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ihe ppesence of this Book 



in 



thej.m. kelly liBRARV 

has Been maóe possiBle 

thRouqh the qeneRositv 



of 



Stephen B. Roman 



From the Líbrary of Daniel Bínchy 



IRISH TEXTS SOCIETV, 



comAnn r\A ssRíbeAnn 
5Aet)il5e. 




VOL. XIX. 

[19 17] 



5At!)AlcAis seARltiis rhóm 



The 

CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE 



Edited from 
The Book of Lismore and Three other Vellum MSS. 



BY 
DOUGLAS HYDE, LLD., D.LITT., M.R.LA. 




LONDON: 
IRISH Texts Societv. 20, Hanover Square. W. 

1917 



PREFACE. 



The earlv Irish were well acqiiainted with Charlemagne and his 
oareer.^ His hfe, in fact, and his court and his ambitions had 
their due effect upon the Irish kings. Hence it is not vei^' sur- 
prising that in later times such a text as the present should have 
become popular, not onlv for its own sake — and as a piece of 
literature it is quite well written, and the death of Roland really 
pathetic — but also because it must have appealed to a people who, 
with their innumerable houses and foundations on the Continent, 
could hardly have wholly forgotten their lettered ancestors who 
had once adorned the French court. 

The following text is onc of a number of allied pieces of 
literature translated into Late-Middle or Early-Modern Irish in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, at a time when the English 
power in Ireland was reduced to a minimum and the Norman 
invaders had becorne gaelicised. The present story is taken 
direct from a Latin original, but others were translated from 
French and others again from Middle English. The texts are 
preserved in vellum MSS. of the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries 
and havc certain traits in common. Thus our text resembles 
very much in style and vocabularv the translation of the French 
story Fierebras contained in a fifteenth centurj' vellum, and also 
thc Early-Enghsh story of Bevis of Hampton, the fragmentary 
Queste del Saint Graal, the History of the Lombards and Maun- 
deviUe's Travels. This last is the only one of these pieces that 
we can date with any certainty, and it was written in 1475, as 
Fingin 0'Mahony the translator tells us in his interesting preface. 
I shall try to shov/ that our present text must have been written 

1 . Charlemagne knew Ireland too, and sent fifty shekels of silver as a present 
to the conimunity at Clonmacnois. His favourite Alcuin was educated 
there. Dungal wrote letters and poenis to him. Scotus Eriu-gena (i.e. the 
Irish-born) resided for a time in the palace of Charlem.agne's grandson, 
Charles the Bald. Professor Mac Neill has sustained the thesis that Charle- 
magne's career consciouslv influenced later Irish kings. 



vi. Preface. 

in or about 1400.' If before this date, it could not have been 
long before, for it is almost as much an Early-Modein as a Late- 
Middle Irish text. 

THE LATIN ORIGINAL. 

The Latin original from which the text was made is ascribed 
to Turpin, Archbisliop oí Rheims, a contemporary of Charlemagne, 
and he professes in the text to be the author of certain chapters. 
His authorship was not questioned when the book was first 
printed in 1566 by S. Scardius of Frankfort-on-Main in a tome 
called "Germanicarum rerum quatuor celebriores vetustiores-que 
chronographi," nor yet by his next editor. Both accepted it as 
the genuine work of Turpin, who was a real character and fiourished 
from about 753 to 800, and was known to the Germans as 
Tj'lpinus. 

Gaston Paris however proves in his Latin treatise De Pseudo 
Turpino what other scholars had long suspected, that the chronicle 
is not Turpin's at all, but the work of different people writing at 
different times between the beginning of the eleventh and the 
middle of the twelfth century, that is from 1020 to about 1150. 
Some of the work is built upon old French Chansons de Geste, 
for certain of the names such as Aigolandus, Marsile, etc, are 
found only in the Chansons. The bulk of the book from Chapter VI. 
to Chapter XXXIl., with the prologue, was probably written by 
a monk of St. Andrew's at Vienne with some alterations by a 
monk of St. Denis any time between 1109 and 1119. The first 
íive chapters are the oldest part of the work, and were obviously 
v/ritten by a monk of Compostella. There is no pretence in these 
earher chapters that Turpin is the author, and as for Roland, 
whose name later on dominates the entire legend in everj^ country, 
he is not even mentioned; the only object of the worthy writer 

1. It is probably nearly a hundred years older than the Maundeville, which 
abounds in íoreign word';, as mainer manner, maindser manger, pota pot, 
prclaitt prelate, pudar dust, raibher river, rostad roast, statuid statute, tathern 
tavern, tumba tomb, uindimint ointmcnt, carbbuncla carbuncle, clima clime, 
cursa a course, fersa a verse, fisice a physician, graibtl gravel, halla a hall, 
lampa a lamp, offrail offering, mitall mettle, perse a perch, titul title, tristeil 
trestles, deithfer difference, fundamint íoundation, etc. 



Preface- vii. 

being to urge the faithful to visit the tomb of St. James at Santiago 
de Compostella. 

Tliis chronicle soon became very popular. No less than five 
translations were made of it into Old French at the end of the 
twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century. A splendid 
Welsh translation in which it is woven into the Roman d' Otuel, 
and part of the Chanson de Roland, was inade not later than 1275. 

The chronicle was first pubhshed in 1566, at Frankfort, 
and eighteen years later at the same place by Reuber. Sub- 
sequent editions appeared at Florence and Brussels and finaliy 
an accurate edition from seven vellum MSS. at Montpellier 
was pubHshed by M. Castets in 1880, the best of the vellums 
being of the twelfth or thirteenth century. "Si ce n'est pas," 
says Castets, "le Turpin primitif, c'est bien celui qui de bonne 
heure a été le Turpin officiel, c'est celui qu' on n'a cessé 
de hre de traduire et d'imiter au Moyen-Age et que les 
romanciers italiens depuis Nicolas de Padoue jusqu' á Arioste 
ont accepté comme le chroniqueur en titre des hauts faits 
de Charlemagne et de Roland."^ I have made use of the Frank- 
fort text of 1584^ (Fr.), and also of this text of Castets (C), and 
compared the Irish carefully with both of thern. These texts do 
not always agree with one another nor does the Irish text wholly 
agree with either of them, but now with one now with the other, 
and occasionally with neither. 

HOW THE IRISH VERSIONS DIFFER FROM THE LATIN. 

The following are the principal differences : all the Irish MSS. 
except the fragment in the King's Inns Library omit the 
prefatory epistle ascribed to Turpin which the published Latin 
texts contain, but which the Welsh also omits. It is a brief letter 

1. Under the title oí the "Y.storya de Carolo Magiio" from the Red Book 
oí Hergest,see"Y Cymmodor" oí 1883 íor the text, and of 1907 for the trans- 
lation and notes by Rev. Robert Williams. The Turpin chronicle amoimts 
to not much more than a third of the Welsh text, the rest being ta,ken from 
the Roman d'Otuel and the Chanson de Roland. 2. It is the text 

"dont s'est servi Ciampi . . . . de dixhuit manuscrits ú Paris, et de 
sept de MontpeUier." ó. Entitled "veterum scriptorum qui 

Caesarum et imperatorum Germanicorum res per aliquot secula gestas 

literis mandaverunt." 



viii. Preface. 

addresscd to Lcoprandus of Aix la ChapcUc giving Turpin's reasons 
for writing the book, stating that he records events of which he 
had been an eye-witncss,' and that he writes these doings of 
Charlemagne because they are not all ítnind in the chronicle of 
St. Denis.2 

The Irish translator in accordance with the Frankfort text [Fr.] 
omits the greater part of Chapter III. which Castets gives. This 
contains a Hst of thc "urbes et majores villae" which Charles 
had conquered, and is evidently the work of some Spanish monk, 
for no Frenchman could have known thern. Thesc names with 
those of "insulae et telures" number about one hundred and 
sixteen. The Irish translator may have had the list before him, 
but if so he preferred not to encumber his pages with a mass of 
names that could have had no signiíicance for his readers. He 
omits, probably for the same reason, many of the countries and 
kings mentioned in Chapter IX. of the Latin. He very wisely 
passes by without notice the constant and tedious Latin exclama- 
tions "O virum laudabilem" ! etc, and the tiresome and constantly 
nxurring "quid plura" ! His translation gains much by this 
restraint. 

We see further traces of what I take to be a desire to avoid 
tediousness in the omission of the long-winded and obviously 
intercalated chapter "De septem artibus quas Rarolus depingi 
fecit in palatio suo," namely, grammar, music, dialectic, rhetoric, 
geometry, arithmetic, and astrology. This chapter is also missing 
in the Frankfort text. The Irish also omits the short chapter on 
St. Denys, which is Chapter XXX. in Castets edition and XXIX. 
in the Frankfort text. The names of the seven bishops who con- 
secrated the graveyards at Arles and Bordeaux are omitted with 
the names of their sees, probably as being of small interest to 
the Irish reader, and also, no doubt for the same reason, the 
chapter and a half containing the names of those buried at Blaye 
and Arles does not appear. The text in the Book of Lismore 

1. Quae propriis oculis intuitas sum quatuordecim aunos perambulans 

Hispaniam et Galeciam una cum eo [Carolo Magno] et exercitibus suis. 

2. "in Sancti Dionysii cronica regali." 



Preface. ix. 

and the King's Inns Library text apparentlv with the same 
intention — i.e., to make the story more concise and readable — 
avoid all mention of chapters.' 

There is no attenipt made — and this is to be regretted — to 
turn anj^ of the occasional Latin verses into poetry. 

THE IRISH MSS. THAT CONTAIN THE TEXT. 

The Irish text is found in full in threc vellum MSS. all probably 
of the fifteenth century, and in part in two other vellums of probably 
a like date. The copy I have taken for the basis of this text is 
that contained in the Book of Lismore {Lis.), compiled in the 
latter half of the fifteenth century. Thc original being in the 
possession of the Duke of Devonshire I have used a careful transcript 
made by O'Longan, the transcriber for the Royal Irish Academy 
of the Lebor na h-Uidhre, the Book of Leinster, etc. This copy 
belonged to Lord Roden and is now in my possession ; it is written 
liue for line and word for word from the original.^ 

The second MS. I have used is another íifteenth or sixteenth 
century vellum (F.) in the library of the Franciscan Convent, 
Merchants' Qaay, Dublin, to which the courtesy of the Librarian 
allowed me access. This MS. contains forty-four pages in all. The 
page is about ten inches b\' six and a-half, and it is written in 
double colurnns. Our text tills sixteen pages. I deduce that it is 
not as old as the Book of Lismore from the following circumstance. 
In the Book of Lismore is contained a Hfe of St. Finnchua at the 
end of which is this note, "The Friar O'Buagachain wrote this 
life from the Book of Monasterboice."^ On louking ovcr the 
Augustinian MS. I found that it also contains a life of St. Finnchua 
with this colophon, "and he [Finnchua] wrote all in tlie book 
of Monasterboice mic Bronuidh, so that the friar O Buadhachain 

1. I have given the arrangement into chapters from the other three MSS. 

2. There is another copy of the Book of lismore by O'Longau in the Royal 
Irish Academy, I have not used it but my own copy. There is an occasional 
variation of an accent or dot bctween them, b'it nothiug of any importance. 
My íriend Mr. Best who transcribed a text írom O'Longan's Academy copy 
afterwards comparing it with a photograph of the original MS. found the 
copy to be ma,rvellousIy exact. 3. "In braithaiV O Buag(7fAain 

roscnbh an beíAa so as Leabhar Maintstrerh Bttiti." 



X. PREFACE. 

wrote out of (?) that book of [Monaster]boice into his own short 
Book, that is the Short Book of O Buadhchain."' Froni this 
it would appear that while the Friar actual]y wrote this part of 
the Book of Lismore, the Augustinian manuscript was only trans- 
scribed from an earher book which had been written by the friar, 
and consequently is likely to be of a latcr datc^ 

The third MS. I have used is Egerton, 1781 (E.), in the British 
Museum, oí which Miss Hull most kindly transmitted to m.e a 
rotifer photograph. It is a neat copy of a fifteenth (?) centurv 
MS. and is complete.^ 

The fourth MS. I used (H.) was unfortunately imperfect. 
It is in Trinitv College but is not separately mentioned in the 
catalogue of the MSS., where it will be sought in vain. It will be 
found however under the heading H.2. 12, the number in the catalogue 
is 1304. This MS. contains the "Invencio ste crucis," and was 
transcribed by Teig O Riordain in 1475.'* In the middle of the 
long "invencio crucis," after the íirst ten folios, are four (not 
two) loose vellum leaves to which Nettlau íirst called attention, 
apparentty in the same handwriting, and these contain part of 

í . Ocus ro sgrib [Finnchua] uile a lebar Mainistreach Buithe mic Bronuidh 
gur sgrib in brathair h Ua Buadhachain isin lebur sin Buithi in a lebur gerr 
íein i. lebur gerr I Buadhachaiw. 2. Unless indeod Stokes and O'Gradv are 

mistaken in cahing O'Buagachain one of the scribes of the Book of Lecaii 
(Lives of the Saints from the Book oí Lismore, p. vi.), as they would 
te if the scribe were onlv stating that O'Buagachain wrote what he 
was copying. 3. It was written niosth' by Diarmuid bacach Mac Finghin 

mheic Pharrtholáin in M' Gaurans country in 1487, says 0'Grady, Gadehca, 
vol. i., p. ix. 4. The colophon to the Invencio sanctae crucis runs thus, 

"is seadh ba slan do losa ac scrihadh na sdaire so .1. núle hla.áhan (sic) ocus 
cetri ced hliadhan, ocus .u. hWadhna décc ocus tri .xx. cosa sanais 
so do cuaid tort ocus dia na sanaisi ocus aidhqi na hcisergi ar aenlith. 
Tadg ua Rigbardain qui scnpsit," i.e. "at the writing of this history Jesus 
had completed one thousand aud íour himdred years and íifteen and three 
score, up to last Annunciation, and the day of the Annunciation and the 
night oí the Resurrection are one festival: TeigO Riordan, who wrote [this] " 
I íound another fragment on eight foUos in the same collection of pieces, 
i.e. H.2 12. It is on Bible history and was written by the same Teig O'Riordan. 
I am nearly sure the hand-writing is the same as in the Turpin fragment. 
The pages are of the sanie size and seem to have once belonged to the same 
book. The colophou runs "Tadg Uarigbardain qui scripsit ocus cach oen 
leighfeas t3.hvadh bennacAt co paidir ior a anwaiw ocus isedh do bo slaw 
don Tighearna an tan so mile bliadhan ocus cethri .c. ocus rethri bl. x. ocus 
tri XX gus an sanais so cMgaiwd ocus an sanais ocus ind esergi ar oen lith 
in bl. sin. This makes the date of the Biblical fragment, 14'74, and if the 
Turpin fragment belongs to the same book its date is probably the same 



Preface. xi. 

our text, namely a portion of Chapter IV., and Chapters V. to 
VIII. both inclusive, and Chapters X. to XV. both inclusive, and 
part of Chapter XVI. These last two chapters however aie not 
in all plac.es legible. The follovvdng foHo was cut awav by some 
vandal leaving only some of the letters showing on the margin. 
This MS. is in a fme bold script with each chapter beginning ^Adth 
a capital letter in red, and contains a text that varies from the 
other three much more then the other three do among themselves. 
It is a pity that it is not entire. 

The only other MS. which I know to contain a fragment of 
the text is that marked No. 10 in the Ring's Inns Library, 
Dubhn, to which my friend Mr. R. I. Best called my attention.' 
It contains part of the cognate story of Fortibras in the íirst eight 
folios, and the ninth folio begins the story of Charlemagne. It 
is very interesting to find that it starts with a veision of Turpin's 
epistle to Leoprandus which none of the other MSS. even alluded 
to, and which the Welsh version also omits.^ 



THE D.\TE OF THE TRANSLATION. 

It is difficult to date the Irish translation with an}^ exactitude. 
I think it is older than would appear at first sight. The vellums 
that contain the story are probably late fifteentli centurv MSS. 
But the divergences in the text which thcy contain are so con- 
siderable that they show that a long time must have elapsed and 
very many copies been made from the original translation before 
they were themselves written. The Trinitv Collcge MS. differs 
far more from the Book of Lismore than either the Franciscan 
MS. or Egerton, 1781 ; this latter is a conílate text, the writer 

1. It is from it he edited the fragmerit of Eetba Patraic iu Anecdota írom 
Irish MSS., vol. iii., p. 29. 2. I discovered this MS. too late to make use 
of it iu compariug the text, but I have examined it in the appendix. 
3. The Book of Lisrnore was, as we have seen, made in the latter half of the 
íifteenth century. Stokes, who uses the Egerton MS. for his (iaelic Maunde- 
viUe, says tbat part of it was written probably in BrefEny not later than 
1482. Mr. Best dates the King's Inns MS., the part of it he worked 
from, .c. 1500, but this is in different hand aud may be older. lí the 
Triuity College loose folios are of the same date as the invencio crucis 
amid whose leaves they are íound it must have been written about 1475. 



xii. Prei<ace. 

apparently piling up his adjectives and descriptive epithets without 
any discrimination from two or more copies which may have 
lain before him, and the Ring's Inns MS. differs in places from 
all. 

I thought at one time that two indcpendent translations had 
been made from the Latin by different translators, and that the 
divergences could be thus accounted for. But I soon abandoned 
this supposition for the following reasons : (1) In Roland's 
endeavours to explain the nature of the Trinity to Feracutus he 
mentions that there are three things in the wheel of a cart, but 
— though his argument requires it — he does not mention what 
thev are. In the Latin the three things are given as the "medius" 
(the old Franlcfort edition reads "modius"), "brachia et circulus," 
or as we would say nave, spokes and tyre (or fellies). The original 
translator must have omitted these three things by accident after 
mentioning the wheel, or else he translated from a Latin MS. 
which had itsclf by accident ornitted them. But had there been 
two independent translators from two Latin MSS. the words in 
the Latin text would surely have survived in some of the Irish 
MSS. (2) When Feracutus professes himself unable to under- 
stand how Christ could have gone down into hell and afterwards 
gone up into heavcn, Roland phes him v»dth the analogy of the 
mill-wheel and others of the same sort, but all the Irish texts 
omit the Latin "avis volans in aere quantum descendit tantum 
ascendit." The original translator either omitted this by accidertt 
or translated from a MS. that had omitted it, and this omibsion 
is reproduced in all the Irish MSS. (3) In the battle which Turpin 
calls the Battle of the Larvae or Masks, the striking fact that the 
standard set upon the wagon around which the Saracens raUied 
was a red ílag would never have been omitted in all our copies 
had the original translator translated it. It is most unhkely that 
two translators would have omitted it. Hence it is not unreason- 
able to suppose that all our texts, at least our three full texts, 
spring from one and the same translation. This translation was 
made from the Latin and not from French or Enghsh, as is shown 
by the use of the Latin obhque cases for the nominative, as 



Preface. xiii. 

"Tighearnas Nauorrorum ocus Basclorum," adjectives like "Cino- 
manensis," "Compostilanensis," formslike"ri Cornubiae," etc, and 
almost all the proper names retain their Latin forms. Indeed it 
seems very curious that no atternpt to shorten them in accordance 
wdth the genius of the Irish langiiage was made by the translator. 
Occasionally he does not quite understand or give the sense of 
the Latin, as when on page thirty he translates "portus Ciserios" by 
"an sruth re n-abar Ciserios," though in other cases he uses the 
Latin abbreviated to "port."' In modern Irish "port" is used 
for the bank of a stream and he was probably led away by this. 
Nor does he seem to grasp the meaning of "tradidisset" used in 
the sense of "betray," for he translates it by "do thinnlaic 
cuigi," p, 100, nor did he understand "pertica" in the sentence, 
"perticis verberando perimuntur" which he translates "slain by 
the weapons which are called pertica," p. 80, though when 
the same word occurs in the sense of pole or fiag-staff he (perhaps 
not understanding it) gives it an Trish turn and makes it 
"peirsi," p. 66. LTpon the whole, however, he gave his contem- 
poraries a good lucid satisfactory version of the Latin, and he 
must have known something about Charlemagne, for he translates 
Roland's uncle (avunculus), i.e. Charles, by "Roland'? mother's 
brother," which is the true relationship.^ 

The deviations of the Irish texts from what I have tried to 
show must have been a single original, point to a considerable 
period having elapsed between the writing of that original and 
their own transcription. I do not think that from seventy to a 
hundred years can be too much to allow for such discrepancies. 
As our MSS. appear to date from before 1500, the translation 
may have been made aboat 1400. Modern Irish so far from 
beginning with Reating, as many people suppose, reall}' goes back 
for something like a couple of centuries before his time. 

The influence of either French or early Enghsh is seen in 
the form Serlus for Carolus, and we find side by side and 
on the same page such forms as Cicerei and Siserei, p. 78, 

1. Port — "défilé dans les montagnes, et par extension les montagnes elies 

memes." It also means a harbour. 2. Not Iike the Fierebras story 

which speaks oí "Rolandus mac mic do Serlus Mhór" ! 



-xiv. Preface. 

Runcia and Runsie. wliich shows that the translator was accustomed 
to pronounce C as S in certain foreign and non-Irish words. Did 
he get this habit from people who spoke French or from people 
who spoke Fnglish .'■ I cannot point out any certain French 
influence, but the form San Seni or Sin Sem is clearlv due to 
Enghsh,' and once we find in one MS. the form Seumas. 

An interesting side hght on the translator's time is found in 
his rendering of "omnes servi qui sub malis consuetudinibus 
pravorum dominorum rehgati tenebantur"^ by "every person 
who was under 'biadhUichas' and under slavery," p. 28, i.e. every 
person who held under that tenure. By "biadhtachas" I under- 
stand the obhgation which manv of íhe clansmen were under 
to supply food to or support and entertain their overlord with a 
certain number of his followers for so many days in the year, 
when it pleased the overlord to quarter himselí upon them. This 
form of tenancy which the Fnghsh used to denounce under the 
name of "coyne and Uvery" must have been obnoxious to the 
translator's circle or contemporaries, otherwise he would hardly 
have so translated. 

Our text contains many military terms, and it is remark- 
able that they are all purely Irish and not borrowed from the 
Normans.3 

I have always silently extended S. and Rol. to Serlas and 
Rolandus. The genitive of the latter is written once in full in 

1. San may be French. We íind in the Fierebras story the form "Sin Dinis" 
for Saint Denis. But Sém must be the English James. 2. "All slaves 

who vvere held bound under the evil customs of bad masters." 3. As for 
example the following : Osadh a truce, ag coimét a ndeiridh guarding íheir 
rear, suidhe timchioll cathrach to besiege a city, do thinnlaic an chathair 
he surrendered the city, an chathair do chonnmhail to hold the citv, cathair 
do ghabhail to take a city, múr doclaite an im pregnable rampart, Íáthair au 
chatha the battlefield, bhi da chois fie ivas on foot, fogair cath do [also "ar"] 
to challenge to baítle, tosach the battle front, "acies," cloidhmedh to piit to the 
sivord, dibhracadh soiget shooting arrows, foslongport a camp, torann a 
charge (?) bratach G. brataighi a standard, corughadh catha [or simplv cor- 
ughadh] a divisioti of an army, madhmaigh byeak through, rout, tucadax ucht 
ar a cheli they faced one another, do innsaigh he he attacked him, claiteoir 
a victor, do tliiuoil a shluagh he assembled his army, suaichentas ensign. do 
lcith a ndroma in their rear, do dhoirt 'ua cenn he burst upon them, sáidh 
pubull pitch a tent, do dhluthaigh (?) chuige he closed with him, misider a 
herald or emissary. It will be observed how very pure this language is, 
and that not one of these terms except the last is borrov/ed from a foreigu 

speech. 



PREFACE. XV. 

the Book of Lismore, 'Rolanduis/ and following this example I 
have niade the us of all proper names end in uis in the genitive 
except where they wcre written fuU and ended in us in the MSS. 
The word for "arid" is not once written in full in the MSS. I 
have extended it to "ocus," but perhaps this gives the text a 
more antique appearance than it should bear. 

I have allowed the place-names to stand for the most part 
as in the Irish, though this sometimes means giving Latin obhque 
cases for nominatives, as though one were to translate abhainn na 
Bóinne by thc river "Boinne" in EngUsh. These place narnes 
have undergone the wildest variations: witness Runti UaUis or 
RutinaUs or Gleann Runsia or Remencia or glenn re n-abar Runcia 
or Ruinsia, for RoncesvaUes, Uehyn for the Rhine (p. 107), 
the land of the Castles for Castile, etc. 

Of the three fuU copies at my disposal the copy in the Book 
of Lismore was made by the most Uterate, and the Egerton copy 
by the most iUiterate of the scribes. It is amusing to fmd the 
Mac in Macometus (Mahomet) and Macabeus treated once or twice 
as the Irish mac, and the genitive made Micametus and Mic Abeus. 
The Egerton scribe makes Jonathan weep over Absolom (p. 96), 
and writes Ogh ri Barsa for the Lismore Hoc ri Basan. 

Various other points conceming the text and its contents I 
have discussed in the appendix. 

T)tit)5lAS "oe h-íT)e. 



1. We meet even iii English also very various íorms ot this name, Roucesvaiies 
(tiie Spanish íorm), Ronceval Roncevaux, etc. 



jAbAlcAS senlms ttióm. 



THE CONQUESTS OF 
CHARLEMAGNE. 



SAbÁlcAS seRltiis rhóm. 



Capitulum primum .1. ar ndul d'esbuluibh ocus do deiscipluibh 
Crist a rannuibh in domuin, mar innister, do chuaid in t-esb«í 
glormhar' .i. San Sew ar tus isin GaiHnnsi ocus do rindi senmora 
innti. Ocus ar na chur cum baiss ag Iruat iarsin do ghoideadar 
a dheiscibííí/ fein a chorp isin oighthi, ocus do chuiretar a luing 
he. Ocus do treovaiged iat ó'n aingel chum na Gaihnnsi ocus do 
shiladwf hrisithra Dé ar a fot. Ocus na dhiaigh sin do chuiretar 
lucht na Gsiilinnsi an creidiuiM coir ar cul. Ocus do batar a.na.ghaidk 
in chreidmhe cu haimsir Sherluis mhoir. Ocus iar bhfhaghail 
shaethair moir dow tSerlws so a tiribh''^ imdha in domhain do 
ghabh moran dibh. Ocus asiat so iat,^ .i. Saxa ocus in Fhra.ingc 
ocus in Almain ocus in Baigine^ ocus Lochlaw"* ocus in Burgui«^ 
ocus an Etaille ocus in Bntaine ocus moran do thirthaibh^ eh nach 
a.inmnighthear annso^ gu n-imat ca.thrach o muir cu muir, ar na 
ndiw' o íiirtacht Dé mailH re láimh laidir do-claithi aigi fein do 
shaer iat o lamhuibh na Seirxistineach ocus do chuir fa chui«g na 
Crisdaighi iat. Ocus fuair se in meit sin do shaethar^ ar cur a 
allais a.mach, innus gur theilg se^ beith a cumsanad gan ca.thughadk 
do dhénamh as sin suas. Ocus a ceííoir na dhiaigh sin do cho;maic 
se shghi retlaiwne'" isin firmamÍMt ac tiwnscaiwt o mhuir Fnsie ocus 
ac dul idir in Almaiw ocus in Etailh ocus idir in Fraingc ocus in 

1. Co ndechaidh in timpir glordha E. 2. Culaib E. & F. 3. a n- 

anmanna E. 4. ím Bagine loclannda E. 5. riechtaib F. nghcchlaibh 
ocus do fí.aiíheinnasaibh ele E. 6. o hoin amach F. & E. 7. Ar na 

dm o foirig'Athin Dia E. & F. 8. E adds "ocus do doccumul," and reads 
"gM»' cAuír." 9. cur smuain .se heith na comnatdAe co sadhail gan, etc. E. 

10. reltainne F. 



The Conquests of Charlemagne 



[FroiJi the BOOK OF LlSMORE AND OTHER VELLUM MSS.] 



FIRST CHAPTER. 

When the apostles and disciples of Christ had gone into the various 
divisions of the word, as we-are-told, the glorious apostle Saint 
James went íirst into Gahcia and preached* sermons in it. And 
when, after that. he was put to death by Herod his own disciples 
stole his body in the night and placed it on board a ship. And 
they were guided by the angel to Galicia and they sowed the words 
of God throughout it. But,''after that, the people of Gahcia drove 
out the true faith. And they were against the faith until the 
time of Charles the Great. And after this [King] Charles had 
endured'' much labour in many countries of the world, he took 
many of them. Here they are : Saxon^*^ and France and Germany 
and the Baigine [Bavaria ?] and Denmark and Burgundy and Italy 
and Bretagne and many other countries that are not named here with 
many cities from sea to sea,^ [and] being protected by the help of 
God together with a strong insuperable hand of his own he saved 
them from the hands of the Saracens and placed them under the 
yoke of the Christians. And he endured all that labour in the 
sweat of his brow' so that he renounced [?] a Hfe of rest [a life 
passed] without fighting, from that out. 

And soon after that he beheld the path of a star in the firma- 
ment, beginning from the sea of Frisia and passing exactly between 
Germany and Italy and between France and Gasconv, and between 



* Lit. "made." ^ Lit. "and." "= Lit. "íound." ^ Angliara scilicet 

Galliam Theutonicam Baioariam Lothoringiam Burgundiam Italiam 
Britanniam ceterasque regiones. ^ I translate as ií "ar n-a dhín," 

Latin : "divinis subsidiis munitus." ^ Lit. "Putting out his sweat," 

but the Latin is difíerent : 
ami 



divmis subsinns munitus. ' l^tt. ruttmg out ms sweat, 

Latin is difíerent: "Gravi labore ac tanto sudore fatigatus ne 
ipHus bellum iniret & ut requiem sibi daret proposuit," Fr., 



4 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Gascinne^ co direach ocus idir an nGascuin ocus Nauarra ocus in 
SpaÍ7í co sin nGailinnsi''^ mar a raibi corp San Sem cu foluigth^ac^^ 
in uair sin. Ocus do cidh S^rlus in tshghi remhraitti sin gach 
n-oighthi ocus do smuain co meinic cret fa ciall don ní_sin. Ocus 
ar mbeith ar na smuai«tightibh sin do/ do faiUsighedh do a 
cumsan«d na hoighthi macam in oglaigh co ngnuis ndeallríiíthig 
aga rádh ris "A mheic^ cret do ní." ? Do freguir Serlus hé ocus 
adubhairt :'' "A thigearna. cia thu." ? "As misi," ar sé "Semus 
Esbal, dalta Cvist mac Sebedeus' brathair Eoin suihhsgéal do 
chuir mu thighearna. do shenmoir maille na gmsaibh mora dowa 
popluib ocus is me do mharbh Iruath do chlaidiumh ocus asé 
mu corp ata a cuwsanad isiw Ghaihnnsi** fo dhaeirsi ag na Seiris- 
dinibh. Ocus is ingnad hm cu mor nar saerais-si mo thir o nert 
na SeÍTTÍsdineach ocus gur ghabuis moran do cathrachaíft/í ocus do 
thirthí7?7>A ele, ocus^ foillsrg'/M'm-si duit mar tuc Dia nert ocus 
cumachtSL duit os cinn righ in tahuan. Is mar sin do thagh sé 
thu idir in uih dhui«e do thsíhhairt coróine^'marthanaighi duit, 
innus cu soertha mu thír-si ocus mu thalamh o lamhaib na n-ain- 
Cr/s/aidhi, Ocus in tshghi ad c/io«ncais isin aier as comiirtha. 
sin cu ragha-sa" maiUe re shiaghaih móra do cha.thughadh ris na 
cineadhuihh padhanda ocus do sha.eTadh mu thíre ocus mo thalman 
ocus d'íisrughadh an inaidh ar cuÍTeadh mu chorp ó imeal na cnchi 
so gusin nGaihnnsi, ocus ticedh'^ ad diaig an uih phohal chum 
oihtn' o muir cu muir, isin inad sin d'fhaghail loga/í/'^an a phecadh 
o Dhia ocus ag innisin admolta in tighcrtma ocus na suhaiche^'* ocus 
na mÍThiiiledh do rinne se o aimsir do betha-sa cu deredh in domain. 
Ocus ar an adhbhar sin mar as luaithi fhétfas tussa ceimnig'-^ 
mar adubhart-sa. Or biat-sa am fhurtac/í/aigh agat in gach uile 
inadh. Ocus ar son do shaethar ocus do ghuasachta'^ gnoaighfet- 
sa'' coroin a fiaithimhnuis neamhdha om thighca>'na duit, ocus 
biaidh h-ai«m molta gws in lá deighenac/í." Ocus mar sin do'* 
San Sem, ar na íhoiWsiughad iein tri huairi'^ do Sherlus. 

1. giaine F. & E. 2. F. omits last twelvc words. 3. a folach F 

4. ar na faicsin do co minic F. 5. E. omits "a mheic." G. E reads. 
evidently wrongly, "do fregair in tigheama. he ocus adubhairt ris ce thu 
few." 7. sipidei E. sabedeus F. 8. E. adds "noch ata fos," F. merely 

"fos." 9. E. adds "ar a son sin." 10. na coroine, E. 11. Co 

racair-se F. & E. 12. tiucfaid F. 13. loghaidh F. 14. subalta F. & E. 
15. ceimnidh F. & E. 16. The last three words and the íirst "ocus" 
inserted from E. 17. gnoideochadsa F. & E. 18. F. omits the "do." 
19. cuarta F. & E. The "fein" I insert froni E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 5 

Gascony and Navarre and Spain, on to Galicia,^ where the body 
of Saint James was hidden at that time. And Charles beholds 
that above-mentioned path [of the star] every night, and he often 
pondered as to what was the meaning of that thing. And as he 
was having these thoughts there was revealed to him in the peace- 
fulness of the night a youthful warrior'' with a shining countenance 
who said to him, "My son. what doest thou" ? Charles answered 
him and said, "Lord, who art thou" ? "I," said he "am James 
the apostle, pupil" of Christ, son of Zebedee, brother of John 
the Evangehst, whom my Lord sent to preach with great grace 
to the various peoples ; and it is I whom Herod killed with a 
sword, and it is my bod}^ that is resting in Gahcia in bondage at 
the hands of the Saracens. And I wonder greatly that thou hast 
not dehvered my country from the power of the Saracens, seeing'* 
that thou hast taken many other cities and countries, and I reveal 
to thee how God hath given strength and power to thee above 
the kings of the earth. Even so has He chosen thee above all 
other-men to give thee an everlasting crown, so that thou mightest 
save my country and my land from the hands of the unbelievers.® 
And the path which thou sawest in the air, that is a sign that thou 
shalt go with great hosts to fight with the Pagan peoples and to 
save my country and my land, and to visit the place where my 
body was buried, from the border of this country to Galicia ; 
and let every people come after thee on pilgrimage from sea to 
sea, to that place, to get remission of their sin from God, and to 
tell the praises of the Lord and the virtues and the miracles which 
He performed [and shall perform] from the period of thine own 
life to the end of the world. And for that cause as speedily as ever 
thou shalt be able, proceed as I have said. For I shall be a helper 
to thee in every place. And on account of thy labours and thy 
peril I shall win thee a crown from my Lord in the heavenly 
kingdom, and thy name shall be praised till the last day," Thus 
far Saint James ; having revealed himself three times to Charles. 



* "a mari Frisiae et tendentem inter Theutonicam et Ytaliam inter 
Galliam et Aquitoniam, rectissime transeuntem per Gasconiam Basclamque 
et Navarram et Hispaniam usque ad Galeciam." '' "heros quidem." 

« "Alu[m]pnus." ^ Lit. "and." " Literally "unchristians," Latin 

Moabitarum. 



6 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Ar n-eisteclít^ bnatJiar an eshail do 'n impir airmhech soin 
do chuir sloigh mora ar aein-shlighidh ocus do chuaidh isin Spáin 
do dhibirt na Paganach. 



AN DARA SGEL ANN SO. [F.] 



CAPITULUM SECUNDUM.-' 

In ched chathair cum a ndechaidh Serlus da gabhail .i. 
Pampilonia ; ocus ase fedh do bhi na timchill tri mi ocus nír fhét 
a ga.bhdil or do ha.tar múir do-claiti na timcheall. Is ann sin do 
rinne Serlus urnaigthi chum a dhia féin, ocus a duhhairt "A 
tighearna. a losa^ Crt's^, o's ar son do c/í^'eidim thanag is na 
cnchí'M so do clai in chinidh Padha^ita, tabhair do chumhachta 
dam-sa do clai na cathrach so, gu mba mo]ad ocus anoir dot 
hainm^ hé." Ocus a.duhhairt aris, "a San Sem ma's fhir gur 
fhoiUsighis tu fein dam ta.hhair nert ocus cumhachta dhamh do 
gha.hhail na cathracA so." Ocus tainic do thoil Dé ocus do ghuigi^ 
San Sem cor thuitset muir na cathrach co huili. Ocus na 
Serrisdínigh do bi san cathair ler ail baisdííí^ do gha.hhail cuca 
do baisd^rf^ iat, ocus in drong leis nar ail, do urail Serlus a 
ndichenMrtí//?. 

Ar cloisdin na mirhaili sin do umlaigetar' na Seirrisíinigh 
iat fein do Serlus da gach taebh, ocus do b^j'rtis tabhartais^ 
imdha do, innus gur chuir sé in ta.lamh sin uili fo chis do fein. 
Ocus mar do conncatar an ciweadh Padhanda pohal na Gailmwsí 
ar na n-eitiudh co maith ocus aighthi^ sochraide acu, on 
cla.ech\adh rechta sin, is anorach sidhcanda do ghabhdais cuca iat, 
ocus do leiceadar a ci«[«] da^° n-armaibh. Ocus na dhiaigh sin 
do cuaidh Serlus cu Patrowa*' d'úsrugadh adlaicti San Sem, ocus 

1. ar na cloisíin sin do Shearlus .i. espaloit do gelladh do E. F. turns the 
sentence differentlj' but also has "o do gheall«íi an esbaloid do." 2. "in 

2 sgel" E. 3. aysa F., aisa E. 4. do Dia F. dot ainm ocus dod 
miorhuilibh e E. 5 d'urnaig^Mi San Sem ocus do guidhi Serluis E., 

F. omits. 6. baistig F. 7. tucatar iad ien E. 8. Taisi imdha do 
legaibh loghmara ocus do rogha gacha seda. mbuadha arcena E. 
9. aithche E. 10. E. also reads "ciw" F. is in this passage too faint to 
be sure of the reading. 11. Patron E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 7 

As soon as that renowned eraperor had harkened to the words 
oí the apostle, he coUected together great armies,* and went into 
Spain to banish the Pagans. 



SECOND CHAPTER." 

The first city which Charles went to take was Pampilonia." And 
the length of time that he encamped'* round about it was three 
months, and he could not take it íor there were impregnable 
ramparts round it. Thereupon Charles made prayer to his own 
God and said, "O Lord Jesas Christ since it is for the sake of thy 
rehgion that I have come into these parts to overthrow tlie Pagan 
race, grant me thy power to overthrow this citv so that it may 
l3e praise and honour to thy name." And again he said, "O 
Saint James, if it is true that thou didst reveal thyself to me, 
grant me strength and power to take this city." And it came to 
pass by the will of God and the prayer of Saint James, that the 
walls of the city fell utterly.° And the Saracens who were in the 
city who were wiUing to accept baptism were baptized, and those 
who were not willing,. Charles ordered them to be beheaded. 

On hearing of that miracle the Saracens submitted them- 
selves to Charles upon every side and they used to bring him 
many gifts, so that he placed all that land under tribute to himself . 
And as soon as the Pagan tribes saw the people of Galicia well 
clad and with joyous faces/ from that change of law,® they used 
to accept them [the Christians] honourably and peaceably and then 
put off the heads [?] of their weapons.'' And after that Charles went 
to Patrona' to visit the burial-place of Saint James, and he thrust 

* coadunatis sibi exercitibus multis. The Irish is hterally "put on one 
road," a common idiom in these texts. ^ Literally Story. Lismore MS. 

makes no division of the text into chapters. " i.e., Pampeluna. 

** Lit. "was." Latin sedit. « "funditus corruerunt." ' bene indutam et 

facie elegantem. e "Recht" is frequently used for "rehgion" as well as 

"law." ^ armis etiam rejectis. ' "ad petronum," which Gaston Paris 

explains thus "Petronum vero 'llam petram vocabant cui ratis allegata 
fuerat quae Sancti Jacobi corpus Iriam adve.xerat, et ab hac voce sumpsit 
Iria Flavia nomen novum El Pedron, quod nunc paulo mutatum El Padron 

sonat." De Pseudo Turpino. 



8 GABHALTAS SERLUIS iMHOIR. 

do shaidh a shleagh isin muir ocus ruc a buidi re Dia ocus re San 
Sem a dhul cowuigi sin,' or nir fliet dul ann co sin. Ocus pob«/ 
na Gaihnnsi do impo cum an c^eidimh padanta a ndiaigh shenmóra 
San Sem ocus a deisciba/, ler ail'- impod-' chuw creidimh, do 
ghabhadar haisdedh cuca do laimh airdesbídc Roim .i. Turpinus ; 
ocus in drong leis nar ail,''^ do urail Serlus a c\a.idhmedh* 

Tainic Serlus na dhiaigh sin ar fud na Spaine co huilidhe. 



AN TREAS SGEL ANN SO [F.]-' 
Cuid d'anmawnaibh na ca.thrach do ghabh Serlus isin Spain 
leicim thoram iat ar deacracht na n-anmann mbarbardha do radh. 
Do ghabh se dfong dona cathrachaibh sin gan ca.thughadh ocus 
dro[ng] eU maiUe ca.thughadh. Do bhi c.a.thair isin ccnch sin dar 
■dinm Lucí^na isin gleann uaiwe'' ocus nir eidir leis a gahhail no gu 
tainic fo deredh ocus do shuid 'na buw ocus do bhi gu cenn cethra 
mís na timcheall. Ocus o nar fhet a ga.hhail maill^ ca.thughadh do 
riwdi se mnaighthi dhichra co Dia ocus co San Sem ocus do 
thoiteadrt^ muir na cathrí?c/i uatha fein, ocas ata si 'na fasach o 
sin anuas, ata snith' ar a lar a mbi^ moran d'iasgflib dwba. 

Moran do na ca.thrackaibh so dc ghabh Serlus Mor do ghabh- 
adar righa*^ ele don Fraingc ocus impzredha^ don Almain iat roim 
Serlus ocus do impoj'deadar aris cum na h-irse Fa.danta. Asiat so 
na righa^ Cristaighi don Frainc do ghabh cuid'*^ don Sbrtm ar tus 
.i. Clodonius ocus Clotarius'' ocus Pipinus ocus Serlus ocus 
Marsellus^''^ ocus Serlus Mael ocus Lobais. Gidheadh cena do chuir 

1. ruc conuigi sin e E. 2. b'ail F. & E. 3. impog F. 4. clo'dmed F. 
a ndichcMMadh. 5. "in 3 scel do cogadh na Spaine" E. 6. iUegible in F. 
7. gne srotha F. & E. 8. in a faghtar E. fadthar F. 9. righthi — ■ 

impiVighE. 10. inSpáinE. 11. Clotonidjísocus Clotoridj^s E, Cloton 
ocus Clotorius (?) F. 12. Marsealws ocus Pipinus E 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 9 

his spear into the sea and gave thanks to God and to Saint James 
tha. he had gone so far, íor he had been unable to go there until 
then.^ And the peopie of GaHcia who had turned to the Pagan 
faith after the preaching of Saint James and his disciples and 
were wilhng [now] to turn to the [Christian] faith, they received 
baptism at the hand of the Archbishop of Rheims, Turpin, and 
those who were not wilhng, Charles ordered them to be put to 
the sword. 

Charles passed through the whole of Spain after that. 



THIRD CHAPTER.'^ 

SoME of the names of the cities which Charles took in Spain we 
pass by on account of the difficulty of pronouncing the barbarous 
names. He took some of those cities without tighting and some 
of them by fighting. There was a city in that land whose name 
was Lucerna in the Green Valle^," and he could not take it until 
he came at last and encamped round about it and he was round 
about it tiU the end of four months. And since he could not take 
it with fighting he made earnest prayers to God and to Saint James, 
and the walls of the city fell of their own accord, and it has been 
a wilderness ever since. There is a stream running through its 
midst in the which there are many black fish. 

Many of these cities which Charles the Great took, other 
kings of France and emperors of Germany had taken them before 
Charles, but they turned again to the Pagan faith. These are the 
Christian kings of France who first took part o( Spain, Clodonius'' 
and Clotarius and Pipinus and Charles and Marcellus and Charles 

* dicens quia in antea ire non poterat. In the language of the Pseudo 
Turpin "in antea" seems always to mean "before, previously." But Fr. 
reads "qui tamen antea ire non poterat." '' The Frankfurt edition ha.s 

not got the chapter which is Castel's third chapter, "de nominibus civitatum 
Hispaniae." The Irish leaves out over one hundred names but gives the 
last quarter or so of the chapter. * "in valle viridi." <* "Clodoveus 

namque primus rex Francorum christianus, Clotarius, Dagobertus, Pipinus, 
Karolus Martellus, Karolus Calvus, Lodovicus et Karolomagnus, partim 
Hispaniam acquisiverunt, partim dimiserunt." C. 



10 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

in Serlus mor so in Sbíím co himldn fo chuiwg na Crislaigi. 

Ac so na cathrac/ía do mha.Uaigh^ Serlus ar a mhéd do saethar 
ocus do guasacM fuair aga nga.bhail, [agus do eascain San Sera 
iad E.] ocus ar son na h-eascaine sin atait o shoin gan SLÍtmghadh 
Á. Lucerna ocus Uentosa ocus Taparra ocus x-Vdama. 



AN .IIII. SGEL ANN SO. [F.l^ 

Ocus na dhiaigh sin do chuaidh Serlus ar íud na Spainne 
ocus na dee bodhra balbha ocus na hidba^'ta diahlaidhi d'a 
n-adhraitis na 'Pada.naigh do sc/'is iat co hnilidhi acht amhain 
in dee dar ainm Macametus do bhi a iaXmhain Auladaluph^ re 
n-abí?rthai Salarcadis.* As inann^ Cadis re radh isin ien^aid Araipig 
ocus deos tre Laidi«.^ Ocus aithrisid na Seirvisdínigh in tan do 
bhi in Macametus so na hethaid co nderna. se obair ro-dhai«gen 
do fein a n-imeal na mara maillg diablaideacht ro-mhoir, ocus 
ad^niit cu roibhe in meit sin do nirt isin Dee sin indus nar bh'eidiV 
le nech san doman a hriseadh na didháil do dhenamh di.'^ Ocus 
in uair do thicedh Crisdaighi a comhfhoczis^ do, ni ro imthigh^íí/í ^ 
se gan bas no gan guasacht mhor d'íág^aiV on dee sin. Ocus in 
tíin do thicedh Seirnsdíneach da adhrad no da guighi do 
imthighedh'" imshlííw uadha. Ocus in tan do toirrlengad" en ar 
an ndee sin do gheibhedh bás a céadoir. Ocus is amlaidh ata in 
dee sin a n-iweal in mara ar na oibhugad cu ro-maith d'obair 
phaga/zda, ar na shuidhiugaí^/í ar an taXmhain. Ocus as amhlaidh 
atá sí \ethan cetharuilleach this, ocus cumang*''^ ro-árd thuas innas 
co mad dfcacair d'fhiach no^" d'en arrachta ele dul a comh-ard ria 
a n-aer. Ocus ata imaighi'^ in dee sin ar na denam dh'or roghlan, 
ocus si'^ ar na suidhiugrtí//i a n-uachtar na hoibre sin, a bhfighair 
dhuine, ocus si'^ na sesamh ar a cosaibh co direach, ocus a h-aghaidh 

1. do marb F. & E. 2. ín -1 sgel do cogadh na Spaíwe, don Dee rc n-abar 
MacametM.s E. F. also has the last five words. 3. Auladalap E. F. omits. 
4. Salanw cadiss E. & F. 5. Thus E. and F. Lismore text has "ocus 

arrian." 6. ocus dia tre Gaedhailg E. 7. E. and F. omit last five words 
8. comgairi F & E. 9. ternaighedh E. 10. imidhi F. imgidh E 

11 thus E F. omits íourteen words here. Lts. has "turadh" with a 
.stroke over the r. 12. co cumang E. & F 13. naden E. 14 5'maigh F. 



iwaigh na dee iin E. 15. hi E. & F. 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 11 

the Bald and Lobais. However this Charles the Great put Spain 
in its entiretv under the yoke of the Christians. 

Here are the cities which Charles cursed on account of the 
amount of labour and of peril he endured'' in the taking of them 
[and St. James cursed them] ; and on account of that malediction 
they are ever since uninhabited, namely Lucerna" and Ventosa 
and Taparra and Adama. 



FOURTH CHAPTER. 

And after that Charles went throughout Spain, and the deaf and 
dumb Gods and the devihsh offerings which the Pagans used to 
adore, he destroyed them utterly except only the god whose 
name was Macametus [i.e. Mahomet] which was in the land of 
Guadaloupe'' which used to be called Salacadis. Cadis in the 
Arabian tongue is the same as to say Deos in Latin. And 
the Saracens relate that when this Macametus was alive he made 
a very firm structure for himselt on the brink of the sea, by 
very great deviltry, and they say that there was so much strength 
in that god that nobody in the world could break it or do it harm. 
And whensoever a Christian used to come near him he might not 
escape without death or without enduring great peril from that 
god. And whenever a Saracen used to come to worship him 
or to pray to him, he used to go safe and sound from him. And 
whenever a bird would descend on that god it used to die instantly. 
And this is how that god is, on the border of the sea, wrought 
exceeding well of Pagan workmanship, [and] set upon the ground. 
And this is the way of it, broad and four-square below, and narrow 
and very high overhead, so that it would be diíhcult for a raven 
or other powerful bird to go so high as it in the air. And the 
image of that god is made of very pure gold and the image is set 
upon the top of the structure, in the figure of a man, and is stand- 
ing straight upon its feet, and its face towards the mid day, and 



a 



Lii. "íound." •> "Lucerna ventosa, Cappara, Adamia," C, but Ventosa 

is probably a separate town as the Trish makes it, not an adjective. " "in 

terra Alandaluf quod vocatur Salam Cadis. Cadis dicitur locus proprie in quo 

est ; Salam in hnqua Arabica Deus dicitur. C. Cadis dicitur proprie locus in 

quo est Isalam, in hngua arabica Deus dicitur. Fr. 



