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THE GAME OF GO 




Sato Tadanobu, a Samurai of the Twelfth Century, Defending 
Himself with a "Goban" when Attacked by His Enemies. 



From a print by Kmiiyoshi. 



(PAGE s) 



THE GAME OF GO 

THE 
NATIONAL GAME OF JAPAN 



BY 

ARTHUR SMITH 





NEW YORK 

MOFFAT, YARD & COMPANY 

1908 



Copyright, 1908 

BY 

ARTHUR SMITH 

NEW YORK 

All rights reserved 
Published, July, 1908 



^ 



The Plimpton Press Norwood Mass. U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

This book is intended as a practical guide to the game 
of Go. It is especially designed to assist students of the 
game who have acquired a smattering of it in some way and 
who wish to investigate it further at their leisure. 

As far as I know there is no work in the English 
language on the game of Go as played in Japan. There 
is an article on the Chinese game by Z. Volpicelli, in Vol. 
XXVI of the "Journal of the China Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society." This article I have not consulted. There 
is also a short description of the Japanese game in a work 
on " Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games 
of China and Japan," by Stewart Culin, but this descrip- 
tion would be of little practical use in learning to play the 
game. 

There is, however, an exhaustive treatise on the game 
in German by O. Korschelt. This can be found in Parts 
^°x 21-24 of the "Mittheilungen der deutschen Gesellschaft 
fur Natur- und Volkerkunde Ostasiens." The student could 
readily learn the game from Herr Korschelt's article if it 
were available, but his work has not been translated, and 
it is obtainable only in a few libraries in this country. In 
the preparation of this book I have borrowed freely from 
Herr Korschelt's work, especially in the chapter devoted 
to the history of the game, and I have also adopted many 
of his illustrative games and problems. 

Herr Korschelt was an excellent player, and acquired 



^ 



vi PREFACE 

his knowledge of the game from Murase Shuho, who 
was the best player in Japan at the time his article was 
written (about 1880). 

My acquaintance with the game has been acquired from 
Mr. Mokichi Nakamura, a Japanese resident of this coun- 
try, who is an excellent player, and whose enthusiasm for 
the game led me to attempt this book. Mr. Nakamura has 
also supplied much of the material which I have used in 
it. Toward the end I have had the expert assistance of Mr. 
Jihei Hashiguchi, with whom readers of the New York Sun 
are already acquainted. 

Wherever possible I have given the Japanese words and 
phrases which are used in playing the game, and for those 
who are not familiar with the system of writing Japanese 
with Roman characters, I may say that the consonants 
have the sounds used in English, and the vowels the 
sounds that are used in Italian, all the final vowels being 
sounded. Thus, "dame" is pronounced as though spelled 
"dahmay." 

New York, April, 1908. 



INTRODUCTION 

The game of Go belongs to the class of games of 
which our Chess, though very dissimilar, is an example. It 
is played on a board, and is a game of pure skill, into which 
the element of chance does not enter; moreover, it is an 
exceedingly difficult game to learn, and no one can expect 
to acquire the most superficial knowledge of it without 
many hours of hard work. It is said in Japan that a player 
with ordinary aptitude for the game would have to play 
ten thousand games in order to attain professional rank of 
the lowest degree. When we think that it would take twenty- 
seven years to play ten thousand games at the rate of one 
game per day, we can get some idea of the Japanese esti- 
mate of its difficulty. The difficulty of the game and the 
remarkable amount of time and labor which it is necessary 
to expend in order to become even a moderately good player, 
are the reasons why Go has not spread to other countries 
since Japan has been opened to foreign intercourse. For 
the same reasons few foreigners who live there have become 
familiar with it. 

On the other hand, its intense interest is attested by 
the following saying of the Japanese: "Go uchi wa oya no 
shini me ni mo awanu," which means that a man playing 
the game would not leave off even to be present at the death- 
bed of a parent. I have found that beginners in this coun- 
try to whom I have shown the game always seem to find it 
interesting, although so far I have known no one who has 



viii INTRODUCTION 

progressed beyond the novice stage. The more it is played 
the more its beauties and opportunities for skill become 
apparent, and it may be unhesitatingly recommended to 
that part of the community, however small it may be, for 
whom games requiring skill and patience have an attrac- 
tion. 

It is natural to compare it with our Chess, and it may 
safely be said that Go has nothing to fear from the com- 
parison. Indeed, it is not too much to say that it presents 
even greater opportunities for foresight and keen analysis. 

The Japanese also play Chess, which they call "Shogi," 
but it is slightly different from our Chess, and their game 
has not been so well developed. 

Go, on the other hand, has been zealously played and 
scientifically developed for centuries, and as will appear 
more at length in the chapter on the History of the Game, 
it has, during part of this time, been recognized and fostered 
by the government. Until recently a systematic treatment 
of the game, such as we are accustomed to in our books on 
Chess, has been lacking in Japan. A copious literature 
had been produced, but it consisted mostly of collections 
of illustrative and annotated games, and the Go masters 
seem to have had a desire to make their marginal annota- 
tions as brief as possible, in order to compel the beginner 
to go to the master for instruction and to learn the game 
only by hard practice. 

Chess and Go are both in a sense military games, 
but the military tactics that are represented in Chess are 
of a past age, in which the king himself entered the conflict 
— his fall generally meaning the loss of the battle — and in 
which the victory or defeat was brought about by the cour- 



INTRODUCTION ix 

age of single noblemen rather than through the fighting 
of the common soldiers. 

Go, on the other hand, is not merely a picture of a 
single battle like Chess, but of a whole campaign of a mod- 
ern kind, in which the strategical movements of the masses 
in the end decide the victory. Battles occur in various parts 
of the board, and sometimes several are going on at the 
game time. Strong positions are besieged and captured, 
and whole armies are cut off from their line of communica- 
tions and are taken prisoners unless they can fortify them- 
selves in impregnable positions, and a far-reaching strategy 
alone assures the victory. 

It is difficult to say which of the two games gives more 
pleasure. The combinations in Go suffer in comparison 
with those of Chess by reason of a certain monotony, 
because there are no pieces having different movements, 
and because the stones are not moved again after once being 
placed on the board. Also to a beginner the play, especially 
in the beginning of the game, seems vague; there are so 
many points on which the stones may be played, and the 
amount of territory obtainable by one move or the other 
seems hopelessly indefinite. This objection is more appar- 
ent than real, and as one's knowledge of the game grows, 
it becomes apparent that the first stones must be played 
with great care, and that there are certain definite, advan- 
tageous positions, which limit the player in his choice of 
moves, just as the recognized Chess openings guide our 
play in that game. Stones so played in the opening are 
called "Joseki" by the Japanese. Nevertheless, I think 
that in the early part of the game the play is somewhat 
indefinite for any player of ordinary skill. On the other 



x INTRODUCTION 

hand, these considerations are balanced by the greater 
number of combinations and by the greater number of places 
on the board where conflicts take place. As a rule it may 
be said that two average players of about equal strength 
will find more pleasure in Go than in Chess, for in 
Chess it is almost certain that the first of two such players 
who loses a piece will lose the game, and further play is 
mostly an unsuccessful struggle against certain defeat. In 
Go, on the other hand, a severe loss does not by any 
means entail the loss of the game, for the player temporarily 
worsted can betake himself to another portion of the field 
where, for the most part unaffected by the reverse already 
suffered, he may gain a compensating advantage. 

A peculiar charm of Go lies in the fact that through 
the so-called "Ko" an apparently severe loss may often 
be made a means of securing a decisive advantage in 
another portion of the board. A game is so much the 
more interesting the oftener the opportunities for victory 
or defeat change, and in Chess these chances do not change 
often, seldom more than twice. In Go, on the other 
hand, they change much more frequently, and sometimes 
just at the end of the game, perhaps in the last moments, 
an almost certain defeat may by some clever move be changed 
into a victory. 

There is another respect in which Go is distinctly 
superior to Chess. That is in the system of handicapping. 
When handicaps are given in Chess, the whole opening is 
more or less spoiled, and the scale of handicaps, from the 
Bishop's Pawn to Queen's Rook, is not very accurate; and 
in one variation of the Muzio gambit, so far from being a 
handicap, it is really an advantage to the first player to give 



INTRODUCTION xi 

up the Queen's Knight. In Go, on the other hand, the 
handicaps are in a progressive scale of great accuracy, they 
have been given from the earliest times, and the openings 
with handicaps have been studied quite as much as those 
without handicaps. 

In regard to the time required to play a game of Go, 
it may be said that ordinary players finish a game in an 
hour or two, but as in Chess, a championship game may 
be continued through several sittings, and may last eight 
or ten hours. There is on record, however, an authentic 
account of a game that was played for the championship 
at Yeddo during the Shogunate, which lasted continuously 
nine days and one night. 

Before taking up a description of the board and stones 
and the rules of play, we will first outline a history of the 
?a me. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction vii 



CHAPTER I 
History of the Game i 

CHAPTER II 
Description of the Board and Stones 18 

CHAPTER III 
Rules of Play 26 

CHAPTER IV 
General Methods of Play and Terminology of the Game . 57 

CHAPTER V 
Illustrative Games 68 

CHAPTER VI 
"Joseki" and Openings . 119 

CHAPTER VII 
The End Game 186 

CHAPTER VIII 
Problems 201 



xm 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Sato Tadanobu, a Samurai of the Twelfth Century, 
defending himself with a "goban," when attacked 
by his enemies Frontispiece 

Playing Go 22 



HISTORY OF THE GAME 

The game of Go is probably the oldest of all known 
games. It was played by the Chinese from earliest antiq- 
uity, and has been played in its present form by the Japa- 
nese for over eleven centuries, but while the game originated 
in China, the Japanese have far surpassed the Chinese in 
skill at the game, and it has come to be regarded in Japan 
as their national game. 

In the old Chinese works three persons are named as 
the originators of the game, but in Japan its invention is 
commonly attributed to only one of these. This man is 
the Chinese emperor Shun, who reigned from 2255 to 2206 
B.C. It is said that this emperor invented the game in order 
to strengthen the weak mind of his son Shang Kiun. By 
others the invention of the game is attributed to the pre- 
decessor of Shun, the emperor Yao, who reigned from 2357 
to 2256 B.C. If this theory is correct it would make the game 
about forty-two hundred years old. The third theory is 
that Wu, a vassal of the Chinese emperor Kieh Kwei (1818- 
1767 B.C.) invented the game of Go. To the same man 
is often attributed the invention of games of cards. It 
would seem that this last theory is the most credible, be- 
cause it would make the invention more recent, and because 
the inventor is said to have been a vassal and not an emperor. 

Whatever may be the truth in regard to the origin of the 



iiJ'i :..:/:..': THE GAME OF GO 

game, it is perfectly certain that Go was already known 
in China in early antiquity. In " old Chinese works, of 
which the oldest is dated about a thousand years before 
Christ, a game which can be easily recognized as Go is 
mentioned casually, so that at that time it must have been 
well known. 
• We are told also that in China somewhere about 200 
B.C., poetry and Go went hand in hand, and were in 
high favor, and a poet, Bayu, who lived about the year 
240 a.d., made himself famous through poems in which 
he sang the praises of the game. 

It is remarkable that in the old books it is stated that 
in the year 300 a.d. a man by the name of Osan was so 
skilled in Go that he could take all the stones from the 
board after the game had been finished and then play it 
over from memory. This is of interest also as showing that 
in the course of time playing the game has had the effect 
of strengthening the memory of Go players, because there 
are now hundreds of players in Japan who can replace 
a game move for move after it has been disarranged. It 
is in fact the customary thing for a teacher of the game to 
play the game over in that way in order to criticise the moves 
made by the student. 

Anecdotes have come down to us from the old Chinese 
times in regard to the game, of which we will mention only 
one, which shows how highly it was esteemed. 

Sha An, a man who lived in the time of the Tsin Dynasty 
(265-419 a.d.), carried on a war with his nephew Sha Gen. 
Growing tired of taking life, they left the victory to be de- 
cided by a game of Go, which they played against each 
other. 



HISTORY OF THE. GAME 3 

The esteem in which players were held in the old Chi- 
nese times is also shown by the titles with which they were 
honored; to wit, "Kisei" or " Ki Shing," from "Ki," mean- 
ing Go, and "Sei," a holy man, and "Shing," magician or 
sage. 

In the time of the Tang Dynasty (618-906 a.d.), and 
again during the' Sung Dynasty (960-1126 a.d.), the first 
books about Go were written. The game then flour- 
ished in China, and there were then many distinguished 
players in that country. 

According to the Japanese reckoning of time, Go 
was introduced into Japan in the period Tern pyo, during 
the reign of the emperor Shomu, which according to the 
Chinese records was the thirteenth year of the period Tien 
Tao, and during the reign of the emperor Huan Tsung. 
According to our calendar this would be about the year 

735 A - D - 

A man otherwise well known in the history of Japan, 

Kibi Daijin, was sent as an envoy to China in that year, 

and it is said that he brought the game back with him to 

Japan. 

Go may have been known in Japan before that date, 
but at any rate it must have been known about this time, 
for in the seventh month of the tenth year of the period Tern 
pyo (a.d. 738), we are told that a Japanese nobleman 
named Kumoshi was playing Go with another noble- 
man named Adzumabito, and that in a quarrel resulting 
from the pame Kumoshi killed Adzumabito with his sword. 

On its introduction into "japan a new era opened in 
the development of the game, but at first it spread very . 
slowly, and it is mentioned a hundred years later that the 



4 THE GAME OF GO 

number of Go players among the nobility (and to them 
the knowledge of the game was entirely confined) was very 
small indeed. 

In the period called Kasho (848-851 a.d.), and in Nin 
Ju (851-854 a.d.), a Japanese prince dwelt in China, and 
was there taught the game by the best player in China. 
The following anecdote is told in regard to this prince: 
that in order to do him honor the Chinese allowed him to 
meet the best players, and in order to cope with them he 
hit upon the idea of placing his stones exactly in the same 
way as those of his opponent; that is to say, when his oppo- 
nent placed a stone at any point, he would place his stone 
on a point symmetrically opposite, and in that way he is 
said to have won. In regard to this anecdote it may be 
said that the Chinese must have been very weak players, 
or they would speedily have found means of overcoming 
this method of defense. 

We next hear that in the year 850 a Japanese named 
Wakino became famous as a great devotee of the game. He 
played continuously day and night, and became so engrossed 
in the game that he forgot everything else absolutely. 

In the. next two centuries the knowledge of the game 
did not extend beyond the court at Kioto. Indeed, it 
appears that it was forbidden to play Go anywhere else 
than at court. At all events we are told that in the period 
called Otoku (1084-1087 a.d.) the Prince of Dewa, whose 
name was Kiowara no Mahira, secretly introduced the 
game into the province of Oshu, and played there with his 
vassals. From that time not only the number of the nobil- 
ity who played the game increased rapidly, but the common 
people as well began to take it up. 



