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Full text of "Galeni Pergamensis De temperamentis, et De inaeqvali intemperie libri tres, Thomas Linacro Anglo interprete. Opus non medicis modo, sed et philosophis oppido q[uem] necessariu[m] nunc primum prodit in lucem cvm gratia & priuilegio"

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AWP) M6.TtfBflil.SgiHiBES> 


APR •* 1998 





Upus non medicis modo. fed et philofophis oppido ^ nccefTariu 
nunc primum prodit in lucem 

& Priuil^io. 

Reproduccd in exafl Facfimile 


% Priniid by C. J. Clav, M.A. PrtHtrr ta Ikt Univer/Uy s/ CamMdgt 

/bT Ar.KXANl)ER MACMILI.AN iiml KOBKRT BOWES, Beetftller! 
Ne. I Trinily Slrat, irvcr againfi Sainl Mary's Chiirth 



The present reproduction of Linacre's translation of two treatises 

by Galen is issued as a spccimen of early typography, being the 

[ nxth in order of the seven books printed by John Siberch, the first 

I Cambridge printer, in 1521, Besides these seven, onc appeared in 

' 1522, after which date no book is known to have been printed in 

Cambridge till 1584. The books printed by Siberch are all very 

scarce ; of one but a single copy is known, and of three of the books 

ktiiere is not a single specimen in Cambridge, In 1878, the publishers 

lof the present volume proposed to issue the whole of the cight books, 

Rand the following are now ready, and will shortly be published : 

1. BuUock, Henry. Oratio habita Cantabrigiae. 1521. 

2. Cujufdain fidelis Chrifliani Epinola ad Ctiriilianos omnes. Subfequitur 

et Divi Auguftini de miferia...vita; fermo. 1521. 
8. Papyrii Gemini Elealis Hennathena, feu de Eloquentiae vi^ria, 1512. 

Mr Bradshaw, University Librarian, has compared the eight books 
dde by side, and has thus been able to determine their relative order. 
[He kindly allows his notes to be printed, and they will be issued 
(with the first of the above three volumes. 


Thc Publishers are dcsirous of gaining information about thc 
printer, John Siberch, before 1521, when he commenced to print in 
Cambridge, and after 1522 when he discontinued printing there. 
Herbert suggests that he may be the John Sibert, who was printing 
at Lyons in 1498, and mentions a book of that date being in the 
Cambridge Universi^ Library. But this book, Henrici Bouhic Dis- 
tinctiones super libros quinque Decretalium, consists of two large 
folio volumes, and the printer calis himself * Magister Johannes 
Siberti;' both of which facts make it unreasonable to identify him 
with the plain Johannes Siberch who printed little books at Cambridge 
so many years afterwards. 

Cambmdob, Jtdy I, igSi. 


IHOMAS LINACRE, known to his contemporaries 
as one of the most learned scholars of an epoch 
when learning was highly prized, but in after tlmes 
chiefly as the founder of the College of Physicians in 
London, was born at Canterbury, probably about the year 1460. 
Of his parentage and descent nothing certain is known, though 
some of his biographers have assumed. apparently without 
any evidence except the name, that he was connected with 
the family of Linacre in Derbyshire. It is clear from a 
passage in Linacres will that he had a brother, sisters, and 
other relatives {the brother strange to say, bearing the same 
baptismal name — Thomas) but further the family history can- 
not be traced. 

This fact will appear less surprising, if we remember that 
Linacre like many scholars of his time, was never married, 
and lived for many years an almost monastic Hfe, little 
influenced by family or social ties. More important than his 
descent was his education, and in this Linacre was unusually 
happy; for not a Httle of the success and eminence of his 


after Iife may be traced to the bias which the young scholar^s 
mind received from his earliest teacher. The Cathedral 
school of Canterbury within the monastery of Christ Church 
where Linacre became a pupil was at that time under the 
direction of WiUiam Tilly, otherwise called William of Selling, 
an Augustinian monk, and a scholar of a type at that time 
rare in England. Originally educated at Oxford, elected a 
Fellow of the newly founded College of AIl Souls, and after- 
wards received as a monk in the Monastery of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, SelHng found the means to travel in Itaty, where 
he not only studied the Canon Law, but, what is more to the 
present purpose, during a stay at Bologna, studied Greek 
and became the pupil of Angelo Politiano. After two years' 
stay in Italy, he returned home, became Prior of Christ 
Church, and later on was sent as Envoy from Henry VII. to 
the papal court; an event which proved of great importance to 
Linacre. At the time of which we are now speaking, he was 
only Master of the Grammar School, whether appointed before 
or after his first journey to Italy we do not know. In any 
case it is clear that he had already those tastes and pursuits 
from which his pupil Linacre derived not only his determining 
impulse to the life of a scholar, but especially that love of 
Greek literature which runs like a thread through the great 
physicians life and is the clue to much of his versatile literary 

At the mature age (especially according to the customs of 
the day) of twenty, Linacre was sent to Oxford. At what 
College or Hall he studied is uncertain, though it is assumed, 
on trivial grounds that he must have entered at Canterbury 
Hall. The only fact which is certain is that after four years' 
residence at the University, in 1484, he was elected a fellow 
of All Souls' College. It has been thought by Dr Noble 

hnson, the best biographer of Linacre, that this election 

nust have implied relationship to Archbishop Chichele, the 

Sbunder, and thus also to Selhng, assuming tliat the latter owed 

liis preferment also to family connexions. But the entry in 

ithe College books (which though not contemporary is a copy 

rihought to have becn made about 1571 of the original record) 

has no indtcation of his being of founder's kin. It is simply 

"Thomas Lynaker, medtcus insignis." The omission to specify 

kinship to the founder is regarded by Dr Leighton the 

I present Warden of All Souls (he was himself good enough 

■to inform me) as decisive that no such kinship existed, and 

fthe supposition of any family tie between Linacre and 

Chichele or Selling must therefore be regarded as entirely 


The time of Linacre's residence at Oxford was one of 
much moment in the history of the University. already stirred 
by the earliest movements of the revival of learning. The 
first Oxford printing press was already issuing those few 
volumes, now become so rare. which must have been of 
startling interest to the world of scholars, The study of the 
new leaming. Greek, had been introduced by Cornelio Vitali, 
an Italian, said to have been the first teacher of that language 
in England, and it is stated that Linacre became his pupil. At 
the same time he doubtless formed the acquaintance of two 
scholars who shared his devotion to the ' new learning,' 
WiUiam Grocyn and William Latimer, the former of whom 
survived to form part, with Linacre himself, of the brilliant 
circle of Oxford scholars, who a few years later excited the 
admiration of Erasmus. 

But Linacre was soon to have the privilege which he 
must have long coveted, of perfecting his knowledge of 
Greek at what was then the fountain-head of that learning, 


in the schools of Italy. The opportunity came through his 
old friend and teacher, William of Sflling. who was sent by 
Henry the Seventh as his envoy to the Papal Court. It is 
not clear that Linacre had any official position in the embassy; 
he accompanied his patron however, as far as Bologna, but 
nct in his further journey to Rome. At Bologna Linacre 
is stated by Leland to have been introduced to Angelo 
Politiano, and to have remained there in order to become a 
pupil of thls great scholar. His stay in Bologna appears 
to have been short, and we next hear of him at Florence, 
having perhaps followed thither Pohtiano, who along with 
Demetrius Chalcondylas had now been charged with the 
instruction of the two sons of Lorenzo de Medici, Piero and 
Giovanni. Linacre seems to have been favoured with the 
patronage of Lorenzo, who allowed him to share the in- 
structions given to the young princes. It is not easy to 
understand precisely what was the position Linacre now 
occupied at the Court of Florence, for though his fellow 
pupils were boys and he himself a man of twenty-five and 
already a considerable scholar, he is not spoken of as in any 
sense their tutor, Tlie connexion however must have been 
in after years valuable to him, as the dedication of the work 
now reprinted clearly shews : the pope Leo the Tenth, being 
the younger of the two Medici princes. It will be evident 
from the dedication itself that the privilege accorded to 
Linacre was shared by others, and it was therefore perhaps 
not so important as it has been rcgarded. It is enough to 
know that he studied under such eminent scholars as Politiano 
and Chalcondylas, and thus laid the foundation of the elegance 
in Latin scholarship and profundity in Greek learning for 
which he was afterwards distinguished. 

After a year thus spent in Florence, Linacre proceeded to 






Lome, where his studies in the Vatican library procured him 
le acquaintance of another great scholar, Hermolaiis Barba- 
is. It is possible that ihis acquaintance may have given 
[Linacres studies a bias in the direction of medlcine ; for Bar- 
;nis, though not a physician, had devoted himself specially 
'to the study of Dioscorides. whose works he translated into 
Latin, and ilhistrated with commentaries, more than once re- 
printed- It is suggested by Dr Noble Johnson that the example 
and arguments of Hermolaus Barbarus may have given Lin- 
acres mind a bias of a different kind, namely towards a single 
life ; for the Italian scholar, we are told, wrote a treatise in 
favour of celibacy at the age of eighteen, and never after- 
wards deviated either in practice or theory from the principles 
there advocated. Barbarus was also a great Aristotelian 
scholar. and in this direction also he may have influenced the 
mind of Linacre ; who afterwards undertook and partly car- 
ried out a plan which had also been among the projects of the 
elder scholar. of a complete translation of the works of Aris- 
itle. In other less important matters. the influence of Her- 
:oIaus Barbarus seems traceable, and if Linacre took as his 
'inodel in a learned life any of the great scholars with whom 
he studied, it was certainly rather Hermolaus than any 

From Rome Linacre went to Venice, and here made the 
valuable acquaintance of the great printer, Aldus Manutius 
Romanus, who was then engaged in bringing out some of the 
^most important editions of the classics, by which he earned 
' e gratitude of scholars. Aldus appears to have treated the 
nglish scholar with great kindness, which is acknowledged, 
as a persoiial favour, by William Grocyn, in a letter to Aldus, 
which must have been written shortly after Linacre's re- 
tum from Italy. After acknowledging the kindness shewn 


to his friend Linacre, Grocyn goes on to thank Aldus, in the 
name of English schoiars especially for his edilions of the 
Greek classics, and commends his preference for Arlstotle to 
Plato. The rest of this letter, the style of which is praised by 
Erasmus, is interesting, especially as the only extant composi- 
tion, except two trifling epigrams, of this once celebrated 
scholar, but has no further reference to our subject. Aldua 
prelixed it to Linacre's translation of Proclus On the Sphere, 
printed by him in the year 1499^, in order (as he says in his 
dedlcation of this work to Aibertus Pius, prince of Carpi) to 
make the Itallan philosophers ashamcd of their bad Latin, 
and lead them to rival the EngHshmen. In the dedication 
just named Aldus pays a high compllment to Linacres scho- 
larship, which may be quoted here, though written later. 
"Linacre," he says, "has translated thiswork withelegance and 

"Qui utinam et Simplicium In Aristotelis Physica, et io 
ejusdem meteora Alexandrum quos nunc summS curS Latinoa 
facit, ad me dedlsset. ut et illos unA cum Proclo ad te mitte- 
rem. Quanquam (ut spero) eosque et allos in Philosophi^, 
medicinaque perutiles libros aliquando dabit. ut ex eddem 
Britannli unde ollm barbarae et indoctte liter^e ad nos pro- 
fectse Itallam occuparunt, et adhuc arces tenent, latine et docte 
loquentes bonas artes acciplamus, ac britannicls adjutorlbus 
fugati barbarie, arces nostras recipiamus, ut eSdem hast4 
sanetur a qu& Illatum est vulnus." 

He also Implies that an intlmate friendshlp existed be- 
tween Linacre and the prlnce of Carpi, on whlch account the 
work will be more welcome to his patron. 

The Aldlne edilio princcps of Aristotle contalns also an 
interestlng allusion to Linacre, which seems to shew that he had 
something to do with the editing or correctlng of that great 



"work. It may even not be without some significance that a 
splendid copy of this edition, printed on vellum (and as com- 
plete in this slate, according to Dibdin, of the highest rarity), 
iOnce belonged to Linacre, and is now, bearing his autograph, 

the library of New College, Oxford. In the dedication 
irefixed to the second volume of this work, Aldus boasts of 
the pains he had taken to secure a correct text, 

" Ut tum querendis optimis et antiquis libris atque eidem 
in re multiplicibus tum conferendis castigandisque exemplari- 
bus qutc diiaceranda impressoribus traderentur, perirentque 
ut pariens vipera, in manus hominum venirent emendatissima. 
Id ita sit necne sunt mihi gravissimi testes in totd fere Italia, 
et pracipue in Venetiis Thomas Anglicus, homo et grace et 
latine peritissimus pr^ecellensque in doctrinarum omnium dis- 

This volume is dated February. 1497, the first volume 
1495, dates which are quite reconcilable with the time when 
Linacre is believed to have been at Venice. 

On leaving Venice, Linacre went to Padua and probably 
made some stay there : since it was here that he graduated 
as Doctor of Medicine, and here he must have acquired the 
greatest part of his medical knowledge. Padua was at that 
time one of the chief seats of medical knowledge in Europe, 
and became shortly afterwards one of the first schools of 
anatomy. Its reputation in both departments was long pre- 
served under the enlightened patronage of the Venelian 
Senate. Many students from Northern Europe naturally 
flocked thilher, and among them a few from England and 
Scotland. Linacre was not the first eminent English scholar 
who graduated in medicine at Padua; the once celebrated 
Phreas [Wells], who left Balliol for Italy, and died at Rome, 
having preceded him by half a century or more ; but he was 


followed by a long roU of EngHsh and Scottish students the; 
names and escutcheons of some of whom may still be seea- 
in the gallery of the University quadrangle. 

Though Linacre is said to have taken the degree ol 
Doctor of Medicine with great distinction, there is no founda-' 
tion for the assertion that he was ever Pro/essor of Medicine 
in the University. The story rests on an obvious confusion 
of the titles of Doctor and Professor which were then 
and long afterwards equivalent and interchangeable in the 
European Universities. 

The tradition of Linacre's successful disputation at Paduaj 
is preserved in a dialogue by Richard Pacey (quoted itr 
Johnson's life) where Grammar and Rhetoric are made to 
dispute as to the respective merits of Theodore Gaza and 
Thomas Linacre. Grammar first claims Linacre as her own, 
Rhetoric contends that he was by right her son, and that 
Grammar was only the occupation of his leisure moments. 
On one occasion (says Rhetoric) he condescended to dispute 
with some Grammarian on certain minutise connected with 
the vocative case, but gained a more briiliant victory when 
he defended his theses for graduation at Padua, " Nam quum 
in gymnasio Patavino, professionis artis medicse ei (ut nunc 
moris est) darentur insignia, public^ non sine summa laude 
disputavit, et seniorum medicorum adversaria argumenta accu- 
ratissime refellit"^. 

Linacres route after leavJng Padua, may, Dr Johnson 
tells us, be accurately and precisely traced through Vicenza, 
Verona. Brescia, Bergamo and Milan ; but the authority for 
this statement is not given. It may however be permissible 
to delay for a moment at Vicenza, since it is pretty certain 
that Linacre did pass there, and highly probable that his 
stay had some influence on his hterary life. This city was 



,e home of a celebrated physician and scholar, Nicolaus 

lonicenus, best known as the author of die earliest treatise 

in Syphiiis, the fearful malady at that time beginning to be 

lown ; but also celebrated for having translated several 

irks of Galen from the Greek. One of these versions, 

lat of the treatise De 7?iolA musculorum was afterwards 

_tublished by Linacre with some of his own. Leonicenus 

was much older than Linacre (though he survived him) 

and in after years, as we know from a letter of Croke to 

Henry VI IL, spoke of Linacre as his pupil*. 

The reputation of this now almost forgotten scholar was 
very high among his contemporaries. Aldus Romanus, in 
the dedication of the Aristode already spoken of to Albertus 
Plus, Prince of Carpi, speaks of Leonicenus as ^philosO' 
phorum atalts nostrs meduorumque facile princeps' . A 
xorrespondence which has been preserved between Leoni- 
us and Angelus Politianus is full of mutual compliments ; 
id shews that the two scholars regarded themselves as allies 
the common warfare against 'barbarism' a foe that had 
to be expelled from the fields of philosophy and medicine 
as well as from that of letters ^ 

It is certain that the example of such a man could not 
have been without effect on so apt a pupil as Linacre, and 
the influence of Vicenza is clearly apparent in some of his 
later work. 

On leaving Italy, Linacre is sald to have indulged in an 
antiquarian caprice which seems little in harmony with what 
we afterwards hear of his staid character, though in his hot 
youUi and under the influence of the classical sentiment it may 
have been possible. and even natural. The story is that on 
bidding fareweli lo Italy at some mountain pass he indulged 
fancy in building a cairn of stones, which he crowned with 



flowers, and dedicated to Italy, as sancta tnaier slu^iorunk\ 
All that is known about thls transaction comes from 
Latin poems, by Janus Vitalis and by Joannes Latomus, on^l 
of whjch it may be sufficient to quote. 


Oum Linacrus adtt Morinos, patriosque Britannos, 

Artibus egregiis dives ab IlaJia, 
Ingentem niolem saxonim in rupibus altis, 

Congerit ad fauces anle Gebenna tuas, 
Floribus hinc, viridique struem dum fronde coronat, 

Et sacer Assyrias pasdtur ignis opes: 
"Hoc tibi" ait "mater studiorum, 6 sancta meonim 

Templum Linacrus dedicat, Italia ; 
Tu mod6 cui docti assurgunt cum Pallade AtheniB 

Hoc de me pretium sedulitatis habe," 

The second poem is by Joannes Latomus, and entltlet 
Arnidis gucrela in Thoniam Linacrum Angium Italid disces^ 
sunim. It represents the nymph of the Arno expostulating 
with Linacre while engaged in erecting his altar, on his fixed 
resolution to return home. It is highly laudatory, but too 
long for quotation^. 

In both copies of verses the name Gebenna occurs 
connexion with this incident, and as this usually means, ian 
classica! Latin, the mountain district called the Cevennes, Dr 
Johnson concludes that Linacre before pursulng his joumey 
to Paris stayed in this district. It does not secm necessary 
to suppose that he took so circuitous a route, or visited a 


Or ■ 


^ m 




part of the country which must at that time have been wild J 
and little traversed, and where a scholar, uninfluenced by J 
modem love of the picturesque can have found nothing; to | 
attract him. But Civiias Gcbennensis is the name given, 
almost universally, by the printers of Linacres time, to the ] 
city of Geneva, and Stephanus: — Dictionariiim nomimun pro- 
priontm gives an interpretation apparently identical. We 
can well bclieve that, in crossing the pass of the great St 
Bernard on his way down to Geneva, Linacre would not bid 
fareweil to the southem side of the AIps without some ex- 
pression of emotion. But too much importance must not be 
attached to a story which probably rested only on some trifling 

^^ncident of travel in crossing the AIps, related by Linacre 

^Bimself in writing to his Italian friends. 

Q^ The name Morinos in the verses quoted above sufficiently 
indicates that Linacre returned home, or was expected to re- 
turn by way of Calais. He must doubtless have passed 
through Paris. but we have no record of any acquaintance- 
ship tnere, though certainlyat alater time Linacre had literary 
correspondents and friends In that city. 

On his return to England Linacre seems to have resumed 
his residence in AIl Souls' College. His position in the Uni- 
versity must have been one of considcrable eminence, since a 
knowledge of Greek was still confined to a few scholars, and 
great respect was paid to those who had acquired this new 
accompllshment in Italy. There were about this time or a 
little later but four such scholars in Oxford. Grocyn and 
Latimer were a little older than Linacrc. Colet was younger, 
or, at least, visited Italy later, and the date of his stay in 
Florence gave his studies a somewhat diiTerent complexlon 
from what we see in Linacre. It has been well pointed out 
by Mr Seebohm, in his work on the Oxford Reformers^ that 



Colet was at Florence during the ag;itation and enthusiasi 
aroused by the preachingof Savonarola, and doubtless derivo 
from him that new spirit in theology which his after Hfe dis^ 
played, and which has caused him to be reckoned among the 
precursors of the reformation. Grocyn and Linacre shew 
nothing of this. They knew Florence when the literary re- 
naissanee was at its height, and when the spirit of the learned 
world was more pagan ihan Christian. We shall notice after- 
wards what bearing this had upon Linacres literary and theo- 
logical position. 

The dissertation which the newly-returned scholar read fo 
his degree in medicine is said to have attracted attention, bu 
he does not seem to have taught publicly; — at least Grocyi 
and Latimer are the oniy names we hcar of as public lectureil 
on Greek. It was, however, Linacres good fortune, at thi 
time, to meet with a pupil whose subsequent eminence w 
enough to make his teacher distinguished, with whom 1 
formed the most important literary friendship of his life, an 
who has left us the brightest and most life-like pictures of Lii 
acre himself. This pupil was Erasmus, whose long-cherishe 
plans of going to Italy to learn Greek were, as is well knowfl 
deferred, in order that he might visit England with the sain 
object. The story of Erasmus' stay in Oxford has often bee 
told, though never before so fully and clearly as in Mr Sei 
bohm's volume alrcady referred to. It is very likely that fc 
may have derivcd from Colet some of the ideas which aftel 
wards influenced his literary and theological activity. T 
Linacre he owed, undoubtedly, the foundation of his Gree 
scholarship, and his respect for the ability and character of h 
teacher are shewn in many well-known passages from I: 
letters, In one of the best known he writes as follows: "i 
Colet I hear Plato himself. Who does not admire the perfe 




compass of science m Grocyn ? What can be more acute, more 
profound, or more refined than the judgment of Linacre ?" 
There are many similar passages, and, though eulogy was the 
fashion of ihe age, we feel at once that, at least in speaking of 
Linacre, Erasmus meant what he said. The same impression 
must be derived, I think, from an amusing passage in the " En- 
comium Moriae," though some of Linacres biographers seem 
to have omitted it as if derogatory to his reputation. It is, 
however, written in a strain of good-natured banter, which 
shews that there was a foundation of good feeling and mutual 
respect between the two scholars, 

" Novi quendam ■Tr\vr€)Q'6Ta.Tov Gr^ecum, Latinum, Ma- 
thematicum, philosophum medicum koX xavTo. ^a.uiKt.Kov jam 
sexagenarium qui ca^teris rebus omissis annls plus viginti se 
torquet et discruciat in Grammatici, prorsus felicem se fore 
ratus si tamdiu licet vivere, donec certo statuat, quomodo dis- 
tinguendx sint octo partes orationis, quod hactenus ncmo 
Grfficorum aut Latinorum ad plenum prxstare valuit. Proinde 
quasi res sit bello quoque vindicanda, si quis conjunctionem 
faciat dictionem ad adverbiorum jus pertinentem^." 

There is no record of Linacre"s practice in his profession at 
Oxford. A new direction was given to his life by the call 
which he received about the year 1501 to come to court, and 
direct the studies of Uie young Prince Arthur, This mark of 
^Murt favour appears to have been in some way connected 
BnrJth the visit of Prince Arthur to the University where he re- 
I Bided in Magdalen College. The appointment lasted till the 
princes death in 1503, buttlie only record of it which remains 
is the Latin translation of the treatise of Proclus On the 
Sphere, dedicated to Prince Arthur, which has been already 
referred to. This was Linacres earllest published work. 
After the princes death Linacre appears to have stayed in 


London, and probably to have practised medicine, but thraie 
13 no satisfactory evidence as to this period of his life. 

The accession of Henry VIII. must have raised ihe hopes 
of Linacre, as it did those of all the scholars and enlightened 
men in Engiand at that time. The young king, known to be 
leamed himself and a favourer of learning, was expected to 
give a powerful stimulus to the progress of the oew studies. 
Erasmus was urged by his friends to retum to England to 
share the prosperity and splendour of the new reign. A new 
epoch of enlightenment was to commence, and a final blow 
was to be given to all those evils and abuses which the scho- 
lars summed up in the word barbarism. It is well known 
that these hopes were not at all, or very imperfectly, realized, 
but Linacre himself had no reason for disappointment. He 
was made the royal physician, a post, in those dajs, of great 
influence and importance in other than professional matters, as 
is shewii by a curious letter addressed to Linacre by the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. From this, as from other events, it is clear 
that Linacre did not, while at court, forget his old mistress, 
learning, but used his infiuence as far as possible for her 
advancemcnL He is described by a contemporary and friend 
George Lilly, as conspicuous among the chief persons of the 
court in a purple robe and a hood of black silk*. Among 
his other patients are mentioned the great prelates Woisey, 
Warham, and Fox. 

After some years of professional activity, and when he 
was about fifty years of age, Linacre appears to have taken 
holy orders ; or possibly at this time merely proceeded to 
priest's orders, having been previously deacon, The sim- 
plest explanation of this step is that which is given by 
nimself in the dedication of his translation of Galen de Nalu- 
ralibus Facultalibus to Archbishop Warham. namely, that he 


hoped to get more leisure for literary work. It is supposed 

that he prepared himself for the sacred office by entering, in 

mature life, upon the study of theology. and a curious story is 

^^old in connexion with his first reading of the New Testa- 

Hpient, which, as it has been strangely misunderstood, may be 

^Hrorth giving in detail. The story rests solely on the autho- 

^T-ity of Sir John Chelie, Professor of Greek at Cambridge, in 

his letters on the pronunciation of Greek. addressed to Bishop 

Gardiner, at that time Chancellor of the University. Cheke 

K^ems to have been anxious to conciliate the Bishop, and at 

^Wie same tlme, for some reason or other, to depreciate Lin- 

Bftcre. He speaks of him as a learned person and a good phy- 

sician, but one who should not venture out of his own province, 

and, he says, in power of rhetoric and popular expression 

far inferior lo the episcopal correspondent to whom Chekes 

Ktters were addressed^". 
He then tells the following story. Linacre when advanced 
life, his health broken by study and disease, and near his 
end, took the New Testament in liis hand for the first time, 
(although he was a priest,) and read the Gospel of Si Matthew 
to the end of the 7th Chapter (that is to the end of the 
^^ermon on the Mount). Having read it, he threw the volume 
^^Bvay with all the strength he could muster, swearing "either 
^Hnis is not the Gospel or we are not Christians." It is pro- 
^Dable that the striking contrast between the teaching of the 
Sermon on the Mount and the practice of the Christian World 
has inspired many readers with the same feeling, and it will 
continue to have the same effect on many more, though they 
may not happen to give vent to their surprise wilh the same 
petiilance. Cheke seems to argue that it shewed some scepti- 
1 in Linacre or want of respect for the Scriptures. Selden 
; misunderstood the story still more strangely, imagining 


that Linacre referred onty or chiefly to the prohibition of 
swearing. But looked at without prejudlce Linacre*s excla- 
mation seems natural enough. It is well known that the 
Scholars of the renaissance, before the time of Erasmus at 
least, were very little acquainted with the Scriptures in the 
originai text, or even in the Latin Vuigate Version, which is 
said to have been avoided on account of its non-classical 
idioms. Now Linacre was a scholar and not a theologian. 
A theologian by profession either passes lightly over dlscre- 
pancies such as these or else has already found such an 
explanation of them as is possible. But the spirit of scholar- 
ship and criticism js to take words in thelr true meaning 
and to view ideas by uncoloured light. Linacres remark 
needs no other explanation than that he read the passage 
with the unbiassed judgment ofa schoiar. 

Although it is clear that Liiiacre entered the Church under 
the patronage of Archbishop Warham he is said to have been 
ordained priest by the Blshop of London on Dec' 22'"' 1520. 
The date of his entrance into deacon's orders is unknown. 
It has been conjectured that he received from Pope Leo the 
Tenth, his old schoolfellow, a dispensation from the necessity 
of passing through the inferior clerical degrees, and that this 
may have been the kindness for which he expresses his grati- 
tude in the dedication of the present volume. Be this as it 
may, he received from Warham in 1509 his first preferment 
to the Rectory of Merstham in Kent, which he resigned in a 
little more than a nionth from his collation. In the same year 
he reccived the Prebend of Easton in Gardano in the Cathe- 
dral of Wells, and in the same year the living of Hawkhurst, 
in Kent, which he held till the year 1524. Further marks of 
favour were bestowed upon him in 1517, when he was made 
Canon and Prebendar)' of Westminster, and in 1518 when he 


' acquired the Prebend of South Newbold in the Cathedral of 
York. He resigned the iatter preferment on receiving the 
important appointment of Precentor in the same York Cathe- 
drai, but resigned thts also in the same year. Two other 
benefices are recorded as having been bestowed iipon him, 
the Rectory of Holworthy in Devonshire by the King, in 
15 18, and in 1520 the Rectory of Wigan, in Lancashire, on 
the titie of which he received priest's orders, Dec. 22, 1520, 
and which he held till hls death^'. 

There is no evidence that Linacre resided at any one 
of the benefices or Cathedral appointments which he received. 
In fact it is most probable, though not absolulely certain, that 
he continued to live in his London house. His biographers 
then have been somewhat puzzled to account for his accepting 
so many preferments and resigning most of them so soon. 
But it is probable that a physician and scholar did not hold 
more rigid notions respecting the evils of pluralism than his 
more strictly clericai contemporaries and that he saw no harm 
in holding a benefice of which he could not discharge the duty 
or only did so by deputy. The speedy resignation of a bene- 
fice is no evidence that the preferment was unprofitable. It 
is probable that in accordance with the common cuslom he 
resigned only in favour of a conslderation paid by an aspirant 
who desired to be presented to the office, and was willing 
to pay the holder to vacate it, Such a practice has lasted 
in regard to secular offices almost to our own time^^. 
Linacre must be judged not by the system which, what- 
ever its faults. gave him leisure for literary work and plans 
of public usefulness, but by the manner in which he employed 
the wealth which these benefices placed at his disposal. It 
must have been from this source that he obtained funds for 
his munificent endowments. 


The firstfruits of his renewed Hterary activlty did not a_ 
pear till the year 1 5 1 7. eighteen years after his first work, whai 
he published his translation into Latin of ihe six Books of 
Galen, De Sanitate Tuendd. This vcrsion was printed in a 
fine folio by Rubeus, of Faris, and dedicated to Henry VIII. 
The dedication of this work shews the reverence in which 
the writings of Galen were held, a point of which we shall 
have to speak again. It is also interesting sincc it tells us 
that many scholars of Italy, France, and Germany, but 
especially the two great lights of the age, Erasmus and 
Buda;us, had repeatedly urged him to publish this work. 
The Preface addressed to the reader contains a great many 
Greek words, which may perhaps be the reason why the 
work was not printed in England, where no Greek type 
probably existed at this time, as will be seen from Sibercn's 
introduction to the work now reprinted. A vellum copy of 
this book presented to Cardinal Wolsey is still preservq 
in the British Museum with the original letter which a< 
companied it. Another copy presented to Bishop Fox i 
now in the library of the CoIIege of Physicians, and has i 
dedicatory letter written at the beginning, but I cannq 
think it to be Linacres own handwriting. J 

Two years later appeared the translation of Ga!en's Mm 
thodus Medettdi, in bulk one of the greatest of his works, aw 
in substance one of the most obscure. It is not now easy 1 
understand the admiration and gratitude with which scholaj 
received his translation. The work itself was known by nai 
only to most, and perhaps on. that account was the mori_ 
respected. The judgment of Dr Johnson, Linacre's biogra- 
pher, is as follows : — ■" Not less formidable in its length than 
inconiprehensible in many of the theories contained in iL 
The sentence pronounced by the Mufli on the verses of thd 


Turklsh poet Missi, whose meanlng he declared to be in- 
telligible to none save lo God and to him by whom they 
were composed, may with equal truth be applied to the 
doctrine which this book inculcates." This translation also 
was dedicated to Henry 8th and it is curious that Linacre 
speaks of it as the third work pubhshed under tiie protection 
of the Royal name, though no other is known than that 
already mentioned, unless the allusion be to the dedication 
of his translation of Proclus to the Kings elder brother, 
Prince Arthur. It is further introduced by some com- 
mendatory verses from the pen of Janus Lascaris. It was 
beautifully printed in foHo by Desiderius Maheu. at Paris, 
in 1519. A presentation copy sent to Cardinal Wolsey with 
the complimentary letter which accompanied it is stiU pre- 
served in the British Museum. Both the above-mentioned 
versions have been frequently reprinted at Paris and else- 
where, and, with a few alterations, have been accepted as the 
standard translations of those works of Galen, 

The next work published by Linacre was the translation 
now reproduced of which we need not speak further at this 
point. The dedication to Pope Leo the Tenth is, as will be 
seen, inspired by a recollection of the writers early friendship 
with the great Pontiff, when they were fellow-pupils of PoHtian 
and Chalcondylas. One passage in this letter is still obscure, 
that in which he refers to some recent and striking proof of 
the Pontift"'s munificence, shared in common with others, who 
had been also his schoolfellows at Florence. It has been sug- 

ted that this act of kindness may have been some dispen- 
.tion which facilitated Linacre's entrance into Holy Orders. 
T there were any such dispensation, it is more likely that it 
was one enabling him to hold a benefice, white still a deacon, 
or perhaps even a layman. since we find that Linacre's first 
clerical preferment was given him in the year of Henry the 




Eighths accession, which must also have been that of Lia- 
acres appointment as Court Physician, and it seems highly 
improbable that his ordination should have takcn place almost: 
simultaneously with thls appointment. But there is no proof 
that any dispensation whatever was referred to, and it is quite 
possible that the Pope's generosity may have been shewn ia 
some other way, such as by some valuable present, since thJs 
might have been, what a dispensation could not have been,: 
bestowed ahke on his other old schoolfellows. 

Two other translations from Galen, were published by 
Linacre during his hfetime. one the treatise De Naturalt&ui 
FacuUatibus in the year 1523 by Pynson, in London, and & 
short tract De Pulsuum UsA. either in the same year or in 
the next. which was the last year of Linacre's Hfe. Two other 
translations, De Symptomatum Differmtiis and De Symptom»' 
tum Causis, were printed by Pynson after the writers death. 

Two grammatical works must also be mentioned as oc- 
cupying some part of Linacres later years ; the Rudimenta 
Grammatices was coniposed for the use of the Princess Mary, 
and is in English. though its title is Latin. It was afterwarda 
translated into Latin by George Buchanan, and in this fonn 
published at Paris. 

A niore elaborate work entitled De Emendald structurA 
was not printed until the year 1524, but from the history d 
its composition must have been written about i^years earher. 
Linacre's old friend Dean Colet, the foimder of St Paul'S 
School, desiring to have for the use of his school a better 
grammar than any which already existed, appears to have 
asked Linacre to compose a suitable work. The treatise of 
which we are now speaking resulted, but when produced \t 
was thought to be, in bulk and difificulty, quite beyond the 
comprehension of young pupils. Coiet accordingly thought 
himself obliged to decline it, and substituted a much shorter 


compendium written by himself, or William Lily, or by both 
jointly. which was afterwards revised by Erasnius and re- 
printed by Cardinal Wolsey for the use of Ipswich School. 
This was the foundation of the well-known Lilys Grammar. 
Linacre appears to have been annoyed at the rejection of his 
Grammar, and a breach was thus made in his friendship with 
Colet, which never appears to have been heaied. Erasmus 
vainly endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation. This 
was the best known work published by Linacre in the domain 
of scholarship ; several editions were printed by Estienne at 
Paris. and many others in other European cities. To some 
is prefixed a laudatorj- preface by Melanchthon. It is not 
quite clear whether it was published before or immedialely 
after the authors death. 

The works now mentioned were, in combination with 
medical practice, the occupation of the last 14 years of Lin- 
acre's llfe. It is impossible to say exactly at what time he 
gave up the active practice of his profession. The only 
passage which might be supposed to throw any light on 
the subject, is one in the dedication of the translation of 
De Naluralibus Faaillalihis to Archbishop \\'arham, where 
he speaks gratefully of the leisure afiforded by the assumption 
of the priestly office conferred on him by Warham'^. But as 
the only certain instance of his receiving a benefice from the 
Archbishop, was that of the rectory of Merstham, in 1509, 
the year in which Linacre entered upon his duties as Court 
Physician, it seems that some later prefcrment or else ordi- 
nation, must be referred to. It is possible therefore, that he 
may have only gradiially given up practice. 

But Linacre rendered a service to medicine far more im- 
portant than any of his writings, by the foundation of the 
College of Physicians and It is for this that he has been and 


will continue to be held in grateful remerabrance. In order to 
understand tlie Importance and utility of Linacres conception 
we must remember that up to this time medicine could not be 
said to have existed as a dislinct profession in England, The 
two classes of physicians and surgeons were vcry widely sepa- 
rated. The former were chiefly ecclesiastics and so far as any 
authorization was necessary to allow them to practice they 
received their authority from the Bishops or Archbishops. A 
statute passed in the ^rd year of Henry VIII. (3 Henry VIII. 
Cap. II.) exhiblts a first attempt to remedy this deficiency. It 
is there recited that " forasmuch as the science and cunning of 
physlc and chirurgy to the perfect knowledge whereof be 
requisite both great learnlng and ready experience is daily in 
this realm exercised by great mukltudes of ignorant persons 
of whom the greater part have no manner of insight in the 
same nor in any other kind of learning ; some also can know 
no letters on the book, so far that common artificers as smiths, 
weavers, and women boldly and customarily take upon them 
great cures of thlngs of grcat difficulty in the which they partly 
use sorccry and witchcraft, and partly apply such medlcines 
unto the disease as be very noyous and are not meet iherefor, 
to the high dlspleasure of God, great Infamy to the faculty, 
and the grievous hurt, damage, and destructlon of many of the 
King's liege people, most especially of them that cannot dis- 
cern the uncunnlng from the cunning." It is then provided 
that no one should practise as a physlclan or surgeon withittj^ 
the City of London or seven miles from the same except he br 
examlned and proved by the Blshop of London or by thj 
Dean of PauTs with the aid of doctors of Physlc and expert 
in surgery. In other parts of the country the duty of provii^ 
medical practitioners was assigned to the Bishop of 


Ve do not know whether Linacre's influence was in any 
way concerncd in getting this Statute passed. A few years 
afterwards, in the year 1 5 1 8, Royal letters patent were granted 
for the carrying out of the scheme in which Linacre was con- 
cerned and which was in al! probability framcd by him. The 
lelters were addressed to John Chambre, Thomas Linacre, 
and Fernandus de Victoria. together with three other physicians 
also named, and all men of the same faculty in London. 
These were to be incorporated as one perpetual commonalty 
or College, to have the power of electing a President, the use 
of a common seal, the liberty of holding lands in fee and of 
purchasing lands whose annual value did not exceed ^12. 
They were permitted to make statutes for regulating the 
practice of physic in London and for seven miles round, and 
received the important privilege of punishing offenders by fine 
or imprisonment. 

These letters were dated 23rd September in the loth year 
of Henry VIIL Four years after the privileges thereby 
granted were confirmed and extended by a Statute (14 & 15 
Henry VHL Cap. 5). By this Statute the privileges of the 
College were extended over the whole of England, no person 
being allowed to practise physic without having been examined 
and licensed by the Presidcnt of the CoIIege and three of the 
elecL The reason given for this extension of privilege was 
the difiiculty of finding in each diocese men able to sufficiently 
examine those who were to be admitted physicians. The 
graduates of Oxford or Cambridge who had accomplished all 
their exercises in due form without any grace were alone 
allowed to practise without a licence. The privileges of the 
CoHege were confirmed and entarged by several subsequent 
Statutes and Letters Patent in the reign of King James the 
First, in the Protectorate of Cromwell, and at other times. 


Among other powers conferred by James the First was that 
of examining into the purity and goodness of all apothecaries' 
wares kept in the houses of apothecaries and druggists in 
London. This right was exercised up till the beginning of 
this century and a similar inspection or visitatlon of dnigs is 
still performed by Government Assessors in Germany. 

Comparing the Collegeof Physicians with the bodieswhich 
exercised the same riglits in other countries in the sixteenth 
century we see that the chief justlfication for its existence was 
the fact tliat no University or Facully of Medicine existed in 
London, In Paris, for instance, and in other University 
cities very similar privileges were given to the Faculty, that is 
to say. to the Doctors of Medicine of the University. It would 
have been a serious curtailment of University privileges to 
have founded in those cities any body like the College of 
Physicians. Linacre, who was so well acquainted with the 
learned bodies of Italy and France, must doubtless have felt 
the want in London of a learned body with the name and 
dignity of the University. His College was doubtless in- 
tended to take the place of the University so far as medicine 
was concerned. There js, however, no hint of any provision 
for teaching. 

Beside the ostensible object of preventing the practice 
of medicine by ignorant persons, the foundation of the 
College effected another equaljy important reform which may 
possibly have been foreseen and intended by its founders, 
although the intention was not avowed. This was nolhing 
else than the liberation of medicine and the medical profession 
from the contro! of thc Church. The Bishops, it is said, not- 
withstanding the formal abolition of their privileges, continued 
to license physicians for i8o years after the foundation of the 
College, but never since has any eccleslastical authority con- 



trolled the status or the practice of the medical profession in 
England. This liberty could hardly have been so complete 
had medicine been as completely as in other countries a de- 
partment of University teaching. Linacre's foundation must 
have the credit of preserving medicine both froin the imme- 
diate domination of clerics and from future subjection to the 
leaden rule of orthodoxy. which swayed for several centuries 
the English Universities. The conditions of the new Col- 
lege and the mode of admission into it were clearly designed, 
and were calculated to give a very definite stamp to the Eng- 
lish physician. He was to be in the first place a man of learn- 
ing, and in this respect the standard of the Cotlege was cer- 
tainly higher than that of the Universities, as is clear from 
the history of certain controversies that arose between these 
authorities. Considering too that it was scarcely possible 
to obtain in this country the particular kind of learning re- 
quired, a strong inducement was held out to physicians to sludy 
at the Universities of the Continent, especially in Italy. Hence 
physicians were not only learned but very often travelled per- 
sons : and the names of foreigners are found rather frequently 
in the early rolls of the College. Moreover as the nuniber of 
physicians practising in London was not large, and the diffi- 
culties of obtaining a licence were so considerable, a physlcian 
had no doubt a social position very much above that of the 
surgeon, and perhaps relatively higher than at the present day. 
It must be admitted also that the standing of an English 
physician has been made more definite and further removed 
from any association with trade than in any other European 
country. We see then pretty clearly what was the ideal that 
Linacre had framed ; — a grave and learned person, well read in 
Galen. respecting, but not bowing down to, the prestige of 
the Universities, claiming for his own science a dignity apart 


from, but not conflicting^ with, that of theology, looking upo 
surgeons and apothecaries with charity, but not without a s 
of his own superiority. 

,Such was to be the English Physician, and Llnacre i 
cecded, if such was his object, in moulding a definiie type o 
character which lasted for two centuries at leasL But th 
physician of Linacre"s school is no more ; — his epitaph wa 
written nearly a hundred years ago by no less a person thai 
Samuel Johnson. The great lexicographer was asked upoi 
his death-bed for what physician he had sent. " I have senl^' 
he said. " for Heberden, nlUmum Romanorum, the last of oui 
learned physicians." 