12 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

ar in medon lai,' ocus eocair aice aga connmail na laimh dheis, 
agus ase adba;' na h-eocrach sin do réir na Seir risdineach, an uair 
do thuitfedh an eochair sin cu ticfadh rí dona Frangccachaift^ do 
gebliudh in Spain co h-imlan an bUadam sin, ocus. do cuirfedh 
hi fo chuing ocus fo iris na Cristaighi. Ocus mar aireochait'^ na 
Seirrisdinigh in eochair sin do thuitim al-laim in dee sin, teithftt 
ocus facb«;7 an tír. 

Ocus ar gclai na Seirrisdineach do S/zerlus ocus ar cur na 
Spaine fa chuiwg' na Cristaighi do thidhlaicedar righa ocus 
prinnsadha^ na Sháine or ocus aircet cu do-airmhe dhó. Ocus do 
bhi se tri bhadhna 'na chomhxxaidhe isin Sháin, ocus do rinne se 
tempall ro-anoracA les in or sin, ocus leis in n-aircet, a n-anoir 
San Sem, ocus ase ord do chuir se isin tempa/Z sin ord cananach 
do reir uird ocus riagla^ esbuig naemtha .i. Isidurjís, ocus do 
rrúieáaigh se hi cu mor do clochaib^ ocus do leabhraibh^ ocus do 
bí'atuibh, maiUe moran do neithibh áeadh-rrúidXseachTi ele, nach 
uri/sa d'airimh.'' 

Ocus a haithli na h-oibri-sin do c\ir\chn\xghadh do Sherlus, 
in fuigheall' do bhi aigi don innmh^s do-airmhe fuair o na 
Seirrisdineachaibh do chumdajo'/i se imat reilg^ leis, ocus as iat so 
a n-anmanna^ .i. Tempall Anacis Granis a n-awoir Muire Bain- 
tighearna,'*'ocus tempall a n-anoir San Seni isin cathair re n-abar 
Uitmnis Sensiuw" ocus tempall eile do San Seni isin cathair re 
n-abíír Tolusuw''^ ocus eclas San Sem isin cathair ren-abrtr Pairis 
ata idir an inadh re n-abar Secanum ocus sliabh na Ma.irtireach ; 
ocus SiiháhineachtR do-airmhe do rinni se ar fud in áomhain o sin 

amach. 

Ar n-impodh^^ do Sherlus isin Fhraingc do chuaidh ri Padhanda 
Athfrrticeach dar ai«m AgiolandzíS mailli re sluaghaibh do-airmhe 
annsa Sháin tar eis''' Serluis moir ocus do ghabh i co himlá;i ar 

I. ar in grein a medhon lae F. & E. 2. cidfid E. 3. righthi na Spaine E. 
4. uird riagulta F. uTÍaghla E. 5. leagaife/i E. clogaib ocus do legaib F. 
6. d'innisin F. & E. 7. fuighill F. cS: É. 8. eglasa. imdha E. egalsa 
imda F. 9. anmanna E. & F. anmunaibh 7-/s. 10. F. omits this word. 

II. Bute»' nicencium F. puti»' insensium E. 12. Talosum E, Tolosum F. 

ii5. ninntogh F. & E. 14. deis E. & F 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 13 

a key held bv it in its right hand, and the cause of that key [is 
this], according to the Saracens, [who say that] whenever that 
key should fall, theie would come a king of the Franks who would 
take Spain completely in that year, and place it under the yoke 
and the faith of the Christians. And whenever the Saracens 
shall hear that that key has fallen from the hand of that god they 
wiU fly and leave the coimtry. 

And* on Charles's overcoming the Saracens and placing 
Spain under the yoke of the Christians, the kings and princes of 
Spain gave him innumerable presents of gold and silver. And he 
was abiding in Spain for three years, and he built a very noble" 
temple with that gold and silver in honour of St. James. And 
the Order which he placed in that temple was the Order of Canons 
according to the Order and Rule of the holy bishop Isidore, and 
he increased it greatly with [precious] stones and boo^s'' and 
vestments, together with many other fair things not easy to 

enumerate. 

And after Charles íinishing that work, the remainder that he 
had of the innumerable treasures which he got from the Saracens, 
he built many churches** with it, and here are their names, the 
Church of Anacis Granis [t.e. Aix-la-chapelle°] in the honour of 
Mary [our] lady, and a church in honour of Saint James in the 
citv which is called Uiterinis Sensium, and another church to 
Saint James in the city which is called Tolusum' [Toulouse], 
and a church of Saint James in a city wliich is called Paris which 
is between the place which is called Secanum and the Martyrs 
Mount.^ And abbotships innumerable did he make throughout 
the world from that out. 

And,'' on Charles returning into France, an African Pagan 
king whose name was Agiolandus' went with innumerable hosts 
into Spain after Charles the Great, and took it completely, having 

* The 5th chapter begins here in the Latin texts. ^' Lit. "honourablc." 

•^ The Franciscan text reads "bells and gems." The Latin has "eamque 
tintinnabuhs palliisque hbris ceterisque ornamentis decenter ornavit." 
'' In this text "roilig" sometimes translates "ecclesia." ^ "quae est 

apud Aquisgranum." ^ "ecclesiam Sancti Jacobi quae est apud urbem 

Buerrensium apud Tolosam, C. Fy. omits "urbem Buerrensium. ^ Apud 

urbem Parisios enter Sequanam fiuvium et montem Martyrum, i.e. the Seine 
and Montmartre ? '' The 6th chapter in both the Latin texts begins here, 

' "Aigolandus" in the Latin texts. 



14 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

n-innarbí7í//í ocus ar ma.rhadh na Cvistaighi do na ca.thTachaibh 
ocus do na f^arannuibh ar íhacoib Serlus iat aga coimet.' Ocus 
ar na cloisdin sin do Sherlus do impa'"^ tar ais isin Sbain aris maiU^ 
na shhcagh fein,^ ocus do rinne comnaidhi isin chathair re n-abar 
Bagionuw.'* Ocus do gaWraigheadh ridiri uasal do mhuintir 
Sherluis dar ainm Romaruic^ís.'' Ocus a n-aimsir a bhais do 
ghabh se íaisidin ocus a.ithreachas ocus corp Crist. Ocus a- 
dubhflíVt re brathair do bhi 'na fhochair a each do reic ocus a 
luach^ do thabhairt do cleirchibh ocus do bochtaibh do raith' a 
anma. Ocus ar tesdadh^ áon ridiri sin do ghabh sainnt brathair 
an ridiri ocus do rec^ an t-each ar cei scilh'w do fein ocus do chaith 
sin re biadh ocus re digh ocus re h-edach. Ocus is gar dona. droch- 
ghnimhuibh'*' digliultas De^' co rainic. A cinn deich la fichet na 
dhiaigh sin don nech sin do rec an t-ech do foillsigeíí dó in ridiri 
thra aghuidh'2 ann, ocus ised adubhairt ris "tre mar twcus-sa mh' 
airneis duit da tabhflíVt mar déirc d'fuascalarf^ mh'anma, bidh'^ 
a fhis agat gur mhaith Dia mo phecadh dhamh-sa, ocus o dho 
chonnmhais-si co hecoir mu dheirc acud, tuic gur chonnmhuis 
mhisi XXX la a pein, ocus bidh a íhis a.gat ar a shon sin cu racair 
fein amarach a n ithfr^n ocus co rac''*-sa a Parthws. Ocus do 
imthig in nech marbh a haithh in comraidh sin ocus do ghabh 
egla mor in nech beo ocus nir coduil'^ gu tainic in la ocus do indis 
se sin ar na mharach. Ocus ar rochtuin in sceoil sin fo ria sluaghaib 
do chualatflr gotha adhuachmara isin aier os a cinn mar ghothaibh 
leoman )io mactire no ainmilted mbruidighi'^ele. Ocus nir chian 
na dhiaigh sin gur thogbhatar na diabaí7 in nech slan beo sin 
al-Iar na sluagh amach ann san fhirmamint suas. Ocus o do 
conncatar na s\uaigh sin do chnir edar coisighe ocus maxcshiagh 
d'ia.rr aidh in fir sin a ngleannuibh ocus a cnocaibh ocus ni fhuarata^ 
he. Ocus a cinn da lá dhec na dhiaigh sin do bhatar na sluaigh 
sin Serluis ac siuhhal in fhasaigh re n-abar Nauarrorum ocus 

1. innti E. a coiméd in talmhan F. 2. innto E. inntogh F. 3. Maille 
na shluaghaifcA mora cedna. E. 4. Bagionam F. 5. Ruaricus F. 

Ruaidhricu? E. 6. luaigh F. 7. ar g^'ádh F. & E. 8. testail F. & E. 

9. reac F. & E. 10. gnimarta E. 11. Dia F. & E. 12. adci F. do 
techt CMÍgi ann E. 13. bith F. & E. 14. rachsa F. racsa E. 

15. codlaigh F. 16. ainminnti mbruidemel F. Aiwwiwntibh bruidemaíV E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 15 

slain or driven out* the Christians from the cities and from the 
lands where Charles had left them in charge. And, when 
Charles heard that, he returned back again into Spain with his 
own armv, and he rested in the city which is called Ba^onne." 
And° a noble knight of Charles's people tcok iU, whose name was 
Romaruicus.^ And at the time of his death he made confession 
and repentance and [took] the bodv of Christ. And he desired 
a brother that he had with him to sell his steed, and to give the 
price of it to clerics and poor people for the grace of his soul. But 
when this knight died, covetousness took possession of the knight's 
brother, and he sold the steed for one hundred shilhngs for himself, 
and he spent that on food and drink and clothes. But often the 
vengeance of God follows close orf evil deeds. To him who had 
sold the steed, at the end of thirty days after that, the knight 
[who had died] was revealed in the night time, and this is how he 
spake to him : "because I gave my equipment to thee to give it 
as alms to release my soul, be it known to thee that God has for- 
given me my sin. And since thou hast unjustly kept back my 
ahns to thyself, understand that thou hast kept me thirty days 
in pain, and be it known to thee that for that reason thou thyself 
shalt go to-morrow into hell, and that I shall go into Paradise." 
And the dead man departed after that discourse. And great fear 
seized the living man, and he slept not until day came. And he 
told that [story] on the morrow. And after that story had reached 
the army they heard dreadful voices in the air over their heads, 
as it were the voices of lions or wolves or other brute animals. 
And it was not long after that until the devils lifted tliat sound 
man, alive, out of the midst of the hosts, up into the íirmament, 
And, when the army saw that, the\^ sent foot soldiers and horse 
soldiers to look for that man, in valleys and on hills, and they found 
him not. And, at the end of twelve days after that, those 
hcsts of Charles were marching through the wilderness which is 

^ Lit. "driven out and slain." ^ The last ten words are in neither of the 
Latin texts which read instead "et erat cum eo dux exercituum 
Milo de Angleris." = The 7th chapter of the Latin texts begins here. 

^ "Romaricus" C. & Fr. ^ Lit. "is close to," "mahs factis divini iudicis 

vindicta proxima esse solet." 



16 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

fuaratar corp in íir' sin gan anmuin ocus se ar na coimbrisííí, ocus 
ase inadh a raibhi in corp sin a mbarr ailli mara. ocus asi airdi''^ 
a roibi in bcnn sin os cinn in mara tri lege,^ ocus ase fad do bi 
an t-inad sin o'n cathair a.dubhramar uidhi .IIII. la ; ocus do b'iat 
an diahail do chuir in corp sin ann sin, ocus ruc a anum a n-iíirenn. 
Ar a shon sin bidh'* a fhis aguibh gach aen aga fhuicfe duine marbh 
deirc do denamh ar a anmain,, muna tuca^ an deirc sin uadha co 
bhfhuil se fein da.mna ightheS' 



AN V SGEL ANN SO [F.] 

Ocus na diaigh sin do gluais Serlus mor ocus Meiler' maille 
na slnaghaib ar fut na Spaine d'iaraid in righ Phadhanda sin do 
gabh in Sháin da n-eis ocus ase inadh a bhfuaradrt^ he isin talam 
re n-abar De^ Campis ocus ar an sruth re n-abar Tegia ocus a 
muighibh ocus a n-inadaib reidhi in a nderna Serlus na dhiaigh sin 
tempí?// anorach a n-ainm na msLhtheach uasal .i. Facundi ocus 
Primitui^ ucus atait a cuirp osin anuas a cumhsanad san inad si«. 

Ocus ar ndul do Sherlus cona shluaghuibli a bhfogus don 
inad a raibhi Agiolandws do fhuacair se'" cath ar Serlus, fa thoil 
Serluis".i. XX anaghaidh XX^S no da XX" &na.ghaidh da XX*', 
no cét a.na.ghaidh cét no mili ana ghaidh míH no dias \na.ghaidh 
dheisi, no dui«e ana.ghaidh duini. Ocus ar na cluinsin'^ sin do 
Sherlus do cuir se cét ridiri cvisiaighi uadha maghaidh cci ridiri 
pa.ganta, ocus do ma.rhhadh na pa.ganaigh co h-uilidhi. 

Do chuir Agiolandus ce't ele uaidh ocus do ma.rhhadh iat mar 
in cétna. Do cuir dhá chét anaghaidh dhá chét ocus do ma.vhhadh 
na Va.ganaigh. Do cuir ia,ram da mhíle anaghaidh da mhile ocus 

1. oglaigh F. & E. 2. Thiis F. & E. L:s. has "airm." 8, legha F. 

lega E. 4. bith F. bi E. 5. tugad F. E. reads "tucair," turning 
the sentence into the 2nd pers. sing. and reading "aen duine" ior "gach aen." 

6. damuinti ar a son F. damanta ar a son co bmch ocus iar mb^ach E. 

7. F. & E. omit "Meilcr." 8. F. omits the Dc. E. & H. read "decampis." 
9. Facumeni ocus Primitui F. Faccunwi ocus Primitia E. & H 10. an 
paganach sin F. & E. & H. 11. tSerhtis F. 12. chiisdin F. cloisíiw E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 17 

called Navarre,'' and they came upon the body of that man without 
hfe and it all broken. And the place where that body la^** was 
on the top of a chff by the sea. And the place where that peak 
was, was above the sea three leagues. And the distance that 
that place was from the city which we have mentioned was a 
iourney of four days. And it was the devils who placed that body 
there and brcught his soul to heh. For that reason be it known 
to you that each one to whom a dead man shall leave [goods] to 
give [as] alms for his soul, unless he give that alms he is himself 
damned. 



FIFTH CHAPTER.'^ 

And, after that, Charles the Great and Meiler marched with their 
armies throughout Spain to seek that Pagan king who had occupied 
Spain after them, and the place where they found him was in the 
land which is called De Campis, and by the stream which is called 
Tegia," and in plains and smooth places in which Charles after- 
wards built an honourable church in the name of the noble martyrs 
Facundus and Primitius,^ and their bodies are ever since at rest 
in that place. 

And on Charles with his armies coming near to the place 
where Agiolandus was, he challenged Charles to battle,' [with], 
as Charles might choose,'* twenty men against twenty, or forty 
against forty, or a hundred against a hundred, or a thousand 
against a thousand, or two against two, or man against man. 
And, when Charles heard that, he sent forth a hundred Christian 
knights against a hundred Pagan knights, and the Pagans were 
all slain. 

Agiolandus sent forth another hundred, and they were slain 
in hke manner. He sent two hundred against two hundred and 
the Pagans were [again] slain. He sent after that two thousand 

«"per deserta telluris Navarrorum et Alavarum [Laruarum Fr.] peragrasset" 
'' Lii. "was." " 8th chapter in the Latin. '' Ceia C. Cera Fr. " "Primi- 
tivus" in the Latin texts. ' Li(. "proclaimed battle on Charles." Lat. 

■"mandavit Karolo bellum," <^ Lit. "at Charles's wiU," "secundum velle 

suum." 



18 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

do ma.ThJííidh mar an céina. iat d'urmor' ocus do theith in chuid 
nar marbAííí//í dhibh. In treas la na dhiaigh sin do connaic 
Agiolandus mar do Unteada.i a mhiiindt^r, ocus do rinne se cmnn- 
char piseogac^ ocus da reir sin do aithin se da tugad cath im\án 
do Sherlus cona muinntir gu náingnadh dith'-^ mhor doibh ; ocus 
ar a shon sin do chuir tecta d'fogra catha imlain ar Serlus cona 
muinntír ar na mharac^. Ocus do cheíuigh Serlus in cath do 
tha.hhairt. Ocus in aghaidh roim in cath do bhi Serlus cona 
muinntir a foslongport laim ris in sruth^ romraiti ocus do 
shaidhetar cuid da muinntir a ngaithi is na muighibh^ i rabhatar 
na comnuidhi ocus ar n-eirghi doibh ar na mharach fuaradar a 
ngaithi lan do croicenn ocus do blatli ácdhmha.iseach orro. Ocus 
ba hiat lucht na ngaethe sin do maixtivedh a tus in catha ar na 
mharach ar son creidmhe Cxist. Ocus ní is mo ina mar as eidir 
a indisi do bhatar na siuaigh sin ag^ ingantas ar met na mirhaií 
sin do roine Dia. Ocus do gerradh^ na gaithi sin comhard^ re 
talmhain ocus do fhasatar croinn mhora a premhaibh na ngaithi 
sin gur bho pháirc mor,^ ocus atait o sin isin inad sin gan losgad 
gan mhiWedh. Ocus a ngne fhuinnseog atait,^ ocus in \et ingantach 
so gidh do bhi se na dhidbail do na corpuibh do bo mhor a 
ghairdiug/írtc^A'" dona h-anmannazWí. Ocus do cuired in cath gu 
cruaidh ocus co calma in la sin, idir na siuaghaib. Ocus do martmd 
Milo .i. athflíV Rolannduis isin cath sin faris in ndroing agar fhas 
blath ar a nga.eithihh. Ocus do thuitset da fhicit mile do na 
Crisiaighibh in la sin leis na Padhanchaz6/í. Ocus do ma.rhhadh ech 
Serluis móir fein" isin cath sin, ocus do bhi Serlus da chois ocus 
da m/n7c'2 dona Cristaighibh faris. Ocus do nocht Serlus a 
claidheamh ann sin dar ainm Gaudiosa'^ ocus do Ung ar lar na 

I. anurmor F. & E. & H. 2. digb«i/ F. & H. dibhail E. 3. re taeb 
an srotha sin H. 4. is na hinadaib H. 5. aga F. E. reads "ag 
inngawtas med." H. "acij^disÍM." 6. gearradar .sit F. do gearraánr 
siat. E. H. rightly omits "siat." 7. gonajTd re F. 8. mar do hheith 
pairc mor F. E. oraits this. 9. ocus a ngne ocus andath acosmai/ius 
fuinnseocE. fuindsind H 10. E. adds "ocus iw subaita." "an tarba" H. 

II. "moir fein" omitted in Lis. 12. da .XX. m. H. & E. 13. E. omits 
last eleven words, and after "do ling" adds "le buile catha." which H. 

has also. 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 19 

against two thousand and thev were Hkewise slain — the greater 
part of them^ — and those who were not slain fled. The third day, 
after that, Agiolandus saw how his people had fallen, and he made 
divination* with spells, and according to it he knew that if he 
were to give full battle to Charles and his people he would do 
them great damage. And for that reason he sent messengers to 
challenge Charles and his people to a full battle'' on the morrow. 
And Charles consented to give battle. And the night before the 
battle Charles with his people was in camp beside the afore- 
mentioned stream, and some of his people stuck their spears in 
the plain'' where they were stationed, and when thev arose in the 
morning they found their spears covered with'' bark and fair 
blossoms on them. And it was the owners of those spears who 
were martyred at the outset of the battle on the morrow, for the 
sake cf Christ's religion. And the hosts were wondering more 
than it is possible to tell at the greatness of the miracles which 
God performed. And those spears were cut on a level with the 
ground, and there grew great trees from the roots of those spears, 
so that it was a great íield [of trees],^ and they are ever since in 
that place without burning or destruction. And of the nature of 
ash they are. And this wondrous thing, although it was a hurt 
to their' bodies, it was a great rejoicing to their' souls. And the 
battle was fought hardily and vahantlv that day between the 
armies. And Milo, that was Roland's father, was martj^red in 
that battle, along with the band upon whose spears blossoms had 
grown. And there fell forty thousand of the Christians on that 
day at the hands of the Paynims. And Charles's steed was killed 
in that battle, and Charles was on foot, and two thousand of the 
Christians along with him. And Charles bared his sword then, 
whose name was Gaudiosa,^ and he sprang into the middle of 

'^ Literally "a charmed casting of lots," "ejecit sortes secrete." This shows 
an earlv use of the word "piscóg," very common now in the sense of charm 
or spell or superstitious rite. •> Lit. "proclaimed a complete battle on," 

"pugnam plenariam." "^ Lit. "plains," "in pratis." '■^ Lit. "full of." 

^ or "a great park." ^ Lit. "the," "magnumque animabus prolicuum, 

ingensque corporibus detrimentum." ^ "evaginavit spatam suam 

nomine Gaudiosam, et trucidavit multos Sarracenos per medium." 



20 (iABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Seirrisdineach ocus do gherradh in Seirrisdineach ar dhó,' ocus do 
ri;KH se didlib//a/7 nihor doibh am^aidh sin.''^ Ocus ar tect don 
esbartain da n-innsaigííí do chuaid gach shiagh rlhibh d'a arus 
fein.^ 

Tancatrtr wmorro cethrar do thigh^amuibh mora a himeal na 
hEtailli do chab/zí?/> do Sherlus mailk cethm mile do ú\hiaghaih 
armtha eidighíhe. Ocus mar do chuala Agiolandus in shiagh sin 
do thecht do chabhrtíV do Sherlus do elo'* roime as in crích sin, 
ocvis chuaidh a ccrích Legionensibus. Ocus do chuaidli Serlus cona 
'íAúiiagh isin ¥raingc da eisi sin. 

Ocus as intuicthi as na comhdL.rÚ\aihh sin in drong do thuit 
isin cath sin gu fuarada;' slainti anma. Ocus mar do wWmhdA^he dar 
riáivedha Serluis a n-airm-'' cum cathcf/g/íthe as mar sin as áliged 
duinne air n-airm fein d' ullmh?/g/ifld chum catlwzgAthi .i. subh- 
2i\chai^ maithi do cur a.níxghaidh na locht.' Ocus gach nech ler 
bh'ail in cathughad so do denumh bidh creidiuwí daingen aige 
a.na.ghaidh na heiriticeachta'* ocus grádh SLnaghaidh in fhuatha 
ocus tabhartas'' anaghaiíí/í na sainnti ocus umla'" in íighaidh in 
dimais" ocus genmnaideacht Sinsighaidh na druisi ocus mnaighíhi 
dicra a.nsLghaidh aib^rseorac/zta in disihail ocus silens ansLghaidh 
na íergi ocus umhla ■á.naghaidh leisce in cuirp.'^ Ocus gibe do 
ghena na nethi so biaidh blath d^rtrf/ímhaiseach'^ a lo in bh;'eit- 
imnuis air. Or is conaigh toirthech anum claidhthe na p^cadh'-* 
ocus budh''' mor a h\áth a úaithtamhnus De'^ ar chsithiighadh a 
tsihnain ansighaidh na p^cadh. Ocus mar fuaradar muinnter Serlnis 
bas ar son creidimh Crist is mar sin dlighmit-ne bas do thabhairt 
d'ar lochtuibh ocus heith marthanach an ar subhalc/?í7í6/i,"innus 
co bfaghmais coroiw blathmhar a Raitheas De do buaidh ar 
cathflig/2ti. 

1. ar a do F. & E. 2. E. adds noch is doturtraschbala re innsin. 3. E. 
oniits last fiiteen words. 4. do elód H. do elo(^h se gan fis E. 5. iat 
fein cona narmaibh F. 6. subaltflz F. H. is illegible. 7. an 

ancreidim H. na nancr — ocus na heitisi p.a. E. 8. aincreidim E. 

í). barantas F. .'v: H. baranntas E. 10. umhlacht E. & F. 11. uabhair 
E. & F. & H. 12. na colla E & H. F. omits. 13. E. & F. add "ar a 

gha." 14. F. has "as conaid tortach anam cluicin (sic) na pecadh." 

15. "umor" F. 16. E. & E. Neamhdha. 17. -sic Lis. it H. F. il- E. 

subaltflí'tA. 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 21 

the Saracens and he used to cut the Saracen [whom he would 
smite] in two, and he caused them a great loss in that wise. And 
when evening time approached" each army of them went to its 
own camp for that night. 

There came moreover four great lords'' from the confines of 
Italy to help Charles with four thousand troops in arms and 
armour. And when Agiolandus heard of that host's coming to 
help Charles, he stole away out of that district, and went into the 
district Legionenses." And Charles with his army went into 
France after that. 

And it is to be understood from those signs that the band 
who fell in that battle found health of soul [i.e. salvation]. And 
as Charles's knights prepared their weapons to fight, in such wise 
ought we to prepare our own arms to fight, namely good virtues 
to set against faults. And every perscn who desires to make this 
fight let him have a firm faith to oppose to heresy, and love to 
oppose to*^ hatred, and giving to oppose to covetousness, and 
humility to oppose to pride, and chastity to uncleanness, and 
fervent prayer to the opposition of the devil, and silence to anger, 
and humility to sloth \sic\ of body. And whoever shall do these 
things there shall be a fair blossom upon him in the day of judg- 
ment. For it is fruitful wealth for a soul to overthrow sin, [?] and 
great shall its blossom be in the heaven of God for warring on 
earth against sins. And as Charles's people died for the religion 
of Christ, so ought we to inflict death upon our faults, and become 
everlasting in our virtues, so that we may gain a blossoming 
crown in the heaven of God through the victory of our battling. 

""die advesperascente" C, "advesperante" Fr. ''"Marquisii." <" "in 

Legionensibus oris secessit" C, "in Legionenses oras secessit" Fr. '^ The 

Latin is a little more diffuse ; "quisquis enim vel fidem contra haereticam 
pravitatem, vel caritatem contra odium, vel largitatem contra avariciam, 
vel humihiatem contra superbiam, vel castitatem contra hbidinem, vel 
orationem assiduam contra demoniacam tentationem, vel perseverantiam 
contra instabilitatem, vel silentium contra iurgia, vel obedientiam contra 
carnalem animum ponit, hasta ejus ílorida et victrix in die iudicii Dei erit" C. 

Fv. differí' sHghtly. 



22 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

AN SEISIVGADH SGEL ANN SO. F.' 

Ocus na dhiaigh sin do thinoil Agiolandus cinedha imdha .i. 
SeÍTTndmeacha ocus Mauri ocus Moabite''^ ocus fir gorma ocus Parti 
ocus Africani ocus Parce-' ocus ri na hAraibi ocus ri Alaxandria 
ocus ri Bugie ocus ri Agabia ocus ri Barbarie'* ocus ri Cornubie 
ocus righa^ imdha o sin aniach. 

Tainic Agiolandus maillds na righuibh sin cona sluaghuibh 
cum na cathrach darub ainm Agiam ocus do ghabh hi. Ocus na 
dhiaigh sin do fhogair se do Sherlus techt co sidhchanda maille 
began do mhaithibh a TÍáireadh da innsaigííí, ocus do gheall co 
iihhTeadh^ or ocus aircet [ocus sed mbuadha. E. & H.l do cu mor 
do chinn creidmhe dho fein ocus d'a dhéibh. Ocus is e adhar fá 
dubhairt se sin cu Tnheith aithne' Serluis aigi, chum a mharbhtha 
isin céd cath aris. Ocus ar na tuicsin sin do Sherlus do cuaidh 
maille da mhili do shlMflgh ro arrachta uidi cethra mille^ on n-inad 
a raibhi Agiolandus, ocus do fhacuib^ iat a bhfalach'" ann sin, ocus 
do chuaidh fein mailk re tri fichit ridiri [do mddthibh a muinntire, 
E. & H.] cus in" shabh do bhi laimh ris in cath«í> in a roibhi Agio- 
landus innus co facatar in cathair uatha. Facbas Serlus a Tnhuinnter 
ann sin, ocus do claechlo na hedig'/zi uaisle^^ do bhi uime, ocus do 
chuaidh gan gai gan arm ele acht^^a sciath tarrsna ar a dhruim, 
mar''^ is gnath ag na misidgaruibh a n-aimsir catha, ocus aen ridiri 
[amain F.] na fharrad. Ocus do chuadar cum na cathrach [mar a 
roibhe an paganach .i. Agiolandus E. ] ocus mar rancatar in chathair 
tarla cuidechts. dhoibh ocus do fhiafraighetar scela'^ dibh. 
"Misideir sinn," ar siat, "ar n-ar cur o Sherh/s Mhor cum bhar 
righi-si, cum Agiolanduis. Ocus ar na cluinsin sin do vahuinntir 
hgíolanduis [do gabh luathghaire mor iat ocus E. & H.j rwcadur 
leo iat isin cathair mar a roibhi Agiolandus. Ocus adubratar na 
misideir, "Serlus'^ do chuir sinne chugat-sa da inisin'' áuit cu 

I. E. reads "in 6 sgel do cogad na Spáine. H. An ui sc. 2. Mabeti F. 
Mabite E. 3. F. omit=; írom Parce to Cornubie. 4. barbardha E. 
5. moran do cineduibh ad.h.raara, o hoin amach F. E. reads ri Cornabia 
ocus moran do rightibh eile. 6. tiubhxadh F., H. & E. 7. iul E. & H. 
8. Mile E. & F. & H. 9. fag E. & F. 10. F.. H. &. E. have folach. 

II. F. alwaj-s reads "conuig in" for "cusin." conuige E conuici H. 
12 do ath.raigh na hedigh ro maithe onoracha E. 13. ocus E. & F 

14. mar paganach ag na m. E. mar ía gna.th ac na misiderachaz6/z H. 

15. cad do b'ailleo E. & H. 16. Serlus fein E. & H. 17. íoillsiughadh 

E. & F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 23 

SIXTH CHAPTER. 

And, after that, Agiolandus gathered many tribes, Saracens and 
Moors and Moabites and Negroes" and Parthians and Africans 
and Parce,'' and the king of Arabia and the king of Alexandria, 
and the king of Bugia and the king of Agabia and the king of 
Barbary and the king of Cornubia, and many other kings as 
well." 

Agiolandus came with those kings together with their hosts 
ío the city which is called Agiam*^ and took it. And after that 
he sent a proclamation to Charles bidding him come peaceably 
to him vvith a few chiefs of his knights, and he promised that he 
would give him gold and silver and precious gems in plenty if he 
would believe in himself and his gods. And the reason he said 
that was that he might be able to recognize Charles, and so slay 
him in the next battle. And, as soon as Charles understood that, 
he went with two thousand of his host, very valiant ones, a 
journey to within four miles of the place where Agiolandus was, and 
left them in hiding there, and he himself went with three score 
knights of the princes of his people to the mountain which was 
beside the city in which was Agiolandus, so that they saw the city 
in the distance.® Charles left his people there, and he changed 
the nobleman's clothes that were on him, and he went without 
a spear or other weapon except his shield across his back, as is 
the custom of ambassadors in time of battle, and only one knight 
with him, and they went to the city where the pagan, Agiolandus, 
was. And so soon as they reached the city a company met them 
and asked tidings of them, " We are ambassadors,"^ say they, 
*' who are sent from Charles the Great to your king, to Agiolandus. 
And so soon as the people of Agiolandus heard that, they rejoiced 
much, and they brought them with them into the city where 
Agiolandus was. And the ambassadors said, " It is Charles who 
has sent us to thee to tell thee that Charles has come with three 

^ Lit. " blue men " as the Irish called blaclcs. Aethiopes, Lat. ^ Persas, 

alitey Pierses. ■= Lit. from that oul. '^ Agenni C. Agomam Fr. The 

Latin texts mention other kings and countries which the Irish texts omit. 

** Lit. " from them." ' Nuncii. 



24 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

tainic Serlus maillí? tri fichit fer mar adwbflrtais' ris, ocus do b'ail 
leis bheith na oglrtcA acat-sa,"'^ da comailli^ tu gach ni do gheallais-* 
do, ocus [ar an adbar sin F. & E.] eirigh-se, in mhéd sin do 
mhaithibh do mhuindtiri, na choinnc, ocus labhíTiV ris co sidh- 
chanta."^ Ocus [ahaithle in comraid sin do denam doibh E. & H.] 
adubhairt Agiolandus riu-san imthearht cum Serluis ocus a ráá 
ris fuireach ris, or nir aitliin Agiolandus gur b'e Scrlus do bhi ag 
comhradh ris, ocus do aithin Serlus eisium cu maith. Ocus do 
chuartaigh^ in chathair ocus do fhec ga taebh as ar hh'usa. a gabhail. 
Ocus do imthigh chum a thri fichet ridiri [tar a ais F. & H.] ocus 
do gluaisetar cum in inaid ar fhacbhatar in da mhile ridiri, ocus do 
lean Agiolandus iat secht mile ridiri armtha QxáightheP Do b'ail 
leis Serlus do mdt.rhhadh. Ocus ar na aithne sin^ do Sherlus ní 
hanmain do rindi no gu rainic isin^ Fra mgc. Ocus do thmoil 
siuagha mhora ocus do chuaidh cum na cathrach re n-abar Agenne 
[do b'ail leis a ga.hhail F. & E.] ocus do shuidh na tiwceall, ocus 
do bhi ann co cenn sé mis. Ocus annsa sechtmad mhí ar ndenam 
chaislen crainn ocus mhoiain do shasaibh ele do Sherlus, do elo 
Agiolandus gu cealgach maiUds na righuibh ocus ris na tigearnadibh 
áo bhi 'na fhochair tre chamradhuib ocus tre phoUuibh na cathrach 
amach, ocus tar in sruth'" darab ainm Gaurona, ocus is mar sin 
do shechai;i se cumhachta Serluis. Ocus do chuaidh Serlus 
[impir na crodhachta ocus in gaisgid E.] ar n-a mharach" maiUe 
Ccithughadh mor ann sa ca.thraigh ocus do thuit moian dona 
Seivr isdineachaibh le harmaibh, ocus do chuaidh moran dibh maiUé 
gudiSachi mor tar in sruth aidubhramar. Ocus as e lín do thuit 
isin cathflíV''-^ dibh fiche míle.'^ 

AN SEACHTMADH SGEL ANN SO. F.'^ 

Do chuaidh Agiolandus iarsin cus in ca.thraigh dar ainm 
Sconnas'^ or do bhi si in tan sin fa chumachtaibh na SeÍTrisdíneach 

1. mí'>'arobuis F. mar duba>'taisi E. & H. 2. F omits. 3. coiwzilir F. 

comlir E. & H. 4. F. omits. 5. co mmnnteara. sichanta E. 

(i. braith F. 7. E. & H. add incomluinn. 8. E. & H. lead "na 

mailisi ocus na ceilgi sin." H. "na mailisi." 9. annsa E. lU. abaind 

gaurona E. 11. F. omits last three words. 12. cath Lis. cathraid H. 
cathair F. & E. 13. X. mili E. & F. l.X. Mile H. 14. E. adds "do 
chogad na Spái«e. 15. Scondas E. & H. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 25 

score men as thou badest him, and he vvould gladly be a vassal of 
thine if thou fultillest everything that thou hast promised him; 
go thou therefore with the same number of the nobles of thy 
people to meet him and speak to him peaceably." And after they 
had held that discourse Agiolandus bade them go to Charles 
and tell him to wait for him. For Agiolandus did not recognize 
that it was Charles who was conversing with him. But Charles 
recognized him well, and he went through^ the city and saw from 
what side it would be easiest to take it. And he went back to 
his three score knights, and they marched to the place where 
they had left the tvvo thousand knights, and Agiolandus followed 
them with seven thousand knights in arms and armour. He 
desired tb slay Charles. And so soon as Charles recognized that^ 
he made no halt'' until he arrived in France. And [there] he 
collected great hosts and went to the city vvhich is called 
Agenne,'= which he desired to take, and camped round about it. And 
he vvas there to the end of six months. And in the seventh month 
after Charles having made a castle of vvood and many other engines, 
Agiolandus stole away secretly with the kings and lords vvho were 
along with him out through the sewers and holes of the city,'' 
and across the river whose name is the Garonne, and it was in 
this way that he avoided Charles's power. And Charles, the 
emperor of valour and heroism, went on the morrovv, with great 
fighting,*" into the city, and many of the Saracens fell by weapons, 
and many of them went with great peril aci-oss the river we have 
spoken of. And the number of them who fell in the city was 
twenty thousand.' 



SEVENTH CHAPTER. 

Agiolandus went thereafter to the city which is called Sconnas'* 
for it was at that time under the power of the Saracens, and he 
himself and his people abode in it. And as soon as Charles heard 

^ Lit. "searched," "visited." Lat. exploravit. ^ Lit. It was not a stopping 

he made. •= Agenni C. Agennum. Fr. '^ Per latrinas et foramina. 

« Magno triumpho. * Both the Latin texts read 10,000. So do the Franciscan 

MS. and Egerton. s Santonas. C. Sanctonas. Fy., i.e., Xaintonge. 



26 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

ociis do an fein cona mhninnúr innti. Ocus ar na cloisdin' sin 
do Sherlus do lean he ocus do fhocair dho in cathair do thabhairt 
uadha. Ocus adubhairt sin nach tihhredh,'^ ocus adubhairt co 
tibhredh- cath do Sherlus ar cunnradh airithi, ocus gebe aga 
mheith'-^ buaidli in catha in chathair do hheith aigi. Ocus do 
aemh Serlus [an cunnradh E. & H.] sin. Ocus in aghaidh roim in 
cath sin do chur. ar mbeith do Sherhis cona sUuaghaih ar 
machairibh mora idir in caislf'aw darab ainm Talaburgus ocus in 
cathair laimh ris in sruth darub ainm Tarannta,'* do cuireadar 
cuideaclita do mhuinntir Sherluis a ngaitlii na sesam a ta.hnhain 
ocus fuaradar fa croiceann ocus fa hláth ar na mharach iat, ocus 
bu iat sin do blii cum a martra a tus in catha ar na mharach.^ 
Ocus ar bhfeicsin na mirhuile sin [do rinne Dia doibh F. & E.] do 
bhi gairdeachus mor orroocus do ghearrada.r a ngaeithi^ o tha.\mhain 
suas ocus do chuatar [fo na Paganachaibh F.] a tus in catha' 
ar na mharach, ocus do mharbhatar moran dona Vaáhanachaibh 
ocus fuaratar fein a martra.^ Ocus ase lin shiaigh do bhi Serlus 
ann sin, .iiii. mile. Ocus do ma.rhhadh a each isin cath sin, ocus 
ar mheith do fein ar na mhuchadh d'imat na Pada»«ch do ghuigh 
se in t-aein-dia uíh-chúmhachtach um a'' fhurtacht, ocus ar bhfag/mí7 
bnghi ocus neirt o Dhia dho [ge do bhi fein da cois E.] do mharbh 
moran dona Vadanachaibh, ocus o nar tualuing'" iat cuthac^ Serluis 
d'fulang, do theitetar cum na cathrach ocus do len Serlus iat 
cusin cdithraigh, ocus do bhris hi gacha taebha, acht in chuid do 
bhi laimh ris in sruth di. Agus an aghaidh na dhiaigh sin do 
thinnscam Agiolandus cona shiaghaih eludh'' tar an sruth. Ocus 
ar na tuicsi«''^ sin do Sherlus do lean he^ ocus do mharbh ri na 
hAraibi ocus ri Frigie'^ocus moran do Vadhanachaibh ele co .III I. 
míle. 

AN T-OCHTMAD SGEL. F. 

Ocus ar r\á\thughadh na Padawach cu uile''' do Sherlus do 
theith Agiolandus gus an port re n-abar Cisereos,'^ocus tainic co 
Pampilonia ocus do fhuagair do Sherlus cath do tabhairt do. Ar 

1. clos F. & H. 2. tiubhrad F., H. & E. 3. gRmeiih F. 4. Taranda 

F., H. & E. 5. F., H. & E. omit the last sixteen words. 6. Lismore 

reads "ghí-ímidar a ngnaithi." 7. E. omits last four wcrds. 8. a 

martired H. "do maÍTiiredh iat fein" F. 9. um F. da E. 10. heidir 

¥., E. & H. 11. "elód" H. "elogh do denam" F. & E. 12. faicsin 
F. & E. 13. haraipi F., which omits Frigie. H. reads ri bnghe. 14. mór 

E. &, F. 15. sicereos F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 27 

that, he pursued him and sent him word to give up the city. He 
said he would not, and that he would give battle to Charles on 
certain conditions — that whoever gained the victory in the battle 
should have the city. And Charles accepted that agreement. 
And the night before fighting that battle as Charles with his hosts 
was on the great plains between the castle whose name is Telab- 
urgus^ and the city beside the stream whose name is Taranta'' 
some of Charles' people set their spears standing in the ground, 
and found them covered with bark and with blossoms on the 
morrow. And those were they who were to be martyred in the 
forefront of the battle on the morrow. And when they beheld 
those miracles that God had performed for them they rejoiced 
greatly, and they cut off their spears on a level with the ground'' 
and they went in amongst the Pagans in the forefront of the 
battle on the morrow, and they killed many of the Pagans and 
found their own martyrdom. And the number of Charles' host 
there was four thousand. And his steed was slain in that battle. 
And as he was being smothered by the multitude of Paynims he 
besought the One-God, all-powerful for help, and receiving strength 
and power from God, although he was on foot, he slew many of the 
Paynims ; and as they were not able to endure the fury of Charles 
they íled to the city, and Charles followed them into the city and 
breached it on every side, except that portion of it which bordered 
the river. And, the night after that, Agiolandus with his troops 
began to steal away across the river. And as soon as Charles 
understood this he pursued him and he killed the King of Arabia** 
and the King of Frigie^ and many of the other Paynims, to the 
number of four thousand. 

EIGHTH CHAPTER. 

And after Charles' utterly defeating the Paynims, Agiolandus fled to 
the pass' called Cisereos, and he came to Pampilonia and he sent 
word^ to Charles to give him battle. And when Charles heard that 

" Talaburgus. *> Charantam C. Caranta Fí-.^Carenton. "^ Lit. írom 

the ground up. " de terra." ** Agabiae C. Algabiae Fr., i.e. Algarve. 

*^ or "Frigia." Both Latin texts read Bugiae. ^or port " transmeavit 

portus Cisereos" C. Aserros Fr., i.e. passes of the Pyrenees. ^ Lit. 

" proclaimed " 



28 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

na cloisdin sin do Sherlus do chuaidh isin 'Fraingc ocus do thionoil 
cu íor\eth?L\\ a shluagh do fhreagra catha anaghaidh nam«d in 
chreidim chathohíz'í-í?.' Ocus do ovdaigh se gach uih duine do bhi 
fa bhiadlitac/ías ocus fa dhaeirsi ar fud na Fraingce a mbeith saer 
ocus a sil na ndiaigh ar'-^ dhul leis anaghaidh namat in creidim 
catholrtíci. Ocus [an a cend sin F. & E.] a roibhi a cuibrighibh 
ocus a prisunaibh do urail a scailcdh ocus a lclcen amach. Ocus 
in mhéid do bliochtuib fuair, do shaidhbrigh iat, ocus do éidigh na 
noiclit ocus do rinne sidhcliain ris na treghtuiribh,-' ocus do thog 
gach neach cum a eigreachia.* ocus cum a athardha dilsi ; ocus 
gach neach do bhi chsdi ar sciath^ d'imchur ocus ar ca.thughadh do 
denumh, Uic beirt ridm^ dhoibh. ocus gach neacli do dhesdaigh 
sé' ris roime sin ]e na gciwtuibh^ fein tuc cuigi iat gu cairdt'flwuil 
Ocus ni hiat sin amhain acht in méid do cliairdibh ocus do náimdih 
do h'eidir leis díha.ghail do dheisigh iat do dul leis isin Spain. 
Ocus gacli meit do dainibh do uhmhaigh Serlus leis cum csithaighthi 
anaghaidh in chineda Padanta tuc Turpin airdesboc^ Remwdis ^ 
esbaloid ocus logad'" a pccadli doibh. 

Ar tinol a shiuaigh do Slierlus .i. c. ocus xx.k. mí/e" fer armtha 
eidighthi a n-ecmais coisighi ocus lucht airm dh'imchar nar eidí^''^ 
d'airium, do chuaigh se isin Sbrtm anaghaidh Agiolanduis. Ocus 
as iat so anmanna na bfer is mó do chuaidh le Serlus isin Sbain, 
.i. Turpi;íz<s in t-airdesbog naemtha do urail'^ ar in popal Crisdaighi 
dul do cha.th\ighadh ris na Fadnnachaibh ocus do cmveadh anum isin 
pobal ac tabhairt esbulo?'í/i dhoibh ['na pecadhaibh F.J in tan do 
theigtis cum cathaighthi. [Ocus ni hedh amhíím ach F.] gach 
neach do na Seivvisdineachaibh do chreidedh do baistedh iat, ocus 
gach neach nach creidedh do cha.thuigheadh na n-aghaidh. Ociis 
Rolandus diuic Cowmanensis'-* ocus tighearna na Blauini'' mac 

1. cathoilica E. 2. do cind dnl leis do riadhug/^arfA F. H. "do métug/íafl'/í 
onora Dia." E, reads as F., but the last vvord is doubtful. 3. F. seems 

to read t>-eigertí7c/Mubh. H. omits. 4. oidhreachta F. & E. 5. sgeith F. 
6. arm gRÍscidh E. 7. E. adds no do low sc. 8. cinntaib F. H. omits 

this passage. 9. airdeasboc Roin E. F. omits. H. seems to rcad Rowa. 

10. lobad F. 11. .c. ocus .x. m. xx. F. E. & H. have x mile xx ar. c. 

12. H. reads "ind ecmais daeine ndímaeinech." E. turns this pa.ssage 
difíerentlv and adds "nachar b'eidir d'airim na do cur a suim o .soin amach." 

13. E. adds "ocus do guidh." H. omits most oí this passage. 14. diuci 
'iluaigh Serluis F. E. & H. read "Cowzowanensis" for "Serhiis." 15. H. 

"Blavii." "E. secm.í to read "blastat/íí." 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 29 

he went into France and he gathered together his host from all sides'' 

to join battle against the enemies of the Cathohc Faith. And he 

ordered that every person whatsoever who was under biadhtachas^ 

or in slavery throughout France, was to become free and their seed 

after them on condition of their going with him against the enemies 

of the Cathohc Faith. And, in addition to that, ah who were in 

bonds and in prisons he ordered to be loosed and let go. And 

all the poor whom he found he enriched, and he clothed the naked, 

and he made peace with the traitors,'' and he raised'' every person 

to his inheritance and lawful patrimony. And every person who 

was expert at bearing shield and fighting he gave them the equip- 

ment of knights. And all the persons he had separated from 

himself through their own misdeeds before that, he received them 

[now] in a friendly manner. And not them only but all the friends 

and enemies he was able to get, he made them ready to go with 

him into Spain. And all the hosts of people whom Charles pre- 

pared [to go] with him to war against the Pagan race, Turpin,^ 

Archbishop of Rheims, gave them absolution and remission of 

their sins. 

When Charles had collected his host, namely a hundred and 

thirty thousand men armed and equipped, not to speak of foot- 
soldiers and armour bearers whom it was impossible to number, he 
passed into Spain to meet Agiolandus. And here are the names of 
the chiefest men who went with Charles into Spain : Turpin,' the 
holy archbishop who ordered Christian people to go and battle 
with the Paynims, and who used to put heart** into the people 
giving them absolution for their sins when they used to go to 
fight, and not that only, but every one of the Saracens who might 
beheve, he used to baptize them, and every one who would not 
beheve he used to fight against him ; and Roland,** Duke of Com- 
mane' and Lord of the Blavini, sisters son to Charles, and son of 

■^ Lit. "widely." ^ i.e. " who had to supply food," " who held on that 

tenure." ? Latin ut omnes servi qui sub malis consuetudinibus pravonim 
dominorum religati tenebantur. <■ Malevilos paciíicavit. '' relevabit, 

Lis. reads "togh." '^ Ego Tiarpinus. ' ego Turpinus qui. *^ populum 
animatum reddebam. ^ The Latin MSS. give this name in many different 

spellings, Rotholandus, Rotolandus, Rothlandus, Rolandus, from which last 
íorm comes Orlando. ' Comes Cenomannen.sis, Blavii doniinus=Count of 

Mans and lord of Guienne ? 



30 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

dtrbhshetar do Sherhis, ocus niac do Diuic Milo Dengleris ' fer nior 
do meit, ocus crodha do laimh, maillí; re cethra vaile fer n-armach ;- 
ocus Oluerus i2ás,each na sluagh, richVi cruaidh ar na áerhaú. co 
meinic a c^ihaih, ro chumhachtach ar ghai ocus ar cXaideamh,^ 
larla Gebineíxsis,'* maille re trí m.ile fer in-chatha ; ocus Arasdandus 
ri no diuic^ na Bntaine^ maille secht vailc ; ocus Engelerus' diuic 
na Giawe, maiUe re cethra. mile [fer n-incatha F. & E.l Ocus do 
batar so uili clisdi ar armuibh, ocus co h-airithi ar dibhracad 
soiggt f ocus Gaffms ri Burdugalewsis maille sechi^ mile, ocus 
Gandebolldí/s ri Frisie maille sechi mile ;'° ocus Othgheius" ri 
Lochl«nM maille deich mile ; ocus Consaniinus Prefect.'ís Romanws 
maille deich milt ; ocus moran do righuibh ocus do dhiuicibh ocus 
do 1\gh.tamaib ele co«a úuaghaih nach airimhtí?ar ann so. Ocus 
do bi nuimhíT sliiaigh Serluis ann sin da fhichii mile ridiri armtha 
eiátghthi, ocus ni roibhi nuimhíV na SLÍreamh ar a coisighibh ; ocus 
na íir remraitti sin do b'uasal iat ocus do cha.ihuigheadur a hucht 
cmdimh Crisi. Amhuil mar do ghab Crisi, miaille na eshnlaibh 
in domrtw le saethar mor, is mar sin do ^hah Serlus ri na Frangcach 
pcus impir na Romanach maillíis an ndroiwg-si a.duhhvamay in 
Spain co haiiidhi a n-a«oir Isu Crist. 

