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Full text of "A Gaelic primer, containing rules for pronouncing the language : with numerous examples : also, a copious vocabulary, arranged under distinct heads : a list of primitive and derivative pronouns : the conjugation of the verb "to be" : and a selection of phrases on various subjects : the orthoepy of each word being denoted throughout by a figured spelling"

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GAELIC PRIMER, 

CONTAINING 

RULES 

FOR 

PRONOUNCING THE LANGUAGE; 

WITH NUMEROUS EXAI^PLES. 

ALSO, 

A COPIOUS VOCABCI.ARY, ARRANGED UNDER DISTINCT HEADS ; A 
LIST OF PRIMITIVE AND DERIVATIVE PRONOUNS ; THE CONJUGA- 
TION OF THE VERB "tO BE ;" AND A SELECTION OF PHRASES ON 
VARIOUS SUBJECTS : THE ORTHOEPY OF EACH WORD BEING DE- 
NOTED THROUGHOUT BY A FIGURED SPELLING. 

By JAMES MUNRO. 



GLASGOW: 

PUBLISHED BY JOHN WYLIE & CO. 

1828. 



J. STARKE, PRINTEK, GLASGOW, 



PREFACE. 



It has been a just subject of complaint with strangers 
who make the tour of the Highlands, that no easy intro- 
duction exists to the language of the natives. The 
following little manual has been composed to obviate this 
complaint ; and it is hoped that by means of it, and a 
very little study, the intelligent tourist may be enabled 
to enter with some satisfaction into the feelings and 
sentiments of the "acute and amiable Highlanders,"* 
at the same time that he explores the sublime and 
romantic scenery of their unvanquished country. 



* After having made a tour of 1600 miles in their country, 
Principal Baird, in a letter to the author, characterises the High - 
landers in these words. 



GAELIC PRIMER, &c. 



There are eighteen letters in the Gaelic Alphabet:- 



Pow( 
a a, a, a, a 
b b 

c k, q, chk, 
d d, d, c 
e e, e, e, e, 
f f 

i Í, Í, Í 


Brs. 

or chc 

e, é 


Powers. 
1 1,1 
m m 
n n, ng, n, r 

O Ó, o, O, Ó, Ó, Ó 

P P 
r r, r 

s s, sh 
t t, t 

u Ú, U, Ú 


Key to the sounds 


1 of the Vowels. 


Long sounds 
Kindred short 


a. 
far 
s fat 


* > clann 

woman, 


Long sounds 
Kindred short 


e. 
gle 
fead 


there 

bed, de-fend, her 


Long sound 
Kindred short 


1. 
pique 
pin 


sir 


Long sounds 
Kindred short 


o. 
for 
hot 


no, old * 
im-póst, son 



*á and ó are diphthongal sounds. The first is com- 
posed of áú closely united, and the second of 5ú closely 
united. 



Long sound rule 

Kindred short bush, cut. 

There are five vowels representing nine dissimilar sim- 
ple sounds, viz. 

7 Long, a, e, e, i, 6, 5, ú I „ , 

7 Kindred short, a, e, é, Í, 6, Ó, Ú f ' ^''"'''^'• 
Each vowel occasionally represents the same sound. 

a, e, i, Ó, Ú, 1 sound. 

Two different characters represent the same sound, é, í. 
ao represent one simple sound, 1 sound. 

9~ 
ORTHOEPY. 
Each of the five vowels admits of the grave accent \ 
which indicates a lo7ig sound. 

The acute accent ' is written over e and o only, and 
indicates a particular long sound of these vowels. 

A, o, u are termed broad vowels; e, i slender or small. 
There are no sile7it final vowels in Gaelic. 
Sounds of the Broad Vowels. 
1 a. 
a Sounds like á in far. 
Examples. 
ár=á 

bá, cows bás, m. death 

da, two sas, m. hold, custody 

la, m. a day barr, m. top, crop 

ta, am, is, &c. bard, m. a poet 

bra,/, a quern or hand mill * am, m. time, season 
tra, m. a meal, 8cc. mam, m. a hill 

ard, high dan, m. a poem 

sparr, to thrust ran, m, a roar 

cárr,y! scab Ian, m. a tide 

tarr, m. a tail ban, white, &c. 

* A, preceded or followed by m, mh, or n, has a pecu- 
liar nasal sound, which can be acquired only by the ear. 
It is somewhat like an in the English words and, hand, 8cc. 



3 • 

2 a.- 

a Sounds like a in bat, fat, 
a=a Ex. 

cap, I ^, maff, to mock 

r' > m. a mouth °' ,.rc 

gab, j rag, stin 

ad,/, a hat gal, m. weeping 

bad, m. a dud, &c. sal, m. dirt 

fad, m. length can, to sing, to say 

gad, m. a withe fan, to wait, to tarry 

sad, m. dust car, m. a turn, a trick 

dag, m. a pistol far, where 

lag, weak, faint mar, as 

cas,y. a foot 

Note, Diminutives in ag and an, have this sound of a. 

Ex. 

ad'ag,/ a haddock, &c. brad'an, m. a salmon 

cam 'an, m. a club srad'ag,/. a spark 

clam'an, m. a glede, or kite ard'an, m. pride 

brad'ag,/ a thievish woman ban'ag,/ a grilse 

cas'ag,/". a long coat fras'ag,/. a slight shower 

cas'an, m. a path sgad'an, m. a hening 

3 a. 

á Sounds like a in woman, or u in but. 

This sound occurs in a few monosyllables. 

Ex. 

an, ) ná, of the ma, if 

am. [- the nam, of the sá, (emphatic pronoun) 



Í 



■■{: 



Generally before gh and dh. 
Ex. 

f a heifer, drágh, m. trouble 

\ or quey stágh, m a stay 

lágh, m. a law spágh, m. a jerk, 8cc. 

magh, m. a field clágh, m. a spawning 

tágh, to cull * kdh'krt, m. a pillow 

* The letters printed in Italics are silent throughout 
this part of the book. 

a2 



4 

hdh'kvc,/. a horn fvkdk'krc, m. sight 

kdh'rkc,/. a horn frkdh'rkc, m. sight, view 

spá^A'ádh, m. a jerk, a tug fáí/A'ár, /w. the noise of ablow 

tágh'an, m. a marten tágh'ár, will be chosen 
tkffh'k], m. a call, a visit 

Always in the plural termination a or an. 
Ex. 
ad'án, hats bas'án, palms of the hands 

gab'án, mouths fras'án, showers 

sdad'án, stops gas'án, branches 

ad'ag-án, haddocks dán'á, poems 

cas'ag-an, long coats spág'á, claws 

srad'ag-án, sparks lád'á, loads 

bán'ag-án, grilses grás'á, graces, mercies 

Mostly in all final unaccented syllables. 
Ex. 
ái"'á, f. a kidney ann'ád, in you 

bán'á, white, (adj. plural) as'ád, out of you 
cárá, dearer as' am, out of me 

lán'á, full am'ar, a trough 

tan' a, thin an'am, a soul 

Ann'á,/. Anna an'art, m. linen 

bai-'rá, m. a barrow as'gárt, m. tow 

cal'a, m. a harbour am'as, m. a findinpr 

ball'á, ni. a wall cab'ár, m. an antler 

mai''á,yi of a sea cad'al, m. sleep 

Exceptions. 
The following words have 2 a in their final syllables. 
ann'as, m. a rarity barr'an, m. a baron, &c. 

gal'ar, m. a disease Orrosa, (pr. or'ro-us-a) an 

can'an, m. a cannon island so called. 

Cann'a, m. Canna Colosa (pr. col'lo-us-a) do. 

Barr'a, m. Barra Scarba, (pr. scar'a-ba) do. 

Siuna, (pr. shoo'na) Shuna Scalba, (pr. scal'la-ba) do. 
Diura, (pr. dew'ra) Jura Rathasa, (pr. rah'us-a) do. 
tann'as, m, an apparition Siona, (pr. shó'na) do. 



4 a. 

á Sounds like áú before m, 
consonant. 



nn, 11, or 1 and another 



Ex. 

call, m. a loss 
ball, m, a member, &c. 
dall, blind 
gall, m. a foreigner 
mall, slow 
alld, m. a brook 
scald, to scald 
fa/t, m. a blemish 
Note. These and similar words are in some districts 
pronounced otherwise than as here marked; some say- 
cam, dram, &c. 

1 0. 
Ó Sounds like ó in for, lord. 



cam, crooked 
dram, m. a dram 
bánn,y. a bond, &c. 
rann, m. a poem, &c. 
gann, scarce 
clann,/! children 
sannt, w, covetousness 
dranndj^i a hum 



o=o 

ob, m, a bay or creek 
rod, m. cast sea-ware 
og, young 
Ó1, to drink 
mor, great 
spog,/. a paw 
pog,/. a kiss 
dórn,y! a fist 
com, m. a cup 
por, m. seed 
mór'an, much 
sgor'nan, m, the throat 
6rd'ag,y^ a thumb 
so'las, m. delight, joy 
cró'nan, m. a murmur 
lon'an, m. a small marsh 
tón'án, bottoms 



Ex. 
* srón,y. a nose 
ton,/! a bottom 
ron, m. a seal 
Ion, m. a marsh 
sgor, f. a jut or shelf 
spórs,yi pride, &c. 
mod, m. a meeting 
nos, m. a custom 
cord, to agree 
pos, to marry 
bórd'an, m. a little board 
or'an, m. a song 
spóg'án, claws 
póg'án, kisses 
srón'án, noses 
mór'á, great (adj. plm-al) 
có'tá, m. a coat 



* o, preceded or followed by m, mh, or n, has a peculiar 

nasal sound, scquirable only by the ear. See 1 a, note. 

a3 



ób, to refuse 
boc, m. a buck 
stoc, m, a stock 
trod, m. a scold 
dos, m. a bunch 
16s, m. quest 
cor, m. state 
corp, m. a body 
brod, m. a lid 
grod, rotten 



2o. 
6 Sounds like o in hot, got, lot. 
Ex. 
dog, m. a junk 



col, m. incest 
mol, to praise 
rol, to roll 
sop, m. a straw 
cron, m. harm, hurt 
Ion, m. greediness 
lod, m. a pool 
son, m. a fancy, &c 
sp6r,y! a flint, &c. 
3o. 
o Sounds like o in total, bold, foe. 
Ex. 
mor'an, m. a great deal 
Moi-'ag,^ Marion, Sarah 
do'ran, )ti. an otter 
co'bál,/. a flat boat 
do'rMÍnn,y! great pain, torture 
These words and many others are in some districts 
pronounced with the first sound of o. 
go6/i'lag,y*. a forked stick cdbh'rag,/. foam 
gdbh'iBg,/, a little goat Idbh'ran, m. a leper 

boc?^'ran, m. a deaf person ^bbh'iA^^ f. a primrose. 

Note, bh and dh are silent in these words. They are 
retained in the spelling for etymological reasons. 

4o. 
Ó Sounds like o in impost, or o in the first syllable of 
pro-mote. 
Ex. 
dróm'an, m. a boretree 
tób'ár, m. a spring 
ób'air,jf. work 
póll'ag,/. a pit 
tóll'an, m. a small hole 



0=5 

bo,/, a cow 
cob, m. the total 
mor, great, tall 
do'las, m. a mischief 
bó'lá, w. a bowl 



gob, m. a bill or beak 
tog, to lift 
gób'ag,/. a dogfish 
sgób'ag, /. a nip 
tón'ag, /. a tunic 



bóll'á, m. a boll dónn'ag, f. a sort of fish 

Cóll'á, m. Coll cróm'ag,/. a hook or cleek 

tóm'an, m. a small knoll drón'ag,/! the back 
tóm'MÍlt,y. bulk cóm'á, careless 

sóm'wilt,/largeness,liberalitytróni'á, heavy (adj. plural) 

5o. 

Ó Sounds like ou in loud, or o as pronounced by the Irish 

in the words old, bold, cold, &c. 

Ex. 
com, m. the body sgonn, m. a junk 

lorn, bare pronn, to pound 

torn, m. a knoll sonn, m. a brave man 

bronn, of the belly poll, m. a pool 

droll, m. the rump moll, m. cbafif 

toll, m. a hole GoU, m. Gaul 

conn, m. a regulator spóld,yi a steak, or piece 

bonn, m. a base tóll'tá, holed, bored 

donn, brown trom, heavy 

fonn, m. a melody, &c. tromb, a tramp, or Jew's harp 

60. 
In a few monosyllables sounds like o in love, son. 

Ex. 

1^ ' 1 ^ J- when unemphatic. 

In final unaccented syllables. 
Ex. 
coíMóra, m. justice, fair play cúd'róra, m, weight 
béMl'óm, m, a scold, a taunt ao'trom, light, giddy 
1 u. 
Ú Sounds like u in rule, or 00 in food. 
ÚZZÚ Ex. 

bu, m. a tent cul, m, a back 

cu, m. a dog cum, to hold, contain 

tu, c. thou, you run, m, a mystery, &c. 

up, to shove 1ÚS, m. strength 

bru,/. a belly tur, m. sen^e 

cru, m. a horseshoe glun, c. a knee 

lub, to bend mur, m. a wall 



8 

2u. 

u Sounds like u in push, put, as pronounced in England. 
u=u Ex. 

lus, m. an herb cur, m. a sowing 

bun, m. a root sgur, m. a ceasing, a stop 

rud, m. a thing tur, entire 

cus, m. superfluity glug, m. the noise of agitat- 

rííg, did bear ed liquor 

bus, m. a mouth cíísp, m. a chilblain 

mult, m. a wedder brusg, m. a morsel 

3u. 
Ú Sounds like u in us, but, bunn. 
u=ú Ex. 

CaH'úm, m, Malcom riid, m. a thing ( Argyle dial.) 

fall'iis, m. sweat son'iis, m. happiness, success 

dor'ús, 771. a door cam'iis, m. a bay 

sol'us, m. light don'us, m. mischief, &c. 

Note, These words and others are often spelt with a 
in their final syllable, because ú and a have the same 
sound. 

Sounds of the Slender Vowels. 

1 e. 

é With an acute accent sounds like a in the English 

words pale, tale, sale ; or like French e in été. 
é=é Ex. 

ceyf. the earth re, during 

de, m. yesterday te,^ one 

gle, very Spé,y! the river Spey 

This is the sound of the improper diphthong eu. 
Ex. 
bewm, m. a taunt cewd, ni. a hundred 

cewm, m. a step béwr, sharp, keen 

feMm, m, need, use gléí^s, to tune 

gewm, m. a low béws, m. conduct, habit 

béwd, m. harm féwr, m. grass, hay 

In many places this diphthong is pronounced with the 
3d sound of e, which see. 



2 e. 

e Sounds like a in the Scotch name Kate, or like ea in 
treat, beat, defeat, as generally pronounced in Scotland, 
earze Ex. 

cead. f. leave fé«d, f. a whistle, a whizz 

le, with trertsg, w. draif 

és'án, he éob'ár, m. a puddle 

eas, f. a waterfall greod'an, m. a spell or turn 

té«s, m. heat feau'ag, /. a small whistle 

cleas, w. a trick, &c. creag'an, m. a rocky place 

deos, ready féos'gár, m. an evening 

beag, little deasg'nán, lees, dregs 

breab, f. a kick pé«s'an, m. a pert child 

3 e. 

é Sounds like e in there, where, or like French e in frere. 
é^é Ex. 

e, he Í re, during c§, m. cream 

me, m. a baa * -i t§, /. one fe, m. a calm 

gnéjW.a kind or sort (glé, very 

This is the sound of the improper diphthong ea. 



eazzé 


Ex. 


ceorr, left, wrong 


béfli^ná, /. a breach 


bé«rr, to crop 


cear'ná, /. a comer 


fe«rr, better 


féar'ná, 7n. alder 


g§«rr, to cut 


earlas, m. earnest-money 


é Sounds like English e in bed, fled, ebb ; or like a in 


the second 


syllable of vacate. 


ea=é 


Ex. 


és'án, m. he 


éarr'ann, /. a portion 


de, of 


féaiT'an, m, land 


fear, m. a man 


céann'ard, m, a chief, a leader 


méar, sportive 


pean'as, m. punishment 


bé«n, f. a woman 


défltnn'al, m. a spell, or turn 


lei/n, to follow 


fé«r'an, m, a manikin 


géan, m. glee, humour 


béon'ag, f. a little woman 



* These three words are so pronounced in some districts. 



10 



5 e. 

é Sounds like e in before, rely ; or like i in is, it. 
!=é Ex. 



béó, alive 

céó, m. mist 

déó, m. breath 

sgléó, m. a veil or shade 

réó'tá, frozen 

léo'mun, m. a moth 

féól'á, of flesh 

éór'ná, m. barley 



bréó, to moulder 
céól, m. music 
géób, m. scoop 
dréós, nu a blaze 
féó'rag, /. a squirrel 
téom'á, expert, fond 
géó'lá, a yawl 
sméó'rag,/. a young thrush 

6 e. 

é Sounds like e in her, or like u in tub ; e final has 
always this sound. 

