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lilil Obtat : 
Abbas Fanburgensis. 


Censor Theol. Deput. 
Imprimi potcst: 
Archiep. Dublinen, 
Hiberniae Primas. 
I)UBLINI, die 2o ° Arilis, 1923. 


tenedictine of St. Jk2richael's Abbey, Farnborougk 

ranslated from t]ze _rench by Vt'gor Colltns 
lVit a treface by _agher Augustin, 


Printed a»td Bond 
i Ireland by :: :: 
M. H. Gill  Son, 
:: :: Ltd. :: :: 
.o Upper O'Connell 
Street :: :: Dublin 


I. St. Columban, St. Gall and their Disciples . 3 
II. St. Fursa and the Perigrini Mingres 17 
III. Wandering Bishops, Clerics and Monks 24 
IV. Pilgrims and Sham Pilgrims 3I 
V. Some Reasons for the Irish lXiissionary 
Exodus 35 
VI. Ireland's Doctissimi Magistri Abroad 42 
VII. The Knowledge of Greek in Ireland During 
the Middle Ages 55 
VIII. Travelling Methods of the Islanders . 68 
IX. Charitable Institutions for the Benefit of 
the 8cotti.--Monasteria 8cottorum 78 
X. Tlle Recluses . 88 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
I. The Three Great National Saints lO3 
II. St. Brendan the Navigator 118 
III. The Missionary Monks : St. Columban and 
St. Gall 12I 
IV. Saints specially honoured in Belgium and 
France 12 7 
V. Saints specially honoured in German Lands I4o 


The original sources are too numerous fo be indicated 
here ; they will be round af the foot of the pages. 
ALFONS BELLESH:EIM, Ueber einige Beziehungen Irlande u 
Reichsstadt Aachen unà DiSzese Lïdiich (Zeitschrift des 
Aachener Geschichtsvereins, XIV, 1892, p. 38-53)° 
'OANNES BOLLANDUS, De B. Mariano Scoto et Murcherato ; 
commentarius praevus (BoLL., Fcbr. II, 361-365). 
G. BOIET-IIAUY, Saint Colomban et la fondation des 
rnonastères irlandais en Brie au VII  siècle {Revue 
historique, LXXXIII, 1903, p. 277-299). 
lIas. THOLS COICINOI% The Lire of Sint Columban, 
Dublin, 1915. 
5. 5. Dull% Irish mo'nks on the Continent (Catholic Uni- 
versity Bullelin, X, 1904, p. 307-328). 
L. (}OUGAUD, .Les Chrélientés eelliques, Paris, 1911, Ch. V 
and VIII. 
MA_X HEmUCla:ER, Die Orden und Kongregationen der 
katholischen Kirche, Paderborn, 1907, l, p. 258-261. 
5. 5. Lux, Der hl. Kolumban, sein .Leben unà seine Schrilten, 
Freiburg i. Br., 1919. The saine work has been pub- 
lished in English under the pseudonyme of G. bIETLAKE, 
The lire and writings of St. Columban, Philadelphia, 
The same. t. Vrgil the Geometer (Ecclesiaslical revew, 
LXIII, 1920, p. 13-21). 
WHIL. LEVISoN, Die Iren und dic Frikische Kirce ( Hso 
torische Zeitschrift, CIX, 1912, p. 1-22. 
EuG. MARTIN, ,aint Colomban (Les Saints), Paris, 1905. 
J. V. PFLUGK-]_RTTUNG, The Old Irlsh on the Continent 
(Trans. of the Roy. hist. Societg, New ser., V, 1891, p. 

. RNZ, Beitrdge zut Gcschichte àer Schottenabtei St. 
Jakob und des Priorates IVeih St. Peler in Regensburg 
(Sludien und Mitteilungen aus àem Benedictiner-u. 
dem Cistercienser-Orden, XVI-XVIII, 1895-1897). 
TI2,uBE, Perrona Scottorum (Sitzungsberichte der philos. 
philol-und hist. Classe der k. B. Akad. der ïssensch. 
zu lliinchei, 1900, p. 469-538). 
ICOLAUS VEINULAEUS, De propagations fidei christianae in 
Belgio per sanctos ex H ibernia viros, Lovanii, 1639. 
lC[IL. VATTEN]ACH, Dis Cougrcgation der Schotle»kl6ster 
in Deutschland (Zeitschrfl fdr chrislliche Archeologis 
nd K«»st, 1856, p. 21-30, 49-58}, an essay communi- 
cated by W. Reeves under the ti(le : The Irish 
ionasleries in Germany ( Ulsler Journal of Archaeology, 
Vil, 1859, p. 227-246, 295-313). 

L. TACH.ET DE BAINEVAL, Histoire légendaire de l'Irlande, 
Paris, 1856, Ch. viii, xvIII, xxIv xTv xxvII, xxvIiI. 
)o CBIASO, oE]t Colombano, sua opera e suo cullo in 
Ziguria (Rlcista dioeesana Gcnovese, VI, 1916, p. 121- 
]. C. DELCIASIBIE, Vie de ,çainl Feuille»t, amur, 1861. 
-. )UIWCHTEIt, Dis Gesta Caroli lagni der Rcgensburger 
Schotletlegende, Bon, 1897. 
t. (AIDOZ, Un saisit irlandais en Savoie (Revue cellique, 
VIII, 1887, p. 165-168}. 
IIXRç. STO]ES, Six moulhs in he Apennines in search of the 
vestiges of Iriæh Saints in Italy, London, 1919 ; Three 
months in lhe forcsts of France : a pilgrimage in search 
of vestiges of Irish Saints, London, 1895. 
T. A. WAL., Irish Saints in Belgium (Ecclesiastical review, 
XXXIX, p. 122-14o. ) 
L. PFLEOEI, Ze CUlte d'une sainte irlandaise en Alsace : Ste 
Brigide (Bdlelin ecclésiaslique de Strasbourg, .LII, 
1923, p. 51-55). 


HE first part of this little bookoriginally 
appeared, in I9O8 , in the Revue d'histoire 
ecclésiastique as L'œuvre des ' Scotti' 
dans l'Eurol)e contincntala (Vol. IX, p. 21-37 
and 55-277), and I made use of this paper 
vhen vriting Chapter v of my Chréticntés 
ccltiques (Paris, 1911). 
The second part vas first published in the 
Revue celtique under the title: Les saints 
irlandais dans les traditions populaires des pays 
continentaux (Vol. XXXIX, p. 199-226).1 
Although this second study was »vritten so 
lately as I9 , it does hot reappear here without 
having received some slight alterations. As 
regards the first paper, it bas undergone very 
many changes in the way of remodelling and 
correcting, as v«ell as by the addition of fresh 
material, for the author bas kept himself in 
close touch with everything that bas been pub- 
lisEed on the subiect since 9o8. 

x 8ee also the additional notes fo that 10aper in the 
Recue celtique {XXXIX, No. 8, 1928). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Nothing ages more quickly than historical 
work. The historian who dates, after the lapse 
of only a few years, to reprint unchanged a 
former work, is guilty of a carelessness which is 
hot easily reconciled with the critical faculty. 
Should it ever happen that the writer of these 
lines ceases to revise and amend his former 
works, he is willing to be considered as mentally 
impotent. Heaven grant that that day is still 
far distant ! 

I bave to thank my devoted translator, Mr. 
Victor Collins, who at his own desire undertook 
this delicate work. To me it is particularly 
agreeable to bave my work and naine associated 
with those of a friend with whom I had the 
good fortune to explore, in IgIZ , some of the 
most remarkable ruins of Ireland, from the Rock 
of Cashel to those of far-famed Clonmacnois. 
My gratitude is no less great to Father 
Augustine, O.S.F.C. for having written, at lXIr. 
Collins's request, a very striking preface for 
this volume. 

In their distant wanderings the tireless 
lioneers, whose footprints and history we have 


sought to recover and to tell, ever bore in their 
hearts a tender love to their " green isle," to 
the " sweet earth of their native land," 1 even 
as do, in out own day, the unnumbered exiles of 
the Irish diaslora , who are spread over the 
wide surface of the globe. These early pioneers 
of the Christian naine laboured so energetically 
amid the nations, rnany of whom were bar- 
barous, in whose lands they were dispersed, that 
they have left behind them a very deep and 
lasting impression. Indeed, the Germany of the 
middle ages, to honour these heroes, outlined of 
them an epic which cornes within the cycle of 
Charles the Great; * and to this day the 
memory of the saints of Ireland still lives in 
the lands that are watered by the Marne, the 
Meuse, the P, hine and the Danube. 
God grant that the Gaels of to-day--the Gaels 
of the motherland and those of the diaslora , 
whose hearts are now wrung with bitter agony m 

* " Dulce solum naalis patriae.., et virides terras,'" 
writes the Irish author of Vita B. ]lariani Ratisponeris 
{I, 6: Boll. 'ebr., II, 366) 
* I allude fo the legend on the Scotti of Ratisbon pub- 
lished by A DWTE Die Gesta Caroli Magni 
legensburger Schotfenlegende, Bonn, 1897). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
rnay draw both examlole and holoe from their 
glorious national history. 
A Breton looet of our rime, who by some bas 
been given rank with the most illustrious looets 
of Christianity, though killed in the great war, 
xoth Alril, 97, in the very bloom of youth, 
Jean-Pierre Calloc'h, bas sung the destiny of 
our race--for the Breton race is of kin to the 
Gaelic race of Ireland--in one of his most beauti- 
ful looems (Mon Goucn). 
Listen then, Gaels of Éire, to what young 
Calloc'h wrote : 
" To-day, I well know, you are the deslised of all 
After being, O Celtic race, the light of Europe. 
To-day, like the sun, you have sunk in the West ; 
But when Morning breaks, you will rise with him 

1 ff. p. CALLOC'H, A genotx, lais bretons with  French 
translation by I. P..IocAË (Paris, 1921), p. 67. On 
this book, see ff. 'E'DIYES in Revue cellque, XXXIX, 
1922, p. 94 s. 


HIS valuable contribution to the faine 
of Ireland bas for me a special charm 
which amounts almost to a fascination. 
Over much of the ground it covers I travelled a 
few times within the last eight-and-twenty years, 
in France, Austria, Germany and Switzerland, 
and, from books and friends, I gathered some of 
the important information that its pages en- 
shrine. More than three and a hall years of my 
lire I have spent in the last-named beautiful 
country on the borders of the Canton which 
bears the distinguished naine of St. Gall, in 
dioceses where his naine and that of his toaster 
are still held in the deepest veneration, and but 
a short distance from the celebrated monastery 
that was once « the intellectual centre of the 
German world." At the present moment I 
write within easy reach of a few of the most 
remarkable foundations of Irish missionaries, 
and, therefore, the reading of this book has 
vividly brought back the bright and happy days 
of a Past in which we may justly take a holy 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
pride and from which »ve can draw abundant 
inspiration to glorify the Future of our country. 
The thoughtful know that in all the great 
things of lire it is the value and not the bulk 
of the work that counts, and the chier value of 
the present study consists in the fact that it 
contains nothing which is not substantiated by 
texts whose authenticity and truth bave been 
established by the most searching criticism. 
The scholarly and erudite author bas carefully 
kept his imagination under control, and, unlike 
some others who bave travelled over the saine 
regions, he indulges in no praise that is not 
warranted by the indisputable testimony of the 
past. That he loves the land which produced 
the great personalities of whom he writes is 
evident from almost every page, but not even 
to minister to this feeling in himself or in others, 
does he advance as much as one statement which 
is not supported by the most unquestionable 
In the documents »vhich he has cited there is 
a sufficiency of beautiful things about Ireland, 
ber saints and scholars, ber monks and nuns, 
her bishops and missionaries, ber confessors and 
naartyrs, and on these he relies to establish the 

Prefac e 

ancient greatness and glory of our country 
abroad. To these documents he closely adheres 
with thc uncrring instinct of the gcnuine 
historian, and hot for onc moment docs he 
allow himsclf to be lcd a»vay by that subjcc- 
tivity which but too oftcn givcs us poctic 
cffusions for historical facts. Evcn in the 
second part which dcals »vith thc rcligious folk- 
lore that bas gathcrcd round thc namcs of out 
Irish missionaries, legend, while receiving its 
righfful value, is lcft scvcrcly in its propcr 
place and ncvcr allo»vcd to usurp thc throne 
of rcgal truth. Not fancies but facts is the 
naotto of thc author, and thcsc with cloqucnt 
tongucs trumpct thc famc of Ircland over many 
lands for close upon four hundrcd fruitful ycars. 
The amount of mattcr packcd into this short 
book naakes onc wondcr, and it is mattcr which 
throws a flood of liglat on many important 
points hot always knovn to thosc with grcat 
prctcnsions to lcarning. More than a dozcn 
ycars ago, in thc vcry hcart of the city of Vicnna, 
I nact a fcw highly cducatcd gentlcmcn who 
thought that thc famous " Schottcnklostcr" in 
thcir naidst was originally foundcd by thc Scotch. 
In the pages bcfore us we are accurately in- 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
formed regarding the true rneaning of " Scotti " 
and " leregrini, '' the rise and fall of the " hosli- 
talia et rnonasteria $cottorum," the mental 
culture of ancient Ireland, and academic and 
literary »york of the early ernigrants, the " scril- 
tura scottica " of the late naiddle ages, the 
knowledge of Greek lossessed by such dis- 
tinguished rnen as Sedulius $cottus and John 
$cottus Erigena, the blending of the Rules of St. 
Columban and St. Benedict in the saine mon- 
asteries, the itinerary of Irish lioneer travellers, 
the currents of lire they set in motion, the wide- 
Slread influence they exercised, and the unique 
llace they still occuly in the cherished traditions 
of foreign leolles. 
These and rnany other rnatters will caltivate 
the attention of the intelligent general reader; 
but the delightful charrn of this valuable work 
is that it flings the Past ulon the screen in a 
clear, concentrated light, and we seem to see 
these Irish confessors of the Faith go forth, 
sornetimes indeed singly, but generally in srnall 
bands or in grouls of twelve, following no fixed 
llan, but, in the fullness of their trust, leaving 
thernselves to the guidance of the $1irit of God. 
They usually wore a tunic of undyed wool to 

which was attached a capuce, like the habit 
that was afterwards adopted by the ' sweet St. 
Francis of Assisi' ; and their luggage was con- 
fined to little more than a stout walking-stick, 
a leathern water-bottle slung to the shoulder, 
and a wallet or satchel containing a few choice 
books and some relics of the saints. 
They were men who thirsted for the immola- 
tion of self, who were drawn by the lure of 
sacrifice and whose longing to spread the King- 
dom of Christ it would be in, possible to express 
in words. Christ had set their hearts on tire, 
and even to-day, after the lapse of so nany 
centuries, our souls burn within us when we read 
the brief phrases that embody the great notive 
which led to the wanderings of these saintly 
exiles who shed such lustre on our country. 
These are, it is true, varied in form, but are 
generally crystallised in such words as " for the 
love of God," " for Christ," " for the Naine of 
the Lord," and " for the love of the Naine of 
Christ." Like the gentle Poverello whose lire 
and Rule bas much in common with theirs, and 
whose devotion led him centuries later to the 
shrine of Colunbanus at Bobbio, they were 
indeed " of Christ enamoured wholly " and had 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
in full and bounteous measure that personal 
affection which is such a sad want of the present 
age, but which lit up their hearts with the white 
heat of a great passion that no sacrifice could 
satiate and no suffering subdue. 
Their courage in facing dangers, their patience 
in overcoming difficulties, their glowing ardour 
in attacking vice, their reckless daring in preach- 
ing the word "in season and out of season" 
can be explained in no other way, and make it 
quite easy for us to imagine that the burning 
expressions of St. Paul were for ever sounding 
in their ears: " Christ loved me and delivered 
himself to me." " To me to lire is Christ and 
to die is gain." "I lire now, no, not I, but 
Christ liveth in me." " If any man love not 
out Lord Jesus Christ let lfim be anathema." 
They yearned to win ail to Christ, " to restore 
all things in Christ," and, therefore, fearing 
nothing, o'er land and sea, in poverty and 
hunger, 'raid sno»v and ice they bore the " glad 
tidings of great joy," and were sufficiently re- 
warded »vhen they saxv the darkness of Paganism 
receding before the light of Christianity and the 
neglected garden of God bloom again like the 
rose. Tley planted lire where they round death ; 

they raised the souls of men to higher things, 
robing them with divine virtue, " as a bride 
adorned with ber iewels," and kindling them 
into the imperishable beauty of Him Who is the 
Son of God, " full of grace and truth." 
This apostolic zeal is splendid evidence of that 
strong monastic spirit which characterised the 
fervent days of Ireland's golden prime. But 
though this monastic spirit is gone, the mis- 
sionary spirit still remains and bas given proof 
of its vitality in the divine chivalry with which 
the consecrated descendants of heroes and 
martyrs, following the track of Irish emigrants, 
bave planted the Cross of Christ wherever was 
raised the flag of that Empire »vhich had cruellv 
driven these men and women forth. This grand 
display of zeal led to fresh conquests for the 
Church of God, but in our own day it bas been 
eclipsed by the splendid enthusiasm that bas 
smitten men of brilliant minds and generous 
hearts, and impelled them, with an imperious 
urgency, to devote their lives to the conversion 
of China. It seems as if the still potent spirits 
of those commemorated in these pages had 
spoken to such souls, stirring them with their 
own desire, thrilling them with their ovn pas- 

Gaelic Plonee-'o Cfirisuamty 
sion, and enduing them with a divine frenzy 
for the accomplishment of that great sacrificial 
act which renounces the joys of home, and 
gladly accepts the exile's hungry heart, in order 
to spread the knowledge and love of Christ in a 
far-off Pagan land. 
In the designs of the good God, the magic of 
whose Naine fired the hearts of our old mis- 
sionaries, the publication of this precious volume, 
rendered into excellent English by a capable 
pen, may serve as a strong appeal to the divinely 
appointed watchmen on the towers of Israel, to 
revive at home devotion to the founders and 
teachers of the great monastic schools who once 
flung glory round our country and ruade it an 
island of saints whom we have strangely for- 
gotten. It may also inspire some to follow in 
the footprints of these ancient Scotti across the 
European Continent, to make themselves con- 
versant with every phase of their apostolic 
journeys, and to study closelv the lives of 
" men of renown " whose names still linger in 
benediction on the lips of the people. But even 
much better will it be if it helps to increase in 
college and seminary, in convent and monastery, 
that genuine sanctity vhich is absolutely neces- 

sary or the achievement of any great sFiritual 
work ; to foster the intensive culture of ail that 
is noble in the history of our race at home and 
abroad ; and to raise aloft once more the sub- 
lime ideals that bave ceased to burn with their 
wonted brightness, but which we shall sorely 
need, in the trying days before us, to kee F alive 
in our own hearts and in the hearts of others, a 
dee F and Fassionate loyalty to the old land and 
the old Faith. 

Fcast of St. Michacl, 1922. 



I.--St. Columban, St. Gall and their 
HE first islanders who crossed the sea 
from religious motives vere Britons. 
They chiefly attracted attention on 
account of their heterodoxy. The earliest of 
them in date, Pelagius, arrived in Rome at 
the latest during the pontificate of Anastasius 
(398-4oI). 1 But it çvas only after some years 
spent in Italy that he began to preach 
his heresy. It round easy acceptance in Ms 
native land thanks to one Agricola, the son of 
a Pelagian Bishop. 2 The British bishop Fas- 
tidius, who vas wandering about Sicily and at 
Rome between 413 and 418, was also tinctured 
with the views of Pelagius.  Finally, Faustus 
of Riez, whose doctrines smacked nov of Semi- 
Pelagianism and then again of some kind of 

Ju['n., Praefaio,  (MGNE, PL, XLçIII, 111 ). 
AutO. Anq., IX, Chron. Mitora, I, p. #72). 
 D. G. MORL, Le De Vi Chtiana de ['évèque brdon 
F«tidius et le livre de Pébgc ad l'id«om (Revc Bénédictinc, 
XV. 1898. p. i81 s.). 

Gaclic Pioncers of Christianity 
diluted Novatianism, is also known to bave 
been a native of Great Britain. 1 
While these theologians were straying, one of 
their unknovn countrymen, whom God had 
secretly called for an immense work, was pur- 
suing his priestly education under the guidance 
of Gaulish bishops and monks. This man 
sought only to learn the art of planting in 
the souls of men the divine word and causing 
it to flourish there. In 432, St. Patrick re- 
turned, clad in episcopal dignity, to that Ire- 
land where once as a captive slave he had 
guarded his master's sheep.  
The island once converted ruade rapid 
progress in the [aith. In the fifth and sixth 
centuries churches and monasteries multiplied 
on its soil; holiness so flourished there that 
soon it deserved the naine o the island of 

x The Voyages of ihe Irish saints Ibar, Ciaran, Declan, 
and Abban fo Rome (Acta 8ancl. Hibcrniae ex coà. ,ffalm., 
col 237, 242, 248 ; 806 ; 415, 512 ; 4.12 ; 516)  the end 
of the fourth century, soem fo us o be legendary, as also 
the stay of S. Gibrianus and his comparons in Champagne 
in the rime of St. emigius of Rheims (Boit., ed. of 1866, 
Ma.y, II, 298). 
 J. B. BUY, The Lire of Saint Patri«k md bis Plat( in 
l[islory, London, 1905, p. 386 s. 

Gaelic Pionecrs of Christianity 
saints. 1 The converts of yesterday dreamed 
of becoming apostles in their turn; the 
zealous monks aspired to carry beyond the 
seas their ascetic rule of lire. We do not 
think it is necessary to imagine other reasons 
than these in order to account for the 
tendency to emigrate which began to manifest 
itself anaong the Irish as early as the sixth 
century. 2 
Later, under the Carolingians, numerous 
learned men, artists, and pilgrims flocked 
from the isles to the continent; but the 
travellers who landed in Gaul, in the Mero- 
vingian period, and spread themselves over 
the neighbouring countries, were almost solely 
dominated by ideas of asceticism and apostle- 
ship. For the greater part monks, voluntary 
exile appealed to them as the supreme immo- 
lation, and as being specially adapted to pedect 
the act of renunciation they had undertaken. 
To leave his native land " for the love of God," 

] Cf. L. GOUGAUD, Ees Clrétienfés cdtiques, Parie, 1911, 
ch. Iii. 
 J. BOOE.kNDUS, De B. larno Scoo et B. Murchato 
commentorius 2)raerh$ (Boil., ed. of 1865, February, II, 
p. 861-g62). 

Gaelic Pioncers of Christianity 
" for the naine of the I.ord," " for the love of 
the naine of Christ," " for the welfare of his 
soul," " to gain the heavenly fatherland," such 
are the phrases, varied in form but the saine in 
meaning, employed by the biographers of these 
saintly travcllers as being best suited to des- 
cribe the motive for their wanderings. 1 
These wanderers called themselves pcr«grini, 
which we must beware of translating generally 
by the word " pilgrims.""- For the real pilgrim 
betakes himsdf to the sanctuary which is 

{MG, Script. R. Merov. IV, 162) ; Kita G«ll.i, auct. Walah- 
frido, 1. 0 (1165E, PL, ¢XIV, 1004}. PEREGRLNATIO 
PItOPR 'OMEN DOIINI : Vitct I£adroe, c. 19 
Acta Satc$. O.S.B., 5 ° saec., 494). OB AORE, PRO 
Virgil of Salzburg (MBILLOY. Acta anct. 0.8.B., g saee., 
pars 2, 309); ct,N, Eplst. 287 (M(, pi8t., IV, 446) 
Vila S. l'adoali (MLLO, id. 4  saec., psrs 2. 545); 
Vita Burchardi (M.G, Script., xv, p. 52) ; Passio S. Cholo- 
,»anni (MG, Script., IV, 675). PRo (amwo : 
Vita Colu»,bae. Praefatio, ed. FOWLEn, 5-6. PO 
aXl»m: Chronic. abbat. S. Marri»ci Colore (IG, Script. 
II, 215); o IPI$ED.ç IN hELI8 Phil: BED, 
Ht. Eccl., V, 9 (PL, XCV, 241). Pao a a : 
BEDE, HiSt. ECeI., III, 13 (PL, l.e., col. 17); 
(l.c., col 248); Vi Marian Scoti, c. I (Boll., February, 
II, 865). 
 Boll.. Fehruary. I, 856-g57, 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
the aire of his special devotion; then, his 
pious journey over, he returns to his own land 
and resumes his usual lire. Doubtless there 
were uch pilgrims among the Irish, and even 
more among the Anglo-Saxons, who swarmed 
over the roads of Europe, especially from the 
eighth century; but the earlier " peregrini" 
were hot, properly speaking, pilgrims. In a 
far fuller sense they were voluntary exiles, 
men who by a religious vow, more or less ex- 
plicit, sometimes taken in childhood, with or 
without the additional undertaking of apostle- 
ship, forbade themselves for a prolonged period 
or even, as was generally the case, for their 
whole life, a return to their native land. For 
this reason the writers of their lives often com- 
pare them to Abraham. One might imagine 
they had ail heard the voice bidding the 
patriarch: " Egredere de terra tua et de cogna- 
tione tua. ''1 

* Jo¢s, Vita Col,tmbani, I, 4 (]IG, Script. Rer. Merov. 
IV, l O ).--Lives of Saints from the Book of Lisrnore (Anecdota 
O:rotiesia}, ed. WHITLEY STOKES, 1890, 586, 2740, and 
4484.--Bo11., 0ctober, IX, (Vita S. Dotati epis. Fesdan£, 
c. I, 656}.--Vita Altonis, c. 2 (.MG, Script. XV, 2, 848}. 
]IABLLLOlq, Acta Sa»set. 0.S.B., 5 ° saec., Vila Kadroe, 
c. 15, 493. 

Gaelic Pioc«rs of Christianity 
The great originator of these early monastic 
and a,ostolic migrations was St. Columban. 1 
He left Ireland with twelve comæanions, with- 
out any fixed design, his one idea being to go 
far from his homeland, spreading the Gos0el as 
he journeyed onward among strange æeoples.  
He reached Burgnndy about 59 ° . There in 
succession he founded the monasteries of Anne- 
gray, Luxeuil, and Fonta,.'nes. It vas hot long 
before Luxeuil, from the novelty of its rule 
and the zeal of its founder, poxverfully at- 
tracted the inhabitants. Indeed, the rule of 
St. Columban became the ob]ect of such venera- 
tion that, towards the middle of the seventh 
century, many of the Gaulish cloisters adopted 
it conjointly with that of St. Benedict2 We 

' On St. Columban, sec E. I,x.TL', Saint Columban, 
Pris, 1905; G. MEE [3. 3. LAUX], 7'he Lire and 
IVrilings of ,l. Coh«mban, Philadelpa, 1914. A Gernmn 
edition of the saine w published af eiburg i. Br. i 
1919. Sec also L. GOUfiAUD, ChréL cell., p. 145 s. 
 $ONaS, Vite C,»lumboni, I, 4, 5 (MG. b'p. r. Meror., 
IV, 7}. 
" Hujus [Waldeberti] teindre per Gaiarum pro- 
qnci aina monaehorum et saeram puea 
examina non solum per agros, visas, xeosque arque 
castels, verum etiam per ere vastitatem ex regla 
dumtaxat beatorum patamx cnedieti et Columbvni 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
do hot think that there exists in the armais 
of naonasticism another example of such a 
combination of rules, which, morcover, are so 
different in tcndency and character.  
Driven from Burgundy by Brunehaut in 
61o, Columban resumed lais wanderings. They 
were hot barren. His blessing given to the 
child of some nobleman xvho had hospitably 
entertained the saint often gave birth to a 
religious vocation, which, when it had reached 
maturity, usually led to the building of a new 
monastery." Indeed it may truly be said that, 
in order to take stock of the progrcss of mon- 
asticisna in Gaul in the scventh century, it is 
only necessary to follow the footsteps of the 
saint. The monasteries in the Brie country, 

pullulare coeperunt." (Vita S«labergae, 7 ; 
21cta Sact. O.S.B., 2 
gchicbte DeuMchds, ipzig, 190, I, 297. 
 See neverthels on thc rules o Cassin, 
other abbots in use at Saint-Yricix (SIonsterim 
in Limousin, GREGORY OF 
(P.L, LXXI, 510). 
 G. BO-3Y, S. Colomban el la fonddion des 
monastèr irlandais l Ec au qi « iècle (Buc historiqlte, 
LXXXIII, 1903, 285). Ts paper hes been suarised 
in t.he Alti l Coegreo intnazionale 
ome. '1I. 1905, 12ô-129. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Faremoutiers (627),  Jouarre (63o), - Rebais 
(636) 3 owe their origin to his disciples or friends. 
Later on the Irish remembered this. From the 
Fita ./Igili we learn that they were accustomed 
to stop at Rebais when on their way to Rome. 
In that halting-place they were wont to rest 
and leave such members of their party as were 
spent by the fatigues of the iourney.4 
Faro (- c. 672 ), the brother of St. Burgondofara 
or Fara, foundress of Faremoutiers, whom St. 
Columban had blessed in ber girlhood, when 

' Faremoutiers (Ecorlacmn), canton of l{ozoy, Selne-et- 
Maxae; cf. ]LucK, op. cit., 296.I. ONET-IAY 
writes : " There were seen arri ing af Faremoutiers noble 
young girls of Ireland and of Great Britain."{Op. ciL, 287}. 
BEDE (Hist. EccL, III. 8) speaks only of glo-Saxon 
women who frequented ts monastery and that of 
Chelles {Cala): " m eo tempore, necdu,n mulbis 
regione glorum monasteriis cotmctis, multi de 
Bttia, monaccae conversationis gratia, 
vel Galfiurum monasteria adire solebant ; sed et fifias suas 
eisdem eruendas, ac sponso caelesti copulandas tte- 
bant ; maxime in Brige et in Cale, et in dilem 
mosterio... " {PL, XC r, 128 ; ed. C. 
$ouarre (Jot), cant. of Lu Ferté-sous-ouarre, 
Seine-et-Marm ; cf. HAUCK, op. cit., I, 290. 
 Rebais (Mon. Resbace}, cant. of OEulomers, Seine- 
 Vita S. Agili, c. 24 ()IABILLON, Acta Sancf. O.S.B., 
2 ç sec., 824). 