HISTORY OF THE GAME 5 

Our frontispiece illustrates an incident which is said to 
have occurred about this time in the city of Kamakura. 
A samurai named Sato Tadanobu, who was a vassal of 
Yoshitsune, a brother of Yoritomo, the first Shogun of 
Japan, was playing Go in his house when he was sud- 
denly attacked by his enemies, and he is depicted using the 
"Goban" as a weapon wherewith to defend himself. The 
print is by Kuniyoshi, and is one of a series the title of 
which might be translated as "Our Favorite Hero Series." 
The "Go ban," "Go ishi," and "Go tsubo" look precisely 
like those which are at present in use, but Kuniyoshi prob- 
ably represented the type in use in his day and not in the 
time of Yoritomo, as it is pretty well settled that in the 
early times the board was smaller. 

There is also a story which comes down from the Kama- 
kura period in regard to Hojo Yoshitoki. He is said to 
have been playing Go with a guest at the moment that 
news arrived of the uprising of Wada Yoshimori. Yoshitoki 
is said to have first finished the game in perfect calmness 
before he thought of his measures for subduing the revolu- 
tion. This was in the first year of Kempo, or 12 13 a.d. 

In the beginning of the thirteenth century we find that 
Go was widely known in the samurai class, and was 
played with zeal. At that time everybody who went to 
war, from the most famous general down to the meanest 
soldier, played the game. The board and stones were 
carried with them to the field of battle, and as soon as the 
battle was over, they were brought out, and the friendly 
strife began. Many of the monks and poets of that period 
also had a taste for Go, and several of them are men- 
tioned as celebrated Go players. 



6 THE GAME OF GO 

All three of the great Japanese generals, Nobunaga, 
Hideyoshi, and Iyeyasu, were devotees of the game. It is 
related that Nobunaga came to Kioto in the tenth year of 
Ten Sho, 1582 a.d., and lived in the Honnoji Temple. 
One night the celebrated Go player, Sansha, of whom 
more hereafter, came and played with him until midnight. 
Sansha had scarcely taken his departure when the uprising 
of Akechi Mitsuhide broke out. 

In the periods Genki (1570-1572), Ten Sho (1573-1591) 
until Keicho (1596-1614), and Gen Wa (1615-1623), there 
were many celebrated players among the monks, poets, 
farmers and tradespeople. They were called to the courts 
of the daimios and to the halls of the nobles, either in order 
that the nobility might play with them, or more frequently 
merely to exhibit their skill at the game. This custom 
existed up to the time of the fall of the Shogunate. 

That the Japanese could find pleasure in merely watch- 
ing a game that is so abstract in its nature and so difficult 
to understand is evidence of the fact that they were then a 
highly cultivated people intellectually. We find nothing 
like it in this country except in the narrowest Chess circles. 

In the beginning of the seventeenth century Go 
attained such a high development that there appeared a 
series of expert players who far surpassed anything known 
before. Of these the most famous were Honinbo Sansha 
Hoin ? Nakamura Doseki, Hayashi Rigen, Inouye Inseki, 
and Yasui Santetsu. 

Sansha was the son of a merchant of Kioto. When he 
was nine years old he shaved his head, named himself 
Nikkai, and became a Buddhist monk in the Temple of 
Shokokuji, which was one of the principal temples of the 



HISTORY OF THE GAME 7 

Nichi Ren sect in Kioto. From his early life Sansha was 
very skilful at the game, and upon giving up his profession 
as a monk, he -obtained permission to institute a school of 
Go players, and he then took the name of Honinbo San- 
sha. He was on terms of familiar intercourse with No- 
bunaga, Hideyoshi and Iyeyasu, often accompanied them 
on their travels and campaigns, and was present at many 
of the battles of that troublous epoch. 

The school of Go which Honinbo opened, however, 
was merely a private undertaking. The first State institu- 
tion in which Go was taught was founded by Hideyoshi 
in the period Ten Sho (1573—159 1), but it seems to have 
had a short existence, and the permanent institution which 
lasted until the fall of the Shogunate was founded by the 
successor of Hideyoshi, Iyeyasu. Iyeyasu became Shogun 
in the year 1603, and the foundation of the Go Academy 
or "Go In," as the Japanese call it, must have occurred 
soon after he ascended the throne. Honinbo Sansha, who 
was still the best Go player in japan, was named as 
the head of the institution. The other most skilful masters 
were installed as professors with good salaries. To Honinbo 
Sansha, the director, was given 350 tsubo of land (a tsubo 
is as big as two Japanese mats or tatami, and is therefore 
six feet square), and an annual revenue of 200 koku of rice 
(a koku is a little more than five bushels). Men of the best 
intelligence could now dedicate themselves to the education 
of students and the further development of the game, freed 
from the cares of earning a livelihood. In both respects 
the institute was eminently successful. Its graduates were 
much more skilful than the previous generation of Go 
players living in the land. They devoted themselves en- 



8 THE GAME OF GO 

tirely to the game, and either found positions as players at 
the court of a daimio, or traveled through the country 
(like the poets and swordsmen of that period), playing the 
game and giving instruction in its mysteries as they found 
opportunity. If they came to a place which pleased them, 
they often let their years of wandering come to an end and 
remained there, making their living as teachers of the game. 

At the time of the founding of the Academy, besides 
Honinbo, the previously mentioned masters, Hayashi, 
Inouye, and Yasui, were installed as professors. For some 
reason, Nakamura, who is mentioned above as one of the 
contemporaries of Honinbo, did not appear at the Academy. 
Each of the four masters above named founded his school 
or method of play independently of the others, and the cus- 
tom existed that each teacher adopted his best pupil as a 
son, and thus had a successor at his death; so the teachers 
in the Academy were always named Honinbo, Inouye, 
Hayashi, and Yasui. (Lovers of Japanese prints are al- 
ready familiar with this continued similarity of names.) 

The best players of the Academy had to appear every 
year before the Shogun and play for his amusement. This 
ceremony was called "Go zen Go," which means "playing 
the game in the august presence," or "O shiro Go," "Shiro" 
meaning "the honorable palace," and the masters of the 
game entered these contests with the same determination 
that was displayed by the samurai on the field of battle. 

An anecdote has come down to us from the reign of the 
third Shogun, Tokugawa Iyemitsu, showing how highlv 
the Go masters regarded their art. At that time Yasui 
Sanchi was " Meijin," which, as we shall see in a moment, 
meant the bighest rank in the Go world, while Honinbo 



HISTORY OF THE GAME 9 

Sanyetsu held the rank of "Jo zu," which was almost as 
high, but which, according to the rules, would entitle him 
to a handicap of one stone from his expert adversary; 
and these two men, being the best players, were selected 
to play in the Shogun's presence. Honinbo, feeling con- 
scious of his skill, disdained to accept the handicap, and 
met his adversary on even terms. The game was proceed- 
ing in the presence of the court nobles before the Shogun 
had appeared, and among the spectators was Matsudaira 
Higo no Kami, one of the most powerful noblemen of that 
epoch. Yasui Sanchi was a favorite of Matsudaira and 
as he watched the play he remarked audibly that Honinbo 
would surely be defeated. Honinbo Sanyetsu heard the 
remark, and pausing in his play, he allowed the stone which 
he was about to place on the board to fall back into the 
"Go tsubo" or wooden jar that holds the Go stones, 
gently covered the "Go tsubo," and drawing himself up 
with great dignity, said: "I am serving the Shogun with 
the art of Go, and when we Go masters enter a contest, 
it is in the same spirit as warriors go upon the field of battle, 
staking our life, if necessary, to decide the contest. While 
we are doing this we do not allow interference or comments 
from any one, no matter how high may be his rank. Al- 
though I am not the greatest master of the game, I hold the 
degree of ' Jo zu,' and, therefore, there are few players in 
Japan who are able to appreciate my plans, tactics, or strat- 
egy. Nevertheless, the Prince of Higo has unwarrantedly 
prophesied my defeat. I do not understand why he has 
done this, but if such a comment were allowed to become 
a precedent, and onlookers were permitted to make what- 
ever comments on the game they saw fit, it would be better 



io THE GAME OF GO 

that the custom of the 'O shiro Go' should cease." Having 
said this, he raised himself from his seat. At this moment 
the court officers announced the coming of the Shogun, and 
the noblemen who had assembled to see the contest, sur- 
prised and confused by the turn affairs had taken, earnestly 
persuaded Honinbo to reseat himself and continue the game. 
This he obstinately refused to do, and endeavored to leave 
the imperial chamber. Prince Matsudaira, taken aback, 
scarcely knew what to do. However, he kotowed to Honinbo 
and, profusely apologizing, besought the offended master 
to finish the contest. Honinbo Sanyetsu was appeased, 
and resumed his seat at the board, and both players, groused 
by the incident, exerted every effort to achieve victory. 
Honinbo Sanyetsu won, whereupon the Prince of Higo was 
greatly humiliated. Since then the name of Sanyetsu Has 
always been revered as one of the greatest of the Honinbo 
family. 

In the degenerate days toward the end of the Tokugawa 
Dynasty the "Go zen Go" became a mere farce, and the 
games were all played through and studied out beforehand, 
in order that the ceremony in court might not last too long. 
The custom was, however, maintained until the fall of the 
Shogunate in 1868. 

Honinbo Sansha established at the time of the founda- 
tion of the Academy a method of classifying the players 
by giving them degrees, which still exists, although no 
longer under the authority of the State. When a man 
attained to a certain measure of skill in the game he received 
the title "Shodan," or, of the first degree. The still stronger 
players were arranged as "Nidan," "Sandan," "Yodan," 
etc., or of the second, third, and fourth degrees. The high- 



HISTORY OF THE GAME n 

est degree in the series was "Kudan," or the ninth degree. 
In order to attain the first degree, or "Shodan," the candi- 
date must be an excellent player, so good in fact that he 
could follow the game as a profession. In other games 
such a graduated system of classifying players would be 
scarcely possible, but among good Go players it is 
feasible, because the better player almost invariably wins, 
even if he be but slightly superior. If the difference in 
skill could not be equalized in some way the game would 
become tiresome, as the weaker player would almost always 
be able to foresee his defeat. The stronger player, therefore, 
allows his adversary to place enough stones on the board 
as a handicap to make the adversaries approximately equal. 

According to the rules of the Academy,. if the difference 
between the skill of the players was only one degree, the 
weaker player would be allowed the first move. If the differ- 
ence was two degrees, the weaker player would be allowed 
to place a stone on the board, and the stronger player would 
have the first move, and so on; in other words, the differ- 
ence between each degree might be called half a stone. 
Thus, a player of the fourth degree would allow a player 
of the first degree to place two stones on the board as a 
handicap, but would have the first move. A player of the 
seventh degree would allow a player of the first degree three 
stones, and a player of the ninth degree would allow a player 
of the first degree four stones. Four was the highest handi- 
cap allowed among the players holding degrees, but, as we 
shall see later, among players of less skill greater handicaps 
are frequently given. 

A player of the seventh degree also received the honor- 
ary title "Jo zu," or the higher hand. Those of the eighth 



iz THE GAME OF GO 

rank were called " Kan shu," or the half-way step, and 
those of the ninth degree were called "Mei shu," the clear, 
bright hand, or "Mei jin," literally "celebrated man." It 
is related that this last appellation arose in- the time of No- 
bunaga, who was a spectator of a game played by Honinbo 
Sansha with some contemporary, and who expressed his 
admiration of the skill of Honinbo by exclaiming "Mei 
jin!" which thus became the title applied to players of the 
highest skill. 

Since the institution of this method of classifying Go 
players over three hundred years ago, there have been only 
nine players who have attained the ninth degree, and only 
fourteen players who have attained the eighth degree. On 
the other hand, there have been many more of the seventh, 
and many more still of each of the lower degrees. In 1880, 
at the time Korschelt wrote the article previously referred 
to, there was only one player in Japan holding the seventh 
degree, and that was the celebrated Murase Shuho. At 
present there is one player who holds the ninth degree. 
His name is Honinbo Shuyei, and he is the only player 
who has attained the ninth degree during the period called 
the "Meiji," or since the fall of the Shogunate forty years 
ago. 

This arrangement of the players in degrees is unknown 
in China and Korea. On the other hand, it is in use in 
the Ryukyu or Loochoo Islands. 

The Japanese seem to have regarded the classification in 
degrees as an absolute standard of measurement. Never- 
theless, it must necessarily have varied from time to time, 
and in the course of centuries the standard must gradually 
have risen. 



HISTORY OF THE GAME 13 

Players of high rank who are challenged by the im- 
proving players of the lower grades will instinctively desire 
to make it more difficult for the new players to attain the 
higher degree, because their own fame, which is their 
highest possession, depends upon the result of the game; 
and assuming that all trial games could be conducted in an 
impartial and judicial spirit, nevertheless, all the players 
would become more expert from the hard practice, even 
if their skill in relation to each other remained the same. 

Thus a seventh degree player of to-day would be better 
in a year although he still remained in the seventh degree, 
and this constant raising of the standard must lead us to 
suppose that a player of the seventh degree now is quite 
equal or perhaps superior to an eighth or ninth degree 
player of a hundred or two hundred years ago. As an illus- 
tration of this increase in skill, we only have to compare 
the standard set in the Ryukyu Islands. They also estab- 
lished the classification in degrees soon after the foundation 
of the Academy in japan, and then the two institutions 
seem to have lost touch. Korschelt relates that for the first 
time about the year 1880 a Go player of the second degree 
from the Satsuma province visited those Islands and tried 
his skill with their best players, and found that he could 
easily defeat the players there classified as of the fifth degree. 

The position as head of the Academy was much 
coveted by Go players, but it was generally held by 
the Honinbo family. One of the last incidents in relation 
to the Academy tells of an attempt on the part of Inouye 
Inseki, the eleventh of that line, to obtain the headship of 
the Academy when Honinbo Jowa, who was the twelfth 
Honinbo, retired. Inseki was afraid he could not obtain 



i 4 THE GAME OF GO 

the coveted position by a contest, and therefore strove to 
obtain it by intrigue from the Shogun's officer intrusted with 
the business of the Academy. When Jowa retired he was 
not unaware of the desires of Inseki, but it did not trouble 
him much, as he felt confident that the fourteenth Honinbo, 
whose name was Shuwa, could successfully defend his 
title. However, at last matters came to such a point that 
Jowa ordered Shuwa to present a petition to the Shogun 
requesting that the title be settled by contest, but the Sho- 
gun's officer, who was in league with Inseki, returned the 
petition, whereupon all of the Honinbo house rose and in- 
sisted on their rights in accordance with custom and pre- 
cedent, and at last their petition was granted. It was fixed 
that the title was to be decided by ten games, and the first 
game began at the residence of the Shogun's officer, Inaba 
Tango no Kami, on the 29th of November, in the eleventh 
year of Tempo (about sixty-six years ago), and it ended 
the same year on the 13th of December. There was an 
adjournment of four days, and on one occasion the contest 
lasted all night. Therefore in all it took nine days and one 
night to finish the game. 