Tlie further history of the College of Physicians nea 
not be written here ; but something must be said of twfl 
other foundations also due to the public spirit and far-seeinj 
benevolence of Linacre. These were his readerships a 
Oxford and Cambridge. In order to provide for the publw 
teaching of medicine in the University and more especiall] 
for the reading of the works of Hippocrates and Galei^ 
Linacre shortly before his death transferred to trustees con 
siderable landed estates producing about ^30 a year, whicJ 
it was no doubt intended should be conveyed directly to th) 
Universities for the foundation of Readerships. But th« 
manner in which his purpose was carried out was unsatis 
factory, and the subsequent history of the foundations is 1 
melancholy chapter in University annals. The four trustee 
were Sir Thomas More. Tunstail, Bishop of London, 
Stokesley, himself afterwards a bishop and a certaln Sherifi) 
a lawyer. For reasons which it is difficult to understand, 
unless simply negligence and procrastination were responsi- 
ble. nothing was done with these funds till the reign of 
Edward VI., when Tunstall, the surviving trustee, transferred 


part of the estate to Merton College, Oxford, for the founda- 
tion of two Readers, and another part to St Johns College, 
Cambridge. for the establishinent of a Readership there. It 
is quite clear that Linacre intended ihese lo be University 
and not college foundations. His intention is sufficiently 
estabHshed by a letler addressed to him by the University 
of Oxford which has been published by Dr Johnson. The 
U niversity acknowledges " that pecuHar affection towards 
our commonwealth by which you have rendered yourself 
specially eminent," and speaks of the splendid lectures "which 
you have appointed to be read here al your expense as wisely 
devoted to the study of medicine." This might seem to refer 
to a foundation already established, but for the concluding 
words of the letter. " Lastly. we earnestly and again and again 
implore you not to abandon the resolutlon you have under- 
taken, and that your intentions may never be so many and 
varied as to divert or overcrowd this project. Let us certainly 
hope that the restoration of these, as well as all other studies 
to their pristine dignity may be effected during your life, 
and if aught in our power can promote thls most excellent 
design, beUeve us prepared to second your wishes. Farewell, 
and may you long enjoy Ilfe, chlef patron of learning!" 
According to Anthony Wood, Linacre's foundation was settled 
in Merton CoIIege Instead of in the Universlty, on account of 
the great decay of the University in the relgn of Edward VL, 
and through the persuasion of Dr Reynolds, warden of 
Merton College. This CoIIege was moreover for some 
reason specially frequented by the students of medicine, 
The appointment of readers, originally the duty of the 
trustees, was now transferred to the College. Members of 
he College had a preference for the appolntment ; though 
T none were found properly qualified. a member of another 


Coll^e or Hall mighc be appointed. Tbe appotntment 
for three )-ears only. \V*ith our present experience of Uni- 
versitj' history-, it is easy to see thai no system could have 
been better calculated to reduce Linacres great foundatii 
to uselessness and obscurity. 

The names of a few of the eariier readers are given 
Wood ; that of one only. Dr Robert Bames, emerges fi 
total obscurit>\ The Readerships soon became sinecures, and 
their stipends were regarded as nothing more than an agree- 
able addition to the incomes of two of the Fellows. Among 
the many similar instances of the misapplication of endow- 
ments we shall not easily find a grosser abuse. Twent)' years 
ago. as is well known, the 0.xford Commissioners revived the 
name of the Founder in the present flourishing Linacre Pro- 
fessorship of Anatomy so ably hlled, so important in the 
history of science in Oxford. and provided for its endowmi 
by Merton College, as an equivalent for the income which 
CoIIege still derives from Linacres estates. 

At Cambridge the history of the corresponding Readi 
ship was even more unfortunate. The appointment was 
given to St john's College, and though it was at first pro- 
vided that the lectures of Linacre"s Reader should be de^ 
livered in the Schools of the University. the office S( 
came to be regarded as nothing more than a college sinecui 
Moreover, through bad management of the funds, or chief 
I believe, through an imprudent exchange of the est; 
originally settled by Linacre for one which has tumed 
to be of less value, the income originally intended for 
Readership seems to have been lost But for the sake 
other than Cambridge men it ought to be here stated thi 
the present Linacre Reader of Pathology fills with credit 
chair moat inadequately endowed, and has revived in ~ 





' hriArrf thc 


bridge the public teachings of a study perfectly congruous 
with, though different from that which was intended by the 
founder. It is impossible to doubt that Linacre looked for- 
ward to founding what should essentially be a school of medi- 
cine in each University. And it is a strange instance of the 
irony of fate, that Cambridge at the present day cpmes far 
nearer to carrying out the plans of the great scholar than his 
own University of O.xford, to which he always shewed the 
loyalty of an affectionate son, and on which he conferred the 
largest share of his munificent bounty. 

In the year 1524 it became evident to Linacre that his 
health was breaking, and in June of that year he executed his 
wilL He appears to have suffered much from ihe painful 
disease, stone in tlie bladder. which finally carried him off on 
the 20th October, 1524, at the age, as is supposed, of sixty- 
four. His death was a great loss to the cause of learning in 
England, and many passages in the letters of contemporary 
scholars will shew that it was not less felt in all learned circles 
throughout Europe. He was buried in the Old Cathedral of 
St Paul, but for more than thirty years no memoriai appears 
to have marked his grave. This strange neglect was only 
supplied in the year 1557 by the great physician John Caius, 
a name memorable in Cambridge annals, who if not personally 
a pupil of Linacre was in the most complete sense the in- 
heritor of his spirit, and the most perfect lype of a physician, 
such as the founder of our CoIIege wished to see. The Latin 
epitaph, written no doubt by Caius himself, perished in the 
great fire of London, but has been preserved by Dugdale. 
After an enumeration of the learned works and public services 
of Linacre it sketches in a few words a fine character, 
" Fraudes dolosque mire perosus ; fidus amicis ; omnibus 
ordinibus juxta carus." 



It will hardly be necessary to supplement the ter 
eulogium pronounced by Caius, by any attempt to sum i 
Linacres moral excellences, But it may be worth while \ 
form some estimate of the talents and accompHshments whic 

fave him so high a reputation among his contemporariesi 
lo original writing of Linacre's has been preserved, excep 
his grammatical works and a few dedications and letters, oi 
the strength of which it would be absurd to hazard any gene 
ralization as to his intellectual power. His reputation rested 
and still rests upon his translations ; together with the uo- 
defined, but unmistakably strong impression which he pro* 
duced upon his friends and literary contemporaries, Frod 
them we should gather that it was to the multifariousness a 
Linacre's attainments as well as his excellence in each, that hi 
owed his renown. To his literary faculty there are man| 
testimonies. His Latin writing was thought to be so goo« 
that according to the friendly eulogium of Erasmus, tb 
works of Galen as interpreted by Linacre, spoke betttl 
Latin than they had before spoken Greek. Other opinions 
not less laudatory were expressed both by Erasmus himself ii 
other places and by other scholars not less sensitive in thi 
matter of style. LJnacre was not, however, a slavish imitatol 
of any master. Erasmus among others has preserved th' 
tradition of his slight regard for Cicero. He would rathe 
have been thought to write like Quinctilian. The only con* 
plaint however which Erasmus makes against his friend is fol 
his excessive elaboration in poIJshing and correcting hi 
writings, from which it resulted that much of his work wai 
reserved as not sufficiently perfect to be published : and \x 
many cases ultimately lost'*, It is disappointing to hear tha 
Linacre had translated Aristotle in such a way that Erasmiu 
says * sic Latim legitur Aristoieles ut, licet Atticus, vix in stld 


sermone parem kabeat gratiam ' : and of his other versions 
' sunl illi pemtulta in scriniis, magno usidfutura studiosis.' 

Beside the excellence of his style, Linacre was famed for 
his critical judgment, 'vir non exacli tanlum sed severijudiciV, 
says Erastnus, whlle in Grammar and Rhetoric, as shewn in 
the curious Httle fable of Richard Pacey formeriy quoted, he 
was regarded as no less a master, Moreover he was what 
was called in those days an eminent 'philosopher,' that is, 
profoundly read in the works of the ancient naturalists and 
philosophers, such as Aristotle, Plato and Pliny. 
■• It is not easy to form any distinct notion of Linacre's skill 
■In his own profession. Little more was expected of a physi- 
■ cian in those days than to apply with proper care the maxims 
of the books. \Ve do not even know whether in his practice 
Linacre made more use of the ancient medical classics whom 
he was endeavouring to rescue from neglect than of the 
' Neoterics' who were the ruling spirits of the day. and whose 
doctrines were derived from the Arab physicians or from 
European schools sprung out of the Arab learning. Some 
have taken for granted that a man so great in book leaming 
could not be good in practice. But the few notices which remain 
give no countenance to this assumption. Erasmus comme- 
morales in two or three places his friend's medical skill. In 
one he deplores Linacre's absence, and laments (with curious 
modernism) that his servant had left the physician's last pre- 
scription at the druggist^s, and begs for another copy. In 
one instance a record of Linacre"s treatment of Erasmus's 
complaint remains, and appears to have bcen as sensible and 
practical, as if the physician had known not a word of Greek, 
and had passed his life as a country apothecary. He is also 
hiTecorded to have advised his friend William Lily not to 
nsent to an operation for the removal of a tumour of the 


hip ; but the operation undertaken against Linacre's advice, 
unfortunately proved fatal. 

It was not Linacres fortune to contribute anything to the 
science of medicine, or toany of its collateral sciences. Hia 
age was not one of research as now understood. The first 
original work on medicine produced in England was done by 
his successor Caius, whose treatisc on the sweating sickness 
published twenty years after Linacres death is still esteemed 
This and other great epidemics must have passed before the 
eyes of Linacre, but no record remains to shew us in what 
light he regarded them. Nor is there any evidence that he 
appreciated the importance of the revival of Anatomy and 
Botany ; sciences on which the subsequent development of 
medicine in Europe has so largely been based. Though 
evidently eagerly desirous to assist in the renovation of medical 
science, he looked to other means to accompHsh this end. 
What these means were Jt may be worth while to state some- 
what more in detail. 

The aim which Linacre and other scholars set before them' 
in translating or publishing ihe works of Galen can only be 
understood by a consideration of the state of medical learning 
and scholarship at the time. The student of niedicine in those 
days, Uke the student of theology or philosophy. had to derive 
his knowledge almost entirely from books, There was indeed 
one school of practical anatomy in Italy, that founded by 
Mundinus at Bologna in the i^th century, and continued in 
Linacre's time by Berengarius Carpus, who is said to have 
dissected one hundred bodies with his own hand, but in other 
parts of Europe only a literary knowledge of anatomy was 
possible. There was no such thing as hospital instruction, 
and what would be called in modern times Materia Medica 
was represented only by the empirical knowledge of humble 


'collectors of simples, and by the works of scholars learned 
only in books who gave descriptions borrowed at second or 
third hand from the Arabian physicians, or at a still greater 
distance from Aristotle. Medical leaming, thus understood, 
received like all other learning the stimutus of two great 
movements, the revival of Greek hterature, with the con- 
sequent higher estimation of ihe classicaJ Latin writers, on 
the one hand, and on the other hand the readier diffusion of 
books through the invention of printing. How the ciassical 
revival affected letters in general, theology and philosophy, is 
well known, Everywhere men became aware more or less 
distinctiy that there was a new world of knowledge within 
their reach. but concealed from them by a mass of com- 
mentary and compilation, barbarous in language, and corrupt 
in substance, though professedly founded on the works of 
those great authors who were little more than names to the 
mediseval scholars. Gradually the great figures of antiquity 
became more distinct, as the followers of the new leaming 
tore off the barbarous wrappings which had so iong hidden or 
distorted them. It was in this spirit that the scholars set to 
work in their great task of restoring antiquity. There were 
doubtiess many other aims. and some of them higher, which 
animated the more ardent spirits of the Renaissance, but of 
these we cannot pretend to speak. What alone concerns us 
here is their resolute endeavour to get at the real Aristotle, 
Flato or Homer, instead of the reflections and shadows of 
them which had long been reverenced. It was this spirit 
which made the printing of the first edition of Homer by 
Chalcondyias and Demetrius Cretensis in 1488, seem to them, 
as it has indeed seemed to later generations, an epoch in 
literature. It was this which in the next generation led 
Erasmus to devote years of iabour to bringing out the Novum 


Testamentum, and it was in this spirit too, that Linacre the 
pupil of Chalcondylas and the teacher of Erasmus. standing 
between the literary and the rehgious revival. conceived the 
two great projects of his !ife, the publication of Aristotle and 
Galen in a form accessible to the whole learned world. The 
first scheme indeed he scarcely commenced, of the latter he 
did but Httle, though as he says " nihil magis in votis erat." 

To discover the genuine text of an ancient author an{ 
make it known may seem to us a useful task, though no 
among the greatest, but to the scholars of the Renaissana 
it was a matter of supreme importance. Linacre and his felioTl 
workers doubtless expected that medicine would profit aa 
much by the rediscovery of the Greek medical writings a» 
letters and phiiosophy had gained from the masterpieces of 
Greek poetry and speculation ; and it was with such hope 
that they undertook to revive and make known the worki 
of Galen, Galen, like Aristotle, had been very imperfecU" 
known, even to those who most implicitly acknowledged his 
authority. With regard to Aristotle Sir Alexander Grant 
has pointed out that thousands of scholars who considere4 
themselves staunch Aristotelians. knew not a word of the 
master beyond the two first treatises in the Organon ; and 
in the same way. many who reverenced Galen as the sourci 
of all medical knowledge. knew him only through imperfec 
Latin versions, the compilations of medisval scholars, or o 
the Arabians, whose works were chiefly based on Galen, aiw 
who had in this case as in that of Aristotle the credit q_ 
making a Greek author in large measure known to the 
modern world. 

The works of Avicenna, Mesua and others were the chie 
medical text-books in Europe before, and even for a loni 
time after, the revival of learning. The Jewish teachers, who 


Tiad founded schools of surgery in many European c!ties, 
(among others in Oxford, before the rise of the University) 
were versed in Arabian learning, and thus it came to pass 
that medicine presented itself to the mediseval world in an 
Arabian dress. Froni these sources and from the teachers of 
the school of Salerno, were compiled the manuals of the 
"Arabist^e" or " Neoterici." which under such names as 
Articella, Practica, Litium Medicin^, Rosa Anglica were the 
daily guides of the medical practitioner. 

When the Arabian writers fell into disrepute, partly through 
being condemned as heretical, and partly as being barbarous 
in style, it was regarded. if one may say so, as a sort of in- 
dignity that Medical Sclence should still be so much beholden 
to the infidel sages. Those physicians who were also scholars 
felt this to be a reproach which must be wiped ouL This 
feeling. fantastic as it may seem, was apparently wide-spread 
through the little world of scholars, and has been expressed by 
one of them in a manner so strange that I cannot forbear to 
quote it both for the sake of the grain of truth which it con- 
tains, and for its unconscious reflection of the fantastic ideas of 
the age. 

The author Symphorien Champier was a physician of 
Lyons, a voluminous writer as weil as a Uberal and wealthy 
patron of letters. The extract is from a short tract Symphonia 
Galeni ad Hippocratetn, Cornelii Celsi ad Avtcetmam, una 
cum seciis antiqiiorum medicorum ac reeentium, forming the 
introduction to a little work on Clysters, Clysteriorum campi 
contra Arabum opinionem pro Galcni sententid, etc, which is 
known in Uterature as the original of the "Treatise on Clysters, 
by S. C", placed by Rabelais in the catalogue of books 
' crming the library of St Victor. 

After lamenting that for so many centuries pure literature. 


that is Greek and Roman, should have been neglected, andl 
instead the mean ditties {nenuE) of certain pretenders shouldl 
have been cultivated. Indignum facinus, says Champier, (u!cl 
me deus amel') nullis bobus, nullisque victimis expiandum. 

Next, passing to the subjects of philosophy and medicinc^J 
he represents a war as arising between the Arabians and thej 
Classics, which might have ended disastrously for the latter, T 
but for the interposition of divine providence. 

" Jam eo insolentix ac temerttatis devenerant Arabi prin-i^j 
cipes, ut nobis medicam artem funditus auferre audacissimeT 
conarentur ; quandoquidem castra solventes in Graecos ac 
Latinos omnem belli impetum convertebant, multaque millia 
processerant, cum deus Opt. Max. (cujus est hominum repente 
et consilia et animos immutare) ut auguror sanctissimi Lucx-I 
precibus et orationibus flexus, auxiliarios milites demisit, qulfl 
obsidione miseros, Hippocratem, Galenum. Dioscoridem, * 
Paiilum Aeginetam et nostrum Celsum Cornelium, jam dedi- 
tionem cogitantes eriperent et liberarent ; idque quanti sit 
confectum diligenti^, in confesso est. Hippocrati non pauci 
auxilio fuere, Galeno ab Arabum principe oppresso strennuej 
[sicjadfuit Vicentinorum duxFNicolaus Lconicenus], prietereal 
ex Gallia Copus, ex AngHa Linacrus, bone deus quo studio, " 
qud alacritate. Porro Dioscoridi Gallorum virtus et ferocia, 
Venetorum prudentia. Florentinorum diviti^ opem tulerunt." 

This passage only puts in an extravagant form the same 
ideas about the value of ancient learning in relation to medi- J 
cine which we have already quoted from the letters of LeonU^ 
cenus, and of Aldus. 

A more serious scholar than Symphorien Champier, Janus 
Cornarius. has left a very clear statement of the position 
which Galen and the ancient medical writers were considered 
to occupy at this critical epoch in the history of learning. 






r He sa' 



He says that medicine, like all good arts and disciplines, 
comes from the Greeks, and is to be learnt from their works 
alone. As to the Arabs, Avicenna, Rhazes and others, who 
now-a-days reign in nearly all our schools, and the numeroiis 
Italian or French physicians, who have become celebrated by 
writing so many of the books called 'PracHca' they are 
physicians only in name. It were to be wished, he says, 
that all public schools would acknowledge their errors and 
repudiate the barbarian physicians, as the Florentine academy 
had done. 

"At vero non penitus desperandum quando nuper adeo 
una Florentina Academia resipiscendo aliquando etiam aliis 
spem nobis exhibuit, quse excusso Arabics ct barbars servi- 
tutis medicae jugo, ex professo se Galenicam appellavit et 
profiigato barbarorum exercitfl, unum totum et solum Galenum, 
ut optimum artis medicje authorem, in omnibus se sequuturum 
pollicita est^^" 

The above extracts will shew far more vividly than any 
generalized statements in what Hght Galen and the ancients 
appeared to scholars at the time of the revival of learning. 
Before considering what was the actual effect of the revival 
of the ancient medlcine on modern science and practice, it 
may be well to clear away a certain amount of misconception 
which has been prevalent on the subject. 

It is often assumed that the study of Galen introduced 
the habit of relying implicitly on authority and dogma, and 
thus retarded the progress of medicine. But in reality the 
habits of submission to authority and blind acceptance of 
tradition were already prevalent, and had been so long before [ 
the revival of learning. Never were men more ready to bow ' 
down to authority than in the middle ages ; and, in name at 
least, they reverenced even the ancient rulers of thought, 

Aristotle, Galen and Hippocrates, though it was to distorted 
images of these heroic personages that their homage was paid.. 
The names of Galen and Hippocrates were associated wi ' 
corrupt and often spurious treatises, of which the style was 
barbarous as the matter was worthless. The aphorisms 
Hippocrates were known in Latin versions as the Amphorismit 
a barbarism perpetuated even by Symphorien Champier. 
Galen was chiefly known by a httle treatise, often copied and 
printed with the title Libcr Tegni Galieni, afterwards known 
as the Ars Parva to distinguish it from the great Melhodus 
Medendi, translated by Linacre. The quaint tide of this work 
is a history and a commentary in itself ; a schotar might well 
be puzzled with the word Tegni, which seems to suggesl aa 
imaginary author, Tegnus Gahenus. But this word is simply 
a corruption of the Greek re;^»^, handed down by a succession 
of scribes ignorant of Greek. Moreover, as in the case of 
Aristotle, not only were the works ascribed to Galen and 
Hippocrates corrupted and misunderstood ; but their best 
works were unknown. If men were to bow down to canonical 
authority it was better they should have the best works of the 
writers regarded as canonical, and have them unaduherated. 

On the lowest view then the change was rather the sub- 
stitution cf one dogma for another than the introduction of 
the dogmatic habit; but in reality a much wider and more 
salutary reform was involved. In the first place, the new 
authorities were actually much nfore valuable than the old, 
and in the second place the new dogma, instead of being 
merely conservative and petrifying, was found to be innovating 
and inspiriting in its tendency. Galen himself was not so stricdy 
a Galenist as his followers. His works shew {in spite of his 
undeniable and fatal iove of system and formula) enterprise and 
originality, with frequent reference to observation, and even 



experiment They led also inevitably to a study of H ippocrates. 

a writer far more unsystematic, and free from the vice of 

formalism, whose sagacity and power of observation give his 

works a perennial freshness. Finally, the revival of the ancient 

Idassics led to the rcvival also of the sciences on which modern 

nedicine rests, and which were destined to overthrow all the 

[idogmatic systems, viz. Anatomy and the knowledge of Drugs. 

Haller, speaking of the progress of anatomy in the i6th 

l*entury, attributes it to two chief causes. the revival of the 

Irorks cf Galen. and the invention of printing. Not less did 

IBotany and Pharmacology take a new departure from the 

"works of Dioscorides. It would thus appear that the task 

[•of Linacre and the scholars, really though not in appearance, 

ontributed to the scientific movement which was the turning- 

point in modern medicine. Thls movement was the special 

■work of the i6th century, The time had not yet come for 

the reform in practical medicine which the progress of the 

sciences rendered possible, and which was reserved to be the 

rspecial glory of the next age. But a definite and brilliant 

vice was rendered to the progress of medicine by the 

icholars of the Renaissance, among whom no name is better 

aititled to be held in grateful remembrance than that of 

rhomas Linacre. 

It would be out of place here to enter into any general 
§estimate of the value of Galen's writings. They are of im- 
jiense bulk, and few persons in modern times can claim to 
liave done more than dip into them. But this massiveness and 
' bulk were perhaps even among the features which caused his 
works to be held in such high estimation. They formed a vast 
encyclopxdia in which all the ancient medical lore was com- 
~" ' ' A very large part of the works even of Hippocrates 
ay be said to be contained in Galen, and many older 



writers are now only known through the account which Galen 
has given of them. The Galenical collection embraces ana- 
tomy, physiology, practical medicine, and what we should now 
call Hygiene, as well as dissertations on the history and sects 
of medicine, with many curious anecdotes and allusions to the 
manners and opinions of his time. We hear also of works on- 
logic and philosophy which are almost entirely lost. 

This encyclop^edic knowledge was classified with a sys- 
tematic minuteness and a delusive appearance of scientific 
precision which especially fitted Galen to be a ruler of thought 
in ages when nien were willing to accept an intellectual 
despotism. The disciple of Galen had a formula to explain 
every disease, and a rule for the treatment of every case. 

What his general principles were is shewn very clearly 
in the work now reprinted, which is rather physiological or 
physlcal than strictly medical. In it we find developed the 
theory of humours and temperaments, which formed the 
physiological basis of Galen's system of medicine ; and which, 
conveyed through many popular medical works to the lay 
public, entered largely into the current philosophy of the time. 
Hence Linacre speaks of this work as not less necessary to 
philosophers than to physicians, Some knowledge of these 
ideas is indispensable for understanding many allusions and 
metaphors in English writers of the Elizabethan age. Nay 
more, a great part of it has passed into our conimon language. 
Such words as ' ktinwur' in its many acceptations, and many 
compounds, temperament, temper, choler, melancholy and others 
derived all their original significance from the place which 
they held in the Galenical system. It is perhaps not too 
much to suppose that this very version may have been among 
the sources whence such writers as Elyot (who was a pupil of 
Linacre) in his Castell of Helth, Bright, the predecessor 



of Burton, in his Treatise of Melmwholie, and later, Walkington, 
in tlie fantastic book called The Optitk Glasse of Humors, 
obtained the ideas which, popularized by them, became the 
common property of scholars and literary men. From this 
point of view, our treatise is not without importance in the 
history of English literature. 

The httle treatise at the end. De In^qiiali intemperie, is no 
part of the work which precedes it ; but is apparently appended 
by Linacre to shew Galen's appHcation of his physiological 
system lo certain points in pathology or the theory of disease. 

It is only necessary to say in conclusion that tliis version 
of the De Tetnperantentis appears to have been the first ever 
made in Latin, or at least published. Orlandi (in 1722) 
speaks of a previous edition with Linacre's name, published at 
Venice in the year 1498, but this statement is certainly erro- 
neous. All the enquiries of Linacre's leamed biographer, 
Dr Noble Johnson, and of the present editor, have failed to 
establish the existence of any such edition, and indeed the 
preface to this edition is of itself enough to refute the story. 
The treatise De inaquali intemperie on the other hand had 
been previously translated into Latin, though not by Linacre. 
It is included in a coUection of Latin versions of many of 
the works of Galen and others, translated by Georgius Valla, 
of Piacenza, This was printed at Venice in 1498: and hence; ^ 
no doubt, the source of the confusion between Vallas trans- 
lation of this treatise and Linacre's iranslation of this and the 
De Tentperainentis. I have seen the third edition of Va!Ia's 
collection published at Pavia 1516; the version of this treatise 
there given is quite different from Linacre's. Dr Johnson 
is responsible for the stalement that a second edition of 
both was published during Linacre's lifetime, of which a 
presentation copy on vellum given to Henry VIII. is in the 


W 46 

W Bodleian Library. But an examination of this copy has 

convinced me that it is of the same edition, though an error 
in the printing of the last six leaves makes it appear different 
According to the liritish Museum Catalogue a second edition 
in 24mo. was printed at London in 1527. The version was 
frequently reprinted on the continent, either alone or as a part 
of the collected Latin editions of Galens works ; but no sub- 
sequent edition has appeared in this country. 



I. Translation of ProclustU Sphard. Venice, by Aldus Romanus, 1499. FoUOk 1 
3. 1ia.wA«ivm oi Q^w^i De Satitate tHmdA. Paris, Gulielmus Rubeus, ijif. 

3. Translation of Galen, Mtthodus Medtndi. Paris, Desiderius Maheu, 1519. 

4. Translation of Calen, De Temperamentis et de inaquali intemperie. CaBt- 

bridge, Siberch, 1521. 410. 

5. Translation of Galen, Ds Natiiralibus Facullatibus. London, Richard 
Pynson, 1523- 4to. 

6. Translation of Galen, De Pulstmm usl). London, 'in acdibus pinsonjanis/ 

7. Translaiion of Galen, De Symptomatum Differentiis et causis. Londoi^ 
Pynson, 1524. 410. 

S. Eudimenta Grammalices. London, ' in xdibus pinsonianis,' sine anno. 410. 
9. De emendald slrucltird LatiHi sermonis. London, Pynson, 1524. 4to. 



The only separate biography of Linacre is ihai by Dr Noble Johnson, a fellow >, 
of Ihe College of Physicians, published, in 1835 afier the aiithor's dcath, under the 
editorship of Mr Robert Craves. From this the biographicaJ part of the short 
slcecch bere ^ven has been chiefly derived. Dr Johnson collected wlch great I 
leaming and industry the eonlemporary notices of Linacre, as well as all that haa 
appeared in later wricers, and investigaled tnaity manuscript authorities. It would { 
be ungrateful here to point out the few errors into which he has fallen, especialljr 
as they are probably partly duc to his work having been published without tba 
ai]thor's pcrsonal revision, The earliest lifc is eilher that contained in the Elogi» 
contributcd by George Lily to the Descriptio Brilannia of Paulus Jovius, Venetiis, 1 
I $48 (also Basileee 1 57S), or that given in Bale's lUustrium majoris Britannia scrip- J 
lorum summarium. Gippeswici, 1548. Further materials are contained in Leland ^ 

{FriHcipiim el erudilorum etc. gncomia. London 1589) V\ts{De Illuslridus Anglim 

scriplorUms) ; Freind's Hiitory of Physic; the Biographia BritaHniea; Wood'« 1 
Atketttt OxoHienses, Bishop TannePs Bibtiotheca BrilaitHico-Hiiermca, etc; [ 
Later biographical colleclions, such as AWVcn'^ Biographical Memoirt 0/ Medicin*. | 
Ihe Lives 0/ the British PhysieianSy and Dr Munk'3 learned Roll 0/ the Roydf J 
College 0/ Physicians, have added litlle or nothing, Thc presenl Editor has care- f 
fuJly veritied most of Dr Johnson's references ; and correcled or added a few facCs, \ 
but has found little 10 glean after so exhausiive a worker. The latter part, however, ; 
of this short introduction owes little to Dr Johnson. I have to Chank Mr Bradshaw, , 
ihe University Librarian, for some valuable hints. 

NOTES (refcned to in text). 

1. (Page 7). There is no reference to Linacre or Selling in the Stemmala 1 
Chicheleana or ia the MS. additions made to the copy in the library of AU Soul^ | 

2. (P. 10). Procli de Sphieri, in Ihe collection called Astrommici Veleres, Vent- 
liis cura AUi Romam 1499. 

3. (P. 12). Dr Johnson quotes Pacey's De Fructd gui ex Doctrind perdpiiur. 
BasilcK Frobcn 1517, p. 76. 

t4. (F. 13). Calendar of Leiters and Fapers relatlng to the rcign of Henry VI It, 
ttd by Brewer, Vol. iv., part 3, page 3B74, no. 6403. 



5. (P. 13). Nicolai Leoniceni, De Plinii ac pytrium aliorum in medieim 
erreribus liber ad doctissimutn virum Angelum Tolitianum. Ferrarise 1 ., 
Also in Angeli Poiitiani et aliorum epistola. LJb. II., episL 3, 4 et seq. (£d 
Hanovise 1622, page 46). 

6. (P. 14)- John5on's Life of Unaert,^f.%z 147. It does not appear wheno 
these verses are quoted, as no reference is givea by Dr Johnson. 

7. (P. 15). Seebohm. The Oxford Re/ormers: Colet, Erasmus, and Sform 
2nd edition. London 1869, page 17. 

8. (P. 17). Erasmi Roterodami Moria encomium. BasileK, Froben 15U 
page 251- 

(Is this passage the foundation of Mr Browning^s fine poem, "Tbe Gram; 
marian's funeral " f) 

9. (P. 18). Pauti fovii Novocoinensis episcepi Descriptio Britannia. Basiled 
1571, p. 40. Elogia vironim per Geot^um Lilium Britannum exarata. ™ 

la (P. 19). SirJohnCheke; 

yoamiis Cheki Aneli de pronuntiatifiiu Grteca potissimum litigux ilisputm 
tiones cum Stephano Wintoniensi Episcopo. Basilea: 15SS, p. 176 and 281, cM 
Linacre's name is brought in as foUows. Bishop Ganliner finds fault with Chekl 
for too Ciceronias a style of writing (Ciceronis grandiloquentiam ad sententias da 
rebus lcvibus alque ridiculis inconcinne additam et accommodatam), and quoies t&i 
him Erasmus in Ciceronianos and also Linacre, who he says never admired th4 
style of Cfcero and could not listen to it withoul disgusL Cheke retorts Jn t~ 
manner we have quoted, " Si de acumine et celeritate ingenli disputalur elc- — in 
si nunc viveret, tibi laudcm conccderet," and makes the curlous remark that it 
strange Linacre could not listen to Cicero without disgust, when his work Dt 
structurd abounds wich cxamples taken from Ciccro. Pcrhaps, Cheke suggest^ 
hc had not really neglected the study of that writer, but Ihrough some perversit] 
wished to be thought to have ncglected him, "ut non tam fortasse reveri negleKerttt 
quam animi quidam morositate vidcri voluit neglexisse." 

11. (P. 2\). The phrase quoted from Ta.nne.i, BiMiolHeca Briiannico-HiberMieai 
seems 10 refcr clearly to ordination, not merely to coUalion to a benefice. 

12. (P. 21). Sce Dr Munk, Roll ef the College of Physicians. ind editidt 
1878, page 16. 

13. (P. 2S). "pro ocio in quod me (honorifico collato sacerdotio) ex negocio' 
primusvindicasti" Introduction lo Galen, De Naturaiibus Facultatibus. Londoii 

'4 (P- 34)- This foihle of 
Bayle in his article on Linacr 
ihis is not a common fault with authors, it has often operated to the pTejudic» 
of the best, and to the consequent loss of the public. 

ij. (P. 4')- Janus Comarius, in his introduction (dated 1535) to MarceHus A 
Medicamentis, published in the collection called Medicx Artis Prineipes. Pari^, 
Henr. Stephanus, 1567. 


Thomas Ltnacer Medicorum 
Minimijs. S, D. .*. 

30n hanc tibi lucubratrunail^ 
mea Bcatiffimc Paier quali 
luis aptam fludiis dignamve 
ofFero, qiie totu totius cliri^ 
dimx Rdp. gubcrnaculis in 
cumbcre omncs Icimus, fcd 
quod ftudiofis eam futura no ingratam Ipercm. 
quibus quidquid vdii eflc potcfi, tibi quoc^ fo 
rc iucundum no dubito. Acccdit quod quu rc* 
ccns in me collatx no vulgaris munificcricc tuar, 
qua mc quocp licut relrquos quicuncp le olim co 
mitabamurin ludum bearcc5d^atus,nonim 
mcmore me aliquo ialte ofRcij gcnerc dedararc 
VoIui:Vnii hoc intcr (acultatcs nicas quoid cfFi* 
ccrcconarcrlitcrarium perlpew genus . quod et 
mSiJ cui pene pra^r literas nihil cfl^ct nbi qui in 
literis es ejninetifKmiis maxime vifu fit congrues. 
Inquo gcnere Galeni hic, fc obtuliclibell^.brcuis 
oino, fcd non minus philolbphis quS medicis 
neccllarius. Qui breuitatc lua fimul ofFidii meu 
minus erat moramrus,fimiiI mea; in uertcdo,qu3. 
tulaecucp, certetcnuis faculiatisgufHj alique libj 
pra^iturus . Pcrer ^ua(faCcor)re8 . nimis cp inv J 

par qiKT pro tantebcnignitatis ve! Mnonoi^-no 

ad (acra prefcnim Celfitucbhe lua niutatiiT. V eru 

ei cuiits ipfe V tcem iii t enis geris paupercul^p nav 

'kiis duonunuiaprob3uii:ct molafalfabtareeos, 

juidiuranonhahcrenCjprodiiu noignoras.Sut 

ime mihi plura maiora <^ in manib', qua? vt pri* 

nu per valciudinc ct miniiicrii mei offia":i liccbii, 

liuubibcrc nondifpliccre iniell^am, fubnok luo 

^modoidnongraufris; £rdcmiir. Non quoijs 

operacpKciu nbi vUu me faifhiru autitme, quod 

iatioct mihi de meo ingcniolo fpcrarc non Iicet, 

fcd quo ijs cx pKcfaiioe nois tui,qd' mcrito litera 

tis omnib'' cR charintmu, gratia aliqua auioriiate 

^ capic. Pcrmultu Cinc (i qui erui qui cx\ igilii$ 

ixieis fru<ftum alique peta'piem,&an(l^irau tusc dc 

bicuri^.qui taminiigni bcneficctiafhidioru 

nKorum ocio cofdueris, Dcu opt.Max. 

precor diii te nobis fouet aicp incocpta ^ 

luaomnia (ecudct. Londim'. Anno 

Chriftians falutis. M. D, XXI. 

Nonis Sepimibris. ,C, 

PROBcnduhuiQs incdl^eda,fdre!icer,quui 
iingulis huius codicis pagcllis viginti (epte verfi 
%nificacurcoru prim'. pcr B.lccudus. etperC 
tetius . Sic intra noue fempcr verfus lofior qu« 
ex Elendio rccjiiirct, no dtfRculter inucnier. Mo 
do qui breuiiHnius labor erit,{ingulis libri diartil^ 
aunienunadfaiberevdit> /. 

Animansinlunimocaliduhumidu fr^idumaut 
(iccumnuUumenc. folioprimo^pagina.i. C' 
Autumni incomodum. fo. vi^. i. B 

Aucumniqualitas. fo.eodem. i, C 

AutumnietveriscoUatio. fo. eodcm. t>^ 
Animalia quomodo veteribus calida a humid^ 
finc difla. V fo. x. ij. A 

Atra: bilis temperie». fo. xxjdi). i. C 

Animalcalidum ethumfdumcurdixeriiituetetf 
res . fo.eodem. rj.G 

Adipisctcarniivaria: caufe. fo.xxxiirj. rj. B 
Anatomica fpeculatio. fo.xlrj. p. G 

Ariftotclcinderubftaiiaformatncis viriuiis dij 
bitalTc. fo.xliifi.ti. A 

Abcxiguomomctomagnamficriinrerdum mo 
tationem^eius rd cxemplunif fo li. i. C 

Archimedes* foIioJij.i . B 

Actcodcnduinficco et humi. quid per fe la/^ ffr 
duidper acddens. fo,lv.i).B 

/Uiqna pstti a nonro corpore magis qua agtre 
aliqua magis agere qua patt. omnia vero lu agere 
tumpau. fo.Ivifj.i.C 

XiiraBid. folio.lviij. ii,C 

Afiqua primo fcatim vfii alterationon iLiani odi 
dcre. fo.IixiA 

Abs quibus externis iudicadCi. fo.lxi. ij.B 

Artcrias et venas parteseGe compofitas, foJxvi. 
^^Vbrcr fimpfce camc alitcr vniuerfummufculum 
^RnEcquali temperic atFecTtum elle fo.lxvi. 

Abiccflio quc mclior iit quc deierior. fo.lx Vi] 
Alcerationis varieiates in phlegmonis, ex quincp 
gencribus accidere, fo . Ixvif]. 

Animaliu quxda couenieles, quaedacotratios ih 

Aliquos rigere ncc tamcnfebricuarc.Rarucpid 

B (fo.lxxij. 

Biliofumquod in uentriciJogigniturquo fit co* 

Iore,ct quo quod in iodnore, fo.xliij.rj.A 

Calidum,fiumidu/rigidi4, ficcu mulcifariam did 
Ariftotelem cenriufle. fbux. ii .C 

Cafidum n(Tioidum,hufflidumetficcudtdidem 
cocpusmuldsmodis. fcxiii. i.B 


Calidu &frigjdu non de corpohbiis modo^led 
cdade qiialitiuibus interdudid. code. rj. C 
Calida, fri hu; fic.vt iubftana:, qii«.fo:xv a.B 
Calida.feg.huini.fic.ablolute qusc. fo.xvi. ij. B 
Cutcm in calore & frigore medium opdnere 
fhuum. fo.x3tuuB 

Chondrofyndcfmos fo. codem. 17, A 

CaltdumiiiaaaiibusquabVer tacflu iit dircenKO* 
dum. folio.xxix. i. A 

Criorem inpueris &fiorombus parem cflc.fa 
Cimob' gencris ipcdes»fo.xxxf). i. A < wtxi. i. B 
Caro proprie, qua; folio codem. i. A J 

Cariiem iocinoris,liems,paImonis, SCrenii.Gra 
pHcis natiirx e(1e. fo. eodem. ij. 3 

Cordis carnc no efle fimplice. fo. eode . i). B 
Carncm ventriculi, vteri,& vcficamm propriam 
qii.uidain elle. fblio eodem. i). C 

Camis ccmperies, fo. xxxiij..iA 

Carcilaginis temperametu. fo. xxxirj. i. B 
Calcarium temperies folio eodcm. i. B, 

Camoii qui. fblio xxxiiij . i). B 

Coruemdine eiTe acqui(iucia natura. fo eo. ri. B 
Calui cur. foUo xxxix, i. B • 

Cani cur. folio codcm. i). A 

CuraduiaGncipitecatuateporib^magi^ fiatfb* 
Cui max(me attendedu ciuu cor« (eode, i]. B 
poris teperie iudicabimus* fo. eode. ij. B 


Cur quib' hiit' cft ihorax ob idipfu aliquldo re 
Uquis parub'dil]imili(int rcperameto,fo.xl.ii.C 
Cuds quando fub k poGtaiu paitiuumpericm 
indicet,&quatum. folioid]. i. C 

Cofiderandu ctia (i quid raro acadit .fo. x]iiij.A 
Cerebri ipfi'iempcramoum exquibus dignofca 
tm fo.xliiti.i.A 

pCsulaquaeda huidiiatislcame fo.xlvi.J.A 

CoGderadu elle cx quibus &in qux mutanoes 
lint h6x . folio eodem i. B 

Cur aliquaproiinuSjaliquaintcrpofitotcmpore 
akfaciant. (blio 1. i). B 

Calclaccit ois e€ alimeticoem effe^M .(bir|.ij. A 
Cur aliqua comm qux iit alimenta comediinir, 
cutiimpofit.icxuIccret. folio.lirj.ij. A 

Corpora calida. . & iic. quacdam per 
' taliaeile,qucdaexacddenti. i.B 
iharidas Veficam cxulcerarc, {o,axie.i\.A 
Comunc iudiciu in onibus quac poteftate iiint 
cx alreranonis celeritate. folio.lvi. i. B 

Coirarinasnaturz vnde 
Cedcndum alii]uando cflTe non cxai5!i(Cme Io« 
c]ueQtibus. fololviij. ij.B 

~'ibi pariter & medicameta,que. fo' lix. i . B 
' li.frigidi. nofhi iud: 
m a nobis certii e((c pofle. folio bd.ij. A 
'alor quodo ex acddetice&jgciet. foJxii),i).B 


Caliduin rcutna quanidaioduraniuiculipafta 
Corpohs irpehcs cjuidocxm{e# i iuadacio Jxv 
cus^quadoimcmeabcmur. foJxxil 

Curaiiqui fimul rigc^nt a febricitenc fb.cod2j 
CaocodncKUiphteginonis duolcqui. fojxvijb' 

Dnuonftracionif oisprindpiaenequx lcniuiet' 
mEeiixdleifhiirintnunirelbi. fo.xjtvii).i). B" 
Duciianioilecumcdioaitercaleiiudicada fo, 
Dubicaiiadcnonnullisquomodo (xxxi.trC 
calidafr^idaueappdleniur. fo.xIix.LA!l 

Diucrlbcuextncdicamctiseffeif^uucauiac ibjnif 
Diacmdiaridon, ''■C 

Ddaetioo. foliojvi. i). A 

Ddetercavndeiudicanda. (b.codcm. tj. C 
Dubiiatio de ip quacfub calore applicata, tanxii 
rcfi^erant ibJvijJ.C 

Dupliciierficciali(]uidcalidiut. foJix. i). A 
DupIidtcrRerialiquidfrigidius. fb. code. i^B 
DiuiGo partiu maiorii in libi proximas. fbJxvi. 
Digeftionein phlcgmoe raaxicoptandj eflecu 
Dolor quado dc(inaLfo.eode ( 
Dolorisinfebri rpadumeteiu8tennin'.ibjxix. 


Gularcos. (obo.xij. i,A 

Eucraton corpus quod dicaturt fo.xvii. ij.B 
ExQmitate de folonafo xlv. i. A 

Brror aliiu in ni<lid[clis tepoimciuro.xlvi- ■> B 

Frigidam tempaii ncc huinidam ntcdlirio ede 
nec ficom. folio xvij. i. C 

Roreicetis etatisiempeno. fo. xxv.i.A 
Fibrae temperies. foKo eode. i. A 

Fibrsc varia: fclio ,\xxi). ij. C 

Flaiiae b&s ternperics. foiio ;fxxiij. i, C 

Formatrice vi attifice faoiltate efle fo.xliiij, ij. A 
Fngidapertiaturam immodice calefaifia vim fu 
am amittere. folio Iviij. i.A 

Humidum & cali'dum tcmperametum rfle pef 
fimum fo. vii), i. A 

Hominis cutc mcdiu eflc in calido fri . humore 
&ijccpioptiec^ eaqua; i manu eil fb.xix,ij.B 
Habitus hirfutus & glaber quam tempcriem co 
mitentur. folio xmcviA. B 

Hypophora dcpiloru generaiioe folio eo. i. C 
Hippoctates folio Ixvi), 

Hipophcaa & Solutio. folio bdx. 

Hippoaaiit dicfhim ,&eiufdcm twnnulla pro« 

folio. codem 

llcpialo* quae vocaur. (blio Ixxr. 