Gaelic Pionecrs of Christianity 
he became bishop of Meaux, was equally hospit- 
able to Irish travellers. At his suggestion t»vo 
of them settled permanently in Gaul, St. Kilian 
at Aubigny, near Arras, and St. Fiacre in the 
hermitage of Broilum, in the neighbourhood of 
Meaux. x 
The foundations in Alsace, Switzerland, and 
Italy which are connected with the wander- 
ings of St. Columban and his disciples in those 
countries are particularly well known. 2 In later 
centuries Saint-Gall and Bobbio were diligently 
frequented by the Scotti. We find, in the 
eleventh century, the Irish bishop Mark, re- 
turning from Rome, leaving by will his books 
to the library of Saint-Gall, in which monastery 
his nephew Marcellus, or Moengal, was then 
living,  while another Irishman called Eusebius 
had taken up his abode close by in the solitude 
of Mount Saint-Victor where he dwelt for thirty 
years. 4 A necrology, furthermore, bas pre- 

 Vita Fiacrii, c. I (BoIL, August, VI, 605). Broilum, 
or Broui], is now the village of Saint-Fiacre, Canton of 
Cr6cy, Seine-et-Marne. 
z E. MATL'% 8. Colombon, Book II, c. 2 and 3. 
s EKKEIt&tD IV, Ça8U 8. Galli (3rG. Script. 1I, 78 s.). 
• I:{ATPEIRT, Ço8{8 ,.. Grdli (il)id., 73). 


Gaclic Pioneers of Christianity 
served for us the names of several Irishmen 
who died at Saint-Gall. 1 In like manner at 
Bobbio, in the eighth and tenth centuries, we 
find a Cummian, a Dungal, and other monks 
with Irish names. - 
The personal influence exerted in Gaul bi. 
St. Columban was great. After his death, his 
views about the exemption of monasteries,-" on 
penance and confession, « and, above all, his 
monastic rule continued to be propagated thanks 
to the zeal of his numerous immediate disciples 

1 See a note of I. -on .Aa.x, editor of the Ct«eue ,.% Galli, 
o1. cit., p. 78, and the verses in the IS. r. 10 o Saint- 
(iall (F. KELOER, «]Iitth¢ilugen dcr antiq. Gel'claft i 
Zfiricb, VII, 1851). 
s«rch of lhe Vestiges of lire Irish S¢dnfs in Italy, Londo, 
CII. RED. WEI$8, Die kirchlic]wn Exttien der 
KlSste»" von ihrcn Entstehung bis zut gregorianisch-ch«nia- 
censischen Zeit, Baoel, 1893. Chapter 2 is entirely devoted 
fo the iffiucnce of the Iro-Scolish missionaes on tLe 
development of monastic liberlies.A. UEFNER, a8 
Rechinstitut der klSstcrlicl, cn Exedion it dtr abend- 
M»disch Kirche, etc... (ArcMv fr katl. Kirclenrecht 
LXXXVI, 1906, 208 s.). 
i A LNOR', Quid LTovienscs monachi . . . ad r«gulam 
nmntiotm algue ad cmnm«nem 'ccleae profeeh«n con.- 
tulnt, Parisiis, 1894, 62-80.--E. VACDD, Ze 9ouror 
d cfs et la confession (Reruc du clergé français, 1899, 
lt7 s.}. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
and those who came after them. Very many of 
the most influential persons of the rime, notably 
those courtiers who, with remarkable unanimity, 
forsook the court for the cloister or the episco- 
iate, Dado, Faro, Eligius, Wandrille, Filibert, 
appear to have especially appreciated the ascetic 
system of Luxeuil, and to bave worked for its 
St. Wandrille, having resigned his dignity of 
count, devoted himself in solitude to those 
practices of prayer and austerity (reciting the 
whole of the psalter, genuflections, standing in 
icy cold water) which vividly recall the morti- 
fications of the monks of Ireland. It bas been 
said: " Probably the remembrance of Colum- 
ban haunted the mind of Wandrille."l In 
effect, he dwelt some rime near the tomb of 
St. Ursin, a disciple of St. Columban ; then he 
went to Bobbio, and he even formed the de- 
sign of crossing to Ireland. 
The future Abbot of Jumièges, St. Filibert, 
appears to bave been moved by the same 
haunting influence. He starts at Rebais by 

1 l. VACA,DARD. lï¢ de :4,,. 0¢¢2t. *'t'éqtt¢' tlc /?ovet, l'ri.% 
1902, p. 161.. 

Gaelic Pionecrs of Christianity 
following the Columban rule, then goes to 
Luxeuil and Bobbio, and finally dedicates to 
St. Columban one of the ahars of Jumièges. 
Let us take note that among his disciples St. 
Filibert included an Irishman, 8idonius or St. 
8aëns, who was cellarer at Noirmoutier and 
later became abbot of a monastery in the valley 
of the Varenne. 1 
St. Eligius, while still a layman, built the 
monastery of 8olignac which, following the 
8cottic custom, he caused to be freed ffom 
episcopal jurisdiction--a remarkable innovation 
at that rime--and had it placed under the 
rule of the Abbot of Luxeuil." The foundation 
charter, following the custom of the day, 
established as the religious law the double rule 
of St. Benedict and of St. Columban. Two 
former officials of the court of Clotaire II and 
of Dagobert I were in direct touch with the 
Scotti: St. Cyran, future Abbot of Longrey, 
in the Berry, whose conversion was partly due 
to a meeting with the Irish bishop lelavinus, 3 
and Didier of Cahors, whose friendship for a 

* E. VACANDD, o1). cit., p. 245. 
* ][AUcK, op. cil., p. 291 S. 
a Vila Si9rami , c. 8. 9 (]ABILLOIg: 2 o 8t¢¢, p. 435). 


Gaelic«rs of Christianity 
certain Scot called Arnanus has been thought 
worthy of record by his biographer, x 
If we are to believe Dr. Bruno Krusch, 
Mommelin. the successor of St. Eligius in the 
see of Noyon, would appear to have adopted 
even the Celtic tonsure. 2 Mommelin came from 
Luxeuil, as did St. Valery of Leuconoë who 
had known St. Columban. From the saine 
place came also St. Orner and St. Bertin, 
disciples of Eustasius. Columban's successor. 
It was through these missionary monks that 
Irish monastic traditions were planted in 
northern Gaul. It was, moreover, from Luxeuil 
that Bathild, wife of Clovis II (639-657), ob- 
tained the first abbot for the abbey of Corbie 

 Vta Desiderii, ed. BR. KRUSCtt {MG. Script. rer. l'leror., 
IV, 550). 
 If is the reproduction of a. portrait of S. Mommelin, 
drawn in the twelfth century, :vhich makes him think so 
Boll., XXII, 1903, p. 109) ancies it is  risky deduction. 
On the other hand, I. L. VAN DEIt ESSEN (Etude critique 
et l{ttéraire sr les V itae des saints érov{nliens de l'aciemtc 
Be/9-/que (Louvain and Paris, 1907, la. 375, n. 3) takJng 
stand on the explanations subsequently given by 
Kruscb, adops that crific's point o view.--In addition, 
see the article Tosur in the Reatenc9ctolagidie f. protest. 
Theot. u. Kirche, XIX. 1907. p. 839. 

Gaelic Pioncers oi Christianity 
which she had built, 1 and it was from the 
double monastery of Jouarre that she fetched 
the first abbess for the nuns of Chelles.  

 Vita Balthildis, c. 7, ed. BR. KltrscH. p. 490. 
 Ibid., c. 8, p. 492.--In out' opinion, $he foliowing lines 
arc the most accurate tha have been written on the share 
the Irish took in the development, of double monasteries : 
'" Wherevcr the Apostles of Irish monasticism went, this 
form o[ organisation followed--not, because it was one 
which originated x-ith and peculiarly belonged to the 
Irish--but because it could lire only in the pures spiritual 
atmosphere " (MARY BATESOI, Orig{! and Early Histoj 
of dottble mortasteries, in the Trettsa«'tione of lire Royal Hi*t. 
Soc., XIII, 899, p. 197). 


ll.--St. Fursa and the 'Peregrini 
Minores ' 

HE last-mentioned foundations had not 
yet been laid when an Irishman, 
who had for several years already 
wandered " for the Lord " in Great Britain, 
came to establish himself on the banks of 
the Marne at Lagny.  This individual was 
St. Fursa. Tlae relations between Fursa 
and Clovis II, and with the Mayor of the 
Palace Erchinoald, 2 by whom Bathild was 
saved from slavery, Ferrait it to be SUFFosed 
that the Flous queen and the Irish monk were 
known to one another. Doubtless it was the 
renown and examFle of St. Columban and the 
prosperity of the monastic colonies of the Brie 
whicla had drawn Fursa to those Farts. His 
career there was hot a long one; he died 

1Lkgny (Lainiacum), arrondis, of .Ieaux, Seine-et- 
Marne.--On the chronology of S. Fursa, see the notes of 
CH. PLV to his edition of the Eccles. Hit. of Bede (II, 
p. 173). lurs probably arrived in Great Britain after 631, 
and left for Gaul between 640 and {}44. 
 "IEDE, Evcl. Hist.. III, 19 (PIa, XCV, 148-149). 

Gaclic Pioneers of Christianity 
in the village of Macerias, now Frohen:' 
leaving the imagination of his contemporaries 
struck by the recitals that were ruade of 
his wonderful visions. * By order of Erchinoald 
his remains were borne to Péronne between 
64 and 652. 
Although he did not display an activity conl- 
parable with that of St. Columban, nevertheless 
his naine deserves to be put in relief in the tale 
of Irish migrations, for his tomb was piously 
visited by his relatives and countrymen who, be- 
side it, founded the first monastery for the ex- 
clusive use of the Scottf to be found on the 
continent: P«rrona Scottorum.  At least until 
774 the successive abbots wcre all Irishmcn. To 
Foillan, Fursa's eldcr brothcr, who arrived in 
Gaul beforc 65z, 4 succcedcd his younger brother 

1 Frohen. tant. of ]3ernaville, Somme. 
$ BEDE. Eccl. Hist., ibid. 145 s. 
 Sec TIAUBE, Perrolla Scottorum (Sit,.logsberiehte 
philo.-philol, und hist. Classe der k. bay. Akad. der W.iss- 
e»ch, zu Mi»ch¢n, 1900, p. 469-588), reprinted 
Traube's Vl¢ogen tnd Abhandh«ngen, Mfinchen, 1920. 
III, p. 95-118. 
 Foillan was inted to Belgium by Itta, the mother of 
St. Gertrude of ivees, and she gave ]tire the land on 
which was raised the monastcry of Fosses. Einhard, in 

Gaelic Pionccrs of Christianitv 
Ultan, and to Ultan succeeded Cellanus (t 706), 
a personage long forgotten, but whom Traube 
bas skilfully restored to the light of day. Per- 
haps this rnonastery remained in Irish hands 
until its destruction by the Northmen in 88o. 
The Four Masters mention, under the year 
774, the death of Moenan, abb. cat(h)rach Fursa 
isin Frainc (i.e., abbas civi[atis Fur«ci in 
The names are mentioned of several other 
travelling companions of St. Columban or of 
St. Fursa, hermits, cenobites, miss;onaries, who 
would alpear to bave spread themselves through- 
out the north in Merovingian rimes ; for in- 
stance, Chaidoc and Fricor, who converted St. 
Riquier; Algeis, Corbican, Mauguille, Gobain, 
etc.; but their acts are hOt trustworthy, and it 
is hard to make out what they really didY 

the ninth century, calls Fosses " Monasterium Scottoruna " 
{Translat. ,FS. 21arcellini et lctri, IX, 86 {Boll., June, 
I, 98 f.). 
 Annals of le Folcr dlasters, ed. O'Doov'% I, p. 878- 
379.--Cf. ŒEIAUBE, 00. cit., p. 482, 488-480. 
2MAlt(}AltET STOKES set herself to note flown every 
trace left by these saints in witten document, naonunaent, 
and popular tradition. See Thrce 3lonlhs in lhe forests of 
France in search of Vestiges of Irish Saits, I,ondon.. 1895. 

Gaelic Pionçers of Christianity 
The Irislx lxad, moreover, Fenetrated even 
before the year 8oo into many other regions of 
continental Europe, both near and far distant 
from these earlier zones of their influence. 
Already in the seventlx century they are to be 
round disseminated througlxout Belgium. Rom- 
bault evangelized the people of Mechlin, Livin 
the people of Ghent, where he was martyred. 1 
Celestine became abbot of Saint-Peter of Mount 
131andin in Ghent, at the close of the seventh 
century. = In the Argonne, Rodingus iounded 
13eaulieu. 3 Disibod built, between Trèves and 
Mainz, near tle confluence of the 1N'ahe and the 
Glan, the monastery of Disibodenberg,  where, 
rive centuries later, St. Hildegard, the Sybil of 
the Rhine, was to begin ber training for the 
rdigious lire. St. Kilian carried the Gospel 
into Franconia, and died at Wurzburg, about 

t See NICHOLS V.IULtvS, Dc propagalio»te fiàei ehris- 
tianae ia Belgio er sawtos roe Hibern riros, vauii, 
1089. The memoir on the Rranffélisation de la Gaule 
Belgique ar les missiomaies irlanda, whieh apared 
in the Congrès scient-ifiques de Fae {Arras, 1858-1854, 
II. p. 256 s.), is hot very satisactory. 
 Fundatio monasl. Bndni6sis (3IG. pl. XV, 2, 
a UCK, op. cit., p. 808. 
« lbld., p. 80 L 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
689, a victim to his apostolic zeal.' The 
monasteries of Honau, on an island of the 
Rhine near Strasburg,  and Altomiinster, in ttle 
diocese of Freising, likewise owe their origin to 
two Iristl monks, Tuban and Alto2 Virgil the 
Geometer, abbot of Aghaboe in Ireland, volun- 
tarily exiled himself " for the love of Christ," 
and lived in the monastery of Saint Peter at 
Salzburg of which he became abbot, l Virgil 
had some quarrels wittl St. Boniface reslzecting 
his opinions on baptism  and tlis cosmological 
theories, which were very far in advance of the 

1 The acts of St. Kilian have been closely studied by 
FI%.Nz EbEkLEIICH (D" hl. K.iHan, Rcglonarb.ischof und 
Martyrer hislorisch-kritisch dargestellt, Wiix.zburg, 
and by S. RIEZLER DieVitt Kiliani {Neues Archiv, XXVIII, 
1902, p. 232-234}. The latter declares that St. Kilian's 
martyrdom cannot be called in question. 
 EtAUCK, op. cit., p. 305 ; cf. W. 
the Roy. Irish Academy, VI, 1853-1857, p. 452-461}. The 
isle of Etonau no longer exists. 
 V.ita Altons, c. 7 {MG. Script., XV, 2, p. 
op. cit., p. 541. 
 The authorstaip of the book of the confraternitics of 
ttais abbey is t.tributed to him. Cf. Libri coq,f rat., p. 27, 
MG. Necrologht, II, p. 6-44. On Virgil see : 
St. Virgl the Geometre (Ecclesiastical Review, LXIII. ] 920, 
« DO.N'IFAC'E. EI)O. 68 (MG, Ep4oL, III, 886). 

Gaelic Pioncers of Christianity 
knowledge of that leriod. 1 In 745, being still 
only abbot-priest of Saint Peter, he took over 
the government of the diocese of Salzburg, the 
eliScolal functions being performed by his 
fellow-countryman bishop Dobdagrec. It was 
onlv in 767 that Virgil himse!l: received eliSColal 
Gaul also chose more than one bishop from 
among these strangers. In 744, Pilin the Short, 
on the advice of St. Boniface, the reformer of 
the Christian West, called to the government 
of the metrololitan church of Rheims the Irish 
Abel, a choice which Polie Zachary hastened 
to confirm2 
The Celtic islanders penetratecl even 1nto the 

 ]3ONF.kCE, /p. 80.--On this interesting question 
see : PH. (}ILBEI%T, Le ape Zacharie e es anipodes 
(Rev des ques, scieiiflqucs, XII, 1882, 478-503; 
KBBO, Bischof Viit u.. sHne kooenoto 9. lde (MiiL 
d. l»iiiuts f. Oesierr. Gcschichtsforschung, XXIV, 1-28); 
I. . JAs, in Cambridge ledi. Histor, III, 
513 ; H. r.çN DE LINDEN, Vr9ile de alzbourff et les 
thories cosmoçraphiques au huitième siècle (Eul. de la cl. 
des lettres de l' Acad. roy. de Eelçique 191, p. 163-187). 
 WH. LEvsoN, Die lren nd dle Frnkische Kiwhe 
(Htorische Zeithrifl, CI, 1912, 
 FoLcu, Gesla abb. Lobiensittm, e. 5 s. (MG, 
IV, 58}.:ucK, op. cit., p. 5t8, 567. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
regions beyond the Loire. We bave already 
mentioned Arnanus, the friend of St. Didier 
Cahors. The bishop of Poitiers, Ansoald, gave 
shelter to another Irlshman called Romanus, 
who lived at Mazerolles in the bishop's territorv. 
Still more remarkable, the bishopric of Angou- 
lëme was twice, and at an intcrval of two cen- 
turies, governed by the Scotig«nae Tomianus, 
about 665, " and Helias ( 87_). 3 

' Mazerolles, cant. of Lussac-lcs-Ch'teaux, Vieme. 
See the testament of Ansoald in PARDESSUS, Diplo»., II, 
p. 239. To be consulted : Noueclle Ret,. d'hist, du droit, 
terty-second year, p. 789 and Rev(e cdfhluc, XX, 1899, 
p. 106.--Note that it was Dido, ]3ishop of Poitiers, who, 
it 656, had led into Ircland 
(Liber Hst. Franc., IV, 3, ed. Ka:scIt, MG, Script. ter. 
Merov., II, p. 316). 
' D'ARBOIS DE L'BAINVILLE, il Rc;Ite celt., XX, p. 105- 
 Adcmari Historiarium Iibcr III (MG, Script. IV, 119, 
122.--In  sacramewtry of the church of Yngoulëme 
(B.N.f. lat. 816} dating from the seventh to ninth centuries, 
one may read a note of the eleventh century on the margin 
of folio 1-$6 : '" Helias scotigena sic facieba (L. DELISLE, 
Méro. s. d'anc, sacramentaires, p. 9 ; reprirted from 
Mémoires de l'Acad, des lnscrip, et Belles-ldtres, XXXII, 
1st, part, 1886). 

III.__Wandering Bishops, Clerics 
and Monks 

UTSIDE the ranks of these peregrini, 
who had been faised to the episcopate 
by the esteem of continental ecclesi- 
astical authority, there rnoved through Gerrnany 
and Gaul a good nurnber of episcopi vagantes, 
already invested with the episcopal dignity be- 
fore leaving their own country, or at least pre- 
tending that such was the case, but who, never 
having been wedded to a diocese, t ceaselessly 
wandered about, exercising the funcùons which 
they held by right of consecration, without 
authority from any ordinary, and disturbing 
consciences, not yet well confirrned in the faith, 
by ail kinds of hazardous or heretical dis- 

1 Prof. J. 13. Bury has proved that diocesan bishops 
existed in Ireland from the rime of St. Patrick (CL Saint- 
Patrick, p. 180 and 375 s.); but, side by side with the 
episcopi paruchiales, there were monastic bishops ; eœch 
important, monastery possessed its own bishop (it thus 
more easily ireed itself irom diocesan jurisdiction). 
Monasteries rapidly increasing, if iollowed that bishoçs 
icœe6ed also " like files " (op. cit., p. 181). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
courses. 1 St. Boniface, in the course of lais 
missions, met more than one adventurer of 
this type whom he did hot hesitate to have 
condemned by the councils and the Holy 8ee.  
Such was bishop Clemens, genere Scottus, who, 
on his own account, rejected clerical celibacy, 
the treatises of Saints Jerome, Augustine and 
Gregory, and the laws of the councils, incul- 
cated Judaic practices to the Austrasian peo- 
pies, and taught that Christ descending into 
hell released ail those who were there confined, 
both good and bad.  Such another was one 
Samson xvho taught the uselessness of baptism 
for salvation. « 
In order to put a stop to these disturbers, 
the first Germanic general council, held in April 
74 z at St. Boniface's instigation, but in what 
place is hot known, began by decreeing that 
unknown bishops and priests should hot be 

x Consult on the episcopi vagantes: BRuo KuscH, in 
b*tes Archiv (XXV, p. 138 s.} and his preIaces in the 
cript. . Ierov., IV, p. 648-649, 691 s. 
 G. Kv, 8. Bo«dface, p. 98 s. 
 ONIF., Ep. 57, 59, 60.G. KLTH, 0p. C{t., p. 88 S.; 
.«UCK, op. ci., p. 557. 
 BON., Ep., 80. Cf. G. KURTH. p. 146. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianit" 
allowed to exercise the sacred ministrv until 
they had been examined in council.  The 
Council of Soissons (744) further enacted that 
the said strolling bishops and priests should 
obtain the approval of the bishop of the dio- 
cese.  The Councils of Ver (755),  of Mainz 
(813), 4 and of Tours (813)  issued still further 
edicts against them. The twenty-second canon 
of Mainz describes these nomads as " acîphali 
... hipl)ocentauris similîs, nec equi nec ho- 
mines" and threatens them with excommuni- 
cation and prison. 
Although the Irish are not mentioned in 
these texts, there can be no doubt that it is 
against them they are principally aimed. « 
Moreover, the forty-third canon of the second 
Council of Chalon-sur-Saône (813) expressly 
names them: "There are in certain places 

 CoNc. GERIICUI, can. 4 (3Lst, XII, 367). 
'amens du clergé parosl à l'époque carolingime (Rev. 
d'hist, eccl., XIV, 1913, 8-85). 
a CONC. VERNENSE, can. 13 (MANsI, XII, 583). 
 CONC. 3[OeUNTIACUI, Can. 22 (3LNsI, XIV, 71). 
« CONC. TLONENSE III, can. 13 (3[ANSI, ibid., 85). 
 ED. BIHOP, 6'paniM Symptoms (Jornal of l'he- 
logical Slmlics, VIII= 1907: p. 285), 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Scotti who pass themselves off as bishops and 
confer sacred orders; these ordinations are 
void, and all the more so since frequently thev 
are tainted by simony."  A capitula13,, dated 
September 83, which recapitulates ail the 
measures taken by preceding councils, bids 
every bishop to investigate if there be not 
some of these foreign clerics in his diocese, in 

' CONC. ÇAIIILONENSE lI, can. 43 (M.kNSI, XIV, 102). 
The sod of Celchyth (Chelsea 
cluded by ame also the ScotIi from sacred funcIio, and 
pronoued agait them a still m,,rc vigorous ostracism : 
"" Quinto interdictum est : ci nullus pcrmittatur de ffecrc 
Scorum lt alicltjUS dioecesi sacrum si nintcrium 
.usurpare, ueque et co.nsetire lict ex cro ordine aliquo 
attingere, vel ab cis accipcre in baptismo, aut in cebrationv 
msarum, vel clm Eucharisthtm opulo pebcre, quia 
iwcrtum esl nobis, ltde, et a ab aliquo ordinetur. Scinus 
quomodo in camnus praecipihtr, 
prcsbyterorum invadere temptaveril alius parochian, tisi cun 
consensu proprie (sic} epispi. Tanto lmgis CSpltenthtm 
est ab alicnis 
qulbus nullus ordo netmpolitanis, itec honor oliis habeatur "' 
(Can. 5 : HADD.X d SBBS, Cottnci, III, 581}. lrish 
pseudo-bishops were stiH present i Egland i the last 
following psage which occurs in a letter writte, about 
1178, by Richard. .chbishop of Cterbury, fo his 
st,ragans : " Sttnt et diebtts .isti8 quidom pseudoepiscopl 
Hiberniescs, altt scot.cac linguoe sinulanl barbariem, cure 
,« nullo intposilion -manus acceperi'lt, el,cpallv 
udm bti.slra,tl. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
which case he must send them home. 1 Charles 
the Great, himself, had ordered the expulsion 
of an Irish Friest about 795. The priest in 
question had caused scandal in the diocese of 
Cologne by eating meat in Lent. But, inas- 
much as it had not been possible to try the 
culprit on the spot, for want of sufficient evi- 
dence, the future emperor took the course of 
sending him to Offa, King of 1Hercia, who was 
invited to undertake to fonvard him to Ireland 
in order that he might be tried by his own 
bishop. 2 
Just as much as Charles showed himself 
severe to foreigners »vhose conduct was blame- 
worthy did he endeavour to protect those 
who from praiseworthy motives moved about 
or settled in his dominions. The Scottic monks 
of Honau having been deprived of a part of 
their property, Charles compelled the plunderers 
to restore without delay all they had seized; 
for the damage is done to the king when those 
under his protection are hurt (quia res pere- 
grinorum 1)roi)rie sut r«gis), and he adds in the 

 Cailul. Aqu9anense, Ezcerpt, 
XCVII, 364; MO, Capilul., I, 174). 

Cono.. .'2.3 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christi«nity 
saine decree, dated 772-774 : « Si quis eorum 
hoc non fecerit, recognoscat se regis Iraeceptum 
non obaudire : quia rcges Francorum libertatem 
dederunt omnibus Ieregrinis Scotorum, ut nullus 
raIiat aliquid de rebus eorum, nec ulla generatio 
Iraeter eorum gcncrationem Iossideat ecclesias 
eorun." i Einhard, his biographer, tells us that 
he loved the pcregrini, and welcomed them vith 
such kindness that soon their numbers en- 
cumbered the palace, and even became a tax 
on the country.  It is certain that to the 
influence of the emperor is due the sixth canon 
of the Council of Tours, in 813, which compels 
bishops to receive at their table foreigners and 
the poor.  In the writings of the period can 
be detected traces of weariness, perhaps even 
of jealousy, felt by his subjects for the marked 
favour the monarch showed these strangers.  

 IG, Diolon. I£aroli I, ed E. IvLB.C[R, 1906, r. 
77, p. 111. 
" Am«bat ereçriltoe et in s susciids maçnam 
bebat tram, adeo t lu»ue eorttm multitudo non 
on,osa " {EHD, .i Karol agni, 21 ; IG, St. 
II, 455). 
» Coc. Tos III, tan. 6 (Mst, XIV, 8). 
 E, Vita Kar., loc. cit.--" Venir te Britto vel 
Sto (8c) ad .illltm alltm Brittcm, ui intua iacct. 0 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
To protect the missionaries, monks, and earnest 
pilgrims, and to attract men of learning, such 
appears to bave been the twofold design of 
Charles and his successors in their regard. 

IV.--Pilgrims and Sham Pilgrims 
HE close ries uniting the Carolingian 
dynasty with the Holy See resulted in 
making easier and popular the pilgrim- 
age to Rome. Although the insular percgrini 
were far from being pilgrims in the ordinary 
sense of that word, as we bave already pointed 
out, nevertheless there were hot xvanting among 
them persons whose movements were governed, 
either from the very start or by chance, by a 
desire to visit some particular shrine. We knoxv 
that Saint-Gall, Bobbio and Péronne, after the 
death of their founders, attracted many of their 
Cadroë, in the tenth century, began his 
wanderings by a visit to the tomb of St. Fursa. 1 
Narianus Scottus elected to be ordained priest 
in the basilica of St. Kilian at Wurzburg. 2 But 
naturally it was the limina Apostolorum which 
formed the greatest attraction to the pious 
fancies of the inhabitants of the isles. It is 

 Vita K«droe, 19 (Boll., I. p. 476). 
*MAR. SCOT., ('ttt'o}.co. a(l on. 
CXLVI I, 786). 

1081 [;rx] (PL, 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
related that St. Molua, xvho died about 6o9, 
wishing to perform a pilgrimage to the tomb of 
the Apostles, came to ask leave of absence 
from lais toaster, St. Moedoc. When the latter 
urged the dilîïculties in the way, the applicant 
appears to bave forcibly expressed the warmth 
of his desire in the words: "Nisi vidîro 
Romain, cito moriar." i Thus Rome was fre- 
quently visited by Irish pilgrims ; but their 
neighbours, the Anglo-Saxons, shoved even 
still greater eagerness to enter the Eternal City. 
It is surprising to note with what enthusiasm 
and in what numbers English kings, priests, 
nuns and monks carried out this long pil- 
grimage. 3 
The letters of St. Boniface and of the Em- 
peror Charles give instructive details as to the 
habits of pilgrims and sham pilgrims in their 
day. It would happen that traders would join 

' Acta 8anct. Hib. ex cod. Salin., col. 480. 
 Vita Agili, 24 (MABILLON, 2o saec., p. 824); Vita 
Kiliani, 8 (id., p. 992) ; Vita Findani, c. 7. 
 If was coidered worthy of record in ¢he conicles 
if a year passed thout couca¢ion between Englnd 
and Rome (W.D.D. CuNe, The Cowth of Engl@h 
ndust a crce dung the early and m iddle oges, 
Cambridge, 1905, I, p. 85). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
the pious bands in order to benefit by the ex- 
emption from tolls granted to Filgrims; but 
this was not the worst offence committed. 
The Apostle of Germany, writing to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, implores him to restrain 
his flock, and nuns in particular, from an im- 
moderate loassion for œeilgrimages. He points 
out the drawbacks ; he even calls attention to 
the grave disorders so-called pilgrims of the 
weaker sex had committed in many of the 
cities of France and Italy.  Furthermore a 
council in 8I 3 disaloloroved of loilgrimages to 
Tours and Rome undertaken by clerics or lay- 
men for superstitious or profane reasons.  
Doubtless it was the exloerience of the material 
and moral dangers incurred on œeilgrimages that 
insœeired those verses tinged with sadness which 
an Irish hand bas traced on a MS. folio of the 
ninth century : " To go to Rome, much labour, 
little profit : the King whom thou seekest there, 
unless thou bring him with thee, thou findest 
him hot. Much folly, much frenzy, much loss 

I CAROL. 1[., Ep. 7 (PL. XCVIII. 907).--Cf. Conc. 
Mogunt. 753, c. b (MANSI, XII. 572). 
MG, Epist.. III, 354 s. 

