaced. Neere 
the staires of the Capitoll, they shev a ruinous heape, 
which some say, was this monument of Marius. Passing 
/1 Triumphall towards the Capitoll, we did see a Triumphall Arch erected 
/lrch. to Galienus, which of the Church adjoining is called the 
Arch of Saint Vito, and it is little perished with age. 
Concerning the Churches lying from the Capitoll to 
the south parts of Rome : The Church of Saint Anastatia, 
that of Saint Mary In portico (of old dedicated by the 
Heathens to Pudicitia), that of Saint John, that of Saint 
Paul upon mount Celius, that of Saint Mary In Dominica, 
that of Saint Sistus, that of Saint Sabina upon Mount 
Aventine (in which they shew a stone cast by the Divell 
at the head of Saint Dominicke, and broken by miracle,) 
that of Saint Prisca (of old dedicated to Hercules) that 
of Saint Balbina upon Mount Aventine, that of Saint 
John at the gate Latina (where it is said Domitian cast 
Saint John into boyling oyle, but he escaped without 
hurt), that of Saint Mary in Via, without the gate of 
Saint Paul, towards Ostia, all these Churches give titles 
to Cardinals. Neere the Church of Saint Alexius, is a 
/lpalme tree. palme tree, whereof I remember not to have seene any 
other at Rome. In the Church of Saint Sava the Abbot, 
neere the other upon Mount Aventine, be the sepulchers 
of the Emperours Vespasian and Titus his son, of white 
marble, and the Altar hath two pillars of porphery. 
The third day we began our view of Rome, at the 
pillar of the Emperor Trajan, erected to him making 
warre against the Parthians, vhich he never saw, dying 
in his returne. It is seated in a little market place, and 
z86 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

the City, our guide shewed us a place, where the house 
of Ovid did stand. Concerning the Churches lying about 
the Mount Capitoline; that of Saint Mary In Acquiro, 
seated in the market place vulgarly piazza Crapanella, 
gives the title of a Cardinall. In the same market place 
is the monastery and Church of the Jesuites. The Church 
of Saint Mauro hath a little Obeliske erected. That of 
Saint Eustace gives the title to a Cardinall. Neere it 
lies the Church of Saint Lewis proper to the French, (for 
all Kingdomes and Provinces have their peculiar Churches 
at Rome.) The Church of Saint Apollinaris, and that 
of Saint Thomas In parione, and that of Saint Laurence 
In Damaso and that of Saint Angelo In piscaria (which 
of old was consecrated to Juno) and that of Saint Nicholas 
In Carcere, doe all give the titles of Cardinals. The 
Church and Hospitall called Saint Mary del' Anima, is 
proper to the Dutch Nation. The Church and Hospitall 
of Saint Thomas, vulgarly di S. Tomaso, is built for the 
English, and is seated neere the (25) Pallace of Farnesi. 
The fourth day we began the view of Rome at the 
Market-place, called (6) la piazza di Fiori, lying in the 
way from the Iland of Tyber, as you goe to the Bridge 
of S. Angelo. Here was the house of the harlot Flora, 
who made the people of Rome her heire, whereupon the 
Romans to cover her shame, made her the goddesse of 
flowers, and yeerely kept her birth day upon the third of 
April, of which feast I shal speak after. This Market- 
place is seated in the most inhabited place of Rome, among 
all the chiefe shops of Merchants. And therein the family 
of Orsini have a Pallace, and neere the same was the 
Theater of Pompey, & his court or publike house, pulled 
down because Cesar was therin killed. And from this 
Market place towards the Iland of Tyber, lyes the streete 
of the Jewes. In the way from the Church of the Trinitie, 
to the Mount Qirinalis, vulgarly called (i7) Monte 
Cavallo, were the famous Gardens of Salustius, and neere 
that Church was the Naumachia (that is the place to 
represent Navall fights) called of Augustus. Neere to 
M, I 289 T 

The Enlish 
Church. 

The thiefe 
hop of 
merthantt. 



[I. ii. z 36.] 

Monasteries 
of I#'omen. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the Church Saint Rocco, lies the (8) Sepulcher of 
Augu.stus called Mausoleum, the ruines whereof yet 
remame. He built it for himselfe and other Emperours, 
of a round forme, and adorned it with stones of Marble 
and Porphery, and like pillers and Obeliskes, placing his 
owne statua of brasse upon the top, so as they daily d!g 
up goodly Images out of the Cave and Garden neere at. 
The Pinacle of this Monument Pope Sixtus the fifth 
removed to the Church Saint Marie Maggiore, and this 
monument with the Grove planted about it, reached from 
the Church Saint Rocco, to Saint Marie delpopolo. Neere 
to the Gate (IIII) del Popolo lies the said Church of that 
name, under the Altar whereof the bones of Nero were 
laid, which, they say, were kept by spirits, till Pope Pascall 
by revelation from the blessed Virgin had warning to cast 
the bones into Tiber. W'hensoever the Plague is in 
Rome, this Church is made one of the seven in the place 
of Saint Sebastian, with all the indulgences to it belonging, 
and it alwaies carries that title. Heere bee two faire 
Sepulchers, whereof one is for a Chauncelor of Millan, 
the other for Pope Sixtus the fifth sisters sonne, both 
the worke of Andrew Sansovine. The yard of this 
Church hath an Obeliske, almost as faire as that neere 
Saint John Lateran, which Pope Sixtus the fifth also 
erected. Concerning the Churches from this Gate del 
popolo, to the (XXII) Mount Capitolino, the Church of 
Saint Laurence in Lucinia, that of Saint Silvester, that 
of the holy Apostles, that of Saint Marcello, and that 
of Saint Marke, doe all give titles to Cardinals. Neere 
the Church Saint Silvester is the Monastery delle Con- 
vertite, that is, of Harlots repenting, and becom.ming 
Nunnes. The Church S. Mary de Rione della plgna, 
is a Monastery di Sante Donne miserabili, that is, of holy 
miserable women, and neere that is another Monastery 
delle map Maritate, that is, of women unfortunately 
married and left in want by their husbands. The foresaid 
Gate del popolo, was repaired and beautified by Pope 
Plus the fourth. Neere it lies the most sweete Vineyard 
290 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

of Pope Julius the third, and his pleasant Fountaine, 
casting up water two elles high. Not farre thence is a 
triumphal Arch erected to Domitian, vulgarly called 
Portogallo. From this gate Del popolo, towards the (V) 
gate Pinciana, and neere the (x7) Church della Trinita, 
we did see the Pallace of the Florentine Cardinall de The Pallace 
Medicis (who from a Cardinal became the Duke of of t,e 
Cardinall 
Florence by right of succession). And this Pallace was 
de Medicis. 
rich & stately, the staires winding so artificially, as it was 
a beautiful sight to look in a perpendicular line from the 
top to the foot, and upon the staires was a faire statua 
of Apollo. Hence there was a Gallery open on the sides 
towards the Garden, full of beautifull Images, of Lions, 
a shee-Wolfe, a Ramme, all of white Marble, with other 
Images, and very faire pillars. And the first Garden had 
onely flowers ; the second in the upper part, had a sweete 
Grove, and the lower part was full of fruit trees. There 
was a Fountaine with a brasen Image of Mercurie upon 
it. Upon a Mount called Pernasso, were many Images 
of white Marble, of Pegasus, of the Muses, and one of 
Cleopatra, fairer then that I saw in the Popes Garden, 
with two Images of Cerberus, and another monster. 
There were two large Cesternes of Porphery. And in 
a Chamber were the Images, of a Satyr, a Nimph, and 
a Gryphon. Lastly, in the Grove were staires paved with 
carved Marble, with figures of fishes, and there was a 
most faire statua of Europa sitting upon a Bulles backe. 
The outside of the Grove was all of Firre trees, which 4 Gro,e of 
are greene in winter, but the inside had most pleasant Firre Trees. 
walkes among rowes of many other kindes of trees. In 
this Grove was a most sweete Arbour, having foure roofes, 
and as it were chambers, one above the other, the first 
whereof is twentie staires from the ground, whence lay 
a most large and most faire Gallery of stone, under which 
was a most pleasant solitarie walke, betweene two walles, 
all set with Orange trees, and like fruit. 
The large way leading to the Cities Gate Pia, was 
paved by Pope Pius the fourth, and hath on each side 
29I 



AoDo 
594- 

Car'allo. 

[I. ii. i37. ] 
The Pal/ace 
of Nero. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

a pleasant walke, and is also called Pia of the same Pope, 
as the (VII) Gate is which bee built. Betweene this Gate 
and the next of (VIII) Saint Laurence was of old a large 
Park, in which the people of Rome kept beasts to be 
hunted. Hence we went towards the Mount Q_.uirinalis, 
vulgarly (XXVIII) Monte Cavallo, and under the most 
pleasant Vineyard of the Cardinall of Ferraria, were many 
Caves and old ruines, and there is a field, where in honour 
of (I6) Flora (as I said formerly describing that Market- 
place) the harlots of Rome kept a yeerely feast, and 
dwelling in the foresaid Caves, used to runne from thence 
naked into this field, with unspeakable libertie of speech 
and gesture. 
From hence passing a little lane, we ascended to 
(XXVIII) Monte Cavallo which is so called of two Horses 
of Marble set there, which they write to have been given 
to Nero by Mithridates King of Armenia, the one wrought 
by Phydias, the other by Praxitiles. The common people 
holdes one of them for Bucephalus, and thinkes that 
Alexander holdes his bridle, and that they were wrought 
by the foresaid engravers in emulation one of the other. 
But the farre different age of Alexander, and the said 
engravers makes this opinion unprobable. Two men are 
ingraven, who holde the bridles of the horses, as if they 
should leade them, and some thinke that they were made 
for two horses of Diomedes, which did eate roans flesh, 
and were tamed by Hercules. The Pallace of Nero was 
neere this Mount, and from thence they shew some ruines 
thereof. This Pallace (as histories doe witnesse) did reach 
from Mount Celius to Mount Palatine, and to the furthest 
part of Mount Esquiline, and it was compassed with a 
lake, having within the circuit thereof, Meadowes, Vine- 
yards, Woods, and Parkes, and all the house was guilded, 
and thereupon was called golden ; it shined with Ivory, 
and pretious stones, and the great Hall thereof did move 
round like the World, casting out flowers and odors. 
From hence Nero saw Rome burnt with joy, and all this 
building was burnt in the time of Trajan the Emperour; 

292 



COMMENTS UPON ROME 

and when Nero had finished this house, he said, that he 
began then first to dwell like a man. Upon this said 
Mountaine of the Horses, the Pope hath a stately Pallace, 
which a Cardinall of Ferrara built, and he being dead, 
Pope Gregorie the thirteenth seased upon it. The staires 
are very faire, each having his pillar, and the ascent is 
most easie. I think a fairer Gallerie can hardly be seene, 
being one hundred and twentie walking paces long. 
There is a Chamber wherin Pope Sixtus the fifth died. 
A second wherein Ambassadours are heard. A third in 
which Cardinals are chosen. The Popes study is very 
pleasant, and so is the Garden, having many Fountaines, A pleasan 
Groves, Labyrinthes, a Rocke artificially distilling water, Garden. 
and many most sweet Arbours. Moreover, on this 
Mount is the most faire Fountaine of Pope Sixtus the 
fifth, called the Happie; for hither is the water brought 
from the stately Conduit without the Gate Maggiore, 
in the way (IX) Pramestina, reaching many miles, which 
was built by Pope Sixtus the fifth, with Imperiall magnifi- 
cence, in the yeere 158 7. And this Fountaine casteth 
out waters from the mouthes of route Lions of white 
Marble. Likewise upon the same is the Image of Moses, 
striking the Rocke with his Rod; and there be two other 
mouthes lower to cast out water, and it is all engraven 
with the said historie of Moses. 
Descending from this Mount, we did see in a private .4, 0re of 
Gentlemans house an Horse of brasse, esteemed at twenty brass wort 
five thousand pounds sterling, which Henrie the second 25,000. li. 
had placed at Paris (as they said), if death had not pre- 
vented him. Hence towards the East we went forward 
towards the Bathes of Dioclesian, and by the way at the 
foote of the Mount of the Horses, we did see the Bathes 
of Constantine. A man cannot sufficiently wonder at the 
ruines of Dioclesians Baths, by which it seemes they were 
of incredible greatnesse; and they report, that this 
Emperour compelled many thousands of Christians to 
worke upon this building for many yeeres. Under the 
earth are gates and divers passages of unknowne extent. 
293 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

promise, and being free from Englishmens company, and 
having two honest Dutch Gentlemen for my consorts, 
both borne in the Palatinate of Rheine, where they 
professe the same religion as in England, I did with more 
security set my selfe freely to satisfie my curiosity in the 
view of Rome. 
After being desirous to see the mouth of Tyber, where 
it fals into the sea, I went out of the gate of Saint Paul, 
and having the narrow bed of Tyber on my right hand, 
passed twelve miles to Ostia, through fruitfull hils of 
corne, and a vast wood at my journies end. Here is 
a strong Castle seated in Latium, and belonging to the 
Popes of Rome, which Pope Martin the fifth built, and 
Pope Julius the second did more strongly fortifie, but 
nothing remaines of the stately buildings of that City, 
but some poore houses. Strabo writes, that King Ancus 
Martius first built this City, in a soile to which the River 
brought much dirt. It is certaine that of old the ships 
did cast Anchor without the Haven of the City, and sent 
their goods to Rome in Gallies and Barkes drawne up 
by a rope, the Haven being not so deepe to beare them. 
The Citizens were free from Tribute, to make them dwell 
there, the aire being then (as also at this time) very 
unwholsome. Now the Tyber seemes to end here in a 
Lake, and the waters runne in little channels under the 
The Haven paved high waies. The Haven of Trajan is a mile and 
of Trajan. a halfe from the Towne, being broad enough, but so 
barred with sand and like matter, as no ships can come 
to it; and onely small Barkes sometimes passe from 
Naples and neere places to Rome, and that very seldome. 
The foresaid Haven was first built by Claudius, then 
repaired by Trajan, and called of his name, of which 
Suetonius writes thus in the life of Claudius; He made 
the Haven of Hostia, drawing an arme on the right and 
left side, and making a barre at the entery, where it was 
deepe, which barre, that he might make more stable, by 
Art, he sunke the ship wherein the great Obeliske was 
brought from /Egypt, and upon piles heaped up, placed 
302 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

The way 
to Sienna. 

walking in the fields, I expected his returne at the gate, 
the Students telling me that he would presently come 
backe, which falling out as they said; I followed him 
into the Colledge (being attired like an Italian, and carefull 
not to use any strange gestures; yea, forbearing to view 
the Colledge, or to looke upon any man fully, lest I should 
Bellerminethe draw his eyes upon me). Thus I came into Bellermines 
Calnpion of chamber, that I might see this man so famous for his 
the Popes. learning, and so great a Champion of the Popes: who 
seemed to me not above forty yeeres old, being leane 
of body, and something low of stature, with a long visage 
and a little sharpe beard uppon the chin, of a browne 
colour, and a countenance not very grave, and for his 
middle age, wanting the authority of grey heires. Being 
come into his chamber, and having made profession of 
my great respect to him, I told him that I was a French 
man, and came to Rome for performance of some religious 
vowes, and to see the monuments, especially those which 
were living, and among them himselfe most especially, 
earnestly intreating, to the end I might from his side 
returne better instructed into my Countrey, that he would 
admit me at vacant houres to enjoy his grave conversation. 
He gently answering, and with gravity not so much 
swallowing the praises I gave him, as shewing that my 
company should be most pleasing to him, commanded 
his Novice, that he should presently bring me in, when 
I should come to visit him, and so after some speeches 
of curtesie, he dismissed me, who meant nothing lesse 
then to come againe to him. 
The very same hower at ten in the morning, upon the 
Tuesday before .Easter, I came to my consorts in the 
Suburbes, and presently we tooke horse after a short 
breakefast. The way from Rome to Sienna is thus 
vulgarly noted: A Borgetto, sixe miles, a I' Isola, one; 
a Bacchano, sixe; a Monterose, five; a Sutri, foure; a 
Roncignone, three ; a lago di vigo, one ; a viterbo, seven ; 
a Monte fiaschoni, seven; a Bolsena, seven; a San' 
Lorenzo, foure ; a Acquapendente, sixe ; a Recorseto a 
304 



FROM ROME TO SIENNA 

his dinner upon reckoning. After dinner we rode through 
wilde Mountaines bearing little Corne, twelve miles to 
the Brooke Paglia, running under the Castle Redicofani, 
and dividing the States of the Pope, and the Duke of 
Florence, and we rode further in the State of Florence 
foure miles to a Country Inne, (as I thinke called 
Scancicricho) where each man paied three paoli and a half 
for his supper at an Ordinarie (vulgarly A1 pasto), having 
almost nothing but red Herrings and Sallets to supper. 
The fourth day in the morning, upon the last day of Aprill 
after the new stile, in the yeere x 594, wee rode thirteene 
miles to a Countrey Inne, through high Hilles of Corne, 
and for the greater part very firtile, where each man paied 
seven baochi for his breakefast. 
The same day we rode eighteene miles to Sienna, 
through most pleasant Hilles, and a firtile Plaine of Corne, 
with store of Vines on each side, and many Pallaces of 
Gentlemen,. (so they call their houses, built of Free-stone, 
wxth a low roofe, and small magnificence), and most 
frequent dwellings of husbandmen. We came to Sienna 
the Friday before Easter day, and in a publike Inne each 
man paied three reali for his Supper. 
The next day I went to Fiorenza for money, and rode 
through Woods and fruitful Hils to the Castle Poggio 
(walled townes being called Castles) and after through 
stony Mountaines bearing Corne and Olives, till I came 
to the Village Tavernelle, being seventeene miles from 
Sienna, where I paied two reali for my dinner upon 
reckoning. After dinner I rode fifteene miles to Fiorenza, 
through stony little Mountaines, bearing great store of 
Olives, Almonds, and Chessenuts, and many Poplar trees, 
and towards our journeyes end, store of Cedar trees; and 
wee passed by innumerable Pallaces of Gentlemen, and 
a most faire Monastery called la Certosa, and a desert 
Rocke, upon the top whereof an Heremite dwelt all 
alone. This Territorie yeeldes great store of Pine-trees, 
the boughes whereof are thicke and round at the top, but 
the rest of the tree hath neither boughes nor leaves, and 
307 

594. 

4nno  594- 

Sienna. 

Fruitful 
Mountaincs. 



AoDo 
x594. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

it yeelds a very great Nut, with very many kernels in 
one shell, which are pleasant in taste, and much used here 
,4 Dutc in Banquets. By the way I did meete a Dutch Lady, 
Lady Friar. with her Gentlewomen, and men-servants all in the habit 
of Franciscan Friers, and not onely going on foote, but 
also bare-footed, through these stonie waies; and because 
they were all (aswell men as women) in Friers weeds, 
though I looked on them with some suspicion, yet I knew 
not their sexe or qualitie, till upon inquirie at Florence, 
I understood that the Dutchesse of Fiorenza (or .Florence) 
[I. ii. 144. ] hearing that some women were passed by In Friers 
apparrell, and thinking they were Nunnes stolne out of 
their Cloisters, did cause them to bee brought backe unto 
her, and so understood that upon pennance imposed on 
them by their Confessour for the satisfaction of their 
sinnes, they were enjoyned to goe in that Friers habit 
bare-footed to Rome ; whereupon she dismissed them with 
honour. 
I forgot to note what I paid for my horse from Sienna 
Florence. to Florence, whether we came upon Easter day, and there 
I lodged in the Dutch Inne, and paid three reali each 
meale. But I did not at this time view the Citie, deferring 
it till my returne. 
The next morning I tooke my journey to Pisa, that 
by often removing, I might shun all question of my 
religion, into which they use more strictly to inquire at 
this time of the yeere, when they use to observe who 
receives not the Sacrament: for howsoever there be lesse 
da.nger of the Inquisition in this State, yet the Duke 
using not, and scarce being able to protect those that 
rashly give open offence, I thought good thus warily to 
avoide these snares. I went this journey on foot, meaning 
leisurely to see the next Cities, so little distant one from 
the other, as they were pleasant journeys on foot, especially 
in so pleasant a Countrie. The first day in the morning 
I walked ten miles to the Castle Prato, through the 
pleasant Valley of the River Arno. This pleasant Castle 
(or walled Towne) is of a round forme, having (at the 
308 

Danger by 
religion. 



COMMENTS UPON PISTOIA 

very enterance) a large Market place, wherein stands a 
faire Cathedrall Church, adorned with many stones of 
marble: and here I paied twelve creitzers for my dinner. 
In the afternoone I walked ten Italian short miles to 
the City Pistoia, through a most pleasant plaine called pistoia. 
the Valley of Arno, tilled after the manner of Lombardy, 
bearing Corne and Wine in the same field, all the 
Furrowes being planted with Elmes, upon which the 
Vines grow. This Citie is seated in a Plaine, and 
compassed with Mountaines, which on other sides are 
somewhat distant, but on the North-side hang over the 
same, and here (as likewise at Prato and Florence! the 
streetes are paved with broad free stone, most ease to 
walke upon. And the Cathedrall Church is stately built, 
and the pavement is of Marble curiously wrought, like 
the Church of Sienna. The Citie hath the name (in the Te citie 
Latin tongue, as also in the Italian) of a plague which 
invaded the Citie, when the Troopes of the Rebell Catilina plagte. 
being overcome, fled thither, whose posteritie being seated 
there, hath nourished a greater plague by perpetual 
factions, shewing thereby of what race they came. 
Desiderius King of Lombardy compassed the Citie with 
a wall. After the Florentines about the yeere 
subdued this chiefe Citie of Hetruria, under whose 
governement, first the faction of the Neri and the Bianchi 
brake out, and defiled the Citie with murthers, which 
being extinct, the faction of the Cancellieri and the 
Panzadici began, which lasted almost to our time, with 
incredible hatred and murther. But of late times, the 
Duke of Florence published an Edict, that upon great 
penaltie, no man should weare any Roses, or other signes 
of faction, which till that time they did beare upon the 
parts of their body, where they might most easily be 
seene. From hence I walked three miles through little 
Mountaines to Saravaie, and two miles to Povanni, where 
the Plaine begins to open ; and three miles to the Brooke 
Pescha, where I paied a Creitzer for my passage by boate, 
and five miles to Borgo nuovo, through Mountaines full 
3o9 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

of Chess-nuts and other nut trees, and eight miles in 
the territorie of Lucca, through a large plaine, to a solitarie 
Inne, called La Moretta. By the way I paid (upon 
reckoning) one reale and a halle for my breakefast, and in 
this Inne I lodged, and paied (at an ordinarie) three reali 
for my Supper. 
/:ucca. The next morning I walked one mile to Lucca; the 
Emperour Charles the fourth made this Citie free, which 
hath kept the Libertie to this day, governed by Senators, 
but lives in parpetuall feare of practises against this 
libertie from the great Duke of Florence. It is seated 
in a plaine, and strongly fortified, and compassed with 
Mountaines on all sides, but somewhat distant, and onely 
lies open on the side towards Pistoia, being two miles 
in compasse, and having about thirtie foure thousand 
Inhabitants. The streetes are narrow, and paved with 
broad free stone, most easie to walke upon. The Pallaces 
of the chiefe Gentlemen are built of free stone, with a 
low roofe after the Italian fashion, and they have many 
[I. ii. 45.] pleasant Gardens within the walles. In the corner towards 
North-west by North is a strong castle, neere which lies 
the Cathedrall Church, stately paved with Marble, but 
very darke, as most of the Papists Churches are built, 
either because they think darkenesse increaseth Religion, 
or to make it an excuse for their burning candles in the 
day.. There also lies the Senate house; and al the Innes 
are m one street, that they may more easily look into 
strangers, for any practise against their liberty ; for which 
cause no man may weare any weapons in the city_, nor 
so much as a knife, except the point be blunt. These 
8ilkefirst Citizens first spread through Italy the Art of making 
made in silke, and weaving it into clothes, and by this traficke they 
Lucca. have very rich families. Here I paid (at an Ordinarie) 
6 reali for my dinner and supper. From Lucca I walked 
5 miles through a pleasant Plaine, to the Mountaine of 
Pisa, which divides the Territories of those two Cities, 
and it is very high & stoney, yet is full of Rosemary, 
Time, and sweet smelling hearbs, & the passage of it is 



COMMENTS UPON PISA ,.D. 
x594- 

2 miles long. After I went 3 miles through fenny 
ground, often overflowed with the River Arno, and came 
to Pisa. Arno is a little River falling from the Apenine Pim. 
Mountaines neere Florence, through which City it runs, 
and so passeth through a most pleasant and fruitful Plaine 
to Pisa, through which Citie it also runs; and by reason 
of the narrow bed, and the neere Mountaine of Pisa, is 
subject to overflow upon any great raine, so as with great 
hurt it drowneth the fields of Pisa, and those that lie from 
thence to the Sea. Pisa of old famous for navigation, 
was made free by the Emperor Charles the fourth, about 
the yeere 1369. But long after it was the second time 
sold to the Florentines by Galeacius Vicount of Millan. 
Then they practised with the French to recover their 
liberty, when Charles the eight passed that way to conquer 
Naples, til they were the third time subdued by the 
Florentines; since which time the family of Medici 
invaded the liberty of Florence, together with that of 
Pisa, under the title of Great Duke of Florence, which 
they hold to this day. But when Pisa was thus brought 
in subjection to Florence, many of the chiefe Citizens 
chose rather to live at Venice, and other places, in per- 
petual banishment with their posterity, then to be subject 
to the Florentines. Pisa was of old called Alpheo, of 
the builders comming from their dwellings neere Alpheus 
a River in Greece. The brook Arno runs from the East 
to the west through Pisa, seated in a Plaine, and towards 
the North-West by North is a Gate, and a most faire 
Cathedral Church, paved with Marble curiously wrought, 
& having a most faire pulpit. In which Church, neere Cathedral 
the high Alter, is the Sepulcher of the Emperor Henrie Church. 
the seventh, whom Platina and many German Writers 
affirme, to have been poisoned by a wicked Monk of the 
Order of the Predicants, at the Communion of our blessed 
Lords Supper. Upon this monument these words are 
written in Latin. 
In this tombe not to be dispised, are contained the bones 
of Henry the seventh, Count of Luceburg, and after 
3IX 

Pisa subject to 
Florence. 



1594. 

The lenn;ng 
steeple. 

The Cavo 
Santo. 