I quid. folio, xiiii i. B- 

Kcmperiet quae in alleia caniu oppofiaone ex 

cedumiquolocoponeiids. Ib.xvij. ij.C 
Litempcries duplex . fo.xxxv. i .C 

Imeperamett quod Icra fanitate Gf,nota, .ij. A 
Intermm particularu teperieexfu(flioib'digno* 
lceda,tuexcotinedueaspartiuafFechi.fb.xli.i.C ! 
Inxquales elle i:emperies inregioibusinteperatis 
Inxqualem edeteperiempamuqux f fo.eo.ij.A.| 
phlcgmoiKlaboiant. fo.xIvii.i.C I 

In i) I qu3e potcilate calida, fr^ldave (iint, triage* f 
ncra fpeAinda. fojv. ij. A 1 

lunioresmcdiciinquofucrintfalli. fo.Iix.ij.Aj 
Incxploiadoincdicamento aliudquiddamobler 
uandum. fo.lxij,i.C 

In cxploiando mcdicamento aliud oblcruandatn 
folio codem. ( Fo. ij. C, 

In phlegmonc quis fanguis primum calcriat cfiis 
dcinccps. fb.lxvitj 

In corporc quod phlcgmoc laboret <]uid maxime 
infl^eturquiddeindc. fo.eodcm>J 

Indolefcentia:'inhetfh'ciscaufa, fojxix, 

Inxqualitasteperameriinranis ind(^* 
Inxqualis inteperamcdgcneradi varicrones.r.lxx 
In hcpialis cur friguset calor limul bod 
In acccdionum inualione febricitantcs aliquos frl 
gus et calotcm fimiil lentire. fo.eodem* 



rcntra. L fb.«)dfnk 

Ladhiaavlbmnoconducat, roJixj.A 

Laifhicxfuccuni liboalius fumpiu.fimileni vim 
habcre cupapauois fiicco. fo Jx. uA 

MoUeset dunc manus ad quid apta?.fo.xxi. iJK 
Mnnbrana^temperies. fojoudii.i.A 

MediusfiueeurarcoSjquis io.xij.i.A 

Medmintotoanimaliumgenere. fo.xi.ij.C 
Mediuminhoimipecie. fo.eodem.ij.C 

Medioaiter calens fit opoftet,quod ficcum bumi 
dumveiudicabis* fb.xix. i.B 

Miningon (iue menibranatum cercbti lempeties 
Medij cairilaginis tt I^ameti ( fbIio.xxxi^, i. A 
corporis, tennperies fo.eodeni , i. B 

Melanchobcatemperamentavnde. fo.xlvi,i, C 
MelaticI}oficus,qiiis (bjdvij.i.A 

Mdancfaolicifuturi,qui fo.xlvi.r).A 

Mcdiamentorum naiuta duplcx fo.U. ij. B 
Mcdicametom terna queda fpecies. fb. co. tj. B 
Medicamcntorii quana fpecies 

Medicamentum Medew>i.B 

Mcdicamentatantum,qiiat(int fojvi. i>A 

Medicamentum quando Icpidu appficandu fit, 
quandofngidum fo.Ixiii):i.B 

Mifcctc (implicia corpora (mmani facuhatis noti 
efle,(cddeiudnaturx fojtix.i,G 


Nmiomm icmperies folio xxxi). rj.A 

Nocxdifcerncdi a vetriculo nc^ aliudr.r.]dirjx B 
Nihil nutnre nifi quod toa fubflaua td alendae 
mutauit Folio.Ii. i. A 

Nutririoneefleaflirailauoemperfedla foJi.i.B 
Nunimentum oiplex (olio tiij. i. A 

Nutrimctucorpuscalefadc. fo. e6de.i.A 
Noie naturae quid intcnigat Gakn' fo Jviri i. B 

Opiniones de,tempcramcntis folio i. r|. A 
Opinto qua:da Opinio alia io.eo. 
Opinionis raiioncs foliorj. i. A (i}.C m 

Opintonis alccrius rattones folio itj. if. Afl 

Opiiuones quo pecccnt (blio.iiij. i. Bm 

Opinio fefhtorum Aihinei folio v. i Cl 
Opinionu Athinei letSatorii mor 
Os AcdiqueadmoduabiblutolcrmGc dicat fxifl 
Occaiio crroris drca icnu icp crie fo.xxv.i. B( ij. Aa 
Offis temperics folio xxxir) i. Bl 

Opinioncs de notis ab oculis. fb. xiiitj. i.Cl 
Oem dbu taagercTnoftru corp'cp pad.f.lx.i.CI 
ObicruadtJ in cxplorado mcdicameco fo.lxrjJ.Cl 
Omne immodicu excedu ad aliqutd eJle fb.lx% I 
Oem febre prcter hofbce a laborate ictiri fo .co^ I 
P. I 

Plata velaial qfiopciefchabcrc . xiir>i. Aa 
Polydcci (latua .C» folio xx. ij. BI 


Particularu omniu tepcranKnta. fo,]aixu).i.A 
Parechyma f.xxxij. i.B. Pili tfpcries r.xxxiii.i.B 
Pituita! temperies folioeodem. i. C 

Piguis macaue,c6iue(udinis alicui^roe quis fo. (xxxiiij.i.A Pili 
Pili albi vii fo.eoij.C Pilirufi vii fo,«o.ii.C 
Piliailpivndc folioeodem. i). C 

Pdi in capiie fuperdlijs dlijfcp cur nobifcu coge,^ 
niti ,C, .C. fo.xxxvixj.i). C 

Pili capitisetlupeicilioru curlubrufi/.xxxix.i A 
Pilicurbomljntincremeti&aafli. fo,eo,i,A 
Pituita ex dbis elle no ex corpore fo,x]vi. ij.C 
Pituiiolus ab exaemf tis quis . fo,eo , ii . C 
Poteftate efle quid fit, folio xlvii], i, B 

Poteftatis aUud gcnus folio xlix, i. A 
Pituitam etiam curo a uents dctrahitur frigidam 
fendri •;' folio Ivij, iiB 

Piatecalidajduplidflatuveirisexaminata folio 
Proptietate quada teperameii cuicp (lx,i).C 
urx efle.quae cum alijs naturis cofeniiat,ah 
sdifremiat, (bliolxi i, A 

Per lc,&primu,& nuBo iraaccdcnteidcm f^= 
bificare folio. Ixiiij. i.C 

Propria pbauonevi^cfleinlingulisfo eo.ij.'C 


Quomodo rcfpodcdu ad intetrogaiionc cui't& 

peramentiGthoniovelbos fo.xtiij.ijj 

Qu» tem-^crinnenta comilentui ui duricics, mcl 
licies,cra(TitLKk),gracili[a5 fb.xx3ciij,fj;^ 

Qui fame mdi' fetSteiquidiff(ciIi'fo,xxxiiif,T.B _ 
Quxhiemedelitelcunt,curpiiiguta fo.eo.rj.A 
Quibus adeps carocp pari modo au(!)),quaflnt 
temperie fo.xxxV.i.Aj 

Quibusadipis plus/jua (inttcmperie fo,eo.i.A| 
Quibus carnis plu£, cjua (tnt temperie fo.eo,i . Bl 
Quae teperametis in piloru differentia pio etatv 
regioe,et corporis naturacomin^t. foxxxvitjj( 
QiialesrinicalidiiiraAuhabitStiupili, fo,eo.i.C ' 
Quales humidii incolentium piii. fo .eodero j{.A 
Quales leperan pla^ incolediipilt. fo .eode jj,A 
Qualesinfanoumpili. fo.eodem. tj.A 

Quales eplicboru etpuerorumpili, fo.eo.iJ.B 
Qualesprocorpoiumnaturispili. fa.eo.ij.B 
Qiialesin irigidaregione hoies. B 
Qu» patre(aint,quo calore caleani fo.xli).i.A 
Qiii meridianaplagam incolunt adlcitido calore , 
calert,propriofr^erc. fo.eodemJ.A 

Qiiid inuentriculi leinperamentonolcendoad» 
uenendum. fb.e<xfcm.rj.A 

Quodcalefacitnonomnlno Cccare. fo,xlvtjJ, B 
QyodaAu eft,per(c(!lum elTe.quod poteHate 
impetfe<%im, fo.xlvlij.i.C 

Qux maxic proprie pi^c el diaal.,A 

iatuore{Ictotius corporis faculiatcs fo. I. jj. C 
lacuor corpons faciiltates a tota fubflantia nia 
Qyodnutrietticceneeftinco» (nare. ro, 
c<x)uediiftrumeiis3liquadiufitinoratii. f,li.i.C 
Qux aiTimilemur nutriinenta,reliqua tnedjcaine« 
tavocari. fo.eodem, tj.A 

Qof morbi imQdicS vini poiu comitet . fo ,liij, 1 . B 
Quxcorp^noftiunoncidcradul fed rcfrigerant, 
haec ecorporenonvinci, foJv.i.B 

QuEcda dum conco(}untut refrigerare, poft(]ua 
funtperco<5acalfacere. fo.Ux.l,C 

quandonutrimentumaIiquid{ft,er quando tnedi 
canKiitu,C(quo geiicre nutrimetu. fo .Ix .iT.B 
Qt}ando a nobis et quando ab eKtemis faciendu 
Ctiudidum. foJxf. if.A 

quacatioefrigldumcalefadat. (b,xIirj.i.B 

Queadmodu auirihm ,i. nuffi deficicntis affcifH^ 
otiisdogmauiderjvetumponit. fo.lviii.rj,B 
quoruinterpoiitalpacianocemadl. fo.lxvi. 
Quando doleam coif.ora 
quid ciu% et quid tardius alierec tuni genetatim 
tummcmbraum. S fclxviti. 

SuftaaaRpliciierquoeucratosdicaJ. foja'ij.ij.13 
Snrps vcl aial quo dicat euciatonib.eodem .ii.C 
Bcniumrc^idliTimura cfle, fo.xxv, ii.C 

cflfefcniuni, fb,eodeni,ii,C 

Tcmp craturx xqualitai in atiiinabl^us & pUnil» 
qux Ut .C. folio xui)j. C 

Tcn^MTatiffimi bominis notac fo.xx. i.B 
Tcpcratiflimu hoiem eufarco oio cflc. fo.coj}.G 
Tad^ exercitandi ad calorem in varia maiaria dif 
ccmeDdum. racio fblio xxx.i.C 

Tfperameriicerebri & pulinonis fb.xxxij.i'B < 
Teperamcm oiGs & medulbc fo . eo. i. C 

Teperamctu partium cerelm fo. eo. i,C' , 

Tcper«tfos h^ii' C modice excrdtent euiarcos 
Toafubftatiaquxfitf.Ii.i.A(ee fo.xxxiirj.i).A 
Tat^ eu qui iudicatunu Jic»ois acquiCtitrj cab 
ris vel fir^ris expcrte eflc debere foj xV. 

Termin^^tcrationisquis ibituendus fo,hdx 

,:. C V. ;C *f 

VcrcaKdijethuirada vndeputatij. fo.ix. ij.A 
VtVcrmis ficcus,a] fimilibus loquelis,quomcM 
do accipiendum folio xi. rj * B 

Vcn^ lacXtCaloris (^ii,agu{lxcotra. fo.xxxii). 
VcDiculi icpcrameri not<E fo.xIij.i.C (ii.G 
Vinij cderrime nutrirc ac roborarc foJii. C 
Vinu curvaletcr c(»-p^cdefadat fb.ltj.LG 
Vlcau fpontt nafccnriu cauiac fo. hiij. i;B 
Venas etartcrias in phl^mone pretcr csetcra va 
rie dolcre fc^o lx\'i. 

Vi(5b fluxionc quae deinde curatio fobo Ixvi). 
F I N I S. 



De tempCTaiticnnSjLiber 

Thoma Linaao Anglo imCTprctc. 

■^l Onflarc anunalnj corpora fx 
mixtura ,ncc cile horu omniu 
parcinKmpcratura porrionc , 
demonfirarum anriquis abun* 


r fncdicommpraxipuis. Diximusamfm&nosde 
' ijs,eaqua;^babiliafontui& alibopcre.lnquode 
TJ!;,qux Hyppocrates colticuit demctis , egimus. 
Hocopere,quodini proxime Iucccdit,omnium 
CntjCuc gcncraiim quis , Cue mernbratim diuidar, 
tnuentfc docd» . Sumamc^ ab ip/a nominum in- 
cerpretarione prindpium. Cum nancp cx calidi/ri 
gidi,Gcd, & humidi , tempcraiura cofiari corpora 
dicunt ,dc rjs,qua: fummo gradu Gc fe habenr,ipfis 
(cilicet dancntis,aere, igni,aqua.terra,intrUj'gcndu 
midajn,fi-igidam,ucl Cccam eflt,non item. Ncquc 
enfm ullum animal,aut calidii in liimmo efie poile, 
ut eft ignis , aut in Cimmo humidu , ficut cfbaqua: 
pan" modo ticc frigidum Jiccumue in fummo. Scd 
abeoquodmttuxturapoIlet,appelIari(Hie foniri, 
A -uccTtibus 


uocaniJbiis nobi!(idluimiduni,Mi(]iiomaior 
huiraditKis pwtio^Gcci ini,in qi lo nccitam . Ita ue* 
ro& ailiduin,ttiqiio calidumfngidoplus.uak^ 
6:^4dun) uero inquo ffigidu calido pitrUat, At<y 
hic quidan nonunuin ulits cft. Nuiic de tanpcta« 
mci uis ipiis agcndum.Foruin igiriir, qiii luiiiine* 
re,plurimi lanc opinjii Kint humidum calichtmcp 
tanpcrainamun ab liumido&B-igido diucrfuni 
elle, Ac tcrtium ab hi)s (iccuin & fngidum , diueri« 
(t im a licco & calido.Noi uniUi tomcn corum huraj 
dum fimul ac frigidum icnipcraincntum quoddS 
cOecoiKedunt, atc]! ciiam ab hcK alterum calidunt 
ficdiCj^. No tii aur hnmidii (imul Sc cafidii,aut fti^ 
du pariicr &C Gcdi tcperamihu cHc. Nccp cni ponc 
frigiditatc nccitaie: quippe abfunii a caIido,ctjm iu 
Ucaim corptis euadat, Haiidc ubi imbccillus iii coff 
nixi.duastantiietlc tepcramcioru difPeretias opi» 
nai it.Qui uero ea quatuot a«Eumant,bifaria his co 
tradiainr. Alii ftaiim id qd'primu pcttit ncgantcs, 
ncpc qd^ncccdc fit humorc a calido fuperntc digc* 
rLAIijcotraid quid£ aneniiuntur,icd alia rolvtliC 



fad3Cpncuerat,fiTgidi ut rcfrigeret^ciiriruHife fict 
ajLU. ficcet,& huiTn'4i.i't hunu-cflct. Proinde corpo 
ta > qux cJida (iccacp iiatura lint, (lurniaditiodum 
aqua^TCiio humetfhrc modo , fed etia calcfacerr 
pol]e,utracp qualitatchic quocp uiiu opus,idc]f ^ 
priu obtinctc.Haiidquaqj igit' cocedcre lc, (i quid 
caIefAaat,idc^/nu$ dC {iccarc,inio G calonliuniidi 
las (it adiu<fta , nu calTaccrc niodo, led ctiani hume* 
&ire.Quanadmodii babicudulcis aqua^.Siii ficii«i 
II calidum, ita etiam iicaim cotpus (ir, uclua ignis, 
ftatiin id tii cai^ccre , ni ucro ficcarc . No tamcn id 
calori referciidii aGccpm,(cd (kcicau,qiia: Gmul cft 
coiucfb. Admonccaijt hoc loconos de his, qui fub 
cfliuo (ble diucius (ut uer{ati,atcp ira,ut ocdibilc c 
:ffcf»fii,ac toiu corpus fia:u,(qualliducp habcr,Ttol 
jcrabiliicrcp fitiut . Qijippcrcmcdiu his cxpcdiifi, 
&facile diait,iiouticpfi bibcrint,l«ificalidiv,& 
dulcis aqua; balnco utanc, ta£p hiriditarc, (iue cacu 
ff igorc (if , fiuc cu calorc, (Ciu munus obire ualcnte. 
Qiippc hiiofbrcca quar cotigat , Ad cude modui 
& ficcitatc fcpcr aiiit ficcarc,borca eni qui ficcus & 
frigidus Gt uctus,oia ficcarc ac rcfrigcrarcidq; cHc 
diau ab Homero, ut uero humete dcficcat ^tinufi 
a^u autumboreasPari roo & paupcris lachrymS, 
■ " ■ A ii &falia 

& : lia icx<cn(aj)tiarmac3 (iccanp pariT?r &rffnge« 
idan prounii.1 &: humidum eSc . Nec iitjuid cali* 
dui»,idcfn ftatim & ficcum, Necjj tgiturcaliJum 
tcmpcraiiKntum nccdfiario cfle (lccij, imniopo(& 
aliquando fn animalis tempcramcnto calidum qui 
dcrn plus ualcre.cp fr^idum,& humidum, ^ flc* 
cum. Quin ctiam tumgenerationcni,tumaiicra« 
tioncm, cum mutationem , cx conrrartp in contnu 
riaiird, Quiscmmeft,c[iuildixeritalbii allcratii, 
dcmutacumq^enie , proptcrea quod racftum Cii caU 
dum^non fit ridiculusC Cum poftulet earatio , no 
cam.qux: eft in calido bC fngido,(ed qu3c cft inco 
in nigrum,&quod'ingnimei}', in album . Ruriiis 
midum cft,in {kcum, & quod Cccum cft,in humi 
dum.Quippc fi dicas alteraram corpus cfle, pro* 
ptcrea quod cum prius cflci humidum>nunc fit al* 
bum , ud cum prius ellet Cccum , nunc Ct nigrum, 
parum compos mentis uidearis . Sin quodpnu!: 
«rat huniidum,nuc fa»fKi eflc ficcu,atu quod prius 
erat nignim,nunc cfFe<fhjm album,aut etiam ex C.V 
lido ff igidum, autcx (r^ido calidum , uticp iapcrc 
&conueniei)tia dicere ccniearis.Quodenimmuta 
turfquatcnusmutatur,eatcnus cedcrcineontrariu 




ibetSiquidcm ficbathic^rt fit muGcus , ot iion 
{tico:& rheh)r,ex non chetorcEx mufico uero gt^ « 
inacicum..auc»cgrammauco mufjcum , mt cxalio 
quod diuern f ic gcnens/ieri abquid dicnr,iJne c(l 
abiurdum. Potcft enim qui prius cracgramaticus, 
nunc muficus ene,uclc^ ii muGcpDgramaiioc adie 
de^nec grammaticam abita t. Ac qui iiquid acquifi 
teratum in eo quod manetC' Ita non ex granvnaiico 
fii^hiScftmuCcus. Quippenunccuamgranjmari 
cdjkd ex non muilco, muGcus. Non cnim po 
poil^ muficus e(i h^us, cu'am nonmuficus 
Cumigitur omnis mutaiioj&abcontca 
if5,6Cex coiirrari)$fiacin concraria tmaniTeilum 
cft etiam humidum (iquatenus humidumelt,mu 
tetur,tum ipfum iiccacum iri,tuni quod id (tccet,(ic 
cum diccndum ede. Deiinnt igitur inquiut dicere, 
non poflc calidum,&; hunudum tcmperamcntum 
cfTe. Quippccalidumfimul &Irigidiimcncidem 
temperamennjm.aut humidum, & ficcum non po 
tcft.Cum ficri nequeat,ut in codcm tcmporc con* 
trarix qualirates unaconfiibinf : hiitnidum ucro fU 
mul & cal tdu m , prapterca frigidu tn fimul ac fic^, 
profe<fto in eodem confillcrc pofTunt:fiaiti uun ra 
rio ipla monftrauir, tum cjux paulo fiipra propofi 
irCRftintexempIa. Ac i»Jis quidc eft prioris propo' 
■ A iij firarum 

firaru p*artiu brano. Altera pars negac aliaui a raiio 
nf cfle , ai^ fi calidu eftiaciffiinfi c quatuor (ix , iia 
ut no in fr^du moHo, ied e(ia in humidum sgere 
poHit : cilc cuncn ccmpcrji naitii , quod calidii Iie, 
& humidum, uticp cu in primo Aauni anunaus or 
luiiumoris fimu) jcaiorjfcp copia m ide cocanr. K a 
no uao Iioru non lUud cH^icic, quod t iccjucac aliqii 
^ frigidi.Sedciuod fubciufmodi ftaiu durarcpcr 
pcixjo non pofiic. Qiiippc digelto Icmpcr per ca^ 
pro calido & huniido, calidum iicaiincp rcddi . I;i 
hoc ipfum quod cabdii & ficci' e{l rrdditum,pro« 
«cdcnK tcmpore fngiduriccumcpforcrub^cnim 
oinneduGTiodi corporis hiunorcnicalorabrum» 
tutus fcilicetalimcnto,quod ipfumacccdaw. Nc« 
que^tcurmim putant tuminccrinitia, ftatimutgi 
gnitur animal conucnire in icfcm, aut humidu plus 
ficco,aiiteaIidii pIusfrigido,tumieporis proccCs 
(u, qd'prius crat calidu SC hiuiiidu , poilea pofle 
c^dii cfllc & ficcii , xque ut poltca quac Cica erar, 
ficcacp euadcre. Bgo cft quidc alfqd^icperamctu, 
qd^calidii fit & humidir,ac rurfus aliud qdTrigidii 
fit & ficcii , ex iftis confinnat: No poflc aut tepcra 
menforu diScreciaspluFeselleyCpquatuor,cx hia 


Ces,cjuaein(cagercinuiccpatiqj podinr. Ncmpe 
fbaedu3s,altaaiaqua calidiiaduerfactir frigido^ 
ahcram m qua huniidu pugnac cum (kco . boqne 
Qioriim duo lubfiftere no poUc.Cu iK*.p humi- 

Pduin paritcr OC ficcum ,occ caliduui limul oC frigi* 
Atm dari corpus poHit. Rcliquas ^itttr cfTc qua« 
tuor temperanientoruin coniiig3ciones,duas humi 
das,& duas Cccas. Atquc Iiav cilore, frigorcque di 
in?as,ha:c(unt quxe^-gaiuiniinicorura,qiii aiire 
nosfuerc,tummedicorum,tum philofophorum 
dc Iiis dixere. Quaf urro mihi practcrmififTcuiden 
Cur^nuncadijciaidumreor, unujn igiitir & primu 
id cfl, cjuod temperacain naiiiram , qua: tamen n5 
uirtuicmodo,(cdc[iam uiribtu rrliquis pra^flac, 
ncMi aducrtcntm.Immo taitqj uulla nr.prorfus onni 
femt. Quancpncloquiquidcm dcrclic^isaliquid 
ilnehac doaicrut. C^iippcqiioduclinCalidatcni 
penecalidu prtrualcac (rigido , uel in frigida tepe* 
rie,rri2idu prxftcc calido,id ficintdlcxiUe qutdcm 
e(^,niiipniis pi>nj(ureuaato$ fiueceperaT3,iiecp 
enlalio^ jd hac tepiTata narura funt intcd cu (anita 
tis mcndx ui<fKl inuen^ieSc , calidius infto corpus 
srefr^erare,uelfrigidius cxcalfacae, ucl 

nii (us Iiiunidius ficcare^uc] Qcctus hunxdhrt^Scfx 
licet cfuo [cinperatuni qiiei tdam iiKdiocrenuK fu* 
nifnefndaitf» id quod niinus^^ ^ ci , quod cxupe^ 
ral fanpcr xquantes.Ei^ cjucm alliduc pcricquii 
itjr,&quoIanpCTrcfpicknicsintcmperaros fta* 
tuscotngunt, huncc^quidcni pnmuni oinaax 
lhimiccnlucnm.Hiuerotantumabrrc,mcius ud. 
meminermt,ut etiam totij prscicrcant . At no p 
ccnraus inquiuntcx his .^iquj Jn calido enim &lj 
mido coniprdicditur . Et quomodo non qui» 
eflc in totum icmperamcnta dixiibs : led quatuo 
fi niodo oprimum non omififtis C Quippc dta 
rumaltcrum,autcx mtcmprratis {fatibus ncccfl 
ci\ unum dle omi(Ium,aut ip(um temper3tum,^__ 
rgo quidem ex his, qun: (latuunt , temperatu ipfis 
pnrtcnntfIi:-:ncerte^'o:ubietumcalidu &ncd^ 
uel fr^idum &humidum,uel aliud quoduts tcm«j 
perainenium nonuhant ,n5 uticp rummas a nobH 
iiitclligi qualitatcs po{hiIa{it.Immo ex iis , quarfiH 
pcrani fieri appeUationes uoIunt.C^od G tempa 
lum ftarum oniitti noIunt,ccrte rcliquorum aliqtil 
ominiTcconuincemur.Sitenim ficutipG uoluni 
tempcratus ftatus, is c]ui calidui eO: > & humidu 
Oniiffus igicur illis plane ed^is qui fn^ido intei 
perainento aducrfetur, & ficco. Ncmpc in quo h 
midumpoUa & calidum. Ai idcm inquiunt is e(K] 
At qui fieri potcft,ut<iniul exuperct calidii , &n 

icxupenrtC& iupcrctur (r^idum, & no iii pCTctur? 
11 eram tcrrtpCTatus (iaius eft , ncutrum altcrij im# 
lodicc exuperacSiii mtemperatus,neccnecfl exu 
pcrec akcra oppoCuonum pars. Ac hoc ipfum in« 
quium temperati Ratus proprtumcl^ , ut in ea cali 
dum prseftet frigido,&huiTiidum ficco, Quippe 
fi fingidum modice quidcm uincat , non eflc com* 
modumicmperamentum.SuiampIius exuperct» 
iam udcp morbum exifterc:aeque ut fi ueHementer 
exuperet , mortem . Ad eundcm modumde ficco 
iudicandum. In principio quidem exiftcrc intcm* 
perutn.Siamplius augeatur»^itudinem,{i pluri* 
mum exupcret,moncm.Ccu uero de calido & hits 
tnido non idcm fit ludicium. Quis enim non dicat, 
ubi ud calidum fr^ido , uel humidum ficco paulo 
terexupcrat,mori]um,ubi pIurimum,mortemC Si 
quidcm eadem eft utrobicp ratio. Alioqui ncc qui 
c^di humidicp immodjcc ftatus funt,cos uitio de 
mus:necquiailidi morbi cum humore immodi* 
co con(iltunt,cos e(ft morbos (ateamur.Huic (en< 
tencix aduerlantes quidam AttalenGs Athenei (e* 
(fhttores,negantautcalidum humidumcp ftaium 
turio dandum,aut morbum uUum inueniri,qui can 
lidiis Gt & humidus . Sed omnino qui ud calidus 
fit 8C ficcus> ut f Aris , ud frigidus & humidus , ui 
B . Faciunc 

picuiiic 9f cir sncenipoabosinmEKXif . C^o 
nMnhic ui cm fi ^ic fa nieflf jccphutiadani dkunt 
Ujjttm caiiiMgiof fa on i. AnMMi>nu fr^tdmB 
& fiooni . Vcr atton nm «en^icTatunvaini ue« 
duro,&exatxliuspuerikm cjuide cmipcracani 
eflc^tumiKio calkbm humkiarnq; : pofTo iudkaci 
uuRaneofumtempdiemexnaaBalibus a(5ho« 

KmaimaanBntium coqMxa ad fr^dum ficat« ' 
^pciducicic,Qi^>pcn)OfniQS Grxoc k^lBxarix^ 
uocan , qufi nM humocts in ie haboues . Vtpote 

cumcalorisabiDoneco ochauftos turafrigore lis. 
genccs. Quod GiiDquuic^mors [alis ait nanira:, cer 
te ui[a,aim &flic6lcacB,calidadl & humida. At 
uoo fi uica calidum quiddam accp humidum efl« 
omniDO <]uod ui nmiHtmum tcmperamencum cilt 
id optimu nettflacio ef t . Quod G e[(,ncmine bt» 
rc,idemc|uocp tempcrac^Hmum efle .Sicinidem 
rectdere calidum humickimf^ ibKum,cum tempe*' 
r3to,necaliudellrtcmperatum,Cuceucraton fta«_ 
cum, cp calidicatmi fimul SC humiditatem poOmik 
Atcp Achmei quidein (equaciu hx iunt rationcs« 
uid^urq}& Ariftoccfc phiIofophi,&pofteun| 
Thcophrafti, SC Stoiconim cadcm efle (juodanM» 
do (entai(ia.[ta teftium (^CK]ue numero nos terri* : 
tant . ^oueiocjuouaciinocjum Ariftotdes dec^ 

^da huniiclacp tempcirie (cnfcrit , in progreriu fi res 
poftulct,forullc€xphcalx>, uident cni cu no retfie 
accipcre. Nunc id again ,u[ cos qui fideniiunr. 
in quo (eipros fallaiu , doccain , Mox rcm totain 
in unum coa<flamcaput demotillrem,Cum'cmm 
ilidum , & humidum , atquc ciiam cucraton cxi 
nt uer dle, hic £• mamfelte dccipiunt . Nam 
que humidum eft ficut hiems ,nequecalidum 
£ xdas t quare neutrum immodicc . Cum ta<: 
eti ipGs auioribus excellum qucndam indjcet 
^oduis talium nominum. Bifariam autem (unt 
£pri, primum quidem cjuod inquatuoranni 
nporibus ,quarum tempcramcntorum coniu* 
n inueniam omnino uoliit . Deindc quod 
l ea ratione concIudunt,quodnthieniequidfm 
lidius,3e(lateuerohumidius ,ucrum necquar# 
_ m in temporibus anni ftatuere icmperamenti 
coniugarionem eft necenc,nifieiiam talis appa* 
tccCjBC coniulilleid cum lemporibus unriufcp po^ 
{iiis,non magis id humidum & calidum, quam fri 
gidum probat Sc ficcum . Si enim calidum humie 
r exceflus cuiufdam nomina funt , non 
*ft , nec ipfis quidcm autoribus , uemm eflc 
uod uer in omnibus mediocre fit. Siautcmeo 
uod x{hxe humidus eft, hicme uero calidi^ 
, idcirco humidum cft S^ calidum. Quid 
B rj caufae 


caulae ef^,quo minus fngidum id Gccunicp puto^ 
aus7ud «^uain (ibi fadt (bttinoneni,u[ unam pane 
oppofitiotus ab hicme, attrram ab adateaccipiab 
Quippe cumab utrocp in urrac^ oppofitionum 
partc diflidcat,nonf X dimidio coUationcm, fed cx 
toto habcre debebat . A cqut fi ita fiat ccnirana M 
irxfCe diccnius^Nam calichin] trit &:(iccum»fi cen 
fetacur cum hi«ne, frigichira & humtdum , li cuni 
xRzte . Ex ncutra i^itur coUadone , fi modo ime« 
gra ell,calidum 5C humiduin erit.Sed li illis Iicctex 
utracp oppofiuone (iimpto dimidio, calidu id bu« 
midumc]? anerercnobisquocpadalterum dinu* 
ditim trannrc,aci^ id frigidu & ficcum diccre,qu/d 
ralicebii.Sdlicet ficcum, ut ad hicmcm/rigidum, , 
utadanfHte.OmniaigiturhacrationeucrcntJiUtf ' 
midum,Gccum,calidum frigidum. AiquiiHorum 
iplbnim(ententia,nonpcuuncquatuor qualitates 
radeinrepoIlcre.Er^nec};a?Rau,necphiVmi ucr 
comparare cll xquu . Sed potius ip(um per (e eft J 
mare.Nccp cnim hicmem ipGm ea de cau(a humi' 
dam ede.St (ngidam dicunus ,quod reliquis tcnw 
poribus humidior fr^idiorc^ (it.Immoid^alia 
quoc^rauone acddicSed quod humiditas in ea fu 
peret flccitatem , 8^ frigiditas calorem , proptcrea 
frigida dicitur,atc^ humida. Afi eundem modum 

gfdumacalido tipfaquocp calidadidiur& ficca. 
Siquidem axjuumcenlco quatuor aiini tfmporu 
quodlibet ex fuap te edimatum natura^on ex aliej> 
rius comparadmc calidunijfrigidum , humidum, 
ficcumucnominari ddxiv.Quinetiamliadhanc 
fonnulam e(limes,apparebi£ tibi Lerdfc omnis 
exccfKispIancinmedio.Cum necg ficutinhieme 
plus ualeat in eo ir^idum Cp^ Gcut in 
arftatc,minus. Ad cudem modum ficcitatis hurni* 
diiaiif(^ axjuabilitatem in cofpedes. Necp fcUicet 
■tiDeoGcutina^ftate pra^ualente ftcco , ncc^ ficut in 
"liicmc,exuperanie hum idoProindc re(^e ab Hy p 
poaace cfl diifhim.ijcr efle falLiberrimum , ac mi ni 
me mcH^is , qui monem afferant , obnoxium. Efl 
& autumnus ut ^ x(bis mtniis calidus,fic uncp ^ 
hiemsniinus frigidus. Quarehacrarionencccalia 
ambo (rt,ac ncutrum ad rummum.Cancrum altcru 
ineocfl incommodum, QuodetiamHyppocra* 
tis iSaiencetria f^n^kauitKrumeodeni die modo 
&igus nos afficic,modo calor uiget, autumnales ex 
p^hndimorbi fiint. Ati^ea rcs cft , qua: maximc 
autumntl modjifmi facir,incqualis ipla temperics, 
Itacp iion retftc frioidus,ficaj(cp djcitur . No eiiim 
fr^idus c{hfi. ipfe pcr fc fJ3C(fleiur,qd'tamcn hiems 
eft.Sed ubi cum seftate confcrtur^utiqj illa fiigidi^s 
B itj inhoc 

cccft ucrhu 
~i .3momKSC2S 
ncdficxish^ . j-roucoidi' 

IMcft^ooprc '"— pro* 

"""*"'* utpiur ^ ten 

pencaeflcfacta-, , _l__;j,_ . , : J,ina 
peraaim, hi urro cDoDa o^oKfair conancur , nuU 


luraeorum enetemperam.SediKteniario inipfis 
exuperarealias catidum,alias frigidum .Etnuncd 
I ta fors tulitjiccum^unc humidum. I^ uero cau 
tum abeft,ut aut uer, aut G quid cempcratum eil ca 
lidum atcp humidum dicam ,ut quod plane conu-a 
num ell,id affirmem ,omnium aeris cemperamf to 
rum pcflimum id eflc, quod humidum ed & cali* 
dum.(^od (ane temperamemum^n quaiuor anni 
temporibus inuenire nequeas.In graui & pe ililcn» 
ti aeris ibitu,interduin incidit, ueluti quodam lc co 
Hy ppocraces comemorat his uerbis : pluebat per 
aeiiumimber largus ailidue.Idnanq^cil humidi 
& calidi ibttus proprium,ut in xilu adidue pluac 
Quod fi ud canmm af fhis iit,qtiemadmodum in* 
Bee,ueluti hieme lolet , fkri nequit , ut is ii:ams cali^ 
■ dus fit & humidus. An igii (Inc morbis erat aeflas 
illa,in qua pluiOe dicic in caloribus largum imbreC 
Atqui carbuculos inea fui[}enarrat,puue(cetibus 
calida humidacp imodice fuerat gignetibus. IntdU 
betrErat i cranone carbuculi eftiui,pluerat pcr eftu 
la^ ibrijtdqpaffidue. Accidcrat aut magis aufKo. 
Ac fiiberat quide fub cute ranies,qu;E coclufa Icahi 
it,acpniritucxcitauitmox pufi^ uduti ambuf^us 
(moboRse, unc^ (ub cute fut uifar : ueru hic minus 


orpote unorantumequatuor temponbus niuta« 
to,malu fuit. Quod Gduo , tria ue lint muiata , 3Ut 
niam totus annus calidus^umiduicp fuent,necci« 
le cft,magna pcftiletia fuccedat.Cuiurmodi in tcr* 
noepidcmionjid eft^anaiitium pubbcemoil)o« 
mmnan-^. Apponam autempnmum, qux deteiiJ 
ponimintcmpeftiuoftatuicripfii:deinde dehoifl 
tcm animum in omnibus udim^eltinKfc^ prmiura 
cuiufinodi rcs Gt ca]ida,humida(^ tempcries , dein 
de^neceftarioineaomniapunelcanr.Incipit^ ' 
turl Iyppoaacisnarratioinhuncniodiim:Anni 
Auftrinus pluuius a uetuis in tocum lileiis,dande 
todus ftacus panicularem rauone fubijcit, crebrot 
imbresin calido &£'aufbino ftam fuiilcfcribetis* 
Mox uniuerfum (ermonem in unara fummam 
feren3.CumfLiinet,inquit,totusannus auftrinus 
humidu5,& mollis Jiarc & hacc incidaih,qux uti* 
<P omnia in hoc libro fcripfifle fi t longumJUcet au* 
tem cuih^buerit intcmo epidemion metnhraum ea 
Iegere,ac in unum caput omnia reda^ uidere.-ne« 
peputredLnemaxtmam.Cuiusetiam ipJiusHyp 
pocrates no raro nominatim meminic. Alias {ic (ai 
bes: Etat autem & Buxioip(acoIlafh,haud{imils 
puri. Sed alia quardam puniedo ac fHixio multaua 
riac^.Aliasfic.Hcinpudendiscarbunculi arftiuj. 
ttimakaqux putrediDcs appellancurtEcquodeic 


hac pmrecline muftis quidembradiiuni,& cubims 

i tC)nJ5<lcddem:niulustcmururliuracf^nudita,to 

k ttilcp pcs. Qutn cuam m<^' o(Iami carnium,ncr« 

I uonmvruculoiu prdaplus incidmint . Denique 

I ouUura ex^iaflibus^uos iaipricuiueniai, quifb 

ibolcs putredinisnon.liiiQuippecumnccancco 


Fidficames &reLiquaquscunc^al1eruariab bomi 

Intbus iblentjoblerues haec lale^axm'unia,ha;c ace» 


praeparari.IJeprdieodas & Borea, qui ficcus natu 

ra & frigidus uenuis ed ,omiBa op djuunime tm^ 

putna durare.Contraputreicerefacillime Audti* 

no ilatu . Enrenim is ucntus calidus d^ humidus. 

Adeonos cotumcomra,cp hi, quicalidum & hu< 

midumueraiitumantdccemmius.Cum oecpiale 

iii,necpfienet^ucp faiubreenet,autlaniiati accotf 

modum:hiautem &(akeneuoIunc,&pxopterca 

ctiamfakuiferumlalicctutrobicppcccates, tum in 

bi)s quzlenfuperdperc tumqicerationecRuitel 

li^c.CumlenruidmanifeftcDccat planciemperf 


quod propterea d^aptum fanitati,quodc qualuor 

auHain co cualitatum cxuperec.C^od G ud calidi« 

tas eiu$ fr^iditate multD exccdcret , uel humidiias 

ficctiafem,iuuams puu^edinibusobnoxium.Sic 

omnii] anni lemporum morbis eflctmaxune opor 

C tunum. 

tumim. Nunc quamor qualitatu oiixiktms o^ualE 
tas , & mr dix temperaturar dus , 6C ralubntati»- 
(utu caufie. Quid ^tt medids^ philofbphis quJM 
■wrNepe qd^quatuor tq^erametoru cotugiaqu; 
tuor iin i t^oribus adapiare uoliierijt . Porro id ii 
dc acadiciqd'pninu ojm tepcrametoru, ideft, mc 
dicameniorum,omnrum] dcnicptmun diflfeicnti» 
nifeftij eft^quaniopere pam r«ffce,fallace(^ deho 
minis nacurarones,medicatiombus obfint. Saiidi 
cpcrat duoru alteru , aut proriiis dulmodi ratioixs 
non aHigi(lc:(cd totu experientiae cocedcrc,aut pii 
Us in logica fpeculatioe exercitatu fuiHe . Quippc 
quinec experiet ix cd attentus,& naturalia ibcorM 
ueniencer cxercuit,neceneeft in eiufinodi cauilla fk 
perdu<fhu,acdecuideribus,ceuu,quiicii£i carea^ 
diiputet.Tu Ariftotde teHi aduocet, malc fcdicer 
quafi niuJtipliciter,(ed quaC ad cundem perpe* 
mo modtim did uelityacdphn» . Qum etiaro is^ 
quodaliqiiidfuo &naturalicalore,aut alieno,8C 
acquifititio calidum ^t,non cflc idcm indicauU* 
di hocquocp perpcra acdpiuc. Ad hxc Ariftote* 

s .itenK^ Theophcafi us , quo te^icicnte j tcpcra 
mihrcmpcraiaucnatiiraeflc.iudicare oponeac, 
!igcnrcrprodjdcnjnt,lIli ne id quidem mtclHgitr, 
racum hos audf unt animal calidura huniidu[nc|i 
l'dtcere^tpudtitempen>humidS,caKdamc|t cflc, 
ec queadmodu ea di(fb fint, intdligtir , & Ibipidi 
1 quatuor anf u tcmpc»aratione tranflcnint. Ceu 
itacro idem Ct^cnon longo intcruallo diflidcs pro* 
||)naa!icuiustanperiehumidaf C3l(damc^cfl^,aut 
ndarincibisacris.NecBenim nmilitcrdicilur 
s temperies calida o^ humida, (icut aeris 
Titnsiicalit£idjcitur& humidu.Quar^iC 
imhoruoccafio famdicam}Ciarec]}oflvn« 
his prsefotun^qiu' imenii efl^ uolunt , cx^mini 
Torcm inijs,quarinicrinttia!ogicaE^eculatkj« 
nis tiaduiur/naximorum cn-orum occafioncm fic 
ri,foTta{^ue omnibus, quac ucj incudis ao^us, 
tieIinuitae3<rrionibus perper3mgenmtur,iophuG* 
nutaiuccediinr. Atcphaecquidem fbphifinata illt 
Ufrio iuccedunt,quod uric^ no rede definittj eft de 
cdidi i^iiicarionibus . Scd duobustamu modis 
did id putatum . Qionim altero ligntficemr , cjcS' 
fyrKmim imnuxtum Sc fimpJes cft * i\ltero,quod 
mmixrioecu Aiocontrario^diupcrati Quod aii« 
Km&aiicramtetnpcriemcumaltera confcientcs» 
(iibuide alteram earum calidam proco,quodcll 
caUdiorcm pronuncianiiis, id non memtncrunt. 
C rj Atqui 


&:hunudafutitKlida Non propne tmiperaturv 
monuacoUata . Qiippc demomus & flupibus^ 
ammaiiuacaljdiora,huinidiorac^ iiuit. Quincdain 
exanimancibua ipGs fpeciatim intrr ic co{lai^,ca/« 
nis ficdor cft , homohumidior - i^ t fi formicaE: u4 
inuentcs t ita idem aiumans prxut homo ficcum , 
pranu apicula humidum fueric J^urfus ad hominc 
collatum aalidum,-ad leonem frigidu m erit.Nec mi 
tum,ii ad aliud aic^ atiud comparatum, contrariafi 
mul dioi dc ic patttur.Ne<^ id alienum eft, Q idem 
idem confeens fic dixeris.C^od cnim incommo* 
cass^ni^adeimdem eonferensitadicasCCumafil 
altemm dcxtrum cne^d altcrum nnifhiiin^nihi' ^t 
abfoni Sicigimr&canishumidus panier &lic« 
cus;pratcrcacaIidusfimuI5cfrigiduscft,non ta« 
minis Fe(pe(fhicaliduscft,leonis fr^idus jQuior 
ctiam calidus e{l,utuiuens , cummortuus non anu 
piius fit calidus . Non calidus , ut ad alccrum ( fi ita< 
vis /caiiem comparatus . Atcp hacc quidemorrAita' 
per coUationem inter lc dicuntur . Qux uero ut tn 

iimaiitiumg«naxconfauniur Aliaratione^ncu 

Betiam quscuncpin aliquaanimaliumfpeae. Ca 

|iis nanc^ ad fonnicam oC apim cft humidus , in 



\ cani) caiiperatus . Ac cJitflum quidcm a nobis 

l,inlecundodepul(uum agninonedcialinomia 

um ufu difturiflime. Necefie taniai uidaur nuiic 

uoc^ iummatim aliquid , quod adrrm propoflta 

it uule,dicendum . Quod u>loluto fermonc, nec 

adaliud uUum coilamm,(iccum uocatur, id in folis; 

demends cil,igni,terraq;. Sicut humidum in aqua 

SCaeie. Ad eundem modum Si de calido , frigido 

fentiendum. NuUum enim c^eterorum prorfus ca* 


BBraeier hxc ccpens,cx his mixds ojnfh t . cocp £c« 

^Bpndo f^ntficadonum gencre, calidum , fngidum 

nuecfl,nonabiblucarationc,ucluti fynccrum,&a 

Bjnixtioealienum. Imnio uduti ue) calidum largius, 

fi^idum partius;ucl frigidum largius , calidu par* 

rius Gr fora'tum reliquorum quiduiscalidum , fri* 

gidumucclicimr.Acduoquidemfigniricaa cali* 

aijr^'dijiumidi,&(icd4wecfunt:altaumcx ab* 


cerum : alterum cxcontrarijs. quidcm mixtis. ccn* 


C iij oleum. 