Gaelic Pioneers oI tslarlstlanlty 
of sense, much madness [is it], since going to 
death is certain, to be under the displeasure of 
Mary's Son." 1 

t The two quatrains in old Irish are in the Coàex Boer- 
nerianus (A, 145, t}) of the Library of Dresden, con- 
taining t.he epistles of St. Paul in Greek with the Latin 
interlined,  ]IS. written by an Irish scribe of the ninth 
century. These verses bave been translated and published 
by J. H. BERNARD (Irish Liber Hymnorum, II, p. 191)and 
HITLEY STOKES and JoHN STR.çoEAN {Thesaurus P«tl«teo- 
hibernicus, Cmbridge, 1908, II, p. 29t}} ; cf. SERIVNER, 
lntroduc, fo the critcism of the New Teslarnent, 4th ed., I, 
p. 180. To see the point of the second quatrain one must 
know that in old Irish " teicht do tloim " {to go to tlome}, 
was an expression capable of being used as the eqativalent 
of teicht do écaib, " fo go to doath, to die." lqerein lies 
the connection between the two verses {D'.RBOI8 DE 
UBAINVILLE, in Rer. celt., XII, 1891, p. 154). 

V.--Some Reasons for the Irish 
Missionary Exodus 
O judge from the extraordinary number 
of emigrant clerics and monks one 
might suppose that the disciplinary 
regulations dealing with clerical or monastic 
stability were less solidly established in Ireland 
than on the continent. Such was not the case. 
The canons and religious rules are at one there 
as well as elsewhere in condemning the unsteady 
and the gadder. A synod, attributed to the 
rime of St. Patrick, says: " First it is one's 
own country one must teach after the example 
of the Saviour ; only in case it refuses to learn 
is it allovable to abandon it after the example 
of the Apostle." x In vhat way did the people 
of Ireland give an excuse for the application of 
this alternative ? That is a naatter into which 
we shall look later. The canonical collection 
known under the naine of Hibern«nsis contains 
a canon, also purporting to be of Patrician 

 HADDAN and STIYBBS, Coz{.cil8 a;d eccL docu;, rclot-i;q 
o Greot Erifo; ,u! [relod, II. par. 2. p. 

Gaclic Pioneers of Christianity 
origin, thus worded : " Patricius ait : nonachus 
inconsulto abbate vagus ambulans in Jd«be d«bet 
excommunicari." x Furthermore, the rules of 
St. Ailbe of Emly (î-c. 54 o) 2 and of St. Colum- 
ban (65) 8 are formal as to the necessity of 
enclosure for monks. St. Maelruain (792) and 
the »vise men of Ireland, consulted as to the 
emigration movement which, in the eighth 
century, drew such numbers o5 religious out 
of their country, disapproved of it. « Neverthe- 
less, the great number of monks in Ireland, 
examples such as those o5 Columban, Fursa, and 
Kifian, a real call to apostleslfip, a summons to 
a higher grade in ascetic lire, the pagans o5 
Gaul and Germany to be converted, the ig- 
norant to be instructed are hot these fit motives 
to ]ustify the distant enterprises o5 these tire- 

1 WASSEISCHLEBEN, Die lrische Kanonensammlung, Leip- 
zig, 1885, lib. xxxix, c. il, p. 151. 
 The Rule of ,ff. Ailbe of Edy, ed. 50SEPH O'NEI, 
str. 33, 48, 52, in Êriu : The Jo.url of lhe school of Irh 
Learning Dublin, III, p. 105 and 109. 
 " 3lortificatiot itur tripl est ratio . . . [teriio] non 
re quoam absolute " (g. Columba»ti, IX ; PL, LXXX, 
 CI. W. EES, Tbe Cuees of tbe Brith IsM, 
Dublin, 1864, p. 9 ; E. $. GwyNN and W. $. PURTON, The 
onstery of Tlght {Proce. of the R. [. Acd.. XXIX. 
sect. C., 191]. p. 183). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
less travellers, enterprises of vhich the results, 
in spite of the losses inevitable to all collective 
and prolonged works, remain a lasting glory to 
their country and their faith ? In addition we 
must hot forger that the Danish invasions, 
which gave all Ireland over to tire and blood 
for a period of tvo hundred years, greatly con- 
tributed to hasten the flow of emigration. It 
was about 795 that the Vikings ruade their 
first appearance on the Irish shores.  At first 
they sacked the monasteries established on the 
isles and along the northern and eastern coasts 
of Ireland. Iona,  Bangor, Moville  were the 
first to be attacked and were plundered on 
several occasions. 
Armagh, the religious capital of Ireland, vas 
pillaged three rimes in one year b¥ the Nor- 
wegian clfief Turgesius and was seized in 83z.  
Forannan, the Coarb of St. Patrick, was coin- 

The war of the Gaedhil with lb Gaill, ed. . H. TODD 
(Rer. Britan. medii aevi scriptores), London, 1867, p. xxxii- 
xxxiii. Cf. H. . LAWLOI, in his edition of The Pslter and 
lartyvoIogy of Ricemarch (Hcnry Brdshw Society), 
Lon4on, 1914, I, p. x. 
The war of the Gaedhil zcitb the Gaill, p. xxxv. 
Ibid., p. 7. 
Ibid., p. 9, 15 ; cf. STOKES and LAWLOR, Ireland and the 
Celtic Church, 6th edition, London, 1907, p. 259 8. 


Gaelic Pioners of Christianity 
pelled to flee bearing with him the venerated 
shrine of the national aposde. In spite of the 
resistance encountered in several places, the 
enemy soon invaded the island from the south 
and west ; they pressed in on ail sides, ascend- 
ing the rivers in their ships and mooring in the 
lakes of the interior, vhence they ravaged at 
their will churches and monasteries. They cap- 
tured or slaughtered the monks, carried off the 
relics, and flung the reliquaries and books into 
the water. 1 The great literary centres, Clonard, 
Clonfert, and Clonmacnois, the pride of learned 
Ireland, were ruined. The numerous foreign 
students, who had been attracted to these seats 
of learning, regained as best they could their 
own countries; the forsaken masters, unable 
to lire any longer by their great knowledge in 
the disordered island, also crossed the seas in 
great numbers, bearing vith them as their only 
baggage their most valued manuscripts.  

 Ibid., p. 13, 139, etc. ; cL E. O'CuRRY, Lectures oit 
the nauuscript ]tIatertda of alcient Histor!l Irish, Dublin, 
1861, p. 5. 
 CL The A*dlphonary of Ba»gor, ed. WARREN, I. p. xii, 
. ZE, Celtic Churcb n Britain ad Iteland {tral. 
A. 3leyer), London, 1902, p. 92.; . ZI»IR, Nes Archiv, 
XVII, p. 210-211 ; . TRACBE, O Boma 'obilis (Abhad- 
lu9en der baller. Akademie, I CI., XIX, p. 373). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
This abandonment of their country by the 
learned Irish, when their help might bave been 
ot: use in combating either materially or morally 
the invader, might lead to the belieI, as New- 
man remarks in his essay on he Danes and 
the Northmen in England and Ircland, 1 in a 
weakening of patriotism or a lessening of 
Christian charity. Nevertheless, observes this 
author, is it believable that the rate of their 
countrymen can bave been indifferent to most 
of these emigrants of the ninth and tenth 
centuries, whose own lire was one of complete 
self-sacrifice and holiness ? Was it hOt rather 
that they themselves were treated with in- 
difference by their fellow-countrylnen ? In sup- 
port of this last supposition, Newman cites a 
passage in the Life of St. Malachy wherein St. 
Bernard speaks of the Irish as barbarians. " It 
would appear that there had been between 
the cultured few and the great mass of the 
population such a mental disproportion as 

 . H. NEWLN, Historical Skctclles. London, 1896, III, 
p. 280 s. 
* See  discussion of St. Bern,rd's testimony in St. 
Bern«trà's Li]e of St. Malachy b)- H. J. L.WLOR, London, 
1920, p. 161-163. 


(;aclic Pioncers of Christinnity 
rendered impossible any cohesion in view of 
a common effort amid the general collapse of 
everything. Nearer to the events than St. 
Bernard, and better acquainted with Ireland, 
Alcuin, who does hOt rail to extol the doctissimi 
magistri of that country, 1 bas no hesitation in 
also describing the mass of the nation as verv 
barbarous (perbarbara).  Again, a document en- 
titled the Collofuy of thc î'wo Sages, having 
the appearance of a prophecy, but which, in 
reality, was drawn up subsequently to the 
height of the Danish invasions (it is of the 
tenth century) explains in its own fashion the 
trouble caused in the ranks of studious society 
by the coming of the invader by foretelling that 
in those days " disciples would no longer stand 
up respectfully in the presence of their masters."  
We must also add, if we are to believe the Four 
Masters, that, towards 845 , bands of Irish robbers 
were formed in the island, now given up to 
anarchy, who rivalled the Vikings in cunning 
and vandalism. « 

' _tLCUIN, .'p. 280 (MG, Epist., iv, 487). 
: _.tLCUI.N, Ep. 287 (OE., p. 446). 
a The Colloq«y of the two ,Sages, ed. rHITLEY STOKES 
(Rev. celt., XXVI, 1905, p. 43). 
« TH. OLDEN Chl'c]l oflreland, London, 1895, p. 172. On 

Gaclic Piocers of (:hristianitv 

Under these conditions, it vould seem that 
the only issue which remained open was the 
one indicated by the canon already quoted: 
De relinquenda vcl docenda laatria : " de relin- 
quenda postea, si non proficiet, juxta exemplum 
Apostoli." Besides, the migration of the learned 
Irish had started before the beginning of the 
Danish incursions; but these events, on the 
one hand, and the warm welcome, on the other, 
that awaited them from the Carolingian princes, 
gave it a further impulse. 

the act of violence of every kind committed in Ireland 
by the inhabitants, during the ninth and tenth centuries, 
see the suggestive passages of the Annals inserted by W. 
leeves in an appendix to his work, Prmate Collon's 
1-'isitalion, Dublin, 1850, p. 94-95. 


VI.--Ireland's ' Doctissimi Magistri' 

HROUGHOUT the bliddle Ages there 
was probably not a more barbarous 
period in Western Europe than the 
hundred years whlch tan from 65o to 75 ° • 
Classical and clerical studies had fallen into 
utter decay. With very few exceptions, even 
the best instructed laymen scarcely knew how 
to read and write. The clergy, indifferently 
skilled in Latin letters, despised the national 
tongue which was in truth still undeveloped, 
and were totally ignorant of Greek. A French 
¢opyist, who was about that time transcribing 
the Salic Law, mistook for Greek the famous 
Malbergic glosses it contains, and which in 
reality are words in the Frankish tongue. 1 
Charles the Great realised the necessity there 
was to improve this state of things. In order 
to do so, he summoned foreign teachers to 
Gaul: the Italians Peter of Pisa, Paulinus, and 

 See the Bibliolhèque de l'Ecole des Charles, LX, 1899, 
p. 09, n. 2. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Paul the Deacon, the Spaniard Claudius, the 
Anglo-Saxons Alcuin, Sigewulf, Witto and Fridu- 
gise. About the year 782 two Irishmen came 
to complete this academical group ; one of 
these was named Clemens (who is hot to be 
confounded with the heretic of that naine); 
the other, whose identification is more difficult, 
was either one of the Dungals or Josephus 
Scottus. The passage in thc Gesta Caroli l]lagni 
describing the arrival of these two foreigners is 
well known, x We will only recall its principal 
features which are picturesque and well describe 
the period and the persons with whom we are 
dealing. The two Scotti land in company with 
British traders. Their knowledge, both sacred 
and profane, is soon perceived. They them- 
8elves claim to be merchants ; they sell learning 
to those who will buy it (si quis salaicntiae 
cutffdus est, veniat ad nos ct accipiat eam). 
When Charles hears of this, he hastens to bave 
them brought to the palace, and then inquires 
on what conditions they vill consent to let the 
Frankish youths benefit by their learning. 

i Gesta Karoli 2tlagni, I. i {3IG, Script. I, 731; 
XCVIII, 1371-1373). 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
They do hot prove exacting, these men who 
are xvithout the necessaries of lire; all they 
require is food and shelter with the addition 
of eager pupils (loca tantum pportuna et animos 
ingeniosos, et sine quibus peregrinatio transigi 
non potest, alimenta et quibus tegamur). $o 
Clemens stays as professor to the school at 
the palace. Charles being dead, Louis the 
Pious maintains him in his duties. At the 
last he withdraws from them only to go to 
Wurzburg to die near the tomb of St. Kilian. 1 
His companion was sent to Italy, xvhere he 
taught in the monastery of Saint Augustine at 
We shall hot here undertake to enumerate 
ail the scholarly Irish who assisted in one way 
or another the work of literary renovation 
undertaken by the Carolingians. This has been 
skilfully done by Professor W. Turner in a 
paper called Irish q'eachers in tbe Carolingian 
R«vival of Learning.  We shall content our- 

a WILLIAt TUINEI, lrish Teachers in the Carolingian 
levival of ZearMng, p. 91. 
"- See TvEI, lrhsh Teachers, etc. ( The Catholic UniverMty 
Bulletin, IFasMtgton, XIII, 1907, 282-399 and 562-581). 
On ihe itttellecttml act.ivity of the Irish one may also con- 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
selves with recalling the names of the leaders of 
this movement, and with pointing out the 
centres from »vhich their influence principally 
Josephus Scottus, just mentioned as the pro- 
bable companion of Clemens, was a friend and 
disciple of Alcuin. 1 Poems of his addressed to 
Alcuin and Charles the Great bave corne dovn 
to us.  He also composed a commentary on 
Isaias »vhich frequently appears in the cata- 

$tl|t : 1 ° H. D'BOI$ DE 
lëtude de la littrature celtique, Paris, 1883, p. 366-390 ; 
2 ° V. SCt'ULTZE, Die Eededug der iroschottischen Mnche 
fïr de Erhaltug und Fortpfla«g der mittelalterlichen 
Wissenschaft {Centralblatt f. Bibliotekswesen, VI, 1889, 
p. 185-198, 233-241, 281-298); 3 ° H. Z£d:ER, Ueber die 
Bedeutung des irischen Elements Sïr die ittelllerliche 
Cultur {Preussische Jahrbficher, LIX, 1885, p. 27-59). 
This essay has been translated by J. E. EDIODS, The 
lrish element in medieval culture, New York, 1891 ; 4 ° l. 
IEAN, Les Cudes classiques au moyen âge pendant la 
période carolingienne in Mélanges rcligieux et historiques, 
laris, 1904, p. 257-281 ; 5 ° ]uNo ]IEYER, Learning 
lreland ir the fiSth century and the transmission of Letters, 
Dublin, 1913 ; 6 ° -. rENDRYES, Grammaire du vieil- 
irlandais, laris, 1908, p. i-x ; 7 ° ]I. hIAIITIUS, Ge8chichte 
der lateinischen Literatur dc8 Mittelalters, hliinchen, 1911, 
I, p. 315 s. et pa88im. 
1ALCULN, Epistolae {MG, Ept., IV, p. 32. 33, 40, 119, 
 MG. Poet. Lat. eri Crol., L 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
logues of mediaeval libraries. 1 But it does hot 
appear that his influence »vas considerable. 
The Dungals (for it is now pretty certain that 
several persons of that naine were in France 
and in Italy under Charles and his successors)  
are more celebrated. Traube differentiates rive 
individuals of the naine, all Irishmen. One, 
known to us through Alcuin, was a bishop; 
another, questioned by the emperor about the 
alleged double eclipse of the sun in the year 
8IO, replies in a dissertation which is more re- 
markable for its latinity than for its scientific 
merits. He also appears to bave had great 
need to barrer his knowledge for that without 
which peregrinatio transigi non potest, for he is 
constantly pleading poverty. He is with some 
probability thought to bave been the recluse 
of Saint-Denis, and also the person calling 
himself Hibernicus exul in some verses addressed 

 There existed copies of this work af Corbie, Lorsch, 
and Saint-Gall: cf. G. BECKER, Catalogi bibliolhecarum 
an[iqui, Bonn, 1885 {See the index}. See also MIo 
ESPOSTO, A Bibliography of [he La[in Wri[ers of Mediaeval 
Ireland {Sludics, II, 1913, p. 502-503}. 
2 L. TR.kUBE, 0 Roma nobilis, l.c., p. 332 s.; KL 
STECKER, Ein euer Dngal ? (Zeit. f. rorn. Philolo9e 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
to the Emperor. 1 A third Dungal was called 
by Lothaire to undertake in 825 the direction 
of the school of Pavia. It was he who opposed 
Claudius of Turin, who rcjected the veneration 
of relics and images. The fourth Dungal is 
more shadowy ; it is just known that he was a 
poet. A fifth Dungal seems to bave been the 
one who presented his library to the monastery 
of Bobbio in the eleventh century. 2 
Amont the benefactors of the learned, but 
necessitous Dungal, who withdrew to Saint- 
Denis figures Hildoard, t3ishop of Cambrai, 
(79o-816). 3 Cambrai appears to bave been, at 
the close of the eighth and the beginning of 
the ninth centuries, one of the favourite meeting- 
places of the Scotti. The bishops availed of 
their presence there to bave executed several 
works of compilation and calligraphy which 
rime bas preserxred for us. In this manner were 
transcribed for Alberic (T79 o) the canons of 

 Poet. Lat. aet, i Car., I, 396 s. 
 Cf. GOTTLIEB in Cettr«lblatt f. Bibliothekswesen, IV, 
 Poet. Lat. aevi Car., I, p. 411. The letter in which 
Dungal ab epi8copo quodam mtbsidhtm petit, c. 800-814 
(Ep. 2. 3IG, Epist., IV, p. 578), was, perhaps, also addressed 


Gaelic Pioncers ot Chrlstlamtv 
the Hibernensis contained in the Codex camera- 
censis, Nf. 69, the most ancient manuscript 
of that canonical collection. It also contains 
a fragment of a curious sermon in the Irish 
tongue. 1 It was under the episcopate of Hil- 
doard and or his church that were written the 
two sacramentaries (MSS. Nrs. I64 and I62- 
I63) the writing and ornamentation of which, 
in the judgment of Edmund Bishop, bear all 
the marks of vorks from Scottic pens.  Finally, 
the penitential composed for Hildoard's suc- 
cessor, Halitgaire (87-83I), betrays a Celtic 
influence which is certainly attributable to the 
presence of Irishmen in that city. 3 
Just as Cambrai; Rheims, Soissons, Laon, 
and Liège had colonies o Scotti, and at the 
saine time. Dunchad, at once a bishop and a 
grammarian, taught polite literature in the 

g H. WASSERSCHLEBEN, Die rische Kanonensammlung, 
p. xxx; A. MOLXNmR, Catalogue gnral dcs bltqu 
de France. Dpaemen, Paris, 1891, XVII, p. 257 s.; 
WLY STOS and J. SACHN, Thesaurus Paeo- 
herns, II, p. xxvi, 244-247. 
a ED. BISHOP, in Jourl of Theologal Studios, IV, 
1903, p. 414-415. 
a PAUL FOVnNER, Etes r s péniftiels {R«w d'it, 
d de litL rellgio«ses, VIII. 1903. p. 528 s.}. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
rnonastery of Saint-Remi of Rheims. Among 
his pupils, according to all appearances, he had 
Remigius of Auxerre and Gottschalk. x Traube 
also calls attention to a Latin poetry of a ver¥ 
unusual style »vhich, in the ninth century, »vas 
in fashion in the province of Rheims, and which 
looks as though imitated from Irish models.  
This saine scholar bas edited the ludicra of a 
certain Irishman d»velling at that rime at 
$oissons. 3 It »vas in this saine to»vn that 
Heiric of Auxerre met a bishop named Mark, 
natione Brito, but educated in Ireland, vho, 
after a long and saintly episcopate, resolved to 
go into exile (ultroneam sibi teregrinationcm 
indixit), and »vas then living as an anchorite 
in the monastery of Saint-Médard and Saint- 
Sebastian. From the mouth of this old man 
Heiric gathered details of the doings of St. 
Germanus of Auxerre in Great Britain, »vhich 
details he later incorporated in lis Miracula 

1 TRAUBE, in Neues Archiv., XVIII, p. 104 ; .I. EsPO$ITO, 
op. cit., p. 508. 
 MG, Poet. Lat. aevi Car., III, p. 710-711 (note). 
 Ibid., p. 690. 
 HEIRIC, Mirac. Germ«ni, I, 8 (PL, CXXIV, 1245} ; 
Cf. L. TIRAUBE, MG, Poet. Let. aevi Cr.. III, p. 422. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
But no town in this region was more at- 
tractive to the Irish than Laon. The most 
illustrious emigrant of the tirne, John 8cottus 
Erigena, 1 stayed there either in the court of 
Charles the Bald, who had norninated him to 
the rnastership of the palace school, or drawn 
there by the bishop of the town, his friend 
Hincrnar the Younger, or his countrymen vho 
were already established in the place. 2 No 
foreigner, if we except Alcuin, exercised a 
greater intellectual influence in Carolingian 
France than John 8cottus. At once theologian, 
grarnmarian, poet, he was held to be a toaster 
in them all. Among his principal disciples 
are reckoned Wicbald, who became bishop of 
Auxerre, and two of his fellov-countrymen, 
Elias, later one of the masters of Heiric of 
Auxerre and bishop of Angoulême, and, pro- 

 The author of the lire of St. Buo mentions John Erigena 
aud Dungal the Theologian (thcologum eximium) among 
the many Irish who were driven to cross the sea by the 
fur}, of the Dane8 (from WE., The Antiph. of 
I. p. xiii). 
 L. Tl.ktr3E, in Noues _4rchiv., XVIII, p. 10.4 ; O Roma 
rtobili,% l.c., p. 862-868 ; oeoet. Lat., p. 519, n. 
Scottus, see 5[, ESPOSlTO, op. cil., p. 505 s. 


Gadic Pioneers of Christianity 
bably, Martin the Irishman (- 875 ), one of the 
rnost learned representatives of the 8cottic 
colony of Laon. 1 This Martin compiled a 
Greco-Latin glossary which we still possess, = 
and, like his reputed master, he wrote Greek 
verse, s It is known that Erigena translated 
into Latin the works of the pseudo-Denys the 
Areopagite. The knowledge of Greek revealed 
in this work filled with wonder Anastasius the 
Librarian himself. He, on this occasion, wrote 
to Charles the Bald: " Mirandum est quomodo 
vit ille barbarus, in finibus mundi l)ositus, talia 
intdlectu cal)ere in aliamque linguam transfcrre 
valuerit." a Thanks to tlle Scotti, it became 
the fashion to talk Grcek at Laon. Bishop 
Hincmar attempted it; still better, he who, 
according to his uncle Hincmar of Rheims, was 

 L. 'rRAUBE, Poet. Lai., p. 519-520, n. 5 i fie ; p. 422, 
r. 2 £n fie ; p. 523. 
* It is Ms. ««4 of baon ; cf. Catal. çénér. des 2]las. des 
bibl. ,bl. d ép.. Paris, 1849, I, p. 234. E. 5IIR in 
Wotices et extraits des 2]las. de M Bi5l. nat. et aidres bibliofh., 
XXIX, 2nd. part, p. 1-230. Cf. L. GoUOAUD, Béptoie 
des fac-similéa des Mss. rla*ldas (Revue celtqtw, XXXVIII, 
1920, p. 
 Poet. Lat., III, p. 696 s. 
 ANASTA$IUS, Ep. 2 (PL, CXXIX. 739}. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
ignorant of his own language prided himself on 
speaking Irish.  
Sedulius Scottus reached the continent about 
tlae saine rime as John Scottus Erigena. He 
settled at Liège.  He was there retained 
by bishop Hartgaire (84o-855) as professor 
in the school of Saint-Lambert. In his 
great poverty his teaching obtained for him 
some resources ; moreover, he knew how, by 
graceful and kindly verses, to interest in Iris 
lot the most powerful personages of the rime, 
such as bishops Hartgaire and Franco, Charles 
the Bald, Lothair I and his wife Irmingard, 
Louis the German and others. 3 He, too, was 
acquainted with Greek, but in a lesser degree 
than John Scottus. 4 Like him, however, he 
was endowed with encyclopaedic knowledge. 
Grammarian, he comments Eutyches, Donatus, 

1 HINC.KLR, Opttsctdum LV capitulorum (SIRMOND, 
Hincm. Op., II, p. 547). 
s He arrived in this to between 840 and 851, accor 
to H. PEE, Sédulus de Liège, in Mémoires couronnés et 
autres mémoires publiés par l'Académie royale de Belgique, 
XXXIII, 1882, p. 20. 
 MG, Poet. Lat. aevi Carol., III, p. 180-183 ; 190-192 ; 
187 ; 195 s., ee. 
« S. HEL, Sedulius Scotlus, 5Ichen, 1906, p. 122. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Priscian a; philosopher, he explains the Isagoge 
of Porphyry; expounder, he writes his Collec- 
taneum in Epistolas Pauli"-; scribe, it is pro- 
bable he has left us copies from his own hand 
in the Greek Psalter (Nr. o[7 ) of the Arsenal 
Library in Paris, 3 and in the Epistles of St. 
Paul in Greek of the Cod«x Boerncrianus of the 
Library of Dresden (Ms. A. 45 ) ; finally, 
political writer, he composed or Lothair II 
the De rectoribus christianis, a sort of royal 
mirror.  In his poems he names several of 
his countrymen and companions: Dermot, 
Fergus, Blandus, Marcus, Benchell. Like him, 

 M. EOGER, Le commentariolum in artem Eutychii de 
,edulius ,cotlus (Revue de philologie, 1906 122-123) ; S. 
IELI..MANN, 0j0. cit., p. 105 S ; M. ESPOSITO, 0p. Cit., p. 505. 
" Cf. L. GOUG«UD, Les Chrétientés celtiques, p. 259. 
3 IONTFAUCON, Paleo. 9racca, III, 7, p. 236. 1everthe- 
less SA-UEr. BERER (Hist. de la Vulgate, p. 116) refuses to 
believe that this Psalter was ruade by Sedulius of Liege. 
Cf. L. GOUGAUD, Répertoire, p. 7. 
« 0 Roma nobilis, p. 348. Cf. L. GOUGAUD, Répertoire, 
p. 2. 
 Published by MA! and later by :[ENN, I D. 19-21. 
The poems which intersperse this work bave been pub- 
lished by TRAUBE, Poet. Lat. II1, p. 154-166. Cf. 
TIn«LLA, Das Augustinische Idealbild d. christl. Obrigkeil 
als Quelle d. Ffirstenspiegel d. ,.qedulius ,.qcotfis v. Hincmor 
cor Reims, Gvoisswald, 1916 (Dissert.). 


Gaclic Pioneers of Christianity 
they are grammarians, scholars, sages; some 
are priests ; they ask only to gain a living by 
their learning, for they are, as are all those 
arriving from Ireland, very poor. a Under this 
aspect they and others like them will specially 
interest us a little later. For the present let 
us seek to appreciate in a few lines the nature 
and value of this Irish learning, of which we 
have named the principal representatives in 
foreign lands, and to show what effect it pro- 
duced on their contemporaries. 

t Poet. Latin., p. 168 : 
• " Nos tumidus Boreas vastat--miserabil visu-- 
l)octos grammaticos presbiterosque pios ; 

Fessis ergo favens, Hartg.ari floride praesul, 
Sophos Scottig,.s suscipe corde pio." 

VII.--The Knowledge of Greek in 
Ireland During the Middle Ages 
E nust guard against exaggeration 
and anachronisms when treating o[ 
the mental culture of ancient Ire- 
land. It bas been proved that from the intel- 
lectual point of view the influence of St. Patrick 
left no effect on the Irish Christian com- 
munities. A century goes by, and, in the 
period illustrated by vhat bas been called the 
second order of Irish Saints, straightxvay arise 
on ail sides monasteries which quickly become 
centres at once of Fiety and science: Morille, 
Clonmacnois, Clonfert, Clonard, Bangor. t What 
instruction vas given in these cloisters ? What 
was the extent or value of the lectures of a 
Finnian of Clonard, of a Comgall of Bangor ? 
This is vhat it is hard to decide, for the Fersonal 

t L. GOUO.,,UD. L.ç ('brtiete. t.elliques, p. 7:1-78 
21. . 

Gaelic Pioneers ot C;hristianity 
work of these masters bas hot reached us. 1 
Judging by the writings of their disciples, and 
for examFles let us take Columba of Iona  and 
Columban of Luxeuil,  it is permissible to believe 
that it was possible to acquire in Ireland, 
about the sixth century, a thorough knowledge 
of the Sacred Scriptures, some acquaintance 
with the most celebrated Fathers of the West, 
a latinity usually correct, ornamented with 
abstract and rare words. Furthermore, some 
profane authors of Rome were read,  and a 
few acquired the art of writing Latin metrical 
verse, s 
This was enough to make Ireland appear 
to the peop|e of the seventh and eighth cen- 
turies as the privi|eged ark which prcqerved, 

1 There remains to us only a penitential bearing the 
naine of Finnian. Vasserschleben and O. Seebas identify 
this Finnian with the [ounder of Clonard. 
I The critics are ail agreed in attributing to him the 
hymn Allus prosator. It bas been published by ERNARD 
and ATKINSON, Irish ]Liber Hy»morm, I, p. 62 s. and in 
Revue cellque, V, p. 205 s. 
I Columban lins left a fuie, a penitentiel, leters and 
poems which will be round in MIGIE, PL, LXXX. 
« In Columban there are reminiscences of Persius, Virgil, 
Ovid, Horace and Sallust ; in Cellanus and Adamnan of 
« Columban bas left us hexameters and other verse. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
amid universal barbarism, the deposit of sacred 
learning and classical letters. Men then came 
frorn the neighbouring countries, frorn Gaul 
and Great Britain, to draw abundantly from 
this store. 1 Are ve to go further and claim 
that, even in those remote days, Greek vas 
cultivated with honour in the island . This 
is much more doubtful. It is true that we are 
informed that Columba, Columban, Adalïanan 
make use of Greek words, that Columba knew 
Iona in Hebrew had the meaning of the Greek 
«p,T«pd and of the Latin columba, that 
Adamnan expresses the saine linguistic doc- 
trine, 2 but do these supply evidence sutïacient 
to enable us to atïarm that Greek and Hebrew 
were currently taught at Iona and Bangor, and, 
with still greater ternerity, that " all the lïaonks 
who took part in the foundation of Luxeuil 
knev Greek ? "  Assuredly hot. Or, because 

1 Cadoc, Agilbert, Egbert, Willibrord, Aldfrid, Sulien, 
etc.., studied in Ireland ; cf. PLUd:M:ER, Bedae ls[, op., 
II, p. 196-197 ; L. GOUGAUD, Chré[. celt., p. 251. 
oe D'IktIBOIS DE ,UB_kINVlLLE, Cours de liftCature ccliquc, 
I, p. P91. M. IOGER has very well unravelled ail these 
questions in his fine work : L'e»seigliemen! des lettres 
classiques d'Ausone à Alcuin, Paris, 190, p. 268 s. 
SA. TOçG.kltD, L'hcllénisme au moyen âge Lcttres 
chrétietlles, III, 19-. 233}. 

