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Full text of "A Gaelic dictionary, in two parts : I. Gaelic and English. - II. English and Gaelic : in which the words, in their different acceptations, are illustrated by quotations from the best Gaelic writers; and their affinities traced in most of the languages of ancient and modern times; with a short historical appendix of ancient names, deduced from the authority of Ossian and other poets: to which is prefixed, a new Gaelic grammar"

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Tha 'm barrachd so agad os-cionn tia h-uile neachfuidh sgeith am V urrainn 
mi mo Leabhar a chur a mach do 'w t-saoghal, — na 'm hu dana learn ionnsuidh a 
thoirt air do mholadh, (a dh'aindeoin na dh'fhaotainn a radh air mhath mu 'c? thimchioll) 
nach cuireadh duine beb miodal beoil as mo leth ; agus, an aite sin, gu 'w aidicheadh 
na h-uile, gun d'thainig mi fada gearr air an fhirinn. — Ach tha thu fada nan cian 
an neor-eisiomail mo mholaidh. 

Thog dealradh do Phearsa, agus birdheirceas do bhuadhannan nhdurra — 
thog buan-shloinneadh urramach do Shinnsearachd Rioghail, agus mbr-fharsuingeachd 
do Thighearnais an ceithir chearnaibh na Cruinne — thog gliocas do Chomhairlean, 
agus Greadhnachas do Riaghlaidh, maille ri buaidh anabarrach d'Fheachd air muir 
is air ttr, — do chliv. co ard agus nach ruig mise, no duin' eiV a choidhche air a mhvMach, 
le streap cainnte, 

Ach am feadh a tha do Chliic thar chach uile air sgaoileadh anns gach 
diithaich mu 'n iadhgrian, measaidh Tufein mar d'onoir a '« mb, Thu bhi riaghladh ann 


an cridhibh sloigli shuorsuil, sho?ia (igus dhMis. An sin '^ O a Righ mair beh gu brath !" 
Agus am fsadh a bhios buan-chaithream buaidh do bhearta ionmholta ag eiridh am 
binn-cheiUeiribh gach Canmhtcm 'san Roinn Eorp ; gu robh e mar shochair shonruichV 
aig mo Leabhar-sa so, bhith 'g innseadh do 'd Ghaidheilibh fein, gu 'w do cheaduich 
Thu dha dol a much, fuidh fhasgadh d' Ainm mhbi?; airson sior-chumail suas ehlais 
an Gailige graidh. 

Is mise, gu ma toil le do Mhbralachd Rioghail, 
d' lochdaran ro-umhal, 

Agus do Sheirbheiseach ro-dhileas, 




Many of those who cultivate literature will acknowledge, that their exertions are oftener the 
result of accident, or of precipitate resolution, than of long cherished design, or mature reflec- 
tion ; — that their most laborious enterprises are, sometimes, undertaken without due regard 
to the difficulties which stand in the way of their completion ; and that although the possibility 
or likelihood of ultimate success be at intervals contemplated, the ardour of the pursuit is 
kept up by causes independent of such considerations. 

Firmness of purpose is peculiarly requisite in the Lexicographer who has had no precursor 
in his particular walk of compilation ; who has had to encounter, at every step, the ruggedness 
and perplexities of an untrodden path; to contend with difficulties at every turn; to find 
barrenness where he hoped for fertility, obscurity where he looked for light, and misappre- 
hension and error, where he expected certainty and truth. His difficulties are, without 
question, of a disheartening character : this I may be allowed to say from my own experience ; 
yet I should be unwilling to utter an expression of dissatisfaction or regret : for I might be 
told that my labour was voluntary ; that he who throws himself into trouble has nothing to 
blame but his own rashness ; and that he who challenges difficulties or misfortune, deserves 
only ridicule for his complaints. 

In undertaking the present task, I did not, perhaps, sufficiently consider the disadvantages 
under which I laboured, nor the odds against which I had to contend; but I knew that 
formidable obstacles have often yielded to steady resolution, and unremitting diligence. 

It is not easy, in speaking of oies own labours, to avoid the imputation of egotism ; 
I shall, therefore, leave it to others to form their own estimate of the present publication. I 
can only say that, though my task has been severe, it has not been without advantage ; and 
that though it should never be crowned with great public approbation, it has not been alto- 
gether Avithout its reward. It has pointed my way to various sources of learning which 
otherwise I should not have approached ; it has led me to consult authors whom otherwise I 
should not have known ; it has procured for me patronage which cannot be exalted by my 
praise, and friendship which I shall ever be proud to cherish. 

The first remark which may occur in opening these sheets is, that I have been too lavish 
of quotations in some instances, and too sparing in others. On this subject I shall only 



observe, that I considered myself as engaged in the double task of instructing the ignorant, 
and of assisting the well-informed ; that a Lexicogra{iher ought not to take for granted the 
knowledge of those who consult him ; and that I ikd, moreover, the design of throwing 
every facility in the way of future compilers. To the charge of being too sparing, I have 
to answer, that the list of authors in our language is so small, that, for a vast variety of words, 
I could not find, nor does there, I believe, exist, any \ ritten authority. 

In the Gaelic-English Dictionary, the different a< ceptations of the Gaelic words might 
have been arranged with the same precision, and aft r the same method, as in some other 
dictionaries, but that the size and price of the work w )uld be thereby nearly doubled. 

In translating the Gaelic language, the inflections o nouns and verbs are apt to embarrass 
the young student. On that account I deemed it expedient, in a great variety of instances, 
to insert, as separate articles, the nominatives and datves plural of nouns, and such tenses 
of the verbs as are in most frequent use, and, at the saiie time, bear the least resemblance to 
the root ; such are the preterite active, the future affirn ative active and passive, and the past 
participle. I have also arranged many of the aspirate forms of words, as separate articles, 
and have referred for explanation to the simple form. This will, it is hoped, be found useful. 
Few students would conjecture that they must turn up cluas for cluasaibh ; tigh for thigh ; ol 
for dh'dl; dirich for dhirich ; buail for buaUidh ; heir for rig ; clu'mn for chual; thoir, or thabhair, 
for bheirinn. If, in this, I should be considered diffusa by those who already know the lan- 
guage, I feel assured that I shall have the acknowledgi lent of those who know it not, and 
are desirous to acquire it. • 

It will be seen that, in many words, especially in hose which I considered primitive, 1 
have traced affinities to a considerable extent. In doing so, my object was to leave grounds 
for inferring the common origin of all languages, and to establish the antiquity of the Celtic. 
For, if nations far remote and unconnected, dissimilar in manners and customs, shall have 
preserved the same terms for all such objects as are nost familiar to the observation of a 
people in a state of nature, the obvious inference is, thai these terms must have been derived 
from a common origin ; — from the language of the earliest inhabitants of the earth. Again, if 
the Celtic should be found to contain all such terms |s are common to all languages, it 
is evident that it must have derived them from man's priirieval tongue. 

It is true that almost every language of antiquity has Asserted its title to be considered the 
most ancient ; and men whose erudition cannot be dispijted, have supported their respective 
claims. Of these, the Celtic has found an able advocate ti Pezron, and other philologists ; the 
Hebrew, in Leibnitz ; the Phoenician, in Bochart ; and tlie Dutch, in Gor. Becanus. 

The diversity of opinions entertained on this subject, rtiay, perhaps, be accounted for. All 
the languages of antiquity, which are, in truth, but so many dialects of the primeval speech, 
have nearly an equal number of primitives ; and each of them, therefore, in as far as roots 
are concerned, seems to carry, on the face of it, an argument for the earliest existence. There 
is little wonder, then, if a scholar should decide in favour of that with which he is most 



familiar, and that a great question in philology should be affected by that prejudice which 
intrudes itself into every department of human inquiry. 

With all my admiration of the Celtic, I cannot join with those who ascribe to it an 
antiquity beyond that of many other languages ; for I have not been able to discover, that 
it can be said, with truth, of any language, that it is the most ancient. 

I do not propose to meddle, in this place, with the keenly contested point, whether 
the Gaelic of the Highlands be the parent of the speech of Ireland. However, I may be 
permitted to observe, that the Scotch Gaelic bears a closer resemblance to the parent 
Celtic, and has fewer inflections than the Welsh, Manks, or Irish dialects. It has this 
circumstance, too, in common with the Hebrew, and other oriental languages, that it wants 
the simple present tense; a peculiarity which strongly supports the opinion, that the Gaelic 
of Scotland is the more ancient dialect. This question has been long discussed with 
eagerness and ability. The one party draws its opinions partly from history, partly 
from acute hypothetical reasoning, and from the natural westward progress of early migra- 
tion ; the other argues from legends for which credulity itself is at a loss to discover a 

Throughout this work, I have followed the orthography of two writers, who are relied 
on as guides by their countrymen; — the one. Dr. Stewart of Luss, the translator of the 
Holy Scriptures into Gaelic; the other, Dr. Smith of Campbelton, the author of a Gaelic 
metrical version of the Psalms, and other creditable works. These writers spent much of 
their time in settling the orthography of our language ; and, as they have a just and acknow- 
ledged claim to be considered authorities, it is much to be desired that they should, hence- 
forth, be regarded in that light. Fluctuations in the Gaelic language are perilous at this 
stage of its existence ; for, if it be not transmitted to posterity in a regular, settled form, 
it is to be feared, that it must soon share the fate of the forgotten Cornish. 

The rule caol ri caol agus leathiin ri leathan, has been carefully observed by the writers 
already mentioned, especially by Dr. Stewart. It directs that two vowels, contributing to 
form two different syllables, should be both of the same class or denomination of vowels, — 
either both broad, or both small. Agreeably to this rule, we ought to write cleanaibh, not 
(kanibh ; fdidean, not fdidan; bioran, not biran; and so on, with other words. This mode of 
spelling is a modern invention. I: was first introduced by the Irish, and adopted by the 
Gael, with, I confess, more precipitation than propriety. It has its advantages and its dis- 
advantages. It mars the primitive simplicity and purity of the language ; but it removes 
from it that appearance of harshness which arises from too great a proportion of consonants. 
It not unfrequently, darkens somewhat the ground on which we trace the - affinities of Gaelic 
words with those of the sister dialects, and of other languages ; yet it has infused into our 
speech a variety of liquid and mellow sounds which were unknown, or at least not so 
perceptible before. It may be a.sked, why I have adhered to a rule of which I did not 
altogether approve ? I reply, that any attempt at innovation — even at restoring the language 



to its primitive purity, might introduce more iaconven jncies and evils than can result from 
the present settled system of orthography. 

I have bestowed pains on referring derivative words to their primitives — in resolving com- 
pound words to their component parts — in affixing to aibstantives their genitive singular and 
gender — and to verbs their signification, whether active or neuter. The quotations from Gaelic 
writers are translated into English as literally as the idi ims of these languages will allow. 

The edition of Stewart's Gaelic Bible, of which I mi de use, was that printed at Edinburgh 
in 1807, for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The particular 
book of the sacred volumes from which I take a quotation is almost always mentioned. 
Occasionally, however, O. T. or iV. T. will be met with, where I could not remember the 
precise part of the Old or New Testament which cc itained my authority. G. B. occur 
where I could not remember nor ascertain from whi;h of the Testaments the quotation 
was taken. These abbreviations are, I believe, of rare iccurrence ; and I have here adverted 
to them, in order to explain what, otherwise, might app< ar a want of precision. 

The Gaelic, like all the languages of early times, oes not abound in terms of science 
or art. It will be seen, therefore, in the English-Gae ic Dictionary, that terms in mathe- 
matics, metaphysics, and other sciences, I have been 
and often by definition. ~ 

If it be found that, of names of instruments, as in 

compelled to express by ambiology. 

griculture and mechanics, some are 
rendered, perhaps, imperfectly, and others overlooked, jlet it be remembered, that no com^ 

\ spoken language ; and that I could 
the proper sources of information, 
of memory. 

pilation ever yet recorded every vocable which floated in 
not, when an uncertainty occurred, transport myself t( 
to make up for the scarcity of books and the defects 

The Gaelic vocabularies of Shaw, Macfarlane, and JVlacdonald, and the Irish dictionaries 
of O'Brien and O'Reilly, were of considerable service tope. The mere collecting of words, 
however, was but a small part of my labour, compared with the wearisome and almost 
endless pursuit of authorities for different acceptations pf the same word. 

In tracing affinities, I derived great benefit from tlip works of Suidas, Cambry, Court 
de Gebelin, Menage, Rostrenen, Bullet, Pezron, Spellmin, Lye, and Edward Lhuyd, among 
philologists ; and, in matters of antiquity, from Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Solinus, Tacitus, 
Ammianus, Usher, Toland, Huddleston, Keating, Malco^, Dr. John Macpherson, Pennant, 
Smith, and a forgotten multitude of other erudite and ingenious writers. 

In the English-Gaelic Dictionary, I have followed 1 the orthography and arrangement 
of Perry. 

It was once «ipy design to prefix to this work a dissertation on the mechanism and 
philosophy of the Gaelic language ; but, on reflection, I substituted a compendious view of 
its structure, as being more suitable to such a performance, and more likely to be of service. 
In this department of my compilation, I am indebted to the works of Shaw, O'Reilly, 
and O'Connor. , 


A circumstance not unworthy of notice concerning this Dictionary is, that a great part of 
it was printed while it was generally thought to be only in preparation. Hence it happened 
that, during the progress of these sheets through the press, I was, not unfrequently, favoured 
with communications from most respectable quarters, conveying encouragement which 
excited my gratitude, and offers of assistance which were, I lament, too late to be ren- 
dered available. No doubt, it would have been useful to my work, if I had obligations, 
on this account, to acknowledge. Be that as it may, I consider it due to myself to state, 
that neither in compiling this Dictionary, nor even in transcribing the mass of manuscript 
for publication, nor in superintending the press, have I received the least assistance whatever. 
For patronage, however, I am deeply beholden to several whom my commendations cannot 
affect, but whom gratitude compels me to mention. 

The early and effective patron of this work, I am proud to make known, was Lord 
Strathavon ; a young nobleman who, to many other acquirements, has added a most 
accurate knowledge of the Gaelic language. I have not vanity enough to attribute to the 
humble merits of my performance his Lordship's powerful support, to which I owe almost 
all the more splendid names on my list of subscribers ; but rather to that liberal and active 
spirit with which he lends his aid to every cause which concerns the literature of the 
Scottish Gael, and the honour of their country. 

To his Grace the Duke of Hamilton I feel greatly indebted for attention and encourage- 
ment ; as also to Lord Archibald Hamilton, and to Lord Glenorchy, 

Sir Charles Forbes, Bart., of Edinglassie, whose patriotic character is well known, laid 
me under early and great obligations. I value the kindness of this gentleman the more, 
because it procured for me the acquaintance of General Gordon of Balbithan, a very superior 
Celtic scholar and philologist, from whose conversation and suggestions I derived essential 

I am gratified to rank, among my most zealous patrons. Dr. Mackinnon of Adelphi, 
and the Rev. Dr. Ross of Lochbroom ; gentlemen whose knowledge of every branch of the 
Celtic language is the least of their acquirements. 

Mr. Simon Mac Gillivray of Suffolk Lane has done this Dictionary a service, which I can 
never forget nor sufficiently acknowledge. 

Mr. Robert Kennedy of Grenada will, I hope, accept of this expression of my gratitude 
for his most active support, to which I owe a great proportion of my West India subscribers. 

My sense of the friendly and successful efforts of the late Dr. Charles Kennedy of 
St. Vincent, my schoolfellow and college companion, is equalled only by my regret for 
his untimely death, and my respect for his memory. * 

I have also my thanks to offer to the following gentlemen, who, though mentioned the 
last in order, are not the least in my esteem : — Capt. Duncan Mac Dougall of the 79th Regt. 
of Foot; the Rev. Daniel Mac Naughton of Glenco and Appin; the Rev. Alexander 
Anderson of Strontian ; and the Rev. Alexander Kennedy of Mull. 


It would be most ungrateful in me not to take this opportunity of mentioning, that, 
notwithstanding all the patronage with which I have been favoured, it is questionable whether 
I could ever have offered these sheets to the public, but for the disinterested spirit of my 
publisher, Mr. Duncan. 

To my Subscribers, in general, I return my sincerest acknowledgments. They may be 
assured that very strenuous exertions have been made to fulfil the promises held out in the 
Prospectus ; and I trust that I shall be considered as having redeemed my pledge. 

To hope that this Dictionary is free from imperfections, even after all the pains I have 
bestowed on it, would be presumptuous; and to expect that any circumstance shall cause 
those to be overlooked or forgiven, would be to hope for a favour which has been withheld 
from far higher claims and deserts than mine ; — for the merits of one's cause are not always a 
protection from hostility and censure ; and diligence, however laborious and sincere, is not 
always requited with approbation. 

I forbear to mention the time which this work has occupied, and the labour which it has 
required. I might be discredited by some, and considered by others as indulging my vanity; — 
especially when I should add, that I had in the meanwhile to provide for my own sub- 
sistence ; and that the compilation which I now send forth to the world, is, in truth, the 
production of such hours as I could spare from harassing occupations, or snatch from the 
proper seasons of repose. 

Having stated this much, I must guard against misconstruction. I have no desire to 
conciliate hostility,, nor to soften criticism. My cause is good. I have, under all disad- 
vantages, done it the best service in my power; and I now, without presumption, yet 
without undue anxiety, submit my work to a public intelligent enough to know the value 
of every man's labour, and sufficiently generous to assign to all the degree of honour which 
they may deserve. 


Asterisks (*) precede the names of those Subscribers who^ are now no more. 





Argyll, His Grace the Duke of. 

Aboyue, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 

Aberdeen, the Right Honourable the Earl of.. 

Allan, Grant, Esq. Gower Street... 

Anderson, the Rev. Alexander, Strontian. 

Andrew, James, LL.D. Sutton. 

Armstrong, Alexander, Esq. Grenada. 

Armstrong, Simon, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Atcheson, Robert Shank, Esq. Duke Street, Westminster. 

Breadalbane, the Right Honourable the Earl. of. 

Keresford, Lord John, M.P. 

Brisbane, Governor Sir Charles, K.C.B. St. Vincent, 

2 copies. 
Brougham, Henry, Esq. M.P, 
Boucher, James, Esq. Grenada. 

Britton, John, Esq. F.S.A. Burton Street, Burton Cresceftt. 
Brown, Fielding, Esq. Grenada. 

Canning, the Right Honourable George, M.P. 
Calder, Hector, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Campbell, Walter Frederick, Esq. of Shawfield and Isla,- 
2 copies,- 



Campbell, Colonel, Balveolan. 
Campbell, the Rev. Alexander, StrathUy. 
Campbell, James, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Cannichael, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Clark, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Collins, John, Esq. Bath. 
Cruickshank, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Curaming, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Cochran, Mr. 108, Strand, 2 copies. 


Davidson, H. Esq. of TuUoch. 
Pavidson, Duncan, younger, Esq. of TuUoeh. 
Downie, Robert, Esq. of Appin, M.P. 
Dear, William, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Denton, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Dickie, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Dickson, Thomas, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Donald, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Duff, James Gordon, Esq. Gloucester Place; 

Fife, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 
Fergusson, General Sir Ronald, IV1.P. 


Gordon, his Grace the Duke of. 
Gwydyr, the Right Honourable Lady, 2 copies. 
Glenorchy, the Right Honourable Lord, M.P. 3 copies. 
Grant, the Right Honourable Sir William, Lincoln'i-Inn- 

Grant, the Honourable Charles, M.P. 
Grant, Sir Alexander, Albany. 
Gordon, Major-General Benjamin. 
GaskiU, Robert, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Glen, William, Esq. Grenada. 
Gordon, the Rev. Donald, Ederachilis. 
Grant, "Patrick, Esq. of Redcastle. 
Grant, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Guthrie, , Esq. of Craigie. 


Hamilton and Brandon, his Grace the Duke of. 
Hamilton, the Right Honourable Lord Archibald, M.P. 
Huntingdon, &e Right Honourable the Countess of, 

3 copies. 
Haddington, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 
Hiitton, Lieutenant-General. 

Hindley, , Esq. Doughty Street. 

Hutchinson, , Esq. Wellington Place, Commercial 


Forbes, Sir Charles, Bart, of Edinglassie, M.P. Fitzroy i Handing and Co. Messrs. 4 copies. 
Square, 5 copies. 

Forbes, John, Esq. Fitzroy Square. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. Fitzroy Square. 
Forbes, Miss Katherine Stewart, Fitzroy Square, 
Forbes, George, Esq. Fitzroy Square. 
Forbes, Master J ameq Stewart, Fitzroy .Square. 
Forbes, Lieutenant Colonel David, 78(h Regt; 
Frazer, Archibald, Esq. Grenada. 
Frazer, Malcolm, Esq. Grenada. 


Keith, Dr. Ronald, Grenada. 
Kennedy, the Rev. Alexander, Isle of Mull. 
Kennedy, Robert, Esq. Grenada, 3 copies. 
Kennedy, Evan, Esq. Grenada. 

• Kennedy, John H. Esq. Surgeon, Grenada. 

• Kennedy, Charles N. Esq. Snrgeon, St. Vincent, 3 eopien. 




• Londonderry, the Most Honoarable the Marquess of. 
Lyndoch, Lord. 

Lumsden, Lieutenant Colonel D. 
Liringston, Dugald, Esq. Grenada. 


Montrose, his Grace the Duke of. 
Moray, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 
Menzies, Lady, of Menzies, Castle-Menzies. 

• Murray, Sir John Mac Gregor, Bart. 

Mac Gregor, Lieutenant Colonel Sir Evan, Bart. 

Mackintosh, Sir James, M.P. 

Mac Donell, Colonel Alexander Ranaldson, of Glengarry and 


Mac Kinnon, Donald, M.D. and F.R.S. Adelphi. 

Mac Gillivray, Simon, Esq. of Beinn' Ghaidheal. 

Mac Gregor, P. Esq. Surgeon, Golden Square. 

Mac Arthur, the Rev. Donald, Isle of Mull. 

Mac Arthur, Duncan, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Mac Barnet, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Mac Coll, the Rev. Ale:iiander, Lismore. 

Mac Dougall, Captain Duncan, 79th Regt. 

Mac Dougall, Patrick, Esq. Grenada. 

Mac Dowall, Allan, Esq. 'St. Vincent, 2 copies. 
Mac Ewan, Dr. George, Grenada. 
Mac Ewan, Dr. James, Grenada. 
Mac Fee, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Mac Gregor, Alexander, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Gregor, William, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Innes, John, Esq. Grenada. 

Mac Ivor, Mr. Farquhar, Preacher of the Gospel, Loch- 
Macintyre, Captain John, Kenmore. 
Macintyre, Archibald, Esq. St. Vincent.- 
Mac Kenzie, the Rev. Dr. Hugh, Assynt. 

Mac Kenzie, Roderick, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Mac Kenzie, Colin, Esq. 

Mac Kinnon, Charles, Esq, Cambden Hill. 

Mac Kinnon, William Alexander, Esq. Portswood House, 

near Southampton. 
Mac Lean, the Rev. J. Argyllshire. 
Mac Lean, George, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Lean, John, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Leod, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent, 2 copies. 
Mac Leod, James, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Mac Naughton, the Rev. Daniel, Appin. 
Mac Naughton, the Rev. Allen, Campbelton. 
Mac Naughton, Alexander, Esq. Surgeon, R.N. 
Mac Naughton, Dr. James, United States. 
Mac Pherson, D. Esq. Chandos Street, Covent Garden. 
• Mac Vean, Archibald, Esq. Grenada. 
Malcolm, William, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Menzies, Stewart, Esq. of Culdares. 
Menzies, H. Esq. Mary Street, Fitzroy Square. 
Miller, James, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Munro, George Gun, Esq. Grenada. 
Murray, Patrick, Esq. St. Vincent. 


Nott, the Rev. Dr. Winchester. 


O'Neil, John, Esq. Grenada. 

Paris, Royal Institute of. 

Petit, Louis Hayes, Esq. Lincoln's Inn. 

Prescod, W. H. Esq. St. Vincent, 2 copies. 



Roseberry, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 

Ramsay, the Honourable Colonel John, Kelly House, near 

Richardson, Clement Thomas, Esq. Grenada. 
Robertson, Divie, Esq. Bedford Square. 
Robertson, E. Esq. Beverley, Yorkshire. 
Robertson, Colin, Esq. Russell Square. 
Robertson, Andrew, Esq. Gerrard Street, Soho. 
Robertson, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
• Robertson, the Rev. Dr. Ebury Street, Chelsea. 
Ross, the Rev. Dr. Lochbroom, Rosshire. 
Ross, the Rev. Alexander, Ullapool. 
Rivington, Messrs. Strand, 6 copies. 

Stafford, the Most Honourable the Marchioness of. 
Strathavon, the Right Honourable Lord, M. P. 4 copies. 
Salton and Abemethy, the Right Honourable Lord. 
Stewart, the Honourable John. 
Stewart, Major General, of Garth. 
Shaw, Major General John. 
Stewart, the Rev. James, Ardgower. 
Salami, A. Esq. 

Stewart, J., M. D. Appin. 
Stewart, James Fleming, Esq. Grenada. 
Stewart, William, Estj. Piccadilly. 
Shand, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Smith, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Symon, James, Esq. St. Vincent 

Tennant, R. J. W. Esq. Belfast. 

Todd, James Ruddell, Esq. of Balintagart, Adelphi. 

Treasurer, Kennet, Esq. Edinburgh. 

Thomson, William, Esq. St. Vincent. 


Upham, , Esq. Bath. 

Urquhart, , Esq. St. Vincent. 


Wemyss and March, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 

Whitely, , Esq. Halifax. 

Wilkinson, Thomas, Esq. St. Vincent. 




(jRAMMAR, or the art of speaking and writing a language according to certain established rules, is divided into four parts, 
viz. Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. 

Orthography, or right spelling, teaches the true arrangement of letters in words; the correct utterance of which 
is called Orthoepy. 

Etymology teaches how to derive a word from its root or primitive, — the parts of speech, — the inflection of nouns 
and verbs, — and the modifications by which the sense of a word is diversified. 

Syntax teaches how to arrange words into sentences. 

Prosody teaches the accent and quantity of syllables, and the measure of verse. 


The old Gaelic, commonly called the Irish, alphabet, consists of eighteen letters, which are divided into vowels and 




Old Gaelic, 

, or Irish. 

Ancient Gaelic Name. 










































Goibh, or gath. 

A spear. 

















The quicken tree. 















The spindle tree. 





Peith bhog. 




















u v 

Uir, or iuthar. 



Of these, a, e, i, o, u, are vowels, which grammarians have divided into broad and small : o, o, «, are broad ; 
e, i, small. ' 

A represents three different sounds ; in the first two of which it is both long and short. A long, sounds like the 
Enijltsh a in bar, or the Italian a in amo ; as, dl, broad ; sar, excellent : and short, like a in cat, as, as, a foot ; fait, ^air. 



A, immediately preceding dh and gh, has a long and a short diphthongal sound, to which there is none correspondent 
in English. In this situation it much resembles the sound of the French diphthong eu; long, as, ladhar, a hoof; agh- 
mhor, fortunate : short, as a in lagh, law ; tagh, choose. 

A sounds short and obtuse, like e in open, in the three forms of the article a, on, am, and in the plural terminations 
a and an ; as, laghanna, laws ; beanntan, mountains. 


E represents three different sounds. 

E, with the grave accent (i), sounds long, like the Greek »i, as pronounced in Scotland and on the Continent, or like 
e in where; as, e, he; r^, during the time of: and short, like e in wet ; as, teth, hot; in which state it is never accented. 

E, with the acute accent (c), sounds like the Greek n, as, pronounced in England ; as, te, a female. 

E final has an obtuse sound, like e in open; as, beannuichte, blessed; buaUte, struck; — there being no silent 6nal 
vowels in Gaelic. « 


/ sounds like ee in English, but sometimes long and sometimes short ; long, as, sin, stretch ; sith, peace : short, like 
.in /,..., existence. 

O represents three different sounds, in each of which it is both long and short. 

long, sounds sometimes like o in lord ; as, hi, drink ; rbmack, hairy : and sometimes like o in fold ; as, (At, a coat ; 
torn, a hillock. 

short, sounds sometimes like o in pot ; as, trod, a lid ; grod, rotten ; borb, fierce : and sometimes like o in rope ; 
as, slob, a puddle. 

O, before gh, has a long and a short diphthongal sound : long, as, sogk, luxury ; short, as, royhuinn, choice. 


U sounds like u in French and Italian, or like the English oo in moon, but sometimes long and sometimes short : 
long, as, fudar, powder ; short, as, furan, a welcome. 


A diphthong is the meeting of two vowels in one syllable. In Gaelic there are thirteen diphthongs, and they are 
derived from the vowels in the following manner : 

(la. r 

i, < io. From o. oi. From u\ _ .' 


From a<ai. From e< '" From i{io. From o, oi. From ^ . 

f oo. # ' "' *■ 

^ K_eu. 

Of these, ao, eu, are improper diphthongs ; the rest are proper. 


Ae occurs but in a few words ; as, Gael,* a Highlander. 

At. I 

Ai sounds like ai in the French canaille ; as, caill, lose ; saill, salt ; pailteas, plenty. Very frequently i is but faintly 
sounded ; as in dite, a place ; fdilte, welcome. 

Ea sounds like ea in the English noun bear ; as, each, a horse ; fear, a man ; but before a palatal, c, g ; or a lingual, 
/, n, r; or a dental, d, s, t, not silent, the prepositive is often either quiescent, or but faintly sounded; as, cealg, deceit; 
geall, a wager. 

Ei sometimes gives the sound of both vowels; as, feidh, deer; and sometimes that of e alone; as, reidh, a plain. 
Before the palatals, c, g, the lingiials, I, n, r, or the dentals, d, s, t, not silent, i is but faintly heard ; as, reic, sell ; leig, 
let ; fein, self: and often confers on a following palatal, a double palatal sound ; as, thig, (pronounce heek), shall come ; 
and on a dental, a double dental sound; as, theid, shall go (pron. heich, articulating ch as in church). 

Eo. ' 

Eo sounds somewhat like aw in yawl ; as, ceol, music ; ceh, mist. 

la has both vowels heard ; as, fiar, crooked ; iall, a thong ; ciar, dusky ; but in eta ? what ? and iad, they, to often 
sounds like e in where. 

• Gael and Gaelach are more commonly written Gaidheal and Gaidhealach, to presene tlie rule, caol ri eaol, is leathan ri leathan. 



lo sounds both long and short : long', as, ea in /ear ; as, sior, ever; Jior, true : and short, not unlike the French eu ; 
as, fiodh, timber. Before a palatal, lingual, or dental, o is not always, or but faintly, heard ; as, pioc, pick ; ciod, what ; 
sgiol, skill ; hior, a thorn ; fios, knowledge. 


lu sounds both its vowels ; as, Jiu, (pron. few), worthy ; except before c, g, or d, I, n, r, s, t, where it is not 
sounded ; as, tiMgh, thick, (pron. chiu) ; diilt, deny, (pron. chiult). 

Oi sounds both its vowels : long, as, doigh, manner ;. sloigh, host : short, as, troidh, a foot ; hloidh, a piece. Except 
before c, g, I, n, r, s, t, not silent, i is quiescent, and affects the sound of the consonant which it precedes ; as, toic, 
substance, (pron. toi^*); foid, a turf, (pron./ocA, ch sounding as in chair); coise, gen. of cas, foot, (pron. coish). 

Ua sounds both its vowels ; as, tuar, colour ; fvar, cold. Except before ch, dh, gh, th, the a of tta commonly 
sounds like e in her ; as, bruach, a bank ; tuadh, a hatchet ; shuigh, people ; Iwith, swift. 

Ui sounds both its vowels ; as, buidhinn, gain ; luidh, lie. Except before c, g, I, n, r, s, t, the i of ui is not heard ; 
but it aflPects the sound of the consonant following, as, luii, (pron. luish) ; tuit, fall, (pron. tuich, ch as in church) ; sluig, 
swallow, (pron. slluk, — k as in key). 


Ao has a peculiar sound, not attainable by the ear, much resembling that oieu, in the French heure ; as, laogh, a calf; 
and a nasal sound, as, muoth, soft. 


Eu sounds like ei m feign; beum, a blow ; feum, need. 


The triphthongs are these five : aoi, eoi, iai, iui, uai. They are pronounced respectively, like the diphthongs, ao, eo, 
\ ia, iu, ua, with the addition of a short i, which serves to liquefy the sound of the following consonant. They are all long, 
and never occur but in monosyllables, or in the first syllable of polysyllables. 

There are twelve consonants, b, c, d,f, g, I, m, n, p, r, s, t; h is rather a mark of aspiration than a radical letter. 
The consonants in Gaelic may be conveniently brought into the following arrangement : Labials, Palatals, Dentals, 
and Linguab. 

("*• , Cd. ' (I. 

Labials<''' Palatals]''* Dentals < <. Linguals<w. 

Of these, b, c, d, f g, m, p, s, t, are mutable, or capable of aspiration, by having h subjoined ; in which state their 
simple sound is either altered or lost. The immutables are I, n, r. 



B simple sounds somewhat harder than 6, and softer than p, in English; as, bvnil, strike! lean, touch. 5A sound 
like V in English, French, and Italian ; as, bhean, touched ; bhac, hindered. Bh, at the end of a word or syllable, either 
sound like u, or stand for a gentle aspiration ; as, searbh, bitter ; fabkras, a fever. Sometimes bh, in the middle of a 
word, are silent; as, soirbheas, prosperity; doirbheas, adversity. 


F simple is pronounced as in most other languages ; fh are silent ; as, fhad, long ; an Fhraing, France. In a very 
few words, as, mifhein, myself, fh sound like h in English. 


M simple, the same as in English; as, mhr, great; camon, a club; lorn, bare. Mh sound like v in English; as, 
amhiin, only; a mhusgaid, the musket. Frequently, though never at the beginning of a word, mh sound like a nasal oo, 
or stand for a gentle aspiration ; as, ramh, an oar ; and sometimes they are altogether quiescent, as, comhnard, level ; 
dhomh, to me. 

• In the West and Northern Highlands, this diphthong is often pronounced hke ia; as, miad, size, for meud; ian, bird, for em. 



P simple sounds as in English and other languages; as, pronn, bruise; peasg, a gash; ph like / in English, as, 
phronn, bruised. 



C simple has two sounds: (1.) Like c in cub; as, cH, a dog; crath, shake. (2.) When preceded in the same syllable 
by a small vowpl, it has, in most parts of the Highlands, a sound to which that of x'^ 's pretty similar ; as, aire, distress, 
(pron. tit^x^). In some parts it sounds like k. 

Ch sound like the Gr. x 'n ;c»{^i> O'' I'l^s the Irish gh in lough, or the vulgar Scotch ch in loch, as, moch, early ; and, 
when followed by a small vowel, like x 'n x"/"** '• ^s, ch\, shall see. 


G simple sounds, at the beginning of a word, nearly as in English ; at the end of a word, its sound more nearly 
resembles that of the English k in rock; as, rug, bore; thug, gave. 

G aspirated, or gh, followed by a, o, or u, sounds somewhat softer than the Greek x '> as, ghair, laughed ; excepting 
at the end of a syllable, and then it is silent ; as, tigh, a house ; rioghachd, a kingdom. 

Gh, followed by e or i, sounds like y in ye ; as, ghios, (pron. yeess), towards. 


D simple is more a dental than in English, and sounds somewhat like the French and Italian d ; as, dan, a song ; 
duine, a man ; dlagh, a handful ; madadh, a mastiff; rud, a thing. Except when it is followed by e or i, or is preceded 
in the same syllable by i; for then it spunds like ch in child; as, clogaid, a helmet; cdirdeas, friendship. 

D, preceded by dh, sounds like x^; as, lochd, harm, (pron. llopt;")- 

Dh, at the beginning of a word, has a somewhat softer sound than the Greek x'> as, dha, to him; but iT followed 
by e or i, it sounds like y in English ; as, dheth, of him ; dh' i, of her, {pron. yea, ye). 

Dh, at the end, or in the middle of a word, is most frequently quiescent ; as, ckaidh, went ; fdidheadaireachd, 

T simple, immediately followed by a, o, or «, or a consonant, sounds like the French t in terns, or the Italian t in 
tempo; as, tamh, rest; taom, pour; tld, smooth. 

T simple, preceded in the syllable by u, or immediately followed by e or i, sounds like ch in child ; as, tein, fire, 
(pron. chein); fdilte, welcome, (pron./aifcA, ch sounding as in church). 

T aspirated, or th, like h in home; as, thoir, give; but in the middle, or at the end of a word, it is silent; as, 
fitheach, a raven; bith, existence. 


S simple, preceded or followed by a, e, or i, sounds like sh in English ; as, sion, (pron. shion), a blast ; gnuis, (pron. 
gnuish), a visage. Except is, (pron. iss), am. 

S simple, preceded or followed by a, o, or u, sounds like s in English ; as, sabh, a salve ; sogh, luxury ; mios, 
a mouth. 

S simple, followed by d, t, I, or n, and a short vowel, sounds like sh in English ; as, sdiuir, or stiuir, steer ; sUos, 
a side ; sniomh, spin. 

S, before any other consonant, even though followed by a short vowel, sounds like s in English ; as, smig, (pron. 
smik), a chin ; smeid, (pron. smeich), a nod. 

S aspirated, or sh, is silent; as, sheol, directed, (pron. heol); excepting when followed by I or n, and then there is 
no aspiration ; as, shndmh, (pron. ndv), swam ; shldnuich, (pron. lamx), healed. 

The lingual consonants, as has been said, are incapable of aspiration ; but they have often a double lingual sound, 
to which there is none similar in English. 


L simple, like I in large ; as, las, flamed. It has this sound when it begins the preterites of verbs and the feminine 
form of adjectives. 

. L has its double lingual sound when followed by e or i, and then it is articulated like II in million, or like the Italian 
gl, or the Portuguese Ih ; as, linn, an age ; lein, a shirt. Yet, with regard to nouns beginning with I, if the masc. poss. pron. 
goes before, / sounds as in English ; as, a litir, his letter ; where I differs materially in sound from I in a litir, her letter. 

L has another double lingual sound, generally, when it is preceded by itself, or when it is followed by a, o, or u, in 
verbs and in adjectives masculine ; as, fallain, healthy ; Idn, full ; lorn, bare ; lus, an herb. 

//, preceded or followed by a short vowel, also sounds as the Italian gl. 

II, preceded or followed by a, o, or u, has the same double lingual sound as in Idn, masculine, but has no sound 
similar to it in English. 



If simple sounds like n in English in the beginning of preterites, and whenever it is preceded by a, o, or u; as, nigh, 
washed ; liin, full ; Ion, a thrush ; run, affection ; and in the middle of words, as, sinidh, shall stretch. 

N has its double sound in the beginning of a verb in the imperative mood, and followed by a, o, or u ; as, nochd, 
shew ; or at the beginning of a masculine adjective, and followed by a broad vowel; as, naomh, holy ; nuadh, new. In this 
situation it has no similar sound in English, but is the same with the first n in the French non. •■ • 

The same observations apply to the reduplicated nn. 

N has another double sound, when immediately preceded by i, or /when i is the last vowel of the same syllable ; as, 
linn, an age ; ciiim, cairns ; uinneag, a window ; and at the beginning of imperatives, and certain other tenses, when 
followed by a small vowel ; as, nigh, wash. In this situation it sounds exactly like gn, in the French guigne, or the 
Italian regno. 

N, preceded by m or c, is in some words pronounced like r ; as, cnaimh {craimh), a bone ; cnb (crb), a nut. 

Lastly, an and nan, when the next word begins with c or g, sound like ng and nung ; as, an cH, the dog ; an gial, the 
cheek ; nan cealgair, of the deceivers. 


R simple sounds like r in English ; as, rath, (pron. ra), luck ; righ, a king. Righ, in the vocative, has no sound 
similar to it in English, but it is exactly that of ri in the French ira/eriori<e. 

R, if preceded by i, or if followed by i, and forming a syllable, sounds as above, like ri in the French inferiorite ; 
as, rithe, with her ; tnairbh, dead ; coir, right. 


Mas. and Fern. 

An, a'. 



Nan, nam. 

An, a'. 



Etymology is that part of grammar which teaches how to derive a word from its primitive, — shews the parts of 
speech, the inflections of nouns, and the modifications by which the sense of a word is diversified. 


In Gaelic there are nine parts of speech, viz. Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, 
Interjection, Conjunction. These are divided into declinable and indeclinable. 

The declinable parts of speech are, — the Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle. 
The indeclinable are, — the Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, Conjunction. 

There is no indefinite article in Gaelic. An, the, is the definite article, and is declined by genders, cases, and numbers. 

Singular. Plural. 


Norn. An, am. 

Gen. An, a'. 

Bat. An,* a'. 

The form am of the article is used before a simple (not aspirated) labial ; as, am buille, the blow ; am fear, the man : 
before any aspirated consonant (except fh) the article is written a'. 

A substantive noun, beginning with s, followed by a liquid or by a vowel, requires the insertion of t between it and 
the article, in the gen. and dat. sing. mas. of nouns, and in the nom. and dat. of feminine nouns. 
A sub. mas. beginning with a vowel has t between it and the article in the nom. sing. 
A sub. fern, has h in the same situation in the gen. sing. 
Nouns which are either mas. ox Jem. have h in the nom. and dat. plural. 
Nan, of the gen. pi., is always used, except before words beginning with b,f, p. Nan; before c or g, sounds nang; 


The genders are two, masculine and feminine. 

The Gaelic language is very anomalous in its distinction of nouns by gender ; and perhaps no set of rules can be 
devised to ascertain the gender of every noun in the language. It personifies every object, whether animate or inanimate. 
The gender is not determined by termination, or any circumstance, but by immediate distinction of sex, and by custom. 

Nouns signifying males, are masculine ; as, duine, a man ; laoch, a hero ; each, a horse. 

Note. — That leomhann, lion ; laogh, calf; uan, lamb ; and several other names for.the young of animals, are masculine, 
though the objects be feminine. 

Nouns in o, or having o in the last syllabic, are commonly masculine ; as, ceh, must ; roth, a wheel ; corp, a body. 

Polysyllables in a, o, or «, are commonly masculine. 

Diminutives in an are masculine ; as, caman, a club ; fuaran, a well ; barran, a thorn-fence. 

• An, after a vowel, is written 'n. 


Derivatives in ach, iche, as, air, ear, are for the most part masculine ; as, marcach, a rider ; maraicke, a seaman ; 
piobair, a piper ; muiUear, a miller ; cdirdeas, friendship. 
Names of trees are commonly masculine. 


Nouns signifying females are feminine ; as, mdthair, a mother. 

Aggregate names of trees are feminine ; as, darach, oak-wood. 

Names of countries, especially those ending in achd, or which have a short vowel in the last syllable ; as, Gaidhealt- 
nchd, the Highlands; Eirin, Ireland. The names of districts have their gender commonly regulated by their termination. 

Names of musical instruments ; as, piob, a pipe ; cruit, a harp. 

Names of diseases ; as, buinneach, a diarrhoea. 

Polysyllables (except agents in air and iche) whose least vowel is e, or i, are commonly feminine ; as, neasgaid, a 
boil ; doirlinn, an isthmus. 

Diminutives in ag ; as, sradag, a spark. 

Derivatives in achd ; as, maiseachd, comeliness ; rioghachd, a kingdom. 

Ckjmparatives used substantively, are feminine ; as, maoile, baldness ; gile, whiteness. 

Nouns in ua, and ui, a diphthong, the subjunctive of which is a slender jor small vowel, are commonly feminine ; as. 
cuach, a cup ; compailt, company. 


A noun has two numbers, singular and plural. " . • ~ 

The cases are four, viz. Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Vocative. 

A noun is either simple or aspirated, e. g. mbr, mhhr, where mhr is the simple form, and mhhr the aspirated. 

Nouns in a definite sense are declined with the article. 

The flection of a Gaelic noun is carried on not so much by a change of the termination, as of the last vowel, or of the 
diphthong of the nominative, and by aspirating the initial consonant. 

The Gael have only two declensions. Nouns whose last vowel is a, o, or u, are of the first ; nouns whose last vowel 
is e, or «", are of the second. 


Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite. 

Fear, a man ; thus. 
Sing. PI. 

Norn. Fear, a man. Nam. Fir, or feara, men. 

Gen. Fir, of a man. Gen. Feax, or ieara., of men. 

Dat. Fear, to a mmi. Dat. Fearaibh,* to m£n. 

Voc. Fhir, man. Voc, Fheara, men. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 
Sing. PI. 

Norn. Am fear, the man. Nom. Na fir, the men. 

Gen. An fhir, of the man. Gen. Nam fear, of the men. 

Dat. An 'n f hear, to the man. Dat. Na fearaibh, to the men. 

Example of a Noun Feminine, indefinite, beginning with a Palatal Consonant. 

Cuach, a cup ; fern. 
Sing.. PL 

Nom. Cuach, a cup. Nom. Cuachan, cups. 

Gen. Cuaiche, q/a c«p. Gen. Cuach, q/" cups. 

Dat. Cuaich, to a cup. Dat. Cuachaibh, to cvps. 

Voc. Chuach, cup. Voc. Chuacha, O cups. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 
Sing. PI. 

Nom. A' chuach, the cup. Nom. Na cuachan, the cups. 

Gen. Na cuaiche, of the cup. Gen. Nan cuach, of the cups. 

Dat. An, 'n chuaich, to the cup. Dat. Na cuachaibh, to the cups. 

Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with a Dental. 

Dorus, a door ; mas. 
Sing. PI. 

Nom. Dorus, a door. Nom. Dorsan, doors. 

Gen. Doruis, of a door. Gen. Dorsa, of doors. 

Dat. Dorus, to a door. Dat. Dorsaibh, to doors. 

Voc. Dhoruis, O door. Voc. Dhorsa, doors. 

* The nominative and dative plural of surnames are alike. 



The same Noun declined with the Article. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. An dorus, the door. Norn. Na dorsan, the doors. 

Gen. An doruis, of the door. Gen. Nan dorsa, of the doors. 

Bat. An, 'n dorus, to the door. JDat. Na dorsaibh, to the doors. 

Example of a Feminine Noun, indefinite, beginning with a Dental. 

Teasach, a fever ; fem. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Teasach, a fever. Nom. Teasaichean, yewrs. 

Gen. Teasaiche, of a fever. Gen. Teasach, of fevers. 

Dat. Teasach, to a fever. Dat. Teasaichibh, to fevers. 

Voc. Theasach, fever. Voc. Theasaiche, fevers. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. An teasaich, the fever. Nom. Na teasaichean, ^Aeyeuers, 

Gen. Na. teaLS&iche, of the fever. Gen. 'Nan teasach, of the fevers. 

Dat. An, 'n teasach, to the fever. Dat. Na teasaichibh, to the fevers. 

Note. — L That nouns, definite, beginning with s, and followed by a lingual, insert t between the article, and the gen. 
and dat. singular. 

II. That nouns masc. beginning with a vowel, insert t in the nom. sing.; and riouns fem. insert h in the gen. sing., 
and also in the nom. and dat. pL 

Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with s, and followed by a Vowel. 

Soc, a socket; mas. 
"* Sing. PL 

Nom. Soc, a socket. Nom. Suic, sockets. 

Gen. Suic, of a socket. Gen. Soc, of sockets. 

Dat. Soc, to a socket. Dat. Socaibh, to sockets. 

Voc. Shoe, socket. Voc. Shuic, sockets. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. An soc, the socket. Nom. Na suic, the sockets. 

Gen. An t-suic, of the socket. Gen. Nan soc, of the sockets. 

Dat. An, 'n t-soc, to the socket. Dat. Na socaibh, to the sockets. 

Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with s, and followed by a Lingual. 

Sluagh, people ; mas. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Sluagh, a host. Nom. Sloigh, hosts. 

Gen. Sluaigh, q/" a Aos^ Gen. Hlogh, of hosts. 

Dat. Sluagh, to a host. Dat. S16igh, to hosts. 

Voc. Shluagh, host. Voc. Shloigh, hosts. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. An sluagh, the host. Nom. Na sloigh, the hosts. 

Gen. An t-slnai^h, of the host. Gen. tian slogh, of the hosts. 

Dat. An, 'n t-sluaigh, to the host. Dat. Na sloigh, to the hosts. 

Note. — That nouns masculine, definite, beginning with a vowel, insert t between the article and the 7iom. sing., and h 
between the article and the nom. and dat. pL 

Example of a Noun Masculine, definite, beginning with a Vowel. 

lasg, a fish ; mas. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. An t-iasg, the fish. Nom. Na h-iasgan, the fishes. 

Gen. An eisg, of the fish. Gen. l>i an iasg, of the fishes. 

Dat. An, 'n iasg, to the fish. Dat. Na h-iasgaibh, to the fishes. 

Note. — That feminine nouns, definite, beginning with a vowel, insert h between the article and the gen. sing, and 
the nom. and dat. plural. 





Example of a No«» Feminine, definite, beginning with a Vowel. 
Osag, a breeze ; fem. 

An osag, the breeze. 
Na h-osaig, of the breeze. 
An, 'n osaig, to the breeze. 


Nom. Na h-osagan, the breezes. 
Gen. Nan osag, of the breezes. 
Bat. Na h-osagaibh, to the breezes. 

Bean, a woman, is declined irregularly ; thus, 

Nom. Bean, a woman. 
Gen. Mna, of a woman. 
Dat. Mnaoi, to a woman. 
Vac. Bhean, woman. 

Nom. Mnai, or mnathan, women. 
Gen. Ban, of women. 
Dat. Mnathaibh, to women. 
Voc. Mhnatban, women. 

Bean, declined with the Article. 

A bhean, the woman. 
Na mna, of the woman. 
An, 'n mhnaoi, to the woman. 

Nom. Na mnathan, the women. 
Gen. Nam ban, of the women. 
Dat. Na mnathaibh, to the women. 



General Rule. — The genitive is formed by inserting i after the last vowel of the nominative ; as, slat, fem., gen. slait, 
a rod ; cluaran, masc, gen. cluarain, a thistle. Feminines of one syllable also insert i after the last vowel of the 
noun, and often add e to the last letter ; as, lamh, laimhe, a hand. ^ 

Special Rules. 

Nouns ending in a,* o, or «, have their nom. and gen. alike; Id, mas. gen. Id, a day; cnb, mas. gen. cnb, a nut; 
cim, fame; except bo, cil, brh, which have respectively, boin, coin, bronn, and broinn. 

Nouns in achd, eachd, iochd, rr, have their nom. and gen. alike. Slochd has sluichd in the genitive singular. 

Nouns in adh, of more than one syllable, form their gen. sing, in aidh ; as, martadh, mas. murder, gen. mortaidh ; 
■naomhachadh, mas. sanctifying, naomhachaidh. 

Monosyllables in gh and th form their gender from the nom. by adding a; except agh, xaAs-joy, gen. aigh. 

Dissyllables in each and eann change ea into i ; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Aigeach, Aigich, m. a stallion. 

Cinneach, Cinnich, m. a nation. 

T. ■ IV, 5 Buidhinn, contr. buidhne, f. a 

' \ company. 
Sitheann, Sithinn, contra, sithne, /. venison. 

Dissyllables in ean change ean into ein ; as, 

Monosyllables change 

ea into ei ; as. 




Beinne, /. a hill. 


Ceaird and ceird, m. a tinker. 


Eicb, m. a horse. 


Feill, m. deceit. 


Feirg,' f. wrath. 


Leirg,/. sea. 

Some change ea into t 

; as, 




Brie, m. a trout. 


Cinn, m. a head. 


Cip, m. a last. 


Dris, m. a thorn-bush. 


Fir, m. a man. 


Mill, m. a lump. 


Pris, tn. a bush. 

Some also add e ; as. 




Brice,y. small-pox. 


Circe, f. a hen. 


Glinne, m. a valley. 


Lice, /. ajlag. 




Binnein, m. a pinnacle. 


Cuilein, m. a whelp. 


Ceisdein, m. a sweetheart. 


Guirein, m. a pimple. 


Isein, m. a gosling. 

ables change 

ia into ei; as, 




Beidh, or bidh, 


Ceill, /. judgment. 


Ceir and ciair, m. darkness. 


Cleibh, f. a liamper. 


Cleith, f a harrow. 


Feidh, m. a deer. 


Grein and Greine, /. sun. 

* Dissyllables in a (now written adii) have their fcenilive singular in ai, like the ancitnt Latin. Talla, gen. tallai, a /«///; Lat. aula, 
gf n. aulai : ci\\a, a harbour ; gtn. Cii\A\, &ic. 





Nom. Gen. 

lall, feill, /. a thong. 

lasg, Eisg, m. Jish. 

Liadh, Leidh, f. a ladle. 

Sgian, Sgeine, oi- sgine,/. a knife. 

Sgiath, Sgeith, f. a shield. 

Sliabh, Sleibh, m. a mountain. 

Dia, has Dia and De in the genitive singular. 

Monosyllables in eu change eu into eoi ; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Beul, Beoil, or beil, m, a mouth. 

Deur, Deoir, m. a drop. 

Eun, Eoin, m. a bird. 

Feur, Feoir, m. grass. 

Leus, Leois, m. a fame. 

Meur, Meoir, m. afnger. 

Neul, Neoil, m. a cloud. 

Sgeul, Sgeoil, or sgeil,/. a tale. 
Eug, m. ghost, has feig in the singular. 

Some nouns in eu merely add to the nom. ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Beum, Beuma, m. a blow. 

Ceum, Ceuma and cfeim, m. a step. 

Feum, Feuma and feim, m. need. 

Treud, Treuda, m. a flock. 

Some characterized by eu have the nom. and gen. sing. 
alike; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Beue, Beuc, m. a rod. 

Freumh, Freumh and freimh,y. a root. 

Lend, Lead and le6id, m. breadth. 

Seud, Seud, m. a jewel. 

Some nouns change a into oi ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Cas, Cois, or coise,_/. afoot. 

Clach, Cloich,y. a stone. 

Crig, Criig, or cr6ig,/. a paw. 

Smkg, Sm^ig, or smoig, a pan. 

But, Mac, a son, has Mic. 

Some nouns in ann have a double gender ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Clann, Clainne, or cloinne,/. children. 

Crann, Cr<\inn, or croinn, m. a tree. 

Lann, ^dmne, or loinne,/'. a sword. 

Aghann,/. a pan, has Aighne. 

Monosyllables characterized by a, o, or u, often change a, 
o, V, into ui ; as, 

a into ui. 
Nom. Gen. 

Alld, Uilld, m. a streamlet. 

Allt, Uillt, m. a streamlet. 

Balg, Builg, m. a bag. 

Ball, Buill, m. a member. 

Calg, Cuilg, m. awn. 

Car, Cuir, m. a turn, or twist. 

Cam, Cuirn, m. a cairn. 

Clag, Cluig, m. a bell. 

Fait, Fuilt, m. hair. 

o into ui. 
Bolg, Builg, m. a bag. 

Bonn, Buinn, m. a coin. 

Colg, Cuilg, m. awn. 

Cord, Cilird, m. a rope. 

Folt, Fu^t, m. hair. 




Guib, m. a bird's bill 


Luing, /. a ship. 
Luirg,/. a staff. 
Muill, m. chaff. 


Uird, m. a hammer. 


Puill, m. mire. 


Suinn, m. a hero. 

u into ^i. 


Ciiil, m. a corner. 


Liiis, m. pith. 


Luis, m, an kerb. 


Muilt, m. a wether. 


Tuir, m. a tower. 

Nouns in ebl change ebl into cuil; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Ceol, Ciiiil, m. music. 

Sebl, Siilil, m. a sail. 

Nouns in eag change eag into eig ; as, 








Caileig, /. o young girl. 
Duilleig,y. a leaf. 
Faireig, /. a gland. 
Piseig, /. a kitten. 

Nouns in hg and bn follow the general rule ; as. 








Broig,/. a shoe. 
Croig, /. a paw. 
Smoig,/. a paw. 
Broin, m. food. 
Loin, m. food. 

Some nouns in ua change ua into uai ; as. 




Bruaich,/. an ascent. 


Cuaich,/. a cup. 


Luaidh, m. praise. 


Sluaigh, m. people. 

Others add a to the nominative ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Fuath, Fuatha, m. hatred. 

Some nouns in io lose o in the genitive ; as. 




Ciche, /. a pass. 


Crlche,/. an end 


Lin, m.flax. 


Sil, m. seed. 


Sine, m. a blast. 

Some nouns in io only add a to the nom. ; as, 

Nom. Gen, 

Bior, Biora, m. spit. 

Crios, Criosa, m. a belt. 

Fion, Fiona, m. wine. 

Fios, Fiosa, or fios, m. notice. 

Lios, Liosa, m. a garden. 

Criosd, Christ, is undeclinable. 

The following nouns form their genitive irregularly. 
Nom. Gen. 

Ceathramh, Ceithreimh, m. a quarter. 
Leabaidh, Leapa, or leapach,/. a bed. 
Leanabh, Leinibh, m. a child. 

Piuthair, Peathar, /. a szs<er. 

Talamh, Talmhainn,/. land. 



General Rule. — Nouns masculine have their dat. and mm. sing, alike ; nouns feminine have their dat. like the gen. 


Nom. Dat. Norn. Gen. Dat. 

Cabar, Cabar, a deer's horn. Teasach, Teasaich, Teasaich, a fever. 

Dorus, Dorus, a door. Misneach, Misnich, Misnich, courage. 

Tobar, Tobar, a tvell. Osag, Osaig, Osaig, a blast of wind. 

Special Rules for the Dative case of Nouns Feminine.— V/\ien the genitive is formed by contraction, the dat. is like 

the nom. J 

> Nom. Gen. Dat. 

Sitheann, Sithne, Sitheann, /. venison. 

Piuthair, Peathar, Piuthair, /. sister. 

Monosyllables drop e from the genitive. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. 

Cluas, ' Cluaise, Cluais, f. an ear. 

Lamh, Lairahe, Laimh, /. a hand. 

In Gaelic there is no Accusative differing from the Nominative. 

The vocative singular of masculine monosyllables is the genitive aspirated. 

Nom. Gen. Voc. 

Cik, Coin, Choin, m. a dog. 

Bard, Baird, Bhaird, m. a bard. 

Br6n, Broin, Bhroin, m. grief. 

Fleasgach, Fleasgaich, Fhleasgaich, a youth. 

Nouns masculine beginning with a vowel have their vocative and genitive alike. 

Nom. pen. ,Voc. 

Ord, Uird, Uird, m. a hammer. 

Amadan, Amadain, Amadain, m. a fool. 

Oglach, Oglaich, Oglaich, m. a youth. 

Feminine nouns form their vocative by aspirating the nominative ; as, 

Nom. Voc. 

Cluas, Chluas, /. ear. 

; Gealach, Ghealach, /. nurse. 

Grian, ' Ghrian, /. sun. 


General Rule for the Nominative. — The nominative plural is formed from the nominative singular, by adding an ;' 
as, sliseag, /. a slice, n. pi. sliseagan ; srad,/. o spark, n. pi. sradan ; spiorad, m. a spirit, n. pi, spioradan ; rioghachd,/. 
a kingdom, n. pi. rioghachdan; geug, f. a branch, n. pi. geugan. 

Special Rules. — Many dissyllables in ach add ean f to the 
gen. sing. ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Clirsach,/. a harp, Clarsaich, Clarsaichean. 

Culiach, m. a boar, CuUaich, Cullaichean. 

Deudach,/. a jaw, Deudaich, Deudaichean, 

MuUach, m. a top, MuUaich, Mullaichean. 

Some masculines in ach have their nom. pi. like the gen. 
sing. ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Oglach, a youth, Oglaich, Oglaich. 
Fear, m. a man, Fir, Fir. 

Nouns in ar sometimes transpose the final letter and add 
iche, or ichean ; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Tohar, m. a well, Tobraichean. 
Leabhar, m. a book, Leabhraichean. 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Bata, m. a staff, has Batachan and bataicheau,. 
La, m. a day, Laithe, laithean, and lathachan. 

Leabaidh, /. a bed, Leapaichean. 
Piuthair, /. a sister, Peathraichean. 
Lann,y. enclosure, Lanndaicheau. 

Masculine monosyllables in ea, which change ea into i, 
in the gen. sing, havetlreir gen. sing, and alike ; as, 
Nom. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Fear, a man. Fir, Fir. 

Meall, a lump. Mill, Mill. 

Ceann, m. head. Cinn, Cinn. 

Some nouns in I and nn have their nom. in tan ; on and 
oin have tean ; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Reul, m. a star, Reultan. 

Seul, m. a seal, Seu1>an. 

* In forming the nominative plural of these and otlier words, some writers only add a to the nominative singular ; and sevenil Doun? 
are made to end in idh, in the nominative pliiral; as, beann, beanntaidh; bile, biiidh ; coille, colli tidh. 
■J- Some writers only add c. _ _ 



Nom. pi. 

Beanntan and beanntaidh. 
f Gleanntan, glinn, and 
\ gleanntaidh. 
Sliabh, a Tnountain, has Sleibhte, or sleibhtean. 
Sabhul, m. a ham, ■ Saibhlean. 

Nom. sing. 

Beann,y. a hill, 

Gleann, m. a valley, 

Lionn, m. beer, 
Lon, m. a meadow, 
M6in, f. peat. 

Nom. sing. 

But, Dia, a god, has 

Sluagh, m. people, 
Sgian, _/". a knife, 
Bo,y. a cow, 
Gniomh, m. work, 
Lion, m.flax, has 

Linn, m. a pool, has 

Nom. pi. 

Dee and diathan. 


Sginichean and sgeinichean . 



Liontan and liontaichean. 
( Linnte, linntean, linnichean, 
I and linntichean. 


Monosyllables have their gen. pi. hke the nom. sing. ; as, 

Nom. sing. 

Ge)i. pi 

Bard, m. a poet. 


Breug, m. a lie. 


Cat, m. a cat, 


Ceard, m. a tinker. 


Feart, m. a quality, 


Sloe, m. a pit, 


Some trisyllables have the gen. pi. like the nom. sing. ; as. 

Nom. sing. Gen. pi. 

Freiceadan, m. a guard, Freiceadan. 

TeampuUach, m. a churchman, Teampullach. 

Dissyllables having ean in the nom. pi. have ean also in 
the gen. pi. ; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. and ge7i. pi. 

Leabaidh,y. a bed, Leapaichean. 

Leabhar, m. a book, Leabhraichean. 

Tobar, m. a well, Tobraichean. 

Nom. sing. 
Bean,y. a woman, 
Caor,y. a sheep. 

A few nouns form their genitives irregularly ; as. 

Gen. pi. 

Nom, sing. 
Cu, m. a dog, 
Sluagh, m. people, 

Gen. pi. 
Slogh and sluagh. 


The dative plural ends in aibh, or ibh, and is formed from the nominative singular, or plural : thus, 

Monosyllables commonly add aibh to the 7wm. sing. ; as. 

Nom. sing. 
Bard, m. a bard, 
Crann, m. a tree, 
Cruach,/. a heap, 
Feart, m. a virtue. 
Mac, m. a son, 
Ord, m. a hammer. 

Dat. pi. 

If the nom. pi. end in fa or tan, these are changed into 
aibh; as. 

Nom. sing. 
Beann,/. hill, 
Cuan, m. sea. 

Nom. pi. 
Cuanta, or -an, 

Dat. pi. 

If the nom. pi. end in e or ean, these terminations are 
changed into ibh ; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Dat. pi. 

MuUach, m. a top, Mullaichean, MuUaichibh. 

Sliabh, n». a At//, Sleibhte, or -ean, Sleibhtibh. 

Teasach./.a/etier, Teasaichean, Teasaichibh. 

Trisyllables in ch have their dat. and 7wm. pi. alike; 

Nom. sing, 
Comhairleach, m. a counsellor, 

Nom. and Dat. pi. 

Monosyllables in eadk, iadh, and eagh, add aibh to the 
nom, sing, ; but, 

Nom. sing. Dat. pi, 

Fiadh, m. deer, has Feidh. 

Sluagh, m, people, has Sloigh. 


Monosyllables in amh and ath form their dat. pi. in aibh 

Nom. sing. 

Dat. pi. 

Lamh,y. a hand, 


Rarah, jn. an oar. 


Flath, m. a prince. 


Sgiath,/. a wing. 


But, Damh, m. an ox. 



Bean,y. a woman, has Mnathaibh. 


The vocative plural is commonly the aspirated form of the nominative plural ; as, 

Nom. plur. 
Beannta, beanntan, hills, 
Dorsa, dorsan, doors. 

Voc. plur. 
Bheannta, or bheanntan, 
Dhorsa, or dhorsan. 

Monosyllables often add a to the aspirated form of the nominative singular ; as, 

Nom. sing. 
Bard, m. a poet, 
Cluas,y". an ear. 

Asp. form. 

Voc. plur, 



Bean has mhnathan in the vocative plural ; as, 4|Bmh, an ox, dhaimh ; sluagh, people, shloigh, and shluagh. 




Under this declension may be classed all those nouns whose characteristic or last vowel is i. 


Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with cl 

Cladhair, a coward. 
Cladhair, a cmcard. Nom 

Cladhair, of a coward. Gen. 

Cladhair, to a coward. Dat. 

Chladhair, coward. Voc. 

Cladhairean, cowards. 
Cladhair, of cowards. 
Cladhairibh, to cowards. 
Chladhaire, cowards. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 

Nom. An cladhair, the coward. 

A' chladhair, of the coward. 
An, 'n chladhair, to the coward. 



Nom. Na cladhairean, the cmvards. 
Gen. Nan cladhair, of the cowards. 
Dat. Na cladhairibh, to the coivards. 

' Example of a Feminine Monosyllable, indefinite, beginning with a Vowel. 

Aire, fern, an ark. 


Nom. Aire, an ark. 
Gen. Airce, of an ark. 
Dat. Aire, to an ark. 
Voc. Aire, ark. 




Aircean, arks. 
Aire, of arks. 
Aircibh, to arks. 
Airce, arks. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 


An aire, the ark. 
Na h-airc, of the ark. 
An, 'n aire, to the ark. 

Nam. Na h-aircean, the arks. 
Gen. Nan aire, of the arks. 
Dat. Na h-aircibh, to the arks. 

Example of a Noun Feminine, indefinite, beginning with s, followed by a Vowel. 

Sftil, fern, an eye. 




Silil, an eye. 


Sililean, eyes. 


Sill and sula, of an eye. 


Sul, of eyes. 


Sid], to an eye. 


Suilibh, to eyes 


Shilil, eye. 


Shiiil, Oeyes. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 

Nom. An t-silil, the eye. 
Gen. Na sill, of the eye. 
Dat. An, 'n t-sflil, to the eye. 

Nom. Na sililean, the eyes. 
Gen. Nan sill, of the eyes. 
Dat. Na sililibh, to the eyes. 



General Rules. — I. Dissyllables and trisyllables form their 
yen. like the nom. ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. 

Aimsir, f. weather, Aimsir. 

Cealgair, m. a deceiver, Cealgair. 

Cladhair, m. a coward, Cladhair. 

Gealtair, m. a coward, Gealtair. 

Breabadair, m. a loeaver, Brcabadair. 

U. Monosyllables add c to the nominative ; as, 

Nom. sing. 
Aintn, m. a name, 

Gen. sing. 

Nom. sing. 

Gen. sing. 

Aire, m. an ark. 


Clais,/. a furrow. 


Tuil,/. a flood. 


Special Rules for the Genitive.- 

—I. Some 1 

change ail into alack ; as. 



Dail,/". a meadow. 


Sail, Jr. a beam, 


L^ir,/. a mare, 


But, Dkil,/. delay. 



Skil, m. brine, 




Some monosyllables in ui have their gen. and nom. alike ; 

Cruit,_/. a harp, 
Smuid, m. smoke, 
Truid, a starling, 
Cuid, y. part, 
But, Muirj^". sea, 
Fuil,/, blood, 
Druim,y. ridge, 
SiiiljJ". an eye. 



Cuid and codach. 

Fala and Fola. 

Feminines in oi drop the subjunctive, and add a; as. 

Nom. sing. 
Febi\, flesh, 
Sroin,y. a nose, 
Tbin,f. bottom. 

Gen. sing. 


Sroua, or sr6ine. 


Feminine dissyllables in air change air into rack ; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Cathair,y. a city, Cathrach. 

Lasair,y. aflame, Lasrach. 

Machair,y. a pfai», Machrach. 

Nathairy. a serpent, Nathrach. 

So also, Staidhir,y. a sfatr, has Staidhreach. 

Faighir,y. a fair, has Faighreach. 

Some dissyllables, characterized by the diphthong at, 
lose, the subjunctive in the genitive ; as. 

Athair, m. a father, 
Brathair, m. brother, 
Mathair, m. mother, 
Piuthair,y. sister, has 

Peathar and piuthair. 

Feminine dissyllables in eir sometimes form their genitive 
by adding e to the nominative, and sometimes by changing 
eir of the nominative in earach ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. 

Dinneir,y. dinner, Dinneire, or dinnearach. 

Inneir,y. dung, Inneire, or innearach. 

Suipeir,y. supper, Suipeire, or suipearach. 

Ni, righ, brtgh, sith, re, te, have their genitive and nomi- 
native alike. 

The following nouns form their genitives irregularly : — 

Nom. sing. 
Abhainn,y. a river, 
Aghann,y. a pan, 
Banais,y. a wedding, 
Coluinn,y. a body, 
Diithaich,y. a country, 
Fiacail,y. a tooth, 
Gamhuinn, m. a steer, 
Gualainn,y. shoulder, 
Madainn,y. morning, 
Obair, f. work, 
Uilinn,y. elbow, 

Gen. sing. 
Colla, colna. 
Dilthcha and diicha. 
Fiacla UTid fiacaiL 

Guaille and guailne. 
Uille and uilne. 

The dative singular is like the nominative. 

The vocative singular is the nominative aspirated ; and in nouns beginning with a vowel it is the same as the nominative. 



General Rule. — The nominative plural is formed from the nominative singular by adding ean ; as, cealgair, m. a 
deceiver, nom. pi. cealgairean ; cldrsair, m. a harper, nom, pi. clarsairean. 

Special Rules. — Some nouns, which form their gen. sing. 
by contraction, retain the contraction in the nom. pi. ; as, 

Nom. sing. 
Banais, f. 
Duthaich, f. 
Gamhuinn, m. 
Gualainn, /. 
Namhaid, m. 

Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Aibhne, Aibhnichean and aibhnean. 

Aighne, Aighnichean. 

Bainse, Bainsean. 

Duthcha, Duchan and duchannan. 

Fiacla, Fiaclan. 

Gamhna, Gamhnan. 

Guaille, Guaillean. 

Maidne, Maidnean. 

Naimhde, Naimhdean. 
Uille and uillne, Uillean and uilnean. 

Feminine nouns in air change ach of the gen. sing, into 
aich, and add ean; as, 

Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Cathrach, Cathraichean. 

Lasrach, Lasraichean. 

Measrach, Measraichean. 

Nathrach, Nathraichean. 

Nom. sing. 
Cathair,y seat, 
Lasair, f. flame, 
Measair,y. tub, 
Nathair,y. serpent, 

Athair, m. father, 
Mathair, y. mother, 
Uisge, m. water, 





Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Cridhe, m. heart, Cridheachan, 

Cuid, f. part, Codaichean. 

Nouns in eile and ein often add tean; as, 

Nom. sing, Nom. pi. 

Feil,y. a kilt, Feiltean. 

Lein,y. a shirt, Leintean. 

Monosyllables in ail and aile add ean to the 7iom. sing. ; as. 

Nom. pi. 
Dailthean and dailean. 

Nom. sing. 
Fail,y. a ring, 
Dkil,y. delay, 
Caile,y. a girl, 
Siil,y. a heel, has 
Sail,y. a beam, has 
Dail, y. a meadow, has 

Some nouns in aile, ain, and others, add tean to the 
nom. sing.; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Bail, m. a town, Bailtean. 

Smuain, m. a thought, Smuaintean. 

Smaoin, m. a thought, Smaointean. 

Aithne, y. a precepf, Aithntean. 

Coille,y. a wood, Coilltean. 



i>onie nouns in uil aoad uille add ean to the nom. sing. ; as, 

Norn. sing. Nom. pi. 

iiiu\,f. an eye, Sililean. 

u .„ , , , ( Buillean, builleachan, and 

Umlh, a blow, has { buille^nn^. 

The following nouns in uil add lean for the nom. pi. irre- 
gularly; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Ciiil, m. a comer, Cililtean. 

Dilil,/! element, Duiltean. 

Nom. sing. 
Tuil,/. a flood. 

Nom. pi. 

The following nouns form their nom. pi. irregularly ; as, 

Nom. sing. 

Cliamhuinn, m. a son-in-law, Cleamhna and cliamhnan. 

Duine, m. a man, Daoine. 

Fear, m. a man, Fir and feara. 

Ni, m. a thing, Nithe and nitheannan. 

Righ, m. a king, Righre and righrean. 


Many words of one or more syllables have their genitive 
plural like the nom. sing, and pi. ; as, 

Nom. pi. 

i Nithe, 

( Nitheannan, 

Nom. sing. 
. Ni, »«. o thing. 

Gen. pi. 


Righ, m. a king. 


Cladhair, 7». a coward, 

( Righre, 




< Nithe, 

(, Nitheannan. 
C Righ, 

< Righre, 

(^ Righrean. 
I Cladhair, 

< Cladhaire, 

i_ Cladhairean. 

Feminine polysyllables have commonly their nom. and 
gen. pi. alike ; as, 

Nom. pi. 

Cridheachan, hearts, 

Linntean, ) , 

Linntichean, \ ?""'*' 
Aibhnean, ) 

Aibhnichean, } "''^"' 

Dull, f. an element, has Dul. 

Sikil, an eye, has Sikl. 

Gen. pi. 
( Linntean, 
I Linntichean. 
t Aibhnean, 
\ Aibhnichean. 


The dative plural is formed from the nominative plural by changing the last vowel or syllable into ibh ; as. 

Nom. pi. 

Dat. pi. 

Bailtean, towns, 


Ciiiltean, comers, 


Feiltean, kilts. 


Nom. pi. 
Righre, kings, 
Fiaclan, teeth,- 


The vocative plural is the aspirated form of the nominative plural ; as, 

Nom. pi. 

Coillte, or Coilltean, 
Cealgaire, or Cealgairean, 

Voc. pi. 
Choillte, or Choilltean. 
Chealgaire, or Chealgairean. 

Dat. pi. 




The Gaelic Langtiage has three Methods of Distinguishing the Sex; viz. 
I. By different Words. 








( Nighean no 
I maighdeann, 



























Brathair athar. 

Piuthair athar. 





Fear bainnse. 

Bean bainnse. 



Brathair bochd, 

Cailleach dubh. 

Brathair mathar 

Piuthair mathar 











II. E 

ly prefixing ban or bain to nouns feminine 

; as, 























III. 1 

iy putting an adjective after the substanti 

ve; as. 




n boirionn. 

Uan firion 


Uan boir 





An adjective is a word which denotes some quality belonging to the substantive ; as, duine math, a good man ; 
tigk mbr, a large house. 

In Gaelic, the adjective is varied on account of gender, number, and case. 

The changes which an adjective undergoes in the course of flection are twofold : first, by aspirating the initial con- 
tonant ; and, secondly, by changing the termination. 

Adjectives, like substantives, are either of the first or second declension. 

Adjectives which are characterized by a, o, or u, are of the first declension. 

Adjectives characterized by i, are of the second. 


Marbh, dead. 





Masc. and Fern. 

Norn. Marbh, 



Gen. Mhairbh, 



Bat. Marbh, 



Voc. Mhairbh. 






The initial consonant, when it admits of aspiration, is aspirated for the feminine gender, and terminates like the 
masculine; as, mhr, m. mhor,fem. great; farm, m. fhann, fern, weak; ceart, m. cheart, fern, right. 

The oblique cases of each gender are formed like those nouns of the first declension, and follow the same rules. 


In general, the genitive singular feminine is formed from the genitive singular masculine by throwing aside the aspirate 
of the initial consonant ; and monosyllables, after this change, commonly add e. 
If the noun masculine ends in e, .that vowel is retained throughout. 
The learner may derive some help from the following table : — 

Nom. sing. mas. 

Nom. sing. fern. 

Gen. sing. mas. 

Gen. sing.fem. 

Bkn, pale. 




Bochd, poor. 








Buan, lasting. 




Cam, crooked, 




Caomh, mild, 




Ceart, right. 


Cheairt, cheirt. 

CeaJrte aiid ceirte, 

Crion, little. 




Daor, dear. 




Dubh, black. 




Fann, ueak. 




Gann, scanty. 




Gearr, shoot. 




Goirt, sour. 




Marbh, dead. 




M6r, great. 




Pronn, pulverised, 




Saor, free. 




in all change a into oi in the genitive masculine and feminine. 

Nom. sing. mas. 

Nom. sing. fern. 

Gen. sing, mas. 

Gen. sing.fem. 

Dall, blind. 




Mali, slow, 






Monosyllables in om, onn, orb, orm, change o into ui ; as, 

Nom. sing. mas. 
Crom, crooked, 
Lorn, bare, 
Trom, heavy, 
Borb, Jierce, 
Gorm, blue, 

Nom. sing. fern. 

Gen. sing. mas. 

Gen. sing. fern. 

Monosyllables in ea, eu, ia, change these diphthongs into ei in the genitive singular ; as, 

Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing. fern. Gen. sing. mas. 

Dearg, red, Dhearg, Dheirg, 

Deas, ready, Dheas, Dheis, 

Geur, sharp, Gheur, Gheir, 

Liath, grey-haired, Liath, Leith, 

Some change ea into i ; as, 

Breac, spotted, Bhreac, Bhric, 

Geal, white, Gheal, • Ghil, 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel have no initial change ; as, 

Nom. sing. mas. 
A^it, joyful, 
Aosda, old, 
Ur, fresh. 

Nom. sing. fern. 

Gen. sing. mas. 

Adjectives ending with a diphthong have no change in the termination ; as, 
Beo, alive, Bheo, Bheo, 

Gen. sing. fem. 


Gen. sing. fem. 



Adjectives of two syllables, or more than two, do not commonly add to the genitive singular masculine ; as. 

Nom. sing, mas, 
Cinnteach, sure, 
Eagallach, fearful, 
Maiseach, handsome, 
Bodhar, deaf, has 
Odhar, sallow, has 

Nom. sing. fem. 


Gen. sing. mas. 

Gen. sing. fem. 

General Rule. — The dative singular masculine, without the article, as that of substantives, is like the nominative 
singular ; and the dative singular feminine is like the genitive masculine ; as, 

Nom. sing. mas. 

Gen. sing. fem. 

Dat. sing. mas. 

Dat. sing. fem. 

Bodhar, deaf. 




Caol, small. 




Donn, brown. 




Geal, white. 




Trom, heavy. 




Uasal, noble. 


• Uasal, 


The vocative singular masculine of adjectives, as that of substantives, is like the genitive singular masculine ; and the 
vocative singular feminine is like the nominative singular feminine ; as. 

Nom. sing. fem. 

Gen. sing. mas. 

Voc. sing. mas. 

Voc. sing. fem. 

BhJin, pale. 




Bheag, little. 




Bhodhar, deaf. 




Dhall, blind. 




Gheal, white, 

■ Ghil, 



Throm, heavy. 

' Thruim, 



Truagh, wretched. 


' Thruaigh, 



A monosyllabic adjective adds a to the nominative singular masculine ; as, nom. sing, mas, mbr, great, pi. m6ra. 
Adjectives of more than one syllable have their plural cases like the nominative singular; as, nom, sing. br6nach, sor- 
rowful, pi. bronach; cinnteach, sure, pi. cinnteach. 



These adjectives are characterized by i, and they form their cases like substantives of the second declension. 

Some adjectives of two syllables, of both declensions, are contracted in the plural; as, reamhara, contr. xewmhra., fat ; 
milise, contr. milse, sweet. 

The initial form of the adjective depends, (1) on the gender of its noun, (2) on its termination, (3) on its sense being 
definite or indefinite.* 

Example of an Adjective with a Masculine Substantive, indefinite, of the First Declension. 

Fear marbh. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Fear marbh, a dead man, Nom. Fir mharbha, dead men. 

Gen. Fir mhairbh, q/a dead man, Gen. Fheara marbha, q/" dead mere. 

Dat. Fear marbh, to a dead man. Dat. Fhearaibh marbha, to dead men. 

Voc. Fhir mhairbh, dead man. Vac, Fheara marbha, dead men. 

The same Words declined with the Article. 

Sing. PI. 

Nom. Am feai marbh, the dead man, Nom. Na fhir mharbha, the dead men. 

Gen. An fhir mhairbh, of the dead man, Gen. Nam fear marbha, of the dead men. 

Vat. An, 'n fhear mharbh, to the dead man, Dat. Na fearaibh marbha, to the dead men. 

Example of a Noun Feminine and Adjective of the First Declension, indefinite. 

Beann mh6r. 
Sing. PI. 

Nom. Beann mhor, a high hill, Nom. Beanntan mora, high hills. 

Gen. Beinne raone, of a high hill. Gen. Beann mora., of high hills. 

Dat. Beinn mhoire, to a high hill, Dat. Beanntaibh mora, to high hills. , 

Voc. Bheann mh6r, high hill, Voc. Bheannta mora, high hills. 

The same Words declined with the Article. 

Sing. PL 

Nom, A bheann mhor, the high hill, Nom. Na beanntan mora, the high hills. 

Gen. Na beinne m6ire, of the high hill. Gen. Nam beann mora, of the high hills. 

Dat. An, 'n bheinn mhoir, to the high hill, Dat. Na beanntaibh mora, to the high hills. 

Rule. — A substantive preceded by its adjective, is aspirated, and both are declined as one word ; as, 

Sg6r-bheann, s.f. a rocky hill. 


Sing. PL 

Nom. Sg6r-bheann, Nom. Sg6r-bheanntan. 

Gen. Sg6r-bheinn, Gen. Sgor-bheann. 

Dat. Sg6r-bheinn, Dat. Sg6r-bheanntaibh. 

Voc. Sg6r-bheann, Voc. Sg6r-bheannta. 

The same Noun with the Article. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. An sg6r-bheann, Nom. Na sg6r-bheantan. 

Gen. Na sg6r-bheinne. Gen. Nan sgbr-bheann. 

Dat. An, 'an sgdr-bheinn, Dat. Na sg6r-bheanntaibh. 


In Gaelic there are three degrees or states of comparison ; the Positive, Comparative, and Superlative. 
The Positive merely expresses the quality ; as, tha 'n dath so dearg, this colour is red. 
The Comparative enlarges or diminishes the quality ; as, is e so dath is deirge, this is the redder colour. 
The Superlative expresses the quality of an object in the highest degree ; as, is e so an dath is deirge dhiubh uile, 
this is the reddest colour of them all. 

* If a substantive feminine ends in n, and its adjective begins with d, there is no initial change in the adjective ; as, cailinn dubh, 
ailirm donn. 





The comparative of monosyllables is commonly like the genitive singular feminine, and is generally followed by na* 

Bin, ybir, 
Borb, ^fierce, 
Buan, lasting. 
Cam, crooked, 
Caomh, mild, 
Ceart, right, 
Crion, little, 
Crom, crooked, 
Daor, dear, 
Dearg, red, 
Deas, ready, 

Gen. sing. fern. 

Positive. Gen. sing. fern. 

Cealgach, deceitful, Cealgaich, 
Cinnteach, sure, Cinntich, 














The following adjectives are contracted in the comparative ; as. 

Bodhar, deaf, 
Domhainn, deep. 


If the positive be characterized by i, th? comparative is formed by adding e ; as. 


Banail, modest, 
Caomhail, kind. 


Positive. Gen. sing. fern. 
Donn, brown, Duinne, 


Dubh, black. 



Fann, weak. 



Geal, white, 



Gorm, blue, 



Lag, weak. 



Leath, giey, 



Lom, bare. 



Mall, slow. 



Marbh, dead, 



Trom, heavy, 



adding e to the genitive singular feminine ; as. 

Ciontach, guilty. 

Gen. sing. fern. 


Maiseach, handsome 

, Maisich, 


Boidheach, pretty. 


Odhar, sallow, 


by adding e ; as. 

Caoimhneil, kind. 


L^idir, strong. 


If the positive end in o or uidhe, the positive and comparative are alike; as, beo, lively, comp. beo; buidhe, 
yellow, comp. buidhe. 


The superlative is like the comparative, and is followed by the preposition do or dhe, either simple, or compounded 
with a pronoun. 

Ro,f.or, and sdr, put before an adjective, answer respectively to the English very, truly, exceedingly. They always 
throw the adjective into the aspirated form; as, ro mhath, very good; fior mhath, truly good ; s^r mhath, exceeding good. 

Comparatives and superlatives undergo no change in the termination. 


Lugha, little, less, least. 
Ckra, cairdiche, akin, more akin, most akin. 
Dorra, difficult, more difficult, most difficult, 
Fhaisge, fhaigse, near, nearer, nearest. 
Fhoisge, fhoigse, near, nearer, nearest. 
Fhasa, easy, easier, easiest. 
Giorra, short, shorter, shortest. 
Annsa, ionnsa, dear, dearer, dearest. 
Leatha, "J 

Leithne, V broad, broader, broadest. 
Lithne, } 

Fearr, f hearr, good, better, best. 
Mo, great, greater, greatest. 
Miosa, bad, worse, worst. 
Teoithe, hot, hotter, hottest. 
Docha, dear, dearer, dearest. 

• Tliere is a double comparative, having the nature of botli a substantive and adjective : it is formed from the comparative by changing 
e into id; as, teoithe, hotter, teolhid. Every adjective does not admit of tliis form of comparison. 






Cara, cairdiche, 




Fhaisge, fhaigse. 


Fhoisge, fhoigse. 



Gearr, goirrid, 



Annsa, ionnsa. 

( Leatha, 

Lea than. 

< Leithne, 

f. Lithne, 

Math, maith. 

Fearr, fhearr. 











A Pronoun is a word put instead of a noun, to prevent the too frequent repetition thereof; as, tha Dia mbr; tha e 
sona ; tha e grasmhor ; tha e naomh. 

There are six kinds of pronouns ; viz. the Personal, the Relative, the Adjective, the Interrogative, the Indefinite, and 
the Compound pronouns. 


There are four personal pronouns; they admit of Person, Gender, Number, and of a Simple and Emphatic form. A 
personal pronoun is thrown into an emphatic form by the addition of sa, or san, se, ne, to the simple form. 


Mi, mhi, /, the first person, "J Sinn, we, the first person 

Tu,* thu, thou, the second person, f c„„„7 Sibh,t you, the second person, > 

E, se, he, ^ ^|^^ ^j^;^^ r«.r=nn t ' ^^^' ^'*'^' ^^^V' ^^^ third person, 3 


I, se. he, ) j.j^g ^jjjj.^ person, 
, SI, she, ) ^ 

Mise, mhise, /, the first person, "J Sinne, we, the first person, "^ 

Tusa, thusa, thou, the second person, f „. , Sibhse, you, the second person, > Plural. 

Esa, esan, he, ) .u .i,- j 4 ' ladsa, iadsan, they, the third person, * 

Ise, — she, j J 

The forms of the personal pronoun governed by a transitive verb are. 

Simple form. Emph.form. Simple form. 

Mi, Mise, me, "J Sinn, Sinne, us, "i 

Thu, Thusa, thee, f Singular. Sibh, Sibhse, you, V Plural. 

E, Esan, him., T lad, Iadsan, them, ) 

I, Ise, her, J 

Note. — That fein when added to a personal pronoun, is equivalent to the Latin syllabic adjection met, English self, 
or selves ; mi fein, or mi fhein, myself; mise fein, my own self. 

Thu fein, or thu fhfein, thyself; thusa fein, thy own self. 

E fein, or e fhein, himself; esan fein, his own self. 

I fein, or i fhein, herself; ise fein, her own self. 

Sinn fein, or sinn fhein, ourselves; sinne fein, our own selves. 

Sibh fein, or sibh fh^in, yourselves ; sibhse fein, your own selves. 

lad fein, or iad fhein, themselves ; iadsa fein, themselves. 

Gender has respect only to the third person singular of the pronouns, c, i. E is masculine, i is feminine. There is 
no neuter gender in Gaelic, as has been already observed. 


There are three relative pronouns, rumt. a, who, which; gen. and dat. an; nach, who not, which not, that not; na, 
that which. 

The adjective pronouns may be subdivided into the Possessive, the Demonstrative, and the Distributive. 
I. The Possessive Pronouns are, 

Mo, my, 1 Ar, our, 1 

Do, thy, V Singular. Bhur, or ur, you, > Plural. 

A, her, j An, or am, their, ) 

These pronouns never have the emphatic syllable subjoined, like the personal pronouns ; but when they agree with a 
substantive, the emphatic form is expressed as follows : 

Simpleform. Emph.form. Simpleform. Emph.form. 

Mo cheann. Mo cheann-sa, "1 Ar ceann, Ar ceann-ne, ~k 

Do cheann. Do cheann-sa, > Singular. Bhur, or ur ceann, Bhur, or ur ceann-sa. > Plural. 

A cheann, A cheann-san, j AnJ ceann. An ceann-san. ) 

* The personal pronoun tu, thu, or thttsa, is used in addressing our equals and our inferiors;- and, what is remarkable, in our addresses 
to the Supreme Being. 

f Sibh, or tibhte, is commonly used when we address our superiors in age or in rank ; yet the second personal pronoun is beautiftiUy 
applied to majesty, and to people of very high rank. 

I Am is used before words beginning with a labial not aspirated ; an is used before all other consonants, and before words begin- 
ning with a vowel. 



If the substantive be followed by an adjective, the emphatic adjection is put after the adjective only; and if it be fol- 
lowed by more adjectives than one, the adjection is put after the last; as, 

Do ghniiis bh6idheach-sa , thy pretty face. 

Do larah bhbidheach gheal-sa, thy pretty white hand. 

Do phiuthair gaoil-sa, thy beloved sister. 

Before a vowel or/ aspirated, mo and do are written with an apostrophe ; as, m' athair, my father ; d' ainm, thy name. 

II. The Demonstrative Pronouns are three, so, sin, sud or ud; so, this; sin, that; sud* or ud, yon, yonder. 

III. The Distributive Pronouns are, gach, each, every ; gach uile, contracted chuile, or h-uile, every ; a cheile, each 


The interrogative pronouns are, co ? who ? cia ? which ? ciod ? what ? and nach, which is used when a question is 
put in a negative form. 


The indefinite pronouns express their subjects in a general manner ; the following are of this description : 

Cach, the rest, Cia b' e, whoever. 

some, Cia b' e air bith, whoever. 


Cuid eile, som£ others, 

Eigin, some, 

Eile, other. 

Co air bith, whoever. 
Ciod air bith, whatever. 


The personal pronouns in Gaelic are often found combined with prepositions, which generally govern different 
cases ; and, in that state, they form a part of speech which may be termed Compound Pronouns. The prepositions which 
are capable of being thus united, are the following : aig or ag, at ; air, on ; ann, in ; as, out of; de, off; do, to ; eadar, 
between; fo, fodha, or fuidh, ureder; gu,till; le, with; mu, about ; o or ua., from; ri, to; roimh, before; thar, over;- 
troimh, through. The syllabic adjections, as has been said, throw the pronouns into the emphatic form. 

AG, or 


r, AT. 









Agam-sa, at me. 

Againn-ne, at us. 

1st pers. 

Orm-sa, on me, 

Oirnn-ne, on us. 

2d pers. 

Agad-sa, at thee. 

Agaibh-se, at you. 

2d pers. 

Ort-sa, on thee. 

Oirbh-se, on you. 

3d pers. 

( Aige-se, at him, 
\ Aice-se, at her. 

Aca-sa, at them. 

( Air-san, on him. 

Orra-san, on them. 

3d pers. 

< Oirre-se, on her, 

(. Orra-sa, on her. 






Singular. Plural. 

Annam-sa, in me, Annainn-ne, in us. 

Annad-sa, in thee, Annaibh-se, in you. 

i Ann-sa, in him, Annta-sa, in them. 

\ Innte-se, in her. 

DE, OF, or OFF. 

Dhiom-sa, off me, 
Dhiot-sa, off thee, 
i Dheth-se, off him, 
I Dhi-se, off her. 

Dhinn-ne, off us. 
Dhibh-se, off you. 
Dhiubh-san, cff them. 


No Singular. Plural. 

1st. Eadarainn-ne, between us. 
2d. Edaraibh-se, between you. 
3d. Eatorra-san, between them. 



GU, TO. 

H-ugam-sa, to me, 
H-ugad-sa,t to thee, 
y H-uige-san, to him, 

I H-uice-sa, to her. 

H-ugainn-ne, to us. 
H-ugaibh-se, to you. 
H-uca-san, to them. 


Singular. Plural. 

1st. Asam-sa, 0M< o/jne, Asainn-ne, out q/" us. 

2d. Asa,d-sa., out of thee, Asa\hh-se, out of you. 

oi ^ As-sslh, otct of him, Asdn-san, out of them. 

I Aisde-se, out of her. 

DO, TO. 




Dhomh-sa, to me. 

Dhuinn-ne, to us. 


Dhuit-se, to thee. 

Dhuibh-se, to you. 


Dha-san, to him. 

Dhoibh-san, to them. 

Dhi-se, to her. 





FO, FODHA, or FUIDH, under. 


Fodham-sa, under me, 
Fodhad-sa, under thee, 
Fodha-sa, under him, 
Fuidhpe-se, under her. 


Fodhainn-ne, under us. 
Fodhaibh-se, under you. 
Fodhpa-san, under them. 



Leam-sa, with me, 

Leat-sa, with thee, 
i Leis-san, with him, 
I Leatha-sa, with her. 


Leinn-ne, with us. 
Leibh-se, with you. 
Leo-san, with them. 

* Sad is perhaps a contracted form of is ud, yonder is, or are. 

■\ H-ugad, and h-ugaibh are often u»ed in the sense of here is at you, beware, take care. 




Singular. Plural. 

1st. \Jma.m-sa, about me, Umainn-ne, atouf «s. 
2d. Umad-sa, about thee, Umaibh-se, about you. 
o J { Uime-se, about him, Umpa-san, about them. 

\ Uimpe-se, about her. 

RI, TO. 



O, or U, FROM. 


Uam-sa, from me, 

Uait-se, /rom thee, 
i Uaith-se, from him, 
I Uaipe-se, yrom her. 


Uainn-ne, yVom us. 
Uaibh-se, yrom you. 
Uapa-sa, _/rom them. 




Rium-sa, to me. 

Ruinn-ne, to us. 



Riut-sa, to thee, 

Ribh-se, to you. 


C Ris-san, to him. 

Riu-san, to them. 



\^i ■""■ 




' Plural. 


Tharam-sa, over me, 

Tharrainn-ne, over us. 

1st. T 


Tharad-sa, over thee. 

Tharraibh-se, over 


2d. T 


Thairte, over her, 

Tharta, over them. 

■,A J 


Singular. Plural. 

Romham-sa, before me, Romhainn-ne, before us. 
Romhad-sa, before thee, Romhaibh-se, before you. 

i Roimhe-se, before him, Rompa-sa, before them. 

I Roimpe-se, before her. 

Singular. Plural. 

Tromham-sa, through me, Tromhainn-ne, through us. 
Tromhad-sa, through thee, Tromhaibh-se, through you. 
i Troimhe-se, throughhim, Trompa-san, through them. 
\ Troimpe-se, through her. 



Aon, a h-aon. 

15. Cuig deug, c6ig deug. 


Bhk, a dhk. 

16. Se deug, sia deug. 



17. Seachd deug. 



18. Ochd deug. 


Cuig, coig. 

19. Naoi deug. 


S6, sia. 

20. Fichead. 



2 1 . Aon thar f hichead. 



22. Dha 'r fhichead. 


Naoi, naoth. 

23. Tri 'ar fhichead. 



24. Ceithir 'ar fhichead. 


Aon deug. 

25. Cuig 'ar fhichead. 


Dhk dheug. 

26. S6 ar fhichead. 


Tri deug. 

27. Seachd ar fhichead. 


Ceithir deug. 


joined to a Noun Masculine. 

I . Aon fhear, one man. 

2. Dk fhear. 

3. Tri fir. 

4. Ceithir fir. 

5. Cuig fir. 

S. S^fir. 

7. Seachd fir. 


8. Ochd fir. 

?. Naoi fir. 


3. Deich fir. 


I . Aon fhear deug. 


I. Da fhear dheug. 


1. Tri fir dheug. 


4. Ceithir fir dheug. 


5. Cuig fir dheug. 


5. S^ fir dheug. 


7. Seachd fir dheug. 


3. Ochd fir dheug. 


9. Naoi fir dheug. 


). Fichead fear. 


I. Aon fhear 'ar fhichead. 


2. Da fhear 'ar fhichead. 


3. Tri fir 'ar fhichead. 


4. Ceithir fir fhichead. 


). Deich fir fhichead. 


1 . Aon fhear deug 'ar fhichead 


2. Da fhear dheug 'ar fhichead. 


5. Cuig fir dheug 'ar fhichead. 


0. Da fhichead fear. 


Ochd ar fhichead. 


Tri ceud. 


Naoi 'r fhichead. 


Ceithir cheud. 


Deich ar fhichead. 


Cuig ceud. 


Aon deug 'ar fhichead. 




Dha dheug ar fhichead. 


Da mhile. 


Da fhichead. 


Tri mile. 


Da fhichead is deich. 


Ceithir mile. 


Tri fichead. 


Ciig mile. 


Tri fichead is deich. 


Deich mile. 


Ceithir fichead. 


Fichead mile. 


Ceithir fichead is deich. 


Ceud mile. 


Ceud, ciad. 


D^ cheud mile. 


D^ cheud. 


Muillion, deich ceud mile 

Cardinals joined to a Noun Feminine. 

Aon chloch, one stone. 

Dh, chloich. 

Tri clachan. 

Ceithir clachan. 

Cuig clachan. 

S6 clachan. ' 

Seachd clachan. 

Ochd clachan. 

Naoi clachan. 

Deich clachan. 

Aon chlach dheug. 

Da chloich dheug. 

Tri clachan deug. 

Ceithir clachan deug. 

Cuig clachan deug. 

S^ clachan deug. 

Seachd clachan deug. 

Ochd clachan deug. 

Naoi clachan deug. 

Fichead clach. 

Aon chlach 'ar fhichead. 

Da chloich 'ar fhichead. 

Tri clacha fichead. 

Ceithir clacha fichead. 

Deich clachan fichead. 

Aon chlach dheug 'ar fhichead. 

Da chloich dheug 'ar fhichead. 

Cuig clachan deug 'ar fhichead. 

Da fhichead clach. 



Cardinals joined to a Noun Masculine. 

41. Fear is da fhichead.* 

42. Da fhear is da fhichead. 
50. Deich fir is da fhichead.J 

60. Tri tichead fear. 

61. Tri fichead fear is h-aon. 
70. Tri fichead fear is deich. 
80. Ceithir fichead fear. 

100. Ceud fear. 

101. Ceud fear is h-aon. 

102. Ceud fear is dhk. 
200. Bk cheud fear. 
300. Tri cheud fear. 
400. Ceithir cheud fear. 
500. Cuig ceud fear. 
600. S^ ceud fear. 
700. Seachd ceud fear. 
800. Ochd ceud fear. 
900. Naoi ceud fear. 

1.000. Mile fear. 

1.001. Mile fear is h-aon. 

1.020. Mile fear fhichead. 

1.021. Mile fear fhichead is h-aon. 
1,030. Mile fear fhichead is deich. 
2,000. Da mhile fear. 

3,000. Tri mile fear. 

4,000. Ceithir mile fear. 

5,000. Cuig mile fear. 

10,000. Deich mile fear. 

10,020. Deich mile fhichead fear. 

20,000. Fichead mile fear. 

100,000. Muillion fear. 

Cardinals joined to a Noun Feminine. 

Clach 's da fhichead. t 

Da chloich 's da fhichead. 

Deich clachan 's da fhichead. 

Tri fichead clach. 

Tri fichead clach is h-aon. 

Tri fichead clach is deich. 

Ceithir fichead clach. 

Ceud clach. 

Ceud clach is h-aon. 

Ceud clach is dha. 

Da cheud clach. 

Tri cheud clach. 

Ceithir cheud clach. 

Cuig ceud clach. 

S6 ceud clach. 

Seachd ceud clach. 

Ochd ceud clach. 

Naoi ceud clach. 

Mile clach. 

Mile clach is h-aon. 

Mile clacha fichead. 

Mile clacha fichead is h-aon. 

Mile clacha fichead is deich. 

Da mhile clach. 

Tri mile clach. 

Ceithir mile clach. 

Cuig mile clach. 

Deich mile clach. 

Deich mile fichead clach. 

Fichead mile clach. 

Muillion clach. 


1. An ceud. 

2. An dara. 

3. An treas. 

4. An ceathramh. 

5. An cuigeamh. 

6. An seathamh. 

7. An seachdamh. 

8. An t-ochdamh. 

9. An naothamh. i 

10. An deicheamh. 

1 1 . An t-aon deug. 

12. An dara deug. 

. „ C An treas ) j 

( An triamh J °' 

14. An ceathramh deug. 

15. An cuigeamh deug. 

16. An seathamh deug. 

17. An seachdamh deug. 

18. An t-ochdamh deug. 

19. An naothamh deug. 

20. Am ficheadamh. 

21. An t-aon 'ar fhichead. 

22. An dar' 'ar fhichead. 

23. An treas 'ar fhichead. 

24. An ceathramh 'ar fhichead. 

25. An cuigeamh 'ar fhichead. 

26. An seathamh fhichead. 

27. An seachdamh 'ar fhichead. 

28. An t-ochdamh 'ar fhichead. 

29. An naothamh 'ar fhichead. 

30. An deicheamh 'ar fhichead. 

31. An t-aon deug 'ar fhichead. 

32. An dara deug 'ar fhichead. 


























An treas deug 'ar fhichead. 
An ceathramh deug 'ar fhichead. 
An cuigeamh deug 'ar fhichead. 
An seathamh deug 'ar fhichead. 
An seachdamh deug 'ar fhichead. 
An t-ochdamh deug 'ar fhichead. 
An naothamh deug 'ar fhichead. 
An da fhicheadamh. 
An t-aon 'ar da fhichead. 

i An deicheamh 'ar da fhichead. 

^ An leth-cheudamh. 
An t-aon deug 'ar da fhichead. 
An tri ficheadamh. 
An deicheamh 'ar tri fichead. 
An ceithir ficheadamh. 
An deicheamh 'ar ceithir fichead. 
An ceadamh. 
An deicheamh 'ar ceud. 
An seathamh fichead. 
An deicheamh 'ar s6 fichead. 
An seachda.Tih fichead. 
An deichamh 'ar seachd fichead. 
An t-ochdamh fichead. 
An deicheamh 'ar ochd fichead. 
An naothamh fichead. 
An deichamh 'ar naoi fichead. 
Am mileamh. 
An da mhileamh. 
An tri mileamh. 
An ceithir mileamh. 
An cuig mileamh. 
An sia mileamh. 
An deich mileamh. 

* We also say, da fhichead fear 's a h-aon, da fhichead fear 's a dha, &c. 
t We also say, da fhichead clach 'i a h-aon, da fhichead clach 's a dhi, &c. 

X Also, leth cheud fear. 



Ordinals joined to a Noun Masculine. 

1 . An ceud fhear, thejirst man. 

2. An dara fear. 

3. An treas fear, an triamh fear. 

4. An ceatliramh fear. 

5. An cuigeamh fear. 

6. An seathamh fear. 

7. An seachdamh fear. 

8. An t-ochdamh fear. 

9. An naothamh fear. 

10. An deicheamh fear. 

1 1 . An t-aon fhear deug. 

12. An dara fear deug. 

13. An treas fear deug, 

14. An ceathrarah fear deug. 

15. An cuigeamh fear deug. 

16. An seathamh fear deug. 

17. An seachdamh fear deug. 

20. Am ficheadamh fear. 

21. An t-aon fhear fichead.* 

22. An dara fear fhichead. 

31. An t-aon fhear deug.'ar fhichead. 

32. An dara fear deug 'ar fhichead. 
40. An dk fhicheadamh fear. 

70. An deichamh fear 'ar tri fichead. 

100. An ceudamh fear. 

101. An t-aon fhear thar cheud. 

102. An dara fear thar cheud. 
200. An da cheudamh fear. 

230. An deicheamh fear fhichead thar da cheud. 
300. An tri cheudamh fear. 
500. An cuig ceadamh fear. 
1000. Am mileamh fear. 
10,000. An deich mileamh fear. 

Ordinals joined to a Noun Feminine. 

A cheud chlach, thejirst stone. 

An dara clach. 

An treas clach. 

An ceathramh clach. 

An cuigeamh clach. 

An seathamh clach. 

An seachdamh clach. 

An t-ochdamh clach. 

An naothamh clach. 

An deicheamh clach. 

An t-aon chlach deug. 

An dara clach deug. 

An treas clach deug. 

An ceathramh clach deug. 

An cuigeamh clach deug. 

An seathamh clach deug. 

An seachdamh clach deug. 

Am ficheadamh clach. 

An t-aon chlach fichead.f 

An dara clach fichead. 

An t-aon chlach deug 'ar fhichead. 

An dara clach deug 'ar fhichead. 

An da fhicheadamh clach. 

An deicheamh clach 'ar tri fichead. 

An ceudamh clach. 

An t-aon chlach thar cheud. 

An dara clach thar cheud. 

An da cheudamh clach. 

An deichamh clach fhichead thar da cheud. 

An tri cheudamh clach. 

An ciiig ceudamh clach. 

Am mileamh clach. 

An deich mileamh clach. 

The following Numerals are applied onli/ to Persons ; thus, 

2. Dithis mhac, two sons. 

3. Trifiir mhac, three sons. 

4. Ceathrar mhac,ybMr sons. 

5. Cuignear mhac,_^fe sons. 

6. S^anar mhac, six sons. 

7. Seachdnar mhac, seven sons. 

8. Ochdnar mhac, eight sons. 

9. Naothnar mhac, nine sons. 
lO.^Deichnar mhac, ten sons. 


A Verb expresses action, being, or suffering. 

In Gaelic there are two conjugations. The first comprehends all those verbs which begin with any consonant, 
except y"; as, paisg, wrap. Under the second are arranged those which begin with a vowel or withy,- as, 6b, refuse ; 
fill, fold. 

The Gaelic verb is declined by Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons. 

There are two Voices ; Active and Passive. 

The different particles of conjunction and adverb in Gaelic might give rise to a variety of moods, but they may be 
reduced into the fire following: — The Affirmative, or Indicative, the Negative, or Interrogative, the Subjunctive, or 
Optative, the Imperative, and the Infinitive. 

There are three times or tenses ; the Present, Preterite, and Future. 

There are two numbers; Singular and Plural. 

There are three persons ; First, Second, and Third. 

Verbs, like nouns, are inflected by aspirating the initial consonant, and by an occasional change 6f termination. 

• We also say. An t-aon fear 'ar fhichead, an dara fear 'arfliichead, an treas fear 'ar fhichead, &c. 
t We also say, An t-aon chlach 'ar fhichead, an dara clach 'ar fhichead, an treas clach 'ar fhichead, &c. 


PAISG. wrap. 



Preterite. Future. 

C Phaisg mi, / wrapped. ( Paisgidh mi, / shall or will "J 

Siiig. KThahgthu, thou wrappedst,OT didst wrap. Sing.< Pa.i%g\dh tn, thou shalt or wilt \wrap. 
f. Phaisg e, he wrapped. (. Paisgidh se or e, he shall or will J 

C Phaisg sinn, we 'i ( Paisgidh sinn, we shall or will 1 

Plur. < Phaisg sibh, ye or you V wrapped. Plur. < Paisgidh sibh, ye or you shall or will \ wrap. 

{_ Phaisg iad, they J (. Paigidh siad or iad, they shall or will ) 

Preterite. Future. 

^. f Do ■phaisg mi, I wrapped not, or did not wrap. ^- C Ph&isg rai, I shall or will not "i 
r%' I ^^ phaisg thu, thou didst not wrap. --,1^" \ Phaisg thu, thou shalt or wilt not \tvrap. 

^ jjjj phaisg e, he did not wrap. {_ Phaisg e, he shall or will not j 

p. C Do phaisg sinn, we did not "i PI i Phaisg sinn, we shall or will not "^ 

Ch^' i ^° phaisg sibh, ye or you did not >wrap. ^i ' < Phaisg sibh, ye or you shall or wHl not S vrrap. 

(_ Do phaisg iad, they did not J {_ Phaisg iad, they shall or will not ) 


- wrap ? 

C Do phaisg mi, did I not "i S' i Paisg mi, shall I not "i 

< Do phaisg thu, did thou not \wrap ? N h i Paisg thu, shalt thou not \ 
\^ Do phaisg e, did he not } (. Paisg e, shall he not } 

p. C Do phaisg sinn, did we not "i pi i Paisg sinn, shall we not "^ 

TM ''vi » ^° phaisg sibh, did ye or you not > wrap ? Nnrli 1 P^'^S *'^^' sAaZZ ye or you not \ wrap ? 

^^^° i Do phaisg iad, did they not ) ( Paisg iad, shall they not ) 

„. C Do phaisg mi, if I did not 'i o- ( Paisg mi, if I shall or will not 'i 

'"S'- ) Do phaisg thu, if thou didst not \ wrap. ^^' < Paisg thu, if thou shalt or wilt not \ wrap. 
^^ (_ Do phaisg e, i/ he did not } (. Paisg e, if he shall or will not. } 

p, r Do phaisg sinn, ly we rfid KO^ "> p, (Vaisg sinn, if we shall or will not 'i 

ur. 1 jj^ phaisg sibh, ijfye or you did not > wrap. M r' I ^^^^S s't>h, if you shall or will not^ wrap. 
^^ (. Do phaisg iad, if they did not ) ^ t Paisg iad, if they shall or will not J 

Preterite. Future. 

(Phais^nn, I might, could, or would '\ „■ C Phaisgeas mi, if I shall or will 1 

Sing. < Phaisgeadh tu, thou mightst, couldst, or wouldst ^wrap. ^"' < Phaisgeas tu, if thou shalt or wilt \wrap. 

{^ Phaisgeadh e, he might, could, or would J f. Phaisgeas e, if he shall or will } 

^ Phaisgeadh sinn, or phaisgeamaid, we might, could, ~J pi i Phaisgeas sinn, if we shall or will "i 

1 -., ' < Phaisgeas sibh, if you shall or will > i 


or would f Ml Phaisgeas sibh, if you shall or will > wrap. 

Phaisgeadh sibh, ye or you might, could, or would J L Phaisgeas iad, if they shall or will ) 

Phaisgeadh iad, they might, could, or would 

n- C Paisginn, if I might or were to "i 

^ ^'-l Paisgeadh tu, if thou mightst or wert to \wrap. 
t Paisgeadh e, if he might or were to } 

pj C Paisgeadh sinn, if we might or were to 1 

jjT, ■ < Paisgeadh sibh, if ye or you might or were to \ wrap. 
(. Paisgeadh iad, if they might or were to } 


C Paisgeam, let me wrap. A phasgadh, ) , 

Sing. < Paisg, wrap thou. Do phasgadh, J "' 

(.Paisgeadh e, let him wrap. 

( Paisgearaaid, let us wrap. PARTICIPLE. 

Plur. < Paisgibh, wrap ye or you. A pasgadh, V 

I Paisgeadh iad, let them wrap. Ag pasgadh, ] «""«W"»S'- 




mi, / was 
p, • J. V thu, thou wast ^wrapped. 
^ l_e, he toas j 

Sing. I' 



Sinn, we were 
sibh, ye or you were 
iad, they were 




I shall or will be 
thou shalt or wilt be 
he shall or will be 

( mi, 


f sinn, Wi 
< sibh, ye 
(^iad, the 



we shall or will be "i 

ye or you shall or will be ' wrapped, 
they shall or will be ) 

An do phaisgeadh 

(mi, 1 
-J thu, 
(.e, w 


mi, was I "1 

wert thou > wrapped ? 
was Ae 3 


p. f sinn, were we 

, J , .' ], < sibh, were we or woM ^wrapped? 
An do phaisgeadh h ■ j a i 

^ ° {^ lad, were they j 

„. C mi, I was not 1 

Cha do Ssgeadh ] t^^"' '*"" «'«;' »<" \ '"'''PP'^- 
•^ ' ^ e, ne was not J 

pj ( sinn, we were nof 'J 

Cha do ph^sgeadh ] '^}' J' °' J'"" "'f ^ "^^ J wrapped. 
•^ *= (^ lad, <ney were ?iot j 

^. f mi, was I not 1 

Nach do phaisgeadh] ^^"' "'t'"' "^r "'* ["""'^^P*'^' 
■^ * (^ e, was ne not ) 

p, ( sinn, were we not 1 

Nach do phaisgeadh ) '*''' ""'Z^ ""', r'""^^"*^- 
'^ " (.lad, were <ney no< J 

^. C mi, t/ / was not "J 

Mur do plfaisgeadh > ^^% f '^''" '^f "*' [ ""-apped. 
I. e, i/ ne was no/ ^ 

p7„_ r sinn, if we were not 1 

Mur do phaisgeadh ) "'^'''•iCf "'^'^ '"'^ , [«^apped. 
•^ "^ (^ lad, tj they were not } 

Am paisgear 

igear | 

mi, shall I be 1 
thu, shalt thou be > wrapped ? 
e, shall he be ) 


C sinn, shall we be "J 

AmValsffear 1 ^'^^' *''"'' ^/e be K wrapped ? 
^ ^ t iad, shall they be J 

Cha ph ' 

1"^.- It"h 

naisgear i 

mi, / shall not be "i 
thu, thou shalt not be > wrapped, 
he shall not be } 

Cha phaisgear i ?'^>'.r °'.2'*',!' *^"(^ »"' 6e [wrapped. 



{ sinn, we sAaW not be 

< sibh, ye or you shall 
(. iad, they shall not be 

C mi shall I not be 

< thu, shalt thou not be S^ wrapped 



Nach paiseear i ?'^^' *''"'^ ^^ ""^ y"" ""' *^ f ^^'^PP^'^ '■ 

Nach paisgear \ 'i ,, , . . 1 

•^ " i^e, shall he not be } 

C sinn, shall we not be 
< sibh, shall ye or you i 
t. iad, shall they not be 

be V wrapped. 

p. C sinn, ty we sAaW not be 

». ■ * < sibh, if you shall not be 

P ^ (^ iad, if they shall not be 

Mur paisgear 

mi, if I shall not be 
if thou shalt not 
if he shall not be 

f mi, 

< thu, 

C sinn, iftue shall not be 'J 

< sibh, if you shall not be > wrapped. 

Sing. (T-'^/r'"^ ,) 

Nam pa^geadh J thu t/Mo« wert \ wrapped. 

° I e, ty Ae were j 

Plur (sinn, if we were ^ 

Nam paisgeadh ) «ib|,, t/yo« were J wrapped. 

'^ ° (.lad, if they were ) 


< thu, 

I could or would be "j 

thou couldst or wouldst be 
he could or would be ' 




( sinn, we couZd or would be "J 

Phaiagteadh ] ''^^' f '^''"'f °^ "'^"'f *f [ 
^ t iad, they could ox would be ) 




. { thu, 

be thou \ ivrapped. 

let him be J 
let us be 

n, ( sinn 

Plur. 1 ■,^_ , 



Ma phaisgear 

Cmi, if I shall be '\ 
< thu, if thou shalt be \ 
( e, if he shall be } 

Tsinn, tywe shall be 


Plur y "•""' *'' """ "'"*"' } 

< sibh, if you shall be > 

'.be } 

-, , . s siuii, II uuu siiau 

Ma phaisgear I j^^^^yj^^^^^;;; 



Paisffte, 1 J 

, . " 11 ? wrapped. 
Air pasgadh, ) ^■'^ 





C Bha mi 

Tha mi 'i (I am 

Tha thu V 'pasgadh, < thou art 
^Thae ) I he is 

Y Tha sinn "i Cwe are 

Pbir. -^ Tha sibh \ a pasgadh, < ye are 

iad } {_ they at 

iing. < 

(Tha iad 
{ Bithidh mi 


' I was 



C Bha mi "1 CI was "i 

Si7ig. < Bha thu > 'pasgadh, < thou wert V wrapping. 

\ Bha e 3 v. ^« was ' 

f Bha sinn "i 
Plur. < Bha sibh J- a pasgadh 

( Bha iad ) 



we were 
ye were 

\ wrapping, 
they were } 



i "i CI shall be "l 

Sing. -J Bithidh tu v 'pasgadh, < thou shalt be V 

( Bithidli se 3 t ^ shall be } 


C Bithidh sinn "J 

. < Bithidh sibh J- i 

( Bithidh siad ) 

Plur. -J Bithidh sibh J- a pasgadh. -J you sAaZZ fee V wrapping. 

C we shall be 

, < yoM sAaZZ be 
{_ they shall be \ 



C Am bheil mi "i Cam I "^ 

Sing. X Am bheil thu V 'pasgadh, < art thou V wrapping i 
( Am bheil e J ' *« /»e } 




' Am bheil sinn "i Ca. 

Am bheil sibh V a pasgadh, < a; 
Am bheil iad } (. «' 

are we | 

e ye V wrapping i 
are ^Aey 3 



An robh mi "i C was I "i 

An robh thu V 'pasgadh, -J wer< thou \ 
An robh e 3 ' "'<** Ae 3 

An robh sinn "J T were we 1 

An robh sibh V a pasgadh < «'pre vc \ 
An robh iad } 


wrapping '. 

were ye V wrapping : 
were they j 





' Am bi mi "J C shall I be 

Am bi thu > 'pasgadh, < shalt thou be \ wrapping ? Plur. 
Am bi e 3 (. shall he be 

Cha 'n 'eil mi "i C I am not 

Cha 'n 'eil thu V 'pasgadh, < thou art not ^ | Sing. 

Cha 'n 'eil e 3 the is not 

C Am bi mi "J 

6'in^. < Am bi thu > 'p 
(Ambie 3 


Cha 'n 'eil sinn 1 

Cha 'n 'eil sibh > a pasgadh 

we are not 
you are not 
Cha 'n 'eil iad 3 (. '''e?/ are not 

Cha bhi mi "J ' CI shall not 'J 

Cha bhi thu V 'pasgadh, -J thou shalt not ' 
Cha bhi e 3 

C we are not "J ^ C 

, < you are not \ I Plur. < 

(_ ^/je?/ are not 3 s i, 

P/Mr. I 

t /le sifeaZZ noi 3 I 

Am bi sinn 'J C shall we be "i 

Am bi sibh > a pasgadh, < s^ZZ j/e be S 
Am bi iad 3 (. sAaW <Aey 6e 3 

Cha robh mi "i f 7 was not 

Cha robh thu \ 'pasgadh, < <Aom wer< not 
Cha robh e 3 ' ^'^ '''"S no< 

Cha robh sinn "J Cwe were not 

Cha robh sibh v a pasgadh, < ye were no< 
Cha robh iad 3 f. '^^J/ "'^'"^ ""' 

Cha bhi sinn 1 T we sAaZZ ?!oi 'J 

Cha bhi sibh V a pasgadh, <. you shall not \ 
Cha bhi iad 3 I. they shall not } 

wrapping t 





Nach 'eil mi 
Nach 'eil th 


t Nach 'eil e 

C Nach 'eil sinn J 
■J Nach 'eil sibh' 
( Nach 'eil iad } 


Nach 'eil sibh \ a pasgadh, < are ye not 

C am I not "J 

, < art thou not > 
(^ is he not ) 

C are we not "i 

< nrp tip iif\f V 


•^ uie ye not > wrapping f 
l_ are they not j 

r Nach robh mi ^ C was I not 

Sing. < Nach robh thu V 'pasgadh, < wert thou not \ wrapping ? 
{_ Nach robh e 3 ' '""s he not 

C Nach robh sinn 1 C were we not "i t-, 

I* Plur. < Nach robh sibh V a pasgadh, < were ye not \ \ 
( Nach robh iad 3 ■ t were they not J | 




C Nach bi mi Ti 
Sing. \ Nach bi thu \ 'pasgadh, \ shalt thou not 

(. Nach bi e ) 

C shall I not \ 
< shalt thou not V ^ g 
t shall he not } | 


I iiui^.. u.. 0..1.. I ( shall we not "i 

Plur. < Nach bi sibh V a pasgadh, < shall ye not \ S% 

C Nach bi sinn ^ 

. < Nach bi sibh V ; 

( Nach bi iad 3 

(^ shall they not J i 



C Mur 'eil mi "i C 

Sing. < Mur 'eil thu V 'pasgadh, < 

( Mur 'eil e 3 * 

C Mur 'eil sinn"i _, 

Plur. \ Mur 'eil sibh I a pasgadh, < if ye are not 

if I am not 'i | 
if thou art not \ % 
if he is not j % 

Cifwe are not 


Mur robh mi 

Sing. < Mur robh thu ' 'pasgadh 


Mur robh e 3 


( Mur 'eil iad 3 

t if they are not 

C Mur robh sinn 1 
Phcr. ' Mur robh sibh ' a pasgadl 

( Mur robh iad 3 

if I was not "J ^ 

if thou wert not J- I; 
if he was not J | 

we were not "^ i, 

ye were not \ g 

{_ if they were not ) | 


C Mur bi mi 1 (if I sh'. 

Sing. < Mur bi thu '■ 'pasgadh, < if thou 

(.Murbie ) {.'{f he si 

if I shall not "i 

shalt not \ 

shall not J 



C M«ir bi sinn "i 
< Mur bi sibh V 
(. Mur bi iad ) 


a pasgadh, < if ye 

C if we shall not 
< if ye shall not 

(. if they sliall not 



Preterite, Future, 

C Bhithinn ^ CI would be "k ^ ( Ma bhitheas mi "i (if I shall be ^ i, 

Sing. < Bhitheadh tu v 'pasgadh, < thou wouldst be V| Sing. I Ma bhitheas tu V 'pasgadh, < if thou shall be J. | 

(^ Bhitheadh e J i_he would be ) I (, Ma bhitheas e ) \if he shall be j I 

r Bhitheamaid "i (we would be ^ i f Ma bhitheas sinn "jj (if we shall be \ | 

Plur. < Bhitheadh sibh i a pasgadh, < ye would be > | Plur. < Ma bhitheas sibh \ a pasgadh, < if you shall be v '| 

i Bhitheadh iad ) ( they would be) I (.Ma bhitheas iad ) ( if they shall be ) I 


( Am bithinn "k ( would I be "i 

Sing.K Am bitheadh tu v 'pasgadh, < wouldst thou be \ wrapping ? 
f^Am bitheadh e J \^ would he be } 

( Am bitheamaid "i C would we be "i 

Plur. < Am bitheadh sibh > a pasgadh, < would ye be J. wrapping ? 
( Am bitheadh iad J (. would they be ) 

( Cha bhithinn "i CI would not be . "i 

Sing. < Cha bhitheadh tu V 'pasgadh, < thou ivouldst not he \ 

(. Cha bhitheadh e 3 (. Ae would not be j 


C Cha bhitlieadh sinn "1 Cwe would not be '\ 

Plur. < Cha bhitheadh sibh V a pasgadh, < ye would not be \ wrapping. 
( Cha bhitheadh iad ) (. they would not he } 

C Mur bithinn "i f ^ ^ would not be 1 

Sing. < Mur bitheadh tu \ 'pasgadh, < if thou wouldst not he v wrapping. 
t Mur bitheadh e 3 ' ?/" /'e would not he } 

r Mur bitheamaid, o?"^ ^ -^ u . , -^ 

I »« L-.L ji • / C tf rue would not be i 

n, I Mur bitheadh sinnf lu ) v- u t i. f 

^''""i Mur bitheadh sibh^ P^^S'^'^''' V^^.^ «'o«^'^ »of ie \ wrapping. 

l Mur bitheadh iad i lif they would not be ) 


C Bitheam "J ( let me he "k C Bitheamaid "V C let us he '^ 

&'«jf. < Bi, bi thusa > 'pasgadh, < 6e <Aoa \ wrapping. PZur. < Bithibh J- a pasgadh, < 6e ye \ wrapping. 

f. Bitheadh e ) \^let him be} {_ Bitheadh iad } (^ let them he ) 


Bhith, or a bhith pasgadh, ) . i • 

Do bhith pasgadh, ^ V" ^' ^^^PP'"9- 


Present. Preterite. 

( Tha mi 'J ( I am '\ C Bha mi 'J (I loas "J 

Sing. < Tha thu \ paisgte, <. thou art J- wrapped. Sing. < Bha thu V paisgte, < thou wert > wrapped. 

f. Tha e 3 ( Ae i» 3 I. Bha e 3 ' ^e was } 

C Tha sinn 1 Cwe are "i T Bha sinn 1 ("we rt'ere ^ 

Plur. C Tha sibh V paisgte, <. ye are V wrapped. Plur. < Bha sibh \ paisgte, < ye werfi ^ wrapped. 

t Tha iad 3 ' <Aey are 3 (. Bha iad 3 v ^h^V '""'■^''^ \ 


( Bithidh mi '^ (I shall be ^ 

Sing. < Bithidh tu V paisgte, < thou shalt be V wrapped. 
(.Bithidh se) I he shall be ) 

C Bithidh sinn 'J (we shall be ^i 

Plur. < Bithidh sibh V paisgte, < ye shall be \ wrapped. 
{_ Bithidh siad } {_ they shall be } 

* Anotlier form of the present, preterite, and future affirmative is, T/ia mi air mo phasgadh, !fc. ; Bha mi air mo phasfiniUi, S^c. ; Hittiidh 
mi uir mo phasgadh, ifc. 

xxviii A GRAMMAR OF 

firesent. Preterite. 

„. C bheil mi "i (am I "^ <f • ( *°^^ mi "i C was I 1 

! "■ < bheil thu > paisgte, < art thou > wrapping ? a \ tohh thu J- paisgte,-! wert thou \ wrapped? 

•*'" (bheil e > {.is he } ■*" (lobh e > I was he } 

pj ( bheil sinn ^ C are we ^ PI r ^ ^^^^ *'"" 1 f "^^'^^ "* I 

."'"■ < bheil sibh > paisgte, < ore i/e > wi'appipg ? a ' I '^''^ ^'''^ 1 P^'*®'*' 1 ^^''^ V^ { wrapped ? 

"" ( bheil ia|d ) (. a,re they ) " (. robh iad ) ( were they ) 


' bi mi ■) (■ shall I be 

r bi mi "J C shall I be 'J 

'r^' < bi thu J- paisgte, < shalt thou be > wrapped,? 
(^ bi e 3 ' sAaW Ae be ). 

p. f bi sinn 'J <" sAaZZ we be Y 

■ < bi sibh J- paisgte, < sAaW ye be > wrapped i 
l^ bi iad J f. shall they be ) 


Present. Preterite. 

„. J 'eil mi 1 T am / no< "i „. C robh mi 1 T was / not "i 

N u A 'eil thu V paisgte, < arf <AoM no< > wrapped? ^ s" < robh thu V paisgte, < werf <Aom wo< > wrapped ? 

(. 'eil e 3 l^is he not ) (^ robh e 3 v. '"<"« ^^ "o< ) 

p. r 'eil sinn 'J T are we nof 'i p/ ( robh sinn "i C were we not "i 

N " vi 1 '^'^ ^''''^ r P^'^o*'®' ! """^ y* ""' ^ wrapped ? N li i '^°^'^ ^'^^ i paisgte, < were ye not V wrapped ? 

(^ 'eil iad 3 t are they not ) [_ robh iad ) ' were fAey not ) 


n. r bi mi 1 C shall I not be \ 
N Vi 1 ^' ^^^ I paisgte, < shalt thou not be > wrapped ? 

(.bie 3 { 3 

p, f bi sinn "i C shall we not be "i 
»j k 1 bi sibh > paisgte, < shall ye not be > wrapped? 

f^biiad ) (^ shall they 7iot be.) 

Present. Preterite. 

C 'eil mi ■J C I am not "i C' C '"''^ mi 1 (I was not "1 

' ■ < 'eil thu \ paisgte, < thou art not V wrapped, p, ^' < robh thu V paisgte, < thou wert not V wrapped. 

(. 'eil e 3 ' ^c 2s wo* 3 ' robh e 3 i.^^ was not J 

i 'eil sinn 'J T we are no* "i p , r robh sinn "J (we were not 1 

, ■ < 'eil sibh V paisgte, < ye are no< > wrapped. p, ' < robh sibh > paisgte, < ye were not > wrapped. 

t 'eil iad 3 (. they are not } (^ robh iad, 3 1. 'A«y were no< 3 




„. f bhi mi "J ^7 sAaZZ no< 6e 1 

/-,,•'■ < bhi thu V paisgte, < *Aou sAaZ< not be > wrapped. 

^ bhi e 3 ' ^s sAaZZ no< be J 

p, ( bhi sinn ^l (we shall not be 'J 

p, ■ < bhi sibh > paisgte, •! ye shall not be V wrapped. 

{_ bhi iad 3 i. they shall not be 3 



Preterite. Future. 

^ Bhithinn ^ ( I would be ^J „. f mi ^ (ifl'shallbe 1 

iSjwa. < Bhitheadh tu > paisgte,* \ thou wouldst be > wrapped. ,, li"^i \ tu > paisgte, < i/" Moa sAaZ< fee >■ wrapped. 

(Bhitheadhe i"^ ^ [he would be 3 Mabh.theas|^ j I' ^ ' | ^J- ;i, ,;,„;; fc^ j 

{Bhitheadh sinn I (we would be "1 p. rsinn"i (if we shall be ^ 

Bhitheadh sibh >Paisgte,j ye woaZdie [wrapped. Ma bhltheas^'^^P"'^^''' V^y^'^'l",^" [«"^^''- 

Bhitheadh iad J {.they would be) ''""" I iad 3 I if they shall be ) 


( Bitheam "l ( let me be ^ A bhith paisgte, ) , ,,,,„„_„rf 

5injf. ^ Bi, bi thusa \ paisgte, < be thou \ wrapped. Do bhith paisgte, 5 wrappea. 
{. Bitheadh e 3 {.let him be ) 

( Bitheamaid ^ r let us be ^ PARTICIPLE. 

Plur. < Bithibh, bithibhse \ paisgte, < 6e ye \ wrapped. Air bhith paisgte, having been wrapped. 
(. Bitheadh iad ) ( let them be } 

• Another form of the preterite and future subjunctive is, Bhitlunn air mo phasgadA, ^c; Mu bhithcas mi air mophasgadh, Sfc. 



OL, drink. 


Preterite. Future. 

„. C mi, / drccnJt. ^. ( mi, / shall or will '\ 

T>h' ^1 » *^"' *^*'" drunkest. x, -s'. -j tu, thou shalt or wtYi Wn)tiS\ 

(_ e, Ae drank. \_ se, Ae ^AaZZ or wtZi' } 

p. f sinn, we c?)-ani. p. t sinn, we s/jaZZ or wi/Z "i 

nVi' '1 » ^'''^' y^ drank. >jl • .J < sibh, ye shall or wi/Z \ drink. 

t iad, <Aey drank. \_ siad, <Aey sftaW or will ) 


Preterite. Future. 

„. (mi, did I drink, ot have I '\ ^- fmi, shdll otwill I "i 

,?', ■ < thu, dtds< iAou drjni, or Aas< tAoM >drunA? . ?". <.xh.n, sha:lt or wilt thduK 

\^ e, dirf Ae drink, or Aos Ae j ' 6, «AaZZ or wi/Z /te } 

drink ? 

p, r sinn, did we drink, or have we '\ Pi i sinn, «AaZZ or will we 1 

. j.'-i <.%ih\i, did ye drink, or have ye \drvnkf . vj \s,\b\i, shall or will ye Sdrink'i 

{_ iad, did they drink, or /tai;e <A€y ) {_ iad, s/taZZ or will they } 


,. ( mi, / did not drink, or Aaue no< "J ?■ C "*'' ^ sAa/Z or will not "J 

/t'm » ^^"' '^"^ dids< nof drink, or Aas< not > drunk. p/ ,^' . < thu, thou shalt or wiZ< no/ S drink 

f_ e, Ae did not drink, or Aas not J * e, Ae shall or wiZZ mo< J 

p. C sinn, we did not drink, or Aaue no< 'J Pi ( sinn, we sAaZZ or will not "i 

I j.'> I \ sibh, ye did not drink, or Aatie not \ drunk. p, , ' vi \ sibh, ye shall or jtJiZZ noZ V 

(^ iad, ZAey did noZ drink, or Aaue raoZ } . (.iad, ZAey sZiaZZ or wiZZ not ) 


a- C mi, did I not drink, or have J not "i V' C ™'' *^'*'^ "^ '"^'^ *"*' ■'^ 1 

N h H'M » *^"' '^'^*' '^"^ ""' drink, or AasZ ZAou noZ > drunk ? »t j^.'vi < thu, sAoZZ or wilt not thou V drink? 

{_ e, did he not drink, or has he not J l^e, shall or will not he J 

p. r sinn, did we not drink, or have we not 1 PI { sinn, «AaZZ or wiZZ not we ^ 

N L j'> 11 ' sibh, did ve noZ drinA, or Aare T/e noZ ydrunk? ht.-i. h ^ sibh, sAaZZ or wiZZ noZ j/e > 

drink ? 

r smn, did we no< drink, or Aave we noZ 1 PI i sinn, «AaZZ or wiZZ noZ we ^ 

,',,,< sibh, did ye not drink, or Aare ye not \ drunk? ^ Vi M » sibh, shall or will not ye \ 

(. iad, did they not drink, or Aote ZAey not J t iad, shall or will not they j 

Preterite. " Future. 

r Dh' olainn, / woaZd or cowZd "i ^. C'mi. if I sliall or will V 

Sing. < Dh' oladh tu, ZAom wouldst or couldst \ drink. ^, ji,' m i tu, if thou shalt or wilt \ drink. 

I Dh' oladh e, Ae would or co«Zd ) ™* ** ^* (e, if he shall or wiZZ ) 

i Dh' ulamaid, or dh' 61adh sinn, we wofiild or could^ p, f sinn, i/ we sAaZZ or wiZZ "1 

PZur. < Dh' oladh sibh, ye would or could } drink. „ ,lf^l\ , , < sibh, if ye shall or wiZZ Vdfinft." 

(_ Dh' 61adh iad, ZAey would or cowZd ) ^^ " °'*^^ (. iad, if ZAey shall or wiZZ ) 


( ^|am, let me drink. ^ jj,. ^]^ ^^ ^^inA. 

iSinjr. s 01, ol thusa, drink thou. 
\ Oladh e, let him drink. 

( Olamaid, let us drink. 
Plur. < Olaibh, drink ye. Ag 61, drinking. 

(^ Oladh iad, let them drink. 

• The second conjuf^tion, as has been said, comprehends all those verbs which begin with a vowel or with the letter/. 
+ It does not appear necessary to exemplify, any further, the preterite subjunctive inflected with the various 'particles of conjunction. 
The young student cannot be at any loss if he but turn back to the preceding verbs. 



passive: voice. 

This verb is not often used in the passive voice, excepting in the third person singular and plural, 

Sing. Dh' 61adh e, it was drunk. 

Sing. t)\ax e, it shall be drunk. 


Preterite. Future. 

Sing. Cha d' 61adh e, it was not drunk. , Sing. Cha 'n 61ar e, it shall not be drunk. 

Plur. Cha d' 61adh iad, they were not drunk. Plur. Cha 'n 61ar iad, they shall not be drunk. 

Sing. Nach d' oladh e, was it not drunk ? Sing. Nach blar e, shall it not be drunk ? 

Plur. Nach d' olar iad, were they not drunk ? Plur. Nach olar iad, shall they not be drunk ? 

Preterite. Future. 

Sing. Dh' bhadh e, it would be dru7ik. Sing. Ma dh' blax e, if it shall be drunk. 

Plur. Dh' 61tadh iad, they would be drunk. Plur. Ma dh' 61ar iad, if they shall be drunk. 


Sing. Oltar e, let it be drunk. 
Plur. Oltar iad, let them be drunk. 


Olta, oilte, I . . 
Air 61, 5 '"^"'**- 

ORDUICH, order. 




Preterite. Future. 

C mi, I "i ?• C "*'' ^ sf^O'^^ or will 

ordered. r\ j • l-ju \ tu, thou shall or wilt 

l^e, he 

Dh' orduich 



■J tu, / 
(e, h 

ye V ordered, 
they 3 


> order, 
he shall or will } 

( sinn, we shall or will 1 

< sibh, ye shall or will > order. 

f iad, they shall or will ) 



did I order, or have I ~l 

didst thou order, or hast thou > ordered ? 
did he order, or has he j 

C sinn, did we order, or have we '\ 
A t\' n-A 'oh J s'tjli) ^"^ y^ order, or have ye \ ordered? 
l^ iad, did they order, or have they J 

An d' orduich 


fmi, ( 
< thu, 
l^e, di 

Nach d' orduich 

rai, did I not, or have I not 'J 

\ thu, didst thou not, or hast thou, not \ ordered? 
' e, did he not, or has he not j 



C sinn, did we not, or have we not 

Nach ^'"orduich "i ?'^^' ^'^ ^/e not, or have ye not i ordered ? 
(. iad, did they not, or have they not J 

An orduich 

An orduich 

Nach orduich 

Nach orduich 



' mi, shall or will I > 
thu, shall or wilt thou y order f 
^ e, shall or will he ) 

' sinn, shall or will we 'i 
sibh, shall or will ye > order ? 
^ iad, shall or will they } 

' mi, shall or will I not "i 
thu, shall or wilt thou not \ order ? 
e, shall or will he not ) 

sinn, shall or will we not 1 

sibh, shalt or wilt thou not % order ( 

iad, shall or will they not ) 




■ Dh' orduichinn, / wotdd 1 

Dh' orduicheadh tu, thou wouldst \ order. 
Dh' orduicheadh e, he would } 

Dh' orduicheamaid, or dh' orduicheadh sinn, 
we would 

Mu dh' orduicheas 


mi, if I shall or will 1 

if thou shall or wilt > order. 

f mi, 


i Dh' orduicheadh sibh, ye would 
VDh' orduicheadh iad, tliey would 

1 order. 

Mu dh' orduicheas 

if he shall or will J 

C sinn, if we shall or wiZ^ "i 

< sibh, (/"yc s/m/Z or ivill' J- order. 

(_ iad, ly ^/iey sAaiZ or will j 




C Orduicheam, let me order. 
Sing. -J Orduich, order thou. 

(^ Orduicheadh e, let him order. 

C Orduicheamaid, let ics order. 
Plur. < Orduichibh, order ye. 

(. Orduicheadh iad, let them order. 

Dh' orduchadh, 
A dh' orduchadh. 


to order. 

Ag orduchadh, ordering. 




Dh' orduicheadh 

Dh' orduicheadh 

< thu, t 
l_e, he 


teas 1 

thou wast > ordered, 
was J 

Sinn, we were 'J 
iad, they were J 

sibh, ye were \ ordered. 



I shall or will be ~l 
thou shalt or wilt be \ ordered, 
he shall or luill be J 

' sinn, we shall or will be ^J 
sibh, ye shall or will be \ ordered. 
iad, they shall or will be ) 

< thu, 
f^e, ht 


An d' orduicheadh 

An d' orduicheadh 

Nach d' orduicheadh 

Nach d'orduicheadh 



( mi, was I 

< thu, wert thou \ ordered? 

' e, was he y 

were they ) 

was I not "i 

wert thou not > ordered ? 
■as he not j 

were we not "i 
, were ye not V ordered ? 
were they not j 

An orduichear 

shall I be ^ 
shalt thou be J- ordered ? 
shall he be y 

p, (sinn, shall we be "^ 

An ordddiear \ ^'^}' f^y' *f [ °^d''-'d ? 
{^ iad, shall they be y 

(mi, s 
< thu, 
(^e, shi 


(^e, W: 

( mi, shall or luill I not be "i 

<. thu, shalt or wilt thou not be \ ordered ? 

l^ e, shall or will he not be y 

( sinn, shall or will we not be "1 

Nach orduichear ] S,^'.f"jf'.°"' '"?," r ^"^ be Urdered ? 

Nach orduichear 


(^ iad, shall or will they not be ' 

Dh' orduichteadh 


I would or could be "i 

thou wouldst or corddst be \ ordered, 
he would or could be ) 

( sinn, we would or could be 

< thu, 
(e, A. 

Ma dh' orduichear 


if I shall or tuiZ^ 6e 

; > ordered. 

Plur \ *'""' ^^ V!Ouia or co«id be 'J 

Dh' orduichteadh ] ''^^',r "^°"'f °'' "^""'f *f [ '"•'^^'•«'^- 
(^ iad, they would or co!</a be y 

if thou shalt or wilt be 
if he shall or will be 

p, ( sinn, ifwe shall or will be ^J 

Ma dh' orduichear ) ^'"^MF '''fn' "'^ wA' ' '"''^"'"^- 

(^ iad, if they shall or jiii/Z 6e J 


< thu. 

let me tel 
6c tAoM V ordered. 
let him be y 


pj (sinn, let us be 1 

Orduichiear ] '^j"' */,r' , [ '"•'^^'"^'^- 
(^ iad, let them be y 

Orduichte, ) 

Air orduchadh, ) 





Dh' fhill 


(mi,/ ^ 
< thu, thou J- folded. 
I e, he } 

ye I folded, 

( sinn, we 1 

i„jsibh,^e [ 

(. iad, <Ae« y 



„■ .( mi, / shall or wi// 
p....^', < tu, <Aou sAaZ< or wi, 
(^ se, Ae shall or wiW 

p, r sinn, we shall or wz7/ "J 

F'U'rli. \ ^''^l'' y^ shall or w;/^ % 
(^ siad, they shall or wi// y 

It i 








mi, did I fold, or have I "i 

thu, 4*d^ thou fold, or hast thou \ folded ? 
did he fold, or has he } 

p. C sinn, did we fold, or have we ~l 

. ,, -/ .,, < sibh, did ye fold, or have ye J- folded ? 


, did yejold, or «ave ye V _ 
dirf <Aey /oW, or have they y 

Am fill 

Am fill 

sfeo/Z or will I 1 
s/iai^ or wilt thou V ybW ? 
«AoW or ift/i Ae f 

sinn, sAaW or wi// we "i 
sibh, sAaW or will ye >fold? 
iad, sAaW or will they } 








i Dh' fhillinn, / woul4 or could "i 

^ Dh' fhilleadh tu, thou wouldst or couldst Kfold. 

(_ Dh' fhilleadh e, he would or could 3 

r Dh' fhillearnaid, or ) ,, ,,- 

I TM-> C1.-I1 ' ju • J- uje wou/cf or couW 1 
) Dh fhilleadh smn ) \ 

\ Dh' fhiHeE^dh sibh, ye would or could i 

' Dh' fhilleadh iad, they would or could 


i Filleam, let me fold. 
Sing. < Fill,/o/d thou. 

(^Filleadh e, let him fold. 

i Filleamaid, let us fold. 
P/ur.-? Fillibh./o^dye. 

[ Filleadh iad, let them fold. 

Ma dh' fhilleas 

Ma dh' fhilleas 

C mi, if I shall or will 1 

< tu, {/■ thou shalt or wilt > 
\e, if he shall or will j 

( sinn, i/" we shall or wiZZ "i 

< sibh, if ye shall or will > 
t iad, i/ they shall or uJiiZ 3 


Dh' fhilleadh, \ , . ,, 
A dh' fhilleadh, ] ^"^"^^ 

A filleadh, ^ „ ,,. 
Ag filleadh, K^^"^" 


Dh' fhilleadh 

Dh' fhilleadh 


Preterite. Future. 

, / was "J <?■ C ™'' ^ *''"'' O"^ '''*'' ^^ 

LI, <AoM was( >_/oWec|. F"H "j thu, </joa s/saZf or «;i7< fie 

ke was 3 * e, Ae sAciZZ or will be 

p. ( sinn, we shall or wiZZ be 
p.|, ' < sibh, ye shall or wiZZ Zie 
{_ iad, <Aey sAaZZ or will be 

we were 1 
ye were \ folded, 
they were j 

> folded. 


And' fhilleadh 

An d' fhilleadh 

was I 
wert thou 
was he 

were uie 
were ye 
were they 

( mi, ( 
(.e, w 

i folded? 



Nach d' fhillear 


(mi, 1 
< thu, 
^e, M!i 

was I not 1 
wert thou not > folded ? 
was he not ) 

( sinn, were we not 

I sibh, were ye not ^ folded i 

f_iad, were they not 

Nach7'7h.lleari f!^.^'..'^!r".|'f.."!^ } 

Am fillear 

Am fillear 

ear 1 


shall or will I be "1 

shalt or wilt thou be J- folded '. 

or will he be j 

sinn, shall or wtZZ we be "i 

sibh, sAaZZ or wtZZ ye be > folded ! 

iad, sAaZZ or will they be } 

C mi, sAaZi 
< thu, sha 
(^ e, shall I 

„. ( mi, / shall or will not be 

/-.. . '"H^'-ii ^ thu, ZAott sAaZi or ivilt not 
Cha nnnllear^^^^^^^^,^^^^.;^^^^^^ 

p, ( sinn, we sAaZZ or will not be 1 

Oha n thUlear ^j^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^j. ^.^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ 

6e > folded. 


Dh' f hillteadl 

Dh' fhillteadh 

' mi, / would or coitZcZ Z>e 1 

ZAou jvouldst or couldst be i folded, 
he would or couZ(Z ie 3 

" sinn, tue tvould or couZd Z;c ■! 

, ye would or cc>2<ZcZ be V folded, 

they would or couZ(Z 6e J 

f mi, ^ 
te, fte 

f sinn, 
< sibh, : 
[ iad, <j 

„ . mi, if I shall OT will be 1 

*'."^.- ... ' thii. if thou shalt or wilt be } folded. 

Ma dh' fhillear 

Ma dh' fhillear 

(mi, i 

< thu, 
( sinn, 

< sibh, 
(iad, ( 

ifheshalloTivillbe ) 

' sinn, if we shall or wt'ZZ be 1 

z/" 2/e sAoZZ or will be > folded. 

i/ ZAey sAaZZ or wtZZ be ) 





let me be 

be thou 

let him he 


C mi, let me be "i 
< thu, be thou > 
(^ e, let him he } 



Fillte, \ fM 1 


let us be 
. be ye \ folded, 
let them be ) 


The learner, having come thus far, can have no difficulty, it is presumed, in declining- the compound tenses of any 
verb, as they are, both in the active and passive voices, similar to those of the first conjugation, to which I refer him. 




Abair, say, 
Adhlaic, bury, 
Ainmich, name, 
Aisig, restore, 
Aithn, command, 
Aithnich, know, 
A mail, hinder, 
Arduich, exalt, 
Bac, hinder. 
Bean, touch, 
Bearr, crop, 
Blais, taste, 
Bogaich, soften, 
Bris, break, 
Bruadair, dream, 
Buail, strike, 
Buain, cut down, 
Buair, tempt, 
Buidhinn, win, 
Buin, deal with, 
Caill; lose, 
Caith, spend, 
Ciallaich, mean, 
Cinn, grow, 
Caomhain, spare, 
Ceangail, bind. 
Ceil, conceal, 
Ceill, declare, 
Ceannuich, buy, 
Cluinn, hear, 
Codail, sleep, 
Coghain, aid, 
Coinnich, meet, 
Coirich, blame, 
Coisg, extinguish, 
Coisich, travel, 
Comhdaich, cover, 
Creach, spoil, 
Crath, shake, 
Crioslaich, gird, 
Croch, hang, 
Ciiirr, hurt, 
Crup, shrink, 
Cuimsich, hit, 
Cuir, put, 



Dh' adhlaic, 

Dh' amais, 

Dh' ainmich, 

Dh' aisig, 

Dh' iithn, 

Dh' aithnich, 

Dh' amail, 

Dh' arduich, 







































Past Participle. 

Air radh, 









Bapta, bacte, 

Bearrta, bearrte, 


Biathta, biathte, 

















Creachta, creachte, 
Air chur, 

Present Participle. 

Ag radh. 

Ag adhlac, or -adh. 

Ag amas. 

Ag ainmeachadh. 

Ag aiseag. 

Ag ^ithneadh. 

Ag aithneachadh. 

Ag amal. 

Ag arduch, or -adh. 

A bacadh. 

A beanachd, a beantuinn. 

A bearradh. 

A blasdachd. 

A biathadh. 

A bogachadh. 

A briseadh. 

A bruadaradh. 

A bualadh. 

A buaineadh. 

A buaireadh. 

A buidhneadh. ' 

A buntuinn. 

A call. 

A caithearah. 

A ciallachadh. 

A cinntinn. 

A caomhnadh. 

A ceangladh. 

A ceiltinn. 

A ceilltinn. , 

A ceannuchadh. 

A cluintinn. 

A codal. 

A coghnadh. 

A coinneach, or -adh. 

A coireachadh. 

A cosgadh. 

A coiseachd. 

A comhdachadh. 

A creachadh. 

A crath. 

A crioslachadh. 

A crochadh. 

A ciurradh. 

A crupadh. 

A cuimseachadh. 

A cur. 




Cum, hold, 
Cuitich, quit, 
Daighnicn, strengthen, 
Dealbh, /or/n, 
Dean, do, 
Diobair, forsake, 
Diol, pay, 
Dion, protect, 
D6irt, spill, 
Dilin, shut, 
Diiisg, waken, 
Diraig, dare, 
Eid, clothe, 
Eigh, shout, 
Eirich, rise, 
Faic, see, 
Faigh, sre^ 
Fan, wait, 
Falbh, go, 
F^s, grow, 
Feith, wait, 
Feuch, shew, 
Fiisg, squeeze^ 
Figh, weave. 
Fill, fold, 
Fliuch, wet, 
Folaich, hide, 
Fosgail, open, 
Fuin, bake, 
Fuirich, wait, 
Fuaigh, sew, 
Fulaing, suffer, 
Gabh, take, 
G^ir, laugh, 

Gairm, proclainit 
Geall, promise, 
Gearr, cut, 
Geum, low. 