A[N] NAEMADH SGEL ANN SO. F. 

Do tinoileadh'^ iarum na úuaigh sin Serluis laimh re Burdius 
ocus do cluiwti foghar ocus mongur na sluagh sin uidhi dha mili 
dhec o'n inad a rabhatar. Ocus 'na dhiaigh sin do druit SerUis 
cona. shliiaghaib laimh ris in cathair a raibhi Agiolandus .i. Pampil- 
oma. Ocus do bhi ridiri uasal dar'^ainm Arnalldus De Bellanda 
a bhfochair Serluis, ocus do chuaidh se tar an sruth re n-abar 
Cismos, ocus do lean larla he dar'^ainm Estultus cona shhiagh 

1 de angleris E. & H. E. adds "ocus do Burta .i. siur do S." H. reads 
do ue>'ta .i. siur S. 2. F. omits the last twentv four words. 3. F. omits 

last fifteen words, H. omits the last seven, and E. seems to read "ar laimh." 
4. Gebensis E., H. & F. 5. These two words are written in Lis. above 
the line. 6. Lis. reads "bri." 7. F. omits. 8. ar boghaibh ocus 

ar soigdibh F. & E. H. omits. 9. .IIH. m. E. & H. 10. F. omits last 
fifteen words. E. reads "gandeboldus," and gives him X. m. íey. 
11. Ogerus E. & F. Ogh^^s H. 12. E. adds as before to the titlc of thc 

chapter the words "do cogadh na Spaine," and begins "Mar do tiwoileadh." 
H. forgets to number this chapter or the figures have been cut away. Lis. 
reads 'tinoil." 13. darb F. darab E. darba H. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 31 

Duke Milo Dengleris, a man great of size and valiant of hand, 
together with four thousand armed men ; and OHver, captain of 
the hosts, a hardy knight, proved often in battles, right powerful 
for spear or sword, the Earl of Gebinense* [?] with three thousand 
men fit for battle ; and Arastandus, King (or Du^e)" of Bretagne, 
with seven thousand ; and Engelerus, Duke of Giane," with four 
thousand men of war. And all these men were expert at weapons, 
and especially at shooting arrows ; and Gaferus,^ the King of 
Burdugale (?) with seven thousand, and Gandeboldus, King of 
Frisie, with seven thousand, and Othgerus,^ King of Lochlann, 
with ten thousand ; and Consantinus, the Roman Prefect, with 
ten' thousand ; and many other kings and dukes and lords with 
their hosts who are not enumerated here.'^ And the number of 
Charles' troops there was forty thousand knights in arms and 
armour, and the foot soldiers were not to be reckoned or counted ! 
And the afore-mentioned men were all noble, and they fought 
for the sake of the Faith of Christ. Just as Christ with his disciples 
took the world with great labour, so did Charles, king of the Franks 
and emperor of the Romans, with this band that we have spoken 
of. take the whole of Spain, in honour of Jesus Christ. 



NINTH CHAPTER. 

Afterwards those hosts of Charles were gathered close by 
Burdius,^ and the noise and murmur of those hosts might be heard 
a distance' of twelve miles from the place in which they were. 
And after that Charles with his armies moved close to the city 
where Agiolandus was, namely Pampilonia. And there was a 
noble knight whose name was Arnaldus De Bellanda along with 
Charles, and he crossed the river which is called Ciserios,^ and an 

''Comes Gebennensis. C. It is not in the Fr. text. '' The words "or 

duke " are written above the line in Lis. as a variant, both Latin texts read 
Rex Britannorum. "^ Dux Aquitaniae. ^ Both Latin texts have 

Gaiferus, rex Burdigalensis, ie., of Bordeaux. ^ Ogerius rex Daciae. 

' Viginti. C. sjhe Latin texts give many more names but they do not 

agree with one another. •> in landis burdigalensibus. C. ' Literally 

"joumey." i transmeavit portus Ciserios. C. Asereos. Fr. 



32 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

cusin ciithraígh cédna, ocus na dhiaigh sin do chuaidh Serlus ocus 
Rolfl«í/ws' maille moran do shliiaghaih ele na dhiaigh. Ocus do 
blii dh' imat a shtagh innus gur fhoilghitar in taAamh o sruth Ruibi 
cus in sliabh do bhi tri leuic- .i. nai milc on chat/míV a roibh 
Agiolandus, ar shgicíh Sa» Som. Ocus do bhatar iedh ocht la ag 
dul tar an sruth a.díibhramay cum na cathrach. Ocus do fhoguir 
Serlus do Agiolandus in cathair do thabhairt do wo a fhresdal uw'' 
chath. Do connaic Agiolandus nach ha eidir leis in chathair do 
cownmhail'' d'imad na sluagh do bhí na aghaidh, ocus as i comhairle 
do rinne duP tar catha?> amach do tliabhairt in chatha, ar egla 
bais an-uasail d'faghail isin cathair. Ocus do chuir se techta 
chum Serluis d'fhaghail osaidh uadha no go tised*^ cona shluagh 
tar an cathravg/z amach do thabhairt catha do, ocus cum labhartha. 
ris. Oi ba h-ailgií/sar/í le hAgiolandus Serlus d'fí'/csin ar' cu mad 
aithne do he. 



AN DEACMAD SGEL ANN SO. F.« 

Do cheduigh Serlus an t-osadh sin [do sirí'rfh air]^ ocus do 
chuaidh Agiolandus cona shluagh tar in cathraigh amach, ocus do 
fhacuib a shluagh laim risin cathair, ocus do chuaidh fein, ocus 
da fhichit do na dainibh is uaisli do bhi na fhochair cum Serluis 
[mar a roib se a fochuir a shluagh.]'^'^ Ocus do bhi sluagh Serluis 
agus sluagh A.gio\anduis ar machaire moir reidh do bhi itir in 
cathair ocus úighi San Sem, ocus do b'é fad"do bhi etorra sin se 
mhile. Adubhairt Serlus, "as tusa Agiolandus'- do ben mu 
thigheanxus dim gu h-ecoir .i. in Spaiw ocus in Gasguin do ghabhas 
maiUe cumhachtaibh De, ocus do chuiris'^fo recht ocus fo cuing 
na Cnstaighe. Ocus ar n-impodh dhamh tar ais'* cum na Fraingce 

1. Both Lis. and E. read here rather awkwardl\' "R. cona shiaghaibh maille" 
etc. I have followed F. here. 2. Thus H. Lis. reads ocus, for .i. F. 
omits, and E. reads "do bi .xx. mile." 3. F. omits last three words. E. 
reads "no cath" in place of them. 4. an cath do thabhairt F. & H. 

E. combines both sentences. 5. tar an sruth no tar an cathair E. &. F. 

6. roithigh ícin F. soiáheadh E. co dol dó H. 7. E. omits ar, and 

adds "aris" after "he." 8. E. has "in .x. scel do chogadh na Spaine." 
9. Added from E. & F. 10. Added from E. & F. 11. fedh H. in ieadhE. 
12. a AgUandiiis E. 13. Thiis E. & F. Lts. has "chuirset." 14. m'ais 

F. & E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 33 

Earl who was called Estultus followed him with his host to the 
same city ; and after that Charles and Roland marched together 
with many other armies foHowing him. And so great was the 
multitude of their hosts that they covered the ground from the 
stream of Ruibi^ to the mountain that was three leagues (that 
is nine miles) from the city where Agiolandus was, on the road 
of Saint James.'' And they were for eight days going across the 
river" we have mentioned towards the city. And Charles sent 
word to Agiolandus to give him up the city or to meet him in 
battle. Agiolandus saw that it would not be possible for him to 
hold the city, by reason of the number of the hosts that were 
against him ; and the counsel he resolved on was to go out beyond 
the city to give battle, for fear of meeting an ignoble death** in the 
city. And he sent messengers to Charles to obtain a truce from him 
until he should come out beyond the city with his army to give him 
battle, and to speak to him. For Agiolandus was most-desirous 
to see Charles that he might recognize him. 



TENTH CHAPTER. 

Charles consented to that truce which was desired of him, and 
Agiolandus went out with his host past the city, and he left his 
army beside the city, and he went himself with two score* of the 
most noble who were with him to Charles to where he was along 
with his army. And the army of Agiolandus and Charles's army 
were on a great level plain that lay between the city and Saint 
James' road. And the distance that was between them was six 
miles. Said Charles, "You are Agiolandus who have taken my 
lordship from me unlawfully, namely Spain and Gascony, which 
I had taken with God's power, and which I put under the law 
and yoke of the Christians. And as soon as I had turned back 

• Runae. Rume. Lat. texts. ^ via iacobitana. <= Lat. portus. 

^ turpiter mori. ^ La/. sexaginta. 



34 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

do mharbhuis a bhfhuaruis do Christaighibh annsa Sháin ocus do 
scrisais a ca.thvacha. ocus a caisleiw ocus do loiscis in tir co himlaw, 
ocus ar na hadbh«raibh sin as mor m' agm ort anois."' 

Mar do chna.\nidh Agiolandus tenga na Seirvisdineach^ ag 
Serlus do bhi ingantus mor aigi uime. Or in tan do bhi Serlus 
'na m/zrtcamh og do bhi se seal d'a aimsir idir na Fadanachaibh isin 
cathair re n-abar Toletum, ocus do fhoglaim se tenga na Seirris- 
díneach isin cathair sin. 

Adubhairt Agiolandus re Serlus "Guigim^ thu um'* a innisin 
damh cred fa rucais on chineadh da bhfuilmit-ne in ferunn nach 
benann riut fein do dhhg^íí oighreachta, na ved' th'athaíV, na ved' 
shen-athair, na ved' cewel romut." ? 

Adubhairt Serlus, "Ase adb/za^ ía rucas uatha-^ he or do thagh 
an Tighearna nemhdha, do chvxxihaigh neamh ocus tsdamh, ar 
cinedh-ne .i. Cvisíaighi, tar chin^íí/mibh in áomhain ; ocus do 
ováaigh se nert ocus cumachta dhoibh orro, ocus ar a shon sin do 
chuires-sa in cinedh Fa.danla fa n-ar náliged iein, in mhéd do 
íhédns." 

Adubhairt Agiolandus "As mór is anuasal in dliged do chuirfedh 
ar cinedh-ne fa bhar^ cinedh-si. Or is ferr ar ndhged-ni ina bar 
ndliged-si. As e a adhhhar sin coimh^7mait-ne aithinta Maca- 
metuis'^ do chuir Dia mar thechtairi chucainn. Or atait dée 
cumachíacha. againn do heir ligdachi ocus flaíV/íemhnus dúinn ocus 
fhoillsighgs duinn na neithi bhis ac teact ar nvaiiledh Macametuis. 

Adubhairt Serlus "ac sin arrait^ acat, or adubhrais gur fherr 
bar ndligí'íí fein ina ar ndhg^íí-ne, o choimhédtai aithinta 
Macametuis, ocus," adubhairt Serlus, "creidmít-ne ocus adhramait 
Dia .i. in t-Athair ocus in Mac ocus in Spirut naemh, ocus creidti-si 
ocus adharthai in diaba/ a n-idbartaibh balbha dímhaiwe, ocus ar 
son in ch^eidim chondaimmit-ne,^ tar eis bhais d'fhag/mi/ duin 
rachsdt ar n-anmanna isin hethaid marthanaig/t a Parthws. Bur 

1. Last word omitted in Lis., which reads mh' for m' in m'agra. "Ma.cra" H 

2. E. adds "annsa caíhair." 3. Guidim E. & F. H. omits. 4. ma 
E. & F. 5. Thus F. Lis. & H. have uaibh. E. buaibh. 6. "nar" F., 
"n" with a smaller u over it, E., but both read "bar" in the next line. 
H. reads "ar" for "bhar" in both lines. 7. F. inflecting mac as i£ it 
were an Irish word, writes in fuU Micametus. 8. ariud E. araid F. 

aruid H. 9. Congmadmait-ne H, 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 35 

into France you slew all you found of Christians in Spain, and 
destroyed their cities and castles and burnt the country completely, 
and for those reasons great are my complaints'' against you." 

When Agiolandus heard the Saracens language from Charles 
he marvelled at it greatl^." For when Charles was a youth 
he had been for a part of the time amongst the Paj'nims in the 
city which is called Toletum/ and he had learnt the language 
of the Saracens in that city. 

Said Agiolandus to Charles, 'T pray you tell me why have 
you taken from the race to which we belong, the land that did 
not pertain to yourself by law of heredity, nor to your father, 
nor to your grandfather, nor to your race before you" ? 

Said Charles, "the reason why I took it from them is that 
the heavenly lord who created heaven and earth has chosen our 
race, namely the Christians, beyond all the races of the world, 
and has ordained strength and power for the Christians over 
them, and for that reason I have placed the Fagan race under 
our own law, in so far as I have been able." 

Said Agiolandus, "exceedingly ignoble^ is the law which 
would place our race under your race, for better is our law than 
your law. The reason of that is that we keep the commandments 
of Mahomet whom God sent as a messenger to us. For we have 
powerful Gods who give kingship and sovereignty to us, and 
manifest to us the things that are coming at the bidding of 
Mahomet." 

Said Charles, "that is an error you are in, for you said that 
your own law was better than our law since ye keep the com- 
mandments of Mahomet, and," said Charles, "we beheve in and 
adore God the Father the Son and the Holy Spirit,^ and ye beheve 
in and worship the devil in dumb and vain offerings, and for the 
sake of the Faith which we keep, after death, our souls shali 
go into eternal life in Paradise ; your souls, however, they shall 

* multum conqueror. ** The Latin texts add "et gavisus est." '^ Fr. reads 

Coletum. '' valde indignum est. ^ The Latin texts add "quos colimus, 

per quos vivimus et regnamus." 



36 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

n-anmanna-si lomorro a n-ifern rachait. Msiseadh^ as íerr ar 
ndliged-ne ina bhar náliged-si, ocus o nar/í aitheantai cmth- 
/íig/ítheoir na ndul ocus nach ail libh a aithne do hheith aguibh, 
ni dlighthi^ oighrecht do hheith acuibh a nim na a talrtm, acht 
biaidh bur rann ocus bur sealbh a bhfhocair an diabaí/ ocus 
Macametuis .i. bar ndia fein, ocus ar an adbAar sin gab-sa ocus 
do chinedh ha.istedh cucaibh ocus bethi beo, no tar^ amac[h] am 
aghaidh-si chum cathflíg/^thi gu bhfagha tu'* bás anuasal." 

Adubhairt Agiolandus "nír ordaigh mu dhia-sa sin, acht 
caitheochat-sa ocus mu chinedh ad aghaidh-si, ocus anaghaidh do 
chinidh ar an cannrad-sa .1. ma's ferr bhar^ ndhged-si ina ar ndlig^íí- 
ni ocus sibh-se do breith buaidhi^ catha oraind-ne, bidh tathair 
ar in lucht claiter againd, ocus moladh ocus ga.ÍTáinghadh don lucht 
claidhíes iat, do shir, ocus da claiter mu chineíí-sa gebat ha.\stedh 
cugam cum heith a mhethaidh.'"' 

Ocus do cedaighed in [n]i sin acu, da gach taebh,^ ocus do 

toghadh acíííoir .xx. ridiri Cristaighi ar lathair an chatha cum 

fichit ridiri do na SGÍrnsdineachaibh. Ocus do thinnscnadar 

csiíimghadh ar an cunnrad sin, ocus do ma.Thadh co h-imlan na 

SeÍTTÍsdínigh. Do cuired da fichit anaghaidh dhá fichit ocus 

do ma.Thadh na Seirrisdínigh mar an cédndi. Do cuiréd céí 

anaghaidh cét ocus do marbadh na Seirrisdínigh. Do cuired arís 

cét anaghaidh cét, ocus do theith in cét Cristaighi tar a n-ais, 

ocus do msiThadh uili iat. Ocus do b'e a adbar sin or do bhí egla 

a marbhtha orro. Or ni dligiwn in luchd le'r ail cathughadh ar 

son creidimh Crist teithedh do denam, na^ egla do hheith orro. 

Ocus mar do marbarfA na Crisiaighi^^ út ar son mar do theithedar 

is mar sin do na Cnstaighihh darub dliged calhughadh laidíV do 

dhenam anaghaidh na p^cadh [da teitid tar a n-ais annsna ^ecadhaihh 

do gebaid bas anuasal, ocus da caXhaaghid co maith]'^ muirbhíit a 

namflíd co h-imlán .i. na diahail do heir orra na pecaidh do denam. 

1. mar is follus co, etc, F Maseadh is foUus gurab E. 2. ni dligheadh. 
dibh E & H. 3. Tara E. Tarra F. & H. 4. fagtha E. fadta F., 
both omit "tu." 5. ar H. 6. buaidh E. buadha F. & H. 7. F. & H. 
omit last four words. 8. gacha taebha E. 9. ar son E. 10. an 

cuidcachta ut F. &. E. 11. Last sixteen words from F. E. resembles it. 

Lis. & H. omit. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 37 

go to helL* If so, better is our law than your law, and since 
ye do not recognize the Creator of the elements and do not 
wish to recognize him ye ought not to have an inheritance in 
heaven or on earth, but your portion and possession shall be with 
the Devil and Mahomet — your own God.'' And for that reason 
accept baptism, you and your race, and ye shall Uve, or come 
out against me to fight that you may receive an ignoble death."° 

Said Agiolandus, "my God hath not so ordered it, but I and 
my race shall fight against you and your race on this condition, 
if your law be better than our law and if you gain victory in 
battle over us, let those of us who are overthrown be disgraced^ 
and let those who overthrow them find praise and rejoicing 
for ever, and if my race be overthrown I shall accept baptism to 
save my hfe."** 

And that was conceded by them on each side, and first there 
were chosen twenty Christian knights on the íield of battle against 
twenty knights of the Saracens, and they began to íight on this 
condition, and the Saracens were all killed. Forty were sent 
against forty, and the Saracens were slain in like manner. A 
hundred were sent against a hundred, and the Saracens were slain. 
Again a hundred were sent against a hundred, and the Christian 
hundred fied back and they were all killed. And the reason of 
this was that they were afraid of being killed. For those who 
desire to war for the Christian faith ought not to fiy or be 
afraid. For as those Christians were killed, though they did 
fly, even so with the Christians whose duty it is to make a 
strong íight against sins, if they fall back into sin they shall 
meet an ignoble death, but if they fight well they shall utterly 
slay their enemies, namely the devils, who cause them to commit 

* ad orcum. ^ The last forty-five words arc not in the Latiu texts. 

* ut male moriaris. ^ Lit. "to be in life." Latin, "si vivere possim." 



38 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Or adubhuirt in t-eshal 'ni fhuighi coroin acht an nech cathaíg/ífes 
co dlcstineach.' Do cuir^d iar sin da chet in aghaidh dá chét, ocus 
do m2i.rhadh na Seirrisdínigh uiU. Do cuir^d míle anaghaidh 
míle ocus do ma.Thadh na Seirrisdínigh. Do ghabhadur osadh 
da gach thaebh' d'aithle in cathMjg'^thi sin, ocus tainic Agiolandus 
do labhairt re Serlus, ocus is edh adubhairt : "Da.ingnighim'^ gurub 
fearr creidium ocus dliged na Cristaighi ina na Seirrisdineach," ^ 
ocus do gheall do Sherlus co ngebudh fein ocus a chinedh hdastedh 
cuca ar n-a mharflc/í. Ocus do impo cum a muinntiri iar sin, 
ocus do innis da maithibh [agus d'a mór-uaisle F.] co ngebad 
fein baistedh cuigi. Ocus do fhogair doib-siuw uih hddsiedh do 
ghab/jflí7 cuca, ocus do cedwigh. drong dhibh sin, ocus do loc an 
cuid ele. 

AN T-AENMAD SGEL DHEG ANND SO. F. 

Tainig Agiolandus cum Serluis do gabhail haistidh* chuice ar 
n-a mharach, a timcheall in treas uair do lo, ocus do connaic se 
Serlus ag dul cum bidh, ocus moran do bordaibh ic a ndeisinghadh 
'na áuis,^ ocus moran d'orduibh ag caithemh bidh orra, ocus cuid 
dibh a n-aibitibh ridireadh, ocus cuid a n-aibid duibh mha.nach,^ 
ocus drong a n-aihid ghil cawanach, ocus drong a n-aibitibh cléireach, 
ocus moran eJe ocus aibide ecsamhla umpa. 

Do fhiar/flí>/z Agiolandus do Sherlus ga cenel da gach ord 
dibh-sin fo \eith ? 

Do fhregair Serlus do ocus adubhairt, "in drong ud do chi 
uma bhfuihV/ aibide ocus erradh^ aen ndatha, easbuig ocus sacairt 
ar rechtsi-ne súd, mhínig/zis aithinta ar ndligid duin, ocus do heir 
eshuloid dun in ar p^cthaibh ; in drong úd do chí ocus aibidi 
dubha impaib, manuigh ocus abiaidh súd, ocus daine naemtha, 
ocus ni scurit do sir ag eadarguighi in aein-dia uih-cumachtaigh 
tar ar cend-ne, ac cantain trath ocus aithfr^ww ocus urnaighthi." ^ 

1. gacha taebha E. & H. 2 admaim H. 3. E. omits last eleven words. 
4. ocus do gab haistedh cuici H. 5. moran bord aca tocbail na cathraid H. 
6. Manaigh F. E. & H. omit "duibh." "an aibiti dubha ocus berréd 
[birréit H.] aen datha asbuic ocus" E. & H. F. reads "beirti" for "erradh." 
Lis. has ewn for aen. 7. ocus in drong ud do cithi a.nnaibidibh gela, 

ca.na.naigh riaghalta sud, ocus bid mar in cedna ag guidhi, etc, F. óc E. 
H. resembles this. 8. H. omits last seven words. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 39 

sin. For the apostle has said, "no one but he who shall battle 
lawfully shall obtain a crown." After that there were sent two 
hundred against two hundred and the Saracens were all slain. 
A thousand were sent against a thousand and the Saracens were 
slain. 

They accepted a truce on both sides after that fighting, and 
Agiolandus came to speak to Charles and it was what he said, 
'T affirm* that better is the religion and law of the Christians 
than of the Saracens," and he promised Charles that he himself 
and his race would receive baptism on the morrow. And he 
retumed to his people after that and told his chiefs and nobles 
that he himself would accept baptism. And he issued a proclama- 
tion to them all to receive baptism. And some consented to that, 
and the rest refused. 

ELEVENTH CHAPTER. 

Agiolandus came to Charles to receive baptism on the morrow, 
about the third hour of the day ; and he saw Charles going to 
dine and many tables being laid in his camp'' and many orders [of 
clergy] eating food at them, some of them in the habits of knights 
and some in the black habit of monks, and some in the white 
habit of canons, and some in the habit of clerics, and many others 
clad in various habits. 

Agiolandus asked Charles what kind was each order of them, 
separately. 

Charles answered him and said, "that band which you see 
clothed in habits and equipments of the same colour are bishops 
and priests of our religion'^ who explain to us the commandments 
of our law, and give us absolution in our sins ; yonder band whom 
you behold clad in black habits, they are monks and abbots, and 
holy people,* and they cease not continuously to make intercession 
with the one Almighty God, in our behalf, chanting canonical- 
hours and masses and prayers." After that Agiolandus saw in a 

* daingnighim is an interesting translation of the Latin athrmare. '^árus 

usually "a dwelling" or "abode" seems to be sometimes used in this text 

íor "camp." '^ Lit. "law." ^ sanctiores. 



ao GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR 

As a aithle sin do connaic Agiolandus, a cuil eicin do chuirt Sherluis 
impm, dá bhocht dec, a n-aibit truaigh bhoicht ocus siat na suidhe 
ar in talíím gan bhuird gan scoraidi 'na bhfhiadhnwwi, ocus 
gan acht bíJcan bidh ocus dighc acu aga chaithimh, ocus do 
fhisiívaiqh Agiolandus ca cenel daine dhoibh. 

Adubhairt Serlus : "tecA/airedha o n-ar Tighearna o Mhac 
De sud biathmaid gach lai fa nuimtV in da esb«/ dec." 

Adubhairt Agiolandus "in árong so ata laimh rit-sa is sa.idhbhir 
iat, ocus is saidbíV ithid ocus ihid ocus eidighthert;' iat. In mhuinn- 
ter úd Sideiri is teachtaireadha do Dia, cred fa leice' a ndul do 
ghorta ocus a ndrocheidedh ocus a rm a bhfad uait^ ocus a mi- 
anoTughadh." ocus adubhairt, "as olc umhlaighius d'a thigerna in 
ti gabus a teachia. gu dochvaidh chuigi ocus is mor in naire do ní 
d'a^ Dhia fein in te do heir drochsheirbhis da wiuinntir. Ocus do 
dhliged fein adubrais do hheith maith, foillsigi anois a hheith fallsa." * 
Ocus ar ngabaí7 cheda do o^ Sherlus do imthigh cuvn. a mhuinntire 
fein m.aille re scannuil [moir F.] ocus do dhiult baisdedh do ghabhail 
cuigi, ocus d'fhocuir cath ar na marach ar Sherlus. Ocus do tuicc 
Serlus gurab ar son na mbocht do connaic Agiolandus co mianorach 
do diult se in baisteí//í ; ocus ar a son sin, na huili boc[h]t fuair 
Serlus ar a sh\m.ighedh^ do urail heith fnchnamhach riu, ocus 
biadh ocus deoch ocus edach do thabhairt doibh cu lor.' Ar an 
didhhar sin as in-twctha dh'aire^ gurab mor in choir^ da gach 
Crisiaighi nach tabhair seirbhis frichnamach'" do bochtuibh Crist. 
Ocus o do mliill Serlus ivnpir Agiolandus ocus a cinedh ar son 
gur vnhisiviovaigh Serlus na boict," cindus bias don droing do hhetr 
drochs/íeúbhis do bochtuibh De,'^ do'n lo deighivieach, ocus cinnus 
eistíit siat guth adhuathmar in tigsarna a.déara. riu 'lmthighidh 
uaim'^ a w\haca. no a lucht''* na mallacht isin teiviidh marthanaígA. 
Or in uair do bi ocarus oram ni thucab/íí?r hiadh dhamh, ocus in 

1. cad fa leigidh E. leitid H. 2. a cur iiait afat ocus amian orradh E. 

"ocus amian ort" F. H. omits. 3. do F. & H. "doneochdoheir" etc.^Tí. 

4. faillsa Lis. E. reads "ocus do dligheadh a heith comaith riu, ocus 
íoill— " etc. 5. a F. ac H. 6. "ar sl— " E. & F. 7. co leoir do 

tohhairt doibh ocus a.neideadh coromor E. 8. is intuca do gach nech E. 
9. cair F. & E. 10. uasal E. & F. 11. Last seventecn words omitted 

in E. 12. Dia E. & F. 13. uainn F. buaim E. 14. H. reads "a lucht 
na mallachtan," tho "no a lucht" is evidentlj' a marginal note oí an alter- 
native reading which has crept into the text. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 41 

certain corner of Charles the emperor's court twelve poor men 
in pitiable poor weeds, and they sitting on the ground without 
tables or tablecloths* before them, and with only a Httle food 
and drink for them to partaUe of. And Agiolandus asked what 
kind of people were those. 

Charles said, "those are messengers from our Lord, from the 
son of God, whom we feed every day according to the number of 
the twelve apostles." 

Agiolandus said "these people who are beside thee are 
rich, and richly do they eat and drink and are clothed. Yon 
band who are, you say, the messengers of your God, why do 
you leave them to suffer'' famine and to be in bad clothing, and 
to be put far away from you, and to be dishonoured" ? And he 
said, "badly does he obey his lord who receives his messengers 
with dishonour," and great is the shame which he causes** to his 
own God, the man who gives evil service to His people. And 
your own law which you said was good, you show now that it is 
false." And taking leave of Charles he departed to his own 
people with scandal^ and refused to accept baptism, and on the 
morrow he challenged Charles to battle. And Charles understood 
that it was on account of the poor whom Agiolandus had seen in 
dishonourable condition that he refused baptism. And on that 
account every poor person whom Charles found upon his hostings' 
[thenceforwardj he gave orders to be liberal^ with them and give 
them food and drink and clothing in plenty. For that reason it 
is to be observed that great is the crime for every Christian who 
does not give earnest service to the poor of Christ. And as the 
emperor Charles spoilt'' [the Christianizing of] Agiolandus and 
his race because he had dishonoured the poor, how shall it be 
with those who give evil service to the poor of God, at the last 
day, and how shall they listen to the awful voice of the 
Lord which shall say to them, ' Depart from me ye accursed 
into everlasting íire, for when I was an hungered ye gave 

* sine mensa sine linteaminibus comedentes. ^ Lit. let them go to famine, 

"cur fame pereunt." •= Turpiter. '^ Lit. "does," "verecundiam facit." 

« These two words are not in the Latin. ^ or "armies" "in exercitu" L«í. 

^Lit. diligent. Latin has "diligenter procuravit." •" Perdidit. 



42 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

tan do bi tart ni tucabhar deoch. Ma a.seadh is intMtcthi gurab 
beag foghnas dhged De na a chreideamh don Qhribtaighi muna 
coimhhna' iat á' oihx eachaih. Or adeir in Scriptur áiadha 'mar is 
marbh in corp^ gan anum is mar sin is marb in creidiumh^ ann 
fein gan na hoibreacha maithe.' Ocus mar do sheacha.[n in rí 
Padan/a in baistedh ar son nach facaidh se oibreacha'* certa in 
hha.istidh ag Serlus impiri, is mar sin ata a egla orum nach faicfe 
Dia creidium in ha.istidh innainn o nach fuighi se oibreacha in 
h&istidh againn a lo in hreithea.mhna.is. 



IN DARA SGEL DHEG. 

Tancatur ar na mharach na sluaigh armdha eiáighthi da gach 
taebh ar in machuiri cum ca.thaighthi ar imrisan^ in da dliged. 
Ocus do bhi sluagh Sherluis ceithre niile dec ar fhichit céd^ ocus do 
bhi sluagh Agiolanduis ced míle ocus do ronsat na Cristaighi ceithre 
tosaig' dibh fein cum in chatha, ocus do rineadar na Seirrisdínigh 
a ruic, ocus do cuadar da chorughadh^ dibh sin chum cdithaighthi 
re cheH ocus do claied^ na Seirrisdínigh a chedoir, ocus in dara'° 
cuideachta do cuireadar na Fadhanaigh^^ do claiedh iat mar an 
cedna [ocus a c^ííoir F.] Ar na fhaicsin dona Va.dhanachaibh 
didbrtjV ro mhor ar a shiagha.ihh do thinoiletar a timchioll Agio- 
landuis, ocus mar do conncatar na Cristaighi sin tancatar a timchioll 
Serluis^"'^ da gach thaeibh .i. Arnalldus de Bellanda a taeibh dhibh 
cona sluaghaib, ocus Estultus cona shluagh a taeibh eli [ocus 
Aruitantus (?) rí co nasluaghaibataeb ele díb H.] ocus Gaudebolldus'* 
cona shluagh a taeibh ele, ocus Othgerus ri cona shhiagh a taebh 
eile, ocus Consantinus Romanus cona shluagh a taeibh eh, Serlus 
ocus prinnsada''* na sluagh a taeibh eh, ag sdiúradh'% muinntiri, 
ocus do thinnscnadar a sduic umaidhi do sheinm, ocus tucadar 

I. E. adds "tu." H. reads mowa comlínait hé. 2. mar ata an corp 
marbh E., H. & F. 3. ata an cr marb E. & F. 4. Thus F. & E. 
oibrigthi Lis. 5. imrisin E. &. F. E. reads creidim for "dUged." 
6. After .xx. Lis. has "-\" written above thc line. 7. dronga E. H. & F. 
8. "da coruga" E. omitting dibh sin. "da corug díb" H., in each case with 
a stroke over the g. 9. claXáh.edh £. & H. claidhi F. 10. "da" F. 

II. E. & F. add "chúcu." 12. Thus F. The other three MSS. read "ina 
timchell." 13. Gaudebolldus de bel — E. 14. Serlus prinnsa na sl. [an 

tsl H.] E. & H. 15. ac sonnadh E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 45 

me no meat, when I was athirst ye gave me no drink." If so, 
it is to be understood that neither the law of God nor his 
rehgion will be of much profit to the Christian unless he carry 
them out in worlcs." For the Holy Scripture says 'as the body 
is dead without a soul, so is faith dead in itself without good works.' 
And as the Pagan king shunned baptism because he did not see 
the proper works of baptism with the emperor Charles, even so 
I am afraid that God will not see the faith of baptism in us, if 
he íind not the works of baptism in us on the day of Judgment. 



TWELFTH CHAPTER. 

The hosts came on the morrow, in arms and armour from each 
side, on to the plain to light in the quarrel of the two rehgions." 
And Charles's army numbered one hundred and thirty-four 
thousand and the army of Agiolandus was one hundred thousand. 
And the Christians made four fronts" of themselves against the 
battle, and the Saracens made íive. And two divisions of them 
advanced to íight with one another, and the Saracens were at 
once overthrown. And the second company which the Paynims 
sent, they were overthrown, and speedily, in like manner. When 
the Paynims saw very great losses [inílicted] on their hosts they 
gathered round about Agiolandus. And, as soon as the Christians 
saw that, they gathered round Charles on every side, namely, 
Arnold De Bellanda on one side with his hosts and Estultus with 
his host on another side, and King Arvitantus (?) with his hosts 
on another side of them, and GandeboUdus with his host on another 
side, and King Othgerus'* with his host on another side, and 
Constantinus Romanus^ with his host on another side, and 
Charles with the princes of the hosts on another side directing 
their people, and they commenced to blow their brazen trumpets, 

"Lit. 'íulfil them of works.' ^ Lit. "laws" "legum." <• acies. 

<* Otgerius C. Ogerius Fr., i.e. Ogier the Dane. ^ both Latin texts omit 

"Romanus." 



44 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

ucht ar a cheli ocus do cha.thaighseat co dúr ocus co dichra. Do 
chuaidh Arnalldus de Bellanda ortha ar tus ocus do dhithz^/i cu 
mor iat d'á dheis ocus d'á cU, no gu rainic Agiolandus a medhon * 
a mhuinntiri, ocus do ben a cXaidheamh amach ocus do innsaigh 
Agiolandus ocus do mharbh he. Is ann sin do ronad eighe''^ ocus 
ilgháirthe mora coscair ocus cowmaidme ag na Cristaighihh ocus 
do thimchiWe adar na Seirrisdineacha do gach thaeb, ocus do 
mharbhadar in méid sin dibh innus nach desichaidh beo dona 
Fadsinchaibh uatha acht amhain ri Sibilie, ocus Altamaior^ ri 
Cordubie.^ Or do theithset maille becan do Seirv isdíneachaibh 
leo. Ocus do doirt^d in mhétd^ sin d'fuil in la sin, innus co mad 
eidir leis na claiteoraibh snamh a bhfuil na Pada.nach. Do chuatar 
iarom na Cristaighi isin cathaiV istech, ocus do mharbhsat^ a 
bhfuaradar do Seirr isdíneachaibh innti. Ocus mar do cha.thaigh 
Serlus anaghaidh Agiolatiduis ar son an Creidimh Cristaighi ocus 
mar do mharbh se he, as follus co teit dhged na Cristaighi tar gach 
uiU dliged, et cetera. O a Cn'síaidhi, da connmhair' in creidium 
co maith ad craidhi ocus a coimUnrtd d'oibrighthibh cu firindeach ^ 
airdeochthar thu os cinn na n-aingeal isin fhlaithemhnas nemhdha 
a bhfhochair do thighearna .i, Isu Crist. Gidheadh cach a mad 
ail^ dul suas, creit gu daingen. Or adííV an Tighearna 'ata gach 
uile ní ar breith {no cowfls)'" don tí creitfes.' 

'Na dhiaigh sin do thinoil Serlus a shluagh ar mbeith 
ghairdechais mhoir air don bhuaigh ruc, ocus tainic gu droichet 
Arge" ar shghidh San Sem. Ocus is ann sin do rindi íádchideacht.^'^ 

AN TREAS SGEL DHEC ANN SO. F. 

Ocus na dhiaigh sin do chuaidh cnideachta. dona Cristaighibh 
gan fhis do Sherlus cum an inrtí"d a tugad in cath, ocus iat ar na 
meaUadh'^ do shaint spreidhi na marbh, an n-oighthi andiaigh in 

1. ar lar H., E. & F. 2. eigmhe E. & F. 3. Altamaghor F 

4. Cornubia F., H. & E. 5. F. reads here and generally elsewhere medi 

íor méid. E. also reads mede or meide. Lis. generally reads "met" but 
once or twice "méid." 6. dicennadar F. dicendadar H. dice«^adh E 
7. connmhais Lis. 8. E. & F. omit last six words. 9. madh ailt 

F. & E. 10. Lis. writes these words in small letters over "breith." 

E., H. & F. both "ar cumas [comas H.'i and omit "breith." 11. Airgi 
H. & F. Airge E. 12 A\gheacht E. Aidheacfit F. aedaigecht an oidche 
sin déis a coscair ruc H. 13. dalladh E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 45 

and they faced one another and they fought hardily and vigorously. 
Arnold De Bellanda came on them* first and infiicted great losses 
on them, right and left, until he reached Agiolandus in the midst 
of his people, and he drew out his sword and attaclced Agiolandus 
and killed him. It was then shouts and great cries of slaughter 
and triumph arose'* amongst the Christians, and they surrounded 
the Saracens on every side and they slew of them all who were 
there" so that there went not alive of the Paynims from them 
but only the King of Sibilie** and Altamaior, King of Cordubia.** 
For they fied with a few of the Saracens with them. And there 
was so much blood shed that the victors could have swum in the 
blood of the Paynims. 

Afterwards the Christians entered the city and they slew all 
the Saracens that they found in it. 

And as Charles warred against Agiolandus on behalf of the 
Christian faith, and as he slew him, so it is obvious that the law 
of the Christians goes beyond each and every law, et cetera.* O 
Christian if thou keep the faith well in thy heart and fulfill it 
with works, truly thou shalt be exalted above the angels in the 
heavenly kingdom into the presence of thy Lord, even Jesus Christ. 
So then each [of you] who would desire to ascend — believe firmly, 
for the Lord saith everything is within the reach (or under the 
power) of him who shall' beheve. 

After that, Charles collected his army, being greatly rejoiced 
at the victory he had obtained, and came to the bridge of Arge on 
the road to St. James. And it was there he made entertainment.^ 



THIRTEENTH CHAPTER. 

And after that a company of the Christians went, unknown to 
Charles, to the place where the battle had been fought, they being 
beguiled by greed for the possessions of the slain, [going thither] 

"irruit. ^ Lit. "were made." " Lit. "that number of them," "illos omnes." 

^ Sibiliae Cordubiae i.e. Seville and Cordova. * No "ctc." in the Latin. 

' omnia possiblia sunt credenti. ^ hospitatus est. 



46 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

chatha do thabhairt. Ocus ar mbreith oii ocus aircí7 ocus moran 
do neiíhibh uaish ele do thoghadar fein do mhaithios na ndaine 
marbh leo [d'impaidlndar tar a n-ais F.] Ag impodh dhoibh cum a 
foslongphuirt fein aris, tarla Altumaior ri Cordubie' cona muinntir 
dhoibh.2 Ar tcitheadh dho^' as an cath remhraitti do bhadur ar 
na bhíolach a ngleanntuibh no gu tarla in drong sin cucti, ocus do 
innsaighedar iat ocus do marbhadar na Cristaighi co h-imlán, 
ocus ba headh^ do ma.rbhadh ami a timceall mile fer. 

As baramhail don bhuidhin sin^ na Cristaighi claies^ a pecaidh 
isin bhfaisidin ocus impaidios ar uraiHm in diabail cum na p^cadh 
cédna aris. Or mar do impaigedar in drong ud ar gclodh a namhat 
do' shaint spreighe na marbh, ocus do mharbhsat a namhait iat, 
as mar sin da gach uili Cristaighi claies^ a lochta fein ocus ghabhas 
penos* ni dlighid do impod aris cum na marbh .i. cum na pecadh, 
ar teitheadh co muirbhfitis a namad he ,i. na diabail. Ocus mar 
do im-paigeadar in drong ut cum sbreighi na ndaine ele ocus do 
leiceadw in beihsi so uatha ocus fuaradar fein bas anuasal, is mar 
sin in^ lucht uird leices in saeg/m/ uatha ocus impí?das^° aris cum 
na betha cédna," leicit uatha in betha. n^rtmMha ocus fillit iat fein 
a mbas na mbas.'^ 



AN CEATRUMAD SGEL DHEC ANN SO. 

La ele na dhiaigh sin do íoiWsigheadh do Sherlus gu raibe ar 
Sliabh Garsrem'^taiseach do thaiseachaibh Nauarrorum'* dar ainm 
Furre'^ ocus gur b'ail leis cath do chommorad anaghaidh Serluis. 
Ocus ar teacht do Sherlus cum an tsléibhi sin do dheisig in prindsa 
sin'^ he fein cum catha do thabhuirt do ar na mharach. Ocus in 
agaidh roim in cath do rinne Serlus eadurghuighi [díchra H.] cum 

1. Cornubia E., H. & F. passim. 2. dalladh E. 3. noch do theith roime 
sin a cath na Seirrisdineach ocus do bhadar ar na f." etc. E. The text oi H. 
írom the beginning oí the chapter is quite diftcrentlv arranged and shorter. 
4. do be a nuimir E. & F. "do bé mct" H. 5. don da cudeachtain 

so E. don cuideaclatain so H. 6. noch claidhiws E. claidws F. claides H 
7. tri F. tre E. 8. pinos cuigi F. aithreachas chuige E. H. omits. 
9. don F. in E. 10. inntaighics E. indtaige.= H. 11. betha an 

tshaeghail F. 12. Lis. has above the lino the words "vel an bais." 

13. Garsrime F. Gasrime H. Gasariwie E. 14 Nabarrorum F. H. omits. 
15. Fuirre E., H. & F. 16. "sin" from E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 47 

the night after the battle had been waged. And having taken 
[thence] with them gold and silver and many other precious things 
which they had chosen themselves of the goods of the slain they 
returned again. On returning to their own camp [however] 
Altumaior," King of Cordubia, with his people met them. Having 
íled from the afore-mentioned battle they were hiding in glens 
until this party fell in with them, and they attacked them and 
slew the Christians utterly. And the number they killed was 
about a thousand men. 

A simiHtude to that band are those Christians who blot out'' 
their sin in confession and return at the bidding of the devil to 
the same sins again. For as that band returned," [to plunder] 
having defeated their enemies, out of greed for the posessions of the 
dead, and their enemies slew them, even so is it with every 
Christian who overcomes his own faults and accepts penitence f 
he ought not to turn again to the dead, that is to sins, fiying till 
his enemy slay him, that is the devils. And just as that troop 
turned towards the possessions of the other people, and let this 
hfe go from them, and came themselves to an ignoble death, even 
so do those members of Orders who put the world away from them 
and yet turn again to the same hfe [as of old] let the heavenly Ufe 
go from them and return themselves into the death of deaths. 



FOURTEENTH CHAPTER. 

Another day after that it was disclosed* to Charles that there 
was on the mountain of Garsrem,' one of the chiefs of the 
Navarri, whose name was Furre, and that he desired to give battle 
to Charles. And on Charles coming to that mountain the prince pre- 
pared himself to give battle to him on the morrow. And the night 
before the battle Charles made fervent intercession to God to show 

»i.e. Almanzor, King of Cordova. '' Hi vero typum genmt fidelium 

pro peccatis certantium sed postea ad vitia redeuntium quia sicut illi, etc. 
•^ ad mortuos redierunt. <' poenitentiam accepit. * nunciatumest. 

' "Gargim" C. "Gargini" Fr., a corruption of Montjardin according to 

Gaston Paris. 



48 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Dia ma a íhoillsí"í/g//rtd do cia da mhuinntir do gheb«d bas isin 
cath ar na marach. Ocus do {o'úhighed comartha dearg a bhíighair 
na croichi cesda ar guaMaibh na ndaine do bhi cum tuitme. Ocus 
mar do connuic Serluis an comurtha sin ar an droing sin do chuir 
fo iadhadh^ iat an a shaipeP da s^acAna ar bas [annsa cath.^] As 
dothamaisc breitheamhnas De ocus is doi-eoluis a shligthi.'* Ar 
cri[c]hnughadh in chatha ocus ar máThhadh in p/mnnsa dar ainm 
Fí^^re maille tri míle Seirrisdíneach, in drong fhacuibh Serlus fo 
iadhadh fuair gan anmain iat ; ocus is e lin do batar .i. tri 
caogaid.^ O a claiteoire ro naemhtha gin gur ben claidheam bur 
n-aibí>seora rib^ nir leiceabhair coroin na martireach uaibh. Ocus 
uadha so amach do thindscam Serlus sliabh Garsim' ocus talamh 
Nauarrorum* do bheith aigi fein. 



AN CUIGED SGEL DHEC. 

Na dhiaigh sin do ioiWsigheadh do Sherlus co tainicc eathach^ 
dar ainm Feireacutus do chenel Golias a cúchibh na Sorcha ar na 
cur do Admiranntus'" .i. ri na Baibiloine do chathwg/zadh anaghaidh 
Serluis maille fichií míle Padanac^. Ocus ase inadh a rabhatar 
in tan sin isin cathair re n-abar Folnagerus." Ocus ni bhid egla 
gai na saigdi na airm eli ar in Seirsineach soin. Do cuaid Serlus 
a cedoir cum na cathrach sin ocus mar do cua.\aidh Fereacutus 
Serlus do thecht do chuaidh fein tar an cathvaigh amach ocus do 
iar comrac aein íir. Do cuir^d o Sherlus in uair sin Ogerus cum 
an aithígA'^ ocus mar do connuic in t-aitheach e do dluthaigh 
chuicce'^ ocus do ghlac ar laimh dheis he ocus ruc leis ar a mhuin 
cona armuibh, ocus a roibhe ann sin do shluaghuibh aga fheithimh, 

I. iadhuga E., with stroke over the g. iadad H. 2. iwashepel E. 
thseipel F. H. omits. 3. Last two words from E. & F. 4. The last 
nine words are omitted in F., H. & E., which read cad (ca F.) tu do Serlus. 
H. "cidh tú," the equivalent of "quid plura." 5. .x. ocus secht .xx. 
F., H. & E. 6. do namat riut E. H. omits the whole sentence. 
7. Thus E., H. & F. 8. Thus H., F. & E. Lis. rcads "díachail do b.a.f." 
9. athach E. ethach H 10 adhmirandus F. & E. H. omits. 

II. nagerM.'! F., H. & E. 12. fathaigh E 13. co min cuigi F. & E 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 49 

him who of his people would die in the battle on the morrow. 
And there was revealed to him a red sign in the shape of the cross 
of crucifixion on the shoulders of the people who were to fall. 
And when Charles saw that sign on those people he locked them 
up in his chapeP to avoid death for them in th'^ battle. Inscrut- 
able'' (?) is the judgment of God and unknowable*' are his w^ays. 
And on finishing the battle and s1aying the prince whose name 
was Furre, together with three thousand Saracens, the people 
whom Charles had left shut up he found hfeless, and the number 
who were there was thrice íifty. O most holy victors,'^ although 
no sword of your adversary touched you, ye did not put from 
you the martj'r's crown. And from this out Charles began to 
possess to himself the mountain of Garsim and the land of the 
Navarri.^ 

FIFTEENTH CHAPTER. 

After that it was disclosed' to Charles that there had come a 
giant of the name of Feracutus^ of the race of Goliath from the 
lands of Sorcha,'' he being sent by Admirantus,' that was the King 
of Babylon, to fight against Charles with twenty thousand Pagans, 
and the place where they were at that time was the city which 
is called Folnagerus.^ And that Saracen used to have no fear of 
spear or arrow or other weapon. Charles went to that city at 
once and when Feracutus heard that Charles had come he himself 
went out from the city and asked for single combat. Then there 
was sent by Charles, Ogerus" against the giant, and when the 
giant saw him he came close to him' and caught him by the 
right hand, and took him on his back with his weapons, — all 
the hosts that were there looking on, — and he never halted 

* in oratorio. ^^ quam incomprehensibilia. "investigabiles. "^oChristi 
pugnatorum sanctissima caterva. ^ Tunc Karolus cepit castrum montis 
Gargim in suum, totamque patriam Navarrorum. * Nunciatum. 

« Ferracutus in both the Latin texts. Pulci in his Morgante calls this 
giant Ferran. Elsewhere we find him called Ferragus. It is from this 
■chapter that the Italian conception of Roland (Orlando) is derived. Thev 
also took Ferracutus or Ferragus as the type of a Saracen knight. Agrican, 
Mandricard and Rodomont are drawn from him as their prototvpe. See 
Castets' note on this chapter. '' Lat. Syriae, see Gadelica, p. 274. 

' Babilonis Admiraldus. í Both Latin texts read "Apud Nageram." 

'' Ogerius Fr. Otgei-ius C. i.c. Ogier the Dane. 'suaviter juxta illum 

vadit. 