Gaelic l'loneers oI GllrlStl'.nlty 
the biographer of St. Patrick, Muirchu Maccu 
Mactheni, who was living in 698, rnay have 
borrowed from the ,4ntiquities of Flavius Jose- 
phus, or may bave drawn inspiration from 
Apollonius of Rhodes,  or because Cumrnian 
quotes in his De controvcrsia paschali from a 
work which has been attributed to St. Cyril, 
does it follow that these writers were directly 
acquainted with these Greek authors in the 
original ?  The Greek words round in other 
works and the Latin texts written in Greek 
characters are hOt more convincing. Generally 
in all this we must see onlv a pedantic and 
purely verbal display, easilv obtained with the 
help of glossaries, or else the mere fancies and 
whims of pretentious or merrv scribes. 
It bas been written that " the religious and 
literary education of Ireland were two.parallel 
and simultaneous facts."-" In truth the great 

1WHITLEY STOKES, in Acodemy of 22 3Iarch, 1890, 
p. °-07 ; Cf. Rev. celt., XI, p. 370 ; IOOER, op. cit.. p. 266. 
 IOOEI, op. cit., p. 272. It is now kno»v tlmt Cummisn 
borrowed his quotation from a Latin work on the Paschal 
quest.ion falsely placed under the naine of St. Cvril (Cf. 
DR. KRUSCIt. Studien ztr christlich-mittelall. Clroroloe,/ie. 
p. 341 s). 
 }[. PIuv:,xg..5"éàoli*., de Lèffc. I ». 9. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
founclers of Irish schools were saints and their 
scholars were monks. The word " sage," so 
frequently employed in the Christian literature 
of the Scotti, is constantly applied to a person 
who is learned at once both in the sacred and 
profane sciences. To speak very strictly, there 
xvas held to be but one science, that of the Sacred 
Scriptures. It -,vas that science people came 
chiefly to seek from the Irish doctors. 1 The 
other branches of learning were only considered 
to be handmaicls or assistants to religious 
education. The liberal arts, prosody, poetry, 
chronology, were in principle believed to bave 
no other right to exist than in so far as they 
were useful in preparing the mind for the lectio 
divina, by which was meant the study of the 
Divine Thought as expressed in the Bible and 
handed down by tradition. 2 Beautiful hand- 
writing, exquisitely minute painting, two arts 
brought to the greatest perfection in Irelancl, 
also served, first and foremost, to multiply and 
embellish religious books, liturgical works, and 
the writings of the Fathers. 

 BEDE, Eccles. hisf., III, 7 (PL, XCV, 127); III, '2.7 
(ibid.., 165-166) ; V, 15 (ibid., 255.) 
2 OGE, OJ). Ct.. 1). °-7. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Now, such a system of education aptly 
qualified the Irish monks to work in the intel- 
lectual reform undertaken with the protection 
of Charles the Great. For, in fact, the Em- 
peror in no way aimed at the formation of 
mere humanists, of men devoted to the special 
and exclusive study of ancient literature: he 
simply wished to raise up priests and monks 
capable of understanding and copying Latin, 
and to furnish them with well written and 
faultless books for study and for the services 
of the Church. So the Irish taught the Franks 
orthography and grammar; 1 they commented 
the Scriptures, they brought from their isle 
some biblical and liturgical works; above all 
they ruade numerous copies of such works on 
the continent. We bave given some idea of the 
academic and literary works of these emigrants ; 
here is the place to say a word about their 
calligraphic and artistic skill. 

t To the Irish grammarians already mentioned, who 
taught on the continent in the ninth eentury, we bave fo 
add Dubthach {TIAçBE, Poet. Carol., III, p. 685}, Mal- 
sachanus {HAtrRÉAU, Singular h4st. et lift., p. 18}, Cuind- 
melus {HAuaÉ., p. 19} and a Scot dwelling af Milan 
(MG. Epist., IV. p. 201) : cf. /?et'. Bé,.. X, ]893, p. 193 s. 

Gaelic Pioneers ot Christianitï 
Catalogues of ancient librarie describe a very 
considerable number of manuscripts as scottice 
scripti; 1 but in the later middle ages and in 
modern times the scriptura scottica was con- 
sidered unreadable, and some Mss. in that 
writing were destroyed. Many others were lost. 
Nevertheless, without any exaggeration, we can 
reckon at one hundred the religious Mss. copied 
by Irish hands belote the end of the eleventh 
century and actually in the possession of con- 
tinental libraries.  Paleographers are agreed 
in recognising the influence of the scrittura 
scottica on the calligraphic reform of the ninth 
century; it largely contributed to the birth 
of the small caroline? But it vas still more 

t TRAUBE has drawn up a list of the manuscripts in 
Scriptura scottica from the old catalogues in Pcrrona 
,ffcottorum, p. 529-582. 
2 W. SCHULTZ, Die Bcdcutung dcr iroschottischen M6ch 
fur die Erhaltung und Fortpflanzung der mittelalterlichen 
Wissensc]aft, p. 85 s.; 233 s. 281 s. Cf. E. HULL, Early 
Cbristian lreland, ch. XXIV, lrish Libraries abroad, 
London, 1905. See my Répertoire des fac-similés des »iss. 
irlandais (Revue celtlqee, XXXIV, 1913, 14-37 ; XXXV, 
1914, 415-430; XXXVIII, 1920, 1-14). 
a M. PIOU, Manuel de Paléographie latlne et française, 
Paris, 1890, p. 43 ; A. GIY, Manuel de diplomatique, Paris, 
1894, p. 514. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
from the ornarnental point of view that the 
8cottic artists were imitated by continental 
scribes? Their plaiting, their interlacing, their 
initials shaped like anirnals or encircled with 
red points, their large plates brilliantly coloured 
and filled with groupings of the rnost fanciful 
and varied designs, all of these are to be round 
mingled xvith elernents of Anglo-Saxon origin 
(acanthus, volutes, branches, the hurnan form 
less rudirnentarily treated) in the style called 
Franco-Saxon, which began to flourish in the 
ninth century in the north of France, a region, 
as ve have seen, that was particularly rich in 
8cottic colonies. Any eye only slightly ac- 
quainted with the art of Irish rniniaturists will 
detect at a glance the ornamental motives 
borrowed [rorn it in certain initials in the second 
Bible of Charles the Bald (Bibl. Rat., f. lat. 2) or 
in the ornamental pages of the Gospels of Saint- 
Vaast at Arras, a rnanuscript cited by Leopold 
Delisle as the type of the Franco-Saxon school 
of northern France. z 

] Ptol, 0/9. cit., p. 75 ; A. IoLINIER, Le8 ïnanuacrila et la 
miniature, Pri8, 1892, p. 85. 
a ÇL L. GOUOAVD, tépertoire, passim. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Under Charles the Bald, a lettered prince, 
the compass of studies tended to enlarge. 
Dialectics and the study of Greek, hitherto only 
superficially pursued, ruade a great advance 
under John Scottus Erigena and his disciples. 
These really knew Greek, and they cultivated 
and ruade knovn the vriters of Greece.1 Whence 
came their knowledge ? The arrival in Eng- 
land of Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
who came from Tarsus in Cilicia, and of his 
companion Hadrian, who had received a Greek 
education, cannot bave been without influence 
on the progress ruade in the cultivation of 
Greek in Ireland. Intercourse with Plato, the 
Alexandrines and Origen developed the natur- 
ally speculative genius of John Scottus, making 
of him a bold thinker, even a too bold or.e, 
for he specially fell into the aberrations of 
The emigrants of this generation further- 
more largely benefited also by their residence 
on the continent from the point of view of their 
iatellectual development. Dungal of Pavia, 

1 bLn, ttIO ]SPOSITO, The Kowlcdçe of Greek in lrcl«td 
d«rig the Middle Ages (St[«dies, I, 191_'2, 665-683). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
John 8cottus, and perhaps Dicuil, 1 perfected on 
the continent their philological, patristic, geo- 
graphical, and philosophical learning. 8. Hel- 
rnann bas shown also that the scope of the 
studies of 8edulius Scottus was notably enlarged 
by frequenting Frankish libraries.2 But in spite 
of all this, if we collect the evidence given by 
contemporaries about the scholars of Ireland, we 
ascertain that these witnesses are conscious of 
being largely indebted to these Irish scholars for 
the development made in learning. In their 
eyes Irish knowledge is out of the common, and 
is worthy of the most pompous praise. 
The Venerable Bede appreciated highly the 
excellence of the traditions of learning and 
piety taught to the English children by the 
Celtic monks of Lindisfarne, as also the liberality 
with which the Irish welcomed to their own 
land all strangers thirsting for knowledge. 3 

a DICUIL, author of De mensura orbis tcrrae, was also a 
grammarian and poet. He crossed to the continent early 
in the ninth century ; but where he resided is hot -known. 
Cf. M. EseosITo, Dicuil, an Irish monk in the inth century, 
in Dublin Review, October, 1905, p. 327-337. 
I HELLMANN, Seduliu8 ,cottus, Miinchen, 1906, p. 103 s. 
I " Imbuebantur praecept)ribus Scottis parvuli Anglo- 
rum, una cure maioribus studiis et observatione disciplinae 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianky 
Other author8 can finct nothing les8 than the 
superlative to express their admiration for the 
learned ScottL  The Welsh biographer of 
Cadoc depicts his hero leaving to follow the 
lectures of these excellent masters from whose 
mouth he gathers " the sure of Western learn- 
ing."  Alcuin recalls the services rendered to 
Christianity bv the "docti««imi magi«tri de 
I-Iibc'nia, xvho brought about such great pro- 
gress in the churches of Christ in England, in 
Gaul, and in Italv."s The Monk of Saint- 
Gall describes Clemens and hi8 companion as 
men " incomparably instructed in letter8 secular 

regularis " (Bede, EccL Hist., III, 8). " Erant ibidem 
eo tempore multi nobilium simul et mediocrum de genCe 
Anglorum qui, tempore Finani et Colmani episcolaorum, 
relict insula patria, vel diviuae lectionis vel contineniioris 
vitae grati illo secesserant. Et quidam quidem nox se 
monasticac conversationis fideliter manciparunt, lecliono 
opeïam darc gaudehant, quos omnes Scotli libentiime 
suscipiengo., victum cis quotidianum sine pretio, libros 
quque ad legendum et magisterium grattitum praebere 
eurabant " (Ibid., HI, 
 " Pcritissimi Scottorum " (NENNIUS, HiSt. Brittonum, 
C. 15) ; " Quidam peritssim£ Scotti " (Vita Samsonis, 87, 
ed. \«WTE, La Vie de S. Samson, Paris, 1912, p. 188}. 
 Vita 8. Cadoci, 7 
Llandovery, 1853, p. 86). 
 p. -°80 {MG. Epist.. IV, 37). 
» 65 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
and sacred."  One of the representatives of 
German erudition in the ninth century, Ermen- 
rich of Ellwangen (-874), in his letter to abbot 
Grimoald, extols "he Irish isle " aide nobis 
tami lumDzis .]zbar advenir," " because, bes'ow- 
ing philosophy to the small and the great, she 
fills the Church with ber science and ber teach- 
ing." = At the beginning of the eighth century 
8". Aldhelm of 8herborne beheld wi'h a jealous 
eve he roops of pilgrims of science xvho sailed 
to the shores of Erin. a After *he Danish in- 
cursions it is ,he inverse phenomenon »vhich 
Heiric of Auxerre depicts in a dedication to 
Charles the Bald preceding his 17ita Germani. 
He represents almost all Ireland "ransporfing 
herself with ber troop of philosophers to French 
shores. He adds: " The more an Irishman is 
learned and clever, "he more decided is he to 
"his voluntary exile, where he goes to answer to 
the wishes of a new 8olomon." * 

' " Viros et in saecularibus et in sacris scripturis incom- 
pnrahilHer eruditos " (IIG, cript., II, 
a Epist. ttà Grim. ttbb. (MG, Epist., V, p. 575). 
t " Citr, inquttm, ttiberttia, quo catervtttim isthbc Iectores 
clasaibus advecti confluunt, ineffabili quodam privilegio 
c.ffcratt«r... " (Ep. 8, I)L, LXXXIX, 94). 
 P. CXXIV, 11813. 

Gaelic l'ionctrs of Christianitv 
Enough has now been said, making allowance 
moreover for the oratorical tone of this testi- 
mon)r, to appreciate in what high esteem 
foreigners held Irish science in its heyday. Let 
us now investigate more intimately into the 
wandering existence of out travellers, observing 
them first during their passage from the natal 
isle to " the place of their peregrination"; 
then during the period of their exile. This will 
give us an opportunity to examine the estab- 
lishments destined to serve as their asylum on 
the continent. 

VIII.--Travelling Methods of the 

ATTENBACH has quoted, in the 
memoir called Die Congregation dcr 
Sckottcnkl6stcr in Dcutsckland, l a 
curious passage in the Chroniclc of Jocelin of 
Bralelond which he thought presented a living 
picure of the habits of an Irish pilgrim in the 
late raiddle ages. - But it is difficult to decide 
whether in this particular passage he author 
is referring to Irish or $cotch pilgrims. Scotti, 

 WA'r'rErBACrt, in Zcitschrift fïr christliche Archaeologie 
und Kun8t, 1856, p. 21-80, 49-58. This paper has been 
translated into English. V. EES bas enriched it with 
very many and appropriate notes which double ifs valuo. 
This translation appe»red in the Uler Journal o]Archaeo- 
logy, VII, 1859, p. 227-26 and 295-818. eeves caot 
be, as is often asserted, the translator, for we read in  
letter of iris dated 1891 : "" I don't know a word o] Genan " 
(LADY ROUSON, Lire of W. Reeveæ, Biæhop of Down, 
Dublin, 1898, p. 178). Watnbach's work deals chiefly 
xfith Irish foundtions of the later middle agcs. 
 JOCELIN OF BR.kKEND, Chro-nicon, 85, ed. J. GAGE 
OKOWODE, p. 85 {Cam.den Soc.}, ndon, 180 ; ed. 
T. ARNOLD {Monorials o] anf-Edund's Abbey, 1. 
p. 252 .) { Rer. BriL medii aer$ Scriplorc.). ]»ndon. ]890. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
from the pen of an English writer of the twelfth 
century, may well mean either Scotch or Irish ;i 
consequently this quotatlon from the Chronicle 
can bave for us only the value of a simple 
analogy. So we prefer to gather here and there 
from other documents the traits which are 
fittest to bring before us most clearly the con- 
ditions under which the Irish travelled and were 
received on the continent in the early middle 
As a rule they set out in bands. One such 
hand vould often consist of twelve persons. 2 
It would indeed have been imprudent to under- 
take alone a long journey abroad in those 
stormy and violent rimes. 3 If they did not 
think they were numerous and strong enough, 
monks and clerics wilfingly joined caravans of 

x TH. ARNOLD, op. cit., p. XLII, and t.he late lranslator 
of the Chro»icon, .bi. L. C. JANE 'he Chroicle of Jocelin 
of Brakelond, mo»k of Sai»d-Edmondsbury, London, 1907, 
p. 226) both translate Scotti by " Scotch." 
 See W. REEVES, The Lire of SI. Columba written by 
Aàamnan, Dublin, 1857, p. 299-303. 
* On the precautions fo be taken, propter frequentiam 
latroci»tii, on setting out for a journey, see letter 44 of 
Einhard (MG, Episl.. V, p. 132) and letier 104 of Lupu of 
Ferrièros (1V. p..ql). 

Gaelic Pioncers of Christianity 
traders; this is what Clemens, the pedlar of 
wisdom, and his companion dict. 
I do hOt know where J. v. Pflugk-Harttung 
round that emigrants usually reached Gaul by 
way of Britanny and the Loire. x No text proves 
this. On the contrary, several expressly bear 
witness that the Irish sailed first to Great Britain, 
crossed that island, and then took ship again 
from its southern coast, probably from some 
Kentish port, in ortier to cross the Channel in 
its narrowest part.-" I bave, moreover, shown 
that this, in its main lines, was the route 
followed by St. Columban. 3 It was also the 

1 IFLIyGK_IL_ItTTUNG, The Old Irish on the Coidiacnt, 
f.c., 77. The articles o[ H. Zimmer on the 8me Hne8 
al [iled to convince me. Sec H. ZOE. Ueber direcle 
Homlclsverbindu»e»t lVt«tllien» it lrhold ira Altertlti»t 
»d friihot Mit¢clal¢er {Sitzungsberichte der k. Preussischen 
Ak«td., 1909. p. :]63-400, 430-76, 553-580}. 
 Vulgnius {MABILLO, Acta Seine't. O.S.B., 4 ° 
2, p. 541), S. Cadrè {Boll., March, I. p. 476} embark from 
the Kentih coast. 0n the port of Richborough 
porlus), ner Sandwich, Kent, as  place of embarkafion 
for the continent, sec BEDE, Eccl. H'ist., I, 1 and the notes 
of PLUtER {II. p. 
a Un poing obscur de lïHnéroire de S. Colombon volonf en 
Gaule (A»males de Brefog»te, XXI, 1907, p. B27-B48). 
Cf. Neues Arehiv (XXXII, 518-519) and A»olccta Bol- 
l»tdio»o (XXVI. 17 ). 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
itinerary chosen by Clemens $cottus, 1 by St. 
Kilian,-" by Rombault, 3 and by several others. 
Agilbert, the future bishop of Paris, returning 
frein studying the Holy $criptures in Ireland, 
followed no other route. « Furthermore, Thierry 
of Saint-Trond tells us that frein the rime of 
St. Rombault (eighth century) this xvas the 
road constantly followed.  Doubtless it is te 
the likeness of the Latin names for Great 
Britain and Britanny, and te the belief in a 
vague racial kinship, that several modern writers 
bave been led into thinking that there was 
frequent intercourse between Ireland and 

t ,, Contigit dues Scottos de ttil)eruia cure mercatoribus 
Brittanis ad litus Galliae devenire " (Gesta Ke«roli, I, 1 ; 
MG, Script., II, p. 731). 
- " Ad vicinam Scottiae Britanniam pervertit ; quam non 
longa navigatinne praeteriens, Galliam attigit " (Pe«ssio 
Kili.ani ; Boll., July, II, 615). 
n " lE Scotia] in Britanniam ex mo gentis transmeat.. 
Inde transtnisso Morinotam fto, qua bx issinus transitus 
maris est, in Gallias defertur " {TIEmy OF S. TIO,,-D, Vita 
R«»oldini, I, 3 ; Boll.. July, I, 215). 
 BEDE, Eccl. Hist., III, 7 (PL, XCV, 127). 
 Sec note 3 above, and t.he marginal note on folio 33 
of the Cedex Palatino-V«d.c. Nr. 880 of the Chronfcon of 
[ARI.4.1':US SCOTTUS, reproduced in MG. Script., V, p. 4,81 
{PL, CXLVII, 602-603). The Scot expclled by Charles the 
Great for breaking, about 795, the rule of Lenten abstinence 
is sent back te Ireland by way of thc kingdom of Mercia. 


Gaclic Pionccrs ot Christianity 
Armorica. As a matter of fact the direct com- 
munication between the two countries was 
rather rare. 1 
Once landed on the Boulogne or Ponthieu 
coast, 2 the ïrregrini would take the most varied 
directions, either in accordance with pre- 
arranged plans or by following the inspiration 
or circumstances of the moment. Certain mon- 
astic traditions, accepted by the Celts, lead ts 
to believe that those who had adopted wander- 
ing out of pure asceticism most frequently 
travelled on foot. This form of mortification 
was in fact largely practised ; it was even 
compulsory for certain monks. The Rcgula 
cufltsdam partis ad ntonachos, which we think 
is of Ccltic origin, considers an abbot un- 

 J. LOTH, L'Emilr«tton. bretonne en Armoriw, Paris, 
1888. p. 161. s. Samuel Berger is. in my opinion, wrong 
when he writes: " Now, Britanny was, more than any 
other land, a spiriIual colony of lreland ;its bishops had 
monasteries for their sees. . . is it hot natural to adroit 
ttmt Irish [BibHc«l] texts radiated ïrom Britanny on the 
neighbouring countries  " (Hst. de la lZtlgate, p. 49). 
For my part, I do hot believe in this radiation, 
 Vulganius disembarks at. the mouth of the Authie, St. 
Boniface af Quentovic, wl-,ere also Tlteodore of Canterbury 
embarks, St. Cadroë lands at Boulogne, Cltaidoc nd 
Fricor on the Ponthieu coast. 

Gaclic Pioneers of Christianitv 
mortified who, in his displacements, consents 
to rnake use of a horse or a car. A vigorous 
monk who did hot thus travel on foot rendered 
himself, according to the same rule, liable to 
excommunication.  The Ordo monasticus de 
Kil-ros is hot in any degree less severe. It 
concedes only to an aged abbot (seniculus) an 
equiculum ad itcr faci¢udum.: Moreover, ve 
formally know that St. Aidan, a St. Chad,  and 
St. Kentigern  went their mission rounds on 
foot. St. Wilfrid, going at the age of seventy 
to Rome, covered the whole land portion of 
his journey on foot in 7o4 . To abstain from 
driving or riding was held to be an apostolical 
tradition,  and was sometimes put on the 
saine lêvêl as continence and abstinence, s It 

 Regula cuj. potrls od monachos, c. 20 and -°1 (PL, 
LXVI, 01 ). 
"-Orào (PL, LIX, 565). 
a BEDE, Eccl. 1ti8$., III, 5 (PL, XCV, 123). 
 lb-id., III. °-8 (ibid., 168). 
 JOCELIN OF FU:'ESS, Vita Kotegeri, 19, ed. A.P. 
FORBES (The Historians of 8cotland, Edinburgh, 1874, 
p. 192-193). 
« EDDIUS, Fifa Wilfr,i«la, 50-54; cf. Cit. PLUISOeR, ed. 
of BEDE, II, p. 320. 
 See the reïerences in preceding notes. 
« Cf. Can. h-iber)., in ]-IADDAN" and STIJBBS, I, p. 108-109. 
Il is stated in the Welsh laws of Ich,wcl ihe Good hat, in 


Gaclic Pioneers of Chlistialfity 
is probable that the insular ascetics and mis- 
sionaries conformed to this custom. The texts 
do hOt say so very categorically; 1 but the 
extreme fatigue of which several travellers 
complain, 2 the poverty of most of them, the 
destitution to which, from want of baggage, 
they are seen to be reduccd, a all these indica- 
tions incline one to think that as a rule 

certain trials, there must be ubtained the evidence anti 
oath of persons " continentes et abstinentes, id est a 
muliere, a carne et equitatione '" (OWEN, Acient Zaws and 
Instilutes of lVales, London, 18-$1, p. "796 and 828). On this 
ascetic custom, see my paper Anciennes h'aditions ascétiques, 
I. Z'usage de coyager t) pied (Recue d'ascétiqu.e et de myslique, 
III, 1922, p. 56-59). 
 Epistoloe Scottorum Leodienses, in Nouez Archiv, XIII, 
p. 60-6 ; [G, Epist., IV, p. 195 s.; Ep. 3 : " Siquidem 
infirmitate pedum prepeditus cure suis fratribus ire lomam 
non potest. Beati critis, si tali venerabili serti opem 
pietatis impendatis .... " Vita gil$, c. 24 (Boll., July, 
I. 25). 
2 SEDUL. SCOT., Carmi-aa II, III (THAUBE, Poet. Zet., 
III, p. 168) : 
"' Fessis ergo favens, Itartgari floride praesul, 
Sophos 8cottigenas suscipe corde pio " 
Read the curious aceount of the pilgrimage fo the tomb of 
St. Heribcrt of Cologne of the elaàicus ScoRicus Duntae, 
in the V.ita S. Heriberti (MG, Script., XV, 2nd. part, 
p. 1245 s.). He is miraculously cured : qui or$-us nale 
tripes, hune bcc bipes coepit discurrere. 
a Epistvoe Scot. Zeod., 1.c., passim. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
they used no other form of locomotion than 
walking. 1 
Great indeed was the distress of those who 
migrated both belote and after the Danish 
invasions. 8uch persons as Clemens, Dungal, 
8edulius are reduced each moment to implore 
the pity of a prince or noble for themselves or 
their countrymen in want. They realise that 
they may be burthensome to the society which 
receives them: " Nos crgo paup,'r«s et 
uini oncri forsitan ct fastidio vobis z, ideamur 
esse proptcr ostram multitudincm ct importuni- 
tatcm et clamositatem." "- But hunger, thirst, 
fatigue, the inclemency of the weather roughly 
try them and compel them to groan aloud2 
The better to reach the heart, these men of 

1 St. Columban, neverthcless, will accordixag fo the custom 
of the rime travel by boat on the Rhine, and St. Samson 
would use the car, " quem de Hibernia apud se appor- 
taverat " (Vita Sansois, 47, ed. FAWTIER. 10. 148). 
2 DUIOAL, Ep. 4 (MG, Episf., IV. p. 580). 
 Epist. Scot. ]Leod. Ep. I, " In magnis augustiis coarctor, 
immo vivere non possum in tali miseria, non habens ad 
manducandum et bibemlum, lfisi pessimum panera et 
minimanl particulam de pessima cervisia." The Irish 
monks who overran the continent often applied t.he terre 
" miser " to themselves (Cf. W kTTE_N'BACtt, in Ree. ('elt., I, 
18ï0-1811. 1 . °-63). 

Gaclic Pioncers of Christianity 
letters give vent to their woes in Latin verse.* 
A Scottus threatened with chastisement escapes 
from Bobbio and takes refuge at Saint-Zeno in 
Verona; there, in poverty and loneliness, he 
begins to regret the cloister of Saint Columban 
and writes the following distiches : 
Nocte dieque gemo, quia sure peregrinus et egens : 
Attritus febribus nocte dieque gemo. 
Plangite me, iuvenes, animo qui me colebatis : 
Rideat hinc quisquis : plangite me, iuvenes. 
Magne Columba, roga dominum ne sperner ab ipso : 
Quo reddar tibimet, magne Columba, roga... 
Another, at Soissons, chilled by the cold, envies 
the good tire at which Carloman, son of Charles 
the Bald, a monk in the saine town, warms 
himself : 
Karlomanne, tuis arridet partibus ignis. 
Nos veto gelidos urit iniqua hiems, a 
This one going to Rome is attacked and slain 

t Ail had hot this resource : " Non sure grammaticus 
ncque sermone laino peritus," says an Irishman settled 
at Liège (Epist. Scot. Leod., Ep. ). 
 Lamentum R[efugac] citsdam (MG, lPoet. Zat. aet'i 
C«rol., III, p. 688). 
 Poet. Zot., l.c., p. 690. 
7 6 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
by brigands on the banks of the Aisne.' That 
other, returning from the Eternal City, is 
stripped by robbers of a part of his clothes. 
In detail he enumerates his losses in a letter 
to Franco, bishop of Liège, hoping, says he, 
that the prelate will from his charity make good 
the damage done : " Vincat vestra pictas rapto- 
cure inpi«tatcm .... "'"- 

t FLODOA1RD, Hist. Eccl. Eçm., IV, 48 (MG, Script., Xlll, 
p. 597). 
 Ep. Scot. Eeod., Ep. 4. 

IX.--Charitable Institutions for the 
Benefit of the 'Scotti.'--' Monas- 
teria Scottorum.' 
N the foregoing pages, we have named 
several continental bishot, s who were noted 
for their zeal in helping the Scotti: St. 
Faro of Meaux, St. Didier of Cahors, Ansoald 
of Poitiers, Hartgaire and Franco of Liège, the 
bishops of Cambrai. Other prelates occupied 
themselves in getting restored to them estab- 
lishments for assistarme or for permanent refuge 
which Irishmen had Iounded for their Iellow- 
countrymen at places Irequented by them, and 
of which they had been unjustly despoiled. 
These were hospices specially destined to shelter 
travellers and pilgrims (hos])italia Scottorun), 1 
or monasteries open only to Scotti who vished 
to end their days in retreat on foreign soil 
(nonasteria Scottorun). Several establishments 
served at the same time for both these purposes. 
During the Merovingian epoch we see St. 

 ('f. Dn Cange. s.r. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Bertin causing to be built by four persons who 
had corne from Great Britain a refuge for the 
poor and for travellers. 1 Mention is also ruade 
of the construction, about 7z5, of a x«nodochium 
at Moutiers-en-Puisaie, south-west of Auxerre, a 
for the British who were going as lilgrims to 
Rome? But these establishments were destined, 
the first, for the poor and for strangers in 
general, the second, for Britons only; it would 
allear that we must look for the earliest ex- 
amlles of monastcria Scottorum, properly so 
called, at Péronne and at Honau. 
It will be recalled how Charles the Great was 
energetic in restoring the monks of the Alsatian 
cloister to the possession of their stolen pro- 
perty. The document which orders this restitu- 
tion gives reason to believe ttlat ttlere exlsted 
already, prior to 772, several similar establish- 

x FOLCUII% Gesta «bbat. S. Bcrtini (MG, Script., Xlll, 
 Canton of Saint-Sauveur-en-Puisaie (Yonne). 
 Gesta episcop. AufisModorensium (MG, ScripL. XIII, 
895). Lupus of Ferrières informs us tha Charles the 
Great had given Alcuin the cell of St. Josse, in Ponthieu, 
hot far from Quentovic, to be ruade  hospice for travellers 
(Ep. 11, lXIG, Epist., IV, p. 21). This hospice rnay bave 
been used hv the Scofti landing in those parts. 