It is unnecessary to say that both players put forth all 
their efforts in this life and death struggle, and it is said 
that Inseki's excitement was so intense as to cause blood 
to gush from his mouth, but he finally lost by four stones, 
and the other nine games were not played. Inseki, how- 
ever, mortified by his defeat, again challenged Shuwa. 
This game began on the 16th of May in the thirteenth year 
of Tempo, and lasted two days. Inseki again lost by six 
stones. On November 17th of the same year a third con- 
test took place between Shuwa and Inseki in the presence 



HISTORY OF THE GAME 15 

of the Shogun in his palace at Tokio. Inseki again lost by 
four stones. In all these contests Inseki as the challenger 
had the first move, and he finally became convinced of his 
inability to win from the scion of the Honinbo family, and 
abandoned his life-long desire, and it is related that there- 
upon the houses of Honinbo and Inouye became more 
friendly than ever. 

In the first half of the nineteenth century Go had a 
period of great development. This occurred according to 
the Japanese calendar in the periods called Bun Kwa (1804- 
1818), Bun Sei (1818-1829), and Tempo (1830-1844). 
The collection of specimen games of that time are to-day 
regarded as models, and the methods of play and of opening 
the game then in use are still studied, although they have 
been somewhat superseded. The best games were played 
by the Honinbos Dosaku and Jowa and Yasui Sanchi. 

On the fall of the Shogunate in the year 1868 the Go 
Academy came to an end, and with it the regulation of the 
game by the State. A few years later the daimios were 
dispossessed, and they did not feel an obligation as private 
individuals to retain the services of the Go players who 
had been in attendance at their courts. Thereupon ensued 
a sad time for the masters of the game, who had thereto- 
fore for the most part lived by the practice of their art, and 
to make things still worse, the Japanese people lost their 
interest in Go. Upon the opening of the country the 
people turned with enthusiasm to the foreigners. Foreign 
things were more prized than native things, and among the 
things of native origin the game of Go was neglected. 

About the year 1880, however, a reaction set in; inter- 
est in the old national game was revived, and at the present 



16 THE GAME OF GO 

day it is fostered with as much zeal as in the olden 
times. 

Most of the higher officials of the government, and also 
the officers in the army and navy, are skilled players. The 
great daily newspapers of the capitals have a Go depart- 
ment, just as some of our periodicals have a department 
devoted to Chess, and the game is very much played at the 
hot springs and health resorts, and clubs, and teachers of 
the art are found in all of the larger cities. Go has 
always retained something of its early aristocratic character, 
and in fact, it is still regarded as necessary lor a man of 
refinement to possess a certain skill at the game. 

During the recent Russo-Japanese War the strategy 
employed by the Japanese commanders certainly suggested 
the methods of play used in the game of Go. Whether 
this was an accidental resemblance or not I cannot say. 
At Liao Yang it seemed as if Marshal Oyama had got three 
of the necessary stones advantageously placed, but the 
Russians escaped before the fourth could be moved into 
position. At the final battle of Mukden the enveloping 
strategy characteristic of the game was carried out with 
still greater success. 

At the present time the division into the four schools of 
Honinbo, Inouye. Hayashi, and Yasui, no longer exists, 
and Go players are divided into the schools of Honinbo 
and Hoyensha. This latter school was established about 
the year 1880 by Murase Shuho, to whom reference has 
already been made. 

The Honinbo school is the successor of the old Academy, 
while the new school has made one or two innovations, one 
of the most fortunate being a rule that no game shall last 



HISTORY OF THE GAME 17 

longer than twenty-four hours without interruption. The 
Hoyensha school also recognized the degree " Inaka Sho- 
dan," which means the "first degree in the country," and 
is allowed to a class of players who are regarded as entitled 
to the first degree in their native town, but who are generally 
undeceived when they meet the recognized "Shodan" 
players of the metropolis. 

While in Japan Go has attained such a high devel- 
opment, largely through the help of the government, as 
has been shown, it seems to be decadent in its motherland 
of China. The Japanese players assure us that there is 
no player in China equal to a Japanese player of the first 
degree. In Korea also the game is played, but the skill 
there attained is also immensely below the Japanese stand- 
ard. 

Having now given an idea of the importance of the game 
in the eyes of the Japanese, and the length of time it has 
been played, we will proceed to a description of the board 
and stones, and then take up the details of the play. 



II 

DESCRIPTION OF THE BOARD AND STONES 

The board, or "Go Ban" as it is called in Japanese, 
is a solid block of wood, about seventeen and a half inches 
long, sixteen inches broad, and generally about four or five 
inches thick. It has four detachable feet or legs so that as 
it stands on the floor it is about eight inches high. The 
board and feet are always stained yellow. 

The best boards in Japan are made of a wood called 
"Kaya" (Torreya Nuafera) a species of yew. They are 
also made of a wood called "Icho" or Gingko (Sahsburia 
adiantifolia) and of "Hinoki" (Thuya Obtusa) a kind of 
cedar. At all events they must be of hard wood, and yet 
not so hard as to be unpleasant to the touch when the stone 
is placed on the board, and the wood must further have 
the quality of resonance, because the Japanese enjoy hear- 
ing the sound made by the stone as it is played, and they 
always place it on the board with considerable force when 
space will permit. The Japanese expression for playing 
Go, to wit, "Go wo utsu," literally means to "strike" 
Go, referring to the impact of the stone. In Korea this 
feature is carried to such an extreme that wires are 
stretched beneath the board, so that as a stone is played 
a distinct musical sound is produced. The best boards 
should, of course, be free from knots, and the grain should 
run diagonally across them. 



DESCRIPTION OF BOARD AND STONES 19 

In the back of the board there is cut a square depres- 
sion. The purpose of this is probably to make the block 
more resonant, although the old Japanese stories say that 
this depression was put there originally to receive the blood 
of the vanquished in case the excitement of the game led 
to a sanguinary conflict. 

The legs of the board are said to be shaped to resemble 
the fruit of the plant called "Kuchinashi" or Cape Jessa- 
mine {Gardenia floribunda), the name of which plant by 
accident also means "without a mouth," and this is sup- 
posed to suggest to onlookers that they refrain from making 
comments on the game (a suggestion which all Chess play- 
ers will appreciate). 

On the board, parallel with each edge, are nineteen 
thin, lacquered black lines. These lines are about four 
one-hundredths of an inch wide. It has been seen from 
the dimensions given that the board is not exactly square, 
and the field therefore is a parallelogram, the sides of which 
are sixteen and a half and fifteen inches long respectively, 
and the lines in one direction are a little bit farther apart 
than in the other. These lines, by their crossing, produce 
three hundred and sixty-one points of intersection, inclu- 
ding the corners and the points along the edge of the 
field. 

The stones are placed on these points of intersection, 
and not in the spaces as the pieces are in Chess or Checkers. 
These intersections are called "Me" or "Moku" in Jap- 
anese, which really means "an eye." Inasmuch as the 
word as used in this connection is untranslatable, I shall 
hereafter refer to these points of intersection by their Jap- 
anese name. 



20 THE GAME OF GO 

On the board, as shown in the diagram (Plate i), are 
nine little circles. It is on these circles that the handicap 
stones when given are placed. They have no other func- 
tion in the game, but they are supposed also to have some 
sort of symbolical meaning. Chamberlain states that 
these spots or "Seimoku" are supposed to represent the 
chief celestial bodies, and that the central one is called 
"Taikyoku"; that is, the primordial principle of the uni- 
verse. In the work of Stewart Culin referred to in the 
preface it is stated that they correspond to the nine lights 
of heaven — the sun, moon and the seven stars of the 
constellation "Tau" (Ursa Major). Indeed the whole 
arrangement of the board is said to have some symbolical 
significance, the number of crosses (exclusive of the cen- 
tral one) representing the three hundred and sixty degrees 
of latitude, and the number of white and black stones cor- 
responding to the number of days of the year; but nowa- 
days the Japanese do not make much of a point of 
the astronomical significance of the board or of the "Sei- 
moku." 

The stones or "Ishi" with which the game is played 
are three hundred and sixty-one in number, corresponding 
to the number of "Me" or points of intersection on the 
board. One hundred and eighty of these stones are white 
and the remaining one hundred and eighty-one are black. 
As the weaker player has the black stones and the first 
move, obviously the extra stone must be black. In prac- 
tice the entire number of stones is never used, as at the end 
of the game there are always vacant spaces on the board. 
The Japanese generally keep these stones in gracefully 
shaped, lacquered boxes or "Go tsubo." 



DESCRIPTION OF BOARD AND STONES 21 



it 























■> — 














































































































































































































































































































/ 








































































































































































































































































































































Plate I 
The Board Showing the " Seimoku. 



i/7'^- 



22 THE GAME OF GO 

The white stones are made of a kind of white shell; they 
are highly polished, and are exceedingly pleasant to the 
touch. The best come from the provinces of Hitachi and 
Mikawa. The black are made of stone, generally a kind 
of slate that comes from the Nachi cataract in Kishiu. 
As they are used they become almost jet-black, and they are 
also pleasant to the touch, but not so much so as the white. 
A good set is quite dear, and cannot be purchased under 
several yen. The ideograph formerly used for "Go ishi" 
indicates that originally they were made of wood, and not 
of stone, and the old Chinese ideograph shows that in 
that country they were wooden pieces painted black and 
white. The use of polished shell for the white stones was 
first introduced in the Ashikaga period. 

In form the stones are disk-shaped, but not always ex- 
actly round, and are convex on both surfaces, so that they 
tremble slightly when placed on the board. They are 
about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, and about 
one-eighth of an inch in thickness. The white stones are 
generally a trifle larger than the black ones; for some 
strange reason those of both colors are a little bit wider 
than they should be in order to fit the board. Korschelt 
carefully measured the stones which he used, and found 
that the black were seventeen-sixteenths of the distance 
between the vertical lines on his board, and about eighteen- 
nineteenths of the distance between the horizontal lines, 
while the white stones were thirteen-twelfths of the distance 
between the vertical lines and thirty-six thirty-sevenths 
of the distance between the horizontal lines. I found about 
the same relation of size in the board and stones which 
I use. 




Pn 



DESCRIPTION OF BOARD AND STONES 23 

The result of this is that the stones do not have quite 
room enough and lap over each other, and when the board 
is very full, they push each other out of place. To make 
matters still worse the Japanese are not very careful to put 
the stones exactly on the points of intersection, but place 
them carelessly, so that the board has an irregular ap- 
pearance. It is probable that the unsymmetrical shape of 
the board and the irregularity of the size of the stones 
arise from the antipathy that the Japanese have to exact 
symmetry. At any rate, it is all calculated to break up the 
monotonous appearance which the board would have if the 
spaces were exactly square, and the stones were exactly 
round and fitted properly in their places. 

In Japan the board is placed on the floor, and the players 
sit on the floor also, facing each other, as shown in the 
illustration, and generally the narrower side of the board is 
placed so as to face the players. Since the introduction of 
tables in Japan Go boards are also made thinner and 
without feet, but the game seems to lose some of its 
charm when the customs of the old Japan are departed 
from. 

The Japanese always take the stone between the middle 
and index fingers, and not between the thumb and index 
finger as we are likely to do, and they place it on the board 
smartly and with great skill, so that it gives a cheerful 
sound, as before stated. 

For use in this country the board need not be so thick, 
and need not, of course, have feet, but if it is attempted to 
play the game on cardboard, which has a dead sound as 
the stones are played, it is surprising how much the pleas- 
ure of the game is diminished. The author has found 



24 THE GAME OF GO 

that Casino chips are the best substitute for the Japanese 
stones. 

Originally the board used for the game of Go was not 
so large, and the intersecting lines in each direction were 
only seventeen in number. At the time of the foundation 
of the Go Academy this was the size of board in use. As 
the game developed the present number of lines became 
fixed after trial and comparison with other possible sizes. 
Korschelt made certain experiments with the next possible 
larger size in which the number of lines in each direction 
was twenty-one, and it seemed that the game could still 
be played, although it made necessary the intellect of a 
past master to grasp the resulting combinations. If more 
than twenty-one lines are used Korschelt states that the 
combinations are beyond the reach of the human mind. 

In closing the description of the board it may be inter- 
esting to point out that the game which we call "Go Bang" 
or "Five in a Row," is played on what is really a Japanese 
Go board, and the word "Go Bang" is merely another 
phonetic imitation of the words by which the Japanese 
designate their board. I have found, however, that the 
"Go Bang" boards sold in the stores in this country are 
an imitation of the original Japanese "Go ban," and have 
only seventeen lines, and are therefore a little too small 
for the game as now played. The game which we call 
"Go Bang" also originated in Japan, and is well known 
and still played there. They call it "Go Moku Narabe," 
which means to arrange five "Me," the word "Go" in this 
case meaning "five," and "Moku" being the alternative 
way of pronouncing the ideograph for eye. "Go Moku 
Narabe" is often played by good Go players, generally 



DESCRIPTION OF BOARD AND STONES 25 

for relaxation, as it is a vastly simpler game than Go, and 
can be finished much more rapidly. It is not, however, 
to be despised, as when played by good players there is 
considerable chance for analysis, and the play often covers 
the entire board. 



Ill 

RULES OF PLAY 

The players play alternately, and the weaker player 
has the black stones and plays first, unless a handicap 
has been given, in which case the player using the white 
stones has the first move. (In the olden times this was just 
reversed.) They place the stones on the vacant points of 
intersection on the board, or "Me," and they may place 
them wherever they please, with the single exception of 
the case called "Ko," which will be hereafter explained. 
When the stones are once played they are never moved 
again. 

The object of the game of Go is to secure territory. Just 
as the object of the game of Chess is not to capture pieces, 
but to checkmate the adverse King, so in Go the ultimate 
object is not to capture the adversary's stones, but to so 
arrange matters that at the end of the game a player's 
stones will surround as much vacant space as possible. At the 
end of the game, however, before the amount of vacant space 
is calculated, the stones that have been taken are used to 
fill up the vacant spaces claimed by the adversary; that 
is to say, the captured black stones are used to fill up the 
spaces surrounded by the player having the W hite pieces, 
and vice versa, and the player who has the greatest amount 
of territory after the captured stones are used in this way, 
is the winner of the game. However, if the players, fearing 

26 



RULES OF PLAY 27 

each other, merely fence in parts of the board without re- 
gard to each other's play, a most uninteresting game 
results, and the Japanese call this by the contemptuous epi- 
thet "Ji dori go," or "ground taking Go." I have noticed 
that beginners in this country sometimes start to play in 
this way, and it is one of the many ways by which the play 
of a mere novice may be recognized. The best games arise 
when the players in their efforts to secure territory attack 
each other's stones or groups of stones, and we therefore 
must know how a stone can be taken. 