[I. ii. 46.] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the seventh Emperour of that name, which the second 
yeere after his death; namely I3I 5. the twenty five 
day of the Sextiles, &c. were brought to Pisa, and with 
great honour of funerall laid in this Church, where they 
remaine to this day. 
The steeple is neere the Church but severed from it, which 
seemes to threaten the falling from the top to the bottome, 
but that is done by the great Art of the workemen, 
deceiving the eye ; for it is as strongly built as the Church. 
I ascended the same by two hundred and forty staires of 
marble, in which ascent it hath seven galleries on the 
out side. Not farre thence is a yard used for common 
buriall, called the holy field, vulgarly Campo Santo. In 
which the Emperour Fredericke Barbarossa, returning 
from Hierusalem, did lay great store of that earth, which 
he had used for ballast of his ships; and they say, that 
dead bodies laid there, doe consume in a most short time. 
This yard is compassed with a building all of Marble, 
which lies open like a Cloyster, (we call it a tetras) and 
the same is covered with lead very sumptiously, having 
in bredth 56 pillars, and in length i89. each distant from 
the other thirteene walking paces. So as (in my opinion) 
this yard for buriall is much more stately, then that most 
faire yard for the same purpose, which I formerly discribed 
at Leipzig in Germany, called in Dutch Gotsaker. In 
this place is a sepulcher stately built of marble of divers 
colors, with this inscription in Latin; 
Pope Gregory the thirteenth, borne at Bologna, com- 
manded this to be made, to the most worthy civill 
Lawyer John Buon' Campagno, his brother by the 
Fathers side, deceased in the yeere 1544-. at Pisa, where 
he was chiefe Professour of that Law. 
Here I did see another sepulcher with this inscription 
in Latin; To Mathew Curtius Physitian. Duke Cosmo 
made this at his owne charge, in the yeere i544. 
At the West corner of the City, is the Armory, vulgarly 
called L' Arsenalo, where they build and keepe the Dukes 

312 



COMMENTS UPON LEGHORN 

place followed their fortune; till the Pisans againe being 
subdued by the Florentines in the yeere x 509 . this place 
also returned to their subjection. It is said to have the 
name of Ligornus sonne to Phaeton. Cosmo de Medicis, 
Duke of Florence, began to fortifie againe this ancient 
Towne, and to measure out the circuit and the streetes 
thereof. And Duke Francis tooke upon him to goe 
forward with this unperfected worke; and he being dead, 
Duke Ferdinand his brother, at that time living, brought 
it to the forme of a most strong Fort, and faire City. 
And at this time the streetes began to be replenished with 
houses, for the Duke made this place as it were a sanctuary 
to offenders, upon whom he used to impose for punish- 
ment, either to dwell there for ever, or at least for some 
yeeres, and to adde one or more houses to the building: 
so as the City was now faire and populous, but it was 
filled with Citizens guilty of crimes, and of no civill 
conversation. My selfe hearing that they were such men, 
perhaps out of prejudicate opinion, did thinke their lookes 
barbarous, which made me looke more warily to my selfe, 
and to those things I had with me. The City is seated 
in a plaine, somewhat longer from the North to the South, 
then it is broad from the East to the West ; and the sea 
lies upon it, partly on the North, and partly on the South, 
and altogether on the West side. And it hath one Tower 
on the North side and another one the South side, reaching 
into the sea, out of which they hang lights by night to 
direct saylers: and betweene these Towers, full on the 
West side, there is a Haven for great ships further out 
into the sea, and also neere the City and compassed with 
the wals thereof, are two Havens for Gallies and small 
Barkes. The River Arno running from the East to the 
West, passeth by the City on the North side, and there 
fals into the sea, and at the corner on the North side is 
a strong Fort. Here I paid (upon reckoning) two giulii 
for my supper, and as much next day for my dinner, and 
returning to Pisa by water, I paid seven creitzers for my 
passage. 
3x5 

Te 
rebuilding of 
Ligorno. 

The 
scituation of 
the City. 



COMMENTS UPON FLORENCE 

I594- 

but of very broad and faire free stone. The houses after 
the manner of Italy, are built with a low roofe, excepting 
the Pallaces, which are stately built of free stone engraven. 
The windowes (as in all the Cities of Italy excepting 
Venice alone) are not glased, but either lie altogether 
open, to take aire, or are covered with oyled paper and 
linnen cloth. The streetes are most broad, and have an 
open aire. In discribing the Citie, I will begin without 
the walles. And first towards the North and East, it [I. ii. 148.] 
is compassed with pleasant Hills, planted with excellent 
fruit trees, and lying in the forme of an Amphitheater, 
and behind them the high Mountaines of the Apenine, 
somewhat removed, are in stead of strong walles to the 
Citie. Also on the South side, it hath like Hilles, and 
distant Mountaines, but towards the West it lies open 
to the most pleasant Valy of Arno, which Valy continueth 
as farre as Pisa, and to the sea-side. On all sides without Ma,ly 
the walles, Pallaces of Gentlemen are most frequent, and Pal/aces 
houses of Citizens, not distant above three or foure closes Houses. 
one from the other, whereupon the Emperour Charles the 
fifth beholding the Citie and the Countrey from a high 
steeple, affirmed, that Florence was the greatest Citie in 
the whole world ; and when hee perceived that the standers 
by were doubtfull of his meaning, he added, that in good 
earnest he reputed all the Pallaces without the walles, 
compassed with Hilles and Mountaines as with walles, 
to bee within the circuit of the Citie. It is seated (as 
it were) in the Center of Italy, betweene the aire of 
Arezzo, producing quick wits (where Peter Aretine the Temperature 
Poet was borne, of a sharp wit, though hee abused it g the lire. 
wantonly), and the aire of Pisa lesse pure, and yeelding 
men of str.ong memory, so as it hath had by this tempera- 
ture of alre, many Citizens aswell sharpe to learne 
sciences, as strong to retaine them. The River Arno 
running from East to West divides the Citie, but into 
unequall parts, the farre greater part lying on the North- 
side, and the lesse on the South-side; and the bridge 
.to passe from one to the other, is almost in the very 



COMMENTS UPON FLORENCE 

get their friends consent for mariage, and at last being 
impatient of delay, resolved with what danger soever to 
meet together. But it happened, that the yong man being 
to ascend into the Virgins Chamber by a ladder, was 
surprised, who to save the reputation of the Virgin, 
confessed, that he came to rob the house, whereupon he 
was condemned to die, and being led to execution by the 
house where the Virgin dwelt, she laying aside all shame, 
came running out, with her loose haire about her eares, 
and embracing him, confessed the truth publikly, with 
which accident both their parents were so moved, as laying 
aside all former malice, they contracted affinity, and the 
young man delivered from the bonds of the hangman, 
was tied to her in the sweet bond of marriage. And of 
this wonderfull event, the Florentines thought good to 
keepe this memorie for posteritie. The Duke hath two 
Pallaces within the City, wherof one is called Pallazzo 
di Pitti, seated in this part of the City, which a Gentleman 
of Florence by name Lucca della Casa de Pitti, began 
to build, but falling into poverty, and not able to finish 
it, was forced to sel the same to Cosmo de Medicis, being 
Great Duke of Florence, and shortly after convicted of 
treason, was beheaded. This is the most stately Pallace 
in the Citie, in the Garden whereof, called Belveder, are 
many most sweete shades among pleasant Groves, together 
with a pleasant Cave and Fountaine. They say, that one 
Mule did bring all the matter to this building, in memorie 
whereof, these verses are written upon the picture of the 
said Mule : 
Lecticam, lapides, & marmora, ligna, Columnas 
Vexit, conduxit, traxit, & ista tulit. 
The Litter, these stones, marbles, pillers, wood, 
Did carry, leade, draw, beare, this Mule so good. 
The outward side of the Pallace is of Free-stone engraven, 
and the Ornaments within are Regall. Betweene the 
two Chambers, wherein the Duke and the Dutchesse lie 
apart, is a very faire Gallery, and in the chamber of the 
39 

I 594. 

1 worthie 
paire. 

The Pallazzo 
di Pitti. 

[I. ii. 49-] 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Dutchesse, is a second bed most like her owne for the 
Duke when he pleaseth to lie there, and there is a Table 
wrought with silver and pretious stones, valued at 3000 
Crownes. In the dining roome are many faire statuaes, 
Thirty and the figure of thirty Cardinals chosen at one time 
Cardi,h by Pope Leo the tenth, being of the house of Medici. 
Medicis. 
In the very Court are two great loadstones. The strong 
Fort called Saint Meniato, lies over this Pallace, and 
indeede over all the Citie, which was built by Alexander 
de Medicis, nephew to Pope Clement the seventh, and 
had lately been kept by a Garison of two thousand 
Spaniards, as likewise another Fort on the other side of 
Arno, built in the time of the free State, was likewise 
kept by a Garison of xoo Spaniards: For the Dukes 
of Medici advanced to their Dukedome by the Emperor 
Charles the fifth, did at first admit these Garisons of 
Spaniards under an Italian Captaine, either to shew their 
confidence in Spaine, or to fortifie themselves against 
the Citizens, whose libertie they had invaded; but Duke 
Ferdinand then living (the Families of Citizens being 
now extinct or suppressed, who had lived in the free 
state, and could not indure subjection) being now con- 
firmed in his Dukedome had lately effected, that these 
Spaniards should yeeld the Fortes to him, and depart 
the Countrey. Upon the North-side of the River Arno, 
1 monumrnt and upon the banke thereof, is a monument of a horse 
ofa 14orse. buried in the high way, with this inscription in Latin: 
The bones of the horse of Charles Capelli Venetian 
Ambassador, when the Citie was besieged in the yeere 
I533. And these verses were added: 
Non ingratus herus, Sonopes memorande, sepulchrum 
Hoc tibi pro meritis hec monumenta dedit. 
Praise worthy horse of warre thy thankfull Lord 
Thee for thy merits doth this Tombe afford. 
The Citie hath divers Market-places, x. Mercato Vecchio ; 
2. S. Spirito ; 3- Santa Croce ; 4- S. Maria Novella ; 5- 
Piazza della Signoria, which is the fairest and largest of 



COMMENTS UPON FLORENCE .D. 
I594. 
all the rest, and therein is the Senators Pallace, and many 
stately statuas, one of a virgin taken by force, and of 
the ravisher beating her keeper, & treading him under 
his feet; another of Hercules, treading Cacus under his 
feet (for the Florentines beare Hercules in their great 
Seale) ; the third of David, all which are of white Marble ; 
the fourth of Perseus, carrying in one hand the head of 
Medusa upon his Shield, and treading the bulk of her 
body under his feet, curiously wrought in brasse. In 
the same Market-place is a most faire Fountaine set round 
about with faire statuaes of brasse, and in the midst 
thereof, the statuaes of a Giant, and of three horses, 
almost covered with water, all wrought in white marble, 
do power the waters out of their mouthes into the 
Cesterne. In the corner of this market place is the 
Senators Pallace, so called, because the Senate was wont 
to meete there in time of the free State, but now it is the 
Dukes pallace, & the second that he hath within the Citie. 
Therein I saw a Cat of the Mountaine, not unlike to a 4 cat oftle 
dog, with the head of a black colour, and the back like mountaine. 
an hedghog, a light touch wherof gave a very sweet sent 
to my gloves. Here they shewed us (as they use to shew 
to curious strangers) the Dukes Treasure (as they cal it) 
namely, vessels of gold and silver, Roses hallowed by 
the Pope (which these Princes hold for rich presents); 
many chambers and galleries, having a sweet prospect 
upon the Arno, and adorned with pictures and statuaes, 
notable for the matter, art, and price ; a most faire looking [L ii. 5o.] 
glasse; a Theater for Comedies; one table of Porphery 
valued at five hundred Crownes ; another of Jasper stone, 
valued at foure hundred Crownes, a table then in the 
workmans hands unperfected, the Jewels wherof they 
valued at fiftie thousand Crownes, and the workmanship 
at twelve thousand Crownes. Moreover, they shewed 
us the pictures of the Popes of the house of Medici; 
rich swords and hats, and a lather of silver to mount 
into the Coach; and many notable antiquities; and 
certaine birds of India, with many other beautifull things, 
. I 3 X 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

which are buildings of stone, adorned with many carved 
Images distilling water, and such are placed in most 
parts .of Italy in the marketplaces, open and uncovered: 
but in this and like Gardens, these Fountaines are 
wrought within little houses, which house is vulgarly 
called grotta, that is, Cave (or Den), yet are they not 
built under the earth but above in the manner of a Cave. 
Tle lower It remaines I should speak of the lower Garden, which 
Garden. is much more beautiful then the upper: for at the first 
entrance, there is a Pallace of little compasse, but stately 
building, being of a round forme, the midst wherof 
containeth the great chamber, larger then the other 
rooms, which round about the same are little, but 
beautifull, and richly furnished for private retreit. From 
under all the staires of the Pallace, and the pavements 
[I. ii. 53-] round about, with the turning of a cocke, spoutes of 
water rise up in great force. For in respect of the heat 
of the Country, they take great pleasure to wet the 
passengers in this sort. Under the Pallace there is a 
Cave, vulgarly called la grotta Maggiore, (which and like 
Conduits made as is abovesaid, I will hereafter call 
fountaines, because they are so vulgarly called.) In the 
said Cave, a head of marble distilleth water; and two 
trees by the turning of a cocke shed waters abundantly, 
and a little globe is turned about by Cupid, where the 
Images of Duckes dabble in the water, and then looke 
round about them; and in the middest of a marble table 
is an instrument, which with great art and force, driveth 
water into any furthest part of the Cave. So many and 
so divers are the castings of the water, as the most wary 
man cannot escape wetting, where they make sport to 
betray all lookers on in that kind. Neere this, and under 
the Pallace is a Bath, the wals whereof shine with glister- 
ing stones, and therein is a table of Alablaster. Neere 
/1 strange this is a cave strongly built, yet by Art so made, as you 
Cave. would feare to enter it, lest great stones should fall upon 
your head: and here by the turning of a pipe, certaine 
images of Nimphes are carried by the water out of the 
328 



COMMENTS UPON FLORENCE 

594- 

Cave, and in againe, as if they had life, no water being 
seene: and in this Cave seeming ruinous, are the most 
curious Images of many beasts that ever I did see. In 
the next fountaine, with the turning of a Cocke, the 
unseene waters cause a noise like thunder, and presently 
a great shower of raine fals. But among all the Caves 
or Fountaines under the Pallace, one is most faire and 
large, at the one end whereof, upon the turning of a 
cocke, by the same motion of water unseene, the Image 
of Fame doth loudly sound a Trumpet, while the image 
of a Clowne putteth a dish into the water, and taking up 
water, presents it to the Image of a Tyger, which 
drinketh the same up, and then moves his head, and 
lookes round about with his eyes, which is as often 
done as they please, who have the skill to order the 
Cocke. At the other end of that Cave, is the Image of A,, image 
Syrinx with her fingers halle turned into reedes; and sy,.i,,x. 
right against that, is the Image of Pan sitting upon a 
stoole, with a wreathed pipe m his hand, and Syrinx 
beckening to Pan, to play upon the pipe, Pan puts away 
his stoole with one hand, then standing on foot, plaies 
upon his pipe, and this done, lookes upon his mistresse, 
as if he desired thanks or a kisse for his paines: and 
then takes his stoole againe, and sits downe with a sad 
countenance. I know not that any place in the World 
affoords such rare sights in this kind; but lest I shoukl 
be tedious, it shall suffice onely to name the other Images 
and Caves. As you goe downe from the Pallace, you 
shall first see the Cave of _/Eolus, another of Parnassus, 
where, with the turning of a cocke, a paire of Organs 
doth make sweet musicke; and there is a head which 
together with the eyes is moved to and fro by the unseene 
water, and there is a pleasant shade with many statuaes 
(or Images) curiously carved, and there the Duke doth 
many times eat. The third fountaine is called I1 villano, 
that is, the Clowne. The fourth la pescaria, that is, the 
fish-pond, where a Ducke of India having foure wings, 
did swimme in the water. The fifth La lauandara, the 

329 



AoDo 
594- 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

brethren excepted, who doe the manuall workes of the 
house. They never eate flesh, for such is their rule, 
which if they breake, yet they doe it not in the publike 
place of eating. The Priest having sung Masse, doth 
after it many times bow downe his head, and then falles 
prostrate on his face, praying. Each Frier hath foure 
cells or chambers, and his private Garden planted with 
ttard Fare. fruit trees, and therein a private well. They have no 
beds, but sleep upon straw, and eat privately in their 
owne Celles, only eating together in the publ!que roomes 
on the feast dayes, so as they may easily in private breake 
this vow of not eating flesh, if they list. To conclude, 
they give lar.ge almes to the poore, and thus by shew of 
holines, getting great riches from Lay-mens gift, they 
think to deserve heaven, by giving them (as the proverb 
is) a pig of their owne sow. The seate of this Monastery 
is very pleasant, upon a Hill or little Mountaine. Hence 
wee returned to Florence. 
Hiring of All the Cities of Italy have many houses wherein 
Chambers. 
strangers may hire Chambers, called Camere locanti; 
and in Florence there be only three or foure publique 
Innes, all in one streete for daily passengers, and three 
houses like Colledges, called Albergi, for those that make 
long stay in the Citie, wherein they may hire Chambers 
for ten guilii the month, the host being tied, after the 
manner of Italy, besides their Chamber and bed, to 
dresse their meate, and finde them linnen. I living after 
Charges in this fashion, remember these rates of things bought: for 
Florence. a pound of Almons vulgarly una lira di Mandole, one 
giulio : a pound of gr.eat grapes dried, and called Susini, 
slxe creitzers, two pigeons one giulio, that is eight 
creitzers ; two Apricotts a quatrine, a pound of Mutton, 
foureteene fifteene or sixteene quatrines; a pound of 
Lambe twelve quatrines; two egges five or sixe quat- 
rines; a pound of Raisons or lesse grapes dried two 
[I. ii. 55-] baelli; and of another kinde, called Passere, sixe baelli; 
two Hennes fortie or fiftie sols; two Capons sixtie sols; 
two Apples one quatrine, and seven Apples, one baello; 
332 



COMMENTS UPON FLORENCE 

an Orange two quatrines ; two Citrones one baello; a 
pound of drie figges seven or tenne quatrines; a pound 
of the greatest reasons, or dried Grapes called Sebibi, 
twelve quatrines, and the best kinde eighteene quatrines ; 
a pound of Rice foureteene or fifteene quatrines; a 
vessel, called boccale, of Oyle, twelve creitzer or baelli 
(being all one); a pound of butter, containing twelve 
ounces, two giulii, each ounce being seven quatrines; 
two ounces and a halle of sugar five baelli; an ounce of 
Nutmegs sixe baelli; a pound of Walnuts twelve 
quatrines; two little fresh cheeses, called Recotti, 
thirteene quatrines; a fit proportion of any herbe for 
sallats one quatrine; and little proportions of any spice 
one quatrine, which proportion you may increase as you 
list. And I being lodged in the Albergo of the golden 
keyes, called Alle chiavi d' oro nel' chiasso di Mestier 
Bevigliano, paied for my chamber by the month twelve 
giulii or reali ; and moreover for salt at table five 
Crietzeri or baelli. And in these Albergi, he that desires 
to live at an ordinary, without trouble to buy his meate, 
vulgarly In dozina, shall pay for each meale two giulii, 
and if he stay long, shall pay no more for two meales. 
And they were wont to give a stranger his chamber and 
diet in these houses for tenne Crownes the moneth, each 
Crowne being ten giulii. 
I being purposed to live in the State of Florence this 
Summer, especially desired to spend my time in learning 
the Italian tongue, reputed the most pure in those parts; 
to which end I resolved to returne to Sienna, and live 
in that University: but because many Dutch and 
English Gentlemen lived there, which were of my 
acquaintance, and solitarie conversing with the Italians 
best fitted my purpose, I rather chose to live at the Castle 
S. Casciano, being a pleasant seate, and lying eight miles sa; Cacian. 
from Florence, in the way to Sienna. And because I 
lived in a publique Inne, and in a great high-way, and 
was shortly to passe through the Dutchie of Millan, 
subject to the Spaniards, who then had warre with 
333 



I594. 

Roman 
Jusce. 

Gentleman. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

England, I did, for the avoiding of danger in that 
journey, give out that I was a Dutchman: but I staled 
here much longer then I purposed, for it happe.ned at 
this time, that the Roman Inquisitors pursuing an 
English Gentleman, who had escaped their hands at 
Rome, did in stead of him cast another English Gentle- 
man into prison, who then lay at Sienna, and was not 
much unlike him. And howsoever the first Gentleman 
escaping, the second was shortly set free, yet this chance 
made mee make lesse haste to Sienna; besides that I 
had my diet here at an easie rate, spending not above 
one Giulio each meale, and yet having such meate as I 
most desired, neately dressed, and being diligently 
attended: but especially the most pleasing conversation 
of a Gentleman dwelling there, called Nicolao della 
Rocca, made me most unwilling to leave that Castle, 
and the rather because he had made me acquainted with 
a learned Kinsman of his Raphaele Columbano a Floren- 
tine. And I freely confesse, that the curtesie and mani- 
fold vertues of this Gentleman Nicolao della Rocca, then 
tooke such impression in me, as I shall not onely so long 
as I live dearely love him, and his memory, but bee glad 
to doe any pleasure to his least friend, or any Florentine, 
aswell for their generall good desert, as for his sake 
more specially. He was my companion in viewing the 
pleasures of this Territory, where among other things I 
did see many delightfull Groves (vulgarly Boschetti), 
Nets to catch birds (Ragnaii), Gardens for .that purpose 
(Uccellari), al belonging to the Noble Florentine Families 
of Buondelmonte, and Guicciardini, having Pallaces 
neere adjoyning (of which sports I shall more largely 
speake in the due place, treating of the Italian exercises.) 
And to make the delights of my stay in this place more 
particularly justified, and to explane some events therein 
mentioned, I will adde two Epistles, which I then writ of 
this subject, the first from this place, the second from 
Florence, after I was departed from this Castle, and these 
being written in Italian, I will also turne into English. 
334 



LETTER TO AN ENGLISHMAN 

594- 

All' Illre. Sigr. I1 Sigr. T. H. Nobile Inghlese It. ii. 56.] 
mio ossmo. A Pisa in Casa di Messier T. A. 

M Andato ch' io hebbi le meie lettere a la vulta di 
vos' Signoria, stetti di lane fin' hora sempre in su 
1' occhi & 1' orecchie (non senza rincrescimento della tar- 
danza) badando le suoe. Qgeste benedette lettere tanto 
badate & hormai capitate, spieghai con tanta furia, non 
che fretta, che piu non hebbe mai 1' affamato di mettersi 
a tavola. E lodatosia Iddio, poi che s' e indugiato un' 
pez.zo, finalmente il parto s' e fatto maschio, che tanti & 
cos1 varii sono i soggetti proposti da lei, che paiano 
rechiedere risposta distesa. Onde io che son' scarico d' 
ogni impedimento, & sto sfacendato nella villa, come un' 
Romito nel deserto, mi stender6 (con sopp.ort.atione per6 
delle suoe orecchie) nel rispondere a tutti 1 particolari 
d' esse. E prima le dar6 raguaglio piu minutamente del 
caso Siennese. Sappia dun que che pochi giorni fa, il 
Sig r. G.M. con tutto che se fosse publicamente impacciato 
in fatti di Stato, nondimeno per cavarsi il .capriccio, 
travestito da Suizzero, & par troppo (come m pareva) 
contrafatto, volse arrischiarsi d' andar' da Fiorenza a 
Roma. I1 viaggio gli riusci commodamente, per6 non 
s' era piu presto tomato a Sienna, & di la (con suoa 
buona ventura) senza punto di tardanza messosi in 
camino la voltadi Fiorenza, che da I' Inquisitori Romani 
so.pgiunse un' mandato al Podest di Sienna di farlo 
prgmne. Hora avenne ch' il Sig' G.L. stando a Sienna 
& essendo (come sa lei) grandone, d' aere allegro, & 
havendo altri contrasegni della suoa barba & cera, fu 
preso da i Sbirri, & per 1' Inquisitori messo in prigione. 
Dove seppe con tap discretione portarsi, che loro avve- 
dutosi d' haverlo pigliato cosi in escambio, gli resero la 
liberth, laquale gode stando a Sienna fin' hora. Ma 
quel mandato passundo oltre, arriv6 fin' a Fiorenza, dove 
il Sig" G.M. per via d' un' amico in Corte (non dico 
gia ch' il gran Ducane fosse consapevole) essendone 
335 



594. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

informato disera in su 1' Ave-Maria, diede subit6 ale 
gambe, tenendo la volta di Paduoa, in tal fretta che 
pareva proprio volar' di la dell' Apennino senza ale. 
Ringratiato sia il cielo che sia fugito a salvamento, che 
con tutto che a noi altri Todeschi rileva nulla,, pure anch' 
io come un' forestiero, m' attristo & ho vlveri senti- 
mento delle disgratie d' altri, che da suoi amici 
& dalla patria sono lontani. Non posso tenir le 
rim, quando m' imagino gli fieri salti ch' egli fa sopra le 
montose scoglie. I contadini devono pensar' ch' egli 
vada a la caccia d' i Caprioli, che forse non s' accorgeranno 
quante fiate egli rivolge gli occhi sopra le spalle, & 
ad ogni passoguata, di puar ache qualche Veltro Rornano 
non se gli aventasse a dosso. L' importanza e, ch' egll 
non se faccia securo sotto qualche frasca, dove per ogni 
picciol' vento che soffia, protr essere tradito: che non 
f'ermandosi per strada vil' do salvo, inteso che gli bracchi 
Romani per tracciar' in Stato d' i Veneti, poco, di la dell' 
Alpi, nulla vagliano. Hora che vada egli a buon' 
viaggio, & vi dir6 fuora di burla, ch' io a la prima senti 
gran' dispiacere di questa percossa, finche intese le dette 
nuove, mi son' rihavuto. Del resto, buon' per loro, che 
questo gli sia accaduto nel' Stato Fiorentino, che altra- 
mente i Preti 1' arebbin.o fatto un' map scherzo. Tal sia 
di questo. Hora per ristorarci, ragionamo un' poco d' 
Orlando. E' quanto a la rostra gran' buona lingua 
Toscana (respondendovi capo per capo), vedete come non 
b melsenza Mosche ne vostra lettra (per gratiosa che sia,) 
senza suoe punture & fianchate. Pu6 far il cielo, come 
si puo capitar' male per essere frainteso. Ch' io burla 
di voi ? Dio non voglia ch' io burla d' amici miei mai 
mai mai: Mi rallegro ben' con essi tap volta, & che 
volete ch' io faccia poi ? non conoscendo altro soggefto 
delle lettre di trattenemento, che Cortigianie O baje. S' 
io pensassi che 1' areste scritto da buon' senno, mi verrebbe 
talmente la Senapa al naso, che sarei per cozzar' col capo 
contra il muro. Ma son' chiarissimo, che conquesta 
brigha m' habbitate volsuto dar' la baja, per farmi montar' 
336 