Gaelic Foneers ot (hrlstianity 
ments, t The Emperor worked hard to increase 
the number of these pious and charitable 
foundations, which were greatly to his taste. 
But the disrepute into which the Scotti fell 
towards the close of his reign suddenly stopped 
this development. The Irish were even dis- 
possessed of their institutions, and the tlsurpers 
hot only refused to receive travellers who 
sought shelter in them but drove out the monks 
who had lived there from childhood and re- 
duced them to beggary. * We learn these facts 
from a canon of the council of Meaux in 845 
which distinctly demands the reorganisation of 

1 Cf. HAUCK, op. cit., p. 305. We have quoted above 
the phrase we have here in view "... ut nullus rapiat 
oliquid de rebus eorum nec ulla generatio praeter eolm 
generationem posideat eccles.rts eo'u " (MG, Dipl. Jïr. 
ed. E. 3IOLBAOHER, I. No. 77. p. 111). 
a Cone. lIeldense, e..1,0 {Mansi, XIV, 827-828): " 
monentla est regi magnitudo de hospitalibus, quae tempore 
praedecessorum suorum et. ordinata et. exculta fuerunt, et 
modo ad nihilum sunt redacta.. Sed et hospitlia Scotorutn, 
quae sanct homines gentis illius in hoe regno eonstruxerunt, 
e rebus lro sanctitate sa acquisitis ampliaverunt, ab 
eodem hospitalitatis oflïcio funditus sunt alienata. Et non 
solum supervenientes in eadem hospitali non recipiualur, 
verum etiam ipsi, qui ab inîantia in eisdem lotis sub 
ïeligione Domini tnilitaveru,at, et exinde ejicintr, et. 
o_titim mendi«.re coguntr." 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
the 8cottic hospices and their restitution to 
their lawful owners and administrators. At 
this council were present Wenilo, metropolitan 
of Sens, Hincmar of Rheims and their suffragans, 
Rudolf of Bourges, and some other bishops. 
The Fathers of the Council begged for the 
intervention of the king. That king was Charles 
the Bald, the best protector of the Scotti after 
Charles the Great; he was hot deaf to this 
appeal, and, at the Diet of Epernay (846), he 
confirmed the measures taken at Meaux with 
a view to the re-establishment of the bosl>italia 
Scottorum. 1 
The saine beneficial episcopal intervention 
appears again in a letter of uncertain date 
addressed by the bishops of the provinces of 
Rheims and Rouen to Louis the German, very 
probably at the rime of his invasion of western 
France (858). 3 The drafting of this letter is 
attributed to Hincmar of Rheims. In it the 
bishops again claire the return of the Scottic 
establishments to their former use; then, in 

 Praef. Colc. Meld.. (Capit.. Karoli II. MG. Leffes, I, 
p. 390-391 ). 
Cf. E. LAVI.,E. Histoirc de Fr«llc«. P, vis, 1903. 
p. 380. 

Gaclic Pioncers oP Crisdanitv 
addition, the.v reclUeSt the monarch to see to 
that the administrators submit themselves, as 
is prescribed by the canons and capitularies, 
to the ]urisdiction o the bishops, who, they 
add, wiil in return show them the most kindly 
From the middle o the ninth century, 
Irish monasteries and hospices multiplied chiefly 
outside the Frankish kindom o the west. 
rhe Scottic proessor and poet Donatus 
havin become bishop of Fiesolc, ives, on 
2oth Auus, 850 , to the monastery o Bobbio 
a church in the district o Piacenza, and to 
it was afterwards added a hospice for Irish 
pilrims.  In 88t, Charles thc Fat erected in 
Rhaetia a monsterium Scottorum at Mount- 
Saint-Victor, the saine place to which the Irish 
anchorite Eusebius had wkhdrawn twenty-nine 
years belote. Two years later the saine prince 
ruade over to this monastery the revenues of 
one of his villas or the maintenance o a hospice 

'PL, (:XXV[, lî. (iii. L. LALLE[AND, Hisloire «le la 
elmt{té, Paris, 1906, III, ç. 
I G. ToxoNI, Ospizio pei l)«lh.grb; irladesi. Srenna 
Piacentina, 1891; Cf. R«te hiMoriq««. XLVIlI. 1892, 
p. 128-121.. 

Gaelic Pimecrs of Christianitv 
de8tined for twelve pilgrim8 on their way to 
Rome. 1 
In the tenth century the German monarchs 
studded their dominions with similr rounds- 
tions. We find the Irish estblished bout 945 
t Sint-Michel-en-Tiérche nd t Wulsort 
in the Ardennes.  The existence of Waulsort 
ws ocilly recognised bv  châtrer of Otto I, 
king of Germny, under dte 9th September, 
946. According to tht document, the bouse 
ws to remain the property of the 8cotti, nd a 
monk of tht ntionlity ws to be mde abbot 
so long s there remined one in the community. 
This bbey ws specilly devoted to sheltering 
foreign trvellers, whence it received the nme 
of monasterium percgrinorun, a 
The Scot Cadroe, abbot of Waulsort, having 
been called to Metz by bishop Adalbero I (929 - 
964) in order to restore the monastery of Saint- 
Clement (953), was replaced by the Irishman 
Forannan. He negotiatedwithTheodoric, Adal- 

1 RATPtRT, Ca88 8. Galli (3[G, Script., ll. 78). See 
the cditor's note. 
: Boll., ffanuary, IL 749-751. 
aMG, Dipl., I, p. 160-161; Cf. L_HVF.. Elude sr 
l'abbaye de IVaulsart, Liège, 1890, p. 11. 

Gaclic Pioneers of Christianitv 
bcro's successor, the annexation of the neigh- 
bouring abbey of Hastière to his monastery.  
Adalbero Il (994-oo5) showed himself not less 
inclined than his predecessors to confide to the 
islanders the monastic establishments of lais dio- 
cese. " Scotti et reliqui sancti percgrini sempcr 
sibi dnlcissimi habcbantur," remarks Constantine 
of Saint-Symphorian, his biographer." At that 
rime the abbey oi Saint-Clement had at its 
head the Irishman Fingen. Adalbero begged 
him to undertake also the government of Saint- 
Symphorian, which had been destroyed a long 
time before, probably by the Normans. Fingen 
restored that bouse and brought it Mthin the 
Scottic influence. Two charters, one from Pope 
John XVII, the other from the emperor Otto III, 
ordered that only monks of Irish origin should 
be received there as long as that country sup- 
plied sufficient recruits.  Fingen ended his 
career as a reformer at Saint-Vanne of Verdun. 

 VIa sec*,,.da Foram,a»,i. c. 2 (Boll., April, III, 827). 
- I'-io Adolberonis II (MG, ;cripL, IV, 668). 
 l-l. CAL.MET, HisI. de la Lorrai,e, Preuves, p. 396, Priv. 
OIo»is, "... legia denuo nostra munificentia donamus 
arque confirmamus ; ea videlieet ratione, ut abbas primus 
nomine Fingenius, .ltibe*afiensis natione, quem ipse prae- 
libatns episcopus [Adalbero] tune temporis ibi constituit, 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Seven of his coml3anions had accomlzanied 
him there.  
At this saine lzeriod Cologne also lZossessed 
an imlzortant Irish colony. In 975, Archbish°lz 
Eberger " immolated " to the Irish in sempitcr- 
hum the monastery of Saint-Martin." Marianus 
$cottus, who dwelt in this cloister from Io56 to 
Io58 , bas left us a Ckronicl" 3 the imlortance 
of which for the local history of that time is all 
the greater because the documents dealing 

suique succesores, l=[ibernenses mnaehos habent, ql- 
diu sic esse poterit ; et si defuerint ibi monaçhi de H bernia, 
de quibuscumque nationibus senper ibi monaehi habean- 
[tr . . ." See verses 110 and following of the Mesin poem 
written by an Irihman. published },- ]çILE i Nct«t's 
Archiv.. V, p. 437. 
a Gesla Episeop. ['irducsittm fin 'AL3IET. p. 202 ; 
'«ril., IV, p. 48). _k strauge lilurgica] eomhination was 
in praellce af T,,ul under tlle bishoprie of «.r«.«l ( 99 ). 
This prclate maintained a mmbcr of Greek and Scolic 
cle-ies who dai]y ga/hered in his oratory to perfo]m the 
divine praises at different altars. nore patrio. ( DC, 
Vila S. Gerardi, 19; MG, Script., IV. 501). Gerard's 
bioapher reports, in chapter 22 (p. 508), an incident 
which testifies to the keen regre one of these Seotli felt 
a the bishop's death. 
 M.çR.xUs SCOTTUS, Chroieon, ad an. 997 [CMLXXV] 
(PL. CXLVII, 780). 
 The Cod. Palalino-I't«ticanus Nf. 880, s. XI, is in the 
aetual handx'iting of Marianus (er. G. W.TZ. Peocm. 
Chroie., in PL. r.c.. ,',,I. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianitv 
xvith the origin of the abbey of Saint-Martin 
have been, it is thought, falsified in the eigh- 
teenth century by a monk of that bouse, Dom 
Olivier Légipont. 1 blarianus gives the names 
of the abbots of 8aint-blartin from 97 to 
Io6I: they are ail Irish. 2 The Chronicon or 
Catalogus .4bbatum Sancti Martini Coloniensis 
says also that, under the abbacy of Kilian 
(986-Ioo3), Eberger, with the consent of the 
emperor Otto III, gave various goods to this 
monastery " in usus monachorum peregrino- 
rum" ;  but this detail is probably invented, 
the Catalogus being precisely one o the docu- 
ments which alls under the suspicion o b.aving 
been forged. In the days o abbot Elias, 
another monastery of Cologne, that of Saint- 
Pantaleon, also passed in its turn into the 
banals o the Irish (m42). « 

*OPPEt.XN, Kritische 8tudien zur tltere»t lï61ner 
Geschichte (lVestàeutsde Zeitschrift f. Gesch. u. Kunst, XIX, 
1900, p. 2ï1-344). See the supplementary note of D. 
]D'RsIER BERLIÈRE in Archives Belges, .kpril, 1901, p. 89-91. 
It has also been published in the Revue Bénéd., XVIII., 
1901, p. 4o-4-427. 
 Chronic., l.c., col. 780-787. 
a 5IG, Script., II, p. 21. 
 M_RA.-. SCOT.. Ctron., ad an. 1064 [.MŒELII]. l.c., 
cd. 781.. 

Gaelic l'ioneers of Christianity 
In the eleventh century, ttle cozti were 
wclcomed even outside their own monasteries 
with very 8pecial interest. They were con- 
sidered to be saintly people, and the work which 
they executed with their pens or their hosts 
contributed to make their visits appreciated. * 
Under the abbacy of Richard (to34) they 
were received with extreme kindness at Fulda. 
A special warming-place and dormitory were 
reserved for their use, and during their stay 
the abbot watched over them with paternal 
care. 2 At that period, it is true, there were no 
longer to be seen in the bands of emigrants 
those just]y suspected adventurers whose bold- 
ness of manner and speech the founder of 
Fulda had had to suppress. On the contrary, 
one might often see an ascetic »»'ho, escaping 
from groups of his countrymen, would corne to 
some cloister in the far recesses of Germany to 
beg for the shelter of a narrow cell where he 
might dwell alone till death. 

t Vita Mariani Ratispon., 2. 11 (Boll., February, Il, 367). 
t " Hic [Richardus] etiam multos so.ncios Scottigenao 
gentis viros in commune fratrum habebat, atqtte caminatam 
et dormitorium ipsis seorsum simul et inter fratrcs suh- 
ministrabat sicu pater." (IARIA.X'. ,.qCOT., CIt'«,., ad an. 
13IXXXIX]. L,'.. ,',,I. ïse. 

X.--The Recluses 

ROM the very beginning of monasticism 
in Ireland, a strong tendency is notice- 
able towards the lire of an anchorite. It 
was not unusual to see pious cenobites, in the 
very bloom of manhood or its decline, retire 
" to the desert " or " to a hard prison of stone," 
as their biographers express it, in order to give 
themselves up entirely to absolute contempla- 
tion.  This is x»hat, among others, St. Fintan 
of Rheinau (878) did. Captured and carried 
off by the Vikings, he escapes from them in the 
Orkneys, trusts himself to the ocean, lands 
among the Picts, accomplishes in fulfilment of 
a voxv a pilgrimage ad limina, then, on his 
xvay back, takes up his abode at the monastery 
of Rheinau, near to Schaffhausen, and there 
passes in a cell the remaining txventy-txvo years 
of his mortal lire.  

 G. T. STOKES and H. J'. L.«wLo, Ireland ond the Cellic 
Ck«rcb, London. 1907, p. 178 ; VHITLEY STOKES, Tke 
3lartyrology ofOegus, London, 1906, p. 45, 320 ; "¥HITLEY 
STOKES, Cuimmin's poem on the Saints of Irela»d (Zeit. f. 
,.eltische Pkilol., I. 1897. p. 59-7:¢). 
ï T'ila Fidt.i. 7. 10 (MG..çcril,t.. XV, 51-505). 

Gaelic Pioncers of Christianity 
During the cleventh century this practice of 
asceticism increased. Fulda in turn shehered 
two recluses : Animchad (T lO43) x and the 
chronicler blarianus himself, who dweh in 
seclusion there from lO59 to lO69 .2 By the 
orders of the abbot of Fulda and the bishop of 
Mainz he was transferred to Mainz where, 
under the saine conditions, he closed Iris earthly 
exile.  At Paderborn, in Westphalia, it is the 
Scottic Paternus who allows himself to be 
burned to death in his " clausola " when the 
city was destroyed by tire, after he had spent 
many years in seclusion in it (lO58). 4 
When the namesake of the recluse of Fulda 
and Mainz, Marianus $cottus of Ratisbon, 
arfived in Bavaria, about lO75, he met a 
fellow-countryman called Murcherat (Murchera- 
tus), apparently a Latinising of the royal 
naine of Leinster--Murrough--now Anglicised 
into Murphy, who »vas also dwelling there in 
solitude. 5 One of his travelling companions, 

3Lk. SCOT., Cbron. (1.c., col. 78.1,-785). 
Ibid., col. 786. 
1Md., col. 789. 
Ibid., col. 786. 
l'ile lla,'ioï Rotisp., c. 3 (l.v., p. 368}. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
John, was also seized, after a while, with a 
desire to lead an anchorite's lire. He set 
out from Bavaria, penetrated into the vallev 
of the Danube, passed through Melk, where 
Henry II, the Saint, had raised a tomb some 
time before to the Irish saint Coloman, assas- 
sinated in oI2 at Stockerau, a and finally round 
at GSttweig, in the March of Austria, the idem 
cell in which he expire&"- 

The first intention o this second Marianus 
Scottus was to make the pilgrimage to Rome; 
but the welcome he received at Ratisbon, the 
advice of the hermit Murcherat, and the offer 
that was ruade to him of the priory of Weih 
St. Peter detained him and his companions in 
the Bavarian city. They formed the original 
core of a congregation which, despite some 
interruptions and many vicissitudes, was to 
continue almost to our own day, the so-called 

 Passio 8. Cholomanni (MG, Script., IV, 675). 
 Vilalarianl, c. 3 infi?e (f.c., p. 368). Let us remember 
that in the preceding pages menlion has already been ruade 
of three other Irish recluses : Arnanus at Cahm, Dungal 
af Saint-Deuis. and Eusebius at Mount S:dnt-VicIm., in 
tbc neia'hb(,urh,,od ,ff R5this (Vorarlhcrg). 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
8cotch Benedictine congregation (Schottenkon- 
gregation) of which the Superior-General was 
the abbot of Saint-James of Ratisbon.  
The building of Saint-James's was started 
about o9o with the assistance of the burgrave 
Otto and with contributions from the neigh- 
bouring gentry and rich burgesses o[ the citv in 
order to provide shelter for the Scottic monks 
whose number had rapidly increased.  A letter 
written by the growing colnmunity to Wratis- 
law, King of Bohemia, bas reached us. The 
monks ask this prince for an escort for mes- 
sengers they propose to senti into Russia. * 
This mission was accomplished. The bio- 
grapher of Marianus reports, in e.ect, that the 
monk Maurice penetrated as far as Kiev; 

 Cf. Kirchenlexicot, at the word: ,ç«hotte»tkl6sfer, 
X, col. 1905-1907. 
* THomis HIED, Codex historico-diplomaf&us cpiscopatus 
dbonens, Ratisbonae, 1816, Nrs. 178 and 18 (I, 166, 
171) ; FERD. J.NNER, Gescbicbte dcr Bischfe von Regens- 
burg, Regensburg, ] 883, I, 566, 570, 602, 603 ; G. A. ENZ, 
Bcilrge zr Gescldchte de Schottenabtei St. Jakob nd des 
Priorales Weih St. Peter in Regelsburg (Studen u. Mitlheil- 
ltngen airs dem Bened4eti,wr u. des1 Clcrcienser-Orden, XVI, 
1895, p. 64 s.} ; Regesten, b., p. 250 s. 
a PEZ, Tbcs..nccd., VI. I, p. 291. Cf. HENZ. Regcslen 
p. 252. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
that the king and nobles of the country pre- 
sented him with precious furs »vith which 
he loaded several chariots, and that he re- 
turned, sale and sound, to his monastery under 
the protection of traders of Ratisbon. The 
narrator adds that it »vas with the price 
tained for these furs that the cloisters and roof 
of the monastery were built. 
We bave now reached out proposed limit. 
It is undoubtedly a reasonable one. The 
:oundation of 8aint-James's o: Ratisbon opens 
a new period in the history of the monastic 
establishments of the Scotti on the continent, 
a period far less interesting, far less bustling 
than the one we bave described. Henceforward 
Germany is the only countrv towards which the 
ride of religious migration flows, and the number 
of emigrants grows ceaselessly fewer. The 

 Vita Mariani, c. 4 {I.c., p. ;69). Ou the Irish monks 
at Kiev, see L ABI:.I.t)I'S study : ]I,tisi qrlanàzcy w 
Kijmvqe (Bullctln internat, dc l'Académie des sc'iences de 
Cretcoviv, No. 7, July, 1901, p. 187). A. P?,RCZEROSKI'S 
work, Poczathi clrystjanimnu w Polsce  Misya lrlandska 
(The Beginnings of Chris!ianily in Polad and lhe Irish 
Mission ). ext. from Amua ire de la Soc. dcs sciences de Posen, 
1902. would appear to be ounded, to ]udge by M. Louis 
I,éger's report of it in ihe Rcv. celt. (XXVI, 1905. p. :89), 
,,n d«ument8 th,ql are often of qnestiouahl,, x aine. 

Gaelic Pionecrs ol Christianitv 
$cotch, under cover of the actual sameness of 
their naine in Latin (Scott 0 with that of the 
old Irish, succeeded in passing themselves off 
as the real founders of the monast«ria Scottorum, 
and gradually displaced the Irish in those 
places where German monks had hot already 
installed themselves. 1 



The Place of Irish Saints in Conti- 
nental Religious Folklore 
] ]ANY a territory of continental Europe 
preserved traces 
IVI has of the passage 
across it of Irish saints. The abbey 
of Luxeuil, founded by St. Columban in 585, 
was, in Merovingian rimes, as we bave already 
shown in Part I, a veritable nursery of abbots, 
bishols, and missionaries. Two of the most 
celebrated monasteries of the early middle ages, 
the two most important centres of the learning 
and the intellectual work of the æeriod, Bobbio 
and Saint-Gall, owe their existence to Irishmen, 
Bobbio to the saine Columban, and Saint-Gall 
to the first disciples of St. Gall, who bas left 
lais name to a town and canton of the Swiss 
The diocese of Wurzburg llaced itself under 
the patronage of another Irishman, St. Kilian ; 
in a like manner Lower Austria adolted St. 
Coloman as its patron. The tomb of St. Fursa 
at Péronne drew numbers of his fellow-country- 
men to that hallowed spot, which, as |are as 
7 97 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
the tenth century, was still known as Perrona 
For close upon four hundred years Irish 
saints, filled with burning missionary zeal, 
laboured incessantly to spread the Christian 
aith and monastic discipline in Gaul, Belgium, 
Alsace, in Alemannia, Franconia, in Italy, along 
the course of the Danube, and down the valley 
of the Rhine. 
Without doubt Ireland bas continued to be a 
land of high Christian renown; but at no 
period of ber history, hot even when she lay 
quivering under the appalling cruel W of the 
Penal Laws, did she more ully deserve the 
name of tbe Island of Saints, whJch bas been 
bestowed on ber. 
In the first part of this vork we have re- 
traced the story of the wonderful activity of 
the Irish on the European continent rom the 
sixth to the twelfth century, a story which in 
its main features is well knovn. 1 It will now 
be of interest to go in search of such traces as 

a See W. LEvISON, Die Iren und die friinkiache Kirche 
(tlistoriache Zeitschrift, CIX, 1912, p. 1-22), OUt Chrétientés 
celfiqees, Paris, 1911, ch. V, Les eapansions irlandaiaes, 
tnd pra (Part I 1. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
these strangers bave left in the traditions and 
customs of the people of the districts they were 
wont to overrun and of the localities in which 
they founded lasting establishments. Pilgrim- 
ages and devotions still carried out in the 
sanctuaries which preserve, or claire to pre- 
serve, their relics; prayers in which their 
names are invoked; local sayings in which 
thcir names appear; country fairs and feasts 
in which their memory is ierl0etuated, such 
will be the marrer brought together in the 
following pages. 
The late Miss Margaret Stokes devoted ber- 
self with zeal to seeking for traces of the insular 
peregrini in France and Italy, and she has 
blazed the trail for later archœeologists and 
loyers of folklore. Her two books, Six Months 
in the .4pennines in Search of the Festig«s of 
Irish Saints in Italy (London, I892 ), and OEhree 
Months in the Forests of France ; a Pilgrimage 
in search of I/'estiges of the lrish Saints in France 
(London, I895), may daim the merit of resting 
on an abundant and picturesque documentation 
obtained on the very spots ruade illustrious by 
the presence of the saints of Ireland. Never- 
theless, thev are open to the criticisnx of being 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
somewhat cawiciously comioosed ; and, above 
all, of an inclination to Fut too frequently mere 
legend in the llace of history. True it is that 
it would be imlossible to handle such a subject 
of religious folklore as the one with which we 
are dealing without taking stock of its legendary 
characteristics ; but, while giving Iull value to 
the influence legend bas llayed in the develop- 
ment of lOlular beliefs, devotions, and customs, 
we must guard against llacing it on the saine 
level with historic truth. It shall be our care 
to avoid running on that rock. 


I.--The Three Great National Saints 

HE three patrons and wonder-workers 
to whom, from the very beginning, 
Ireland consecrated a most special 
worship of love are St. Patrick, the apostle of 
that island, the virgin of Kildare, St. Brigid, 
and St. Columcille, the abbot of Iona. 
St. Patrick had travelled through Gaul, 
but it was only in Ireland that he carried 
out his apostleship. His cult vas, however, 
introduced to continental countries b t' the very 
first missionaries from be¥ond the seas. His 
natalis, on the I7th Match, a birthda¥ which 
bas remained, above all save one, sacred to 
every son of Erin, was celebrated as early as 
the seventh century at Luxeuil, at Péronne, and 
at Fosses in Belgium; at Echternach, Corbie, 
Nivelles and Reichenau probably from the 
very foundation of those abbeys. The cêle- 
bration of the ITth March tan be proved at 
Trèvês and at Landévennec in Britanny in the 
tenth and êleventh cênturies.  

x ViVa. Gcrtrudis (MG., qcripl. ver. »erov., II, p. 462-463) 
(for Fosses) ; L. Gouoçt'D, art. Celtirtuc (lihrgie), in th 

Gaelic Pioaers oi Ghr, suamty 
When we realise the antlquity and wide 
spreading o thls llturgical devotion, we are 
the less surprlsed that popular piety should in 
its turn bave seized upon this oreign saint in 
order to make o him one o its most beloved 
heroes. Many churches and monasteries boasted 
that they possessed some o his relics : Saint- 
Pierre o Rheims, Lisieux, Issoudun, P,ffers in 
Switzedand, Lumlar near Lisbon. The village 
o Neubronn, hl a league rom Hohenstadt, 
near Aalen (Wurtemberg), possesses a statue of 
the saint which is greatly venerated throughout 
the district. 1 In Upper Styria, * Patrick is in- 
voked as protector of cattle; elsewhere prayer 
is said to him to obtain the cure of the deaf 

DicL à'archéol. by Cabrol et Leclercq. col 3005 (for Luxeuil, 
livelles, Reichenau, Landévennec} ; ]3R. Kluscrt, Chrono- 
gche8 au,ç Hanchriflen (Neue8 Archh,, X, 1885, p. 92) 
{for Corbie}: T CaIvndar of St. Willibrord, ed. H. A. 
'I0 (U. Bradshaw Society}, London, 1918, p. 5 (for 
Echternach} ; P. IESES, Der Trier Eealkalender (T- 
achea Arvhlv, Ergnzungsheft XV, 1915, p. 8}; Kco 
lEn, Verse fro», a chapel dedicated Iv St. atrick af. 
Péronne (Êriu, V, 1911, p. 100}. 
t A. IRLINGE, As Schwoben : Sagen, Legd, Ab- 
gMuben, Sit&n, Wiesbaden, 1874, p. 67-68. 
* RICH.D DEE, Votive Weihgen des kathollechen. 
Volks in SvddeulscMond, Braunschweg. 190, p. 88. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
and dumb. 1 According to a Breton saying, 
whoever kills an earwig with his finger gets 
the saint's blessing.  This, no doubt, is 
tributable to the undying belief which insists 
that the apostlc of Ireland drove out of that 
island snakes and all poisonous creatures. 
Irishmen held strange opinions about their 
saints. They had hot the least hesitation in 
assigning to them the most extraordinary func- 
tions and in conferring on them the very first 
places in the ranks of the Blessed. Thus the 
belicf that St. Patrick would be called upon to 
judge ail Irishmen at the last day took firm 
root among them. 8 As to Brigid of Kildare, 
Irish devotion »vent so far as to confound ber 

t See The Tablel of 29 March, 1890, p. 486, and Notes and 
Qucries, 7th Series, X, 1890, p. 9 and 97. 
 " An hini a lac'h eut garlostcn gand e vis 
En eus bemaoz zant. Patris." 
(E. EAULT, Diclons et proverbes brctons, in Mluine, XI, 
col. 310). 
s Book of Armagh, fol. 8  (Cf. The Triparlite Lire of St. 
Patrick. ed. V'HITLEY STOKES, London. 1887, p. 296); 
Liber Angeli, bid., p. 355 ; Adatnan's Second Vsion 
(Revue celtique, XII, p. 420); Homily on St. Patrick in 
t.he Lebar Breac (Trip. Lire, p. 477) ; Ninine's Prayer (The 
Irish Liber Hymnorum, ed. ]3EI%NARD and ATKrNSON 
L»ndon, 1898, II. p. 86); Triparl. Lift. p. 81, 258-261. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
with the Mother of God : her devotees addressed 
her as "the Mary of the Gaels" and even 
" Mother of Jesus," 1 
The saint of Kildare enjoys a remarkable 
popularity through ail western Europe. There 
is no doubt, moreover, that this popularity is 
due to the very intense propaganda carried on 
in favour of their national saints by Irish monks, 
missionaries, and peregrini vherever they pene- 
A German writer of the thirteenth century, 
Nicholas of Bibra, scoffs at certain whims of 
these foreigners, and notably at the exaggera- 
tions into which they were led by their un- 
limited admiration for the saints of their race. 
He writes thus of the 8cotti who in his rime 
still dweh in the abbey of 8aint-James at 
Erfurt : 
Sunt et ibi $coti, qui, cure fuerint bene poti, 
$anctum Brandanum proclamant esse decanum 
In grege sanctorum, vel quod Deus ipse deorum 
Brandani frater sit et dus Brigida mater. 

Sec Chrét{entés celtiqu«s, p. °61 ; (}. L. I:I.IIILTON, T/e 
,S'orces of the F«te* oJ the tpostlea «td A»drcas (*-lOdelt; 
Loi:g«:ge Noies, XXXV, 1920, i . 304}. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Sed vulgus miserum non credens hoc fore verum 
Estimat insanos $cotos simul arque profanos 
Talia dicentes...1 
The Erfurt satirist goes on to say, if you 
challenge these Scotti to explain their quaint 
theological marvels, they would simply allege 
in their justification the words of the 8aviour : 
" Mater mea et fratres mei bi sunt qui verbum 
Dei audiunt et faciunt" (Luke viii, 20, and 
they would close the discussion with : 
Sic Brigidam matrem, Brandanum dicite fratrem, 
Nam perecerunt quecunque Deo placuerunt. 
The festival of St. Brigid was kept on the 
Ist of February in the eighth century at 
Reichenau and at Echternach, in the ninth 
century at Nivelles and perhaps at Rheinau,  

FlScR (Gchichtsquellen der Provinz «chsen, I, 1870, 
c. 1550-1565, p. 90. CL 'INTER.FELD, Deucbc Dichter, 
p. 420-430. 
 See my article Celtiqucs (litr9ies), Dt. Archéol. cited, 
col. 8005 ; Thc C«Icnd«r oral. 
L. DELIS, lm.oire r d'«cis cr«»entaircs, p. 3ll ; 
the fragment o[ the clendr contined in the Codex 
henaug. r. 30 of Zurich wvs brought from ivees to 
Rheinau by St. Fintan. 
lartyrolium (Anzger fl ch-wefzeriscvGechhfe, New 
serin, VI, 1890-1898, p. 186-141); 
Vcreiehn der 8t. Galler 
»ehrfte, Beuron, I018, p. 110. 