oIaim,nid,qu{cquid his Craile r(l,hum(dum dicS 
nuiii,hateiia,la[er, minoremportione hutnidifunC 
lbftica,matorcm&ci.Eocpci'ufrnodi omnia fkci 
ciicuntur.Foiniicaueroficcaeflj&uemiis huniU 
dus^Icilicet ut (iint animalia. Rurftis ihtcr ipfbs uctf 
nies,alius ficcus,aiius humidus.Idqueud abfblutC 
Joquaido,utuermis, ud alten cuipiain ucrmicoiA 
paratus.Cxieru hocipfum quod didinusaic iicn 
mis ficcus , ut homo calidus, ut canis frigidu s ; itifl 
quis le^accipiat , iC prius intelligft quid libiuC* 
lit,nece(?ceftomnefermonemcoitfundat. Ef^aul 
^ofcendis dia'tur,umimquodc|j fi-cundii geiius^ 
ficoini ue;led etiam magnum, paruiim, cekre,taM 
dum,aliacp id genus tuncnoniinari.cum liiprame 
dioci«,inediiun^ Gt . Verbi giatia , animal cahdii 
am liipramedium (cmpcrieiit aniinat,cquum cU 
dum cura Cipramediiun ceinperiefit cquun^Poni 
foihquoquegenere fpedeue medialimtca,tjU3e' 
Gtaecefymmctradicutur. Quippequxafiimiiur 
ineo geiKreSf fpedefinibus a?qualitcr difVant. Ae 
eemis quide eH nnaml : Ipcciu jquus, bos,canis> 
Medium tempcricin toto anin^lium genmfxt» 
moeiUdenim in lequentibus demonfbabit . Mt 

eu&rcon uocantXatine.puto/|uadratuni, h poro 

klDeft,({ucTn nccgractleni dioere, tKCcranumpoG 

lfr:fedneccalidum,iiecfr^'dum,ncc altoquouK 

Bnoiecxiis.quaeexcenum dcfccfhimucindKantap 

■e.Quifquis iuper hunc fucTit,i5 prorfijs cali» 

rjfr^idior, humidior, ficciorue eft . Nomina* 

r aut talis partimabibluto fomonc,partim no ab 



ncdlatusdidt.Itacnimcanis ablblutoquidS 

"« , prout uidclicf t cuipiaopinio tft , animal 

n dicitur.No uiicp alicui coparatus,uerbi^ 

aformicae.NonabiblucouerOjUnaquide racioff 

:,quod lolicet iymmetro,id eil,coequali , & rae# 

io waus (peciei coparatur. Altera tifro , quod m 

q^ iuter omnia animalia coequate, & media t& 

Tkcft,qiucquid id ftatuas,confemir£mo iapa 

n fit,quod ununiquodc^ eorum , qux fic diciin 

tur,nos id uel uni cuicuncp comparantes,calidum, 

fT]^'du,humidu uc, aut iiccu ,ut ad illud didmus, 

ud in quocucp genere ipede ue fit di<ftu,ad eius rae 

dm referentes.R {pede quide,ut cc]uo,cane,boue, 

pJarano,cuprenb,ficu.Generi uero,utamniaIi,uel 


fdlicct, cjuaeabiblutofomoncdicumuTpquae ina* 

pemiixtas &mmasc]phabere qualftates dixiinus ac 


fariam dicun tur , co^derandum arbitroT id qua<s 
die{idc,qu^dmodu uumur appdlaDOjbus, mni 
nc ut Omplex aliquid & immixtu iudicantes, an ue 
lunadlymmetronciulcknigencriSjUelfpcdei co' 
ferente$^ueluhadrcmquamlibet,ficmcum os 
ficciun didmus^ui fr^idum,abibIuto ita iermone 
nominantes^no adieiflro Ieonis,canis , aut homints; 
Palam nan^ en*, (]uod ad uniucrfam natura onini 
um qua? (imt in mundo corporum relpidences alf 
quidoondpimusmedium,cumquo coderttices« 
ipium ficcum dieimiu. A t fi quis lconis, ud cantSf 
uel hominis os ficcum ei& didt, liquet hunc rurfiis 
eiqitodin ipfis animalium olHbus mcdiumcf id 
compararcEftcp quoniara tmiucribrura animali*^ 
unn,alij$ magis,altjs minus Gcca onafunchic quoq^ 
os aliquod tn aliquo animalium gencre inceOigen*^ 
dum,quodmediacempcne it, uerbicauIa.homi« 
nis, at<^ huicrdiqua coUau , alia humida , alia ficca 
appelbnda.Iaminipfis hominibusaliusosiiccu, 
aiius humidum habere di£eair,utic^ ei,qui medius 
e(t,ui inhomimbus co!latus.C^ioducroinomni« 
bus qu» func , quod medium interexucmael^ , ici 
fynimetron,at^ m iUo genere , uel fpede temperaff 
tum (itjincmininuhi&nnoneiubaudicndum perc 

p(Cuoefl,quaii^ 6cin dufliorKominutn.Atqicu 
_iiaccqujdem Qc ie haheaut, ubi aliquis hanc, ud illS 
1 liuniidam,calidani ue temDeri<mi af^mat^rogaru 
I dus efc qucmadmodumdijocric, unru ne hunc qu9 
iniaiTiunidefimtocomparansPlatoni uerbigracia 
f Theophi-aftii, an (ecundura genu s quodlibct, fpc 
I dem ue coUacionem fadcns. Quippe ud ui homf > 
ijLixi ut ammal^ ut Gibihintiam abiblute. ttr-:» 
aerum^itficatumcuiuiuis taliiimncvninum, 
nodioi^ilac cileimpemiixrumc^diximus^idui 
isCibilantns iX)nciLSed inipHs prmiis.quac 
auocamus elemetua,Ita.cum quodcp alTtr^O' 
I qualitate coipotum tnfaiiara dicat nobis ad 
opoiitam dc temperaniencis trat5l2donern,c}iiO' 
iscancum cAopus ^utciuiudad unumquodli» 
c^ud ad nxdium eiufBcii: gcnms comparemus. 
iXMiiam auiemnHilca goietalunf ,qucmadmo« 
an utiqp & indiuidua , poteric multis modis ide 
is,oif calidum, & &igiduin, & humidum , & 
atiSc. Venim cum utu cuilibet comparamr 
tdummanifcfltim cil contraria decodem di 
eiicere- Vduri DionanThconecjuidc,8i; Men 
aefiociorem Ariftxme, & Qaucone humidio* 
1. At aim ad mediumeiulclem gciinis ,ud fpe» 


parum cxercicaci furu^iolcnt, Idem nancp homo hu 

tnulus fimu] &calidus eHe pocen* , ied non mimis 

D ficcus 

ficcus S^ fr^dus . Verum ficcus quidmi & fi^i* 
dusad mediocris tempmmcnti homincma^i> 
tus^humjdus autem & calidus,adaliud quoduis 
animal [lirpemue,aut fubRantstm comparatus^ 
ucrbigraria ad animal,ut apcm &C formica:ad ftir»; 
pein,uc olcsm,uel ricum,uel laurum. Ad aliam uc» 
roquanipiain fubftaniiam.quac ncc animal iit) ncc 
plan(a,ut lapidcm,ferrum,uel ars.In his uero ccJla* 
rionrm,qwe ad homincm &, ad rem eiuiclcm ^xv 
Cid dixcris. Qux ad apcm,uel formicam eit,ad ali* 
fic quamb'bet.B(l cnim liipra aiiima] i^irpis genus, 
quemadinodum lanc luperioris, ^iiirpium gene 
ris fiint Iapis,fcnum,& asmocetur tamen pro do* 
cendi compendio ad omogenes, id eit, rcm eiufde 
gcncris, omnis eiufmodi comparatio . IDud modo 
inca dcttrminaiibui nobis quod ubi Gmplidter 
iubRancia quaerpiam eucratos,liue temperatadi^ 
citur,ium hac ^ia ficdor,alia humidior, & alia fn» 
gidior^iacalidior,colocoeamqiucex contrariis' 
>equa prorius inter (e ponionc coetmtibus coftct, 
aicra[on,f]uc tcmperata nominari.Quaxiinqp ue*: 
ro ab hac dcfidunt,(uperanrcp aliquo eam (uperan 
ris Hominciiocari: ubiueroflirpcm,animansueul 
Iiiin cua-aton dicimus,nequa^ in ca di(5iione fim* 
rani uel aninialis , ucf flirpis referimus . Ficu ueiW 

loatemperatani diccntes^ talis fit^ quaKs niaxi 
e fiaisd (c nanira debeat . Rurfus cancm, luetn , 
Kcquum ,3f homineni, cum eoru quiic^ pro fua na« 
rtura opnmc ie habeat : opiime ucto k habcre a]t« 
qutd pro (ua natura ex ipCts funcflioiiibus in tdl^''' 
tur.Quippe anuTiaI,ac itirpcm <|uamlibet, tii opii 
mciehabcrediciiTius.cumoptimefuam fuiKflio* 
ncm ob€unt.Ficus cnim uirtus^^onitafc^ eft, opti 
moSipIutimoic}; ficos aifetrc, Ad cundem tnodii 
imis^pluhmas optimafcpuuaspcnderc.Equiuc^ 
ro , ^ uclocilTime currerc , Ganis , ad ucnatioiics 
quidcm, &C tucelam cp animoiiilimum , ad dome>: 
ftkos ^ minilunum dle . Harc ^iiur omnia , ani« 
maltadico & /lirpcSfOptimam, mcdiamcphabcrc 
in (lio gcnere lempericm dicemus^ncMi utiqj ablo* 
ktto (crmofK,cum paritas exacla contrarioru in i]» 
fi£.Scd cij ea mediocritas,qux ad potcilaicm rcfct 
tur,hisadCt.BiuimodiaIi<^'d,&iuflit^ ciledici 
mus,tioqU<c pH>ndcre,& mefura , Sed qux co qd' 
pro dignitate coucnit arqualiraie cxpIorsr.Ei1^ igic 
tempcratura; arqualitas in omnibus tempcraiB ani 
nialibu.'<U^pit>uic^>non ea,quae cxpari clcmfn* 
torum comiworum ipedatur nx)lc,(cd quae tii ani 
maliSjtu il^irpis naturx conucnit.Couenit aut alias i 
ut humtdu Gcco,& (rigidum calido prxpondcrct. 
Ne<^ enim (imilcm habcre tcperatura dcbcnt, ho." 
mo , ko,ap&,& canis . Etgo ad quarentc cuius fit 
D ii ccmperameti. 

nmpcranKnci, honio, equus, bo5, canls , aliud u 
<]iKKllibet , non cft abioluto lcnnone rcfpondoi 
flurti. Non omm fim potclt,ut qui ad ea,qu2e md 
lis nxxlis (um didia^nu nxxio rc^ondct, non 
arguatur.Oportrt ^'tur duorum ^tenini , aut o 
<juarogauerit,ilIam/oi.imdiccrc Namfiutinara=« 
inalibus , cuius eilet tcnipcramenti rogabat, ad id 
quod medio e(k inter omniaanimalia temperamen 
to rcfjsicicntes ^rcfpondere oportct. Si abfohite, au 
cn ut ad omnem fub A^antiam.Sic iam cotraria,qu% 
funtineo conipararcinierieoportetatcpacftima* 
rejiaudqua^adacftionem temperiem refercntes, 
^ad elementorum portiones,nnhuic cuiptam 
fiiigulatim comparans,rogabat , uti^ ad iOud (oG 
conTerendo efk relpondendum . lam minus edam, 
hutus canis,rogeniur,quxmm fit (ubfbuidse teni^ 
pcf atura, cft (unptex danda rc(pon(io . Dabit cnfl 
hinc (bphiflis ,adcalumniam occaGo non paruaJ 
Nam (l calidi efle temperammri,& (icddionemi 
dicac,FaciieIicebitilIjs,panimhominem cjueniln 
bet,qui calidioris ^ dion fit,8f (icdcms temp«v 
menri proponentibu9,ut ad iHum humidum , fW' 
gidumc^ dionc-dicerc,parrim aliud quoduis ara« 
mans ftirpcmuc,uerbt gratia lconem,aut canem, J 


i.Quifc]uisigKnecip(e{ere ralkre.necah alio 
faUiudetjhuicopus eAabhis fiibftanir|s ,quar 
fimpHciier calidac/rigic^i huinid» , ficca; dicunt 
indpere,atcjjitatfan(treadreiiquas. Acprinnim 
quiiiem iUikI ip(um in t]s explorarii habere , nt has 
quidcm tametfi maxiine uidaitur abfbluto fcrmo^ 
ne dici , <|uo minus ad mediocre eiufclaii gencris 
comparentur cff ugerc , ueluti enim canem mcdio 
temperameiKo eneomnium canum dicimus,cum 
pari fpatiodiRat ab extremis, ira (ubflantiam nie^ 
dioelle temperamento dicemus ,cumparimodo 
abextremis abefl:,quaefcilicet &primaomnium 
(iint & elementa.Porro abcrit pari modo ab exire> 
miStCum ea continet a^qualiter tncer fe mixta . Ifrgo 
tnix fiipra dtra ue hanc,teinpenes erit, eam calicU, 
frigidanjiumidam,uel ficcam dicemus , (imul ci , 
quse media e(1:,conferentcs Jimul cotrariorum ckr* 
mcntommcxamenincafacientes . Qua nimirura>' 
tfotie fimphdtcr eam calidam, frtgtdam , huinida, 
ficcam ue pronunciabimus : ubiuero aim medio 
tanpcraniento conferimus,no fimpliciter, fed qd' 
ad mediocreciufHemgeneris fic fc habct. Porro gc 
tuis earum fubflaiuia cft , omnfa cnim fiibjiac ,ut 
fuperiori (unt gcnerc, tum animaia , lum inanima . 
urroi iint alia gcnera pcrmuka . Animal c|iiidc(n. 


u) auu. 

cus,genu5 eft arbor.anagaflidos,&proniar,bcrba. 
lam haec ultima fiinr gcnera,eocp fpeacs appcOan* 
tur,coruus , roinbus , ficus,anagallis ,fimilitcr ho» 
n»o&bos. Acftipanacquidem dclccndenabus, 
hacc ulcimn fuac geneniT^inde ipedcs diffkc. Infcr 
neuero alccndecibus,ab indiuiduis CdHca (ublHn 
d^StpriaiunLlndicatuc^alioopeiiecR.mrrito oia 
quaimediaiutuiterpria & idiuiduagenera^iimul 
genera & {pesauctcribus ncminan. fcrgocu def^ 
riita (ignificata u (int, ac clare indicam , queadmcw 
dii tum ab(oluto,tu no <^(b]uto irnnone calidu^fri 
g(duJiumidu,(icdiuecorpusaliqiiod prcnuidaa 
dii(ir,quacrend<cnobisdeincepseoriiiunc nocz* 
Qua^ hic quocp dccemcrc prius dc nominius 
oportecquxinhabedonobis (mnone, nfcc{{ano 
incidcCjGmuI explicare re c^uAnda,qua' pocei^ atc ia 
tnoibaca prius e(t,no cn sia oibufi^qui hos comcn 
tacfoseuoluec,(adle(aIteminteUigi potei^.Itac^de 
tK>ibus prius locucus , mox ad re reucicar , Quod 
calidum,iT^idu Jiumidum, ficcu non unu alfqutd 
fimplidcCT (^ni&ent , ubi d c corpbribus dicunf » 
pruis eft inmcatu . Quod aiii &: (olx iplsc in cor« 
poribus qua!icates,citra corpora, qua? cas (ufcipitf 
ii»r,(«: iterini nominertt, id quide , ut n5 du eft di« 
^fliMtanucdidelliiepdhuij. C^eadmodunomf 


albuscolornigro^tudecorpore^qd^coloie fnfci^ 
pu,di fcilicet dons corpus aJbu dicut . hn & calidi 
appdlaret, tu uerodeojrpore qd* caiiditaie fcifh* 
net, QuippccaKditateacoiporeqd^ca iuicipitdi> 
iicriam habcre natura, & propria exilVimte opor 
tct>ucluti in opere de demetis eft Jdicatu.Et c^di 
tasquidequa!ttaseft,eadeuero&calidu didtur, 
ueluti &albedo albij Jpiu ucro corpus calidu,unu 
hocnome tantiimodo optinet,caIidu,iicutialbu» 
Nu^ in caliditas, uel albedo, corpus ipfiim diat. 
Ad eude modu ficciJ, frigidu , & humidu , noTanf 
tu ipfu corpus,tu qualiias. Non tfi OMpus fr^idi* 
tas,humidit3s, ud ficdtas appdlac , cjueadmodum 
quxieoequalitaSjhax cu^c (chaheac, no alienu e, 
cuud calidita^,uel frigidiiate diiputas ciuis jpfert, 
nulla exoriri captione. Quod fbla? qualitates his in« 
dicenc noibus . At calidii , frigidum ue cu didtur , 
quando & qualitas iia,& quod eam fufcipit , cor* 
ut quod a loquen te non l^nmc atur,id quo poflit 
repKfaendeit,acdpiat.EHilmodt cnimremfaciut, 
qni (cntentiam illam,quadicit Hyppocratcs au* 
geicenria corporaplurimumhabcreinnatumcali* 
<ium,oppugnant.Nequc enimefle corpus ab'* 

cdcalidum,ip(um innatumaialicalidumintd* 

lig(fKCs,nccp idquidfitu^juS quarrciites,ieddc1 
nomcn id dia praHuinentes,(tc didiun eius refdle 
^'[^ucre,taineifi fit res parua, lamcn inrerum ufii 
non lcuis experitur inomcnii, umim oi hoc quo» 
cp &lxinde iic definiuim, mriiun id quod fup crc/l, 
rcpetainus. Cu humidicas, & liccnas, & calidiias, 
5C frigiditas , fynccra: qua«iam , SiC imper mijaa p 
qualitat es liint,qu3ecuncp has (iiicipere corpcfa ea 
calida,& fWgida Jtcca, & humtda,prorius exa(%c j 
cp func . AtCfj ha:'^ mihi genitorum , & percmitiii 1 
demenu intdlige . Reliqua corpora uel animalii^ I 
ud flirpium,uel inanimorum omniu,ucll^'atis« T 
njcoUocataene»NtiIlumenimiIk»um udadfinnl 
mum catidum , ud ad fummum &igtdum , uel ad j 
iurranum Iiiuntdum , uel ad {ummum iiccimi cd:. 1 
Sed ud mcdium prorius cantrahontm^ca ut iiilu' 1 
£ccum,ucladalrerum contrarioruincfl^ propev 
(um,icaucm^is fit calidum,^fr^idum,udnia« 
gis fit bjmidum ^ ficcu , ac ficjuidem medium pla 
ne Ilc in utroc^ con trariorum gcnere,ica ut non ni3« 
gis iit calidum qr fr^idum, auc humidum ^ ficcu» 
euaaton id fiue tempcratum omnino dicecur . Sin 
altnumcontrarionnnfupereCjGueuialtcraoppo* , 

e in uirac^ id (it^n Atam dicetur euoratf 
s eft^d «^pdlabuur.Idem 1 htOKnduni dc JJccO| 
^umido . Ad eundcm modum (i &^tdum ma» 
t Ct,noratnabirur(Tigidura^t G in uira(^ oppo 
iaaeakerumiuperet^ue calidum unacumhunu 
cb,&Kcahdumnmui cum (icco , iiuc fr;^dum dt 
Rmlani hiraidojjue &^diim una cuni bcco,uti« 

gpro uuKoi fbrtKturid corpusappdlaQoncm, 
has quidan quaiuor intonpcrks^t iiipra dixi« 
^^>is,plunmi norunt,tum mcdici, tum philoiophi. 
PBEdiquas quatuor, cjiuc ex cHmidto hariim collitu 
^^tefiint,ndcio quoniodo derdrnqtiunt, Ccuc ctiam 
eamijqtiscprima omiiium,opmnacj?cft.C3cterum 
quodlupcranic cabdoliccatnihilo magisliumida 
«Uc,^ liccam icmperfeni:quod utic^ ad hanc fpe<| 
ifi£t ooiugaribncni^d uel ex fi£,qu3c iara dic^ Hj ti^ 
pESedi^ra , id coll^erc . C oncedenribas icnid il* 
lud lahem , alieram cflc rcm pcriem humidam & ca 
lidaoi,a]teram fJccai n & calidam. Si nanc^ nece(Ia« 
rm omnino no cft ficcam cnc,quae calida fit, fed Ii# 
BBteam &humiddra enc,Iicd3ituncp& mediam 
^fc : propior nancp ficca: tcmperanincmedia cft, 
^bimida. Ad cundcm modu eft & fr^da quar* 
dam tempcries altera^n qua nimirum frigidu poU 

t'— Haoc taroai ucchunudam c(Ie,nec ficcam^cft ne 
E ceO^, 

ane. Sc^ poteftintcT fiss&m«liae{?c.Rur^ 
fineccflenon alfr^idam tempmc cflchumidfcM 
(ed licct & iicc^n cam fifrf manifclluii ■ el t,mcdj^| 
quocp dTe po(& . Quippe qim uicjnior htanidaeV 
eftc!p fioca.Bgoudud dux intrmpcriesinaleera 
oppofitionc Cutu monilraca;,altcra cabda tantum, 
akera fiigidaSic in idccra oppoiiuone dLwr aiisc ft a 
niantur.altEra flcca tantum^cra humida , medio- 
critcr icilicct lcie habentibus calido & frigido. fcc 
nim na^ dicemus hic quocp, ficuri ncccfTc no cft, 
cpe{1e.Scd fienpolIc,utecB frigida iit,itafiic7Jpo« 
cdlfUt qua^ta nec calida Ijc ncc ^ida » Scd iohx 
quidemoppofldonc euaatos,Gue iempcrat3»in all 
tcia,licca.SimiIimodo nechuinidam remprriem 
neceile efl calidam^gidom uc eflc. Scd eam ine* 
diam cClx jhterhuius oppoRticwiis extrcnia liicet* 
Si ^ittn- nccefle non H t, m ud intcmpcncm , quse 
Jn cd ido eft & ir^do , fequacur ea qux> dl in ahe 
ra oppoGtione inteperies,ucl hanc,quac in iHa, lice 
bit aHqu ando Sc naturam, cjua; in calidicate & ki» 
giditaie tonperata (it ,ud ficcam cde , ud htimicla. 
Inuicecp qua: in his icperata fit, uel calida efle , ucl 
&^'d3.quare lut & hxab ii5,quas priorcs tumcdi 
aVuphilofbphi npbis tradidertit qiiaruor djuer^c 
lt]ttperic$.Mcdioi^locopoGta;in[er [cmpcratos 

Ittbinis , & cos qui i lUracp oppofirioe fuiu itepc^ 
iQui racpi &jmmoc tcpo^atusjts neucia oppo 
ooe haba fupexanie . Qai tiero aduerfus huk e 
HuSjUtracp habet uiuofaiTi. Mediu iorm lo« 
jjCjui i akcraquidcc icpcraruSjiakcrancperatus, 
liquiuncp&exdimicliocucratoSjCxdimiciio itcpe 
T3KUS cu lit, mento medius did poc intercu,qui cx 
coto ei^ trpenttus,& cG qui cx toio dl itcpcnuus. 
£t fi c|uidc krc (ic fc habcc , ficu t ccrtc (c habct , cur 
fwucdicereuniucriasicperamctotriditFcicdas du 
I>iicmus.Tcpcrataquidc una,notepcrat3S Oifio, 
ciuaru quacuor (implias {inLJiuida,G'cca,caIjda, SC 
fr^'cia,(]ua(uor copoCt^ hutda (imul & calida,nc 
mul 5d ficcajn quolilxrt uero laditflorii tcpcramcu 
roru permagnus c cxccflus ,def€«fh](cf niodus no 
in jjs mocki qua: fimplicia (um.Scd etia f copofitis, 
IdcK cuIto[a(ub(}aiia,Tuucroiuiioquocpgcn&( 
re Si cui igtt ^oicedotu t^crametoru cura e,in* 
dpcK exerdcauone oportct ab rjs i quolibctgcnci; 
ic naoiris, cjua: tcpcratac, m edia;:^ (iint . Qui pp€ 
<u G hiis alias vOparet facik qcf^in quauis fliperct de 
ffdat uc fnucnerit.Ergo primu de fjs.qua: {implid 
quae fcDicet in di goierata (ub(latia,no in (olis aiali 
bus & ftirpibu^ dilcfiirendadiximus . Porro hic 
fftoi^ cai^ te difl igt.ere de noibuscouciet^qci' 
~ " E j j calida 

calida tempaks^^iamexKrgajEuc, ut (oquui 
actu G[,aliapotcfble,niniquodpoiHl:aieea ci 
dicannus^quae c]uoddicunair^'cl nondum fint : { 
facilr id fieri polCnt. Quontam naturaltm,ut id & 
am faculcaiem finc adeptaJgitur primu dc ifs, qiiae 
aiftu calida, frigida, humjda, & ficca func , dincra« 
mus^aufpicati ab uniucria fubitanoa. Mox ad ani« 
malia & ll^irpesdifccnrLin.Iia entm comiumr>aii0 
nem habebit,quod ihfl^utum nobis e(i . Quond 
igiiur qtiod iii omnium genere,maximccp in iiDi« 
tjerja lubflantia medium eil^id ex mixtione extrc* 
morum cc»ii1aiur,utk^conuenief,ut tu notio eius 
tumagrutioexillisfumatur. Acnotiocjuidem f^ 
ciUima efi.Quippe a calidiflinwoniniii , quxiub 
lerifum ucniut, uduti igni^aut quapiam aqua, qus 
ad fummumni feruens ad id,quod omuium,c^ 
r.obis apparent,cflfrigidifGmum, utlutigbciem, 
bC ftiucm uenientcs ,xmmato tnterea inceruaflo, in 
medio od un^uem id diduciniu$.Sic enim fymme 
trott, quod (cilicet ab ucroc^extremoru f>ariabeft 
(pacio,intcIle<^ comprehendcmus . Quin evaid 
nobis prs^parare licet.Mifcentibus aqux feruciw 
ci parcm modum gladd. Quod enim ex ambobus 
efimixtumpari imerualloabutrocp extronorum 
jberit, & co quod urir, & eo quod fr^oreftupefa 
cit.Non efl igitur difRcile a, qui ita mixtum tet^e 
rit^medium uniuer& (iibflantfar ui calidi &igidi(^ 


t oppofittone habeK,eiu fcpniemininc, aic^ yiia om 
niailli ueiutinormc adaptataiudicare.Quinetil 
fi terram.quar ficcaiiviel cinerem, ucl taJe aiiguidt 
quod plane Gt aridum,pah aqux modo imbueris, 
inedtum inCcd fuunidii^ oppoCiione cfFcceris . 
£igo ne hic quidem difficile eft ubi uilij pari(er,ta* 
£tucp auihiodi corpus noueris niemonac id infigc 
rc,eoc^ ad humorum, ac Ikcorum, quic defidani, 
jliiperent ue agnitionem pro norma , exemplaricp 
cntcr calcm eft . Nam hctc ipfum humidi ,{icd^ 
inediu.-n corpus G ad (ummumid calorem frigus 
ue (5 perdudium ,fal fain inrerim imag r nationem ex 
^■jt^tjuidebiturc^ Cf ljtmedioae,aIiquandohu« 
HhidiuA,aIiquando Gcdus.QuippefiUberalius caic 
IrfatJiquwimianvtcHuxilchuniidioris fuhHan* 
tucpliaruailamde (epnebebit coutra refr^atu 
pjus aifto,coiiGftit,accc^itur,immobiIe(^reddi« 
iur,& durum tagenti apparcr. Vnde etiam faliam 
duncki imaginauone exhibet. Quod u ueluti hu* 
midi Gccicp paremmodum haba,fic caloris,ac fri 
gorisfitininedio,necdurum,necnioUc tai^cnjj 
apparebitidcorpus. At^totaquidem eiufmodi 
corpora per tota le mifeTidi,caIidum,inquam,fri* 
gidum,ficcum,& humidum, homini l^cultas non 
efl . Terra enim aquac confuia , milcetur quidem 

t'™'atenusfcjUc« uideri cuipiampoffit ) aicp iia 
E iii tou 

loia (oti contempetactii- . C<icrum appofiiio exi« 
guarumpaniuniwcft ,n«<juac[uam totorumper 
loia mixtio.Scd amfao t-aper loia mr (cctc , dci , ud 
miurxcd opus,magtrcpc[ta(icaIidi^3clrigiduin 
uer (e tota pcr tota miiccda fitit . Attamc appoGtio 
nea'ulitK>dieifcdrc,utienfumef!ugia[ fiiigulaiim 
phciii eorporiJr ,n6 folu naturar opus dci uec . Scd 
eda nof^m. Nei^ eni ditl icile e tali mixtioc Juoim, 
qdmcditi ficci.hiiidiq; nt^molri.SiaiUi m6& Cjd' 
caltdiacfrjgidifitmcdiu^uidcbifqi [ibi aufinodi 
corpus i cakirc Sc fi-igorc tcpcratiJ: inio ctia in du* 
ncie,mo[liaec^ medio Itatu clle . Id aut genus rii 
hominis aitis,i'tpote omniu cxiremoni c<didi,fr> 
in inanu,hxcenim omtuu fcfibiliu uctuu iionm fu 
niraeratprudeti(Timo,nimirrianima[iu tatflusiiv 
f trumcai ahipla narura prarparata. Qyo magis e^ 
ab omiubus extrcmis calido inqj ,fJigido,ficco, SC 
ftac ex hoiu omnis cquis portioibas,no copc^itu 
mo/edctia per totas (e mixtis.cjd^noftru phne ne 
mo efficere pGtrSed c naturx opus. Quaedjcp igi 
u jT partes cutc fuiit duriores , ucluti ofH» cartilagi« 
ncs ,corniu,pili,unsucs4iganifta» ungulce , calca* 
ria, in hfs ommbus (iccu prscualer. Quraetucp uero 
nx>IlioTe$ funt,ficu[i lannuis,pi[uifa,(euum^deps, 
txrebrutincduQa iii fpii^^iu ;iltera,in his humidi 


_ uscji^nccLQuinctiaquatoCcciniriiaommum 
qaac luni in hoie pais cute liccitate (uperar,tniorur 
fus acute (uperat» cjcf eft hmdiffimu , porro uidet 
S>ere^c doccre fimul qd'tu animaliu , tu uero omni 
um corporu ccpcranlTimus iit ho.SimuI qd' omni 
um,qu!e iii co luat purucularu cuus.qua: intn ma* 
nu h«i)et omnis exccflus planc fii cxpcrs. Iniiilcics 
^ithoc!oco,ellimemus quifhafitoptiinciepcra* 
tus hd,c}ue fbliccc lotius rubi^u'3;,uel potius tum 
hoim,tu reliquoruaninBliu mediu,ueluti r^ula& 
Dormri ftatucics^rcliquos oes huic coBalos calidos 
frigidos JiiiidoSjficcos ucdiccrc oportct. Cocur^ 
rat aut oporret in hochoie mukxnotar. quippe oC 
cu uniuerla iubftiuia coDatus , medius apparcrc in 
ea ckbet^&niagis cti.i cu hoibus & bel ii]s. Ac mc 
drjquide muniucr^fubftada.comuncsnotair di^ 
^he a (iiL.Qua: ucro inanimaliii, fpectcbus notat, 
a^iois pcrfcifiioc quar cuicp fit coiienics iudicanf» 
utmftidimus pariterfit&((wtifumusJeoiii,urta* 
nm} fit fortinjmus. Sicuti otii.ut (it (anciim mitifS 
ma. lam uero quod corporis a<fb'ones conlenticn" 
tes efleanitnimoribua oportcac,tum Arif^oteli in 
his.quafdepartihusanimalium fcripfii,tum ue» 
ronobis alibi nihilominus e moilraiu. Acmctho* 

gulra modo gmmbus, fid etiam m iinfuerfis 

dium in proinptu quis nolcac,id ciiiuiiibct hoi 

nis non dh(cd dil^cmis imprimts,& qui pcr k)l 

gam^xpericnriam, bC multani omnjum parno/ 


eundon modum pUiibc,pi(fioKS,itaniaii),3lirj dw 

niqfft(fh>rcs,qiJ£epuIchcrrimainomnium fpcde 

funr^m pn^tini:, tum f ingiint , iK-luci hominan » 

cquumjboucm^nc fonnoiinimiim, ad id quod 

nxdium eft in illa (pecie <: ollimanccs , Uudanccp ho 

mincs quandam Polyclcn ftaiuam canoncm ap» 

pcUaiam.lndcadcoid nonienibrdium,<|uodpv 

dumiruericomntum compctcntiam ad ui^uem 

habcat;I)abct aojtcmqucmautK quanimus , plus 

aliquid,i|t Canonillc.Quum noniblumhumorirs 

ac fica taus ia medio contii^at^is qui ctdarcoi, fiu^H 

quadratus cfl bcxxio:lcd enamopitmam fotmado^ 

nemftt3deptus.Qu%fortaflcbonam quaiuorck 

/ncntcrum tempericm effc comitaia, fonaflc diui* 

niorem atiquam fupcmc origincm habet . Caae* 

rum pFor&s eufarcon laltem eilc ciufinodi hcmw 

ncm,iduerocflneccflarium. Quippe medicKW- 

tas incamc,cxmediOcritate tempcramenti proue" 

nit:protinti8 autem adicquitur talc corpus, ut opii' 

mc ad atflKMies fit comparatum. Tum m moBide^ 

& chiritia prartcrea calorcac fngorc mediocmct 

fc habeatjitt^ hax omoia infinc cuQ^huiufcp maxia 



fiK rtti paitiV]uae eft intramanum.Sdltcet quac cal 
B iunidufinodinon contraxic,qualisin rcuiigibiu 
B!& fonohbus ccmitur . Cu enim gemini ufus cau^ 

ani cooiprcHmdendi udc^quxmollcsiuntadex 
qmJjiius t3Cgenduni>dureadaJiquidmaiore uica 
piendummagisrumidonea^.Quin etiaaids,qu3e 
non fblum omnium hominis paiiuim,{ed etia unw 
ueiictqua^geneianontjComjptiomcp Cuiiiptia 
fiiblHncia: media eil,ea nec caiIo£i , nec dura lapW 
faliceccutis gencre maxime.peTfcc^um eneia<ftLJ 

oniaiuinparticularum Jocum{]cibrcita,abundeIi# 
fluet. Quod aurem & in calore , ac fr^ore fimiliter 
Eflenim uelufi (anguincpr^cdicusneruus ,quiiic 
jnterncruum, &caraem qutddam planemcdium. 

uus,onin/s exaguis eft &fr^idus.Caromuliifan 

ngtiinis & calida . Mediaincer utrunque eft cucis . 

Necplaneexanguis uc ueruus^nec Gngulne abun 

danSjUCcaro.Gigiturhancomniumanimalis par* 

tium,uclutj nonnam. ludicemcp proponcns , rdi* 


■bsinamperies ineis inuenicsjanwp mcmbratim 


WL' ~ ' ^ frigidiai* 

ffigidiflimumcpincorpoff pttuilucfc.CafiditBi 
mum Unguis ,non tmv: cft is penndc humivlus 
pirmia.SiccillitTiij ac frii»idi(IiinumrO: piliis , f 
nus co 13^ frigiduni & ftccum rd os. Ikx: ucto 
nus Gccunjcit cartilago.Proxinic hanc fcquic,i 
Grafarxcurfiliginf: S<f ligamaito compofiro iio#' 
fBinc,clioiidroiyndermon uocanr , poi t hunc tciw 
do.dpiiiceps mcnibraiia.St; arteria,3^ i «cna, ipfe (cl 
licer corpor,! uaromni.Sitfcedunrdcindc nmri du 
ri:inoIles au tcm nerui in humidirate & ficdntc, me 
di2ti>naturam,licuti cuf is opiinenr . Nam in alieri 
hsinmcdiononcft.Scdtatinimeidefst deeabre. 
quantumde(anguine.ftaucro &rcliquaomnia*Mi 
us di(fU,rato (unt cutc fr^diora, cjuanco minus hs , 
bent (an^inis.Eua^n iunicaeip£c,maxiinc far^u(| 
neonim uafbrimi.arTerianun,dico & uenamro,n5 
Celum cxangu&^ (unt,led cusm frigidac nattn a co« 
«atfhi tum languims calefiunt^atc^ ad medium tan 
peramend ftatuni nrniunt.Sanguis ucro iple^cor 
dcfuumaccipitcalorem . Quippeid uilcus naturt 
cum omHium animatis pariiculanim maximefan* 
guineum ,tuin ucro calidifliimimcfttproximuni fl 
li iecureft.ucrum cor paulo ^cuds minus eft du» 
rum,ieeur muIto.Ttaq; ctiam numjdius ^cutis ct3f 
cft,qti!anto feilicet eft nTolliiisJam uero cam hurai 
dior cuteeft,eadera cama: calidior.Spinslis auteni 

cnedulU ■ 

nwdulU cutf «ft hunijdior^iqfrtiam frigidior, Si 
cuti Imc rurfus humidius t-ft ccrebnim: ccrrfjro aii 
tfmipfbadepscuiconaccio cont^ic^propterca 
6{uod mcnbranis adi3cet.Cra{1o nancp ulco efl fi« 
nu(e,Eocp co ngelaiijr , ubi ci fm f rTgidis , & exan* 
guibus parricuUsconiiingif ur. At necp drca kait 
coiri adeps poteft , nequecircaatrmas.uenas uc, 
atii cor^cd r.f c circa aliam uUam prarcalidam par* 
ticulanrt. Quoniam autcm cogttur pcr id,quod uaj 
de cA frigidiim,idcirco calefadb licjuatur,cartcrO;i 
cumcongclaiorumritu, Atce«i)nim calefadurn 
nnnjmeliquatur.eocpadipc minus eilhumidii. 
Porro mttius hmntdaquaadcps,en:?iC pulmo« 
tnim caro. Vt quae nec ipia calefatfla liqueicat. lam 
long? etiam Cp hacc adipe ntinus hianida eft , tii 
Uerus.cumrcnum caro.OmniatamecuteiunchLi 
midiora, hsrum rerum demonfbmiones 

Lproidmo lilvo tradnm , Hcutiomnia 
^arad uniuer(amdetempe« 
mends difjsutauonem 
pertinet , duobus 
t tarijs expo 

I nam» 

Galcnfde tcmpcramctjs , Thoma Linaao 
Angioioierprete Jibri primi^ fints. 



tncmis, Icberfecundus. Thonu 
Linacro i'm<iprcte. 

C (jaod mulufariam quidmi t2i<a« 
gidum corpus iii'ptoximodefini' 
mm eft libro^danonftraium prsete 
reaelt,nouemcne temperamentoru di^Ferentias, 
unam quidem qu3e medioais iic &eucTatos ,qui 
ctiamtemperatamuocamus, Rcliquas omnes in^ 
Efperatas quatuor (impiices , unica ictlicet in quacp 
ponentequalttaK,calore/rigore,{icdtate,uel htmii 
diia:c;quatuor abhis diuems , inquibus uinufcp 
oppofittonis altcra qualttas cxuperar , dico autem 
duas oppofitiones^altera quae eft calidi & frigidi, 
aftera quac eft frigidi &f^ccr. Ab his ad notas earii 
tiiam hax omniumprima uirtutt , potcniia cc^ti£a 
tiot^ifcp ordinefit. At cum tempetamm aliud wiCo 
luteditfium inueniatur jnuniuerla rerum ncUura, 
AliudiniingulisgeneribuSjpnncipiouiKim eft 
deeo conlyderandum ene,quodcommuniterin 
unfuerla natura e(timanjr,huius norma , iudicuc^ 
er»,elementorum poraonis anjualitas . Cuius rei 
gratiaextremorumomnium mediumadui^uem 
rcddimm^aaton & Cymmetton, fiue temperatu 
& medio' 


klisgcnenbusEcmp^raiadiainturproprris corpOtf 
fuKin^onibusulibufcp uidicant,EocpfiC,utide 
■mmaUs cuiufpiara Airpis uc corpus,omniu qua: 
meo fiiorgenerc,mediiiment:poffii,tdeft,millo 
geneteeucraton & mediocre. Alteri cuipiam com 
gaieri,cUcratQn,{iu£intemperatum. Quippeui* 

Evis corpus cum domorlui collaiiim, humidius 
calidiufcp citjucrbi gratiajco uiueSjlconcmor* 
Stum iple (ciplo ,tum altcr altero calidiofi humi 
diorcpeil.At^iiKk adeo di<^m uetcribuse/^,, 
anima] calidum & humidum eile . Non abfoluR» 

■lermone^od humiditas in eo , caJor ti^cxuperet 
(Sic enim inuenire dl antmalia ricca,rrigidac^ co^ 
|)lura,uduti culice5^ufcas,apes , formicas ;(cd u( 
ad moctuacoUaiuauuaeni apes calidior huidiorcp 
^ iTx>rtuaeft,3f formtca uiua,^ mortua.Cu hoic 
taniea,ec|uo,boue ue coUata^ ali)s iatiguine prx* 
ditis antmalibus^otnniaid gcnus frigida, fiaaque 
tcmpexieiunt. QuinfiadiiniucrfamnaEuramrpe' 
^bns ca ecpcndas,ne Hc quidem quo mihus frigi^ 
cb,fioeacp fintyelabantur.Tati^ enim in unoquch' 
qucgenere.ubi quid araedioaitaic reccfGi, ab co 
quoa uincir,nomenaccipit.Tudem in uniuerfa (ub 
ftanda,cum aliquid mcdium tranfierit,noanipIius 
cuoaton/ed ud calidum,ucl fVi^du, ud humidu, 
r iij ueKiccii 

ud ficcum nominabftur.Monfmnrm enan fupof 
cfthonunan non(b)umanimaLum,ftirpjum uc: 
ledcnamreliquorum omuium manmeene tenw 
peranim.Quoniam autrmexmulns Sc diilidcntf 
bus iacondimseftpa;tibus,nianife{himefi-qiiat 
pars niedio omnium fic cemperamcmo , eam eCt 
maxime cucraton, itue tempcraram , Quac nanque 
animal/s eius quod medrj in tempcramenri,medui 
pardCulaefl^arcomnium (impltciicrcflcmipera 
cifImiuni.MonllratumueToeiiidefle in homine 
nu cfl intema. Si tamen qualem eam namra ed ma 
lica,ralts perfliterit . lam uero quod nec cuiutul<^ 
bominiscutismcdiu abibluteloquendofituniucr 
£c1ub/Hdar.Sedciusquimaximc e(i tepaaiu^ 
ditfHi prius efl. Plurima enim eile ipHs quoc^ hc* 
mitubus inter ^ diBeretia, uetu maxie teperaius is 
eil,quicorporishabitu,mcdiushoru exnrmoru 
icet^ calons ,& frigorisJntKi lias cni cuiunibet ho« 
minis tangedo corpus ^ uH mite & halituoinm C2# 
£orc,ue]igneu,& acre,u«Ihoru ncunu Jmmo frigJL 
dicacequSda poiicie,irigiditacc aut polkre uci bcHS 
corpore icelligere oporcec . Eo<p tu ianguioeo, ttr 
hiiido. Accorporcquidt talis c ceperaiflnmus ho, 
Idc aio quocp medius ommho c, audac ta: & rimo 
ris.Cucluiois &praxtpiiari6ivniicncordix,8C 

middJse: fuerJc uero talis alacer amicoiu ama$,tiua 

Bbusv& pnidms. & tepcratinimus quide ho oc his 

Hpnmti,po[ininiucp agnolcic . Accedut nor. pauca 

^^omm, quae ot neceiiiiaichax (cquunf. Qcippe 

V edir,bibitc}; in modo^numniaa no lo!u i uetrc, 

' fidetia tn uenis,& lota corporis mole^ cbc coco* 

quiuCdc^ uc femd dica }tiinaturalcs,ni aiales uir 

tutes uiculpatas haba . Cu & fenfuu facultatibus, 

& membroru mor^Hu opumts Ht pncditu5,& m 


toni benc coparatus Jde mcdius in:er (bmnolanij 

& pcTuigiIc,inter tjlabru & hinu ., inrrr ni^ colo 

tcm & album , pilorc^ habeat cum puer en: magis 

ifos ^ n!gro5,in Bore e/l concra. At quonia diftf 


\t no afienu Cit , aliquid a de ijs quoc^ apponere. 