LETTER TO AN ENGLISHMAN 

in bestla contm mi stesso. Dunque vi replico, che mal- 
grado vostro mi stupisco ancora d' i vostri Toscanismi, 
non ch' io pensi ch' abbiate avanzato Petrarcha Dante, 
Boccacio, con quelli altri maestri della' favella volgare, 
ma che d' un Novizo siate riuscito un' gran' Dottore, 
havendovi fatto gran' profitto senza ch' io me n' avedesse, 
si non in quel tratto the me ne deste saggio per le vostre 
tanto garbate & gentile lettere. Talmente ch' il torto 
e vostro, d' esservi api.gliato alle parole non al senso mio. 
Doglietevi poi di vox stesso per quel' disagio ch' il 
scrivere nella lingua Toscana vi possa recare, ch' io in 
SuP ragionar' ho ca.vato da vastra bocca propria, che 
UeSto vi sarebbe taro, & da parte mia spero coglierne 
utto, dandovi occasione di segnar' le meie scorrettioni, 
& di farmi parte de quei vostri belli passi di Lasco. I1 che 
vi suplico far' meco a la libera, & in cito mostrarmi quanto. [I. ii. 57-] 
ml vogliate bene. Con questa risposta state cheto, sl 
non, f6 giuro d' assassino, che vi loder6 tanto in sup viso, 
che vine verrt rossore. Passo inanzi, dove mi motteg- 
giate, d' hayer messo 9uel' Oime a bella posta per far 
mostra d' eloquenza, & tatte professione d' essere schifo de 
lo scriviere per vergogna del vostro rozzo stilo. Buon a 
re: Riconosco 1' Ironia. Contentatevi & godetevi nel' 
seno senza trionfarvine, ch' io vi cedo volentieri in ogni 
fatto d' ingegno, pure the mi sia lecito di parreggiarvi d' 
amore. Ma per vindicarmi di vostre sferzate, & accioche 
non crediate ch' io cagliassi affatto per vostre braverie 
Toscanesche, m' ingregner6 di rivolgere la colpa the m' 
imputate in su le spalle vostre. Et penso durarci poca 
fatica, poiche voi sopra quella medesima parolina, Oime, 
havete fatto un' si bel' discorso, che vi debbano hayer' 
una dolce invidia gli valenti Teologi, i quali per6 hanno 
il grido, poter' d' ogni poco di soggetto ragionar' dalla 
levata infin' al tramontar' del sole. NIi pare poi ch' 
andate troppo animosamente a la volta d' i Ciarletani, 
non curando di farvi nemice queste gentaccie, a che se si 
dia nell' ung.hie senza essere ben' provisto di Copia 
verborum, ml racomando, the in quanto al' menar' la 
M. I 337 V 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

lingua, non hanno pari. Davanzo la confidenza della 
lingua, sciolta, & della prontozza d' ingegno, vi trasporta a 
dir' molto male contra la cosa piu garbata che altra che 
si sia nel mondo, cioe lettre di trattenemento. Per 
levarvi questo errore, succintamente dir6. Le cose che 
piu s' adoperano ci devono essere piu care. L' aere che 
ci nodrisce, sopra ogni cosa si pregia. I1 pan' & il vino, 
senza chi non si puo essere, piu si procacciano, che fasiani, 
tordi, O quaglie! Tall sono le lettre sopradette, ch' 
in ogni gentil' brigata piu si ragiona di cortesia, d' 
Amore, di ciancie, che del piattire, o maneg.giar' il stato. 
Et per non fastidirvi con infiniti argomentl; 1' Arte & 
1' ingegno del' Oratare, si mostrano nella raritY. & sterilit 
della materia che si tratta, come nel' lodar' I' Asino, nel' 
dispregiar' le scientie, 6 cose simile. Ora per lettre di 
facende, non  huomo di si grossa pasta, che non le 
spedisca destramente: la narratione del' bisogno, un 
Miracomando, & bello finito. Ma quelle altre, se non 
siano abellite con 1' inventiono, & quasi lisciate con certe 
stravaganzo, riesconofracide & di poca lode al scrittore. 
E' vero, ch' i Secretarii, Notaii, & tali gente facendate, 
scorticandosi (per modo di dire) ne lo scrivere, & 
impazzandone gli cervelli, hanno qualche pretesto di 
ragione, a lamentarsi d' i complementi amorevoli. Ma 
voi scio perati, stando nelle citt, & che piu importa nelli 
studi Toscani, doureste hor mai gridare : vivano le lettre 
di trattenemento, piene di parole gratiose. Hora fatte 
voi, andate, e si non vi pare ch' io v' habbia ben' 
acconciato, pigliatevi spasso dell' eloquenza conta- 
dienesca. In su' 1' stringere, mi date delle Signorie per 
farmi piacere, & me n' avertite ancora. O questo 
M' havete tocco a punto dove mi duole. Et non vedete 
ch' in Italia c' ha carestia d' ogni cosa delle Signorie in 
fuora, che si danno a buona rata infino a i fachini. 
Tanto che si ben' io ne fosse ambitioso, tuttavia per 
il soverchio godere, ne restaria svogliato. Datemi 
allegramente del voi, senza parlar' in astratto con 
1' Idei, che non mi terr6 per affronto, anzi per Arra 
338 



LETTER TO AN ENGLISHMAN 

d' Amore. Io per me, vedendo che le Signorie non vi 
sono a grado non vine dar6 mai al' avvenire, si non in 
escambio di quelle, che mi mandarete a me, & in quel caso 
vile ronder6 con 1' interesse. Q,ganto ale vostre offerte 
si calde d' amistk, non mi basra I' animo spieghare, quanto 
mi son' ite a sangue. Ma forza m' e respondervi in 
presente con I' animo, fino che m' occorre farlo con 
1' o.pere: pure in quel mentre mivi i.mpegno, & 
miw dono per tutto quel che porta il mlo valsente. 
Fatte di me cio che volete, tenetemivi per schiavo, 
& si bisognasse,, vendetemi a Turchi: che volete 
altro? Direte po che son' baje anche queste, & non 
sapete ch' il Poeta sotto parole finte adombra il vero ? 
Credetimi, se non volete ch' io usa di furiosi protestationi, 
perche in ogni modo voglio che mi si creda. Parlo da 
senno, commandatomi a fidanza, dove posio essere buono 
per vostro servitio, come io mi servir6 liberamento di 
voi, il che vedrete in effetto per la brigha che vi da 1' 
inclusa. Et con questo vi bacio le mani, & anche le 
guanci (a la venetiana). Da San' Casciano a li vinti 
tre di Luglio. 594- 
Desso in guisa di fratello, 
Fines Morysoni. 

All' Illre. Sigr. il Signr. Nicolao Della Rocca mio [I. ii. 58.] 
ossmo., a casa suoa in San' Casciano. 
C He possano essere confinate nelli studioli d' i 
Mercatanti queste facende, (per non dir' peggio); 
poi che m' hanno fatto, non dismenticarmi di V.S. (che 
questo non farebbono giamai), ma ben' d' indugiar' 
troppo a farle fede della mia dolce rimembranza di lei. 
Hora essendo io in su la partenza per andar' la volta di 
Paduoa, mi son' mosso a scriverle queste poche righe, 
con patto che non le manda a 1' Academia della Crusca 
per essere censurate, poiche essendo io (per dire) a 
Cavallo, forza e, che loro pa.rticipano della confusione & 
del' scompiglio in che io ml truovo. E pure possibile 
339 



A.). FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
I594. 
Letter to as I will make you blush. I goe forward, and come to 
T. H. i, your quip, that I began my letters with the word (Alas) 
Enlish. to shew my eloquence, and that you were ashamed to 
write to mee for your rude stile. Very good, I finde 
the Irony: content your selfe that I gladly yeelde to 
you in all po.ints of wit, so it may bee lawfull for me to 
equall you in love. Yet to revenge this frump, and 
that you may not thinke I am daunted with your Toscan 
bravery, I will attempt to cast that upon your owne 
shoulders, which you impute to me, and this I thinke 
to doe with ease, since upon this one little word (Alas) 
you have made so faire a discourse, as you may justly 
bee envied by our great Divines, who upon the least 
subject are held able to discourse from morning till night. 
Againe, me thinkes you are somewhat too bold with 
the Mountibankes, not caring to make them your 
enemies, into whose hands if you fall, without being well 
stored with Copia verborum, woe be to you, for you 
know they are most skilfull Fencers with the tongue. 
Moreover, the confidence of your skill in this tongue, 
transports you to speake ill of the most gentle and 
delightfull thing in the world, namely, of complement- 
ing letters. And to cure you of this errour, I will briefely 
remember you. That the things of greatest use, are most 
deare unto us. The aire that nourisheth us, is most of 
all deare. All men seeke more for bread and wine, 
without which they cannot live, then for Phesants, 
Black-birds or Q.ailes : such are letters of complement : 
for in every gentle company, there is more discourse of 
courtesie, love, and toies, then of Law or State matters. 
And not to be tedious with many arguments. The art 
and wit of the Orator is most shewed in the barrennesse 
of the subject whereof he speakes, as in praising the 
Asse, dispraising liberall sciences, and in like subjects. 
Now for letters of busines, no man is so blockish that 
cannot easily dispatch them; when he hath told the 
businesse, and bid farewell, all is done. But if letters 
of complement bee not beautified with invention, they 

344 



AoDo 
I594. 
Lelter to 
T.H. in 
English. 

Letter to 
8igtor Della 
Rocca in 
English. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

your cheekes after the manner of Venice. From Saint 
Casciano this 23 of July, i594. 
The same, as your brother, 
To the noble Sigr. the Sigr. Nicolao della Rocca 
my most respected, at his house in Saint 
Casciano; or to his hands. 
Et this foolish businesse (not to say worse) bee con- 
fined to Merchants counting-houses, since it hath 
made me, not forget you (which it can never doe,) but to 
use too great delay in giving you testimony of my kind 
remembrance of you. Now being ready to take horse 
for my journey to Paduoa, I thought good to write these 
few lines unto you, with condition that you send them 
not to be censured in the Academy della Crusca, for my 
selfe being thus removing, they must needes participate 
the confusion in which I am for the present. Is it 
possible that a brave Gentleman like your selfe should 
faile of his promise ? I stood looking with what securitie 
you would proccede with mee, to take it for an evidence 
of your love, and expected many daies (I will say freely 
not without some inconvenience) to have the happinesse 
to see you ere I went. But since either by your forget- 
fulnesse, or other reason best knowne to you, this our 
meeting hath not succeeded, and there is no more hope 
that wee should meete to reconcile this quarrell, there is 
no other remedie but to make our peace at leasure by 
exchange of letters. In which dutie (for my part) I will 
not faile, so long as I shall stay at Paduoa. And when 
I shall bee returned to my Country, I will upon all 
occasions, scoure, up that little Toscane language, which 
after nay long journey through confusion of tongues 
shall be remaining unto me, to make it appeare to you, 
that howsoever my language be decreased, yet my heartie 
love towards you shall evermore increase. Two things 
lie heavie upon me; first, the burthen of your curtesies, 
wherwith you have loded me, as you best know, and 
346 



 594- 
Letter to 
Signor Della 
Rocca in 
English. 

Sienna. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

farrc off, I offer and recommend my selfe to you once for 
all. And againe I kisse your hands. From Florence 
this tenth of August, x594. 
Your affectionate servant, F. M. 
I had taken my journey from Saint Casciano to 
Florence, that I might receive money, and now upon a 
sudden occasion being to returne to Sienna, and from 
thence to Padoua, I hired a horse to Sienna, but have 
omitted what I paied for the same, and so I returned to 
Sienna by the same way I came, namely, to Travernelle 
fifteene miles, and to Sienna seventeene, which journey 
for others instruction I will particularly set downe. 
To Saint Casciano eight miles ; to Colmo foure ; to 
Barbarino sixe ; to Puodibonzo sixe ; to Sienna five, 
being in all thirtie two miles. 
The situation of Sienna is most pleasant, upon a high 
hill, and the forme not unlike to an earthen vessel], broad 
in the bottom, and narrow at the mouth, which narrow 
part lies towards the West, where comming from 
Florence, you enter by the Gate Camolea. Neere the 
same is a Fort, wherein the great Duke keepes souldiers, 
and there without the gate is the Church of Saint Marie, 
whether was great concourse of people for devotion. 
From hence to the East gate, leading towards Rome, 
the streetes lie even and plaine, though the Citie be 
seated upon a mount; and in this part toward the East, 
the City is broadest, and from this gate a man may see the 
Castle Redicofini, tbrty miles distant, upon the confines 
of the States of the Pope and the great Duke. Betweene 
the said gates, as it were in the center of the City, lies 
a most faire Marketplace, in the forme of an Oyster, 
and lying hollow as the shell thereof is. And there is 
a stately Pallace of the Senate, built when the Citie was 
free ; in the front whereof is a statua of mixt mettall, 
vulgarly called di bronzo, which seemes to bee apparelled, 
having on the head a broad hat and this statua strikes the 
houre of the clock. On the South-East side within the 
348 



COMMENTS UPON SIENNA 

upon the backes of Asses. There is a stately Pallace 
which Pope Pius the second built, who was a Citizen of 
Sienna, of the Family of Picciolomini, and there in the 
Mount Olivet the passion of Christ is curiously graven. 
It is vulgarly and truely said, that Sienna abounds with 
Fountaines, Towers, and faire Weomen: There is no 
better place to live in through all Italy, then the state 
ot: Florence, and more specially the most sweet City of 
Sienna. The Citizens whereof are most curteous, and 
they have many publike meetings of the young weomen 
& Virgines to dance, where the doore is open for any 
Citizen or stranger. 
Besides Sienna is commended for the best language, Sienna free 
and in the same, and in all the state of Florence, men fi.ons rolderies 
live safe from robberies, and from the murthers, which n,g ,usters. 
are frequent in Lombardy. Adde that they have delicate 
diet, at Florence at a reasonable rate, and in the rest of 
the territory at a very cheape rate. Our Hostesse at 
Sienna gave us cleane linnen often changed both at bed 
and boord, a large chamber, a good bed, a linnen canopy 
oft changed, and did provide our meat very cleanly; 
for which each man paid n.o more then ten giulii by the 
moneth. We bought our owne meat, and I remember 
that the price of oyle was twenty five lires the barrell, that 
I paid for as much wood as an Asse would beare route 
baelli. They have butter, but not so good as in the 
valley of Arno, and they sell it twenty two sols the ounce. 
The Magistrate sets a price upon every thing to be sold Price, fixed 
by the 
in the market, neither dare any man sell ought, before r, ag/mwte. 
his price be set; and upon the Butchers stals, a bill is 
set of the prices at which they must sell their meat, so 
as a stranger cannot be deceived. The price of wheat 
was  9.o. lires the Moggio, containing forty eight English 
peckes, and each lire is a giulio and a halle. The 
Toscanes hold Rammes stones fried for a great daintie, 
which they call La Granella, and sell it after a giulio the 
pound, at Sienna commonly they eat Kids flesh for three 
baeli the pound, and a whole Kidde for route giulii and 
35 r 



FROM SIENNA TO LUCCA 

594- 

admiring his pleasant wit and quicke invention, did for 
the renewing of his memory, erect this monument to him 
at his owne charge, and that by fines imposed in the yeere 
 500. Also his statua without a beard carved in marble, 
was set upon his Toome. At Castell Fiorentino I paid 
three giulii and a halle for my dinner, and one guilio for 
my horse-meate. 
After dinner I rode fifteene miles to Ponte Capiano, Charges ly 
where every horse of Carriers laded, and of Vetturines the way 
hired, paieth two giulii to the Duke, which taxe they 
say the Duke imposed, to withdraw Merchants from 
trading that way, leading to Lucca. All the way the 
fields were tilled on the Lombard fashion, with corne, 
and vines growing upon Elmes. Before we had rode 
two miles, I passed the River Arno, and paid halle a 
giulio for my passage. At Ponte Capiano I paid ten 
baeli for my supper upon reckoning, and twelve baeli for 
oates for my horse, and eight baeli for hay, straw, and 
stable roome. The second day in the morning I 
rode through the like way, (having mountaines on 
my right hand towards the .North) seven miles in 
the state of Florence, and slx miles to Lucca in 
that free state. This City I have discribed before; and 
here I paid for my dinner upon reckoning two giulii and 
a halle. After dinner I hired a horse for two giulii, 
and rode through like way, in a fruitfull plaine, five miles 
in the state of Lucca, and then five miles more to Pisa, 
passing into that state over a high mountaine, and the 
rest of the way lying through fenny grounds. This 
City I have discribed before, and here I paid for my 
supper three giulii or reali. 
And because the passage by sea was more dangerous From Pisa to 
from Ligorno to Genoa, I hired a horse to Lirigi for one Lirigi. 
piastro or silver crowne. The first day I rode twelve 
miles, through an open plaine, to Via Regia, and there 
passing out of the state of Florence into that of Lucca, 
I rode eight miles through a thicke wood, where the 
quarters of theeves were newly hung up, who few daies 
t . 353 z 



I594. 
Theeves 
Punishment. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

before had robbed and almost killed a Frenchman; and 
then entering againe the state of Florence, I rode one 
mile to Pietra Santa, and five miles more in the same 
state of Florence, and one mile and a halle in the state 
of Lucca, and halle a mile to Masso in the state of the 
Prince of Masso, who is a Marquesse of the Family of 
Malaspina. All this way being through a plaine, tilled 
after the manner of I.ombardy, with mountaines of 
Chesse-nuts on the right hand, having in all rode this 
day twenty eight miles. 
In this Citty of Masso the Post-master staled us from 
[I. ii. x65.] going any further, pretending to give us new horses, 
because those we had were hired of his man at Pisa: 
but the true cause was, that we might lodge in his house 
that night, to which my companions areed, but my selfe 
being desirous to see the quarries ofmarble at Carrara, 
tooke of him halle the piastro I had paid at Pisa, and so I 
left my horse. Then turning out of the way, I went 
on foot three miles to Carara, through wooddy mountaines 
abounding with Chesse-nuts. This Towne is subiect to 
The Quarries the Prince of Masso, and is famous for the marble, which 
ofrnarble at is much preferred before other, as well for the exceeding 
Carrara. whitenes of some stones, as for the length of pillars and 
tables digged thence, which made it much esteemed at 
Rome in the time of the free state, and of the Empire; 
and by reason it lies neere the sea, the stones are more 
easily convaied to Rome, or els where. In one of the 
quarries called Pianella, I did see many stones digged 
out, which were as white as snow, and other quarries have 
veines of all colours: and they sell as much marble 
as an Oxe will draw for twenty sols; but if it be carved 
there, the price is greater, according to the workeman- 
ship. Each quarry is proper to some private man, and 
if any man digge in another mans quarry, they fine him 
Beauty of the at twenty crownes, or more according to the dammage. 
Menand When I beheld the beauty of Men and Weomen in these 
l/Feoraen, parts, which seemed to me greater then in any other part 
of Italy, I remembred the Patriarke Jacob, who laid 



Noble wines. 

[I. ii. , 66.] 

Porto Fino. 

The Feluca 
cast away. 

.D. FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 
594- 
Saint was the day of Saint Katherine, the Patronesse of 
Katherine Marriners, who thinke that no man was ever drowned 
the Patronesse that day, but they observe that after that day the winds 
of Martinets. 
use to grow boisterous. I would willingly have gone 
by land, but this Coast being all of high Rockes, there 
was no good high way over them, nor commodity for 
passage. Yet you cannot imagine a more fruitfull and 
pleasant place, then the narrow vallies and hils lying upon 
the sea side : onely this coast lying upon the south sunne, 
.breathing tier out of Affricke, is subject to great heat 
in summer time. This Territory doth so abound with 
fruitfull trees and flowers, as the markets are furnished 
with them in the very moneth of December. It yeeldeth 
noble wines; namely, La vernazza, and in villages called 
Cinqueterre, the wine called Le lagrime di Christo, that 
is, the teares of Christ, which is so pleasant, as the Italians 
say, that a Dutchman tasting it, did greatly lament that 
Christ had not wept in his Countrey. At Sestri we had 
delicate white bread and excellent wine, (as likewise in 
all this journey) and all things at a cheape rate, and each 
man spent there nine bolinei. 
The third day we sailed ten miles over an arme of the 
sea, to Porto Fino, called of old the Haven Delfinus, 
now they call it Fino for the goodnes thereof. On the 
East side of this Promontory the sea was most calme, 
but when we passed to the West side, the winds were 
so high, and the waves so troubled, as we had almost 
beene cast away, and were by force driven upon the side 
of a Rocke, where my consorts trusted to their crucifixes, 
vowes, and beades, (upon which they number their 
praiers), and my selfe creeping upon hands and knees, 
with great difficulty first got to the top of the rocke, 
where being in safety, the name of the Haven came in 
my mind, which answereth to my Christian name, and 
thanking God for my deliverance from this danger, I was 
glad that I escaped christening in this Haven of my owne 
name. After my other consorts climbed to me, and 
thence we went on foot ten miles by the twilight of the 
356 



 594- 
The 
de, cription of 
Genoa, 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

East side. And in the middest of this bank is a (A) 
Fort built to defend the Navy. There also are certaine 
statuaes (B) erected to the founders of the building. And 
in the furthest corner of this haven towards the City, is 
an (M) inner haven, compassed with wals, where the 
gallies lie under a covered building. Neer that is the 
Armory of the City, & the chief gaily in the Port called, 
La Reale, the Regal, was about seventy five walking paces 
long, and they sayd that foure hundred Rowers belonged 
to the same. At the other home of the outward Port 
towards the south-west, is the (N) tower Faro upon firme 
land, kept by certaine watchmen, who by night hang out 
lights to direct the marriners at sea. Neere that lies the 
Fort La briglia, that is, the bridle, which the French 
King Lewis the twelfth fortified: but the Citizens 
expelling the French out of the City, demolished the 
same. Thence as you walke towards the City, and before 
you enter into the gates, lies (C) the stately Pallace of 
Andreetta D' Auria, (or Doria) the building whereof, the 
garden, the staires to discend to the sea, the banquetting 
house, and divers open galleries, are of Kingly magnifi- 
cence. Not farre thence upon the wall is a (D) statua 
erected to Andrea d' Auria, late Admirall to the Spanish 
Fleete. Then you come to the (P) gate of the City, and 
not far thence within the wals, is (P) another gate leading 
to the inner Haven, where the Gallies lie. Not far're 
thence is the most faire Cathedrall (G) Church, in which 
is an ancient monument of mettall, digged out of the 
adjoyning valley, which hath an old inscription, shewing 
the antiquity of the City. Not farre thence is the (K) 
Church Saint Matthew, wherein the Princes of the Family 
of d' Auria have long had their monuments. Neere that 
lies the (L) Dukes Pallace, not his private Pallace, but 
publike, which is kept by a guard of Dutchmen, who 
also have the keeping of two of the strongest gates of 
the City. In the Court yard of this Pallace, is a foot 
statua, armed, and of white marble, erected to the foresaid 
Andrea d' Auria, by the Senate with the title of Father 
358 



1594- 

Summer 
flowers in 
December. 

Chaires used 
instead of 
Coaches. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the sea with all art, and towards the land aswell by nature 
as art, there being but one way to come to it, and that 
over high and steepe rockes. The streets are narrow, 
the Pallaces are stately built of marble, and the other 
houses of free stone, five or sixe stories high, and the 
windowes are glased, which is rare in Italy. The streetes 
are paved with flint, and the houses of the suburbs are 
almost as faire as within the City. Corals are fished in 
this sea towards Sardinia and Corsica Ilands, not farre 
distant, and the ounce thereof is here sold for three lires. 
Now in the very moneth of December, the markets were 
full of summer flowers, herbes, and fruits, whereof I 
shall speake more in the due place. It is proverbially 
said of this City ; Montagne senza legni, Mar' senza pesci, 
huomini senza fede, donne senza vergogna, Mori bianchi, 
Genoa superba: That is, Mountaines without wood, 
Sea without fish, Men without faith, Weomen without 
shame, white Moores, Genoa the proud. In good earnest, 
they report that the Merchants being not bound by 
writing, make little accompt to breake their promise, and 
the French liberty of the Weomen makes the Italians 
judge them without shame, and as Florence is called the 
faire for the building, so I thinke Genoa is called the 
proud. 
The chaires called Seggioli, whereof I spake in the 
discription of Naples, are also in use here, in which the 
Citizens of both sexes are carried upon two Porters 
shoulders, through the streetes lying upon the sides of 
hils, the chaires being covered with a curtaine drawne, 
and having glasse windowes, so as they may see all men, 
and themselves be unseene. Besides, in regard of the 
narrow streetes, and the steepe mountaines on all sides, 
they use horse litters here in stead of Coaches. The men 
in their feasting, dancing, and free conversation, and the 
weomen in their apparell, come neerer to the French then 
any other Italians. Here I paid one reale by the day 
for my chamber, and dressing my meat, which I bought 
my selfe, all things being at good rate in the City, as in 
360 



FROM GENOA TO MILAN 

594- 

the Countrey. There is such store of fruits, as they give 
a citron for a quatrine, and two Oranges for a quatrine; 
and to end in a word, my diet here was for the manner 
and price not much differing from the same at Pisa. 
They accompt ninety miles from Genoa to Milan, which F,'orn Genoa 
journey I went on foot, willingly expos!ng my selfe to to Milan 
this trouble, partly to spare my purse in the bottome, 
partly to passe more safely in this disguise through the 
Dutchy of Milan, subject to the Spaniards, who then had 
warres with the English. The first day after dinner, I 
walked all alone, seven miles to Ponte Decimo, by the 
banke of a river betweene stony mountaines, but fre- 
quently inhabited. And I paid eight soldi for my supper 
on reckoning, and a cavellotto (that is foure bolinei) for 
my bed. The second day I went on foot eleven miles, 
ascending all the way high mountaines, and tired with 
the difficulty of the journey, onely refreshed with the 
hope of an easie discent from the mountaines." and being 
very hungry by the way, I chanced to meet with a begging 
Friar of the Order of Saint Francis, who having victuals 
in his bag, .gave me to eat, but would receive no money 
for it; saying, it was against their rule to handle any 
money. Thence I walked seven miles downe those 
mountaines, in the territory of Genoa to Gavidon, and 
foure miles more through a plaine and dirty way, in the 
Dutchy of Milan to Seravalle, where I paid foure cavellotti &rae,alle. 
(that is sixteene bolinei) for my supper and my bed. The 
third day in the morning, I walked foureteene miles in 
a dirty way to Tortona, where I paid one soldo for tribute Torana. 
(as all passengers pay) and seven soldi for my dinner 
upon reckoning. Thence I walked after dinner in a dirty 
way five miles to Ponte Curon, and further in a way 
somewhat fairer five miles to Voghera. All this way in 
the Dutchy of Milan, was in a most fruitfull plaine of 
corne, with Elmes planted in the furrowes, and vines 
growing upon them, and such is the way in all Lombardy, 
and to the very City of [Paduoa. At Voghera I paid 
three reali for my supper and bed. 
36t 



Sepulcher of 
Bishop 
Parker. 