1 i. 

or machine ; or like e in me. 
Ex. 

isp, f. a file or rasp 
cib, f. a kind of wild grass 
mir, m. a part, a piece 
tir, /. land, a country 
dig, /. a ditch, a dyke 
cir, f. a comb 
fir, real, true 

2 i. 
in wig, pin, trig, live. 

Ex. 
rib, m. a snare 
mil, /. honey 
dril, m. a globule of dew 
smid, f. a syllable 
smig, /i a chin 
glic, wise 

fir, m. men, males 
drip, f. hurry, bustle. 



i Sounds like i iu pique 

1=1 

i, f. she, her 

mi, c. I, me 

bi, to be 

tri, three 

im, m. butter 

grim, grim 

slim, sleek 



i Sounds like i 
irri 

fin'e, ni. a clan, &c. 
min'e, of meal 
mir'e, m. sporting 
pinn'e, m. a pin of wood 
binnld, f. rennet 
, gil'e, /. whiteness 
gill'é, m. a man-servant 
imlr, m. a rig of land 



11 

3i. 
i Sounds like i in sir, stir; like e in her, or u in slur. 
\='i Ex. 

is, am, is, &c. tigh-túí, a house, tighean-tai'ún, houses. 
Diphthongs. 
There are twelve diphthongs, se, ai ; eo; ia, io, iu; 
ua ; ea, ei, eu ; oi ; ui. Ao, which has been classed 
among the diphthongs, is a simple sound. 

ao. ^ 

ao Sounds like á very much prolonged. 

Ex. 
aol, m. lime aom, to bend, to incline 

daol,/. a beetle taom, to pour out 

gaol, m. love faob, a clumsy piece 

maol, bald, blunt laom, to lodge, as crop does 

raon, m. a field caog, to wink 

braon, m. a 'drop craos, a chasm, &c. 

daor, (.'ear, costly taod, a halter 

saor, cheap, free, &c. raod,???. a thing (Argyllshire) 

aod'án, m. a face saor'sk, f. freedom 

caor'ánn, tn. service fruit ao'trom, light, vain 
caor'an, tn. a bit of peat mao'dál, f. a paunch 

Of the diphthongs, the seven first are proper ; except 
ai and io which in some instances are also improper. 

The other five are mostly improper ; particularly such 
of them as have i for their postpositive. 

The use of i in the improper diphthongs is merely to 
qualify the sound of the succeeding consonant. 

I. ae Proper, 
ae Sounds áé. 

Ex. 
Gael, gá'él, m. a Highlander. 

II. ai Proper. 

1. ai Sounds ai, like i in twine, fine. 
Ex. 
caill, to lose saill,/. fatness, fat 



12 

stáing,/. to a shelf snáínij m. a knot 

Fráing, /. to France cáint,/. language, speech 

tkmgyf, thanks sgráíng,/. a rueful look 

2. ai Proper, short ; same sound. 
Ex. 
taic, /. support sale, m. sacks 

glaic,/. of a hollow ialg/i, to get 

saíí//í, m. a stem or stern post \Qldh, to lie down, 
caíí/í, to spend raaith, good 

3. ai Improper, ai Sounds a. 
Ex. 
sazl,/. a heel mm\, m. rents 

dá^^, /I delay fair./, daybreak 

páírc, /I a park trá?ll, ^'. a slave 

da/n, w. poems ckin, f. tribute 

Note, ai in the end of a word very frequently sounds 
i. Sometimes the i alone sounds, and then in many 
places goes into é; see 4 e, p. 9. 

Ex. 
cam'ain, (pr. cam'én) clubs ach'lais, (pr. ach'llish) f. an 
sgad'ain, (pr. sgat'én) her- armpit 

rings tannaisg, (pr. tann'ishk) m. 

spirits, sprites 
4. ai Improper, short; same sound, equal to 2 a. 
Ex. 
S2ii],f. a beam mair, to last 

dai],f. a plain field aire,/, poverty 

faic, to see caelc,/. chalk 

fair, to give tais, soft 

III. eo Proper — see examples, p. 10, under 5 e. 

IV. ia Proper. 

ia Sounds ia. 

Ex. 

Dia, m. God iad, they, them 

riab, to tear íáll, f. a thong 



13 

riás'ag,/. a beard díán, swift, speedy 

ián, m. a bird gial, m. a jaw or cheekbone 

Brian, yi a bridle liab'ag,/. a flounder 

{0' In the greatest part of Inverness-shire, the postposi- 
tive of this diphthong is pronounced a. 

V. io Improper. 

1. io sounds i. 

Ex. 

*dion, to protect diol, to distribute 

fion, m. wine miol, /i a louse 

Hon, to fill piob,/. a bagpipe 

* In Inverness-shire, these words are pronounced dian, 
fian, &c. 

Fionn, m. Fingal, sounds fiunn. 

Siona,/! Jane, sounds Shi'nú. 

2. io sounds í short. 

Ex. 

fios, tn. knowledge bior, m. a goad, &c. 

lios, m. a garden briosg, to start 

smior, m. nnarrow cion, m. need, desire, love. 

VI. iu Proper, long. 
1. iu sounds ÍÚ, like u in fume, tune, &c. 
Ex. 
diu, 7n. refuse ciurr, to hurt 

f iu, worthy stiur, to steer, guide 

riu, to them liunn, m. ale, beer 

dium, displeasure cliu, m. praise 

2. iu sounds ííi, like u in duenna. 
Ex. 
ámgh, to-day ^mbh'hs, m. fir 

flliich, wet tríííóA'ás, m. trew s, hose 

diiig, / a chuck giul'an, m. a boy 

fliug, m. a flap &c. liut^A'a, so many, how many 

B 



14 

VII. ua Proper, long. 
1. ua sounds ua. 

Ex. 
cúa.\,f. a burden dúán, 7n. a poem, a rhyme 

dual, 7)}. a plait, a fold fúár, cold 

fual, m. urine cruas, hardness 

gual, m. coal níiás, down 

Note. In some districts this diphthong is sounded úá. 

VIII. ea Improper. 

ea sounds e long, and é short. See examples, page 9th, 
under 3 e, and 4 e. 

Note. In Argyleshire, this diphthong is pronounced 
as a proper diphthong, with the principal stress on the 
postpositive; thus. 

Long, cearr z= kmr Short, ceart := kiarst 

tearr == tíár feart =: fiersht 

&c. &c. 

IX. ei Improper, long. 

1. ei sounds e, like a in pale, or é in French bonte. 
Ex. 
drem, y. a grimace c\eir,f. clergy 

fern, self ceir, f. wax 

gez'g, /. to a branch eisd, to listen 

féísd, /. a banquet féíll, f. a fair, a holiday 

2. ei, Improper, short, like e in beat, retreat, as generally 
pronounced in Scotland. 

Ex. 

heir, to seize on eiVe, other 

géí'r,/. tallow, fat deiVe, f. of a spindle 

sgéh',/. a rock (in the sea.) tem'e, m. a fire 

ciist,f. a question, love E%'é, ?)). the island Eigg. 

X. eu Improper, long. 

éu sounds é. See page 8, under 1 e. 



lí 



XI. oi Proper, long. 
1. oi sounds ÓÍ, both vowels equally long. 
Ex. 
colli,/ a wood óíllt,/. dread, horror 

dóíll, m^ blind men sgoim,/. a fright, a panic 

fóíll,/. deceit \6im,f. a shift, a baring 

tóíU, to merit róínn,/ a share 

2. oi Improper, short, oi sounds o. 
Ex. 
c6i\\e,f. of a Avood. dóo'é, m. a grove 

dóiTlé,/. of blindness. móíTlé,/. delay 

3. oi Improper, long, oi sounds o, as in corn. 
Ex. 

con-,/, a right ioir, f. help 

lorn, m. of a marsh groig,/. a botcher 

moid,/, greatness stozl, m. of a stool 

oi], m. of drinking glóá',/. speech, glory 

spoig,/ to a paw Iroig,/. to a hole 

4. oi Improper, short. — oi sounds o as in lot, got. 

Ex. 

com, m. dogs fo^l, to wallow 

oil', f. a border sgoel, /. a school, &c. 

toir, to give toit,f. steam 

toil, /. will poit, f. a pot 

5. oi Improper, long. 

oi sounds o as in bold, bolt. 

Ex. 

hold, \ _p coio^, five 

-., >J. a vow -• ^ r 1 u 

moid, J *' oisg,j. a hog sheep 

foid, 771. a turf fo?n, to suffice 

6. oi Improper, short, oi sounds ó as in revolt. 

Ex. 
cóis,f. to a foot lóz'sg, to burn 

foes,/, rest, repose Móá'é,/ Mary 

B 2 



16 

Xir. úí Improper, long, úi sounds ú, as in true. 
Ex. 
cml,/. a corner smuió, f. smoke 

dull,/, expectation cu?g,/. five, {provÍ7i.) 

2. ui Improper, short, ui Sounds u, as in put. 
Ex. 
fml,/. blood tml,/. aflood 

sguiv, to desist ciin-, to put, plant, sow 

fuiD, to bake spúir,y. a spur, spurs 



Triphthongs. 

In Gaelic there are only four Triphthongs.* They are 
made up of the proper Dipthhongs eo, ia, iu, ua, with the 
addition of i. The i serves merely to qualify a succeed- 
ing consonant. 

I. Eoi. 
eoi sounds éó. 
Ex. 
béóz'l, mouths édin, birds 

fé6{\,f. flesh méóir, fingers 

II. iai. 
iai Sounds ia. 
Ex. 
fiaiVé, more liberal ciá^yé, duskier ' 

In the greatest part of Inverness-shire this combination 
sounds ia, both vowels equally long. 

* aoi is usually added to the list of Triphthongs, but with no good 
reason. Ao represents a simple sound, and when i is added to 
them, the i itself has no distinct sound, but is used merely as a 
servile to attenuate the sound of the consonant which follows it. 
Ex. 
aotl, m. of lime sao/r, m. workers in wood 

saozl, to suppose vaaoim,/. a fright 

raotn, m. of a iield laoich, heroes 

daomé, w. men lao/gh, calves 



17 

III. iui. 
iúi Sounds ÍÚ. 

Ex. 

atmir,/. a rudder cmm. mild 

cíúel, m. of music siuii, sails 

IV. uai. 
uai Sounds úái. 

Ex. 
aúáíp, /. an exchange úáíg^, /. a grave 

gúáil, m. of coal bíiáíl, to strike 

This is the only real Triphthong in the language; for 
the last vowel is distinctly pronounced. In Ross-shire 
and Inverness-shire, however, the a in this, as well as in 
every combination wherein it occurs, slides into a. 

Consonants. 



The Consonants are b, c, d, f, 


g,b. 


, 1, m, n, p, r, s. 


1 t. 


They are divided into 








Plain, b. 


c, 


d, f, 


g' 


m, p, 8, 


t. 


Aspirated, bb, 


ch. 


dh, fh. 


gb, 


mh, ph, sh, 


th. 


Sharp, 


p» 


c, t, 


f, 


ch. 




Kindred Flat, b. 


?, d, 


bb,] 


mh, gh, dh. 




Labials, 


b. 


f, m, 


t 


bh, mh. 




Linguals, 


c, 


d, g, 


n, r, 9, t. 




Liquids, 


1, 


m n. 


r, 


8, t. 




The labials, in 


whatever connection 


I with other letters, 


have one uniform sound. 








1. B sounds 


somewhat like b in 


the French words, 


obtint, absolu. 




Examples 


}. 






Spelling. 




Pronunciation. 


English. 




bar, m. 




bar, 




crop, top 




b'é, 




be. 




it was he. 




bi, 




bi, 
b3 




to be. 





18 



Pronunciation. 


Eng 


bo, 


a cow. 


bú, 


a tent, a shop. 


ablr, 


to say. 


gab, 


a mouth. 



Spelling. 

bo,/, 
bu, m. 

ab'air. 

gab, ni. 

2. B, preceded by any liquid, except s and m, is sounded 
in some districts of the Highlands, as if the vowel pre- 
ceding the liquid were repeated after it to form a syllable 
along with b; so that words of this combination, which 
have only one syllable to the eye, have two to the ear. 

Ex. 



Spelling. 


Pronunciation. 


English. 


gilb,/ 


gíl'íp. 


a chisel. 


tgealb,/. 


skial'ap. 


a splinter. 


earb. 


er'ab, 


to trust, to entrust. 


cainbe, /. 


canl-be. 


of canvass. 


Bh 


generally sounds like 


v in English. 




1. Always when initial. 


bha, 


va. 


was 


bhean,/. 


ven. 


the woman 


bhig. 


vlk, 


of little 


bhos, 


VÓS, 


on this side 


bhus. 


vus. 


his mouth. 




2. Sometimes when final. 


sabh, w. 


sav, 


a saw 


trewbh, /'. 


trev. 


a tribe 


sibh, c. ■ 


shiv, 


ye, you 


baobh, f. 


baov, 


avery wicked person 


3. Sometimes it is pronounced in 


the middle of a word. 


aoibhneas, ;« 


óív'nús, 


joy 


cabhag,/. 


cav'ak, 


hurry 


abhachd,/ 


av'uchk, 


sport, passtime 


taobhan, m. 


teav'an. 


a side rafter 


cliabhan, ?n. 


clíáv'an, 


a small basket, &c. 



19 



4. Sometimes it is quiescent in the middle of a word. 



Spelling, 
dubhan, m. 


Pronunciation, 
díí'an. 


English, 
a hook 


tubhadh, m. 


tíí'úgh. 


thatch 


luibhean,/. 


lluí'ún. 


herbs 


gobhar,/ 


gó'úr, 


a goat 


5. 


Sometimes the h only is sounded. 


dubh, 


dííh. 


black 


subh, m, 
siubhal, m. 


súh, 
shííh'úll. 


a wild strawberry 
way, speed 


6. Sometimes it slides into the sound of u. 


abhras, m. 


áú'rás, 


material for spinning 


abhlan, m. 


áú'llan. 


a wafer 


cabhsair, in. cáús'er, 
leabhar, tn. sounds líó'úr, 


a road, a causeway 
a book 


7. Preceded 


by a liquid, it is in many places pronounced 
like b 2. 


marbb, 


mar'av. 


dead 


dealbh, m. 
meanbh. 


diall'av, 
men'ev, 

M. 


an image 
small, puny 




M sounds as in English. 




Ex. 




mas, m. 


mas. 


a bottom 


meur,/. 


mer. 


a finger 


mir, m. 


mir, 


a piece 


mor, 


moi. 


great 


raur, m. 


mur. 


a wall 


tromb, /. 


tromb, 


a jews Harp 


camp, m. 


cáúmp, . 


a camp 


cam. 


j cáúm, 
(cam, 


crooked 


céum. 


kem, 


a step 


m, preceded by a liquid is often 


pronounced like b 2. 


ainm, m. 


en 'em. 


a name 



20 

Spelling. Pronunciation. English, 

aim, m, al'am, alum 

gairm,/. gú'iím, a call 

mh generally sounds like v in English. 
1. Always when initial, 
mhan, van, of boils 

, vak, ) c 

mnac, vir r ^^ ^oTis, 

mhain, vam, down 

mhol, voU,* I praised, &c. 

mhil, vii, the honey 

mhur, vur, of walls 

2. Sometimes when final, 

ramh, /«. ráv, an oai' 

naomh, naov, holy 

lamh, /I *lláv, a hand 

3. It is sometimes silent when final. 
cnuimh,y^ krui, a worm 

uaimh, /. úáí, a cave 

goimh,yi goi, virulence 

cloimh,yi cloi, scabbiuess 

4. Sometimes it is pronounced in the middle of a word, 
neamhaidh, * nnievli, heavenly 

talrahaidh, tall'av-i, earthly 

5. Sometimes it is silent when medial, 
coimheach, coí'úch, cross, unkind 

cloimheach, cloí'úch, scabby 

geamhlag, giel'ak, a crow bar 

6. Sometimes it slides into the sound of u. 
damb, m. dau, an ox 

reamhar, * reu'iir, fat 

amhach,/. aíi'úch, a neck 

* The double letters in the pronunciation column, de- 
notes a broad sound. 



21 



Spel. 


Pron. 


Eng. 


sambradb, m. 


sau'rú. 


summer 


camhlach, m. 


caú'iúch, 
F. 


a navy 




F sounds as in 


English. 


fáJA^m. 


fas, 


growth 


féur, m. 


fei-, 


grass, hay 


fir, 


fir. 


real 


forlach, m. 


fói'llúcli. 


a furlough 


cuifen, m. 


cuifen, 


a wad 




Fh is always 


silent. 


fhas, 


as, 


his growth 


fhios, 


iss, 


his knowledge 


fhoir, 


biv, 


his assistance 


fhuar, 


uar. 


cold 


Except f huair, 


huair, 

P. 


did get 




P sounds as in 


English. 


pag,/ 


pak. 


a kiss 


pios, m. 


piss, 


a silver cup 


péur, m. 


per, 


a pear 


pos, 


pos. 


to maiTy 


P, preceded 


by a short vowel 


sounds as if an h wei 




written before it. 


sop, m. 


sohp. 


a straws 


copan, m. 


cohp'an, 


a cup 


tapaidh, 


tah'pi, 


smart, active 


cipein, m. 


kibp'eu, 


a tether-pin 




Ph always sounds like f. 