'cnrouoleba unius cuiuicppr^didbru noiarum 

ufas perlec|ui,ucrucu ad e3i,qiKenijc iuc^ppofiia 

m;^^urgeat3ctatiico(ydcraiio,qu3Cftia maxima 

nobis ad cau&ii inuedone facultate (iiggerit , huic 

nuc inGdamus.Intdl^amus igtcur recens formatu 

animal mttcero mafris,quo (aamus qua ratione hu 

midi(?imu,calidi(Timucp Gc^prima enTeius co(btu 

lK>cx(cminc &(anguineeft,<ju3ehumid3e&ca^ 

(idac^resGinCyhis auccm mi^is (emper ficcefcenri* 

bus , primum quidem formaiKur membranar.tuni 

E» ii2 uilcera 6c (anguis uafa , i^a uero perficiiit 

" " " " ofla& 


oihtbc lingan^^ canHagaKS^oonaca (citicct i 
nim (ubRancia. Antr emm^ ud ccadi poOk lub 
k^ ^blianna^clconcrefcerrtnihil fiai i 
torumpotd^.Ei tunicac cjuidcm , KTnembrana 
arteri3cc^,& n<rui,& uenae^enfa ea>oQa,c2n' 
tuf ,ungues,ungul3:,& uifcrra, coagulaca ea _ 
ciuntur.Hts uero in ucero perFecftis aa dcxndepai 
crr infans.Ell ucro adhiic -<i fimimo humidus^ 
luti m;tris alga. Idcp noin fxngjum wdis modo< 
uifceribus, ac camx , led aiam ipfis oflibus , <ju 
(cilicet ftccifCma fiinc omniuni qux in nobis funt 
panium. Verum rum hacc, tum reliqua tou mta i 
tus mcmbra quafi cerea fint,it^anrium nutrices i 
gunCjfbrmanicp. Tanta cft in toto puellorum cc 
pore humiditas. Quin fi rccens editum porceQuiq 
ud efle , ud di(Ie(fhjm infjjiccre uclis:carncm quii 
um uero genu s uniuer{um,cafeo qui modo fic cofl 
gulacus ad iimile. Adeo,ut nuper nati animaliis coT 
ptispropter redundancemineohumomn libent 
Hon comedas. Quod maxime tum Iiulli^tum oud» 
U foetus cctfpori accidit, propterca quod ea maxj* 
me fum huniida.Caprinu,quod Gcdus Ct, dCme^ 
lius efiiieft & iucundius . CotHra uero c^ in noud 
lis pro(^is,qu3PCun<^ iam (enuemt,hax ona cfuu 
dem omnia 6c ligameca ura'ucrla,pr3ciicca,finc fiie 
C(^& infipida poiHdenc . CarDem ueco oeruof^EOt 

o'saiIpalonuiee,mruaues^(ine fucco.Qunrme 
diol Wi horum,acnuper natomm (Ltiic,qiia; uuc^ 
jam aaat e procenenuK quaniu a (enio abfun{^aii> 
nora runt^tcp adhuc augcicimt , tantum ea quocp 
ab geftati eriannnum fcetus humore abfuni,qiiaiv 
tumprocef^Tuntanate.Florefcensurroartas onu 
nium animaliummaximeinmedio extrcmoriici^, 
ne^ ficuticnium adfummam perducfta ficcirate, 
iKC^ ueluii inftintium actas in humore & muJio uui 
do merfa . Cur igit ur aliqui celcbrium medicorum 
quod excrcmentorum abundanria funt decepii ♦ 
Quippe nim oculi his lacrimis &fFunduntur tum 
nares deilillanone mananc Tum in orc eorum f ali 
uarcopiacxuberat. Adnaxtumtuilmni,tiunex' 
creant pituitam.SciIicct pulmone.^ cjiiocp hac eflc 
refcrtos iudicanres , uctc r quocp ilhs pitiuia eft pJe 
nus.Tu Cnguii articuli quodamodo muccofi.Cic* 
Eerumn^norumobftat,quominusienum cor« 
pora Gcca ccnfeaniur. Vt quorum neruos & arte* 
rias,&iicnas,&mcmbranas , &omm'um infbu* 
mcntorumnmicas,muJio?[;prius erant,ficciores 
inuenias.Circumfiindiautem illis extrinfccus , in» 
_jtut muccuiiim. Verum tantum abert , ut eiufmoa 
G di (jgu2 


manCjUtetiatn (iccam efle propeicftmtur. Idcirco 
nancj^ pamculaquccuis ficdor^qi^ante uidetur, 
cjaod per caloris imbcdllitatem jimilitet Doa nutri 
tur.roiis enim copia illi, humidi cxcrementi Cupa* 
fbaat. Corpus autem cuiufc^ inirinlecus , ficcum 

neceo fufficienter Irui.Eftci^ humidus fencx, 
non proprijs fuis particulis^dexcremmtis.Rur» 
(um ficcus , no excrcmentis, (ed particuhs ipfis Jia 
nimirum alio genere Cccus^ humidus . Venim 

prippartibus dircepiario,<juarum propriseaflio 
nes uitam eius complent:his igitur ficcus feicx 
eft , quibus faKcet pucr eft humidus . Ipfis nrnii 
rum folidis cotporis parriculis , olTibus , mcm» 
branis, ligamenris, arterip, uenis , nenus , tunicis, 
dmibufqae . Mcritoque Ariftotdcs (cnium raa 
cmri fHrpi adfimilar. Quippe ftirpes noucllat 
<}um (unt , raolles , humidacque cemuntur , (eno* 
(centesalTiduemagis ficcefccreuidenfur. AdptM 
ftrcmum (iccar prorius redduntur. Idqueipfit 
mors eft. Ac quod (iccfllima Ktaiumfenilisfit 
exiim dicns liqiict. Quod autem & frigidilB* 
ma (5t,id ud nBoiseftcuidais.Itautdeeo ne« 
mo dubitaucrit.Nam & tangcnti fcnes (r^idi ap< 
parcnt, &fadlein (r^idum ftatura mutantur. 

Ecn^,&!uiidifiiiDt,&fi^idismoii)is fadlc 
capiunmr, Apopkxia nctuorum rcfbkitionc^hi 
porc , itcmore , comulfionc , deftillaiionc , raucc» 
dine , Porroperijtcorum omnis pauk) minus (An^ 
guis . Eoque una pcrijt 8c coloris nibor . lam ue* 
ro concoifiio Kis,& digeftio,& {ignifica(io,& ap 
pofirio,&nutririo,& appeicniia,& feniiis,& 
motus , oblcla omnia (iinc , miioieque adminiftra 
ta.Et quid, quae{b,aliud cll: fenium,^ uia ad inte^ 
ritum f Ita n mors naiiiralis cakvis ci^ extintfrio, 
urique fenium ueluri tabes qu<edam eius fuerit. Ve 
rum non perindc de puerorum , & Borentiu arta 
te inta mcdicos conucnit . Sed nec dirimcrc in^ 
Ccr eos litem efl promptum,probabtIes enim fiuit 
tutorumque rarioncs , tum corum, qui pueros 
calidibres efle, quam florcntes secatc cenfcnt. 
Tum eorum,quicontra,florentes calidiorcspu 
eris efle contendunt , Altcri uanque ex eo quod 
iat^inis liunior omnium,qu7 in animaLs haben 
tur corpore calidiflimum natura fit,aim qiiod 
fcctus in utcro propcmodum fanguis tantuni fit 
pofl cnim fingendisudqueiam particulis,aliud 
os effiatur, aUud!ar(eria , aliud ucna,aliud di;< 
ucrfum ab his aliqiud : omnia tamen rubra, 
tum quod fangmnem (ynccrifTLmum,caltdifri«' 
mucp optnicat : cott^ut cakdifllmu eflegcflatum 
in utero foctu, Quodfi efletia pucros quato gdH 
G ij tisin 


^^^B ris m utcTo pny i o i o Cat^taBato cfle flomwihus 

^^^H xtaiccaUdiorcs. AkcnipiodcdamfJiinmusficui < 

^^^^^ BoreabusfsD^tns^copiofior^jnpucns.Iiaul 

^^^^1 dusocca£onccrcbcohi$lai^uisprofku<.(^ia 

^^^^1 ctuniquodBau3;bcHsluccus,qut(ar^uuic nnilto 

^^^H| dlciIidior,p)unmus his Gt «proptcreacalidiores 

^^^^B eflc fiofctim,^ pucros ,conf irmanr, RuHlis jHi ab 

^^^H ipGsfun(ftionibusc}uodtumJuoeaiitiir,tunipIu# 

^^^H ra,^procorponsluiportionc,ahmrntatuniap« 

^^^H pei3nt,tuni contidani^ualiduni c^ in pucris calo« 

^^^H rcm ifierunt. hi concra humidicatis ocoirtoiic , po' i 

^^^H aus,cpcaIori!!ui,augtm'iI]oscontendunr.Atccn 

^^^" coclione nonmodo florentes nonuinceTr,fedet3 

W loiige ab ijs pucros uiiKi . Nain Bc uomidoncs ijs 

W cx concoiflis cibis acddcpc » & deiedioncs humi' 

das,alpcra(cp,ac a £icco alicnas . Quod H appcau 

plura,njhi] id faccre ad caloris robur . Primu eium 

id no acddCTc caloris copia, ut aniinalappctat plu 

ra,Immocontra,refr^crati$ fcilicet his partibus, 

qiiibus appctcntia debctur . Dcindc quoniam no 

tantum ad rmtriaoncm , (ed ctiam incrcr».cnnim, 

alimennini mobuntur. Idcirco etiam phmbus nu^ 

ttrimeniis ip cncoput. lam ucroreliquis RuKflibni 
bus \uiiucrfis,ca'am nooblcure, infcriores cfle pu 
cros h{s,qui florenri fimt a:taie,ut qui ncc ir^rcdi, 
nfCcurr€re^portarc,nccquic^in (ummaagen 
dorum operum finuliter obcant.C um florcriLi», 

'^ftnn (enftimomnem,tumuitefle(riumadfiimmam 
pcrfeiflionem , borutatcmcp pcrueiiillpdicanc.In 
hmuTiapumim adnuc impcrfetTtumeflcflonnile, 
animal perfccftum.In perfecflis raiioiiabilcefle, ma 
xime a&uum maximci^ prtficcps elemcntum pol 
lerc.Quin fomno quocp phirimo deditos pueros 
uidere licet ,contra minimo florentes eHe contrn^ 
quidem homincm cenferc aiut,q^ calido uitfio cjiio 
clamniodograuatoo} humoris copia ,ueluii tum 
ex tcmulaitis intelltgerelicet,tura rp^qui balneo li* 
bcraUus Hnt ufi . Ita ucro 6C papaucr lomnificimi 
cflc,& mandragoram,& Iac3ucam,& oninia cjua; 
humidiore/r^idiorccp teperie funt. Ac talcs cjui* 
demdc propolitarum anatum tcmperic ranoncs 
utniic^ alferuntiir. Onnes niim rccenlere , fupCT:* 
uacuumuidetur.CumfomiuIaipfa cpichcrema*' 
tUjUd ex ijs,qu3: rctulimus , faris clarc pcrlpici pof 
fit.Hntnusenimutric^,fermccpa fecundis priota 
coU^UDt. Ac tan^iamfciatauditor quemadmo* 
dum aiKTtiojqucmadmodum conccxfi-io, SC quem 
admodumnum^do fiat,ucrba fadunt J^imili modo 
de fenfujdemotu, de fun(fiionibus , tum naiurali* 
ni quocp generarione & ciborum natura,memio^ 
nem,fadunt,qnorum nuUum fimplcx promptuci» 
M ff^nttu Q5:.Scd & multara dilquifitioncm rcqui' 
■ " ' G iij rit.ncc 


ric^ec pottfl fonafic uUi compcruuiieflc,QtO cfu 
pnus humidam,(iccafTi, calidam, fngidwK^ law 
pehem (aat agno^ere. Qui(X}uid enim eonim uc 
kitifaemes dicimc,idfidoccireos oogas,protius 
dilputationem de teinpcramencis,hanc fcilicKt oii 
nuncinfiicimus,dc(^'derabunc. Quarepermutua 
& ex mutuis,fiunt ijs dcmonfbadones. Ex rjs quj 
de a6bionibus diipucam,& dborum ac medicame 
tonim Facultaces inueil^atu, ac de fismno , & alijs 
id genus diderum . Rurlus autem qice mmc Gme 
propofica per illa, uclun ptius a. nota demonfbSL 
£go ucro eiulmodi dcmonib^ones non piobo, 
quin (i fatai uerum oportec^nec demonilraciones^ 
cas cen(co,ucIuti diffufius in^ip oH:endi , {atiu((|F 
efle in omni docendigc[iereexiilimo,ordinem c5 
ceptionum diHinire . Si igicur piiiKipium onmis . 
c]ua=cle temperamentis micipitur d^utadotiis ^ 
traiftatio de elemecis elt,fim ne ea impacibilia pror 
fuf(^muracioni5expenia,aIierari,mucarice pocen 
ria , ab iUomm uero cognitione , fecunda oe^iceps 
ef)^,propofica nucK difputatio,non vticp fiimecKb 
efl ipfbrum fides ex i)s,qux no dum fciuntur/ed 
ficuci tum recfcum ef^, cumuero iuflu , cjuod (ume 
dum ad demonrbacionem ell,ueleuidens aliouKl 
fit oportetjuel quod prius fuit dcmoftratum, Na 
dd igi tur iiec^ de (bmni gcncracione mem io facie« 

d^xiecp de coocotftiow.necp atuftior, nec{i de alfo 
fdgenus uQo, (ed ab ip£i ibla,nudacp fubie^aruiii 
renim (ub{lanua,dilqui(ido fadenda,ficun in pxi* 
ino libro fcdmus . Qy ippc flatuentes aliud eflc, 
quod energia, Gue aifcu (it,aIiudquodpoieftace» 
de eo quod acflu iani calidum,fr^idum, humidu, 
ficcum ue (it^piius dinciendum mc dixinuis,(ub<' 
inde ad ea qua: poteftaK fint ucniendum . Pon-o 
conim , qusc a(fhj,calida,frigida jTumida,(K:ca,uc 
£iiit,obuia, prompiacp omnibus cognitio eft , ut-* 
potequa:ta(fhidi(cemiqucat. Qyiictb'ca,6>rtgne 
ipfiim calidum efTc docuit , &-' gladem frigidam . 
C^od Caliaquapiam raaocnoDoi)em,agnitionc 
quc caHdi^ fr^idiue habetitjdicanchanc nobis. 
luaudiiam cnim ac nuUius effetf^us fapieutiam 
ptomittunt.Immofi uenim fated bcebic ftupo* 
lem pouus,fireTum ienfibilaimaltuni qucmpiam 
habcreiciudicanmcliorem piitcnt,quam ipfc 
Gt {endis. Atqui ii corum,qu3C a<5hi calida (untjali* 
U3 efte iudex ^ ta»fhis , nuUus poteft , tangant lam 
deuKcps inulcos uiros,tum (enes, tumadolefccn^ 
tes,tumpueros,tumin(antc8*It3enim inucnicnr, 
qui magis,minus uc calidi fini.Si derebus (cn(ibili 
bus ratioalcs dcmoftrarioes quarriit,ia dc niue ipla 
inquirendii cft,cen(cnda ne (]t,(icut olbus hoibus 
apparct,candida,an Ccut Anax^oras afleucrauit, 
00 cadida.Iauerodepice(uTuIiniodocoruocp,ac 

(vtiquts oniml^us dlimanduni.Nccpenunfinoii 
habcnda eft oculis fides de albo quoduidtiitjdc 
nigro fine dcmoiiilrarione fides ei t habenda,Oni 
t\U tgitiatjux fenfiii apparcnt/i iain fide carcre di» 
cunr,nec olorem albuni eHe dicant^nifi pnus id ui« 
dcrtnt rationclnimo nec calceni>nec dieni^ec fi>» 
abrogCTit,& de odorc, naribus,& de omni tangiV 
bjlijipG tadus (enfui. Et none hsec (unt pjToms he 
fitatio,& nuga: immeniseCSane cquum tuerar.cos 
qui optimam (edamin philoibphia eic^ent^quat 
icilicet caliduni,6:^du^mtdum,& (iccum pnu 
cipia &C demenca Katuit, non inraiitum difciuinefl ^ 
tionis pnncipia Cunt, quxc^ fenfui , quart^ inidW' 
clui funt manifefla non ccgnolccrent.Et pTofevfto 
quifqiiis dehis addubitat,Truf^n de alifs inquirit 
Vrpotene undequidem fit incepcurus quicqf fibl 
rclinqucns. Vndcjgttur in tam diueriam uiam di« 
ucrterunt,acfenfibilium rcrum cognitionem ratfo 
ne conlequi KntaruntC Ego fane ne cogitare quid2 
co.Siquid autem adhuc calidum non efl»(cd ut t»0 
k fiat eft idoneum, (^oduacp poteftatc c:lidum 
appr]lamus,id ratione inueftigare ccnor: hij uero 
omnia nefao quo pa(5lo (ubucnunt,& in argumc 


men nucminjmeobliri quodunum prauoru dogc 
meditamm iiniulresip(asinquirere,fimul ueluti 
icientem qmdnam demonftratio fit, demonftrare 
temare.Denuo iginirad propofimm reueriij cali» 
mum ttmaxtme,ta<fhiiudicemus.Entauteniopd 
mum iudiciuin uno, eodemc^ unius itifantis cca* 
porc,poteftenTm &qiiaIiscaloriIliaiuc biennni 
nicrittin mcmona reponi.Etqualisnuncrit poft 
duos fbrteuel m's interpofitos annos^i nac^ mu9 
tiUfoomumouIiaadcalidumjfr^dumue infand 
(a<fbu]dcbir,nullum praetercane^odumerit,qui 
ufcp ad florentmi xtatem futurus rxafTus fit colli 
gere.Quod ii plurespudlospluribus confcrreflo 
quadraris,& crafH crafTis confercs , acque uero & 
.qui coiore,& rcJiqiiis omnibus ( quoad fieri po* 
Petatil»is inuenirc fhjdeas, in fiimilibus ^ maxime 
bcecnanirisjeam mquifitionem nutus facies.Porro 
inconrrartjs naturislianc difquirerenon paruier* 
roris eft occafio. Cum interim non tam cxplorato 
nimcorporumaftatis,cpnaturaIis lemperamcnti 
graria difFcrcnriaexiftat. Ad eimdcm modum , tii 
uicfhi uniuerfb tum temporum , quibus expJorat 
iUtUypari inodo fe habctia corpora cliges , no exn 
~ H dtatum. 

cnammtrrdiBeto coparSs^ balneoufum ,ci q\A 
eo »5 fit ufus-no ittun(u,raniro,n5 fidentr^riol 
qui uigilauit^erquidormiuit , nccdentcpeos quii^j 
bus cotraria cfl ud narura,ucl uiAus raiio,ud(]iae ^ 
libftrcruni circun(V^tia.Sedrdiquacminafint3 
eundmic^ puelluni cum fcipfbconferes ,onnics 
CTUS cxtcmas arciHTamias {imtlcs ad ungueni (cr* 
uabis:quo fcilicet, (i quaharu ahcurus cautai c^re 
BCfrigprt difFerenuacoirtigtt,acta[isnnitaiiGino 
imputct. Loi^am tibi cxpetiendi raiione fortafft 
tradcrcuidcor.Sedplancucrinimam,atcpat ipfa 
rci quxfitac efTenua delumpta^icut in his^quardc 
dcmoftraijoe fcripfimus,a nobis cft prodiiu. Tu 
ucfo fortafleconipendiariauofesminime curans, 
iifellafiLSciio crgo nd folu fal(am tc,ied ctialcnga 
in£»refIuruuiS.Necjimbus,quatuorueannis ,qa 
rcquiris,inuentunim,(ed tota uita in ignorStia ucr* 
concroucriia lioet,non e(i, cjuod putemus clare ali 
quiddemonnrari poflc. Sed nec rationabilc om« 
nino e(t,ex iis qua;pofleTiora(im,caprobaric|uac 
{altcin adii,ticc adhuc poteflate rale fit,f aifu iudi< 
cemos^miflb nuc tii prioru iudicio tu rdicfns om * 
T1&US tiotis.Ecteiamceuvaf^iudicatuni^adipfa 



penenttaremitt6.Meuautniclidum ipleinrer" 
ttator.CompJura «lim deinceps corpora, non 
ucroru modo ueru e daminfant iiun, adolefcetiu, 
K 3etatefkxenu'u>airtofe tan^s,neuaos ucra to 
ntos iiuicni,neceo8 qut ablbluto (crmonc calidio 
reni,nceeos qui frigidioremene florenie etate , cp 
pucrikm dixerunr. Si emm reliquis omnibus qua; 
cxtrinfccusadueniunt alteranonibusdraimcilis, 
eas quz ex fola xtateprouenium, differenuas cib 
niauens ,nctner abfblute locjuentt uidebitur tibi ca 
lidior.Quippe diflldcnt corumcalorei qualitate, 
c[uic cx impancate dJfHams acatur. Cuius rcioc;> 
(ejplbs fanentes,alij pucrorum,ah] iuuenum,ualen 
tiorem elTc calorcm autumant . Eft cnim pucro» 
rum,calor magis halituo(us,&copio(us,dirtan 
Kiblandior , ^rentium calor fubacrequiddam 
:t,acnonfuaueJ^a:cigitur langeuu occurftis 
BFcrent ia , plurcs inducic , ut florentium corpus 
didius cflc pronuncient. Rcs uerc alitcr icliabct. 
^uppequiin uaria matcria tacfhimdium adca« 
rcm , tura ualeiuiorem , tum imbccilliorem , 
tum parem difcemendum excraient,hiucnodu 
hito pueroru calore, florenhum calori, ud parcm 
ud ampliorcrn uifuni jri.Eft porroexcrcendi ratio 
h^c.Incipjciidum ciiim ab co qd* cuidcns maxime 

H i) ferat. 

ferat.Scdurimeoucrrams uideaCiir . Ali<]uando 

iacih fr^idus^ui fudarc in eo non iiL lain terdum 

quoc^ & ab his diuerlum, quem utitp maxtine re« 

quinmus,temperatum aeris flatum,quid rcfeit 

dicerefldemtrescaloris Ilatus,inlblJ)quocpap' 

parentaqua. Quippequa; QC caiida adeo ut unu, 

8C (rigida adeo,ut ne caldFaciat q uide,& temperata 

adco,u[cateraa'atmodice,&pecernitur. &goC[ce 

uterfitcalidior p€rconter,aquanc tcmpcraia,aa 

acr tcmperams,ncutrum dicere poffis. Cum enim 

ambo Omiliter corpori blanda iuit, & medto aeri te 

pcrie,alraiim eorum diccrc calidius «ffe , alterum 

(T^'dius,nuIIa didratione uidetur.lam G mtdl^as 

aquam labri^a ctlc caliditate ut fcrueat , aut aereni 

babciprorAis inftammatum, ab utrocp te pari mo 

dodeuFCtidumconllat. Rurliis fiaquam itainteHi 

gesfngidam,utprocula^ciando tK>n abfit,auc 

aerem prorfijsrefiigeratum,fic ut cum nifigir,con« 

ipicicur,patct,quoduiriufLusoccur{upari roodo 

rcfi^raberis,rigebilcp . Ergo (lumium tum colo 

rcm,nim fr^tislii:iilitcr in aqua^limilitercp in acrc 

finge prarterca medium amborum extremorum 

(lamm,Gmilimodoinutrocp conilituc.boccafu 

qiiodin medio intcruallo exn:emorum,&medii 

fiatus tu in aere cfl , tum aqua^eafdcm excefTus di 

ftantiaeqj ratloncs habcbic.Tantocp dicesalteru 

mcdiocridlc calidius, qusnto alicrum , A d eundc 


' fnodum&6^idhis^nie(Iiocreir3ntoc(teaquain 
aiiquandodiccs,qu3nto& aercm . Tametli fuus 
cpcntRifinuU modoaquaianperacaficutacrtan« 
pcraautaduaflFidt.&quidopuseflintam ditE* 
milibus exemplum proponam.Cumipfeaerqui 
Gmili Iji calore,uarie tangenti occurrat , prout alias 
uduaod^inorus & halituo(us,aIiasueluti fuligi<« 
oofus & uimofus: inccrunpurus omnino ed . Igic 
in pluribui ifdanc^ differenDbus arqualitas calo" 
ractHiGilit.QuxinconiyderatisquaC inequalis 
fic^ponit, propterea fciUcet quod no undequa* 
cp Gnulis apparet . Carterum bomo , qui rationcs , 
quas propofui expenderit,& {enfum in multa par 
ticularjumexpcrienaexercuerit,i$nimirum xqua 
luatem caloris inpuois florentibufcp inueniet,nec 
cofaQetur,quodalter inbumida,alier inficcafub^ 
mikanda reprcfentetur.Quippclapis aliquando pa--= 
^mcum aqua calorc erfepotef^,nuI]umeo fadcnte 
rdil<Time,quodlapis ficais (ii,aqua humida.Ira igic 
mihicum pueros iuuenes adole^entes millies con 
adolefcentecp facfKi nihito calidibr uifus efl . Nec 
puer ^ «tate florens , nccartate floreiis qua pucr, 
Scd tancum qucraadmodum dixi tn pueris magis 
halituofus,3i:'muIms,& (uauis: in florencibus exi«« 
emis>ficcus,nccfimi]iter (uauiscflecaloris occur« 

BT LJ :.-.■ C- 



£is . Stf|UK]eai pueroruni (ah^Sax^ lOpote h 
dxyiraAmi foraseffliut,Bomiuum uibfl 
paruniutpoce(iccE.It3<pnruttreonim {rmpNi 
tcruidet calidior . Sed akcr multitudine cius qm 
drfi^.caliCTacn'mona. Quippcinficicalorispui 
plus habcc,eiurc|j blandioris , iimodo cxiaiiguinM 
&C (muae ortu habeLlii Horennbus atatc,exiguus 
B^ calidijfngidicp corporis fblus ratfhis eft in* 
dex:hiun{diaui&Acci unaaita(fKj»r3tio.Quq>» 
nino dwnoicit. NtMi tainc Ci quid duKi cft^tdc fta 
lim SC ucca eil. Btcnim ioieperabilis a iicco corpo 
fc duri tia d^. Non tame eius uttius proproL Nam 
&ciuoda frigore concretum dl, durum cemicii 
da ftadm diicraio eil ,ante falica c^ eftimat» C 
qiiemadmodij (c in calorc habeant & fr^re . P 
lorceft mollcjide ftaum eft humidii . Veru cu o 
diocritcreft calid5,tijeftimarcdurunean r 
lit oporret.Sienim moQc fit,humidu efttfi durun 
ficciL Verum (ihjec rta le habet partium,c[ua; in h 
mano corpore iiint Ccca?, nuUa dt humida . Ne _ 
cnim tanraeflein co frigiditas poteft,ut aK(]uid in 
ipib concrefcae ro duridcm qucat , Poieft «nim 


i prius fuit Buxi]e,al{qu3do concreicere uelud 

ps.(^iod cmmoleofuin in (aiiguinr, (luxilec^ 

t|Mt^ee{l>ubiin fn^dum uenitlocuin,ab< 

: (&num canu.-n ncdc quidem ^icimr.Coin 

k- igitiir diifhnn uctenbus eft, humidilTimam 

fcadipcra. Sccundo pofc eaniloco camollim ge 

i.Eiiis (rfurcs (uiu (pccies ,prinia quide quzc ^^ 

e caro appdlatur ,quam fcilicet nu(ffiincorpo 

>ericinueiU€S,irdel^perpeaiomulculi pars. 

Dhacaiiufcpuiicetu prophafublbuiciaeii.Ea 

adllratus pancndiyma uocat . Quafiq; p rc par 


(Ctn, huic cami acccptam refcrri ; (ed horum 

l nuoc tcmpus.C^od autcm ipiiim cenrbri 

onilcppropriuro corpuspFoximuadipihu«= 

iitattsrattoncfn,exmoIlicieeiusconiedlarc li^ 

. ^4on enun a fr^docoiigdatur , cii nec calore 

larur. propinquam ijs nacuram habet mcdul* 


naltniedii(Ia,a( qu»;in qucJiba habeturoiTe. 

dccrebru &^inxmcduQaefu(dcmiuntgcnc 

" 'efaquKoes medullae alterjus naturx ixinr.Eft: 

n humidius ac caJidius ccTebrii,^ fpinalis me 

'Bocp criam moIlia-J ,pra:tcrea ipfius ccrcbrj 

s partes rato iut huidiores,quato moUiores: 

a tamc hxc cute no hiiidiora modo lum , fed 

n &i^diora, uiKxp uerbo omnc cxanguc fr^ 

^ dius fao* 


dius (anguuic pncduo e(l . I^xima cuti eR mot* 
lium neniorum natura . Dunorcs aureni in humiV 
lorc ab eius naturatantum abfunt»qu^m confeoifl 
aens elV exangue coipus a lai^uine praadito abellr'^ 
(edienis autemrenum, & ieunoris caro,tanto cute 
eilhuniiclibr,quantoeltmoUior.Cabd]'or autem 
quantomagis abundat fangiiine.Iamcordis cato 
oinnibushijs tancoeftiiccior,quantoeil durior* 
Calidiorueionon modohis ,ledcdam oninifaw 
plane corporis parriailis . Quod etiam lenlu choftfl 
deprebendaslicet,in pedloris animalis difWtioqS 
ii d^itum m Gnidrum eius iinum immiit-ris Jnue« 
niesciiimlocumhunc oniniu,quarinanimalJ(ijnc 
Don paulocalididitnum. At iednoris, Lienis, renU), 
&pulmonisc3ro,{imp]icis cuiulcbm natinx 
circa cuiulcp uifceris uenas »anerias,& neruos 
lccns.Cordis,fimpIe.x camisnaturanon eft;le 
ium in eofibca?,quales in mulculis cemimus, qi 
bus caro drcumherec Caetenim ixsn c0 idem fW^ 
brammgenus,iedqua;iamuiculLs habennir 
uorum,a:l^amentorum lunt particulx.Cori 
propria quaedam fibrarum cft ^ecics, arque ioU' 
cet uc uf narum,runicse,atcp arteriarum Jtonty ' 
telhnomm,uentriculi utcri,& ueficac utnufcp,li( 
eniminliis quocp inftrumends propria quaiidS 
uidere carnera/uis iplbruniiibns cmvmnal£cn(& 

Ac<^h£equidemcLmes^cutefunt calidiores :fi# 

brxuero ^ cutis partitn paulo magis, partim pau 

Iominu$>tum frigida?,tum(!cca:iunr,partimfimi* 

les omnino curis lubiHntia; . Porro omnrs mmv 

faranx cute Ciua. (icdores,uelun cerrbri,& fpinahs 

mcdullac inuolucrajqua* miniTigcs dicuntur . Sunt 

mimhxquocpmembrana:. lamfeameniaomnia 


dotKsquocpi^etijL^amentisiunt molliorcs,at 

tamencuttlucuIentei-luntdiuiores,Cartil<^ ue« 

ropofl l^amcntum dejnceps eft,pra:tcrea medi*; 

um quoddam inier ca corpus . Appcllant id aiiato 

itiici quidam «^oviA^Am cr-vn^ur^o», quafi uero 

camlagineum ligamcntum dicaj.EH autem id du# 

rumjCanilaginofumcpIigamentum . Os uero om« 

^iaum qux cuiis operit,aurifIimum eft.Ac eorum 

e cx cute extai Ikcidimus e pihis.Deinde coriui 


ll^his in i^ngulis animalium raiionccarentium ii» 

[ules (iint pancs.SuccoTum opumus , & maxime 

rius^ domeiliais (anguis efl , huius udud 

ietum,ac^x,an^ bilised.Quseidcircotum 

Ifi^diotjtum cranior (axwuinc eft . Sicut flaua bi* 

wU^ longe calidior,fT^idinimum uero achumidifli 

' mum omnium , qua: in animali habcntur , piuiita 

eft. InftTumcnmm autemquoid cognofcii , iple 

cft ta^kis . Vekm Hyppocraics in libcllo de homj 

I nisn<uura 

nK)H>imcefnpcncs.NM>ic{uidaneaqicEa m* 
dia ta npcne kx^iiltnK abe{t. Sanitatis qux- pau' 
hmi.dehnircauieuii.iodum nehic(]uidcmnaet)« 
fain ,& pondcre licn . Canerum tntemperamonn, 
quodirara faniiate tubeair ruffiacs nou cll:quo(] 
DuUa runiTtio aniaUs mamfeite & adhuc Uria. Qu3« 
Rim igii u r intcruaJIum cil: intcr id,quod perf cAt 
fime huKflioncin obic,& id quod maiuTcf^c a(5tio« 
nem aliquam haba cJ}Jc(am>tanio eil pEofcdo & 
tanit}tis,&dillcpcra[uta;,qua;iiitr3(anicacccon« .j 
ftitlatirudo^bhac^ximadtimepericsnx>rbo* ] 
UjCu (alicct aiaj imcmpcramcu uitio argrotat . No 
enim huuis tantii aoxa laborat :Qd ctia alijs a(Fc6i« 
bus no paucLS,de quibus in tjs^qua: demorbonim 
di6Fcrentijs(cribcmus,dtSii(iusagciiir.NuiKr& , 
deundumaddiuenKu]umcft:Sicutienimnatura« j 
Iic^4Xcoptinum&uancctempericm,hunuduiii I 
quod intra (antiaos tcrminos eil au(rtum,non adi^ ' 
pcm modo in homiiM:,(cd ctiam corpulemiam gi* 
gnic,& adipem quidan parttus adi)cit, camem uc 
tamulcoliberaliusaugccJtarurius,fihuniiduiii& ' 
ficeumcdiocntaceadungucfnterfe&ruetjcalorail j 
tcminhomiiiefitminor,nece(lee{l:huiuscocput ' 
3dlpe,cpt camis €0pia magis abudec At ucTofica* 
lor auoeatur,{eruetcp mediooitaie altera coirarie* 
fo fi qii poUet Gccu,alccca contcarictatc nKdiuaiQ« J 

5(eruantc, 8i'graciI{us&rdiir!iis,corpu5cuadet, 

iHcCC a nic diifta lunt ,patf tc]f no lolu ronc mol t ra^ 

Wede qcf (impliccs in aialiii corporibus ue perics 

babcant,lcd edamquod (ingularuni in;tnife{le (int 


duritie:(edrtiainrcliquisomnibus habiiuiim cor 

poris diffcrenti^is.C^jamm dc iiSjqua' exgracibta* 

le & craflitudine (pwftan tur mox diximuSjde reli* 

quis nunc dicdjnus.Calida iginir & ficca intempc 

ries hitfiita cftjucru ca in fijmmo. McdiocrireT aiit 

quarcalida quidcni eft,(«lin altera contrarictatc 


rft,(cd iucalido & frigido media eft teperie . Eft 

. ni ea quocp modicc huta. Nuda piTis (iint frigida 

F oiatcperametajiuceaniedioaitcrfe habcminhu 

mditate,fiueimmodice.C3:tcrum ad ^immii gla= 

aeftfi^ida tcmperies & humida.Minus hac, 

• fr^da eft.fed in alrera conn-arictate tcm * 

aca . Ad huc mirius , qua: frigida cft & ficca . 

^anquam putet aliquis Ccut ncri non poieft, 

It in rerra ficca hcrb.T nafcantur, nuiriannjr , & in* 

Ecremenlum capiant,fic nccpili in (iccacute.Eft au^ 

n (ccus. Quippe tcrra, ut tcrra ficca dicJiur. Cu» 

s , ut cutis .* itaquc ficcitas,quajin tcrra eft, maxi* 

«(uichumoreeft.Quarucroinhominis cftcor 

orc,&aus (imilium ammalium,ncc humoris cft 

' nqxTSydCmaxteomnmadpilotugcnerattone eft 


tkuItBadipisaliqUidallmat. QyarationeetiSquje 
hienic delicefamt aiiimalia,nonraro inucniunair 
icilicec fccmina oiari eil iiigidioc & plunmuin do 
peranienu natura funt S>C mrdjbcn exerciiaiione 
ucuntur , hos necdTe efl eufarcos e(Te , id ueroeft 
nxdiocn' omnino corporis habiiu . Quibus uoo 
humiduabundatj&caloramedioaioie Hiinniai 
aonbngcaben:,htcorpulenti,£ue camoC fiunt* 
Corpulcndrijrfusfiunt,quinaiuraIunt tcmpera* 
ti.Cacterunidc6'dcs&otio(i uiuunt. Quippedi* 
Aum a ueterfbus. commodilTime cll: , confuetudl 
nem acquilJititiam eflenaturam.Necfortafle opof 
tebic cum id iam jemel dixeiimus , in quouu edaa , 
capire defuiire natura ne fi-^idior, an ex confuecu* 
dinc qiiifpiam fitredditus. Scd illud legemibus w: 
mittcre. Meautem copendrj caula proprios cuicp 
tempcranicnto corporis habitus perfcqui.Sut ^i* 
tur nonnulli qui Sc graciles Gnt,& uenas paruas ha: 
beantSed Qexrfs quempiam incidas ,adeps excif] 
namfubnaicitEtraroidquideminuiris confpicj«{ 
currin foerainis Ccpinimeinuenitur.Ell nanc^ cum 
frigidioris naturscttum tiita: ma^ts defidiolaf eiui« 
modi nota>Si qiiidem adeps ex habinis (iigiditate 
gi^tur.CorpuIentia,*fluccami$ abuiKbntia ex 

&ngiuniscopia naCdair . Mcdiocrhas icn^perciise 

nanirar eft nota.Ei ajrpiilenii quide,oninuio plus 

adipis habeiitcp tcmpCTaa. Nic tam^ n pro carnis 


bere plus camix,a]ios plus adipis nideas , alijs am 

bo pan modo funt adau(rta.Et quibus quidem am 

bo pari modo fijnt au^fta, his tainum fiipra teinpe« 

rata natura humoris cft , ^tu & frigoris . Qu ibus 

autan plu&cftadipis^in his frigidt plus eft,^ hu« 

raidi. Eque utquibus caro eft pienior , his humo* 

hs plu& i jfto elh Non tamcn etiam frigoris.C um 

cnim calori intra debitos fines manenti , boni fan« 

guims accedit copia, nccefle eft corpuleinia frqiia 


s debeat|id qiiidcm nicnfiira & ponderc,often 

enoneft.Rad5etradere)icet. QuippeubiniJ 

n adhuc morbofum (ymptoma , craflato corpo 

ci inddit, humoris abundatia intra ninitaiis intcrim 

icft fines . Monftratum enim nobis & in alijs cft, 

n paruam in eo ftaiu,qua: 6niias dicitur,nccefla 

wtio fbituaidam efle latitudinem. Quin nunc quoi* 


F|)eratam,niedianKp naturam^eliquarum ueluti ca 

||ione femper ftatuamus.C^^ uero exhuius utra» 

I tf funt parrcontempcratas ccfeamus. Quod uticp 


> Eifcpracioinuctutc{ur,Eftcuima]ia lanitatis,alia 

l iij morbi 


nfsnaturamonflrauit. Caetmimquodfiigidafl^ 
panccr ta(rtus,ui(us,& rauo iudicant.Et tacHisqoi 
deinacuifus.quodcalisifs ceniitur.Ratioucn)^ 
drfiniuit. Ac panicuiaz qu idem 8c fucd corpons, 
«dhunc moduni fe IiabcmX)c i)s,qua; temperami 
lacomitantur deincepsagendum.Comiiac mon 
ca & qua: di^iam fumnmmo potius infeparabtf 
liatHnninofiuit, AGccoquidmi corporc duriiis^ 
ab htimido mollides . Si tamencum tepido caloM 
raialequuntur. Non eamodoquae naturaliafun^ 
ledctiamri quaexlor^acondietudinefum connt 
(fh. Mul«)s tiquidcm qui natura gradles fueran^ 
pnigue$redditosuidi,contra<^quipingua5 fve^ 
raiu^radtcs,ntisquidemcxotio&& ddicatauic^' 
Coto temperamento ad humidius mutatoi-Iis ue< 
romuItatoIlerant]a,&curis,&tcnuiui(fhi periio* 
tas.S3tiu$cn(m eflralisncquirpiam naturalit,: 
ex conluccudine redditus noGnct pcr aliquoc figia 
difcemere poHle^ ab ^ id quarrere . Sane e^ii* 
modi frgnorum autor^acque ut rdiquonim omnja 
um , mtrus e(h Hyppocrates . Siquidem quibuG 
cunque latiorcj ucnae fiim , hi calidicrcs natina 
funt. Quifaus ai^ufb'ores»contraniagis ^^' 

di.C^oiwnan(^opusefl hasdiIataiY,*flatu(^ex* 
tcndereJtataciooabilitcrinidemfereKcidit uena« 
rum anguftia,aim habiru pir^tij& crafljcrf Jiabi 
tus gracdis cum ucnarum Uxitace. Quod li quisn 
md pinguis,crafrulqp c, ac ucnas laxas habrt,ts c6 
luetudinisalicuius occafioe nonaiurapit^uiseft 
teddiais . Sicuc ediuerib , (i quis anguilas hab^ 
uenas^ &gracili5e{t,ne huiKquidcro talcm effc 
natuiaiKce^Ieefl. Quincum famesurget mediOi= 
cntatemex laxitaie uenannn ,& angunia ,non a 
caecerototius comons habuu fpccfbnda cHc ait. 
Quippeqmangi^iftas habcnc ucnas ,exkiui fiait 
fatigiiiraSjncc longam inediam ftrunt.Qi^us 
late, his copia (anmiirus eik^&C ciira noxam d* 
bo aUlmentur . Caufx hcnmn cuidentes iam 
'^ rjs quianimum aduenenne,tametliamenon 
«itur.Scdquoniam ncm omnes aducrrunt, 
(ium fortaffc.erit aliquid corum caufa dixif* 
Quicquid in (ai^ine pingue ,ieiic, Sc \tv 
iceft,idincalidioribus corpc»ihus alinicntum 
' ' im calido fit. In frigidioribus feruatur* 
c id u etuc cranfiniiennt ubi in fr^das parw 
sinQdic,qu(xlgcnusmembranxiuiitin ijs 
refac.In partilMis uero natura cahdionbus, 
ufmodi camofa: funt, a calorc ipfo abfumi« 
,acdtgcritur, Nifificubi frigiditati rempcra* 
ti etiam uiiflus indu[gcntior,iplis camolis par 
I i) ticulis 

j fikcairfla intnfb funt,| 

. tt,Ioct]ihs,ufKns:rcd| 

Dcc cx 1)1 , qijae m caianB debeicuQt , cju a](s ^ 
ierpnua,ncc qua: fbuamata Qim , cuiulmodi ft 
p^ces.onn pili pofluc Sunccram horuin cutes u 
K^c^ in Kxum ficcr riiu aTcx^irl pctnE . Ca 
rum ex his , qux molli fiinc cute , ut homo , quatnv 
itkp Gcaor caltvtiorc^ cutis fucnt,ianto magis p0 
teilpilosg^nere.N^urabextplo (eTTar,qd'iIl] ni 
po[iut,n5recedamusJuixcDccin Gcca &:fquaK 
t e admodum tara nala pofKim, nec in humtda £ 
laailbiAKrum cum abfunii crpent,reduticlaiia hi 
moris/um enaicuntur e lerra. Augcntur aucem |j 
gius,ubi liaM quocp (iccefatnnodice quidem in u 
nccckrrimeuero & plurimum ineunte aeftatcS 
cantur autem omniiiOtarefacta trrra^ccilate ia r 
dia,Iicetc^ abu G placct }nuiK c]uocp,fIam in pi 
ex temporibus atvu temperatum cft ,teinpcndc 
porisidanimilarccua.potiflimuircphiiius ter.„ 
poris medium.Tum enim terra quocp ipia,mrdiai1 
uerisa-ftarieftproximiimjid iamftcdopem Rr.v.,_ 
rcddidit torramjKx: etiam amplius, arftas mchoa*! 
ta,Quam ^tur dico calidam,& ficcamcutem h* 
maximetenarftacuiaflimiles c^uacrabcucefituci 
udineunie arftate. NammediaxftaK in ftimmo 

iiccz pcnnde ut tf{H hte^oru animaliu ti^nir 
[HOD ut honimum,fuuni,a(inorutn,cquoru, aut al» 
re n cutem tctTac compararc uolunt,ha<rtcnus quo 
qucrcmcon&ntirccuiii r}S,quar piius diximus uu 
uciucnf.Ipliucroieieexomonymianon animad* 
ueria f aQutJn ficca enim & calida cute multos ma" 
SfloCcp nafci pilos dixunus . Nimiruni ut dcJhomi 
neud animali pilis prxdito,non dcoftTeis,aut can 
tm uerba facientes.Qmppe per omncm cuiem di 
£Eritur femper aliquid a calido, quod lecum ctiam 
toemihumoris nonnihilau&rt,uemminquibus 
tjumida cutis e{l,& plane mollis , qualis modo con 
Odcetis calcus ,in his eorum qux exddcninc , uiae 
per cutcm non mancnt , partibus faliceieius,qusc 
pniis diilidebatjrurfus inter (e unitis. At in quibtut 
dura cft,non abfimilis calco iam coaiflo, pcrfora* 
lurqmdcmcorumcjuafcxcuttrasfluxu.Cum au« 
srmrurfus untripcrlicdtatencqueat,mcatus iplbs 
ijnmutatos fcruat. Quictiam pcrprtuotransfiueii 
iChnTiKflu all^dMcmagis fiflulantur.St igitur qiiod 
ifisfltrit uel halitus ucihumor purus (it,halitui cer 
icceler,minimccp inipeditus trafitus cft, humor in 
cxilioribus (piramcntis tionunqua hsaet . Aliquid 
oiam intro rcairrere ad profundum c<^ttur . Sin 
liehui fijI^ino(us,craflu{^et lerrcus uapor fii /ub 
uidccontingitininangufHs Iptramctis impadfus: 
K necfacJc 

necfaulc nufum nitrotYdfat,neciBaun pofHr. 
Hunc igt lur alius rurfuin e pr ofundo fubia is ferir, 
prorfum^ impellit,tuni hunc rurius alier , atcp iQu 
alius.Acmulios mihieiufmodiuapore£,ruligino 
(os alium Htpa alium impadVos, tcmpcrie compU 
caritCOtiiuiigic^ iiuell^,ac unumeiufmodi rfficr^ 
recorpus,qualeellea,quaeforis cerninir fuHgo, 
nifi quod his inquantum ipfnanim eft , intantum 
edam per traiintus anguftiam ibpatutn,in anguf^ 
prorfus rcda(fmnieftformam.VbiauteintaIccor 
pus tocunic^lbiixcntmeatumdeincepstani ulo 
fent er vfhim , a nmilibus (ui quibus exitus non e{t 
cxa-eniencis,totuniuiterim propdlttur. AdeotiC, 
cute cxire cDgatur,t'am lori formain adcptiim. 
CunHes auteni,quod in meatu cll impa(5hini , h< 
bae tftirpis ue uduti radid . Quod uero ex cucc I 
tat,ipfi udud (tirpi,fit autem nigeTpi]us,cuni 
(lo uicalodsuapore,exaTmentuniincxa^bm 
l^incm mutatur,Aauus uero,cu uapor minus 
tis,non nigrae fecuJcnium exaemetum eft.Aibu^' 
uero p0us ex pituita naidtur . Ruifus (lam colorjt 
flaui olbicp eli medius^Jic cius generatio cx piiuito 
ipip£lifiuntuelpropter Ccdcatem temperamenti 
ud proptcr meabJ^ quo radicauC. Ec propier fic 
dtjue quide,ad euni modu quo cor^ar , quse igni 



