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PL 



By JOHN 



GAELIC 
PLACE NAMES 

OF THE 

LOTHIANS 



BY 



JOHN MILNE, LL.D. 





PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR BY 
M'DOUGALL'S EDUCATIONAL COMPANY, LIMITED. 

LONDON : 8 PARRINQDON AVENUE, B.C. 
EDINBURGH : 1 AND 2 ST. JAMES SQUARE. 



INTRODUCTION. 



(Gaelic ivords are printed in Italics.) 

"T"HIS little book is intended to give the meaning and the etymology 
of all the place names of Gaelic origin contained in the six-inch 
maps of the Ordnance Surrey of the Lothians. It was necessary 
to examine all the names in the maps, because many of them which 
appear to be English prove to be Gaelic words which had been turned 
into English words similar in sound but different in meaning, and some- 
times they have undergone several transformations. 

Arthur's Seat represents ard-thir suidhe, place on high ground ; Auld 
Reekie (High Street, Edinburgh), alt-ruighe, high slope ; Guide About, 
cuid a' butli, fold at a shiel. Yellow Man was originally chuitail, cattle- 
fold, which was converted into Whitehill because this resembled chuitail 
in sound. Whitehill was afterwards translated into Gaelic by ghealach- 
man (ghealach, white, and man, hill). Gh in Gaelic is equivalent to y, 
and ghealach became yallaw in Scotch, which in English became yellow. 
Among the Gaelic names have been included a few names of English 
origin. 

The examination of the names of places in the Lothians has not brought 
out the least trace of the Pictish language which some philologists and 
etymologists imagine was once spoken in Scotland. Caesar, the first 
and the best historian of the Roman era in Britain, says that when he 
was there in 55 and 54 B.C. the inhabitants told him that they were all 
of one race, and that they were descendants of the first inhabitants of 
the country. Much has been written on the question whether there was 
within the Roman period (55 B.C. to 410 A.D.) a people in Scotland called 
Picts, who differed in race and speech from those whom Caesar found in 
Britain. Those who say there was contradict Caesar, and they ought to 
prove their statement. The Pictish Question must be settled by evidence 
written before the departure of the Romans from Britain in 410 A.D. 
Nothing in later Roman writers, or in Gildas, Bede, Nennius, Adamnan, 
the Chronicles of the Picte and Scots, or in modern historians, is of 
importance in this question. 



iv. INTRODUCTION 

Caeoar nays that the Britons stained their bodies blue with woad, but 
he does not state whether this was done by an external application or by 
inserting the colour into the skin. Probably it was the latter, for the 
Roman historian Herodian says that the northern Britona punctured 
their bodies with pictured forms of every sort of animals, and wore no 
clothes lest they should hide the figures on their bodies. The same 
practice had prevailed all over Britain in Csesar's time, but had been put 
down within the Roman Province. Neither Caesar nor Herodian uses 
the term Picts, which is first found in a panegyric delivered by Eumenius 
in 287 in praise of Constantius Chlorus on his return from a successful 
expedition into Britain. He said that till Constantius went against 
them the Britons of the south had no more formidable enemy to contend 
against than the Picts and Hibernians, but that Conetantius easily made 
them yield to the Roman arms. By Picts he had meant the northern 
Britons, who, according to Herodian, punctured coloured figures of 
animals into the skin. 

In 305 Constantius became emperor and made another expedition into 
Britain, taking with him his son Cons tan tine. They advanced into 
Scotland and established the Roman power ; but Constantius died at 
York in 306, and his son, having then become emperor, left Britain to 
take up his imperial duties on the Continent. Constantino could hardly 
have been a year in Britain, but in 310 Eumenius delivered another 
panegyric in which in the emperor's own presence he said that he had 
gone to the utmost bound of the island and had undergone hardships 
and dangers in the woods and marshes of the Caledonians and other 
Picts. He followed Herodian but brought in all the names of places and 
peoples in and around Scotland mentioned in antecedent writers, 
Ptolemy excepted, in whom he had placed no confidence. The whole 
panegyric has been characterised as a string of ' ' outrageous hyperboles. " 
By Picts he meant all the tattooed Britons north of the English wall, and 
he used the term not as a national name but as a descriptive epithet. 
Following Tacitus he used the name Caledonians to denote the people 
living north of the Scotch wall. The phrase "Caledonians and other 
Picts " is the base on which the Pictish myth rests. Constantino 
adopted Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire in 330, but 
he had done nothing to foster Christianity in Britain, and there is no 
allusion to it in the ancient names of places in Scotland. 

The Picts are also mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus, who, though 
a Greek, wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. He is also the 
first to mention the Scots. Referring to the period 350 to 360, he states 
that incursions of the fierce Scots and Picts wasted the places near the 
Roman wall in England. At a later date (368) they extended their 
ravages as far south as London, and the Roman Emperor sent Theodosius 
to the help of the Britons. With troops from the Continent he advanced 



INTRODUCTION V. 

into Britain and near London came upon plundering bands wandering 
about. Some were laden with baggage, others were driving captives 
and cattle, both no doubt destined to be killed and eaten when the 
plunderers arrived at their own homes. Where these were we are not 
told ; but it must have been north of the Roman wall, for Theodosius 
returned in 369, and having restored the camps and fortifications again 
extended the boundary of the empire to the Scotch wall and placed 
watchmen upon it. The district between the English and the Scotch 
walls was formed into a province and called Valentia in honour of the 
Emperor Valentinian. If the invaders had been transmarine peoples 
these measures would have done no good to the Romanised Britons in 
England. Neither Picts nor Scots was a national name, but only a 
descriptive epithet given by the Britons whom they harassed. Picts 
comes from a Latin word pictus, meaning painted, and Scots might 
represent one of the Greek words skotos, darkness, and skutos, hide, and 
mean either dark complexioned or wearing dressed skins for clothing. 
Ammianus was a Greek and would have selected a Greek word to furnish 
an apposite epithet for the invaders. 

Claudian, who wrote about 397, mentions the Scots and the Picts, but 
being a poet and also a panegyrist he sacrificed accuracy in geography to 
the exigencies of metre. The Scots he placed in Ireland and the Picts in 
Thule. No doubt he had seen captives from Scotland fighting to the death 
in Roman theatres, and he had been struck by the strange appearance of 
their tattooed faces, and he speaks of a soldier examining the figures on 
the face of a dying Pict. 

In 410 the Romans left Britain, never to return, and then fell on 
Scotland oblivion as impenetrable as that which shrouded it before 
Caesar's advent in 55 B.C. Bede, an ecclesiastical writer who died in 735, 
is the father of the untruthful statement that in his time four languages 
were spoken in Britain those of the Britons, Picts, Scots, and Angles 
or Saxons. Based upon this statement fictitious chronicles were compiled, 
giving brief histories of the Picts and the Scots. The history of Scotland 
cannot be regarded as credible till the Picts and Scots cease to be 
mentioned in it, because they were held to be different in race from the 
original Britons. In 889 Scotland was called by the native name Alban 
and its kings were no longer called " Kings of the Picts " but " Kings of 
Alban," which title continued to be given to them till the death of 
Donald (1097), the last king of Alban. 

With the accession of Edgar, son of Malcolm Canmore and the 
English princess Margaret of England, there came a change in the 
names of the country and its people, and at the same time the language 
of the country began to undergo a change. In some of Edgar's charters, 
which are supposed to be the oldest documents written in Scotland, he 
is [called "King of the Scots," this title being reintroduced from the 
old English Chronicles. The charters are supposed to be genuine, 



vi. INTRODUCTION 

but attributing to Edgar the title "King of the Scots" makes this 
doubtful. 

Malcolm Canmore and his wife were brought up in England, and they 
could not have been familiar with Gaelic, which was spoken universally 
in Britain in Caesar's time but had ceased to be spoken in England, 
though it was still the language of Scotland. In their family and at 
their court English had begun to displace Gaelic, and this change had 
been complete in the reign of Edgar, for one of his charters is attested 
by the signatures of Saxons. He had made Edinburgh his residence and 
the use of English had soon become general in the Lothians. Gaelic had 
rapidly given way before English till the death of Alexander III in 1286. 
Probably the process had slackened during the interregnum and the 
Bruce period, but it had been again accelerated after 1371, when the 
Stuart period began. After the return of James I. from captivity in 
England the decay of Gaelic had ; been rapid. Gaelic is a very old 
language, probably the oldest language spoken at the present day. 
When Caesar came to Britain in 55 B.C. he found that it was spoken all 
over the island called Britannia, and we know that the language of 
Ireland was anciently identical with that of Scotland. But there is 
good reason to believe that Gaelic was spoken in Britain at least 2000 
years B.C. The oldest work constructed by man to be seen in Britain is 
Stonehenge, where there are four concentric circles of stones on a hill- 
side, eight miles from Salisbury. One of the stones stands more than 
twenty feet out of the ground, and though it had been dressed into a 
rectangular form with enormous expenditure of labour, yet there is no 
mark of a metal tool upon it. Archaeologists say that the use of bronze 
was not known in Britain till about 2000 B.C. and that the circles must 
have been erected before that date. The oldest form of the name is 
Stanenges, which is a corruption of the Gaelic words []l[Ae]an 
[Ffijangan, hill of circles, in which the letters within brackets had 
become silent and had been lost. Final an had normally become es. 
The circles at Stonehenge guard a grave in the centre, and there are 
many circles of tall stone pillars round graves in Scotland. Most of 
these show no marks of metal tools, but some, probably more recent, 
have cups upon them which had been cut out with metal chisels. These 
Scotch circles may be as old as those of Stonehenge, and they are 
without doubt the work of our remote Gaelic-speaking ancestors. The 
etymologist soon discovers that the Gaelic of the place names is different 
from that now in use. Modern Gaelic is cumbered with expedients for 
indicating gender, number, and case, but old Gaelic has few of these 
grammatical contrivances, and it is as a rule best to ignore them in 
etymology. 

Every person whose mother-tongue is Gaelic can make out the meaning 
of some names of places and persons, and a person provided with a 
Gaelic dictionary can make out a few more ; but he soon finds that a 



INTRODUCTION yii. 

dictionary is of little use to him unless he knows a good deal of Gaelic 
grammar. Hence a few notes are subjoined to help the etymologist 
over some of the stiles that bar his progress. 

There are in Gaelic eighteen letters, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, i, 1, m, n, o, p, 
r, s, t, u, to which may be added h. Nine of these, b, c, d, f, g, m, p, 
s, t are liable to have their sound changed, or they may become silent 
and then be omitted. Of these, c, f, s, t, may be changed to h, and h is 
put after them to show when this takes place. In Irish the change is 
indicated by a round dot above the letter. In fh both f and h may 
become silent and may be lost. Bh is sounded as u, v, w, or ou, and 
mh has the same sounds but they are slightly nasal, aud an after mh 
may become ng. Dh and gh are both sounded as y, and ph is sounded 
as f. 

One reason for making these changes is to indicate that there is some 
connection between two words when one of them begins with the sound 
of h, v, or y ; and another is to facilitate pronunciation. It is easier to 
sound h than c, f, s, or t ; v than b or m ; y than d or g, and p than f. 
In Gaelic d had often the sound of dg or dj ; hence dearg is made jarg, 
and aod is made edge. Adding h to a letter is called aspirating it, 
though this term is not in all cases appropriate. Aspirated letters are 
soft and are liable to be left out, and the etymologist must be prepared 
for finding any aspirated letter substituted for any other aspirated letter. 
Ch often becomes wh, or ph which is the same as f. Bh and mh are 
often interchanged, and dh and gh sometimes take the place of one 
another. 

Final an in Gaelic causes "much trouble to the inexperienced 
etymologist. It may be three things. It may be a radical part of a 
word, a diminutive termination, or a plural termination. In all three 
cases, especially in the first, it may remain unchanged in passing into 
Scotch. In the second, an may become na by transposing a and n, and 
na may become nie, ney, ny, or less frequently nay. Sometimes n in 
an is dropped, and the obscure final a may become in Scotch ie, y, or 
less frequently o or och. In the third case an usually becomes es or s, 
but sometimes ce or se. Mistakes are of frequent occurrence. Radical 
an may be found changed to ie and c, as if it were a diminutive termin- 
ation, or to s as if it were a plural termination. Diminutive an is 
aometimes though rarely changed to s. This is common in English 
names of Gaelic origin. Sometimes an has been left unchanged, but ie 
has been added to an instead of being substituted for it. The plural 
termination an is sometimes left unchanged, but s had been added to it 
instead of being substituted for it. 

The letter s is often intruded into the middle of a word to convert the 
first part into an English possessive qualifying the second. This is 
common when the first part ends in n. 

The letter m was often followed by b when a Gaelic word passed into 



Viii. INTRODUCTION 

Scotch. Cam, crooked, became camb. Final n occasionally takes on 
euphonic c or k as in sink for sithean th and its vowels being lost. D 
is frequently added for euphony to n as in names containing land, where 
Ian represents lamhan (mh silent), hill. St for Saint as the first part of 
a place name frequently represents sithean, hill th with its vowels 
becoming silent and euphonic t being added to n. In the Aberdeenshire 
name St Cloud St is Saint for sithean, hill, to which had afterwards 
been added as an explanation cnoc, corrupted into cloud as in cloudberry, 
mountain berry. In the names Great Saint Bernard and Little Saint 
Bernard the last two words represent sithean, hill ; beam, pass or gap ; 
and urd, hill. 

No Gaelic word begins with a radical h, but it was often prefixed to 
words beginning with a vowel when they passed into Scotch. 

J.M. 




PLACE NAMES 

OF 

MIDLOTHIAN 



GAELIC 

PLACE NAMES 

OF 

MIDLOTHIAN 

BY 

JOHN MILNE, LL.D. 




PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR BT 
M'DOUG ALL'S EDUCATIONAL COMPANY, LIMITED. 

LONDON : 8 PARRINGDON AVENUE, B.C. 

EDINBURGH : 1 AND 2 ST. JAMES SQUARE. 



PLACE NAMES OF 
MIDLOTHIAN 



ADAM BRAE. Brae. Aodann, brae. The second part is a 
translation of the first. 

ADAMS BIG. Brae. Aodann, brae. Ann was improperly 
made s instead of ie, and s instead of being substituted for ann 
was added to it. 

ADAMSEOW. Both parts of the name mean brae. Aodann, 
brae ; ruigh, slope of a hill. 

ADDIEWELL BRAE. Town on a brae. Baile, town; aodann, 
brae. To avoid a hiatus baile had been put last and made bhaile, 
pronounced waile and now made well. Ann became ie. 

ADDISTON. Town on a brae. Aodann, brae. Ann had 
normally become ie, and s had been added to ie to obtain an 
English possessive. 

ADIE'S SIKE. Burn from a brae. Aodann, brae. Ann had 
been made both ie and s. 

AIKENDEAN. Den of the fold. Aigheann, fold. 

AIMVILLE BURN. Burn. Amhainn, stream. Mh is sounded 
v, and m ought to have been dropped when v was introduced. 
Final nn often becomes 11, as in cill for cinn. Amhainn had 
become avainn and subsequently availl, and aimville. 

AIRFIELD. Field on a shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

AIVEN SYKE. Small stream forming the head of a burn 
Abhainn, river, burn. 

ALDERSTONE. Stone at a burn on a shieling. Allt, burn 
airidh, shieling. Dh, being silent, had been lost. 

ALLAN'S HAUGH. Haugh at a small burn. Allan, diminutive 
of all, stream. S had been inserted to make allan possessive. 

ALLERMUIR. Muir of the hill of the shieling. Aill, hill 
airidh, shieling. 

ALMOND. Burn from a hill. All, burn ; monadh, hill 

ALNWICK. Nook of the burn. Uig, nook ; allan, small stream. 

AMAZONDEAN. This name means den of a town in a beautiful 
place. A is an addition made to obtain an English word ; maz 
represents maise, beauty ; on is for town ; and dean is for the 
Gaelic word dein, den. 

ANKRIELAW, for An Creag Lamh. The hill. An, the ; creach, 
hill ; lamh, hill. 

B 



6 PLACE NAMES 

ANNETSCROSS. Crossing at the junction of two streams. 
Grois, crossing; aonadh, junction. 

ANN'S MILL. Mill at a fold. Innis, enclosed place. 

AEMET WATER. Burn draining good land. Ar, land ; meith, 
good. 

ARNISTON. Town ot watching cattle at night. Airnean 
(Irish), watching. Ean had been made i as a diminutive and s 
as a plural termination. 

ARNOTT Boo, for Buth Airne Noadh. House where a watch 
was kept. Buth (th silent), hut ; airne, watch ; noadh, watching. 
The last part explains the second. 

ARTHUR'S SEAT, for Ard-thir Suidhe. Place on high ground. 
Ard height ; thir, tir aspirated, land ; suidhe, place, situation. 
Suidhe had once been first, but it had been translated and put 
last. 

ASHBROOK. Both parts mean burn. Eas (pron. ash), burn. 

ASHLEY. Grassy place at a burn. Eos burn ; ley (Scotch), 
grassy place. 

AUCHENCORTH. Place of the fold. Achadh, place; an, of 
the ; corth, fold, stone circle. 

AUCHENDINNY. Place at a little hill. Achadh, place ; an, of 
the ; dunan, little hill. 

AUCHENH ARROW. Place of the shieling. Achadh, place ; an, 
of the ; airidh, shieling. 

AUCHINOON. Place for lambs. Achadh, place ; an, of the ; 
uan, lamb. 

BAAD PARK. Enclosed wood. Bad, bush, wood ; pairc, 
park. 

BAADS. Small wood. Badan, small bushy place. An had 
improperly been made s instead of ie. 

BABERTON. Town at a fold on a shieling. Babhunn, milking 
fold ; airidh, shieling. Unn changed to ie had been lost before 
airidh. 

BACK DRUM. North side of a ridge. Druim, long ridge. 
Back might be bac, moss. 

BACK OF Moss. Moss. Bac, moss. The second part is a 
translation of the first. 

BACKDALE. If this name is Gaelic it represents Dail Bac. 
Field of the moss. Dail, field ; bac, peat-moss. If it is English 
it means dell on the north side of a hill. Back, north-lying ; 
dale, valley, dell. 

BACKDEAN. Valley on the north side of a hill. Dein, dean, 
den, gorge eroded by ice or running water. 

BACKSIDE. If this name is English it means north side of a 
hill. If it is Gaelic it means place in a moss. Suidhe, place, 
site ; bac, moss. 

BAILEYFIELD, for Achadh Baile. Field near a town. Achadh, 
field ; baile, town. 

BALERNO. Town where a watch was kept. Baile, town ; 
airne, watching cattle against thieves. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 7 

BALLENY. Place full of little knolls. Bailleanach, abounding 
in knolls. 

BALLGREEN. Sunny town. Baile, town; grianach, sunny, 
warm. 

BANGHOLM. Fold. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, 
corrupted into whitehill, which was again turned into Gaelic 
by bantholm, white hill (ban, white ; tholm, tolm aspirated, hill). 
Tolm was aspirated because it followed its adjective. Euphonic 
g had been added to ban, and t in tholm had been lost. 

BANK HEAD, BANKHEAD. If English this name means head of 
a high level terrace. If Gaelic it represents Chuit Chuid, both of 
which mean fold. Chuit had been corrupted into white, which had 
subsequently been turned into Gaelic by ban, white, with k 
added for euphony. To explain bank chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, 
had been added to it, but c being silent in ch it had been lost, 
leaving huid, which had been made head in the belief that it 
was an English word. 

BANKTON. Town on the bank of a burn. 

BABBACHLAW. Point of the big hill. Barr, point ; bagach, 
bulky ; lamh, hill. G with its vowel had been dropped. 

BARLEY KNOWE. Point on the side of a knoll. Barr, point ; 
leth (th silent), side. 

BARLEYDEAN. Point on the side of a den. Barr, point ; 
leth (th silent), dein, dean, den. 

BARNTON. Town in a hollow. Beam, gap in a ridge, long 
trench-like hollow in a level plain. 

BARON'S CLEUGH. Gap between two steep banks. Bearnas, 

g a P- 

BARTHOLOMEW'S FIRLOT, for Feur-lot Barr Tholm Chuith. 
Hay-loft for a fold on the point of a small round hill. Feur-lot, 
hay-loft ; barr, point ; tholm, tolm aspirated, round hillock ; 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. Chuith lost ch and th, and ui 
is now pronounced ew. S was added to turn Bartholomew into 
the possessive. 

BAVELAND, for Lamh Babhunn. Hill of the fold. Lamh, 
hill ; babhunn, fold. Unn had become ie, which had been lost. 

BAWDY Moss. Bushy moss. Badach, bushy. 

BEATMAN'S ACRE, for Ard-thir Man Beathach. High cultivated 
land on a hill where birches grow. Ard, high ; thir, tir aspirated, 
land ; man, hill ; beathach, abounding in birches. Acre for 
ard-thir is found in the name Acrestripe. 

BEESLACK. Gorge of birches. Beith, birch; slochd, gorge, 
howe. 

BEGGAR'S BUSH. Bushy place on a little shieling. Beggars, 
for Beag Airidh, small shieling. Beag, small ; airidh, shieling. 

BELL LAW, BELLFIELD, BELL'S HILL, BELL'S LAW, BULL'S 
MAINS, BELLOWS BRAE, BELLYFORD, BELSTANE. The first part 
of the names is Buaile, fold. Law is lamh, hill ; mains is man, 
hill, with s added because ain was erroneously regarded as a 
plural termination ; and brae is braigh, hill. 



8 PLACE NAMES 

BENRY. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope ; beinn, hill. 

BENT'S HILL. Little hill. Beanntan, diminutive of beann, 
hill. An had improperly been made s. 

BENTIEHEAD, for Beanntan Chuid. Little hill on which there 
was a fold. Beanntan, diminutive of beann, hill ; chuid, cuid 
aspirated, fold. C silent had been lost. 

BERRY KNOWE. Pointed hill. Biorach, pointed. 

BERBYHILL. Watery hill. Biorach, watery. 

BINKS. Fold. Originally Chuitatt, cuitail aspirated, fold, 
corrupted into whitehill, which was again turned into Gaelic by 
beinncan, white hill. An in can is not a plural termination but 
it was made s. Beinncs is now binks. 

BIRK BURN. Burn bordered by birch-trees. 

BIRNIEHILL, BIRNY KNOWE, BIRNY ROCKS. The first part is 
Bearna, gap infa hill, or long hollow in level ground. 

BLACK MOUNT, BLACK RIG, BLACK TOE, BLACKBRAE, BLACK- 
COT, BLACKDUB, BLACKBALL, BLACKHILL, BLACKHOPE, BLACKLAW, 
BLACKRAW. BLACKSIDE RIG. In most of these names Black had 
originally been dubh, black ; but in some it may be a corruption 
of bleoghann, milking-place, in which ann became ie, afterwards 
lost. Mount is monadh, hill ; rig is ruigh, slope ; toe is a 
point where two burns meet ; brae is braigh, hill ; cot is cuit, 
fold ; dub is dubh, black ; hall is choill, coi.ll aspirated, hill, 
with c silent lost ; hope is chop, cop aspirated, hill, with c silent 
lost ; law is lamh, hill ; raw is rath, fold ; side is suidhe, 
seat, place. 

BLAW WEARY, for Blath Chuith Airidh. Pleasant fold on a 
shieling. Blath, warm, pleasant; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold; 
airidh, shieling. The aspirated letters were lost, being silent. 
Ui is sounded as we. 

BLINKBONNY. Milking-place in a hollow. Bleoghann (gh 
silent), milking ; bonnan, diminutive of bonn, bottom, hollow. 

BOGHALL. Farm house at a bog. Hall represents the kitchen, 
the public room in a farm-house. 

BOLL OF BEAR, for Poll Bior. Pool of water. Poll, pool ; bior, 
water. 

BONALLY. Bottom of a hill ; Bonn, bottom ; aill, hill. The 
sound of y is heard after aill when forcibly pronounced. 

BONAR'S WELL. Well at a summer shiel. Bothan (th silent), 
hut ; airidh, shiel. S made Bonar possessive. 

BONNINGTON. Farm town in a small howe. Bonnan, dimin- 
utive of bonn, bottom, howe. 

BONNYPIELD, BONNYRIG. Place in a hollow, and Slope at a 
hollow. Bonnan, little hollow ; ruigh, slope. 

BORE STANE. Big Stone. Borr, big. 

BORTHWICK, for Uig Chorth. Nook of the fold. Uig, nook ; 
chorth, corth aspirated, fold. Chorth had subsequently been 
made bhorth and berth. 

Bow. Curve in a hillside. Bogha, bend. 

Bow BRIDGE. Bridge with an arch. Bogha, curve. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 9 

Bow HILL, perhaps Cow-hill. Bo, cow. 

BOWBBAT HILL. Hill with a curve in which birch-trees grow. 
Bogha, bend ; beath, birch. 

BOWER, for Bo-airidh. Summer pasture for cows. Bo, cow ; 
airidh (idh silent), shieling. 

BOWLAND. Cow-hill. Bo, cow ; lamhan, hill, with euphonic 
d added. 

BOWLEE. Grass-land where cows fed. Bo, cow ; ley (Scotch), 
grassy place. 

BOWMAN'S GILL. Cow-hill glen. Bo, cow; man, hill; gill, 
small ravine. Gill is said to be Norse, but it seems to have 
been adopted into Gaelic. Gill is a common word in the north- 
west of England. 

BOWSHANK, for Bo-sithean. Cow-hill. Bo, cow; sithean (th 
silent), hill. Euphonic k had been added to n. 

BEADLAW. Hill. Braghad (gh silent), hill ; lamh, hill. 

BRAE END, for Braighean. Little hill. Braighean, dimin- 
utive of braigh, hill. Euphonic d had been added to n. 

BRAID BURN, BRAID HILL, BRAID LAW, BRAIDWOOD. The first 
part is braid (Irish), hill. Law is lamh, hill. 

BREICH BRIDGE, BREICH WATER. Breich is bruch, hill. 

BREWER'S BUSH. Bushy place on a shieling hill. Bruch, hill ; 
airidh, shieling. 

BRIERYBAULK. Uncultivated ridge growing briers. Brier, 
wild rose, from preas, bush ; balk, strip of land between two 
cultivated ridges. 

BRIESTON. Town on a small hill. Braighean, diminutive 
of braigh, hill. Gh is equal to y, and can had been made s 
though it is a diminutive termination. 

BRIGS, for Bruchan. Small hill. Bruchan, diminutive of 
bruch, hill. An ought to have become ie. 

BROCKHOUSE. Hill of the fold. Bruch, hill ; chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. C in ch is silent and had been lost, and th had 
become sh, afterwards losing the aspirate. It is unlikely that 
house is the English word. 

BROOKBANK. Bank of a hill. Bruch, hill. 

BROOMHILL. Hill growing broom. Some proprietors required 
tenants to sow broom to be thatch for houses. 

BROSIE MAINS, perhaps for Bruthach Main. Ascent of a hill. 
Bruthach, ascent ; main, genitive of man, hill. Th and sh have 
the same sound, and hence t and s are sometimes used the one 
for the other. Final ain had been thought to be a plural 
termination, hence s had been added to n. 

BROTCHRIG, for Ruigh Bruch. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, 
slope ; bruch, hill. Bruch had been strengthened by inserting t. 

BROTHERSHIELS. Huts on the hill of the shieling. Sealan, 
huts for people in charge of cattle on a shieling ; bruch, hill ; 
airidh, shieling, summer pasture. 

BROTHERSTONE. Stone on the hill of the shieling. Bruch, 
hill ; airidh, shieling. Stone might be ton, town, with s prefixed. 



10 PLACE NAMES 

BROUGHTON. Hill town. Bruch, hill. 

BBOWN MOOR BURN. Moor of the burn. Brown, for braon, 
hill burn. 

BRUCEPIELD. Hill field. Bruch, hill. 

BRUCEHILL. Hill. The second part is a translation of the 
first. Bruch, hill. 

BRUNSTANE, for Clock Braon. Stone at a burn. Clack, 
stone ; braon burn. 

BRUNSTON. Burn town. Braon, hill burn. S represents aon 
of braon, regarded as a plural termination. 

BRUKTSFIELD. Field at a burn. Braon, hill burn. T is 
euphonic, and s represents aon regarded as a plural termination. 
In Burntisland, which represents braon lamhan, burn of the hill, 
aon has been made is, which has changed land, meaning hill, 
into island. 

BRYANS. Little hill. Braighean, diminutive of braigk, bill. 
An became s instead of ie. 

BUCKSTONE SNAB. Meaning uncertain. Perhaps big stone on 
a blunt point. Buchd, bigness, big; snab (Scotch), blunt 
point. 

BUGHELIN. Cow-stalls. Buaighealean, plural of buaiyheal, 
cow-stall. 

BUISELAW, for JBuidhe Lamh. Yellow hill. Buidhe, yellow, 
growing broom ; lamh (mh silent), hill. S is an insertion made 
to obtain an English possessive. 

BURDIEHOUSB. House on a small flat place. Bordan, little 
level place. An became ie. 

BURGESS CAIRN. Cairn at a hill-burn. Corn, cairn ; bruch, 
hill ; eas (pronounced ess), burn, waterfall. 

BURGHLEE. Grassy place on a hill. Bruch, hill ; ley (Scotch), 
level grass-land. 

BURNDALE. Burnfield. Dail, field. 

BURNGRANGE, for Burngrains. Space between two arms of a 
burn. Grain, same as groin. 

BURNHALL. Farm-house at a burn. Hall means the farm- 
kitchen, the public place in the house. 

BURNHEAD, for Braon Chuid. Burn of the fold. Braon, burn ; 
chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C silent had been lost, and huid 
had become head. This place is not at the head of a burn. 

BURNWYND, for Braon Bheinn. Burn of the hill. Braon, 
burn ; bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. Bh is equivalent to w. 

BUSHDYKE. Black clump of trees. Bush, group of trees ; 
dubh, black. 

BUTELAND. House on a hill. Buth, hut, house ; lamhan, hill. 
Mh in lamhan is silent, and euphonic d had been added to n. 

BUTTERPIELD, BUTTERHALL. Butter is for Buth Airidh. Hut 
on a shieling. Buth, hut, shiel ; airidh, shieling. Hall is choill, 
coill aspirated, hill, c silent being lost. 

BYE LAW. Birch Hill. Beith (th silent), birch ; lamh, 
hill. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 11 

BYRES LOAN. Grass-land at cow-byres [on a shieling. Loan, 
grassy place ; buth, (th silent), hut for cows ; airidh (idh silent), 
shieling. Bu-air became byre. 

BYERSIDE HILL. Watery hillside. Bior, water, burn. 

CADAMSCLETJGH. The space between the steep sides of a 
ravine. Cadam, division. 

CADGER'S HOME, for Cadha Thorn. Hill road. Cadha, road, 
track ; thorn, torn aspirated, hill. T is silent. 

CAERKETTON CRAIGS, for Creagan Cathair Cuitan. Little 
hill which was the seat of a fold. Creagan, diminutive of creag, 
hill ; cathair (th silent), seat ; cuitan, diminutive of cuit, fold. 

CAIRNS. Small hill. Garnan, diminutive of earn, hill. 
Carnan is also the plural of earn, and it might mean hills. 

CAIRNSMUIR. Little hill on a muir. Carnan, little hill. An 
was improperly made s instead of ie. 

CAIRNTOWS. Hill in a little hollow. Carn, hill, cairn ; tollan, 
diminutive of toll, howe. Oil becomes ou or ow. 

CAIYSIDE. Site of a fold. Suidhe, site ; cuidh (dh equal to 
y), fold. A stone with incised cups marks a prehistoric grave. 

CAKEMUIR. Muir of the burn. Caoch, burn howe. 

CALDCOT, for Cul Cuit. Back fold. Cul, back; cuit, fold. 
D is a euphonic insertion. 

C ALDER, for Callaidh Dobhar. Swift water. Callaidh, swift ; 
dobhar, (bh silent), water, burn. 

CALFHOPE. Hollow of the hill. Cabh, hollow ; chop, cop 
aspirated, hill. C in ch being silent, had been lost. 

CALTON. Little hill. Coilltean, diminutive of coill, hill. 

CAMERON, for Cam-sron. Crooked nose. The nose is a 
narrow bit of land within a bend of Braid Burn. 

CAMILTY. Many roads. Cath (th silent), road ; milteach, vei-y 
many. The roads were concentric ditches surrounding an 
ancient fold. 

CAMP, CAMP HILL. The camps were cattle-folds. 

CAMP BRIDGE. A ridge at a crook in a burn. Cam, crooked. 

CAMPEND, for Caman. Small curve. Caman, diminutive of 
cam, crooked, bent. P and d are euphonic additions to m 
and n 

CAMSTONE QUARRY. Camstone is a white decayed felspathic 
or else calcareous rock, formerly sold in small blocks for 
rubbing door-steps on Saturday that they might be white on 
Sunday. Can, white. 

CANNIEHOLE, for Ceann na Choille. Head of the hill. Ceann, 
head ; na, of the ; choille, coille, hill. C silent had been lost. 

CANNY KNOWES. Knolls where mountain cotton (eriophorum) 
grows. Canach, cott >n grass, cats-tail. 

CANTYHALL. Little head on the hill. Ceanntan, diminutive 
of ceann, head; choill, coill aspirated, hill. An normally 
became y. 

CAP LAW, CAPELAW. Hill. Ceap, summit, hill ; lamh, hill. 
CAPIELAW. Hill. Ceapan, diminutive of ceap, hill ; lamh, hill. 



12 PLACE NAMES 

CARBEBRT HILL. The three parts all mean hill. Cathair (th 
silent), hill ; bruch, hill. 

CAEBEERY TEOWS. The arable farm at Carberry. Treobhachas, 
cultivated land. Bh is equal to w, and ch with its vowels had 
been lost. 

CAEBOTHIE. Hill of the little house. Cathair (th silent), 
hill ; bothan, small hut. An became ie. 

CAECANT NICK, for Na Eag Cathair Canta. The gap of a 
hill where there was a pool. Na, the ; eag, nick, gap ; cathair 
(th silent), hill ; canta, lake, pool. 

CAELEHALL. Hill. Cathair (th silent), hill ; lamh (mh silent), 
hill ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. C in ch is silent. 

CAELOPS, for Luban Cathair. Little bend in a hill. Luban, 
diminutive of lub, bend ; cathair (th silent), hill. An was 
wrongly made s instead of ie. 

CABNETHY. Hill of the little burn. Cam, hill; nethan, 
little burn. An normally became y. 

CAERINGTON. Town at a little fold. Cathairean, diminutive 
of cathair, fold, hill. Th is silent and had been lost. Bell Law 
at Carrington shows that there was a fold on a small hill there. 
See Bell Law. 

CAESEWELL. Town on a hill. Bhaile, baile aspirated, town ; 
cathair (th silent), hill. Baile had originally been first, but it 
had been put last and aspirated and made well, bh being equal 
to w. S made car possessive. 

CAESINKEE LAW, for Lamh Cathair Sithean Airidh. Hill of 
the shieling. Lamh, hill ; cathair, hill ; sithean, hill ; airidh, 
shieling. All the aspirated letters had been lost, and k had 
been added to n for euphony. 

CASTLE GREY. Castle or fort on a hill. Creag, hill. " The 
supposed fort is an ancient cattle-fold. 

CASTLE o' CLOUTS. Mansion built by a clothier. 

CASTLELAW. Castle hill. Lamh, hill. 

CAT HAUGH. Haugh of the path. Cat, path, drove road. 

CAT NICK ROAD. Notch in which there was a path. Cat, 
road ; nick (Scotch), notch. 

CAT STANE. Stone showing a right of way. Cat, footpath, 
drove road. 

CATCUNE. Steep road. Cat, road; cuinge, steepness, 
difficulty. 

CATHA RIG. Road on the slope of a hill. Catha, drove road, 
ruigh, side of a hill. 

CATHIE. Place near a road. Catha, road, ravine. 

CATPAIB, for Cath Fair. Road over a hill. Cath, drove road ; 
fair, hill. F is equal to ph, and when cath lost the aspirate 
and became cat ph had also lost the aspirate and had 
become p. 

CATWELL, for Bhaile Cat. Town on a road. Bhaile, baile 
aspirated, town ; cat, road. Bh is equal to w, and bhaile had 
become well. Well might be an English word. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 13 

CAUL. Weir. Gaol, narrow. A fishing weir narrows a river. 
Euphonic d is sometimes added to 1. 

CAULD STANE SLAP. Slap with a stone in it on the north 
side of a hill. Cul, back, north. 

CAULDCOTS, for Cuil Cuitan. Nook of the little fold. Cuil, 
nook ; cuitan, diminutive of cuit, fold. An had by mistake been 
regarded as a plural termination and had been changed to s 
instead of ie. 

CAULDHALL. Nook in a hill. Cuil, nook ; choill, coill aspirated, 
hill. C in ch is silent. 

CAUSEWAYEND, CAUSEWAYSIDE. Causeway represents Calceata 
Via (Latin), shod way. Calceata, protected by stones and 
gravel ; via, way. 

CHALKIESIDE. Place on a hill where there was a fold. 
Suidhe, place ; choill, coill aspirated, hill ; cuitk (th silent), fold. 

CHANGE HOUSE. House at a fank or fold where sheep and 
cattle on a journey could be kept at night. Fang, fank, fold. 
F or ph, became ch, g hard became soft, and thus fang became 
change. Change house came to mean an inn because there were 
fanks at inns on drove roads. There was a change house at 
Wrights Houses. Some inns with fanks were called chance inns. 

CHARLIE'S WELL, for Tobar Sear Lios. Well at the black 
fold. Tobar, well ; sear, dark, black ; lios, fold. Se is pro- 
nounced she. 

CHASELY BURN. Burn of the rapid ford. Cas-lighe, rapid ford. 

CHESTERHILL, CHESTERS. There were anciently cattlefolds at 
these places, which were afterwards supposed to have been 
Roman camps. Edgehead near Chesterhill means fold, and 
there is a trace of a fold at Chesters. Castra (Latin), camp. 

CHIRMAT. Big crest of a ridge. Chir, cir aspirated, crest ; 
mata (Irish), great. 

CLAUGHRIE BURN. Burn formerly crossed by a row of 
stepping stones. Clacharan, stepping stones. 

CLAYBARNS. Offices on a farm, built of clay. 

CLAYLANDS. Probably this name means stony hill. Clachach 
(chach lost), stony ; lamhan (mh silent), hill, with d added for 
euphony, and s added because lamhan ended in an, wrongly 
supposed to be a plural termination. 

CLEARBURN. Burn whose water is transparent. As a Gaelic 
prefix clar means in front of, before. 

CLEAVE. Wattled fold, death, wattled fold. Th had become 
bh, equal to v. 

CLEIKIMINN. Meaning uncertain, perhaps inn of assemblies. 
The spelling indicates a confusion between click, to assemble, 
and clichd, iron hook, cleik (Scotch). 

CLERKINGTON, for Baile Clar Cinn. Town at a broad faced 
place. Baile, town ; clar, broad ; cinn, for ceann, head. 

CLERMISTON. Beautiful town sloping to the south. Glair, 
front, south ; maise, beautiful. Sometimes the east was regarded 
as the front side. 



14 PLACE NAMES 

CLINTT CLEUGH. Steep bank of the little valley. Cluaintean, 
little valley. Ean had normally become y. 

CLOVENPORD. Ford at stepping-stones. Clocharan, stepping- 
stones. Ch had become bh, equal to v, and r had been 
lost. 

CLOVERFOOT, for Clochar Chuit. Stony fold. Clochar, stony ; 
chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ch of clochar had become bh, equal 
to v, and ch in chuit had become ph, equal to f. 

CLUBBIE DEAN, for Clumhach Dein. Bushy den. Clumhach, 
rough, hairy, bushy ; dein, den. Mh had become bh, both being 
sounded v, and h had been lost. The interchange of b and m is 
of frequent occurrence. Clubach had become Clubbie. 
COAL BURN. Hill Burn. Coill, hill. 

COATS, COATES. Small fold. Cuitan, diminutive of cuit, fold. 
An by mistake had been made s and es instead of ie. 

COATES HALL. Coates represents Cuitan, small fold, with an 
made s by mistake instead of ie. Hall is sometimes a proprietor's 
mansion house, and sometimes a farm house -with a large kitchen 
open to all the workers on the farm. 

COBINSHAW. Wood in a hollow. Cobhan, hollow ; shaw 
(English), wood, bushy place. 

COCK RIG, COCKRIG. Slope on a hill. Ruigh, slope , cnoc, 
hill. 

COCK RIG END, for Ruighean Cnoc, Narrow sloping band 
along the foot of a hill. Ruighean, diminutive of ruigh, slope ; 
cnoc, hill. 

COCKBRIDGE, for Burn Bridge. Coileach means both burn 
and cock, and by mistake the second meaning had been 
substituted for the first. 

COCKBURN. Hill burn. Cnoc, hill. 
COCKLAW. Hill. Cnoc, hill ; lamh, hill. 
COCKLEROW, for Cock Hill Row. Row of houses on a hillside. 
Cnoc (n silent), hill. 

COCKMOOR, COCKMUIR. Hill moor. Cnoc, hill. 
COCKMTLANE, for Cnoc Aillean. Little hill. Cnoc, hill ; 
aillean, diminutive of aill, hill. 

COCKPEN. Hill. Cnoc, hill; beinn, hill. The second part 
had been added to explain the corrupted form of the first. 

COCKUM WATER. Burn of the little hill. Cnocan, diminutive 
of cnoc, hill. Cnoc lost n and an became um. 

COLDHAME, for Cul Thorn. Back of the hill. Cul, back ; thorn, 
torn aspirated, hill. T is silent. 

COLDWELL, for Cul Bhaile. Back town. Cul, back, north side ; 
bhaile, baile aspirated, town. Bh is equal to w, and bhaile had 
become well. D is a euphonic intrusion. 