Gin, gion, produce, 

Glac, catch, 

Gleidh, keep, 

Gluais, move, 

Gnathaich, wse, 
' Goil, boil, 

Goir, crow. 

Grab, catch, 

Grabh, engrave, 

Greas, hasten, 

larr, request, 

lomain, drive, 

Ith, eat, 

Labhair, speak. 

Las, kindle, 

Leagh, melt. 

Lean, follow, 

Leig, let, 

Leighis, cure, 

Leir, torment, 

Lflb, bend, 

Leugh, read. 

Lion, fll, 

Loisg, burn, 

Lomair, shear, 

Luchdaich, burden, 

Luidh, lie, 

Mair, last, 

Marbh, kill, 

Marcaich, ride. 













Dhuraig, -^ 

Dh' eid, 

Dh' eigh, 


Chunnaic, chunna, 


Dh' fhainich, 

Dh' fhan, 


Dh' fhas, 

Dh' fheith, 

Dh' fheuch, 

Dh' fhaisg, 

Dh' fhigh, 

Dh' fhill, 


Dh' fholaich, 

Dh' fhosgail, 

Dh' fhuin, 

Dh' fhuirich, 

Dh' fhuaigh, 

Dh' fhulaing, 



Ghairm, ^ 




Ghin, Ghion, 










Dh' iarr, 

Dh' iomain, 

Dh' ith, 


















Past Participle. 




Deanta, deante, 


Diolta, diolte, 

Dionta, dionte, 






Air dol, 

Air (ks. 











Gairm te, 
Gearrta, gearrte, 

Ginte, gionta, 










Leaghta, leaghte, 




Lilbta, liibte, 

Leugh ta, leughte, 





Air luidhe. 

Present Participle. 

A cumail. 

A cniteachadh. 

A daighneachadh. 

A dealbhadh, 

A deanamh. 

A diobradh. 

A dioludh. 

A dionadh. 

A d6rtadh. 

A dilnadh. 

A diksgadh. 

A dtirachdainn. 

Ag eideadh. 

Ag eigh. 

Ag eiridh. 

A faicinn, a faicsinn. 

A faotainn, a faghaiL 

A faineachadh. 

A fanachd, a fanticinn. 

A falbh. 

A fas. 

A feitheamh. 

A feuchainn. 

A fasgadh. 

A figheadh. 

A filleadh. 

A fliuchadh. 

A folachadh. 

A fosgladh. 

A fuineadh. 

A fuireach. 

A fuaghal. 

A fulang. 

A gabhail. 

A gkireachdaich. 

A gairmeadh. 

A gealltuinn. 

A gearradh. 

A geumnaich. 

A gintinn, a giontuinn, a ginmhuinn. 

A glacadh. 

A gleidheadh. 

A gluasad. 

A ghnathachadh. 

A goileadh. 

A goirsinn. 

A grabadh. 

A grabhadh. 

A greasdachd. 

Ag iarruidh. 

Ag ioman. 

Ag itheadh. 

A iabhradh. 

A lasadh. 

A leaghadh. 


A leigeil, 

A leigheas. 

A leireadh. 

A lubadh. 

A leughadh. 






marsuinn, a mairsinn, 

A marcachd. 



Meal, enjoy, 
Meall, cheat, 
Meas, estimate, 
Mfeil, grind, 
Mill, spoil, 
Minich, explain, 
Mionnuich, swear, 
Mosgail, waken, 
Muth, change, 
Nkraich, sharne, 
Naisg, bind, 
Nigh, wash, 
6b, refuse, ' 
Oibrich, work, 
Ol, drink, 
Orduich, order, 
Paigh, pay, 
Paisg, wrap, 
Pian, pain. 
Pill, return. 
Put, push, 
Reic, sell, 
Reub, tear, 
Ruathar, dig, 
Ruig, reach, 
Ruith, ru7t, 
Sabh, saw, 
Salaich, soil, 
Saltair, tread, 
Saoil, think, 
Skth, thrust, 
Sdiiiir, steer, 
Seachain, shun, 
Seall, look, 
Searg, wither. 
Seas, stand, 
Seid, blow, 
Sgain, burst, 
Sgaoil, spread^ 
Sgap, scatter, 
Sgar, separate, 
Sgath, prune, 
Sgeaduieh, adorn, 
Sgoilt, split, 
Sgriob, scratch, 
Sgriobh, write, 
Sguab, sweep, 
Sguir, stop, 
Smuainich, think, 
Snaidh, hew, 
Snkig, creep, 
Snaim, knot, 
Snamh, swim, 
Sniomh, spin, 
Spoth, geld, 
Srachd, tear, 
Tachair, meet, 
Tachrais, wind, 
Tagh, choose, 
Taisg, lay up, 
Taom, pour, 
Tarruing, draw, 
Teagaisg, teach, 
Teanail, gather, 
Teasairg, save, 
Teirig, wear out, 
Thig, come, 
Thoir, thabhair, give, 














Dh' 6b, 

Dh' oibrich, 

Dh' 61, 

Dh' orduich, 






















































Past Participle. 

, MilJte, 
Olta, oilte, 
Air pilltinn, 



S^bhta, sdibhte, 

S^thta, saithte, 



Seargta, seargte, 




Sgapta, Sgapte, 


Sgathta, sgathte, 




Sgriobhta, sgriobhte 




Snamhta, snaimhte, 
Spothta, spothte, 


Taghta, taghte, 







Air teachd. 

Present Participle. 
A mealtuinn. 
A mealladh. 
A measadh. 
A meilleadh. 
A milleadh. 
A mlneachadh. 
A mionnuichte. 
A mosgladh. 
A muthadh. 
A narachadh. 
A nasgadh. 
A nigheadh. 
Ag obadh. 
Ag oibreachadh. 
Ag 61. 

Ag orduchadh. 
A p^igh. 
A pasgadh. 
A pianadh. 
A pilltinn. 
A putadh. 
A reiceadh. 
A reubadh. 
A ruathradh. 
A ruigheachd, a ruigsiniu 
A ruith. 
A s^bhadh. 
A salachadh. 
A saltairt. 
A saoilsinn. 
A sMadh. 
A stiiiradh. 
A seachnadb. 
A sealltuinn. 
A seargadh. 
A seasamh. 
A seideadh, a seidiL 
A sgaineadh. 
A sgaoileadh. 
A sgapadh. 

A sgaradh, a sgarachduinn, 
A sgathadh. 
A sgeaduchadh, 
A sgoltadh. 
A sgriobadh. 
A sgriobhadh. 
A sguabadh. 
A sgurachd, a sgur, 
A smuaineachadh. 
A snaidheadh. . 
A snkgadh. 
A snaimeadh. 
A snamhadh. 
A sniomh. 
A spoth adh. 
A srachdadh. 
A tachairt. 
A tachras. 
A taghadh. 
A tasgadh. 
A taomadh. 
A tarruing. 
A teagasg. 
A teanaladh. 
A teasairginn. 
A teicheachd. 
A teireachduinn. 
A teachd, a tighinn. 
A toirt, a tabhairt. 




Tilg, throw, 
Tionndaidh, turn, 
Tionsgail, contrive, 
Tionsgain, begin, 
Tiormaich, dry, 
Tochail, dig. 
Tog, lift, 
Togair, desire, 
Toinn, twist, 
Toisich, begin, 
Trkig, forsake, 
Treoruich, lead, 
Tuig, understand, 
Tuirling, descend, 
Txi'isMch, fall, 
Tuit, fall, 
Uigheamaich, dress, 
Uraich, renew. 


















Dh' uigheamaich, 

Dh' iiraich. 

Past Participle. 







Togta, togte, 



Air tuiteam, 
Uraichte, . 

Present Participle. 

A tilgeadh, a tilgeil. 

A tionndadh. 

A tionsgladh. 

A tionsgnadh. 

A tiormachadh. 

A tochladh. 

A togail. 

A togradh. 

A toinneamh. 

A tbiseachadh. 

A treigsinn. 

A treoruchadh." 

A tuigsinn. 

A tuirling. 

A tuisleachadh. 

A tuiteam. 

Ag uigheamachadh. 

Ag iirachadh. 


Ta or tha 


I am. 
thou art. 
he is. 

Ta or tha 


< thu, 
te, h( 

C sinn, 

< sibh, 
t iad, i 

ye are. 
they are. 



I was. 
thou wert. 

( mi, / wa 

' < thu, thoii 
f_e, he is. 

(.iad, they are. 

„. ( mi, / shall or will 

(. se, he shall 

p, C sinn, tve shall or will 

Bithldh ^ ^'^^' y^ *'^"" 


\^ iad, they shall 

■ be. 


t Am bheil 

Am bheil 

< thu, 
{_ e, is 


< thu 


am I? 
art thou? 
is he ? 

are we ? 

are you ? 

are they ? 

/ am not. 
thou art not. 
he is not. 


ur. S 


Nach 'eil 

sinn, we are not. 
sibh, you are not. 
iad, they are. not. 

am I not ? 
art thou not ? 
he not ? 

(mi, < 
< thu, 
(e, is 

p. (sinn, are we not? 

XT 1- ', ■i\ sibh, are you not?- 

Nach eil J • . r, . , 

(.iad, are they not? 

An robh 

< thu, 


was I? 
wert thou ? 
was he ? 

An robh 

Cha robh 

Nach robh 


< thu, 
(.e, ht 

(mi, i 

< thu, 
(e, w. 

were you f 
were they ? 

I was not. 
thou wert not. 
he was not. 

„. ( sinn, we were not. 

. iad, they were not. 

were I riot ? 
wert thdu not ? 
was he not ? 

p. ( sinn, were we not ? 

Nach robh ]^''^'''"^''"^r'"'// 
(. iad, were they not ? 


( mi, shall or will I'l 

V- \ thu, shalt thou > 6e ? 

( e, shall he ) 

pj ( sinn, shall or will we 
sibh, shall you 
[ iad, shall they 

> ",'. -J sibh, shall you \be? 

(^ iad, shall they ) . 

Cha bh 

. < thu, 
(^e, h( 

I shall or will not 
thou shalt not 
he shall not 

PJ ( sinn, we shall or will not 

rVi hii" J sibh, you shall not 
(^ iad, they shall 

Sing. ) 
Nach bi 

.Nach bi 

mi, shall or will I not 
■j thu, shalt thou not 
l_ e, shall he not } 

( sinn, sImII or will we not 
■I sibh, shall you not 
(. iad, shall they not 




* Dean, do, ox make, and rach, go, are often used as auxiliary verbs; as, dean luidhe, lie down; dean seasamh, stand; literally, 
make a lie doxon ; make a stand ; chaidh mo chreachadh, J iw« plundered, i. e. my plimdering is gone or past ; rachadh mo bhualadh, / xvould 
be struck, i. e. the striking of me would have passed or happened. These auxiliaries are declinable with all the conjunctive and adverbial 

f Am bheil is, almost always, pronounced 'm bheil or bheil; in some districts of the Highlands, as in Badenoch, they say am beil. 

I 'Eil for bheil. After tlie conjunctive particles cha, nach, mur, bheil is written 'eil ; and in order to separate the two vowels, and also 
to prevent an hiatus, we insert the letter n, and write cha 'n 'eil, rather tlian cha 'eil. 






Ma bhitheasf 


Sing, y 

Ma bhitheas 



Sing. \ 

Plur. ( 


Bhithinn, / would 
Bhitheadh tu, thou wouldst 
Bhitheadh e, he would 

Bhitheamaid, or Bhitheadh sinn, we would'\ 
Bhitheadh sibh, you would > be. 

Bhitheadh iad, they would j 

Bithinn, would I 'i 

Bitheadh tu, wouldst thou \ be. 
Bitheadh e, would he 

Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, would we 
Bitheadh sibh, would you 
Bitheadh iad, would they 
'RiXhrna, if I would '\ 

Bitheadh tu, if thou wouldst \ be. 
Bitheadh e, if he would } 

Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, if we would 
Bitheadh sibh, if you would 
Bitheadh iad, if they would 

Future. \ 

■ mi, if I shall or will 'J 
if thou shall or wilt \ be. 
if he shall or will j 

le, i 
( sinn, i 
< sibh, i 
I iad, if 

pt I sinn, if we shall or will ~i 

if you shall or will V be. 
if they shall or will j 


e- ( Bhithinn, / would not, ^J ' \ Bhitheadh tu, thou wouldst not > be. 
(^ Bhitheadh e, he would not ) 

p, C Bhitheamaid, or Bhitheadh sinn, we would not' 
f^, ' < Bhitheadh sibh, you would not 
{_ Bhitheadh iad, they would not 







Bithinn, would I not 
Bitheadh tu, wouldst thou not 
Bitheadh e, would he not 

pj C Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, would we not ~i 
■^ / -J Bitheadh sibh, would you not \be? 

{_ Bitheadh iad, would they not ' } 


C Bitheam, let me be. 
Sing. < Bi, bi-sa, bi thusa, be thou. 
(^ Bitheadh e, let them be. 

( Bitheamaid, let us be'. 
Plur. < Bithibh, be you. 

{_ Bitheadh iad, let them be. 


A bhith, do bhith, to be. 

Perf Air bhith, having been. 
Put. Gu bhith, ri bhith, to be, or about to he. 

IS, am. 

le, e 

or raise, it is I. 

tusa, it is thou. Sing 

esan, it is he. 

■pj C sinn, sinne, it is we. 
J ■ < sibh, sibhse, it is you. 
(^iad, iadsan, it is they. 


mhise, it luas T. 
was thou, 
was he. 

C Bu sinn, sinne, it was we. 
< Bu sibh, sibhse, it was you. 
(^ B' iad, iadsan, it was they. 

C Bu mhi, or mh 
, < Bu tu, tusa, it 
(. B' e, esan, it w 









Arn mi, or raise, is it I? 
An tu, tusa, is it thou ? 
an e, esan, is it he''. 

An sinn, sinne, is it we? 
An sibh, sibhse, is it you ? 
An iad, iadsan, is it they ? 

mi, or raise, is it not I ? 
tu, tusa, is it not thou ? 
e, esan, is it not he ? 

Tsinn, sinne, is it not we? 

< sibh, sibhse, is it not you ? 
t iad, iadsan, is it not they ? 

C mhi, or mhise, it is not I. 

< tu, tusa, it is not thou. 
\ 'n e, esan, it is not he. 

( sinn, sinne, it is not we. 

< sibh, sibhse, it is not you. 

t 'n iad, iadsan, it is not they. 


o- C bu mhi, or mhise, was it I? 
■ ^" < bu tu, tusa, wa^ it thou ? 



(^ b' e, esan, was it he ? 

C bu sinn, sinne, was it we ? 
< bu sibh, sibhse, was it you ? 


Sing. S 
Nach I 

Plur. 5 

Nach I 

Sing. S 
Cha i 

Plur. 5 
Cha I 

b' iad, iadsan, was it they ? 

bu mhi, or mhise, was it not I ? 
bu tu, tusa, was it not thou'? 
h' e, esan, was it not he ? 

bu sinn, sinne, was it not we? 
bu sibh, sibhse, was it not you ? 
b' iad, iadsiin, was it not they ? 

bu mhi, or mhise, it was not I. 
bu tu, tusa, it was not thou. 
b' e, esan, it was not he. 

bu sinn, sinne, it was not we. 
bu sil)h, sibhse, it was not you. 
b' iad, iadsan, it was not they. 

Bitheadh is often contracted biodh. 

t Bhitheas is often written bhios, both in prose and in verse. 



(.e, e 


or mise, if it be I. 
tusa, if it be thou. 
esan, if it be he. 

p. ( sinn, sinne, if it be we. 
Vj^^'k sibh, sibhse, if it be you. 
^ ^ {_ iad, iadsan, if it be they. 



bu mhi, or mhise, if it were I. 
were tltou, 
were he. 

C bu mhi, or inhis€ 

, ^' < bu tu, tusa, if it 

(. b' e, esan, ifitu 

rbu sinn, sinne, if it ■ 

' < bu sibh, sibhse, if it 

\_ b' iad, iadsan, if it v 



bu sinn, sinne, if it were we. 
were you. 
if it were they. 


The Preterite Affirmative of Neuter Verbs, and the Future of the Negative or Interrogative Mood of Active Verbs, 
are often used impersonally ; as, ghuileadh, bttailear, gluaisear, faicear, faighear. Any verb used in this way may be 
declined with the compound pronoun learn, through all its persons ; yet it is not accounted so elegant to express the 
pronoun, as to leave it to be supplied according to the sense of the context. The impersonal verbs are used after this 

„. ( leam, / 

/'"?• Ileat, <Ao« 
Buailear |j^;^;^^ 

V sti-uck. 



leibh, we 
leinn, ye 
leo, they 

> struck. 


The Irregular Verbs are reckoned ten ; seven of the first conjugation, viz. dean, cluinn, beir, rach, ruig, thig, thoir, 
or thabhair ; and three of the second, viz.faic,faigh, abair: 


DEAN, make. 





(mi, I 

< thu, i 
(.e, Ae 

C sinn, 

< sibh, 
( iad, t 




I shall or will 
made. "X.'^' ^ thu, thou shalt or wilt 

he shall or will 

we shall or will 
made. \r^' ' -J sibh, ye shall or will 

they shall or will 





(mi, 7 
< thu, 
(.e, he 



An do rinn 

did I 
didst thou 
did he 

did we 

did ye 

did they 

did I 

didst tho 
did he 

Plur ( ^'""' '^^^ ^^ 

An do rinn 

C mi, did I "^ 

< thu, didst thou > 
{^ e, did he J 




Nach do rinn 

C mi, did I 1 

< thu, didst thou V 
(^ e, did he J 


make ? 

Cha do rinn 

(^ iad, did they 

f mi, . 
< thu, 

make ? 

I did not 
thou didst not 
he did not 

we did not 

p. C smn 

(. iad, they did not 

- make. 

- make. 

An dean 

An dean 

Nach dean 

Nach dean 

Cha dean 

Cha dean 

< thu 
*e, s 

( mi, • 

< thu, 
(e, si 



• make? 

shall or will I 
shalt or wilt thou 
shall or will he 

( sinn, shall or will we "l 

< sibh, shall or will ye V make ? 
(. iad, shall or will they J 

shall or will I not "J 
shalt or wilt thou not 
shall or will he not 

( sinn, shall or will we not 

< sibh, shall or will ye not 
(^ iad, shall or will they not 

C mi, / shall or will not 

< thu, thou shalt or wilt not 
\ e, he sludl or will not 

( sinn, we shall or will not , 

< sibh, ye shall or will not 
(. iad, they shall or will not 












ing. S 
an t 



Dheanainn, / would or could 
Dheanadh tu, thou would or couldst 
Dheanadh e, he would or could 

Dheanamaid, we wmdd or could 
Dheanadh sibh, ye would or could 
Dheanadh iad, they would or could 

deanainn, if I would or could 
deanadh tu, if thou wouldst or couldst 
deanadh e, if he would or could 

deanamaid, if we would or could 
deanadh sibh, if ye would or could 
deanadh iad, if they would or could 




• make, 


( Deanam, let me make. 
Sing. < Dean, make thou. 

\^ Deanadh e, let him make. 

C Deanamaid, let us make. 
Plur. < Deanaibh, make ye. 

{^ Deanadh iad, let them make. 



Mani ' 

Mur dean 

Mur dean 


r mi, if I shall or will '\ 

thu, if thou shalt or wilt \make. 

[ e, if he shall or will } 

' sinn, if we shall or will "J 

^ sibh, if ye shall or will \ make. 

iad, if they shall or will } 
' mi, if I shall or will not 

thu, if thou shalt or wilt not 
. e, if he shall or will not 

■ sinn, if we shall or will not 'J 
sibh, tfye shall or will not V make. 
iad, if they shall or will not j 



A dheanamh, to do, or make. 

A, or ag deanamh, doing or making. 




te, hi 

I was "i 
thou wert V made, 
he was ) 

we were 

ye were 

they were 





f mi, 

< thu, 
\_e, h< 


I shall or will be "J 

thou shalt or wilt be y made, 

he shall or will be } 

we shall or will be '\ 

ye shall or will be \ made, 

they shall or will be j 


An do rinneadh 

An do rinneadh 

Nach do rinneadh 

Phtr. \ 

Nach do rinneadh 

Sing. \ 

Cha do rinneadh ' 

Cha do rinneadh 

■ mi, was I 'J 
thu, wert thou \made? 
e, was he } 

sinn, were we 'J 

sibh, were ye > made ? 

iad, were they J 

mi, was I not 1 

thu, wert thou not > made ? 

e, was he not } 

sinn, were we not 'J 

sibh, were ye not > made? 

iad, were they not 

mi, / was not 

thu, thou wert not 
. e, he was not 
' sinn, we were not "i 

sibh, ye were not \ made. 

iad, they were not } 



An deanar 

( mi, s. 
< thu, 
t e, sh 

An deanar 

Nach deanar 

Nach deanar 

Cha deanar 

Cha deanar 

( mi, s/ 
< thu, i 
t e, s/ta 

< thu, 
(e, A< 


shall or it)i/Z / be 
shalt or wilt thou be 
shall or will he be 

shall or will we be 

shall or will ye be 

shall or will they be 

shall or will I not be 
shalt or wilt thou not be 
all or will he not be 

C sinn, shall or will we not be 

< sibh, shall or wzVZ ye not be 
[^ iad, sAaZ/ or will they not be 

I shall or will not be 
thou shalt or wilt not be 
he shall or luill not be 

( sinn, we shall or will not be 

< sibh, ye shall or will not be 
(^ iad, they shall or wJZZ not be 

made ? 


■ made ? 


■ made. 




(mi, i 
< thu, 
^e, he 



/ would or could be 
thou wouldst or couldst be 
he would or could be 
pi ( sinn, we would or could be 


. made. 

sibh, ye would or could be 
l^ iad, they would or could be 





„. •' mi, if I shall or will be 

M '"^ii J *'^"' if^^^^ shalt of wz7< 6e 
e, i/" he shall or rujVZ 6e 


C sinn i/" Jiie shall or wi/Z fie 
< sibh, if ye shall or wiZZ be 
{^ iad, i/^ tAey shall or wt/Z fie 

> made. 



Nan deantadh 


mi, if I would or could be "1 

if thou wouldst or couldst be \ made, 
if he would or could be 3 

i mi, if 
< thu, t' 

Nan deanar 


mi, t/" 7 shall or wiZZ 6e "J 

if thou sfuxlt or «JtZ< be > made. 

(mi, 1 
< thu. 

i/" /ie shall or wi// 6e 3 

P, .' sinn, ty «'e would or couW 6e 1 

Nan deantadh 

Tsmn, ifwi 
< sibh, if y, 
{_ iad, i/' the 

ye would or couW be > made, 
they would or couZd fie 3 

p. C sinn, ly we sWZ or will be "J 

„ , ■ < sibh, if ye shall or will be > made. 
(. iad, i/" (feey sftaZZ or will be ) 


Dean tar 

Plur. I 
Deantar i 

f mi, i 
■J thu, 
le, le 

let me be 'I 
be thou > made. 

Deanta, deante, done. 

let him he j 

sinn, let us be '\ 
sibh, ie ye \made. 

iad, let them be J 

CLUINN, hear. 





„. I mi, 7 heard, or did "J 

riT^'i \ '-^"' '^"^ heardst, or didst > hear. 
*"'*"^' ' - he heard, or did ) 


< thu, 
f^e, A( 

( sinn, 

j < sibh, 



' sinn, we heard, or did "i 

2/e heard, or rfed V /tear. 
Mey heard, or tZitZ 3 

„. ( mi, 7 sAaZZ or will "i 

. . J'. .. ^ tu, thou shalt or wJZ< V hear. 
( se, Ae sAaZZ or will } 

sinn, we shall or wiZZ "i 

ye sAaZZ or will ' Aear. 


f smn, 

l^iad, . 

they shall or will J 




did I 1 

<iicZs< thou > Aear ? 
dicZ Ae ) 

An cual 

Nach cual 

Nach cual 

did me "J 

, did ye \ hear ? 
did they j 

did I not '\ 

didst thou not > Aear ? 
did he not ) 

(mi, I 

< thu, 
(e, di 

( sinn, di 

< sibh, dit 
( iad, did 


did we not 
. did ye not \ hear ? 
did they not ) 

„. ( mi, 7 did not "i 

rVi h 1 i ^^^' '^"^ di^^^ '*"' / /«^''"■• 
( e, Ae did not } 

Cha chual 

we did not 

ye did not ^ Aear. 

they did not } 



„. ( mi, shall or will I "i 

• ^ ,^' < thu, sAaZf or wilt thou > Aear ? 
^''''^'''''''le, shall or will he j 

An clui 

Nach cluin 


Nach cluinn 

Cha chluinn 

Cha chluinn 

(sinn, sAaZZ 

< sibh, sAaZZ 
nn I . J , ,, 

(^ iad, sAaZZ ( 


inn I ', 
l^e, si 

( sinn, 

< sibh, 
(.iad, j 


< thu, 
(e, A« 

shall or wJZZ we "i 

or wiZZ j/e ' Aear ? 

or wiZZ they j 

mi, sAaZZ or will I not 'J 
u, sAaZt or wilt thou not \ hear? 
shall or will he not j 

sinn, shall or will we not "i 

, shall or wiZZ j/e not \ hear ? 
shall or will they not J 

I shall or will not 1 
tliou shalt or wtZf not > Aear 
Ae sAoZZ or will not 3 

sinn, we shall or wi'ZZ nof "i 

ye sAaZZ or wtZZ Twt }■ hear. 

( smn, 
< sibh, 
(.iad, i 

tAey shall or wi'ZZ noZ 3 



( Chluinninn, 7 cojiZd or would 1 

iSJnjf. < Chluinneadh tu, *Aou couldst or wouldst > Aear. 

( Chluinneadh e, Ae could or would } 

( Chluinneamaid, we cotdd or would "J 

PZur. < Chluinneadh sibh, ?/e couZd or would > Aear. 

(. Chluinneadh iad, they could or would ) 

Ma chluinneas 


mi, »/■ 7 sAaZZ or will 1 

i/" <Ao!i sAaZ< or wilt > Aear. 


i/'Ae shall or wiZZ 3 

p. ( sinn, if we shall or will "i 

., , , • ' s sibh, if you shall or will > 

Ma chlumneas|i^j^ ^^^;^^^ ^^^„ ^^ ^^.,;| 





i Cluinneam, let me hear. 
Sing. < Cluinn, hear thou, or do thou hear. 
(^ Cluinneadh e, let him hear. 

C Cluinneamaid, let us hear. 
Plur.< Cluinnibh, hear ye. 

(.Cluinneadh iad, let them hear. 

A chluinntinn, to hear. 


A cluinntinn, hearing. 





f mi, / n 
< thu, th 
{_e, he w 


I was 
hou wert \ heard, 
was 3 



Sinn, we were "1 

sibh, ye were V heard. 

iad, they were j 


I shall or will be "^ 
thou shall or wilt be > heard, 
e shall or will be ) 

' sinn, we shall or will be "i 
sibh, ye shall or will be > heard. 
. iad, they shall or will be j 

< thu, 
f.e, hi 


An cualadh 

An cualadh 

( mi, was I "i 

< thu, wert thou \ 
(. e, was he J 


were we 

were ye 

were they 

heard ? 

heard ? 

Nach cualadh 

Nach cualadh 

(mi, 1 
< thu, 


was I not ■J 

wert thou not\ heard ? 
was he not ) 

sinn, were we not 

sibh, were ye not J- heard ? 

iad, were they not y 


An cluinnear 

An cluinnear 

Nach cluinnear 

Nach cluinnear 


shall or will I be "i 
shalt or wilt thou be > heard ? 
shall or will he be } 

sinn, shall or will we be "i 

sibh, shall or will ye be V heard? 

iad, shall or will they be J 

rmi, ^ 
< thu, 
(.e, si 


^ thu 
(e, s 


shall or will I not be 


shall or will he not be j 

sinn, shall or will we not be 'J 

sibh, shall or will ye not \ heard ? 

iad, shall or will they not be } 



< thu, 


I could or would be '\ 

thou couldst or wouldst be > heard, 
he could or would be j 


■ sinn, we could or would be "i 
sibh, ye could or would be \ heard. 
'_ iad, they could or would be j 

Mu chluinnear 

Mu chluinnear 


' mi, if I shall or will be "J 

if thou shalt or wilt be S heara. 
' he shall or will be J 

Sinn, if we shall or wiZZ 6e"i 

sibh, if ye shall or wiZZ be y heard. 

iad, ty they shall or wi/Z 6e J 

( mi, i/ 

< thu, if 

Sing. - 

(mi, , 
< thu, 
(e, le 


let me be '\ 

, be thou > heard, 
let him be } 


let us be 'I 

be ye , V heard, 
let them be ) 

THIG. come. 



< thu. 


I came, or did 
thou earnest or didst 
he came or did 

■ come. 

pj . ( sinn, we came, or did ~ 
™^ . ; < sibh, ye came, or did 
P f. iad, they came, or did \ 




o (e, h, 


I shall or will 
thou shalt or 
he shall or wi 


we shall or will 
, ye shall or wi7Z > 
ZAey iAoZZ or wjZZj 

III -i 

ir ttJeZi > 
II } 

ill ) 

ZZ { 




An d' thainig 


did I 
did he 

C mi, did I "1 

< thu, didst thou > < 
i^ e, did he y 

An d' thainig 


( mi, s, 

^;]thu, , 

° {_e, sh( 

i sinn, ; 
< sibh, , 
(.iad, s 


shall or will I. 
shalt or wilt thou \ come ? 
shall or will he J 

sinn, shall or will we 1 

shall or will ye > come ? 
shall or will they J 


(vai, I came not, or did not 
e, he came not, or did not 

An tig 

rVi H ' t h ' 'o-'i *•'*"' '^" earnest not, or dicfct no< ' 



Sinq (mi, did I Tiot ' 

"' J thu, didst thou not 

Nachd' thainig 


Nach d' thainig 




e, did he not 

did we not 

did ye not 

did they not . 

mi, shall or will I not 
thu, shalt or wi/i <Aom not > come ? 
sAaZZ or will he not } 

Plur ( ^mn, shall or vnll we not 1 
L /■ \ sibh, sAaZZ or will ye not \ come ? 
° t iad, shall or will they not } 


I shall or will not 'J 
thou shalt or wilt not > come. 
Ae shall or wiZZ TWt I 


7;. Uv 



Cha tig 

p. ( sinn, we came noZ, or did not 1 

rh H' th' " ' » sibh, 2/e came not, or did woZ > come. 
° 'iad, Z/tey came not, or did noZ ) 

Cha tig 

: < thu, 


smn, we shall or wiZZ not 
sibh, ye sftaZZ or will not 
iad, Z^ej/ sAaZZ or will not 





( Thiginn, / would "J 

Sing. < Thigeadh tu, thouwouldst >come. 

t Thigeadh e, he would J 

( Thigeamaid, we would 1 

Plur. < Thigeabh sibh, ye would \ come. 

{^ Thigeadh iad, they would j 

e- ( Tiginn, if I had or would 1 

TSi i Tigeadh thu, if thou hadst or wouldst J- come. 

t Tigeadh e, ly he had or would 

p, f Tigeamaid, ly we Aad or would ~i 
■^ ' < Tigeadh sibh, if ye had or would > come. 
{^ Tigeadh iad, if they had or would j 


'■ < sibh, 
'^(iad, ! 

Ma thig 

mi, if I shall or wiZZ 

if thou shalt or wiZZ ^ come, 
i/" Ae iAaZZ or will 

sinn, ty we sAaZZ or will "1 

ly j/e sAaZZ or will \ come, 
if they shall or will ) 


„. ( Tiginn, if I had or would not 'J 

A/fi.' \ Tigeadh thu, if thou hadst or wouldst not \come. 


{^ Tigeadh e, if he had or would not 

PZ«r. f Tigear'slnn!" } '^"'^ '""^ °'" ««^^'^ «<" 
Mar J Tigeadh sibh, if ye had or would not 
' Tigeadh iad, ay ZAe?/ had or would not 



C Thigeam, let me come. 
Sing. < Thig, come thou. 

( Thigeadh e, let him come. 

( Thigeamaid, let us come. 
Plur. < Thigibh, come ye. 

{^ Thigeadh iad, let them come. 


A thighinnn, 
A theachd 


A tighinn, 1 
Ateachd. r"'""'^- 


BEIR, bear. 


Preterite. Future, 

I bore. „. f mi, / shall or toiZZ bear. 

(mi, 11 
< thu, th 
{^i, she I 

'lou barest, 


Plur ( *'""' '"^ '^'^*' 

Rue' i ^'^^' y^ *"'■*• 
^ (.iad, they bore. 


f mi, 

< thu, 

l_ si, Si 

( sinn, 

< sibh, 
(iad, I 

thou shalt or wilt bear, 
she shall or will bear. 

we shall or will bear. 

ye shall or will bear. 

they shall or will bear. 




An do rag 

(mi, i 
^ thu, 
t i, di 

Preterite. . 

did I bear ? 
didst thou bear ? 
did she bear ? 

r,, ( sinn 

Plur. » - - 

An do rug 

did we bear ? 

< sibh, did ye bear ? 
f^iad, did they bear? 

C mi, / bore not, or did not 

CVt tl' rt <rk ^^^' '^'''' borest not, or didst 
° (^ i, she bore not, or did not 


not > bear. 

p. C sinn, we bore not, or did not 

Ch f\ ' » ^'^^' y^ bore not, or did 

° (^ iad, fAey 6ore wof, or did not ] 

Nach do rug 


C mi, did 
< thu, dii 
(. i, did s 

did / not 1 

didsf fAoM not V 6ear ? 
sAe not y 

{ sinn, did we not "J 

Nachdo'rug^'^\'^^,f ""^J 
° (_ lad, did they not ) 

bear ? 

Am beir 

< thu 

Am beir 

Cha bheir 

f mi, 
< thu, 
ti, sh 

shall I bear ? 
, shalt thou bear? 
shall she bear ? 

shall we bear ? 

shall ye bear ? 

shall they bear ? 

I shall or will not 
thou shalt or wilt not K bear. 
she shall or will not * 


"i pi f i sinn, we shall or will not "i 

> bear. ^, bheir 1 *'^^' ^* s^"^^ or wiZi no( > fiear. 

3 (^ iad, they shall or wiZZ no< } 

Nach beir 

Nach beir 

fmi, ; 
< thu, 
( i, sh 

shall I not "i 
shalt thou not > bear ? 
shall she not y 

shall we not 

shall ye not \- bear ? 


shall they not ) 





{ Bheirinn, / could or would "i 

< Beireadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst \ bear. 
(^ Bheireadh i, she could or would J 

( Bheireadhmaid, we could or would 1 

< Bheireadh sibh, ye could or would > bear. 
(. Bheireadh iad, they could or would } 

Ma bheireas 



if I shall or will 
if thou shalt or wilt V bear, 
if she shall or will J 


p, C sinn, if we shall or will^ 

M hli ■' \ sihh, if ye shall or will \bear. 
{_ iad, if they shall or will y 


C Beiream, let me bear. 
Sing. < Beir, bear thou. 

(.Beireadh i, let her bear. 

C Beireamaid, lei us bear. 
Plur. < Beiribh, bear ye. 

(, Beireadh iad, let them bear. 


to bear. 

A bheirsinn, ) 
A bhreith, 5 


A beirsinn, ) , 
Abreith, '}*««"'^- 



( mi, / was "J 

Au \ tu, thou wast \ 
°^ {_e, he was ) 


p, C sinn, we were 


sibh, ye were 



„. r mi, / shall be 'J 
^ "' J thu, thou shalt be > born. 




e, he shall be 

smn, we shall be 

sibh, ye shall be ^ born. 


ad, they shall be ) 

Preterite. Preterite. 

An do rugadh 

An do njgadh 

< thu, 
(e, w 

was I "i 

wert thou \ born ? 
was he } 

' smn, were we 1 
sibh, were ye V bom ? 
[ iad, were they y 

„. (mi, / was not "i 

ing. y ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ \born. 

Cha do rugadh ^^^^'^^^^^^, j 

Cha do rugadh 

we were not 1 
, ye were not > born, 
they were not y 



Am beirear 

Am beirear 


shall I be 'J 
shall thou be i bom ? 
shall he be J 

shall we be "1 
, shall ye be \ bom ? 
shall they be ) 

(mi, i 
(.e, sh 

Cha bheirear 


I shall not be 
thou shall not be ^ bom, 
lie shall not be j 

Cmi, 1 
{ th", 
^e, lie 


we shall not be 1 
sibh, ye shall not be > bor 

m (si 

Plur. J . 

Cha bheirear i ?'""' ^^ °""" ""' "" i 
t iad, they shall not be ) 



„. C mi, / could or would be 'J 

byig. } ^^^ ^^^^ couldst or wouldst be \ 

Bhe.rteadh ^ ^^ /^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^„;^ j^ ) 

sinn, we could or would be ~i 


Nam beirteadh 

mi, if I could or would be 

< thu, 
(e, i/ 

if thou couldst or wouldst be \ born, 
if he could or would be J 


( sinn, 
< sibh, 
(.iad, i 

, ye could or would be \ bom. 
they could or would be J 

Ma bheirtear 

Ma bheirtear 

pj ( sinn, if we could or would be "i 

Nam be"rteadh | ''H'^'-f^f '""'/l °' '"'"f^ f ( *"''"■ 
(^ lad, 2f they could or would be J 


mi, i/" / shall be "J 

i/" <AoM shall be \ born, 
if he shall be ) 

(sinn, if we shall be ^l 

< sibh, if ye shall be > bom. 

(iad, ( 


, i/ they shall be ) 


5m jr. 
Beirthear, Beirtear 

Beirthear, Beirtear 

(mi, I 
< thu, 
(.e, le 

let me be 'J 
_, be thou V bom. 
let him be } 

let us be 
be ye 
let them be 

Air breith, bom. 



RACH, go. 



n- ( mi, / went, or did 'i 

/-ii -JL \ thu, thou wentesl, or didst >qo, 
Chaidh J ,' ^ , jj t ^ 

(^ e, he went, or did J 


' mi, / shall "1 

TVi ' H \ thU) ^■hou shall S- go. 
( e, he shall J 


sinn, we went, or did'\ 

( snin, 
< sibh, 
( iad, i 

, ye went, or did \ go. 
they went, or did ) 


( sinn, we shall "i 

', .■, < sibh, j/e shall > jfo. 

( iad, they shall J 


An deach 


' mi, did I 

didst thou ' 

' he 

An deach 

( mi, did I "1 

< thu, didst thou >go? 
( e, did he } 

( sinn, did we "i 
■ 1^ < sibh, did ye Kgo? 
(. iad, dtd they } 

Nach deach 

Nach deach ^ 

( mi, did I not "i 

< thu, didst thou not \go? 
( e, did he not } 

( sinn, did we not 
< sibh, did ye not 

■ „. ( mi, shal 

I irr/ 'J \ thu, sh 

in d theid | ', „ 

t e, shall 

p. (sinn, 



mi, shall or roiZZ / I 

shall or wiZt </(o« ' 

or will he j 

sinn, shall or wtVZ we "i 

shall or wtVZ j/e J- 

shall or wt/Z Mey J 


Nach d' theid 

iad, did they not , 


mi, sAa/Z or «)i7/ / not 

shall or wiZt thou not ' 
shall or will he not 


( mi, shall or wiV/ / not 1 
< thu, sAaZ< or wilt thou not > go 
( e, sAa/Z or will he not ) . 

p, (sinn, sAa// or wi/Z we not 1 

XT J. iT.V 'J •\ s'bh, «AaW or will ye not ygo 
Nach d theid ^j^j^ ^^^;; ^^ ^.^i ^f^^y „^^ j 



' Preterite. 

Cha deach 

Cha deach 

( mi, / did not "i 

< thu, thou didst not \ 
(^ e, he did not j 

I did not 

thou didst not ^go. 
he did not 

■we did not 
ye did not V go 
they did not 

Cha d' theid 

< thu, 
(e, ht 

Cha d' theid 


I shall or will not 
thou shall or wilt not 
he shall or will not 

we shall or will not "1 




sibh, ye shall or will not V go. 

iad, they shall or will not J 



( Rachainn, / would or could "i 

Sijtg.< Rachadh thu, thou wouldst or couldst ygo. 
{^ Rachadh e, he would or could j 

C Rachamaid, we would or could "i 
Plur. < Rachadh »ibh, ye would or could Vjro. 
t Rachadh iad, they would or could} 

Ma theid 

( mi) i 
< thu, 


if I shall or will ~i 
if thou shalt or wilt > go. 
if he shall or will } 

■pj ( sinn, if we sfiall or wiWi 

Ma thkd) ''^^'.f,r '\""/;°' "''■" P"- 
(, iad, if they shall or will ) 


, C Racham, let me go. 
Sing. < Rach, go thou. 

t Rachadh e, let him go. 

C Rachamaid, let us go. 
Plur. •! Rachaibh, go ye. 

(. Rachadh iad, let them go. 

A dhol, to go. 

A dol, going. 

RUIG, reach. 




I reached, 
thou reachedst. 
he reached. 

PJ f sinn, we reached. 
Rainig 1 

sibh, ye reached. 
iad, they reachecf. 




I shall or will 'J 
thou shalt or wilt \ reach, 
he shall or will ) 

( sinn, we shall or will^ 
,', \ sibh, ye shall or will > reach. 
{^ iad, they shall or will ) 

f mi, 
(e, ^ 

An do r^ini°: 

mi, did I 





mi, did I not 

didst thou not 
did he not 


thu, didst thou J- reach ? 
did he ) 

Tsinn, did we "J 

< sibh, did ye J- reach ? 

Plur. ^_^ _^ ^^ 

An do rkinig^ ?""',"' ."^.^'^ i 
" (.iad, did they ) 


An ruig 


Nach do rainig 

C mi, a 
< thu, 
{_ 6, di( 

reacA ? 


■ mi, s/m/^ / 

thu, shalt thou \reach'i 
_ e, shall he j 

An ruig j ''^^' f"5" f \reach^ 
" (. iad, shall they } 

„. C mi, / reached not, or die? no< 1 

f'h H A' ■ i ''''"' '^"^ reachedst not, or didst not breach. 
° {^c, he reached not, or did not ) 

( sinn, we reached not, or did not 1 

< sibh, ye reached not, or rfid not i reach. 

(.iad, <Aey reached not, or did nof 3 

f sinn, did we «o? "J 
N h rl ■ ■ 1 sibh, did ye not > i 
° (. iad, did ^Aey JJoi ) 

Cm'i, shall I not ~k 

< thu, shalt thou not > reach ? 

(^ e, shall he not ) 

■pj ( sinn, shall we not "J 

\&\h\i, shall ye not J-reacA? 

Nach ruig 

Nach ruig; 

" (. iad, shall they not j 

Cha ruig: 

mi, / shall or will not 1 

thou shalt or wi?< not > reach. 

< thu 

Ae sAa/^ or will not 

Cha do rkinig 


C sinn, we shall or ?«i/Z not "i 
^ < sibh, j/e sAaZZ or will not > reach. 

v/na ruig ^j^^^ ^j,^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ j 





C Raiginn, / would "> 

Sing. < Ruigeadh tu, thou wouldst preach. 

f^ Ruigeadh e, he would ) 

C Ruigeamaid, we would 1 

Plur. < Ruigibh, ye would > reach. 

f. Rnigeadh iad, they would ) 

mi, if I shall or will "J 

ijf thou shall or wilt > reach, 
if he shall or will } 

Plur \ *'""' if'"^^ shall or will "J 

sibh, if ye shall or will \ reach. 
iad, if they shall or will J 

Ma ruigeas 

Ma ruigeas 

f mi, 
< tu, i 



C Ruigeam, let me reach. 
Sing. < Ruig, reach thou. 

t Ruigeadh e, let him reach. 

( Ruigeamaid, let us reach. 
Plur. < Ruigibh, reach ye. 

(^ Ruigeadh iad, let them reach. 


to reach. 

A ruigsinn, I 
A ruigheachd, 5 


A ruigsinn, ) , . 
A ruigheachd, r^^'^*"^- 

THOIR, or THABHAIR* give. 




mi, / gave, or did 1 

thou gavest, or didst > give, 
he gave, or did ) 

or did 1 




I shall or will 'J 
, thou shalt or wilt ygive. 
he shall or will } 

we gave, 

ye gave, or did 

they gave, or did ) 


le, ) 

pi C sinn, we shall or will "J 
■RVipir 1 si'^^j 2/* «AaW or will > 

(. iad, <Aey shall or wiZi j 

Bheir i 


An tugt 
Plur. 5 


did I not 


An tug 


> giive ? 


Bheir 1 

Nach tug 

Nach tug ^ 

Cha tug 

Piur. I 
Cha tug I 


■ mi, did I 

thu, rfiidsf thou \ give : 
e, did he ) 

sinn, rfid we 
sibh, did ye 
iad, did they 


mi, / shall or wii/ 

thu, Mom shalt or wi/t Vs(ii;e. 

e, he shall or we7Z 3 

sinn, we shall or wi7Z 1 
sibh, 2/e sAa/Z or will > jrwe, 
iad, iAey shall or wiZZ 3 


mi, did I not "1 

thu, didst thou not > give ? 
e, did Ae not j 

sinn, did we not 1 
sibh, did ye not 
iad, did <Aey no< J 

mi, / did wo< 'J 

thu, <AoM didsf no< >give. 
e, Ae did not j 

sinn, we did not "i 
sibh, ye did not ^give. 
iad, they did not J 

> give ? 

Nach tug 

Nach tug 

fmi, < 

< thu, 
(.e, di 

( sinn, 

< sibh, 
° {_ iad, t 

didst thou not > 
did he not y 

did we not "1 
, did ye not \give 
did they not } 

give ? 

An toir 

An toir 

•. < thu, 
'"' (e, s) 



Nach toir 

Nach toir 

Cha toir 

Cha toir 



sAaZZ or will I 
shalt or wiZ< ZAou ygtve 
shall or i«iZZ Ae j 

sinn, sAaZZ or will we "J 
sibh, sAaZZ or will ye >give ' 
iad, shall or wiZZ f Aey J 


shall or wiZZ / rtot 
shalt or wiZ< ZAou not \ 
shall or will he not 

sinn, sAoZZ or will we not 1 
sibh, sAaZZ or will ye 7iot \ give ? 
iad, shall or will they not } 

I shall or will not '\ 
thou shalt or tuilt not \ give, 
he shall or will not j 

sinn, we shall or will not 'J 
sibh, ye shall or will not \give. 
iad, they shall or wiZZ noZ } 

(mi, 1 

< thu, 
(.e, sh 



< thu, 
(e, A< 


* Thabhair is also ■written tabhair. 

+ Tug is also written d' thug by some of our best writers. 





C Bheirinn, / could or would 1 

Sing. < Bheireadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst \give. 

{^ Bheireadh e, he could or would give j 

C Bheireamaid, we could or would 1 

Plur. < Bheireadh sibh, ye could or would > give. 

(. Bheireadh lad, they could or would j 


<j. C mi, if I shall or will 1 

r y?' ■ < thu, if thou shalt or wi" 
(. e, if he shall or «/; iZZ 


„. f toirinn, / would not 

Cha' i **'''^^<^^ t"> '^"^ wouldst not J. sfit;e. 
t toireadh e, Ae would not } 

^ing. \ 
Cha j 





Plur. ( 
Ma bheir I 



tugainn, / would not '\ 

tugadh tu, thou wouldst not Kgive. 
tugadh e, he would not j 

tugamaid, we would not 1 
tugadh sibh, 2/e wowZd wof \give. 
tugadh iad, they would not } 


sinn, if we shall or will "i 
sibh, if ye shall or will \ give. 
iad, if they shall or will j 

' toireamaid, we would not ~\ 
toireadh sibh, ?/e woaZrf wo( \give. 
. toireadh iad, they would not y 


( Thoiream, thugam, let me give. 
Sing. < Thoir, thug, give thou. 

(^ Thoireadh e, thugadh e, let him give. 

C Thoireamaid, thugamaid, let us give. 
Plur. < Thoiribh, thugaibh, give ye. 

t Thoireadh iad, thugadh iad, let them give. 


A thoirt, ) . 

A thabhairt, j '" ^*''"' 


A toirt, 
Atabhairt. i»''^*"i' 




Sing, y 


mi, I was "i 

Thueadh J ^^^' '^" ""**' > given. 
° (. e, Ae was J 

Plur. fsinn,«;e«;ere-J 
Thugadh ) ?'^\r "'^'■^ iS''""- 

o f tan rnjyti ti^pre 1 

(. iad, they were J 


< thu, 
(.e, hi 


I shall be "J 
thou shalt be > given, 
he shall be } 

C sinn, we shall be "J 
Bheirear J ?'^^' ^^ *^'' *? } given. 


(^ iad, they shall be } 

Cha tugadh 

Cha tugadh 

I was not "i 

th(m wert not > given, 
he was not } 

sinn, we were not 1 
sibh, ye were not \ given. 
iad, they were not J 

< thu, 
^e, ht 


An tugadh 

An tugadh 

An toirear 

An toirear 

"I thu 
(e, ti 

was I "1 

, wert thou % given ? 
was he ) 


were we 

ivere ye y given f 
were they J 

< thu, 
(.e, si 

shall I be 'J 
shalt thou be V given ? 
shall he be ) 

( sinn, shall we be 1 

< sibh, shall ye be \ given ? 

(. iad, shall they be J 

Cha toirear 


( mi, / shall hot be "l 
< thu, thou shalt not be > 
(_ e, he shall not be ) 

( sinn, we shall not be 1 
p, . < sibh, ye shall not be \ 
(. iad, they shall not be ) 






I would be ■J 

thou wouldst be > given, 
he would be ) 



< thu, 
(.e, hi 

( sinn, we would be "J 

< sibh, ye would be i 
(. iad, they would be ) 


Ma bheirear 

Ma bheirear 


( mi, if I shall be 1 

< thu, if thou shalt be \ given. 
(. e, if he shall be J 

C sinn, if we shall be "i 

< sibh, if ye shall be > given, 
( iad, if they shall be ) 



Cha tugtadh 


< thii, 

I would not he 
thou wouldst not 
he would not be 

< thu, 
(e, /e 

let me be ' 
_, be thou \ given, 
let him be j 


be > given. 

Cha tugtadh 


we would not be 

ye would not he \ given. 

they would not be j 





sinn, let us be 

sibh, be ye ^ given. 

iad, let them be J 


Chunna, or Chunnaic 

Chunna, or Chunnaic 

FAIC, see. 




I saw, OT did 'J 

thou sawest, or didst J- see. 
he saw, or did 

( sinn, we saw, or did 

< sibh, ye saw, or did >see 

l_ iad, they saw, or did 

(mi, 1 
(.e, he 


'id -i 

id \t 


' (e, hi 


I shall or will 
thou shall or wilt 
he shall or will 



p, ( sinn, we shall or will "i 

p, .' < sibh, ye shall or will V 

(. iad, they shall or will } 


Am fac 

Am fac 

Am faic 



did I 
didst thou 
did h^ 

smn, did we 
sibh, did ye 
iad, did they 


mi, shall I "1 

shall thou V see ? 
shall he } 

C sinn, shall we ~i 

( mi, did I 'J 

< thu, didst thou \ t 
l^e, did h^ J 

C sinn, did we "1 

< sibh, did ye \ i 
{^ iad, did they ) 


(mi, s 

< thu, 
\_ e, shi 


( mi, did I not "i 

. f • \ sibh, shall ye > see 


iad, sImU ihev 
Sing. Cha 'n fhac mi, / did not see. 
Plur. Cha 'n fhac sinn, we did not see 

Nach fhac 

J. thu didst thou not > see? 
\_ e, did he not } 

p, ( sinn, did we not 

XT t it \ sibh, did ye not 




Nach fhaic 

Nach fhaic 

(mi, s, 

< thu, 
(. e, sh 

( sinn, . 

< sibh, , 
(.iad, s 

' mi, shall I not '\ 

shalt thou not > see ? 
shall he not J 

' sinn, shall we not 
shall ye not 


shall they not} 

Sing. Cha 'n fhaic mi, / shall not see. 
Plur. Cha 'n fhaic sinn, w^ shall not see. 



Sitig. \ 
Nam J 

( Chithinn, / would '^ 

Sing. < Chitheadhthu, thou wouldst \see? 

l_ Chitheadii e, he would } 

( Chitheamaid, we would 'J 
Plur. < Chitheadh sibh, ye would \-see. 
(^ Chitheadh iad, they tvould j 

faicinn, if I would or could "i 

faiceadh thu, if thou wouldst or couldst >see. . 
faiceadh e, if he would or could j 



mi, if I shall "1 

if thou shalt V i 
if he shall } 

( sinn if we shall "^ 

a. chi I ■'. 

Ma"chi^^'''''''^^***°" ^***' 
(^ iad, if they shall } 

r faiceamaid, or ) .j.^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 
Plur. y faiceadh smn, j -^ \^ 

Nam^ faiceadh sibh, tfye would or could 

Cfaiceadh iad, if they would or could 



( Faiceam, let me see. 
Sing. < Faic, see thou. 

(. Faiceadh e, let him see. 

i Faiceamaid, let us see. 
Plur. < Faicibh, see ye. 

t Faiceadh iad, let them see. 


Dh' fhaicsinn, 




A faicinn, ) 
. e ■ ■ i seeing. 
A faicsmn, J " 







mi, / was "j 

Chunnacadh*)'^"' '^"^ ^'^'•', 
(^ e, he was 


C mi, / shall be 

< thu, thou shall be \seen. 


' sinn, we were "J 
sibh, ye were > seen. 
_ iad, they were y 


, I 

(. e, he shall be ) 
pj C sinn, we shall be 'J 
Ch'th ' "i sibh, ye sAa/Z ie \seeji. 
{^ iad, they shall be J 


Am facadh 

Am facadh 





( mi, was I 
thu, wert thou ,- 
e, was he ) 

' sinn, were we "i 

sibh, were ye > 

'_ iad, were they j 

Nach fhacadh mi, was I not seeni 
Nach fhacadh sinn, were we not seen ? 

Cha 'n fhacadh mi, / was not seen. 
Cha 'n fhacadh sinn, we were not seen. 




shall I be 
shalt thou be 
shall he be 

shall we be 

shall ye be 

shall they be 

Nach fhaicear mi, shall I not be seen''. 
Nach fhaicear sinn, shall we not be seen'? 

Cha 'n fhaicear mi, / shall not be seen. 
Cha 'n fhaicear sinn, we shall not be seen. 

Am faicear 

Am faicear 

r mi, shall I be "i 
< thu, shalt thou be > i 
' e, shall he be j 



^. Tmi, / would be 

-. . ^'.. ■? thu, thou wouldst be ^seen. 


e, he would be 


Nam faicteadh 

< thu 
'e, i 


if I would be ~i 

, if thou wouldst be \ seen, 
if he would be } 

PJ C sinn, we would be 1 

rVi't ju J sibh, ye wouW ie \i 
{_ iad, they would be } 

Ma chithear 


if I shall be 
if thou shalt be 
if he shall be \ 



PJ ( sinn, if we would be 1 

•NT _ r • 1 j\.\ sibh, if tie would be >i 
Nam faicteadh \ ■ a iA ;j i i 

(.iad, if they would be j 

PJ (sinn, if we shall be 1 

Ma cWthear ) ''^>.JCf *Y »*t C 
(^ lacl, ij they shall be ) 


Faicthear, } , . ■. , 

e ■ ' i let it be seen. 

faicear e 



Dh' fhaicinn, |^ 
Dh' fhaicsinn, \ 


FAIGH, get. 




Sing. ¥\\nMr m\, I got, ot did get. 
Plur. Fhuair sinn, we got, or did get. 

Sing. Gheibh mi, / shall or will get. 
Plur Gheibh sinn, ive shall or will get. 


Preterite. Future. 

Sing. An d' fhuair mi, did I get ? Sing. Am faigh mi, shall I get ? 

Plur. An d' fhuair sinn, did we get ? Plur. Nach faigh sinn, shall we get ? 

Sing. Nach d' fhuair mi, rfid / woi 5f«t? _ Sing, ^iach faigh mi, shall I not get? 

Plur. Nach d' fhuair sinn, did we not get? Plur. Nach faigh sinn, shalt we not get? 

Sing, Cha d' fhuair mi, / shall not get. Sing. Cha 'n fhaigh mi, / shall not get. 

Plur. Cha d' fhuair sinn, we shall not get. Plur. Cha 'n fhaigh sinn, we shall not get. 

* Also written Chunnacas. 




( Gheibhinn, / would or could 1 

Sing. < Gheibheadh tu, thou wouldst or couldst >get. 

(. Gheibheadh e, he would or could j 

^Gheibheamaidh, or ) 
p, J gheibheadh sinn, j 

we would or could 

J Gheibheadh sibh, ye would or could 
(. Gheibheadh iad, they would or could 



„. ^ faighinn, if I would or could 
»T ^' s faigheadh tu, if thou wouldst 


or couldst > jfe/. 

(^ faigheadh e, i/" Ae would or co2(W ) 

ffaigheamaid, or ) .. ,, ,. 

Plur.S faiiheadh sinn, j 'f """ ""'"''^ «■• ^""''^ 
Nam J faigheadh sibh, if ye would or could 

t. faigheadh iad, if they would or could 



Sing. ^T'-^/j'""", , )|^hu,]j:'if«^'Jy«'- 

Plur (»>nn,ifwe shall ^ 



( Faigheam, let me get. 
Sing. < Faigh, get thou. 

(. Faigheadh e, let him get. 

( Faigheamaid, let us get. 
Plur. < Faighibh, get ye. 

f. Faigheadh iad, let them get. 


A dh' fhaotuinn, ) , , 
A dh' f haghail, Y° 9<^*- 


A faotainn, V 
Afaghail, }s'^"*«g- 






C mi, / was "i 

< thu, thoti wert > 
{_ e, he was } 



C mi, / shall be 1 

< thu, thou shall be >got. 

(. e, he shall be ) 


( sinn, we were 'J 

Fhuaradh] ''^^' //'"''■" (f"'"'"^- 
{^ iad, they were J 

p. C sinn, we shall be "i 

p. .,,' <%ih\i, ye shall be \got. 
\_ iad, they shall be j 



An d' fhuaradh 

< thu, 


An d' fhuaradh 

mi, was I "i 

wert thou > found ? 
was lie J 

were we | 
were ye > found ? 
were they ) 

Sing. Nach d' fhuaradh mi, was I not got ? 
Plur. Nach d' fhuaradh sinn, were we not got ? 


n- Tmi, shall I be 

"' < thu, shall thou be % got ? 

Am faighear i i u i i. 
° {_e, shall he be 



C sinn, shall we be ~k 

A f 'o-Vi 1 *'^'^) s^o^' ye be >got? 
" (.iad, shall they be} 

Sing, Nach faighear mi, shall I not be got ? 
Plur. Nach faighear sinn, shall we not be got? 




I was 

C mi, / was 1 

^ thu, thou wert > 
{_ e, he was J 


Plur. fsinn,^e«;ere 1 

Gheibhteadh )*'^'^',f«'^''^ \ 
{_ iad, they were ) 


Ma gheibhear 

Ma gheibhear 

f mi, : 
< thu. 


if I shall be "1 
if thou shall be \^got. 
if he shall be 

if we shall be 

if ye shall be 

if they shall be 


Sing. Nam faighteadh mi, if I would be got. 
Plur. Nam faighteadh sinn, if we would be got. 

Faightear, faighear e, let it be got. 



ABAIR, say. 




mi, / said, or did 'i 

thou saidst, or didst J- 
he said, or did ) 

( mi, 

< thu, 

{_e, ht 



(.e, ht 

I shall or will "J 
thou shalt or wilt \ say. 
he shall or will } 

C sinn, we said, or did ^ 

Thubhairt) ''^^' f '"^^' °^ '^'j^ , r"^- 
^ lad, they said, or did } 

pj Tsinn, we shall or U)i// 'J 
Thfir 1 *'^^> y^ shall or will \ say, 
{_ iad, they shall or wiZ^ J 




An dubhairt i 

C mi, dirf 7 

< thu, didst thou ^sayi 


An dubhairt 

irt i 

e, did he 

sinn, dirf we "i 
sibh, rftrf 2/e >«ay .' 
iad, did they j 

An abair 

(mi, ; 
< thu, 
(.e, sh 


shall or will I '\ 
shalt or wilt thou > say ? 
sAaZJ or M)i7i Ae } 

Plur C *'""' s^a^^ or will we "i 

An abair 1 "''j^' f "f ""^ '"^J} f J ^^^^ • 
^. iad, sliall or wzM they ) 


( mi, / said not, or did not 

Cha dubhairt i *''"' '^" sa^rf*' «o', or didst not 
[e, he said not, or did not \ 


Cha dubhairt 

Jrt i 

smn, we said not, or did not 'J 
sibh, ye said not, or did not \ say. 
iad, they said not, or did not ) 

Sing. Sf}''^f-^"°l \ 

Nach dubhairt) ^'^"'.ff' ^^"^ ""' \ 
(. e, did he not J 


Nach dubhairt 

f sinn, di 
< sibh, rfii 
(. iad, did 

did we not 'J 
did they not } 

Nach abair 


( mi, sAa 

< thu, sA( 


shall or wi/Z / not 
shalt or wiZi f Aom not ' 

or wi/Z /te not j 

Sinn, s/io/Z or will we not 

say ; 

C Sinn, shall or wiZZ we not '^ 
Nach abair ] ?'^,^' ^^"?' ""^ "!;?f ?"^ "°^ ^ *"y ■ 

iad, shall or wiZZ Z/tey woZ J 

Chaj 'n abair 

Cha 'n abair 

< thu, 

( sinn, 

lir 1 '''''^' 
(.iad, . 


I shall or wiZZ not 
thou shalt or wiZZ not 
he shall or ?<;tZZ not 

we shall or wiZZ not 

ye shall or wiZZ 7iot 

they shall or ?(;iZZ not 








( Theirinn, I would ^ 

< Theireadh tu, thou wouldst [• say. 
{_ Theireadh e, he would y 

( Theireamaid, we would 'I 

< Theireadh sibh, ye would \say. 
(.Theireadh iad, they would) 

C abairinn, abrainn, would I not "1 

"< abaireadh, abradh tu, wouldst thou not ^^say'f 
( abaireadh, abradh e, would he not } 

( abaireamaid, abramaid, would we not 

< abaireadh, abradh sibh, would ye not 

t abaireadh, abradh iad, ivould they not 


say : 



( Abaiream, abrara, let me say. 

< Abair, say thou. 

t Abaireadh, abradh, c, let him say. 

( Abaireamaid, abramaid, let us say. 
Plur. I Abairibh, abraibh, say ye. 

( Abaireadh, abradh iad, let them say. 


f, ( abairinn, abrainn, i/"/ woMZrf 'J 

Nan J abaireadh, abradh tu, if thou wouldst K say. 
(abaireadh, abradh e, if he would j 

pj ( abaireamaid, abramaid, if we would'^ 
■KT ' < abaireadh, abradh sibh, if ye would > say. 
( abaireadh, abradh iad, {f they would ) 

Ma their 


if I shall or will 
if thou shalt or wilt 
if he shall or will [ 

(sinn, if we shall or will 

(.e, ij 


Ma their]?''^*'''^2/es''«^^o''«^'^f \ 
(^iad, if they shall or will) 


A radh, to say. 


Ag radh, saying. 



Preterite. Ftitvre. 

Sing. •Thubhradh e, it was said. Sing. Theirear e, it shall be said. 


Preterite. Future. 

An dubhradh e, was it said ? An abairear, abrar e, shall it be said ? 

Nach dubhradh e, was it not said ? Nach abairear, abrar e, shall it not be said ? 

Cha dubhradh e, it was not said. Cha 'n abairear, abrar e, it shall not be said. 


Preterite. Future. 

Theirteadh e, it would be said. Ma theirear e, if it shall be said. 

Nan abairteadh e, if it would be said. 

Abairear, abrar e, let it be said. 


The defective Verbs are, Arsa, 01, Feudaidh, Theab, Tiucainn. 

ARSA, sai/s, said. 

Arsa, says, said, always precedes its verb, as, arsa Seunaas, said James. When it is declined with the personal 
pronouns, it throws theni into the emphatic form ; as, 

„. C mise, said I. p, C sinne, said we. 

\ \ thusa, saidst thou. A » sibhse, 

(.esan, or ise, said he or she. (^iadsan, said they. 

FEUDAIDH.f may. 

Preterite. Future. 

C mi, / was able. „. t mi, / may. 

'^< ihu, thott wert able. p' J^' ,,^t\\u, thou mayest. 

(. e, he was able. {^ e, he may. 

C sinn, we were able. p, C sinn, we may. 

. \ sibh, ye were able, t^ , . j, < sibh, ye may. 

-"d 1 .J ' ? , , Feudaidh 1 • . , i ^ 

(. lad, tliey were able. (. lad, tney may. 


Future. Future. 

Sinn f '"'' "^^ ^^ ^' f "^'' ^ "'"^ °' must not. 

Am feud \ ^^"' "'Ti '^"^ • Cha 'n^fheud ) ^^"' ''"'" '""2'*' °'' '"""' "*"• 

(. e, may he! (^ e, he may or must not. 

p, Tsmn, may we? p, (%mn, 7ue may ox mtist not.' 

Am feud ) ^'^}'' '^''yy^ • , Cha 'nfteud ] ?"^''',f '""^ °' «««< «o' 

(. lad, may they 7 {^ lad, they may or must not, 


Preterite. Preterite. 

f Dh' fheudainn, / migrA<. ~. C mi, if I may. 

Sing. \ Dh' flieudadh tu, thoti miqhtst. », jft"^' j \ thu, if thou mayst. 

i Dh' n,eudadh, he might. ^^ ^^ ^ ''^"^^ ( e, if he may. 

r Dh' fheudamaid, we migiA^ p. (sinn, if we may. 

< Dh' fheudadh sibh, we Twio/if. ,, .. jT' j \s.ih\i, if ye may. 

i Dh- fheudadh iad, tLy might. ^^ ^ ^^""^^ \ iad, if they Jay. 

Plur. < Dh' fheudadh sibh, ye miqht. »* j. «. ' j \ sibh, if ye may. 

i Dh- fheudadh iad, tLy might. ^^ ^ ^^""^^ \ iad, if they Jay 

Some write dubhradh, which rather belongs to the Irish dialect, t Feudaidh and/eW are often writtenyootfairfA and faod. 



Feudaidh is often and elegantly used impersonally, either with or without the compound pronoun. 

A; ( dhuinn, we must. 

(^ dhoibh, they must. 

Is fheudar 


dhomh, / must. 
dhuit, thou must. 
dha, he must. 

TIUCA INN, come along. 

Sing. Tiucainn, come along. Plur. Tiucainnibh, come ye along. 

THEAB, had almost. 


{_e, h( 


I had almost, 
thou hadst almost, 
he had almost. 



C sinn, 

we had almost. 

ye had almost. 

they had almost. 

An do theab 

< thu, 
(e, h( 

Plur. I 
An do theab ] 

Cha do theab 

Cha do theab 


had I almost ? 
hadst thou almost? 
had he almost ? 

sinn, had we almost ? 
sibh, had ye almost ? 
iad, had they almost ? 

I had not almost, 
thou hadst not almost, 
he had almost. 

' sinn, we had almost. 

sibh, ye had almost. 

. iad, they had almost. 


Sinu f "*'' ^'^'^ ^ ^°^ almost ? 

Nach do theab ) ^''"'' '?^'* ''f " '«'' i"^'^ ■ 
[^ e, had he not almost ? 

< thu, 
te, hi 

Nach do theab 

sinn, had we not almost? 
sibh, had ye not almost ? 
iad, had they not almost? 

^. Cmi, if I had not almost. 

Mur do^iheab) ^^^: if thou fiadst not almost. 
{_ e, tj he had not almost. 

pj (sinn, if we had not almost. 

Mur do iheab i '^J^^'fjl' ''ff^fT'^- 
t iad, i/ they had not almost. 


The Adverb, in Gaelic, expresses Place, Time, and Manner or Quality. Gu, before any adjective, imparts to it 
an adverbial meaning. 

Adverbs of Place, are such as signify, 

1 . Motion or rest in a place. 
A bhkn, bhan, down, downwards. 

A bhJm is a 'n airde, \ "P ""'S '^""'^J'^ 

( upwards and downwards. 

A bhos, bhos, on this side. 

A mach, mach, out, without. 

Air astar, afar. 

Air deireadh, ),,,., 

Air dheireadh, \ ^"'^' ''^^^^ost. 

Air thoiseach, ) ^ , ^ 

Airtoiseach, ]Jirst, foremost. 

Air tiis, frst, foremost. 

Am fad, afar. 

Am fagus, near, at hand. 

An cein, afar. 

An cois, near. 

An gar, near. 

An laimh, in custody, in hands. 

An sin, there. 

An so, here. 

An sud, yonder. 

An taic, close, adjoining. 

A steach, steach, within. 

A stigh, stigh, within. 

A thaobh, sideways. 

Bh^n, doivn, downwards. 

Bhos, on this side. 

C'^ite, where. 

Deas, south. 

Ear, east. 

Fas as, "J 

Fad air falbh, >far away. 

Fad air astar, } 

Faorus, ) 

^ ° ' } near. 

Fogus, 5 

Far, where, in which, 

lar, west. 

T ' ? below there. 
loras, ) 

Mach, ) ,, , 
HT ■ i! > Without. 
Muigh, 3 

Oir, east. 

Ris, exposed, bare, 

Shios, east, below there, or yonder, 

- Shuas, west, up there, or yonder, 

Tarsuing, across, 

Thall, on the other side. 

Thar, ^ 

Thair, V over. 

Thairis, ) 

Tuath, north. 

Uthard, up. 


2. Motion to, or towards a place. 

A leth-taobh, aside, to a side. 
A 'n airde, upwards, up. 
A nal!, to this side. 

. ' } to the other side ; over. 
A nunn, J 

Air ais, backwards. 

Air adhairt, } /• , , 


A sios, eastwards, downwards. 

A suas, upwards, westwards. 

Cia 'n tqohh ' \ '^'^*'^^'" ' *" what direction ? 
C* ionadh ? whither ? to what place ? 

Gus an'^irde deas, } '" "" '°^*'*' s*""^"-"^^- 
Gus an airde an ear, to the east, eastward. 

Gus^af airde tuath, } '" ^''' '"'^^^' northward. 

H-uig agus uaithe, to and fro. 

Le leathad, down hill. 

Leis, with. Or down, the stream. 

Mu 'n cuairt, round. 

Nail, hitherwards. 

■fj ' > <o <Ae o/Aer side. 

Ri bruthacb, upwards. 
Ri leathad, downwards. 
Sios, eas<, eastwards. 
Suas, wes^, westwards. 

3. Motion from a place. 

A deas, yVom <Ae south. 

A nuas, nuas, down, from above. 

A tuath, yrom <Ae north. 

O 'n ear, yVom <Ae eas*. 

O 'n iar, from the west. 

Adverbs of Time are tivofold; namely, stich as signify. 

Some specific period, either past, present, future, 
or indefinite. 

A cheana, cheana, already. 

A chianamh, chianamh, a little while ayo. 

A chlisge, chlisge, soon, quickly. 

A choidhch, choidhch, 1 ^ 

A chaoidh, chaoidh, j •' 

A ghnath, always, usually. 

A nis, 1 
• .' > now. 
A nise, ) 

Air ball, immediately. 

Air bho 'n de, yesterday. 

Air bho 'n raoir, the night before last. 

Air bho 'n uiridh, the year before last.' 

Air deireadh, ),.,., 

Air dheireadh, \ ^"^'' ^'^^ermost. 

Air a mhionaid, immediately, this moment. 

Air an uair, presently. 

Air thoiseach, ) ^ , ^ 

Airtoiseach, K' /"'■«'"''*'• 


Air uairibh, at times, occasionally. 

A Ik, by day. 

Am bliadhna, this year. 

Am fad agus, whilst. 

Am feadh, ) , ., ^ 

An fheadh, r'^'^*'- 

Am feasd, for ever, never in future. 

Am miireach, to-morrow. 

An ceart 'air, ) . , „ , • , 

An ceart „air, 1,''""'^'^^"'^^2'' ^'"' "°«- 

An de, yesterday. 

An dearas, since, seeing that. 

An deigh laimh, afterwards. 

An diugh, to-day. 

An dr^sda [an tr^th so], at this time. 

An ear-tlirath, ) ., , ^^ , 

An iur-thrath, ] '^^ '^"^ "Z'^'" to-^rrow. 

An la roirnh, the other day. 

An nochd, to-night. 

An raoir, ) , . . ,^ 


An sin, then, thereupon. 

An so, then, hereupon. 

An tr^ih, when. 

now, at this time. 

An traths', 1 

An trath-so, ) ' 

An uair, when. 

An uiridh [an uair ruith], last year. 

Aon uair, once. 

A so suas, henceforward. 

As i)r, a-new. 

C nine, when. 

Do 1^, do Ikth, by day. 

Dh' oidhche, by night. 

Dh' oidhche is do la, by night and by day. 

Fathast, fhathast, yet, still. 

F5s, yet, still. 

Idir, at all. 

Mar tha, as it is. 

Mu dheireadh, at last, at length. 

Ni 's mo, any more. 

Nur [an uair], when, whilst. 

O cheann fad, long ago. 

O cheann ghoirrid, lately. , 

O chian, of old. 

Riamh, ever, {in reference to the past.) 

Roimh laimh, beforehand. 

Seach, seachad, past. 

Uair, once, once on a time. 

Uair gin, 

Uair eigin. 



2. Continuance, vicissitude, or repetition of lime. 

A ghnath, ) , 

Ainmig, seldom. 

Air uairibh, at times, sometimes. 

Am bidheantas, ) ^. ,, 
« u ■ ,, ]■ contimialiy. 

An comhnuiuh, ) 

An cumaint, commonly. 

Cia f had ? how long ? 

Cia minic ? ) . /.. » 
^. . . , > how often ? 
Cia trie '■ y •' 

Fad, long. 

Fhadsa, as long as, so long. 

Gu br^th, i ^ 

m i\ uu wu } for ever. 

Gu la bhiath, ) •' 

Gu dilinn, to the end, ot failing of time. 

Gu minig, often. 

Gu sior, i /. 

Gu siorruidh, ^ 

tor evermore. 



Gu siorruith, 

Gu suthainn, 

Gu suthainn siorruidh 

Gu trie, frequently, often 

O so suas, henceforward. 


for evermore. 

Ma seach, 
Mu seach 
Mu 'n seach 
Re seal, 
Re sealladh 

; ] 

ich, 3 

alternately, by turns. 

or a time. 

Adverbs of Manner and Quality. 

11, UKUi ly. 

dh, > in a : 
1, ) ' 

somehow or other. 

Ach beag, almost. 

Ach gann, nearly. 

Air achd, 

Air rahodh. 

Air sheol. 

Air athais, leisurely. 

Air a chuthach, ) , 

Airbhoil, J'""'^- 

Air chall, lost. 

Air charn, outlawed. 

Air choir, aright. 

Air chor, in a manner. 

Air chor eigin, ) 

Air chor no chor eigin, j 

Air chuairt, sojourning. 

Air chuimhne, in mind, by heart. 

Air chuthach, mad. 

A dh' aon obair, i , 

A dh' aon ghnothuch, ] P^^'PO'^^y- 

A dheoin, spontaneously. 

A dh' aindeoin, in spite of. 

Air eigin, with much ado. 

Air fbgradh, ) . ., 

Am fbgradh, r" *^*'^- 

Air ghleus, in trim ; tuned ; ready for action. 

Air ioraadan, adrift. 

Air iomroU, astray. ' 

Air ionndrainn, amissing. 

Air lagh, ready for action. 

Air mhodh, in a manner. 

Air seachran, astray. 

Air sgeul, found, not lost. 

Am bidheantas, habitually. 

Am feabhas, convalescent. 

Amhain, only. 

Amhuil, ) ,., 

Amhluidh, \ ''*"' "*• 

An coinniuih chinn, J , ., 

An comhair chinn, ] f^^^^long. 

An coinnirah chuil, ) ■ , , 

An comhair ch,\il, ] f>^^kwards. 

A dhith, wanting, without. 

An deidh, ) , . . , 

An geall, \ «'««'•''««' ^" '"''''• 

An nasgaidh, gratis. 

An t6ir, in pursuit, after. 

Araon, together, both. 

As an aghaidh, outright. 

As a cheile, asunder, loosened. 

Car air char, rolling. 

Cia mar ? how ? * 

C arson ? why ? 

C ionnas ? how ? 

Cha, not. 



' > together. 

Cuideachd, together, in company. 

Cuige ? why ? wherefore ? 

C uime? why ? for what ? about what ? 

Dh' aindeoin, in spite of . 

Dh' aon o-hnothuch, i , 

Dh- aon obair, '\ Purposely. 

Do dhebin, spontaneously. 

Do dhith, a wanting. 

Do rireadh, really, actually, indeed. 

Fa leth, severally, individually. 

Far nasgaidh, gratis. 

Gle, very. 

Gu beachd, clearly. 

Gu baileach, ) ,, ,, , „ 


Gu dearbh, truly, certainly. 

Gu deimhin, truly, verily. 

Gu fior, truly, in truth. 

Gu leir, altogether, wholly. 

Gu leoir, enough. 

Gu taobh, aside. 

Gun amharus, doubtless. 

Gun chaird, incessantly. 

Idir, of a//. 

Leth mar leth, half and half. 

Le cheile, together. 

Maraon, together, as one, in a body. 

Mar an ceudna,' also. 

Mar chomhladh, 1 ^ ,, 

Mar chomhluath, } ^'^dether. 

Mar gu, as i/". 

Mar sin, so, in that manner. 

Mar so, thus. 

Mar sud, in yon manner, so. 

Ma seach, ^ 

Mu seach, \ alternately. 

Mun seach, J 

Na ) 

Nar, ( ""'' ^*' ""'• 

Nach, not. 

Nasgaidh, gratis. 

Ni, not. 

Ni h-eadh, ho, nof so, it is not so. 

Os aird, openly. 

Os iosal, privately, secretly. 

RiJeamh, ! "■"'2'' '"""y- 

Ro, iJery. 

Roimh cheile, prematurely, hurriedly. 

Seadh, yes, it is so; really! 

Thar a cheile, disordered. 

Theagamh, perhaps. 

Troimh cheile, in confusimi ; stirred about. 

Tuille fos, moreover. 

Uidh air an uidh, by degrees. 




Prepositions, in Gaelic, are either simple or compounded. 


A, as, of, out of. 
Ag:, aig, at. 
Air, on, after. 
An, ann, in. 
Bharr, off. 
Car, during. 
Do, of, to. 
Eadar, between. 
Fa, upon. 

Fo, fodha, fu', fuidh, beneath. 

Gu, gus, to, until. 

Le, leis, with, by, along. 

Mar, like to, as. 

Mu, about. 

O, from. 

Os, above. 

Re, during. 

Re, ri, ris, fo. 

Ro, roimh, before. 

Seach, past, in comparison with. 

Tar, thar, thair, thairis, over, across. 

Thun, to. 

Tre, troimh, tliroimh, through. 

Trid, through ; by means of. 

V a., from. 


The Compound Prepositions are, for the most part, made up of a Simple Preposition and a Noun, 
commonly govern the Noun in the genitive case. 


A chois, near to. 

Air beulaobh, before, in front of. ' 

Air cheann, at the end, against. 

Air ctilaobh, behind. 

Air fad, throughout, during. 

Air feadh, throughout, during. 

Air muin, on the back, on the top. 

Air sgath, for the sake. 

Air son, for, on account. 

Air toir, in pursuit. 

Am fianuis, > . 


Am measg, among, amidst. 

An aghaidh, against. 

An ceann, in the end. 

An codhail, ) ^ 
• . x. [to meet. 

An comneamh, S 

An cois, n£ar to. 

An dkil, to meet hostilely, towards. 

An deaghaidh, "i 

An deigh, \ after. 

An dels, ) 

An eiric, in recompense. 

An Ikthair, in presence. 

An lorg, » 
An t6ir, 5 

tn consequence. 

As easbhuidh, i .^. , 
A I, • J without. 

As eugmhais, > 

As leth, in behalf. 

A bhrigh, because. 

A choir, near. 

A chum, to, towards. 

A dhith, for want, without. 

A reir, according to. 

A thaobh, concerning. 

Do bhrigh, because. 

Do ch6ir, 7iear. 

Do chum, to, toward. 

Do dhith, ybr want, without. 

Dh' easbhuidh, i ^ 

Dh' uireasbhuidh, J-^"' 

Dh' fhios, > 

Dh' ionnsuidh, ] "^' 

Do reir, according, in proportion to. 

Do thaobh, concerning, with respect. 

Fa chomhair, i .^ . , 

Fa chomhar, S "PP"''''' «^"^"''- 

Fa chilis, because, by reason. 

Ghios, {contr. for dh' ionnsuidh), to, towards. 

Mu choinneamh, opposite. 

Mi thimchioU, around, about. 

O bharr, yrom the top. 

Os ceann, above. 

Re, during. 

Tareis, q/ifer. 

/or want. 



There are various syllables, viz. an, ain, ana; aim, aimh ; ao, ea, eu; eas, ais, ath ; bith, co, com, comh, con ; di, do; 
im, torn ; in, ion ; mi, mio ; neo, and so, vphich may be called Inseparable Prepositions, being found only in composition 
with other words, the signification of which they change or modify. 

Ain-eolach, ignorant. 
An-aoibhinn, joyless. 
Aim-beartas, poverty. 
Aim-leathann, narrow. 
Aodochas, "J 
Eadochas, V despair. 
Eudochas, } 
Easonoir, dishonour. 


Negation or privation. 



p Signifies 

Immoderate degree, or excess, 

Frequency, or repetition. 

Together, community, or equality. 

Evil, difficulty. 

About, complete, 

Ease, gentleness. 



'^ An-stroghail, prodigal. 
Ain-tighearn, an oppressor. 
Ana-miann, lust. 
Ais-eirigh, resurrection. 
Ath-bhuail, strike again. 
Bith-labhairt, incessant talk. 

Cn h i cheangail, bind together. 

Coi' lion, ) „ , „, 
Coimh-lion, j/"!/''- 
Comith, eating together. 
Di-chionnt, innocence. 
Do-dheanta, impracticable. 

lom-ghaoth, whirlwind. 

lonmholta, worthy of praise. 

Mi-bheusach, unmannerly. 
Mio-runach, spiteful. 
Neo-chruadalach, not hardy. 
So-thuigsinn, intelligible. 


As Interjection is an indeclinable part of speech, and expresses some sudden emotion of the mind. 
Grief ; as, och ! ochain ! ochoin ! och nan ochain ; och is ochain nan och eire ! mo chreachadh ! mo nuar ! mo 

leon ! mo thruaighe ! mo thruaighe leireadh ! mo sgaradh ! 
Wonder; aobh, aobh! obh, obh ! O! 
Aversion; tut! ab, ab! fuigh! 
Disgust; ach ! ach ! 
.Shame; monaire! momhasladh! 
Laughter; ha, ha! ah! 
Demonstration; feuch ! faic! seall ! 
Calling ; h-aoibh ! h-oil6. 
Terror; h-ugad! h-ugaibh. 


A Conjunction is an indeclinable part of speech, and serves to join words and sentences together. 

Ach, but. 
A chionn, because. 
Agus, as, and. 
Co, ) 


Cuideachd, likewise. 

F6s, yet. 

Ga, though. 

Ged, giodh, though, 

Gidheadh, yet. 

Gu, gur, that. 

Is, and. 

Ma, if 

Mar, as, like as. 

Mur, if not. 



Mus, J. before, ere. 

Mus an, 

Na, than. 

Nach, that not. 

Nam, nan, if. 

No, or. 

O, on, since. 

Oir, before. 

Os-barr, moreover. 

'S (for agus), and. 

Sol, suil, before that. 

Tuille eile, tuille tbs, further. 

Uime sin, therefore. 

There are also several phrases which have a conjunctive force ; as, 
Chum as gu, or a chum as gu, ■! 

Chum is gu, or a chum is gu, Vm as that, inorder that. 

Chum agus gu, or a chum agus gu, } 
Chum is nach, or a chum is nach, so as that not. 
An chor is gu, so that. 
Air chor is nach, so that not. 
Air eagal gu, lest, for fear that. 




Air son gu, by reason that. 

D' eagat gu, lest, for fear that. 

D' eagal iiach, lest not. 

Do bhrigh gu, by reason that. 

Do bhrigh nach, by reason that not. 

Bheil fhios, ' 

'L fhios. 

' > is it known, I wonder. 

Ged tha, notwithstanding. 

Gun fhios, not knowing, in case. 

lonnas gu, so that. 

Mar sud agus, so also. 

Ma seadh, ma ta, if so, then. 

Mur bhiodh, were it not. 

Mur bhiodh gu, were it not that. 


Gentile, or PATUONYMtc Nouns, end in ach, and are derived from other proper substantives, as names of 
natives; Albannach, a <Sco< ; Sasunnach, an Englishman ; Suaineach, a iSjfede ; Lochlinneach, a Dane ; so also, an indi' 
vidual of a clan, as, from Stidbhart, Stiibhartach, a Stewart ; from Grannd, Granndach, o Grant. 

Diminutive Nouns in an and ag are formed most commonly from substantives; as, leabhar, a book ; leabhran, a 
little book ; caile, a girl ; caileag, a little girl; sguab, a sheaf; sguabag, a little sheaf; leanabh, leanaban, a little child. 

Collective Nouns are not confined to any particular termination; of these some are primitives, as, clann, a clan; 
sluagh, people: and some derivatives, as, oigridh, a band of youth; laochraidh, a band of warriors. Some collectives 
end in ach; as, dnWleaich, foliage, from duille, a leaf. ^ 

Nouns, denoting Agsats, in air, ear, oir, ach, iche, are derived from Other substantives; as, sgriobhair, a writer, 
from sgriobh ; sgriosadair, a destroyer, from sgrios ; sloightear, a knave, from sloighte, knavery ; ciontach, a culprit, from 
ciont, guilt ; oibriche, a workman, from obair, work. 


Comparatives are often used as abstract nouns; as, doille, blindness; truime, heaviness; gile, whiteness. 

Abstracts in ad are formed from the comparative ; as, biinead, fairness, from bkine ; lugha.d, littleness, from lugha, 
less; teircead, yewness, from teirce, more few. 

Some substantives in as are formed from substantives, and some from adjectives; as, iighdarras, authority, from 
iighdar ; luathas, swiftness, from luath ; cruadhas, hardness, from cruaidh. 

Some substantives in achd are formed from substantives, and some from adjectives; as, iasgaireachd, _^sAen/, from 
iasgair; caonntachd, parsmony, from caonntach, saninjf. 


Adjectives in ach are formed commonly from substantives; as, ballach, spotted, from ball, a spot; grianach, sunny, 
from grian, sun ; peasgach, gashed, from peasg, a gash. 

Adjectives in agach, anach, from diminutives in ag and an ; as, bachlagach, curled, from bachlag, a curl ; badanach, 
tufty, from badan, a tuft. 

Adjectives in mhor, or in its contractions, ar and or, are derived from substantives ; as, from sluagh, people, sluagh- 
mhor, sluaghar, populous: and from adjectives; as, treunmhor, strong, from treun. 

Adjectives in ail and eil, are derived from substantives ; as, feumail, needful, from feum, need ; lathail, daily, from 
lath, day; duineil, manly, from duine, man; gaisgeil, brave, from gaisge, bravery. The terminations ail and eil are 
contractions of amhuil, like, and have a strong affinity with the English termination ly ; as, friend/y, i. e. hmndlike, 
mziily, xaanlike, gentlemanZy, gentlemanZj'Ae. 

Adjectives in da or ta are derived from substantives ; as, macanta, gentle, from mac ; cailleachanta, cowardly, from 
cailleach, an old woman. 

Adjectives denoii'ag pructicajbility or facility commonly have so prefixed; as, so-thuigsinn, in^eZZijftWe; so-dheanamh, 
easily done. 

Adjectives denoting impossibility or difficulty commonly have do prefixed; as, do-thuigsinn, unintelligible ; do- 
dheanamh, not easily done. 


Verbs in aich are formed from adjectives or substjantives characterised by o, o, or «; as, teannaich, tighten, from 
teann, tight ; cronaich, blame, from cron, ill. 

Verbs in ich are formed from adjectives characterised by t; as, cruinnich, gather, from cruinn, round; minich, 
smooth, from min, smooth. , 




Composition is effected in Gaelic by prefixing to substantives, adjectives, participles, and verbs a substantive, adjec- 
tive, verb, adverb, or preposition. 

A Substantive with a Substantive. 

Grian-chrios, the zodiac ; grian-chearcall, a solar halo ; marc-shluagh, cavalry ; cuach-fhalt, curled hair. 

Adjectives with the Substantives prefixed. 
Taobh tuath, north country; bru-dhearg, a redbreast; ceann-lom, bare-headed. 

Substantives with the Adjectives prefixed. 
Droch-bheart, mischief; treun-laoch, a warrior; fuar-bheann, a cold hill; dubh-fhocal, a dark saying. 

Adjectives with Adjectives. 

Gorm-eviirom, light blue; dubh-dhonn, livid; liath-ghlas, greyish; gorm-bhreachd, blue spotted; uile-chumhachd- 
ach, almighty. 

Verbs with Substantives. 

Cuairt-imich, walk around ; cridh-bhris, heart-break ; corp-shnas, anatomise. 

Verbs with Adjectives. 
Geur-lean, persecute ; cruaidh-ruith, run speedily ; beo-sgar, divorce ; min-phronn, pulverise. 

Verbs with Prepositions. 

Eadar-dhealaich, separate ; as-tharruing, extract ; roimh-orduich, /ore-ordain. 

Substantives with Prepositions. 

Eadar-sgaradb, separation; timchioll-ghearradh, circumcision; fo-bhuille, an under-stroke. 

Adverbs with Substantives. 
Ro-dhuine, an excellent man ; ro-f hevun, much need ; mach-bhailtean, suburbs. 


Syntax is the right arrangement of the words of a language into sentences or phrases. Its parts are two, 
viz. Concord, and Government or Regimen. 


Concord is the agreement which one word has with another, in Gender, Number, Case, or Person. 


The article is placed immediately before its substantive, 
and agrees with it in gender, number, and case ; as, 

Am bord. 
A bhean. 
An fhoid. 
Na sluic. 

The table. 
The woman. 
The turf. 
The pits. 


Sometimes an adjective comes between the article and its 
noun ; as. 

Is tu an droch leanabh, 1 Thou art a bad child. 
Is e am fior laoch, | He is a real hero. 


An adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, num- 
ber, and case ; as, 

Duine saibhir. 
Bean ghasd. 
Tighean mora. 

A rich man. 
A chaste wife. 
Large houses. 


The possessive pronouns mo (my), do (thy), a (his), precede 
the substantive, and throw it into the aspirated form ; as, 

Mo dhorn. | My fist. 

Do chas. Thy foot. 

A chlaidheamh. | His sword. 

The substantive most commonly precedes its adjective ; 


Lann geur. 
Duine glic. 

A sharp blade. 
A wise man. 




Some monosyllabic adjectives precede their substantives, 
and then the substantives assume the aspirated form ; as, 

Droch dhuine. 
Garbh chuan. 

A bad man. 
A young wife. 
A rough sea. 


If is be the verb of a sentence, the adjective comes before 
the noun ; as, 

Is domhainn do ) I r, ■ ai j 

chreuchd.-0«. } | Deep is thy wound. 

RULE vin. 

Two or more substantives in apposition, or signifying the 
same thing, ought to agree in case ; as, 

•Oscar 'mac ""Oisein 
hnhic •'Fhionnghail 
mhic Chumhail. 

Oscar the son of Ossian, 
the son of Fingal, the 
son of Cumhal. 

Numerals precede their nouns; as, 

Tri lathan. 
Seach fir. 

Three days. 
Seven men. 

Such instances as the following are excepted : 

Righ Seoras a ceithir. 
Righ Uilliam a h-aon. 

King George the Fourth. 
King William the First. 


When the possessive pronoun a (her) precedes a substan- 
tive beginning with a vowel, h- is inserted between them ; as. 

A h-aire. 
A h-oillt 

Her attention. 
Her terror. 

When the possessive pronouns ar (our), bhur or ur (your), 

precede a noun beginning with a vowel, n- is inserted 
between them ; as, 

Bhur n-aithrichean. | Your fathers. 


Possessive pronouns are of the same number with their 
antecedents ; as, 

Aig a dhorus. 
Folt a cinn. 

At his door. 

The hair of her head. 


If a sentence or a clause be an antecedent, the pronoun 
is put in the 3d singular masculine ; as. 

Ged bha mi sgith, cha 
d' aithnich mi orm e. 

Though I was tired, I felt 
it not. 

The nominative is commonly placed after the verb ; as, 

Tha iad. 
Theasd iad. 
Ghabh e. 

They are. 
They died. 
He took. 


The nominative to the verb is often understood with the 
poets; as, 

Ghabh [e] tiiinidh. 
Bhuail [e] craobh Loduinn. 

He dwelt. — Oss. Lod. 
He struck the tree of Lodin. 
— Oss. Lod. 

The relative pronouns a, nach, na, come before the verb ; 

An oigh a sheinn. 
Cridhe nach bris. 
Gleidh na fhuair thu. 

The maid who sang. 

A heart that will not break. 

Keep what you got. 


Government is that power which one part of speech has over another, in determining its Form, Mood, Tense, 
or Case. 



One substantive governs another in the genitive when 
it signifies a different thing ; as. 

Inneal ciflil. 
L6d dhaoine. 

An instrument of music. 
A crowd of men. 


If a second genitive follows, the former substantive is go- 
verned in the nominative ; as. 

Tighyeor na bainnse. 
Aium mac an Righ. 

The bridegroom's house. 
The name of the king's son. 


When a substantive governs another definitely in the 
genitive, the article is placed before the latter only ; as. 

Tigh an Righ. 
Solus na greine. 
Airde nam beann. 

The king's house. 
The light of the sun. 
The height of the hills. 


A noun governed without the article is commonly in the 
aspirated form ; as, 

Claidheamh Shumais. 
Tigh Dhomhnuill. 

James's sword. 
Donald's house. 



Adjectives of plenty, fulness, satiety, govern the genitive, 
and are followed by the preposition de, either simple or 
compounded ; as. 

Lan arbhair. 
Buidheach bidh. 
Sgith dheth. 

Full of corn. 
Filled with food. 
Tired of him or if. 




Adjectives signifying merit or demerit, knowledge, re- 
membrance, and some other affections of the mind, are 
commonly followed by the preposition air, either simple or 
compounded; as, 

Airidh air peanas. 
Eolach air Seumas. 
Cuimhneachail orm. 
Deidheil air fion. 

Worthy of 'punishment. 
Acquainted with James. 
Mindful of me. 
Fond of wine. 

RULE in. 

Adjectives signifying likeness or urilikeness, compassion 
or friendship, generally require the preposition ri, either 
simple or compounded ; as, 

Cosmhal ri d' athair. 
Trucanta rithe. 
Cairdeil ris. 

Like your father. 
Compassionate to her. 
Friendly to him. 


Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, nearness,* and 
relationship, commonly require the preposition do, either 
simple or compounded ; as. 

Maith do gach neach. 
Feumail dhuit. 

Good to all. 
Useful to thee. 

Fagus do Lunnuinn. 
Cairdeach dhomh. 

Near to London. 
Related to me. 


Adjectives followed by a noun of measure take the prepo- 
sition air ; as, 

Seachd troidhean air airde. 
Tri mile air fad. 
Da shlat air leud. 

Seven feet high. 
Three miles long. 
Two yards in breadth. 


The comparative degree,t when preceded by ni 's, requires 
the particle na; as. 

Ni 's luaithe na 'ghaoth. 
Ni 's milse na mil. 
Ni 's fhearr na 'n t-or. 

Swifter than the wind. 
Sweeter than honey. 
Better than gold. 

RULE vn. 

Superlatives require the preposition do or dhe, either 
simple or compounded ; as, 

An te 's grinn dhiubh uile. Thefinest woman of them all. 
Am fear is airde do 'n triiiir. The tallest man of the three. 



An active verb governs its object in the nominative case, 
which is sometimes put after the verb, and sometimes before 
it; as. 

Buail an sgiath. 

Caomhain do sholus. 

Mo lann do neach cha gheill. 

Strike the shield. — Oss. 
Spare thy light.— Id. 
My sword to none shall 
yield. — Id. 


Some active verbs require between them and their objects 
a preposition, either simple or compounded ; as, 

Leig leis. 

larr air. 

Labhair ri Seumas. 

Let him alone. 
Desire him. 
Speak to James. 


Verbs in the passive voice have after their nominative 
the preposition le, simple or compounded, expressive of the 
agent or the instrument, either expressed or understood ; 

He or it was wounded with 
a sword. 

Lednadh e le claidheamh. 
Mharbhadh e leatsa. 

He or it was slain by thee. 

Verbs used impersonally commonly require after them 

the preposition le, compounded with a personal pronoun, 
either expressed or understood ; as, 

Dlrear (leinn) an tulach. 
Seallar (leinn) mu 'n cuairt. 

We ascended the hill. 
We looked around. 


Bu, was, aspirates the word which follows it ; as, 
Bu chruaidh do ch^s. I Hard was the case. 
B' fhuar do chridhe. , Cold was thy heart. 

Bu mhise a rinn e. I It was I who did it. 


The dentals d and t are sometimes aspirated, and some- 
times not ; as. 

Bu dorch a laithe. 

Bu thaitneach do shluagh 

a thir. 
Bu taitneach dha. 

Dark were his days. — 
Oss. Fing. 

Pleasant to his country- 
men. — Id. 

Pleasant to him was. — Id. 


The infinitive of active verbs governs the genitive ; as, 

A chosgadh feirg. 
A thogail creich. 

To appease wrath. 
To gather booty. 

• Adjectives of nearness have also the preposition air, either simple or compounded ; as, fagus orm, near me. 

t There is a form of comparison, already mentioned, among the Gael, which has sometimes the meaning of a substantive, and some- 
times of an adjective ; as, feairrd, meisd, moid, litghuid, giurraid, teoithid. Is feairrd mi so, I am the belter for this ; a dol am feairrd, 
growing better, hterally, advancing in betlerness. The rest are construed after the same manner. 





Participles of the present time govern the genitive ; as, 

Ag iarruidh comhraig. 
A siubhal an fhraoich. 
Ag ath-cheannuchadh ) 
na h-aimsir j 

Wishing for battle. — Oss. 
Traversing the heath. — Id. 

Redeeming the time. — Stew. 


Participles of the past time are followed by the preposi- 
tion le, signifying the agent or the instrument, either simple 
or compounded ; as. 

Buailte le claidheamh. 
Leonta le Seumas. 

Struck with a sword. 
Wounded by James. 


RULE 1. 

Ro, gle, as also Jior, sur, used adverbially, aspirate the 
noun to which they are prefixed ; as, 

Gle ghrinn. 

Very good. 
An excellent man. 
Fine enough. 
Truly handsome. 

RULE n. 

The negative cha aspirates the following verb, if it begins 
with a labial or a palatal ; as, 

Cha mhair e. 
Cha chluinn mi. 

He, or it will not last. 
I shall not hear. 

Cha phos iad. 
Cha ghuil i. 

They will not marry. 
She will not weep. 

Cha sometimes aspirates a dental, and sometimes not ; as, 

Cha dean e feum, 
Cha sir mi ni. 
Cha tuit iad. 

It will do no good. 
I will seek nothing. 
They shall not Jail. 

Cha inserts n before a vowel or / aspirated ; as, 

Cha n-ann leis fein 
bha'n laoch. — Oss. 
Cha n-fhiach e. 


The hero was not alone. 
It is of no value. 
The negative ni inserts h before an initial vowel ; as. 

Ni h-eadh. 
Ni h-e. 

Not so. 
He is not. 



The prepositions, aig, air, an, &c. govern the dative, and 
sometimes the nominative, and are always placed before ; 

Aig a chluais. 
Tonn air tr^igh. 
Na 'shoillse. 
Air clann nan seod. 

At his ear. 

A wave on the shore. — Oss. 

In his sight. — Id. 

On the sons of the brave.--Id. 

Air someljimes governs the dative in the aspirated form ; 


Air bharraibh nan tonn. 

On the tops of the waves. — 


The preposition gun governs the aspirated nominative 
and dative, but oftener the dative ; as, 

Gun cheann. 
Gun chloinn. 

Without head. 
Without children. 


The prepositions gu, or gus, and mar govern a definite 
noun in the nominative ; as, 

Gus an solus. 

Mar a chraobh. 

To the light. 
Like the tree. 


But if the article be not prefixed to a noun, gu or gus 
commonly governs the dative, and mar either the nomina- 
tive or dative ; as, 

Gu crich na cruinne. 
Mar sholus corr. 

To the world's end. 
As a bright light. 


The prepositions de, do,fo, ox fuidh, fa, gun, 
0, tre, or troimh, are commonly followed by an 
nominative; as. 

Do dhuine. 

Fo bhrbn. 

Gun mheirg. 

Mar thonn. 

Mu cheann na h-oigh 

Troimh chruadal. 

mar, mu, 

To a man. 

Under grief. 

Without rest. 

As a wave. 

About the maiden's head. 

Through hardship. 


Eadar governs sometimes the nominative in the simple 
and sometimes in the aspirated form ; as, 

Eadar talamh is athar. 
Eadar bheag is mhor. 

Betwixt earth and air. 
Both great and small. 

Compound prepositions govern the genitive ; as, 

Throughout the land. 

Air feadh na tire. 

Air deireadh na feachd. 

A dh' ionnsuidh nah-aimhne. 

In the rear of the army. 
Toibards the river. 


Some interjections are followed by the preposition do, 
either simple or compounded ; as. 

Is an-aoibhinn duit. | Woe unto thee. 

Mo naire! is followed by the preposition air, either 
simple or compounded, expressed or understood ; as, 

Mo naire ! [ort] 
Mo naire ! [oirbh] 

Shame ! [upon </jee] 
Shame ! [upon you] 


Mo thruaighe is often followed by the nominative case ; 


Mo thruaighe mi ! 
Mo thruaighe e ! 

Woe's me ! 
Woe be to him ! 



The conjunctions agus, as, or is, and no or na, couple 
like cases and moods ; as, 

C Sweeping turf and stones. — 

A sguabadh chlod 's chlach. 

Cha mheal e sith no s61as. 
Thig no cha tig e. 

I Vllin. 
( He shall not enjoy peace nor 
\ comfort. 
He shall come, or shall not. 


Co, or cho, as, may have after it an adjective in the as- 
pirate or initial form ; as, 

Cho or CO chinnteach ) 

Cho cinnteach 

Cho glan ] 

Cho ghlan j 

ris a bhks. 

ns an or. 

As sure as death. 
As bright as gold. 

RULE in. 

Mur, gur, and gu, gum, or gun, precede the interrogative 
mood; as, 

If he shall not corns. 
That we are. 

Mur tig e. 
Gu bheil sinn. 
Gum faic sinn. 
Gun toir e. 

That we shall see. 
That he will give. 


Nam or nan, has after it the preterite substantive ; as, 

Nam faighinn. 
Nan tuitinn. 

If I got. 
if I fell. 

Ged may precede any mood except the future indicative. 


The great excellence of any language consists in the power which its sounds possess, of communicating certain im- 
pressions or meanings. 

The Gaelic, being a branch of the primeval tongue, has this quality in a far superior degree to any language, the 
structure of which is concocted or complex. It is a language of nature; and its sounds may be truly said to be echoes 
to the sense. Hence arises its success in descriptive poetry, and in all its addresses to the passions. When the nature 
of the object described is harsh and hard, sounds of a similar kind are employed, which impel their meaning to the mind, 
by noisy, hard-sounding consonants : whereas, in subjects of tenderness, solemnity, or of mournful interest, scarcely is any 
sound perceived, but the music of mellow vowels and diphthongs. 

Mr. Shaw, to whose ill-requited labour the Gaelic owes a great deal, observes correctly, that the combinations ai, ei, 
are cheerful and soft; and ao, solemn. He might have added that oi, ao, aoi, are significant of softness and affection, and 
ui, ua, uai, of sadness. Among the consonants, II is soft and mild ; so is the gentle aspiration mh, as in caomh, mild ; 
seimh, quiet ; cr, dr, and tr, are hard, loud, and violent. 


The Gaelic Bards had peculiar facilities in composing ; as they were not restrained by any fixed law of verse. A 
termination of lines by similar letters was never deemed requisite ; for, if the closing syllable, or the penult of corresponding 
lines, were somewhat similar in sound, it was reckoned sufficient for the purposes of rhyme, and was all that they usually 
aimed at. 

The following Verses exemplify this Remark. 

Thug an deise do Ainnir gaol, 

Ach air GoU bha 'gorm-shiiil chaoin, 

B' e cfiis a h-aisling anns an oidhche, 

'S cilis a caoidh mu 'n chaochan choillteach. — 

Cha b' ionnan is Garna na gruamaich. 

Mar lasair 'a an toit ag a cuartach.' — Oss. Cathluno. 

Another method of rhyme consisted in a conformity of sound between the last word, or part of the last word, of a 
foregoing verse, and some word, or part of a word, about the middle of the following. 

Ciod am tk bhi 'g udal cuain, 

Is eilean fuar na geotha crom, 

A sgaoileadh a sgiath na 't coinneamh. 

Gu 'r dion o dhoinionn na h-oidhche. — Ullin. 

Mar dha bheurn sleibh o 'n fhireach 
Le cheile a sireadh gu gleanntai. - Oss, 


Sometimes there is a conformity of sound between the last word of a foregoing verse, and a word in the beginning of 
the following. 

Cha do thuit e gun chliA san araich, 

Bu ghahhaidh le moran 'imeachd ; 

Mar thorunn ro' choillte, no mar dhealan, 

'G a falach an deigh an leir-sgrios. — Ardar. 

In some stanzas of four lines, there is sometimes observed a double conformity ; that is, in the concluding words of 
each couplet, and in othe'r words throughout the preceding line of every couplet. This kind of verse possesses great 

Sheid gaoth dhileas air beanm 

'S cha b* FHANN ail' buillean 'g a c^jr^nadh; 

Sinn a bualadh mhullach nan tonn, 

'Sgach soNN is a shiiil ri cowAraig. — Ullin. -> 


The poetry of the ancient Gael, as it has come down to us, resembles that of the present day, in its setting every law 
of scanning at defiance. Ossian, and the poets of his time, adapted their compositions to the song ; in other words, they 
set them to music : and there seem to be but two suppositions on which we can account for the irregularity of their verses. 
Either the music itself must have been very anomalous, or, the strains having been forgotten, and thus the guides to 
uniformity lost, the poems must have suffered from the liberties which had been taken with them, by the rehearsers of 
succeeding ages. I am inclined to think, however, that the music was simple and uniform, and that the poetry was 
correctly adapted thereto. However irregular the music may be imagined to have been ; as the bards must have 
accurately set their verses to it, there would be observable in their poems a regular recurrence of similar irregularities. 
This is not the case. The anomaly of their verses must, therefore, be owing to the reciting Bards, who, in some parts, 
suffered words and turns of expression to fall into oblivion through their indolence ; and introduced, in others, expressions 
which their own conceit informed them were superior to the original ; for there never yet was a poet so transcendently 
good, that a worse did not suppose himself in many respects better. 

Add to this, that the language was pronounced differently in different districts, and at different periods of time ; yet 
in these abused fragments of ancient poetry — these remains of Ossian's ruins, we have numberless displays of the might 
and magnificence of his genius. 

Notwithstanding the freedoms which have been taken with the works of the Fingalian poet, they afford numberless 
examples of correct and measured rhymes ; and this circumstance affords a strong presumption that the rhyme, or at least 
the measure of the poetry, was uniform and regular throughout. 

The verses of the Fingalian poets seldom exceed eight syllables ; and most frequently the second foot and the third 
are dactyles, with a short syllable at the beginning of the verse, and a long syllable, or a trochee at the end. 

The Measure. 

Tha I 'Ceumanna | flathail air [ lom, 

Nur I thog Tad rT | aghaidh nan | torn ; 

Is I b' eagal di | sealladh an | righ 

A I dh' fhag t am | Atha nam | frith. — Temora. 


Cuir ( Oscair ciiir | mlse san | uaigh. 

Cha I gheill mi an | cruas do | threun 

'S mi 'n I toiseach na | strighe fo | chruaidh, 

Gabh I eolas nam | biiadh nam | fein. — Fingal. 

The ancient poems published by Dr. Smith of Campbelton, are still more irregular in their measure than those 
collected by Macpherson ; it being seldom that the same measure applies to four successive lines. They cannot be 
scanned, therefore, by any set of rules I can devise. In one of these poems, entitled Conn, there is preserved a wild 
effusion — an incantation of the Scandinavian priests. It consists of five stanzas of four lines each. The last line of each 
staff has six syllables, consisting of a short syllable, a dactyle, and a trochee ; the rest four, consisting of a trochee and a 


The Measure. 

" I " " " I " " I fourth line. 

• • • 

Cheo na | Lanna 

Aotn nan | cara; 

'S buair an | codal, 

Chruth I Lodda nan | leir-chreach. 

Sgap do I dhealan ; 

Luaisg an | talamh ; ' 

Buail an { anam ; 

'S na I maireadh ni ) beo dhiubh. 

The modern Gaelic poems are more regular and measured, as they are almost all composed to some known air. 

Iambics of four feet. 

O cair | ibh mi | ri taobh | nan allt, 

A shiubh | las shuas { le ceum | aibh ciiiin ; 

Fo sgkil I a bharr | aich leig | mo cheann, 

'S bi thus, I a ghrian | ro chkird | eil rium. — The Bard's Wish. s 

Macintyre, our Bums, an uninstructed shepherd, and a man of extraordinary talents for poetry, wrote pieces which 
may stand comparison with the pastoral and descriptive poetry of any land or age. As the structure of some of them is 
peculiar, a view of their measure may not here be unacceptable, or misplaced. His best poems are Coire Cheathaich, Beinn 
Dobhrain, and Mairi Bhcln bg. The first of these is divided into strophes of eight verses each ; but they might have been 
more judiciously arranged in stanzas of four Unes. The measure repeats at every second line. There is, moreover, in 
every first line, a conformity of sound between the first syllable of the second and third foot ; and in the second line, 
between the first syllable of the second, and the middle of the third, foot. This poem may be scanned by an amphybrach 
and trochee alternately on the first line ; the second line is the same, excepting that it terminates with a long syllable. 

'S a' mhadainn | chiuin gheal, | ann am dhomh | rfSsgadh 

Aig biin na | staice | b' e 'n stigradh \ leam ; 

A chearc le | sgiwcan | a gabhail | <McAain, 

'San coileach | cwtrteil | ag durdsiil \ trom. 

An dreathan | sSrdail, | 's a ribhTd | chiHil aige 

A ciir nan | smuid dheth | gii luthar \ binn 

An truid sam | brw dhearg ( le moran | anaich 

Re ceileir | swnntach | bii shiiibhlach | rann. 

Or, thus : 

Three first, | - - - | - - 
Last, - - " I " 

'Sa mhadainn | chiuin gheal 
Ann am dhomh | dilsgadh, 
Aig bun na | stilice, 

B' e 'n siigradh | leam ; 
A chearc le | sgiilcan, 
A gabhail | tilchain 
'S an coileach | cilirteil 

A dttrdail | trom, &c. 

Beinn Dobhrain is similar in measure to a much older poem, entitled, Moladh Mhbraig. It contains three distinct 
measures : first, the urlar ; secondly, siubhal, quicker than the urlar ; and thirdly, crun-luath, the most rapid of the three. 
These terms are taken from corresponding strains in piobaireachd. The first stanza, nrlar, consists of spondees and dactyles. 



B' T sin I a mhaois | leach luaineach 

Feadh | oganan; 

Blolaichean | nam bruach "* 

'S aite I comhnuidh dhi 

Duilleagan | nan craobh, 

Criomagan | a gaoil. 

Cha b' e 'm I fotaras. 

A h-aign | e eu | trom suairc ; . 

Gii Ao I bhach ait | giin ghruaim 

A ceann { bii bhrais | e ghuan | aiche, 

Ghoraiche. . " 

A chre I bii chean | alt stuaim. 

Chalaich | i gu | buan; 

Aim gleann | a bharr | aich uaine. 

Bu I nosaire. 

The Second Part, or Siubhal, 

May be scanned thus ; the first, third, fifth, sixth, and seventh lines, a short syllable, a dactyle, a pyrrhic ; for the 
second, fourth, and last, a short syllable, a dactyle, and a trochee. 

'S 1 'n I eilid bheag ] bhinneach, 
Bu 1 ghunaiche | sraonadh, 
Le I ciiinnean geiir | btorach, 
, Ag I sireadh na | gaoithe; 

Gu I gasganach | speireach, 
Feadh | chreachan na | beinne, 
Le I eagal ro | theine, 
Cha I teirinn i | aonach. 

The Third Part, or Crun-luath, 

Consists of a short syllable, a dactyle repeated, for the first, third, fifth, sixth, and seventh lines ; and for the second, 
fourth, and last, a short syllable, a dactyle, and a spondee, or a trochee. 

Cha I b' aithne dhomh | co | leanadh T, 
Do I fheara na | roinn Eorpa; 
Miir I faiceadh e | deagh | ghean orra, 
'S tighinn | farasda | na | c5-dhail; 
Gu I faiteach bhith | 'n a | h-earalas, 
Tighinn | 'm fligse dh' i | m' an | carraich i, 
Gu I faicealach | gle | earalach, 
Mu'm I fairtch T | na | coir e. 

The beautiful love song, entitled, Marai bhdn hg, so often imitated, but never equalled, may be scanned thus ; a short 
syllable, three trochees, and a pyrrhic, for the first line ; and, for the second, a short syllable, a trochee, a dactyle, and a 
long syllable. 


Do I chuach-fhalt | b^n air | f^ cho | barrail ; 
'Sa I bh^rr Ian | chamag is | dhual; 
.• T'aghaidh ghlan | mhalta, | nkrach, 1 bhanail: 

Do I dh^ chaol- | mhala gun | ghruaim. 
Siiil ghorm, | liontach, | mhln-rosg | mheallach, 
Gun dlth I cur fal' ann | do ghruaidh ; 
Deud gheal | iobhrai | dhionach | dhaingean, 
Beul I bith nach | cknadh ach | stuaim. 

I shall conclude this exemplification of Gaelic verse with one of those famous songs of incitement to battle, called, 
Brosnachadh catha. These songs were not all precisely in the same measure ; but they were all quick, rapid, and ani- 
mating, descriptive of hurried movements, activity, and exertion. The whole song measures like the first staff. 


A mhac | am cheann. 
Nan cur | san strann. 
Ard leum | nach righ | nan sleagh, 

Lamh threun | 's gach cas, 

Cridhe ard | gun sgath. 

Ceann airm | nan roinn geur goirt ; 

Gearr sios gu bas, 

Gun bharc-sheol ban, 

Bhi snamh ma dhubh Innistore. 

Mar thaimich bhaoil. 

Do bhuiir a laoich, 

Do shuil mar chaoir ad cheann ; 

Mar charaig chruinn, 
Do chridhe gun roinn, 
Mar lasan oidhche do lann. 

Cum fuar do sgiath. 
Is craobh-bhuidh nial. 
Mar chith o reul a bh^is. 

A mhacain cheann. 
Nan ciirsan strann, 
Sgrios n^imhde sios gu l^r. 



A, a. (ailm, the elm.) The first letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 
It has three sounds: (1.) both long and short. Long, like 
a in bar, car ; as k\, brood, kt, slaughter. Short, like a in 
fat, cat; as fait, hair, c&s, foot. (2.) Both long and short, 
when immediately preceding dh, and gh ; in which state it 
has no corresponding sound in English. Long, as adhradh, 
worship; aghmhor, ybr/una<e. Short, as lagh, fan); tagh, 
choose; adharc, horn. (3.) Short and obscure, like e in 
hinder ; as an, am, a, the ; ma, nam, nan, if; and the 
plural terminations a, or an, as laghanna, laws, beanntan, 
mountains. In the interrogative pronouns an and am, a is 
scarcely ever pronounced. 

A, article. The. Used before words beginning with aspiration; 
as, a chraobh, the tree ; a bheiun, the hill, or mountain. 

A, rel. pron. Who, which, whom, what, that. An duine a 
bhuail mi, the man whom I struck ; mar aisling chaoin a 
chaidh seach, like a pleasant dream that has passed. — Ull. 
B'esan a rinn so, t^ was he who did this. 

A, pos. pron. His, her, hers, its. Caireadh gach aon air a 
leis a lann, let every one gird his sword on his thigh. — Ull. 
Grad theichidh a geillt 's a bruadar, speedili/ her terror and 
her dream shall vanish. — Oss. Taura. Where the succeed- 
ing word begins with a vowel, this pronoun is ellipsed ; as, 
thuit e bharr' each, he fell from his horse: in speaking of a 
female, however, the pronoun is used, and, to prevent an 
hiatus, h, with a hyphen (h-), precedes the noun ; as, thuit 
i bhirr a h-each, she fell from her horse; but the pronoun is 
omitted if the preceding word end with a vowel ; as, a di»s- 
gadh le h-osnaich, awakening with her sobs. — Oss. Taura. 
Syr. ha, ah. Heb. a. Vhald. eh. Arab. ha. Fers. ou. 
Gr. iv. Tr. a. Manx. e. Corn, e, i. 

A', (for ag), the sign of the present participle. If the parti- 
ciple begin with a vowel, ag, or 'g, is most frequently used, 
and a', if it begin with a consonant. A gaol 'g a caoidh 
is ise ag acain, her beloved deploring her, and she wailing 
bitterli/. — Oss. Taura. Le h-osnaich o cadal a dilsgadh, 
mith her own sobs awakening from her sleep. — Id. Ta h-anam 
ag imeachd gu neoil, her spirit is travelling to its clouds. — Id. 
It maybe said, that in general this particle is used, though 
with infinitely more elegance and propriety, in the same 
sense as the English use d, when they say, he is a walking, 
he is a fishing, tha e ag imeachd, tha e ag iasgachadh. 

A, the sign of the infinitive, To, 

A, the sign of the vocative. O. {Corn, a.) Caomhain do 
sholus, a ghrian, spare thy light, sun. — Oss. Trathal. 
A Sheallama, theach mo ghaoil ! Selma, thou home of my 
heart.' — Oss. Gaul. 

A, (for ann), prep. In, into, within, on. Ciod chuir sin a 
d'cheann, what put that into your head? A d'chridhe, in 
your heart. 

A, sometimes a sign of the preterite tense. Nuair a thuirt e 
rium, when he said to me. — Sm. 

A, obj. pron. Him, her, it Cha n'urrainn iad a thogail 
no'fhagail, they could neither lift nor leave him. Oss. Derm. 
Theab iad a marbhadh, they had almost killed her, 

A, pers. pron. [for e.] Him, he, it. A is never written for e, 
but, in many districts of the Highlands, e, he or him, is 
pronounced a; as, Bhuail iad a, they struck him; thainig 
a, he came. 

A, prep, and used before a consonant. Out, out of, from ; 
also in. Na h-earb a foirneart, trust not in oppression. 
Stew. O. T., a so, from this time. Arm., a so. 

A is often used before many adverbs, prepositions, and conjunc- 
tions, and some numerals : a bharr, besides, a bhos, here, on this 
side, a choidhch, for ever. A cheana, already; a chi-ile, each 
other, a chianamh, a little ago. A cheann, because; a chlisgeadh, 
in a start, soon. A chum, in order to; a dha, two; a dlia dhcug, 
twelve. A ghnath, abonys; a h-aon, one; a h-aon deug, eleven ; 
a latha 's adh'oidhche, day and night; a lathair, present. A leth- 
taobh, aside; a raach, out; a nihain, only; a muigh, without; 
a nail, hither; a nios, up. A nis, a nise, nozo; a nuas, down 
hither; a null, a nunii, thither,, across; a r^ir, according to. 
A ris, again. A sios, downwards ; a suas, upwards. 

f A, s. A chariot, car, waggon. — Glossary ofColum Cille. 

t A, s. An ascent, hill, promontory. 

t Ab, negative particle ; as ablach, i. e. ab-laoch, a brat, 

Ab, g. aba, s.f An ape ; a spell, anciently any little crea- 
ture. Dan. abe. Du. aap. Swed. apa. /F. epa. Sclav. 
apinia. Finland, apini, an ape. 

t Ab, aba, *. m. A father, a lord, an abbot ; n. pi. aban, 
or abannan, abbots. 7/e6. ab, or abh. Chald.ab. Turk. aba. 
Greek, airTta. Dor. D. awcpos. Lat. abbas. Span. abad. 
,Calmuc Tartars, abag^i. Hung. apa. Grisons, bab. Syra- 
cusan and Bithynian, pappas. Syr. abba. JV. abad. Arm. 
and Corn, abatffi, abad. It. papa. Hottentots, bo. Antilles, 
baba. Herodotus tells us, that the Scythians called father 
Jove papaeus ; a modern author says that the Scythian term 
for father was pappas. 



A B H 

+ Ab, aba, s. m. Water. Ters. ab, riier. Turk. ab. Mogul, 
ab, river. Heb. saab, carry -water ; from sa, carry, and ab, 
water. Et/iiop. abbi, uare. Armen. ahp, pool. Pers. ab, 
ap, av, water. Jap. abi, xvas/t with water. 

Tliis word is found in Martin's description of the Hebrides, and 
in Irvine's nomenclature on the word Jvus, which is the nanae of 
a lake and river in Argyllshire (Awe) ; so Ab-us is a name given 
to the Humber. Wytfleet, in his Supplement to Ptolemy's lieo- 
eraphy, calls the place where Columbus first landed in America, 
Cuanabi, or Guanahani. Both these words have the same signifi- 
cation, meaning a bay, harbour, or sea of water. Cuan is a harbour, 
and ab is water, and i seeins to be an Indian termination. Guana- 
hani : Guan is the same as cuan; g and c, being palatals, are easily 
changed the one into the other, and a« [see an] or han is water : 
the J, as in the former instance, is an Indian adjection. 

Aba, gen. sing, of ab ; of an ape ; of an abbot. 

Aba, *. m. A cause, affair, matter, circumstance, business. 
Syr. and Chald. aba. 

Abab ! inlerj. Tush ! fie ! oh ! for shame ! nonsense ! pshaw ! 

t Abac, aic, *. m. See Abhag. 

t Abach, aich, s.m. Entrails of a beast ; pluck; also pro- 
clamation. Ir. abhach. 

Abaciiadh, aidh, s. m. A ripening, the circumstance of 
ripening ; a growing to maturity. 

Abachadh (ag), pr. part, of abaich. Ripening. Tha 'n 
t-arbhar ag abachadh, the corn is ripening. 

t Abachd, «./. Exploits; gain, lucre. 

Abachd, «./. Ripeness, maturity. Confr. for abaicheachd, 
the regularly formed, though not used, derivative, of abaich. 

t Abact, s.f. Irony, jesting. — Glossary ofColum Cille. Now 
written abhachd, 

t Abadh, aidh, s. m. A lampoon, a satirical poem; n. pi. 

Abaich, a. Ripe, mature, at full growth ; ready, prepared, 
expert. Com. and sup. abaiche, more or most ripe. Ir. 
abaidh. Manx, appee. W. adhved. 

Abaich, X). Ripen ; bring or grow to maturity. Fret. a. Ah' 
abaich, ripened; fut. uff. a. abaichidh, shall or will ripen; 
fut. pass, abaichear, shall be ripened. 

Abaichead, eid, *. m. and/. Ripeness, maturity ; increase 
in ripeness, advancement in ripeness. Air abaichead 's gum 
bi e, however ripe it shall be. Tha e dol an abaichead, 
it is growing more and more ripe. 

Abaichear, fut. pass, of abaich ; shall be ripened. 

Abaichidh, fut. aff. a. of abaich ; shall or will ripen. 

Abaid, aide, s.f (i. e. ab-aite, the place of an abbot), an 
abbey ; also an abbot. Pers. abad, a booth ; plur. abadan. 
Dan. abbedie. Span, abbadia. N. pi. abaide, or abaidean, 
abbeys. Lios an abaid, the abbot's court. Arm. les an abad. 

Abaide, gen. sing, of abaid. 

Abaideachd, s.f. (from abaid), an abbacy. 

Abaidh, gen. sing, of abadh. 

+ Abaidh, s. f. A bud, blossom. Heb. and Chald. abi, 
green fruits. 

t Abail, s.f. Death. Arab. Hebil. 

Abailt, *.y. An abbey; more frequently abaid ; which see. 

t Abailt, s.f. Death. Arab, Hebil. 

Abaiu, v. irr. Say, speak, utter, pronounce. Prct. a. thu- 
bhairt, said ; fut. aff. a. their, shall or will say ; fut. neg. 
dubhairt. Abair ri, ris, riu, say to her, him, them ; na 
h-abair sin, or, na abair sin, do not say that. IF. ebru. 
Ir. abair. Eng. jabber. Du. jabberen. Heb. dabar. 

Abairzavi, frst sing, imper. a, of abair. Let me say, speak, 

utter, or pronounce. 
Abaiuear, fut. and imper. pass. Shall be said, let be said; 
abairear e, let it be said. It is often contracted abrar. — 
Stew. Luke, ref. 

Abairt, «._/. (//WH abair.) Education; politeness, breeding ; 

speech, articulation. Ir. abairt. 
t Abaiut, ,s.y. Custom, use, habit, usage. See Abiiairt. 
Abait, aite, s.f. (ab-kite). An abbey. 
+ Abaoi, s.f. Sunset, descent. Eng. eve. 
t Abar, air, s. m. Speech. 
Abar, air, s. m. A marsh, bog, fen; marshy ground. Arab. 

ybr, margin of a river, and abar, wells. Heb. by met. 

baar. Ir. abar. 

Abarach, a. {from abar.) Fenny, boggy, marshy; of or 
pertaining to a marsh ; likewise of or pertaining to Loch- 
aber; a Lochaber-man ; also bold, daring. Gu h-aghmhor 
abarach, in a brave and bold manner. — Old Song. Com. 
and sup. abaraiche, bolder, boldest. 

Abarachd, s.f. Marshiness, bogginess. 

Abardair, s. m. {from abair.) A dictionary. 

Abardairiche, *. m. {from abardair.) A lexicographer. 

Abartach, a. {from abair.) Bold, daring, forward, impu- 
dent, talkative. Com. and sup. abartaiche, more or most bold. 

Abartachd, s. f. {from abair.) A mode of speech; an 
idiom; talkativeness. 

Abartair {from abair), *. A dictionary. 

Abartairiche, *. m. {from abartair.) A lexicographer. 

Aber, s. m. {Corn. aber. Heb. habar, to join together; 
haber, a companion ; heber, a junction ; Chald. Syr. Ethiop. 
habar, to unite.) A place where two or more streams 
meet, a confluence, a conflux, as Aberfeldy ; a place where 
a river falls into the sea, as Aberdeen, in Scotland ; 
Aberistwyth, in Cardiganshire. " Seu mari," says Box- 
horn, " seu duo fluvii junctis aquis consociantur, locus in 
quo fit hsec conjunctio Britannic^ vocatur aber." The place 
where a river falls into the sea, or where two rivers join, 
is, in the old British tongue, called aber. Boxhorn seems 
to think that aber is a Phenician word. In some districts 
of the Highlands, as Breadalbane and Strathtay, this word 
is improperly pronounced obair. 

Abh, s.m. A landing net; a sack net; an instrument. 

t Abh, s, m. Water. Tonq. hai, sea. Shans. ab, and aw, 
water. Arab, ahha, pool. Pers. awe. Gr. JEol. a.(p-a.. 
hat. a-qua. Dan. aae. W. aw. Fr. eau. Gothic, a. 
Isl. aa. Low Germ. aa. Swed. a, a river. Old Sax. 
a, ea, eha. See also Ab. 

Abh, in its original acceptation, is a fluid, and from this root 
are derived all words that imply fluidity, or the action er motion 
of fluids, as well as many words which imply motion, Hence also 
umnis, a river, and abhainn, a river; properly abh-an, the flowing 
element. See also amk. 

Abhac, aic', (more properly abhag.) A terrier; a dwarf, a 
sprite; also, in derision, a petulant person. N. pi. abhaic, 
or abhacan. 

Abh-ch>il, sf. A musical instrument. 

Abhacan, n. pi. of abhac. Terriers. 

Abhacas, s. m. and /". Diversion, sport, ridicule, merriment; 
boisterous day. Ball abiiacais, a laughing stock. — Stew. Jer. 
Fear na h-abhacais, a merry fellow, a man for merriment. 

t Abhach, a. Joyful, glad, humorous; sportful, merry. 
Comp. and sup. abhaiche, more or most joyful ; now written 
aobhach; which see. 

Abhaiche, com. and sup. of abhach, more or most joyful. 

Abhachd, «./. (/rom abhach.) Joy, humour, hilarity ; gibe; 
irony; jesting; also capability. Ri h-abhachd, merry 
making. — Macint. A togail abhachd, raising joy — Old 

Abhachdach, a. Humorous, merry, joyous, joyful ; jolly, 
corpulent ; inclined to gibe, jesting, or raillery. Gu h-ab- 
hachdHch,>y/«//!/. — Macint. Com. and sup. abhachdaiche, 
more or most humorous. 

A B H 

A B L 

Abhachdaiche, s. m. (from abhach.) An humorous person; 
one who is fond of jesting or raillery, a railer. 

Abhachdaiche, com. and sup. of abhachdach. More or 
most humorous, joyful or jocose. 

Abhachdail, a. (from abhach.) Joyful, humorous, jocose. 
The terminations ail and eil of adjectives are but smoothings 
and contractions of amhuij, /j'A-e; abhachdail, therefore, is 
abhachd-amhuil. The case is the same in English : as, 
gentlemanly, i. e. gentlemanlike; cowardly, cowardlike. 

Abhachdas, ais, s. m. (from abhach.) Merriment, ridicule, 
sport ; clamorous joy. 

Abhadh, aidh, s. ?n. An instrument; abhadh-ciiiil, a musical 
instrument. — Stew. Eccles. 

Abuadh, aidh, s. m. A landing-net, a sack-net; a fold; 
a hollow. 

Abhadh, aidh, ». m. 

Abhadh-ciuil, s.m. 

Abhag, aig, s. m. A 

A flying camp. Ir, id. 
A musical instrument. — Stew. Ecc, 
terrier; a contemptuous name for a 

petulant person ; rarely a dwarf; a spectre. An abhag 

bh' aig Fionn, the terrier which Fingal had. — Fingalian 
Poem. • Neas-abhaig, a ferret. Heb. abhak, dutt. 
Abhagach, a. (from abhag.) Like a terrier ; of or relating 

to a terrier; petulant, snappish, waspish. 
Abhagail, i. e. abhag-amhuil, a. (from abhag.) Like a 

terrier; waspish, snappish. 
Abhaoan, n. pi. of abhag. Terriers. 
Abhagas, ais, s. m. A report, a rumour, a surmise. 
Abhaic, gen. sing, and n. pi. of abhac. 
Abhaig, gen. sing, and «. pi. of abhag. 
Abhail, gen. sing, of abhal. 
t Abhail, «. m. Death. Ir. Bisc. Hivil. 
Abhaill, gen. sing, of abhail. 
Abhaisn, (i. e. abh-axi, the^owing element; see abh and an), 

s.f gen. abhann, or aibhne. A river, a stream. Bruach 

na haibhne, the bank of the river; n. pi. aibhnean and 

aibhnichean, ruithidh na h-aibhnean, the riversftow. — Stew. 

Pro. Written also amhainn and abhuinn. Lat. amnis. 

W. afon, or avon. English, f afene. Swed. aen, or an. 

Arm. afon. Ir. abhan. Corn. auan. Manx. aon. Germ. am. 

One may venture to assert that all over the globe, more especially 
in Europe and Asia, the names of rivers ending in an, ane, en, 
eine, ein, in, on, onne, &c. are derived from the old Celtic root, 
an, signifying an element, water; see an. The Seine is a contraction 
of seimh-an, the smooth water ; and a more descriptive name ot'that 
majestic river could not he given. Rhen-us, the Rhine, is reidh- 
an, the placid water ; a name which well accords with the genera! 
appearance of that river. Garumn-us, (iaronne, is garbh-an, the 
rough renter. Marne, marblian, the dead water. So also Fad-an-us, 
the Po ; .nnd the Asiatic rivers, Arn-on, Jord-an, Gib-on, Jihon, 
&c. I have been agreeably surprised to find that in some of these 
remarks I had been anticipated by a few learned and ingenious 

Abhainneach, a. (/rom abhainn.) Fluvial; abounding in 

rivers ; of, or pertaining to, a river. 
Abhair, ^f«. sing, of abhar. 
t Abhais, «./. A bird. Arm. afais. Zaf. avis. 

Abhaist, aiste, *./. (ffe6. davash.) Custom, habit, usage, 
manner, consuetude ; also adjectively, usual, wont. A 
leanachd an abhaist a b' aoibhinn, following the habits that 
once were pleasant. — Oss. Gaul. Cha b' e sud abhaist 
Theadhaich, that was not the manner or custom of Tedaco. — 
Old Legend. Tha thusa an sin, a chnoc an easain, ann ad 
slieasarah mara b' kbhaist, hillock of the dark torrent, thou 
art there standing a* usual. — Macint. N. pi. abhaiste and 

Abiiaisteach, a. (from abhaist.) Customary, usual, ha- 
bitual, adhering to custom; according to use, custom, or 
habit. Comp. and tup, abhaistiche, more or most cuitomary. 

Abmaistiche, comp. and sup. of abhaisteach. More or most 

Ab?ial, ail, s. m. n. pi. abhlan. An apple; an apple-tree. 
Abhal fiadhain, a crab-apple ; crann abhail, an apple-tree. 
— Stew. G. B. Ruaidhe nan abhal, the ruddiness of apples. 
— Old Song. W. aval. Dan. aeble. Ir. abhail. Arm. 
afall and aval. Corn, aval and avel. Old Germ, effel. 
Mod. Germ, apfel. Lith. apfal. Old Pruss. wabelko. 
and Procopius, in Cherson Taur. apel. Serria, iablo. 
Turk, and Httng. alma, by transposition for amal. The 
right orthography of this word is abhail, being derived 
from the pure Celtic term ball, any round body ; in Stiria 
and Carinthia they say iablan; in Bohemia, gabion; Isl. 
eple ; Runic, eple ; Little Tartary, apel. 
Abhal ghort, or, abhall-ghort, gen. abhall-ghoir, s. m. 
An orchard. Sometimes written all-ghart. Dan. aeble- 
gaart. IV. afallach. Ir. abhal-ghort. 
Abhall, aill, i. OT. An apple; an apple-tree. Ar n' abhail 's 
ar iibhlan, our apple-trees and apples. — Old Song. Written 
also abhal. 
Abhall-ghortach, a. Abounding in orchards; of or 

pertaining to an orchard. 
A BiiAN, arfc. Down, downwards. See BhAn. 
Abuar, air, s. m. A reason, cause, motive. Chald. abhor; 
more frequently written aobhar, which see; n. pi. ^bhair 
and kbharan. 
t Abharach, aich, s. m. A youth under age, who acts as 

a man. Gr. aS^a,, a delicate female. 
Abhlain, gen, sing, and n. pi. of abhlan, which see. 
t Abhlabhra, a. Dumb, mute, speechless. 
Abhlan, n. ;;/. of abhal and abhail. 

Abhlan, aiu, s. m. (Dan. ablad. Ir. abhlan.) A wafer; 
a round cake ; whatever is taken with bread in the way of 
sauce, or condiment, vulgarly called kitchen. — Shaw. 
A bhlas mar abhlain, its taste like wafers. — Stew. Exod. 
N. pi. abhlain and abhlana. Abhlan, signifying kitchen, is 
more frequently written and pronounced annlan, which 
see. Abhlan coisrichte, a holy wafer. 
Abhlanach, a. Like a wafer, wafery. 
Abhlan-coisrigte, s. m. A holy wafer, such as is used by 
the Roman Catholics in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 
Abh-mhathaiu, mhathar, s.f. A mother abbess, 
t Abhra, a. Dark. — Shaw. 
Abiira, abhradh, *. m. The eye-brow. Gr. o<p^i^. Arm. 

abrant. Jr. abhra. 
Abh K AIS, gen. sing, of abhras. 
t Abhran, ain, *. m. A song. — Sliaw. 
Abhran, s. pi. Eye-lids. IF. amrant. Corn, abrans. 
Abhras, ais, s. m. Yarn; flax and wool, stuff for spinning; 

also a ready answer. Ag abhras, spinning. Ir. abhras. 
Abhrasach, a. (from abhras.) Of or belonging to yarn, 
t Abhsan, ain, s. m. A hollow; a furrow. 
Abhuinn, aibhne, s.f. A river. See Abhainn. 
Abhuinneach, a. (yrom abhuinn.) See Abhainneach. 
Abhuist, s.f. See Abhaist. 

t Abhus, uis, «. m. Any wild beast; also a stall for cattle. 
Ablach, aith, s.m. A mangled carcass; carrion; the re- 
mains of a creature destroyed by any ravenous beast; a 
term of personal contempt, a brat. Ablach gun deo, u 
breathless carcass. N. pi. ablaich and ablaichean. In the 
sense of a brat, ablach ought perhaps to be written ablaoch. 
ABi,AiCH,gc«. and roc. sing, and w. pi. of ablach. Ablaich 

tha thu ann ! you brat, that you are! 
Ablaichean, n. p/. of ablach. Carcases. 
Ablaoch, laoich, s. m. (ab neg. and laoch.) A brat; a 
pithless person. Ablaoich tha thu ann i You brat, thatymi are! 

A C A 

A C D 

ABLAOicn.gen. «'«g'. ofablaoch. 

t Abrad, a. Exalted; far removed. ^r;«. brat, sovereign. 

Abram. Contracted for abaiream, which see. 

t Abrann, s. m. Bad news. 

t Abrann, a. Lustful, lecherous, lascivious. 

Abraon, aoin, s. m. April. Ir. abran. 

Abrar, for abairear, /uf. and imper. pass, of abair. Shall 

or will be spoken. 
Abstoil, g'wi. sing, of abstal. 

Abstol, oil, s. m. An apostle. Gr. awotrrof^-of. Lat. apostol- 
us. Ir. absdol. Fr. -f apostre. Arm. apstol. Corn. 
abestel. The Utter of the apottk, litir an abstoil ; the 
letters of the apostles, litrichean nan abstol. N. pi. abstoil 
and abstolan. 
Abstolach, a. (/rom abstol.) Apostolical; of or belonging 

to an apostle. 
Abstolachd, «./. (_/roOT abstol) Apostleship. Grks agus 

abstolachd, grace and apostleship. — Stew. Rom. 
Abu ! interj. The war cry of the ancient Irish 
Abuchadh, aidh, s. m. The process of ripening, the circum- 
stance of ripening, a ripening, progress toward maturity. 
Written also abachadh. 
Abuchadh, (ag) pr. part, of abuich. Ripening, mellow- 
ing, maturating. 
Abuich, v. Ripen, mellow, maturate. Fret. a. dh' abuich, 
ripened; Jut. aff. a. abuichidh, shall or teiil ripen; fut. 
pass, abuichear, shall or will be ripened. 
Abuich, a. Ripe, mellow, mature. M' arbhar abuich, my 

ripe corn. — Stew. 0. T. Ir. abuidh and abuigh. 
Abuichead, eid, s. Ripeness, advancement in ripeness. 
Tha 'n t-arbhar dol an abuichead, the corn is growing riper. 
Abuichear, yu^ jjflM. of abuich. Shall or will be ripened. 
ABUiCHEAS,/a<. sub. a. of abuich. Used with the conjunc- 
tion ma, if, nur, when ; ma dh' abuicheas e, if it shall ripen. 
t Abulta, a. Strong, able, capable. Gaisgich abulta, 

able warriors, — Old Poem. Ir. abulta. 
i Abultachd, «. /. (/rom abulta.) Strength, ability, capa- 
bility. Abultachd ur feachd, the strength of your army. — 
Old Foem. 
t Ac, aca, *. m. A denial, a refusal ; also a son. Hence, 

mac, a son. 
+ Ac, aca, *. m. Speech ; tongue. 

Aca and ac', comp. pron. (Corn, aga, theirs.) Of them, with 
them, on their side, at them, on them, in their possession; 
also their. Tha m6ran ac' ag radh, many of them say. — 
Smith. Tha e aca na sheirbheiseach, he is with them as a 
servant; aca sud, in the possession of those people. — Smith. 
An tigh aca, their house ; i. e. an tigh th' aca, literally, the 
house which is to them ; chaidh ac' air, they conquered him ; 
theid ac' orm, they shall conquer, or get the better of, me. 
f Acadamh, daimh, s. m. (ac, speech, and t damh, learning.) 
An academy. Gr. axaJ>j;*ia. Lat. academia. Ir. aca- 
AcAiD, s.f. {Ir. aicid.) Pain ; hurt ; a transient lancinating 
pain. Is trom an acaid tha 'm lot, intense is the pain in my 
wound. — Macint. 
AcAiDEACH, a. (/rom acaid.) Painful, uneasy ; also groan- 
ing. Comp. and sup. acaidiche, more or most painful. 
i Acaideadh, idh, s. m. An inhabitant, tenant. 
Acaidiche, comp. and sup. of acaideach. More or most 

AcAiN, s.f. {perhaps ath-chaoin.) JV. aqwyn and oqain. 
A moan, a sob, plaintive voice; wailing, weeping, murmur ; 
rarely a tool, tackle, furniture. Acaiu 'g a taomadh an 
comhnuidh, his plaintive voice pouring forth incessantly. — 
Oss Fin. and Lor. Acain air acain, moan upon moan. — 

Oss. Dargo. When acain is preceded by 'g or ag, it is, as 
are most substantives in a similar situation, rendered as the 
present participle. Crathaidh e a cheann 's e 'g acain, 
he shall shake his head, moaning ; literally, and he moaning. 
AcAiNEACii, a. (yrom acain.) If . agwynawl, a. Plaintive; 
distressful ; causing sorrow or wailing ; sobbing. Guth 
acaineach, a sobbing voice ; comp. and sup. acainiche, more 
or most plaintive. 
AcAiNEAR, ir,s. wt. (acain, and fear.) A complainer, mourner, 

weeper, waller ; one who ails. W. a^wynwr. 
AcAiNiciiE, s. m. {from acain.) A wailer, a mourner, 

a sobber, weeper, complainer. 
Acainiche, comp. and sup. of acaineach. More or most 

Acair, A ship's anchor; n. pi. acraichean, anchors; 
acair an anama, the anchor of the soul. — Stew. Heb. Ceithir 
acraichean,ybur anchors. — Stew. Acts. Ir. accair. 
Acair, s.f. An acre of ground; n. pi. acraichean, acres. 
Fers. akar. Gr. ay^of. Lat. ager. Maeso-Goth. akrs. 
Isl. akur, akker, and akkeri. Swedo-Goth. aker and akrs. 
Svsed. acker. Dan. ager. Anglo-Sax. acere. Ir. acra. 
Ann. acre. Germ, akar, akare, achre, acker. High 
Germ, acker. Low Germ, akker. Heb. ickar, a ploughman. 
Syr. akoro. Arab, akkoro. This is one of the few words 
which have come down to us from the original language of 
Acair-pholl, phuill, s. m. (acair and poll.) An anchorage, 

a harbour, a road for ships ; n. pi. acair-phuill. Ir. id. 
AcAiiisEiD, {from acair,) s.f. A port, harbour, haven; 
anchorage ; a road for ships ; n. pL acairseidean, harbours. 
Ir. id. 
t AcAis, s.f. Poison. Ir. id. 
t AcALLA, s. Conversation. 

Acanaich, s.f. {from acain.) Wailing, moaning, sobbing, 
weeping ; grief. ladsan a b' aille m' acanaich, they who 
would desire to partake of my grief. — Old Song. 
t Acar, a. {Lat. acer. Fr. aigre.) Sharp, sour, bitter. 
Acarach, a. Gentle, obliging, mild, moderate, kind, com- 
passionate, merciful ; respectful. Comp. and sup. acaraiche. 
Acarachd, *. f {from acarach.) Gentleness, kindness, 
mildness, moderateness, compassionateness, mercifulness ; 
respectfulness. Gun acarachd, without mercy. — Smith. 
Ghlac e sinn le h-acarachd, he grasped us (our hands) with 
kindness. — Old Seng. 
t Acaradh, aidh, s. m. Profit; the loan of anything; 

usury. See Ocar. 
Acaraiche, comp. and sup. of acarach. More or most 

gentle, kind, respectful, mild, or compassionate, 
t Acaran, ain, s. m. Lumber, 
t Acartiia, a. See Acarach. 
AcASA, acasan. Emphatic form of the comp. pron. aca, 

which see. 
AcASDAia, s. m. An axle-tree. acasdairean. Ir. 

Acasdairean, n. pi. of acasdair. 

Acastair, «. OT. An axle-tree. JV. p/. acastairean, ax/f-frew. 
AcASTAiREAN, B. pi. of acastair. 
Acastarain, gen. sing, of acastaran. 
\ AcASTARAN, ain, s. m. An axle-tree. N. pi. acastarain, 

or acastarana. 
Acduinn, s.f. Tools, instrument, utensil, tackle, tackling; 
furniture ; equipage, haniess ; also a salve. — Macfar, 
Acduinn gunna, the lock of a gun; acduinn eich, horse 
harness ; written also acfuinn, acfhuinn, and achduinn ; 
n. pi. acduinnean. 
Acduinneach, a. Of or pertaining to tools, tackling, 
harness ; equipped, harnessed ; expert, able, sufficient. 

A C H 

A C R 

active. Com. and sup. acduiniche, written also acfuinneach, 
ac/Auinneac/i, and achduinneach. 

AcDUiNNEAN, n. pi. of acduinn. 

AcDuiNNiCHE, comp. and sup. of acduinneach. 

AcFuiNN, «./. Tools; instrument, utensil, tackling, tackle, 
harness, equipage, furniture ; also a salve.— Mac^r. Ac- 
fuinn gunna, the lock of a gun; acfuinn is inneal ciiiil, 
instrumentt of death. — Stnith. Acfuinn sgriobhaidh, tcriting 
utensils. — Stew. Ezek. Acfuinn na luinge, the tackling of a 
ship. — Stew. Acts. N. pi. acfuinnean ; written also 
acduinn, acfltuinn, and achduinn. 

Acfuinneach, a. (from acfuinn.) Of or pertaining to tools, 
tackling, harness, or furniture; equipped, harnessed; 
expert, able, sufficient, active. Comp. and sup. acfuinniche, 
more or most expert. Ir. acfuinneach. 

Acfuinnean, n. pi. of acfuinn. 

AcFHUiNN, *./. See Acfuinv or Acduinn. 

AcFHuiNNEACH, a. (froif acfhuinn.) See Acduinneach, 
or Acfdinneacii. 

AcFHUiNNEAN, n. pi. of acfhuinn. See Acduinn, or 

ACH, conj. {Goth. ak. Ir. ach. Lat. ac. Germ, auch.) But. 
except, besides. Cha do rinn neach ach thusa e, none but 
you did it ; ach co sud air a charraig mar che6, but who is 
yonder on the hill like a mist.—Oss. Dh' fhalbh iad uile 
ach h-aon, they all departed but one ; ach beag, almost. 

Ach ! ach ! An interjection expressive of disgust. 

t Ach, acha, s.f. A skirmish. 

Ach, s. m. A field. See Achadh. 

t Acha, ai, t.f. A mound or bank. — Bisc. Acha, a rock. 

Achadh, aidh, «. m. {Sax. haga. Scotch, haugh.) A field, a 
plain, a meadow ; a corn field. An t-achadh a cheannaich 
Abraham, the Jeld that Abraham bought. — Stew. Gen. A 
ceangal sguab san achadh, binding sheaies in the cornfeld. 
— Id. N. pi. achanna. 

Achaidh, gen. sing, of achadh. 

t Achaidh, *. /. An abode, a home. This vocable is 
seldom or never used by itself; but it is very common to 
say, dachaidh and dh'achaidh, home or homewards ; n. pi. 

AciiAiN, s.f A prayer, entreaty, supplication ; a wailing 
voice; petition. B' amhluidh sin achain nan slogh, 
such were the prayers of the people. — Mac Lach. The 
proper orthography of this word would seem to be ath- 
chmnge, which see. 

AcHAiNEAcn, a. (from achain.) Supplicatory; perhaps 
ath chuingeach. 

AcHAiNiCHE, s. m. A petitioner; perhaps ath-chuingiche. 
t AciiAMAiR, a. Soon, timely, short, abridged; perhaps 

+ Achamaireachd, *. /. Abridging, abridgment; per- 
haps ath-chuimireachd. 

t Achar, air, s. m. A distance. 

f AcHARADH, aidh, ». m. A sprite; a diminutive person. 

AcH-BEAO, adv. Almost, well nigh. Ir. acth beag. 

AcHD, s.f. {Dan. act. Swed. ackt, purpose. Germ, echt, a 
law.) An act, statute, decree ; deed; case; account; state, 
condition ; way, manner, method. Air an achd so, in this 
■way ; air aon achd, on any account, in any case. — Smith. 
Achd parlamaid, an act of parliament. 

i AcHD, «./. A body; peril; a nail; a claw. 

Achdair, «./. An acre. See Acair. 