50 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

ocus nír an no gur chuir a prisun he, a.mhail chairigh cenwuis.' 
Do batar imorro da fhedh dec isin aitheach sin ocus do b' adhbhul 
íat a aighthe. Ocus do batur cethra bannlama an gach laimh 
ocus an gach \mgain dó, ocus tri ferdhuirn"'^ in gach mher d'a 
mheraibh. larsin do cuir Serlus Renalldus^ de Alba Spina cum 
an Siithigh, ocus do glac in t-aitheach ar laim he ocus rwc leis cum 
in p/ínsuin mar in cd't duini.'* Do cuiredh iar sin Constantinus 
rí Romanach ocus Oelh^.s^ iarla da insaigíáA ocus do glac ar aein- 
shhghidh iat .i. duine dhibh da dheis ocus duine da cU, ocus do 
chuir isin prisún cedna iat. Do cuíVthe iar sin dias gach n-uaire 
chuigi ocus do chuiredh isin prisun uiH iat. Ar na íaicsin sin do 
na sluaghaib ocus ar mheith ingantuis mhoir acu dhe, ni fhuair 
Serlus fer comraic dhó o sin suas.^ Do chonnuic Rolanndus 
prinnsa shhtaigh Sherluis Mhoir nar leic dJ egla dh'aenduine dul** 
anaghaidh in aithigh. Ar mbeiih dothcais aigi as a Dia fein, 
gin gu fuair sé ced toltanach o Sherlus, ocus se^ daingen isin c^eidium 
do chuaidh se do csiíhughaá ris in Va.danach. Ocus do bhi egla 
mor ar Serlus, or do bhi Rolandus og in uair sin, ocus do bo mian 
leis-sin a íosdadh, ocus do ghuigh a Thighearna um a sha.evadh 
o laimh in aithigh amhail mar do rinne Dabhid^*^ o GhoHas ocus 
co tugad se sesmhad^' do anaghaidh a namhat. Mar do connuic 
in t-aitheach Rolandus chuige tainig na choinne''-^ ocus do glac 
he ocus do chuir ar a belaibh he da bhreiih leis cum in p/zhsuin. 
Ar bhfhaghail fhurtachta ocus neirt o Dia do Rolandus do glac 
se in t-eathacA co laidíV ar smeic'^ ocus do impo tar ais ar a ech 
é ocus do thniteadar cum talmaw ar aeinsHHgíd, ocus do eirghedar 
[araen F.] ar aeinshligid, ocus do chuatar ar a n-echaibh ocus do 
ben Rolandus a claidheamh amach dar ainm DurendaHs''* ocus 
tuc builH cum in aithigh ocus do gherr a ech ar dhó. Ar mbeith 
d'Ferreacutus da chois do bhi a cXaidheamh nocht in a laimh ocus 

1. amhaíZ do hheith caera romin aige F. & E. H. has "co caercham," with 
stroke over the m, which seems wrong. 2. Thns Lís. & H. íeaihduirn 

F. & E. 3. rolandus E. renallus delbaspina H. 1. F. and E. omit 

"duini." H. has "docum an prisuin .c." ,'>. hoellus E., H. & F. 6. do 
obadar a comrac osin amach H. 7. an F., H. & E. 8. dula Lís. dnl H. 
9. e E. & F. H. omits these words. 10. do saeradh dabith (danidh H.) 
o GaiUas F. (GoHas H.) GuiUas F. 11. co tuca se sesmach e E. H. omits. 
12. do chuir a laimh ann E. 13. sic Lis. & H. smcig F. & E. 

14. dubrendalis H. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 51 

till he had placed him in prison like a gentle sheep.^ Twelve 
fathoms in height was that giant, and huge was the length of 
his face. And there were four cubits in each hand and in each 
shin^ of him, and [the bulk of ?] three men's fists in each of his 
fingers. After that Charles sent Renaldus" de Alba Spina to the 
giant, and the giant caught him by the hand and bore him with 
him to the prison like the first man. After that there were sent 
Constantinus, a Roman ^ing," and Earl® Oellus to him, and he 
caught them both togethcr,' one of them in his right and the other 
in his left hand, and he put them into the same prison. There 
were sent after that in couples to him each time, and he used to 
put them all in prison. When the hosts beheld that, they being 
greatly amazed at it, Charles found no man to do battle with 
him from that out. Roland,* the prince of Charles the Great's 
army, saw that fear did not permit any man to go against the 
giant. He having trust in his own God,' albeit he got no wilhng 
leave from Charles, ''and being íirm in the faith," went to battle 
with the Paynim. 'And Charles was in great fear, for Roland 
was young at that time, and he wished to stop him, and he be- 
sought the Lord to save him out of the hand of the giant, as he 
saved David from Goliath, and that he might give him [power] 
to stand against his enemy.' 

When the giant saw Roland coming towards him, he came 
to meet him and seized him, and put him in front of him to carry 
him with him to the prison. But Roland receiving relief and 
help from God seized the giant powerfully by the chin, and turned 
him backwards upon his steed, and they fell to the ground together, 
and they arose together, and mounted their steeds [again], and 
Roland drew his sword whose name was Durendahs,^ and gave 
a blow to the giant and cut his horse in two. And Feracutus 
being on foot had his sword naked in his hand and threatened 

■ mitissima ovis. "cennuis"="cennsa" ? '' brachia et crura. C. Not 

in Fr. * Rainaldus. ^ Rex Romanus. « Comes. ^ Liierallv "on 

one way," the expression ar aeinshhgid is used in this and cognate texts 
in the meaning oí "together." Lat. "ambo pariter." ''-BNot in the 

Latin. ^-^ Not in Latin. '"' Not in the Latin. 1 The Latin texts do 

not mention the name of the sword. 



52 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

dc) rinno bagar ar Rolandus ocus do buail Rolandus do cXaidh- 
eamh he ocus ni d^rna mchoid do. Gidheadh do theilg a c]aidheamh 
as laimh in aithigh. Ocus ar ndul a claidhimh uadha tuc dorn d' 
hmsdiigídh Rolanduis ocus do bhuail a ech 'na hedan ocus do thuit 
si cum iíúmhan ocus fuair bas.' Ocus 'na dhiaigh sin do bhatar 
araen da cois gan cXaidheamh ag cechtar dhibh, ag CQ.ihitghaá le 
cXochaibh'^ ocus le a ndornuibh go noin. Ocus ar techt don 
eshariz.\n cuca fuair Ferreacutus os«d com/zraic o Rolandus. Ocus 
do orduigheadar etorra fein co ticfaitis^ ar na marach chum a cheih 
gan eich gan arm, ocus do aentuigheadar in ní sin, ocus do impo 
gach neach da arus fein acu in 2igaid [leg. adazg] sin. Ocus tancatar 
cu moch* ar na mharach a coinne a chele da cois mar do ghealladar, 
ocus tuc Ferreacutus claidheamh leis, ocus nír fhodhuin^ dó, or 
rwc Rolandus bata^ fada remhar leis ocus do bhi ac cath//g/?ad 
leis in mbata f edh in lai. Gidheadh ni derna urchóid d' Ferreacutus . 
Ar bhfhaghail osíííd o Rolandus d'Ferreacutus do ghabh codladh 
mor he. Ocus ar mbeith isin codladh sin don fhir mhor do chuir 
Rolandus [.i. an macam og udisal sin],' cloch fo n-a chenn innus 
cu mad usaidi dho codladh do denam, ocus nir lamh Crisiaigi 
[annsa doman an uair sin^] a dhith do dhenam. Or do bhi nos 
eaturra gebe don dá droing sin do Chrisiaighibh no do Seimsdín- 
eachaibh do bherad osfld da cheU nach dingentai mchóid etorra, 
ocus da mhrisedh neach in t-osad sin roimh a ré a hhsisughadh 
a ceífoir. 

Ar n-eirghi d'Ferreacutus as a chodladh do shuidh^ Rolandus 
laimh ris, ocus do íhia.rfaigh de*'* cinnus do bi se a com arrachta 
sin ocus a comh cruaidh nach roibhe egla aigi roim claidheamh 
na roimh cloich na roim arm ele." Adubhairt in fer mor "ni 
h-eidir fuilwíg/ífld orum acht am' imleagan."'^ Ar na clos sin do 



I . cum \ai}' ocus do chuaidh a hanum aiste E. 2. E. & F. omit clochaibh 
H. has "can arm acht a nduirnn." 3. The last few lines are differently 
phrased in F. & E. 4. annsa camair F. cowair E. 5. coma.in do E. 
H. omits. 6. ni ruc Rolandus ach bata fada reamar leis E. 7. Last 
íive words írom E. & F. 8. Last five words írom F. E. & F. read after 
that "íi ma.rhhadh. H. turns the sentence quite difíerentl}- and reads buain 
ris. 9 druid E. tt H. 10. E. adds co companta. H. mar companach. 

II. na roim arm ele sa domhan E. 12. am imlican F. & E. imlecan H. 

E. adds "amhain." 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 53 

Roland, and Roland sniote him with his sword but did him no 
hurt, howbeit he knocked the sword out of the giant's hand. And 
when his sword went from him he made a blow with his fist at 
Roland and struck his horse in the face, and it fell to the ground 
and died.* And after that thev were both on foot, and neither 
of them had a sword, fighting with stones and with their fists 
until noon. And when evening came to them Feracutus got a 
truce from Roland. And they arranged it between themselves 
that they would come to one another on the morrow without 
horses or arms, and they agreed to that, and each of them re- 
turned to his own abode that night. 

And they came against one another early on the morrow on 
foot, as they had promised, and Feracutus brought a sword with 
him, and it did not help him, for Roland had brought a long thick 
staff" with him and he kept fighting with the staff throughout the 
day. Hedidnohurt,however, toFeracutus. AssoonasFeracutus 
got a truce from Roland a heavy sleep seized him. And when 
the big man was in that sleep Roland, that noble young scion, 
put a stone under his head, so that it might be the easier for 
him to sleep, and no Christian in the world at that time 
ventured to hurt him. For there was a custom among them 
that whichever of the two sides, Christian or Saracen, might grant 
a truce to the other, no hurt should be done on either side,'^ and 
if one of them were to break that truce before its time he was to 
be put to death at once. 

On Feracutus rising out of his sleep, Roland sat beside him 
and asked him how it was he was so powerful, and so hardy that 
he was afraid of neither sword nor stone nor any other weapon. 
The big man answered "it is not possible to wound me except 
in the navel." When Roland heard that he held his peace, as 
though he did not understand him, and he turned his ear away 



» Thus Oliver's horse in the story of Fortibras is struck bctween the eyes 
and liilled. R C. XIX., p. 40. ^ Lit. "stick." Lat. bacuhim. 

" Lit. " between them." 



54 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Rolandus do thoct se mar nach inicíedh^ hc ocus do impo a cluas 

uadha. Ocus do \a.hhait in t-aitheach''^ tenga na Spainne ris 

ocus do thuic Rolandus he co maith.^ Do fhegh in íer mor ar 

Rolandus ocus do íh\a.íraigh a ainm dhc'* "Rolandus mh' ainm," 

ar se. Do ih'miiaigh in fer mor "ga cenel duid o chathí??g/ze am 

aghaidh-si a comh laidiV sin, or ní fhuaras riamh conuigi so neach 

do chuirfed egla orm." "Do chenel na Frangcach dam," ar 

Rolandus, "ocus mac derbhshethar^ do Sherlus Mhor me." 

Adubhairt Ferreacutus, "cred he [recht no H.] dhged na 

Frangcach" ? Do fhreagair Rolandus, "Dhged Crist maille na 

grasaibh^ ata againn," ar se, "ocus atamait fo impireacht Crist 

ocus ca.thmghmh ar son a cAreidim in meit íhetmuid." Adubhairt 

in Fadanach, ar cluinsin anma Crist dó, "Cia in Crist ut an a creitti- 

si" ? Adubhairt Rolandus "Mac do Dia aXhair," ar se, "nicadh 

o'n óigh ; do cesad san croich, do cuired san aáldicadh, do eirigh 

a cinn in treas la on adhlacrtd, do chuaidh ar deis an athar 

neamhádi" Adubhairt in Fa.danach "creidim' gurub e cvuthaigh- 

theoir nimhe ocus talmhan Dia,^ gidheadh ni raibhi mac aigi na 

athair. Acht mar nar geineadh e fein o emneach is mar sin nar 

gein se nech. Mar sin is aenda ata Dia ocus ni 'na t/zriur."' 

Adubhairt Rolandus "is fir gurub aenda ata Dia, gidheadh in 

tan adeiri nach fuil se tnthach atai dall isin credium," ocus 

adubhairt Rolandus "ma creidi isin athair creid isin mac ocus 

isin Spíorad naomh, or is Dia in t-athair fein, ocus Dia in mac, 

ocus Dia in Spiorad naomh .i.'°aeinndia marthanach a tri p^rsanuibh 

he." "Adeiri," ar'' Ferreacutus, "in t-athair do heith 'na Dhia ocus 

in mac do heith 'na Dhia ocus in Spioi-ad naomh do heiih 'na Dhia, 

ma a.se adh as tri dee ata ann ocus ni hein Dia." "Ni headh idir," 

ar Rolandus, "acht ein-dia trithach adeirim rit, ocus ata se aenda 

ocus'^ trithach ocus atait na tri persain sin comhimláw com- 

marthanach comchudrama dhoibh fein, .i. mar ata'^ an t-athair 

1. do rinne se tocht mar nach tuicíeadh se tenga na Seirrisdineach E. 
H. reads ncarly the same. 2. do labhair tenga na Spaine reis in a.thach E. 
H. nearlv the same. 3. F. & H. omit last seven words. 4. do úaríaigh 
ca hainm thusa a cvistaighe E. H. nearlv the same. 5. úerhhbrat\\&r E. 
6. grasaibh Dia E., F. & H. 7. creidmtdne E. & H. 8. aendia 

cumachtach E. H. id, omitting "aen." 9. is acndia ata ann ocus ni ina 

triar ata E., H. & F., but F. leaves out "ina" and "ata." 10. "ocus" E. 
Lis. writes above the line vel et as an aJternative reading. 11. arsi Fer. 
F., E. & H. 12. F., H. & E. omit "ocus." H. has trithtech passim. 

13. mar a íuil F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 55 

from him.* And the giant spolce to him in the language of Spain, 
and Roland understood him well. The big man looked at 
Roland and asked him his name. "Roland is my name," said 
he. The big man asked him, "what race are you of, that you 
fight against me so powerfulty ? for I never found so far a 
person to make me afraid." "Of the race of the Franks am I," 
said Roland, "and I am a sister's son of Charles the Great."" 
Feracutus asked, "what is the reUgion or law° of the Franks"? 
Roland answered, "the law of Christ with his graces we have," 
said he, "and we are under the empire of Christ, and we íight for 
his religion, in so far as we can." On hearing the name of Christ 
the Pagan asked, "who is that Christ in whom ye beheve" ? 
Roland answered, "a Son of God the Father," said he, "who was 
bom of the Virgin, who suffered on the cross, who was laid 
in the grave, who rose from the grave at the end of the third day, 
who went [to sit] on the right hand of the heavenly Father." 
Said the Paynim, "I beheve that God is the creator of heaven and 
earth, but he had neither son nor father. For as he was not himself 
begotten of any body, even so has he not begotten any one. Con- 
sequently God is one-fold and not three." Roland said, "it is 
true that God is one-fold, howbeit when you say that he is not 
three-fold you are blind in the faith," and Roland said "if you 
beheve in the Father, believe in the Son, and in the Holy Spirit, 
for the Father himself is God, and the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit 
God : one God everlasting in three persons is he." "You say," 
said Feracutus, "that the father is God, and the son God, and 
the Holy Spirit God, if so there are three Gods, and not one God." 
"Not so at all," said Roland, "but I speak to you of one three- 
fold God, and He is one and threefold, and those three persons 
are equally perfect, equally everlasting, co-equal with each other, 

* Tliese twenty-three words are not in the Latin texts. •> Last ten words 
are not in the Latin texts. " lex. 



56 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

ata in mac, ocus ata in Spiorad naornh. Ata áWscacht^ i> na 
p^rsanuibh ocus aendacht' isin substaint^ ocus an a mhordhacht. 
Guightír^ co cudnnna .i. Dia trithach ocus aenda guigid na 
h-aingil ar nim, ocus do connuic Ab;'rtham a tri ocus do ghuigh a 
haen." "Foillsigh sin dam," ar an t-aitheach, "cinnus do bheitis 
tri neithe an a n-aein ní." "Foillseochat duit é," ar Rolandus 
ar na neithWAi ocus ar na creatuiribh daenna"* .i. mar atait tri 
neithi isin clairsigh in tan do beir foghur .i. ealadha ocus teda 
ocus lamha ; is mar sin ata a tri a nDia .i, an t-athair ocus in mac 
ocus in S-piorad naom, ocus is aein Dia irtd. Ocus mar atait 
tri neithi isin cnai .i. croiceann ocus blaesc^ ocus etne, ocus ni 
fuil acht aen cnu ann sin [is mar sin atait iri persanna a nDia 
ocus'aen Dia ata ann, F. & E.], ocus atait tri neithi isin grein .i. 
solus^ ocus deallrad ocus tes, gidheadh as aen g/jnan sin.' Ocus 
atait tri neithi a roth na cartach^ ocus is aen chairt sin. Ocus atait 
tri neith'x innat fein .i. corp ocus anam ocus baill, ocus is aen nduine 
thu. Is mar sin adezmr aendacht ocus trithacht^ do heith a nDia." 
'"Adubhairt Ferreacutus "tuicim anois Dia do heith aenda ocus 
trithach, ocus ní thuicim cinnus do ghein an t-athair mac mar 
adeiri-si."'^ Adubhairt Rolandus "in creidi gurab é Dia do rinne 
Adam.'" '"Creidim," ar sé.'- Adubhairt Rolandus "a.mhail mar 
ata Adam ar na geinem/iflí;;í do neifni, gidheadh do ghein se meic, 
is mar sin ata Dia athair gan geinemhain o ein neach. Gidheadh 
do gein se mac gu diadha do-innisdi, roimh in uih aimsir, uaidh 
fein, mar do b' ail leis." Adubhaírt in t-eathach "is maith lim," 
ar se, "gach ní adeiri. Gidheadh cinnus do rinni an nech is Dia 
ann'^ mac, ataim ainmhfesach'^ gu h-uiUdhi ann." Adubhairt 
Rolandus "in te do rinne nemh ocus talamh do neifni ocus gach 
ní da bfuil innta is e do rinne mac do geinemhain isin oigh gan 
Sidbhar daena acht o anail coisea^ctha'^ in Spm//a naimh." "Is 

1. disleacht E. disle H. atait dislithi . . . aenda F. 'J. sifbal- 

taigh E. 3. guidhit F. giiidh co c iat H. 4. Lis. has dacna. 

5. plaesg F. plaesc H. G. gile H., F. & E. 7. ata ann F. (ív: E. 

iat H. 8. cairti F. 9. aenda ocus trithach F. tredacht H. 

10-10. Omitted in F. 11. adhamh. 12. ar an fer mor H. 13. noch is 

dia ann F. & E. 14. ainmisecA F. ainbhfessach E. 15. coisrica F. 

coisecí'a E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 57 

that is as the Father is, so the Son is, and so the Holv Spirit 
is. There is propriety in the persons* and unity in the sub- 
stance and in His greatness. They are equally prayed to, 
namely, it is to God three-fold and one the angels in heaven 
pray, and Abraham saw [him as] three and prayed to [him as] 
one." "Explain to me," said the giant, "how three things** 
could be one thing," "I will," said Roland, "both in things 
and*^ in human creatures, namely, how there are three things 
in the harp when it sounds, namely art, strings and hands, 
so there are three in God, namely the Father, the Son and 
the Holy Spirit, yet they are one God. And as there are three 
things in the nut, namely husk, shell and lcernel,'' yet there 
is only one nut there, even so are there three persons in God 
and yet there is only one God ; and there are three things in 
the sun, light, glare and heat,® although there is only one sun. 
And there are three things in the wheel of a cart, yet that is 
one cart,' and there are three things in yourself, namely body and 
soul and members, and yet you are one person, even so is it said 
that there is a oneness and a threeness in God." Feracutus 
answered, " I understand now that God is one and three-fold, 
but I do not understand how the Father begot a Son as you say." 
Roland said, "Do you believe that it was God who made Adam" ? 
"I do," said he. Said Roland, "just as Adam was created out of 
nothing, and yet he begat sons, even so is God the Father unbe- 
gotten by any one. And yet he begat a son, divinely, ineffably, 
before all time, from himself, as he desired." Said the giant, 
"I hke," said he, "everything you say, yet how did he who is 
God make a Son ? I am utterly ignorant^ of that." Said Roland, 
"he who made heaven and earth out of nothing, and everj^thing 
that is in them, it is he who begat a Son in the Virgin without 
human material, but from the consecrating breath of the Hol}^ 

»"ln personis est proprietas, in essentia est unitas." Propnetas is here 
translated by dilseacht or disleacht (thc same word). "Dilse a fhorainn do 
thabhairt do," means to give one true and undisputed possession of land. 
''qualiter tria unum sint. "^ The last four words not in the Latin text. 

■1 in amigdola, corium testa et nucleus. « candor splendor calor. 

' There is evidently something omitted here. The three things in the 
wheel, nave, spokes, and tyre (or fellies), are left out. The second "cart" 
should be "wheel." Castet's Latin has "medius {Fr. modius) brachia ct 

circulus." e penitus ignoro. 



58 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

air' sin shaethra/g/zim," ar in fer mor, "cindus do gheiníedh'^ mac 
a mbroin oighi gan siP dtmte mar adeiri." Adubhairt Rolandus 
"Dia do chruthaigh Adam gan sil duitte ele, do rinne se a mac 
fein do geinem^am on oigh gan sil duine. Ocus mar do geineadh 
o Dhia athair é gan duini airithi'* aigi is mar sin do geineadh o 
n-a maihaÍT he gan duini na aihair aigi. Or is mar sin do ba 
d^rtg/zmhaiseach mac De."^ ^Adubhairt Ferreacutus "is mor is 
nar hm a radh gu ngeinfidhi o'n oigh gan duine."^ Adubhairt 
Rolandus "in té do heir in gas ponaire as in ngmnne ocus dobeir 
piasda as na grainnibh' ocus do ní na heisc ocus na beich [do] 
geinemhuin gan sil duine,^ do rinde se in ogh do gheineamhain Dia 
ocus duini gan sil feardha^ ocus gan tvna.i\\eadh da corp, ocus do 
rinni an céd duine mar a dubhart gan sil'° duine ele. Do b'urasa 
do cu ngeiníeadh a mhac fein on oigh gan sil daena." Adubhairt 
Ferreacutus "as maith as eidir gu ngeinfidhi o'n oigh, gidheadh 
mad do ba mac" De é nir b' eidíV leis bas d'fág/iaí/'^ [annsa croich 
mar SiduhhartSLÍs F. & E.] Or ni fhaghand Dia bas choighthi."'^ 
"As maith adeiri" ar Rolandus "gur bh' eidíV a gheinem/mi« o'n 
oigh, ocus mar nícadh mar dhuine he do b'eidir leis has d'fha.ghail 
mar dhuine. Or gach nech gheint^r mar dhuine do gheibh has 
mar dhuini. Or ma 's increitti^'* da gheinemhain as increitti 
da has ocus da eiseirghi." Adubhairt Ferreacutus "cinnws as 
inc/z;-eitti da eserghi" ? Adubhairt Rolandus : "fuair se bas 
ocus do h-aithbeoadh he in treas la."'^ Ot cna.\aidh Ferreacutus 
sin do rindi ingnrtd mor'^dhe ocus adubhairt re Rolandus, "Cred 
uma labmi in méid^'' sin do briatmibh dimhaine rim, or ni h-eidir 
duine marbh do thabhairt chum bethfl arís." Adubhairt Rolandus 
"Ni hé mac Dé amhain do eiseivigh o mharbhuibh acht an uiH 
dhuine o thws in domhain gu crich na betha, atait siat cum na 
heiseirghi coitcinne'^ a bhfhiadhnííísi in hveithemhan d'fhaghail a 

1. airc E. Is trid .s. F. is aire sin machtnaigim H. 2. geiwíidh E. 

3. silne E. silni F. 4. duine na athair F., E. & H. 5. Dia E. & F. 

6-6. Omitted in E. 7. annsna cnoaibh E. 8. gan silne íerrdha. 

F. & E. 9. gan silne daena. E. 10. gan truaiWeadh silne E. 11. damadh 
mac E. 12. diaghhail do shir. 13. co brach F. do sír H. 14. ma 

creidi E. m. credi F. 15. "in nech íuair bas ocus do haithbeoghadh 

in treas la" E. & H. is increiti a nech fuair bas do eirigh se a.t.l. F. 16. E. 
adds agus machtnug/mí/^ romhor. 17. meide E. meidiF. 18. Thisword 

from E. only. 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 59 

Spirit." "It is this [point] I am labouring over,"" said the big 

man, "how he could beget a son in the womb of a Virgin without 

human seed, as you say." Said Roland, "God who created Adam 

without the seed of any other person begot his own Son from 

the Virgin without man's seed, and as he was begotten of God 

the Father without his having any human father,'' even so was 

he begotten of his mother without any human father. For 

thus it befitted the Son of God."'^ Said Feracutus, "I think it 

a great shame^ to say that there could be begotten [a son] from 

the Virgin without a person." Said Roland, "he who brings 

the bean-stalk^ out of the grain, and brings worms out of the 

grains, and generates the fish and the bees without male seed — 

he brought it to pass' that the Virgin brought forth God and man 

without male seed and without defilement of her body, and he 

made the íirst man, as I have said, without the seed of anyone 

else ; it was easy for him that he should beget his own son from 

the Virgin without human seed." Said Feracutus, "it is quite 

possible that he might be begotten of the Virgin, however if he 

was the son of God he could not have died on the cross as you 

have said, for God never dies." "You say well," said Roland, 

"that he might have been begotten of the Virgin, and as he was 

born as a man he might die as a man, for every person who is 

born as a man dies as a man, for, if his birth is credible, his death 

and resurrection are credible also." Said Feracutus, "how is his 

resurrection credible" ? Said Roland, "He died and the third 

day he was brought to hfe again." When Feracutus heard that, he 

made great marvel of it, and said to Roland, "why speak you so 

many vain words to me, for it is not possible to bring a dead man 

to Hfe again." Roland answered, "it is not the Son of God alone 

who rose again from the dead, but every person f rom the beginning 

of the world to the end of the world they must to the general 

*in hoc laboro. •* Uhus E., F. and H The I.atin texts are not clear either, 

"sicut de Deo patre nascitur na«citur sine matre." " Lit. "was the Son of 

God very handsome." •* "valde erubesco." ^ qui fabae gurguUonem et 

arbori et gUsci facit gignerc vermem. ^ Lit. "made." 



60 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

tuarastail do reir a n-uilc no a maitheasa.' Agus ar an adhbí/;' sin 
Dia fein do rindi no'- doní in crann beg do chur a bhfhas ard, ocus 
doní in grainne cruithneachta ar^ lobhadh ocus ar bhfhag/;ín7 
háis a talumh d'aithbhcodhrtí/A aris ocus do thabhairt ioxaidh,* 
do ghena in Dia cedna sin an uih dhuine a n-a coWnaihh dilse fein, 
ocus a n-a spirutaibh d'athbheod/mí/A o hhas co htthaidh don ló 
dheighineach." Ocus adubhairt Rolandus "gabh chugat nadwir 
in leo^hain, or mar do ní in \eomhan a chuikm d'aithbheod/«/g/mí//í 
le n-a anail a cind in treas la ca hi^gnad gur aithbeoaíg/z Dia athíí/>'^ 
a mac fein a cinn in treas la o mharbhuibh. Ocus ní réd nua re 
Uiicsm^ duit co ndechaidh mac De o hhás co hethaidh ór do 
aithbeort?g/í se moran do mharbhuibh roim a eseirghi. Or mar do 
mhiísgail Ehas ocus Eleseus' co h-urasa moran do mharbhaibh, do 
b' usa ina sin do Dia a mac fein do mhusgladh o mhsLrhhiiibh.^ 
Adubhairt Ferreacutus "do chím gu maith gach ní adeiri, ocus 
cinnus do chuaidh ar nimh mar adubArais ni thuicim he.'^ 

Adubhairt Rolandus "in nech thainic anuas do nimh do 
b' mussL dho dhul suas arís, ocus in nech do eivigh o mharbhaibh 
uaidh fein, do b' musa. leiss dul ar nimh. Ocus gabh cugat sompla'" 
morain do neithibh, or do chí roth in mhuilmw in mhéid teit sé 
o uachtar co h-ichtar co teit sé in méid sin o ichtar co h-uachtar. 
Or da ndeachtha fein o uachtar co hichtar cnuic do budh eidzV let 
aris dul isin shgidh chí''í/na suas," ocus do eirigh in gnan toir ane 
ocus do chuaidh thiar fai,'^ m3.iseadh an t-inad as a tainig mac 
Dé do chuaidh se ann aris." 

Adubhairt Ferreacutus "do ghen ca.thughadh rit ar an a.dhhay^^ 
sin, ocus ma 's fir an c;'eidemh sin ad^2>i-si biat-sa claiti, ocus 
ma 's^* breag he beir-si claiti, ocus biaidh tathair'^ mharthanach 
don chinedh c\a.iíidhear, ocus biaidh moiadh ocus anoir don claiteoir 
do shír." 

I. ma ngnimarthai6/! masa maith )io masa olc do rinne gach^ diiine F. 
mar do tíiiUedar H. 2. Noch doni F. doní H. 3. dowi, tt. omitting 
the first "doni." 4. a thoTaidh E. 5. Dia uile cumachtach E. (>. ni 
red bec re na faicsin E. asotuicsiwa duit F. ni bec re faicsin H. a fasad H. 
7. Eliesejís H. 8. E. adds agus do rinne ^Mac De moran do dhusacht roimh 
a bhas Ma i^eadh is mo na sin do heidir leis íein eiseirge o marhaibh E. 
F. (.1- H. are almost identical with this. 9. ataim ainmfisec/? co mor 
ann F. E. & H. reads almost the same. 10. an eisimplair H. sawla E. 

II. tarais E. 12. F. omits last twelve words. E. reads "a folach" for 
"fai." 13. cunnradh F. & E. 14. Masa F. & E. 15. taithir F. 



THE CONOUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 61 

resurrection in the presence of the Judge, to get their reward accord- 
ing to their evil or their good. And for that reason God himself 
who made or makes" the httle tree to grow up high, and who makes 
the grain of wheat after rotting and dying in the earth to come 
to hfe again and to bring forth fruit, this same God shall cause 
every person to be revived from death to hfe in their own proper 
bodies and spirits at the last day." And Roland said, "take the 
nature of the hon, for as the lion brings its whelps to hfe again with 
its breath at the end of the third day, what wonder that God the 
Father brought to hfe his own son at the end of the third day from 
the dead. And it is no new thing for you to understand that 
the Son of God went from death to hfe, for He brought to 
hfe many who were dead before his resurrection. For as Ehjah 
and Ehsha'' easily awoke many dead, it was easier than that for 
God to waken his own son from the dead." Said Feracutus, "I 
well see everything you say, but how he went up to heaven, as 
you say, I do not understand that." 

Roland answered, "He who came down from heaven, it was 
easy for him. to go up again, and he who rose of himself from the 
dead, it were easy for him to go to heaven. And consider' 
the example of many [other] things, for you see the mill wheel, 
as it goes from overhead to underneath, so it goes from under- 
neath to overhead. For if you were yourself to go from the top 
to the bottom of a hill, you would be able again to go up by 
the same way. And the sun rose in the east yesterday and went 
under in the west, and so the place out of which the Son of God 
came, there he went again." 

Feracutus said, "I shall íight you on that matter and if 
that faith you talk of is true I shall be overthrown, and if it is 
false you shall be overthrown, and lasting disgrace shall be to 
the race which shall be overthrown, and praise and honour for 
ever to the victor." 



» crescere fecit Fr. facit C. •> Hclias et Helisaeus. " Lit. "take to 

vourself," "tibi sumc," both the Latin texts add to these instances "avis 

volans in aere quantum descendit tantum ascendit." 



62 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR 

"Bidh amlaidh sin," ar Rolandus. 

Ocus do uUmhaigh' gach nech acu cum in comraic ocus du 
cha.thaigh Rolandus co íeardhsL i n-aghaidh in Fhaddinaigh. Tuc 
Ferreacutus builli claidhimh cum Holanduis ocus do fhill Rolandus 
da thaeibh clé, ocus do dhín é fein ar cur an bhata eto^ra ocus in 
claidheamh, ocus do ^eam.dh bata Kolanduis don builli sin, ocus 
do loigh- in t-aitheach ar Rolandus. Ocus ar na aithne do 
Rolandus nar bh' eidir leis dul uaidh ar aen chor, do ataigh^ 
furtacht mheic Muire. Ocus mar do dheonaígA Dia dhó do 
thocaibh se in t-aitheach dhe began ocus do ghlac a cXaidheamh 
ocus do ghow sé in fear mor 'na imlinn ocus is mar sin do therna^ 
uadha. Do éigh an fer mor co hard ocus do ghoir a dhia fein 
da fhurtacht .i. Macametus. Ar na clos sin do na Vadd^nchaibh 
tancatar da ixmsalgidh ocus rucsat leo é cum na cathrach ocus 
do chuaidh Rolandus slan cum a mhuinntíVi f^m.^ 

Ar na faícsin sin do Sherlus do chuaidh cum na cathrach 
ocus do gab hi ocus do mharbh in fer mor innti ; ocus na Cristaighi 
do bhi a mbraighdi««s isin tor ruc leis iat. 



AN VI. SGEL DHEAG ANN SO. 

Beacan aimsiri 'na dhiaigh sin do íoiWsigheadh do Sherliis'^ 
cu roibhi ri Sibilie ocus Altumaior ri Cordubia' isin csLthraigh 
darab ainm Cordubani^ Ehraim ac íniveach ris cum catha do 
thabhairt do, ocus do b' iat sin na righa do theith roime a cath 
cathrach na Pampilone.^ Ocus do ullmaigh^^ Serlus do dhul cum 
catha na n-aghaidh. Ocus ar ndul do Sherlus a bhfocus do 
Cornubani" do chuatar na righa remhraitti cona sluaghaih armtha 
éiáighthi a coinne Serluis tri mhili on cha.thair. Ocus do bhatar'''^ 
na Seirrisdínigh a timcheall .xx. míle,^^ na Cvistaighi xxmorro se 
mile. Ocus do rinne Serlus dronga. da mhuinntir. An ced drong'^ 

1. deisigh E. 2. dolaigh E. 3. daitcidh E. do bi f.m.M. air E. 

H. is elligible. 4. terno F. & E. 5. Lis. omits "fein." (\. don 

impir grasamhail F & E., which omits "do foillsigheadh." 7. cornubia 

E. & F. H. is illegible. 8. Cornubani F. 9. Babilone F. 10. dheisigh 

F. & E. 11. Cornubia F. & E. 12. do biad nuimir do badar E. 

13. .X. m. H.. F. & E. 14. cuid F. & E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 65 

"Let it be so,"'' said Roland. 

And each of them made ready for the battle, and Roland 
fought manfully against the Paynim. Feracutus gave a sword blow 
to Roland, and Roland bent to the left and protected himself 
by putting the staff between himself and the sword. And Roland's 
staff was cut in two by that blow, and the giant pressed in on 
Roland. And on Roland's recognizing that he could not escape 
from him in any way, he prayed for the succour of the Son of Mary. 
And as God willed it for him he shook° the giant a little from him, 
and seized his sword and wounded the big man in the navel, and 
it was thus he escaped from him. The big man cried aloud 
and called on his own God, namely Mahomet, to help him. When 
the Paynims heard that, they came to him and carried him off with 
them to the city, and Roland went safe to his people. 

When Charles saw that, he went to the city and took it, and 
slew the big man in it, and the Christians who were in captivity 
in the tower he carried off with him. 



SIXTEENTH CHAPTER. 

A SHORT time after that it was shown to Charles that the King 
of Sibihe^ and Altumaior,^ King of Corduba, were in the city 
whose name is Cordubani Ebraim,' waiting for him, to give him 
battle. These were the kings who had fied before out of the 
battle of the city of Pampilone.^ And Charles made ready to 
do battle with them. And as Charles came near to Cornubani^ 
the aforesaid kings with their hosts in arms and armour 
came against Charles three miles out from the city. And the 
Saracens were about twenty thousand,' the Christians however 
were [only] six thousand. And Charles made separate bands of 

* liat. ^ Lit. "between them." "^ Lit. "raised" "erexit se et revolvit 

eum subter se." ^i.e. SeviUe. '^i.e. Almanzor. ' apud Cordubam 

Ebrahim C. Ebraim Fr. i.e. Cordova. ^i.e. Pampeluna. ^ Lat. 

Cordubani. ' The Latin texts have ten thousand, so have E. & F. 



64 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR 

dhibh do dainibh hiidiri dcrbhtha ; in dara drong, coisighi ; in 
treas drong, ridiri. 

Do ronsat na Seirrisdínigh mar an cédna tri dronga dha 
muinnXir. Ocus do urail Serlus in ced drong da mJiuinntir fein 
do dul anaghaidh na ccd droingi dona Vad^.nchaibh. Tangatar 
na Scirvisdínigh anaghaidh na Cristaighi ocus gach aen dibh maillg 
re haigthibh' adhuathmura tacair, ocus siat adharcach fesocach 
cosmhail ris na dia.h\aibh [a n-a cruth ocus i n-a ndeilbh ocus a n-a 
sua.itheantas tachair, ocus h'a.dhhhiír hidga ocus gráa.ine do feraibh 
in domain íccha.iv) ocus silleadh ar a sua.icintu saibh dofaisneisi 
in inbaigh sin E.] ocus sais a cosmhaiiiiis tabur 'na lamhaibh aga 
mbualadh- co laidir. Ar cluinsin ghothann ocus fhoghor [ocus 
mongair E.] na n-eidighi [ndraigheachta E.] sin d'echaibh na 
Cristaighi ocus ar bhfrticsin na cosmhaile^ adhuathmhar sin, do 
ghabh egla [ocus uaman E.] mor iat, ocus do im]^oideadar tar a 
n-ais mar do h\\eidis [ar dasacht ocus E.] ar buih, ocus nir bh'eidir 
leis na ridiVibh a conwmhail [na a fastogh E.] ar aen chor. Ocus 
mar do conncadur in da droing ele do na Cristaighibh an céd drong 
ag teitheadh [cucu E.] do theithedar fein [co himlan E.] leo. Ar 
n-a frticsin sin do Sherlus do ghah ingantus mor he no gur aithin 
in t-adbar fa ar theithset, ocus do ghah gairdeachas ro mhor na 
Padanacha de sin, ocus do leanadur na Cristaighi gu cruaidh no 
gu rangatur laimh re sliabh mor. Ocus is bec nach roibhi"* in 
shabh sin da mhiH on ca.thair remraidti. Ocus do chothai ghedar^ 
na Cristaighi ann sin cum catha do thabhairt dona Fadanachaibh. 
Ocus ar n-a fha/csin sin dona Vadanachaibh do chuadar bí^can 
tar a n-ais ocus do shxxighedar na Crisiaighi a foslongport ann 
sin, ocus do batar ann in agaidh sin.^ Isin m«dain ar na marach 
ar ndenumh chomhairli do Sherlus do ihnra.i\ ar a lucht cathaighthi 
cind a n-ech d' folach le h-edrtch indiis nach fazcdis' na clesa 
adhuathm/íwra do ronsat na Fa.dha.naigh in la roimhe sin, ocus do 
urail cluasa a n-ech dh' ia.dhadh innus nach cluiwdis^ foghair 

1. haitibh coimecha a. E. 2. ag a cowíbualadh co hallmr/rdha E. 

'i. na naidhce nadhuat/mia^'a naimdeamhla E. 4. nach rabadar insliabh 

sin da mile on cathair roime sin E., which seems nonsense, but H. which is 
here nearly illegible .-eems to read the same. 5. cothaidar F. illegible 

in H. 6. co tainic la ar na marach E. 7. faicfidis E. faicidais F. 

8. cluiníidhdis E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 65 

íhis people. The first band was of strong and proven men, the 
second band of foot soldiers, the third band was of knights.* 

The Saracens in hke manner made three separate bands of 
Iheir people. And Charles ordered the íirst band of his people 
to go against the first band of the Pagans. The Saracens came 
'on against the Christians, each of them with dreadful contrived faces 
[i.e. masks], horned and bearded hke devils in their shape and 
appearance, and their emblems of battle, and it were a cause 
of starthng and horror to the men of the world to regard or look 
at their indescribable emblems at that time, with instruments hke 
tabors in their hands'' which they were beating vigorously. So soon 
as the horses of the Christians heard the voices and sounds and 
noises of those trappings of wizardry, and beheld those awful appear- 
ances, great terror and horror seized them, and they turned back 
as though they were distraught or mad, and the knights could not 
keep them or hold them in at aU. And when the other two bands 
of the Christians saw the first band íleeing towards them, 
they themselves, the whole of them, íied with them. When Charles 
saw that, great astonishment seized him, until he understood the 
reason why they fied. And great joy seized the Pagans at this, 
and they followed the Christians hard, until they came'^ close to 
a great mountain, and that mountain was almost two miles from 
the aforenamed city. And the Christians maintained theirground(?) 
to give the Pagans battle.'' And when the Pagans saw that, they 
withdrew a little, and the Christians encamped there, and they 
were there that night. And on the morning of the next day 
Charles taking counsel ordered his fighting men to cover the heads 
of their horses with cloths, so that they might not see the awful 
tricks* which the Pagans had performed the day before. And he 
gave orders to stop the ears of the horses so that they might not 
hear the dreadful noises of their tabors or their [other] marvellous 

*Militum. ^' tenentesque singuli singula timpana. " "Pervenimus." 

Turpin is supposed to be writing. ^ ibi vero omnes coadunali ex 

nobismetipsis asilum fecimus iUos expectantes ad bellum. Both texts. 

e larvas 



66 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

[adhuathmrtra E.] a tapur na a n-esL\adha.n n-ingantach. Ocus ar 

n-Í3idhadh shul ocus cluas a n-ech do na Cristaighibh do cuadar 

gu dothchusach cum an chatha, ocus nír chuiredar' foghaíV nait 

cealga na ndaine neawmbúid an-umal orra. Ocus do batar o 

m/iflduin co medhon lai mar sin ag ca.thu ghadh. Ocus is mor do 

ma.vhadh do na Fada.nchaibh. Gidheadh ni dearna.d didhbail doibh 

uile.2 Ocus do thinoiledar rna Seirrisdinigh E.] cum aein inaid 

ocus do bhi cairt ar a lar ocus ocht ndaimh ag a tarraing, ocus is 

uirri do bidh a mhratach^ ocus as e fa bes ag na Fada.nchaibh 

in comhfhad do hheith a mhratach 'na sesamh gan nech acu do 

theitheadh as in cath. Mar do aithin Serlus sin, ar bhfhaghail 

neirt o Dia do chuaid sé ar lar na 'Pada.nach ocus do gherr iat da 

dheis ocus da clí^ no go rainic in cairt ar a raibhi a suaichentas» 

ocus tuc builli cXaidhimh don pheirsi^ do bi ag imchur na bmtaighi, 

ocus do gherr he,^ ocus do inwto' in cairt. Ocus do mhoidh do 

na Vada.nchaibh ar na fhaícsin sin, ocus do theithset is gach aird. 

Ocus do ronad gairthi^ mora dasachtacha ag an da shluagh, ocus 

do ma.xhadh ocht mile do na Seirrisdineachaibh ann sin. Do 

marbadh ann ri Sibilie, ocus do chuaidh Altumaior ri Cordubiae^ 

maiUe da mhíle fer annsa ca.thTaigh. Ocus ar na mharach do 

thinnluic in fer claiti sin in cathair do Sherlus ar in cunnrad so 

.1. ha.isdedh do ga.hhail chuigi ocus in cathair do heiih aigi o Sherlus, 

ocus oglachas mnul do thabhairt do, o sin suas. 

Ar ndenamh na ngnimartha'" so do Sherlus do roinn se tigearnas 
ocus p^ouinnsedha na Sbainne ar na cinedhachnihh da mhuinntix 
le'r b'ail anmain innti, ocus tigearnas Nauorrorum ocus Baclorum 
do lucht na Normonde, ocus tigearnas na ca.islean do na F^'ang- 
cachaibh ocus tigeamas Uaghete" ocus Secangusde'^ do na 
Grecachaibh ocus do lucht na h-Apulia, ocus tigearnas na hArguine 
do lucht na Picairdi ocus talamh Auladulue'^ do na hAilmainechaibh 
ocus tigeamus na Portigale'^ do Lochlannchaibh ocus do lucht 

1. cuimnigháar E. cumg F., the original was probably "na cumgat" from 
"conicim" I am able. H. has "nir fechadar do celgaib," etc. 2. nir 

dib iad uile H. 3. do himarcaigh^ítóA a bratacha E. 4. dobhi ag a 
marbaííA gacha taebha de E.. 5. donirsigh F. dowfersait E. don 

crand H. 6. hi E. 7. impo E. & F. 8. eighmhe E. & F. do gairedar 
an da sluagh. H. which ends here. 9. Cornubia E. 10. gniw E. 

ll.nagedheE. 12. Cesar augMsta E. 13. auladulup E. 14. PortingaliE 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 67 

arts. And as soon as* the eyes and ears of their horses were 
closed by the Chrístians they went boldly into battle, and neither 
the sounds nor deceptions of the fierce disobedient people affected 
them. And they'' were íighting thus from the morning to the 
middle of the day. And great numbers of the Pagans were slain 
However they were not all hurt. And the Saracens gathered into one 
place, and there was a cart° in their midst and eight oxen drawing 
it, and it was [set up] on it their standard** was wont to be. And 
this was the custom of the Pagans, — so long as their standard 
should remain standing not a man of them would ílee from the 
battle. When Charles recognized this, he, receiving strength from 
God, went into the middle of the Pagans and cut them down right 
and left until he reached the cart whereon their ensign was, and 
he gave a stroke of his sword to the pole® which was carrying 
the standard and cut it down, and turned the cart.' And on 
seeing that the Pagans broke and íled in every direction. And 
great and desperate cries were raised by the two hosts, and eight 
thousand of the Saracens were slain there. The King of Sibilie^ 
was slain there and Altumaior, King of Cordubiae, went [back] into 
the city with two thousand men. And the next day that defeated 
man surrendered the city to Charles, on this condition, that he 
should receive baptism and hold the city from Charles and do him 
obedient service from that out. 

When Charles had accomphshed these deeds he divided the 
lordship and provinces of Spain among those tribes of his own people 
who desired to remain in it, and [settled] the lordship of the Navarri 
and Bach'' on the people of Normandy,' and the lordship of the 
Castles^ on the Franks, and the lordship of Vaghete'' and Selangusde' 
on the Greeks and on the people of Apulia, and the lordship of 
Arguine on the people of Picardy,"" and the land of Auladulue on 
the Allemanni," and the lordship of Portugal on the Lochlannachs 

" ars mirabilis ! illeco et, etc. ^ nostri. <= plaustrum. ** vexillum 

rubeum eorum. « tunc propria spatha perticam quae vexillum susten- 
tabat abscidit. ' Last four words not in Latin. ^ i.e. Seville. ^ Terram 
Basclorum. ' Britannis. 3 Castellanorum. '' Nagerae. ' Caesar- 

augustae=Saragossa. ™ Terram Aragonis Pictavis. C. Arraginis Picardis 
Fr. " Terram Alandaluí Teutonicis. 



68 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Flondruis, ocus tigcarnus na Gailinnsi do na Frangcachaibh, or do 
b' aibinn leo he.' Ocus ni roibhi nech isin Sbflj;;^ o sin suas do 
chaitheochí^ííA anaghaidh Serluis. 



AN SECHTMADH SGEL DHEG ANN SO. 

Ocus na diaigh sin ar hhíha.chaiP urmoir a shiaigh do Sherlus 
annsa Sbainn do chuaidh se d'fisrachadh cnche Sa« Sem. Ocus 
in lucht le'r bh'ail Siitmghadh isin crich sin, do urail a mbaisd^íí/í. 
Ocus gach nech fuair ar n-impodh cum na hirsi Padanaighi do 
urail a cloidhmheaííA [ocus a ndichíimadh, E.] Ocus na dhiaigh 
sin do ovduigh^ ar fud na cathrach esbaic ocus sacairt. Ocus do 
orduigh se esbuig ocus righa ocus prinnsadha do rinni se ar gradh 
San Sem isin Shain ocus isin GaiHnnsi da mheith* ann in tmth 
sin, ocus da mheith^ umhal d'esboc San Sem o sin suas. Ocus 
nír ovduigh se esboc do heith a Siriam,^ or nír hreathnuigh se gur 
cathair hi ; acht do orduigh a heith na haih íó chathair Com- 
postilanensis.' Ocus do badhas-sa fein .i. esboc Turpi«us airdesboc 
Reme,«tis* a comairle na neithe so, ocus do bennuighes tempall 
ocus altoíV San Sem ar iura,ileamh Sherhiis, ocus nai*^ n-eshuic 
ara fhochair, ocus do b'i aimsir sin a callain Juhus.*'' Ocus do 
urail Serhis in Sbám co huihíiM ocus in Ghaihnnsi do heithumhal^^ 
don tempoll so. Ocus tuc mar tabhrtrius don ecliíz's cédna. tighearndi 
gacha tighi isin Sbam ocus isin Ga.i\innsi do thabhairt .iiii. tallann 
oir^^gacha hliadhna mar chís di, ocus a hheith saer o gach uiH dhaeirsi 
[tre furaihm an ri .i. Serlus F. & E.] Ocus do ordaigh teghdhuis 
apstohcda'^do ghairm dhi o sin amach, ar son cuirp San Sem do 
hheith a cuwsanad^^innti. Ocus dourail co mad innti do bheidis 
comhairkííha esbac na Sháini co h-uihWM ar connmhail, ocus 
cu mad innti do héarthai slata^^ esbac ocus coroine righ amach, 

1. The last sixty-five words are omitted in F. 2. fadhail E. 3. E. 

adds ocus do c>-edhail (?) se. 4. noch do bhi E. do bi F. 5. do 

heith E. & F. 6. oir nir ordaigh se a heith in a baile easpuic asiriam oir 
nid/zeflí'nasegur crtí/zaíri. E. & F. 7. Campostalinensis E. 8. remoisE. 
Both E. & F, add "na righ." F. reads "Remtis," with a stroke over the m. 
9. nai neaglasa maille naonbur easpuc E. 10. luil E. 11. cohumall 
E. & F. E. adds after Serlus "impir na crodhachta ocus an gaisgidh." 
12. oir írom E. 13. Tegais abstolica Fl 14. a íolach F. 15 b-tai F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 69 

and the people of Flanders,'' and the lordship of GaHcia on the 
Franks, for they thought it deUghtfuL'' And there was no one 
in Spain from that out who would fight against Charles. 