COLDWELL STRAND. River valley at a town on the back of a 
hill. Srathan, diminutive of srath, valley ; cul, back ; bhaile, 
baile aspirated, town. D had been added to an. Bh is equal to 
w, and bhaile had been first waile and then well. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 15 

COLDWELLS, for Bhaile CuL Place on the back of a hill. Bhatfe 
baile aspirated, farm town; cul, back, north. Bhaile is pro- 
nounced waile, which had become well, and s had been added for 
euphony. Euphonic d had been added to 1 of cul. 

COLEGATE. Hill road. Coill, hill ; gate (English), road. 

COLINTON, for Baile Coillean. Town at a little hill. Baile, 
town ; coillean, diminutive of coille, hill. 

COLTBRIDGE. Bridge over a small burn. Coilteach, strength- 
ened form of coileach, small burn. Ch with its preceding 
vowels had been lost. 

COLTON DEAN. Den of the little hill. Coilltean, diminutive 
of coill, hill ; dein, den. 

COLZIUM. Little hill. Coillean, diminutive of coill, hill. 

COMBFOOT. Common fold in which several persons had a joint 
right. Comh-chuit. Joint fold. Comh, common ; chuit, cuit 
aspirated, fold. Mh being often silent it had been strengthened 
by b, and ch had become ph, which is equal to f. 

COMELY BANK. Bank where assemblies were held. Coimhlin, 
assembly. H had been lost, and in had abnormally 
become y. 

COMELY RIG, for Ruigh Coimhlin. Hillside of the assembly. 
Ruigh, slope near the base of a hill coimhlin, assembly. In had 
abnormally become y 

COMISTON. Town held jointly. Coimeas, co-equal. 

COMMON, COMMON HILL. Pasture ground to which several 
persons had an equal right, shieling. Communitas (Latin), joint 
right. 

COMPASS SLACK. Place in a howe between a burn and a 
tributary. Camas, point between two burns ; slochd, howe. 
P had been inserted after m. 

CORBIES CRAIG, CORBY LIN, CORBYHALL, CORBYHILL. Corbies 
and Corby were originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, which 
was corrupted into whitehill and turned again into Gaelic by 
corban, white hill (cor, hill ; ban, white). Craig is creag, hill ; 
lin is linne, waterfall; hall is a farm house; and hill is coill, 
hill, translated. 

CORDLEAN. Level-topped hill. Cor, round hill ; lean, plain ; 
Euphonic d had been added to cot. 

CORNBANK. Level terrace on a hillside. Cam, hill. 

CORNTON. Hill town. Cam, hill. 

CORSTON. Town at a place where a hill was crossed. Crois, 
crossing. 

CORSTORPHINE. Round steep hill. Cor, round hill, with s 
added for euphony ; torr, round, steep, flat-topped hill ; Jin, hill. 
CORTLEFERRY. Ferry at a round knoll. Cor, round hill ; 
tulach, round knoll. 

COTLY HILL. Hill of the fold. Lamh (mh silent), hill ; cuit, 
fold. 

COTTIE HILL. Hill of the small fold. \Cuitan, small fold. 
An normally became ie. 



16 PLACE NAMES 

COTTYBURN. Burn of the little fold. Cuitan, diminutive of 
cuit, fold. An normally passed into y in Scotch. 

COUSLAND, for Lamhan Cobhan. Hillock in a hollow. Lamhan, 
little hill ; cobhan, hollow. Mh in lamhan is silent, and d had 
been added for euphony. Bh in cobhan is equal to u, and an 
had improperly been changed to s. 

Cow BRIDGE. Bridge at a fold. Cuith, fold. Th being silent 
had been lost. ' 

COWBRAEHILL. Hill of the fold. Braigh, hill ; cuith (th silent), 
fold. 

COWDENBOG. Bog in a den in which there was a fold. Bog, 
wet soft place ; dein, den ; cuith (th silent), fold. 

COWHILL. Hill of the fold. Cuith (th silent), fold. Cow had 
been pronounced coo till recently. 

COWPITS for Pettan Cuith. Small farm at a fold. Pettan, 
small farm ; cuith (th silent), fold. An should have become ie, 
not s. 

COWTHROPLE, for Cuith Ruigh Poll. Fold on a hill slope near 
a pool. Cuith, fold ; ruigh, slope ; poll, pool, burn. 

CRAIG, CRAIGBANK, CRAIG WOOD, CRAIGCROOK. Craig is creag, 
hill ; crook is cnoc, hill. Cnoc is in some places pronounced croc 
or crochg. 

CRAIGEND HILL, CRAIGENGAR, CRAIGENTERRIE, CRAIGENTINNIE, 
CRAIGIEHALL. The first part of the names represents Creagan, 
small hill ; gar is gobhar, goat ; terrie is tirean, small bit of 
arable ground; tinnie is teine, fire; and hall is choill, coill 
aspirated, hill. 

CRAIGLEITH, CRAIGLOCKHART, CRAIGMILLAR, CRAIGO'ER, CRAIG- 
ROYSTON. The first part of the names is Creag, hill ; leith is 
leith, side ; lockhart is loch ard, loch of the hill ; millar is meall 
airidh, hill of the shieling ; o'er is gobhar, goat ; royston is 
ruslan, little hill 

CRAIGS, for Creagan. Small hill, or hills. Creagan may be 
either the diminutive or the plural of creag, hill. 

CRAIGSIDE. Side of a cliff. Creag, cliff, rock, hill. 

CRAMOND. Moor of the fold. Monadh, moor; era, fold 
made of wattles. For sheep slender rods were plaited together, 
for cattle stems of trees were split and the parts were planted 
in the ground obliquely so that they crossed one another twice or 
thrice as the legs of the letter x do. 

CRANSTON. Town at a tree. Crann, tree. 

CRANSTON EDGE. Brae of Cranston. Aod, brae, brow of a 
hill. See Cranston. 

CRAW HILL. Hill of the fold. Cra, wattled fold. 

CRAWLEY. Grass-land at a fold. Cra, fold; ley (Scotch), 
grassy place. 

CREW. Fold. Crubh (Irish), fold, fank, cruive. 

CRIBBIELAW, Hill of the long narrow ridge. Lamh, hill ; 
cribean, diminutive of crib, comb, sharp long ridge. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 17 

CRICHTON. Hill town. Creach, hill. 

CROFT AN RIGH. Croft on the slope of a hill. Croit, croit ; an, 
of the ; ruigh, slope near the base of a hill. 

CROFTHEAD. Croft at a fold. Croit, croft, hump ; chuid, cuid 
aspirated, fold. C silent had been dropped. 

CROMLIX. Circle of stones. Crom, circle ; leacan, genitive 
plural of leac, stone slab. An became s in passing into Scotch, 
and c and s made x. There had been at Cromlix a circle of stone 
pillars round a pre-Christian grave. 

CROMSIDE, for Suidhe Cruim. Place of the circle. Suidhe, 
place ; cruim, genitive of crom, circle, fold. 

CROMWELL'S WIT. Cromwell's is for Baile Crom. Town at a 
fold. Baile, town ; crom, circle, fold. Baile had been put last 
and made bhaile, pronounced waile, and afterwards well. S had 
been added to make an English possessive. Wit represents chuit, 
cuit aspirated, fold, in which ch, being silent, had been lost, and 
uit had become wit. The name Cromwell's Wit does not refer 
to Oliver Cromwell. 

CROOKED RIG, for Cnocan Ruigh. Little hill. Cnocan, 
diminutive of cnoc, hill ; ruigh, hill, slope. Both parts of the 
name mean hill. 

CROOKS. Small hill. Cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill. Cnoc 
in most places is sounded croc or crochg. An ought to have 
become ie, but by mistake it had been made s. This added to 
croc made crocs, now crooks. 

CROOKSTON. Hill town. Cnoc, hill, with s added to obtain 
an English possessive. 

CROOKSTONE. ( Stone on a hill. Cnoc (pronounced croc), hill. 

CROSS SWARD, for Crois Sugach Ard. Crossing over a wet hill. 
Crois, crossing ; sughach, wet ; ard, height, hill. 

CROSSLEE. Grass-land at a crossing. Crois, cross ; ley 
(Scotch), level grassy place. 

CROW, CROW HILL, CROW Moss. In these names Crow repre- 
sents cro, fold made of wattles. 

CRUMBLANDS. Crooked hill. Crom, crooked; lamhan, dim- 
inutive of lamh, hill. An had been regarded as a plural instead 
of a diminutive termination. 

CRUNZIAN. Small round hill. Cruinnean, diminutive of 
cruinne, roundness. 

CUDDY BRIDGE. Bridge at a small fold. Cuidan, diminutive 
of cuid, fold. An had normally become y. 

CUIKEN. Little hill. Cnuican, diminutive of cnoc, hill. The 
diminutive had been formed from the genitive cnuic, instead of 
the nominative. 

CULLEN. Little burn. Coileachan (ch silent), little burn. 

CUNNIGAR. Hill in which rabbits burrow. Coinniceir (Irish), 
rabbit burrow. 

CURRIE. Bog. Currach, marsh, bog. 

CURRIE LEE. Grassy place at a small farm town. Curra, 
small farm ; ley (Scotch), grassy loan at a house. 



18 PLACE NAMES 

CUSHIE SYKE, for Allton Cuaiche. Little burn from a cup- 
shaped howe. Alltan, little burn, syke; cuaiche, genitive of 
cuach, cup. 

DALHOUSIE. Field abounding in hollows. Dail, field ; chosach, 
cosach aspirated, abounding in hollows. 

DALKEITH. Field at a fold. Dail, field ; cuith, fold. 

DALMAHOY, for Dail na Chuith. Field of the fold. Dail, 
field ; na, of the ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C being silent 
in ch had been lost. Final th is silent and had been lost. 

DALMORE. Big field. Dal, field ; mor, big. 

DALEY, for Dail Ruigh. Field on the lower slope of a hill. 
Dail, field ; ruigh, slope where cultivation begins. 

DANDERHALL. Meaning uncertain. Perhaps Hill of judg- 
ment on a shieling. Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; dan, seat of 
judgment ; airidh, shieling. Courts were held to settle disputes 
about shielings and mosses in which several persons were 
concerned. 

DARCY. Bright. Dearsach, beaming, radiant. 

DARMEAD LINN. Burn of great size. Linne, burn, pool, 
waterfall ; dear (Irish), great ; mead, size. 

DAVIDSON'S MAINS. The origin of this name is obscure. Mains 
represents Terra Dominicalis (Latin), part of an estate cultivated 
by the proprietor. Dominicalis passing through French became 
domains, now mains. 

DEAD BURN. Black burn. Dubh, black. 

DEAFLAW HILL. Black hill. Dubh, black ; lamh, bill. 

DEAN. Valley excavated by running water. Dein, den. 

DEAN BRIDGE. Bridge over a den. Dein, den. 

DEANHEAD. Head of a dean or den. Or, Fold in a den. 
Dein, den ; chuid, cuid aspirated, fold ; c in ch being silent had 
been lost. 

DEDRIDGE. Beautiful slope. Deadh, fair, beautiful ; ruigh, 
slope at the base of a hill. 

DELF WELL, for Dail Phuill. Field of the pool. Dail, field ; 
phuill, genitive aspirated of poll, pool, river. 

DENHAM. Town in a den. Ham (Frisian), hamlet ; dein, den. 

DEWAR GILL. Glen of the black shiel. Gill, glen ; dubh, black ; 
airidh, shiel, hut on summer pasture among hills. 

DOBIE'S KNOWE. Black Knoll. Dubh, black. S had been 
inserted to produce the English possessive. 

DOD HILL. Hill. Hill is a translation of dod, a corruption 
of cnoc, hill. 

DODRIDGE Law. Dodridge is for Ruigh Cnoc, slope of the 
hill (ruigh, slope ; cnoc, hill). Law is lamh, hill, added to 
explain dod, a corruption of cnoc. 

DOG BUSH KNOWE. Knoll of the black wood. Dubh, black. 
Bh had become gh, and h had been lost. 

DOVERIDGE. Black slope. Dubh, black ; ruighe, slope at the 
base of a hill. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 19 

DOVITSHILL. Hill of the black region. Dovits may be dubh 
aite, black place (dubh, black ; aite, place), with s added to obtain 
a possessive. Final e is usually lost. 

Dow CRAIG WOOD. Wood of the black hill. Dubh, black ; 
creag, hill. 

DOWIES MILL. If the name is old it may originally have been 
Muileann Dubhach, black mill, mill built of black sods 
(muileann, mill ; dubhach, black). Bh would become ow, and ach 
would become ie. Final s had been added to make Dowie 
possessive. 

DOWNIE PLACE. Place of a little hill. Dunan, little hill. 
An became ie. 

DREGHORN. Hill of the hawthorn. Draighionn, hawthorn ; 
earn, hill. C of earn had become ch, which had been changed 
to th, and then t being silent had been dropped. 

DRESSELRIG, for Dreasail Ruiyh. Slope of a hill where 
brambles or thorns grow. Dreasail, thorny, growing brambles ; 
ruigh, slope of a hill. 

DROVE LOAN. Green road through a moor for driving cattle 
to shielings and to markets. Loan (English), grassy lane. Loan 
in Scotch is a grassy place before a house. 

DRUIDICAL CIRCLE. John Aubrey, an antiquarian patronised 
by Charles II., promulgated his belief that stone circles were 
Druidical places of worship. This theory has now died out, and 
they are regarded as guarding places where pagan interments 
had been made. 

DRUM. Long ridge. Druim, ridge of a hill. 

DRUM HAGS. Moss holes on a long hill. Druim, ridge ; hag 
(Scotch), pot in a moss. 

DRUMBRYDON. Hill. Druim, long ridge; bruch, hill ; dun, hill. 

DRYBURN, DRYDEN, DRYLAND. Dry is for Draigh, thorn- 
tree ; land is lamh, hill. 

DUDDINGSTON. Black hill town. Dubh, black ; dun, hill. 
Un in dun had been regarded as a plural termination, and s had 
been added to ng. 

DUN LAW. Hill. Dun hill ; lamh, hill. 

DUNARD. Height. Dun, hill ; ard, height. 

DUNCLIFFE. Cliff of a hill. Dun, hill : cliff (English), steep 
side of a hill. 

DUNEDIN. Brae of the hill. Aodann, brae ; dun, hill. 

DUNESK. Hill of the river. Dun, hill ; uisge, water, river. 

DUNSAPIE. Hill of retreat. Dun, hill ; seapach, retreating. 
In times of danger from thieves the cattle pasturing on Arthur's 
Seat had been driven to Dunsapie. 

DYKER LAW, for Lamh Dubh Airidh. Hill of the black 
shieling. Lamh, hill ; dubh, black ; airidh, shieling. 

EDGE, EDGEFIELD, EDGEHEAD, EDGELAW. Edge in these 
names represents aod, brae, hill. D is often sounded as dg. 
Head is chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, with silent c lost ; law 
is lamh, hill, with mh sounded as w. 



20 PLACE NAMES 

EDGEHILL. Fold. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, 
which had been corrupted into whitehill. This had afterwards 
been turned into Gaelic by aodgeal, white hill. Aod is pro- 
nounced with a long and o silent, and g in geal became soft and 
united with d of aod. This produced Edgehill, which in other 
places has become Aigle, Adziel, Eagle, Eccle, and Edzell. 

EDINBURGH. Brae of the hill. Aodann, brae ; bruch, hill. 
Auld Reekie (High Street) means steep slope. Alt (Irish), high 
place ; ruighe, slope. 

EDMONSTONE, for Aod JBaile Maise. Brae of the beautiful farm 
town. Aod, brae ; baile, town ; maise, beauty. See Meston. 

ELDIN, for Aill Dun. Both parts mean hill. Aill, hill ; dun, 
hill. 

ELDRICK, for Ruigh Aill. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope, 
shieling, hill ; aill, hill. The parts had been transposed to 
avoid a hiatus. 

ELF LOCH. Loch of the hill. Elf is an abbreviation of 
aillfin (aill, hill ; fin, hill), and it is wrongly supposed to mean a 
fairy or spirit. 

ELGINHAUGH. Haugh at a hill of sand. Atil, hill ; gaineamh, 
sand. Mh and its antecedent vowels had been lost. 

ELLEN'S BURN. Burn of the green plain. Ailean, green 
plain. 

EMLY BANK. Bank on the side of a stream. Amhainn, river ; 
leth (th silent), side. Ainn had become ie, which had been 
lost. Th final is silent and had been lost. 

ENGLAND'S HILL. The Hill. England's represents An Lamhan, 
The Hill. An, the ; lamhan, hill. Mh is silent and had been 
lost. D is frequently added to n. S was added to make 
England possessive. 

ENTERKIN'S YETT, for Chuit an Tir Ceann. Fold at the head 
of the land. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; an, of the ; ceann, 
head ; tir, land. Ch of chuit became gh, equal to y. Ann had 
been regarded as a plural termination and had been 
made s. 

ESHERVILLE. If this name is of Gaelic origin it represents 
Eas Airidh Mhill and means burn of the shieling on a hill. Eos 
(pronounced esh), burn ; airidh, shieling ; mhill (pronounced 
vil), genitive aspirated of meall, hill. 

ESK. Running water. Uisge, water, stream. 
ESPERSTON. Town consisting of a row of houses at a burn. 
Eas, burn ; peirse, row. 

EWES CASTLE. Guard house at a small fold. Chuithan, 
cuithan aspirated, small fold. Ch and th becoming silent had 
been lost, and an had been made es instead of ie. The castle 
had been a shelter for those who watched the fold at night. 

FAIRAPAR. Hill of the cultivated ground. Fair, hill, ridge ; 
a', of the ; far, cultivated land. 

FAIRHOPE. Hill. Fair, hill ; chop, cop aspirated, hill. C in 
ch is silent and had been lost. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 21 

PAIRMILEHEAD, for Fair Meall Chuid. Hill of the cattlefold. 
Fair, hill ; meall, hill ; chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C in ch is 
silent and had been lost. The first two parts have the same 
meaning. 

FALA, FALA HILL, FALA KNOWE, FALA LUGGIE. Fala is 
falamh (mh silent), uncultivated land ; luggie is lughaidh, 
smallness, small. 

FALA FLOW, FALA FLOW LOCH. Pool on Fala Moor. Flow 
represents flodk, a variant of plodh, pool, loch. 

FALL HILLS. Hills. Choill, coill aspirated, hill. Ch became f . 

FATLIPS, for Luban Chat. Little bend in a road. Luban 
diminutive of lub, bend ; chat, cat aspirated, road. Ch had 
become ph which is f . 

FAUCH HILL. Hill whereof some part had been ploughed. 
Fauch (Scotch), to plough. 

FEATHER HALL. Mansion at a burn passing through a shieling. 
Feith, moss burn : airidh, shieling. Hall originally meant the 
great room in a castle, free to all the residents ; now it often 
means a mansion which has taken the place of a castle. 

FERNIE GRAIN. Ferny place between two branches of a burn. 
Grain is the same as groin. 

FERNIEFLAT. Level place growing ferns. 

FERNIEHIRST. Bushy place growing ferns. Hurst (English), 
wood. 

FETTES, for Chuidan. Small fold. Chuitan, cuitan aspirated, 
diminutive of cuit, fold. Ch became ph, which is equal to f, and 
an, being erroneously regarded as a plural termination, became 
es instead of ie. Fuites lapsed into fettes. 

FILLYSIDE, for Suidhe Feille, Site of a market. Suidhe, site ; 
feille, genitive offeill, market, festival. 

FIRTH, for Thriath. Hill. Thriath, triath aspirated, hill. 
Th became ph, equal to f. 

FIRTH OF FORTH. Estuary near an enclosed place. Ghorth, 
corth aspirated, enclosed place, fold, fort. 

FIVE HOUSES. Houses at a fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. 
Ch had become ph or f, and th had become ch or v. 

FLOTTERSTONE. Stone on a wet shieling. Fliuch, wet ; 
airidh, shieling. 

FORDEL. Field in front of a hill. For, before; dail, field. 

FOUL SLUSH, for Pholl Slios. Burn on a hillside. Pholl, poll 
aspirated, pool, burn ; slios, hillside. 

FOWIE, for Chuithan. Small fold. Chuithan, cuithan aspir- 
ated, small fold. Ch became ph or f, th became bh or w, and 
an became ie. Sometimes euphonic 1 is inserted in fowie, making 
it fowlie. 

FREELANDS, for Lamhan Threith. Both parts mean hill. 
Lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill ; threith, genitive aspirated of 
triath, hill. In lamhan mh being silent had been lost, and an, 
had improperly been made s. Th in threith had become ph, 
which is f, and final th being silent had been lost. 

c 



22 PLACE NAMES 

FBIARTON, for Baile Thriath. Town on a hill. Baile, town ; 
thriath, triath aspirated, hill. 

FUFFET, for Chuith Chuit. Both parts mean fold. The 
aspirated letters became ph or f, which produced fuiffuit. 

FULFORD, for Ath Phuill. Ford over a burn. Ath, ford; 
phuill, genitive aspirated of poll, pool, burn. In names poll 
usually means burn. Ph is equal to f. 

FULLARTON. Town at a burn from a hill. Poll, burn ; ard, 
hill. P had become ph or f. 

FUMART SYKE. Drain from a fold for cows. Chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold ; mart, cow. Ch had become ph or f, and th 
silent had been lost. 

FUSHIE, for Chuith Sith. Fold on a hill. Chuith, cuith aspir- 
ated, fold ; sith, hill. Ch had become ph, equal to f, and th is 
silent. Sith is pronounced she. 

GALA WATER. Gala had originally been Cuit, fold, corrupted 
into white and turned again into Gaelic by gealach, white. 
The name Gala Water therefore means water passing a fold. 

GALACHLAW, GALALAW. Fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold ; 
lamh, hill. Chuitail became whitehill, which was turned into 
Gaelic by gealachlamh, white hill (gealach, white ; lamh, hill). 

GALLADALE. White field. Gealach, white ; dail, field near a 
river. Galla had originally been chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, 
which had been corrupted into white, and turned again into 
Gaelic by gealach, white. 

GARVAL SYKE. Rough burn syke. Garbh, rough; allt, 
burn. 

GARVALD. Rough burn. Garbh, rough ; allt, burn. 

GASK HILL. Hill on a narrow point. Gasg, tail, long narrow 
strip of land. 

GATELY RIG. Windy slope. Gaothlach, variant of gaothach, 
windy ; ruigh, slope of a hill. 

GAVIESIDE, for Suidhe Gabhann. Site of a fold. Suidhe, 
place ; gabhann, fold. Ann had become ie. 

GILDYHOWES. Originally Chuit Tollan. Fold in a little howe. 
Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; tollan, little howe. Chuit was 
corrupted into white, and white was again turned into Gaelic 
by gilide (Irish), whiteness, white. 

GILLYGUB DEAN. Den of the fir tree at the fold. Gilly had 
originally been Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, which had been 
corrupted into white, and turned again into Gaelic by gealach, 
white. Gub represents giubhas, fir-tree; and dean is the 
English word meaning den. 

GILMERTON, for Chuit Baile Mor. Fold at a big town. Chuit, 
cuit aspirated, fold; baile, town; mor, big. Chuit had been 
corrupted into white, which had again been turned into Gaelic 
by geal, white. 

GILSTON. Town at a small ravine. Gill, small burn, valley. 

GLADHOUSE. If this name is Gaelic it must mean protected 
fold. Gleidhte, protected ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 23 

silent had been lost, and th had become sh, with subsequent 
loss of h. 

GLADSMUIR. Moor of the kite. Glede (English), kite. 

GLASSMAN'S SIKE. Drain from a green hill. Glas, green ; 
man, hill. 

GLEDE KNOWE. Knoll over which kites often hovered in 
quest of mice, beetles, &c. Glede (English), kite. 

GLEN BROOK. Glen of the hill. Gleann, glen ; bruch, hill. 

GLENCORSE, GLENCROSS. Glen crossing a hill range. Gleann, 
glen ; craisg, crossing. 

GLENDARACH. Glen of oaks. Gleann, glen ; darach, oak-tree. 

GLENHUTCH. Glen of the fold. Gleann, glen ; chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. C in ch is silent and had been lost. Huith had 
been strengthened by the insertion of c. 

GLENTRESS. Glen of the hill. Gleann, glen ; triath, hill. Th 
had become sh, and h had afterwards been lost. 

GOGAR. Fold on a shieling. Gog, fold ; airidh (idh silent), 
shieling. 

GOODTREES, for Cuid Triath. Fold on a hill. Cuid, fold ; 
triath, hill. 

GORBALS, for Bailean Gorth. Little town at a fold. Bailean, 
diminutive of baile, town ; gorth (th silent), fold. Ean had been 
made s instead of ie. The accent on the first syllable shows 
that the parts of the name had been transposed. Final th is 
silent. 

GORE WATER. Water on whose banks goats fed. Gobhar, 
goat. 

GOREBRIDGE. Bridge for goats. Gobhar, goat. Bh is 
silent. 

GORGIE, for Goirtean. Small enclosure. Goirtean, diminu- 
tive of gort, enclosure, stone circle round a grave, fold, garden. 
The soft sound of g results from sounding e as y. An normally 
became ie. 

GORTONLEE. Grass-land at a small fold. Gortan, diminutive 
of gort, circle, fold ; ley (Scotch), grassy place. Gortan has 
usually become Gordon. 

GOURLAW. Hill of the goats. Lamh, hill ; gobhar, genitive 
plural of gobhar, goat. 

GOWANBRAE. Daisy brae. Gowan represents Gabhann, fold 
made with posts set into the ground in a circle, which the 
flower of the daisy resembles. Bh is equivalent to u, v, 
or w. 

GOWANHILL. Cattle-fold hill. Gabhann, fold. Bh is equal to w. 

GOWKHILL. Hill. Cnoc, hill. The second part is a trans- 
lation of the first. 

GOWKLIE Moss. Hillside moss. Cnoc, hill ; leth (th silent), 
side. Gowk is pronounced with the vocal organs nearly in the 
same position as for cnoc. 

GRACEMOUNT. If this is an old name it means mount of 
prosperity, good fortune. Grais, good luck ; monadh, mount. 



24 PLACE NAMES 

GRAIN HILL. Meaning uncertain. If the hill is covered with 
grass the name may mean green hill. If exposed to the south 
and sheltered from the north it may mean sunny, coming from 
grian, sun. If the hill is composed of sand the name may 
represent grainneach, sandy. 

GRANGE. Farm house on land owned and occupied by a 
monastery. Grange (Old French), barn, granary. 

GRANTON, for Grant Dun. Green hill. Grant (Irish), green ; 
dun, hill. 

GRAVES KNOWES. Rough Knolls. Garbh, rough. 

GRAY BRAE. Hill. Creag, hill ; braigh, hill. 

GREAT LAW. Hill. Creach, hill ; lamh, hill. 

GREEN LAW, GREENHALL. Green hill. Law is for lamh (mh 
equal to w), hill ; hall is for choill, coill aspirated, hill, in 
which c silent had been lost, leaving hoill, now hall. 

GREYKNOWE. Grey is a corruption of creag, hill, and knowe 
is a translation of creag. 

GREYSTONE HEAD. Fold at a stone on a hill. Chuid, cuid 
aspirated, fold ; creag, hill. C in ch is silent and had been lost. 

GREYSTONE KNOWE. Knoll of the rock. Creag, rock. Stone 
is a translation of creag. 

GRIM BRIGS, GRIM HAVEN. Grim represents grimeach, rugged, 
grim. Brigs represents bruchan, little hill. An had been made 
s instead of ie. 

GROATHILL. Hill of the fold. Crotha, genitive of cro, fold. 
Final vowels in names are often lost. 

GUIDE ABOUT, for Cuid a' Buth. Fold at a shiel. Cuid, fold, 
a, of the ; buth, hut, house on a shieling. 

GUNS GREEN. Grassy place at a fold. Gabhann, fold. Bh is 
equal to u. S had been added because ann had been regarded 
as a plural termination. 

GUTTED HADDIE. Brae where corn was winnowed. Aodann, 
brae ; guiteach, winnowing. There was formerly cultivated 
land far up Arthur's Seat. Ann normally became ie. 

GUTTERFORD, for Ath Cuit Airidh. Ford at a fold on a 
shieling. Ath, ford ; cuit, fold ; airidh, shieling. 

HABBIES HOWE. Howe eaten out by running water. Chaobta, 
past participle aspirated of caob, to bite. C in ch is silent and 
had been lost. 

HADFAST, for Achadh Fas. Desolate land. Achadh, place; 
fas, waste. 

HAG BRAE, for Braigh Agk. Hill of joy. Braigh, hill ; agh, 
joy, happiness. The parts of the name had been transposed to 
avoid a hiatus. Then h had been prefixed to agh. 

HAGGS. Holes in mosses where peats have been dug. 

HAGIERAE, for Hath Aghann. Circle of the fold. Hath, circle ; 
aghann, fold, with ann made ie. 

HAILES. Green plain. Ailean, level green place. H had 
been prefixed to facilitate pronunciation, and an had been made 
s instead of ie. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 25 

HALA SHANK, for Sithean Fhala. Hill of the moor. Sithean 
(pronounced shan), hill ; fhala, fala aspirated, genitive of fal, 
moor, pasture. Euphonic k has been added to n, and f in fh 
had been lost, being silent. 

HALFLAW KILN, for Coill Lamh Coillean. Hill. Coill, hill ; 
lamh, hill; coillean, diminutive of coill, hill, Coill had been 
made choill, then c had been lost, and f had been inserted. 

HALK LAW. Hawk hill. Lamh, hill. 

HALL CRAIGS. Both parts mean hill. Choill, coill aspirated, 
hill ; creagan diminutive of creag, hill. C in choill is silent and 
had been lost. An of creagan had been made s instead of ie. 
In old Gaelic coill means hill. 

HALL LISTON. Hill at Liston. Choill, coill aspirated, hill. C 
silent had been lost. 

HALLHERIOT. Hill of the shieling. Choill, coill aspirated, 
hill ; airidh, shieling, summer pasture among hills. 

HALLTREE. Both parts mean hill. Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; 
Iriath, hill. C in ch and th final had been dropped, being silent. 

HALLS. Little hill. Choillean, coillean aspirated, little hill. 
Ean had by mistake been made s instead of ie. 

HALLYARDS, for Choill Ardan. Hill. Choill, coill aspirated, 
hill ; ardan, little height. C in ch had been lost, and an had 
been made s instead of ie. 

HANDAXWOOD. Wood at the head of a field. Cheann, ceann 
aspirated, head ; achadh, field. 

HANGING CRAIG, HANGING ROCK, HANGING SHAW. If Hanging 
is an English word it means sloping or overhanging. If it is of 
Gaelic origin it represents fhangan, sheepfold. Fhangan, 
fangan aspirated, little fold. Craig is creag, hill ; and shaw is 
a bushy place. F in fh is silent and it had been lost. 

HANLEY. Grassy gentle slope. Fhan, fan aspirated, gentle 
slope; ley (Scotch), grassy place. F in fh had been lost, being 
silent. Ley might be lamh (mh silent), hill. 

HANNAHFIELD. Field on the slope of a hill. Fhanadh, fanadh 
aspirated, gentle slope. F in fh is usually silent, and often both 
f and h are lost. 

HARBOUR HILL. Hill of the shieling for cattle. Airidh, 
shieling ; buar, cattle. 

HARBURN. Burn of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

HARBURNHEAD. Head of the shieling burn ; but head might 
represent chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, in which c is silent. 

HARD LAW. Hill. Ard, hill ; lamh, hill. 

HARDEN GREEN. Green place on a small hill. Ardan, diminu- 
tive of ard, height. H had been prefixed to a for eu- 
phony. 

HARE CRAIG, HARE HILL, HAREBURN, HAREHOPE, HARELAW, 
HAREWOOD. Hare is airidh, shieling, summer pasture, with 
euphonic h prefixed; craig is creag, hill; hope is chop, cop 
aspirated, hill, with c silent dropped; law is lamh, hill, with 
mh made w. 



26 PLACE NAMES 

HARKEN BURN. Burn from the head of the shieling. Ceann, 
head ; airidh, shieling. 

HARLE RIGGING, for Airidh Aill Ruighean. The oldest part of 
the name is Aill Ruighean. Hill of the shieling. Aill, hill ; 
ruigkean, small shieling. After the meaning of the name had 
almost been forgotten airidh, shieling, had been prefixed to 
explain it, and h had been put before a for euphony. 

HARPER RIG, HARPERS HALL. Harper is a corruption of 
airidh, shieling, to which euphonic h had been prefixed. Rig 
is ruigh, slope ; and hall is choill, coill aspirated, hill. Dh of 
airidh had become ph, and h had been dropped. 

HARRY'S MUIR. Muirof the shieling. Airidh, shieling, with 
h prefixed. 

HARTWOOD. Wood on a hill. Ard, hill. 

HARVIESTON. Town of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

HARWOOD. Wood of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

HATTON. Small fold. Chuitan, cuitan aspirated, diminutive 
of cuit, fold. C being silent in ch had been lost, and huitan had 
lasped into hatton. 

HAWKSTER GILL, for Gill Osda. Glen of the inn. Gill, glen ; 
osda, inn. 

HAY LODGE. Hay, if a place-name, represents chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. C in chuith is silent, th also is silent, and hui 
had become hey, the Scotch way of pronouncing hay. But Hay 
may be a personal name originally given to a person coming 
from a fold. 

HAYMAINS, for Chuidh Main. Fold on a hill. Chuidh, cuidh 
aspirated, fold ; main, second form of m<tn, hill. C in ch is 
silent, and dh is equal to y. Ain had been regarded as a plural 
termination, and s had been added to main. 

HEAT HILL. Hill of the fold. Coill, hill ; chuit, cuit aspirated, 
fold. C in ch had been lost. 

HEATHERY BURN. Burn of the fold on the shieling. Chuith, 
cuith aspirated, fold ; airidh, shieling. 

HEBERSHAW. Shepherd's woods. Chibeir, cibeir aspirated, 
shepherd. 

HECKLE BURN. Burn of the place on a hill. Achadh, place ; 
aill, hill. H was prefixed to achadh for euphony, and dh with 
its vowel was lost. 

HEN Moss. Moss of the hill. Fhin, fin aspirated, hill. In 
fhin f has become silent. Sometimes both f and h are lost, as in 
Innerwick. 

HENDREYS COURSE, for Crois Fhin Ruigh. Crossing of the 
hill of the shieling. Crois, crossing ; fhin,\fin aspirated, hill; 
ruigh, shieling. F in fh is silent. 

HENSHAW. Wood of the hill. Fhin, fin aspirated, hill. F in 
fh is silent and had been lost. 

HERIOT. Shieling. Airidh, shieling Euphonic h had been 
prefixed to airidh. 

HERMAND, for Monadh Airidh. Hill of the shieling. Monadh, 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 27 

hill ; airidh, shieling. To avoid a hiatus the parts of the name 
had been transposed, and for euphony h had been prefixed to airidh. 

HERMISTON. East beautiful town. Air, east ; maise, beauty, 
attractiveness. 

HERRING Row. Row of houses on a small shieling. Airidhean, 
small shieling. H had been prefixed for euphony. 

HEWING, for Chuithan. Small fold. Chuithan, cuithan 
aspirated, small fold. C in ch is silent and had been lost. 
Th is also silent and had been lost. An became ing, and so also 
in the name Ewing, but it remains unchanged in Ewan. 

HIGH LEE. Grassy place at a fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, 
fold. C and th being silent had been lost ; ley (Scotch), grass- 
land. 

HILLEND HILL. Little hill. Choillean, coillean aspirated, little 
hill. C in ch is silent and had been lost, and d had been added 
to n for euphony. 

HIREN DEAN, for Dein Chirean. Den of the little ridge. 
Dein, den, dean ; chirean, cirean aspirated, little ridge. 

HIVEY LIN, for Linne Chuithan. Pool at a small fold. Linne, 
pool ; chuithan, cuithan aspirated, small fold. C silent was 
lost, th became bh, equal to v, and an normally became ey. 

HOGHILL. Small hill. Off, young, small. 

HOLLTCOT. Hill of the fold. Choille, coille aspirated, hill ; 
cuit, fold. 

HOLYROOD. If this name is pre-Christian it represents Ruigh 
Choille. Base of the hill. Ruigh, lower slope on a hill ; choille, 
coille aspirated, hill. Gh and dh have the same sound, hence g 
and d are mistaken for one another. C in ch is silent and had 
been lost. In old Gaelic coille means hill ; in modern it means 
wood. If the name is post-Christian it means holy cross. 

HONEY BRAE. Hill of meeting. Braigh, hill ; choinne, coinne 
aspirated, meeting. 

HONEY HOLE, for Coill Choinne. Hill of assembly. Coill, 
hill ; choinne, coinne aspirated, meeting. When choinne became 
honey it was put first, and coill was made choill and put last. 
C in choinne and in choill had been lost, being silent. 

HONEYWALLS, for Bailean Choinne. Little town where 
assemblies were held. Bailean, little town, made bhailean, 
and put last ; choinne, coinne aspirated, meeting. Bh is equal 
to w, and ean had improperly been made s instead of ie, which 
produced bhails, pronounced walls. C in choinne, being silent, 
had been dropped. 

HOPE, HOPE BURN, HOPE RIG, HOPEPIELD. Hope is chop, 
cop aspirated, hill, silent c being lost. By the position of some 
names on the Ordnance Survey maps it seems that Hope was 
supposed to mean a sheltered place. Rig is ruigh, slope on a 
hillside. 

HOPPER CLEUGH. Steep bank on the hill of the shieling. 
Chop, cop aspirated, hill ; airidh, shieling. 

HOPPRINGLE. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. 



28 PLACE NAMES 

Chuitail was corrupted into whitehill, which was again turned 
into Gaelic by ruigheangeal, white hill (ruighean, slope of a hill ; 
geal, white). This had been changed to ringle, and then hop for 
cop, hill, had been prefixed, making hopringle, now hoppringle. 

HOSELAW, for Lamh Chois. Hill of the fold. Lamh, hill ; 
chos, cos aspirated, fold. 

HOWATSTONE. Stone at the fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. 
C in ch is silent and had been omitted. 

HOWDEN, for Chuidan. Small fold. Chuidan, cuidan 
aspirated, small fold. C had been lost, being silent, and dan had 
become den. 

HOWGATE. Windy fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; 
gaothach, windy. Chuith lost its silent letters, c and th, and 
gaothach lost hach, which had become silent. 

HOWLISTON. Town at a fold. The oldest part of the name is 
lios, fold, to which had been prefixed chuith, cuith aspirated, 
fold, as an explanation. C, being silent, had been lost, and so 
also had th with its vowels. 

HUGGIESHOLE, for Ugan Choille. Breast of the hill. Ugan, 
breast ; chottle, coille aspirated, hill. For euphony h was prefixed 
to u ; an normally became ie, and it was also improperly made 
s to obtain a possessive. C in ch was lost, and oi became o. 

HUNT LAW. Hill of assembly. Lamh, hill ; choinne, coinne 
aspirated, assembly. Euphonic t had been added to n. 

HUNTERFIELD. Place of meeting on a shieling. Choinne, 
coinne aspirated, meeting-place ; airidh, shieling, C in ch is 
silent. 

HUNTLY COT, for Cuit Tulach Choinne. Fold on the hill 
where meetings were held. Cuit, fold; tulach, hill; choinne, 
coinne aspirated, meeting. 

HURCHEON. Shieling of the little fold. Airidh, shieling ; 
chuitan, cuitan aspirated, little fold. Euphonic h had been pre- 
fixed to a, and idh had been lost. Th being silent had been lost 
along with antecedent i. 

HURLEY. Shieling on a hill. Airidh, shieling, with h pre- 
fixed ; lamh (mh silent), hill. 

HYVOT'S BANK. Hyvots is for Chuith Bhothan. Fold at a 
small house. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold; bhothan, bothan 
aspirated, small house. In chuith c and th had been lost, 
being silent. In bhothan bh is equal to v, the aspirate in th 
had been lost, and an had by mistake been made s instead of ie. 
INCH. Enclosed place. Innis, place enclosed by water, land, 
fence, hills. It may mean island, lake, garden, fold, stone circle, 
hollow. 

INGLIS GREEN. Green place at the fold. An (n nasal), the ; 
lios, fold. 

INGLISTON, for Baile an Lios. Town at the fold. Saile, 
town ; an, of the ; lios, fold. 

INKS. Fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, which had 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 29 

been corrupted into whitehill and afterwards turned into 
Gaelic by fhincan, white hill (jhin, Jin aspirated, hill ; can, 
white). Fh is often silent and had been lost. An had been 
mistaken for a plural termination 1 and had been made s. Incs 
is now inks. 

INVERESK, for Inbhir Uisye. Infall of the Esk. Inbhir, 
infall ; uisge, water, river Esk. 

INVERLEITH. Ford across the water of Leith. Inbhir, infall, 
ford ; Leith, stream name, probably a corruption of luaith, 
feminine of luath, rapid. Bh is equivalent to v. 

JANEFIELD. Field of the hill. Sithean (pronounced shean), hill. 

JARG. Red place. Dearg, red. 

JEANFIELD. Hill field. Sithean (pronounced shean), hill. 

JEFFRIES CORSE, for Crois Dubh Triath. Crossing over a black 
hill. Crois, crossing ; dubh, (d equal to dg) black ; triath, hill. 

JOCK'S CLEUGH. Steep-sided gorge in a howe. lochd, howe. 

JOCK'S LODGE. Lodge in a howe. lochd, howe. 

JOHN'S BURN. Burn of the hill. Dun, hill. S had been 
added to obtain a possessive. 

JOPPA BURN. Black burn. Dubh, black ; abh, water. 

JORDAN BURN. Burn of the hill. Chor, cor aspirated, round 
hill ; dun, hill. 