AcHDAiR, I. f A ship's anchor; n. pi. achdraichean, 
ar n-achdair, ar siiiil 's ar be airtean, our anchor, our 
imli, and tackling.— Macfar. Written also acair, which 

Achdairpholl, phuill, s. m. A road for ships ; written 
also acairpholl. 

Achdairseid, s.f. An anchorage, a harbour, port ; a road 

for ships. See Acairseid. 
t Achdra, ai, *.y. A naval expedition, 
t Achdran, ain, s. m. An adventurer, a foreigner. Ir. id. 
t Achdranach, aich, s. m. A foreigner, an adventurer, 
t Achdranach, a. Foreign ; adventurous. 
Achduinn, *. /. Instrument, tools, tackle, harness, 

equipage, furniture ; also a salve. Grinn achduinn na 

h-eachraidh, the btautiful harness of the stud. — Old Poem. 

N. pi. achduinnean, written also acduinn and acfuinn. 
Achduinneach, a. Of or relating to tools, harness, or 

furniture ; also equipped ; expert, able, sufficient. Comp. 

and sup. achduinuiche. 
t AcHiAR, a. {Jr. id. Lat. acer. Fr. aigre.) Sharp, sour, 


t AcLADH, aidh, s. m. A fishery. 

t Aclai'dh, a. Smooth, fine, soft. 

AcHLAis, aise, ,$./. Tiie arm, armpit; bosom, breast. Lag 

na h-achlais, the armpit. N. pi. achlaisean. Raimh ann 

achlaisean ard-thonn, oars in the bosoms of lofty surges. — 

Macfar. Ir. achlais. 
AcHLAis, gen. sing, of achlas. 
Achlaise, gen. sing, of achlais. 

AcHLAS, ais, s.f. A bundle; a little truss; also the arm- 
pit, the arm. 
t AcHMHAiNG, a. Powerful. 
AcHMHASAiN, gen. sing, and n. pi. of achmhasan. 
AcHMHASAN, ain, s. m. ; n. pi. achmhasain. {Corn, acheson, 

guilt.) A reproof, reprimand, scold, reproach. Thug 

athair achmhasan da, his father rebuked him. — Stew. Gen. 

Achmhasain teagaisg, the reproofs of instruction.'' — Stew. 

Pro. Fuath no eud no achmhasan, nor hate, nor jealousy, 

nor reproach. — Old Poem. 
AcHMHASANACH, fl. Causing a rebuke; liable to rebuke; 

of or pertaining to a rebuke ; prone to rebuke ; repre- 

hensive. Comp. and sup. achmhasanaiche, more or most 

prone to rebuke. 
AciisfHASANAicH, V. Rebukc, reprove, chide, censure; 

pret. a. dh'achmhasanaich, rebuked ; fut. ajf. a. achmha- 

sanaichidh, shall or will rebuke. 
Achmhasanaiche, *. m. One who rebukes or censures. 
AcHMHASANAiCHE, comp. ftud sup. of achmhasanach. 
AcHMHASANAiCHiDH,yi<<. aff. a. of achmhasanaich. Shall 

or will rebuke, 
t AcHRAN, ain, s. m. Intricacy, entanglement, perplexity. 
+ AcHRANACH, a. Intricate, entangled, perplexed. 
AcHuiNGE, «.y. (ybr ath-chuinge.) A supplication, prayer, 

petition, request. See Ath-chuinge. 
AcHuiNGEACH, «. {from achuinge.) Petitionary; prone to 

supplicate or pray ; of or pertaining to a petition or 

t AcoMAiL, r. Heap together ; increase; congregate. 
t AcoMAiL, s.f. An assembly, a meeting, a gathering, 
t AcoN, ain. A refusal, denial, 
t AcoR, oir, s.f. Avarice, penury, covetousness ; written 

now ocar. 
AcRACH, a. {W. &(^rev. Gr. aK^o;, faint.) Hungry; also an 

hungry pers«n. Ant-anam acrach, the hungry soul. — Stew. 

Pro. ref. Biadh do 'n acrach, /borf to the hungry. — Smith. 

Comp. and sup. acraiche,- more or most hungry ; written also 

ocrach, which see. 
Acraiche, comp. and sup. of acrach. 
AcRAicHEAN, «. pi. of acalr. See Acair. 

A D H 

A D H 

AcRAis, gen, (ing, of acras. 

t AcRANN, ainn, «. m. A knot ; perplexity, entanglement. 

t AcRANNACii, (7. Knotty, knotted; perplexed, entangled. 

Acras, ais, s. m. {Gr. ax^acr-ia, /iiiiiger ; and ax^nf, faint. 
Ir. acras.) Hunger; famine. Tha acras orm, I am hungry ; 
tha mi air acras, / am hungrt/ ; bheil acras on, oirre, air, 
oirbh, orra, art thou, is she, he, are you, they, hungry t mar 
mhiol-clioin air acras, like hungry dogs. — Roy Stewart. 

AcsA, acsan; emphatic form of aca, whicli see. 

t AcuiL, a./. An eagle. Lat. aquil a. Ir. acuil. 

AcuiNN, s.f. A tool, tackle, tackling, equipment. See 


AcuiNNEACii, a. (from acuinn.) Provided with tools, 

tackling, harness ; equipped, harnessed ; of or pertaining 

to a tool or harness, 
t Ad, s. m. Water. Ir. id. 
Ad, aid, s.f. A hat. Ad a bhile 6ir, the gold-laced hat. — 

Macinf. Bile na h-aid, the rim of the hat. 
Ad, provincial for iad. 

Ad, a. pron. (for do.) Thy, thine. Ann ad ghialaibh, in thy 
Jaws. — Stew. Ezek. 'N ad chluais, in thine ear. — Oss. 

A' d', ad, (for ann ad, or, ann do.) In thy, as a. Na hi 

a'd'uamhas domh, be not a (as a) terror to tne. — Stew. Jer. 
t Ada, adai, s. f. Victory. 
Adag, aig, s.f. (Ir. adag.) A shock of com, consisting of 

twelve sheaves ; by the Lowlanders called stook ; also a 

haddock. adagan; an da chuid nah-adagan agus an 

t-arbhar, both the shocks and the standing corn. — Utew. Judg. 
Adagach, a. (from adag.) Abounding in shocks of corn; 

of or pertaining to a shock of corn. 
Adagachadh, aidh, s. m. The employment of making 

shocks of corn. Scotch, stooking. 
Adagachadh, (ag), pr. part, of adagaich. Gathering corn 

into shocks. 
Adagaich, w. Gather corn into shocks. Prrf. a. dh'adagaich; 
ful. aff. a. adagaichidh, shall or will gather corn into shocks. 
Adagaichte, p. part, of adagaich. Gathered into shocks. 
Adagan, n. pi. of adag, which see. 
t Adamhair, s.f. Play, sport, diversion. 
+ Adamhair, v. Play, divert, sport, 
t Adamhradh, aidh, «. m. (La?, admiratio.) Admiration; 

t Adh, adha, s. m. A law. 
Adh, adha, s. m. Prosperity, good luck, happiness, joy ; also 

an heifer ; a hind ; but in these two last senses it is oftener 

written agh, which see. Is m6r an adh, great is the joy. — 

f Adhach, a. (from adh.) Prosperous, lucky ; happy, joyful. 

Comp. and sup. adhaiche, more or most prosperous. 
AoHACUB, s.f. Prosperousness, luckiness, happiness, joy- 
Adh All,, gen. sing, ofadhal. 
t Adhailg, i.y. Desire; will, inclination. 
Adh AINN, gen. sing, of adhann; written more frequently 

aghann, which see. 
Adhairc, gen. sing, of adharc. 
Adhairceach, a. (from adharc.) Horned; having large 

horos. Bo adhairceach, a horned cow. Ir. adliarcach. 
Adhaircean, n. pi. of adharc. Horns. 
ADiiAiRCEAN.eiu, «. »i. A lapwing ; written also arf/(flrco«. 
Adhairt, gen. of adhart. 
Adhairt, s. Forwardness, front; van. Ir. adhairt. See 

Adual, ail, s. m. A flesh-hook. — Shaw. 

Adiialacm, fl. (/row adhal.) Like a flesh-hook ; of or per- 
taining to a flesh-hook, 
■f Adh ALL, a. Deaf; dull, stupid, senseless, 
t Adiiall, aill, i. ?n. Sin, corruption. Ir. id. 

t Adhallach, a. Sinful, corrupt, perverse. Comp. and 

sup. adhallaiche. 
t Adhaltan, ain, s. m. A simpleton; a dull stupid fellow. 
Adhaltranach, aich, *. m. An adulterer; adhal- 


Adhaltranach, ff. Adulterous. Ginealach adhaltranach, 
an adulterous genet ation. — Stew. Mat. Leanabh adhaltran- 
nach, an adulterous child; urr adhaltrannach, an adul- 
terous child. 

Adhaltranachd, *./. The practice of adultery. 

Adhaltranaich, gen. sing, of adhaltranach. 

Adiialtraxaichean, n. pi. of adhaltranach. Adulterers. 

Adhaltranais, gen. sing, of adhaltranas. Fear adhal- 
tranais, an adulterer. » 

Adhaltranas, ais, s. m. Adultery. A dianamh adhal- 
tranais, committing adultery.— Stew. Jer. L^n do adhal- 
tranais, /(/// of adultery.— Stew. 0. T. 

Adhaltras, ais, *. TO. Adultery. Urr adhaltrais, «n arfa/- 
terous child; written also adhaltrus. 

Adhaltrasach, a. (from adhaltras.) Adulterous. 

Adhaltrasachd, s.f. The practice of adultery. 

Adhaltrus, uis, s. m. Adultery. Luchd adhaltruis, adul- 
terers. — Stew. 0. T. 

Adhaltrusach, a. Adulterous; guilty of adultery. 
Adhaltrusachd, s.f. The practice of adultery. 
Adhamh, s. m. Adam; from adh, bless; and literally 

meaning the blessed person. 
Adhann, gen.; adhainn and aidhne, s.f. A pan ; a goblet; 

more commonly aghann ; also coltsfoot. Ir. adhann. 
Adhannta, a. Kindled; exasperated, inflamed, 
t Adiianntach, a. Bashful, modest. 
+ Adhanntachd, s.f. A blush ; bashfulness. 
Adharadh, aidh, *. w. and/. Worship, adoration; more 

frequently written aoradh. 
Adhar, gen. adhair a«rf adheir, s. m. ( He b. aver. Syr. air. 

Gr. an^. Croatian, aier. Dal. aer. Brazilian, arre. Lat. 

aer. Span. ayre. It. aria. Corn, and JF. awyr. //•. aedhar.) 

The atmosphere, the air, firmament, sky, cloud. Tha 'n 

fhardoch gun druim ach adhar, the dwelling has no roof' 

hut the sky. — Oss. Gaul. Boisge teine o 'n adhar bholg- 

dhubh, flashes of flame from the dark Mlying cloud. Id. 
Adharach, a. (from adhar.) Aerial, atmospheric; airy; 

Adharail, a. (i. e. adhar-amhuil), from adhar. Aerial, 

atmospheric. W. awrawl. 
Adharc, aire, *.y. A horn; a sounding horn. Bisc. adnrra. 

Ir. adharc. 
Adharcach, a. Horny; also horned. 
Adharcan, ain, s. m. A lapwing. Adharcan luachrach, 

a lapwing. — Stew. Lev. 
Adharc-fhudair, s.f. A powder-horn. 
Adharcan-luaciiuacii, s. m. A lapwing. — Stew. Lev. 
Adhart, airt, s. m. (Ir. adhart.) Linen; bed-linen; pillow; 

bolster. B'i m'adhart a chreug, the rock was my pillow. — 

Oss. Conn. 
Adhart, airt, s. m. Forwardness; seldom used but in 

connexion with the prep, air, as, thig air d' adhart, come 
forward, advance ; air d' aghart, come on, go on; tlia i teachd 

air a h-adhart, she is very foncard, she is coming on. 
Adhartach, a. (/ro?« adhart.) Like hnen, of or belonging 

to linen. 

A G 

A G A 

Adhabtach, a. Forwards ; having a wish or a tendency to 

be onwards or forwards ; progressive ; diligent, assiduous. 
Adiiartan, «. p/. of adhart. A pillow, a bolster; linens, 

t Adhartar, air, *. m. A dreamer. 
+ Adhas, a. Good ; proper. 

Adh ASTAR, air, s. m. A halter ; properly aghastar, which see. 
t Adhbha, ai, s. m. An instrument ; a musical instrument. 

See also Abhadh. 
+ Adhbhadh, aidh, s. m. A house, palace, garrison, 
t Adhbhaghan, ain, s. m. {dim. of adhbha.) A musical 

Adiibhar,, air, «. »;. Cause, reason. Air an adhbhar sin, 

therefore. — Stew. Gen. ref. Adhbhar mulaid, a cause of 

grief.— Macint. Written also aobliar. 
+ Adhbiiaras, ais, a.m. Carded wool; also yarn. See 

t Adhbharsach, aich, s^m. A comber or carder of wool, 
t ADHBHtfiDH, i.y. Joy, merriment. 
Adhlac, aic, *. f. A burial, interment, funeral. Aite- 

adhlaic, burying ground. 
Adhlacadh, aidh, s. m. The ceremony of interring. Aite 

adhlacaidh, a burying ground. Ir. adhlacadh. 
Adhlacadh (ag), j5r. fart, of adhlaich. Burying, interring. 
Adhlacair, s. m. (adhlac-fhear.) A burier, an undertaker. 
Adhlaic, v. Bury, inter. M' anam adhlac' an scleo, to 

bury my spirit in the mist. — Oss Carthon. Pret. a. 

dh'adhlaic, buried ; fut. aff. a. adhlaicidh, shall or will 

bury ; p. part, adhlaicte, buried. 
f Adhlaic, s.f. A longing desire for what is good. 
Adhlaicear,/«^ pass, of adhlaic. Shall or will be buried. 
Adiilaicidii, fut. aff. a. of adhlaic. Shall or will bury. 
Adhlaicte, p. part, of adhlaic. Buried, interred. Ir. 

t Adiilan, ain, s. m. A hero, champion. — Ir. 
Adhmhoire, comp. and sup. of adhmhor. 

Adhmhol, r. Praise, extol. Pret. a. dh' a.dh-mho\, praised; 
fut. aff. a. adhmholaidh, shall or will praise. 

Adh-mholadh, aidh, s. m. Praise. 

Adhmhor, a. {from adh.) Prosperous, fortunate, lucky, 
joyous, happy ; comp. and sup. adhmhoire. 7r. adhmhor. 

Adhnadh, aidh, s. m. A kindling of fire. 

Adh'or. See Adhmhor. 

Adhrach, a. (/roTTj adhradh.) Devout, religious ; written 
also aorach. 

Adhrachail, a. {i. e. adhrach-amhuil), from adhradh. 
Devotional. Dleasnasan adhrachail, devotional duties. 

Adhradh, aidh, s. m. {Ir. adhradh. Dan. acre, honour.) 
Worship, adoration, devotion. Thoir adhradh, worship; 
bheir mi adhradh, / will worship; written also aoradh, 
which see. 

Adh-uamharra, a. Abominable. 

Adh-uamhahrachd, s. Abomination, abominableness. 

Ad-olainjj, *./. Felt. 

t Aduadh, aidh, s. m. Horror, detestation. 

t Aduarra, a. {i. e. ad-uamharra.) Horrid, detestable. 

Afraighe, s.f. A rising or preparing for battle.—/;-. 

Ag, (perhaps another form of aig), prep. At. It is the sign 
of the present participle. Ag iarruidh, ag iasgachadh, 
ag acain, asking, fishing, wailing; literally at asking, at 
fshing. at waiting. It is prefixed to words beginning with 
a vowel, though sometimes it is seen before words begin- 
ning with a consonant; as, agruidh a rcia, running a race ; 
ag dol a mach, going forth. — Smith. 

Ag, aig, *. m. {Swed. agg, grudge.) Doubt, scruple, hesita- 
tion, contradiction ; a hesitation, or lisp in speech. 

Ag, V. Doubt ; hesitate ; refuse, contradict. Pre^. a. dh'ag, 
doubted ; fut. aff. a. agaidh, shall or will doubt. 

t Aga, s.f. The bottom of any depth. 

AGACii,a. Inclined to doubt or refuse ; scrupulous ; sceptical ; 
stammering, lisping. 

Agau, comp. pron. (aiganrftu.) At thee, on thee, with thee ; 
in thy possession, ylgad is also used in the sense of 
a possessive pronoun ; as, an tigh agad, a bhean agad, thy 
house, thy wife. This use of agad is not often met with in 
our classical writers ; but in common language it is very 
frequent. Tha, is or are, is understood, as, a bhean 
th'agad, your wife ; uxor qiice est tibi. The same remark is 
applicable to all the pronouns compounded of aig, as, 
agam, aige, aice, againn, agaibh, aca. 

Agadh, aidh, s. m. Doubt, hesitation, contradiction. Gun 
agadh sam be, without any contradiction. — Stew. Heb. ref. 
Ir. agamh. 

Agadsa, agadse. Emphatic form of agad, which see. 

t Agag, aig, s.f. An habitation or settlement. 

Agaibh, comp. pron. made up of aig and sibh. At you, on 
you, with you ; in your possession ; of you ; from among 
you. Co agaibh do 'n iarrar i? whom of you is she sought 
for ? — Fingalian Poem. Chaidh agaibh orra, you got the 
better of them. It is also used as a possessive pronoun, 
your ; as, an tigh agaibh, your house ; in which sense it 
seems to be contracted for a tli agaibh ; as, an tigh th' 
agaibh, your house ; literally, the house which is to you ; 
which, though bad English, is as correct in Gaelic as 
it is in Latin. 

Agaibhse. Emphatic form of agaibh, which see. 

Agaidh, gen. sing, of agadh. 

Agail, {i.e. ag-arahuil), a. Doubtful; in jeopardy; scep- 
tical : suspicious ; lisping. 

Agaileachd, i.y. ( /row! ag.) Doubtfulness, suspiciousness ; 
scepticism ; a tendency to lisp, a habit of lisping. 

AGAiN>f, comp. pron. {Corn, agan, ours,) made up of aig and 
sinn. At us, of or from amongst us, with us, or in our 
possession. Grks do gach aon againn, grace to every one 
of us. — Stew. Eph, It is also, like all the pronouns com- 
pounded of aig, used as a possessive pronoun, our ; as, an 
crodh againn, our cattle ; in which sense it is contracted 
for a th' againn, which is or- are to us. 

Againn-ne. Emphatic form of againn, which see. 

Agair, v. Plead, plea, accuse, charge, lay to one's charge, 
crave ; require, demand. Pret. a. dh' agair, pled ; fut. 
aff. a. agairidh, or, agraidh. Cha d' agair mi cruaidh e, 
/ did not pkad hard with him. — Old Song. Na agrar orra e, 
let it not be laid to their charge ; agraidh se, he will demand. 
— Stew. 2 Chron. 

Agaikg, s.f. (agaricus.) A species of mushroom. —, 

AoAiniTiH, fut. aff. a. of agair. 

Agairt, *. /". Pleading, plea, accusing; craving. Annan 
agairt a chiiise, in the pleading of his caiise. — Stew. Pro. 

Aga IT, s.f. An agate. —Macrf. 

Agaiteach, a. Like an agate, of or pertaining to an agate, 
full of agates. 

Agall, ail, s. m. Speech ; dialogue. Ir. 

Agall-ach, a. Conversational ; of or pertaining to a 
speech or dialect. Com. and sup. agallaiche. 

Agam, comp. pron. {Ir. agam), made up of aig and mi. At 
me, with me, on me, or in my possession. Cha 'n eil mo 
ghunn agam, / have not my gun ; chaidh agam air, / got 
the better of him. — Smith. Jgam, like all the pronouns 
compounded of aig, is used also as a possessive pronoun, 

A G H 

A I C 

my, mine; as, an claidheamh agam, my sword; which 
expression seems to be a contraction of an claidheamh a 
th' agara, (gladius qui est mihi), the sword which is to me, 
consequently my sword ; againn fhein, at or with ourselves. 
Corn, agan honan. 

t AoAN, a. Precious, dear. 

AoARACH, aich, s. m. (Jrom agradh.) A claimer, a pretender. 
Ir. id. 

Agarach, a. {from agradh.) Prone to plead, plea, or 
crave, or accuse; litigious; vindictive. Comp. and sup. 
agaraiche, more or most prone to plea. 

Agart.^ch, a. (J'roni agairt.) Inclined to accuse, plead, or 
plea; accusatory; litigious; quarrelsome. Com. and svp. 
agartaiche. Ir. id. 

Agartachd, s. /. {from agairt.) Quarrelsomeness; liti- 

Agartaiche, com. and sup. of agartach. More or most 

AgartXs, ais, «. m. A plea, a suit at law; prosecution, 
accusation. Agartas coguis, remorse ; fein-agartas, self- 
reproach, compunction ; inntinn saor o f hein-agartas, a mind 
free from self-reproach. — Macfar. Ir. id. 

Aqh, aighe, s. A heifer, a young cow ; a fawn ; rarely an 
ox, bull, or cow. Agh thri bliadhna dh' aois, an heifer 
three years old. — Stew. Gen. Reamhar mar agh, fat as a 
heifer. — Stew. Jer. Air t6ir nan agha ciar, in pursuit of the 
dusky fawns. — Oss. Luaithre aighe, the ashes of an heifer. 
— Stew. Ileb. 

Agh, aigh, s. m. Joy, happiness ; success, prosperity ; 
also joyful, happy. Choinnich sinn Lochlinn 's cha b' 
agh dhuinn, we met Lochlin, and it was not a gay meeting. — 
Ull. Bidh agh aig na naoimh, the holy shall have joy. — Smith. 
A thrfein a b' fhearr agh, thou hero who excelledst in success. 
Old Song. Written also adh. 

Agh, aigh, s. m. Fear, astonishment, awe. Gr. ay%, 

t AoH, aigh, s. m. Battle, conflict. 

Aghach, a. {from agh.) Warlike, brave, prosperous, suc- 
cessful, conquering; joyous, happy. Com. and sup. 
aghaiche, more or most warlike. 

Aghaidh, «.y. Face, visage, countenance ; brow; surface. 
Aghaidh na talmhainn, the face of the earth. — Stew. 0. T. 
Thoir aghaidh dha, oppose him; gabh air d' aghaidh, pass 
on, go on, go forwards. — Stew. I'm. Cuir an aghaidh is 
fhearr dh' flieudas tu air, put the best face on it you can ; 
an aghaidh, the face, also against ; cuir an aghaidh, 
oppose, contradict, thwart; cuir na aghaidh, oppose him, 
thwart him. — Stew. Exod. Cuir na h-aghaidh, oppose her ; 
cuir nan aghaidh, oppose them; as an aghaidh, outright. 

Aghaidh, (an), prep, governing the genitive. Against, in 
opposition. An aghaidh na gaoithe, against the wind ; an 
aghaidh mic an righ, against the king's son.— Stew. 1 Chron. 

Aghaidhichte, a. {from aghaidh.) Opposed, opposing; 
fronting, facing ; confronted. 

Aghais, s.f. Ease, leisure. See Athais. 

Agiiaiseach, a. {from aghais.) Easy; slow; at leisure. 

t Aghanaich, s. m. An advocate, a pleader. 

Aghart, airt,s.»!. {from aghaidh.) Advance; forwardness. 
Air d' aghairt is buail, forward and strike. — Oss. Tern. 
Rach air d' aghairt, go on. 

Aghann, gen. aghainn, and aighne, ,$./. A pan; a goblet. 

Aghastar, air, s. m. (aghaidh-stiilir.) A horse's halter. 

Aghmiior, and Aon'ou, a. {from agh.) Pleasant, joyful, 
prosperous, happy ; bold, brave. Gu h agmhor, abarach, 
in a bold and brave manner. — Old Song. Mun do bhoisg 

an solus gu agh'or, ere the light shone joyfully. — Oss. 

Ir. aghmhar. 
Ac RACH, a. {from agradh.) Accusatory; pleading, craving; 

inclined to accuse, plead, or crave. 
Agradh, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of agair, which see. 
Agradh, aidh, s. m. An accusation; craving, pleading. 
AcRAiDHjgcn. sing, of agradh. 
Agraidii, (for agairidh),/«<. aff. a. of agair, which see. 

AGRAR,/«fvi'a««. of agair. Shall or will be accused. See 

t Agsal, a. Generous, noble. Ir. 

Agus, conj. {Dan. og. Corn. ag. Lat. ac.) And; as. 
Thusa agus mise, thou and 1 ; tha e ceart cho mhath agus 
a bha e, it is just as good as it was. The contracted form 
[is or '«] of agus is used both in prose, poetry, and com- 
mon language. See is, and 's. 

t Ai, *. A controversy; a cause; a region, territory; in- 
heritance of land, possession. 

t Ai, s. A herd ; a sheep ; a cow ; also a swan. Ir. id. 

t AiBii, s.f. Likeness, similitude, resemblance. Ir. id. 

AiBni,\ interj. {Lat. awe. Jr. aibhe.) Hail ! all hail ! 

AiBHEis, s.f. The sea, ocean; a gulf; boasting; empti- 
ness. Ri aodann aibheis, on the surface of the sea. — 
Macdon. Ir. id. 

AiBiiEisEAR, ir, «. m. The adversary, the devil. 

AiEHGHiTiR, s.f. Alphabet. Lat. abgetoriura. 

AiBHiDEACH, a. Great, monstrous, enormous. 

AiBHiRSEAR, ir, s. m. The devil. Ir. See Aibhiste-ar. 

AiBHisT, «.y. Ruin, destruction; an old ruin. Ged tha e 
'n diugh na aibhist f huar, though it be to-day a cold ruin. — 
Oss. Conn. 

AiEHisTEACii, a. {from aibhist.) Full of ruins; like a ruin. 

AiBHisTEAR, ir, *. w. The dcvil ; a destroyer. This is the 
old Celtic term for the devil. Diabhol (whence haftoXof, 
diabolus, diavolo, diable) is much more modern. It 
literally means, a man of ruin. 

AiBiiisTEARACHD, S.f. Dcmonism, the conduct of a devil, 
of a destroyer ; destructiveness. 

AiBHLE, *./. Fire, spark; more frequently written eibhle. 
Ir. id. 

AiBHLEAG,*./. ( dim. q/'aibhle.) A burning coal; a little 
fire; rarely a flake of snow. See Eibhleag. 

AiBHLiTiR, s.f. Alphabet. N. pi. aibhlitirean. 

AiBHLiTiREACH, a. Alphabetical. Ordugh aibhlitireach, 
alphabetical order. 

AiBHNE, gen. sing, of abhainn, which see. 

AiBHNEACH, a. (from abhainn.) Fluvial; abounding in 

AinHNiCHEAN, n. pi. of abhainn. Rivers, streams. Ri 
taobh nan aibhnicbean, beside the streams. — Smith. 

AiBH3E, s. m. A spectre; sprite; a diminutive creature. 
Ir. id. Hence taibhse. 

AiBHSEACH, a. {from aibhse.) Like a spectre or sprite; 

t AiBiD, s.f. Habit. /;•. id. Lat. habit-us. 

AiBiDEAL, eil, s.f. Alphabet. jN^. pi. aibidealan, alphabets, 

AiBiDEALACH, a. Alphabetical. Ordugh aibidealach, a/pAa- 
betical order. 

t Aic, aice, s.f. A tribe, family ; a nourishing ; a desire ; 
a prop. Ir. 

AiCE, comp. pron. At her, with her, on her, in her posses- 
sion ; in lier remembrance. Tha duslach 6ir aice, it hath 
gold dust. — Stew. Job. Aice, like all the other compounds 
of aig, is often used as a possessive pronoun ; as, an tigh 
aice, her house, which may be considered an abbreviated 
form of an tigh a tji aice. 

A I D 


A I G 

f AiCE, adv. Near, close, at hand. 
AiCEAR, a. Angry, severe, cruel. Lat. acer. 
AiCHBHEiL, s. f. Revenge, vengeance. Thoir dhomh 
aichbheil, revenge me. — Stew. G. B. Written also aichmheil. 
AiCHjHEiLEACH, a. {from aichbheil.) Revengeful, vindic- 
tive, full of vengeance. Com. and sup. ' aichbeiliche, more 
or most revengeful. 

AiCHBHEiLEACHD, s.f. (ffom aichbheil.) Revengefulness, 

AiCHEADH, s. m. Refusal, denial, disavowal, recantation. 
Cuir as aicheadh, deny, disavow; thug e dhomh an aicheadh, 
he gave me the refusal. 

Aicheadh, v. a. Deny, refuse, disavow, recant, renounce. 
Fret. a. dh'aicheadh, refused; fut. off. a. aicheadhaidh, 
shall refuse ; aicheadhaidh mise esan, / will deny him. — 
Stew. Mat. 

Aicheadhaidh, /m^ aff. a. of aicheadh. Shall or will deny. 

ArcHEWN, V. a. Deny, refuse, disavow, recant, renounce. 
Pret. a. dh' aichean, denied; fut. aff. a. aicheunaidh, shall deny. 

t AiCHiLL, a. Able, powerful ; dexterous, handy. Jr. 

t Aichiheachd, «.y. Strength; dexterity. It. 

t AiciD, «.y. A disease, sickness; accident; a stitch; a 
sudden pain. 

Aichmheil, s. f. Vengeance, revenge; written also 

Aichmheileach, a. Revengeful, vengeful; written also 

t Aid, s. m. A piece, portion, morsel. 

Aideachadh, aidh, s. m. Confession, acknowledgment. 

AiDEACirAiDH, gen. sing, of aideachadh. 

AiDEACHAiL, (i. e. aideach-amhuil), a. Affirmatory ; con- 
fessing, acknowledging. 

t AiDHBHEAN, s. OT. A Stranger, foreigner. Ir. 

t AiDHBHEiL, s. A wonder ; a boasting. 

t AiDBHEiL, «. Huge, enormous, vast. 

t AiDHBHSEAN, cin, s. m. A spectre, a phantom, sprite. 

t AiDHEACH, ich, s.f. A milch cow. — Shaw. 

AiDHEAR, ir, <. m. Joy, gladness ; firmament. Dhuisg an 
aidhear, their joy broke forth. — Oss. Truth. Rinn e an 
t-aidhcar, he made the firmament. — Stew. Gen. ref. Written 
also, except in the last sense, aighear, which see. 

AiDHEARACH, a. Joyful, glad. 

AiDHLE, i.f A cooper's adze. 

t AiDHMB, *./. Dress, decoration. See Aigheam. 

t AlDHKE, s.f. Age. 

AiDiCH, V. a. Confess, own, acknowledge; affirm, avow, 
avouch. Pret. a. dli'aidich, confessed ; fut. aff. a. aidichidh, 
shall or will acknowledge ; fut. neg. aidich, cha n kidich mi, 
/ will not confess. 

AiDiCHEAM, (for aidichidh mi), 1 sing. fut. aff. a. of aidich. 
I will confess. Aideacheam thu, / will confess thee. — 
Stew. Rom. 

AiDicHEAM, 1 sing. imp. a. of aidich. Let me confess, own, 
or acknowledge. 

AiDiciiEAR,/uf. pass, of aidich. Shall be confessed, owned, 
or affirmed. 

AiDiCHTE, p. part, of aidich. Confessed, owned, acknow- 
ledged, affirmed. 

AiDMiiEiL, s.f. Confession, profession, declaration, ac- 
knowledgment. A reir bhur n-aidmiieil, according to your 
profession. — Stew. 2 Cor. Aidmheil na firinn, the acknow- 
ledgment of the truth. — Stew. 2 Tim. 

AiDMHF.iLEACH, a. (/rom aidmheil.) Of or belonging to a 
confession ; declaratory. 

AiDMHKiLEAR, ir, s. m. (aidmheil-fhear.) A confessor, a 
professor ; a declarer. 

AiDMHEiNT, «./. (Lo^ adventus.) The advent.— 5/;aa). 
AiDMHiCH, V. a. Confess, own, acknowledge. Pret. a. 
dh" aidmhich, confessed ; fut. aff.a. aidmhichidh, shall or 
will confess. 
AivMuiciiT^, p. part . of aidmhich. See Aidich. 
t AiFiR, s.f. Blame, fault. 

Aifrionn, inn, s. m. The Romish mass. Ir. aifrionn. 
AiG, prep. At, on, or in possession. Tha claidheamh aig 
an duine so, this man has a sword. Aig often imparts to 
the noun it governs, the significatitin of a genitive case, 
and then it may be considered as an abbreviated form of 
th'aig ; as, an stoc aig Fionnghal, Fingal'shorn; (t. e. an _ 
stoc a tha aig Fionnghal.) — Oss. Fing. 
t Aig, *./. This ancient vocable is now gone into disuse; 
but it is seen in composition with other words ; as, 
aigeal, aigean. It means the source of all substances ; 
also a sea, a shoal. The word aigo, in Languedoc and 
in Cantabria, has the same signification. 
AiGE, comp. pron. At him, with him, on him, in his posses- 
sion ; at it, with it ; also his ; its. Ir. id. 
t AiGBHEiL, *./". Terror; now written eaga/. 
t AiGBHEiLEACH, a. Terrific, terrible, fearful ; now written 

AiGEACH, ich,*. m. (aigh, mettlesome, and ediCh, horse.) A 

AiGEAL, eil, s. m. (from f aig.) The deep ; an abyss ; pool ; 
sea; bottom of an abyss. Do bhreacan air uachdar 
aigeil, thy plaid [floats] on the surface of the pool. — Old 
Song. luchair an t-sluichd gun aigeal, the key of the 
bottomless pit. — Stew. Rev. ref. JV.j?/. aigealan. 7r. aigiol, 
the bottom of a valley ; written also aigean, which see. 
AiGEALACH, a. (from aigeal.) Of or pertaining to an 

abyss ; full of abysses. 
AiGEALAN, n. pi. of aigeal. Abysses, seas, pools. 
AiGEALLACH, a. Puffed up, elate; spirited, mettlesonje, 
gallant. Com. and sup. aigeallaiche, more or most spirited. 
Aigealeadh, aidh, *. m. Speech, conversation, language; 
a dialogue. Ag eisdeachd aigeallaidh do bhebil, listening 
to thy speech. — Old Song. 
Aigeallaiche, com. and sup. of aigeallach. More or most 
spirited. Is e 's aigeallaiche na thusa, he is more spirited 
than thou art ; is tu 's aigeallaiche dhe 'n trifiir, thou art 
the most spirited of the three. 
Aigeallan, s. m. A breast-pin ; a jewel; ear-ring; tassel; 

toy. Ir. aigilin. 
Aigean, ein, s. m. (yromfaig.) Gr. cxtat-o;, ocean. W. 
eigiawn. Ir. aigean. An abyss ; deep ; pool ; sea ; the 
bottom of an abyss. Aghaidh an aigein, the surface of the 
deep. — Stew. Gen. Written also aigeal. 
Aigeanach, a. (from aigean.) Of or belonging to an 

abyss; full of abysses. 
Aigeannach, a. (from aigne.) Spirited, mettlesome ; mag- 
nanimous ; cheei-ftil. 
Aigeannachd, «.(y>o»j aigne.) Mettlesomeness ; sprightli- 

ness ; magnanimity ; cheerfulness. 
AiGEANTACH, a. (from aigne.) Spirited; sprightly; mettle- 
some ; cheerful ; magnanimous ; written also aigeannach. 
Aigeantachd, s.f. (from aigne.) Spiritedness, sprightli- 
ness; cheerfulness; magnanimity; written also aigeannachd. 
AiGEiCH, gen, sing, of iigeach, which see. 
Aigeil, gen. Mng-. of aigeal. Of an abyss; of a pool. 
Aigein, gen. sing, of aigean. 

Aigh, a. Happy, prosperous; liberal; auspicious; proud; 
mettlesome ; glorious. An reul aigh lulorno, the glorious 
star lulorno. — Oss. Dargo. 
Aloii,s.m. Happiness; prosperity ; joy ; mettlesomeness; 


A I L 


A I L 

liberality; gloriousness, glory ; auspiciousness; also deer. 
An do threig thu mi sholuis m' aigh? hast thou left me, 
thou light (beam J ofmyjoyl—Oss. Dargo. Meirg righ 
Lochlinn an aigh, the standard of the king of Lochlinn the 
glorious ; aigh do choillte fein, the deer of thine own woods. 
Oss. Cathula. D'aighean ciar, thi/ dusky deer. Id. 
AiGHE, gen. sing, of aighe. Of a heifer. — Stew. Heb. 
AiGiiEACH, 0. (/row aigh.) Happy, joyous. 
AiGHEAN, n. pi. of aigh. Deer. Aighean siiibhlach, the 

■wandering deer. — Macint. 
AiGiiEANACH, aich, s. m. A thistle; a place where thistles 

AiGHEANNAicu, gen. sing, of aigheanach. 
AiGHEASN, aighne, s.f A pan; a goblet; a skillet; a 
small kettle or boiler. N. pi. aigheannan; aigheannan 
a ghabhail luaithre, pans to contain ashes. — Stew. 0. T. 
Written also adhann and oigheann. 
AiGiiEAR, eir, s. Gladness, mirth, joy, gaiety, festivity. 
Tha aighear a bruchdadh na shiiil, gladness bursts from 
his eyes. — UU. Ce61 is aighear, music is mirth. — Oss. 
Derm. Aighear d' 6ige, the joy of thy youth. — Smith. 
Written also aidhear. 
AiGHEARACH, a. {from aighear.) Glad, mirthful, joyous, 

gay, festive. 
AiGHEARACHD, s.f. (from aighear.) Gladness, mirthful- 

ness, joyousness, festivity. 
Aighne, gen. sing, of aghann and of aigheann, which see. 
t Aighneach, a. Liberal. Cump. and sup. aigniche, more 

or most liberal. 
AiGLEAN, ein, s. m. An ear-ring, a tassel, a toy. 
AiGLEANACH, a. Hung with tassels ; gaudy, beauish. 
AiGNE, s.f. Mind, temper, disposition; spirit, afFection, 
thought. Is cianail m' aigne, sad is my mind. — Ardar. 
Written also aigneadh. Jr. aicne. 
AiGNEACH, a. {from aigne.) Spirited; aflfectioned; of or 

belonging to mind, temper, afFection, or thought. 
Aigneadh, idh, s. m. Mind, temper, disposition; spirit, 
affection, thought. Fionn an aignidh chianail, Fingal 
•whose mind is sad. — Death ofCarril. Lean mi le h-aigneadh 
neo-ghlic, / followed with unwise affection. — Mac Lack. 
Written also aigne. 
Aignidh, gen. «tng-. of aigneadh. 
Ail, gen. sing, of ^1, which see. 
Ail, s. m. A mark, impression, trace. 

trace of thy foot. 
t Ail, *. m. A mouth; a rebuke; a 

Ailbiie, .?./. A flint; a stone ; a rock. 
Ailbheach, a. {from ailbhe.) Flinty, stony, rocky. Com. 

and sup. ailbhiche, more or most rocky. 
Aileiieag, eig, s.f A ring; a ring of any coarse metal. 
' N. pi. ailbheagan. Ailbheagan airgiod, silver rings. — 

Mac Lack. Ailbheag cluais, an ear-ring. 
Ailbheagach, a. {from ailbheag.) Full of rings; like a 

ring; of or belonging to a ring. 
AiLBiiEiNX, s.f. (ail and beinn.) A flint; a rock; a 

mountain rock ; written also aitbkinn. 
AiLBiiiNN, «./. (ail-bheinn.) A rock ; a flint; a flinty rock; a 
mountain rock. Ag imeachd air an ailbhinn oillteil, walk- 
ing on the dreadful precipice. — Oss. Dargo. Do sgiath mar 
ailbhinn, thy shield like a rock. — Oss. 
t AiLE, s.f. A stone ; also behaviour, manners, 
t AiLCNE, ». pi. Paving stones, 
t AiLCNEACH, ich, s. m. {from aile.) A pavier. 
AiLE, s. {Gr. Alo^-o;. Lat. lEol-Vii, wind; also hal-o, 
breathe ; and perhaps aiM^a. Corn. aual. //'. aile, smell.) 

Ail do chois, the 
stone ; a request ; 
N. pi. aiibhean. 

The atmosphere, air, breath ; smell, savour ; the sense of 
smell. Tra chaidleas sa ghleann an t aile, when the air 
sleeps [is stilly in the valley. — Oss. Duthona. 
Axle, a. Handsome; more properly ai7/e ; which see. 
AiLEBEABT, beairt, «./. A halbert. ^. joi. ailebeartan. 
Ail-eacii, eich, s. m. (t ail, stone, and each, horse.) A stone- 
horse, a stallion. 
Aileach, a. {from kWe.) Atmospheric, aerial; savoury; 
of or belonging to the atmosphere, air, breath, or smell, 
longantas kileach, an atmospheric phenomenon ; iongantas- 
an aileach, atmospheric phenomena. 
Aileach, a. {from kile.) Causing marks or impressions. 
AiLEADH, aidh, s.m. A smell, odour; the sense of smell ; 
air, atmosphere. Aiieadh deadh bholaidh, an odour of 
sweet smell. — Stew. Eph. Sr6ine gun kileadh, noses without 
the sense of swell. — Smith. Written also aile. 
AiLEAG, eig, «._/". Hiccup. — Macint. 
AiLEAGACH, a. {from aileag.) Causing the hiccup, hiccupy, 

relating to the hiccup. 
AiLEAN, n. pi. of ail. Marks, impressions, traces. 
AiLEAN, ein, «. »n. A meadow, a plain. Cath air an ailean 

reith, a battle on the level plain. — Mac Lack. 
t AiLEANTA, a. {from aile.) Atmospheric, aerial. 
AiLEAR, eir, s. m. A porch. — Stew. Acts, ref. Ir. id. 
Ai'LEATHAN,a. (ybr aimh-leathan.) Narrow; strait; light. 
AiLE-BHEATiiAiL, o. Vital air, oxygen. 
AiLE-MiiEiDH, s. {hxle and meidh.) An anemometer. 

N. pi. ailemheidhean. 
AiLGHios, S.f. {perhaps kill-fliios.) Will, pleasure, longing, 
desire, pride. Nach lilb air ailghios na garbh ghaoith, 
that will not bend at the pleasure of the [rough wind'\ storm. 
— Ull. Ailghios dhaoine, the pride of men. — Smith. 
Fearann gu 'r n ailghios, land to your will. — Mac Co. 
Ir. ailgheas. 
AiLGHiosACH, 0. {from ailghios.) Wilful, headstrong, 

proud. Com. and sup. ailghiosaiche, more or most wilful. 
AiLGHiosACiiD, s.f. {from ailghios.) Wilfulness, pride. 
AiLGHiosAiCHE, cow/i. and sup. of ailghiosach. 
Atl-innisean, ein, s. m. {from kile, atmosphere, and innis, 

tell.) An anemoscope. 
t AiLL, s.f. A rugged bank ; a rough steep ; a steep river- 
bank ; a bridle, course, place, stead. 
t AiLL, s.f. Praise. 

AiLL, s.f. Desire, will, pleasure. Na 's kill le chridh, 
what his heart desires. — Smith. Literally, that which is 
a pleasure to his heart ; an ni nach b' kiWe, the thing I 
would not. — Stew. Rom. Ciod a b' aill leat? what wouldst 
thou have f ma 's kille leibh cliil dhuibh fein, if you desire 
fame for yourselves. — Old Song. Is kill leam so na sin, / 
prefer this to that. 
AiLLBHiL. A bridle-bit. Ir. 
AiLL-BHRUACH, aich, s.f. A steep; a rugged bank; a 

rocky steep. 
AiLL-BiiRUACHACii, tt. Stecp, rugged, rocky. 
AiLLE, a. {Corn, ailla.) Handsome, fair, comely. B' aille 
Cridhmhor, handsome was Crimora. — Oss. Fing. B' aille 
na silil-sa bha Ossian, fairer in her eyes was Ossian. — Id. 
Thuit a cheann aille air an t-sliabb, his comely head fell on 
the hill.— Id. 
Aille, s.f. Beauty, handsomeness, comeliness. Thainig 
i na h-kille, slie came in her beauty. — Oss. Fing. Aille 
talmhaidh, earthly beauty. — Smith. Ir. aille. 
AiLLEACH, a. {from aille.) Beautiful, handsome, comely. 
AiLLEACiiD, s.f. {from aille.) Beauty, beautifulness, hand- 
someness, comelmess. Ailleachd Eibhir-chaomha, the 
beauty of Evircoma. — Oss. Gaul. Bha h-ailleachd gun 

• AIM 

choimeas, her handsomeness was unequalled. — Oss. Derm. 

A h-ailleachd, her beauty. 
AiLLEAG, eig, s.f. (from aille.) A jewel ; a gewgaw; a 

pretty young maid. Nach cuimhne leat an ailleag? dost 

thou not remember the beauteous maid ? — Oss. Taura. 
Ailleag AN, ain, s. m. (from aille.) A little jewel; a term 

of affection for a young person; a pretty maid. Soraidh 

slainnte do 'n ailleagan, health to the pretty maid.— Old 

Song. N. pi. ailleagain and ailleagana. 
Ailleagan, n. pi. of ailleag. Gewgaws, ornaments, jewels ; 

pretty girls. 
Ailleagana, n. pi. of ailleagan. 
Aillean, ein, s. m. (from ail.) A causeway. 
Aillean, ein, s. m. Elecampane; a young beau; a minion. 

— Macd. Ir. ailean. 
Ailleanta, a. (from aille.) Beautiful, handsome, comely, 

delicate, bashful ; having an imposing appearance. 
AiLLEANTACiiD, i. f. (from ailleanta.) Personal beauty; 

delicacy, bashfulness, modest reserve. Is i ailleantachd 

maise nam ban, delicacy is the ornament of females. 
AiLLEiG, gen. sing, of ailleag, which see. 
AiLLEiN, gen. sing, of aillean. 
AiLLiDii, a. Bright, resplendent, beauteous, fair. Lasair 

nan lochran aillidh, thejlame of the resplendent lamps. — Oss. 

Gaul. Og-mhnaoi a b' aillidh leac, o virgin of the fairest 

cheeks. — Oss. 
t AiLLiN, a. Another. Lat. alien-us. 
AiLLSE, s.f. A fairy; a ghost; a diminutive creature; 

firely a cancer ; delay. Ir. aillse. In some parts of the 

Highlands this word is pronounced taillse. 
AiLLSEACH, a. (from aillse.) Like a fairy, of or pertaining 

to a fairy ; spectral. 
AiLM, s.f. A helm, stern. An ailm na asgaill, the helm in 

his arm. — Macfar. 
Ailm, s.f. The first letter of the Gaelic alphabet; also, 

though rarely, the elm-tree. (Ir. ailm. Dan. aim, an elm. 

Swed. aim. Lat. ulm-us.) N. pi. ailmean. 
t Ailmeadh, eidh, «. ;«. A prayer. 
AiLMEAG, eig, s.f. (dim. q/'ailm.) A little elm, a young 

elm. N. pi. ailmeagan. 
Ailmeagan, «.;)/. of ailmeag. 
Ailmean, n. pi. of ailm. Elms. 
AiLMEiG, gen. sing, of ailmeag. 
AiLMSE, s. m. A spectre; a spectral-looking person; a 

AiLMsEACii, a. (y;-oOT ailmse.) Spectral; ghastly; 
AiLNE, s.f. (Corn, ailne.) Beauty, comeliness, 
t AiLP, s. m. A protuberance ; any gross lump ; a mountain. 

Lat. Alp-es, the Alps. 
t AiLP, a. White. Gr. a^lpo{ and «^OTo;. Laf. albus. Hence 
too, perhaps, and not from ailp, a mountain, may be 
derived Alpes, Alps, as being always white with snow. 
+ AiLT, s.f. A house. Lat. alt-us, high. 
AiLT, rt. Stately ; beautiful, comely. (Lfl<. alt-us.) Aghaidh 
is ailte lith, a face of the most beautiful colour. — Tingalian 
Poem. Com. and sup. ailte, more or most beautiful. 
AiLTE, com. and sup. of ailt. 

AiLTEACUD, s. f. (from ailt.) Stateliness; comeliness, 
beauty, handsomeness. Barrachd air d' ailteachd, superi- 
ority oter thy handsomeness. — Macint. 
AiMBEAiRT, gen. sing, of aimbeart, which see. 
AiMBEART, beairt, s.f. Poverty, want, indigence ; calamity, 
mischief. Cridh tial an aimbeart, a generous heart in 
poverty. — Old Song. 
AiMBEARTACu, a. (aio, priv. and beartach.) Poor, needy, 

A I M 

indigent, necessitous ; also mischievous ; calamitous. Tha 
mi aim-beartach, I am indigent, — Sm. 
AiMBEARTAS, ais, s. m. (aim, priv. and beartas.) Poverty, ■ 

indigence ; calamity, mischief. 
f AiMiiEAN, a. Pleasant, agreeable, smooth. 
AiMHLEAS, eis, *. m. (aimh. priv. and leas. Ir. aimhleas.) 
Hurt, harm, mischief; ruin, misfortune ; perverseness, folly. 
Luchd aimhleis, unfortunate people ; ag iarruidh m' aimhleis, 
desiring my harm. — Stexe. 0. T. Aimhleas air a chlaigionn, 
mischief on his head.—Sm. A labhairt aimhleas, uttering 
perverseness. — Stew. G. B. Ni thu d' aimhleas, thou wilt 
harm thyself. — Fingalian Poem. 

AiMHLEASACH, fl. (from aimhleas.) Unfortunate; mis- 
chievous ; ruinous ; foolish, imprudent. Comp. and sup. 
airahleasaiche, more or most unfortunate ; nithe aimhleasach, 
mischievous things. — Smith. 

AiMHLEASACHD, S.f. (from aimhleas.) The condition or 
state of being unfortunate; mischievousness ; ruinousness, 
imprudence, foolishness. 

AiMHLEASAicnE, com. and sup. of aimhleasach. More or 
most unfortunate. 

AiMHLEASG, a. (aimh. intens. and leasg.) Lazy, indolent, 
inactive, drowsy, sluggish. Ir. id. 

AiMHLEATHAN, a. (aimh. priv. and leathan.) Narrow, strait, 
tight. Is' airahleathan an t-slighe, narrow is the way. — 
Stew. Mat. 

AiMHLEATHANACHD, s. f (from aimlilcathan.) Narrow- 
ness, straitness, tightness. 

AiMHLEisGE, s.f. (aimh. intens. anrfleisge.) Laziness, indo- 
lence, inactivity, drowsiness, sluggishness. 

AiMHNEART, neirt, s. m. (aimh. intens. and neart.) Ir. aimh- 
neart. Force, violence, oppression ; more frequently 
written ainneart ; which see. 

AiMHNEARTACH, «. (/ro»j aimhueart.) Violent, oppressive ; 
more frequently written ainneartach. Comp. and sup. aimh- 
neartaiche, inore or most violent. 

AiMHNEARTAiCHE, com. and sup. of aimhneartach. 

AiMHNEiRT, gen. sing, of aimhneart. 

AiMHREADH, aimhrcidh, s. (aimh. priv. and reidh.) Disturb- 
ance, disagreement, confusion; also, adjectively, wrong, 
disturbed, disagreeing. Tha so air aimhreadh, this is 
wrong ; tha thu 'g am chur air aimhreadh, thou art putting 
me wrong ; cuireamaid an cainnte air aimhreidh, let us 
confound their language. — Stew. Gen. ref Ir. aimhreidh. 

t AiMHREiDHE, s. pi. Defilcs, passes, forests, fastnesses. 

t AiMHREis, a. Difficult, arduous. 

AiMiiREiT, rcite, s.f. (a.\mh. priv. and riite.) Discord, dis- 
agreement, contention, disturbance. 

AiMHREiTEACH, «. (from aimhreite.) Ir. aimhreighteach. 
Quarrelsome, litigious, contentious ; of or belonging to a 
quarrel or disturbance. Com. and sup. aimhreitiche, more 
or most quarrelsome ; maille ri mnaoi aimhreitich, with a 
quarrelsome woman. — Stew. Pro. 

t AiMiiRiAR, s. m. Mismanagement. 

AiMHRiocHD, s. (aimh. pn't). anrf riochd.) 

t AiMiNN, a. (Lat. amsen-us.) Pleasant, agreeable, smooth. 

AiMisiCHTE, a. Bold, daring, resolute; written also aim- 

AiMLisG, s. f Confusion, disorder. Is aimlisg e, it is 
confusion. — Stew. Lev. ref. 

AiMLisGEACii, a. Confused, causing confusion, of or per- 
taining to confusion. 

Aim RID, aimrit, a. Barren, unproductive. Macfarlane has 
properly introduced this word as Gaelic into his Vocabulary; 
yet Stewart, the translator of the Bible, says it is Irish. 
See Gen. xi. 31, ref. 

Aimsgitii, a. Profane, impious, mischievous, impure. 

A I N 

AiMSGiTHEACHD, ».f. Profanity, impiousness, michievous- 
ness, impurity. Le tuairisgeul 's le aimsgitheachd, •with 
slander and impurity. — Old Song. 

AiMsicnTE.fl. Bold, daring, resolute; vintten a\so aimisicAte. 

AiMsiR, s. f. {from am.) Arm. and Corn, amser. Ir. 
aimsir. Weather, time, season. Aimsir ghailiionach, 
stormy ivcatAer ; an aimsir a dh' f halbh, the time that has 
gone by. — l/ll. An t-sean aimsir, the olden time. — Stew. 
Ecc. Aimsir bhriagh, J?ne weather. — Arm. amser vrao. 
Aimsir a gheamhraidh, the winter season ; aimsir an earraich, 
the spring season; aimsir an t-smahx^dh., the summer season ; 
aimsir an fhogharaidh, the harvest season; aimsir fogharaidh, 
harvest weather; an aimsir so, this weather. Arm. en 
arazer ze, in this weather. 

AiMsiREiL, a. (j. e. aimsir-amhuil,) /rom aimsir. Temporal, 
worldly ; that lasts but a season. Tha na nithe a chithear 
aimsireil, the things which are seen are temporal. — Stew. Cor. 

Ain; an intensitive and privative particle. It is only used 
in composition with another word, as, ain-tighearnas, 

AiN, a. Honourable, praiseworthy, respectful. D' uirghiol 

^n, thy respectful speech.— Old Song. 
t AiN, s.f. Water. Hence amhainn, or, abhainn, a river. 

See Abh. Ain is also the gen. sing, of f an, which see. 
AiN-BHEACH, *. A drone bee; also much rainf 
t AiNBHEACH, a. Manifold. 
AiNBHEART, bheirt, s.f. (ain, />«». and heart.) A misdeed. 

Ir. id. 

AiNBHEiL, s.f. (ain, intens. and bheul.) Impertinent lan- 

t AiNBHiDii, s.f. Rainy weather. 

AiN-BHiTii, (ain, intens. and bith.) A ferocious animal. 

AiN-CHEARD, cheirde, s. m. A buffoon ; also buffoonery, 
low jesting; an ingenious thief. Ir. id. N. pi. ain- 

AiNciiEARDACH, a. Like a buffoon; of or belonging to 
a buffoon, or to buffoonery. 

AiNCHEARDACHD, S.f. (from ainchcard.) The behaviour 
of a buffoon ; ingeniousness. 

AiN-CHEiRDE, gen. sing, of aincheard. 

AiNCHEART, a. {din, priv. and ceart.) Unjust, iniquitous. 

AiNCHEART, cheirt, s. m. A prank, or trick; injustice. 
Ir. id. 

AiNCiiEisT, S.f. {am, intens. and ceKt.) Danger, jeopardy, 
dilemma ; doubt, perplexity ; puzzle, a riddle. 

AiNCHEisTEACii, a. (aincheist.) Doubtful, puzzling ; of or 
pertaining to doubt or perplexity ; in jeopardy, doubt, or 

AiNciiiALL, cheil, s.f. Peevishness; forwardness; testi- 
ness ; madness. 

AiNCHiALLACn, «. Peevish; forward; testy; mad. 

AiNCHRioNAiLT, S.f. Acutcness, discernment, sagacity. 

AiNGHRioNNA, a. Acute, sagacious. 

t AiNDEAR, «./. A maid fit for marriage. See Ainnir. 

AiNDEAS, a. (ain, priv. and deas.) Awkward, not clever, 
not ready-handed. 

AiNDEisE, «./. Affliction, calamity; awkwardness. 

AiNDEOiN, s.f. (ain, priv. and deoin, will.) Ir. aindeoin. 
Reluctance, compulsion, force. Co dhiilbh is debin leat 
no 's aindeoin, whether it be thy ■will or not. — Macint. 
Dh' aindeoin ort, in spite of thee. 

AiNDEONACH, a. {a\Ti, priv. ani deonach.) Reluctant, un- 
willing. Chaidh e dhachaidh gu h-aindeonach, he went 
home unwillingly. Ir.. aindeonach. 

AiNDEONACiiD, S.f. (ain, priv. and deonach.) Unwilling- 
ness, reluctance, obstinacy, compulsion. 


t AiNDHiARRiDH, a. Angry. Ir. 

AiN-DiADiiACUD, S.f {i. t. ain-diadhuidhcachd.) Ungod- 
liness, profaneness, iniquity, impiety.— 5^a,'. Jer. Ir. ain- 

AiN-DiADHAiDii, a. (ain, priv. and diadhaidh.) Profane, 
wicked, ungodly, impious, irreligious. Tha 'm faidh 's an 
sagairt ain-diadhaidh, the prophet and the priest are profane. 
— Stew. Jer. 

AiNDiADiiuiDHEACHD, S.f. (ain, priD. flnrf diadhuidhcachd.) 


AiN-DiLEAS, a. (ain, priv. and dileas.) Faithless. 

AiNDiLSKACHD, *./. Faithlessness. 

AiNDiTii, s.f. (ain, intens. and dith, want.) Extreme poverty. 

AiNDLiGiiE, S.f. (z.m,priv. and dlighe.) Injustice, unlaw- 
fulness, usury. Ir. id. 

AiNDLiGHEACH, a. {am, prtv. onrf dhgheach.) Unjust, un- 
lawful ; also, substantively, a transgressor. Ir. id. 

AiNDLiGHEACHD, s. f. Unlawfulncss, the practice of 

AiN-DREANNACH, a. Frctful, pcevish. Com. and «a/>. aki- 

AiNDREANNACHD, «.y. Fretfulness, peevishness. 

AiNE, *./. Delight, joy, pleasure ; music, harmony. Aine 
an lath, broad day- light. 

t Aine, s.f. Experience ; agility, expedition; also a platter. 

AiNEAL, eil, s. m. {more properly aineol.) A stranger, a 
foreigner, a guest. Cha n' fheoraich an t-aineal co mac 
Morna, the stranger shall not ask who is the son of Moma. 
— Oss. Gaul. 

AiifEAi,, a. Strange, foreign ; ignorant. 

AiNEALACH, a. {properly aineolach.) Ignorant; strange, 
foreign, unknown. Com. and sup. ainealaiche, more or 
most ignorant ; duine ainealach, an ignorant man. 

AiNEAMii, eimh, s. m. {TV. and Corn. anav. Ir. aineamh.) 
A fault, blemish, flaw, defect, injury. Dk reithe gun 
aineamh, two rams without blemish. — Stew. Exod. 

AiNEAMHACH, fl. {from aineamh) Faulty, blemished, 
maimed ; having defects, or an injury ; causing defects or 
blemishes. Com. and sup. aineamhaiche, more or most 
faulty. Ir. aineamhach. 

AiNEAMHAG, aig, S.f A phrenix. 

AiNEAMHAiG, gen. sing, of aincamhag. 

AiNEAif, «. p/. Liver. Os cionn nan ainean, above the liver. 

— Stew. Exod. 
AiNEAs, eis, «. »(. Joy, passion; cruelty; frenzy; bravery. 

Duthaich gain aineas, a friendly country. — Mac Co. 
AiKEASACii, a. {from aineas.) Furious, passionate, enraged, 

raging, frantic ; cruel; also brave, hardy. Mar stuadhan 

aineasach, like furious billows. — Old Poem. Coitip. and svp. 

aineasaiche, more or most furious. 
AiNEASACHD, S.f. FuriousDCss, passionateness, frenzy, fury, 
t AiNEASGAiR, a. Rude, uncouth, unpolished. 
AiNEiL, gen. sing, of aineal. 
Amziun,gen. sing, of aineamh. 
Am Eis, gen, sing, of aineas. 
AiNEOL, s. and a. A stranger, a foreigner; a guest; also 

strange, foreign. A dol air aineol, wandering abroad. — 

Stew. G. B. See also Aineal. 
AiNEOLAcn, a. (ain. prh'. fl«d eolach.) Ignorant, unintelli- 
gent, rude, unlearned. Aineolach air so, ignorant of this. 

— Stew. 2 Pet. Com. and sup. aineolaiche, more or most 

ignorant. Ir. id. 
Aineolaiche, com. and sup. of aineolach. More or most 


A I N 

AiNEOLAS, s. m. (ain, priv. and eolas.) Ignorance, want of 
knowledge ; nescience, illiterateness. Am bhur aineolais, 
the time of your ignorance.— Stew. Pet. Ir. aineolas. 
t Aimer, a. Proud; great; cruel. 
AiNFHEOiL, fheola, s.f. Proud flesh, corrupt flesh. 
AiNFHEOLA, gen. sing, of ainfheoil. 
AiNFHiACH,fheich,i.(ain, prif. ani fiach.) Debt. //•. ainbh- 

fhiach and ainfhiach. N. pi. ainfhiachan. 
AiNFHEiCH, gen. sing, of ainfhiach. 
AiNFHios, s. (ain, priv. and fios.) Ignorance. — Stew. Rom. 

Ir. ainbhfhios. 
AiNFHiosACH, a. Ignorant; illiterate, /r. ainbhfhiosach. 
AiNFHiosRACH, a. (ain, priv. and fiosrach.) Ignorant, un- 
intelligent, illiterate. Com. and sup. ainfhiosraiche, more 
^ or most ignorant. 
AiifFHiASRACHD, S.f. Ignorance ; illiterateness. 
AiNGEAL, eil, «. fn. An angel; a messenger; also fire, light, 
sunshine. Gr. ayyiXo?. Lat. angelus. Swed. angel. Dan. 
angle. Goth, angelus. Belg. engelen. ^ng/o-iSa.r. engelas. 
H^. angel. If. angelo. Fr. ange, angel. W. engyl. Corn. 
engil,_/iw. Ir. aingeal. 
AiNGEALACH, a. (/ro7» aingeal.) Angelic; of or pertaining 

to an angel ; of or pertaining to fire. 
Angealag, eig, 4./. Angelica. Ir. id. 
AiNGEALTA, fl. {frotu aingidh.) Perverse, wicked, head- 
strong, froward. 
AiNGEALTACHD, s. f. Pervcrseness, wickedness, froward- 
ness. A gabhail tlachd ann aingealtachd, taking pleasure 
in wickedness. — Stew. Prov. Aingealtachd na chridhe, 
frowardness in Ms heart. — Id. 
AiNGHEAN, s. m. (ain, intens. and gean.) Excessive love; 

excessive greed or avarice. 
AiNGHEANACii, fl. (ain, jTi^en*. anrf gcanach.) Exceedingly 

attached ; excessively greedy or avaricious. 
AiNGHNioMH, s. m, (ain, intens. and gniomh.) A bad deed. 
AiNGHNioMiiACH, a. Facinorous ; wicked. 
Aingidh, a. Wicked, vicious, bad ; perverse, mischievous ; 
cross, ill-natured. Comp. and sup. aingidh. Ir. aingidhe. 
AiNGiDHEACHD, «._/". (/>•(>»» aingidh.) Wickedness, vicious- 
ness ; pervcrseness, iniquity, evil. Aingidheachd a bhaile, 
the iniquity of the city. — Stew. Gen. Aingidheachd ur 
deanadais, the evil of your doings. — Stew. Jer. Ir. ain- 
AiNGLiDH, a. {from aingeal.) Angelic. Ir. id. 
AiNiocHD, *./. (ain, priv. and iochd.) Cruelty ; oppression. 
Le h-ain-iochd, with cruelly.— Stew. Ezek. Luchd ain- 
iochd, oppressors. Ir. ainiocht. 
AiN-iociiDMHOi.REACHD, S.f. {from ain-iochdmhor.) Op- 
pressiveness ; unfeelingness ; cruelty. 
AiN-ioCHDMHOR, a. (ain, priv. and iochdmhor.) Oppressive, 

unfeeling, cruel. Com. and sup. ain-iochdmhoire. 
AiNiosAL, a. Haughty. Ariii. and Corn, ainisle. 
AiNise, s.f. Anise. — Macd. Ir. id. 
t AiNLE, a. Fair, comely, well-featured, 
t AiNLEACHD, s.f. {from ainle.) Comeliness, 
t AiNLEAG, eig, s.f. A snare ; a sting. 
AiNLEAG, eig, s.f. A swallow. — Macd. Ir. ainle. 
AiiTLKAO-ifHARA, S.f. A black martin. — Macd. 
Ain LEAN, V. a. (ain, intens. and lean.) Pursue, persecute. 
Pret. a. dh* ainlean, pursued; fut. off. a. ainleanaidh, shall 
or will pursue. 
AiN-LEANMuuiN, S.f. Pcrsccution. 
AiN-LEAS, s. m. Difference, mischief, theft. Ir. ainleas. 
AiNM, ainme, s. m. A name ; a substantive noun. C ainra 
th' ort ? what is your name ? Ciod is ainm do so, or c' ainm 

A I N 

th' air so ? what is the name of this ? Duine do 'm b' ainm 
Aongh^, a man named Angus. Thug iad Seumas mar ainm 
air {or dha), they named him James. C ainm 6 ? what is his 
name t what is its name ? Maighistir-c'ainm h ? Mr. — what's 
his name ? 

Pers. nam. Shans. naman. Gr. otoft.a.. Lat. nomen. 
Maeso-Gothic, namo. Swed. namn. Dan. navn. Anglo- 
Sax, nama, ajid noma. Germ, name, and naam. Fr. nom. 
If. nome. Box. Lex. enw. Ir. ainim. Ann. hanv. 

AinmchlIr, chlkir, *. A catalogue; an index. JV. p/. ainm- 

Ain ME ACH ADH, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of naming, 
mentioning, or appointing ; a naming, nominating ; nomi- 

AiNMEACiiADii (ag), pr. part, of ainmich. Naming, appoint- 
ing ; mentioning, nominating. 

AiNMEANACH, aich, s.m. {from ainm.) Nominative; a nomi- 

AiN-MEASAURACii, Ainmcasarradh, a. Intemperate, immo- 
derate ; vast, huge. 

AiN-MEASARRACHD, S.f. (ain, priv. and measarrachd.) In- 
temperance, immoderateness, vastness. 

AiNMEiL, a. {%. e. ainm-amhuil.) Namely ; renowned, famed, 
famous. Gu h-ainmeil, especially , famously . 

AiNMEiLEACHD, S.f. {foM aiumeil.) Nameliness; renown. 

AiNMHEAS, *. m. Reward, recompense. 

AiNMHEiD, *./. {from ainneamh.) A wonder, a rarity. 

AiN-MHiANN, «. (ain, inft-n*. a«rf miann.) Lust. See Ana- 
MHIANN. Ir. ainmhiann. 

AiN-MHiANNACH, «. Scc Anamhiannach. /;•. ainmhiau- 

AiNMHiDH, s. m. {Ir. and Corn, ainmhidh.) Animal, brute, 
beast. N. pi. ainmhidhean, beasts ; an ainmhidhean uile, 
all their beasts. — Stew. Gen. 

AiNMHiDHEACii, a. Brutal, brutish; of or belonging to a 

AiNMHiDHEACHD, *./. (/roTB ainmhidh.) Brutishness. 

AiNMicii, V. a. {from ainm.) Name, appoint, mention, fix 
upon, nominate. Pret. a. dh' ainmich, named; fut. aff. a. 
ainmichidh, shall or will name. Ainmich do thuarasdal, 
appoint your wages. — Stew. Gen. Ainmich co e sud, men- 
tion who yonder man is. — Mac Lack. 

AiNMiG, AiNMic, a. Seldom, rare, scarce. Is ainmig thig e, 
he seldom comes; b' ainmig a leithid, his like (equal) was 
rare. — Macint. B' ainmic bha mo bhuilean fann, seldom 
were my blows weak. — Fingalian Puem. 

AiNMiGEAD, eid, s.m. {from ainmig.) Rareness, scarceness; 
increase in scarceness. A dol an ainraigead, growing 
more and more scarce. 

Ainm- LITE, s.f. A catalogue ; an index. 

t AiNN, ainne, s. A circle; a ring. Lat. annus, a year. 
Hence also fainne, a ring. 

t AiNNEADii, eidh, s. m. Patience. 

Ainneamh, a. Rare, scarce, curious; curiously formed; 
valuable. Crios ainneamh, a curious girdle. — Stew. Exod. 

Ainneart, neirt, s.f. (ain, intens. and neart.) Oppression, 
violence. Ainneart air a choigreach, violence on the stranger. 
— Stew. Jer. Luchd ainneirt, oppressors. Jr. aineart. 

Ainneartach, a. Oppressive, violent, tyrannical, over- 

Ainneartachd, s.f. The practice of oppression. 

Ainnichte, o. Tamed; made patient. 
Ainnir, *. /. A marriageable woman; a virgin, a maid, 
a young woman. Ainnir fo br6n, a maiden mourning.— 
Oss. Cathloda. Ainnir a cheud ghraidh, the maid of his 

I first love.— Oss. Fing. 

A I R 

A I R 

AiNsis, Ainniseach, a. Poor, destitute, needy, abject. Tha 
mi ainnis lorn, I am poor and naked. — Smith. A slugadh an 
ainnis, sviatlou'ing up the needy. — Stew. Amos. Ir. id. 
AiNxis, Ainniseachd, s.f. Poverty; abjectness. 
AiNREiTE, s.f. (ain, priv. and reite.) Strife, quarrel, con- 
fusion ; more frequently written aimhreite ; which see. 
AiNRiocHD, s. A miserable plight; a woful condition; a 

frightful bodily appearance. Ir. id. 
AiNSGEUN, Ainsgiin, s. Fury; fright, terror. Bhaidh an 
t-each air ainsgeun, the horie ran off in a fright. Ir. ains- 
Ainsgeun ACH, Aiusgianach, a. Furious, wild ; apt to take 

fright ; as a wild horse. Ir. ainsgianach. 
AiN-SHEiRC, «./. (ain, pnV. and seirc.) Hatred; excessive 

hatred; cruelty. 
AiN-sHEiRCEiL, a. (i. e. ain-sheirc-amhuil.) Hating; abomi- 
nating ; cruel. 
AiN-sRiANTA, a. Unbridled, uncurbed; obstinate, untamed; 

debauched. Ir. ainshrianta. 
Atn-sriantach, aich, «. m. A libertine; a debauchee. 
AiN-SRiANTAS, ais, i. »j. Libertinism: the condition of being 

untamed, as a horse, 
t AiNTEACH, a. Boastful; vain-glorious. 
AiN-TEAS, s. m. (ain, intens. and teas.) Extreme heat; fer- 
vour ; a violent inflammation. — Stew. Deut. Also ardour, 
enthusiasm, fervent zeal. Ir. ainteas. 
AiN-TEASACHi), «./. (/rom ainteas.) Feverishness. 
AiNTEisT, s. m. (ain, priv. and teist.) A false witness. 

N. pi. ainteistean. 
AiN-TEisTEANEAS, eis, *. m. (ain, priv. and teisteanas.) A 

false testimonial ; a false certificate ; an unjust certificate. 
AiN-TEisTEAS, eis, s. m. {wx,priv. and teisteas.) False evi- 
dence ; false testimony. 
AiN-TETii, a. (ain, intens, and teth.) Ardent; exceeding 
hot ; vehement ; eager. Ainteth chum iir, ardent for 
battle. — Mac Lack. 
AiN-TiGHEARN, s.m. (aiu, intcns. and tighearna.) An op- 
pressor, a tyrant; an overbearing master or ruler. See 
also Antighearn. //•. aintigheam. 
AiN-TiGHEARNAS, ais, S.m. Oppression; tyranny; domi- 
neering. Ir. id. 
AiN-TREUN, a. (ain, intens. and treun.) Very strong. Com. 

and sup. ain-treine. 
AiNTREUNAs, ais, s. m. Great strength. 
AiPOL, *. m. Apollo. 

Air, prep, {governing the dative.) Corn. ar. Ir. air. On, 
upon ; for, about, of, concerning. lomradh air do 
ghliocas, the fame of thy wisdom. — Stew. 1 K. Air mo 
shonsa, for me ; on my account. Air mo shonsa dheth, 
as for me; for my part of it. — Stew. Gen. Air sometimes 
takes after it a noun in the aspirate form, as in the follow- 
ing example : Air bharraibh nan tonn, on the tops of the 
waves. — Oss. Air eigin, with much ado ; air leth, apart, 
aside, by itself. Air choir, so that, in a manner ; nobly, 
properly ; as usual. Air lamh, on hand; by the hand. Air 
rao lamh, on hand ; on my hand. Air h-aon,ybr one. Thuit 
tri le Brkn air h-aon. Bran, for one, killed three. — Oss. Fing. 
Air choir eigin, contracted Air choir 'gin, some way or 
other. Air bheag, almost. Air so, on this, upon this, then. 
Chaidh am b^t air, the boat went aground. Air ais, back- 
wards ; air aghaidh, ybrwarrf*; air adhairt, /o/aiac(/i', on- 
wards; aiT sea.chTa,n, astray ; a.\r iomro\, astray ; air chuth- 
ach, mad; air neo, else, or else, in some districts, air dheo. 
Air muin, on, upon, above. Chaidh e air a muin, he had 
carnal connexion with her ; bithidh sin air bhuil, that will 
cmne to pass. — Stew. Is. 
Air, comp. pron. On him or it; upon him or it; in his pos- 
session ; on him as a duty. Tha 'eudach air, his clothes 

are on him ; cha d' f huair mi ni air, / got nothing in her 
possession ; tha e air paigh, he is hound to pay ; chaidh 
agam air, I got the belter of him, or it ; ciod tha cur air, 
what ails him f 
Air, gen. sing, of kr; which see. 

Air, v. Plough, till, cultivate. Lat. aro. Pret. a. dh' air, 
ploughed; fut. off. a. airidh, shall or will plough. ladsan 
a dh' aireas euceart, they who plow iniquity. — Stew. Job, ref. 
iAiRBHE, «.y. A story; ribs. — Ir. 
t AiRBHEART, bheirt, s. Meaning, 
t AiRBiiEARTACH, fl. Sagacious. 

AiRBHRE, *.y. A multitude; an host; an army; a legion. 

AiRC, airce, s.f. An ark ; a large chest; a granary. Stad an 

aire, the ark rested. — Stew. Gen. Heb. argads. Lat. area. 

Span. area. Arm. arch. Gr. aire. Old Sax. erk, and eark. 

AiRC, s.f. Trouble, distress, affliction, diflSculty, hardship, 

strait. Saoi na aire, a hero in distress. — Oss. Manas. Aran 

na h-airce, the bread of affliction ; tha mi am aire, I am in a 


t AiRC, airce, s.f. A cork tree; a sow; a lizard. Aire 

luachrach, a lizard. 
t AiRCEACH, a. Ingenious; shifty, 
t AiRCEADH, eidh, s. m. An earnest penny. 
AiRCEANN, a. Certain, positive. Ir. aircheann. 
AiRCEANNAS, ais, s. m. Certainty, positiveness. 
AiRCEAS, eis, s. m. (from aire.) Sorrow, trouble, distress, 
pain, difficulty, restraint, straitness. Gun airceas mealaidh 
sibh, ye shall enjoy without restraint, or, without trouble. — 
AiRCEASACH, fl. Sorrowful; troublous; causing sorrow, or 

AiRCHiLL, s.f. A keeping. — Ir. 
AiRCHis, s.f. A complaint. 
AiRD, gen. sing, of ard; which see. 

AiRD, airde, s.f. An earth, or point of the compass; a 
quarter, a cardinal point. Thionail an Fhiann as gach 
aird, the Fingalians assembled from every quarter. — Old Poem. 
Arab, ardhi. Pers. ard, earth. Maeso-Goth. airtha. Isl. 
Jord. Swed. jord. Germ, aerd and erd. Scotch, airt, art, 
AiRD, s.f. Preparation, improvement, order, state ; happi- 
ness. Dheanadh e aird, he would make preparation. — Macint. 
Aird, airde, [an] or 'a aird, adv. Up, upwards, upward; 
from below. Gun eiridh 'n aird a choidh, never more to 
rise. — Sm. Dh eirich e le buaidh an airde, he rose up 
with triumph. — Id. O 'n &\rde, from above ; from on high. 
AiRD-DEAS, gen. airde-deas, s.f. The south; the south 
point. Gaoth na h-airde deas, the south tiind ; dh' ionn- 
suidh na h-airde deas, to the south. — Stew. Gen. 
Aird-an-ear, ^en. airde-an-ear, *.y. The east point; the 
east. Gaoth na h-airde an ear, the east wind; dh' ionn- 
suidh na h-airde an ear, to the east. — Stew. Gen. 
AiRD-AN-iAii, ge;). airde an iar, s.f. Aird 'n-iar, gen. 
airde 'n iar, s.f. Tlie west point; the west. Dh' ionn- 
suidh na h-airde an iar, to the west. — Stew. Gen. 
AiRD-TUATH, gen. airde tuath, s.f. The north point; the 

north. Dh' ionnsuidh na h-airde tuath. — Stew. Gen. 
Airde, s.f. Height, quality, condition; a rising ground, 
a high place ; altitude, excellency, highness. Bha t-airde 
mar dharraig sa ghleann, thy height was like an oak of the 
valley. — Ull. Bha ghrian na h-airde, the sun was at its 
height; the sun zvas {on the meridian) at its height. — Oss. 
Duthona. An airde mh6ir, in high condition. — Stew. Ecc. 
Ged eirich 'airde, though his excellency should mount. — 
Stew. Job. Airde na craoibh, the height of the tree, 
Airde, com. and sup. of ard. Higher, highest. 

A I R. 

A I R 

AiRDEACHD, *./. (/row airde.) Highness; greatness, qua- 
lity, excellency. 

AiBDEANNA, s. pi. (from ard.) Constellations. 

AiRDHE, s.f. A wave ; also a sign. 

AiRDLEAG, eig, *./. A jerk; a sudden pull; more properly 
airleag ; which see. 

t AlRDREACHD, S.f. A SyHod. 

t Aire, s. f. A judge; a servant; also a name given to 
different orders of Irish nobility. 

Aire, s.f. (Ir. aire.) Notice, regard, attention ; thoughts, 
observation, watching. Thug iad jure dhorah, thty gave me 
attention. Aire leagte air saoghail dhorcha, his thoughts 
fixed on viorlds unknown. — Oss. Conn. Fo aire, under ob- 
servation; in custody. — Oss. Fing. An ti a bheir an aire, 
he who regards or attends. — Stew. Pro. Gun aire dhomh, 
unknown to me; without my notice. Thoir an aire, take 
care. Ait aire, an observatory ; tigh aire, an observatory ; 
also a house where there is a corpse; a house where vigils 
are held over a corpse; Scotch, late-wake. Thoir an aire 
dhomh, attend to me. 

AiREACH, ich, s. m. (from aire.) A grazier; a keeper of 
cattle ; a shepherd ; a watchman. N. pi. airichean. 

AiREACn, a. (from aire.) Watchful, attentive, observant; 
sober ; rarely hostile, violent. Comp. and sup. airiche, 
more or most watchful. — Stew. Tit. 

AiREACHAiL, a. (i. e. aireach-amhuil.) Attentive, watchful, 
observant, circumspect. 

Ai REACH AS, ais, s. m. A pastoral life ; tending cattle ; the 
occupation of a shepherd ; watchfulness. 

AiREAMii, eimh, s. m. {IV. eiriv.) Number, quantity; 
numbering, numeration. Gann an aireamh, few in num- 
ber. — Stew. Gen. 

Aireamh, f. Number, count, compute. Pre<. a. dh' aireamh, 
counted; fut. off. a. aireamhaidh, contr. airmhidh, shall or 
will count ; fut. pass, aireamhar, shall be counted. Airmhidh 
tu iad, thou shalt number them. — Stew. Num. 

Aireamh ACH, aich, s. m. (from aireamh.) An accountant; 
a numerator. 

Aireamhaciid, s.f. Numeration, computation, numbering. 

AiREAMU AR, fut. pass. of aireamh. 

Aireamh'ear, ir, Aireamiifhear, fhir, s. m. An ac- 

AiREAjf, ein, *. m. A goadsman. 

t AiREANNACH, aich, s. m. A beginning. — Shaw. 

t AiREAR, ir, «. m. Food; satisfaction, choice; aharbour, bay. 

t AiREARRA, a. Pleasant, satisfactory. 

AiREASG, eisg, s.f. The apple of the eye; vision, sight. 
Ir. id. 

Air fad, prep. Throughout, during. 

Air peadii, prep. Throughout, among, during. 

AiEFiDEACH, a. Musical, harmonious, melodious. 

AiRFiDEADH, idh, s. m. Harmony, melody, music. 

t AiRG, s. m. A prince. 

AiBGHEAN, ein, s. m. A bridle rein ; a symptom. Airgheanna 
bhais, the symptoms of death. — Old Poem. 

AiRGiOD, 'eid, s. m. (^anciently airgent and argant ; hence 
argentum.) Silver, money, riches. Uireadair airgeid, a 
tilver watch ; cha robh mi gun airgiod, I was not without 
money. — Macint. Airgiod ullamh, ready cash ; airgiod be6, 
or beb-airgiod, quicksilver ; airgiod cagailte, hearth money ; 
airgiod cinn, poll money ; airgiod reidh, interest of money ; 
airgiod ullamh, ready money. 

AiRGioflACH, a. {from airgiod.) Abounding in silver or 
money; silvery; of or pertaining to silver; having silver 
or money; rich. 

AiRGiOD-BEO, s. m. Quicksilver, mercury; literally live 
silver ; so the French say lif-argcnt and argent-rif, and 
the Italians argento vivo. 

AiRGiOD-CAGAiLTE, s. m. Hearth money. 

AiRGioD-ciNN, s. m. Poll money. 

AiRGioD-REiDH, s.m. Interest of money. 

t AiRGNE, or AiRGNEADH, s. «. A robbery ; pillage, 

plunder. — Ir. 
AiRiD, a. Particular, special. Gu h-airid, especially. 
AiRinn, *. m. Worth, merit, desert. Is math an airidh, 

it is well or deservedly done ; is ole an airidh e, it is a pity. 
AiRiDH, a. Worthy, excellent, fit, meet, suitable. Is airidh 

thu air peanas, thou art worthy of punishment ; is ro airidh 

thu air moladh, very worthy art thou of praise ; airidh air 

aithreachas, meet for repentance. — Stew. Acts,ref. 
Airidh, s. m. A green grove; a place where osiers grow. 

Thig taibhse gu dian an airidh, ghosts shall issue wildly 

from the osier meadow. — Oss. Temo. 
AiRiDH, and Airigh, s. m. {perhaps aire-thigh.) A sheal- 

ing ; hill pasture ; a mountain booth or hut ; a shepherd's 

cottage. Thig do 'n airidh mo chailinn, come to the shealing, 

my maid. — Old Song. Bothan Airidh am braighe Raineach, 

a mountain hut in the braes of Rannoch ;— the name of one 

of the finest Highland melodies ; kiridh dhamh, pasture for 

oxen. — Stew. Is. 
t AiRiGii, s. m. A ruler, a prince.—//-. 
t AiRiLLEAN, ein, s. m. A party, a faction. 
AiRE-iONAD, s. m. An observatory, 
t AiRis, *./. A firebrand, charcoal ; also knowledge. {Ir. 

airis.) A history. In this last sense airis is now written 

aithris ; which see. 
AiRisEACH, a. See Aithriseach. 
t AiRisEAN, ein, *. m. An appointment, an order. 
+ AiRLE, s.f. An advice. Though this vocable be gone 

into disuse, we have comh-airle, a counsel, advice, 
t AiRLEAC, V. Borrow; lend. 
AiRLEACACH, a. Ready or willing to lend ; ready to borrow ; 

of or pertaining to a loan, 
t AiRLEACADH, aidh, s. m. A borrowing ; a lending, 
t AiRLEACii, ich, s. m. A skirmish ; a rencontre. 
AiRLEAG, eig, s.f. A jerk, a sudden pull; a shove, a toss, 

a fling, jostle. — Ir. airleag. 
AiRM, n. pi. of arm. {Ir. airm.) Arms, weapons; armour. 

Gen. pi. arm. Fuaim nan arm, the noise of the arms. — Oss. 

Airm kluinn, beauteous armour. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. Na 

h-airm a bhuin e bho aineal, the armour he took from 
foreigners. — Id. Ball airm, a weapon ; airm theine, Jire 

arms; airm thilgidh, missile weapons; airm-mhuir, naval 

arms, a navy. Armoric, arm vor, a navy. 
t AiRM, s. m. A place. — Ir. 
Airm-chrios, s. a shoulder belt. — Ir. id. 
AiRM-CHEARD, cheairde, s. m. An armourer. 
Airm-ciieardach, aich, s. m. An armourer's forge, 
t AiRMEART, eirt, «. m. An order; custom. — Ir. 
AiRMHEADH, (3 sing. and pi. imper. a. of aireamh.) 
AitiMHEAR, fut. pass, of aireamh. Shall be counted. See 

Airmhidh, fut. aff. a. of aireamh. Shall or will count. 
"t Airmhidh, s. m. A vow, a promise. — Ir. id. 
t AiRMiD, s.f. Honour, worship, reverence; a custom ; a 

swan. — Ir. 
AiRMis, V. Find; find by searching. Pr. a. dh' airmis, 
found; fut. aff. a. airmisidh, shall or will find ; dh' airmis 

mi air, I found it, or him. 
AiRMisEACii, and Airmseach, a. Exploratory; good at 

finding or at searching. 
AiRMisEACiiD, and Airmseaciid, s.f. {from airmis.) Find- 
ing after a search. 
AiRM-LANN, lainn, s. m. An armoury; a depot; a magazine. 

A I S 

A I S 

Air muin, comp. prep. On, upon, above ; on the back ; on 
the top, or summit. Air mhuin, on his back, upon him; 
air a muin, on her; chaidh e air a muin, he had carnal 
connexion with her. 
AiRM-THBiNE, *. pi. Fire-arms. 

AiRNE, s.f. (Ir. airne.) A sloe; a wild plumb; a dama- 
scene; also a kidney, kidneys, reins. Tha m' airne ga m' 
theagasg, my reins teach me. — Smith. 
t AiKNEACii, eich, s. m. The seed of shrub trees. 
AiRNEACn, eich, *. m. The murrain in cattle. 
AiRNEAG, eig, s.f. {dim. of airne.) A sloe; a wild plumb. 
N. pi. airneagan; d. pi. airneagaibh. Preas airneag, a 
sloe bush. 
AiRNEAGACii, a. (/rom airneag.) Abounding in sloes ; like 
a sloe ; of, or belonging to, a sloe. Preas airneagach, a bvsh 
loaded with sloes ; also a sloe bush. 
Airneagaibh, of airneag. 
Ai RWE AG AN, n. /)?. of airneag. Sloes; wild plums, 
t Airneamh, eimh, s. m. A grinding stone ; a hone. 
AiRNEAN, «. p/. Kidneys; reins. (K. arnione.) A chith na 
h-airnean, who seeth the reins. — Stew. Jer. Dat. pi. aimibh. 
Maille ris na h-airnibh, along with the kidneys. — Stew. Lev. 
AiRNEiG, gen. sing, of airneag. Of a sloe. 
AiRNEis, s. Household furniture ; household stuff; cattle, 
stock, chattels, moveables. Am measg an airneis fein, in 
the midst of their own st%iff. — Stew. Jos. Airneis tighe, 
household furniture.— Stew^ Gen, 4rm. harnes. English, 
AiRNiBH, dat. pi. of airne, or aimean. See Airne, or 


AiRSAN. Emphatic form of the comp. pron. air; which see. 
AiRSE, s.f. An arch, a vault. Lat. areas, 
t AiRSGE, s.f. Contemplation, musing. — Ir. 
AiRsiDEACH, a. Unanimous, harmonious,; agreeing. Com. 

and sup. airsidiche. 
AiRsiDEACHD, «./. Unanimity; harmony, agreement, con- 
AiRSNEAG, eig, s.f. Arsenic. 

AiRSNEAL, eil, s. m. {Ir. airsneal.) Sadness, heaviness, 
distress, sorrow, strait, difficulty, weariness, fatigue, trouble. 
Co dh' innseas airsneal na Feinne, who can tell the sorrows 
of the Fingalians!—Oss. Gaul. Spiorad airsneil, the spirit 
of heaviness. — Stew. 0. T. 
AiRSNEALACH, a. Sad, sorrowful, weary, troubled ; causing 
sadness; vexing. Tir airsnealach, a a'eary /««</. — Stew. Is. 
Air son, prep. For, on account of; by reason of; instead 
of. Air son an f huachda, by reason of the cold. — Stew. Pro. 
Air a son, for her ; air an son, for them. 
AiRT, gen. sing, of art; which see. 
AiRTEAGAL, ail, s. m. An article. — Macd. Ir. id. 
Airtean, ein, s. m. {dim. of art.) A little stone; a pebble; 

a flint stone. N. pi. airteana. Ir. airtin. 
Airtein, {gen. sing, of airtean.) Of a pebble ; of a stone. 
Airtneul, neil, «. m. See Airsneal. 
t Ais, s. m. {Ir. ais.) A hill, a strong hold, a covert; shingles 
to cover houses ; dependence ; a loan ; a cart, or waggon, 
t Ais, s. VI. Money. Lat. ses. 

t Ais, .5. m. Back. This word is seldom or never used but 
in composition with some other word, as the prep, air ; and 
then it signifies backwards, or back; like the Latin re. 
Ais, [air], arfx'. Back ; backwards. TKig a.\t a.\s, come back, 
return; cum air t-ais, keep back ; cum air t-ais, a ghaotli, 
keep back, wind. ~Oss. Fin. and Lorm. Bheir mi iad air 
an ais, / will bring them hack. — Stew. Zech. Thig i air a 
h-ais, she will return. 

+ Aisc, aisce, s.f. A request, petition; damage; trespass ; 

reproach. — /;•. 
AisvY., comp. prott. (;Ir, uste.) Out of her ; out of it. Aisde 
thugadh thu, out of her {the earth) wast thou brought. — 
Stew. Gen. Earbaidh e aisde, he will trust in her. — Stew. Pro. 
t Aisde, *./. A poem ; ingenuity. 
AisDEACH, ich, *. m. A gay, diverting fellow. 
AisDEACHAN, s. pi. Sports, diversions, pastimes. 
AisDRiDH, s.f. A translation. 
AisEAD, eid, s. f Delivery, as in childbed. Tha i air a 

h-aisead, she is delivered. — Stew. Gen. 
AisEAD, eid, s.f. A platter; a large plate. Fr. aisiette. 

Arm. aczyed. 
AisEAD, V. Disburden or deliver a woman of a child. 
Pret. a. dh' aisead ; fit. off. aiseadaidh, shall deliver. — 
Ste-w. 1 K. 
AisEAG, ig, s.f. {i. e. ais-thig.) Ir. aisioc. A ferry; de- 
liverance ; a return ; a vomit. Fear aisig, a ferryman ; 
fear na h'-aisig, the ferryman ; bat-aisig, a ferryboat. — 
Stew. 2 Sam. N. pi. aiseagan. 
AisEAL, eil, s. m. Jollity, fun, merriment. Ri h-aiseal, 

AisEALACH, a. Funny, merry, jolly ; of or pertaining to fun. 
AisEAN, aisne, *./. {Corn, and Arm. ^sm.) A rib. 
aisnean, and aisnichean, ribs. W. eisen. Corn. azan. An 
aisean a thug e o 'n duine, the rib he took from the man. — 
Stew. Gen. Dat. pi. aisnibh. Aon d' a aisnibh, one of his 
ribs. — Stew. Gen. 
AisEiL, gen. sing, of aiseal. 

Ais-EiRicH, V. Rise again, as in the resurrection. Pret. a. 
dh'ais-eirich, rose again ; fut. aff. a. ais-eirichidh, shall 
rise again, 
Ais-EiRiGH, *./. Resurrection; a second rising. Ais-eirigh 
nam marbh, the resurrection of the dead. — Stew. 1 Cor. 
La na h-ais-eirigh, the day of resurrection, 
t AisGE, and Aisgidii, s.f, A gift; a donation. 
AisiG, s.f, A ferry. See Aiseag. 

Aisig, v. Restore, deliver, give back; ferry over. Pret. a. 
dh'aisi^, ferried ; fut. aff. a. aisigidh, shall or will ferry ; 
aisigidh e, he will restore. — Stew. Prov. Fut. pass, aisigear, 
shall be ferried. 
Aisigear, fut. pass, of aisig. 
Aisigidh, fut. aff. a. of aisig. Shall or will ferry. 
Aisigte, p. part, of aisig. Restored, delivered ; ferried over. 
AisiL, *./. An axletree. N. pi. aisilean, axletrees. Aisil 
na carbaid, the axletree of the chariot ; aisileau nan roth, 
the axletrees of the wheels. — Stew. 1 K. 
Ais-iNNis, V. Rehearse, narrate; say or tell over again; 
repeat. Pret. a. dh' ais-innis, repeated; fut. aff. a. ais- 
innsidh, shall or will repeat; fut. pass, ais-innsear, shall 
be repeated. 
Ais-iNNLEACHD, S.f. A mischicvous contrivance, or inven- 
tion.— Stew. Ecc. rcf. N. pi. ais-innleachdan ; dat. pi. ais- 
Ais-iNNLEACHDACii, a. Plotting, mischievous, crafty, 
scheming. Ann an comhairlibh ais-innleachdach, in crafty 
cou?isels.—Stew. G. B. Com. and sup, ais-innleachdaiche, 
more or most crafty. 
Ais-innsear, fut. pass, of ais-innis. Shall or will be re- 
hearsed. . 
Ais-iNNSiDii, fit. aff. a. of ais-mnis. Shall or will rehearse. 

t AisioN, s. m. A relic ; a diadem, 
f AisiTii, *./. Strife, disturbance, discord. 
AisLEAR, eir, *. m. (ais and lear.) A spring-tide.— /r. 
AisLEiNE, s.f. A death-shroud. N. pi. aisleintean. 
AiSLEiR, gen. sitig. of aislear. 

A I T 

A I T 

AisxiNG, s.f. (Tr. aisling.) A dream, a reverie, ia vision. 

Eiricii an aisling mo chadail, rise in the dream of my sleep. — 

Oss. Fin. Lor. Mhosgaii e o aisling an laoch, he aiKoke the 

hero from his dream; chunnaic e aisling, he saw a vision ; 

aisling chonain, a lascivious dream. N. pi. aislinge, and 

aislingean. Aislinge faoin, empii/ dreams. — Stev;. Zech. 

Dat. pi. aislingibh. 
AiSLiNGEACH, a. Dreamy, dreaming, visionary ; of, or re- 
lating to, a dream. 
Aislingean, n. pi. of aisling; which see. 
AisLiNGiciiE, s. m. (from aisling.) A dreamer. Tha an 

t-aislingiche so ateachd, this dreamer is coming. — Stew.Gen. 

Ir. aislingtheach. 
Aisling chonain, s. m. A lascivious dream. 
AisNE, gen. sing, of aise^n; which see. 
AiSNEACii, a. Ribbed; having strong ribs, having large 

ribs ; of, or belonging to, a rib. 
AiSNEis, s.f. A rehearsing. See Ais-innseadii. 
AiS-iNNSEADH,idh, f. nt. A telling, a rehearsing, a repeating. 
AisRE, and AisuiDH, «. An abode ; a receptacle; a hill; a 

path. Aisridh nam ban, the abode of women; a seraglio. — 

Fingalian Poem. An ruath aisridh, the red path. — Macint. 
Ais-siTH, s.f. {perhaps ais-shith.) Discord, strife, wrangling, 

disturbance. Siol-chuiridh e ais-sith, he will sow discord. — 

Stew. Prov. ref. 
AiSTEiDH, s. The hatches of a ship. 

AiT, (I. Glad, joyful, cheerful. Ir. ait. Old French, haitfe. 
Ait, aite, s. m. {Gr. athia.. Lat. aed-es, a house. Ir. ait.) 

A place; part; spot, region. JV. ;;/. aitean, a»d aiteachan, 

places. C'kh, where? 
Ait- AIRE, s. m. An observatory, 
t AiT-CHEAs, s.f. A warrior's concubine. 
AiT-CHiOMACH,aich,«.m. Apetitioner. A"".;)/. aitchiomaichean. 
AiT-coMiiNuiDH, s. m. A dwelling place; a dwelling, or 

abode. Thog sinn aitcorahnuidh do 'n mhnaoi, we built a 

dwelling for the dame. — Ull. 
AiTEACii, eich, s. m. {from ait.) Habitation; dwelling. 

Bheil an aiteach fuar ? i$ their dwelling cold! — Oss. Tern. 

N. pi. aiteacha, and aiteachan, dwellings ; aiteacha comh- 

nuidh, habitation. — Stew. Exod. 
t AiTEACH, a. Anxious ; careful. 
AiTEACnADH,aidh, J. TO. (7r. aitiughadh.) The circumstance 

of inhabiting; a placing. Luchd-aiteachaid h, inAaWan^*. 
AiTEACHADii (ag), pr. part, of aitich. Inhabiting, dwelling. 

Ag -iiteachadh an domhain, inhabiting the earth. 

AiTEACHAS, ais, s. m. A colony ; an inhabiting. 

AiTEAG, eig, s.f. A shy girl ; a coquette. N. pi. aiteagan. 

AiTEAGACH, a. Coquettish ; shy, indifferent, scornful. Ain- 
nir aiteagach, a shy maid. 

AiTEAL, eil, s. m. Juniper. Freumhan an aiteil, juniper 

roots. — Stew. Job. Fuidh chraoibh aiteil, beneath a juniper 

tree. — Slew. 1 K. 
AiTEAL, eil, «. w. {JV. adyl.) A blast, a breeze, a breath 

of wind ; light ; music. Aiteal an earraich, the breeze of 

spring.— Oss. Fing. Gun aiteal bho real air skil, on the 

deep without starlight. — Oss. Gaul. 
AiTEALAcii, a. Abounding in juniper; of or pertaining to 

AiTEALACii, a. Breezy; bright; shining, luminous. 
AiTEAM, eim, s. m. and/. A people, a tribe; folk, persons. 

Aiteam chathach, a warlike people.— Old Poem. Is beann- 

aichte an aiteam, blessed are the people. — Smith. 
t AiTEAMii, eimli, i. TO. A convincing proof ; an argument, 

AiTEAMii, eimh, «. TO. A thaw ; fresh weather. Tha 'n lath 

rig an aiteamh, the day thaws. 

AiTEANN, inn, s. TO. {Ir. aiteann.) Juniper; also furze. 

Dearcan aitlnn, juniper berries ; preas aitinn, a juniper bush. 

AiTEANNACH, o. Abounding in junipers, or in furze ; like 

juniper, or furze ; of, or pertaining to, juniper, or to furze. 
AiTEANNACH, aich. s. A place where junipers grow; a 

quantity of juniper bushes. 
AiTEAS, eis, s. m. {from ait.) Old French, hait^, joyous. 

Gladness, joy; laughter, fun. Aiteas an silil Ghorm- 

aluinn, gladness in the eye of Gormallin. — Oss. Oimara. 

Aiteas air na sleibhte uaine, joy on the green mountains. — 

Oss. Duthona. Cuirm chum aiteis, a feast for laughter. — 

Stew. Ecc, 
AiTEiG, gen. sing, of aiteag. 
AiTEiL, gen. sing, of aiteal. 
t AiTH, s. m. A hill ; a skirmish, 
t AiTii, a. Keen ; sharp ; anxious. 
AiTii, an iterative particle ; more commonly written ath. 
AiTH-CHEAS, chise, s.f A whore, a bawd. 
AiTHCHUiMiR, rt. Compendious; brief; abridged, 
t AiTHE, i.y. Revenge. — Ir. 
t AiTHE, a. Keen. 

t AiTHEACH, ich, s. m. A giant ; a clown ; a sow. Ir. id. 
AiTHEACH, a. Gigantic; clownish; swinish. 
AiTHEADH, idh, s. m. An elf shot. 
AiTHEAMH, eimh, s. to. A fathom. Fichead aitheamh, 

twenty fathoms. — Stew. Jets. N. pi. aitheamhan ; conlr. 

AiTHEAN, s. pi. The liver.— ilJflc^/. 
AiTHEAS, eis, s. m. A reproach ; a blemish, 
t AiTiiEASG, eisg, s.f. An admonition, advice. 
AiTii-GiiEARR, aith-ghearradh, s. m. An abbreviation; a 

contraction ; a short way ; a short time. Gu h-aith-ghearr, 

shortly, soon. 
AiTii-GHEARR, a. (JT. ehcgyr.) Short; quick, brief ; soon, 

instantaneous. Sgaoil sinn cho aithghearr, we dispersed so 

soon.^Roy Stewart. Gu h-aithghear, shortly, quickly, soon. 
AiTH-oiiEARU, V. Cut again; subdivide; shorten, curtail. 

More frequently written afh-ghearr ; which see. 
AiTHEiMH, gen. sing, of aitheamh. 
t AiTHiD, s. TO. A viper; a snake, 
t AiTHiDEAN, ein, {dim. of aithid), s. to. Any venomous 

reptile ; a little beast. 
AiTiiiNNE, .?. TO. (/r. aithinne.) A firebrand. Mar aithinne 

as an losgadh, like afrebrandfrom the burning.— Stew. Amos. 
AiTHiR, s.f. A serpent. — i^ezD. G. B. More frequently 

written nathair. 
AiTHiR-LUS, luis, s. TO. Grouud-ivy. 
■\ AiTHis, V. Reproach, rebuke, abuse, affront. Pret. a, 

dh' aithis, rebuked ; fut. ajf. a. aithisidh, shall rebuke. 
AiTHis, s.f. A reproach, rebuke, affront, scandal ; a check, 

abuse; ease, leisure. Gun tuit e ann an aithis, that he 

may fall into reproach. — Stew. Tim. Bheil thu air d' aithis, 

are you at leisure 1 

AiTHisEACii, a. Reproachful, abusive, scandalous; slow; 
leisurely, tardy, dilatory. 

AiTHisEACii, ich, s. TO. {from aithis.) An abusive person; 
a dilatory person. 

AiTHisEACHADH, aidh, .?. TO. Defamation; abuse. 

AiTiiMiiEAL, eil, s. m. Repentance, compunction, fear. 
Lan aithrnheil, a man full of compunction. — Old Song. 

t AiTHMiiEAS, s. TO. The ebbing of the sea. 

AiTHiMEiLEACH, o. Repentant. 

AiTiiN, V. Command, order, bid, direct, enjoin. Pret. a. 
dh' aithn, command ; fut. aff. a. aithnidh, shall or will com- 
mand; fut. neg.h\\.\\n; as,chan'&ithniad, they shall not order. 

A I T 


AiTiiNE, s. f. A command, commandment, order, injunc- 
tion, mandate, direction ; a charge ; rareb/ a store. N. pi. 
^itheantean; dat. pi. iitheantibh. Laglinan iitheanta, 
the laxv of (he commandmenU. — Stetc. Eph. Thug mi aithne 
dbuit, 1 ordered you. 

Aithne, s. f. Knowledge, discernment, acquaintance. 
(Saerf. ana, to foreknow^ Cha n eil aithne agaim air, 
/ /lare no knoxeledge of him ; cuir aithne air, get acquainted 
with him, make yourself knoun to him. 

Aitiine-an-lAtiia, *./. Broad day-light; the height of day. 

AiTHNEACHADH, aidh, s. m. A recognising, knowing, dis- 

AiTHKEACHADii, (ag), pr. part, of aithnich. Knowing, re- 

AiTHNEADAiL, fl. {from aithne.) Familiar, knowing. 

AiTHNEADAiR, *. m. {from aithne.) A man of general 
knowledge ; a learned man. 

AiTHNEADH, eidh, s. m. The act of commanding; a com- 
manding, ordering. 

AiTHNEADH, (ag), pr. part, of kitlin. Commanding, order- 
ing, charging, enjoining. 

AiTHWiCH, I', {from aithne.) Know, recognise, feel ; have 
sexual intercourse. Fret. a. dh' aithnich, kneiv ; fut. aff. a. 
aithnichidh, shall know ; fut. neg. and interrog. aithnich ; 
fut. pass, aithnichear, shall be known. Cha d' aithnich mi 
orm e, / did not feel it ; cha n' aithnichteadh orra e, it 
■would not be known o» them, 

AiTHNicHEAN, ein, s. m. A stranger, visitor, acquaintance. 
— Stew. Lev. ref 

Aithnichear, fut. pass, of aithnich. Shall be known. 

AITHNICHIDH,/u^ qf. a. of aithnich. Shall or will be known. 

AiTHNiCHTE, p. part, of aithnich. Known, recognised. 
Dean aithnichte, make known. — Stew. Rom. Arm. anzad, 
known. Swed. ainsichte, a face. 

AiTHRE, *. c. A bull, a cow, ox. N. pi, aithrean. 

Aithreach, a. Wonderful, curious, strange, droll ; sorry, 
penitent. Dh' eisd sinn is b' aithreach leinn, we listened, 
and surprised we were. — Ull. Nior aithreach leis, nur does 
he repent. — Sm. Is aithreach leinn do bhuaidh, we are 
amazed at thy prowess. — Fingalian Poem. Is aithreach an 
t-oglach thu, you are a droll ftllow. 

Aithreachail, a, (aithreach-amhuil.) Penitent, repent- 
ing, repentant. 

Aithreachais, gen, sing, of aithreachas. 

Aithreachas, ais, s. m. Repentance, penitence, regret. 
Dean aithreachas, gabh aithreachas, repent ; ni mi aith- 
reachas, or gabhaidh mi aithreachas, / will repent ; gun 
aithreachas cha bhi maitheanas, without repentance there 
shall not be forgiveness. — Stew. N. T. 

AiTHREACHAG, aig, s.f. A female penitent. N. pi. aithre- 

Aithreachan, ain, s. m. A penitent. 

AiTHREACHD, S.f. {from Rthair.) Ancestry, ancestors. A 
ckaoidh cumaibh an cuimhne ur n-aithreachd, ever keep 
your ancestry in mind. — Old Song. 

AiTHRiciiE, and AiTHRiCHEAN, n. pi. of atbair. Fathers, 
ancestors. See Athair. 

AiTiiRiCHiBH, dat. pi. of athair. 

+ AiTHRiDHE, S.f. Repentance, sadness, tears, sorrow. 

AiTHRiDHEACU, o, {from aithridhe.) Repentant, sad, sor- 

t AiTHRiNE, «. wj. A calf. — Ir. 

AiTHRis, s.f. {Ir. aithris.) Report, repetition, rehearsal, 
recital, narration; imitation; tradition, tale. Aithris anraidh, 
a tale of distress. — Oss. Cathula. N. pi. aithrisean. 

Aithris, v. Rehearse, report, narrate, relate, tell, repeat. 
Pre/, a. dh' aithris, told ; fut. aff. a. aithrisidh, shall tell, 

Aithrisibh am measg an t-sluaigh, teU among the people. — 
Smith. Aithrisibhse agus aithrisidh sinne, rejjort you, and 
■we will report. — SttV). G. B. Sgeul ri aithris, a tale to be 
told. — Oss. Lodin. 

AiTHRisBACn, a. {from aithris.) Tautological, repeating, 

AiTHRiSEACHD, S.f. {from aithris.) Frequent repetition, 

AiTiiRisEADn,eidh, i. w. The act of repeating; a repetition. 

AiTiiRisiCHE, *. OT. A tautologist ; a tale-bearer ; a reciter; 
a narrator ; an imitator. 

AiTicH, V. a. {from iit.) Inhabit, cultivate, settle ; place ; 
give place to. Fret. a. dh' aitich, inhabited ; fut. aff. a. 
aitichidh, inhabited, 

AiTiCHTE, p. part, of aitich. Inhabited; settled; placed. 
Gu tlr ^itichte, to an inhabited land. — Stew. Exod. 

AiTiDH, a. Wet, damp, moist. Tha t-aodach aitidh, your 
clothes are damp. 

AiTiDHEACUD, s. f. {from aitidh.) Dampness, wetness, 

AiTREABH, eibh, s. {perhaps Mte-threabh.) An abode, dwell- 
ing; a building; a. steading. Theid an aitreabh sios, Mfi'r 
building will decay. — Stew. Ecc. W, athrev, a house, and 
adrev, home. N. pi. aitreabhan. Written also aitreamh. 

AiTREABHACH, fl. {from aitreabh.) Of, or pertaining to, an 
abode, or building ; domestic. 

AiTREABHACH, aich, «. m. {from aitreabh.) An inhabitant; 
a lodger ; a tenant ; a farmer. N. pi. aitreabhaiche. 

Aitreabhan, of aitreabh. 

AiTREACH, eich, s. m. Contr. for aitreabhach ; which sec. 

Aitreamh, eimh, s.m. An abode; dwelling-house. Written 
also aitreabh ; which see. 

Aitreamhach, eich, s.m. {from aitreamh.) See Aitre- 

f Al, v. Nurse ; praise. {Lat. alo.) Frit. a. dh' al, 
nursed; fut. aff. a. ^laidh, shall nurse. 

Al, kW, s.m. {Ir. h.].) A brood ; litter, offspring; tlie young 
of a bird; a generation. A solar dhearc dha h-^1 beag, 
gathering berries for its callow young. — Oss. Gaul. Al 
stiallach, speckled offspring. — Stew. Gen. Trom le h-al,- 
heavy with young. — Id. lad fein 's an cuid ail, themselves 
and their young. — Old Song. An t-al a tha ri teachd, the 
generation to come. — Sm. Lat. al-o, to rear. W. al. 

t Al, ail, s. m. A rock, a stone; fear; a horse. For this 
last sense, see All. 

Al, Jiil, s. m. Nurture ; food. — Ir. 

t Ala, ai, *. m. A trout ; a wound. — Ir. 

Alack, aich, s. m. {from al.) Brood, the young of a bird, 
a litter ; tribe, crew, generation. Mar iolair Laoir air 
a h-alach, like an eagle of Lora over her young. — Oss. 
Tra thig un sealgair gun fhios air alach, when the hunter 
comes unexpectedly on a brood. — Orr. 

Alach, aich, s. m. The nails in a boat; a new set ; activity, 
alacrity; also a request. — Macdon. Alach-ramh, a bank 
of oars. —Macfar. 

Alach, a. Of, or belonging to, a brood; prolific. 

Alach-ramh, raimh, s. m. A bank of oars. 

Alachag, aig, s. m. A hook, a crook ; a peg, a pin. N. pi, 

Alachag ACH, a. Full of hooks, or crooks; full of pegs; 
like a crook, peg, or pin. 

t Aladh, aidh, s. m. Wisdom, skill ; also malice, a lie. 

Aladh, aidh, s. m. {from al.) A nursing. 

Alain, a. White; bright, clear, /r. alain. 

Alaineachd, s.f. {fromnWm.) Beauty; whiteness; bright- 
ness, clearness. 



A LATHAiR, flf/r. Present, at hand; in existence, in life. 
See also Lathair. 

t Alb, a. (Lat. alb-us.) White. Greek, according to Hey- 
schius, oX^oj. Chald. alban, to be ■white. Syr, alben, to 
'iihitcn. Teut. alp, a swan. 

t Alb, ailb, *. m. An eminence; a height. 

Alba, Albainn, and Albuinn, s.f. {Corn. Alban.) Scotland. 
Eididh na h-Alba, the costume of Scotland ; tha mi dol dh' 
Albuinn, 7 am going to Scotland; Albainn bheadrach, be- 
/ov€d Scotland ; a chlann Alba nam buadh, ye sons of victo- 
rious Albion. — Fingalian Poem. 

The oldest name of Britain is allowed to have been Albion. 
This is the name given to Scotland by the Scotch Celts : and 
they do not know it by any other appellation. " Sed hoc nomen," 
says Buchanan, " magis e libris eruitur, quam in coinmuni sermone 
usurpatur, nisi praisertim apud .Scotos, qui se Albinich, regionem 
suara, Albin adhuc vocant." 

Albanxach, a. Scotch, Scottish ; of or belonging to Scot- 
land. Eorp ag araharc Ghaidheal Albannach, Europe 
beholdincr the Scotch Gael. — Old Sons. 

Albannach, aich, s. m. A Scot, a Scotsman. Is Albannach 
an duinc so, this man is a Scot ; is fior Albannach e, he is 
a true Scotchman. N. pi. Albannaich, Scotchmen. 

Albannaich, gen. sing, and n. pi. of Albannach. 

Alv, m\d, s. m. A rivulet; a mountain stream. Ag aomadh 
thar an uild, bending over the stream. N. pi. uild. Old 
British, aled, ajloxcing stream. 

Aldan, ain, s.m. (dim. of aid.) A rivulet; a streamlet, — 
Oss. Tem. 

Aldanacii, a. Abounding in rivulets; of or belonging to 
a rivulet. 

f Alfad, aid, ». m. Cause, reason. 

t Alga, a. Noble, great. — Ir. 

t Algachd, s.f. Nobleness, greatness, nobility. 

t All, aill, s. m. A horse. 

This is an ancient Celtic vocable, long gone into disuse among 
the Gael ; but we have it in composition with cab, or cap : as 
cnball, or capull, a horse or mare ; literally a tamed horse, or a 
horse accustomed to the bridle; from cub, mouth, and all, horse. 

t All, Aill, s. w. {Corn. als. Ir. all.) A rock, a clifF; 

- a great hall ; a generation ; race. 

Arah.\\\iz\, high. Chald. )ix]:\diW, high. Syr. XxhoYi, height. 
Chald. hhalas, height. Heb. hal, above. Teut. hel, high. 
Pers. and Arab, al, high. In some parts of Africa, alle, 
high. Ethiop. alal, to elevate. Turk, al ajid ali, high. 
Mantchcou Tartars, al-in, a hill. Alin, a mountain, in 
Mogul. Malacca, ala, surpass. Dan. hoU, a hill. Sax. hull. 
English, hill. Etrurian, alse. It. alzare, to elevate. Turk. 
allah, God, or the High Being. Jap. ala, God. Armtn. ael, 
God. Pun. ille. Syr. eloha, God. 

t All, a. {Ir. all. Gr. ix>.>i-ou other. Arm. all. Arab, hhal, 
high. Chald. hhali.) Foreign ; great, prodigious. Seldom 
used but in composition with some other word, as all- 

t All, a. White. 

This word has long been obsolete; but we see it in the name 
of a stream that runs into the Tweed, namely, Allan ; i. e. All-an, 
oc Ali-umhainn, the white or foaming stream. Anciently Alzeen. 

t Alla, s. m. The Most High. 

Allaba.v, ain, *. m. Wandering, deviation, aberration. 

t Allabhair, s. m. (All, cliff, and labhair.) An echo. — Ir. 

Alladii, aidh, s. m. Fame, report, greatness. Alladh 
Dhaibhidh, the fame of David. — Stew. 1 Chron. ref Deagh 
alladh, a good report ; droch alladh, a bad report. 

Allaidii, a. {from all.) Corn. alta. Wild, ferocious, 
savage, terrible; boisterotis ; also beauteous. See All- 
uiDH. Beathaiche allaidh, wild beasts. Corn, beathuige 

Allail, a. {from alladh.) Noble, illustrious, excellent, 

glorious. Daoine allail, illustrious men. — Stew. 1 Chron. 

Written also alloil ; which see. 
Alla-mhadadh, aidh, s. m. A vrolf. Chual an t-alla- 

mhadadh an fhuaim, the wolf heard the sound. — Oss. Conn. 
t Allbhuadhach, aich, *. m. A prince's hall. 
Allbhuadhach, a. {from + all, great, and buadhach.) 

Triumphant, victorious, conquering, 
t Allchur, s. m. Transposition. 

AxLGHLOiR, s.f. Gibberish, jargon, vainglory, gasconading. 
All-ghl6rach, a. Inclined to utter jargon ; vainglorious, 

Allghort, ghoirt, s. m. An orchard. Contracted for 

abhall ghort ; which see. 
Allmhadadh, aidh, s. m. A wolf. Written also alia' 

Allmhaidh, a. Fierce, terrible, wild, boisterous. Armailt 

allmhaidh, a terrible army. — Old Poem. Written oftener, 

allaidh and alluidh. 
Allmhara, AUmharach, a. Foreign, strange, transmarine, 

exotic ; wild, ferocious, untameable. W. allmyr, a j^lace 

beyond the sea. 
Allmharach, aich, *. m. A stranger, a foreigner, an alien, 

a barbarian ; one from beyond the seas ; a foreign foe ; 

a transmarine foe. larmad nan allmharach, the remnant of 

the strangers. — Sm. Luingeas nan allmharach, the ship 

of the sea-borne foe. — Old Poem. Ir. id. 
Allmiiarachd, «.y. Barbarity, cruelty ; the state of being 

t Allod, adv. Formerly, of old. — Ir. 
Alloil, a. Noble, excellent, illustrious, glorious, renowned. 

Daoine alloil, men of renown. — Stew. Num. ref. Is alloil 

thusa, thou art glorious. — Stew. G. B. Written also allail. 
Alloileachd, s. f. Nobleness, excellentness, illustrious- 

ness, gloriousness, renown. 
Allonta, a. Brave, noble ; excellent, of good reputation. 
Allontaciid, *.y. Bravery; good fame, 
t Allraon, raoin, *. m. A foreign expedition ; a journey 

to a foreign land. 
Allsachail, ff. Prone to respite ; worthy of respite. 
Allsachd, «.y. Respite; reprieve; suspension. 
Allsaich, r. a. Respite; reprieve; suspend. Pret. a. A\i 

allsaich, respited ; fut. aff. a. allsaichidh, shall respite ; fit. 

pass, allsaichear, shall be respited. 
Allsmuainn, *./. A great buoy; afloat. 
Allt, uillt, s. m. A mountain stream ; a rill, a brook. 

N. pi. alltan and uillt. Bruach an uillt, the bank of the 

brook ; threig torman nan allt, the murmur of the brooks has 

subsided. — Oss. Diarm. Lat. alt-us, deep. Old British, 

aled, a running stream. Written also alld. 
Allta, and Alltadii, a. {Ir. allta.) Fierce, wild, foreign; 

strange. Beathaich allta na machrach, the wild beasts of 

the field. — Sm. Mar leomhann allta, like a fierce lion. — Id. 

W. allda, a stranger. 
Alltan, n. pi. of allt; which see. 
Alltan, ain, s. m. {dim. of allt.) A brook; a little mountain 

stream ; a streamlet. Drochait air gach alltan, a bridge 

over every streamlet. — Macint. 
Alluidii, a. {Ir. alluigh.) Wild, ferocious, fierce, savage, 

boisterous, terrible ; also beauteous. Stoirra alluidh, ter- 
rible storms. — Oss. Trath. B' alluidh do shuil, fierce was 

thine eye. — Oss. Temo. Dh' aom e air a sg6ith umha 

alluidh, he boiccd over his beauteous shield of brass, — Oss. 

Alluigh, a. See Alluidh. 
t Alluin, a. Fair, handsome. Now written hlttinn. 


A M A 

t Almachadh, a. Charitable, 
t Alp, ailp, s. m. A mountain. 
Alt, uilt, «. »«. (7r. alt.) A joint; a joining; a condition, 

state, order, method. iV". pi. altan ; dot. pi. altaibh ; as 

an alt, ovt of joint. — Stew. Gen. Eadar altaibh na luirich, 

hetxveen the joints of the harness. — Stew, 1 K. 
+ Alt, uilt, *. m. {Ii: alt.) A nursing, rearing, feeding. 

Lat. alt-um, to tiourish. 
t Alt, s. m. A section of a book ; time, 
t Alt, «. »n. A high place, a hill, eminence; exaltation; 

a leap; a valley. La/, alt-us, /i»g/i. JT. alht. Cor/i. als, 

a hill, or a cliff. 
Altach, aich, s. m. A grace at meat. N. pi. altaichean; 

d. pi. altaichibh. 
Alt.vchadii, aidh, s.m. The act of saluting, or of thanking ; 

a saluting ; a salute ; a bracing, as of the Joints ; moving, 

Altachadii, (ag), pr. part, of altaich. Saluting, thankiug; 

bracing, as of the joints; moving, budging. 
Altacuadh-beatha, s. m. A salutation; a greeting; a 

Altaicii, v. a. Salute; thank; inquire after one's welfare; 

relax the joints ; also brace, move, budge. Pret. a. dh' 

altaich, saluted; fut. aff. a. altaichidh, shall salute ; fut. 

pass, altaichear, shall be saluted. Dh' altaich iad beath a 

cheile, they asked for each other s uelfare. — Steic. Exod. 
Altaich, gen. sing, of altach. 
Altaichean, n. yl. of altach. 
Altaichear, fut. pass, of altaich ; which see. 
Altaichidh, /u?. aff. a. of altaich. Shall or will brace. 
Altail, a. (alt-amhuil.) Arthritic. 
Altair, gen. altair, and altarach, s.f. {Ir. altoir.) An altar. 

Adhaircean na h-altair, the hums of the altar. — Sm. Fa 

chomhair na h-altarach, opposite to the altar. — Stew. Zech. 

N. pi. altraichean, or altraiche. 
Altan, ain, «. OT. D;w!. ofalt; which see. 
Altan, n.;)/. of alt; which see. 
Alt-cheangal, ail, s. m. Articulation, or the juncture of 

Altrach, aich, *. m. One who fosters ; a nurse, liat. altrix. 

N. pi. altraichean. 
Altradh, aidh, s. m. A man who fosters. Ban-altradh, 

a nurse. 
Altraiche, s. m. One who fosters. JV. pi. altraichean, 

one who prospers. 
Altram, v. a. See Altruim. 

Altranas, *. m. A fostering ; a nursing. Jr. altrannas. 
Altruim, v. a. Nurse, nourish, maintain, educate, foster, 

cherish. Pret. a. dh' altruim, nursed; fut. aff. a. altru- 

maidh, shall nurse; altrumaidh mise, I will nourish. — 

Stew. Gen. 
Altrumach, a. Fostering, rearing, educating. 
Altrumaciiadh, aidh, i. »n. The act of fostering ; a nursing, 

rearing, educating. 
Altrumaciiadh, (ag), pr. part, of altruimich. 
Altrumadii, aidh, s. m. A fostering, nursing, rearing, 

Altrumaich, v. Foster, rear, nourish, educate. Pnf. a. 

dh' altrumaich, fostered ; fut. aff. a. altrumaichidh, shall 

Altrumaidh, fut. aff. a. of altruim. 
Altruman, ain, «. m. A chief. Seachd altrumain aig loch 

L^in, seven chiefs at the lake of Lanno.—Fingalion Poem. 

JV. pi. altrumain. 
Altrumain, gen. sing, and w. pi. of altruman. 
Altuchadh, aidh, .5. w. See Altachadh. /r. altughadh. 

AltuiCh, v. a. Written also altaich; which see. 

t Aluohain, «./. Potter's clay. 

Aluinn, a. Beautiful, fair, handsome, elegant, goodly. 
Meas chraobh aluinn, the fruit of goodly trees. — Sltw. Lei. 
Ir. aluin. 

Am, def art. before words beginning with b,f, m, or ;;, when 
not aspirated ; as am baile, the town ; am fear, the man ; 
am mor'ear, the grandee ; am paisd, the child. 

Am, interrog. particle ; used before verbs beginning with b, f, 
m, or p. Am buail thu ? -will you strike? Am fig thu mi 
am aonar? wilt thou leave me alone? — Oss. Fing. Am 
maith thu dha? uilt thou forgive him! Am paigh thu mi? 
wilt thou pay me ? 

'Am, a colloquial abbreviation o( again ; used in the following 
phrases : Cha n-'eil f hios 'am, 1 do not know {non est notitia 
mihi); cha-n'cil fhios 'am fhein, / do not know ; cha n-'eil 
f hios am fhein gu dearbh, I do not know, I am sure ; I really 
do not know. 

Am, [fur mo], pass. pron. My. Ann am lagh, in my law. — 
Stew. Exod. Corn, am, tny. 

Am, [contr. for ann mo.] In my. Ghlac mi am shuaia mo 
shleagh, 1 grasped in my dream my spear. — Oss. Dargo. 

Am, [for anns am.] Lagain am bi na nebinein, dells where 
daisies grow. — Macint. 

Am, [for ann am.] In the. Tha anam am morchuis, his 
soul is in (actuated by) pride. — Oss. Tern. Am biithaibh, 
in tents. — Stew. Gen. Am faoghaid fasaich, in the forest 
chase. — Oss. Comala. 

A^M, .s. m. (Ir. am.) Time, season, convenience. X. pi. 
kmanna, times; ^mdMxi^ibh, to times ; na h-imanna 
so, these times ; am o aois, olden times. — Oss. Lodin. Ann 
am na h-oidhche, in the night time. — Oss. Fing. San am, 
at the time, in the time, in /he meantime. — Oss. Temo. Sna 
h-aniannaibh chaidh seachad, in times past. — Stew. Eph. 
Ann an am is ann an an-am, in season and out of season. — 
Stew. 2 Tim. Am a gheamhraidh, the winter season ; am 
an carraich, the spring time; am an t-samhraidh, summer 
time ; km an f hogharaidh, harvest time. 

t Am, a. Soft, moist, damp. Siamese, am, water. Canadian, 
am, water. Bisc. ama, sea. 

t Ama, ai, s. m. A horse's collar. 

A MACH, adv. Out ; without ; out of. Tha e a mach, he 
is without ; thig a mach, come out. Ir. id. 

Amach, aich, s.m. A vulture; any ravenous bird. N. pi. 

Amad, aid, «. »!. A fool. — Ir. 

Amadain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of amadan. 

Amadan, ain, *. m. (dim. of amad.) Ir. amadan. A fool. 
Bithidh e na amadan, he will be a fool. — Stew. Jer. Ni e 
amadain, fie will make fools. — Steic. Job. N. pi. amadain. 
Aiiiadan-mointich, a dotterel. — Jr. id. 

Amadanach, rt. Foolish ; like a fool. 

Amadanachd, *. /. Foolishness ; the conduct of a fool. 

Amadan-m6intich, *. m. A dotterel. N. pi. amadain- 
mointich, dotterels. 

Amadaxta, a. (y>'o/« amadan.) Foolish. Jr. id. 

Amaid, a. Foohsh, silly; also (substantively) foliy, silli- 
ness ; a foolish woman. 

Amaideach, o. Foolish. 'Nhhe nmM^ench, foolish things. — 
Stew. Pro. Gu h-amaideach,yoo/)47(/y. 

Amaideachd, s.f. Foolishness; folly; silliness. Ann am 
faidhean amaideachd, foolishness in prophets. — Stew. Jer. 

Amail, a. (am-amhuil), y}wK km. Seasonable, timely; in 
time ; temporal. 

Amail, v. Hinder, prevent, stop, interrupt, debar, impede. 
Prtt. a. dh' amail, hindered ; fut. aff. a. amailidh, shall or 
will hinder. 

A M It 

A M H 

+ Amatl, adv. Now ■written amhuil ; which see. 

AMAILIDH,/^(^ aff. a. of amail. Shall or will hinder. 

Amaii-l, s. f. Hiaderance, impediment, interruption. A 
cur amaill orm, hindering me. 

Amaill, gen. sing, of amall. 

Am AIR, gen. sing, of amar; which see. 

Amais, t'. Hit, mark, aim ; find. Pret. a. dh'\s, found ; 
flit. aff. a. araaisidh, shall or xsilljind; fut. pass, amaisear, 
shall be found. 

Amaisceach, a. Wanton, lewd, lustful. Gu h-amaisceach, 

Amaisceachd, s.f. Wantonness, lewdness. — Stew. Mark, ref. 

Amaisidii, fut. aff. a. Shall or will find. 

Amaladii, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of hinder- 
ing ; stoppage, impediment, interruption. 

Amaladh, (ag), ]>r. part. Hindering, impeding, stopping. 
Tha thu 'g am amaladh, i/ou are hindering me. 

Amali., aill, s. m. A swingle-tree. 

t Aman, ain, s.f. Now written amhainn ; which see. 

Amar, air, s. m. {Gr. if^ci^a, a drain.) A trough; a narrow 
rocky channel. Dh* fhalmhuich i a soitheach san amar, 
she emptied her vessel into the trough. — Steu-. 0. T. Amar 
Lruthaidh, a wine-press, a press vat. — Stew. Hag. Amar 
muin, a vessel for holding urine, a water-pot, or chamber- 
pot ; amar fuail, a water pot, a vessel for holding urine; amar 
fuinidh, a baking trough ; amar baistidh, a font. 

f Amar, air, s. m. A chain ; a cable. Gr. a^yt.a.. Hence 
also the French sea-term amarcr, to bind or fasten. 

Amaraich, j.y. Scurvy-grass. — Macd. 

Amar-baistidh, s. m. A baptismal font. 

Amar-bruthaidii, *. 77!. A winc-press ; a pressing vat. — 
Stew. Hag. 

Amarcach, a. Fond of. — Ir. id. 

Amar-fuail, *. OT. A vessel for holding urine; a urinal; 
a chamber-pot. 

Amar-fuinidh, s. m. A baking trough. — Stew. Exod. 

Amas, ais, *. m. A hitting, aiming, marking; finding; a 
finding after a search. 

Amas, (ag^, /);•. /)(^/•^ of amais. Hitting, marking, aiming; 
finding; finding after a search. Is tearc iadsan tha ag 
amas oirre, few there be that find it. — Stew. N. T. 

Amasadii, aidh, .?. m. A hitting, marking, aiming; finding; 
a finding after a search. 

Amasadii, (ag), pr. part. a. of amais. Hitting, marking, 

\ Amasgaidh, a. Profane; helter skelter. 

Amasgaidiieaciid, s.f. Profaneness. 

A MEASG, prep. Among, amongst. 

Amh, «. m. A fool, a simpleton ; a dwarf. 

Amii, a. (Ir. amh.) Raw, crude; unsodden, unboiled, 
unroasted; naughty. Feoil amh, raw Jlesh. — Slew. Sam. 
Na ithibh dheth amh, tat not of it (unroasted) raw. — Stew. 

t Amii, .$. m. Water; ocean. 

Gr. JEol. dp-a, water. Lat. a-qua. Shuns, ab and aw. 
Pers. awe. Aa, a river in Courland. Dan. aae. Fr. eau. 
Goth. a. Isl. aa. Low Germ, aa., Swed. a, a river ; and 
perhaps Gr. avi, a blast. Chin, ho, river. Tart, ou, water. 
See also Abii. 

+ Amii, adv. Even, so, as, like. Hence amhuil. 

f Amu, s. a denial. 

Amiiacii, a. Like a dwarf ; like a fool. 

A.MIIACII, aich, *. m. {Gr. avxri-) Neck. Brisidh tu' amhach, 
thou shall break its neck. — Slew. Exod. G' ar n-amhach, 
vp to our necks. — Macint. A''. /i/. amhaichcan. 

Amhachd, s.f. {from iimh.) Conduct of a fool, or simpleton. 

Amhaciid, i.y. Rawness, crudeness. 

AMiiAiL,af/r.(y/om famh.) Like to, such as, as. See Amhuil. 

A MiiAiN, adv. Only, alone. //•. id. 

Amiiaixv, s.f. A river. {Comp. of amh and ain.) See also 

W. afon and avou. English, f afene. Swed. aen, or an. 
Arm. afon. Corn. auan. Manx. aon. Germ. am. Lat. 
t amanis, contr. amnis ; and in the old dialect of the Scoto- 
Brigantcs, amon and aman. Ir. amhan. Moorish, aman, 
water. Copt, pi-aimen, a lake. Brazilian, amen, rain. 
Men, or niin, a river in China. In Huron, aoucn is xvater ; 
Chinese, yven, source of a river. In Franche Comte, an 
osier is called uivan, as it grows beside waters. Mar- 
an-on, the American name for the river Amazon, seems to 
be Mor-an, a great flowing stream, with on, an Indian 

Amhaiuc, v. Look, see, behold, observe, regard. Pret. a. 
dh' amhairc, looked; fut. aff. a. amhaircidh, shall or will 
look; amhairc thairis, overlook, take no notice of. — Stew. 
Pro. Amhaircidh mi oirbh, / will regard you, or have 
respect unto you. 

t Amiiantas, ais, s. m. Royal privilege; good luck. 

t Amiiaon, .5. Twins; plurality. 

t Amiiar, air, s. m. A vessel for holding malt; music. 

Amuarag, s.f. Mustard; also sweet marjoram. Lat. 
amar-us, bitter ; and amaracus, sweet marjoram. 

t Amii ARC, aire, s. m. A fault. 

Amiiarc, aire, s. m. A look ; a looking, viewing, observing, 
inspecting; a look, a view ; sight, observation, beholding, 

Amiiarc, (ag), pr. part, of amhairc. Looking, viewing, 
observing, inspecting, beholding. 

Amiiarcholl, *. Apthongs. — Shaw. 

Amiiartan, ain, s. m. Fortune, luck, prosperity; also a 
lucky person. 

Amhaiitanacii, a. Fortunate, lucky, prosperous. Com. 
and sup. amhartanaiche, more or most fortunate. — Stew. 

Amiiartaxaciid, s.f. {from amhartan.) Good fortune; 
a course of good fortune, prosperity. 

Amuarus, uis, s. m. {fr. amharus.) Doubt, suspicion, 
distrust. Fuidh amharus, in doubt, suspected; fuidh amh- 
arus umaibli, in doubt about you. — Slew. Gal. Gun amli- 
arus, without doubt, indeed ; am bi thusa gun amharus a' d' 
righ? wilt thou be indeed a king? — Stew. Gen. 

Amuarusacii, a. Distrustful, suspicious, doubtful; am- 
biguous. Deisboireachd amharusach, doubtful disputation. 
— Stew. Rom. Com. and sup. araharusaiche, more or vtoit 
suspicious. Ir. id. 

Amharusaciiadh, aidh, s. m. A mistrusting, a doubting. 

Amiiarusaciid, s.f {from amharus.) Distrustfiilness, sus- 
piciousness, doubtfulness. 

AMiiARusAicir, V. Mistrust, suspect, doubt. Pret. u. dh* 
amharusaich ; fut. aff. a. amharusaichidh. 

Amiias, ais, s. m. {Ir. amhas, wild.) A madman; a wild un- 
governable man ; also a dull, stupid person. JV. pi. ^mhasan. 

Amiiasacii, a. {from amhas.) Wild, ungovernable ; like a 
madman ; also dull, stupid. Com. and sup. amhasaiche, 
more or most wild. 

Amhasag, aig, i. OT. A foolish female. A^. _p/. amhasagan. 
Ir. amhasag. 

t Amiiasan, ain, ,s. »!. A sentry. 

Amiiasan, n. pi. of amhas. 

Amiiohair, gen. sing, of amhghar; which see. 

Amiigiiar, air, «. m. (La^ angor. /T. avar. /r. amhgar.) 
Affliction, anguish, trouble, sorrow, distress, adversity, 

A M U 


calamity. DU' amhairc e air m' amhghar, he looked on my 
(iffliction. — Stew. Gen. Am tliarruingeas ar n-amhghar gu 
ceann, a time which shall draw our troubles to a close. — 
Mac Lach. 

Amhgharach, a. (from amhghar.) Distressed, distressful, 
troublous ; calamitous. Co?n. and sup. amhgharaiche, more 
or most distressful. 

Amhgharaiche, s. m. A distressed person ; one who has 
long been in distress. 

Amhgharaiche, a.; com. and sup. of amhgharach. 

t Amhlabhair, a. Mute, dumb, speechless. Corn, anlavar. 

Amhladh, aidh, «. OT. A duplicate; a copy ; a transcript. 

Amiilair, s. m. A fool, an idiot; a brutish man ; a boor. 
Sparradh tu ceill san amhlair, thou wouldst drive wisdom 
into a fool. — R. N, pi. amhlairean. 

AMHLAiREACH,a. Foolish ; brutal; like an idiot ; boorish. 
Com. and sup. amhlairiche. 

Amhlaireachd, *./. (from amhlair.) Foolishness; bruta- 
lity; boorishness. 

AttiihAiso, s.f. Bad beer; taplash. 

Amhlaisgeach, ich, *. w. A brewer of bad beer; also, 
adjectively, insipid or weak as bad beer. 

Amhluadh, aidh, s. m. Confusion; trouble; astonishment. 
Amhluadh air na sagairtibh, astonishment on the priests. — 
Slew. 0. T. Is amhluadh e, it is confusion. — Stew. Lev. 
Air an amhluadh cheudna, in like manner. — Stew. Is. 

Amhluaidh, gen. si?ig. of amhluadh. 

Amiiluidh, and Amhlui', adv. As, like as, in like manner, 
resembling, so. Amhlui' mar shruth a ruitheas bras, like 
as a stream that runs amain. — Sm. Ni h-amhluidh sin 
a bhios na daoine peacach, not so shall be the wicked men. — /(/. 

Amhxaracii, a. Shameless, impudent. 

t Amhnas, ais, *. m. Impudence, shamelessness. 

t Amhra, ai, s. m. A dream ; a poem ; a sword-hilt, — Ir. 

t Amhra, a. Great, noble, good; dark. 

t Amhradii, aidh, s. m. Mourning, wailing, lamentation, 

t Amhran, ain, s. m. A song. 

Amiirav, .s. ;)/. Eyelids. /F. amrant, W I'liten aiso abhran, 
and fabhran. 

Amhuil, adv. (W. evel. Corn. avel. Arm. hanvel, evel, and 
eval.) Like, resembling, as, in like manner, so, such as. 
Amhuil ce61 tannais ag ^iridh air cuilc na Leig mall, like 
the strain of a ghost rising amid the reeds of slumbering 
Lego. — Ull. Amhuil sin, so, in like manner. — Stew. Hom. 
Amhuil tonn air trkigh, like a wave on the shore. — Ull. 
Amhuil mar so, even as this, just like this. Armoric, evel 
ma so. Amhuil mar an duine so, just like this man. 
Armoric, evel ma zeo den. 

t Amhuil, v. Spoil, plunder. 

Amiiuinn, «.y. An oven ; a furnace. Amhuinn dheataich, 
afurnace of smoke. — Stew. 0. T. Germ, offen. Goth. auhn. 

Amlacii, a. Curled; having ringlets; flowing as hair; 
tressy. Fait amlach or-bhuidh, curled yellow locks. — 
Fingalian Poem. Com. and sup. amlaiche. 

Amladii, aidh, s. m. A stop, hinderance, impediment, in- 

Amlag, aig, s.f A curl, a ringlet". N. pi. amlagan. 

Amlagach, a. Curled; tressy; full of ringlets. Amlagach, 
cleachdacli, curled and tressy. — Macint. 

Amiiaidh, s.f. A cupboard. //•. amri. Fr. annoirie. 
Lai. armarium. 

Amuigh, flt/i'. Out, without. An taobh amuigh, </ie ou/«f(/f, 

t Amus, uis, s.m. An ambush, surprise; sudden onset; 
also leisure. — Ir. 

Amusach, aich,.s. m. One who is punctual to an appoint- 
ment, N. pi. amusaich. 
■ 22 

t Amusach, a. (//-omamus.) Of or pertaining to an ambush. 

As, (Corn.&n. The. An oidhche dhubhradb, 
the gloomy night. — Oss. Com. An steud each san t-sliatA, 
the war-horse in the hill. — Id. An is also written 'n, as, 
'n t-M a tha ri teaclid, the generation to come; an t-eun, 
the bird ; the other dif. art. is am, which is used before 
words beginning with b,p,f,m, not aspirated; in Oilier 
instances an is used. 

An, prep, for ann. In. Mar dharraig an gleann, liie an oak 
in a valley. — Oss. Fing. 

Ay, priv. particle. Not ; equivalent to the English un. As, 

anaoibhinn, Joi//fw. In the Coptic tongue, an means not. 

Arm. an, a priv. particle. Gr. at, and anv, withoutj. 

Old Fr. ana, without. Old Sax. and Old Germ, an, a priv. 

particle. Eng. un, a priv. particle. 

An, an intensalive particle, as, antighearnas, tyranny. 

An, inter rog. particle. An d' thig iad ? will they come? An 
d' fhuair thu i, mar eal' air chuantai? found you her like 
a swan on the deep? — Oss. Conn. An is often written '», 
as, 'n d' thig thu ? wilt thou come 1 

t An, s. m. (IF. and Ir. an. Old Swedish, ana, icater.) An 
element ; a principle ; water. 

From An nre derived the names of a great variety of rivers 
throughout Europe; as, Aiiin, in Italy; Anemo, near' llavenna ; 
Anapus, in Sicily, in Illyria, and in Chaonia ; Anaurttt in Thessaly ; 
and many others. 

A great antiquary observes, that there is a striking resemblance 
between many words in the Celtic and Darieu languages which 
might give rise to very useful disquisition. Antilles, is a general 
name for those islands which lie beyond Bermudas, towards the 
gulph of Mexico, including the Lucayan, Bahama, and Caribhecs; 
" and it signifies," says he, " water lands, from f an, water, and 
tealla, land." There is certainly much acuteness, and seemingly 
much truth, in this observation ; for it will be found that, in many 
languages, the wor<l which signifies island, means also rvater land : 
what is insula, for example, but unda-solum f undergoing, in the 
course of time, the following changes : — undasol, unasot, by trans- 
position, unsola, and lastly insula, an island. 

An, priv. and intens. particle. 

t An, (7, Still; pleasant; pure; noble; true; swift. Ir. 

t An, ain, s. m. A falsehood ; also a planet. Hence comes 
luan, [which, by metathesis, is the Latin luna] moon; being 
compounded of luath, swift, and an, planet. 

Av, poss. pron. Their. Na dichuimlinich an ii>ir, ybro-ef ?K'f 
their dust. — Oss. Tcmo. 

+ Ana, s. Riches; fair weather; a silver cup. 

Ana, priv. and intens. particle; sometimes used fqr an, 
as, anameasarach, inmioderate. 

Anabaich, a. See Anabuicii. 

Anabaisteach, ich, s. m. (from an, intens. and baisteach.) 
An anabaptist. N. pi. anabaistiche. 

Anaban, s. Excess, superfluity, too much, redundance; 
rioting; written also «»flW/ar; which see. 

Anabarrach, a. Excessive, superfluous, exceeding; shock- 
ing, terrible. Meudaichidh mi thu ga h-anabarrach, / will 
increase you exceedingly. — Stew. Gen. Com. w^A sup. ana- 
barraiche, more or most excessive ; ni 's ro anabarraiche, 
much more exceeding. 

Anabas, ais, s. m. Refuse, dregs, offscouring. 

Anabasacii, a. Full of dregs; muddy. Com. and sup. 

Anabasaciid, s.f. The state of being full of dregs; 

Anabeachd, s.f. (ana, intens. and beachd.) A strange 
fancy ; a wild idea ; ambition. 

Anabeachdail, a. Fanciful; wild; chimerical; haughty; 

Anabeachdalaciid, s.f. Fancifulness ; wildness; haughti- 
ness; ambitiousness. 



Anabuaur, s. Excess, superfluity, too much, redundance; 
rioting. Ri h-anabharr, going to excess. 

Ana-bhioracii, aich, s. m. {from ana., intens. a«(Z biorach, 
sharp.) A small venomous insect. 

Ana-bhiorach, a. (from ana, intens. and biorach, sharp.) 
Very sharp, very pointed. 

Akablas, ais, *. m. (ana,pnV. and bias.) Tastelessness, insi- 
pidity. Anablas t-uirighioU, the insipidity of thy eloquence. 
— Old Song. 

Akablasda, a. Insipid, tasteless. Deoch anablasta, an 
insipid drink. 

Axa-blasdachd, s.f Insipidness, tastelessness. 

Akabrais, t.f. Lust. — Macd. 

Ahabuich, a. (an, /jm. ant/ abuich.) Unripe, raw; prema- 
ture ; abortive. Fion-dhearcan anabuich, unripe grapes. 
— Stew. Job. Torrachas anabuich, a fatus, an untimely 
birth, an embryo. — Stew. Job. and Ecclcs. 

Anabuidh. See Anabiticii. 

Anaeuidheachd, s.f. (an, priv. and abuidheachd.) Un- 
ripeness, crudity, immaturity, abortiveness. 

■f- An AC, aic, s. m. A wound. 

Anacail, s.f. Quietness, tranquillity, repose, ; preserva- 
tion, safety. Ir. 

Anacail, v. Preserve, deliver, save, protect, secure. Pret. 
a. dh' anacail, delivered ; fut. aff. a. anacailidh. 

An'acainnt, s.f. (ana, intens. and cainnt.) Abusive lan- 
guage; ribaldry; blasphemy. — Stcxc. EpA. ref. 

AsACAiXNTEACH, a. Abusive in spccch; prone to ribaldry; 
blasphemous. Gu h-anacainnteach, abusively. 

An ACAIR, 5.y. ; more properly a«*iocai> ; which see. 

Anacaithteacii, a. Extravagant, wasteful, prodigal. 
Cojn. and sup. anacaithtiche. 

Anacaithtiche, s. m. A spendthrift, a prodigal. 

Asacaitheadii, eidh, Anacaitheamii, eimh, s. m. andy". 
Extravagance, prodigality, profusion, waste; riot. Fear na 
h-anacaitlieadh, the waster. — Stew. Pro. Thaobh ana- 
caitheimh, on account of riot. — Stew. Tit. 

t Avacal, ail, *. m. A quiet person. — Shaw. 

Axacaladh, Anacladh, aidh, s. m. A preserving; a 
delivering ; preservation ; deliverance. 

Anacaladh, Anacladh, (ag), pr. part, of anacail. Pre- 
serving, saving, securing, protecting. 

Anaceart, a. (ana, priv. and ceart.) Unjust, impartial, 
iniquitous, unfair. Gniomh anaceart, an unjust deed. 

Anaceartas, ais, s. m. (ana, priv. and cenTias. Injustice, 
iniquity, oppression, unfairness, partiality. 

Anaceist, s.f. A puzzle, a riddle ; a difficulty, dilemma. 

t Anach, aich, s. m. A path; also a washing, a cleansing. 

+ Anaciiain, i.y. Danger, peril, hazard, misfortune, crisis. 

t Anachan, ain, *. m. One who keeps in the way; an in- 

+ Anachracii, a. Full of pity, compassionate. 

+ Anachradh, aidh, s. m. A wretch, an object of pity. • 

t Anachras, ais, s. m. Pity, compassion. 

Anaciiaoin, v. Lament, deplore to excess. Pret, a. dh' 

Anaciiaoin EADH, idh, t.f. Excessive weeping, wailing. 

Anachinnteach, a. Uncertain, unsure. 

Anaciiruas, ais, *. m. Avarice, extreme avarice. 

Anachuram, aim, *. m. Care, anxiety. 

Anachuramach, a. (ana, tWew*. anrf curamach.) Anxious, 
solicitous, over anxious. Gu h-anachuramach, over- 

Ana-cinnte, »./. (ana, pnu. o»rf cinnte.) Uncertainty. 

Anacleaciid, jr. m. Inexperience. Is mor d' anachleachd, 

great is thy inexperience. 
Anacneasda, Anacneasta, a. (ania, priv. and cneasta.) 

Inhuman, cruel, unjust, perverse. Le beul anacneasta, 

with a perverse mouth. — Stew. Pro. 
Anacneasdacud, Anacneastaciid, s. f. Inhumanity, 

cruelty, perverseness. — Stew. Pro. ref. 
Anacothrom, oim, s.f. Injustice, violence, oppression, 

unfairness, disadvantage. Luchd-anacolhrom, oppressors. 

— Stew. Cor. ref. 
Anacothro.macii, a. (sma, priv. and cothromach.) Unjust, 

violent, oppressive, unfair. Gu h-anacothromach, oppres- 

Anacreideach, icli, s. m. {for anacreidimheach.) A sceptic, 

infidel, unbeliever. An latliair nan anacreideach, before the 

unlielievers. — Stew. 1 Cor. 
Anacreideacii, a. (an, przr. nnrf creidimheach.) Sceptical, 

unbelieving. Bean anacreideach, an unbelieving wife. — 

Stew. 1 Cor. 
Anacreidimii, s.f. (ana, priv. and creidimh.) Infidelity, 

unbelief, scepticism. Ir. aincreideamh. 
Anacriosd, s. Antichrist. Tliig an t-anacriosd, Antichrist 

shall come. — Stew. I John. 
Anacriosdachd, s. f. {contr. fir anacriosduigheachd.) 

Paganism, heathenism, infidelity, irreligion. 
Anacriosduidh, s. m. A heathen, pagan, infidel. 
Anacriosduigheachd, s.f. einn,priv. one? criosduidheachd. 

See Anacriosdachd. 
Anacuimse, s.f. (ana, priv. and cuimse.) Vastness, im- 
mensity ; immoderateness, intemperateness. Fear na h- 

ana-cuirase, an intetnperatc man. 
Anacuimseach, a. (ana, prir. onrf cuimseach.) Vast, im- 
mense; immoderate, intemperate. Gu h-anacuimseach, 

Anacuimseachd, s.f (ana, priv. and cuimseachd.) Im- 

menseness; immoderateness, intemperateness. 
Ana-cul, s.f. (ana, priv. and cul.) A lean condition of 

body. Is baileach a chaith gu h-anacul, how very lean you 

have become ! 
Anaculach, a. Lean, thin, slender. Comp. and sup. ana- 

culaiche, more or most lean. 
Anaghlais, s.f. Hog-wash. — Shaw. 
AnagiinAth, (ana, prir. o«rf ghn&th.) Bad cnstom ; 

irregular habit ; innovation. JV. pi. anaghnathana. 
Anagnatiiach, a. {ana., priv. and gnithach.) Unusual, not 

customary, irregular. Com. and sup. anagnathaiche, more 

or most unusual. 
Anagnathana, n. ;j/. of anagnath. Bad customs. D. pi. 