[I. ii. 7o.] 

1l Barco. 

The 
Monaster La 
Certosa. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

banished out of England for the Catholike Faith by 
Q.eene Elizabeth, and made Bishop here by the bounty 
of Phillip King of Spaine, did out of his small meanes 
erect this Monument to him, &c. In a Cloyster of the 
same Church, is a Sepulcher of this Charles Parker Bishop, 
deceased in the yeere I59i. There is another Monument 
of Luitprandus, King of Lombardy; and another of the 
Bishop Severinus Boetius, with this inscription in Latin; 
Most skilfull in the Greeke and Latin tongues, who being 
Consull, was sent hither into banishment. And with 
these verses ; 
Ecquid mors rapuit: probitas me vexit ad auras, 
Et nunc lama viget maxima, vivit opus. 
Hath Death snatcht ought ? my goodnes mounts the Skies, 
Great is my fame, my worke lives in mens eyes. 
On the East-side of the saide new streete, and towardes 
the North, lies the Church of Saint Francis, where is a 
monument of Baldus the Civill Lawyer, and they shew 
his head of an extraordinarie bignesse. Without the 
walles of the Citie on the North side, is a piece of ground 
of some twentie miles circuit, compassed with a wall in 
many places broken downe, vulgarly called I1 Barco, that 
is, the Park which John Galiacius Duke of Milan walled 
in to keepe fallow Deare, Hares, and Conies: but at 
this day it is divided into Pastures and plowed fieldes. 
On the furthest side of this Parke from the City, is 
the place where the French King, Francis the first, was 
taken prisoner by the Army of the Emperour Charles 
the fifth. Not farre thence is the Monastery of the 
Carthusians, called la Certosa, where the building of the 
Church, the stones of Marble, the engraving, the top 
covered with Leade, part of the great Altar of Alablaster 
(highly valued), the Sepulcher of John Galiacius first 
Duke of Millan, and the revenew of the Church exceeding 
three hundred thousand Crownes by the yeere, deserve 
admiration. The buildings of the Citie are of bricke, 
and seeme to be of great antiquitie. The Emperour 
o 364 



COMMENTS UPON PAVIA 
1594- 
Charles the fourth in the yeere I36I , at the instance of 
Galiacius the second, gave this Citie the priviledges of 
an Universitie. The King of Spaine permits Jewes to 
dwell here : but they may not stay in Milan above twentie P,,i,. 
foure houres. This Citie was the seate of the Kings of 
Lombardy, whose old Castle is to bee seene neere the 
Church of Saint Michael. After it was subject to the 
Kings of Italy, and the Berengarii being overcome, it 
was subject to the Emperour Otho the first, by right of 
his wife, and successively to the Emperours, with some 
shew of a free Citie, which freedome that they might 
more fully attaine, they willingly yeelded themselves in 
the yeere 1254 to the. Archb!shop of Ravenna. After 
they were subject to usurping Citizens, whom the 
Vicounts of Milan expelled, and so joyned this Citie 
to their State, which together with the Dukedome of 
Milan came to the Spaniards hands, in the time of the 
Emperour Charles the fifth. I lodged here in a faire 
Inne, but common to the baser sort, the Hostesse whereof 
was a Masculine woman, and by the night letting in 
Ruffines to drinke, I was not a little affraid of some 
violence to bee offered mee in my chamber; whereupon 
I firmely resolved with my selfe, to lodge ever after in 
the best Inne, and of best fame, especially in Lombardy, 
infamous for murthers; and here I paied for my supper 
and my bed three reali. 
I went on foote from Pavia, going forth at the North- 
west Gate twenty miles through rich Pastures, to Milan, Milano. 
called la grande, that is, The great, of the large circuit 
thereof. The Citie hath the name of Olanus, a Tuscane 
Captaine; or the Latin word media lana, that is, Halle 
wooll, of those kinde of stuffes made in the Citie. It 
is large, populous, and very rich, seated in a Plaine (as 
all Lombardy lies) and that most firtile, and by the com- 
moditie of a little River brought to the Citie by the 
French, and almost compassing the same, it aboundeth 
also with lorraine Merchandise. Of old it was the seate 
of many Roman Emperours: but the Historie of the 
365 



1594-- 
Historie of 
the Citie. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Citie being contained in the Historie of Italy, I will 
onely remember, that the .Archbishop thereof long time 
challenged the Primacie in the Italian Church, never 
acknowledging the Bishop of Rome for superiour; and 
that he crowned the Emperour with a Crowne of Iron, 
after the people of Milan had approved him: That the 
King of the Ostrogothes had the same Crowne set upon 
his head after his victorie, which Crowne (they say) was 
given, in signe that the Empire and the command of 
Milan were to be won by Iron. That the Citizens of 
Milan were often Rebels to the Emperours. That the 
Vicounts made vicarii of the Citie, did by little and little 
subject the Territorie, and the Citie with title of Duke 
of Milan. That the Family of Vicounts being extinct 
in Duke Philip about the yeere I447, the Dukes of 
Orleance by right of their Mother, and Francis Sforza 
by the right of his wife, chalenged the inheritance of 
the Dukedome: but the Emperour thought the same 
Francis to bee fallen backe to his right. That Francis Sforza 
Sforzn. was by the people first made Captaine of their forces, & 
then chosen Duke. That the French King Francis the 
first, defending the right of the Dukes of Orleans, cast 
Sforza out of the Dukedome in the yeere 449- That 
the Emperor Charles the rift, casting out the French in 
the yere I52i , first restored Sforza to the Dukedome, 
with some restraint of his power; but he' being dead, 
invaded the Dukedom himself, wherupon after many 
[I. ii. 17,. ] contentions & battels, it came to his successours the Kings 
of Spaine, of the family of Austria, to whom at this day 
it is subject. 
The Citie is of a round forme, and hath nine gates, 
the building shewes antiquitie, and the houses are' of 
bricke and low built, excepting some stately Pallaces (such 
as is that of the Duke of Terra Nova) the streetes are 
broad, and the pavement of bricke, raised in the middest 
with broad stones. 
When I came to the Citie on foote, I made offer to 
enter at the Gate called Genese on the South side: but 

366 



COMMENTS UPON MILAN A.D. 
I 594. 
the Guard refused me as a foot-man to passe into the At 
Citie; and lest by my importunitie I should have made 
them looke more narrowly into my qualitie, (they being 
commonly expert men, to find out any disguised person), 
I went backe into the Suburbes, as if I would lodge 
there ; but as soone as I was out of sight, I walked further 
towards the East, compassing a great Fen, and so joyning 
my selfe to some Citizens, returning from walking in 
the fieldes, I entered with them into the Citie, by the 
next Gate on the same South side, which Gate is called 
Lodovico, and was only kept by one souldier. A little 
Brooke within the walles compasseth the very center of 
the Citie circularly; beyond which Brooke, on the North- 
side. within the walles, not farre from the Gate Zobia, 
is a large Meadow, wherein are no houses: for there 
is the most strong Castle seated in a Plaine, and kept 
by a Spanish Garrison, into which no Frenchman may 
enter. Therefore I having gotten so difficultly into the 
City, restrained my curiositie from attempting to view 
this Castle, lest I should rashly expose my selfe to great 
danger. Further towards the North without the Gate 
Renza, is a large Hospitall for those that are sicke of 
the plague, having more chimnies (as they say) then the 
yeere hath dayes. Not farre from the Gate Genese, is 
the Church of S. Laurence, which of old was dedicated The Church 
to Hercules by the Emperour Maximinianus Erculeus 0fs. 
buried in the same; and it hath a rare Image of the Lnurence. 
Virgin Marie, and x6 stately Marble Pillars, and the 
building is Magnificent. The Emperour Theodosias is 
said to have given to S. Ambrose Archbishop of Milan, 
one of the nailes wherewith Christ was fastened to the 
Crosse, and the brasen Serpent that Moses lift up in the 
Desert (the Image of which Serpent was of mixt mettall, 
vulgarly called di bronzo), and they say, that S. Ambrose 
left these reliques in the Churches of S. Tecla and of 
S. Ambrose; and the Altar under which the body of S. 
Ambrose lies, is valued at 28000 Crownes. In the 
Church Delle Gratie, belonging to the Benedictine Friers, 
367 



COMMENTS UPON CREMONA 

were borne in this Citie. The forme of the City seemes 
.very like to a Cardinals Hat with broad brimes, and it 
is seated in a Plaine, one mile distant from the River 
Po. Wee entred this Citie by the narrow part lying 
towards Milan, and there is a most strong Fort built to 
keepe the Citizens in awe, and kept by a Spanish Garison, 
and seated in a plaine field, wherein are no other buildings 
but the Fort it selfe. From hence going to the opposite 
& broader part of the Citie, is a large and very faire 
Market place, neare which is a Tower or Steeple, of 
such height and beautie, as the Italians proverbially say, 
One Peter at Rome; one Haven at Ancona; one Tower 
at Cremona; thereby noting the excellencie. This Tower 
is built of bricke, and hath foure hundred ninetie and 
two staires in the ascent. Neare the same is a statua of 
a Giant, who, they say, was overcome by Hercules, the 
founder of the Citie; and the Citizens keepe a feast once 
a yeere, at which time with many ceremonies they adorne 
this statua with rich robes. Neere this Tower and Market 
place, lies the stately Cathedrall Church, and the fairest 
and richest Monastery is that of Saint Dominick. This 
Citie hath many stately Pallaces, and the streetes thereof 
are broad and very pleasant. Here I payed thirtie three 
soldi (that is the fourth part of a Ducaton) for my supper. 
From hence to Mantua are fortie five miles, whether 
I hired a horse for five lires. The first day we rode 
twentie two miles, where going out of the Dutchie of 
Milan, and passing the River Oye, wee entered the 
Dutchie of Mantua, and then rode nine miles to Mercaria. 
And by the way we passed the pleasant Castle, or rather 
Citie called Bozilia, belonging to Julius Gonzaga, being 
of the Family of the Dukes of Mantua; which Castle 
was built with open cloisters or arches toward the streete, 
under which the passengers walke drie in the greatest 
raine, and such are the buildings of the Cities in this 
Dukedome, and in many neighbour places. By the way 
also in a solitary Inne I paid fifteene soldi for my dinner, 
and at Mercaria I payed thirtie foure soldi for my supper. 
.  369   

594- 
[I. ii. 172.] 

The Tower of 
C l"e ttl otl a . 

FFottl 
Creraona to 
Mantua. 



594. 
Mantua. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

The second day we rode fourteene miles to Mantua 
through most fruitfull fieldes, tilled after the manner of 
Lombardy, and in a most durtie highway. The Histories 
report, that this Citie bad the name of Manto, the 
daughter of Tyresias. It is seated in the middest of 
Fennes or Lakes, made by the River Mencius. The 
buildings are partly of Brick, partly of Free stone, and 
the streetes are large and cleane. The forme of this Citie 
is round, save that the foresaid Lakes on the North and 
East-sides enter into the Citie, in the forme of an halfe 
Moone. Comming from Cremona I entred Mantua on 
the West side, by the Gate Predella, where is a faire 
streete called I1 Borgo. On the same side towards the 
Te D,,e's South, is the Gate Pistrella, which leades to the Dukes 
Pallace. stately Pallace called Teye, seated some mile out of the 
Citie, and compassed with water, where in the Giants 
Chamber I did see most faire pictures, and it is built in 
a quadrangle onely two stories high, with a low roofe 
after the manner of the building of Italy. On the South- 
side is the Gate of Sirceses whence the way lies by the 
banke of the Lake to a Village called Petula, two miles 
distant from the Citie, in which, they say, that the famous 
Poet Virgil was borne, and shew the house where his 
parents dwelt. Partly on the North, and partly on the 
East side, the Citie is compassed with Lakes, which 
usually are covered with infinite number of water-foule; 
and from these Lakes there is a passage into the River 
Po, and so by water to Venice. On the North-East 
The Gate of side is the Gate of S. George, whence betweene the two 
S. George. Lakes is a causey two hundred walking paces long, and 
beyond it a bridge of stone five hundred paces long, like 
to a faire gallery, covered over the head, and supported 
with bricke pillars, having open windowes, two paces 
distant one from the other, then passing a draw-bridge, 
you come to another causey betweene the said two Lakes, 
which causey is two hundred forty walking paces long, 
before you come to firme land. On the East side of the 
said bridge, and within the Citie, the Dukes stately Pallace 
370 



COMMENTS UPON MANTUA 

lies upon the Lake, and to this Pallace joyneth the 
Cathedrall Church of Saint Peter, where also is a pleasant 
Market-place. There lie the Dukes stables, and in one 
of them were some hundred horses for the saddle, and 
in the other as many for the Coach, and he hath a third 
stable without the Gates, wherein is the like number of 
young Colts. On the North-side, at the furthest banke 
of the Lake, is one onely Gate, and a like bridge to passe [I. ii. 
into the Suburbes, and there lies the way to the chiefe 
Pallace of the Duke, some few miles distant from the 
Citie, called Mirmirollo, the building whereof is onely 
two stories hie, with a low roofe, and the chiefe chambers 
were hung with guilded leather, after the Italian maner, 
three skins whereof were commonly sold for a Crowne, 
and the Gardens of this Pallace were exceeding pleasant. 
In the middest of the Citie Mantua is a large Market 
place, wherein the Jewes have their shops, and sell all T,e Jeves 
manner of wares, for all trafficke is in their hands, growing fa,oured in 
rich by the povertie of the Citizens; and being so much Mantua. 
favoured by the Duke, as they dwell not in any severall 
part of the Citie, but where they list, and in the very 
Market-place; neither are they forced (as in other parts 
of Italy) to weare yellow or red caps, whereby they may 
bee knowne, but onely a little piece of yellow cloth on 
the left side of their cloakes, so as they can hardly be 
distinguished from Christians, especially in their shops, 
where they weare no cloakes. Such be the priviledg.es 
which the Jewes have gotten by bribing (especially in 
the Dutchey of Savoy) through the unsatiable avarice 
of our Christian Princes. Neere this Market place is 
the large Church of Saint Andrew, and the Senate-house, The Senate 
in which they shew two statuaes of Cupid (whereof one Hoz, e. 
is ancient, and of much greater value then the other), 
and a very long Unicornes horne, and a paire of Organs 
of Aliblaster, besides Jewels, and vessels of gold and 
silver. Not farre thence is the third Market-place of 
Justice. To conclude, at the gate of Saint Francis Church 
is the head of Virgil, which the Neapolitans say (as in 
37! 



A.Do 
594. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the description of that Citie I formerly said) was stolne 
from the Sepulcher of Virgil, upon the Mount Pausilip. 
In the Pallace called della ragione, is another statua of 
Virgil, sitting at a Table of brasse, as if hee were writing, 
and .crowned with Laurell. I said formerly, that there 
is a passage from the Lakes into the River Po, and so 
by water to Venice, and the Duke, to take his pleasure 
A boat bmlt upon the water, hath a boat called Bucentoro, because 
like a it will beare some two hundred, and it is built in the 
banquctitg upper part like a banqueting house, having five roomes 
house. 
(with glased windowes) wherein the Duke and his Traine 
doe sit; and these roomes are supported upon a boat, 
the Mariners that row the same, sitting under the said 
roomes, the first and largest roome whereof was fifteene 
walking paces long, with benches on both sides; the 
second was eight paces long, the third five, and the fourth 
likewise five paces long; the fifth was a Gallerie over 
the other roomes fortie paces long, and open, to which 
they mounted by staires out of the first roome. And 
this boate doth not onely much differ from our Kings 
barge% aswell for the bignesse as the rich furniture, but 
also is flat in the bottome, the waters being still and calme 
on which it passeth. These roomes according to occasions 
have more or lesse rich hangings, when the Duke either 
goeth out to disport himself, or when he takes any journy 
therin, (as oft he doth.) 
U, la,.f, l to It is unlawfull to weare a sword without licence of 
u,eareasu,ord the Magistrate, either at Milan, Cremona, Mantua, or 
in Italy. almost in any Citie of Italy ; onely at Venice and Paduoa, 
and the Cities of that State, strangers may weare Swords, 
and onely the wearing of Pistols or short gunnes is 
forbidden. At Mantua I paied three reali each meale, 
and being to depart thence, I was forced to take a Bill 
of the Customers, by which they signifie to the Guard 
at the gate, whether the passenger be to goe on horseback, 
on foote, or by coach, and what tribute he is to pay; for 
w.hich Bill a footeman paies 3- soldi, another passenger 
six. Thus the Princes of Italy having small Territories, 
372 



FROM MANTUA TO PADUA 

I594- 

doe not onely burthen their subjects with taxes, but all 
strangers, & strictly take account from the exacters therof. 
Being to goe from hence to Paduoa, we went out of 
the gate Saint George, and I hired a horse from Mantua 
to the Castle Este for eleven lires. The first day wee 
passed by a Forte of the Venetians most strongly fortified 
upon the confines of that State, which Fort lies upon 
the River Athesis, and is called Lignaco, and rode some Fort Lignaco. 
twenty miles through a Plaine tilled after the manner of 
Lombardy to Monteguiara, where I paied fortie soldi, 
(that is two lires) for my supper. The next morning I 
rode nine miles to the Castle Este, whence is the Family 
of the Dukes of Ferraria, long flourishing, but now 
extinct. From thence I passed by boate 5 miles to 
Paduoa, and paied 22 soldi for my passage. This day Pad, on. 
when I returned to Paduoa, was the 4 of December, 
after the new stile, in the yeere 594, which city & the 
rate of vittles there, I have formerly described. 
Chap. IIII. [I. ii. 74.] 
Of the Sepulcher of Petrarch at Arqua. Of my 
journey to Vicenza, Verona, Brescia, and 
Bergamo (in Italy), then passing the Alpes, 
to Chur, Zurech, Solothurn, Geneva, and (in 
my returne thence) to Berna (in Sweitzerland), 
thence to Strasburg (in Germany), and to 
Chalon, to Paris, to Roan, and to Diepe (in 
France), and finally of my passage by Sea and 
Land, to London (in England). 
 Hilest I expected the commoditie of the 
Spring for my journey home-wards, I 
went to Venice to receive money there, 
and retaining a sufficient proportion in 
my hands, I thought to make over the rest 
to Paris by bills of exchange, but France 
having been now long wasted with civill 
war, I could not finde one Merchant of Venice, who had 
373 



COMMENTS UPON ARQUA 

house and fields, made this Image in the yeere 
MDXCVII. the Ides of September. 
There is also a Fountaine, vulgarly called the Fountaine 
of Petrarch, upon which these verses are written. 
Fonti numen inest, hospes venerare liquorem, 
Unde bibens cecinit digna Petrarcha Deis. 
Some god dwells here, worship the sacred Spring, 
Whence Petrarch drinking, heavenly Rimes did sing. 
Petrarch dwelt at Arqua, and here in the same house 
wherein they say he dwelt, the historie of Petrarches life 
is painted, where the owner of the house shewed us some 
household stuffe belonging to him, and the very skinne 
of a Cat he loved, which they have dried, and still keepe. Petrarch's 
Here I did see his Studie, (a pleasant roome, especially cat. 
for the sweet prospect) and likewise a faire picture of 
Lucretia ready to die. No situation can be imagined 
more pleasant, then that of Arqua, lying in the mouth 
of Mountaines abounding with Olive trees, and opening [I. ii. 75.] 
themselves upon a fruitfull plaine on the East and North 
sides. This plaine yeeldeth nothing in pleasantnes, or 
in fruitfulnes to that of Capua, famous for the corrupting 
of Hannibals Army. But it is a needles worke to praise 
the Euganian hils, which so many Poets and Writers 
have magnified. 
Upon Friday the third day of March (after the new 
stile) in the beginning of the yeere I595, according to 4nno '595. 
the Italians (beginning the yeere the first of January) 
or the end of the yeere 1594, according to the English 
(beginning the yeere upon. the twenty five of March) 
I turned my face to journey towards my deere 
Countrey. And the first day I rode eighteene miles to 
Vicenza, through a most pleasant plaine tilled after the 
manner of Lombardy (where one and the same field yeelds 
plenty of corne, and hath Elme trees growing in the 
furrowes, which support the vines ; so that one field gives 
bread, wine, and wood for to burne.) By the way my 
375 



A.D. FYNES 51ORYSON'S ITINERARY 
I595. 
curiositie made me turne aside two miles out of the way, 
that I might see a wonderful1 Cave, and a most pleasant 
Cotozn. parlor at Costoza, in the house of Cesario Trento a 
Gentleman of Vicenza. The Cave was large, and fit to 
receive divers bands of souldiers. The Parlor was called 
the prison of/Eolus god of the Windes; because there 
were certaine mils, which in summer time draw much 
wind out of hollow Caves, and disperse the same through 
all the chambers of the Pallace, refreshing all that dwell 
there, with a most pleasant coole aire. And upon this 
Parlor this verse of Virgill was written: 
tEolus hic clauso ventorum carcere regnat. 
/Eolus here in the winds prison raignes: 
l'icenn. The City of Vicenza is a faire City, compassed with 
a wall of bricke: but the building howsoever it be very 
stately, is not like to that of other Cities in these parts, 
in this one point, namely, that the second story of the 
houses hangeth over the streetes, and being supported 
with arches, giveth the passengers shelter from raine. 
Here I did see a Theater for Playes, which was little, 
but very faire and pleasant. In the market place there 
is a stately Pallace, and the monastery of Saint Corona 
belonging to the preaching Friars, is fairely built, and 
hath a rich Library; and the Friars keepe for a holy 
relike the Thorne wherewith Christ was crowned. The 
Citie is subject to the Venetians, and is seated in a plaine, 
having mountaines somewhat distant on the North and 
South sides. Here I paid forty soldi for my supper, and 
eighteene soldi for three measures of oates, called 
quarterolli, and for the stable (so they call hay straw, 
and the stable roome, and so I will hereafter call it) I 
paid twenty soldi. Here I hired a horse for fiftie six 
soldi, for a foote-man that had attended me hither, and 
was to returne to Paduoa. 
l'e,-ona From Vicenza I rode thirty miles to Verona, in a most 
pleasant plaine (tilled after the manner of Lombardy) lying 
on my left hand towards Italy, farther then I could see, 
376 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

brother Bartholmew (partner with him of that Lordship) 
about the yeere 38, was driven out of the City by 
Vicount John Galeatius, the first Duke of Milan, and 
he being dead, William Scaliger, helped by Francis 
Carrariensis, drove the Garrison of Milan out of the City, 
in the yeere i4o 4. But the said Francis killing the said 
William by poison, and the Family of the Scaligers being 
then so wasted, as scarcely any one was to be found of 
lTeron mae'e that name ; the Venetians tooke occasion by this detestable 
subject to treason of the said Francis, to make the City subject to 
l'enice, them: but their Army being defeated by the French in 
the yeere, i5o9, by a composition made betweene the 
French King and the Emperour Maximilian, the City 
became subject to the said Emperour, till the Venetians 
recovered the same out of his hands in the yeere r5r7, 
under whose subjection the City to this day flourisheth, 
in great aboundance of all things. 
The On the North-side of the City without the wals, is the 
,,ountaine mountaine Baldo, hanging over the City, and famous for 
Baldo. the great plenty of medicinable herbes, and upon the side 
of this mountaine, within the wals, are no buildings, but 
onely a strong Fort. 
On the south side lies the way to Mantua (2 3 miles 
distant,) and upon the same side lies the foresaid 
stony plaine, five miles long, and ennobled with many 
skirmishes, battels, and victories. In this plaine the 
Consull Caius Marius defeated the Cimbri, and Odoacer 
King of the Heruli (who destroied the Westerne Empire) 
was defeated by Theodoricus King of the Ostrogothes, 
and the Dutch Emperour Arnolphus Duke of Bavaria, 
was defeated by Hugh of Burgundy, then possessing 
Italy. Upon the same South side within the wals, is a 
faire market place, and the Pallace of the Venetian 
Governour (which Governour in Italy is vulgarly called 
II Podesta.) And neere the wals on this side, lies a 
stately Monument of an old Ampitheater, at this day little 
ruined, vulgarly called Harena, and built by Luc: 
Flaminius, (though others say it was built by the 
378 

plaine. 