KAIM, KAIMES, KAIMS. Kaim is the Scotch for comb, the 
crest of a cock. The moraines of extinct glaciers, with steep 
sides and sharp ridges at the top, are called kaims. 

KATES MILL. Mill of the small fold. Cuitan, diminutive of 
cuit, fold. An should have been made ie and not s. 

KAYTHE, KATTHE CASTLE. Cuith, fold. At some folds 
guard -houses were built to accommodate men who guarded the 
folds against cattle-thieves. 

KEIRSHILL. Hill with a long sharp ridge on the summit. 
Cir, crest, comb. S had been added to Keir to make it an 
English possessive. 

KELLERSTAIN. Stone at the head of the shieling. Ceann, 
head ; airidh, shieling. The form cinn often |takes the place of 
ceann, and sometimes cinn becomes cill. 

KELLY SYKE. Drain from a hill. Goille, hill. 

KENLEITH. Head of the steep side. Ceann, head ; leith, 
side. Leith means the higher of two sides of a burn. 

KEVOCK. Little fold. Cuithan, small fold. Th had become 
bh, equal to v, and an had been changed to ock instead of ie, 
the usual Scotch diminutive. 

KILCOUTER. Head of the fold on a shieling. Cinn for ceann, 
head ; cuit, fold ; airidh, shieling. 

KILLANDEAN. Narrow place in a den. Caolan, small narrow 
place; dein, den. 

KILLOCHYETT, for Ceann a! Chuit. Head of the fold. Ceann, 
head; a } , of the; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ceann had 
assumed the genitive form, cinn, which had been softened into 
cill, now kill. 



30 PLACE NAMES 

KILLRIG, for Ceann Ruigh. Head of the slope. Ceann, 
head ; ruigh, slope at the base of a hill. Ceann had taken the 
genitive form cinn, which had become cill and afterwards kill. 

KINELLAN. Head of the little hill. Cinn, variant of ceann, 
head ; aillean, diminutive of aill, hill. 

KING'S HILL, KING'S HILL HEAD, KING'S KNOWE, KINGS 
SEAT. King's is for Ceann, head, with s added because it ended 
in ann, thought to be a plural termination. Head is chuid, cuid 
aspirated, fold. Seat is for suidhe, site, place. 

KIP. Head of a hill. Ceap, summit. 

KIPPIT, for Cipeag. Small farm. Cipeag, diminutive from 
dp, genitive of ceap, plot of ground. 

KIPPS, for Ceapan, small plot. An had erroneously been 
regarded as a plural termination. 

KIPRIG, for Ruigh dp. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope ; dp, 
variant of ceap, hill. 

KIPSYKE. Drain from a small plot of ground. Ceap, plot of 
ground. 

KIRKETTLE, for Creag CuitaiL Hill of the fold. Creag, 
hill ; cuitail, fold. Creag often becomes kirk, and sometimes 
grey. 

KIRKHILI. Both parts mean hill. Creag, hill. Sometimes 
this name means hill near a church. 

KIRKLAND HILL. The three parts of the name have the 
same meaning. Creag, hill ; lamhan, hill. Mh is silent and d 
had been added to n for euphony. 

KIRKLISTON. Church of Listen. 

KIRKSHADE. Hill field. Creag, hill ; shed (English), division, 
separated part. 

KIRKTON. Hill town. Creag, hill. This is the name of a 
place near Glencross Reservoir. 

KITCHEN Moss. Moss of the little fold. Cuithan, small 
fold. Th had been strengthened by inserting c. 

KITCHEN RIG. Little fold on a shieling. Cuithan, little 
fold; ruigh, slope, shieling. C had been inserted between t 
and h. 

KITTYFLAT. Level place at a small fold. Cuithan, diminu- 
tive of cuit, fold. An became y. 

KNIGHTFIELD RIG, for Ruigh Achadh Cnoc. Slope of the 
field on the hill. Ruigh, slope ; achadh, field, place ; cnoch, cnoc 
aspirated at the end, hill. Final c of cnoc had been aspirated 
and cnoch had been confounded with cniochd, knight, soldier. 

LADYSIDE, for Leathan Suidhe. Broad place. Leathan, 
broad ; suidhe, place. Or, for Leathad, side, with its translation 
added. An becomes y in Scotch. In Gaelic final d has often 
added to it a faint sound of g or y. 

LADYWELL. Well dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It had 
been visited by sick persons, who drank of the water, and by 
persons with sores, who washed themselves with the water. 

LAMMAS BOARD, for Lamh Maitheas Braid. Good hill. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 31 

Lamh, hill ; maitheas (pronounced mas), good, goodness ; braid, 
hill. 

LAMMERMUIR. Muir of the shieling hill. Lamh, hill ; airidh, 
shieling. 

LANDRIG BURN. Burn from a shieling hill. Lamhan, little 
hill ; ruigh, shieling, slope on a hill. D is a euphonic insertion. 

LANGLAW. Hill. Lamhan, little hill ; lamh, hill. Mh in 
lamhan is silent, but it made an nasal. Mh in lamh is equal 
to w. The second part of the name is an addition made 
to the first to explain it after it had been corrupted. 

LANGSIDE. Place on a hill. Lamhan, little hill ; suidhe, 
place. Mh was lost, being silent, but it made an nasal, and 
lamhan became lang. 

LANGTON. Hill town. Lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill. 
Mh is equal to v but sometimes it is silent and only makes the 
preceding vowel nasal. 

LASSWADE, for Leas Bhald. Fold at a wood. Leas, a variant 
of lios, fold ; bhaid, genitive aspirated of bad, wood, bushy 
place. Bhaid is pronounced waid. 

LATCH. Lathach, mire, wet place in a hollow crossing a road. 
Th had been strengthened by the insertion of c. 

LAUGHATLOTHIAN. Slope of the little side. Leathad, 
declivity ; leoidean, small side, small part of a side. 

LAURISTON, for Baile Ruigh Lamh. Town on the slope of a 
hill. Baile, town ; ruigh, shieling, slope ; lamh (mh silent), hill. 

LAWFIELD. Hill field. Lamh, hill. 

LAWHEAD. Hill of the fold. Lamh, hill ; chuid, cuid aspir- 
ated, fold. Mh in lamh is silent, and c in chuid is also silent. 
Huid had been pronounced heed, now made head. 

LAWRIG BURN. Burn on the slope of a hill. Lamh, hill ; 
ruigh, slope of a hill. 

LEAD BURN. Broad burn. Leud, breadth. 

LEASON LAW, for Lamh Liosan. Hill of the small fold. 
Lamh (mh silent) ; liosan (o silent), diminutive of lios, fold. 

LEEGATE. Windy grass-land. Ley (Scotch), grass-land ; 
gaothach, windy. 

LEITH. Stream name. Luithe, swiftness, swift. 

LEITH WATER OF. Swift river, stream name derived from 
luaith, feminine of luath, rapid, or from luithe, swiftness, swift. 

LEITH HEAD MILL. Mill at a fold on the Water of Leith. 
Head is for Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C, being silent, had 
been lost. 

LENNOX TOWER. Tower in a level place. Liomhanach, 
smooth, bright. Mh with its vowels is silent. 

LENNY MOOR, for Maine Leana. Moor of the plain. Moine, 
moor ; leana, level plain. 

LENNY PORT, for Port Leana. Gate in a level plain. Port, 
gate ; leana, plain. 

LEONARDS. If there is no local history connecting this place 
with a saint named Leonard it may represent Lian Ardan, 



32 PLACE NAMES 

plain of the little height. Lian, plain, meadow ; ardan, diminu- 
tive of ard, height. An should normally become ie and not s. 

LETHAM. Broad place. Leathan, broad. 

LEVEN HALL, for Liomhanach Choill. Smooth hill. Liom- 
hanach, smooth ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. 

LEVEN SEAT. Smooth place. Liomhanach, smooth, level ; 
suidhe, seat, place. Mh is equal to v, and ach had been lost, 
ch becoming silent. 

LIBERTON. Town in a nook of a shieling. Luib, bend ; 
airidh, shieling. 

LINKS, for Lianan. Level places near the sea. Final an had 
normally become s, and c had been inserted for euphony, 
producing liancs, now links. In Cynewulf's Anglo-Saxon poem 
"Phoenix", written about 1000 A.D., the word occurs as hlincs; 
and lincan is in a charter in Beg. Mag. Sig. iv. 479, dated 
about 1569. Links are ancient sea-beaches, about 25 and 50 
feet above sea. 

LINN JAW. Black pool. Linne, pool ; dubh, black. 

LIN'S MILL. Mill at a waterfall. Linne, waterfall, pool. 

LISTON. Town at a fold. Lios (o silent), fold. 

LISTONSHIELS, for aile Lios Sealan. Town at a fold on a 
shieling. Batie, town ; lios, fold ; sealan, summer pasture. 

LITTLE ELDBICK, for Ruigh Aill Beag. Slope of the little hill. 
Ruigh, slope, shieling ; aill, hill ; beag, little. 

LITTLE FRANCE, for Beag Threinse. Little trench. Beag, 
little ; threinse, treinse aspirated because the adjective precedes 
the noun, trench. Th had become ph, which is equal to f. The 
trench is a long aqueduct. 

LITTLE VANTAGE. Little fold. Originally Vantage had been 
Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, corrupted into whitehill. This 
was turned into Gaelic by bhanaod, white hill (bhan, ban aspir- 
ated, white; aod, hill, brae). Bh is equal to v, and t is a 
euphonic addition to n. 

LIXMOUNT, for Monadh Leacan. Hill of flat stones. Monadh, 
hill ; leacan, slabs. An had become s, which combined with c 
made x. 

LOAN BURN. Burn from a grassy place. Lean, grassy level 
place. 

LOANHEAD. Head of the loan. Lean, level grassy place. 
Sometimes head in a name is a corruption of chuid, fold. 

LOCH BURN. Dark Burn. Loch, dark, black. 

LOCHEND. Small loch. Lochan, diminutive of loch, lake, pool. 

LOCHRIN. Point of the loch. Rinn, point ; loch, pool, canal 
basin, lake. 

LOCKHART HALL, for Choill Loch Ard. Hill of the black 
hill. Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; loch, dark ; ore?, hill. 

LOGAN LEE. Grassy place in a little howe. Lagan, small 
howe ; ley (Scotch), grass-land. 

LOGANBANK. Level terrace near a little howe. Lagan, 
diminutive of lag, howe. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 33 

LOGIE GREEN. Green place in a little howe. Logan, diminu- 
tive of lag, howe. An becomes ie in Scotch. 

LONG EDGE, LONG HEAD, LONG RIG, LONGBIRN, LONGERWOOD, 
LONGFORD, LONGHANGMAN, LONGHILL, LONG KNOWE, LONGMUIR 
RIG HEAD, LONGSHAW, LONGSIDE, LONGTHORN. In these names 
long represents lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill, in which mha 
had become silent and had been lost. Mh being equal to nasal v 
Ian had become lang, which had afterwards been made 
long. Edge is aod, hill, brae, with g faintly sounded after d ; 
head is chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, c in ch being lost ; rig is 
ruigh, slope, hill ; birn is bearna, gap ; er is airidh, shieling ; 
hangman is man, hill, and fhang, fang aspirated, fold, with 
f lost ; hill is a translation of long ; knowe is cnocan, small hill. 
Longmuir Rig Head means fold on the slope of the muir on the 
hill ; shaw is a wood ; side represents suidhe, place, farm town ; 
thorn is earn aspirated because it was supposed that it was 
qualified by long, believed to be an adjective. 

LONGPAUGH. Long field. Fath (Irish), field of cultivated 
land. Th had become gh. Long might be for lamhan, hill. 
See Long Edge. 

LOQUHARIOT. Loch on a shieling. Loch, pool, loch ; airidh, 
shieling. 

LOTHIAN BRIDGE, LOTHIAN BURN, LOTHIAN RIGG. Lothian is 
leoidean, diminutive of lend, side. Rigg is ruigh, slope on the 
side of a hill. 

LOUPIELEE. Bend at a grassy place. Luban, diminutive of 
lub, bend. An normally becomes ie. 

LOVER'S LOUP, for Lub Lamh Airidh. Bend in the shieling 
hill. Lub, bend ; lamh, hill ; airidh, shieling. B in lub has 
become p ; mh in lamh has become v ; idh has been lost, and s 
had been added to r to obtain an English possessive. 

LOWHOLM, for Lamh Tholm. Hill. Lamh, hill; tholm, tolm 
aspirated, low round hill. Mh is sometimes equal to ou. T in 
tholm is silent and it had been lost. 

LOWRIES DEN. Fox's den. Lowrie is a name given in 
Scotland to a fox because when approaching his prey he lowers 
his ears on his neck. A fox is sometimes called tod-lowrie. 

LUPFEN, for Fhluich Bheinn. Wet hill. Fhluich, wet ; 
bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. Fh i&fluich is silent, and ch had 
become ph, which is f. Beinn had been aspirated because it 
follows its adjective. Bh is equal to v, which has here 
become f. 

LUFRA COTTAGE. The meaning is obscure. It may mean 
cottage at a small fold. Luth, changed to luf, small ; rath (th 
silent), fold, circle, enclosure. 

LUGATE WATER. Little water. Lughad, littleness. The 
Lugate is less than the Gala. 

LUGTON. Town in a hollow. Lag, hollow. 

LYDEN, for Dein Leigeadh, Den of milking. Dein, den; 
leigeadh, milking. 



34 PLACE NAMES 

LYMPHOY, for Lamh Ghuith. Hill of the fold. Lamh, hill ; 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. 

MAGGIE BOWIES. Yellow little plain. Maghan, diminutive 
of magh, plain ; buidhe, yellow. An had been made both ie 
and s. 

MAIDEN BRIDGE, MAIDEN HILL. Middle bridge, and Middle 
hill. Meadhon, middle. 

MAINS. Farm occupied by the owner of an estate. Terrae 
Dominicales (Latin), lord's lands. From dominicales comes the 
English word domains, which in Scotland has become 
mains. 

MAITLAND BRIDGE. Wooden bridge shod with broken stones, 
called metalling. 

MAKIMRICH, for Maghan Ruigh. Little level place at the foot of 
a slope. Maghan, small plain ; ruigh, slope. 

MALCOMSTON, for Baile Meall Coimh-meas. Town at a hill 
of common pasture. Baile, town ; meall, hill ; coimh-meas, 
common, held jointly by several persons. 

MALLENY. Abounding in hillocks. Meallanach, abounding 
in knolls. 

MANSFIELD. Field on a hill. Man, hill. S had been added 
because an is sometimes a plural termination. 

MANSON HILL. Hill. Man, hill ; sithean (th silent), hill. 

MARCH BANK. The meaning of this name cannot be given 
with certainty. March may mean big fold. Mor, big ; chuith, 
cuith aspirated, fold. Bank may originally have been chuit, 
cuit aspirated, fold, corrupted into white, and turned into Gaelic 
by ban, white, with the addition of euphonic k. 

MARCH WELL, perhaps for Marsh town. Marrisch, Scotch for 
marsh; bhaile, baile aspirated, town. Bhaile is pronounced 
waile, which would readily become well. 

MARFIELD. Hill field. Mur, hill. 

MARL LAW. Limestone hill. Maria, clay, marble, lime- 
stone. 

MARTELLO TOWER. Tower with several stories having vaulted 
roofs and cannon on the top, like a tower on Cape Mortella in 
Corsica. Mortella (Italian), wild myrtle. 

MASON'S MAINS. Mason, for Masan, diminutive of mas, 
beautiful ; mains, farm occupied by the owner of an estate. See 
Mains. 

MASTER CLEUGH, MASTERTON. Master, for Maitheas Tir. 
Good land. Maitheas (th silent), good, goodness ; tir, land. 

MATTHEW'S LINN. Beautiful linn. Maitheas, beauty ; linne, 
linn, pool, burn, waterfall. 

MAULDSLIE. Bare hill. Maol, bald ; sliabh (bh silent), hill, 
D is a euphonic insertion. l'*jjik& '". 

MAURICEWOOD, perhaps Marsh wood. Marrisch (Scotch), marsh. 

MAVISHALL. Place of bounty. Maitheas, goodness, kindness. 
Th had become bh equal to v. 

MAYFIELD. Level field. Magh (gh equal to y), plain. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 35 

MAYSHADE. Level field. Magh, plain; shade (English), 
division. 

MEADOWHEAD. Head of a meadow, or Fold on a meadow. 
Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C, being silent, had been lost. 

MEALOWTHER. Hill of the fold on a shieling. Meall, hill ; 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; airidh, shieling. Ch in chuith had 
been lost. 

MEAN BURN. Small burn. Mean, small. 

MEGMILLAR, for Meug Mill Airidh. Great hill of the shiel- 
ing. Meug, for meud, greatness ; mill, variant of meall, hill ; 
airidh, shieling. Dh, equal to y, with its antecedent vowel had 
been lost. 

MEIKLE LAW. Big hill. Meikle (Scotch), big ; lamh, hill. 

MELVILLE. If this is a Gaelic name its original form had 
been Meall JBheinn, both parts of which mean hill. Meall, hill, 
bheinn, beinn, hill, aspirated because it seemed to qualify meall. 
It had been added to meall to explain and expand it. Bh sounds 
v, and nn sometimes becomes 11. 

MELVIN HALL. Mansion at a hill. Meall, hill ; bheinn, beinn 
aspirated, hill. The second part had been added to explain the 
first. Melvin may be a personal name. 

MERCHIESTON, for Baile Mor Chos. Town at the big fold. 
Baile, town ; mor, big ; chos, cos aspirated, fold. Cos is aspirated 
because it follows its adjective. 

MESTON, MISTON, for Baile Maise. Town of beauty. Baile. 
town ; maise, beauty. 

MID RIG. Middle Slope. Ruigh, slope of a hill. 

MIDDLE HEAD. Middle fold. Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C 
in ch is silent. 

MILLER'S Moss. Moss of the hill of the shieling. Meall, hill ; 
airidh, shieling. Idh had been lost. 

MILLHEAD. Fold on a hill. Meall, hill ; chuid, cuid aspirated, 
fold. C silent had been lost. 

MILLHILL. Hill. Meall, hill. The second part is a trans- 
lation of the first. 

MOAT. Seat of a barony court. Mod, court of justice. 

MONKS RIG. Slope of a hill belonging to a convent. Ruigh, 
hill slope. 

MONTEITH. Warm moor. Monadh, moor ; teith (Irish), warm, 
smooth. 

MONTMARLE. Hill of limestone. Monadh, hill ; marla, clay, 
marl, limestone. Marie might represent the Scotch word marled, 
having spots of various colours mixed together. 

MONTROSE. Hill at a point. Monadh, hill ; ros, point. 

MOORFOOT. Moor of the fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. 
Ch became ph, equal to f. 

MOREDUN, MORTON. Big hill. Mor, big ; dun, hill. 

MOUNT LOTHIAN. Small place on the side of a hill. Monadh, 
hill ; leoidean, diminutive of leud, side, formed from leoid, second 
form of leud. 



36 PLACE NAMES 

MOUNT MAIN. Both parts mean hill. Monadh hill ; man, hill. 

MUILEPUTCHIB, for Mutt Chuit Chuith. Hill of the fold. 
Muil, a variant of maoile, bare hill ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. Ch became ph, and by loss of the 
aspirate ph became p. Final th is silent and had been lost. Thus 
was produced muil-puit-chui, now muileputchie. Chuith had 
been a late addition made to explain puit. 

MUIRHOUSE. House on a muir. But house sometimes repre- 
sents chuith, cuith aspirated, fold, and the name might mean 
muir of the fold. 

MUIRIESTON. Town on a small hill. BaUe, town, translated ; 
murean, diminutive of mur, hill. Ean had become ie. 

MULDRON. Ridge of a hill. Meall, hill ; dronn, ridge. 

MUMPOT LAW. Hill of the moss-pot. Lamh, hill ; moine, moor ; 
poit, pot. N becomes m before p. 

MUNGO'S BRIDGE. Bridge at the moor of the little fold. 
Moine, moor ; cuithan, little fold. Th being silent had been lost, 
c had become g, and an had become s. 

MURRAY BURN, MURRAY'S BURN, MURRAY'S POOL. Murray 
and Murray's represent Abh Mur. Burn of the hill. Abh, burn ; 
mur, hill. The order of the parts had been changed, and s had 
been added to obtain an English possessive. 

MUSSELBURGH, for Mas Coill Bruch. Round hill. Mas or mus, 
round ; coill, hill ; bruch, hill. Mussel was formerly spelled muscle. 

MUTTON HOLE, for Meadhonach Choill. Middle hill. Meadhon- 
ach, middle ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. Ach became silent and 
was lost. C in choill was lost, being silent. 

NETTLINGFLAT. Meeting-place at a plain near a burn. Math 
(Irish), meeting ; lian, plain ; net, burn. 

NEW. New in names may be three things (1.) The English word 
new. (2.) Naomh (pronounced nuv or new), sacred, belonging 
to a church or a convent. (3.) An Chuith, the fold. An, the ; 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. An would lose a, chuith would lose 
ch and th, and n and ui combined would form new. 

NEWBATTLE, NEWHALL, NEWHOUSE, NEWLANDRIG. See New 
for the first part of the names. Battle is for Beathach Tulach, 
birch-hill (beathach, birch-growing ; tulach, hill). Hall is Choill, 
coill aspirated, hill. House is Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. 
Landrig is Lamhan Ruigh, slope of the hill (lamhan, hill ; 
ruigh, slope). Beathach and tulach lost their aspirated letters ; 
choill lost c ; chuith lost c, and th became sh, from which h was 
lost, and huis became house ; lamhan lost mh, and d was added to 
n ; ruigh lost h and became rig. 

NIDDRY. Burn of the slope of a hill. Nid, burn; ruigh, 
slope at the base of a hill. 

NINE SPRINGS. Springs giving water good for washing. 
Nigheachan, washing. Gh and ch with the intermediate 
vowels had been silent and had been lost. Nian, which is left, 
resembles in sound both nighean (gh silent) maiden, and the 
English word nine. Hence arose mistakes regarding the 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 37 

meaning of nigheachan. Maiden Well might mean well with 
soft water useful for washing clothes. 

NIVEN'S KNOWE. Knoll of the small fold. Gnocan, knoll ; na, 
of the ; chuithan, cuithan aspirated, little fold. Na chuithan 
became nivan by loss of a in na and chu in chuithan, and the 
change of the th to bh, which is equal to v. S was added to 
nivan because it ended in an, wrongly supposed to be a plural 
termination. Nivans is now niven's. 

NORTH GYLE. North fold. The original form of Gyle may 
have been Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Chuit had been corrupted 
into white, which had afterwards been turned into geal, white, 
now become gyle. 

NORTON. North town. Norton is north from Ratho. 

OATSLEE. Grass-land at a small fold. Chuitan, cuitan 
aspirated, small fold ; ley (Scotch), grassy place. Ch had 
become silent and had been lost. An had wrongly been made s 
instead of ie. Uits had lapsed into oats. 

ORCHARDFIELD. Field in which there was a 
height. Urc, sty ; ard, height. The name may, 
modern. 

ORMISTON, for Oir .Baile Maise. East beautiful town. Oir, 
east ; baile (translated), town ; maise, beauty. 

ORMSCLEUGH. Cleugh on the edge of good land. Or, border ; 
maitheas (pronounced mae-as), goodness. 

OTTER BURN. Broad burn. Oth, broad ; our, water. 

OUTERSHILL, OuTERSTON. Fold on a small piece of land. 
Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; tirean, small piece of ground. C 
silent was lost, and ean became s instead of ie. 

GUTTER HILL. Land at the fold on a hill. Gutter is for Tir 
Chuit. Land at a fold. Tir, land ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. 

OVER SHIELS. Upper huts. Sealan, plural of seal, shiel, hut 
on summer pasture. 

OXENPORD. Gld ford. Aosda, ancient. Most fords had to 
be crossed by waggons drawn by oxen, and hence the name 
Oxenford would not have been distinctive. 

OXENFORD MAINS. Gxen represents Aosda, old, ancient. See 
Mains. 

GXGANGS. Old fold. Aosda, ancient ; fhangan, fangan 
aspirated, small fold. Fangan had been aspirated because it 
followed its adjective. Fh had become gh, and an had been 
made s instead of ie. 

PADDIEHALL, for Choill Paitean. Hill of the little hump. 
Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; paitean, diminutive of pait, hump. 

PADDY'S RIVER. River flowing from a small hump on a hill. 
Paitean, small hump. Ean had been regarded as a diminutive 
termination and had been made y, and also as a plural termina- 
tion and had been made s. 

PARADYKES, PARDIVAN, PARDOVAN, PARDUVINE, PARSON'S 
GREEN, PARSONSPOOL, PEARIE LAW. P in these names represents 
chop, cop aspirated, hill, with cho omitted. The second part is 



38 PLACE NAMES 

airidh, shieling, summer pasture ; dykes is dubh, black ; divan 
and dovan are dubh abhaim, black stream ; duvine is dubh 
bheinn, black hill ; sons is sithean, hill, with s added because it 
ends in an ; pool is poll, burn ; and law is lamh, hill. 

PATE'S HILL, PATIE'S HILL. Hill with a small hump. 
Paitean, diminutive of pait, hump. Ean had been regarded as a 
diminutive termination and made e and ie, and also as a plural 
termination and made s. 

PATH-HEAD. Birch- wood at a fold. Beath, birch- wood ; chuid, 
cuid aspirated, fold. C had been lost, being silent. 

PEASEFLAT, for Piosan Reidh. Small flat piece of ground. 
Piosan, small piece ; reidh, flat, level. An had become ie, after- 
wards made e. 

PEASTON. Small town. Pios, "small. 

PEAT LAW. Peat hill. Lamh, hill. Mh is silent. 

PEATEIG HILL. Hill with peat-moss on the slope. fiuigh, 
slope. 

PEFFERMILL. Mill at the fold on the shieling. Chuith, cuith 
sapirated, fold ; airidh, shieling. Ch had become ph, which had 
afterwards lost h. Th had become ph, which is equal to f. Idh 
of airidh had become silent and had been lost. 

PEGGY'S LEA, PEGGY'S MILL. Peggy's represents Picean, 
small pointed hill. Ean had been made y as a diminutive 
termination, and s as a plural. 

PENDREICH. Hill of the hawthorn. Fin, hill ; draigh, 
hawthorn. F is equal to ph, and h having been lost pin was 
left, now made pen. 

PENICUIK, for Beinn a Cnuic. Hill of the hill. Beinn, hill ; 
a', of the ; cnuic, genitive of cnoc, hill. N had become silent and 
had been lost. 

PENNYWELL. Well supposed to have medicinal virtues. It 
had been visited by sick and infirm persons, who drank of the 
well or washed sores with its water and then dropped coins into 
it. These might formerly have been given to a priest for services 
rendered at the well on certain days. 

PENNYWHIGAM BUKN, for Beinn na h-Uigean Burn. Burn 
of the hill with a little nook. Beinn, hill ; na, of the ; h 
euphonic ; uigean, diminutive of nig, curve, bend. 

PENTLAND. Hill. Beinn, hill ; lamhan, hill. Euphonic t had 
been added to beinn, and euphonic d to lamhan. 

PENTLAND HILLS. Hills. Beinnte, plural of beinn, hill; lamhan, 
plural of lamh, hill. Final e in beinnte had been lost. Mh in 
lamhan had been lost, and euphonic d had been added to n. In 
Irish several nouns have tean in the plural, which may be 
shortened to te. Baile has both bailtean and bailte in the 
plural. 

PIERSHILL, for Peirse Coill. Row of houses at a hill. Peirse, 
row ; coill, hill. 

PIGSKNOWES. Little pointed knoll. Picean, diminutive of 
pic, pointed hill ; cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 39 

PILLAR KNOWE. Knoll on a shieling on which there was a 
fort or a shelter. Cnocan, little hill ; pill, genitive form of peall, 
fort, sheltered place ; airidh, shieling. Idh had been lost. 

PILMUIR, for Moine Puill. Moor of the pool. Moine, moor ; 
puill, genitive of poll, pool, burn. 

PILRIG. Fold on a hillside. Peall, protected place, peel ; 
ruigh, slope at the base of a hill. Large peels were enclosed 
with stone walls ; small with trunks of trees planted in the 
ground, to which skins and mats were attached to give shelter. 

PILTON. Town at a peel. See Pilrig. 

PINKIE. Fold. The original form of the name had been 
Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, which had been corrupted into 
whitehill. This had been turned again into Gaelic by fincan, 
white hill (fin, hill ; can, white). F is equal to ph, which by 
the loss of the aspirate became p. An was erroneously supposed 
to be a diminutive termination and was changed to ie. Pincie 
became pinkie. 

PIRN KNOWE. Knoll with a gap in it. Bearna, gap. 

PIRNIEFIELD, for Achadh Bearna. Place where there is a gap 
or long howe. Achadh, field, place ; bearua, gap, gorge, trench. 

PIRNTATON. Burn of the valley of delights. Bearna, valley, 
gap ; taitean, plural of taite, pleasure. 

PLAY HILL. Hill of milking. Bleoghann, milking. Ann 
became ie, which was lost, and gh is equal to y. 

PLAYWELL. Well at a milking fold. Bleoghann, milking. 
Gh is equal to y, and ann became ie and was lost. 

PLEA KNOWS. Knoll of milking. Bleoghann, milking. Gh 
had become silent and had been lost. Ann had became ie and 
had been lost. 

PLENPLOTH, for Pliadhan Plod. Small bit of ground at a pool. 
Pliadhan (dh silent), diminutive of pliad, piece of ground ; plod, 
pool. 

PLOWLAND HILL. Hill where cows were milked. Bleoghann, 
milking ; lamhan, little hill. 

PODLIE STONE. Podlie is one of the names for young coal fish, 
and these may have been caught at this stone at full tide. 

POGBIE, for Bog Bith. Quiet moist place. Bog, wet ground ; 
bith, quiet. 

POLBETH. Burn of birches. Poll, pool, burn ; bith, birch. 

POLTON. Pool town. Poll, pool, burn. 

POMATHORN, for Poll a' Charn. Burn from the hill. Poll, 
burn ; a', of the ; charn, earn aspirated, hill. 

POT LAW, for Lamh Poit. Hill of the pool. Lamh, hill ; poit, 
pot, pool. 

POWFASTLE. Burn of the castle. Poll, burn ; chaisteal, 
caisteal aspirated, fort. Ch had become ph, which is f. 

POWIES PATH. Foot road near a small river. Pollan, small 
burn. An had been made ie by some and s by others, 
improperly, and both had been added to pow, a soft form of pott, 
burn. 



40 PLACE NAMES 

PRESTON. Town at a bush. Preas, bush. 
PRESTONHALL. Preston, for Baile Preas. Town at a bushy 
place. Baile, town ; preas, bush. 

PRESTONHOLM. Bushy place at a town on a riverside haugh. 
Preas, bush ; holm (English), flat land near a river. 

PRIEST'S Boo. Moist place where bushes grow. Boy, soft 
moist ground ; preas, bush. 

PRINGLE HILL. Pringle is Hoppringle with hop lost. See 
Hoppringle. 

PUMPHERSTON, for Baile Pund-fhear. Town of the pundler. 
Baile, town ; pund -/hear, pundler, officer who impounded 
straying cattle. S converted /hear into an English possessive. 
QUARREL BURN. Quarry burn. Coireall, quarry. 
RADICAL ROAD. Road on the side of a hill. Ruigh, 
slope ; a', of the ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. Radical Road is 
near the base of Arthur's Seat. 

RAESHAW. Wood at a fold. Rath (th silent), fold ; shaw 
(English), wood. 

RAMSLACK, perhaps for Riamhach Lamh. Grey hill. 
Riamhach, a variant of riabhach, grey ; lamh, hill. The 
sound of mh is almost the same as that of bh. 

RANSFIELD, for Achadh Rathan. Field of the small stone 
circle. Achadh, field ; rathan (th silent), diminutive of rath, 
circle, fold, fank. S is an insertion made to obtain an English 
possessive. 

RASHIEHILL. Slope at the base of a hill. Ruiyhean, diminu- 
tive of ruigh, shieling, slope of a hill where cultivation begins. 

RATHO. Small fold. Rathan, diminutive of rath, circle, fold. 
An had become ie, which had been changed to o. 

RATHO BYRES, for Bathach Ratha. Byres at a fold. Bathach, 
byre, cow-house ; ratha, genitive of rath, fold, circle, row of 
stone pillars round a grave. 

RAVEL SYKE. Drain from a fold on a hill. Rath, fold ; aill t 
hill. Th had become bh, equal to v. 

RAVELRIG, for Rath Ruigh Aill. Fold on the slope of a hill. 
Rath, fold, circle ; ruigh, slope ; aill, hill. Th had become bh, 
equal to v. Ruigh and aill had been transposed to avoid a 
hiatus. 

RAVELSTON. Town on the side of a hill. Ruigh, slope near 
the base of a hill ; aill, hill. 

RAVENS CLEUGH, RAVENS ROCK, RAVENSHAUGH, RAVENSNOOK. 
Ravens is for Ruigh Bheinn. Slope on a hill. Ruigh, slope at 
the base of a hill ; bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. S had been 
inserted to make raven possessive. In some places ruigh bheinn 
has become ruthven. 

RAW CAMP. Ancient fold, supposed to be a Roman camp. 
Rath (th silent), fold, circle round a grave. 

RAWBURN, RAWBURN HEAD. Burn at a fold. Rath (th silent), 
fold. Head is chuid, cuid aspirated, fold C, being silent, had 
been lost. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 41 

REDFORD, REDSIDE. Level ford, level place, Reidh, level ; 
suidhe, place. 

REDHEUGHS. Steep red banks. Jleuijh (Scotch), steep bank 
without vegetation. 

REMOTE. Plain of assembly. Reidh, plain mod, assembly. 

RESTALBIG, for Rust Ruiyh Aill. Rust means hill. It had 
been added to explain the original name. Ruiyh Aill means 
slope of the hill. Ruiyh, slope ; aill, hill. It is said that an 
old form of the name was Lestalrig, which would have repre- 
sented Lies Ruiyh Aill, fold of the slope of the hill. Lios, fold ; 
ruigh, slope at the base of a hill ; aill, hill. 

RHYND LODGE. Lodge at a point. Rinn, point. D is a 
euphonic addition to 11. Rhynd may be a personal name. 

RICCARTON, for Baile Ruiyh Ard. Town on the slope of a 
hill. Baile (translated), town ; ruiyh, slope ; ard, height. 

RISLAND. Muir on a hill. Riasg, wet moor ; lamhan, little 
hill. D is a euphonic addition to n. 

ROADS, for Ruiyhean. Slight slope. Ruiyhean, diminutive 
of ruigh, slope at the base of a hill. Gh and dh are pronounced 
in the same way, hence g and d are confounded. An had 
improperly been made s instead of ie. 

ROBIN'S WELL. Well in a bushy place, fioibeach, bushy, 
shaggy. 

RODDINGLAW, for Ruadhan Lamh. Little red place on a 
hill. Ruadhan, diminutive of ruadh, red ; lamh (mh silent), 
hill. 

ROMAN CAMP. The place called by this name is an old fold. 

ROSE CLEUGH, ROSE VIEW, ROSEBERY, ROSEBURN, ROSEHILL, 
ROSEMAINS, ROSEMAY, ROSLIN. Rose and ros represent ro-s, 
point. Rose Cleugh means steep bank at a point ; Rose View, 
point from which a view is seen ; Rosebery is ros, point, and 
biorach, pointed ; Roseburn is a point between two burns ; 
Rosehill, hill with a point ; Rosemains, farm at a point ; Rose- 
may, point of a hill projecting into a plain magh, plain ; 
Roslin, waterfall at a point of land linne, linn, fall. 

ROSE WELL, for Bhaile Ros. Town on a point of land. 
Bhaile, baile aspirated, town ; ros, point. Baile had been 
aspirated and put last. Bh is equal to w, and bhaile had been 
pronounced waile and, when final e had been lost, well. 

ROTTENROW, for Rath Rotan. Circle on a round little hill. 
Rath (pronounced raw), stone circle, fold ; rotan, round little 
hill. 

ROUTING HILL. Slope of a hill. Ruiyhean, diminutive of 
ruigh, slope, shieling. 

ROUTING WELL, for Baile Ruiyhean. Town on a hillside. 
Baile, town ; ruighean, diminutive of ruigh, slope of a hill. 
Baile, made bhaile and corrupted into well, had been transferred 
to the end. 

ROWANTREE LAW. Hill of the rowan-tree. Lamh, hill, law 
(Scotch) ; ruadhan, rowan, little red berry. 



42 PLACE NAMES 

ROWATEB, for Ruigh Uachdar, Upper slope. Ruigh (gh 
silent), slope, shieling ; uachdar (ch silent), upper. 

ROYSTON. Small hill. Rustan, small hill. 

RULLION GREEN, for Ruigh Ailean. Green plain on a slope. 
Ruigh, slope of a hill, shieling ; ailean, green. 

RUSHA. Slope of a hill. Ruighe. Slope at the base of a hill. 

RUTHER LAW, for Lamh Ruigh Airidh. Hill of the slope of 
the shieling. Lamh, hill ; ruigh, slope ; airidh, shieling. Mh 
is equal to w ; gh became th ; and idh, being silent, had been 
lost. 

SAINT ANN'S, for Sithean Innis. Hill at a fold. Sithean 
(th silent), hill ; innis, fold, enclosure. Euphonic t had been 
added to final n. Innis has frequently become Ann's and Annie's. 

SAINT BERNARD'S. If this name is of Gaelic origin it repre- 
sents Sithean Beam Ardan. Gap in a little hill. Sithean, 
little hill ; beam, gap ; ardan, little hill. Sithean had lost th 
with the flanking vowels ; and an of ardan had become s instead 
of ie. Euphonic t had been added to sithean. The last part 
had been added to explain the first after it had been corrupted. 

SAINT LEONARDS. If this name is of Gaelic origin it is a 
corruption of Sithean Lean Ardan. Hillock of the level plain. 
Sithean (th silent), small hill ; lean, plain ; ardan, small hill. 
Euphonic t had been added to sithean, and an of ardan had 
improperly been changed to s, instead of ie. 

SALISBURY CRAIGS, for Creagan Sealan Bruch. Cliffs at the 
shieling on the hill. Creagan, plural of creag, cliff, rock ; sealan, 
shieling, summer pasture ; bruch, hill. An of creagan normally 
became s, being plural, but sealan is not plural and it was a 
mistake to change an into is. Arthur's Seat had anciently been 
common summer pasture for the cows of the burgesses, which 
had been herded by men paid jointly by the owners. 

SALTERFORD, for Ath Tir Sath. Ford at the land of the 
cattle. Ath, ford ; tir, land ; sath, drove, herd. Th is silent 
and had been lost, but a being long 1 had been inserted, as in 
calm. 

SALTERS ROAD. Road for cattle going to and from a shieling. 
Sath (Irish), drove, cattle ; airidh, shieling. L is frequently 
inserted after a where it ought not to be, and sometimes it is 
omitted where it ought to be. S is an insertion made to make 
salter possessive. 

SALTERSYKE, Small drain from the land of the shieling. 
Syke (Scotch), small stream from a wet place ; seal, shieling ; tir, 
land. 

SALVANDI. Black little field. Sealbhan, little field for cattle ; 
dubh, black. Bh is equal to v, but it may be silent. 

SAUCHAN SIDE. Small pleasant place. Samhachan, diminu- 
tive of samhach, quiet, pleasant; suidhe, place. Mh, being 
silent, had been dropped. 

SAUGHLAND. Pleasant hill. Samhach, pleasant ; lamhan, 
little hill. Euphonic d had been added to n. 



OP MIDLOTHIAN 43 

SAUGHLY, perhaps for Samhach Lamh. Peaceful hill. 
Samhach, peaceful, quiet ; lamh (mh silent), bill. 

SAUGHS, for Samhachan. Quiet little place. Samhachan, 
diminutive of samhach, quiet, pleasant. Mh is silent and had 
been lost. An had wrongly been made s instead of ie. 

SAUGHTON. Pleasant place. Samhach (mh equal to u), mild, 
pleasant. 

SCADLAW, SCALD LAW. Hill where cattle were received to 
pasture on payment of a money rent. Sgat (Norse), rent ; lamh, 
hill. 

SCARCE RIG. Rocky slope. Sgeireach, rocky ; ruigh, slope. 

SCREW WOOD. Wood on rocky ground. Sgreig (Irish), 
rocky ground. Screw might represent sgreuchagach, abounding 
in jackdaws. 

SCROGGY HILL. Hill growing stunted worthless trees and 
bushes. Sgrogag, stunted timber. 

SCROOP HILL. Hill whose surface had been taken away for 
fuel. Sgriob, to make bare. Or, Hill of bad pasture. Sgriob- 
hach (Irish), affording bad pasture. Or, Dry hill. Sgreubh, to 
dry up. 

SELL MOOR. Moor of the shiel. Seal, shiel, temporary 
residence on hill pasture. 

SELRIS, for Sealbhan. Small herd of cattle. Sealbhan, dim- 
inutive of sealbh, herd of cattle. Bh became mh, both sounded 
v ; and an was improperly made s instead of ie. Sealmhs 
lapsed into selms. 

SERGEANTS LAW. Dry hill. Searganach, dry ; lamh, hill. 

SHANK HILL. Sithean, hill. S before i is equal to sh. Th 
is silent, and euphonic k had been added to n. 

SHAW BURN. Burn of the bushy place. Shaw, grove, small 
wood. 

SHAWPAIR. Wooded hill. Shaw (Scotch), wooded ; fair, hill. 

SHEAR BURN. Black burn. Sear, dark, black. S before e 
sounds sh. 

SHEARER KNOW, for Cnapan Sear Airidh. Knoll of the 
black shiel. Cnapan, knoll ; sear, black ; airidh, shiel. The 
shiels were residences for women in charge of cows on hill 
pasture. They were built of black mossy sods. 