Anagoireas, eis, s. m. (ana, priv. and goireas.) Excess, 

want of moderation ; inconvenifence. Cliaidh e gu h- 

anagoireas, he went to excess. 
Anagoireasach, a. Excessive, immoderate ; inconvenient. 

Com. and sup. anagoireasaiche, more or most excessive. 
ANAGOiREASftCHD, *./. Excessivcness, immoderateness. 

Anail, g'en. anaile a itd analach, s.f. (fr. anal.) Breath, 
breeze, air. A caoidh air anail na gaoithe, her moan on the 
breath of the winds. — Oss. Derm. Anail nan speur, the 
breath of the skies, i.e. wind. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. Anail a 
shr6in, the breath of his nostrils. — Stew. Job. Bias a 
h-analach, the smell of her breath; leig t-anaW, draw yuur 
breath, take rest ; leigibh ur n-anail, rest yourselves. — Stew. 
Gen. Gabh t-anail, take rest. Corn, anal and anadl. 
JF. anadyl, breath oflfe. Swcd. andhal, a breathing hole. 

Anaim, gen. and voc. sing, of anam. Anaim clirln air d' ais, 
back, thou little soul.— Oss. Fin. and Lor. 



An-ainsir, s. f. (an, prir. and aimsir.) Unfavourable 

weather ; tempest ; improper time. W. anamser. 
AxAiMsiuEii., a. (an. ■prlv. and aimsireil. Unseasonable, 

ill-timed. W. anamscrawl. 
t AxAiTiiNE, s. m. {a.n,prh\ and aithnc.) A private man, 

an obscure man. 
t Anaitiiniciite, a. Unknown, obscure, unnoticed. 
A NALL, adv. Hither, to this side; over, from the other 

side. /;•. an' all. 
An-am, s. m. (an. priv. and am.) Unseasonable time, un- 

An'am, aim, .«. m. {Gr. ajtft-of. Lat. anim-us. Fr. amc. 
Ir. anam.) The soul ; life ; spirit ; love. Is aoibliinn d' 
anam a'd neoW, Joi/ous is tlii/ soul in thy clouds. — Oss. Truth. 
Teich airson t-anam, escape for thy life. — Stew. Gen. 
Anam fais, a vegetative soul; anam fasmhor, a vegetative 
soul. — Macd. Anam reusonta, a reasonable soul; anam 
raothachail, a sensitive soul. Air m' anam, on my soul. 
An-amacii, a. Late; unseasonable. Com. and sup. ana- 

inaiche. Gu h-anamach, unseasonably. 
Anamadach, a. {from anam.) Lively, sprightly; having 

soul, life, or animal spirits. 
Anamadail, a. {from anam.) Lively, sprightly; having 

soul, or life, or spirits. — Macint. 
An AMAIN, gen. and roe. sing, of anaraan. 
Anaman, ain, «. »«. (rfim. o/'anam.) A little soul. Anamain 
chrine nan gniomh neoghlic, thou little soul of deeds 
vnmse.—Mac Lach. An t-anaman truagh, the poor soul ; 
anaman de, a butterfly, 
Anaman-d£, s. m. A butterfly. Na h-anamain de, the 

Anamanta, a. {from anaman.) Full of soul, of life, or 

animal spirits. 
Axam-ciiara, s. m. A bosom friend. 
Akam-chahaid, 4. tn. A bosom friend. N. pi. anam- 

t AsAMCHAiDii, a. Brave. 

Anameasarra, Anameasaracii, a. Intemperate, immo- 
derate, vast, licentious. Caitheamh anameasarach; im- 
moderate expense or extravagance. 
An ameasauraciid, s. f Intemperateness, immoderate- 

ness, vastness, licentiousness, excess. 
Asam£ineach, a. Perverse, stubborn, malicious. Com. 

and sup. anameiniche. 
Anameineachd, s. f. Perverseness, stubbornness, ma- 
liciousness. — Stew. Ro7n. ref, 
+ Anamhacii, a. Lively, sprightly. 
t AsAMHAiN, 4. w. A panegyrist. 

Anamiiarus, uis, .5. m. Extreme distrust or suspicion. 
Buailteach dh' anamharus, liable to extreme distrust. — 
Anamiiarusach, a. (an, intens. and amharusach.) Sus- 
picious, jealous, extremely suspicious, extremely jealous. 
Com. and sup. anamharusaiche, more or most jealous. 
Anamiiiann, s. (ana, intens. and miann.) K. pi. anamhi- 
annan ; dat. pi. anamhiannaibh. Sensuality, lust. Fear 
anamhiann, a sensualist; luchd anamhiann, sensualists; 
anamhiann na fe61a, the lusts ofthejiesh. — Stew. N. T. 
AxAMiiiANNACH, a. (ana, intens. ««(/ miannach.) Ir, anbhi- 
anach. Sensual, lustful, carnal. Fonn anamhiannacli, 
tcnsual deiire, lust of concupiscence. — .Stew. 1 Thess. Com. 
and 47//). anamhiannaiche, more or most sensual. 
Anamiihus, uis, *. m. See Anamiiarus. 
ANAMiidusACti, a. See Anamharusach. 
Anamocii, a. Late, unseasonable ; also the evening. Tha 
e anamoch, it is late, he is late; is binn guth Laoire 

san anamoch, sweet at evening is the voice of Lara. — Os», 

Anamiann, s. m. (an, intens, and miann.) Sensuality, lust ; 
written also anamhiann. 

Anamiannacii, a. (an, intens. and miannach.) Sensual, 
lustful, carnal ; written also anamhiannach. 

Anaokii Acn, a. (an, priv. and aobhach.) Cheerless, joyless, 
gloomy. Anaobhach gun solus do chiiiilsa,Joj//eM, without 
the light of thy song. — Oss. Taura. Com. and sup. anao- 
bhaiche, more or most Joyless. 

Anaoibiiinn, «. (an, ;)rir. anrf aoibhinn.) Woe, grief. Is 
anaoibhinn dhasan, woe unto him. — Stew. Jcr. Is anaoi- 
bhinn duit, woe unto thee. — Stew. Matt. Ir. id. 

.Anaoihiiinn, Anaoibhneacii, a. Joyless, mournful, un- 
happy. Anaoibhinn airson mhic Dhuibhne, mournful for 
the son of Duno. — Oss. Derm, 

Anaois, *./. (an, priv. and aois.) Non-age, minority. 

Anart, airt, s. m. Linen. Anart grinn,j?ne linen; anart 
hixn6, table linen; anart gealaichte, bleached linen; anart 
glas, dowlass ; anart canaich,/(w/!an. 

t Anasda, a. Stormy. — Shaw. 

t AxASGAR, a. Restless; irksome. 

t Anasgarachd, s.f Restlessness; irksomeness. 

A NASGUIDH, a. Gratis; for nothing; as a present; more 
frequently 'nasguidh ; which see. 

Anathach, a. Fierce; fearless. Gu h-aigeantach an- 
athach, in a joyous and fearless manner. — Old Song. 

Anbarrach, a. Exceeding, excessive, overmuch; awful, 
terrible. Le ball-chrith anbarraich, with exceeding [dismay^ 
trembling. — Stew. Gen. Written also anbharrach. 

t Anbhail, a. Shameless, haughty. 

t Anbhal, a. Prodigious. — Shaw. 

Anbhann, a. ; more properly anfhann ; wiiich see. 

Anbuaruach, a. (an, intens. «?((/ barrach, topped.) Exceed- 
ing, excessive, overmuch; awful, terrible. Anbharrach 
fireanta, overmuch righteous. — Stew. Ecc. Com. and sup. 
anbharraiche, more or most excessive ; ni 's ro anbharraiche, 
much inure excessive. 

Anbharraiche, ff.; cow. and «;/;;. of anbharrach. 

AnbiiAs, ais, *. m. (an, intens. and bhas.) A sudden death ; 
a shocking death ; a catastrophe. 

Anbiiathadii, aidh, s. m. A deluge, inundation ; a melan- 
choly drowning. 

Anbulas, ais, s, m. (an, priv, and bias.) A bad taste, an 
insipid taste. W. anmlas. 

Anbiiochd, a. (an, intens. and bochd, ;;oor.) Extremely poor. 

Anbhociiduinn, s. m. (an, intens. ««(/ bochduinn.) Extreme 
poverty ; extreme misfortune. 

t Anbhrod, oid, s. m, A tyrant. 

f And.vch, aich, s. m. Wrath, anger; evil. 

AvDly, a. {ViTi, intens. and Akn.) Impudent; presumptuous. 
Com. and sup. aiidaine. 

Andan ADAS, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and dknadas.) Impudence, 

t Andadh, a. Just. 

An ni., adv. Yesterday. Air hhh 'n de, the day before 
yesterday ; an diugh san de, to-day, and yesterday. 

An DEiDii, nf/r. In love; fond; desirous. Tha e 'n deidh 
oirre, he is fond of her ; an deidh air an h\,fond of drink- 

1 ing ; written 'n deidh, when a vowel precedes. 
An DEiGii,</f/r. After; behind. An deigh an duine sin, ieAi«(/ 
that man ; 'mo dheigh, behind me ; 'na dheigh, behind him ; 
n'a deigh, behind her; nan deigh, behind them; written 
'ndcigh, when a vowel precedes. 
An DEiGii-LAiMH,n. Aftcrwards ; aftcr-hand ; beliind-hand. 
Written '« deigh laimh, when a vowel precedes. 

A N F 

A N I 

An-deurach, a. Mournful ; tearful ; weeping excessively ; 
causing excessive grief. 

AxDEisTiNif, 4. /. Squeamishness ; loathsomeness. 

A>-DEisTiNXEAcn, a. Squeamish; loathsome. 

Andiadh'achd, s.f.; contr.for andiadhaidheachd. 

Ajtdiadhaidh, ANDiADHUiGH,a. (an,/)nr. o«</ diadhaidh.) 
Ungodly, impious, profane. 

Andiadhaidheachd, An diadhuidheachd, s.f. Un- 
godliness, impiousness, profanity, irreligion. 

An diugh, adv. Today. Written also 'n diug/i, when pre- 
ceded by a vowel, as, thig e 'n diugh, he will come to-day. 

Axdochas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and dochas.) Presumptioli ; 
sanguine expectation. Ir. andothchas. 

Akdochasach, a. (an, intens. and dochasach.) Presump- 
tuous ; sanguine. — Macd. Ir. andothchasach. 

Andlighe, «. Illegality; injustice. Fear andlighe, o« ««- 
just man. 

Andhgheach, a. Illegal, unjust; also a transgressor. 

ANDOiGH,.j.w.(an,;)nr.anrfdoigh.) Bad condition; bad state. 

Andolas, ais, «. w. (an, in^en*. ff«rf dolas.) Sadness; priva- 
tion of comfort. 

Andolasach, a. (an, zWews. «»J dolasach.) Sad: comfort- 
less ; sorrowful ; irksome. Com. and sup. andolasaiche, 
more or most sad. 

+ Andkas, ais, s. m. A fury; an infernal divinity. 

An drasd, adi. Now, at present. An drasd '.s a ris, now 
and then ; more properly an trdths. 

Andrasdaich, adv. provincial. Now, at present. 

t Androbhlasacii, aich, s. m. A spendthrift. 

t Androbhlasacii D, s.f. Extravagantness, prodigality. 

t Andualarasc, s. m. {Ir. id.) The figure in rhetoric 
called catachresis. — Shaw. 

Anduine, s. m. (an, prir. and duine.) A wicked man. — //■. 

+ Andul, uil, s. m. Avidity. / 

Aneadargnaidh, s. m. A stranger. 

AsEAGAL, ail, *. m. (an, intens. and eagal.) Astonishment, 
extreme terror. 

Aneag ALACH, a. Timid ; also formidable, or causing terror. 

Anearb, r. (an, priv. and earb.) Distrust ; suspect. Pret. a. 
dh' anearb, distrusted. 

Anearbsa, Anearbsadh, aidh, s.m. Distrust, suspicion, 
jealousy ; non-reliance. 

Anearbsacii, a. (an, priv. and earbsach.) Distrustful, 
suspicious, jealous ; also causing suspicion or distrust. 

Anearbsaciid, s.f. (an, priv. and earbsachd.) Distrustful- 
ness, suspiciousness. 

Anfadh, aidh, s. m. A storm, a tempest. Anfadh cuain, 
a storm at sea ; written also anfadh. — // . id. 

Anfadhach, a. Stormy, tempestuous. Cuan anfadhach, 
a stormy sea. 

t Anfas, ais, *. m. Fear, terror. 

Anfhainne, com. and tup. of anfhann.) More or most 
weak. ladsan a b' anfhainne, those who were weaker. — ■ 
Stew. Gen. 

Anfhainneachd, s.f. (an, intens. onrffann.) Weakness, 
debility, infirmity. 

Anfhann, a. (an, intens. and fann.) Corn, anvan. IF. anfan. 
Weak, feeble, infirm ; tender. Suiiean anfhann, tender 
eyes. — Stew. Gen. Com. and sup. anfhainne. 

Anfhannachadh, aidh, *. m. The circumstance of en- 
feebling, or making less strong; a weakening, a de- 

Anfhannachadh (Ag),pr. part, of anf hannaich. Weaken 
ing, enfeebling, debilitating. 

Anfhannachd, (an, intens. and fannachd.) Weakness, 
infirmity, debility. 


Anfhannaich, v. a. (sm, intens. and fannaich.) Weaken, 

debilitate, make infirm. Pret. a. dh' anfhannaich, weakened; 

fat. aff. a. anf hannaichidli, shall weaken ; fut. pass, anf ban 

naichear, shall be weakened. 
Anfhannaichidh, fut. aff. a. of anfhannaich. Shall or 

will weaken. 
An-fhaksuing, a. (an, priv. and farsuing.) Narrow, strait, 

An-fhausuingeachd, s.f. (an, priv. and farsuingeachd.) 

Narrowness, straitness, tightness. 
Anfiieillidh, a. (an, priv. and feillidh.) Loud, boisterous, 

rough, unhospitable, wild. Le toirm anf heillidh, with a 

boisterous noise. — Oss. Conn. 
Anfhios, s. m. (an, priv. and fios.) Ignorance. Luchdanfhios, 

ignorant people. 
Anfhiosach, a. (an, priv. and fios.) Ignorant, untaught, 

unlearned, illiterate. Com. and sup. anfhiosaiche. 
Anfhiosracii, a. (an, jsn'i;. an(/ fiosrach.) Ignorant; un- 

apprized, not aware.— 6Vew. Lev. 
Anfhiosrachd, s.f. Ignorance; the state of not being 

aware or apprized. 
Anfhocail, gen. sing, of anfhocal. 
+ Anfhocain, s.f Danger, hazard. 
Anfhocal, ail, s. m. (an, intens. and focal.) A bad word ; 

an improper expression ; a taunt ; a reproach. 
Anfhoighideann, inn, *. m. (an, priv. and foighideann.) 

Impatience, restlessness. 
Anfhoighidinneach, a. (an, priv. and foighidinneach.) 

Impatient, restless. 
t Anfhoralamh, aimh, i. »?. Constraint; danger, 
t Anfiiorlan, ain, 4. /n. Power; plundering; oppression. 

Anfhuras, a. (ail, priv. and furas.) Not easy, difficult, 
t Ang, aing, *. »j. Renown; rank; a string ; a twist, 
t Angach, a. Full of nails. 
Angadh, aidh, *. ni. The gusset of a shirt. 
Anganach, aich, s. m. A snare. 
Angar, air, s. m. A stall for cattle ; anger. 
Angathlannach, a. Glittering, bright, burnished. 
As-GiiLAODii, s. m. (an, intens. and glaodh.) A loud shout; 

a piercing cry. — Ir. id. 
Anghlaodhaich, s. a loud shouting, a continued loud 

AnglonNjO. Very powerful ; very strong ; brave. 
Anglonn, oinn, *. »i. Adversity; danger; strength. — Ir. 
Anglonnach, a. Very powerful ; very strong ; brave ; also 

adverse ; dangerous. 
Angnath, f. TO. See Anaghnatii. 
Angnathach, a. See Anaghnathach. 
Ang II radii, aidh, s. m. (an, intens. and gradh.) Great 

attachment, ardent love, doting fondness. 
Anghradhach, a. Very fond, dotingly fond, ardently 

fond ; ardently loved. 
Anghradhaiche, 4. m. A dotard; one who loves to 

Angracii, a. Angry, provincial. 
t Angraidii, *. m. (from ang.) A man of rank ; a ruler ; 

t Angrais,*. m. An engine; a machine. 
Aniartas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and iartas.) An unreason- 
able demand ; a mandate. 
An-iochd, .$. /'. (an, priv. and iochd.) Cruelty; want of 

feeling; rigour; oppression. Le h-an-iochd, with rigour. 

— Stew. I,ev. 
Aniochdar, a. ; more properly anioc^(/w//or. 



A N R 

Akiochdmhoire, com. and sup. of aniochdmhor. More or 

most cruel. 
Aniochdmhor, a. (an, priv. and ioclidmhor.) Cruel, un- 
feeling;, merciless, uncompassionate, imperious. Bha i an 
iochdinlior, it wa» cruel. — Steji.. Gen. Creachadairean 
aniochdmhor, merciless plunderers. — Macfar. 
A Nios, or, 'nios, adv. Up, from below; from the east. 

Thig 'nios an so, come up here. 
A MIS, or, 'nis, adv. Now ; at this time. Dean a nis e, do 

it at this time ; a nis mata, now then. 
■f Aniudadh, a. Depraved. — Shaw. 
fANiuiD, «./. Error; depravity. 

Anlaoch, aoich, s. m. (an, intens. and laoch.) A bloody 
warrior. Fo chasaibh nan anlaoch, under the feet of the 
bloody uarriors. — Oss. Trath. 
Anlaoich, gen. and roc. sing, and n. pi. of anlaoch. 
AvLVCiiJ), s. 7n. A grievous weight; an oppressive burden ; 

overweight. Fo anluchd, oppressed. 
Anluchdaich, c. Overload; surcharge. Pret. a. dh' an- 

luchdaich, overloaded. 
Anmhaoik, «. Strife ; great riches. ♦ 
Anmhiann, s. See Anamhiann. 
Anmhiannach, a. See Anamhiannach. 
Anmhodh, s. m. (an, priv. and modh.) Disrespect; bad 

breeding ; a bad habit. 
Anmhodhail, a. (an, priv. and modhail.) Disrespectful; 

ill bred. 
Anmhor, a. (an, intens. and mbr.) Exceeding, excessive, 
very great, exorbitant. Sonas anmhor, exceeding joy. — 
Smith. Ir. id. Com. and sup. anmhoire. 
Anmhuinne, com. and sup. of anmhunn. More or most weak. 
Anmhuinneachd, s. {from anmhunn.) Weakness, debility, 
infirmity, decrepitude, unhealthiness. Anmhuinneachd na 
febla, the weakness of thejlesh. — Stew. Gal. 
Anmhunn, a. Weak, feeble; slender; decrepit; sickly; 
pliant ; not stiff. Chum nan ceud thoiseach anmhunn, to 
the weak elements.— Stew. Gal. 
Anmhunnachadh, aidh, s. m. (anmhunn.) A weakening, 

Anmhunnachd, *.y. (yrom. anmhunn.) Weakness, feeble- 
ness, decrepitude, unhealthiness. 
Anmhunnaich, v. Weaken, enfeeble, enervate, make 
faint. Pret. a. dh' anmhunnaich ; fut. aff. a. anmhun- 
naichidh, shall weaken ; anmhunnaichidh e neart nan 
treuna, he will weaken the strength of the strong. — 
Stew. Job. 

The last six words are spelt according to Dr. Stewart's or- 
thography. See his Translation of the Scriptures, Mo<. xxvi. 41 ; 
Job, xii. 21 ; 1 Cor. i. 25, &c. &c. Mact'arlane's spelling is pre- 
ferable; as, oTi/'AanH, &c.; the words being considered, as they 
clearly are, compounds of /ami. 
Anmoch, rt. {a.n, priv. and moch, early.) Late. Bithidh tu 

anmoch, you will be- late. Com. and sup. anmoiche. 
Ammoch, oich, «. TO. Evening; night. Madadh alluidh an 

anmoich, the evening wolves. — Stew. Zeph. 
t Ann, s. m. A circle; a revolution. Lat. ann-us, a revolu- 
tion of the earth, or year ; hence also, reann (?'. e. rk and 
ann) a star, and its diminutive reannag. 
Ann, prep. {Ir. ann.) In, therpin ; in existence, alive. 
Ann fein, in himself, with himself. — Stew. Jon. An linn 
a biia ann o shean, the race that existed of old. — Oss. Fiiig. 
Cha 'n ann, not, no, it is not ; bheil thu ann? art thou 
there ? an d' thu th' ann ''. is it you ! is it you that are ! arc 
you there f is it you I see? Is mise th' ann. A chrochair 
tha thu ann, yoti rascal, that you are! 

Gr tr. Lat. in. Arm. en. Goth, and, and ana. Ir. ann. 
Teut. an. Bisc. an. Span. en. 

Ann, comp. pron. In him, in it. Cha 'neil ann ach an 

crochair, he is but a rascal. 
\ Ann ach, a. Clean. 

Annad, {for ann tu.) In thee. /;•. ionnad. 
t Annadh, aidb, *. m. Delay. 
Annag, aig, s. m. Evil, anger, displeasure. 
Annaibh. comp. pron. {for ann sibh.) In you, within you. 

Cha 'n eil ciall annaibh, you have no judgment. 
Annaibhse, emphatic form of «nnaj6A ; which see. 
Annainn, comp. pron. (ybr ann sin.) In us, within us ; in 

our power. Annainn fein, in ourselves. 
Annam, comp. pron. {for ann mi.) In me, within me ; in my 

power. /;•. ionnam. 
Annamh, a. Few, rare, scarce, seldom; curious. See 


Annas, ais, s. m. Rarity; change for the better; perhaps 

annos, from an, priv. and nos, custom, 
Annasach, a. {from annas.) Rare, unusual, strange; 
dainty ; desirable. Nithe anasach, dainties, rarities. — 
Stew. Pro. ref. Com. and sup. annasaiche, more or most 

Ann LAN, aiu, s. m. What the Lowland Scots call kitchen ; 
that is, whatever food, as, butchers' meat, butter, cheese, 
eggs, &c. is taken at dinner, after broth, which forms the 
first course of a Scotch dinner. It expresses all the more 
substantial eatables, ab ovo usque ad mala. 

An nochd, or, 'nochd, adv. To-night, this night. An nochd 
is an reidhir, this night and the last. 

A Nois, or, Nois, adv. Now, at present, at this time. In 
the southern districts of the Highlands they say a nis, and 

Annrach, aich, s. m. A stranger. See Anrach. 

Annrachd, s.f. The highest degree in poetry next the 

t Anradh, ?'. Grieve; aflSict; harass. 

Annradh, aidh, s. m. A storm, a storm at sea; also a 
poet next in degree to an ollamh ; a boon. See Anradh. 

Annsa, a»d Ansadh, a. (/r. annsa. Swed. annse, to respect.) 
Dear ; desirable, wished for ; attached ; beloved ; accept- 
able ; glad; also a love; a person beloved. Ged nach b' 
annsa dhi an t-6g, though the youth was not dear to her ; 
b' annsa thu na dearrsa grein, more acceptable wert thou 
than a sun-beam. — Oss. Derm. Fo bhrbn mu m' annsa, 
mourning for my beloved. — Id. An c^ladh aigh annsadh, 
the joiious wished for harbour. — Old Song. B' annsa leo 
sgur, they were glad to dcsiat. — Old Poem. 

Annsachd, .5. /. {from annsa.) A person beloved. Tha 
m' annsachd mar-bhogha san speur, my beloved is like a 
cloud in the skies. — Oss. Cathluno. Annsachd Dhe, the 
beloved one ofGod.—Sm. Ir. annsacht. 

Anra, ai, «. >n. A storm, a tempest; misfortune, trouble, 
disaster, calamity. Anra cuain, a storm at sea. — Oss. Gaul. 
T-anra san speur, thy trouble in the sky. — Oss. Trath. 
Written also anradh. 

Annsadh, a. See Annsa. 

Anns, prep. In, within ; used before the definite article. 
Anns an t-saoghal, in the world. 

Annsan, comp. pron. {for ann esan.) In him. 

Anrach, aich, s. m. {from anradh.) A stranger; a dis- 
tressed person. Tha dorus Fhinn do 'n anrach fial, Fingal's 
door is open to the stranger. — Oss. Is i do ghndis do 'n 
anrach a ghrian, thy countenance is to the forlorn a sun. — 
Old Poem. 

Anrach, a. (for anradhach.) Stormy ; distressed ; floating ; 
streaming, as hair in the wind. Air a chuan anrach, on the 
stormy sea. — Oss. Gaul. D' fhalt anrach, thy streaming 
hair.— U II. 

A N S 


Anradh, aidh, s. m. (perhaps an-tkrath.) A storm, tempest; 

distress, misfortune, trouble, disaster. Mac Morna 's e 'm 

meadlion anraidh, the son ofMorni in the midst of a tempest. 

Oss. Gaul. Tlieirgeadh mo dheoir nan teirgeadli gach 

anradh, mii tears uould cease if every trouble uere to vanish. 

— Id. N. pi. anradhan ; written also anrath. 
Anradhach, a. {from anradh.) Stormy ; distressed ; also 

floating, streaming, as ringlets in the wind. Com. and 

sup. anradhaiche. 
Akraidh, gen. sing, of anradh. 
Anraidh, a. Distressful, sorrowful, sad. Aithris anraidh 

mo chreach, the sad tale of my bereavement. — Oss. Cathula. 
Anrath, aith, s. m. {perhaps an-thrath, from an, priv. and 

trath, season.) A storm, a tempest ; misfortune, calamity. 
Anrathach, a. (yrom anrath.) Stormy; distressed; also, 

substantively, a distressed person. 
An REiDHiR, 0/', 'nreidhir, arfi'. Yesternight, last night, 

last evening. 
Anriadh, reidh, s. m. {^.a, intens. and riadh.) Usury, ex- 
tortion, exorbitant interest. 
Anriaghailt, a-, f. (an, priv. and riaghailt.) Disorder, 

confusion, tumult, uproar, riot ; misrule, mismanagement. 
Anriaghailteach, a. (an, /jn'r. a«rf riaghailteach.) Con- 
fusing, disordering, disordered, riotous. Com. and sup. 

t Anrodhach, a. See Anradhach. 
t Anrodhaidh, s. m. {Ir. id.) Affliction, trouble; more 

properly anradh ; which see 
An eoir, 'nroir, adv. Last night, last evening. 
An-sgaineadh, eidh, s. m. A violent bursting ; a chasm. 
An-sgainteach, a. Apt to burst; apt to open into chasms; 

causing chasms. Talamh an-sgainteach, chasing ground. 
t Ansgairt, v. Shriek aloud, cry. — Ir. id. 
Ansgairt, s.f (an, intens. and sgairt.) A loud shout ; a 

piercing shriek or cry. Phill sibh le 'r n-ansgairt, you 

returned with your piercing shrieks. — Oss. Gaul. Also a 

thicket of brambles. 
Ansgairteach, a. (an, intens. and sgairteach.) Uttering a 

loud shriek ; shouting, shrieking ; loud, piercing. 
An-shamhlachd, «./. (an./jnr. a«(/ samhlachd.) Incom- 

parability. ♦ 

AN-sHAMHLuicHrE, par/. Incomparable; unmatched. 
Anshannt, t. m. {mi, intens. and sAunt.) Greed, covetous- 

ness; extreme avarice. 
Anshanntach, a. (an, priv. and sanntach.) Greedy, co- 
vetous, immoderately greedy. Com. and tup. anshann- 

taiche, greedier, greediest. 
Anshanntach, aich, .?. 7>i. {from anshannt.) A gjeedy 

person ; a greedy gut. 
-Anshaoghalta, a. (an, intens. wni/ saoghalta.) Worldly, 

immoderately fond of the world, worldly-minded. 
Anshaoghaltachd, s. f. (an, intens. and saoghaltachd.) 

WorldUness, immoderate regard for the world. 
Anshocair,*./. (an, prip. a«d socair.) 7r. anacar. Distress; 

disease ; bodily or mental trouble ; restlessness ; disquiet. 
Droch anshocair, an evil spirit ; a had disease . — Stew. Ecc. 
Anshocrach, a. (an, priv. and socrach.) Troubled in mind 

or body, distressed, afflicted, restless. Sluagh anshocrach, 
an afflicted people. — Stew. Zeph. Com. and sup. anshoc- 
rsiiche, more or most afflicted. 
Anshocraiche, com. and ivp. of anshocrach ; which see. 
Ahshogh, g. m. (an, priv. and sogh.) Misery, adversity, 

mischance. — Ir. id. 
Anshoghail, a. Miserable, adverse, unfortunate. 
An3tr6gh, trogha, s.f. (an, intens. and strogh.) Prodigality, 
waste, extravagance ; written also anslruidhc. 

Anstroghail, a. Prodigal, wasteful, extravagant. Duine 

anstroghail, a prodigal. 
Anstuuidhe, Anstruighe, s.f Prodigality, wastefulness, 

extravagance. Luchd anstruidhe, prodigal people. 
Anstruidheachd, *. f Prodigality, wastefulness, ex- 
Anstruidheachadh, aidh, *. m. The act of wasting or 

spending extravagantly. 
Anstruidheasach, AxsTRuiGHEASACH, a. (an, intens. and 

struidheasach.) Profuse, prodigal, wasteful, extravagant. 

Com. and sup. anstruidheasaiche, more or most profuse. 
Anstruidheasachd, s.f. Profuseness, prodigality, waste- 
fulness, extravagantness. 
An-tighearna, s. m. (an, intens. and tighearna,) A tyrant, 

a despot. A brosnuchadh nan an-tighearnan, stirring up the 

tyrants. — Macfar. 
Antighearnach, a. Oppressive in governing, tyrannical, 

Antighearnas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and tighearnas.) 

Despotism, oppression, tyranny. Am fuath th' againn air 

antighearnas, the hatred we have of despotism. — Macfar. 
Antogar, air, s. w. (an, intens. o/iti togar.) An inordinate 

wish ; ambition ; an unreasonable desire. 
Antogarach, Antoguach, a. (an, intens. and togarach.) 

Lustful; covetous; immoderately desirous. 
Antogradh, aidh, s. m. Lust; concupiscence; covetous- 

ness; immoderate desire.— .SVea;. N. T. 
Antlachd, s. {au, priv. and tlachd.) Dislike, displeasure, 

disgust, dissatisfaction, discontent. Saor o bhraid 's o 

antlachd, free from theft and discontent. — Macdon. 
Antlachdmhoire, com. and «Bp. of antlachdrahor. 
Antlachdmhoireachd, s.f. (an, priv. and tlachdmhoir- 

eachd.) Disgustfulness ; unpleasantness. 
Antlachdmhor, a. Disgustful; unpleasant; causing dis- 
content. Com. and sup. antlachdmhoire. 
Antlas, jus, s. m. A ludicrous trick, a frolic : also a cattle 

Antlasach, a. {from antlas.) Frolicsome ; also a frolicsome 

Antoile, s. f. (an, intens. and toile.) Lust, inordinate 

desire; ambition. Fear na h-antoile, the ambitioiis man; 

ioma gne do antoilibh, many sorts of lusts. — Slew. Tit. 

Ir. id. 
Antoileach, a. (an, intens. and toileach.) Lustful ; am- 
bitious ; inordinately desirous. Com. and sup. antoiliche. 
Antoileil, t. e. antoil-amhuil, a. (an, intens. and toileil.) 

Wilful, obstinate, perverse. Gu h-antoileil, perversely. 
t Antomhail, s.f. Gluttony. — 57iaa'. 
t Antomhailtear, ir, s. m. A glutton. iV. pi. antomh- 

Antrath, s. (an, priv. and trath.) Unfavourable weather ; 

stormy weather ; a storm. This perhaps is the proper 

orthography, and not anfadh, onfadh, and anradh. 
Antrathach, a. {from antrath.) Unseasonable, untimely, 

Antrocair, s. f (an, priv. and trocair.) Mercilessness, 

cruelty, want of compassion. Fear antrocair, a merciless 

Antrocaireach, a. (an, priv. and trocaireach.) Merciless, 

cruel. Com. and sup. antrocairiche. 
Ant ROM, a. (an, intens. and trom.) Grievous to be borne, 

intolerable; oppressive; atrocious. Com. and sup. an- 

i Antromachadh, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of 
I aggrieving, aggravating, making heavy or burdensome. 
I Antromachadh (ag), pr. part, of antromaich ; which see. 

A O B 

A O G 

AxTKOMAicii, r. Oppress; aggrieve, aggravate ; overload ; 
make insufferably heavy. Piet. a. dh' antromaich, op- 
pressed ; flit. ajf. a. antromaichidh, shall make heavy ; dh' 
antromaich e arcuinge, /(emat/e our yoke heavy. — Sleu\ 1 A'. 

AxTROMAiCHEAR,/</f. paw. of antromaich. Shall be made 

Antkoma1chidh,/«/. af. a. of antromaich ; which see. 

Antiiuacaxta, a. (tun, priv. and truacanta.) Pitiless, mer- 

Axtuuacanta, a. (an, iiitens. and truacanta.) Compas- 
sionate, merciful. 

Antruas, ais, s. m. (an, priv. onrf truas.) Want of pity, or 
of mercy. 

AsTRUAs, ais, s. m. (an, iniens. and truas.) Great pity, 

Antruijie, com. and sup. of antrom. 

Antruime, «./". (an, 2'/i<e/(v. a«rf truime.) Oppression; bur- 
densomeness. Luchd na h-antruime, oppressors. 

Anuaibhir, 4.y. Excessive pride. Luchd na h-anuaibhir, 
the excessively proud. 

Anuaibhreach, a. (an, priv. and uaibhreach.) Not proud, 
humble, lowly. Com. and sup. anuaibhriche. 

Anuaibhreach, a. (an, iniens. and uaibhreach.) Proud, 
haughty; proud to excess. Com. and sup. an-uaibhriche. 

Anuaille, ,«./. (an, pWi'. anrf uaille.) Want of pride, hu- 
mility, affability. 

Anu-iille, s.f. Can, intens. and uaille.) Extreme pride. 
Air mhor anuaille 's air bheag ceiil, proud and silly. — Old 

Anuair, s.f. (an, intens. and uair.) A storm; unfavourable 
weather ; mischief. 

Ax uair, adv. When ; often written and almost always 
pronounced 'nuair, and nur. — /;•. id. 

t Anuais, a. Fierce, barbarous.— SAaa;. 

Anuallach, a. (an, priv. and uallach.) Not haughty; 

Anuallacii, a. (an, intens. and uallach.) Haughty, proud ; 
airy, supercilious. 

Anuallach, aich, *. /. (an, intens. and uallach, burden.) 
An oppressive burden ; oppression ; hardship. 

A nuas, adv. Down, from above, from the west. Thig a 
nuas an so, come down here. — Ir. id. 

Anuasal, a. (an, priv. and uasal.) Mean, ignoble; not 
proud. Ir. anuasal. 

Axu INN, s. The eaves of a house. 

An uiridh, adv. An uair a ruith, last year. Written also 
'nuiridh. See Uiridh. 

AxuR, s. m. (an, priv. and ur.) JF. anwr. A mean, sorry 
person ; a wretch, miscreant. 

t AoBii, aoibh, s. m. Similitude. 

AoBiiAcn, «. Joyous, glad, cheerful ; also beautiful. Ceud 
ogan aobhach, a hundred joyous youths. — Orr. B' aobhach 
XMit, glad uas l.— Macint. Com. and «(/;;. aobhaiche, wore 
or most joyous. 

AoBHACiiD, «./. Joyfulness; also beauty. 

AoBiiAicHE, to7n. and sup. of aobhach. More or most glad. 

AoBHAiR, gen. sing, of aobhar. 

AoBHAR, air, s. m. (Corn, ara.) Cause, subject, reason, 
matter. C ^it am bheii aobhar uaill ? where is there cause 
for pride ? — Orr. Thuit iad an deagh aobhar, they fell in 
a good cause. — Old Voem. An t-aobhar mu 'n d' thainig- 
sinn, the reason why we came. — Olil Poem. Air an aobhar 
sin, therefore, for that reason ; aobhar ghair, laughing- 
stock ; aobhar bhroin, cause for sorrow; aobhar ghuil, 
cause for weeping; bheir mise aobhar gliuil dhuit, / will 
give you reason to cry; aobhar eagail, a cause of terror ; 
aobhar ghearaiu, a cause of complaint. 
AoBRAiNN, gen. sing, of aobrann. 

AoBRAiNNEAX, n. pi. of aobrann. 

AoBR.AKX, ainn, Aobruxx, uinn, s. m. The ancle, the 
ancle-bone, the ancle-joint. Gu ruig na h-aobranna, to the 
ancles ; as, an aobrann, out of the ancle-joint . — Stew. Ezek. 
N. pi. aobrainnean, aobranna, and aobruonan, ancles. — 
Stew. Arts. 

Aobr-anna, Aoerunnan, n. pi. of aobrann, and aobninn. 

Ao-coLTACii, a. (ao, ;)ri». anrf coltach.) Unlike, dissimilar ; 
improbable, unlikely. See Eu-coltach. Com. and sup. 

Ao-coLTACHD, «.y. Unlikcness, dissimilarity ; unlikeliness, 
improbability. See Eucoltachd. 

AoDACH, aich, s. m. Cloth, clothes, dress. Aodach leapach, 
bed clothes ; aodach canaich, cotton cloth, calico ; aodach 
olladh, woollen cloth ; aodach sassunnach, English cloth ; 
aodach lln, linen cloth ; written also eudach. 

AoDACHADH, aidh, s. m. A clothing, a dressing, a covering. 

AoDAicii, gc«. sing, of aodach. 

AoDAicn, V. Clothe, dress, cover. Fret. a. dh' aodaich, 
clothed ; fut. off. a. aodaichidh, shall or will clothe. 

AoDAiCHt.ATi,fut.pass. of aodaich. Shall or will be clothed. 

AoDAiciiipH,/«^ aj'. a. of aodaich. Shall or will clothe. 

AoDAicHTE, p. part, of aodaich. Clothed, clad, covered, 

AoDAiNNj^fn. sing, of aodann. 

AoDANN, ainn, *./. (Arm. adyn.) Face, forehead, front, 
visage ; surface. Re aodann sleibhe a leumnaich, bound- 
ing on t lie face of the hill. — Oss. Trnth. As an aodann, to 
the face ; c^r an aodainn, the brVSi'. N. pi. aodainneau, 
faces. Written also eiidan ; which see. 

AoDANNACH SR^iXE, s. m. The front-stall of a bridle. 

AoDARMAN, ain, s. m. A bladder; properly eutroman. 

t AoDH, s. m. A sheep. 

Though this word t>e seltloin used separately, it is seen in 
composition, as in tlie following vocable. 

AoDiiAiR, «. »i. (aodh-fhear.) /r. aodhaire. A shepherd; 
a pastor; a protector. A^. /;/. aodhairean. Tri aodhairean, 
three shepherds. — Stew. Zech. Bheir mi dhuibh aodhairean, 
/ will give you pastors. — Stew. G. B. Contracted aoir ; 
whicli see. 

t AoDHAiR, s. m. A conflagration ; a fiery desolation. 

AoDHAiREACHD, *. /. The occupatiou of a shepherd; 

Aodhairean, n. pi. of aodhair. Herds; shepherds; pro- 
tectors ; pastors. 

Aodiiar, air, s. m. {Lat. ador-o.) Worship, religious re- 
verence. Bheir sinn aodhar dha, we will worship him. 

AoDHNAiR, «. ?«. An owner; an author. jV.;;/. aodhnairean, 

AoDHNAiREACHD, i./. Ownership; authorship. 

Ao-DiONACH, fl. (ao, pnr. am/ dionach.) Leaky; not water- 
proof; not air-proof; not affording shelter. 

Ao-DioNACHD, s.f. Leakiness; the state of being not 
waterproof; the state of being not air-proof. 

Ao-DOCHAS, ais, s. m. (ao, priv. and dochas.) Despair, 

Ao-DOCnASACii, a. (ao, priv. and dochasaeh.) Hopeless, 
despairing, despondent; causing despair. Com. and sup. 
aodochasaiche, more or most desperate. 

Ao-DOCHASACHD, S.f. Despoudcncy, melancholy, tendency 
to melancholy. 

AoDRAMAiN, gen. sing, and n. pi. of aodraman. 

AoDRAMAN, ain, s. m. A bladder; better aotroman, or 

AoG, aoig, s. m. Death; a ghost, spectre, skeleton. Dol 
aog, dying ; neul an aoig, the colour oj' death ; written also 
eug : which see. 

A O I 

A O I 

AoGAiDH, u. {from aog.) Ghastly, ghostly, spectral, death- 
AoGAiL, a. (i. e. aog-amhuil.) Ghastly, ghostly, spectral, 

AoGAiLEACiiD, s.f. {i.e. aog amhuilcachd.) Ghastliness, 

AoGAS, ais, s. m. ((?;■. £i>[o;.) Likeness, resemblance; ap- 
pearance; image, form, countenance. Aogas do bharca, 
the likentss of thy bark. — Oss. Gaul. Is cosmhuil aogas ri 
• Dearmad, his form is like to Denned. — Oss. Derm. D' aogas 
maiseach, fhy lovely countenance. — Steu. Sung. Sol. Writ- 
ten also ao<r(!ss;. 
AoGASACH, a. {from aogas.) Seemly, decent, becoming; 
pretty, comely ; of a good appearance. Com. and sup. ao- 
gasaiche, rnore or most seemly. 

AoGASACiiD, s. f. {from aogas.) Seemliness, comeliness, 

AoGASAicnE, a.; com. and sup. of aogasach. Seemlier, 

AoGASAiL, a. {i. e. aogas-amliuil.) Seemly, comely, be- 
coming ; of an imposing exterior. 

AoGASG, aisg, «. »n. Appearance; resemblance. See .Aogas. 

t AoGH, s. m. The name Hugh. 

Aogsaich, v. {from aog.) Make pale or ghastly, grow 
pale or ghastly ; disfigure. Pret. a. dh'aognaich, grew pale ; 
fvt. aff. a. aognaichidh, shall ^roxa pale ; aognaichidh aogas 
nan aonach, the fact of the hills shall grow pale. — Macfar. 

t Aoi, *. {Ir. aoi.) A swan; a compact; a guest or stranger; 
knowledge ; honour ; an island ; a trade ; a hill ; a pos- 

AoiEii, *. m. A civil look ; a patrimony. 

AoiBH, a. Pleasant, comely, joyous, courteous, cheerful. 

AoiBHEAL, eil, s, f. A fire; merriment, rejoicing. — //•. 
Written more frequently eibhle. 

AoiBiiiN.v, a. Joyful, glad, cheerful, pleasant. Is aoibhinn 
d' anam a' d neoil, joyous is thy soul in thy clouds. — Oss. 
Trath. Oigr h aoibhinn, yc cheerful youth. — Oss. Fin. 
and iMr. 

t AoiBHLE, s.f. A sign, mark, omen, token. 

+ AoiBiiLiCH, V. Explain an omen. 

AoiBUNEACn, a. (i. e. aoibhinneach.) Joyful, glad, agreeable, 
pleasant. Com. and sup. aoibhneiche, more or most joyful ; 
a toirt sgeil aoibhneich, giving glad tidings. — Stew. Rom. 

AoiBiiNEAs. eis. «. m. Joy, gladness, pleasure. Aoibhneas 
a shli<;he, the joy of his way. — Stew. Job. Dean aoibhneas, 
be glad ; ni t-atfaair aoibhneas, thy father will be glad. — 
Steir. Pro. 

AoiBiixEASACH, ff. (yruOT aoibhneas.) Joyful, glad, causing 
joy. Com. and svp. aoibhneasaiche, more or most joyful. 

AotBHNEicii, gen. sing, of aoibhneach ; which see. 

Aoibhneiche, com. and sup. of aoibhneach. More or 
most glad. 

t AoiDE, s.f. A web; also a youth. — Ir. 

AoiDEACH, a. Youthful. Com. and sup. aoidiche. 

AoiDEAO, eig, *./. A hair lace; fillet.— /r. zV/. 

t AoiDEAN, ein, *. m. Aleak. 

t AoiDEANACH, o. Leaky; also youthful. 

AoiDHE, *. m. A guest, a stranger, a traveller; a skilful 
person. N. pi. aoidhean, guests. — Ir. id. 

AoiDiiEACH, a. (/rom aoidhe.) Hospitable; also a guest, 
a stranger ; a hospitable person. 

AoiDiiEACHD, s. f. {from aoidh.) Hospitality, bounty; 
lodging; entertainment. An aoidheachd, enjoying hospi- 
tality.— Stew. 1 K. Thug iad aoidheachd dhuinn, they 
lodged us, they entertained us. 

AoiDHEALACHD, i. y. Hospitablcness, bountifulness. Bu 
mhor d' a.oidhea.\achd, great was thij hospitality. — Old Song. 

Aoidhean, AoiDHEANNA, n. pi. of aoidhe. Guests. Na 
h-aoidhean, the guests.— Stew. K. 

AoiDHEiL, a. (aoidh-amhuil.) Kind, hospitable. An gasan 
aoidheil, the hospitable stripling. — Old Song. 

AoiG, gen. sing, of aog; which see. 

t AoiGH, s. m. A hero. JV. pi. aoighean. 

AoiL, gen. sing, of aoi ; which see. 

t AoiL, s.f. The mouth. — Ir. id. Bisc. ahol. 

t AoiLBiiiNN, s.f. A small flock. 

t Aoilbhreo, s. m. Lime kiln. — //•. 

t AoiLEACH, eich, s. m. A gazing-.stock ; dung: for this 
latter sense, see Aolacii. 

AoiLEANN, a. Fine, excellent, charming. 

AoiLEANN, inn, s. m. A sea raaw, a gull. N. pi. aoilinnean. 
Corp is gile thu na aoilinnean, « fairer body thou art than 
the sea maw. — Old Poem. 

AoiLEANNACHD, 4-.y. ( /"ro^n aoileann.) Beauty, beautifulness. 

AoiLEANTA, a. Beautiful, charming. Oigh aoibhinn aoile- 
anta, a cheerful beauteous maid. — Old Poem. Ir. aoileanda. 

AoiLiNN, gen. sing. 

AoiLiNNEACH, a. {from aoileann.) Abounding in sea maws; 
like a sea maw ; of, or belonging to, a sea maw. 

AoiLSEAG, eig, s. f. A caterpillar. N. pi. aoilseagan, 

AoiLSEAGACH, a. Abounding in Caterpillars ; like a cater- 

t AoiN, s. m. A rush; honour; a fast. — //■. 

Agin, gen. sing. o( SLOn. Lamh gach aoin, the hand of every 
one. — Stew. E.rod. 

t AoiNE, ».f. Skill. 

t AoiNE, s. Friday. Dih-Aome, Friday. 

AoiNEAGAN, ain, s. m. Wallowing; weltering; rolling on 
the ground. 'G a aoineagan fein, wallowing himself. — 
Stew. Mark, ref. Written also aoirneagan ; which see. 

AoiK, s. Satire, lampoon, ribaldry ; raillery; a curse. 

AoiR, r. Satirize, lampoon. Pret. a. dh' aoir, satirized; 
fut. ajf. a. aoiridh, shall or will satirize. 

AoiR, s. m. a contraction of aodhair. A keeper of cattle. 

AoiREACUD, s. f {from aoir.) The vice of lampooning; 
the habit of satirizing. , 

AoiREADH, eidh, *. OT. A satirizing; a lampooning, 

AoiREANNAN, «. pi. of aoir. Herds, or keepers of cattle. 
Tlie aoireannan «if the Hebrides, iiccordiiii; to I'eniiant, are 
farm-serviiuts who have the cli;irge of cultivating a certain |jortioii 
of land, and of overseeing the cattle it supports. These have grass 
for two milch cows and six sheep, and also the tenth sheaf ot the 
produce of the said ground, and as many potatoes as they choose 
to plant. 

Aoirneagan, v. See Aoirnagain. 

Aoirneagan, ain, s. m. A wallo.wing, a weltering, a rolling 
on the ground. Chum a h-aoirneagan san lathaich, to her 
wallowing in the niire. —Stew. 2 Pet. 

Aois, aoise, ,$./; (Gr. "Etoj. La/f. aetas. Cor«. huis, ««rf oys. 
Ir. aes, and aos.) Age, old age, antiquity. Bloidh sgeith 
air a caithe' le h aois, the half of a shield worn with age. — 
Oss. Gaul. larguinn na h-aoise, the troubles of age. — Oss. 
Conn. Tha m' aois fo dhoruinn, my old age is sorrowful. — 
Oss. Fing. Ann an Ian aois, in full age. — Stew. Job. 
Thainig e gu h aois, he has come to age. 

Aois-DA>.'A, s. pi. (aois, age, and dkn, song.) Bards, poets ; 

rehearsers of ancient poetry; a genealogist; soothsayers. 

The noisdana were in high esteem throughout the Highlands. 

So late as the end of the seventeenth century they sat in the 

sreath, or circle, among the nobles and the chiefs of families. 



They took precedeuce of the ollamh, or the doctor in medicine. 
After the extinction of the Druids, they were- brouglit in to pre- 
serve the genealojiy of families, and to repent genealogical tradi- 
tions at the succession of every chieftain. '1 hey had great influence 
over alt the powerful men of their time. I'heir persons, their 
houses, their villages, were sacred. Whatever they asked was 
given them ; not always, however, out of respect, but from fear of 
their satire, which frequently followed a denial of their requests. 
'ITiey lost hy degrees, through their own insolence and import u- 
nacy, all the respect which their order had so long enjoyed, and 
consequently all their wonted profits and privileges. Martin thus 
describes their mode of studying and courting the muse. " They 
shut their doors and windows for a day's time, and lay on their 
backs in darkness with a stone upon their belly, and plaids about 
their heads and eyes, and thus they pumped their brains for 
rhetorical encomiums." 
AoisDANACHD, s.f. The etnployment of rehearsing ancient 

poetry; bardism; genealogical tradition. 
AoL, V. a. Lime ; plaster with lime ; manure land with lime. 

Pret. a. dh' aol, limed; fut. aft', a. aolaidh. 
AoL, aoil. *. 111. Lime. Ath a6il, a linie-kiln. Ir. id. 
AoLACii, aich, s.m. Manure, dung, mire; dross, rubbish. 

Bithidh iad nan aolach, fAey shall be as dung. — Stew. Jer. 
AoLACHADH, aidh, s. m. The process of manuring with lime. 
AoLACHADH, (ag), pr. part, of aolaich. Manuring with lime; 

AoLADAiR, 4-. m. (aol. and fear.) One who works among 

lime ; a plasterer. N. pi. aoladairean. 
AoLADAiREACiiD, s. f. The occupatioD of a plasterer; 

plastering ; working among lime. 
AoLADH, aidh, s. m. A liming, a plastering. 
Aolaich, v. a. {from a61.) Lime ; cover with lime; manure 
with lime. Pret. a. dh' aolaich, limed ; fut. aff. a. aolaichidh, 
shall or tvill lime. 
Aolaisdeacii, a. Slothful, indolent, sluggish. 
Aolar, [t. f. aol-rahor.] Abounding in lime ; limy. Talamh 

aolar, limy ground. 
AoL-uisGE, s. m. Lime water. 

AoM, t'. a. and n. Bow, bend, droop, incline; yield ; lean ; 
persuade; dispose; fall; belly, bulge ; descend, pass by; 
decay. Pret. a. dh' aom, leaned ; fut. aff. a. aomaidh, shall 
lean. Dh' aom e air sgiath Threinmhoir, he leaned on the 
■*t shield of Trenmor. — Oss. Fing. Com 'nach d' aom thu gu 
m' aisling ? xchi/ didst thou not descend to my dream 1 — Oss. 
Gaul. Aomaibh in cluas, incline your car. — Stew. G. B. 
Dh' aom e a thriall, he bent his way. Oss. Fing. An t-am 
a dh' aom, the time that has passed by, literally gone down, 
according to the poetical fancy of time flowing in a stream. 
— Oss. Fing. Na lai a dh' aom a shean, the days that have 
long gone by. — Oss. Fing. Aomaidh an aitreabh, their build- 
ing shall decay. — Stew. Ecc. 
AoMADii, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of aom. Aomadh e, let him 

lean ; aomadh iad, let them lean. 
AoMADii, aidh, ,v. m. A bending, a leaning; drooping, 
yielding, inclining; inclination; a persuading, a disposing, 
a descending, a passing by: also a descent, a slope; a 
fall, a downfal; a bellying out from a line ; the surface of 
t!ie sea. A cheann air aomadh, his head drooping. — Ull. 
Dubhach air aomadh chreag, sorrowful on the mountain 
side, on the slope of the rock. — Oss. Gaul. Air a ghlun ag 
aomadh, bending o« his knee. — Orr. Au t-aomadh, the 
downfal. — Stew. Is. 
Aomadh, (ag\ pr. part, of aom. Bowing, bending, drooping, 

yielding, leaning, persuading, disposing; falling. 
Aomaidh, g-en. of aomadh. 

Aomaidh, fut. aff. a. of aom. Shall or will lean. See Aom. 
AoMAii, y«^ /)«.«.?. of aom ; which see. 
t AoN, aoin, s. m. A country. 

t AoN, a. Excellent ; noble ; illustrious. Bisc. on. Ir. aon. 

AoN, gen. aoin, a. {Ir. aon.) One; alone. Tlioir dhomh 
h-aon, give me one; aon air bith, any one; aon eile, one 
other, another ; aon l-^tlia, one day, some day or other. 
Bithidh sibhsc mar mise aon latha, you shall be like me 
(one day) some day or other. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. Aon 
seach aon, one from another. — 5m. Latha 'gin, ]k h-eigin, 
one day, some day. Ann an aon luing ri allinharaich, in the 
same ship with a transmarine foe. — Old Poem. Lamh gach 
aoin, the hand of every one. — Stew. Judg. Is tu fein an t-aon 
duine, you are the only man, you are a proper fellow. Aon 
eile, one annlher. Arm. un eil. Tri laitlie bha e na aon, 
three days he was alone. — Oss. Carricth. 

Gr. It. Lat. un-us. Dan. een. Sued. en. Fr. un and 
une. Sax. an. Scotch, ane. Germ, ain and ein. Span, and 
It. un-o. Corn, uynyn. Ann. yuuan and un. Teut. een and 
eyn. Du, een and eene. Chald. hena. Malabar, onnou, one. 
AoNACH, aich, s.m. A hill, height, heath, desert place; 
rarely a fir. Ceum do theachd air an aonachd, thy 
coming on the heath : literally the step of thine approach. — 
Oss. Trathal. A siubhal nan aonach ciar, travelling the 
dusky deserts. — Oss. Comala. A direadh nan aonach ard, 
climbing the heights sublime. — Oss. 
AoNACHADH, aidh, s. m. A uniting, reconciling; a recon- 
ciliation ; an assenting ; an assent. 
AoNACiiADH, aidh, s.m. Galloping; a iiand gallop ; swift 

AoKACHADii, (ag), pr. part, of aonaich. 
Aonachd, s. f {Ir. eaondachd.) Sameness; unanimity, 
harmony ; unity, agreement, one mind. In the sense of 
unanimity, perhaps aonachd is but a contraction of uon- 
hheachd, one mind or opinion. Aonachd an Spioraid, the 
unity of the Spirit. — Stew. Eph. 
AoN-ADHARCACH, a. Unicomed, having but one horn. 
AoNADHARCACH, aich, s. »/. A unicorn. Neart an aon- 

adharcaich, the strength of the unicorn.— Stew. 0. T. 
AoNAGRAiCH, V. Wallow, weltcr. Pret. dh' aonagraich ; 

fut. aff. aonagraichidh. 
AoNAicn, i\ a. Unite, reconcile, join into one; assent; side 
with. Pret. a. dh' aonaich, united; fut. aff. a. aonaichidh, 
shall unite ; fut. pass, aonaichear, shall be united. 
AoNAiCHEAR, fut. pass. of aonaicli. Shall be united. 
Aonaichidh, fut. aff. a. of aonaich. Shall unite. 
AoNAiciiTE, p. part, of aonaich. United, reconciled. 
Gaidheal aonaichte cruadhaichte, united, hardy Highland- 
men. — Old Song. 
AoNAiRT, s.f. Wallowing, weltering, a rolling on the ground. 
AoxAiRT, V. Wallow, welter, roll on the ground. 'G a 

aonairt fein, wallowing un the ground. — Stew. Mark, ref. 
AoNAK, a. {from aon.) Alone, solitary, singular. Tha mise 
ri faireadh am aonar, I am watching atone. — Oss. Gaul. 
Rinn e so na aonar, he did this alone. 
AoNARACiiD, s.f. Solitariness, singularity. 
AoNARAN, ain, s. m. {from aonar.) A recluse, a hermit, a 
solitary person. Aonaran liath nan creag, the grey-headed 
hermit of the rock. — Oss. Conn. 
AoNARANACH, a. {from aonar.) Solitary; desolate; for- 
saken. Aitean aonaranach, desolate places.— Slew. Job. 
Clann na mna aonaranaiche, the children of the desolate 
women. — Stew. Gal. 
Aonaranaciid, s.f. Solitariness, desolateness ; the state 

of being forsaken, deserted, or forlorn, 
t AoNARDHA, a. See Aonar. 

AoN-BiiEACHD, *./. Unanimity. Often written, in a con- 
tracted form, aonachd. 
AoN-BiiEANNACH, c. Unicomed, having but oiie horn. 
AoN-BHEANNACii, aich, s. m. A unicorn. 
I AoN-BHiTH, .y. m. Co-essentiality; co-substantiality. 


A O T 

AoN-CHATHAiREACH, fl. Of, Or froiTi, the same city; having 
one city. 

AoN-cHRiDHE, s. Unanimity. 

Aojj-ciiRiDHEACH, rt. Unanimous ; having one heart. Gu 
h-aonghuthach, aonchridheach, with one voice and one heart. 
— Old Song. 

Aon DA, a. Singular, particular. 

AoNDA, Aondadh, *. m. A lease, a license, consent. Written 
also aonta. 

AoNDACHD, s. f. Acquiescence; the state of being parti- 
cular or singular. 

AoNDATHAcn, o. (aoD, one, and dath, colour.) Of the same 

Aox-DEALBHACu, a. (aon, anrf dealbb.) Uniform; similar. 

AoN-DEUG, a. {Gr. ttSixa..) Eleven. Bha aon deug ann, 
there were eleven ; aon f hear deug, eleven men ; aon chlach 
dheug, eleven stones. 

Aon'eacud, AoNFHEACHD, of7r. Together, at once. Per- 
haps aon-bheachd. 

AoN-FHiLLTE, «. (aon, flndfilleadh.) Single; simple, foolish, 
sincere, innocent. A deanamh an duine aon-fhillte glic, 
making the simple (foolish) man wise. — Stew. Ps. Na 
daoine aon-fhillte, the simple, i. e. the innocent. — Id. 

Aos-FiiiLLTEACHD, s.f. (Dan. eenfoldighcd.) Singleness 
of mind ; simplicity, sincerity, foolishness. Le aon fhill- 
teachd, with simplicity. — Stew. Rom. ref. 

AoKFHLAiTH, gen. sing, ofaonfhlath. 

AoxFHLAiTHEACH, a. Monarchic; of, or pertaining to, a 

AoNFiiLAiTiiEACiiD, «. OT. (//om aoufhlath.) Monarchy. 

AoNFHLAiTiiEACHDAiL, a. Monarchical. 

AoN-FHr.ATH, aith, s. m. A monarch. N. pi. aon-f hlaithean. 

Aojj-FHuiRM, s. Uniformity. 

AoN-GHiN, *. m. {Ir. ein-ghin.) An only-begotten. Mar 

aon-ghin mic, like an only-begotten son.— Stew. Pro. W 

aon-ghin cloinne, my only child. 
AoN-GHNETHEACH, a. (aon, anrf gueth.) Homogeneous; of 

one kind. 

AoN-GHNETHEACiiD, «./. (aoD, anrf gneth.) Homogeneous- 

Aox-GHUTiiACii, a. Having one voice, or vote ; consonous. 
Gu h-aon-ghuthach aonchridheach, with one voice and 
heart. — Old Song. 

AoN-iNNTiNN, «./. One mind, one accord, unanimity. Le 
h-aon inntinn, with one accord. 

AoN-iNNTiNNEACH.fl. (aonintinn.) One-minded, unanimous, 
consentient. Gu h-aon-innlinneach, unanimously. 

Aos-iNNTisNEACiiD, *./. Unauimousncss. 

AoN-MiiAC, mhic, *. m. An only son. Thuit e air aodainn 
aon-rahic, he fell on the face of his only son. — Oss. Cath. 

AoxRACAiN, gen. ting, and n. pi. of aonracan. 

AoNKACAN, ain, s. m. {from aonar.) A solitary person ; a 
recluse ; a widower, a widow, an orphan ; a deserted per- 
son. N. pi. aonracain. 

.AoNRACANACii, a. {from aonracan.) Solitary, like a recluse ; 
of, or belonging to, a recluse. 

AosRACANACiiD, S.f. Solitarincss ; the condition of a re- 
cluse, or of a deserted person. 

t AoNsuiUT, *./. Wallowing, weltering. 

AoNTA, Aontadh, aidh, s. m. A lease, license, consent; 
a bachelor. 

AoNTACH, a. Accessory, acceding to, conniving at; ready 
to yield, ready to assent. 

AoNTACiiADii, aidh, *. m. A consenting, a yielding, ac- 
ceding, abetting, abetment. 

AoNTACHADH, (ag), ;)r. pa;-^. of aontaich. Consenting, ac- 
ceding, abetting. Ag aontachadh leis an lagh, consenting 

to the law. — Stew. Rom. 
AoNTACHD, s.f. Consent, unanimity, agreement, connivance. 
Aontadh, aidh, s. m. A lease, license, consent. 
AoNTAiCH, f. Consent, agree, accede, yield to importunity, 

abet, take part, or side with. Aontaich leis, take his part ; 

aontaicheamaid leo, let us consent to them. — Stew. Gen. 

Thug i air aontachadh, she made him yield. — Stew. Pro. 

Pret. a. dW aontaich, consented; fat. aff. a. aontaichidh, 

shall consent. 
Aontaich E, s. m. An abettor; a conniver. N. pi. aon- 

AoNTiGHEACHD, S.f. Cohabitation ; a living under one roof. 
AoN-TLACHD, s. m. Sole source of joy ; only beloved. M' 

aon-tlachd 's mo shojus thu, thou art my light and my only 

source of joy. — Old Song. 
AoR, r. (by met. Lat. ora, eiitreat.) Worship, adore ; also 

join, adhere. Pret. a. dh' aor; fiit. aff. a, aoraidh. Aor- 

aibhse gu ceart, worship in sincerity. — Sm. Aoram dhuit, 

/ will worship thee. — Id. 
AoRADH, aidh, *. m. Worship, adoration; also joining, 

adhering. A deanamh aoraidh, worshipping. — Stew. N. T. 

Aoradh fein-thoileil, will worship. — Stew. Col. 
AoRADH, (ag), pr. part, of aor. Worshipping, adoring; 

also joining, adhering. 
Aoraidh, gen. sing, of aoradh. 
AoRAM, {contr. for aoraidh mi.) I will worship. Aoram 

dhuit, I will worship thee. — Sm. 
AoRNAGAiN, V. fl. Wallow. Aomagain thu fein, walloto 

thyself. — Stew. G. B. Aornagainibh sibh fein, wallow your- 
selves. — Stew. Jer. Pret. a. AW aomagain, wallowed; fat. 

aff. a. aomagainidh, shall or will wallow. 
AoRNAGAN, ain, «. w. A wallowing, a weltering. Aornagan 

muic, the wallowing of a sow. 
t Acs, s. A community, a set of people. — Ir. 
AosAR, «. (yb;» aosmhor.) Aged; old, antiquated. 
Aos-cniABH, a. Aged locks, hoary hair. Com' am bheil 

d'aos-chiabh snitheach ? why are thine aged locks moist f — 

Ull. M' aos-chiabh air sgei' na gaoithe, my aged hair on the 

wings of the wind. — Oss. Coiin. N. pi. aos-chiabhan. 
Aos-ciiRANN, chrainn, s. An aged tree, a trunk. Aos- 

chrann briste, an aged broken trunk. — Oss. Tratlial. 
AoscHRiTH, s. The tremor of age. Aos-chrith air mo 

cheann, the tremor of age on my head. — Old Poem. 
Aos-CHRiTHEACH, a. Trembling with age. — Orr. 
AosDA, a. {from aois.) Old, aged, ancient. A bhaird aosda 

nan linn a threig-, ye ancient hards of bygone ages. — Oss. 

Fin. and Lor. Anns na h-aosda tha gliocas, in the aged is 

wisdom. — Stew. Job. 
AosDACiiD, s.f. {from aois.) Agedness, antiquity. 
AosDANA, *. m. A poet, soothsayer, genealogist; a rehearser 

of ancient poetry. —Oss. Cathula, and Macfar. See Aois- 


AosLARACH, aich, s. An aged site; an aged ruin. 'N e 

'n torr so d' aos liirach? is this hillock thine aged seat? — 

Oss. Gaul. 
Aos-i,iA, Aos-liath, a. Grey-haired; old. Aos-lia, lag, a^eci 

and weak.— Oss. Trathal. 
AosMHOiRE, com. and sup. of aosrahor. 
AosMOiEEACiiD, s.f. Great age, antiquity, agedness. 
AosMHOR, a. Aged, old, ancient. Tuigse nan aosmhor, 

the understanding of the aged. — Stew. Job. Com. and sup. 

t AoTH, s. TO. A bell, a crown. Ir. id. 
+ AoTHACHD, s.f. {from aoth.) A ringing of bells, a chime 

of bells. Ir. id. 

A R A 


AoTROM, a. (ao, priv. and trom.) Light; not heavy ; giddy. 
Written also eutrom ; which see. Com. and sup. aotruime, 
lighter, lightest. 
AoTROMAicii, r. II. (aotrom.) Ease, lighten, alleviate; make 
less heavy. Pret. a. dh' aotramaich, lightened ; fut. off. a. 
aotromaicliidh, shallor will lighten; fut. pass, aotromaichear, 
.shall be lightened. 
AoTnoMAicmnii, fut. off. a. of aotromaich. 
AoTUOMAiN, n. pi. of aotroman. Bladders. 
AoTROMAN, ain, *. tn. (aotrom.) A bladder. N. pi. aotrom- 

ain, bladders. 
Aotruime, com. and sitp. of aotrom. Lighter, lightest. 
AoTuuiJiin, s. Lightness; also adjectively, lighter. Is 

aotruimid thu e, thou art the lighter for it. 
t Ap. Fit, proper, ripe. Lat. ap-tus. 
t Ap, gen. apa, s. m. Any little creature. Hence the Welch 

ap, signifying a son, and perhaps «-ep-o*, a grandson. 
Ap, apa, s. m. An ape, a mimic. A giMan apa, carrying 
apes. — Slew. 1 K. 

Dan. aba. Du. aap. W. epa. Sxced. apa. Germ. affe. 
Ir. apa. Finland, apini. Sclavonic, affinia. 
Apach, a. Like an ape ; abounding in apes. 
Aparan, Apran, ain, *. m. An apron. N. pi. aparain. 

Corn, appran. Ir. aprun. 
Ar, poss. pron. Our. {Bisc. ure. Ir. ar.) Ar comhstri ri 

daimh, our battle with strangers. — Oss. Comala. 
t Ar, s. m. A bond, a tie ; a guiding, conducting. 
f Ar. Slow. Hence Jrar, a river in Provence, meaning 
a slow-flowing river. Claudianus says, " Lentus Arar, 
Rhodanusque celer," the tardy Arar and the rapid Rhone. 
" Arar dubitans quo suos cursus agat," the Arar doubting 
which way to flow. — Seneca, in Apolh. The Arar is cow 
called Soane, which is sogh-an, the placid water. 
Ar, «. »!. (Jr. ar.) Ploughing, tillage, agriculture. Arm. 

and W. ar, plough-land. Tha e ris ar, he is ploughing. 
Ar, v. a. Plough, till, cultivate. Pret. a. dh' ar, ploughed; 
fut. aff. a. araidh, shall or will plough. 

Gr. a^-ou, to till, and a^ov^a., (a Gael would say ar-uirc), 
arable ground. Lat. aro. Teut. aeren, to till. Arm. arar, 
• a plough. Etrurian, arfer, and ar, ploughing. Bisc. ara, 
plough. Isl. aria. Heh. Chald. and Ethiop. haras, to plough. 
Syr. and Arab, haratb, ploughman. 
A'r, ^ir, *. m. Battle, slaughter ; field of battle. D^n an 
^ir, the song of battle ; an heroic poem. — Oss. Cathula. 
Tuath chum kir, a battle-axe. — Oss. Manos. Dithis nan 
codal san ^r so, two asleep in this field of battle.-rOss. Gaul. 
Gr. af>i?, Mars. Cantabrian, hara. Dan. ar, a wound. 
W. aer. Corn. ar.. 
t Ar, .?. Land, earth. An ancient Celtic word. 

Bisc. ar, land. Etrurian, ar and arv, a field. Lat. arvum, 
afeld. Chald. area and areka., field. Arab, ardhi. Du. aert. 
Old French, artos, a country. 
t Ara, ai, s. m. A conference ; a bier. — Ir. 
Ara, s. a kidney. N. pi. airnean. An da ara, the two 

kidneys.— Stew. Exod. Ir. id. 
t Aracii, aich, s. m. A tie, a bond, or collar on a beast ; 

also restraint ; authority; strength; fishing ware. — Ir. 
t Aracii, aich, s. m. {from ar.) A ploughshare.—//-. 
Auaciiair, s. m. An insurer. 

Arachas, ais, *. m. Insurance. Fear arachais, an in- 
surer; buth arachais, an insurance office ; tigh fo' arachas, 
a house insured. 
Araciid, s. m. A dwarf. See Arraciid. 
Araciidach, <7. Dwarfish; also manly, powerful. Written 

also arrochdach. 
t AiiAD, a. Strong, brave. — Ir. 

t Arab, aid, 4. TO. A ladder. — Ir. See Aradii. 

t Aradain, «. w. A desk, a pulpit. 

Aradair, s. m. (ar, plough, and fear, man.) An agriculturist; 
a ploughman ; a tiller. 

Lat. aratrum, a plough. Corn, ardar. Arm. arar. Span. 
har. Bisc. uoro. Corn, araderur. 

Aradii, aidh, *. m. {Ir. arad.) The reins, loins ; also a ladder. 
In this last sense aradh is written also faradh ; whicii see. 

Aragaradu, aidh, s. m. Abandonment; prescience, secret 

Araicii, v. Rear, bring up, educate. Pret. a. dh' araich, 
reared; fut. afjf. a. araichidh, shall or will rear. Ged araich 
iad an clann, though they bring up their children. — Stew.Hos. 

Araich, s. f. {perhaps kr-fhaiche.) A field of battle; a 
plain ; a plain field ; a meadow. Do mhac a teicheadh 
o'n arach, thy son flying from the battle field. — Oss. Mar 
dhoinionn a dortadh do 'n araich, like a jtood pouring to the 
plain. — Oss. Dargo. 

Araid, «. Particular, certain, special, peculiar. Duine araid, 
a certain man; gu h-araid, especially. Written also araidh. 

Araideach, a. Joyous, glad, elated, elevated. Com. and 
sup. araidiche, more or most joyous. 

Araidh, a. {Gr. ipaio';, scarce.) Particular, peculiar, special, 
certain. Duine Araidh, a certain man ; gu h-iraidh, in par- 
ticular, especially. 

t Araigh, s. pi. The reins of a bridle. 

Arain, gen. sing, of aran; which see. 

Arainn, s. a kidney. N. pi. araiiinean, contracted airnean ; 
which see. 

Arair, s. m. (ar and fear.) W. aerwr. A slaughterer; a 

Ah-amacii, 4'. m. A rebellion, insurrection, mutiny, treason. 
Rinn iad ar-amach, they have rebelled. — Stew. Gen. rcf. 

A^RAN, w. jj/. of ara. Kidneys; also ladders. 

Aran, ain, s. m. {Ir. aran.) Bread, a loaf; livelihood, suste- 
nance. Aran coirce, oat bread; aran eorna, barley bread; 
aran cruineachd, wheat bread; aran seogail, rye bread; 
aran donn, brown bread; aran milis, ginger bread, sweet 
bread. Greim axmn, a morsel of bread. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. 
arain, loaves; cuig arain, /ne loaves. — Stew. Mat. 

t Aran, ain, s. m. A conversation, or discourse; dialogue. 

Aranach, aich, s. m. {from aran, bread.) A pantry. 
Ir. arancha. 

Aranailt, s.f. A bread-basket, a pannier. 

ARANNACH-sRiiKE, s. m. A bridle rein. — Macrf. 

f Auoid, s.f. A cover, a table cloth. 

Araon, conj. {Ir. araon.) Together; both; as one. 
A Chonail 's a Charruil aiaon ! Conal and Carruil, both 
of you ! 

Ar'ar, contr.for arbhar ; which see. 

Ar'arach, a. contr.for arbharach. Abounding in crops; 
of, or belonging to, a crop; fertile. Gu h-ar'arach porach, 
full of crops and grain. — Old Song. 

Ahas, ais, s. «;. A house, abode, dwelling; lodging; apart- 
ment; settlement. Ir. id. 

Arasacii, a. Having many houses, having many apartments. 

Arbhach, a. Destructive, slaughtering. — Ir. 

Aubiiadii, aidh, s. m. Destruction, slaughtering. , 

Arbhar, air, s. m. (i. e. ar-bhar, the ploughing crop.) Corn, 
corn crop, standing corn ; rarely a host, an army. Deas- 
aichidh tu arbhar, thou wilt prepare corn. — Stew. O. T. 
Pailteas arbhair, plenty of corn. — Stew. Gen. Na h adagan 
is an t-arbhar, the shocks and the standing corn.— Stew. 0. T. 
Ir. arbhar. 

Arbharach, a. Abounding in corn crops; fertile; of, or 

belonging to, corn crops. 
Arbiiarachd, s.f. Embattling as an army; forming into 

A R D 

Arbhraigneacii, ich, s. m. A snare. 

t Arc, aire, s. m. {W. ar9. S-wed. ark. Lat. arc a.) An ark. 

Now written aire ; which see. 
t Arc, aire, s. m. A sucking pig; a bee ; a wasp, lizard; 
a dwarf; a body ; impost, tax. 

Akcaix, gen. sing, and n. pi. of arcan. 

Arcajt, am, s. m. A cork, a stopple. Arcan buideil, a bottle 
cork, or stopple; arcan bairill, a bung; crannarcain, a cork 
tree. N. pi. arcain, fori*. 

Arcan-luaciirach, aich, s. m. A lizard ; an adder. 
N. pi. arcain-luachrach. 

t Archu, gen. archoin, s. m. A chained dog, a mastiff, 

a fierce dog. — Ir. 
-t Archuisg, s. f. An experiment. 

Arc-luachrach, aich, s. w. A lizard; an adder.— 7r. id. 

t Ard, aird, s. m. God, or the High Being. Written also 
Art ; hence sag-art, a priest. 

Aed, a. {Lat. ard-uus. Ir. and Corn. ard. Old Persic, ard 

. and art, Aig/i, and arta, a hero. Armen. ardyan, a summit. 
Hence too the name Arthur. In Calmuc Tartary and 
Mogul, artaga, I put higher ; Gaelic, ard-thog, raise aluft.) 
High, lofty, exalted, loud; noble, eminent, excellent; 
proud; also an eminent person, a chief. B'ard air carraig 
a sgread, loud on a rock teas her scream. — Oss. Trathal. 
Fuil ard nan saoi, the noble blood of heroes. — Oss. Fing. 
Sealladh ard, a proud look. — Srexv. Pro. Fear a b' airde 
gutli, a man of the loudest voice. — Oss. Comala. Uaigh an 
aird, the grave of the chief — Oss. Temo. Com. and sup. 
airde ; n. pi. arda. Ard is derived from the Celtic primi- 
tive ar, signifying a rock, a mountain ; also high : hence 
many words in other tongues signifying elevation ; as, 
Bisc. arre, a rock ; Malai/. arang ; Arab, and Ethiop. hhar, 
hill; Armen. ar, elevated; Malabar, aria, mountain, and 
are, elephant ; Heb. ar, a rock, or mountain. 

Ard, aird, 5. m. {Ir. ard.) A height, an eminence, a hill, 
a high land, an upland ; heaven. O 'n ard, from the 
height. — Oss. Temo. N. pi. arda, or ardan ; dat. pi. ardaibh. 
A ruith an aon slugan o ardaibh, rushing in one channel 
from the heights.— Oss. Na h-arda ciar, the dusky emi- 
nences. — Oss. Temo. Anns na h-ardaibh, in heaven, on 
high. — Stexv. Pro. Ard a chuain, the high seas. 

Arda, n. pi. of ard, adj. and sub. Cho' fhreagair na creagan 
arda, the lofty rocks re-echoed. — Fingalian Poem. 

Ardaciiadh, aidh, «. TO. {Ir. id.) Tlie act of raising, exalting, 
orheiglitening; advancement, promotion, exaltation, honour, 
preferment. Ardachadh nan amadan, the promotion of fools. 
— .Stew. Pro. Written also arduchadh. 

Ardachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ardaich. Raising, exalting, 
extolling, elevating. 'G a ardachadh fein, exalting himself. 
— Sttiu. Thess. 

Ardachaidh, gen. sing, of ardachadh. 

Ardaich, t-. a. {from ard.) Exalt, extol, elevate, raise 
aloft, heighten. Pret. a. dh' ardaich, exalted ; fit. nff. a. 
ardaichidh, shall or mil exalt ; fit. pass, ardaichear, shall 
be exalted. Ardaich i, exalt her. — Stew. Pro. Written 
also arduich. 

Ardaichear, fut. pass, of ardaich. Shall be elevated. 

Ardaichidh, fut. aff. a. of ardaich. Shall or will elevate. 

Ardain, gen. sing, of ardan. 

Ard-aingeai,, eil, s. m. An archangel. Le guth 'n ard 
aingeil, with the voice of the archangel. — Stew. Thess. 

Ard-aithiiichean, n. pi. of ard-athair. Patriarchs. 

Ardan, n. pi. of ard. 

Ardan, ain, s. m. {from ard.) Pride; proud wrath; childish 
haughtiness; spurting, arrogancy; also a little eminence ; 
a knoll, a hillock. An droch dhuine na ardan borb, the 


wicked man in his ferce pride.— Sm. Ardan gruaidh, pride 

of face.— Id. Tha m' ardan na'd chliu, my pride is in thy 
fame. — Oss. Fing. Dh' at ardan na chridhe, proud wrath 

swelled in his heart. — Id. Uabhar is ardan, pride and 

arrogancy. — Stew. Pro. Gach aon ardan, every one knoll; 

each knoll. — Old Song. 
Ardanach, a. {from ardan.) Proud, haughty; prone to 

take offence ; arrogant ; elate. Spiorad ardanach, a haughty 

spirit.— Stew. Pro. Com. and sup. ardanaiche, tnore or most 

haughty. Ir. ardanach. 
Ardan ACHD, *./. { frojn ardan.) Haughtiness, proudness; 

arrogancy. Uaille is ardanachd, pride and haughtiness. — ■ 

Old Song, 
-f Ardarc, aire, s. m. A blazon; armorial bearings. 
Ard-atiiair, s. m. A patriarch.^ — Stew. Heb. ref. N. pi. 

ard-aithrichean, patriarchs. 
Ard-biiaile, s. m. A city, metropolis; a great city. Esan 

a ghabhas ard-bhaile, he who takes a city. — Stew. Pro. 

N. pi. ard-bhailtean, cities; dat. pi. ard-bhailtibh. 
Ard-biiailtean, n. pi. of ard-bhaile, cities; dat. pi. ard- 
Ard-bhandiuchd, s.f. An archduchess. 
Ard-bheann, bheinn, *.y. A pinnacle; amountain. Ait 

mar iolair nan ard-bheann, joyous as the mountain eagle.— 

Oss. N. pi. ard-bheanntan ; dat. pi. ard-bheanntaibh. 
Ard-bheinn, *. /. The name of a hill in the Highlands. 

Also gen. sing, of ard-bheann. 
Ard-bhlath, s. Height of flourish, full flower; flower; 

prime. Tha i 'n ard-bhlath a h-aimsir, she is in the flower 

of her life. 
Ard-bhreitheamh, eimh, s. m. A chief justice. Ard- 

bhreitheamh ciiirt na Righ-Bheinc, chief justice of the 

King's Bench. 
Ard-bhreitheimii, gen. sing, of ard-bhreitheamh. 
Aud-chantair, «. TO. Anarch-chanter. A^. p/. ard-chant- 

Ard-chatii, s. m. A general engagement, a pitched battle ; 

the thick of battle. Gaoir an ard chath, the din of the 

pitched battle. — Old Poem. 
Ard-chathair, chathracl], s.f. A chief city, a metropolis. 

N. pi. ard-chathraichean ; dat. pi. ard chathraiehibh. 
Ard-cheann, chinn, *. m. (ard and ceann.) A superior, 

ruler, lord; head. Ard-cheann na h-eaglais, the head of 

the church. 
Ardcheannas, ais, s. m. Superiority, dominion, command, 

pre-eminence. Ard-cheannas anns gach uile, pre-eminence 

in all things. — Stew. Col. Ir. id. 
Ard-ciieum, cheim, s. to. A strut; a bound; lofty gait; 

a prancing. 
Ard-cheumnaciiadh, aidh, s. to. A stnitting, a bounding, 

a walking proudly, a prancing. 
Ard-ciieumnaich, t. Strut; bound; walk proudly; prance. 
Ard-chlaciiair, s. to. An airchitect ; a master mason. 

N. pi. ard-chlachairean. 
Ard-ciii.achaireaciid, s.f. The business of an architect, 

or of a master mason ; architecture. 
Ard-chnoc-faire, *. TO. A great beacon; a sconce. 
Ard-ciiomas, ais, s. m. Discretionary power; despotic 

power. Thug e ard-chomas dhomh, he gave me a dis- 
cretionary power. 
Ard-chowasach, o. Having discretionary power; despotic. 

Ard-chomhairle, s.f. Parliament; supreme council; a 
synod. Ball na h-ardchomhairle, a member of parliament ; 
ard-chomhairle Blireatuinn, the British parliament. 

Ard-chuan, chuain, s. m. The high sea. Na h-ard' 
chuantan, the high seas. 

A R D 

A R F 

ARi>-cnuMHACHD, «.y. Supreme power, chief power, high Ard-losgadii, aidh, «. »». Extreme burning, extreme heat. 

power ; state office ; authority. N. pi. ard-chumhachdan ; 
dat. pi. ard-chumhachdaibh, to the high powers. — Stew. Rom. 
Ar-dhamii, dhaimh, s. m. A plough-ox. — Ir. 
AEn-DiiRuiDH, ». m. An arch-druid. 

He was chosen by a plurality of voices from the worthiest and 
most learned of the order, lie was deemed infallible. He was 
referred to in all cases of controversy, and from his judgment 
there was no apfieal. He was president of the general assemblies 
of the Druids, and had the casting vote. lie was likewise named 
Coibhi-Druidh. His aid and friendship were much valued and 
confided in, as may be learned from the very ancient saying — 
Ged is Jagus clach do 'n lir, is faigae na sin cobhair Choibhi; 
Though a stone be near to the ground, nearer still is Coibhi's aid. 
Ard-dorus, uis, s. m. A lintel. N. pi. ard-dorsan, lintels. 
Ard-easpi-idheaciid, s.f. An archbishoprick. 
Ard-easpuig, «.y". An archbishop. A'', p/. ard-easpuigean, 

Ard-easpuigeacii, a. Archiepiscopal ; of, or pertaining to, 

an archbishop ; like an archbishop. 
Ard-easpuigeachd, s.f. An archbishoprick. 
Ard-fheamanacii, aich, s. m. A high steward. 
Ardfueill, s. f. A great solemnity; a great festival. — 

Stew. Ezek. Ard-fheill na h-Eadailt, the carnival. 
Ard-fiiuaim, s.f. BombiJation ; a loud noise, a murmur. 
Ard-fiiuaimneacii, o. Sounding, murmuring ; making a 

loud noise. 
Ard-fhuaimnich, s.f. Any loud noise ; a continued loud 

Ard-ghairm, ghairme, s.f. Aloud shout; high calling. 
Duais na h-ard-ghairm, the reward of the high calling. — 
Stew. Phil. 
+ Ard-ghaois, s.f. A liberal art. 
t Ard-giiaoisear, ir, s. m. A master of arts. 
Ard-ghaoth, ghaoithe, s.f. A high wind. 
Ard-giiaothach, a. Windy, stormy, blowing loudly. A 
bhuilg sheididh, ard-ghaothach, his loudly bloiving bellows. 
— Old Song. 
Ard-ghleadiiraicii, s.f. Bombilation; any loud noise, 

a rattling noise. 
Ard-giil6r, gl6ir, s. m. Bombast, loud speaking; altilo- 

quence ; a boasting ; vainglory. 
Ardghloracii, a. Bombast; inclined to speak loud; boast- 
ing; vainglorious. 
Ard-giiniomii, s. m. A feat, exploit; an achievement. 
Ard ghniomh an righ, the exploit of the king. — Oss. Fing. 
N. pi. ard-ghniomhara, or -an. 
Ard-ghniomiiaran, n. /)/. of ardghniomh. Feats, exploits. 
Ard-giiul, ghuil, *. ?n. Loud weeping, howling. — Stew. Mic. 

Tha e ri ard-gliul, he is weeping aloud. 
Ard-giiutu, s. m. A loud voice, a loud cry, a shout. 
Ard-oiiuthacii, a. Clamorous; loud, shouting loudly. — 

Stew. 1 Chron. 
Ard-inbhe,«./. High rank, dignity, eminence. Oirdheirceas 

ard-mbhe, excellence of dignity. — Stew. Gen. 
Ard-injuieach, a. Eminent, of high rank, high in office. 
Ard-inbheachd, s.f. Eminence, high rank, dignity, station. 
Ard-inntinn, «.y". Hauglitiness, high-mindedness; a high 

Ard-inntinneach, a. High-minded, haughty, conceited, 
vain. Nabiard-inntinneach,6eno< Ai^A-mi/«W. — Slew, Rom. 
Ard-inntinneaciid, s.f. High-mindedness, pride, con- 
oeitedness, vanity, haughtiness. Ard-inntinneachd 'nar 
measg, pride amongst you. — Stew. 2 Cor. ref 
Ard-iolach, aich, *. m. A loud shout. Le h-ard-iolaich, 
■With loud shout. — Stew. Thess. 

or inflanmiation. Le h-ard-losgadh, with extreme burning. — 
Stew. Dcut. 
Ard-miiaraiciie, J. m. An admiral. Priomh ard-mharaiche, 

lord high admiral. 
Ardolladii, aidh, s. m. A chief professor; primarius pro>« 
fessor ; a principal of an university; an historiographer royaL 
Ardorus, uis, s. m. A lintel of a door. N. pi. ardorsan. 
Ard-reachdas, ais, s. m. A general assembly; a con- 
Ard-righ, s. m. A monarch, emperor. N. pi. ard-righrean. 
Ard-sgeimhleir, s. m. A curious person. N. pi. ard- 

Ard-sgoil, s.f. {Ir. id.) An academy, college, high school. 

Ard-sgoil Dhuneidinn, the high school of Edinburgh. 
Ard-sgoilEar, ir, s. m. A student at an university; a 
student at an academy ; a high school boy. N. pi. ard- 
Ard-sgoil-mhaighistir, s. m, A master at an academy; 
a professor; a high school master. N. pi. ard-sgoil- 
Ard-shagart, airt, s. m. An high priest. N. pi. ard- 

shagairtean, high priests. 
Ardshagartachd, s.f. An high priesthood. 
Ard-siieanadh, aidh, s. m. A general assembly, supreme 
council, parliament. Ard-sheanadh na h-Alba, the general 
assembly of the kirk. 
Ard-siieanair, s.m. A member of a general assembly; 
a member of a senate ; a member of any supreme council. 
N. pi. ard-sheanairean. 
ARD-snoNA,a.(arda»</sona.) Supremely blessed ; supremely 


Ard-siionas, ais, s.m. Supreme bliss; perfect happiness. 

Ard-shonas mo chridhe, the supreme bliss of my soul, — Old 


ARDSHUiDnEAR,ir, A president. JV. />/. arJ-shaidhearan. 

Ard-thighearna, s. m. A supreme lord. N. pi. ard- 

Ardthigiiearnas, ais, s.m. Supreme mle, supreme power. 
Ard-threith, gen. sing, and n. pi. of ard-thriath. 
Ard-tiiriatii, threilh, *. ?«. Supreme chief, supreme ruler. 
Ard-thriath a chruinne-che, supreme ruler of the universe. — 
Smith. N. pi. ard-threith. 
Ard-uachdaran, ain, *. m. (ard and uachdar.) A chief 

ruler, a sovereign. N. pi. ard-uachdarain. 
Ard-uaillsean, Ard-uaislean, s. pi. Nobles ; princes; 
nobility. D. pi. ard-uaillsibh and ard-uaislibh, to princes. 
Tair air ard uaislibh, contempt on princes. — Stew. Job. 
Arduciiadii, aidh, s. m. A raising, exalting, extolling, 
exaltation, preferment. Written also ardachadh ; which see. 
Arduciiadii, (ag). pr. part, of arduich. 
Ard-ughdarras, ais, s. m. Supreme, or sovereign autho- 
rity; full authority. Fhuair mi ard-ughdarras, I got full 
Arduich, v. Heighten, raise aloft, exalt, prefer, promote, 
elevate, dignify, extol. Pret. a. AW arduich, exalted; 
fut. uff. a. arduichidh, shall elevate ; fit. pass, arduichear, 
shall be elevated. Arduichear iad, they shall be exalted. — 
Stew. Job. Written also ardaich. 
Arduichear, fut. pass, of arduich. Shall be raised. 
Arduichidh,/k*. a_f. a. of arduich. Shall or will raise. 
Arduichte, jj. part, of arduich. Raised, elevated. 
Ak-ear, ir, s. m. (ar, ploughing, and fear.) A ploughman, 

a tiller, a peasant. Arm. arer. 
Ar-ear, ir, s. m. (kr, slaughter, and fear.) A hero. W. arwr. 
Arfuntachadh, aidh, «. TO. A disinheriting ; a forfeiting. 


A R R 

Arfuntaich, c. Disinherit; forfeit. Pref. a. dh* arfuntaich, 

disinherited ; fut. aff. a. arfuntaichidh, shall forfeit. 
Arfuntaichte, p. part, of arfuntaich. Disinherited, for- 
feited. Nah-oighreachdauarfuntaichte, the forfeited estates. 
t Arg, a. White. Gr. apyo?. Ir. arg. 
t Aro, airg, s. m. A champion. Dan. arg, angrij. Ir. arg. 
t Argnach, aich, *. m. A robber, a plunderer. 
Argnadh, aidh, s. m. A robbery, pillage, plunder. — Ir. 
Argair, «. »(. A plunderer; a destroyer. 
Arguinn, ti. (Lflf. arguo.) Argue, dispute, contest, wrangle. 

Fret. a. dh' arguinn, argued; fut. aff. a. arguinnidh, shall 

or tall argue. 
Arguinn, *.y. An argument ia<. arguens. /r. arguin. 
Argumaid, s.f. An argument. JV". pt. argumaidean ; dat. 

pi. argumaidibh. Le h-argumaidibh, with arguments. — 

Stew. Job. 
Argumaideach, a. Argumentative; fond of argument; 

of, or pertaining to, argument. • 
t Arigh, s. pi. Chiefs. 
fARiNN, »._/". Friendship. 

A Ris, adv. Again ; a second time ; another time. 
A RiTHisT, arfr. Again; a second time. In some districts 

of the Southern Highlands they say a rithistich. 
A&JLAS, ais, s. m. Earnest money ; a pledge. Written also 

+ Arleag, eig, «.y". A high flight; a project; a fancy, a 

whim. — Ir. airleog. 
Arleagach, a. Flighty; fanciful; whimsical. //•. airleo- 

Ablogh, oigh, s. m. Carting corn. Feisd an arloigh, the 

harvest feast, the harvest home. Ir. arloigh. 
Arm, v. Arm; provide with arms; put on arms. Pret. a. 

dh' arm, armed ; fut. aff. a. armaidh, shall arm. 
Arm, gtn. sing. aiim. (Arm. and Ir. arm. Lat. and Span. 

arma); n. pi. airm. Arms, weapon, armour; also an army. 

Tha e san arm, he is in the army ; sgian, arm bu mhiann 

leis, a knife, a ueapon he viasfund of. — Old Poem. Dat. pi. 

armaibh, fuidli armaibh, armed, under arms. — Stew. Pro. 

Armagh, a. (from arm.) Armed; warlike; covered with 
armour, mailed ; also an armed person, a warrior. Mar 
ghaisgeach armach, like an armed hero. — Sm. Labhair an 
dubh armach, the dark warrior spoke. — Old Poem. 

Armachd, 4-.y. (from ■a.nn.) Armour; arms; feats of arms. 
Nigh iad arniachd, thei/ washed his armour. — Stew. 1 K. 
Armachd an t-soluis, the armour of light. — Stew. Rom. 

Armaich, f. a. Ann, gird on arms, clothe with armour. 
Pret. a. dh' armaich, armed; fut. off. a, arraaichidh, shall 
or will arm. Armaichibh sibh fein, arm yourselves. — Stew. 

Armaichidh, fut. aff. a. of armaich. Shall or will arm. 

Armaichte, p. part, of armaich. Armed, clothed in armour. 

Armailt, ailte, s. m. An army. Ann an armailt, in aft 
army. — Stew. Job. An toiseach na h-armailte, in the front 
of the army; armailt nam Breacan, the Highland army. — 
Roy Stewart. 

Armailteach, a. Of, or belonging to, an army; having 
great armies. 

+ Arm AIRE, *./. A cupboard; a bread closet. Fr. armoire. 

Armakadh, aidh, s. m. A reproof, a scold, a check. 

Armeineach, a. (ar, slaughter, and miannach.) Warlike, 
sanguinary, bloody. 

+ Armiiaigii, s. m. A buzzard. 

t Ar-mhiannach, a. Bloody, sanguinary, warlike, bloody- 

t Armhisd, a. Respect, reverence. 

Arm-lann, lainn, s. m. An armoury, a magazine, a military 

depot. N. pi. airm-lainn, magazines. 
Arm-oileak, ein, *. m. Military discipline, drilling. 
Arm-thaisg, s. m. A military magazine; an armoury. 
Armuinn , gen. sing, of armunn ; which see. 
t Armcinn, v. a. Bless, revere.— 5^aa). 
Armuinte, p. part, of armuinn. Blessed. 
Armunn, uinn, s. m. (from ar.) A hero, warrior; a chief. 

Air slios an armuinn, on the icarrior's side. — Old Poem. 

Suil mheallach an armuinn, the winning eye of the hero. — 

\ Arm, aim, s. m. A judge, 
t Arnaipii, s. m. A surety, a bond. — Ir. 
t Arocii, oich, s. m. A little village, a hamlet— Shaw. 
t Aroch, a. Straight; upright. La^. arrect-us. 
Arois, gen. sing, of aros. 
t Aroll, oill, s. m. Great slaughter ; a great many ; a great 

deal. — Shaw. 
Aros, ois, s. m. A house, abode, residence. Aros nan long, 

the abode of ships. — Oss. Fing. An loisgear aros nam 

Fiann ? shall the abode of the Fingalians be burnt? — 

Oss. Taur. 
Arosach, a. (from aros.) Habitable ; having or containing 

houses ; of, or belonging to, a house. 
Arosach, aich, s. m. (from aros.) An inhabitant; a lodger; 

a resident householder. N. pi. arosaichean, householders, 
Arpag, aig, *. /. An harpy; any ravenous creature. — 

Macd. N. pi. arpagan. 
Arpagacii, a. (from arpag.) Ravenous, grasping. JmI. 

harpago, a grappling hook. 
t Arr, s. m. A stag, a hind. 
Arra, ai, ». m. Treachery ; also a pledge. 
Arra-bhalaocu, laoich, .5. m. A traitor; a treacherouir 

fellow. Arrabhalaoch garg, a fierce traitor. — Old Song. 
Arracji, aich, s. m. A pigmy, a dwarf; a spectre; an appa- 
rition; a centaur. Uaill san arrachd, pride in the dwarf. — 

Aruaciiar, air, *. m. A rowing, steering; also the name of 

a place in Argyllshire. 
Arracud, aichd, s. m. See Arrach. 
Arhachdach, a. (from arrachd.) Dwarfish, diminutive; 

spectral ; also manly, able. Written also arraiceach, 
Arrach das, ais, s. m. (from arrachd.) Power, strength, 

Arraciiog AIDH, s.m. The hound that first winds, or come» 

up with the deer. — Shaw. 
t Arradh, aidh, *. m. An armament. — Ir. 
Arraghaideach, a. Negligent, idle, careless. — Shaw. 
Arraghloir, s.f. Prattle, garrulity, idle talk. 
Aruaghloireach, a. Garrulous; given to prattle. 
Arraiceach, a. Large; able-bodied, effective; manly. 

Each arraiceach treasdach, a large thorough-pacing horse. 

— Old Poem. Com. and sup. arraiciclie. 
Arraichdean, «. p/. Jewels; precious things. 
Arraid, s.f. Vice. Fear l^n arraid, a man full of vice. — 

Old Song. 
Arraid, v. a. Corrupt, deprave, make vicious, 
t Arraidh, 4. /)/, Misdeeds; evil deeds ; misconduct. 
Arraidh, a. Generous, liberal ; hospitable. 
Ab-vlaiho, s.f. A stitch, convulsion. iV. ;;/. arraingean. 
fARRAis, D. n. Arrive at, reach. 
A'rronhach, a. Becoming, fit, suitable, decent. Com. and 

sup. arronnaiche, more or most becoming. 
Arromnacud, «./. Fitness, suitableness ; decentness. 


A S C 

+ Arronnaich, v. a. Fit, suit. Prct. a. dh' arronnaich, 
Jitled; Jut. aff. a. arronnaichidh, shall or mil fit. 

Arronnaiche, com. and svp, of arronnach. More or most 

Arronta, a. Bold, daring, brave ; confident. Fior-dheas 
arronta, truly active and bold. — Macdon. 

Arrontacud, «.y. Boldness, bravery ; confidence. 

Ars', Arsa, v. def. Said. This verb is never used with 
propriety, excepting in corresponding expressions, with 
mid J, said fie, &c. In the order of syntax, the nominative 
case never precedes this verb, not even by a poetical license ; 
and this forms the distinction between it and the correspond- 
ing preterite thubhairt, said. The Gael say, Duinc a thu- 
hhairt gu, but not duine arsa gu, a man who said that. 
Ars' an ceannaiche, said the bvi/er. — Stew. Pro. Ars' oighe 
nan aodann gradhach, suid the maids of the lovely visages. — 
Old Poem. 

Arsachb, s. f. (for arsaidheachd.) Antiquity; antiquari- 
anism ; the pursuits of an antiquary. 

Aesadh, aidh, *. m. Antiquity; age. 

Arsaidh, a. Old, superannuated; old-fashioned, ancient, 
antique. A Bhla-bheinn arsaidh, thou ancient Bla-bheinn. 
— Old Song. Bla-bheinn is a mountain in Skye. 

Arsaidheachd,*./. Antiquity; antiquarianism. 

Arsaidh'ear, ir, .s. »). An antiquary. arsaidh'earSn. 

Arsaidh'earachd, s.f. Antiquity ; antiquarianism. 

Arsair, s. m, {for arsaidh'ear.) An antiquary. 

Arsaireachd, s.f. (from arsair.) Antiquarianism; the 
pursuits of an antiquary. 

Arsantach, a. Old, antique, ancient, old-fashioned ; fond 
of the study of antiquity. 

Arsneal, eil, s. m. Sadness. More commonly written 
airsneid ; which see. 

Arsnealacii, a. Sad. See Airsnealach. 

Arson, prep. For. See Air-son. 

t Art, Airt, s. m. God. Hence sagart, a priest. 

t Art, airt, s. m. A bear. Gr. «pxTo;. W. aerth. Corn, arth 
and orth. //■. art. 

t Art, airt, A'. TO. (Lfl^ art-us.) A limb, a joint; flesh. 

Art, airt, s. m. (Ir. art) A stone; also a house. {Dan. aerts, 
a mineral. Hence also Eng. hard, and Germ, hart, hard.) 
Tarruing art, a loadstone; gach reile-art, eieri/ shining 
pebble. — Old Poem. N. pi. artan. 

Art A oil, a. (//-ow art.) Stony; also a quarry; stony ground. 

Artan, ain, s. m. {dim. ofaxt.) A little stone, a pebble. 

Artaracii, aich, s. m. A ship-boat. 

Art-theine, s. m. A flint; literally a fire stone. 

t Arthracii, aich, s. m. A wherry, a boat; a ship. 

t Arthraich, v. Navigate ; also enlarge.— SAaw. 

Aruinn, *. A kidney. See Arainn. 

t Arusg, uisg, s. m. The neck. — Ir. 

t As, ais, s. m. Milk, beer, ale. 

As, prep. {Arm. eus.) Out of, from out. As a mhuir, out of 
the sea; as an Eadail, //wn Jtah/ ; as an taobh eile./rowi 
the other side. Arm. eus an tu all. 

t As, V. a. Kindle, as a fire ; also do, make. Pret. a. dh' as, 
kindled; fut. aff. a. asaidh, shall kindle. 

As, comp. pron. Out of him, out of it; from him, from it. 

A 's, [a, is] Who is, who are, who art; who has, who hast, 
who have. Oigh a 's gile lamh, a maid \v:ho w] of the 
fairest hands. — Oss. Comala. Fear is liathe colg, a man of 
\yiho hus'\ the greyest hair. — Id. 

Aa, conj. {for eigu&.) And. 

t AbACn, aich, s. m. A shoemaker. 

t AsACii, a. {/rom&A.] Milky, watery ; like milk, beer, or ale. 

AsAD, comp. pron. [as tu.] Oat of thee, from thee, in thee, 

on thee. 
AsADA, emph. form, o/'asad. Out of thee, from thee, in thee, 

on thee. Asada rinn ar sinnsir bun, in thee our fathers 

trusted. — Sm. 
t AsADH, aidh, s. m. Anchoring, resting, settling. 
Asaichte, a. Shod. 
AsAiD, s. f Djlivery, as in childbed. 
AsAiD, V. a. Deliver, as a female in childbed. Pret, dh* 

asaid ; fut. aff. a. asaididh. Dh' asaideadh mise, / vtas 

delivered.— Stew. 1 K. ref. 
AsAiDii, gen. sing, of asadh. 

t AsAiDii, «.y. A resting, a settling; reposing, anchoring. 
AsAiBii, com. pron. [as sibh.] Out of you, from you, in you. 

Tha mi 'cur earbsa asaibh, / trust in you. Ir, aseabh. 
AsAiBiiSE, emph. form 0/ asaibh. 
f- AsAiDH, V. n. Rebel, revolt. 
AsAL, gen. sing, of asal. 
AsAiNN, cotnp. pron. [as sinn.] Out of us, from us, from 

amongst us. 
AsAiNNE, emph.forvi o/asainn. 
AsAiR, s. m. The herb called asarabacca. — Macd. 
AsAiu, «. w. A shoemaker. A^. p/. asairean. 
t AsAiTicii, V. Abandon, quit, evacuate ; put out of place; 

eject. Pret, a. dh* asaitich, evacuated. 
Asal, ail, s.f. An ass. Marcachd air asail, n'rfiwg' on aw 

ass. — Stew. Zech. Mac na h-asail, a colt. — Id. 

Dan. aesel. Croat, ossal. Dal. oszal. Pol. osiel. Boh. 

wosel and ossel. Lns. wosel. Germ. esel. Belgic, esal. 

Anglo-Sax. asal. Manx, assyl. Lat. asinus. It. asino. 

Fr. t asne. Corn, and Arm. asen. Ir. asal. Span. asno. 
Tills is one of the few vocables which may be considered 

Asam, comp, pron. [as mi.] Out of me, from me; on me, 

in me. Ir. aseim. 
t Asantadh, aidh, s. m. Mutiny, sedition, rebellion. 
t AsARD, aird, s. m. A debate, dispute ; assertion, 
f Asardach, a. Litigious; quarrelsome; contentious, 
t Asardair, {from asard.) A litigious person ; a wrangler; 

a disputant. Lat. assertor. 
Asarlaigiieachd, s.f. Conjuration, magic; intoxication. 
AsBHUAiN, «./. (as onrf buain.) Stubble. Asbhuain an Jiite 

conlaich, stubble instead of straw. — Stew. Gen. 
t Asc, s. A snake, an adder, 
t AscACH, aich, s. m. An escape, 
t AscAicH, v. Escape. 
AscAiN, r. K. Ascend, mount, climb. Pref. a. dh' ascain, 

ascended; fut. aff'. a. ascainidh, shall climb. 
AscAiLi., gen. sing, of ascall. 
Ascaird, gen. sing, of ascard. 
AsGAXRT, s.f A budding, sprouting. 
Ascall, aill, s.m. An onset; a conference; a flowing of 

the tide ; a mangling, a mangled carcass, carrion; a term 

of much personal contempt ; a miscreant. An t-ascall a 

rinn t^ir oirnn, the miscreant who has reviled us. — Old Song, 
. Ir. ascall. 

AsCAOiN, a. Harsh; inclement; unkind. 
AsCAOiN, *. /. A curse; excommunication; hardness; in- 
clemency ; also adjectively, harsh, inclement. Tionndadh 

ascaoin na sine gu tilths, turn to mildness the inclemency of 

the blast. — Macfar. 
AscAOiN, f. a. Curse, excommunicate. Pret. a. dh' ascaoin, 

cursed; fut. aff. a. ascaoinidh, shall or will curse. 
Ascaoineacii, a. {from ascaoin.) Of, or belonging to, a 

curse ; harsh, inclement. 


A T H 

AsCAOiNEADii, idh, «. m. The act of cursing, or excommu- 
nicating ; a cursing, an excommunicating. 

AscAOiN-EAGLAis, s. f. EScommunication ; a curse; a 

AscARD, aird, s. m. Tow, hards. Snathainn asgaird, a thread 
qflo-a.— Stew. Jud. 

t AscATii, s. m. {from caXh.) A soldier ; a combatant. 

t AsCHU, choin, s. m. A water dog ; an eel ; a conger eel. 

AsCNADH, aidh, s. m. An ascending, climbing, mounting. 

AsCNADH, (ag), pr. pari, of ascain; which see. 

AscuLL, s. m. See Ascall. 

AsDA, comp. pron. [as iad.] Out of them, from them, in 
them, on them, from amongst them. 

AsDAR, air, *. m. See Astar. 

AsGACH, aich, s. vi. A winnower. N. pi. asgaichean. 

AsGAiDH, s.f. A boon, a present ; also free, gratis. 

AsGAiLL, gen. sing, of asgall. 

AsGAiLT, s. f. A bosom, breast, armpit. Asgailt dhorch 
na h-iargaill, the dark bosom of the storm. — Oss. Gaul. 

Asgall, aill, s. m. A bosom, a breast, an armpit; a sheltered 
place ; a covert. Thug mi do d' asgaill, I gave to thy bosom. 
— Stew. Gen. ref. 

Gr. fi-aayjuX-m. hat. axilla. Heb. azzel. It. ascclla. 
Svied. by met. axsel. Goth, ocksel. Germ, achsel. Anglo- 
Sax, ehsle, eaxle, and exia. Arm. asell. Corn, ascle. 

AsGAN, ain, s. m. A grig; a merry creature ; any thing be- 
low the natural size. 

AsGNAiL, j.y. The bosom ; armpit ; covering. See Asgall. 

Asgxag, aig, s.f. A fan for hand-winnowing. 

t AsiON, s.f. A crown, or coronet. — Ir. 

AsLACHADH, aidh, s. m. A supplicating, entreating; are- 
questing ; an entreaty or request. 

AsLACiiADii, (ag), ;)r. jMir^pf aslaich. Supplicating, begging, 

AsLADH, aidh, «. w. A supplication ; an entreaty. 

AsLAiCH, s.f. A bosom; armpit; breast. Sgian aslaich, 
a dirk ; na aslaich, in his bosom. — Stew. Pro. ref. 

AsLAiCH, r. Supplicate, beg, beseech, request. Pret. a. dh' 
aslaich, entreated ; fut. aff. a. aslaichidli, shall entreat. Nan 
aslaicheadh tu, if thou wjukUt tntreat. — Stew. Job. 

AsLONACH, a. Prone to tell; tattling. 

AsLONADH, aidh, s. m. A discovery, a telling. 

AsLUCHADii, aidh, *. m. A supplicating, an entreating; a 
supplication, an entreaty. Le gach uile asluchaidh, with 
all supplication. — Stew. Eph. 

AsLUCHADH, (ag), pr. part, of asluich. 

AsLuiCH, V. Supplicate,.«nlreat, beg, request. Written also 

Asjf AG, aig, s.f. A hand-winnow. A', pi. asnagan. 

AsNAGACH, a. {from asnag.) Of, or belonging to, a hand- 
winnow ; like a hand-winnow. 

Astar, air, >. m. {Gr. aanif. Lat. astrum, a wandering star. 
Ir. aisdear.) A journey ; a space ;-distance ; a way, a path. 
AT. pi. astara and astaran. Air astar gu dian, journti/ing 
with speed. — Oss. Fing. Astar nam faobh, the path of spoils 
or conquest.— Id. Fad air astar, far away ; an earb air 
astar, the roc afar off. — Oss. Conn. A gearradh a h-astar 
feadh thonn, cutting her way among the waves. — Oss. Lodin. 
Astar sheachd laithean, seven days' journey. — Stew. Gen. 
Cbluinnte an saltraich astar cian, t/ieir tread was heard at a 
great distance. — Old Poem. Ag astar o 'n ear, travelling 
from the east. — Fingalian Poem. 

AsTARAicn, r. (/rom astar.) Travel, journey. Pret.a.AV 
astaraich, travelled; fut. aff. a. astraichidh, shall or will 

AsTARAiCHE, s. «2. {frow astar.) A pedestrian, a traveller. 

iV-. pi. astraichean. 
AsTAUAiR, s. m. A porter. — //•. 
Astaran, n. pi. of astar. 
AsTARANAiCHE, s. A traveller, a pedestrian, 
t AsTAs, ais, s. m. A spear, or javelin ; a missile weapon. 

Lat. hasta. Ace. pi. hastas. 
A STEACH, or 's TEACH, adv. [san teach.] In, within; in the 

house. //•. id. 
As-THARRuiNG, S.f. An extract ; an abstract. Ir. as- 

As-TiiARRuiNG, ». a. Extract; abstract. 
As-TiiARiiuiNGEADH, idh, s. »/. The process of abstracting 

or of extracting ; an abstracting, an extracting. 
A STIGH, or 'sTiGH, adv. [i. e. san tigh.] In, within; in the 

house. Cuir 'stigh e, put it in ; bheil t-athair a stigh ? is 

your father in the house? 
AsTRACHADH, aidh, *. m. A travelling, a journeying. 
AsTRACHADH, (ag), pr. part, of astaraich. 
Astraichean, n. pi. of astaraiche. Travellers. 
AsTRANACH, aich, *. m. (from astar.) A traveller. 
At, v. Swell, puflTup, become tumid. Pret. a. dh'at, swelled ; 

fut. aff. a. ataidh, shall swell. Ataidh an t-eolas, knowledge 

puffeth up. — Stew. I Cor. Tha m' eudann air a h-atadh, 

my face is swelled. — Stew. Job. 
At, s. m. A swelling ; a tumour. At ban, a white swelling, 

— Tr. id. 
Ata, sub. verb. Am, art, is, are. 
Atach, aich, «. 7n. A request; a fermentation. — Ir. 
Ata'd, {for ata iad.) They are. Ni 's millse na 'rahil ata'd, 

sweeter they are than honey. — Sm. 
Atadii, aidh, s. m. A swelling, a tumour. Atadh b^n, a white 

Atadh, (ag), pr. part, of at. 
t Atail, a. Deaf. 
Ataim, (for ata mi.) I am. Lag ataim gun cUeist, weak I 

am, without doubt. — Sm. 
Ataimse, [ata mise], emfAa/ic/brwi o/" ataim. lam. Ataims' 

a labhairt, / am speaking. — Stew. Mat. 
Ataireachd, s.f. {from a.t), contraction for atmhonesichd. 

Swelling, raging, blustering ; a fermentation. Ataireachd 

lordain, the swelling of Jordan. — Stew. Jer. 
t Atais, s.f. Woe, grief, lamentation. 
Atan, ain, .$. m. A cap ; a garland, — Shaw. 
At-chuisle, s. Aneurism. 
Ath, a. Next; again. Air an ath l^th, 0,1 the next day. — 

Stew. John. An ath-bliadhna, ne.rt year; an aih-sheach- 

duin, the next week. 
Ath, in coiiipo&ition, denotes repetition, and inaj be cotnpouiided 

with every active vcrlj. It is equivalent tci the Latin re, again. 
Ath, s. m. A ford ; any shallow part of a river reaching from 

side to side. Ath na siil, the corner of the eye.—Macd. 
Ath, s. m. A kiln. Nur bha sinn san ^th le cheile, when we 

were in if he' kiln together. — Old Song. Ath-chruacliaidh, 

a drying kiln, a corn kiln; ath-bhrachaidh, a malt kiln; 

ath-chriadh chlach, a brick kiln; ath-a6il, a lime kiln; ath 

chlacha creadha, a brick kiln. Tre ath nan clacha creadha, 

through the brick kiln. — Stew. Sam. 
t Atjiach, aich, s. m. A space; also waves; a blast. Athach 

ga^ithe, a blast of wind. — Ir. id. 
Athach, aich, *. m. {from athadh, fear.) A giant, a cham- 
pion, a monster. A^. ;</. athaich, g-M^;^*. Oath ris an athach 

mh6r,^^/i/ with the mighty champion. — Oss. Cathula. Chun- 

naic sinn athaich, we saw giants. — Stnu. Numb. ref. 
Athach, a. (from athadh ) Timid, modest, bashful ; also 

monstrous, huge, fearful. Oganach athach, a bashful youth. 

A T H 

A T H 

— Oss. Taura. B' athach an tore a raWll e, tnorutrous vxu 
the boar that destroyed him. — Ons. Derm. 
Athadh, aidh, *. m. Fear, cowardice, timidity. — Old Song. 

Also a gust or blast of wind. 
Athaich, gen. sing, and n. pi. of athacb. 
Athaile, s.f. Inattention, neglect. 
Athailt, *.y; A mark, scar, impression ; vestige; trace. 
Atiiailteacii, a. {from athailt.) Full of scars or marks; 
causing a scar or mark ; of, or pertaining to, a scar ; like 
a scar. 
Athain, gen. sing, of athan; which see. 
Athainne, s.f. A firebrand. 
Athair, gen. sing, of athar. 
Athair, gen. athar, s. tn. A father; an ancestor. 

Gr. ■nraT»!j. Lat. pater. It. padre. Szotd. and Dan. 
fadder. Eng. father. Pers. phader. Fr. fpfetre; now 
written pere. Goth. atta. Germ. tad. 

Athair ceile, a fatherin-law ; literally a spouse's father. 
Athair baistidh, athair faosaid, a father confessor. N. pi. 
aithriche and aithrichean,/aMf r«. Aithriche Ardair stiiiiribh 
ur mac, ye fathers of Araar, guide your son. — Ardar. 

Athair is derived from the old Celtic at, father; whence 
are derived the Tartar and Turkish ata, father. Tobolsk, 
atai. Calm. Tart. atey. Phrygian and Thessalian, atta. 
Hung. atya. Arxa was a Greek term of respect to an 
aged man ; at signifies parent in atavus, great-grandfather. 
Carinth. atei. Mogul Tarfars, atzia. Bisc. aha., father. 
t Atiiaireag, eig, s.f. (athair.) An aunt by the father's' 

side. N. pi. athaireagan. 
ATHAiREiL,a. (athair-amhuil.) Fatherly, fatherlike, paternal. 
Athaireileachd, s.f. (athair.) Fatherliness. 
Athairich, v. Adopt; father. Pret. a. dh' athairich, 

adopted ; fut. aff. a. athairichidh, shall adopt. 
Athair-lus, s. m. Ground ivy. Ir. id. 
Athaiu-mhaoin, s. m. Patrimony. Sgap thu d' athair- 

mhaoin, you have squandered your patrimony. 
Athair-miiout, Athair miiortadii, aidh, s. m. Parricide. 

Dan. f-adder mort. 
Athair-miiortair, *. m. A parricide. 
Athair-thalmhainn, s. m. Yarrow, milfoil. 
Athais, s.f. {Jr. athais.) Leisure; ease: also reproach, 
rebuke. Gr. r,<iv)(j,oL. Fr. aise. English, ease. Corn, aise, 
gentle. Bheil thu air d' athais ? are j/ou a< /eiiure.' Thig 
air d' athais, come at leisure. Athais namhaid, the reproach 
of an enemy. — Old Poem. Gun dad athais, without any 
leisure, -without delay. — Old Song. 
t Athais, v. Rebuke, revile, reproach. Pret. a. dh' athais, 

rebuked; fut. aff. a. athaisidh, shall rebuke. 
Athaiseach, a. Slow, tardy, lazy, leisurely; rebuking, 
reviling. Com. and sup. athaisiche, more or most slow. 
Ir. aghaiseach and athaiseach. 
Athaiseaciid, s. f. {from athais.) Slowness, laziness, 

Athal, ail, *. m. A flesh hook. 

Athan, ain, s. m. A ford, a shallow; a shallow part of a 
river, reaching from bank to bank. JV. pi. athanna. Aig 
beul an athain bhkthadh an gaisgeach, at the mouth of the 
ford the hero was drowned. — Old Song. Athanna lordain, 
the fords of Jordan. — Stew. Judg. 
Athanna, n. pi. of athan. Fords. 

Athar, air, s. m. Sky, firmament; air, atmosphere. Gr. 
iifiif. Lat. Bsther. 

The Gael do not pronounce tK in atliar. The Latins made a 
similar omission, and wrote aer. 
Athar, gen. sing, of athair. 
Atharail, a. Ethereal, atmospheric. 

t Atharais, s.f. Mimicry, mocking ; ludicrous gesticulation. 
Athar-amhauc, s. tn. Aeroscopy. 
Athar-eolas, ais, s. m. Aeromancy. 
t Athargadh, aidh, jr. m. A sharp engagement, 
Athar-iOtl, s. Aerology. 

Atharla, s. a quey, a heifer. N. pi. atharlan. 
ATnAR-MHEiDH,j.m. A barometer. .N^. ;>/. athar-mheidhean. 
t Atharrach, a. Strange, curious, droll. 
Atharrach, aich, s. m. A change, an alteration, a removal. 
Atharrachadii, aidh, s. m. A changing, a flitting, alter- 
ing, removing; a change, alteration, removal; a version. 
Atharrachadh guilain, a changing of conduct. — Stew. Pro. 
Atharrachadh inntinn, a change of mind, repentance. — Stew. 
Cor. ref. Cha robh thu riamh air atharrachadh, you were 
never otherwise. 
Atharrachadh, (ag), pres. part, of atharraich. 
Atharrachail, a. Changeable; changing; alterative. 
Atharraich, Atharruich, v. a. Change, alter; remove; 
turn; budge; translate; flit. Pret. a. dh' atharraich, 
changed ; fut. aff. a. atharraichidh, shall change. Dh' ath- 
arraich e iad, he removed them. — Stew. Gen. Dh' atharruich 
e cuibhrionn mo shlualgh, he hath changed the portion of my 
people. — Stew. Mic. A shaor agus a dh' atharraich sinn, 
who delivered and translated us. — Stew. Col. 
Athbhach, aich, s. m. Strength. 
Ath-biiarr, «. »2. A second crop; an after crop. 
AtiibhAs, ais, *. m. A second death. 

Athbheachd, s.f. (ath, again, and beachd.) A retrospect; 
a second thought, an after thought, consideration, recon- 
Ath-bheothachadh, aidh, s. m. A reviving, a rekindling, 
a refreshing, reanimating. Rinn tlo bhriathran m' ath- 
bheothachadh, thy words have revived me. — Sm. 
Ath-bheothachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath bheothaich. 

Reviving, rekindling, refreshing, reanimating. 
ATH-BiiEOTHAcnAiL, (7. (JF. advywiawl.) Causing to revive, 

refresh, or rekindle. 
Ath-bheothaich, t'. (ath, atid beothaich.) fF. advywiaw, 
advywiocaw. Revive, refresh, rekindle, reanimate, quicken. 
Pret. a. dh' ath-bheothaich, jernerf; fut. aff'. a. ath-bheoth- 
aichidh, shall revive. Ath-bheothaich t-obair, revive thy 
work. — Stew. Heb. Dh' ath-bheothaicheadh e, he revived, 
became reanimated. — Stew. K. Ath-bheothaichidh e, he 
will refresh.- Stew. Pro. Ath-bheothaich mi, quicken me. 
— Smith. Ath-bheothaicli an teine, rekindle the fire. 
Ath-bheothaichidh, fut. aff. a. of ath-bheothaich. 
Ath-bheothaichte, p. ;Jar^ of ath-bheothaich. Revived, 

refreshed, reanimated, rekindled, quickened. 
Ath-biiliadhna, «. /". Next year ; a second year. Anns an 
ath-bhliadhna, in the next year. — Stew. Gen. Mu 'n trath 
so 'n ath-bhliadhna, about this time next year. 
Atii-bhreith, s. An after birth, a second birth; regene- 
ATn-BHRiATHAR,air, «. w«. Tautology; repetition; a second- 
hand saying. 
Ath-ehriathracii, a. Tautological. 
Ath-bhriataracha9, ais, s. m. Tautology, repetition. 
Ath-bhriathraiche, s.m. A tautologist; also one who 

uses second-hand expressions. 
f Ath bh ROD, v. Resuscitate, reawaken. Pret. a. dh' ath- 

Ath-bhuosnachadh, aidh, s. m. A rallying, a resuming 

of courage; a reinspiring with courage. 
Ath-bhrosnachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-bhrosnaich. 
Rallying; resuming courage; reinspiring with courage. 
Ag ar n-ath-bhrosnachadh, rallying us. 

A T H 

A T H 

Ath-bheosnaich, Ath-bhrosnuich, t. a. Rally; re- 
encourage ; resume courage. Pret. a. dh' ath-bhrosnaich, 
rallied ; dh' ath-bhrosnaich iad, tkey rallied; fut. aff. a. 
ath-bhrosnaichidh, shall or mil rally. 

Ath-bhrosnaichte, p. part, of ath-bhrosnaich. Rallied; 

Ath-bhuail, r. Strike again; beat again. Pret. a. dh' 
ath-bhuail, struck again ; fut. aff. a. athbhuailidh, shall 
strike again. Com' nach d' ath-bhuail thu do shleagh? 
why didst thou not again strike thy shield? — Oss. Gaul. 

Ath-bhuailidh, fut. aff. a. of ath-bhuail. 

Ath-bhuailte, p. part, of ath-bhuail. Struck again, beaten 
again, reconquered, or a second time conquered. Gu brath 
na piUibh ath-bhuailte, never come back reconquered. — Oss. 
Oi'mara. Sgrios ath-bhuailte, double destruction. — Stew.Jer. 

Atu-bhuain, v. Cut down, or shear again. 

Ath-bhualadii, aidh, s. m. A second striking; a recon- 
quering ; repercussion. 

Ath-bhuanaich, v. a. Regain, recover, gain a second 
time. Pret. a. dh' ath-bhuanaich, regained ; fut. aff. a. ath- 
bhuanaichidh, shall or will regain. 

Ath-bhuanaichte, pret. a. of ath-bhuanaich. Regained, 

ATH-BHUii>HiNjf, V. Regain, recover, repossess. 

^TH-BiiuiDHiNVEADH, idh, *. m. A regaining, a recover- 
ing, a repossessing. 

Ath-chagain, v. a. Chew again ; ruminate ; chew the cud. 

Ath-chagnacii, a. That chews the cud; ruminating. 
Ainmhidh ath-chagnach, an animal that chexcs the cud. 

Ath-ciiagxadh, aidh, s. m. A chewing of the cud; ru- 

Ath-ciiairicii, r. a. Repair, mend again. 

Ath-ciiairt, «.y. A granting a charter : renewal of a lease. 
Lat. adcartatio. 

Ath-cuaramh, s. A repairing, a mending a second time. 

Ath-chas, v. a. Retwist. 

Ath-chasaid, s.f. Second charge ; a second complaint. 

Ath-chasta, a. Retwisted ; strongly twisted. 

Ath-ciieanxachadii, aidh, s. m. The act of redeeming, a 
redeeming ; repurchasing. 

ATn-ciiEANXACiiADH (ag), pr. part, of ath-cheannaich. 
Redeeming ; repurchasing. Ag ath-cheannachadh na 
h-aimsir, redeeming the time. — Slevs. Col. 

Ath-ciieannaich, r. Redeem; repurchase. Pret. a. dh' 
ath-cheannaich, repurchased ; fut. aff. a. ath-cheannaichidh, 
thall repurchase ; fut. pass, ath-cheannaichear, shall be re- 

Ath-cueannaiciite, p. pari, of ath-cheannaich. Redeemed; 

Ath-cheassachadh, aidh, «. m. A re-examination. 

Ath-cheasnaich, v. a. Re examine. 

Ath-cheumnachadh, aidh, s. m. A repacing; a reca- 

ATn-ciiEUMNAicii, r. Repace, pace over again ; remeasure 
by pacing ; recapitulate. 

Ath-chleamiixas, ais, s. m. A connexion by a second 
marriage. Is fuar comain an h-ath-chleamhnais, bold is tie 
connexion with ajirst alliance after a second is formed. — G.P. 

Atii-ciixeadh, *. m. A second wound. Is leigh fear ath- 
chneadh, a man is a surgeon for his second wound. — G. P. 

Ath-ciioisicii, r. Repass ; travel again. Pre/, a. dh' ath- 
choisich ; fut aff. a. ath-choisichidh, shall or will repass. 

Atii-ciioisiciite, p. part, of ath-choisichte. Repassed, 

ATn-ciroiMiiEARAN, aiu, s. m. A register. 

Ath-ciioimiire, *./. An abridgment. 

Atii-chomain, «./. A requital, recompense; retaliation. 

t Ath-chomhairc, v. Shout again. 

Ath-chomhairleachadh, aidh, s. m. A readvising, a 

Atii-chomiiairleachadh (ag), pr.part. of ath-chomhair- 
lich. Readvising, readmonishing. 

Athchomhairlich, v. a. Readvise, readmonish. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-chomhairlich, readvised ; fvt . aff. a. ath-chomhair- 
lichidh, shall readvise. 

Ath-chomhairlichte, p. part, of ath-chomhairlich. Re- 
advised ; readmonished. 

Ath-chostas, ais, s. m. An after-cost. 

Ath-chre, Ath-chriadh, s. m. A brick-kiln. — Stew. Nah. 

Ath-chruinneaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A regathering ; a 
reuniting ; a rallying. 

Atii-chruinneachadh (ag), pr. part, of ath-chruinnich. 
Regathering ; rallying ; reuniting. 

Ath-ciiruinnich, t'. Regather ; reunite; rally. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-chniinnich, regathered ;fut. aff. a. ath-chruinnichidh, 
shall regather. 

Ath-ciiruinnichear, yu/. pas*, of ath-chruinnich. Shall 
be gathered again. 

Ath-chruinnichte, p. par/, of ath-chniinnich. Gathered 
again; reunited; rallied. 

Ath-chruthachadii, aidh, «. »2. A recreating; a regene- 
rating, regeneration, a reformation. Anns an ath-chrutha- 
chadh, in the regeneration. — Stew. Mat. ref. 

Ath-chruthachadh (ag), pr. part, of ath-chruthaich. Re- 
creating, regenerating. 

Ath-chrutiiaicii, v. a. Create again; regenerate, reform; 
reconstruct. Pret. a. dh' ath-chruthaich, regenerated ; fut. 
aff. a. alh-chruthaichidh, shall regenerate. 

Ath-ciiruthaichear, y«/. pa«^, of ath-chruthaich. Shall 
be regenerated. 

Ath-chruthaichte, p. pass, of ath-chruthaich. Regene- 
rated, reformed; reconstructed. 

Atii-chuimhne, s.f. Recollection, remembrance. 

Atii-ciiuimhneachadh, aidh, *. m. A recollecting, a re- 

Ath-chuimhneachadh (&g), pr. part, of ath-chuimhnich. 
Recollecting, remembering. 

Ath-chuimhnich, v. Recollect, remember, bring to mind 
again, put in mind a second time. 

t Ath-chuimirc, *./. A rehearsal of a cause.— 5^aa). 

Ath-chuinge, s.f. (Ir. id.) A prayer, petition, request, 
supplication. Ag iarruidh athchuinge bige, asking a small 
petition. — Stew. 1 K. Written also achuinge. The proper 
othography is perhaps ath-chuimhne ; i. e. a second putting 
in mind ; so the corresponding term in English, request, 
from the Lat. requiro, strictly, means a second asking. 

Ath-chuingeach, a. Supplicatory, petitionary, entreating; 
supplicant; like a prayer or petition ; of, or belonging to, 
a petition. 

Ath-chuingean, n. pi. of ath-chuinge.' 

Ath-chuinoiche, s. m. A petitioner, a supplicant. 

t Atii-chuir, v. a. Banish ; surrender. — /r. 

t Ath-chumaii», v. Deform, transform. 

t Ath CHUR, s. Banishment, exile. — Ir. 

Ath-dhan, dhkin, s. m. A byeword, byename, nickname. 
Bilhidh tu a d' ath-dhkn, thou shall be a byeword. — Stew. 
Deut. ref. 

Atii-dhiol, v. Repay, requite, recompense, refund. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-dhiol, repaid ; fut. aff. a. ath-dhiolaidh, shall repay. 
ath-dhiolaidh mise, / will repay.— Stew. 0. T. 

Atb-dhiol, Axn-DnioLADH, aidh, s. m. A restitution, 
a requital, a repayment, a requiting, a recompensing, re- 
funding ; retaliation. Mar ath-dhiol air caoimhneas, as u 
requital of kindness. — Mac Lach. 

A T H 

A T H 

Atii-diiioladii (ag), pr. part, of athdhiol. Requiting, re- 
paying-, refunding, recompensing. 
ATii-DnioLTA, a. Requited, repaid, recompensed, refunded. 
Atii-diiruid, v. Sliut again, close again. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
dhruid,**!/^ again ; fut. aff. a. ath-dhruididli, shallshut again. 
ATn-DHRViDTE, p. part, of ath-dhruid. Shut or closed again. 
Ath-dht>blaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A redoubling, a redupli- 
Atii-dhublachadh, (ag), pr. part, of athdhublaich. Re- 
Atii-duubiilaicii, r. (ath, again, and dublaich.) Redouble. 
Prcl. a. dh' ath-dhublaich, redoubled: fut. aff. a. ath- 
dhublaichidli, ahall or will redouble; fut. pass, ath-dhu- 
blaichear, shall be redoubled. 
ATii-Diiu3LAiciiTE,p. part, of alh-dhublaich. 
Ath fiias, s. m. Aftergrowth, second growth, second crop. 
Athfhear, fhir, *. m. A second man, a second thing. 
An t-ath-fhear, the next man, or second man; the next or 
second object or thing. — Utew. 1 Chron. ref. 
Ath-fhuarachadii, aidh, s. m. A recooling, the act of 

cooling again, or a second time. 
Atii FnuARACiiADii, (ag), pr.part. of ath-fhuaraich. Re- 
Atii-fhuaraich, v. Recool; cool again. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
fhuaraich, recooled; fut. aff. a. ath-fhuaraichidli, shall or 
Kill recool, 
Atii-fhuaraichte, p. part, of ath fhuaraich. Recooled. 
Atii-ghabh, r. Retake, recover, regain, resume. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-ghabh, regained ; fut. aff. a. atli-ghabhaidh, shall 
or will retake ; fut. pass, ath-gliabhar, sliall be retaken. 
Ath-ghabiite, p. part, of ath-ghabh. Retaken, recovered, 

regained, resumed. 
Atii-ghearr, a. Short, brief, quick. Gu h-aith-gliearr, 

shortly, briefly, quickly. 
Ath-giiearr, v. Abridge, shorten, cut again. Pret. a. dh' 

'ath-ghearr, abridged; fut. off. a. dh' ath-ghearr. 
Ath-ghearrachadh, a^h, s. m. The act of abridging, 

an abbreviating, an abbreviation, an abridgment. 
ATii-GHEARRACHADH,(ag),/)r.;»jr^ Abridging, abbreviating. 
Ath-giiearrad, aid, s. m. Shortness, briefness. 
Ath-giiearradh, aidh, s.m. An abbreviation, a shortening; 

a second cutting. 
Atii-ghearradu, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ghearr. 
Ath-giiearraicii, v. Abridge, abbreviate. Pret. a. dh' 
ath-p,hearraich, abridged; fut. aff. a. ath-ghearraichidh, 
-' shall abridge. 
Ath-o II earraiciite, p. part, of ath-ghearraichte. Abridged, 

Atii-gihn, r. Regenerate, renew, produce a second time ; 
recreate, renovate. Pret. a. dh' alh-ghin, ri generated; 
fut. aff. a. ath-ghiridh, shall regenerate. 
Ath-ghiseamiiuinn, *. /. Regeneration; reproduction. 
Anns an ath-ghineamhuinn, in the regeneration. — Slew. Mat. 
Written also afh-ghinmhuinn and ath-ghiontuinn. 
Atii-oiunmhuinn, s.f. A regeneration ; reproduction. 
ATH-GHiNrE./).par<. ofath-ghin. Regenerated; reproduced. 
Atii-ghiontuisn, s./. A regeneration ; a reproduction. 
Atii-ghlac, r. a. Retake, resume, catch again, apprehend 
a second time. Pret. a. dh' ath-ghlac, retook; fut. aff. a. 
ath-shiacaidh, shall or will retake ; fut. pass, ath-ghlacar, 
shall be retaken. — Ir. id. 
Atii-gklacte, p. part, of athlac. Retaken, recaught, re- 
' apprehended. 

Arii-GiiLAN, I. n. Repolish, refine, recleanse. Pret. a. Ah! 
ath-ghlan, reyolishcd ; fut. aff. a. ath-ghlanaidh, shall re- 
polish ; fut. (iff. a. ath-ghlanar. 

Ath-giilan, r. n. Recleanse, repolish, refine, furbish, scour. 
Pret. a. dh' ath-ghlan, rccleansed ; fut . aff. a. ath-ghlanaidh, 
shall or will recleanse. 

Ath-ghlanadh, aidh, s. m. A recleansing; the act or the 
process of recleansing. 

Atii-ghlanadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ghlan. Repolishing, 
recleansing, or furbishing. 

Ath-giilaxta, /). part, of ath-ghlan. Recleansed, re- 
polished, furbished, scoured, burnished. — //•. id. 

Ath-ghoirrid, s. a short time, a moment. 

Ath-iarr, r. a. Seek again ; request. Pret. a. dh' ath-iarr, 
sought again. 

Ath-iarrtas, ais, s. m. A request; a second asking or 
seeking; a second order; repetitions as in prayer. N. pi. 
ath-iarrtais, repetitions. Ah-iarrtais dhiomhain, vain repe- 
titions. — Stew. Mat. 

Arii-iAUViAivH, {ag), pr. part. Requesting; seeking again. 

Atii-lamii, a. Ready, expert, ready-handed. 

Ath-lAn, s. m. A refilling. 

Atii-lAnh MARA, s. Ncxt tide, reflux of the sea. 

Atii-latii, s. m. Next day. 

Ath-lathachadh, aidh, s. m. A procrastinating, procras- 

Ath LATiiAiCH, V. Procrastinate, delay. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
lathaich, procrastinated ; fut. aff. a. aih-lathaichidh, shall 
or will procrastinate. 

Ath-leasachadh, aidh, s. m. A reforming, amending, re- 
formation, amendment, correction, an amelioration, im- 
provement. Ath-leasachaidh obair, amendments [additions] 
of work. — Stew. 1 K. 

Ath-leasachadh, (ag), pr. ;;ar^. of ath-leasaich. Reform- 
ing, amending, ameliorating, correcting. 

Ath-leasachair, s. m. A reformer, a corrector. N. pL 

Ath leasaich, i'. a. Reform, amend, ameliorate, correct, 
improve. Pret. a. dh' alh-leasaich, reformed ; fut. aff. a. 
ath-leasaichidh. Athleasaich do chomhradh agus do 
bheusan, amend thy conversation and manners. — Old Poem. 

Ath-leasaichte, p. part, of ath-leasaich. Reformed, 
amended, ameliorated, corrected, improved. 

Ath-leum, v. n. Rebound ; spring or jump again. Dh' 
ath-leum, rebounded. 

Ath-leumartaich, i./. A rebounding; a continued jump- 
ing or bounding. 

Ath-lion, v. a. Refill, recruit, replenish, reflow. Pret. a. 
dh' ath lion, refilled; fut. aff. a. atlilionaidh, shall or wilt 

Ath-lionadh, aidh, s. m. A refilling, a replenishing, re- 
cruiting, reflowing. Ath-lionadh feachd, a recruiting of 
the army; ath-lionadh na mara, a reflowing of the sea. 
Ath-lionadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-lion. Refilling, re- 
plenishing, recruiting. 
Ath-mhalairt, s.f. A re-exchange ; a second bargain. 
Ath-miialairtich, v. a. Re-exchange; make a second 

Ath-mhalairticiite, p. part, of ath-mhalairtichte. 
Ath-mheal, v. a. Re-enjoy. Pret. a. dh' ath-mheal, re- 
enjoyed; fut. aff. a. ath-mhealaidh. 
Ath-mhealtuinn, «./. A re-enjoying, re enjoyment. 
ATn-Muii,\LTUiNN, (ag), pr.part.of ath-mheal. Re-enjoying. 
Ath-neartachadh, aidh, s. m. A restrengthcning, a re- 
cruiting, a reinforcing, a reinforcement. 
Ath-neartachadh, (ag), pr.part. of ath-neartaich. Re- 

strenglhening, reinforcing. 
Ath-neartaciiail, a. Strengthening. Leigheas ath- 
neartachail, a strengthening medicine. 


Ath-neartaich, v. a. (ath, again, and neart.) Reinforce, 
recruit, restrengthen, refresh, renew. Fret. a. dW atli-near- 
taich, recruited ; fut. aff. a. ath-neartaichidh, shall recruit. 

Atii-xuadhachadh, aidh, s. m. A renewing, a renovating, 
renewal, renovation, redintegration. Ath-nuadhachadh 
bhur n-inntinn, the renewal of i/ our minds. — Stew. N. T. 

Ath-xuadhachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-nuadliaich. 

Ath-nuadhaich, t'. Renew, renovate, redintegrate. Pret. 
a. dh' ath-nuadhaich, renewed ; fut . aff. a. ath-nuadhaichidh, 
thall or will renew ; fut. pass, ath-nuadhaichear, shall be 
renewed ; ath-nuadhaichear a bhliadhna, the year shall be 
renewed. — Macfar. 

Ath-nuadhaichte, p. part, of ath-nuadhaich. Renewed, 
renovated. Tha gach ni ath-nuadhaichte, every thing is 
renewed. — Sm. 

Ath-phill, v. a. Return, turn again. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
phill, returned; fut. aff. a. ath-phillidh, shall or will return ; 
ath-phillidh a ghaoth, the wind shall return. — Stew. Pro. 

Atii-philleadh, idh, s. m. A returning, a return, a coming 
back. Bhiodh ath-philleadh mar ghrian, his return would 
be like the sun. — Ardar. 

Ath-philleadh, (ag),;^ of ath-phill. Returning. Tha 
sibh ag ath-philleadh, you are returning again. — Stew. Gal. 

Ath-philltinn, s.f. A returning. 

ATH-RiiTEACHAiL, fl. Recouciliatory, pacificatory. 

ATH-niiTEACHADH, aidh, *. m. A reconciliation, a recon- 
ciling, reconcilement ; atonement, expiation ; a second dis- 
entangling; a second clearing or arranging. 

ATH-RiiTEACHADH, (ag), pr. part, of ath-reitich. Recon- 
ciling, pacifying ; re-expiating, re-atoning ; disentangling 
again ; clearing anew. 

Ath-r£itich,V. a. Reconcile; re-expiate, re-atone ; disen- 
tangle again ; clear again ; re-arrange. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
reitich, reconciled; fut. aff. a. ath-reitichidh. 

Ath-r£itichte, p. part, of ath-reitich. Disentangled again ; 
cleared again. 

Ath-roinn, ».y. A subdivision ; a second division. 

Ath-roinn, v. a. Subdivide; divide again. Pret. a. dh' 
ath-roinn, subdivided; fut. aff. a. ath-roinnidh, shall divide. 

Ath-roinnte, p. part, of ath-roinn. Subdivided. 

Ath-ruadhar, v. Dig or delve again. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
ruadhar, dug again. 

Ath-ruadhradh, aidh, s. m. A second digging or delving. 

Ath-ruadhradh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ruadhar. Digging 
or delving again. 

Atii-sdiCtir, v. a. Steer again; reconduct. Pret. a. dh' 

Ath-sgal, *. m. A second squall; an echo ; the echo of a 
bag-pipe, or of any loud and shrill sound. 

Ath-sgath, v. a. Reprune, lop agaiu, cut down again. 
Pret. a. dh' ath-sgath, repruned ; fut. aff'. a. ath-sgathaidh, 
shall reprune. 

At H-SG E u i.,gen. ath sgeolt , or ath-sgeil. A tale at second-hand. 

Ath-sgriobh, r. a. Write again ; transcribe. Pret, a. AW 
ath-sgriobh, transcribed ; fut. aff. a. ath-sgriobhaidh, «Aa// 

ATH-SGRioBHADH,(ag),/jr.par^. of ath-sgriobh. Transcribing. 

Ath-sgriobhadh, aidh, .?. m. A transcribing, a transcript. 

Ath-sgriobh AIR, s. m. A transcriber. N. pi. ath- 

Ath-sgriobh AR, /uf. pass, of ath-sgriobh. Shall be tran- 

Ath-sgriobiite, p. part, of ath-sgriobh. Re-written, tran- 
Ath-shaor, t'. a. Re-deliver. Pret. a. dh' ath-shaor, re- 
delivered; fut. aff. a. ath-shaoraidh, shall re-deliver. 


Ath-shaoradh, aidh, s. m. A re-delivering, re-deliverance. 
Ath-shaoradh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shaor. Re-delivering. 
Ath-shaorta,p. ;)ar<. of ath-shaor. Re-delivered. 
Ath-shaothrachail, a. Painstaking, assiduous. 
Ath-shealbhachadh, aidh, s. m. A repossessing, re- 
inheriting ; reversion ; re-investment. 
Ath-shealbhachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shealbhaich. 

Re-possessing, re-inheriting. 
Ath-shealbiiaich, «-'. a. Re-possess, re-inherit. Pret. a. Ah! 

ath-shealbhaich, re-possessed; fut. aff'. a. ath-shealbhaichidh, 

shall repossess. 
Ath-shealbhaichte, JO. par/, of ath-shealbhaich. Re-pos- 
sessed, re-inherited. 
Ath-sheall, v. n. Look again. Pret. a. dh' ath-sheall, 

looked again; fut. aff'. a. ath-sheallaidh, shall look again. 
Ath-shealladh, aidh, s. m. A second look ; retrospect; 

a second sight, a second view. 
Ath-shealltuinn, *./. A second looking, a second viewing. 
Ath-shealltuinn, (ag), pr. part, of ath-sheall. Looking 

or viewing again. 
Ath-smuaine, s.f. A second thought, an after-thought. 

N. pi. ath-smuaintean, after-thoughts. 
Ath-smuainteachadh, aidh, «. m. A re-considering, 

pondering, reflecting. 
Ath-smuainteachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-smuaintich. 

Reconsidering, pondering, reflecting. 
Ath-smuainteachail, a. Apt to reflect, considerate. 
Ath-smuaintean, n. pi. of ath-smuaine. Second thoughts, 

Ath-smuaintich, v. a. Re-consider, ponder, meditate, 

reflect. Pr. a. dh' ath-smuaintich, re-considered. 
ATii-sHNAMii.r.a. Re-swim, swim over again. Pre/, a. dh'ath- 

shnamh, re-swam; fut. aff. a. ath-shnamhaidh, shall re-swim. 
Ath-shnamhadh, aidh, s. m. A re-swimming, a swimming 

a second time, a swimming back again. 
Ath-shnamhadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shnamh. Re-swim- 
ming, swimming back again. 
Ath-shnamhta, p. part, of ath-shnamh. Swum over a 

second time. 
Ath-thagh, v. a. Reflect; re-choose, make another choice. 

Pret. a. dh' ath-thagh, re-elected; fut. aff. a. atli-thaghaidh, 

shall or will re-elect. 
Ath-thaghadh, aidh, s. m. A re-election, a re-choosing, 
Ath-thaghta, p./)ar/. of ath-tliagh. Re-electing, re-choosing. 
Ath-theachd, s. a second coming, next arrival. 
Ath-the6gh, v. a. Warm again. Pret. a. dh' ath-tlieogh, 

warmed again; fut. aff. a. ath-theoghaidh, shall or will 

warm again. 
Ath-the6ghadh, aidh, s. m. Warming a second time. 
Ath-the6ghadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-the6gh, re-warming. 
Ath-thighinn, s. a second coming; next arrival. Ath- 

thighinn an teachdair, the next arrival of the messenger. 
Ath-thionndadh, X'. Return a second time. Pret. a. Ah! 

ath-thionndadh ; fut. aff. a. ath-thionndaidh. 
Ath-thionndadh, aidh, *■. m. A second return; a causing 

to turn a second time ; an eddy. Gaoth air luing, gaoth 

tre thoU, is gaoth ath-thionndadh : bad winds, wind in a 

ship, wind through a hole, and an eddy-wind. — G. P. 
Ath-thionnsgain, v. Re-commence, resume, re-devise. 

Pret. a. dh' ath-thionnsgain, re-commenced. 
Ath-thionnsgnadh, aidh,.s.»i. A re-commencing, a re-com- 
mencement, a resuming, a re-devising. JV. pi. ath-thionn- 

Ath-thoo, r. a. Rebuild, rear again, lift or rise again. 

Pret. a. dh' ath-thog, rebuilt; fut. aff. a. ath-thogaidh, 

shall or uill rebuild; fut. pass. dXh-thogdit. 



Atii-thooail, thogalach, ». f. A rebuilding, a second 
rearing, raising, or lifting. 

Ath-thoota, pr. part, of ath-thog. Rebuilt. 

Ath-tii5iseachadh, aidh, *. m. A re-cominencing, a re- 
suming, a re-commencement. 

Ath-th6isicii, r. Re-commence, resume. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
tboisich, re-commenced ; Jut. off. a. atli-thoisichidh, ikali or 
will re-commence. 

Atii-threorachadii, aidh, s.m. A re-conducting, re-guiding. 

Ath-threorachadii (ag), pr. part, of ath-threoraich. Re- 
conducting, re-guiding. 

Ath-tiiiie6raich, r. a. Re-condnct, re-guide. Pret. a. dh' 
ath-thre6raich, re-conducted ; fut. aff. a. ath-thre6raichidh, 
shall re-conduct ; Jut. pass, ath-threoraichear, shall be re- 
conducted. Written sometimes ath-threoruich. 

Ath-thre6raichte, p. part, of ath-threoraich. 

Ath-thi;isle, s.f. A second fall, a second stumble. 

Ath-thuisleachadh, aidh, s. m. A second falling ; a 
second slipping or stumbling ; a relapse. Ath-thuisleachadh 
tinneis, a relapse into sickness. 

Atii-tiiuisleaciiadh, (ag, pr. part, of ath-thuislich. Re- 
lapsing ; faUing again ; slipping or stumbling a second time. 

Ath-thuislich, v. Fall or stumble again; relapse. 
Pret. a. dh' ath-thuislich, relapsed; fut, aff. a. ath-thuis- 
lichidh, shall relapse. 

Ath-thuit, v. n. Fall again, or a second time. Pret. a. dh' 
Ath-tiimt, fell again ; fut. aff. a. ath-thuitidh, «Aa///a// again. 

Ath-thuiteam, eim, s. m. A second fall; a relapse. 

Atii-tiiuth, s. a second thatching; a second cover. 
IV. attuth. 

Atii-tiiuth, v. a. Thatch again. Pret. a. dh' ath-thuth, 
re-thatched : fut. aff. ath-thuthaidh, shall or •will re-thatch. 

Ath-thutiite, p. part, of ath-thuth. Thatched again. 

Ath-uair, s. Next time ; second time. An ath-uair a 
thig e, the next time he comes. 

Ath-uamharra, Ath-uamharrach, a. Abominable, 
odious, execrable, detestable, horrid, terrible. — Ir. id. 