SEVENTEENTH CHAPTER. 

And after that Charles — íinding [?] the bulk of his army in Spain — 
went to visit the country of Saint James and the people who 
desired to reside in that country he ordered that they should 
be baptized. And every person whom hc found [turning] 
to the Pagan faith he ordered him to be put to the sword and 
beheaded. And after that he ordained throughout the cities*" 
bishops and priests. And he ordained bishops and kings and 
princes whom he created for the love of Saint James in Spain 
and in Gahcia, to be there then,^ and to be submissive to the 
bishop of Saint James from that forward." And he did not 
ordain any bishop to be in Siriam' for he did not consider that 
that was a city,^ but he ordered it to be a place subject to the 
city of Compostilanensis (Compostella).'' And I myself, namely 
Bishop Turpin, Archbishop of Rheims, was one of the Councillors' 
concerning these things, and I blessed the temple and altar of 
St. James at the command of Charles, with nine^ bishops along 
with me ; and that time was the Ralends of July. And Charles 
ordered the whole of Spain and Gahcia to be obedient to this 
church. And he gave as a gift to that same church that the lord 
of every housein Spain andin Gahciashould givefourtalentsof gold 
every year as tribute to it, and that it should befreefromeverysort 
of bondage by order of the king, i.e. of Charles. And he ordained 
that it should be called a seat apostohc from that out, on account 
of St. Jamcs' body being at rest in it. And he ordained that it 
should be in it that the councils of the bishops of all Spain should 
be held, and that it should be in it that bishops croziers'' and 
kings crowns should be given out at the hands of the bishop of 

»Dacis et Flandris. i» "inhabitare noluerunt," which gives a quite 

different meaning. «na cathrach — no doubt here Gen Plur "civitates." 

dpraesentes et íuturi. « I am not sure that I have tran.slated rightly. 

' apud Yriam, also Iriam, Lat. ^ pro urbe non reputavit. '' sedi Com- 
postellensi Fr. CompostiUanensi C. ' Li/. " in the Council of these 

things." i Fr. reads quadraginta. C. reads novem. ^ Lit. "rods" or 

"wands," "virgae episcopales." 



70 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

do lamhuibh esbaic na cathrach fcin, a n-anoir San Sem. Ocus 
da mheith^ in creidium no aithinta Dé co h-eshadha.ch isna cHochaibh"^ 
eh t/-e pt'íicadh na popa/ cu mad do comairli an e'.-haic cedna do 
cuirfidhi ar iul iat. Ocus is oircheas do h-orduiged in creidium 
do cothughadh ocus d'a.noTughadh isin eclats anoraigh sin. Or 
mar do h-orduighedh creidiz<m Crisi ocus tegduis a.psto\icda le 
hEoin Suibhisci?^/ brathaíV San Sem isin rann oirrtAearach don 
domhan isin cathair re n-abar Efeisumh, is mar sin do b'oirches 
in creidium cetna ocus teagduis a.pstolicda. ele dh'ordughadh le 
San Sem isin rann iart/«ímch don domhan .i. isin GaiJinnsi. Ocus 
is iat so na tegdín'se do h-ordaighedh isin rann toir .i. Efessws 
ata do \eith deis íh\aithmsa talmaidhe^ De, ocus Compostella ata 
dha \eith cli.^ Or is iat sin tarla cum na deisi hrathar so .i. da 
mhac Sebedeus ar roinn na prouiwdsé^ (?) or do iaradar ar an 
Ti^hearna. nech dhibh do shmdhhighadh da \eith deis in a ih\aith- 
eamnus ocus nech ele da \eith ch. Ocus is oirchis do urail an 
c^eidium Cristaighi^ tri tegdu/si oiregda d'a.norugadh tar chath- 
rachaibh in domhain co hmlidhi .i. in Row ocus in Gaihnnsi ocus 
Efesszís. Or mar do thagh in Tighearna. na tri h-esbuil dar foillsigh 
se a deirridiíís níis mo ina dona h-esbalaibh ele amhail is follus 
isna soiscelaíi//, is mar sin do or daigh na tri tegdwíse so 
d'anor ughadh ar a so« tar tegdwmbh in domhain cu coitcenn, 
ocus is oirches an Rom do beith na pnmhtegdais aca, or as i do 
coisric Vedur prinnsa' na n-esba/, le n-a sheanmoir ocus le n-a 
fhuiP ocus le n-a adhnacul fein. 

Compostella iomorro, is coir a heith na tegdais tanaisdi, ar 
son gurub e San Se7n (do bo mho do reir dhiniti^ deis Petflí'r edir 
na \i-esb\x\aibh) do da.ingnigh hi maille na shenmoir ocus do coisnc 
maillg na adhnacal coisearctha hi, ocus ní anann aga maisiughudh 
[ocus ag méadughadh a gloire E.] do mirbhmlibh [dofhaisneisi E.] 

Efesws iomorro, oirches a beit/í an a treas tegduis,'" ar son 
gurub innti do rindi Eoin suibhiscéal a soisce/ fein [ar dús E.] .i. 

1. da tegmad co mheith F. 2 tiorthaibh E. ch — F. 3. sic. Lis. & E. 
tsdmhan F. 4. do leith cli in flfl;7/!emhnuis cedna E. 5. proinnsi 

F. & E. 6. catoilica F. 7. E. adds "ociis Jeg loghmar." 8. E., which 
turns this passage diííerently, adds "morluaigh" here. 9. Thus F. 

dinite E. Lis. seems to read "diuiti." 10. F. makes this word "tedais" 
passim. E. has "tegais" but omits "treas." 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 71 

the city itself, and in honour of Saint James. And if the faith or 
the Commandments of God should be faihng in other countries* 
through the sin of the people, that it should be by the counsel 
of that same bishop they should be guided. And íittingly 
was it ordained to support and honour the faith in this honoured 
church. For as the faith of Christ and an apostohc seat were 
ordained by John the Evangehst, brother of Saint James, in the 
eastern division of the world, in the city which is called Ephesus, 
evenso wasit íittingthatSt. James should ordain the samefaithand 
another apostohc seat in the western division of the world, namely 
in Galicia. And the foUowing are the [apostolic] seats that were 
ordained in the eastern division, namely Ephesus, which is to 
the right side of the earthly kingdom of God,'' and Compostella 
which is to its left side. For those are what came to these two 
brothers, namely the two sons of Zebedee on the division of the 
provinces," for they asked the Lord to seat one of them at his 
right side in his kingdom and another of them at his left side. 
And fittingly did the Christian faith ordain that three distinguished 
seats should be honoured beyond the cities of the entire world, 
namely Rome and Gahcia and Ephesus. For as the Lord chose 
the three apostles to whom he, more than to the other apostles, 
manifested his secrets, as is obvious in the gospels, even so did 
he ordain that these three seats should be honoured for their sake 
beyond the seats of the world at large. And it is íitting that 
Rome should be the first of these seats, for it was it that Peter, 
prince of the apostles, consecrated by his preaching and his blood 
and his own burial. 

Compostella, however, it is fitting that it should be the second 
seat, because it was Saint James — who after Peter was greatest 
amongst the apostles according to dignit^,** — who confirmed it by 
his preaching and consecrated it by his consecrated burial, and 
he never ceases to adorn it and increase its glory by inexpressible 
miracles. 

Ephesus, however, it is fitting for it to be the third seat, for 
it was there that John the Evangelist preached his own gospcl 

^ Lit. "the other countries." •> in regno terreno Christi. <= in divisione 

provinciarum. ^* qui dignitate major post beatum Petrum 

extitit. 



72 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

*'Iii Principio erat uerbum," ocus gur coisric hi da íorcetnl ocus 
da mirbhuihiA ocus da adhnacul fein ocus rh' 



AN T-OCHTMADH SGEL DEG ANN SO. 

Tuarascbhail dcilbhi Serhiis ocus a chuinghiU^ ann so. As 
amlaiWA iomorro do bhi in t-impir airmeac)^ anorach sin : folt 
donn air ocus gnuis derg, ocus corp nua neamharsaigh aigi/ ocus 
do ba greannmhar do réir^ fhechsana he, ocus do bhatar ocht 
troighthi in fhir do b'fhaidi troigh do lucht a aimsiri^ ar airdi 
ann, ocus do ba aidhbhsíflcA a leithe' fo n-a chael-druim, ocus 
meit mchnhJiaidh na medhon : vightheach ocus luirgne remra aigi, 
ocus ailt ro laidín, ocus se eolach a ca.tbaibh na ridiri ; ro 
grea.nnmhar : feadh troighe 'na edan : suile leomhanáa. dnth- 
\ineacha. aigi, mar in cloich re n-a.har carabunculus. Letheat 
baisi^ in gach mhala dho, ocus in té ar a bhfhechflí//í maiUe teirg 
do crithní'fldh a cedoir [d'^ííg'la an ti sin E.] Ocht reisi^ isin cns 
do bidh thairis a n-ecmuis a mbidh uadha amach dhe. As b^c 
do cha.itheadh dh'aran, ocus do chaitheadh cethraiwe chaerach 
no da chirc tio gegh no slinnen muici no geissanaw'" no mil muighe 
imlán, ocus do ihhedh becan fi«a co suilbAer ar cur uisci trid. Da 
bhi in meit sin do neart^^ ann gu ng^a^'^adh d'aen-bhuiUi claidhinih 
ridiri armdha [eidighiJie E.] na shuidhi ar a ech o mhullach a chinn 
co a ichtar maiUeis in n-ech fein. Do shinedh [co hurasa F.] le 
na lamhuibh cethra cru eich a n-aeinfhecht. [Neart ele fos do 
bhi ann E.] an tan do theidheadh ridiri armtha eidigJitJii nashesamh 
ar a d^mainn do thochhad cu h-athlumh^^ ar a aen-laimh he. Fa 
daenachtach 'na brondtuibh he, ocus fa díreach 'na hreitJieamnas, 
ocus fa sochraidh [mihs-briatArach E.] [a] n-urlabhra. Do chownmad 
cuirt co sundradach a ceatJiur feiltibh uaisU isin bUadhain isin 

1. F. & E. omit "ocus rl." 2. do tuarasgbail ocus do deilbh ocus do 

cruth ocus do cuingill S. Moir. E. 3. in ri trocairech sin E. 

4. Thus E. neamairsigh F. neamhasaidh Li5. which omits "aigi." 5. Lis 
reads dor. 6. F. omits last íive words. 7. leiihead F. \etha.d E. 

8. lea/Abois E. 9. Reisi here translates the Latin "palmae." 

10. gesacA/ach E. g&iseacht F. 11. Idiidireacht F. & E. 12. co haibeil E. 

hurasa F 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 75 

that is "in principio erat verbum," and consecrated it by his 
doctrine and his miracles and his own burial, etc. 



EIGHTEENTH CHAPTER. 

An account now of the appearance of Charles and of his condition, 
This moreover is how that distinguished honoured emperor was : 
brown hair on him and a ruddy countenance and a body fair 
and youthful,* and he was pleasant to look at." And there went 
eight feet such as a man of the longest feet of all of his time 
might have, to his height, and vast was his girth"^ beneath his waist, 
and his middle was of a proportionate size. He had stout arms 
and shins and very powerful joints and he was expert in the battles 
of knights ; he was very mirthful ; his f ace was a foot long, he had 
lionlike sparkhng eyes, like the stone that is called Carbuncle. 
Each of his eyebrows was a palm long,'* and whoever he might look 
on in anger that person used at once to tremble with fear. Eight 
spans were in the belt that used to go round him, not to count 
what was over after fastening it.^ He used to eat little bread, 
but he used to eat a quarter of a sheep or a couple of hens, or a 
goose or a shoulder' of pig or a peacock^ or a whole hare,'' and 
he used to drink a little wine jovially' mixing water with it. He 
was of so much strength that he used with a sword stroke to 
cut through from the top of the head downward^ an armed 
knight seated on his horse together with the horse itself. He 
used to easily straighten out with his hands^ four horse shoes 
at once. Another feat-of-strength of his was when a knight 
in arms and armour used to come and stand on his palm he 
used to raise him readily on his one hand. He was liberal in 
his gifts and upright in his judgment, and he was bright and 
swect voiced in speech.' He used to hold court in Spain, 
especially at the four renowned festivals of the year in his 

» corpore decorus et venustus. ^ visu efferus. •= amplissimus renibus, 

ventre congruus. ^ supercilia oculorum dimidiam palmam habebant. 
• praeter iUud quod dependebat. 'spatulam. ^ pavonem. '^ " aut 

gruem" is omitted. ' sobrie. i Lit. "to his lower part," " usque ad 

bases." •' f acile extendebat. Uocutionibus loculentus. 



74 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Spain [re na linn E.] do iom[ar]chadhLcoroin righ ocus slat righ 
in tan sin .i. la Notlac ocus la Casc ocus la Cwmcdisi^ ocus la San 
Sem. Ocus do h-imchairthe^ claidheamh nocht na fhiadhn?íise do 
shír a n-inad b/'eitheamhnuis ar modh [ocus mar v[a.ghail ocus 
mar smacht E.] impiri. Do hordaighte do sir gach n-oighthi 
da choimet se .xx.it Crzsíaidhi^ laidir a timcheall a leaptha, .i. da 
.xx.it dibh aga fhaire in céd she?I do'n oighthi, ocus is mar so do 
bitis .i. deichnehhar dibh aga chinn^ ocus deichnehhar ag a chosaibh/ 
deichnebhar da dheis ocus deichnehhar da chle, ocus claidheamh nocht 
a laimh dheis ocus lochrann ar lasad a laimh cli gach fir dibh. 
Do bhítis da .xx. eile' treas ele isin dara seal don oighthi aga aire 
ar in modh cedna, ocus an da .xx.it ele isin treas seal mar an 
cedna, ocus cach na coáXad ar ce«a. Ocus ge mad mhian do 
neoch ní bhudh mhó da mhoirghnímhaibh d'eistecht do badh 
miiirireach dhuin-ne re a fhaisneis he, .i. mar do ghabh deisi 
ridiri o Galfridus Admiraldus mac Toletus^ na macamh a Palas 
Toletiíis, ocus se ar innarba,^ ocus mar do mharbh sé a comrac 
ar gmdh Galfrid/í?s Barmatus moirdhimseach'" rí na Seirrisdíneach 
námha Ghalfrid/í/s, ocus mar do cosain moran do thirthaibh ocus 
do chdthvachaibh ocus mar do chuir fo ireis cmdmhe na tnnoíte 
iat, ocus mar do ordaigh moran d'abhdhainechtaibh" ocus 
d' ecalsaibh'- ar fud in domain, ocus mar do chumduigh cuirp 
ocus taisi mhorain do naemuibh [ocus do ma.irtirea.chaihh E.] d'or 
ocus d'aircet, ocus mar do chuaid d'fhis Sidlaicthi an tighearna 
[.i. Isa Crist E.] ocus mar tuc crann na croiche cesta. leis, — ní 
tualuing mhisi a scrihhadh ann so. Or do badh thúsca eshaidh 
na laimhe ocus an peinn ina eshaidh a gni^Ha-san.'^ Gidheadh is 
coir dhuinn a innisin co cumair mar do innto as in Spainn isin 
Fraingc tar eis na Gaihnnsi do shoerad [do E.] 



l.ThusE. imarch — Lis. umMí-cadh F. 2. cincísi E. cingisi F. 3. him- 
archaidhe E. 4. ridiri F. Ridiri Ciostaighi in a ndinbh laidre 

ÍMntaebha 5. um a cheann E. 6. gacha taeha. F. 7. Thus 

F. & E. Lis. curiouslv reads "do bhitis mná." 8. .i. Adhmiraldws 

mac doteletMS E. 9. F. omits last twelve words. 10. morgnimach E. 

11. do benncaib F. 12. d'ashucaibh ocus do minisdrechaibh E. 

13. gnimartha E. & F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 75 

time. He used to bear a king's crown and sceptre" at those times, 
namely on Christmas Day and Easter Day and Pentecost and 
St. James's Day. And a naked sword used to be c.onstantly borne 
in his presence in place[s] of delivering judgment'' after the manner, 
rule and sway of an emperor. There used to be appointed every 
night for his safe-keeping six score of strong Christians" round 
about his couch, and two score of them used to keep watch during 
the íirst part of the night, and this is how they used to be, namely 
ten at his head and ten at his feet and ten at his right hand and 
ten at his left hand, and a naked sword in the right hand and a 
lighted lamp in the left hand of every man of them. There used 
to be two score more"^ another while, in the second time of the 
night watching him in Hke manner, and the other two score on 
the third watch of the night in like manner, when every one else 
was asleep. 

And though one might like to listen to more of his great 
dceds it would be burdensome for us to show them forth, as for 
example'' how he took knightly cquipment from Galfridus Ad- 
miraldus, son of Toletus,' when a youth at the palace of Toletus,* 
at a time when he was in banishment, and how he slew in fight 
for love of Galfridus the proud*" Barnatus,' Idng of the Saracens, 
an enemy of Galfridus, and how he protected^ many countries 
and cities, and how he placed thcm under the faith of a belief in 
the Trinity, and how he ordained many abbacies and churches 
throughout the world, and how he covered the bodies and relics 
of many saints and martyrs with gold and silver, and how he 
went to visit the burial place of the Lord, i.e. Jesus Christ, and 
how he brought with him the tree of the Cross of Crucifixion, — 1 
am not able to write [them all] here. For the hand and the pen 
would be exhausted sooner than his deeds. However we ought to 
narrate briefly how he turned [again] out of Spain into France 
after setting free Galicia. 

^ Lit. "a. líing's rod." Coronam regiam et sceptrum gestabat. ^* ante 

ejus tribunal. "= orthodoxi. ^ Lí5. reads " there used to be women," 
the other MSS. read as does the Latin, which is alii quadraginta. 
^ Lit. "namely." 'Galafruus Admirandus C. Admiraldus Coleti Ff. 

s palatio Coleti Fr. Toletae C. ^ superbum. • Latin Braimantus. 

J acquisivit. 



76 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

AN NAEMADH SGEL DHEG ANN SO. 

A haithle na Sbaine co h-uihdhi do ghabhail ocus do chur 

fo creidiumh a n-anoir Dhe ocus a apstail .i. San Sem do'n imptV 

airmeach sin .i. do Sherlus Mor, ag impodh on Spain dó, do an' 

oighthe a Pampilonia le na ahlua.ghaibh. Tarla in tan sin da righ 

do Sheirvisdíneachaibh na comnuidhi san inad re n-abar Cesar 

Agusta .i. MarsirÍMS ocus Belegandus- a brathair ar n-a cur o 

Admiralldus^ ri na Baibiloine don Sbám ocus do b'umal 

[íoma.igthech E.] do Sherlus iat in gach aen chas, ocus do nidis 

a sh^rbhis [ocus a reir E.] co haentadacA ; gidhead is maiUe [maiUs 

ocus re ceilg ocus re E.] gradh fallsa do nidais. Ocus do chuir 

Serlus nech da mhuinntir chuca dar ainm Ganalowws da aithne 

dhibh ha.istedh do gha.hháil ocus a chís do chur chuigi. Ocus do 

cuired .X. n-eich .xx., fo a n-eire d'ór ocus d'aircet [mar cis E.] 

cuigi, ocus do cuir^d cum lochta ca.thaighthi [ocus gaisgidh E.] 

Serluis eiri da .xx.et ech [ro-laidí> E.] dfhin glflw mhih's ocus 

mile ben va.itha.mhail* [vo-dea.llvadhach E.] do mnaibh na Seirr- 

isdíneach. Ocus do Viva.i\edur [ocus do chtiiriáav impighi ocus 

guidhe mor E.] ar Ga.naXonus fein .xx. ech^ cona n-eiribh d'or 

ocus d'aircet ocus do sheduibh [dingmala ro-uaisle E.] ele do 

[gabhail chuigi E.] do chinn lochta ca.thaighthi Serluis do thoirb^rt 

[ocus do chur a.mach E.] doibh gu cealgach. Ocus do aemh [ocus 

do gell E.] Ga.vía.\onus sin, ocus do gabh an t-innmhus [ocus na 

seoit sin chuige E.]. 

Ar náaingvxiughaá na saeibh-cheilgi braithtighi sin doibh, do 
inntó Ganalonus cum Serluis, ocus tuc na h-ascada sin do chnivedar 
na righa Seivvisdíneacha chuigi, dhó, ocus do innis dó gur bh'ail 
le Marsirius [baistigh do gahhail chuige ocus E.] Cnstaighi do 
denam dhe, ocus gu roibhi ag nWmh^ighadh a trialla do thecht cum 
Serluis isin Fraingc do ghahháil baistidh innti, ocus gu coinnemadh 
ta\amh na Sháini uih a hucht Serluis o sin amach. Lucht in 
chsithaighthi iomorro, in drongdoboirg[g]da* [ocus do b'urawanta E.] 
ocus do ba mhó dhibh, do gha.hha.dar an íin [amain F.], ocus do 

1. E. omits "do an" and so makes nonscnse. 2. Beligan«dus E. 

3. Amirandus F. Admiranndus E. 4. sgothamhail E. & F. 5. fa xx 

ech delodh E 6 iredha E. irada F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 77 

NINETEENTH CHAPTER. 

After taking the whole of Spain and putting it under [the] 
Faith in honour of God and his apostle St. James, by that renowned 
emperor Charles the Great, as he returned from Spain he remained 
a night in Pampilonia^ with his armies. It chanced that at that 
time two kings of the Saracens were residing at the place which 
is called Caesar Augusta," namelv Marsirius'^ and Belagandus his 
brother, they having been sent by Admiraldus,"* king of Babylon, 
to Spain, and they were submissive and reverential to Charles 
in everything, and they used to perform his service and his bidding 
unitedly. However it was out of mahce and treachery and false 
love® they used to do it. For Charles sent one of his people to 
them, whose name was Ganalon, to command thcm to accept 
baptism and to send him his tribute. And thirty horses laden 
with gold and silver were sent to him as tribute, and there were 
sent to Charles's íighting men and heroes, forty strong horses' laden 
with clear sweet wine, and a thousand graceful^ shapely women of 
the women of the Saracens. And they ordered and besought, and 
greatly prayed for Ganalon himself to accept twenty horses laden'' 
with gold and silver and other suitable and noble things-of-price 
in return for treacherously dehvering up and exposing Charles's 
íighting men to them. And Ganalon consented to that and 
promised it, and received the treasure and jewels. 

On their coníirming this deceitful false treachery [between 
them] Ganalon returned to Charles and brought him those gifts 
which the Saracen kings had sent him, and told him that Marsirius 
desired to accept baptism and to make a Christian of himself 
and that he was preparing his journe^ to come to Charles into 
France to receive baptism there* and that he would hold the 
land of all Spain from Charles' from thenceforward. The íighting 
men moreover, those of them who were noblest and most respected 
and greatest,'' they took the wine only, and refused the women. 

• Pampeluna. ^i.e. Saragossa. •= sic Fr. Marsiorus C. ■' ab 

Ammirando Babylonis de Perside ad Hispaniam missi. « in caritate 

ficta. ^sic Fr. "Sexaginta" C. eformosas. '' Lí7. " with their 

loads of." 'Lií. "in it." ' de iUo teneret. '' majores pugnatores. 



78 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

dliiultadar na mná. Ocus do ghabhudar in lucht do b'uirish 
dhibh iat a ndidhbhail a n-a«mann fcin. Ar creidemh [uirigill 
ocus E.] briathar Ga.na.lonuis do Shcrlus do t/ín'all dul tar na poHaibh 
re n-abar Ciserei,^ do thecht isin Fraingc, ocus do ordaigh, do 
chomhairle Ganalonuis, do na prinnsrtdaibh do b'annsa leis da 
ridiribh .i. Rolandus mac a shethariarlaCinomansis^ ocus Blauiewsis 
ocus Olnerus iarla Gehenewsis anmhain ag coimet [ocus ag didew E.] 
áeiridh na slighe isin glenn re n-abar Ruwti^ Ualhs, mailleis in 
droing do ba mhó [neart E.] don lucht ca.thaighthi [do bhi na 
fhochair E.] ocus re .xx." mile Cristaighi no go dechadh Serlus 
tar portaibh Sis^reos.'* Ocus ar mheiih ar meisce don droing do 
ibh in ún Servisdineach do pheacthdLÍghednr ris na mnaibh Padanda, 
ocus drong ele dhibh re mnaibh Cristaighi tucadar leo as in^ Fraingc, 
ocus fuaradur bas. 

Ar nimthecht do Sherlus tar na portaibh a dnbhramar 
ocus íiche mile Cristatghi ocus Ganalonus ocus Turpinus na 
íh'asxadh, ocus ar mheith dona cathaighibh^ ag coimet a ndemdh 
mar a dubhramar, do eirigh Marsirius ocus Belegandus maille 
L. mile Serrisdineach a mucha na maítne' as na glenntuibh ocus as 
na cnocuibh a ra.hvLtar a bhfhr lach re dhá láibh^ ocus re da oidhchi 
roime sin, do mhuin comairle Ganalonuis, ocus do ronsat da 
chorughadh catha dibh .i. corughadh dhibh a roibhi .xx. mile ocus 
corughadh a roibe .xxx.^ mile. In corughadh a roibhi .xx. mile 
do thindscna.dur hheith ag lot [ocu. ag ma.rhhadh E.] na Cristaighi 
do \eith a ndroma ocus [ar na motughudh sin do na Cristaighibh 
F. & E.] do im'^aidedar na Cristaighi orro [ocus do madmaighidar 
ocus do marbfldar iat E.] ocus do hha.tiir ag ca.thughad riu o mada.in 
00 teirt, ocus ni dechaidh duine na bethaidh don .xx. mile 
Serrisdineach [nar tuit ar an lathair sin E.]. Ocus ar mheitJí 
coirthi^" dona Cnstaighibh on ca.thughad [ocus on torainw E.] sin, 
do dhoirt [ocus do Hng E.] in trichat mile Serrisdineach na cenn 
[gan íis doibh E.] Ocus do thuitedar leo o beg cu mor, innus nach 
dechaidh nech beo don .xx. mile Cristaighi gan bas dfhaghail," 
.i. drong dibh ar cur shleagh tritha, ocus drong ar na ndicennaíí/í 

1. sisme E. & F. 2. Cmnmamzsis ocus Blauensis E. F. omits these 

words 3. rutiualis E. & F. 4. sisireos F. sisereros E. 5. isin E. 

6. Tidiribh E. 7 mainne F., which is also the modern pronunciation. 

8 dala E. 9. .x. .xx.m. E. x.m.xx. F. 10. sgithach toivrseach E 

11 gan bas ocus eg ocus oidhigh d'imirt orro E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 79 

And those who were meanest* of them accepted them [i.e. the 
women] to the damage of their own souls. 

Charles beheving the utterance and words of Ganalon set out 
to go over the passes called Ciserei," to come into France, and, 
by the advice of Ganalon, he ordered the princes whom he loved 
best of his knights, namely Roland, his sister's son, Earl Cino- 
mansis" and Blaviensis, and Ohver, earl Gebenensis"^ to remain, 
and to keep and protect the rear of the passage through the 
valley, which is called Runti Valhs,^ with the strongest part of 
the fighting men, and with twenty thousand Christians who wero 
with him, until Charles should have gone over the passcs of 
Sisereos [or Ciserei]. And those who had drunk the Saracen 
wine being intoxicated sinned with the Pagan women, and others 
with Christian women whom they had brought with them out 
of France, and they died. 

After Charles going over the passes we have spoken of, and 
twenty thousand Christians and Ganalon and Turpin with him, 
with his fighting men protecting their rear as we have said, Marsirius 
and Belegandus rose up with fifty thousand Saracens in the early 
part of the morning from the valleys and hills where they were 
in hiding for two days and two nights before that, through Ganalon's 
advice, and they made two battle arrays of themselves, namely 
one of twenty thousand and another of thirty thousand. The 
division of twenty thousand began to wound and slay' the 
Christians in their rear, When the Christians perceived that, 
they turned on them and they broke them and slew them, and 
were fighting with them from morning till the hour of terce, and 
not one of the twenty thousand Saracens escaped with his life 
but all fell in that place. And when the Christians were a-weary 
after that fighting and conílict,^ the thirty thousand [other] 
Saracens burst forth and sprang to meet them,^ before they 
knew it. 

And [the Christians] fell by them both great and small so 

that not one escaped ahve of the twenty thousand Christians 
without dying, some thrust through by spears and some beheaded 

*Juniores Fr. Minores C. ''transire portus Cisereos. "^Cenoman- 

nensi et Blaviensi Comiti, i.e Count of Man. ^i.e. aliter Auvergne. 

* Ultimam custodiam in Runcievalle facerent (Runciavalle Fr.) ' per- 

cutere nostros. B"torann" seems to be sometimes used in this sense. 

'' The Latin has simply "aggrediuntur." Doirí seems to be a military 

term, see p. 98, line 27 



€0 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

lc claidmih, ocus drong ar na coscairt le tuaghuibh, ocus drong 

ar na toWadh [ocus ar na tredadh E.] lc soighdibh, ocus le colbaibh', 

■ocus .drong ar na nva.i-bhadh lcis na harmuibh rc n-abar p^rtica, 

ocus drong ar na hhíhennadh le scenuibh ocus siat na mhethaidh, 

ocus drong ar na loscfld a teinidh,'^ ocus drong ar n-a crochadh re 

crflnnaibh, innus co bhfhuair in lucht cath«/g'/íthi uili bas acht 

Rolandus ocus Baldonius ocus Turpinus ocus Ganalonius ocus 

Tedncus. Baldonius iomorro ocus Tedricus do leathadz/r^ fo'n 

coill, ocus do fholchatflH iat fcin, ocus is mar sin do chuadar as. 

A haithle in choscair [ocus in cowzaidhme E.] sin do breith 

dona Serrisdíneachaibh , do impátai^ tar a n-ais [maillc hiaithgair 

ocus re gairdechas mor E.] fedh leuc .i. tri míle.^ 

As in-fhiafrrtíg'/íthi annso cred fár chedni^hP Dia an drong 

út nar \)heacthuigh ris na mnaibh do thuitim annso. Ocus as 

doigh gurub é in t-adhar nar b'ail leis a leicm cum a tirc fein aris, 

cu nach díJíímdais pectha [budh tniime F. & E.] innti. Or do 

b'ail leis coroin do tabhairt tre na pais^ a ihlaithius De ar son a 

saethair dhoibh. An dream iomorro do righne in pecadh do 

fhuluing a mbas, or do b'ail leis coroin do thabhairt doibh ocus 

a pecadh do scris, tre pais ocus tre martm cloidhimh. Ocus ni 

h-increitti nar bh'ail le Dia trocmreach na saethair do ronsat 

roime sin do chúitiughadh^ riu, o dho admhadar ainm De ocus o 

dho ronsat a pecadh d'fhaisidi» fa dheoigh. Or gidh do 

phecth^ighedur ris na mnaibh is ag cosnum anma Crist fuaradar 

bas. Da reir sin as in-tugtha dh'áidh'" a méii do bhaeghal don 

lucht triallus cum ca.thaighthi coidriubh'' na mban, mar is follus 

isna prinnsaidib dar anmanna Dairi/ís ocus Antoniíís do chuaidh 

cum catha/g'/íthi ocus a mna na bhfhochair co bhfhuaradar bas 

ann. Or do claidheadh Dairiiís le h-Ala.xa náer^- ocus Antonius le 

hOctouian/ís Augiistus. 'Ma.seadh ni breaghdha ocus ni tarb«ch 

na mna do bheith isna longp/íortaibh, or do heir in dniis toirmeascc 

an a n-oibrighthibh'^ don chorp ocus don anmain, et cetera. 

1. Lis. has "colbhaibh." 2. Last t\venty-nine words omitted both in 
E. & F. 3. leathniííg'/íedar ocus do scailidar E. foilgida;' iad F 

4. foladar E. 5. impodar E. 6. fedh tri mile E. & F. 7. cad far 
chuidig ocus cad far cedaigh E. 8. Thus F. The others read "tre pais." 
•9. Trocaire na ndeíf/mgnim do ronsad roime sin do chuitiughadh ris na ridiribh 
sin ontis [ontist F.] do cuadar fa cuing De E. 10. daibh ocus daire E. 
%\. heiih a caidrebh ocus an aentaigh na mb E. 12. Alastranw F. & E. 
1.3. ohrach.aibh E. oihxeachaihh F 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 81 

by swords, and some slaughtered by battle axes, and some pierced 
and bored with arrows and [smitten] with clubs, and some killed 
by the weapons called pertica* and some flayed by knives while 
they were still alive, and some burnt in fire, and some hung on trees 
so that the warriors all died except Roland and Baldonius" and 
Turpin and Ganalon and Tedricus. However Baldonius and 
Tedricus* dispersed through the wood and hid themselves, and 
thus they escaped. 

After the Saracens had won that victory and triumph they 
turned back a league's length that is three miles,^ with gladncss 
and great rejoicing, 

It may be asked here why God permitted those who did not 
sin with the women to fall here. And no doubt this was the reason 
— that He did not desire to let them [back] to their own countrj' 
again so that they might not commit worse sins there,* for He 
desired through their passion to grant them a crown in thekingdom 
of God on account of their labours. Those people, however, who 
committed the sin, He suffered their death, for He desired to give 
them a crown and to blot out their sin through passion andmartyr- 
dom by the sword. And it is unbelievable that the merciful 
God did not desire to recompense them for the labours they had 
wrought before, since they acknowledged the name of God and 
made a confession of their sins at the last. Because although 
they had sinned with the women it was in defending the name 
of Christ they died. According to this it should be seriously 
considered how much danger the society of women is to those who 
go to war, as is obvious in the case of those princes whose names 
were Darius and Anthony who went to battle with their women' 
along with them, so that they died there. For Darius was over- 
thrown by Alexander and Anthony by Octavianus Augustus, 
Hence it is not a right or advantageous thing for women to be 
in the camps* for luxurious-indulgence brings hindrance in their 
opcrations to both body and soul — ^tc.*^ 

» alii perticis verberando perimuntur. ''Baldwin. "i.e. Theodoric. 

•* una leuga C. leucai Fr. '^ Li(. "in it." * uxorum comitatu. 

« ubi libido castranda est. •> The etc. stands perhaps for 

the íollowing passage "illi qui inebriati et fornicati sunt signiíicant 
sacerdotes et religiosos viros contra vitia pugnantes, quibus non licet 
inebriari et mulieribus coinquinari ; quod si fecerint ab inimicis suis, id 
est a daemonibus, se noverint superandos et aeterna morte plectendos. 



82 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Ar crichnughad in catha tainic Rolandiis na aenar a 
n-ia.vmhoT acht na Padiinach ocus do bhi seal imgcian uatha, ocus 
fuair fer adhuathmur do na Vadanachaihh ar na thoirrsiug/mrf/z 
don chath, ocus se na loighi isin coill. Do cengail Rolandus a 
chosa ocus a lamha gu o'uaidh' re crann ocus do fhacuibh mar 
sin he, ocus do chuaidh fein ar cnoc^ do bhi 'na ghairi díhag^aí/ 
tuarascb/íá/a na Vaddcnach [ocus do breith bmthi orra E.j Ocus 
do connaic gu rabhutar moran dainc, ocus do inntó tar a ais a 
s\ig\\idh Runti Uallis a nd^c/iadar [na Cnstaighi E. & F.]. Ocus 
do shein buabhull eboire^ do bhi aigi, ocus tancatar fa ghut[h] 
in buabuill céd eicin do na Cristaighibh, ocus do iva^oidh Rolandus 
leo aris fo'n coill mar a roibhi in S^cirrisdíneach do fhagaibh 
cengaillti, ocus do scail a chuibnghi dhe, ocus do nocht a c\aidheamh 
os a chinn^ ocus a dubhairt "Mad ail* \eat techt leam ocus Marsiri«s 
d'ioiWúw^hadh dham, leicfet as tu, ocus munab ail mmrhhíead 
tu," or nir aithm'i do Rolandus Marsirius conuigi sin. Ar ngabAaíV 
egla do'n Vhadanach re mbriathraibh Rolandus do chuaid leis a 
cedoir ocus^ do fhoillsigh Marririus do, ocus se ar eoch ruadh,ocus 
sciath cminn air. Ocus, ar na fhaghail mar sin, do cuaidh 
Rolandus, ar na neartnghadh o chumachtaibh De, mailleis in 
ndroing do bhi na fhochair, a cenn a namhat a c^ííoir, gan choicill,'* 
ocus in nech do b'airdi ocus do ba mho do chonnaic dhibh do 
scoilt d'aenbuilli c\aidhimh e fein ocus a ech o mhullach gu lar, 
innus gur thuit cuid don Vhadanach da dhei? ocus cuid da ch. 
Ar na fhaicsin sin do na Serrtsdineachaibh, do fhacbhadar Marsirius 
maille becan buidhne ar an magh ocus do theithedar fein da gach 
\eith. Ocus ar bhfhaghail neirt o Dia do Rolandus, do chuaidh 
ameasc na Seirisdíneach ocus do dhichuir da gach thaebh iat, 
ocus do lean Marsirius ocus se ag teitheadh, ocus do mharbh e a 
mesc a mhuinntiri maiUe n^a^t ocus re cumhachtaibh De. Do 
mdirhhadh iomorro isin cath' sin an céd companach* do chuaidh 
isin cath le Rolandus, ocus do imthigh fein as in cath ocus ccthra 

1. E. adds " dob;'aingeac/i " .■* 2. mullacli cnuicc E. 3. uo cnaim 

iboirighl E. 4. F. omits last fourteen words. 5. madh ailt E. 

6-6. Found in the Lismore text only. 7. Thus E. & F. Lis. has cathair 

8. Thus E. & F. Lis. has "c" only. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 83 

On íinishing the battle Roland came, alone, in pursuit 

of the Pagans, and he was a long distance off from them, and 

he found a terrible^ man of the Pagans wearied out with the battle 

and lying down in the wood. Roland bound his feet and hands 

tightly to a tree and left him so, and he himself went to the top 

of a hill that was close to him to get some tidings of the Pagans 

and to form a judgment about them. And he saw that they 

were many in number and he turned back in the direction of 

Runti Vallis where the Christians had gone. And hc sounded" 

a horn of ivory which he had, and there came at the sound of 

the horn about a hundred of the Christians, and Roland turned 

back with them again to the wood where the Saracen was whom 

he had left bound, and he loosed his bonds from him, and he bared 

his sword over his head and said: "if you wish to come with me 

and to show me Marsirius I shall let you go, and if you do not 1 

shall kill you," for Roland did not know the appearance oí* 

Marsirius up to this. And the Pagan taking fright at Roland's 

words went with him straightway and showed Marsirius to him, 

mounted on a bay^ horse and carrying a round shield. And 

íinding him thus, Roland, being strengthened by the powers of 

God, instantly went with as many as were in his company against 

his enemy, not sparing, and the highest and biggest man that he 

saw of them, he split with one sword blow, himself and his horse, 

from his crown to the ground, so that part of the Pagan fell to 

the right and part to the left. When the Saracens saw that, they 

left Marsirius with a small band on the plain, and they themselves 

íled in every direction. And Roland getting strength from God 

went [in] amongst* the Saracens and scattered them in every 

direction, and followed Marsirius as he íled, and slew him amongst 

his people by the strength and powers of God. There were slain 

moreover in that battle' the hundred companions who went into 

the battle with Roland, and he himself went out of the battle 



*atrum. *> Lit. "played," insonuit tuba sua eburnea. '^ Lii. M. was 

not known to. '^ rufus. * irrrit super. ' bello. 



84 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

slea^Jia ann, ocus se ar na gortughadh ocus ar na combrwd gu 
mor [o cloidhmc ocus F. & E.] o cloch«í7>/í, ocus do thcith Bchgandus 
a cedoir. 

Do bhi Tedricus ocus Baldonius' mar a.dubhramar ocus drong 
eh dona Crisíaighibh ar lc&thadh da gach aird don choiIl,ocus siat ^ 
a bhfolach tre egla. Ocus do chuaidh drong ele dhibh tar na 
portuib Sidubhramar, ocus do chuaidli Serlus cona shlí<«g/íuibh tar 
in cnoc do bhi don lelh ele don phort, ocus ní fhidir ní da ndernad 
na dhiaigh. Tainic Rolandus na aenar tresna^ coilltibh ocus sé 
ar ni tuirsiughadh do scis in catha ocus d' imshnímh bais a 
companach ocus do mhéit ocus d'imat a élad,^ cusna portuibh re 
n-abar Ciserei,^ ocu? do thuirlmiO' da each ar scath croinn laimh re 
cloich marmwfc^ do bhí na sesomh ann ar magh aluinn isin gleann 
re a n-abar Runti Uallis.' Ocus do bhi a cXdHdheamh fein aigi 
ann sin, ocus do ba deadhmhaisí^ac/i oibriughadh in claidhimh sin 
ocus do ba doimhesda re hén claidheamh a ghéiri,* ocus do ba 
taithnemach he do réir dhea.llr aidh,^ ocus do b'é a ainm Durenda, 
on ihocal so dur um A. cruaidh, ar son gur shas'" builli cruaidh do 
thabhairt leis é. Or is tusca budh eshadach in lamh le mbuailfidhi 
he ina esium. Ocus tuc as a thruRÍll he, ocus do bhi athaidh na 
láimh aga fheg«d, ocus adubhairt maille briathraibh toirrseacha" 
"a cXaidhimh as ferr don uili claidheamh ocusas imchuibhdhi'^ do 
reir fhaidi ocus leithi, ocus is daingne do mhuin laidireachta., co 
wdorncla ro taithnemach ibhoiri, gu c^'ois'^ ndeallra/ííAthigh ordha, 
gu n-ubhull ro mhaiseach don cloich re n-abar bérillus, ar nad 
chomharthug/zflííA don ainm mor .i. " Alfa"'^ ocus "0"ar na scribhadh 
innat ocus as inann sin ocus tosach gan tosach gan deredh^'^ air 
.i. in i-TLÍhair nemhdha, ocus ar nat daingniug/íflíí/i do bArigh'^ 
ocus do cumachtaibh De. Cia gnaithochas let laidm" o sc amach 

1. Tyedicus ocus BaldinwMS E. (Baldinus F.) 2. iat F. & E. 3. 

trid na E. 4. aal — ocus a cned E. 5. sisme E. 6. marmair E. 

& F. 7. rutiual — E. 8. do réir géiri F. 9. deabha E. 10. shoghf 
F. E. rcads "ar son gur sobuailte cruaidh é. 11. deracha F. & E. 12. 
"caime" or "caiwe" E. & F. 13. cns E. 14. E. seems to read "ahoha " 
15. dcridh E. 16. F. & E. seem to read doiborightibh and áoibxighthibh. 

17. laXáiveacht E. & F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 85 

with four spears in him, greatly hurt and bruised from stones; 
and Beligandus íled at once. 

Tedricus and Baldonius and some more of the Christians 
were, as we have said, dispersed on every side of the wood, and 
hiding through fear. And more of them went over the passes 
we have spoken of, and Charles with his armies went across the 
hill that was on the other side of the pass and knew nothing of 
the things that were done behind him. Roland came alone through 
the woods, and he worn-out with the fatigue of the battle, and 
with anguish at the death of his companions, and with the great- 
ness and number of his [own] wounds, to the passes which are 
called Ciserei,* and he dismounted from his steed under the shadow 
of a tree beside a marble stone which was standing there, in a 
fair plain in the valley which is called Runti VaUis.'' And he 
had his own sword there, and right fair was the workmanship of 
that sword, and incomparable compared with other swcrds was 
it's keeness,° and glittering was it in its brightness, and its name 
was Durenda,- from this word Durum, that is "hard," because 
it was an instrument wherewith to give a hard blow. For the 
hand by which it [the strohe] would be struck would fail sooner 
then it. And he took it out of its sheath and it was for a time 
in his hand, and he lcoking at it, and he spake with words of grief : 
"O sword the best of all swords, and the most íitting in length 
and breadth, and the íirmest in strength, with most shining hilt 
of ivorj', with a hilt-cross** gleaming and golden, with a most 
fair pummel' of the beryll stone,' that ait marked with the great 
name Alpha and O^ engraved upon thee, which is the same 
as to say "beginning without beginning without ending'' to it," 
(which is the heavenly father), and confirmed by the force 
and powers of God. Who shall make free with' thy strength 

* ad pedem portuum Cisere. '' super Runcievallem C. Runcaevallem 

Fr. <^ The Latin adds " fortitudine inflexibilem," which is not translated. 

^cruce. •pomo. '"berillus." «Not in Fr. Latin text. 

''Not in the Latin texts. 'Líí. practise " tua virtute utetur." 



86 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

thu. Cia bhus scalbhthoir ort, ocus cia aga mbeir' ocus cia con- 
nemhas tú ? an ti aga mbia bhudh doclaite é,^ or as lg«/marbhthar 
na Servísdinigh ocus scristar an cincdh meabluch ocus arduight/iear 
an recht Cvistaighi ocus shirther molad ocus gloir do Dhia. As 
adhbhul a mhence do mharbhas ocus do thiwdmes^ ScTrisdíneacha 
leat, d'sLvdughadh an creidimli Cvistaighi*; ocus asmí«icdcdhighl«s 
íuil mu thighí'ama fein Isu Crist leat, or gach minceachl^ do 
mharbhas lubhul meablach no Sevvisdineach leat, asi in menca 
sin dom dhoigh do dhiglas fuil Crtst. A c\aidhimh is géiri don 
uili chlaidheamh , ní roibhi do cosmhuil ocus ni bhia, or in te do 
rindi thú ni áherna. se h'innsham/zrt// romhat na ad dhiaigh. Nír 
fhed hheith na hethaidh nech do crechtnaigheadh^ leat. Doiligh 
leam da mbia tú ag ridm aineolach no mheta, no ag Sevvisdíneach, 
no ag nech cealgach ele." 

A haithle na mbriathar soin, con nach tccmfld' in claidheamh 
a lamhhuibh na Sevvisdíneach do bhuail tri bhuilli dhe isin cloich 
marmaiV do bhi 'na fhiadhnwisi.innus gu mhriseadh^ é. Do scoilt 
in buiUi sin in cloch o mhulluch gu lar ocus do bhi in claidheanih 
slan da éis.^ Do thinnscaiw iar sin a buabhall eboire do sheiwm, 
innus, co ticeadh nech eicin dona Cristaighibh da roibhi a bhfholach 
isna coilltibh chuigi, no co n-impaideadh drong eicin da ndechaidh 
tar na portuibh chuigi, ocus gu mheidís re h-a.dhlacadh^'^ a. cuiip 
ocus gu ngabhdais a clatdheamh ocus a ech do leanmhain na 
Sevvisdineach. Ocus do chuir an mheit sin do nert ocus do bhrigh 
na anail ac seinm in hhuabhmll innus cor scoilt ar dho" he, ocus 
aithristéfl/' fos gur bArisetur féithi ocus cuisHnna ina hhraghmt 
leis. 

Do threovaigh in t-aingel guth in bhuabhuill sin a gcluasaibh 
Serluis isin gleann re n-abar Gleann Serluis, mar ar saidheadh 
a phubull, maille na shluagh, oct mili do leith na Gaiscúine on 

1. cia gambeir F. 2. é not in Lis. 3. Tinnmus F. E. omits the passage. 
4. E. omits last fiíteen words. 5. gach minca E. & F. 6. crecht- 

nochaidhe E. & F. 7. andoigh co teigemadh E. 8. andoigh co mbns- 
íeadh e E. mbrisidh F. 9. ocus is amlaidh do sgar in claidhem risin 
cloich, do sgoilt se i nir miste e fein E. (F. near]y the same). 10. ocus 
rehaidhaigh (?) E. Lis. has gu mhheidis. 11. ar a do E. & F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 87 

from this out. Who shall be possessor of thee, and who shall 
have thee, and who grasp thee ! He who shall have thee will be 
invincible/ for it is by thee Saracens are killed and the treacherous 
tribe destroyed, and theChristian law exalted,and praise and glory 
sought for God. Very great is the number of times I have slain 
and hewn down Saracens with thee," to exalt the Christian faith ; 
often with thee have I avenged the blood of my own lord, Jesus 
Christ, for every time so often as I slew a guileful Jew or Saracen 
wth thee even so often I am sure did I avenge the blood of Christ." 
O sword keenest of all swords, there never was thy like and 
there never shall be, for he who made thee never made the like 
of thee before or after thee. Anyone who was wounded by thee 
could not live. I were grieved to think that an ignorant or 
cowardly knight or a Saracen or any other treacherous one 
should have thee. 

After those words, in order that the sword might not come 
into the hands of the Saracens, he smote three blows of it on the 
marble stone that was before him** so that he might break the blade.* 
Those blows' split the stone from top to bottom yet the sword 
remained whole after it. Thereafter he began to sound his ivory 
horn* so that some one of the Christians — of those who were in 
hiding in the woods — might come to him, or that some of those 

who had gone beyond the passes might return to him, that they 
might be there to bury his body, and that they might take his 
sword and his horse to pursue the Saracens. And he put so much 
strength and vigour into his breath in sounding the horn that he 
spht it in two, and it is related also that the sinews and veins 
broke in his neck.'* 

The angel directed the voice of that trumpet to the ears of 
Charles in the valley which is called Charles's Valley, where his 
trnt was pitched, together with his host, eight miles on the Gasgony 

" The Latin has the foUowing sentence which is not in the Irish : " non 
attonitus non formidine inimicorum perterritus non ullis fantasiis pavidus 
sed semper erit divina virtute fretus divino auxilio circumdatus." 
'' quotiens inimicos Christi peremi. * Both the Latin texts add "per 

te Dei judicia adimplentur pes manusque assuetae latrocinio amputantur." 
'^Lit "in his presence." ' Lit. "it." ^ Lit. "that blow." 

Dedevant lui ad une pierre brune 

Dis colps i íiert, ne freint ne s'esgruniet. Chanson de Roland. 
« tuba altisona tonitruare. "^ venae colli ejus et nervi rupta íuisse feruntur. 