COMMENTS UPON VERONA ..D. 
595. 
Emperour Octavius.) It passeth in bignesse all the old 
Amphitheaters in Italy, and the outside thereof is of The 
Marble, and the inner side with all the seates, is of bricke. 
It is of an ovall forme, and the inner yard is sixety three 
walking paces long, and forty eight broade, where the 
lowest seates are most narrow, whence the seates arise 
in forty foure staires or degrees (howsoever others write 
that there be onely forty two degrees), and they so arise, 
as the upper is still of greater circuit then the lower. And 
the shoppes of the Citizens built on the outside, under 
the said increase of the inner circuit, have about fifty 
two walking paces in bredth, which is to be added to 
make the full breadth of the inside. It hath eighteene 
gates, and betweene every Arch are very faire statuaes, 
and the seates within the same, are said to bee capable 
of twentie three thousand one hundred eightie and foure 
beholders, each one having a foote and a halle allowed 
for his seate. Each one of us gave two gagetti to 
the keeper of this monument. Alboinus King of the 
Lombards, was killed by his wife at Verona. In the 
Monastery of Saint Zeno is a Monument erected to Pipin, 
sonne to Charles the Great, and betweene this Monastery 
and the next Church, in a Church yard under the ground, 
is the Monument of Qeene Amalasuenta. 
Berengarius King of Italy, was killed at Verona; and 
this City braggeth of two famous Citizens, namely, the Citizens. 
old Poet Catullus, and Guarinus, a late writer. The 
territorie of this Citie is most fruitful1, abounding with 
all necessaries for life, and more specially with rich Wines, 
particularly the Retian wine, (much praised by Pliny, and 
preferred to the Wine of Falernum by Virgil1), which 
the Kings of the Gothes were wont to carrie with them 
as farre as Rome. It is of a red colour and sweet, and [[. ii. 77-] 
howsoever it seemes thicke, more fit to be eaten then 
drunke, yet it is of a most pleasant taste. The Lake 
Bennacus is much commended for the store of good 
Carpes, and other good fish : besides this territory yeelds 
very good marble. Here I paid forty soldi for my supper, 
379 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

and sixteene soldi for the stable, (that is for hay and straw) 
and eighteene soldi for three measures of Oates. Certaine 
Gentlemen bearing me company from Paduoa to this 
City, and being to returne thither, did here each of them 
hire a horse, for three lires and a halfe to Vicenza, where 
they were to pay for their horse meat. 
From hence I rode fifteene miles to the Castle 
Peschiera, built by the old Lords of Verona, and seated 
upon the Lake Bennacus, vulgarly called I1 Lago di 
Gardo, where they demanded of me two quatrines for 
the passage of a bridge: but when I shewed them my 
Matricula, that is, a paper, witnessing that I was a 
Sco#er's scholler of Paduoa, they dismissed me as free of all 
priviledges. Tributes. And in like sort by the same writing, I was 
freed at Paduoa from paying six soldi, and at Verona 
from paying eight soldi. I rode from this Castle seven 
miles to a Village, seated upon the same Lake, famous for 
the pleasant territory, and the abundance of good fish: 
and here I paid twenty soldi for my dinner, and eight soldi 
for my horse meat. All my journey this day was in a 
most sweet plaine, rising still higher with faire distances, 
so as the ascent could hardly be seene. 
Brescia. After dinner I rode eighteene miles to Brescia, which 
City flourished under the old Emperours of Italy, then 
was subject to the Lombards and tyrant Kings of Italy, 
and they being overcome, to Charles the Great and 
French Governours; then to the Westerne Emperours 
of Germany, and to the Italian family of the Berengarii. 
And it obtained of the Emperour Otho the priviledge to 
be a free City of the Empire, till being wasted by the 
factions of the Guelphi and Gibellini, the Scaligeri, a 
family of the same City, made themselves Lords thereof, 
whom the Vicounts of Milan cast out of the Citie: and 
when Phillip Maria Duke of Milan oppressed the City, 
and would not be induced to ease the same of his great 
impositions, they yeelded themselves in the yeere 
to the French King, who had defeated the Venetian 
Army. Then by the French Kings agreement with the 
380 



COMMENTS UPON BRESCIA 

Emperour Maximilian, the Citie was given i,ato the 
Emperours hands; whose Nephew the Emperour Charles 
the fifth, restored the same to the French King Francis 
the first, who likewise in the yeere i517, gave the same 
into the hands of the Venetians. The most fruitfull 
territorie of Brescia, hath mines of Iron and brasse, and 
I thinke so many Castles, Villages, and Houses, so little 
distant the one from the other, can hardly be found else 
where. The Brooke Garza runs through the City, which 
is of a round forme, and is seated for the most part in a 
plaine, and towards the North upon the side of a moun- 
taine, where a Tower is built, which hath many houses 
adjoining, and in this Tower or Castle the Venetian 
Governour dwels, who takes an oath that he will never The 
goe out of the same, till a new Governour be sent from go,ernr's 
oath. 
Venice. The Cities building is of bricke, the streetes 
are large, and are paved with flint. Boniface Bembus, 
was a Citizen of Brescia, and the Brescians; as also the 
Citizens of Bergamo, are in manners and customes more 
like the French their old Lords, then the other Italians 
farther distant from France, and the very weomen receive 
and give salutations, and converse with the French 
liberty, without any offence to their husbands, which 
other Italians would never indure. Here I paid forty 
soldi for my supper, and forty soldi for foure measures 
of oates and for the stable. 
From hence I rode thirty two miles to Bergamo: and Bergamo. 
as the territories in this part of Italy (lying upon the 
South sunne, which beats upon the sides of the hils and 
mountaines, with great reflection of heat, and upon the 
other side defended from the cold windes of the North 
and East, by the interposition of the Alpes) are singularly 
ffuitfull and pleasant; so for the first twenty miles of 
this dales journey, they seemed to me more pleasant then 
the very plaine of Capua, yeelding plenty of corne, and 
of vines growing upon Elmes in the furrowes of the 
lands, which Elmes are planted in such artificiall rowes, 
as the prospect thereof much delighteth the eye. And 
38t 



[I. ii. I78. ] 
B'rescia's 
many masters. 

.4 rich 
Library. 

FYNES 510RYSON'S ITINERARY 

the other twelve miles were yet more pleasant, being 
tilled in like sort; and towards my journies end, yeelding 
most large and rich pastures. The City Bergamo after 
the Roman Empire was extinct, first obeyed the Lom- 
bards, then the French; and following the fortune of 
Brescia, was sometimes subject to the Vicounts of Milan, 
and other Princes (invading their liberty which they had 
under the Empire) and other times was subdued by 
divers of their owne Citizens, and being oppressed by 
the Dukes of Milan, they yeelded themselves in the yeere 
4z8, to the Venetians, whose Army being defeated the 
next yeere by the French, this City likewise submitted it 
selfe to them, and they being cast out of Italy, it was 
subjected to the Sfortian family, Dukes of Milan, and 
they being extinct, and the Emperour and French King 
making warre for the Dukedome of Milan, this City in 
the yeere 5x6, returned under the power of the 
Venetians, who at this day enjoy the same in peace. 
The City is seated upon a mountaine, upon the south- 
side whereof a Fort is built, and under the mountaine 
towards the East, are two large suburbs, full of faire 
houses and Churches. Neere the market place in the 
Church of Saint Mary, is a stately sepulcher of marble, 
and in the monastery of the preaching Friars, is a rich 
Library. These Citizens speake the Italian tongue, but 
more rudely then any other of Italy. Here I paid foure 
lires for my supper and horse-meat, and twelve soldi for 
my breakefast. 
From hence I tooke not the right way to Geneva, but 
declined to the way of Chur, aswell because it was more 
safe from robbery, as to be freed from all dangers, by 
ventering againe to passe through the state of Milan. 
When I came from Paduoa, I was not curious to find out 
companions for this my long journey, aswell because I 
hoped to find some by the way, as for that I being now 
used to converse with any Christian strangers, little cared 
to be solitary by the way: but deceived of this my 
hope to find company, I passed all alone, not so much as 
38 



FROM BERGAMO TO GENEVA 
I595. 
accompanied with a foote-man, over the high Alpes, 
which I thinke very few have done besides my selfe. 
From Bergamo I rode nine miles to Trescher, where 
! first entered the mouth of the A.lpes, and thence ! 
rode nineteen miles to Louer, passing by many very 
pleasant lakes, and by the way I paid sixteene gagetti, 
that is, thirty two soldi for foure horse shooes. Being to 
passe from hence over the steepe and snowy Alpes, I 
caused my horse to bee shod with eight sharpe and three 
blunt nailes, for which I paid sixe soldi, and for my 
supper twenty eight, and for three measures of oates 
twenty foure, and for the stable eighteene soldi. The 
second day I rode thirty two miles to the village Edoll, 
through high mountaines, and there I paid three lires for 
my supper and horse-meat. The third day in the morn- 
ing I rode ten miles to a village Auryga, over a most high 
and steepe mountaine of the same name; and now I 
beganne to freeze, for cold, though before I entered the 
Alpes, I could hardly indure the heat of the Clime. 
Hence I went forward one mile to a little Brooke, 
which divideth the territory of the Venetians, and the 
Grysons (which are a free people confederate with the 
Cantons of Sweitzerland), and five miles further to Villa, 
where I paid twenty sixe soldi of Venice for my dinner 
and horse-meat; and it being now the time of Lent, 
they gave us flesh to eat,. whereof I was glad as of a 
dainty I could not get m Italy, neither would they 
gratifie the Italians their neighbours, in providing any 
thing else for them; so as they were forced to eat flesh 
without any scruple of conscience, which this people of 
the reformed religion would little have regarded. After 
dinner I rode ten miles to Poschiano, through a most 
pleasant valley, compassed on all sides with mountaines, 
where I paid two berlinghctti (or two lyres of Venice) 
for my supper and breakefast, (for all passengers use to 
breake their fast in going over the Alpes) and one 
Berlinghotto for five measures of oates, and for the 
stable. The fourth day in the morning for twelve miles 
383 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

mountaines) and I rode two most long miles more, over 
R,bes,eie. hils to the little City Rabesuele, and for the passage of 
my selfe and my horse over the Lake, I paid seven batzen, 
and for oates for my horse (while I expected consorts) 
I paid three creitzers. The foresaid little City, is con- 
federate with the Sweitzer Cantons; and here I paid 
eighteene batzen for my supper, with extraordinary fare, 
and my breakfast and horse-meat. The eight day in the 
morning, after I had ridden foure houres space (for the 
Long Miles. Sweitzers miles are so long, and of so uncertaine measure, 
as they use to measure their journies by houres riding, 
not by miles); I wondered to heare that we had ridden 
but one mile. Our way was through pleasant hils 
planted with vines, growing upon short stakes, as the 
Dutch use to plant them. Here we dined in a village, and 
throughout all this territory I paied about seven batzen 
a meale. After dinner having in three houres ridden 
three miles, my horse weary of this long journey without 
so much as a daies rest, beganne to faint, so I was forced 
[I. ii. x8o.] in a village to give him some two houres rest, and some 
provender; and my way hitherto was through pleasant 
hils, in like sort planted with vines on my right hand 
towards the East, and by the side of the Lake Zurechzea, 
on the left hand towards the West. And the pleasant- 
hesse of this Village seated among hilles planted with 
Vines on the East side of the said Lake, made me as 
willing as my horse to rest there. The same evening 
Zul-ec. I rode further one mile to Zurech, which city I formerly 
described in my former passage through Sweitzerland. 
I formerly said, that for the unpossibilitie to exchange 
my money from Venice to Paris, I was forced to exchange 
the same to Geneva. For which cause, and out of my 
desire to view that Citie, famous for reformation of 
Religion, after some few daies I took my iourney thither, 
turning out of my high way. The first day in the 
morning, through a way most pleasant for the variety of 
Plaines, Hilles, Orchards, Woods, and Gardens, (wherein 
I passed by an ancient Castle of the Counts of Habs- 
386 



FROM BERGAMO TO GENEVA 

Purg), 
I rode in eight howers space to a Village, where 
Ilodged, and payed a franke and a halle (French money) 
for my supper and horse-meate. The second day in the 
morning, through a plaine Heath, Woods, and hilly 
ground for pasture, I rode in foure houres space to a 
Village, and there (as in the rest of this journey), I payed 
about seven batzen of Dutch money for a meale. 
After dinner through like way, I rode in three houres 
space to Solothurn an ancient Citie, and one of the Solotur,. 
Sweitzers Cantons, called in Latin Solidurum, and it hath 
the name in both tongues, as the Tower of the Sunne, or 
as consisting onely of Towers, whereof there be many. 
One Tower thereof is of great antiquitie, and upon t 
these verses in Latin are written: 
Ex Celtis nihil est Soliduro antiquius uno, 
Exceptis Treueris, quarum ego dicta soror. 
What's older mongst the Celts then Solidure? 
Nothing but Treir: whose sister I am sure. 
They will have this Citie built in the time of the 
Patriarke Abraham. 
The third day in the morning I rode in foure houres 4rberg. 
space to Arberg, by the side of a great River called Ar, 
passing twice over it by two bridges. After dinner I 
rode in foure houres space to Morion, through pleasant 
hilles of Corne and Woods, and Pastures, and by the side 
of the Lake Morionzea. Not farre hence Charles Duke 
of Burgundy was defeated by the Sweitzers in the yeere 
t476, and there in a field lie the bones of the souldiers 
there killed. The Burgundians were thrice beaten in 
one day, and here in the last battell Duke Charles also 
was killed. The fourth day in the morning I rode in 
three houres to Bitterline, through fruitfull Corne fieldes 
and pastures, and after dinner in foure houres space I 
rode to Milden, and about the midst of the way did see Milden. 
the ruines of the ancient Citie Avenza, or Aventicum, 
which Julius Cesar utterly raced, and Corne was now 
sowed within the old circuit of the Citie, whereof no 
387 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

memory remained, but one ruinous tower and a statua; 
but they say, that the Husbandmen tilling the ground, 
doe many times dig up old Roman coines of silver and 
gold. Not farre thence towards the West, lie the snowy 
Mountaines, which divide the Territories of Burgundy 
and Sweitzerland. 
Lomnna. The fifth day in five houres space I rode to Losannlt, 
through Mountaines covered with Snow and thicke 
Woods. This Citie is subject to Berna (being one of 
the Sweitzers Cantons), but the Citizens speake French. 
It is seated on the North side of the Lake of Losanna (of 
old called Lacus Lemanus), which is compassed with 
Mountaines continually covered with snow, which open 
themselves on the East side towards Italy. On the East 
side of the Citie is the head of the River Rhodanus, 
which falles into this Lake, having so cleare a colour, as 
it seemes not at all to mingle with the standing water of 
the Lake. From hence I rode by the West side of this 
Lake, and in two howers space came to Morgen, which 
Towne is also subject to Berna. 
Then I rode foure miles in foure houres space to 
Geneva. Geneva, having the sandy banke of the said Lake on my 
left hand towards the East, and most pleasant Hilles 
planted with Vines on my right hand towards the West; 
[I. ii. 8.] and by the way I did see a Village ruined in time of 
warre, nothing there standing but a pillar erected in 
honour of the Papists Masse. Geneva is seated on the 
South side of the Lake, right opposite to Losanna, seated 
at the North end thereof. The East side of the Lake 
lies towards Savoy and Italy; and the West side towards 
France, on which side also the high way lies into 
Sweitzerland. The lower part of which Citie, vulgarly 
la has rue, is seated in a plaine, and the rest upon a Hill. 
The buildings are faire, and of free-stone. This Citie 
being confederate with some of the Sweitzer Cantones, 
and more strictly with Berna, hath defended the freedome 
of the Citizens, and the profession of Reformed Religion 
for many yeeres with great courage and pietie, and 
388 



COMMENTS UPON GENEVA 

thro.ugh many miseries and practises to subdue them, 
against the pretended rightes of the Bishop, and the 
Duke of Savoyes ambition, and hatred he beares to the 
Reformed Religion. The lower part thereof on the 
North side, lies close to the South side of the Lake, 
where is a little haven for Gallies, which they have built 
to keepe free the passage of the Lake. And on the same 
side is a strong Fort, and there the river Rhodanus, 
comming out of the Lake enters the Citie, and runnes 
through the lower part thereof, having two bridges for 
pass.age. The Duke of Savoy, who hath long watched The Dttke 
to surprize this Citie, possesseth the East side of the savoy. 
Lake : but the Citie is carefull not to suffer him to build 
any Gallies thereupon; and upon the least rumour of 
building them, armeth their Gallies to burne the same. 
Therefore the way into Savoy lying upon the East South 
East side of the Citie, in a plaine betweene Hilles and 
Mountaines, the Citie hath built a Fort of little circuit, 
but great strength, with fortifications of earth, some 
Musket shot without the walles upon that way, and 
therein continually keepes a Garrison. Not farre thence 
the River Arba, flowing from the Easterne Mountaines, 
doth beyond the Citie fall into Rhodanus. At the South 
Gate is a publike Church-yard for buriall, and an 
Hospitall or Pest house, which are both without the _4,z HospitalL 
walles. On the same side within the walles, is a pleasant 
walke upon Hilles, where of old a pillar was erected, 
with this inscription: 
To the Emperour Cesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius, 
by Fcelix Aug. greatest Bishop with Tribunall 
power, Consull, &c. 
On the West side of the Citie without the walles, little 
Mountaines lying not farre distant, might seeme 
dangerous for the encamping of enemies, save that on 
the one side they are compassed with the Territorie 
Berne, confederate with the Citie, and on the other side 
with the River Rhodanus, so as the enemies passage to 
389 



COMMENTS UPON BERNE 
1595. 
good to follow, so as I was now to returne to Strasburg 
in Germany, almost the same way I came. 
Thus after noone I left Geneva, and rode that day 'rom Gene,a 
foure miles to Morgen. The second day in the morning to Berne. 
I rode in two houres space to Losanna, and in five 
houres space to Milden, where I payed eight batzen Ibr 
my dinner and horse-meate. After dinner in foure 
howers space I rode to Bitterline, and payed fourteene 
batzen for my supper and horse-meate. The third day 
in the morning I rode one mile (as they call it) in foure 
houres space to Morton, & in three howers space to 
Berne, one of the Sweitzers Cantons, through sandy 
fieldes of Corne, and many Woods. At Geneva many 
French Gentlemen and Students comming thither for 
the libertie of their religion, did speake pure French, and 
from that Citie all the people spake a barbarous French 
till I came neere Berne, where they first began to speake 
the Sweitzers language. 
Being to describe Berne, give me leave first for Berne. 
Travellers sake to mention what I have read in some 
Authors; that in the Territorie of Lucerna (which I 
never viewed, and who are earnest Papists, and so may 
justly bee suspected in like reports) there is a wonderfull 
Lake, upon the banke whereof they say Pilate doth once 
in a yeere walke, attired in Judges robes, and that who- 
soever then sees him, doth die the same yeere. The 
most faire Citie Berne hath the name of Beares in the The name af 
Dutch tongue, because Berthold Duke of Zeringen, Berne. 
being to build the Citie, and going fourth to hunt, 
thought good to give it the name of the first beast he 
should meete and kill. And there being a Wood of 
Oakes in the very place where the Citie was to be built, 
the workemen cutting the same for the building of the 
Citie, did sing this Rime in Dutch: 
Holtz lass dich hawen gern: Die star muss heissen Bern. 
Wood let us willingly cut thee: this Citie must Bern 
named be. 

391 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

part I leave the credit of this monument to be tried by 
the consent of Historians, and returne to my journey. 
The fifth day in the morning, I rode foure miles to 
ottmersea, the Towne Ottmersea, and in the afternoone, through 
a stony Plaine of Corne and some Woods, I rode foure 
miles to Besa. The sixth day in the morning I rode 
five miles, through the like Plaine, to Gerzen, and in 
the after-noone, through a woody heath Plaine, and 
towards my journies end through fruitfull fields of Corne, 
I rode foure miles to Strassburg. And in all this journey 
I payed about seven batzen for each meale. From 
Solothurne to Strassburg some reckon seventene miles, 
others twenty two miles; for the Dutch reckon the miles 
diversly, according to the length of them in their owne 
Countrey, and in these parts they use to distinguish their 
journies by bowers riding, not by miles. Not farre from 
the foresaid Towne Besa, lies the Citie Bazell, which I 
have described in my former journey through these parts. 
But to gratifie those who love to search antiquities, give 
4ugst me leave to say, that Augusta Rauracorum (so called for 
R,u-,c0,,m. distinction from Augusta Vindelicorum) a Citie of great 
antiquitie, and at this day become a poore Village, lies 
distant from Bazell some mile towards the Mountaine 
Jura, and that neere this ancient Citie are many old 
monuments of the Romans, and many buildings under 
the earth, which my selfe being lesse curious, did not 
see; and that the Husbandmen there, digged up lately 
a coyne of gold, and sold it for copper, which was after 
valued at nine Crownes of the old Romans. 
I say nothing of Strassburg, which I have in the foresaid 
place f)rmerlv described, onely I will say, that I had the 
A courteous good fortun there, to find a French Gentleman, the 
French Governour of Monwick with his traine, in whose company 
ge,tlem, I rode thither. The first day in the morning, I rode 
through a fruitfull Plaine of Corne foure miles to 
Saverne, in which Citie the Papisticall Chanons of Strass- 
burg have long fortified themselves under the protection 
of the Duke of Loraine, against their Lords the 
394 



FROM STRASSBURG TO NANCY 

Senators of Strassburg, and have appropriated to them- 
selves great part of the revenewes of that Bishop- 
pricke, lying under their power. After dinner I rode 
three miles through Hilles yet covered with snow, to 
Villa Nova. Concerning my expences, I spent each 
day little lesse then a French Crowne, namely, two 
franckes for my supper, and commonly three. French 
soulz for my breake-fast, and one franck for my 
horsemeate. 
The second day I rode one mile to the confines of the 
Empire, and the Dukedome of Loraine, and some three 
miles further to Monwick, where so much salt is made, M0nwick. 
as the Duke of Loraine yeerely receives sixty thousand 
French Crownes for the same. The third day through 
a dyrtie way and fruitfull fieldes of Corne, I rode five 
miles to the Citie Nanzi, where the Duke of Loraine Nanzi. 
keepes his Court, and when I was entring the Gate, the 
Captaine of the Guard drew towards mee, to know my. 
name and Countrie. I not ignora.nt that the Family of [I. ii. I84.] 
Loraine (usurping great power in France, under the 
pretence to defend the Roman Religion) bare no good 
will to the English at that time, answered, that I was 
a Polonian, bee inquired many things of the Kingdome, 
King and Qeene of Poland, and perceiving that I 
answered him directly, bee whispered something with 
some chiefe men of the Guard about my confidence, and 
so turning againe to me, bad me lift up my hand, (for 
so the French use to take othes.) I was much affraid 
lest I should bee forced upon this oath to confesse my 
Countrey which I had dissembled : but when I demaunded 
the cause; hee told mee, that many places being infected Poland 
by the Plague, I was to sweare, that I came not from infected ly 
any of them, which (to be freed from my former feare) the tYag,,e. 
I did gladly assure him upon my oath. The Citie is 
strongly fortified, save that the South side, where the 
circuit of the Citie was inlarged, was not yet compassed 
with walles, neither were the houses on that side yet 
built. The houses are fairely built of free stone. The 

395 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Dukes Pallace was built foure square, with a large inner 
Court all of free stone, and with a high Gallerie towards 
the said Court-yard, and there I had the opportunitie 
to see the Duke, and the Princes and the Princesses his 
children. 
Finding not heere any companie for my journey into 
Metz. France, which I hoped to finde at Metz, and thinking 
it not convenient to stay longer then I must needes, in 
a place for the time ill affected to the English, I rode 
the fourth day eight French miles to Metz. In the time 
of the Emperour Charles the fifth, the French tooke 
this Citie from the Empire, and at this day it was held 
for Henrie the fourth King of France by a Garrison of 
his men, and every one now talking of Peace made in 
France, yet it was not then proclaimed in these parts, 
nor upon any of the confines of France. My selfe after 
few dayes stay, finding no consorts for my journey into 
France, was admonished by some honest Gentlemen in 
Dangers from this Citie, that this journey would bee very dangerous 
Souldiers in to mee, in respect that the armie being broken up, all 
France. France would bee full through all parts of scattering 
troopes of Souldiers, returning to their owne homes. 
But when they perceived that I was obstinate in my 
purpose to passe through France into England, they 
perswaded mee at least to sell my Horse, and goe on 
foote; for they said, the bootie of a good Horse would 
surely cause mee to bee robbed by those, who might 
perhaps let me passe qu!etly on foot, disguised in poore 
apparrell; for they seeing mee well mounted, would 
surely set upon me, and twenty to one kill me aswel 
because they that rob in France do commonly kill them 
they rob, as because they would imagine mee to bee a 
souldier, either on the Kings, or on the Leagers side, and 
in that case, if I were on their owne side, would kill me, 
for feare of being forced to restitution; and if I were 
on the adverse part, would thinke mee well killed as 
an enemie. Besides that, the Marshals of the Kingdome 
at the ende of a Civill warre, used such severitie of justice 
396 

8everitie of 
Justice. 