P^íág» 


fak, 


of kisses 


phios. 


fiss, 


of silver cups 


phéur, 


fér, 


of pears 


phos, 


fÓ8, 


did marry 



22 

LiNGUALS. 

Each of the Unguals has two sounds, a broad, and a 
slender sound. A lingual has its broad sound when pre- 
ceded or followed by a broad vowel in the same syllable; 
and its slender sound, when preceded or followed by a 
slender vowel in the same syllable. 

C. 

1. C is always hard. Before or after a broad vowel, as 
explained above, c sounds like French q in que. 

c=rq Ex. 

Spel. Pron. Spel. Pron. 

caog, qaoq, to wink craobh,/. qraov, a tree 

CÚ, m. qu, a dog clais, f. qllash, a furrow 

CO, c. qo, who ? cruth, m. qriih, a shape 

2. C, before or after a slender vowel, sounds like k in 
king, kiss. 

c=:k Ex. 

ciTff. kir, a comb ceus, kes, to crucify 

cill,y. kill, a burying-place ceist,/kesht, a question 

C final in a few words sounds chk or chq. 
cac, w. cachk, excrement mac, m. machk, a son 
sac, 771. sachk, a sack brie, m. brichk, pars,trouts 

But in Ross-shire and some other parts of the High- 
liinds, these and similar words are pronounced regularly 
rak, sak, &c. 

Ch. 

Ch has a strong guttural sound. There is none 
similar to it in English. It is common to the lowland 
Scotch language with the Gaelic. Those who can pro- 
nounce the words burrock, lerroch, and b7'ogh or broch, 
may with equal ease pronounce the Gaelic words búái-'ách, 
lái-'ách, and broch, or any other words in which ch occurs. 
Englishmen will find no difficulty in this sound, if they 
can pronounce ch in the Irish exclamation och. 



23 

1. Ch, in connection with a broad vowel, sounds like gh 
in the Scotch word sangh, (willow), or like ch in the 
Irish word ocb. 

cha, not moch, early 

chu, dog chraobh, the tree ) r 

luch,y. a mouse chlais, the furrow J "' 

2. Ch, in connection with a slender vowel, sounds like 
Greek ;^ as pronounced in Scotland ; or like ch in the 
Scotch inter] ection^c/i/ 

chzrp^ Ex. 

chi, will see chewd, the first 

chip, of the last chli^g, did start 

chéir, the wax chir, the comb, &c. 

deich, ten ó«ch, oh! 

G. 
G is the flat sound of c; and, like it, is always hard. 

There is no sound in English exactly like it. 
1. G initial sounds somewhat like g in dog, hug, but 

* stronger. 

Pronunciation. Ex. Pronunciation, 
gabh, gay, to take gorach, gó'rách, foolish 

glas, f. glass, a lock gug, guq, the cuckoo's note 

grad, grat, quick glag, glaq, ;??. a loud laugh 

2. G final sounds like French q in que. 
g=q Pron. Ex. Pron. 

gug, guq, the cuckoo's note glag, glaq, a loud laugh 
gag, gaq, a gash, or fissure glug, gliiq, a rumble 
gog, goq, the cry of a cock crag, kraq, a knock 
or hen 

3. G, before or after a slender vowel, sounds nearly like 

g in give. 





Pron. Ex. 


Pron. 


gille, 
gile, 
geola, 


gil'le, m. a lad stig, 
gil'é,/. whiteness big, 
gíó'lá,/. a yawl big, 


shtik,/ a dwarf 
bik, little ones 
bik,y. a chirp 



24 

Gh. 

Gh is the flat sound of ch. It is formed in the same man- 
ner, but is less harsh. There is no sound like it in English. 
1. Gh initial, broad, in connection with a broad vowel. 
Pron. Ex. Pron. 

ghabh, ghav, did take ghon, ghon, did pierce 
ghrod, ghrot, did rot ghlas, ghlas, the lock 

ghlun, ghlun, his knee ghrain, ghram, the hate 

2. Gh final, broad, in the same syllable with abroad vowel. 

Ex.' 
drágh, rn. trouble agh, m. felicity 

lágh, m. law slogh, of hosts 

mágh, m. a field sogh, in. luxury 

blagh, m. sense sugh, m. substance 

3. Gh, before or after a slender vowel, sounds nearly like 

y in ye, yes. 

gh=y Ex. 

Pron. Pron. , 

ghin, yin, begot ghéug,/. yég,the branch 

gheir,y! yen-, the tallow ghéur, yer, sharp 
laoigb, llaoiy, calves geoigh, gíói y, geese 

tráigh,y! tra-y, the shore luaigh, Uuai-y, mention 
4. Gh is sometimes sounded in the middle of a word. 

Ex. 
tágh'an, m. a martin trúágh'an, m. an object of pity 

frágh'an, m. a bristle sluagh'or, populous 

bagh'an, m. a creek búágh ach, victorious 

5. Sometimes it is silent in the middle and end of a word. 

Ex. 
sao^A'ál, m. a world tkgh^ to choose 

bao<7^'ál, nu harm V^9^-> P^d'I' *"* 

lao^^'ách, affable, &c. su^^'? of wild strawberries 

ti^A'inn, coming ni^^, to wash 

\\igh'ká, m. smallness f i^A, to weave 



25 

T. 

1 . T, preceded or followed by a broad vowel, sounds 
stronger than in English, somewhat like Italian t, in tem- 
po, trio. 

ta, tá, am at,/, at, a hat 

ton,/, ton, a bottom cota, m, có'tá, a coat 

turn, turn, to dip tri, tri, three 

tut tilt, tut tla, tla, soft, mild 

2. T, preceded or followed by a slender vowel, sounds 

somewhat like ch in cheese, chip. 
Ex. 
till, chill, to return ite,/. ih'chá, a feather 

tim,/ chim, time lite,/, líh'chá, porridge 

tir, /. chir, land gibht,/. gih'tsh, a gift 

te,/ che, one ti,/ chi, a being 

* T in ti, tea, sounds broad. 
3. T sometimes sounds as if h were written before it. 
Ex. 



cat, 


caht, m. a cat 


pait. 


paiht,/ a bump 


slat. 


slaht,/. a rod 


cait. 


caiht, cats 


cuta, 


cííh'tá,/. a cut of yarn coit, 


coiht,/ a small boat 


putag, 


, puh'tak,/. a thole 


-pin tuit, 
Th. 


tiiiht, to fall 




Th, initial and final, sounds like h in hand. 


tha. 


ha, am 


thall, 


háídl, on the other side 


thug, 


huk, gave 


thill. 


hill, did return 


thog, 


hok, lifted 


thim, 


him, his time 


thig. 


hik, will come 


theum, hem, did bite 


théid. 


heit, will go 


the, 


he, to one 



srath, srah, m. a valley sgith, skih, tired 
gath, gab, m. a sting roth, rob, m. a wheel 

bath, bah, to drown gruth, griih, m. curd 

Th, in the middle of a word sounds h, but generally very 
faintly. 



26 

bathar, bah'ar, m, goods suthan, silthán, strawberries 
máthar,máh'ar,/. ofamother laitheam, Uáí'án, days 
athar, ah'ar, m. of a father snaithin, snáí'ín, m. a thread 

D. 
D is the flat sound of t, and approaches very close to it. 

1. Broad ; no sound like it in English, 
da, da, two dluth, dluth, close 

dath, dab, m. a colour druigh, drii'iy, to penetrate 
dorn, dórn,y^ a fist drong, drong, people, &c. 

dun, dim, w. a heap dan, dan, m. a poem. 

2. final, broad like t. 
gad, gat, m. a withe cadal, cat'tál, m, sleep 
grod, grot, rotten udal, út'tál, m. a rocking 

rud, rut, m. a thing grad, grat, quick 

3. slender, somewhat like j in jibe, Jess, or ch in chin, 
dith, jib, /. want déud, jet,/, a gum 

dig, jik,/. a ditch idir, itsh'ir, at all 

dé, jé, yesterday lite, lit'shá, a syllable 

4. d in a final syllable after ch, sounds nearly like k, 

or French q. 

bochd, bbchq, poor, barrachd, ban'áchq,/ superiority 

sachd, sachq, m. a sack currachd, curr'ackq, m. a cap 

leachd, lliechq, /. a flag danachd, dán'áchq,/. boldness 

dh. 

Dh sounds like gh in the same situation. 

S. 
S broad, sounds like s sharp in English. 
1. initial and final, 
sas, sas, hold, custody fras, frass,/. a shower 
has, has, m. death gras, gi'ás, m. grace 

slios, slliss,yi a side bus, buss, m. a mouth 

2. slender, like sh in she, shop, 
sil, shil, of seed ceis, keish, f, a wicker basket 

seid, sheit, to blow pris, prish,/ a price 

sioda, sbi'tá, m. silk prois, prósh,/. pride 



27 

sh. 

sh sounds h. Sh is always initial, 
shron, hron, his nose shlat, hlaht, his rod 
shil, hil, did drop shugh, hugh, his, its substance 

shath, ha, his fill shon, hon, his, its sake 

s, after t with a hyphen, is silent. 
an t-snithe, un tríh'á, the dropping 

an t-saoghail, un tao'il, of the world 

an t-samhraidh, un táú'ri, of the summer 

an t-sij, un til, of the seed 

L, N, R. 
All the Unguals, except these three, admit of an h 
after them. L, n, r, have on this account been termed 
immutables. They are not immutable, however, with 
regard to sound. They are affected by the broad and 
small vowels like the rest of the Unguals. Each of them 
therefore has a broad and a slender sound ; and they are 
the only letters which have the privilege of being doubled 
in Gaelic. 

L. 
1. 1 broad, sounds like 1 in Italian molio. 
las, lias, to kindle dalta, dall'ta, m. a fosterchild 
los, llos, quest molta, moll'tá, praiseworthy 

lus, llíiá, m. an herb suit sullt,/. fat 
Ian, llán, full dealt diallt,/. dew 

2. slender, liquid ; nearly like 11 in million, or liquid 1 in 

French, 
lith, lib,/, coloui- leigh, legh, m. a physician 
léum, lém, tojump linn, lin,/. a generation 
gill, gill, of a wager pill, pill, to return 
féill, fell,/, a feast slim, slim, sleek 

3. plain, like 1 in the English words live, link, 
dail, dail,/. delay siiil, súil,y^ an eye 

oil, oil, of drinking sroil, sroil, of silk 

toil, toil, /. will fail, fail, to mue 

C 2 



28 

N. 
1. n broad, sounds as n in no, nigh. 
nar, nar, shameful Ian, llan, full 

nos, nós m. a custom ton, ton,/, a bottom 

nuas, núás, down dun, dun, m, a heap. 

2. slender, liquid like French liquid n in vignoble, 

champagne, 
ni, nni, m. a thing néul, nnéll, m. a cloud 

nighean, nnián,/ a daughter nios, nniss,/! a weasel 
nead, nniet,/. a nest uiar, nniar,/. the west 
Nial, nnial, m. Neil nionag, nnin'ak,/. a little girl 

Exception. 
N preceding or following a slender vowel has its first 

broad sound in many words, 
ni, ni, shall do min, min,/. meal 

nios, niss, up gin, gin, m. an offspring 

Neill, Neill, of Neil Sine, Shi'na,/. Jane 

n following c, g, or t, sounds like r in crank, 
cno, cro,/. a nut cneas, cress,/ the bosom 
cnag, crak,/. a knock cneap, crehp,/. a button 
cnairah, cráív, m. a bone cnap, crahp, m. a knob, &c. 
gnath, grab, 7W. a custom gnos, gross, w?. a snout 
gniith, grub, grim, gnuis, griisb,/. a countenance 

an t-snath, un trah, of the yarn 
an t-snas, un trass, the security 

an t-snamh, un tráv, of the swimming 

ng sounds like ng in hang, and sometimes like ng in 
linger, 
mang,/. a hind fang, m. an enclosure 

p5ng, »?. a point cuing, /. a yoke 

n, in an accented syllable immediately followed by c or 
g sounds like ng. 
ionga, long'gá,/ a nail 

longadh, llóng'gá, m. a meal 



29 

Francach, Frang'cúcb, a Frencliman 

teanga, tieng'gá, /'. a tongue 

cingein, king'gen, m. a wooden dish 

seangan, sheng'gan, m. an ant 

langan, llang'gan, m. a bellow 

driongan dring'gan, 7n. a scraper 

nn. 
nn final, broad and nasal, 
bann, báúnn,yi a band srann, sráúnn,/.' a snore 
lann, láúnn,/. a blade donn, dounn, brown 

nn slender, nasal, 
binn, binn, melodious seinn, sheinn,/. singing 
cinn, kinn, heads beinn, beinn,y! a mountain 

R. 
1. R sounds broad like r in more, roar, 
ramh, ráv, m. an oar lar, liar, 7n. the ground 
rag, rak. stiff cor, cor, w?. condition 

riisg, rusk, m. a fleece cur, cur, m. sowing 

2. rr harsh like r in cur, jar. 
barr, m. crop cárr,y. scab, 

tarr, to catch span-, to stow, &c. 

corr, m. a remainder mur, a v/all 

3. r slender sounds like r in read, reward, 
mir mir, m. a piece fair, fair, to give 
ceir, kér,J\ wax toir, toir, give thou 

their, her, will say, spuir, spiiir, spurs 

heir, heir, to bear cuir, cííir, to put 

rt in the same syllable sound like rst in first. 
mart, marst, ?/2. a cow goirt, gorsht, sour, sore 
murt, raurst, m. murder Irt, irsht, St. Kilda 
sgairt, sgarsht, /. activity Peairt, persht, Perth 
puirt, pursht, times caiit, carsht,/ a cart, &c. 

c3 



30 



The Alphabet. 



Names. 


Letters. 


Powers. 


CorrespondingEnglish powers. 


a, 


A, 


a. 


a, a, 


rra in fat, far 


be, 


B, 


b, 


b, 


no exact standard 


ke, 
dé, 


c, 

D, 


c, 


always hard, 


z=k, q, and c hard 
no exact standard 


é, 


E, 


e, 


é, é, e, 


3: a in pate, e in there, e in her 


ef, 


F, 
G, 


f, 
g> 


f. ' 
always hard, 


= f, ph 

no exact standard 


huh, 
i. 


H, 
I, 


i. 


aspirate, 


=:h in him 

= i in pin, field 


el, 


L, 


1, 


1,1, 


=1 in line & seraglio 


em, 


M, 


m, 


m, 


= m in me and hum 


en, 


N, 


n, 


n, n, 


=:n in men 


0, 


0, 


0, 


Ó, Ó, 0, 


=0 in or, cold, hot 


pé, 


P, 


P» 


P. 


=:p in pole, pin 


er, 


R, 


r, 


r, r, 


=:r in rill and roar 


ess. 


s. 


s, 


s, sh, 


=s in us, sh in she. 


té, 


T, 


t, 


t, t. 


=:t in tall, ch in chin 


Ú, 


u. 


u« 


U, Ú, u, 


=u in push, ruin & us 


Bhbh ) 
Mhmh j 




=v and 00 


Ch ch ) 
Ghgh 1 




no standard 


Dhdh Í 
Ghgh 1 




= y in ye 


Thth ) 
Shsh j 




=:h in ham 


Fhfh 


Silent * 




Phph 




=f 



^ Fh is silent in all words except fhuair, got, pronounced 
hiiair. 



31 



KEY 

To the sounds represented by the marks used in the 
pronouncing columns of the following pages. 



Vowels. 


Gaelic standard- 


Corresponding English standard. 


1 


a, 


fan, wait, 


= fat 


2 


a, 


nar, shameful, 


zzfár 


1 


e, 


cleas, a trick, 


= bet; or Scotch a in Kate 


2 


é, 


fear, a man, 


:= fervid 


3 


é, 


ceum, a step, 


zza in tale, French é in été 


4 


éj 


e, he, 


= where 


1 


i, 


min, meal. 


zrmint 


2 


i, 


mir, a piece, 


zree in tree, or i in field 


1 


0, 


son, sake, 


=:sot 


2 


o, 


or, gold. 


= fór 


3 


Ó, 


bhós, on this side 


=bólt 


4 


o, 


mor, great. 


=bold 


1 


u, 


griith, curd, 


=biill, piish 


2 


u, 


buth, a tent, 


zztriie, ru-in 


3 


u> 


caolus, a strait. 


::rus 


4 


Ú, 


caol, small. 


z=:n in French jeune, nearly 




y. 





=any 



c never sounds like s ; but always hard like k or q. 
g never sounds like j ; but always hard like q or k. 
ch before or after a, o, u, in the same syllable, sounds as 

in the Irish word och; or like gh in the Scotch word 

saugh, (willow.) 
ch in the same syllable with e or i, sounds as in the Scotch 

word fich, or as Greek ')(^ is pronounced in Scotland, 
gh in the same syllable with a, o, or u, sounds a little 

more obtuse than ch in the same situation, 
gh in the same syllable with e, i, sounds like y in the 

English words ye, yield. 
g. Italic g before 1 and n is silent. It is used to denote 

a liquid sound of these letters. 
g\ sounds like liquid gl in French. 
gn sounds like liquid gn in French. • 



32 

k sounds as in king, kiss. 