Ath-uamharrachd, s.f. Abomination, detestation; hate- 
fulness, atrociousness, abominableness. 

ATH-URArHADH, aidh, «. m. A renewing, reviving, refresh- 
ing, a reanimating; a regenerating; a renewal, renovation, 
a revival, reanimation; regeneration. Anns an ath-iirachadh, 
in the regeneration. — S/eii>. Mat. ref. Tha e air ath- 
itrachadii, he is rerived. 

Ath-Orachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ilraich. Renewing, 
reviving, refreshing, reanimating, regenerating. 

Athi>raicii, v. a. Revive, refresh, renew, renovate ; reani- 
mate ; regenerate. Pret. a. dh' ath-iiraich, retired ; Jut. 
aff. a. ath-uraichidh, shall renew ; dii' ath-iiraich an cath, 
the battle renexved. — Old Poem. 

Ath-uraichte, p. part, of ath-uraich. Revived, refreshed, 
renewed, renovated ; re-animated ; regenerated. 

Atmhoire, com. and sup. of atmhor. More or most swelling 
or turgid. 

Atmhoireachd, s.f. A tendency to swell, turgidness ; 
pride, vanity; bombast, boisterousness ; the state of being 
swelled, or puffed up. Atmhoireachd nar measg, sitellingt 
(of pride) amongst you. — Steu\ 2 Cor. 

Atmhor, a. (at ««?/ mor.) Swelling; raging; turgid ; boister- 
ous; bombast. Briathran atmhor, *a'f//t«^ a'ortis. — Utexe. 
2 Pet. Na aonar sa chuan atmhor, alo7ie on the raging 
ocean. — Oss. Gaul. Com. and sup. atmhoire, more or must 

Athte, o. and p. ;>«/•/. of at. Swelled, swollen, puffed up, 
in a rage. 

t AuR, s. m. Gold. This is an ancient Celtic word, now 
in disuse among the Gael, but often heard among their 
brother Celts in Brittany. Hence Gr. av^ot, gold ; aufo?, rich; 
and dttr-av^ot, treasury. Lat. aur-um, gold; thes-aurus, 
a treasury. Aur is now written or ; which see. 


B, b, (beith, birch.) The second letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 
It sounds somewhat harder than b, and softer than p, in 
English. When immediately followed by h, it has an 
aspirated sound like v in English. As, bhuail, struck; 
bhac, hindered. At the end of a word, however, or of a 
syllable, the aspiration is so feeble as not always to be 
perceived ; passing into the sound of the vowel ji ; as, 
searbh, bitter; fiabhras, /crer; dabhach, vat. 

'B, (for a bu.) Who was, who wert, who wereT which was, 
which wast, which were. 

B' {Jhr bu.) Was, wert, were. Co b' urradh comhrag ri 
Dearg ? who was able to contend with Dargo ? — Oss. Dargo. 
B' iomad oigh san l^th sin dubhach, iTiany were the maidens 
on that day sorrowful. — Ull. 

Ba, s.f. (Ir. bath.) Cow, cows. An aite gu m^naich 
bithidh geum ba, instead of the voice of a monk, there shall 
be the lowing of corvs. — 5^ Columbu. Seachd ba, seven 
cows. — Stew. Gen. Written more frequently bb. 

t Ba, *. Immersion; hence baist, baptize. Ba is now 
written bUfh. 

t Ba, o. Good, honest ; simple-minded. — Ir. 

t Ba, s. m. Death. 

Bab, s. m. (Ir. id.) A babe. — Shaw. 

Babag, aig, *./. A tassel; a fringe; a cluster; short pieces 
of yarn. An lili na bhabagan cruinn, the lily in round 
clusters. — Macdon. N, pi, babagan. 

Babagach, a. Having tassels or fringes; like a tassel, 
fringe, or cluster ; of, or belonging to, tassels, fringes, or 
clusters. Com. and sup. babagaiche, more or most fringed 
or tasselled. 

BABAiG,gen. sing, of babag. 

Baban, ain, *. m. A tassel; a fringe; short pieces of 
thread. N. pi. babana. 

Babanach, a. (from baban.) Having tassels or fringes; 
of, or belonging to, tassels or fringes. Com. and sup. ba- 

t Babiiachd, *. /. Innocence, harmlessness, simplicity, 
sweetness of temper. 

Baehaid, s.f. A tassel. N. pi. babhaidean. 

Babhaideach, a. Hung with tassels ; like a tassel. 

Babhuinn, gen. sing, and n. pi. of babhunn. 

Babhuinneach, a. (from babhunn.) Having bulwarks; 
like a bulwark ; of, or pertaining to, a bulwark. 

Babiiunk, uinn, ,v. A bulwark, rampart ; tower; enclosure; 
a place for milking cattle. babhuinn, and babh- 
uinnean. Brisidh iad a babhuinn, they shall break her 
bulwarks. — Stew. Ezek. 

t Bac, s. m. A boaf Ir. bac. Gr. jiux-'n. Hence also 
the German back, meaning a vessel in general. Fr. bacette. 
English, bucket. Scotch, backet. 

Bag, *. m. (Portug. baque, a fall.) A hinderance, interrup- 
tion, impediment, delay ; a hollow; a thowl, or the fulcrum 



of an oar ; the notch of a spindle , a crook ; a hook ; the 

hinge of a door. Cuir bac air, hinder him. Cogull ramh 

air na bacaibh, the friction of oars on the thoteh. — Macfar. 

Bac na h-achlais, the armpit ; bac na ruighe, the armpit ; 

bac na h-iosgaid, the hough ; bac nacruachaina, the haunch. 

N. pi. bacan ; dat. pi. bacaibh. 
Bag, c. a. Interrupt, hinder, obstruct, oppose, stop, prevent; 

lame. Pret. a. bhac, prevented ; fut. aff. a. shall prevent ; 

bac an aoibhneas, interrupt their joy. — Oss. 
Bacach, a. {Ir. bacach. Swed. backug.) Lame, cripple, 

halt ; causing hinderance, obstruction, or delay ; hilly ; of 

uneven surface, rugged ; also, substantivelj/, a lame person. 

Duine bacach, a lame man or cripple. ^Stew. Lev. Bacach 

air aon chois, lame on one leg ; bacach air a dhachois, lame 

on both his legs. — Stetu. 2 K. Aite bacach, a rugged place ; 

na bacaich, the lame. — Stew. Mat. 
Bacadh, aidh, *. m. The act or circumstance of hindering, 

preventing, or obstructing; an opposing, a hinderance, 

obstruction, delay. 

Bacadh, (a), pres. part, of bac. Preventing, hindering, 
obstructing, stopping. 

Bacag, aig, s.f. {dim. o/bac.) A little hollow; also a trip, 

a stumble, a fall. N. pi. bacagan. 
Bacaich, v. a. Lame ; stop, obstruct, oppose. Pret. a. 

bhacaich, lamed; fut. off. a. bacaichidh, shall lame. 
Bacaiche, s.f. Lameness. Ir. bacuidhe. 
Bacaiche, cum. and sup. of bacach. More or most lame or 

Bacaichead, eid, s. Lameness, increase in lameness, Tha 

e dol am bacaichead, he is growing more and more lame. 
Bacaichidh, fut. aff. a. of bacaich. Shall or will make 

Bacaid, 5./. A bucket. Sco/cA, backet. JV. p/. bacaidean. 
Bacaidh,/u<. aff. a. of bac. Shall or will hinder. See Bag. 
Bacaiseagh, a. {from bac.) Obstructive, hindering. 
Bacal, ail, s. m. {from bac.) An obstacle, hinderance, 

interruption, a stop ; a thowl, or fulcrum of an oar ; rareli/ 

a slave ; a prisoner. N. pi. bacalan ; dat. pi. bacalaibh. 
Bagaladh, aidh, s. m. An oven; a bakehouse. Ir. ba- 

t Bagalta, a. {Ir. id.) Baked.— 5^aa). 
Bagan, ain, s. m. A tether stake ; a palisade ; a hook ; a 

crook ; a door hinge ; a stake of any kind ; a knoll. An 

smeorach air bacan, the mavis perched upon a stake. — 


Bacan AGH, a. {from bacan.) Like a palisade, like a stake, 
full of palisades ; knolly. 

Bagar,/«^. pass, of bac. Shall or will be hindered. 

Bach, gen. bacha, s. m. Drunkenness, revelling, rioting. 
{Ir. bach. Lat. Bacch-us, the god of wine and of revels.) 
Bach-thinneas, sickness occasioned by excess in drinking; a 
surfeit.— Macd. Bach-thoirm, the noise of revelry.— Old Song. 

tBACH,«. »i. A breach; a violent attack ; a surprise; also 
loving. Ir. bach. 

t Baghaid, *./. The boss of a shield. Ir. bachoide. 
Bachaill, t. a. Clip round, trim. Pret. a. bhachaill; 
fut. aff a. bachaillidh. 

Bachair, s. m. {from bach.) A drunkard, a tippler; a 
reveller, a riotous man. 

Bachaikeachd, *./. (/row bachair.) Continued drinking; 

the practice or habit of drinking to excess, drunkenness ; 

riotousness, revelling. 

Baciiali,, aill, s. See Bachull. 

Baciianta, a. Clamorous; garrulous. It. baccano, a 

Bachantachd, 4./. Clamorousness ; garrulousness. 

Bachar, air, s. m. The herb lady's glove. Ir. bachar. 
Lat. baccar. 

Bachd. See Bag. 

Bachdach, a. See Bacach. 

Bachdaiche, s.f. See Bacaiche. 

Baghdanach, a. Noisy, tumultuous, contentious. 

t Baghladh, aidh, s. m. {Ir. bachla.) An armful ; a cup, 
a chalice. 

Bachlach, a. Curled. Ir. bachlach. 

Bach LAG, aig, s.f. A ringlet, a small curl in the hair; a 
lisp, or halt in speech, 

Bachlagach, a. (yrow bachlag.) Curled; having curls or 
ringlets; full of curls or ringlets; like a curl or ringlet; 
bushy as hair. Fait bachlagach dualach, curled luxuriant 
hair. — Macint. A chiabha bachlagach, his bushy locks. — 
Stew. Song. Sol. Co7n. and sup. bachlagaiche, more or most 
. Bag-la mh, s. m. A manacle, a handcuff. 

Bag-lamhach, a. Disabled in hand or arm; preventing 
the free use of one's hand or arm. 

Bagh-thinneas, eis, s. m. Sickness occasioned by exces- 
sive drinking ; a surfeit. — Macd. 

Bagh-thoium, s. The noise of revelling. — Old Song. 

Bach-thorman, ain, s. m. The noise of revelling. 

Bachull, uill, s. m. {Lat. bacul-um. Spati. baculo. 
It. bacchio. Ir. bachol. Corn, and Arm. bagl.) A staff; 
a shepherd's crook ; a crosier ; the rim of a cart. 

The pastoral staff among the primitive Christians of Britain was 
called bahiil and bachul, from the Latin baculus, which, like the 
lituus of the augurs, was, according to Cicero, crooked. Romuli 
lituus, id est, incurvum, et leviter a summo inflexum bacillum. 
From the circumstance of its being crooked, it was also called 
cam-bhatta, or catn-bhiit, i. e. a crooked staft". The crosier of 
Columbarius, we are told, who, in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, founded the monastery of Bobio in Italy, was 
c.illed cambhatta, or cambutia.—See Theodor. Monach. de Vita 
Sancti Mag. torn. i. It may iiere be observed, that, by virtue 
of an ancient grant from an Earl of Argyll, a piece of land in the 
island of Lismore is held on condition that the holder do keep and 
take care of the baculus of Maiuag, from whom its church is named. 
Hence the holder is called Baran a Bhachuill, or the Landholder 
of the Baculus. 

Baghullach, a. Like a staff, crook, or crosier; relating 
to a staff, crook, or crosier ; provided with a rim as a cart ; 
curled as hair; having ringlets, D' fbalt bachullach, thy 
curled hair. — Macint. 

Bacracii, aich, s. m. The name of a certain British Druid, 
of whom it is said that he apprized his prince of our 
Saviour's passion, at the very time when it happened, by 
means of a solar eclipse. 

B'ad, {for b' iad, i. e. bu iad.) It was they. 

BAd, baid, s. m. {IV. bad. Swed. bat. Ir. hM. Fr. bateau.) 
A boat; N. pi. badaichean. More frequently written bat ; 
which see. * 

Bad, baid, s. m. ; n. pi. badan. A tuft ; a bunch, cluster; a 
wisp ; thicket, clump, copse, grove. Morblieinn nam bad, 
woody Morven. — Oss. Gaul. Gabhaidh sibh bad, you shall 
take a hunch.-^Stew. Exod. Balbh mar bhadan na h'oidhche, 
quiet as the grove of evening mild. — Oss. Fing. Bad- 
mullaich, a top tuft or cluster ; the hair on the top of the 

BAdan, n. pi. of bad ; which see. 

Badan, ain, .5, OT. ((/™. of bad); n. pi. hadain. A little tuft; 
a tuft or clump of trees ; a thicket ; a grove ; a tuft of 
hair, Badan coille, a tuft of wood ; a clump or grove. — 
Stew. Ex. Ghearr e na badain, he cut down the thickets. — 
Oss. Comal. 

Badanach, a. {from badan.) Tufty, bushy, bunchy; 
clustered, in tufts, in bushes, bunches, or clusters ; abound- 


B A I 

ing in thickets, groves, or clumps; like a thicket, grove, or 
clump ; of, or belonging to, a thicket, grove, or clump. An 
sobhrach a chinneas badanach, the primrose that grou-s in 
tufts. — Macilon. Bkn an f hraoich bhadanaich, the top of 
the bunchy heath, — Old Song. Com. and sup. badanaiche, 
more or most tufty. 

Badh, s. {Ir. badh.) Friendship, affection, love; also a 
promise, a bond. 

Badh, baidh, *. A harbour, a bay, a creek, an estuary. 
Sronbhkidh, or Stronbh^idh, Slornoway, literally the nose 
of the bay. 

Badhacii, a. (from badh.) Loving, kind, affectionate, 
friendly ; also beloved. I'reasdal badhach, affectionate 
Freasdal. — Fingalian Poem. A laoich mhcidhich bhadhaich, 
thou mild and friendly hero. — Death of Carrit. Com. and 
svp. badhaiche, jnore or most kind. 

Badhacii, (7. {fromhz.A\\, harbour.) Abounding in bays or 
harbours, creeks or estuaries ; like a bay or harbour ; of, 
or belonging to, a bay or harbour, creek, or estuary. 

Badhachd, s.f. {from badh.) Kindness, affectionateness, 
friendliness ; the state of being beloved. 

Badhan, ain, s. m. {dim. o/badh.) A little harbour, a creek, 
a narrow estuary, a road for ships ; rarely a bulwark. 

Badsadh, aidh, *. m. Provision for a. journey , viaticum. — 
Macd. Perhaps biatsadh.' 

Bag, baig, *. m. A bag, a pock; a stomach, a belly. Bag 
pioba, the bag of a pipe. N. pi. bagaichean. 

Bagacii, a. {from bag.) Ir. bagach. Corpulent, bellying; 
also warlike. Com. and sup. bagaiche, more or most cor- 

Bagaicii, v. a. and n. Make bellied or corpulent, grow 
corpulent; belly, bulge. Pret. a. bhagaich ; fiit. aff. a. 

Bagaiche, com. and sup. of bagach. More or most cor- 

Bagaichean, h. pi. of bag. Bags. 

Bagaid, s.f. A cluster, a bunch. Bagaidean searbh, «o!/r 
clusters. — Stew. Dcut. Bagaidean abuich, ripe clusters. — • 
Stew. Gen. Bagaid fhion-dhearcan, a cluster of grapes. 
N. pi. bagaidean. 

Bagaideacii, «. (y'rom bagaid.) Full of clusters, clustered, 
in bunches. 

Bagaidean, n. pi. of bagaid ; which see. 

Bagailt, s.f. A cluster, a bunch. Bagailt chno bu taine 
plaosg, a cluster of thin-shelled nuts. — Macint. N. pi. ba- 

Bagailteach, a. {from bagailt.) In clusters or bunches, 
as nuts. 

Bagaiu, s. m. {from bag.) A glutton, epicure. N. pi. ba- 

Bagair, c. (7r. bagair.) Threaten, denounce evil, terrify. 
Pret. a. bhagair; fut. aff. a. bagairidh, shall or will terrify. 
This verb is commonly followed by the preposition air, 
either simple or compounded. Bagramaid orra, let us 
threaten them. — Stew. Acts. 

Bagaireachd, *. {from bagair.) Gluttony; threatening. 

Bagairt, s.f. {Ir. bagairt.) A threat, a threatening, a 
denouncing. Cha d' theid plkst air bagairt, no plaster is 
applied to a threat. — G. P. 

Bagairt, a. ; pres. part, of bagair. Threatening, denounc- 
ing. A bagairt oirnne, threatening us. 

Bagaist, s.f. A cluster, a bunch, as of nuts ; baggage. 
N. pi. bagaistean. Written also bagaid. 

Bagaisteach, a. Clustered, in bunches, as nuts; having 

Bagannta, «. Warlike; also plump, corpulent, tight. An 
dreathan bagannta, the plump wren. — Macfar. 

Bagar, air, *. m. A threat. N. pi. bagaran, threats; 
d. pi. bagaraibh. 

Bagarach, a. {from bagar.) Threatening, minacious, prone 
to threat. Asp. form, bhagarach. Is i 'n Aoine bhagarach 
ni 'n Sathairn deurach, the gloomy Friday vialics the rainy 
Saturday. — G. P. 

Baoakachd, s.f. A threatening, a habit of threatening. 

Bagaradh, aidh, s. m. A threatening, a denouncing, a 

t Bagh, s. {Ir. bagh.) Kindness, friendship; a bond, a 
tie. Written also badh. 

Baghach, a. Kind, friendly, loving; binding, obligatory. 

Baghachd, s.jT. Kindness, friendliness ; obhgatoriness. 

t Baghadh, aidh, s. m. Fighting, quarrelling. 

Bagiilach, a. Dangerous, hazardous. 

Baghlachd, s.f. Danger, hazard. 

Bagradh, aidh, s. m. A threat, denunciation; the actor 
circumstance of threatening. 

Bagradh, (a), pres. part, of bagair. Threatening, denounc- 
ing. Tha e a bagradh orm, he is thrvatening me; more 
frequently written bagairt. 

Baguid, *./. A cluster, a bunch. Written also bagaid; 
which see. 

Baguideacii, a. In clusters, in bunches. See also Ba ■ 

t Baic, gen. baice, s.f. A turn or twist. — Shaw. 

t Baiceach, a. Having twists or turns. 

BAich, s. {i.e. ba-theach.) A cow-house; a cattle-house. 
N. pi. biichean ; d. pi. baichibh. 

t Batch, v. {Ir. id.) Strike ; touch. — Shaw. 

Baideal, eil, s. m. A pillar; fortress, tower. Baideal 
nfc6il, a pillar of cloud. — Stew. Ps. Mo bhaideal ard, my 
high tower. — Sm. N. pi. baidealan, pi/Zar*. 

Baidealach, a. {from baideal.) Like a pillar, tower, or 

fortress ; of, or belonging to, a pillar, tower, or fortress ; 

abounding in pillars, towers, or fortresses. 
Baidean, ein, s. m. {dim. q/'bid.) A little boat, a yawl, a 

Baideanacii, «. Badenoch in the Highlands of Scotland; 

the Ba>aTia of Ptolemy. 
Baideil, gen. sing, of baideal. 
t Baidh, s.f. {Tr. id.) A wave. — Shaw. 
Baidh, s.f. {Ir. baidhe.) Compassion. See Baigh. 
t Baidheach, ich, 4. Tw. A coadjutor; a champion. 
Baidheach, a. {from baidh.) See Baigheach. 
t Baidheal, eil, *. m. A cow-stall. //•. baidheal. 

Baigean, ein, s. m. {dim. o/" bag.) A little bag; a little 
glutton ; a little corpulent person. Baigean l^asaiche, a 
rennet bag. 

Baigeanach, a. {from baigean.) Bagged, bellied, cor- 

Baigeir, s. m. and/. A beggar, a mendicant ; a covetous 
or greedy person. Peilear nam baigearean, a pebble ; lite- 
rally, the beggar's bullet. ^ 

Baigeireach, a. {Sued, begarig.) Inclined to beg; needy; 

Baigeireachd, *./. Beggary. Air bhaigeireachd, begging. 

t Baigh, v. a. Endear. Pret. a. bhaigh, endeared; fut. 
aff. a. baighidh, shall etidcar. 

Baigh, s.f. {Ir. baidhe.) Kindness, benignity, humanity, 
mercy, friendship, fondness ; hospitality. Dh' f heoraich i 
le baigh, she asked with benignity. — Oss Lod. Is mor a 
bhaigh ris, great is his fondness for him. — Ull. Sheid 
osnadh gun bhaigh, a wind blew without mercy ; ceann- 

B A I 

B A I 

uighe nam mile baigh, the mansion of boundless hospitality ; 
literally, the stage of a thousand welcomes. — Ull. 

Baigheach, ich, s. m. {from baigh.) Ir. baidheach. A 
companion, a coadjutor. 

Baigheach, a. {from baigh.) Friendly, kind, merciful, 
humane, hospitable, noble. 

Baigheachas, ais, s. m. Grace, favour, friendship. 

Baigheachd, s.f. {from baigh.) Ir. baidheachd. Friend- 
liness, kindness, mercifulness ; hospitableness ; companion- 
ship, coadjutorship. 

Baighealachd, «. y. (yroTO baigheil.) Friendliness, kind- 
ness, humanity. 

Baigheil, a. {i. e. baigh-amhuil, from baigh.) Humane, 
merciful ; favourable, kind. Cba bhi thu baigheil, thou 
shall not [countenance'] he favourable. — Stew. Exod. 

t Baigh IN, s.f. A chariot; a waggon or wain; a dray. 
Ir. id. 

Bail, s.f. Economy ; the allowance of a mill to the poor ; 
also prosperity, good luck. Dean bail, spare, save, or 
economize. Cha bhi bail air aran fuinte, baked bread is not 
spared. — G. P. 

Bailbh, gf«. «iflg-. of balbh. Mute. Aspirated form, Mai/M. 
Teangadh an duine bhailbh, the tongue of the dumb man. 

Bailbhe, s.f. Dumbness, muteness. Ir. bailbhe. 

Bailc, s.f. A balk, or ridge of earth between two furrows. 
— Macd. A flood ; a mountain-torrent; in the Scotch 
Lowlands called a speat ; a loud noise ; also a ligature. 
Bailc nan sgiath, the noise of the shields. — Fingalian Poem. 

+ Bailc, a. Strong, bold, daring. 

Bailceach, a. Balked; like a balk; abounding in balks ; 
of, or bel(-nging to, a balk. 

Bailceach, a. Rainy, inundating, causing a flood; of rain, 
of a flood; like a flood. A bhealtuinn bhailceach, rainy 
May. — Macfar. 

Bailceach, ich, s. m. A strong robust man; a stout 
straight-bodied man. 

+ Baile, t. m. A clan; a tube. — Shaw. 

Baile, s. tn. A city, town, village. N. pi. bailte, or 
baiitean. Am fear a bhios carrach sa bhaile so bithidh e 
■ carrach 'sa bhaile ud thall, he who is mangy here will be 
mangy exery where. ^G. P. Hence the Latin f billa, a 
country-seat, now ■villa ; b and r, being palatals, are easily 
changed the one into the other. 1 think it is O'Reilly who 
observes, that the Celtic word baile, a town, and the Latin 
vallis, a valley, were originally the same; as the ancients 
built their dwellings in low sheltered places, near rivers 
and rivulets. 

Bailfach, a. {from baile.) Careful, economical, frugal; 
thorough, complete; quite. Gu baileach, ivholli/, arm- 
pletely, quite, thoroughly (ilanaidh e gu ro bhaileach, he 
will purge thoroughly. — Stew. Mat. Com. and sup. bailiche. 

Baile-phuthaich, s. Tain in Scotland; literally, thu vil- 
lage of St. Duthac, the tutelary saint of the place." 

Baile-geamhraidii, «. m. An infleld ; ground always 

Baile-maroaidh, «. m. A market-town, a burgh. — Macint. 

Baile-mhoid, .$. Rothesay; literally, the town where the 

court ot justice is held. 
Baile-mor, s.m. A large town, a city, a metropolis; a 

large village. N. pi. bailteam-m6ra. 
Baile-puirt, s. m. A sea-port town. N. pi. baiitean 

Bailgeann, Bailg-fhionn, a. (balg, belly, and fionn, 

white.) Spotted, speckled, pie-bald; white-bellied. Laogh 

bailgcaiin, a white-bellied calf — Macfar. Na gabhair 

bhailg-f hionn, the spotted goals. — R. 

BAiLisDEAR, ir, s.m. A vain-glorious fellow; a man who 

talks idly ; a blusterer. 
BAilisdearach, a. Vaunting; inclined to talk idly; 

BAilisdearaciid, s. f. The habit of talking idly or 

B'Aill, (ybr bu ^ill.) Would. B' aill leam, leat, leis, leatha, 

J, thou, he, she would ; b' aill leinn, leibh, leo, we, you, they 

would ; am b* aill leat mo mharbhadh ? wouldst thou kill 

me? ciod a b' aill leat? what would you have? what would 

you like 1 what is your pleasure ? 
Bailleag, eig, s.f. A twig, a sprout; a sucker. 
Bailleagach, a. Full of twigs, sprouts, or suckers; like 

a sprig or sucker ; slender, pliable. 
t Baillean, ein, .s. m. A boss ; a stud ; any thing round. — 

Bailleanach, £?. Bossy; studded. 
BAiludh, .9. m. A bailiff; a baillie, Scotch; an underling 

officer of the peace. Fr. baillie. It. balio, a bailiff, 
Baillidheachd, s. a bailiwick ; a province, a district. — 

Bailm, s.f. {Ir. bailme.) Balm, balsam. — Macd. 
Bailmeach, a. Balmy, abounding in balm, made of balm. 
Bailmeanta, a. Balmy, balsamic. 
Bailte, «. pt. of baile. Towns, cities, villages. Leig thusa 

bailte treun, thou hast thrown down mighti/ cities. — Sm. 
Bailteach, a. {from baile.) Abounding in towns or in 

villages ; of, or belonging to, a town or village ; civic. 
Bailteachas, ais, *. m. {from baile.) Planting or founding- 
towns, colonizing. 

Bailtean, n. pi. of baile. Towns, cities, villages. D. pi. 

Bain, gen. sing, of bin; which see. 
B.iiNBH, s.f. A young pig. 

Ir. banabh and banbh. ir. banw, swine. Arm. vaiio. 

Corn. banv. 
Bainbheachd, s.f. See Bainbhidheachd. 
Bainbhidheachd, con^r. bainbheachd, «./. (/row bainbh.) 

Pigging; furrowing; piggishness, swinishness. Tha mhuc 

a teannadh ri bainbhidheachd, the sow is about pigging. 
Bainbhinn, s.f. A suckling pig. 
Bainchead, a. Authority, license. 
Bain-chkadaichte, par/. Authorized, licensed. 
Baindeachd, s. f. {contr. for baindidheachd.) Female 

modesty, bashfulness ; effeminacy, reserve. Ge mor am 

baindeachd, though great be their modesty. — Old Song. 
Baindidh, a. {from ban.) Ir. banda, a female. Modest, 

feminine, female, effeminate; unassuming. Gu baindidh, 

Baindidheachd,*./. (/row baindidh.) Female modesty, 

bashfulness, reserve ; effeminacy, delicacy. Cha n f haic 

mi leithid air baindidheachd, I shall not see her equal for 

BAiNE, s.f. Paleness, whiteness, fairness. Aspirated form, 

bhiine. A sioladh a bhiine, concealing his paleness. — 

Oss. Tern. 
BAiNE, com. and sup. of bdn. More or most pale. Ir. baine. 
Baineasg, isg, s. ?n. A ferret. — Ir. id. 
Baineasgach, a. Like a ferret; abounding in ferrets ; of, 

or pertaining to, a ferret. 
Bainidh, s.f. Fury, madness, rage. Ir. bainidhe. Corn. 

Bainisg, s.f. A little old woman. iV^. pi. bainisgean. 
Bain^isgeag, eig, s.f. {dim. of bainisg.) A little old woman. 

N. pi. bainisgeagan. 
Bainisgeil, a. (bainisg-amhuil.) Like an old woman. 

B A I 

B A I 

Bainionv, Bainnionn, «. (Jr. bainion.) Female, femi- 
nine ; she. Firionn ag;us bainionn, male and female. — 
Stew. G. B. Na gabhair bhainionn, the she-goats. — Stew. 
Gen. Written also boirionn. 

Bainionnacu, Bainnionnach, aich, s. f. A female. 
Written alse boirionnach. 

Baisionnach, a. Female, feminine, effeminate. Firionnach 
agus bainionnach, male and female. — Stew. Gen. 

Bainionnacjid, s.y. (/roTn bainionn.) Effeminacy. 

Bainionnas, ais, s.m. Muliebrity. — Shaw. 

t Bainne, «./. A drop of any liquid. Now written Aoj'nne ; 
which see. 

Bainne, «. m. (/;•. bainne.) Milk, milky juice. A sruthadh 
le bainne agus mil, flowing with milk and honey ; bo- 
bhainne, a milch cow ; cro-bhainne, milch cattle ; camhail 
" bhainne, milch camels. — Stew. Gen. Bainne na clpe, the 
milky juice of the mountain-kerb. — Macint. Bainne blith, 
fresh milk ; bainne ilr, fresh milk ; bainne mills, sweet or 
fresh milk; bainne lom, skimmed milk; bainne chaorach. 

sheep's milk ; bainne ghabhar, goat's milk ; bainne chapuU, 
mare's milk; bainne asal, asses' milk ; bainne nbis, biestings ; 
bainne binntichte, curdled milk; bainne goirt, sour milk; 
bainne na ciche, the milk of the breast ; bainne-ghamhnach, 
Bainneach, a. Milky, lacteal, like milk, abounding in 
milk ; milk-producing. A Bhealtuinn bhainneach, milk- 
producing May. — Macfar. 
+ Baiknealach, aich, s. m. A dropping of rain. 
Bain NEAR, a. Milky, abounding in milk. — Macint. 
Bainn-fhreagradh, aidh, s.m. A bond; a stipulation. 

— Shaw. 
Bainnse, gen. sing, of banais. Of a wedding. — Ir. id. See 

f Bainnseach, ich, *. m. A plain, a field ; sheep-walk ; a 

solitary place. — Shaw. 
Bainstseachd, s.f. Feasting, banquetting. — Shaw. 
Bainssean, of banais. Weddings. 
Bain-spireag, eig, s.f. A sparrow-hawk. — Shaw. The 

falco nisus of Linnseus. N. pi. bain-spireagan. 
Bain-spireagach, a. Like a sparrow-hawk, of a sparrow- 
Bain-tighearna, s.f. A lady ; the lady of a baronet, or 
of a knight ; a name for ladies in general ; a gentlewoman. 
N. pi. bain-tighearnan, ladies; guidheam ort a bhain- 
tighearna, / beseech thee, lady. — Stew. N. T. 
Bain-tighearnas, ais, s. m. The rule or sway of a lady. 
Tha e fu' bhain-tighearnas, he is under petticoat government. 
Bain-tigiiearnachd, s.f. Ladyship. Do bhain-tighear- 

neachd, your ladyship. 
Bain-treabhach, con<r. baintreach, iche, «./. A widow. 
Bain-treabhachas, contr. baintreachas, ais, s. m. Widow- 
Baintreach, ich, s.f. A widow. N. pi. baintrichean, 

widows. Written also bantrach. 
Baintreachas, ais, s. m. Widowhood. Written also 

BAiR, bkire, s.f. A battle ; a strife ; a game ; also a road, 
a path. — Macd. Air magh na baire, on the plain of battle. 
— Fingalian Poem. 
Baircean, ein, s. m. A ferret. — Shaw. 
fBAiRCUE, a. Strong; brave. — Ir. id. 
t Bairche, «.y. A battle. — /;•. 

Baircinn, s. pi. Cross sticks, or side timbers for a house. 
Baird, gen. sing, and n. pi. of bard. 

t Bairdiieis, s.f. The point, tip, or end, of any sharp 

Bairead, eid, s. m. (barr, top, and eididh, dreu.) A bonnet, 
cap, hat, helmet. 

Ir. bairead. Vulgar Gr. giptra. Lat. biretum. Germ. 
baret. Sclav, baretta. //. baireat. 
Bair-eatrom, o. Light-headed; rumble, swift. 
Bairgeanta, a. Strong, stout, sturdy ; swift, 
t Bairghean, ein, s. m. A cake; a floor; a plot of ground. 

— Shaw. 
Bairghin, «. »!. A begotten son. — Shaw. 
Bair-ghinteach, a. Begetting sons ; also, substantively, 

a woman who bears sons. — Shaw, 
f Bairicean, ein, s. m. A ferret. 
BiiRiCH, V. n. Low, bellow, roar. Pret. a. bh^irich, roared; 

fut. aff. a. bkirichidh, shall roar. 
B AIR ICH, s. f. A lowing, a bellow, a roar. A leum ri 
bkirich nam hh, jumping at the lowing of the cows. — Macdon. 
Ciod a bhkirich th'ort ? what are you bellowing at ? 
BiiRiCHEADH, idh, s. m. A lowing, a bellowing; a con- 
tinued lowing or bellowing. 
BiiRiCHiDH,/«<. aff. a. of b^irich. Shall or will low. 
Bairig, v. {Du. bereik, reach.) Bestow, confer, grant, 
present. Pref. a. bhairig, bestowed; fut. aff. a. bairigidh, 
shall or will present. 
Bairill, s.f. A barrel of any description. See Baraill. 
Bairin, s.f. A small cake. Heb. baroth; and barah, take 

refreshment. — Buxtorf. Lex. Gr. jio^a, meat. IV. bara. 
t Bairinn, s.f. A firebrand. Ir. id. 
BAirlinn, s.f. A rolling wave, or sea; a high sea; also a 
warning or summons of removal. Gaoir na bairlinn, the 
noise of the rolling sea. — Macfar. N. pi. bair-linntichean, 
or bair-linntean. Am fear a thug dhomh a bhairlinn, he 
who gave me the warning. — Old Sung. 
Bairlinneach, a. Rolling, as a high sea; billowy; sum- 
moning, or warning, to quit one's residence. 
Bairneach, ich, s. m. A limpet.— il/acrf. 
t Bairneach, a. Perverse, obstinate, fretful ; also filial, 
t Bairnich, T'. a. Fret; judge. Pret. a. hh&iTnich, fretted ; 

fut. aff. a. bairnichidh, shall or will fret. 
Bairneachd, s.f. A judging; a judgment, a decision at 

law ; also perverseness, obstinacy, fretfulness. 
Bairseach, ich, s.f. A scold, a shrew. Ir. id. 
Bairseachd,*./. a scolding, raillery; satire. 7r. bairseachd. 
Bairseag, eig, s. f. A young scold; a young shrew. 

N. pi. bairseagan. 
BairSeag, eig, s.f. The top of the windpipe. — Shaw. 
Bairsich, v. a. {Ir. bairsigh.) Scold, rail; satirize, lampoon. 
Pret. a. bhkirsich, scolded; fut. aff. bairsicbidh, shall scold. 
t Bais, s.f. Water. Ir. id. 
Bais, gen. of b^s; which see. 

Bais, gen. of bas ; more commonly written bos ; which see. 
f Baisc, a. Round. Ir. id. 
Baischailce, s.f. RuM\e.—Shaw, 
Baisceall, ill, s. m. A wild, ungovernable person ; a mad 

person. Ir. id. 
Baisceanta, a. See Basganta. 
Baiseach, a. Having a large palm ; flat, smooth. 
Baiseachd, *./. (//on* bas.) Palmistry. More frequently 

written boiseachd, from bus. 
t Baiseal, eil, A. 7n. Pride ; arrogance. Ir. id. 
Baisealach, a. {from baiseal.) Proud, arrogant. Com. 

and stip. baisealaiche, more or most proud. 
t Baisleach, ich, s. m. An ox ; also a handful of water or 

any thing. — Shaw. 
Baist, v. a. Baptize ; perform the ceremony of baptism. 
Pret. a. bhaist, baptized ; fut. aff. a. baistidh, shall baptize. 

B A L 

B A L 

Nach do bhaist mi h-aon agaibh, that I have not baptized 

any of you. — Ute-w. 1 Cor. 
Baiste, p. part, of baist. Baptize. 
Baisteadh, idh, s. m. A baptism; a baptizing. Aon 

bhaisteadh, one baptism. — Stew. Eph. Tha e air a bhais- 

teadh, he is baptized; tha i air a baisteadh, she is baptized. 
Baistidh, fut. aff. a. of baist. Shall or will baptize. 
Baistidh, a. Baptismal. Amar baistidh, a baptismal font. 
t Baistidhe, s. Drops from a house. — Shaw. 
Baite, (/or bathte), ;).par^ of bath. Drowned. Asp. form, 

bhiite. A bhileag bhaite, a green weed that is observed on 

the surface of pools or standing water ; a water lily. 
Baiteal, eil, s. m. A battle. Chuir iad baiteal, they had a 

pitched battle. 

W. batel. Fr. bataille. Span, batella. Swed. batalje. 

Bisc. batalla. Old Burgundian, batalia. Portug. batalha. 
Baithis, s.f. A forehead, a brow. Do bhaithis bhog bhan, 

thy soft and fair forehead. — Old Song. 
Bal, bail, s. m. A ball or dance. 

Old Celtic, ball. Eng. ball. It. ballo. Span, bayle. 

Fr. bal. Gr. ^a^^nr/^o;. 
Balach, aich, s. m. (contr. for balaoch, i. e. ba-laoch.) A 

lad, a young man, a clown, a fellow, a sturdy fellow. 

Ir. bathlach. N. pt. balaiche, lads. Balach na h-aimhreite, 

a name given to a quarrelsome disorderly fellow. 
BALACHAii.,(?.e.balach-amhuil),a. Clownish; boyish, puerile. 
Balaciiax, ain, s. in. {dim. of balach.) A little boy; a boy. 

Nuair bha thu do bhalachan faoin, when thou wert a helpless 

boy. — Oss. Tern. Maide balachain, a boy's stick. — Id. 
B.\LACii.\iy, gen. sing, of balach; which see. 
Balagam, aim, s. m. A mouthful ; a sip ; a gulp. Balagam 

bainne, a mouthful of milk ; gabh balagam, take a mouthful. 
t Balaighe, s.f. Advantage, profit, benefit. — Ir. id. 
Balaist, s.f. Ballast. — Macd. 
Balaoch, laoich, s. m. {i. e. ba-laoch, a cowherd.) A boy, lad ; 

clown ; a fellow. jV. pi. balaoich. Chuireadh tu uaill anns 

a bhalaoch, thou wouldst put pride into the clown. — R. 
Balbh, a. (//•. balbh.) Mute, dumb, silent, quiet, at peace. 

Mar uisge balbh a glinn, like the silent water of the valley. 

— Oss. Fin. and Lor. Mar bhalbh dhriuchd, /ike the silent 

dew. — Oss. Fing. Gen. sing, bailbh ; aspirated form, bhailbh. 

Airson an duine bhailbh, for the dumb man. — Stew. Pro. 

Com. and sup. bailbhe. 
Balbiiachd, s. f {from balbh.) Dumbness, muteness; 

silence, quietness. Marbh bhalbhachd na h-oidhche, the 

dead silence of night. — Old Poem. 
Bal BHAN, ain, s. m. {Ir. balbhan.) A dumb person. Labhair 

am balbhau, the dumb spoke. — Stexc. Mat. N. pi. balbhaia. 
Balbhan ACHD, t.f. (_/>(»» balbhan.) Dumbness, muteness ; 

dumb show. 
Balc, bailc, s. A balk; a boundary; a ridge of earth 

between two furrows : also the crusty surface of the earth 

occasioned by long heat. W. balc. Swed. balk, a partition. 
t Balc, a. Strong, stout; lusty, sturdy. — Ir. id. 
Balcanta, a. Stout, firm, strong. Gu balcanta, firmly, 

stoutly. — Macfar. 
Balg, *. m. A man of learning. — Ir. id. 
Balg, builg, s. m. A leather bag, a budget, a wallet, a pock, 

a scrip, a satchel ; a belly, womb ; a blister. Balg-saighead, 

a quiver; balg-losgainn, a mushroom ; balg seid, a pair of 


Gr. jEoI. fioXyof. Lat. t bulga. Belg. balg. Hind, baelg, 

a sack. Sax. beige. Germ. balg. 

^alg is an ancient Celtic vocable, and in every language where 

it is seen, it has the same si<;nificatiou as in Gaelic. The ancient 

Gauls and Britons, the Goths, Saxons, and Franks, used it to 

denote a wallet, and often a quiver. " Bdloas Galli saccos 

scorteos appellant." — Festus. And Boxthorn, in Tex. Ant. Jirit. 

has bzctgan and botgan, meaning a quiver. I'rom balg comes the 

word Belgae itself, which means quiver-bearers; for these people 

were nlways armed with bows and arrows. Balg is often written 

holg ; which see. 
Balg ACM, a. Like a bag, like a wallet; bagged, bellied, 

Balgaich, v. a. and n. Belly out, as a sail ; blister; stow 

in a bag or satchel. 
Balgair, «. OT. A fox; a dog: also, m co7^<e»^^^ a cunning 

fellow. iV. pi. balgairean. A bhalgair 6glaich, thou fox 

of a fellow ; a bhalgair tha thu an, thov fox that thou art ; 

buail am balach air a charbad, is buail am balgair air an 

t-sroin, strike the clown on the cheek and the dog on the 

nose. — G. P. 
Balgaireachd, *./. Slyness, cunning, craftiness. 
Balgairean, n. pi. of balgair. Foxes. 
Balgan, ain, s. m. {dim. of balg.) A little bag, a satchel, 

a wallet ; a little pock, a little sack ; a little blister ; a belly. 

N. pi. balgain. Balgan-uisge, a water bubble. 
Balgan seididu, *. m. A little pair of bellows ; also a 

Balgan-suain, *. m. A sleepy bag. Chuir iod am balgan 

suain fo 'n ceann, tkty have put the sleepy bag under their 

heads. — G. P. 
According to Mackintosh, this proverb, said of a person who 

indulges in sleep, alludes to the dormant state of the caterpillar 

when it is enclosed in something like a bag, here called the 

sleepy bag. 

Balgan-uisge, *. m. A water bubble; also a blister full of 
watery humour. 

Balg-bhronnach, a. Swag-bellied. Badach beag balg- 
bhronnach, a little swag-bellied churl. — Old Song. 

Balg-chosach, a. Bow-legged. 

Balg-losgainn, *. m. A mushroom; toad-stool; paddock- 

Balg-saigiiead, s. m. A quiver. Bha bhalg saighead ri 
thaobh, his quiver was at his side. — Oss. Cathluno, 

Balg-seididh, s. m. A pair of bellows. 

Balg-shuil, «.y. A large prominent eye. 

Balg-shuileach, a. Having prominent eyes. 

fBALL, «. »i. (Bwc. bull.) A skull. 

Ball, gen. buill, *. m. A member, a limb ; a member of a 
society ; the male instrument of generation ; an instru- 
ment, tool, or implement ; a ball, a foot-ball, a globidar 
body ; a boss ; a spot, a plat of ground, a place ; rarely a 
cable. N. pi. buill. Do 'n bhacach lilgh nam ball, strength 
of limbs to the lame. — Smith. Dh' uireasbhuidh na bhall- 
aibh, lacking in his parts. —Stew. Lev. Buill shoilleir, 
bright spots. — Id. Buill a Ciiomuinn Ghaidheal- 
AiCH, the members of the Highland Society. A bhall so, 
this plat. — Stew. Heb. ref. Ball oibre, a tool to work with ; 
ball airm, a weapon ; ball acfhuinn, a tool; ball amhairc, 
a spectacle; ball sampuill, a specimen; ball seirc, a beauty 
spot; ball-dobhrain, a mole ; ball faobhrach, a sharp instru- 
ment ; ball-fearais, the male imtrument of generation ; ball 
^bhachd, ball abhachais, a gazing stock; ball sg6id, a sheet 
rope; bail timailt, an object of disgrace ; ball-riiagaidh, an 
object of derision ; ball sg6d, a blemish ; ball otraiche, 
a puddle. 

This old Celtic word is to be met with in many tongues, 
signifying a globular body. Gr. waXAa, apud lleyschtum. 
Gr. $»Wu, throxo. Germ. hdiW, a globe. Delg. h&\. i^r. balle. 
Du. bal. Span, bala, a bullet. Ir. ball. English, ball. 
Pol. piela. 

Ball [air], a(/». Immediately ; on the spot. 7r. ar bal. 

Balla, ai, s. m. See Balladh. 

Ball-Abhachais, s. m. A gazing stock ; a laughing stock. 
Ball kbhachais bi-bhuan, a perpetual laughing stock. — Stew. 
Jer. and Heb. ref. N. pi, buill Abhachais. 

B A L 


Ball-Abiiaciid, s. f. A laughing stock; an object of 
mockery ; a gazing stock. Ball abhachd do na bheil mun 
cuairt, a lavgAing stock to all around. — Smith. 

Ballach, a. (/;u»j ball.) G r. 0a>.iof, maculosus. Spotted; 
striped; tartan ; bossy ; walled ; having lofty walls. Breac 
ag^s ballach, speckled and spotted. — Stew. Gen. An sgiath 
bhallacb, t/ie bossy shield. — Oss. Fiiig. Sgiath bhallach 
nam beum, the spotted shield of bloics. — Oss. Tern. Bonaid 
bhallach, a spotted or tartan bonnet.— Macjar. Com. and 
sup. ballaiche. 

B ALh', Jor balladh. 

Ball-acfhuinn, s. m. A tool ; instrument; tackling. 

Balladh, aidh, Balla, ai, s. m. {Lat. vall-um. Swed. vail. 
/;•. balla.) A wall, a rampart ; also the boss of a shield. 
Balladh a bhaile, the wall of the town. — Stew. Jos. Baile 
>-nam balla cam, the town of the winding walls. — Oss. Tern. 
Meirg air a balla, rust on its boss. — Oss. Cath. and Col. 
Balladh dealachaidli, a partition-wall. — Stew. 1 K. N. pi. 

Ballag, aig, s.f. An egg-shell; also a skull. Ir. ballog, 
a skull. 

Ballag-losgainn, «./. A toad-stool ; a mushroom. 

Ball-airm, s. m. A weapon. Thilg gach ball-kirm, every 
weapon was thrown aside. — Oss. Fing. 

Ballaiut, gen. sing, of ballart. 

Ballan, ain, «. OT. {Ir. balian. Sfo/cA, balden.) A tub ; a 
bucket ; a churn ; a shell ; a covering ; a broom ; a teat 
or udder. Balian binntiche, a cheese-press ; balian losgainn, 
a toad-stool; balian bainne, a wzM-^f/ft ; balian nigheachaiu, 
a washing-tub i ballaa seilcheig, balian stiallacii, a kind of 

Ballan-binntiche, s. m. A cheese vat or press. 

Ballan-losgainn, s. m. A toad-stool; a mushroom. 

'B'allan-nigheachain,Ballan-nigheadaireachd, *.OT. 
A washing-tub. 

Ballan-seilcheig, «. m. A snail-shell. 

Ballan-stiallach, *. m. A pillory. Air balian stiallach 
'g ad sparradh, fastening thee to the pillory. — Old Poem. 

The ballan-stiallach was a kind of pillory, used of old in the 
Highlands, for punishing liars and petty offenders. It was a sort of 
frame erected on a pillar, to which tiie culprit was tightly bound 
with a rope ahout the shoulders, by which he hung, exposed to the 
ridicule and maltreatment of passengers. 

Ballard, Ballart, airt, s.m. Loud noise, clamour, turbu- 
lence. Gun bhallart, gun mh6rchuis, without noise or 
boasting. — Moladh mhoraig. 

Ballardach, Ballartacii, a. Noisy, turbulent, clamo- 
rous, troublesome. Com. and sup. ballardaiche or ballart- 
aiche, more or most noisy. 

Ballardachadh, Ballartachadh, aidh, .$. m. A pro- 
clamation ; the act of proclaiming, bawling, or making a 

Ballardachd, Ballartachd, s.f. A proclamation; 
noise ; clamour. 

Ballardadii, Ballartadii, aidh, *. m. A proclamation. 

Ballardaich, Ballartaich, s.f. A loud noise ; a howl- 
ing ; a shouting, hooting. Ciod a bhallartaich th' art? 
what are you howling at ? 

Ballardaich, Ballartaich, r. n. Proclaim; howl, 
shout, hoot. Pret. a. bhaDardaich, shouted; fut. aff. a. 
ballardaichidh, shall shout. 

Ball-biireac, Ball-biireachd, a. Variegated, chequered, 
spotted, grisled. A bheath bhall-bhreachd, variegated life. 
— Oss. Conn. Mar nculaibh ball-bhreac, like spotted clouds, 
i. e. like that modification of cloud which raetereologians 
term cirro-cumulus. 
Ball-ciirith, i. Trembling; terror; tremor; a trembling 
with terror. An darach air ball-chrith, the oak trembling. 

— Orran. Fo bhall-chrith mar dhuilleach, trembling like 
leaves. — Oss. Duthona. Ball-chrith air righrean an domh- 
ain, terror on the kings of the earth. — Stew. 0. T. Le ball- 
chrith deanaibh gairdeachas, rejoice with trembling. — Sm. 
Ball-cluaise, s. m. The sheet rope of a vessel. 
Ball-coise, s. m. A foot-ball. 
Ball-deise, s. m. An instrument to which two persons 

have a right ; a tool ; any useful instrument or weapon. 
Ball-dhearo, a. Grisled; bay-coloured. Eich bhall- 

dhearg, bay horses. — Stew. Zech. 
Ball-diomhair, s. m. A secret member: membrum puden- 
dum. Buill dhiomhair, secret members. 
Ball-dobhrain, s. wi. A mole. 
Ball-dubii, s. m. A blot, a blemish. — Mdcd. 
Ball-faxaid, s. m. A laughing stock ; an object of mockery. 
Ball-faobhrach, aich, s. m. A sharp-edged instrument. 
Ball-fearais, *. m. Membrum virile. 
Ball-fochaid, s. m. A laughing stock; an object of de- 
rision. — Stew. Job. 
Ball-ghalar, air, *. m. A plague ; a gonorrhoea. 
Ball-iomchair, «. m. A support, a prop ; an undersetter. 

— Stew. 1 K. ref. 
Ball-mag aidh, *. m, A laughing stock; an object of de- 
rision. — Stew. Job. 
Ball-mosglaidh, s. m. An instrument for sounding an 

alarm. — Oss. Tern. 
Ball-oibre, s. m. A tool, an instrument. N. pi. buill oibre. 
Ball-6traiche, s. m. A puddle or slough ; a miry place. 
Ball-sampuill, «. »n. An example; a sample, a specimen. 
Rinn e ball sampuill dhiubh, he made an example of them. — 
Stew. Col. 
Ball-seirce, s. m. A beauty-spot. — Macd. 
Ball-sgeig, s. m. A laughing stock, a mocking stock, an 
object of derision. Ni mi a chathair na ball-sgeig, / xoill 
make the city a (hissing) laughing stock. — Stew. G. B. 
Ball-sgeimhe, *. m. A beauty-spot. — Macd. 
Ball-sgiatii, -sgeithe, s.f. A bossy shield. Fionnghal 

nam ball-sgiath, Fingal with the bossy shield. — Oss. Fing. 
Ball-sgiorradh, aidh, s. m. A deed done unexpectedly; 

a feat. 
Ball-sgiorrail, a. Performing unexpected deeds. 
Ball-sg6id, s. m. A sheet rope; a spot, a blemish. — Macd. 

A blister. — Shaw. 

Ball-tamailt, s. m. An object of disgrace, or of reproach. 

Tha thu do bhall tamailt, thou art an object of disgrace, — 

Mac iMch. 

Ball-toirmisg, s. m. A forbidden tool ; a forbidden weapon. 

Balt, bailt, s. m. {Ir. balta.) A welt; a belt, a border. 

N. pi. baltan. 
Baltach, a. Welted, belted, bordered. 
Baltaich, v. a. Welt, belt, border. Pret. a. bhaltaich ; 

fut. aff. a. baltaichidh. 
Ban, bain, s. m. The matrix of a cow. 
t Ban, bain, s. m. Copper ; a copper mine. — Ir. id. 
Ban, s.f. {Pers. bann, a dame. Ir. ban.) A female; a 
woman, wife, a dame. Asp. form, bhan. Beul bhan 
coimheach, the mouth of strange women. — Stew. Pro. Am 
measg bhan 6g, among young females. — Old Song. 
Ban, a. White, pale, fair, fair-haired; also vacant, waste. 
Nighean bhroillich bhkin, white-bosomed maid. — Oss. Fing. 
Siilil bhan, while sails. — Oss. Carricth. Fhir bh^in, thou 
fair-haired man; talamh bkn, waste ground; eich bh^n, 
white hurses. — Stew. Zech. Com. and sup. baine. 

Ir. b-in. Manx, ban. Ilcb. and Chald. la-ban, white. 
Syr. labano, white. Samaritan, laban, white. Arab, labana, 
a white poplar. 



Bax-aba, s.f. An abbess. Ir. banab. 

Banachadii, aidh, s. m. A whitening, a bleaching; growing 

pale or white ; a laying waste. 
Ban ACHADH, (a), ;)r. parf. of banaich. Whitening; growing 

pale, laying waste. 
Bana-ciiaua, Bana-charaid, s. f. A female relative, a 

kinswoman. — Stew. Song of Sol. 
BAN-ADnALTRANACH,aiche, s.f. An adulteress. — Sfew.Pro. 

Goirear ban-adhaltranach dhith, she shall be called an adul- 
teress. — Stetc. Rom. 
BXnag, aig, s.y". (dim. from hkn.) Any thing white ; awhite- 

faced girl ; a grilse ; a cant term for a shilling. 
Banag, aig, «. f. (y)-0OT ban.) A smart little woman. N. pi. 

Ban AiCH, V. a. and n. Whiten, bleach, make pale, lay waste, 

make waste or vacant ; grow white, pale, or bleached. 

Fret. a. bhknaich, whitened ; fit. off. a. banaichidb, shall or 

will whiten. Ir. banaigh. 
Ba\ail, a. (;. f . ban-amhuil.) TF. benywawl. /r. banamhail. 

Modest, womanly, womanish, feminine ; comely. A bhean 

bhanail, his modest xcife. — Oss. Lodin. Gidlan banail, 

•womanly deportment. — Old Song. Lie bhanail, comely cheeks. 

Oss. Carth. 
t Banailt, s.f. A nurse. Ir. banailt. Bisc. banlitu. 
Banais, gen. bainnse. (7/-. banais.) A wedding ; perhaps 

ban-f heis, a female feast. Fear na bainnse, the bridegroom ; 

bean na bainnse, the bride ; culaidh bainnse, a wedding 

dress. — Macdun. iV. pi. bainnsean, weddings. 
t Banaiteach, a. Serious, grave, sedate. 
Banaltrachd, s.f. Nursing; the business of a nurse. 

Mach air bhanaltrachd, out at nursing. 
Baxaltradh, aidh, s.f. A nurse. Jr. banaltra. 
Banaltrum, uira, «.y. A nurse. Fhuair i banaltrum, «Ae 

got a nurse. — Stew. Gen. 
Banaltrumachd, s. y. Nursing. Commonly' pronounced 

Banamhalta, o. Shamefaced, modest, bashful, /r. bana- 

Banamhaltachd, s.f. Sharaefacedness, modesty, bashful- 

ness. Ir. id. 
Baxarach, aich, 4.y. A dairy-maid, a milk-maid. Teann 

air a bhanarach, close to the dairy-maid. — Macint. 
Ban-j!iiarax, ain, s.f. A baroness. 
Bax-bhard, -bhaird, s.f. A poetess. 
Ban-bhardachd, s.f. The verses of a poetess. 
Ban-bhicas, ais, s.f. A-viscountess. — Macd. 
Ban-bhroilleacii, a. White-bosomed. Comhnuidh nam 

bin-bhroilleach oigh, the dwelling of the white-bosomed 

maids. — Oss. Temo. 
Bax-ehuachaili,, s. f A shepherdess. N. pi. ban- 

Ban-bhuachailleacud, s.f. The business of a shepherd- 
ess, the condition of a shepherdess. 
BAN-BiiuiDSEAcn, ich, s.f. A witch, a sorceress. - .SVfw. 

Rrod. jV. pi. ban-bhuidsichean. 
Ban-bhusdraich, s.f. A witch, a sorceress.— SVero. Exod. 
Banc, bainc, s. m. A balk; a limit. N. pi. bancan. Eng. 

bank. S-xed. bank. If. banca. 
Baxcach, a. Having a balk ; like a balk ; of, or belonging 

to, abalk or limit. 
Bancait, *.y. A banquet. A"", p/. bancaitean. 
Baxcaiteacii, a. Banqueting ; lond of banqueting. 
Baxcaiteachd, s.f. Continued or frequent banqueting. 
Ban-charaid, *.y. A female relative, a kinswoman. Do 

ban-charaid, thy kinsxcoman. — Stew. Pro. Written also 

bana-charaid ; which see. 

Ban-cheard, s. f. A female gipsy, a female tinker ; often 

applied in contempt to a mannerless female. 
BAN-cniiLE, «.y. A wife; WeraZ/y, a female spouse. 
Ban-cheileadair, 4. TO. An executrix. A^. jj/. ban-cheilea- 

Ban-chleamhuixx, s.f. A daughter-in-law. Nochd do 

bhan-chleamhna, the nakedness of the daughter-in-law. — 

Stew. Exod. Maille ri a ban-chleamhuinn, with her daughter- 
in-law. — Stew. 0. T. 
Ban-chocair, s.f. A female cook, a woman cook. — Stew. 

Sam. N. pi. ban-chocairean. 
Ban-chocaireachd, *. y. The business of a female cook ; 

the handiwork of a female cook. Tha i 'g ionnsachadh na 

ban-chocaireachd, she is learning the business of cookery. 
Ban-choigle, 4. y. A female gossip ; a female companion. 

//•. ban-choigle. 
Ban-chomu-dhalta, s. f A foster-sister. N. pi. ban- 

Ban-chompanach, aich, s.f. A female companion. — Stew. 

Judg. N. pi. ban-chompanaich. 
Bax-ciiompanas, ais, s. m. Female companionship. Na 

dean ban-chorapanas ri, keep not company with her. 
Ban-chruitear, ir, s. f. {Ir. ban-chruitire.) A female 

harper. A^. pi. ban-chruitearan. 
Ban-chuisleanaiche, s.f. A female who plays on a wind 

instrument. /;•. ban-chuisleanaich. 
Baxdaciid, «.y. Contracted for bandaidheachd ; which see. 
BANDAiDH,'a. (y-om ban.) Jr. bandha. Modest, delicate, 

effeminate, womanish. Bean bhandaidh, a modest woman. 
Bandaidheachd, s. f. Delicacy, modesty, effeminacy, 

Baxdalta, Bandhalta, s.f. A foster-daughter. 
Bandhalta-baistidh, s.f. A god-daughter. 
Ban-dia, gen. ban-de, s.f. (Ir. id.) A goddess. A bhan-dia 

a ni am bogh frois, the goddess who forms the rainbow. — 

Mac Lack. 
Bax-druidh, s. f An enchantress, a sorceress. Ir. ban- 

Bax-eigneachadh, idh, s. m. A rape. 
Ban-fhaigh, s.f. A prophetess. N.j>l. ban-fhaighean, 

Ban-fheadanacii, aiche, .?.• y A female piper ; a female 

who plays on any wind instrument. Ir. ban-fheadanach. .• 

Bax-fhigheach, iche, s. m. A female weaver; a female 
who knits. 

Bax-fiugheadaireachd, *.y. The work of a female weaver. 

Bax-fhiosaiche, s. f. A fortune-teller; a prophetess. 
N. pi. ban-fhiosaichean. 

Ban-phlath, s.f. A lady; a heroine. N. pi. ban-fhlaithean, 

Ban-fiiluasoach, a. Menstrual. 

Ban-fiiluasgadh, aidh, *. m. Menstrual courses. 

Ban-fhuaidhealachd, s.f. (pronounced banalachd.) Sew- 
ing, seaming; the business of a sempstress, or of a milliner; 
millinery; mantua-making. 

Ban-fhuaidiiealaiche, Bax-fiiualaiciie, s.f. (pro- 
nounced hanixWiche.) A sempstress, a milliner, a mantua- 
maker. JV. ;;/. ban-fhualaichean. 

Bax-fhuixeadair, s.f. A woman who bakes bread; a 
female cook. — Stew. Sam. 

+ Baxg, baing, s. m. (Ir. id.) A nut ; a touch; a hinderance. 

Baxgait, s.f. A feast. Teut. bancket. Eng. banquet. 
Written also bancait. 

Ban-ghrudair, *. y The landlady of an alehouse, or of 
an inn ; a female brewer. N. pi. ban-ghrudairean. Cagar 
na ban-ghrudair, the ale-wife's whisper soon turns loud. — 6'.i^ 




Ban-iarla, *./. A countess. ^. p/. ban-iarlan. 
Ban-laoch, laoich, s. f. A heroine; Amazon; a virago. 

N. pi. ban-laoich. 
Ban-leigh, s. f. A female skilled in medicine. N. pi. 

Ban-mhaighistie, s. f. A mistress; a schoolmistress. 

Ban-mhaighistir nan druidheachdan, the mistress of tie 

■witchcraJh.^-Steu: Nah. N. pi. ban-mhaighistirean. 
Ban-miiaigiiistireas, eis, s. in. The rule or sway of a 

mistress, or of a schoolmistress. 
Ban-mharcaiciie, Ban-miiarcair, s.f. A female rider. 
BAN-MHARCAis,«.yi A marchioness. iV.p/.ban-mharcaisean. 
Ban-mhorair, Ban-mhor'eae, ir, s.f. A countess. N. pi. 

Bann, a. High. Boi. Lei. bann. Gr. fiov><i(. Hence also 

the English, banner. 
Bann, bainn, s. m. A band; a bond, bill; a tie; a hinge ; 

a chain ; a fetter ; a band, as of a shirt, or any piece of 

clothing ; a girth, a belt, a sash ; a bann, a proclamation. 

N. pi. bannan and bann tan, bonds ; d. pi. bannaibh or bann- 

taibh. Bannan bhur cuinge, t/ie bonds of your yoke. — Siew. 

Lev. Le banntaibh daingean, with firm bands. — Macint. A 

fuaidheal bhann, sowing bands. — Id. A ceangal bhann mu 

sguaban, binding sheaves. — Macfar. 

Germ, bann and band, a bond. Teut. bandi. Franc, bant. 

Belg. band. Span, banda, a sash. Ir. bann. Pers. bend. 

Arm. banden, a fillet. Eng. and Runic, band. Old Sax. 

bend. Fr. bande. Also Eng. and Dan. bind. Cimbric, 

binda, to tie. Sued, bundin, tied. Tonquinese, bun, join. 

Portug. bando, a bann. 
t Bannach, a. (Ir. bannach.) Active, expert; crafty.— S/wio. 
t Bannach, aich, s. m. A fox; in ridicule, a crafty person. 

Ir. bannach. 
t B.\XNAcnD, s.f. Craftiness, deceit. Ir. bannachd. 
Bannao, aig, s.f. A new-year's gift; a treat given to one 

on his first visit on new-year's day. Is mairg a rachadh 

air a bhannaig is a theanna aig fein, it is woful to take 

from others when one has enough of his own. — G. P. 
Bannal, ail, s. m. A company; a troop; band ; a covey; 

a gathering, a collection, a crowd. Am bannal uchd-ruadh, 

the red-breasted covey. — Macdon. Arm. bannal, in company, 

or in common. 
Bannalach, a. In companies, in troops, in crowds. 
Ban-naomh, naoimh, s.f. A female saint; a nun ; a sainted 

female. Ir. id. N. pi. ban-naoimh, 7iiins. 
Bann-bhraghad, aid, s. m. A neckcloth, a cravat. 
Bann-cheangail, v. a. Bind by bond. Pret. a. bhan- 

cheangail, bound by bond; fut. aff. a. bann-cheanglaidh ; 

fut. pass, bann-cheanglar. 
Bann-cheangail, *. »i. An obligatory bond. 

nan-cheangail, obligatory bonds. 
Banndair, s. m. (from bann.) A covenanter; a drawer up 

of bonds or bills. iV. pi. banndairean, covenanters. 
Banndaireachd, «./. Covenant-making; a confederacy. 
Bann-duirn, *. m. A wristband. Bann-diiirn leine, the 

wristband of a shirt. 
Bann-lamh, laimh, *. m. (Ir. id.) A cybit ; also handcuffs. 

Aon bhann-larah, one cubit. — Stew. Mark, ref 
t Bannsach, aich, s. m. An arrow; any sharp-pointed 

missile weapon. N. pi. bannsaichean, arrows. 
Bann-shaor, a. Free by law, licensed, authorized. Ir. 

Bann-shaorsachd, s.f. The condition of being free by 

law or bond. 
Bann-shaorsadh, aidh, .s. m. A freedom or liberty sanc- 
tioned by law or by a bond. 

Bann-shaorsaich,i'. a. License. Prf^a. bhann-shaorsaich, 

licensed; fut. ajf. a. bhann-shaorsaichidh, shall license. 
Bann-shorn, shoim, s. m. A kind of girdle or bake- 

stove. — Shaw. 
Bann-taisbeanaidh, Bann-taisbein, s. m. A bond of 

Ban-ogha, *. /. A granddaughter. Ban-ogha an fhir 

ogha, the grandson's granddaughter ; ban-ogha 'n fhir 

f hiar ogha, the great-grandson s granddaughter. — Macd. 
Ban-6glach, aich, s.f. A female slave; a maid-servant ; 

a handmaid ; a maiden. N. pi. ban-oglaichean and ban6- 

glaich. Do bhan-oglaich, thy maidens. — Stew. Pro. lef. 
Ban-oighre, «./. An heiress. A". /;/. ban-oighreau. 
Ban-oighreachd, s.f. An estate that goes to heirs-female, 
t Baxrach, aich, s. m. A fold for sheep, a pen ; a cattle- 
house. — //•. id. N. pi. banraichean. 
Ban-ridiu, s.f. A baroness, a baronet's lady. N. pi. bann- 

Ban-righ, *.y. A queen. Mairi, Ban-righ ua h-Alba, Mary, 

Queen of Scotland ; Ban-righ Bhreatuinn, Queen of Britain. 
Ban-righdire, «.y. See Ban-ridir. 
Ban-riohinn, s.f. A queen. O bhi na ban-righinn, /row 

being a queen. — Stew. 1 K. N. pi. ban-righinnean, queens. 

lomarach na Ban-righirm, the Queensferry in the Firth 

of Forth. 
Ban-sealgair, s.f. A huntress. Ban sealgair Ardbheinn, 

the 'huntress of Ardven. — Oss. Comal. Bhan-shealgair 

nam fuar bheann faoin, thou huntress of the cold desert hills. 

— Id. N. pi. ban-sealgairean. 
Bansgal, ail, i.y. A woman; an aged female. This word 

is often applied to a female as a terra of reproach. N. pi. 

Ban-shearach, aich, s.f. A mare-colt. Ir. id. 

Ban-sith, s.f, A female fairy. 

The Highlanders were wont to say that the wailings of this being 

were frequently heard before the death of a chieftain. She was 

seldom visible; but when she did make her appearance, it was in 

a blue mantle, and with dishevelled hair. 
Ban-sniomhaiche, s.f. A female spinner. N. pi. ban- 

Ban-solaraiche, «./. A cateress. JV. p/. ban-solaraichean. 
t Ban-spiorag, aig, s.f. A sparrow-hawk. iV. pi. ban- 

Ban-stiubhart, airt, s.f. A housekeeper, a stewardess. 

JV. pi. ban-stiilbhartan, stewardesses. 
Ban-stiObhartach, s.f. A female sumamed Stewart. 
Ban-tighearna, s. m. A baronet's lady ; a lady. 

ban-tighearnan, ladies. 
Ban-tig HEARNAiL, (t. e. ban-tighearnail.) Lady-like. 
Bantracii, aich, s.f. Fingal's seraglio. — Shaw. 
Bantrach, aich, s.f. (ban-treabhach.) A widow. Aspirated 

form, bhantrach. Do bhantrach mar eun tiamhaidh, thy 

widow like a lonely bird. — Macfar. N. pi. bantraichean, 

widows. Is olc a bhantrach a phiob, the bagpipe is a sorry 

widow. — G. P. 
Bantrachas, ais, s. m. (i. e. ban-treabhachas.) Widowhood. 

Ban-traille, *. /. A female slave, a bond-maid ; a maid- 
servant. Ceud-ghin na ban-traille, the tirst-born of the 
maid-servant. — Stew. E.vod. N. pi. bantraillean, female 
slaves ; do bhan-traiilean, thy bond-maids. — Stew. Lev. 

Ban-treabhach, aiche, A'.y; A widow. Biodh bhean na 
ban-treabhach, let his wife be a widow. — Smith. N. pi. 
ban-treabhaichean ; contracted bantrach ; whicii see. 

Ban-tuathanach, aich, s.f. A female who farms; a 
farmer's wife, a peasant's wife. N. pi. ban-tuathnaichean. 

B A O 


Ban-tuathanachas, ais, s. m. Agriculture done under the 

direction of a female. 
Ban-tii-athanaich, gen. sing, of ban-tuathanach. 
BAJf-TirATHAXAiCHEAN, 71. pi. of ban-tuathanach. 
Bao', a. Contracted for baodh, or baoth. 
Baobh, gen. baoibh, s. f. A wizard ; a wicked person, a 

mischievous female, a foolish woman. JF. baw, dirfi/. 
Baobhachd, s. f. {from baobh.) The conduct of a mis- 
chievous woman ; also the croaking of a raven. Ir. badh- 

Baobiiai, Baobhaidh, a. {JV. bawai, dirt)/.) Mad, wild, 

foolish, fearful, destructive. Dearg nam feachd baobhai, 

Dargo of destructive hosts. — Oss. Conn. 
Baobhail, a. Mad, wild, foolish, fearful, destructive. 

Buillean trom baobhail, heavy, fearful blows. — Oss. Derm. 
Baobhaileaciid, s.f. Madness, wildness, fearfulness, de- 

Baodh, a. Vain, giddy, foolish, soft, simple. Le s61as 

baodh, with giddy joy. — Smith. Written also baoth. 

Baoghal, ail, s. m. {Jr. baoghal.) Peril, danger; crisis; 
an important matter. Uisge beatha baoghal, whiskey four 
times distilled, so powerful as to affect all the senses. Fear 
an t-saoghail fhada cha bhi baoghal h-uig, nothing will 
cut short the life of a long'-liver. — G. P. 

Baoghalach, a. Wild, furious ; destructive, perilous, dan- 
gerous. Roimh na gaothaibh baoghlach, before the wild 
winds. — Old Poem. Lag ri uair bhaoghlach, weak in the hour 
of danger. — Oss. Duthona. Isbaoghalach am buille, /jenVoa* 
is the blow. — Death of Carril. Com. and sup. baoghalaiche. 

Baoghalta, a. Foolish, credulous, silly, simple, idiotical. 
Creididh an duine baoghalta, the simple man shall believe. — 
Stew. Pro. 

Baoghaltachd, *./. Foolishness, credulousness, silliness, 
simpleness, idiocy. Cia fhad a ghradhaicheas sibh baogh- 
altachd? how long will ye love simplicity ? — Stew. Pro. 

Baogiian, ain, .5. m. A calf; any thing jolly. Baoghan an 
cois gach bo, each cow followed by its calf. — Old Song. 

Baogiianach, a. {from baoghan.) Like a calf; of, or be- 
longing to, a calf. 

Baogiilan, ain, *. m. {from baogh.) A foolish fellow. 
N. pi. baoghlain. 

Baogiilanachd, s.f. (/rom baoghlan.) Foolishness; the 
behaviour of a foolish fellow. 

Baois, s.f Concupiscence, lust, levity; idle talk, madness. 
/;■. baois. 

Baoiseacu, n. (//om baois.) Lewd, lascivious ; giddy; lust- 
ful. Com. and sup. baoisiche, more or most lewd. 

Baoiseachd, s.f. {from baois.) Concupiscence, lust, lasci- 
viousness. Liichd baoiseachd, lewd people. 

Baoisg, t. n. Shine forth, gleam, beam, radiate; peep, look. 
Pret. a. bhaoisg, shone; fut. uff. a. baoisgidh, shall shine. 
Nur bhaoisgeadh a gnuis, when its face would shine forth. — 

Baoisge, s.f. A flash of light, a gleam, a coruscation, 
a peep. 

Baoisgeach, «. Gleaming; sparkling; emitting flashes of 
light; peeping. 

Baoisoealachd, s.f. Refulgence, brightness. 

Baoisoeil, (i. e. baoisg-amhuil), a. Shining, gleaming, 

bright, refulgent, radiant. A gnilis bhaoisgeil, her gleaming 

countenance. — Macint. 
Baoisleach, ich, *. m. A brothel, a house of revelry or 

riot ; also a frequenter of brothels. Ir. baoisteach. 

Baoislkachd, s.f. {from baois.) Lewdness, lust; revelry. 
Luchd baoisleachd, lewd people. 

Baoith, a. Airy, giddy, light, youthful. Ir. id. Mo 
bheanag bhuidhe bhaoith, my yellow-haired, airy damseL — 
Old Song. 

Baoitiie, s. f. Airiness, giddiness, lightness, or levity; 

Baoithe, com. and sup. of baoth; which see. 

Baolach, a. Con</\ ybr baoghalach ; which see. 

t Baos, u. Capricious, giddy. Ir. id. 

Baosrach, aich, *. ffi. (yrow baos.) Madness, frenzy ; also 
mad, frantic. 

Baotii, o. (/r. baoth.) Profane; wild, fierce, dreadful, horrid; 
vast ; stupid, simple ; soft ; useless ; deaf. Slighe nam 
peacach baoth, the way of profane sinners. — Sm. Fuatha- 
sach is baoth, terrible and fierce. — Oss. Temo. Fuaim 
bhaoth, a horrid sound. — Oss. Fing. Cho baoth ri d' airm, 
as useless as thine arms. — Oss. Carricth. Ann cunnart 
baoth, in dreadful danger ; tional baoth an t-sluaigh, the 
vast concourse of the people. — Id. Com. and sup. baoithe, 
more or most profane. 

Baothair, i. e. baoth-fhear, «. m. {Germ, bauer, a rustic.) 
A foolish fellow, a simpleton, an idiot. Is tu am baothair ! 
what a fool you are ! N. pi. baothairean. 

Baothaireachd, «./. (/roOT baothair.) Stupidity ; the talk 
or conduct of a fool. 

Baothairean, n. pi. of baothair. Fools. 

Baothan, ain, s. m. {from baoth.) A young fool, a block- 
head. iV. pi. baothair. 

Baothakach, a. Foolish, simple, silly. Gu baothanach, 

Baothanachd, s.f. Foolishness, simpleness, silliness. 

Baoth-bheus, «. w. Immorality ; dishonest conduct. Comar 

nam baoth-bheus, immoral Comar. — Orran. N. pi. baoth- 

Baoth-bheusach, a. Immoral; dishonest. Gu baoth- 

bheusach, immorally, 
Baoth-eheusan, n. pi. of baoth-bheus. 
Baotii-cheideamh, imh, s. m. A wild creed. 
Baotij-chreideamhach, a. Credulous; professing a wild 

Baoth-chreidmheacHjA. Con^r./or baoth-chreideamhach . 

Baoth-chreidmhiche, s. m. One who professes an extra- 
vagant creed. 

Baoth-leum, *. m. A fearful or dangerous leap; a bound ; 
a prancing, a vaulting. 

Baoth-leumnach, a. Wildly leaping ; proudly prancing. 
Each baoth-leumnach, a proudly prancing horse. — Old Poem. 

Baoth-radh, *. m. A profane expression; an idiotism. 

Baoth-radhacii, a.. Profane, impious, blasphemous ; talk- 
ing idly or foolishly. An teangadh bhaoth-radhach, the 
profane tongue.-^Old didactic Poem. 

Baoth-shugrach, a. Inclined to profane jesting; of, or 
pertaining to, a profane jest. 

Baoth-shugradh, aidh, i. m. Profane jesting. — Stew. Eph. 

t Bar, s. m. A son. 

Ir. bar. Heb. bar ; as bar-Ionah, the son of Jonah. 
Chald. and Syr. bar. Critn. Tartars, baar, child. Goth. 
Teut. Swed. Dan. barn. Scotch, bairn. Old Sax. beam. 
From bar comes the Latin par-io, to beget. 

t Bar, bkir, *. m. A learned man; a man; also a dart; 

/r. bara, bread. From bar, a man, comes, Eng. baron ; 
Old Sar. beorn, a man; and Old Dan. biorn. 

BAR,biir, s. m. {Ir. Corn, id.) A top or summit. Written 

also hdrr; which see. 
Baracu, aich, s. m. See Barracii, 



BIrach, a. (^from bkr.) High-topped, beetling, pinnacled. 
Mar chraig bli^rach, like a bettling rock. — Om. Cathula. 

Barag, aig, 4.y. See Barrag. 

Baragan, ain, t, m. A bargain. Fr. barguigner, to haggle 
or bargain. N. pi. baragain. 

Baraio, v. a. Restore, give away, grant. Pref. a. bharaig, 
hestowed ; fut. off. a, baraigidh, shall or will bestow. 

Barail, A'.y. (7r. barmhail.) Opinion; a conceit ; a guess 
or conjecture ; supposition, expectation. Am barail leat? 
is it your opinion .' — Oss. Tern. Is faoin do bharail, vain is 
thy expectation. — Old Poem. Glic na 'r barail fein, wise in 
your own conceits. — Stew. Rom. Thoir barail, ^«e«s ; ciod 
i do bharail ? what is your opinion J 

Baraill, s, f. N. pi. baraillean. A barrel or cask; the 
barrel of a gun. Min ann am baraill, meal in a barrel. — 
Stew. 1 A'. 

It. barile. JV. baril. Arrn. barilh. Span, barral, a twenty- 
jive j)int bottle. Sclav, bargella, a barrel. 

Baralach, a. (y)w« barail.) Conjectural; hypothetical. 

Baralachadh, aidh, s. m. The circumstance of conjec- 
turing ; a guessing or conjecturing. 

Baralachadh, (a), pr. part, of baralaich. Conjecturing, 
guessing, supposing, opining. 

Baralaich, v. a. Guess, conjecture, suppose. Pret. a. bha- 
ralaich, guessed; fut. ajf. a. baralaichidh, shall or will guess. 

Baran, ain, s. m. A baron. N. pi. barain, barons. 

Baranachd, «.y. A barony. 

Barandach, Barantach, a. Warranting; also warranted, 
sure, certain. 

Barandachadh, Barantachadh, aidh, s. m. A warrant- 
ing ; a warrant. 

Barandachadh, Barantachadh, (a), pr. ;)arf. of baran- 
daich. Warranting. 

Barandaich, Barantaich, v. Warrant; assure; make 
certain ; give authority or privilege. Pret. a. bharantaich, 
warranted ; fut. aff. a. barantaichidh, shall or will warrant. 

Barandail, Barantail, a: {i. e. barantamliuil.) War- 

Barandas, Barantas, ais, *. ?H. A commission; warrant; 
also a pledge, a pawn. 

Barbair, s. m. A barber or hairdresser. N. pi. barbairean, 
barbers. Span, barbero. Corn, barbeir. Swed. barber. 
Arm. barber. 

Barbaireachd, s. f. {from barbair.) The business of a 
hairdresser. Ag ionnsachadh na barbaireachd, learning 
the business of a barber. 

Barbarra, a. Barbarous, wild, fierce, cruel. — Stew. Col. ref. 
Gu barbarra, barbarously. 

Lat. and Span, barbara. It. burbero. Swed. barbar. 

Barbhas, ais, s. m. A village in the Isle of Lewis. 

The inhabitants of this village retain the very ancient Highland 
custom of sending a man early in the morning of the first of May 
to cross the river Barbhas, in order to prevent a female crossing it 
first ; for in that case the people believe that the salmon would 
not enter the river on that year, at least in desirable numbers. 
Throughout all the Highlands the fisher regards it unlucky to meet 
a female on his way to the scene of his spoits. 

Bar-bhrigein, s. m. Silver weed. 

Barbrag, aig, s.f. A barberry bush ; a barberry. 

Barc, bairc, s. A boat, a ship, a skiff. Ruitheadh ur bare 
thar chuanta, let your vessel bound speedily over the seas. — 
Ull. Barc breid-gheal, a white-sailed boat. — Old Poem. 

Germ. bark. Swed. bark. Dan. barke. It. barca. Fr. 
barque. Span, barca. Arm. barcq. Eng. bark. Du. boork. 
Basque, barca. Turk, barce, a little ship. 

This is one of the many Celtic words which straggled into the 
English tongue from some one of the dialects of llie Celtic, pro- 
bably that which is spoken in Br^tagne, commonly called the 
Armoric. Pelletier is not correct when he states that this word is 
peculiar to the Armoric dialect. 


Barc, s. m. A book. Ir. id. 

Barc, t'. n. {from barc.) Embark; also rush, burst forth. 
Pret. a. bharc, rushed; fut. aff. a. barcaidh, shall rush. 

Barcachd, «. /. (/row barc.) Embarkation. 

Bahc-lann, -lainn, «. m. A library. 

t Bard, baird, s. m. A corporation. N. pi. baird and bardan. 

Bard, baird, s. m. A bard, a poet, a rhymer. N. pi. baird 
and barda. TF. barth. /;■. bard. Arm. barth. Gr. ^a^Jo;. 
Lat. bardus. Thigeadh barda le toirm, let poets come with 
music. — Oss. Tern. Thaom na baird am fonn, the bards 
poured forth their strains. — Id. 

The Celtic bards were known to the writers of antiquity under 
the name ^a^Soi and bardi. Eta-i H va.^ attrot*; xoi itayitaX fxtxSiv cvt 
Sa(iovt mofid^Mia-n. — Diod. Siculus. There are also among them 
versifiers, whom they call bards. BajSoi jlhv vfimal xoi woihth!. — 
Struho, b. iv. They w^je not oidy poets, but musicians. Respect- 
ing the etymon of this term, Bochart, liv. i. Des Colonies det 
Phaniciens, chap. 42, observes, that it is of Iltbrcw origin, being 
derived from the word parat, to modulate or tune ; and this he 
endeavours to confirm by a quotation from Tacitus de Mar. Germ. 
" Ituri in prrelia canunt ; sunt et illis haec quoque carinina, quorum 
relatu, quem baritum vocant, accendunt aninios," &c. Dr. John 
Macpherson, who, himself a Celt, might have known better, n.sserts 
that it is idle to attempt tracing its etymon, and that, as it is a 
monosyllable, it cannot be traced to any root. In opposition to 
these opinions, it may be stated that bard is of Celtic origin ; 
and that it properly means one who extols; being resolvable 
into b-ard. And, by the way, I may remark, that ard itself, 
a three-lettered monosyllable, is not a radical word, but is de- 
rived from the primeval root, ur, high, which is seen in every 
language on earth, [see Ard and Bcirr\, and, though now gone into 
disuse among the Gael, is still retained by the Celts of Bretagne 
in their dialect called the Armoric. That bard is derived from 
ard, is the more likely, to say the least of it, since the northern 
word scald, or poet, whose pursuits were similar to the bard's, 
means also an extoller, being derived from alt, ullt, or tdd, forms 
of the same word, which is common to the Celtic and Gothic 
languages, and signifying high, hard and scald, therefore, are 
synonymous terms. 

Poetry being, in the opinion of the warlike Celts, the likeliest 
method of eternizing their bravery, the bards were held by tliem in 
the highest veneration. Princes and warriors did not disdain to 
claim affinity with that order. The Celts, being passionately fond 
of poetry, vvouUl listen to no instruction, whether from priest or 
philosopher, excepting it was conveyed in rhymes. Hence the 
word bard meant also a priest, philosopher, or teacher of any kind. 
Thus we find a bard often entrusted with the education of a prince ; 
and about two centuries ago, a Highland chieftain had seldom any 
other instructor. Such was the respect paid to the ancient bards, 
that, according to Diodorus the Sicilian, already quoted, they could 
put a stop to armies in the heat of battle. After any bloody 
engagement they raised the song over the deceased, and extolled 
the heroes who survived. 

" Vos quoque qui fortes aninias, belloque peremptas 
Laudibus in longum vates dimittitis sevum, 
Plurima securi fudistis carmina bardi." 
When a bard appeared in an army, it was either as a herald or 
ambassador ; hence his person and property were sacred in the 
midst of his enen\ies and amid their wildest ravages. In earlier 
times he never bore arms ; and Owen asserts that it was unlawful 
to unsheathe a weapon in his presence. Among the ancient British 
there were, according to .fones, three orders of hards : the Privardd, 
or chief bard, whom the Gael would call Piiomh-bhard ; the Pos- 
wardd, who taught what was set forth by the Privardd; and the 
Arwyddward, i. e. the ensign bard, or herald-at-arms, who employed 
himself in genealogy, and iu blazoning the arms of princes and 
nobles, as well as altering them according to their dignity or 
deserts. Owen observes that their dress was sky-blue, an emblem 
of peace. 

Among the Irish Celts the bards enjoyed many extraordinary 
privileges. The chief bard was called I'ileadh, or Ollamh ri dkn, 
a graduate or doctor in poetry, and had thirty inferior balds as 
attendants, whilst a hard of the second-rate or order had fifteen. 
The ancient (jael were not behind any of their brother Celts in this 
absurd veneration. A bard had lands bestowed on him, which 
became hereditary in his family. .'V Highland chieftain retained 
two bards, who, like those of the Irish, had their retinue of dis- 
ciples ; and though the office did by no means procure the same 


deep respect as in times of old, yet, like every department, secular 
or otherwise, that permits laziness and procures lucre, it was filled 
to the uttermost man. Its avarice and its insolence, together 
with other causes, contributed to the decline of the order. Its 
indiscriminate satire and ungrateful abuse brought it finally into 
contempt ; and the Gaelic bard of the present day is but a 
liomeless, sarcastic mendicant, wlio will sing a song of his own 
composing for a morsel of bread. 
Another Gaelic term for bard is uoisdanu ; which see. 

Barda, n. pi. of bard. 

Bardachd, s. f. (/rom bard.) Ir. id. Poetry, rhyming; 
satire, lampooning; a sarcasm; rarely a corporation town. 
Ged theirinn e cha bhardachd, though I were to say it, it 
would be no satire. — Old Poem. 

t Bardag, aig, *. /. A box, a pannier, a hamper. — //•. id. 
N. pi. bardagan. 

Bardail, a. (i. e. bard-amhuil.) Satirical, poetical. 7;-. bard- 

Bardainn, s.f. A summons of removal, a warning. Fhuair 
mi bardainn, I got a summons of removal. 

t Bardal, ail, s. m. A drake. Ir. bardal. 

Bardas, ais, s. m. A satyr, a lampoon. Jr. bardas. 

Bard-cluiche, s. m. A dramatist. JV. pi. baird-cluiche, 

Bard-dealbh-cluiche, s. w. a dramatist. 

Bard-dhAx, -dh^in, .$. m. (JV. barth-gan.) Poetry, rhyme. 

t Barg, a. Red-hot. — Ir. id. 

BiR-GiiEAL, a. White-topped. 

Baris, s. m. The ancient Gaulic name of Paris, still retained 
in the Armoric dialect of the Celtic. 

t Barn, bairn, s. m. A nobleman ; a judge ; a battle. 
Ir. barn, a judge. IV. Corn, barn, judgment. 

Barn AIG, v. a. Summon, warn ; give summons of removal. 
— Ir. Pret. a. bharnaig, summoned ; fut. aff. a. barnaigidh, 
shall or leill summon. 

Barnaigeadh, idh, s. m. A summons of removal. 

BArr, s. VI. A crop, as of com or grass ; also bread, food. 
Barr bhuntkit, potatoe crops. 

Arm. bara. Basque, bar, nourishment. Ileb. bar, corn. 
Goth. bari. Old Sax. here. Scotch, bear, barley. Gr. Ion. 
Bo^n, food; also English, bam. Runic, har, foliage. 

BAru, s. m. from the primeval root ar. {Ir. bar ff«rf barr. 
W. bar. Corn. bar. Arm. bar. Cantabrian, barna. Hence 
also /^barruca; /"r. perruque.) Z). ;;/. barraibh. A point, 
as of a weapon; acme ; k top, summit ; a crop; a branch; 
a height or hill ; a heap ; scum ; a head, a helmet ; su- 
periority ; rarely a son. For this last acceptation see bAr. 
Birr mo shleagh, the point of my spear. -- Oss. Gaul. Mar 
cheo air bharraibh nam beann, like a mist on the tops of 
the hills. -Oss. Duthona. Buntita ag a chrathadh o'n 
bhirr, potatoes a-»hakiiig from the crops.— Marfar. Cha 
'n fhig e bun no birr, he will leave neither root nor branch 
—Stew. Mai. A ruith fhiadh air bhkrraibh, chasin-r deer 
on the heights.— Fingalian Poem. Birr maise, superiority 
tn beauty.— Macdon. ^ 

It is worthy of observation, that in all the Eastern 
languages, and indeed in every language in the world, the 
word barr is found either simple or in composition, and 
signityiug height of some description or other. Heb. and 

Jl', ; u' ^'■^'"- ^^''- ^^''^^' '"'S''- Old Pers. bar, above. 
Lhatd. bar above, and baratz, heap up. Heb. cabar, to 
increase. Syr. cabar, increased. Ethiop. cabar, renowned. 
Arab, cabar, elevated. Malay, bara, lifted up. Gr. ^a»o?, 
high. Canaries bara. great. Du. baar, a lofty surge. 
Sclav, and Dal. bardo, a hill. Pol. barzo, vastly. Moscovfte 
boyar, noble. Arab, pharahh, to be elevated.' Pers. phar' 
high. Old Egyptian, Pharaoh, a king. Armen. partr 
'"°^^l"\"- fban pari or pare, an elevated man. Bohem. 
pharbck, hill. Madagascar, barou, a great deal. 

b A R 

Barra, s. m. A court ; a spijce ; a bar. Ir. id. 

Baruabiiailc, s. m. A cornice ; entablature ; a constella- 
tion. — Macd. Ir. id. N. pi. barrabhailcean ; d. pi. barra- 

Barrabhall and Barrabhalladii, aidh, s. m. Parapet, 
battlements, embrazurcs, bartizans. — Macil. 

Barra-bhaud, aird, s. m. A chief poet, a poet-laureate ; 
a graduate in poetry: called a]so flidh. He was entitled 
to an escort of thirty inferior poets. See Baud. 

Barra-bhardachd, s.f. The condition of a poet-laureate ; 
the verses of a poet-laureate. 

Barrabiiuidhe, a. (Ir. barrabhuidhe.) Yellow-topped; 
yellow- tipped; having yellow hair. 

Barrabr6g, br6ig, *. f. A barberry; a barberry tree. 
Ir. barbrog. 

Barracaideacii, a. Proud, saucy. Gu barracaideach, 
proudly. Com. and sup. barracaidche. 

Barracaideachd, s.f. Pride, sauciness. 

BArrach, a. {from barr.) High-topped, beetling, pinnacled. 

Barrack, a. {from barr.)' Topped ; heaped up as a loaded 
cart ; heaped up over the rim of a vessel. Cairt bharrach, 
a cart loaded over its rim. 

Barrach, aiche, s. m. {from biirr.) Ir. barrach. Branches 
of trees ; brushwood ; also fine tow. Feadli rainich is 
barraich, among ferns and brusItwood.^Macint. Snathainn 
barraiche, a thread of tow.— Stew. Jud. ref. Fo sgaile a 
bharraich, beneath the shady branches. — Miann a Bhaird. 

t Barrachad, aid, s. m. A cottage, a hut or booth. — /;•. id. 

Barrachaol, a. Pyramidical ; conical, tapering; also 
(substantively) a pyramid. 

Baruaciiaoin, a. Vei7 mild or gentle. Triilir bhraithre 
bharrachaoin, three gentle brothers.— Old Poem. 

t Baurachas, ais, s. n. Curled hair; waving locks.— 7;-. id. 

Barraciid,*./. Superiority, pre-eminence ; advantage, over- 
plus ; more, besides. Tha barrachd nan dkn duit, thou hast 
the superiority in song. — Oss. Fing. Thoir barrachd, excel; 
cha d' thoir thu barraclid, thou shall fiot excel; a toirt bar- 
rachd, excelling.— Stew. Ezek. A bliarrachd air sin, besides 
that, over and above that, moreover ; a bharrachd air a cheud 
ghorta, besides the first famine.— Stew. Gen. Chi dithis 
barrachd air aon fhear, two will see better than one.—G. P. 

Barr', contr. for barradh; which see. 

t Barra Dii, aidh, 4. OT. A hinderance, an obstacle. Portug. 
birra, a bar at the mouth of a river. 

Barradh, aidh, s. m. A barrow; a bier. Cuidhle-barr', 
a wheel-barrow ; barradh-rotha, a wheel-barrow; barradh- 
bocsa, a box-barrow, barr' laimh, a hand-barrow. 

Gr. (p»f ji», to carry. It. bara, a coffin. Germ. bar. 
Eng. bier. Fr. biere. Swed. bera and baera, a bier. Ser- 
vian, bera. Tint, bar and bara. Turk, bar, a burden. 
According to Herodotus, the bier of the ancient Egyptians 
was called bar. 

BARRAnn-DiiiAS, -dhels, s. m. The point of a sword ; the 
top of an ear of corn. 

Barradiiriopair, «. m. A butler. JV. ;j/. barradhriopairean. 

Barradiikiopaireachd, s.f. The employment of a butler. 

t Barrag, aig, s.f. {Ir. id.) Posset; scum, cream ; a sud- 
den pain ; a grappling, wrestling ; a girl. Cha chinn barrr.g 
air cuid cait, there is no cream on cat's milk. — G. P. 

t Barrag, aig, s.f. Weeds that float on the water; a 
switch, a rod. — Ir. id. 

Baragiilach, aich, s. m. Tops or branches of trees; 

BArraibii, d. pi. of birr. 

Barraich, a. {from birr.) Matchless; surpassing, pre- 
eminent, transcendent. 

B A S 

B A S 

Baruaich, r. Top ; heap up as a measure of grain ; excel, 
surpass. Pret. a. bharraich, surpassed: fut. off', a. bar- 
raichidh, sliall surpass. 
Barraiciitk, a. and p. part, of barraich. Tipped, topped ; 
excelled, surpassed ; also excellent, exceeding. Barraichte 
mar na seudair, excellent as the cedars. — Stevo. Sung Sul. 
Bj(hraig, r. a. Bestow, grant, present. Pre^ a. bharrai"; ; 

fut. aff. a. barraigidh, shall give. 
Barrail, a. Gay, sprightly, transcendent, genteel. Ir. bar- 
ramhuil. A rahaighdean bharrail, tAe sprightly maiden. — 
Old Song. 
Barrai.v, gen. sing, of barran ; which see. 
Barraist, s.f. The herb called borage; green kail. — Ir. id. 
Barkaisteach, a. Full of borage ; like borage; of borage. 
Bakuamiiais, «./. A cornice. — Macd. A^p/. barramhaisean. 
Barramhaiseach, a. Having cornices. 
Barran, ain, ,9. »«. (from hkrr.) Edder; any kind of fence, 
as thorns, glass, &c. on the top of a wall ; a tip ; a crest; 
also a fence, a hedge ; the top of a rock or mountain. 
N. pi. barrain ; d. pi. barranaibh. Anns na barranaibh, 
in the fences. — Stew. Nah. Fraoch sleibhe mar bharran 
air, tipped icith mountain heath. — Old Sung. 
Barrandacii, a. Sure, certain, warrantable. Written also 

Barran dadii, aidh, s. m. A warrant. Written also bar- 

Barrandas, ais, ^. m. A commission, a warrant ; a pledge, 
a pawn. — Macint. Ir. barantas. Written also barranlas. 
Barrantach, a. Sure, certain, warrantable. Gu barran- 
tach, warrantable . 
Barraxtadh, aidh, s. m. A warrant, a commission. 
Barbantas, ais, s. m. A warrant, a commission; a pledge, 

a pawn. Ir. barantas. N. pi. barrantais or barrantasan. 
Barra-rochd, s.f. Sea-weed, tangles. 
Barras, ais, s. m. (fromhkxT.') Superiority; residue, sur- 
plus. A bharras air sin, over and above that ; moreover. 
Barrasacii, a. Lofty ; superior ; ambitious; residual. 
Barra-thonn, -thuinn, s. m. A high surge ; the top of a 
wave ; the surface of the deep. A siubhal nam barra- 
thonii, bounding oxer the surges. — Ullin. 
Baiir-bhijidhe, a. Yellow - topped ; yellow-haired. Mo 

mhaighdean bharr-bhuidhe, jni/ yellow-haired maid. 
Barr-fhionn, a. White-topped, white-headed. Canach 

barr-fhionn, white-topped cotton. — Macdon. 
Barr-ghniomii, s. m. A work of supererogation; a tran- 
scendent exploit. 
Barr-guciid, s.f. Bloom, blossom; most frequently ap- 
plied to the bloom of leguminous vegetables, as pease. 
Barr-guchd air a mheuraibh, a blumn on its branches. — Macint. 
Barr-iall, -4iU, s. m. A shoe-tie, a latchet, a thong. 

fr. barial. 
Bas, bais, *. /. (Ir. bas.) The palm of the hand. N. pi. 
basan, palms; rf. ;;/. basaibh, palms. Bas reidh, a smouth 
palm; le6is air basaibh, blisters on her hands. — Old Song. 
Written also bos. 
BXs, bais, s. m. (Heb. baas, putrefied.) Death, destruction; 
also a dead body. Guin bkis, the agoni/ of death. — Ull. 
Dealan bais, the lightning of death. — Oss. Gavl. Faigh 
bks, die; gheibh gach ni bds, every thing shall die. — Stew. 
Gen. Ma shaltraicheas siuagh air mo hhks, if people tread 
on my dead body. — Oss. Tern. Droch bhks ort! a bad death 
tu you! a common imprecation among the Gael. 
BisACiiADH, aidh, «. ?». Dying, expiring; perishing, wither- 
ing. Tha e air basachachadh, it has died or withered. 
BisACHADii, (a), pr. part, of basaich. Dying, expiring; 
starving, withering. A basachadh leis an fhuachd, starving 
■with cold ; di/ing or withering with cold. 

Bas A OH, aidh,.?.»i. A terra applied to the rubbing of the thread 

ends of tape-work, to prevent their running into threads. 
Basaich, v. n. Die, expire, perish, starve ; wither as a 
plant; grow vamd, as beer. Pret. a. bh^saicb, died; fut. 
aff. a. basaichidn, shall or mil die. 
BAsAiL, a. (/. e. bas-amhuil.) Deadly; deathlike; mortal, 

fatal, destructive. 
Basal, ail, «. m. Judgment; also pride, arrogance. — Ir. id. 
BAsALACHD, «./. (//-oni bas.) Mortality; deadliness. 
Bas-airm, gen. bks-arm, *. pi. Deadly weapons. Fhir nam 

bas-arm geur, thou hero of deadly weapons. — Oss. Lodin. 
Basart, airt, i. w. A bastard. ^. /;/. basartan. 
Basbair, s. m. N. pi. basbairean. A fencer or swordsman. 
Bha thu na do bhasbair c6rr, thou wert a noble swordsman. 
— Gael. Song. Ir. id. 
Basbaireachd, «./; Swordmanship, fencing. 
Basb.\irean, n. pi. of basbair; which see. 
Bas-bhualadh, aidh, s. m. A clapping of hands ; a rubbing 

of hands, whether from grief or joy. — Stew. Luke, ref. 
BAs-BHUiLLE, *. m. A death-blow. Fhuair e' bh^s-bhuille, 

he received his death-blow. 
Basbruidheach, a. Lecherous. 
Basbruidheachd, s.f. Lecherousness. 
f Basc, a. {Ir. id.) Red ; round. — Shaw. 
Bascach, aich, s. m. A catch-pole, a baiUff. JV. pi. bas- 

caichean, catchpoles. 
Basc AID, (^er^ap* bascaite), ■s._/ro»8 basc. A basket. Box. 
Lex. Ant. Brit, basgawd and basged. Old French, bascod. 
N. pi. basgaide a/irfbasgaidean. Tri bascaide geala, three 
white baskets, — Stew. Gen. Martial writes, 

" Barbara de pictis venit Bascacda Britannis, 
Sed me jam vult dicere Roma suam." 
t Basc-airm, s. m. A circle. — Ir. id. 
Bascall, aill, s. m. A wild man ; a savage. N. pi. bascaill. 
Bascarnach, aich, s. m. Lamentation. 
Bascart, airt, s, m. Cinnabar. 
Basc-chriadh, s. m. Ruddle. — Shaw. 
Basdalacii, a. Showy, gay, flashy. Og basdalach, a gay 
youth. — Macint. A ribhinn bhuidhe bhasdalaiche, thou 
yellow-haired showy maiden. — JMuladh Mhoraig. Com. and 
sup. basdalaiche, more or must shuwy. 
Basdalaciid, «.y. Showiness, gayness. Chan fhac mi a 
leithid air basdalachd, / have not seen his equal for showiness. 
Basdard, aird, s. m. A bastard. Box. Lex. bastardd, 
spuriuvs. Ir. basdard. Span, and Portug. basfardo. Du. 
Basdard is probaljly derived from baos, foniicatiun. 
t Basg, v. a. Stop, stay. Pret. a. bhasg, stopped ; fut. off: a. 

basgaidh, shall or will stop. 
Basgaireach, a. Clapping the hands in the agitation of grief. 
Basgaireachd, *. f. A mournful clapping of hands. 

Ir. basgaire. 
Basganta, a. Warbling, melodious. — Macdon. 
B.\SLACH, p.ich, «. m. A palmful. 
Basg-iua: JH, s. m. Vermillion. — Macd. 
Basmhoire, con}, and sup. of basmhor ; whicii see. 
Basmhoireachi), *./. Mortality, deadliness. 
BAsMn6R, a. Deadly, mortal, liable to death. An corp 
basmhor, the mortal body. — Stew. 1 Cor. Cum. and sup. 
basmhoire, inorc or most deadly. 
Basmhoracii, a. Mortal, liable to death. Tha gach ere 

basmhorach, every body is liable to death. — Old Song. 
Basuaich, s.f. A shouting, roaring, calling aloud, wailing 

aloud. Ri basraich, shouting aloud. — Oss. Tern. 
Bas-shleagh, J. A deadly spear. Bas-shleagh nan triath, 
the deadly spear of the chiefs. — Oss. Tern. 

B E A 

B E A 

Bastalach, a. See Basdalach. 

Bat, s. m. A bath. Bat fiona, a wine-bath. Bat olaidh, an 
oil-bath. — Stew. Ezra. 

Du. bad. Dan. bad. Swecl. bad. W- bath. Ir. bath. 

Bat, s. m. A stick, a staff, a baton, a cudgel, a bludgeon. 
Asp. form, bhat. Gabh mo bhat, take mi/ stick. N. pi. 
bataichean. Ni thu bataichean, t/ioii shalt make staves. — 
Stew: 2 K. 

Germ. batt. Anglo-Sax. bat. Eng. bat. Ir. bat. 
Fr. baton. 

Bat, s.m. A boat, pinnace, barge; any sailing vessel of 
inferior size. N. pi. bataichean. Bat aigheir, a pleasure- 
boat ; bat da chroinn, a wherry ; bat aiseig, a ferry-boat. — 
Stew. 0. T. Bat iasgaich, a Jishing-boat. Chuir e bhat 
air acair, he brought his boat to anchor. — G. P. 

Dan. baad. Fr. bat-eau. Old Sax. bat. Old Swed. baat, 
secundum Rudbeck. Runic, baatus. Isl. baatur. Du. boot. 
Span, bat-el. It. bat-ello. 

Bataichean, n. pi. of bat. Boats. 

Bataichean, n. pi. of bat. Staves. . 

Batail, *. /". A fight, a skirmish. Pr. bataille. 

Bat air, s. m. (from bat.) A cudgeller; a lounger, an idler; 
a noisy fellow. Fr. batteur, a striker. I'orlug. batedor, 
one who beats. N. pi. batairean. 

Bataireachd, s. f (from bat.) Cudgelling; lounging; 
making a rattling noise. Is ann ort tha bhataireachd ! what 
a noise you make ! 

t Bath, s. {Ir. id.) The sea; also slaughter, massacre, 
murder ; death ; thirst. — Shaw. 

Bath, a. Simple, foolish; more frequently written baoth; 
which see. 

BAthachd, s. f. Simpleness, foolishness; a massacre. 
Thig bathachd oxt, foolishness shall come upon thee. — Mac Co. 

BAth, v. a. Drown; quench, slake; smother, as a flame; 
rarely faint. Pret. a. bhath, drowned ; fut. aff. a. b^thaidh, 
shall or will drown. Cha bhath na tuiltean e, the floods 
shall not drown him. — Stevi. Song. Sol. Bathadhmaid gach 
smalan, let us drown all care. — Old Song. Bath an teine, 
qufnch the fire. P. part, bathte, drowned. 

BAtiiadh, aidh, ». m. A drowning, a quenching, a slaking, 
a smothering. Bathadh m6r aig oir-thir, wrecks are most 
frequent on the shore. — G. P. 

BAthadh, a.; pr. part, of bith. Drowning. 

Bathaich, s. m. A cow-house. Bathaick is a corruption 
of ba-theach. N. pi. bathaichean. 

Bathais, s.y. A forehead, front, crown of the head. Na 
bhathais mhaoil, in his bald forehead. — Stew. Lev. N. pi. 
bathaisean. ■■ 

Bathalaich, s. m. A vagabond. 

BAthar, air, s. m. Crop ; wares, goods. Am bathar a bha 
san luinge, the wares that were in the ship. — Stew. Don. 

Ba-tijigh, ». m. A cow-house. — Macint. 

t Bathlan, ain, s. m. (fbath and Ian.) The flux of the sea, 
a tide ; a calm. 

Bath-laodh, «. m. {Ir. id.) A helmet. — Shaw. 

t Bathroid, «./. A token. JT. p?. bathroidean. 

Bath-shruth,«.»!. a calm smooth stream, /r. bath-shruth. 

t Bath-throid, s.f A helmet or headpiece. — Ir. id. 

t Batros, *. m. Rosemary. — Shaw. 

B'e, {for bu e.) It was he or it. 

Bi, *. {Ir. id.) Night; also a woman, a female. — Shaw. 

t Beabh, s. m. A tomb, a grave. 

t Beacan, ain, t, m. A mushroom. 

t Beacanach, a. Abounding in mushrooms ; like a mush- 
room ; of mushrooms. 

Beach, «.w. A bee ; a wasp; a beast; a bird. {Eisc.hechon. 
Ir. beach, a bee.) N. pi. beachan ; d. pi. beachaibh. 
Dranndan bheachan an aonaich, the murmur of the moun- 
tain-bees. — Oss. Dargo. Mar bheachaibh, like bees. — Sm. 

Beachach, a. Full of bees or wasps; like a bee or wasp, 
waspish ; of, or belonging to, a bee or wasp. Mios 
beacliach seilleanach, tfie month that produces wasps and 
bees. — Macfar. 

Beachan, ((fim. of beach.) A little bee. Beachan chapull, 
a wasp. 

Beachanta, a. Waspish, cross. Gu heachantz, waspishly. 

Beacharn, aim, s.f. A prostitute. JV". pi. beachairnean. 

t Beachd, i. «. A covenant, surety; a multitude; a ring, 
a circle. Ir. beacht. 

Beachd, *. m. Opinion, memory, perception; conception, 
feeling, idea ; aim, thought, attention, notice, observation ; 
vision, eyesight ; intention. A reir mo bheachd, according 
to my opinion. An do chaill thu mar mise do bheachd ? 
hast thou, like me, lost thy memory J — Oss. Conn. Tharruing 
i 'n t-sreang le rogha a beachd, she •pulled the string with 
her best aim. — Ull. Chuir baird am beachd air triath, the 
bards Jixed their notice on the chiefs. — Oss. Fing. Ma 's 
comhrag do bheachd, if battle be thy intention. — Old Poem. 
O bheachd, out of sight. — Oss. Fing. Na bheachd fein, in 
his own opinion or conceit. — Stew. Pro. Gabh beachd, 
observe, watch, make an observation. Ghabh e beachd air 
an treun, he observed the hero. — Mac Lack. Gu beachd, 
perfectly, clearly. 

t Beachd, v. a. {Ir. beacht.) Meditate, consider, observe, 
attend, view, watch; embrace, compass ; criticise. Pret. 
a. bheachd, viewed ; fut. aff. a. beachdaidh, shall view. 

Beachdachadh, aidh, s. m. A considering, viewing, medi- 
tating, watching ; consideration, meditation. 

Beachdachadh, a. ; pr. part, of beachdaich. Considering, 
viewing, meditating. 

Beachdaich, v. a. Consider, meditate, perceive, observe, 
attend, watch, eye. Pret. a. bheachdaich, observed; 
fut. aff. a. beachdaichidli, shall or will observe ; cha bheach- 
daich silil a h-aite, no eye shall observe her place. — Oss. 
Duthona. BheacTidaich mi gu diir, / observed attentively. 
— Mac Lach. Bheachdaich iad am fear mor, they eyed the 
mighty man. — Id. 

Beachdaiciite, p. /)ar^. of beachd. Considered, observed, 

Beachdaidh, a. Sure, certain; observant, watchful, con- 
siderate. Gu beachdaidh, considerately. 

Beaciidail, a. {J'rom beachd.) Observant, watchful, medi- 
tative, considerate ; rarely circular. 

Beachdair, s. m. An observer, a spy, an informer, a scout; 
a critic, a reviewer. N. pi. beachdairean. 

Beachdaireachd, s.f. Spying, informing; the occupa- 
tion of a critic or reviewer ; espionage. 

Beachd-Aite, s. m. An observatory; a watch-tower. 
N. pi. beachd-kitean or beachd-iiteachan. 

Beachd-ionad, aid, .?. w. An observatory ; a watch-tower. 
N. pi. beachd-ionadan. 

Beachd-sgeul, gen. beachd-sgeoil or beachd-sgeil, s. m. 

Beachd-smuaineach, Beachd-smuainteach, a. Medi- 

Beachd- smuaineaciiadh, Beachd-smuainteachadh. 
aidh, s. m. Meditation, contemplation; the act of medi- 
tating or contemplating. 

Beachd -smuaineaciiadh, Beachd -smu a inteaciiadh, 
(a), pr. part, of beachd-smuainich or beachd-smuaintich. 
Meditating, contemplating ; talking. Tha e a beachd-smu- 
ainteachadh, he is talking. — Stew. 1 A'. 

B E A 

B E A 

Beachd-smuaineachail, Beacho-smuainteachad, 0. 
Contemplative, meditative. 


meditate, contemplate ; talk. Pret. a. bheachd-smuainich, 
mused; fut. uff. a. beachd-smuainichidli, .s/iiiH iiiu^t- ; a 
bheachd-smuaineachadh san fhaiche, to meditate in the 
afield. — Sfeu: Gen. 
Beach-lann, lairin, s. m. A bee-hive, 
t Beachran, ain, s. m. Wandering-, straying.— SAaa-. 
Bkad, «. »». Flattery; cunning, a trick. 
Beadach, a. {frovi bead.) Forward, impudent; prone to 

flatter. Com. and sup. beadaiche, more or most forward. 
Beadachd, s. f. {from bead.) Forwardness, impudence; 

Beadag, aig, s.f. {from bead.) A lying, enticing young 

female ; a gossip. JV. jil. beadagan. 
Beadag ACii, a. {from beadag.) Like a lying female; like 

a gossip. 
Beadagan, n. pi. of beadag. 
Beadagan, ain, s. m. A petulant fellow; a tale-telling 

fellow. N. pi, beadagan. 
Beadaiche, com. and sup. of beadach. More or most 

Beadaiche, s. m. A flatterer, a cajoler; an enticing fellow. 

N. pi. beadaichean. 
Beadaidh, a. Forward, pert, petulant; mannerless; nice, 
fond of delicacies, luxurious ; sweet-mouthed ; flattering. 
Cho beadaidh, so forward. — Macint. Beadaidh ri linn 
socair, luxurious in time of peace. — Smith. Oran na circe 
beadaidh, a song from the pert hen. — G. P. 
Beadaidheachd, s.f. Forwardness; petulance; flattery; 

Beadan, ain, *. m. Calumny; also a forward petulant 

Beadanach, a. {from beadan.) Calumnious; forward; 
petulant. Gu beadanach, calumniously. Cum. and sup. 
Beadanachd, s.f. The habit of calumniating; forward- 
ness, pertness. 
Beadaracii, a. {Sxiied. bedraga, to deceive.) Beloved, 
lovely; flattering, cajoling; pampered; delicate; indulged. 
Is beadarach an ni 'n onoir, honour is delicate. — G. P. 
Com. and sup. beadaraiche, more or mostjlaftering. 
Beadaradh, aidh, s. m. Fondness, endearment ; fondling, 
flirting, toying; flattering. Beadaradh gu Icoir, enough of 
Jlirtiug.— Macint. Chuireadh tu bodaich gu beadaradh, 
thou -wouldst set old men a fondling. — R. 
Beag, a. (//•. beag.) Little; young; small; light, trifling, 
insignificant; few. Asp. form, bheag. Leanabh beag, a 
habe ; na sionnaich bheag, the young foxes. — Stew. Song. 
Sol. Air bheag do lathaibh, in a few days. — Stew. Acts. 
A bheag, a little, the least ; a bheag a dh' aon ni 's leatsa, 
any {the least] particle of what is thine. — Stew. Gen. Cha 
'n fhaigli a bheag bks, nothing shall die. — Stew. Exod. 
Beag is beag, little and little, by degrees. — Id. Is beag so, 
this is a \tri/ling] light thing. — Stew. 2 K. Air bheag, 
altnost ; air bheag nithe, abnost. — Stew. Acts, ref. Is beag 
orra e, / dislike him ; iadsan air am beagsibh, they who hate 
i/ou. — Slcw. Lev. Ach beag, almost ; beag nach, almost. 
Na big agus na nioir. tie small and the great. — Stew. Ps. 
An rud fhi na big, r.i na big, what the young see they do. 
— G. P. An ni chhiinneas na big 's e chinas na big, 
what the young hear they repeat ; as the old cock crows, the 
young cock learns. — G. P. Com. and sup. lugha, less, least. 

Beagachadii, aidh, s. m. A lessening, a diminishing, 

Beagachadh, a.; pres, part, of beagaich; Lessening, 

Beagaich, v. a. Lessen, diminish, abate. Pret. a. bhea- 
gaich, lessened; j^t.ajf. a. beagaichidh, shall or will diminish ; 
cha bheagaich sibh.^^e skull not diminish. 

Beaoaiche, ». m. {frim beag.) An abater, a diminisher. 

BEAGAICHEAll,/«^pflM. of bcagaich. Shall be lessened or 

Beagaichidh, fut. aff. a. of beagaich. Shall or will 

Beaoaichte,/). j)ar^ of beagaich. Lessened, diminished. 

Beagan, s. and a. A little, a few, a small number, a small 
quantity or portion. Air bheagan ceille, with little wisdom, 
witless.— Sm. Beagan uisge, a little water.— Stew. Gen. 
Fuireach beagan, stop a little ; beagan ni's fhaide, a little 
longer; beagan crion, a very little; bheagan a bheagan, 
by little and little, by degrees ; a dol am beaganaibh, grow- 
ing into small portions, crumbling. 

Ir. beagan. JV. bechan. Arm. bihan. Corn, bian 
and vichan. In old French books we see bechan, little. 
In Franche Comte they say pechon. 

Beagchionta, s. a petty crime; a foible. N. pi. beag 

Beag-eagallach, a. Bold, fearless.— /r. id. 

Beag-luach, a. Valueless, useless. 

Beag-narach, o. Shameless, impudent. Gu beag-narach, 
shamelessly, impudently. — Stew. Hos. 

Beagnarachd, s.f. Shamelessness, impudence. 

Beaiut, «.y. A loom ; engine, machine; harness; tackling 
of a ship ; exploit ; a scabbard ; a truss. Fhuair e i aig a 
beairt, he found her at her loom. — Mac Lach. Da steud fo 
bheairt, two studs in harness. — Id. Beairt thuairneir, a 
turning loom. N. pi. beairtean. 

Beairticii, v. a. Yoke, as a chariot; provide with tackling; 
enrich. Pret. a. bheairtich,yoZ:erf,- fut. aff. a. beairtichidh, 
shall or will yoke ; written also beartaich ; which see. 

Beal, Beil, s. m. A mouth ; provincial for beul. 

Beal, Beil, s. m. The god Belus. Written also Beul; 
which see. 

Bealach, aich, s. m.; ji. pi. bealaichean. {Ir. bealach.) 
A defile, a narrow passage, the pass or gorge of a mountain, 
a glen, a gap, a way. Asp. form, bhealach. Mar eibhle sa 
bhealach, like a fire in the mountain gorge. — Oss. ting. 
Ciod am bealach am buail sinn ? through what pass shall we 
strike our way. — Old Legend. Air bealach ceairt, on a 
right way. — Stn. Druid am bealach, shut the way. — Id. 

Bealaidh, Bealuidh, 4. ?«. Broom. Buidheag bhealaidh, 
a yellow-hammer. 

Bealbhan-ruadh, s. m. A sort of hawk. — Shaw. 

t Bealtaine, s.f. An agreement, a compact, a bargain. — 
/p id. 

Beatlainn, Bealtuinn, s.f. May-day; Whitsuntide; 
the month of May. La btiidlie bealtuinn, a common name 
for May-day. 

On tlic first of May was hdil a great festivnl in 
lioiiour of the Asiatic f;o(l, Belus, whom the Druids worshipped. 
On this day fires were kindled on the mountain tops for the pur- 
poses of sacrifice ; and through these fires, acconiing to Keating, 
the Drnids ordcrod the cattle of the country to be driven, with the 
design of preserving them from contagion till next May-day. On 
this day too it was usual to extinguish ull the hearth fires, in onler 
that they should be kindled from this purilying flame. Hence it 
would seem that the right orthograpliy of healtuinn is ISiil-leine, 
Belus's fire. La Bealtuinn, therefore, signifies the day of lielus's 
fire. In some parts of the Highlands, the young folks of a hamlet 
meet in the inooi-s on the first of iNlay. They cut a table in 
the green sod, of a round figure, by cutting a trcncli in the ground 
of such circumference as to hold the whole company. They then 
kindle a fire, and dress a repast of eggs and milk in the consistence 


B E A 

of a custard. They knead a cake of oatmeal, which is toasted at 
the embers against a stone. After the custard is eaten up, they 
divide the cake into so many portions, as similar as possible to one 
another in size and shape, as there are persons in the company. 
They daub one of these portions with charcoal until it is perfectly 
black. They then put all the bits of the cake into a bonnet, and 
every one, blindfold, draws out a portion. The bonnet-holder is 
entitled to the last bit. Whoever draws the black bit is the 
devoted person who is to be sacrificed to Baal, whose favour they 
mean to implore in rendering the year productive. The devoted 
person is compelled to leap three times over the flames. — Statutics, 
■ Callender. 

Bealuidh, s. m. Broom. Goisean bealuidh, a tuft of 
broom ; written also bealaidh. 

Bean, v. Touch, handle, meddle. Pret. a. bhean, touched; 
fut.aff. a. beanaidh, sAall or will touch; an ti a bheanas 
ribh, he vho touches you. — Steu\ Zech. 

Bean, gen. mna. {Corn, benen.) A wife, a woman, a female. 
Bean a ghaoil, the wife of his affections. — Orr. Goirear 
bean ditli, she shall be called woman. — Stew. Gen. Bean 
nan deagh bheus, a virtuous female. A Gael, in speaking to 
his mother, says, a bhean ! woman ! and not a rahathair ! 
mother! Bean-ghliiin, a midwife; bean-shiubhlaidh, 
a woman in childbed; bean-tighe, a housewife; d. sing. 
tilnaoi. Air do bhreth le mnaoi, born of a woman. — Smith. 
Mar mhnaoi, as a wife, to wife. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. mnai 
and mnathan, wives, women ; d. pi. mnathaibh. 

t Beanadh, aidh, s. m. Dulness, bluntness. 

Beanag, aig, *./. (Am. of bean.) TF. benan. Corn, benen. 
A little wife, a little woman ; a term of endearment for a 
wife, or for any female. Mo bheanag ghaolach, my dear 
little wife. — Macint. 

Beanail, a. (yVoOT bean.) W. benywawl. Ir. beanamhail. 
Womanly, womanlike, effeminate, feminine, modest, deli- 

Bean-baile, t.f The lady or proprietress of a village. 

Bean-bainnse, s.f A bride ; literally, the woman of the 

Bean-biiarain, s.f- A baron's lady. 

Bean-bhochd, s.f. A female mendicant, a poor woman. 
Mnathan bochd, poor women. 

Bean biirathar-athar, s.f. An uncle's wife, the wife of 
a father's brother. 

Bean bhrathau^mAtiiar, t.f. An uncle's wife, the wife 
of a mother's brother. 

Bean bhrathar-sean-athar, s.f. A grand-uncle's wife, 
the wife of a grandfather's brother. 

Bean-charaid, *.y. A female friend ; a kinswoman. 

Bean-cii£ile, s.f A spouse, a wife. 

Bean-ciiIciie, s.f. A wet-nurse. mnathan ckhe, 

Bean-chinnidii, «./ A kinswoman; female ; a namesake. 

Bean-chhamhdinn, s.f A daughter-in-law ; a sister-in- 

Bean-choimheadachd, t.f. A waiting-maid ; a bride- 
maid. — Shaw. 

Bean-ciiomharbadh, s.f. A dowager. 

Bean dalta, «.y. A foster-daughter. 

Bean-eigneachadh, aidh, s. m. A rape. 

Beangan, ain, i. m. A branch, a bough. "H. pi. beangain, 
branches. See also Meangan. 

Bean-oiiluixe, *. /. (bean, woman, and gli^n, offspring.) 
A midwife. Thuirt a bhean-ghliiine ria, the midwife said 
to her. — Stew. Gen. 

Bban-leigii, *./. A female physician. mnathan- 

Bean-nigiieaciiain, s.f. A washerwoman, a laundry- 
maid. N. pi. mnathan-nigheachain. 

Bean-osda, 5.y; A hostess. JV. ;;/. mnathan-osda. 
Bean-righdir, s.f. A baronet's lady. Mnathan righi- 

Bean-shiubhlaidh,*./. A woman in childbed. 

Bean-striopachais, s.f An adulteress, a faithless wife. 
— Stew. Hos. 

Bean-tighe, «.y; A housewife; a housekeeper; landlady, 

Bean-uasal, gen. mna uasail, s.f. A lady, a gentlewoman. 
JV. pi. mnathan-uasal. 

Beann, Beinn, 4.y. A degree; a step; a horn; a skirt; 
a drinking-cup. ; a beam ; a comer. A bheann ifibhraidh, 
its beatn of yew. — Fingalian Poem. Fiadhachd bheann, the 
hunting of mountain-deer. — Old Song. 

Beann, Beinne, s. f. A hill, a mountain, a summit. 
Aghaidh na beinne, the brow of the mountain. — Oss. Fing. 
Ir. beann. JF. bann and pen. Pers. avien. Gr. ^aSvoj. 
Germ, bann, higli. Hence also, Eng. banner. Germ, pinn, 
a summit. Lat. pinnee, pinnacula, summits or pinnacles. 
Hence Apenninus ; hence also Deus Penninus, (Dia nam 
beann, the god of the hills), worshipped, as mentioned by 
Livy, book xxxi., on the top of the Alps. Cluverius 
thinks that this was the Celtic deity whom the old Germans 
called Pinn. 

Beann ACii, a. (/row beann.) Horned; cornerways; skirted; 
chequered ; mosaic. Com. and sup, beannaiche, more or 
moit horned. 

Beannachadh, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of 
blessing; a blessing. Thug e leis mo bheannachadh, he 
took with him my blessing. — Stew. Gen. Sriilh-bheannachadh 
nan ceatharn, the smooth address of the robber. — G. P. 

Beannachadh, a. ; pr. part, of beannaich. Blessing. 

Beannachd, s. f {Ir. beannacht. Corn, banneth.) A 
blessing ; salutation, compliment ; a farewell expression ; 
as, beannachd leat, farewell ; i. e. a blessing go with you. 
Beiribh beannachd, be ye blessed. — Fingalian Poem. Bean- 
nachd le cleachda na h-6ige, farewell to the pursuits of 
youth. — Ardar. Beannachd do t-anam is buaidh, blessing 
to thy sonl and victory. — Ul/. Cuir mo bheannachd, send 
my compliments ; thoir mo bheannachd, give my compliments, 
N. pi. beannachdan. 

Beannachd a bhAird, s. The poet's congratulation. 

Among the ancient Gael, if at any jovial meeting, any man 
retired, for however short a time, he was obliged, before he was per- 
mitted to resume his seat, to make an apology for his absence in 
rhyme. If he had no talent for poetry, or if, from humour, he did 
not choose to comply, which was seldom the case, he was obliged 
to pay such a proportion of the reckoning as the company thought 
proper to propose; and this, according to Martin, was beannachd- 

Beannachdacii, (J. Prone to bless ; prone to salute. 

Beannaich, r. a. (Ir. beannaigh.) Bless, salute, hail ; 
invoke a blessing. Pret. a. bheannaich, blessed ; fit. aff. a. 
beannaichidh, shall or will bless. Na beannaich dha, do not 
salute him. — Stew. 2 K. Dhia beannaich sinn I God bless 
us ! Fut. sub. bheannaicheas ; fit. pass, beannaichear, 
shall be blessed. 

Beannaichidh, y"M<. aff. a. of beannaich. Shall or will 

Beannaiciite, ;>.pa/Y. Blessed ; saluted. Asp. form, hhedin- 
naichte. Barr beannaichte, a blessed crop. Arm, bara 
benniguet, blessed bread. Runic, benediged. Corn, benigaz. 
Ir. beannuighte. Arm. beneguet. 

Beannag, aig, *./. A coif ; a linen cap. Ir. id,, 

Beann AG Acii, a. Having a coif, like a coif. 

Beann AN, ain, s. m, {dim, of beann.) A little hill., 


B E A 

B E A 

Beannta, Beakntan, n. pi. of beanii. Hills, mountains. 
Beanntacii, II. Hilly, mountainous, rocky, pinnacled. 

Diithaich bheanntach, a hitli/ country. 
Beanntachd, s.f. Hilliness, mountainousness. 
Bean-nuadh-piiosda, s.f. A young wife, a newly married 

Beannuciiadii, aidh, s. m. (Ir. beannughadh.) The act 

of blessing ; a blessing. Written also beannaich. 
Beanxuich, v. a. Bless; invoke a blessing; salute. 

Pre/, a. bheannuich ; fiit. af. a. beaniiuichidh, shall or mil 

bless. Written also beannaich ; which see. 
t Bear, Bir, s. m. A spit. See Bior. 
+ Bear, s. m. A bear. See Beithir. 
Bearachd, s.f. Judgment, 
t Bearan, ain, s. m. A young man ; also pen ; a little spit. 

N. pi. bearain. 
t Bearg, s. m. Anger; also a champion, 
f Bearoaciid, s.f. Diligence. — Shaw. 
Bearg NADU, aidh, s. m. The vernacular language of a 

Bearla, s.f. The language of the Scotch Lowlanders. 
Bearn, Beair'n', and Beirn, s.f. {Ir. beam.) JV". pi. be- 

arnan ; dat. pi. bearnaibh. A breach ; a gap, an aperture ; 

a separation ; a fissure. Asp. form, bhearn. Ro bhearna 

nan neul, through the fissure of the clouds. — Oss. Lodin. 

Le bearnaibh, ivith breaches. — Ste:B. Amos. 
Bearn, v. a. Notch; hack; make a breach or gap. 

Pret. a. bhearn, notched ; fit. aff. a. bearnaidh, shall or 

will notch. 
Bearnacii, a. {from bearn.) Chopped ; having breaches 

or gaps; notched, hacked; fractured; having fissures, 

apertures, or clefts ; causing gaps, notches, fractures, or 

clefts. An sgiath mheallach bhearnach, the bossy fractured 

shield. — Oss. Derm. 
Bearn^an , 71. pi. of beairn ; which see. 
Bearn AN, ain, s. m. {dim. of bearn.) A little breach ; a 

little notch. N, pi. bearnain. 
Bearnan brIde, s.m. The flower called dandelion. Am 

bearnan bride is a pheighinn rioghail, the dandelion and the 
■ pennyroyal. — Macint. N. pi. bearnain bride. 
Bearn-mhiol, s. m. A hare-lip. — Shaw. 
t Bearr, a. Short, brief. 
Bearr, c. 0. Shave; shear, clip; crop, curtail, lop, prune. 

Pret. a. hheurr, shaved ; fit. aff. a. bearraidh, shall or will 

shave. Bhearr se e fein, he shaved himself. — Stew. Gen. 
Bearra, ai, s. m. A spear, a dart; any sharp-pointed 

instrument ; also short hair ; a cut, a slice, shred, or frag- 
ment ; a segment. — Shaxv. 
Bearradair, s. m. (/ro?« bearr.) A barber, a hairdresser; 
^ a critic; one who carps, clips, or crops. Ealtain bearr- 

adair, the razor of a barber. — Slew. Ezek. N. pi. bearrad- 

Bearradaireachd, s.f. {from bearr. The occupation of 

a barber ; a clipping, a cropping ; a carping, criticising. 
Bearradairean, «. ; n. pi. of bearradair. 
Bearradh, aidh, s. m. {from bearr.) A cutting, as of hair, 

or any other crop ; a shearing, clipping, shaving; a lopping, 
a pruning ; a spear ; short hair ; a cut, a slice, a shred ; 

a segment. Dean do bhearradh, shave thyself, make thyself 
.: bald.— Stew. Mic. 
Bearradh, aidh, s. m. The top of a mountain ; a mountain 

cliff or pinnacle. N. pi. bearraidhean. 
Bearrag, aig, «./. (//wn bearn.) Ir. bearog. A razor. — 

Macd. N. pi. bearragan, razors. 
Bearraiche, s. m. {from bearr.) Ir. bearrlhach. A barber, 
a hairdresser. N. pi. bearraichean. 

Bearraideach, a. {from bearr.) Light, nimble, active. 

Gu bearraideach, lightly. 
Bearra-sgian, sgein, s.m. A razor; a pruning-hook. — 

Macd. N. pi. bearra-sgeinichean, razors. 

Bearrta, Bearrte, p. part, of bearr. Shaven, cropped, 
clipped, pruned, shorn. — Stew. Jer. An treud bhearrta, 
the shorn'Jlock. — Stew. Song. Sol. 

Bearrtach, a. Shaving, cropping, clipping, pruning ; 
carping ; fond of cropping, clipping, or pruning. 

t Beart, Beairt, s.f. A judgment; a covenant, or com- 
pact; a game at tables. — Shaw. A', p/. beairtean. 

Beart, Beairt, i.y. (Jr. heart.) An engine, a machine ; 
a loom, a frame ; a deed, work, or exploit; a harness, a 
yoke ; a burden ; shrouds ; tackling, as of a ship ; a sheath 
or scabbard ; a bundle or truss ; clothes. K. pi. bearta, 
beairt, beartan. A bhearta iongantach, his wonderful 
works. — Stew. Ps. Bearta treubhantais, yf<j/s o/' rrt/ow;-. — 
S7n. Cuig barcai fo 'm beairt. Jive ships infill equipment. 
— Oss. Conn. A lann fo bheart, his sword in the scabbard. 
— Oss, Tern. Ar siilil 's ar beartan, our sails and our 
shrouds. — Macfar. Beart- thuairnein, a turners loom; 
beart-f higheadair, a weaver's loom ; beart-treabhaidh, a 
plough ; beart-uchd, a poitrel. 

Beartach, a. Rich, wealthy; of, or belonging to, a machine ; 
like a sheath or scabbard, sheathed. Cha bhi e beartach, 
he shall not be rich. — Stew. Job. Com. and sup. beartaiche, 
more or most rich. 

Beartaich, v. a. { from hsdcri.) Yoke, as a chariot; pre- 
pare, make ready ; begin ; enrich ; brandish, flourish ; also 
meditate. — Shaw. Pret. a. bheartaich, j/o^erf; fat. aff. a. 
beartaichidh, shall or will yoke. Bheartaich c a charbad, 
he yoked his chariot. — Stew. Gen. Fut. pass, beartaichear. 

Beartair, s. m. A brandisher. — Shaw. 

Beartas, ais, s. m. Riches ; honour, Beartas agus urram, 
riches and honour. — Stew. Pro. 

t Beartha, a. Clean, fine, spruce, genteel. — Shaw. 

Beas, s. See Beus. 

Beasan, ain, s. m. {Fr. bassin. /;•. baisin.) A basin. 
N. pi. beasanan. 

f Beasg, s.f A prostitute. — Shaw. 

f Beasgnadh, aidh, ». m. A speech, a dialect ; peace. 

Beath, i.y. Birch-wood, a birch-tree. Written also iWf^e ; 
which see. 

Beath, s.f. {Ir. beatha. Gr. ^turt). Dor. ^tura.. Lat. vita.) 
Life ; food ; livelihood ; welcome ; salutation. Is amhuil 
aisling ar beath, our life is like a dream. — Oss. Taura. 
Is i do bhealh 'n so, you are welcome here. Bhur beath-sa, 
ghaisgich ! i/ou are welcome, heroes ! — Oss. Fing. Bheir 
duine beath air eigin, ach cha toir e rath air eigin, a man 
may force a livelihood, but cannot force good luck. — G. P. 

Beathacii, aich, *. m. {from beath.) Ir. beathach. A 
beast, animal, creature ; strictly speaking, it has the same 
comprehensive meaning with the Gr. ^t-ion, and the Lat. 
animal or animans, any living thing; yet it is never applied, 
but by way of reproach or pity, to a human being. N. pi. 
beathaichean. Beathacii is also written beothuch, from beo. 
Beathach fiadhaich, a wild beast ; beathach oibre, a beast of 
burden ; am beathach mosach, the nasty beast ; a bhcathaich 
thruaighe ! poor creature ! poor thing ! 

Beatiiaciiadh, aidh, «. w. A feeding; a nourishing; also 
food, sustenance, nourishment; a living, a benefice; main- 
tenance. Arson beathachadh, ybrybo(/. — Stew. Gen. Chum 
beathachaidh, for maintenance. — Stew. Pro. Ir. beatha- 

Beatiiaciiadh, a.; pr. part, of beathaich. Feeding, nou- 
rishing, maintaining. 

B E I 

B E I 

Beathadach, aich, s. m. A beaver. Ir. beathodach. 
N. pi. beathadaiche. 

Beathag, aig, s. m. A bee ; a beech-tree. — Shaw. Also 
the name Sophia. 

Beathaicii, t. a. (Jr. beathaigh.) Feed, nourish, main- 
tain, support; welcome, salute. Pre<. a. bheathaich, /erf; 
fut. aff. a. beathaichidh, shall or will feed. Bheathaich e 
chuid eile, he fed the rest. — Stew. Gen. Bheathaich e 
athair, he maintained his father.— Id. Fut. pass, beathaichear. 
Beathaich thusa mise an diugh, is beathaichidh mise thusa 
am maireach,yeef/ me to-day, and I will feed you tu-morrow. 
—G. P. 

Beathaichidh, /i(f. a_f. a. of beathaich; which see. 

Beathaichte, p. part, of beathaich. Fed, nourished, 
maintained, supported ; welcomed. 

Beathail, a. (i. e. beath-amhuil.) Vital; pertaining to 
life. Aile bheathail, vital air, or oxygen. 

Beath-aile, s.f. Vital air, oxygen. 

Beathalach, a. {from beatb.) Lively, sprightly. Gu 
beathalach, lively. 

Beathalachd, s.f. LiveUness, sprightliness. 

Beathanan, «. sing, and pi. Food, victuals. — Macd. 

Beath-eachdraidh, s.f. A biography. 

t Beathra, ai, ». m. (th silent.) Water. 

Old Celtic, ber. Tuik. bar and behr, sea. Per«,,baran, 
rain. Phen. bir, wells. Arab, bir, wells. Ir. bir, a well. 
In Madagascar, bihar means sea. 
Beic, *./. A courtesy. Dean beic, cour^eiv. 
B£ic, s.f. A cry, shout, roar; an outcry, an uproar. More 

commonly written beuc ; which see. 
Beic, s.f. A point, a nib, the bill of a bird. Hence Fr. bee. 

It. becco. Eng. beak and peak. 
Beiceasach, a. (/roffj beic.) Bobbing; courtesying; skip- 
ping ; hopping. — Macint. 
Beiceil, a. (from beic.) Courtesying, bobbing. 
Beiceil, «. /. A courtesying, bobbing, frequent bobbing. 
A beiceil gu foirmeil, courtesying formally . — Macfar. Ciod 
a bheiceil th' ort ? why do you bob so ? 
Beiceil, (a), pr. part, of beic. Courtesying, bobbing. 
Beic-leumxach, a. Prancing, skipping, bobbing, hopping, 

Beigneid, «./. A bayonet. N. pi. beigneidean. 
BilL, gen. sing, of beul. 

Be'il, (i. e. beath-uile, the life of all.) Bel, the name under 
which the British Druids adored the Divinity. Del, in 
Welch, means war or havoc. Owen observes, that Mars 
was called Bel by the Britons ; and he grounds his opinion 
on the following inscription upon a British Roman altar, 
which was found in the north of England, " Bel y dw 
Cadyr ;" Bel, the god of war. 
t Beil, gen. beile, s.f. A meal of meat, a diet. — Ir. id. 
Beilbheag, aig, «./ Acorn-poppy; wild poppy. N. pi. 

Beilbheagacii, a. Abounding in wild poppies; like a 

wild poppy. 
Beilean, ein, s. m. (from beul.) A mouth, a prattling 
moutii ; prattling; a prattling person. Asp. form, bheilean. 
Ciod a bheilean th' ort ? why do you prattle so ! 

Beileanach, a. (from beul.) Garrulous; prating. Beul 
» beileanach, a prating mouth ; gu beileanach, garrulously. 

Com. and sup. beileanaiche. 
Beileanachd, «./. (from beul.) Garrulousness ; prating. 

Is ann ort tha bheileanachd, how you do prate. 

IBeille, «. /. (Ir. id.) A kettle, a caldron. N. pi. hcW- 

Beilleach, a. Blubber-lipped. 

Beilleachd, s.f. The deformity of blubber-lips. 

B'eilleachas, ais, *. m. The deformity of a blubber-lip, 

t Beilt, Beilte, s.f. A belt, girth, cingle.— /r. id. 

Beim, gen. sing, of beura ; which see. 

t Beim, *./. A tribe, a generation ; also a help ; a piece of 

timber. Ir. beim. Etig. beam. 
B£iN, gen. sing, of bian. Of a skin or hide. Clogaid bein 

an ruadh-bhuic, a helmet of the skin of the roe. — Oss. 

Being,*./. A bench, a form, a table. 

Swed. bank, a shelf Teut. bancke and panch, a bench. 

Dan. bene. Span, banca. It. banco. Basque, banco. 

Du. bank. Old Sax. bene. JF. and Corn. benk. /;•. beinc. 

N. pi. beincean. 
t Beinc, s.f. (Ir. id.) A separation, partition, disjunction. 

— Shaw. 
t Beine, s. m. A champion ; also evening. — /;■. id. 
Beinean, ein, s.f. A little woman. Ir. beinin. Corn. 

Beinn, gen. beinne, s.f. A mountain; hill; pinnacle; a 

bin. IF. pen. Box. Lex. bann. Gr. /3ow»o; ; hence also 

n>)»ixo!. The pen of the Cirabrians and Sabines also meant 

a summit ; hence Apennines, mountains in Italy. See also 

Beinne, gen. sing, of beann and beinn. 
Beinnean, ein, *. m. (dim. of beinn.) A little hill, a pinnacle. 

Beir, 17. Take hold ; bear, carry ; bring forth ; give ; over- 
take. Pret. a. bheir, bare ; fut. aff. a. beiridh, shall bear. 
Bheir i mac, she bore a son. Beiridh tu mac, thou shalt 
bear a son. — Stew. Gen. Beir uam fuaim d' 6ran, take 
ffom me the noise of thy song. — Stew. Am. Beiribh bean- 
nachd, beiribh buaidh, be ye blest, be ye victorious. — 
Fingalian Poem. Beir, with tlie preposition air, means 
overtake, fake hold ; beir air, take hold of him, overtake him; 
Beiridh mi orra, I will overtake them. Nur chi thu bean 
oileanach beir oirre, mar beir thusa oirre beiridh fear eile 
oirre, when you find an accomplished woman , take her; if you 
will not, another will. — G. P. 

Gr. ptft. Lat. fer. Dan. baere. Maeso-Gothic, bairan. 
Swedo- Gothic, baera. Swed. bara. Isl. bera. Franco- 
nian, bera. Germ, baeren, bear a child. Anglo-Sax. 
bearau. Ir. beir. Eng. bear. Ber, in the end of com- 
pounded German words, means bearing ; as, beigam-ber, a 
prophet, or bringer of good news. 

t Beirbheis, s.f. Anniversary, feast, vigil. — Ir. id. 

Beirm,*. OT. Barm, yeast. Ge;-OT. berm. Anglo-Sax. heorm. 
Dan. baermes. Aran gun bheirm, vnfermented bread. — 
Stew. Gen. ref. 

Beirn. See Bearn. 

Beirneach, a. See Bearnacii. 

fBEiRT, *. A burden ; a help; also two persons. — Ir. id. 

Beirte, p. part, of beir. Born. /;•. beirthe ; hence Eng. 

t Beirtean, ein, s. m. A little burden. 

BiisT, Beiste, 4-./. A beast, a monster, a beast of prey ; a 
wretch. Tuiteam an strl na beiste, falling in contest with 
the monster. — Oss. Derm. Chuir droch bheist as da, an 
evil beast has devoured him. — Stew. Gen. Beistean dolrbh, 
oppressive wretches.— Old Song. Lat. bestia. Dan. baest. 
Swed. best. Du. beest. Port, besta. Fr. t bfeste, now 
written bete. N. pi. beistean. 

Beistean, ein, s. m. (dim. of beist.) A little beast. /;-. beistin. 
BiisTEAN, n. pi. of beist. 

Beitean, ein, s. m. The scorched or frost-bitten grass of 
the hills. 

B E O 

B E U 

Beith, s.f. The second letter (B) of the Gaelic alphabet. 

Beitii, Beith e, s.f. (jr. bedu. Ir. beithe.) Birch. Sa 
bheith chubhraidh, in the fragrant birch. — Oss. Derm. 

Beitiiir, i. m. {th silent.) A bear; any wild beast. 

Ileb. behir, a beast of burden, and pere, a uild ass. 
Chald. beira, an elephant. Arab, phor, a heifer. Gr. /Snjo?, 
rough, and ^rf , a wild beast. Lat. fera. Sabine and Lat. 
barrus. Hence also verres, a Joar ;)i^ ; n-per, a boar ; and 
vervex. Germ. baer. Ir. bear. Eng. bear and boar. 
Anglo-Sax. bera. lielg. beer. Dan. biorn. Hung, barom, 
a beast <f burden. Bohem. beran, a lamb. Bisc. abere, a 
beast of burden. 

Beitiiir, a. Wild, destructive, savage. Gr. l3u^o(. 

Beitir, a. Neat, clean, tidy. 

Bel. See Beil. 

t Ben, s.f. An old Celtic term signifying a wain or chariot. 
Lat. benna. 

I have somewhere seen the following .remark on benna : — 
" Beiiim lingua Gallic^ genus vehiculi appellatur, unde vocaiitur 
combennones in e&dem benna sedentes." Benna, in the language 
of Gaul, is a kind of vehicle; hence they who ride in the same 
chariot are called combennones. 

From combennones evidently comes, through the medium of the 
French compagnon, the English companion. 

Beo, a. {W. byw. Arm. and Corn. bew. Ir. beo.) Alive, 
living; sprightly, lively; &\so, substantively, a living person. 
Am beo e 1 is he alive ? Am beo i ? is she alive ' Tir nam 
be6, the land of the living. Am beo dhuit a Dheirg? art 
thou alive, Dargo? — Ull. B' aluinn thu ri d' bheo, thou 
wert handsome when alive. — Oss. Carricth. Ri d' bheo, as 
long as you live. — Macint. Thoir beo, bring alive. Cho 
beo ri breac, as surely as a trout. Gu ma fad beo an righ ! 
long live the king! — Stew. Sam. Mar is beo mi, as I live ; 
cho chinnte 's a tha thu beo, as sure as you are alive. 

Beo-airgiod, «. Quicksilver; Wera^/j/, live silver. So the 
French vif-argent, and the Italian argento-vivo.^ 

Beochan, ain, *. m. A small fire. Beochan teine, a little 
flickering fire. 

Beochanta, a. {from beo.) Vigorous; lively, sprightly. 

Beociiantachd, s.f. (from beo.) Vigorousness ; liveli- 
ness, sprightliaess. 

Beo-eachdaireachd, *. f. The occupation of a bio- 

Beo-eachdraidh, s.f, A biography. 

Beo-eachdraidhiciie, Beo-eaciidraiciie, s. tn. A bio- 
grapher. beo-eachdraidhchean or beo-eachdraichean. 

Beo-fiiAe, fh^il, s. m. An enclosure. 

Beo-giiaineamh, eimh, s. Quicksand. Gun tuiteadh iad 

sa bhe6-ghaineamh, that they would fall into the quicksand. 

— Stew. Acts. 
Beo-ghlac, 11. a. Take alive; take prisoner alive. Pret.a. 

blieo-ghlac, took alive. 
Beo-giiriosach, aich, s.f. Hot embers. 
Be6il, gen. sing, of beul. Of a mouth. Lkn beoil bhiadh 

is Ian bail nkire, a mouthful of meat, and a tovinful of shame. 

— G. P. See Beul. 
t Beoill, s.f. Fatness. 
Beo-iobairt, s.f. A living sacrifice. Bhur cuirp nam beo 

iobairt, your bodies as a living sacrifice. — Stew. Rum. 

N. pi. beo-iobairtean. 
Be6ir, gen. sing, hebk and beorach, s.f. Beer. (Run. bior.) 

Gloine be6rach, a glass of beer. — Old Song. Be6ir laidir, 

strong beer ; be6ir chaol, small beer. 
t Beol, Beoil, s. m. A robber. 
Beoeach, a. Talkative. 

Beolaiche, s.m. A chronicler; a talkative person. 

Beo-laoch, laoich, *. m. A lively fellow, a lively lad. 

N, pi. beo-laoich. 
Beo-luatii, luaith, «.y. Hot ashes or embers. ^. ^/. beo- 

BEO-nADiiARc, *. m. Quick sight; clear sight; a lively 

view. — Ir. id. 
BEO-RADiiARCACii,a. Quick-sighted, clear-sighted.— /r. id. 
t Beosacii, a. Bright, glittering; brisk; trim, spruce; 

t Beosaich, v. a. Beautify, adorn, make spruce or tidy. 

Pret. a. bhe6saich. 
Beo-sgar, v. a. Divorce. Pret. a. bheo-sgar, divorced; 

fit. aff. a. beo-sgaraidh, shall or will divorce. 
Beo-sgaradii, aidh, s. m. A divorce, a separation during 

Beo-shlainnte, s.f. A life-rent. Tuarasdal re d' bhe6- 

shlainnte, a salary during thy life, or as a life-rent. — 

Old Song. Ridir beo-shlainnte, a knight bachelor. 
Beo-siilainnteach, a. Of, or pertaining to, a life-rent. 
Beothacii, aich, s.m. (from heo.) A beast; properly any 

living creature. Arm. bieuch. Portug. becho, a worm. 

N. pi. beothaichean. Beothack is also written beathach ; 

which see. 
Beothacii ADH, aidh, s. m. A re-animating, quickening; 

a kindling. 
Beothachadii, a.; pr. part, of beothaich. Reanimating, 

quickening, kindling, reviving. 
Beothaciiail, (i. e. beothach-amhuil.) Having a reani- 
mating or quickening influence. 
Beothachair, *. ;n. A reviver, /f^. bywiocawr. 
Beothaich, gen. sing, beothacii. 
Beothaich, v. a. Kindle, light; reanimate, revive, quicken. 

Pret. a. beothaich, revived ; fit. aff. a. beothaichidh, shall 

revive. Reir t-fhocail beothaich mi, according to thy word, 

quicken me. — Sm. Beothaich a choinneal, light the candle. 

Put. pass, beothaichear. Is trie bheothaich srad bheag 

teine mor, often has a spark kindled a coiiflagration. — G. P. 
Beothaichidh, /«<. aff. a. of beothaich. 
Beotiiaiciite, /). /)ar<. of beothaich. Quickened, animated, 

kindled, lit. 
Beothail, a. (i. e. beo-amhuil, from beo.) W. bywawl. 

Lively, brisk, smart, vigorous, diligent, active ; fervent, 
..zealous. Tha iad beothail, they are lively. — Stew. Krod. 

Beothail na 'r spioraid,yerrpn^ in your spirit. — Stew. Rom. 

Beothalachd, s. f (from beo.) Liveliness, smartness, 

Beo-thoiirach, a. Quick with child ; also ready to conceive. 