SHEARS, for Searan. Little black place. Searan, diminutive 
of sear (Irish), black. 

SHEELING HILL. Hill to which cattle were sent in summer 
to be away from growing crops. Previous to 1750 fields were 
not fenced, and all the arable land on farms was under crop 
every year. Sealan, shieling. 

SHEIL BURN. Burn passing a hut on a shieling. Seal, shiel, 
temporary residence on summer pasture. 

SHEIL KNOWE. Knoll on which there were huts for persons in 
charge of cattle on summer pasture. 

SHERIFFHALL, for Coill Sear Abh. Hill of the black water. 
Coill, hill ; sear, dark ; abh, water. Coill had been made choill 



44 PLACE NAMES 

and put last, then c being silent had been lost, and oi had been 
made a to obtain an English word. Bh had become ph, which 
isf. 

SHEWINGTON. Hill town. Sithean (pronounced shean), hill. 
Th had become bh, which is equal to w, and an became ing. 

SHIEL. Temporary summer residence for persons in charge 
of cattle on hill pasture. Seal, hut, residence far away from 
cultivated land. 

SHINBANES. Fold. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold, which had been corrupted into whitehill. This had been 
turned into Gaelic by sitheanban, white hill (sithean, hill ; ban, 
white). Sithean is pronounced shean. An of ban was im- 
properly made es, which was added to ban, and shean banes is 
now shinbanes. 

SHIRE HAUGH. Black haugh. Sear, black. S before e is 
equal to sh. 

SHOESTANES. Hill. The oldest part of the name is the last, 
which had been sithean, hill, to which had been added s because 
it ended in an, erroneously supposed to be a plural termination. 
By dropping i and h steans was produced, now made stanes. 
Then had been prefixed sith, hill, pronounced she, but now 
made shoe. 

SHOTHEAD. Field of the fold. Shot (English), separate field, 
small farm ; chuid, culd aspirated, fold. 

SIDE. Place. Suidhe, place. 

SILVER HAUGH. Haugh on a shieling for cattle. SeaJbh, 
cattle ; airidh, shieling. 

SILVERBURN. Burn of the shieling for cattle. Sealbh, cattle ; 
airidh, shieling. 

SILVERKNOWES for Cnapan Sealbhar. Knoll of the herd of 
cattle. Cnapan, knoll ; sealbhar, herd of cattle. An had been 
supposed to be a plural termination and had been translated 
by es. 

SINKIE, for Sithean Guith. Hill of the fold. Sithean 
(contracted to sin), hill ; cuith (th silent), fold. Sin cui became 
sinkie. 

SISTER'S HOLE, for Seis Tirean Choill. Pleasant little place 
on a hill. Seis, pleasant ; tirean, diminutive of tir, land ; 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. C, being silent, had been lost. 

SIT BURN. Hill burn. Sith, hill. 

SKELTIE Mum. Extensive moor. Sgaoilte, spread out. 

SKIVO. Beautiful place. Sgiamhach, beautiful. Mh is 
equal to v. Skibo is the same as Skivo, but mh had become 
bh. 

SKOTIE BURN. Skotie represents Eos Cuitan. Burn of the 
little ford. Eos, burn ; cuitan, little fold. Ea of eas had been 
lost, and an of cuitan had become ie. 

SLATEBARNS. Gap in a hill. Sliabh, hill ; bearnas, gap. 

SLATEFORD. Ford protected against erosion by stems of trees 
laid up and down in the bottom. Slat, rod. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 45 

SLATKHEUGH. Steep bank on a hill. Sliabh, hill. The name 
may mean slate quarry. 

SLATY Row. Row of houses on the hills, Sleibhte, plural of 
sliabh, hill. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE. House on lull land. Sliabh, hill ; tir, land. 

SMEATON. Small place, Smiotan, diminutive of smiot, small 
portion. 

SNYPE, for Eas na Peic. Burn of the long strip. Eos, burn ; 
nci, of the ; peic (Irish), long tail. The sound of ea had been 
lost, a became y, and final c had been aspirated and had subse- 
quently been lost. There is a long narrow strip of land at 
Snype between a burn and a road. 

SOLE. Wet place. Soghail (gh silent), wet. 

SOUTRA. The first part of the name is accented and it had 
originally been last. Perhaps for Hath Siith. Fold where cows 
were milked. Rath, fold, circle ; suth (Early Irish), milk. 

Sow. Wet place. Sugh, Avet. 

SOWBURNRIG. Burn of the wet slope. Sugh, wetness ; 
ridgh, slope on a hill. 

SOWRIG BURN. Burn from a wet hill slope. Suyh, moisture ; 
ruigh, slope of a hill. 

SPITTAL. Hospital. Hospitalia (Latin), apartments for 
strangers. 

SPREAD. Place for cattle. Spreidh, cattle. 

SPREADS. Small place for cattle. Spreidhean, diminutive of 
spreidh, cattle. Ean had improperly been made s. 

STAGEBANK. Steep bank. Stage is the English word staid 
sounded as if d were followed by ye. In Gaelic dh and gh both 
sound y. 

STAGEHALL. Upstanding hill. Stage is the English word 
staid, standing up, with the sound of ye added to d. Hall is 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. C in ch is silent and had been 
lost. 

STAIR ARMS. Inn with a sign showing the shield and coat of 
arms of the Earls of Stair. 

STANDING STONES. Circle of stone pillars guarding a pre- 
historic British grave. In the centre of the circle there was a 
small chamber or an urn containing incinerated bones. 

STEEL PARK. Park of the spring. /Steal, gushing spring. 

STELL KNOWE. Knoll where there is a shelter for sheep. 

STILL BRIDGE. Bridge over a rushing burn. Slealf, gushing 
spring. In England steall sometimes means stagnant water in 
a ditch. 

STIRLING. Cliff of a hill. Stor, cliff; lamhan, diminutive of 
lamh, hill. Mh being silent had been lost, but being equal to 
nasal v it has caused g to be added to final n. 

STOBBIN DEAN. Den on a small sharp-pointed hill. Deiti, 
den ; stoban, diminutive of stob, pointed hill. 

STOBGREEN. Gi'assy place at a pointed hill. Stob, hill rising 
to a point. 



46 PLACE NAMES 

STOBHILL. Pointed hill. Stob, point of a hill. 

STOBS. Little pointed hill. Stoban, diminutive of stob, 
pointed hill. An became s instead of ie. 

STOCKBBIDGE. Bridge formed of a solid piece of wood. Stoc, 
trunk of a tree, solid wood. 

STOTFIELD. Field for bullocks. Stot (English), steer, bullock. 

STOW. Pointed hill. Stobh, stob with b aspirated, pointed 
hill. Bh is sounded as ou. 

STRAITON. Little lane. Sraidean, diminutive of sraid, lane, 
street. 

STRUTHEB. Stream. Sruthair (Irish), stream. 

SUMMER KNOWE. Wet knoll. Sughmhor, wet. Gh is 
silent, and h in mhor serves to show that m is nasal, but it is 
not sounded itself. 

SUMMERSIDE. Wet place. Sughmhor, wet; suidhe, place. 
Gh is silent, and h in mhor is also silent but it makes m nasal. 

SUNBURY. Both parts of the name mean hill. Sithean (th 
silent), hill ; bruch, hill. 

SWALLOW LAW. Conspicuous hill. Sualach, conspicuous, 
famous ; lamh, hill. 

SWANSTON. Town in a wet place. Sughan (gh silent), wetness. 

SWAREHOUSE for Sughar Chuith. Wet fold. Sughar, wet; 
chuith, cuith, aspirated, fold. Gh is equal to y, c in ch is silent, 
and th had become sh but had afterwards lost the aspirate h. 
This produced suyarhuis, now made swarehouse. 

SWEETHOPE, for Suidhe Chop. Place on a hill. 'Suidhe, place ; 
chop, cop aspirated, hill, hill-top. C silent had been lost. 

SWINE'S CLEUGH. Wet cliff. Sughan, wetness ; cleugh, steep 
bank. Gh is equal to y. An had been made s in the belief 
that it was a plural termination. 

SYMINGTON. Town in a little quiet place. Baile trans- 
lated, town ; seimhean, diminutive of seimhe, mildness, quietness. 

TARTAN HILL. Hillock. Tartan (Irish), hillock. 

TATHIE KNOWE. Knoll frequently visited. Tathaich, resort. 

TEMPLE. Land belonging to the Knights Templars of 
Jerusalem. 

TEMPLE HILL. Choill, coill, aspirated, hill. C is silent in ch. 

TEMPLE HOUSE. House which had belonged to the Knights 
Templars. 

TENANTSMARCH. Marsh of the mall burn. Tainan, diminu- 
tive of tain (Irish), water. 

THICKSIDE RIG, for Ruigh Suidhe Tigh. Slope on which 
there is the site of a house. Ruigh, slope ; suidhe, site ; tigh, 
house. In Irish tigh as an adjective means thick, 

THORNTON, for Baile Cham. Town on a hill. Baile, town ; 
charn, earn aspirated, hill. Ch had become th. 

THORNYCROOK, for Charnach Cnoc. Stony hill. Charnach, 
carnach aspirated, stony ; cnoc (pronounced croc), hill. The 
original form of the name must have been Carnach Chnoc, 
because the adjective precedes its noun. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 47 

THRASHIE HILL. Heathery Hill. Fraochach, heathery. F 
is equal to ph, which had become th, and ch had become sh. 
Ach had become ie. 

THRASHIEDEAN. Heathery den. Fraochach, heathery ; dein, 
den. See Thrashie Hill. 

THREIPMUIR. Muir of the hill. Triath, hill. 

TIPPER WELL. Well. Tobar, well. 

TIPPERLINN. Well at a waterfall. Tobar, well ; linne, water- 
fall. 

TODDLE BURN. Fox-hole burn. Tod (Scotch), fox. 

TODHOLE KNOWE. Knoll where there was a fox's hole. 
In some places there are ancient sea beaches, in which foxes 
made long holes, narrow at the mouth but wide inside. 

TOD'S CAIRN. Heap of stones frequented for shelter by foxes. 

TOR. Steep hill. Torr, steep, flat-topped hill. 

TORCRAIK. Both parts mean hill. Torr, steep hill; creach, 
hill. 

TORDUFF. Black hill. Torr, steep abrupt hill ; dubh, 
black. 

TORFICHEN HILL. Hill of the little fold. Torr, steep, 
abrupt hill ; chuithan, cuithan aspirated, small fold. Ch became 
ph or f, and th became ch. 

TORGEITH. Windy hill. Torr, steep, abrupt hill ; gaothach, 
windy. 

TORMAIN. Both parts of the name mean hill. Torr, steep, 
abrupt hill ; man, hill. 

TORMYWHEEL. Hill of the fold. Torr, steep hill ; na, of the ; 
chuithail (th silent), cuithail aspirated, fold. 

TORPHIN HILL. The three parts of the name all mean hill. 
Torr, steep, abrupt hill ; fin, hill. Ph is equal to f . 

TORSONCE. Hill of prosperity. Torr, hill ; sonas, good 
fortune. 

TORWEAVING. Hill of the little fold. Torr, steep abrupt 
hill ; chuithan, cuithan aspirated, little fold. Ch became bh, 
equal to w ; th became bh, equal to v ; and an became ing. 

TOWN LAW, for Dun Lamh. Hill. Dun, hill ; lamh, hill. 

TOWNHEAD. Hill of the fold. Dun, hill ; chuid, cuid 
aspirated, fold. 

TOXSIDE, for Suidhe Tulach. Place on a hill. Suidhe, place ; 
tulach, hill. Toxside might mean hillside. 

TRINITY. Church dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Trinitas 
(Latin), three in one. 

TROQUHAN. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, 
corrupted into whitehill, which had again been turned into 
Gaelic by triathcan, white hill (triath, hill ; can, white). Th in 
triath had been lost because silent, but it aspirated c in can, 
making it chan, now quhan. 

TROWS. Cultivated land. Treobhachas, farm of arable land. 
The aspirated letters with their vowels would readily become 
silent and be lost. 



48 PLACE NAMES 

TURNHOUSE HILL. Hill of the fold. Torr, steep hill ; na, 
of the ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C in ch is silent, and huith 
had become house. 

TURNIEDYKES, for Torr an Dubhan. Black hill. Torr, steep 
hill ; an, of the ; dubhan, blackness. An had become s instead 
of ie. 

TURNIEMOON, for Torr na Maine. Hill of the moor. Torr, 
flat-topped hill ; na, of the ; moine, moor. 

TYNE. River. Tain (Irish), water. 

UNTHANK. The fold. An, the ; fhang, fang aspirated, fold, 
fank. Fh had become th, and k had been added to g for 
euphony. 

VAULAND BURN. Burn of the big hill. Vauland, for Lamhan 
Bhagh. Hill of bigness. Lamhan (mh silent), diminutive of 
tamh, hill, with euphonic d added ; bhagh, bagh aspirated, bulk, 
size. Bh is equal to v. 

VEIN. Hill. Bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. 

VENTURE FAIR. Hill of the fold. Originally Venture had 
been Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, which had been corrupted 
into whitehill. This had been turned into Gaelic by bhantorr, 
white hill (bhan, ban aspirated, white ; torr, hill), and bhanturr 
became venture. Fair, hill, is a late addition made to explain 
ture for torr. 

VERTER, for Tir Bhior. Land of the well. Tir, land ; bhior, 
bior aspirated, well. Bh is equal to v. 

VOGRIE, for Ruigh Bheag. Small shieling. Ruigh, slope of a 
hill, shieling ; bheag, feminine of beag, small. Bh is sounded v. 

WADEINBURN, for Braon Bhadain. Burn of the little bushy 
place. Braon, hill burn ; bhadain, genitive aspirated of bada, 
h'ttle bushy place. Bh is pronounced as w. 

WALLTOWER. Town on a steep abrupt hill. Bhaile, baile 
aspirated, town; torr, steep hill. Bhaile is pronounced wall-e 
or, with e dropped, wall. 

WALLYFORD. Ford at a town. Bhaile, baile aspirated, town. 
Bh is equal to w. 

WALSTONE. Town at a stone. Bhaile, baile aspirated, town. 
Bhaile is pronounced wall-e, and final e in names is usually lost. 
Stone might represent ton, town, with s prefixed to obtain a 
possessive. 

WANTON WA'S, WANTON WELLS. Town at a fold. Bhail<', 
baile, aspirated, town ; chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. Bhaile 
became waile, afterwards made wall, to which s was added for 
euphony, and walls became wa's and wells. Chuitail was corrupted 
into whitehill, which was made in Gaelic bhandun, white hill 
(bhan, ban aspirated, white ; dun, hill), now become wanton. 
Wanton Wa's and Wanton Wells are not uncommon names. 

WARDIE. Little" meadow. Bhardan, bardan aspirated, little 
meadow. Bh is equivalent to w, and an normally became ie. 

WARKLAW. Hill with a conspicuous summit. Lamh, hill ; 
bharrach, barrack aspirated, over-topping. Bh is equal to w. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN 49 

WARRISTON, for Baile BJiarra. Town on a point. Baile, 
town ; bharra, barra aspirated, point. Bh is equal to w. 

WATHERSTON, for Baile Bheath Airidh. Town at a birch- 
wood on a shieling. Baile, town ; bheath, beath aspirated, birch- 
wood ; airidh, shieling. Bh is equal to w, and idh is silent. 

WAULKMILL. Mill where cloth is felted by beating. 
Originally cloth was felted by people walking on it while 
wet. 

WEATHER LAW. Hill of the shieling where birches grow. 
Lamh, hill ; airidh (idh silent), shieling ; bheath, beath aspirated, 
birch-wood. Bh is equal to w. 

WEDALE, for Ghuidail. Fold. Chnidail, cuidail aspirated, 
fold. Ch had become silent and had been lost, leaving uidail, 
which became wedale. Wedale is an old name for the parish 
now called Stow. 

WELL OP SPA. Well whose water is impregnated with 
carbonate of iron. The name had been imported from Spa in 
Belgium, where there are chalybeate springs. 

WELLHEADS, for Bhaile Chuidan. Town at a small fold. 
Bhaile, baile aspirated, town : chuidan, cuidan aspirated, little 
fold. Bh is equal to w and bhaile became waile, and by loss of 
final e it became well. C in ch is silent and had been lost. An 
became s instead of ie, which produced huids, now heads. 

WELLINGTON INN. If this name is Gaelic it means inn at a 
corner. Uileann, nook, angle. 

WETHOLM, for Tolm Chuit. Hill of the fold. Tolm, round 
hillock ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ch became silent and was 
lost, and uit became wet. The parts of the name had been 
transposed, and tolm became tholm. 

WHAUPHILL, for Chop Hill. Hill. Chop, cop aspirated, hill. 
The name looks as if it meant hill of the curlew, but curlews 
frequent many hills in the county of Edinburgh. 

WHEATFIELD, for White field. The original form had been 
Achadh Chuit. Field of the fold. Achadh, field ; chuit, cuit 
aspirated, fold. Chuit had been corrupted into white when 
Gaelic was passing into Scotch. 

WHELPSIDE, for Suidhe Coillean. Place on a little hill. 
Suidhe, place ; coillean, little hill. Coillean had been supposed 
to be cuilean, little dog, and had been made whelp in English. 

WHINNYHAUGH. Haugh where assemblies were held. 
Choinne, coinne aspirated, meeting. 

WHIPPIE LAW, for Choipean Lamh. Little hill. Choipean, 
coipean aspirated, little hill ; lamh, hill. Coipean is a diminu- 
tive from coip, genitive of cop, hill. Ch had become wh, and an 
had become ie. 

WHISTLEGATE, for Tulach Gaothach Chois. Hill of the windy 
gap. Tulach, hill, round knoll ; gaot/Mch, windy ; chois, 
genitive aspirated of cos, hollow. 

WHITE. Fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, corrupted into 
white. 



50 PLACE NAMES 

The following names were also originally Chuit, etc. : 

WHITE CLEUGH. Fold in a ravine with steep sides. 
Cleugh, steep bank, ravine. 

WHITE HOUSE. Fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C 
had been lost, and th had become sh, which lost h. Huis 
was left and it became house. 

WHITE Moss. Moss of the fold. 

WHITE SYKES. Small streams draining a wet place at a fold. 

WHITEFAUGH. Field of the fold. Faugh, cultivated land. 

WHITELEA. Grass-land at a fold. 

WHITESIDE LAW. Hill of the site of a fold, Lamh, hill ; 
suidhe, site. 

WHITE HILL, WHITEHILL. Fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold, corrupted into white hill and whitehill. 

The following names also began originally with Chuitail, which 
became whitehill, but hill was subsequently turned into Gaelic 
in various ways. : 

WHITE CRAIG HEADS. Hill became creag, hill, now made 
craig. Heads is for chuidan, cuidan aspirated, little fold. 
C was lost and an was made s instead of ie. Huids has now 
become heads. 

WHITE LUMS, WHITELUMS. Hill became lamhan, dim- 
inutive of lamh, hill. An became s, improperly, producing 
lamhs, now lums. 

WHITE RIG. Hill became ruigh, slope, hill, now rig. 

WHITEBURGH. Hill became bruch, hill, now burgh. 

WHITEHOPE. Hill became chop, cop aspirated, hill. C was 
lost, and e was added. 

WHITELAW. Hill became lamh, hill, in which mh is equal to w. 

WHOLE STOCK. Hill sustaining cattle. Coille, hill ; stoc, 
cattle, wealth. 

WILKIES WOOD, WILKIESTON. Wood in a corner, and Town 
in a corner. Uileann, nook, angle. Eann had become ie, and k 
had been inserted in the belief that uilie was the diminutive of 
William. 

WILLIAMSTON. Town at a crook in a burn. Uileann, nook, 
crook, corner. 

WINCHEL HILL. The three parts of the name mean the same 
thing. The first had been bheinn, beinn, aspirated, hill, pro- 
nounced wane. The second had been choill, coill aspirated, hill, 
now made chel. Winchel in English names probably means hill. 

WINDY MAINS, for Gaothach Mem. Windy Hill. Gaothach, 
windy ; mem, hill. S represents an of man, supposed to be a 
plural termination. 

WINDY DOOR NICK, for Gaothach Dorus na Eag, Windy 
door in the gap. Gaothach, windy ; dorus, door, gap ; na, of 
the ; eag, notch, gap. 



OF MIDLOTHIAN. 51 

WINDYDOOKS HAWSE. Windy gap. Doors is for dorus, door, 
gap ; hawse is an English word meaning throat or neck. 

WISP. Bush of trees. 

WITCHES SYKE. Drain from a small fold. Chuithan, cuithan 
aspirated, small fold. Ch was lost, an became es instead of ie, 
and th was strengthened by the insertion of c, producing uitches, 
now witches. Syke (Scotch) means a very small stream. 

WOLF CLEUGH. Cliff haunted by a wolf. But wolf might 
be a corruption of uamh, pronounced uav, cave. 

WOODCOT, for Coill Cuit. Hill of the fold. Coill, hill, trans- 
lated into wood by mistake ; cuit, fold. See Woodhall. 

WOODHALL. Hill. Wood had originally been coill, hill, 
which had been translated into wood, the modern meaning of 
coill ; the second part, hall, had been choill, coill aspirated, hill, 
added to the first to explain it after being translated. Choill 
lost c, and oi became a. 

WOODHOUSELEE. Grass-land on the hill of the fold. Wood, 
translation of coill, hill ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; ley 
(Scotch), grass-land. See Woodhall and Turnhouse. 

WOOLMET, for Uileann Meud. Big corner, wide nook. 
Uileann, corner ; meud, greatness. 

WOOLY LAW, for Lamh Uileann. Hill in an angle between 
two burns. Lamh, hill ; uileann, angle, corner. 

WRIGHTS HOUSES, for Sealan Airidh. Shiels on summer 
pasture. Sealan, shiels, huts ; airidh, hill pasture. Before 
cultivated fields were fenced cattle had to be sent to hill 
pastures in summer, and houses built of sods were provided for 
mistresses of families and their children, for women to milk 
cows, and for men to herd the cattle. 

WULL MUIE. Moor in a corner, where there is a turn in a 
road. Uileann, nook, corner. Eann became ie, which was lost. 

YANCRUM. The fold. An, the ; crom, circle, fold. 

YELLOWSTRUTHER, for Sruth Chuit Airidh. Burn of the fold 
on a shieling. Sruth, burn ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; airidh, 
shieling. Chuit was corrupted into white, which was turned 
into Gaelic again by gealach, white. Gealach was corrupted into 
yellow, gh being equal to y. Yellow was put first because it 
was supposed to be an English adjective. 

YORKSTON. Quiet town. lorrach, quiet. 



PLACE NAMES 

OF 

EAST LOTHIAN 



GAELIC 

PLACE NAMES 

OF 

EAST LOTHIAN 

BY 

JOHN MILNE, LL.D. 




PUBLISHED FOB THE AUTHOR BT 

M'DOUGALL'S EDUCATIONAL COMPANY, LIMITED. 

LONDON : 8 FARRINGDON AVENUR, B.C. 

EDINBURGH : 1 AND 2 ST. JAMBS SQUARE. 



PLACE NAMES OF 
EAST LOTHIAN. 



ABERLADY. Mouth of the broad estuary of the Peffer Burn. 
Aber, infall ; leathan, broad. Th became dh, and h was after- 
wards lost. An became y though not a diminutive termination. 

ADNISTON. Town on a hill. Aodann, brae, hill. Ann is a 
diminutive termination and had been changed to ie, now i. 
Some had regarded it as a plural termination and had made it s, 
and thus it represents ann in two ways. 

AFRICA, for Ruigh Abh. Slope going down to a burn. 
Ruigh, slope ; abh, burn, water. 

AIKENGALL. Stone at a fold. Gall, rock, stone pillar ; 
aigheann, fold. 
. AIKIESIDE. Site of a fold. Aigheann, fold ; suidhe, place. 

ALDERSTON. Alder is for Aill Der, little hill. Aill, hill ; 
der (Irish), small. Ton represents dun, an addition made to 
explain aill. 

ALLER BOG. Alder bog. 

AMISFIELD. Field of shooting at a mark. Amusadh, aiming. 

ANNFIELD. Enclosed field. Innis, enclosure. 

ARCHERFIELD. High land field. Ard, hill ; thir, tir aspir- 
ated, land. Tir was aspirated because it follows its adjective. 

ASCENSION. Little burn of the hill. Easan, little burn ; 
sithean (th silent), hill. 

ASHYHAUGH. Haugh of the little burn. Easan, small burn ; 
Eas became ash, and an normally became y. 

ATHELSTANEFORD, for Ath Clack Aoil. Limestone kiln. Ath, 
kiln ; clach, stone ; aoil, lime. There is in Gaelic a word ath, 
kiln ; and there is also another ath, ford. By a mistake the 
translation of the second ath had been added to the name to 
explain the first ath at the beginning. There is no limestone at 
Athelstaneford but there is to the west. It had been conveyed 
to Athelstaneford and had been burned in a kiln there. 

BACK o' LINGHOPE. Round backed ridge near Linghope. 
On the Ordnance Survey map this name is placed on the top of 
the ridge between two burn ravines called Ling Hope and Wide 
Hope. By hope is apparently meant a ravine or sheltered place, 
whereas hope in Gaelic names means hill. 

BACK RIG. Round backed ridge between two ravines. 
Ruigh (erroneously supposed to mean ridge), slope of a hill. 



6 PLACE NAMES 

BAILIE'S HAG WOOD. Jackdaw's wood at a farm town. 
Baile, town ; chathag, cathag aspirated, jackdaw. Chathag lost 
c and tha. Cathag (th silent) is an imitation of the cry of the 
bird. 

BALGONE. Town of the fold. Baile, town; gabhann (bh 
equal ou), fold. 

BANGLY HILL. Hill of the fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold. Chuitail became whitehill, which was turned into Gaelic 
by banlamh, white hill (ban, white ; lamh, hill). Euphonic g 
had been added to an, and mh had been lost. 

BANK. Fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated,' fold. Chuit became 
white, which was made in Gaelic ban, white, with euphonic k 
added. 

BANK BURN. Burn of the fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, 
corrupted into white, which was turned into Gaelic by ban, 
white, with the addition of euphonic k. 

BANKHEAD. Fold. The first part of the name had originally 
been chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, which had been corrupted into 
white. White had again been turned into Gaelic by ban, white, 
to which k had been added for euphony. The second part had 
been added to explain the first after it had been corrupted. 
Head is chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, in which c being silent, had 
been lost. Huid had been pronounced heed, which has now 
become head. 

BANKHEAD (Prestonpans). Head of level terrace. 

BANKEUGG. Fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, corrupted 
into whitehill, which was made banruigh, white hill (ban, white ; 
ruigh, hill). K is a euphonic addition to n. 

BARA. Point. Barra, point, court, place where barony 
courts were held. 

BARBERFIELD. Field at the point of a spit of land. JSarr, 
point ; bear, spit. 

BARD. Meadow. 

BAREBANES, for Bear Beannan. Point of the little hill. Bear, 
point ; beannan, little hill. An improperly became es instead of 
ie. 

BARNESS. Gap. Bearnas (Irish), gap. 

BARNEY HILL, BARNY HILL. Hill showing a gap in the sky 
line. Bearna (Irish), gap. 

BARNS. Place in a hollow. Bearnas, gap, hollow. 

BARRACKS. A place at a higher elevation than others near 
it. Barrachas, superiority. 

BASS. Death. The Bass rock had formerly been a place of 
execution. 

BATHAN'S STRAND. Little hollow filled with a small arm of 
the sea. Bathan, diminutive of bath, sea ; srathan, small 
valley, low place. Final s in Bathan's is a mistake for ie. D is 
a euphonic addition to an. 

BATHE. Cow-byre. Bathaich, cow-byre. Ch had been lost. 

BAXTER SYKE. Drain from a big cliff. JSagach, big ; stor, 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 7 

cliff. Bagach by losing ach became bag in bag-rope, the term 
for a thick rope round the eave of a rick. X in Baxster should 
beg. 

BEANSTON. Hill town. Beinn, hill, S represents einn. 

BEARFORD. Burn ford. Bior, water, burn. 

BEATTIE'S Row. Bow of houses where birches grow. 
Beathach, abounding in birch-trees. Beattie's might be a 
personal name. 

BEESKNOWE, for Beith Knowe. Knoll growing birches. Beith, 
birch. 

BEGBIE. Small birch wood. Beag, small ; beith, birch, birch- 
wood. 

BEIL. Mouth of a stream. Beil, second form of beul, 
mouth. 

BELHAVEN. Mouth of the burn. Beil, mouth ; abhainn, 
stream. Beil is a second form of beul, mouth. Euphonic h had 
been prefixed to abhainn. 

BELL, BELL CRAIG, BELL'S CRAIG, BELL'S WOOD, BELLYFORD, 
BELTON, BELTON DOD. The first part of the names is buaile, 
fold. S is the English possessive sign. Craig is creag, hill ; 
ton is town, and dod is a corruption of cnoc, hill. 

BENNET'S BURN. Burn of the hill. Beinn, hill ; netan, 
small burn. An ought to have become ie, not s. 

BENT WOOD. Wood on a hill. Beinn, hill, with euphonic t 
added. 

BERRY HILL. Watery Hill. Biorach, watery. Several 
streams flow from this hill. 

BERWICK. Sharp point at a nook. Bear, spit ; uig, nook, 
cove. 

BETONY HILL. Hill abounding in birches. Beithanach, 
producing birches. 

BEUGH BURN. Roaring burn. Beuchach, noisy, roaring. 

BILSDEAN. Den of the fold. Buaile, fold : dein, den. 

BINNING. Little hill. Beinnan, diminutive of beinn, hill. 

BIRLIE KNOWE. Knoll on the projecting point of a hill. 
Cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill ; beur, point ; lamh, hill. 
Cnocan has assumed various forms in Scotch knockie, knox, 
knoll, knowe, knollys, knowles. In knockie an normally became 
ie ; in knox it abnormally became s, which combining with c 
made x ; in knoll and knowe an was lost ; in knollys it became 
both y, normally, and ies, abnormally. In knoll and knollys c 
disappeared and 11 took its place, and when 11 was lost o became 
ow. In knowles oil has become owl. 

BIRNIEKNOWES, BiRNY KNOWE. Knoll of the gap. Cnocan, 
knoll ; bearna (Irish), gap. An had by a mistake been regarded 
as plural and made s. 

BIRNS WATER. Burn flowing in a gap. Bearnas (Irish), 
gap. 

BIRSET HILL. Hill abounding in bushes. Preasach, bushy 
place. 



8 PLACE NAMES 

BIRSLIE BRAE. Brae of the bushy hill. Preas, bush ; lamh, 
hill. 

BLACK CASTLE, BLACK KNOWE, BLACK LAW, BLAKELAW, 
BLACKMAINS. Black and Blake represent Bleoghann, milking, 
with gh hardened into ch. Blake is nearer the original, k only 
being inserted. Ann though not a diminutive termination here 
had been made ie, which had afterwards being lost, being final. 
The fold at Black Castle had been mistaken for a fort. Law is 
lamh, hill. Mains is man, hill, with s added because it ended in 
an, but it is not here a plural termination. It became mains 
because it was a farm name. 

BLACK GRAIN. Black burn which joins another burn. 

BLACK MURPHIES, for Mor Chuith Bleoghann. Big fold for 
milking cows. Mor, big ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; 
bleoghann, milking. Ch had become ph, and th had become sh 
and afterwards s. Ann is not a diminutive termination here 
but it had been made ie, which being final had been lost. Black 
in names often refers to milk and milking. 

BLADDERING CLEUGH. Ravine of the milking-fold, on a 
small shieling. Bleodhann, milking-place ; airidhean, small 
shieling. Ann improperly became ie, which was lost. G had 
been added to final n of airidhean. 

BLAIKIE HEUGH. Milking fold at a steep bank. Bleoghann, 
milking. 

BLANCE. Small warm place. Blathan (th silent), diminutive 
of blath, warm. An abnormally became s, now ce. 

BLAWEARIE, for Blath Chuith Airidh. Pleasant fold on the 
shieling. Blath, warm, pleasant ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; 
airidh, shieling. All the aspirated letters were lost. Ui is 
pronounced we. 

BLEAK LAW. Hill of the milking fold. Bleoghann, milking ; 
lamh, hill. 

BLINDWALLS, for Bailean Caoch. Little town on a burn. 
Bailean, diminutive of baile, town ; caoch, burn. Caoch had 
been supposed to be the adjective caoch, blind. Bailean had 
been made bhailean, and put last. Bh is equal to w, and ean 
had by mistake been made s. Bhails became first wails and 
then walls. 

BLINDWELL BRAE, for Brae of the well of the little burn. 
Caoch, blind, and caoch, burn, had been confounded together in 
the name. Two mistakes had been made, one in making caoch, 
blind, instead of burn, and the other in making the well blind. 
In the Hebrew language a well is regarded as an eye, and a 
dry well might be called blind in Hebrew, but not in English. 

BLINKBONNY. Milking fold in a howe. Bleoghann, milking- 
place ; bonnan, little bottom, howe. 

BLINKIE BURN, for Cuith Bleoghann. Fold where cows were 
milked. Cuith (th silent), fold ; bleoghann (gh silent), milking. 

BLOODY SIDE. Milking place. Bleodhann, milking ; suidhe, 
place. Ann become y, abnormally. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 9 

BLUEHOLES. Hillock where cows were milked. Choillean, 
coillean aspirated, little hill ; bleoghann, milking. C of choillean 
was lost, and can was made es instead of ie. Ann of bleoghann 
had become ie and had been lost. 

BLUEHOUSES. Little milking fold. Bleoghann, milking ; 
chuithan, cuithan aspirated, little fold. Gh is equal to y, and 
ann had become ie, which had been lost. C in ch had been 
lost, th had become sh and afterwards s, and an abnormally 
became es. 

BOAE STONE. Big stone. JBorr, great. 

BOAR'S CLEUGH. Big cleugh. Borr, big. 

BOGGS, for Bogan. Soft moist place. Bogan, diminutive of 
bog, wet, marshy place. An was improperly made s. 

BOGLEHILL. Cow-stall hill. Buaigheal, cow-stall. 

BOHOMY, for Both Thoman. House on the little hill. Both 
(th silent), house, thoman, toman aspirated, hill. T in thoman 
is silent, and an had become y, normally. 

BOLTON. Town at a fold. Buaile, fold. 

BONETTY KNOWE. Bottom of the knoll near a litttle burn. 
Bonn, bottom ; netan, little burn ; cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, 
hill. An normally became y. 

BONNINGTON. Town in a little hollow (at the foot of North 
Berwick Law). jBonnan, diminutive of bonn, bottom, hollow. 

BONNY WOOD. Wood in the bottom of a valley. Bonnan, 
little hollow. An normally became y. 

BOONSLY SHANK. Hill of the quarry. Buidhinn, quarry ; 
lamh, hill. Shank is sithean, hill, with euphonic k added, an 
explanation of ly the corruption of lamh. All the aspirated 
letters had been lost, being silent. S in Boonsly represents inn, 
improperly regarded as a plural termination. 

BOTHER CLEUGH, BOTHER STONE. Bother represents Both 
Airidh. House on a shieling. Both, hut, shiel ; airidh, 
shieling. 

BOTHWELL. House at a farm town. Both, house ; bhaile, 
baile aspirated, farm town. Bh is equal to w, and waile became 
well. 

BOWERHOUSE. Cattlefold. Buar, cattle ; chuith, cuith aspir- 
ated, fold. C in ch is silent. Th became sh, which became s 
by loss of h, and then huis became house. 

BOY'S Buss. Yellow snout. Buidhe, yellow ; bus, snout, 
rock like a snout. S represents the sound of dhe. 

BRAID LAW. Both parts mean hill. Braid (Irish), hill; 
lamh, hill. 

BRAIDBUS HILL. Hill of the snout. Braid, hill ; bus, 
snout. 

BRAND'S MILL. Mill on a burn. Braon, hill burn. S repre- 
sents aon. 

BRANSLYSHIEL. House on the hill of the burn. Seal, shiel, 
residence on summer pasture ; lamh, hill ; braon, hill burn. S 
represents aon. 



10 PLACE NAMES 

BRANXTON. Town on a little burn. Braonan, diminutive of 
braon, burn. Euphonic c had been added to braon, and final 
an had abnormally been made s. C and s combined made x. 

BROAD LECKS. Broad flat rocks. Leacan, plural of leac, flat 
slab. 

BROCK BURN. Hill burn. Bruch, hill. 

BRODIE'S FOLD. Fold at a sharp corner. Brodan, point. S 
represents an, erroneously regarded as a plural termination. 

BROOKSIDE. Place on a hill. Bruch, hill ; suidhe, place. 

BROOMHOUSE. Fold at a place growing broom. House repre- 
sents chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C of ch became silent and 
was lost ; th became sh and h was lost, leaving huis, now 
house. 

BROWN DOD. Hill of the burn. Cnoc, hill ; braon, mountain 
burn. 

BROWNRIGG, BROWNRIG. Place sloping to a burn. Braon, 
burn ; ruigh, slope. 

BROWN'S PLACE. Place at a burn. Braon, burn. S repre- 
sents aon. 

BROWNSHILL. Hill of the mountain burn. Braon, burn. S 
had been put in because braon ended in aon. 

BRUCE'S CIRCLE. Circle on a small hill. Bruchan, small hill. 
An abnormally became s instead of ie. 

BRUNT HILL. Hill of the burn. Braon, burn. 

BUBBLY Buss. Rock of lamentation. Bubail, lamentation ; 
bus, snout. The rock had caused loss of life in storms. 

BUGHT KNOWE. Knoll where there was a house for sheep. 
Buth, hut for sheep. Th had become gh, and t had been added 
for euphony. 

BUGHTS. Houses for sheep. Buth, hut. Th became gh, to 
which t was added for euphony. 

BUIST'S EMBANKMENT. Dyke made to retain mud and exclude 
the sea. Buiste, pocket, pouch. 

BULLHOPE LAW. Hill of the fold. Chop, cop aspirated, hill ; 
buaile, fold ; lamh, hill. The last part is a recent addition. 

BURLAGE QUARRY. Quarry on an open moor on a hill. Blair, 
open place ; aod, hill, brae. Blair by transposition of letters 
became baril, which was made burl. D is sometimes pronounced 
as dg, and aod became age. 

BURN HOPE. Burn of the hill. Chop, cop aspirated, hill. C 
silent had been dropped. 

BURNPOOT. Fold at a burn. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; 
braon, hill burn. Ch became ph, which is f. 

BURNING MOUNT, for Braonan Monadh. Little burn from a 
hill. Braonan, diminutive of braon, burn ; monadh, hill, moor. 

BUSHELHILL. Hill of the shepherd. Buachaille, shep- 
herd. 

BUTTERDEAN, for Dein Buth Airidh. Den of the hut on the 
shieling. Dein, den ; buth, hut, shiel ; airidh, summer pasture, 
shieling. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 11 

BUXLEY. Big grassy place. Buchd, bulk, big ; ley (Scotch), 
grass-land. X is not a Gaelic letter, and in Buxley it must 
represent some combination of other letters. The name might 
mean a farm all in pasture. In Scotch bulk, pronounced book, 
means the whole of a thing. 

BYRIE HILL. Pointed hill. Biorach, pointed. 

CAERLAVEROCK. Slope of the shieling hill. Ruigh, slope ; 
cathair (th silent), hill ; lamh, hill ; airidh, shieling. Cathair had 
been prefixed to lamh as an explanation after its meaning had 
been lost. Though lamh, hill, is in many names no Irish or 
Gaelic dictionary gives it. 

CAIRN HILL. Hill. Cam, hill. The second part is a 
translation of the first. 

CAIRNDINNIS. Hill of the little hill. Cam, hill; dunan, 
little hill. An had become both ie and s. 

CALDER CLEUGH. Ravine of the rapid river. Cleugh, ravine ; 
callaidh, active ; dobhar (bh silent), water. 

CAMPTON. Town at a camp. The supposed camp was the 
pumphal or cattlefold called The Chesters. 

GAMY CLEUGH. Ravine with curves. Camach, crooked. 

CANTY BAY. Bay of the little head. Ceanntan, diminutive 
of ceann, head. An normally became y. 

CANTYHALL. Little hill. Ceanntan, little hill ; choill, coill 
aspirated, hill. Ceanntan is ceannan, diminutive of ceann, head, 
with euphonic t inserted. Final an normally became y. 

CAR. Turn in the line of the coast. Car, turn, bend. Or, 
Projecting shelf of rock. Carr, projecting point. Both meanings 
are appropriate. 

CARPRAE. Hill of heather. Cathair (th silent), hill ; fraoch 
(och silent), heather. 

CARLEKEMP. Hill with a crooked side. Cathair (th silent), 
hill ; leth (th silent), side ; cam, crooked, with euphonic p added 
to m. 

CARPERSTANE, perhaps for Carr Chnap Airidh. Monumental 
pillar on the highest point of a shieling. Carr, monumental 
stone ; chnap, cnap aspirated, knoll, knap ; airidh shieling. Ch 
is often silent and liable to be lost, and n after c is often lost, as 
in cock for cnoc. Stane is a translation of carr. 

CASTLE MOFFAT. Big fold, erroneously supposed to have 
been a castle. Mo, great ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ch 
became ph, equal to f. 

CASTLE SHOT. Field at Norham Castle. Sgot, spot, small field. 

CASTLE TARBET. Place like a castle on a rock separated from 
Fidra Island. Tearbta, separated. 

CAT CRAIG. Hill at a road. Creag, hill ; cat, road. 

CATIE CLEUGH. Steep bank where there is a path. Catha, 
drove road, path. 

CAUL. Place where a river is narrowed by a wall projecting 
into it. Cool, narrow. Here the wall had been carried across 
the river and had been made a weir. 



12 PLACE NAMES 

CAULD BURN. Slender Burn. Cool, narrow, with euphonic 
d added to 1. Silent d is often found after 1. 