A stone is taken when it is surrounded on four opposite 
sides as shown in Plate 2, Diagram 1. When it is taken 
it is removed from the board. It is not necessary that a 
stone should also be surrounded diagonally, which would 
make eight stones necessary in order to take one; neither 
do four stones placed on the adjacent diagonal inter- 
sections cause a stone to be taken: they do not directly 
attack the stone in the center at all. Plate 2, Diagram iv, 
shows this situation. 

A stone which is placed on the edge of the board may 
be surrounded and captured by three stones, as shown in 
Plate 2, Diagram 11, and if a stone is placed in the extreme 
corner of the board, it may be surrounded and taken by 
two stones, as shown in Plate 2, Diagram ill. 

In actual practice it seldom or never happens that a 
stone or group of stones is surrounded by the minimum 
number requisite under the rule, for in that case the player 
whose stones were threatened could generally manage to 
break through his adversary's line. It is almost always 
necessary to add helping stones to those that are strictly 
necessary in completing the capture. Plate 2, Diagram v, 



28 THE GAME OF GO 

shows four stones which are surrounded with the minimum 
number of stones. Plate 2, Diagram vi, shows the same 
group with a couple of helping stones added, which would 
probably be found necessary in actual play. 

It follows from this rule that stones which are on the 
same line parallel with the edges of the board are connected, 
and support each other, Plate 2, Diagram vn, while stones 
which are on the same diagonal line are not connected, and 
do not support each other, Plate 2, Diagram vin. In 
order to surround stones which are on the same line, and 
therefore connected, it is necessary to surround them all 
in order to take them, while stones which are arranged on 
a diagonal line, and therefore unconnected, may be taken 
one at a time. On Plate 2, Diagram 111, if there were a 
stone placed at S 18, it would not be connected with the 
stone in the corner, and would not help it in any way. On 
the other hand, as has been said, it is not necessary to place 
a white stone on that point in order to complete the capture 
of the stone in the corner. 

In order to capture a group or chain of stones contain- 
ing vacant space, it must be completely surrounded inside 
and out; for instance, the black group shown on Plate 2, 
Diagram ix, while it has no hope of life if it is White's 
play is nevertheless not completely surrounded. In order 
to surround it, it is necessary to play on the three vacant 
intersections at M 11, N 11, and On. The same group of 
stones is shown in Diagram x completely surrounded. 
(It may be said in passing that White must play at N n 
first or the black stones can defend themselves; we shall 
understand this better in a moment.) 

In practice it often happens that a stone or group of 



RULES OF PLAY 



29 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

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13 

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9 
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7 
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Plate 2 



3 o THE GAME OF GO 

stones is regarded as dead before it is completely surrounded, 
because when the situation is observed to be hopeless the 
losing player abandons it, and addresses his energies to 
some other part of the board. It is advantageous for the 
losing player to abandon such a group as soon as possible, 
for, if he continues to add to the group, he loses not only 
the territory but the added stones also. If the circum- 
stances are such that his opponent has to reply to his moves 
in the hopeless territory, the loss is not so great, as the 
opponent is meanwhile filling up spaces which would other- 
wise be vacant, and against an inferior player there is a 
chance of the adversary making a slip and allowing the 
threatened stones to save themselves. If, however, the 
situation is so clearly hopeless that the adversary is not 
replying move for move, then every stone added to such a 
group means a loss of two points. 

. At the end of the game such abandoned groups of stones 
are removed from the board just as if they had been com- 
pletely surrounded and killed, and it is not necessary for 
the player having the advantage actually to surround and 
kill such a group. It is enough if they obviously can be 
killed. The theory on which this rule proceeds is that if the 
players play alternately, no advantage would be gained by 
either side in the process of actually surrounding such a 
group, and its completion would only be a waste of time. 
But let us suppose that a black group at the end of the game 
is found to be hopeless and also completely surrounded 
with the exception of one point. The question arises, can 
the Black player demand that his adversary play on the 
vacant space in order to kill this group, for, if he could, it 
is obvious he would gain one "Me" by so doing. The an- 



RULES OF PLAY 31 

swer is, he cannot so demand, and his adversary is not 
bound to play on this point, and the hopeless or abandoned 
stones are removed without further play. We might call 
such groups "dead." They may be distinguished from 
stones that are "taken," because these latter are removed 
at once, whereas "dead" stones are removed only at the 
end of the game. 

As a corollary to the rule for surrounding and tak- 
ing stones, it follows that a group of stones containing 
two disconnected vacant intersections or "Me" cannot be 
taken. This is not a separate rule. It follows necessa- 
rily from the method by which stones are taken. Never- 
theless in practice it is the most important principle in 
the game. 

In order to understand the rule or principle of the two 
"Me," we must first look at the situation shown in Plate 3, 
Diagram 1. There, if a black stone is played at F 15, al- 
though it is played on an intersection entirely surrounded 
by white stones, it nevertheless lives because the moment 
it is played it has the effect of killing the entire white group; 
that is to say, a stone may be played on an intersection where 
it is completely surrounded if as it is played it has the effect 
of completely surrounding the adversary's stones already 
on the board. If, on the other hand, we have a situation 
as shown in Plate 3, Diagram 11, a black stone may indeed 
be played on one of the vacant intersections, but when it 
is so played the white group is not completely surrounded, 
because there still remains one space yet to be filled, and 
the black stone itself is dead as soon as it touches the board, 
and hence it would be impossible to surround this group 
of white stones unless two stones were played at once. The 



32 THE GAME OF GO 

white stones, therefore, can never be surrounded, and form 
an impregnable position. 

This is the principle of the two " Me," and when a player's 
group of stones is hard pressed, and his adversary is 
trying to surround them, if he can so place the stones that 
two disconnected complete "Me" are left, they are safe 
forever. It makes no difference whether the vacant "Me" 
are on the edges or in the corners of the board, or how far 
from each other they may be. 

Plate 3, Diagram vi, shows a group of stones contain- 
ing two vacant "Me" on the edge of the board. This 
group is perfectly safe against attack. A beginner might 
ask why the white group shown on P'ate 3, Diagram v, 
• no*: Te. The difficulty with that group is, that when 
iack Dlayed at S 9, there are no "Me" in it at all as 

the wor L used in this connection, not even a "Kageme" 
as shown : n Plate 3, Diagram m, because a "Me," in order 
to be available for the ^urp^se of defense, must be a 
vacant intersection that is surrounded on four sides, just as 
a captured stone must be sutc T nd therefore on the 

sides of the board it can be je oy three stones, and in the 
corner of the board by two stones, but it is absolutely 
necessary, in addition to { " minimum number of sur- 
rounding stones, to have helping stones to guard the 
surrounding stones against attack. This bimg. us to 
what the Japanese call " Kageme." 

In actual play there are many groups of stones that at 
first glance seem to have two vacant "Me" in them, but 
which on analysis, will be found vulnerable to attack A 
"Me" that looks somewhat as if it were complete, but is, 
nevertheless, destructible is called "Kageme." "Kage" 



RULES OF PLAY 



33 



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Plate 3 



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34 THE GAME OF GO 

means "chipped" or "incomplete." Plate 3, Diagram in, 
is an illustration of this. A beginner might think that the 
white group was safe, but Black can kill the upper six white 
stones by playing at E 3, and then on the next move can kill 
the remainder by playing at G 2. Therefore, E 3 is not a 
perfect "Me," but is "Kageme." G 2 is a perfect "Me," 
but one is not enough to save the group. In this group if 
the stone at F 4 or D 2 were white, there would be two 
perfect "Me," and the group would be safe. In a close 
game beginners often find it difficult to distinguish between 
a perfect "Me" and "Kageme." 

Groups of stones which contain vacant spaces, can be 
lost or saved according as two disconnected "Me" can or 
cannot be formed in those spaces, and the most interesting 
play in the game occurs along the sides and especially in 
the corners of the board in attempting to form or attempt- 
ing to prevent the formation of these "Me." The attacking 
player often plays into the vacant space and sacrifices several 
stones with the ultimate object of reducing the space to one 
"Me"; and, on the other hand, the defending player by 
selecting a fortunate intersection may make it impossible 
for the stones to be killed. There is opportunity for mar- 
velous ingenuity in the attack and defense of these positions. 
A simple example of defense is shown in Plate 3, Diagram iv, 
where, if it is White's turn, and he plays in the corner of ;$* 
the board at T 19, he can save his stones. If, on the other 
hand, he plays anywhere else, the two "Me" can never be 
formed. The beginner would do well to work out this 
situation for himself. 

The series of diagrams commencing at Plate 3, Diagram 
v, show the theoretical method of reducing vacant spaces 



RULES OF PLAY 



35 



by the sacrifice of stones. This series is taken from Kor- 
schelt, and the position as it arose in actual play is shown 
on Plate 10, depicting a complete game. In Plate 3, Diagram 
v, the white group is shown externally surrounded, and the 
black stone has just been played at S 9, rendering the group 
hopeless. The same group is shown on the opposite side 
of the board at Plate 4, Diagram 1, but Black has added 
three more stones and could kill the white groip on the next 
move. Therefore, White plays at A 12, and the situation 
shown in Plate 4, Diagram 11, arises, where the same group 
is shown on the lower edge of the board. Now, if it were 
White's move, he could save his group by playing at J 2, 
and the situation which would then arise is shown on Plate 
4, Diagram in, where White has three perfect "Me," one 
more than enough. However, it is not White's move, and 
Black plays on the coveted intersection, and then adds two 
more stones until the situation shown in Plate 4, Diagram 
iv, arises. Then White must again play at S 8 in order to 
save his stones from immediate capture, and the situation 
shown at Plate 5, Diagram 1, comes about. Black again 
plays at J 18, adds one more stone, and we have the situa- 
tion shown in Plate 5, Diagram 11, where it is obvious that 
White must play at C 1 1 in order to save his group from 
immediate capture, thus leaving only two vacant spaces. 
It is unnecessary to continue the analysis further, but at 
the risk of explaining what is apparent, it might be pointed 
out that Black would play on one of these vacant spaces, 
and if White killed the stone (which it would not pay White 
to do) Black would play again on the space thus made 
vacant, and completely surround and kill the entire white 
group. 



36 



THE GAME OF GO 



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Plate 4 



MNOPORST 



RULES OF PLAY 



37 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 

Plate 5 



3 8 THE GAME OF GO 

A group with five vacant "Me," as shown in the pre- 
ceding diagrams, is a situation well known to the Japanese, 
so much so that they have a special phrase or saying that 
applies to it, to wit, "Go moku naka de wa ju san te," which 
means that it takes thirteen turns to reduce a group having 
five such "Me" in the center. 

As we have previously seen, in actual play this white 
group would be regarded as "dead" as distinguished from 
"taken," and this series of moves would not be played out. 
White obviously would not play in the space, and he could 
not demand that Black play therein in order to complete 
the actual surrounding of the stones, and the only purpose 
of giving this series of diagrams is to show theoretically how 
the white stones can be killed. However, the killing of 
these stones would be necessary if the surrounding black 
line were in turn attacked ("Semeai"), in which case it 
mi^ht be a race to see whether the internal white stones 
could be completely surrounded and killed before the 
external white group could get in complete contact with 
the black line. 

Stones which are sacrificed in order to kill a larger group 
are called "Sute ishi" by the Japanese, from "Suteru," 
meaning "to cast or throw away," and "Ishi," a "stone." 

It may be noted that if a group contains four connected 
vacant intersections in a line it is safe, because if the adver- 
sary attempts to reduce it, two disconnected "Me" can be 
formed in the space by simply playing a stone adjacent to 
the adversary's stone, as shown in Plate 5, Diagram in, 
where, if Black plays for instance at K 11, White replies 
at L 11, and secures the two "Me." Even if these four 
connected vacant intersections are not in a straight line, thev 



RULES OF PLAY 



39 



are nevertheless sufficient for the purpose, provided the 
fourth "Me" is connected at the end of the three, and the 
Japanese express this by their saying "Magari shimoku wa 
me," or four "Me" turning a corner. Neither does it make 
any difference whether the four connected "Me" are in the 
center of the board or along the edge. On Plate 5, Diagrams 
iv and v, are examples of "Magari shimoku wa me," and 
they both are safe. It is interesting, however, to compare 
these situations with that shown at Plate 4, Diagram 11, 
where the fourth intersection is not connected at the end of 
the line, and which group Black can kill if it is his move, 
as we already have seen. 

If, however, such a group contains only three connected 
vacant intersections, and it is the adversary's move, it can 
be killed, because the adversary by playing on the middle 
intersection can prevent the formation of two disconnected 
"Me." We saw a group of this kind on Plate 2, Diagram 
IX, which can be killed by playing at Nil. Obviously, if 
it is Black's move in this case, the group can be saved by 
playing at Nil; obviously, also, if White, being a mere 
novice, plays elsewhere than at N 11, Black saves the stones 
by playing there and killing the white stone. Plate 5, 
Diagram vi, shows another group containing only three 
vacant intersections. These can be killed if it is Black's 
move by playing at A 1. On the other hand, if it is White's 
move, he can save them by playing on the same point. 

Of course, if a group of stones contains a large number 
of vacant intersections, it is perfectly safe unless the vacant 
space is so large that the adversary can have a chance of 
forming an entire new living group of stones therein. 

We now come to the one exception to the rule that the 



4 o THE GAME OF GO 

players may place their stones at will on any vacant inter- 
section on the board. This rule is called the rule of "Ko," 
and is shown on Plate 6, Diagram i. Assuming that it is 
White's turn to play, he can play at D 17 and take the black 
stone at C 17 which is already surrounded on three sides, 
and the position shown in Plate 6, Diagram 11, would then 
arise. It is now White's turn to play, and if he plays at C 13, 
the white stone which has just been put down will be like- 
wise surrounded and could be at once taken from the board. 
Black, however, is not permitted to do this immediately, 
but must first play somewhere else, and this gives White 
the choice of filling up this space (C 13) and defending his 
stone, or of following his adversary to some other portion of 
the board. The reason for this rule in regard to "Ko" is 
very clear. If the players were permitted to take and re- 
take the stones as shown in the diagram, the series of moves 
would be endless, and the game could never be finished. 
It is something like perpetual check in Chess, but the Jap- 
anese, in place of calling the game a draw, compel the second 
player to move elsewhere and thus allow the game to con- 
tinue. In an actual game when a player is prevented from 
retaking a stone by the rule of " Ko," he always tries to play 
in some other portion of the board where he threatens a 
larger group of stones than is involved in the situation where 
"Ko" occurs, and thus often he can compel his adversary 
to follow him to this other part of the field, and then return 
to retake in " Ko." His adversary then will play in some 
part of the field, if possible, where another group can be 
threatened, and so on. Sometimes in a hotly contested 
game the battle will rage around a place where "Ko" occurs 
and the space will be taken and retaken several times. 