Com. and sup. beo-thorraiche. 
t Betarlagh, «. m. An ancient law. Ir. beterlach. 
Beth, s. f. The second letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 

Written also Beith. 
Beubanachadh, aidh, s. m. A mangling, a bruising, a 

maltreating. Fhuair e a bheubanachadh, he got himself 

bruised or maltreated. 
Beubanachadh, (a), pr. part, of beubanaich. 
Beubanaciid, s. f Mangling, bruising, maltreatment, 

Beubanaich, r. a. Mangle, bruise, maltreat, tear. Pret. a. 

.bheubanaich, mangled ; fut, aff. a. beubanaichidh, .9^a// or 

■will tear or mangle. 
Beubanaichte, p. part, of beubanaich. Torn, mangled, 

bruised, maltreated. 
Beuc, s. m. (Ileb. bechi and becheh.) A roar, a bellow, an 

outcry, a noise, clamour. 
Beuc, i'. n. (Ileb. bachah and bechah, wept.) Roar, bellow, 

B E U 

B E U 

make a noise as the sea. Pret. a. bheuc, roared; fut. 
aff. a. beucaidh, s/iall or will roar. 

Beucach, a. Roaring, noisy, clamorous; apt to roar or 
bellow. Beucach dubhiaidh, roaring and dark. — Oss. Fing. 
Muir bheucach fo ghaoith a stri, t/ie roaring main contend- 
ing until the winds. — Oss. Lodin. 

Beucaich, «.y. A roaring, a loud noise, a roar. Beucaich 
do thonn, the roaring of thy ■wates. — Oss. Duthona. Ciod 
bheucaich th' ort ? what are you roaring for ? 

Beucaidh, yi/^ aff. a. of beuc. Shall or will roar. 

Beucair, s. m. {from beuc.) A roarer. N. pi. beucairean. 

Beuc-shruth, s. m. A roaring stream, a cataract. Turthor 
nam beuc-shruth, Turthor of roaring streams. — Oss. Lod. 

Beud, *. m. Loss, pity, harm, injury; a defect or blemish; 
distress ; fate ; a blow, an action, an evil deed ; vice ; 
gloom. Cha d' fhuiling e beud, he suffered no harm. — 
Oss. Derm. Thill e fo bheud, he returned uith loss. — Oss. 
Lodin. Duan gun bheud, a poem without defect. — Id. 
Fina gun bheud, unblemished Finn. — Id. Faiceam mo 
bheud, let me see my fate. — Oss. Fing. 'Eudan fo bheud, 
his visage under a gloom. — Oss. Tern. From beud comes 
the English beat. 

Beudach, a. (from beud.) Hurtful, iniquitous, blemished, 
guilty ; fatal, gloomy. Is beudach borb am buille, fatal 
and fierce is the blow. — Death of Carril. Am fear a bhios 
beudach cha sguir e dh' eigneach chkich, he who is guilty 
tries to involve others. — G. P. Com. and sup. beudaiche, 
more or most hurtful. 

Beudag, aig, s.f. A trifling little woman; a gossip; a 
lying female. K. pi. beudagan. 

BEUDAGACn,a. Like a gossip. 

Beudagan, n. pi. of beudag. 

Beud-fhocal, ail, s. m. A taunting word or expression. 
N. pi. beud-fhocail, taunting words. 

Beud-fhoclach, a. Foul-mouthed, opprobrious, taunting. 

Beul, Beil, s. m. The Celtic god, Belus or Bel. See 

Beul, gen. beil and beoil, s. m. {Ir. beul. Gr. /JijX-of, a 
threshold.) A mouth, opening, aperture. Beul nach 
canadh ach stuaim, a mouth that would not utter but modest 
words. — Macint. Cluinnear nuallan do bheoil, the murmur 
of thy mouth shall be heard. — Ull. An taobh bebil, the 
forepart. — Stew. 1 K. Beul ri, about, or near about. 
Beul ri tri miosa, about three mouths. — Stew. Gen. 

Beulach, a. (/roOT beul.) Fair-spoken; plausible; prating; 
flattering; large-mouthed; mouthed. 

Beulais, s.f. Prating, babbling. 

Beul-aithris, «./. Tradition, oral tradition. Beul-aithris 
dhaoine, the tradition of men. — Stew. Col. 
'■' Beulan, ain, s. m. (dim. of beul.) A little mouth ; an orifice. 

Beulanacii, a. (y)-ow beul.) Fair-spoken, smooth-worded, 
inclined to flatter.— .1/flci«^ Also the bit of a bridle. 

Beulaobh, «. (i. f. beul-thaobh.) A foreside; a front. Air 
a beulaobh, before her, or in front of her. Air a bheulaobh, 
before him, before his face. — Stew. Gen. 

Beul-bhach, aich, s. m. A bridle bit. — Ir. id. 

Beul-bhociid, *. m. A pleading of poverty.— 5i^aa'. 

Beul-chainnteach, a. Garrulous, prating. 

Beulcjiar, (from beul.) Fair-spoken, fluttering, smooth- 

Beul-ciirabhacii, a. Lip-religious, hypocritical, canting. 
Beul-ciirabhadh, aidh, s. m. Lip-religion, cant, hy- 

Beul-dhruid, I. a. Silence. Pret. a. beul-dhruid, silenced; 

fut. aff. a. beul-dhruididh, shall silence. 
Beuloradii, aidh, s. m. Flattery, dissimulation. 

Beul-maotiiain, s. m. The sloat of the throat. 

Beul-m5r, s. m. A bung-hole ; a wide mouth. 

Beul-oideas, eis, s. m. Tradition, oral tradition. — Shaw. 

Beul-oilean, ein, s. m. Tradition, oral tradition. — Macd. 

Beul-phurgaid, i.y. A gargle. JV". ^/. beul-phurgaidean. 

Beul-phurgaideach, a. Gargling; of, or belonging to, a 

Beul-phurgaideachd, s.f. Gargarization. 

Beul-radh, s. m. A phrase, a proverb, a bye-word. 

Beum, v. a. Smite, strike, cleave; strike, as a bell, toll; 
cut, or make a cutting remark; utter a sarcasm or criticism. 
Pret. a. bheura, smote; fut. aff'. a. shall or will smite. 
An dubh-bhas 'g am beumadh nan ruaig, gloomy death 
smiting them in their fight. — Oss. Tern. Teine athair 
a beumadh nan nial, lightning cleaving the clouds. — Id. 
On bheum na cluig, since the bells have tolled. — Old Song. 

Beum, gen. beim and beuma, *. m. A blow, a stroke; a cut ; 
a taunt or sarcasm ; a gap ; a stream, a torrent ; a knell ; 
a misfortune. Gach cath 's na bhuail mi beum, every 
battle where I struck a blow. — Fingalian Poem. Mo chuis 
lean mar bheum, my veins like a torrent. BhrCichd iad 
a dh' aon bheum, tliey poured forward in one body. — 
Mac Lach. Beum-cheap, a whipping-post ; beum-greine, 
a coup-de-soleil ; beum-sgeithe, a« a/«r« ; beum sleibhe, a 
torrent ; beum-soluis, a sun-beam ; beum silla, the blasting 
influence of an evil eye. 

Beumacii, a. (fro)n beum.) Full of gaps; destructive; 
taunting, bitter, sarcastic. Mar theine beumach, like a 
destructive fire. — Oss. Trathal. Aineolach, beumach, igno- 
rant and bitter. — Macint. 

Beum-cheap, -chip, s. A whipping-stock. 

Beum-cluige, s. tn. A knell. 

Beumnach, a. (from beum.) Destructive; causing breaches, 
taunting ; reproachful, depraved. Buillean cothromach 
beumnach, heavy, destructive bluxos.— Oss. Cathula. Bilean 
beumnach, reproachful or depraved lips. — Stew. Pro. 

Beum-sgeithe, S.7H. A striking the shield; the usual mode 
of giving a challenge, or of sounding an alarm, among the 
old Caledonians. Le beum-sgeithe ghlaodh iad comhrag, 
with a blow on the shield they called to battle. — Oss. Dargo. 
Bhuail Treunmor beum-sgeithe, Treunmor sou?ided an 
alarm. — Ull, 

Beum-sleibhe, s. m. A mountain torrent, especially that 
which is caused by the bursting of a thunder-cloud. Mar 
dha bheum-sleibhc o 'n f hireach, like two torrents from the 
height. — Oss. Dargo. 

Beum-sul, *. m. A blasting of the eye; the supposed in- 
fluence of a malignant eye ; an optical delusion ; a coup- 

Beum-soluis, 4-. TO. A sun-beam ; a beam of light. Feuch 
am beum-soluis caol, behold yon small beam of light.— 
Oss. Manos. 

Beur, s. m. A point ; a pinnacle. Beur ard, a lofty pinnacle. 
— Oss. Lodin. Ro bliearna beur nan neul, through the 
fissures of the castled clouds. — Id. 

Beurla, *. /. The English tongue; the language of the 
Scotch Lowlanders. 

Beurlach, a. Relating to the English tongue, or to that 
of the Scotch Lowlanders. 

Beurra, beurtha, a. (IV. berth.) Genteel, clean, well- 
spoken ; sharp. V\Th\iQnn&, genteel men.— Macdon. 

Beus, beusa, s.f. A bass-viol. 

Beus, s. Moral quality, virtue; behaviour, conduct; deeds; 
custom ; a quality, whether good or bad. Bean nan deadh 
bheus, a virtuous woman. — Stew. Fro. rrf. Aithnichear 
leanabh le bheus, a child is known by his doings. — Stew. Pro. 
Beus na dh' fhalbh, the deeds (coJiduct) of the departed. — 
Orr. Fo bheus, quiet, on one's good behaviour ; tonnan fo 

B H E 

B H R 

bheus, warts at peace. — Ots. N. pi. beusan. Beus na 

tuath air am bithear, is e 'nithear, the way of the folk you 

live with is what you mtut follow. — G, P. 
Beusacii, a. {from beus.) Well-behaved, modest, well-bred, 

gentle. Mar aiteal beusach, like a gentle brefze. — Oss, Tern. 

Com. and sup. beusaiche. 
Beutail, «.y. Cattle; a cow. Jr. bataille. 

B'fiiearr, {for bu fhearr.) Were better, was better, wert 

better. See Feauu. 
Bh', {for bha), v. Was, wert, were. 

Bha, {pref.ofau.r.verb be.) Was, wert, were. Bha samhladh 
na bha a boilisgeadh, the spectres of those who \%cere'\ once 
existed were shining. — Oss. Comala. Bha ghealach air 
eudan nan cam, the moon was on the face of the rocks. — 
Oss. Lodin. 
Biiac, prct. a. of bac. Hindered, interrupted, forbade. See 

Bhagair, pret. a. of bagair. Threatened. 
Bhaigh, asp. form of baigh ; which see. 
BhAin. See Ban. 

Bhaird, voc. sing, and gen. sing. asp. of bard. See Bard. 
BhAis, asp. form of bkis, gen. sing, of bas; which see. 
Bhalbii, asp. form of balbh. See Balbh. 
Bhallach, asp. form of ballach ; which see. 
Bhallaibii, asp. form of balla. 
Bhallaibh, dat. pi. asp. form of ball ; which see. 
BhXn, a., asp. form of bkn. White, fair, pale. Arm. venn. 

See Ban. ^ 

BhAn, a bhan, adv. {Swed. afan, from above.) Down, 
downwards. Gun suidheadh e bhan gu fonn, that he 
would sit down to sing. — Oss. Tern. Cuir a bhan e, pnt 
Mm or it down. 
Bhaobh, voc. of baobh. O wicked woman ! Also the asp. 

form of baobh. Mad, foolish, wicked. 
Bhaoth, asp. form of baoth; which see. 
Bhard, asp. form of bard; which see. 
BhXrr, s., asp. form of bkrr. See Barr. 
Bharr, [o bharr], prep. From, from off, down from. Bharr 
aghaidh na talmhainn,y/o»i the surface of the earth. — G. B. 
Theiring i bhkrr a chamhuil, she alighted from the camel. — 
Stew. Gen. Bharr do chos, from off thy feet. — Stew. Ex. 
A bharr air sin, oter and above that, besides that ; bh'krr an 
rathaid, off the way ; bhkrr an f he6ir, off" the grass, off the 
pasture. — Stew. 1 K. Bharr a leapach, from his bed, off 
his bed. — Stew. 2 Sam. Bharr na ciche, weaned. 
Biiarrachd, (a), prep. Besides ; over and above. A bhar- 
raclid air a cheud ghorta, besides thejirstfamine. — Stew.Gen. 
BiiXs, asp. form of bas; which see. 

Bhat, asp. form of bat. A staff. Mo bhat, my stick. See Bat. 
BuXr, asp. form of hkt. A boat. A hhkt, his boat. See Bat. 
Bheacii, s., asp. form of beach. 
Bheacud, asp. form of beachd, s. f. Opinion. A reir mo 

bheachd, in my opinion. 
Bheaciidaich, pre^ a. of beachdaich. Viewed, reviewed. 

Bheag, a«/)./orm of beag. Little. Cha d' fhuair iad a bheag, 

they got not the least. 
Bheairt, asp. form of beairt. 

Bhean, pret. a. of bean. Touched, handled. See Bean. 
Bhean, asp. form of bean. Wife, woman. A bhean, his 

wife. Also voc. sing. 
BuEANNAiCH, pret. a. of beannaich. Blessed. 
Bheannaichte, asp. form of beannaichte ; which see. 
Bheil, pres. neg. and i?iter. of bi. Am, art, are. 

Bheileam, {for bheil mi.) Am I. Am bheileam f6in am 

aonar ? am I left alone? — Oss. Gaul. 
Bheart, asp. form of beart. 
Bheir, fut. aff. a. of tabhair. Shall or will give. Co e a 

bheir comhrag? who is he that will give battle? — Oss. Lod. 

Bheir mise ort gum fainich thu e, I will make you feel it, 

or smart for it ; bheir me ort a dheanamh, / will make you 

do it. 
Bheir, pret. of beir. Caught; overtook; bore, or bare, as 

a child. See Beiu. 
Bh EI rear, fut. pass, of tabhair. Shall be given. 
Bheirinn, 1 sing. pret. sub. of tabhair, and also of beir. 

I would give ; 1 would bear. 
Bheirteadh, 1 sing. pret. sub. pass, of tabhair. Should or 

would be given. — Stew. Pro.' 
Bheo, asp. form of beo. 
Biie6il, asp. form of beoil ; also voc, pi. of beul. A bheoil 

nan d^n, ye mouths of the song, ye bards. — Oss. 
Bheothaicii, pret. a. of beothaich; which see. 
Bheuc, pret. a. of beuc. Roared, bellowed, shouted, hal- 
lowed. See Beuc. 
Bheuc ACii, asp. form of beucach; which see. 
Bheul, asp. form of beul ; which see. 
Bheum, pre^. a. of beum. Smote. See Beum. 
Bheum, asp. form of beum. 

Bhiadii, fl«p.yb/-m of biadh. Meat. ^r?». vyou. SeeBiADii. 
Bhiadh, pre<. a. of biadh. Fed. See Biadh. 
BiiiNN, asp. form of binn, a. See Binn. 
Biiith, *., asp. form of bith; which see. 
Bhith, (a), injin. of bi. To be. 
Bhitheadh, imperf. sub. of bi. Would be. 
Bhith EAS, fut. sub. of bi. Shall or will be. 
Bhithinn, 1 sing. imp. sub. of bi. I would be. 
Bhlais, pre*, a. of blais. Tasted. See Blais. 
BhlAr, a^p./orm of blkr; which see. 
Bub, asp. form of b6. A cow. 

Bho, prep, and adv. From ; of or belonging to ; since ; since 
the time at which. losa bho Nazaret, Jesus of (i. e. from) 
Nazareth. — Stew. Mat. ref. Bho chunnas thu se ladh nan 
nial, since I saw thee sailing in the clouds. — Ull. 
Bhobh ! interj. O dear ! strange! 
Biiociid, asp. form of bochd. See Bochd. 
Bhog, (peith-bhog). The fourteenth letter (P) of the Gaelic 

Bhog, pret. a. of bog. Dipped. 

Bhog, asp. form of bog, a. Soft. 

Biiogaicii, pre*, a. of bogaich. Softened. See Bogaich. 

Bhogiia, asp. form of bogha; which see. 

Biioidiieach, «. See Boidiieach. 

Bhoidhiche, asp. form of boidhiche. 

Bhoil, asp. form of boil. 

Bhoikionn, asp. form of boirionn ; which see. 

Bn6isG, pret. a. of boisg. Shone, gleamed. See Boisg. 

Biiolgach, aich, s.f. The venereal. 

Bholgach, a., asp. form of bolgach. Bossy. 

Bh6 'n de, *. The day before yesterday. An Ak no air bho 
'n de, yesterday or the day before. — Stew. Deut. ref. 

Bhonn, asp. form of bonn. 

Bhos, prep. On this side ; here. An taobh bhos, this side. 

Bhotiian, asp. /orm of bothan. 

Bhrat, asp. form of brat; which see. 

Bhrath, asp. /orm of brath. Air brath,/ou«rf; to be found. 
Cha bhi 'm bard air bhrath, the bard shall be no more, — 
Bard's Wish. 

B I A 

B I D 

Bii RATH AIR, IOC. sing, of brathair. O brother! Also asp. 

form of brathair. A bhrathair, his brother. 
Bhreab, pret. a. of breab. Kicked. See Breab. 
BnRiiD, s. See Br£id. 
Bhre. See Bre. 
BiiRiACiiAiLL Bhrochaill, s. f. The banner of Gaul, 

the son of Momi. His motto was, Toiseach teachd is 

deireadh falbh, first to come, and last to go. 
BiiRiGH, conj. Because. A bhrigh, because; do bhrigh, 

Bhris, pret. a. of bris. Broke, splintered; failed, became 

bankrupt. See Bris. 
BiiRisEAS, fut. sub. of bris ; which see. 
Bhriste, asp. form of briste ; p. part, of btis ; which see. 
Bhrojj, asp. form of br6n; which see. 
Bhrcacii, asp, form of bruach ; which see. 
Bhruan, pret, a. of bruan. Broke, splintered. 
Bhrutii, pre^ rt. of bruth. Bruised. See Bruth. 
BiiUAiDH, asp. form of buaidh. 
Biiuail, pret. a, of buail. Struck, smote. 
Bhuain, /^rff. a. of buain. Reaped. See Bu a in. 
Bhuair, pret. of buair. Tempted, vexed, disturbed, dis- 
Bhuaireas, y«<. sub. of buair; which see. 
Bhcaireas, lup.form of buaireas. 
Bhuaitiie, provincial for uaith ; which see. 
Bifuanaich, ;7rf^ of buanaich. Continued. See BtJANAicii. 
BuuAPA, provincial for uapa; which see. 
BiiuiG, gen. m. xoc. of bog. Soft, moist, effeminate. Fhir 

bhoidhich bhuig, thou handsome effeminate man. — Mac Lach. 
Bhuige, asp. form of buige; com. and sup. of bog. 
BiiuiLL, voc. pi. of ball. 
Buviii, pret. a. of buin; which see. 
BnuiNEADU, pret. pass, of buin ; which see. 
BiitiXNTE, asp. form o{ha\nnte; past part, of buin. 
Bhur, poss. pron. Your. Spiorad bhur n-inntinn, the spirit 

of your minds. Bhur is often written ur. 
Bhus, asp. form of bus ; which see. 
Bl, aux. V. Be. Pr. off. ta or tha, urn, art, is, are ; pret. 

bha, was, uert, ■were ; fut.aff'. bithidh, shall be ; pret. inter. 
, and neg. robh, uas ; an robh e, was he; nach robh e, was 

he not; pret. sub. hhithinn, I -would be. Bi falbh, begone; 

bi samhach, be quiet. 
B' I, {fur bu i.) It was she ; she. 

BiACHAR, (from biadh.) Contr. for biadhchar ; which see. 
BiADH, r. a. Feed, nourish, maintain. Pret. a. bhiadh,yerf; 

fut. aff. a. biadhaidh, shall or will feed. Biadhaidh se iad, 

he will feed them. — Slew. Has. 
BiADii, gen. beidh and bidh, s. m. Meat, food, victuals, diet; 

fodder, provender. Chum h\Ah, for food. — Stevi. G. B. 

Biadh-briste,/rflgwen<*; biadh-eoinein, wood-sorrel; biadh- 

nbiii, lunch ; biadh-madainn, breakfast. 

W. bwyd. //•. biadh. Corn. boet. Arm. vyou. Manx. bi. 

It. biada. Bisc. viauda. 
BiADiiADii, aidh, s. m. A feeding, a nourishing; a feed ; 

meat, victuals, provender. Is fearr a bhiadhadU no ionn- 

sachadh, he is better fed than taught. — G. P. 
BiAUHADii, (a), pr. part, of biadh. Feeding, nourishing. 
BiADH-BRisTE, *. Fragments ; crumbled food. 
BiADH-EoiNEix, «. m. Wood-sorrel. Mu 'm biodh am biadh 

eoinean a fis, about which the wood-sorrel grows. — Macdon. 
BiADn-EUNAiN, s. m. Wood-sorrel. Written also biadh- 

BiADH-FEASGAiR, s. m. An evening meal, supper. 
Biadh-madainn, *. w. Breakfast. 

Biadhchar, a. Fruitful, substantial ; affording substance ; 

esculent. Arbhar biadhchar, substantial crops.-— Macint. 

Tha thu biadhchar pailt, thou art substantial and prolific. 

— Macdon. 
Biadh-chluan, ain, s. m. A kitchen. — Shaw. 
BiADH-LANN, lainn, *. m. A pantry. 
BiADH-LuiBH, s. Salad. W. bwydlyss. N. pi. biadh- 

BiADH-Lus, -luis, s. m. Salad. W. bwydlys. iV". pi. biadh- 

BiADH-NoiN, s. m. A luncheon, a mid-day meal. — Stew. Pro. 
BiADHTA, biadhte, p. J9ar^ of biadh. Fed, nourished. Damh 

biadhta, a stalled or fed ox. — Stew. Pro. 
BiADHTACH, aich, «. ?n. (yrom biadh.) A hospitable farmer; 

a certain order of Irish tenants, who procured provisionk 

for the nobles. — Shaw. 
BiADH-THiGH, *. w. An cating-liouse. TF. bwythy. N. pi. 

t BiAiL, s.f. An axe or hatchet. — Ir. id. 
t BiAL, biail, s. m. Water. — /;■. id. 
BiAN, beine, s. m. {Ir. bian.) A skin or hide; a pelt; abode. 

Bian an tuirc, the boar's hide. — Ull. Bu ghile a bian na 

canach sleibhe, whiter was her skin than mountain cotton. 

— Oss. 
BiAN-DHUBH, a. Swarthy; black-skinned. 
BiAN-GHEAL, a. Whitc-skinncd, fair-skinned. Nan gnuis 

bhian ghil, in their while-skinned faces. — Old Song. 
BiAN-LEASAiCHE, s. m. A curricr, a tanner. N. pi. bian- 
. leasaichean. 
BiAST, beist, .?. m. (f;-. blast. La^ bestia. fr. f beste.) A 

beast ; a reptile ; in contempt, an insignificant person. 

Biast-donn, an otter ; biast-dubh, an otter. 
BiASTAiL, a. (biastamhail.) Beastly, beastlike, impish; nig- 
gardly. Gu biastail, impishly. 
BiASTALACHD, S.f. (yrom biast.) Beastliness, impishness, 

Biast-donn, s. m. An oxXtx.—Shaw. 
BiAST-DUBH, s. m. An otter. — Macdon. 
BiATACH, aich, .5. m. A hospitable man ; a provider; a pro- 
curer of provision ; a raven. — Ir. id. N. pi. biataichean. 
BiATAS, ais, s. m. The herb betony. 
BiATSADH, aidh, s. m. Provision for a journey; viaticum. — 

BiBii, {for bithibh ; Be ye or you. Bibh trie an tigh a 

bhroin, he often in the house of mourning ; bibh coimeas do 

cheud, be a match for a hundred. — Oss. I'ing. 
BiCAS, ais, s. m. A viscount. 
BicEAR, eir, s. m. A cup ; a bottle ; a little ansated wooden 

dish. JF. bicre, a bottle. Scotch, bicker. 
t Bi-ciiEARB, -chirb, s. Mercury, quicksilver. — //•. id. 
t Bi-CHEARDACii, aich, *. m. A victualling-house, a tavern. 

— Ir. id. N. pi. bi-cheardaich. 
Bi-CHiONTAS, ais, s. m. The state of being common. 
Bi-CHioNNTA, a. Common, general, frequent. 
Bi-CHURAM, aim, s. m. Continual care, continual solicitude, 

anxiety.— Mac(/. 
t Bid, s. a hedge. — Ir. id. 
Bio, s. The chirping of birds, or any shrill sound that 

resembles chirping. 
BiDEAG, eig, s.f. A little bit, a morsel. Bideag chrion, 

a little bit. N. pi. bideagan. 
BiDAG, aig, s.f. (more correctly biodag.) A dirk, or Highland 

dagger; a stiletto. iV". pi. bidagan, dirks. W. bidawg. 

Fhir na feile-bhig 's na bidaig, thou man with the kilt and 

dirk. — Old Song. See Biodag. 
BiDEAN, ein, s. m. A hedge or fence. 

B I N 

B I O 

BIdeii., s. f. A continued chirping. — Steu. Is. A shrill 
sound, a squeak. 

Binif, gen. sing, of biadh; which see. 

BIdh, a. Quiet, peaceable. Bi bldh, be quiet; hold your 
peace. Cho bklh ri luchag, as quiet as a mouse. 

BiDH, (_/br bithidh.) Shall or will be. Bidh ar leaba sa bhks 
co-ionann, our bed in death shall be the same. — Oss. Gaul. 

BiDiiEANTAs, ais, s. m. Frequency. Am bidheantas, _/rc- 
quently, pcrpetiiallv. 

BiDiiis, «.y". A screw. A^ ;?/. bidhisean. 

BiDHisEACii, a. Like a screw, spiral. 

BiDSE, s.f. (Germ, baetse.) A whore ; a bitch. 

BiDSEACHD, s. f. Whoremongering ; the conduct of a 

Big, gen. sing, of beag; which see. 

Big, «. ; n. pi. of heag. Little, small ; young. Na big agus 
na moir, the small and the great. — Stew. Ps. An rud chi na 
big ni na big, the i/oung will do as they see done. — Old Prov. 
Nacloinnebige, oj' the little children. — Stew. Jos. SeeBfiAG. 

Bigii, *. y. Glue; birdlime. Bigh-chr&ohh, the gum of trees; 
bigh-e6in, birdlime. 

t BiL, bile, s. m. A beard; a mouth; a bird's bill ; a blos- 
som.—/;-, id. 

BiL, bile, 4. OT. (/F. byl.) A lip, a border, a welt, a lid; a rim; 
a brim, the margin of any thing. Air a bhil uachdaraich, 
on his upper lip. — Stew. Lev. Ag imeachd air bil na tr^igh, 
walking on the sea-shore. — Oss. Truth. N. pi. bilean and 
bilidh, A bilidh cur faiUte ort, her lips saluting thee. 

Bii.BHEAG, eig, j.y. Corn-poppy; papaver agrestis. — Matd. 
N. pi. bilbheagan. 

BiLEACH, a. (from bil.) Lipped ; bladed as grass ; having 
a border or welt; billed as a bird. 

BiLEAcn, ich, s. m. The leaf of a tree or herb; a quantity 
of leaves ; also a young leafy tree. N. pi. bilichean. Barr 
nam bilichean blkthmhor, the tops of the flourishing green 
trees. — Macfar. 

BiLEAG, eig, «.y. (//•. billeog.) A little bag ; a blade ; the 
leaf of a tree or herb. N. pi. bileagan. Bileagan nan eun, 
a species of wood-sorrel ; bileag chaile, a blade ofcolcwort. 

BiLEAG-BiiAiTE, s.f A water-lily or flower. 

BiLEiL, (J. e. bil-amhuil), a. Labial; talkative. 

BiL-FHOCALACH, a. Labial. 

Bilidh, s. pi. Lips. See Bil. 

t BiLLE, s. f. A rag. Ir. bille, mean. 

BiLLEACHD, s.f. (froynh'iWe) Poverty, raggedness. 

Bi'm, (yb/- biom, bitheam, or bithidh mi.) I shall be. 

BiNEALTA, a. Fine, handsome, elegant. — Ir. id. Written 
more frequently ///ifa/^a. 

BiNiD, s.f. Runnet. Ir. binid. 

BiNiDEACii, a. Like runnet; of, or belonging to, runnet. 

BiNN,a. (Ir. id.) Melodious, musical ; shrill; harmonious, 
sweetly sounding. Is balbh do bheul a bha binn, mute is 
thi/ mouth that was musical. — Ull. Is binn leam do cheum, 
iwett to me is the sound of t hi/ footstep. — Oss. Taura. 

Binn, s.f. The hopper of a mill. — Shaw. 

Binn, binne, s.f. Sentence, judgment, fate ; melody. Binn 
an aghaidh dhroch obair, sentence against an evil work. — 
Stew. Ecc. Ceart am binn, just in judgment. — Smith. 
Thoir binn. Judge, pronounce sentence ; faigh binn, receive 

BiNNDEACH, a. Coagulative ; apt to coagulate. 
, BiNNDEAN, ein, «. ?«. Runnet. /;•. bindean. 

BiNNE, com. and sup. of binn. More or most sweet or 
musical. Carruill bu bhinne fonn, Carril of the sweetest 
strains; is binne do chomhradh nan smeorach, sweeter is 
thy voice than the mavis. — Macfar. 

BiNNEACH, a. Hilly, pinnacled; horned; light, light-headed. 

— Macint. Eilid bhinneach, the horned deer. — Old Song. 
BiNNEAD, eid, s. m. (yrom binn.) Melodiousness, melody. 

Is fhearr leam do chomhradh na 'n smeorach air a binnead, 

I rather thy conversation than the mavis when most melodious. 

— Old Song. 
BixNEALACH, aich, s.f. The chirping of birds. — Shaw. 
BiNNEALTA, BiNNEA LTACii, o. Pretty, handsomc ; fair, 

comely. Written more frequently _/f«earta. 
BiNNEAR, eir, s. m. A hill, a pinnacle; a pin, a bodkin, 

a hair-pin. 
BiNNEAs, eis, s. m. (from binn.) Melody, music, harmony. 

A togail a guth le binneas, raising her voice melodiously. — 

Oss. Lod. 
BiNNEiN, s.f. A pinnacle ; a high conical hill; also a bell. 

Binnein na carraig, the pinnacle of the rock. — Oss. Gaul. 
BiNN-FHocALACn, o. (Lat. bene-vocalis.) Melodious; 

having a sweet-toned voice. Eunlaith binn-fhocalach, 

melodious birds. — Oss. Conn. Gach eun biun-fhoclach, 

every melodious bird. — Macfar. 
BiNN-GnuTH, «. A melodious voice ; a sweet tone or note. 

Marr bhinn-ghuth ealaidh, like the sweet note of a dying 

swan. — Ull. 
BiNNSE, «.y. A bench. ^. ;>/. binnseachan. 
BiNNSEACH, a. Having benches ; like a bench. 
BiNNTEACH, a. (i. e. biunideach.) Coagulative; curdling. 
BiNNTEACiiADii, aidh, 4-. m. A curdling, a coagulating, 

coagulation. Ballan binnteachaidh, a cheese-vat. 
BiNNTEACiiADH, (a), pr. part, of binntich. Curdling, co- 
BiNNTEAN, ein, s. m. Runnet. 

BiNNTEANACii, «. Like runnet; of, or pertaining to, runnet. 
Binntich, v. a. Curdle or coagulate. (Ir. binntigh.) Pr. a. 

bhinntich, curdled; fut. aff. a. binntichidh, shall or will 

Binntichte, p. part, of binntich. Curdled, coagulated. 

Bainne binntichte, curdled milk. 
Biodag, aig, «. f. N. pi. biodagan. A dirk, a dagger; 

more frequently applied to the dagger of a Scotch Celt. 

Cha mhios a thig dhuit am biodag, no worse docs the dirk 

become thee. — Macint. 
The biodag is a very old Caledonian weapon. Dio observes, 

that the Caledonians, against whom Sevenis fought, were armed 

with this weapon. 
Biodag ACH, a. Like a dirk or dagger; having a dirk or 

Biodagan, b.jb/. of biodag. 
BiODAiLT, s.f. Food ; victuals. — Macd. 
Biodanach, a. Tattling, prating. — Shaw. 
t Biodh, s. m. The world. 
BioDH, 3 sing, and pi. impcr. of bi. Let be ; be. Biodh 

t-aisling aoibhinn, Aoibhir-Chaomha ! pleasant be thy dreams, 

Evircoma ! — Oss. Gaul. Biodh is contracted for hitheadh. 
t BiODHANAS, ais, s. m. Discord. — Shaw. 
Biog, s.f. A chirp, as of a young chicken. — Steu-. Is. 
BioG, s.f. A start. 

BiOGACn, a. Apt to start; causing to start. 
BiOGADii, aidh, s. m. A starting, a palpitation. 
BioGAiL, *./. Chirping; continued chirping, as of chickens. 
BiOGAiL, a. Lively; active; frisky; apt to start, 
t BioL, *. til. A musical instrument. 
BiOLAG, aig, s. f. A little musical instrument; in derition, 

a person who is fond of singing or whistling. 
BioLAGACH, a. Musical; melodious; fond of singing or 

whistling. Com. and sup. biolagaiche, more or most melv- 


B I O 

B I T 

BiOLAR, air, s. m. Cresses, water-cresses. Am biolar uaine, 
the green wafer-cres>.es. — Macint. Biolar an fhuaiain. the 
fountain-cresses. — OUl Song. Ir. biolar. N. pi. biolaire, 
or biolairean. 
t Biolar, a. Dainty, fine, neat, spruce. 
BiOLARACii, a. (/;-om biolar.) Abounding in cresses; of, or 
belonging to, cresses. Glacag bliiolarach, a dell abounding 
in cresses. — Macdon. 
BiOLASG, aisg, *. m. Prattle, gabble, loquacity. 
BiOLASGACH, a. Loquacious, prating, gabbling. 
BioM, {for bithidh mi, or for bitlieam.) I shall be, let me be. 
Biom ait air marcachd na sine, / shall be joyous in riding 
the blast. — Ardar. 
t Biox, adv. Readily, easily, usually. 
+ BiOR, s. Water; a well, a fountain. 

Ir. bior. Arab, bir, tcells. I'ers. bar-an, rain. Turk, bar 
and behr, sea. Heb. and Phen. baran, wells. Madag. bihar, 
sea. Arm. ber, sea. 
BioR, s. m. A thorn ; any sharp-pointed thing; a spit; a 
bodkin; a pin; a goad. N. pi. bioran ; gen. pi. bior; 
dat. pi. bioraibh. A geurachadli nam bior, sharpening the 
goads. — Stexi. Sam. Nam bioraibh nar sililibh, as thorns 
in your ei/es. — Slew. Jos. Bior nam bride, dandelion ; bior 
an iasgair, the bird called a kingsfisher ; bior ann do dhearn 
na faisg, squeeze not a thorn in thy fist. — G. P. 

Arab, habar, a lance. Lat. as-per, rough or prickly ; and 
veru, a spit. Span, ber, a point. Ir. bior, a pin. W. and 
Corn, ber, a lance. Arm. bir and ber. 
BioR, t. a. Prick; gall; sting; goad; spur on. Pret. a. 

bhior, pricked ; fut. aff. a. bioraidh, shall or will prick. 
BioRACii, aich, *. f. A cow-calf, a two-year-old heifer. 

N. pi. bioraichean. 
t BioRAcn, aich, «. m. A boat. See BioR-LiNx. 
BioRACii, a. {from bior.) Sharp- pointed, mucronated, 
piercing; sharp-sighted; homed, having branching horns; 
also watery. A ghreidh bhiorach na dheigh, the branching- 
horned herd behind him. — Oss. Carricth. A d' lannaibh 
biorach, with thy pointed swords. — Macint. Siiil bhiorach, 
a quick or sharp eye. 
BioRAEH, aidh, s. m. A stinging, a pricking, a piercing. 
BioRADH, (a), pr. part, of bior. Pricking, stinging, piercing. 
BioRAG, aig, s.f The foretooth of brutes. 
BioRAG-LODAijf , S.f. The fish called a bandstickle. — Macd. 
BiORAicH, r. Sharpen at the point. Pret. a. bhioraich, 

sharpened; fut. aff. a. bioraichidh. 
BioRAiciiE, cam. and sup. of biorach. Sharper, sharpest. 
BiORAiCHE, s.f. A colt; a foal ; a filly. Bioraiche, mac 
na h-asail, a colt, the son of an ass. — Slew. Mat. ref. 
N. pi. bioraichean. 
BioRAiDF,, S.f. A helmet or headpiece; a hat; an osier; 
rarely, strife. Bioraid bu loinntreach snks, a burnished 
helmet. — Mac Lach. Written also bairead ; which see. 
N. pi. bioraidean. 
BtoRAiDEACii, a. High-headed; conical, 
t Bioraidh, s. m. A bollock. iV. pi. bioraidhean. — /r. 
BioRAiN, gen. sing, of bioran. 

BioRAN, ain, «. OT. f/r. bioran.) A stick ; a staflT; a little 
stake ; a sharp-pointed thing ; also strife, anguish, vexa- 
tion. Asp. form, bhioran. Bhioran ri thaobh, his spear like 
a staff at his side.— Oss. Fing. Bioran na lairah, a stick in 
Ins hand.^Oss. Carricth. 
BioRANACH, a. (//oOT bioran.) Like a stick ; abounding in 
sticks: also,. si^As^ffn/ite/y, a contentious person; a pincushion. 
BlORANACHAX, ain, *. OT. A pinmaker. ■ 
Bioran Aicii, v. a. Vex. Pret. a. bhioranaich ; fut. aff. a. 

BioRANAiciiE, .!. m. A pinmaker. A^. p/. bioranaichean. 

BiORAXAiCHTE, p. part. Vexed. 

BioRAR, air, s. m. Water-cresses. — Shaw. 

BioRAS, ais, *. m. A water-lily; perhaps bior-rbs. N. pi. 

t BioR-BHOGiiA, .s. m. A rainbow. 

t BioR-Biiu ASACH, aich, s. m. A water-serpent, a conger-eel. 
BioR-ciiLUAisEANACii, 0. Having pointed ears; sharp- 
eared. — Macint. 
BioR-ciiLUAs, -chluais, s. f. A sharp-pointed ear. N. pi. 

BiOR-ciiLUASACH, «. Having sharp Or pointed cars ; sharp- 
eared ; quick of hearing. 
BioR-ciioMHLADH, aidh, s. m. A flood-gate, a sluice. 
BxoR-DHORus, -dhoruis, s. m. {Ir. id.) A flood-gate, a 

sluice. N. pi. bior-dhorsan. 
BioR-DiiRuiDHEACiiD, S.f. A modc of divining by means 

of water. 
BioR-DHUBH-LUiNGE, s. ?». A ship's stcm. — Macd, 
BioR-EiDHE, *. An icicle. 
BioR-FiiEADAN, ain, *. m. A water-pipe. 
BioR-FHiACALL, aill, *. m. A toothpick. 
BioR-FuixN, s. m. A landmark, a beacon. Bheirinn bior- 

fuinn a mach, I would descry the landmark. — Old Song. 
BioRGANTA, a. Perplexing; hampering; vexatious. 
BioRGANTACHD, S.f. Perplexity. 

BioR-GREASAiDii,*.m. A goad; an ox-goad, — Stew.Jud. ref. 
BiOR-LiNX, s. m. A boat. 

Tliis is 11 very ancient word, as its composition bior-linn (pool- 
*log) may show. It was t'oriiied in the earliest periods of society, 
and in the infancy of navigation, before the ingenuity of man con- 
trived any otlier vehicle tor sailing than the hollowed trunk of a 
tree, or a piece of wood, in wini h he niij^ht venture across the 
smooth pool ol his river. This kind of boat was also called umur 
by the Gael, in allusion to its resemblance to a large trough. 
A irgil had in his inind, or liatl seen, such canoes, when he wrote, 
in Georg. I. " Tunc aliios piiniuiu fluvii sensere cavatas." 
BioR-siiRUTH, s. m. The old bed of a river. 
BioR-siiuiL, s. f A sharp eye, a quick-sighted eye. 

N. pi. bior-shuilean. 
BioR-siiuiLEAcii, a. Sharp-eyed, quick-sighted. Com. and 
sup. biorshuiliche. Gabhair bhior-shuileach, sharp-sighted 
goats. — Ross. 
BiosA, v. (ybr bi thusa.) Be thou, Sior bheannaichte biosa, 

be thou ever blessed. — Smith. 
t BiREiD, s.f. A breeding cow. — Shajo. 
+ BiosAR, air, s. m. Silk. 
BiosGAiR, s. m. A scrub. JV. pi. biosgairean. 
BiosGAiUEACHD, S.f. Scrubbishuess, meanness, 
t BiRT, s.f. A hilt ; a handle, a haft, 
t Bis, s.f. A buffet, a box, a slap. 
B'isE, (j. e. bu ise.) It was she. 

BisEACH, eich, s.f. Prosperity. Tr. biseach. See Piseach. 
BisEACiiD, *._/". Prosperity. More frequently ^weacM. 
Biteag, eig, *. f A morsel ; a fragment, a bit, a little bit. 
N. pi. bitcagan. Chaidh e na bhiteagean, it went into hits. 
Biteig, gen. sing, of biteag. 

Bitii, «. {Gr.^io;.) Life, existence, being; living; the world. 
Aon air bith, any one ; ciod air bith, whatever; ni air bi, 
any thing; ni sambi, any thing; cia b' e air bith ni, what 
thing soever. 
t BiTii, *. Custom, habit; a blow, a wound; contest. Hence 
Baile-bhilhan, a place in Aberdeen, meaning the place of 
wounds, or of contest. In affinity to bith are the English 
beat, and the French batlre. 
Birn, a. Quiet, tranquil, peaceable. "Qx h\\.\\, be quiet ; cho 

bUh ri luch, as quiet as a mouse. 
BiTii. {W. byth.) A prepositive particle, signifying ever, 


B L A 

B L A 

alwat/s ; as, bith-bhuan, everlasting; bith-dheanamh, always 
BiTU-BiiEO, a. Everliving; perennial; evergreen; everlasting. 
BiTii-BiiiiiATiiRACii, «. Talkative, garrulous.— S^em. JVo. 
BiTH-BiiRiGii, s. Essence, life-blood. 
BiTii-BHUAx, rt. Everlasting, eternal; perpetual. Eisd Athair 

Bhith-bhuan ! Hear, O Everlasting Father ! — Mac Lack. 
BiTii-BiiUANTACiiD, 4. y. Eternity; perpetuity. O bhith- 
bhuantachd, gu bith-bhuantachd, from everlasting to ever- 
lasting. — Stew. Ps. 
BiTH-ciiuuAM, aim, «. w. Anxiety; continual care. 
BiTii-cnuRAMACH, a. Extremely careful. 
BiTH-ciiRAOiBH, s. Gum ; the sap or substance of a tree. 
BiTii-DHEANAMii, *. A continual acting. 
BiTH-DHEANTA, a. Frequciit, continual. 
BiTH-DiiEANTAS, ais, «. »!. Frequency, commonncss ; com- 
mon occurrence. Am bitii-dheantas,y;fy«c«f/v, continiiallj/. 
t BiTHE, a. Female ; of, or belonging to, the female sex. 
BnHt,ATiH, s., sing, and pi. iniper. of hi. Let be. Bitheadh e, 

let him be. 
BiTHiDii, fut. aff. a. of bi. Shall or will be. 
BiTH-LABHAiRT, s. f. Talkativeuess ; continued talking, 

BiTiiRE, s.f. Lifetime. 
BiTii-sHioR, a. Everlasting, eternal, 
t BiuiDH, s. m. A hero ; a champion. 
BiuTiiAS, ais, s. m. A good or bad report; reputation, 

fame. — Steic. Is. ref. 
t BlA, s. m. A town, a village ; also piety, devotion ; a 
green field ; a cry, a shout ; the fruit of the womb ; praise, 
t BlA, a. Yellow; health; safe; well; warm. 
fBLACHD, *./. Word. 
Blad, blaid, s. m. A mouth; a dirty mouth; a foul or 

abusive mouth. 
Bladacii, a. (//w«blad.) Garrulous; abusive, foul-mouthed. 

Com. and sup. bladaiche. 
Bladaiu, s. m. (from blad.) /;•. bladaire. Laf. blatero. 
A flatterer, a sycophant ; also one of the followers of a 
Highland chieftain. N. pi. bladairean. 
Bladaireachd, s.f. Flattery, sycophancy. — Ir. id. 
•f Bladh, a. Smooth; soft. — Sha-iC. 

Bladh, s. A blossom, a flower; a garland, foliage ; renown, 

fame ; meaning ; essence. Chaochail do shnuadh mar 

bhl^dh, thi/ beautji has vanished like a Jlovier. — Death of 

Carril. Am bladh buidhe, the yellow flower. — Old Poem. 

Daraig is guirme blkdh, an oak of the greenest foliage. 

J/-, bladh. Dan.hM,aleaf. Germ.h\at,a leaf JF.hlavr. 

Bladhacii, (7. Blossomy, flowery ; like a garland. 

BLiDHAcn,aich,«.OT. (5co/c/(, bladach.) Buttermilk. Deoch 

bhladhaich, a draught of buttermilk. 
t Bladhaciid, *. /. A smashing, a crumbling or breaking 

to pieces.—//-, id. 
Bladh-leabhair, *. m. The contents of a book. — Shaw. 
Bladh-leasgaidh, s. m. A garland, or wreath of flowers. 

Written also bladhfeusgaidh. 
Bladii-shugii, «. m. Elixir. 

Blad-shrosacii. Flat-nosed. Com. and iup. blad-shr6naiche. 
Blad-spagach, a. Flat-soled. 

BlAghach, aich, «. m. Buttermilk. Written a\so blMhach. 
BlAghach, ff. Effectual; famous, renowned. Com. and sup. 

+ Blagh, v. n. {gh silent.) Puff, blow. Hence Eng. blow, 

and Scotch, biaw. 
Blagiiaiu, s. m. A blast; a blustering wind ; a blusterer, 
a boaster. N. pi. blaghairean. 

Blaghaireachd, «./. Blustering; boasting; bravado. 
Blaghantacii, a. Boastful; blustering. Com. and sup. 

blaghantaiche, more or most boastful. 
Blagiimiianach, aich, s. m. A blustering fellow. 
+ Blai, s.f. The womb. — Ir. id. 
Blaidh. See Bloidh. 

Blais, f. «. (Ir. blais.) Taste; sip; relish; try by expe- 
rience. Pret. bhlais, tasted ; fut. aff. a. blaisidh, shall or 
will taste. 
Blaisidh, fut. aff. a. of blais. Shall or will taste. 
BlAiteachadii, aidh, s. m. A warming, a hatching. 
BlAitf.achadh, (a), pr. part, of blaitich. Warming, hatch- 
ing. A blaiteachadh nan ubha bhreachda, hatching tht 
spotted eggs. — Macfar. 
t Blaitii, I', a. Smooth, polish, level. Pret. bhlaith. 
Blaithe, com. and sup. of bl^th. Warmer, softer, smoother; 
warmest, softest, smoothest. Nighean bu bhliithe silil, 
a maid of softest eye. — Old Legend. 
Blaithean, ein, s. m. {dim. of blath.) A little blossom. 
Blaith-fhleasgaidh, «. ?H. A garland or wreath of flowers. 
Blaith-leac, lie, s.f. A polished flag, a smooth stone. 
BlAitich, v. a. Warm, foment, hatch, cherish. Pret. a. 

bhiaitich ; fut. aff. a. biaitichidh. 
Blanag, aig, s.f. Fat, tallow. More frequently written 

Blanagacii, a. See Blonagach. 
t Blanda, a. Gentle, mild, flattering. Lat. blanda. 

Ir. blanda. 
Blandar, air, *. ?n. Flattery, cajoling; blarney. 
t Blaoc, blaoic, s. ?». A whale. 
t Blaodii, blaoidh, s. m. A shout, a loud calling; a breath. 

— Shaw. 
Blaodhag, aig, s.f. A noisy female. 
Blaodii-eun, s. m. A bird-call. — Shaw. 
t Blaodiiracii, a. (Jr. id.) Clamorous, noisy. — Shaw. 
t Blaor, blaoir, s. m. A cry, a shout. — Ir. id. 
BlAr, bl^ir, s. m. A plain, a field, a plain field; ground; 
floor; spot; a green. As plain fields were chosen for en- 
gagements, blar came to signify a battle, a field of battle. 
N. pi. blaran and blair, plains; dat. pi. blaraibh, plains. 
Sgeudaichear na blair, the plains shall be adorned. — Macfar. 
Reith a bhlair, the plain of battle. — Mac Lach. Fraoch nam 
bl^r, the rage of battle. — Oss. Cathula. Cuir bl^r, /i'^A/; 
air a bhlar, on the Jloor.— Stew. Gen. On bhlar gu 'bharr, 
from the ground to its top. 
BlAr, a. White-faced ; having a white forehead ; more fre- 
quently applied to black cattle and horses with white 
foreheads. Each blkr, a white-faced horse. Arm. blawr, 
white. Corn, blawr. 
Blarag, aig, s. f. (dim. of blar.) A white spot on the face 
of cattle ; also a white-faced cow. An gobhal na bliraig, 
between the legs of the white-faced cow. — Old Song. 
N. pi. blaragan. 
BlAran, (dim. of bl^r.) Which. 
BlAran, (dim. of bl^r.) A little plain, a little green ; a 

small spot. 
Blas, blais, s. m. (Ir. W. Corn, and Arm. bias ) Taste ; 
savour ; flavour ; experience. Bias na meal air do phogan, 
the taste of honey on thy kisses. — Mac Co. Air bhlas nam, 
fioguis, tasted like figs. — Old Song. 
BlAs, blais, *. m. Contr. of bUthas. Warmth. See BlAthas. 
Blasachd, i./I (from hla.s.) A tasting. 
Blasad, (a), pr. part, of bias. Tasting. Gun am blasad, 

without tasting them. — Oss. Gaul. 
Blas-bheum, gen. -bh^im, s. m. Blasphemy. — Macd. 
Blas-bheumach, a. Blasphemous ; prone to blaspheme. 

B L E 

B L O 

Blasda, a. (7r. blasda. ^/vw. blashaat, taste.) Savoury; 
sweet, tasteful ; seasoned. Biadh blasda, 4aioi//j/ /wea^ — 
Ste-u:. Gen. Blasda le salann, seasoned with salt. 

Blasdacud, s. f. {from bias.) Sweetness, savouriness ; 

Blasmhoire, com. and sup. of blasmhor. More or most sweet. 

Bl.ismhoireachd, «.y. Savouriness, sweetness, tastefulness. 

Blasmhoiread, eid, s. m. Increase in savouriness or sweet- 
ness. A del ana blasmhoiread, growing more and more 

Blasmhor,*/. Savoury, tasty ; sweet; tasteful. Com. and 
sup. blasmhoire, more or most savoury. 

Blas-phog, -ph6ig, s.f. A sweet kiss. 

Blatii, blaith, s. (TF. blaw. Jr. bladh. Eng. blow. Germ. 
blat, a leaf. Dan. blad.) A blossom, a flower; bloom, 
blow ; fruit, effects, consequence ; rarelv, a form or manner, 
praise. Fuidh Ian bhIAth, in full blossom. — Stetv. Gen. 
Thig e mach mar bhlal.h, lie comes forth like ajlo-xer.— 
Stew. Job. 

BlAtii, a. Warm ; warm-hearted ; tender, pleasant; rarely, 
white, clean. Smuainte bl^th a steach, warm (tender or 
pleasant J thoughts within.— Oss. Cathula. Cha n'eil neach 
bl^th, no one is warm.— Stew. Hag. Gu bog blath, snug 
and warm ; is blath anail na mkthar, warm is the mother's 
breath.— G. P. 

BlAtuach, aich, s. m. (/r. id. Scotch, bladach.) Butter- 
milk. Deoeh bhlathaich, a drink of buttermilk. 

BlAtiiaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A warming, a fomenting, che- 
rishing ; a hatching. 

BlAthachadii, (a), pr. part, of blathaich. 

Blathaich, r. o. Warm, foment, cherish ; hatch; flower as 
a plant ; polish, smooth. Pr. act. bhlathaich ; fut. aff. a. 
blathaichidh, shall warm. Bhlkhaich a chridhe, his heart 
warmed.— Oss. Cathula. Mur do bhlathaicheadh e, if he 
■was not warmed. — Stew. Job. 

Blathaichte, p. part, of blathaich. Warmed, fomented, 

cherished ; hatched. 
BlAthas, ais, s. m. Warmth, heat; kindness. Thig tlils 

is blkthas, mildness and warmth shall come. — Macint. 

Blkthas na greine, the heat of the sun.— Ull. 
BlAth-chridheacii, a. Tender-hearted, affefctionate. 
BLATH-rHLF.ASGAiDH, s. A garland or wreath of flowers.— 

Stew. Acts. 

t BlAth-leig, *./. A pumice-stone. — Ir. id. 

BlAth-obair, -oibre, *. Embroidered work. 

+ Bleachd, s.f. Milk; kiiie.— ir. id. Corn, and IV. blith. 

Written also bliochd. 
Bleachdair, s. m. A soothing, flattering fellow. N. pi. 


Bleachdaireaciid, s.f. Flattery, soothing, cajoling. 

Bleaghainn, v. a. See Bleoghainn. 

t Bleasgijanach, a. Emulgent. — 6'^aa). 

Bleatii, r. «. Grind, make meal, pulverize. Prc^ a. bhleath, 

ground; fut. aff. a. bleathaidh, thall grind. Written also 

hkth ; which see. 
Bleatii, Bleathadh, aidh, s. m. Grinding; pulverizing. 

Luchd bleath, grinders, millers.— Stew. Ecc. 
Bleathach, a. Grinding, that grindeth. 
Bleatii-giilunach, a. In-kneed, knock-kneed. 

t Bleathmhor, a. Fruitful. — 67/aa'. Cow. and iw^p. bleath- 

Bleid, *. /. Larceny; cajoling, wheedling; solicitation, 
impertinence, envy, spite. Ir. bleid. 

Bleid'eab, ir, *. m. See Bleideire. 

Bleideii,, a. {from bleid.) Impertinent, teazing, trouble- 
some ; pilfering, thievish ; invidious, spiteful. Fear dubh 

dan, fear ban bleideii, a black man is bold, a fair man imper- 
tinent.— G. P. 
Bleideire, s. m. A pilferer; a beggar; a teazing peti- 
tioner ; an impertinent fellow. N. pi. bleideireaii. Urram 
a bhleidire do 'n stracair, the compliments of the impertinent 
and the troublesome ; — said of those who scold each other 
scurrilously. — G. P. 
Bleideireachd, s.f. Begging; beggary, solicitation; 
thievishness. Bleideireachd mholaidh, the beggary of 
praise. — Old Poem. 
t Bleidii, s.f. A cup, a goblet. — Tr. id. 
t Bleix, «.y. A harbour for boats. — Shaw. 
Bleoghainn, Bleothainx, r. a. Milk. Pret. a. bhleogh- 
ain or bhieothainn ; fut. aff'. a. bleoghainnidh or bleoth- 
ainnidh, shall milk. 
Bleoghann, Bleothann, ainn, s. A milking. Aig a 

bleoghann, at the milking ; st6 bleothainn, a milk pail. 
Bleoghanu, Bleotiiann, (a), pr. part, of bleoghainn. 

Milking. A bleoghann a chruidh, milking the cows. 
Bletii, s. a grinding, making of meal, pulverizing. 
Bleth, r. a. {Tr. bleith, grind. Fr. ble, corn.) Grind ; 
pulverize; powder; make meal. Pret. a. bhleth, ground; 
fut. aff. a. blethidh, shall grind. Bha e a bleth, he wat 
grinding. — Stew. Jud. 
Bletii-giilunach, a. Knock-kneed. Balaoch bleth- 

ghlunach, a knock-kneed fellow. 
Blethte, p. part, of bleth. Ground. Gran blethte, ground 

corn. — Stew. Sam. ref. 
Bliadiina, s./. A year; the space of a year. (Corn, blidhan. 
il/ff«.r. blien. ^rw. blizenu. Jr. bliaghain.) iV^. jb/. bliadh- 
naichean and bliadhnan. Bliadhna leum, leap year; an 
ceann bliadhna, in a year's time; at the end of a year, — 
Stexo. K. ref. Eadar so is ceann bliadhna, w'lthin a year ; 
o bhliadhna na tiom so, this time last year ; a bhliadhn' iir, 
the new year. Bliadun' a Piirxonnsa, the common name 
among the Gael for the year 1745; literally, the Prince's 
Year. Bliadhna Chuilodair, the year ofCulloden, or 1746. 
Am bliadhna, this year. 

I believe it is O'Urien who will have it that bUudhnn is a 
corruption of heil-an, meaning a circle of Bel or of tlie sun ; 
an opinion which explains the composition of the word in a 
very simple and ingenious manner. 
BnADHXA, (am), adv. This year. 

Bliadhnach, aich, s. m. A yearling. Leanaidh bliadhnach 

ris na srabhan, lean flesh cleaves to straw. — G. P.— applied 

to worthless people who adhere to one another. 'N. pi, 


Bliadiinail, a. (bliadhna-amhnil.) Yearly, annual, ir. bli- 

Bliadhna-ciiAin, s.f. An annuity. 
Blia\, blein, s. m. {Ir. bleun.) The flank, the groin, 

Laimh ris a bhlian, near the Jlank. — Stew. Lev. 
fBLiMH, Blinn,*./. Spittle; the froth of a dead body. — 5/laa'. 
Blincean, ein, s. m. A torch ; a blink. 
Bliociian, ain, s. m. Yellow marsh anthericum. — Shaw. 
Bliochd,*./. (Corn, and JF. blith. /r. bleachd.) Milk; 

milkiness ; the profit arising from selling milk. 
Bliochdach, a. {from bliochd.) Milky; lacteal; milk- 
producing, giving plenty of milk. Chinn an spreidh gu 
bliochdach, the cattle became teeming with milk. — Macint. 
An coire bliochdach, the milk-producing dell. — Macdon. 
Bliochdar, Bliochdmhor, a. Milky, teeming with milk. 
Blionach, aich, s. m. Lean flesh. — Macint. Also a slow 

inactive person. N. pi. blionaichean. 
t Bliosan, ain, *. »). An artichoke. iV^. ;;/. bliosain. 
t Blob, a. Thick-lipped ; blubber-lipped. 
Blobaciid, *./. The deformity of blubber lips, 
t Blobaran, ain, *. m. A stutterer; a blubber-lipped person. 

B C 

t Bloc, a. Round, orbicular. Eng. block< 

t Bloc, Bluic, s. m, A block. More frequently written 
ploc ; which see< 

Blocan, ain, ,s. tn. (dim. of bloc.) A little block, 

Bloide, Bloidean, s.vL; rf. bloidibh. Splinters, shivers, 
fragments, halves. A shleairh na bloidibh, /lis spear in 
s/iirers. — Oss. Derm. Nam bloidibh beaga jironuar iad, 
tfiei/ shall be bruised into small pieces. — Smith. 

Bloidh, s. The half of any thing; a share, part, portion, 
splinter. JV.^/. bloidheananrfbloidhdean, ^n/rfjs. //-.blodh. 

Bloidhdeag, eig, s. f. A fragment, a splinter. N. pi. 

Bloidhdean, n. pi. of bloidh. Fragments, splinters. 

Bloidhdear, ir, «. m. A battery; a place from which an 
attack is made. 

Bloinic.ean-garaidii, s. m. Spinage. 

+ Blomas, ais, s. m. Ostentation. 

+ Blomasach, a. Ostentatious. 

Blonag, aig, s.f. Fat, suet, lard, swine's-grease. 

TF. bloneg. Cor«. and ^rw.bloanek. /r. blimagoHrfblanag. 

Blonag AC II, a. (yroj« blonag.) Abounding in fat; fat, greasy. 

■V Blor, Bloiii, *. m, A voice; a noise, a loud noise, cla- 
mour. — //'. id. 

Blorach, «. Clamorous, noisy; also a clamorous, noisy 

Bloracan, ain, s. m. A noisy fellow. 

+ Blos, a. Open, manifest, plain. 

t Blosg ADu, aidh, s. m. A congregation ; a sound ; a report. 

Blosgach, aich, s. m. A clown, a rustic — 7r. id. 

Blosgair, «. »). A collector. JS''. ;;/. blosgairean. 

+ Blosg-mhaor, -mhaoir, s. A crier at court. 

+ Blot, s. m. A cave, a den or cavern. — Ir. id. 

t Blotach, aich, s. ni. One who dwells in a cave. — Shaw. 

t Blotacii, a. Full of dens or caverns ; like a den or 
cavern. — Shaw. 

t Blotacii, aich, s. m. A care or den. N. pi. blotaichean. 
— Ir. id. 

Bluirc, *. A fragment; a crumb ; &\so plural, fragments, 

+ Blusar, air, s. vi. Noise, outcry, tumult. — Ir. id. 

Bo ! An interjection to excite terror in children. 

B6, BoiN, s.f. (N. pi. ba.) A cow; r«refy a fawn. B6 
bhainne, a milch cow ; bo sheasg, a barren cow ; bo gheamh- 
raidh, a cow slain fur winter food ; bo laoidh, a cow that has 
a calf; bo mhaol, a cow without horns ; bo bhreac, a spotted 
cow; bo riabhach, a brindled cow; bo cheann-fhionn, a 
white-faced cow; bo dhruim-fhionn, a white-backed cow ; 
bo liath, a grey cow; bo chas-fhionn, a white-footed cow ; 
bo-all uidh, a buffalo. 

From bo come the Gr. /3oo;, an ox, and goai, to roar ; and 
also B"", which means any thing that is terrible. Lat. bos, 
en ox. It. bue, ox. Ir. bo, a cow. IF. buw. Corn, buih and 
bu. Arm. bu. Manx. bua. Bisc. beya. Portug. boy, ox. 
Span. buey. Turk, bugha, an ox. Ttmq. bo. Jap. arbo, ox. 
Hottentots, boa and bubaa. 

Bo ! BO ! interj. Strange ! Gr. |3a j3«t ! Lat. papae ! 

t BoAG, aig, s.f. A sea-lark. — Shaw. N. pi. boagan. 

B6-ALLUID1I, s.f. A buffalo.- 

BoBA N, ain, s. m. A term of affection for a boy ; also papa. 
Gr. gotwaif, a very young child. Germ. bub. Arm. boubon, 
a child. 

Boo, i. TO. Deceit; fraud; a blow, a box. — Shaw. 

Boc, Boic, s. TO. (AT. pi. buic.) A buck ; a roe, a roe-buck; 
a he-goat ; a term of ridicule for a fop. Boc-earb, a roe- 
buck ; fichead boc, twenty he-goats. — Stew. Gen. 

Arm. buch. Corn, byk and bouch. W. bwch. Ir, boc. 


Swed. and Germ. bock. Fr. buc. Eng. buck. U< becco- 
Tielg. boecke. Anglo-Sax. bucca. 

Boc, V. n. See Bochd. 

BoCacii, «, (fl*/)i/orm, bhocach.) Like a roe-buck ; abound- 
ing in roes ; of, or pertaining to, a roe-ruck. A Bhealtainn 
bhocach, roe-'producing May. — Macfar. 

Boca IDE, Boca i dean, n. pi. Studs or bosses. 

B6can, ain, *. m. A hobgoblin, a sprite or spectre. 

BocAN, ain, s. m. A covering, a cottage ; a hook, a crook ; 
a mushroom. 

BocANACH, a. {from bocan.) Hooked, bent. Asp. form, 

BocAN-BEARRACH, aich, s. TO. A mushroom.— S//«ji'. 

Boc-EARBA, s. m. A roe. N. pi. buic-earba. Co luath ri 
boc-earba, as swift as a roc. — Stew. 2 Sam. 

Boc-GAiBiiRE, s. m. A he-goat. Boc-gaibhre on aird an iar, 
a he-goat from the west. — Stew. Dan. N. pi. buic-ghaibhre. 

BociiAiL, a. Lively; animated. — Shaw. 

BociiAN, ain, s. m. A cottage, a hut or hovel. More fre- 
quently bothan. 

BocHD, a. Poor; needy; wretched; a poor person. {Ir. 
bochd anrf bocht.) Treabhadh nam bochd, the tillage of 
the poor. — Stew. Pro. Leaghaidh bron am bochd anam, 
sorrow \(lissohes'\ melts the wretched soul. — Oss. Croma. 
Is fearr bhi bochd na blii breughach, better be poor than 
false.— G. P. 

BociiD, r. (/r. boc.) Swell; puff; grow turgid. Pret. a, 
bhochd; fit. aff. a. bochdaidh, shall or will swell. 

BocHDADH, aidh, s. m. A swelling ; the act of swelling. 

BociiDAiNN, BociiDuiNN, *.y. (7/-. bochdaiue.) Poverty; 
trouble; mischief; mishap, bad luck. Gu bochdainn, to 
poverty. — Stew. Gen. Ann am bochduinn, in trouble. — 
Stew. Chr. ref Gun gabh' a bhochdainn thu ! plague take 
you ! tha bhochdainn ort, bad luck attends you ; the devil is 
in you ; mar bha bhochdainn ann, as bad luck would have it. 

BociiDAiNNEAcn, BociiDuiNNEACH, a. Causmg trouble, 
poverty, or misery. 

BocHRAN, n. pi. of bochd, s. The poor. D. pi. bochdaibh ; 

v. pi. bhochdan. A bhochdan nan trend, ye poor of the 

Jlock. — Stew. Zech. Truas do na bochdaibh, pily to the poor. 

B6cnDAN, ain, s. m. (JV. bwgan.) A hobgoblin ; a bugbear. 

Written also bocan. 
BocHDAN, ain, s. m. A covering; a cottage; a hook; a 

crook; also a mushroom. 
BociiDAN-BEARRACii, -aich, s. m. A mushroom. 
BocHDAN-BEUCACxi, aich, *. OT. A mushroom. 
BociiDAS, ais, *. m. Poverty; indiger>ce. Bochdas agus 

beartas, poverty and riches. — Old Song. 
t BocHDNADii, aidh, s. m. The sea, a narrow sea, a strait, 

the mouth of a river. 
BocHD-TiiONN, -thuinn, s.f. A surge or billow ; literally, 

a swelling wave. N. pi. bochd-thounan. Written also 

BocjiDuiNN, *./. See Bochdainn. 
Bocii-TiioNN, -thuinn, s.f. A surge or billow ; a swelling 

wave. Boch-thuinn thonnach, a raging billow. — Macfar. 

A', pi. boch-thonuan. 
Boch-tiionnan, n. pi. of boch-thonn. 
Bocii-THUiNN, gen. sing, of boch-thonn. 
Bocsa, *. m. Boxwood. 
BocsA, s. A box, a coffer; a trunk or little chest. — Sten. 

Mat. N. pi. bocsaichean. Barradh bocsa, a rimmed 

BocsAiciiEAN, n. pi. of bocsa. Boxes, coffers, trunks, o» 

little chests. 

6 O G 

B O I 

iBoD, buid, ,?. m. {fr. bod.) Memhrum xirile ; also a tail. 
AT. jil. buid. 

BoDACJi, aich, s. m. An old man ; a rustic ; a sorry fellow; 
a churl; a mutchkin, a Scotch liquid measure of four 2;ills, 
somewhat less than an English pint. JV. pi. bodaich, old 
men. Chuireadh tu bodaich e;u beadradli, thou xcoiihhf set 
old men a fondling. — R. Bodach ruadh, a cod; bodach 
nam briogan, a piobrachd, culled Bieudalbane's March i 
trudar bodaich, an ugly fetlow. — Old Song. Sliob bodach 
is sgrobaidh e thu, buail bodach is thig e gu d' laimh, 
itroke a sorri/ felloxv and lie will scratch i/ou ; strike him, and 
he trill come to your hand. — C. P. 

BoDACiiAiL, a. (bodach-amhuil.) Clownish, boorish, churlish; 
like an old man. 

BoDACHAN, ain, s. m. {dim. of bodach.) A little old man; 
a squat young fellow ; in derision, iomad bodachan gnodh, 
many a surly old man. — Old S:>ng. 

BoDACii-RUADH, s. m. A codfish. N. pi. bodaich-ruadh. 

BoDAG, aig, s.f. {Ir. bodog.) Rage, anger; a short fit of 

passion; a yearling calf, a heifer; a bawd. — 5A</a'. 

BoDAGACH, a. Apt to fly into a passion; like a heifer; like 

a bawd ; wanton, 
t BoDAGACiiD, s.f. Rage, anger; rage for copulation; 

furor inferinus; also a heifer that wants bulling. — Shaic. 
BoDAiRKACiiD, S.f. {from bod.) Scortatio. 
Bod AN, ain, «. TO. (<//;«. of bod.) Membrutum puerile. 
f Bodar, a. Deaf. See Bodhar. 
BoD-ciiRANN, -chrainn, s.f. A kind of crupper. 
BoDHAG, aig, s.f The human body: the skin of the human 

body. Oigh is gloine bodhaig, a maid of the fairest skin. — 

Old Song. 
BoDHAiR, r. (7. Deafen; stun with noise. Pre/, a. bhodhair, 

deafened ; fut. aff. a. bodhraidh, shall or will deafen. 
B6dhar, air, *. m. Murrain in cattle. 

BoDiiAR, (7. (Jr. bodhar. fF. bydhar. Corn, bothur.) Deaf; 

also a deaf man. Co rinn am bodhar ? who marie the deaf? 

— Stew. Exod. Com. and sup. buidhre, tnore or most deaf. 
BoDiiRACH, a. Infected with the murrain. Co bhodhrach, 

a diseased cow. 
BoDHRADii, aidh, *. 7n. A deafening, a stunning with noise. 

Tha mi air mo bhodhradh leat, / am stunned with the noise 

you ?Bake. 
BoDiiRADii, (a), pr. part. Deafening, stunning with noise. 

Ag am bhodhradh, deafening mc ; 'g a bodhradb, deafening 

her ; 'g am bodhradh, deafening them. 
Boo, BuiG, •?. m. A marsh, a fen, swampy ground. — Macd. 

Boo, a. (Ir. bog. Corn, and Arm. boucq.) Soft; penetrable; 

tender; damp, moist; mellow; sweet or soft sounding; 

timid, feminine, effeminate. A ciabh bhog, her soft hair. — 

Oss. Temo. Le ribheid bhuig, with his softly-sounding reed. 

— Macfar. A Bhealtainn bhog, moist [showery] Mai/. — Id. 

Fhir bhuig! thou effeminate man! — Mac Lack. Gu bog 

blath, snug and warm; cridhe bog, a tender heart. Com. 

and sup. fiuige. Brisidh an teangaidh bhog an cneadh, 

the smooth tongue softens anger. — G. P. 
Bog, v. a. and n. Dip; steep; bob; wag. Pre^ a. bhog, 

dipped ; fit. aff. a. bogaidh, shall dip ; 1 sing. imp. sub. bho- 

gainn, / would dip. Bhogainn anns an allt e, i would dip 

him in the stream. — Old Song. 
BoGACH.aich, «. n. A swamp, a quagmire. iV. />/. bogaichean. 
BoGACii ADii, aidh, .». m. The act of softening, making tender, 

or mellow or effeminate ; a softening into tears. 
BoGACiiADH, (a), pr. part, of bogaich. Softening; making 

mellow; making timid. 
BoGADACii, aich, *. m. Gesture; a bobbing gesture. 

BoGADAiCH, «./^ A continued or frequent bobbing. Anns 
a bhogadaich, bobbing. 

BoGADAN, ain, s. m. A shaking, a bobbing, a wagging. — 
Macint. A fellow who walks with a mincing pace or a 
foppish gait, in derision. 

BoGADANAiCH, s. f. A Continued shaking, a wagging or 
bobbing. 'Sa bhogadanaich, bobbing. 

Bog ADII, aidh, s. m. The act of steeping or dipping; a 
steeping, a dipping; a bobbing; softness, tenderness, 

BoGATCii, r. a. and w. Soften; make mellow; make effemi- 
nate ; soften or melt into tears. Piet. a. bhogaich, softened ; 
fut. aff. a. bogaichidh, shall siften ; fut. pass, bogaichear, 
shall be softened ; p. part, bogaichte, softened. 

Bogaichear, fut. pass, of bogaich. Shall be softened. 

BoGAicHiDii, fut. aff. a. of bogaich. Shall or will soften. 

Bogaichte, /;. par^ of bogaichte. Softened. 

BoGAX, ain, i. m. An egg in embryo; rarely, bacon. — Shaw. 

Boganacii, aich, s. m. {from bog.) A soft fellow; a bump- 
kin, a booby. A". /^/. boganaicli. 

BoGANACiiD, s.f. Softness ; tlie behaviour of a bumpkin. 

BoGBHUiNE, *.y". A bulrush. JV. p/. bog-bhuinnean. 

BoGH, V. a. Bend, like a bow; bow. Pret. a. bhogh; fut, 
aff'. a. boghaidh. 

BoGH, BoGHA, s.m. An archer's bow; a bow or bend; a 
vault, an arch. Bogh-saighead, an archers bow; bogh- 
catha., a battle-bow ; bogh-cogaidh,a6«/^/c'-/^oa>; marbhogha 
air ghleus, like a bow on the stretch; bogh-fldhle, ajiddle- 
how ; fear-bogha, an archer; fir bhoglia, archers. — Stew. 
Gen. Bogha air a gheug, a bend in the branch. — Macdon, 
Bogha-frois, a rainbow. 

Jr.hwa.andbv/,a bow. Swed. hogii, bowed. Germ, hogen, 
a bow. Anglo-Sax. boga. Island, bog. Gr. jSiof. Lat. barb, 
bauga. Scotch, boo. Eng. bow. Dan. bue, arch. Tonq. bo, 

BoGHADAiR, s. m. {from bogha.) An archer, a bowman. 
Ir. boghadoir. 

BoGHADAiREACHD, *.y. Archery. 

BoGHAR, a. See Bodhar. 

BoGii-BRAOiN, s. 771. A rainbow. Bogh-braoin a soiliseadh, 
a rainbow shining. — Oss. Com. 

BoGii-CATH, «. wi. A battle-bow. ^. />/. boghan-cath. 

BoGH-coGAiDH, «. m. A battle-bow. 

Bogha-fJdiile, «. A fiddle-bow. 

BoGH-FRAis, Bogh-frois, s. m. A rainbow. A dhreach 
mar bhogh na frois, his form like a rainbow. — Oss. Gaul, 

BoG-GHioGAN, ain, s. m. The plant called sowthistle. 

BoGiisDAiR, 4. m. A bolster. ZV. p/. boghsdairean, 

BoGii-uisGE, «. TO. A rainbow. 

Bog HUN, uin, s. m. {perhaps bo-dht>n,) An enclosure fbr 
cattle, intended as a security against cattle-lifters. 

BoGLACH, aich, s. m. A bog, a slough, a morass. 

BoG-LUACiiAiR, gen, bog-Juachrach, s.f A bulrush. 

BoGi.uiBH, s. m. The herb ox-tongue. JV. pi. bogluibhean. 

BoG-Lus, *. m. The herb ox-tongue. Ir. boglus, JV", pL 

BoicEANACH, aich, *, m, A boy fourteen years of ^ge. — Shaw. 

BoicEANN, inn, «. m. A hide; a skin; a goat's-skin. 
N. pi. boiceannan. 

BoiCNEACHADU, aidh, s. m. A skinning, a belabouring, 
thumping, or beating a person ; a thrashing. Fhuair e a 
bhoicneachadh, he got his thia.ihing. 

BoiCNiCH,t). a. Skin,belabour, thump, thrash. Pre/, o. bhoic- 
nich, thrashed; fut. aff. a, boicpichidh, shall or will thrQih,. 


B O I 

B O I 

B61D, BoiDE, s. f. A vow, an oatli, a solemn promise; also 
the surname Boyd ; the Isle of Bute. N. pi. boidean, 
vows. Bh6idicli thu bold, thou lo-wedst a tow. — Stew. Gen. 
Naisg am bbidean, bind their oaths. — Mac Lack. Bold a 
chlaraig ris na fearaibh, is boid nam feara uile ri ciaraig, 
like the sicarthfi maid uho foreswore the 7nen, as she had been 
foresworn by them. — G. P. 
B61DEACH, a. Pertaining to avow; like avow; tolerable, 

well. — Shaw. Also one surnamed Boyd. 
B61DEACHAN, ainn, s. m. A bodkin. 
B61DEAN, of boid. 

+ BoiDn, a. Neat, tidy, trim, spruce. — Shaw. 
t BoiDiiE, a. Yellow. Now written buidhe ; which see. 
B6iDiiEACn, (/roOT boidh. ^i;?. /orm, blioidheach.) Pretty, 
beautiful, fair, handsome, comely. Is boidheach am fas, 
beauteous is their growth.— Ull. Oigheana boidheacii, slan 
leibh, ye pretty maidens, farewell. — Old Song. Cha dean 
a ghloir bhoidheach an t-amadan silhach, fine words Jill 
not a fool's belli/. — G. P. 
BbiDincHE, s. f. Beauty, prettiness, comeliness, hand- 
someness. Mar Ailltheas na bhoidhiche, like Ailltheas in 
his beauty.— Oss. Fin. and Lor. 
B61D111CHE, com. and sup. of b6idheach. More or most 
pretty. Asp. form, bhbidhiche. Is i bu bh6idiche learn, 
/ deemed [lier] it the prettiest. — Macint. 
B6iDniCHEAD, eid, .5. m. Beauty, increase in beauty. 
B6idhichead mios Mhaigh, the beauty of the month of May. 
— Macdon. A dol am bbidhichead, growing more and 
more beautiful. 
BbiDHicnEAS, eis, s. m. Beauty, comeliness. Cha 'n e 

'mheud a bhoidhicheas, bulk is not beauty. — G. P. 
B61DICH, V. Promise solemnly, vow, swear. Pret. a. hhh- 

idich, lowed ; fut. off. a. boidichidh, shall vow. 
BoiGE, com. and sup. of bog. More or most effeminate. 

Written also buige. See Bog. 
BoiGE, s.f Softness, effeminacy. 

fBoiGn, «./. A teat or udder.— 7r. jrf. A^. ;>/. boighean. 
B610HEACH, a. See B6idheacii. 
t Boigrean, ein, *. m. A bulrush ; also flummery ; any thing 

BoiGREANACH, a. Abounding in bulrushcs ; like a bulrush ; 
also a place where bulrushes grow ; like flummery ; flabby. 
BoiLE, s.f. Issue, result, consequence, success. Written 

more frequently buile. 
BoiLE, s. f. Madness, rage, passion, fury. (Jr. buile. 
I,at. bilis.) Boile nan cath, the rage of battles. — Oss, Gaul. 
Fear na boile, the passionate man. — Stew. Pro. ref. Air 
bhoile, mad. Buile chath, rage for battle; tha 'm boile 
ort, you are mad. 
Boile, (air), arfv. Mad, raging, distracted. 
BoiLEACH, a. {from boile.) Apt to fly into, a rage, furious ; 

also altogether, complete. 
BoiLO, {oftener builg), gen. sing, of bolg. 
B6iLicn, s.f. Idle talk; vain boasting, blustering. Is 
beag orm do bh6ilich, / heed not your idle talk.— Old Song. 
Cha mhaithinn duit do bhoilich, / would not pardon thy 
blustering. — Id. 
t BoiLLRiNN, s.f. A ring, a circle. — Ir. id. 
BoiLLSGE, s. A gleam; a glaie, flash, effulgence, glitter. 
Boillsge faoin a mhMle, the languid gleam of his helmet.— 
Oss. Com. Fo bhoillsge an lath, in the effulgence of day. 
— Oss. Tem. 
BoiLLSG, Boii,SG, V. Gleam, shine, flash, glitter. Pret. a. 

bhoilisg, shone. 
BoiLLSGEACii, (7. Glittcriuo-, g,leaming, shining. 
BoiLLSGEADii, (a), pr. part. <>( boillsg. Shining, gleaming, 
glittering. A boillsgcadii air sliabh, f/iiwing- on the mountain. 

— Oss. Fing. Mala nan scorr a boillsgeadh, the brow of 
the rocks glittering. — Oss. Temo. 
t BoiLSGEAX, ein, s. m. The middle, midst; also a moun- 
tain. — Shaw. 
t BoiLSGEAN, V. a. Make round and bulging. — Shaw. 
BoiN, gen. of b6 ; which see. 
t BoiNEADii, idh, s. m. A running issue, a scrofulous sore; 

a sprouting or budding. 
BoiNEANTA, a. Mild, gentle; handsome. — Macint. Also 

stout, firm, of good bottom. 
BoiNEANTACUD, *.y. MiUlncss, genlleucss ; also stoutness, 

firmness ; handsomeness. 
BoiNEiD, s.f. (i.e. beann-eididh.) Ir. boneid. A bonnet. 

N. pi. boineidean. Ni thu boineidean, thou shall makt 

bonnets. — Stew. Exod. Boineid an losgainn, paddock-stool. 
BoiNEtD-AN-LOSGAiNN, S.f. A paddock-stool ; brown 

BoiNNE, s.f. A drop of any liquid. Boinne fala, a drop of 

blood. — Macfar. Boinne uisge, a drop of water. 
BoiNNEAG, eig, «.y. A cake. (ir. boineog. -SVoic^, bannock.) 

N. pi. boinneagan, cakes. 
BoiNNEALACH, aicli, s. m. {from boinne.) A dropping of 

t BoiR, s. m. An elephant. 
BoiuBE. See Buirbe. 
BoiRBEACiiD, *./. {from borb.) Written also buirbeachd ; 

which see. 
BoiRciiE, «.y. An elk; a buffalo. — Ir. id. 
t BoiRCHRiADH, s.f. A kind of fat clay. — Ir. id. 
f BoiRE, s.f. A hole. Scotch, boir. 
BoiREAL, eil, *./. {from boir.) A small auger, a wimble. 

N. pi. boirealau. Toll boireil, an auger-hole. 
BoiREANN, BoiRioNN, «. Female, feminine. Leomhan 

boirionn, a lioness. Cha 'n eil firionn na boirionn ann, 

there is neither male nor female. — Stew. Gal. Urr flrionn 

boirionn, an hermaphrodite. 
BoiREANNACii, BoiRioNNACii, aich, s. f. A female. 

Boirionnach eireachdail, a handsome female. Hence Gr. 

iroTffor waK, and Lat. purus. 
Bois, gen. sing, of bos. 

Boise EAL, ill, s. m. A savage man or woman. 
BoiscEii., a. Wild, savage, untamed. Thog thu oirnue 

gu bheil sinn boisceil, thou hast reported of vs that we are 

savage. — Old Poem. 
BoisEACiiD, 4./. {from hos) Palmistry. 
BoiSEAG, eig, s.f. A box or spank in the ear; a slap with 

the palm of the hand ; also a little palm, 
t BoisEiD, s.f. A belt, a girdle. N. pi. boiseidean. 
BoisG, f . n. Shine, gleam, flash, dart. Pret. a. blioisg, 

shone; fut. aff. a. boisgidh, shall or u ill gleam. Air anara 

bhoisg platha, a ray shune on his soul. — Oss. Derm. 
BoisGE, s.f. A beam of light, a gleam ; a flash, a flame. 

Mar bhoisge fuaimneach droighinn, like the noisy flame of 

thurm.—Sm. Boisge dealanaich, a flash of lightning. 
BoisGEACH, a. {from boisge.) Gleaming; flashing, flaming ; 

radiant, luminous. 
BoisGEALACiiD, «./. Radiahcc ; a gleaming ; a flaslung. 
BoisGEANTA, 0. {from boisge.) Shining, radiant, knuinou*; 

dazzling, flashing, brilliant. 
BoisGEiL, a. (boisg-amhuil.) Shining, luminous, radiant, 

dazzling, fla.shing. Co boisgeil ri i>r, shining like gold. — 

Oss. Croma. 
B61T, s.f. The Isle of Bute. 
BoiTEACii, a. Of Bute; also a native or an inhabitant of 

the Isle of Bute. 

B O L 

BoiTEAL, eil, *. m. A wisp, or bundle of straw or hay ; 
rarely, arrogance, presumption. Boideal fodair, a bundle or 
bottle ofsfra-ii-. N. pi. of boitealan. 
t BoiTEALACii, a. Arrogant, presumptuous. 
BoiTEALAicii, V. a. Tie up, as straw, in bundles. Pret. a. 

BoiTEAN, ein, s. m. A wisp, or bundle of hay or straw. 
BoiTEANACH, fl. In buudles, as straw or hay. 
t BoL, s. m. A bard ; art, skill ; also a cow. — Shav:. 
BoL, Boil, s. m. A bowl or cup. Corn. boUa, a drinking- 

cup. N. pi. bolan. 
Boladii, aidh, s. m. A smell, a stink; savour. Boladli 
graineil, an abominable smell. — Stew. Exod. Boladh breun, 
a stinking savour. — Stew. Ecc. Ir. boladh. 
Bo-LANN, -lainn, s. m. A cow-house ; a fold. 
Bolanta, a. Exquisite; fine. Gu ba\antBL, eiquisitely. 
BoLASTACiiD, s.f. Exquisiteness. 
BoLB, BuiLB, s. m. {Ir. id.) A species of caterpillar. — 

BoLG, V. Swell, puff, blow, blister. Pret. a. bholg ; fut. 

aff. a. bolgaidh. 
BoLG, .». m. One of the Belgse. — Oss. 

BoLG, BuiLG, s.f. A pair of bellows ; a budget, a wallet, 
a bag, a sack, a pock; a pimple, a blain, a blister; a belly, 
the womb ; the boss of a shield. JV. pi. bolgan ; dat. pi. 
bolgaibh. A briseadh mach na bholgaibh, breaking out in 
blains.— Stew. Exod. O bholg na maidnc, from the womb 
of morn. — Sm. Do bholg mar dhiln cruithneachd, tbi/ belly 
like a heap of wheat.— Stew. Song. Sol. Sgiath nam bolg 
the bossy ihield. — Oss. Bolg saighead, a quiver ; bolg an 
t-soUair, a magazine. 

Gr. 2Eol. /J0X70;. Eat. fbulga. Helg. balg, a sack. 
Sax. beige. Eng. bilge. Hence too the Lat. Belgse, 
I. e. the quiver-bearing people, so named from their being 
always armed with bows and arrows. 
Bolg Acn, a. (/row bolg.) Like a budget or wallet; blistering ; 
bellying, bilging, bagged ; bossy. Thar a sgeith bholgaich, 
over his bossy shield. — Oss. 
BoLGAM, aim, s. m. A sip; a mouthful ; a gulp; a dram. 
BoLGAS, ain, s. m. (dim. of bolg.) A httle budget or bag; 

a little pimple ; a little blister ; a little boss ; a quiver. 
BoLGAX-BEiCEACii, ich, s. m. A fuzz-ball. 
BoLG-SAiGiiEAD, s. f A qulvcr. Bha bholg-saighead ri 

thaobh, his quiver was at his side. — Oss. Cathluno. 
BoLG-sEiD, BoLG-SEiniDH, «./". A pair of bellows., 
builg-seid or builg-seididli. Sguiridh na builg-seididh, the 
bellows shall cease. — Macfar. Ir. id. 
t Boll, ». m. The boss of a bridle or gorget. 
BoLLADii, aidh, I. m. Aboil, or sixteen pecks; rarely, ^l 

bowl, a goblet. N. pi. bollaichean. 
BoLLADH, aidh, s. m. A bladder upon nets. Bolladh 

stiuraidh, a buoy. 
+ BoLLAo, aig, s.f. A shell, a skull; top of the head; 

also heifer; hence bullock. 
BoLLSGAiii, s. m. {Ir. id.) An antiquary; a herald; a 
c-rier at court ; a bawler ; a boaster. iV. />/. bollsgairean. 
BoLLSGAiR-BUiRD, s. m. {Ir. id.) A grand carver. — Shaw. 
Bi.LTAi>n, aidh, «. m. A bolt or bar. 
BoLi ANAS, ais, «. w. (y>o;« boladh.) Smell, perfume. 
BoLTRACit, aich, s. m. A smell, odour, scent, perfume. 
Bhuir boltrach cubhraidh, _yoar sweet odours. — Stew. O. T. 
Oladh agus boltrach, oil and perfume. — Stew. Pro. 
BoLTRAtiiAN, ain, *. m. A perfume; also a perfumer. Ni 

thu boltrachan, thou shall make a perfume. — Stew. Exod. 
BoLTRACiiAS, ais, s. m. {from bol.) Perfumery. 

B O R 

BoLTRAiCH, BoLTRuiCH, V. n. Smell, scent, perfume. 

Pret. a. bholtruich, perfumed; fut. aff. a. boltraichidh, shall 

perfume. Bholtruich e boladh, ^esme/^ a .sme//. — Stew. 0. T. 

BoMANACH, a. Boasting, vaunting, blustering; also a 

boasting or blustering fellow, 
t BoMANACHD, s. f. A habit of boasting, vaunting, 

BoNAiD, s. f. A bonnet. (Arm. boned. Fr. bonnet. 
Tettt. bonet.) Bonaid ghorm, a blue bonnet. — Macint. 
Bonaid bhallach, a tartan bonnet.— Macfar. Bonaid chath- 
dath, a tartan bonnet. N. pi. bonaidean ; d. pi. bonaidibh. 
Bonaid losgainn, a paddock stool ; written also boincid. 
BoNCAiT, s. m. A balk. — Macd. N. pi. boncaitean. 
+ Bonn, a. Good. Laf. bonus, /r. bonn. 
Bonn, BuiNN, «. ?«. (7r. bon.) A heel ; a sole; a socket; 
a piece of money, a coin; a base or bottom, pedestal. 
A chu ri bhonn, his dog at his heels. — Oss. Cathluno. Fo 
bhonnnibh ur cos, under the soles of your feet. — Stew. Mai. 
Fichead bonn, twenty sockets. — Stew. Exod. Rothan aig 
gach bonn, wheels at every base. — Stew. 1 K. Bonn h-ochd, 
a piece of eight ; bonn leth-chruin, a half-crown piece. 
Air chuig bonnaibh airgid, for fve pieces of silver. — 
Stew. 2 K. Thug e na buinn as, he took to his heels. 
Bonn ri bonn, heel to heel; foot to foot. Tuiteam fo 'r 
bonn, falling under our feet. — Fingalian Poem. 
BoNNACH, aich, s.m. A barley-scon; by the Scots called 
a bannock. Mar is miannaich bril bruichear bonnach, as 
the stomach cravts, the scon is toasted. — G. P. 
Bonn AG, aig, s.f. (from bonn.) A leap, a spring; the sole 

of a shoe ; a new year's gift. N. pi. bonnagan. 
Bonnagach, a. Leaping, springing, bounding, 
t Bonnan, ain, s. m. (from bonn.) A footman, a lacquey; 

also a bittern.— 5/(a». 
BoNNANTA, a. (from bonn.) Well set; stout; having a 

good bottom or foundation. 
BoNN-ciiuMADAiR, s. m. A shoc-last. N. pi. bonn- 

BoxN-H-ocHD, s. m. A piece of eight. 
BoNNSACHD, s.f. A leaping, a springing, a vaulting. 
BoNNSAicii, V. n. Bounce, dart, spring. Pret. a. bhonn- 

saich, bounced; fut. aff'. a. bonnsaichidh. 
BoNNSE, BoNNSiA, s. vi. A halfpenny. 
BoNN-siiuiDHEACHADH, aidh, *. m. An establishing or 

founding; a getting a firm footing. 
BoNN-siruiDiiicn, V. a. Found, establish; get or give a 

firm bottom. Pret. a. bhonn-shuidhich. 
t BoR, a. High, proud, noble. Germ. por. Ir. borr. 
BoRAisD, s.f. Borage. — Macd. 
t BoRB, BuiRB, s.m. A tyrant, an oppressor. 
BoRB, a. {Ir. id.) Fierce, cruel, barbarous, raging, haughty; 
rude, ignorant. Tha 'n t-amadan borb, the fool rages. — 
Stew. Pro. Namhaid borb, a fierce foe. — Oss. Lodin. 
Com. and sup. buirbe. 
BoRBACHD, *./. (from borb.) Barbarity, fierceness. 
BoRBADH, aidh, s. m. (from borb.) Fierceness; pride, 

BoRBARRA, a. Barbarous, wild, fierce, uncivilized, untamed, 
Buidhne borbarra,_/ferce Imnds. — Old Poem. 

Lat. barbarus. Ir. barbaro. It. burbero. Swed. barbar. 
BoRB-BHRiATiiBACii, a. Speaking fiercely, boisterous in 

BoRBHAN, ain, s. m. A murmur; a low sound; the 
gurgling of a stream; a humming; any continued low 
sound ; a grumbling. Is binn, a shruthain, do bhorbhan, 
sweet is thy murmur, O stream!— Oss. 
BoEBHANAicH, i./. A murmuring, grumbling, muttering; 


B n A 

gurglinir. Ciod a bhorbhanaich th'ort? what are you 

grvmbling about ? 
BoHC, V. n. Spring, sprout, bud; swell. Pret. a. bhorc; 

fut. ajr. a. borcaidh, shall spring- 
B6ncACn, a. Swelling ; budding, sprouting, springing; tall. 

Do luachar bhorcach, fhi) springing rmhcs. — Old Song. 
BoRCADji, aidli, s. m. A swelling; a springing or sprouting. 
BoRCADii, (a), pr. part, of bore. Swelling; springing, 

sprouting. A borcadh suas mu d' choir, springing forth 

tiear thee. — Macdon. 
BoRD, biiird, s. m. (ii. pi. buird.) A table ; a plank, a deal, 

a board ; also boarding. Da bhord, two tables. Ochd 

buifd, eight tables. — Stew. Exod. Air bhord, boarded, as a 

boarder; aW hord, on board ; bord beulaobh, the starboard 

side of a ship; bord culaobh, the larboard side of a ship. 

Bord in6r, the board of green cloth ; cuir air bhord, board. 
Sued. bord. Goth, baurd. Ir. bord. Run. bord. 

Corn. bord. Eng. board. 
BoRD-BEULAOBii, *. m. The starboard side of a ship. 

Bord beulaobh 's bord culaobh, starboard atul larboard. 
BoRD-cuLAOBH, s. m. The larboard of a ship. 
BoRD-LUiNG, «. m. The deck of a ship. 
Bord-m6r, s. m. The table of green cloth. — Shaw. 
BoRD-NA-cisE, s. m. The board of customs; the board of 

excise.— 67eic. Matth. 
BoRD-friRciiRAiNN, s. >«. The earth-board of a plough, 
t BoRG, s. m. A tower; a village; a house. Gr. Tri/jyoj, 

a touer. It. borgo, a village. Sax. burg. Dan. borg. 

See also Burg. 
BoRR, s. m. A knob, 
t BoRR, r. Swell, grow big, grow proud; bully ; swagger; 

parch. — Shaw. 
t BoRR, a. Great, noble; haughty; splendid, 
t BoRRACii,aich,«. m. Ahaughty man; agreatman. — Shaw. 
t BoRRACiiAS, ais, s. m. Bravado. 

+ BoRRADii, aidh, *. m. A swelling; a bravading; parching. 
BoRRAiDii, s.f. Bonage. 
BoRRAL, a. Proud, swaggering, boastful. 
BoRRAN, ain, .s. m. A haunch, a buttock. 
BoRRFHUAiM, «. w. A loud noise; a murmur. 
BoRR-sii^iL, shill, s.f. A full round eye. 
BoRR-siiuiLEACii, a. Full-eyed, large-eyed. 
BoRRiJNN, uinn, s. m. The haunch, buttock, 
t BoRSA, s. A purse. 

Germ, bursa. Belg. beurs. W. pwrs. Lat. barbar, 
bursa ; hence also Eng. burse, bursar, bursary, 
■f- B6rsair, s. m. A burser. N. pi. borsairean. 

Bos, Boise, s. {Ir. and Corn, bos.) The palm of the hand ; 

the hand. A bois fa ceann, her palm under her head. — Oss. 

Dargo. Lcud boise, a hand-breadth. — Stew. Exod. and 

t Bos, a. Abject, mean, low, vile ; of humble origin. — Shaw. 
, t BosARGAiNN, «.y. Destruction. 
Bos-BiiUAiL, V. Extol, by clapping of hands; clap the 

Bos-BiiUALAiDii, aidh, s. m. A clapping of hands. 
B6sn, V. n. Boast, vaunt. Pret. a. bh6sd, boasted ; fut. 

aff. a. b6sdaidh, shall boast. 
BosD, s. VI. {IV. b6st.) A boast or vaunt, boasting language. 

Bha clnialas a bosd.— 0/(Z Song. Am b6sd gun fheum, 

the vscliss boast. — Mac Lach. 
BosDAiL, a. (b5sd-amhuil.) Inclined to boast, vaunting. 

Luchd bbsdail, boasters. — Stew. Rom. ref. 
BosDAN, ain, 5. m. A basket. 

Bos-ghXire, s.f. Applause by clapping of hands. 
Bos-LUADii, luaidh, s. m. Applause by clapping of hands. 

— Ir, id. 
Bos-LUATii, a. Nimble-handed; ready-handed. 
BosRAicii, s.f. A shouting, a roaring; a squall, a high 

wind. Mar bhosraich geamhraidh, like the loud winter gale. 

—Old Pucm. 
BosT, s. m. {IV. b6st.) A boast, a vaunt. 
B6sTAiL, n. (bosl-arahuil.) Vaunting, boastful ; better hba- 

Bos-UAiLL, V. a. Extol by clapping of hands. — Shaw. 
B6t, B61T, s. (Corn, bottas. Poring, bota.) A boot. 

N. pi. botan, hoots. — Macint. 
B6tacii, a. Wearing boots, booted. Gu botach sporach, 

hooted and spurred. 

B6taicii, ». (7. Boot. Pret. n.\ihhi9.\c\\, booted ; fut. aff.a. 

botaichidh, shall or will boot. 
B6tair, «. m. A bootmaker. A'. ;>/: botairean. 
BoTAL, ail, *. m. A bottle. N. pi. botalan. Botal fion, 

a bottle of "wine. 
BoTALAicii, 11. a. Bottle. Pret. a. bhotalaich ; y«<. a^. a. 

botalaichidh, shall bottle. 
BoTALAiciiTE, p. part, ofbotalaich. Bottled, 
t Both, s. A cottage, hut, tent, bower; now written ii/M. 
Teut. bod, house. Old Siced. according to Rudbeck, buda, 

a villiige. Goth, bouden, temple. Sued, boo, a dwelling. 

Thibet, bo, to hide. Carib. boa, a house. Old Sax. 

boed. Eng. abode and booth. Span, bodega, cellar. 

Fr. boutique, shop. Germ, bude, house. Pol. bauda and 

budo, a house. Georgian, budo, a Jiest. 
BoTiiACii, aicli, «.y. A marsh ; a quagmire. 
BoTHAG, aig, {dim. of both.) A hut, booth, or tent. 

bolhagan; dat. pi. bothagaibh, to tents. Ann am bothag- 

aibh, in tents. — Stew. Gen. ref. 
BoTHAN, ain, s. m. {dim. of both.) A hut, cottage, tent, 

booth, bower; a cottage. N. pi. bothain. Bothan am 

fasgadh nam fuar bheann, a hut in the shelter of the bleak 

mountains. — Oss. Cathula. Rinn e bothain d'a spreidh, ht 

made booths for his cattle. — Stew. Gen. ref. 
Both A R, air, s. m. A lane, a road, a street. 
BoTHAU, a. Deaf. Com. and sup. buithre, deafer, deafctt. 

Corn, bothur. 
Boi'ii-TiiiGii, «. »?. Anox-stall; a cow-house. 
BoTRUMAiD, s.f. A slattern; a drab. N. pi. botrum- 

BoTRUMAiDEACii, a. Drabbish. Gu botrumaideach, rfrat- 

BrA, s. m. A quern, a handmill. Muileanu bri, a handmill. 

Fr. moulin a br^s. See MtiLEANN-BR*. 
t Bra, s. m. A brow. — Shaw. 
Brabiidadii, aidh, «. ?H. Idle talk; bravado. 
Brabhdair, s. m. {Dan. brauter.) A noisy, talkative fellow; 

a swaggerer, a blusterer, a braggadocio, an idle talker. 
Brabiiuaikkaciid, s.f. Loud talk, blustering language; 

a habit of talking loudly ; a swaggering, a bravado. 
t Brac, Braic, s. m. An arm. Gr. ^fuxiut. Lat. bra- 

t Brac, v. a. Break down as earth with a harrow ; embrace. 

Pret. a. bhrac. 
BRACACii,a. Greyish. 

Bracaille, s.f. A bracelet; a sleeve. N. pi. bracaillean. 
Bracan, ain, s. m. Broth. — //•. 
t Brach, Braich, s. m. A pimple. — Ir. id. 
BrAcii, (gu), a. Forever; a corruption of gu bratk. See 




Beachadair, s, m. (Jrom braich.) A maltman. N. pi. 

Brachadh, aidh, s. m. A fermenting, a fermentation; 

malting ; rotting. — Macint. Ath-bhrachaidh, a mult-kiln. 
Brachag, aig, s.f. A pimple, a stye ; ophthalmia. — Ir. id. 
Beachagach, a. Pimply; ophthalmic. 
BRACHAN,ain, *. TO. Any thing fermented ; leaven ; fermented 

Brachd, s.f. Hatred; sap, juice; increase of wealth ; 

reaping, mowing. — Ir. id. 

Bra-che6, *. (/)e/-/;a^,! breith-cheo.) Bewilderment. Chaidh 
e na bra-cheo, he has gone stupid, or his judgment has dis- 
persed in 7nist. 
Beach-shuileacii, a. Blear-eyed. — Ir. 
Bradach, a. (from braid.) IF. bradawg, treacherous. 
Thievish; stolen. Measar e mar ni bradach, if shall be 
counted stolen goods. Tha thu cho bhreugach 's a tha 'u 
luch cho bhradach, >/ou lie as the mouse pilfers. — G. P. 
Beadag, aig, {from braid.) A thievish female; a sly young 
girl. N. pi. bradagan. Ceist bradaig air breugaig, ask 
the thief if I be a liar.—G. P. 
Bradaiche, s.m. A thief, a robber. N. pi. bradaichean. 
Saoilidh bradaiche gur goidichean uile c^ch, a thief sus- 
pects an honest man. — G. P. 
Bradalach, a. Haughty. Gu bradalach, haughtily. 
Beadalachd, s.f Haughtiness. 

Beadan, ain, s. m. (Jr. id.) A salmon. Bradan an fhior 
uisge, the salmon of the running stream. — Old Song. 
N. pi. bradain. 
Bradii, s.f. A quern, a handmill.— iV/acrf. Muileann bradh, 
a handmill. Fr. moulin a hrks. Is feaird brkdh a breach- 
dadh, gun abriseadh, pick a quern, but break it not. — G. P. 
See Muileann-brAdh. 
Bradhadaie, s. m. Kindling; fuel. 
Beag, *. m. A boast or brag. Thoir brag, give a brag. 
Bragad, aid, s. m. A brigade. — Macd. N. pi. bragadan. 
BragAdach, a. In brigades. 
Bragainj?, s.f. A bragging, boasting, vaunting. Th6isich 

e air bragainn, he began to vaunt. 
Brag AiJTN, v. n. Brag, boast. Pret. bhragainn ; fut. aff. a. 

bragainnidh, shall brag. 
Brag air, .$. m. A braggadocio ; also the broad leaves that 

grow on the top of the alga marina. 
Bragaireachd, *./. A vaunting, a boasting. Ri brag- 

aireachd, vaunting. 
Braghad, aid, s. m. {Ir. id.) The neck, throat, windpipe ; 
a back. A braghad gu seimh a soillseadh, her neck softly 
shining.— Oss. Derm. Ruisgidh bni braghad, the belli/ will 
strip the back.—G. P. Losg bhrighaid, the heartburn. 
Braghadach, a. (/rom braghad.) Jugular; of, or belong- 
ing to, a neck or throat ; having a long neck. 
Bragsaidh, *./. A disease among sheep, which is found 
to arise from eating withered grass, and from want of 
. water. 
t Braiceam, eira, s. m. A pack-saddle; also a horse-collar. 

Scotch, braicheam. 
+ Braich, s. m. A stag, a buffalo. 

Bra icH, gen. bracha, s.f. Malt ; literally, fermented grain. 
{Corn, and W. brag. Ir. braiciu) Ath-bracha, a malt-kiln ; 
muileann bracha, a malt-mill. 

TheOltl GauU, according to Pliny, prepared a sort of fine "rain, 
of which they made beer ; and this grain they called brace. 

" Genus farris quod illi vocant bracein." 
+ Braicne, *. A cat. — Ir. id. 
BRiip, s.f. (i. e. braghaid.) A horse-collar; an upper part. 

Braid chluaisein, hames, or the crooked piece of wood by 

which a horse draws a cart; brtlid phaib, a horse-collar 
made of coarse Jlax. 

Braid,*./. Theft. Luchd braid, fAzeiw. Saor o bhraid 
's o antlachd,/ree /rora theft and discontent.— Macdon. 

BrAidean, ein, s. m. {dim. of brkid.) A little horse-collar; 
a calf's-collar. Contr. for braghaidean. 

Braidh. See BrAigh. 

Braigh, «. A hostage. JV. p/. braighdean anrf braighde. 

Braigii, s.f. A loud report; a loud crack or clap; a 
heavy stroke ; a monosyllable. Leig an gunn braigh as, 
the gun made a loud report. 

BrAigii, s. m. The upper part of any thing or place; a 
neck, a throat ; the top of a mountain ; an upland country ; 
high lands, high grounds; the upper or higher part of any 
country ; as, Braigh Raineach, the high grounds ofRannoch, 
the head ofRannoch. Braigh Bhealaich, the high grounds or 
braes of Taymouth in Perthshire. Do bhraigh ban, thy 
fair neck.— Oss. Fiug. 

W. brai, breast. Arm. breich. Lat. brachium, arm. 
Scotch, brae. W. bre, hill. 

Braigude, Braigiidean, n. pi. of braigh. {Ir. id.) Hos- 
tages, captives. ladhara ur braighde, / will compass your 

captives.— Fingalian Poem. Braighdean gill, hostages. 

Stew. 2 K. . 

Braighdeanas, ais, s. m. Bondage, captivity. Am 
braighdeanas, in captivity. Bruid am braighdeanas, cap- 
tivity captive.— Stew. Eph. 

Braighe, ge«. sing, of braigh. 

BrAigheach, a. Having a long neck ; having a handsome 
neck ; of, or belonging to, the neck ; also uplandish. 

BrAigheach, a. Giving a loud report ; explosive. 

BrAigheach, ich, s. m. A Highlander; the inhabitant of 
an upland country. 

Braigheachd, s. f. Imprisonment, constraint, confine- 

Braighead, eid, ,s. A neck, throat, breast. Lann ro m' 
braighead, a sword through my breast. — Oss. 

t Braile, s.f Heavy rain. — Ir. id. 

Braileis, s.f. Wort. 

t BrAin, s.f. A quern.— 7;-. id. 

t Brain, Braineach, ich, s. m. A chief. 

Brainn , {/or broinn.) An inflection of brU ; which see. 

Brais, a. Rash; bold; impetuous; sudden; rarely, fabu- 
lous, inventive. Com. and sup. braise. 

BrAisd, s.f. A brooch, a bracelet. Written also brdist ; 
which see. 

Braise, s.f. Rashness; boldness; impetuosity; sudden- 
ness ; a paroxysm ; wantonness. — Macd. 

Braise, com. and sup. of brais. More or most rash. 

Braisead, eid, *. m. Rashness, forwardness, impetuous- 
ness; increase in rashness or forwardness. A dol am 
braisead, growing more and more rash. 

Brais-sgeul, sgeoil, s. A fabulous history, a romance. 

BrAist, s. f A brooch, a bracelet. N. pi. brkistean. 
'Ihug iad leo br^istean, they took with them bracelets.— 
Stew. Exod. 

Braitii-lin, s.f. A sheet; perhaps brat-lin. Ir. braithlin. 
Bram, I. A flatus. Mar bha gille mor nam brara, cha 'n 

fhuirich e thall 's cha 'n f huirich e bhos, like the never-do- 

well, he will stay nowhere. — G. P. 

Corn. IV. Arm. and Ir. bram, aflatus. Gr. ^pift«, to make 

a noise ; and BfOfjioi;, noise. 
Bramach, aich, s. m. A colt.— Jr. id. bramaiche, colts. 
Bramair, s. m. One addicted to f— ting ; a flatulent 

person ; an unpolished fellow ; a noisy fellow ; a boor. 

Ir. bramair. W. bramiwr. Span, bramador, a crier. 




^jgiAiiAK, ain, «. ni. A.crupper. 

Bramaxacii, aich, s. m. A noisy fellow; a boorish fellow. 

iV. pi. bramanaiche. 
BiiAMAN ACiiD, «./". Noisiness, boorishness, sulkincss. 
^RAMANTA, a. Boorish, sulky, iinpohshed. 
Bramartaicii, s.f. Afrequent blowing of wind backwards; 

a habit of blowing wind backwards. 
Bramsao, aig, i.y. Flatulence. 

t Bran, a. Poor; black ; also, substantively, a raven, a rook. 
Sclav, bran, Uack. Dalmat. gravran. Bohem. hawran. 
Croat, chafran. 
BrAn, BrIin, s. 7/1. {contr. for brkigh-an.) A mountain- 
stream; the name of several streams in the Highlands 

of Scotland. 
BrAn, Brain, s. m. Husks of corn, bran. W. bran. 
Brandaiu, s. m. A gridiron. — Macd. 

Bran DAL, ail, 4. w. A gridiron. — Macd. ^. p/. brandalan. 
Brangach, a. Snarling. 
Brangas, ais, s. m. An instrument once in the Highlands 

for the punishment of pilfering vagrants. 
t Brann, Buaikn-, *. m. A burning coal; a woman. 

Ir. brann. Eng. brand. 
Brannamh, aimh, s. m. A coat of mail. 
Braundaidh, .?./. Brandy. (J'r. brandi.) Is meirg a dh' 

oladh branndaidh ! %c hat folly it is to drink brandy! — Old 

t Brann iiACii, aich, s. m. The border or boundaries of a 

t Braoi, s. fl. Eyebrows.— 7r. id. 
Braoileadh, etdh, s. m. A great, noise, a bounce. Ir. 

Braoileag, eig, i.y. A whortle-berry. Braoileag naia con, 

a dog-berry, a bear-berry. N. pi. braoileagan. 
Braoileagach, a. Abounding in whortle-berries. Do 

leacan braoileagach, tky rocks abounding in whortle-berries. 

— Macint. 
Braoileagan, n. pi. of braoileag. 
Braoilich, s.f. A loud noise; a nattling sound. Ri 

braoilich, making a loud rattling noise. Asp. form, braoilich. 

Ciod bhraoilich th'ort? why do you make siwh noise? 
Braoisg, s.f. A grin; a yawn ; a gaping; a distortion of 

the mouth. Chuir e braoisg air, he began to grin. 
Braoisgeach, a. Grinning; gaping; having a distorted 

mouth. Fear braoisgeach, a man tcith a distorted mouth. 

A bhodaich bhraoisgich 1 thou grinning old man ! Com. and 

sup. braoisgiche, more or most grinning. 
Braoisgean, ein, s. m. {from braoisg.) A person who 

grins; one with a distorted mouth. 
Braoisgeanacmd, s.f. The habit of grinning. 
^KAON, braoin, s. m. Dew; a drop; drizzle; rain; a 

shower. {Ir. braon.) N. pi. braoin ; d. pi. braonaibh. 

Mar bhogha Lena nam braon mall, like the rainbow of 

drizzling Lcna. — Oss. Braon nan sian, the drizzling of the 

blast. — Ov.5. Fing. Ln braonaibh na h>-oidhohe, wit/i the 

drops of night. — Stew. Song. Sol. 
Beaonach, a. {from braon.) Showery, drizzly, rainy, 

dewy. Sa mhadainn bhraonach, in the dewy morn. — Oss. 
Braonaciid, s.f. Continual drizzUng; a continual drop- 
Braon AN, ain, s. m. An earthen nut; the bud of a brier. 

— Macint. Braonan bachlaig, an earthen nut. — Macd. 
Braon-dhealt, s. Heavy dew. Braon-dhealt na madainn, 

the heavy dew of morn. — Oss. Cathula. 
Braos, BiiAois, «v See Braoisg. 
Braosach, a. fpe. Braoisgeach. 

Bras, a. {h: bras.) Rash, impetuous; bold, intrepid; 
sudden ; active, brisk, lively. Bras le d' bheul, rash with 
thy mouth. — Stew. Ecc. Mar steud-shruth bras, like an 
impetuous torrent. — Oss. Gaul. Ag radh ri mhic bhras, 
saying to his intrepid sons. — Id. 
t Brasailte, s.f. A panegyric, 
t Brasair-buird, s. m. A sycophant, one who subsists by 

flattering his patron. 
Bras-bhuinne, s. f. A torrent; also a stormy sea. A 
sebladh air bras bhuinne, sailing on a stormy sea. — Oss. 
Bras-chomhhag, aig, s.f. A tilt or tournament. 
Brasgalladh, aidh, s. m. A declamation. — Ir. id. 

Brasluidiie, s. f. Perjury. Luchd brasluidhe, perjured 

BRAs-sGEUL,-sge6il, s. A romance, a fable. — Ir. id. 

&RAT, brait, s. m. Anglo-Sax. bratt {Ir. brat, mantle. 
W. brat, a rag. Scotch, brat, clothing. In Lincolnshire 
brat is an apron.) A mantle, a cloak, a covering, a veil, 
coverlet, blanket, curtain. Brat na h-oidhche, the mantle 
of night. — Oss. Dargo. Crochaidh tu am brat, thou shall 
hang the veil. — Stew. Exod. Brat-leapach, a coverlet, a 
guilt ; brat-roinn, a partition veil; brat-speillidli, swaddling- 
cloth; brat-urlair, a carpet; brat-broin, mort-cloth ; brat- 
folaich, a cloak. 

t Brat, *. Judgment. 

Bratach, aich, *. /. {Ir. bratach.) N. pi. brataichean. 
Banners, flags, colours, an ensign. Bratach aluinn righ 
nam magh, the beauteous banner of the king of the plains. — 
Oss. Cathula. A bhratach dhaithte uaine, his gretn- 
coloiired flag. — Oss. Dargo. 

Bratag, aig, «.y. A worm, a caterpillar; also a rag; an 
impudent girl ; a pilfering female. 

Brat-br6in, s. m. A mort-cloth. 

Brat-chosacii, a. Bow-legged. 

BuAT-Foi.Aicii, s. m. A cloak; a blind man. Mar bhrat- 
folaich do 'n dall, as a cloak for the blind. — Stew. Fet. 

Bratii, v. a. {Ir. brath.) Betray; spy; guess, suppose ; 
design; entertain an opinion. Pret. a. bhrath, betrayed; 
fut. aff. a. brathaidh, shall betray. Esan a bhrath e, he who 
betrayed him. — Stew. N. T. 

Bratii, s. Guess, opinion, idea, expectation, design, judg- 
ment ; a spying, an informing, treachery, betraying; a 
mass, a lump. Bheil brath agad? Iiave you any idea? do 
you know ? Gun bhrath furtachd, without expectation of 
relief.-— Macint. Air bhrath, /oj/wy/. Cha bhi am bard air 
a biirath, the bard shall not be found. — Old Song. From 
brath very probably comes the Hindoo brachman ; literally, 
the man of judgment. 

BaiTH, s. A conflagration ; destruction. La bhrith, the 

last day, the day of the conflagration. Gu la bhrkth, never ; 

gu brkth, for ever. Gu la bhrath cha n' eirich Oscar, 

Oscar shall never rise.—Oss. Temo. Cliil gach linn gu 

^brkth, the praise of every age for ever. — Old Song. 

t Brathach, a. Continual, constant. 

Bratii ADAIR, s. m. {from brath.) An informer, a spy,. a 
betrayer, a traitor ; also a kindling ; fuel. N. pi. brath- 
adairean. W. bradwr, a traitor. 

Brathadii, aidh, s. m. A betraying, a spying, an informing; 
treachery. Luchd brathaidh, spies; fear brathaidh, a spy 
or informer. Luchd brathaidh an siothchainnt, spies in 
peace. — Stew. Hch. 

Brathadh, (a), pr. part, of brath. 

Bratii AiDii,/«^. aff. a. of brath. Shall or will betray. 

BrItiiair, gen. brklhar, s. m. {i. e. bru-ath-urr, a second 
person of the same womb.) A brother. Ardan do bhrithar, 
the proud anger of thy brother. — Oss. Lod. Brathair mithar, 

B R E 

an uncle by the mother's ^rWe ; brathair-athar, an mcle by 
the fathers side; brathair sean-athair, a grandiinck, a 
grandfathers brother; brathair seaii-mhathair, a grand- 
mothers brother; brathair-ceile, a brother-in-law ; literally, 
a spouse's brother; brathair bochd, a friar ; brathair-mhort, 
fratricide. Is lag gualainn gun bhrathair,/eei/e is the arm 
of him who has no brother. — G. P. 

Gr. JSol. (PfaTUf and (pfccrr.f. Lat. frater. Fr. ffretre, tioiv 
Mre. Dan. broder. Sv:ed. broder and bror. Isl. brodur. 
Anglo-Sax. brather. Eng. brother. Germ, bruother. Bclgic, 
braeder. Pol. brat. Lus. bradt. Russ. brate. Sclav, brat. 
Bohem. brat and brodr. Teut. broader and bruder. Ir. 
brathair. W. brawd and brawdair. Corn, brawd, breur, 
and bredar. Jrm. breuzr (z silent). Citnb. brodir. Tar. 
bruder. Pers. berader, burader, a7id braeder. Hindost. 
brooder. Every language in Europe, and almost all the 
languages in Asia, have nearly the same term to express 
brother: hence we may conclude that the root is ante- 

Brathair-athar, s. m. An uncle, a father's brother. 
Brathair m' athar, my tmcle. 

Brathair-bochd, s.m. A friar; a lay-capuchin; a poor 

Brathair-ceile, s. f. A brother-in-law; literally, the 

. brother of a spouse. 

Brathaireachas, ais, s. m. Brotherhood; partnership. 
Gum brisinu am brathaireachas, that I might break their 
brotherhood. — Stev;. Zech. Cha bhi brathaireachas gu 
mnaoi na gu fearann, there is no partnership in women or 
land.-G. P. 

t Brathaireag, eig, s.f. An aunt by the father's side. 

Brathairean, n. pi. of brathair; which see. 

Brathaireil, a. (j. e. brathair-amhuil.) Brotherly; /jVcra//y, 
brotherlike. Gradh brathaireil, brotherly love. — Stetv. 

Brathaireileaciid, «./. Brotherliness ; unanimity. 

Brathair-mathar, s. m. An uncle by the mother's side. 
Brathair mo mhathair, my uncle. 

Brathair-mhort,«. wi. Fratricide. Sa-erf. broder-mort. 

Brat-leapach, s. m. A bed-cover or quilt. 

Brat-lIn, s. m. A linen cloth ; a sheet. 

BRAT-spin,LiDH, s. 771. Swaddling-cloth. Phaisg i e am 
brat-speillidh, she wrapped him in swaddling-clothes. 

Brat-urlair, «. A carpet. 

Breab, s. 771. A kick ; a prance; a spurn. Thug e breab 
dha, he gave him a kick. 

Breab, v. a. Kick; prance; spurn; stamp with the foot. 
Pmt. a. bhreab, kiclctd ; fut. qf. a. breabaidh, shall kick. 

Breabach, a. {from breab.) Apt to kick or to prance. 
Each breabach brbgach, a prancing strong-hoofed horse. 

Breabadair, s. 771. {from breab.) A weaver; one who 

kicks. N. pi. breabadairean. 
Breabadaireachd, s.f. The business of a weaver ; the 

habit of kicking or of stamping. 
Breabadairean, of breabadair. 
Breabadh, aidh, s. m. A kicking; a prancing; a spurning; 

a stamping ; a kick ; a prance ; a stamp of the foot. 
Breabadii, (a), pr. part, of breab. Kicking; prancing; 

spuming ; stamping. 
Breahail, s.f. A kicking; prancing; spurning; stamping; 

also a gurgling noise. Tha na sruthain ri breabail, the 

streamlets are gurgling. — Oss. Dargo. 
Breabaik, gen. sing, of breaban. 
Breaean, ain, *. m. A patch on the tip of a shoe. 
Breabanaiciie, ». 777. A shocmaker ; a cobbler. — Macd. 

B R E 

Breabartaich, s. f. {from breab.) A yerking, kicking, 

prancing, or spuming. 
Breac, brie, s. m. A trout, the salmo fario of Linneeus ; 
a salmon ; rarely, a wolf; a brock or badger. N. pi. brie ; 
d. pi. breacaibh. 
Breac, brie, *./. {iV. brech. Ir. breac.) A pox; most 
commonly applied to the small-pox ; any spotted appear- 
ance. Breac-otraiche, cAifAe/i jDo.r; breac-seunain, breachd- 
sheunain, //ccA/e* ; breac-fhrangach, the venereal; each 
breac, a piebald horse ; breac mhuilinn, that modification of 
cloud called cirro-cumulus. It is called breac mhuilinn 
by the Gael, probably from the resemblance which a cirro- 
cumulus sky bears to a picked or punctured millstone. 
Breac, Breachd, a. {IF. and Arm. brech. //-.breac.) 
Spotted, marked with the small-pox, speckled, parti- 
coloured, chequered, piebald. A bl^iteachadh nan ubha 
breachd, hatching the spotted eggs. — Macfar. Gach spreidh 
tha breachd, all the cattle that is speckled. — Stew. Gen. 
Eich bhreac, speckled [ piebald ] horses. — Stew. Zech. Breac 
le feireagaibh, chequered with cloud-berries. — Macint. 
Breac, Breachd, v. a. Chequer, spot, speckle ; embroider; 
carve; mix; pick a millstone. Pre^, a. bhreac, chequered; 
fut. aff. a. breacaidh, shall or will chequer. 
Breacadh, Breachdadh, aidh, s. m. A chequering, 

spotting ; embroidering ; picking a millstone. 
Breacag, Breachdag, aig, s.f. A cake, a scon; a pan- 
cake. iV". /)/. breacagan, cflAe*. Breacagan neo-ghoiitichte, 
unleavened cakes. — Stew. Lev. 
Breacain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of breaean. 
Breacaich, Breachdaich, f. a. Spot, chequer. Pret.a. 
bhreacaich, spotted ; fut. aff. a. breacaichidh, shall chequer. 
Breacaichte, Breaciidaiciite, p. part, of breacaich or 

breachdaich, spotted, chequered. 
Breacair, s. m. A graving tool, a graver. N. pi. breac- 

Breac aireachd, *./. The employment of a graver; che- 
quering ; chequer-work. 
Breacan, ain, s. m. { IF. brychan, a tartan cover- 
ing.) A Highland plaid, a tartan. 

Particoloured habiliments were used by the Celts from the 
earliest times ; but tlie variety of colours in the breaean was 
greater or less according to the rank of the wearer. The breaean 
of the Celtic kins had seven dififerent colours; the Druidical 
tunic had six ; and that of the nobles four. 
Breacanach, a. Tartan ; plaided. Aodach breacanach, 
tartan clothes. Na gaisgich bhreacanach bhuadhach, the 
plaided, victorious warriors. — Old Song. 
BttEAC-AN-T sIl, s. 777. The bird called a wagtail; the 

motacilla alba of Linneeus. 
Breac-beididii, s. 777. A loach. — Macd. 
t Breachd, s.f. A doubt. — Ir. id. 
t Breachdan, ain, *. 777. ( Wheat ; custard ; fresh 

meat ; a plaid : for this last sense, see Breacan. 
Breac-iteacii, a. Having speckled feathers. Glacagan 
nan eun bhreac-iteach, the dells of the speckled birds.— R. 
Breac-iteag, -eig, s.f. A spotted or speckled feather. 
Breac-liath, a. Greyish. 

Breac-lion, lin, s. m. A trout-net; a drag-net ; a land- 
ing-net. Breac-lionntaichean, drag-nets. 
Breacnachadii, aidh, s.m. A chequering, spotting ; em- 
Breacnaicii, v. a. Chequer, make spotted or particoloured ; 
embroider. Ir. breacnuigh. Pret. a. bhreacnaich ; fut. 
aff. a. breacnaichidh. 
Breacnaiciite, p. part, of breacnaichte. Chequered, made 

spotted or particoloured ; embroidered. 
Breac-shoillsich, t). 77. Glimmer as the twilight. Pret.a. 

B R E 

B R E 

bhreac-shoillsich, glimmered; fut. off", a. breac-shoLU; 
sichidh, sliall glimmer. 
BREAC-spoLUS, -sholuis, «. m. Twilight. 
Breacta, Breacte,/). part, of breac. Spotted, chequered; 

embroidered ; carved. — Stev>. 1 K. ref. 
Bread, Breid, s. m.- A breach. 
Breadh, a. See Breach. 
Breadiiachd, s.f. See Breaghachd. 
Breag, BrIig, s.f. A lie. More frequently written breug ; 

which see. 
Breagach, a. False. See Bueugacii. 
Breagair, «. m. A liar. See Breugair. 
Breagh, a. (Arm. brao. Scutch, braw. Ir. breo and 
breagh. W. briaw, dignity.) Fine, well-dressed, splendid ; 
• fair, specious, showy, pleasant. Cia breagh a snuadh ! 
hoxB splendid her appearance! — Sm. Nur labhras e gu 
breagh, when he speaks fair. — St-ew. Pro. Is breagh an 
dealradh ni grian, splendid is the sun's shining. — Old Poem. 
Breaghachd, s. f. (from breagh.) Finery, ornaments, 

showiness ; speciousness. A bhreaghachd, his ornaments. 
Breaghad, aid, s. m. Attire, ornament, finery, showiness. 

— Stew. Js. 
Breaghas, ais, s. m. (from breagh.) Finery, ornaments. 
Breaghaslach, aich, *. m. A dream; a delirium. More 

commonly written breisleach, 
Breaghna, y. The river Boyne in Ireland. 
Breall, breill, s. m. An uncovering of the glans penis; 

a phymosis. 
Breallach, a. (from breall.) Having a phymosis; of, or 

relating to, a phymosis. 
Breamain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of brearaan ; which see. 
BREAMAN,*ain, s. m. A tail. Bkrr a breamain, the tip of 

her tail. — Macint. N. pi. breamain, tails. 
Breamanach, a. (/rom breaman.) Tailed; like a tail ; of, 

or belonging to, a tail. 
Breamas, ais, «. m'. Mischief; mishap, mischance ; fatality. 
Ri breamas, at mischief— Old Song. Tha 'm breamas ort, 
the devil is in you. 
Breamasach, a. Fatal; causing mischance; unlucky. 

Com. and sup. breamasaiche, more or most fatal. 
Bream asachd, s. f. (from breamas.) FataHty; a con- 
tinuation of mischances ; a liability to mischance. 
Brean, brein, s. m. A stink. See Breun. 
Breanach, a. See Breunach. 
Breanan, ain, s. m. A dunghill. More frequently written 

Breantag, aig, s.f. See Breuntag. 
Breantas, ais, s. m. (from brean.) See Breuntas. 
f Breas, s. m. A prince, a potentate ; a voice ; a sound, 
t BREAS-CHATHAiR,gen. breas-chathrach. A throne. —JMacrf. 

N. pi. breas-chathraichean. 
t Breas-cholbh, s. m. A sceptre. — Ir. id. N. pi. breas- 

t Breasda, a. Principal; lively; active.— Jr. id. 
t BREAS-LANN,lainn,«.OT. A place; a court of justice. — 
t Breas-oirchiste, s.f. A royal treasure. — Ir. id. 
■f Breath, a. Clean, pure, bright, innocent. 
Breath,*./. A row, a rank. A^ ;?/. breathan. Tri breathan, 

three rows. — Stew. 1 K. Written also brcith. 
Breath, Breith, s.f. A judgment; opinion; censure; 

confidence. Written also breith; which see. 
Breathach, fl. In ranks, in rows ; also judicial, critical. 
Breathal, ail, «. m. Confusion of mind; terror; flurry. — 
Stew. Acts, ref. 

Breathalach, a. Causing confusion of mind, terror, of 
flurry ; apt to be confused. 

Breathalaich, s.f. Confusion of mind, flurry. 

Breathamh, *. TO. A judge. See Breitheamh. 

Breathamhnas, ais, *. m. Judgment, decision. See 

Breathas, ais, s. m. Frenzy; extreme fury; flaming wrath, 
Tha e air bhreathas, he is frantic; tha breathas a chuthaich 
air, he is in a frenzy. 

Breathas is either brealli-theas, i. e. judgment on fire, or brath- 
theas, a flame of anger, like to a conflagration; bralh signifying 
the last coiiflngi-ation. 

Breaths ACH, aich, «. TO. AWelchman. .JT^. p/. Breathnaicb. 

Breathnaich, r. Perceive, judge, opine. Pre*, a. bhreath- 
n&ich, Judged. 

t Breathnas, ais, s. m. A skewer, a clasp, a bodkin; the 
tongue of a buckle.— Jr. id. 

Breatunn, tuinn, s. m. Britain. 

Of all the attempts that have been maile to decompose this 
word, the most ingenious and the most successful is that of 
Mr. Clarke, in his Caledonian Bards, mentioned by Dr. Mae- 
Arthur in his Supplementary Observations on the Authenticity of 
Ossian's Poems. Braith-tonn, the top of the wave, is, according 
to him, the meaning of Breatunn. To perceive the force of this 
account, one has merely to imagine himself viewing Britiiin across 
the Channel from the north coast of France, from wlience came 
our Celtic ancestors. Our island, from that quarter, seems a low 
dark line, lying along the surface of the deep; and no term 
could have been found more descriptive of that appearance than 
Braith-tonn or Braith-luinn, (pronounced Braitonn or Bruituinn,) 
the land on the top of the waves ? Others will have it that 
Breatunn is a corruption of Uretinn, a high island, compounded 
of the old Celtic term bret, high, and inn, island. 

Breatunnach, aich, s. m. A Briton. N. pi. Breatunnaich. 

Breice, s.f. (from breac.) Spots, spottedness, maculation. 
An liopard a bhreic, the leopard his spots. — Stew. 0. T. 

Br^id, s.f. (Ir. id.) A kerchief, a napkin ; a sail ; a woman's 
head-dress, consisting of a square of fine linen, which is 
pinned neatly round the head, with part of it hanging 
down behind, not unlike the head-dress of the women in 
some parts of Normandy and Bretagne. Breid-uchd, a 
stomacher; breid -bronn, an apron; breid- shoitheachan, 
a dish-clout. 

BRiiDEACH, a. Like a kerchief; like a woman's head-dress; 
white-spreading. Ar siilil bhreideach, our white-spreading 
sails. — Oss. Manas. 

Breideach, eich, s. f. A married woman. Bha mi am 
bhreidich, mo ghruagaich 's mo bhantraich san aon am, 
I was a married woman, a virgin, and a widow at the same 
time. — Old Song. 

Br^ideadh, idh, s. tn. A dressing of the head; a clothing 
or attiring ; patching. 

Breidean, ein, s. m. (dim. of breid.) A coif; a little rag; 
a web of frieze. 

Breidean, n. pi. of breid; which see. 

Breid-gheal, a. White-sailed; with a white napkin, with 
a white head-dress. Boirrionnach breid-gheal, a femaU 
with a white head-dress ; luingeas breid-gheal crannach, 
a white-sailed high-masted ship. — Ull. 

t BiiEiG, s. m. A rustic, a boor. — /;•. id. 

BniiG, r. a. Soothe, cajole, flatter. Written also breug; 
which see. 

Breige, gen. sing, of breug. Of a lie. Beul na breige, 
a lying mouth. See Breug. 

Bheige, .!. /. A falsehood. Jr. breig. 

t Bii.l;.io-Fiiios, s. Enthusiasm. — Ir. id. 

■[ Breig-fhiosach, a. Enthusiastic. — Ir. id. 

Breill, gen. sing, of breall. 

B R E 

B R E 

Breilieis, s. f. Delirium; raving. Tha e na bhreilleis, 
he is rating. 

Breilleiseach, a. Delirious ; causing delirium. 

Breilleiseachd, s.f. Liableness to delirium; deliriousness. 

Breim, *. Ajlatus. Breim an diabhoil duibh, nigri diaboli 
Jlatus. — Macxurtch. 

Corn. W. and Arm. bram. Ir. breim. Gr. /3§i/*«, to 
make a noise. Lat. fremo. 

Br£ix, gen. sing, of breun. 

Breine, com. and sup. of breun. 

Breine, s. f. A stink. Thig a bhreine nios, his stink shall 
ascend. — Stev:. Job. 

Br^ixeag, eig, s.f. {fromhi^me.) A dirty young female, 
a slattern or drab. N. pi. breineagan. 

BRiixEAN-BROTHACH, *. The great daisy. 

Breinid, *.y. Stink ; a putrid smell. 

-f- Breis, *./. A tear. 

Breis, r. a. Break. See Bris. 

Breisg, a. Brisk. See Brisg. 

Breisleach, icli, s. m. A dream, delirium, raviug. Tha 
e na bhreisleach, he is rating. 

Breith, s. Judgment, sentence, decision ; a row or rank.; 
a layer ; also birth, descent ; a bearing, a carrying ; penance. 
Breith air a phobull bheir thu, thou shall judge the people. — 
Smith. Na h-aingidh auns a bhreith, the^cicked in the 
judgment. — Smith. Thoir breith, ^'i/f/g-e; breith-air-eiginn, 
rapine, deforcement. — Macd. Breith-buidheachais, thanks- 
giving; breith-dhitidh, .se/ifewce of condemnation. 

Breith, r. a. Judge, sentence ; bear, bring forth, produce. 
Sguir i bhreith cloinne, she left off bearing children. — Stevi. 
Gen. Fret. a. bhreith; Jut. off. a. breithidh. 

Breith each, a. (/rom breith.) Judicial, critical, /r.breitheach. 

Breitheal, eil, s. m. Confusion ; turmoil ; astonishment. 

Breitheamh, imh, «. m. A judge; an umpire ; judgment, 
decision, sentence. Ir. breitheamh. 

Breitheamhnas, ais, s. m. See Breitheakas. 

Breitheanas, ais, s. m. {from breith.) Ir. breitheamnas. 
A judgment ; a decision ; a sudden calamity. La bhreithe- 
anais, the day of judgment ; thainig breitheanas ort, a judg- 
ment came upon you. 

Breitheanas is evidently a contraction of breith a tiuas, a judg- 
ment from above. It is well known that the sentences pnssed by 
the Druids on criminals were often rigorous in the extreme. Wlien 
, they found it expedient to doom a culprit to a severe punishment, 
or to an awful death, they alleged that they acted by the compul- 
sion of He.nven, which directed all their judgments, and of course 
approved of all llieir decisions. Hence their sentence, from the 
wortl breith, meaning any ordinary decision, was called breithe- 
anuas, or breitheamhnuas, now contracted breitheanas ; meaning 
a judgment from God, or any rigorous decision. This word is still 
the term among the Gael to express the decision of a judge, or any 
sudden calamity. 

Breith-air-eiginn, s. Deforcement, rapine. — Macd. 

Breith-buidheachais,.!.™. Thanksgiving. Gu ma fearr 
leibh breith-buidheachais, may you rather thanksgiving. — 
Stew. Eph. 

Breitii-dhItidh, s. Sentence of condemnation. 

Breitiieadaireachd, s.f. Interpretation, as of dreams. 

Breitheaxtach, a. Judicial ; judicious. — Shaw. 

Breithneach, a. Imaginative. 

Breithneachadh, aidh, s. m. An apprehension; a way of 
thinking; a conceiving ; imagination. Uile bhreithneach- 
adh a smuaintean, all the imaginations of his thoughts. — 
Steu. Gen. A dh' aon bhreithneachadh, of one mind or way 
of thinking. — Stew. I'hil. 

Breithnich, v. Conceive, imagine, apprehend. Pret, a. 


bhreithnich, imagined; fut. aff. a. breithnichidh, shall 

t Brenn, a. An ancient Celtic term, long gone into disuse 

among the Gael, but retained in the Armoric dialect. 

Hence Brennus, the name of the Gaulish king who took 

Rome, and of the prince who attempted to plunder the 

temple at Delphi. 
Bred, «. Afire, aflame. Breo-clach, a_^2«^; breo-choire, 

a warming-pan ; breo-chual, a bonfire, a funeral pile. 
t Breoch, s. m. A brim, a brink. — Ir. id. 
Breo-chlach, -chloich, s.f. A flint. N. pi. breo-chlachan. 
Breo-choire, s.f. A warining-pan. — Shaw. 
Breo-chual, -chuail, s.f. A funeral pile, a bonfire. — Shaw. 

N. pi. breo-chualan. 
Breo-dhruidheachd, s.f. Pyromancy. 
Breog, Breoig, *./. A leveret.— Jr. id. 
t Breog, a. Feeble; sickly, 
t Breogach, aich, s. m. A baker. — Ir. id. N. pi. breog- 

Breoillean, ein, s. m. A darnel. 

Breoilleanach, a. Abounding in darnel ; like darnel. 
Breoite, a. Infirm, frail, weak, sickly; slender; bruised; 

tender. Ged tha mi crionaidh brebitCj withered and bruised 

though I be. — Old Song. 
Bre6iteachd, s.f. Infirmity, frailty; weakness, sickliness; 

t Breon, Breoin, s. m. A blemish, blur, or spot. — Ir. id. 
Breoth, v. a. Briiise, crush, maim. Pret. a. bhreoth, bruise; 

fut. aff. a. breothaidh, shall or will bruise. 
Breothadh, aidh, s.m. A wounding, crushing, bruising; 

a maiming ; a decay or consumption ; a wound ; a crush 

or bruise. 
Breothadh, (a), pr. part, of breoth. Wounding, crushing, 

bruising, maiming, 
t Breothan, ain, *. m. Wheat. — Ir. id. 
t Bret, a. High. Hence, according tg some, the name 

Brcatunn ; which see. 
Breth. See Breith. 
Breiig, Breig, *. y. A lie, a falsehood. iV. p/. breugan ; 

gen. pi. breug ; d. pi. breugaibh. Bilean nam breug, lips 

of falsehood. — Stew. Pro. 
Breug, t'. o. Soothe; flatter; cajole; entice. Pre/, a. bhreug, 

soothed ; fut. aff. a. breugaidh, shall soothe ; fut. sub. bhreu- 

gas. Mu bhreugas peacaich thu, if sinners entice thee. — 

Stew. Pro. 
Breugach, a. Lying, false, deceitful ; flattering, cajoling, 

soothing; deceived. Diomhanasa breugach, lying vanities. 

— Stew. Jonah. Fianuis bhreugach./a/.se witness ; is breu- 
gach thu an diu, thou art deceived to-day. — Old Poem. Tha 

thu cho bhreugach 's a tha 'n luch cho bhradach, you lie as 

much as the mouse pilfers. — G.P. Com. and iK/;. breugaiche, 

more or most false. 
Breucadh, aidh, s. m. A cajoling, flattering, or soothing. 
Breugag, aig, s.f. A lying female. N. pi. breugagan. 

Ceist bradaigair breugaig, ask the thief if I be a liar. —G. P. 
Breugaich, v. a. {from breug.) Belie, falsify, give the lie ; 

disprove ; gainsay. Pret. a. bhreugaich, belied ; fut. off. a. 

breugaichidh, shall or will belie; fut. pass, breugaichear. 

Ged dh' eignichear an sean fhocal cha bhreugaichear e, 

though the proverb be gainsaid, it cannot be disproved. — G. P. 
Breugaiche, .5. m. A liar. Is feaird breugaiche fianuis, 

a liar requires a voucher. — G. P. 
Breuoair, «. wi. A liar. Eisdidh am breugair, /Ae /iar «^a// 

listen. — Stew. Pro. N. pi. breugairean. 
Breugaireachd, .5./. A habit of lying ; the vice of lying. 
Breuoak, «./)/. of breug. Lies. 

B R I 

8«BU0-ciiRABUACn, a. Hypocritical. 

Breuo-ciihabhadii, aidh, s. vi. Hypocrisy. 

BaEDGLACHADii, aidh, s.m. A forswearing, peijuring ; 
gainsaying, falsifying. 

Breuglaicii, ti. a. Forswear, perjure, belie, gainsay. 
Fret. a. bhreuglaich ; fut. aff. a. breuglaichidh, shall for- 
swear ; p. part, breuglaichte. 

Breuglaichte, p. part, of brenglaich. Forsworn ; gainsaid. 

BREUGifACHADn, aidh, s. m. A falsifying, belying, contra- 
dicting, gainsaying. 

Bredgnachaik, «. m. A gainsayer. iV. p/. breugnachairean. 

Breugnaich, r. a. Belie, falsify, contradict. Pret. a. 
breugnaich, belied ; fut. off. a. breugnaichidli, lAall or mil 
belie; p. part, breugnaichte, falsified; fut. pass, breug- 

Breugxaichidii, fut. aff. a. Shall or will falsify. 

Breugnaichte, p. part, of breugnaich. Belied, falsified, 

Breug-riociid, s.f. A disguise. 

Breun, a. Stinking, putrid, loathsome, nasty; clumsy; 
also a stink, a smell. O'n otrach bhreun, fro?ii the putrid 
dunghill. — Smith. Thae breuu, it is loathsome.— Stevs. Job. 
Boladh breun, a stinkiflg savour. — Stew. Ecc. 

W. braen. Arm. bren. Teut. bren and bern. Ir. breun. 

Breunach, a. Stinking; nasty; surly. Com. and sup. 

Breunag, aig, s.f. A dirty female, a slattern or drab. 
N. pi. breunagan. 

Breunan, ain, *. »n. A dunghill ; any stinking thing. 

Breunan-brothach, aich, s. m. The great daisy. 

Breun-ladiirach, a. Rotten-toed. 

Breuntag, aig, s.f. A filthy arab. JV. pi. breuntagan. 

BreuntaS, ais, s. m. {Ir. breantas.) A putrid smell, any 
loathsome smell. 

t Bri, s.f. Anger; a word; a rising ground; an effort; 
essence. For the last sense, see BrIgh. 

■\ Bria, *. m. A town. 

This vocable has gone into disuse among the Scottish and Irish 
Celts, but is preserved by their brethren of Bretagne. Bria meant 
a town, in the ancient Tliracian language ; and it is found in the 
uaines of many towns in France, Spain, and Britain. Ancient 
geographers, as Strabo, Ptolemy, and Pliny, write this word re- 
spectively brica, brica, and briva ; not because the meaning was 
different, for it was the same, but because bria was pronounced 
differently by different nations. 

t Briagh, s. a wound, a mortal wound. 

Briagii, a. {Arm. brao. Scotch, braw. Ir. breo and breagh. 
JF. briaw, dignify. Smed. braf, good.) Fine ; well-dressed ; 
showy ; elegant ; well. La briagh, a.^ne rfav ; boirionnach 
bhriagh, a showy female ; tha mi gu briagh, / am quite well. 

Briagiiachd, «.y. Finery; showiness ; gaudiness. 

Briagiias, ais, «. m. Finery; showiness; gaudiness. 

t Brian, Brein, s.m. A word; composition; a warrant; 
an author. — 7r. id. 

t Brianacii, a. (/row brian.) Full of fair speeches; spe- 
cious ; prosing. 

t Briar, s. Briar; a thorn ; a pin ; a prickle. 

Bri'ar, a. See Brigiimhor. 

Briarach, a. Thorny, prickly. 

Briatiiau, s, {Ir. id.) A word ; a saying; an assertion ; 
an oath ; a verb ; rardi/ a victory or conquest. Air mo 
bhriathar, upon my word. 

Briatharach, Briathrach, a. Wordy; verbal; verbose; 
talkative. Ni thu 'm fear tosdach briathrach, thou makest 
the silent man talkative. — R. 

Briatuauachas, Bhiaturaciias, ais, s. m. Eloquence; 
elocution ; verbosity. 


Briatueaich, v. a. Affirm, assert, dictate, swear to- 
Pret. a. briathraich, affirmed; fut. aff. a. briathraichidh, 
shall or will affirm. 

Briatiirail, fl. (briathar-amhuil.) Verbal. Eadar-thean- 
gachadh briathrail, a verbal translation. 

Brib, Bribe, s.f. A bribe. N. pi. bribeachean, 

Bric, «./)/. of breac. Trouts. 

Brice, com. and sup. of breac. More or most spotted. 

Brice, s.f. {from breac.) Spottedness. 

Brice, s.f. A brick. — 3Iacd. 

Bricean, ein, s. m. A sprat; a small trout. 

Bric-shoirn, s.f. A brick-kiln. 

t BrId, gen. bride, s.f. A bridle. Gr. ^{uthj. Fr. bride. 

BrIde, «.y. A pimple. Written more frequently yWrff. 

Brideach, ich, s. m. and/. {Ir. id.) A dwarf ; a bride, 
a virgin. N. pi. bridichean. Cha bhrideach air an f haich e, 
he is not a dwarf in thejicld of battle. — Old Song. 

Brideachail, a. (brideach -amhuil.) Dwarfish; like a 
virgin, like a bride ; bridal. 

Brideag, eig, s.f. Part of the jaw. — Shaw. 

Brigan. See Briogan. 

BrIgh, «. y. (5co/cA, bree.) Sap, juice ; essence; elixir; 
relish ; vigour, pith, strength ; capacity; substance, wealth; 
meaning, interpretation; virtue, valour; effect, avail, bene- 
fit ; price ; rarely, a tomb, a miracle. Craobh gun bhrigh, 
a sapless tree ; briathran gun bhrigh, words without pith, 
or without meaning; innis da ar brigh, tell him of our 
strength. — Oss. Carth. Ged gheibhinn brigh Eirinn, though 
I were to get the wealth of Ireland.—Fingalian Poem. B'i 
so bu bhrigh d' an din, this was the substance of thnr song. 
— Smith. Is deacair brigh do sgeoil, sad is the substance 
[subjecti of thy tale. — Oss. Derm. Ullin na brigh, valiant 
Ullin. — Oss. Carth. Caithidh cumha gun bhrigh, weeping 
consumes without avail. — Oss. Croma. 

Brigh'ar, a. See Brighmiior. 

t Brighide, s. c. a hostage. — Shaw. 

Brighmiioire, a.; com. and sup. of brighmhoire. 

Brighmhoireachd, s.f. Substantialness ; juiciness ; vi- 

Brioiimhor, a. Substantial ; juicy ; vigorous; effectual. 
Com. and sup. brioghmhoire. 

Brigh'or, a. See Brighmhor. 

Brigis, s. pi. Breeches. See Briogais. 

Brillean, ein, s. m. The clitoris. 

Brilleanach, a. Lewd. 

t Brin, s.f. A dream, a reverie. 

t Brin-dealan, ain, s. m. A frontlet. — Shaw. 

Brinneach, ich, *./. An old woman ; a hag; a mother. 

Brinnichte, a. {Ir. id.) Hag-ridden.— iSAaai. 

t Briochd, s.f. {Ir. id.) A wound; an art, a trade; a 
beauty. — Shaw. 

Briodal, ail, s. m. Chit-chat; flattery; caressing. Do 
bhriodal cuil, the secret flattery. — Mac Lach. Written 
also briotal. 

Briodal, v. a. Caress, cajole, flatter, tattle; small talk. 
Pret. a. bhriodal, caressed. 

Briodalacii, a. Flattering; inclined to flatter or cajole; 
tattling. Is tu am fear briodalach, ajlatiering fellow thou 
art. — R. Com. and sup. briodalaiche, more or most 

Briodalacud, *.y. Tattling; a propensity to flatter. 

Briodaladii, aidh, s. m. A caressing, a cajoling, a flatter- ' 
ing, a tattling. 

Briodaladii, (a), pr. part, of briodal. Caressing, cajoling, 
flattering, tattling. Ag am briodaladii, caressing them. — 

B R I 

Briodalaiche, s. m. A flatterer, a cajoler, a tattler; also 
the com. and sup. of briodalach. 

t Briog, s.f. Confinement, restraint. 

Briogaid, i.f. An elderly woman; a morose old female. 
Esan a phosas briogaid, he wko marries a morose old ■woman. 
— Old Song. 

Bbiogais, *. pi. Bveeelies ; trowsers. Briogais anairt, 
linen breeches. — Stew. Lev. 

Lat. braccse, a name given by the Romans to the cover- 
ing for the thighs used by the Persians, Scythians, and 
Gauls. The word braccte is used by Diodorus the Sicilian, 
St. Jerome, and Lucan ; but the laxct braccce of the last 
seem to be the loose hose once used by mariners. 

Szced. bracka. Teul. bracca. Arm. brag. Belg. broeck. 
Germ, brechen. If. braga. Syr. brace. Vulgar Gr. /S^axi. 
Corn, bryccan. Sclav, bregesche. In old French writers 
we find bragiies and bragis, which were once pronounced 
as they spell. In Languedoc and in Gascony they still 
say brogues. 

Brtogak, ain, g. tn. Breeches; trowsers. Ger»i. brechen. 
Corn, bryccan. N. pi. briogain. 

Briogaxach, a. {from briogan.) Having breeches or 

Briogh, s. See BrIgii. i 

BttiOGiTACH, o. (/roMbriogh.) Juicy, substantial ; efficacious. 

Briollag, aig, s.f. An illusion. Ir. brioHog. 

Briollagach, a. Illusory; deceitful. 