FROM METZ TO CHALONS 

Merchant, who staied for me at Chalons, whether I was 
then going. He (as it seemed to me) thinking it 
dishonourable to him, if he should himselfe assault a 
poore fellow, and a stranger, did let me passe, but before 
I came to the bottome of the hill, I might see him send 
two horsemen after me, who wheeling about the moun- 
taines, that I might not know they were of his company, 
suddenly rushed upon me, and with fierce countenance 8obberie by 
threatning death, presented their Carbines to my brest. :ae SouMier,. 
I having no abilitie to defend mee, thought good not to 
make any the least shew of resistance, so they tooke my 
sword from my guide, and were content onely to rob 
me of my mony. I formerly said, that I could not finde 
at Venice any meanes to exchange my money to Paris, 
the long Civill warre having barred the Parisians from 
any traffique in lorraine parts, and that I was forced to 
exchange my money to Geneva. This money there 
received, I had quilted within my doublet, and when I 
resolved to goe on foote to Paris, I made me a base cover 
for my apparrel, which when they perceived, they tooke 
from me the inward doublet wherein I had quilted the 
gold, and though they perceived that under my base 
cover, I had a Jerkin and hose laide with gold lace, yet 
they were content to take onely the inner dublet, and Theeves 
to leave me all the rest of my apparrell, wherein I doe Courtesie. 
acknowledge their courtesie, since theeves give all they 
doe not take. Besides, they tooke not onely my Crownes 
but my sword, cloake, and shirtes, and made a very 
unequall exchange with me for my hat, giving me another 
deepe greasie French hat for it. 
One thing in this miserie made me glad. I formerly 
said, that I sold my horse for 6. French Crownes at 
Metz, which Crownes I put in the bottome of a wooden 
box, and covered them with a stinking ointment for scabs. [I. ii. 86.] 
Sixe other French Crownes, for the worst event, I lapped 
in cloth, and thereupon did wind divers colored threads, 
wherein I sticked needles, as if I had been so good a 
husband, as to mend my own clothes. This box and this 

399 



COMMENTS UPON PARIS A.I). 
1595- 
then the third part called the University, were esteemed 
suburbes, till after they were joined to the City. For 
the Kings Court and the City still increased with build- I,,'rea,e  
ings, so as the Suburbes were greater then the City; the city. 
whereupon King Charles the fifth gave them the same 
priviledges which the City had, and compassed them with 
wals, whereof the ruines yet appeare. And new Suburbes 
being afterwards built, King Henry the second in the 
yeere 548, made an Edict, that the houses unperfected 
should be pulled down, and that no more should 
afterwards be built. The River Seyne running from 
the South, and entering at the South-side, divides the 
City into two parts, the greater part whereof towards 
the East and North, lies low in a plaine, and is vulgarly 
called La ville. The lesse lying towards the South and 
West, upon a higher ground, is seated betweene hils, 
and is called the University. Betweene those two parts 
lies the third, namely the Iland, called the City, which The liana 
is seated in a plaine, and compassed on all sides with called the 
the River Seyne, running betweene the Ville and the city. 
University. And this part was of old joined to the 
University, with two bridges, and to the Ville with three 
bridges: but now a sixth called the new bridge, doth 
moreover joine the Iland aswell to the Ville as to the 
University. The part of the City called the Ville, is The lille. 
compassed on the south and west sides with the River 
Seyne, and upon the East and North sides with wals, 
rampiers, and ditches, in the forme of halfe a circle. The 
second part of the City called the University, is compassed The 
on the East and North sides with the River Seyne, and Unirersity. 
upon the South and West sides with wals, which they 
write to have the forme of a hat, save that the lon.g 
suburbes somewhat alter this forme. For my part it 
seemed to me, that joined with the Iland, it had also the 
forme of another halfe circle, though somewhat lesse then 
the former. The third part called the Iland or City, is 
compassed round about with the River Seyne, and upon 
the South-east side is defended from the floods of the 

403 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Tournelles. Not far thence at Saint Catherines Church 
in the Schollers valley, is an inscription, witnessing that 
a house was pulled downe to the ground, for an arrow 
shot into the Church, when the Rector of the University 
was there at Masse, in the yeere 14o4, there being at 
4 sedition that time a great sedition raised betweene the City and 
about a the University, about a scholler defiled with dirt, and 
schollerdeflled that this house by permission of the University was built 
with dirt. againe in the yeere I5t6. Also as you come into this 
gate, on the right hand, in the Monastery Saint Anthony, 
a dried Crocodill is hung up, which a French Ambassador 
at Venice, left there for a monument in the yeere I5x5. 
And there is a sepulcher of the daughters of King Charles, 
being of blacke marble, with their statuaes of white 
marble. Neere that lies the Church yard of Saint John 
for publike buriall, made in the yard of the house of 
Peter Craon, which was pulled downe to the ground in 
the yeere x39o-, because the Constable of France was 
wounded from thence. The second gate towards the 
East, is the gate of the (C) Temple, neere which is the 
fort called Le Bastillon, on your right hand as you come 
in, and this fort, or some other in this place, was built 
by Francis the first. On the left hand as you come in, 
The house oJ is the house of the Templary Knights, like a little City 
the Templary for the compasse, and from it this gate hath the name. 
Knights. And when this order of Knighthood was extinguished, 
their goods were given to the Order of Saint John. The 
Church of this house is said to be built like that of" 
Jerusalem, and there be the monuments of Bertrand & 
Peter, (Priors of France,) & the Table of the Altar is 
curiously painted; and here Phillip Villerius, Master of 
the Knights of Saint John, was buried in the yeere x53., 
to whom a statua of white marble is erected. The third 
gate is called (D) Saint Martine, and it lieth towards the 
North-east, without which gate is the Suburb of Saint 
Laurence, so called of the Church of Saint Laurence. 
The fourth gate is called (E) Saint Denis, and without 
the same is the Hospitall of Saint Lazarus, and the fore- 
408 



COMMENTS UPON PARIS 

said Mount Falcon; and when King Henry the fourth 
besieged this City, he did much harme to the same, from 
some high places without this gate. On the left hand 
as you come into the broad and faire street of Saint Denys, 
lies a Castle which they say Julius Cesar built, and the A castle built 
same Castle was of old the chiefe gate of Paris, whereupon by Julius 
Marcellinus cals the whole City the Castle of the Parisians. Caesar. 
And upon the right hand is the Nunnery of the daughters 
of God, which use to give three morsels of bread and 
a cup of wine to condemned men going to execution. 
Not farre thence is the large Church yard of the Holy 
Innocents, which King Phillip Augustus compassed with 
wals; and there be many faire sepulchers: and they say 
that bodies buried there are consumed in nine daies. The 
fifth (F) gate lies toward the North, and is called Mont- 
Martre, so called of a mountaine of the same name, 
lying without that gate, and having the name of Martyres 
there executed. And Henry the fourth besieging the 
City, mounted his great Ordinance in this place. The 
sixth (G) gate Saint Honore, hath a suburbe, in which 
is the market place for swines flesh, and upon the right A market for 
hand as you come in, hard by the gate, is an Hospitall swinefleh. 
for three hundred blind men. 
The seventh (H) and last gate, lies upon the Seyne 
towards the North-west, and is called the new gate: and 
within the same about a musket shot distance, is the (I) 
Kings Pallace, which may be called the lesse Pallace, in [I. ii. '9'.] 
respect of the greater, seated in the Iland, and this little 
Pallace is vulgarly called, Le' louvre. This Pallace hath 7"e Kins 
onely one Court yard, and is of a quadrangle forme, Pallace. 
save that the length somewhat passeth the bredth, and 
the building being of free stone, seemeth partly old, partly 
new, and towards one of the corners, the Kings chambers 
(vulgarly called I1 Pavilion) are more fairely built then 
the rest. Without the said new gate, some halle musket 
shot distance, is the Kings garden with the banquetting 
house (vulgarly called Les Tuilleries). And now the 
civill warres being ended, the King beganne to build a 

409 



COMMENTS UPON PARIS 

and the Cardinall of Tolouse increased with a Library, 
and with maintenance for sixteene Scholers to studie 
Divinitie. Also there lie the house of Lorayne, the great 
Schooles of foure Nations, the Market place for River 
fish, and the Castle, and the little bridge which the Provost /bridge built 
of Paris built, to restraine the Schollers walking by night, to restrain 
in the time of King Charles the fifth. The second gate Scollers. 
is called (L) the Porte of Marcellus, or of the Stewes, 
and it hath a Suburbe, where in the Church of Saint 
Marcellus, Bishop of Paris, and canonized for a Saint, 
(which Rowland Count of Blois, nephew to Charles the 
Great, did build) ; Peter Lombardus Bishop of Paris was 
buried, in the yeere 1 I64; and behinde the great Altar, 
in a window, is the Image of Charles the Great. On 
the right hand as you enter the said Port, by the Mount 
of S. Genovefa, lie the Colledge Turnonium, the Colledge 
Bone Curiae, the Colledge of the Dutch, the Colledge 
of Navarra, & the Colledge Marchicum, and the Colledge 
Laudunense, and on the left hand the Colledge of the 
Lombards, the Colledge Prelleum, famous for Peter 
Ramus, who was Master of that Colledge, & was there 
killed in the massacre. The third Gate of (M) S. James, 
lyes on the South-west side, where King Francis the first 
built a fort; & without this Gate is a suburb, in which 
is a Church yard of the Monastery of Saint Marie, at 
the very entrie whereof, is a most ancient Image of the 
Virgin, painted with gold and silver, with an inscription 
upon it. In the streete of Saint James, the Jesuites had The Jesuites 
their Colledges, till for their wicked acts they were Co#edge. 
banished the Citie and Kingdome. And since their 
restitution I thinke they now enjoy the same. On the 
right hand as you enter this Gate, lie the Colledge 
Lexoviense, the Colledge of Saint Michael, or Cenale, 
the Colledge Montis Acuti, (which built in the yeere 
I49o , maintaines certaine poore Scholers, called Capeti), 
the Colledge of S. Barbera, the Colledge of Rheines, [I. ii. 9z.] 
the schoole of Decrees, the Colledge Bellovacense, the 
Col.ledge Triqueticum, the Colledge Cameracense, and 
411 



AoDo 
595- 

.4 Monastery 
oft& 
Carthusians. 

monastery of 
Saint 
Germain. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

the Colledge Carnovallense. On the left hand lie the 
Colledge of the bald men, the Colledge of Sorbona, 
(which Robert of Sorbona a Divine, and familiar with 
King Saint Lewis, did institute, and the same in processe 
of time became of great authority in determining 
questions of Divinity), the Colledge of Master Gervasius 
a Christian, the Colledge Plexoviense, and the Colledge 
Marmontense. The fourth (N) Gate of the university 
is called Port Michaell, where Francis the first built a 
Fort, and before the gate is a Monastery of the 
Carthusians, where a statua of blacke marble is erected 
to Peter Navareus, and there be two statuaes of white 
marble, without any inscription. On the right hand as 
you enter this gate, lie the Colledge Cluniacense, the 
Pallace of the Baths, (which they say was built by Julius 
Cesar, and is so called either of the bounds of the 
Tributes, or of the Baths of Julian the Apostata, the 
waters whereof are drawne from a Village adjoining), and 
the Colledge of eighteene, and upon the left hand the 
Colledge of Hericuria, the Colledge of Justice, the 
Colledge of the Treasurers, the Colledge Bajonium, the 
Colledge Scensa, and the Colledge Turonense. The fifth 
Gate on the West side is called (O) Saint Germain, and 
without the gate is a suburbe, (all suburbes are vulgarly 
called Faulxbourg), which is large, and was pulled downe 
to the ground in the civill war. And there King Henry 
the fourth lay encamped, when he besieged the City. In 
this suburbe is the monastery of Saint Germain, not 
inferiour to any in wealth, and indowed with great 
priviledges and jurisdiction, where the old Kings Childe- 
bert the second, and Chilperic the fourth, and Clotharius 
the second, lie buried; and there is a chest of silver, 
the gift of King Eudo. On the right hand as you come 
into this Gate, in the Minorites Cloyster, are the 
sepulchers of the Q.geenes and Princes, whereof one 
being of blacke marble, with white statuaes, is the fairest : 
(my memory herein may faile me, that there is another 
Cloyster of Minorites without the gate of Saint Mar- 
412 



COMMENTS UPON PARIS 
595- 
cellus). Also there lie the Colledge Brissiacum, and Other 
upon the left hand the house Rothomagensis, the Colledge Colledges. 
of Burgondy, the house of Rhemes, the Colledge 
Mignonium, the Colledge Premonstratense, and the 
Colledge Dinvellium. The sixth Gate is called (P) 
Bussia, and upon the right hand as you come in, lies 
the Colledge Anthunense, and upon the left hand lies 
the house Nivernensis. The seventh and last Gate of 
the University, lies towards the north-west, & is called 
(Q) Nella, and without the same is the meadow of the 
Clerkes. On the right hand as you come in this gate, 
lie the house Nella, the Colledge of Saint Denis, and 
the house of the Augustines, wherein is the sepulcher 
and lively Image of Phillip Comineus. And upon the 
left hand, lie the lower Tower Nella, and the \Vesterne 
bank of the River Seyne. 
These are the fairest streetes of the University, the The.fairest 
first of Saint Victoire, the second of Saint Marcellus, streetes of the 
the third of Saint James, the fourth of Saint Germain, University. 
the fifth of the Celestines, upon the banke of the River, 
the sixth of the mountaine of Saint Genovefa, the seventh 
of Saint Michaell, and the eight of the Augustines, upon 
the banke of the river Seyne. 
The third part of the City is the Iland, compassed The third 
round about with the River Seyn. It had of old foure part ofte 
Gates, upon the foure bridges, but seemes to have had Citie. 
no gate upon the fifth bridge, called Pont aux musniers, 
(which in this discription I reckon to be the third gate). 
In the upper part of the Iland towards the South-east, 
is a fenny market place, called the Marsh, that is, the 
Fen. Neer that lies (R) the Cathedrall Church of the Te 
blessed Virgin, which King Phillip Augustus began to Cathedrall 
build in the yeere 257 , the foundations being before Church. 
laid by an uncertaine founder, and it is reputed the chiefe 
among the miracles of France. It is supported with one 
hundred and twenty pillars, whereof one hundred and 
eight are lesse, and twelve very great, being all of free 
stone. The Chauncell is in the middest of the Church, 

4x3 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

The famou 
Church of 
Saint 
Bartholornew. 

which hath 174. walking paces in length, and sixty paces 
in bredth, and all the Chauncell is compassed with stone, 
wherein the Histories of the old and new testament are 
engraven. It hath forty five Chappels in the circuit 
thereof, which are shut up with grates of Iron. In the 
Front it hath two double doores, with faire statuaes of 
twenty eight Kings. Upon the sides are foure Towers 
[I. ii. 93-] or belfreyes, thirtie foure Cubits high. The greatest bell 
great Bell. called Marie, requires twentie foure men to ring it, and 
the sound thereof in faire weather may bee heard seven 
leagues of. In a Chappell towards the South, are the 
statuaes of King Lewis the fat, and of his son Phillip, 
with the Image of a hog, because he died with a fal from 
his horse stumbling upon a hog. On the North side is 
a mark, that the overflowing of the River Seyne passed 
the outward statuaes from that of Phillip Augustus. 
King Phillip of Valois having gotten a victory against 
the Flemings in the yeere i328 , offered his Horse and 
armour to the blessed Virgin, and gave the Chanons 
an hundred pounds yeerely rent, to whom for that cause 
a Horse-roans statua is there erected. Also there is a 
Giantlike statua, erected to Saint Christofer, in the yeere 
I413, by Antony Dessars Knight. 
In the lower part of the Iland towards the North-VTest, 
the Church of (S) Saint Bartholmew is seated, which 
was built by King Phillip the faire, and after was turned 
from the Kings Chappell to a Monastery by King 
Lotharius, in the yeere 973, and then became a parish 
Church, whereof the King (in respect of the old Pallace) 
was the chiefe Parishioner, and I thinke is so still. It 
became most famous, in that the bell of that Church was 
sounded upon the verie day of Saint Bartholmew, in the 
yeere 1572, to give a signe to the Regalists and Guisians, 
that they should kill those of the reformed Religion, 
whom they had drawne to the Citie under pretence of 
love, and could not otherwise have overcome, as they 
found by experience of their valour. 
Neere that, lyes the Kings greater (T) Pallace, wherein 

414 



COMMENTS UPON PARIS 
I595. 
the old Kings kept their Court; but it hath since been 
used for the Courts of justice, and pleading of Lawyers. The old 
In the great Hall hanges up a dried Crocodil, or a Serpent /',#,ce 
like a Crocodil. There bee the painted Images of all fir the 
the French Kings from Pharamund. There is a statua of.tce- 
of a Hart, with the head and necke of Gold, set there 
in memory of the Treasurers, who in the time of King 
Charles the sixth, turned the money in the Exchequer 
into that forme, lest it should be wasted. 
Here was painted upon the wall neere the Tower, upon 
the top of the staires of the great Hall, the Image of 
Engueranus Morignon, Earle of Longaville, and overseer 
of the building of this Pallace, under King Phillip the 
faire, with this inscription: 
Chascun' soit content de ses biens, 
(i n' a suffisance il n' a riens. 
Be thou content with the goods thee befall, 
Who hath not enough, hath nothing at all. 
This was spoken like a Philosopher: but the same man 
under Lewis Hutinus was hanged for deceiving the King, 
and this his Image was broken and kicked downe the 
staires. 
In the Hall of the Pallace is a Marble Table, at which 
Kings and Emperours were wont to bee feasted. The 
Chamber of the Pallace where verball appeales are decided, 
is called, The golden Chamber; and it is adorned with The gdden 
stately and faire arched roofes carved, and pictures, and Chamber. 
there the Image of a Lyon, with the Head dejected, and 
the Tayle drawne in, remembers the Pleaders of their 
dutie. 
Lewis the twelfth did build with Regall expence this 
Chamber, and another called the Chamber of Accounts 
(vulgarly la chambre des comptes.) In this Pallace the 
Chappell built by Saint Lewis, lyes upon an arched 
Chappell, which hath no pillars in the middest, but onely 
on the sides ; and they say, that the true Images of Christ 
and the blessed Virgin, are upon the lower dore. And 
45 



I595. 

FYNES 51ORYSON'S ITINERARY 

in this Chappell, the reliques are kept, which Balduinus 
the Emperour of Constantinople ingaged to the Venetians, 
and the King of France redeemed out of their hands. 
[I. ii. 94.] In the very Hall of the Pallace, round about the pillars, 
are shops of small wares or trifles. 
T/e/oue of Right against the Gate of the Pallace, stood the house 
.on C/ste//. of John Chastell, which was pulled downe in memorie 
of a young man his sonne, brought up among the Jesuites, 
and a practiser of their wicked doctrine, who attempting 
the death of King Henrie the fourth, did strike out one 
of his teeth. 
I have said formerly, that this Iland was joyned to the 
Ville by three Bridges, and to the Universitie by two 
Bridges, and at this time is joyned to them both, by the 
$ixc Bridges. sixth Bridge. The first (V) Bridge towards South-East, 
leades to the street of Saint Martin, and is called pont 
de nostre Dame, that is the Bridge of our Lady, and it 
was built of wood in the yeere x417, having threescore 
walking paces in length, and eighteene in breadth, and 
threescore houses of bricke on each side built upon it. 
But this bridge in the time of Lewis the twelfth falling 
with his owne weight, was rebuilt upon sixe Arches of 
stone, with threescore eight houses all of like bignesse 
built upon it, and was paved with stone, so that any that 
passed it, could hardly discerne it to bee a Bridge. The 
second Bridge of the Broakers (vulgarly (W) Pont au 
Change) is supported with pillars of wood. The third 
Bridge of the Millers (vulgarly called (X) Pont aux 
Musniers) lies towards the North-West, and leades to 
the streete of Saint Denis, which they say did fall, and 
was rebuilt within three yeeres then past. By these three 
Bridges the Iland was of old joyned to the Ville. The 
fourth Bridge lying on the other side of the Iland towards 
the South, leades into the streete of Saint James, and is 
called (Y) le petit pont, that is, The little Bridge, being 
rebuilt or repaired of stone, by King Charles the sixth. 
The fifth Bridge is called (Z) Saint Michell, and lying 
towards the South-West side, leades into the streete of 
416 



COMMENTS UPON PARIS 

595- 

Saint Michell, and hath a pleasant walke towards the 
foresaid Bridge of the millers, on the other side of the 
Iland, and built upon pillars of wood, was repaired in 
the yeere 1547, and adorned with bricke houses. By 
these two Bridges the Iland was of old joyned to the 
Universitie. Since that time after the ende of the Civill 
warre, a new Bridge hath been lately built on that side 
of the Iland, which lyes towards the North-West, and 
it is called (XX) pont neuf, that is, The new Bridge, 
joyning the Iland both to the Ville, and to the Universitie. 
The chiefe streetes of the Iland are the very Bridges, and 
the two wales leading to the Cathedrall Church, and to 
the greater Pallace. 
The Church (or the little Citie compassed with walles Saint Denis 
in respect of the Church) of Saint Denis (the Protecting the p,otecting 
Saint of the French) is two little miles distant from Paris. Saint of the 
Hither I went passing by the Gate of Saint Denis, lying French. 
towards the North-East. 
Thence I passed upon a way paved with Flint, in a 
large Plaine towards the East, having Mount Falcon on 
my right hand, whether I said, that they use to draw the 
dead bodies of those that are beheaded in the Ville, and 
the next way to this mount is to goe out by the Gate 
of Saint Martin. And upon my left hand I had the 
Mountaine of the Martirs vulgarly called Mont Martre, 
and the next way from the Citie to this Mountaine is 
to goe out by the Gate Mont Martre. 
Upon this Mountaine they say, that the Martyrs The Mo,n- 
Dennis Areopagita, and Rusticus, and Eleutherius, were tine of the 
beheaded in the time of Domitian, because they would M,'tyrs. 
not offer sacrifice to Mercurie. And they constantly 
beleeve this miracle, that all these three Martyrs carried 
each one his head to the Village Catula, which now is 
called Saint Dennis. And I observed by the way many 
pillars with Altars, set up in the places where they say 
the Martyrs rested (forsooth) with their heades in their 
hand, and at last fell downe at Catula, where this Church 
was built over them, and likewise a Monastery, by King 
.  47 D 



COMMENTS UPON PARIS 
595- 
miles over a Mountaine paved with Flint to the Kings 
Pallace, called Fontain-bleau, that is, the Fountaine of 'ontain-b#au. 
faire water. Beyond the same Mountaine this Pallace 
of the King is seated in a Plaine compassed with Rockes. 
And it is built (with Kingly Magnificence) of Free-stone, 
divided into foure Court-yards, with a large Garden, 
which was then somewhat wild and unmanured. At this 
time the Civill warre being ended, the King began to 
build a Gallerie, the beginning of which worke was very 
magnificent. 
The next day after I had seene the King, I returned 
on foote eight leagues to Sone. Heere I found post- 
Horses returning to Paris, and hiring one of them for 
twentie soulz, I rode eight miles through fruitfull fieldes 
of Corne, and pleasant Hilles planted with Vines; and 
so returned to Paris, entring by the Gate of Saint Victoire 
in the Universitie. 
Now my Crownes which I had saved from the foresaid Wan of 
theeves, were by little and little spent, and I, who in money. 
my long journey had never wanted money, but had rather 
furnished others that wanted with no small sums, was 
forced to treat with unknowne Merchants, for taking 
money upon exchange. But howsoever I had in other 
places dealt with noble Merchants, yet here I found my 
selfe to bee fallen into the hands of base and costive 
Merchants, who perhaps having been deceived by English 
Gentlemen, driven by want to serve in the warres of 
France, had not the least respect of mee for my misfortune 
among Theeves, nor yet for our common .Countrey. It 
happened, that at this time there were in Paris two Two Trte 
English Knights brethren, namely, Sir Charles and Sir Gentlemen. 
Henry Davers, who for an ill accident lived then as 
banished men. And to them I made my misfortune 
knowne, who like Gentlemen of their qualitie, had 
a just feeling thereof, especially for that they were 
acquainted with Sir Richard Moryson my brother, and 
they would willingly have lent mee money. 
But I will tell a truth well knowne. These brothers 

419 



[I. ii. 196. ] 

From Paris to 
Roane. 

Roae. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

upon good bonds were to have received some thousands 
of Crownes a few moneths past in the Temple Hall (which 
is one of the Innes of Court of London, for those that 
professe the English Law). This being made knowne 
by one of the debtors, the Q,eene confiscated those 
Crownes, as belonging to banished men. Whereupon 
these Knightes being to attend the French King to Lyons 
in his warre upon Savoy, were much driven to their 
shiftes, to get money for that journey. Yet did they 
not cast off all care to provide for me, but with great 
importunitie perswaded a starveling Merchant, to furnish 
me with ten French Crownes. When I had received 
them, I spent some few daies in refreshing my selfe at 
Paris. 
They account fortie eight miles from Paris to Roane, 
whether I went by boat, and payed a French Crowne for 
my passage. The first day we passed eighteene miles 
to Poissy, a most faire and famous Nunnerie, and towards 
the evening wee passed by the Kings Pallace S. Germain. 
The next day we passed twentie leagues to Andale, and 
by the way passed by a bridge, dividing the County of 
France from the I)utchy of Normandy, and did see the 
Pallace Galeon, and a most faire Monastery. Then we 
passed foure miles by water to Port S. Antoine, and one 
mile by land. Then wee hired another boat, in which 
we passed five leagues to Roane, and I payed for this 
passage three soulz. This our way was by pleasant Ilands, 
having on both sides pleasant Hilles planted with Vines 
and fruit-trees. 
The Citie of Roane is seated on the North side of 
the River Seyne, partly in a Plaine, partly upon sides 
of Hilles. The building is for the most part of Free- 
stone, brought from the Citie Cane; and upon a Hill 
towards the North without the walles, the Fort S. Cateline 
was seated, when King Henrie the fourth besieged Roane, 
and then the Fort much anoyed the quarter of the English 
auxiliarie forces: but now this Fort was altogether 
demolished. 

42O 



FROM ROUEN TO DIEPPE ,.D. 
a595. 
Concern.ing expences of diet in these parts, I spent Fxenses of 
at Paris m the Innes fifteene soulz each meale, and Diet inPnis 
at Roane twelve soulz, and at some Innes by the way nnd Roane. 
fifteene soulz: but whosoever payes for his supper, 
hath nothing to pay for his bed. But before the late 
Civill warre, they payed no more at Roane then eight 
soulz for a meale. Passengers, who stay long in the 
Citie, use to hire a chamber, which at Paris is given 
for two French Crownes by the moneth, if it be 
well furnished, and otherwise for lesse. They that at 
Paris hier a chamber in this sort, use to buy their meate 
in Cookes shops, and having agreed for it, the Cookes 
bring it to their chamber warme, and with pleasant sauce. 
And surely all things for diet were cheaper at Paris, then Thingsfor 
they use to be at London, and since they use to buy Diet chenper 
small peeces of meate, a solitarie passenger shall in that nt Pn,q than 
respect spend the lesse. Other passengers agree with at London. 
some Citizen for diet and chamber, which may bee had 
at Paris in convenient sort for one hundred and fiftie 
French Crownes by the yeere; and at Roane for one 
hundred and twentie.- but before the last Civill warre, 
it might have been had for one hundred, or eightie, and 
sometimes for sixtie French Crownes. At Roane I now 
payed for my supper twelve soulz, and the next day 
eleven soulz for my dinner. 
The .night following wee rode fourteene leagues to From lon 
Diepe, an a most pleasant way, divided into inclosed to Dieppe. 
Pastures, yeelding great store of Aple trees, not onely 
in the hedges, but also in the open fieldes. About mid- 
night we tooke some rest and meate in a poore and 
solitarie Inne of a Village, but with such feare, as wee 
were ready to flie upon the least noise. From Roane 
to Dieppe I hired a horse for thirtie soulz, and in this 
last Inne I payed twelve soulz for my meate, and five 
soulz for my horse-meate. 
Dieppe is a pleasant Citie, and the greater part thereof Dieppe. 
(especially la Rue grande, that is the great street) is 
seated in a plaine upon the Haven, but it is compassed 
421 



AoDo 
595. 