RULES OF PLAY 



4i 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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ABCDEFGNJKLMNOPO 

Plate 6 



42 THE GAME OF GO 

Korschelt states that the ideograph for "Ko" means 
"talent" or "skilfulness," in which he is very likely wrong, 
as it is more accurately translated by our word "threat"; 
but be this as it may, it is certainly true that the rule in 
regard to "Ko" gives opportunity for a great display of 
skill, and as the better players take advantage of this rule 
with much greater ingenuity, it is a good idea for the weaker 
player as far as possible to avoid situations where its appli- 
cation arises. 

There is a situation which sometimes arises and which 
might be mistaken for "Ko." It is where a player takes 
more than one stone and the attacking stone is threatened 
on three sides, or where only one stone is taken, but the 
adversary in replying can take not only the last stone played, 
but others also. In these cases the opponent can retake 
immediately, because it will at once be seen that an endless 
exchange of moves (which makes necessary the rule of " Ko") 
would not occur. A situation of this kind is shown on Plate 
6, Diagrams in, iv, and v, where White by playing at C 8 
(Diagram in) takes the three black stones, producing 
the situation shown in Diagram iv, and Black is permitted 
immediately to retake the white stone, producing the state 
of affairs shown in Diagram v. The Japanese call such a 
situation "Ute kaeshi," which means "returning a blow." 
It forms no exception to the ordinary rules of the game, and 
only needs to be pointed out because a beginner might think 
that the rule of "Ko" applied to it. 

We will now take up the situation called " Seki." " Seki " 
means a "barrier" or "impasse" — it is a different word 
from the "Seki" in the phrase "Jo seki." "Seki" also is 
somewhat analagous to perpetual check. It arises when a 



RULES OF PLAY 43 

vacant space is surrounded partly by white and partly by 
black stones in such away that, if either player places a stone 
therein, his adversary can thereupon capture the entire 
group. Under these circumstances, of course, neither player 
desires to place a stone on that portion of the board, and 
the rules of the game do not compel him to do so. That 
portion of the board is regarded as neutral territory, and 
at the end of the game the vacant "Me" are not counted 
in favor of either player. Plate 6, Diagram vi, gives an 
illustration of "Seki," where it will be seen that if Black 
plays at either S 16 or T 16 White can kill the black stones 
in the corner by playing on the other point, and if White 
plays on either point Black can kill the white stones by 
filling the remaining vacancy. Directly below, on Diagram 
vii, is shown the same group, but the corner black stone 
has been taken out. The position is now no longer "Seki," 
but is called by the Japanese "Me ari me nashi," or literally 
"having 'Me,' not having 'Me.' : Here the white stones 
are dead, because if Black plays, for instance, at T 4 White 
cannot kill the black stones by playing at S 4, for the reason 
that the vacant "Me" at T 1 still remains. The beginner 
might confuse "Seki" with "Me ari me nashi," and while 
a good player has no trouble in recognizing the difference 
when the situation arises, it takes considerable foresight 
sometimes so to play as to produce one situation or the 
other. 

Plate 6, Diagram viii, shows another group which might 
be mistaken for "Seki," but here, if White plays at J 19, 
the black stones can be killed, further proceedings being 
somewhat similar to those we saw in the illustration of 
"Go moku naka de wa ju san te." Plate 7 shows a large 



44 THE GAME OF GO 

group of stones from which inevitably "Seki" will result. 
It would be well for the student to work this out for him- 
self. "Seki" very seldom or never occurs in games between 
good players, and it rarely occurs in any game. 

It is a rule of the game to give warning when a stone 
or group of stones is about to be completely surrounded. 
For this purpose the Japanese use the word "Atari" (from 
"ataru," to touch lightly), which corresponds quite closely 
to the expression "gardez" in Chess. If this warning were 
omitted, the player whose stones were about to be taken 
should have the right to take his last move over and save 
the imperiled position if he could. This rule is not so 
strictly observed as formerly; it belongs more to the etiquette 
of the old Japan. 

The game comes to an end when the frontiers of the 
opposing groups are in contact. This does not mean that 
the board is entirely covered, for the obvious reason that 
the space inside the groups or chains of stones is purposely 
left vacant, for that is the only part of the board which 
counts; but so long as there is any vacant space lying between 
the opposing groups that must be disposed of in some way, 
and when it is so disposed of it will be found that the white 
and black groups are in complete contact. 

Just at the end of the game there will be found isolated 
vacant intersections or "Me" on the frontier lines, and it 
does not make any difference which player fills these up. 
They are called by the Japanese "Dame," which means 
"useless." (The word "Dame" is likely to be confusing 
when it is first heard, because the beginner jumps to the 
conclusion that it is some new kind of a "Me." This arises 
from a coincidence only. Anything that is useless or profit- 



RULES OF PLAY 



45 



ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPORST 



19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 



1 















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 



A B C D E 



FGHJ KLMNOPQR 

Plate 7 



S T 



46 THE GAME OF GO 

less is called "Dame" in Japanese, but etymologically the 
word really means "horse's eye," as the Japanese, not being 
admirers of the vacant stare of that noble animal, have used 
this word as a synonym for all that is useless. Therefore 
the syllable "Me" does mean an eye, and is the same word 
that is used to designate the intersections, but its recurrence 
in this connection is merely an accident.) 

It is difficult for the beginner at first to understand why 
the filling of these "Dame" results in no advantage to either 
player, and beginners often fill up such spaces even before 
the end of the game, feeling that they are gaining ground 
slowly but surely; and the Japanese have a saying, "Heta 
go ni dame nashi," which means that there are no "Dame" 
in beginners' Go, as beginners do not recognize their use- 
lessness. On the other hand, a necessary move will some- 
times look like " Dame." The moves that are likely to be 
so confused are the final connecting moves or "Tsugu," 
where a potential connection has been made early in the 
game, but which need to be filled up to complete the chain. 
In the Illustrative Game, Number I, the "Dame" are all 
given, but a little practice is necessary before they can 
always be recognized. 

When the "Dame" have been filled, and the dead stones 
have been removed from the board, there is no reason why 
the players should not at once proceed to counting up which 
of them has the greatest amount of vacant space, less, of 
course, the number of stones they have lost, and thus deter- 
mine who is the victor. As a matter of practice, however, 
the Japanese do not do this immediately, but, purely for 
the purpose of facilitating the count, the player having the 
white pieces would fill up his adversary's territory with 



RULES OF PLAY 47 

the black stones he had captured as far as they would go, 
and the player having the black stones would fill up his 
adversary's territory with the white stones that he had 
captured; and thereupon the entire board is reconstructed, 
so that the vacant spaces come into rows of fives and tens, 
so that they are easier to count. This has really nothing to 
do with the game, and it is merely a device to make the 
counting of the spaces easier, but it seems like a mysterious 
process to a novice, and adds not a little to the general mys- 
tery with which the end of the game seems to be surrounded 
when an Occidental sees it played for the first time. This 
process of arrangement is called "Me wo tsukuru." It 
may be added that if any part of the board contains the 
situation called "Seki," that portion is left alone, and is 
not reconstructed like the rest of the board. 

Plate 8 shows a completed game in which the "Dame" 
have all been filled, but the dead stones have not yet been 
removed from the board. Let us first see which of the 
stones are dead. It is easy to see that the white stone at 
N 11 is hopeless, as it is cut off in every direction. The 
same is true of the white stone at B 18. It is not so easy 
to see that the black stones at L and M 18, N, O, P, Q and 
R 17, N 16, and M and N 15 are dead, but against a good 
player they would have no hope of forming the necessary 
two "Me," and they are therefore conceded to be dead; but 
a good player could probably manage to defend them against 
a novice. It is still more difficult to see why the irregular 
white group of eighteen stones on the left-hand side of the 
board has been abandoned, but there also White has no 
chance of making the necessary two "Me." At the risk 
of repetition I will again point out that these groups of 



4 8 THE GAME OF GO 

dead stones can be taken from the board without further 
play. 

Plate 9 shows the same game after the dead stones have 
been removed and used to fill up the respective territories, 
and after the board has been reconstructed in accordance 
with the Japanese method, and it will be seen that in this 
case Black has won by one stone. This result can be arrived 
at equally well by counting up the spaces on Plate 8, but 
they are easier to count on Plate 9, after the "Me wo tsu- 
kuru" has been done. 

Plate 10 shows another completed game. This plate is 
from Korschelt, and is interesting because it contains an 
instructive error. The game is supposed to be completed, 
and the black stone at C 18 is said to be dead. This is not 
true, because Black by playing at C 17 could not only save 
his stone, but kill the four white stones at the left-hand 
side. Therefore, before this game is completed, White must 
play at C 17 to defend himself. This is called "Tsugu." 
On the left-hand side of the board is shown a white group 
which is dead, and the method of reduction of which we have 
already studied in detail. On the right side of the board 
are a few scattering black stones which are dead, because 
they have no chance of forming a group with the necessary 
two "Me." The question may be asked whether it is neces- 
sary for White to play at C 1 or E 1 in order to complete the 
connection of the group in the corner, but he is not obliged 
so to do unless Black chooses to play at B 1 or F 1, which, 
of course, Black would not do. 

On Plate 11, this game also is shown as reconstructed 
for counting, and it will be seen that White has won by two 
stones. Really this is an error of one stone, as White 



RULES OF PLAY 



49 




A B C D E F 



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Plate 8 



5° 



THE GAME OF GO 




DEFGHJKLM 

Plate 9 



RULES OF PLAY 



5 1 



BCD 




BCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate io 



52 THE GAME OF GO 

should have played at C 17, as we have previously pointed 
out. 

Sometimes at the end of the game players of moder- 
ate skill may differ as to whether there is anything left to 
be done, and when one thinks there is no longer any advan- 
tage to be gained by either side, he says, "Mo arimasen, aru 
naraba o yuki nasai," that is to say, " I think there is nothing 
more to be done; if you think you can gain anything, you 
may play," and sometimes he will allow his adversary to play 
two or three times in succession, reserving the right to step 
in if he thinks there is a chance of his adversary reviving 
a group that is apparently dead. 

No part of the rules of the game has been more difficult 
for me to understand than the methods employed at the end, 
and especially the rule in regard to the removal of dead 
stones without actually surrounding them, but I trust in 
the foregoing examples I have made this rule sufficiently 
clear. Moreover, it is not always easy to tell whether stones 
are dead or alive. There is a little poem or "Hokku" in 
Japanese, which runs as follows: 

"Iki shini wo 
Shiranu nonki no 
Go uchi kana," 

which might be translated as "Oh! what kind of a Go 
player is he who does not know whether his stones are r.live 
or dead!" But while the Japanese author of this "Hokku" 
may have regarded it as a simple thing, the Occidental stu- 
dent of the game would not be likely to share his views. 
An instance of this is shown by the possibilities of the sup- 
posedly dead black stone on Plate 10, and I think it would 
be fairer to state that the skill of a good Go player is most 



RULES OF PLAY 



53 




ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate ii 



54 THE GAME OF GO 

clearly shown by his ability to recognize immediately whether 
a group is dead or can be saved; the study of our chapter 
on Problems will give further illustrations of the diffi- 
culty and nicety of such decisions. 

We now come to the question of handicaps. Handicaps 
are given by the stronger player allowing the weaker player 
to place a certain number of stones on the board before 
the game begins, and we have seen in the chapter on the 
Description of the Board that these stones are placed on the 
nine dotted intersections. If one stone is given, it is usual 
to place it in the upper right-hand corner. If a second stone 
is given, it is placed in the lower left-hand corner. If a third 
stone is given, it is placed in the lower right-hand corner. 
The fourth is placed in the upper left-hand corner. The 
fifth is placed at the center or "Ten gen." When six are 
given, the center one is removed, and the fifth and sixth 
are placed at the left and right-hand edges of the board on 
line 10. If seven are given, these stones remain, and the 
seventh stone is placed in the center. If eight are given, the 
center stone is again removed, and the seventh and eighth 
stones are placed on the "Seimoku" on line K. If the 
ninth is given, it is again placed in the center of the board. 

Between players of reasonable skill more than nine stones 
are never given, but when the disparity between the players 
is too great, four other stones are sometimes given. They 
are placed just outside the corner "Seimoku," as shown on 
the diagram (Plate 12), and these extra stones are called 
"Furin" handicaps. "Furin" means "a small bell," as 
these stones suggest to the Japanese the bells which hang 
from the eaves at the corners of a Japanese temple. When 
the disparity between the players is very great indeed, some- 



RULES OF PLAY 



55 



ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPORST 



19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 



1 









































4 T "F 


JFIN 
























1"F 

/ 


.JRIN 






L 


FOT. 


RTH 










EIG 


HTH 










FI! 


L. 
*ST 


_^ 




















































































I 


JAKA 

1 


YOTJ 


>U 






in 


AKA 

/ 


YOTJ 

s 


»u 




















L 


A 










L 


A 




























FII 


TH 






















si: 


CTH 










SEVJ 

Nir 


NTH 
JTH 










FD 


TH 






















































































^ 


AKA 


YOT 


>u 






^ 


IAKA 


YOT 


5U 




















L 


\ 










L 


A 




















































SEC( 


IND 










SEVI 


,NTF 


; 








TH 


RD 








1 


\ 
























\ 


/ / 


\ 






— a 

2"°F 


3 
JRIN 
























ytf 


JKLN 


X 







































19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 12 



56 THE GAME OF GO 

times four more stones are given, and when given they are 
placed on the diagonal halfway between the corner "Seimo- 
ku" and the center. These four stones are called "Naka 
yotsu," or "the four middle stones," but such a handicap 
could only be given to the merest novice. 

We have now completed a survey of all the actual rules 
of the game, and it may be well to summarize them in order 
that their real simplicity may be clearly seen; briefly, they 
are as follows: 

i. The object of the game is to obtain vacant territory. 

2. The stones are placed on the intersections and on 
any vacant intersection the player chooses (except in the 
case of "Ko"). After they are played they are not moved 
again. 

3. (a) One or more stones which are compactly sur- 
rounded by the stones of the other side are said to be taken 
and are at once removed from the board. 

(b) Stones which, while not actually surrounded can 
inevitably be surrounded, are dead, and can be taken from 
the board at the end of the game without further play. 

(c) Taken or dead stones are used to fill up the ad- 
versary's territory. 

4. The game is at an end when the opposing groups of 
stones are in absolute contact (the case of "Seki" being the 
single exception). 

It is not possible to imagine a game with simpler rules, 
or the elements of which are easier to acquire. 

We will now turn our attention to a few considerations 
as to the best methods of play, and of certain moves and 
formations which occur in every game, and also to the 
names which in Japanese are used to designate these things. 