]I ) denote a broad liquid sound of these letters, like 1 

nn >- and n in Italian mu/to, wuovo, and r in English 

rr ) roar. 

nh are silent : they denote that the vowel preceding them 
has a nasal sound. 

ng denotes a sound like that of ng in the English words 
hang, strong, sing, sung. 

q sounds as in French que. 
The arch denotes a short vowel, and that the syllable 
over or beneath which it is placed contains a diphthong 
or triphthong. 

' The accent placed after a syllable shows that the stress 
rests on the vowel or consonant preceding it. 

y at the beginning of a syllable in the pronunciation co- 
lumn, sounds as in ye, you. 



VOCABULARY &c. 



Of the Universe. 





Mu'n Chruitheachd. 


English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


God, m. 


Dia, 


dia ; diu 


The Creator, m 


. an cruthadair, 


ung cruh'ud-ér 


The Godhead,/ 


\ an diadhachd 


un diu'yuchq 


The Trinity,/. 


an trianaid 


un tri'án-étsh 


The Father, in. 


an t'athair, 


un tah'ér 


The son, m. 


am mac, 


um-achq' 


Jesus Christ, 7n. 


Josa Criosta, 


lu'su criíís-tu 


The holy Spirit, ; 


m.an Spiorad uaomh,un spiri-'ut niiv 


The creation, m. 


1 an cruthach, 
J an cruthachadh, 


ung criih'uch 
ung criih'uch-ugh 


A creature, m. 


créutaír. 


cré'tér 


The world, m. 


an saoghal. 


un su'ull 


Heaven m. 


neamb, 


i^nyeV (liq. 


Hell,/ 


ifrinn, 


if'ri^n (liq. 


A spirit, m. 


spiorad. 


spirr'ut 


An angel, m. 


aingeal. 


aing'gyull 


The Devil, w. 


an diabhol, 


un diu'iill 


The iairies m. 


na sithchean, 


nu shi'chyujn 




Of the Elements. 




Mu na Duilean. 




The earth, m. 


an talamh, 


un tall'uv 


Water, m. 


uisge, 


uish'kyu 



34 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


Fire, m. 


teine. 


tyen'u- ; tshen'u 


Air, in. 


an t-aile, 


un tá'líu 


Wind,/. 


gaoth. 


gu 


A storm,/. 


stoirm. 


stér-m ; sto-rim 


The North wic 


id,/, a ghaoth tuadh, 


u ghu tiia 


— South — 


-f. deas. 


u ghu dyess 


— East - 


-/ 'n ear. 


u ghu gnyer (liq) 


— West - 


-/. n iar. 


u ghu ^niur (liq) 


Thunder, m. 


1 torunn, 

j tairneanach, 


ton-'unn 
tárr'í7nyén-uch (liq) 


Lightning, m. 


dealan, 


dyall'an 


Fog, m. 


ceo, 


kyo 


A cloud, m. 


neu]. 


^nyell^ (liq) 


Rain, m. 


uisge, 


ulsh'kyu 


A shower, / 


fras. 


frass 


Hail,/ 


clach mheallain, 


klach víéll'én 


Snow, 711. 


sneachda, 


sh^níéch'qu (liq) 


Frost, m. 


reodhadh, 


réo'ugh ; ro'ugh 


Ice,/. 


eigh ; deigh, 


eí ; díeí 


Thaw, m. 


aiteamh 

Of Colours. 
Mu Dhaithean. 


aiht'uv 


A rainbow, m, 


bodha froise. 


bóú frosh'u 


A colour, m. 


dath. 


dah 


White, m. 


geal, 


gíal 


Black, m. 


dubh, 


duh 


Blue, m. 


gorm, 


gor'om 


Green, m. 


uaine. 


iiain'u 


Grey, m. 


glas, 


glass 


Red, m. 


dearg. 


diai-'aq 


Yellow, m. 


buidhe. 


bii-i 


Brown, m. 


donn. 


dolinn 


Purple, m. 


purpi; purpur, 


pur'pi ; pur'pur 


Scarlet,/ 


sgarlaid. 


skarllait 



35 



English. 
A year, /. 
A month, c. 
A week,yi 
A day, m. 
An hour,y. 
A minute, /. 
The morning, /. 
Noon, m. 
Evening, m. 



Of Time. 

Mil uine. 
Gaelic, 
bliadhna, 
mios, 
seachdain 
la ; lath a, 
uair, 
mineid, 
a nihaduin, 
meadhoin latha, 
feasoar. 



Orthoepy, 
bliu'nnu 
mi's ; mias 
shéchq'én 
lla ; llah'u 
iiuir ; iiair 
min'éít 
u vat'i^n 
mi- en llah'u 



(liq) 



resscur 
u chav'an-ich 
un du'hra ; dú'ra 
un diiih ; jiih 
um manh'iyuch 

un ^nyer'ir (liq) 

un dye ; or je 

Days of the week. 

Laithean na seachdaine. 

diluain, di-líiaín 

dimairt, di-marsht 

diciadain, di-kia'dum 

dirdaoin, dir-dmn 

dihaoine, di-húín'u, 

disathurna, di-sah'ur-nu 

didomhnich, di-donh'-nich 
Divisions of the year. 
Raithean na bliadhna. 

an t-earrach, un tyar'ruch 

an samhradh, un saiinh'rugh 

) am foghar, um fu-ur, 

j am fogh'radh, um fu'rugh 

an geamhradh, ung gyeii'rugh 



Twilight(morning)fa chamhanaich, 

■ (evening)???, an du-thra, 

To-day, m. an diugh, 

To-morrow, in. am maireach. 

The day after) 

^ > an earair, 

to-morrow, m. j ' 

Yesterday, m. an de. 



Monday, m, 
Tuesday, m. 
Wednesday, m. 
Thursday, m. 
Friday, m. 
Saturday, m. 
Sunday, m. 



Spring, m. 
Summer, m. 

Autumn, m. 

Winter, m. 



36 



English. Gaelic. 

A quarter of a year,ráidh, m. 
Half a year,/. leth bhliathna; 
Three quarters ^^^ ^.^^^^ 
«f a year, 

Other terms, and holidays. 



Orthoepy, 
rra-i 
^leh'vlíu-nnu 

tri rái'un 



(liq 



Raithean agus feillean eile. 
nolluig, nnoll'ik 

a bhliadhn' lir, u vliunn ur, 

an fhéill mártain, "°/^^^ ™ar8'tuí^n 
(hq 
um ma'rst 



Christmas,/ 
The new year,/. 

Martinmas,/. 

March, m. 
May, m. 
June, m. 

Thewormmonth,«?an t-iuchar, 
Lammas, /. an liunasdail. 



am mart, 
am magh, 
an ceitein. 



Lent, m. 

A holiday, m, 

A fast day, m. 



an carmhus, 
latha féille, 
latha traisg. 

Of jMankind. 
Mu'n Chinne daoine. 



um magh 

ung kye'tyen 

un tyiich'ur 

un ^lyiin'us-duil (liq 

ung car'a-us 

llah'u fei^i'l-u 

llah'u trashk 



(liq 



A man, m. duine, 

A woman, m, boireanach. 

Infancy, / leanabachd, 

A child, m. leanabh, 

A boy, m. giulan, 

A girl,/ cailag, 

A little girl, / niag, 

Age, / aois, 

Youth,/ ^igc> 

A youth, m. oganach, 

A lad, m. gille, 

A lass,/ nionag. 
An old fellow, m. bodach, 

An old hag, / cailleach, 

A husband, m. fear ; céile. 



diiin'u 

bóír'unn-uch 

p'lyen'ub-uchq 

^lyen'uv 

gyiill'an 

cail'ak 

^i-ak 

u'sh 

oik'u ; 6'kyu 

ó'gan-uch 

gi^l'líu 

^i'nak 

bot'uch 

kai^ruch 

fér ; ke'lu 



(liq 
(liq 



(hq 



(liq 
(liq 

(liq 



37 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


A wife, /I 


bean ; céile. 


ben ; ke'lu 


A widow,/ 


banntrach. 


baiinn'truch 


A bachelor, m. 


fleasgach, 


fless'cuch 


A maid,/ 


maidean. 


mui'dyunn 


A father, m. 


athair, 


ah'ér 


A mother,/ 


mathair. 


mánh'ér; mé'ér 


A brother, m. 


brathair, 


brá'ér 


A sister, / 


piuthar. 

Of Kindred. 


píii'ur 




Mu Luchd daimh. 


Ancestors, m. 


sinnsreadh, 


shinh'shrugh 


Relations, 


cairdeau, 


car'dyun 


A grandfather, m. seannair. 


shyen'er 


A grandmother, 


f. seanmhair. 


shyén'a-vér 


Agreat grandfather,sinnseannair, m. 


shinh'shyen-er 


A great grand 
mother,/ 


' j- sinnseanmhair, 
clann, (f. sing.) 


shinh'shyén-a-vér 


Children, 


kllaiinn 


Offspring, 711. 


sliochd, 


sllyuchq 


A son, m. 


mac ; machd. 


mak; machq 


A daughter,/ 


nighean; nion, 


^ni-an (liq.) 


A grand-son or I _ ,, 
grand.daughter,r^^^' ^*- 


ó'u 



Indirect Kindred. 

Luchd cleamhnuis. 

A father-in-law, m. athair céile, ah'ér ke'lu 

A mother-in-law,/ mathair cheile, mánh'ér ché'lu 

A son-in-law, m. cliamhuin, klm'i^n (liq.) 

A daughter-in-law,banachliamhuin, / ban'a chliu'i^n (liq.) 

A brother-in-law, w.brathair céile, brá'ér ke'lu 

A sister-in-law, / piuthar cheile, pm'ur ché'lu 

A foster mother,/ muime, miiim'u 

A foster father, m, oide, uitsh'u 

A foster child, m, dalta, dall'tu 

D 



38 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


A nurse, /^ 


banaltrum, 


ban'all-trum 


A god-father, rii 


(. oide, 


uitsh'u 


A god-mother, 


/ muime, 


miiim'u 


A god-son or 
daughter, f. 


j- dalta, 


dall'tu 


A sponsor, m. 


goisti. 
Of the Body. 
Mu'nchorp. 


gosh'tshi; goshtl 


The body, m. 


an corp, 


ung corp 


The members, 


na buill. 


nu biii^l (liq.) 


A member, m. 


ball, 


baull 


The head, m. 


an ceann, 


ung kyeiinn 


The hair, m. 


am fait, 


um fallt 


The face, m. 


an t-aodun, 


un tii'dn 


The front, f. 


an aghaidh. 


un ugh'i 


The visage,/. 


f a ghniiis, 
\ an iirla, 


u ghrú'sh 
un ur'llu 


The eyebrows, 


na maildhean, 


nu mé'lé-un 


The eyes. 


na siiilean. 


nu su'lyun 


The eyelids, 


na fabhran, 


nu fa'v-run 


The eyelashes, 


n3 ruisg, 


nu riishk 


The nose,/ 


an t-sron. 


un tró'n 


The nostril, m. 


an cuinnen, 


ung cuí^n'én (liq-) 


The cheek, /. 


a ghruaidh, 


u ghriiai 


The jaw, m. 


am peirceal. 


um per'kyull (liq.) 


The slope of the Í ^ j^^^j^j 
cheek,/. | 


un ^lyechq 


The chin, /. 


an smig. 


un smik 


The mouth, m. 


am béul, 


um he'll ; biall 


The lips, 


na bilean, 


nu bil'un 


The teeth, 


na fíaclan. 


nu fiuch'cllun 


The tongue,/ 


an teanga. 


un tyeng'gu 


The ears. 


na cluasan, 


nu klliias'un 


The neck,/ 


an amhach, 


un aiich 


The shoulder, / 


\ a ghualain, 


u ghúúll'i^ (liq.) 


The arm, m. 


an gairden. 


ung gar'dyen 



39 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


The elbow, /. 


an uilean. 


un iiil'unn 


The hand, f. 


an lamh, 


un llanhv 


The fingers, 


na meoir, 


nu myoir 


The thumb, y! 


an ordag, 


un o'r-daq 


The first finger, 


/ a chorag. 


u choi^aq 


The little fingei 


, / an ludag, 


un llu'daq 


The fist,/. 


an dorn, 


un dorn 


A joint, m. 


alt, 


allt 


A nail,/. 


ionga. 


iung'gu 


The knuckles. 


na rudain, 


mi rú'd-én 


A palm,/ 


bas. 


bass 


The breast, m. 


an t-uchd. 


un tUchq 


The chest, m. 


an cliabh, 


ung kliuv 


The belly, / 


a bhru. 


u vrú 


The thighs. 


na sléisnean, 


nu sh^le'sh-nyun 


The knee, c. 


an glun, 


ung gUun 


The kneepan,wi 


failmen, 


fél'ém-én 


The calf, m. 


an calpa, 


ung call'a-puh 


The foot, m. 


an troidh. 


un truih 


The heel,/ 


an t-sail. 


un tail 


The skull, m. 


an claigean. 


ung kllaik'unn 


The brain, m. 


an t-eanachuin. 


untyen'uch-i^(liq) 


The heart, 7n, 


an cridhe, 


ung cri-u 


The lungs, m. 


an sgamhan, 


un sganhv'an 


The liver, m. 


an grudhan, 


ung gru'an 


The kidneys. 


na h-airnean. 


nu har'^yun (liq.) 


The stomach, c. 


an goile. 


ung guil'lyu 


Blood,/. 


full, 


fiiil 


Flesh,/ 


feoil, 


fíóíl , 


Skin, m. 


craicean, 


kraich'kyunn 


A bone, m. 


cnaimh. 


kraiv; kraigh 


A vein,/ 


cuisle. 


ciish'^lyu (liq.) 


Faculties of the 


Body. 




Ceud-fathan a chuirp. 


The sight, m. 


am fradharc. 


um fru'urq 



40 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


Smelling, m. 


faileadh, 


fátl'ugh 


Hearing, f. 


claisteachd, 


kllaish'tyuchq 


Taste, m. 


bias. 


blass 


Feeling, m. 


mothachadh, 


moh'uch-ugh 


Health,/ 


slainte, 


sllain'tyu 


The constitution,/ a chaileachd, 


u cháíl'uchq 


Beauty, / 


aille, 


ai^l'^lyu (liq.) 


Ugliness, / 


gnaidead. 


gráínhd'ud 


The voice, m. 


an guth, 


ung guh 


A smile, WÍ. 


foghaire, 


fó-gháír-u 


A laugh, m. 


gaire. 


gáír-u 


Weeping, m. 


gal ; gul, 


gall; giill 


Sorrow, m. 


mulad; bron. 


miill'at ; bro'n 


A sigh,/ 


osna; asunn, 


os'nnu; os'unn 


Sleep, w. 


cadal; codal, 


cat'tull; cot'tull 


Pleasure, m. 


toileachas, 


toil'uch-us 


Joy, m. 


aoibhneas, 


mv'nus 


Pain, m. 


cradh, 


kra'gh 


Hunger, m. 


acras, 


ach'qrus 


Thirst, m. 


pathadh, 


pah'ugh 




Diseases of the Body. 




Easlaintean a chui 


rp. 


A disease,/ 


easlaint 


ess'sllai^'nt (liq.) 


An illness, m. 


tinneas, 


ti^n'us (liq.) 


A disorder, /. 


eucail. 


é'q-él 


The toothache, 


m. an deudiogh, 


un déít-ugh 


A swoon, m. 


neul. 


^né'll (liq.) 


A fainting,/ 


[ laigsinn, or 
'[ faillinn. 


llaik'shi^n (liq.) 
f%%n (liq.) 


An itching, m. 


lachus, 


tach'us 


Deafness,/ 


buidhre, 


biiir'u 


Madness, m. 


cuthach, 


qu'uch 


Rheumatism,/ 


loini. 


llo-ni 


A fever, nu 


fiabhrus, 


fiu'rus 


A fitj m. 


téum, 


tshye'm 



41 



English. 
A shivering,/. 
Delirium, yi 



Gaelic, 
gris ; crith, 
baini, 



Orthoepy, 
gri'sh; crih' 
ba'nh-ni 



Accidents, Remedies. 
Tuiteamais, Leigheis. 



tuiteamas, 
sgriob, 
m. rusgadh, 
sniomb, 
caisleachadh, 
at, 
man, 
neasgaid, 
bruthadh, 
fasgadh, 
leon, 
doclmn. 



An accident, m. 

A scratch,/. 

An excoriation, 

A wrest, /w. 

A sprain, m. 

A swelling, 7n. 

A tumour, tn. 

A boil,/. 

A bruise, w. 

A squeeze,»?. 

A wound, 7n. 

A hurt, m. 

A burning, m. 

A scar,/. athailt, 

A cold, m. cnatan, 

A cough, m. casad, 

A medicine,/. cungaidh, 

A purge,/. burgaid, 

A plaster, m. plasd. 

Of the Mind. 

Mu'n Inntinn. 