[I. ii. 97-] 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

with Mountaines, and is divided into two parts by an 
Arme of the Sea. The greatest part of the building, 
is of Timber and Clay, like our building of England. 
I had spent at Paris most part of the ten Crownes I 
there received, and when I came from Roane, I perceived 
that I should presently fall into want of money. Being 
in these straites, I went to the younger Paynter (one of 
the English Posts passing betweene London and Paris, 
and now returning in my company to London), and to 
him in few words I made my case knowne, who willingly 
yeelded to beare my charges to London, having me still 
in his company for a pledge. 
At Dieppe I payed fifteene soulz for each meale, and 
ten soulz for my licence to passe over Sea, and five soulz 
of gift to one of the Officers, and tenne soulz for my 
part of a boat, hired to draw our ship out of the Haven 
of Dieppe. 
After we had sailed fourteene houres, upon Tuesday 
the thirteenth of May (a.fter the old stile) in the yeere 
595, early in the mormng, we landed in England at 
Dover, and I payed a French Crowne for my passage in 
the ship, and sixe English pence for my passage m a 
boate from the ship to that Port of blessed England. 
But we were scarce landed, when we were cited to appeare 
The maior of before the Maior and his Assistants. Where for my 
Dover and his part the more poore I was in apparrell, the more frowardly 
Issistants. I behaved my selfe towards them, (as many good mindes 
are most proud in the lowest fortunes), so as they began 
to intreate me rudely, as if I were some Popish Priest, 
till by chance a Gentleman one of the Maiors Assistants 
asking my name, and being familiarly acquainted with 
my brother, by privat discourse with me, understood that 
I had been robbed in France; whereupon bee gave his 
word for mee unto the Maior, and so walked with mee 
to our Inne. There he shewed so much respect and 
love to me, and after my refusall of mony from him, so 
frankely gave his word for me to the English Post, as 
he was not only willing to furnish me with what money 

422 



FROM PARIS TO LONDON 

595. 

I would, but himselfe and the Dutch Gentlemen my 
Consorts in that journey, much more respected me, 
though poorely apparelled, then they had formerly done. 
Assoone as I came to London, I paled the ten French 
Crownes due by my bill of exchange to the foresaid 
French Merchant, and not onely payed to the English 
Post the money hee had disbursed for mee by the way, 
but gave him sixe French Crownes of free gift, an 
thankfulnesse for this courtesie. At London it happened, 
that (in regard of my robbing in France) when I entered 
my sisters house in poore habit, a servant of the house 
upon my demaund answered, that my sister was at home: deceived. 
but when he did see me goe up the staires too boldly 
(as he thought) without a guide, hee not knowing mee, 
in respect of my long absence, did furiously and with 
threatning words call me backe, and surely would have 
been rude with me, had I not gone up faster then he 
could follow me, and just as I entred my sisters chamber, 
he had taken hold on my old cloake, which I willingly 
flung of, to be rid of him. Then by my sisters imbraces 
he perceived who I was, and stole backe as if he had 
trodden upon a Snake. 

4z3 

[The Third 



THE THIRD BOOKE. 

Chap. I. 
Of my journey to Stoade through the United 
Provinces of ZNetherland, and upon the Sea- 
coast of Germany: then to Brunswick and 
(the right way) to Nurnburg, Augspurg, and 
Inspruck (in Germany), and from thence to 
Venice In Italy, and so (by the Mediterranean 
Seas, and the Ilands thereof) to Jerusalem. In 
which journey I slightly passe over the places 
described in my former passage those waies. 
T*e wo,-t* f ''-",  IRom my tender youth I had a great desire 
Traell. ')-!    to see lorraine Countries, not to get 
libertie (which I had in Cambridge in 
such measure, as I could not well desire 
i more), but to enable my understanding, 
which I thought could not be done so 
well by contemplation as by experience ; 
nor by the eare or any sence so well, as by the eies. And 
having once begun this course, I could not see any man 
without emulation, and a kind of vertuous envy, who 
had seene more Cities, Kingdomes, and Provinces, or 
more Courts of Princes, Kings, and Emperours, then 
my selfe. Therefore having now wandred through the 
[I. iii. 98.] greatest part of Europe, and seene the chiefe Kingdomes 
thereof, I sighed to my selfe in silence, that the Kingdome 
424 



A JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM 

of Spaine was shut up from my sight, by the long warre 
betweene England and Spaine, except I would rashly 
cast my selfe into danger, which I had already unadvisedly 
done, when I viewed the Citie and Fort of Naples, and 
the Citie of Milan. And howsoever now being newly 
returned home, I thought the going into more remote 
parts would be of little use to me, yet I had an itching 
desire to see Jerusalem, the fountaine of Religion, and 
Constantinople, of old the seate of Christian Emperours, 
and now the seate of the Turkish Ottoman. 
Being of this mind when I returned into England, it 
happened that my brother Henrie was then beginning put out for 
that voyage, having to that purpose put out some route lorrain 
hundred pounds, to be repaied twelve hundred pounds travel. 
upon his returne from those two Cities, and to lose it 
if he died in the journey. I say he had thus put out 
the most part of his small estate, which in England is 
no better with Gentlemens younger sonnes, nor so good, 
as with bastards in other places, aswell for the English 
Law most unmeasurably favouring elder brothers, as (let 
me boldly say it) for the ignorant pride of tithers, who 
to advance their eldest sonnes, drive the rest to desperate 
courses, and make them unable to live, or to spend any 
money in getting understanding and experience, so as 
they being in wants, and yet more miserable by their 
Gentrie and plentifull education, must needes rush into 
all vices; for all wise men confesse, that nothing is more 
contrary to goodnesse, then poverty. My brother being 
partner with other Gentlemen in this fortune, thought 
this putting out of money, to be an honest meanes of 
gaining, at least the charges of his journey, and the rather, 
because it had not then been heard in England, that any 
man had gone this long journey by land, nor any like 
it, excepting only Master John Wrath, whom I name Master John for honour, and more specially hee thought this gaine 
most honest and just; if this journey were compared 
with other base adventures for gaine, which long before 
this time had been, & were then in use. And I confesse: 

45 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

that this his resolution did not at the first sight dislike 
me. For I remembred, that this manner of gaine, had 
of old been in use among the inhabitants of the Low 
Countries, and the Sea-Coasts of Germany (and so it is 
yet in use with them.) I remembred, that no meane 
Lords, and Lords sonnes, and Gentlemen in our Court 
had in like sort put out money upon a horserace, or 
speedie course of a horse, under themselves, yea upon 
a io.urney on f'oote. I considered, that those kindes of 
galmng onely required strength of body, whereas this 
and the like required also vigor of minde, yea, that they 
often weakened the body, but this and the like alwaies 
bettered the mind. I passe over infinite examples of 
the former customes, and will onely adde, that Earles, 
Lords, Gentlemen, and all sorts of men, have used time 
out of mind to put out money to bee repaied with 
advantage upon the birth of their next childe, which 
kinde of galne can no way bee compared with the 
adventures of long iournies; yea, I will boldly say, it 
is a base gaine, where a man is so hired to that daliance 
with his wife, and to kill a man, so he may get a boy, 
as if he were to be incouraged to a game of Olympus. 
Being led with these reasons, I liked his counsell, and 
made my selfe his consort in that iourny. _And I had 
now given out upon like condition mony to some few 
friends, when perceiving the common opinion in this 
point to be much differing From mine, and thereupon 
better considering this matter, and observing (as a stranger 
that had beene long out of my Countrey) that these kind 
of adventures were growne very frequent, whereof some 
were undecent, some ridiculous; and that they were in 
great part undertaken by bankerouts, and men of base 
condition, I might easily iudge that in short time they 
would become disgracefull, whereupon I changed my 
4nltnlinn mind. For I remembred the Italian Proverbe, La 
Proverbe. bellezza di putana, la forza del' fachino, &c. nulla vagliano, 
that is, the beauty of a Harlot, the strength of the Porter, 
and (to omit many like) Musicke it selfe, and all vertues, 
426 



A JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM A.D. 
I595. 
become lesse prized in them, who set them out to sale. 
Also I remembred the pleasant fable, that Jupiter sent 
raine upon a Village, wherewith whosoever was wet 
became a foole, which was the lot of all the Inhabitants, J,,#te," 
excepting one man, who by chance for dispatching of tede. 
businesse, kept within doores that day; and that when 
he came abroad in the evening, all the rest mocked him, 
as if they had beene wise, and he onely foolish: so as [I. iii. 99-] 
he was forced to pray unto Jupiter for another like shower, 
wherein he wetted himselfe also, chusing rather to have 
the love of his foolish neighbours, being a foole, then 
to be dispised of them, because he was onely wise. And 
no doubt in many things wee must follow the opinion 
of the common people, with which it is better (regarding 
onely men) to be foolish, then alone to be wise. I say 
that I did for the aforesaid causes change my mind; and 
because I could not make that undone which was done, 
at least I resolved to desist from that course. Onely I 
gave out one hundred pound to receive three hundred 
at my returne among my brethren, and some few kinsmen 
receir,e three 
and dearest friends, of whom I would not shame to unered. 
confesse that I received so much of g.ift. And lest by 
spending upon the stocke, my patrimony should be 
wasted, I moreover gave out to five friends, one hundred 
pound, with condition that they should have it if I died, 
or after three yeeres should repay it with one hundred 
and fifty pound gaine if I returned; which I hold a 
disadvantageous adventure to the giver of the money. 
Neither did I exact this money of any man by sure of 
Law after my returne, which they willingly and presently 
paid me, onely some few excepted, who retaining the 
very money I gave them, deale not therein so gentleman- 
like with me, as I did with them. And by the great 
expences of my journy, much increased by the ill accidents 
of my brothers death, and my owne sickenesse, the three 
hundred fifty pounds I was to receive of gain after my 
return ; & the one hundred pounds which my brother 
and I carried in our purses, would not satisfie the five 



Lewerden. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

by water one mile over a Lake to Bolsworth, and each 
man paid two stivers and a halle for his passage, and 
eight stivers and a halle for his dinner. In the afternoone 
we hired a boat for three miles to Lewerden, and each 
man paid sixe stivers for his passage, and thirty foure 
stivers for his supper and breakefast, with wlne. The 
next day in the morning, we might have passed to 
Groning, in a common boat, each man paying twelve 
stivers: but because the covetous Marriners had over- 
loaded it, and the winds were boisterous, we foure consorts 
hired a private boate for seven guldens and a halle. The 
first day we passed by water five miles, to Kaltherberg, 
that is, the cold Inne, with a very faire wind; but so 
boysterous, as we were in no small feare. Here each 
man paid twelve stivers for his supper, and seven stivers 
for his drinke, while in good fellowship we sate at the 
tier after supper. The next day we passed in the same 
Great danger boat two miles to Groning, in a great tempest of wind; 
t,-ot, g a lost besides that in the midst of the Lake we lost our Rudder, 
Rudder. being thereby in great danger, had not the waves of the 
water (by Gods mercy) driven it to us. Here we paid 
eight stivers each man for a plentifull dinner, but without 
wne. In the afternoone we passed by water two miles 
to Delphs Ile, and each man paid forty stivers for the 
hier of the boate, and twenty foure stivers for supper 
and breakefast, and fire in our private chamber. 
From hence we sayled with a most faire wind, in two 
houres space two miles to Emden, the first City of the 
German Empire, seated in East-Friezland, and each man 
paid sixe st,vers for his passage, and as much for his 
dinner. In the afternoone we passed in a boat hired for 
foure guldens (whereof each man paid ten stivers for his 
part) three miles to a little City Lyre, and by the way 
passed by the Fort Nordlire, in which the Earle of Emden 
Christmas held his Court. We rested at Lyre this night and the 
Day at Lyre. next day, being Christmas day by the old stile, and each 
man paid sixteene stivers for each supper, and eight stivers 
for one dinner. The Spanish Garisons daily sent out 

43 z 



FROM EMDEN TO BREMEN 

free-booters into these parts, with the permission of the 
Earle of Emden, (for his hatred to the Citizens of Emden, 
who lately had shut him out of their City); and of the 
Earle of Oldenburge (for his hatred against the Citizens 
of Breme). Therefore we being here many passengers, 
did at last obtaine of the Earle of Emden, that we might The E,,-le of 
bier his souldiers to conduct us safely for some few miles. 
To these souldiers we gave twenty one dollers, yet when 
at the three miles end we came to the Village Stickhausen, 
and were now in the greatest danger, they (as hired to 
goe no further) would needes returne, till each of us gave 
them a German gulden, to conduct us onely to the next 
village, being the confines of the Counties of Emden and 
Oldenburg. To which they were perswaded, not so much 
by our prayers as by our reward, and once by the way, 
to make shew of danger (as it seemed to me) lest we 
should repent us of the money we had given them, they 
rushed into some old houses, with such a noise, as if 
they would have killed al they met, but no enemy 
appeared, & if they had lurked there, I think they would 
not have fought with the Earles souldiers who favoured 
them, as on the other side, if they had assaulted them, 
I doubt whether our mercinary souldiers would have lost 
one dram of blood for our safety. As long as these 
souldiers were with us, we partly went by water, (each 
man paying 3- stivers for his passage) & partly on foot. 
They being now dismissed, we went on foot a Dutch 
mile, in the Territory of the Earle of Oldenburg., to 
the Village Aopen, where each man paid foure stlvers 
for his dinner. In the afternoone, we being many 
consorts, hired divers waggons, paying for each of them 
twenty five stivers to Oldenburg, being foure miles, and ol, te,b,rg. 
we came thither by nine of the clock in the night, and 
there each man paid fifteene groates for his supper and [I. iii. zoz.] 
breakefast. The second day in the morning we went 
foure miles to Dolmenhurst, and each man paid two 
copstucks for his Waggon. Then sixe of us hired a 
Waggon one mile to Breme for three copstucks, where 
. i 433 2E 



FROM NUREMBURG TO MANSFELDT 

we foure paied for our owne and the Coach-mans bever, 
supper, and dinner, two dollers and a halle. 
From hence sixe consorts of us hired a Coach for thirty 
dollers to Nurnberg, forty eight miles distant, and the 
coach-man paid for his horse-meat, and we for his owne 
meat, which hereafter divided among us I will reckon 
in our severall expences. The first day at ten of the 
clocke beginning our journey, we passed through fruitfull 
hils of corne one mile, where we left on our left hand 
Wolfenbeyten, (a City where the Duke of Brunswicke 
keepes his Court), with a Village belonging to his brother 
the Bishop of Ossenbruck. And there we met with 
certaine of the Dukes hors-men, who kept the waies safe 
from theeves, and at their request we bestowed on them 
an Ort or fourth part of a doller. Then in the like way 
we passed two miles and a halle to Rauchell, where each 
of us paid for ours and the Coach-mans su.pper five silver 
groshen. The second day in the mormng we passed 
three miles and a halle to Halberstatt, where each man 
paid in like sort for ours and the Coach-roans dinner halle 
a doller. Our journy this day was through fruitfull hils 
of corne, not inclosed, and groves and woods in a fruitfull 
and pleasant Country. The Duke of Brunswicke is called 
the Administrator of the Bishoppricke of Halberstatt, 
and hath the rents thereof. After dinner we passed one 
mile to Ermersleben, subject to the Duke of Brunswicke, 
through a plaine more pleasant then the former, having 
no inclosures, but being fruitfull in corne, and full of 
Villages; where wee foure English consorts paid twenty 
three silver groshen for our owne and the Coach-roans 
supper. I have omitted the quality of the soyle, in places 
which I have formerly discribed, which now I mention 
againe, because th_s is the first time I passed from 
Brunswicke to Nurnburg. The third day in the morning 
we passed in a dirty way (but through most pleasant hils, 
and fruitfull of corne, but having no woods, nor so much 
as a tree,) two miles to Mansfield. 
The Counts of Mansfield well knowne Captaines in 
435 

Nurnberg. 

Mansfield. 



FROM MANSFELDT TO ERFURT 

of wood. Here each of us paid a quarter of a doller 
for our owne and the Coach-many dinner. 
In the afternoone we passed a dirty way; but through 
fruitfull come fields, foure miles to Sangerhausen, where 
each of us in like sort paid the fourth part of a doller 
and a grosh for our supper. This being the first Village 
of the Province Thuring, .belongs to the Elector of Te Provinc 
Saxony. The fourth day m the morning wee passed 
through most pleasant & fruitfull hils of come, adorned 
with some pleasant woods, (which in higher Germany are 
of firre, that is greene all winter,) foure miles m the 
territory of the Elector of Saxony, to a Countrey Inne; 
where having nothing but egges for our dinner, we paid 
jointly ten silver grosh. After dinner we passed in the 
same Electors territory, and through the like soyle (or 
Countrey) three miles and a halfe to a Countrey Inne, 
where we had to supper a pudding as big as a many legge, 
and grosse meat, and straw for our beds; and jointly 
paid foureteene grosh. The fifth day early in the 
morning we passed through the like way, but more 
pleasant for the plenty of Vines, two miles to the City Te City 
of Erfurt, where we foure English consorts with our Erfurt. 
Coach-man paied jointly a doller and twenty one grosh 
for our dinner, with sower wine of the Countrey. This 
City is seated in a plaine, and is a free City, but not 
an imperiall City, and paies some tribute to the Bishop 
of Metz, and to the Saxon Duke of Wineberg. It is 
large, being a Dutch mile in compasse, but the houses 
are poorely built of timber and clay, having the roofes 
covered with tiles of wood, and they seeme to be built 
of old. It hath forty two Churches, but onely sixteene Forty-two 
are used for divine service : namely, eight for the Papists, Curces. 
(among which are the two Cathedrall Churches, under 
the power of the Archbishop of Metz,) and eight for 
the Protestants or Lutherans. This is the chiefe City 
of Thuring, and of old here was an University, but time 
hath dissolved it. After dinner at the first going out 
of the City, wee ascended a very high mountaine, where- 
437 



AoDo 
595. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

upon is a pleasant wood of firre. Then we passed by 
lrmstat. the beautifull little City of Armstat, I call it beautifull, 
for the seate in a firtile soyle, having drie and pleasant 
walkes, and for the plenty of fountaines and groaves, and 
for the magnificence of the Castle, wherein the Count of 
Schwartzburg keepes his Court, finally for the uniforme 
building of the City, which some fifteene yeeres past 
was burnt to the ground, and was since rebuilded, and 
so comming from Erfurt, we passed three long miles to 
the Village Blaw, subject to the Count of Schwartzburg; 
where jointly we paid foureteene grosh for our supper. 
[I. iii. 204. ] The sixth day we passed three miles through wooddy 
mountaines, to the Village Fraw-im-Wald, (that is, our 
Our Lady in Lady in the wood), which Village is subject to the said 
the wood. Count; and here we paied jointly thirty seven grosh 
and a halfe for our dinner. After dinner wee passed three 
miles through mountaines covered with snow, and woods 
of firre to Eysfield, subject to the Saxon Duke of Coburg. 
For this wood of Thuring, (vulgarly called Thuringwald) 
hath many Lords, namely, the Elector of Saxony, the 
Saxon Dukes of Wineberg & Coburg, and the Count 
Schwartzburg. The Duke of Coburg hath in this place 
a faire Castle, and we paid jointly for us foure and the 
Coach-man sixty foure grosh for our supper and breake- 
fast. The seventh day in the morning we passed three 
miles over dirty mountaines, and fruitfull in corne, to 
Coburg seated in the Province of Franconia. They say 
Cot$,rg, te this City was of old called Cotburg, that is, the City of 
city of dirt. dirt, and the dirty streetes well deserve the name. Here 
one of the Dukes of Saxony called of Coburg kept his 
Court, and our Host told us that his Dutchesse for 
adultery was then bricked up in a wall, the place being 
so narrow, as shee could onely stand, and having no 
dore, but onely a hole whereat they gave her meat. The 
building of the City was very base of timber and clay. 
Here we five paid sixteene grosh for our dinner. In 
the afternoone we passed two miles, to the Towne 
Clawsen, through fruitfull hils of corne, and in a most 
438 



FROM COBURG TO MANNHEIM A.). 
i 595- 
dirty way, where we five paid forty nine grosh for our 
supper; and the Towne is subject to the Popish Bishop 
of Bamberg. The eight day we passed foure miles to 
Bamberg, through a fruitfull plaine of corne, and pleasant Bamlerg. 
hils planted with vines, and in a most dirty way. This 
City is the seate of the Bishop of Bamberg. By the 
way we passed by a Ferry the River Menus, running 
to Franckfort. Here we five paid thirty seven grosh 
for our dinner. In the afternoone we passed through a 
wood of firre in a sandy soyle, and then through fruitfull 
fields of corne and pleasant hils, three mile unto a Village 
subject to the Margrave of Anspach, (from which a City 
subject to the Bishop of Bamberg, is not farre distant, 
for the Princes dominions in these parts are mingled one 
with the other); and here we five paid fifty five grosh 
for our supper. The ninth day we passed three miles 
through a sandy and barren plaine, and woods of firre 
alwaies greene, to a Village subject to the said Margrave, 
where we five paid forty grosh for our dinner. In the 
afternoone we passed three miles, through the like way, 
to Nurnburg, and being now free from paying for our Nulvburg. 
Coach-man, each of us paid here six batzen each meale, 
and foure creitzers each day for our chamber. This City 
I have formerly discribed, and so passe it over. 
Here we hired a Coach, being seven consorts, for 
twelve Dutch guldens, to Augsburg, being nineteene 
miles distant. The first day after breakefast we passed 
through Nurnburg wood two miles, and in the said 
Margraves territory (who is of the Family of the Electors 
of Brandeburg,) foure miles to Blinfield; and each of 
us paid ten batzen for our supper, and foure batzen for 
a banquet after supper. The second day in the morning 
we passed foure miles to the City Monheyme, subject Monheyme. 
to the Phaltz-grave of the Rheine, and here each of us 
paid halle a gulden for his dinner. By the way, in this 
mornings journey, we did see Weyssenburg, a free but 
not imperiall City, protected by Nurnburg. The Mar- 
grave of Anspach, Lord of this territory, hath a Fort 
439 



FROM AUGSBURG TO INNSPRUCK 

sixe miles to an Inne neere Landsperg. The second day 
in the morning, through fruitfull Hilles and Woods of 
Firre, greene at this time of the yeere, we rode foure 
miles to Schongaw, and after dinner through Mountaines 
covered with snow, route miles to Amberg. The third 
day in the morning we rode two miles to the Village 
Wartenkerken, and after dinner sixe short miles to 
Seyfeld, and in the midest of the way a Bridge divides 
the Dukedome of Bavaria from the County of Tyrall. 
At Seyfeld there is a Church built in memory of a Gentle- 
man, swallowed up by the gaping earth (as they say) The Fate of a 
because being to receive the Sacrament, hee demaunded ScoUr. 
in scoffe a great piece of bread. The fourth day in the 
morning, wee rode three miles to Inspruck, the chiefe 
Citie of Tyrall, subject to the Familie of Austria, where 
being at the top of the Alpes, the Mountaines beganne 
to open towardes the South, and our mornings journey 
was in a pleasant Plaine betweene the highest Mountaines. 
Passing this plaine, they shewed us upon a high Moun- 
taine (so high as we could scarce discerne the things they 
shewed, though of great bignesse) ; I say, they shewed us 
the statua of the Emperour Maximilian, proportionable The 
to his body, and a great Crucifix erected by him upon Emerour 
this occasion. One day when he hunted, and wandring Maximilian 
from his company, lost himselfe, so as he had no hope to lost in a wood. 
get out of those most thick woods, and most high 
Mountaines, there appeared to him a man, or (as they 
said) his good Angell, who led him through wilde vast 
Woods, till he came in safetie, and then vanished away, 
in memorie whereof, they say the Emperour erected these 
monuments. 
In this Citie of Inspruck, and in the Cathedrall Church Inspruck. 
thereof, is the Sepulcher of the said Emperour, and there 
be many Images partly of Brasse, partly of Marble 
erected to the Archdukes of Austria, and eight of Brasse 
erected to the Arch-Dutchesses. Among them was the 
sepulcher of Philippina, a Citizens Daughter of Augsburg, 
whom the Arch-Duke Ferdinand (lately buried, and lying 

441 



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Ciprus to Joppa, whence they had but fortie miles to 
Jerusalem, they were very desirous of our company, and 
with great earnestnesse gave us confidence, that they 
would procure the said Guardian and Fryers at Jerusalem 
to doe us all courtesie in their power, and so perswaded 
us to commit our selves to their company and protection. 
I will adde for the instruction of others, that the said 
Ue of Janizare useth to be hired for eight Aspers a day, and if he 
Janizares. take this charge of any roans safetie from an Ambassadour, 
or any Christian Officer of account, bee will easily save 
a man more then his wages, in governing his expences, 
and keeping him from those extortions, which the Turkes 
use to doe upon Christians, as also from all their 
injuries. But I returne to the purpose; We lying at 
Venice, and while our health was yet sound, and our 
Crownes unspent, desiring with all possible speede to 
finish our voyage into Turky, did by good hap light 
French upon French consorts for our journey, namely, two 
Consorts for Franciscan Friers, one Eremitan Frier, and two honest 
ourjo,r, cy. young Frenchmen, both Citizens of Bloys in France, 
and one of them a Burgers sonne, the other a Notarie 
of the Citie, and lastly a Flemming or Dutchman, 
Citizen of Emden in East Freezeland. This Fleming 
was a fat man, borne to consume victuals, & he had now 
spent in his journy to Venice thirty pound sterling, and 
here for his journey to Jerusalem had already put into the 
ship full Hogs-heads of Wine, and store of all victuals, 
when suddenly he changed his minde, for feare of a great 
Rhume wherewith he was troubled, or being discouraged 
with the difficulty of the journey, and would needs 
returne to Emden, with purpose (if hee were to be 
believed) to returne the next Spring to some place neere 
Jerusalem, in an English ship, which he thought more 
commodious. He professed, that he had put much 
money out upon his returne, and since hee was old, and 
very sickly, and after so long a journey, and so much 
money spent, would needes returne home, I cannot thinke 
that he ever undertooke this journey againe. 
446 



FROM VENICE TO JERUSALEM 

Many Papists thinke they must have the Popes Licence 
to goe this journey, and Villamont a French Gentlemen 
writes, that otherwise they incurre the censure of the 
Church, and affirmes that the Pope writ under his licence 
these words ; Fiat quod petitur, that is, let that be granted 
which is craved, and under the remission of his sinnes, 
Fiat Fmlix, that is; Let him be made happy: And he 
addes, that he was forced to take as much paines, and to 
spend as much, and to use as much helpe of the Popes 
Ocers, for the obtaining of these two sutes, as if he 
had beene a suter for a Bishoppricke. But 1 know many 
Papists, that have gone from Venice to Hierusalem, who 
either cared not for this licence, or never thought upon 
it; and howsoever it may give some credulous men hope 
of fuller indulgence or merit, surely it will serve them 
for no other use. Among our consorts I never heard 
any mention thereof, neither did the Friars at Jerusalem 
inquire after it. When I first began to thinke of under- 
taking this journey, it was told me that each Ascension 
day, a Venetian gally was set forth to carry Pilgrimes to 
Jerusalem. But it seemes that this custome s growne 
out of use, since few are found in these dales who under- 
take this journey, in regard of the Turkes imposing 
great exactions, and doing foule injuries to them. For 
the very Friars, which every third yeere are sent into 
those parts, to doe divine duties to the Papist Merchants 
there abiding; (the Friars formerly sent being recalled), 
use to passe in no other then common Merchants ships. 
In the end of March we had the opportunity of a ship 
passing into Asia, (which at that time of the yeere is not 
rare). This ship was called the lesse Lyon, and the 
Master, (whom the Italians cal Patrono) was Constantine 
Coluri a Grecian, (as most part of the Marriners are 
Greekes, the Italians abhorring from being sea men): 
Concerning diet, some agreed with the Steward of the 
ship (called Ilscalco) and they paid by the moneth foure 
silver crownes, (each crowne at seven lyres), and I marked 
their Table was poorely served. For our part we agreed 
447 

The Pope's 
licence. 