IV 

GENERAL METHODS OF PLAY AND TERMI- 
NOLOGY OF THE GAME 

As will be shown more in detail in the chapter on Open- 
ings or " Joseki," the game is commenced by playing in the 
corners of the board, and generally on one of the squares 
adjacent to the handicap point. The reason for this is that 
the corners of the board are natural fortresses, and can be 
more readily defended against attack. It is also easier to 
form territory in the corners of the board. Next to the 
corners of the board the sides of the board are easiest to 
defend, and territory is more easily formed along the sides 
than in the center, and in an ordinary game the play gen- 
erally proceeds from the corners and edges to the center. 
The importance which the Japanese attach to the corners 
is shown by their saying "Yo sumi torarete go wo utsu na," 
or, "if the four corners are taken, cease playing." Against 
a good player it is next to impossible to form territory in 
the center of the board, unless it is based on one of the sides 
or corners. 

There is, however, an old rule of etiquette which is not 
consistent with this theory of the opening; it used to be 
regarded as exceedingly impolite and insulting to play the 
first stone on the handicap point in the center of the board, 
called "Ten gen." It has been explained to me that the 
reason for this rule is that such a move was supposed to 

57 



58 THE GAME OF GO 

assure the victory to the first player, and it is related that 
when on one occasion Murase Shuho had defeated a rival 
many times in succession, the latter, becoming desperate, apol- 
ogized for his rudeness and placed his stone on this spot, and 
Murase, nevertheless, succeeded in winning the game, which 
was regarded as evidence of his great skill. It has, however, 
been shown by Honinbo Dosaku that this move gives the 
first player no decisive advantage, and I have been also told 
by some Japanese that the reason that this move is regarded 
as impolite is because it is a wasted move, and implies a 
disrespect for the adversary's skill, and from what experi- 
ence I have had in the game I think the latter explanation 
is more plausible. At all events, such a move is most un- 
usual and can only be utilized by a player of the highest 
skill. 

When good players commence the game, from the first 
they have in mind the entire board, and they generally play 
a stone in each of the four corners and one or two around 
the edges of the board, sketching out, as it were, the terri- 
tory which they ultimately hope to obtain. They do not 
at once attack each other's stones, and it is not until the 
game is well advanced that anything like a hand to hand 
conflict occurs. Beginners are likely to engage at once in 
a close conflict. Their minds seem to be occupied with an 
intense desire to surround and capture the first stones the 
adversary places on the board, and often their opposing 
groups of stones, starting in one corner, will spread out in 
a struggling mass from that point all over the board. There 
is no surer indication of the play of a novice than this. It 
is just as if a battle were to commence without the guidance 
of a commanding officer, by indiscriminate fisticuffs among 



GENERAL METHODS OF PLAY 59 

the common soldiers. Of the other extreme, or "Ji dori 
Go," we have already spoken. Another way in which the 
play of experts may be recognized is that all the stones of 
a good player are likely to be connected in one or at most 
two groups, while poorer players find their stones divided 
up into small groups each of which has to struggle to form 
the necessary two "Me" in order to insure survival. 

Assuming that we have advanced far enough to avoid 
premature encounters or "Ji dori Go," and are placing 
our stones in advantageous positions, decently and in order, 
the question arises, how many spaces can be safely skipped 
from stone to stone in advancing our frontiers; that is to say, 
how far can stones be separated and yet be potentially con- 
nected, and therefore safe against attack ? The answer is, 
that two spaces can safely be left if there are no adversary's 
stones in the immediate vicinity. To demonstrate this, let 
us suppose that Black has stones at R 13 and R 16, and 
White tries to cut them ofF from each other. White's best 
line of attack would be as follows : 



White 


Black 


R 14 


S 14 


R15 


S 15 


Q.16 


R17 


Qi3 


R 12 


Q.12 





and Black has made good his connection, or Black at his 
fourth move could play at Q 14, then 



w 


B 


Q.15 


R 12 


P 14 takes. 





60 THE GAME OF GO 

There are other continuations, but they are still worse for 
White. If, however, the adversary's stones are already 
posted on the line of advance sometimes it is only safe to 
skip one point, and of course in close positions the stones 
must be played so that they are actually connected. The 
Japanese call this skipping of "Me" by the terms "Ikken 
tobi," "Nikken tobi," "Sangen tobi," etc., which literally 
means "to fly one, two, or three spaces." Although this is 
plain enough, these relations are nevertheless shown on 
Plate 13, Diagrams 1, 11, and in. When stones of oppo- 
site colors on the same line are separated by vacant space 
in a similar way (Diagram iv), then the terms "Ikken 
kakari," "Nikken kakari," etc., are used. "Kakari" really 
means "to hang" or "to be related," but as used in this 
sense it might be translated "to attack." 

Sometimes the stones are placed in relation to each other 
like the Knight's move in Chess. The Knight in Japanese 
is called "Keima," or "the honorable horse," and if the 
stones are of the same color the relation is called "Keima" 
or "Kogeima," "Ko" being the diminutive. If the stones 
are of opposite colors, then the phrase " Keima" or " Kogeima 
kakari" is used as in the previous case. The Japanese also 
designate a relation similar to the Knight's move, but farther 
apart, by special words; thus, if the stones are one space 
farther apart, it is called "Ogeima," or "the Great Knight's 
move," and if the stone is advanced one step still farther, 
it is called "Daidaigeima," or "the Great Great Knight's 
move." On Plate 13, Diagrams v, vi, and vn, are shown 
"Kogeima," "Ogeima," and "Daidaigeima." 

The next question that will trouble the beginner is where 
to place his stones when his adversary is advancing into his 



GENERAL METHODS OF PLAY 



61 



19 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

DIAGRAM TC 




ABCDEFGH-J KLMNOPQRST 



Plate 13 



62 THE GAME OF GO 

territory, and beginners are likely to play their stones di- 
rectly in contact with the advancing forces. This merely 
results in their being engulfed by the attacking line, and 
the stones and territory are both lost. If you wish to stop 
your adversary's advance, play your stones a space or two 
apart from his, so that you have a chance to strengthen 
your line before his attack is upon you. 

The next thing we will speak of is what the Japanese 
call the "Sente." This word means literally "the leading 
hand," but is best translated by our words "having the 
offensive." It corresponds quite closely to the word "at- 
tack," as it is used in Chess, but in describing a game of 
Go it is better to reserve the word "attack "for a stronger 
demonstration than is indicated by the word "Sente." 
The "Sente" merely means that the player having it can 
compel his adversary to answer his moves or else sustain 
worse damage, and sometimes one player will have the 
"Sente" in one portion of the board, and his adversary 
may disregard the attack and by playing in some other 
quarter take the "Sente" there. Sometimes the defend- 
ing player by his ingenious moves may turn the tables on 
his adversary and wrest the "Sente" from him. At all 
events, holding the "Sente" is an advantage, and the anno- 
tations on illustrative games abound with references to it, 
and conservative authors on the game advise abandoning 
a stone or two for the purpose of taking the "Sente." 

Sometimes a player has three stones surrounding a 
vacant space, as shown in Plate 13, Diagram viii, and the 
question arises how to attack this group. This is done by 
playing on the fourth intersection. The Japanese call this 
"Nozoku," or "peeping into," and when a stone is played 



GENERAL METHODS OF PLAY 6 



5 



in this way it generally forces the adversary to fill up that 
''Me." It may be mentioned here also that when your 
adversary is trying to form "Me" in a disputed territory, 
the way to circumvent him is to play your stones on one of 
the four points he will obviously need to complete his "Me," 
and sometimes this is done before he has three of the neces- 
sary stones on the board. The term "Nozoku" is also 
applied to any stone which is played as a preliminary move 
in cutting the connection between two of the adversary's 
stones or groups of stones. 

Sometimes a situation occurs as shown in Plate 13, 
Diagram ix. Here it is supposed to be White's move, and 
he must, of course, play at K 8, whereupon Black would 
play at K 7 ("Osaeru"), and White would have to play at 
L 8 ("Nobiru"), and so on until, if these moves were per- 
sisted in, the formation would stretch in a zigzag line to 
the edge of the board. This situation is called "Shicho," 
which really means "a running attack." It results in the 
capture of the white stones when the edge of the board is 
reached, unless they happen to find a comrade posted on 
the line of retreat, for instance, at P 4, in which case they 
can be saved. Of course, between good players "Shicho" 
is never played out to the end, for they can at once see 
whether or not the stones will live, and often a stone placed 
seemingly at random in a distant part of the board is played 
partly with the object of supporting a retreating line should 
"Shicho" occur. 

Plate 13, Diagram x, shows a situation that often arises, 
in which the White player, by putting his stone at M 1 on 
the edge of the board, can join his two groups of stones. 
This is so because if Black plays at L 1 or N 1, White can 



64 THE GAME OF GO 

immediately kill the stone. This joining on the edge of 
the board is called by the special term "Watari," which 
means "to cross over." Sometimes we find the word 
"Watari" used when the connection between two groups 
is made in a similar way, although not at the extreme edge 
of the board. 

A much more frequent situation is shown at Plate 13, 
Diagram xi. It is not worthy of special notice except 
because a special word is applied to it. If Black plays at 
S 1, it is called "Haneru," which really means the flourish 
which is made in finishing an ideograph. 

We will now take up a few of the other words that are 
used by the Japanese as they play the game. By far the 
most frequent of these are "Tsugu," "Kiru," "Nobiru," 
and "Osaeru." "Tsugu" means "to connect," and when 
two stones are adjacent but on the diagonal, as shown in 
Plate 13, Diagram xn, it is necessary to connect them if 
an attack is threatened. This may be done by playing on 
either side; that is to say, at Q 17 or R 16. If, on the other 
hand, Black should play on both these points, the white 
stones would be forever separated, and this cutting off is 
called "Kiru," although, as a rule, when such a situation 
is worthy of comment, one of the intersections has already 
been filled by the attacking player. Plate 13, Diagram 
xiii, illustrates " Kiru," where, if a black stone is played 
at Q 12, the white stones are separated. "Kiru" means 
"to cut," and is recognizable as one of the component parts 
of that much abused and mispronounced word "Harakiri." 
"Nobiru" means "to extend," and when there is a line of 
stones it means the adding of another one at the end, not 
skipping a space as in the case of "Ikken tobi," but extend- 



GENERAL METHODS OF PLAY 65 

ing with the stones absolutely connected. In Plate 13, 
Diagram xiv, if Black plays at Q 9 it would be called 
"Nobiru." "Osaeru" means "to press down," and this 
is what we do when we desire to prevent our adversary from 
extending his line, as seen in the preceding diagram. It 
is done by playing directly at the end of the adversary's 
line, as shown in Diagram xv, where Black is supposed 
to play at Q 6. Here White must play on one side of the 
black stone, but it must be pointed out that unless there 
is support in the neighborhood for the stone used in " Osaeru," 
the stone thus played runs the risk of capture. In Diagram 
ix, explaining "Shicho," we also had an illustration of 
"Nobiru" and "Osaeru." 

If a stone is played on the intersection diagonally adja- 
cent to another stone, it is called " Kosumu," but this word 
is not nearly so much used as the other four. Sometimes, 
also, when it is necessary to connect two groups of stones 
instead of placing the stone so as actually to connect them, 
as in the case of "Tsugu," the stone is played so as to effec- 
tively guard the point of connection and thus prevent the 
adversary's stone from separating the two groups. This 
play is called "Kake tsugu," or "a hanging connection"; 
e.g., in Diagram xm, if a white stone were played at 
Q 11 it would be an instance of "Kake tsugu" and would 
have prevented the black stone from cutting off the White 
connection at Q 12, for, if the black stone were played 
there after a white stone had been placed at Qn, White 
could capture it on the next move. 

Passing from these words which describe the commonest 
moves in the game, we will mention the expression "Te 
okure" — literally "a slow hand" or "a slow move," which 



66 THE GAME OF GO 

means an unnecessary or wasted move. Many of the moves 
of a beginner are of this character, especially when he has 
a territory pretty well fenced in and cannot make up his 
mind whether or not it is necessary to strengthen the group 
before proceeding to another field of battle. In annotating 
the best games, also, it is used to mean a move that is not 
the best possible move, and we frequently hear it used by 
Japanese in criticising the play. 

"Semeai" is another word with which we must be 
familiar. It means "mutually attacking," from "Semeru," 
"to attack," and "Au," "to encounter," that is to say, if 
the White player attacks a group of black stones, the Black 
player answers by endeavoring to surround the surrounding 
stones, and so on. In our Illustrative Game, Number i, 
the play in the upper right-hand corner of the board is an 
example of "Semeai." It is in positions of this kind 
that the condition of affairs called "Seki" often comes 
about. 

Plate 13, Diagram xvi, shows a position which is illus- 
trated only because a special name is applied to it. The 
Japanese call such a relation of stones "Cho tsugai," liter- 
ally, "the hinge of a door." 

The last expression which we will give is "Naka oshi 
gatchi," which is the term applied to a victory by a large 
margin in the early part of the game. These Japanese 
words mean "to conquer by pushing the center." Begin- 
ners are generally desirous of achieving a victory in this 
way, and are not content to allow their adversary any por- 
tion of the board. It is one of the first things to be remem- 
bered, that, no matter how skilful a player may be, his 
adversary will always be able to acquire some territory, and 



GENERAL METHODS OF PLAY 67 

one of the maxims of the game is not to attempt to achieve 
too great a victory. 

Before proceeding with the technical chapters on the 
Illustrative Games, Openings, etc., it may be well to say a 
word in regard to the method adopted for keeping a record 
of the game. The Japanese do this by simply showing a 
picture of the finished game, on which each stone is num- 
bered as it was played. If a stone is taken and another 
stone is put in its place, an annotation is made over the dia- 
gram of the board with a reference to that intersection, 
stating that such a stone has been taken in "Ko." Such 
a method with the necessary marginal annotation is good 
enough, but it is very hard to follow, as there is no means 
of telling where any stone is without searching all over the 
board for it; and while the Japanese are very clever at this, 
Occidental students of the game do not find it so easy. There- 
fore, I have adopted the method suggested by Korschelt, 
which in turn is founded on the custom of Chess annotation 
in use all over the world. The lines at the bottom of the 
board are lettered from A to T, the letter I being omitted, 
and at the sides of the board they are numbered up from 
1 to 19. Thus it is always easy to locate any given stone. 
In the last few years the Japanese have commenced to adopt 
an analogous method of notation. 



V 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 
I 

Plate 1 4 

White. — Iwasa Kei, fifth degree. 

Black. — Madame Tsutsuki Yoneko, second degree. 

Black has a handicap of two stones. 

Played about October, 1906. The record is from the 
"Tokio Nichi Nichi." 

This game is selected because it is very thoroughly 
played out. The notes are intended for beginners, and 
much is stated which is obvious to a player of any skill; 
supplementing the explanations made in the preceding 
chapter the Japanese names of the various moves are given. 



White 

1. C 15. A rather unusual move 
called "Moku hadzushi." As will 
be seen in the chapter on "Joseki," 
it is the least conservative of the 
three usual openings. 

3- P3- . 