88 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

inadh a roibhi Rolandus. Ar na cloistsm sin do Shcrlus do íhohair 
impodh a chcdoir d'fhurtacht Rolandwis, ocus do thoirmisc Gan- 
alonus é. Or do bhi fis oigeda' Rolandus aigi, ocus [aseadh F.] 
adubliuirt "a Thighí'ama na himpa, or is beg an chuis fa a seinnfcdh 
Rolandus a bhuaball ; ocus bidh a fhis agrtd nach ric^ a les fortacht 
anois, acht is dóthcha a beith ag fiadhuch no ag lenmham hcthidhigh 
allta eicin tresna coiUtibh." Ocus as truagh na comhairleíf/m 
cealgacha sin a cosmhaiHus b^ííith ludais mheabluigh ar a thigh- 
earna. Ar mheith do Rolandus na loighi ar fer in mhuighi do 
ghabh tart adhbhul he, ocus tainic Baldonius a hhráthsdr chuigi 
ocus do ghuigh é fa uisgi do thabhairt dó, ocus do chuaidh Bal- 
donius dá gach leith d'isiraidh usgi, ocus ní fhuair. Ocus ar n-a 
fflicsin-siuw a ngaire do bas,^ do cheileab/ímíg/í dho, cu nach 
tecmad é fein a lamhaibh na Serrisdineach. Do chuaidh ar cch 
Rolanduis ocus ruc a chlaidheamh leis,* ocus do lean sluagh 
Serluis. 

Ocus, ar n-imthecht dó, tainic Teidricus a cedoir cum 
Rolanduis,^ ocus do bhi ag a chdlnedh go áicra ocus aga radh ris 
a anum do áhQ.ingniughadh o fhaisitin an c;'eidmhe,^ or do ghabh 
Rolandus corp Qrist in la sin fein, ocus logfld a phecadh o shac- 
artaibh do bhi ar in shgidh re ndul cum in chatha dho. Or fa 
bes doibh in drong do ihcigheadh cum catha dhibh ao áhdiingniughaú 
a n-anmann o corp Crist, ocus o fhaisitin, tre lamhuibh sacart 
ocus esbac ocus manach re ndul isin cath. Is ann do thocaibh 
Rolandus mairtír Dé, a shuile cum nimhe ocus adubhairt [co 
áerz.ch aith[r]each E.] na bnathra so : "A thighearna a Isú Qrxit 
o's ar son do chrciáim do fhacbus mo áhuthaigh ocus tanac is na 
cnchihh barbarda' so d'ardug/iflí/A do cristaigheachta.-sa., ocus do 
bhnses moran do cathaiéA ar chir\eadha.chaíbJt^ ainghidhi ar na m' 

1. adhaigh F. "oighidh" E. 2. rige . . . a íurtacht E. 3. angaire 
bais F. & E. 4. F. & E. omit last íive words. 5. prinnsa na 

cfodhachta E. 6. in creidim koilik [=catoilice] E. K stands in theso 
MSS. for "cath" and "ca." 7. allmurda E. & F. 8. ar cineachajfcA E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 89 

side from the place where Roland was. WhenCharlesheardthat, he 
made as though* to return at once to succour Roland, but Ganalon 
prevented him. For he knew the fate of Roland and said, "my 
lord do not turn back for it is a small cause for which Roland 
would sound his horn, and know that he requires no aid now, but 
it is more hkely that he is hunting or pursuing some wild beast 
through the woods." Alas I those deceitful counscls, after the 
simihtude of the treachery of false Judas to his lord ! 

As Roland lay on the grass of the plain a dreadful thirst took 
hold of him, and Baldonius," his kinsman,° came to him and 
Roland besought him to give him water; and Baldonius went 
in every direction to look for water and he found none. And 
seeing Roland near death he bade him farewell so that he himself 
might not fall into the hands of the Saracens. He mounted 
Roland's steed and took his sword with him and foUowed Charles's 
army. And on his departing came Tedricus'* at once to Roland 
and was lamenting bitterly for him and bidding him fortify his 
soul by confession of the faith, for Roland had received the body 
of Christ that very day and absolution for his sins from priests 
who were on the road before his going into battle. For it was 
their custom — all of them who used to go to battle — to fortify 
their souls by the bodv of Christ and by confession at the hands 
of priests and bishops and monks before going into the íight. It 
was then Roland, God's martyr, raised his eyes to heaven and 
spake these words with tears and penitence : "O Lord Jesus Christ 
since it is for thy faith I have left my country and have come into 
these barbarous lands to exalt thy Christianity, and I have broken 

* voluit. The Chanson de Roland relates thus : 

Li quens Rollanz par peine e par ahan 
Par grant dulur sunet sun olifant 
Par mi la buche en salt íors li cler sancs 
De sun cervel h temples en est rumpant 
De r corn qu'il tient 1' oie en est mult grant 
Carles 1' entent ci est as porz passant. 

•" Baldwinus. * "His kinsman," or perhaps "brother," is not in the Latin. 
Tradition preserved the name of the steed, Veillantif. 
Sur Veillantif sun bon cheval curant. 

* Tedricus C. Theodoricus Fr. 



90 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR, 

(iaingniughad ott furtacht-sa, ocus do fhuilnges moran do theas 
ocus d'fhuacht ocus d'ítain' ocus d'ocuras ocus do dhocamhlaibh 
ele ar do slion, cuirim m'anum ar h'inchuibh isin hhcihaidh-si . 
Ocus Qxnhail ro bo dhi«gbhala leat do gcincm/irtm ar mu shon 
ocus dul a cwich ocus bas d'fhag/zflíV ocus dul a n-adlflcad ocus 
QÍrghe o mha.xhhaihh in treas la ocus dul ar nemh nar fhacbais'^ 
riam gan do cumhachta ar lathair ann,^ gurab mar sin bus dingbala 
\et m' anam-sa do saeradh o'n bas shuthain. Or admhaim mu 
heith cintach pccthach níis mo ina mar as eidir leam a innisi. 
Gidhedh o atai-si mor-trocuireach [gmsamhail E.] ag maithemh 
na n-uili peca.d ocus gu ndenc trocuire ar gach nech ghuighis tu^ 
ocus nach fuaith leat ní dha nd^rnais^ ocus cu ceili na pecaidh 
ocus co ndermnide do shír iat in la impaidius in pecthach cugut 
ocus do ní aithrighi (or do choiclis lucht na cathrach dar ainm 
Ninue^ ar ndenum Siithvighi dhoibh, ocus do mhaithis a pecadh 
don mnai' frith ag denum an adaltruis ocus do mhaithis a cair 
[co h-imlan E.] do Mhuire Maddalew'* ocus do oscluis doirrsi 
Parrthnis don g/?ííduidhi ar ndenum a fhaisitn^acA'* dho) na 
diult dam-sa aniugh logad mu pheca.dh, ocus maith dhamh gach 
ar pheacthaighecis at' aghaidh, ocus suidhigh mh' anum isin 
cumsanfld shuthar;; ; or is tusa fo dera. gan ar cuirp-ne do dul 
gu dímhain^rtcA, acht a c\a.echlodh a sdaid is ferr,'"ocus is tú do ní 
an t-anum, ar ndea.\nghadh risin corp, do hheith beo, a mhethaidh 
as ierr, ocus as tu adubhairt nar bh'ail \eat bas in phecthaxgh 
acht a hheith na hethaidh chum impoidh do. Creidiw om' cAridhi 
[ocus o mh'anum E.] ocus admhaim om' bel gurub uimi is ail 
\eat mh' anam do hhreith on hethaidh so da heith beo a mhethaidh 
as ferr. Crcidim fos, a mbi idir scaile ocus corp, go mbi" sin do 
mhaith ar in cciU agus ar an tnicsin bias aigi, tar mar ata anois."*^ 

1. tart E. & F. 2 robuis F. 3. F. omits "ann." 4. F. & E. omit 
last three words. 5. Thus F. & E. Lis. has "ndema." 6. niniue 

F & E. 7. Lis. has "mna." 8. F. & E. omit the .second d. 

F. aspirates the d. 9. fhaisidi F. íaisidin E. 10. Thus F. & E. 

Lis. has "a stuit is fherr." 11. sic E. Lis. mbia. E. has "in raeidQ sin 
do maithius." 12. ata ann anois E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 91 

many battles over vicious tribes fortifying myself by thy aid, 
and I have suffered much heat and cold and thirst and hunger 
and other hardships for thy sake, I place my soul under thy pro- 
tection in this hfe.* And even as thou didst think it worthy to 
be born for me and to go upon the cross and die and be buried and 
rise from the dead the third day and go to heaven, which thou 
didst never leave without thy power being present there, even so 
mayest thou think it worthy to save my soul from eternal death. 
For I acknowledge that I am guilty and sinful mcre than I can 
tell. Howsoever since thou art great and merciful'' and gracious 
íorgiving all sins, and since thou showest mercy to every one 
who prayeth to thee and hatest nothing that thou hast made, 
and hidest away the sins and forgettest them for ever on the day 
the sinner turns to thee and repents— for thou sparedst the people 
of the city named Niniveh when they repented, and thou didst 
forgive her sin to the woman who was found committing adultery, 
and thou didst wholly forgive her crime to Mary Magdalene,'' 
and thou didst open the doors of Paradise to the thief when h(i 
made his confession, — do not refuse me to-day forgiveness of my 
sins, and forgive me all that I have sinned against thee, and 
seat my soul in rest eternal ; for it is thou art the cause of 
our bodies not going wastc but of their being changed into 
a better state, and it is thou who makest the soul on parting 
írom the body to be alive in a life that is better, and it is thou 
who hast said that thou didst not desire the death of the sinner, 
but that he should live to turn again. I believe from my heart 
and soul and I acknowledge with my hps that the reason thou 
desirest to take my soul from this life is that it may be alive in 
a life that is bettcr. I believe moreover that all that there is 
[of difference] between shadow and body there will be the same 
amount of difference in the good [added after death] to the sense 
and the understanding a man** shall have, beyond how he is now. 

*in hac hora. ^ Lit. "great-merciful gracious." " The Latin adds "et 

Petro lacrimanti relaxasti." ^ Lit. "he." « Perhaps not very happily 

translated in the Irish. The Latin is plain : Sensum et intellectum quem 

nunc habet tanto meliorem habebit quantum diftert umbra a corpore. 



92 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Ocus ag connmhail croicinn a ochta ocus a chigh, mar do aithris 
Tedencus, do raidh na briathra so maille h-osnaduibh devacha : 
"A Tighcarna, a Isu Críst, a mheic Dhe bhi ocus Muire oighi, 
admhuim ocus creidim om' iwnibh' uile gurab tu mu cennaighthcoir 
ocus gu bhfhuih ad' hethaidh, ocus gu n-eireoch^ fein as in t&lmhain 
isin lo dheighineach ocus gu bhfhaiceabh asin coluinn-si Dia mu 
shl«Haightheoir fein." Ocus adubhairt ainnsein fo thri ag cur 
laimhe ar a shnilibh "do chithíid na suiU so he," ocus ag osgladh 
a shul aris do fhech do chum nime ocus do daingnjg/» a uihnn 
a ailt^ ocus a bruinne o comharthi na croiche naemtha, ocus 
adubhairt : "As áeroil leam gach uili ni tdlmhaidht* anois, or 
sailim co bhfaiceabh do mhuin tindlaíc/Ai De ní nar shill suil ocus 
nach cuala clwas, ocus nach dechaidh a craidhe duine do' xxhmhaigh 
Dia don droing ler ab inmwm he." Ocus as a aithli sin do thocuibh 
a lamha cum a Dhia fein,^ ocus do rinne edarghuighi ar son na 
droingi fuair bas isin chath, ccus adubhairt : "A Thighearna," 
ar se, "dail do throcaire ar h'fhirenuibh fein fuair bas aniugh 
isin cath, ocus tainic a cnchuibh imciana is na tiribh 
allmhardha so do C3.thughadh ris in cineadh meabluch, ccus 
d' a.rdughadh ha«ma naemhtha-sa, ocus do dhighailt hfhola uaish, 
ocus d' íoiUsmghadh do cAmdimh, ocus atait anois na loighi ar 
ia.ghhhail bais do lamhaibh na Seirrisdíneach ar do shon-sa, ocus 
scns a Thighearna a pecuidh co trocuireach ocus saer a n-anmanna 
o pianuibh ifírinn ocus cuir h'archaingea^' naemtha do shaeríiíf/i 
a n-anmann o úaithemnas in dorc/mduis, ccus da mbmth isin 
úaithemnus neamhdha., innus gu mbeit a comhíhlaithius ret mhair- 
ttVibh naemhtha, farit fein,^ gun crich [gan forcenn E.] 

Ocu? aga fhacbhail do Thedricus ac denam na h-urnaighíi 
ocus na ta.isitneach so, do scar anum Rolanduis a ceí/oir re na chor[> 
ocus do thimurchadh^ ag na hainglibh he isin cumsanad suthain, 
mar a bhfhuil in Raithemhnas ocus iu ga.irdechus gan forcenn, ar 
na cengal re corugh^" mairtirí^flcA naemtha tre dingmaltacht" a 
gniomthara [ocus a oihrighthi fein E.] 

1. om anmain ocus om uile br — E. 2. sic F. also; E. has "eirochadh." 
3. a uile alt E. & F. 4. a talmam E. 5. E. & F. read noch do. 

6. chum Dia E. 7. ardaingil E. 8. a cumann ocus a caidreab red 

mairtireachaí6A F. co mheiih comflaithemhnas a.cu re m. n. íarut 
fein E. 9. do himcradh E. himwrcad F. 10. corad F. corug — E. 

11. dingmalacA/ E. & F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 93 

And grasping the skin of his bosom and breast, as Tedericus 
related, he spoke these words with tearful groanings : "O Lord 
Jesus Christ, O Son of the hving God and the Virgin Mary, I 
acknowledge and beheve with all my heart" that thou art my 
redeemer and that thou HVest and that I myself shall arise from 
the earth at the last day and that I shall see God my own Saviour 
in this body." And he said then, thrice over, putting his hand 
upon his eyes, "thcse eyes shall see him" ; and opening his eyes 
again he looked to heaven, and he fortified'' his elbow, his joints, 
and his breast with the sign of the holy cross and spake : "Every 
earthlv thing I think miserable* now, for I think that I shall see 
by the giff^ of God a thing which eye never beheld and ear never 
heard and that never entered into the heart of man, which God 
has prepared for those who love him." And after that he lifted 
up his hands to his God,* and made intercession for those who 
had died in the battle and he said, "O Lord, said he ,"distribute 
thy mercy to thine own righteous ones who died to-day in the 
battle, and who came from far-away countries into these 
íoreign lands to fight with the deceitful nation and to exalt thy 
holy name, and to avenge thy noble blood, and to show forth 
thy faith, and they are now lying, having died by the hands of 
the Saracens for thy sake, and O Lord mercifully blot out their 
sins and save their souls from the pains of hell, and send thy holy 
archangel to save their souls from the kingdom of darkness and 
to bear them into the heavenly kingdom so that they may 
reign together with the holy martyrs along with thyself world 
without end." 

And when Tedricus left him making this prayer and con- 
fession the soul of Roland straightwav parted from his body, and 
it was borne' by the angels into the everlasting rest where is the 
heavenly kingdom and joy unending, joined to choirs of holy 
martyrs through the worthiness of their own deeds and works. 

*Lí7. from all my inwards, totis visceribu.'^. '' coepit .... 

oranes artus suos et pectus signo sanctae crucis munire. '^ Michi 

villescunt C. ^ Christo donante. * Lií. "his own God." ^ transfertur. 



04 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

In tan do scar anum Rolanduis re n-a chorp, "ocus misi," 
ar* Turpinus, "isin inad remraidhti, .i. a ngleann Serluis, ocus 
me ag radh aithfnnn na marbh a fia.dhnuisi an impíVi isin lo 
cedna. .i. in ciiigeadJí^ callaw dec do mi luil, do chuadhas a támh, 
ocus do chuala cora^ [aingel ocus arcaingel E.] ag canamhuin 
ciuil ag dul cum nimi. Ocus nír tuiccs-sa in ní sin. Ocus ag 
dul a n-airdi dhoibh do chonnac drong do ridiribh ag teacht na 
ndcghaidh maiUc dnssacht mor mar do hheith creach leo, ocus do 
íh\a.ír uigheas cu h-obunn [dibh" arsiTurpinus E.] "cret do bhi accu 
ag a breith leo. 'Ata againn,' ar siat, 'Marsirius ag a bhreith 
cum ifírinn. Bur tnmipoir-si* iomorro ata Michel ag a bhreith 
cum na cathrach nemhdha, maille moran eli leis.' Ocus ar 
canumAam in aithfnnn [dam F. & E.] do innisiws^ don Impir 
gach ni da bhfflca, ocus a.dubhart ris : "Bidh a fhis agat co fir- 
inneach co ruc Mic[\el archaingeí?/ anam Rolanduis maille moran 
d' anmannuibh Cristaighi eli leis cum nimhe ; ocus ni íhedur-Sdi 
cret in bas fuair, ocus rwcadar na diabail spirí/t duini eicin dar 
ainm Marsirius leo cum iíírinn, maillí moran d' anmannuibh 
Siinchristaighi eli."^ 

"Ocus, ag a radh sin damh, tainic Baldonius chughaim a 
cedoir ar ech Rolanduis, ocus do innis gach ni da ndernad ann. 
Ocus do innis gur fhacuibh Rolandus a n-airtecaP háis a bhfhogus 
do® cloich marmuir isin cnuc," mar a.dnbhramar. 

Ar leicen gairthedh ocus comharc isin tslúagh uih do thinn- 
isna.ighedur^ cum an inaid a roibhi Rclandus, ocus tainic Serlus 
roimh chach, ocus fuair Rolandus na loighi gan awmuin ocus he 
sinti, ocus a lamha ar a ucht a bhfhighair na croisi cesda, ocus 
do loigh ar a mhuin, ocus do bhi [ag a pogadh ocus E.] ga chaímdh 
maille hosna.dhaibh ocus re d^Vuibh ocus re h-uallaibh'" ocus re 
hecaintibh dothuarflscbhala, ocus do ghabh ag fascad a ghlac 
ocus a' scribadh a aighthi le a ingnaibh^^ ocus ag tarraing a fhuilt 
ocus a fhesóigi ; ocus adubhairt do ghuth ard maille toirrsi moir : 

1. arsiE. & F. 2. in sechtmadh E. & F. 3. cowradh E. 4. E. reads 
ata Michel ag a breith buaiw cum na cathrach n., etc. 5. do innsis 

F. & E. 6. F. omits last íive words. 7. airceíul F. E. seems to read 
fo»'cedul. 8. don E. & F. 9. gluaiseadar F. & E. The sentence is 

turned quite ditJerentl^ in E. 10. nuallaib E. & F. 11. F. omits last 
eight words but inserts "le na ingnaibh" after "fuilt." 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 95 

When* Roland's soul had parted from his body, "I," said'' 
Turpin, "being in the above-named place, namely in Charles's 
Valley, and saying the mass of the dead in the presence of the 
emperor that same day, namely the fifteenth" kalends of the 
month of July, fell into a trance and heard choirs of angels 
and archangels chanting music going up to heaven. And that 
thing I understood not. And after they had gone up on 
high, I beheld a band of knights coming behind them with 
great boldness, as though they had a prey with them, and 
I suddenly asked," said Turpin, "what it was they had which 
they were carrying off with them. "We have," said they, 
"Marsirius being brought to hell. Your trumpetcr,*^ however, 
Michael is bringing him to the heavenly city with many others 
along with him." And when I had sung the mass I told the 
emperor everything I had seen, and I said to him, "know thou 
for truth that Michael the archangel has brought Roland's soul 
with many other Christian souls along with him to heaven ; but 
I know not by what death he died, and the devils have brought 
the spirit of a certain man whose name is Marsirius with them 
to hell together with many other unchristian souls." 

And just as I had said that, Baldonius® came to us straight- 
way on Roland's steed, and told everything that had been done. 
And he related that he had left Roland at the point of death 
close to a marble stone on the hill, as we have mentioned. 

Uttering shouts and cries throughout the entire host they 
hastened to the place where Roland was, and Charles came before 
all others and found Roland lying hfeless stretched out with his 
hands on his bosom in the figure of the cross of crucifixion, and 
he lay over him kissing and lamenting him with sighs and tears 
and waihngs and lamentations indescribable, and he fell to 
wringing his hands and tearing his face with his nails and pluck- 
ing out his hair and beard, and he spoke with a loud voice in great 

"The Irish translation omits here a short chapter in hexameters and penta- 

meters entitled "De nobilitate moribus et largitate beati Rotholandi 

inartyris." ^' There is no "said" in the Latin. •= Sexto decimo. 

^ tibicinem virum. ^ Balduinus. 



96 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

"A lamh dhcs mu chuirp, a mhaisi na Frangcach, a claidhimh na 
firentachta, a shleagh dho-fhillte, a luireach nemA' -tTU^Ulnighihi, 
a chathbhair in tsla.naighihi [ocus na cvodhachta. E.] a bharamArtj/ 
Judais Mrtcabeus^ ar crodhacht : a innshamhail Shamsoin ar 
hiidíVi : a leitheit Shaul ocus Ion[at]as''' ar thoicthi* bais : a 
ridin ro ghr^anmhair do b' eolcha a cathaibh idir na huili dhainibh 
ocus do ba laidiVi ina gach nech. A cheinel righda, a scristoir 
na SeÍTTÍsdíneach a ditnightheoir na Cvistaighi, a mhur na cléireach, 
a lorg na n-anmhunn, a bhiadh na feadhbh, a shasad na ndaint' 
mbocht ocus saidhbír, a edtTomaidhtheoir na" n-eglrtis, a thenga 
da nár aithnidh' brecc a mbreithemhnas chaich, a larla uasail 
na Frangcach, a thaisigh shhíagh na CTÍsiaighi, crét fa twcus isna 
cnchaibh-si thu ! Cidh um a faicim® marbh thu. Cidh um nach 
íaghaim bas leat. Cid mu a bhfhacbhai mhe toirrsech dimhaineach." 
As truadh mar atu'" bocht, ni íhedwr cred do ghe«. Bí-si" ad 
bheaihaidh maille h-aingl/W/ nime, ocus bi a ngairdeachus maille 
coroin na mairtireach ocus a forbhfailtÍMS mailleis in uili naem, 
ocus biat-sa [re m' re E.] agut chaine mar do chain Daibiá Saul 
ocus Jonatas ocus Absalom.'^ Atai-si ar ndul a d' thir dhuthaigh 
ar n-am'^ fhacbAaí7-si co himsnimrtcA [dobronach dub/zach E.] 
ar in saeghfl/ so. As taitneach do thegdhflis-si'^ ocus is bronach 
ar laithi-ne, ocus do bí h'aeis ocht mbliaííwa dec ar .xx.'' Ocus 
gia adhluictí/' a ta.\mhai)t thu atai ar ndul [a n-airde go glormur E.] 
cum fleighe'''' Parr/Aa/s. Gurub uime sin as imshnimhach'^ in 
ssLCghal ocus is forbhfail/^rtcA in flí7//Aemnus neamdha gut anorad. 
Ocus do bhi Serlus ac caine Rolanduis do na briathraibh-si, 
ocus da cosm/?aí7ibh'' in cein do mhair. As a haithli [na cuma 
ocus na briathar E.] sin do shaidh Serlus a phuhal in a.ghaidh 
sin isin inrtd a roibhi Rolandus marbh, ocus do urail corp Rolanduis 
do chumhdach [ocus do maisiug/?rtí/A E.] do bhalsaimw ocus do 

1. E. & F. rcad do-t. for nemh-t. 2. Mic Ebeus F. Mic Abeus E. 

3. louais F. E. seems to read tlie same. 4. toici F. toidhce E. 

5. marbh ocus na d. mb. E. 6. Perhaps "edtTomughadh." etruwug — 
E. & F. 7. nar thaithigh E. 8. ma fheithim F. 9. imsniw/tach E. 

10. ataim E. 11. heirsi F. 12. Jonas ocus .\bstalon F. ocus Jonata* 
Absolom ! E. 13. nar f — ne F.gar f — ne E. 14. as taithnemach 

glormar dodtanmai«si E. 15. Thus E. Lis. has "íiegh." 16. Thus 

E. & F. Lis. has "imshnimh." 17 cosmaileí/A E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 97 

grief, "O right hand of my body,* O beauty of the Franks,'' O 

sword of righteousness, O spear not to be turned," breastplate 

unsulHed, O helmet of Salvation and valour, Othousimilar to Judas 

Macabaeus for valour, O thou hke unto Samson for strength, O 

thou such as Saul or Jonathan was in the fortune of death,"* O 

knight right pleasant and of all men most knowledgable in battles 

and more powerful than any man, O royal offspring, destroyer of 

the Saracens, protector of the Christians, wall of the clergy, staff 

of the feeble, food of the widows, satisfaction of men poor and 

rich, hghtener of the churches [burdens],^ tongue which in the 

judgment of all never knew a lie, noble earl of the Franks, chieftain 

of the hosts of the Christians, why did I ever bring thee into these 

countries ? Why do I behold thee dead ? Why die I not along 

with thee ? Why dost thou leave me sorrowful and desolate ?' 

Alas ! how poor am I ! I know not what I shall do. Live thou 

with the angels of heaven, and be in joy with the crown of the 

martyrs, and in happiness with every saint, and I shall be, so 

long as I live, lamenting thee as David lamented for Saul and 

Jonathan and Absolom.^ Thou art going to thy native country 

leaving me full of care and sorrow and sadness in this world. 

Brilhant is thy abode but sorrowful is our day; and thy age 

was thirty-eight years. And though thou art buried in earth 

thou art going aloft gloriously to the feast of Paradise. Therefore 

it is that full of care is this world, and joyous is the heavenly 

kingdom honouring thee." 

And Charles was lamenting for Roland with these and 
like words so long as he was alive.'' After that lamentation 
and those words Charles pitched his tent for that night in 
the place where Roland lay dead, and he gave orders to 
preserve and adorn Roland's body with balsam and myrrh and 

»The Latin adds barba optima. •'Gallorum. •= inflexibilis. '^ mortis 
íortuna. « revelatio ecclesiarum. ^inanem. KThe Latin breaks 

into verse as foUows : — 
Tu patriam repetis, nos triste sub orbe relinquis, 

Te tenet aula nitens, nos lacrimosa dies. 
Sex qui lustra gerens octo bonus insuper annos 

Ereptus terrae justus ad astra redis. 
Ad parasidicas epulas te cive reducto 

Unde gemit mundus gaudet honore polus. 

^ his verbifi et his similibus Karolus Rotholandum luxit quamdiu vixit. 



98 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

mirra. ocus d' aloes ocus do rinnedar cach uili a fhairc cu h-anorach 
[frichnamach E.] re hedh na h-oighthi sin, mailk canntaireacht 
ocus re canitibh' ocus re lócArannuibh [ocus re tapambh E.] do 
hheiih ar lasrtd na thimcheall ocus re teinntibh d' adhaint ar fud 
in fhega [ocus na coilledh E.] co hmlidhi. Ocus do chuadar a 
mucha in lai ar na mharach, armtha eidighthi, cum an inaid ar 
cuÍTeá [in t-ar ocus E.] in cath, ocus in a rabhutur in lucht cath- 
aighthi marbh isin glenn re n-a.har Runcia.''^ Ocus fuair gach 
drong aca a caruit íein, cuid dibh marbh ocus cuid eli beo, ocus 
cuid a croiHghi háis. As amlaidh fuarudar Oluerus na loighi ar 
talmhain ar n-aitherrac/í on t-shoillsi shoeghalla cum na soillsi 
suthaíwi, ocus hé ar na shinedh a bhfhigair na croisi césta., ocus 
ar na chengal [ocus ar na cnihveach E.] do cordaidhihh cn/aidi 
do chethra cuailHbh,^ ocus a cAroicenn ar na bhuain de do^ scenaibh 
ro ghera, o inn^ a mheoir co a mhullach, ocus se ar na chirrbadh^ 
do ghaibh ocus do shoighdibh ocus do claidmhihh o mhoran do 
bhuillí6/í. Ocus do tocbhadh eighmhe [ocus cow/airc F.] mora 
ocus hrón ar nach roibhi nuimíV acu or do bhi gach nech dhibh 
ag caine a charat fein, ocus do linadur na glennta ocus coillti do 
comharcaib ocus d' eighmhibh [ocus do basgaire E.]. 

As a aithle sin do luidh in ri fa Eiw-nDia' uih-chumachtach 
nach anffld ac lenmhai^ na Fadanach no go fagrtd iat. Ocus 
in tan do b'ail leis a luighi do choimhlínadh do mhuin 
ghnima, do thadhbhaisedh^ doibh an grian do hheith na 
comhmtidhi ocus in la ar na íhaiditighadh re spas tri la. 
Ocus fuair ainsein na Seirrisdinigh [an a suidhi F.] ag caithim 
a codrtch laimh risin snith darub ainm Ebra^ a ngar do 
infld re n-abar Cesar Agusta,''^ Ocus do dhoirt^' in ri na cenn 
mar \eomhan ag dul ar creich.'^ Ocus ar mharhhadh cethra míle 
dhec'^ dibh do impo in ri cona shluagh arís cum in gleanna re 
n-abar Ruwnsia. Ocus ar mbmth a ndaine marb ocus loit/de 
ocus eslan leo cum an inaid a roibhi corp Rolanduis do thindscain 

1 coinnlib E & F. 2. Ruinsia F. & E. 3. F. omits last three words. 
4. le E. & F. 5. finn F. & E. 6. E. inserts several other synonomous 

verbs. 7. Lis. has eiwndia. F. & E. endia. 8. to'ú\s,ighedh F. 

9. Eabra E. 10. sesar augustus E. 11. E. adds ocus do spor. 

12. dul fo ellach E. 13. ceitH mile E. & F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 99 

aloes, and every one waked*him with honour and fervour during all 
that night, with chanting and candles [E. & F.] and with lamps and 
tapersht around him and with kindhng of fires throughout the entire 
grove and wood. And early on the morrow they marched in arms 
and armour to the place where the battle had been fought and 
the slaughter made, where the fighting men were [lying] dead 
in the valley which is called Runcia.'' And every band of them 
found their own friends, some of them dead and some of them alive, 
and some of them in the agonies of death.° And this is how they 
found Ohver, lying on the ground changed from the hght of this 
world to the light eternal, stretched out in the figure of the 
cross of crucifiction, and bound and fastened with hard cords to 
four stakes, his skin taken off him with full-sharp knives from the 
tips of his fingers to his crown, and mangled** with many blows 
from spears and arrows and swords. And great lamentations and 
cries were raised and [sounds of] grief beyond number by them, 
for every one was lamenting his own friend, and they filled the 
valleys and woods with outcries and wailings and clapping of 
hands.^ 

After that the king sware by the one omnipotent God that 
he would not desist from following the Pagans until he found them. 
And when he desired to fulfil his oath by carrying it into deed 
it appeared to them that the sun was at a stand-still and the day 
lengthened for the space of three days. And then he found the 
Saracens eating their meal beside the stream which is called 
the Ebra' close to a place which is called Caesar Augusta. 
And the king burst^ upon them like a lion going for a prey. 
And after killing fourteen^ thousand of them the king returned 
again with his army to the valley which is called Runnsia.' 
And taking their dead and wounded and sick people with them 
to the place where Roland's body was, Charles began to enquire 

^ Lií. "watched," " exequias peregerunt. •'in RuncievaJle C. Runcia- 

valle Fr. <= letaliter vulneratos. Crolighi usually means "l^dng in gore." 
^Jaculisque et sagittis lanceisque et spatis perforatum magnisque ictibus 
baculorum attritum invenerunt. « One word "clamoribus" stands in 

the Latin íor these three. ' Ebro. « Lit. poured, see note h, p. 79. 

^ The Latin texts read 4,000. • ad Runcievallem C. ad Runciamvallem Fr. 



100 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Scilus a iarmhoracht ar' bhíir no ar'-^ hrég gur b'c Ganalonus do 
tliinnlaic na ca.thaighíhi cuigi,^ mar adubAmtar moran. Ocus do 
urail a ccdoir da ridiri armtha eidighthi do chur cum comraic d' 
íhoiUsiiíghadh na fui«di .i. Pinapcllus a hucht Ganalonuis, ocus 
Tedencus* a hucht Serluis. Ocus do thuit PinapcUus a ceííoir. 
Ar bhfoillsiug/zííí//í hraiih Ganalonuis mar sin do urail Scrlus a 
cengal as scotaib^ ceathra sdet uaibhreach ocus do chuir marcach 
ar gach sded dibh da mhrosdiighadh^ o cheile is na ceathm hairdibh . 
Ocus ar scoltad chuirp Ganalonuis o chele mar sin, fuair bas mar 
do dhged* 

As a haithle sin do cumhdaighetur cuirp na ndaine marb 
sin maille [neiihibh dedhhsilaidh examla .i. cuid dib maille F. & E.] 
mirra, ccus drong le balsam,' ocus drong le haloc,^ ocus sochaidhi 
ag nach bidí's neithi dcghbhalífíV//í do scoiltdis cuirp a carad ar a 
mbronnuibh, ocus do chuirdis salann orra. Drong ele dhibh do 
hadl«cfld isin inad in ro marbad. Ocus do imcmtar^ drong ele 
dibh cuirp a carat leo isin Fraingc da n-adhlacaí^A, an a n-inadaibh 
dilsi."' Ocus do batar da reilic uaisli choisercta" a focus doibh 
ann sin .i. reih'c dibh isin inad re n-abur Arelatew'^ ocus reih'c ele 
san inad re n-ahar Burdegal'^ do fhulair in t-impm do choisercad 
do law/mib vii n-esbag do bhi na fhochair, ocus as inntibh sin 
do h-adlflcad in chuid is mo dá fuair hás ann sin. 

Ocus in drong fuair hás a mullach slebhe Garsim, ris nar ben 
arm, is annsna reilgibh sin, do h-adlaiccííA iat, ar comailt neithe 

I. arfhír F. Narbfír E. 2. nar E. 3. na ka CriostaighiE. "an K" 
(i.e. cath) F. 4. Tredicus E. & F. 5. a foltaib E. & F. 6. dasporad 
ocus dambrostug/íaí?/i ocus daspregadh o cheile E. 7. balsamus E. 
8. haloes E. 9. bmdh ? F. 10. duthaigh disle E. duthaigh fein F. 

II. coisrica F. coisregthaE. 12. Elate E. 13. Partegal E. Burtigal F. 



* Sur tuz les altres 1' unt otriet li Franc 
Que Guenes moerget par merveillus ahan, 
Quatre destriers funt amener avant ; 
Pois, si li lient e les piez e les mains. 
Li cheval sunt orgoillus e curant ; 
Ouatre serjant le acoeillent devant 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 101 

whether it was true or false that it was Ganalon who had gathered 
the warriors to him,°' asmany said. And he forthwith ordered 
two knights in arms and armour to be set to fight to make manifest 
the truth, namely Pinapellus on bchalf of Ganelon, and Tedericus'' 
on behalf of Charles. And Pinapellus° fell at once. The treachery 
of Ganelon being revealed in this manner, Charles ordered him to 
be bound to the tails of four high-mettled steeds and he set a 
rider on each steed of them, urging them apart towards the four 
airts. And Ganelon's body being spht asunder, in this way he 
died, as was his due. 

After that they covered the bodies of those dead men 
with various fragrant things, some with myrrh and some 
with balsam and some with aloes, and numbers of those who 
had no perfumes used to split the bodies of their friends 
[openiiig] their breasts and stomachs and used to put salt 
upon them. Others of them were buried in the place where 
they were slain. And more of them carried the bodies of 
their friends with them into France to bury them in their own 
places. And there were two noble graveyards consecrated near 
them there, one of them in the place which is called Arelatem** 
and another graveyard in the place which is called Burdegal,' 
which the emperor ordered to be consecrated at the hands of 
seven bishops' who were in his company, and it was in these the 
greater part of those who died there were buried. 

And those who died on the summit of Mount Garsim, whom 
no weapon ever touched, it was in these gravej^ards that they 

* pugnatoses tradidisset. *• Tedericum C. Therrdicum Fr. " Pinabellus. 
^Arles. ® Bordeaux. * The Latin text gives the names of the seven 

bishops and of their sees. 

Devers une ewe ki est en mi un camp. 

Guenes est turnez a perdition grant. 

Trestuit si nerf mult li sunt estendant, 

E tuit li membre de sun cors derumpant 

Sur r herbe verte en espant li clers sancs 

Guenes est morz cume fel recreant 

Ki tráist a altre neu est dreiz qu'il s'en vant. 

Chanson de Roland. 



102 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

ndeadlibhalrtúí/í da corpuibh. As a aithle sin do íhurail Serlus 
corp Rolanduis d' imchar ar dhá mhúl cus an inad re n-abar Balueum 
ocus do h-a.d\acadh co hanorach [uasal E.] he a n-eglflis Rowanw's, 
do fhuhiir se fein do áenam roimhe sin, ocus an ar chuir ca.nznaighe 
riagalda. Ocus do cuiríd a claidhiomh ac a chinn ocus a buaball 
ebon ac' a chosaibli mar inncomurtha a ghaiscid ocus a 
cArodhachta. 

"A cind begain aimsiri na dhiaigh sin," ar Turpinus, "do 
foilhighedh bas in righ .i. Serlus dam-sa, mar so. La da raba^ 
isin ca.thr aigh re n-abar Uienwa^ isin n-ec\ais a fiadhnuisi na 
h-altoire co ndechadhas a tamh [ocus a taisi E.] ocus me ag 
denumh nvnaighú ag rádh in tsailm-si Deus in adiutorium 
meum intende, tadhbhas^ damh sluagh di-airmhe do ridiribh 
ag dul torum cum cathrach Letarangia.^ Ocus ar n-imthecht doibh 
uile do connac nech dibh a cosmaiHus íir ghuirm, ocus he ag lean- 
m/íflmchaich arsiub/i«/mha]l,ocus adubhart ris'caslige ateighthe.' 
'Téighmid,' ar sé co hAqis*' Granis d' innsaig/wí/A bhais Serluis 
Impir, do bmth a spiride' cum ithfrinn.' Ocus adubhart-sa* ris 
'Cuirim ort [ocus cenglrtm dít E.] a n-ainm Isu Crist mu thigh- 
earna techt^ dom innsdLÍghidh ar cnchmighad do thurais duit. 
Ocus ar ndenumh becain comnuidhi na dhiaigh sin, is ar eicin do 
cnchnaighius in salm, in tan ad cownac iat ar n-impod ar in suidhead 
cedna. Ocus adubhart ris in bhfer ndeighineach dhibh 'cred do 
ghnoaigheabhair^o q shin' ? Do fhrcguir an diabal ocus adub/?aíVt 
'Do chuir in Gaihnseach gan cenn" in mheid sin do clochaibh 
ocus do mhaidibh a eglaís isin mheidh ihnus gur truime'^ maith 
Serluis inait a uilcc ; gurab uime sin ruc a anam uainne.' Ocus 

1. ThusF. Lis. has"os." E. I cannotmakeout. 2. robasaF. rabhaE. 
3. uiuenna E. uicsenna F. 4. tabhas E. 5. letairngia F. & E. 6. 
6. haicsis E. aicis F. 7. spirat E. anma F. 8. se Lis. 9. innto E. 
inntogh F. 10. gnodheabairsi E. gnodabM>'si F. 11. cxnnedh E. 

12. ThusE. &F. Ljs. has"truma." 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 103 

were buried, fragrant stuffs having been rubbed upon their bodies. 
After that Charles gave orders that Roland's body should be 
carried on two mules to the place which is called Balveum* and 
■it was honourably and nobly interred in the church of [St.] 
Romanus, which he had himself before that ordered to be built 
and where he had established canons regular. And his sword 
was placed at his head and his ivory trumpet at his feet as a 
mark of his heroism and valour." 

"At the end of a short time after that," says Turpin, "the 
death of the king, that is of Charles, was revealed to me in 
this wise. On a day that I was in the city which is called 
Vienna in the church before the altar, I fell into a trance 
and swoon, even as I was praying [and] saying this psalm 
Deus ín adjutorium meum intende. There was revealed to me 
an innumerable body of knights going past me to the city of 
Letarangia.*^ And when they had all gone by I saw one of them 
in the likeness of a Moor,'' foUowing the rest at a slow walk, and 
I said to him 'what way do you go.' 'We go,' said he 'to Aquis 
granis* to the death of the Emperor Charles to bring his spirit 
to hell.' And I said to him, 'I adjure thee and bind thee in 
the name of Jesus Christ my Lord to come [back] to me when 
you have finished your journey.' And having rested for a little 
while aftcr that I had scarcely íinished the psalm when I 
saw them returning in the same order. And I said to the last 
man of them 'what have ye achieved^ [or done] since' ? The 
devil answered and said 'The Galician without a head put so 
many stones and sticks of his churches into the scale that Charles's 
good weighed heavier than his evils, and so in this wise he took 

* Blavium, i.e. Blaye. •> After this there íollows in the Latin a chapter and 
a half giving the names of those buried at Blaye and at Arles. This is 
omitted in the Irish. Then foUows chapter 31 of Fy., of the Council held at 
St. Denis, in which Charles made that see independent, also chapter 31 
in Castet's text upon the Seven Arts. Chapter 30 of Castet's text which 
is chapter 31 of the Frankfort edition begins : "Hinc adunato episcoporum 
et principum concilio in Basilica Sancti Dionysii, etc. "versus 

Lotharingiam tendere, i.e. Lorraine. ^ Literally a "blue man" as the 

Irish called the negro. ^ Aquisgranum. ' A story like this is told 

of the Irish Crom dubh in the book of Lismore. O'Longan's copy, íol. 110. 

8 quid egisti. 



104 GABHÁLTAS SERLUIS MHÓIR. 

ar ríídh na mbriathar sin do chuaidh in diabhrt/ ar neifní, ocus 

do thuices-sa as na neithibh-si Serlus do dhul don tsaegha/ in 

lá sin, ocus a bhrcith cum in fhlflzV/iemhnais nemhdha mar do 

dhhgt'í/' tre edarghuighi San Sem, da ndcrna moran d'ecalsaibh. 

Ocus in la do scarus-sa ris a Uiewna, do naiscius air, da bhfcdadh 

techtairi do chur chugam d'innisin a bhais damh, damad tusca a 

bhas^ ina mu bhas fcin. Ocus do naisc-sen oram-sa mar an cedna. 

Ocus ar mbeith eslan do-san do cuimnigh ar a ghea.l\adh ocus do 

aithin do ridiri do ba dalta dho,^ in uair do aitheonad hás 'na 

ghaire, a ihoiUsiughad damh-sa," ar Turpinus. "Ocus a cinn .u. la 

ndec deis a bhais fuarus a fhis o n-a thechtaire, gu roibhi ag a 

gsdhngadh^ do shir on trath fa tainic as in Spainn cu la a bhais ; 

ocus gu tabrfld ar anmain na droingi adubhramar, do thuit isin 

chath, comhainm^ in lai in ar ínihngedar martra ar gradh Crisi 

.1. in vi** callam dec do mhí lúil, da mhiU dhég ui«gi dh'aircet, 

ocus in oiret cedna do thallrtwaib oir, ocus éadaighi ocus biadha 

imdha do bhochtuibh, gacha hhadhna, re feadh a heihadh ; ocus 

co n-uraikí//í in oiret cedna dh' aithf^eannflíT) ocus do shaltrí?chai6 

do chantain ar a n-anmunnuibh ocus d' aíntibh do dhenam. Ocus 

do innis^ fos gurab é in la in a bhfaca-sa' in taidhbhsi sin .i. in 

u'"^ csdlann dec do mhi Fhebhra,^ in tan do b'aeis don Tighearna 

ocht ced hiadhan ocus cetra hliadna dec,^ la in a ndechaidh sé 

don tsSieghal so, ocus gur h-adhlacfld cu hanorach hé a Aquis"^ 

Granis, a n-eclais cruinn Mhuire do rinne sé fein." 

[Ocus do cuala na comarthai so dfaicsin tri hliadhna re na bas, 
oir tharla gur claochhiigheadh an grian ocus in re a ndath adhuat- 
mhar re fed secht la ocus F.]'^ a ainm fein .i. Serlus prinnsa do 
bhi scribhtha ar balla na h-ecailsi remhraitti, do chuaidh as uadha 
fein, began re n-ec dho-san. Ocus in poirsi do bhi idir an ecXais 
ocus an halla^^ righdha do thuit uadha^^ fein la a freasgabhala. 

1. Sic. These three words not in E. 2. sic E. Lis. reads "he." 3. E. adds 
"fein, suldecAadhd'ea^." 4. aga dalladh 'E. 5. a comhainm E. 

6. Innsis F. 7. ana facadh F. 8. Eabhra E. 9. F. transposes, 

4 bl. dh. ocus ocht ced. E. adds ocus is e siw la prici (?) verginis ocus ttíc few 
a cailinntej' (?) 10. aicsis E. 11. E. reads much the same. 12. talla E. 

13. buadha E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 105 

his soul from us.' And having said those words the devil dis- 
appeared* and I understood from these things that Charles had 
departed from the world on that day, and had been brought to 
the heavenly kingdom, as was his due, through the intercession 
of Saint James for whom he built many churches. 

"And the day I parted with him in Vienna, I bound him, if 
he were able, to send me a messanger to tell me of his death if 
it were to come sooner than my own death. And he bound me 
in hke manner. And he being iU remembered his promise, and 
he ordered a knight who was a fosterling" of his own that so soon 
as he should recognise death to be near him, he was to reveal it 
to me," says Turpin. "And at the end of fifteen days after his 
death I obtained knowledge of this from his messenger — that he 
had been constantly ailing from the time he came out of Spain 
to the day of his death, and that, for the souls of those we have 
spoken of who fell in the battle, on the anniversary of the day 
in which they suffered martyrdom for the love of Christ, namely 
the sixteenth kalends of the month of July, he used to give twelve 
thousand ounces of silver and the same number of talents of gold, 
and much clothing and food to the poor every year, during his 
life ; and that he used bid chant as many masses and psalters'' 
for their souls, and perform fastings. And moreover he told me 
that the day on which I saw that vision, namely the ISth'' 
kalends of the month of February in the age of the Lord eight 
hundred and fourteen years was the day in which he departed 
from this world, and that he was buried honourably in Aquis 
granis" in the round church of Mary which he himself had built. 
And I heard that these signs were seen three years before his 
death. For it came to pass that the sun and the moon were 
changed into a fearful colour for the space of seven days, and 
his own name, moreover, "Prince Charles," which was written 
on the wall of the aforesaid church, disappeared of itself a short 
time before his death. And the porch which was between the 
church and the royal hall,' it fell of itself on the day of his ascension 

■Li'í. "went into nothingness." Latin "evanuit." ''cuidam militi 

alumpno suo. « psalteria. <* quinto. « apud Aquisgranum, 

i.e. Aix-la-chapelle. ' inter basilicam et regiam. 



106 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Ocus in droichet crandghaili' do rinne maille saethar mor a 
Maguncia^ ar in sruth re n-abar Uehjm^ .uii. mbhadhm. roime 
sin, do loscrtd'' uadha fein gu h-ui\idhi. 

La ele do Sherlus ac siubhal began aimsiri roim a bhas 
ocus tarla doinenn ocus gairbhthen^ mor cu h-obunn ann, 
co facas don righ lasair ag imthecht cu h-obunn^ o n-a \eiih 
deis co a \eith cle, ocus ar nga\)hail cgla moire dhó do thuit 
da ech cum talmhan. Ocus tancatar a compan«7"g'/í cuigi, 
ocus do thocbhatar [o lar E.J hc. Gurab iat sin innchomartada 
bais Sherluis ria n-ec dho. Ocus creidmit' anois co bhfhuil a 
chuid do choroin na mairtiri^ remraitti aigi. Or as derhli hnd 
gur fhuiluing a chuid da saethar [ocus do documal E.] Ma a.sedh 
as in-tuicti ar an eisimlair so, in te clmmlidai ghius eacalsa co 
n-uWmhu igheann íiaithiws De dho fein, or do sa.eTadh Serlus o 
na dia.h\aibh ocus do suidhmí/ san ílaithimnus nemdha he tre 
fhurtacht ocus tre impidhi^ na naemh da ndema se saethar ocus 
ecalsa ocus anoir.'° 



As oirces a chuimhniughad ann so in mhirbail aithrisdear 
d'fhoillsiughí?í//í do Dhia ar son Ko\anduis,^^ an tan do bhi na 
hethaidh re ndul isin Sbain do ; or in tan do bhi an t-iarla anorach 
sin re re .vii. míss'^ a timchioll na cathrach re n-abar Gmnopuhs*^ 
aga ga.hhail maille sluaghuibh do-airwe Qristaighe, tainic techtairi 
co tindisnach cuigi da innisin do gu roibi Serlus brathair a mháthav 
a ca.is\en a ca.thraigh^^ a n-imeall na Germaine, ocus tnur righ na 
thimchroll aga gabháí7 [ar éigm E.] air, .i. ri Uandalorum'^ ocus 
ri Saxonum ocus ri Fnxonum gu n-a sloghuibh, ocus do aithin 
[Searlus E.] de co deihireach '^ dul maille na shluagh co tinnisneach 

I. Cranngail E. 2. ar magh Uncia F. awad uncia E. 3. uehin E.& F. 
4. do loisgse E. \oisged F. 5. gairbhsin E. 6. F. omits last 12 words. 
E. omits the last nine, and reads "gur fliuchadh ocus gur h3.iá\\edh" instead, 
which seems to make no sense when followed by "o \eith des," etc. 
7. creidim anois, ar Turpinus E. 8. mairterachE. mairtir — E. F. omits 
"remraitti." 9. F. omits last three words. 10. F. omits these two words. 

II. do Rolandus o Dhia E. 12. vcúAiadhan ! E. 1.3. granapuiUs F, 
grana faiUis E. 14. sic E. "acaisUugaíiA a cathrach F. 15. badhol- 

orum E. 5. deib — c F. áliáech E. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 107 

[to heaven]. And the wooden bridge which he had built with 
great labour in Maguncia* over the stream which is called Ueh^n" 
seven years before that, it was utterly burned without external 
cause.'"' 