[I. iii. 208.] 

L y olI. 



AiD. 
1595- 
The Master's 
charge for hi 
Table. 

Provision for 
tra,elers 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

with the Master himselfe, who for seven gold crownes by 
the month paid by each of us, did curteously admit us to 
his Table, and gave us good diet, serving each man with 
his knife and spoone, and his forke (to hold the meat 
whiles he cuts it, for they hold it ill manners that one 
should touch the meat with his hand), and with a glasse 
or cup to drinke in peculiar to himselfe. Hee gave us 
wine mingled with water, and fresh bread for two or 
three dales after we came out of any harbour, and other- 
wise bisket, which we made soft by soaking it in wine or 
water. In like sort, at first setting forth he gave us fresh 
meates of flesh, and after salted meates, and upon fasting 
dayes he gave us egges, fishes of divers kinds, dried or 
pickled, sallets, sod Rice, and pulse of divers kinds ; Oyle 
in stead of butter, Nuts, fruit, Cheese, and like things. 
Also we agreed that if our journey were ended before 
the moneth expired, a rateable proportion of our money 
should be abated to us. Each of us for his passage 
agreed to pay five silver crownes of Italy. And howso- 
ever, I thinke they would not have denied us wine, or 
meat betweene meales, if we had beene drie or hungry; 
yet to avoide troubling of them, my selfe and my 
brother carried some flaggons of rich wine, some very 
white bisket, some pruines and raisins, and like things: 
And to comfort our stomackes in case of weakenesse, we 
carried ginger, nutmegs, and some like things; and for 
remedies against agues, we carried some cooling sirops, 
and some pounds of sugar, and some laxative medicines. 
Also we carried with us two chests, not onely to lay up 
these things, but also that we might sleepe and rest upon 
them at pleasure, and two woollen little mattresses to 
lie upon, and foure quilts to cover us, and to lay under us, 
which mattresses and quilts we carried after by land, or 
else we should have beene farre worse lodged in the 
houses of Turkes : besides that many times we lay in the 
field under the starry cannopy. In stead of sheetes we 
used linnen breeches, which we might change at pleasure. 
Howsoever all Nations may use their owne apparel1 in 
448 



1596. 

I dand in the 
Fenice. 

The South 
East winde 
called 
S.rocco. 

Raguza. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

on the North side, and the shoare of Italy on the South 
side. And the same night wee sayled by the Iland 
Ischa, and the next morning being Friday, by the Ilands 
Buso, Aulto, Catsa, and towards the evening, by the 
llands Cazola, Augusta, and Palaofa: for in this Gulfe 
of Venice bee many Ilands, whereof the most are subject 
to Venice, and the rest to Raguza, and other Lords, and 
some towards the North-shoare to the great Turke. 
Heere great store of Dolphines followed our ship; 
and the voyce of the Marriners (as they use to doe), and 
they playing about us, did swimme as fast as if they had 
flowne. Then wee did see the Iland Liozena, being all 
of Mountaines, subject to Venice, and inhabited by 
Gentlemen, where the Venetians had built a strong Fort 
upon the Haven for their Gallies. And after five miles 
wee did see the Iland Curzola, subject to Venice, and 
having a Bishop. And the winde being high, wee cast 
anchor neere Curzola, but the winde soone falling, we 
set sayle againe. 
From the sixe and twentie of Aprill, to Thurseday the 
second of May, the South-East winde (which the Italians 
call Syrocco) did blow very contrary unto us. The third 
of May being Friday, towards the evening, we were 
driven upon the Northerne shoare, and did see the Fort 
Cataro, built on a Mountaine upon the continent, against 
Turkish Pirats, and distant eighteene miles from Raguza, 
the chiefe Citie of Sclavonia, which is free, yet payes 
tribute to the Venetians and Turks, their powerful neigh- 
bors. Not farre thence the Turks also had a Fort, built 
against the Venetians. Raguza is some one hundred 
miles distant from the Iland Andrea, and some foure 
hundred miles from Venice. 
Upon Saturday we sayled by the Promontorie of Saint 
Mary on the North side, and Otranto a Citie of Apulia 
in Italy on the South side, seeing them both plainely: 
for now we were passing out of the Gulfe of Venice, into 
the Mediterranean sea, by this Straight, some sixtie miles 
broad, and some two hundred miles distant from Raguza. 
454 



COMMENTS UPON CEPHALONIA 

Here we did overtake a ship of Venice, called 
Ragazona, and that we might enjoy one anothers 
company, the Sea being calme for the time, our ship being 
the lesse (yet of some nine hundred Tunnes), was fastned 
to the Sterne of the other ship by a Cable, and towards 
the evening upon the Greeke shore towards the North, 
wee did see Vallona. 
Now we were come forth of the Adriatique Sea, other- 
wise called the Gulfe of Venice, which hath in length some 
sixe hundred Italian miles, and the breadth is divers, 
sometimes two hundred miles, sometimes lesse, betweene 
Ancona and the opposite Haven Valdagosta seventie 
miles, and in the Straight we now passed sixtie miles 
broad. On Sunday the fifth of May we did see the 
Mountaine Fanon, (and as I remember an Iland) three 
miles distant from the Iland Corfu, and upon the Greeke 
shoare beyond the Iland, we did see the most high 
Mountaines called Chimer, inhabited by the Albanesi, 
who neither subject to the Turkes nor Venetians, nor any 
other, doe upon occasion rob all; and the Venetians, and 
the Kings of France, and especially of Spaine, use to hire 
them in their warres. The sixth of May wee sayled by 
the Promontory, called the Cape of Corfu (the description 
of which Iland I will deferre till my returne this way.) 
On Tuesday the seventh of May, wee sailed by the Iland 
Paro verie neere us, and the Iland Saint Maura joyned 
by a bridge to the continent of Epirus, and subject to the 
Turkes, and the Iland Ithaca (vulgarly called by the 
Italians Compare) also subject to the Turkes, and famous 
for their King Ulysses, and some foure miles distant from 
the Iland Cepholania, which towards evening wee did see, 
being distant some one hundred miles from Corfu. 
On Wednesday early in the morning, wee entered a 
narrow Sea, some two miles broad, having Cephalonia 
the lesse on the North side, and the greater Cephalonia 
on the South side, and wee cast anchor neere a desart 
Rocke (where of old there was an Universitie), and many 
of us, in our boat (sent with Mariners to cut wood, and 
455 

Good 
Company. 

The lland 
Co. 

C ephalonia. 

[I. iii. z 12.] 



I 9 6. 

4 noble 
licto ie 
against the 
Turkes. 

C urr ands. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

take fresh water), did go on land in the greater Cepholania, 
to refresh our selves, and to wash our bodies in the Sea 
water: but wee durst not goe farre from our Marriners, 
lest the inhabitants of those woodie Mountaines should 
offer us violence. Both the Ilands are subject to Venice, 
and abound with wines and small Currends, and in time 
of warre the Inhabitants retire to a Fort, built there by 
the Venetians, to be safe from the Turks. The Venetians 
every third yeere chuse some of their Gentlemen, to be 
sent hether for Governour and Officers. 
The same Wednesday the eight of May, towards the 
evening, we set saile, and before darke night passed by the 
Promontary, called the Cape of Cepholania, and did see 
on the North side the Ilands Corsolari some ten miles 
distant, where the Navy of the Pope, King of Spathe, 
and Venetians confederate, having Don John of Austria, 
base brother to King Phillip of Spathe for their Generall, 
obtained a noble Victorie in the yeere x57 x against the 
Navy of the Turkes, the Christians hiding there many of 
their Gallies, that the Turkes comming out of the Gulfe 
of Corinth (now called the Gulfe of Lepanto) might 
despise their number, and so be more easily drawne to 
fight. In the mouth of the said Gulfe, upon the West 
shoare, is the Castle of Torah (or Torneze) seated in 
Peloponesus, a Province of Greece, which the Turkes call 
Morea, and in the bottom of the Gulfe, Petrasso is seated 
in the same Province, and Lepanto in the Province of 
Achaia, and of these Cities this Gulfe of Corinth, is in 
these dayes called sometimes the Gulfe of Lepanto, some- 
times the Gulfe of Petrasso. In the Citie of Petrasso 
the English Merchants live, having their Consull, and 
they trafficke especially for Currands of Corinth. Neere 
Cepholania great store of Dolphins did againe swimme 
about our ship (which they say doe foretell, that the 
winde will blow from that quarter, whether they swimme,) 
and the same date in the maine Sea, greater Dolphins, 
and in greater number, did play about our ship. 
On Thurseday in the morning we did leave on the 
456 



596. 
/1 Marriners 
superstition. 

[I. iii. 2  3.] 

No place more 
safe against 
theeves than a 
sip. 

Cyprus. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

negligent fashion of the French, he turned the cleane side 
of his trencher upward: for of all men the Marriners, 
and of all Marriners the Greekes and Italians are most 
superstitious; and if any thing in the ship chance to be 
turned up-side downe, they take it for an ill signe, as if 
the ship should be overwhelmed. Otherwise I never 
observed, that either the chiefe or inferiour Mariners ever 
used the least disrespect to any passenger, being rather 
loving and familiar to them in conversation. And I 
remember that my brother Henry using to walke upon 
the highest hatches, the Patron, and Scrivano, and others, 
did with smiling observe his fast walking and melancholy 
humour, yet howsoever it was troublesome to them, did 
onely once, and that curteously reprove him, or rather 
desire him that he would have respect to the Mariners, 
who watched al night for the publike safety, and were 
then sleeping under the hatches. Alwaies understand 
that a man may not bee so bold in another mans house 
as in his owne, and may yet lesse be bold in a ship of 
strangers; and that an unknowne passenger must of all 
other be most respective. And whereas Mariners are 
held by some to be theevish, surely in the Haven at the 
journies end, (where theeves easily find receivers), it is 
good to be wary in keeping that belongs to you: but at 
sea no place is more safe then a shippe, where the things 
stolne, are easily found, and the offenders severely 
punished. 
On Sunday the nineteenth of May, we came to the 
first Promontory of the Iland Cyprus, towards the West, 
and after eight houres sayling, we came to the old City 
Paphos (or Paphia), now called Baffo, and the wind 
failing us, and gently breathing upon this Castle of Venus, 
we hovered here all the next night, gaining little or 
nothing on our way. This place is most pleasant, with 
fruitfull hils, and was of old consecrated to the Goddesse 
Venus, Qgeene of this Iland ; and they say that Adamants 
are found here, which skilfull Jewellers repute almost as 
precious as the Orientall. A mile from this place is the 
458 



COMMENTS UPON CYPRUS 

596. 

Cave, wherein they faigne the seven sleepers to have slept, 
I know not how many hundred yeeres. The twenty one 
of May towards the evening, we entred the Port of 
Cyprus, called Le Saline, & the two & twentieth day 
obtaining licence of the Turkish Cady to goe on land, we 
lodged in the Village Larnica, within a Monastery of Larnita. 
European Friars. Here some of us being to saile to 
Joppa, and thence to goe by land to Jerusalem, did leave 
the Venetian ship, which sailed forward to Scanderona. 
The Turkes did conquer the Iland Ciprus from the 
Venetians, in the yeere  57% and to this day possesse it, 
the chiefe Cities whereof are Nicosia, (seated in the 
middest of the Iland) and Famogosta (seated in the 
furthest part of the Iland towards the East). The 
Turkish Basha, or Governour, useth to chuse Famogosta 
for his seate, (though Nicosia be the fairer City), because 
it hath a good Haven, and a most strong Fort, which the 
Venetians built. The Iland lieth two hundred & forty The bounds of 
miles in length from the west to the East, and hath some Cyprus. 
eighty miles in bredth, & six hundred miles in compasse. 
This Iland is said to be distant some foure hundred miles 
from the Iland of Candia, (which is some two hundred 
and. thi.rty miles long: but I speake of the next Promon- 
tories ,n both of them), and from Venice some two 
thousand two hundred and twenty miles, from Alexandria 
in /Egypt, some foure hundred and fifty miles, from 
Alexandretta (at this day called Scanderona), the Haven 
of Caramania, eighty miles, from Tripoli of Syria, ninety 
miles, and from Joppa a Haven in Palestina, about two 
hundred and fifty miles, speaking of the uttermost 
Promontories on all sides. 
This Iland yeeldeth to no place in fruitfulnesse or c_.p1-, ,ely 
pleasure, being inriched with Come, Oile, Cheese, most 
sweet Porkes, Sheepe, (having tailes that weigh more 
then twenty pound) Capers (growing upon pricking 
bushes) Pomegranats, Oranges, and like fruites; Canes 
or Reedes of sugar, (which they beat in mils, drawing 
out a water which they seeth to make sugar), with rich 
459 



FROM CYPRUS TO JOPPA 

have added another condition, that the Master should not 
carrie us to any Port, but that of Joppa, had not the rest 
judged it unreasonable, to tie him for performance of 
that, which was onely in the power of God, according 
to the windes, which might force him to take harbor. 
My selfe did familiarly know an English Gentleman, who An English 
shortly after comming to Scanderona, and there taking gentleman 
ship to passe by this shoare to Joppa, and so to lerusalem, likc 
" sold for a 
if an honest man had not forewarned him, had by the 
treason of a Janizare in the way bin sold for a slave to 
the inland Turks, whence he was like never to be 
redeemed, being farre removed from Christians, who 
onely trade upon the Coasts. And he was so terrified 
with this danger, as he returned into England without 
seeing Jerusalem, to which he had then a short journey, 
only carrying with him a counterfet testimonie and seale 
that he had been there, because he had put out much 
money upon his returne. 
I formerly said, that we lodged at Cyprus in a 
Monastery, whence being now to depart, the Friers of 
our company, and also the Lay-men, gave each of us 
eight lires of Venice to the Guardian of the Monastery, 
and one lire to the Frier that attended us, in the name 
of gift or alines, but indeede for three dayes lodging and 
dyet. 
Upon Friday the twentie foure of May, we seven 
Consorts (namely, two Franciscan Friers, one Erimitane 
Frier, and two Lay men, all Frenchmen, and my selfe and 
my brother) hired a boat in the Haven for foure lires of 
Venice, to carrie us to the Cyprian Barke we had hired, 
and we carried with us for our food, a cheese costing Charges.for 
foure Aspers, a Jarre of Oyle costing sixe Aspers, and a od. 
vessell of Wine (called Cuso, somewhat bigger then an 
English barrell, and full of rich Wine, but such as fretted 
our very intrals) costing one Zechine, and foure soldi of 
Venice, and two Turkish aspers ; and egges costing twenty 
three aspers, beside Bisket which we brought out of the 
Greeke ship. In twilight (for the nights use not here 
46i 



Lerai$$o. 

[I. iii. 2 1 5"] 
Joppa. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

to be darke) we set saile, and were forced to goe backe 
towards the West, along the shoare of Cyprus, to the 
Promontory called Capo di Gatti, that is, the Cape of 
Cats, that we might from thence (according to the 
Marriners experience) fetch a faire winde. So we sailed 
that evening thirtie miles (of Italy I meane) and the next 
day twentie miles to a Village of Cyprus called Lemisso 
(where Christians ships use to put in.) Here we cast 
anchor, & all the six & twentie day of May expected a 
winde, which we got at midnight following. Joppa is no 
more then two hundred fiftie miles from Cyprus, and 
may easily be run in two nights and a daies saile with a 
faire winde, yet howsoever the wind was most favourable 
to us, wee could see no land till Wednesday the twenty 
nine of May, at which time we found our selves by the 
ignorance of the Marriners to be upon the Coast of Egypt, 
neere the Citie Damiata, which we might see seated upon 
the banke of Nilus, and they said it was some sixe miles 
from the Sea. Now our Marriners seeing the shoare, 
knew better to direct our sayling, and the night following 
we lay at anchor neere this shoare. Upon Thursday we 
coasted the land of the Philistines, and first did plainely 
see the Citie Gaza, and after thirtie miles sayle the Citie 
Ascolon, neere which we cast anchor for that night. 
Upon Friday being the last of May, after two miles 
saile, we entered the Haven of Joppa. From hence we 
sent a messenger hired for fourteene meidines, to the 
Subasha of Ramma, intreating him that he would give 
us leave to passe to Jerusalem, and send us a souldier to 
protect us. The foresaid shore of the Philistines, seemed 
to be a wild narrow and sandy plaine, neere the sea, with 
mountaines pleasant and ffuitfull, towards the East upon 
Palestine. The City of Joppa, mentioned in the scrip- 
tures, had some ruines of wals standing, which shewed 
the old circuit thereof, but had not so much as any ruines 
of houses; onely we did see the exactors of tribute come 
out of two ruinous Towers, and some ragged Arabians 
and Turkes, lying (with their goods) within certaine 
462 



COMMENTS UPON JOPPA 

caves, who also slept there, or in the open aire. These 
goods are daily carried hither and from hence, upon the 
backs of Caramels, whereof we might see many droves 
laded both come and goe. For this cause we would not 
land, but thought better to lie in our shippe, especially 
since the place affoorded no entertainment for strangers, 
and our Mariners brought us egges and fruites, and we 
had with us wine and bisket, which notwithstanding we 
did hide, lest the Arabians or Turkes should take it from 
us, if they came to our Barke. The Haven is of little 
compasse, but safe for small Barkes, and was of old 
compassed with a bricke wall, the ruines whereof still 
defend it from the waves of the sea. The situation of 
Joppa is pleasant, upon a hill declining towards the sea, 
and the fields are fertile, but were then untilled. Here 
the Prophet Jonas did take ship, as it were to file from Teprophet 
God, and the Machabei (as appeares in the first booke Jonas. 
and twelfth chapter) here burnt the ships : and the Apostle 
Peter 1.odging in the house of Simon, was taught the 
conversion of the Gentiles by a vision; and here he 
raised up Tabitha from death, as the Holy Scriptures 
witnes. 
Upon Munday the third of June, at nine of the clocke 
in the morning, the Subasha of Ramma sent us a Horse- 
man or Lancyer to guide us, and with him came the 
Atalla, (that is, interpreter, whom the Italians call Drogo- 
mano, who was a Maronite Christian, that used to guide 
strangers). They brought us Asses to ride upon, (which /sses uset 
they use there in stead of Horses, excepting onely the instead oJ 
souldiers), and with them came a Muccaro (so they call Horses. 
those that hier out Asses, Mules, or Cammels). We 
presently landed about noone, and when my brother leaped 
upon land, and according to the manner, bended downe 
to kisse it, by chance he fell, and voided much blood at 
the nose: and howsoever this be a superstitious signe of 
ill, yet the event was to us tragicall, by. his death shortly 
after happening. Here for our carnage (namely our 
shirts, for the rest we had left in the Barke ;) we jointly 
463 



Lydda. 

Pleasant 
Orchardt. 

[I. iii. 2  6.] 

Ramma. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

paid five meydines for cafar, (that is Tribute) and the 
Officers of Joppa extorted from each of us for his person, 
halle a Spanish Reale, neither would they be pleased, till 
each of us gave them two meydines in gift. Then we 
jointly gave sixe meydines to our Muccaro for his dinner, 
and five of free gift. Our Asses had pannels in stead of 
saddles, ropes for bridles, and ropes laid crosse the pannels, 
and knotted at the ends in stead of stirrups. The same 
Monday in the afternoone, we rode ten miles to Ramma, 
through a most pleasant plaine, yeelding time and hysope, 
and other fragrant herbes, without tillage or planting, 
growing so high, as they came to the knees of our Asses. 
By the way on our left hand, not farre out of the high 
way, lay the ruines of the City Lydda, where Saint Peter 
cured one sicke of the palsie; and Saint George is said 
to have suffered martyrdome, and that his head is yet 
kept in a Greeke Church. We also passed by a Village, 
having a moschee or Turkish Church, and being full of 
pleasant Orchards of Figge-trees, Olive-trees, Pome- 
granates, (bearing buds of flesh colour, and being like 
a Barbery tree, by little and little covered with a greene 
.rinde) and many kinds of fruites ; the abundance whereof 
m these parts, we might easily guesse, when wee bought 
in the Port of Joppa more then a thousand Abricots for 
six Aspers, at which time, lest we should surfet on such 
daintaies, (the untemperate eating whereof we had read 
to have often killed many Europeans) we durst not eate 
them raw, but sod the most part of them. Now upon 
the third of June they had almost gathered in their 
Harvest, and all the fields were full of Cotten, growing 
like Cabbage two foote high, and yeelding a round Apple, 
out of which they gather the Cotten. This Cotten is 
sowed in Aprill, and gathered in September, and great 
quantity thereof is carried from hence into Europe 
At Ramma we were brought into a house, where 
Pilgrimes use to be lodged, and it was of old great & 
strong, but at this time more fit to lodge beasts then 
men. Some say it was the House of Joseph of Arimathia, 
464 



FROM JOPPA TO JERUSALEM 

A.Do 
596. 

others say it was Nicodemus his house, and there was 
a fountaine of water, and a Court yard to walke in, but 
the roomes were full of dust, and we hardly got straw 
to lie upon. There were yet some marbles and ruines 
of building, that shewed it to have beene a faire house. 
The Maronite Christians brought us victuals, and they Maronite 
sold us a pound of bisket for sixe meidines, twelve egs Chritiam. 
for one meidine, a Cheese for one, Rice for two, some 
two English quarts of wine for five, a salet for one, and 
twelve Cakes, (they having no leavened bread) for foure 
meidines. We that were Lay-men gave each of us sixe 
Zechines, and each of the Friars five, into the hands of 
our Interpreter, to be given to the Subasha for tribute, 
or rather for our safe conduct. I know that favour is 
done to Friars, especially by these Ministers belonging 
to Monasteries, and we committed the ordering of our 
expences to one of the Franciscan Friars, who had best 
experience, so as it may be the Interpreter restored to 
the Friars their money, or part of it: but I am sure 
these my eies did see them pay so much. One in the 
name of the Subasha, brought us for a present some 
flaggons of a medicinall drinke, made of cooling hearbes, 
and sold in the Tavernes, as we sell wine. We jointly 
gave five meidines to a watch-man, appointed to keepe Watchrnan's 
our doore, and protect us from wrong, who being a man hire. 
of very great stature, was called Goliah, and he walked 
all night at our gate, where he did sing or rather houle 
with his hoarce voice continually. Some write that there 
is onely due, one Zechine to the Subasha, another to the 
Captaine of the Arabians, and twenty five meidines for 
Cafar (or Tribute), and halle a Zechine to the Muccaro, 
who let out their Asses to Pilgrimes, and that the guide 
deceives the Christians of all the rest. I am sure that 
the guide being of experience, delivers the Christians 
fi-om many injuries offered them by the Arabians and 
others, for which favour they cannot suciently requite 
him; and if any deale sparingly with him, he complaines 
of them to the Guardian of the Monastery at Jerusalem, 
M.  465   



FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

who never suffers him to be sent away discontented, 
neither wants he power himselfe to deceive the Christians 
at his pleasure, if he beare that mind. At Ramma we 
jointly gave one Zechine to our Muccaro, of whom we 
hired our Asses. 
And the fourth of June, having him onely to conduct 
The journey us, we tooke our journey before day towards Jerusalem, 
towards being thirty miles distant, (I meane of Italy). As we 
Jerusalem. rode before day, our Muccaro warned us to be silent, 
lest we should waken the ,Arabians, Turkeso or Theeves, 
who then slept, and were like if they awaked to offer 
us violence, or at least to extort some money from us. 
The Arabians are not unlike the wild Irish, for they are 
subject to the great Turke, yet being poore and farre 
distant from his imperiall seat, they cannot be brought 
to due obedience, much lesse to abstaine from robberies. 
After we had rode ten miles, we did see upon a hill not 
farre distant, on our right hand, the ruines of the House 
The house of (or Pallace) of the good Thiefe crucified with our Saviour, 
the Good 
thiefe, which ruines yet remaine, and shew that the house was 
of old stately built; as if he had beene a man of some 
dignity, banished for robbing of passengers: and when 
he was brought to the Magistrates hand, had beene 
condemned to death for the same. From hence to the 
very City of Jerusalem, the Mountaines or Rockes doe 
continually rise higher and higher, till you come to the 
City, our way hitherto having beene in a pleasant plaine, 
rich in corne and pasture. These mountaines which we 
after passed, seemed stony and barren, but yeelded 
fi'agrant hearbes, and excellent corne growing betweene 
the great stones, and some vallies were pleasant, as the 
The rally of vally of Hieromia, (as I thinke the Prophet), where of 
Hieromia. old was built a stately Church, which as then stood little 
ruined; and neere it is a pleasant fountaine, where the 
passengers use to drinke and to water their Asses. They 
say that the said Prophet was borne there, and that the 
place was of old called Anatoth. I said that excellent 
corne growes betweene the great stones of these Moun- 
466 



AoDo 
596. 

FYNES MORYSON'S ITINERARY 

Gate of Joppa, (written Jaffa, Giaffa, and Zaffa, by divers 
Nations). At this gate we staied, till two Friars came 
out of the Latine Monastery, and likewise the exactors 
of Tribute came to us, and to them we paied each man 
two zechines for tribute due to the great Turke, or at 
least extorted from us, which done, the two Friars being 
Italians, did lead us to the Monastery of the Latines. 

END OF VOLUME I. 

GLASGOW ." PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY ROBERT bIACl EHOSE AND CO. LTD.