CAULDRAW, for Rath Cuil. Fold in a nook. Rath, circle, 
fold ; cuil, nook. 

CAULDSHIEL. Shiel in a corner. Cuil, nook ; seal, temporary 
summer residence. 

CAULDSIDE. North-lying place, Cul, back, north ; suidhe, 
place. 

CHALMERS'S BUSSHEAD, for Bus Chuid Sealbhar. Rock which 
had served as a fold for cattle. Bus, rock like a snout ; chuid, 
cuid aspirated, fold ; sealbhar, cattle. Since bh and mh are 
both sounded v they are often confounded, and so also are b 
and m. Se is equal to she in Gaelic, and sealbhar had become 
chalmer. 

CHARLIE'S PLANTATION. Plantation at a dark fold. Sear, 
(pronounced shear), black, dark ; lios, fold. 

CHARTERIS'S WELL. Well on a black shieling. Sear, dark; 
airidh, shieling. 

CHESTER HILL, CHESTERHALL, CHESTERHILL. Hill of the 
sunny land. Deas, south, sunny, sometimes east; choill, coill 
aspirated, hill. 

CHESTERS, an ancient cattlefold surrounded by concentric 
dykes and ditches for defence against cattle thieves (See " Douglas, 
a Tragedy "). There are within the enclosure traces of byres for 
cows which were milked night and morning. Chesters is a 
recent name derived from the Latin word castra, camp. Castra is 
plural, therefore s had been added to Chester. 

CINDERHALL, for Choill Sithean Airidh. Hill of the shieling. 
Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; sithean (thea silent), hill ; airidh, 
shieling. Euphonic d had been added to cin for sin. 

CLACHERDEAN. Den of the stepping stones. Dein, den ; 
clacharan, stepping stones. An had been lost by becoming ie. 

CLARTYSIDE. Beautiful place. Clardha, beautiful; suidhe, 
place. 

CLAY KNOWE. Knoll composed of clay ; but clay may be a 
corruption of clachach, stony. 

CLECKMAY. Fold of .wattled work in a plain, death, wattled 
fold ; magh, plain. Th nad become ch, afterwards made ck. Gh 
is equal to y. 

CLERKINGTON, for Baile Claran. Town at a small open clear 
place. Baile, town ; claran, diminutive of clar, open smooth 
place. Euphonic k had been added to r. 

GLINTS DOD. See Glints Law, and Dod. 

GLINTS LAW, for Cleathan Lamh. Hill of the little fold. 
Lamh, hill; cleathan (th silent), little fold. T is a euphonic 
addition to n, and s had been added in the mistaken belief that 
cleathan was plural. 

CLOVERY ROAD. Stony road. Clocharra, stoney. Ch became 
bh, equal to v. 

COALSTON. Hill town. Coill, hill. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 13 

COATIEBURN. Burn at the litttle fold. Cuitan, small fold. 
An normally became ie. 

COCKBURN. Hill burn. Cnoc, hill. 

COCKENZIE, for Cnoc Fhaingan. Hill of the small fank. 
Cnoc, hill ; fhaingan, faingan aspirated, small fank. f'aingan 
is a second form of fangan, small fold. Fh is silent and had 
been lost. 

COCKIELAW. Small hill. Cnocan, small hill, with an normally 
changed to ie ; lamh, hill. 

COCKLAW HILL. Hill. Cnoc, hill ; lamh, hill. 

COCKLES BRAE, for Cnoc Aillean. Little hill. Cnoc, hill ; 
aillean, diminutive of aill, hill. Cnoc had lost n, and ean of 
aillean had become s instead of ie. 

COCKSTON STEEL. Burn of the little hill. Steall, spring 
gushing out ; cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill ; dun, hill. An 
had become s instead of ie. 

COCMILANE, for Cnoc Millan. Little hill. Cnoc, hill ; millan, 
diminutive of mill, second form of meall, hill. Cnoc is a late 
addition to explain millan, but it too had been corrupted and 
had lost n. 

COGTAIL. This name had originallly been Cuitail, fold, in 
which cuit means fold. Cog, which also means fold, had been 
substituted for cuit. 

COLD ALE. Hill field- Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; dail, 
riverside field. 

COLDHAME. Back of the hill. Cul, back ; thorn, torn aspirated, 
hill. T in thorn is silent and had been lost. 

COLLAR LAW. Hill of the shieling. Coill, hill ; airidh, 
shieling ; lamh, hill. Lamh is a late addition explaining the 
corrupted name. 

COLLEGEHEAD, for Chuid Aod Coill. Fold on the brae of a 
hill. Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold ; aod, brae ; coill, hill. When 
cuid became chuid and then head it had been put last. D is 
often sounded as dg in Gaelic. 

COLLISON'S BENCH. Shelf on a hill. Coille, hill ; sithean, hill. 
Th with the adjacent vowels had been lost, and san became son. 

COMMON HOUSE. Common fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, 
fold. C in ch is silent ; th became first sh and then s by loss of 
the aspirate. Huis became house. 

CONGALTON. Town. Congbhail, town, habitation. 

COOPER'S CLOSE. Enclosure on a shieling hill. Cop, hill ; 
airidh, shieling. 

CORBY WELL, CORBY CRAIGS. Well at a fold, and Bocks at 
a fold. Corby was originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, 
which was corrupted into whitehill. This was turned into 
Gaelic by corban, white hill (cor, hill ; ban, white). An had 
been mistaken for a diminutive termination and had been 
changed to y, producing corby. Folds were usually near wells or 
burns. Craigs is for creagan, plural of creag, rock, hill. 

CORSEHOUSE. Fold at a crossing of roads. Crois, cross ; 



14 PLACE NAMES 

chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. Ch lost c, and th became sh, and 
by loss of the aspirate it was made s. Huis lapsed into house. 

CORSICK HILL. Hill of the crossing. Creag, crossing. 

COSTERTON. Town on land in a ho we. Cos, hollow; tir, 
land. 

COT CLEUGH, Cow CLEUGH. Ravine of the fold. Cuit, fold ; 
cuith (th silent), fold. 

Cow STRAND. Glen of the fold. Srathan, diminutive of 
srath, flat-bottomed alluvial river valley; cuith, fold. Th is 
silent and had been lost. Euphonic d had been added to an. 

COWIE LAW. Little hill. Coillean, little hill. When 11 is 
lost a preceding o or oi becomes ow. 

COWTHROPLE. Goodlooking fold. Cuith (th silent), fold; 
triopollach, (Irish), trim, proper. 

COWTOK RIDGE, COWTON ROCKS. Cowton is cuidan, small 
fold. The names indicate that the sea has encroached upon the 
land. 

CRACKING SHAW. Bushy place on a hill. Creachan, small hill. 

CRAIG, CRAIG BURN, CRAIG KNOWE, CRAIGLEITH, CRAIGMOOR. 
Craig is creag, hill. Knowe is cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill, 
with final c silent and an changed to e. Leith is liath, grey. 

CRAIGANTEUCH. Smooth little rock. Creagan, little rock ; 
teith (Irish), smooth. Th had become ch. 

CRAGIELAW. Both parts mean hill, law having been added to 
explain Craigie after it had been corrupted. Creagan, small 
hill ; lamh, hill. 

CRAIG'S QUARRY. Quarry in a little hill. Creagan, small hill. 

CRAIGY HILL. Little hill. Creagan, little hill. 

CRANCHIE. Full of trees. Craobhach (bh equal u), woody. 

CRIB BURN. Burn at a fold. Crubh, fold. 

CRICHNESS. Point of the hill. Ness, nose, point ; creach, hill. 
In Gaelic ness is pronounced nish. 

CROCKERS HEDGES, for Aodann Cnoc Airidh. Brae of the 
hill of the shieling. Aodann, brae ; cnoc, hill ; airidh. H was 
prefixed to aodann, and ann was by mistake made es. Aod 
sounds edg. 

CROMWELLHALL. Hill of the town at a fold. Choill, coill 
aspirated, hill ; bhaile, baile aspirated, town ; crom, fold. C 
being lost, hoill became hall. Bh is equal to w and bhaile became 
well. 

CROOK. Hill. Cnoc, hill. N preceded by c often became r. 

CROSS HILL. Place of crossing a hill. Crasg, crossing. 

CROSS KEYS. Small fold where a road crossed a boundary. 
Cuithan, small fold. Th, being silent, was lost, and an was 
improperly changed to s instead of ie. 

CROSSGATEHALL. Hill of the windy crossing. Choill, coill 
aspirated, hill ; crois, cross-roads ; gaothach, wind. C of choill 
was lost, and oi became a. 

CROW CLEDGH, CROW HILL, CROWBILL, CROW ISLAND, CROW 
Moss, CROW STONES. Crow is cro, wattled fold. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 15 

CROWN WOOD. Round wood. Cruinn, round. 

CRYSTAL RIG. Slope of the little fold on the hill. Ruigh, 
slope, shieling ; crudhan, small fold ; aill, hill. Dh is equal to y, 
and an had improperly been made s. 

CUDDIE WOOD, CUDDY NEUK. Small fold. Cuidan, small 
fold. An normally became ie and y. 

CUTHILL. Fold. Cuithail, fold. 

DALGOWRIE. Field of the goats. Dail, field near a stream ; 
gabharach, used for goats. 

DALSKELLY CRAIGS. Field near rocks. Dail, field ; sgeilgean, 
plural of sgeilg, rock ; creagan, plural of creag, rock. 

DANSKINE LOCH. Loch at the head of two burns. Cinn, 
second form of ceann, head ; da, two ; abhainn, burn. Da and 
abhainn contracted became dan, and an of dan was made s. 

DARNED HOUSE. Fold at a ford over a burn. Chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold ; darn, ford ; ned, burn. C silent was lost, th 
became sh, and h was lost. Huis became house. 

DAW'S WELL. Well of the jackdaw. Daw, name imitating 
the cry of the bird. Or, Well of the deer. Damh, stag, red deer. 
Mh is sounded u, v, or w. 

DEAD GRAIN. Black branch of a burn. Dubh, black. Bh 
and dh are both equal to y , hence b and d had been confused. 

DELVES. Small statue of a man. Dealbhan, diminutive of 
dealbh, figure, statue. An had improperly become es. 

DEUCHRIE DOD, DEUCHRIE EDGE. Hill of the black slope. 
Dubh, black ; ruigh, slope ; Dod and Edge both mean hill. 
Dod is a corruption of cnoc, hill, and Edge is a corruption of 
aod, brae, hill. Dh of dubh became ch. 

DINGLETON. Town on a hill where there is a monumental 
stone pillar. Dun, hill ; gall, monumental pillar. 

DIRLETON. Small town. Direoil, small. 

DIRTSIDE. Place on a brae. Suidhe, place ; direadh, ascent. 

DISHUP HA', for Deas Chop Choill. Sunny side of the hill. 
Deas (pronounced dash), south, sunny ; chop, cop aspirated, hill ; 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. Ch in chop had become silent and 
had been lost. C in choill had been lost, hoill had become hall, 
and subsequently 11 had been lost. 

DOBSON'S WELL, perhaps for Tobar Dubh Sithean, Well of the 
black little hill. Tobar, well ; dubh, black ; sithean, hillock. 

DOD, DOD HILL, DOD LAW. All these words have the same 
meaning. Dod is a corruption of cnoc, hill ; and law is lamh, hill. 

DODRIDGE. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope ; cnoc, hill. See 
Dod. 

DOG. The island called the Lamb is between two islets which 
are called North Dog and South Dog, because they seem to be 
guarding the Lamb, but Lamb really means hill. See Lamb. 

DOGBUSH KNOWE. Knoll of the black bushy place. Dubh, 
black. Bh had become gh, and h had been lost. 

DOLPHINGSTON. Black hill town. Doille, darkness, dark ; 
fin, hill. S represents in of fin. 



16 PLACE NAMES 

DONOLLY. Hill at a turn or bend. Dun, hill; uileann, 
corner. If the pasture on a hill is very good oily may represent 
olla, productive of wool. 

BOON HILL. Hill. Dun, hill. The second part of the 
name is a translation of the first. 

DOVE ROCK. Black rock. Dubh (bh equal to v), black. 

Dow CRAIG. Black rock. Dubh, black. Bh is equal to 
u, v, or w. 

DEEM. Long hill. Druim, ridge. 

DROWINHOWLET, for Leth Droighneach Choill. Side of the 
thorny hill. Leth (h silent ), side ; droighneach (gh and ch 
silent), thorny ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. C is silent and oi 
became ow. 

DRUM. Ridge of a long hill. Druim, ridge. 

DRUMMORE. Big long hill. Druim, ridge ; mor, big. 

DRYDEN. Den of thorns. Dein, den ; draigh, thorn-tree. 

DRYLAW HILL. Hill where hawthorns grew. Draigh, thorn ; 
lamh, hill. 

DUDDY BURN. Dark burn. Dubhach, dark. 

DUMBADAM. Brae of the hill. Aodann, brae ; dun, hill. B 
is a euphonic addition to n changed to m. 

DUNBAR. Point of the hill. Barr, point ; dun, hill. 

DUNCANLAW, DUNCAN'S PLANTATION, DUNCANSON'S WOOD. 
Duncan was originally chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, which 
became whitehill, and this was made in Gaelic duncan, white 
hill (dun, hill ; can, white). Law is lamh, hill ; son is sithean 
(th silent), hill. An of can and ean of sithean were regarded 
as plural terminations and made s, which was added to an and 
ean to make English possessives. 

DUNCRA. Hill of the fold. Dun, hill ; era, wattled fold. 

DUNCUR. Hill of the pool. Dun, hill ; curr, pool. 

DUNGLASS. Green hill. Dun, hill ; glas (Irish), green. 

DUNSIDE. Place on a hill. Dun, hill ; suidhe, place, site. 

DUNSTANE, for Dun Sithean, both parts of which mean hill. 
Sithean had become first stean and then stane. 

DYE WATER. Black water. Dubh, black. Bh, which is 
sometimes equal to y, had been changed to dh, always equal to 
y, and afterwards ye had been substituted for dh. 

EACHIL RIG. Slope of the fold. Ruigh, slope ; chuitail, 
cuitail aspirated, fold. Chuitail became whitehill, which was 
turned into Gaelic by aodgeal, white hill (aod, hill ; geal, white). 
Aodgeal became in other names adziel, aigle, eagle, eccle, edge- 
hill, edzell. 

EAGLESCARNIR. Fold on a little hill. For Eagle see Eachil 
Rig. Carnie is carnan, little hill, with an normally made ie. 
It had been added to eagle to explain it in the belief that it 
meant hill. S was inserted to make eagle possessive and to 
connect it with carnie. 

EAST RIG. East Slope. Ruigh, slope. The place of the name 
on the map shows that rig had been supposed to mean ridge. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 17 

EDINKENS BRIDGE. Bridge at a fold. The original form of 
Edinkens had been chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, which had 
been corrupted into whitehill. This was turned into Gaelic by 
aodanncan, white hill (aodann, hill, brae ; can, white). Aodann 
is now edin, and can is ken with s added because it ended in an, 
erroneously supposed to be a plural termination. It served to 
produce a possessive and to connect Edinken with Bridge. 
Aodann is pronounced ed-an. 

EEL BURN. Burn where eels are trapped on their way to the 
sea in autumn. 

ELDBOTLE. Beautiful house on a hill. Ailde, beauty, beauti- 
ful ; both, house ; aill, hill. 

ELLY CLEUGH. Cleugh of the hill. Aill, hill. 

ELMSCLEUGH, for Lamhan Cleugh. Ravine in a hill. 
Lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill. Lamhan had been mistaken 
for leamhan, elm-tree. 

ELPHINGSTONE. Town on a hill. Aill, hill ; fin, hill. S 
represents in of fin, supposed to be a plural termination. Aill 
had been prefixed to fin as an explanation. 

ELSIE CLEUGH. Ravine of the hill. Aill, hill ; sith (th 
silent), hill. 

ELVINGSTON, for Baile Aill Bheinn. Town on a hill. Baile, 
town ; aill, hill ; bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. Aill is a late 
addition made to explain ving, the corruption of bheinn. 

EWEPORD. Ford at a fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. 
Chuith lost both the aspirated letters, and ui became ewe. 

EWELAIRS. Land at a fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; 
lar, land. Chuith lost both its aspirated letters, and ui became 
ewe. Probably s had been added to lair in the belief that the 
name meant lying places for ewes. 

EWELY WOOD. Wood of the fold on the hill. Chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold ; lamh, hill. Ch and th and mh had all been 
lost. 

EWINGSTON. Town of the small fold. Chuithan, cuithan 
aspirated, small fold. Ch and th had both been lost, and an 
had become ing. Other forms of Ewing are Ewan and 
Ewen. 

EYE WATER. Water of the fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, 
fold. Ch and th became silent and were lost. 

EYEBROUGHY, for Chuith Bruchan. Fold of the little hill. 
Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; bruchan, small hill. Chuith lost 
ch with its vowel and also th, leaving i. An of bruchan 
normally became y. 

FAIRNLY. Hill of cultivated land. Lamh, hill ; farran 
(Irish), land. 

FALL. Fold. Fal, circle, fold. 

FALSIDE. Site of a fold. Suidhe, place ; fal, fold. 

FASENY WATER. Burn passing a green place near a hill. 
Fatha (tha silent), green place ; sithean (th silent), little hill. 
An in sithean had normally become y, which should have taken 



18 PLACE NAMES 

the place of an instead of being added to it. The name is 
greatly corrupted, but its position on the Ordnance Survey map 
suggests the etymology given. 

!,FAUSLY. Fold side. Fal, fold ; leth (th silent), side. L is a 
movable letter, sometimes inserted where it ought not to be, 
and sometimes omitted where it ought to be. 

FAWN KNOWES. Knoll on a gentle slope. Cnocan, diminutive 
of cnoc, hill ; fan, gentle slope. An was improperly made es 
instead of ie. 

FAWN WOOD. Wood on a gentle slope. Fan, gentle slope. 

FEE CLEUGH. Ravine of the fold. Chuith, culth aspirated, 
fold. Ch became ph equal to f, and th, being silent, was lost. 
The fold was the large rectangular enclosure on the north side 
of the cleugh. 

FEN BURN. Hill burn. Fin, hill. 

FENNIE LAW. Little hill. Finan, little hill ; lamh, hill. 
In Haddington i of fin is made e, as in Hen Moss, Henmuir, 
Fen Burn, Fenton. 

FENTON. Hill town. Fin, hill. 

FENTON BARNS. Farm office houses at Fenton. 

FIDRA, for Chuid Rath. Fold. Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold ; 
rath, fold, circle. Ch became ph, equal to f ; and th being silent 
had been lost. Fidra had once been pasture ground for cattle. 
The second part had been added to explain the first. 

FIDRA BRIGS. Gaps in rocks between the mainland and 
Fidra island, through which the tide rushed with great force 
when rising or falling. Bruchd, rushing water. 

FLACKYPARK. Windy park (400 feet above sea). Flaicheach, 
windy, stormy. 

FLAT KILNS, for Flath Coillean. Knoll of the court. Flatha, 
court ; coillean, little hill. Barony courts had been held on the 
knoll. 

FLUKE DUB. Wet muddy place. Flinch, wet. 

FOSTER LAW. Hill beside a hollow on a shieling. Lamh, 
hill ; chos, cos aspirated, hollow ; airidh, shieling. Mh is equal 
to w, bh had become ph, equal to f . 

FORTH BRAE. Brae of the fold. Chorth, corth aspirated, 
fold. Ch became ph, which is f . 

FORTON. Small fold. Chortan, cortan aspirated, small fold. 
Ch became ph, equal to f. 

FOUL STEPS. Stepping stones at a pool. Pholl, poll aspirated, 
pool, burn. Ph is equal to f. 

FOULSTRUTHER. Burn of the shieling. Pholl, poll aspirated, 
burn, pool ; sruth, burn ; airidh, shieling. Ph is equal to f. 
The first part is a late addition. 

FOUNTAINHALL. Hill of the fountain. Choill, coitt aspirated, hill. 

FRIAR DYKES. Black hill. Triath, hill ; dubh, black. 

FRIARS' CROOK. Hill. Triath, hill; cnoc, hill. Cnoc is in 
some places pronounced crochg. Here crook may mean bend, 
as in English. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 19 

FRIARS' NOSE. Point of the hill. Ness, point, nose; triath, hill. 

FRIZZELS' WOOD. Forest on a hill. Frith, forest, deer 
forest ; aill, hill. 

FULLERS HILL. Hill of the pool on the shieling. Pholl, 
poll aspirated, pool ; airidh, shieling. Ph is equal to f . S 
made fuller possessive. 

GAIRY BURN. Rough burn. Gairbhe, roughness, rough. Bh 
is equal to u, v, w, and sometimes it has become y in Scotch, as 
in Garry. 

GALLA LAW. Hill of the fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold. Chuitail became whitehill, which was turned into Gaelic 
by gealachlamh, white hill (gealach, white ; lamh, hill), now 
become Galla Law. 

GALLERY KNOWE. Knoll of the fold. Chuitail, cuitail 
aspirated, fold. Chuitail was corrupted into whitehill, which 
was ^turned into gealruigh, white hill, (geal, white ; ruigh, 
slope of a hill). The personal name Gilroy is derived from 
gealruigh. 

GALLOWS LAW. Hill on which criminals convicted at Barony 
Courts were hanged. Lamh, hill. 

GAMELSHIEL. Hut at a fold on a hill. Gamh, primitive of 
gamhann, fold ; aill, hill ; seal, shiel, house on a shieling. 

GAMUELSTON. Fold on the brow of a hillock. Gamhann, 
fold ; muilean, brow of a hillock. Am had become ie and had 
been lost. S represents ean. 

GARLETON. Town on the rough side of a hill. Garbh, rough ; 
leth, side. Both bh and th had been dropped. 

GARLICK ROCK. Rough flat stone. Garbh, rough ; leac, flat 
stone. Wild garlic grows in cliffs, and it may be referred to in 
the name. 

GARVALD. Rough burn. Garbh (bh equal to v), rough ; allt, 
burn. 

GATEFOOT. Windy fold. Gaothach, windy ; chuit, cuit 
aspirated, fold. Ch became ph, equal to f. 

GATESIDE. Windy place. Gaothach, windy ; suidhe, place. 

GAVIN'S LEE. Grassy place at a fold. Gabhann, fold. Ann 
became s, improperly. 

GEGAN. Small eminence. Gigean, something small. 

GIANT HILL, for Bithean Hill. Sithean (th silent), small hill. 
Euphonic t had been added to n. 

GIBE'S HILL. Fir hill. Giubhas, fir. 

GIFFORD. Ford at a fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C 
became g, and th became ph, equal to f. 

GILCHRISTON, for Baile Chuit Crois. Town at a fold where a 
burn was crossed. Baile, town, translated and put last ; chuit, 
cuit aspirated, fold; crois, crossing. Chuit became white, and 
this was afterwards turned into Gaelic by geal, white. Geal 
seems to qualify crois, therefore it was made chrois as following 
its adjective. Geal-chrois Town is now Gilchriston. 

GILDSWELL, for Tobar Chuit. Well at a fold. Tobar, well ; 



20 PLACE NAMES 

chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Chult became white, which was 
turned into Gaelic by geal, white, with euphonic d added to 1. 

GILMERTON, for Baile Chuit Mor. Town at the big fold. 
Baile, town ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; mor, big, Chuit was 
corrupted into white, and subsequently it was turned into 
Gaelic by geal, white, now made gil. 

GIN HEAD. Both parts mean fold. Gamhann (mh silent), 
fold ; chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C in chuid had been lost, 
being silent. 

GLADSHOT. Place in a little howe. Claiseag, diminutive of 
dais, trench-like hollow. 

GLADSMUIR. Muir frequented by kites. Glede (English), 
kite, glider. 

GLEGHORNIE. Fold. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold, which became whitehill. This was afterwards turned into 
Gaelic by gealcharnan, white hill (geal, white ; charnan, carnan 
aspirated, little hill). C in charnan being silent was lost, and 
an became ie, and gealcharnan is now Gleghornie. 

GOES LAW. Hill of the fold. Lamh, hill ; gobhann, fold. 
Bh, being silent, was lost. Ann was erroneously supposed to be 
a plural termination and was made es. 

GOLD KNOWE. Hill. Coill, hill. 

GOLET'S WELL, for Tobar Gogh Leathan. Well of the broad 
fold. Tobar, well ; gogh, gog, with final g aspirated and silent, 
fold ; leathan, broad. An had become s, improperly. 

GOSPORD. Ford at a fir. Giuthas (th silent), fir. 

GOSH EN, for Gobha a Sithean. Fold at a small hill. Gobha, 
fold ; sithean, small hill. The aspirated letters and following 
vowels had been lost. Si is pronounced she, and go-shian had 
become Goshen. 

Goss BANK. Bank of the fold. Gothann, fold. Bh had 
become silent, and ann had wrongly been made s instead of ie. 
Bank might represent chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, corrupted 
into white, which was turned into Gaelic by ban, white, with 
euphonic k added. 

GOURLYBANK. Bank on a hill where goats fed. Gobhar, 
goat ; lamh (mh silent), hill. 

GOWDIE'S WELL. Well at a small fold. Cuidan, small fold. 
C became g, and an normally became ie, and, abnormally, s also. 

GOWKS CLEUGH. Ravine of the hill. Cnoc, hill. Gowk is 
a corruption of cnoc. Perhaps s represents an of cnocan, 
diminutive of cnoc. 

GOWKS HILL. Hill. Cnoc, hill. Gowk is a corruption of cnoc. 

GOWL BURN. Burn from a ridge where two slopes meet. 
Gobhal, ridge of a house. 

GRANGEMUIR. Moor of the barn on a farm belonging to a 
religious convent. Granea, (Latin), barn. 

GRANTS BRAES. Sandy braes. Grainneach (Irish), sandy. 

GRAY'S GOAT, for Creagan Cuit. Rock of the fold. Creagan, 
diminutive of creag, rock ; cuit, fold. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 21 

GRAY'S GOATS, for Creagan Chuitan. Rock of the small fold. 
Creagan, diminutive of creag, rock ; cuitan, diminutive of cuit, 
fold. An normally became s. 

GREENHEAD. Green fold. Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C in 
ch was lost, and huid became head. 

GREIG'S WALLS. Little town on a small hill. Bailean, small 
town ; creagan, small hill. Bailean had been put last and 
aspirated, and ean had been made s improperly. Bh is equal 
to w, and bhails had been pronounced walls. An of creagan 
had been made s instead of ie. Greig is a corruption of creag, 
hill, from which comes also the name Gray or Grey. 

GRIPES. Turnings. Creapan, plural of creap (Irish), turn, 
bend. 

GULLANE. Fold. Gamhlann, fold. Mh is equal to ou. 

GULLION'S CLEUGH. Cleugh in the shoulder of a hill. 
Gualann, shoulder, projection from the side of a hill. 

HADDINGTON. Town at a small fold. Chuidan, cuidan 
aspirated, small fold. C in ch was lost. 

HAILES. Little hill. Choillean, little hill. C is silent, and 
an had been made s instead of ie. 

HAIRY CRAIG. Shieling hill. Airidh, shieling ; creag, hill. 

HALFLAND BARNS. Halfland is for Chabh Lamhan. Hollow 
between two hills. Chabh, cabh aspirated, hollow ; lamhan, 
plural of lamh, hill. C of chabh had been lost ; 1 is a euphonic 
insertion, not usually sounded ; bh had become ph or f ; mh had 
been lost, being silent ; and euphonic d had been added to an. 
Barns is bearnas, gap, added to explain half. 

HALFMOON, for Chabh Maine. Hollow of the moor. Chabh, 
cabh aspirated, hollow ; moine, moor. C of ch had been lost, 
and 1 had been introduced to obtain an English word. Bh had 
become ph, which is f. 

HALL BURN. Hill burn. Choill, coill aspirated, hill. C had 
been lost. 

HALL EDGE. Brae of the hill. Aod, brae; choill, coill 
aspirated, hill. 

HALLOW CRAIG. Bare barren hill. Fhalamh, falamh 
aspirated, poor, unproductive ; creag, hill. F in fh is silent 
and had been lost. 

HALLS. Little hill. Choillean, coillean aspirated, hillock. 
C silent had been lost, and ean had improperly been changed 
to s. 

HANGING CRAIG, HANGING ROCKS. Hanging is fhangan, 
fangan aspirated, little fold. Craig is creag, hill. F in fh is 
silent. 

HARE CLEUGH, HARE CRAIGS, HARE HEAD, HAREHOPE, HARE 
LAW, HARELAW, HARESHAW KNOWE, HARESTANES, HARESTONE 
HILL. Hare is airidh, shieling. Dh is silent and had been 
lost with the preceding vowel. H had been prefixed for euphony 
and to obtain an English word. Head is chuid, cuid aspirated, 
fold, from which c had been dropped. Hope is chop, cop aspirated, 



22 PLACE NAMES 

hill, with silent c dropped. Law is lamh, hill. Knowe is 
cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill, with an made e. 

HARLEY GRAIN. Branch of a burn coming from a shieling on 
a hill. Grain (Scotch), branch of a burn, airidh, shieling ; lamh, 
hill. 

HARP LAW. Hill of the shieling. Lamh, hill ; airidh, 
shieling, Dh had become ph, and h had been dropped. H 
had been prefixed for euphony. 

HARPERDEAN. Den of the shieling. Dein, den ; airidh, 
shieling. H had been prefixed to airidh for euphony ; and dh 
had been made ph, which afterwards lost h. Er is a repetition 
of airidh because it had been lost sight of in Harp. 

HARRY'S BURN. Burn of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. 
Euphonic h had been prefixed to a. 

HARTSIDE, for Suidhe Ard. Place on a hill. Suidhe, place ; 
ard, hill. 

HATTLE ROCKS. Rocks at a fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold. C in ch is silent and had been lost. 

HAYSTALL. Steep place at a fold. Stalla, steep bank, 
precipice ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C and th were lost, 
being silent, and hui became ay. 

, HAZELLY BURN. Burn of the fold. Chuithail, cuithail 
aspirated, fold. C in ch was lost, and z took the place of th. 

HAZELLY CLEUGH. See Hazelly Burn. 

HEART LAW. Hill of the shieling. Lamh, hill ; airidh, 
shieling. 

HEDDERWICK SANDS. Sands between two bays. Eadar, 
between ; uig, nook, bay. 

HENMUIR. Hill muir. Fhin, fin aspirated, hill. F, being 
silent, had been lost. 

HERDMANSTON, for Baile Airidh Man. Town on a shieling 
on a hill. Baile, town ; airidh, shieling ; man, hill. H had 
been prefixed to airidh for euphony, and an of man had im- 
properly been made s though man remained. 

HERD'S HILL. Hill of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

HERIOT BURN. Burn of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. H 
had been prefixed for euphony. 

HERRING ROAD. Road to the shielings. Airidhean, plural 
of airidh, shieling ; with euphonic h prefixed. 

HIGHFIELD. Field of the fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, 
fold. C and th, being silent, were lost. 

HIGHLEE. Grassy place at a fold. Ley (Scotch), grass-land ; 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C had been lost, and th had 
become gh. 

HIGHSIDE. Place at a fold. Suidhe, place ; chuith, cnith 
aspirated, fold. C had been lost, and th had become gh. 

HILLDOWN, for Aill Dun. Hill. Aill, hill ; dun, hill. Hill- 
down has also the form Eildon. 

HIRSTON LAW. Town in a wood on a hill. Hurst (Old 
English), wood ; lamh, hill. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 23 

HODGES, perhaps for Chuidan. Small fold. Chuidan, cuidan 
aspirated, small fold. C had been lost, d had been pronounced 
as dg, and an had wrongly been made es instead of ie. 

HOG RIG. Small slope. Og, small ; ruigh, slope on a hill, 
shieling. 

HOLLANDSIDE. Place on a little hill. Suidhe, place ; choillean, 
coillean aspirated, little hill. C had been lost, and euphonic d 
had been added to n. 

HOLYNBANK. If this name is of Gaelic origin Holyn repre- 
sents Choillean, coillean aspirated, little hill. If it is of English 
origin it represents holin, holly. 

HOOKSTER LAW. Breast of a cliff on a hill. Uchd, breast ; 
stor, cliff; lamh, hill. 

HOOLY PATH. Birch hill. Beath, birch ; choille, coille 
aspirated, hill. C silent was lost. 

HOPE HILLS. Probably the original name had been Chop, 
cop aspirated, hill, and when c silent had been lost coillean, 
little hill, had been added to explain it. Then coillean had 
been mistaken for the plural of coill and had been translated 
into hills. 

HOPE WATER. Burn from a hill. Chop, cop aspirated, hill. 

HOPEFIELD. Hill field. Chop, cop aspirated, hill. Chop 
lost c and became hope. 

HOPES. Little hill. Chopan, copan aspirated, little hill. C 
had been lost, and an had improperly been made es instead of 
ie. 

HOPRIG, for Ruigh Chop. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope ; 
chop, cop aspirated, hill. 

HORNSHIEL. Hill. Charn, earn aspirated, hill. C had 
been lost, and a became o. S converted horn into a possessive. 

HORSE LAW, for Thorran Lamh. Hill. Thorran, torran 
aspirated, little hill ; lamh, hill. T, being silent, had been lost, 
and an had become s instead of ie. N of cnoc became r, a 
common occurrence. 

HORSECROOK, for Torran Cnoc. Hill. Thorran, torran 
aspirated, little hill ; cnoc, hill. T, being silent, had been lost, 
and an had been made s instead of ie. N of cnoc became r, a 
common occurrence. 

HOWDEN. Little fold. Chuidan, cuidan aspirated, little fold. 
C silent was lost. 

HOWDENFLAT, for Chuidan Flaith. Little fold for milking. 
Chuidan, cuidan aspirated, fold ; flaith, milk. 

HUMBIE. Small hill. Thoman, toman aspirated, little hill. 
T in thoman is silent, b had been added to m for euphony, and 
an normally became ie. 

HUMMELL. Both parts mean hill. Thorn, torn aspirated, hill ; 
meall, hill. T in thorn, being silent, had been lost. 

HUNGRY SNOUT Projecting rock on a shieling hill. Fhin, 
Jin aspirated, hil ; airidh, shieling. F, being silent, had been 
lost, and i became n. 



24 PLACE NAMES 

HUNTINGDON. Hill of assembly. Dun, hill ; choinne, coinne 
aspirated, assembly. C was lost, and t was added to n. 

HUNTLAW. Hill of assembly. Lamh, hill ; choinne, coinne 
aspirated, assembly. C had been lost, and euphonic t had been 
added to n. 

HURKLETILHIM. Pool or well on a hill. Hurkle is for Ghurr 
Coill. Well or pool on a hill. Ghurr, curr aspirated, place 
where there is water ; coill, hill. Tilhim is tholm, tolm 
aspirated, hill, added to explain coill after it had been 
corrupted. 

ICE CLEUGH. Ravine of the burn. Eos, burn. 

INCH. Enclosed place. Innis, enclosure. The Inch is a 
place where drovers had a right to fold cattle at night. 

INGLISPIELD. Field of the little fold. An Chuitan, the little 
fold. An, the ; chuitan, cuitan aspirated, little fold. Chuitan 
became whitean, which was afterwards turned into Gaelic by 
gealan, diminutive of geal, white. An became s instead of ie, 
and am gealan is now Inglis. Gilzean and Giles are other deriva- 
tives from gealan. 

INKS, originally Chuitail, fold. Chuitail became whitehill, 
which was turned into Gaelic by fhincan, white hill (fhin, Jin 
aspirated, hill ; can, white). Fh silent was lost, an was 
improperly made s, leaving incs, now Inks. Seven places on the 
estuary of the Peffer burn are called Inks. 

INNER HILL. Hill of the shieling. Fhin, fin aspirated, hill; 
airidh, shieling. Fh had been lost, being silent. 

INNEKWICK. Nook at the hill of the shieling. Uig, nook ; 
fhin, fin aspirated, hill ; airidh, shieling. 

JAG. Good place. Deagh, ground. 

JAMIE'S NEUK. Corner where sheep were shorn. Deamh- 
sadh, fleecing, shearing. 

JANEFIELD, for Achadh Sean. Old place. Achadh, place ; 
scan (pronounced shean), old. 

JINKIE BURN. Burn of the fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold. Chuitail became whitehill, made in Gaelic dun-can, white 
hill, dun (pronounced dgun), hill ; can, white. An became ie. 

JOHNSCLEUGH. Cleugh on a hill. Dun (pronounced dgun), 
hill. 

JOHNSTONE'S HOLE. Johnston represents Dun Sithean, hill. 
Dun, hill ; sithean, hill. Ean had been made s. Hole is a 
deep place near the edge of the sea. 

JOPHIES NEUK. Nook of the black little fold. Dubh, black ; 
chuithan, cuithan aspirated, little fold. J in names often 
represents d. Ch of chuithan had become ph, and th, being 
silent, had been lost. An had normally become ie, but it had 
also been made s, abnormally, and both ie and s had been used 
instead of an. 

JULIA CROWN. Black round hillock. Doille, darkness, dark ; 
cruinn, round place. 



OP EAST LOTAIAN 25 

KAE HEUGH. Cliff in which jackdaws build. Cathag (th 
silent), jackdaw. The sound of the name resembles the voice 
of the bird, as jack does in the English name. 

KAMEHILL. Hill rising to a sharp ridge. Kaim (Scotch), 
comb, crest of a cock. 

KEITH. Fold. Cuith, fold. 

KELL BURN. Narrow burn. Cool, narrow. 

KEMPLE BANK. Level terrace above a crooked burn. Cam, 
crooked ; poll, pool, burn. 

KER LA.W. Hill. Cathair (th silent), hill ; lamh, hill. 

KIDLAW. Hill of the fold. Cuid, fold ; lamh, hill. 

KILLDUFP. Black head. Cinn, second form of ceann, head ; 
dubh, black. Cinn had been made cill, now kill. Bh had 
become ph, equal to f, which had been doubled unnecessarily. 

KILLPALLET. Head of a protected fold. Cinn, second form 
of ceann, head ; peallte, past participle of peall, to protect. 

KILMADE BURN. Burn at the head of a level piece of ground, 
Cinn, head ; madh, variant of magh, plain. Cinn had become 
cill. 

KILMURDIE, for Cinn Mur Dubh. Head of the black hill. 
Cinn, second form of ceann, head ; mur, hill ; dubh, black. Bh 
of dubh had become gh, equal to y. 

KILRIG. Head of the slope. Cinn, second form of ceann, 
head ; ruiyh, slope. 

KINCHIE. Head of the fold. Cinn, second form of ceann, 
head ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. U and th had been lost, 
being silent. 

KINGSIDE. Head of the place. Cinn, second form of ceann, 
head ; suidhe, place. 

KINGSIDE RIG. Ridge of the head of the place. Ruigh, 
slope, here supposed to mean ridge ; cinn, second form of ceann, 
head ; suidhe, place. The place indicated is an ancient fold 
divided internally into four parts. 

KINGSLAW. Head of the hill. Ceann, head ; lamh, hill. S 
represents ann in ceann. 

KINGSTON. Town on the head of a hill. Cinn for ceann, 
head. 

KIPPIELAW. Hill. Ceapan, little hill ; lamh, hill. 

KIRK YARD SHOT. Small piece of ground adjoining the old 
churchyard of Ormiston. tigot, spot, detached part. 

KIRKLAND, KIRKLANDHILL. The names mean hill. Creag, 
hill ; lamhan, hill. Mh, being silent, had been lost, and 
euphonic d had been added to an. 

KITCAT STAIRS. Stairs on the way to a fold. Cat, road, 
way ; cuit, fold. 

KNOCK, KNOCK HILL. Hill. Cnoc, hill. 

KNOCKENHAIR. Little hill on a shieling. Cnocan, little hill ; 
airidh, shieling. Airidh lost idh. 

KNOWES, KNOLL. Cnocan, little hill. An by mistake became 
es instead of ie. Cnocan had become cnollan, and when 11 was 



26 PLACE NAMES 

lost o became ow, as in pow for poll, bow for boll, row for roll. 

LADY'S WOOD. Broad wood. Leathan, broad. Th had become 
dh, and an had abnormally become s. Dh is equal to y. 

LAIRD'S GARDEN. Lairds is for Liath Ardan. Grey little 
hill. Liath (th silent), grey ; ardan, little hill, with an made s 
instead of ie. Garden is for Garbh Dun, rough hill. Garbh, 
rough ; dun, hill. 

LAMB HILL. Hill. Lamh, hill. 

LAMBLAIR. Hill land. Lamh, hill ; lair, second form of lar, 
land. Euphonic b had been added to m. 

LAMMER LAW. Hill of the shieling. Lamh, hill ; airidh, 
shieling ; lamh, hill. The last part is a late addition. 

LAMPLAND, for Lamh Lamhan. Hill. Lamh, hill, with 
euphonic p ; lamhan, small hill, with euphonic d. H in lamh and 
mha in lamhan had been lost. 

LAMPOCK. Small hill. Lamh, hill ; og, small. 

LANDRIDGE. Slope, Ruigh, slope ; lamhan, hill. Euphonic 
d had been added to an. 

LATCH. Wet place in a hollow crossing a road. Lathach, 
mire, muddy place. 

LAVEROCKLAW, for Lamh Ruigh Lamh. Slope of the hill. 
Lamh, hill ; ruigh, slope ; lamh, hill. The first lamh is a late 
addition. 

LAW KNOWES, for Lamhan. Little hill. An had been 
regarded as a plural termination, and hence s had heen added to 
knowe. 

LAW ROCK. The name had originally been Creag, rock, but 
creag also means hill, and lamh, hill, had been prefixed as an 
explanation. 

LAWEND. Small hill. Lamhan (mh silent), little hill. 

LAWFIELD. Hill field. Lamh, hill. 

LAWHEAD. Head of the hill. Lamh, hill. 