The soul, m. an t-anum, 

Reason, /. tuigse, 

Common sense,/, toinnisg. 
Understanding, / tursuinn. 
Sense, m, ciall, 

Thought,/. smuain. 

Judgment, m. breathnachadh. 
Imagination, m. beachd. 
Fancy,/ meanmna, 

D 3 



tiih'tyum-us, 

scri'p 

riis'qugh 

s^niav (liq.) 

cash'^lyuch-ugh(liq 

ah't 

manh'n 

^nysk'eit, (liq.) 

brii'ugh 

fa's-cugh 

^lyo'n (liq.) 

doch'unn 

llós'cugh 

ah'i^lt, (liq.) 

kranh'tan 

kas'ut 

kiing'i 

biir'ug-éít 

plla'st 



un tan'um 

tuik'shu 

toin'ishk 

tiirs'i^n, (liq.) 

kyull 

smúáín 

brén'uch-ugh 

béchq 

mén'ém-nu 



42 



English. 

Will, /. 
Desire, m. 
Knowledge, m. 
Memory, /. 
Recollection, yi 
Hope, m. 
Fear, m. 
Shame, f. 
Dread, m. 
Grief, m. 
Despair,»?. 
Terror, y! 



Gaelic. 

toil, 

iarrtus; togradh, 

eolas, 

meoghair, 

cuimhne, 

dochus, 

eagal, 

naire, 

uamhas, 

bron, 

éu-dóchas, 

oillt, 



tóq'ni 



Orthoepy. 

toil 

lurr'tus 

ló'llus 

myo'ir 

cui'nu 

do'chus 

eq'ull 

nnanh'ryu 

iianli'vasa 

bró'n 

é-dó'chus 

ui^l't, (liq.) 



Virtues of the Mind. 
Subhailcean na h-inntinn. 



Virtue, / 
Charity, m. 
Justice, ni. 
Temperance, /. 
Modesty,/. 
Bashful n ess, /. 
Politeness, f)i. 
Honesty, m. 
Sweetness, ni. 
Goodness, w?. 
Patience,/ 
Prudence,/ 
Industry, ;w. 
Honour,/. 
Economy, / 
Wisdom, m. 
Courage, / 
Innocence, m. 
Generosity, / 
Boldness,/ 
Emulation, / 



subhailc. 


suh'ailk 


oirchios. 


oir'i-chyus 


ceartas 


kyars'tus 


stuamachd, 


stliam'uchq 


malltachd, 


manhll'tuchq 


uarachd, 


nnánh'ruchq 


suairceas, 


siiuir'kyus 


ionracas. 


liinh'rru-cus 


grinneas, 


gri^'us, (liq.) 


mathas. 


mah'us 


foighidinn, 


fui'i-di^n, (liq.) 


criondachd, 


criun'duchq 


dicheall. 


di'chyull 


onoir. 


on'ér 


caontachd. 


ku'n-tuchq 


gliocas. 


glyuch'cus 


misneach, 


mish',^nyuch, (liq.) 


neochiontas, 


5/nvo'chyun-tu8(liq) 


féill, 


íé'ff\, (liq.) 


dánachd. 


danhn'uchq 


farpais, 


farp'ésh 



43 



English. 


Gaelic. 




Orthoepy. 


Pity, m. 


truas. 




trii'ús 


Penitence, m. 


aithreachas. 




air'uch-us 


Hardihood, m. 


craadal, 




criiu'dall 


Gratitude,/. 


taingealachd, 




taing'gyalUuchq 




Vices of the 


Mind. 


Dubhailcean na 1; 


i~inntinn. 


Vice,/. 


dubhailc. 




duh'ailk 


Avarice, m. 


an gionach. 




ung gyun'uch 


Pride,/ 


spors; prois. 




spor's; pró'sh 


Envy, m. 


farmad. 




far'am-ut 


Ignorance, m. 


aineolas. 




aín'íoll-us 


Idleness, m. 


diamhanas. 




diáVan-us 


Gluttony, f. 


geocaireachd, 




gy<j'chq-ir-échd 


Calumny,/ 


ciil-chainnt, 




cuH'chaí^nt, (^liq. 


Impudence, m. 


ladarnas, 




llat'arr-nnus 


Cowardice, / 


gealtachd, 




gyall'tuchq 


Cruelty,/ ' 


cruadalas, 




criiá'dall-us 


Ambition, / 


meud-mhor, 




mét vor' 


Hatred, m. 


fuath, 




fiiáh 


Anger,/ 


fearg, 




fér'aq 


Revenge, m. 


diiibhaltas, 




díu'ull-tus 


Theft,/ 


meirle, 




mé'r-^lyu, (liq.) 


Perfidy,/ 


foill, 




fuí^l, (liq.) 


A lie,/ 


bréug. 




bré'q 


Drunkenness,/ 


misg. 




mishk 


Haughtiness, wz* 


ardan. 




ár'tan 


Prodigality, in. 


anacaitheamh, 




an'a-kaíh'uv 


A grudge, m. 


diiirn. 




diiim 




Food and Drink. 




Biadh 'us Deoch 




Nourishment, '■/ 


. ])eatha, or teachd- béh'u, 

' antir, tyechq-un-ts'iir', 


A meal, > m. 


Ion bidh, 
longadh. 


or 


líó'n bi'gh, 
llóng'gu, 



44 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


Food, m. 


biadh. 


biugh 


Bread, m. 


aran. 


ar'an 


Oatmeal cake, 


aran coirce. 


ar'an koir'kyu 


Barley bread, 


eorna. 


lo'r-nnu 


Wheat bread, 


cruinneachd 


, cruin'nyuchq 


Rye bread, 


seacail. 


shyóq'cuí^l(liq 


A bit, m. 


criman, 


krim'an 


A slice,/. 


snaois, 


sunu'sh 


Fish, m. 


iasg. 


ííisq 


Flesh,/. 


feoil. 


fyoll 


Boiled meat,/ 


feoil bhruich. 


fyo'il vi-iiich 


Roast meat,/ 


feoil roiste, 


fyo'il rro'sh-tyu 


Venison,/ 


sithean, 


shih'unn 


An egg, m. 


ubh, 


iigh 


Cheese, m. 


caise, 


ka'shu 


Beef,/: 


mairt-fheoil. 


marsh t'él 


Mutton,/ 


muilt-fheoil, 


raiií^lt'él, (liq.) 


Lamb, / 


uain-fheoil. 


iiaín'él 


Veal,/ 


laoigh-fheoil, 


lluígh'él 


Pork,/ 


muic-fheoil. 


miiichk'el 


Goat's flesh, 


gaidhr'-fheoil, 


gúír'él 


Tripe^/. 


maodal, 


múnh'dll 


Ablood pudding w. cretheachan. 


cré'uch-an 


A stuffed pudding, marag, /1 


mar'ak 


Minced meat, / 


biadh pronn, 


biíigh próunn 


A haggis,/ 


taigeis. 


taik'esh 


Porridge, m. 


7lite, or 
5brochan, 


^lih'tyu, (liq.) 
broch'an 


Sowins, / 


ca'bhrigh. 


cáu'rich 


Brose, m. 


bruthaiste, 


brii'ésh-tyu 


Meal,/ 


min, 


min 


Pease,/ 


peasair. 


pess'ir 


Beans,/ 


ponair, 


pó'n-ir 


Wine, m. 


fion. 


fían, or f i'n 


Beer, m. 


leann, 


.^lyeiinn, (liq.) 


Black beer, / 


beoir, 


byoir 


Whisky, m. 


uisge beatha, 


uishliyu béh'u 



45 



English. 

Milk, m. 
Cream, w?. 
Whey, ?n. 



Salt, m. 
Spices, m. 
Vinegar, m. 
Oil,/ 
Butter, m. 
Gravy, m. 
Sauce, f. 



Cloth, m. 

Home made cloth 

Clothes,/. 

A suit,/ 

A cap, m. 

A hat, / 

A coat, f?i. 

A vest, / 

Trowsers,/ 

Drawers, / 

Hose, 

Shoes, 

A plaid, m. 

A kilt, 712. 

A belted plaid, 
A belt, m. 
A pin, 7n. 
A shirt,/ 
Sleeves, 



Gaelic. Orthoepy. 

bainne, bai^n'^nyu, (liq.) 

ce; ciath, ke; kia 

méug, méóq ; mé'q 

Seasonings, kc. 

Blasrachd, &c. 

salun, 
spisreadh, 
fion géur, 
ola, 



sugh, 
brigh, 

Men's Apparel. 



Uigheam fhirionach. 



sall'unn 

spi'sh-rugh 

f i'n gye'r 

oU'llu 

i'm, or imm 



siigh 
bri 



aodach, 


u'duch 


,m.c\b, 


kilo 


uigheam, 


iii-um 


deise, 


dyesh'u 


currachd, 


ciirr'uchq 


ad, 


att 


cota, 


cóh'tu 


peitag, 


peh'tyak, 


briogais, 


briq'ish 


dradhais, 


drah'ish 


osain, 


oss'én 


brogan, 


bró'q-un 


breacan, 


brech'kan 


feile beag. 


fel'u-beq' 


breacan an fhéili' 


brech'caii un é-li 


crios, 


kriss 


dealg, 


dyall'ak 


léine, 


Í7lé'nu (liq) 


muilichinean, 


miiirich-i^n-un(liq) 



46 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 




Buttons, 


cnaip, 


kraihp 




A handkerchief, 


/ neapacin, 


^ne'pi-kin 




A watch, yi 


uaireadair, 


íiáír'ut-ér. 




Boots, 


botainean. 


bó'h-tu^-íun 


(liq.) 


Spurs, 


spuir. 


spiiír 






Women's Apparel. 






Uigheam Bhoireanach. 




A petticoat, m. 


cota ban, 


coh-tu-bá'n 




A gown, m. 


gun, 


gú'nhn 




Corsets, m. 


cliabhan, 


clíu'van 




A ribbon, 7n. 


stim. 


shti'm 




A knot, m. 


dos. 


doss 




Tags, tassels. 


babagan. 


bap'a-gun 




Curls, 


caisreagan, 


cash'ra-gun 




Trinkets, 


aigleanan. 


aik'lén-un 




Gloves, 


lamhainean. 


llánh'i^n-un 


(liq.) 


A mantle,/. 


tonnag. 


tón'aq 




A matron's cap,/ subag, 


sií'p-aq 






Of a House. 








Mu thigh. 






The wall, m. 


am balla. 


um" ballllu 




Buildings, / 


treothair, 


tryo'ir 




A building, /. 


aitreamh. 


aíht'riv 




A beam, /. 


sail. 


sail 




A post, w?. 


gobhal, 


gó'ull 




A side-beam, m 


. taobhan. 


tuV-an 




Side standards. 


aitnean. 


aiht'nyagn 


(liq.) 


The roof,/ 


an druim, 


un druim 




The roof-tree. 


am maide droraa. 


um maítsh'u dró-mu 


The thatch, ?)}. 


an tuthadh, 


un tlih'ugh 




A door, m. 


dorus. 


dor'us 




A window,/ 


uineag. 


uí^n'aq 


(liq.) 


A vent,m. '^ 


luidheir, 


líuí'ér 





47 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orth oepy. 


A hearth, m. 


teintein. 


tei^n'tyen (liq.) 


The floor, m. 


an t-urlar, 


un tiir'-llar 


A partition,/! 


clairidh, 


clla'ri 


A room, m. 


seomar. 


shyo'mur 


A stair, / 


staidhir, 


stai'ir 


A ladder, m. 


faradh, 


fa'rugh 




House-furniture. 




Eamais tighe. 




A table, m. 


bord. 


bo'rt 


A chair, / 


cathair, 


kah'er 


A stool, w. 


furm, 


fiir'um 


A chest,/. 


ciste, 


kish'tyu 


A pot,/ 


poit. 


poiht 


A pan,/. 


aghain. 


u'i^n (liq.) 


A tub, /. 


ciidain ; tuba. 


cu't-i^n ; tiip'u (liq. 


A beaker or bicker,meadar, m. 


mét'tur 


A cogue or cog. 


/ cuach ; curaan. 


cú'uch ; ciim'an 


A ladle, m. 


ladar ; liadh, 


llat'tur ; Uiu^h 


A spoon, /. 


Spain, 


spa'in, or spé'n 


A knife, /. 


sgian. 


skian 


A fork, m. 


graraaiche, 


gra-u'ich'u 


A plate, m. 


truinnseir, 


truinhsh'ér 


A cup, m.f. 


corn ; cuach. 


córnn ; cUuch 


A bed,/ 


leaba, 


^lyep'u (liq.) 


A bed-cover, m, 


. brat. 


braht 


A blanket,/ 


plaide, 


pUait'u 


Sheets, 


plaithean lin. 


pUaih'un gWn (liq.) 


Curtains, 


sgailean. 


skail'un 


A pair of bellows 


j^w.balg seididh, 


ball'aq she'tshi 


of tongs. 


m. clodha, 


clló'u 


of snufifers 


,w.smáladair. 


smanhll'ut-ér 


An oven, / 


ámhuin, 


ánh'uí^n (1^«) 


A pail,/ 


cuineag. 


cuí^n'aq (liq.) 


A lamp, m- 


crúisgein, 


crush 'kyén 


A candle,/ 


coinneal. 


cui^n'nyuU (liq») 



48 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


A candlestick, m 


. coinnleir, 


cui'^lyer (liq.) 


A looking-glass, m. sgathan, 


ska'an 


A bottle, f. 


searrag, 


shyai-'aq 


A glass, / 


glaine. 

Of a Town. 
Mu Bhaile. 


glíuín'u 


A town, m. 


baile, 


bail'u 


A city,/. 


caithir. 


cah'ir 


A church, /. 


eaglais, 


eq'llmsh 


An inn, m. 


tigh osda, 


tui ó's-tu 


A tavern, m. 


tigh tairne, 


tuí tau-'^nyu (liq.) 


A shop, m. 


buth. 


bii'h 


A house, m. 


tigli, 


tuih 


A street, f. 


sraid ; straid, 


srait ; strait 


A passage, m. 


rathad. 


rrah'ut 


A bridge,/. 


drochaid, 


droch'it 


A school-house m 


. tigh sgoile. 


tuih scoil'u 


A school, / 


sgoil, 


SC0Í1 


A college,'/. 


ard-sgoil. 


árt-scoil 


An infirmary, m. 


tigh-eiridin. 


tuih eu-'it-i^n (liq.) 


A court house, 7n 


. tigh moid, 


tuih molt 


Amarket-house,»i 


!. tigh margaidh. 


tuih mar'ak-i 


A bake-house, m. 


tigh fuinidh, 


tuih fiii^n'i (liq.) 


A slaughter house 


, tighslachdraidh,w 


1. tuih sllachq'ri 


A market, m. 


margadh, 


mar'ak-ugh 


The corn-market /w.margadh a ghrain. 


, mar'ak-ugh-u-ghrain 


The flesh — m. 


— na feola, 


— nu fyo'll-u 


The fish — m. 


— an éisg 


— un e'shk 


The poultry — ?n. 


— nan éun, 


— nun é'ii 


A brew-house, 7?i. 


tigh togalach. 


tuih tok'all uch 


A foundery, / 


furnais. 


fú'r-nésh 


A tanyard,/ 


lann chairtidh, 


llaiinn charst'i 


A stable, m. 


stabul. 


stah'pull 


A cart,/ 


cairt. 


karsht 


A wheel, m. 


rotha, 


roh'u 



49 





Of a Church. 




Mu Eaglais. 




English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


The altar, /. 


an altair. 


un allt'ir 


The pulpit, / 
A bell, m. 
Thechurchyard,i 
A grave, /. 
A coffin, f. 


a chrannag, 
clag, 
m.an cladh, 
uaigh, 
ciste mhairbh. 


u chrann'ak 

klkq 

ung kllugh 

uaigh 

kish'tyu ver'iv 


Ceremonies of the 


Church. 


Deasghnathan na h-eaglais. 


A burial, m. 


tiodhlacadh, 


tyull'u-cugh 


A sermon, f. 


searmoin. 


shyei-'um-en 


The text, m, 
A psalm,/ 


an teagasg, 
salm, 


un tyeq'usk 
sal'ara 


A prayer, /. 

Singing, /. 

A sacrament, / 


urnuigh, 

seinn, 

sacramaid. 


úr'ffxú (liq.) 
sheii/n (liq-) 
sách'cru-méít 


Baptism, Q)i. 
Marriage, m. 
A session, m. 


am baisteadh, 

posadh, 

seisein. 


um bash'tyugh 

po's-ugh 

sheísh'én 


A fine, 7n. 


umhladh. 


únh'llugh 


Of Commerce and 


Trades. 


Mu mharsandachd agus mu chéirdean. 


A merchant, in. 


iceannaiche, or 
1 marsanda, 


kyenn'ich-u 
mar'sn-du 


A shopkeeper, nu fear buth, 


fér buh 


A trade, ./" 


ceaird. 


kyairt, or keirt 


A printer, m. 


clothadear. 


klló'h-ut-ér 


A dyer, m. 


dathadear. 


dah'ut-ér 


A mason, ?n. 


clachair. 


kllach'er 


A joiner, m. 


saor. 


su'r 


A cooper, ?w. 
A smith, 771. 


cubair, 
gobha, 


cú'p-ér 
góh'u 



50 



English. 