Gaelic Pion«crs of Christianity 
and in the tenth century at Saint-Gall. In 
order to follow the development of ber cult, 
whether official or merely popular, it is only 
necessary to let the eye roam over the map of 
Irish establishments on the continent. 1 It will 
then be seen that wherever Brigid had been 
venerated there had been either an Irish religious 
foundation or an Irish colony. 
In the district of Saint-Orner, a Scotti zone 
of influence, - the peasants, "to serve St. 
Brigid," go to a church possessing a statue of 
the saint (at Wavrans-sur-l'Aa, at Givenchy- 
le-Noble, at Leubringhen, at Norbecourt, at 
Lumbres, at Saint-Denis of Saint-Orner), when 
they need ber help to obtain the cure of their 
cattle. 3 The Wallon peasantry also corne to 
invoke the saint's aid for their live stock in the 
chapel dedicated to ber which looks down on 
the town of Fosses, which place itself owes its 
origin to an abbey founded there in the seventh 
century by the Irish St. Foillan. The pilgrirns 

 Sce map af the end of my Chrétie»tés celtiques. 
 Chrétientés celtiques, p. 149 ; W. LEOE$o.x, Die Iren, p. 5. 
8 A communication marie by the abbé E. Guibert, author 
of a pamphlet on the local devotion fo St. Brigid in the 
8,int-Omer district, published a S, int-Omcr in 1{}21. 

Gadic Pionccrs of Christianiy 
present wands to be blessed, and then with 
them touch the sick animals. 1 Liège, where 
an Irish colony existed in the ninth century,  
possesses a church under the name of the saint 
of Kildare. 3 
The building of the parochial church of 
Saint-Brigid (now destroyed) at Cologne goes 
back to the period in which the abbeys of 
Saint-Martin and of Saint-Pantaleon fell to the 
Scotti (tenth and eleventh ccnturies).  This 
church of Saint-Brigid actually adjoined the 
first of these abbeys.  Four other parochial 
churches and seven chapels of the diocese of 
Cologne are dedicated to the virgin of Kildare, 
under whose protection the local farmers place 

 ('AIEI., Car«cfdrisfiquçs des cM»le, p. 140. On the 
other churches nd chapels decated to St. Brigid in 
Belgium, sec T. A. WALSH. Iriah Sainte n Beium 
(Eccle81a81al «view, XXXlX, 1908, p. 133-134). 
 Chrélienlé8 celt., p. 165, 289-290. 
 JOSEPH BR.kSSINE, Analecla Leodit'nsia, Liège, 1907, 
p. 82. 
 Chrétienlés celt., p. 170-171. 
s K. H. SCH.R, Kirchen und Chrlslodu»* i* dem 
splr6miscvn ud frhmitlelalterlhe» &-bln (A mtlen d. 
hist. Ver. fl don Niedhein, XCVIII, 1916, p. 111). The 
church of Saint-Martin of Cologne posses relies of lice 
saint. She was venerated aL Trèves from t,hc tenth centu" 

o 7 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
their domestic animals. 1 At Mainz there were 
a chapel and benefice of 8aint-Brigid. They 
were attached to the ancient church of Saint- 
Paul, which is described as being a Schotten- 
kirche. The chapel stood in the Altenraiinster- 
gasse. - 
Speaking of the collcgiate church of Saint- 
Pierre-le-Vieux, Grandidier writes in his Histoire 
dc l'dglise et des véqucs de Strasbourg : " On the 
Ist of February the relies of St. Brigid of 
Kildare are reverenced there. In our own day 
they still call certain 'cantons' which belong 
to the collegiate church the dîmes (tithes) of 
Saint-Brigid, not because, as some papers ap- 
pear to assert, they were given to the church of 
Honau by that saint, but because the Scotch 
or Irish who came to dwell in it brought there 
from their own land a portion of her relics, and 
this led the people to honour with the naine of 
Saint Brigid the property they consecrated to 
her. The canons of Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux [at 

x L. KoITH, Die Patrocinien der Kirchen und Kapellen in 
Irzbistum IK5l,, Dtisseldorf, 1904, p. 89 s.; ADA.I ¥REDE, 
]?hcinische Volkskunde, Leipzig, 1919, p. 155. 
* F. J. BO[»htAl.-, Rheingauische Altcrhiimer, Mainz, 1819, 
Il, p. 593. 

Gaclic Pioneers of Christianity 
Strasburg] have under their control the loaves 
of Saint-Brigid, and their best wines also bear 
the ' rubric ' o5 this saint. ''1 
The church o5 Saint-Michael at Schotten, a 
town in the Grand Duchy o5 Hesse, and taking 
its naine from a colony o5 Scotti, bas one o5 its 
altars dedicated to St. Brigid and another to 
the Breton saint Josse, or Judoc.  
The archives o5 the church o5 Liestal, near 
Basle, preserve indications o5 donations ruade 
to St. Brigid at the beginning of the thirteenth 
century, and o5 a lumen sanctae Brigidae. s A 
document of the year I5O7 counts the abbess o5 
Kildare among the patrons o5 that church, and 
another, dated I6O8, mentions a " Gotteshaus 
Sankt Prigithae zu Liestal." By what channel 
did this devotion 5rom Ireland reach Liestal ? 
" It is a mystery 5or me," declares the author 

 GRANDIDIER, Histoire de l'église et des évéqtea de Sir«s- 
bourg, Strasbourg, 1778, I, p. 406. 
2 S. A. W(]RDTWEIN, Diocesis Mogunlna in aTchidia- 
conatus dfincfa, Manmmii, 1777, III, p. 87 ; EBER, 
Die n.n voTmaligen Scflenkirchen in Mai und in 
Oberssen {Archiv. f. ssische Geschich$e u. Allerthums- 
kunde, IX, 1861, p. 819-848}. 
a A perpetual tire was kept up ai Kildare in honour of 
St. Brigid till lhe Reformatiom 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
of a recent study on the saints and churches of 
Basle. a However, xvithout falling back on the 
abbey of Saint-Gall, xvhich is at a considerable 
distance from Liestal,-" in order to solve this 
problem, xve may mention the neighbouring 
abbey of S_ckingcn, which is held to be of 
Irish foundation, and also, at some distance 
higher up the Rhine, the abbey of Rheinau, 
vhere dwelt St. Fintan. 
The liturgical books of Genoa bear xvitness 
that devotion to St. Brigid flourished also in 
Liguria. The proximity of Bobbio might 
furnish a natural explanation of this fact, but 
Signor Cambiaso presents us vith another in 
his work L'/lnno ecclesiastico e le feste dci santi 
in Genova, published in 917 . This cult would 
appear to have been transplanted to this region 

x KAIL GAUS$, Die Heili#en dev Gotteshiiuser von Basel- 
land (Baslcr Zeichrift fier Geschichte und Althtnskunde, 
1I, 1902, p. 152-153.) 
a The late Father A. oncelet, a BoHndist, noticed that 
a legend which took deep roof af the abbey of Saint-GaH 
ruade St. Brigid  lative of St. GaH himseH (Aalecta 
Boiana, XXIII, 1904, p. 885). The Abbey of fvers, 
or Pfffers, {canton of Saint-GaH, Stzerland) was pos- 
ssed of relics of St. Brigid and of other Irish sints. e 
E. A. SECKEERO, Geschcbte d R«liqden it der 
Scbwz, Ziirich. loo2. p. 7-8. 

Gadic Pio'aeers of Christianity 
by the Canons Regular of the Lateran, who 
reckon St. Brigid among their canonesses. 1 It 
is a fact, however strange it may appeal that 
the Canons Regular daim that St. Patrick was 
one of their Order, and likewise that St. Brigid 
sanctified herself in the saine institution.  
Mention bas already been made of vinevards 
and other lands consecrated to our saint. The 
peasantry of Ama)', a village between Huy 
and Liège, still believe that the blessed earth 
of St. Brigid cures cattle and drives away from 
their stables wicked people and witches. " 80 
great is tlfis belief that the earth is sprinkled 
around for a distance of ten leagues." a 
Saint Brigid, who is invoked in the Irish 
prayer of Saint Moling as the protectress of 
travellers, is similarly honoured in a German 
Reisescgen of the fifteenth century. 4 Her name 

 CA.MBIASO, op. cit., p. 122. 
s See the article Canons and Canone«ses reg.ular by the 
II.ight Rev. A. LI, bbot of Szn Teodoro af Genou, 
in the Catholic Encyclopaed, col 290-291. 
 Auus ocK, Croyances et femmes pulaire du 
pays de Lidge, Liège [1873], p. 84. On the " campestr 
puNherri, qe Brigidae vantur," in Ireland. e 
GmALDUS CAIBR., Topograph hibernica, p. 206. 
 . çOENBAC, Zt{ Tobios«q#n ZefleehrJfl fier 

Gaelic Pioneers ot Chrsnanlty 
also occurs in the formulas of blessings against 
bad weather. 1 
In the country parts of Britanny the popu- 
larity of St. Brigid is still shown in various 
ways.  Some years ago there was, in one of 
the " chapelles frairiales " of Morbihan dedi- 
cated to her, a very old wooden statue, all 
worm-eaten, with the well-known emblems of 
the Irish saint. In order to replace it, the 
rector purchased a new statue, in fine plaster, 
with gilt trimmings, representing St. Bridget of 
Sweden. The people of the " frairie " pro- 
tested : " They have changed out Sainte Bréhet ; 
we won't have this one, and we shall bring her 
no offerings." They were as good as their 
word. The purveyor of the chapel sent in his 
resignation. 3 

deulsches Atterlun, XXlV, p. 185). Cf. L. GOUOAUD, 
Etudc sur les loricae celtiques ( d'anc, lit. et d'archéol. 
chrétne, I1, 1912, p. 125). 
x . FAZ, Dic kirchlichen Benediktionen, Freiburg i. 
r., 1909, p. 100, 101, 104. 
 Ses A. LE Baaz, Zes ints bretons d'après  tradition 
popuNire (As de Breyne, 1X, 1893-189, p. 44 s.} ; 
PaVL SÉLT, Petite Nçende rée de la Haule-Bretaçne, 
Nantes, 1897, p. 115 s. 
z I bave the detMN fm the Very Rev. Canon Buleon, 
parish priest of the eat.hedral o[ Vannes, who kindly sent 
lhem to me the flth November. 1921. 

Gaelic Piolxeers of Christianitv 
Saint Columba, or Columcille, abbot of Iona 
(]-597), was less known on the continent than 
the preceding two. Nevertheless Adamnan, his 
biographer and successor, affirms that by the 
end of the seventh century tis naine had already 
penetrated into Spain, the Gauls, beyond the 
Pennine Aips, and even as far as Rome, capital 
of ail cities, t Furthermore, the naine of the 
holy Abbot is inscribed in the calendar of St. 
Willibrord, which dates from the first years of 
the eighth century, on the 9th of June, the 
day of lais natalis. The editor o[ this calendar, 
the Rev. H. A. Wilson, remarks that this com- 
memoration is probably due to St. Willibrord's 
relations »vith Ireland, where he spent a dozen 
years of his lie. 2 The naine of this saint is 
round associated with various superstitious lrac - 
tices against storms, rires, and field rats. Here 
is a charm which bas been preserved or us in 
a manuscript of the fourteenth century in the 
library of Munich : 
Contra tempestatem isti tres versus 
scribantur in cedulas quatuor et ponantur 

 Vita Columbae, III, 23, ed. Fowler, p. 164-165. 
a WILSON, op. cit., p. 32. 

Gaelic Pioneers oi Christianity 
ubter terram in quatuor pattes provincie : 
-[" sancte Columquille, remove mala queque procelle, 
î ut tunc orasti, de mundo quando migrasti, 
quod tibi de celis Fromisit vox Nichaells. 1 
Adamnan certainly speaks of the power the 
saint obtained from heaven to command the 
vinds, a power he used in various circumstances ; 
but he nowhere says that this privilege was con- 
ferred on him by the Archangel Michael.  
There exist very interesting variants of the 
preceding formula. One runs as follows : 
Sancte Columquille, remove dampna favilla 
Atque Columquillus salvet ab igne domus. 8 
As Mil be observed, it is against tire that St. 
Columcille is here invoked. According to Irish 
legend, it would in fact appear that he put out 
a conflagration by singing the hymn Noli pater, 

l_k. SCHOENB,kCH, inC Ali.81esc altdeufscher Segens- 
forrncl» (Analecfa Graeci, ots.ia, Graz. 1893, p. 45) (Cod. 
lat. hIonacensis 7021, xiv s.). 
* Vita Colunbae, III. 24, 13. 163. On another occasion 
the storm was calmed in response to a prayer of St. Cain- 
nech (II, 13, p. 82-83). 
e Ms. of Pembroke College, Oxford (fourteenih century). 
MoW,T, Anecdota Oxoniensia (3[ediaeval and Modern 
Stries), Oxïord, 1882. p. 3. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
the composition of which bas been attributed 
to him. 1 
A sixteenth century rnanuscript, preserved in 
the library of Linksping, in Sweden, gives the 
following formula : 
$ancta Kakwkylla 
remove dampnosa fa«illa vel favilla 
quod tibi de celis 
concessit vox micaelis. 
In this charm, which is evidently inspired by 
the one at Munich, the word favilla bas, as in 
the previous one, been substituted for procella; 
furthermore, a female saint, hot otherwise 
known, $ancta Kakwkylla, bas ousted St. 
Columcille. This new personage bas never 
ceased to puzzle folklorists. 3 Now they know 
that this naine, absolutely unknown elsewhere, 
arises from the written distortion of that of 
Columcille. This distortion took place in Ger- 
many. %at proves this to be the case is, 

a Preface to the Noli Pater in the Ir.ish Liber Hymnom,m, 
cited ed. II, p. 28. 
* A. G. NOlF_, Altschwediches Lesebuch, Halle, 1802- 
180, p. 08 s. (Nf. 180). 
 W. DREXR, Noch e.inmal Sanc Kakabilla-Cuht- 
bil (Zeit. des Vei, frit VooEsktte, VIII, 1808, p. 81- 
42}. Cf. H. GAIvoz in $1élusi»e, XI, col. 3. 

Gaelie Pioaecr of Christianity 
in the first place, the following recipe against 
rats : 
Fur die ratzen schreib dise wort an vier ort in das haws 
" Sanctus Kakukabilla," x 
and, in the second place, it fs the statue of the 
saint (here the change of sex has taken place) 
which appears on the altar of the church o 
the ancient monastery of Saint-Ulrich at Adel- 
berg, in Wurtemberg, and which bears the in- 
scription Cutubilla. A Fainting at Zeitldorn, in 
Lower Bavaria, represents the same mysterious 
emale saint. In both cases St. Cutubilla has 
two mice at her feet.  
As the naine o the abbot of Iona was in 
Latin written Columcilla, as fs seen by its in- 
scription in the calendar of St. Willibrord, it 
must have been thought that ts name de- 
noted a female saint. This fs how the intruder 
Cutubilla or Kakwkylla has become in German 
folklore a rival to St. Gertrude o Nivelles or 
the destruction o mice, rats, and field-mice.  

 W. DREXLER, loc. cit. 
HEINIICH OTTE, Handbuch der klrchlichen Kunst- 
Archaeologie des deutschen Mittellters, Leipzig, 1883, I, 
p. 566 ; R. 2.NDItEE, Votive Weihgaben, p. 16 ; .l. ZII,;(}ERLIà 
in t.he Zeitsch. des Ver. 1. Volkskande, I, p. 4,44. 
a DREXLER, 10¢. cit.; I. ADREE, 10¢. cil. 

II.--St. Brendan the Navigator 

W HEN and under what form »vas the 
marvellous story of the fabled voy- 
ages of St. Brendan carried to the 
continent ? It is not easy to answer this 
question with precision. The oldest known 
version of the legend appears to be the Navigatio 
Brendani, a Latin composition which dates back 
to the tenth or eleventh century. The Bene- 
dictine chronicler Raoul Glaber, who lived in 
the eleventh century, was already acquainted 
with St. Brendan's Odyssey. 1 The most ancient 
Anglo-Norman versified adaptation of the Navi- 
gatio dates from c. xx2, and the Fon Sente Bran- 
dan, the oldest German version, likewise goes 
back to the twelfth century. 2 Subsequently the 
Navigatio »vas translated in prose and verse into 
almost every tongue of the West. 
It is very probable that the Irish, who were 

x IAOU GLABEI, Historiartm libri quique, II, 2 (Migne, 
P.L., CXLII, p. 629 s.J. See C.L SINVEO, Die hand- 
schriflich GeMalugen der laIeiiscben Naviga$io Brendani 
{ Romcbe Fshugot, VII, 1893, p. 1 s.). 
= W. , De Ueblefung d deuchen Braan. 
leode, G6ttingen. 1918. p. 125. 

Gaelic Pioneers oi Chrlstlanlty 
scattered a little in every part, laboured to 
spread the report of the adventures of the bold 
sailor whom they promoted to the dignity of 
" dean of the assembly of Saints," and even to 
be the brother of Christ.* But the wonderful 
yarns of which St. Brendan was the hero were 
hOt received favourably everyvhere. There bas 
corne down to us a thirteenth century poem in 
which these wild excesses of the imagination 
are severely handled. The authors of these 
fairy tales would, in the opinion of the anony- 
mous author of this piece, be far better em- 
ployed in spending their time copying out the 
Psalms of David or in reciting them in atone- 
ment for their own sins or those of their brethren 
than by stuffing them with such nonsense : 
Expediret magis fratrem psallos David scribere 
Vel pro suis atque fratrum culpis Deo psallere 
Quam scripturis tam impuris idiotas fallere.  

 See above. One may still read, in an Irish poem 
the eloventh century, these words addressed to St. Brendan 
" Ancient Rome, ïull of delights, and Tours remain under 
thy protection, etc." (KuIO 
Gedicht auf Brendan den Meerfahrer, in the Sitzugsberichte 
of the Academy of Berlin. CI. of philos, and hist., XXV, 
1912, p. 440}. 
I Ed. PAUL MEYER in Rmnania, XXXI, 1902, 
878 ; ed. CIL PLU]gR. in "'.;foe 8tt}cfo,L«t Hibert, iae, 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
St. Brendan, whose legend filled so large a 
space in the literature of the middle aes, bas 
enjoyed only an insignificant part in the popular 
traditions of continental countries. In the 
cathedral of Giitrow (Mecklenburg-Schwerin) 
the saint is represented holding a candle, xvhich, 
according to legend, one day spontaneously lit 
itselL In I495, during a conflagration which 
broke out at Wittstock, the people of the district, 
whose trades necessitated the use of tire, ruade 
a vow to celebrate yearly the saint's festival 
on the 29th of December.  As the reader may 
bave possibly guessed, the association of the 
naine of Brendanwith the flame of a candle 
and with the conflagration at Wittstock arose 
simply from the likeness existing between the 
naine of the saint, which in German is written 
Brandan or Brandon, and the word Brand, i.e. 
tire, a word which in French bas produced the 
vocable " brandon." 
In the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, St. Brendan still enjoyed great popu- 
larity in the German provinces along the Baltic 
coast. It bas been ascertained that the naine 
Brandanus or Brandanies vas often ziven in 

Gaelic l'loneers or tsarstlamty 
baptism to children of all ranks, nobles, the 
professional classes, merchants, mechanics and 
At Giistrow and its neighbourhood, St. Bren- 
dan's day (in sunte Brandanins daghe, ara dage S. 
Bradan) appears in fifteenth century contracts 
as a popular date just like Michaelmas and the 
Feast of St. Martin in other countries. In these 
regions it was even customary to keep a triple 
feast of St. Brendan, one on the I5th, I6th, or 
x7th May, according to local particularities of 
the calendar, another after the Whitsuntide 
festival, and the third on 29th Deceaîaber. x 
Some Mss. preserved in continental libraries 
contain an Oratio Brendani, composed on the 
lines of the Irish loricae. This prayer, of a very 
pronounced superstitious flavour, appears to 
bave enjoyed some popularity in the middle 
ages. 2 St. Brendan vas invoked by persons 
bitten by snakes. His naine appears also in 
the formulas of ordeals by use of the Psalter? 

 GfOTEFEND, Das Fest des heiligen Brandanus (Korres- 
pondenzblatt des Gesammtvereins der deutschcn Geschichts 
itd Alterlunsvereine, 57th year, 1909, 395-396). 
a See my Etude sr les loricae celtiques (Bul. d'anc, lit. et 
d'archéol, chrét., 1911, p. 265 s.}. 
s IG., Forrnadae, ed. ZEUOER, Nf. 672. Cf. :k. F«-z, 
Benedi.klionen, II, p. 174. 363, 391. 

III.--The Missionary Monks: Saint 
Columban and Saint Gall 

AINT COLUMBAN left the imlrint of his 
own strong character UlOn the monks 
who had lassed beneath his severe 
discilline. After his death, his influence con- 
tinued to make itself felt through the agency 
of his numerous discilles, many of whom llayed 
a r61e of the first importance in the Church and 
worldly society of the eighth century, x 
Columban overran Neustria and Austrasia, 
visited the banks of the Loire, Marne, and 
Rhine, and crossed Switzerland on his way 
to die at Bobbio in Italy in the year 6I 5. It 
is there he lies buried. 
The abbeys of Pffiffers and Einsiedeln in 
Switzerland possess relics of the saint. 2 The 
emperor Henry II caused an altar in the cathe- 
dral of Barnberg to be placed under his naine 

Gaelic Fioneers or {51rlstlanlty 
and an altar of the abbatial church of Hirschau, 
in the diocese of Spires, was in Io9I dêdicated 
" to the holy fathers Benedict, Columba, Colum- 
ban, Gall and Magnu."  
Verses in honour of St. Columban appear in 
the tituli which Raban Maur composed for the 
church of Fulda2 A cave, situated in a lofty 
position about 1,5oo metres north-east of Anne- 
gray, is credited with having once served as a 
hermitage for the Irish saint. It still bears his 
name, and the water which flows at the foot of 
the rock is held to be miraculous. 3 
The memory of St. Columban remains also 
attached to two other caves in the neighbour- 
hood of Bobbio. One of these is in the moun- 
tain at La Spanna. According to popular tra- 
dition, the saint had the habit of retiring there 
from time to time. A hollow is shown on the 
face of the rock which the countryfolk beliêve 

ST. BEISSEL, Die lrerehtng der Heil.igen und hrer 
Rcliqzden in Deutschlaad wïhrend der zweit Hlfte des 
1itleMlters, Freiburg i. Br. 1892, p. 24. 
M.G., Poet. carol., II, p. 208, 216. 
See my article in Dict. d'arch, chrét., Colbar (Achéo. 
loge de Saint), col 2196. eay. eom. of V«ivre, arr. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
to be a miraculous imprint of his hand.  The 
second cave, situated to the north-west of 
Bobbio, is alleged to be the spot where the 
abbot drew his last breath.  
The wells dedicated to St. Columban in 
Germany and a prayer in old German (Segen 
des hl. Columbanus), which forms part of a 
collection of superstitious prayers of the six- 
teenth century, prove that the saint was also 
the object of popular vorship on Teutonic 
soil. s 

t Sec article cited above. Ci. D. Cx,so, Ian Colom- 
bano, eua opera e suo culto in Liguria (Rivsta diocesana 
Genovese, VI, 1916, p. 121-125). We rnay note, with 
respect to this handprint, that St. lIagnus, who, according 
t tradition, was a disciple of St. Gall, ha»ing crossed the 
Leck in order to carry the Gospel into AllgKu, built a cell 
for himself af the place since called Mangstritt (footprint of 
Magnus} where in later rimes was built the monastery of 
Fiissen. See M. OTT, article Maçnus in the Cath. Encyclo- 
paedia and DAVID LEISTLE, Die Aebte des It. M¢gnusstiftes 
in Fïtssen (ltudie u. 1litteilungen zut Gesch. des Bene- 
diktiner-O'ràe.ns, N.F.I., 1911, p. 549 s.). 
 See art. cited above in Dict. d'arch, chrét. 
a H. WEINHOLD, Die Verehrung der Quellen in Deutsch- 
land (Abhandlttngen of the Academy of Berlin, 1888, p. 37). 
J. ]OLTE, Deutsche Seçen des 16 Jahrhunderts (Zeit. des 
Verens f. Volkskunde, XIV, 11)04, p. 435}. ae saine 
formula is round in NIS.kI-D, Histoire des livres potmlores 
[Paris. 1854,. Il- p..t} with t.he of Colman. sot_ «,f 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
In Britanny, a country which nevertheless 
the saint had hot crossed, he was anciently 
honoured as can be gathered from the con- 
siderable number of churches and chal0els dedi- 
cated to him, and also from the Breton old 
liturgical books.  At Locminé (Morbihan) for 
centuries he bas been invoked for the cure of 
mad and el0ilel0tic 10ersons. This exl01ains the 
expression " Kas éan de Logouneh " (he must be 
taken to Locminé "), which is the saine as say- 
ing : he is mad.  
In many lands the cuit of St. Gall bas de- 
veloFed step for ste F with that of his toaster 
St. Columban, as at Piffers, Einsiedeln, Bam- 
berg, Hirschau, and in Liguria. 3 In addition, 
Stueckelberg enumerates some sixty Swiss 
localities where St. Gall is (or was) venerated, 

klng Tibery (s/c) of Ilibernia. There exists also a Latin 
prayer attributed fo St. Columban (See my article Celtiques 
(li|arqies) in the Dict. d'orch., col. 2986. 
I See Colomban (Archéologie de Saint), col. 2196 ; 
LOTH, Le nons des sai»ls bretons, Pzris, 1910, p. 25 ; 
IF. DUINE], Memento des sources hagiographiques de l'histoire 
de Bretagne, ]Rennes, 1918, p. 120 s. 
 E. ERNaULT, in Mëlusine, XI, 208. 
a STUECKELBERG, loc. ci.; BEISSEL, loc. cil.; D. CAIo 
BSO, L'auto eccles«stico e le leste dei santi i Geno«o, 
Genova. 1917. p. t8. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
and more than a dozen German, Lorraine, and 
Alsatian churches »vhich preserve some of Iris 
relics or have been placed under lais name.l 
St. Gall occupie8 an important place in the 
popular devotions of Germany. He is reckoned 
among the genii of fountains (Brunnenheiligen). 
He is also invoked, notably in Bavaria, as a 
Speisespender saint.  It is under this title he 
appears in a gobiasseg«n or form of blessing for 
the welfare of travellers : 
Sante Galle diner spise pflege. 
Sante Gêrdrût dir herberge gebe.« 
(May St. Gall give you food and St. Gertrude a bed.) 
His feast-day (I6th October) is a cardinal date 

l Wittnau {in 809}, Weissenau (in 1172), Gallenweiler 
(in 1173J, Murlmch, Cunstance, Ueberlingen (in 1B00J, 
Reichenau, Metz, Seefelden, Zimmcrn, Bietkingen, Gute- 
stein. Saint Blasien (E. A. STUECKELBERG, Die schweizer- 
i8chen Hciligen des Mittelalters, Zi]rich, 1903, p. 51). 
• WEINHOLD, lOC. Cil. 
a M. HOEFLER, Die Kalender-heiligen als Krankheits- 
atrone beim baycrischo Volk (Zcitschr. d. Ver. f. Volks- 
kunde, I, 1891, p. 302). 
 IUELLEN'HOFF and SC'HERER, Denkmïtler deutscber 
Poesie und Prosa, Berlin, 1892, I, p. 189. On the 16th 
October it was customary to bless wine destineà to comïort 
fever patients. See t,he formda in FI.z, Benediktionen, 
II, p. 478-479. 

Gaclic Pioneers of Christianit¢ 
in the rustic calendar of Alsace, as the following 
sayings show : 
Selon que S. Gall le voudra, 
L'été prochain se montrera. 

Au jour de S. Gall, crac ! 
La pomme doit ëtre au sac. 

A la Saint Gall la vache 
Dans l'écurie se cache. 

S. Gall, Dieu nous protège! 
Laisse tomber la neige. 1 

i p. I-I-TEI.ktUBEI, La Saint-Gall (Recuc des traditions 
2»opulaire8, X, 1895, p. 602). 

IV.--Saints Specially Honoured in 
Belgium and France 
HE story of St. Dimlhne, or Dympne, 
bristles with obscure loints. Even 
her Irish nationality remains in doubt. 
Legend makes her the daughter of an Irish pagan 
king. Secretly baltised , it is said that she fled 
from ber native land in order to escale from a 
shameful destiny. She is SUllosed to have 
landed at Antverl and to have fixed her resi- 
dence at Gheel. Her father, according to the 
legend, having discovered the llace of her re- 
treat, crossed the seas to secure her, and finally 
slew her with his own hand. This saint is 
thought to have lived in the sixth or seventh 
century; but the earliest known reference to 
the veneration laid to this virgin and martyr 
goes back no further than the middle of the 
thiiteenth century. 1 
She has an altar in the béguinage of Hasselt 

 . VN DER ESSE., Etude critique et litlér«ire sur l 
Vitae d saids l&oïiçies de l'aciemte 
uvain. 10o7, p. 31ff. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
(Belgian Limburg), anotler in tle clurcl of 
Saint-Quentin in the saine town, and a third 
at Herck-la-Ville ;* but sle is more particularly 
venerated at Gheel (Province of Antwerp), 
wlere she is invoked for the care of the insane 
for whom tlat city las provided a large estab- 
Formerly it was custornary to subject persons 
to a treatrnent which consisted in making them 
crawl nine rimes beneath St. Dympne's ceno- 
taph. The spot where this rite xvas performed 
is called by tle countryfolk kruip huise (the 
creeping louse). " The IStt of May, festival 
day of the martyr, ganging (a general pilgrimage) 
takes place, and hundreds of peasant men and 
wornen of the neighbourhood, who are neither 
mad nor sick, pass beneatl tle cenotaph. '' 
In tle footsteps of St. Fursa (t c. 65o ) and 
of his two brothers Foillan and Ultan, whom 
tle Belgians call Feuillen and Ultain, one treads 
on more solid ground.  The official cult of 

i ]. BRASSIn'NE, 0]9. Cit., p. 85. 
 H. G^iDoz, Un veu.r ite rndcal (ltlélusi'ae, VIII, 
col. 252). 
s Ste Chrtientés celtiques, p. 150 s. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Fursa goes back to Merovingian times. 1 He is 
the patron of Péronne, where his tomb is pre- 
served, and of seven other parishes of the dio- 
cese of Amiens. Several chapels and wells also 
keep alive his memorv in Picardy. 2 
The tomb of St. Fursa was a spot beloved 
by Irish piety. Foillan and Ultan were among 
the first to cross the sea to visit it as pilgrims. 
Foillan did not stay long in the monastery of 
Péroqne ; soon he went to dwell at Nivelles, 
another place where the Scotti were personae 
Foillan received as a gift from Itta, wife of 
Pipin II, Mayor of the Palace, and mother of 
St. Gertrude of Nivelles, the land of Fosses on 
which he founded a monastery. He perished, 
murdered by brigands, in the forest of Seneffe. 
The town of Fosses still holds his memory in 
high veneration. Every seventh year it cele- 
brates, amid a great concourse of pilgrims and 
much ceremony, the procession or march of 

 L. DELISLE, op. cit., p. 310. 
a NORBERT FRLkRT, Histoire d S. Fursy, de S. Feuillen 
et de S. Ultain, Lille [1913], p. 462. 
 VAN DE ESSE, op. cit., p. 2. 82, 151. CI. V. LEO, 
in the Weuts«b.e ZlscIfift fi GescblcMe t. K,,,st. XN'VII. 
1009. p. 503. 