Another day as Charles was walking a little while before his 
death, there suddenly arose bad weather and a great storm, and 
there appeared to the king a blaze travelling rapidly from the 
right hand to the left hand, and he being greatly terrified fell 
off his horse to the ground.** And his companions came to him 
and raised him up from the ground. So that those were signs 
of Charles death before his [actual] decease. And we believe now 
that he has his share of the crown of the above-mentioned martyrs. 
For we are certain that he endured his own share of their labour 
and hardship. It may be understood, then, from this example 
that he who builds churches is preparing the heaven of God for 
himself, for Charles was freed from the devils and was placed 
in the heavenly kingdom through the succour and entreaty of the 
saints for whom he had laboured and to whom he had given 
churches and honour.* 



'lt is fitting to remember here the miracle that it is related 
God exhibited for Roland when he was alive before his going into 
Spain ; for when that honoured earl had been for the period of 
seven months [encamped] round the city which is called Granopuhs* 
[trying] to take it with innumerable Christian hosts, messengers 
hurriedly came'' to him telhng him that Charles, his mother's 
brother,' was in a castle in a city on the borders of Germany with 
three kings round about him trying to take it, the king of the 
Vandals,^ and the king of the Saxons, and the king of the Frisians" 
with their hosts, and he hastily^ bade him come quickly with his 

*The various Latin texts read "apud mogontiam, mangontiam, magontiam, 
moguntiam, í.e. Mentz. '^superíiuvium Reni. '^ Liíerally" ÍTomitselí." For 
the construction of this Rhine bridge see the Chanson des Saisnes,clviii-clxvi. 
•iin alteram partem de equo cecidit et aucona (arca Fr.) quam manu ferebat 
in alteram. « Lit. for whom he made labour and churches and honour. 
The Frankfort text of 1584 ends here. ' This chapter is an obvious 

addition to Turpin as the opening words, "sed valde dignum est ut inter 
cetera," show. ^ Gratianopolis. '' velox advenit paranimphus. 

' avunculus ejus J Wandalorum. '^Frisonum. mandans et eíiiagitans 



108 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

da fhurtacht ocus da shaerfld o lamhaibh na Seirrisdínexch. Do 
gabh imshnimli Rolandus de sin, ocus do smuain' ga rogha do 
bhcradh : An hi in cathair fa r' fulaing morán saet/z«z> ocus do 
b'ail leis do chur f a chuing Cvist'^ do íhuicíeadh, ocus dul d'fhurtacht 
Serluis, 110 an c a leicí^rtn a ngua.sacht do ghenad ocus cathwg/md 
ris in cathair.^ Do b' e an fcr in-mholta in gach ein ceim^ ocus 
lan do trocuiri, in te do bhi isin ceist sin idir in da comhairli sin.^ 
Ocus cluineam anois a ndearna. an fer anorac[h] sin .i. Rolandus. 
Or do bhi tri la ocus tri hoidhche maille na shluagh, gan bhiadh 
gan digh, ag denumh urnaighthi ocus ag gairm Dhe da furtacht ; 
ocus aduhhairt "A Thighearna, a Ihesu^ Crist, a Mheic an athar 
nemhdha, do roinn in muir ruadh ar dhó, ocus do threoraigh popul 
Isr[ae]F trithe ocus do bhaidh Faraoth innti ocus tuc do pop/í/ 
fein trcsin fasach, ocus do t^'flscair moran do na cineadhaibh^ do 
bhi na n-a.gaidh, ocus do marbh righa laidíVi .i. Seon ri Amorreorum 
ocus Hoc^ ri Basan^'^ocus flaithis Candan co huihWM" ocus tuc a 
tir mar oigrcacht dot ipohul fein do clainn Isr[ae]l ocus do 
scris a cíí/oir namuir'*'^dobiatimc/77o//intsluaigh namat fo seacht,^^ 
maille gothaibh buabull ocus adharc, gan cha.thtighadh daena, 
gan tshas'^ gan eaiadhuin ele, scris'^ a Thighearna neart na 
cathrach-so ocus a dai«gne ocus a a harmdhacht^^ uili dod laim 
chumachtaigh /ein, innus gu n-aithnighe an cined Padanda (nac 
cuirenn a ndoigh innat tre na mbuirbe) do hheith ad Dia beo 
ocus ad righ as cumhachtaighe don uiH righ ocus ad dhitniglitheoir 
dona Cristaighihh ocus do hheith faris an athrt^ ocus in Spira/rt 
naeimh a fhla///ámnus tre bithu sir." Ar ndenum na hurnaighthi- 
si do Rolandus a cinn an trcas la do thuiteadar muir na cathrach 
da gacA leith gan duini do buain riu ocus do ruagad ocus do ma.rhad 
na Padanazg^. Ocus do impo Rolandus cona shluagh a cedoir 

1. smuaintig F. 2. creidim F. 3. sic E. Lis. has cathrach. 

4. Kair F. cas E. 5. F. omits last íive words. 6. a Isa E. Ysa F. 
7. Isrl — Lis. Israhel F. Isrl E. 8. haicmeda F. haicmidhiiA E. 

9. Ogh E. 10. Barsa E. 11. F. omits last nine words. 12. namai»- E. 
13. techt F. 14. gan sas E. 15. mar sin a Thighearna scris a neart 

na SeirristinQach ocus na cathrach etc, E. 16. harmamlacht E. & F. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 109 

army to succour him, and free him from the hands of the Saracens. 
Roland was filled with anxiety at that and he considered as to 
what his choice should be — should it be the city for which he had 
endured much labour and which he desired to place under the 
yoke of Christ that he should leave and go to succour Charles, or 
should he leave Charles in peril and war upon the citv. It was the 
man praiseworthy^ in every single step [he took] and fuU of mercy, 
who was in this phght'' between those two counsels. And let us 
hcar now what that honourable man Roland did. For he was 
for three days and three nights with his army without food, without 
drink, praying and calhng upon God to succour him. And he 
said, "O Lord, O Jesu Christ, O Son of the Heavenly Father, who 
didst divide the Red Sea in two, and leddest the people of Israel 
through it and didst drown Pharaoh in it and didst bring thine 
own people through the wilderness and didst overtiirow many of 
the nations who were against them, and who didst slay strong 
kings, Sihon king of the Amorites and Og king of Bashan, and 
the kingdoms of Canaan wholly, and didst give their land as an 
inheritance to thine own people the Children of Israel, and who 
didst destroy at once the walls which were round about the 
enemies host seven fold, with the voice of trumpets and horns, 
without human fighting, without engine and without other science 
[of war] — destroy, O Lord, the might of this city and its fortresses 
and all its armament*^ with thine own powerful hand so that the 
heathen nation (which through its íierceness'* putteth not its 
trust in thee) may know that thou art a living God and the king 
most powerful of all kings, and the protector of the Christians, 
and that thou art along with the Father and the Holy Spirit in 
heaven for eternity." 

When Roland had made that prayer, at the end of the third 
day, the walls of the city fell on every side® without any persons 
touching them, and the Pagans were routed and slain. And 

*0 virum per omnia laudabilem. ^ Lit. "question." "armaturam. 

^ feritate. ^ But this miracle has been already recorded of Charles 



110 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

d'furtacht Scrluis isin Almain, maille gairdeachus ocus re gloir 
do Dhia ; ocus do shaer Serlus on guasacAí' a raibhi. Ocus is 
o Dhia do ronadh so ocus as ingnadh he in ar suiUbh-nc. Ocus 
a fhir leghas^ so iar[r]^ furtacht do Thurpinus tre trocure De. 



Ocus is beg d'aimsir^ dar tis bais Serluis do bhi Turpiniis 

airdesbac Remuis na righ, mairtirgflcA, na heihaídh, in tan fuair 

bas a Uienna^ le teinnes a cnedh ocus do scis gach saethar da 

bhfuair, ocus do h-adhlaiced he a focus don cathraig don \eith ele 

do Rodanum, don taeibh thoir, a n-aroih eclrtíis. Ocus fuaradar 

drong do cleirchibh na cathrach, isin aimsir deighinígA so, in corp 

ro naemtha sin, a comra^ chloiche ro-mhaith, ocus heart esbaic 

uimc, ocus a chnamha ocus a c/íroicenn imshlán co uil?rf/n.' Ocus 

tucadar on eclais sin he cum cathrach ele, ocus do adhlaic^rf/i e 

a teampo// anorach, mar fuil se [a comnuidhe F. & E.] ag a ghuighe 

anois, ocus ata coroin mharthanach aigi ar nimh, do ghnóaigh se 

maille saethar mor a tahnhain.^ Or as in-creitti in lucht do 

fhulaing a martra isin Spainn ar son creidimh Crist curub dingbhala" 

iat fa choroin^^ ar nimh. Ocus as in-tuicthi gin gu fuair Serlus 

ocus Turpinus bas maille Rolandus ocus re hOluerus ocus maiJlf 

moran ele do mhairtiribh a ngleann Runnsia,^^ gidheadh cena, 

fuaradar coroin marthanach isin flflíV^emhnus nemhdha. Or do 

íhuúngedar moran do chnedhaí^A ocus do hualadh ocus do shaetha r 

ocus do theinneas. Or adubhairt an t-esb«/ 'mar fhuilngimit in 

dochar is a.m\aidh do ghebhum in sochar/ et reliqua. 

As inand Rolandus re radh ocus "Roth na hegna," or ruc 
se buaidh on uih rí ocus pnnnsa a n-egna. 

1. airc E. 2. Not in E. 0'Curry's transcript of Lis. reads "as íir leghar so." 
O'Longan's copy reads "a íhir leghar." I alter r to s. 3. F. omits 

last five words and makes nonsense. E. has after suilibh-ne "ocus ar 
fuí-tacht do Twrpinus tre trocuire De," which also seems nonsense. 

4. Thus E. & F. Lis. reads "as i sin dhaimsir," or "as is ind aimsir." 

5. auiuenna F. 6. Lis. has cothra. 7. gan brisedh E. 8. do 
gnodh— . . . . a flaíAamnus talmada F. 9. dingmala F. & E. 

10. do coTonughadh F & E. 11. Remencia E. & F 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 111 

Roland turned with his host at once to succour Charles in Germany, 
with joy and with [giving of] glory to God, and he set Charles 
free from the peril in which he was. And it is of God that this 
was wrought, and it is wonderful in our eyes. 

And O man who readest this ask succour for Turpin, through 
the mercy of God.^ 



And it was short time after the death of Charles that Turpin, 
Archbishop of Rheims-of-the-kings, [and] martyr, hved, for'' 
he died in Vienna through the sickness of his wounds and through 
the weariness of all the labours he had endured,'^ and he was buried 
near to the city on the other side of Rodanum, the east side, in 
a certain church. And some of the clerics of the city in these later 
times found that most holy body in a fine coííin'' of stone, with a 
bishop's vestments round him and his bones and skin completely 
sound. And they took him from this church to another city, and he 
was buried in an honourable temple where he is ever prayed to 
now, and he has a lasting crown in heaven which he won with great 
labour on earth. For it must be beHeved that those who endured 
their martyrdom in Spain for the rehgion of Christ are worthy 
of a crown in heaven. And it may be understood that though 
Charles and Turpin did not die with Roland and with Oliver and 
many other martyrs in Runcia Valley, nevertheless the}' gained 
an enduring crown in the heavenly kingdom. For they suffered 
many wounds and much beating and labour and sickness. For 
the apostle has said, 'As we endure the loss so shall we íind the 
profit,' etc. 

[The name] Roland is as much as to say "wheel of wisdom"^ 
for he surpassed every king and prince in wisdom. 

■ The Frankíort text ended with the death of Charles. Castet's text ends 
here. But what foUows is given by Castet as aji appendix, under the title of 
" Calixtus papa de inventione beati Turpini episcopi et martyris." Castet's 
text ends with the following lines of poetry : "Qui legis hoc carmen Turpino 
posce juvamen, Ut pietate Dei subveniatur ei." ^ Lií. "when." '^ Lit. 
" got." <isarcofago. ^ rotulus scientiae. 



112 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

As inann Olví'rus ocus "Ridiri trocuireach," or do bhi se 
trocaircch seoch an uih dhuine, ocus cennsa na comradh, ocus 
búidh ana oibreachaibh. 

Serhis imorro .i. "SoiUsi na Colla" or do clai se gach uih rí 
talmaide' da tainic andiaigh Cvist ar deallrad ocus ar sxxh^Uaibh,'^ 
ar crodacht ocus ar ccna. 

Turpinus, imorro, quasi "non turpinus"^ .i. "neamh-granna," 
or do b' imchian na drochb/znat/zra ocus na drochoibreacha uaidh. 



As iat so na neiíhi tharla isin Sbain andiaigh bais Serluis, or 
gach ní tarla [d'aithle a bháis E.] ni hingnad a chuimhne ag ar 
menmain-[n]e air.'^ Or in tan do bhi talamh na Sbaini a comsanad 
f«da tar eis bais Serluis, tainic, ar furaihm an diabflzV, gur eirigh 
Seivnsdineach dar ainm Altamaior ri Cordubias,^ ocus adubhairt 
talamh na Spainne vugad ar eicin o na dainibh tainic roimhe, 
co vn.beUh se aigi fein, ocus co cuirféd fa dligid na Seivvisdíneach 
he. Ocus do thinoil sluaighte mora cum scrisda na Sbaini, ccus 
táinig cum cathrach San Sem ocus do mhill gach ní da bhfuair 
innte, ocus do airg teagduis apstohcda San Sem co midingbala uma 
leabhraibh [ocus] uma buird aircit ; ocus na cluic ocus na deisigh^ 
aifnnn fuair and, ruc leis iat. Ocus an uair do batur ar a.idhigheachf 
a teampo// San Sem, do bhezVdis a bhfhual ocus a bhferadh ar an 
altoíV n-apstah'cíía,^ ocus nir fhuihng Dia na neiihi so gan innech/fl«. 
Or tainic o furtacht subhalíai De^ gur marbh íiux inneadh drong 
dibh, ocus gur benadh a radharc as suilibh droingi eh, innus gu 
rabhadur ar vneamghadh [ocus ar seachvíin E.] ar fut na cathrach. 
Cid tra do ghabh an dailli ugdar an uilc .i. Altumaior, ocus tainicc 
do chomhairh sacairt da raibhi isin tevnpoll innus gur guidh'° se 

1. talmanda F. 2. subaltai F. subaltaigh E. 3. non tuirpis F. 

nemhdochra nemhgranna E. 4. sic E. Lis. has mbimaiwne 

and omits air, but O Longan notes that this word was written over, and 
is wrong. 5. Cornubia E. & F. 6. Thus E. deis— F. 

7. aiáiachi F. aghacht E. 8. aposdolica E. 9. subaltai Dia E. & F. 

10. sic E. Lú. has"gunguighse." 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 113 

"Oliver" is the same as "merciful knight,"" for he was merciful 
l3eyond every one, and mild in his discourse, and gentle'' in his 
works . 

"Charles," moreover, that is "Light of the Flesh,"° for he 
•overcame every earthly king'' of all who came after Christ for 
splendour and virtues, for valour and for wisdom. 

"Turpin," moreover, is as if "non Turpinus" that is "Not- 
iiateful,"' or evil words and evil works were far away from him. 



These are the events that happened in Spain after the death 
•of Charles, for everything that happened after his death it is 
no wonder that our mind should remember it. For when the 
land of Spain [had enjoyed] a long rest after the dcath of Charles, 
it happened, at the command of the devil, that there arose a 
Saracen whose name was Altamaior, king of Cordubia, and he 
said that he himself would have the land of Spain which had been 
taken by violence from the people who came before him, and that 
he would put it under the law of the Saracens. And he collected 
!great armies to destroy Spain. And he came to the city of Saint 
James, and destroyed in it everything that he found, and he 
unworthily' plundered the apostohc foundation of St. James of 
its books and silver tables; and the bells and vestments for 
mass which he found there he brought away with him. And 
when they were at entertainment in the temple of Saint James they 
used to íilth ly defile the apostolic altar.^ And God did not suffer 
these things [to go] without retribution. For it came to pass by 
iihe help of the virtues of God that a íiux of the bowels slew some of 
them, and the sight was taken from the eyes of others, so that they 
were wandering and going astray throughout the city. Moreover 
the bhndness took hold of the author of the evil, even Altumaior, 
and he came, by the advice of one of the priests who was in the 

•* heros misericordiae. •> clemens. ' lux carnis. '• omnes reges 

carnales. ^ pulcherrimus, sive non Turpis. What follows here as part of 

the Irish text is given by Castct as another appendix. ' Or perhaps 

"unfittinglv." 8 excrimentis inquinaverunt. 



114 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

Dia uili-chumachtach da fhurtacht, ocus adubhairt na briathra 
so, 'A Dhia na Cristaighi, a Dhia San Sem, a Dhia Muire, a Dhia 
PetatV, a Dhia Martain, a Dhia na n-uili Crislaighi, dá n-aisice' 
dham in tslainti chedna, diultfad*'^ mu Dia fein .i. Macametus, 
ocus ní thiceabh do dhenamh cicne co tempo// San Sem no go 
tí an brath. O a Sin Sem mhoir, da tuga tú slainte dom medhan 
ocus radarc dom shnilibh gach ní rucus od tegdais aiseocat he. 

Cidh tra, ar n-aisiuc na neithi sin co dnblaigíhi do tempoU 
San Sem, a cinn .u. la ndecc do h-aisiced a shlainti co himshlan 
don 'Pada.nach .i. Altumaior, ocus do fhacaibh talamh San Sem^ 
ocus do geall nach ticfad cum eicne^ and o sin suas. 

Ocus do innisedh^ mirbhuili De ocus San Sem ocus do 
adhrad doibh. 

Ocus tainic roimhe iarsin cus an mbaih re a raidhtear Ornír 
mar a raibhi eclais uasal ag Beatws Romaníís* ocus do ba 
deadhmhaisech an teghduis sin do^ hhra.ta.ihh ocus do leabraibh 
ocus do cArosaibh aircit ar n-a n-ovad. Tainic Altumaior 
d'innsaighidh na tegduisi sin, ocus do scris a hubair,^ ocus mc 
leis ar eicin gach uili ní dha bhfhuair innti. Ocus ar mheith da 
oighthi ar aidhigheacht^ do isin mbaile sin do chuaid taiseach a 
shluagh isin eclais sin, ocus do connaic peleir ro ailli cloichi do 
bhi mar fundament ag an eclais. Ocus do bhatar a n-uillma'° 
ar na cumdach dh' ór ocus d' arcet. Ocus ar na faicsin [sin F. & E.] 
do-san, do Hn" se do shainnt, ocus do urail geinnteach do chur fo 
na peileruibh sin ocus a mbualadh le h-orduibh iaruinn. Ocus 
an nech do bi aga mhualadh tainic d'furtacht De in uair do thshail 
se an eglais do scris,^- co ndevna cloch don duine sin, ocus ata in 
cloch soin o shoin a-le a bhfhigair duine isin eclais [cedna F.] sin, 
ocus cosmuilius an datha do bhi in tan sin ar edach^^ in tSeirr^srin 
uirri [anois E.] 

Ar na fhaicsin sin d' Altumaior adubhairt re na muinntir 
"As in-molta cu mor Dia na Cnstaighi aga bhfuik'(í a leitheide 

1. danaisigir E. & F. 2. diultochad E. & F. 3. na Spaine E. 

4. eigin E. 5. do niorad F. do innis se E. 6. eagla^s rouasal 

RomanMis E. 7. o F. 8. baile E. & F. 9. a.\g\\echt E. 

10. E. seems to read badar mnWaigh." Lis. has "anuill-a." 11. la.s Ei 

12. E. adds "ocus do tuitim innus co nderna." 13. F. & E. omit "édach." 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 115 

temple, and prayed to the omnipotent God to relieve him, and he 
spake these words: "O God of the Christians, O God of St. James, 
God of Mary, God of Peter, God of Martin, God of all Christians, 
if thou restorest me to the same health [I had] I shall renegue 
my own God even Mahomet, and I shall not come to do violence 
to the temple of St. James for ever. O great Saint James if thou 
grantest me health to my inwards and sight to my eyes, every- 
thing which I carried away from thy house I shall restore it." 

However on restoring those things double to St. James' Church, 
at the end of íifteen days his health was restored whole to the 
Pagan, even to Altumaior, and he left St. James' land and promised 
that he would not come to do violence there from that out. 

And the miracles of God and of St. James were told, and they 
were worshiped. 

And he went forward after that to the town which is called 
Ornir where Beatus Romanus had a noble church, and that was 
a fair foundation, for vestments, and books, and silver crosses 
overlaid with gold. Altumaior came to that house and destroyed 
its books and took away with him by violence everything that 
he found in it. And when he had found entertainment for two 
nights in that town the leader of his hosts went into that church 
and beheld very beautiful piUars of stone that the church had as 
a foundation. And their angles were covered with gold and silver. 
And when he saw that, he was íiUed with covetousness, and he 
ordered wedges to be set under those pillars and to strike them 
with iron sledgehammers. And the man who was striking them, 
it came to pass by God's help when he thought to destroy 
the church, that that person became a stone, and that stone is 
ever since in that same church in the simihtude of a man, and 
the hke colour that was at that time on a Saracen's garments 
is on it now. 

When Altumaior saw that, he said to his people, "the God 
of the Christians who has such servants^ is greatly to be praised. 



^Lit. "fosterlings" or "disciples. 



116 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

sut do dhaltuibh, gid do chuatar siat fein don tsa.cghal do niat 
inávchaidh^ ar na dainibh do ni dith doibh isin tshaeghul. Or 
ruc San Sem soillsi mo shul uiH uaim-si, ocus do rinne Romanus 
cloch don duinc [do bi ag bualadh an geinntigh E ], gidhcdh chena 
as ferr^ San Sem ina Romanus. Or do aisicc San Sem mo shuiU 
dhamh-sa ocus do dhiult Romanus mhe fa am dhuine. Mas edh 
facbham na cncha-sa." Ocus do imthigh co n-a shluaghaib as in 
crich sin.^ 

Tairnicc in sdair sin ocus saihm gurub maith ata si. 

CRIOCH. 



4 



1. innechadh E. &: F. 2. cennsa E. 3. E. & F. add maille haithnghi. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 117 

although they have gone themselves from the world they [stiU]' 
look closely to the people who do them damage in the world. For 
St. James took ali the light of my eyes from me, and Romanus 
turned the man who was striking the wedge into a stone. Howbeit 
St. James is better than Romanus, for St. James gave me back 
my eyes but Romanus refused me about my man ! Then, let us 
leave these districts" ! And he departed with his hosts out of 
that land. 

This history is íinished and I think that it is a good one.* 

FlNIS. 



aThis is the colophon of the Lismore scribe only. 



118 GABHALTAS SERLUIS MHOIR. 

{F. and E. add the following passage). 

Ocus ni roibi re haimsir f hada inadiaigh sin n^ch do lam urcoid do 
denam do chrich Sin Sem. M.3s,eadh bith a fhis ac gach aen nduinc 
cuivis, mi-cumsanad ar chch Sin Sem co fuidhi an ádctnnwghadh^ co 
martaní/ch, ocus cid be coimiSí/fMs iat o comachtaib na Semsdin- 
ach dc gehhaidh a luagh a fiathamnas nemdn. Oir do chuir lul 
Sésair^ mar innistear annsa Spain tri cined//a .i. Meuronos"'' ocus 
Scotos^ ocus Cornubianos do scris popail na Spaine o nar b'aiU 
leo cis do tiáhicadh do, an uili? fher do cloidmidhearfh ocus an uili 
ban do legin as, ocus an tan do badar na cinedha sin ac siubA«/ 
na mara ar rochtain a tir doib do hrisidar a longa ocus do loisgidur 
ocus do marbadar a tarla doib on cathdix re n-abar Barrcmowa'' 
co Sesair^ Augustuí^, ocus o Ca/Aair Bagiona co sUab cce?' ocus 
nir fhéííidar dul tairis sin, oir do tinoiUdfly Catilawe^ do cathughadh 
riu ocus ruagadur ona cnchibh sin iad, ocus ag teiíheadh doib-sin 
tangadur chum an sleibi^ ata idir Bagia^flm ocus Pampilonium 
ocus Bagionam [a dul a ta.lamh Bisgaei ocus Alaime (?) E.] ocus 
do suidhidar a foslongport annsin ocus do marbadar an uih tisLgharna. 
ocus fer fuaradar annsin ocus rucadar a mna leo [doib fein E.], 
ocus do geineadh clann atura ocus na mna sin re Ta.itear Nauaairi.'" 
Ocus is inann Nauairi" re radh ocus ineros^'^ .i. ainfhirenrtc/í .i. 
"non vera. pergencia" .i. clann maicne'^ fallsa ar techt o treib a.nn- 
dihs.'"* Ocus ad . . . ar'^ fos Nauaros on catraig re n-abar Na- 
dauer'^ (?) oir as uaiti tugad an t-ainm ar" tzís ona crichaibh ut 
o tangadar ar tus, ocus is e Matha suibiscel ocus a aspuil do 
impo le n-a senmoraibh iat do cum creidim o tus riam. 

Gurub amlaidh do crichnaighedh oighedh na ridire ocus 
imtechta ocus gabaltaí's Serluis Móir andsa Spain. 

FiNiT. Amen.'' 



1. a dhainmughadh F. 2. lesair E. 3. E. seems to read Mem«ranos. 

4. The first letter in E. does not seem an s. It may be " criotos." 

5. Baremone E. 6. Cesar E. 7. aqe E. 8. E. seems to read Cas- 
dilani. 9. na sleibhti E. 10. navarri E. 11 navarrus E. 
12. now uera.m.. 13. From E. The word is not clear in F. 14. Thus 
E. F. seems to read "ainwdius." 15. Perhaps "deirtear." 16. Thus 
apparently E. F. indistinct. 17-17. From E. F. is hardly legible. 



THE CONQUESTS OF CHARLEMAGNE. 119 

And there was no one for a long time after that who ventured 
to do injury to the country of Saint James. Then let every one 
who disturbs Saint James's country know that he will get dam- 
nation for ever, and whoever shall protect it from the powers of 
the Saracens he will get his reward in the heavenly kingdom. 
For Julius Caesar sent, as is related, three races into Spain, 
namely Meuroni and Scoti (?) and Cornubiani* to destroy the 
people of Spain, since they were not wilHng to give him tribute, 
to put every man to the sword and to let every woman escape. 
And when those races had voyaged over the sea, on coming to 
land they broke their vessels and burnt them, and they slew all 
who met them f rom the city which is called Barremona'' to Caesar 
Augustus, and f rom the city of Bagiona'' to the mountain of Ce."*(?) 
And they were not able to go across that for the Catilani* assembled 
to fight with them and they routed them from those countiics. And 
in their ílight they came to the mountain which isbetween Bagiaram 
and Pampiloniimi and Bagionam.'going into the land of Biscay and 
Alania,*(?) and they encamped there, and they slew every lord and 
man that they found there, and carried off their women for them- 
selves. And children were begotten between them and those 
women, who are called Navarri. And Navarri is the same as to 
say Iveri, that is untruthf ul, that is non vera pergencia,'* that is false 
race coming from an unfaithful tribe. And Navarri is said more- 
over to come from the city which is called Nadauer*(?) for it is 
from it that the name was first givcn, froni those countries from 
which they first came, and it was the Evangelist Mathew and his 
apostles who converted them by their preaching to the Faith at 
the very beginning. 

So that this is how the fate of the knights and the exploits' 
and conquests of Charles the Great in Spain were ended. 

FlNIT. Amen. 



* Nubianos Scotthoí et Cornubianos caudatos. ^ Barcinona. = Baiona. 

«•Oque. «castellani. * inter Nageram et Pampiloniam et Baionam. 

« Alavae. ^ progenie. ' Naddaver. 1 Lií. goings. 



NOTES. 



NOTES. 



The King's Inns MS. 

Thc vcllum MS. inarkcd tcii in thc Librarv of thc King's Inns, which 
I did not discovcr in time to comparc with the tcxts oí the othcr íour MSS., 
is the only one which contains the epistle of 'furpin to Leoprandus. The 
text diffcrs not only in the matter of possessing this letter but in so manv 
othcr points from all the othcrs that I give hcre the íirst folio so far as it 
is legible. The first eight íolios of this codcx are taken up with a fr.agment 
of the cognate story oí Fortibras or Fierebras. On folio nine begius the 
Turpin story with a nicely iUuminatcd letter in red and yellow, but the 
colours arc now nearly worn away. Folio ten, which also contains part 
oí our text is not a continuation of folio nine, sonie intermediate leaves 
ha\ing becn lost. A misplaced scmi-loosc leaf aíter folio íifty-eight con- 
tains more of the Turpin tcxt, the fight at Roncesvalles and the betrayal 
of Ganelon, but much of it has been discoloured and is hard to read. This 
version, likc that in thc Book of Lismore, is not divided into chapters. The 
hand-writing is beautiful and clear and there are not so many contraclions 
as in the Franciscan text and in Egerton. I have extended "•]" to "ocus" 
as before. 

lindscaí«tcr and so cibisdil Tuirpinusairdesbuigarnacurgu Leoprandus 
da innisin chinnus do sacr Serlus Mor talaui na Sbainc ocus na Gailingsi o 
nert na Sairrcsinech. 

Beatha ocus slainti annso o Tuirpinus airdesbug Renius ocus com- 
panuch Serluis Moir impir gu Leoprandus dcaganach Aquis Graiiis (?) 
Oir da aitnebuir dim gu nua ocus me i n-otrus sa chatraigh re n-abar Uicnna 
o gaeithibh cro gu sgribuinn cug[at-sa r*] mar do shaer an [t-]impir oirrderc 
.i. Serlus Mor talum na Spainne ocus na Gailingisi o [?] nert [?] na Sairresinech. 
Is uime siu do shannt[aigheas-sa ?] aird-gnimartha ingantacha ocus a co 
. . . inmolta ar na Sairresinechajbh Spainnecha noc do [chonnac do 

mo ?] suilibh íen ocus me re cethri . . . . g ac sibul na Spainne ocus 
na [Gailingsi ?].... ana coiwedacht malle na . . . . ibh do 
sgribadh ocus a cur dot innsaighidh .... esbaluibh, ocus do 
descibluibh Crist . . . . b examla in dorauin a derar gurab annsa 
. . . . do rinne csbul gloTnihar Crist i. San [Sem sen ?] moir ar tus. 
Ocus as a haithle sin .... le h Iruath rugadar a deisc[iobail ?] 
a chorp isin oidhche leo ocus do cuadar . . . . no gu 
rangadur an Gailingsi aris ocus do . . . . ac senmoir inn[ti ?] da 
. . . tarcaisnighedio' na Gailingsig . . . . a pecad. 

[The next two and a-half lines are illegible. It wiU be seen from this 
that the epistle is condensed and shortened to less than half the 
lcngth of the Latiu. Ihe MS. continues as follows ] 

doa rannuibexamlain domuinocusarcosaií/tmoraiw do thirthuib 
mar ta Saxa ocus an F>'aingc ocus in Almain ocus in Baidhiuiw ocus 
Lotaringia ocus an Burguin ocus an Edailc ocus in U(?) traine ocus gach 
flaithes ocns gach cathaiv da raibe o muir gu muir ar na gabáil do maille 
nert a laime dochlaeiti ocus ar na saerad a lamuib na Sairresinech ocus ar 
na cur fa cuing cí-edme do gab in rceidi do tuirsi ocus do scis he innus gur 
tnall cumsanad do denam ocus ga.n dul dochuw cathaighthi ni is mo. 

Ocus acedoir deis.si ún ar fechui« adhaigh eigi« ar iw fir[m]am.eMt do 
chonnuic slighi do rellannuib ac tinwscaint o muir Fnsia ocns ac dul edir 
an Almaine ocus an Edaille ocus edtV an niBritaine mbic ocus ín Fhraingc 
ocns ac dul co direc trid in nGascni>íi in Llarrdha ocus in Spain co ruigi in 
nGailingsi mar a raibe Coí'p San Sem co folaighteac/í an tan soiw. 



NOTES. 125 

Ocus ar mbeth gach n-oidhche do Serlus ac fccuiu na sliged sin do gab 
aga smuaintigíid cred da ba . . . . ? di ocus ar na smuaintigad sin 
maille sduider frichnamach do taibrighed do adaig egin ar ndul a tamh 
pe^'sa anorach do delb ro alaiwd ocus atbert ris a Mhic cred do . . . . 
se do freguir Serlus ocus adubhairt cia thu a [thigh]earna. "Mise San Sem 
airdesbul," ar se, "dalta Crist noch do ba dingm/iala le Dia ona grassaib 
fen do cur do sewmoir dona ■pohlaibh ocus is mc do marb Iruath ri le cloi 
[Next tvvo and a-half lines illegiblo. This hnishes the recto of 
íolio nine]. 

an t-ingnudh lim nar saeruisi mu talumh ona Sairresineachaibh ocus a med 
do ca//fri7chuib ocus do tirthuib da gabuis, ocus ar in adhbfl*- fhoiUsighim 
duit mar do rinde Dia, ri is treissi ina gach ri talmmuidhe ele, dit, gurab 
rnar sin rug do roghuin tu eáir an uile righ d'uUmughadh mu sligedh-sa 
ocus do chosaint niu ta.lmhan o lam;iib Sairresinech innus co n-ullmaig/íedh 
coroin mar luaghaidheac/ír marthanuigh da chinn duit. 

Ocus in tshlighi rellunw do chonnTÚc tu isi« firmaiinint as edh foillsighis 
co racha tusa maiUe shiagh mor do cathughadh risin cinedh paghanach ocus 
da saerad mu sliged-sa ocus mu thalmu»? ocus d'fhis m'egailsi ocus mh' 
athluicthi on inat so co ruig in nCaiIiwgsi ocus co mbcth an uile popul o 
muir co muir ac dul dan oilithre ocus dfhaghail loghaidh a p^caidh o Dhia 
at diaid-si dochui» in iniddh cednTi. ocus co mhethi ac innisin molta Dc ocus 
a subaltadh ocus a mirbul o aimsir do bethadh-sa co deredh in tsaeghuil-si. 

Ma sed gluais annois mar is luaithi fhodfas tu oir biad-sa gut fhurtacht 
in gach en chas oois gnoidheochat coroin ar nim duit o Dhia do chind do 
saethair, ocus biaid h ainm molta co ruigi in la ndedhenach." Ocus tadbas 
in cor si« Sa« Scm ía tri do Sherlus. 

Ar cluin.sin na mbriathur do Serlus ocus ar ngabail muinighne a gcWadh 
in esbuil do tionoil sluaigh imda ocus do gluais úochum na Spaine da 
ca.thuqhadh ris in cinedh SdiÍTTesinech. 

Ar rochtaiw da Serlus sa Spain isi ced cathuir do timrhill do gabail, 
Paimpilonia, ocus do bi ina timchill re tri mi, ocus nir íed a gabail, oir do 
bi ar na daingnegad o muraib dofhogla ocus do rinne Serlus an tan sin cdur- 
guighi ar Dia ocus a adubhairt "a Thighearna. a Isa Crist os ar son do c/z>-edmhe 
tanug isi« (sic) tirthaib-si do cathughadh ris in rinedh micredmhec tabuir 
in caMair-si dhamh a n-onoir hanma fein." Ocus adubhairt aris "a San 
Sem," ar se, "ma as [end of first col., fol. 9 b\ fir gurab tu tadbas damh 
tabair dam iii cathair-si do gabail" ocus ni cian da eis sin do brigh guigi 
San Sem ocus tidluicthi Dé an tan da tuitedar a muir uile dochum talnihan. 
Ocus na.Sairrcsinigh lerb'ail baisdedh do gabail da coiwedadh ina mbethaidh 
iad ocus in med les iiar b'ail do cloighmedh iad. 

Ar cluinsin na mirbal sin do berdis na Sairresinigh umla in gach inud 
a teigidh (sic) ocus do cuirdis cis cuigi, ocus tugadar a cathracha. uile da comus, 
indus co raibi in tir uile fa rliis do: oir da b'ingnad leis in i.incdh Sairresineach 
in cinedh Frangcach d'faisciw d'iehus a neduigh ocus d'aille a ngnuisi, gurub 
uime sin do gabadur clico co hanoruch sidchauta iad. 

Ocus as a haithlo sin do cuaidh in ri ar cur a arm uadha d'fhis adluicthi 
San Sem, ocus tainig as sin co I'etronam ocus da shaith a shled san fhairgi 
ann sin, ocus do rindc buidechus ar Dhia ocus ar Shen Sem fa tabairt dochum 
in inuid sin nar fhed do rochtain roime. 



PECULIARITIES IN THE MSS. 

Of the three texts which are complete, that of the Book of Lismore is 
perhaps the oldest. The Franciscan MS. and Egerton more or less agree 
in the forms thev use, which in many cases are diflerent from those of thc 
I.ismorc MS., and occasionalIy appear more modem (?) Thus F. uses (I 
think invariably) annsa for the isin oi Lis, a roibh for the araibhi of I.is, 



124 NOTES. 

aidhchi for aghaidh (i.e. adaigh). of Lis. deidigh, dordaigh. etc, for du eidigh 
do ordaigh oí Lis., o hoin invariablv for o shoin of Lis., do fag for do fagaibh 
oí Lis. 

Anothcr peculiarity of F. is tfiat it gcnerally gives the longer fornis 
of the names of rountries, as Almaine and Gascuine for Almain ancl Gascuin. 

The scribe of each MS. seeins to have had a predilectiou for certain 
■words. and we find F. and E invariably using conuig for the cusin of Lis., 
and inntogh for the impodh of Lis., and do inntogh or innto for thc do impo 
of Lis. They seem never to vary in this. Where Lis. writcs gutgim, cret, 
in nech, an neach, scoilt ar dho, San Seni. F. write': guidim, cad, ineach, aneach, 
scoilt ar a dho, Sin Sem. F. has rachair-se for Lis. ragha-sa, and gcnerally 
reads cloisdin or cluisdin where Lis. more usually has cluinsin and H. clos. 
F. and H. always nse Paganta or Paghanta for Pagan, but Lis. generally 
Padhanta. l.is. invariably writes "iarla dar aínm" for the darb of F., 
darab of E., darba oí H. A peculiarity of F. is its making one consonant 
do for two, as areachtaine íor ar reachta-ne, inech for in nech, acechtar íor 
ac cechtar It also uses y for i in ymaigh and ysa. AU the MSS usually 
have the long e for the modern ea, but Lismore sometimes writes in íuU 
beacan, teacht, each, gleann, lear, as do also the others. There are a few 
traces of dialect. Thus E. sonietimes uses buaim buatbh for uaim, p. 40, 
uaibh. p. 30, as in modern Scotch Gaelic. We íiiid in Lis. the dat. 
anmunaibh for the nom. plur. anmanna, 12 n.9., and the phonetic 
maimie for maidne. Deis is an early occurrence of this form for tar eis. 
Teduis and tegnis are obviously spoken corruptions oí tegduis. An 
interesting locution is the prefixing of a to chomh in such phrases as a 
chom.h mor sin, etc. This idiom has given rise in Countv Roscommon and 
other parts oí the west to the pronnnciation of chomh mor sin as acho mor 
sin, with the accent on the first syllable of acho. The doubling of the letter 
c, so conimon in the seventeenth ceutury, to indicate the sound of g has 
alreadv begun, we find do thuicc,cuicce, tainicc. For meid ox meit F. reads 
medi, ánd E. usually has meide or mede. This form is used also in the cognate 
storv of Fierebras. The genitiveof Dmisoften Día wotDe. as also in Fierbras. 
E. is fond of using the relative noch. Gan and cen are equally used in 
all the MS. Lis. generally writes taebh. not taob. The plural of ni a thing 
is written in full neithi, p. 56. 

F., H. and E. read Cornubia for the Cordubia of Lis. We find both 
forms in the Latin MSS. If as I have tried to prove, all the MSS. have 
come from the same original translation, I can only imagine that some learned 
scribe with the Latin original before him, in which the name was difterent 
írom that in the text hc was about to copy, changed it, thinking that the 
name in the original was a mistake. I abstain from examining the verbal 
forms in our text, in view of the interesting and exhaustive study recently 
made by Alf Sommeríelt of the verbal system in the Cath Catharda, in the 
Revue Celtique (vol. xxxvi., pp. 24—62 and 295 — 334), as much of what he 
there says is applicable to our text also. 



TURPIN TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH. 

The only English translation of the Pseudo-Turpin ever made, so far as I 
know, is that of Thomas Rodd which he printed as a preface to his trans- 
lation'of the "Floresta de varios Romances sacados de las historias antiguas 
de los Pares de Francia." Rodd's book appears to be rare, for I could dis- 
cover no copy of it in Trinity College Library. In my copy printed in 1812 
Rodd says that he trauslated from the Latin in "Spanheims Lives of 
Ecclesiastical writers." But no such work is to be found in Spanheims, 
collected works pnblished in 1701 (the year of his death) at Leyden under 



NOTES. 125 

the title "Frederici Spanhemii F. opera omnia in tres tomos divisa," con- 
tainiug 800, 7S0, and ()7o close quarto columns oí Latiii, nor is any meution 
made of such a book in the hst of worlts ascribed to him in the Nouvellc 
Biographie Gónérale, which gives an account of him, his father and his brother, 
all nien oí letters. 

If Spaiiheim wrote a book "Lives of Ecclesiastical Writcrs," it must 
have been pubUshed separately and not included amongst his other works. 
lí Rodd has translated literally, the text he worked from is ditlerent from 
the Fraidifort text and that of Castets. Rodd's version was afterwards 
reprinted without comment by Henry Morley in 1884 in a volume entitled 
Mediaeval Tales. 



Charlemagne. 

I TAKE the following account of Charlemagne from an unpubiished text, 
"Sdair na Lumbardach," in the Book of Lismore, which I had prepared 
for pwblication here, but which the Conmiittee thought would make this 
valume too long if included. Or adeir Torpinus espug ru raibhi Karulus 
Mor sochraidh do corp ocus bruidemhail íiadhanta do siUedh. Or do batar 
ocht troighthi ar airdi 'na chorp ocus se hordlaiglii dec a bhfad a troigid, 
ocus rcsi co leith 'na fhesoic, ocus resi 'na aghaidh gacha leithi, do .sroin 
co finnfadh a fhesoigi, ocus troigh o bun a shrona co finnfadh a edaiu. 

Do scoiltífld ridiri co n-a ech o mhuUach a cheind-beirti cu lar d' aen 
bnilli claidhimh. Do shineadh se .iiii. crua a n-aeinfhecht cur bhaat slata 
dirghe o neart a lamh. Do thocbhudh ridiri armtha eidighthi 'na shesamh 
amhlaiJh ocus do chuirert;//! timceall a cinn he, ocus do leicedh ar lar co 
socair aris he. Mil muighe ocus da circ no gegh ocus da chirc a proinn a 
n-aeinfoct, ocus bccau íina ar cur nisci trit, ocus is bec do ihheadh, or ni 
ihheadh acht tri deocha ar a shuiper. Do chumhduigh ecaisa imda ar grad 
De. Do urail a or ocus a uili innmusa do thabhairt 'na thimceall a n-aen 
alla, cor bha comhard ris fein iat, ocus ar ndearbhad a neirt ocus a íhear- 
dhachta dho dorindioighre do Dhia ar gach ni da roibhi aigi, ocus do chuaidh 
fein a moghsaine do Dia. Bliadhain in Tighearna in tan sin cuic bl. dec 
ocus ocht ced. 

i.e. For the bishop Torpinus says that Charles the Great was pleasing 
of bodv and /ierce and wild in his look. And his body was eight feet in 
hcight, and sixteen inches was the length of his foot, and a span and a half 
in his beard, and a span in his face, in each half of it, from his nose to the 
hair of his beard, and a foot from the bottom of his nose to the hair of his 
face. 

He used to split a knight with his steed from the top of his headpiece 
to his middle with one sword stroke. He used to stretch four horse shoes 
together so that they becamc straight rods with the strength of his hands. 
He used to lift a knight in arms and armour, standing so, and used to put 
him round his head aud let him down gently again. A h.are and two fowl 
or a goose and two fowl together was his dinner, aud a little wine with water 
through it. And it is little he uscd to drink, for he used only to take three 
liraughts at his supper. He built many churches for the love of God. He 
ordered his gold and all his treasures to be brought round him into one hall, 
so that they were [piled] as high as himself, and having proved his strength 
and manly vigour he made God heir to all that he possessed ; and he himself 
went into God's service. The ycar of our I.or<i at that time was eight 
hundred and fiftcen years." 

That the exaggerated accounts of Charlemagne's personal appearance 
are still not wholl}^ impossible is shown by the following extract which I 
clipped out oí the "Daily Mail" of Septcniber 22nd, 1916, concerning one 



126 NOTES. 

Fiedericlí Hcmpstor, born in Bayswater, Londoii, who was then t\\euty-oiie 
years old and 8 ít. 2 ins. high. 

"His weight is twenty-seven stone. A pcnny wiU pass through his 
signet ring. In boots he takes size 22 J. 'l hrce ordinary beds have to be 
placed side by sidc for hini to sleep in. On the railwa}' he travels in the 
guard's van, and by road in a spccial carriage or niotor car. He can spau 
two octaves oii a piano and light a cigarette comfortably at a street lamp." 



the english roland. 

A CHRTAiN amount of thc Pseudo-Turpin was translated iiito carly English 
also, in the form of a metrical romance. It does not appcar to liave beeri 
popular, for EUis who published an account of the pocm, which is entitled 
Roland and Ferragus iu his Early Euglish Metrical Romances, Vol. II., 
p. 291, knew of onlv oiie version, that in the Auchinleclc MS., oí which Scott 
made him a copy. It begins with the wildly absurd statement that 

An hundred winters it was and three 
Sithen God died upon the tree 

That Charles the king. 
Had all France iu his hand 
Denmark and Eugland 

\Mthouten any lesing 
I.orraine aiid Lombardy 
Gascogne Bayojiiie aiid Picardie 

Was till his bidding. 
And emperor he was of Rome 
And Lord of all Christendom 

Theii was he a high lording. 

After .=íome extraneous matter not borrowed from lurpin the poet 
comes back to that narrative and takes pains to give the names of sixty-six 
cities which Charlemagne conquered iu Spain, but his transcriber, EUis 
remarks, has taken equal pains ro reiider them utterlj' unintelligible. 

Mahoniet's image is thus described : — 

And au image of great pousté 
Stood on a roche by the sea 

In the gilden londe 
His name was Salanicodas 
As a man y-shapeu he was 

And held a glaive iii hond. 
Mahoun maked him with gin 
And did inanj- fiends therein 

As ich undcrstond 
For to sustain the image 
And set him on high stagc 

For no man n' old he wond. 

Ferragus is thus described : — 

He had tweiity mens strength 
And forty feet of length 

Thillce Paynim had 
And four feet in the face 
Y-meten on the place 

And fifteen in brede. 
His nose was a foot and more, etc. 



NOTES. 127 

When Roland pierces the giant through thc navcl the wounded man 
cried aloiid to his God Mahomet. But 

Roland lough for that cry 
And "Mahoun sikprly 

No may heJp thee nought. 
No Jupiter no Apolin 
No is worth the brust of a swiri 

In heart no in thought." 

The poeni ends with the death of Ferragus, and theu begins the Romance 
of Sir Otuel, dovetailed into it as in the Welsh version. 



ORIGIN OF TURPIN'S HiSTORV. 

Casimir Oudin, the distinguished Freiich scholar, 1638-1717, wrote as follows 
(de Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis antiquis, Vol. II., p. 68). 

Auctor hujus operis non Turpinus sed Callixtus II. Papa, qui tribus 
post mortem Caroli Magni saeculis, illam fabulam confinxit, non ut Carohmi 
Magnum, sed ut saiictuni lacobum Apostohim et ecclesiam Compostellanam, 
quam ardenter amabat, illustriores his fabulis faceret : unde nil miruiu 
quod in MS. Cantabrigiensi S. Benedicti Callistus II. hanc fabulam a se 
confictam, dicat opus auiheníicum, primusque omnium illius mentiouem 
íaciat. 

This may not be true — and Oudin was no frieiid of the papacy — but 
the book seems to have been approved of iii 1122 by Calixtus II., and tbis 
helped its popuIarity. If however the letter of Callixtus recomniending 
the book to the faithful as authentic be also spurious then the íirst lueiitiou 
of it goes back to 1165. 

Warton thinks the book was forged about 1110 with the design of helpiug 
forward the Crusades. 



ROLAND OR ORLANDO. 

On I,ady Day in August in the year 778 the rearguard oí Charlemagne's 
army was cut ott in the valley oí Roncevaux or Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. 
It was overwhelmed by the local tribes, probably the anccstors of the present 
Basques, and perished almost to a man. 'Tn this battle," says Eginhard, 
who chronicled the life of Charlemagne, "Roland, warderi oí the Marches 
of Brittany, with mauy others was slain." This is the kernel of historic 
truth that lies bchind the Roland story. In later times, as in the case of 
Kiiig Arthur of W^elsh Romance or Finn Mac Cumhail of Irish story, a Roland 
myth arose which dominated all the literaturo of the Charlemagne period. 
Roland became the leading figure in the Chansons de Geste, the golden age 
of which extends from the middle of the eleventh to the middle of the 
thirteenth century. The Chansoii de Roland is itself the íirst and the finest 
of these efforts "la plus antique la plus célébre la plus belle de toutes 
les chansons de geste." The Jongleur Taillefer who went before Norman 
WiUiam at the Battle of Hastings and who "moult bien chantout" was 
"singing about Charlemagne and Roland and Olivier aud the vassals who 
died at Roncesvalles." The song of Roland is the Iliad of France. It is 
founded partly upou our Turpin story and partly upon older chansons. 
Earlier poems probably existed from which the Pseudo-Turpin derived part 
of his chronicle. This is generally conceded, the only matter in dispute 
being as to what form these early poems had takeii, were thev epic like the 
"Roland" or were they only lyric ? 



128 NOTES. 

ROLAND IN SPAIN. 