A baker, m. 
A butcher, 7W. 
A tanner, w?. 

A shoemaker, m, 

A tailor, m. 
A saddler, m. 
A weaver, m. 
A maltster, m. 
A gardener, 
A brewer, m, 
A fletcher, m. 
A turner, m. 
A foxhunter, m. 
A mariner, m. 



Gaelic. 

fuinneadair, 

feoladair, 

cairtear, 

greusaiche, 

taillear, 
dioliaidear, 
figheadair, 
brachadair. 



grudaire, 

leisdear, 

tuairnear, 

brochdear, 

maraiche, 



Orthoepy. 

fiii^n'ut ér (liq.) 

fyó'll-ut-ér 

carsht'ér 

{grias'ich-u ; 
grés'ich-u 
táíí/1'ér (liq.) 
dyuir ut-ér 
fih'ut-ér 
brach'ut-ér 
gá'r-ut-ér 
grúd'i-ru 
^lyesh'tyer (liq. 
tiíáír'^nyér (liq. 
brochq'ér 
mar'-ich-u 



Implements of Trade. 
Buill oibre. 



A hammer, m. 


ord, 


ó'rt 


A plane, m. 


locair, 


llochq'ir 


A saw, m. 


tuireasg; sabh. 


tiiir'usq; sa'v 


An adze,y! 


tal, 


tall 


An axe, f. 


tuadh, 


túágh 


An auger, m. 


toradh, 


torr'u 


A vise, m. 


graraaiche, 


gram'ich-u 


A chisel,/. 


gilb, 


gil'ip 


A last, m. 


ceap, 


kehp 


An awl, m. 


minidh. 


min'i 


Pincers, f. 


durcais. 


diir'cash 


A needle, /. 


snathad. 


snnanh'ut 


Scissors, m. 


siosar. 


shiss'ar 


Shears,/ 


deamhais, 


dyeh'ish; ordénh'ish 


A loom, •/. 


beairt. 


bérsht 


A shuttle, m. 


spal. 


spáil 


A reed, /. 


slinn, 


s^li'í/n (liq.) 


A spade, vi. 


coibe. 


cuíp'u 



51 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


A knife, /. 


sgian, 


skian 


A crow-bar, f. 


gearahlag. 


gye'nh-lyaq 


A wedge, nu 
Compasses, in, 
A mall, m. 


geinn, 

gobhal-ruinn, 

farachan. 


géí^n (liq.) 
go'uU rui^n (liq.) 
far'a-chan 




Rural Affairs. 




Nithean duchail, 




The country,/. 


an duthaich, 


un du'ich 


A hill, m. 


monadh. 


mon'ugh 


A mountain, f, 
A valley, m. 


beinn, 

srath ; strath. 


béí^n (liq.) 
srah; strah 


A river, /. 


amhuin. 


aiiVQ (hq.) 


A bank,/ 


bruach. 


biTÍách 


A field, m. 


raon; achadh, 


rrú'n ; ach'u 


A flock,/. 


tréud. 


tré't 


Black cattle, m. 


crodh. 


a-óh 


Sheep, 


caoirich. 


cu'rich 


Groats, 
A cot, m. 


gabhair, 
bothan. 


gó'ir 
boh'an 


A fold, 
A fank, m. 


cro ; m. mainnir,/. cro; maing'gir 
fanng, fang'q 


Wood,/ 


coille, 


cui^r^lyu (liq.) 


Heath, m. 


fraoch. 


fru'ch 


Grass, m. 


féur, 
Agriculture. 
Tuathanas. 


fé'r; fé'r; fíar 


Peasantry,/. 


tuath. 


tiiá 


A farm, f. 
A lease, / 


gabhail, 
aonta, 


gah'él 
ú'n-tu 


Cattle,/ 


féudail, 


fé'dail 


A horse, m. 


each, 


éch (ch as in loch) 


An ox, m. 


damb. 


dav; dáiinh 


A plough, m, 
A furrow, / 


crann, S^'^''^ 
clais, -V ... ^., 


',^ráiinn 
, Ílash 



52 



English. Gaelic 

A yoke, /. cuinng, 

A withe, m. gad, 

A chain, f. slabhruidh, 

A halter, m. taod, 

Manure, />'. mathach, 

Ploughing, m. treabhadb, 
A harrow,/. cliath, 

A ditch, /. stanng, 

A trench, /. dig, 

Land, w, fearann, 

Ground, m. talamh, 

Lime, m. aol. 

Clay,/. ere; criadh, 

Wreck,sea-weed,/ feamuin, 
Cast-ware, m. 
A dung-hill, m. 
A garden, m. 
A rake, m. 
A dibble, / 
Reaping, / 
A sickle, m. 
A scythe, 
A sheaf, /. 
A shock,/. 
A hay-cock, m. 
A stack, / 
Grain, m. 
A barn, m. 
Stubble, / 
Chaff,?;?. 
Crop, m. 
Straw, m. 



rod, 

diin, 

lios, 

rasdal; rachdan, 

pleadhag, 

buain, 

corran, 

speal;/ fal, m. 

sguab, 

adag, 

turadan, 

cruach, 

siol, 

sabhul, 

fasbhuain, 

moll, 

barr, 

fodar. 



Astraworhayrope,siaman, m. 
A flail, m. buailten, 



Orthoepy, 
ciiing'k, or ciii 
gatt 
sllau'ri 
tu't 

mah'uch 
tryo'ugh 
clia 
stang'q 
dl'k 
féi-'unn 
tall'uv 
ii'll 

ere,- cria 
fém'i^n (liq.) 
no't 
du'n 

^liss (liq.) ^ 
rá's-tuU; rá'ch-can 
pleh'ak 
biiáín 
corr'rran 
spvéll; fall 
scliáp 
at'ak 

tiirr'ut-an 
criiach 
shiull 
sáú'-ull 
fass'i^n (liq.) 
móiill 
bá'rr 
fot'tur 
shía'man 
biiaii^l'tyen (liq.) 



53 





Fruits. 






Measan. 




English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


An apple, 7n, 


ubhal, 


li'ull 


A pear, m. 


peur. 


pe'rr 


A cherry,/. 


siris, 


shir'ish 


Geans, m. 


gingis, _ 


ging'g-isl) 


Plums, m. 


plurabais, 


pllu'm-bish 


Strawberries, m, 


. suth lair, 


suh-lláír' 


Gooseberries, f. 


groiseadain, 


gró'sh-éít-uu 


Berries (in gener 


al) dearcan, f. 


dyark'un 


A whortleberry,/, braoileag. 


bruil'ak 


Raspberries,/. 


suitheagan, 


sui'ak-un 


Brambleberries, 


/ smeuran. 


sme'run; smia'run 


Hips,/ 


mucagan, 


miichk'aq-un 


Haws, J . 


sgeachagan, 


skyech'aq-un 


Sloes, /. 


airneagan, 


ar'^nyak'un (liq-) 


Service berries. 


' j- caoran, 






cu'rr-unn 


(rowans) m. 






Vegetables 






Lusan. 




Greens, m. 


cal gorm, 


call gor'um 


Cabbage, 97i. 


cal ceairtleach. 


i call kersh'ij'Iyuch 
j (Hq.) 


A turnip,/ 


nep, 


^nyehp (liq.) 


A carrot, m. 


curran, 


ciirr'rran 


Potatoes, m. 


buntata, 


biin-tah'tu 




Wild Plants. 




Luibhean fiadhaich. 


Nettles, / 


deanntag, 


dyeiin n'tak 


Hemlock, / 


iteotha. 


i-tyo'u 


Dock, / 


copag. 


cohp'ak 


Sorrel, / 


sealbhag, 


sliyall'u-vak 


Bugloss, m. 


am boo-lus. 


um bok'-lluss 


Chicken-weed, m. fliodb, 


fliugh 



E 3 



54 



English. 


GaeUc. 


Orthoepy. 


Moss, /. 


coineach, 


coíí/n'uch (liq.) 


Fern, m. 


rain each. 


rrain'uch 


Lichen, 7iu 


cnotul, 

Trees. 
Craobhan. 


cronh'tuU 


A tree, /. 


craobb, 


cruV 


An ash tree, / 


uinnsinn. 


— uinh'shi^n(Iiq) 


A fir tree, f. 


ghiubhais. 


— yiii'ish 


An ehn tree,/. 


leamhain, 


— ^lvév'én (liq.) 


A willow tree,yi 


sheihch, 


-^hel'ich 


A service tree, f. 


chaoirinn. 


— chiVr-i^n (liq.) 


A thorn tree,/ 


sgithich, 


— skih'ich 


An aspen tree,/ 


chrithinn. 


— chrih'i^n (liq.) 


A yew tree, /. 


iubhair, 


— ííi'ir 


A vine tree, m. 


fionan, 


fi'n-an; fian'an 


The bark, / 


cairt, 


carsht 


A branch, / 


geug. 


gye'q, gyaq 


The root, m. 


am bun. 


um biihii 


The top, m. 


am bar, 


urn ba'rr 


The roots, m. 


am freurah. 
Vegetation. 
Fas. 


um frenhv 


The sap, 7n. 


an snothach, 


f un snnonh'uci), or 
{ sno'uch 


Blossom, ))}. 


blath, 


bllá'b 


A leaf,/: 


duilleag. 


dm^l'ak (liq.) 


Foliage, ?)i. 


duilleach, 


dlii^l'mch (liq.) 


A shoot, 771, ^ 


meangan, 


meng'gan 


A twig, ;1 


bunnsag, 


bunh'sak 


A sapling, wj. 


ogan, 


ó'can 


The pitch, ;;/. 


an glaodhan, 


ung gllu'gh-an 


Rosin, / 


bklh 


hi 


The seed, f. 


an fhras. 


un rass 


The kernel, f. 


an eitne. 


un e'ht-nu 


A bud,/ 


gucag, 


giich'cak 



55 



Metals. 





Meatailtean. 




English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


Gold, m. 


or. 


ó'rr 


Silver, m. 


airget, 


ei-'ek-ut 


Iron, m. 


iarunn. 


iíírr'unn 


Pewter, m. 


feodar; fleodar 


fyo'tur; flyo'tur 


Lead, f. 


luaidhe, 


lliiu'i 


Tin, /. 


stain, 

Astronomy. 
Réull-eolas. 


stáínhn 


The sky, f. 


an speur, 


un spé'rr 


The east,/. 


an ear. 


un gwyhv (liq.) 


The west, f. 


an iar. 


un ^nyar (Hq.) 


The north,/. 


an airde tuadh. 


un air'tyu tiia 


The south,/. 


an airde deas. 


un air'tyu dyess 


A star, / 


runnag; réul 


rriinn'ak; rré'll 


The sun, . 


a ghrian. 


u ghrian 


The moon, /. 


a ghealach. 


u yiall'uch 


The pleiades, m. 


an grioglachan 


ung griq'lluch-an 


Charles's wain, m. an crann, 


ung craiinn 


The aurora borealis,na fir chlis. 


na fir-chlish' 


An eclipse, m. 


duabhar, 


diia'ur 


A meteor, /. 


caoir. 

Geography. 
Cruinneolas. 


cúír 


The globe, m. 


an cruinne, 


vng cvmyn'w (liq.) 


A continent, m. 


tir mor. 


tshir-mor 


Asia,/ 


an Aisi, 


un a'shi 


Afri ca, / 


an Afric, 


un a'frik 


America, m. 


America, 


a-mer'i-cah 


Europe, f. 


an roinn eorpa, 


un \'\i\gw íór'pu 


An empire, /. 


impireachd. 


i'm-pir-uchk 


A kingdom,/ 


righeachd. 


rri'uchk 



56 





Of Music. 






Mu Cheol. 




English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. - 


Music, m. 


ceol, 


kyo'll 


Melody, m. 


binneas. 


bi^n'us (liq.) 


A tune, m. 


port. 


porst 


An air or melody, fonn; m. séis,f. 


fóiinn; shé'sh 


A song, m. 


oran, 


ó'ran 


A note, m. 


ponng, 


póiing 


Tune ,teraperament,gleu8, m. 


iglé'ss 


A shake, m. 


gearradh, 


gyarr'ugh 


Taste, m. 


bias, 


bllass 


Execution, /. 


fileantachd. 


fil'ann-tuchq 


A performer, ?/?. 


fear ciuil. 


fér kyuil 


Musical Instruments. 




Abhaidhean Ciuil. 


A harp,/. 


clarsach, 


cllá'r-such 


A pipe, /. 


piob. 


pi'p 


A bagpipe,/. 


piob mhor, 


pip-vor' 


The chanter, m. 


am feadan. 


um fet^tan 


The reed, / 


an rifeid, 


rrif'éít 


The large drone, ?w 


. an dos mor, 


un doss mor 


The less drones, m 


. na duis bheaga. 


nu dlish vec'cu 


A drone reed, tn. 


goth, 


goh 


The mouth piece, 


an gaothaire, m, 


ung gú'h-ir-u 


The valve, m. 


an siunnach, 


un shíiinn'uch 


The bag, w?. 


am mala. 


um mánh'llu 


A violin, fy 


fidheall, 


fi'ull 


A string, /, 


teud. 


tshé't 


A peg, m. 


cnagan, 


crak'an 


A jews harp, /. 


trorab, 


tróiim 


A flageolet,/. 


fideag. 


fi'tyak 


A whistle, / 


feadag, 

Of the Earth, 
Mu n Talamh. 


fet'tak 


An island, 


eilen ; m. i /. 


eil'én; i 



57 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


A promontory 


, rughd. 


nii'u 


A cape,/ 


maol. 


mu'll 


An isthmus, m. 


tairbeart, 


téi-'up-arst 


A desert,/. 


fasach. 


fá's-uch 


A rock, (on land)/ creag, 


kreq 


A rock, (in the í 


5ea)sgeir, / 


skeir 


A road, m. 


rathad. 


rrah'ut 




Of the Water. 




Mu n uisge. 




The ocean, m. 


an cuan. 


ung ciian 


The sea, / 


a mhuir, 


u viiir 


An arm of the sea, loch, m. 


lloch 


A bay, m. 


camus; oban, 


kam'us o'p-an 


A creek, 7n. 


sailen. 


sail- en 


The tide, m. 


•pan seol mara, 
ian sruth. 


un shyo'll mar'u 
un srlih 


A lake, m. 


loch uisge. 


lloch uish'kyu 


A current, m. 


sruth, 


sriih 


A brook, w^. 


allt. 


aiillt 


A pond, m. 


lochan, 


lloch'an 


A fountain, / 


mathair uisge. 


mánh'ér uish'kyu 


A marsh,/ 


boglach. 


bok'lluch 


A quagmire,/ 


suil chritheach, 


suil chrih'uch 


A spring, m. 


fuaran. 

Of the Fire. 
Mu n teine. 


fiiar'an 


A kindling, m. 


fadadh. 


fat'agh 


Flame, / 


lasair. 


llass'ir 


Smoke, / 


smiiid, 


smúítsh 


A blaze, m. 


dreos. 


dryo'ss 


A spark, / 


srad. 


srat 


Heat, m. 


teas. 


tvess 


A burning coal, 


/ éubhal, 


é'ull 


A brand, / 


aithinn, 


á'i^n, (liq.) 


Firewood, m. 


connadh, 


conn'ugh 



58 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


Coals, ;w. 


gual, 


guuU 


Peats,/ 


moine. 


móín'u 


Wood, m. 


fiodh, 


figh, (gh broad.) 


A fire, m. 


gealbhan. 


gjaH'a-van 


Soot, / 


suidh. 


8U1 


Ashes,/. 


luatha. 
Wild Animalí 


lluíí'u 




Beathaichean fiata. 


A lion, m. 


leomhan, 


^lyo'un, (liq.) 


A bear, m. 


mathan. 


manh'un. 


A wolf, m. 


madadh alluidh. 


mat'ugh all'i 


A wild boar, m. 


tore ninihe. 


tork ^nih'u, (liq.) 


A fox, ni. 


sionuach. 


shiunn'uch 


A pole cat,/. 


neas. 


^niss, (liq.) 


A badger, m. 


brochd. 


brochq 


A deer, m. 


fiadh. 


fíúgh 


A stag, 7w. 


damh. 


dav, or daii 


A hind, / 


eilid. 


el'it 


A roe, / 


earba. 


ér'up-u 


A hare, / 


gearr, 


gyerr 


A squirrel,/. 


feorag. 

Tame Animals 


fyo'r-ak 




Beathaichean Callda. 


A horse, m. 


each. 


éch 


A foal, m. 


searrach. 


shyerr'uch 


A cow. 


bo ; / mart, m. 


bo; marst 


A calf, m. 


laogh. 


llu'gh 


A bull, w. 


tarbh. 


tar'av, or tar'ii 


An ox, m. 


damh, 


dav, or daii 


A dog, m. 


Cll, 


cu 


A sheep,/ 


caora. 


cii'ru 


A lamb,/ 


uan. 


vian 



59 





Wild Birds. 