Briollair, s. m. A whoremonger; a lecherous fellow; one 
who is afflicted with incontinence of urine. 

Briollax, ain, s. m. A chamber-pot ; a urinal ; an ignorant 

spiritless fellow. 
Briollanacji, a. Stupid; boorish; ignorant. 
Briollaxachp, s.f. Stupidity; boorishness; ignorance. 
+ Brio^, s. m. A fiction, a lie; a drop, 
t Brioxach, aich, s. m. A liar. 
Brionglaid, i.y. Confusion; a dream; a reverie. 
Brioxglaideach, a. Causing confusion; dreaming. 

Brionxach, a. Pretty ; fair ; comely. — Macint. Also flat- 
tering, lying. 

Brioxxaciid, «.y. Prettiness; comeliness; falsehood. 

Brioxxal, ail, s. m. Flattery; fawning, sycophancy; a 
caressing, a toying, flirting. Ni e brionnal, lie mil flatter. 
— Sm. Ri brionnal, girting-. 

Brioxxalach, a. Flattering, fawning, sycophantic; toy- 
ing, flirting. Com. and sup. brionnaiaiche, more or most. 

Brioxxalachd, s. f. A habit of flattering or fawning; 

Brioxndal, ail, s. m. See BriovnaI,. 

Brioxxdalach, a. See Brionkalach. 

Briosaid, i.f. A beh, a girdle. JV. pi. briosaidean. 

Briosaideacii, a. Belled, girdled ; like a belt or girdle. 

Briosg, *./. A start, a sudden movement through fear or joy ; 
a very short space of time, an instant ; a brisk movement. 

Briosg, r. Start; move suddenly. V ret. a.hWwi^, started; 
fut. off. a. briosgaidh, shall or -will start. Briosgadh fiadh 
air Cromla, let the deer start away frtm Cromla. — Oss. Fine 

Briosgadh, (a), pr. part, of briosg. 

Briosgadh, aidh, s. m. A starting, a sudden motion, a 
springing; briskness. Gun bhriosgadh, witAovt briskness. 
— Macint. 

Briosoaid, s.f. A biscuit. JV". pi. briosgaidean. 
t Briot, a. Speckled, spotted, piebald. 
Briot, *./. Chit-chat, tattle, small-talk, flattery. 
Briotacii, a. Chattering ; prone to tattle ; prattling. 
Brioxach AN, ain, «. 171. A prater; a tattling fellow. 

B R I 

Briotal, ail, s. m. Chit-chat, tattle, small-talk, flattery, 
caressing. Briotal a bheir gaiir air gruagaicbean, chit-chat 
that makes maidens laugh. — Macfar. See also Bkiodab. 

Bris, v. a. Break, fracture, splinter, burst; break forth,, 
exclaim ; become insolvent. Pret. a. bhris ; fut. aff. a. 
brisidh, shall or will break. Bhris fiire air monadh nan 
sruth, dawn broke on the mountain of streams. — Oss. Bliris 
e a shieagh, he broke his spear.— Oss. Fing. Gus am bris 
an i^, till break of dawn. — Stew. 0. T. Bhris le guth a 
graidh an oigh, the maid exclaimed with her voice of love. — 
Oss. Bhris e, he failed; brisidh an aimsir, the weather will 
draw to rain. 

Lat. f briso. Eng. bruise. Swed. brista. Old Sa.r. brysan, 
break. Teut. brusan. 

Brisdeach, a. Breaking, splintering; brittle. Written also 

Brisdeadii, idh, s. m. A breaking, a splintering, a bursting; 
a breach ; a fissure. Luchd-bristidh mhionn, the breaker 
of oaths. — Mac Lach. Written also bristeadh. 

Briseadh, 3 sing, and pi. imperat. of bris. Briseadh e, let 
him break ; briseadh iad, let them break. 

Briseadh, idh, s. m. {Ir. id.) A breaking, a bursting, a 
splintering; a breach, a break, a failure or insolvency. 
Gu briseadh na fiire, till daybreak.— Stew. Gen. Am bris- 
eadh so, this breach.— Id, Briseadh air bhriseadh, breach 
upon breach. — Stew. Job. Briseadh air sou brisidh, breach 
for breach. — Stew. Lev. Briseadli-cridhe, heart-break; 
briseadh-ceille, derangement ; briseadh-mach, an ozit-break- 
'"^ of any kind, an eruption on the skin. 

Briseadh, (a), pr.part. of bris; which see. 

Briseadh-ceille, s. m. Derangement of mind.— Om. Tern. 

Briseadh-cridiie, s. m. A heart-breaking; dejection of 
mind ; discouragement. — Stew. Job. 

Briseadh-macii, s. m. An eruption, an out-breaking of 
any kind. 

Brisg, a. Brittle ; quick in motion, lively, active, hasty. 
W. brysg, brittle. Arm. bresg. //•. briosg. Fr. brusque, 

Brisg, v. n. See Briosg. 

Brisg-bhuille, s. m. A smart blow, a sudden blow, a jerk. 

Brisgean, ein, s. m. A gristle or cartilage; also wild 

skerret. Brisgean milis, the sweet-bread of any creature. 
The brisgean, or wild skerret, is a succulent root not unfre- 

(juently used by the poorer people in some parts of the Highlands 

tor bread or potatoes. 

Brisg ean a cn,aich,«./' Crackling, orthe rind of roasted porfc. 

Brisgeanach, a. Abounding in gristle, gristly ; like gristle. 

Brisg-gheal, a. Limpid, clear. 

Brisg-ghl6ir, i./. Loquacity; prattle. 

Bris-ohloireach, a. Loquacious, prating. 

Brisleach, ich, s.f. A breach ; the dispersement or derout 
of an army. 

Brislean, ein, *. m. White tansy. 

Brisleaxach, a. Like white tansy; abounding in white 
tansy ; of, or belonging to, white tansy. 

Briste', for bristeadh ; which see. 

Briste, p. part, of bris. Broken, bruised, wounded; splint- 
ered ; insolvent. A ghairdean air clarsaich bhriste, leaning 
on a broken harp. — Oss. Duthona. Tha mo chridhe briste, 
my heart w broken. — Stew. Jer. Spiorad briste, a bruited 
spirit. — Stew. Pro. Fear briste, a bankrupt. 

Bristeach, a. {from bris.) Brittle; inarticulate; broken, 
glimmering ; splintering. Solus bristeach nan reultan, the 
broken light of the stars. — Ull. Fhuaim bhristeach d'ainme, 
the inarticulate sound of thy name. — Oss. Gaul. 

Bristeadh, idh, s. m. A breaking, a bursting; a fissure, 
a crack, an opening ; a break, a breach. Ro bhristeadh 

B R 

B R O 

nan neiil, through the opejiing of the clouds. — Oss. Cathula, 
Mar bhristeadh builgein, tike the hurtling of bubbles. — Oss. 
Bris-throiso, «.y. A breakfast, 
t Bro, a. Old, antique.— Jr. id. Shaw. 
t Bro, a. Champion ; a grinding-stone ; a quern or hand-mill, 
t Broc, a. Grey, dark-grey. 

Broc, bruic, s. m. A badger, a brock. N. pi. bruic. 
Croicinne bhroc, badgers' skins.— Stew. Exod. Arm. and 
Corn, broch. Ir. broc. 
Brocach, a. Greyish ; like a badger; speckled on the face, 

freckled, spotted. 
Brocair, 5. m. {from broc.) A badger-hunter; a fox- 
hunter. N. pi. brocairean. 
Brocaireachd, .?./. Badger-hunting, fox-hunting. 
Brocanta, a. Shy, like a badger. 
Brochaili,, s.f. The name of the banner of Gaul, the son 

of Morni. 
Brociian, ain, s. m. (Ir. brocan. TV. brwchan.) Porridge, 
pottage. Brochan do ghall-pheasair, pottage of lentiles. — 
Stew. Gen. A phoit bhrochain, the pottage (porridge) pot. 
— Stew. 1 K. 
Brochd, s. m. (Corn, broch.) A badger. See Broc. 
Brochdach, a. Variegated, greyish, spotted; coloured like 

a badger. 
Buoclach, aich, s.f. A warren. JV. pi. broclaich. 
Broc-lann, -luinn, s. m. A badger's den; a cavern, the 
hole or hiding-place of any wild beast. Ceum an "sealgair 
'n caradh a bhroc-luinn, the huntsman steps towards his 
den. — Oss. Conn. 
Broc-luidh, *. m. A badger's den ; a den or cavern, the 
hole or hiding-place of any wild beast. Broc-luidh aig na 
sionnaich, foxes have holes. — Stew. Mark, ref. 
BROD,broid, «. (/r. brod. P<7«. brod. <Sco/c//, brod.) A goad, 

a prickle, a sting. N. pi. brodan. 
Brod, broid, s. (Sco<c^, brod.) A lid ; a small board; the 

best of grain, or of any other substance. 
Brod, v. a. Stimulate, goad. Pret. a. bhrbd, stimulated ; 

fut. aff. a. brbdaidh, shall stimulate. 
Br6d, brbid, «. m. A crowd, a swarm; pride, arrogance; 
chastisement. Fein speis agus br6d, self-conceit and arro- 
gance. — Old Song. 
f Brod, broid, s. m. A blemish, a spot. It. broda, dirt. 
Br6dacii, a. In crowds, in swarms ; arrogant. 
Brodach, a. Goading, stimulative, prickling; stirring up. 
Brodadh, aidh, s. m. A.goading or spurring ; a winnowing ; 

a stirring up. 
Brodail, a. Proud, arrogant. 

Brod-ghaineamh, imh, s.f. Gravel. — Macd. and Shaw, 
i Brodh, s. m. A straw, a stem. — Shaw. 
Brod-iasg, -eisg, s. m. A needle-fish. 
Brog, Br6ig, s. f. Sorrow; a house, a village. Brog, in 
the last two senses, is also written borg and burg ; which 
see. Bhuail an t-earrach brog orm, the spring has smitten 
. me with grief. — Macfar. 
Br6g, Br6ig, s.f. (Ir. brog. Scotch, brogue.) A sandal, 
a shoe; by a figure of speech, a foot. N. pl.hrbga. and 
brogan. Cuir dhiot do bhroga, put of thy shoes. — Stew. 
Exod. O mhuUach gu broig, from head to foot. — Macint. 
Brog na cnthaig, butterwort. 

The Ilij^hlaiid brog was made of a piece of raw hide, with the 
hair turned inwards, and tied before and beliind.with a thong. 
Brog, t. a. (Scotch, brog.) Spur, stimulate, goad. Pret. 

bhrog, spurred : fut. aff. brogaidh, shall spur. 
Brogach, a. Sturdy ; also lewd, filthy, nasty. 
BR0GACH,aich, «. >». A sturdy little fellow. J\r. pi. brogaich. 

Brogach, a. Spurring, goading, stimulating. 
Br6oacii, a. (/rom brog.) Shod; having large shoes ; like 
a shoe ; of, or belonging to, a shoe : also strong-hoofed, 
in which sense it is applied to one of CuchuUin's horses. ■;— 
Oss. Fing. Bi curraiceach brbgach brochanach, be ye well- 
hooded, well-shod, and well-fed. — G. P. 
Brogaidh, s. A name given to a cow that puts with her 

horns ; a squat sturdy fellow, in derision. 
Brogail, a. Sturdy, lively, active ; hale. Bodach brogail, 

a lively old man. 
Br6gair, s. m. (from brog.) A shoemaker, a cobbler. 

N. pi. brogairean. 
Br6gaireachd, «._/". Shoemaking, cobbling. 
Brogalaciid, s.f. Sturdiness, activity. 
Bboganach, aich, s. m. A lively, sturdy fellow. N. pi. 

Broganacii, fl. Lively, sturdy, jocose. Bodach broganach, 

a sturdy old man. 
Broganta, a. Lively, sturdy, active. Bodach broganta, 

a sturdy old man ; cailleach bhroganta, a lively old woman. 
t Brogh, *. m. Filthiness, dirt. — Ir. id. Shaw. 
t Brogiiach, a. Filthy, dirty; also excessive, superfluous. 

Ir. broghdha. 
t Broghain, s.f. Excess, superfluity. — Shaw. 
Brog-na-cuthaig, s.f. The flower called butterwort. 
Broice, «.y. A mole, a freckle. 
Broicean, ein, s. m. (Ir. broicne.) A freckle, a mole. 
Broicneach, a. (from broicean.) Freckled. Aghaidh 

bhroicneach, a freckled face. 
t Broidinneal, eil, s. m. A richly-embroidered garb. — 
Broid-inealta, a. Embroidered. 
Broigiieal, il, s. m. A cormorant, a sea-raven. 
Broighleag, eig, s.f. A whortle-berry, vitis Idcea of 

naturalists. Written also braoileag. 
Broighleagach, a. Abounding in whortle-berries. 
Braoileacii, a. Bustling, noisy, tumultuous. 
Broile ADH, idh, s. m. Bustle, confusion, turmoil ; loud noise. 
Broilich, s.f. Noise, bawling, confusion, tumult; conti- 
nued noise. Written braoilich. 
Broilleach, ich, s. f A breast, a bosom. A broilleach 
mar chobhar nan stuadh, her breast like the foam of the 
waves. — Oss. Carthon. 'Na bhroilleach, in his bosom. — 
Stew. Exod. Written also brollach. 
t Broimeis, *./. Anger; boldness. — Shaw. 
Br6ix, gen. sing, of br6n. 
Br6in, v. a. Mourn, lament, deplore. Pret. a. bhr6in, 

mourned; fut. aff. a. broinidh, shall or will mourn. 
fBROiN, «./. A height ; a large company. — Shaw. 
Br6ineag, eig, s.f. (fromhiba.) A disconsolate female ; 

a querulous female. 
Broineag, eig, s.f. A little rag. JV. /??. broineagan, rags ; 
asp. form, bhroineagan. Seann bhroineagan, old rags.- 
Stew. Jer. 
Broineagach, a. Ragged; full of rags. 
Broineax, ein, s. m. (from br6n.) A sickly person; a 

querulous, complaining person. 
Broinn, o-en. «n^. ofbrd. /r. broinne. See Bru. 
Bkoinn-dearg, -deirg, s. m. The robin-redbreast 
Broisde, s. f. A brooch. 
Broisg, v. a. Excite, incite, stir up, provoke. Pret. a. 

bhroisg ; /!/<. aff. a. broisgidh, shall provoke. 
t Broisneax, ein, s. m. A small faggot. 
t Broith, s. Carnation colour.— 7r. id. 
Brolasgach, a. Talkative. 

B R 

B R U 

Brolasgadh, aidh, s. m. Loquacity. 

BaoLLACii, aich, s. m. {Ir. id.) A breast, a bosom; brisket; 
a preface. A bhrollach lebnta, /lis uounded breast. — Otis. 
Dargo. Am brollach a bhais, in the bosom of death. — 
Oss. Tern. Written also broilleach. 

t Brollachan, ain, s. m. A ragged person. 

+ Bromach, «. »!. A colt. — Shaw. JV. p/. bromaiche. 

Bromak, ain, «. m. A rustic ; a rude person, a booby. — Ir. id. 

Bromanach, a. Rustic, rude, boorish. — Ir. id. 

t Bron, a. Perpetual. Shaw. 

Ba^jf, broin, «. m. (JP. brwyn. 7r. bron.) Grief; sorrow; 
mourning; wailing, weeping. Fa mo bhroin, ^Ae cause of 
my mourning. — Oss. Taura. Eiridh broin, the rising of 
grief. — Oss. Conn. Ainnir ri bron na h-aonar, a maiden 
wailing in solitude. — Oss. Mobhr^n! alas! woe's me ! 

Br6nach, a. (y>07« bron.) Sorrowful; sad; mourn- 
ful; mourning. Le cumha bronach, with sad lamentation. — 
Stew. Mic. Guth nan oighean bronach, the voice of the 
mourning maidens. — Orran. Co?n. and sup. bronaiche. 

+ Bronadh, aidh, s. m. Destruction. 

Br6nadii, (a), J), part, of broin. Deploring. Fionn 'g ad 
bhronadh, Fingal deploring thee. — Death of Carril. 

Br6x-bhrat, -bhrait, s. m. A mortcloth or pall. 

Bron-chuimhne, s. f. A sad remembrance. Bhur br6u- 
chuimhne, the sad remembrance of you. — Oss. Taura. 

t Bronn, v. a. Distribute, divide. 

Bronn, gen. sing, of bru. Of a belly. Ir. brun and bronn. 
Arm. brun. 

t BRONK,broinn, s.f. A breast; a favour; a track, a mark. 
Ir. id. 

Bronnacii, a. Swag-bellied, gluttonous ; bagged, bellied ; 
well-fed. Caoraich bhronnach, well-fed sheep. — Macfar. 

Bronnacii, aich, s. m. A girth or belly-band. 

+ Bronnadh, aidh, s. m. A distributing, a bestowing; 
generosity. — Ir. id. Shaw. 

Bronnag, aig, *.y. A gudgeon ; a little bulky female. — 
N. pi. bronnagan. 

Bronn-ghabii, f. Conceive, as a female. 

BRCNN-GnABHAiL, *.y. (Jr. id.) A conception ; the act of 
conceiving, as a female does. 

Bronn-sgaoileadii, idh, s. m. A flux or dysentery. 

Bronn-sgaoilteacii, a. Causing a flux or dysentery. 

+ Bronsta, a. Bestowed ; given away, distributed. — Ir. id. 

+ Bhonntas, ais, .?. m. A gift ; a favour ; a track. — //-. id. 

Biionntiiach, aich, s. m. A girth; a belt, a belly-band. 

Written also bronnach. 
Brosduich, v. a. See Brosnuich. 
Brosgadii, aidh, «. m. An exhortation ; an incitement. 
Dkosgul, uil, *. m. Flattery; lively talk. 
Bp.osglach, a. (for brosgulach.) Lively; active, brisk, 

prompt, clever; flattering, loquacious. Com. and sup. bros- 

gulaiche, more or most flattering. 
Brosglaciiadii, Brosgluciiadh, aidh, s. m. The act of 

flattering ; a cheering up, briskening. 
Bkosglaciiadh, (a), pr.part. of brosglaich. 
Brosglaicii, Brosgluich, v. a. Cheer up ; flatter. Fret. 

a. bhrosglaich; fut. aff. a. brosglaichidh, shall cheer up. 

Bhrosglaich e ri faicinn an righ, he cheered up on seeing the 

king. — Oss. Conn, 
t Brossa, ai, s. m. A faggot. — Ir. id. 
Brosnachadh, Brosnuciiadh, aidh, s. m. An incitement, 

a provocation, a spurring on. /r. brosdachac'h. Mar anns 

a bhrosnuci)adh, an in the provocation. — Stexi. Heb. Bros- 

nuchadh cath, a battle song, an incitement to battle. 

Broskachadii, Brosnuciiadh, (a), pr. part, of brosnaich 

or brosnuich ; which see. 
Brosnachail, a. Instigating. 
Brosn'aicii, Brosxuicii, v. a. Provoke, incite, spur on; 

actuate. Pret. a. bhrosnaich, provoked ; fut. aff. a. bros- 

naichidh, shall provoke. Bhrosnaich thu mi, thou hast 

provoked me. — Stew. O. T. 
Brosnaiciite, Brosnuiciite, part. Provoked, incited, 

Brosnuchadh, aidh, s. m. see Brosnachadh. 
Brot, s. m. Broth. If. broda. Ir. broth. 
Brotaciiadh, aidh, *. m. Improving; improving in personal 

appearance ; thriving ; fattening. 
Brotaciiadh, (a), pr. part, of brotaich. 
Brotaicii, r. a. & «. Improve in appearance; improve in 

bodily appearance ; fatten, grow fat. Pret. a. bhrotaich, 

grew fat ; fut. aff. a. brotaichidh, shall or will grow fat . 

t Broth, s. m. A mole, a ditch ; a straw ; flesh, fire. — Ir. id. 

Broth, s. m. A cutaneous eruption ; a bruise. In this last 
sense the orthography is more frequently bruth and bruth- 
adh ; which see. 

Brotiiacii, a. Scabbed, mangy. Cu brothach, o wangy </o^; 
caor bhrothach, a scabbed sheep. 

Brotiiag, aig, i.y. A bosom; a little ditch ; a little hollow. 
N. pi. brothagau. 

Brothair, «. m. A bruiser; also a butcher ; a caldron. 

Brothaireachd, s. f. Bruising, mauling, maiming ; 

Brotiias, ais, s. m. Farrago, brewis. 

BaoTHLACH, aich, s. m. A place for dressing meat. 

Brotiilain, s. m. A part of the internals of a sheep called 
the king's-hood. 

Brothi.uinn, s. f. Agitation, confusion, struggle; the 
struggle betwixt wind and tide. 

BuoTH-T.uiNNEACH, a. AgitativB, causing commotioD ; dis- 

Brotu-thigh, s. m. A slaughter-house, shambles. N. pi. 

Bru, gen. broinn or bronn, s.f. {TV, and Corn, bru and hry. 
Ir. bru. /Irm. brun, belly.) A belly, a womb. A bril 
torrach, her womb pregnant. — Stew. Jer, Torradh na bronn, 
the fruit of the womb. — Stew. Gen. Air do bhroinn, on thy 
belly. — Id. Bru-ghoirt, a belly-ache; lin-bronn, a belly- 
ful; cha lion beannachd hril, blessings do not f II a belly. 
— G. P. Is mo do shuilean na do bhru, your eyes are 
bigger than your belly. — Id. 

t Bru, s.f. A hind ; a country, a bank. — 5/(aa-. 

BRUACH.bruaiche, «.y. (//. bracca. 7r. bruach. Scotch, hrae.) 
A bank ; a steep, a precipice ; an edge, brim, brink, bor- 
der ; a short ascent. N. pi. bruachan ; dat. pi. bruachaibh. 
A direadh na bruaiche thall, climbing the further bank. 
— Oss. Conn. Mar chrilh reo air bruachaibh na Leig, like a 
hoar-frost on the banks of Lego.— Oss. Mar bhruaiche san 
duibhre, like a precipice in the dark. — Os«. Comalu. Mu 
bhruaichaibh do leapach, about thy bed-sides,— Old Song. 

Bruachag, aig, s. f (dim. of bruach.) A little bank; a 
little precipice. N. pi. bruachagan. — Macint. A shobh- 
rach nam bruachag, thou primrose of the bunks. — Macdon. 

Bruachair, *. 7n. (/rom bruach.) A lounger; a hoverer. 

Bruachaireachd, s.f. Hovering about, lounging. 

Bruachan, ain, s. m, A short ascent, a little bank; rarely 
a fa'wn. 

t Bruachdach, a. Magnificent. 

Bru ADAIR, gen. sing, of bruadar. Of a dream. 

Bruadair, v. a. Dream. Pret, a, bhruadair, dreamed; 


B R U 

B R U 

fut. off. a. bruadwridh, shall or will dream. Bhruadair mi 
bruadar, I dreamed a dream. — Slew. 0. T. 
Bruadar, air, «. m. {Ir. id.) A dream, a reverie. 

bruadaran. Tra dli' aomas bruadar mar cheo, when a dream 

descends like a mist. — Oss. Derm. 
Bruadaradii, aidh, «. «i. Adreaming; theact of dreaming. 
BauADARADH, (a), pr. part, of bruadair. Dreaming. 
Bruadaraiche, s. m. A dreamer. 
+ Bruaidii, s. m. A peasant. N. pi. bruaidhean. — Ir. id. 
Bruaidlean, ein, s. m. Grief, melancholy. Acheannfo 

bhruaidlein, /lis head dropping under grief. — Oss. Gaul. 
Bruaidleaneach, a. Grieved, vexed; causing grief or 

vexation; disturbed. Is bruaidleanach m' aigne, my thoughts 

are disturbed. — Old Song. 
Bruaidleaneachd,*./. Grief; melancholy; the state of 

being grieved or vexed ; disturbance. 
Bruaillean, ein, i. m. Murmur, confusion ; stir; tumult; 

noise ; annoyance ; trouble. Loch gun bhruaillein, a quiet 

lake.— Oss. Fing. Chuir mi bruaillean air an oigh, I have 

troubled the maid. — Oss. 
Bruan, v. a. Break in bits; crumble, pound, pulverize; 

smash. Fret. a. bhruan, smashed ; fut. aff. a. bruanaidh, 

shall or will smash. 
Bruan, bruain, s. m. A morsel ; a fragment, a bit, a splinter; 

a crumb. Chaidh iad nam bruan, they went to splinters. — 

Bruan ACir, a. Causing to crumble, pound, or break ; crum- 
bled, pounded. 
Bruanachd, *./. Continued or frequent smashing; the 

state of being in smashes or crumbled. 
Bruanadh, aidh, *. m. A breaking, a crumbling, a smash- 
ing; a crashing noise. Bruanabh o na cnocaibh, crashing 
from the hills. — Stew. Zeph. 
Bruanadh, (a), pr. part, of bruan. 
Bruanao, aig, s. f. (dim. of bruan.) A morsel, a crumb, 

a piece. N. pi. bruanagan. 
Bruanagach, a. Full of crumbs ; apt to fall into crumbs. 
Bruanan, ain, «. m. (dim. of bruan.) A morsel, a crumb, 

a piece, a fragment. N. pi. bruanain. Corn, breuyonen 

and bruenen. Jrm. bruhunen and bryenen. 
Bruansgail, s.f. A deep crashing noise, a grating noise, 

a clashing noise. Mar eith na L6ig a bruansgail, deeply 

crashing like the ice of Lego. — Oss. Duthona. Written also 

Bruasgail, s.f. A deep crashing noise, a grating noise; 

a clashing. Feadh bhruasgail lann is chrann is chnamhan, 

amid the crashing of swords and spears and bones. — Oss. 

Dargo. Written also bruansgail. 
Bruanspealt, v. a. Splinter, smash ; hack down, hew. 

Pret. a. bhruanspeait, splintered ; fut. aff. a. bruanspealt- 

aidh, shall splinter. 
Brdasspealtacii, a. Splintering, smashing, crashing. 
Bruanspealtadii, aidh, s. m. A splintering, a crashing, 

a smashing; a hewing down. 
Bruanspealtadh, (a), pr. part, of bruanspealt. Splinter- 
ing, crashing, hewing down, smashing. A bruanspealtadh 

chraobh, hewing down trees. — Mac Lach. 
Brucach, a. Spotted, especially in the face; freckled, 

speckled, pimpled. Caitean brucach, spotted shag. — Macdon. 
Brucaixneacii, a. Spotted, freckled, speckled, pimpled. 

Eudan brucainneach, a pimpled face. — Macint. 
Brucainneachd, «.y. Spottedness ; freckledness. 
Bruchag, aig, s.f. A chink ; an eyelet; a leaky vessel, 

a leaky boat. Cha bu bhruchag air meirg i, she was not a 

leaky vessel. — Old Song. 
BrOchd, .».«(. A belch, a rift ; abilge; asally; a rushing forth. 

BRicHD,r.n. Belch, rift ; bilge ; sally ; rush out; burst; pour. 
Pret. a. bhrfichd, rushed out ; fut. aff. a. brdchdaidh, shall 
or will rush out. BhrCichd iad gu 'r c6ghnadh, they rushed 
to our aid. — Ull. Brtichdaidh a dheoir, his tears shall burst 
forth. — Oss. Trathal. Bhriichd an tuil o'n aonach, the 
flood poured from the hill. — Oss. Fin. and Lorm. 

BaiicHDACH, a. Causing a rift, or belch, or sally; of, or 
pertaining to, a rift, belch, or sally. 

Bri^chdadh, aidh, «. m. A sallying, belching; a rushing 
ont ; a pouring. 

Bruciidail, «.y. Arifting; arushing; abilging; abelching. 

Bruchlas, ais, s. m. The fluttering of fowls going to rest or 
to roost. 

t Brudan, ain, s. m. A simmering noise; also a salmon. 
In the latter sense it is almost always written bradan. 

Brudhainn, s.f. Warmth, sultriness. 

Brudhainneach, a. Warm, sultry. 

BRUDHAiNNEAcnD,s.y. Acontinuancc of warmth ; sultriness, 

Brudhaiteach, ich, s. m. A threadbare coat. 

Bru-dhearo, -dheirg, s. m, A robin-redbreast. 

t Brug, Brugh, s. (Ir. id.) A large house ; a village ; a 
hillock, the residence of fairies ; a tower ; a fortified town. 

Germ, bruiga. Franc, briga. Span, braga. Eng. burgh. 
Hence the Latin termination in briga of the names of 
certain places, as Latobriga, Saraobriga, and the Greek 
termination in bria, as Mesambria. Hence also the name 
Phryges, a people who were formerly called Bryges, or 
Bruges, according to Strabo, lib. xvii. 

Brug seems to be but another form of borg or burg; 
which see. 

Brugiiach, aich, s. m. A steep ascent, an acclivity. Writ- 
ten a\so bruthach ; which see. A\^/. bnighaichean. 

Brugiiaiche, *. ?«. A burgher ; a farmer. — Shaw. 

Bruicii, I', a. Boil, seethe, simmer. Pret. a. hhruich, boiled; 
fut. aff. a. bruichidh, shall or will boil. Cha bhruich e 
meann, he shall not seethe a kid. — Stew.Exod. 2pl.imperat. 
bruichibh, boil ye. Bruichibh an f hebil, boil the flesh, 
Bruicheadh e, let him boil. — Id. Written also bruit/i. 

Bruich, a. (Ir. bruithe.) Boiled ; seethed ; sultry. Asp. 
form, bhruich. La bruich, a sultry day ; fe6il bhruich, 

Bruicheadh, 3 sing, and pi. imperat. of bruich ; which see. 

Bruicheadh, idh, s, m. A boiling; a decoction; a seething. 

Bruicheadh, (a), pr. part, of Bruich. Boiling, seething. 

Bruicheil, fl. (bruich-amhuil.) Sultry; somewhat sultry. 

Bruichidh, fut. aff. a. of bruich. Shall or will boil. 

Bruichte, p. part, of bruich. Boiled, seethed. 

Bruid, v. a. Torture, oppress, enslave. Pret. a. bhruid; 
fut. aff. bruididh. — Shaw. 

Bruid, i./i (7r. bruid.) Captivity ; a stab, a thrust. Bheir 
m.i air a h-ais am bruid, I will cause their captivity to return. 
— Stew. Jer. 

Bri^id, s. m. A brute, a beast; a brutal person. N. pi. 
briiidean, brutes. Lat, brut-us. 

Bruidean, «. pi. of brilid. 

Bri>ideil, a. (y)oOTbriiid.) Brutal, beastly. 7r. bruidamhail. 

Bri>ideileaciid, s. f. (brilid -amhuileachd.) Brutality, 
beastliness. Ir. bruidarahlacht. 

t Bruidhe, s.f. A farm. — Ir. id. Written also bruighe. 

Bruidheachd, s.f. A colony. — Ir. id. 

Bruidheann, inn, s.f. Written also bruidhinn; which see. 

Bruidhinn, bruidhne, s.f Talk, speech, conversation; a 
quarrel ; a report. Tha e ri bruidhinn, he is talking. — 
Stew. 1 K. rcf. Fear na m6r bhruidhne, the talkative man. 
— Stew. Job. 

Bruiduneach, a. (contr. for bruidheannach.) Talkative; 

B R U 

querulous, loud. Tha i bruidhneach, she is [foad] talkative. 

— Stew. Pro. ref. 
Bruidleachadh, aidh, s. m. A stirring up of the surface, 

a digging. 
Bruidleachadh, (a), pr. part, of bruidlich. Digging, 

stirring up of the surface. 
Bruidlich, v. a. Stir up, dig. Fret. a. bhruidlich, stirred 

up; fut. aff. a. bruidlichidh, shall or will stir up. 
Bruigheanx, inn, «. ?7i. A palace. 
+ Bruim-fheur, -fhebir, s. Switch-grass. — Shaw. 
Bruin, s./. A caldrou ; a kettle ; a belly. 
BRi!riN, V. n. Make a rattling noise. Fret. a. bhrilin; /«/. 

aff. a. briiinidh. 
Bruine, Bruinne, s.f. A waist; a chest. Bruinne seang, 

a slender waist. — Old Song. 
Bruitjard, a. Having a high breast or chest ; high-bosomed. 

An ainnir bhruinard, the high-bosomed maid. — Old Foem. 

Anacreon makes mention of deep-bosomed maids. 
BR6iNiDH,«.m. A spectral being called Aroajm'e. SeeURUiSG. 
t Bruinneach, «. c. A nurse; a mother; a glutton. 
Bruinneadach, aich, s. m. An apron. — Shaw. 
Bruinnean, ein, *. m. The knap of cloth. 
Bruinneanach, a. {from bruinnean.) Knappy, as cloth. 
Bruxs, s. pi. Shivers, splinters, fragments. 
Bkuis, s.f. A brush. N. pi. bruisean and bruiseachan. 
Bruisinn, s.f. A brushing. Asp. form, bhruisinn. 
Bruisinn, v. a. Brush. Fret, a.hhxm&vaw, brushed, fut. aff. a. 

bruisinnidh, shall brush. 
Br^tite, p. par^. of brdth. (Dan. bradt.) Bruised, broken, 

crushed, oppressed. Daoine briiite truagh, poor oppressed 

men. — Smith. Tha m' anam briiite, my soul is bruised. — Id. 

Osnadh bhriite a' d' chliabh, a broken sigh within thy breast. 

— Old Poem. Fuil bhriiite, extravasated blood, — Old Foem. 
Bruith, v. a. Boil, seethe, simmer. Pret. a. bhruith ; 

fut. aff. a. bruithidh, shall boil. 
Broitiieadh, idh, s. m. A boiling, seething, or simmering. 
Bruitheadh, (a), pr. part, of bruith. 
Bruith eadh, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of bruith. 
f Bruithneach, a. Glowing; red hot. Com. and sup. 

BrOliontach, a. Satiating, cloying. 
Brulionta, a. Satiated, cloyed. Tr. bruidhlionta. 
Brumair, «. m. A pedant. — Shaw. iV. p/. brumairean. 
Brumaireachd, «. y. Pedantry. 
■y Brun, bruin, s. A firebrand. 
Brus, v. n. Browse. Fret. a. bhrus; fut. aff. a. brusaidh, 

shall browse. 
t Bruscar, air, s. m. Broken ware; baggage. 
Bruth, *. /. {Ir. id.) A cave ; the dwelling of fairies ; 

dew; a bruise; rarely the hair of the head; heat; any 

thing red hot. Am mairiche ag eisdeachd o bhruth, the 

mariner listening from his caie.— Ull. 
Brutii, r.fl. (/r. bruth. Dan. brud. A'aerf. brod. ^rm.bruvo.) 

Bruise ; pound ; crush, squeeze, compress. Fret. a. bhruth, 

bruised ; fut. off. a. bruthaidh. 
Bruthach, aich, *. m. and f. An ascent; a steep; a hill 

side; a precipice. Ri bruthach, upwards, hillwards ; le 

bruthacli, downwards. Fo chraig na bruthaich, vnder the 

rock of the steep. — Oss. Tern. Ruithidh an taigeis fein ri 

bruthach, the haggis itself will run down hill. — G. F. 
Bruthadair, .s.w!. (from bruth.) A pestle; a pounder; a 

bruiser. lY.p/. bruthadairean. LehruihaddiW, with a pestle. 
Bruthadaireaciid, s.f. (from bruth.) A pounding, a 

bruising, a crushing ; pugilism. 
Bruthadh, aidh, s. m. A bruising; a pounding, as with a 

B U A 

pestle; a crushing; a bruise, a crush. Germ, bruch, a 
Bruthadh, (a), pr. part, of bruth. Bruising; pounding; 

crushing ; squeezing. 
Bruthaidh, 3 sing, and pi. of bruth. Shall or will bruise. 
Bruthaidh, fut. aff. a. of bruth. Shall or will bruise. 
Bruthainneach, a. Hot, sultry. Aimsir bhruthainneach, 

sultry weather.. 
Bruthaiste, «./. (Anglo-Sax. hriv/?LS.) A mess composed 

of oatmeal on which boiling water has been poured, and which 

is then stirred about ; by the Lowland Scots called brose. 

Bruthaiste is raairt-fiieoil, brose and beef. — Macd. 
Bu ! A sound to excite terror. 
Bu, preterite of the def. verb Is. (W. bu. Ir. bu.) Was, wert, 

were. Bu dorcha a mhala, dark was his brow. — Oss. Lod. 

Taibhse bu ghlaise snuadh, a spectre of the palest visage. — Id. 
Bu, before a vowel or/aspirated, is written b' ; as, b'aille 

leam, / would like ; b' f hearr leam, I had rather. 
Buabhall, aill, s. m. A cornet, a trumpet; an unicorn, a 

buffalo. See Buabhull. 
Buabhallach, a. Like a trumpet, unicorn, or buffalo ; of, 

or pertaining to, a trumpet, unicorn, or buffalo. 
BuABHALLAiCHE, s. m. A trumpctcr. 
Buabhall-chorn, *. (W. bual-gorn.) A bugle-horn. 
Buabhull, uill, s. m. A cornet; a trumpet; an unicorn, 

a buffalo. Fuaim abhuabhuill, the sound of the cornet. — 

Stew. 0. T. O adhaircibh nam buabhull, from the horns of 

the unicorn. — Smith. 

Corn, buaval, a trumpet. Ir. buabhal. Arm. bual, a 

buffalo. ' 

In buabhull we may see the Gr. /3ov^«^o{. Lat. bubulus. 

Fr. bufle. 
Buabhullaiche, s. m. A trumpeter. 
Buabhull-chorn, s. {JF. bual-gorn.) A bugle-horn. 
t Buacachan, ain, s. m. A bleacher, 
t Buacais, «.y. The wick of a candle, 
t Buach, buaich, «. (Jr. id.) Buck-yarn, cloth ; bleaching ; 

the brow of a hill ; a vault ; a cap. — Shaw, 
i BuACHACH, a. Fine, beauish. 

Buachaill, s.m. A cowherd; a shepherd, a herd; pro- 
tector; also a youth. — Macd. N. pi. buachaillean. Is 

buachaillean na daoine, the men are shepherds. — Stew. Gen. 

Am buachaill da 'n coir, the herd near them. — Macdon. 
Arm. bugall, a boy. IF. bygel, a cowherd. Corn, begel 

and bugel. Ir. buachail. Box. Lex. bugiul. Gr. Povxiy^oi. 
BuACHAiLLEACH, a. Pastoral ; of, or belonging to, a 

shepherd or cowherd. 
BuACHAiLLEACHD, *.y. The occupatioH of herding. Ris 

a bhuachailleachd, herding ; ri buachailleachd, herding. 
BuACHAiLL-sEOMAiR, s. m. A valct-de-chambrc. 
BuACHAR, air, s. m. Cow's dung; the dung of cattle in 

general ; a dunghill ; a stall. Buachar bh6, cow-dung. — 

Stew. Ezek. Dubh-chail a bhuachair, a dunghill trollop. — 

Old Song. Hcb. bakar, ox or cow. Chald. bakar. 
BuADH, buaidh, s. m. and f. Sustenance ; food ; also gen. 

pi. of buaidh ; which see. 
BuADHACn, a. (_//-o»j buadh.) /r. buadha. Victorious; also 

having virtues. Counal buadhach, tictorious Connal. — 

Oss. Cathula. 
Buadhach, aich, s. m. {from buaidh.) A champion; a 

conqueror ; a tribute. Gheibh am buadhach, the conqueror 

shall receixe.— Mac Lack. 
Buadjiachadh, aidh, «. m. The act of conquering ; aeon- 
Buadhachadh, (a), pr.part. of buadhaich. Conquering. 
BuADHAiCH.r. Conquer, overthrow ; prevail, subject. Fret. a. 

bhuadhaich, conquered; fut. aff. a. buadhaichidh, shall 

B U A 

B U A 

conquer. Bhuadhaich fheaclid, his armi/ conquered. — Oss. 

Dutliona. Bhuadhaich tonn is gaoth, the cast winds and 

its waves prevaiUd, — Oss. Carthtm. 
BuADii AIR, s. m. A conqueror ; a champion. N. pi. buadh- 

t BuADUAL, a. Victorious.—/;-, id. 
BuADiiALACni), s. f. Prosperity; conquest; a flourishing 

condition. Am buadlialachd, in prosperiti/. — Macint. 


BuADHAS, ais, s. m. Victory, conquest; a succession of 

BuADHDHARG, airg, i. m. A victorious champion. — Shaw. 
BuADH-GUALLAN, ain, s. m. Rag-weed. 
BuADii-GHUTH, s. m. A triumphant shouting; clamour. 
BuADiiLAN-BUiDiiE, *. m. Ragwort. — Macd. 
BtrADHMiioiBE, com. and sup. of buadhmhor. 
BuADii-MHOR, a. (//-. buadh-mhar.) Victorious, triumphant. 

Breatunnaich nan arm buadh-mhor, Briiuns of victorious 

arms. — Death ofCarril. Com. and sup. buadhmhoire. 
t BuAF, s. m. A toad ; any ugly venomous creature. — Ir. id. 
+ BuAFACH, a. Venomous. — Ir. id. 
t BuAFAiR, s. m. An adder. — Shaw. 
BuAG, buaig, s. m. A spigot, a plug. N. pi. buagan. 
BirAGAiR, s. m. A faucet, or pipe inserted into a vessel to 

give vent to the liquor, and stopped up by a peg or spigot. 

— Shaw. 
+ BuAGAiR, V. a. Tap, as a hogshead. — Shaw. 
BuAGiiAU, air, s. m. {Lat. boarius, relating to oxen.) A 

herd; a shepherd; a cow-herd. Thachair orra buaghar 

bh6, a cow-herd met them. — Fingalian Legend. 
BuAGHARRA, o. Gricved, vexed; also vexatious, oppressive. 

Mios bhuagharra, an oppressive month. — Macfar. 
BiJAic, Buaichd; «.y. (Jr. buaic.) The wick of a candle, 

lamp, or torch ; rarely a wave. 
BuAiCEACH, a. Giddy, light-headed, thoughtless ; of, or 

belonging to, a wick ; having a wick. 
BUAICEAN, n. pi. of BUAIC. 

BuiCEAN, ein, s. m. A veil ; a lappet; a little wick. 

BuAicEis, «.y. A small wick. — Shaw. 

BuAiDH, V. Conquer; overcome. This verb takes after it 
the preposition air, simple or compounded ; as, buaidh 
orra, conquer them; bhuaidh e orm, he conquered me. 

Buaidh, «.y. (Tr. buaidh. Corn, budh.) A''. pZ. buaidhean, 
and sometimes buadhannan. Victory, conquest, success, 
palm ; qualification, accomplishment mental or bodily ; 
virtue, excellence, attribute ; gem. Buaidh sa chomhstri, 
victory in the strife. — Oss. Comala. Buaidh leat, success to 
you : beannachd is buaidh leat, blessing and success go with 
you, Malmhin nam buadh, virtuous or accomplished Mal- 
vina. — Oss. Carricth. Thoir buaidh, conquer; thug coigrich 
buaidh, strangers conquered. Deadh bhuadhannan naduir, 
excellent natural accomplishments. — Old Song. 

BuAiDH-ciiAiTiiREAM, eim, s. m. A triumphant shout, 
a song of triumph, a triumph. A deanamh buaidh-chailh- 
reim, triumphing. — Stew. Col. 

BuAiDH-ciiAiTHKEAMACH, «. Triumphant; uttering a 
triumphant shout. 

f BuAiDiiEART, eirt, s. m. A tumult, confusion. 

BuAinii-FHEAR, -fhir, A. m. A conqueror. N. pl.hnzxAh- 
fhir ; roc. pi. a bhuaidh-f heara, ye conquerors. 

BuAiDH-FHOCAL, ail, «. jn. An adjective ; a qualifying term; 
an epithet. 

BuAiDii-GiiAiR, *. f. A shout of victory, a shout of 

BuAiDii-GHAiREACn, fl. Like a shout of triumph; tri- 

BuAiDii-GiiAiREACHDAicii, s. f. A Continued shout of 

BuAiDii-CHUTii, s. m. A shout of triumph ; the voice of 

BuAiDH-LARACH, aich, s. m. A decisive victory; victory, 
conquest. — Macint. Buaidh-larach 's gach stri, victory in 
every battle. — Old Song. 

i BuAiFEACH, a. Angry, fretting. — Shaw. 

t BuAiFiG, s.f. An antidote. 

BuAiL, r.a. Strike, smite, beat, thrash; thrust; touch or land 
at ; strike up as a tune : used also to describe rapid motion, 
rush, move, proceed. I'ret. a. bhuail ; fut. ajf'. a. buailidh, 
shall or wilt strike ; fut. pass, buailear, shall be struck. 
Bhuail mi beum, I struck a blow. — Fingalian Poem. Buail 
as, thrash off'. — Stew. Ruth. Bhuail chuige Dearg, Dargo 
moved [t'ushed^ towards him. — Oss. Dargo. Ciod am beal- 
ach am buail sinn ? through what pass shall we strike our 
way? — Fingalian Legend. Bhuail sinne comhrag, we sounded 
the signal of battle, we engaged in battle. — Oss. Tern. 
Bhuail e chruaidh na taobh, he thrust his steel into her side. 
— Oss. Fing. Buailibh clarsach, strike up the harp. — Oss. 
Com. A cheud fhear a bhuail an tir, the first man who 
landed. — Oss. Tern. 

t Buail, s.f. A step, a degree. — Ir. id. 

BuAiLE, *.y. (Gr. ^oxv>.to). I,fl<. bovile. /;•. buaile.) A fold 
for sheep or for black cattle; a stall; a dairy; also cattle, 
herds. JV". pi. buailtean,ybZr/,9. Buailtean spreidhe, herds of 
cattle. — Stezv. Joel. buailtibh. Buar air na buailtibh, 
a herd in the fold. — Stew. Ilab. A hhb is miosa tha sa 
bhuaile 's i is aird geum, the sorry cow has the loudest low. 
— G. P. 

BuAiLEAcn, ich, *. m. An ox-stall; a stall ; a fold. N. pi. 

Buailear, /«<. pass, of buail. Shall be struck. Buailear is 
also used as an impersonal verb; as, buailear suas loam, 
I struck or proceeded upwards. 

Buailidii, s.f. A dairy or milk-house; a stall; a fold. 
Steach do 'n bhuailidh, into the mi.'king-house. — Macfar. 

BuAiLSA, BuAiLSE, (for buail thusa.) Strike thou. 

t BuAiLT, s.f. A locker ; a niche. — Shaw. 

BuAiLTE, p. part, of buail. Struck, beaten, thrashed. Cha 
bhi bail air fodar buailte, thrashed corn is not spared. — 
G. P. 

BuAiLTEACH, a. Liable, subject ; obnoxious ; apt to strike 
or to thrash. Buailteach do chls, liable to tax: Gun bhi 
buailteach, without being given to strike. — Stew. Tim. 
Com. and sup. buailtiche, more or moat liable. 

t BuAiLTEACHAN, ain, s. ?n. A flying camp. 

Buailtean, n. pi. of buaile. Sheep-folds; cattle-houses. 

BuAiLTEAK, ein, *. m. (/ro/n buail.) A flail, that gjrt of a 
flail which thrashes the sheaf. Ir. buailtean. 

BuAiLTEAR, ir, s. m. A thrasher. 

t BuAiN, s.f. Equality ; deprivation. — //•. id. 

BuAiN,*./. (7r. buain.) A reaping ; a cutting down as of 
corn. Buain lorna, barley harvest. — Stew. Ruth. Am fear 
nach dean cur ri la fuar, cha dean e buain ri la teth, he 
■who will not sow on a cold day shall not reap on a warm. 
-G. P. 

Buain, r. a. Reap, cut down, shear ; tear by the root ; 
engap. Pret. a. bhuain, reaped; fut. aff. a. buainidh, shall 
reap. A buain na h-araich, cutting doiij' the [jUcs of] 
battle. — Oss. Cathula. Craobh bhuain a ghaoth, a tree 
torn up by the wind.—Oss. Carricth. Buainidh sinn, we 
shall reap. — Stew. Gal. 
BuAiNE, s. f. Perpetuity, duration ; hardiness, durable- 

ness. — Ir. id. 
Buain E, com. and sup. of buan. {Ir. id.) More or most 


B U A 



lasting or hardy. Darraig is buaine ilreach, an oak of the 

hardest form. — Oss. Is buaine na gach ni an naire, more 

lasting is shame than any thing else. — G. P. 
BuAixEAD, eid, s. m. Hardiness, durableness. 
BuAixEADii, eidh, s. m. A reaping, cutting down; enjoying, 

as tlie fruits of one's labour. Muinntir a bhuainidh, the 

reapers. — Stexc. Jam. 
BuAiNEADH, 3 sing, and pi. imperat. of buain. Buaineadh 

e, let him reap ; buaineadli iad, let them reap. 
Buaineadh, (a), ^r. part, of buain; which see. 
BuAINEAR,_/i/^ pass, of buain. Shall or will be shorn. 
Buain iciiE, s. »;. and/". A shearer or reaper. N.anAgen. 

pi. buainichean, shearers. Ri taobh nam buainichean, 

beside the reapers. — Stew. Ruth. 
BuAiNTE, p. f«r/. of buain. Reaped, shorn ; torn up by the 

root ; hevoi down. 
BuAiNTEAR, \T,s.m. (^fromh\x&m.) A reaper, shearer, or 

mower. N. pi. buaintearan. 
BuAiR, r. a. Tempt; vex, disturb, annoy, distract, madden. 

Pret. a. bhuair, tempted ; fiit. off. a. buairidh. Cha bhuair 

thu, thou shalt not tempt. — Stexi-. Mat. Air a bhuaireadh, 

tempted. — Stew. Mat. Air a bhuaireadh, troubled. — Stew. 

Dan. Fear air bhuaireadh, a man distracted. Chum a 

buaireadh, to rex her. — Stew. G. B. 
Buaire', contracted tor buaireadh; which see. 
BuAiREADAiR, s. m. A tempter; a disturber; one who 

vexes or troubles. JV. pA buaireadairean. Air teachd don 

bhuaireadair, when the tempter came. — Stew. Mat. 
Buaireadh, idh, *. »/. Temptation; trouble; disturbance, 

annoyance; severe trial; a tempting; a maddening; dis- 
traction. Bha a spiorad air a bhuaireadh, his spirit was 

troubled. — Stew. Gen. Buaireadh, a severe trial. — Stew-. 

Cor. ref. Tuinn gun bhuaireadh, vntrouhled waves. — Oss. 

Derm. A feartan buairidh, her tempting qualities. — Mac Lach. 
Bdaireas, eis, *. m. Confusion, trouble, ferment, tumult. 

Buaireas mor, a great tumuli. — Stew. Zech. Fo bhuaireas, 

troubled. — Stew. I K. 
Buaireasacii, a. Turbulent, raging, stormy, tumultuous. 

Geamhradh buaireasach, a stormy winter. — Macfar. Is 

buaireasach deoch laidir, strong drink is raging. — Stew. Pro. 
Buaireasaciid, s.f. Turbulence, storminess, tumultuous- 

Buaireasaiciie, com. and -iup. of buaireasach. 
Buairte, p. part, of buair. Distracted, enraged ; tempted ; 

stormy. Asp. form, bhuairte. Sith air a rohuir bhuairte, 

peace on the ttormy sea. — Oss. Dulhona. 
Buait, buaite, s.f. A lantern. JV. pi. buaitean. 
t Bual, buail, «. »!. Remedy; physic; water. — Ir. id. 
BuAL, buail, s. m. {contr. for buabhail.) A buffalo; any 

wild horned creature. Perhaps the bual of the Gael and 

of the Armoric Celts is bu-iill, a wild ox. 
BuALACHD, s.f. A drove of cattle. Jr. buallachd. 

BuALADH, aidh, «. »i. A remedy; physic. — 'Shaw. 
BuALADH, aidh, *. m. A striking; a thrashing; a battle. 

Bhnr bualadh, your threshing. — Stew. Lev. Bualadh 

arbhair, thrashing of corn. — Stcxv. Jud. Bualadh nan laoch, 

the battle of heroes. — Oss. Tern. 
BuAL-ciiRANifACH, aich, s. m. A float, a raft. — 5^aw. 
BuALGiiAS, ais, «. m. A mill-pond. 
BuALTRACii, aich, s. m. Cow-dung. 
BuAMSDAiR, t. m. One who talks boisterously; a vain 

boaster ; a dolt, a looby. JV. pi. buamsdaireaii. 
Buamsuaireaciid, *./. Boisterous talking; vain boasting. 

Ri buamsdaireachd, talking boisterously. 

t Buan, a. Good; harmonious. Lat. bonus. Fr. bon. 
Ir. buan. 


t Buan, buain, 4. y. A- nurse. — Shaw. 

Buan, a. (Jr. buan.) Lasting, durable; long, tedious; 
hardy, tough. Cead buan, a long farewell. — Old Song. 
Ge buan an t-slighe, though tedious be the way. — Macint. 
Bodach buan, a tough or hardy old man. 

BuANACHADii, aidh, s. m. A continuing, persevering, ob- 
taining ; continuance, perseverance. 

BuANACiiADH, (a), pr. part, of buanaich ; which see. 

BuANACUD, s.f. {Jr. id.) Continuance, tediousness, dura- 
tion ; durableness, hardiness; acquirement, gain, profit; 
an oppressive quartering of soldiers. Buanachd na slighe, 
the tediousness of the way. Ni gun bhuanachd, •« profitless 
thing. — Slew. Has. Ciod a bhuanachd dhuinn ? what 
profit have we ? — Stew. Mai. 

BuANAiCH,r. a.&n. Last, abide; persevere; obtain, win, or 
acquire. Pret. a. hlmanaich, lasted ; f uf. qff. a. buanaichidh, 
shall last. Bhuanaich iad cliil, they woji renown. — Old 

BuANAiciiE, s. m. andy. A shearer, a reaper; one who 
enjoys ; a winner. N. pi. buanaichean. Written also 

Buanaichidh, yi^ aff. a. of buanaich. 'Shall last. See 


Bu AN AiciiTE, p. part, of buanaich. Acquired, obtained, won. 

BuANAS, ais, s. m. Perpetuity, durability. 

BuAN-ciiuiMiiNE, s.f. A memorial, a chronicle ; a reten- 
tive memory. 

BuAN-CHUiMHNEACHAiL, a. Having a retentive memory. 

BuAN-MiiAiR, V. n. Last long, endure. 

Bu.vN-MiiAiREACHDUiNN, S.f. Pcrsevcrance, continuance, 

BuAN-MiiAiREANNACii, o. Everlasting, durable, perpetual, 

BuAN-MHAiREANNACHD, S.f. Pcrpctuity, eternity. 

t BuANNA, *. m. A billetted soldier. — Shaw. 

BuANNACHAiL, a. Profitable, useful, emolumentary. 

BuANNACHD, j.y. Profit, gaiu ; also a billetting or quarter- 
ing of soldiers. — Shaw. Sanntach air buannachd, greedy 
of gain. — Stew. Pro. 

BuAN-siiEASAMiiACii, rt. Firmly footcd ; lasting, perennial, 
perpetual, stable. 

BuAN-siiEASAMHACiiD, S.f. Contiouance ; firmness, sta- 
bility, durability. 

BuAR, buair, .«. m. {Jr. buar. W. buarth, a cow-yard.) 
Cattle; a herd of cattle ; oxen. Buar air na buailtibh, a 
herd in the stalls. — Stew, IJab. Ard bhairich bhuar, the 
loud lowing of cattle. — Macdon. 

BuARACii, aich, s. m. A cow-spaniel; a milking-fetter. — 
Macint. Buarach na laimh, a milkinr-fetter in her hand. — 
Old Poem. 

Buaracii-na-ba6idh, s. VI. A lamprey. 

t BuAS, buais, «. m. (Ir. id. If. huzzo, the belly.) A belly; 
a breach; a rout; a trade, art. — Shaw. 

BuATn, buaith, s.f. Rage, madness, frenzy, fury; a mad 
frolic. Ghlac e le buath, he seized in a rage. — Mac Lach. 
Tha buath air, he is in a rage ; tha buath chuthaich air, he 
is raging mad. 

BuATiiACii, a. {from buath.) Subject to fits of madness ; 
apt to fly into a rage. 

BuATHADir, aidh, s. m. A mad fit, a wild ramble; a mad 

Bub, r. n. Bellow, roar. Pret. a. bhflb ; fut. aff. a. bub- 

Bub, -biiba, s. m. A roar, a bellow, a yell. Leig e biib as, 
he uttered a roar. 

BuBAiL, s.f. A bellow, a roar; a continued bellowing, 
a loud lament. Biibail tairbh, the roaring of a bull; ri 

B U I 

B U I 

bubail, roaring or bellowing; ciod a bhiibail th'ort? xchat 
are you bellowing for 7 

BuBAK, ain, «. m. A coxcomb. 

BoBANAcii, a. Like a coxcomb; of, or belonging to, a 

BuBANACHD, s.f. The behaviour of a coxcomb. 

Bug, *. m. Size, bulk ; the cover of a book. Hence perhaps 
the English book; Scotch, beuk. 

BucAiD, *./. A pimple; a bucket.— Jl/flCf^. (/r. boicoid.) 
N. pi. bucaidean. 

BuCAiDEACH, a. {from bucaid.) Pimply, full of pimples, 
causing pimples ; like a bucket. 

BtfCAiL, a. (buc-amhuil.) Bulky, sizeable. 

BucAiLL, gen. sing, and n. pi. of bucall. 

BuCALL, aill, s. tn. {Arm. bucel. Fr. boucle. Span, boucle. 
Lat. bucula.) A buckle. A^. pi. bucaill and bucallan, 
buckles. Bucaill airgid, silver buckles. — Old Song. Bu- 
callan, buckles. — Macint. 

BucALLACH, fl. Buckled. Brogan bucallach, AttcA7eJ«Aoe«; 

gu bucallach brogach, with budded shoes. 
BucHuiNjf, BuciiTiiuiNN, o. Melodious, warbling. Eoin 

bhuchuinn, melodious birds. — Macdon. 
BuCLAiCH, V. a. Buckle. Pret. a. bhuclaich, buckled; fut. 

off. a. buclaichidh, shallbuckle. Buclaich ort d' airm, buckle 

on your armour. 
BucLAiCHTE, ^./>(7rt. of buclaich. Buckled, 
t BuDH, *. m. The world ; a breach ; a rout. — Shaw. 
BvGAN, ain, «. m. An unlaid egg. 
BuGH, «. OT. Fear; a leek. — Shaw. 

BcGSA, s. m. The box-tree ; a box. Written also bocsa. 
Buic, gcn.sing. and of boc, s. ; whichsee. 
t BuicEAD, eid, 4. m. A mouthful. 
BuicEAN, ein, s. m. (dim. of boc.) A young roe, a little roe; 

also a pimple. huicein, young' roes. Buicein bin- 

neach, the high-headed young rocs. — Macdon. 
BuiCEANACH, a. Like a young roe; of, or belonging to, a 

young roe; pimply, 
t BuiCH, s.f. A breach. — Shaw. 
+ Buicind, s. m. A young roe. Thionnadh am buichiii, 

the young roe turned. — Old Song. 
BuiD, gen. sing, and n. pi. of bod. 
BuiDEAL, eil, s. rn. {Fr. bouteille, bottle. Ir. buideal. 

Swed. buteli, to bottle. It. bottiglia.) A bottle ; anker. 

Clkr buideil, a bottle-rack. — Macdon. N. pi. buidealan. 
BuiDEALAiR, s.m. {from buideal.) A butler. Buidealair 

an righ, the king's butler..— Stew. Gen. N. pi. buideal- 

BuiDEALAiREACHD, S.f. (from buidcalair.) The business 

of a butler, butlership. y/*;). /brm, bhuidlearachd. Chum 

a bhuidealaireachd, to his butlership.— Stew. Gen. 
t BuiDii, *. pi. Thanks. — Shaw. Hence biiidheach and 

BuiDUE, a. Yellow, like gold. Grian bhuidhe, the golden 

sun. — Oss. Tern. Fait buidhe, yellow hair. Buidhe nan 

ningean, spurge. — Shaw. 
BuiDJiEACii, ich, s.f. The jaundice. A bhuidheach, the 

BuiDHEACH, a. {from f buidh.) Thankful, pleased, satisfied ; 

sated, content. — Ir. id. Buidheach bidh, satisfied with meat ; 

tha mi buidheach air son sin, / am pleased at that. Is buidh- 
each Dia do 'n fhirinn, the trvth is pleasing to God. — G. P. 
BuiDUEACiiAS, ais, i. ?n. (//wn t buidh.) Ir. id. Thanks, 

thanksgiving. Guth buidheachais, the xoice of thanksgiving ; 

thoir buidheachas, gire thanks; breith buidheachais, 

thanksgiving ; buidheachas do Dhia, thank God; taing is 

buidheachas, many thanks. 

BtJiDHEAD, eid, 4. »i. Yellowness; increase in yellowness 
A f^s am buidhead, growing more and more yellow. 

BuiDHEAG, eig,«./. (/fom buidhe.) A goldfinch ; any little 
yellow bird; a daisy; a lily; any yellow flower; also a 
cow of a yellowish colour. Gheibh sinn a bhuidheag san 
16in, we shall find the daisy in the meadow. — Old Song. 
N. pi. buidheagan. 

Buidheag'as, ain, s. m. {from buidhe.) The yolk of an 
egg.— /r. id. 

Buidheagan, n. pi. of buidheag. Daisies, lilies. 

Buidheag-bhealuidh, s.f. A yellow-hammer. A bhu- 
idheag bhealuidh, the yellow-hammer. — Macd. Nead na 
buidheig-bhealuidh, the yellow-hammer's nest. 
.BuiDHEAG-BHucHAiR, S.f. A yellow-hammer.— iSAfla'. 

Buidheann, buidhne, s. m. A company, a troop, a band ; 
rulers. Bheir buidheann buaidh air, troops shall conquer 
him. — Stew. 0. T. Tha mi a faicinn buidhne, / see a com- 
pany.— Stew, i K. .S^. p/. buidhnean. 

BuiDHiNN, s.f Gain, profit. Is beag do bhuidhinn deth, 
your profit of it is little. 

BuiDiiiNN, V. a. Gain, profit, win, acquire. Prct.a. bhuidhinn, 
won; fut. aff.a.h\i\d.\ia\A\i, shall win ; imp. iu6. bhuidhneadh, 
would win, Bhuidhneadh tu gach reis, thou wouldst gain 
every race. — Macint. Buidhnibh saorsa, gain liberty. — 
Old Poem. 

BuiDH-MHios, s. m. The month of July. Ir. boidh-mhios. 

Buidhne, gen. sing, of buidheann ; which see. 

BuiDHNEACH, a. Victorious ; in bands or companies ; suc- 
cessful ; acquiring, gainful, profitable. Laoich buidhneach, 
victorious heroes. — Macint. 

Buidhneach, ich, s.f. A band, acompany; a troop, 
buidhnicheare, bands. 'Uile bhuidhnichean, all his bands. 
— Stew. Ezek. 

Buidhneachd, «.y. Victoriousness, successfulness. 

Buidhnich, v. a. {from buidheann.) Arrange into com- 
panies. Pret. a. bhuidnich. 

Buidhnichte, p. part, of buidhnich. 
in companies. 

Buidhre, s.f. Deafness. 

Buidhre, com. and sup. of bodhar. 

Cluinnidh tu air a chluais is buidhre e, you will hear it in 
the deafest ear. — G. P. 

Buidhe-ruadh, a. Of a bay colour ; auburn, 
ruadh, auburn hair. 

BuiDSEACH, ich, s.f. A witch. 

Buidseachd, s.f. Witchcraft, 
ort, you are bewitched. 

BuiGE, com. and sup. of bog. 
smoothest. Asp. form, bhuige. 
his words were softer. — Stew. Ps. 

BuiGE, s.f. Softness, efieminacy. 

BuiGEACHAS, ais, *. VI. Tenderness, softness, pity, com- 
passionateness. Gun ath-thruas gun bhuigeachas, without 
compassion or pity. — Old Song. 

BuiGEAN, ein, *. m. A soft unmanly fellow. 

BuiG-BHUiNNE, s.f. A bulrush. 

BuiGLEACH, ich, s.f. A soft place; a bog, a quagmire. 
N. pi. buiglich. 

BuiGLEAG, eig, s.f. A bog or quagmire. — Macd. 

BuiGNEACH, ich, s.f A bog, a quagmire ; also bulnishes. 

Bun,, s.f. Completion, perfection; issue; consequence, 
effect; success. A thoirt gu buil fhocail, to complete his 
words. — Stew. Joel. Buil gach aon taisbein, the effect of 
every vision. — Stew. Ezck. Bheir thu a bhuil, you will reap 
the consequence ; bithidh sin air bhuil, that will come to pass. 

BuiLEACn, a. Complete, whole. Tliis word is most com- 
monly used adverbially ; as, gu buileach, completely, wholly, 
utterly, altogether. Na treig mi gu buileach, do notforsakt 

Arranged or drawn 

More or most deaf. 

Fait buidhe 

N. pi. buidsichean. 
sorcery. Tha buidseachd 

Softer, softest ; smoother, 
Bu bhuige a bhriathran. 

B U I 

B U I 

me utterly. — Sm. Cha bhuain thu gu buileach, Ihou shall 
not w/ioliy reap. — Stew. Lev. Gu bileach buileach, pick 
and crumb. 

BuiLEACiiADH, aidh, s. m. A bestowing, giving; improving. 

BuiLEACHADH, (a), pr. part, of builich. Bestowing; im- 

BuiLEANN, inn, s. m. A loaf. Written also builionn; 
which see. 

BuiLG, ge«. sing, of bolg. 

BuiLG, n. /)/. of bolg. Bellows; also seeds of herbs. 

BuiLG, s. f. A distemper among cattle, proceeding from 
want of water or from heat. 

BuiLGEANN, *. m. (dim. of bolg.) Sax. biligan, a bladder. 
A blister ; pimple ; bubble or bell ; bellows ; a little bag, 
a bladder. Mar bhristeadh builgein, like the breaking of a 
bubble. — Macfar. 

BuiLGEASACH, a. Spotted. — Shaic. 

BriLicH, Ti. a. Grant, bestow, present ; improve. Fret. a. 
bhuilich, granted; fut. aff. a. builichidh, shall or will grant. 

Builionn, inn, *. m. A loaf. N. pi. builinnean, loaves. 
Aon bhuilionn, one loaf. — Stew. Exod. 

Bvihh-BH^iKT, pi. Tackling; instruments. 

BuiLLE, s. m. A blow, a stroke, a stripe. (Germ. beul. 
Gr. goX«, a throw.) N. pi. buillean, and sometimes buille- 
annan, blows. Buille air son buille, blow for blow, stripe 
for stripe. — Stew. Exod. Fead am builleannan, the noise 
of their blows. — Macdon. 

BuiLLEACH, a. (from buille.) That gives blows. 

BuiLLEACHAS, ais, s. m. A striking, a boxing, a bruising. 

BuiLLEANACH, a. Striking, giving blows. Skthach buil- 
leanach, giving thrusts and blows. — Old Song. 

BuiLLSGEAN, BuiLSGEAN, ein, *. m. The middle, tlie 
centre. Builsgean amhuinn, the centre of a furnace. — 
Stew. Dan. 

t BuiME, s.f. A nurse; a mother. — Ir. id. 

Bdin, v. Belong ; touch, meddle ; deal or treat ; take away. 
Pret. a. bhuin, belonged ; fut. aff. a. buinidh, shall belong. 
Is ann da bhuineas slainnte, to him belongs health. — Stew. 
Jon. Buinibh gu caoineil ri mo ghaol, deal kindly with my 
beloved. — Oss. Buin uam m' anam, take my life from me. — 
Stew. Jon. Cha bhuinnte bho gaol i, she could not be 
taken from her love. — Oss. fa^.^ui. bhuineas. Codha'bhui- 
neas so ? whom does this belong to ? An rud nach buin duit 
na buin da, what belongs not to you meddle not with. — G. P. 

Buinidh, /«/. aff. a. of buin. Shall belong. 

BuiNiG, r. a. Conquer, obtain by conquest. Pret. a- 
bhuinig ; fut. pass, buinigear. Buinigear buaidh le foigh- 
idinn, victory is got by patience. — G. P. 

BuiNiG, s.f. Superiority. 

BuiNNE, s.f. A stream; a torrent; a spout or cataract; 
a billow ; a spigot ; rarely a sprout or twig ; an ulcer. 
Air buinne reidh, on a smooth stream.— Macint. N. pi. 
buinnean arda, lofty billarws. — Old Poem. 

BuiNNEACH, ich, .s. TO. A diarrhoea ; flux. /r. buinneach. 

BuiNNEAG, eig, *./. A twig; a germ; a lovely young 
maid; the sole of a shoe. A bhuinneag Mhoiilra! thou 
lovely maid Moiura.'— Oss. Conn. Cha chuir e buinneag 
air a bhr6gan, it will not sole his shoe. — G. P. N. pi. bu- 

BuiNNEAMH, imh, s.m. An effusion. — Shaw. 

BuiNNEAN-LEANA, s. m. A bittern. — Shaw. 

BuiNNiR, s.m. A footman. Written also bonnair. 

BuiNNE-SHUuTH, S.f Aprecipitous stream; a cascade. 
Mar bhuinne-shruth reamhairt, like a spring-tide stream. — 
Old Song. 

BuiNNTEACH, a. Causing looseness of the bowels. 

BuiNNTEACH, ich, *. m. One troubled with a flux; one who 

is habitually loose in his bowels. 
BuiNNTEACHD, «.y. Aflux; a dyscntcry ; habitual loose- 
ness of the bowels. 
BuiNTEAR, ir, *. m, A dunce. JV. pi. buintirean. 
BuiR, r. n. Roar, bellow. Pret. a. hl^iiir ; fut. aff. a. hmr'idh, 

shall roar. 
BuiRBE, s.f Fierceness, savageness, boisterousness, wrath, 

rage ; cruelty. Gun gheilt no buirbe, without fear or wrath. 

— Sm. Mharbh sibh iad le buirbe, you killed them in a 

rage. — Stew. Chron. 
Buirbe, com. and sup. ofborb. (/r. boirbe and buirbe.) 

More or most fierce. 
Buirbeachd, s.f. Barbarity, fierceness. 
Buirdeasach, aich, s. m. A citizen, an inhabitant, a bur- 
gess. N, pi. biiirdeasaich, citizens. Bilirdeasaich 

sgiathach nan speur, the winged inhabitants of heaven. — 

Bi)iRE, Buireadh, s. m. (Ir. bilireadh.) Wailing, loud 

weeping ; a burst of grief ; roaring, bellowing ; a rutting. 

Bhrist uaith biiire, he broke into a loud burst of grief. — 

Oss. Duthona. Mo bhiiireadh, my roaring. — Stew. Job. 

PoU-biliridh, the rutting-pluce of a deer. 
f Buireadh, idh, s. m. Gore, pus. —Ir. id. Shaw. 
Buireadh, 3 sing, and pi. itnperat. of bilir. Na buireadh 

am boc, let not the roe bellow. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. 
BuiREAN, eia, s. m. A roar, a bellow as of a deer ; aloud 

noise. An fhairg a teachd le bi!iirean, the sea coming with 

a noise. — Macfar. 
BiriREANACH, a. Roaring, bellowing, noisy. 
BdxRiCH, V. a. (from liir.) Dig, delve. Pret. a. bhiiirich 

dug; fut. aff. a. buirichidh, shall or will dig; fut. pass, 

biiirichear ; p. part, biirichte, dug. 
BdiRicii, V. n. Howl, roar; make aloud lament. Pret, a. 

bhilirich, roared ; fut. aff. bilirichidh, shall roar. 
BdiRicii, s. f. A loud lament, a burst of grief; a low 

murmur ; a bellowing, a hollow roar as of a bull ; a 

BuiRiciiE, s. m. A mattock ; a hoe, a little spade ; a dibble ; 

also one who digs or delves. 
BuiRiCHiDH,yu<. aff. a. of biiirich. Shall or will dig. 
Buiridh, gen. sing, of biiireadh. 

BuiRLING, «.y. See BlORLINN. 

B61RTE, s.f A gibe, a taunt, a sarcasm; a repartee, a 

t BuiscEAN, ein, s.m. A thigh, a haunch; thigh armour. 

Hence perhaps buskin. 
BuisDREACii, ich, s. m. A witch, a wizzard, a sorcerer. 
BuiSDREACHD, S.f. Witchcraft, sorcery. 
BiJisTE, s.f. A pouch or pocket, a scrip. — Shaw. N. pi. 

buistean and buisteachan. 
BuiTE, s.f. A firebrand. 

t BuiTEALACH, aich, *. m. A great fire. — Ir. id. 
BuiTSE, A-./. An icicle. — Macd. 
BuiTSEACii, ich, «. m. and/. A witch, a wizzard. N. pi. 

buitsichean, witches. Written also buidseach. 
BuiTSEACHAS, ais, s. m. Witchcraft, sorcery. — Stew. Gal. 

ref. Written also buidseachas. 
BuiTsEACiiD, «./. Witchcraft, sorcery, enchantment. Writ- 
ten also buidseachd. 
BuiTSEAR, ir, «. m. A butcher; also the butcher's bird. — Macd. 
BuiTSEARACiiD, S.f. The business of a butcher ; a butchery, 

Ag ionnsachadh na buitsearachd, learning the business of a 

BuiTHRE, com. and .fa/>. of bothar. Deafer, deafest. Written 

also buidhre, from bodhar. 



BoiTiinE, s.f. Deafness. Written also Imidhrt, from bodhar. 

t BuL, s. m. A manner, mode, fashion. 

ButAisTEAR, ir, «. TO. Ir. id. A bullace, a sloe. — Shnc. 

BiiLAS, ma, s. m. A pot-hook; a prune. JV". ;)/. biilasan. 

BuLG, builg, s. m. A belly ; any thing that is prominent or 
bellying; a bubble; a lump, a knob, a mass. Written 
also 60/0-; which see. 

BuLGACii, a. (from bolg.) Bellying, prominent; knobby, 
massy. Ceud srian bulgach, a hundred massy bridles. — 
Oss. Taura. 

Bulla, ai, s. m. A bowl; a ball; a bubble. Ir. bulla. 
Lat. bulla, a bubble. Hence also buUire, to boil. 

BuLLACii, a. Globular; like a bowl, ball, or bubble ; also 
the fish called connor. — S/iuw. 

Bun, buin, s. m. {Ters. bun, bottom. Ir. bun. Dan. bund.) 
Bottom, base, foundation; foot; a root, a stump; stock; 
origin ; a squat little person ; trust, confidence. Bun a 
rohonaidh, the bottom or foot of the hill ; bun an uchdain, 
the bottom of the ascent. Bun an earbuill, the rump. — 
Ste-w. Exod. Bun na h-altarach, the foot of the altar. — 
Stev>. Lev. Cha n' fhkg e bun no bkrr, he will leave neither 
root nor branch. — Stew. Mai. Bun craoibh, the stump of 
a tree.— Stew. Is. As a bhun, from the rout. Bun os- 
cionn, upside down.— Stew. Job. Asadsa rinn ar sinnsir bun, 
i« thee our fathers trusted. — Sm. Bun na ciob, the root of 
the mountain-grass. — Macint. Bun balaoich, a stump of a 
fellow, a stout squat fellow. 

BtTNABHAS, ais, s. m. An element. 

BuNABHASACH, a. Elemental. 

BuNACii, aich, s. m. Coarse tow ; the tare of flax ; a sturdy 
little person. 

BuNACii, a. Squat; short, stumpish ; sturdy; clumsy. 

BuNACHADH, aidh, *. m. A founding, establishing ; a taking 

BuNACHAR, air, s. m. A foundation, base, bottom; radix; 
etymology. O bhunachar luaisgidh an talamh, the earth 
shall quake from its foundation. — Sm. Perhaps the proper 
orthography is bunachur. 

BuNACHAS, ais, *. m. Ir. bunadhas. Etymology ; authen- 
ticity ; authority. 

BuNACHASACn, a. (from bunachas.) Authentic ; well- 
founded ; etymological ; radical. 

BuNADAS, ais, s. m. Origin, stock, root, foundation. 

BuNAiCH, V. a. Found, establish, make firm, take root. 
Pret. a. bhunaich, fit. aff. bunaichidh. 

BuKAiLT, «./. Steadiness; constancy; a sure foundation; 

BuNAiLTEACH, fl. {from bufiailt.) Steady, firm, constant, 
stable, fixed; authentic; firmly seated or founded. Bha d' 
inntinn bunailteach, thy mind was constant. — Macint. 

BuNAiLTEACiiD, S.f. Stcadincss ; firmness; constancy; 

firmness of foundation. 
Bun A IT, «. m. ( i.e. bun-ait.) /r. bunait. A''. ;</. bunaitean. 
A foundation. Bunaitean an domhain, the foundations of 
the earth. — Stew. Gal. 
BuNAiTEACH, o. {fom bunait.) Steady, grounded, fixed, 
stable, stedfast, immoveable. Bunaiteach agus daingeann, 
grounded and settled. — Stew. Col. 
BuNAiTEACiiADH, aidh, s. m. {from bunait.) A fonnding, 

an establishing. 
BuNAiTEACiiD, S.f. Written also bunailtcachd ; which see. 
BuNAiTiCH, V. a. Found, establish ; inherit, possess. 
BuNAMAS, ais, «, M. Deep discernment ; quickness of com- 
Bun ANT A, a. Finn, well built, well set, sturdy; having a 

good bottom or foundation. 
BuNANTACHD, *./. Firmucss, sturdiness. 

BuN-BHEAN, -mhna, s. f. A female of discreet years. 

N. pi. bun-mnathan. 
BuN-cniALL, -cheill, 4-.y. A moral; having a concealed 

BuN-CHiALLACii, 0. Containing' a moral, as a fable. 
BuN-ciiis, *.y. A pension ; chief rent. 
BuNDUNACii, a. Ungainly. — Shaw. 
BuN-oLAS, ais, s. m. Purple melie-grass. — Macd. 
BuN-LUCHD, *. pi. Aborigines. 
BuN-Miiis, mhais, f.y. A buttock. 
BuN-Mii AsACii, a. Having large buttocks ; of, or belonging 

to, the buttocks. 
BuNNAN, ain, s. m. A bittern. — Shaw. 
Bun-n6s, -nois, s.m. An old custom. — Shaw. 
BuNSACii, aich, s. (Ir. bunnsach.) A rod ;.an osier ; a place 

where osiers grow. N. pi. bunsaichean, twigs. 
BuNSAG, aig, s.f. A twig, a soft osier. — Macd. Ir. bun- 

BuNSAiDH, a. (from bun.) Firm, solid, strong; having a 

good bottom. Perhaps bunsuidh. 

BuN-TAGiiTA, «. 7n. A potato ; literally, a choice root. 

For tills ingenious reiKlerlng of tlie word potato, tlie Gaelic 

language is indebted to the late Sir John Mac Gregor Murray, 

BuNTAis, *. /)/. (fromhmn.) Perquisites. — Shaw. 
BuNTAMAs, ais, s. m. See Bunamas. 
Bun-tat, kit, s. m. A potato. N. pi. buntait. See Bun- 


BuNTUiNN, (a), pr. ;)ar^. of buin. Belonging to; meddling, 

treating, touching, taking away. A buntuinn gu naimhdeil, 
persecuting. — Stew. N. T. 
BCb,, buir, s. m. A boor, a clown ; a boorish person, 
t BuRACii, aich, s. m. An exploit; a file of soldiers ; a 

swelling, an imposthume. 
BuRACHADii, aidh, s. m. A digging, a delving. 
BdRACHADii, (a), pr. part, of bilraich. Digging, delving. 

Ag a biirachadh le riidan, digging it with his knuckles. — 

BuRAicii, T. a. Dig, delve. Pret. a. bhuraich, rf«g ; fit. 

aff. a. buraichidh, shall dig. Written also bilirich. 
BuRAiciiE, s. m. A pickaxe; a delver ; one who digs. 
BuRAiCHTE, p. port, of buraicl). Dug, delved. 
BuRAiDii, s. m. (from bur.) A clown, a boor, a foolish 

fellow, a blockhead, a looby. 2V. ;;/. buraidhean. A bhur- 

aidh tha thu ann ! fool that thou art! Span, burro, 

Bun-BiiUACHAiLL, s. >«. The bird called northern diver. 

The colymbus glacialis of Linnieus, and the speckled diver 

of Pennant. Of this bird it is remarked, that it makes a 

great noise previous to a storm. 
BduDAN, ain, s. m. A gibe ; a sing-song.— JV/acrf. Also 

the surname Burdon. 
BuRDANACH, a. Gibing; also one of the name Burdon. 
fBuRG, s. m. A town; a tower; a fortress; a village. 
Gr. wufyo?, a tower. Pers. Burj, a town. Arab, borg and 

borch. Syr. bor, a village. Chalil. borgan, a town. Isl. 

borg and biorg, a village. Swed. t berga and borga. Arm. 

bourch and biirg. Germ, berg, burg, and purg. Dan. borg. 

Du. burg. Sax. burug, burgh, and beorg. Run. borg. 

J5c/^. borg,borcht,fl«rfburcht. £»«:. burgh. B/jsc. burgua. ( 
BuRGAiu, s. m. A burgess, a citizen. N. pi. burgairean, 

BuRMAiD, «./ Wormwood. Mar a bhurmaid, a* Me worm- 

wuod. — Stew. Pro. 
Bi>RN, bi»irn, s. m. (Scotch, burn.) Water; fresh water. 

S^il is bi»rn, «alt water and fresh. — Macd. Cho saor ri 

bilrn, as cheap as water. Asp. form, bhiirn. Chitheam am 

full do bhiJrn, / *ee thy water in blood. — Oss. Com. 



Ni bfirn salach lamhan glan, foul water will make clean 

hands. — G. P. 
Bi>RNACH, a. {from biirn.) Watery, 
t Burr, a. Great. Written also borr. 
BuRRAis, s. m. A caterpillar. Written also burruis. 
EuRRAL, ail, s. m. A howl, a burst of grief; clamorous 
, grief; weeping. Chual le glinn a bhurral, the glens heard 

his haul. — Oss. Manos. 
BuRRALACii, a. Crying; sulky; apt to howl; howling. 
BuRRALAicii, i./. Loud lamentation ; a howling. Th6isich 

e air burralaich, he began to howl. 
Burruis, «. m. A caterpillar. Ma bhios burruis ann, so 

there be caterpillars. — Stew. 1 K. 
Bururus, uis, s. m. A warbling ; a purling noise ; a gurgling. 

Ri bururus seimh, warbling softly. — Macdon. 
Bus, buis, s.m. A mouth ; lip ; snout ; a ludicrous term for 

the human mouth ; a kiss ; a cat. 

7r. bus. JF, hus, lip. Eng. hass. Span.huz, a kiss. Germ. 

buss. Pers. buz, lip. Lat. bas-ium, a kiss. Fr. bkser, to kiss. 
BusACH, a. (from bus.) Snouty; having a large mouth; 

blubber-lipped ; pouting. Coyn. and sup. busaiche. 
BusAG, aig, s.f. A young girl with thick lips. 
BusAiDH. A word by which a cat is called. 
Bus-DUBii, s. m. A name for a dog and a democrat. 
BcsG, V. a. Dress, adorn ; hinder. Pret. a. bhusg, dressed. 

fat. aff. busgaidh, shall dress. 
BusGADH, aidh, J. m. A dressing, an adorning. A coiffure, 

a head-dress. 
BusoAiNN, s.f. A dressing, adorning. Busgainn dubhain, 

the dressing of afshing-hook. 

Busgainn, v. e. Dress, decorate; dress a hook. Pret. a. 

bhusgainn, dressed; fut. aff. busgainnidh, shall dress. 
BusiALL, eill, s.f A muzzle. 
Butag, aig, «.y. An oar-pin. More properly pufag. 
BuTAGOCHD, s. m. A snipe. Gob a bhutagochd, the bill of 

the snipe. 
BuTH, biitha, s. A shop; a tent; pavilion ; a booth ; a cot. 

N. pi. bilthan ; d. pi. bilthaibh ; asp. form, bhilthaibh. 

Shui41iich e a bhilth, he pitched his tent. — Stew. Gen. Do 

d' bhuthaibh, to your tents. — Stew. 1 K. Sr61 o'n bhiith, a 

riband from the shop. — Old Song. 

Turk, and Arab, beit and beith, a house. Chald. betha 

and bith. Syr. baitho and bitho, Phen. bith and beth. 

Pers. bat and abad. Ethiop. beti, a house. Mogul Tartars, 

po, a house. Germ, buen, bude, and bau. Eng. booth. 

Polon. budo. Span, buhyo, cot. Swed. bod attd bu. 

Eng. abode. Darien, bo and bu. IV. buth, both, and 

bot, house. Dan. boe, to dwell. Isl. bua and byad, 

house. Bohem. obit, a house. Bisc. bit. Arm. bod. Corn. 

buyth, a house. Du. boede. Teuf. boed. Old Sax. boede 

and bode. Serv, and Lus. buda, house. Scotch, byde, wait. 
Bt>THAL, ail, s. m. A pot-hook. Biithal raimh, the fulcrum 

of an oar. 
B^THAN, ain, s. m. {dim. of buth.) Germ. buen. A little 

booth ; a bothy ; a pavilion ; a tent. 
Bi>THAN, n. pi. of bilth. Booths; pavilions; cots; tents. 

See Buth. 
Bi>THLAS, ais, s. m. A poot-hook. JV. pi. biithlasan ; 

d. pi. buthlasaibh. 
BuTHLASAN, of bilthlas. Pot-hooks. 

C, (coll, hazel>, The third letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 
When the names of letters began with suitable initials, the 
Gael named them after natural objects, as trees. C, when 
not aspirated, sounds broad, like c in cub, as cii, a dog, 
crath, shake; or small, like c in cane, as faic, see; trie, 
often. When aspirated, it sounds like the Greek x in xh^i' 
as moch, early; or small, like x'^fiui, as chi, shall see. 

t Ca, s. m. A house. — Ir. id. 

Ca, adv. (c'kite.) Where. C^ nis am bheil do ghath! where 
now is thy sting ! — Sm. 

Cab, r. a. Indent, notch as the edge of a bladed weapon; 
break land. Pret. a. chab, notched; fut. aff. a. cabaidh, 
shall notch. 

Cab, caib, s. m. A mouth, a mouth ill set with teeth ; 
a head ; a gap ; also a Hebrew measure equal to nearly 
three English pints and a half, or two Scotch pints. — 
Stew. K. 

Gr. x»/3y), food. Ir. cab, mouth. Lat. cap-ut, head. 
Heb. cabah, hat. Pol. kapua, head. Boh. kape, head. 
Germ, kappen, hat. Sclav, kappa, cowl. Eng. cap. 
It. capo, 'head. Corn, kappa, hat. Bisc. cab, head. 
Span, cab, head. Hottentot, cabba, hat. Hence also 
Fr. capitalne, and Eng. captain; i. e. cap-fden, headman. 
Pers. i caf, a hill. 

Cabach, «. (y>o»! cab.)- 7r. cabach. Long-toothed; ugly- 
mouthed; notched, indented; full of gaps ; toothless; 
babbling ; garrulous. Com. and sup. cabaiche. 

Cabachadh, aidh, *. m. An indenting, a notching ; a grow- 
ing indented or notched ; indentation. 

Cabach ADH, (a), pr. part, of cabaich; which see. 

t Cabad, aid, s. m. {from f cab.) A head. Lat. caput. 

See Cab. 
Cabadh, aidh, s. m. A notching, an indenting ; a breaking 

of land. 
Cabadh, (a), pr. part, of cab; which see. 
Cabag, aig, *./. A cheese. {Ir. cabag. Scotch, kebbuck.) 

JV. pi. cabagan. 
Cabag, aig, *. /. {from cab.) A toothless female; a loqua- 
cious female ; rarely, a strumpet. N. pi. cabagan. Ir. 

Cabaich, v. a. {from cab.) Notch, indent, make blunt. 

Pret. a. chabaich, notched; fut. aff a, cabaichidh, shall 

t Cabaig, s.f. A pillory. — Ir. id. 
Cabail, s.f. A fleet, a navy. — Ir. id. 
Cabair, gen. sing, and n. pi. of cabar. 

Cabairb, s. m. (from cab.) A tattler, a gabbler; a toothless 

fellow. N. pi. cabairean. 
Cabaireachd, s.f. The habit of tattling or prating. 
Cabais, Cabaiseachd, s.f. Tattling, prating. 
Cabaisd, *./. Cabbage. Ck\ agus cabaisd, colewort and 

cabbage. — Old Song. 
Cabaisdeacii, a. Abounding in cabbage; like cabbage; 

of, or belonging to, cabbage. — Macdon. 
t Cabal, ail, s. m. A cable. Du, cabel. Teut. kabel. 

Ir. cabla. 
Caball, aill, s.f. A mare; of old, a horse; also a young 

dromedary. N. pi. cabaill. 

Gr. Ka^a^^)J{, a work-house. Lat. cavallus, according to 

Isodorus and Papias. It. cavallo. Span, caballo. Fr. ca- 




vale, a mare. Pol. kobela. Bofi. kobyla. Hung, kabalalo. 

The Old Celtic for horse is all ; and cab is mouth ; so caball 

means a horse broken to the bridle. See also Capull. 
Cabaix, gcii. sing, and n. pi. of caban. 
t Caban, ain, *. »i. (dim. of cab.) A cottage, a tent, a booth; 

also a cottager. 

Pers. kabah, a cot. Sam. cab, tent. Bisc. cabia, cage. 

It. gabbia. Arab, kaban, tent. Turk, ciobani. Gr. xa/3i»»». 

Span, cabana. Lat. caupona, an inn. Fr. cabane. Corn. 

Arm. jy^. and Eng. cabin. 
CAban, ain, *. m. {Lot. capo.) A capon. 
Cabar, air, *. m. {Arm. ceibr, rafter. Com. keber.) A 

deer's horn, an antler; a deer; a stake; a rung; lath; 

rarchj, a joint, a confederacy. Cabar feidh, a deer's antler. 

Mu chabar bha dealan, lightning vias about his horns. — 

Oss. Com. 
Cabauach, a. (from cabar.) Branchy, branching; having 

branching horns or antlers ; like a rung or stake ; full of 

rungs. Gu cabarach, with antlers. — Macint. Com. and 

iup. cabaraiche. 
Cabakach, aich «. A deer; a thicket, a copse. An deigh 

chabrach, in pursuit of deer.— Oss. Fing. Mar astar dall 

an cabarach, as a blind mans progress through a thicket. — 

G.P. • 
t Cabasdan, ain, s. m. A sort of curb; a bit, a bridle. 

Written also cabstar; which see. 
Cabiiag, aig, s.f. Hurry, haste, dispatch, speed. Dean 

cabhag, make haste. — Stew. Gen. Cabhag ghaoth agus 

chuan, the speed of winds and waves. — Fingalian Poem. 

Tha thu ad chabhaig, you are in a hurry. 

Cabiiagacii, a. {from cabhag.) Hasty, impatient, abrupt, 
hurrying ; causing haste or hurry ; requiring haste. Gach 
neach cabhagach, every hasty \impatient'\ person. — Stew. 
Pro. Gnothach cabhagach, business requiring haste. — 
Stew. Sam. 

Cabhaig, gen. sing, of cabhag. 

Cabhair, s. f. Help, assistance, relief, deliverance. {Ir. 
cabhair.) Asp. form, chabhair. Mo chabhair, my help. — 
Stew. Job. Dean cabhair, ^e/p. Is fad cabhair o Chrnachan, 
help is far from Cruachan ; an old adage expressive of the 
remoteness and inaccessible situation of that mountain. 
Written also cobhair. 

Cabhair, v. Assist, help, relieve, deliver. Pret. art. chab- 
hair, assisted; fut. aff. a. cabhairidh. Cabhair orm, help 
me. — Stew. Sam. Written also cobhair. 

Cabhaireacii, a. Ready to help; auxiliatory, helpful. 

■t Cabhan, ain, *. m. A field, a plain. — Ir. id. 

Cabhanach, aich, s. m. Dawn. See CAmhanach. 

t Cabiiar, air, s. m. Any aged bird. 

Cabiilacii, aich, s.f {Ir. id.) A fleet. Na chabhlach 
dorcha, in his dark fleet. — Oss. Cathula. N. pi. cabh- 

Cabiilachan, ain, s. m. A mariner. 

Cabhlaciidach, a. Of, or pertaining to, a fleet; having a 
large fleet. 

Cabulaich, gen. of cabhlach. 

Cabiiruich, «.y". (ckth-bhruich.) Flummery; a mess made 
of the boiled filtered juice of corn seeds, and called by the 
Lowland Scots sowens. 

Cabhsair, s.f. A causeway, a pavement. N. pi. cabh- 
gairean. ^ 

Cabiisaireacii, a. Having a causeway or pavement; 
causewayed, paved. 

Cabiisaireachd, s.f. The business of paving ; pavier's 

Cabhsairiciie, «./. A pavier. AT. /;/, cabhsairichean. 

Cabhsanta, a. Dry; snug.— SAaio. 

Cabrach, a. Contracted for cataract; which see. 

Cabracii, aich, s. m. A deer; a copse, a thicket; timber- 

moss ; also the parish of Cabrach in Banff, where timber- 
moss abounds. 
Cabstar, air, s. m. A curb; the bit of a bridle. Cruaidb 

chabstar shoilleir, hard polished bits. — Oss. Carricth. 

N. pi. cabstaran. 
Cabstarach, a. Having a curb; having a bit; like a curb 

or bit. 
Cac, s. m. Excrement, dung, dirt, mire, filth. Asp. form, chac. 
W. and Arm. each. Da. kak. Ir. cac. Span, and 

Port. caca. Lat. caco. Aristophanes, in his comedy of 

the Clouds, has xaxxo. 

Cac, v. n. Go to stool ; shite. Pret. a. chac ; fut. aff. a. 

Cac, a. Dirty, filthy, besmeared with dirt, nasty. Biast cac, 

a nasty beast. 
Cacacii, a. {from cac.) Filthy, dirty, miry, nasty, besmeared 

with dirt, excrementitious. 
Cacadh, aidh, s. m. A voiding of excrement. 
Cacadh, (a), pr. part, of cac. 
Cacaidh, fut. aff. a. of cac. 
Ckcu.pron. { The rest. Ard to chkch, high above 

the rest. — Oss. Dargo. Air thus chkich, in front of the rest. 

— Mac Lack. 
t Cachan, ain, s. m. Profit, use ; also a gate. — Ir. id. 

-f- Cachd, <. A maid-servant ; also a confinement ; a fasting; 

Caciiliadii, «.y. A rustic gate; a temporary breach made 

in a park wall as a thoroughfare for carts or cattle. 
Cac-radh, s. m. Cacophony. 

t Cad, caid, *. m. A friend; also high ; holy. — Ir. id. 
t Cadach, aich, s. m. Friendship. — 
Cadachas, £Us, a. m. Atonement. — Shaw. 
t Cadad, aid, s. m. An eclipse. — Ir. id. 
Cad.^il, gen. sing, of cadal. 
Cadail, v. n. Sleep, slumber; delay. Pret. a. chadail, 

slept ; fut. aff. a. cadailidh, shall sleep. Na cadail ach 

eutrom, let thy sleep be light. — Old Song. 
Cadal, ail, s. m. Sleep, slumber; delay. Cha robh cadal 

mu 'n righ, the king was sleepless. — Oss. Carricth. Dean 

cadal, sleep; drilb chadail, a wink of sleep ; tha e na 

chadal, he is asleep; tha i na cadal, she is asleep. Written 

also codal. 
Cadalach, a. Sleepy, drowsy, lethargic; causing sleep; 

narcotic ; dilatory. Galar cadalach, lethargy. 
t Cadam, aim, s. m. {Lat. cado, to fall.) A fall, ruin, de- 
t Cadamach, a. Ruinous, destructive.— 7r. id. 
Cadan, ain, *. m. Cotton; a pledget.— Jr. id. 
Cadas, ais, *. m. A pledget; caddice ; cotton; rarefy, 

friendship. Ir. cadas. IV. cadas, a kind of stuff. 
Cadath, s. Tartan plaid. Eididh chadath, a tartan dress. 

Cadath is probably cath dath, i. e. battle-colour 
Cadiiag, aig, s.f. {Ir. cag.) A jackdaw; the cortiu 

monedula of Liunseus. N. pi. cadhagan. 
Cadii AL, ail, s. m. A bason ; a hide, a skin. 
\ Cadhal, a. {Gr. xaXoj.) Fair, handsome, beautiful. — 

Ir. id. 
CAdiiai., ail, s. m. Colewort; kail; also broth of which 

colewort or kail is an ingredient. See Cal. 
Cadhan, ain, i. m. A wild goose; a barnacle. — Shaw. 
Cadiias, ais, s. m. {Ir. id.) Friendship; honour.— SAom. 

C A I 

C A I 

t Cadhasach, a. (Jr. id.) Respectful, friendly, hoaourable. 

— Shaxi'. 
t Cadhasachd, s.f. Respectfulness, friendliness, honour- 

f Cadhla, ai, s. m. A goat.— Jr. id. Shaw. 
t Cadhi-ach, aich, s. m. A goatherd. N. pi. cadhlaichean. 
Cad-luibh, s.f. Cudwort. 
Cadluibheach, a. Abounding in cudwort ; like cudwort; 

of cudwort. 
Cadkan, ain, *. m. Contention, broil, quarrel, 
t Cadranta, a. Contentious, obstinate, stubborn. Bisc. 

cadarn, braxe. Turk, kadyr. Arab, kadar. 
+ Caec, a. Blind. — Ir. id. Lat. coecus. Corn. caic. 
t Cagaidh, s.f. Strangeness. — Ir. id. 
Cagail, v. a. {Ir. id.) Spare, save, economize. Fret. a. 

diagail, *j)arerf. Written also coigiV; which see. 
CAGAiLT,s.y". A hearth ; also parsimony, frugality, economy. 
Corra-chagailt, the sulphureous hue seen in hut embers on a 
frosty night. 
Cagainn, t. a. {Ir. id.) Chew, gnaw, champ. Pret. a. cha- 
gainn, chexced ; fut. aff. a. cagnaidh, shall cliew or champ. 
Cha chagainninn cdl mo chompanaich, / uvuld not backbite 
my comrade. — G. P. 
Cagair, t. n. Whisper; listen to a whisper. Pret. a. cha- 

gair, whispered. Cagair rium, whisper to me. 
Cagall, aill, s. m. The herb-cockle. Written also cogall. 

Ir. cagal. 
CAGALLACii,a. Parsimonious; miserly, sparing; economical; 
also, substantively, a penurious person ; an economical 
Cagallachd, *.y". Parsimoniousness ; penury. 
Cagar, air, *. A whisper; a buzzing sound; a hum; a 
secret. Dean cagar, whisper, Cagar beach na bruaich, 
the hum of the mountain-bee. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. Written 
also cagar ; which see. 
Cagakaich, Cagarsaich, s.f. A whispering, a continued 
whispering. Tha thu ri cagarsaich, thou art whispering. 
Asp. form, chagarsaich. Ciod a chagarsaich th'ort? what 
are you whispering at ? 
Cagnadh, aidh, .s. m. A chewing, a gnawing, a champing, 

Cagnadh, (a), pr. part, of cagainn. 'G a chagnadh na 'm 

beul, chewing it in their mouths. — Sm. 
Cagnaidh, _/«/. aff. a. Shall chew, champ, or gnaw. 
Cagn AR,yi/<. pats, of cagainn. Shall be chewed, 
t Cai, s.f. A road; a house ; a titling. — Ir. id. 
Caib, caibe, s. m. (IV. caib.) A spade, a mattock. A 
gheurachadh a chaibe, to sharpen his spade. — Stew. Sam. 
N. pi. caibeachan. lasad a chaibe gun a chur fuidh thalamh, 
the loan of a spade that is not put tn the ground. — G. P. 
Caibeal, eil, *. m. A chapel; a family burying-place. 

N. pi caibealan. 
Caibeineachd, s.f. Gabbling, prating. 
Caibhne, s.f. Friendship. — Shaw. 
Caibideal, eil, s./. A chapter. Jr. caibidil. Corn, cabydul, 

a chapter. Lat. capitellum, a little head, 
t Caibne, s.f. The mouth, 
t Caideal, eil, «. 77!. A pump. AT. p/. caidealan. 
tCAiDii,a. Chaste, immaculate; a.\so, substantively, order, 

manner, method, 
t Caidhe, s.f. Dirt, blemish. — Shaw. 
t Caidheach, a. Dirty, blemished, polluted, 
t Caidheachd, s.f. Chastity. — Shaw. 
Caidjiean, ein, s. m. The leader of a flock of goats; a 
turtle dove. — Shaw, 

t Caidheil, a. (caidh-amhuil.) Chaste, decent, 

Caidil, v. n. Sleep, slumber, repose. Pret. a. chaidil, 
slept ; fut. aff. a. caidilidh, shall .sleep. Written also cadail. 

Caidir, v. a. Permit, connive at; also converse; fondle. 
Pret. a. chaidir; fut. aff. a. caidiridh, shall permit. Olc ni 
'n caidir thu, thou shall not permit wickedness. — Sm. 

Caidreach, a. Friendly, kind, familiar, conversant, fond ; 
also an acquaintance ; a partner. 

Caidheamh, eimh, s. (perhaps comh-aitreamh.) Fellowship, 
partnership, familiarity, acquaintance; discourse; com- 
merce ; assemblage. — Macint. Ir. caidreadh. W. caidreav, 
a joint dwelling. 

Caidreamhach, aich, *. m. (comh-aitreamhach.) An ac- 
quaintance, a companion ; a room-companion, a fellow- 
lodger. L^imh ri treudaibh do chaidreamhach, near the 
flocks of thy companion. — Stew. Song. Sol. ref 

Caidreamhach, a. (/row caidreamh.) Familiar, conversant, 
fond, social, companionable. Gu caidreamhach, yamiftV/r/y. 
Com. and svp. caidreamhaiche. 

Caidreamhas, ais, s. m. {W. cyddras.) Consanguinity ; 
familiarity, intimacy, fondness. 

Caigeann, a. Couple together, link together. Pret. a. 
chaigeann ; fut. aff. a. caigeannaidh, shall couple. 

Caigeann, inn, s. m. Two linked or coupled together. 

Caigne, s.f A fan to winnow with. — Shaw. 

CAiL, ckile, s.f {Ir. cail.) Disposition, temper; quality, 
condition ; liie ; strength ; sense ; constitution ; voice ; ap- 
petite ; look or appearance. Gum fainich naimhde a c^il, 
that enemies may feel its temper. — Oss. San tigh chaol gun 
chkil, in the narrow house without life. — Oss. Derm. Mo 
chJiil a treigsinn, my strength failing. — Id. Chaill iad cail 
an claisteachd, they lost their sense of hearing. — Macdon. 

t Cail, caile, «./. A spear; a shield. — Shaw. 

t Cailbhe, *./. A mouth, an orifice. — Ir, id. 

Cailbheacii, o. Wide-mouthed; yawning. 

t Cailbheaciid, s.f. Continued or frequent yawning. 

t Caile, *./. A shield, a buckler. — Shaw. 

Cailc, cailce, «./. (Corn, caleh.) Chalk. D' aodainn mar 
chailc, the face like chalk. — Old Song. 

Cailceach, a. Chalky, like chalk. 

Cailceanta, a. Hard. — Ir. id. 

Cailceil, a. (cailc-amhuil.) Chalky, like chalk. 

Caile, s.f. {Arm. calch.) A girl; a vulgar girl, 
a hussy; a quean; a strumpet. N. pi. cailean, girls. 
Caile-bhalaoch, a romp. 

Caile-bhalaocii, s.f. A romp. 

CXileach, a. {from cki\.) Of, or belonging to, disposition ; 
having a good disposition or quality ; tempered. 

CAileachd, «.y. (Jr. ckilidheachd.) Natural endowments, 
accomplishments, genius; constitution, temper, nature. 
Aois a leaghadh do chkileachd, age dissolving thy constitu- 
tion. — Old So7ig. Gun chron ckileachd, without blemish oj 
temper. — Old Song. 

Caileaciidacii, a. Having natural endowments; accom- 
plished ; having genius. 

CiiLEACHDAN, n. pi. of ckileachd. Accomplishments, dis- 
positions, passions or affections of the mind. 

Caileadair, s. m. A calendar.— Marrf. N. pi. cailead- 

Caileag, eig, «./. A girl, a young girl, N. pi, ca.i\ea^a.n. 
Caileagan, n. pi. of caileag. Girls. 
CAiLEANACH, aich, s. m. A breeze. 
Caileanta, o. (/rom caile.) Girlish; also fond of girls. 
Caileas, eis, s. m. Lethargy.— Shaw. 
Cail-eigin, a. aad adv. Some, somewhat, a little, some- 

C A I 

C A I 

thing, in some degree, in some measure. Labhram cail- 
eighi, / will speak something. 
i|. V-Cailo, cailge, «./. A sting ; resentment.— SAaa-. 
t Cailo, r. n. Sting, priclc, pierce. Pret. a. chailg. 
t Cailiuear, eir, s. m. Rheum, phlegm, snot. 
Cailinn, «./. {Ir. cailio.) A girl, a damsel, a maiden; 

a company of young women. Asp. form, chailinn. Bha 

chailinn ro mhaiseach, the maiden was very fair.— Stew. 
. 0. T. Chum beathachaidh do chailimi.ybr the maintenance 

of thy maidens. — Stew. Pro. 
Caill, v. a. Lose, win not, suffer loss. Pret. a. chaill, lost ; 
fut. aff. a. caiilidh. Mun caill iad an tre6ir, ere they lose their 

strength. — Ardar. 
t Caill, s. m. {Arm. caill.) A testicle. Hence caillteanach, 

an eunuch. 
Caille, s. f. A veil, a hood. {Ir. caille. Eng. cowl.) 

Hence cailleach, an old woman. 
Cailleach, ich,s.f.{from caille.) An old woman, an old wife; 

in derision, a coward. JV. pi. cailleachan. Ma 's cailleach 

gun bhrigh thu, iftAou beest a sapless old woman. — Old Song. 

Cailleach-chosach, a cheslip ; cailleach cheann-dubh, a 

titmouse ; cailleach oidhche, an owl. 
Cailleach, s. Husks of corn. 
Cailleachag, eig, *. /. {dim. of cailleach.) A little old 

woman. N. pi. cailleachagan. 
Cailleachail, a. (cailleach-amhuil.) Like an old woman ; 
' also cowardly. 

Cailleachanta, a. Cowardly; soft; unmanly. 
Cailleaciias, ais, s. m. The conduct of an old woman; 

dotage; cowardice. 
Cailleachcheann-ditbh, s.f. A titmouse ; a colemouse ; 

tlie parus ater of Linnseus. 
Cailleach-ch5sach, aich, i./. A cheslip; a milleped.— 

Cailleach-dhubh, s.f. A nun. CsdUeachan dubh, nuns. 
Cailleach-oidhche, s.f. An owl; the strix ulula of 

Linnaeus. Cumha na caillich-oidhche, the owl's lament. — 

Stew. Mic. Written more correctly coileach- oidhche. 

Cailleach-oidhche gheal, a white owl; the strix Jtammea of 

t Cailleadh, idh, s. in. {from caille.) The process of 

castration ; castration. 
Cailleag, eig, s.f A loss; a detriment. cailleagan. 
Caillean, ein, «. m. {from chth.) A seed; a husk of 

grain. Caillean ann am fhiacaill, a seed between my teeth. 

— Macfar. N. pi. c^illeanan. Ni caillean am fiacail 

inntinn loisnich, a seed in the gums disturbs the mind. — G. P. 
Cailleanach, a. Full of seeds or husks of grain. 
Cailleanacii, aich, s. m. {frotn call.) One who loses, one 

who is apt to lose or drop any thing, one who suffers a loss, 
t Cailleasg, eisg, s. m. A horse or mare. — Shaw. N. pi. 

Caillte, p. part, of caill. {Arm. collet.) Lost, ruined, 

damned. Caillte is fadheoidh air sgeul, lost and fuund 

again. — Sm. An ni nach caillte gheibhear e, what is not 

lost will be found. — G. B. 
Caillteacii, a. Ruinous, causing loss; losing, apt to lose. 

Brii chaillteach, a miscarrying womb. — Stew. Has. 
Caillteanach, aich, s. m. {J'rom f caille.) An eunuch. — 

Stew. G. B. N. pi. caillteanaich. 
Cailtearnach, aich, s. m. A shrubby place, a shrubbery. 
Caim, s.f. A stain, a blot, a fault. — Jr. id. 
Caime, s.f. Crookedness. 

Caime, com. and sup. of cam. More or most crooked. 
Caimean, ein, s. m. A moic— Stew. Mat. ref. A little 

blot, a little stain. 
Caimean ACii, a. Full of motes ; like a mote. 

Caimhdean, ein, «. m. A multitude. 

Caimheacii, ich, s. m. A protector. — Shaw. 

t Caimis, caimse, s.f. A shirt; a shift.— 7r. id. It. ca- 

miscia. Pr. chemise, 
t Caimlear, eir, *. m. A bent stick used by butchers. — 

Shaw. N. pi. caimlearan. 
t Caimneach, a. {Ir, id.) Chaste. — Shaw. 
Caimpear, ir, s. m. (fear-caimp.) A champion; a warrior. 

N. pi. caimfearaii. 
t Cain, a. Chaste ; beloved. — Ir. id. 
CXiy, s.f. Tribute, tax; rent; a fine ; also slander. Nach 

ioc iad ckin ? will they not pay tribute ?-^G. B. 
Cain, i'. a. {Ir. id.) Slander; revile; scold; dispraise 

Pret. a. chkm ; fat. ajf. a. cainidh, shall slander ; fut. pass. 

t Caindeal, eil, s.f A candle. Now written coinneal ; 

which see. 
Caineab, eib and cainbe, s.f. {from can, white.) A canvas; 

also hemp. Is fearr crathadh na cainbe no crathadh na 

cirbe, the shaking of a canvas sheet is better thau tite dusting 

of a bag. — G. P. 

Gr. naita^n. Lat. cannabis. Anglo-Sax. hoenep. 

Arm. canab. Du. kennip. Teut. kenneb. Pers. cannab. 
Caineab-aodach, such, «. m. Canvas. 
Caineacii, a. {from c^in.) Tributary; like a tribute or 

fine; prone to slander. 
Caineachd, s.f. Taxation, taxing; the habit of slander. 
CaIneadh, idh, s. m. {Ir. id.) A reviling, a traducing; 

slander. An ciineadh, their reviling. — Stew. Is. Fear 

ckinidh, a traducer ; luchd-cainidh, traducers. 
t Caineag, eig, s.f. A mote; a. farthing; barley, oats. 

JV. pi. caineagan. 
Caineal, eil, s.7n. Cinnamon, tf^- kanuylk. Span, and 

Port, canela. 
Caingeal, eil, «. »!. A hurdle; a reason. — Shaw. 
t Caingean, ein, s. m. A prayer; also an agreement or 

compact ; a rule ; a cause. 
Cainich, v. a. {from cain.) Ir. id. Fine, amerce, tax. 

Pret. a. ch^inich, taxed; fut. aff. a. cJiinichidh, shall fine. 
Cainidh, /k*. aff. a. Shall traduce. 
Cainneal, eil, *./. A channel, a canal. —Macf/. 
Cainneal, s. f A candle. More frequently written 

coinneal; which see. 
Cainnt, ckinnte, s.f. {Ir. id.) Language, speech; discourse, 

conversation ; a language or tongue. Cainnt bhallsgach, 

burlesque. Cha robh cainnt ann, he had not the power of 

speech. — Slew. K. N. pi. cainntean. 
Cainnteacii, {from cainnt.) Talkative; peevish, cross, 

malicious. Gu cainnteach, peevishly. Com. and sup. cainn- 

tiche, more or most talkative. 
Cainnteachd, s.f. Pronunciation ; talkativeness ; peevish- 

A peevish cross young female ; a 

A press; a lump.— S/;aa.'. 
A peevish person, a cross person. 
An orator, a linguist; a babbler. 

Cainnteag, eig, *. /. 
canticle. — Ir. id. 

t Cainnteal, eil, s. m. 

Cainntean, ein, s. m. 

Cainntear, eir, s. m. 
Ir. cainnteoir. 

Cair, 4./. { A gum. See Cairean. 

CiiR. V. a. Dig; raise; prepare; gird on; bury; repair, 
mend ; lay up ; send away ; assert ; persuade, make to 
believe. 'Pret. a. ch^ir; fut. aff'. a. cairidh, shall dig. 
Caireadh iad m' uaigh, let them raise my tomb. — Oss. Gaul. 
Cairibh misc le m' ghaol, bury me with my beloved. — 
Oss. Derm. Caireadh gach aon a lann, let every one gird 
on his sword.— Ull. Cairidh mi a balla, I will repair her 

C A I 

C A I 

walk. — Smith. Ch^readh e orm, he would assert to me, 
be mould make me believe. 

Cairb, s.f. A fusee ; a chariot; a ship ; a plank. 

Cairbean, ein, s. m. A species of basking shark, by sailors 
called a sailfish. It is found on the western coasts of the 
northern seas ; according to Linnseus, in the Arctic circle. 
They have been caught, however, among the Orkneys and 
Hebrides, in Ballishannon Bay in Ireland, and in Wales. 
They measure in length from thirty-six to forty feet. Pen- 
nant mentions one which he saw caught in Arran. 

Cairbeil, s.f. A large eel. 

Cairbh, 1-. a. Man a fleet; shake, quiver. Pre^ a. cairbh ; 
/ut. aff. a. cairbhidh. 

Cairbhe, «.y. A dead body; a carcass ; a corpse. N.j)l. 
cairbhean ; d. pi. cairbhibh. Air na cairbhibh, on the car- 
casses. — Stew. G. B. 

W. cwrv, a corpse. Heb. careb, a dead body embalmed. 

CAiRBHEAy, n. j)/. of cairbh. Carcasses; corpses. 

Cairbhinn, s.f. {Eng. carrion.) A carcass, a corpse ; lean 
meat ; carrion. N. pi. cairbhinnean ; d. pL cairbhinnibh. 
Cairbhinnean an righrean, the carcasses of their kings. — 
Sttto. Ezek. Cha 'n eil crioch air an cairbhinnibh, there is 
no end to their corpses. — Stew. Nah. 

Cairbiiixneach, a. Full of carcasses ; of, or pertaining to, 
a corpse or carcass ; like a corpse or carcass ; cadaverous. 

Cairbhinneaciid, s. f. A slaughtering, a massacring; 

Cairbinn, f.y. A carabine. .^^. p/. cairbinnean. 

Cairbinneach, ich, s. m. A toothless person; also, ad- 
jectively, toothless. 

t Cairo, cairce, *./". Hair; fur; eagerness. 

t Cairceach, o. Hairy; eager. Gu cairceach, eagerfy. 

Caircheas, ais, s. m. A little vessel ; a twist. 

Caird, cairde, i./. {Ir. id. Corn, herd, affection.) Friend- 
ship; a bosom friend ; delay, respite, rest; scruple. Fas- 
gadh is caird, shelter and rest. — Fingalian I'oem. Gun 
chaird, incessantly ; without scruple. 

Caiude, n. pi. <Jr. id.) Friends; relations. Asp. form, 
chairde. Mo chairde san fhrith, my friends in the forest.— 
Osi. Fing. Cairde gaoil, kinsfolk. 

Cairdeacii, a. {from caird.) {W. caredig. Ir. cairdeoch, 
related. Corn, caradow.) Related ; connected by birth or 
by marriage ; friendly. Do na h-uaislean tha thu cairdeach, 
thou art related to the gentry. — Old Song. Com. and sup. 

Cairdealachd, s.f. (caird-amhuileachd.) Friendliness. 

Cairdealas, ais, s. m. Friendliness. 

Cairdeax, n. pi. of caird, (or contracted for caraidean.) 
Friends, relations, cousins. Cha bu cheo mo chairdean, 
my friends -were not as mist. — Oss. Manos. Cairdean, 
nigheanan an dk bhrathar, cousins, the daughters of two 
brothers; cairdean, mic an d^ bhrkthar, cousins, the sons 
oftuo brothers; cairdean, mic an da pheathar, cousins, the 
tons of two sisters; cairdean, nigheanan an dk pheathar, 
cousins, the daughters of two sisters. — Macd. 

Cairdeas, eis, s. m. Relationship, friendship, fellowship. 
Cairdeas no comunn, nor friendship nor fellowship ; cairdeas 
fola, blood relationship ; cairdeas marraiste, affinity ; comhal- 
tas gu ceud, is cairdeas gu fichead, the relation of fostering 
connects by hundreds^ the relation of blood onlu bu twenties. — 
G. P. 

Cairdeil, a. (caird-amhuil.) Friendly; ft/era%, friendlike. 

Cair-dhearg, *./. A blush.— SAaa-. 

Caireachan, ain, s. m. A big-mouthed person. 

Caikeag, eig, .s./. A prating young giri. JV. ;;/. caireagan. 

Caireaoacii,!!. Prating; applied to a garrulous young female. 

CAiREAN, ein, a. m. The gum of the mouth ; a palate ; the 

taste of th« mouth ; a a^in ; a beloved person ; a darling. 
N. pi. caireanan a/id ciirein. Do m'chairein, to my [gums] 
taste. — Stew. Song Sol. ref. Do chairean, thy palate. — 
Stew. 0. T. 
Caireanach, o. Having gums; of gums. 
Cair-fhiadii, -fheidh, s. m. A hart> a stag. N. pi. cair- 

fheidh. — Ir. id. Arm. karo. 
Cairich, f. a. {Ir. cairrigh.) Repair, mend ; inter, bury; 
raise a monumental mound ; accuse, lay to one's charge. 
Pret. a. chairich, mended; fut. aff. a. cairichidh. Chairich 
e 'n altair, he repaired the altar. - Stew. K. Na cairich am 
peacadh oirnne, lay not the sin [to our charge] on us. — 
Stew. Numb. 
Cairid, s. m. ; protincialfor caraid ; which see. 
Cairijtn, s. c. a darling. Lat. car-us, dear. 
t Cairleum, v. a. and ti. Tumble about; beat or toss 

Cairmeal, eil, s.m. Wild pease, heath pease; the crobus 
tubcrosus of Linnaeus. 

The ancient Caledonians are said to have made much use of 
this root as an article of food. The Jlebridians, according to 
Pennant, chew tliis root like tobacco, and also make a fermented 
liquor from it. They say that it is a good medicine; that it promotes 
expectoration, and is very serviceable in pulmonary complaints. It 
grows in heaths and birchwoods to the size of a filbert : sometimes 
lour or five roots are joined by fibres. The stalk of it is green, and 
bears a red fiower. When the root is pounded and infused, with 
yeast superadded, as is done by many of the llebrideans, a palat- 
able and wholesome liquor is produced. Some have supposed that 
this is the chara which the soldiers of Valerius found, as is men- 
tioned by Ca;sar de Bella Civ. lib. iii. 
Cairn, gen. sing, of cam. Of a cairn. 
Cairneach, ich, s.m. A kingsfisher, an osprey; also, in 

allusion to his dwelling-place, a druid. 
Cairneacii, a. {from earn.) Rocky, stony, shelvy. Tasgair 
cairneach, a kingsfisher, an osprey. 

Cairnean, ein, s. m. An egg-shell. Cairnean uibh, an 

Cairreall, eill, s. m. A noise; the sound of distant ' 

music ; harmony, melody, caroling. 
Cairreallach, a. Harmonious, caroling. 
CAiRT, «./. (La*. quart-US.) A quarter of a yard ; a fourth 

part of a yard. Slat agus ciirt, a yard and a quarter. 

Leth-chrun an ckirt, half-a-croxcn a quarter. 
Cairt, cartach, s. f A cart; bark of a tree or rhind ; a 

card ; a chart, a charter ; a deed or bond ; rarely a stone, 

a rock. N. pi. cairtean. Cairt nomha, a new cart.— Stew. 

Sam. Fuidh 'n chairt, under the bark. — Macint. A cluich' 

air chairtean, playing at cards; cuidhle na cartach, the 


Span, carreta, a cart. Jr. cairt. JF. cart. Lat. charta, 

paper, and cortex, bark, Swed. kort, a cord. 
Cairt, v, a, (Ir. id.) Cleanse, as a stable; strip off the 

bark ; tan as leather. Pret. a. chairt, cleansed; fut. aff. a. 

cainidb, ihall cleanse. 
Cairt-ciieap, -chip, s. The name of a cart-wheel. - Ir. id. 
Cairteac;, eig, s.f {dim. of cairt.) A little cart; a tumbrel. 

N. pi. cairteagan. 
Cairtkal, eil, s. m. {Span, cartel.) A quarter of any thing, 

a gill; a lodging; a chavtulary; a challenge; an edict. 

N. pi. cairtealan. 
Cairtealan, n. pi. of cairteal. Quarters, lodgings; also 

a chartulary, a challenge. Air chairtealan, on quarters; 

quartered, lodged. — Old Song, Nan cairtoalaibh geamh- 

raidh, in their winter quarters. — Macdon. 
Cairtkar, eir, «. m. A carter, a carman, a waggoner, 

Ir. cairteoir. 
Cairt-iCiil, *. /. A mariner's compass. — Macint. Also a 

sea-chart. Air cairt-iiiil air falbh uainn, our sea-chart away 
from us. — Old Song. 

C A I 

C A I 

Cairtlah, ain, t. m. A chartulary. N. pL cartlain. 
t Cais, a. Spruce, trim. — Shaw. 
^ ^ •(■ Cais, s. f. Regard, love, esteem ; also hatred. Ir. cais. 
^ W. cas. 

Cais-biieaht, «. Shoes and stockings ; greaves. Written 

more frequently coisbheart. 
Cais-chiabii, s. m. A curl or ringlet. N. pi. cais-chiabhan, 

Cais-chiabhach, a. Curly ; having ringlets or tresses. 
Caisd, I', n. Listen, hearken, be quiet; silence ! Prct. chaisd, 
became quiet ; fut. tiff, caisdidh, shall become quiet ; chaisd 
i ri caithream na seilg, she listened to the noise of the chase. 
— Oss.Gaul. Nach caisd thu ? ■milt thou not be quiet f caisd 
a sin thu, be quiet. 
Caisdeaciid, «./. {Ir. coisteachd.) Alistening; a silencing. 
With a it forms the pres. part, of caisd. Ce61 air tuinn is 
r6in a caisdeachd, inusic on the uaters and seals listening. — 
Oss. Derm. Cluas ri caisteachd, a personage in Highland 
Caisdeal, eil, s. m. A castle ; a fort, a garrison ; a turretted 
house. Caisdeal Bhealaich, Taymouth Castle; Caisdeal 
lonmhar-lochaidh, Fnrt-William, in the West Highlands ; 
caisdeal a chuirp, the trunk. 

Lat. castellum. TV. castell. Arm. castel. Du. kasteal. 
Caisdealacii, a. Castelled, turretted ; full of forts, castles, 
or garrisons ; of, or pertaining to, a fort or castle ; like a 
fort or castle. Carraig chaisdealach, a castled rock. 
CAiSE, s. f. Cheese. Mulachag chkise, a cheese; ckise 
cruidh, cow's-milk cheese. — Stew. Sam. 

Lat. caseus. It. caccia. W. caws. Jr. c^ise. Du. caas. 
Corn, kez and caus. Arm. caus. Teut. kaese and kase. 
Germ. caes. Span, queso. 
Caise, com. and sup. of cas. More or most steep. 
Caise, s. f. A wrinkle; a fold; passion; steepness; a 
stream ; rarely a mushroom, discord. Aghaidh gun sgraing 
gun chaise, a face without frown or wrinkle. — Old Song. 
Caiseach, a. Wrinkled; passionate; impetuous. 
Caiseach, a. Abounding in cheese ; like cheese ; of, or 
belonging to, cheese. Aranach caiseach, abounding in 
• bread and cheese. — Macd. 

Caisead, eid, «. w. Steepness; suddenness; rapidity; im- 
petuosity. — Macint. Increase in steepness, or in rapidity. 
A dol an caisead, growing more and more steep. 
Caiseag, eig, s.f. The stem of a weed. — Shaw. 
t Caiseal, eil, s. m. A bulwark, a wall ; a castle, a gar- 
rison. N. pi. caisealan. 
Caisealach, o. Having bulwarks ; walled; castelled; like 

a bulwark, wall, or garrison. 
CiisEAR, ir, «. »i. (ckis-fhear.) A cheesemonger. JF. cawswr. 
Caisearaciid, s.f. The business of a cheesemonger; cheese- 

Caisearbhan, ain, s. m. A dandelion. 
Cais-fiiionn, a. White-footed; also a naiue given to a 

white-legged cow. 

CXisa, s. f. {Ir. id.) The passover ; Easter. Di-d6mhnuich 

ckisg, Easter Sunday. Earrach fad an deigh Chaisg, 

Spring long after Easter is a bad sign of the season. — G. P. 

Perhaps caisg should have been paisg, agreeably to the 

analogy of other languages. Gr. ita.cya,. Lat. pascha. 

Hcb. pasadh, pass over; the angel having passed over the 

Israelitic habitations which had their doors sprinkled with 

the blood of the lamb. 

Caisg, v. a. and n. Restrain, check, stop, still, calm, quell, 

subside, put an end to. Prct. a. chaisg ; fit. aff.a. caisgidh, 

shall or will restrain. Caisgidh mi an sruth, / will stop the 

stream. — Oss. Tern. Caisgidh mi shiubhal, / will check his 

progress. — Id, 

Chaisg an onfha, the storm subsided.- 

Oss. Trath. A chaisgeas fuaimneach mara is tuinn, who 
stills the roar of sea and surge. — Sm, Fut. pass, caisgear. 

Caisgear, fut. pass, of caisg. Shall be checked or quelled. 

Caisgidh, fut, aff. a. Shall restrain, check, or stop. 

t Caisil-chro, *. f. A bier. An caisil-chro tha 'n laoch, 
the hero is on his bier, — Oss. Conn. 

This bier was made of wicker, and used by the ancient Gael. 
The Roman bier, or feretrum, was seemingly of the same structure, 
according to Ruseus, in ^n. vi. 221. " Feretrum e ligno et vimine 
contextum," a bier made of deal and vxroen twigs." 

Caisleach, ich, *./. A ford ; a footpath ; a smooth place, 

a smooth path. Caisleach spuinc, touchwood. 
Caisleach-spuino, s.f. Touchwood, spunk, 
t Caislear, ir, s. m, A projector. N. pi. caislearan. 
Caislichte, a. Polished, smoothed, burnished. 
Caismeachd, s, f. (i. e, cas-imeachd, hurried movement.) 
An alarm ; a warning ; a hint ; a Highland march, a war- 
song. Caismeachd na maduinn, the warning of morn. — Oss, 
Caismeachd nan sonn, the alarm of heroes, — Oss, Lodin, 
Caismeaciidacii, a. Warning; giving an alarm or warning; 

Caismeart, eirt, s. m. (cas-iomairt.) The heat of battle; 

armour ; a band of combatants. 
Caisreabhaciid, s.f. Legerdemain, juggling. — Ir. id. 
Caisreabhaiche, *. m. A juggler, a conjurer. 
Caisreag, eig, s.f. A wrinkle ; a curl ; a ringlet. N. pi. 
caisreagan ; gen, pi. caisreag ; asp. form, chaisrcag, full of 
ringlets, tressy, — Macint, 
Caisreagach, a. (yrom caisreag.) Curled ; bushy, as hair; 
wrinkled. A chiabha caisreagach, his bushy locks. — Stew. 
Song Sol. Com. and sup. caisreagaiche, nwrc or most curled, 
Caisteal, eil, s. m, A castle, a fort, a garrison ; a turretted 
mansion. Bu chaisteal dhomh thu, thou wert a garrison to 
me, — Sm. Caisteal a chuirp, the trunk of the body. 

Lat. castellum. IV. castell. Arm. castel and gastell. 

Du. kasteal. 

C'ait, adv. (cia ^it.) Ir. id. Where, in what place ; whither. 

C'ait as, whence. C'ait tha thu dol ? whither art thou going f 

— Stew. Gen. C'ait am bheil e ? where is he! 

Caiteach, ich, *. /. Chaff; husks, as of seed; also, ad' 

jectively, full of chaff, full of husks. 
Caiteach, a. Extravagant. More correctly cailhteach, 
Caiteacijas, ais, «. ?n. Extravagance. See Caithteachas. 
Caiteag, eig, *./. A pot, a butter-pot. Ir, caiteog. N, pi, 

Caitean, ein, s,m. The knap of cloth, shag; rough hairy 
surface ; what is rubbed from off a soft surface ; the blossom 
of osier. Caitean brucach nan craobh, the shaggy speckled 
moss of trees, — Macdon, Ir, caitin. 
f Caitean, ein, s, m, A chain. Lat. catena. Teut. keten. 
Caiteanach, a. Rough, shaggy ; knappy, as cloth ; rough- 
skinned ; curled : also, substantively, a hairdresser ; a cloth- 
Caiteas, eis, i. wi. Caddis; the scrapings of linen. 
Caith, v. a. Spend, waste, squander, pass, consume, ex- 
haust, wear. Pref. a. chaith, spent ; fut. aff. a. caithidh, 
shall spend, Na caith do lochrain, waste not thy /lames, — 
Oss. Gaul, Caitheadhmaid an oidhche, let us pass [spend] 
the night. — Ull. Caithidh an t-amadan, the fool xdll squan- 
fjer. — Stew. Pro, Caith do shaothair, bestow thy labour in 
vain. Gu 'm meall is gun caith thu e, may you enjoy and 
wear it. — Old Saying, 
t Caitii, a. Chaste, mild. — Ir. id, 
Caitii' AiMsiR, s, m. Pastime ; a waste of lime. 
Caith-beatha, s. m. Behaviour, conduct, conversation. 
Air caith-beatha roimh so, our conversation {conducf] in 
former times, — Stew, Eph, 


C A I, 

C A L 

Caitheach, icli, s. m. A spendthrift ; also, 0(f/ec<ice/y, pro- 
fuse, extravagant. 

Caitheadh, idh, s. m. A spending; extravagance. More 
frequently written caitbeamh. 

Caitheamh, eimh, s. m. and/. The act of spending, the 
act of consuming ; a wearing, a decaying ; extravagance, 
waste; consumption, decay. Gu caitheamh uUamh, ready 
to consume. — 5m. Caitheamh agus fiabhrus, decay and 
fextr. — Id. Caitheamh-aimsir, pastime. Bithidh sonas an 
lorg na caitheimh, happiness follows the generous, — G. P. 
Tinneas caitheimh, a consmnption. 

Caitheab, fut. pass, of caith. Shallbe spent or consumed. 

CaithleaCii, s. {from ckth.) Husks of corn; seeds; chaff. 
Diasan arbhair nan c^ithleach, ears of cum in their husks. — 
— Steu-. K. 

Caitiilean, ein, *. m. {from c^th.) A husk, as of corn. 
D. pi. caithleinibh. Le 'n ckithleinibh, with their hufiks.— 
Stew. K. ref. 

Caituleanach, a. Husky as corn, seedy. 

Caitiiream, eim, s. m. {Ir. id. Gr. ^a^fiit, mirth.) A shout 
of triumph or of joy ; a loud shout ; symphony; triumph; 
information ; notice. Do 'n chaithream aoibhinn, to the 
Joyful shout. — Smith, Mar chaithream chlar, like the 
symphony of harps. — Oss. Derm. 

Cmthream seems to be made up of cath, battle, and f reim, 
power ; or perhaps it is cath-thoirm. 

Caitiireamach, a. Triumphant, victorious; making a 
loud shout. Ir. cathreimach. 

Caitiiris, s. f. A watching; circumspection, attention ; a 
watch by night. — Macd. 

Caithriseach, a. Watchful, attentive, circumspect. Gu 
caithriseach, watchfully. Com. and sup. caithrisiche. 

Caithriseachd, s. f. Continued or frequent watching, 
watchfulness, attentiveness, circumspection. 

Caithte, p. part, of caith. Spent, wasted, squandered. 

Caithteacii, a. (/rom caith.) Lavish ; consuming, wasting, 
wearing. Tinneas caithteach, a wasting disease. Com, and 
sup. caithtiche. 

Caithteaciias, ais, s. m. {from caith.) Lavishness, pro- 
fusion, a wasting. 

Caithtiche, s. m. {from caith.) A spendthrift, a waster. 

+ Cal, cail, s. m. Sleep. — Ir. id. 

CAl, c^il, *. m. Kail, colewort; a name for all sorts of 
cabbage ; Scotch broth, of which kail is a principal ingre- 
dient; a dinner; rrtre/j/, a joke. Ck\ ctaxslach, cabbage ; 
c^l-gruidheam, cauliflower; cal colag, cauliflower. — Macd. 
An d' fhuair do chil ? have you got your \dinner'\ kail? 
Garadh cail, a kitchen-garden. 

Gr.xavhui. Z.a^. caulis. Tea*, koole. Bc/g'. koole. Germ. 
kohl. .S'aW. kol. Sax. cawl. jEng^. cole anrf kail. ^rra. caulen. 
W. and Corn. cowl. Ir. cal. 

Cal, Caladh, aidh, $.m. Condition of body; grief, de- 
spondency ; darkness. Is math a dial, he is in good con- 
dition of body ; mu 'm fks air d-inntinn cal, before grief falls 
on thy soul. — Smith. 

t Cal, f. n. Enter a port or harbour. — Ir. id. Shaw. 

Cala, ai, CAladh, aidh, i. m. A harbour, a port ; ashore; 
a ferry. Fhuair sinn an ckla, we gained the harbour. — Orr. 
An ckladh ait, the joyful shore. — Smith. 

Lat. t cala. It. cala, a Icc-shore, a bay. Fr. cale. Span. 
cala, bay. Teut. kille and kielle. 

From cala come the names of all sea-port towns and of countries 
noted for f;ijod harVjours, endinsj in cal, gal, or cala; as Burdicala, 
or Burdii;ula, on the Garonne; Portucal, or F^ortugal. Henco also 
Cala-is (Caletuni), a sea-port in France. 

Calaich, v. a. {from cala.) Bring into harbour; harbour; 
reside; continue. Pret. a. chalaich, resided; fut. aff, a, 
|- Cax,air, s. 7n, A crier. 

t Calaireachd, *.y. Proclamation; shouting; burying. 

t Calaiseachd, «./. A juggler. 

t Calaist, s.f. A college. — Ir. id. 

Calaman, ain, •?. A dove. Provincial for columan. 

Calba, s. m. A leg ; the brown of the leg. More frequently 
written calpa ; which see. 

t Calbh, a. Bald. 

Ir. calbh. Lat. calvus. Chald. chalaph, strip of bark. 
Heb. chalal, smooth, 

+ Calbhacii, rt. Causing baldness. 

Calbh achd, s,f. Baldness. 

Calc, v. a. {Lat. calco, to tramp.) Caulk, drive, beat, ram, 
cram ; push violently forward ; beat a bullet into a gun 
with a ramrod. Pret. a. chalc, crammed; fut. aff. a. calcaidh. 

t Calc, cailc, s. f. Chalk, lime. 

Lat. calx. tV. calch. Swed. kalk. Du. kalk. Teut. calk. 

Calcadh, aidh, s. m. The act of caulking, beating, or driving 
by percussion ; driving with a rammer ; oakum. Luchd- 
calcaidh, caulkers. — Stew. Ezek. Air a chalcadh, crammed. 
— Macint. 

Calcadh, (a), pr. part, of calc. Caulking, driving by per- 
cussion, ramming, cramming. 

Calcaich, c. o. Cram, caulk; harden by tramping ; grow 
obdurate. Pret. a. chalcaich, hardened. 

Calcaiciite, p. part, of calcaich. Caulked, hardened; 

Calcaidh, fut, aff. a. Shall or will caulk or cram. 

Calcair, «. »(. A caulker, a rammer. 2V. p/. calcairean. 

Calcaireachd, s.f. A caulking, a ramming ; the business 
of a caulker. 

Caldach, aich, s. m. Loss; mischief. Written also calldach. 

Caldrait, s. Callender, in Stirlingshire; perhaps the 
itoXan* of Ptolemy. 

Calg, cuilg, s. {Ir. calg.) Awn ; a prickle, a spear, a sword ; 
any sharp-pointed thing; wrath; ardour; hair, as of a 
quadruped ; the grain. Calg an tuirc, the boar's bristle. — 
Oss. Derm. An aghaidh a chuilg, against the bristle. — Id, 
An aghaidh a c\\\x\\^, against the grain, invitd Minervd ; an 
cluaran a call a chalg, the thistle losing its prickle. — Oss. 
lomairt nan calg, the contest of spears. — Fingalian Poem. 

Calgacii, a. {from calg.) Ir. id. Bristly, prickly, sharp- 
pointed, piercing ; sprightly ; passionate ; ardent ; having 
awn, as ears of barley ; shaggy, as a quadruped. Le 
slataibh calgach, with piercing lashes. — Stew. K. Armach, 
calgach, uUamh, armed, ardetit, dhd ready. — Old Song. 

Calg-diiIreach, a. Direct, contrary ; against, against the 
grain. Calg-dhireach am aghaidh, directly against me. 

Call, s. m. {Cum. W. Arm. coll. Ir. caill. Heb. acholl, to 
lose.) Loss, damage, detiiment, calamity; privation, desti- 
tution. Call iline, loss of time, — Stew. Exod. Cha bu 
shuarach an call e, it was no small loss.—Macfar. Air 
chall, lost, amissing, wanting. — Stew. 2 K. Call an aimsir, 
losing time. Arm. coll au amser. 

Call, (a), pr. part, of caill. Losing, dropping. 

Callaid, s. f. A fence, a partition, a hedge; a lurking 
place ; a cap, a leather cap ; a wig ; a wrangling noise ; 
a funeral cry ; an elegy. N. pi. callaidean. A callaid 
bhriseadh leat, thou hast broken down her fences. — Sm. 
Callaid diiroighiun, a hedge of thorns. — Stew. Pro, ref. 
Chlisg eilde o 'n challaid chosaich, a deer started from its 
lurking place. 

Callaideacii, a. Fenced, hedged, partitioned; like a 
fence, hedge, or partition ; of, or belonging to, a fence, 
hedge, or partition. 

t Callaidh, a. Active, nimble, agile, clever. — Shaw. 

t Callaidheachd, s. f. Activity, nimbleness, agility, 



QAtL-AiMSiu, s. m. Loss of time. W, and Arm. coll-amscr. 
t Callaih, s. m. (Jr. id,. W. calwr.) A crier. N. pi. call- 

Callais, «./. Buffoonery. — Shavi. 
t Callan, ain, s. m. Noise, clamour, shouting. — Shaw. 
Calldach, aich, .v. m. (from call.) Loss, detriment, damage, 

calamity ; a succession of losses. Ni c suas an calldach, 

he will make up the loss. — Stew, Exotl. 
Calldainn, Callduinn, «./. (Corn, colwiden.) Hazle ; 

a hazle copse. Slatan do 'n challdainn, Jiazle rods. — Stew. 

Gen. Preas challdainn, a hazle bush; cn6 challdainn, a 

hazle nut ; nathair challdainn, a species of snake. 
Calm, Calma, a. (Ir, id.) Stout, strong ; personable; also 

a stout man, a champion. An anama calnia, their stout 

souls. — Oss, Cathluno. Luchd a chridhe chalm, the stout- 
hearted. — Sm. Do radh an calma, the champion replied. 

— Fingalian Poem, 
Caluxchv), s.f. (Ji-om cdUm,) Stoutness, strength, person- 

ablen^ss, bravery. 
Calmadas, ais, s, m, {from calm.) Stoutness, strength, 

Calmai, . s, pi. Heroes, champions ; stout-hearted men. 

D, pi, calmaibh. Fionn le chalmaibh, Fingal with his 

heroes, — Fingalian Poem. 
Calman, ain, ,5. TO. A dove. Prownaa/ /or columan. 
Calm-lann, -lainn, s, m, A dovecot. 
Calpa, s. m, A leg; the brawn of the leg. N, pi. calpan 

and calpanna. Garbh chalpan an righ, the brawny legs of 

the king. — Oss, Fing, 

Teut, kalf, a .stout man. Hence also Galba, the name of 

a Roman emperor, so called from his corpulence. 
CXl-phleadhag, aig, s. m. A gardener's dibble. — Macd. 
Calunn, uinn, s. m. Callosity. 
Cam, a. Crooked, bent, distorted, awry ; curved ; deceitful ; 

blind of an eye. A bhile cam a crith, his distorted lips 

quivering. — Oss. Tern. An ni ata cam, that which is crooked, 

— Stew, Fee. Duine cam, a man blind of an eye, 

Gr, xajiit-TUytobend, Pers, cumu, bending, Chald. k&max, 

to make a vaulted roof. Barbarous Lat. camus and camurus. 

Teut. cam, bent. Old Eng. kam. fV, Corn. Arm. and Ir, cam. 
Cam, V, a. Bend, distort, curve. Pret. a. cham; fut. aff, a. 

camaidh, shall bend, 
Camacag, aig, s.f, (cam-bhacag.) A trip, a sudden tripping 

of the heels. Leig e mile camacag, he tripped him down ; 

cuir camacag, trip. M. pi. camacagan. 
Camadii, aidh, s, m. A bending, a distorting, a curving. 
Camag, aig, s, f, {from cam.) A curl, a ringlet, a crook, 

a clasp ; the side of the head, the temple ; a quibble, 

a quirk; a small bay. ^^.y;;. ybrro, chamag. Lan chamag, 

full of curls, tressy, — Macint. Dochamaga am meadhon do 

chiabh, the temples in the midst of thy locks, — Stew. Song Sol, 
Camagach, a, (from camag.) Curled, as hair; having 

ringlets ; winding ; crooked. Do chill donn camagach, 

thy brown curled hair. — Macfar, 
Caman, ain, s, m. (from cam.) W, camen, a bend. A club, 

a hurling club. N, pi. camain, clubs. A eluich air a 

chaman, playing at shinty, playing at golf. 
Camanaciid, s.f, {from caman.) A game at shinty, a game 

at golf. 
Camas, ais, s. m, A bay, a creek, a harbour; a crooked 

rivulet ; the perineum. An camas dh' aitich an long, the 

vessel anchored in the bay. — Oss, Tem, 
Camasach, a. Aboundinginbays ; of, or pertaining to, a bay. 
CAM-BiiEULACit, fl. Wry-mouthed. 
Cam-bhueach, a. Wry-lipped. 
Cam-bhuidii, a. Yellow-waving ; yellow-curled. D' fhalt 

cam-bhuidh, they curled yellow hair. — Old Song. 

Cam-chosach, a. Bow-legged. If^. kamgoes. Span, can- 

caiso. Ir. cam-chosach. 
Cam-dhan, -dhkin, s. m. Iambic verse. 

Ca meud, {for cia meud.) How many? 

Cam-ghla8, ais, s, m. The bird called a red-shank.- -Macd, 
and Shaw. 

Camii, caimh, s. Power, might ; also a cave. — Macint. 

Camiial, ail, s. {Ir, camal.) A camel. Uisge airson do 
chamhal, water for thy camels, — Stew, Gen. N. pi, camhail. 
Deich camhail, ten camels, — Id. 

Camhajj, ain, s, m. {dim, of carah.) A little cave; a cove. 
N, pi, camhanan. Feadh nan lilb 's nan camhanan, among 
the bays and coves.'^Old Song. 

Camhanaicii, s.f. The dawn of day, early mom. 'Sa 
chamhanaich ag iliridh, rising at dawn, — Macfar, 

Camh-fhAir, s,f. Dawn or daybreak. Ir. camhaoir. 

Cam-lorg, luirg, s. f. A crooked staff; a crooked or 
meandering path ; a circuitous road. Am fear nach gabh 
comhairle, gabhaidh e cam-lorg, he who takes not advice 
will go astray. — G. P. 

Ca.m-luirgneach, a. Bow-legged. Ir, camloirgneach. 

Cam-mhuineai., eil, s. m. A wryneck; the bird called 

Cam-miiuinealach, a. Wry-necked. 

Camp, caimp, *. m. A camp. N, pi. campan. — Stew, Numb. 
Ir. campa. Am meadhon a chairap, in the middle of the 
camp,— Stew. 0, T, 

Campachadh, aidh, *. TO. An encamping; an encampment. 

Campaich, V, n. Encamp. Pret, a. champaich ; fut. aff. a. 
campaicbidh, shall encamp. Champaich iad, they encamped. 
— Stew. Exod. 

Campar, air, s, m. Anger, grief, vexation, fret ; also camphire. 
Na biodh campar ort, do not fret. — Stew, Pro. Fu cham- 
par, grieved. — Macfar. 

Camparach, a. Angry, vexed; fretting; vexatious, trouble- 
some, troubled. 

Cam-shronacii, a. Hook-nosed ; crook-nosed. 

Cam-shuileach, a. Squint-eyed. Cailleach chrosda cham- 
shuileach, a cross-grained squinted beldame. — Old Song, 

Camus, uis, s. m, A bay, a creek, a harbour ; the perineum. 
Thug iad aire do charaus, they observed a bay, — Stew, Acts. 
Written also camas, J 

Camusach, a. Abounding in bays, creeks, or harbours; I 
like a bay or creek ; of, or belonging to, a bay or creek. \ 

\ Can, a. White. 

This word is now obsolete ; but we .see it in canaib or 1 
caincab, canvas, and canach, moss-cotton. Chin, can, a 1 
bright object, Tonq, canh, white, Mogul and Calmuc Tar- 
tars, zagan, white, Lat. canus, grey, and candidus, 
white. Corn. W, Ir, and Arm. can, white, 

CiN, V. n, {Lat. can-o. Arm. cana and kan. W. kan. Corn, 
kana.) Sing, rehearse, say, name, call. Pret. a. ch^n j 
fut. aff. a. cknaidh, shall sing. Ckn oran, sing a song. — 
Stew, Jud. Fut, pass, canar. Prionnsa na siothchaint 
cknar ris, he shall be named the prince, — Smith. 

Canach, aich, *. Cotton; mountain-down or moss-cotton ; 
standing water ; a cat's tail ; deceit. Bu ghile na 'n canach 
a cruth, whiter was her form than mottntain-dowu.—Oss.Lod, 

Canach, a. Soft, kind, mild, pretty. Written also cannach. 

CiNACH, aich, s.f. A tribute, impost; also a porpoise; 
bombast. — Shaw, 

CXj^ AC 11 V, s,f, {from ckin.) Taxing. Fu chanachd, wirfc; 
tribute, taxed, 

Canaib, s, f. Canvas, white cloth; hemp. Arm, and JV. 
canab. Lat, cannabis. 

CAnaichte, part. Taxed. 

C A O 

C A O 

Canaidh,/m^ off. a. of c^n. Shall or will sing. 

Canais, s.f. See Caumhain. 

Canal, ail, s.w. (^rm. canel.) Cinnamon. Cinal cubhraidh, 

sweet cinnamon.— Stew. Exod. 
Canamhoinn, s./. See Canmhaiist. 
Canar, fut. pass, of ckn. Shall be sung. 
Can-fhonn, -fhuinn, s. m. {W. canon.) A song; a pre- 
cept; also, a canon; for, in the times of bardism, all 
maxims, whether political, moral, or religious, were de- 
livered and promulgated in verse. 
Canmhain, Canmhuin, s.f. Language, tongue; pro- 
nunciation, accent. 

Lat. f csmmen, old form of carmen. PT. cynan. Arm. 
kanaven, a song. 
Canmhaixiche, s. m. A linguist. 
f Gann, cainn, s. m. A reservoir; a vessel. 

Syr. canir, vase. Gr. xayfla^of. Hung, kanna. Germ. kari. 

Span. cana. Juvenal has canna, a can. 

Cannach, a. Pretty, comely, beautiful ; mild, soft. Gris- 

dhearg, cannach, ruddy and comely. — Macint. Com. and 

sup. cannaiche. 

Cannach, aich, s. m. Sweet willow; myrtle; any fragrant 

C.ANNRAN, Canran, ain, s. TO. Contention; a grumbling, 
a murmuring, a muttering ; a grumble, a murmur, a mut- 
ter ; a purring ; a cackling ; a chattering, as a bird. Luchd 
cknrain, mutterers. — Stew. Jud'. Rinn mi canran, / chat- 
tered. — Stew. Is. 
Cannranach, CiNRANACH, o. Grumbling, murmuring, 
muttering. Mar ghaoth channranach, like the murmuring 
wind.—Fingalian Poem. Com. and sup. canranaiche. 
Cannranaich, CAnranaich, s.f. A continued grumbling 

or murmuring, 
t Cantacii, a. Dirty, puddly, miry. Com. and sup. cann- 

t Cantaig, s.f. {Lat. cantic-um.) A canticle, a song. 

A^. pi. cantaigean. 
CAntair, s. m. A singer. N. pi. cantairean. . 

Lat. cantor. W. cantur. Span, cantor. 
CAntaireachd, s.f. {Ir. id.) Singing, singing Ijy note ; 
vocal music; warbling; melodiousness — (Macint.); song- 
singing, merriment. Rinn iad cantaireachd, they made 
merry. — Stew. Jud. 
CiNTAL, ail, s. m. Grief, weeping. 
CAntuinn, s./. The act of singing ; singing, speaking. 
CAntuinn, (a), pr. part, of ckn. Singing. 
Canuin, s.f. (/or canmhuin.) Language; pronunciation; 
accent. N. pi. canuinean ; d. pi. canuinibh. Uile ch^- 
nuinean nan cinneach, all the languages of the nations. — 
Stew. Zech. Written also canmhuin. 
C aob, v. a. Clod ; strike with clods. Pret. a. chaob, clodded ; 
fut. aff. a. caobaidh, shall clod. 