Roi.and's .steed is mentionod in the vvell known Spanisli ballad of riayferos 
for which sce Don Qui.xote, chap. 9, book ii. His lover, Melisenda, sceing 
hiin siirmnndcd by the Moors exclaims : 

Si qnisicsse Dios del cielo 

Y santa Alaria sii madrc 
Fiiesse tal vucstro caballo 

Como el de Don Roldan. 

Don Roldan is tbc Spanish name for lioland in the popular ballads, and 
there exists a well known "Romance" of that name. I?eadors ot Don Quixote 
wiU remember how while the l<night and Saucho arc coiiversing together 
in the streets of 'ioboso a peasant chances to pass by singing the ballad 
of Roncesvalles, at which the knight exclaims, "Let me die Sancho if any- 
thing hicky will befall us to-night, don't yon hear what that peasant is 
siuging" ? " 



Ganelon. 

Ganelon is called Guenes in the Chanson dc Rolaad, which pocm is really 
a tnlogy founded on thc treacherv of Gucnes. Part one tells of that treachery, 
part two of the death of Roland, and part three of the punishment of the 
traitors. Gucnes is knowri in the Spanish ballads as "el falso Cíalalon. 
He is also íound as Galaron. /Xntonio Reuter quoted by Rodd in his preface 
to the "Floresta de varios romances" says that the chronicles of Spain and 
France assert "que el conde Galaron dio ocasion a la esta perdida de los 
Francescs [in Roncesvalles] cansando que el Emperador se detuviesse y no 
pndiesse socorrer a los suyos." In the Irish Fortibras story Stokes once 
translates Geinntilion of the Iri.sh text by Ganelon, and in the Welsh version 
of our text hc is Gwenwlyd. 



FERACUTUS. 

Ei.Lis in his specimens of Ancient Metrical Romances has the following 
amusing passage on F'cracutus, "Possiblv, too, the terrible Ferragus may 
be a giant oí Celtic origin, for Selden has told us (Dra^'ton's PoIyoIbion, 
song 6) that the war song in use among the Irish kern« was calied Pharroh ; 
and the vnlgar Irish, as Mr. Walker informs us, suppoí:e tbe subject of this 
song to have becn Forroch or Ferriti^h, a terrible giant, of vvhom they tell 
many a niarvcllous tale" ! 

For the fancy about Pharaoh see Reating's preface to his Forus Feasa. 



GLOSSARV. 



Page 
abhdhainecht abbacv abbotship 74 
adlaicti gen of adlacadh a tonib 6 
aenda one-jold, aendacht one- 

ness 54, 56 

[ar]aeinshlighidh togsther .... 50 
agra claim, argument against .... 34 
aithech=athach, fathach giant 
aihdhineacht 12, see abhdhaineclit 
airnihech renowned .... 6, 72, 76 
[It can not be the samc word 

as airmitnech or oirmitnech . 

aireamh is used íor "fame" 

in my edition of Giolla an 

FhÍLigha, page 6.] 
airneis equipmcnt, i.e. harness 14 

[bajailgiusach le S. S was desirous 32 
aidhbhseach handsome, strihing 72 
[a n-]airtecal bais in ariiculo m.ortis ?4 
aintibh, dat. plur. of aine a fast 104 
aidhigheacht hospitalitv, enter- 

tainment. aidchideacht id 44 

ainmhfesach ignorant .... ... 56 

alad a wound 

arrait error 34, ariud aruid id. 

arus appcirentlv vtsed for camp.... 38 

as, — do chuaidh as he disappeared 
ascada ^///5 .... ... ... 76 

ataigh requcst .... ... .... 72 

bannlam a cubit 

baramhail (followed bv a gen.), 

similitude of .... "... 46, 96 

basgaire clapping of hands in grief 98 
biacíhtachas, the liability to fced 

one's overlord .... .... 28 

biathmaid we feed .... .... 40 

braithtigi, Gen. Fem. of braithtech 

deceitful 
breathnnigh judge consider .... 68 
na brondtuibh in his presents 72 

breith :— ata ar hrc ith do it is 

attainahle by hiin 
búidh mild clement, translatedby 

"clemens" .. . .... .... 112 

camra a sewer .... .... .... 24 

cennuis used as an adj., mild .... 50 

ceimnigh proceed .... .... 4 



Page 

cend : — ana cend sin in addition 

to that 28 

cin : — lciceadar a ciii da n-armuibh 6 
claiteoir a victor . .. 14, 48 

clodh defeating . . .... .... 46 

cothughadh to support 70, to 

rally or make head or main- 

tain one's groiivd 

Apparentlv a niilitarv tcrm, 
see An Cath Cathardha 
1.5720. 
corugh (with long 0) a choir 92 

cora id. 
coirthi tired. weary 
comainm in lai the anniversary 

of the day . .. 

colb club 

crois the cross-hilt of a swotd .... 
(co) cudrama, equally 
crandghaili ; droichet cr. a 

bridge of timber 
cuil a corner .. . .... . .. 

cumdaigh build (churcfies. etc ) 



64 



94 
7** 



80 
84 
56 



40 
12 



daingnighim, / asseverate. confirm 38 
Dce, a god, Nom. and Dat. isin 

dec, on dee .. ... 10, etc. 

deisigh eijuip 28, prepare, array 46 
deirridius, a secret .... .... 70 

deghbhalaidh (a noun in the gen.) 

scented, perfumed .... .... 100 

deachta ... 112 

áQx\-?i\XdL,proven .... .... 64 

diablaideacht, devilry , deviltrv 10 

dithigh, damage, hurt, inflict loss 44 
diniti, digvitv .... .... .. 70 

dingbhala, suitablc, fitting, worthy 

90, 110 
(gu) dimhaineach, vainlv ? .... 90 

ditnightheoir, a protector .... 96 

diairmhe, innumerabi'e, 102, 

doairme id 12, 106 

dlig : ni dligeann an lucht, the 

people ought not .... .. . 36 

do leith a ndroma, in the rear 78 

doimhesda re, incomparable with 84 
dorncla, thc hilt of a swori .... 84 

dothuarascbhala, indescribable 94 



11. 



Glossarv. 



dofhilltt', translation oj "in- 

flexibilis" 
vloirt, in a >HÍlitary sense, see p. 
ilothamaisc, inscrutable ? 
doíaisneisi, indescribable 
drithlincacli, sparhling (oj eyes) 



Page. 

ÍUi 
98 
48 
G4 
72 



eathach— athach, fathach, a giant 48 

eboire, ivory 

edh : re hedh na hoighthi, 

throitghout the night .. . 
eigrcacht=oighreacht, heirship 



eighe, eigmhe, cnes 



80 

98 
28 
44 



eiciu, used in the senseof'some," 
ced eicin, "sonie hundred or so" 

eicne gen. of ccin, violence 

esbartaiii : ar tect don esbartain, 
on the cowing of evening 20, 52 

esbaidh, failure, giving way 
through fatigue .... .... 74 

etne, the kernel of a nut 



82 
114 



55 



faris, along with hini, f . an athar, 

along wiíh the father .... 
íarit, aloHg with ihee 
faisitneach gen of faisitin, con- 

fcssion 
íedh, a fathom .... 
ferdhnirn, a nian's fist (in length) 
(gur) fhoilghitar, so that they 

covered 
(cu) foluigtheach, secretly, covertly 
foniaigthech, obedient ... 
(do) fholchatar iat fein, they 

concealed themselves . . 
fodhuin=foghain, to be of use.. . 

foghnas 
íreasgabhail, asccnsion, i.e. death 



fresdal um chath, give battle to 
frichnamhach, diligent (in the 

sense of liberal) 
furtachtaigh, a helper .... 



108 
92 

92 

50 
50 

32 
4 

7(i 

80 
52 
42 
104 
32 

40 
4 

88 
104 



114, 116 

nr 



gaire, proximity 

[ag a] gallughadh, sn/7mwo'/mw 
sichness 

geinntcach, gen. geinntigh, a 
7t'edge ... 

geissanaii or gesachtach 
geiseacht, a peacoch, i.e. the 
screecher ... .... .... 72 

gnaithigh, make free with, use .. 84 

gnoaigh, to be busied on, to do.... 102 

guoaighfet- sa, also gnoideochad-sa, 
I shallguin, ivin (still contmonlv 
used in this sense in Connacht) 4 



Page. 
gorm : fer gorm, a Moor, a negro 
grainne, a grain .... .... 58 

g^aaine, disgusl, horror .... 64 



ingnad 



iarmhoracht, pursuit, 82 ; search, 

inquiry 
imlcgan imlecan inilican, navel, 

imlinn id. 

do rindi ingnad dhc, 

he wondered at it 

(ta) ingaiitas acu dhe, id 

inn, end, extremity, inn a inheoir 
innechlan, requital 
inncomurtha, a mark .. . 
intuctha dh'airc, observable 

intuglha dh'aidh, td 

irse, (gen.) of faith or religion 
lubhul, a Jew .... 

leath : do lcathadar fon coill, 
they dispersed through the wood 

leuc, a league, (tri mile) tri leuic, 
three leagues .... 

leith : do leith a ndroma, see 
druim 

leithe, breadth .... 

ma=um, concerning, about 
niacani an oglaigh a young warrior 
(isin) inheidh, in the balance .... 
midingbhala, unwcrthy 
mil iiiuighe, a hare 
misideir, emissary, herald 
sound, murmur 

id 

mu cha, the earlv part of the 

w orning ... ... 78 

(o) mulluch gu lar, from top to 

bottom (of a stonc) 
(ar a) luhuin, on top of him 

(not "on his back") .... 
(do) mhr.in gnimha, as a result 

of action or deed 
inuirireach, bttrdensome 
mul, a mitle .... . . 

nait=na or ioiia, tltan (before a 

plurul) 
naisc, tie, with air — impose or 

bind on . .. 

nea?«mbuidh, not mild, fierce .. . 
ncifni, nothÍ7igness 
neamhasaigh for neamharsaigh 

young .... 

oglachas, service 
ontis, ontist ? n. 9 



1(«0 

52 

58 

50 

98 

112 

102 

40 

80 

8 

86 



32 

78 
72 

48 

? 4 

102 

112 

72 

22 

64 

30 

, 98 

86 

94 

98 

74 

102 



66 

104 
66 
56 

72 

66 
80 



Glossarv. 



111. 



Page. 

(ar) n-oradh, gilt .... .... 114 

oifíeda, gen. of oidhe, a fate 

death, oij^hidh id .... 88 

piseogach, adi., wizard, spelllihe 18 

(do) raith, for grace (spoken of 

ihe soul) .... .... .. . 14 

raithainhail, graceful [spoher. of 

wonien) .... .. .... 76 

reilg, a church (obvtouslv not a 

churchyard ifi this place) ... 12 
reise, a span ... .... .... l'l 

réd, a thing . . .... .... 60 

rightheach, arnis, the reach or 

length of one's arms ... ... 72 

saethraigin;, / labour over, find 

difficiilt .... .... .... 58 

saipel, sepel, seipel, chapel ... 48 
sa;}, an engine (for attaching 
tuwns, etc), 8, 24, a contrivance, 64 
phtr. sais. 
saidhbrigh, enrich . . .... 28 

saidh pnbuH, pitch a tent .... 86 

scis, weariness, 110, scis an chatha 
battle weariness .... . . 84 

scoraidi, a table cloth .... . . 4i» 

scot, tail (of a horse) .... .... 100 

sdet, a steed ... . . .... 100 

sileas, silence . .. .... .... 20 

sill, see, look .... .... .... 92 

siUeadh, looking at, regarding .... 46 

slat esbaic, a bishop's jvand or 
croziev .... ... .... 68 

slighedh ■ cur ar acin-shlighidh, 
to assemble (not "send for- 
word" as it is translated in 
Fierebras) .... ... .... 6 



Page. 

ar aoin-shJighidh, together, 60 bis. 

socraide, pleasant, sniiling [of faces) 5 

spreiclh, gen. spreidhi, hooty .... 

subalta, avirtue. I have extended 
thc plur. once as subalce as in 
\e P.reac, subaltai would have 
been better .... .... 4, etc. 

suaichentas, ./;;. (PMsz^íí .... .... 66 



tagh, togh, choose 



aighthe tacair, 



masks. 



4, 34 



tacar : 

"larvae" . .. .... .... 64 

tathair, disgrace ... 36, 60 

do tliadhbhaisedh doibh, it ap- 

peared to them 
teagduis, a foundation, a house, 

also teduis and teguis 112, etc. 

tecniad, aliter teigemadh a 

lanihaibh from tengmaigh, fall 

into the hands of .... ...86, 88 

tesdadh, dying .... .... 14 

teit for tuit .... .... .... 36 

therna se, he escaped ... .... 62 

tindmes ? ... .... ... 86 

tinnisnaigh, hasten ? . .. .... 94 

(co) tindisnach, hastily .... 106 

tor, a tower .... .... .... 62 

toicthi, fortune .... .... .... 96 

to^ach, a battle front or division 42 
trumpoir, a trumpeter, also stocaire 94 
trithach, threefold .... . .. 56 



ubhull, thepommel of a sivord hilt 84 
ucht : tucadar ucht ar a chéile, 

they fuced one another 
uillena, angles (of a pillar) .... 114 



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£ s. d. 

ByBalance(broughtdown) 28Í 7 10 
Net Assets. 

Invcstments .... 485 

Pstty Cash — Assistant 

Secretary ... .... 5 

Cash in Bank .... 225 9 



Total 



..£996 16 10 



(Signed) SAM. BOYLE, Hon. Treasurer 
Examined Books, Accounts, and Balances, and found correct. 

(Signed) P. D. O'HART, \ Auditnr, 

T. V. O'SULLIVAN, / '^"^"'"^*- 

NoTE. — The Council desires to express its thanks to the Auditors íor 
their kindness in examining and auditing the accounts of the Society. 



Ceneral Rules. 



Objects. 

1. — The Societv is instituted íor the piirpose oí promoting the oublication 
oí Tcxts in the Irish Language, accompanied by such Introductions, EnqUsh 
Translations, Glossaries and Notes as may be deemed desirable. 

CONSTITUTION. 

2. — The Society shall consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, an Executive 
Council, a Consultative Committee and Ordinarv and Liíe Members. 



Officers. 

3. — The Oíificers oí the Societv shall be the President, the Honorary 
Secretary and the Honorarj' Treasurer. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

4. — Tlie entire management of the Societv sliall be entrusted to the 
Executive Council, consisting of the Otficers of the Society and not more 
than ten other Members, to whom the Executive Council may add by Co- 
option not more than two members, who shall retire annually. 

5. — AU propert}' of the Societv shall be vested in the Executive Council, 
and shall be disposed of as thev shall direct by a two-thirds majoritv. 

6. — Three Membcrs of the Executive Council shall retire each year by 
rotation at the Annual General Meeting, but shall be eligible for re-election, 
the Members to retire being selected according to senioritv ot election, or, 
ia case of equality, by lot. The Council shall have power to co-opt Members 
to fill up casual vacancies occurring throughout the year. Any Member 
of Council who is absent from live consecutive Ordinary Meetings of the 
Council to which he (or she) has been duly summoned, shall be considered 
as having vacated his (or her) place ón the Council. 

CONSULT.'VTIVE CoMMITTEE. 

7. — The Consultative Committee, or individual Members thereot, shall 
give advice, when consulted by the Executive Council, on questions relating 
to the Publications of the Society, but shall not be responsible for the manage- 
ment of the business of the Societv. 



^Members. 

8. — Members may be elected either at the Annual General Meeting, or 
Irom time to time, by the Executive Council. 



hUBSCRlPTION. 

9. — The Subscription for each Member of the Society shall be 7/tí pcr 
annum (American subscribers, two dollars), entithng the Member to one 
copy (post íree) of the volume pubhshed by the Society for the year, 
and giving the right to vote on all questions submitted to the General 
Meetings of the Society. The paymcnt of a single sum of /5 (Colonial 
or íoreign members /5 5s. Od., American members 27 dollars) entitles to 
life membership. Liíe members will receive one copy of each volume issued 
subsequently to the receipt of this sum by the Society. 

10. — Subscriptions shall be payable in advance on the Ist January in each 
year. 

11. — Members whose Subscriptions íor the year have not been paid are 
not entitled to any volume published by the Society for that year, and any 
Member whose Subscription for the current year remains unpaid, and who 
receives and retains any publication for the year, shall be held liable for 
the payment of the full published price of such publication. 

12. — The PubUcations of the Society shall not be sold to persons other 
than Members, except at an advanced price. 

13. — Members whose Subscriptions for the current year have been paid 
shall alone have the right of voting at the Annual General Meeting of the 
Society. 

14. — Members v.isliing to resign mu.st give notice in writing to the 
Honorary Secretary, before the end of the year, of their intention to do 
so : otherwise they will be liable íor their Subscriptions for the ensuing 
year. 

Editorial Fund. 

15. — A fund shall be opened for the remuneration ot Editors íor their 
work in preparing Texts for publication. All subscriptions and donations 
to this fund shall be purely vo1untary. and shall not be applicable to other 
purposes of the Societ}'. 

Annual General Meeting. 

16. — A General ^Meeting shall be held each year in the month of January, 
or as soon after as the Executive Council shall determine, when the 
Council shall submit their Report and the Accounts of the Society for the 
preceding year, and when vacant seats on the Council shall be íilled up, 
and the ordinary business of a General Meeting transacted. 

AUDIT. 

17. — The Accounts of the Societv shall be audited each year by auditors 
appointed at the preceding Generai Meeting. 

Changes in these Rules. 

18. — VVith the notice summoning the General Meeting, the Executive 
Council shall give notice of any change proposed by them in these Rules. 
Ordinary Members proposing any change in the Rules must give notice 
thereof in writing to the Honorary Secretary seven clear days bsfore the 
date of the .\nnual General Meetins 



8 



LlST OF MEMBERS. 



(N.B. — Members are earnestly requested to send Notice of anv Change of 
Address to the Hon. Sec, 20 Hanover Square, London, W. 1, to avoid mis- 
postage of Boolcs and Notices). 



NAMES. 
Hull, Miss Eleanor 

0'Kinealy, Mrs. 



HONORARV LlFE MEMBERS: 

ADDRESSES. 

... St. Elmo, 37 College Crescent, Finchley Rd,, 

London, N.W. 3. 
... 50 Meadway Court, Hampstead Heath, N.W.4^, 



LiFE Members: 
Byrne, G. P. ... H.B.M. Consulate General, Shanghai, China 

Curran, Rev. M. J. ... Archhishop's House, Drumcondra, Dublin 

HoUingworth, Miss Mary A. ... Leithcn, Newnham Road, Bedford 
Kelly, Paul Herrick ... 20 Cheapside, London, E.C. 2 

Lewis, Hon. A. L. ... The Mardv, Aberdare, S. Wales 

O'Connor, K.c.,His Honour Judge, Dunsdale, Poole Road, Bournemouth 
Sheehan, Rev. M., d.d. ... St. Patriclc's College, Mavnooth 

UA CAf Al-Oe, SeÁmUf, B.A.,M.R.I.A., Clj CluAtlA, gtAf CAtlÓj, ÁC CLlAC 



A ÓeAbAfA, muinnctfi 
Armstrong, Col. James 
Ashbourne Lord 



Members: 

CeAC CtlOC nA CAffA, gAtitttÍl 

48 Talgarth Mansions, West Kensington, W. 14 
Moorhurst, Holmwood, Surrey 



Banks, Mrs. M. M. 
Barron, E. W., D.L. 
Bartholomew, J. 
Baudis, Dr. Josef 
Bearv, Michael, c.E. 
Begley, Rev. J. Canon, p.p. 
Bergin, Prof. Osborn J. 
Berkeley, George F. H. 
Benv, Major, A.s.c, M.R.i.A. 

Blaikie, W. B. 

Bodkin, H. Grattan 



Boland, J. P., m.p. 
Boland, P. J. 
Boswell, C. S. 
Bovle, Rev. J., p.p. 
Boj'le, Samuel 



7 Wadham Gardens, London, N.W.3 
Woodstown, Co. Waterford 
Glenorchard, Torrance, near Glasgow 
42 .•\inger Road, Primrose Hill, N.W. 5 
Abbeyside, Dungarvan, Co. Waterford 
Cappagh, Ballingrane, Co. Limerick 
University College, Dublin 
Hanwell Castle, nr. Banburv, O.x'fordshire 
c/o Sir C. R. MacGregor, Bart., 39 Panton St., 

London, S.W. 1 
c/o Messrs. Constable & Co., University 

Press, 11 Thistle Street, Edinburgh 
Herman W. Hellman Building, N.E. Corner 

4th and Spring Streets, Los Angeles, Cal., 

U.S.A. 
40 St. George's Square, London, S.W. 
Glenarde, Galwav 
Fairseat, Totnes 

Gortahork, Letterkenny, Ireland 
37 Deauville Road, Clapham Park, S.W. 4 



NAMES. 

Bradley, J., .M.n. 
Breen, Rev. D. 
Brett, Sir Charles 
Briley, W. P. 
Brodrick, Hon. Albinia 
Brophy, Michael M. 
Brown, Protessor A. C. L. 
Briinnow, Professor Dr. R. 
Buckley, Jaines, m.r.i.a. 



ADDRESSES. 

32 Lawrence Street, Drogheda 

The Presbytcry, Caherdaniel, Co. Kerry 

Gretton, Malone, Belfast 

12 Hollybank Road, Drumcondra, Dublin 

Ballincoona, Caherdaniel, Co. Kerry 

48 Approach Road, Margate 

Northwestern Universitv, Evanston, U.S..\. 

Meadow Brook, Bar Harbour, Maine, U.S.A. 

11 Hometield Road, Wimbledon, Surrey 



Cahill, Very Rev. Dean Wm. ... 

Cahill, Vincent 
Cain, Rev. S. F. 

Calder, Rev. George, b.d. 
Carrigan, Very Rev. Wm. Canon, 

D.D., P.P., M.R.I.A. 

Chaffey, A. M. 

Chambers, Miss E. K. 
Clifford, Rev. J. J. 
Coghlan, Rev. G. P. 
Cohalan, Very Rev. J. Canon, 

P.P., V.F., 

Colgan, Nathaniel 
Collins, Edward, ll.d. 
Collins, Jereniiah 
Conaghan, John 
Condon, Rev. R. 
Conrov, Professor C C. 
Cooke, John, .m.a., .m.r.i.a. 
Costello, Thomas, m.d. 
Courtauld. G. 
Cox, Prof. Edward G., ph. d. 



Cox, Rt. Hon. Michael, P.C., m d. 

M.R.I.A. 

Coyne, D. J. 

Covne, John P. 

Crone, J. S., m.d., j.p., m.r.i.a. ... 

Curran, Miss Aileen 



Lovola Universitv, Sheridan Road, Chicago, 

Ú.S.A. 
7 Lavagh Villas, Ashtield Rd., Ranelagh, Dublin 
4956 Santa Monica Boulevard, Los .A.ngeles, 

Cal., U.S..A.. 
4 Oaktield Terrace, Glasgow, W. 



Los Angeles, 



Durrow, Oueen's Co. 

V.P. Hibernian Savings Bank, 

Cal., U.S.A. 
326 East Avenue 60, Los .A.ngeles, Cal., U.S.A. 
1317 S. Mariposa St., Los .\ngeles, Cal, U.S.A. 
2135 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

The Presbytery, Bantry, Co. Cork 
15 Breffni Terrace, Sandycove, Co. Dublin 
E.D.O., Custom House, Dublin 
29 Willoughbv St., BrookIyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
G(>i'tahork, Letterkenny, Ireland 
Park St., Campsie, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Higgins Building, Los .\ngeles, Cal., U.S.A. 
66 Morehampton Road, Dublin 
Bishop StrL'ct, Tuam, Co. Galway 
The \\'aver, W'ctherstield, Braintrec, Essex 
Universitv of Washington, Seattle, Washing- 
ton. U.S.A. 

26 Menion Squarc, Duhlin 
Laughlin Building, Los Angeles, Cal., U.S.A. 
Laughlin Building, Los Angeles, Cal.. U.S.A. 
Kensal Lodge, Kensal Green, London, N.W. 10 
63 Upper Gloucester Place, N.W. 1 



Dalton, John P. 
"Oe tÍAt, ATi c-*.\c.im ComÁf 
"Oe bú|icA eiiTiin, 
Deenihan, Rev. J. J. 

De Lury, Alfred T. 
Desmond, Walter J. 
Digbv, Everard W. 

Dillon, R. J. 

Dixon, Henrv 
Dobbs, Miss M. C. 



... 16 .\Im,i Road, Monkstown, Dublin 

... Drumc()IIi)gher, Co. Limerick 

... pÁijic tiA C>.\i|t|i5e, An CAot, Achill 

... 154 North Seville .\venue, Huntington Park, 

Cal., U.S.A. 
... University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada 
... Postmaster, Long Beach City, Cal., U.S.A. 
... c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., 54 Parliament 

Street, S.W. 1 
... Merchants' National Bank, Los Angeles, Cal., 

U.S.A. 
... 19 Cabra Road, Dublin 
... pojic n.A gAbLAiiti, Cushendall, Co. .Antrim 



10 



NAMES. 

l)(ici,v;>oii, Kd. Spciiccr, m.a. 
D'ihertv, Miss Josi.'phiiic C, 
l)i)iiiiellaii, I\, M.i). 
DdMncllv, M. J., M.i). 
Dottiii, Prof. (leoriíes 
Dnwlcv, Miss Bii,!?id 
Dtiwlinj^, Fiank 
Downiiijí, George \i. 

Dovle, J. J. 

Diiff, Miss Eirene 



.\Dl)RKSSb:s. 



lesus Collci^c, Oníoic! 

'326 Kast Avciiuc 60, Los Aii.i;clcs, Cal., U.S.A. 

Castlcrca, Co. Roscorniiioii 

Sunimil Hill, Pa, U.S.A. 

39 Houlcvard Scvignc, Rcnnes, France 

W'cstgatc, Cairick-oii-Suir, Co. Tipperarv 

960 South Slrcct, Hoslindalc, Mass., U.S.A. 

909 Hihciniaii Buildinj.;, Los Ani^cles, Cal., 

r.S.A. 
133 L'iiivcrsilv St., Belfast 
28 Oppidan'sRoad, London. X.W. 3 



Kadie, Captain J. Inglis 
Englaiid, Tlios. A., LL.u. 
Ensclicdt-, M. Johannes 
Kslcr, Mrs. Rcntoul 
Ksmondc, SiriT. Grattan, Jit.,\Li' 
Evans, Miss K. M. 



c,o Mrs. L. líatlcii, Gillingham, Dorset 
K.D.O., Somersct House, Loiidon, W.C. 2 
Hui/.c, Ipciirodc, Heemstede, HoUand 
4 Qucen's Road, Pcckham, S.E. 15 
Ballynastr;igh, Gorev, Co. Wc.xford 
St. Marv's, Ely. Camhridgcshire 



Farrcll, K. W. 

Figgis, Darrcll 
Fit/Gcrald, M. J, 
Flcniing, E. J. 

Flcining, Rev. R. 
Flowcr, K. E. W. 
Fogerty, W. A., m.a., .m.d. 
Foley, Miss Aine 
Ford, W. J. 

Freeman, A. Martin 
"PitmfeAc ■OeoiiA, 
Fyiies-Cliiiton, O. H. 



... -Mcrrion, Thornford Koad, Lcwisham Park, 

Londoii, S.E. 13 
... niuttAc nA 5C|ie<.\5Ati, .An CaoL, AchiU 
... 18 King St., Siiow Hill, London, E.C. 1 
... Hcnuan W. Hcllman Building, Los Angcles, 

Cal., U.S.A. 
...47 Wcstland R..w, Dublin 
... MSS. Dcpt., British Museum, London, W.C. 
... 67 Gcorgc Strcct, Limerick 
... King, Dungarvan, Co. Waterlord 
... Hennaii W. Hcllmaii Building, Los Angeles, 

Cal., T-.S.A. 
... 166 Laudcrdalc Mansions, Maida Vale, W.9 
... St. .Ann's, Doniiyhrook, Duhlin 
... Weirglodd Wcii, Uppcr Garth Koad, Bangor, 

X. Wales 



Gatfncv, I. S., h..\., Crown Solr., 
Gahagan.'F. Evett 
Gaido/, Profcssor Henri 
Ganiion, John P. 
Gates, H. C. 
Gh'iiii, Sir Jc:)scph 
Glvnn, Thomas 
Gohlct, Prof. Yann M. 
Green,J. S., Lieut.-Col., H..A.M.C., 

M.R.LA. 

Gregorv, Lady 

Gwvnn, Prof. Edward, F.T.c l). ... 



86 O'ConncU Strcct, Limerick 

8 Doughtv Slrcct, London, W.C. 1 

22 Kue Servandoni, Paris vi. 

Laragh, Maynooth, Co. Ivildare 

56 Wilton Road, Muswell Hill, London, N. 

St. Jarlath's, .\ilcsbnry Road, Dubliii 

Gort, Co. Galwav 

1 Villa Xiel, París .xvii. 

Air Hill, Glanworth, Co. Cork 

Coole Park, Gort, Co. Galway 
34 Trinity Collegc. Dublin 



Hackett, J. D. 

Hamill, Michael 
Haniilton, Gustavus 
Haran, J. A. 
Harkins, W. G. 



72 Xorth Parsons Avenue, Flushing, Long 

Island, Xcw York, U.S.A. 
P.O. Box 253, Cristobal, Canal Zonc, Panaina 
.\rdlui, Howth, Co. Dublin 
P.M.O.'s Otiicc, Nairobi, British East Africa 
627 Pacitic Buildings, San Francisco, Cal., 

U.S.A. 



11 



NAMES. 

Havaid-Joncs, H. T. 
Haynes, Miss Muriel Sturgis 
Headlaui, M. F. 
Hcí^art^, Rev. Tliomas, cx. 
Heggarty, Rev. J. M. 
Henderson, Saniuel 
Henehry, Franklin P. 
Henrv, Robert Mitcheil, M.A. 
Hiclvéy, Rev. B. 

Higgins, Thonias 
Hogan, John 

Hogartv, Thomas 
Horsford, Miss Cornelia 
Howard, George J. 

Hutton, Mrs. A. W. 

Hvde, Proícssor Douglas, i.itt. d. 



ADDRESSFS. 



South View, Cross Green, Soham, Cambs. 

Augusta, Maíne, U.S.A. 

43 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 

Clonmanv, Co. Donegal 

114e, 2nd St., Los Angeles, Cal., U.S.A. 

Crossmolina, Co. Mayo 

627 Xineteenth St., Denvir, Colorado, U.S..\. 

Queen's Universitv, Belfast 

St. Mary's, W'ellington Rd., Ashton-undei- 

Lvne 
Higgins Buildiiig, Los Angeles, Cal., U.S..\. 
7 Prince .\rthur Terrace, Leinster Square, 

Rathmines, Dublin 
318e, 31st St., Brookiyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
27 Craigie Strect, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
Hibernian Savings Bank, Los Angeles, Cal., 

U.S.A. 
Palmerston Lodge, Dartry Road, Dublin 
1 Earlsfort Phice, Dublin 



Ircland, Arthur J. 

Jack, John 

Jeudwine, J. W., m..k. 
Johnston, J. P. sc.u. 
Jones, Lieut.-Col. Bryan J. 
Joyce, \Vm. B., n.A. 
Joynt, Ernest E. 
Joynt, John W'. 
Jovnt, Miss Maud 



36 Stanhope Rd., St. Albans. 

53 High St., Fortrose, Inverness, X.B. 
Riverside, Batheaston, Somerset 
Churchtown Park, Dundrum, Co. Dublin 
Lisnawillv, Dundalk 

10 (irosvenor Square, Rathmines, Dublin 
46 Tirconnell Ro;id, Inchicore, Dublin 
2 Carlingford Road, Hampstead, X.W. 3 
85 Moyne Road, Rathmines, Dublin 



Keappock, Rev. Thomas 
Keating, Miss Geraldine 
Ivcating, Rev. Martin C. 
Keating, Thomas F. 
Reliher, Thomas 
Kelly, John F., ph.d. 
Kelly, Thomas .^liaga 
Kennv, J. P. 
Ker, Prof. W. P. 
Knox, H. T. 
Kno.\, Rev. P. B. 

Lamotte, W. de G. 

Lane-Poole, Prof. Stanley, d.i.itt. 

Lankford, J. R. 

Law, Hugh A , M.P. 

Lawlor, Rev. H. J., d.d. 

Lefroy, B. St. G. 

Lindley, Walter, .m.d. 

Livingston, Rev. Wm. 

Llovd, Joseph H. 

Lvnam, E. W. 

Lynch, M. C. 

Lynch, P. J., f.r.s.a.i. 

Lvnch, Tnnothv 

Lysaght, S. R. " 



Milltown. BalIvnacargA', Co. Westmeath 
Cannon MiII Cottage, Chesham, Bucks. 
Del Mar, California, U.S.A. 
84-86 Ci^ambers Street, New York, U.S.A. 
134 Upper Thames Street, London, E.C. 4 
284 W. Housatonia St., Pittstield, Mass. 
61 .\nglesea Road, Donnybrook, Dublin 
51 StrandviIIe Av., X. Strand Rd., Dublin 
95 Gower Síreet, London, W.C. 1 
Rivershill, St. George's Rd., Cheltenham 
St. Patrick's Church, Madison, Wisconsin, 
U.S.A. 



Solicitor's Dept., Treasury, Whitehall, S.W. 1 

The Bell House, Bearsted, Maidstone 

Ashburton, St. Luke's, Cork 

Marble Hill, Ballvmore, Co. Donegal 

32 Palmerston Road, Dublin 

Baldonnell, CIondalkin, Co. Dublin 

California Hospital, Los .\ngeles, Cal., U.S..\. 

308e, 37th Street, Xew York, U.S.A. 

buiAle TiA 5néine, Stillorgan Park, Dublin 

British Museum, London, W.C. 1 

20 East Bank, Stamford HiII, London, X. 16 

44 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 

Sun Lodge, 65 Sundav's Well, Cork 

Hazlewood. !\Lillow, Co. Cork 



12 



XAMES. 
MacAdam, Rev. Donald M., p.i»., 

MacAlister, Proíessor R. A. S. ... 

Mac Aoidh, laii 

Mac.\uliffe, J.J. 

MacBride, A.. m.d. 

MacBride, Josepli M. 

ITlAC CAnnc\, pu\HAf 

MacCartney, H. S. G, 

MacClintoclí, Captain H. F. 

McCormick, A. I. 

McCorniicU, Thc Honble. Paul J., 

MacDermott, Kev. John, p.p. ... 
ITlAC "OotfinAitl, •p. S. 
MacDonagli, Frank 

McDonald, J. Wiscman 
tTlAc énjii, SeAJÁn p., .M.n. 

rriAC eoCA-ÓA. lo|tCAn 

McErlean, A. .\., ll.b. 
McGarrv, D. F. 
McGarry, M. J. 
triAc 5eA|tAilc, ComÁf T). 
MacGinlev, P. T. 
Mackay, William Dr. 

McGovern, Kev. J. B. 
McKenzie, Mrs. 
MacLagan, K. C, M.u. 
MacLoughhn, James L. 
MacManus, Padraic 
MacManus, Kev. Joseph 
MacXaghtcn, Hon. Helen 
MacXamara, G. U., ll.ij. 
MacXamara, Lt.-Col. J. W. 
MacXeill, Patrick Charles 

tTlAC fllOCAlll. h. 

rtiAc niocAill, s. 
MacPhail, George 

ITlAC SUltine, pATDjlAIC 

MacSweenev, E. G , M.D. 
MacWilham' H. H., m.b. 
Maffett, Kev. Kichard S., H..A. 
Mahony, J. f. 
Mahony, w! H. 

Martyn, Edward 
Meehan, Wiiham 
Merriman, P. J., M..A. 
Milne, Kev. John. d.d. 
Mintern, Joseph 
Mooney, James 



ADDRESSES. 



Moore, R. H. 
Moore, Rev. H. 

D.D., M.R.i..\. 



Ivingsmill, 



Churcii of the Sacred Heart, Sydney, Nova 

Scotia 
Xewlands, C!onskeagh, Co. Dublin 
33 Curzon Road, Muswell Hiil, London, X.IO 
16 Xorthcote Terrace, Bradford, Yorks. 
Infirmarv House, Ca^tleliar, Co. Mayo 
Harbour Commissioners' Ofiice, Westport 
Ballvowen, Cashel, Co. Tipperary 
934 West 18th St., Los Angeles, Cal., T.S.A. 

16 yueensberry Place, London, S.W. 7 
Hibernian Buiíding, Los .\ngeles, Cal.,U.S..\. 
Judge of the Supreme Court, Los Angeles, 

Cal., U.S..\. 
Croghan, Bovle, Co. Roscomnion 
Box P.O. 21Í East London, S. Africa 
Thomond, 176 Cavendish Road, Clapham 

Park, London, S.W. 4 
Higgins Building, Los .\ngeles, Cal., U.S.A. 
2 Palmyra CresceiU, Galway 
CuLac O lipei-ótiin, Co. CeiteAntAC 
22 W. 16th St., Xew York, U.S.A. 
Higgins Building, Los Angeles, Cal., U.SA. 
Higgins Building, Los .Angeles, Cal., U.S..\. 
7 High Street, Highgate Village, X. 6 
108 Drumcondra Road, Dublin 
C/O Messrs. Innes and Mackay, Solicitors, 

Inverness 
St. Stephen's Rectory, Manchester, S.E. 
43 Chestnut Park Road, Toronto, Canada 
5 Coates Crescent, Edinburgli 
33 Westland .A.venue, Derry 
Mountcharles, Co. Donegal 
407 S. Chicago St., Los Angeles, Cal., U.S..\. 
Runkerry, Bushmills, Co. .A.ntrim 
Bankyle House, Coroiin, Co. Clare 
Corotin, Co. Clare 
Customs and Excise, Kilkenny 

1 Slije UA h-eAjlAife, Hac tllAOijneAp, Si 

CllAt 

2 Woodhill ViUas, Tivoli, Cork 
Hearnesbrooke, Rillimor, Ballinasloe, Co. 

Galway 

5 Hightield .A.venuc, Cork 

481 Main Street, Brockton, Mass, U.S..\. 
Walton Institution, Rice Lane, Liverpool 

17 Herbert Road. Sandymount, Dublin 
Suite 608, .\shland Block, Chicago, U.S..\. 
Springtield .\venue, Chatham, Xew Jersev, 

u.s:a. 

Tulira Castle, .\rdrahan, Co. Galway 

6 O'Connell St., Dungarvan, Co. Waterford 
University CoUege, Cork 

Xewlands Manse, W. Linton, Peeblesshire 

Kilmurry, Passage West, Co. Cork 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Smith- 

sonian Inst., Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
65 Hightield Road, Dartford, Kent 
Church of Ireland Training College, Rildare 

Place, Dublin 



N'AMES. 

Mount Melleray, Rt. Rev. Lord 

Abbot of 
Moynihan, James 
Mo^'nihan, Rev. Timothy 
Murphy, J. J Fintan 
Murphy, WiUiam, N.T. 



13 

ADDRESSES. 
Cappoquin, Co. Waterford 

3 Hij^htield Avenue, West, Cork 
390 Shotwell St., San Francisco, Cal., U.S.A. 
16 Effra Road, Brixton Hill, London, S.W.2 
53 Harbour Row, Queenstown, Co. Cork 



11 í AoxiA, mÁiite 

tlí 'ÓiomfAi^, niAij'oLín 

11Í jjiiobtA (Iaoic), 5eA|ioiT)ín. 

ní UiAin, .Áine 

ílic ttlArJAthnA, AnícA 

Noonan, J. D. 

Norris, Very Rev. T. Canon 



7 Fulham Park Road, S.W. 6 
Brookvale House, Cliftonville, Belfast 
CluAtn ttuA-ó, ÁÍA nA ScAi|i1!)e, Co. Óitte 

inAnnrÁin 
Doon, Co. Limerick 
An CAot, Achill, Co. Mayo 
95 Harberton Road, Highgate, London, N. 19 
Catholic Rectory, Brentwood, Essex 



O btiAOin, "O. 

O t)fiAin, p. 

O'Brien, Michael 

O'Brien, Rev. J. J. 

O'Brien, P. P. 

O'Brien, Rev. Denis, d.ph., d.d 

O buACAttA pÁ-0]1A15 

0'Byrne, Owen 
0'Byrne, Patrick 
0'Byrne, William 

O'Callaghan, Jeremiah 
O'Carroll, J. T. 
O'Carroll, Joseph, m.d. 
O'Carroll. Rev. P. 
O CeAttAij, SeÁmvif 
O Clei|n5, Ca'Ój 
O ConJAite, Art c-ArAif p. 
O'Connell, G. C. 

O'Connell, John A. 
O'Connell. Maurice 

O'Connor, Michael 
O'Connor, P. J. 
O CuitcAnÁtn, tTlicéAt 
O'Dea, Rev. D., b.a. 
0'Doherty, Rev. John, c.c. 
O tDótÁtn, *\n r-ArAi^ SeÁmuf 
O 'OonncA-ÓA, CAt)5, Professor 
O'Donnell, Dr. Nicholas M. 



O'Donnell, Most Rev. Dr.,Bishop 

of Raphoe 
O'DonnelI, Rev. M. 
O'Donoghue, Rev. J. 
O'Donovan, J. J. 
O'DriscoU, Rev. Denis, P.P. 
0'Farrelly, Miss A., m.a. 
0'Flynn, John 



5 Ennismore Villas, Magazine Road, Cork 
Ballvferriter, Dingle, Co. Kerry 

N.S. BaIIymakeera, Co. Cork 

Indian School, Banning, Cal., U.S.A. 

City Hall, Los Angeles, Cal., U.S.A. 

St. Munchin's College, Limerick 

.\bbcyside, Dungarvan, Co. Waterford 

87 Leinster Road, Rathmines, Dublin 

Killybegs, Co. Donegal 

■0|tutm A.\oit)tnn, New Road, Clondalkin, Co. 

Dublin 
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Cahirciveen, Co. Kerry 
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Angeles, Cal., U.S.A. 
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Hill View, Marion Rd., Mill Hill, London, 

N.W. 7 
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Enniskean, Co. Cork 

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6 Park View, Carrick-on-Suir, Co. Tipperary 



14 



XA.MHS 
O'Gorman, Rcv. 1 



ADDRESSICS. 



..hn J., 
I'. CL- 



O'HalIoran, Hc\ 

O'He.iínrtv. I'. S 

0'KccHc."j. i;. 

0'KclIy. Tliomas 

O'Learv. Johii 

O'Maddcn, PalricL I. 

O lllÁille, ConK\)\ .M.A., i'H.i 

O mó^iÁin, An Z-Ai-M]\ p. S. 

O inti|icA't)A. Colni. 

O'NciIl 

O'Xeil. P. H. 

O'Raiiillv. T. F. 

O UiAin, tiAm p. 

O'Reillv, Georyc 

O'Reillv, Kl. Rcv. Monstír 

B.A., M.lí.l.A. 

O'Riordan, K. F. m.a. 

O'Rourlvc, Rcv. .Andicw 

Orpen, Goddard 

O Seocf |iA-ÓA, pÁ-o|tAi5 

O SuitteAbÁtn, seA)ión>. \i..\ 

O'SuIlivan, D. J." 

O'SuIIivan, Michacl 

O'SuIIivan, Rev. A. M , o.s.n. 

O'Sullivan, Rcv. T. 

Owcns. T. J. 



i'c.i 225 Fourllt .Avcniic, Ottawa, Canada 

... St. Mary's Xenagh 

... \\'oodleigli, WeIsh)H)ol 

... Cilcndhu, Cccil Park, Piniicr 

... 40 HiIldro)i Road, London, \.7 

... Cashel, Co. Tippcrarv 

.. Stella Maris, Salt Hiii, Gaiwav 

.. l'niversitv Collcjíc, (ialway 

.. Clarcgalway, Ireland 

.. 26 Ratiimincs Tcrracc. Duiiiin 
... 59 Rua das Florcs, Lisboii 
... £28 Storcy Buiiding, Los Angelcs, Cal., I'.S.A. 
... 36 Bclgravc Square, Rathmines, Dublin 
... 6 Lowth Road, Denmark Hill, London, S.K.5 
... 26 Trinitv Strect. Drogiicda 
Hugli. St. Colman's Coilege, Violct Hill. Xewrv 



Suite 608 Ashland BIock, Chicago, T'.S.A. 

St. Mary'.s, Swinton, Manchester 

MonUsgrangc, Enniscorthv, Co. \Vc.\iord 

Dingle, Co. Kerry 

Knockbeg CoIIege, Carlow 

Fstate Duty Office, Somerset House, W.C. S 

Ardcevin, 106 Drumcondra Rd., Duhlin 

St. Catherine's Hospital, Ramsgatc 

Pnory Lodge, Hoddesdon, Herts 

P.O. Box 146. Ancon, Canal Zonc, Panama 



Perry, Miss A. :\L 

Perry, Rev. J. F. 

Phelan, Joseph 

Pierse, Rev. Padraig 

Pochin, Miss 

Power, Rev. Prol". P., m.r.i.a. 

Prendergast, Rc\-. K. 

Press, Mrs. E. 

Purcell, Joseph 

Purser, Prol. L. C, htt.d. 



9 Steele's Road. Hampstead, X.W.3 

Stonor Park, HenIey-on-Thamcs 

Bo.x 564, Balboa, Canal Zonc, Panama 

1343 Third Street, Santa Monica. Cal., U.S.A. 

The Manor House, Wigston, Leicester 

l'niversitv College, Cork 

Carrick-on-Suir, Co. Tipperary 

Avon Wood, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

2 Glenmalure ViIIas, Castleview Gardens, 

Limerick 
35 Trinity College. Dublin 



Quinlivan, P. 



Inland Revenue, 
Cork 



Shandon St., Bandon, Co. 



Redington, Miss Matilda 
Redmond, Owen J. 
Rhys, Ernest 
Rice, Rcv. James 

Rice, Ignatius J. 

Robertson, William Joiin 

Robinson, Prof. F. X. 

Rogers. Earl 

Rolleston, T. W. 

Ross, Miss Catiierine 

Rushe, Denis Carolan, h.a., Sulr. 

Rvan, Rev. P. C, p.p. 

Rvan, W P. 



Kilcornan, Oranmore, Co. Galway 

15 Lomond Avenue, F'airview, Dublin 

48 West Heath Drive, Golders Green, X.W.4 

The Presbytery, Headley Road, Graysiiott, 

Hants 
Roselaw-n, Ballybrack, Co. Dublin 
Woodstock, West Didsbury, Manchcster 
Harvard l'niversity, Cambridge, Mass, U.S.A. 
Caliíornia Buiiding, Los .\ngeles, Cal.. U.S.A. 
Itield, 16 Prince Arthur Rd., Hampstead, X.W.3 
66 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 
Far-Meehui, Monagiian 
Fethard, Co. Tipperary 
18 Ellerdale Road, Hampstead, X.W. 



15 



xamf:s. 

Scannell, Tht- Hi^lit Rev. Rich; 

Scott, joseph 

Sephton, Kev. John 

Seton, Malcohn C. 

Shahan, Right Rev. Thos. |., i 

Shaw, Thomas J. 

Sheehan, John 

Shekielon, A. íno. 

Slciine. F. H. " 

Smith, Kev. Geo. N'uttall 

Snivth. V. Acheson 

Spring Rice, The Hon. Marv 

Siatioril. Franlv \V. 



ADDRESSFS. 



trd, Bishop of Omaha, Nebraslca, l'.S.A. 

... 1004 Black Building, Los Anjíeles, Cal., U.S.A. 

... 90 Huskiss<3n St., Liverpool 

... 13 Clarendon Rd., Holland Park, London,\V. 11 

).i).. Catholic Univcrsitv, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

... La Mancha, Belvedere, Mullingar, Ireland 

... Williani Street, Fermov, Co. Cork. 

... 37 Dalmore Rd., West Dulwich, Londnn. S E. 

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... 45 Dartmouth Square, Leeson Park, Dublin. 

... Mount Trenchard, F'ojnes, Co. Limerick 

... Deputv District Attorney, Hall ol Records, 
LosAngeles, Cal., U.sIa. 



Thompson, Miss E. Skel'tington 
Tiernev, Rev. John, d.ph. 
Townshend, Miss C. M. 



Glenellv, Chislehurst. Kent 

Nass, Co. Kildare 

5|iiu\fó riA 5|iéine, Glandore, Co. Cork 



llA biuNCALt^N, X)otrm.Mll 
Ua CuMiÁin, S. ]:., .M.i;. 
11<\ Conce<xnÁiii, ConiÁ|' 
IM Co|icAHT)A, T)u\]innin) 

UA C0|1CAHX)A, pÁTÍIUMJ 

Ua h--t\nliK\in, e. m. S. 



Maynooth, Co. Kildare 
Ballinalee, Edgeworthstt^wn, Ireland 
Liof r\A mA|iA, t)ór-.\|i nA C|i<vi;<\, gAiltitfi 
Dingle, Co. Kerry 
Dingle, Co. Kerry 

14 SuilálÁn •óuín tiA mÁttA, BIackrock, Co. 
Dublin 



Van Hamel, Dr. A. G. 
Vendryes, Prdfessor J. 



Nieuwe Haven 93, Rotterdam 
85 Rue d'Assas, Paris 



Walker, Charlton, b.a. 
Walsh, Most Rev. W. J., d.u., 
Walsh, Kev. R. F., c.c. 
Walshe, M. C, j.i'. 

Walcrs, Eaton W., M.D. 
Webster, K. G. T. 
VVestropp, T. J., M.A.. m.h.i.a. 
Whitc, Col., J. Grove, J.i'., u.i. 
Whitworth, Mrs. Mary 
Williams, Rev. P. 
Williams, T. W. 
Wilson, Rev. T., c.c 
Woulfe, Rev. Patrick, c.c. 



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2b, Bickenhall Mansions, Gloucester Place, 

London, W. 1 
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17 S. Electric Avenue, Alhambra, Cal,, U.S.A. 
Bank Chambers, Corn Street, Bristol 
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KiImallock, Co. Limerick 



Vtuiiig, Miss Rose M. 
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Glasgow 



16 



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PB 13^7 .17 V.19 SMC 

Gabhaltas Serluis Mhoir. 
Gabhaltais Shearluis Mhoir