Eoin fhiadbaich, 




English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


An eagle,/. 


iolair; firein. 


iuU'ir; fi'ryen 


A hawk, f. 


( seobhag, 
J' speirag, 


shyoh'uk 




sper'ak 


A glede, m. 


clamhan. 


kllav'an; kllara'an 


A partridge,/. 


péurtag, 


peurs'tak 


A plover, / 


feadag. 


fet'tak 


A moor hen, / 


cearc f hraoich, 


kyark rrúích 


A black cock, m, coileach dubh, 


cuil'uch diih 


A wild duck,/. 


lach. 


Uach 


A solan goose, m. sulaire. 


sii'11-ir-u 


A gull,/ 


faoilean. 


fúírunn 


A tern, m. 


stearnain, 


stye'rr-^nyen, (liq.) 


A swan, /. 


eala, 


éU'u 


A cuckoo, / 


cuag; cuach, 


cii-aq; ciiiich 


A thrush,/ 


sraeorach, 


smyo'ruch 


A black bird, »/ 


. Ion dubh. 


lion diih 


A lark,/ 


uiseag, 

Tame Birds. 
Eoin shoirbh. 


iish'ak 


A cock, m. 


coileach, 


cuil'uch 


A hen,/ 


cearc, 


kyark 


A chicken,/ 


eireag, 


eir'ak 


A goose, m. 


geadh; giadh, 


gye'gh; giagh 


A gander, m. 


gannradh. 


ganh'rra 


A gosling, m. 


isean, 


ish'én 


A duck, / 


tunnag, 


tiinn'ak 


A pigeon, in. 


caiman. 

Sea Fishes. 
lasg Saile. 


call'a-man 


A whale, / 


muc mhara, 


miichk var'u 


A pelloch, m. 


canach, 


can'uch 


A cod, m. 


trosg, 


trosq 


A ling,/ 


langa, 


llang'gu 



60 



English. 



Gaelic. 



Orthoepy. 



A gurnet, m. 


cnodan. 


cronh'tan 


A skate, m. 


sorn, 


só'rnn 


A flounder, /. 


leobag, 


^lvó'b-ak, (liq.) 


A haddock, y. 


adag. 


at'ak 


A lithe, / 


liiibh. 


^lyQ, (liq.) 


A dog-fish,/. 


gobag, 


gop'ak 


A herring, m. 


sgadan. 


scat'tan 


A seath,/. 


cudain. 


ciit'i^n, (iiq.) 


A lobster, m. 


giumach. 

Shell Fish. 
Maorach. 


gyiim' uch 


An oyster,/. 


eisir, 


esh'ir 


A mussel, w. 


fiasgan, 


fíás'can 


A periwinkle,/ 


faochag. 


fu'ch-ak 


A cockle,/ 


coilleag, 


CUÍÍ/1' glfoky (liq. 


A lampit, m. 


bairneach, 


baii-'^nyuch, (liq. 


Spout-fish, 7u. 


musgain. 


mú'sk-én 


Razor-fish, ?«. 


mursgin, 


miirs'ki^n, (liq.) 




Fresh Water Fishes. 




lasg uisge. 




A trout, m. 


breachd; breac, 


bréchq 


A pike, 7)1. 


geadas, 


gyet'tus 


A par^, 7W. 


bricen, 


brich'ken 


An eel, / 


easgun, 


ess'cunn 


A salmon, w. 


bradan, 


brat'tan 


A grilse, / 


banag, 

Reptiles. 
Biasdan snagach 


banhn'ak 


A sei-pent,/ 


nathair, 


nnanh'ir 


A toad, / 


maol mhagain, 


mu'll vánhq'én 


A frog,/. 


1 craigean, m. 
j losgan. 


kra'kyen 
llós'qunn 


A leech,/ 


deal a, 


dyall'u 


A snail, / 


seilcheag, 


shel'ich-ak 



61 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy. 


A caterpillar, 


) burus, m, 
J buruis, / 


biirr'us 
biir'ish 


An earth-worni; 


, biadhinn, 


bíu'iúTi (liq.) 


A slug,/. 


luguis. 

Insects. 
Peisteagan. 


lluk'ish 


A moth, /. 


leomunn, 


<7lyo'm-uun 


A louse, /. 


miol. 


miall 


A flea,/. 


deargan. 


dyar'uq-unn 


A spider, m. 


damhan alluidh. 


danhv'an all'i 


A grasshopper, 


m. fionan feoir, 


fyu^-an fyo'ir 


A fly,/ ■ 


cuilag, 


ciiil'aq 


A butterfly, m. 


dearabadan dé 


dyai-'a-bu- dan jé 


A bee, m. 


seillein, 


shye^l'ien (liq.) 


A wasp, /. 


speach, 


spéch (ch broad) 


Northern States of 


' Europe. 


Duchanan tualh na h 


-Eorpa. 


Russia,/. 


Rusia, 


riish'shi-a 


Sweden, /. 


an t-Suain, 


un tiiain 


Denmark,/. 


Lochluin, 


lloch'llui^n (liq.) 


Prussia, /. 


Prusia, 


prush'-shi-a 


Holland, /. 


an Olaind, 


un ó'11-aínt 


England, /. 


Sasgunn, 


sass'unn 


Scotland, /. 
Ireland, /. 


Albinn, 


all'up-i^n (iiq.) 


Eirinn, 


é'ír-ií/n (liq.) 


Southern States op 


Europe. 


Duchanan deas na h- 


Eorpa. 


France, /. 


an Fhraing, 


un rraingk 


Germany,/. 


a Ghearmailt, 


u yier'am ég\t (iiq.) 


Turkey, /. 


an Tuirc, 


un tiiirk 


Italy,/ 


an Eadailt, 


un ett'aillt 


Spain, /. 


an Spain nt, 


un spáính't 


Greece, /. 


a Ghréig, 

F 


u ghre'k 



62 



English. 



London, m. 
Edinburgh, m, 
Dublin, 711, 
Rome,/. 



Gaelic. Orthoepy. 

Towns in Europe. 
Bailtean 's an roinn Eorpa. 
Lunnuinn, lunn'i^ 



Dun-eidinn, 
Bail o Cliai-, 
an Roimh, 



(liq.) 
diin-étsh'un (liq.) 
bail-0-cliúr 
un rónh'i 



National Names. 



Ainmean Tireil. 

A European, m. *E6rpach, 

A Russian, m. Ruiseanach, 

A Swede, m. Suaineach, 

A Dane, m. Lochluinneach, 
An Englishman, w.Sassunach, 

A Scotchman, m. Albanach, 

An Irishman, m. Earunnuch, 

A Dutchman, m. Duitseach, 



A German, m. 

A Frenchman, m. 
A Spaniard, m. 
An Italian, m. 
A Greek, m. 
A Turk, w. 
A Jew, w. 
An Egyptian, m. 
An American, in. 
An Indian, w. 



Gearmailteach, 

Frangach, 

Spainteach, 

Edailteach, 

Gréugach, 

Turcach, 

Judhach, 

Eiphideach, 

Americanach, 

Innseanach, 



lor'puch 

rriish'én-uch 

sliain'uch 

lloch'Uuinn-uch 

sass'unn-uch 

all'up-unn-uch 

err'-unn-uch 

duit'shyuch 

. , . , «'',1) 

gyar am-eí7l-tyuch 

frang'guch 

spai^n'tyuch (liq.) 

ett'ai^l'tyuch (liq.) 

gré'q-uch 

tiirk'uch 

íú'uch 

é'fit-uch 

a-mer'i-can-uch 

inh'-shyen-uch 



* The feminine of these names is formed by prefixing the 
wold bann (female) to each of them ; thus bann Eorpach, a 
female European, &c. 



63 



English. 



A king, m. 
An emperor, m. 
A prince, m, 
A duke, w. 
A marquis, m. 
An earl, m. 
A knight, m. 
A baron, m. 



The pope, 



Gaelic. Orthoepy. 

Hereditary Titles. 

Ainmean oighreil. 

righ; riogh, rri, 

impire, im'-pir-u 

priunnsa, priunh-su 

(liuc, díúchq 

marcus, mar'- cuss 

iarla, iiir'llu 

ridire, mtsh'ir-u 

baran, bar '-an 

Miscellaneous Titles. 

Ainmean eugsamhuil. 

um pah^pu 

art ess'pik 

I'pik 



am papa, 
An archbishop, m. ard easbuig, 
A bishop, m, easbuig, 

A priest, m, eagart, 

A preacher, m. searmoiniche, 
A catechist, ,m ceistear, 
A judge, m. breitheamh, 

A writer, m, sgiibheadair, 

A notary, m. notair, 
A sheriff, m. siorram, 

A messenger, m. 
A bailie, m. 



An inch, /. 
A span,/. 
A foot, m. 
A yard, /. 
A mile, m. 

A quarter of a yard,cárt, m, 
A fathom, m, aitheamh, 
f2 



raaor, 

bailidh, 1 

Of Measures. 

Mu Thomhaisean. 
óirleach, 
réis, 
troidh, 
slat, 
mile, 



saq'urst 

shyar'am-en-ich-u 

kyesht'er 

breh'uv 

scri'ut-ér 

nonh'tér 

shíun-'am 

mú'r 

bá'^li (Hq.) 



or'^lyuch 

rré'sh 

truí 

sllaht 

mi'lu 

cárst 

alnh'uv 



(liq.) 



64 



English. 
An ounce, m. 
A quarter, m. 
A pound, m. 
A stone, y^ 
A ton, m. 



Of Weights. 
Mu chothroman. 
Gaelic, 
unnsa, 
cairteal, 
punnd, 
clach, 
tunna, 



Orthoepy, 
iinh'su 
karsh'tshyall 
pii'nt 
kllach 
tiinn'u 



A glass, f. 
A gill, w?. 
A mutch kin, m. 
A pint, m. 
A chopin, m. 
A gallon, m. 
A cask, m. 
A barrel, m. 
A hogshead, f. 



Liquid Measures. 
Cuiraseirean dibhe. 

glluin'u 



glome, 
siola, 
bodach. 



shyull 

bot'uch 

pi'nt 

shehp'én 

gall 'an 

biilt'yall 

tiinn'u 

tóq'étsh 



pmnt, 

seipein, 

galan, 

buideal, 

tunna, 

togsaid, 

Of Coins. 
Mu chuineadh. 
feorling, 
bonn se, 
sgilling, 
se sgilling, 
j tastan, 

\ sgilling 8ha8sunach,ski^rií7n 
crún, crú'n 

^lech'riin 
gin'i 



fyo'r-^ling (liq.> 
bóúnn-u shé,or8hía 
ski^iyn (liq.) 

sé ski^l'i^n (liq.) 



tass'tan. 



A farthing, m. 
A halfpenny, m. 
A penny,/. 
Sixpence,/. 

A shilling, ?n. 

A crown, m. 

A half crown, m. leth chrun 
A guinea, m. gini 

A half guinea, m, leth ghini, ^leh yin'i 

A pound, m. punnd sassunach, piinnt sass'unn-nch 

Of Names of Men. 
Mu ainmeau fhirionach. 
Allan, Ailein, aíl'én 



[uch 

hass'unn- 

(liq.) 

(liq.) 



65 



English. 



Gaelic. 



Orthoepy. 



Allastair, 


all'us-tir 




Anndra, 


áúnn'dra 




Aonghas, 


un'u-us 




Gilleasbiiig, 


gi^l-ess'pik 


(liq.) 


Art, 


arst 




Tearlach, 


tyar'lluch 




Caileiu, 


cail'én 




Donull, 


dónh-null 




Eobhan, 


lo'un 




Frangan, 


frang'can 




Deorsa; Seorus, 


dyoi-'su; shyo'rus 


Gileabart, 


gil'u-barst 




Eachunn, 


éch'unn (ch broad) 


Eanruig, 


enh'rrik 




Uistein, 


úsh'tshén 




Séumas, 


shé'mus 




Iain, Eoin, 


i-én; íóín 




Coinneach, 


cui^n'yuch 


(liq.) 


Ludhais, 


llii'ésli 




Galium, 


call'um 




Martin, 


márs'ti^n 


(liq.) 


Micheii, 


mi'chél 




Murchadh, 


miir'uch-u 




Nial, 


^níall 


(iiq.) 


Tormaid, 


tor'om-étsh 




Pal, 


páll 




Rob, 


rop 




Somhairle, 


sonh'ur-^lyu 


(liq.) 


Tomas, 


to'mass 





Names of Women. 
Ainmean Bhoireanach, 



Anna, 


ann'u 


Beatarais, 


beh'turr-ésh 


Caristiona, 


car'ish-tián-u 


Ealasaid, 


éll'us-étsh 



66 



English. 


Gaelic. 


Orthoepy* 


Euphemia, 


Aoirig, 


ui'i-ik 


Grissel, 


Gaorsal, 


gur'sall 


Helen, 


Eilidh, 


el'i 


Jane, 


Sine, 


shi'nu 


Janet, 


Seonaid, 


shyo'n-etsh 


Isabella, 


Iseabal, 


ish'u-ball 


Katherine, 


Catriona, 


ka-trian-u 


Lucy, 


Liu si. 


lyu'si 


Margaret, 


Mairireid, 


méi-'ir-étsh 


Mary, 


Mairi, 


mánh'ri ,• mé'ri 


Rachel, 


Raodhailt, 


ru'i^lt (liq.) 


Rebecca, 


Beathag, 


beh'ak 


Sybilla, 


Sibili, 


ship'i-li 


Susan, 


Siusaidh, 


shyii'si 




NUMBER. 






Aireamh. 


Literal Translation, 


1 a h-aon, 


u hu'n 


a 1 


2 a (Iha, 


ugha 


a 2 (integrally) 


3 a tri, 


u tri 


a 3 


i a ceithir. 


u keh'ir 


a 4 


5 a coig. 


u coik 


a 5 


6 a se, or &ia, 


u she, or shia 


a 6 


7 a seachd, 


u shéchq 


a 7 


8 a h-ochd 


u hochq 


an 8 


9 a naoidh, 


u nui 


a 9 


] a deich. 


u dyech 


a 10 " 


11 a h-aon déug, 


u hu'n dye'q 


an 11 " 


12 a dha dhéug. 


u gha yie'q 


a 2 and 10 " 


13 a tri déug. 


u tri dye'q 


a 3 and 10 " 


14 a ceithir déug, 


u kehlr dye'q 


a 4 and 10 " 


15 a coig déug, 


u coik dye'q 


a 3 and 10 " 


16 a se, or sia deug, u she, or shia dye'qa 6 and 10 " 


17 a seachd deug 


, u shéchq dye'q 


a 7 and 10 " 


18 a h-ochd deug. 


u hochq dye'q 


an 8 and 10 " 



67 



Orth. 


Lit. tran. 


19 a naoidh deug, u nui dye'q a 


9 and 10 " 


20 a fie head, u fich'ut a 


20 " 


21 a h-aon tharfhic- , * , • u, . 

, , u nun har ich'ut a 


1 over 20 " 


22 a dha, &c. u gha, &c. a 


2 &c. " 


30 a deich, &c. u dyech, &c. a 


10 over, &c. 


31a h-aon deug, &c. u hu'n dye'q, &c. an 


11 over 20, &c. 


40 da fhichead, da ich'ut 


2 twenties 


60 tri, &c. 


3 &c. 


100 céud, kye't, or kiut 


a 100 


200 dachéud, da chyet 


2 hundreds 


300 tri, &c. 


3 &c. 


1000 mile, mi'lu 


a 1000 


2000 da mhile, da vi'lu 


2 thousands 


3000 tri, &c. 


3 &c. 


1000090 muillein, mii^l-ién (liq.) 


a million 


da mhuillein, da vii^l'íén (liq*) 


2 millions 


tri, &c. 


3 &c. 


No higher denomination than million i 


is used. 


Ordinal Numbers. 




Orth. 




The 1st an céud, ung kye't 




" 2d an dara, un dar'u 




" 3d an treas, un tress 




" 4th an ceathramh, ung kyer'uv 




" 5th an coigeamh, ung coik'uv 




" 6th an seathamh, un she'uv, or shia'uv 


" 7th an seachdamh, un shéchq'uv 


" 8th an t-ochdamh, un tochq' uv 


" 9th an naoidheamh, un nui'uv 




" 10th an deicheamh, un dyech'uv 





20th 



11th an t-aon fhear deug, un tu'n ér dye'q 
12th an dara fear deug, un dai''u fér dye'q 
13th an treas, fear &c. un tress fér dye'q, &c. 
' am ficheadamh, w. um fich'ut-uv 
an f hicheadarah,/. un ich' ut-uv 



68 



The 21st, an céud fheai'*thar fhichead — ung kye't éihar 
ich'ut — the 1st one over 20 ; an ceud téf tharf hichead 
— ung kye't tshe har ich'ut. 



I» 



22d an dara fear 

an dara té, 
23d an treas fear, 

an treas té, &c. 

31 an t-aon fliear déug 
an taon té déug 

32 an dara fear déug 
an dara té déug 

33 an treas fear déug 
an treas te déug 

&c. 
40th an da fhicheadamh, 
60th an tri ficheadamh, 
80th an ceithir &c. 
100th an coig, 8cc. 
100th an céudarah, 
200th an da chéudamh. 



un dara fér har ich'ut 

. ^ « tshe &c. 