5. D 17. This move secures this 
corner for White. 

7. N3. ("Ikken tobi") M 3 
would be too far. 



Black 

2. R 4. Called "Komoku," the 
most usual and most conservative 
method of commencing the corner 
play. 

4. Q5. Intended to attack No. 
3, and also it commences to make 
territory on the right side of the 
board. 

6. O 4. Continues the attack on 
No. 3. 

8. R 10. Black tries to make 
territory on the right side. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



69 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

fllH 19 




ABCDEFGHJ 

(§) PLAYED AT Q 10 IN "KO" 
#ft) PLAYED AT O 9 IN "KO" 



KLMNOPQRST 



Plate 14 



7° 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 

9. F 3. ("Kogeima.") This is 
the usual move. 

11. C 3 . 

13. C 4. ("Nobiru.") Giving 
aid to No. 1 1. 
15. C5. 

17. D2. 

19. C 2. ("Tsugu.") This move 
is necessary. 

21. F 4. Supporting No. 9. 
"Ikken tobi" would be dangerous. 
23. G6. 

25. K 17. Aiming to make terri- 
tory at the top of the board. 



27. N 4. This is necessary to 
lead out the stone at N 3. "Ikken 
tobi" would be dangerous. 



29. O5. 



Black 

10. C 7. ("Ogeima. ") This is 
the usual reply. See the chapter 
on "Joseki." 

12. D3. Cutting off No. II. 

14. D 5 . 

16. C6. ("Osaeru.") Black 
could not do this before. 

18. E2. 

20. E 3. ("Tsugu.") White now 
has the corner, but Black has possi- 
bilities of expansion. 

22. E 6. Connecting and at the 
same time attacking White. 

24. Cll. Making territory on 
the left side of the board. 

26. L 3. Precipitate. 

Comment by Honinbo Sbuye : 
"Black's twenty-sixth move is pre- 
mature, and it has the effect of pre- 
cipitating the contest too early in the 
game. The territory around that 
point is dangerous ground for Black. 
N 17 would have been better." 

28. L 5. Leading out toward the 
center. ("Ikken taka tobi.") 

Comment by Honinbo Sbuye : 
"Black should have played at H 4. 
White would then play at F 2, and 
Black would reply at E I." 
30. H 3. Taking territory. 

Comment by Honinbo Sbuye : 
"Black should still play at H 4." 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



7i 



White 

31. F 2. Preventing the connec- 
tion of the two Black groups. 
33. G 1. 



35. H 2. Protecting the connec- 
tion at G 2. 
37. F6. 



39. G 8. This move prevents 
White from being shut in. 
41. H8. ("Nobiru.") 

43. G 7. Necessary to connect. 



Black 
32. Fi. ("Haneru.") 

34. E 1. ("Tsugu.") This series 
of moves is necessary and often 
occurs in the game. 

36. J 3. Black must connect, 
otherwise the stone at H 3 is lost. 

38. F 8. Aiming to make terri- 
tory. 

Comment by Honinbo Sbuye : 
"This move does not hit the spot. 
It should have been played at 
L 7 ." 

40. G9. 

42. F 7. Black completes his 
frontier. 

44. F 10. This secures the con- 
nection at F 9, and at the same time 
extends. 



45. K 4. White threatens to 
break through in two places. 
47. H 9. 

49. Gil. This connects White's 
groups and prevents Black from ex- 
tending. 

51. P4. 



gives 



53. M 6. This mo\ 
White the "Sente." 

55. P 7. Leading out the small 
White group. 



46. L4. 

48. L 7. Leading out the stones 
on line L, which are now threatened. 
50. Qj. 



52. Q_j. Making territory on 
the right and at the same time attack- 
ing White's five stones. 

54. L 6. Black must connect. 

56. N 8. A dangerous move. 



72 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 



57. P8. 
59. 6. 

61. M 2. Since White is cut off 
at O 7, he must form "Me" in this 
group. 

^63. Q_8. 

65. R8. 
67. S9. 

69. P5. ("Atari.") 

71. Q.10. 

73. R 9. 

75. O 10. White must sacrifice 
No. 71 in order to escape. 

77. N 9 . 

79. P9. 

81. T 10. ("Haneru.") 

83. Q_io. Taking in "Ko." 

85. T 9. Saving the stone at 
Tio. 

87. O 11. 

89. L 10. 

91. 0.13. White must break up 
Black's territory in the upper right- 
hand corner. 

93. Mn. White retreats. 



Black 

Comment by Honinbo Shuye : 
"This move may be called a little 
dangerous. P 6 would have been pre- 
ferable, and if White responds at O 8 
or O 7, Black could reply at L 9." 

58. P6. 

60. O7. ("Kiru.") Cutting off" 
connection of the white groups. 

62. K 9. Black sees that White 
can form the necessary two "Me," 
and therefore does not press the 
attack. 

64. R 7. Black must extend in 
this way. 

66. S8. ("Osaeru.") 
- 68. S 7. ("Tsugu.") The usual 
series of moves. 

70. Q_6. 

72. Qn 

74. P 10. ("Sente.") 

76. S 10. 

78. M8. 

80. Q_ 9 . Takes. This is "Ko." 

82. Til. ("Osaeru.") 

84. Pn. ("Tsugu.") Black 
must play here to save the frontier. 

86. R 11. Black cannot neglect 
to play here. 

88. L 11. 

90. K 10. 

92. P 12. 






94. M 10. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



White 



Black: 



95. 


Ll2. 








96. 


L 9. Takes. White has es- 












caped by means of sacrificing one 












stone. 






97. 


Pl 3 . 








98. 


O 12. 




-k99. 


NI2. 








100. 


O13. 




D 101. 

*. 103. 


S 12. 


c 


Nozoku.") 


102. 


K12. 




O14. 








104. 


N13. 


("Shicho.") 


105. 


L13. 








106. 


P14. 


Cuts White off. 


107. 


P15. 








108. 


Q.I4- 




109. 


Q.15. 








110. 


R 14. 




111. 


R15. 








112. 

are ob 


S 14. 
viously 


All these last moves 
necessary. 


113. 


O15. 


c 


'onnecting. 


114. 


S15. 




115. 


R16. 








116. 


M 14. 
















Comment by Hontnbo Shuye : 












"This 


move is 


; a mistake; it should 












have b 


een pla) 


'ed at M 15." 


J 117. 


K14. 


V 


/hit 


e's stones in the 


118. 


M 16. 





e 



upper left-hand corner are now con- 
nected. 

119. G 10. A defensive move. 
White attempts to get all his stones 
in one group. 

121. J 12. Protects the connec- 
tion at H 10. 

123. J 13. 

125. N 11. 
127. L 15. 



129. Q17. 

131. N 17. 

133. Q18. 

135. M 17. 



120. F9. ("Tsugu.") 



122. J 11. 

124. N 10. Protecting the "Me" 
at L 10. K 11 is "Kageme." 

126. O 17. 

128. M 15. White's situation in 
the upper right-hand corner looks 
very bad at this point. 

130. R18. A better move than Q.1 6. 

132. N 18. 

134. S 17. 

136. N 16. White is prevented 
from connecting. 



74 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 
137. M 18. 

139. M 12. White must con- 
nect. 

141. Q19. This is to prevent 
"Watari." 

143. S 16. 

145. T 15. A sacrifice to pre- 
vent Black from forming "Me." 

147. R 13. The condition in 
this corner of the board is now a 
fine example of "Semeai." 

149. S 18. 

151. S 19. The situation is now 
highly interesting. 
• 153. R 17. 

155. P 16. Takes. forming a 
perfect "Me," the other being at 
R 18. The play in this corner is 
now complete. 

157. B 5. Protecting the corner. 

159. H 11. 

161. K 16. 



Black 






/ 



163. F 17. 



165. H 16. 

167. H 15. 

169. D 16. 

171. G 15. 



138. M 13. Threatening White's 
other connection. 

140. P 18. To an inexpert eye 
White's group in the upper right- 
hand corner now looks hopeless. 

142. O 16. Black must play here 
to protect his four stones. 

144. T 16. ("Watari.") 

146. T 14. Black must take the 
stone. 

148. S 13. 



150. T 18. 

152. R 12. White's sacrifice at 
T 15 is now bearing fruit. 

154. T 17. Neither side can 
play at T 19 without loss. 

156. C 13. Increasing Black's 
territory. 



158. G 13. 

160. L 16. 

162. F 15. Extending • Black's 
frontiers. 

164. J 15. 

Comment by Honinbo Sbaye : 
"Black's moves 164 and 166 are 
both useless. At move 164 Black 
should have played at D 15." 

166. G 16. 

168. D 15. 

170. D 14. 

172. B 15. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



75 



White 



1 






\ 



173. B 16. 

175. P 2 . 

177. Cm. 

179. P i. 



181. C 1 6. We might say that 
the end game commences at about 
this point. 

183. Lz. 

185. A 7. 

187. G 17. 



189. H 13. A very good move 
to protect White's group. 

191. B6. 

193. A 6. 

195. B 14. 

197. A 15. Takes. 

199. L 18. Completing the 
frontier. 

^ 201. K 18. 

1 203. F 11. 

205. E 16. 

207. H 14. 

209. E5. 

•'211. H5. 

213. H4. 

215. G3. 



N 217. J 8. 



Black 

174. C 14. Completing the 

frontier. 

176. Q_2. 

178. R 1. 

180. R 2. The usual series of 
moves in such a situation. 

182. J 2. 

184. K 3 . 

186. F 16. 

188. F 13. The stone at G 13 
needs support. 

190. A 8. Stopping White's in- 
vasion. 

192. B 7. 

194. B 8. The usual moves. 

196. B 13. 
^198. L 17 

200. M 19. 

202. J 6. All the rest of the 
board is practically finished. 
*204. E 11. 
206. E 15. 
G14. 
E 12. 
- 212. J 5. 
214. J 4. 
216. J 9. 

Comment by Honinbo Shuye : 
"This move is unprofitable. Had 
Black played at J 8, a very good 
profit would have been secured." 
218. E 4. 



208. 
210. 



76 THE GAME OF GO 

White Black 



219. 


F5- 


220. 


Di. 


221. 


Ci. 


222. 


D6. 


223. 


o 9 . 


224. 


M 9 . 


225. 


Ki 3 . 


226. 


Kn. 


227. 


J 7- 


228. 


H6. 


229. 


Hio. 


230. 


G12. 


231. 


Hl2. 


232. 


K 7 . 


233. 


N7. 


234. 


8. 


235. 


S 5. By sacrificing one 


236. 


0.4. 


stone White forces Black to fill two 






spaces. 








237. 


T8. 


238. 


T 7 - 


239. 


J I- 


240. 


K2. 


241. 


Ki. 


242. 


A 13. 


243. 


L 19. 


244. 


N 19. 


245. 


P19. 


246. 


O18. 


247. 


A 14. 


248. 


L 14. 


249. 


K15. 


250. 


M 5 . 


251. 


N 5 . 


252. 


K8. 


253. 


Q.9. ("Ko tsugu.") 







Black must connect. 



Here the game is left as finished in the published report, 
but the remaining moves are not all strictly speaking 
"Dame." There are quite a number of moves to be made 
before we can proceed to the count. The first question is, 
naturally, what stones are dead, and we find that White 
has three dead stones at S 12, S 5, and K 4. Black has three 
dead stones at J 15, O 4, and R 18. The white stones at 
P, Q, and R 13, are not dead yet. They have aggressive 
possibilities, and must be actually surrounded. As near as 
we can judge the game would proceed as follows : 

First : Necessary although obvious moves which are not 
strictly "Dame." 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 77 

White Black 

254. Q.I2. The three white 
stones must be taken before Black 
is safe. 
255. R ig. White must take this 256. T 15. A necessary connec- 

before filling T 19. tion. 

257. N 6. Necessary to form 
connection. 

Second: The following moves which are strictly "Dame." 
It makes no difference which side fills these intersections, 
but it would generally be done as follows : 

White Black 

258. T 19. 

259. O 19. 260. P 17. 

261. N 15. 262. N 14. 

^263. F 12. 264. J 10. 

265. H 7. 266. M 7. 

267. M4. 268. M3. 

The frontiers are now absolutely in contact, and the 
count can be made, and it will be seen that after filling up 
the vacant territory with the captured stones as far as they 
will go, Black has won by three points. The Japanese 
would rearrange the board in order to make the counting 
of the spaces more easy ("Me wo tsukuru"), but for the 
first game or two the beginner might find it less confusing to 
omit this process. 

Honinbo Shuye comments on this game as follows : 
" In spite of so many errors, Black wins showing how 
great is the advantage resulting from a handicap." 



78 



THE GAME OF GO 



II 



Plate 15 

White. — Murase Shuho, seventh degree. 
Black. — Uchigaki Sutekichi, fifth degree. 

This game is taken from Korschelt, and the notes are 
his. In some of these notes will be found mere repetitions 
of matter that I have inserted in the preceding chapters, 
or which will be hereafter found in the chapter on " Joseki." 
These notes are, however, very full and valuable, and a 
little repetition may have the effect of aiding the memory 
of the student, and will do no harm. Contrary to the cus- 
tom, this game was played without handicaps. 



Black 



White 



1. R 16. In the beginning of the 2. D 17. 

game the corners and margins are 
first occupied, because it is there 
that positions can most easily be 
taken which cannot be killed, 
and which also contain territory. 
From the edges and corners the 
player makes toward the center. 
This process is repeated in every 
game. 

3. Q_3. In taking a corner that 
is still vacant there is a choice among be commenced at P 16. 
seven points; e.g., in the corner 
designated as D 4, these points are 
D 3, D 4, D 5, C 4, C 5, E 3, and 



4. P 17. The attack could also 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



79 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 




ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 15 






8o 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 

E 4. On the other hand, C 3 and 
E 5 are bad, because the territory 
which is obtained by C 3 is too 
small, and the adversary would re- 
ply to E 5 with D 4, by means of 
which E 5 would be cut off from the 
margin. Of moves that are good 
D 3-C 4 are the surest, and most 
frequently used. E 4-D 5 formerly 
were the favorite moves, but the 
preceding moves are now preferred 
to them. E 3-C 5 are seldom used. 
All of this, of course, applies to 
the corresponding points in the 
other three corners. 
5. C4. 



White 



7. O 4. Beginners would have 
replied to Q_6 with Q_5 or R 5. 
They attack their opponent at close 
quarters from the beginning, be- 
cause they cannot take in the whole 
field at a glance. Their entire effort 
is to absorb the last stone that their 
opponent has played. When two 
beginners play together the battle 



6. Q_6. Corresponding to No. 4, 
this move should have been played 
at R 5 or Q_5, but White plavs on 
Q6, because if he played on Q5, 
Black would have replied at R 10 
or R 9, and later White P 5 and 
Black O 4 would have followed, 
with the result that White has 
nothing, while Black has obtained 
two positions, one on 0-Q_ and 
the other on R. 