~riu8iuftoficeanU]r.Etquidcorigianmi meniiniC 
mot^protctrus intorqueri uidCTS.Aicp iraquidcm 

inqu23usradicanturnatura>adbuncmodum Cu 

cxhalaiio lacpc imbecillior eft , ^ ui re<fhm uiam fi 

bi moljri poiljt , pro modo qiio infiofEit jeriamme 

atu(uiifigurat.lntcTiufToexhaIa[ioiaiis uales eii, 

Sed duriore cutis natura, redla ferri regioiK pros^ 

I]ifcBta,inl3iusflc(ftitur:itauieurinlecus uidcrcli*' 

oet^hakmmodo^autfumu^ledetiaHanvm ipGi 

cii {urium agi uetattirjdiuifam utroc^ ucriiis inob 

iJjquum agi Sic igjtur corpoiis cxhalaiio^ubi pror* 


rtemolicur . Doneclongiore Ipatio coQedlam , ali^ 

quid eS urgear , Sc foras flatu agat . H^ qn anibo^ 

bus coeunat>us,&: primac5iiaIaiionis,qiKi; niea= 

B piloru radicibus contingit . Qijalcs autem in radi* 

■^ finguatur , tales racicnabile eft perpetuo fore, 

H^4e<p enim duromm & ficcorum corporum tjuip 

^pujiiiJiprius moQi»,fingiinre^tup6t.AtqTn£ec 

quide di piloru genetario . Secjuens eil|, ut caufas 

orania,qua" tcperameiis i piloru^ «ate r(^ioe,& 

corporis natura.dt(rerentrjs c6t^c,dicamus . &» 

go A^ypfij, Ai-3bcs,& Indi ^oes dem'<5 quicali* 

wd^ fccJTregioneiucoiuntjnigcos, ew^icj inae 

E K t) imiu, 

maitj/iccos,crirpos,&rragilcspiloshabent.Coa^idamcpn^ionan habicait, 
IlIyri),Germ!uii,Samiata:,&ommsScyt]ca pl:^ 
tnodiceauifliles,& gracilcs,&m:1o5,&ruros o» 
p tinri it. Qui uero imer hos temprratum colunt ira 
tibus adeundcm nxKkim inrandum quidrni pfli 
Germanis Floredum a:tate>Aethtopibus , Ephc« 
borum ,& pueronim , ijs qui temperatum kxum 
incoIunt,in robore, craflinjdine , magnicudine ,& 
coIore,ad port/onem le habem.In corponim quo< 
quc naturis ad actaaim,&regionum portioncni pi 
li fe habcnt.Puerientm admodum parui nudi Cuat 
pilis.Quodutic^necmcatusadhucuDusiIlisinco \ 
tee(l:nec(uIigiiio^mexcrememum,Incipieines j 
auic pubc(cerc,paruos,& imbedlles exigaLAt j 
qui iam florct u^edorvs,& multos & magtios, & 
nigros habcnt.Quod & frequentes iam meatus i)t 
fint faifH . Ei fuliginofts cxcremends » prx Gcdtate, j 
&caloreabundent.C:rterumpili>c]uiincapitcfu« j 
perdlifSf & dli)s habentur , etiam pueris nobis iiw j 
nafcnntur . Siquidem gcnerado i^ e(k , non qualii 1 
heibis,(edquaIisRirp^us,prima racionea tiamra | 
condids^non temperamentum exncceffiiate Icquf J 
tibus.SicutiinIibnsdcurupartkidatumeilfnofM | 

ftratunuuerum hi qiiocp c[uod quidmi (mt,td na^ 
mracarti accfpiumrerunt.Quod nigri^ufi ue^uel 
dioqiiouis(intcolore,idatans(cmpcranir[0 om 
ntno dt^>au.Subru fi enim fcre funt, quonia quod 
in meanbus eil impadum, nondum totum di ni> 
gnim.Qiiippe cum humidttas niulta Gt , & iranfi^ 
cus facilis & dculho inibeciIla.Boni ucro incremc 
u',&modicecrafli,propter excrcmcntorum 
quibus alunmr^opiam . Quippe ipiapars corpo 
ris in qua fium,£cca eH: . Toca incp calua olTca cR. 
Cutis uero,quar illi e(k drcundata, tariK) retiqua to 
tius corporis cute cft ficcior.quanto etiam eft du« 
func^tum uero ex toto corpore,fuligino(i exacm? 
dnonparua uis. Quo fit,ut qualc,atate Borniii> 
buSjtoaim ef^ corpus ,eiufmodi tam tn fantibus fit 
capitis cutis.Eo<^ ranbnabilius nonnuUi proccde» 
le tempore calui rcdduntur . Quibus fcilicCT a pn« 
modurior cutiserat. Quippcmoiif^ratum prius 
eftfcneicentiiimpaitesomnes ncccfcere.Fiiauic 
cutis non pauds uduti cc{lacea,ubi fupra iuflu fu 
erit ficcatajn ea uero ficut ex prioribus conflat ni^ 
hilnaIcipotcfVJta<^ctiamintemamanuum,& in« 
fcmapedum,fcmpergtabra»d^p)Ionim cxpcrua 
fiint.qci'ficcifnmus,denfiflimufcp fit icndo is , qui 
fiib cute habetur , Quilius auieinad fummam ficci 

tfatein,cu[is capius non prouaiit,imbcciIUhis om* 
K ii) nino 

nino,aIbkp pfli fiunt, quos uu^ ,canos appefi^ 
bnbcciHi quide,c6ucniaKi5 alinicnii pcnuria ,alfai 
ucro proptetca quod abmentum quo aluntur, ue« 
iudiinis cil pituicae, quicipatio computruit . Vfai 
eniinmcams ctiainnum manet,cxcre n ient u m ue» 
ro cxiguum eil,& Ictun^ac laxiguidc a coIoTc protf 
pcHitur^ diflimiticcr putr cdini al^icttur,iam caU 
ui fiunt homincs. conrcncfcunt , aiincipite magis. 
.Caneicuiu magis a temporibiis, quonia iSud om« 
nium capitis pattium el) Gccidunum. Hanrt enim 
cutis iUic o(Ii nudoitcmporauerolnimidiora (unt. 
Quod in his mufculimagniilib cute habeantur. 
Omnisautcm mulculus camofusfit.Caro,tum 
one^mcuic humidior.Eft autcma quoddid* 
mus diligcruer attendcndum^ne imprudentrsnor 
optiini wR funt medid.Qui 1j qucm cahium uide 
rint.ftatim huic ficaim efle lodus corporis taw 
peramcntumputam.Nc<^enimSmpIicita-ita co 
ictfhn'oportd>at.Scd prius illud defmireprxflite 
ratjhumanucorpusalijsEcquabibpcrtotum tem« 
peramcnto cfle.Alijs,ncci)s pauds inequabiliieT 
ei^afFoflu.Qieonialixpartiajhcinediocn&iB M 
0:o(unthuidiores:alia;fi^'diores,^i3cficc2ores, m 
aIixcalidiorcs,alia! ^ius tcperata;, actnediocrrs. 
Porro hiiicmaximccnc attentos coucnit , ub» ooir* 
poris tcpcrie ei^iniamiis, C^tippe fi tc tum corptu 


gcquabilKcrcondimfitjOmnc^partiuTccT fecope 

L |ct3 in latitud]he,!ongiiudinc, & altitudine {enur. 

I pot udcpxquabiltter anepenttu eHc id corpus, Ac 

* ftcuicorporiThoraxcoIIu»&huaiinaxinii funt, 

I Iumbiparui,ai^flic^,&cniiagracilia3tc^licca, 

quonK>doid(£xensomnibus partfculis OmiliOT 

I nedhmiC^Quiniicruraeicranafiiit.ScIumbilati. 

, Thoraxueroangunus,neid quidc oibus partf' 


busmaximu eftcaputtaliaquibus paruu,qualepa 

Beribus. Ll cnna alijs blela,alijs rara . Artuu quocp 

cxtrema atrjs gradlia funr,ali)s crafla. Et ihorax alijs 

iit diAum eR^tus alfjs tabiila; ritu anguihis^quos 

Graxi <r«wAiiAw« uocant. Vbiueroopertaeica* 

pidxillis»fiuecame udicp plena^^t&alarumo 

iepronaE,noniinanturamedicis eiufinodi natura? 

Coarce Tn-ifo-r^^w^ . Quaniopere Iiae fint uiciaia: 

deperdito his paulo minus omni intemo Ipatio, 

quo pulmo, & cor (iTt fita,nemine iMet . Innumcrac 

uero aliacpaniculartj corporu planc affe(fli5es lur. 

Vbi id a naturali analogia > ^ptinus in utcro mattis 

adinarquale tntqierieeflmiitatu. Minime^if in 

corporibusidgenu$,exunica pam'cu]a c6ic^bn« 

du de toto cfl.NecB enl hi qui mores cx igcnio cor 

poris docere ^tei, fimplicitcr de olbus ^uciat. 

Vcruipfiquo*^ cxpeneu'adoA',fiquis impenic 

hirto eftpeiflorc . Hunc audaccm iudic^t , fui cru« 

ribus eft 

rfcus td hirf is,(alacem . Noo cammcau/am ciiam 
adipuncnccp mimatmpc<flus habrrelronifinii 
lc dicuiu.Cnjraucrohirco.iam phmam caulam in 
um)(aijx(u, radocaam inudl^dumexigir,ha« 
(ftams cni quod in re (icn ccmiuir dixcre . Caulafn 
camcneius omilere.Cancrum is,qui nmtralilpecu 
lanonc cft excrcitatus .ficuti aliorum omnium , ki 
horuro quof^ caufas inuenire taitat.Propterc a c« 
nim quod incquali paraum tempcTamefo funt, no 
komodo&hvcus^fed etiam cactrronim pkrsq^ 
anima]iain,idcirco ad alias acliones ahud r{l pro« 
num. Ac dc his qtudcm ArilVoteles commodc cra 
cnauit.Sed quod ad rcm propo&am e(l unle^id iS 
^ppara. Honuhum (akxttemperamenta con{y« 
dcraniibus , (u^ulas partium per fc examinandas 
cflc. Ncc (i cui ihorax htt(iitus e(^,huic totum cor* 
pus calidiuSiiicciurcp cx ncce{Tiiate putandu . Sed 
pltuiinum incordecaloris c(Ie,Eoi^ aiidacc : po(* 
(eueroaliquandoetiamhuius ipfiusreioccaiKXie 
accidere,quo minus totum his corpus (irailiter caU 
dumriccunKp(it:quod(cilicet phirinuim calofis 
lbr(um huc (piraucric , aicp in ambicnrem abieric 
Nani li toca corports temperies eft a^qualis erit his 
l^atim thoraxipfc uniueHus latidlmuSjUcnx anv 
pl!p,arteria:magny,eardem maxime,uehenKnc{r 

AsiCp hi quidem in ca pite plurimi incrcmeu, n^ri, 
& crirpi. Vuc^ iii pnma ietaie, proccdcti ut ro nm 
pore caluities cxcipin . Quin etiain dufnKxii ho« 
minibus omi an^u^ur (un[anenijpeniu,& rc^u« 
ftum,& exa(fle ckliiuatumi& niukulo4nn totum 
corpm crit.Tum cutis n^or, durior , aicp hiilu« 
tior. Ad cundem modiim,(i cono^ia cmnia tn tho 
raoelintracaequalisintoto corporc lemperies ui^ 
geat,idcft,fihmnidiores& fr^idiorcs uniuer£c 
corporis partes fint, thorax quidem angii^us , & 

tUber exit . Sicuti ctiam totum corpus pilis nudu. 
^utis uero mollis & alba,capiUi &bruB,potiflimu 
tn {uuentme, hi m (mc^iiae non caluelcunt, tunuV 
dicp ftatim &]gnaui, & regnes,adde etiam paiuis 
uems,ac minime cc»^icuis,& adipoC fiunt.Idcm 
iicruis,niuiculifcp imbedllis,& anubus,parum ex 
ade dduuaiis,& blrfis > At ubi uatia panium tan« 
peries e(l « cx una eatum pronundare dc loto cor^ 
porc non licetjcd adeuiKJx (ingiila: funt : eRiman 
dumcp,quo irmperaroento uauhculus , quo pul' 
mo,quo ceicbrum,acre{iquarum pcr (e unacjuecp 
leormm Cu Atcp h*rc quidcmex functionibus no 
lonim iti(pe6ione uiuenifle tcmperiem corum (it, 
Sumil autem penfitandus, & contincnuum eapar 
Dumaifccluseft^cjuarumomtiium estrcmaeftcu 
tisi-JaKinnortrarfgioe,qua;uticptemperata eft 
L fubieda* 



ant.Qyac enim putrcfcunt, oninciadrdtitio cAyrt 
lunt catida,propTio frigent . Qui mehdianam pla>- 

fam tncolunt adfdtitio calore (unt calidi , proprio 
igidi.Iam apudnos quoque naturaltscalorliie 
me ed ubrrior^adicinaus minor. AeJlate contra 
^id^ntius maior,natundis minor.Omiiiananc^ 
haecdefiniat oportet»quj rc<fie trmpcramenium 
eft ct^niairus , Neque cfvm omnino Ci cutis ni* 
grior apparet , iam totus homo calidior efl . Sed ii 
^dVtCanens onuhbus&mili modo fe habend» 
bus.Siquidemfialterin fole ueHatus diuuus e(k, 
Alter in umbra^ti nigrior Jiuic albidior cucis enc 
Verumhoc adrorius tcmperamenti alteradontm 
nihil&dt,ip(ananqiiecuaslub /olediutius habi« 
caficcior,in umbra^humidior euadet, Non ta« 
men nacuralis tempeiies, ucliocinons, uel cor» 
dis ,ud altcrnjs cuiufquam uirceris ,iHtim mu^ 
tabitur,Opiimum igitiir fueni.ncun prius ti\ 
ditfhnn > cuiurque kotfum pariiculse temperatf 
mend notas comparafle. Verbi grat^ uentri:» 
culi,{iis bene concoquit quod temperatus fir. 
Sin non bene concoquit,intemper3tus, (i nidoro» 
fbs^idfiimoibs editru<fhjs,quod igneus in eo ca^ 
lor iit . Sin addos, imbedHus & inTirmus . Simili 
modo , ii qui bubulam , & omnia ^ux conco^hi 
diffictlia iunt: concoquunt, quod eorum caior 
jmodici is iit . Si qui hscc concoquere no uald, fed 
L i) faxatiles 

Qutatiks pi1ccs,&' t3!iaa)nooc|uum,in6nniu. ViV 
adxmde oonfluat, culpa dultDodi (j-mpeoma unv 
irtculo acddai, AI17S enim ex apue pinnta,ali)s fli 
uacx k-cinorc bilts^ uentr^ulum conBuit . Rani 
lame hocomK &paidflimisconangcrc.Atco« 
plurflnis a capiff dcBuit pituita . Atc^ id nianmc 
Roma;,ack>cis perindehumidis.Canau &quod 
raro acddit confyderandil Nihilcp pio iupcrfluo 
habeiidun],am n^gendum. SiquidccDip&tiidi, 
quibunjam per^ pituitofis horninibus , muliam 
umcii iiiuetitnculo coUigi B^uam bikm ,quamcu 
ante cibum aqua uino ueepoto,cuonierc dcbuiC' 
fau/t quid dbonim prius^ uomerrt^ guflanoit» 
quicbmnacurabiltolos eOe credcrcnt. QjScjuam 
e/IcnttotocorporemoIks,&candidi»&giabn,dC ' 
adipoCjS^ ueiis^c mu (culis paru confpicuis, prx 
icrca cxat^ues,n« tangeriibus 3 dmodum caL di, 
V di <3C qiii bilcm nitn^ uotiiueruiit,c]ui tamen df 
gradlcs,&. hirfiiti,& muicutofi, &Cnign,&ueDoG 
ttiartint,afiacimcp calidi^H quis tangem, ludebatv 
tur.CuiufinodilvtbmiELidcmusphiltjlbpbus e* 
rat. Sed iiiddit hoc k>cofpecuiario quxd^anato 
mica idc{l:,quacadcQrporum din«Honcm pa# 
tiivt,quam aliquinv>dicoriim>i^orantes,ex fynw 
ptomatum diflonaniia, m^^nopercanguntia- , du 

Fpanunintell^unt mc3tun)iIlum,prT quCTnJccur 

JDdaninucntriajluni euonut,aIr)sg(ininutn eOc, 

|llijsunkufn,idquodinquadrupcduni difletfljoi* 

I nibus uiderc bcct. Ac plurimum quidcm unicus is 

r cft,in id intcitinum quod pylori^id cH, exiius fun 

duentns , &iduni mrdium cil: , infemts . Gracd 

niediumid Tvs^^fiK^wT-iVjqtuJjquiddameucntre 

I cnanim uocanc Vd Ggcminus mcatusiitjjnccphy 

I fiii iUam mator inleruur , minor in fundum ucntrb^ 

r culi paulo (upra pyloron.Inuenit,icd tamc in pau« 

ciflimi5,£ipcrior pars maior^fcrior mincM-.Carte 

xum quibus cd maior,his in uenorcm quondic no 

cx^|uum bilis e^undinir.Quam 8c euomant anrc 

cibos oportct, & nifi id facianij«dtitur. Quibus 

autem umcus eil CMiKiino mcams ,his tota bilis co^ 

Ituit in idunum . Quanam ^itur ratione dignofce 

ichosficrbitCNecpcnim diUccandos cHeuiuos 

OEnfek,ptimum ccnc totius corpons teniperamen 

to^diiri paulo fijpra cft propoficum.Deindcijs 

quar infra exccnnuitur.Eudanus cnimbihofame 

I fa,pcrpcnjoperiedecxcerocbanutpcte,ciuimuI 

1 lamcoBcgiibi]cm,ajiusmhilinfupcriorcmuci> 

I lKeperucnic<Reiiquis,quiic£cct&pituiioibcranc 

I ooiporishabiiu,&bilonuom^anchishaudqua 

Cp erai aluus biliofa. Quippc cum & minimum fla 

ux bOis g^ncient,& cius plurtma porrio in lupCtf 

I norcmuaurcmpezueivcis.Tcraumnoia:rgctius 

L ii) j inip(ts 

feBiiMHiBi— H;HyJw>iil|ii ■liiw ■<■■!■ ■! 
fttt.A£tfwtMn t!n mtjn oactnnfjiifftpbut 

lMiil*TI TiTj^nT'^!"' r^ T^TT— l|TTf™fn rTBTinTt 

<ptii iiegiftJ pbfcfc ^ig pi t i g ,<pgpotrico 


panir^inBfcJaoro>fiprfcijr^iirpTirf Hncccfla» 

a ^0iai0auBCDauiociiiDrrtauraucm drftm, 

UuJuCCIttM^CplOUnlll^lRTUDC ■ UiSH ■Ml Km^ 

nira fuic coooocnnLBio Doo mvts rpMS cu ad 

magtsfais c|ui duciu c^^iAnnmini • Qyae oc 
robiltsporrumrdm,i)5(ohs gignBurin umo^ 
qnu utic^ cotxoxaum maJe . C^ia rnam loliicini* 
8C mcdia./ucd Bauar bilis pkis acauat. (^opcacl; 
quod plusrtus rucdiQiocHiorrg^T)ucic.Sincig^ 
nm h3rcccrtaiiKlfc»,ruinadhscc,quoubiiiccuiil 
Sd^cpuemncolf cadorenucoucrfio ad bilto6in| 
m ^ (axatiies pi^es concoqumiur.Cum £ ex ieci< 
norc bilis afilluai , oecomeff orum mutarionc ni^ 
hfectituraGiconco^onis diuerfihis.Atcphisqui 
dcm diicemitur , quod non teinperameau, (ed alco 
r ius cuiufquam gratu prouenic . Ad cundem moif 


Sdeflurasa capite inuentreni pituita addi 
s caui^ e (k , conumiet fimili racioe hic quocp 
i propno affrdlu hanc diTccmere^qLne ue 
> & cap ids dolores cx p ropria ne dus intempe * 
c,anproprcrucnms aliqua excrenienta incidant 
lilcemendrlamcercbTumiptum vuiusiji trm}>e 
inenti,perleeilimaree{l1ati'usT^cx corpons 
pusafl^tfhiJplius autem perie confvderanOfex 
::, catarris, tulH, dillillaacme , &laliuap copia 
tr.Quippe quse omnia id frigidius,humidiur> 
<^ efle doceant . Atcp his amplius li ex leiii quali» 
cx£ccitate fMoueniL Nigroru aut & irequennu pi 
|j|pru prouentus, equaUs incerebrocefnperanien<: 
Rnota eft,Etgo ad hunc modum de temperameti» 
m HKunda nobis coiyderatio ei^ . Quana Icilicct 
particula J^fumpropedentibuSitiecaijfisexuna 
ninc,qui refimos ^ijidos^ducos, Iiccds elle dixco 
njt^ quibus parui funt oculi Jiccos.Quibus ma' 
gni humidos. Atcp de hoc quide parti intfr eos co 
uenit. Altj nancp corum, qui iciUcethuiiudts parti 
eulis ocubs adnuinerac,ubi eos maiores uidec,i rjs 
Hiiditatecfpaametipollereexiilfttiat. Alijcalons 
udienKtia^quii pna fonmatioe rurlu c^erti magis 
copfoGorcp fereba^iioculos mo,ueru eteos tpfii 
ctrdiquos oeameatus3pIiorc$ fadbsaiut,tta n hui 

dhatis id^ cabfis indicium ef&.Vcrum ambo a 
unius particuf (C cccafionc dc toco corpore pronij 
ciarc fiint auli. Akcro qd' brmatricis in na uira uii » 
iutis,qu^artiFex faculias ci^,& particuJas fccundu 
animi niores etfingit,parum memuierunt. Dc hac 
nancp Ari/lotdcs dubita'uii:nunquid diuinions 
originis fit,at<^ acalido^rngido jiuniiclo,& iicco, 
rcsdiuer{a,quoinihiniinusro(flc faoo-e uidcniur, 
qui ca m ccmcrc dc rebus imxtmis pronunciant,& 
fblis quaiitac^us formandarum parnum caulaai 
adignaiu.Radbmbile aiimc(l,hxc organa ^k-, 
formatorcm aliii. Scd & dcra cam arduas c|iarfbo 
cam/rigidam^calidarmp tempcriem. Bratni igtnir 
qui propri^s indicr|s ea quae lor^ po 
(ita ttmr,&magn£cqu£l^ionifueruc,atcpadnunc 
ufc^dicni optimis philolbphonim d ibuata furt 
conuertuncuf.NecHeiiimpropterea quod pueri 
undStidciFcorationabile eilrclunosoinneshunii 
dos (xnfere,adunco$ficcos.Sed fieripotell^Klar 
matrids utrtutis eiuihiocli opus fit, poiius c^ xxxa* 
penimenu'.Quod Giemperamcnti eft nora, aicof 
ic cius quod in iia(b tantum habctur , noo eius qd^ 
int<Hocorpore««afuerii.Quarefruftra iH^i^prae 
dicarttiinficcut^atura cemperaniaiiisnafumacu^ 


tunuoculos canos , tempora coIIap& t Quod (ali-< 
cet in affe<^ibus i js,quac corpora liquant , at<^ fu^ 
pra ^ par e((,iiiaiiium,h:rc cotingat . Sarpe nan<p 
poris habitum,& moUcm, & pinguem, Bc albuni, 
& camofum^aim lamcn ocuji funt parui,& naiiis 
acutus.RuTlu$ ficcum,m3C)lentum,iti^ruin, & hif 
&ttum,ubi magni funi ocuU,& nalus ratmus ,prx« 
fiac igiiur^quidc de folo agit ur naG), ut ex eo re(u 
fTio,humidiiatcm,exco aduncoiiccitatcm conie^ 
Aes.Nec de totius animantis cemperie ex his para 
liculis pronuncics.Pari modo oculorum,& altcri* 
uscuiullibcf parcis proprium icmperamcntum 
ex propriis indicijs cn:iniare e(^ (auus .Bt^ de 
lotius corporis tempcrie non re(fleabuna qua^ 
piam particula iiidicium fumttur.Cum fiue humo 
ris uincmcis,riue caloris,nue etiam atnbonim, ce« 
liosoculos indicium (latu<rcoportet,uricppror 
prijiplorum {ic,non omnium totius corporis par 
tium,temperamcnti documentu enint. Nct^ enim 
fi dura & macra cruralunt , omnino (iccum c(l to« 
tiiis ccrporis tcmpcramentum. Ali) tiaiu^ aifatim 
canioJi,&pingues,& aa(R,& promtnenu uenixra 
&mdlcs,& candiciictiamcumeiufinodicruribus 
ccmuntur. Vcrum (i totius corporis tepmcs « pa^ 
riratione fe habeat, (icci omnino (unr , quibus nu" 
ifiinc crura.Humid],qiubus aafla.praeterea qui 
M*! busacu« 

busacutusdlnafus , autaduncus. Hi (ica^uibus 
reftmus humidi. Ad cundemodu dc ocuUs.tcmpo 
ribus>c£tetis detuc^ omnibus paniailjs.tudican' 
dum Quibusimparicmperameniumcft^iiecofTi 
IX) calc qu tpp^ plunmis eorum impoiiuc, cu no 
dehominummodojlcdedamaliorum animaliuni 
loiius corporis indidjs, quae in cu* 
cotamumfpetfbi^jiudicium fcrrefuncaufi. Necp 
enitnn duracutiseft,nccenan'o (iccueftanimas. 
Sedfieripoteft,uCtantnmcuctsficfit aflFe<5ht.Sed 
nec fi n^ra bax hma ue e(l.Simili modo,ncc (i mol 
t&hax:,depilis ueeft^humldum ex neoeflitace [olu 
eft animal. Vaum fi per toram acquabilicer ett su 
temperatum,ratioc(l , ut qualis ntcuns,talis rir& 
rdiquarumpanium unaquacque.Sin inequaliter, 
diflimum eil,cutis ipia (icci(Gma.Eft cnim i)$ cjus 
(^unf tefla,cuiufniodi cft nobis cutis. Atcp mnc 
iDis Grasce nomen os^atuj^i^ eoim nommanhc 
omnia ciufmodianimantia, proptcrea quod cutiB 
i)s oftraco.i.reftar adimuLs.Ia maIocofbata,id cft 
qux moIUteflainteguntur,uelurimarm2elocufl« 
« amati, &cancri , cutem quidem habet ficcan^, 
rdiquamuniucrfam tempcriemhumidam.Imfno 
uero iQud iplum humidiQtis incarne nonnunqiA 

animalibus caufa cft,qiiod ficcam , tcntnat^* poTs 

tionein naturahis uniueriamdrcacuteniTepotuR 

Nondi]giiuiputandum,necquodcuus oftrds 

ficcacAiillicocamequoaene uccam.Necquod 

hzc pr<ehumtda,muccouic^ eAr,iani cucrm quocp 


Jam otfeip&dignofdJErgo lu i his pcccat^qui c3 

mctarios dc teperamctis nobis rcliqiicrijt,rij quod 

id omi'ttut,qd' Hyppocraics retflunme admonu^ 

it»(pe(flaidu dfe ex quibus , in quaemuiatioes^ 

fat^cFic eni non raro,ut prarfens nota prioris trpe 

ramed lit^o cius quod mcorpofe nuc habeac,ue« 

lutinquisannosnatus fexagimadcnlb pilo{ir,n6 

quodcaIidu$& ficais nunciit,iedquodante[aU8 

II lueric,ccMiGftantautemeipriusg€ni'tipi[i.Adcun 

■dcmlmudum, quo Iierbx,qu3eiiert iuntenata?, 


8C pauI^,cot ^ a pluria iila hirtitate mutari.Labe 

thus (cSicet prentmia ficdtate pilis,abis diuriiHtme 

pili pennanet uticpquincc t^pcefiii icporis admotf 

du ficc£,(t apno ujJetehabueriitoriginc.Arbotu 

- ritu ,quarii radices i tcrra iialcter coprehederiit. Ca 

■«e^it fi queadmodurapilofinnuidcas ,hucftati 

Bmelacholidi puces. Sed fi quide floret adhuc xtas, 

■nondii eiledde.Sin ia declinat,nielanchoIicu exifB 

Bliia.Atfi{enexcft,noue.Fiuntnan^ melacholica 

t^eranienta»exfanguinisadiiftiae:C£eteiirid pa 

M rj riincia 




diiKJpn,non(laumc{lpcTCodus,{Krum hnus 
abueic/]iii cabdus & ficcui eft^rlmtcr ou . Si mo 
do comm,qux propoGta liinc^emimmus . No 
iOico mdancholicus. Quippe cutis defitas, cnSSo 
nun rxaonentorum tratifinjmrcnioratisin teim 
paamencis,qiixcalidain (limmo funt,comburi 
<a cogrt . Ita fir , ut tale i^s nunc fit cxcrcmeniu , tjd* 
pflos creat, quale olim prooedenie temporc in usm 
fu (ai^uinis cfl fiicurum.Ta ha»: igtt oniifl& priotf 
oribusrutu.Turapranerhxcquodexnanira eiOf 
cre m c n torum , indefinicf de temperamencis pro« 
milemenecum cxoTmentorunatura^IduerouIcp 
quacp ucrum non eft. Scd ficri jntenm poteft , ut 
pituitoia cxcrcmenta coIlj^antur,ncc lamen htmiM 
daltt parciruIa,vnno fr^idaomnino: humida uo* 
ccat.Qi]od autemeis unpofiiii , fadle animaduer* ' 
ex ip(b corpCMT nollro tpituira fft. Quarc nihil nw 
ricft,ff ubi ingcftoscbosf cjui humidi fonafle nf^ 
ttiralint)nonuicat,fimiIei)8,ipfumquocp cxcre* 
mentumcrcct. Noeftigicurquodoptt-icnf ,tanS 
corpus Gccumeft,tddemexcremcntL*m(]uo(^ efa 
(c fiCcum.EcrtiimGquis ah mitto ficcicre, &^'dio 
recptcinperamero ftatimftiit,isiion meIandioli« 
cus eft,(cd uiicp ab excremeniis piiuitofus.(^od 


G ex habitus niutatione,&igidu$ JiccuJc^eft reddie 
[uStneaHariohic talis iametiain mrlancholicus td 
uerbigrana^Siquis amecalidus& f]ccus,ex(atigut 
nc urendo plunma generauic atram bile . Eft enim 
is prdcterquam quod ficcus eft & fr^dus , proti« 
nus eriam mcUndiolicus . Sin a prindpio friofdus 
&Cccus fuii.Habiiusquidecorporis cius^bus, 
mollis , depiliSiUenis , arhculirc^ parum expreflis, 
gracilis,& tangentifr^idus,animusucromininie 
3udax,& timens,&tnftis,non tamen excremenra 
fauicmelanchotica/iint.Inhtsigitur omnibiispfcs 
cmcplehcp mcdicorumexeoquodpropnasno* 
tas rei(puunt,at(^ ad ea quarnon pcrpetuo, fcd fre 
quenreraccidunt,comienuntur. Eiuidem erroris 
occafione ,& quod excalfadc, id eaam &care omiM 
no pui3t. Hoc enim tieluticoronidc (ummaffi uni 
ueiii lermoins addito,(ecundum iam hbrum hnire 
ftatui. Quippe^egmoneobfenaspartescalida 
perfundentesaqua,at(^icauacuanabi)S biiniore 
nino calori iucccdere. Necp id modo ubi cum ficci 
tatcis,ucrumetiamubi com humoreeil coniun* 
dhis . Cartcrum non efl ide ud tiacuane ab altquo 
humorem,qui locis quibuidam Ct di^xrfus, ud ^ 
priam pamculx alicuius tempcriem iicdorc reddi« 
difl!e.Siquidem incqualis qu.Tdamin his,qiix phle 
M iij bus 

abude,qui caHdus & ficcus eil^clmtor ou . Si mo 
do eonim/iux propoGca (unt,me miranius . N5 
iUico mdanoiohcus. Quippe cuds deiitas, craffio 
rum ocaeniamuiim traniitumremoransin tenvs 
pfl^amentiSiqiiaecalidain fummo funt,comburi 
ea «^it Ju fit , ut rak ijs nuiK fit cxcrcnieniu .qd* 
pilos creat, quale olim procedetue temporc in ua« 
(u lar^inis c(l fiiiurum.Tii h^ iga omH^ prkK 
(xibusrunt.Tumpraetrrhxcquodexiiacura en» 
crementorumiindefintorde tcmperamentis pro< 
nunciant. (Hitantcnim particularum tcmperiem^ 
milemet^cum ezaementoruiiatura.Idueroufcp 
quacp ueruro non eft. Sed fieri interim poteil , ut 
pituitofa exaanfntacolligantur^nec lamen humi« 
ro nonommno. (^ppe cum Gccam quocp efle li 
ceat.Quod autemcts unpofuit , facilc animaduer* 
ex ipfb corpCMT noflro .pttuira ftt. Quare nihil iTH« 
ri eiV,fi ubi ingeftos chos f cjui hu midi fortalle nas 
tura(int}nonuicdr,&TiiIei^,ip(umquo<B excre^ 
corpus ficcumei^ictdemescrcmentL*mc|uocp rU 
fc Cccuni.Etenimfiquis ab iniiio ficcicre, fngidia 
necf tcimeramero ftaumfuir,isnoii me[anmob'« 
cus cfl/eduti<^ ab exei«mentis piiuitorus.Quod 


C exhabitus mutad'onc,fingidiis Jiccufcp eft redSis 
tus^necrnano hic talis iam rtiam mr lancholicus efl 
uerbigra[i3,Sic]uis ante calidus & iiccu5,ex£angui 
nc urendo plurima generauit atram bilc . Eft enim 
is pnxrterquam cjuod ffccus eft & tr^idus , proti* 
nus etiam melandiolicus . Sin a prindpio frigidus 
&iiccus fuii.Habftusquidecorpons eiusaibus, 
moIiis,depilis,uenis,articuIirc^paruin exprcHis, 
gracilis,& tangentifrigidus,animusucrominimc 
audax,& timens,6f tnfti$,non tamen excrementa 
buicmelancholicafiint.Inhistgitur omnibiJispcc« 
cani pkricp mcdicorum ex eo quod propnas no^ 
tas refpuunt,atc^ ad ea quar non perpetuo, fcd frc 
quenter accidiint , conuertuntur . EiufHem errorts 
occafione,& quod excalBidc, id eriam ficcareomni 
no pucSt. Hoc enim ueluticoromdc (ummacB uni 
uetii (ermonis addito,(ecundum iam fibrum nture 
ftatut. Quipp^phlegmoneobfeflispartescalida 
perfiindentesaqua,atcf itatiacuanabi)S hutr.ore 
nino caloh liiccedere. Nccp id modo ubi cum ficci 
tateis,ucTumetiamubi cum humoreeft coniun« 
ifhis . Canerum non eft ide ucl uacuafle ab aliquo 
humorem,qui locis quibuftlam fit di^>crfus,iid ^ 
prtam pamcuFar alicuius tempcriem fKciorcreddi^ 
difle.Siquidem inequalis qu.Tdam in his,qiix phle 
gpaonclaborantpartibusptitemperies eft^funilan'* 
M iii bus 

biis feticet corporibus a proprio tempenttnenic 
nondum amotte.fedanidueadhucm nuita^fonel 
afc^ahcrauoneuerlatis^omnibLis nimmnn incer» | 
ftoritisincere3s(p»C)oIis^uxionereferus.QusEai j 
^is admoucnturjpraquidem (uperuacaneaq 
niedia (imilar ium fpa cia occuparunt,euocan[.C 
lis buinorem adi^iant. Ac ipiaqiudem uerirasiM 
&habet.OemonRr3tiotamen euidens dicflisn 
quiritur, Vcrum eam anTi& longiorem exif 
mem,^ ut huiclibro inieracur , & audicoron dem 
derec^iuimedicamcntorum facultausfitnoni^ 
rus , in praHens diiFero . Caetmim ubi in tertio 1" 
brodcoaini lemperamentorumgenerc cracflaui 
fkcac^unt omncm metbodum indicaucro , n 
integrumlibcllum icribcredcinequali inten 
decreui. Quippe liabfolueturanobis 
uniuerfa de temperamentis 
dticcptatio, ad medcndi 
methodum non parii 
adfcret coomiodi 

Galcni de tcmperamcntis, TTioma Linacro 
Aug|o inccrprete, Librifecundi, finis. 


ds , Thoma Ltnacro Arglo interprcic 


I C quod cnergia^ fiue aSxi caK* 
I dorum,fi^idonjm,hiim]doru, 
i&lkcorum imuqnodf^ talccf 
ile dicaf, qe! qd^' fuma habereiuf 
Ijmodi qua!itate,uel qd' uiiiat in 
lcoidgcnus qualitaium aliqua, 
uel quod ad cognati generis mc 
dioaeaIiqiiid,uel ad unumquodlibetanobis fit 
coilatum , prius cft traditum . Mbnftratum prx^ 
ecrea eft quemadmodum caqnis agno/ccre cxa« 
<^c poffit . Reliquum cft,ut dc fjs.qua: talia potes^ 
ftate funi diflcramus ,fi tamcti prius expl:cucri<« 
mus^quid ip(o potr flatis nominci^nificetur.Eft 
autcm brcuis cius & fadliiina, & clara explicatio.' 
■ Quippec|uod quale didtttr.tale nondum eft ^fed 
pSttak eflc^id hoccfle porcftatc didtmis.HoirJc 
lc,& canc uenaticu,& cquiT cdeic.SciIicct qcKeorii 
cft. ac ia prasfcns , ipia cncrgia, fiue <juod a Aj eft« 
Quod uero potcftate cft,imperfcflum,& adhu^ 

t^ ^'^ nim)atqiieoifiaiquidCTnidquoddicitur,uc« 

luti hablfr^on tsamcn adhuc fMdcns. 8jquidem 
nec infans racionalis iam eRSed [aJis himnnSyNec 
qui modo xdims eft canis,uenator,qui fdKcct ad« 
huc nonuideat,!cdquod uenan qucar ii ad iuftura 
perucniat incrcmenium, fic nominatur . Ac maxi* 
mct^idem^prie (olaea potciUtc eflcdicimus, 
in quibus natura ipia fiioptc impetu ad abfolutio* 
nemucnit.VticplinihiIciexmnlecus iinpedimcn* 
tofii.FVxtcrea quxaincp fiairiumCutficdicam; 
contioetues matcria; funt. Nccrefntcontincntes, 
an conuenientcs » aii proprias dicas . Quip pe cum 
exomnibus iudicetur,quodpropinquiici^,quod 
cp ncc alia intcrcedetitc mutatione (ic dtatur, ueibi 
graoacumianguincmpoteftatecamem appellas, 
quoniam minimam mutationcmad camis genera» 
Donem rcquirat. At non qui iii uentricuio haberur 
conco(!tiis cibus,contincs camis materia eft . Scd 
priiis (u faiiguis oponet Jongius etiam abfuntjma 
za & panis , Quippc qux ut caro fiant , certas fui 
mutationesrequiram.Ca^rerumhaxquo^ om« 
nia,potcftatc caro dicuruur.Btiam anteha^c ignis « 
aer,aqua,d^ Bcrra. Eoam borum ipfbrum commu* 
tiis maieria. Atquc harc quidcm omnia ma^is, mi» 
nusuc abufiuc loqucntibus nobis dicunt . Pnmut 
autemmoduscorij.quscpotcflatcenealiquid d» 
cuntiir,maximccft ^ptius.Proxinius huiceft «0* 
rum.quxfutu propinquamateria,udutiGfum^ 

dam rxhidationeni flamtnam cfle, aut balttum acir 
. <iim&X)idiurpo(cftatccne,&quodd^uodex 
[ acddenddidtur^(lcxaduerlbpoutuni,utticarno 
I ii c|uis fiuienis in fngidaIauatk>ncm,corpus cius 