Gaelic Pioneers oI Çhrlstlanlty 
St. Foillan. Tle neighbouring llaces send as 
their delegates armed " cornlagnies." It takes 
nearly the vhole day to bear the bust of the 
saint over the traditional course. At eacl 
station---of which there are seven--the " com- 
lagnies " tire a salure. 1 
Liège, which bas a clurch dedicated to St. 
Brigid, las another under the invocation of St. 
Foillan, as bave also Omezée and other 13elgian 
towns and villages? Devotion to St. Foillan 
las even reached Aix-la-Chalelle, wlere a Iarisl 
churcl and a guild, both very old, are llaced 
under his latronage. 3 
The most ancient Fita Gertrudis was written 
shortly after tle death of that abbess by a monk 

x :E. C. DELCHAtBRE, Ve de S. Feuillen, Namur, 1861, 
p. 211 s. C. LIX OUSSEAU, Legérldes et cofue8 d.u 
ays de Nageur, Brussels, 1920, p. 108 s. The septeil 
procsion of St. Foillan was celebrated on the 25th p- 
lember, 921. I ara indebd for this iormation fo 
Ursmer Berlière, O.S.B., who had the ndness to send me 
the deiled programme of the festival. 
 BRASSagE, op. cit., p. 87 ; T. A. W, lrish 
in Beigium (Eccles. Ri, XXXlX, 1908, p. 125}. 
 KoR, op. cit., p. 64-65. The existence of this church 
is attted by  document dated 24th Match, 1166. 
HOEN, Geschichte d St. Foilarskrche zu Aacen, A.chen, 
892. p. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
of the double monastery of Nivelles. The author 
relates that on the eve of ber death Gertrude 
sent a brother to Ultan, abbot of Fosses, to ask 
if he could foretell vhen she should give back 
ber soul to God. Ultan gave the following 
ansver to ber messenger : " To-day is the ITth 
of the calends of April [i.e. 6th March]; to- 
morrow the soul of the virgin Gertrude will 
leave ber body. Tell her to have no fear. 
She may die ,,ithout a tremor and joyously 
depart, for the blessed bishop Patrick gets 
ready, with the chosen angels of God, to re- 
ceive ber into glory." 1 The prophecy came 
true next day: Gertrude died the lTth March 
of the year 659- 
From the earl¥ middle ages ber cult was 
spread, hot onl¥ over Brabant, Flanders, and 
the north of France, but also along the banks 
of the Rhine and in Germanv. In all these 
countries very many churches and chapels bear 
ber naine.  As to the popular devotion offered 
to ber, none greater flourishes. Guardian of 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
wells, 1 harbinger of Slring,  latroness of gar- 
deners,  destroyer of rats and field mice, « 
bringer of leace,  above all else, however, she 
was invoked as the wotectress of travellers and 
purveyor of good lodgings. « In order to ob- 
tain ber favour before setting out on a journey, 
it was customary to drink the viaticum called 
Gertrudis amorem, the Sinte Geerts Minne of the 
Flemish countries, the Gertrudenminne of Ger- 
naany, a custom which goes back very far, 
and recalls the ohannisminne always held in 
great esteem in the lands of southern Gernaany.  

 " Ara Gertrudentage steht der Bar auf " (Tyrol) ; " Um 
Gertraud geht die W/trm von der Erd' auf " (BavaI-ia), 
sayings quoted by J. ZINGER.LE, Johannissegen und Ge.- 
trudenminne (,itzm9sberichte of thc Academy of Vienna : 
Cl. of phih)s, and hist., XL, 1862, p. 221). 
a ZIN(]ER.LE, Op. Cit., p. 222 ; 2NDREE, Votive tVeihgabeL 
p. 12. 
a ZINGER.LE, 0p. cit., p. 221-222. 
a See TH. FXSCHEn.'S note af p. 104 of his Mredy quoted 
edition of the Carmen sotlricum of ICHoLAS DE BIBRA ; 
GRi. Deutsche Mythologie, 2nd. ed., p. 53, 797, 798. 
 " Sante Gêrtmît dit herberge gebe " {.IuLLENHOFF and 
CH'ER.ER., op. Ct., I, p. 189 ; ZINGER.LE, op. cit., p. 225 ; 
J. WER.NER., Beitrage zut Kunàe der lateinischen Lieratur 
des Mittel«lt«rs, A«trau, 1905, p. 182. 
 On the antiquity of this custom, see ZINOEtLE, op. cit. 
and chiefly FaNz. Benediktionen, I. p. 289-290. According 

Gaclic Pionecrs of Christianity 
It was also reputed that Gertrude of Nivelles 
received the dead on their leaving this world : 
" Aliqui dicunt quod quando anima egressa est, 
tunc prima nocte pernoctabit cure beata Ger- 
trude, secunda nocte cure archangelis, sed tertia 
nocte vadit sicut definitum est de ea." 
»vas also invoked as the patroness of a good 
death : 
0 pia Gertrudis, quae pacis commoda cudis 
Bellaque concludis, nos caeli mergito ludis. - 
For an explanation of this devotion we must 
probably look to the circumstances of the 
death of the abbess herself, St. Patrick with 
angels acting as ber usher into the heavenly 

to an addition [later ihan the eleveni.h century] to the 
Vita Gertrudi,s triparlita (ch. XIV), the cutom of drinking 
" to the love of Gertrude " was already in usage it tocius 
Au.striac et Alimaniae )artoEus : "" Cuncti perte volentes 
peregre proficisci seu de loco ad locum peragrare devotionis 
gratia in sanctae Gertrudis amore et honore vini seu 
alterius liquoris potabilis haustum, qui sente Gcrtmtd 
theutonice, latine amor sanctae Gert«.udis dicitur, absce- 
dendo sumere consuevissent." (VAN DER ESSEN, 09. 
p. 11). 
i Ms. of fifteenth ceutury. Cf. Jo A. SCHA[ELLER, in the 
Zc£g. f. d¢zfches Altertu», I, 1841, p. 423. 
- See TH. FISCHEICS note quoted above. 


Galic Pioncers of Christianity 
The coincidence of the festival of the virgin 
of Nivelles with that of the patron of Ireland, 
and the remembrance of the very special pro- 
tection she vouchsafed to the monks of Erin, 
must have rendered ber memory dear to al1 
Irishmen ; and it is permissible to believe that 
they, remarkable propagandists as they were, 
had something to do with spreading so widely 
and deeply the great devotion to this saint. 

This is the place to mention the names of 
some of the peregrini minores, disciples of St. 
Columban, like St. Desle (or Deicola), or coin- 
panions of St. Fursa and of iris two brothers, 
like St. Algise, St. Maugille, and St. Gobain. 1 
We are ahnost completely without historical 
data dealing with these secondary personages ; 
but they still occupy a certain place in the 
folklore of the north and east of France, and 
for that reason they deserve some notice. 
In the course of lier wanderings in these 
regions, Margaret Stokes came across two wells 
of St. Desle near the village of Saint-Germain, 

I Sec above, Part I, section 2. rhe Forest of St. 
wa the scene of heavy flghting in the late wnr. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
rive kilometres from Lute (Haute-Sa6ae), a 
town »vhich owes its origin to a monastery of 
which St. Desle was first abbot. The water of 
one of these wells is possessed of healing virtues 
for childish maladies as is vouched for by the 
remains of children's clothing hung around as 
ex-votos. Miss Stokes gives a sketch of this 
well. Other illustrations of her book depict 
the well of St. Algise at the village of the canton 
of Vervins (Aisne) which bears the naine of this 
saint, and three wells of Saint Fursa, one at 
Lagny (Seine-et-Marne), where the abbot dwelt 
some rime on arriving in Gaul, another at 
irohen (Somlie) where ]le died, and the third 
at Péronne. t 
Another Irishman, St. Fiacre, a contemporary 
of St. Gertrude, shares with her the patronage of 
gardeners. Very few assured details about his 
career are known. We learn only that he round 
a protector in St. Faro, Bishop of Meaux, who 
had already encouraged yet another Irishman, 
St. Kilian, to settle at Aubigny, in the out- 
skirts of Arras. Faro ruade over to Fiacre a 
property situated at Breuil, who there established 

i f. STOKES, ForeM8 of France, p. 111, 177, 196, 203j 
and 229. 


Gatlic l'mucers or thrstmty 
a hermitage and built a guest-house tor foreign 
travellers.' These bave since resulted in the 
existing village of Saint-Fiacre, where for cen- 
turies numbers of pilgrims bave gathered in 
search of health, a 
St. Fiacre was one of the most popular saints 
of ancient France. He was invoked for the 
cure of a great variety of ills. In Alsace those 
who are afflicted with a certain disease, about 
which we will speak more fully when dealing 
with St. Monus, bave recourse to him2 In 
Britanny, this Irish saint bas under his invo- 
cation a chapel well known for the elegance of 
its architecture and the beauty of its rood-loft. 
Around tkis chapel, which stands two kilo- 
metres ffom Le Faouët, is held a pardon, but, 

1 See Chrét. celliques, p. liŒEE. 
= Canton of Crécy (Seine-et-Marne}. Indulgences were 
already granted to pilgrims by Philip, bishop of/leuux, in 
1227 tCf. IARTENE, De antq. Eccl. ritibus, V, 16 ; vol. III, 
p. 283). 
 L. DU Btoc DE SEGANGE, Ie8 8a8 oEroi8 de8 co'- 
poratons et protecteurs spécialeraent invoqatés dans les 
maladies, Paris, 1888, lI, p. 204 s. "Fiacrius ist der 
typische Syphilisheilige des Elsasses" (L. PFLEGER, Das 
Auflreten der Syphilis in Strassbatrg . . . atnd der Kult des 
bi. Fiacrits, in the Zeit. f. die Gcschicbte des Oberrhcins, 
new series, XXXIII. 1918, 19. 169). 

Gadic Pionccrs of Christianity 
in all the Morbihan, the chaFel o[ St. Fiacre at 
Radenac is the most frequented. 1 Few people 
are aware that the vehicle which is now bdng 
eclipsed by the taxi-car owes its name to this 
Irish hermit of the seventh century. A man 
named Sauvage was the first to let out on hire 
carriages known originally as the rive sous 
coaches (the rate for hiring was only rive sous 
the hour) from his establishment in the rue 
Saint-Martin in Paris. It was a large house 
known as the hotel Saint-Fiacre from its sign- 
board which represented the saint. The naine 
was passed on from the hotel to tlie carriages. * 
The chier town in a canton of Finistère bears 
the naine of 8aint-Renan. In his fine book 
Au pays des pardons Anatole Le Braz sketches 
the legend of St. Ronan, or Renan, a solitary 
of the seventh century, »vho would appear to 
have corne from Ireland to Armorica, and whose 

 There is also a village of Saint-Fiacre in the canton of 
Plouagat, arrondis, of Guingamp (CStes-du-Igord). 
2 See the wor4 " fiacre " in Littré's Dictionary. The 
explanaiion given by Bertlmumieu does hot appear to be 
well grounded. He says : "' These ILired velficles were t.hus 
naine4 because af ftrst they were 4estined to jaunt the 
Parisian crowd to Saint-Fiacre-de-Brie " {Fëtes et dévotios 
poptlaircs. Paris. 1873, p. 245). 

Gaelic Pioncers oi Cbistianit)' 
remains are venerated at Locronan. A septen- 
nial procession, called the OEroménie de S. Ronan, 
defiles the second Sunda¥ of Jul¥ along the 
flanks of Nénez-Hom, on the land of four 
parishes : Locronan, Quéménéven, Plogonnec 
and Plounérez-Porza¥. The pilgrims of the 
Troménie [ollow a traditional route which bas 
hot varied for centuries, a route borrowed from 
the uncertain tracks St. Ronan himself vas 
wont to tread fasting.  
In order to find another Irish saint who is 
still in out own da¥ venerated on French soil, 
we must pass from the shores of the Atlantic 
into Savo¥. In the ancient church of Lemenc, 
on a height overlooking the town of Chambéry, 
is preserved the shrine of Concord (his rem 
naine was Conchobhar Mac Concoille), arch- 
bishop of Armagh, who died in the odour of 
sanctity in the Benedictine priory of Lemenc 
on his wa¥ back to his diocese from Rome in 
the year 75 . The memor¥ of the saintl¥ 

t A. LE BItAZ, Au pays des pardons, Paris [1900], p. 259 s. 
Do F. PLAINE, Le tombeau nonumtal et le pèlinage de 
. Ran (Rete de l'aN chrétien, 2nd. series, XI, 1879, 
p. 278-285). 
 GAI$, 8es isçopotm, p. 207 ; Anna of the Four 
,asts, for the year 1175, ed. O'Donov«n, III, p. 22-23. 

Gaelic Pioueers of Christi«nity 
archbishop has been kept in great veneration 
in the district. " For a quarter of a century 
[we may now say for three-quarters of a century] 
archbishops of Armagh have several times been 
seen, on their journey from Ireland to Rome, to 
stop at Chambéry, either going or returning, in 
order to venerate the remains of their illustrious 
predecessor. One of them, ligr. Dixon [ 1866] 
even solicited and obtained permission frolrt 
IMgr. Billiet, archbishop of Chambéry, to carry 
to Ireland a considerable portion of one of the 
bones of the saint." 1 
A confraternity of St. Concord was estab- 
lished at Lemenc in 1643. The feast of the 
saint is celebrated on the 4th June, the anni- 
versary day of his death. He was the second 
rchbishop of Armagh to die in France. A few 
years earlier, in  48, the celebrated St. blalachy 
had expired at Clairvaux in the arms of St. 
Bernard, »»'ho has left us his biography. 

a [[. GAIDOZ. Un saint rlar, das en 8avoie {Remte celtique, 
VIII, 1887, p. 165-168); TIEPIER, Recherches historique 
¢r le décanat de ,Saint-Adré de atoie, Chnmbry, p. 201 
{a work quoted by I. Gaidoz). 

V.--Saints $pecially Honoured in 
German Lands 

T. Kilian, bishop of Wurzburg and apostle 
of Franconia, was put to death with 
two of his companions, the priest Colo- 
man and the deacon Totnam, about the year 
64o. He is reverenced as a martyr. Churches, 
chapels, wells and mountains bear his name in 
Gcrman lands, t In the collegiate church of 
Essen there was an a]tar dedicated to St. Kilian, 
and, prior to the translation of St. Liborius's 
relics to Paderborn (836), the Irish martvr was 
co-patron of the cathedral of the last named 
Sch6nbach bas published a curious text con- 
taining a list of saints who will be called upon 
to present for the last judgment the nations 
which respectively tlaey had evangelized: St. 
Peter will corne forward with Judoea, St. Paul 

t HISSEL. p. 24 ; KORTH, p. 108-109 ; *VEINHOLD, p. 87 | 
LIOEFLER, 1. 299. 
 Fit. A-r'xs, Dcr Liber ordinori« der Es«nrr Silftlirche 
Essen, 1901, p. 257. 

x4 o 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
with the Gentiles, St. Andrew with Achaia, St. 
John with Asia, St. Thomas with India, St. 
Rupert of Salzburg will present the Bavarians 
and St. Kilian the Franconians. 
We have very few precise data about St. 
Fridolin. It does hOt appear to be absolutely 
certain that he came from Ireland; but he is 
considered to be the founder of the abbey of 
8ickingen on the Rhine to the soutb, of the 
Black Forest, in the sixth century; and from 
that spot his apostolical activity was felt through- 
out the Brisgau. In Alsace-Lorraine, $witzer- 
land, Austria, $outhern Germany and, above 
all, in the Black Forest, the countryfolk hold 
him in the highest respect. 2 In these lands St. 
Fridolin is regarded, like several Irish saints 
with whom we bave already dealt, as the pro- 
tector of horned cattle (Rinderheiliger) and 

x Ms. 1756 in the Vienn. Library (fol. 4). As regards 
St. Patrick, as we bave seen above, an ancient Irish belief 
claires that he will be deputed fo judge the lrish. Accord- 
ing to a less extravagant belicf, Patrick, likc the sainis 
named above, will only be called upon to present the Irish 
for the Last Judgment.. See the hymn of Fiacc lrish 
.Liber Hymnorum, II, p. 33 and J. B. BURY, The Lire of 8l. 
Patrick, London, 1905, p. 319-320. 
t See HERaNN I.0. Der lleiliger Frdol-ln, Freiburg i. 
13r,. 1886, book V. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
horses. Formerly, at Ewatingen, near Bonn- 
dorf, the rector used to bless the horses on the 
saint's festival day, the 6th blarch. At Ober- 
schwoerstadt, near $i:kingen, at Ehrenstetten, 
and at Kirchpofen, near Staufen, it is the 
custom to »»-ait for the Friedlesfcst before placing 
thc yoke on young bullocks or leading calves 
from the cattle-shed across the village to the 
watering-ælace. On the 6th March, there is a 
great assembly of æilgrims at Sickingen, where 
rest the bones of St. Fridolin.  
Under the naine of St. Monus, or Mannus, 
invocation is still ruade in German country parts 
to a suææosed Irish æersonage who is represented 
with a handbell and a æig, after the manner of 
St. Antony. Monus is the patron of marriage, 
and furthermore he shares with St. Fiacre and 
St. Leonard, »vhose lire is as shadowy as his 
own, the ærivilege of healing from the sickness 
known to the æeasants of Southern Germany 
as the Monuskrankbeit, and which is nothing 
else than the worst form of venereal disease. 
His feast falls on the 2Eth July.  

i E. I:l'. MEYEI, Badisches Volksleben ira neozeb, nten 
Jahrhunàert, Strassburg, 1900, p. 406-407. 
 OEFLEB, op. cit., p. 299, 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
The celebrated abbey of Melk, which do- 
minates the Danube, is one o the most FoFular 
places of pilgrimage in Austria. There sleeps 
the Irish St. Coloman in a tomb raised for him 
by the emperor St. Henry. Coloman was on 
his way to the Holy Land when he was assas- 
sinated at Stockerau near Vienna, in Ioz, by 
people who mistook hinl for a spy. I The popu- 
lar voice bas ruade him a martyr. His cuit is 
hOt confined to Melk. In the Palatinate, in 
Suabia, in Bavaria, in Austria and in Hungary, 
when it is hOt St. Fridolin who is invoked, it is 
to St. Coloman peolole have recourse for the 
protection or healing of their horses and horned 
cattle. 2 Chapels in his honour are very 
numerous in those countries. They are generally 
erected in open spaces and for choice on heights. 
On the feast day of the saint, I3th October, 
and on other days in the year, the animals are 
brought to these chapels to receive the priest's 

1 Se Chréto celfique, p. 17. 
I flq'DREE, op. cit., 12. 88 and 6{} s.'- Kurgefa$te Gcchic.e 
von dem heil . . • Kolomann . .., Vienna, 1774, p. 44-46 ; 
C. $tr.«Iz, S. Koloman der einstige Schutzpatron NiederSster. 
r¢cs, Linz, 1916. 


Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
In the wood of Saint-Coloman, near to 
136'amenkirch (Wurtemberg) may be seen an 
old chapel falling into ruins. Up to the end of 
the eighteenth century pilgrimages were ruade 
to it from a dozen neighbouring parishes on 
Whit Monday. It vas nothing unusual to 
count from 4oo to 5oo horses in the wood. 
The head of St. Coloman was exposed at the 
door of the chapel. After the traditional 
blessing the horses circled three rimes around 
the building. 
At Hohenschwangau, near Fiissen, in Bavaria, 
the blessing of cattle and horses still takes place 
on the 13th October. After the ceremony, some 
thirty mounted horses, having once made the 
round of the chapel, go off at a gallop in the 
direction of Schwangau. 1 Votive wells dedicated 
to St. Coloman are often to be seen close to 
his chapels. 2 This Irish saint is also invoked 
bv marriageable maidens who address him as 
follows : 
" Heiliger Sankt Kolomann, 
O schenk' mir auch ein' lIann, 
Aber nur kein' Roten ! " 3 

x NDREE, op. cit., p. 66. 
 lZ[OEFLER, p. 301-30 : WEINHOI,D. I'- 37. 
"» OEFLER. ]oP. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
Lastly, recourse was had to St. Coloman 
against pestilence. In 73, 1V[elk offered to its 
patron a wax candle weighing 7 ° lbs. to obtain 
for the population protection Irom the scourge 
which was then devastating Austria. x 

The Irish passion for long voyages and ad- 
venturous expeditions was so well known to 
continental writers of the middle ages and later 
centuries that they came to speak ot it as being 
in some sort a proverbial truth. The blood of 
the Celt carries him to distant lands : 
" Keltisch Blut treibt in die Ferne."  
English humour bas compressed this truth of 
experience into the familiar saying : Pat is never 
at home but when he is abroad. " Aucun peuple, 
en effet," aflïrms Samuel Berger, " n'a jamais 
été plus voyageur ni plus noblement inspiré de 
l'ardeur missionnaire." » It must, however, be 
well understood that it vas hOt only saints, or, 

X AxDREE, p. 81 ; G. DEPPISCtt, Geschichte des hL 
Coloman{, Vienna, lï84, p. 205. 
SCFL, Der Trompet von Sdckin9 {3rd. cnto : 
Der Fridolimtstag), Stuttga, 1859, p. 45. 
Histoire de  Vuate pendant l rers Mècs du 
moy dçe, Pris, 1893, p. 46. 
o I45 

Gaelic Pioneers of Chrisuamt. 
if it be preferred, candidates to sanctity whom 
the flowing tide of emigration swept far from 
their island home. We bave dealt in the first 
part of this study with those vagabond clerics 
and monks, with those episcopi vagantes, whose 
unseemly and turbulent activity estranged from 
them the sympathy of some continental people. 1 
One may recall the witticisms of Nicholas of 
Bibra against the Scotti of Erfurt. About 
two hundred years earlier (tenth or eleventh 
centuries), a certain Garnier of Rouen attacked 
still more violently an Irish poet of doubtful 
morality called Moriuh. 2 On one hand, re- 
proach is cast on some of these wandering 
strangers for their heterodox or too bold 
opinions; on another, they are mocked for 
their boastfulness, their quarrelsome humour, 
their odd way of dressing, or for their hagio- 
graphic dithyrambs inspired by a ridiculous 
fanaticism. 2 

i Soc a.bove. Part 1. Ch. III. 
s Il.'w. Satire de Garnier de Bm«en contre le poète 
3loriubt {Annuairc-bnllHh de la soc. de l'Mstrc de France, 
XXXI, 89g, p. 93-20). 
0. Cit.; JOCELIN DE BRAKELOND, Chroi«t, 35. Cf. 
celt., p. 160-161 and the anonymoua satire against the 
Brondan fable-makers. 


Gaelic Pionet-rs ot Christianit» 
But nearly ail these criticisms are addressed 
to the rcar divisions of the pilgrim bands, to 
the lost childrcn who constituted the worthless 
camp followers, the wasted material, the flotsam 
and jetsam, of the emigration. From the tenth 
to the eleventh century the salt of charity was 
already losing its savour, and missionary fervour 
had almost grown cold. 1 
On the contrary, in order to describe the 
great figurcs of the heroic age--a Columban, a 
Gall, a Fursa and their imitators--the conti- 
nental writers of those times cannot find suffi- 
ciently fitting expressions of praise.  The case 
xve bave just drawn up proves beyond cavil 
that the saints of this period exerted a very 

 Nevertheloss an Irish bishop, called John, obtained 
the martyr's palm in llecklenburg, in 1066, aller baptizing 
several thousands of pagans in northern Gel'laïany. About 
this naarlyr see Adam of Brenaen ( 106), Gesta Harnrna. 
ba«rgensis ecclesiae pontifica«m, lI1, 20, 50, ï0 {MG. Scrip- 
lotes, Vil, p. 848, 855. 866-867) and J. FIS(laER, Kann 
Bisho] Johannes ous lï'land rnit Recht ols vrster Moï'lyrer 
Arnerikas bezeichnel ueràen ? (Zeitschrifl ]iir kalholisches 
 heologie, XXIV, 1900, p. 756-758). 
-*See Chï'ét. celt., p. 293-294, nd also Vita Samson4$ 
(Boll. Acta Sanct., Jtfly, VI, 582), WHI'ERRY OF SI¢T- 
TIOI, ZD, Vita R«moldi, I (Ibid., July, II, 215), Vita Sanctae 
Odae, II, 14 (GHESUIRI, Acla Satct. B«Igi, 1788, VI, 
p. 629), etc. 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
deep influence on tlxe peoples tlxey eitlaer le3 or 
won back to the Gospel faitla. From generation 
to generation the country people have mysteri- 
ously handed down tlae names of these strangers, 
invoking their supernatural power for the pro- 
tection of the inmates of their stables, their 
principal wealth. 
Death itself did not put a stop to the pere- 
grinations of these transmarini. Thelr relics 
passed from monastery to monastery, from 
church to church, and with them »vent all those 
attributes of folklore to which their names remain 
attached with remarkable persistence. On the 
other hand, a good deal of superstition is 
minglêd with the popular worship accordêd to 
the old saints from Ireland. The wind which 
wafts good seed disperses also in every direction 
the seed of tares and weeds. It is, however, no 
less definitely established that these ardent 
apostles sent new currents of religious lire 
throughout Christendom, and that several among 
them proved to be incomparable spiritual guides 
to souls. Their zeal, their courage, their personal 
virtues, the warmtlx of their faith bave largely 
coatributed to assure them their long continued 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
But there is yet another thing which helps 
to explain their success. No one is a prophet 
in his own country. The history of the Church 
dernonstrates the truth of that evangelical say- 
ing in a rnanner which is fairly disconcerting to 
hurnan conceptions. St. Martin, the great 
apostle of Gaul, carne to us frorn Pannonia ; 
St. Boniface, the national patron of Gerrnany, 
was an Englishrnan. England was evangelised 
by the Roman monk Augustine and his corn- 
Fanions sent by Pope St. Gregory. As to 
Ireland herself, it is to the neighbouring island 
that she owes ber St. Patrick. 
The Irish rnissionaries carne frorn a rnysterious 
land, lost in the mists of the ocean which ebbed 
and flowed at the furthest extrernity of the 
inhabited world. Weird legends were afloat 
about that land. Especially was it said that 
holiness flourished there more than anywhere 
else, and that it worked wonders : " Locus vere 
sanctus fecundusque sanctorurn, copiosissirne 
fructificans Deo," says St. Bernard in sFeaking 
of the rnonastery of Bangor, the cloister of St. 
Corngall and St. Columban. He adds that the 
swarms of saints (examina sanctorum) »vho 
spread over Europe in the train of the last men- 

Gaelic Pioneers of Christianity 
tioned saint might well make one think that 
the words of David : " Thou visitest the earth 
and blesseth it, Thou makest it very plenteous" 
had been written beforehand for them. 1 
Ail these reasons ioined together explain ho»v 
the heroes of Christian Ireland bave corne to 
occupy an unique place in the age-long tra- 
ditions of foreign peoples. 

t Vila Malachiae, V[, 12 {I[olg. P.L., CLXXX[[, 1082), 
,_qt. Bernard of Clairvaur's Lire of 81. Malachy translated b¥ 
H. J. L_WLO, London, 1920, p. 29. 


Aalen, 102. 
Abban (St.), 4. 
Abel of lheims, 22. 
Abraham, 7. 
-- (L.), 92. 
Achaia, 141. 
Adalbero I, 83. 
-- II, 84. 
Aàam of Bremen, 147. 
Adamnan, 6, 50, 57, 69, 103, 
113, 114. 
Adelberg, 110. 
Aghaboe, 21. 
Agilbert, 57. 
Agilus (St.), 10, 32, 74. 
Agricola, 8. 
Aidan (St..), 73. 
Ailbe (St.), 30. 
Aisne, 77. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 130. 
Alberic of Cambrai, 47. 
Alcuin, 6, 30, 40, 43, 45, 46, 
50, 57, 65, 79. 
Aldfrid, 57. 
Aldhelm of Sherborne {St.), 
Alemannia, 98. 
Algeis (St.), 19. 
Algise (St.), 134, 135. 
Allaria (A.), 111. 
Allg/£u, 123. 
klps, 113. 

Alsace, 11, '79, 98, 125, 126, 
130, 141. 
Alto, 21. 
Altomïmster, 21. 
Amay, 111. 
Amiens, 129. 
Anastasitm (Pope), 8. 
 (the Librarian), 51. 
Andreas, 104. 
Andree (R.), 102, 110, 132, 
drew (St.), 141. 
Anglo-Normans, 117. 
Anglo-Saxons, 7, 10, 32, 62, 
Angouleme, 23. 
Animchad, 89. 
Annegray, 122. 
Ansoald of Poitiers, 23, 78. 
Antony (St..), 142. 
Antwerp, 127, 128. 
Apollonius of lhodes, 58. 
Arbois de $ubainville 
d'), 23, 34, 45, 57. 
Ardennes, 83. 
Arens (F. R.}, 140. 
Argonne, 20. 
Armagh, 37, 138, 139. 
Armorica, see Britanny. 
Arnanus of Cahote, 15, 28, 
Arnold (Th.), 68. 69. 