LAWRIE'S DEN. Fox's Den. The fox was formerly called 
Lowrie or Tod Lowrie because he lowered his ears when 
approaching his prey. 

LEAP ROCKS. Rocks at a bend. Luib, bend, turn. 

LECKANBANE. White rocks. Leacan, smooth rocks; ban, 
white. 

LECKS. Smooth rocks. Leacan, plural of leac, smooth, flaggy 
rock. 

LEEHOUSE. Stone at a fold. Lia, stone ; chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. Ch lost c, and th became sh, and afterwards s. 

LEEHOUSES. Stone at a small fold. Lia, stone ; chuithan, 
cuithan aspirated, little fold. C of ch was lost, th became sh 
and s by loss of the aspirate, and an became es improperly 
instead of ie. 

LEITHIES. Broad rock. Leathan, broad. An became ie but 
some made it 3, both of which were added to the first part. 

LENNOXLOVE, for Lamh Leathan Uisge. Hill of the broad 
water. Lamh, hill ; leathan, broad ; uisge, stream (Tyne). 



OF BAST LOTHIAN 27 

LETHAM, for Leathan. Broad place. Leathan, broad. 

LETHINGTON. Broad hill. Leathan, broad ; dun, hill. 

LIMYLANDS, for Liomhaidh Lamhan. Smooth hill. Liomhaidh, 
smooth ; lamhan, hill. An improperly became s, and euphonic 
d was added to an. 

LIKG HOPE. Long hill. Ling (Scotch), long ; chop, cop 
aspirated, hill. This name has been misplaced on the Ordnance 
Survey Map. Instead of being put on a hill it has been put 
along a burn valley. 

LING RIG. Long ridge, this seems to be the meaning assigned 
to the name on the Ordnance Survey Map, but Rig (for ruigh), 
means the slope near the base of a hill. 

LINGHOPE STEEL. Burn of the long hill. Steall, gushing spring, 
burn. The name has been placed on a hill instead of a burn. 

LINKS. Sandy terraces near the sea. Lianan, plural of lian, 
plain, level, grass-land. Euphonic k had been inserted, and an 
had normally become s, producing Hanks, now Links. 

LINKYLEE. Small level grassy place. Leanan, diminutive of 
lean, plain ; ley (Scotch), grass-land. K, equal to c, had been 
added to lean, and an had normally become y. In links s 
represents an as a plural termination. 

LINPLUM. Plunge at a waterfall. Linne, waterfall ; plumb, 
noise made by falling water. 

LINT BURN. Burn. Linne, pool, burn, waterfall, with 
euphonic t added. 

LINTON. Town at a linn. Linne, linn, waterfall, pool. 

LITTLE GAVEL. Small fold. Gabhal, fold. 

LODGE RIG, for Ruigh Leoid. Slope of the side of a hill. 
Ruigh, slope ; leoid, second form of leud, side. D had been 
sounded dg. 

LONG CLEUGH. Ravine in a hill. Lamhan, hill, made first 
lang and afterwards long, but the cleugh is not long. 

LONG CBAIGS. Long rocks. Creagan, plural of creag, rock. 

LONG CRIB RIG. Ridge of the hill of the fold. Ruigh, slope, 
supposed to mean ridge ; lamhan, hill ; crubh, fold, fank. 
Lamhan had become lang, which is now Long. 

LONG GRAIN. Hill branch of a burn. Lamhan, hill, corrupted 
into lang, and anglicised into Long. Grain is one of two or more 
branches of a burn. 

LONG NEWTON. Newton on the hill. Long had been lang, 
which represents lamhan, hill. Mh being equal to nasal v an 
had become ang. 

LONG TESTER. Hill of Yester. Lamhan, hill. Mh became 
silent and was dropped, but being equal to nasal v an became 
ang, now made ong. See Yester. 

LONGNIDDRY. Burn on the slope of a hill. Nid, burn ; ruigh, 
slope ; lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill. Lamhan is a late 
addition made to explain ruigh. 

LONGSKELLY. Long Rocks. Sgeilg, rock. In the form 
sgeilgh gh is equal to y. 



28 PLACE NAMES 

LOTHIAN EDGE. Brae on the side of a hill. Aod, brae ; 
leothaidean, diminutive of leothaid, a secondary form of leathad, 
side. D in Gaelic is often sounded like dg. Aod had become 
Edge in several Scotch and English names. 

LOWRANS LAW, for Lamh Rathan Lamh. Hill of the small 
fold. Lamh, hill ; rathan (th silent), small circle or fold ; lamh, 
hill. The last lamh had been added to explain the first. An 
in rathan is a diminutive termination, not a plural, but s had 
been added to an by mistake. 

LUFFNESS. Wet point. Fhliuch, flinch aspirated, wet ; ness, 
point. Fh is usually silent and had been lost. Ch had become 
ph, equal to f, and f had been doubled unnecessarily. Much of 
the ground about Luffness House is less than twenty-five feet 
above sea level. 

LUGGATE. Milking place. Leigeadh, milking. 

LUTE LAW. Small law. Luth, small. 

M ACM ERR Y, for Magh Murean. Level high ground. Magh, 
plain ; murean, diminutive of mur, hill. Ean normally became 

MADYAD, for Madh Aod. Level place on a hill. Madh, same 
as magh, plain ; aod, brae, hill. Dh is equal to y. 

MAGGIE'S? LOUP, for Luib Maghan. Bend in the little plain. 
Luib, bend ; maghan, diminutive of magh, plain. 

MAG'S BANK. Little level bank. Maghan, diminutive of 
magh, plain. An had improperly been made s. 

MAIDEN STONE. Middle of the hill. Meadhon, middle ; 
sithean, hill. Sithean had become stane, and stane has become 
stone. 

MAIDENS. Middle Rocks. Meadhon, middle. S in Maidens 
represents on, supposed to be a plural termination. 

MAIDEN'S FOOT. Middle fold. Meadhon, middle ; chuit, cuit 
aspirated, fold. Ch became ph, equal to f. S represents on, 
supposed to be a plural termination. 

MAINS. Farm occupied by the landlord of) an estate. Mains 
is a shortened form of domains, which comes through the French 
language from dominicalis (Latin), pertaining to a landlord. 

MAINSHILL. Hill. Man, hill. S represents an in man, and 
hill is a translation of man. 

MALCOLM'S LODGE. Malcolm represents Maol Coillean. Bare, 
smooth-topped little hill. Maol, bald ; coillean, little hill. 

MARION'S CLEUGH. Ravine on the side of a little hill. 
Murean, diminutive of mur, hill. 

MARKLE. Big hill. Mor, big ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. 

MARLION GRAIN. Marlion is probably a corruption of Mur 
Lamhan, both parts of which mean hill. Mur, hill ; lamhan, 
diminutive of lamh, hill. Grain (English), means a branch of 
another burn. 

MARLY KNOWE. Clay knoll. Marl commonly means a mixture 
of clay and lime. Sometimes it means impure limestone, 
and sometimes clay. 



OP EAST LOTHIAN 29 

MARVINGSTON. Town on a big hill. Mor, big ; bheinn, beinn 
aspirated, hill. Bh is equal to v. 

MAYSHIEL. Shiel in a plain. Seal, shiel ; magh, plain. 

MEAN CLEUGH. Small Cleugh. Mean, small. 

MEG'S BRIDGE. Big bridge. Meug, bulk, great. 

MEIKLE SAYS LAW. Big upstanding hill. Meikle (Scotch), 
big ; seas, to stand up ; lamh, hill. 

MEIKLERIG. Big slope. Meikle (Scotch), big ; ruigh, slope. 

MEL BURN. Hill burn. Meall, hill. 

MERRYFIELD. Little hill field. Murean, diminutive of mur, 
hill. 

MERRYHATTON. Little fold on a hillock. Chuitan, cuitan 
aspirated, little fold ; murean, little hill. Ean normally became 

y- 

MERRYLAWS. Both parts mean small hill. Murean, small 
hill ; lamhan, small hill. Ean became y normally, and an 
became s, abnormally. 

MIDDLE NESS. Middle point between two burns. Ness, 
point. 

MILLER'S BENCH. Bench on a shieling hill. Mill, second 
form of meall, hill ; airidh, shieling. Idh had been lost, being 
silent. 

MILLSIT KNOWES. Knoll of sweetness. Millsead, sweetness ; 
cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill. An had been made ie instead 
of s. 

MILSEY ROCKS. Rocks of sweetness. Milse (Irish), sweetness. 
The rocks had produced some plant sweet to taste, as dulse, or 
sweet to smell, as sea-pink. Milse or millse is cognate with 
Latin mel, honey. 

MITCHELLHALL, for Choill Bheithach AilL Hill of the birchy 
hill. Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; bheithach, beithach aspirated, 
full of birches ; aill, hill. The last part of Mitchellhall is a 
recent addition to explain ell. Th had been strengthened by 
inserting c. 

MOFFAT. Big fold. Mo, second form of mor, great ; chuit, 
cuit aspirated, fold. Ch became ph, equal to f. 

MONKRIG, for Ruigh Monadh. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, 
slope ; monadh, hill, moor. Euphonic k had been added to n. 

MONYNUT EDGE. Hill of the moor of the fold. Aod, hill, 
brae ; moine, moor ; an, of the ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Aod, 
is the primitive of aodann, brae. D is sounded as dg and aod 
has become Edge. This name is given on the Ordnance Survey 
map to a high ridge four miles long. Probably it had originally 
been applied to a small part at the south-east end of the ridge. 

MORHAM. Big dwelling-place. Mor, big; ham (Frisian), 
dwelling. 

MOULD BRIDGE. Bridge at a little hill. Mulan, hillock. 
D had sometimes been added to mulan for euphony, and it 
reappears in Mould. 

MOUNT, for Monadh, moor. 



30 PLACE NAMES 

MOUNTLEHOY. The original name had been 2'ulach Chuith. 
Hill of the fold. Tulach, hill ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. 
To this had been prefixed monadh, hill, to explain tulach after 
it had been corrupted. 

MUNGOSWELLS, for Bhailean Moine Chuith. Little town on 
the moor of the fold. Bhailean, bailean aspirated, little town ; 
moine, moor ; chuith, fold. Bailean had been aspirated and put 
last, and ean had improperly been made s. Bh is equal to w, 
and wails became wells. Final th is silent, and cuith had 
become go, though it is usually made gow, as in Glasgow. S 
turned Mungo into the possessive. 

MURRAYS, for Mur Abhainn. Hill of the stream. Mur, hill ; 
abhainn, stream. Ainn being regarded as a plural termination, 
s had been substituted for inn. 

MUTTON HOLE. Middle Hill. Meadhon, middle ; choill, coill 
aspirated, hill. 

MYLES, MYLDS, MULAN, hillock, with an abnormally made s. 
Euphonic d had sometimes been added to an, which appears in 
Mylds. 

NEEDLE CLEUGH. Ravine of the burn of the hill. Cleugh 
(Scotch), ravine ; ned, burn ; aill, hill. 

NEEDLESS. Burn at a fold. Ned, burn ; lios (o silent), fold. 

NETTLES CLEUGH. Ravine of the burn passing a fold. Net, 
burn ; lios, fold. 

NEWBYTH, for An Chuith Beathach. The fold in a birchy 
place. An, the ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; beathach, place of 
birches. An had lost a, chuith had lost both ch and th, and 
beathach had lost ach. 

NEWHALL, for An Chuith Choill. The fold of the hill. 
Originally the name had been Coill an Chuith. Hill of the 
fold. An, the ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; choill, coill 
aspirated, hill. An lost a, chuith lost ch and th, choill lost 
c, and hoill became hall. 

NEWLANDS, NEWLANDS HILL, for An Chuith Lamhan. The 
fold on the hill. Originally the name had been Lamhan an 
Chuith. Hill of the fold. An, the ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; 
lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill. An lost a ; chuith lost its 
aspirated letters ; and lamhan lost mha. Euphonic d was added 
to an, and s was added to d because lamhan had erroneously 
been regarded as a plural instead of a diminutive word. There 
are large old folds near Newlands and Newlands Hill. 

NEWTONLEES. New town at a fold. Lios, fold. 

NICHOLSON'S WELL, for Tobar an Choill Sithean. Well of the 
hill. Tobar, well ; an, of the ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. 
Sithean (now made son), had been added at a late date to 
explain choill after being corrupted. Ean had been made s 
instead of ie. 

NINE STONE RIG. Slope on which there are nine stones in 
a circle round a prehistoric grave. Ruigh, slope of a hill. In 
some places it is equivalent to shieling. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 31 

NINEWAB, for Barr Nithan. Head of the little burn. Barr, 
head ; nithan, little burn. Barr had been aspirated and put 
last, making Nithan Bharr, in which tha is silent, and bh is 
equal to w. 

NINEWELLS BURN, for Bhaile Nigheachan Burn. Burn 
passing a town where cloth was washed. Bhaile, baile aspirated, 
town ; nigheachan, washing. Bh is equal to w, and bhaile had 
become waile, and afterwards wells, as being connected with the 
English word nine. The Gaelic words nighean, maiden, 
nigheachan, washing, and the English word nine, which are 
pronounced in the same way, are often used one for another in 
names. 

NIPPER KNOWES, for Cnocan Chnap Airidh. Knoll of the 
head of the shieling. Cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill ; chnap, 
cnap aspirated, head, summit ; airidh, shieling. Cnocan was 
erroneously believed to be plural and made Knowes. Chnap 
lost ch, and airidh lost idh, and nap air became Nipper. The 
personal name Napier is another derivative from Chnap Airidh. 

NORTH BERWICK. Berwick is for Bear Uig. Sharp point at 
a nook. Bear, spit ; uig, bay, cove. 

OATFiEtD. Field of the fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. 
Ch, having become silent, had been lost, and ui had been changed 
to oa to get an English word. 

OGLE BURN. Small burn. Oghail, small. 

OLDHAMSTOCKS, for Stocan Alltan. Fold formed of trunks of 
trees stuck into the ground near a little burn. Stocan, plural of 
stoc, trunk of a tree ; alltan, small burn. An of stocan had 
normally become s. 

OLIVER'S SHIP. Oliver may represent Oilean Bhir. Island 
of the spit. Oilean, island ; bhir, bir aspirated, sharp point. Ean 
had become ie, and bh had become v, producing olievir, now 
Oliver. Probably the original form of the name had been Bir 
Oilean. Spit of the island. Ship may be a corruption of spit. 

ORMISTON. East fertile place. Or, east; meas, high renown 
for fertility. 

OSWALD DEAN. Den with a burn having a town on it. Dein, 
den, dean ; uisge, water, burn ; bhaile, baile aspirated, town. 
Bh is equal to w and bhaile became wal. D is a common 
euphonic addition to 1. 

Ox CLEUGH. Ravine of a burn. Uisge, water, burn. 

Ox CRAIGS. Rocks at the edge of the sea. Uisge, water. 

OXROAD BAY. Bay at the breast of the slope. Uchd, breast, 
brow ; ruigh, slope. Gh and dh are pronounced in the same 
way, hence g and d are sometimes mistaken for one another. 

OXWELL MAINS. Farm with its town on a burn. Mains, 
farm town cultivated by the proprietor. See Mains. Bhaile, 
baile aspirated, town ; uisge, water. 

PADDY BURN. Burn flowing past a hill with a hump. Pait, 
hump. 

PAINS LAW. Punishment hill. Peanas, punishment. 



32 PLACE NAMES 

PALMERTON, for Baile Mor. Big town. Baile, town ; mor, 
big. 

PANWOODLEES, for Beinn Bhad Lios. Hill of the wood at a 
fold. Beinn, hill ; bhad, bad aspirated, wood ; lios, fold. Bhad 
had been pronounced wad, which had become wood. O in lios is 
silent, and lios is pronounced lees. 

PAPANA WATER. Burn flowing through ground belonging to 
the Catholic Church. Papanach, Catholic, belonging to the 
Pope. 

PAPPLE. Shaggy hill. Papach, rough, shaggy ; aill, hill. 

PABTAN CLEUGH. Ravine of the mountain ash. Partainn 
(Irish), rowan-tree. 

PARTAN CRAIG. Rock where crabs are found. Parian, crab. 

PEARLSTANE, for Pior Aill Sithean. Small hill. Pior, small ; 
aill, hill ; sithean, little hill. Sithean lost i and h and became 
stean, now stane. Sithean is a late addition explaining aill. 

PEASTON. Small town. Pios, small. 

PEAT LAW. Hill of peats. Foid, peat. F is equal to ph, 
which by loss of the aspirate becomes p. It is unlikely that 
the Scotch word peat is of Anglo-Saxon origin, as in dictionaries 
it is said to be, and it is probably a derivative fromfoid. 

PEFFER, for Chuith Airidh. Fold on a shieling. Chuith, 
cuith aspirated, fold ; airidh, shieling. Ch became ph and h was 
lost. Th became ph, equal to f, which was doubled unnecessarily. 
Idh of airidh was lost. 

PENCAITLAND. The oldest part of the name is Pencait, hill of 
the fold. Beinn, hill ; cuit, fold. Lamhan, hill, had been added 
to explain pen. D is a euphonic addition to an. 

PENCRAIG. Hill. Beinn, hill ; creag, hill. 

PENDRACHIN. Hill of thorns. Beinn, hill ; draighionn, thorn, 
hawthorn. 

PENS ROUNALL. Round group of trees on a hillock. 
Beinnan, diminutive of beinn, hill. B had become p, and an 
had improperly been made s. 

PENSHIEL HILL. Hill of the shiel. Beinn, hill; seal, shiel, 
temporary residence on summer pasture. In the south of 
Scotland beinn becomes pen, usually pronounced pan. 

PENSTON, for Baile Beinn. Town on a hill. Baile, town ; 
beinn, hill. S represents einn, erroneously supposed to be an, 
a plural termination. The insertion of s is late. 

PENTLE. Hill. Beinn, hill ; tulach, hill. 

PEPPERCRAIG, for Creag Chuith Airidh. Hill of the fold on a 
shieling. Creag, hill ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; airidh, 
shieling. Ch became ph but h was lost. Th also became ph and 
h was lost. 

PETERSMUIR. Muir of the hump. Paitean, diminutive of 
pait, hump. Pait had been regarded as identical with Pat or 
Peter, and ean had been made s, which was added to Peter. 

PHANTASSIE, for Fan t-Easan. Gentle slope at a small burn. 
Fan, gentle slope ; t euphonic addition to n ; easan, diminutive 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 33 

of eas, burn. In the Highlands eas often means waterfall. 

PHILIP BURN, PHILIPSBURN. Burn from a hill. Coillean, 
diminutive of coille, hill. By mistake coillean had been thought 
to be cuilean, whelp, which is now corrupted into Philp and 
Philip. 

PHILIPSTOWN. Town on a little hill. Coillean, little hill. 
Coillean lapsed into cuilean, whelp in English and folp in 
Scotch, from which came nip, now made Philp and Philip, but 
Philip is properly a derivative from a Greek word meaning 
fond of horses. 

PICKERSTONE HILL. Hill of the stone on the summit of the 
shieling. Pic, point ; airidh, shieling 

PICKLETILLHIM. This name is a combination of words 
meaning hill. Pic, pointed hill ; aill, hill ; tulach, hill ; thorn, 
torn aspirated, hill. T in thorn is silent and had been lost. 

PILMUIR. Pool on a moor. Poll, pool. 

PIN COD. Hill of the fold. Beinn, hill ; cuid, fold. 

PINKERTON, for Baile Fin Airidh. Town on the hill of the 
shieling. Baile, town ; Jin, hill ; airidh, shieling. F is equal to 
ph and by loss of the aspirate fin became pin. Euphonic k had 
been added to pin, producing Pink. 

PINLY. Both parts mean hill. Fin, hill ; lamh, hill. F is 
equal to ph, and the aspirate had been lost. Mh had been lost, 
and a became y. 

PIRMIRS CLEUGH. Ravine eroded in a little hill. Piorr, to 
erode ; murean, diminutive of mur, hill. Ean had improperly 
been regarded as a plural termination, instead of a diminutive. 

PIRNIE. Gap. Bearna, long hollow, gap. 

PISHWANTON. Little fold. Pios, small ; chuitail, cuitail 
aspirated, fold. Chuitail became whitehill, which was after- 
wards turned into Gaelic by bhandun, white hill (bhan, ban 
aspirated, white ; dun, hill). Bh being equal to w bhan became 
wan. 

PITCOX. Place on a little hill. Pit, place ; cnocan, little hill. 
An became s, improperly, which combining with c made x. 

PLATTCOCK. Windy hill. Plathach, windy ; cnoc, hill. 

PLATTCOCK END, for Plathach Cnocan, windy little hill. An 
became first en and next end. 

PLEA WELL. Well at a milking-fold. Bliochd (ochd silent), 
milk. 

PLEASANTS. Open space at a hill. Plae, open place, high 
road ; sithean, hill. Th and the contiguous vowels had been 
lost. T had been added to an for euphony, and an had been 
made s though not a plural termination here. 

POINT GARRY. Rough point. Garbh, rough. 

POWSHIEL. Shiel at a pool. Seal, shiel, temporary residence ; 
poll, pool. When 11 is dropped o becomes ow. 

PRESLY. Bushy hill. Preas, bush ; lamh, hill. 

PBESSMENNAN. Bushy little hill. Preas, bush ; manan, little 
hill. 



34 PLACE NAMES 

PRESTONKIRK. Kirk in a town at a bushy place. Preas, bush. 

PRESTONPANS. Pans for evaporating sea water in making salt 
at Preston. Preston, town at a wooded place. Preas, bush. 

PRIEST BANK. Bushy bank. Preas, bush. 

PRIEST CLEUGH. Bushy ravine. Preas, bush. 

PRIEST LAW. Bushy hill. Preas, bush ; lamh, hill. 

PRIEST'S PULPIT, for Pit Preasach Poll. Bushy place at a 
burn. Pit, place ; preasach, bushy ; poll, burn. 

PRIEST'S WARD. Enclosed place where bushes grow. Preas, 
bush. 

PROVOST'S PARK. Park of the big fold. Buaile, fold ; mor, 
big. Buaile mor had been supposed to be Baillidh mor, big 
bailie, provost. 

PUDDLE BURN. Burn of the fold. Chuidail, cuidail aspirated, 
fold. Ch became ph and h was lost. 

QUARREL SAND. Sand quarry. Coireall, quarry. 

QUEBEC ROCKS. Rocks resembling a chees'e. Cabag, cheese, 
kebbock. 

QUEENSTON BANK, for Chuit JBaile Choinne. Fold at a place 
where assemblies were held. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; baile, 
town ; choinne, coinne aspirated, meeting, assembly. Chuit 
became white, which was made ban, white, with euphonic k added. 
In Scotch names choinne has become quheen, queen, and whing. 

RAGSTONE RIG. Probably Rag and Rig both represent Ruigh y 
slope of a hill, and stone may have been sithean, little hill, made 
in succession stane, and stone. 

RAMMER DOD. Hill of the fold. Rammer is for Hath Mur. 
Fold on a hill. Rath (th silent), fold ; mur, hill. Dod is a 
corruption of cnoc, hill, added to explain mur after it had been 
corrupted. See Dod. 

RANGELY KIPP, for Rathan Chuitail. Fold. Rathan (th 
silent), fold ; chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. Chuitail became 
whitehill, and this was afterwards made in Gaelic gealach ceap, 
white hill ; (gealach, white ; ceap, hill). Gealach has become 
gely, and ceap is now kipp. 

RATTLEBAGS QUARRY, for Coireall Rath Tulach Baghach. 
Quarry at the big fold on a round knoll. Coireall, quarry ; 
rath, fold ; tulach, round little hill ; baghach, big. Baghach 
becomes also bauch, baggie, and bag. A thick heavy rope of 
straw on the eave of a house or a rick is called a bagrope or a 
baggierope. 

RAVENS HEUGH, RAVENSHEUGH. Steep bank at the foot of 
a slope on a hill. Ruigh, slope ; bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. 

RED MAINS. Farm cultivated by the proprietor of an estate, 
situated on high level ground. Reidh, level. See Mains. 

RED SCAR. Red upstanding rock on a hill. Sgor, rock rising 
above a hill. 

REDCOLL. Hill w.ith a flat top. Reidh, level ; coill, hill. 

REDDEN GRAIN. Branch of a burn flowing in a red ravine. 
Red might represent reidh, level. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 35 

REDSIDE. Level place. Reidh, level ; suidhe, place. 

REEN RIG, for Ruighean Ruigh. Slope. Ruighean (gh silent), 
small slope ; ruigh, slope. The second part explained the first. 

REIDS' HILL, REIDSHILL. Hill with a level summit. Reidh, 
level plain. 

RENTONHALL. Town at the point of a hill. Rann, point ; 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. In choill c was lost, and oi became a. 

RHODES, for Ruighean, Little slope. Ruighean, diminutive 
of ruigh, slope. Gh is pronounced in the same way as dh, and 
hence g and d are liable to be mistaken the one for the other. 
Ean had become s. 

RIDGES. Reefs of rocks. Ridge is sometimes a corruption of 
ruigh, slope. 

RIGGANHEAD. Fold on a gentle slope. Chuid, cuid aspirated, 
fold ; ruighean, diminutive of ruigh, slope. 

RIGLEY HILL. Hill with a gently sloping side. Ruigh, lower 
slope of a hill ; leth (th silent), side. 

ROBIN'S WELL, for Robie's Well. Roibeach, overgrown with 
vegetation. Roibeach had become Robie. 

ROBINTIPSY'S PLANTATION. Wood on a rough bushy hill. 
Robintipsy's represents Roibeach Thorn Sithean. Bushy hill. 
Roibeach, shaggy ; thorn, torn aspirated, hill ; sithean, little hill. 
Th in sithean is silent and had been lost, and ean had been made 
y as a diminutive termination, normally, and s as a plural 
termination, abnormally. " Robie Thomson's Smiddy ", the 
title of a song, is a corruption of this name with suidhe, place, 
added to it. Suidhe became Smiddy. 

ROB'S WA'S. Rough place. Roibean, roughness, rough ; 
bhaile, baile aspirated, farm town, place. Ean was improperly 
made s. Bh is equal to w, and by the loss of ile and the addition 
of euphonic s bhaile became wa's. 

ROCKVILLE, for Baile Ruigh. Town on a hillside. Baile, 
town ; ruigh, slope of a hill.. Baile had been put last and made 
bhaile, pronounced vaile. Gh in ruigh had been made ch, which 
by loss of the aspirate became ruic, now made rock. 

ROGERS CLEUGH, for Ruigh Airidh Cleugh. Ravine of the 
slope on the shieling. Ruigh, slope ; airidh, shieling. 

ROOK LAW. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope ; lamh, hill, 

ROTTEN CLEUGH. Ravine of the little round hill. Rotan, 
little round hill, cognate with rotundus (Latin), round. 

ROTTEN Row BURN, for Allt Rotan Rath. Burn of the little 
round hill at a fold. Allt, burn ; rotan, little round hill ; rath, 
(th silent), fold. 

ROTTEN Row. Row of houses at a round knoll. Rotan, 
round knoll. 

ROUGH CLEUGH. Ravine on the slope of a hill. Ruigh, 
slope. 

ROUNALL. Round figure. Rondelle (French), round space. 
Or, Chruinn Aill, round hill. Chruinn, cruinn aspirated, round ; 
aill, hill. 



36 PLACE NAMES 

ROWAN CLEUGH. Ravine of the rowan-tree. Caorrunn, 
rowan-tree. 

RUCHLAW. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope ; lamh, hill. 

RUGGED KNOWES, RAGGED ROCK. Rugged and Ragged repre- 
sent Ruigh Chuid. Slope of the fold. Ruigh, slope ; chuid, 
cuid aspirated, fold. C in ch, being silent, had been lost. 

RULES LAW. Rules is Ruigh Lamhan. Slope of the little 
hill. Ruigh (igh lost), slope; lamhan (amh lost), little hill. 
An in lamhan was erroneously made es instead of ie, and ru and 
les combined made rules. Lamh, hill, is a late addition ex- 
plaining les in rules. Mh, being silent, was lost, and la became 
law. 

RUNSHAW RIG. Wooded slope on a hill. Run represents 
ruighean (gh silent), diminutive of ruigh, slope at the base of a 
hill. Shaw means wood. Rig is a contraction of ruigh, slope, 
which had been added to explain run after its meaning had been 
lost. 

RYEHILL. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope. 

SADDLE RIG. Saddle and Rig in this name mean a round 
backed ridge between two burns, which is not the usual meaning. 
Ruigh, slope of a hill where it extends into a plain. 

SAINT AGNES. Hill of the enclosure. Sithean, little hill ; 
innis, enclosure, fold. Euphonic t was added to sithean. 

SAINT CLEMENT'S WELL, for Bhaile Sithean Clamhan. Town 
at a small hill frequented by kites. Bhaile, baile aspirated, 
town ; sithean, small hill ; clamhan, kite. Bh is equal to w, 
and bhaile became waile and afterwards wells by the addition of 
euphonic s. Sithean lost ith, and by the addition of euphonic t 
it became saint. Clamhan lost h, and by the addition of 
euphonic t it became clement. 

SAINT MUNGO'S WELL. Well on a hill with a fold on a 
shieling. Sithean, little hill ; moine, moor ; cuith, fold. Sithean 
lost th with its flanking vowels, and t was added for euphony ; 
moine lost final e , and cuith lost th silent. Cui became go, as 
in Glasgow, Linlithgow, Lesmahagow. 

SALTCOATS, for Seal Cuitan. Shiel at a small fold. Seal, shiel, 
temporary residence ; cuitan, diminutive of cuit, fold. T in salt 
is a euphonic addition to 1 made because t frequently follows 1. 
An of cuitan ought to have become ie and not s. 

SALTON, for Baile Samh. Pleasant town. Baile, town ; Samh 
(Irish), mild, beautiful. Mh, being silent, had been lost, and 1, 
an ancillary letter, had been inserted for euphony. 

SAMUELSTON. Town at a pleasant knoll. Samh (Irish), 
pleasant ; mulan, hillock. An abnormally became s. 

SANDEKSDEAN, for Dein Sithean Airidh. Dean of the hill on 
the shieling. Dein, dean, den ; sithean, small hill ; airidh, 
shieling. Sithean lost th and the flanking vowels. S was in- 
serted to form an English possessive. 

SANDY HIRST. Sandy thicket. Hyrst (Anglo-Saxon), thicket, 
shrubby place. 



OF BAST LOTHIAN 37 

SANDY'S MILL. Mill at a little hill. Sithean, little hill. 

SAUCHET WATER. Burn of the pleasant place. Samhach, 
pleasant ; aite, place. With mh silent samhach is pronounced 
sauch. Final e is lost in names. 

SAUGHY GRAIN. Quiet branch of a burn. Samhach, quiet ; 
grain (Scotch), branch of a burn. 

SCARHILL. Hill rising to a rocky point. Sgor, rock. 

SCORE HILL. Pointed hill. Sgor, sharp-pointed rock. 

SCOUGHALL, for Eos Gog Choill. Burn of the fold on a hill. 
Eas, burn ; gog, fold ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. Ea of eas had 
been lost. 

SCRAYMOOR. Sod moor. Sgrath, turf, sod. 

SCULLINS CLEUGH, for Sloe Eas Coillean. Gorge of the burn 
of the little hill. Sloe, gorge ; eas, burn ; coillean, little hill. 
Eas lost ea, and an of coillean was improperly changed to s. 

SEGGARSDEAN. Rough den where sedges grow. Garbh, rough ; 
dein, den ; seisg, sedge, seg (Scotch). 

SHEARNIE CLEUGH. Yawning ravine. Searnach (Irish), yawning. 

SHEIL BIG. Slope on which there was a hut occupied in 
summer by persons in charge of cattle. Seal, shiel, temporary 
residence ; ruigh, slope, supposed to mean ridge. 

SHERIPFHALL. Hill of the dark burn. Choill, coill aspirated, 
hill ; sear, dark ; abh, burn. 

SHERRIPFSIDE. Side of the black burn. Sear, dark ; abh, 
water. Side might represent suidhe, place. 

SILVER HILL. Cattle hill. Sealbhar, cattle. 

SINK BRIDGE. Bridge at a little hill. Sithean (thea silent 
and lost), little hill. Euphonic k was added to n. 

SKATERAW, for Eas Cuit Rath. Burn at the fold. Eas, burn ; 
cuit, fold ; rath, fold, added to explain cuit. 

SKEDSBUSH. Bush at the burn of the small fold. Eas, burn ; 
cuidan, small fold. An ought to have been made ie, not s. 

SKELLIES, SGEILGAN. Plural of sgeilg, rock. G had become gh, 
equal to ie, and an normally became s. 

SKID HALL, for Eas Cuid. Hill. Burn of the fold hill. Eas, 
burn ; cuid, fold. 

SKIMMER. Hill of ditches. Easgach, full of ditches or 
marshes ; mur, hill. Ach was lost. 

SKINNER BURN. Burn gushing out from a shieling. Sginn, 
to gush out ; airidh, shieling. 

SLATEPORD. Ford with the river bed shod with trunks of 
trees laid longitudinally. Slatach, laid with rods. 

SLAUGHTERCLEUGH, for Eas Sliabh-Thir Cleugh. Ravine of 
the burn of the hill land. Eas, burn ; sliabh-thir, hill land 
(sliabh, hill ; thir, tir aspirated, land). 

SLED HILL. Hill. Sliabh, hill. Or, hill near a main road. 
Slighe, road. Gh and dh have the same sound, and the one is 
liable to be mistaken for the other. Slighe might have become 
slidhe. 

SLEEPY KNOWE. Knoll on a hill. Sliabh. hill. 

SLOEBIGGING. Buildings on a height. Sliabh, hill. 



38 PLACE NAMES 

SMEATON. Small town. Smiot, small thing. 

SMITHY PARK. Small park. Smiotan, small thing. 

SMUDDLE HA. Hill giving off visible vapour. timuideif, 
smoking ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. Smuddle Ha is on the east 
*side of a hill. In a calm frosty morning in winter when the sun 
shines on it hoar frost is melted and evaporated, and when the 
vapour ascends into the cold air it is condensed and looks like 
smoke. 

SMYLIE KNOWES. Small knolls. Smeilach, puny. 

SNAILS CLEUQH, for Sloe Eat Naimhdeil. Gorge of the 
impetuous burn. Sloe, gorge ; eas, burn ; naimhdeil, vehemence, 
impetuosity. 

SNEEP. Long slender point, resembling the neb of the snipe. 

SNOWDON, for Sn-adhach Dun. Wet hill. Snadhach, watery ; 
dun, hill. 

SOLAN CRAIG. Rock frequented by solan geese. 

SOUN HOPE. Both words mean hill, but on the Ordnance 
Survey map they are placed over a ravine as if Hope meant a 
sheltered place. Soun is a corruption of sithean (th silent), hill : 
and hope is chop, cop aspirated, hill. 

SOUNDING BURN. Burn from a marshy place. Snghanach, 
watery. Euphonic d had been added to n. 

SOUTHFIELD. Place of rich soil. Suth, juice, sap, fatness. 

Sow. This name may have anciently been Suidhe, place. 
Suidhe is pronounced soo-ie. Many of the coast names indicate 
that the sea has encroached on the land. 

SPA WELL. Well whose water is impregnated with carbonate 
of iron. Spa Wells are named after Spa in Belgium, where 
there are chalybeate wells. 

SPARTLEDON EDGE. Flat-topped hill. Spar, an eminence flat 
on the top ; tulach, hill ; dun, hill ; aod, brae. In aod o is 
silent and d is pronounced as dg. 

SPEEDY BURN. Burn of the waterhole where cattle drank. 
Eas, burn ; puite, well, drinking place. 

SPILMERSPORD. Ford in the burn of the fold on the little 
hill. Eas, burn ; peall, fold, protected place ; murean, little 
hill. Ean had become s instead of ie. 

SPITTAL. Shelter for travellers, or poor, aged, and infirm 
persons. Hospitalia (Latin), apartments for strangers. 

SPITTALHALL. Hill where there was a hospital. Choill, coill 
aspirated, hill ; hospitalia (Latin), apartments for strangers. 

SPITTALRIG. Slope of the spital. Ruiyh, slope ; hospitalia 
(Latin), apartments for strangers, house for sick, aged, or infirm 
persons. 

SPOTT. The name of a parish taken from a circular spot of 
ground, about a third of a mile in circumference, and three 
acres in extent. Anciently it had been a fold where cattle were 
penned and watched at night. On the Ordnance Survey maps it 
is called The Chesters, and it is said to have been a British fort. 

SPRUCE CLEUGH, for Eas Preas. Ravine of the burn where 
bushes grow. Eas, burn ; pi-eas, bush. 



OP EAST LOTHIAN 39 

STABSTONE LOAN, for Lian Baile Stabh. Grassy place at a 
town near a fold. Lian, grassy plain ; baile, town ; stabh (Irish), 
fold. 

STANESHILL WOOD. Wood of the hill where stones were 
quarried. Hall is choill, coill aspirated, hill. C in ch is silent, 
and hoill became hall. 

STANNYSCORE HILL, for Sithean Syor Hill. Hill with a rocky 
point. Sithean, corrupted into stany, little hill ; syor, point of 
rock. Ean had become y, normally. 

STEEL CLEUGH. Ravine of a burn. Cleugh, ravine ; steall, 
burn, spring. 

STELLHOUSE. Protected fold. Stell, protection ; chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. C was lost, and th became sh, which lost h. 
Huis became house. 

STENTON, formerly Stanetown and Stanton. Stone town. In 
early times houses were nearly all built of clay or sods. To be 
built of stone was a distinction. 

STEVENSON. Sithean Sithean. Little hill. Sithean, little hill, 
which became steven by the change of th into bh, equal to v. 
To this had been added as an explanation another sithean, which 
became son by loss of th with its following vowel. 

STING BANK, STING HILL. Sting is sithean, small hill, with 
euphonic g added to n. 

STOBSHIEL. Shiel at a pointed hill. Slob, pointed hill ; seal, 
temporary summer residence, shiel. 

STONELAWS. Both parts of the name mean little hill. Sithean, 
small hill ; lamhan, small hill. Sithean became stean, which has 
been made stone. An in lamhan is a diminutive termination, 
but it had been regarded as a plural and made s. 

STONYPATH TOWER. Tower on a hill growing birches. Sithean, 
little hill ; beathach, producing birches. Sithhean became stany, 
which is now stony. Beathach became path as in Pathhead. 

STOT CLEUGH. Ravine from which vapour rises in a quiet 
frosty morning. Stoth, steam. 

STRABAUCHLINN. Big pool in alluvial ground. Bayhach (gh 
silent), big ; linne, pool ; srath, alluvial ground. 

STRONG'S HOLE, for Sron Choill. Point of the hill. Sron, 
point, nose ; choill, coill aspirated, hill. C had been lost. 

SUMMER HILL. Wet hill. Suyhmhor, wet. 

SWARNIE CLEUGH. Little wet ravine. Sugharan, little wet 
place. Gh is equal to y, and an became first na and then nie. 

SWINE ORCHARD. Wet Orchard. Sughan (gh silent), wet. 
The place is 40 feet above sea level. 

SYDSERF. Place on a black burn. Suidhe, place ; sear (Irish), 
dark, black ; abh, water, burn. 

TABLE RINGS, for Tamh Aill Ruigheau. Dwelling on a hill 
with a slight slope. Tamh, house ; aill, hill ; ruighean, diminu- 
tive of ruigh, slope. Mh and bh are both equal to v. Hence 
lamh had hecome tabh, which afterwards lost h. Ean of ruighean 
had improperly been made s, which had been appended to ing 
instead of being substituted for it. 



40 PLACE NAMES 

TANDERLANE. Grass-land at a small burn. Lian, grassy 
place ; tain, water ; der (Irish), small. 

TANTALLON CASTLE. Castle on a hill at a small burn. Dun, 
hill ; t, euphonic addition to n ; allan, small burn. 

TAVERS CLEUGH. Ravine in which there was a shieling hut. 
Tamh, dwelling, residence ; airidh, shieling. 

TAY BURN. House at a burn. Taigh, house. Gh is equal to y. 

TENTERFIELD. Place at a river on a shieling. Tain, burn, 
river (Tyne) ; airidh, shieling. 

THIEVES DIKE. Dike of the little fold. Chuithan, cuithan 
aspirated, little fold. Ch became th, and th became bh, which 
is equal to v. An was improperly made es instead of ie. 

THISTLY CROSS. Crossing near a burn. Uisge, burn, water. 

THORNTON. Hill town. Cham, earn aspirated, hill. Ch 
became th. 

THORTER CLEUGH. Cross ravine. Thorter is a Scotch word 
meaning to cross. The name may, however, represent Chort 
Airidh Cleugh. Ravine of the fold on the shieling. Chort, cort 
aspirated, fold ; airidh, shieling. 

THREEP LAW, THREEPLAND. Hill. Thriath, triath aspirated, 
hill ; lamh, hill ; lamhan, small hill. In lamhan mh became 
silent and was lost, and euphonic d was added to n. 

THURSTON, for Thorran Dun. Knoll on a hill. Thorran, 
torran aspirated, little hill ; dun, hill. An had been made s 
instead of ie. 

THURSTON HIGH WOOD. Wood at a fold on Thurston. High 
is chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C and th were lost, and hui is 
now high. 

TINKER'S LEAP. Bend of the burn of the shieling. Luib, 
bend ; tain, burn ; airidh, shieling. Euphonic k had been added 
to n. 

TIPPERSTONE RIG. Slope of the stone at a well. Ruigh, slope ; 
tobar, well. But stone might be for ton with s inserted to 
connect the two parts of the name. 

TOD BURN. Warm burn. Teothad (th silent), warmth, heat. 

TODDY KNOWES. High knolls. Toghta, raised up. 

TODLAW RIG. Ridge of the hill of the fox. Ruigh, slope, 
erroneously thought to mean ridge ; tod (Scotch), fox ; lamh, hill. 