«3t acddend,non e jt propria p<:>teftate calcfacere di 
I cat.BrgotocmodiseaampotcR3tecaIidaifr^ida, 
I liuniiua,&ficcadiccncurX)ubitabjturquo<ptxni 
I dbfurde,curCaftorcuni,uciEupbcnbiuni,uelPy 
' mhrum,uel Strudiion,urI Nimjm,ucl Mi(y, calu 
f dae{]edicamusj^urfusla(f}ucam,ucldciuam,uel 
I inandragoram,uclfaIamandram,udpapauer,fri» 
f gida. Vtrum ne fiib prarditTtis iam mo<^ compre 
I Dmdannir,anab'aquapiam rationedicantur, qux 
Kdufhtiondumljt.Ditumennancp rc{ina,& £euu 
I & c^cum, Bc pixjCalida potcilate iunt, quod utic^ 

cne^ia calida cclerrime fiant. Etenim cclerrune in^ 
I flanunantur.Pnnrreacumcorpor^isnoRrisad 

fnouent,ea manifcflc calefadunt. At Caldtis, Mi« 
I fc,Synapi,Niirum, Acoron,Mcon,Cofhjs,& 
I Pyrethn.imcumnobisfLintadtnota,calfdaiiiden 

tur, AUa m:^,alta mimis.Non tame (unt idonra, 
^ (]uaeinflammamuert3ntur.-An^itiir&ipfbsfal« 
I lunt,quiid(oIumen^imant.Nunqujdc^uanafa 
I dleinflammamiranGnutcncur^quos uticpnofic. 
, Scdannonuertanturinpmnamdlimareopotte» 
^ bat.Cumfitpruna^ntsnon minus,^ (lamfna« 
L Hoc tamen difcrimine,quod aerc,ud aerco quopi« 
' N amin 

aminignemutatofl3ma,tnra,udterKare aliqaa 
accmfa,fitpruna.Atcphadlcnus quidecofennreie 
eu (ermo omnino uidet. Siquide uidemur medica 
maiia ea ,quae ubi ignc atrigoit accedurtt:»nos quo 
cpcxcaUacere,nififiquod Dptercranitieintracoe 
pus no facile affumttur. Diflerctur eni de ip lauua 
in libris de medicamentorij uihbus. QuaDcunc^ tii 
mcdicamcnta nollrumcorpusexcalfacercuiden^ 
ca prompte uertunt in ignc, At quo iginir inquiut 
tangcntibus no &nciu[^' calida,hoc haud (cio cur M 
cant.Nam d eiiergia,iamq? calidii,efle pncdKfhjru 
quidcp dicercmus^eiflo mirari L'ccr€t,quoniodo 
tat^ciibus no appareantcabda . Nuncquod po& 
firtt facAe calida eilc, idcvco ea poteflate Ctlia uoca« 
mus.Itacp nihilmiri,fico$,qui le t^ut nodu cale6i 
ciant. Vcl u ti enrm ncc ignis iple augct,priusQi uu 
<flaabeo!ignaiintmutaia,quodaliquo ten^oris 
fpatio oio rit.Ita nec animantiii calor a medicanvn 
tis , nifi illa prius ab iplb fint mutata . C^ippe alio 
gcncrecalcfit,isquiabigncudrolencpcfdt. Ahb 
is qui 3 prgedi<5toru quouis medicametonj.DIa na» 
cp aflu furit calida,medicameta neqiiaqi. Itaq? nrc 
calefacerenosualentprius^aifhitalia fiat. AtqcF 
adu talia fint,id a nobis accipiunt , ucluti ficd Ciia* 
mi ab igne . Itaniero & I^na ex fua quidem natu« 
rafrigidafiintuuincrfii.Sed quarficdorafijnt, 8C 
gracilia,cafacik nnuantur in ^nem. Quxhumi 



dora funt Sc cnSTafyado cgent maiore.Nihil i^h> 
tur nuti eil,fi medicamcnct quoque primum qui« 
dem inparua &C toiuia frangi poihilantjecundo 
loco,uttemporc aliquo tauiiedi mininxi/x>rpon* 
noibx) quo calida fianc iint adiun(fla . Tii ucro 
(ica ncc comminuta,ncc prius calefatfb, calida 
tamcn ficri cenies,quid{^nificet,quodpotefta* 
tc calidum dicimus, parum inihi mfminiHe vi* 
derts. Sic enun ea cxploras, tanquam cnergia 
iinc calida.Sed ncciUudmimm, jGqi» recalfaci* 
atit,cakfieri ip(a prius poihilcnt.Cum idem fie 
r| cetnatur , & in I^norum exemplo . Quippc 
hacc uaneicentem , nTorientemquc flamniam tum 
ieruant,tum ueroaugemdum abhac,ipia prius 
calcfiunt . Non efi: iguur alicnum , calorcm , qui 
in anmianribus habetur , ciuimodi mcdicamcu*: 
tis quafi dbmento quodam ua queniadmodum 
i^iis 1^0. Quippe id ita quoque ficri cemis 
mus . Si uero pcrfrigerato corpori eomm quod^ 
uis quantumuis dilignita' comminutum mfpcri» 
gas,pror(us non caJefit, Proindc quac rcfrigeratae 
parces iunt , eas ciuCnodi medicamentis plurunii 
pcrfricaniu$,unacaIoFempcrfricando exdianties, 
una rarum,quod prius fn^gore fuit dcfum,reddcn 
tes . Quo /ciUcet tii introrius pharmacu penetret, 
tum naiurali animantis calori contund^um mutc» 

t— -tcalcfiat.QuippecuiusfipariicuIaqua^iam 

ucl minima ,caIornn energia condpiat, hunc dcitv 
dcuitocum propter coiinuuaKm porngat,p(rnn 
dc ac n ex parua (cintilla tcdam fummo tmus acccn 
das»Siquidem harK uniueHam fadle depafotur^' 
hilo amplius (ciminam requirens. Ac c|uidquid 
quidem potci^tecalidum cHijhuicnonduiTinina 
nira (lia calidum frigido prxpoOec, fcd in propitic 
quo eft,ut pracpoIIeat,adeo ui brcuem opem quo 
uincat cxtrinCecus rcquiraLHarK ifli nxxio frKfbo 
abundc pratflarepotcft.modouclignts.ucJcor* 
poris alicuius n:ituracaltdi conta<flus , Non e(l ^ 
turtamarduumrationemredderetquidcauix uc, 
cur alia protinus ut corpus nofhum cont^crc,rr« 
calfacere id poiTInt. Aliapoft longtustd cffioctc 
fpacium.Quippc ex rjs,qu2e ^ni appropinquant ' 
Alia liatim accenduntur,uduti clychnium , & tc 1 
nuis tcda,& pix»& ficcus calamus. Alianili diuti« J 
us(untadmota,nonutncuntur,(icutuuide l 
cumdenaturalibuspotetijs a^mus.cradctur . 
hypothc(t nunc quocp propoutorum cau(a,eo t 
ccmur,quatuor nimimm diccntcs torius corporivj 
propnas facultatcs cfTc. Vnam idoncorum traAii| 
ccni,altrrameorumomiuum retcntricem , to 
alteratricem,&quartam c|u%aliera(ic (^^atco^l 
ealdcmc^fflculiates cfFctfhiscdc tociusin quouftl 
corpore fubstantife. Quam ctiam cond are tx cal^i I 
do^ J 

' (!lo/rigido^uido,&jKComto' (rmixtisclicunus. 
Vbi ^imr harc unaquarhbct eanun, quas in (c ha= 
bct qmlitatum,corpus quod Cibi adniounur , de;: 
muc^ncc ipfamboccafu toia (ua (ubn^antiaexifli 
mandiim eii agcre^cc quod ab ipfa mutatur poi^ 
(e ei aflimilari.Quarc ne unc^ nutriec , quod iia mu 
tatumeil,id qd' (c mutauit. At d Hia niucet , id dH 
tota (ua iubiiandaoperetur» uii<^ nini Cibi aOimiU 
buidquodmucamr»ujmabeo nutrietur . Ncquc 
enim aliud numiio e(l, quam ad(imilatto pcrfei^ 
Quoniam aucem hoc dmnitum c(l, inde rurfus in 
dpioidum . Omne anima] conuenientc Fibt nutii£ 
alimentotconucnicnsautem cuii^ alimentumeft» 
muc(]uid aflGniilari corpori quod nucrinjr.potcn:. 
Oportet igitur coti nucriencis fubflancia^aim to** 
ranutriunatura communio aliqua,{unilitudoqije 
fic : prorfus hk quoc^ non paruo cxccHuSf defeo 
(flu^ (tib(iil:etue in ipGs dilcriinmriCum alia ma" 
gis confenticntia»finiiliacp finr , alia rainus « Proitv 
de eciam alia conficiendiopcrcualentiore,acdhi« 
tumiore^a minore^ breniore cget : auium caro 
minore^fuiOa maiorc.bubuIa eiia hac maiorc. Vuiu 
ucroutanimilcturopiis defyderatminimu.Quo 
lic,ut tum nuoiatjtum roboretoclerrimc .Porro id 
quoc^inconcoqucndi infhumcntis «uentriado* 
JoctrKire , & uenis , pror^ aliquadiu cra^fcrtf opor 
bet.C^fibus fc^ccc pracparatum , nucrirecorpus Q 
H N iij qucac 

qticat, Ante ucro ^ inhis fit demutatumiiVrinoa 
potc(l,utaniniaIis corpori fit nuirimenrum. Nefl 
pCT totii di€m,ac notflcm extriniccus fiipcr corpm 
lit imporitum.Multocp mtnus panis, ud beta , uel 
maza, foris impofita numat. At qusequidera adfir 
niamcdicamcnta,eftporro&horiTm naiiira dti* 
plcx. Quippcuckuiuimodifunt adfumpta.eiuCt 
modieuam pcrmancncia, uincut, corpufc^ mutai^ 
ad eum modum,quo id cibos,at<^ h»c proriiis tii 
ucnenofa,tuin natura animalis comipmdamedi* 
camentafunt ,ue]mutationis inidumab animalif 
corporc con(ecuta,dcinccps iam pufreiait,ac coe 
rumpumur,dcindc corpus c[uo^ una corrumpuC 
acputrcfaciunt.Suntautcmhsec quoc^noxiau»^ 
nena . El\ liis ctiamamplius tertia mcdicamento«i 
rum fpedes,corum nimirum,qi£ecorpus.recaI^ 
dQmquidem,malitamenihiladferut. Eft&c^uai 
la coru fpedes,qux & agunt 8^ padunttu- aliquidi 
fed Ipado uinctinttu-,planecp adOmdantur. AcdcHJ 
porro hisjiit tam medicamcnta fint,cp nutrmicma 
Nihil*ujt miri ei^, il cxiguu co/ecuta mometum,ali 
fimtSiquide in ea My fia,qu£e cft Afia: pars , i 
rou» hac aliquandoradone confIagrauit.&at pro* 
infHi c^lumbinum fiercus, ciu iam pum' & cxalliL 


^^ iiaporcm cclenti , & tar^etitibus admodum 
ang(Tcidusligna»quaBlai^nuperiUita reCnafuc 
rant.Media ^itur arftatc,ajni fol phjiimus inddi 
fet^cedit ture(ina,tu Iigna.Hinc aiit & forcs qua; 
daali^qua: prope fuerant,&fcneittajnuperet3 
fiimmifoaiA^^bi aut excepta iemel a tctflo efi: Bam^ 
ma,celcriter in totam domiun eft graflata, Hcc ac* 
bm'Ormodoaiunt& Archimcdcmhoibumtrirc 
mcs urcntibus fpcculis incendi£&.Porro fticcendt^ 
tur his promptc Jaiiajihipa^clychniu/erula. Quic 
ma edunt,& laptdes attriti,atq) hoc magis , (i quis 
Mcdcx.Quippe quod quibus eft ilIi'tij,oiaubi in 
id incid]t,calor acccndit.Coftatidcx fulphure , & 
humidobitumine.Iamilludceu rc niirandaqui<£[ 
oftentauit£xiinxit luccma,ac rurfus muro admoi' 
ucns,accendit.AlcerIapidi eaadmouit.Fuerataut 
cuinurus,tulapis(uIphurcc6ta(fli.Quodiibi dew 
prdicnfitmeft,dcfijtmiriiuidcr^quod oftentaba 
tur.Ergo omnia id genusmedicainii,pcrfec?:e,aicp 
adcommimadone calida adbuc no iunt,apt£ffima 
tamen ut calida fiant. Atcp iddrco potcf^tc cali*' 
da dicuntur . Ac de ijs quidcm nuUa cft dubitatio. 
Scd neccur vim bibitu aalcfiter corpu s calefadat. 

Mbnftratum cnim (iipra paulo cft, id non uiicp 
calidumincdicamenium.lmmout conuoiicmi 
triiTWtum calcfaccrc animai.Tan^ aum ^nis ida 
neum alimcntum , ^nc ipfum augct , ita quicqni 
corporum namra calidorum proprium & naturj 
kcilnutrimentunn^dealcnipcrnon folunirofaai 
rabit,fed ctiafh iniiium conun calorcm augcbiL A 
cpid quidem omnis nummcnti communis cffis 
Aus eit, Vino praftcr cartera pioprium , ac fiiii ( 
miuadois celeritas.[ta uiicp,ut [cd3E,cIychiu^ (l\ 
px,piciSilam uero ab ^s cxcmplo non d^re 
admoncamus rurfum dc lignis uiridibus,<]uaeii 
tim , aui continuo , cocp lancnumero igniinic<!b 
non Ibliim flainmam c|uali ropiunt.lcd ciiam G 
bcciUa tddC paniajcorrumpcndx cjuocp eius f 
iiaihimafferunr.Sicprofc(flo &inanimalibusi 
bj,(]ui uii prorfus adumilcntur,&corpus nulriai 
Ipaiio egmt, hi fr^us uniuerfiipotiuc quam cab 
eiunt hi quoc; lpatio,non fccus,acreliqui cibi , 1! ( 
mel ut corpus nutriant,{int conlecud. Omne «niffl 
initriinentum,quaienus num'mentum e(i, anima» 
Hs caiorem augct. Ai li dcuoretur quidem ut nutri 
pocraics dixit,nominequidem nu iri mentum,re 

■tum dicanir,Gcut ipft dociiit his iicrbis. Nutrimen 
tumdl,&quodnuirit,&quoduetuu nummen» 
tum e(l,& qiiod futurufnnutrinietumcdy quod 

H^'cp iam nutnt,& corporiadiungitur^c ampli^ 

^fcmturumcft,idpropricnuirimcntum nomina* 
tur.Ideni um> & corpus qd' nutrit,rxcairacir , qd^ 
reliqiiorum ncuirum fadt . Quod fdlicct proprie 
tnitrimenta rx)n nnt.Scd altcrum corum ucluti nu^ 
trimcntum, alterum tale futurum . Proindencc ui* 
num ipfiim fenper animal caIe6tcit,3X|ue,ut tKC 
cdeumflammamaccaiditjtamctfiapafliiTium eft 
ignis nutrimentu.Immo n imbccille & ex^ue flam 
maejConrmim multum olcum infundas , fu(Foca« 
bts ea,prorfufcp extingucs , pouus^ augcbis . Sic 
^^tur & uinum,ubi plus bibitur,^ ut uinci po(^t, 

B laatum abefV,ut ammal caJef aciai,ut etiam fr^idio 
fauida g^tiat. Quippe apopIexiar,& paraplcgiar, 
fidquae Cjo^ce caros,& comata uocamus , & ner«> 
uorum rr{bIutio,& comidaks conuuIiiones,& tei« 
lani,tmnioclicumuinipotumconiitantur. Quoru 
unumquodffl fr^idum c(l uitiu , gencratim cnim 
qua?cuncp anumpra in corpus,ut nutrimentum ca 
Icfectunt,haec intcritn frigefacere deprehendas. 
Eque fdlicct, ut flammam ab eadcm matcria , non 
augeri modojUau etiam aliquando exi ir^u i . A t cp 
h3ccquidemomnia,rumns,qu£edeelemeru,tu i^ 
quarde temperanienris (untprodita cc nleiiriunt. 
O Illudfor* 

Dludl rortan[edinbnareuidebitur^odexf)S , 
uc nucrimentum comeduntur^iqua cun impo^ 
h3ceroduc,atc^ exulcciit.Sicut (itiapi, muria, aUi 
ccpe. V^ru hoc quoc^ cu pofitis a principio hyp 
thcfibusconcordat.Etcnimpropterea,qd' tum 
ucntreconco(fla,tiiinueniS]nfanguuie uerfanii 
tant,alieranuircp,pr2eterea qduno loco no perni 
nct : (cd inmultas partes diui{a,undci^aq) fmai 
addc & q^ no fc4u mulris fiicas mifcent , (edetj 
cibis.cuquibus (umuntur^haxqd' celeriter cp 
tu 5c conco(fbo, SC partiu lcparatio perfidt , ita 
quod coueniens in cis eiV adfimitet^quod lupci 
caneum& acrc,per aluuni urinas , Sl fudore 
na£:proptcT hxc m^jah qd* foiis impofitu 
ccrai,id comeiHi no exutcerat.Quauis fi ud i 
quodfibet horum acccdem,{atts eHetadca qi 
fong fum integra fcruanda,uerbi cau^ muta 
ipfa.Sinanquenonmancarfinapi,quaIe extrinf 
cus fuitjCum e[^ adTumptum , manifeftum efl 
nec uim eius manere ccnfcndum.Quod U tum < 
rimuncurdus partes,tum pui^antur , multouti 
magis fic ccnfcndum . lam &tis erat qtxid nec < 
dem lod manet.Cum nec cirea cutim aliquid eflR« 
cerc pofTe uideatur , rdfi diudus nximoretur . Scd 
necmixtioiplacummukiscibisparum momenti 
habet.Sirnimid ciiraalium cibumiblu aflumas, 
facile inteltiges quantum mole{li%»& rofionis 


uentriciJo Gt aUdtuium. Quin etiam,fi phirimo 
diUd admixtum fucco, cuti id imponas, quam 
nihil adfcrai inrommoditCum ^iurprjcdi^flo* 
nm unumquodlibet p«r (c,fms pro\iibe.rtpoC: 
iit, quDminusijnapi, quod foris radtaidem fa^ 
cere ihtus poi£t,muko3rbitrorm3gis,ubimiiL' 
ca iimul coiarint . JNam & coqucndo altcranir, 
dC expurgatur, d< cummultis alijs mifcetur,& 
uarie dillribuitur , & in omnem partem fmur , 
nec in ufla moratur. Quod autem {i actimonic 
am fuam feruarei-,intcrna quoqueomoiiioeiaiU 
ceram.ex ijs,qu<e fponte accidunt uJcenbus, 
intell^as .Gignitur enim no raro alijs ex uinofo 
cibo,ati)sexquapcun inipfo corpore corrupte*» 
la, &putredine,uit]oius iuccus , quam cacochy^ 
niian uocant. lis aliquando intetiorum quoque 
aliqutd exulceratur. Magnatamenexparte,cu^ 
tis quoniam in hanc excrementaquxin hal^itura 
corpor^ coUiguntur , naiura expelJit , multis & a,0 
fiduis ulcecibus af^icitur . Quippe canai pha* 
gedene,herpetes crodentes,caibuncuIi,& qui 
diyromia, & Celephia uocantur , nuQeque aljige 
ulcerum gctierationes , ab dulmodi cacochymia 
na^cunrur. Necp igitur taluimquic^e{ldubic3n« 
dum.Sednec<ur niedicamentorumncnnuiIa,cii 
nihil nos extrilecus ofFeixlut , intro aflumpta m^ 
O i^ nuni^^craQt 

numaffersnt maluni. Aliquaruifusairro anum 
pta,;ionnun^ lcdan(, nonnun^ conferai . Alu] 
oon iblum intro afEimpta,(ed cuamcxuinfecus 
ns,inm(cp parem agendi faculiatem halxt. Ncqia 
cnim aut uipcre uencnum,aui rabidi canis fpum^ 
auca/pidis utrus»c|ua: camennexirinfccus corpt 
occun-ant,offcndcTe crcduntur^parcm uim h^)C^ 
ucl foli cuti applicita, uel intro aOumpC3.Sed neci 
iud cA mtrandum^ CBrteromm medicamcncorun 
ui5,ad profundumnon perucnit . Necp cnrm n 
ccflccft,utomniaparcmhabcantuim. Quodfi 
r)s^ar intro fiimuntur non pauca,ccrto CempoK; 
& certa quandtatc,& in mixtura , cum caitcris 
pia,con&mnt.lntempe{buc autem & laigius, 
cum alr|s admtxta laedunt , ne id quidem dubitacio 
nem ullam difputadoni pariat.Siquidem td tum d» 
bts ,tum ^ni^tum uero omnibus , ut (ic dicam qtix 
corpori occurrunc,acadcrc folct . Nam & mcdk» 
cri nobis flamma nonnunq^ opus cft:,eafcp ufi,plu 
rimum cx ea iuuamur.Cum tamen immodica iS* 
manos urat.Ad eundemmodum Sc fngide potio 
quxmediocris e(l,con^ qux fmmodica e(l,ma 
ximam afFen lefione.Quid ^tur miri cfticflc me* 
dicamen aliquod,adeo calidu poteftate,ut G mul^ 
tumriusfumaiur,acinuacuumcorpus tnferatur, 
aodat pror(us^uracqi.Sinexiguum iit> & cuin ijs, 


qux uehemcnctam eius reminant , cSuimflum^o 
Diodo nihil incomodi afrerre,ucrumaiara alcfa* 
lctendo iuu^.Laalniamcnun, ud Cyrenaica, uet 
medicam,ud parcicham ipfam quidcm per fe^citra 
incomodum fiimerenonefl. At fi omninoex^a, 
uel cum alf}s intemperie congnjente fit iumpta, ma 
gnopcrcconducit . Ataadniicquidemmodum» 
quxcuncp corpus excalraduc,ubi mutaitonis prin 
dpium in ipto ficut di<fhim prius efl accepere , it* 
calfacereillud ^ntapta.Quz ucro rcTtigeraiitjUelu 
bpapaucris ^cai5,h£ecanoflrocorpore,neucl 
paulum cjuidcm derautatur,(ed ipfum Aarim uin> 
cunt,3cmutat,cuamli calefacfb prius dedcris . B(i 
enim conim natura frigida , quemadmodum aqua. 
Qiare iUudre^ Aril>otdi,(]Cut aLa muka, di(5lu 
en',C^idorum,fr^ulorum,ficcorum,& humido^ 
ntm corporum,quardam eHe taLa per ie,quaKl3m 
ex accidcnti . Sicut aqua per ie quidem fi^da efl, 
exaccidcntt uero aliquando calida;uerum acquifiti 
dusduscalor breui perit,naturalisfrigidicas mai> 
ner.Tan^ ^turcalida aqua flammse inietfb ,cam 
extinguit.Sicmcconium li id quantumuiscalefa* 
(5himdedciis,&caloremaninriIis perfrigcrabis, 
&ncds pcriculum afFeres . Omnia igitur id genus 
medicameta,it ex^c Gnt data,& unacum f)s,qux 
uehemcniiam fr^oris coium cafiigarc ualeant,n5 
nonnu^ulum aliquem corporibus nof^ris prae« 
O ii) flant. 

f}aiu,quetmdnioduni inopere de medicameruis 
dicetur. Sit^uideni medicamcnid quod Caiuhah» 
dasrecipit,hyderids prodcil.Tamed^i canthahs 
ipia^uelicamommno exulccrat, Veruubiperca, 
qux admifcccurcaHigaia e(l,accorpoh^od plu 
rimo humore grauaiur,tuni offertur , lUumpcr ud 
na ocpdlit.Maximr ^tur eil attcdendu in omnic 
bu.s,quaf poteilate calida/cigida ucdicut^,ljnt ne 
cx natura conim^quse nuoirc corpus pofSint , aa 
ciuftnodi>ciua;ex^uinalterationis momeniiiiB 
(fh,deinde 1 ccundum propm nauira aIterata,cor« 
pus ipfuni aliquo modo affidiim . Tertio kxo an 
nuHo padoab eo quicq^ alicrct .Si n3cp cx nuirien 
tiii funt genere^iiquide uincantjCalefaciut. Si no ui 
cam,re iTj^at. Sin ex i)s iiim qu<e exigmi quippa 
al[erat,orocaJcfadut.Siucroexijs,qu3eoninio no 
altcranc^niaxime refiignant. At tendcre aute,ut di 
^tii eft cft maximc oponet^ac diTcemcre , c|iiae pe» ■ 
ie Tunt^ab i)s,qiix per acddcns , t^ in calidis & ^rf I 
gidis modo , ied nilulo ctiam (etius in ficcis & hw m 
midis.Quippealiquataitii,cumiicca fubilaniiam 
lint (bnita,ubi lai^o calore iuncliquatajiumidat^ 
dam pcr (c humida, ubi in fynccro frigorc iujit mo 
rata,app3rentriccaficutobcies. Miimneigiturde 
ijsomnibusfacicndumaDibluto^&fineufla excc* 
piione iudidumefl.licutin&periotibus motuiw 


^%Bi5 . Scdcum co.utquemadinodum leie in caIo« 
flex^o pKcdita calore, nthiloininus hiimidaccr 
nuntur . talia elTc cx propria natura (unr ccnlcnda, 
tametficu copiofb calcrcfint ricca,Qu<cucroud 
fub f erucnri calore fluunt,ucl fnb puro i igorc fiinc 
conaeta, ne horum quidemaltcra pcrfe humida, 
aliera pcr feficca funi exifbmanda.Ergo lu adhunc 
modum diftinguere couenict,qux p cr ie funt , ab 
r)5,quaFperaccidens,tiiadhaecip(3 fpecftannbus, 
eorum qtia: potellate calida , frigidaihumida, lic 

Bca ue func , iudicium faciendnm . Non cnim ad id 
quod iccundum accidens t^ , re(picieuhus:rcd ad 
id,quod(kundumle eft.idquod poteftarc ell, 
iudicart debebtf .Porro coinunis in omnibus,una« 
c^ iudididi tstioefl.alterationiscdcritas.Atcum 
calidum,frigidum,humidum,& ficcum dicantur, 
eg«.iiifii«j,quodfalicet alia perid,quod exuperar, 
alia quod eam qiialtcatcni a qtia funt denomitiata, 
fummahabeam ,in utruciic^ honimprompteucr 
tinir,dequo agitur iudidum «tale potefbitc fiie^ 
ricOleum nanque caltdum potcfbte cfi:,niminjm 
quod flamma facile fiatJEodcm moHo refina,bitu 
mfn,& pix.Vinum autem,quod lacile fiat lan* 
guij . Pari modo mel , & caro, & lac . Atque haec 
quidem tocis ipfbrum alteraiis (ubftantijs, msa 

_ttunai^ ajtnrandu funt. Qu;c uero unaquahbet 

qualitatc,aker3inur ac mutantur , ca mf ciicamena 
tantum fum.Medicament3itidcm (unr^ quar nul 
b fubftanuar fux muiata parte, led tou Jcruata intt 
gra,corpus ipfum afridunt.Cartenjjngrauia 8C 
narurae anim^cortumpentia. Vnde & [otum eo 
rumgcnus drleterion &pefHcns dicireor.C^iJp 
pehaecnonmtnus genere deleteria funt dicend^ 
(]uod ubi planemimma exhibentur^ullam iofetuc 
(etiiibilem noxam . Sic nacp nec^ ignis ip(e calidttf 
{it^necp nixfrigida. Nam horu quoc^ fi quid ptor- 
fiis exiguumefl^uUumeuides incorporibusno* 
ftrisexcitataflrc£flum.Quippcceiefimaunius lcta 
tilbe pars.cil quidem omnino generc igms. Ca^fC 
rum adeo nos non urat excalfaaatue^t corpon ia 
cidcns^ Jenfum quidemullum &icxdtet.Ad tw 
demmodumfrigiclar afpeiginis ccntelima poriio 
no modo nihil otTendai.aut rcfngcret , icd ncc CtOf 
da delcteria iun[.Immo [ouus natura; {tae couariv' 
tate.Porro iudicabi? contrarietas,ex ea quap tnedil 
interccdit muutionc.In dcmcniis urrbigratia , nc 
aaquamuraripoteflin^nctneqf ignisin aqu3l 
fcd ambo in uero i uffacR. At illa in aheruttu 
nuUo modo.B:go codnes ,& unc mcdio eft aqme 
mutaiio inacregtemcpignis.Non cominens,^nii 
&aqux in altemtrumrhaec^itur inter fe contraia 
pugnantiac^funt Noudifltfniliratione papauc^ 
ris (ucais» 

ris{ucais,honiiniscorpori prorfus edcontrsrius 
Uiquodinidquic^agereiicunaquidrni ^aliia'' 
K tt ponu,muko ininus tota iiia fubuaiia ponii . At 
'^ c^ununic[u:dcmdi:Ietenoru grnusciuimcdiefl» 
altmirtiefteorum,tju«rcjtnol(trocalore momen* 
tumalicjuod muiaiiois acdpiunt^ai dcindeinmul^ 
ufana$aItfr3riocsuertuntur,qiiibus comimpina 
turam noft ram acddit. Bulmodi cnim omnia detc 
teria gcnere fijnt , etiam fi propta- cxiguitatem no* 
nun^ nihil quod (cniiatur ctfidam. Ac qov: cotpo 
risnaturam rodunt putrcfadunt,&liquant,meri 
to potcftaiccalida noininantur. Contra quar refri* 
gcrant.& Irnium auferunt^torporcn»^ notabilem 
afFcmnt/r^ida.Etprioraquidcm nihtlnoniatioir 
ni conlbnum/icc ipC» pad, ncc in corporibus no^ 
ftcu cHiccTc uideniur jSiquidem calido c<»pori ap 
pfidta^ mutatton& momcncu aliquod hinc ade<* 
pta^panim eorum ad fumnum caliditatem,parrini 
prouenium ad putredinem.Iureigiturpro affe-^u 
qux ipia confccuta fiint, euam corpus animalis af 
ficiunL At qua^corpus tamedi ipia calida iunt^p^ 
plicata4amcn re&igcram,non paruam dubitatione 
aSeiunt.unius potius natura: iint . Nam fi cnexgia 
femdcalida fum reddica, cur animal no calcfaautf 
Sin tiondum fum calcfaifla,quoniodo apparcnt ca 
lida . Soluerur dubitauo li dij tinguatur , quod pcr 

Ife ^^'dum eil,abco quodeilcxaccidcnti . Ii3 uti 
P Aiiftoteks 

ex accidcnti funi c^ida,acqui(intrus aflPwfius Jta 
ni priorcm natura? fiia: ftat u facfle reucnantur.Poi 
ro in applicandis rjs nobis , quar natura c^uidr fimB 
fr^da,fcdpcr accidcns calida , duo hacccontir^ 
tc rft ncce(le,iit & acquifiririus eoruin calor pct« 
ai,&rpropria corum tcmpcries, a noftra nihil iirw 
mutata,fr^idapcrllet.htquid miriH papauctil 
fuccus^iaix]ragora,uclcicuta,udftmfIiu aliquidj 
«uis cxhibeantur calefatfla.paulopoft euadui 
&:panis. Vbiininibedlhim ucmrcmdcm^,a 
co non fuperanTur.Euomunnirenun no nro abiw 
dc fi^ida.l^ quod Vjs maius eft,quodcii H j-ppo* 
cratcs notauit , pituita tp& quamuis iam ^ccus G^ 
«tc^ ex cibJs in ucntre iam conccxHis tiata^nihiloinj 
nusfrigidatangenDbuslenntur,necpidmodo di 
in uentre confiftit,ied pof^ a uenis ipfis , purgaa 
nenini 5itenacifnmaeft,acperiurnducitur,atta* 
menneipfac[uidemira(5hi8 uiolentia calcficri p« 
lcft.QuidT|^irmiri,(i ctiapapauerisfuccus,qdf 
naturxnoftractamcontrarium medicamentueft; 
^ cclerrie refrigcref ,etia fi calefadlus fit cxhibimsf 
refrigcrct atitem unalecum &corpusr Quippe 
acquiCtiau calorc ng fetuat, proptora quod natu* 
ta frigidus cft . At quia cius fubftanria a nohis no 

altera{. Iniino porius nos akaxt , & nmtat , klaVco 
nrca nobis quic^ recipit caloris > £v' pro (ita iiatu^ 
n nos afficit . Itacp cii m fngidus nat ura fit , & r.c s 
uticp refriger at.N ihtl ioitLir in didtione noib-a elV. 
dubitaitois rdiquum. Enimuero quod horum om 
nium, qu«c fngi Japer natura futu , quicquid plus 
jEffi^quodf nullaindubiutioncmhabrtctianiprx 
dicHiS ^ Dobis^afien: le/lunonfum . Sicu t cnim ula ^ 
inandraad ceraim uft^ terminum ab igni iuhil pa^* 
tituf , untur auiein, (i longiore Ipatio igni (li adiro 
ta.Sic SC maiviragora , SC cicu:a , d( phltium , bre" 
ui^anoigmadmou,propriiimadhuc trmpcraf: 
meniumieruantilargius aucem excalcfacfla » illico 
comimpuntur;nec quic^ e(Ficere,i:pia: prius po* 
tcrant,ua]enT. Ac talium quidem omnaim lumra, 
Jiominibus maxime e ft coniraria,Sancnaturamcii 
demetis cdBai:,fignirico,caiido,rrigiao, hiiido,(iCss 
lima. Reliqua oTa mediainter harc (unr , quoru alia 
magis.aliaminus agere,acpatiacorpore iioftro 
poMunt.Siquidem caftorcum,&piper a^ere ma« 
gis in corpus noftrij ^ patrabeouaJenc.Vmii, & 
tum ngunt circa corpus aliquid,ttim uero patiunt, 
Qmuino enun libl duo coroora imcr fc commifla, 
P r) aliqtiS 

randojUtruncp corum (um agcre , nim pau cft nc* 
ccHc. Fortaflc aut & fi nomu]to tcporc id fiai, 
mcagitenaidqcfuidf^iidqd^uicitriicTU ira cx0i 
ro moUilTimam caeram toto dicac no(fte tnddas.fie 
n potcfl:,utnonfiat,mani^fleobcunus. Ita nm 
Jliud comodc dict uidctur. Affiduo iHifu durum oi 
uai undula (axum. Qtiippc tia quoc^ fafTtum ccmi 
tur.Cartcrumuno,aut3ltero i^nihiladhuceu^ 
dcs uidcre in talibus Iicct,Bc quo fa^m arbitror,i 
ut quacdam ab admods Obi^ihil prorfus pan, opJT 
naii nonnuUi fait . Et cedcndum quidcm eid ita lo« 
qumtibus.Saepe ucro nobis quocp ipGs ita plerun 
cp locfucndum cft, niC itcubi ad ultimum cxamet^ 
difputationcm pcrductmu$>quemadmoduinprx 
fentia faamus.St'c igimr 'vm Tro(u,id cil:, nunqt 
deiicicntisaffeAibnis d(^ma,tjsuu'^qiit (ol 
id cilimant^ualcnte demonftratione no caret , t^ 
cil tamen eius ad priuatas Gngulatim obeundas v 
<f>ioes iHlus urus.S j nacp adco cx^ui affecfhis fit«, 
quibusalliducafBdmurjUinuIIiacf^ioiii lenGbile, 
& manifefhim incommoclum affcrant , fadle pro 
iius nuQos cfTc didt non rcpugnadum. Pcrindc i^ 
cur habct,& m fis.quar nutnut,propc dixerun om 
nibus.Quippequxipfaquogrincorport homi* 


rifeafiqukJ^te.Scclnrcrenribnc aliquMproi* 
(us,ncceu}dens»dtutuniatamcncoruni cxhibitto» 
m^opcTC alicfat^mutatcp iam corpora.Sut enim 
&quarpnnio Aatfmuru^manireflam altcrationc 
' luam indiccnt^ucluti la<fluca,qu3C cos, quibus ucn« 
quibus refrigcraium cft, manifcftc kdit . Condu* 
dc uero & ad fomnii non paru,nccp id alia ratiotK 
uUa ^ quod frigido tempcramcto &humido c(i, 
Vcru fic cft humida,6^ frigida ad hom]ncm,& alia 
miznuairjluntapta,ncutuindialign3ad igncm. 
Quarersuionabilitcr cibi,idgenusutcumc^pr<e« 
£lanr,& quod ucluu mcdicamcnta corpus nofltu 
afffdunt,& qd* nutriunt.Toto quide concoqucn* 
ac prorlus Cunt adlimilaia, ut cpx nihil tn nos agat, 
icd naturalcm calorc augcant , cpti phus cd diilu. 
C^ppcidomniiunc]u2e nuihant comrntinc cfl. 
Nec efl quod mtremur,fi modo cxcmpli umdium 
l^onim non (iimus immcmorcs,ene aliqua, cjuae 
prtus^adiimi1cntur,8<^ nutriant,dum adhuccon' 
coquuntur^frigcrentjcum adiimilata runt,ac iam 
nutnunt,caIcfaei3ni.]tacpu(usc}uoq taliumomnfu 
duplcx mcdicis fuppctit , tum ut ctborum Vum tit 
mci^camCTitonim.Facnancpmutaralitalicui opn' 

■ - ^c!iubAucamccHicoquit,refr^crabinir,&me' 

■ P irj diocnV 

diocritatcm teinperaincnti arrequecur; VbiucfO 
pxea iain nutricus ci^,itiGti calohs fubAaiuiam sw 
gebit,ln co ^itur ucl maximc fefe fallcre uidcturJu 
nionim medlcoru uulgti5,quodigiiof^ in nobts 
aliquando quaiicitatcm calonsincenJi^aliquanda 
fubfVaniidin eius augcri . Tum cjuod utixx^gece* 
aiamcalidius fit,riue calorcmciusimedis,fnK{ub 
fbantia,in qua pnma conIi(Vit,iiMugeas, finge naq: 
ot ijs,qux in animalis corporc connncntur, rangui 
nemetlc' per le caiidum ,aut (i magis pUcec Bivam 
ccHe crit animal bifariii caiidius efTe,uelquod plt 
cabdorum fuccorum fit ibra'tum,uel qiiod calidii 
res cos habear ^ ante. Mihi planc-ita uidccur 
do non mucato (bla quaJius lit imaa. An igitur : 
n'quicquameil,(icorpus quoad concoquir^c 
frigidLis naturacibus efl^^cut poimlaca, OT laift 
ca>rrigtda:quaIi[atisnonp3rum padpiar, 
(f^oautem,aciamin bonumfanguincmucrio: 
di (iicd acceflionCjCalidius i^ prius euadac Atqui 
fi nihilhoru, aut eiufmodicll: , quod fien nequcat 
aut euam ^dhuc miru^cfinaiu iam obilreperc,qui' 


finum cundcmqi cibiim,njm nutrimenti,fiim mf * 
dnmaiti u(umcor|:.oripia:ftarcnfgant.Tanip 
mimli otnnino non ptTcoquercttirf pcrprcuo ma^ 
ncrct mcdicameniUific cu ia eft per co<ftu,anibo cf 
fidt . Pone cnim prorilis no concoquat ur laifhica, 
milc in hole ciS papaucris f ucco df rtfl u habet . Nu * 
C[ua7 Nemo arhiiror dc ea rc dubicet. I:i^ habe» 
omivo la(fhica &fncdicamcu facuJiatc. At ueroha 
bcbat ef nutrimeriKiuippeque perfepe nuiTf]t.Ani 
bas igit facultates fimul mfe corniet »n6 tame Rmik 
tc7 ambas oft cndit. Venim ubi plus egit in homi* 
ne,?^ Gc pafla.medieamenti porius incficat faculta^ 
teni,ubi pafla plus eft ^egit,nufrimcn'.Ncc mim 
uUu ril,Gla(fhics tu agere,tum pad contingit,qu? 
do enfi quoc^ , ceupaulo ante diximus,no Iblu in 
ceramageFe.fedetia abeapatiacddit.Cseterueo 
quod muito amplius efl quod agii, ^ quodpatiT, 
aiierumlatet. AtfiduriflGmum illi fertu admoue^ 
as,cotn mTi^is pan ,cp agerc libi uidebitur . Tam* 
etfi itj^t aliquid tum quo^.Sed negligiturpra» exi 
gtiioce eiu3 tus.ha^ deomnibus prorfus cibis,iXc 
liid proniinctare non dubitamus.qd^non fblu a no 
ftris corporihus paii, fed euam agcre aliquid in ca 
poflunUamucro &'dequibufdam,qua: planclci* 

Ificet j$f luculcntcruidcmus 3gere;,quod no taniuci 
I- bi fint. 

bi Gn(,(ed rtum medjcamenta ■ EtliufHica quKkm 
tam cibus,^ medicamenaun fiigidum e A. &ugi 
tam cibus ,^; medicamcntum calidum. C^iod fi ca 
Ad eudem modu fiiiapi & piper .Ex herbis quo« 
qucaiierhum, 8C ruta,&c»^anum, & pul^ium, 
& calan)ynthe,& ihymbra, & thymum . Quippe 
hacc omnia,tum cibi, tum medicamaa calida (imr, 
prius e nim ^ in faiigutnem fum mutata,dum kHi* 
cct adhuc concoquuntur,mcdicameta.Mutata ue« 
ro in fanguincnitnon uticp iam medicamcma , fed 
nutnmcnta.Sccundanimirumtiutrimed f^niricv 
done,c]ua id Ggniricamr,quod nondum cli alimS 
tum,(cd ucluti alimctuni.krgo ficutdc latfHica pau 
Ioruprafecimus,cumduosuentrcs,a!terum iuAo 
fngidiorem^altcmmiuflocalidioremfinximus. Ib« 
nunc quocp pro comcmplandis rjs^x poteilate 
calida&ntfproptonamus cofdem uenurcs.Ergo cu 
qui fingidior iunx) cft,quoad in eo counctur, ac co 
coquuntur cmnes id genus herbx calefadunt .aics 
ad temperamentia:qualitatemreuocam,prDfunt<f 
C{ueutmedicameta.Alterumueroquicalidus eft, 
LnHan]m<^nint,ac tttagnopere Ixdet . Atq; has qui 
dem alterationes qualitate liia tnducent jNam om» 
nino peroo<fla,& mutata , ac in Bu^mcm bonum 
iamueria.naturaUsm ammaiicalons fubibntiam 


ttigebum,non<]uaKnteminten<]enc.Tn toni mim 

£ue fngidusjiue calidus pote /late cibus fir, port c 

t^inisn^nTKm conucTfus efi:,namraleni caIor€ 

CmiliiCTaiigcbit. Quoadautc adfangujnts fomiS 

tctKlit,ncc dum plane fanguis efl reddi[us,rcfr^e« 

rar,excalfacit ue animal medicamentt ri*rti.Sane cni 

nis hacc dilcepiatio ab uno prmcipio pcdet . Quo 

ma^is feruandum id , memoriacjj tenendum pers 

petuo eft . Cuilibet corpon' prc^rietatcm quan*» 

damtemperamentiene,quaehukquidem naturSf 

fit con(enaens , ab hac ucro fit di(Tcndens .Tum ft 

quodconueniens fibie/t:,rn(u3mnaturam tranC' 

inutet^co pa<5lo caloris Cui rubn^annam augere. Sin 

Jpfumfi'tmutatum,duomma]terumiUi' conttr^» 

re,udutcaIorem quandam concjuirat,uric]jnida 

quo mucatur,calefacif,uel proprium calorem amit 

taxji id non calefaut.Liquec ignur ex iis,quod eiuf 

' modt omnia,cx eonim funt nuinero, qua: rclara ad 

I aJiquiddicanturrCumadproprieratem mxjtanns 

B IMMrr,quicqmd aHu mii ur,uel nurrimcnti, uel me 

^njcamen,uel uihuicp rationcm (brriatur , uerbigra 


camentuin.Rurfus coturnid,ueratmm nutrimciv 

tum eftjiominibus medicamcn . Si quidem coair 

racum temperics aflunilarc fibi ueratrum poteft, 

qtiod hominummnperics non poteft. Ergo ma* 

wifefhim isimaibicporfaflum^ciuodiudicfaimeai» 

'^ Q_ quod 

quod re{pe(%u nofbicalidum, fngidum, hufnjdu, 
&ficaimdidtur,nonexrjs,qux'exinnrecus (un 
poCa.Scd ex tfs/juibus ipfi aifia'rnur,ccnum cxa 
^umcp ficriponit.Aicpid tan^pnnium,acmaa 
ume (a ipctfhuKlu . Dciiidc ii rcsex]gu,enam cf^ 
abexaniispciimr.NamCeiudcns adicnticndi^ 
& danis lit adhibiu medicamenti af^chu^k rcli 
qiiis notis omn^s poiUiabitis crcdendum . Sat 
omn ino dubitationem lit nchibcs , tum uticp ad cx 
f criiaomnia cofcrentcs,de eo*iudicandum . Ac ne 
que hortim quidcm ad ea,quae longius ablimt, fed 
quarabipfaquxfitaTeirubllaniiarunt de^mipta. 
VCTbigratia.Si oleum calidum cft,no id inde fpc* 
^abiiur, quod gluunoium , auc pallidum , aut lcuc 
rn^jfcd cjuod/acilc inflammaiur.Idnancperac ilU 
calidum pottflatcefle, quod cclcruer in mcrgia ca 
lidummutatur.Adeundcm modum &incorp03 
ribtM noflris,non utiqt idexpcndcndum,an craf« 
iatum partium,aut tenuiunvut humidum, aut lc« 
uc,autg]utinorum,autpallidum;ied an caldadac 
adinotiim . Eque ucro nec an dulcc fit,an akium de 
i1ciat,an fanguincm,ri inflillctur, faciai in miflionc 
fluxilcm . C^ippc h:ec quocp fiiperuacua fum , ciJ 
eftimarc Iicear,an calcfaciat cum admouctwr,Ergo 

[ cum miniinc ualent<?r, id pTxfict , nif rito in qua:^' 

I ftioiieueim^ultoueromagisdcrolacco, &C acc 

I to dubitatur a incdicis , atque ambigicur calida ne 

i hsBc^rr^idapoteftate fint. Agciidum igrturid 

k eft , ut in omnibus , qux potcftaie calida , iitgida, 

I humida/icca ue dicuntur, ixaiflas atiquas , claiaicp 

Jdifcretioncs inucniamus . Sicut ante decrKTgialic 

fcdicfiis fccinius. PorroindpicndumarbiDrorab tjs, 

lcjUce euidentlflima (iint. Quandoin i)s excrcita« 

tus, facile confeqdetur ca , qux minus fiint euidcn 

da . Ergo Hratim ut corpori hoc , ucl illud medica: 

matmm , dbus ue admouctur , expers eilo omnis 

acquilititijcaloris,&fr^oris . Quamcnim in (upe 

rioribus determinationcm iniiumus,cumivcca& 

humida corpora dignolccndapropo(uimus,ea< 

dcm nobis nunc quocp in ps,qu<e potci^at c calida 

fn^(dacpfunt,non minus er it utilis. Nam iiuc po* 



tis acquilitcr,noneius , qine propria cft: rci admo^ 

tacjfenfti afficictur. Vt crgo adnxxx rei uera , fyn* 

ceracp natura cxploretur , tcpidum quoad ficri ma 

xime pofeft,efto,necullaextrinicais notabileake 

raiione ualentis caloris,fr^oris uc cepent. Ac pria 

quide admoti mcdicameti prarparatio talis efto. 