Gaelic Pioneers 

Arras, 11, 185. 
Arx (I. von), 12. 
Asia, 141. 
Atkinson (Robert), 56, 103. 
Atlantic, 188. 
Aubigny, 11, 185. 
Augustine of Hippo (St.), 
-- of Canterbury (St.), 
Ausonius, 57. 
Austrasia, 121. 
.kustria, xv, 90, 97, 188, 
141, 148, 145. 
Authie, 72. 
Auxerre, 66, 70. 

Baltic, 119. 
Bamberg, 121, 124. 
Bangor, 87, 55, 57, 149. 
Basil (St..), 9. 
Basle, 109, 110. 
Bateson (Mary}, 16. 
Bathild, 15-17. 
Bavaria, 80, 00, 11{5, 125, 
132, 141, 143, 
Beaulieu, 20. 
Becker (G }, 46. 
Bede {Ven.), 6, 10, 17, 18, 
57, 59, 64,, 65, 70, 71, 73. 
Beiseel (Stephan), 122, 140. 
Belgium, 18, 20, 98, 101, 
107, 130. 
Benchell, 53. 
Benedict (St.). xviii. 8. 14, 

of Christianity 
Berger (Smuel), 53, 72, 145, 
Berlière {D. Ursmer), 86, 
Bernard (St.), 89, 40, 189, 
149, 150. 
-- (5. H.), St, 5{}, 108. 
Bernaville, 13. 
Berry, 14. 
Berthoumieu, 137. 
Bertin (St.), 15, 79. 
Bietkingen, 125. 
Billiet (Mgr.), 189. 
Birlinger (A.), 102. 
Bishop (Edmund), 26, 48. 
Black Forcer, 141. 
Blandus, 53. 
Bobbio, xix, 11-14, 81, 
82, 97, 110, 121-123. 
Bodmann (F. 5.), 108. 
Bohemia, 91. 
Bohmenkirch, 144. 
Bollandus (5.), 5. 
Boite (J.), 128. 
Bonet-Maury (G.}, 9, 10. 
Boniface, St., 21.22, 25, 
33, 72, 149. 
Bonndorf, 142. 
Boreas, 54. 
Boulogne, 72. 
Bourges, 81. 
Brabant, 131. 
Brassine (Joseph), 107, 128, 
180, 181. 
Brendan (St.), 104, 105, 117, 
120, 146. 
Breuil, see St. Fiacre. 
Bridger of Sweden (St-.. 112. 



Brie, 9, 17. 
Brigld (St.), 101, 103-108, 
112, 130. 
Brisgau, 141. 
Britanny, 70, 71, 101, |12, 
124, 136, 137. 
Britons, 3, 79. 
Broilum, see St.. Fiacre. 
Brunehaut, 9. 
Buleon, (J.), 112. 
Buo (St.), 50. 
Burchardus, 6. 
Durndofara, see Far. 
Burgundy, 9. 
Bury (. B.), 4, 2L 141. 

Cabrol (D. F.), 102. 
Cadoc (St.), 57, 65. 
Oadroë (St.), 6, 7, 31, 70, 72, 
Cahors, 14, 23, 78. 
Cainnech (St.), 114. 
Calloc'h (Jean-Pierre), x.v. 
Calmer (D.), 84. 
Cambiaso (D.), 110, 111, 
123, 124. 
Cambri, 47, 48, 78. 
Canterbury, 63, 72. 
Carloman, 76. 
Carolingians, 5, 81, 44, 50. 
Cashel, xii. 
Cassian, 9. 
Celchyth (Chelsea ), 27. 
Celcstine (Abbot), 20. 
Ccllanus, St., 19. 56. 
o,hd {St.), 73. 

Chaidoc, 19, 72. 
Chalon-sur-Sane, 26. 
Chambry, 138, 139. 
Champagne, 4. 
Charles the Bald, 50-52, 62, 
63, 66, 76, 81. 
-- the Fat, 82. 
-- the Great, xiii, 28, s.; 
42, 8.; 60, 71, 79, 81. 
Chelles, 100 16. 
China, xxi. 
Cholomannus, see Coloman. 
Ciaran (St.), 4. 
Cilicia, 63. 
Clairvaux, 139, 150. 
Claudius of Spain, 43. 
-- of Turin, 47. 
Clemens (hcrctic}, 25. 
-- (magister), 43-45, 65, 
71, 75. 
Clonard, 38, 55, 56. 
Clonfert, 38, 55. 
Clonmacnois, xii, 38, 55. 
Clothairc II, 14. 
Clovis II, 15, 17. 
Colman (St.), 65. 
Cologne, 28, 85. 86, 107. 
Coloman (St.), 6, 90, 97, 123, 
140, 143-145. 
Colton, 41. 
Columba (St.), 6, 56, 57, 69, 
101, 113-116, 122. 
Columban (St.), xviii, xix, 
7-15, 17-19, 86, 56, 57, 70, 
75, 76, 97, 121-124, 134, 
147, 149. 
Columcille, sce Columb0. 

Gaelic Pioneers 

Columquille, Cee Columba. 
Comgall (St..), 5s, 149. 
Concord {St.), 138. 
Constance, 125. 
Constanline of St. Sympho- 
rian, 84. 
Corbican (St.), 19. 
Crbie, 15. 46, 101, 102. 
Coulommicrs, 10. 
Crécy, 11, 136. 
Cinmfin, 88. 
Cummian (St.), 12, 58. 
Cunningham (W. D. D.), 32. 
Cutubilla, see Columba. 
Cyran (St.), 14. 
Cyril (St.), 58. 

Dado, 13. 
Dagobert I, 14. 
-- II, 23. 
Danes, 39, 50. 
Danish, 37, 40, 66, 75. 
Danube, xiii, 90, 98, 143. 
David, 118, 150. 
Declan (St.), 4. 
Deicola, see Desle. 
Delchambre (E. C.), 130. 
Delisle (L.), 23, 62, 105, 129. 
Denys (Pseudo-), 51. 
Deppisch (G.), 145. 
Dermot, 53. 
Desiderius, ¢ee Didier of 
Desle {St.), 134, 135. 
Dicui]. 4. 

of Christianity 
Didier of Cahors, 14, 28, 78. 
Dido of Poities, 23. 
Disibod {St.), 20. 
Disibodenbe»g, 20. 
Dixon {Abp. 5oseph), 13. 
Dobdag»ec, 2. 
Donatus (Grammarian), 52. 
-- of Fiesole, 7, 22, 82. 
Down, 68. 
Dresden, 53. 
Drexlcr (W.), !15, 116. 
Du Broc de Segange (L.), 
Dubthach, 60. 
Du Cange, 78. 
Duine fF.), 124. 
Diimmler, 85. 
Dunchad, 48. 
Dungal, 12, 75. 
-- {Bp.), 46. 
-- of St. Denis, 46, 90. 
-- of Pavia, 47, 50, 63. 
-- (poet), 47. 
-- of Bobbio, 47. 
Dungals, 43, 46. 
Diirwàchter (A.), xiii. 
Dympne (St.), 127, 128. 

Eberger of Cologne, 85, 86. 
Echternach, 101, 102, 105. 
Eddius, 73. 
Edmunds (J. E.), 48. 
Egber¢, 57. 
Egli (E.). o5. 

Ehronsteçten, 142. 
Einhard, 18, 29, 69. 
Einsiedeln, 121, 124. 
Ekkehart, 11. 
Elias of Angoulême, 50. 
-- of Cologne, 86. 
Eligius (St.), 13-15. 
Emly, 36. 
Emmerich (Franz), 21. 
England, 65, 69, 149. 
Epernay, 81. 
Erchinoald, 17, 18. 
Er[urt, 104, 105, 146. 
Ermenrich of Ehvangen, 
Ernault (E.), 103, 124. 
Esposito (Mario), 46, 50, 64. 
Essen, 140. 
Europe, pasMm. 
Eusebius of Mt. St. Victor, 
11, 82, 90. 
Eustasius, 15. 
Eutyches, 52. 
Ewatingen, 142. 

Faouët (Le), 136. 
Fara (St.), 10. 
Faremoutiers, 10. 
Faro (St.), 10, 13, 78, 135. 
F siidius (Bp.), 3. 
Faustus of Riez, 3. 
Fawtier (Robert), 65. 
Fergus, 53. 
Ferguson (Lady), 68. 
Ferté-sous-Jouarre, 10. 

Fiacre (St.), 11, 135-137, 
Fiesole, 82. 
Filibert (St.), 13, 14. 
Fingen, 84. 
Finislère, 137. 
Finnian (St.), 55, 56, 65. 
Fintan (St.), 32, 88, 105, 
Fischer (J), 147. 
-- (Th.), 105, 132, 138. 
Flanders, 131, 132. 
Flavinus (Bp.), 14. 
Flodoard, 77. 
Foillan (St.), 18, 106, 128o 
Folcuin, 22, 79. 
Forannan, 37, 83, 84. 
Forbes (A. P.), 73. 
Fosses, 18, 19, 101, 106, 129, 
Fournier (Paul), 48. 
Fowler (J. T.), 6, 113. 
France, xv, 19, 46, 50, 62, 
81, 99, 131, 134, 139. 
Francis (St.), xix. 
Franco of Liège, 52, 77, 78. 
Frnconia, 20, 98, 141. 
Franco-Saxon, 62. 
Frnkish, 42, 43, 64, 82. 
Franz (Ad.), 112, 120, 125, 
Friart (Norbert), 129. 
Fricor, 19, 72. 
Fridolin (St.), 141, 148. 
Fridugise, 43. 
Frohen, 18, 135. 

Gaelic Pionecrs 

Fulda, 87, 89, 122. 
lursa (St.), 17-19, 81, 80, 
97, 128, 129, 184, 185, 
Fiien, 123, 144. 

Gaels, xiii, xiv, 104. 
Gaidoz (H.), 115, 128, 189. 
Gall (St.), 6, 97, 110. 122, 
123-126, 147. 
Gallcaweiler, 125. 
Gallia, see Gaul. 
Garos, P. B., 138. 
Garnier of Rouen, 146. 
flattl, 5, 8, 9-12, 15, 17, 
22, 86, 42, 57, 65, 70, 71, 
98, 101, 118, 135, 149. 
Gatms (Karl), 110. 
Genoa, 110, 111. 
Gerard of Toul (St.), 85. 
Germanus of Auxerre (St.), 
49, 66. 
Germny, xv, 38, 80, 08, 88, 
87, 98, 102, 115, 122, 123, 
125, 181-133, 141, 142, 
147, 149. 
Gernaans, 93, 117, 119. 
Gertrude of Iivelles (St.), 
18, 101, 116, 125, 129-185. 
Gheel, 127, 128. 
Gisent, 20. 
Ghesquire (Joseph), 147. 
Gibrianus (St.), 4. 
Gilbert (Ph.), 22. 
Giraldus Cambresis, 
Giry (A0, 01. 

of Christianity 
Givenchy-le-Noble, 100. 
Glaber (Raoul), 117. 
Glan, 20. 
Gobtin (St.), 19, 184. 
Gottlieb, 47. 
Gottschalk, 49. 
G6ttweig, 90. 
Grandidier (P. A.), 108, 109. 
Gt.. Britain, 10, 17, 49, 57, 
70, 71, 79. 
Greece, 48. 
Greek, xviii, 42, 51, 52, 57, 
58, 68. 
Gregory (Pope St.), 25, 149. 
of Tours (St.), 9. 
Grinam (Jakob), 182. 
Grinaoald, 66. 
Grotefend (Hermann), 120. 
Guibert (E.), 106. 
Guingerop, 137. 
Gtrow, 119, 120. 
Gutestein, 125. 
Gwynn (E. J.), 86. 

ttaddan (A. W.), 27, 35, 73. 
Hadrian, 68. 
F[alitgaire (Bp.), 48. 
Hanailion (G. L.), 104. 
Harig«.ire (Bp.), 52, 54, 78. 
Hassell, 127. 
Hastière, 84. 
Hauck (A.), 9, 10, 14 t 20-22, 
25, 80. 
Haurau (B.), 00. 
Heber, 109. 
Hebrew, 57. 


Hoirie of Auxerre, 49, 50, 
Heliae (Bp.), 28. 
Y[ellmann (S.), 52, 58, 64. 
]em.y II (St.), 90, 121, 148. 
Herck-la-Ville, 128. 
Heribcrt of Cologne (St.), 
]esse, 109. 
I-[ildegard (St.), 20. 
Hildoard (Bp.), 47, 48. 
]incmar of Rheims, 51-53. 
-- of Laon, 50, 51. 
Hirschau, 122, 124. 
Iock (Auguste), 111. 
]oefler (lI.), 125, 140, 142, 
]2Iohenschwangen, 144. 
][ohenstadt, 102. 
Honau, 21, 28, 79, 108. 
Horace, 56. 
Howel the Good, 73. 
Huefner (A.), 12. 
Hull (Eleanor), 61. 
Hungary, 143. 
guy, 11 l. 

Ibar (St.), 4. 
India, 141. 
Iona, 87, 56. 57, 118, 116. 
Irel nd, passim. 
Irish, passim. 
Irmingard, 52. 
Isaiaa, 45. 
Israel, xxii. 
Issoudan, 102. 

Italy, 11, 44, 40, 65, 98, 99, 
Itta, 18, 129. 

James (M. E.), 22. 
Jane (M. L. C.), 69. 
Janner (Ferd.), I1. 
Jerome (St.), 25. 
Jocelin of Bra kelond, 68, 60. 
 of Furness, 73. 
John (St.), 141. 
 XVII, 84. 
 oï GSttweig, 90. 
-- of Mecklenburg, 147. 
 Scottuo Erigena, xviii 
50-52, 68, 64. 
ffon,s of Bobbio, 7, 8. 
Josephus (Flavius), 58. 
Josephus Scottus, 48, 45. 
Josso (St.), 79, 109. 
Jouarre, 10, 16. 
Judoea, 140. 
Judoc, see ffosse. 
Juhaiz (C.), 148. 
Jumièges, 18, 14. 

Kadroe, see Cadroë. 
Kakukal i11,% see Columba. 
K.kwkylla, see Columba 
Kcller (F.), 12. 
:Kent, 70. 
Kentigern (St.), 7. 
Kiev, 91, 92. 
Kildare, 101, 10, 100. 


Kilian (St.), 11, 20, 21, 81, 
82, 36, 44, 71, 80, 97, 135, 
140, 141. 
Kilros, 73. 
Zirchpoen, 142. 
Korth (L.}, 108, 130, 181, 
Krabbo (H.J, 22. 
Krusch (BrunoJ, 15, 16. 23. 
25, 58, 102, 181. 
Kurth (G.J, 22, 25. 

Lagny, 17, 185. 
Lahaye, 88. 
Lallenu nd (L.J, 82. 
Landévermec, ]01, 102. 
Laon, 48, 50, 51. 
Laux (J. J.J, 8, 21. 
Lavisse (E.L 81. 
Lawlor (H. J-L 87, 39, 88, 
Le Brz (Anatole), 112. 
Leck, 123, 18'7, 138. 
Leclercq (D. H.L 102. 
Lëger (Lotfisj, 92. 
Légipont (O.j, 86. 
Leislle (Davidj, 123. 
Lemenc, 188. 
Leo (HermannJ, 141. 
Leonard (St.J, 142. 
Leubringhen, 106. 
Levison (Ve.J, 22, 98, 106, 
121, 129. 
Liborius (St.J, 140. 
Liège, 48, 52, 76-78, 107, 
111, 180. 

Pioncers of Christianity 
Liestal, 109, 110. 
Liguria, 110, 128, 124. 
Litnburg, 128. 
Limousin, 9. 
Lindislarne, 64. 
Link6ping, 115. 
Lisbon, 102. 
Lisieux, 102. 
Livin (St.J, 201. 
Locniné, 124. 
Locronn, 188. 
Loire, 23, 70, 121. 
Longrey, 14. 
Lorraine, 125, 141. 
Lorsch, 46. 
Loth (J.j, 72, 124. 
Lothir I, 52. 
 I1, 53. 
Louis the Germn, 52, 81. 
 the Pious, 44. 
Luke (St.}, 105. 
Lumbre, 106. 
Lumir, 102. 
Lupus de Ferrières, 69, 79. 
Lure, 122, 135. 
Lussac-les-Châteaux, 28. 
Luxeuil, 13-15, 56, 57, 97, 
101, 102. 

Mabillon, oas/rn. 
Macerias, see Frohen. 
Maelruain (St.), 86. 
Magnus {St.J, 122, 128. 
lIai {A.J, 53. 
Mainz, 20, 26, 89, 108. 
lIalachy (St.j, 89, 139, 150. 



Malnory (A.), 12. 
Mangstrit.t, 123. 
Manitius (M.), 45. 
BIansi, passim. 
lIarcellus, 11. 
BIarcus, 53. 
lIarianus Sco/tus, 5, 31, 71, 
85-87, 89, 93. 
of lafisbon, xiii, 
Marius Mercator, 3. 
l[ark (Bp.), 11, 49. 
Marne, xiii, 121. 
Martin (St.), 149. 
-- (E.), 8, 11. 
-- (Hibernicus), 51. 
Marfine, 16. 
Maugille (St.), 19, 134. 
BIaurice of latisbon, 91. 
Mazerolles, 23. 
BIeaux, 11, 17, 78, 80, 81, 
135, 136. 
l[ecklenburg, 119, 147. 
Mechlin, 20. 
BIelk, 90, 143, 145. 
BIénez-]om, 138. 
Mercia, 28, 71. 
Merovingians, 5, 19, 78, 97, 
127, 129. 
Metlake, see Laux. 
B[etz, 83, 1°-5. 
Meuse, xiii. 
Meyer (A.), 38. 
-- (E. Il.), 142. 
-- (Kuno), 45, 102, 118. 
-- (Paul), 118. 
-- (W.), 117. 

Michael (St.), 114. 
Iiesges (P.), 102, 107, 131. 
Milan, 60. 
BIiller (E.), 51. 
Mocaër (M. P.), xiv. 
1Moedoc (St..), 32. 
l[oenan, 19. 
BIoengal, see Marcellus. 
Moling (St.), 111. 
Molinier (A.), 48, 62. 
Molua (St.), 32. 
Mommelin, 15. 
Momnen (Th.), 3. 
Monffaucon, 53. 
[onus or lIannus (St.), 136, 
Morbihan, 112, 124, 137. 
Morin (D. G.), 3. 
Moriuh, 146. 
5Iount Blandin, 20. 
Mount. Sain-Victor, 11, 82. 
Moutiers-en-Puisaie, 29. 
Moville, 37, 55 
Mowat, ll-L 
Muellenhoff, 125, 132. 
BIuirchu Matou Mactheni, 
l[ulbacher (E.), 29, 80. 
Munding (Em.), 105. 
Munich, 113, 115. 
Murbach, 125. 
Murcheratus, 5, 89, 90. 

Nahe, 20. 
Namur, 130. 
Nennius, 65. 

II 161 

Gaelic Pioneers 

Neubronn, 102. 
Neustria, 121. 
lewman (J. t.), 39. 
icholas of Bibra, 104, 105, 
182, 146. 
Ninine, 108. 
Nisard, 128. 
Nivelles, 101, 102, 105, 129, 
Noirmoutier, 14. 
Norbecourt, 106. 
Norêên lA. G.), 115. 
7ormans, 84. 
lorthmen, 19, 89. 
Novatianism, 4. 
Noyon, 15. 

Oberschwaerstad, 142. 
O'Curry (E.), 88. 
Oda (St.), 147. 
O'Donovan (John), 19, 138. 
Oengus, 88. 
Offa, 28. 
Olden (Th.), 40. 
Orner (St.), 15. 
OrnezC, 180. 
Omont (Il.), 146 
O'Neill (J.), 86. 
Oppermann, 86. 
Origen, 68. 
Orkneys, 88. 
Ott (M.), 1-'28. 
Otte (Heinrich), 116, 119. 
Otto I, 88. 
-- III, 86. 
-- of t{atisbon, 91. 

of Christianity 
Ouen (St..), 13. 
Ovid, 56. 
Owen, 74. 

Paderborn, 89, 140. 
Palatinat e, 143. 
Pannonia, 149. 
Parczeroski, 92. 
Pardessus, 28. 
Paris, 58, 71, 13. 
Paternus, 89. 
Patrick (St.), 4, 24, 35, 37, 
88, 55, 58, 101-108, 111, 
131, 133, 141, 149. 
Paul (St.), xx, 34, 53, 140. 
-- the (Deacon), 48. 
Paulinus, 42. 
Pavia, 47. 
Pelagius, 8. 
Péronne, 18, 81, 61, 79, 97, 
101, 102, 129, 185. 
Perseus, 56. 
Peter (St.), 140. 
-- of Pisa, 42. 
Pez (B.), 91. 
Pf/tffers, 102, 110, 121, 124. 
Pfleger (L.), 186. 
Pflugk-ttarttung (J. V. ), 70. 
Philip of Meaux, 186. 
Piacenza, 82. 
Picardy, 129. 
Picts, 88. 
Pipin the Short, 22. 
 II, 129. 
Piremae (tt.), 52, 58. 
Plaine (D. F.), 188. 


Plato, 63. 
Plogonnec, 138. 
Plouagat, 137. 
Ploun6rez-Porzay, 138. 
Plummer (Gh.), 10, lï, 5ï, 
70, 73, 118. 
æoitiers, 28, 78. 
Poncelet (A.), 15, 110. 
Ponthieu, 72, 79. 
Porphyry, 53. 
Priscian, 53. 
Prosper of Aquitaine, 3. 
Prou (M.), 61. 
Purton (W. J.), 36. 

Quéménéven, 138. 
Quentovic, 72, 79. 

1]aban lIaur, 122. 
1Radenac, 137. 
Ratisbon, xiii, 90-92. 
Ratpert of St. Gall, 11, 88. 
Rebais, 10, 13. 
1Rees {V. J.), 65. 
Reeves (V.), 21, 36, 41, 68, 
1Reichenau, 101, 10- °, 105, 
1Remigius (St.), 4: 
-- of Auxerre, 49. 
1Renan {E.), 45. 
1Renz (G. A.), 91. 
Rhaetia, 82. 
1Rheims, 4, 22, 48, 49, 81, 
1Rheinau, 88, 105, 110. 

1]hine, xiii, 21, 75, 98, 107, 
108, 110, 121, 131, 141. 
1Rhoen (C.), 130. 
1Richard of Canterbury, 2ïo 
-- of Fulda, 87. 
lichborough, ï0. 
1Ried (Thomas), 91. 
1Riezler (S.), 21. 
liquier (St.), 19. 
listelhuber (P.), 126. 
1Rodingus (St.), 20. 
Roger (M.), 53, 57-59. 
Rokowode (. Gage), 68. 
lomanus, 23. 
1Rombault (St.), 20, 71, 147. 
1Rome, passim. 
1Ronan {St.) or Renan, 187, 
1R6ihis, 90. 
1Rouen, 13, 81. 
lousseau {Ftix}, 130. 
l:tozoy, 10. 
Rudolf of Bourges, 81. 
Rupert of Salzburg (Si.), 
1Russia, 91. 

Sckingen, 110, 141, 142, 
Saëns (St.), 14. 
St. Augustine at Pavia, 44. 
St. Blasien (Alsaee), 125. 
St. Brigid at Cologne, 10ï. 
-- at Mainz, 108. 
St. Clement. at Metz, 83, 84. 
St. Denis at Paris, 47. 


Gaelic lonecrs 

St. Denis af St. Orner, 106. 
St.. Edmundsbury, 68, 69. 
St. Fiacre (Brie). 11, 135. 
St. Gall, xx, 11, 12, 81, 46, 
65, 97, 106, 110. 
St.. Germaine (]=Iaute-Saône) 
,St. ffames af. Erfurt, 104. 
-- ai latisbon, 91, 92. 
St. Lambert a.t Liège, 52. 
St. Martin af Cdogne, 85, 
86, 107. 
Si.. Médard, 49. 
St.. Michael a.t. Schotten, 109. 
St. Michel-en-Tiérache, 83. 
St,. Orner, 106. 
St. Pan*aleon af Cologne, 
86, 107. 
St. Paul at Mainz, 108. 
St.. Peter af Ghent, 20. 
 af lheims, 102. 
 ai Salzburg, 21, 22. 
-- t Strasbnrg, 108. 
8t. Quentin af ttasselt, 128. 
St. Remi af. Rheims, 49. 
St. l=enan of Fifistère, 137. 
St. Sauveffr-en-Puis&ie, 79. 
St. Sebastian, 49. 
St. Symphorian, 84. 
St. Ulrich af Adelberg, 116. 
St. Vaast. af Arras, 62. 
St.. Vanne af Verdun, 84. 
St. Yrieix, 9. 
St. Zeno af Verona, 76. 
Sallust, 56. 
Salzburg, 22, 141. 
Samson (St.), 75, 147. 

Sandwich, 70. 
San Teodoro af Genoa, 111. 
Sauvage (R. .), 137. 
Savoy, 188, 189. 
Schaefer (K. t.), 107. 
Schaffhausen, 88. 
Scheffel, 145. 
Scherer, 125, 182. 
Schmeller (J. A.), 
Schoenbach (A), 111, 114, 
Schotten, 109. 
Schottenkirche, 108. 
Schot.tenklSster, xvii, 68, 91. 
Schultze (W.), 45, 61. 
Schwangau, 144. 
ScoIch, xvfi, 68, 69, 92, 108. 
Scotti, passim. 
S«rivener (F. H. A.), 4. 
Sébillot (Paul), 112. 
Sedtflius Scottus, xviii, 
58, 58, 64, 74, 7.5. 
Seebas (0.), 56. 
Seefelde,, 125. 
Seneffe, 1°-9. 
Sens, 81. 
Sherborne, 66. 
Sicily, 8. 
Sigewulf, 43. 
Soissons, 26, 48, 49, 76. 
Solignac, 14.. 
Solomon, 66. 
Spain, 113. 
Spann (la), 122. 
Spires, 122. 
Staufen, 142. 
Steinweg (Col'l), 117. 


Stockerau, O0, 143. 
Stokes (G. I.), 87, 40, 48, 58, 
 (lIargaret), 12, 19, 
--(W]fitley), 7, 34, 88, 
Strachan (ff.), 34, 48. 
Strasburg, 21, 108, 109. 
Strecker (K.), 46. 
Stubbs (XV.), 27, 85, 78. 
Stueckelbcrg (E. A.), 110, 
121, 124, 125. 
Styria, 102. 
Suabia, 143. 
Sulien (Sulgenus), 57. 
Sweden, 112, 115. 
Switzcrland, xv, 11.97, 102, 
110, 121, 124, 141. 
Sybil, 20. 

Tarsus, 63. 
Thierry of Si. Trond, 71, 
Theodore of Can[erbury, 63, 
Theodoric of Ietz, 83. 
Thomas (St.), 141. 
Tibery, 124. 
Tïralla (Il.), 53. 
Todd (J. Il.), 37. 
Tomianus, 23. 
Tononi (G.), 82. 
Totnam, 140. 
Toug,rd (A.), 57. 
Toul, 85. 

Tours, 26, 29, 33, 118. 
Traube. (I), 18, 19, 38, 46, 
49, 50, 51, 53, 60, 61, 74. 
Trepicr, 139. 
Trèves, 20, 101, 102, 107. 
Tuban, 21. 
Turgesius, 37. 
Turin, 47. 
Turner (W.), 44. 
Tyrol, 132. 

Ueberlingen, 125. 
Ultan (St.), 19, 
131. [ 
Ursin (St.), 13. 

128, 129, 

Vacandard (E.), 12-14. 
Vado,lus (St.), 6. 
Valery (St..), 15. 
Van der Essen (-L L.), 15, 
127, 129, 133. 
Vannes, 112. 
Vendryes (J.), xiv, 45. 
Ver, 26. 
Vermflus (licholas), 
Verx ins, 135. 
Vienna, xvii, 143. 
Vikings, 37, 40, 88. 
Virgil, 56. 
of Salzburg, 6, 21, 
Voivre, 122. 
Vorarlberg, 90. 
Vulganius, 70, 72. 
Vykoukal (E.), 26. 

Gaelic Ploneers 

Waitz (G.). 85. 
Valaricus, 6. 
Waldebcrtus, 8. 
Vales, 74. 
Wallon, 106. 
Walsh (T. A.), 107, 130. 
Wandrille (St.), 13. 
Warren (F. E.), 38, 50. 
raersclfleben (F. W. IX.), 
36, 48, 56. 
Vattenbach (W.), 68, 75. 
Waulsort, 83. 
Wavrans-sur-l'Aa, 106. 
Weih St.. Peter, 90. 
Veinhold (1:[.), 123, 125, 
132, 140. 
VVeiss (Ch. Fred.), 12. 
Veissenau, 125. 
Welsh, 65, 73. 
WeniIo of Sens, 81. 
Werner (J-.), 132. 
West.phaIia, 89. 
Wicbald of Auxerre, 50. 
Widric, 85. 

or t_,hr'rgtlanlty 
Wilfrid (St..), 73. 
Willibrord (St.), 57, 102, 
113, 116. 
Wilson (I:L A.), 102, 105, 
Vinterfeld (Parti von), 105. 
Wittnau, 125. 
Witto, 43. 
SVittstock, 119. 
Wratislaw of Bohemia, 91. 
SVrede {Adam), 108. 
VVih.dtwein {S. A.), 109. 
WutoEemberg, 102, 116, 144. 
Wurzburg, 20, 31, 44, 97, 

Zachaxy (Pope), 22. 
Zeitldorn, 116. 
Zeumer, 120. 
Zimmer {1.), 38, 45, ï0. 
Zimmern, 125. 
Zingerle {/L), 116, 132. 


GOUGAUD, Louis. 
Gaelic pioneers of 

.G6 .