TOM'S LINN. Waterfall on the hill. Tom, hill ; linne, fall, 
pool. S made torn possessive. 

TORNESS. Point ending in a steep round hill. Ness, point ; 
torr, steep round flat- topped hill. 

TOWNHEAD. Hill head. Dun, hill. 

TRABRONN. Side of a stream. Traigh, side ; braon, burn. 

TRAPRAIN LAW. Hill of the fold. Triath, hill ; rathan, fold ; 
lamh, hill. Th in triath became ph, and h was lost ; th in 
rathan is silent ; lamh was added to explain triath. 

TRINDLE BONNY. Small place at the bottom of a small hill. 
Triathan (th silent), small hill ; lamh, (mh silent), hill ; bonnan, 
diminutive of bonn, bottom. Euphonic d had been been added 
to n. 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 41 

TRIPSLAW. Both parts mean hill. Triathan, diminutive of 
triath, hill; lamh, hill. Th became ph, and h was lost. An 
was improperly made s instead of ie. 

TUN LAW. Hill. Dun, hill ; lamh, hill. After dun had 
been corrupted law had been added to explain it. 

TYNE. River. Tain, water. 

TYNNINGHAMB. Dwelling near a small stream (Tyne). 
Tainan, diminutive of tain, water ; ham (Frisian), home. 

UGSTON RIG. Town on a brae. Uchd, brae ; ruigh, slope. 
S represents a sound like g or j following d. Ruigh explains uchd. 

VEITCH PLACE. Place where birches grew. Bheith, beith 
aspirated, birch. Bh is equal to v, and th had been strengthened 
by inserting c. Veitch is also a personal name. 

VINEYARD. Rough hill. Garbh, rough ; bheinn, beinn 
aspirated, hill. 

WALDEAN. Town near a den. JBhaile, baile aspirated, town ; 
dein, den, dean. Bh being equal to w, and final e being 
dropped, bhaile became wal. 

WALLACE'S CAVE, WALLACE'S CLEUGH. Wallace's is for 
Easan Bhuaile. Little burn of the fold. Hasan, little burn, 
with an changed to s instead of ie ; bhuaile, buaile aspirated, 
fold. Cave, if Gaelic, is cabh (bh equal to v), hollow; and 
cleugh is a ravine eroded by a burn. 

WALLY CLEUGH, WALLYFORD. The exact meaning of these 
names is uncertain. Wally might represent either bhaile, baile 
aspirated, town ; or bhuaile, buaile aspirated, fold. Cleugh is a 
ravine excavated by a burn. Bh is equal to w, and both bhaile 
and bhuaile might become wally. 

WAMPHRAY, for Chuit Abh Rath. Fold at a burn. Chuit, cuit 
aspirated, fold ; abh, burn ; rath, fold. Chuit became white, 
which was turned into Gaelic by bhan, ban aspirated, white. 
Bh is equal to w and bhan became first wan and next warn ; abh 
became ph ; and rath became ray. Rath had been added to give 
the meaning of the first part after chuit was corrupted. 

WANTONWA'S, for Bhaile Chuitail. Town at a fold. Bhaile, 
baile aspirated, town ; chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. Chuitail 
became whitehill. Whitehall was afterwards turned into Gaelic 
by bhandun, white hill (bhan, ban aspirated, white ; dun, hill). 
Bh is equal to w and bhandun became wanton. Bhaile became 
wale, afterwards made wall, which is now wa's, s being added 
for euphony. 

WATCH LAW. Watch hill. Lamh, hill. 

WATTIE'S HOWE. Main road howe. Chatha, catha aspirated, 
drove road, main road. Ch had become bh, equal to w. S 
made Wattie possessive. 

WAUGHTON. Hillock. Uchdan, brow of a hill, hillock. 

WEAK LAW. Hill of the circle. Bheachd, beachd aspirated, 
ring, circle, fold ; lamh, hill. Bh is equal to w. 

WEATHER LAW, WEATHERLY, for Lamh Chuith Airidh. Hill 
of the fold on a shieling. Lamh, hill ; chuith, cuith aspirated, 
fold ; airidh, shieling. Mh became w in the first name and y 



42 PLACE NAMES 

in the second ; ch became bh, equal to w ; and idh, being silent, 
was lost. 

WEIRD'S WOOD. Wood with the tops of the trees looking as if 
the points had been shorn off. Bhearrta, bearrta aspirated, shorn. 

WELL HAG WOOD. Well at the jackdaws' wood. Chathag, 
cathag aspirated, jackdaw. In chathag c and tha being silent 
had been lost, leaving hag. Cathag (th silent), resembles the 
cry of the jackdaw. 

WELL HILL. Hill of the fold. Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; 
bhuaile, buaile aspirated, fold. Bh is equal to w, and bhuaile 
had become well. 

WEST HOPES. West little hill. Chopan, copan aspirated, 
little hill. C silent was lost, and an was improperly made es 
instead of ie. 

WEST STEEL. West burn. Steall, gushing spring, stream. 

WHALE ROCK. Bock of the fold. Fal, fold. Fisher people 
call a whale a fal, and hence has arisen confusion as to the 
meaning of the words whale and fal in names of places. 

WHARE BURN. Burn terminating at a spit of land. Shear, 
bear aspirated, point. Bh may become u, v, w, or y. 

WHEATRIG, for Ruigh Ghuit. Slope of the fold. Ruigh, 
slope ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ch became wh. 

WHIM. Hill. Thorn, torn aspirated, hill. Th had become 
wh, and o had become i. Gullane Hill is the Whim. 

WHIPPING TREE. Cheapan Triath. Little place on a hill. 
Cheapan, ceapan aspirated, small place ; triath, hill. Ch became 
wh, and ath was lost. 

WHITBERRY POINT. Small point of land at a fold. fiioran, 
small point ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. An became y, normally, 
and chuit became white, now whit. 

WHITE CASTLE, WHITE CLEUGH, WHITE KNOWE, WHITE 
SANDS. In all these names the first word represents Chuit, cuit 
aspirated, fold, which by corruption became white. White 
Castle is supposed to have been a British fort, but the first part 
-shows that it was a fold. White Cleugh means ravine of the 
fold, White Knowe is knoll of the fold, White Sands means fold 
on a sandy shore. 

WHITE SLED. Fold. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold. Chuitail became whitehill, and hill was afterwards made 
sliabh, hill. Bh was changed to dh and h was lost. 

WHITEADDER. Fold on a shieling. Chuitail,, cuitail aspirated, 
fold ; airidh, shieling. Chuitail was corrupted into whitehill, 
and hill was subsequently turned into Gaelic by aod, hill, brae. 
.400? and air of airidh made adder. 

WHITEHILL. Fold. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold. Chuitail was corrupted into whitehill. 

WHITEKIRK, WHITELAW. Both names were originally chuitail, 
cuitail aspirated, fold. Chuitail became whitehill. Hill was 
afterwards made creag in one name, and lamh in the other. Creag 
became kirk and lamh became law. 

WHITELOCH. Loch at a fold. Loch, lake ; chuit, cuit aspir- 



OF EAST LOTHIAN 43 

ated, fold. Chuit was corrupted into white, which was 
supposed to be an English adjective and put before loch. 

WHITTINGHAM, WHITTINGHAME. Dwelling-place at a small 
fold. Chuitan, cuitan aspirated, small fold ; ham (Frisian), 
home. Ch became wh, and an became ing. 

WIDE HOPE, for Chop Chuid. Hill of the fold. Chop, cop 
aspirated, hill ; chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. Chop became hope, 
and chuid became wide. The Ordnance Survey map has the 
name on a river valley as if it meant a wide shelter. 

WIDOW'S KNOWE. Knoll of the little fold. Chuidan, cuidan 
aspirated, little fold. Ch became bh, equal to w ; an became 
ow instead ie ; and s was added because an is sometimes a 
plural termination. 

AViGHTMAN HILL. Hill of the fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspir- 
ated, fold. Chuitail became whitehill, and hill was afterwards 
turned into Gaelic by man, hill. White also underwent a change 
and was made wight, meaning man, to make it identical with 
man the last part, though it meant hill. One man was Gaelic 
and the other English. 

WILKIE HAUGH. Haugh in a corner. Uileann, corner. 
Wilkie is a diminutive of William, with which uileamn had been 
confounded. 

WILLIAMSTON. Place in a crook of a burn. Uileann, nook. 

WINDING LAW, for Lamh Bheinnan. Hill. Lamh, hill ; 
bheinnan, beinnan aspirated, little hill. Lamh is an explanation 
of bheinnan. 

WINDY LAW. Little hill. Bheinnan, beinnan aspirated, little 
hill. Bh is equal to w, an normally became y, and d was added 
to n for euphony, all which produced windy. Lamh, law, was 
added to windy to explain it after its meaning had been lost. 

W T INDY MAINS, for Bheinnan Manan y both of which mean 
little hill. Bheinnan, beinnan aspirated, little hill : manan, 
diminutive of man, hill. Bh is equal to w, euphonic d had been 
inserted, and final an had normally became y. An of manan 
had abnormally become s, instead of ie. 

W'INDY SLACK. Windy gorge between two hills, flloc, gorge. 

WINDYGHOUL. Windy ridge. Gobhal, ridge. G had been 
aspirated and had then been pronounced like the y which 
preceded it. Bh is equal to ou. 

WINE CELLAR, for Bheinn Seal Airidh. Hill of the hut on a 
shieling. Bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill : seal, shiel, hut ; airldh, 
shieling, summer pasture. 

WINTERFIELD, for Achadh Chnithan Airidh. Field at a little 
fold on a shieling. Achadh, field ; chuithan, cuithan aspirated, 
little fold ; airidh, shieling. Chuithan lost ch and tha, and 
euphonic t was added to n. Airidh lost idh. 

WINTON. ToAvn on a hill. Bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. 
Bh is equal to w, and bheinn had been pronounced vane. 

WITCHES KNOWE, WITCHES SYKE. Knoll of the little fold, 
and Syke at the little fold. Witches was originally chuithan, 
cuithan aspirated, little fold. Ch was changed to bh, equal to 



44 PLACE NAMES OF HADDINOTON 

w ; th was strengthened by inserting c ; and an was wrongly 
made es. 

WOLF CLEUGH, WOLFSTAR. Cave of the ravine, and Cave of 
the cliff. Uamh, cave. Mh is equal to v, which much resembles 
f in sound. Cleugh is a burn ravine, and star is stor, cliff. 

WOODHALL. Hill of the wood. Choill, coill aspirated, hill. 
In modern Gaelic coill means wood, so the first part may be a 
translation of the second. 

WOOL HILL. Hill on which there is a turn in a parish 
boundary. Uileann, angle, corner. Eann had became ie and 
had been lost. 

WOOLYLANDS. Little hill between two burns. Uileann, angle, 
corner, lamhan, little hill. Uile became wool, and ann became 
y ; lamhan lost mh, d was added to n for euphony, and s was 
also added because an was supposed to be a plural termination. 

WRECKED CRAIGS. Grey rocks, Riabhach, grey. 

WRITERSPATH BURN. Burn on the slope of a shieling, on 
which birches grow. JRuigh, slope ; airidh, shieling ; beath, birch. 

YARROW. Shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

YEARN GILL. Gap of the burn valley. Bhearn, beam 
aspirated, gap ; gill, burn valley. Bh is usually equal to v or w. 
Here it has become y. Gill is supposed to be a Norse word, but 
it is more likely a local Gaelic word. 

YELLOW CRAIG. Fold Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. 
Chuitail became whitehill, which was turned into Gaelic by 
ghealach creag, white hill (ghealach, gealach aspirated, white ; 
creag, hill, craig). Gh is equal to y and ghealach became yallaw 
in Scotch, made yellow in English. 

YELLOW CRAIGS. Fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. 
Chuitail became whitehill, which was turned into Gaelic by 
ghealach creagan, white hill (ghealach, gealach aspirated, white ; 
creagan, diminutive of creag, craig, hill). By mistake an was 
made s as if it had been a plural termination. Gh is equal to y 
and ghealach became yallaw in Scotch, which was made yellow 
in English. 

YELLOW MAN. Fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. 
Chuitail became whitehill, which was turned into Gaelic by 
ghealach man, white hill (ghealach, gealach aspirated, white ; man, 
hill). Gh is equivalent to y, and ghealach became yallaw in 
Scotch, made yellow in English. 

YESTER. Burn of the strath. Eas, burn ; srath, alluvial river 
yalley. 

YETTS. Birches. Bheathan, beathan aspirated, birch trees. 
Bh became y, and an normally became s. This produced yeaths, 
now made yetts. As a personal name the spelling is yeats. 

YOUNGS' KNOWE. Knoll of the little hill. Dhunan, dunan 
aspirated, little hill. Dh is equal to y, an was improperly made 
s, and g was added to n for euphony. 

ZADLEE. Grassy place on a brae above a burn. Ley (Scotch), 
grass-land ; eas, burn ; aod, brae. Eos is represented by the 
letter z. 



PLACE NAMES 

OF 

WEST LOTHIAN 



GAELIC 

PLACE NAMES 

OF 

WEST LOTHIAN 

BY 

JOHN MILNE, LL.D. 




PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR BY 
M'DOUGALL'S EDUCATIONAL COMPANY, LIMITED. 



EDINBURGH : 1 AND 2 ST. JAMES SQUARE. 



LONDON : 8 FARRINGDON AVENUE, B.C. 



PLACE NAMES OF 
WEST LOTHIAN. 



ABERCORN. Infall of the Cornie burn. Aber, infall; see 
Cornie Burn. 

ADAMBRAE. Ford. Ford at a brae. Aodann, brae. The 
second part is a translation of the first. 

ALMOND. Burn of the hill. All, burn ; monadh, hill. 
ALMONDELL. Valley of the Almond. Dell (English), dale. 
ARMADALE. Temporary residence on a field near a river. 
Airidh, shiel, hut on summer pasture ; na, of the ; dail, river- 
side field. 

AUCHINHARD. Place on a hill. Ackadh, place ; an, of the ; 
ard, hill. 

AULDCATHIE. Burn near a main road. Allt, burn ; catha, 
drove road, through road. 

AVON BRIDGE. Bridge over the Avon. Abhainn, water, 
stream. Abhainn is also spelt amhainn, which shows connection 
with amnis (Latin), river. 

BACK OF Moss. Both parts have the same meaning, Bac, 
peat-moss. 

BAILIES MUIR. Town on a muir, Baile, town. 
BALBARDIE. Town in a meadow. Baile, town ; bardan, 
small meadow. 

BALDERSTON, for Baile Airidh. Town on a shieling. Baile, 
town ; airidh, shieling. D is a euphonic addition to 1, s forms a 
possessive, and ton is a translation of baile. 

BALGORNIE. Town of fire brands. Baile, town ; gornan, 
plural of gorn, fire brand. Signals might have been made at 
this place by waving torches at night. 

BALGREEN. Town of the sun, or sunny town. Baile, town ; 
greine, genitive of grian, sun. 

BALLENCRIEFF. Town of the fold. Baile, town ; an, of the ; 
crubh, fold. Bh had become ph, equal to f. 
BALMUIR. Town on a muir. Baile, town. 
BALVORMIE. Town where there was a big balance. Baile, 
town ; mhor, feminine of mor, big ; meidh, balance. Mh is 
equal to v, and dh is equal to ie. 

BANGOUR KNOWES, for Cnocan Cuit Gobhar. Knoll of the fold 
of goats. Cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill ; suit, fold ; gobhar, 
goat. S of knowes represents an of cnocan, erroneously thought 
to be a plural termination. Cuit became white, which was 
turned into Gaelic by ban, white. Bh in gobhar sounds ou. 

B 



6 PLACE NAMES 

BANK BURK. Burn at a fold. Chuit, fold, corrupted into 
white, which had afterwards been turned into Gaelic by ban, 
white. K is a euphonic addition to an. 

BANKHEAD. The name had originally been Chuit, cuit aspir- 
ated, fold, which had been corrupted into white, and this had 
been turned into Gaelic by ban, white, with k added for 
euphony. To explain bank chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, had been 
added to it, but c silent had been lost and then huid had become 
head. 

BANKHEAD. This is sometimes an English name, meaning a 
farm town at a level place at the head of a bank. 

BANKS. Fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, corrupted into 
white, which was made in Gaelic ban, white. Some persons, 
however, made it can, white, and the two were combined into 
bancan. An was improperly regarded as a plural termination 
and was changed to s, which produced banes, now banks, but 
the name is not appropriate for the place. 

BAKBAUCHLAW, for Barr Baghach Lamh. Point of the big 
hill. Barr, point ; baghach, big ; lamh, hill. 

BARESHEIL. Knowe. Baresheil, for Bair Seal. Road to a 
shiel. Bair, road ; Seal, shiel, hut on a shieling. 

BARNBOUGLE. Barn at a cow-byre. Buaigheal, cow-stall. 

BARNS. Gap. Bearnas, gap, long hollow. 

BARON'S HILL. Hill with a gap. Bearnas, gap. 

BARRACKS. Place at a greater elevation than its neighbours. 
Barrachas, pre-eminence. 

BARREN CRAIG. Hill with a gap. Creag, hill ; bearna, gap, 
hollow in the skyline. 

BATHGATB. Windy cow-house. Bathaich, cow -byre ; 
gaothach, windy. 

BEAD PIT. Place of birch-trees. Beath, birch ; pit, place. 

BEATLIE, for Beatlach. Place of birch-trees. 

BEDFORMIE. Green grove. Bad, wood, grove ; gorma, green, 
blue. Gorma had become corma, by aspiration chorma, which 
would readily become forma. In Aberdeenshire ch in names is 
frequently pronounced as f. 

BEECRAIGS. Little hill growing birches. Creagan, little hill ; 
beith, birch. An had become s instead of ie. Th in beith is 
silent. 

BELLS BRIDGE, BELL'S KNOWE, BELLS MILL, BELLSTONE. In 
these names the first part is buaile, cattlefold. S had been 
inserted to make it possessive and connect it with the second 
part. 

BELSYD. Site of a cowfold. Suidhe, place ; buaile, milking 
fold. 

BENHAR. Hill of the shieling. Beinn, hill ; airidh, shieling. 
Euphonic h had been prefixed to airidh, and idh had been lost. 

BENTHEAD. Hill of the fold. Beinn, hill; cuidh, cuid 
aspirated, fold. Euphonic t had been added to n, and c in ch 
had been lost, being silent. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 7 

BENTS. Little hill. Beinntan, diminutive of beinn, hill. 
An had improperly been made s. 

BEUGH BURN. Noisy burn. JBeuchd, noise, roar. 

BICKERTON BURN. Burn of the town where wooden bowls 
and cups were made. Biceir, cap, bowl, cup. These were made 
of alder-wood and could be made only where the alder-tree grew. 

BINKS. Fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, corrupted 
into whitehill, which was afterwards turned into Gaelic by 
beinncan, whitehill (beinn, hill ; can, white). An of can was 
regarded as a plural termination and changed to s. This added 
to beinnc made beinncs, now become binks. 

BINNS. Little hill. Beinnan, diminutive of beinn, hill. An 
was wrongly made s instead of ie. 

BINNY CRAIG. Little hill. Beinnan, little hill ; creag, hill. 
An became y. Creag had been added as an explanation of 
beinnan. 

BIRDS MILL. Mill in a meadow. Bard, meadow. 

BIRNYHILL. Hill with a gap. Bearna, gap. 

BISHOP BRAE. Brae of the birchy hill. Beithach, abounding 
in birches ; chop, cop aspirated, hill. Th had become sh ; ach 
had been lost ; and c of chop had been lost. 

BLACKCRAIG. Hill on which there was a milking fold. Creag, 
hill ; bleoyhann, milking. Ann had become ie and it had been 
lost. 

BLACKFAULDS. Small enclosed fields whose walls were con- 
structed of black mossy sods. Black is sometimes a corruption 
of bleoghann, milking, or bliochd, milk. 

BLACKLAWS. Little black hill. Lamhan, diminutive of lamh, 
hill. Mh is equal to u, but an should not have been made s. 

BLACKNESS. Black point. Ness, point. The rocks at the 
point are igneous and dark. In Gaelic speaking times ness had 
been pronounced nesh. 

BLACKRIDGE. Milking place on the slope of a hill. Bleoghann, 
milking ; ruiyh, slope. 

BLACKSHILLS, for Coillean Bleoghann. Knoll where cows were 
milked. Coillean, diminutive of coill, hill ; bleoghann, milking. 
Neither ean nor ann is a plural termination and they should not 
have been made s. 

BLAWHORN. Warm hill. Blath, warm ; charn, earn aspir- 
ated, hill. C silent has been lost. 

BLAWLOAN. Warm grassy place in front of a house. Blath, 
warm ; Ion, meadow, grassy place. In England loan is a grassy 
lane, in Scotland it is an uncultivated grassy place in front of a 
house. 

BLUE BRAE. Hill of milk. Braigh, hill; bliochd, milk. 
When applied to small near hills blue means place where cows 
were milked. 

BOAR STONE. Big stone. Borr, big. 

BOGHALL. Farm town at a bog. The kitchen was the hall 
of a farm house. 



8 PLACE NAMES 

BOGYATES. Bog of the little fold, flog, wet marshy place ; 
chuitan, cuitan aspirated, little fold. Ch had become gh, equal 
to y, and an had by mistake been made es instead of ie. 

BONHARD. Bottom of the hill. Bonn, base ; ard, hill. 

BONNYTOWNSIDE. Place in a hollow at the foot of a hill. 
Bonnan, diminutive of bonn, bottom ; suidhe, place. An 
normally became y. 

BONSIDE. Place at the bottom of a hill. Bonn, bottom ; 
suidhe, place, site. 

BORROWSTON. Town on a small hill. Bruchan, small hill. 
An had improperly become s, and this combining with ch had 
made bruchs, now become borrows. 

BORROWSTOUN MAINS. Farm occupied by the proprietor of 
Borrowstoun. Terrae Dominicales (Latin), proprietor's lands. 
Terrae, lands ; dominicales, belonging to a landlord. In passing 
through French into English dominicales became domains, which 
in Scotch is now mains. 

BORROWSTOUNNESS, for Ness Bhaile Bruchan. Point of the 
town on a small hill. Ness (pronounced nesh in Gaelic), point ; 
baile, town ; bruchan, small hill. An was improperly made s, 
and bruchs became borrows. Borrowstounness is often con- 
tracted to Bo'ness. 

BOSLEM WELL. Well at a low hill. Bos, low; lamh, hill. 

BOWDEN, for Bo Dun. Cow hill. Bo, cow ; dun, hill. The 
" Fort " shown on the hill in maps had anciently been a great 
cowfold. 

BOWGATE. Arched gate. 

BRAES. Steep slopes. Braigh, hill. 

BRAND'S QUARRY. Quarry at a burn. Braon, burn. D had 
been added for euphony, and also s because aon was wrongly 
regarded as a plural termination. 

BREICH. Hill. Bruch, hill. 

BROADLAW. Both parts mean hill. Braid, hill ; lamh, hilL 

BROADYATES. Hill of the little fold. Braid, hill ; chuitan, 
cuitan aspirated, little fold. Ch became gh equal to y, and an 
was improperly made es instead of ie. 

BROW. Hill. Bruch, hill. 

BROWNHILL. Hill of the mountain burn. Braon, hill burn." 

BROXBURN. Burn from the small hill. Bruchan, small hill. 
An was improperly made s instead of ie. Bruchs became first 
brux and then brox. 

BRUCEPIELD. Hill field. Bruch, hill. 

BRUNTON. Town at a burn. Braon, hill burn. 

BDCHANS. Rocks which cause a loud roaring noise in the sea 
in a storm. Beucach, noisy, roaring. 

BUGHTKNOWES. Hut for sheep on a knoll. Buth, hut, bught ; 
cnocan, knoll. An had wrongly been regarded as a plural 
termination. 

BULLION WELL. Well at a small fold. Buailean, diminutive 
of buaile, fold. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 9 

BURGHMUIR. Muir belonging to the burgh of Linlithgow, to 
which all the burgesses had the right to send cattle. 

BURN CRAIGS. Rocks at a burn. Creagan, plural of creag, 
rock. Creagan might be the diminutive of creay, hill. 

BURNFOOT. Burn mouth. 

BURNHEAD. Burn of the fold. Braon, hill burn ; chuid, 
cuid aspirated, fold. C in ch was lost. 

BURNHOUSE. Burn of the fold. Braon, burn ; chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. Ch became sh, and h was lost, producing huis, 
now house. 

BURNSHOT. Small farm at a burn. Sgot, shot, farm. Some- 
times the diminutive termination eag is corrupted into shot as 
in claiseag, small deep hollow, which has become clayshot. 

BURNWIND. Burn of the hill. JBraon, burn ; bheinn, beinn 
aspirated, hill. Bh is equal to w. 

BUSHYLAW. Bushy hill. Lamh, hill. 

BUTLAW. House on a hill. Buth, house ; lamh, hill. 

BUTTER WELL. Well at a house on a shieling. uth, house ; 
airidh (idh silent), shieling. 

BYCOTE, for Cuit Ba'iche. Fold at a cow-byre. Cuit, fold ; 
ba'iche, cow-house, byre. 

BYRES. Cow-houses. In Gaelic Bathaichean, plural of 
bathaich, cow-byre. 

CAMPHILL. Crooked burn. Cam, crooked ; pholl, poll aspir- 
ated, pool, burn. Poll is aspirated because it follows its 
adjective. 

CANNIEWELL SLACK. Slack at the head of the town. Ceann, 
head ; a', of the ; bhaile, baile aspirated, town ; sloe, gorge, 
narrow valley. The slack is between two hills where there is not 
a well. 

CANTIES. Small hill. Ceanntan, diminutive of ceann, head, 
with euphonic t inserted. An normally became ie, but it was 
also made s by some, and both ie and s were added to ceannt. 

CAPIES POINT. Small head. Ceapan, diminutive of ceap, 
head. An had by some been regarded as a diminutive and by 
others as a plural termination, and both ie and s had been added 
to ceap. 

CAIRNEYHEAD. Little hill of the fold. Carnan, little hill ; 
chuid, cuid aspirated, fold. C in ch was lost. 

CAIRNIE. Carnan, little hill. An normally became ie. 

CAIRN-NAPLE, for Cam a' Peall. Hill of the protected fold. 
Cam, hill ; ', of the ; peall, peel, protected place. Sometimes 
when a fold was made by a ring of tree-trunks, mats and hides 
were attached to the outside for a protection against wind and rain. 

CAPPERS, for Ceap Airidhean. Hill of the small shieling. 
Ceap, head, hill ; airidhtan, diminutive of airidh, shieling. Ean 
had improperly been regarded as a plural termination. 

CAPUTHALL. Hill of the road passing the fold. Choill, coill 
aspirated, fold ; cath, drove road ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ch 
of chuit had become ph, but h had been lost. 



10 PLACE NAMES 

CARL CAIRNIE. Witch hillock. Carl (English), wizard, witch ; 
carnan, little hill. An became ie. 

CARLEDUBS, for Cathair Lamh Dubhan. Hill of darkness. 
Cathair, hill ; lamh, hill ; dubhan, darkness. An became s. 

CARLOWRIE, for Cathair Lughmhor Abhainn. Hill of the 
rapid burn. Cathair, hill ; lughmhor, swift ; abhainn, burn. 
All the aspirated letters and some of the vowels had been lost. 
Ainn had become ie, which had afterwards been lost. 

CAKMEL HILL. Carmel is for Garbh Meall, rough hill. 
Garbh, rough, meall, hill. 

CARRIBBER, for Carr Ruigh Airidh. Projecting part of the 
slope of a shieling hill. Carr, projection from a hill ; ruigh, 
slope; airidh shieling. Gh had become bh, and h had been 
lost. Idh, being silent, had been lost. 

CARRIDEN. Rocky den. Carrach, rocky ; dein, den. 

CARSE OF KINNEIL, KINNEIL KERSE. Alluvial low grounds 
at Kinneil. Catharan, plural of cathar, wet flat ground. Th 
with its antecedent vowel had been lost, and an became s. The 
Carse of Kinneil was under the sea till the formation of the 
25-feet beach by the elevation of the land. 

CARSIE HILL. Projecting rocks on a hill. Carr, shelf of 
rock ; sith (th silent), hill. 

CASTLE CRAIG. Castle hill. Creag, hill. 

CASTLETHORN. Castle hill. Thorn is Charn, earn aspirated, 
hill. Ch had become th. 

CATHLAW. Hill over which a road passed. Cath, road, drove 
road ; lamh, hill. 

CAULD BURN. Rapid burn. Callaidh, active, nimble. 

CAULDCOATS, CAULDHAME, CAULD WELLS. In these names 
cauld represents cuil, nook. Coats is cuitan, little fold, with an 
made s instead of ie. Hame is thorn (t silent), torn aspirated, 
hill. Wells is bhailean, bailean aspirated, little town. Bh 
became w, and ean became s instead of ie. 

CAULDIMMERY. Back of the little ridge. Cul, back, with 
euphonic d ; imirean, little ridge. Ean became y. 

CAUSTON, for Baile Cobhan. Town in a hollow. Bails, town ; 
cobhan, hollow. Bh is equal to ou, and an had improperly been 
changed to s instead of ie. 

CAW BURN. Burn of the hollow. Cabh, hollow. Bhisequaltoou. 

CHAMPANY. Old fold. Sean, old ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, 
afterwards corrupted into white. This was turned into Gaelic 
by baine, whiteness, white. Se is pronounced she, nb often 
becomes mb, and seanbaine would readily have become shambaine, 
to be afterwards made champany. [flowery. 

CHAMPFLEURIE. Flowery field. Champ (Fr.), field; fleuri (R), 

CHANCE PIT. Pit at a sheep fold. Fhangan, fangan aspir- 
ated, small fank. Fh became ch, g was lost, and an regarded 
as a plural termination was made s (now ce), which was added 
to chan. Fhangan has sometimes become change, as in Change- 
hill, Changehouse. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 11 

CHARLES'S BRIDGE. Bridge at a black fold. Sear, dark ; 
lios, fold. Sear is pronounced shar. 

CHESTER LAW. Hill where there was anciently a fortified 
cattlefold, supposed to have been a Roman fort. Castra (Latin), 
camp ; lamh, hill. 

CHUCKETHALL. Black fold hill. Dubh, black ; cuit, fold ; 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. 

CITY, for Suidhe. Place. 

CLAPPERTONHALL. Farm house in a muddy place. Clabar, 
puddle, mire. The place is near a ford, and Clapperton may 
represent clacharan, stepping stones, with ch changed to ph and 
h dropped. 

CLARENDON. Open broad space before a hill. Clar, clear 
broad space ; an, of the ; dun, hill. 

CLOVE QUARRY. Quarry in a rough place. Clumach, rough. 

CLOVEN CRAIG. Hill frequented by kites in search of mice, 
beetles, etc. Clamhan, kite ; creag, hill. Mh is equal to v. 

COCK HILL. The second part is a translation of the first. 
Cnoc, hill. 

COCKLE BURN, for Cock Hill Burn. Burn of the hill. Cnoc, 
hill. Cnoc had lost n. 

COCKLERUE. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope ; cnoc, hill. Le 
represents hill, the translation of cnoc. 

COCKMUIR. Muir on a hill. Cnoc, hill. 

COLINSHIEL. Hut on a small hill. Coillean, diminutive of 
coill, hill; seal (pronounced shal), temporary residence on 
summer pasture. In Gaelic sealan, shieling, means summer 
pasture away from cultivated land ; and seal, shiel, means a hut 
in which those in charge of cattle lived. 

COLT HILL. Little hill. Coilltean, diminutive of coill, hill. 
Ean had become ie and had been lost. 

CORBIEHALL. Hill of the fold. Corbie was originally chuitail, 
fold, corrupted into whitehill, which was turned into Gaelic 
by corban, white hill (cor, hill ; ban, white). Subsequently 
an was regarded as a diminutive termination and changed to 
ie. Hall represents choill, coill aspirated, hill, in which c had 
been lost. 

CORNIE BURN. Burn from a little hill. Carnan, diminutive 
of earn, hill. An normally became ie. 

COTMUIR. Muir of the fold. Cuit, fold. 

COUCH. Fold. Cuith, fold. Th had become ch. 

COUSLAND. Hill of the fold. Lamhan, hill ; cuithan, diminu- 
tive of cuith, fold. Th is silent, and an had been made s instead 
of ie. Mh in lamhan is silent, and euphonic d had been added 
to an. 

COUSTON. Town in a hollow. Cobhan, hollow. Bh is equal 
to ou, and an had improperly been made s. 

Cow CRAGS, Cow HILL, COWHILL. Originally Cuithail, fold. 
Th is silent, and cui had become cow. Ail had been thought to 
be aill, hill, and had been made creagan, little hill in the first 



12 PLACE NAMES 

and hill in the other two. Creagan had afterwards been made 
craigs, an being erroneously regarded as a plural termination. 
Ancient folds are now supposed to have been Roman forts. 

COWDENHEAD. Cowden is cuidan, little fold ; and head is 
chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, which had been added to cowden to 
tell its meaning. 

CRAIG BRAE, CRAIGEND, CRAIGHEAD, CRAIGMAILING, CRAIG- 
MARRY, CRAIGMILL, CRAIGTON. The first part of the names is 
creag, hill. Head is chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, with c dropped ; 
mailing is meallan, little hill ; marry is murean, little hill, with 
can made y ; mill is the second form of meall, hill. 

CRAIG ENGALL. Little hill on which there was a stone pillar. 
Creagan, small hill ; gall, monumental stone pillar. 

CRAIGIE, CRAIGIEHALL. Craigie is creagan, small hill, with an 
made ie. Hall is choill, coill aspirated, hill, with c silent in ch 
dropped. 

CRAIGS. Hillock. Creagan, diminutive of creag, hill, rock. 
It might also be the plural of creag and mean hills or rocks. 

CRAMOND. Hill of the fold made with wattles. Cra, wattled 
fold. 

CRANE HILL. Hill of the tree. Crann, tree. 

CRAWHILL. Hill of the fold. Cra, fold made with wattles. 

CRAWSTANE. Stone at a fold made with wattles. Stane might 
be ton, town, with s added to craw to connect the two parts. 

CRINKLE BURN. Burn of the round hill. Cruinn, round ; 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. 

CROFTFOOT, CROFTHEAD. Both names mean knoll at a fold. 
Croit, croft, knoll, spot of grass. Foot is for chuit, cuit aspir- 
ated, fold, with ch made ph, which is f. Head is chuid, cuid 
aspirated, fold, with c of ch dropped because silent. 

CROFTMALLOCH. Small piece of land on which there are 
humps. Croit, croft ; meallach, abounding in little hills. 

CROMYTY FAULDS. Small enclosed fields on the side of a hill. 
Cromadh (Irish), side of a hill. 

CROSSALL. Cross on the hill. Crois, cross ; aill, hill. 

CROWNS HILL. Round hill. Cruinn, round. S represents 
inn wrongly supposed to be a plural termination. 

CUFFABOUTS. Fold at a small house. Cuith, fold ; a', of the ; 
buthan, small house. Th became ff, and an of buthan was 
improperly made s. 

CULTRIG. Burn of the hill slope. Coill, hill burn ; ruigh, 
slope. T had been added to coill, and h had been dropped from 
ruigh. 

CULTRIG BENT. Cultrig hill. Beinn, hill. T had been 
added for euphony. See Cultrig. 

CULTSYKEFOOT. Hill burn fold. Cult for coilltean, little 
hill ; syke, small burn ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ch had 
become ph, equal to f. 

CUNINGAR. Rabbit warren. Coinnieeir (Irish), rabbit warren. 

CUTHILL. Fold. Cuthail, fold. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 13 

DAINTYDODS. Stronghold on a knoll. Daingneach, fort, 
fortified fold ; cnocan, little hill. An had improperly been 
made p. 

DALES. Little meadow. Dailean, small riverside field. Ean 
was wrongly changed to s. 

DALMENY. Field of smallness, or small field. Dail, field ; 
mine, smallness, small. The reference must be to the site of 
the ancient church. 

DEACON'S STONE. Stone of parting drinks. Clack (translated), 
stone ; deochan, drinks. An had normally become s, but it 
should not have been added to an. 

DEAN. Den. Dein, den, valley eroded by ice or by running 
water. 

DEANFORTH COTTAGE. Cottage at a fold in a den. Dein, 
dean, den, ravine ; chorth, corth aspirated, fold. Ch became ph, 
equal to f. 

DEANS. Little den. Deinan, diminutive of dein, den. An 
had improperly been changed to s. 

DECHMONT. Good hill. Deagh, good, beautiful ; monadh, hill. 

DECHMONT LAW. Hill of Dechmont. Lamh, hill. Mh is 
equivalent to w. 

DEIL'S KITCHEN. Cattlefold. Cuithan, diminutive of cuith, 
fold. Th had been strengthened by the insertion of c. Deil's, 
for devil's, is sometimes prefixed to a work which seems to be 
greater than human power could have produced or than human 
want required. 

DOGHILLOCK, for Dubh Chnocan. Black hillock. Dubh, 
black ; chnocan, cnocan aspirated, hillock. Bh had become gh, 
and subsequently h had been lost, and latterly chnocan had been 
translated into hillock. 

DOLPHINGTON. Black hill town. Doille, darkness, dark ; 
fin, hill. 

DOOMSDALE. Field near a hill. Dun, hill ; dail, field. 1ST 
had become m, and s had been inserted because dun had been 
supposed to be plural. 

DOVEHILL. Black hill. Dubh, black. 

DKUID'S TEMPLE. Stone circle round a grave. In the reign 
of Charles II., John Aubrey, an English antiquary, said the 
stone circles were Druidical places of worship. 

DRUM. Long hill. Druim, ridge like the back of a beast. 

DRUM SANDS. Ridge of sand. Druim, long back, ridge. 

DRUMBEG. Small ridge. Druim, ridge ; beag, small. 

DRUMBOWIE. Yellow hill. Druim, ridge ; buidhe, yellow. 

DRUMCROST. Cross over a long hill. Crois, crossing ; druim, 
ridge. 

DRUMDUPF. Black hill. Druim, ridge ; dubh, black. 

DRUMELZIE, for Druimmellan. Both parts mean hill. Druim, 
ridge, long hill ; mellan, small round hill. 

DRUMFORTH. Hill of the fold. Druim, ridge, long hill ; 
chorth, corth aspirated, fold. Ch had become ph, which is f. 



14 PLACE NAMES 

DRUMLYON. Hill of the level plain. Druim, ridge ; lean, 
level ground. 

DRUMSHORELAND. Drumshore represents Druim Sear. Dark 
ridge. Druim, ridge ; sear, dark. Sear is pronounced shar. 
Land is lamhan, hill, with mh silent and euphonic d added to 
an. Lamhan had been added to explain the preceding part. 

DRUMTASSIE. Warm hill. Druim, hill, long ridge ; teasach, 
warm. 

DUBHALL, for Dubh Choill. Black hill. Dubh, black ; choill, 
coill aspirated, hill. C in ch had been lost, being silent. 

DUBS. Little black place. Dubhan, diminutive of dubh, 
black. An had wrongly been made s. 

DUDDIXGSTON, for Baile Dubh Dun. Town on a black hill. 
Baile, town ; dubh, black ; dun, hill. 

DUMBACK, for Dun Bac. Hill of the moss. Dun, hill ; bac, 
peat moss. 

DUNCANSEAT. Site of a fold. Seat is suidhe, place, site. 
Duncan had originally been chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, 
which had been corrupted into whitehill. This had been 
turned into Gaelic by duncan, white hill (dun, hill; can, 
white). 

DUNDAS. Hill of the burn. Dun, hill ; with euphonic d 
added ; eat (pronounced as), burn, water. 

DUNTARVIE, for Dun Tearbhadh. Hill of division. Dun, 
hill ; tearbhadh, for tearbadh, division. Bh is equal to v. 

DUNTEB HILL. Dun Tir. Hill land. Dun, hill ; tir, land. 

DURHAMSTOWN. Town on a stream. Dobhar (bh silent), 
water ; amhainn, river. Ainn became s, abnormally. 

DYE WATER. Black burn. Dubh, black. 

DYKE. Dubh, black. Bh had become ch, and h had been 
lost. 

DYKEHEAD. Black fold. Dubh, black ; chuid, cuid aspirated, 
fold. C had been lost, and huid became head. 

DYKENOOK. Turn in the line of an embankment. Dyke, wall 
in Scotland, but ditch in England ; nook, angle, corner. 

DYLAND. Black hill. Dubh, black; lamhan, hill. Mh 
silent had been omitted and euphonic d had been added to n. 

EAGLE ROCK. Rock at a fold. Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, 
fold, corrupted into whitehill, which was again turned into 
Gaelic by aodgeal, white hill (aod, brae, hill ; geal, white). 
Aodgeal has now become eagle. 

EASTON. Town at a stream. Eos, burn, stream. Eos is 
pronounced like ace, sometimes as ess, and in England it is 
usually made ash at the beginning of a name. 

ECCLESMACHAN. Fold in a small plain. Chuitail, cuitail 
aspirated, fold ; maglian, small plain. Chuitail became white- 
bill, which was made in Gaelic aoageal, white hill (aod, hill, 
brae ; geal, white). In aodgeal o is silent and was lost, and 
by suppression of d it became ageal, which became eccle, aigle, 
eagle, etc. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 15 

ECHLINB. Place at a pool. Achadh, place ; linne, pool. Dh 
in achadh is silent, and it and its vowel had been lost. 

EEL ARK. Place where eels accumulated in their progress to 
the sea in autumn. Ael (Anglo-Saxon), eel ; airc, ark, re- 
ceptacle. 

ELDRICK, for Ruigh Aill. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope ; 
aill, hill. 