■5 !Í un tress fér &c. 

^ tshe 8cc. 

an tu'n ér dye'q &c. 

tshe dié'q &c. 

un dar'u fér dye'q &c. 

tshe díé'q &c. 

un tress fér dye'q &c. 

tshe dye'q 

&c. 



un da ich'ut-uv 
un tri ficli'ut-uv 
un keh'ir &c. 
ung coik 8cc. 
ung kye't-uv 
un da chye't-uv 
300th an treas ceudamh, &c. un tress kye't-uv 
1000th am mile, um mi'l-u 

2000th an dara mile un dai-'u mi'l-u 

3000th an treas mile, &c. un tress mi'lu 

Adverbial Numbers. 

lly 's a cheud aite, su chye't a'tshu 
2dly 's an dai-a h-aite, sun dar'u ha'tshu 
3dly 's an treas aite, sun tress a'tshu 
4thly 's a cheathi-aroh aite, su chyer'uv a'tshu 
5thly 's &c. 

Multiplicative Numbers. 



In the 
1st place 
2d 
3d 
4th 
5th &c. 



once, 
twice. 



aon uair, 
da uair, 



u n uair, 
da iiáír, 



one time 
two times 



* Fear, one; mas. -f te, one ; fern. 



69 

thrice, tri uairean, tri iiáir'un, three, Stc. 

four times, ceithir uairean, keh'ir iiáír'un, four, &c. 
five, &c. coig, &c. coik, &c. five, &c. 

Personal Pronouns. 
Simple. 
Sing. Orth. Plur. Orth. 

I — mi, mi^ we, — sinn, shi^, (liq-) 

thou, — tUjthu, tii, Ú, you, — sibh, shi'v 

she^i r they,— iad, iat, or et 

Emphatic. 
Sing. Plur. 

I — mise, mish'u, we, — sinne, shi^n'u (liq.) 

thou, — tusa, thusa, tiis'u, iis'u, you, — sibhse, shi'shu 

he, — esan, ess'un, ^, .1 .^^, 

1 . ' • 1/ they, — ladsan, latsun 

she, — ise ish'u, •^' 

Compound. 

I myself, — mi-féin, mise féin, &c. add féin, self, to 

tu, thu-fein, thusa féin each of the above. 

e-féin esan fein 

i-féin, ise fein 

Possessive Pronouns. 

Sing, and Plur. Orthoepy. 



my, 
thy, 
his, its. 


mo, 
do, 
a, 


mu 
du 
u 


her, its, 


a, 


u 


our, 


ar, 


er 


your, 


'ur, bhur. 


er 


their, 


an, am, 


un, um 




Relative Pronouns. 


Sing, and 
who, 
which, that. 


Plur. 
a» 
an, am. 


Orthoepy, 
u 
un, um 



' These pronouns are all of the com. gender. 



70 



Interrogative Pronouns. 

who ? CO, CO 

what ? ciod, créud, cut, cré't 

what ? 'dé, dye 

which, m. CO e, có-é 

which, yi CO i, có-i 

The neuter verb bi, to be. 

The root of a Gaelic verb is the 2d pers. sing, iinper. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Pres. Tense. 

Pers. Orthoepy. 



^•«^"°-ibi thusa, 
3d bitheadh e, 


bi, 

bi iis'u, 
bi'ugh e, 

-; T^' 

biu'mit, 
bi-iv, 
bi-ugh iat, 


be 

be thou 

let him be 


Ist plur. bitheamaid, 

2d bithibh, 

3d bitheadh iad, 


let us be 

be you 

let them be. 


INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, (affirmatively.) 

Singular. Plural. 

I, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3. 

mi, thu, e, i, sinn, sibh, iad 

verb *Tha, I am. 



orthoepy, ha. 

Present Tense, (interrogatively.) 

Singular. Plural. 

1, 2, 3, I, 2, 

mi, thu, e, i, sinn, sibh, 

verb, am Beil ? Am I ? 
orth. um bel'. 



3. 
iad 



* Tha is repeated before each of the personal pronouns. 



71 

Present Tense, (negatively.) 

Singular. Plural, 

mi, tbu, e, i. sinn, sibh, iad 

verb, cha-n Eil, I am not. 

orth. clian lel'. 

Past Tense, (aflSrmatively.) 

Singular. Plural, 

mi, thu, e, i. sinn, sibb, iad 

verb, Bha, I was, I have been, 

orth. va. 

Past Tense, (interrogatively.) 

Singular. Plural, 

mi, thu, e, i. sinn, sibh, iad 

verb, an Robh? Was I? have I been? 

orth. un róh'. 

Past Tense, (negatively.) 

Singular. Plural. 

mi, thu, e, i. sinn, sibh, iad 

verb, cha Robh, I was not, I have not been, 

orth. cha róh'. 

Future Tense, (affinnatively.) 
mi, thu, e, i. sinn, sibh, iad 

verb, Bithidh, I shall or will be. 

orth. bi-i. 

Future Tense, (inten-ogatively.) 
mi, thu, e, i. sinn, sibh, iad 

verb, am Bi? Shall or will I be? 

orth. urn bi. 

Future Tense, (negatively.) 

Singular. Plural, 

mi, thu, e, i. sinn, sibh, iad 

verb, cha Bhi, I shall or will not be. 

orth. cha vi. 



72 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD * 

Past Tense (affirmatively.) 

Orthoepy. 

Sing. 1. Bhithinn, vi-i^n, I could or would be 

?. Bhitheadh tu, vi-u tu, 

3. Bhitheadh e, vi-ugh e, 

i i 

p, . Í Bhitheadh sinn, vi-u shi^n, 
I Bhitheadhmaid, vi-u-mitsh, 

2. Bhitheadh sibh, vi-u-shiv, 

3. Bhitheadh iad, vi-ugh iat, 

Past Tense (interrogatively.) 
Sing.l.am Bithinn, um bi-i^, Could or would I be? 

2. am Bitheadh tu, um bi-u tii, 

3, am bitheadh e, um bi-ugh e, 



p, , Cam Bitheadh sinn, um bi-u shi^, 
cam Bitheamaid, um bi-u-mitsh, 

2. am Bitheadh sibh, um bi-u shiv, 

3. am Bitheadh iad, um bi-ugh iat, 

Past Tense (negatively.) 
Sing.l. cha Bhithinn, chavi-i^n, I could or would not be 

2. cha Bhitheadh tu, cha vi-u tu, 

3. cha Bhitheadh e cha vi-ugh é 



p. , r cha Bhitheadh sinn, cha vi-u shipn, 
I cha Bhtheamaid, cha vi-u-mitsh, 
2.chaBhtheadhsibh, cha vi-u shiv, 
3. cha Bhitheadh iad, cha vi-ugh iat, 



* This tense admits of various conjunctions before it, which 
materially affect its signification ; thus, 

nam bithinn, If I were, If I had been, &c. 

ged bhithinn, Though I were, though I should be, &c. 

nach bithinn, That I would or could not be, 

gum bithinn. That I would be, that I were. 

mur bithinn, Were I not, had I not been 



73 



Sing. I ma 


Future Tense (cond 



Bhitheas mi, mu 


litionally.) 

rthoepy. 

vi-us mi, If I be. 


2. ms 


I Bhitheas tu, mu 


vi-us tii, 


ma 

3. — 

Plur. 1. ma 


Bhitheas e, mu 


vi-us e, 


bhitheas sinn, mu 


vi-us shinn. 


2. ma 


bhitheas sibh, mu 


vi-us shiv. 


3. ma 


bhitheas iad, mu vi-us iat. 




INFINITIVE MOOD- 


a bhi, 


u vih. 


to be 


do bhi, 


do vih. 


to be 


\e bhi, 


levih. 


by being 


ri bhi, 
gun bhi, 
seach a bhi, 


ri vib, 
gun vih, 
shyech u vih. 


to be; by being 
without being 
rather than be 


ach a bhi. 


ach u vih, 


only to be [to be 


los a bhi. 


lies u vih. 


about to be; going 


gus a bhi, 
gu bhi, 


giiss u vih, 
gu vih, 


going to be; to be 
to be ; for being 


&c. 


Participles, 




Past. 






iar bhith, 


er vih. 


being; having been 


an deigh bhith, un jei vih. 


f after being ; after 
'( having been 



PHRASEOLOGY. 

The Articles. 

a, an, am, the. 

A is used before feminine nouns beginning with b, c, g, 

ra, p ; and requires these letters to be aspirated. 
* Ged bhitheas mi, &c. Though I be, &c. 

Mar bhitheas mi, &c. How I may be ; as I shall be 
how I shall be. 

G 



T4 





The Articles. 






Examples. 






Orthoepy. 




A bhean; 


u vén, 


The woman 


A bhriogais, 


u viiq'ish, 


The trowsers 


A bhoid, 


u votsh, 


The vow 


A bbanag, 


u vanhn'ak. 


The grilse 


A bbainis, 


u van'ish, 


The wedding 


A chaile. 


u cbai^l'm, 


The lass 


A chaile, 


u chailk, 


The chalk 


A ch reach, 


u chiéch, 


The spoil 


A chlais, 


u chllasb, 


The furrow 


A ghaoth, 


ughu. 


The wind 


A ghlaine, 


u ghlluin'u, 


The glass 


A gblas, 


u ghllass, 


The lock 


A ghaoid, 


u ghusht, 


The flaw 


A ghrian, 


u ghrian, 


The sun 


A gbeug, 


u ghye'q, 


The branch 


A mhuir, 


u viiir, 


The sea 


A mharag, 


u var'ak, 


The pudding 


A mhuc, 


u viichq, 


The sow 


A mhin, 


u vin, 


The meal 


A phog, 


u hó'q, 


The kiss 


A phrat, 


u fraht, 


The trick 


A phiseag, 


u fish'ak, 


The kitten 


A phutag, 


u f iib'tak, 


The thole pin 


An is used before mas. nouns 


beginning with a, c, 


d, e, g, i, 0, r, s, 


t, u ; and before feminine nouns begin- 


ning with a, d, fj 


, i, 1, 0, n, r, 8, t, u 
Examples. 




An ad,/. 


un att, 


The hat 


An cuan, m. 


ung cíián, 


The ocean 


An dag, m. 


un dak, 


The pistol 


An eibhleag,/. 


un le'lyak, 


The coal 


An gunna, m. 


ung giinn'u. 


The gun 


An isp,/. 


un i'sp, 


The rasp 


An ordag,/. 


un or'dak, 


The thumb 



Phraseology. 
Tlie Articles. 

An ré\s,f. uii ré'sh, The race 

An solus, m, un soU'us, The light 

An treasg, m. un tresq, The drafF 

An urras,/. un iiri-'rras, The surety 

Between the article, and masculine nouns beginning 

with a vowel, or feminines beginning with s, — a t, — with 
a hyphen is inserted. 

Examples. 

An t-am, ug tanhm, The time 

An t-eud, un tshe't, The jealousy 

An t-im, un ti'm, The butter 

An t-6r, un tor, The gold 

An t-iith, un tu, The udder 

An t-suil, un túíl, The eye 

An t-srad, un trat, The spark 

And between the article and the genitive of masculines 
in s. 

Examples. 

An t-sioda, un tshi'du, of the silk 

An t-snath, un tranh , of the yarn 

An t-seilich, un teil'ich, of the willow 

An t-suigh, un túígh, of the juice 

Am is used before masculine nouns beginning with b, 
f, m, p. 

Examples. 
Am baile, um bail'u, The town 

Am preas, um press, The bush 

Am fleasgach, um fles'cuch, The bachelor 

Am feur, um fe'rr, The grass 

Am measan, um miss'an, The lapdog 

Am méirleach, um merr'^lyuch, The thief 
G 2 



76 



Phraseology. 

NOUNS QUALIFIED BY ADJECTIVES. 

A Gaelic adjective has only two forms; therefore there 
are but two genders, the masculine and feminine. 



Duine math, m. 
Bean mhath,yi 
Allt cas, m. 
Amhuin chas,/! 
Giulan ban, m. 
Cailag,/. bhan 



dii-nyu mah, 
ben vah, 
aiillt cass 
aii'i^rn chass, 
gyiill'an banhn, 
cai^l'ak vanhn 



a good man 
a good woman 
a rapid brook 
a rapid river 
a fair headed boy 
a fair headed girl 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 



Cota donn, m, 
Peiteag dhonn,y. 
Latha fuar, m. 
Gaoth fhuar,j^ 
CÚ glas, m. 
Cearc ghlas,/! 
Fear mor, m. 
Té mhór, ,^^ 
Gnotbach nar, m. 
Saothach Ian, m. 
Aodach rómachwí. 
Mir slan, m, 
Slige shlan,/. 
Sgéula truagh, m. 
Bean thruagh,^^ 
Cnoc ard, m. 
Eagluis ard, f. 
Fiamh éitidb, m, 
Tigh iosal, m, 
Damh 6g, m, 
Brog ur, /. 
Daoine matha, m. 
Mnathan matha,/. 



Orthoepy. 
coh'ta doiinn, 
peh'tyak ghoiinn, 
Ua'u fu-ur, 
gu u-ur, 
cu gliass, 
kyark ghllass, 
fér raór, 
tshé vór, 
gro'-uch nár, 
su'uch llán, 
ú'duch rró'much, 
mi'r sllánhn, 
shlik'u hllánhn, 
skyellu trii-ugh, 
bén hrii-ugh, 
krochk á'rt, 
eq'llish á'rt, 
fiáv éh'tshi, 
tuih i'sh-ull, 
danhv ók, 
bro'k úrr, 
dú-nyu mah'u, 
mrah'-uu mah'u, 



A brown coat 
A brown vest 
A cold day 
A cold wind 
A grey dog 
A grey hen 
A tall man 
A tall woman 
A sharieful ajfFair 
A full dish 
Shaggy cloth 
An entire piece 
An entire shell 
A sad tale 
A wretched woman 
A high knoll 
A lofty church 
A grim appearance 
A low house 
A young ox 
A new shoe 
Good men 
Good women 



77 



Phraseology. 
Orthoepy. 
Uillt chasa, úí^lt chass'u, 

Aibhnichean casa, úín'ich-un cass'u, 



Giulaiu bhana, 
Caileagan ban a, 
Coin ghlasa, 



gyiill'en vanhn'u, 



Rapid brooks 
Rapid rivers 
Fair haired boys 



cái^rak-unbánhn'u,Fair haired girls 
coin ghllass'u, Grey dogs 



Meeting. 



Cia mar tha thu? kem'ur ha ú 

Co so ? CO shoh 

Co tha'n so? co ban shoh 

An tus' a th'ann? un tiiss'u haiinn 

Co tha leat ? co ha léht 

Am beil thu beo? um bel'ii byo 

Tha mi, ha mi 

'Smath leam sin, smail'um shin 

Gun robh math agad gun'-ro mah' ak-ut 

Cia mar tha iad Í , , i -^^^ i , • 
y kem'ur ha latak -IV 



ha iat sllanhn 
smah shin 

Parting. 

sllanhn léht, ) 
bénn'uchq léht, J 
sori ii-um giit, 
fyii'ir, 

she véh'u shin, 

ciiin'u hik ii rih'- 

isht, 
gii gur-rit, 
shé-tur ghoh vi) 

fall'av, / 

ha cav'ak or-m, 
gress orst mu ta, 



Tha iad slan, 
'Smath sin, 



Slan leat, 
Beannachd leat, 
Soruidh uam gu d' 
phiuthair, 

'Se bheatha sin, 

Cuin' a thig thu 

rithist, 
Gu goirid, 
'Séudar dhomh bhi 

falbh, 
Tha cabhag orm, 
Greas ort, ma ta, 



How are you? 
Who is this ? 
Who is here ? 
Is it you? [you? 
Who is along with 
Are you alive? 
Yes I am 
I am glad of that 
I thank you , , 

How are they with 

They are in health 
That's good 



Farewell 

My respects to your 
sister 

{That will be wel- 
come 
When will you 

come again ? 
Soon 

I must be going 

I am in a hurry 
Haste you, then 



g3 



78 



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ERRATA. 

Page 4, line 8 from bottom, for barran, read baran. 

— 6, last line, for Siona, read Siona. 

— ... — 5 from bottom, dele a before boretree. 

— 10, — 6, insert a before scoop. 

— 12, — 6, for of a, read to a hollow. 

— 16, uote, for rejyresents, read represent. 

— 18, — 2 from bottom, for ieavci/if read taov'an, 

— 20, note, for denotes, read denotes. 

— 26, — 2, for laitheam, read laithean. 

— ... — 7, for didth, read dlúh. 

— ... — 21, for curr'kckq, read curr'áchq. 

— 32, — 11, dele the words or beneath. 

— 33, — 10, for Josa, read losa. 

— 34, — 9, for gníúr, read gniúr. 

— 37, — 22, for ddha, read odha. 

— 40, — 15, for astinn, read osunn. 

— 57, - 1, for rughd, read rugha; 

— 64, — 19, for toq'etsh, read toqs'etsh. 

— 72, — 5, for ?, - / , read j,