Caob, s. f (Ir. id.) A clod, a sod, a piece of turf. Caob- 

shneachdaidh, a snowball. 
Caobach, a. Like a clod or sod ; full of clods. 
+ Caobhan, ain, s. m. A prison. — Shaw. 
. t Caoch, a. (Ir. id. Lat. cvecus, blind.) Blind; empty; 

Caoch-nan-ceakc, s. Henbane. 
Caochag, aig, s. /. A nut without a kernel ; a turned shell ; 

a mushroom; a puff-ball; blind-man's-buff. caoch- 

agan. Na caochagan eutrom, the light hollow nuts. — 

Caochag ACH, a. Full of nuts without kernels ; full of turned 

shells ; full of mushrooiris or of puff-balls ; like a hollow 

nut, like a turned shell, like a mushroom or a puff-ball. 

Caochail, V. a. and n. Change; alter; pass away ; travel ; 

expire. Pret. a. chaochail, changed ; fut. aff. a. caochlaidh, 

shall change. Caochlaidh a ghl6ir, his glory shall change. 

— Sm. Chaochail e, he expired. — Stew. Gen. 
Caochailear, fut. pass, of caochail. Shall be changed. 

Caochailear e, he shall be changed. 
Caochan, ain, s. m. A rivulet; whisky in its first process 

of distillation ; an eddy of air ; an eddy on the surface of 

any fluid; a mole; the fundament. Caochan nan sliabh, 

the mountain rivulet. — Ull. 
Caochla, Caociiladh, aidh, s. m. (Ir. caochladh.) A 

change, an alteration; death; dying; passing away. 

Caochladh an t-soluis, the change of the moon ; caochladh 

na beatha 's na bliadhna, the changes of life and of time. 

— Oss. Air chaochladh dreach, in a different form. — Oss. 

Derm. Bu ghrad do chaochladh, sudden was thy death. 

— Fingalian Poem. 
C.iochlaideach, a. Changeable, variable, inconstant, fickle. 

Caraid caochlaideach, a fickle friend. 
Caochlaideachd, s. f Changeableness, inconstancy, 

Caochlaidh, /m*. aff. a. of caochail. Shall change. 
Caochlan, ain, s. m. A rivulet. N. pi. caochlain. 
t Caod, s. m. St. John's wort. Caod Choluim-chill, St. 

John's wort. 
f Caodh, caoidh, s. m. (Ir. id.) Good order, good con- 
dition ; a tear, 
t Caodhan, ain, s. m. A person in good condition. — Shaw. 

Caog, v. a. and n. Wink; connive; take aim by shutting 
the eye. Pret. a. chaog, winked; fut. aff. a. caogaidh, 
shall wink. Caogaidh e le shilil, he winks with his eye. — 
Stew. Pro. Ge b' e ball air an caog iad, at whatever they 
shut their eye, or aim at. — Old Song. Caog ris, wink at him. . 

Caog ACH, a. Winking ; squint-eyed ; blinking; twinkling. 

Caog AD, a. Fifty. Caogad claidheamh, ffty swords. — 
Oss. Trath. Phill iad nan caogadaibh, they returned in 
fifties. — Fingalian Poem. 

Caogadh, aidh, s. m. A winking, a conniving; a wink, a 
connivance. Caogadh sill, a winking of the eye.—Sm. 

Caogadh, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of caog. Caogadh e, let 
him wink ; caogadh iad, let them wink. 

Caogadh, (a), pr. part, of caogh; which see. 

Caog-shuil, -shiil, s.f. An eye that winks; a squint-eye. 

CAOG-SHi>iLEAcn, a. Squint-eyed; winking, blinking. 

f CAOiCH,a. ( Lat. cbbcus.) Blindof an eye. — Macd. 

t Caoiche, s.f. (Ir. id.) Blindness. 

Caoidh, v. Lament, mourn, moan ; weep, wail. Pret. a. 
chaoidh, lamented ; fut. aff. a. caoidhidh, shall or will la- 
ment. Cha chaoidh am priosunach, the prisoner shall not 
mourn. — Sm. 

Caoidh, s. f (Ir. caoi.) Lamentation, wailing, weeping, 
mourning ; a lament, a wail, a moan. Mo chaoidh cha do 
sguir, my moan did not cease. — Ull. Ri caoidh, weeping, 

Caoidheadh, idh, s. m. A lamenting, a wailing, a weeping, 
a deploring. 

Caoidheadh, (a), pr. part, of caoidh. Weeping, bewailing. 
Turlach a caoidheadh a chlainne, Turlach weeping for his 
children. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. 

Caoidh-ch^radh, aidh, s. m. A wailing voice ; mournful 
expressions. Dh' f hailnich a caoidh-ch6radh, her wailing 
voice ceased. — Ull. 

Caoidh-ghuth, s. m. A plaintive voice. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. 

Caoidhrean, ein, s. m. A wailing; a mournful voice; a 
low murmuring sound, as of a brook. Written also 


C A O 

C A O 

Caoil, gen. sing, of caol; which see. 

Caoile, s./. (/r. caoil.) Leanness ; smallness ; attenuation r 

narrowness, as of a stream ; trouble ; destruction ; the 

waist ; a distemper among sheep and goats. Caoile air m' 

anam, trouble on my soul. — Ste%u. Ps. 
Caoile, com. and sup. of caol. More or most lean. 
Caoilead, eid, s. m. Leanness; smfiUness; progression in 

leanness. A dol an caoilead, growing more and more lean. 
Caoiltean, n. pi. of caol. Straits. 
Caoimii, gen. sing, of caomh; which see. 
Caoimii.o. (/r. caoimh.) Gentle, kind, affable, affectionate ; 

beloved; hospitable. See Caomh. 
Caoimiie, com. and sup. of caomh. More or most gentle. 
Gaoimheach, ich, s. TO. (/r. caoimhtheach.) A stranger; 

a bedfellow. N. pi. caoimhich. 
CAOiMiiEACHAN,ain,«.»i. (/rom caoimh.) An entertainer; an 

hospitable person ; a beloved person. N. pi. caoimheachain. 
Caoimiieachas, ais, s. »i. Society; social love; hospitality. 
Caoimhne, s./. (/ront caomh.) Kindness, gentleness, affa- 
bility. Caoimhne ort, be gentle, be affable. 
Caoimiinealacud, s.f. Kindness, gentleness, affability. 
Caoimhnealas, ais, s. m. Kindness, gentleness, affableness. 
Caoimhneas, eis, s. m. Kindness, mildness, affability. Dean 

caoirahneas domh, slieiu kindness to me. — Stew. Gen. 
Caoimhneil, a. (caoimhne-amhuil.) Kind, mild, affable; 

lenient; genial; of pleasing manners.— S<ew. N. T. ref. 

An samhradh caoimhneil, the genial summer. — Old Song. 

Gu caoimhneil, kindhj. 
Caoin, v. n. and a. Weep, wail, lament, deplore. Pret. a. 

chabin,wailed ;fut.aff. a. csLoinidh, shall wail. Chachaoin 

oigh, virgins shall not weep. — Oss. Lodin. 

Ir. caoin. Germ, quinen, mourn. Corn, cwyna. 
Caoin, a. (Ir. id.) Kind, mild, pleasant, gentle; dry; 

■ ^ smooth ; soft, mellow ; smoothly polished ; lowly. Asp. 

■ form, chaoin. Mar aisling chaoin, like a pleasant dream. 
— Oss. Dargo. Og-bhean chaoin, thou gentle bride. — Vll. 
A lamh caoin, her soft hand. — Oss. Caoin mar bhalbh- 
dhridchd, mild as the silent dew. — Oss. Fing. A cha6in- 
ghstoith, thou gentle wind. — Oss. Com. Ataghadh achlocha 
caoin, picking smooth stones. — Id. Sa chaoin-fhuaim, in 
the mellow sound. — Id. Caoin-chnaimh, a polished bone ; 
caoin-shian, a gentle shower ; caoin-shuarach, indifferent. 

Caoine, com. and sup. of caoin. 

t Caoineach, ich, s. m. Stubble; moss. — Shaw. 

Caoineaciiadh, aidh, s. m. A drying, as of hay; an ex- 
posing to the sun's heat for the purpose of drying. 

Caoineaciiadh, (a), pr. part, of caoinich. Drying. A 
caoineachadh na saidh, drying the hay. 

Caoineadii, idh, s. TO. (/r. caoine. TF. kuyn.) Weeping; 
wailing ; howling ; Irish lamentation over the dead. 

t Caoineasgak., air, s. to. A garrison. 

Caoin-giieal, a. White and soft. Do chanach caoin-gheal, 
thy soft, white mountain-down. — Old Song. 

Caoinich, v. D17; expose any thing to dry. Pret. a. 
chaoinich, dried ; fut. off. caoinichidh, shxdl dry. 

Caoin-shuarach, a. Indifferent, careless. — Shaw. 

Caointeach, a. Sad, 86rrowful; mournful, plaintive, 
whining. Caointeach fad na h-oidhche, mournful the whole 
of the night. — Orr. Com. and sup. caointiche. 

Caointeachan, ain, s. m. A person who mourns or whines. 

Caoir, s. pi. Sparks; gleams; flames; flashes. D. pi. 
caoiribh. A choille na caoiribh, the wood inflames. — Oss. 
Caoir dhealan, gleams of lightning. — Oss. Fing. Caoir- 
theine, afire-brand; caoir-lasair, a flaming coal. 

Caoir-dhreas, -dhris, s. m. A thicket, a bush of thorns; 
brambles. — Stew. Gen. ref. 

Caoireach, a. (from caoir.) Sparkling, gleaming, flashing, 

flaming; fiery; impetuous. 
Caoireag, eig, s.f. A small dry peat; a small piece of 

coal ; a small peat, or coal on fire. N. pi. caoireagan. 

Cha tuit caoireag a cliabh falamh, nothing will fall from 

an empty basket. — G. P. 
Caoireaoach, a. Full of small dry peats; crumbled like 

peat or coal. 
Ca6irean, ein, s. m. A plaintive song ; a murmur ; a moan ; 

the cooing of a dove ; a plaintive sound ; a purling sound. 

Caoirean na coille, the murmur of the woods. — Ull. Ni e 

caoirean, he will mourn. — Stew. Ezek. Ri sior-chaoirean, 

making a continued plaintive sound ; wailing. — Stew. Is. 
Caoirean ach, a. Moaning, murmuring; gurgling, purling. 
Caoirean achd, s.f. Frequent or continued moaning; a 

continued murmur ; a purling noise. 
Caoir-gheal, a. Red hot; heated to incandescence. 
Caoiribh, d. pi. of caoir ; which see. 
Caoirich, n. pi. of caor. Sheep. 

CA0iR-LASAiR,-la8rach,s./. Aflamingcoal; a sparkling flame, 
t Caoirle, s. /. (Ir. id.) "A club, 
t Caoirleachd, s.f. A tossing or driving with clubs. 
Caoir-sholus, uis, s. TO. A gleaming light ; effulgence. 
Caoirtheach, a. Fiery; sparkling, gleaming ; impetuous. 

Sruth caoirtheach, an impetuous stream. — Oss. Fing. 
t Caois, s. /. A furrow ; a young pig. 
t Caoiseacii AN, ain, s. to. A swine-herd. N. pi. caoiseachain. 
Caol, caoil, s. to. A frith, a strait ; the narrow part of a 

river. CdiQ\na.diXom2., the srruill of tlie back; caol an dilirn, 

the wrist ; caol a chalpa, the small of the leg. 
Caol, a. Small, thin, lean, slender, attenuated; narrow; 

shrill, high-toned. Caol nam fe6il, lean in their flesh. — 

Stew. Gen. Toinntean caol, an attenuated thread; da 

chaol-chfl, two slender-footed dogs. — Oss. Com. Ce6l 

ca.ol, shrill, high-toned music. — Oss. Tern. Caol direach, 

straight, straight on. 
Caol ri caol. A rule observed by the most approved 

writers in Gaelic or Irish. It prescribes that two vowels 

contributing to form two different syllables should both be 

of the class of small vowels; as, buailteach, liable, not 

buailtach; oillteil, shocking; not oilltail. Leathan'ri le- 

athan is caol ri caol, leughar na sgriobhar gach focal san 

t-saoghal, broad to broad, and small (vowel) to small, you 

Tnay read or write every word in the world. — G. P. 
t Caolach, aich, s. to. The plant fairy-flax. — Shaw. 
Caolachadh, aidh, s. to. A making small, thin, or slender. 
Caolaicii, v. a. and n. Make small or slender; grow small 

or slender. Pret. a. chaolaich, grow slender ; fut. aff. a. 

caolaichidh, shall grow slender. Caolaichidh tu a chasan, 

thou wilt make his legs slender. — Old Song. 
Caolaichte, p. part, of caolaich. Made slender. 
Caol-amiiainx, s.f. A narrow river; hence Culleh, the 

name of a place in the north of Scotland ; probably the 

KtXttov roTapoD fjc^oXai of Ptolemy. 
Caolan, ain, s. m. A small gut ; a tripe. N. pi. caolain, 

guts. Caolan cait, cat-gut. 
Caolan ach, a. Like guts; of, or belonging to, a gut; 

made of guts. 
Caolas, ais, s. TO. A frith; a strait; a ferry. Snamhaiche 

a chaolais, the swimmer of the frith. — Old Song. N. pi. 

Caol-chasach, a. Having small legs, slender-legged, Siim- 

Caol-ciiomhnuidh, s. to. a narrow bed, a narrow abode, 

a grave. A chaol-chomhnuidh, his grave. — Fingalian 

Poem. Written also caol-chonuidh. 

C A O 


CA0L-CH6ifriDH, s.m. Anarrowbed, a narrow abode, a grave. 

Caol-Chosach, a. Having small legs, slender-legged ; 
slim-footed ; shanky. Each caol-chosach, a slender-legged 
horse. — Old Poem. 

Caol-chroma, ai, s. »i. A narrow curve. Caol-chroma na 
gealaich, the narrow curve of the moon. — Oss. Cathula. 

Caol-fairge, s. to. a strait ; a frith. 

Caol-ghealach, aich, s. /. The new moon. A chaol- 
ghealach tro' neul, the new moon [seen] through a cloud. — 
Oss. Gaul. 

CAOL-GiiLEANif, -ghlinn, s. m. A narrow valley, a glen. 
Air astar an caol-ghleann, travelling in the narrow valley. 
— Oss. Lodin. 

Caol-ghlorach, a. Shrill. 

Caol-ghruagach, a. Having a thin mane. Each caol- 
ghruagach, a thin-maned horse. — Fingalian Poem. 

Caol-ghuth, s. m. A shrill voice. 

Caol-ghuthach, a. Having a shrill voice. 

Caol-mhalach, a. Having narrow eyebrows. 

Caol-mhaladh, aidh, s. m. A narrow eyebrow; also the 
name of one of Ossian's Poems. 

Caol-miiiosachan, ain, s. m. Purging flax. — Shaw. 

Caol-shrath, s. TO. A narrow strath ; a narrow valley. Caol- 
shrath nan alld, the narrow valley of streams. — Oss. Temo. 

Caomh, v. a. Protect, spare. Pret. chaomh, spared; fut. 
aff. caomhaidh, shall spare. 

Caomh, a. Gentle, mild, tender; also, substantively, a 
friend, a beloved object ; rarely, a feast. Is caomh thu, 
a thannais! mild art thou, ghost! — Oss. Duthona. A 
chaoimh mo ghaoil-sa ! thou gentle object of my love. — 
Oss. Conn. Gun chaomh am fogus, without a friend at 
hand. — Oss. Cathluno. Com,, and sup. caoimh. 

Caomh acii, aich, s. to. A friend, a bosom friend; a com- 
panion, a chum. Gun mhac gun chaomhach, without son 
or friend. — Old Poem. N. pi. caomhaich. 

Caomhag, aig, s. /. A mildly-tempered female ; an affec- 
tionate girl. N. pi. caomhagan. 

Caomhail, a. (caomh-amhuil.) Gentle, mild, kind, affec- 
tionate ; favourable. Caomhail ri 'n cairdean, kind to their 
friends. — Old Poem. 

Caomhain, v. a. Spare, save, reserve, economize. Pret. a. 
chaomhain, spared; fut. aff. a. caomhnaidh, shall spare. 
Caomhain do sholus, spare thy light. — Oss. Gaul. Cha 
chaomhain e smugaid thilg orm, he will not spare to spit 
an me. — Stew. Job. 

Caomhalach, a. Kindly, disposed to be mild. Gu caomh- 
alach, kindly. Com. and sup. caomhaliiche. 

Caomhalachd, s.f. Kindness; affability. Lagh na caomh- 
alachd, the law of kindness. — Stew. Pro. ref. 

Caomiian, ain, s. to. A noble person; an affable person — 
{Shaw) ; a beloved person. A chaomhain ! my dear sir ! 

Caomhantach, a. Frugal, fond of saving, economical; 

Caomhantachd, s.f. Frugality, economy. 

Caomh-chridhe, a. A tender or compassionate heart, an 

affectionate heart. N. pi. caomh-chridheachan. 
Caomh-ciiridheach, a. Tender-hearted, kind. Athair 

chaomh-chridhich ! thou tender-hearted father ! — MacLach. 
Caomh-chrutii, s. to. a slender form or person, as of a 

Caomh-ghradh, -ghraidh, s. to. Tender mercy; tender 

love. — Stew. Hos. 
Caomii-leus, Caomh-loise, s.f. A pleasant blaze. 
Caomhnach, aich, s. TO. A friend; a feeder.— 5Aaw. 
Caomhnach, a. Sparing ; frugal, economical. 
Caomhnadh, aidh, s. to. A saving, sparing, an economizing ; 

economy ; rarely, protection. Dean caomhnadh, spare. 


Caomhnadii, (a), pr. pari, of caomhain. Sparing, saving, 

t Caon, caoin, s. to. A resemblance. — Shaw. 

t Caonaran, ain, 5. to. A solitary person, a recluse. 
N. pi. caonarain. 

Caonnag, aig, s. /. A fight, a skirmish, fray, squabble; 
a boxing-match ; a nest of wild bees. N. pi. caonnagan ; 
d. pi. caonnagaibh. Daoine nach do rinn caonnag, vien 
who fought not. — Macint. Dheanadh tu caonnag ri do dha 
lurgainn, you would quarrel with your oiun shins. — G. P. 

Caonnag ach, o. Fond of fighting or boxing; riotous, 

Caonntacii, a. (for caomhantaeh.) Saving, frugal, econo- 
mical. Com. and sup. caonntaiche. 

Caonntachd, s.f. {for caomhantachd.) A saving disposi- 
tion; frugality, economy. 

t Caonta, a. Private. — Shaw. 

Caor, caoir, s. /. A berry; a firebrand; a thunderbolt. 
N. pi. caoran, berries ; wild ash-berries. 

Caor, caoir or caorach, s.f. A sheep; in derision, a sheep- 
ish person. O chro nan caorach, yrowi the sheepfold. — Sm. 
N. pi. caoraich, sheep. 

In Grelman's collection of gipsey words haukero means a sheep. 
On the west coast of Africa there are several languages in which 
baukero has the same signification. 

Caobachd, s. f. {from caor.) A stock of sheep; sheep; 
cattle; sheepishness. 

Caoraich, n. pi. of caor; which see. 

Caorag, aig, s. f. A small dry peat; a dry clod or turf. 
N. pi. caoragan. 

Caoran, s. pi. The berries of the mountain-ash or service ; 
the wood of the mountain-ash. Bu deirge a ghruaigh na 
caoran, ruddier was his cheek than the wild ashberry. — 
Oss. Derm. 

Caoran, ain, s. to. A small dry peat. 

Caor-bheirteach, a. Producing berries ; bacciferous. 

Caor-dromain, s. to. The alder-berry. 

Caor-gheal, a. Incandescent; red hot; emitting sparks. 

Caor-lann, -lainn, s. to. {Com. corlan.) A sheepfold. 

Caou-teinntidh, s. to. A thunderbolt. — Shaw. 

Caor-tiieine, s. to. a firebrand. 

Cap, capa, s. to. A cup; rarely, an old person; a cart; a 

t Capat, ait, s. TO. {Ir. id. Lat. caput.) A head. 

t Cap-fhlath, -fhlaith, s. to. {Ir. id.) A commander-in- 

Capull, uill, «./. A mare. JV. pi. capuill. 

Gr. xai/3/3aXXri;, o work-horse. Lat. caballus, a horse. 
It. cavalla. Fr. cavale, a mare. Pol. kobela. Boh. kobyla. 
Hung, kabalalo. 

Capull-coille, s./. A capercailzie; a mountain-cock ; a 
kind of moor-fowl, once very abundant in the Highlands. 
The species is now nearly extinct. The capercailzie is 
considerably larger than the black-cock, and is seen only 
on remote and unfrequented mountains. 

Car, cuir, s. m. A twist, a bend, a turn, a winding, as of a 
stream ; a trick ; way, course ; a bar of music ; care. 
Lubar nan car, winding Lubar. — Oss. Duthona. Cuir car 
dhiot, be clever. Thoir car mu 'n cuairt, <aAe a turn round. 
Car oidhche, during one night. — Stew. Jer. Car bliadhna, 
for a year. Thoir an car as, cheat him. Car air char, 
tumbling.— Stew. Jud. Theid sinn an car so, we shall go 
this way. An car a bhios san t-sean mhaide, is duilich a 
thoirt as, the bend of the old tree cannot be removed ; ivhat 
is bred in the bone is ill to take out of the flesh.— G. P. 
Car neamhuinn, a string of pearls. — Shaw. 

C An, prep. {W. car.) During; for; near about, in reference 
to time. Car uair, near an hour ; car tiota,/or a moment ; 



car greis, for a while. — Macdon. Car tatnuil bhig, for a 

short time. — Stew. N. T. ref. 
Cia, o. (/r. id. Lat. cams.) Related ; also contracted for 

cairdeach; which see. 
Car, a. Bending, twisting, tortuous, winding, undulating. 
CAr, s. m. (Old Swed. kaerre, a cart. Chald. carron, a 

chariot.) Scab, mange, itch ; a chariot. Written also cdrr. 
Cara', Caradh, aidh, s. m. A way, a direction, a course; 

a turn, a winding, a twist. Aom nan cara', bend in their 

way [towards their course.] — Oss. Conn. An caradh a 

bhrocluinn, in the direction of its den. — Id. 
CXra'. See Caramh. 
Cara', Caradh, aidh, s. m. A friend, relation, kinsman; 

an ally. Gun cluinn mi mo chara, that I may hear my 

friend. — Oss. Tern. Bi d' chara dha 'n righ, be an ally to 

the king. — Oss. Fing. 

Chald. and Arab, karis, farent. Du. kaar, friend. 

Sp. caro. Teut. kare. Corn. W. and Arm. car. 

Carach, a. {from car.) Deceitful; whirling, circling, wind- 
ing, turning ; scabbed ; changeable, unstable. Saoghal 
carach, a deceitful world. Measg osna charach, amid the 
circling breezes. — Fingalian Poem. 

Carach', for Carachadii. 

Carachadh, aidh, s. m. A moving, a stirring. Carachadh 
ceille, insanity. 

Carachadh, (a), pr. part, of caraieh. Moving, stirring. 
Oiteag a carach' an duillich, a breeze stirring the leaves. 

Carachadh, aidh, s. m. The act of burying. 

C ARACHD, s.y. A motion, a movement. 

Carachdach, a. Athletic, wrestUng. 

Carachdaich, s.f. Wrestling. — Shaw. 

CAradh, (a), pr. part, of ciir; which see. 

Caeaiceach, a. Hairy ; eager ; keen. Coin, and sup. ca- 

CARAicEAG,eig, s./. A sort of pancake. A''. pZ. caraiceagan. 

Caraich, v. a. and n. Remove, move, stir, turn. Pret. a. 
charaich ; fut. aff. a. caraichidh. Mar charaicheas iolar a 
nead, as an eagle stirreth up her nest. — Stew. Deut. Nach 
caraich thu? wilt thou not move ? Cha charaich e ceum, 
he will not move a step. 

Caraiche, s. »i. A wrestler; a pugilist. A^. /iZ. caraichean. 

Caraichte, p. part, of caraich. Moved, stirred, turned. 

Caraid, s.f. {It. id.) A pair, a couple, a brace, twins, 
twain ; also, defence. Caraid-rann, a couplet ; caraid na 
maoislich, roes that are twins.— Stew. Song. Sol. N. pi. 
caraidean ; d. pi. caraidibh. Nan caraidibh, two by two. — 
Stew. G. B. 

Caraid, s. m. and/. {Arm. caret.) A friend, a relation. 
Caraid chismhaor, the friend of publicans. — Stew. Mat. 
Mo dheagh charaid, my good friend ; caraid, mac peathar 
athar, a cousin, the son of a father's sister; caraid nighean 
peathar athar, a cousin, the daughter of a father's sister ; 
caraid, mac brathar mathar, a cousin, the son of a mother's 
brother ; caraid mac brathar athar, a cousin, the son of a 
father s sister. — Macdon. 

Caraideach, a. In pairs, in couples or braces. 

CAr-aingeal, il, s. m. A guardian angel. N. pi. carain- 

Carainnean, s. pi. The refuse of threshed barley. 

Caraiste, s. f. A carrying, a conveying ; carriage, con- 
veyance ; a beating, a thrashing. Fhuair a dheadh cha- 
raiste, he got a proper thrashing. 
Caraisteach, ich, s. m. A carrier. 
Caramaso, aisg, s.f. A contest, a confusion. 
CAramh, aimh, s. m. A repairing, a mending; treatment; 
abuse. Fear caramh a bheum, repairer of the breach. — 

Stew. G. B. Is duileach learn an caramh, / regret the 
abuse. — Macint. Fhuair e a droch caramh, he was mal- 
t Car AN, ain, s. m. {W. caran. Lat. corona. Ir. caran.) 

The crown of the head. 
Caran-creioe, s. m. A sea-eel; a conger-eel. 
Carantach, a. (from caradh.) Kind, charitable, affec- 
tionate. Com. and sup. carantaiche. Written also car- 
Carantachd, s.f. (yVojn caradh.) Kindness, friendliness, 
friendship, charity. Blks is carantachd, warmth and friend- 
liness. — Old Song. Written also carthannachd. 

Carantas, ais, s. m. Kindness, friendliness ; friendship, 
charity. Carantas fuar, cold friendship. — Old Song. 

t Caras, ais, s. m. A first-rate ship. — Shaw. 

t Carb, cairb, s. m. (Lat. corbis.) A basket; a chariot; 
a plank ; a ship. N. pi. carban. 

Carbad, aid, s. m. (Box. Lex. cerbyd.) A chariot, a war- 
chariot ; a waggon ; a coach ; a litter ; a bier ; any pleasure 
vehicle ; a jaw. Carbad do ghaothaibh, a chariot of the 
winds. — Sm. Carbad cogaidh, a war-chariot.— Id. Fiacal 
carbad, a jaw-tooth, a cheek-tooth. — Stew. Joel. Buail am 
balaoch air a charbad, is buail am balgair air an t-sroin, 
strike the clown on the ear, and the dog on the nose. — G. P. 

Carbadair, s. m. A charioteer, a coachman, a driver. 
N. pi. carbadairean. 

Carbadaireachd, s. f The business of a charioteer or 

Carbal, ail, s. m. The roof of the mouth. 

Carban, ain, s. m. An unlucky person. N. pi. carbain. 

t Carbh, cairbh, s.f. A ship. 

Carbhaidh, s.f. (Sp. carvi.) Carraway. 

Carbhaireachd, s.f. Mangling; massacring. 

Carbhan, ain, s. m. (dim. of carbh.) A little ship; a carp. 
N. pi. carbhain. 

Carbhanach, aich, s. m. (from carbh.) A ship-master; a 
carp. N. pi. carbhanaich. 

Carbhanach uisge, s. m. A carp. 

Car-bhodach, aich, s. m. A clown ; a sailor. — Shaw. 
N. pi. car-bhodaich. 

Charbhas, ais, s. m. Intemperance; also. Lent; quadra- 
gesimal. Ann an deireadh acharbhais, at the end of Lent. 
— Macvuirich. 

Carc, cairc, s. m. (W. carch. Eng. f cark.) Care, anxiety. 

Carcar, air, s. m. A prison. 

Lat. career. W. carchar. Teut. karclyfl Germ, kirker. 
Ir. carcar. Corn, carchar. Arm. carchar. 

t Carchaill, «. a. Destroy, abuse. — Shaw. Pret.a.chBi- 
chaill ; fut. aff. a. carchaillidh, shall destroy. 

Card, caird, s. m. (Span, carda.) A card for teazing wool. 
N. pi. cardan. 

Card, «. a. Card or comb wool. Pret. a. chard ; fut. aff. a. 
cardaidh, shall or will comb. 

Cardadh, aidh, s. m. The process of carding wool ; a 

Cardair, s. m. (Sp. cardador.) A comber or teazer of 

Cardaireachd, s.f. The employment of a wool-comber ; 
the trade of wool-combing. Ris a chardaireachd, at the 
wool-combing trade. 

Car-fhocal, ail, s. m. A quibble, a prevarication, a double- 
entendre ; antiphrasis ; a pun. N. pi. car-fhocail. 

Car-fhoclach, a. Quibbling, prevaricating ; antiphrastic ; 
disposed to quibble, prevaricate, or pun. 

Car-fhoclaiche, «. m. A quibbler, a prevaricator; a- 



Carghas, ais, s. m. (Ir. carghios.) Lent. 

t Carla, ai, s. m. A wool-card. N. pi. carlan. 

t Carlach, aich, s. m. A cart-load. 

t Carlachax, ain, s. m. A carder or comber of wool. 

N. pi. carlachain. 
Carlag, aig, s.y. A tuft of wool. iV. p^. carlagan. 
Carlagach, a. Like a tuft of wool ; full of tufts of wool, 
t Carlair,s. m. A carder of wool. — Shaw. iV.p/. carlairean. 
Carmhanach, aich, s. m. A carp. N. pi. carmhanaich. 

See also Carbiianach. Carmhanach uisge, a carp. 

Car-mhogal, ail, a', m. A carbuncle. — Shaw. 
t Carn, cairn, s. A quern or handmill for grinding corn. 
Germ, quern. Goth, quairn. Swed. quarn. Isl. kuern. 
Pezron's Glossary, quirn. Anglo-Sax. eweorn and cwyrn. 

t Carn, carna, s. m. {Lat. caro ; gen. carnis. Ir. cam.) 
Flesh ; a booty. 

Carn, cairn, cuim, s. m. {Corn. W. and Ir. carn.) A 
heap of stones loosely thrown together ; a cairn ; a monu- 
mental heap of stones ; a barrow ; a rock ; a sledge ; a 
province. N. pi. cuirn. O iomall nan carn, from the edge 
of the rocks. — Oss. Carn-cuimhne, a monument; carn- 
aolaich, a dunghill. 

Cairns or barrows are very numerous in the Highlands of Scot- 
land, in Ireland, and in Wales. They are also to be seen in 
Sweden, in Norway, and in other parts of the Continent, as also 
in America. They were intended for monuments ; and the proba- 
bility is, that they were used as such from the earliest ages by every 
people who could associate their ideas of duration with the proper- 
ties of stone and rock. 

These cairns often measure three hundred feet in circumference 
at the base, and twenty feet in height. They consist of stone, and 
the whole pile is shaped like a cone. Several opinions have been 
formed concerning the intention of them. In several instances they 
have been explored, and found to contain sepulchral urns ; a circum- 
stance which seems to be decisive in favour of the opinion that they 
are monuments of the dead. Many of these piles consist wholly of 
earth ; and this gave rise to an opinion that the coped heaps of stone 
were intended for malefactors, and those of earth for the virtuous 
and the brave. I never could ascertain to what extent this distinc- 
tion was observed. From ancient authors we learn that malefactors 
were buried under heaps of stone, and we know that it was a com- 
mon practice among the Druids to erect cairns on the spot where a 
criminal had been burnt. Hence fear air charn means an outlaw 
among the Gael. Tha e air a cham, he is an outlaw. 'Is oil leam 
nach robh do luath fo cham", I wish your ashes were under a cuirn. 
'B' fhearr leam bhi fo cham chlach', I would rather be under a 
cairn, i. e. punished as an outlaw. Though the ceremony of cairn- 
raising be still prevalent in the Highlands, the meaning of it is 
changed : for on whatever spot a person is found dead, a few stones 
are iramediatel^^uddled together, and every passenger pays his 
tribute of a ston^the larger it is, the greater is the respect shewn 
to the deceased : hence a common saying among the Gael, — 'Cuiridh 
mi clach ad cham, / will add to thy cairn, betokens a friendly in- 
tention, and means, I will keep the remembrance of thee alive. The 
ghost of the deceased is supposed to haunt his calm ; and there are 
few Highlanders who would pass the spot for the first time without 
adding to the heap, and thus keeping on good terms with the spectre. 
At no remote time the compiler of this work used to discharge this 
debt with devout punctuality, and, if alone and in the dark, would 
take the best aim in his power, and fling his contribution from a 

• pmdent distance. 

Carn, v. a. Heap, pile, accumulate, throw together. Pret. a. 
cham ; fut aff. a. carnaidh. Camaibh connadh, heap on 
wood. — Stew. Ezek. Ged charn e airgiod, though he accu- 
mulate silver. — Stew. Job. 

Carnacii, a. Rocky; abounding in cairns; like a cairn; 
substantively, a heathenish priest. 

CARNADii,aidh, s. TO. A heaping or piling ; an accumulating ; 
a riddance. — Shaw. 

Carnadii, (a), pr. part, of carn. Heaping, piling, accumu- 

Carnaid, s. /. Carnation or flesh colour. 

Carnal, ail, s. m. A small heap of stones. — Shaw. 

Carnan, ain, s. m. (dim. of carn. W. carnen.) A little 
cairn ; a little heap. 

Carnanaich, s. pi. Scotch Highlanders; the Kajvovaxai 
of Ptolemy. 

Carn-cuimhne, s. m. A monument. 

Car-neamiinuid, s. m. A string of pearl. — Shaw. 

Carnta, Carnte, p. part, of carn. Heaped or piled up, 

Carr, s. m. A rock. charr monaidh, from a mountain- 
rock. — Oss. Duthona. 

Arab, carr, rock. Armen. carr, stone. Dan. and 0. Sax. 
carr, rock. Pers. char, a stone. Turk, caria, marble. 

Carr is seen in the following names of rocks and rocky places: — 
Car-pathus, mountains in Hungary ; I-car-ia, the isle of rocks in 
the Egean sea ; Icarus, in Attica ; Carina, a mountain in Crete ; 
Corasius, near Antioch ; Corasite, rocks in the Egean sea. 

Carr, ekirr, s. m. {Teut. karr, chariot. Cor«. and .4 rm, carr.) 
A bog, a fen or morass ; moss ; a dray ; a waggon ; a spear. 
Mar chanach cairr, like the moss cotton. — Old Song. 

Carr, carra, s.f. (Old Swed. kaerre.) Scab, mange, itch; 
scurvy ; a scall or dry leprosy ; a crust ; a chariot ; bran. 
Carr thioram, a dry scald. — Stew. Lev. Plaigh na carra, 
the plague of the scall. — Id. Duine aig am bheil carr, a 
man who has the [itch] scurvy. — Id. 

Carrach, a. (from carr.) Scabbed, itched, mangy, scor- 
butic ; rocky ; having an uneven surface ; having a cross 
temper. Am fear a bhios carrach sa bhaile so, bithidh e 
carrach 's a bhaile ud thall, he who is mangy here will be 
mangy every where ; the manners which a man has at home, 
he carries abroad. — G. P. Com. and sup. carraiche. 

Carradh, aidh, s.f. A rock; a pillar; an erect stone; a 
monument. Carradh nan tonn, the rock of the ocean. — 
Oss. Fing. Carradh salainn, a pillar of salt. — Stew. G. B. 
N. pi. carraidhean. Written also carragh. 

Carrach, aigh, s. /. A rock, a pillar, an erect stone, a 
monument. Thannais nan carragh geur, spectre of the 
flinty rocks. — Oss. Fing. Far an d' ung thu an carragh, 
where thou didst anoint the pillar. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. 

Carra ID, s./. Conflict; distress, vexation, trouble. Carraid 

nan sian, the conflict of winds, whirlwinds. — Oss. Fing. 

Le carraid gheir, with sharp trouble. — Sm. 
Carraideacii, a. Distressed, vexed; causing trouble or 

vexation ; grievous ; conflicting. Com. and s^lp. carraidiche. 
Carraig, s. /. (dim. of carr.) A rock, a cliff; a pinnacle. 

Carraig mo neart, the rock of my strength. — Sm. Asp. 

form, charraig. Mar thuinn mu charraig, like waves round 

a rock. — Oss. Duthona. 

Com. and W. careg. Arm. carric. Scotch, craig. 

Carraigeach, a. (from carraig.) Rocky, like a rock; of, 

or belonging to, a rock ; rugged. 
Carraigeag, eig, s.f. A sort of pancake. 
Carraioiiin, s. The thick part of butter-milk. 
Carran, ain, s. m. A weed growing amidst corn ; a shrimp, 

a prawn — (Macd.) ; rarely, a sickle. 
Carran-creig, s. m. A conger eel; a shrimp, a prawn. — 

Carrasan, ain, s.m. Hoarseness; a wheezing of the throat; 

catarrh. Casd is carrasan, a cough and hoarseness. 
Carrasanacii, a. Hoarse; wheezing. 
Carrasan AICH, s.f. A continued wheezing of the throat; 

a catarrh. 
Carr-fhiadh, -fheidh, s. m. A hart. N. pi. carr-fheidji, 
Carr-fhiodii, s. m. A knot in timber.— SAau', 
Careoid, s.f. See Carraj-d, 



Carruich, ». a. (7r. corruigh.) Remove, move, stir ; turn. 
Pret. a. charruich, moved ; fut. aff. a. carruichidh, shall or 
■will move. Carruich do chos, remove thy foot. — Stew. Pro. 
Written also carraich. 

Cars, s.f. This word, meaning a level fertile tract of country, 
is used in many districts of the Southern Highlands, into 
which it seems to have straggled from the speech of the 
Lowland Scots. There is, however, in the Armoric dialect 
of the Celtic, a word ceirs or ceyrs, which has the same 
meaning with cars. 

Carson, adv. (co airson.) Why? for what? Carson so? 
why so ? 

Car-shiJil, -shiil, s.f. A rolling eye. N. pi. car-shuilean. 

Car-siiuileach, a. Having rolling eyes. 

CArt, ckirt, s.f. A fourth; a quart; a quarter of a yard. 

Cartach, gen. sing, of cairt; which see. 

Cartadh, aidh, s. m. The act of cleansing any place of 
mire, as a stable or stie ; tanning of leather ; stripping a 
tree of its bark. Cartadh an daraich, stripping the oak of 
its bark. 

Cartiian, ain, s. m. Charity, friendship, affection. Luchd 
carthain, charitable people. 

Carthannach, a. (Jr. id.) Charitable, friendly, affec- 
tionate, loving. Do ghrsls carthannach, thy loving grace. 
— Sm. Com. and sup. carthannaiche. 

CARTnANNACHD, s. f. (Iv. id.) Charity, friendship, kind- 
ness.; the practice of charity. 

Car-thuinnich, 17. a. Separate, part, put asunder. Pret. a. 
charthuinnich ; fut. aff. a. carthuinnichidh, shall separate. 

Cart-h>il, s. m. A mariner's compass. 

Car-tual, s. to. (car-tuath-iilil.) Unprosperous or fatal 
course ; a moving contrary to the sun's course. 

This term has its origin in a Dniidical superstition. The Druids, 
on certain occasions, moved three times round tlieir stony circles 
or temples. In performing this ceremony {car-deise) they kept the 
circle on the right, and consequently moved from east to west. This 
was called the prosperous course ; but the car-tual, or moving witli 
the circle on the left, was deemed fatal or unprosperous, as being 
contrary to the course of the sun. See Deisiuil. 

Caruchadh, aidh, s. to. See Carachadh. 

Ca&uill, V. n. (TT. carawl. Coni. karol, a c^oir.) Carol, 
sing, warble. Pret. a. charuill, caroled ; fut. aff. caruillidh, 
shall carol. 

Cas, v. a. Gape ; gnash ; brandish ; turn against ; be angry 
with ; wreathe ; twist ; bend ; curl ; climb. Pret. a. chas ; 
fut. aff. a. casaidh. Chas iad am beul, they gaped with 
their mouth. — Stew. Job. Chas e fhiaclan, he gnashed 
with his teeth. — Id. Chas e a shleagh, he brandished his 
spear.— Oss. Tern. 

Cas, a. (/r. id.) Steep ; abrupt ; headlong ; hasty, pas- 
sionate; eager, quick, forward ; twisted, curled, wreathed. 
Sruthan cas, headlong streams. — Oss. Lodin. Cas gu 
comhrag, eager for battle. — Oss. Gu cas, quickly.- — Sm. 
Caireal cas, passionate Carril. — Old Poem. Cas-fhalt, 
curled locks. — Old Song. 

Cas, s. to. {Fr. cks, incident. Lat. casus.) A difficulty, 
emergency, anxiety, distress ; plague ; case ; respect ; 
rarely, fear; pity. Anns gach cas, in every emergency. — 
Sm. An cits, eager; an cas air, eager for him or it. 
Asp. form, chas. Sa chis so, in this case. — Slav. Cor. 
Tha e na chas, he is eager for it. 

Cas, coise, s. f (W. coes.) A foot; a leg; a shaft; the 
handle of any bladed instrument ; money ; a wrinkle. 
JV. ^/. casan ; d. pi. casaibh. Fo chasaibh nan an-laoch, 
under the feet of ruthless warriors. — Oss. Trath. Cas 
sgeine, the handle of a knife; cas tuaidh, the handle of a 
hatchet; casan corrach, ttt/ts. Written also cos. 

Casach, a. {W. coesawg.) Footed, many-footed; of, or 
belonging to, feet. Gu casach lamhach, exerting legs and 

Casaciidaicii, s./. Coughing; continued coughing. 

Casadii, aidh, s. to. A climbing; gnashing; a gaping; a 
brandishing; turning against; a wreathing, a twisting, a 
curhng ; a wrinkle. Le casadh an gruaige, with curling 
[broideringi their hair. — Stew. Tim. Lan chasadh, full 
of wrinkles. — Stew. Job. ref. 

Casadh, (a), pr. part, of cas. Gnashing; gaping; climbing; 
brandishing ; turning against ; wreathing, twisting, curling. 
An tore a casadh ri Diarmad, the boar turning impetuously 
on Dermid. — Oss. Derm. Sleagh a casadh na laimh, a 
spear brandishing in his hand. — Oss. Tern. 

Casag, aig, s. f. A long coat; opposite in meaning to a 
short coat or jacket. N. pi. casagan. 

Casagach, a. Long-coated; wearing a long coat; like a 

long coat. — Macdon. 
Casagaiche, s. m. A man with a long or skirted coat. 
Casaid, s.y. (Ir. id.) A complaint, an accusation. Dean 

casaid, complain; make a complaint. Na gabh casaid, 

receive not an accusation. — Stew. Tim. N. pi. casaidean. 
Casaideacii, a. Complaining, accusing ; prone to complain 

or to accuse ; like a complaint or accusation. 
Casaideaciid, s. f. A complaining; readiness to make a 

Casaidiche, s. m. A coraplainer, a complainant, an ac- 
Casain-uciid, s. m. A bit cut off a sheep from the lip 

along the belly to the tail, three inches broad. — Shato. 

Also, a bosom. 
Casair, s. /. A faint phosphoric light proceeding from old 

wood in the dark. 
Casair, casrach, s. f. A thorn; a buckle; a clasp; a 

shower; hail; massacre, slaughter. 
Casan, ain, s. m. A foot-path ; also a name given to the 

parallel roads of Glenroy. N. pi. casain. 
Casanach, a. Having foot-paths ; like a foot-path. 
Cas-aodainneacii, a. Having a wrinkled face. A shene 

chas-aodainneach, wrinkle-faced age. — Old Song. 
Casar, air, s. m. A little hammer; a foot-path, 
t Casarnach, aich, s. to. Lightning. 
Casbanach, a. Parallel, side by side. 
Cas-biiairneach, ich, s. m. A limpet, a cunner. — Shaw. 
Cas-bhard, -bhaird, s. to. A satirist. 
Cas-buardacud, s./. Satire; lampoonin'g; invective. 
Cas-biiardail, a. (cas-bhardamhuil.) Satirical. 
Cas-bheart, eirt, s.f. (cas and beairt.) Shoes and stockings, 

armour for the legs. 
Cas-biibiatiiar, air, s. to. A hasty expression; intemperate 

Cas-bhriathracii, a. Hasty or intemperate in speech. 
Cas-bhuidh, a. Yellow and curled, as hair. Cuach fhalt 

cas-bhuidh, curled yellow hair. — Macint. 
t Cascar, air, s. to. A cup. — Shaw. 
Cas-ciieum, s. to. a foot-path; a stride; a long pace; a 

steep or difficult way. Cas-cheum nach gann, a great 

stride. — Old Poem. 
Cas-cheumacu, a. Steep; difficult to pace; striding; 

having a foot-path. 
Cas-ciiiabii, a. A curled lock, a ringlet. N. pi. cas- 

CAS-ciUABHACn, o. Trcssy ; having ringlets or curled hair. 
Cas-chreag, s.f. A steep rock. N. pi. cas-chreagan. 
Cas-chreagacii, a. Full of steep rocks. 



Cas-crom, s.f. A little spade, crooked at the lower end, 
formed in such a way as to turn over the soil in furrows. 

This primitive kind of plough is still used in the Hebrides. It 
is, of course, very unexpeditious, eight men being necessary to dig 
as much in one day as a horse would plough in the same time. 
Where traces are wanting, the harrow is tied to the horse's tail ; but 
in wet grounds the glebe is broken by means of a heavy-toothed 
instrument, called racan, which men, women, and children, drag 
along the surface of the ground. The following minute description 
of the cas-crom is taken from Sinclair-'s Statistics, Edderrachylis : 
— " This instrument, chiefly used for tillage, consists of a crooked 
piece of wood ; the lower end somewhat thick, about two feet and 
a half in length, pretty straight, and armed at the end with iron, 
made thin and square, to cut the earth. The upper end, of this in- 
strument is called the shaft; whereas the lower is termed the head. 
The shaft above the crook is pretty straight, being six feet long, and 
tapering upwards to the end, which is slender. Just below the 
crook or angle, which is an obtuse one, there must be a hole, 
wherein a strong peg must be fixed for the workman's right foot, in 
order to push the instrument into the earth ; while in the meantime 
standing on his left foot, and holding the shaft firm ^vith both hands, 
when he has in this manner driven the head far enough into the 
earth, with one bend of his body, he raises the clod by the iron- 
headed part of his instrument, making use of the heel or hind part 
of the head as a fulcrum ; in so doing, he turns it over always 
towards the left hand, and then proceeds to push for another clod in 
the same form. To see six or eight men all at work with this in- 
strument, as is often to be seen, standing all upon one leg, and 
pushing with the other, would be a pretty curious, sight to a stranger. 
" With all its disadvantages, the cas-crom is, of all instruments, 
the fittest for turning up the ground in the country ; for among so 
many rocks a plough can do little or nothing ; and where no rocks 
are, the earth is commonly so marshy that cattle are not able to 
pass over it without sinking deep. Therefore it is of pretty general 
use in the Highlands, and is of great antiquity. One man can turn 
over more ground with it in a day than four are able to do with a 
common spade. For a single man to delve as much ground as 
will require two pecks of bear-seed in a day is nothing uncommon ; 
nay, some have sown four in a day's work. There are many in- 
stances of single men who, in good seasons, have reared as much 
com as, with the help of potatoes, has subsisted the families of six 
or seven persons plentifiilly by the cas-crom." 

C.\s-CH0RRACH, aich, s. /. A stilt. N. pi. casan-corrach, 

Cas-cOirn, s.f. A draught-tree. — Shaw. 
Casd, s. m. A cough. An triugh-chasd, the whooping cough. 

Casd, v. n. Make a cough ; cough. Pret. a. ch^sA, coughed ; 

fut. aff. a. casdaidh, shall or will cough. 
Casdach, a. (/rom casd.) Coughing; causing a cough or 
cold.' Am mios casdach, the cough-producing month. — 
Casdadii, aidh, s. m. A coughing, the act of coughing; a 

Casdaicii, s.f. A coughing, a continued coughing. Lan 
c9sAdLK\\, full of coughing. — Macint. Asp. form, chasdaich. 
Ciod a chasdaich th'ort ? why do you cough so ? 
Casdaicii, (a), pr. part, of casd. Coughing. 
|Cas-direacii, s. a straight delving-spade, used in the 
;as-fhionn, a. White-footed. Bha i cas-fhionn, she was 

white-footed. — Macint. 
JASG, V. a. Restrain, stop, staunch, quell, curb, appease. 
Pret. a. chasg ; fut. aff. a. casgaidh. A casgadh a chreuchd- 
an, staunching his wounds. — Oss. Truth. Written also cosg. 
Iasgacii, a. Apt to staunch ; apt to quell, curb, or appease ; 

apt to restrain ; having the quality of staunching. 
.;asgadh, aidh, s. m. A quenching, stopping, staunching, 
curbing, appeasing, a restraining ; the act of quenching or 
of staunching. Cuir casg' air, staunch it. 
Casgadh, (a), pr. part, of casg. Quenching, stopping, 
staunching, appeasing. An fhuil a ruith gun luibh ga 
casgadh, the blood flowing without herb to staunch it. — 
Oss. Derm. 

Casg aidh, /tt<. aff. a. of casg. Shall or will quench, staunch, 

or appease. 
Casgair, v. a. Kill, slaughter, massacre, mangle, butcher. 

Pret. a. chasgair ; fut. aff. a. casgraidh, shall massacre ; 

fut. pass, casgrar. An lamh le 'n casgrar e, the hand by 

which it shall be slaughtered. — Sm. Co chasgras an tore, 

who will slay the boar. — Oss. Derm. 
Casgairt, s.f. A slaughtering, a massacring, a butcher- 
ing ; a slaughter, a massacre. Written also cosgairt. 
Casgrach, a. Slaughtering, massacring; of, or belonging 

to, a slaughter or massacre ; like a slaughter ; mangling. 
Casgradii, aidh, s. m. A slaughter, a massacre, a mangling, 

a butchering. Mar uan thun a chasgraidh, like a lamb to 

the slaughter. — Stew. G. B. 
Casgradii, {a.),pr. part, of casgair. Slaughtering, mangling. 
Caslach, aich, s. m. Children ; a tube ; a clan. 
Casladh, aidh, s. m. Frizzled wool. — Shaw. 
Cas-lom, a. Barefoot, barefooted; barelegged. Cas-lom, 

ceann-lom, barefoot and bai'eheaded. 
Cas-maidiiiciie, s.f. The herb haresfoot. — Shaw. 
Casxaid, s.f. SpUt wood, chips. 
Casrach, aich, s.f. A slaughter, massacre. — Shaw. 
Cas-ruisgte, a. Barefoot, barefooted ; barelegged. Lom- 

nochd agus cas-ruisgte, naked and barefoot. — Stew. Is. 
t Cast, a. {Gr. xao-rof, adorned. Lat. castus.) Pure, un- 

defiled, chaste. 
Castearbiian , ain, s. m. Succory. Castearbhan nam muc, 

dandelion. — Shaw. 
Castreaghainn, s.f. Straw on which grain is laid during 

the process of kiln-drying. 
Cas-urla, s. m. A curled lock, a ringlet. 
Cas-urlach, a. Having curls, ringlets, or tresses. D' or 

chill na shlamagan casurlach, thy yellow hair in curled 

tresses. — Moladh Mhoraig. 
Cat, cait, s. m. A cat. Cat fiadhaich, o wild cat ; cat-luch, 

a mouse ; is tu an cat, you are a cat. Faodaidh cat seal- 

tuinn air an righ, a cat may look at a king. — G. P. 

Barbarous Gr. xarro;, xarrtif, and xa7a. Lat. catus. 

Fr. chat. Arm. and Ir. cat. Isl. katt. Swed. katt. 

Da. kat. Anglo-Sax. cat. Germ, katze. W. and Corn. 

cat. It. gatta. Span. gato. Russ. kotte. Pol. kotka. 

Turk. keti. Teut. katt. Pers. kitt. Javanese, cota. 

Georgian, kata. 
t Cat a, ai, s. m. A sheep-cote. 

CAtachadii, aidh, s.m. A taming, a soothing, a domesticating. 
CAtadh, aidh, s. m. A taming, a soothing, a domesticating. 
CAtaich, v. a. Tame, soothe, domesticate; ho/iour, re- 
verence. Pret. a. chktaich, tamed ; fut. aff. a, citaichidh, 

shall tame ; p. part, citaichte. 
t Cataidh, s.f. Generosity, nobility; also, generous, noble. 
Catanacii, a. Hairy, rough, shaggy, freezy; one of the 

clan Cattan. Com. and sup. catanaiche. 
Catas, ais, s. to. Caddice. 
Cat-fiadhaicii, s. m. A wild cat; the catus silvestris of 

Catii, s. m. A battle, a skirmish, a contest, a struggle ; a 

company of soldiers. Cuir cath, engage. Chuir iad cath 

air, they strove against him. — Sm. N. pi. cathan. 'G ar 

feitheamh le seachd cathan, waiting us with seven compa- 
nies. — Fingalian Poem. 

W. and Corw. cad. Germ. cat. Ir. cath ; hence caterva, 

a fighting band. Bisc. cuda, battle. Arab, cahad. Eth. 

Arab, cathal, to fight. Chald. katat. Gr. xara, against. 
Cath, v. Fight, fight a battle ; carry on war; contend, strive- 

Pret. a. c\iaXh, fought ; fit. aff. a. cathaidh, shall fight. • 
CAth, v. a. Fan, winnow. Pret. chath ; fut. aff. cathaidh. 


C E A 

CAth, s. Seeds; husks of corn; pollards. Ckth ligain, 
corn seeds, of the juice of which the Scotch Gael make 
exquisite flummery. Cath-bhruich, a kind of flummery. 

Catiiach, aich, s. m. (from cath.) A warrior, a fighting 
man, a champion. N. pi. cathaich. Seachd cathaich 
diongmhalta, seven able-bodied warriors. — Old Poem. 

CATHACftADH, aidh, «. w. A striving; a fighting; a battling; 
a struggling; a tempting; a provoking strife; struggle; 
temptation; provocation. A chur cathachaidh, to provoke. 
— Stew. Is. 

Cathachadh, (a),pr.por<. of cathaich. Striving, struggling, 
fighting, battling ; trying ; tempting. 

Cathadh, aidh, s. m. A drift. Thig ioma-chath, a whirling 
drift shall come. — Macfar. Cathadh mara, spoondrift ; 
cathadh cuir, falling snow. 

Cathag, aig, s.f. A daw, a jackdaw; a jay; the corvus 
monedula of Linnaeus. A^. pi. cathagan. 

Cathagach, a. Abounding in jackdaws; like a jackdaw; 
of jackdaws. 

Cathaich, (from cath.) Fight, contend; fight a battle; 
engage; carry on war; try, tempt. Pret. a. chathaich, 
fought ; fut. aff. a. cathaichidh, shall fight. Cathaich nan 
aghaidh,_/fjrA< against them. 

Cathair, cathrach, s.f. A town, a city, a fortified city; 
a chair, a seat, a bench ; a bed of any garden-stuff; a 
stock of colewor't or of cabbage ; a plot ; a marsh, a bog ; 
a sentinel. A'', pi. cathraichean. Do 'n chathair dhaingean, 
to the fortified city. — Sm. Gu gleann cathair, to a marshy 
vale. — Oss. Lod. Air cathair, on a seat. — Stew. Pro. An 
creamh na chathraichean, gentian in beds or plots. — Macint. 
Pers. car, town. Phen. kartha. Pun. karta, cartha, 
and cirtha, a town. Chin, cara, dwell. Jap. kar, a house. 
Syr. karac, enclosure, and kerac, a fortress. Chald. and 
Syr. kartha, town. Arab, carac, a fortress. Bisc. caria. 
W. and Com. cadair and caer. Arm. cador and codoer, 
o chair ; kaer, o city. 

Usherus, bishop of Armagh, in his book on the Origin of British 
Churches, has the following observations on tlie word cathair, 
chap. V. p. 65. " Johannes Caius ex Gervasio Tilberiense cair 
lingua Trojan^ civitatem addit, et Cambris murum sigiiificat, ut 
quemadmodum Ilebraei -<'p (Kyr) murum, et n>"ip (Kyria) urbem 
vocant. Ita Britannis vox non absimilis cair, et moenia et urbem 
mcenibus cinctam denotat. Sed et apud Scythas car est urbs." 

Cathair-beinn-thorraiche, s. /. Caerlavrock. The 

xaf^avTOfiyov of Ptolemy. 

CATiiAiR-BREATnEAMHNAis, «./. A judgmcnt-scat. Air 
a chathair bhreatheamhnais, on the judgment -seat. — Stew. 

Cathairiche, s. m. A citizen. N. pi. cathairichean. 

Cathair-righ, s. /. A throne. Chi gach sflil a chathair 
righ, every eye shall seeihis throne. — Sm. 

Cathair-rioguail, s.f. A throne. 

Cathair-thalmhainn, s.f. Milfoil or yarrow. — Macd. 

Cathaiseach, a. Brave, stout, warlike ; quick. Gu cath- 
aiseach, bravely. Com. and sup. cathaisiche. 

Cathamh, s. The drift of snow. Tha cur is cathamh ann, 
it S710WS and drifts ; cathamh fairge, spoon-drift ; dorus 
cathamh, the middle door of a kitchen-passage. 

Cathamhach, a. (/rom cathamh.) Drifty; like drift; of, 
or belonging to, drift. 

Cathan, ain, s. m. A species of wild goose with a black 
bill. — Shaw. Cathan aodaich, a web. 

Cathan, n.pZ. (/rom cath.) Warriors, champions. C6dhail 
nan cathan, the meeting of warriors. — Oss. Dargo. 

Cathan aodaich, s. m. A web. — Shaw. 

Cathar, air, s. m. Soft, boggy ground ; a marsh. O chathar 
's o chruaich, yVom marsh and from mountain. — Oss. Fing. 

CAthar, a. (cJkth-mhor.) Husky, seedy; full of seeds or husks. 

Cath-biiArr, s. m. A helmet, a headpiece. Bhris e an 
cath-bharr, lie broke the helmet. — Death of Oscar. 

CAth-bhruich, s. /. Flummery; sowens. 

Cath-fhear, -fhir, s. m. A warrior, a hero, a champion. 
N. pi. cath-fhir. 

Cath-labhradh, aidh, s. m. The speech of a general be- 
fore or after battle. 

Cathlun, uin, s. tn. A corn. — Shaw. 

Cath-mhilidh, s. m. A commander, a colonel, a chief 
officer ; a field officer. 

Cathraichean, n. pi. of cathair; dat. pi. cathraichibh. 
Cities, towns. See Cathair. 

Cat-luibh, s.f. Cudwort. — Shaw. 

a, s. (Gr. yn. Ir. ce.) The earth, the world; night; a 
spouse ; also, a pier. — Macd. An cruinne ce, the globe of 
the earth, orbis terrarum. 

C i;, (co k.) Who is he ? whq is it ? what is he ? what is it ? 
where is he ? where is it ? C k tha dorch air an t-sliabh, 
who is he that is dark on the hilt? — Oss. Fing. 

t Ceach, a. Each, every one. More frequently written 
gach ; which see. 

Ceach ail, v. a. Dig; hackle; destroy. Pret. a. cheachail, 
dug ; fut. aff. a. ceachlaidh, shall dig. 

Ceach AIR, ceachrach, s./. Dirt, filth ; penury. 

t Ceach DLACH, aich, s. m. Coal-black. 

Ceachrach, a. Dirty, filthy; penurious, stingy. Com. and 
sup. ceachraiche. 

Ceachrachd, s. /. Dirtiness, filthiness; penuriousness, 

Cead, s. m. Leave, permission, liberty, license; farewell, 
adieu. Thoir cead dhomh, give me leave ; gabhaidh mi 
mo chead dhiot, / will take my leave of thee. — Old Song. 
Cead buan, a long adieu ; leig cead duit ! enough of thee ! 

Cead, a. Hundred. See Ceud. 

Ceadacii, a. Talkative; cloth. 

Ceadachadh, aidh, s. m. A granting, a permitting; a per- 
mission ; liberty ; a dismissing. 

Ceadachadh, (a), pr. part, of ceadaich. Granting, per- 

Ceadachail, a. Lawful, allowable, permissible. 

Ceadaich, v. {from cead.) Permit, suffer, let, allow. This 
verb has the prep, do, simple or compounded, construed 
with it. Pret. a. cheadaich, permitted; fut. aff. a. cead- 
aichidh, shall permit. Ceadaich do t-oglach, permit thy 
servant. — Sm. Fut. pass, ceadaichear. 
Ceadaich is sometimes written ceaduich. 

C'£.\T>\icn\T>n,fut. aff. a. of ceadaich; which see. 

Ceadaichte, p. part, of ceadaich. Permitted; suffered; 
lawful. Bheil e ceadaichte? is it lawful? — Stew. Mat. 
Sometimes written ceaduichte ? 

t Ceadal, ail, s. ot. A story ; a narrative ; a malicious 

Ceadalach, a. Malicious, as a story. 

Cbadalaiche, s. m. He who raises malicious stories. 

Ceadhal, ail, a. Blistered; full of sores. 

Ceaird, gen. sing, and n, pi. of ceard. 

Ceairde, ceirde, s.f. A trade; an occupation. Ciod is 
ceairde duibh? what is your occupation? — Ste^v. Gen. 
Cha 'n uailse duine no 'cheirde, a man is not higher than 
his trade. — G. P. Feax-cekde, a tradesman ; luchd-ceirde^ 

t Ceal, s. {Lat. coelum. Ir. ceal. Fr. ciel.) Heaven. 

f Ceal, ceala, J. w. A joint; forgetfulness ; stupidity ; fine j 

C E A 

C E A 

Ceal, v. a. Eat. Pret. a. cheal, ate ; fut. off. a. cealaidh, 
shall eat. 

Cealachadh, aidh, s. m. The act of concealing; a con- 
cealing, hiding ; concealment ; eating. 

Cealachadh, (a), pr. part, of cealaich. 

Cealadh, aidh, s. m. Eating. 

Cealaich, v. a. Conceal, hide; deny; eat. Pret. a. cheal- 
aich ; fut. nff. a. cealaichidh, shall conceal. A cliealaich m' 
aran, who ate mi/ bread. — Smith. Cha chealaich mi ort e, 
I will not conceal it from you. 

Cealaichte, /). /)ar^ of cealaich. Eaten; concealed. 

Ceal-chobiiair, s. f. A sanctuary, a place of safe con- 

Ceal-fhuath, -fhuaith, s. n. A private grudge. 

Cealg, ceilg, *. {Ir. cealg. JF. celc.) Deceit, wile, 
treachery; hypocrisy; malice. Spiorad ceilg, the spirit of 
deceit. — Stew. Mic. UUuichidh iad cealg, they shall pre- 
pare treachery. — iitew. Job. 

Cealg, v. a. Beguile, deceive. Pret. a. chealg; fit. aff. a. 

Cealgach, a. {from cealg.) Crafty, deceitful, wily, hypo- 
critical ; malicious ; false. Tha 'n cridhe cealgach, the heart 
is deceitful. — Utew. Jer. Fianuis cealgach, a false witness. 
— atew. Pro. Com. and sup. cealgaiche. 

Cealgair, *. m. {jr. celgawr, apt to hide.) A deceitful man, 
a hypocrite, a traitor. N. pi. cealgairean. 

Cealgaireachd, s.f. Deceitfulness, hypocrisy, treachery. 
— Smith. Ri cealgaireachd, practising deceit. 

Cealg-chordadh, aidh, s. m. Collusion; private under- 

t Ceall, cealla, s. m. A cell ; a church. La^. cella. Hence 
ceall-shlad, sacrilege. 

Ceallach, aich, s.f A peat cart; a ran^ cart, employed 
in carrying peats from the moss ; also a creel, formed like a 
cone, with the base upwards, placed upon a sledge, and 
used to carry out manure. In the Southern Highlands 
these creels haVe given place to more convenient vehicles. 

Cealladh, aidh, s. m. Custody. 

Ceallair, s. m. The superior of a monastery. 

Ceall-ghoid, s. Sacrilege. 

Ceall-shlad, -shloid, s.f. Sacrilege. 

Ceall-stol, -stoil, *. m. A close stool. 

t Cealt, .?. m. Apparel, clothes, garments, dress. — Ir. id. 

Cealtach, aich, s. m. A Celt, a Gaul. 

+ Cealltair, «. »i. A spear ; a cause; a castle. — Ir. id. 

Cean, *. m. Love, favour, fondness; desire; elegance; a 
fault, a crime. Tha mo chean air an og mhnaoi, my love is 
on the xirgin. — Old Song. 

Ceanail, a. (cean-arahuil.) Kind, mild, loving; fond; ele- 
gant ; fauky. Thuit Carruill ceanail, the elegant Carril 
fell. — Death of Carril. 

Ceanail, ,s. /. Kindness, mildness, fondness. Beul a 
cheunail, the mouth of mildness. — Old Song. 

CEANALTA,n. Haudsomc ; clean ; Seemly ; mild, kind. Gille 
ceanalta, a handsome lad; oigh cheanalta, a handsome maid. 

Cea.naltachd, s.f. Handsomeness, cleanness, seemliness; 
mildness, kindness. — Macint. 

Cean altas, ais, s. m. Handsomeness, cleanness, seemliness, 
mildness, kindness. 

Ceanan, a. A corruption of ceann-fhionn ; which see. 

Ceangail, r. a. Tie, bind, fasten, fetter ; tighten ; oblige ; 
compel ; restrain. Pret. a. cheangail ; fit. aff. a. ceanglaidh, 
shall bind. Ceanglaibh le cordaibh, bind with ropes. — Sm. 
Ceangail teann, is faigh tearuinte,/a.«/ bind, fast find. — Old 
Proverb. Am fear a cheanglas 's e shiubhaileas, he who 
ties his bundle fast walks on without stop. — G. P. 

Ceangailte, p. part, of ceangail. Bound, tied, fastened; 
obliged ; restrained ; compelled ; under obligation. 

Ceanoal, ail, s. m. {Ir. ceangail. Lat. cingul-um.) A tie, 
a bond, a restraint, a fetter or chain ; an obligation ; a 
ligature ; a knot, a fastening, a bandage. N . pi. cean- 
glaichean. Ceanglaichean posaidh, marriage-bonds. — Stew. 
Gen. Ceangal iall a sgeith, the knot of the thongs of his 
shield. — Oss. Fing. Ceangal nam mionn, the obligation of 
the oaths. — Mac Lach. Ceangal pbsaidh, betrothment ; ni 
thu ciangal posaidh, thou shall betroth a wife.— Stew. Deut. 

Ceangalach, a. Binding; obliging; obligatory. 

Ceanglachan, ain, s. m. A truss; a bundle. Ceanglachan 
airgid, « bundle of silver. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. ceanglachain. 

Ceajjgladii, aidh, *. m. A binding, a tying, a fastening; 
a betrothing ; a tie, a fetter, a fastening ; a betrothment. 

Ceangladii, (a), pr. part, of ceangail. Binding, tying, 
fastening; betrothing; obliging. 

Ceanglaiche, Ceanglaichean, n. p/. of ceangal. Ties, 
bonds, obligations ; ligatures, bandages ; fetters, chains, 
fastenings ; knots. 

Ceanglaidh, yu<. aff. a. of ceangaiJ. 

Ceanglar./u^ of ceangail. Shall be bound or fastened; 
shall be restrained ; shall be obliged. 

Ceann, cinn, «. m. (Jr. ceann. IF. cvrn and cyn. Corn, kyn.) 
Ahead; apoint; ahilt; atop; an end; achief, acommander; 
a high headland, a promontory. N. pi. cinn. Thog tuinn an 
cinn, waves reared their heads. — Ull. Dh' fhill i a ceann 
an ceo, she wrapped her head [top] in mist. — Oss. Cathluno. 
Ceann gach lainn, the hilt of every sword. — Oss. Lod. Sleagh 
is geire ceann, a spear of the sharpest point. — Oss. Croma. 
Ceann nan laoch, the chief of heroes. — Mac Lach. Ceann 
deireadh, the hinder end, the latter end ; ceann toiseach, the 
beginning. A chuir ceann air strl, to put an end to the strife. 
— Oss. Lod. An ceann lai araidh, at the end of certain days, 
in process of time. — Stew. Gen. Mu cheannaibh nan crann, 
about the tops of the trees. — Oss. Tern. Eadar so 's ceann 
bliadhna, before a year expire; an ceann a cheile, assembled 
together ; o cheann gu ca^im, from end to end. — Stew. 2 K. 
Air ar ceann, on our part. — Old Poem. Am a tharruingeas 
ar n-amhghar gu ceann, a time that shall draw our troubles 
to a close. — Mac Lach. An ceann ghrathuinn, in a while ; 
o cheann ghrathuinn, a while ago ; an ceann tacain, in a little 
while; o cheann tacain, a while ago; cinn agus cinn-bheairt, 
heads and helmets. — Orr. Ceann na ciche, a nipple. — Macd. 
Fear togalach mo chinn, the uplifter of my [spiritsi head ; 
o cheann fada, long ago, long since. — Stew. 1 Chron. 

It is observable that ceann, promontory, is seen in tlie ancient 
names of many capes and promontories throughout Europe ; as 
Ceneum, a cape on the north-west of Euboea; Cenchrete, a cape 
on the Isthmus of Corinth; Ca nmf rteum, a cape in Macedonia ; 
Candaria, a cape in Cos ; and n^^nthers. 

Ceann ACii, aich, «. w. Hire; price; wages; a purchase; 
a reward ; a covenant. — Stew. Deut. ref. N. pi. ceann» 
aichean. Bu cheannach learn t»ubh air do ghloc, dear- 
bought egg with so much cackling.— G. P. 

Ceannachachd,*./. Buying, bartering, commerce, trucking. 

Ceann ACHADH, aidh, s. m. A buying ; the act of buying ; 
a purchase. 

Ceannachadh, (a), pr. part, of ceannaich. Buying; pur- 

Ceannaciid, s.f {Ir. ceannaidheachd.) Buying; iner- 
chandise ; a purchase. Is fearr a ceannachd, Aer merchan- 
dise is better. — Stew. Pro. 

Ceannachdracu, aich, s. m. The upper part of the throat. 
— Shaw. 

Ceann-adhart, airt, s. m. A pillow; a bed-head. Ceann- 
adhairt na leapach, the bed's head. — Stejv, Gen. 

Ceann-aghaidh, s. m. A forehead. 

C E A 

C E A 

Ceannaich, aiche, s.f. Strife ; contention for supremacy 
or superiority. 

Ceann'aich, c. a. (ir. ceannaigh.) Buy, purchase. Pret.a. 
cheannaich, bought; fut.aff'.a. ceannaicliidh, shall buy; 
fut. pass, ceannaichear. Ceannaich le duais, huj/ uith a 
price. Ceannaich mar d' fheum is crcic mar d' ailghios, 
buy as you need, and sell what you please. — G. P. 

Ceannaich, aiche, s. m. (Ir. ceannaidhe.) A buyer, a pur- 
chaser ; a shopkeeper ; a merchant. Ars' an ceannaich, 
said the buyer. — Steio. Pro. Written also ceannuich. N. pi. 

Ceannaiciite, p. part, of ceannaichte. Bought. 

t Ceannaide, s. m. A shopkeeper; a merchant. N. pi. 

Ceann-aimsir', s. f. A date, an epoch, an era. N. pi. 
cinn-aimsir, dates. 

Ceannair, s. m. A driver, a goadsman. N. pi. ceannairean. 

Ceannairc, v. n. Rebel, mutiny. Pret. cheannairc, re- 
belled; fut. aff. a. ceannaircidh, shall rebel. 

Ceannairc, s. f. {from ceann.) Rebellion, insurrection, 
mutiny, conspiracy ; perverseness ; insubordination. Lkn 
ceannAivc, full of rebellion. — Smith. Dean ceannairc, re- 
bel; rinn iad ceannairc, they rebelled. — Stew. Gen. Luchd 
ceannairc, rebellious people. 

Ceannaiuceach, a. (from ceannairc.) Rebellious, muti- 
nous; perverse, insubordinate. Daoine dall is ceannair- 
ceach, blind and rebellious men. — Smith. Com. and sup. 
ceannairciche, more or most mutinous. 

Ceannairceas, eis, s.m. A proneness to rebel ; insubor- 

Ceann AiRD, gen. sing, of ceannard. 
Ceann-aobhar, air, s. m. A prime cause, a first cause. 

Ceann aobhair ar brbn, the first cause of our woe. — MacLach. 

Ceannard, aird, *. m. (ceann-ard.) A chief, a chieftain ; a 
commander; a commander-in-chief. Ceannard nam frith 
's nan gleann, the chieftain afforests and glens. — Oss.Fing. 

Ceannardach, a. Arrogant, proud, ambitious. Com. and 

sup. ceannardaiche. 
Ceannardachd, s.f. Arrogance, pride, ambition. 
Ceannas, ais, s. m. (from ceann.) Superiority; chiefiainry; 

ambition ; the upper hand. Is ann doibh a gheilleadh gach 

ceannas, to them would all superiority yield. — Old Song. 
Ceannasach, a. (Ir. id.) Superior; ambitious, aspiring, 

commanding ; haughty, headstrong. Com. and sup. ceann- 

Ceannasachd, s.f. A wishing to be superior; superiority ; 

ambition; haughtiness. 
+ Ceannasg, aisg, s.f. 4^orehead. — Shaw. 
Ceann-biiarr, -bhkirr, i.*»w. A hat, a bonnet; any male 

Ceann-bheart, -bheairt, s. m. A helmet, a headpiece. 

N. pi. cinnbheairt. Ir. ceinbheart. 
Ceann-biieartach, a. Wearing a helmet or headpiece. 
Ceann-bhrat, -bhrait, s. m. A canopy. 
Ceann-biiriathar, s. m. An adverb. 
Ceann-biorach, aich, s. m. The bow of a ship. — Shaw. 
Ceann-caol, -caoil, s. m. The bow of a ship. — Shaw. 
Ceann-chlaon, a. Steep; headlong. — Shaw. 
Ceann-cinnidu, s. m. A chief, a chieftain ; the head of a 

clan, the chief of a tribe ; as, Ceann-cinnidh nan D6nullach, 

Ceann-dXn, a. Pertinacious, stubborn, headstrong. 
Ceann-danadas, *. m. Pertinacity, stubbornness. 
Ceann-dearo, -deirg, *. m. The redstart; called also 

ceann-deargan ; which see. 

Ceann-dearo AN, ain, s. m. The bird called a redstart. — 
Macd. The motacilla phcenicurus of Linneeus. Nead a 
chinn-deargain, the redstart's nest. — Old Song. 

Ceann-eideadii, idh, s. m. A head-dress; a mitre; a 
turban. Le ceann-eideadh daithte, with a dyed head-dress, 
— Stew. Ezck. 

Ceann-eudacii, aich, s. m. A head-dress ; a mitre ; a 
turban. Ceann-eudach, a mitre. — Stew. Zech. 

Ceann-feadiina, s. m. A chief, a chieftain; a leader, a 
commander. Tra chunn e gun deo cheann-feadhna, when 
he saw his chieftain breathless. — Ull. N. pi. cinnfeadhna. 

Ceann-feadiixais, *. m. A chieftain, a leader. — Oss. Conn. 

Ceann-feodiixa, s. m. See Ceann-feadiina. 

Ceann-fiuonn, a. White-headed, as a cpw or sheep. — 
Macint. and Macdon. Also a name given to a white- 
headed or a white-faced cow. 

Ceann-fhocal, ail, *. m. An adverb. 

Ceann-fineadh, s. m. (Ir. cean-fine.) The head of a 
tribe or clan ; a chieftain ; a chief. Chaill iad ceann- 
fineadh no dha, they lost a chieftain or two. — Old Song. 

Ceann-fineacha, *. m. The head of a clan or tribe; the 
head of a nation. — Oss. Temo. 

Ceann-fiodha, s. m. The end of a ship-timber. 

Ceann-ghalar, air, s.f. Dandriff"; scales in the head; 
a headach. 

Ceanx-ghalaracii, (7. Subject to dandriff ; like a disease 
in the head ; of, or pertaining to, a disease in the head. 

Ceann-ghiujiiiasaich, s. m. Kingussie, in Scotland; 
literally, the head of the fir-wood. 

Ceanx-ghrabh, aibh, s. m. A motto; a superscription; 
a title. 

Ceann-iuil, s. m. A leader ; a guide; a chieftain ; a leader 
of the way. N. pi. cinn-iiiil. Cinn-iiiil nan dall, leaders 
of the blind. — Stew. Mat. 

Ceann-laidir, a. Headstrong, stubborn; opinionative. 
Tha i ceann- laidir, she is stubborn. — Stew. Pro. 

Ceann-laidireachd, s.f. Stubbornness; stiffness; ob- 
stinacy ; opinionativeness. 

Ceann-liath, a. Grey-headed. Tha mi aosmhor ceann- 
liath, I am aged and grey-headed. — Stew. Sam. 

Ceann-lom, a. Bareheaded. Mo nighean mhiog-shuileach 
cheann-lom, my smirking bareheaded maid. — Old Song. 

Ceann-maide, s. m. A block ; a blockhead. 

Ceanx-miior, -mhoir, s. m. (properly ceann-m6r.) Kenmore, 
(literally, a high promontory,) a village romantically situated 
on the eastern shore of Loch Tay, in Scotland. 

Ceann-phoroaid, *.y. A gargle. ^. ;;/. cinn-phurgaidean. 

Ceann-pluic, «. »!. A block ; a blockhead. 

Ceann-puist, *. m. A chapiter. — Stew. 0. T. 

Ceannracii, aich, *•. m. (from ceann.) A halter; a horse- 
collar ; a tether. — Macd. 

Ceann-ruadii, -ruaidh, *. m. Celendine. 

Ceannsa, Ceannsacii, a. Continent, temperate ; bashful, 
mild, gentle ; subordinate ; under authority. Com. and 
sup. ceannsaiche, more or most continent. 

Ceannsaciiadii, aidh, .s. w. A subduing; a commanding, 
a keeping under authority ; a subjugation, a reducing. 

Ceannsaciiadii, (a), pr. part, of ceannsaich. Subduing, 
commanding, keeping under authority. 

Ceanns aciid, s. f. Authority ; the condition of being kept 
under ; government ; subordination ; continence, docility, 
meekness. Le ceannsachd, with meekness. — Stew. Jam. 

Ceannsaich, t. a. (/;w« ceann.) Subdue, conquer; tame, 
bring under, suppress ; train ; discipline ; keep under. 
Pret. a. cheannsaich ; fat. aff. a. ceannsaichidh. A clicann- 

C E A 

C E A 

saich rioghachdan, icho svbdued kingdoms. — Stew. Heb. 
Tut. pass, ceannsaichear, shall be subdued. 

CEASyiiAicH^AR, flit. pass, of ceaiinsaicli. Shall be subdued. 

CEANN8AiCHiDii,/«f. oj". a. of ceannsaich. Shall subdue or 
tame. See Ceannsaich. 

Ceannsaichte, p. part, of ceannsaich. Subdued, con- 
quered, tamed, trained. Asp. form, cheannsaichte. 

Ceannsal, ail, s. m. Rule, authority, government, sway. 
Do m' cheannsal geillibh, yield to m\j authority. — Smith. 
Fo cheannsal, subjected. 

Ceannsalach, a. Authoritative, supreme; prone to lord 
or govern ; swaying. Corn, and sup. ceannsalaiche. 

Ceannsalachd, ,9./. Rule, government ; supremacy; au- 
thoritativeness ; tyranny. 

Ceannsalaiche, s. m. A subduer, a conqueror; an over- 
bearing man. 

Ceann-sgal, ail, s. m. Command, authority, sway. Ri 
ceannsgal, commanding. Ri ceannsgal o shlogh gu slogh, 
commanding from host to host. — Mac Lach. 

Ceannsgalach, a. Commanding, swaying; imperious, 
authoritative ; active. — Macdon. Ceannard ceannsgalach, 
a commanding chief. — Old Song. Com. and sup. ceannsga- 

Ceannsgalach, aich, *. m. An active leader, a commander. 
An ceannsgalach raileanta, the brave commander. — Mac- 

Ceannsgriobii, *. m. A title, a motto. N. pi. ceann- 

Ceannsgur, s. m. A full stop, a full pause in reading, 
a period. — Macd. 

Ceann-simid, s. m. A tadpole. 

Ceann-stuaigh, s. m. Anarch. — Shaw. 

Ceannsuich, v. a. See Ceannsaich. 

Ceann-tail, s. Cintail, a parish in Scotland; more cor- 
rectly, ceann an t-siil, the boundary of the sea. 

Ceann-tala, *. m. {Lat. cantela.) A bard. — Oss. Tern. 

Ceanntighe, s. m. The head of a branch of a family; the 
master of a house or household. 2V. pi. cinntighe. — Stew. 
1 Chron. 

Ceann-tire, s. m. (Ir. cean-tire.) A peninsula, a promon- 
tory, a headland ; land's end ; also Kyntire, in Argyllshire. 

Ceahn-tobair, s. m. A well-cover; a mother-spring. 

Ceanntrom, a. Heavy-headed; dull, drowsy. — Ir. id. 

Ceann-uidhe,' Ceann-uighe, «. OT. A stage ; a journey's 
end; a dwelling-place; a chieftain. Ceann-uidhe nabaigh, 
the duelling-place of mercy, — Old Poem. Ceann-uighe na 
feile, the chief of the generous. — Oss. Fing. N. pi. cinn- 

Ceap, cip, I. f. {Ir. id.) A block; a shoemaker's last; 
stocks ; a cap ; {Box. Lex. cap, a bonnet) ; the top, as of 
a hill ; a head ; a stock ; a sign set up in time of battle. 
Peanas a chip, the punishment of the stocks. ^Stew. Pro. 
Ceap nam mor chruach, the tops of the lofty hills. — Macfar. 
Ceap-tuislidh, a stumbling-block ; ceap-cartach, the nave of 
a cart-wheel. 

Ceap, v. a. Catch, hold, stop, keep, intercept. Pret. a. 
cheap ; fut. aff. a. ceapaidh, shall or will catch. 

Ceapacii, aich, s. f. A decayed wood; also a place in 

Ceapadh, aidh, s. m. A catching, a holding, a stopping, 


Ceapadh, (a), pr. part, of ceap. Catching, holding, stopping. 
A ceapadh chuileag, catching flies. — Macdon. 

Ceapainn, v. a. Catch, snatch, hold, intercept. Pret. a. 
cheapainn; fut. aff. ceapainnidh. 

Ceapaire, *. m. A piece of bread with butter spread on it. 
— Macint. N. pi. ceapairean. 

Ceapan, ain, *. m. A stump ; a pin. ceapain. 

Ceapanta, a. Niggardly, stiff. — Shaw. Gu ceapanta, in 
a niggardly manner. 

Ceap-sgaoil, v. a. Propagate.— 5Aajj). 

Ceap-tuislidh, *. m. A stumbling-block. Ceap-tuislidh 
roimh an dall, a stumbling-block before the blind.— Stew. Lev. 

t Cear, s. m. {Ir. id.) Progeny, race. — Shaw. 

t Gear, «. m. Blood. — Ir. id. W. guyar. Eng. gore. 

t Cearachadh, aidh, s. m. A wandering, a straying. 

t Cearaciiar, air, *. m. {Ir. id.) A grave. 

Cearb, cirb, s.f. {Ir. id.) A rag, a tatter ; a lappet; a piece 
of cloth ; a skirt ; rarely, money. Cearb nan nial, the skirt 
of the clouds. — Oss. Tern. Faigh cearb, cavil, rail, slander ; 
a faghail cearb orra, railing at them. — Old Song. 

Cearbach, a. {Ir. id.) Ragged ; untidy; awkward in dress. 
Com. and sup. cearbaiche. 

Cearb an fe6ir, s. m. A healing herb, 

t Cearbhal, ail, s. m. A massacre, a carnage. — Shaw. 

Cearc, circe, s.f. {Gr. xi^xoj, a kind of hawk. Jr. cearc, hen.) 
A hen. iV. pi. cearcan, hens. Ceann circe, a xviiless head. 
— Macint. Cearc-fhraoich, a moor-hen; cearc-fhrangach, 
turkey hen ;, a partridge ; cearc-Innseanach, 
an Indian hen ; cearc-ghlopach, a hen whose head is covei'ed 
with down ; cearc-thopach, a topped hen ; cearc-choille, a 
partridge. Cridhe circe an gob ua h-aii'C, a hen's heart in 
the inouth of poverty. — G. P. 

Cearcach, a. Full of hens ; like a hen ; of, or belonging to, 
a hen. 

Cearcall, aill, s. m. {Ir, id. Lat, circulus. Swed. cirkel. 
Span, cerco, a hoop, and circulo, a circle.) A hoop, a circle, 
a circumference ; a ring. Asp. form, chearcall. Mar 
chearcail fuileach re 's i Ikn, like the bloody circumference of 
the full moon, — Oss. Tern. 

Cearcallach, a. (yro?K cearcall.) Circular, orbicular; like 
a hoop, rounded. A braighe cearcallach b^n, her rounded 
fair neck. — Oss. Taura. 

t Cearchall, aill, s. m, A pillow, a bolster. — Ir. id. 

Cearc-choille, s.f. A partridge. — Stew. Sam. 

Cearc-lann, -lainn, s, m. A poultry yard; a hen court. 

Cearc- lobhta, s. m. A henroost.' 

Cearc-mhanrach, aich, s. m. A hencoop. — Shaw. 

Cearc-thomain,- «.y. A partridge; the tctrao perdrix of 

Ceard, ceaird, *. m. {Gr, xtfJo«, gain. Ir. ceard. Corn. 
ceard and keard, urtijicer.) A tinker ; a smith ; a trades- 
man. Ceard is seldom use^K the last sense except in 
composition ; as, fear-ceairdfl^/'ac/cJWMw. N. pi. ceaird, 
ciHixA, tinkers. C&SiXil Mr^wa, a silversmith ; ceard 6ir, a 
goldsmith ; ceard staoin, a tinsmith ; ceard umha, a copper- 

Ceardachd, j.y The business of a tinker ; forging. 

Ceardaich, aiche, s.f. A forge, a smithy, a smith's shop. 
O'n cheardaiche, from the smithy. — Macint. N. pi. ceard- 

Ceardail, a. (ceard-amhuil.) Like a tinker; artificial; 

Ceardalachd, A-.y. Artificialness ; handicraft, ingenuity. 

t Cearla, ai, s. m. A clew. N. pi. cearlan. 

t CEAB,LACH,fl. {from cearla.) Round, globular; like a clew. 

Cearmanta, a. Tidy, spruce, trim ; succiiict'. 

Cearmantas, ais, «. m. Tidiness, trimness ; succinctness. 

f Cearn, «. A victory; a man. — Ir, id. Cearn duals, aM- 
letic laurel. — Shaw, 

C E A 

C E A 

Ceark, s. m. {Ir. id.) A corner; a quarter; a kitchen. 
N. pi. cearnan ; d. pi. cearnaibh. Anns na cearnaibh iom- 
allach, ill the utmost corners. — Stew. Jer. Sluagb o gach 
ceam, people from every quarter. — Stew. Gen. 

Cearnabhan, ain, s. m. A corner; ahoruet. N. pi. cearn- 
abhain. Cuiridh mi cearnabhain, / will send hornets. — 
Stew. Exod. 

t Cearnacii, a. {from f ceam.) Victorious. — Shavi. Per- 
haps ceatharnach. 

Cearnach, a. {from ceam.) Angular, rectangular, square; 
of, or belonging to, a kitchen. Ceithir-cheamach, qua- 
drangular. — Stew. Exod. 

Cearnadii, aidh, s. m. A kitchen, a quarter. 

Cearnag, aig, s.f. A little square; a Uttle kitchen. Cearnag 
ghloine, a square of glass.' 

Cearn-luach, s. m. A prize. 

Cearr, a. .Wrong; awkward; left; left-handed. Tha so 
cearr, this is wrong ; an latnh chearr, the left hand ; deiig 
nan guaillibh chearr, pins in their left shoulders. — Old Song. 

A bheirt sin nach faighear ach cearr, is foighidinn is fear a 
dheanamh ris, what cannot be helped ought to be borne. — G.P. 
Cearraiche, «. »i. (7r. cearbhach.) A gamester or gambler ; 
a master of his profession or art. Cha cheilich cearraiche 
a dhistean, a gamester will not conceal his dice. — G.P. 
Cearr-lamhach, a. Left-handed, awkward. Fearr cearr- 

lamhach, a left-handed man. — Stew. Jud. 
Ceart, a. {Ir. id.) Right ; just ; honest, upright ; proper ; 
certain. Ceart anns gach gniomh, 7-ight in every action. — 
Smith. Ceart mar sin, just so; ceart mar nach tugadh 
Dia fanear, just as if God did not observe. — Id. Le dlighe 
cheairt, with just right.— Id. Is ceart gun cuimhnichear 
thu, it is proper that thou shouldst be remembered. — Oss. 
Carricth. Is ceart gan tuit Silric, it is certain that Silric 
shall fall.~Id. Ceart cho maith riutsa, jusi as good as you, 
just as well as you ; is ceart cho maith leam so ri sin, 1 like 
this just as well as that. 
Ceart, ceairt, ceirt, s. m. Justice ; righteousness ; redress ; 
propriety. Bhnghceirt, for justice. — Smith. Coir is ceart, 
right and justice. — Id. Ceart na cleir ri cheil, the redress 
that clergymen give to each other. — G. P. 
Ceartacii, aich, i. OT. An adjustment; a trimming; a set- 
ting in order ; a little domestic job. N. pi. ceartaichean. 
Ceartachadii, aidh, s. m. An adjusting; a mending; a 
trimming; a setting in order; an adjustment, an amend- 
ment; a paring, a pruning, a dressing. 
Ceartachadh, (a), pr. part, of ceartaich. Adjusting, mend- 
ing, trimming; pruning, dressing. 
Ceartachail, a. (ceartach-amhuil.) Rectifiable; ready to 

rectify, or to adjust. 
Ceartaciiair, «. m. An adjuster; a rectifier; a regulator. 
Ceartachair uaireadaii-, a wutch regulator, N. pi. ceartach- 
Ceartaich, v. a. Adjust; amend, set to rights, rectify ; cut, 
prune, trim. Pret. a. cheartaich; fut. aff. a. ceartaichidh, 
shall adjust. 
Ceartais, gen. sing, of ceartas. 
Ceartas, ais, s. m. Equity, justice. Le ceartas riaghlaidh 
e, he will rule with justice. — Smith. Asp. form, cheartas. 
Tha do cheartas ard, thy justice is lofty. — /(/. 
Ceart-biireatiiamii, eimh, s. m. A just judge. N. pi. 

ceart-bhreathamhna, Judge*. 
Ceart-bhreitii, s.f' A just 4@cision or judgment; a 

Ceart-bhreitheacii, a. Just in judging. 
Ceart-ciioimeas, eis, s. m. A just resemblance, a just 
comparison. Ceart-choimeas comhrag nam fear, a just 
comparison to the strife of heroes, — Oss, 

Ceart-ciireidimh, «./. Orthodoxy; sound belief. 
Ceart-chreidimiiicii, s. m. An orthodox person ; one of 

sound faith. 
Ceart-chreidmheach, a. Orthodox ; of sound faith. 
Ceartla, s.f. A clew. N. pi. ceartlan. 
Ceartlaich, f. a. Conglomerate, conglobate, wind up as 
a clew. Pret. a. cheartlaich ; fut. aff. a. ceartlaichidh, shall 
wind up ; p. part, ceartlaichte. 
Ceartlaiciite, p. part, of ceartlaich. 
Ceart-lanx, lainn, s. m. A house of correction. — Ir. id. 
Ceart-luigiieaciid, s. f. A just recompense; a just 
reward. Ceart-luigheachd agus duais, just recompense and 
rexoard. — Smith. 
Ceart-sgriobhadh, aidh, s. m. Orthography, 
Ceart-sgriobhaiche, s. m. An orthographer. 
Ceartuich, v. a. See Ceartaich. 

f Ceas, ceasa, s. m. Obscurity, sadness ; irksomeness. — Ir. id. 
f Ceasad, aid, s. m. A grumbling, a complaining; a com- 
plaint ; an accusation. More frequently written casaid. 
Ceasadach, a. Inclined to grumble or complain; like a 
complaint ; of, or belonging to, a complaint or accusation. 
Ceasadair, «. CT. A grumbler ; a complainer ; a tormentor. 

N. pi. ceasadairean. 
Ceasadii, aidh, «. 7?e. Vexation; punishment. — Shaw. 
Ceaslacii, aich, s.m. Fine wool; also coarse wool on the 

legs. — Shaw. 
Ceaslaid, s.f. Sacrilege. — Shaw. 
Ceasjj achadh, aidh, s.m. An examination; a scrutiny; 

a search ; a questioning. Ir. ceistniughadh. 
Ceasnachadh, (a), pr. part, of ceasnaich. Examining; 

Ceasnaich, v. a. Examine, catechize, question, search. 
Pret. a. cheasnaich ; fut. aff. a. ceasnaichidh. Written 
also ceasnuich. 
Ceasnaichte, p. part, of ceasnaich. Examined, catechized, 

questioned, searched. 
Ceasnuich, v. a. Examine, catechize, question, search. 
Pret. a. cheasnaich ; fut. aff. a. ceasnuichidh, shall examine. 
Ceasnuichibh sibh fain, examine yourselves. — Stew. Cor. 
Ceasnuichte, p. part, of ceasnuich. Examined, catechized, 

f Ceast, s. m. {Arm. cest. Gr. xf<7roj. /;•. ceast.) A girdle. 
Ceatach, a. See Ciatach. 
Ceatain, s.f. See CiiTUiN. 

Cea'tfadh, aidh, s. m. A conjecture, a guess ; judiciousness. 
Ceath, ceatha, s. m. A quay; cream; a shower; rarely, 

a sheep. — Ir. id. 
Ceath, v. a. Skim, as milk. Pret. a. cheath, skimmed; 

fut. aff. ceatliaidh, shall skim. 

Ceathach, aich, s. m. {Ir. ciach.) Mist, fog, vapour. 

An ceathach a se61adh, the mist sailing.— Ull. Asp. form, 

cheathach. Mar cheathach air bheanntaibh, like mist on 

the mountains. — Oss. Duthona. 

Ceathach AIL, a. (ceathach-amhuil.) Misty, smoky, vapoury. 


Ceathairne, n. pi. of ceatharn. Bands of robbers. Ceath- 
airne choille, freebooters ; underhiding. 

Ceatharn, aim, i. wi. (Box. LeJ. cadarn, irnrc.) A troop; 
a banditti ; a guard ; a fighting band ; a troop of Cale- 
donian freebooters. N. pi. ceathairne. Mar dh' f heitheas 
ceathairne, as bands of robbers wait. — Stew. Hos. 

They were commonly armed with a seian or dirk. Hence 
the Eng. kern. Scotch, kaitrine. Lat. caterva. The xt^anif 
of Ptolemy (ccarns) were in the North Highlands, on the 
coast of Caithness. 

Ceatharnach, aich, s. m. One of a banditti ; a freebooter ; 

C E I 

C E I 

a soldier ; a guardsman ; a hero ; a boor, a sturdy fellow. 
Is olc cuid a cheatharnaich a thasgadh, the freebooter's 
share is ill laid up. — G. P. N. pi. ceatharnaich. 

Ceatharnachd, i.y. Valour, heroism ; freebooting; pea- 
santry, yeomanry. 

Ceathkamh, eirah, s. m. (Ir. ceathramh.) A fourth part; 
a quarter ; a bushel ; a firlot; a stanza; a lodging; also, 
adjectively, the fourth. Air a cheathramh la, on the fourth 
day. — Ull. Ceathramh eorna, a bushel [firlot] of barley. 

Ceathramiiax, ain, s. in. A cube; a quadrant. JV". pi. 

Ceathramiia'sach, a. Cubical; like a quadrant. 

Ceathrar, a. (Ir. id.) Four persons ; four in number. 
Ceathrar ag eiridh mu' ramhan, four men rising at his oars. 
— Oss. Trath. 

t Ceide, s.f. A market, a fair; a green; a hillock. 

Ceigeacii, a. Squat; shapeless; inactive. 

Ceigeak, ein, s. m. A turd; in contempt, a diminutive 
person. — Macint. An affected person. 

Ceigeaxach, a. Squat; diminutive in person; affected; 
like a turd. 

Ceigeanachd, *. Squatness; diminutiveness ; affectation; 

Ceil, v. a. (Ir. ceil. TF. c61. Heb. cili, one who conceals his 
goods.) Conceal, hide, shelter, screen, deny. Pret. a. 
cheil ; fut. aff. a. ceilidh ; p. part, ceilte, concealed. Ceilibh 
a cheuma, hide his steps. — Oss. Com. Cha cheil sinn e air 
ar cloinn, ae shall not conceal it from our children. — Sm. 
Ceil is commonly construed with the prep, air, either 
simple, as in the preceding example, or compounded, 
as in the following, Na ceil orm d' aitheanta, hide not from 
me thy lams. — Sm. 

Ceile, s. c. (Ir. id.) A spouse; a husband; a wife; a 
servant. Ceile a h-oige, the husband of her youth. — Stew. 
Joel. Atha.iT ceWe, a father-in-law ; mathair ceile, a ?no<//er- 
in-law ; brathair c6ile, a brother-in-law ; piuthar ceile, a 
sister-in-law. Asp. form, cheile. 

CiiLEACiiADH, aidh, i. OT. A concealing, hiding ; covering, 
sheltering, screening ; denying ; a concealment, a hiding- 
place ; a purloining. 

CiiLEACHADii, (a), pr. part, of ceilich. 

C61LEAR, eir, s. m. A warbling, a chirping, as of birds; 
a sonnet ; melody. Cluinnidh Goll an ceilear, Gaul shall 
hear the warbling. — Oss. Gaul. 

Ceilear, ir, s. m. A concealer; a coverer, a screener, a 
. shelterer. W. celawr. 

GiiLEAR, fut. pass, of ceil. 

Ceileakach, a. (/;om ceilear.) Musical ; warbling, melo- 
dious ; also warbling, melody. Bu lionmhor ceilearach 
coin, numerous and warbling were the birds. — Old Song. 

Ceileiuiciie, *./)/. Warblers; songsters. 

Ceilg, gen. sing, of cealg. 

CiiL-GHEALL, V. a. Betroth. — Shaw. 

C6iLicn, i. a. Conceal, hide, screen; cover; deny; pur- 
loin. Prct. a. cheilich, concealed; fut. a. ceilichidh, shall 
conceal. Ceilichidh seirc aineamh, charity conceals faults. 
— G. P, -J J 

Ceilidh, s.f. A gossiping, a visit. Air cheilidh, on a 

visit, gossiping; earrag cheilidh, the gossiping stroke; — 

said of a person who is hurt at a visit. 
Ceilinn, 1 sing. fit. tub. of ceil. Would conceal. 
Ceilinn, s. m. A large codling. — Macd. 
CiiLL, ceille, s.f. Sense, judgment, reason. See Ciall. 
CiiLLE, gen. sing, of ciall. 
CiiLLiDii, a. Prudent, sober, discreet, wise. B' fhearr 

dhuit^ chi ceillidh, it were better for thee to be prudent.— 

Old Song. Gu ceillidh, soberly. 

CiiLT, s. f. Concealment, secrecy; any thing concealed or 
hidden. An ceilt, concealed, hidden.— Stew. N. T. Ceilt- 
inntinn, equivocation. 

Ceilte, p. part, of ceil. Concealed, hidden, secret. A 
ghaisgich ceilte, his heroes concealed. — Oss. Fing. , 

Ceiltinn, s.f. A concealing, a hiding, a covering; a con- 

Ceiltinn, (a), pr. part, of ceil. Concealing, hiding, covering . 

Ceilt-inntinn, s.f. Equivocation. 

CiiM, gen. sing, of ceum. 

Ceimhleag, eig, s.f. A fillet. N. pi. ceimhleagan. 

Ceimhleagach, a. Like a fillet; abounding in fillets. 

Cein, a. {Ir. id.) Far; foreign, distant, remote. Dfithaich 
chein, a foreign country ; an aimsir chein, bygone time, 
remote time. — Smith. 

CEiN,_(an), arff. Far off; long since; faraway; afar; from 

afar. An cein tha madainn na h-uaigh, far off is the 

morning of the grave. — Oss. Derm. 
CiiN-THiR, s. f. A distant land. Tra tharlas dhoibh an 

cein-thir, when they meet in a distant land. — Ull. 
dm, s.f. Wax. Ceir, bees'-wax, honeycomb ; edit 

cluaise, ear-wax ; mar leaghar teine ceir, as fire fnelts wax. 

— Smith. Coinneal ch^ir, a wax candle; coinnlean c6ir, 

wax candles. 

Lot. cera. Gr. xujtij. W. cvvyr. Arm. Corn, coar, coir. 

Ir. ceir. Span. cera. 
C£iR, V. a. Cover with wax, seal with wax. Pret. a. cheir, 


Ceir-bheacii, *./. Bees'- wax; honeycomb. Ceir-bheach 
na chnuachdaibh, honeycotnb in heaps. — Macint. 

t Ceirbheadii, idh, s. m. A carving. 

Ceirde, s.f. A trade. See Ceairde. 

Ceirdeach, a. Having a trade ; expert, dexterous, inge- 
nious. Is an-uasal mac an usail mar bi e ceirdeach, with- 
out parts the son of a fioble is mean. — G. P. 

CiiREACii, a. Waxen, waxy; like wax; of, or belonging 
to, wax. 

CiiRE, s.f. A buttock ; a haunch ; a breech. Am broc 's a 
shr6in na cheire, the badger smelling his buttocks.— Old Song. 

Ceirsleadh, eidh, «. ?«. A clew of yarn. //-. ceirtle. 

Ceirtle, s.f. A clew or bottom of yarn. N. pi. ceirtlean. 

t Ceirt, s.f. A rag. N. pi. ceirtean. 

Ceirt, gen. sing, of ceart; which see. 

CiiRTE, a. {Lat. cerata.) Waxed ; covered with wax ; 
sealed with wax. Eudach ceirte, wax-cloth; litir cheirte, 
a sealed letter. 

Ceirte, com. and sup. of ceart. More or most just or 
righteous. Ni bu cheirte na raise, more righteous than me. 
— Stew. Gen. Mgi 

t Ceirteacii, a. Tawdry, ragPd. Gu ceirteach, raggedly. 
t Ceirteachd, s.f. Tawdriness, raggedness. 
Ceirteag, eig, J./. A tawdry girl. .N^. ^;. ceirteagan. 
Ceirtle,*./. A clew of yarn. ^. ;;/. ceirtean. 
Ceirtleach, a. Like a clew. 
Ceirtlich, v. a. Form into a clew, wind up into a clew. 

Pret. cheirtlich; fut. aff. ceirtlichidh. 
t Ceis, s.f. A furrow ; a sow, a pig. — Ir. id. N. pi. ceisean. 
Ciis, *./. A spear, a lance. See Gais. 
t Ceisd, a. Dear. Hence ceisdean, a sweetheart, and other 


Ceisd,*./. (Jr. ceist.) A question ; a problem ; a puzzle ; 

a dispute ; a controversy. N. pi. ceisdean ; d. pi. ceisdibh. 

Cuir ceisd, ask a question, put a question; aobhar do cheis- 

dibh, occasion to questions. — Stexv. Tim, 
Ceisdeachadii, aidb, «.OT. A questioning ; an examination. 


C H L 

CiiiR, ChAra, asp. form of cir or ckradh. A friend. Mo 

chiir, nij) friend; vty relative. 
Cii AR, asp. form of car. A turn, a twist. Car air char, rolling. 
CuARN, asp. form of cam; which see. 
Cii AIL'S, pret. a. of cam. Heaped up. See Carn. 
Charraid, asp. form of carraid ; also vac. sing, of carraid; 

which see. 
CiiARRAiG, a*/). ybr/n of carraig. A rock. Mo charraig, my 

rock ; also toe. sing, of carraig. 
Chas, «.y. ; asp. form of cas, a foot. See Cas. 

Chas, pret. a. of cas. Gape; set the teeth. Chas iad am 
iiacal, t/iey set their teeth. — Ste-w. 2 K. 

Chasaibh, d. pi. asp. form of cas ; which see. 

Chathair, asp. form of cathair. A seat or chair ; a city. 
Mo chathair, my seat ; also voc. sing, of cathair. 

Chead, a«;j._/brm of cead. Leave, liberty, permission. Thoir 
chead da, give him his leave ; leig chead da, let him alone ; 
let him go ; le do chead, with your leave. 

Cheadaich, pre^a. of ceadaich. Permitted, granted. See 

Cheana, Cheanadh, adv. Already; before now. Is ard 

ar n-inbhe cheana, high is the rank ice already possess. — Sm. 

An do rinn thu cheanadh e? have you done it already? 

Cii'EA'NG AIL, preL a. of ceangail. Bound, fettered. 

Cheangladh, pret. pass, znd pret. sub. of ceangail. Was 
bound, would bind. Cheangladh e ri darraig, he was bound 
to an oak. — Oss. Lod. 

Cheangladh, (a), inf. of ceangail. To bind, to fetter. See 

CiiEANN, asp. form of ceann ; which see. 
"Cheannachadh, (a), inf. of ceannaich. To buy. See 

Cheannaich, pret. a. of ceannaich. Bought. See Cean- 

Cheannsaich, pret. a. of ceannsaich. Subdued, tamed, 
managed. See Ceannsaich. 

Ciieannsaicheadh, jDce^ «tt6. of ceannsaich. Would tame 
or subdue ; also pret. pass, was tamed. 

Chearb, asp. form of cearb. 

Cheart, asp. form of ceart. Real, just, true, honest, right, 
upright. A cheart duine sin, that very man; a cheart ]k 
sin, that very day ; ro cheart, very right ; a cheart rireadh, 
in real earnest. 

Ch£il, pret. a. of ceil. Concealed, hid, denied. See C£il. 

Ch£ile, a.pron. Each other, one another. Dili ri cheile, 
close on each other ; close in succession. Beuma beucach 
dlu ri cheile, luud sounding blows in close succession. — Oss. 
Lod. Thair cheile, in confusion; in disorder. Ri cheile, 
together, jonied. Ra cheile, together, joined. Fanaibli re 
cheile, wait for one another. — Stew. 1 Cor. Le cheile, 
together ; tete-a-tete ; a reir a cheile, one with another ; at 
an average ; on good terms. 

CiiiiLE, (le), adv. Together, both together; t6te-a-t6te; 
solus Cfim sola. 

CniiLE, (o), adv. Asunder, from each other. 

Ch£ile, 4. c; a«p./orm of ceile. A spouse. Mo cheile, my 
spouse. See Ceile. 

CuiiN, asp. form of cein. Distant, foreign. Ann an tir 
chein, in a distant land ; o chein, from afar ; an cein, afar. 

CiiiiN, (o), adc. From afar; of old. 

Cheir, pret. a. of ceir. Waxed, covered with wax, sealed 
with wax. 

Cheir, asp. form of ceir ; which see. 

Cheirte, asp. form of ceirte; which see. 

Cheo, a^./or/n of ceo. Mist. Chaidh e na che6, Ae Jecame 

bewildered ; it has gone to sinoke. See Ceo. 
Cheijm, «. TO. ; a#/>.ybn» of ceum; which see. 

Cheum, prtt. a. of ceum. Marched, paced, strutted. See 

Chi,/u<. af. a. of «. irr. faic. Shall see ; shall look ; shall 

Chiabh, «. »n. ; a*/). _/or;« of ciabh. A lock of hair, a ringlet ; 

a side look. See Ciabh. 
Chiabhag, aig, s.f; asp. form of ciabhag. ^A ringlet. 

See Ciabhag. 
Ciiiall, asp. form of ciall. Wit. A chiall, hit wit. See 

Chianamh, adv. A little while ago. Thainig e chianamh, 

he came a little while ago. Am fear a mharbh a mhathair a 

chianamh, bheireadh e beo nios i, he who killed his mother a 

little ago would now bring her alive. — G. P. Said when 

fine weather succeeds a storm. 
Chiar, asp. form of ciar; which see. 
CiiiAii, pret. a. of ciar. Grow dusky. Nuair chiar am 

feasgair, when the evening grew dusky. — Old Sung. 

Chinn, asp. form of cinn ; gen. sing, of ceann ; which see. 
Chinn, pret. a. of cinn. Grew, increased; become. See 


CiiiNNTE, as/). ybrm of cinnte. Sure, certain. A cheart co 

chinnte is am hks, just as sure as death. — Old Song. 
Chinnte, «.y. ; asp. form of cinnte. Certainty. Air chinnte, 

certainly, to be sure. See Cinnte. 
Chinnteach, asp.ybrm of cinnteach. Sure, certain; steady, 

secure. Ro chinnteach, very sure. 
CHiQt},{a),prep. Without ; for want of. A chionn tearmuinn, 

for want of protection. — Stew. Job. ref. 
Chionn, conj. (Go^/i. chan.) Because; as; for the reason 

that; since. Chionn nach do chreid iad, as they did not 

believe. — Sm. Chionn gu, because that. D'a chionn, thereby. 

Gheibh e b^s d'a chionn, he shall die thereby. — Stew. Ezek. 
Chionta, asp. form of cionta; which see. 
ChIr, pret. a. of ciar. See CIr. 
Chir, asp. form of cir. 
CHlR.Mi/^ec^ion of cair; which see. 
Chite, Ciiite.adh, sub. pass, of v. irr. faic. Would or might 

be seen. 
CHiTEAR,fut. pass, of faic. Shall or will be seen. 
Chitheam, {for chi me.) I shall see ; I do see. 
Chithear, /i/^. pass, of v. irr. faic. Shall be seen. Chithear 

le sdilibh dhaoine, shall be seen by human eyes. — Sm. 
Chithinn, 1 sing. sub. act. of v. irr. faic. I might, could, 

or would see. 
CmiiiN, asp. form of ciuin. 
Chladhaich, pret. a. cladhaich. Dug, delved. 
ChlXr, asp. form of clkr; which see. 
Chlarsacii, asp. form of clarsach. A harp. 
CiiLEACHD, p/ef. a. of cleachd. Accustomed, habituated. 
Chleibh, asp. form of cleibh ; gen. sing, of cliabh. 
Chliabh, asp. form of cliabh. 

Chlisg, ;))e<. a. of clisg. Started ; startled. See Clisg. 
Chlisgeadh, (a), adv. Soon ; in a sliort while ; in a start; 

instantly. Thig e a chlisgeadh, he will come instantly, he 

icill come soon. 

CHLid, asp. form o{ cUii. Fame, reputation, renown, cha- 
racter. Gun chliii, infamous ; without fame ; obscure. 
Cni^oca, pret. a. of cloch; which see. 
Chloch, asp. form of cloch. A stone. See Cloch. 
Chlogaid, s.f; asp. form of clogaid. 

C H O 

C H U 

Chldain, asp. form of cluain ; which see. 

Chluas, asp. form of cluas. 

Chluinnear, asp. form of cluinnear ; /a^ yass. ofcluinn. 

Shall or will be heard ; might or would be heard. Cha 

chluinnear mo dhin, my song shall not be heard.— Oss. 

Chluinneas, asp. form of cluinn. Shall hear, shall have 

CiiLUiNNixN, pret. sub. of cluinn. Would hear. 
Chi,v IS yit', for chluinnte. 
Chluinkte, Chluinjiteadh. Was heard; would be 

heard. Chluinnteadh guth briste, a tremulous voice was 

heard. — Oss. Lodin. 
Chluinntinn', (a), pr. inf. of cluinn. To hear, to listen. 
Chseas, asp. form of cneas; which see. 
Chobhair. See Cobhair. 

Ch^dhail, asp. /or»t of c6dh ail. Chaidh mi na chbdhail, 

I went to meet him. See Codhail. 
Chog, pret. a. of cog. Fought, strove, contended, warred. 

Choidh, Choidhche, adv. Ever, always, for ever, inces- 
santly. A so suas a choidhche, henceforward, for ever. 
Choigreacii, asp. form of coigreach. A stranger. See 


Choigill, pret. a. of coigill. Spared, pitied, showed 

mercy to. 
Choimeas, pret. a, of coimeas. Compared. 
CnoiMEAS, asp. form of coimeas; which see. 
Choimhead, pret. a. of coimhead. Kept ; looked, watched, 

ChJ)iseach, asp. form of coineach ; which see. 
CuoiJJNicii, pret. a. of coiunich. Met; opposed. See 


CnbiR, s. ; asp. form of c6ir. Right, justice. Tha ch6ir 

aige, he has the right. See C6ir. 
Ch6ir, (a), prep. To the presence; near; implying motion. 
Ch6ir, a.; asp. form of coir. Good, kind; proper. Bu 

ch6ir dhuit, you ought. Bu choir dhomh, dha, /, he ought. 
Ch6ir, (do), prep. To the presence ; near; implying motion. 
Choise, asp. form of coise ; gen. sing, of cas; which see. 
Chois, (a), prep. Near to, hard by. 
CuQiii'ss,pret. of coisinn. Gained, won; also/af. neg. of 

coisinn. Cha choisinn amadan oighreachd, a fool will not 

win a property. — G. P. 
Choirbte, asp. _/brra of coirbte ; which see. 
Chomiila, (air or mu.) Together, in a body; at the same 

time. Dh' f halbh iad mu chomhla, they went off together. 

Taomadh an rann air chomhla, pouring their strains in 

a body.— Oss. Lodin. 

Chomhla is also written chomhlath, i. e. chomh-luath. 
CnOMHLATu, (mu or air.) Together, in a body ; at the same 

time. Da chiiraidh air chomhlath, two champions together. 

— Oss. Fing. 

Mu chomhlath, together, is properly mu chomh-luath. 

Chomraicii, asp./orm of comraich. Protection. Mo chom- 

raich ort, / claim thy protection ; I throw myself on thy 

protection. See Comraich. 
t CiiONNAiRC, V. Saw, observed, beheld. Chonnairc mi 

'n lasadh ann ad ghruaigh, I saw the flush in thy cheek.— 

Old Song. 

Ch6p, asp. ybrwi of cop; which see. 
CHf)PANACH, a.; asp. form of c6panach. 
CiioR, asp. /orw of cor ; which see. 
CnoRR, a.; asp. form of cott ; which see. 
Chos, «./.; asp. form oi cos; which see. 

Ch6s, asp. form of c6s. See C6s. 

CiiosG, pret. a. of cosg. 

Chosgradii, (a), inf. of cosgair. To slaughter, or massacre. 

A chosgradh mo naimh, to slaughter my enemies. 
Chosmhuil, asp. form of cosmhuil; which see. 
Chrann, asp. form of crann; which see. 
CiiRAOBii, asp. form of craobh; which see. 
Chraos, s. ; asp. form of craos ; which see. 
Chraosnach, s. ; asp. form of craosnach. 
Chratii, pre*, a. of crath. Shook, trembled. See Crath. 
ChrA, s. ; asp. form of cr^ ; which see. 
Chreach, pret. a. of creach. Plundered, robbed. See 

Chreacii, asp. form of creach; which see. 
CiiREAG, s.; asp. ybrw of creag ; which see. 
Chreid, pret. a. of creid. Believed. See Creid. 
Chreidimh, asp. ybrm of creidimh. 
Chreidinn, 1 sing. perf. sub. of creid. I would believe. 

Nior chreidinn, I would not believe. In BretagTie they say, 

Ne 'r chredan, / do not believe. 
Chreidsinn, (a), pr. inf. of creid. To believe. 
Chriadh, asp. form of criadh; which see. 
Chridhe, asp./orm of cridhe. A heart. Mo chridhe, wy 

heart; my dear; mo chridhe geal, wy dear foue ; laoigh mo 

chridhe, my darling ; a ghille mo chridhe, my dear fellow. • 
ChrJn, asp. form of crin, /row crion ; which see. 
Chrios, asp. form of crios; which see. 
Chrith, pre*, a. of crith. Shook, trembled. 
Chrith, s. ; asp. ybrm of crith ; which see. 
Chroch, pre^ a. of croch. Hung, suspended. 
CiiROCHAiR, (a), V. s. of crochair. Thou scape-gallows. 
CiiROM, pre*, a. of crom. Bent, curved; stooped. 
Chrom, asp. form of crom; which see. 
Chruachann, asp. form of cruachann; which see. 
CiiRUADAi,, s. m.; asp. form of cruadal. Hardship. See 

Chruadhaich, pret. a. of cruadhaich. Hardened. 
CiiRUAiDii, a.; asp. form of cruaidh; which see. 
Chruaidh-chas, s. m. ; asp. form of cruaidh-ch^s. Hardship. ' 

Troimh chruaidh-ch^s, through hardship. 
Chruinn, asp. _/orOT of cruinn. Round. See Cruinn. 
Chruinne, s.f; asp. form of cruinne; which see. 
Chruinnich, pret. a. of cruinnich. Gathered, met, as- 
sembled. See Cruixnicii. 
Chruit, asp. form of cruit. See Cruit. 
Chruth, asp. form of cruth; which see. 
Chuach. See Cuach. 
Chuain. See Cuan. 
CiiuAiRT, asp. ybrm of cuairt. 

Chual, pre<. a. of cluinn. Heard. Chual mi, / Aeard. 
Chualadii, pret. pass, of cluinn. Was heard. See Cluinn. 
Chualam, {for chual mi.) I heai^. Chualam guth am ' 

aisling fein, / heard a voice in my dream. — Oss. Croma. 
CiiUALAs, pret. pass, of cluinn. Was heard. Chualas a 

chomhachag a creig, the owl was heard from its rock. — Ull. 
Chuan, asp. of cuan. A sea. 
CnuANTA, CiiUANTAN, asp. form of cuanta and cuantan. 

iV. pZ. of cuan. Seas. See Cuan. 
Chuca, comp. pron. To them. — Stew. Acts. Properly h-uga. 
Chugad, comp. pron. To thee; towards thee. Chugad 

thig gach ni, to thee every thing shall come. — Sm. More 

properly h-ugad. 
Chugaibh, comp. pron. To you, towards you; in your 


C I A 

C I A 

direction. A gabhail chugaibh ceill, getting for yourselves 

wisdom. — Sm. More properly h-ugaibh. 
Chuid, asp. farm of cuid. Part. Chuid a chuid, by degrees ; 

by little and little. — Stew. Ex. More properly chuid is a 

Chuideaciid, s.f; asp. form of cuideachd. A company. 

Chuideachd a chridhe, beloved people ; good folk ; good 

CiiuiGE, comp.pron. To him, towards bim ; to it. Gabhaidh 

e mi chuige fein, he will take me to himself. — Sm. A dol 

chuige is uaith, going hither and thither ; rocking to and 

fro, — Sm. More properly h-uige. 
CiiviLC, asp. form of cuilc. 
CiiuiLE, a. All; a provincial corruption of A-ui/e. Cliuile 

duine, every man. 
Chuii-m, asp. form of cuilm. 
Chuim, asp. form of cuim; gen. sing, of com. Of the belly. 

See Com. 
CituiMiiKF,, asp. form of cuimhne. Memory, remembrance. 

Air chuirahne, in remembrance ; by heart. 
CHViyiwsicn, pret. a. ofcuimhnich. Remembered. 
Chuir, /)re<. o. of cuir. Put; sent; invited; laid, placed. 
Chuirm, asp. form of cuirm. 
Chuiseag, s./.; a^. of cuiseag ; which see. 
Chuisle, asp. form of cuisle. 

CadL, asp. form of ciil. Air chill, behind. Mu theid mi air 
* chfil, if I shall be vanquished. — Oss. Fing. Theich e air 

chiil a shluaigh, he fled behind his people. — Mac Lack. 

See COl. 
Chi>laobh, i.e. chul-thaobh. See CiyLAOBH. 
Chum, pret. a. of cum. Held, kept, detained ; shaped, 

formed ; contained. Ciod so a chum thu ? what is this 

that has detained thee? — Oss. Gaul. 
Chum, prep. To, towards; in order to. In many places 

this word is pronounced as if it were written h-un or thun. 
Chum, conj. In order to ; to. Chum agus gu, in order that ; 

chum agus gum, in order that ; chum agus gun, in order 

that ; so as that ; chum as nach, that not ; in order that 

not ; chum agus nach, in order that not. 
Chum, (a), prep. See Chum. 
Chum, (do), /)rep. See Chum. 
Chumhachd, asp. form of cumhachd. 
Chunn, Chunnaic, /jret. a. of faic. Saw. 
Chuxnacadh, pret. pass, of faic. Was seen. 
CnuNNACAs, pret. pass, of faic. Was seen or observed. 

Chunnacas leamsa fiadh, a deer was seen by me. — Oss. Com. 
Chunxadh. See Ciiuxn. 
CHUNNAic,pre<. a. of faic. Saw, observed, beheld. Chun- 

naic Innisf^il sinn, Innisfail saw us. — Ull. Am fac thu e? 

chunnaic, did you see him? yes. 
Chunnam, (chunn mi.) I saw, I observed. Chunnam na 

h-oig-fhir shuas, I saw the youth aloft.— Oss. Carricth. 
Chunnas, /or chunnacas; pret. pass, of faic. Was seen. 
Chunncadau. See Chunnacas. 

Chur, (a), inf. of cuir. To send; to put; to place; to sow. 
CHi)RAiDn, asp. form of ciiraidh. 
Chi>ram, asp. form of ciiram. 
t Ci, V. n. Lament, wail, weep. Pret. chi. 
CiA, s. m. A spouse, a husband ; a man. 
CiA, adv. Where; how. Ciameud? how much? cia Chad? 

how long ? cia lion ? how many ? cia mar ? how ? in what 

way ? in what manner ? in what condition ? cia mar tha 

thu ? how are you ? cia meud thug thu air ? how much did 

you give for it? cia meud bliadhna tha thu? how old are 

you ? cia dha ? to whom ? 
Cia, AS, adv. Whence; from whence; from what place. 

Cia as thainig thu ? whence came you ? — Stew. Gen, 

Cia as air bith, adv. Whencesoever ; from whatever 

CiAB, s. m. A lock of hair, a ringlet; a side lock. N. pi. 

CiABAN, ain, s. m. A gizzard. Ciaban coilich, a cock's 

Ciabh, s. m. (/r. id.) A lock of hair, a ringlet. An osnaich 

a seideadh an ciabh, their sighs wafting their locks. — UU. 

A ciabha clearc, her radiant locks. — Id. Ciabh-chasda, a 

curled lock ; ciabh bhachlach, curled hair or locks. 
Ciabhach, a. Hairy, busby; having long hair, having 

ringlets. Com. and sup. ciabhaiche. 
Ciabhag, aig, (dim. of ciabh.) A ringlet, a lock of hair. 

N. pi. ciabhagan. 
Ciabhag-choille, s.f. A woodlark. — Shaw. 
CiABH-BHACHLACH, a. Having curled locks, tressy. Mo 

chaileag chiabh-bhachlach, my tressy girl. — Old Song. 
CiABH-cuEANN-DUBH, s. m. Dccr's hair. 
t CiACH, s. m. Mist, fog ; sorrow, concern. Now written 

CiAD, a. A hundred. More frequently written ceud. 
CiADACH, a. See Ciatach. 
CiADAN, ain, s. m. A moor, a height. 
Ciadna, a. Same, similar. San itil chiadna, in the same 

direction. — Old Poem. Written more frequently ceudna. 
CiADNAicn, s. Wednesday. Nur is Ciadnaich an t-samh- 

ainn, when Hallowday falls on Wednesday. — G. P. 

CiAL, s. {Gr. x^'^o:.) A jaw. More commonly written jfia/; 
which see. 

CiALL, ceill, s. /. (/r. ciall.) Sense; meaning; discretion, 
reason ; rarely, death. Ciod is ciall do so ? what is the 
meaning of this ? Ciod is ciall duit ? what do you mean ? 
Ciod is ciall duit leis an iomain so ? what meanest thou by 
this drove ? — Stew. Gen. Coimhead ciall, regard discretion. 
— Stew. Pro. Tha e dhUh ceill, he lacks understanding, — 
Stew. P 1-0. Gun cheill, witless; air bheag ceill, witless. 
As a cheill, out of his wits ; doting. — Stew. Tim. As a 
ceill, out of her wits. Is i chiall a cheannaich is fearr, 
bought wisdom is best. — G. P. 

CiALLACH, a. (from ciall.) Intelligent, prudent, rational, 
discreet, significant. Duine ciallach, a prudent man, — 
Stew. Pro. Gu ciallach, rationally. Com. and sup. cial- 

CiALLACHAPii, aidh, s. m. A meaning, a signifying; a 
signification, interpretation. 

CiALLACHAun, (a), pr. par<. of ciallaich. Meaning. Ciod 
tha thu a ciallachadh ? what do you mean? 

CiALLACHAiL, a. Emblematical; rational; significant. 

CiALLAiCH, V. n. Signify, mean, allude, interpret. Pret. u. 
chiallaich, 7neant; fut. aff. a. ciallaichidh, shall mean. 

CiALLAiDHEACH, o. Significant. 

CiALL-cnoGAR, air, s. m. A watch-word.— 5Aaw. 

CiALLBADH, s. m. (ciall and radh.) A sentence, a full or 
complete sentence. — Macd. 

Cia mar, adv. How ? in what way ? in what condition, state, 
or manner ? Cia mar thuit an crann ? how did the tree 
fall? — Oss. Tern. Cia mar tha thu? how art thou ? 

Cia meud, adv. How much? how many? Cia meud thug 
thu air? how much gave you for it? Cia meud bliadhna 
tha thu ? how old art thou ? literally, how many years art 
thou ? 

CiAMHAiR, a. Sad, weary; lonely. Gu ciamhair, sadly. 

Ciamhaireachd, s.y. Sadness, weariness ; loneliness. 

CiAN, a. {Ir. id.) Long, tedious, lasting; distant, far, re- 
mote, foreign ; causing regret or pain. Is cian an oidhche, 
tedious is the night. — Orr. Bu trom a tuirse is bu chian, 
heavy was her grief and lasting.— Oss. Is cian mo leannan, 

C I A 

C I M 

my love is far away. — Orr. Bu chian leinn gaire am 
buillean, the sound of their blows caused us pain. — Death 
of Carril. Gu cian nan cian, for ever. — Stew. Is. An 
cian, long since ; long ago. Sgeul cho binn cha chual sinn 
o chian, a sweeter tale we have not heard this long while. — 

C I AX, (an), adv. Long since; long ago. See Cian. 
•€iANAiL, a. Solitary, lonely; sad, lamentable, mournful; 
weary; aZso, mild, loving. .4sp. /or/n, chianail. Taibhse 
cianail nan glas eide, the grey-shrouded lonely ghost. — 
Oss. Trathal. Da chraoibh chianail, two solitary trees. — 
Oss. Fin. and Lor. Is cianail m' aigne, my thoughts are 
sad. — Ardar. 

CiANALACii, a. Solitary, lonely, sad, lamentable, mourn- 
ful ; fatigued, fatiguing. Com. and sup. cianalaiche, more 
or most solitary. 

CiANALAS, ais, s. m. Loneliness, sadness, mournfulness, 
sorrow, wearisomeness ; mildness of manner. Thainig 
svakl oirnne le cianalas, we are darkened vdth sadness. — 
Old Song. 

CiAN-FHULANG, aing, s. m. Long-sufFerance ; perseverance; 

CiAX-PHULAXGACH, a. Long-suffcring ; persevering. 

CiAN-MHAiREANNACH, ffl. Lasting, durable, perennial. 

t CiAP, V. a. (Jr. id.) Vex, torment. 

CiAPALL, aill, s. m. Vexation, strife, contention, quarrelling, 

CiAPALLACH, a. Vexatious, tormenting, contentious.— S/jaw. 

CiAPALLAicHE, s. m. A vcxatious or troublesome fellow, a 
quarrelsome fellow. 

CiAR, a. {Ir. id.) Dark, dusky; dark brown, gloomy; stem. 
Sleibhte nan earba ciar, the hills of the dusky roes. — Orr. 
Carraig chiar nan laoch, the dark brown rock of heroes.^ 
Oss. Carricth. Fonn ciar a bhroinn, the gloomy strain of 
grief. — Oss. A ghaisgich chiar, thou stern hero. — Oss. 
Fing. Ciar-imeachd an aineil, the dark path of the 
stranger. — Oss. Taura. 

Ciar, ciair, s. m. Darkness, duskiness, gloom, evening. 
Fear astair fo chiar, the traveller benighted. — Oss. Tern. 
Ciar nan cam, the gloom of the rocks. — Id. Roi a chiir, 
through the dusk. — Id. 

Ciar, v. n. Grow dark, grow dusky, grow brown. Pret. a. 
chiar, grew dark ; fut. aff. ciaraidh. 

CiARACH, aich, s. m. A swarthy person. N. pi. ciaraichean. 

CiARACiiAnu, aidh, s. m, A growing dark or dusky; a 
making dark or dusky ; dusk. Aig ciarachadh an fheas- 
gair, at the dusk of evening. — Old Song. 

CiARADii, aidh, s. m. A darkening, growing dusky, gloom. 
Ciaradh nan speur, the darkening of the heavens. — Oss. Tem. 

CiARAG, aig, s. f. ; dim. of ciar. {Ir. ciarog.) Any little 
dark -coloured creature; a dark - brown - haired girl; a 
swarthy maid ; a chafer. N. pi. ciaragan. Boid a chiaraig 
ris na fearaibh, is boid nam fear ris a chiaraig, the swarthy 
maid forswore marriage, as men would not have her. — G. P. 

CfARAicii, v. a. and n. Grow dusky, make brown or dusky. 
Pret. a. chiaraich ; fut. aff. a. ciaraichidh. Chiaraich am 
feasgar, the evening grew dusky. 

+ CiARAiL, s.f. A quarrel, contention, a brawl, a fray. 

CiARALACH, a. Quarrelsome, contentious, perverse. Com. 

'• and sup. ciaralaiche. 

CiARALACHD, S.f. Quarrclsomencss, contentiousness, per- 

■ verseness. 

CiAR-CHEO. A dark mist, a dusky mist. Ciar-cheo na 
h-oidhche, the dusky mist of night. — Orr. 

CiARSAK, ain, s. m. A kerchief. 

CiAR-suniL, -shAl, s. m. A dark eye ; a scowling eye. 

CiAH-SHUiLEACii, a. Having a dark eye, dark-eyed ; having 
a scowling eye. B' fhada spairn nan ciar-shuileach, lo7ig 
was the struggle of the dark-eyed {chiefs']. — Oss. Lodin. 

t CiASAiL, s./. A dispute, a quarrel, a brawl. N. pi. cia- 

CiASALACH, a. Quarrelsome, brawling. 

CiAT, ciata, s. /. Pleasure ; satisfaction ; opinion. Ciat 
mhor, much pleasure. — Sm. Ciod do chiat deth ? what 
think you of him ? Cha 'n 'eil ciat air an t-saoghal agam 
dheth, / have no opinion in the world of him. 

CiATACii, a. (from ciat.) Handsome, goodly, graceful, be- 
corning, seemly ; esteemed ; conceited. Luach ciatach, a 
goodly price. — Stew. Zech. A Chonail chiataich, graceful 
Connal. — Old Poem. Tha e ciatach as fein, he is conceited. 

CiATACiiAs, ais, s. m. Handsomeness, seemliness, graceful- 
ness ; estimation. « 

CiATADn, aidh, s. TO. Pleasure; satisfaction; opinion. 

CiATAiCHEAD, id, s. /. Graccfulncss ; improvement in 
gracefulness ; comeliness, seemliness ; improvement in 
comeliness or external appearance. — Macint. A del an 
ciataichead, growing more and more graceful. 

Ciataichead, like many other nouns in Gaelic, is used as 
a kind of second comparative. Is ciataichid i an eide sin, 
that dress renders her more comely. 

CiATFACH, a. Becoming, handsome, goodly, graceful. Ciat- 
fach do 'n amadan, becoming a fool. — Stew. Pro. More 
properly ciatach. 

CiATFADH, s. m. See Ciat and Ciatadh. 

CIb, s.f. A species of mountain-grass ; coarse tow. See 


CiBHEARG, eirg, s. m. A rag; a little ragged woman. 

CiBHEARGACii, a. Ragged; tawdry. 

CiBHEARGAN, ain, s. m. A little rag; a little ragged wight. 

Clcni., gen. sing, of cioch. Of a pap ; of abreast. SeeCiocii. 

CicHEAN, n. pZ. of cioch. Breasts, paps. Cichean liontach, 
full breasts. — Old Song. See Cioch.' 

t CiDii, s.f. (Ir. id.) A fight; a view. 

CiDHis, s.f. A mask, a disguise ; a vizor. 

CIdhisear, ir, s. m. One in mask ; a guiser. N. pi. cidhis- 

CJdhisearaciid, s.f.' {from cidhiS.) A rnasquerade ; a 

Cigeall, ill, s. m. A tickling; a tickling sensation. Bheil 
cigeall annad ? can you be tickled ? 

Cigeallach, a. Tickling; easily tickled ; difficult. 

CiGEAi.LADii, aidh, s. m. The act of tickling ; a tickling 

CiGiLL, V. a. Tickle. Pret. a. chigill, tickled; fut. aff. a. 
cigillidh, shall or ivill tickle. 

CiLL, s.f. (ia<. cella. Corn. c\\ and ce\. /r. cill. Heb.cela, 
a place enclosed.) A burying-ground ; a cemetery; a church- 
yard ; a cell ; a chapel ; a grave ; ruddle. (Scotch, keel, 
ruddle.) Thug am hks an corpaibh do 'n chill, death has 
given their bodies to the cemetery. — Old Song. Cill-bhmic, 
Rothesay, i. e. the church of St. Broke, the tutelary saint 
of the parish. The Swiss say cilch, a church. 

+ CiLL, s./. Partiality; prejudice. 

CiLLEAN, ein, s. m. A repository; any thing laid Up or 
concealed from observation. 

Cill-mhAnacii, s. m. An abbey, a monastery. 

t CiM, V. a. Captivate, capture, enslave. Pret. a. chim. 

CiMEACii, ich, s. m. A captive, a prisoner, a slave. N. pi. 
cimichean, cop<ifcs; d. pi. cimichihh, to captives. Written 
also ciomach. 

CiMEACHAs, ais, s. m. Captivity, imprisonment, bondage, 

C I N 

C I O 

CiN, adv. (Bisc. kein, how.) Where? whither? to what 

place ? Cin chaidh e ? whither did he go ? 
Cine, s. m. (Gr. yiyoj. Goth, kun. Lat. genus. Ir. cine. 

Eng. kind.) A race, a tribe, a clan, a family, kindred, 

progeny, offspring. An cine maiseach treubhach, the hand- 
some powerful clan. — Macdon. 
CiNEADACii, a. {from cine.) Clannish; in clans. Gu ci- 

neadach, clannishly. 
CiNEADAiL, a. Clannish; fond of one's name or family. 
CiNEADAS, ais, s. m. Kindred, relationship; clannishness. 

Do chineadas c6rr, thy noble kindred. — Old Song. 
CiNEADH, idh, s. m. An offspring, a progeny; a ^ribe, a 

clan, a family. 
CiNEAL, eil, s. »!. (W. cenel. /r. cineal.) A kind, a sort; 

a race, a progeny ; an extraction ; a nation, a tribe, a clan. 
CiNEALACH, a. In tribes of clans; national; clannish; 

CiNEALTA, o. (/)•. cinealta.) Kind, gentle; clannish. 
CiNEALTACHD, s. f. Kinduess, gentleness; clannishness. 

Aghaidh l^n do chinealtachd, a face full of gentleness. — R. 
CiNEALTAS, ais, s. m. (Jr. cinealtas.) Fondness, affection, 



CiNGEACH, a. {Ir. id.) Brave ; strong ; impetuous. 

t CiNGEACHD, s.f. Bravery; strength; impetuousness. 

CiXN, gen. sing, and n. pi. of ceann ; which see. 

CiNN, V. n. Grow, vegetate, become ; wax, grow in number 

or in bulk, multiply, increase ; happen ; agree to. Pref. a. 

chinn ; fut. aff. a. cinnidh. 
CiNNEACii, ich, s. w. A nation; a heathen; a gentile; a 

surname ; a cognation. Air feadh nan cinneach sin, among 

these nations. — Stew. 1 K. 
CiNNEACiiADH, aidh, s, m. A growing, a budding, a vege- 
CiNNEACHDACH, a. Vegetative. Com. and sup. cinneach- 

CiNVEACHDAiNN, S.f. Increase, growth. 
CiNNEADAiL, a. {W. cen^AwA, kindred.) Clannish; fond 

of one's name; fond of a namesake. Cinneadail c6ir, 

clannish and hospitable. — Macint. 
CiNNEADAS, ais, s. OT. Kindred. — Macd. 
CiNNEADH, idh, s. m. {Sax. cynne. Eng. kin.) A clan, a 

tribe ; relation, kin, kindred. Cinneadh m6r gun bh6sd, a 

powerful and peaceful clan. — Old Song. Fear cinnidh, one 

of the same clan, a namesake. Ceann cinnidh, a chieftain. 
CiNNEAMHNACH, a. Fatal ; accidental. 
CiNNEAMiiuiN, s. f. Chaucc, fortune, fate. Am agus 

cinneamhuin, time and chance. — Stew. Ecc. Clach na 

cinneamhuinn, the fatal stone; — the stone on which the 

ancient Caledonian kings were inaugurated. See Lia fAil. 
CiNNEALTAS, ais, s. w. Fondness, affectioh ; clannishness. 
CiNNEAS, eis, s. m. Growth, produce, crop, increase. A 

chinneas agus f hochann, its produce and brier. — Sm. 
CiNNEASACH, a. Fruitful, vegetative; inchned to grow; 

CiNNEASACHD, S.f. Fruitfulncss, vegetativeness. 
CiNNFEADiiNA, n. pi. of ccannfeadhna. Chieftains. 
CiNNlCH, gen. sing, and n. pi. of cinneach. 
CiNNiCH, V. a. and n. Grow, make to grow, rear; increase, 

abound ; make to vegetate. Pret. a. chinnich ; fut. aff. a. 

cinnichidh. Cha chinnich craobh ni 's aillidli, a fairer 

tree shall never grow. — Macfar. 
CiNNMHiiiE, s.f. Frenzy, delirium. — Shaw. 
CiNNSEACii, ich, s. m. Want; need. 
CiNNSEAL, eil, s. m. Want; necessity, hardship; desire; 


CiNNTE, S.f. Certainty; truth; reliance, assurance, confi- 
dence. Cha 'n 'eil cinnte nam beul, there is no certainty 
in their mouth. — Sm. Air chinnte, certainly, for certain, 
to be sure. 

Cinnte, CiNNTEACir, o. {Ir. id.) Certain, sure ; unerring, 
plain, evident ; assured ; confident ; positive. Saighde co 
cinnteach 's am b^s, arrows as certain as death. — Oss. Fin. 
and Lor. Is cinnte do lamh, thy hand is unerring. — Old 
Poem. Tha mi cinnteach as, / am certain of it ; Ikn chinn- 
teach, full certain, 

CiNNTEACHD, s. /. {Ir. cinteacht.) Certainty, assurance, 
positiveness, confidence ; clearness, unquestionableness, 

CiNNTEADAiR, s. TO. An insurer. JV. pi. cinnteadairean. 

CiNNTEAGAN, ain, s. m. A coarse cloak. — Shaw. 

CiNNTEALAS, ais, s. TO. Certainty, assurance. Bheil cinn- 
tealas agad air ? are you certain of it? 

t CiNNTicH, V. a. Appoint, determine. Pret. chinntich, 
appointed ; fut. aff. cinntichidh, sfiall appoint. 

CiNNTiNN, s. f Growth ; growing, a vegetating ; a be- 

CiNNTiNN, (a), p. parf. of cinn. Growing, vegetating ; be- 

CiOB, s.f. ( Gr. xijSo;, /ood.) A species of mountain-grass ; 
tow; coarsely-dressed flax. Ciob nan ciar-bheann, the 
grass of the dusky hills. — Oss. Duthona. Bun na ciob, 
the root of the mountain-grass. — Macint. 

Ciob, v. Bite, wound, maim. Pret. a. chiob; fut. aff. a. 

CiOBHAL, ail, s. TO. A jaw; the jaw-bone. More com- 
monly written gial ; which see. 

CiocAR, air, s. to. A hungry creature, a ravenous creature. 
A^ pi. ciocaran. 

CiocARACH, a. Hungry, ravenous. Gu ciocarach, ravenously. 
Com. and sup. ciocaraiche. 

CiocH, ciocha, and clche, s.f. {Ir. id. Pol. eye and cycek.) 
A pap ; a breast ; the nave of a wheel. Leanabh clche, 
a babe. Bainne mo chiocha, the milk of my breasts. — 
Oss. Gaul. An crochadh ris a chlche, hanging to the 
breast. — -Sm. Cioch a mhuineil, the uvula; cioch-shlu- 
gain, the uvula ; cioch-chinn, the uvula. 

CiociiAN, ain, s. m. A titmouse. — Shaw and Macd. 

CiocHRAN, ain, s. to. {from cioch.) An infant on the breast ; 
a suckling. 13eul nan ciochran, the mouths of sucklings. — 
Sm. N. pi. ciochrain. 

CiocHRANACHD, S.f. The condition of a babe; suckling. 

Ciocii-siiLUGAiN, s.y. The uvula. 

CiocHT, s. { Children; a carver; an engraver. 

CiocRACii, a. {Ir. ciocarach.) Hungry, ravenous, greedy, 
avaricious. An t-anam ciocrach lionaidh e, he ivillfill the 
hungry soul. — Sm. Roimhich chiocrach, avaricious Ro- 
mans. — Macfar. 

CiocRAS, ais, s. TO. {Ir. id.) Hunger, ravenousness, gi-eedi- 
ness, avariciousness ; a false appetite ; earnest desire. Air 
chiocras fola, through thirst of blood. — Old Poem. 

CiocRASACH, a. Hungry, ravenous, greedy, avaricious. Gu 
ciocrasach, ravenously. 

CiocRASAN, ain, s. to. {Ir. ciocarasan.) A hungry fellow ; 
a greedy fellow. 

CioD, interrog. pron. What. Ciod tha thu ag radh ? what 
do you say ? Ciod so ? what is this ? Ciod sud ? what is 
that? Ciod so a chi sibh ? what is this you see? — Oss. 
Fin. and Lor. Ciod gus an d' thig e, what it shall come 
to. — Stew. Acts. Ciod ged tha, what though there be. 
Ciod ged bhiodh, what though there were. Ciod mu 
dheimhinn, what about it. 

Ir. cad. Gr. kotcc, how many ? Lat. quot, how many ? 
quod, quid, what. 

C I o 

C I R 

t CioL, cil, s. m. Death ; inclination, prosperity. 

CiOLAG, aig, s.f. A hedge-sparrow. — Shaw. 

CiOLAM, aim, s. m. (/r. id.) A vessel. 

t CioLRATH, V. n. Chatter ; twitter. — Shaw. 

CioM, s. wi. A comb; a wool-card. iV. p/. ciomaichean. 

CioM, V. a. {Lat. como. Scotch, kame.) Comb, card wool, 
teaze wool. Pret. chiom. 

CiOMACH, aich, s. m. A prisoner, a slave, a captive. N. pi. 
ciomaich. Ceud-ghin a chiomaich, the Jirst-born of the 
captive. — Stew. Exod. 

CiOMACHAs, ais, s. OT. Captivity, slavery, bondage, im- 
prisonment. Thug d' aghaidh gach aon an ciomachas, thy 
face has brought every one into captivity. — R. 

CiOMADii, aidh, s. m. A fault. 

CtOMAN, ain, s. m. (dim. of ciom.) A comb or card for 
teazing wool ; a combing, a teazing. 

CiOMBAL, ail, s. m. A bell; a cymbal. iV. p/. ciombalan. 

CiOMBALAiR, s. wi. One who plays on cymbals. N. pi. 

Cio>', s. m. Love, desire, fondness ; fault ; a cause. An 
cion air a leannain, fond of her lovers. — Stew. Jer. Ormsa 
tha 'chion, his desire is on me. — Stew. Song. Sol. Mo chion 
Ort, / love thee. — Sm. Cion-fath, a reason or ground. 

+ CioNAG, aig, s./. A kernel. iV. p/. cionagan. 

CiONAiL, o. (cionamhuil.) In love ; desirous, fond ; faulty, 
guilty. Cionail air moran Bona, fond of much wine. — 
Slew. Tim. ref. 

ClON-AiRE, s.f. Inattention. 

CioN-AinEACHAiL, a. Inattentive. 

CiONAR, air, s. m. {Ir. cionthar.) Music, melody, song. 
Ri cionar, singing. — Macfar. 

CiON-ciioRRAN, ain, s. m. A hook. — Shaw. N. pi. cion- 

CiON-EOLACH, a. Ignorant. 

CioN-EOLAS, ais, s. m. Ignorance ; lack of knowledge. 

Cion-fath, s. m. Occasion, cause, reason, or ground ; 

quarrel. Cion-fith na 'r n-aghaidh, occasion against us. — 

Stew. Gen. Written also cionnfath. 
Cion-fhaobhair, s. m. Bluntness. 
CioN-FHOiGHiDiNjj, s. m. Impatience, 
... ClOK-LEiRSiNN, s. m. Blindness; shortness of sight. 
CiON-MHOTHUciiADn, aidh, s. m. Apathy; insensibility; 

privation of sense or feeling. 

CiojfN, s. A reason or ground ; occasion, cause. A chionn 
gu, because that. 

CioNN- as, adv. (Ir. cionnus.) How, in what way or manner. 
Cionnas thainig orra claoidh ? how has trouble come upon 
them ? — Sm. Cionnas tha thu ? how do you do ? 

Ciosnfa', CionnfAtii, s. jn. Reason, cause, excuse, oc- 
casion ; quarrel. Gun chionnfa', without reason.— Sm. 
Cionnfath air bi, any occasion whatever. See also Cion- 

CioNT, cionta, s. m. and/. {Ir. cionnt.) Guilt, fault, blame, 
crune, sm. L^n cionta, full of guilt.— Sm. Gun chionta, 
blameless.— Id. Na maith an cionta, pardon not their sin. 
Stew. Jer. Dean ciont, sin, offend. 

CioNTACii, a. {Ir. id.) Guilty, faulty, criminal, sinful, 
iniquitous, chargeable. Ciontach do pheacadh, guilty of 
fin. Com. and sup. ciontaiche. 

CiONTACiiADu, aidh, s. m. {Ir. ciontaghadh.) Trespassing, 
sinnmg, blaming. Le ciontachadh am aghaidh, with tres- 
passing against me. — Stew. Jer. 

CioNTAicii, t;. a. Sin, trespass, blame. Pre<. a. chiontaich ; 
fut. aff. a. ciontaichidh. Cha chiontaich sibh, ye shall 
not sm.—Stew. 2 Chr. 

f CioN-TiRE, S.f. Tax, tribute. — Shaw. 

CioPAiR, s. m. A shepherd ; a herd ; a keeper. Fead 

ciopair an aonaich, the whistle of the mountain-shepherd. — 

Mac Co. N. pi. ciopairean. This seems to be a corrupt 

use of the English word keeper. 
CioPAiREACHD, s. /. The cccupation of a shepheid. Ris 

a chiopaireachd, herding sheep, 
CioRB, 11. a. and m. Mangle ; mortify ; become black. 

Pret. a. chiorb ; fut. aff. ciorbaidh. 
t CioRGHAL, a. Brave, fearless, strong. Bi ciorghal treu- 

bhanta, be fearless and strong. — Old Song. 
CiORRAMACH, a. {Ir. ciorrthamach.) Maimed, lamed, lame ; 

hurt, blemished ; causing a flaw or blemish ; hurtful ; mean. 

Com. and sup. ciorramaiche. 
CioRRAMACiiD, S.f. Lamcucss, the state of being maimed. 
CiORUSGRACii, a. Clearing, or driving aside with the hands. 
Cios, s.f. Tax. See Cis. 
t CiosACH, a. Importunate; sluggish, slovenly. — Shaw. 

Gu ciosach, importunately. Com. and sup. ciosaiche. 
CiosACHADH, aidh, s. m. An appeasing, a calming; a re- 
straining, subduing, quieting. 

CiosACHADH, (a), pr. par^ of ciosaich. Appeasing, calming, 
subduing, quieting, restraining. 

CiosACHDACH, «. Importunate; sluggish, slovenly. — Shaw. 

CiosAicii, v. a. Appease, calm, restrain, assuage, subdue. 
Pret. a. chiosaich, subdued ; fut. aff. a. ciosaichidh, shall 

Ciosaiche, s. m. An appeaser, a subduer. 

CiosAicHTE, p. part, of ciosaich. Subdued, appeased. 

CiosAL, ail, s. m. The wages of a nurse. — Shaw. 

CiosNACHADH, aidh, s. m. The act of appeasing, a sub- 
duing, a calming. Tha 'n tir air a ciosnachadh, the land 
is subdued. — Stew. Chron. 

CiosNACUADH, (a). Subduing, appeasing, Calming. 

CiosNACHAiL, a. Placable, tranquillizing. 

CiosNAiCH, V. a. Subdue, calm, pacify. Pret. a. chiosnaich,' 

CiOTACH, a. Left-handed ; awkward. Duine ciotach, a left- 
handed man. — Stew. Jud.