ENTRYFOOT. Hill of the fold. An, the ; Iriath, hill ; chuit, 
cuit aspirated, fold. Ath silent had been lost, and ch had 
become ph, equal to f. 

ERRICK BURN. Burn of the shieling on the slope of a hill. 
Airidh, shieling; ruigh, slope of a hill. 

FAIRNIEHILL. Hill where alders grow. Fearnach, abounding 
in alders. 

FAIRY LEAP. Turn of the hill. Luib, bend, tuirn ; faire, hill. 

FALLSIDE. Site of a fold. Suidhe, site ; fal, fold. 

FAULDHOUSE. Both parts mean fold. Fauld sometimes 
means a small enclosed arable field, and sometimes the fold in 
which cattle were penned at night. House is chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. C was lost, th became sh, and h was lost 
leaving huis, now become house. The second part may be the 
older. 

FAWNSPARK. Enclosed place with a gentle slope. Pairc, 
park ; fan, gentle} slope. S represents an in fan, which had 
wrongly been regarded as a plural termination. 

FIVESTANKS, for Sithean Chuith. Hill of the fold. Sithean, 
hill ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. Sithean became stanks by 
loss of i and h, insertion of euphonic k, and addition of s because 
sithean ended in can, erroneously regarded as a plural termin- 
ation. Ch of chuith became ph or f, and th became bh or v. 

FOLLY BRIDGE. Bridge on the way to a hill. Choille, coille 
aspirated, hill. Ch had become ph equal to f. 

FORKNEUK. Corner suitable for growing oats. Chore, core 
aspirated, oats. Ch had become ph, equal to f, and c had been 
changed to k. 

FOULDUBS. Black pool. Pollan, diminutive of poll ; dubh, 
black. S represents an of pollan regarded as a plural termin- 
ation. 

FOULSHIELS, for Pholl Sealan. Pool on a shieling. Pholl, 
poll aspirated, pool, burn ; sealan, shieling, pasture among hills. 
Shiels is a mistake for shieling. Sealan, is both the plural of 
seal, shiel, and the singular of sealan, a shieling. 

FOXHALL. Fox hill. Hall is choill, coill aspirated, hill, with 
c silent lost, and oi changed to a. 

GALA BRAES. Cattlefold. Originally chuitail, cuitail aspir- 
ated, fold. Chuitail was corrupted into whitehill, which was 
afterwards turned into Gaelic by gealach braighean, white hill 
(gealach, white ; braighean, diminutive of braigh, hill). 

GALESHIELS, for Sealan Chuit, Shiels at a fold. Sealan, 
shiels, huts on summer pasture ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Se 



16 PLACE NAMES 

in sealan is equal to she, and an normally became s. Ghuit 
was corrupted into white, which was made in Gaelic gealach, 
white, now gale. 

GALLOWS KNOWB. Knoll where criminals were hanged on a 
gallows, after being convicted at a burgh court. 

GALLOWSCROOK. Gallows hill. Crook is for cnoc, hill. 

GARDENERS HILL, GARDNERS HALL. Rough hill of the 
shieling. Garbh, rough ; dun, hill ; airidh, shieling. S was 
inserted to make gardener and gardner possessive. Hall is for 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. C silent had been lost, and oi had 
become a. Choill had been added to explain dun. 

GATEHOUSE. Windy fold. Gaothach, windy ; chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. Chuith lost c, and th became sh, which after- 
wards lost h. Huis became house. 

GATESIDE. Windy place. Gaothach, windy ; suidhe, place. 

GILL BURN. Burn of the fold. Gill had originally been 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold, which had been corrupted into 
white, and this had afterwards been turned into Gaelic by geal, 
white, now made gill. 

GLADEHILL. Kite hill. Glede (English), kite. 

GLENBARE. Glen of the path. Gleann, glen ; bair, beaten 
path, road. 

GLENDAVON. Glen of the two streams. Gleann, glen ; da, 
two ; abhainn, stream. 

GLENMAVIS, for Gleann Maitheas. Glen of goodness. Gleann, 
glen ; maitheas, goodness. Th became bh, equal to v. 

GLENPUNTIE. Glen of the fold. Gleann, glen ; pundan, 
diminutive of pund, fold, pound for straying cattle. An became 
ie normally. 

GLENPUTTIE, for Gleann Chuitan. Glen of the little fold. 
Gleann, glen ; chuitan, cuitan aspirated, small fold. Ch had 
become ph, which became p by loss of h. An normally became 
ie. 

GORMYRE. Green myre. Gorm, green. 

GOWAN BANK. Fold. Gabhann fold. Bank had originally 
been chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, which was corrupted into white. 
This was afterwards made in Gaelic ban, white, to which was 
added euphonic k. Bh in gabhann is equal to w. 

GOWAN BRAE. Brae growing gowans. Gabhann, fold, daisy 
because its petals are arranged like the trunks of trees 
enclosing folds. 

GOWAN STANK. Ditch near a fold. Gabhann, fold ; stagnum 
(Latin), standing water, slow-running, deep ditch. Bh is equal 
to w. 

GRAHAMSDYKE. Dyke constructed for warlike purposes. 
Grimeasach, surly, rugged, martial. Dyke probably means the 
great ditch on the north side of the Roman wall. In England 
dyke usually means ditch. 

GRANGE. Farm belonging to a religious convent. Granum 
(Latin), grain. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 17 

GRANGEPANS. Pans at Grange where salt water was boiled 
dry in making salt. Panna, pan. 

GREENDYKES. This name implies that the wall of the fold at 
the place had been constructed of earth, which was green on the 
outside. 

GREENRIG. Green slope. Ruigh, slope of a hill. 

GREIG'S HILL. The second part is a translation of the first. 
Creag, hill. 

GROUGHFOOT. Fold. Crubh, fold; chuit, fold. Bh had 
become gh, ch had become ph or f, and crughfuit had lapsed into 
groughfoot. 

HADDIE'S WALLS, for Bhailean Aodann. Small town on a 
brae. Bhailean, bailean aspirated, small town ; aodann, brae. 
Bh became w, and ean became s instead of ie. H was prefixed 
to aodann, and ann became both ie and s. 

HAGS BRAE. Hill of moss-pots. Braigh, hill ; hag (Scotch), 
hole out of which peats had been dug. 

HAINNINGS. Small fold. Fhaingan, faingan aspirated, small 
fank or sheepfold. F, being silent, had been lost, g had also 
been lost, and an had been made ing but it had also been re- 
garded as a plural termination and made s. Faingan is formed 
fromfaing, the genitive oifang, fank. 

HALFLAND SYKE. Halfland is for Chabh Lamhan. Hollow 
of the little hill. Chabh, cabh aspirated, hollow ; lamhan, dim- 
inutive of lamh, hill. of chabh had been lost, being silent ; 1 
had been inserted though not sounded ; bh had become ph or f ; 
mh had been lost, being silent ; and euphonic d had been added 
to an. Syke is a very small stream. 

HALL BATHGATE. Hill of Bathgate. Choill, coill aspirated, 
hill. C, being silent, was lost, and oi became a to produce an 
English word. 

HANGINGSIDE, for Suidhe Fhangan. Place of the small fank. 
Suidhe, place ; fhangan, fangan aspirated, small fold or fank. 
F had been lost, and g had been inserted to obtain an English 
word with a meaning. 

HARDHILL. The second part is a translation of the first. 
Ard, hill. Euphonic h had been prefixed to ard. 

HAREMOSS. Moss of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. 
Euphonic h had been prefixed, and idh had become silent and 
had been lost. Moss may represent mosaiche, dirty wet place. 
The last part of mosaiche would readily be lost. 

HAWK HILL. Hill frequented by hawks in search of mice, 
beetles, etc. Hawk is sometimes a corruption of achadh, place. 

HAWTHORNSYKE, for Choill Cham Syke. Small burn draining 
a hill. Choill, coill aspirated, hill ; charn, earn aspirated, hill ; 
syke, from sugh, wet place, head of a burn. Choill had lost 
initial c and had become hall, which had been corrupted into ha', 
afterwards made haw. The name Hawthornsyke Burn is not 
appropriate for the burn passing Binn's Mill. 

HAY HILL. Hill of the fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. 



18 PLACE NAMES 

C and th, being silent, had been lost. Hui had been pronounced 
as hey, which became hay. 

HATSCBAIGS, for Creagan Chuithan. Rocks at a little fold. 
Creagan, plural of creag, rock ; chuithan, cuithan aspirated, 
little fold. C of ch had been lost, th had also been lost, and 
an had abnormally been made s. 

HEADS. Little fold. Chuidan, cuidan aspirated, diminutive 
of cuid, fold. C in ch had been lost, and an was wrongly made 
s instead of ie. Huids became heads. 

HEIGHTS. Small fold. Chuidhan, cuidhan aspirated, small 
fold. C had been lost ; dh had become gh, with euphonic t 
added ; and an became s. 

HERMIT'S HOUSE. House occupied by a hermit. Eremites 
(Greek), desert-dweller. 

HIDDLEFAULDS. Small enclosed fields at a cattlefold. 
Chuidail, fold. C silent had been lost. 

HILDERSTON. Town at a small hill. Choill, coill aspirated, 
hill; der (Irish), small. S was added to obtain a pos- 
sessive. 

HILLHOTJSE. Hill of the fold. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. 
C was lost, and th became sh, from which h was afterwards lost, 
leaving huis, now made house. 

HILTLY for Allt Lamh. Burn of the hill. Allt, burn ; lamh 
(mh silent), hill. Euphonic h had been prefixed to allt. 

HOLEHOUSEBURN. Burn of the hill of the fold. Choill, coill 
aspirated, hill ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C in ch is 
silent, th became sh and s by loss of h. Huis became 
house. 

HOLMES. Low land near a river. Holm (English), low 
ground. S is sometimes added to names of places to mnke them 
possessives. 

HOLYGATK, for Goothach Choille. Windy hill. Gaothach, 
windy ; ehoille, coille aspirated, hill. C had been aspirated 
because the adjective preceded the noun, but c becoming silent 
had been lost. 

HOPEFIELD. Field of the hill ; chop, cop aspirated, hill. C 
had been lost, being silent. 

HOPETOUN. Hill town. Chop, cop aspirated, hill. C, being 
silent, had been lost ; and e had been added to obtain a name 
with a meaning, however inappropriate. 

HOUND POINT. Projecting point of a hill. Fhin, Jin aspir- 
ated, hill. F in fh is usually lost, and d is often added to n. 
In several names in Aberdeenshire i in Jin becomes u, as in 
Ord Fundlie. 

HOUSTON, for Baile Chobhan. Town in the hollow. Baile, 
town ; chobhan, cobhan aspirated, hollow. C in ch had been 
lost, being silent, bh had become ou, and an had wrongly been 
regarded as a plural termination and had been changed 
to s. 

HUMUIE. Small hill. Thoman, toman aspirated, little hill. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 19 

T silent had been lost, euphonic b had been added to m, and an 
had become ie. 

HUNTBURN. Burn where assemblies were held. Choinne, 
coinne aspirated, meeting. C silent had been lost. 

HUNTER'S CRAIG. Rock at which meetings were held. Creag, 
rock ; choinne, coinne aspirated, meeting. 

ILLIESTON. Place in a nook. Uileann, nook. Eann had 
become ie. 

INCH, for Innis. Enclosed place, fold. 

INCH GARVIE. Rough island. Inni, island ; garbhach, rough. 

INCHCROSS. Enclosed place at a cross. Innis, enclosure; 
crois, cross. 

INKS. Fold. Originally Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, 
corrupted into whitehill, which was made in Gaelic fhincan, 
white hill (fhin, fin aspirated, hill ; can, white). Fh had been 
lost, and an became s, improperly. Incs is now inks. 

INVERAVON. Infall of the Avon. Inbhir, infall ; abhainn, 
river. 

JACK'S HOUSES, for Chuithan lochd. Small fold in a hollow. 
Chuithan, cuithan aspirated, small fold ; iochd, howe. C silent 
had been lost, th had become sh, and afterwards h had been lost. 
An had improperly become s. Iochd became Jock, and Jock 
became Jack. 

JINKABOUT MILL, for Dun a' Buth Mill. Knoll of the hut 
mill. Dun, knoll, with euphonic k added ; a', of the ; buth, 
house, hut. The knoll is at Inveravon. 

JOCKS HILL, JOCK'S HOLE. Hill in a hollow. Iochd, hollow, 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. Hole is the same as hill. 

KELMANHEAD, for Chuid Gaol Man. Fold in a narrow place 
on a hill. Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold caol, narrow hollow ; 
man, hill. Chuid had been aspirated when it was put last and 
then c had been dropped. 

KEPSKAITH. Plot of ground at the burn of the fold. Ceap, 
plot ; eas, burn ; cuith, fold. There is a plot of ground between 
two burns, which might have been the fold. Ea of eas coalesced 
with s and was lost. Eas sounds ace, ess, and ash. 

KETTLESTON. Town at a fold. Cuitail, fold. S makes 
kettle possessive. 

KILPUNT. Head of the pound. Gill for ceann, head ; pund, 
pound for straying cattle. 

KINGLASS, for Ceann Leas. Head of the fold. Ceann, head ; 
leas, a variant of lios, fold. 

KINGS. Little head. Ceann, head. Ceann became cinn, to 
which s had been added because eann was supposed to be a plural 
termination. G had been added to obtain an English word. 

KINGSCAVIL. King's share. Cabhuil, net, basket, lot. 

KINGSFIELD. Head of the field. Ceann, head ; achadh, 
field. Ceann had been corrupted into king, to which s had been 
added because eann had wrongly been thought to be a plural 
termination. 



20 PLACE NAMES 

KINNEIL. Head of the hill. Ceann, head ; aill, hill. 

KINNEN HILL. Small hill. Ceannan, diminutive of ceann, 
head. 

KIPPS. Small hill. Ceapan, small hill. S represents an, 
erroneously regarded as a plural termination. 

KIRKLAND. Both parts mean hill. Creag, hill ; lamhan, hill. 
Mh is silent and had been lost. D had been added to an for 
euphony. 

KIRKLISTON. Church at the town of the fold. Liot, fold. 

KIRKROADS, for Ruighean Creag. Little slope of the hill. 
Ruighean, diminutive of ruigh, slope, shieling ; creag, hill. An 
had been regarded as a plural termination and had been made s 
instead of ie. Gh and dh are interchangeable, both being equal 
to y. 

KIRKTON. Hill town. Creag, hill. 

KNAPPERS. Head of the little shieling. Cnap, knoll ; 
airidhean, diminutive of airidh, shieling. Idh was lost, being 
silent, and ean became s instead of ie. 

KNIGHTSRIDGE. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope; cnoc, hill. 
In Gaelic the term for a knight is cniochd, which has some 
resemblance to cnoc, hill. 

KNOCK. Hill. Cnoc, hill. 

KNOWS. Knoll. Cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill An 
should have become ie, being a diminutive termination. 

LAIGHLANDS, for Fhliuch Lamhan. Wet little hill, Fhliuch, 
flinch aspirated, wet ; lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill. Th is 
silent and had been dropped, ch had become gh, mh being silent 
had been lost, and the diminutive termination had wrongly been 
made s, and instead of being substituted for an it had been 
added to it. D had been inserted after an for euphony.* 

LAMPINSDUB, for Lamhan Dubh. Black little hill. Lamhan, 
little hill ; dubh, black. S represents an of lamhan, erroneously 
thought to be a plural termination. Mh of lamhan had been 
confused with ph. 

LANGSIDE, for Suidhe Lamhan. Place on a hill. Suidhe, 
place ; lamhan, hill. Mh, equal to nasal v, was lost but 
through its influence final n became ng. 

LATCH BURN. Burn from a wet place. Latach, mire, wet 
place. By loss of a in ach c was softened, and ch is pronounced 
as in English words. 

LAW. Hill. Lamh, hill. 

LAWFLAT. Court hill. Lamh, hill; flatha (Irish), court, 
session. 

LEARIELAW. Hill with a sloping green side. Lamh, hill ; 
leargan, slope, green side. Gh is equal to y and y would have 
coalesced with ie. 

LEUCHOLD. Wet burn. Fhliuch, wet, marshy ; allt, burn. 
Fh is usually silent and had been lost. 

LIGGATB SKYE. Syke of the milking fold. Leigeadh, 
milking. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 21 

LIKDSAY'S CRAIGS, for Creagan Lean Saimh. Little hill of 
the quiet plain. Creagan, diminutive of creag, hill ; lean, 
plain; saimh, tranquillity, quietness. S makes Lindsay 
possessive. 

LINKS. Level grassy terraces near the sea. Lianan, plural 
of lian, level place. Euphonic c had been added to lian, and 
an had become s. Liancs has now become links. Places called 
links are usually ancient beaches raised to 25 and 50 feet above 
sea level. 

LINLITHGOW, for Linne Lios Cuith. Pool of the enclosure at 
the fold. Linne, pool, lake ; lios, enclosure ; cuith, fold. Final 
th is silent. 

LINN-MILL. Mill at a waterfall. Linne, pool, waterfall. 

LIVINGSTON. Beautiful town. Liomhanach, bright, beautiful. 
Mh is equal to v. Ach had been lost, ch being silent. 

LOANHEAD. Head of a grassy place. Lean, level grassy place. 

LOANINGHILL. Hill of the little grassy place. Leanan, 
diminutive of lean, grassy place. 

LOCHCOTE. Fold at a loch. Cuit, fold. 

LOGIE VAIE. Little howe valley. Lagan, diminutive of 
lag, howe. 

LONG LIVINGSTON. Hill of Livingston. Lamhan, hill. Mh 
is equal to nasal v and though mh had been lost by its influence 
n became ng, and lamhan became lang, subsequently anglicised 
into long. 

LONGCROFT. Hill croft. Lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill. 
Mh had been lost, and la-an had become lang because mh is 
nasal, and then lang had become long. 

LONGRIDGE. Slope of the hill. Lamhan, hill ; ruigh, slope 
of a hill. Lamhan became lang by loss of mh and the addition 
of g to an. Lang was anglicised into long. 

LOOKABOUTYE. This name may be English as the place is in 
an elevated situation. It may, however, be a slightly different 
version of an Aberdeenshiro name Titaboutie, which probably 
represents Taiteach Buthan, pleasant house, in which an has 
become ie. 

MACKIE'S KNOWES. Knoll in a plain. Cnocan, diminutive 
of cnoc, hill ; maghan, diminutive of magh, plain. An of cnocan 
was made es instead of ie, and an of maghan becomes ies, some 
regarding it as a diminutive and others as a plural termination. 

MAD BURN. Burn of the plain. Magh, plain. 

MAGGIE'S WELL. Well in a little howe. Maghan, dimin- 
utive of maghan, little howe. An became ie normally. 

MAILING BURN. Burn from a little hill. Meallan, diminutive 
of meall, hill. 

MAINS BURN. Burn of the hill. Man, hill. S represents 
an of man, erroneously regarded as a plural termination. 

MALLENS BURN. Burn of the little hill. Meallan, dimin- 
utive of meall, hill. An had improperly been made s and added 
to meallan. 



22 PLACE NAMES 

MANNERSTON, for Baile Man Airidh. Town on the hill of 
the shieling. Baile, town ; man, hill ; airidh, shieling. S is 
an insertion made to obtain a possessive. Idh in airidh is 
usually silent. 

MANSGROVE. Grove on a hill Man, hill. S represents an 
regarded as a plural termination, which it is not. 

MARY BAILLIE'S WELL, for Tobar Baile Murean. Well at a 
town on a small hill. Tobar, well ; baile, town ; murean, small 
hill. Ean normally became y. 

MERRYLEES. Little hill with a fold on it. Murean, little 
hill ; lios, fold. Ean normally became y. 

MIDDLERIG. Middle of the slope on a hillside. Ruigh, slope 
on a hill. 

MIDHOPE. Middle hill. Chop, cop aspirated, hill. C in ch 
is silent and had been omitted. 

MILKHOUSES. Houses where cows on summer pastures had 
been milked. 

MILLCRAIG. Both parts mean hill. Mill, second form of 
meall, hill ; creag, hill. 

MILLRIG. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, lower slope of a hill ; 
mill, second form of meall, hill. 

MINGLE PIT. Place at a fold. Mingle had originally been 
Chuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold, corrupted into whitehill. This 
had been turned into Gaelic by moinegeal, white hill (moine, 
moor, hill; geal, white). 

MOAT KNOWE. Knoll at which barony courts were held. 
Mod, court of justice. 

MOCHRIE'S HILL. Dark slope of a hill. Muich, dark ; 
ruighean, diminutive of ruigh, slope. Ch is equal to y and 
had been lost. Ean was properly made ie, but it was also 
improperly made s, and both were put to the end of the 
name. The colour of a hill told whether it afforded good 
pasture or not. 

MONS HILL. Hill. Man, hill. S had been added because 
an is sometimes a plural termination. 

MOSSHALL. Farm house in a moss. Hall, public place in a 
house. 

MOSSHOUSE. Fold in a moss. Chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; 
mosaiche, moss, filthy place. C in ch had been lost, and th had 
become sh, afterwards losing h. 

MOUNT MICHAEL. Black hill mount. Muiche, blackness, 
black, dark ; aill, hill. 

MOUNTHOOLY. Both parts of the name mean hill. Monadh, 
hill ; choille, coille aspirated, hill. C silent had been lost. 

MOUNTJOY. Black mount. Dubh, black ; monadh, hill. 
D in Gaelic frequently becomes j in English. 

MUCKRAW. Swinefold. MUG, pig ; rath (th silent), fold. 

MUIREND. Small hill. Murean, diminutive of mur, hill. 

MUIRHALL Farm house on a muir. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 23 

MUIRHOUSE. Fold on a moor. House had been in Gaelic 
chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C had been lost, being silent, and 
th had become sh, which afterwards lost h. Then huis had 
become house 

MUIRHOUSES. Houses on a moor. 

Mm RI EH ALL. Both parts of the name mean hill. Mur ean, 
diminutive of mur, hill ; choill, coill aspirated, hall. Ean had 
normally become ie, and oi had become a. 

MURRAYFIELD. Field of the hill burn. Mur, hill ; abh, burn, 
water. 

MURRAYGATE, for Cuit Mur Abh. Fold at the hill burn. 
Cuit, fold ; mur, hill ; abh, burn. C of cuit had become first ch 
and then gh, which had lost h. Bh had become gh which is 
equal to y. 

MYRE. In Scotch, myre usually means a bog from which a 
small stream is discharged. 

NANCY'S HILL. The hill. An, the; sith (th silent), hill. 
Euphonic n had been prefixed to an, and s had been added to 
make Nancy possessive. 

NETHERHOUSES. Lower little fold. Houses is for Chuithan, 
cuithan aspirated, little fold. C had been lost ; th had become 
sh, from which h had been lost ; and an had improperly been 
changed into es. Huises has become houses. 

NETTLEHILL. Nettle is for Net Lamh. Burn of the hill. Net, 
burn ; lamh (mh silent), hill. Hill is a translation of lamh. 

NEW ENGLAND. New in names may represent three things. 
(1) The English word new. (2) Naomh (pronounced nuv or 
new), sacred, belonging to a church or a convent. (3) An 
Chuith, the fold, with the aspirated letters dropped. The 
remainder ui has become ewe in several names, and an and ui 
combined would sound anew, from which a would be dropped. 

England represents An Lamhan. The little hill. An, the ; 
lamhan (mh silent), little hill. For euphony g was added to an 
and d to lamhan. New England probably means the fold on the 
little hill. 

NEW GARDENS, for An Chuith Garbh Dunan. The fold on the 
rough little hill. An, the ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; garbh, 
rough ; dunan, little hill, with an improperly changed to s. See 
New England. 

NEW MAINS. New farm instead of a former, occupied by the 
proprietor of an estate. Terrae Dominicales (Latin), lord's lands 
through French demesnes, in English made domains. See New 
England. 

NEWHALLS, for Naomh Choillean. Sacred little hill. Naomh, 
belonging to a church or a convent, sacred ; choillean, coillean 
aspirated, little hill. C silent had been lost, and ean had 
improperly been made s instead of ie. Oi and a are sometimes 
interchanged. See New England. 

NEWLISTON. New town at a fold. Lios, fold. See New 
England. 



24 PLACE NAMES 

NEWYEARFIELD. Field of the fold on a shieling. Achadh, 
field, place ; an, of the ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold ; airidh, 
shieling. An lost a, chuith lost its aspirated letters, and airidh 
lost dh and its vowel. 

NIDDRY. Slope at a burn. Ruigh, slope ; nid, burn. 

OATRIDGE, for Ruigh Chuit. Slope of the fold. Ruigh, slope ; 
chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Ch had become silent and had; been 
lost. Then uit became oat. 

OCHILTREE. Small hill. Ogail, small ; triath (th silent), hill. 

PADDOCKHALL. Farm house at a small hump. Pait, hump ; 
og, little ; hall, farm house with a large kitchen, the public part 
of the house. 

PALACE WOOD. Wood at a protected fold. Peall, protection 
by a wall, skins or mats ; lios, fold. 

PAN BRAES. Braes where salt water was evaporated in 
making salt. Panna (Irish), pan. 

PARDOVAN, for Cnap Airidh Dubh Abhainn. Knoll of the 
shieling at the black burn. Cnap, knoll, top ; airidh, shieling ; 
dubh, black ; abhainn, stream. Cna of cnap had been lost perhaps 
after c had been aspirated. Bh is equal to v, but the second bh 
had been lost. 

PARK. Enclosed field. Pairc, park. Before 1750 so few 
fields were enclosed that park was a distinctive name. 

PARKLY CRAIGS, for Pairc Lamh, and Creagan added to 
explain Lamh. Park hill. Pairc, park ; lamh (mh silent), hill ; 
creagan, diminutive of creag, hill. An should have been made 
ie, not s. 

PEACE HILL, PEACE KNOWE. Small hill, [and Small knowe. 
Pios, small. 

PEATDRAUGHT BAY. The meaning of the name is obscure. 
Peatdraught might represent Pait Draigh, hump growing 
thorntrees. Pait, hump ; draigh, thorntree. Bay might 
represent bathaiche, cow-house, contracted to bai by loss of the 
aspirated letters. 

PEEL. Protected place. Peall, skin, wall, protection against 
thieves or against inclement weather. 

PEPPER HILL. Hill of the fold on the shieling. Cuith, fold ; 
airidh, shieling. Ch and th had both become ph and afterwards 
h in both had been lost. This left puip, which when sounded 
with a small round opening between the lips became peep. 

PETERSHILL. Hill of the hump. Pait, hump. Peter and 
Patrick and their familiar diminutives Pete, Pettie, and Pattie, 
are confounded with one another, and pait, hump, had been 
thought to be connected with Peter. S turned Peter into a 
possessive. 

PHILPSTOUN, PHILPSTON. Farm town on a small hill. Coil- 
lean, small hill, which had lapsed into cuilean, little dog. This 
had been turned into whelp in English and folp in Scotch, which 
became Philp in some names and Philip in others. Another 
Philip comes from a Greek word meaning lover of horses. 






OF WEST LOTHIAN 25 

PILGRIM'S HILL. If this name is of Gaelic origin it means 
protected place or fold on a barren hill. Peall, peel, protected 
place, fold ; grimeasach, barren, rugged. 

POLKEMMET. Crooked burn. Pall, burn, pool ; Caimead, 
crookedness, crooked. 

POORWIFE'S BRAE. Brae of the little fold. Poor has the 
meaning small. Wife's represents chuithan, cuithan aspirated, 
fold. Ch may become bh, equal to w, and th may become ph, 
equal to f . An should normally have become ie, but having been 
thought to be a plural termination it had become es. Chuithan 
has become wife's in an Aberdeenshire name. 

PORT BUCHAN. Port on the Union Canal at a curre. Port, 
harbour ; bogha, little curve, bend. 

PORT EDGAR. Harbour at a rough brae. Aod, brae ; garbh 
(bh silent), rough. 

PORTERSIDE. Meaning uncertain. Perhaps site of the 
entrance to the shieling. Suidhe, site ; port, gate, entrance ; 
airidh, shieling. 

POTTISHAW. Wood at a small pot in a burn. Poitean, small 
pot. Ean normally became i (for ie). 

POWFLATS. Flat places near a burn. Poll, burn. 

PRESTON. Town at a bushy place. Preas, bush. 

PRIEST MILL. Mill at a bushy place. Preas, bush, bushy place. 

PRIESTINCH. Enclosed bushy place. Preas, bush ; innii, 
enclosed place. 

PUNCH WELL. Well at a pound where straying cattle were 
shut up. Pund, pound. 

PUNCHEON LAW. Hill of the old pound. Lamh, hill ; pund, 
pound, pen for straying cattle ; sean (pronounced shan), old. 

PYOTHALL. Magpie hall. Piothaid, magpie. 

QUAKER'S QUARRY. Quarry in a cup-shaped hollow. Cuach, 
cup, round hollow. 

QUARTER. Enclosed circular place on a shieling. Cuairt, 
circle ; airidh, shieling. 

RASHIERIDGE. Both parts represent ruigh, hill slope. One 
part had been added to explain the other. 

RAVEN CRAIG. Stone circle on a hill. Hath, circle round a 
grave, fold ; bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. Creag, hill, craig, had 
been added to explain raven. 

RED BURN. Burn red with iron oxide. 

REDDOCK-HILL. Hill ending in a point. Rudhach, ending 
in points. 

REEVES, REVESTON. Small slope, and Town on a small slope. 
Ruighean, diminutive of ruigh, slope. Ean was improperly made 
s instead of ie. 

REVEL BANK. Bank of the slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope ; 
aill, hill. Gh had become bh or v. 

RICCARTON. Town on the slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope ; ard, 
hill. 

RICKLB. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope ; aill, hill. The 



26 PLACE NAMES 

Rickle is a small island in the loch of Linlithgow. The name 
would be appropriate for the side of the hill on the north. As 
a Scotch term rickle means a small rick or pile of stones or 
peats. 

BIGHEAD. Hill of the fold. Ruigh, slope, hill ; chuid, cuid 
aspirated, fold. C had been lost, being silent. 

RIGHOUSE, for Ruigh Chuith. Slope of the fold. Ruigh, 
slope ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. Ruigh, had lost h. Cuith 
lost c silent, and th became first sh and then s by loss of the 
aspirate h. Huis became house. 

RIVALDS GREEN. Green place sloping to a little burn. 
Ruigh, slope ; alltan, little burn. Gh had become bh, equal to 
v, and an had become s instead of ie. 

ROSE WELL. Well at the point of a field. Ro, point. 

ROSSHILL, for Ros Choill. Point of the hill. Ros, point ; 
choill, coill aspirated, hill. C silent had been lost, and hoill had 
become hill. In old Gaelic coill means hill, but in modern 
Gaelic it means wood. 

Ross's PLANTATION. Ross's represents ros, point. The 
plantation is in a corner between two burns. 

ROUGHSYKE. Drain on the slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope ; 
syke, beginning of a stream, drain. 

ROUND HILL. This is a corruption of Chruinn Choill, 
Round hill. Chruinn, cruinn aspirated, round ; choill, coill 
aspirated, hill. C of ch in both parts had been lost. 

ROUSLAND. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope at the base of a 
hill ; lamhan, diminutive of lamh, hill. Euphonic d had been 
added to n. 

RYAL. Hillside. Ruigh, slope ; aill, hill. 

SCOTSTON. Town on a burn passing a fold. Eaa pronounced 
ess, burn ; cuit, fold. Ea has been lost because its sound is 
heard before s. 

SEAFIELD. Hill fold. Sith, hill. 

SHARPSBANK. Cuit Eos Airidh. Fold on the burn of the 
shieling. Chuit, fold, corrupted into white, which was turned 
into Gaelic by ban, white, with euphonic k added ; eas pro- 
nounced ash, burn ; airidh, shieling. Eas had lost ea, and dh 
had become ph, which subsequently lost h. 

SLACKEND. Narrow hollow. Slocan, diminutive of sloe, 
hollow, gorge. 

SNAB. Blunt point. Snub (English), to cut short. 

SNIB. Blunt point. Snub, to cut short. 

STACKS. Fold made with trunks of trees stuck into the 
ground. Stacan, plural of stac, stump of wood. 

STANDHILL. The second part is the translation of the first. 
Sithean, hill, corrupted into stan, to which euphonic d had been 
added. 

STANDINGSTONE. Monolith at a pre-Christian grave. 

STANEYHILL TOWER, for Clachach Torr. Stony hill. Clachach, 
stony ; torr, steep flat-topped hill, corrupted into tower. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 27 

STANKARDS, for Sithean Ardan. Little hill. Sithean, hill; 
ardan, little hill. Sithean became stan, to which euphonic k 
was added ; and an of ardan was abnormally changed to s 
instead of ie. 

STARLAW Hill with a steep bank. Storr, steep bank, cliff; 
lamh, hill 

STEPEND, STEPENDS. The end of a row of stepping stones 
across a stream. S probably arose from pronouncing stepend 
without d and then adding s because en was thought to be a 
plural termination. Both d and s were added. 

STEPPING STONES. A row of stones at intervals for crossing 
streams and marshy places. In Gaelic a row of stepping stones 
is clacharan, which has often become clatterin or clattering, 
with bridge added when the stepping stones have given place to 
a bridge. 

STOCK BRIDGE. Bridge formed by a trunk of a tree. Stoc, 
stem, trunk. 

STONEHEAD. Stonefold. Head is for chuid, cuid aspirated, 
fold. C of ch was lost. Stone might represent stane, a 
corruption of sithean, hill. In this case the name would mean 
hill of the fold. 

STONEHEAP. Both parts mean hill. Sithean, corrupted to 
stane and anglicised to stone, hill ; cheap, ceap aspirated, hill, 
hillock, hilltop. C in ch had been lost. 

STONERIG. Slope of the hill. Sithean, hill, ruigh, slope. 
Sithean had become stane, which had been anglicised into stone. 
STRAND. Small valley. Srathan, small valley, with euphonic 
d added to n. Strachan is another form of srathan. 

STRATH. Alluvial river valley. Srath, flat-bottomed river valley. 
STRATHAVON. Valley of the Avon. Srath, river valley ; 
abhainn, river. 

STRATHBROCK. Strath at a hill. Srath, strath, river valley 
with alluvial flats ; bruch, hill. 

STRATHLOANHEAD. Fold in a grassy place in a river valley. 
Chuid, cuid aspirated, fold ; lean, grassy place, loan ; srath, 
river valley with a flat bottom. Cuid had been first, but after 
aspiration and loss of c it had been put last. 

SWINEABBEY. Burn flowing in a marsh. Sughan (gh silent), 
wet ; abhainn, stream. Ainn had been regarded as a diminutive 
termination and had therefore been changed to ey. 

SWINEBURN. Burn in a wet marshy place. Sughan (gh equal 
to y), wetness. 

SWORDIE. Wet hill. Sugach, wet ; ordan, little hill. An 
became ie. 

SYKE. Drain. Sugh, wetness, commencement of a burn in a 
small eroded valley. Gh had become ch and h had been lost. 
TAILEND. Small lump. Tailean, diminutive of tail, lump. 
TANNOCH, for An t-Aonach. The hill. An t, the ; aonach, hill. 
TANTALLON HILL, for Tom an t- Allan. Hill at the burn. 
Tom, hill ; an t, of the ; allan, diminutive of all, water. 



28 PLACE NAMES 

TAR HILL. Steep hill. Torr, steep, abrupt hill. 

TAERYDEWS. Black little hill. Torran, steep round hill 
dubh, black. Bh is equal to w. 

TARTRAVBN, for An t-Ard Bath Bheinn. The hill of the fold 
on the hill. An t, the; ard, height; rath, fold; bheinn, beinn 
aspirated, hill. An t, kre; ard had been prefixed to explain bheinn. 

TAWNYCRAW. Hill of the fold. Torr, steep abrupt hill ; na, 
of the ; era, wattled fold. 

THIRLSTANE. If Scotch this name may have been given to a 
large stone with a hole in which a gallows-tree was set up. 
If Gaelic it means stone on a knoll. Thriath, triath aspirated, 
hill, knoll ; aill, hill. Ath would have been lost before 
aill. 

TIPPET KNOWS, TIPPETHILL. Taipeach. Abounding in 
knolls. In Tippethill the second part is a translation of the 
first. 

TODHOLES. Foxes' holes. Tod (Scotch), fox. 

TORBANB. Fold. Ghuitail, cuitail aspirated, fold. Ghuitail 
was corrupted into whitehill, which was made in Gaelic torrban, 
white hill ; torr, hill ; ban, white. 

TORPHICHEN. Hill of the little fold. Torr, hill; chuithan, 
euithan aspirated, little fold. Ch became ph, and th became 
ch. 

TOTTLY WELLS. Well emitting vapour. Toitlach, variant of 
toiteach, giving off vapour. Strong deep-seated springs have 
water above the temperature of the air in winter, and in calm 
cold weather vapour rising from them becomes visible like 
smoke. 

TREKS. Hill. Triath, hill. 

TRINLYMIRE. Mire on a little hill. Triathan, diminutive of 
triath (th silent), hill ; lamh (mh silent), hill. 

TURNHIGH, for Torran Chuith. Hill of the fold. Torran, 
small, steep, round hill ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. C silent 
was lost, and th became gh, sounded y. 

UPHALL, for A'Choill. The hill. A', the ; choill, coill aspir- 
ated, hill. Ch became ph, and oi became a. 

WALLHOUSE, for Bhaile Chuith. Town at a fold. Bhaile, 
baile aspirated, town ; chuith, cuith aspirated, fold. Bh is equal 
to w, and by loss of final e bhaile became wall. C in ch had 
been lost, being silent, and th had become sh, which by loss of 
h became s. Huis readily lapsed into house. 

WALTON. Town on the Roman Wall. The place had been a 
Roman camp. 

WARDLAW. Hill of an enclosure for cattle and sheep. Ward 
(English), enclosed place ; lamh, hill. 

WARRENS. Preserves for hares and rabbits. 

WATERSTONE, for Baile Uachdaran. Town of the chief. 
Baile, town ; uachdaran, chief, ruler. Ch had been lost, being 
silent ; d had been changed to t ; and an having been regarded 
as a plural termination it had been changed to s. 



OF WEST LOTHIAN 29 

WELL OP SPA. Well yielding water impregnated with 
carbonate of iron. The name had been imported from Spa in 
Belgium, where there are famous chalybeate springs. 

WKLLHILL. Hill of the fold. Choill, coill aspirated, hill; 
bhuaile, buaile aspirated, fold. C in ch is silent, and hoill 
became hill. Bh is equal to w and bhuaile became well. 

WHEATACRE. Fold on hill land. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold ; 
ard-thir, high ground (ard, height ; thir, tir aspirated, ground). 
Ard-thir has become acre in the Aberdeenshire name Acrestripe, 
and Arthur in the Edinburghshire name Arthur's Seat. 

WHEATLANDS, for Lamhan Chuit. Hill of the fold. Lamhan 
(mh silent), little hill ; chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. An of lamhan 
had become s, normally ; and chuit, having lost c, became wheat. 

WHINSTONE. Hill stone. Fhin, Jin aspirated, hill. Th had 
become wh. Whinstone is a hard igneous rock which is usually 
seen on high ground. 

WHITBURN, WHITEBURN. Burn of the fold. Braon, burn; 
chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Braon became burn, and cuit 
became whit and white. 

WHITDALEHEAD. Fold. Chuidail, cuidail aspirated, fold, 
corrupted into whitedale. Head is chuid, cuid aspirated, fold, with 
Bilent c dropped, added to explain chuidail after being corrupted. 

WHITE LAW. Fold. Chuitail, fold, corrupted into whitehill. 
White remained but hill was translated into Gaelic by lamh, 
hill. 

WHITE QUARRIES. Quarries at a fold. White had origin- 
ally been chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, and chuit had been corrupted 
into white. 

WHITES AULKS. Fold in a place where there were ridges of 
ploughed land. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold, corrupted into 
white ; balks (English), ridges. 

WHITEHOUSE. Fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold. Chuit had 
been corrupted into white, and to explain it chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold, had afterwards been added. C in chuith had 
been lost, being silent, and th had become sh. By loss of h 
huis was left, now become house, but there is no house at 
Whitehouse. 

WHITESIDE. Site of a fold. Suidhe, site ; chuit, cuit aspir- 
ated, fold. Chuit became white, and suidhe became side. 

WHITOCK. Small fold. Chuit, cuit aspirated, fold; og, 
small. 

WILCOXHOLM, WILCOX, for Uileann Cnocan. Nook of the 
little hill. Uileann, ^ corner; cnocan, diminutive of cnoc, hill. 
Eann had become ie, and it had been lost ; n in cnoc had become 
silent and had been lost ; an had wrongly been made s, which 
combining with c became x. Tholm, tolm aspirated, hill, had 
been added to cnocan as an explanation. T in th is silent and 
had been lost. 

WIKCHBURGH, for Bheinnbruch. Both parts mean hill. 
Bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill ; bruch, hill. Bh is equal to w, 

D 



30 PLACE NAMES OF WEST LOTHIAN 

and bheinn had become win, to which c, afterwards made ch, 
had been added for euphony. 

WITCH CBAIO. Hill of the fold. Creag, hill ; chuith, cuith 
aspirated, fold. Ch became bh equal to u, v, or w ; and th was 
strengthened by inserting c between t and h. 

WOODCOCKDALE, for Dail Cnoc Shad. Field of the hill of the 
wood. Dail, riverside field ; cnoc, hill ; bhad, bad aspirated, 
wood. Bh is equal to w, and wood may be a corruption rather 
than a translation of bhad. 

WOOLSTONE, for Baile Uileann. Town in a corner. Baile, 
town ; uileann, nook. Eann had become ie and had been lost. 

WYNDFORD. Hill ford. Bheinn, beinn aspirated, hill. Bh 
is equal to w, and d had been added to nn for euphony. 






DA Milne, John 

869 Gaelic place names of the 

M5 Lothians 



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