Applicet aut cii eius ui exploras,no cutliket corpo 

itisafFedu j,Ied fiplidl^mo^ quoad ficri msxie po 

ttft.fummo. Ai (i (ummi qiiidmi caioris aflfe<!tioai1 
ad:nonim frigoris (eiifumcxdtcc.crit profnnoGcl 
frigidu . Pari modo Ct frigido atFcftui applicalun^ I 
calidum (biim apparcar,id quoq) crii calidum.Sia | 
itd calidc afFcctionica)jduin,iiel(Tigide frigiduniJ 
lcnnatur , noncTc quod hoc oliduni , illud {r^idii ] 
Joris a(Fcchis,quem mechoaiccr rr^idum nicdica 


^^^^H mcn adeo non alierat^ut re&^erando,dcnJando<^ 

^^^^L luinmumextrtnfecus corpus,caIoreni intro conchi ^ 

^^^^H dat ^c dirHah uetet Jndeqi affcdum noQis aocciwfl 

^^^^H dar.Ita uero ecfi qiiod jrigido afFofhii admouetUTtl 

^^^^H nuOum aflFerac ca)orem,uidcndum eil * Nirni id di 

^^^^V (i[ aliq-.:id mcdiocncer calidum,nihil ^t in affnfHj 

^^^^^ qiii rtunmi idiguitcaloris. Etgo nec [K,admod me 

■ dicaminisexptoradauisei^,ncc(i'exacddentiaU« [ 

■ ' quidefficiac.nonperic.IudicabisautemquodaiJ 

acddenti.a]iquidRicit,tum ex affctflu ]pfo,tmii tem I 

pore.Ex afFetfhi,fi is iimplex eft,& unns. At a cer J 

pore determiiiabicur iudicium adhunc moduobf 

Qjod protinus ui admotum ei^ , calefacere, ud rcl 

f rigerare maniicfte ccrniturad uticp & ex fi:,& prtM 

(e ijJc fueric. Quod tcmpore id fadt, forcafTe ex aH 1 

qua accidcnti huc cif atflum, uetuci iuueni quadrv 

n corporis.Tctano ari^ate medialaboranti/rigida 

tiberaliier afFufa caloris repcrcufTum fadi . Carteru 

quod jqujtfr^jdapcrienon calcfadac.ex primo i 

fuisbccurfupatct.ScnTumnanc^inuehit Trigoris. 
calorem ncc inomni corpcre, nec dum ail undiiur 
inuehic . Iinnio in iuuene , quadrati corpohs , & 
3d[bueroedia,&port^aprorundendoen: cena«' 
tum . Sicut igtiur frigida quibus incidit , Ikec illico 
perirtgeratjliue animata corpora furu ^ fiue ncn ani 
inata,Jiue calicla,(iue frigida ,ita fi quod cflet tem^ 
ptiS^uel corports nacura,uel affci^us uUus , in quo 
JT^'da,pruiio Raiini tKCur(u caloris fenfum inuei* 
haet^iurc queri po{Iec,caleface r e ne^ f rigefaccrc 
per fe nata enet.Nunc cum omnia tuin antmata, tiJi 
Biaaimata protinus , StT perpetuo frigefieri ab ea 
^iutiam ignis in lufceribus cft, his occurrens rcper 
otiniimaiiquandocalonsfaa'r,rattonabile arbirrctf 
'cx acddenii,non per Ce talia calefacae.Sed nec latet 
n^arauone illud accidat.&iquidem ftipata, cluraqt 
lOrporis (umma facie , repercudus «refractufcp (a 
'caloris eius , quia proftindo a(cendic , quic^ fimul 
ptcr frigtdi circum(ianiis uiolcntiam in altumrc 
cedicSimul ex (ucds iftliic babicis nutritur. Quip 
pe ubicoUetfhis^utritufcpcalorad&mmacorpo 
s uiolcnttus nut ,fit quidem caloris repcrcufujs, 
ididiim uero , acdocumenium , c]uod ingidtnn 
cjua^perie catoremauxic. Na per (equide 
C5_ iij cutim 



cutim per^igersm fr(gus uero a'ut,d?fltas,& « * 
dituscaknisad profundum fum cofccuri . RurfuS 
borum.dcnfitatcm quidcm difHatus prohibino. 
Rcdftum ucTo ad intcnora,conco(fiio,confumn« 
tiocp,qui iiihic (uiit fuccorum, cft adfccuia . Haru 
u-TO difflatus prohibitio,caloris cofl^cndi . fijcco 
rum coiico(f^o,eiufclemgmrr3difu» occafioPix 
rohorum utninq; natiui,caIoris (equitur au<ftiQ. 
Efgotnterccdcnabus,&mcdi)s utriKp , fr^da in 
animalis corpore,caIoris aliquado cxdtat incrmK 
tu.per (e nun^.Scd no minus calor , eft qindo cx 
ne.Sicut perfufio phlcgmoncn . Cum cnim excali^ 
da Ruxionephlcgmoncconflftat,proprij quidcm 
cius curatio,uacu«tio iuperuacui eft.Vacuatioiau 
tcpariiculaf,quaf pcrplilcgmonen excalfatSa el^, 
oio fucccdit rcirigerario. Ei^ cu duplex i i)s, quac 
dcinquatitate, cxfupeniacuiruiuratmodum exe 
unris abund5ria,alterinqualitate,quicxcak>n's fpe 
<rt3tur rarione, fcquinir prioris corii curationc , etiS 
pofterioris airario: fiuntc^ cx ocadcnu',qu3e uaai 
ani,calmris matcriae rnnedia,& inflammariois pall 
riculam refi-tgcraioria.c^o tu haec difcrmcrc opo» 
iet,tu id agcre,ui pro modo fimplict s affetfHts , ciil 
liqus i funvno a(Fc(f>us lir, fr^idii quoc|i i fumtnoJ 

nKdicamCtU parc{,Sui affoTtus a (umo paulu recr 
c)at,meclicam(nrij quocp a Ojmo paulu dcduKt. Si 
afiimofrigoremcdicamc. Quippc fiaufpicarus a 
(^ iuenias uim . Ad luma cni in oi fimpUci aAc^u 
caIido,c|uodeiicp adhibitu medjcame,prton^ii oc 
curfu fr^goris ^fu itulit^d fhgidu potf flatc c . Ac 
inuko ^e(5lo pofl prima c?^bitione tale 
pCTpetuomanct.Quodficalidiiaflteclu^fus fa^ 
ntt ,fr^idii id ex neccfli tate fuerit . Aclhibcdi} ucro 
eft cu cxplorat oio tcpidu , ut prius teftati fumus. 
Vbi ia cognitii e tale efTc, deindc curatiois ca petit, 
rc5lius(ngidufuniic,Nifi(imedicamefumi(R fh« 
gons,morbus in lummo caloris non fic. Atqt haec 
randi meihodo tradent . Ad prxfens illud faJtc no« 
uifTc oporTct . Si quod calido , & fimpUci afTetftui 
adhibitum medicamentum,iu protinus,iu toto de 
inceps ceporc frigons,fenfum, acfacilioiis toUeran 
uar,ruuamctic^ laboranti affen,id frigidum ncccfla 
rio cfl.Tamctn in alrjs nonu^ uideat calidu. De« 
prebendctur crum in iflis fi dil^entcr ci^lorct , no 
utic^ pcr fe,ted ex accidenhexcalfaccrc . Cum per 
iedidraus,ueIphmum,uclnuIIo mtercedenteme» 
^ nificimus.Inquibusomnjbustc^cvcm^inopcre 
Q^ iiii dc me 



demeduramcds proprrjs exemplis excrdtabimui» 
Niinc recmfiiis ijs , qifl: anie iam dixi , propofico 
l^o comodum imponcre rinemtcntabo.Cu nan 
cjuecabdiim corpus muIcifahamdicanir,namS4 
c]uod fiimmam ciuimodi habct in fe qualitatcnl 
tp^im TaVcct elemcneum.Ec quod propter ciufnH 
diqualiiatcm poUeniem,nomencft foratiim. A< 
li;ec quod collatum ad aliud dicuur^ucl ad id quoi 
lerit,fic & quod potellatc calidum cfi, avrga ue 
ronondumdidpotclifiiiteO^i^probaricp nuilij 
modis oportet . Quo uticp minus rc(fie fiquid nS 
flatim infiamniatiir,id aliqui nc ut ad nos quidcm 
efic caUdum pofeftate putant.N3m fiue facife coi 
coquitur,5(: dco nutrit,entutadtiosca]iduin.S 
uc admodum uduti mcdicamciuum , calcfadp 
erit id quoquc , ut ad hominem calidum . Sic dw 
niimm SC per lingulas animalis Ipedes , ipfim 
potcftatec^idum , fiaceft,ut medicamcntum, Gi 
ue uc nucrimenmm , ad iUud tantum animal. co!la« 
tum did tur. Kft enim ex i}s,qu x ad aliquid refcniili 
tur,quicqiud potcftate aliquid didcur.QuaN 
& probano , qux propna cft,mcIior unquedl 
cpquxab cxtemo petitur.Propria uero cft uai 
in fiiwalis,uticp li cclcriter tale ficri appareat, qual 
idci^potcftaiediximus.Gftemm poteftace^ 
ytis r quicquid cetcntcr in ^nem uerticur: poteftal 

Fo. Ixv. 
ruero calidum ,utad homine cR, ex ipedebus eo» 
I tuniiquar ex eo quo d in ipfis pnrpoUetj dicuniur, 
} <]uidquid homini applicaiu, naturalis eius caloris 
\ uel qualiutcm auget, uei fubftatia. Padem mihi & 
I ile ali)s cenfcri dida ucli , quxcu cp falicei poteda 
ilririgida,ueiricca,uclhumidadicutur. Qiuhacc 
fquoc^partiueluuadipia elemeta,partjurluti ad 
L, q uae ex pra:fx>llenie fiint nominata.tu inteUigi, 
5explorari,tudocfricoueniat.Patetueroeuquo Taducu qui' 
pquiiudicat,ca(^u, omnis acquifititi} caloris & iudicaiur^fit^ 
)risexpertcmc(7edebere/;kutidemedacame ois acquifiti« 
frlisipQspriusefl didum. trj caknis Ud 

fr^gohs exper 
Dc temperamentis finis te dcbcre efle. 

Hwma LmacroAn 
glo interprae 

De inaequali {ntempene ,Thoma 

INaequalis intemperies viias m 
toto animalis corpore fiit.uelu 
ti in ea hydropis fpecie, qua 
gnpci 'mii(rAf)(a uoi-ant, & fe* 
' brib^ ijs.quas Vjdan hepialas 
appellant.fere cp reli quis om 
R nibus 




iiibus, cxccptis, quas Hnfticas nominac. Inddt 
aLUcm&inunaqualibetpaitc,quumca udinaii 
cto uc.cft afFc(Sa.Hucpcninct & qui Bcphas dic 
fluxioneconfiftunt.Ablqjaure rnatcnacaniuxi% 
folis partiura qualiiatibus aliquatcnus altcradis,» 
aaqualcs iiitcmpcricsfiunt ,vticprcfrigciaus ij^ 
autdcutlis,aut immodicccxcrduitis,aut fexiatiSf 
aut aliquid id gcn'' pani$.lam ex medicametis ijs^ 
qua: foris corpori occurrunt.injequalis uitcmpa 
es gignitur,dum id uel frfeefii, uel cale fit, vd fio 
catur ,uclhumcflum redditur. Quippe Iiae fnnt 
plicesiutcperiesfunt.velutiiniis .quacde tempe 
famftis lcripflmus, cft moftratum. CompoCta 
cxiiialiiequaluorfuni.quijcorpus uel calefit & 
mul&ficcatur,uclcalcfit limul& humciflat ,uJ 
rcfrigerat fimiil & Gccclcjt, uel refrigcraf pariter 
& madelcit.Quod aute eiufrnodi intemperie» 
ab acqtialibus eo difl:et,quod in omnibus iiuenw 
periTnler affccH corporis parlibus arqualiter li2 
inlint:iddareliquet.Ergoquisfit omnis ittxxfn 
lis intempcraturxgcnerandjc modus,in propq 
fitolibeOo ftatutum eft cxequi. Admonedi niti 
fumus, quo clatior nobis oranis difputaiio Qt, 4$ 
omnibus corporis particulis. prlndpio twadi 
niisluiiipto,qua! fdlicet ae vulgo quidefunt ^ 


Fo. Ixvi 
notsc .Si quidcm manus,8(: pedcs, & uctrcm, & 
AoTKt^ caput nemo eft qui ignorat. Diuida Diuifio paitf 
1 Bius aute earu rurfus unamquaqj in proximas ii maioru in 
|iin,quae ^otrSxH &ax€ diciitur,paruailas. Vcr flbipronas* 
[ bi graoia,crus in foemiir,cibia,&pednn,!tcm lo 
I tum brachium,in brachium,cubiium,& fumma 
I manii.lam manus ipiius particula! runr,uo]a,Sf 
tefcisparsauerIa,/*tTa«a^roi/gr»ci uocani,&digi 
LDi^'ton^ ueroparticuIaeliinr,ona,cartilago,ti« 
lentu, arteria, ucnajmebrana, caro, lendo , un 
^ s,cutis,adeps,Has autc diuifiilc in aJia fpcni 
1 nocft.Scd(utQiniIares,ac prima?. excrptis tamc 
rtcrJjsetuenis.Ha-nacpcxribris&mcbranisiui Arterias ,& 
ondice.uelunin tracftadx diiTcfftionis raiioeef}: uenas panes 
aditii.Quictia coplura cflc /patia iter ipfas pri ee copofitas 
mas,&fimilarespam'culas,atqpijseria plura ma Vacua (patia 
ioracpimeriplas mllrumeialcs,&copofitas,a]i* inter lii^ulas 
qua uero ct in unaqualibet limilari particula.uelu corporis par 
tiofle cutecp,hapcquocp oia in i)s,qua: de admi tcs iterccdrrc 
niftradis diiTcAonib* icripfimus,funt^dita.Ac Quorij inter 
qu3emolliaquide(untcorpora,ca quonia fibi in poGta fpana 
uice inciibut,rierpofita fpaiia laterc coipetftii faci no ceriiatur» 
ucQua» dura (icca^ fut,in ijs cancrc fpatia licct, 
ficuti oflw cauerntJas.Cotinet ba? nataliter mul 
Cu i iefe humoriSjhiu^q? albi,in id coparati ut ofla 
nutriat.QiKie iciitcforamfa (ut,ea,q ratiocfiairi 
ijs quae de Ecper am?tfs precepim^eft di(5Hi. Atcp 
k ' ' R rj hsec 

■ hxcmonuinreneccnariri<ra[daritans caufii 

m qux a nobis dtinceps lunt dicenda. De inarqu.^ 

^ ueroimempenenuncagedum,iuquxna eius 

^ turafit,tuquotei^gcneradx niodi.{3rgo qi'^ ii| 

I omnibus parciculis» corporis quod fliudone eft 

K aflPei^u, uiiica tempenes non lic,prius tik. di^btttt, 

H Verum id comuneoinnis inieperamcniiina*qu% 

lis eft. Differetiae eius,ip&m corporum affe>fio#: 

Aliter fimpfi rum requuncurn3Ciu:a.quum alitertimplexcaiq 

cecame,Ali«' aliteruniuerfus mufcuhjs iinpari temperanientq 

cer uniuerfu (ic affeiflus. Quippe calidafluxio,ubi in mu(cu0 

mufculu ina; procuI>uic,primummak>resaneria;,ueiKecpoptf 

qualiinteperl plencur,acdiftcndutur. Abijsmux>rcs.Atcp 119 

c affc(flij cfle, res procedit, donec ad minimas fit peraencum. Itt 

Calidumreu i^s.ubiualenterimpatfb fluxioeft, necadhuc 1] 

maqueadmo lltcur:parumeiusperip/animora,partim 

dum mufculi nicas, ueluti colatum (bras tranfmittitur. Tu u* 

partesiuadat ipanaipniuacua, quximer pnma funt corpora^ 

fluxione impletur.Sic omniaab humorc, omniq 

ex parte incalefcunt, ac perfunduntur. Ea Aus. 

nerui,ligameca,membrana;,caro ipla,ante c^ baec 

Venas&ar* aneriacj&ucnae. Quae (cil/cct & primac,St prac» 

terias in phle ccr casterauario dolore afficim. Quippc interi* 

gmone uarie a Ruxionc um excalftunt, tum diH:endunrur,aC 

dolerc diudluncur. excetius non modo excalfiunc: kd 

* eaam premuncur, ac dcgrauantur, Relfqua: par» 

rioilae aliac comprimcdoroItJI,ueIuKalcIceiido^ 


I Fo. Ixvij. 

»llx iitrocpgenerelaboral,Appellatur(5morb' 
iplePhlrgmoiix.EfiauceinxqiuIis inicperics 
mu.'culi.ferueteniiniam qui ineo cil 
lccumexciiracitprimumquicleiiiac maxime at> 
teriarum, &ucnacum tunicas.Mox ueroomnia 
quxcxna hasrunt,quibus(cilicct drtufundimr. 
ltaduorual[erumnccc{Iceilfequi,utfii^uxio ui» 
cerit, corruptio fcquatui uidoru corporum. lin 
fluxiu bt uicfta: ut mufculi acf naturalem flatum re 
deanl. Elloigiturprius uifla fluxio(re<flius eni Vifla fluxio 
amcljoribusindpicur) Duplcxfucindditcura* ne,quxdcin 
tfonis gcnus,quod ucl digcrctur qtudquid humo dc curatio. 
risinparticulafnprocubuit, uclconcoqiiet. Ve* Oigeflione i 
nimd^elhooptandamaxime cuiaiiocft.Con« phlegmone 
ncTaiio, &cius in ali(]uod fparium abfceflio. Ab» cffe curanonc 
fccdit aliquado in capacitacij quse preipicjuz funt, Cococft ione 
tum maxima, tum minime mometancam. Quod phlegmonis 
^nc abfceflionu gcn' optimu eft.Alias in no mos dtio fequi. 
mentaneamquicjcm,nontame maxima. Interim Spaiioru tn 
in maxima,non tame nonmomcntanca-Acquac quxablccdtt 
tnuentriculum inciduntabfccf5onij,opcima cft uaria gcncra. 
quaeinfinitciusintcmiim abit.Inquemciiamplc AblccITionu 
rijcp Icaperiunt.MaIa uero qux (iib peritoneum. qua» mclior 
Parimodo inijsqua;circacerebri4cxiftut,bona fitquxdcteri 
eftcjiiae inpriorcseius ueiriculos abfccdit.Mala or. 
(]uic(ubinuoluctadus.Iteinqua! in poiHeueius 
R iij. ucoue 


iiftrrm ie rcapft.Qui uero cura coftas abfcefP 
coI!^untur:lii uicapacitaKserumpiim pciSonl, 
Ac mufculorum quideinablcenus (ubcutem,utf 
crru uoo m artenas & uenas,quas m (c conck 
nentjuel tn manbranam qua opcriuntur , quap 
Si ykla pars ipQs pro cute eft. A( fi uitTt» a fluxionc pani» 
aHuxioixlit. culurfueruitfin tantam datenicnt iiueperiem,uit 
dctum camm pcreat a(flio,tum ipfe fpaiiocor 
Dolor qusn rumpantur, Porro deCnent tum primum clo]e« 
do clefinar. rc,quum mutairici qualiuti fuerint adfimilaiaf. 
Quado dolc Non aiim quum miitaia partiailaru lempencs 
aui corpora. iam cft,fiue(ut fic Ioqu3f)in iplbmutalumcfl^ 
dolcnt, fed dum tuuiantur.nue in ipla mutatio 
Hippocratcs nc. Qucmadmodum mirus dixit Hippocratcs* 
„ Dij altcrafcic ac corriipitur natura; dolorcs fiut* 
Altcratur £mtem,ac corrumpimt cuiulc^ na« 
tura.quu ucl calcfit, ucl (r^ffit, ucl ficcamr.ufi 
humefit,ucl cius unitas dinoluiiur .In rjs cjuide 
intcmperamentisquar inicqualia funt,cx calcfsd. 
cndo,ueI cx frigefacicndo. Quippe qutim cffw 
cacin^ma^ qualitatcs hac fint. Secuixlo loco c Gc*, 
cando,ueI humctfhndo.Ex efiirietido uero uclfl' 
liendo,dcflciente hic humida,illic (tcca fubflSti». 
Ex uulnerandoj&crodcndo, &icndedo, &pre 
goG calor {anguinis iii pardcula,qu<e phlcgmonc 

Fo. IxviVj, 
laborat/racis e(l: tu qut m toto animali.t cR: cor 
pore mediocricer atteperarus: no facije uiia ca af 
l^<5b paitfaila calefic. fin ucl ifle fmiet ueheme* 
Mius, ud qui per cotum (pargitur am'mal,biIio{us 
■ rfi::iIlico lotus ad calorem uerticur.MuIco ucro 
magis ficubi ambo concurrunt,ut Sc qiii in pWe 
gmone habctur admodui calidus GtJ&C qiu in to« 
to eft animantc biliDfus. Porro calefit prinw qui In phIegmo« 
in arteiiis cft fax]guis,quod fcilicet is tuni nanira rw qvis faw 
calidior,tum uero magis ^iriiuofus fit.poft huc guis primum 
ucro euam qui in ucnis eft.Quod C in propiqua calcf iat,qms 
uiiceri,cu] pUirini' Ct Ianguis,ob(eflaphlcgmoe dcinccps, 
particula fueritiiam cdcrius cum hoc uniucrfiis 
quiinanimalicftGnguiscalore affkitur.Vnccp 
ucrb3,quidquid ex fac^' alterabilc cft,aut cali* Quid orius, 
dura natura:id a quouis calefacicntc primum ex &C quid tardi 
calfit.Nonfecus&abeoquod frigefadt.quid^ us altcret'm 
quid facilc altcratu eft, ud natura frigidumrid generatimtii 
primum rrf-^eratur. Ac promptus quidem ad membratim. 
Mberandii (piritus cft. Vtpote cx tenuillimis co 
Kftans partibus.CalidifSma natunemeritocft B.n 
ua bilis.At fngdiffima pituiia eft. Rcliquomm 
humorum , iar^ujs poft flauam bilan maxime 
eft calidus ,(icut nigra bilis poft piiuitam eft fri 
gjda, Quinetiam idieratur flaua biTis Icuimo» 
mniio » ex quoutf ui cam agente . Ni^raapgrc 
R iiii» alccrafeu. 


Indole^cedari pers. puontq^qui ea fetvidtamsOmmho Jc fe 

hoftids QUi(a bre carere .necp enim fentiunt eius calorem. oa^ 

nit>us fcilfccc eorum pariibus xque percaIfa<5lBfl 

Sed SiCcouenit de ijs,intcr naturats (cientiarpro 

Ooloris infe fetlbres in ijs qux dc fenfibus produnt. Nccp 

bribuscaula> enim dtra alteracionc cil fenius,nec^ in i}s quie 

iam ad perfeAione (lint ^»3ta, dolor.Iuc^ etJa 

he(flicx febres omiies ,cum Cnc dolorc (uiu:tii 

nec (enfu ab his qui ipOs Iaborat,pcrceptaf.Nq 

enimex eorum particulisji^ec agit ha:c patituq 

quum omnes intcr fe fam Hmiles Oni rcdditce 

Hypophora ac vnicam habeanc coienacnte teperian, (^o 

& ibluuo* n alia earu calidiorefl^alia fr^idtorrat certe t 

tenus eH fr^dior,uc uicina nihil oBTendac^AUj 

oqui fic {cilicet partcs qucC pro naturse modofi 

habent:mutuo fe ofFenderet.vtpote qui fic &ll2 

temperamentis dillideant.Caro nat^ calida pai 

InaKlualitas ticula eft,os frigidu.Ca:terum tam narij paniii, 

teperameti in cp rdiqtiaru omniu indolens inaDqualicas eft,(ni> 

fanis indoles di cxcefTus merito . Sic nanque ncc acr qui not 

dl. ambic,priu5 offendit:quam ad immodicu caltf 

rem frigusueeft immutanis.Cuius alioqui cjuar 

tn medio iunt dtffercncia$,tameifi numerofas^ 

manifeftu exceflura inter (e habcnte.v, eitra r 

Hippo.diau am fcnrimus.Ex iis etgo fortafl^ ncc illud duri* 

er ciufde non dici videatur,quod Hippocratcs alicubiaitOnj 

nuilapro* „ nemorbii vlcus efTc.Quippc vlcus vnitatis eft; 

b.ibiTitas. diuifto 


Fo. Ixx. 
dujino.tmnioclicu5 vero calor ac fr^^proxime 
accedunt, vt vnitate ioluant . plurimus quide ca 
|or,du fegrcgat ac diuidit fubftauae cotinuitate. 
fummu vero fngu5,tii Aipando tu iutrorfus pa 
riter (rudcdo,qua:dani cxprimit,quxda quaHat. 
Atcp huc quifpiam immodict caloris ac frigoris 
cerminii fhttucns,rortafrr no incomode fcmiat . 
Seu verols fiuealius immodici exce(Tus termi» Omneimmc 
nus eft,certe cofifterc omnc immoderatn exceTdicu exce({u 
fum in habituditK ad aliquid,ia Iiquet.Non eni adaliquidce, 
pari rationc a calidis frigidis cp affjcit omne cor 
pus.lnde cp fii uc aliqua anim«Jiu couenietes in«' Anunaliuni 
ter fe fuccos habeant.aliqua no (blu non coueni quxda coue 
enies,fed etia qiii fe muruo corrupat, veltiti ho mentes,qux 
mo atc^ vipera,quorum utriufq^ ialiua altericft dam contrari 
petTurics.ka ytic^ & fcorpiu neaueris,(ju:iu« osintCTfeliic 
nus illi inipueris, At non homo homtne morfu ccshaberc. 
intcremit,nec uipcra uiperam, nec afpis afpide. 
Siquidf m quod fimile eft: id coi^ruu amicCicp 
eft.quod cotrarui eft,inifnicij ac noxiu. Augec 
enl qiudque ac nutrit a (imilib',perimit accorm 
ptt a dtfttmilib^.Itac^etufaniiatis tutela per rmi 
Ita prrficitur,morboru fublario per cotaris.Vetu 
de tjs ali^eft fermo HeAca ucro febre quac ia Omne febif 
habiiiicorporis occipauit,m]"nic(eu'i quiea labo pr3Eterbe(3i* 
raLReliquarii febriu nuUae quxnoa loborateie ce alaboi^e 
tucied alia: magis sHx vnirP a^rct^ti (ut graiies. fentiri . 
S i). Sunt 

Sunt cx iis 8C qaat rigor? ingciam . fit enim id 

quocp lypmtoma, vrluti alia multa , sh irae^ua^ 

intcmpene, Raiionem ume gcncrandi cius in ^ 

pofi(o lihro traderc non cit , priui^ dc natura 

libus facultaubus dcmo/b^tum fucrit, quot hx 

quaicicp fint,tum quid agere qu;c<^ fit naca.Ve 

rij in libris dc (ymptomatu caulis, dc onibus 2* 

gctur. Sed reucrtor ad inacqualis intemperameti 

difFcreaas. Nam quemadmodii cx phlegmone 

fcbris nafcatur. tum quod febris omnis ac phle 

gmonc omnis, pr^ter hcc^cas , cx morbis finr, 

quibus iiKcqualis fit intempcrics:diiftu iam eft. 

Tna*qualis in Porro acccndi febre SiTcitra phI»monc cx iblis 

tcperamcna hunwribus putrcfcentibus licrt . Necp cnim ea 

gcncrandi ua Iblum quc ttKulcata lutit, & pcrfpiratu prohibi« 

ria; rauoncs. ca, putrefcunt- vcru cderiter ea,maxime<p.Cartc 

ru putre(cunt & alia multa,qu% puu^edini iutie 

opportutu. Dicetur vero de horii opportuniia 

te alio loco. lam alio quocp gencrc inaequalis ori 

ri intcmpcrics in loto corpore poteft. modo fu* 

ligtnofo vaporc dctcnto. modo excrcitationibus 

& plulculis laboribus calore adautflo. modo ab 

ir2,quu fanguis immodcrari' rcruct.nK>do ex dc 

uftione quauis cxtema, incalelcit. Porro qd* eta 

in his oib' febrib',no (ccus ^ in phlc^onis fij» 

pra eft dicfHi , tum pro uiribus cffc(fh-ids C3U&, 

ru^ corporis ipQus affe^fhi^magis fcbridtet, 


Fo. Ixxu 
alfj mmus^altj haud quac^, apcitum efTc arbiiror. 
Aequc vcro ct tjuod inicpcries ipfi nonu^ fpirw 
tuof^ tancu tnuadit Aibftanija> nonnu^ ipibs eda 
{ucco5,claruid quoc^ reor. Scdnecminusillud, 
quod omnibus huiufmodi febribus (itraxerint, 
heikica ruperueniet . lam cp (crmo nofter ^penw 
dum ofledic, inxquale hanc intepcrie aliquado ex 
calida, frigida ve fubfl^atia,qux in particula aliqua 
influat, acddere . vduri in his ficbat,quos phlc * 
gmon» infefhu .Sepe no fta.Icd ipfa corporis tem Corporis te * 
perieinqualitatemutata.cumquodalteranciuea, peries quado 
quacdamortuhabeantab ipfocorporc^quaedam extrinfecus,a 
extrinfec^. sticp quu ex putredine taniii aliqua, vel quando mter 
phl^moneexcitaturfebris^abiplocorporc.quu nc alicretur. 
cr de his fufius in morhoru cauiis . Tan^ auie cx 
^peramento: inde nonullilepc exfrigorcrefrigc 
rautococorporevehcmeter (ut .aliquivcroetiam 
perierunt.Iam quod hi oes etia do!cac,iK id quide 
ter pcrfTigerati, celcriter fefe cxcalfaccre propera * 
nint jnulu cp eorij quu (ubito ac (ifnul manus igra' 
admouerut,fngentecirca vnguiumradice fentiuiu 
dobre. Eiquil^quuca luculrtcr vidcacmteperic 
inarquale doloris eflc caufam ; etia de incemis do* 
loribus dubitct»aut mirctur, quo pado citra phle« 
S ii). gmone 


gmonc fiil)MidcueIIaxiorcinfeftj'no,cJuodcolon 

gneci iiocat, ud dcncibu5,itcl alia quauts parucula 

homincs dofeatC Naiiz nccp taliu ulJu i nirabile cft, 

necqueadmodtiiimulrigcantetfcbriciiem argro 

Cur aliquiC* tantiii aliqui. Quippe ii pituitolus fuccus qui fri r 

mul rigeant, giduseft,quccp Praxagoras uitreumappcllat,et 

€t febi^ent. ainara bilis qucc calida eft, fimul abundcnt » ac pcr 

fenlibilia nKbra moucantur: nihil miri eft utrucpa 

aibate pari modo fentiri . Nccb cnim fi hoicm f ub 

(olc frruido ftaruas,et aqua illi frgidainiiidas^cri 

poteftjUt no fimuleta folc calorcm^abaquafTi* 

gus (entiat. Vcrii hoc caiu abo extrinfccus fut, nec 

Inhepialrrair paruis pcM-tionibus incidut. In febribus quas hcpi 

fipfg' ct calor alos uocat , tu ab interno, tum cxiguis porrioibus, 

Cntul feuant. eo cpuniuerfu corpus ambo lcniircuidetur. Quti 

eni tenuiflimis portiuculis afpcr^ per corpus tum 


lara ita parua defiimas^ q no alteru fit copraehcfii. 

In accefHonu Inipfatameacccflionis inua(ione,aliqui icbricita* 

tnuafioe febri uu tum rigent, tu uero fcbricitat,tu ambo feniiut, 

citatefaliquos frigus Imodicu, et calorc una .Veru no eode \<xo. 

frig^etcalorc Quippcquu poftimquaeexcalfactae funi partcj, 

fimul letirc, manifcftc arcfr^eratis difcerncre.Nam itus et in 

ipfis uilcKribusoiJorefmaiJrt.Incxtcrnispartibus 

In Lipyrip uniuerfis frigus.Tales pcrpctuo fcbresiut et quac 

uttu^ perpe gracce Lipyria; uodituv.Praetcrea quoddaardetiii 

cuo ita iit i ac« febnu pcmidofu gen', Quod igit inhis niaiorib' 

c^oibus le<< ponionibqs 

Fo. .\xxij. 
' portioib' aca'clir,Iioc in hepialis coiingft minuu^. 
* inaequ^is nacp cil « ham febriu (teperics/cd nec 
I min^rcliquaru oim. cxceptis tnlic<^icis, Qu?«ia 
' ijsqairigeiu,nectamefcbridtai,!n^uaktcpera 
"* jtneiihi e(l. Raru lame cft id fymptoma, Csetcru 
uKfdit tiim mulicribiis, tum quibufda aliquado ui 
ris.Dabct aurootho defes praECcfliflTe uira.aut cer 
te dboru copia longiort fpatJO hoiiipfinc^x qui'* 
bus tard is,frigjdus,crudus,&pituitofus naicac 
fuccus.qualefcilicetPraxagoras nitreu exiftimat. 
Porro antiquitus ncmo (ut uidct ) ita eft aftccfhjs, 
iitqui nec adcoocio(i,necin ui<fius faiuriiate ui* 
uerent, Inde cp fa<^u cft ,ut fcriplcrint atiqui mc« 
did, ngCHi fcbrem neccflario iiipcrucnire. Vaii* 
tametumncBipfi,turaali)iuniorii mcdicoril no 
pauci,fepcnumcro uidimus rigorc, que nuUa fc * 
cuta fitfcbris.Porro c6poitexhacinteperic,etca 
qusefcbricitattii cft,HepiaIus . appello ita febre 
fllaiTi, cui ambo (cmper acddunt. Ai in tjua rigor 
quidepraccedicfefarisfcquit uc!ufiintertianis& 
quartanis hanchepidu iro Voco.Itacx duplici in^ 
qualiintepcrichcpialuscoDonit Etiaaliiefcbres 
praeter hwSicas fierc oes. Simib' gtnere qui partt 
cula: alicurus ot tumorc roorbf func,hi quocp ocs 
perideac phlcgmonae, cum intepcrametoina?qua 
!i awfiftut.Caccr.Erifi pelas, Carbucul9,Herpes 
TumorJ^hagcdena, Gagrena. Quippccomune 

rumt^ id. 

SymptSa pri 



Tjs ofb' eft.vt ex 6uxioe huoru fint orta.DiHideit 
tn co quod alr) cx pituitofb^alTJex biliolb,vel meG 
cholico Cucco, alr) ex f^uine ve! cahdo, Vel lenui, 
vel bullicnte,Vel frigido, Vel craflo,vel alio quopa, 
gcnere aB^eao fianr.Dedarabiturenlaliolocode 
horu mcbraiim diflFerentia diligetcr. Quod ad pro 
poOtam diiceptacione periinet, hoc lantu dixifle 
abundeeR:,C]Uod quatiicucj^ efl Buxio,radein ra# 
tione,quecp praediifloru aitecftuij aeat,c]ua prius 
excalidactianguinca phlegmonengignimoftra* 
uimus.Sed non minus etia fimilanu, ac iimpliciu, 
primom cp in rjs corporu fingula,fic a fluxioe aflfe 
da,ad inacqualem intcperie deuenict. Cajteru ex 
trinfecus pro reumacis raiione calcfa^fhi} refrige« 
raUjficcata, Vel humedata. pcnitus et in profudo 
nondu fimiliter afFe(rta.(^od (i totaper tota mu« 
taca alterata cp fint : fiijt quide illico a dolore libera. 
In diflfidli tame Cc coftituta {iint ftatu . Hec pnetxi 
uilTehisquiopus de medicametis (ut percepturi, 
et poil id medendi methodum,abundemihi iaiii 
Videtur. .:. ,*, 

Finis Tertrj de Tempcramentis 

Thonia Linacro Angk) 






^^^1 ^^^^^^^H 


1 Folio. 

Pagia.VerfiL Lfge. 

FolioPag-a.Verru.L^. | 

K Prio.lcda.viii. huiduali<]d' 

ix. i. 

iirj. articulorucp 

■ >. ij. 

xvirj. Ita 9 

X. i. 



vlti. papaiims 

». i. 

Jdi). &igido c^ 

i). i). 

xfj, ea oratio 

xi. i. 

xiiij . caxorii corporu 

ij. ij. 


xi, i. 


irj. i. 


xi. ij. 

xv.ueHpcdc (to 

iij. ij. 

xxHi}. Ergo cc quidc 

XI. ij. 

XX vij.qucmgrxce 

iirj. i. 

xxi. hacpotucruni 


iiij. jj. 

iu). adidue iecflatur 

xii. i. 

xxiij.Geocrc vero 

Bii. n. 

xiiij. leperatu, Axc^ 



iiij ij. 

,xvi. ccrcofcio 



V. i. 

V. , 111 co cali. 

XVI. ij. 

xvi. enim alioruuei 

V. ij. 

vi^, porro indicare 

xvii). i 

. xiifjioticia 

V. ij. 

xij. nihil humcffU in^ 


viij. ad humidora 

V. i). 




Vi. i. 

xviti.apparcret, & 


Vi efficere,ut 

Vt. i. 

xix. vtnhcp po. 

XX. i. 

xii; j, riic crgo opor. 

Vi. i. 

xxv.Humidius e(i 

XX. i. 

xviii.fpebui notant 

vi ij. 

xix. invnaeadecpre 

XX. ij. 

i. modo^aliuge. 

Vtj. ij. 

XX. inteperaturc c5 

XX. ij. 

vrj. in omni fpcdc 

vii). i. 


xxi. i). 

xix ta(5iu tamc ian 

viij. i. 

xvitj. afliduclargtr 

xxij. i. 

iij. coniingit 




XXI. penincnt 


X. teperiesacpue 



dqustepaaia rcsediflimile 


xifj cfthuidietficci 










L xxij rj. 


xxxij;i. xviij.habet olTium 

f xjdiji. 

V. meodanCuit. 

xxxii).ii. xii. icperameialc.' 


vij uiaiiimbnuii 

xxxiii.ii. xvi.<]uipigues(u. 


ix. dcnroriui, 

xxxiifi. i. xix. leue, efu 

xat], t. 

xVij. niomia coUata 

xxxirii.i. xxii- venae extra fc 

xdi). tj. 

ix. ert teperatiflia 

xxxiiii. i. xxvi. Nifi ficubi 

XX 4 i). 

xiij. neccuiufc^. 

xxxiir}.i. vlu. viiaidulgetior 

xxii^.ij. adugueap. 

XXXV. ii. ix. tSta e^ (accedes 


ix . moiib' opdmis 

xxxvi.ii. i. SiquideneceX! 


xiiij .n]gi-os,cutn. 

xxxvii.iiv. teporccopli. 


vfj panturinfans 

xxxvii. ii. viii- quod hic qu5 

XXV . i). 

i. cofurment. 

luiti fpiflilum eft, tantum 


vi< etl^uificatio 

xxxvii.ii. xxri.Ruiuslicuti 


XV. cxinoxSisd, 

xxxviii.i. ii}, protinus 

xxvi. ij. 

xxvi). ohire qtieant 

xxxviii. ti. xviii.& imbeciUofl 

xxvii. ij. 

XX. cxpenia,anal. 

xxxix.i.xxvii. nonperuenit 



xxxix.ii. vi. acaloiepro 



xxxix.ri. viii. cu (enefcut, a 

. xxvii).i. 

xvitj. lioreputant 

xxxrx.ii. xxi.corp'inaliis 

1 xxviij.i. 

xxtij. nnt.Sin de 

xxxix.ii. xxii.efleinaliis 

f xxvirj.ii 

. xitj. deTciutfrea 

xxxix.ri. xxiiii.iinthuidotei 

XXX. i. 

u interpretabor. 

xl. i. xi.aliis vara.Anui. 

XXX. ij. 

xi. &med{ocrite. 

xl. i. xiiii. fcoptuUcillis 

1 XXX. ii. 

XX. tumcalorem. 

xl. i. XV. nudic]! plane 

1 xxxi.i. 

V. perat'ta(5lual 

xl. i. xvi).Quiitopereaute 

' xxxi.ii. 

ix, elliudex 

xli. i. ii. ^edfteveio , 



xl-« i. xiii.cunt,timidiqiJ 

f FoIioPagia. Vcrfu .T-ege 

sdi. i. XV. fium.Udem 
[kli. ij. vij. abextemoCfU 
I lore aitraa'' Jpdiit no pot ex 
Ljdi). i). rj. auiehicnirfu 
it). altudecofluat 
Vfei. peruenirci 
XX haecquodvbi 
xliirj* L xvij. perpedetibus 
3dv. rj. xxuj. leRac cfl adG 
milis.Iani malacoflaca 
xlvi.i. XV. Adeuniodu. 
xlvi.i, vki Carterucijid 
jdviyi)» xxi. tuadlibrosde 
tnedicatneas ,tu ad iMdcndi 
xlvirj.rj. xi). indicetur^qd' 
xiix. i)» i. ui ^e mutato 
3dix.ij.. iiij. facileacceduirt 
vi). cameiamfieri 
xii) iemalias,mo. 

iir|. lungnisnf. 
. tcorp'vnaqualibet 
ir^. quod . 
W) nec ipfumiioc 
V. abipfbmmac 

li. i. vi. necvn^ 
li.' i. vrj. fiilludniutet 
liiij.i. xxi. SCqux 
liitj. ij. X. ficertorume. 
liiij. 1^, xiiiy cu certu accc* XX. eacnvi 
Iv. i* iy adFerat 
Iv* i» iiy dendoiuuee 
Iv. i vi. [alijsteporeco, 
Ivi. ij. Vij. noneominus ] 
Ivi). i.^ij. incuquic^ 
Ivi). i. MK"q«cipla. 
Ivii% tj»''^;irj. cjiiranoclb/" 
Ixi. i. XV caIorequcc'am 
••''n-. i. xvir). casmaifeftecale, 
«■^iij* C iii). Imo tantic 
Ixi!)i. V. aperfu(i 
Ixiij, i. (tima cor. 
Ixif). i. xxvi. indidiT vero 
ac documcntuin quodfr^ida 
ixiij. ij. xxr). cx acddcnti 
Ixiiij. j). xvi. veadmotu vc. 
kiiij. r). xv.). homuifpotr* 

Imprellum apud praeclaram Cantabrfeiam per 

loannemS.Wh. Anno.M.D. XXI. 

V ! ■ 












This book should be Tetumed on or before 
the date last stamped below. 



fEB 8 1965 



MAY 2 7 li 











APR ^ 1998 1 

STANFORD.CA 9*305 1 

r \ 


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