8. D 15. The position D 15- 
D 17 is very strong, and players like 
to take it. This applies, of course, 
to the corresponding positions in 
other parts of the board, of which 
there are seven; i.e., C 16-E 16, 
Q3-Q5, etc. As soon as one player 
gets a position of the kind his oppo- 
nent often takes a similar position on 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



81 



Black 

moves slowly from a corner out over 
the board, and one side of the board 
is entirely filled with stones, while 
the other is completely empty. This 
is a sure sign of bad play. In the 
beginning the good players spread 
their stones over the board as much 
as possible, and avoid close con- 
flicts. 
9. E4. 



11. R 13. In place of taking this 
secure position on line R, Black 
should have attacked the white 
stone on P 17 with L 17, and in this 
way Black would have obtained 
positions on both line 17 and on 
line R. 

13. D5. 

15. B4. 

17. E6. 

19. F6. 



White 

the next move in order to balance 
the advantage gained by his adver- 
sary; this is something like castling 
in Chess. 



10. C 10. If White did not oc- 
cupy this point, we might have the 
following continuation: 

B. C 10 W. C 7 

B. C 13 W. E 7 

and Black has the advantage, be- 
cause White's stones at C 7-E 7 can 
only get one "Me" on the edge of 
the board, and later on must seek a 
connection with some other group. 
By constantly harassing such en- 
dangered groups territory is often 
obtained. 

12. C 5. White sees that Black 
plays too carefully, and therefore 
challenges him with a bold but pre- 
mature attack that gives the whole 
game its character. 



14. C6. 

16. D6. 

18. E7. 

20. H 3. As soon as Black an- 
swers this move, White will take 
territory on the right or left of H 3. 



82 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 

21. G 2. Is played very care- 
fully. K 3 would probably have 
been better. In that case White 
would either have played H 5 in 
order to save H 3, whereupon 

B. F7 W. E8 

B. K 5 
would have followed, or White 
would have answered at K 4. 



23. H 2. The only correct an- 
swer would have been K 3, which 
would have separated White's twen- 
tieth and twenty-second stones. 



25. 6. 



27. K 17. All good players agree 
that 27 should not have been 
played at K 17, but at L 17. This 
is difficult to understand because 
K 17 can be supported from both 



White 

22. M 3. Two stones which mu- 
tually support each other on the 
margin of the board and form a 
position cannot be separated by 
more than two spaces; for instance, 
R 13-R 16. In that case the ad- 
versary cannot cut one off from the 
other. (Korschelt here inserts con- 
tinuations similar to what we have 
shown in a preceding chapter.) 
Therefore, White's twentieth and 
twenty-second moves are merely 
intended to fill territory that would 
otherwise fall to Black, and are not 
intended to form a new group. 

24. M 5. White seeks to form a 
connection with No. 6, which Black 
frustrates by his twenty-fifth move. 
It is of the greatest importance to 
prevent the union of groups which 
the adversary has formed on the 
margin, in order that they may re- 
main weak, and require continuous 
defense. 

The player who has the "Sente" 
most of the time will generally be 
the victor. 

26. Q_9. Is very necessary in 
order not to surrender the entire 
right side to Black. 

28. H 17. This move has the 
effect of abandoning stone No. 4 at 
P 17. After Black's twenty-ninth 
move at N 17, No. 4 could still 
escape by means of P 15, but giving 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



83 



Black 

sides at G 17 and N 17, but L 17 is 
better because Black should be 
occupied not merely with taking a 
position, but more particularly with 
killing White's fourth stone. In the 
sequel K 17 is actually taken by 
White. 



' 



29. N 17. 
31. G7. 







flae 






10 Hi. 






UAot/e. 


33. 


D8. 




35. 


Du. 




37. 


D 12. 




39. 


D13. 




41. 


G 9 - 





White 

it up brings more territory elsewhere 
than is there lost. It is a favorite 
device of strong players to appar- 
ently abandon a position to their 
adversary after first preparing it so 
that eventually it may live, or so 
that it may afterward aid in sur- 
rounding one of the adversary's 
groups. The abandoned position 
often reawakens to life if the 
weaker adversary allows his sur- 
rounding group to be itself sur- 
rounded and taken before the 
capture of the abandoned position 
has been completed. 

30. F7. 

32. K 3. It might have been 
better to have played at G 8. Then 
if Black replied at H 7, White could 
play at C 10, and the white terri- 
tory in the neighborhood of line D 
would be very large. Certainly in 
that case H 3 would have been 
abandoned, but not M 3-M 5. 
Since 32 K 3 is purely defensive, 
Black gets the attack, and appreci- 
ably reduces the white territory in 
the neighborhood of line D. 

34. D 7. 

36. C 11. 

38. C 12. 

40. C 13. 

42. G 6. If this move had not 
divided the black groups, Black 
would have become too powerful. 



8 4 THE GAME OF GO 

Black White 

43. H 7. 44. E 9. This connects the two 

parts of the White position, which 
connection was threatened by 
Black's thirty-third stone. More- 
over, the "Sente" remains with 
White, because Black cannot allow 
his position to be broken into 
through F 10. 

45. G 12. 46. di 4 . 

47. R 14. 48. R 17. 

49. S 17. 50. Q16. 

51. R 15. 52. R n. The beginner will 

wonder that 52 Q15 did not follow 
51 R 15. This is because 53 R 10- 
54 R 9 would result, and White 
would be at a disadvantage. The 
moves 46-52 are part of a deeplv 
thought-out plan on the part of 
White. Black could afford to ignore 
No. 4 as long as it stood alone. 
Thereupon White increases it by 
Nos. 48 and 50, and Black must 
accept the sacrifice, because other- 
wise Nos. 27-29 are threatened. By 
this sacrifice White gets the territory 
around No. 27, and also has an 
opportunity of increasing his position 
on line Q.by his fifty-second move. 

53. O 16. 54. M 16. On the fifty-third 

move Black proceeds with the cap- 
ture of Nos. 4, 48, and 50, while 
White on his fifty-fourth move hems 
in No. 27. 

55. H 16. This move is ignored 56. M 17. 

by White because Black must reply 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



85 



Black 

to his fifty-sixth and fifty-eighth 
moves in order to save Nos. 29 and 53. 

57. N 18. 

59. Q15. 

61. J 16. 

63. E 16. 

65. G 17. 

67. P 16. This is necessary to 
avoid the following continuation: 
W. P16, Oi5,Ni6, O14 
B. P15, N 15, O 17, P18 
and White has the advantage. 

69. D 14. 

71. R5. 

73. E 15. It is of the utmost 
importance to Black to occupy this 
point, for otherwise White would 
press far into his territory through 
this opening. He goes first, how- 
ever, on his seventy-first move to 
R 5, because White must follow, 
and then to 73, because on this 
move he loses the "Sente." Black 
could also have occupied S 5, to 
which White would have replied with 
S 6, because otherwise the following 
continuation would have occurred : : 
B. S 5, S 6, S 8, R 8, Q.8 
W. E 15, S 7, T 7, R 7 
and the White position is broken up. 
It is because Black played at E 15 
too hastily and without first occupy- 
ing S 5 that White can break up the 
Black position by the series of moves 
Nos. 74-82. 



White 



58. 


M18. 


60. 


J 17. 


62. 


K18. 


64. 


D16. 


66. 


K16. 



68. K 15. 



70. C 14. 

72. R6. 

74. Q_5_ Murase Shuho thought 
that 74 was a bad move and that 
S 5 would have been better. The 
game would then have continued 
as follows: 

B. 73, E15, R 4 
W. S 5, S 4 
He also thought that White's moves 
from 76-82 were bad, because 
nothing in particular was accom- 
plished by separating O 4 from 
O 6, since it was impossible to kill 
them. 



76. 


0.4. 


78. 


?3- 


80. 


o 3 - 


82. 


P4- 


84. 


L8. 


86. 


F3- 


88. 


F 4 . 


90. 


G 5 . 


92. 


J 6- 



86 THE GAME OF GO 

Black White 

75. S 5 . 

77. R 3. 

79. P 2 . 

81. O2. 

83. N8. 

85. O 10. 

87. G 3 . 

89. E 3 . 

91. E 5. Black has played on 
this point because otherwise E 6-F 6 
will die; thus, 

W. E 5, B. F 5 takes 

W. E 5 retakes 

93. G 4. This is intended to se- 94. H 14. From this point on, 

cure H 2, G 2 and G 3. The sim- the territory in the center is filled 
plest way of doing this would be to up. Black and White seem to get 
play at F 2, but G 4 gains six more it in about equal parts. 
"Me" because F 3-F 4 may be re- 
garded as taken. 

95. L 10. 

97. H 11. 

99. E 14. 

101. G 10. 

103. Gil. 

105. Qjo. 

107. P8. 

109. O9. 

111. P 10. 

113. N7. 

115. Lg. 

117. J 9. 
> 119. J 10. 

121. A 7. This move is worthy 
of study. 

123. N2. 124. J 5. 



96. 


J 11. 


98. 


F 14. 


100. 


H 10 


102. 


H 12, 


104. 


8. 


106. 


R 10. 


108. 


P 9 . 


110. 


O7. 


112. 


R8. 


114. 


P7- 


116. 


K8. 


118. 


K12. 


120. 


N6. 


122. 


B7. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 87 

Black White 



125. 


E18. 


127. 


G18. 


129. 


M12. 


131. 


Fn. 


133. 


En. 


135. 


S13. 


137. 


L 12. 


139. 


M13. 


141. 


Kn. 


143. 


A 6. 


145. 


B 5 . 


147. 


A 5. 


149. 


S6. 


151. 


M8. 


153. 


D19. 


155. 


E 19. 


157. 


N 3 . 


159. 


L2. 


161. 


K2. 


163. 


F2. 


165. 


F17. 


167. 


H 18. 


169. 


G19. 


171. 


P15. 


173. 


O19. 


175. 


O17. 


177. 


s 4 . 


179. 


R12. 


181. 


O13. 



126. 


Dl8. 


128. 


G13. 


130. 


F 12. 


132. 


E io. 


134. 


S 12. 


136. 


Nl 4 . 


138. 


Ll 3 . 


140. 


L 14. 


142. 


J 12. 


144. 


A 8. 


146. 


B6. 


148. 


B8. 


150. 


S 7 . 


152. 


M 6. Not at M 7, because 


that would lead to the loss of K 8- 


L8. 




154. 


C19. 


156. 


C18. 


158. 


N 4 . 


160. 


L* 


162. 


F5- 


164. 


E17. 


166. 


H 19. 


168. 


J 18. 


170. 


P14. 


172. 


N19. 


174. 


M 19. 


176. 


R 4 - 


178. 


T6. 


180. 


S 11. 


182. 


O14. 



183. P 13. 

This is as far as the game is recorded in the Go maga- 
zine, published by Murase Shuho. A good player can now 



88 



THE GAME OF GO 



foresee the result at the cost of a little trouble. Black has 
won by five points. 

According to Korschelt's view, the play would have 
proceeded as follows: 



Black 



185. 


T 4 - 


187. 


S3- 


189. 


Gi6. 


191. 


H8. 


193. 


Nl2. 


195. 


J 7- 


197. 


F8. 


199. 


Dio. 


201. 


J'5- 


203. 


J 19. 


205. 


Q.11. 


207. 


F16. 


209. 


Ji- 


211. 


M7. 


213. 


H 4 . 


215. 


N15. 


217. 


K 10. 


219. 


Mi. 


221. 


M15. 


223. 


Fq. 


225. 


P12. 


227. 


T14. 


229. 


H 19. 



Takes. 



White 



184. 


T 5 - 


186. 


T 7 - 


188. 


G15. 


190. 


J 8. 


192. 


N13. 


194. 


M 14. 


196. 


K 7 . 


198. 


E8. 


200. 


D 9 . 


202. 


J H. 


204. 


K 19. 


206. 


F15. 


208. 


J2- 


210. 


J3- 


212. 


L7- 


214. 


J 4- 


216. 


K 9 . 


218. 


M2. 


220. 


Q.I3- 


222. 


L15. 


224. 


Q.12. 


226. 


Ti3- 


228. 


T12. 



The stones that are still to be played are "Dame." By 
playing these no "Me" can be either won or lost, and for 
the most part it makes no difference whether they are filled 
up by Black or White. These are as follows: 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



89 



O 15, N 16, H 5, H 6, F 13, E 13, H 5, H 15, F 10, E 13 
E 12, H 15, F 10. 

Black has sixty-four "Me" and White fifty-seven 
"Me." 

Ill 

Black. — Ito Kotaro, fifth degree. 
White. — Karigane Junichi, sixth degree. 

This game was played in Tokio about January, 1907, 
and is a fine illustration of the rule of "Ko." No handicaps 
were given. 



Black 

I. C4. ("Komoku.") Black be- 2. Qj. 
ing the weaker player, adopts a 
conservative opening. 

3. D17. 

5. E 3. The opening is conven- 
tional so far. 
7. F16. 
9. C18. 

II. E 17. 
13. R 15. 
15. R 11. 
17. N17. 



19. P 16. White's stone at Q.17 
is now shut in. If the black stone 
at N 17 were at M 17, White could 
have escaped. 

21. O 17. 22. S 16. 

23. R 16. 24. R 17. 

25. S 15. 26. S 17. 



White 



4. 


C15. 






6. 


C 9. This is an unusual 


I move. 


8. 


C17. 






10. 


D16. 






12. 


Q.17. 






14. 


R6. 






16. 


K 3 - 






18. 


D 12. Not 


the best 


move. 


P16 


would have b 


een better. 


This 


part of the game is 


generally devoted 


to the general distribution of 


stones. 


20. 


P17. 







9° 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 

27. P18. 

29. O 19. Probably not the best. 
O 15 would have had greater possi- 
bilities. 

31. J 16. Not the best. O 15 
would have been better. 
33. Q15. 



35. O 16. 
37. R13. 
39. Q_u. 
41. Ph. 

43. R 8. Not the best move. N 11 
would have been more aggressive. 



45. K17. 

47. L 16. 

49. L15. 

51. K18. 

53. L 18. 

55. H 16. 

57. H 15. 

59. H 14. 

61- J 13. 

63. O 10. 

65. N 10. 

67. K 12. An ineffective move; 
B 17 would have been better. 

69. B 18. 

71. F 18. Black must defend his 
corner, which is already much re- 
duced in size. 



White 

28. Q_i8. 

30. S 19. The corner is a typical 
Go problem. White had to place 
this stone very carefully in order to 
provide for the necessarytwo "Me." 

32. Q_i6. 

34. P 15. Cutting Black's con- 
nection. The necessity for a black 
stone at O 15 is now apparent. 

36. P 14. 

38. Cm 2. 

40. P12. 

42. M 13. 

44. K 16. White now com- 
mences a series of moves to break 
up Black's territory at the top of 
the board. 

46. L 17. 

48. K15. 

50. J 17. 

52. H 17. 

54. J 15. 

56. G 16. 

58. G 15. 

60. G17. 

62. O 11. 

64. N 11. 

66. M 11. 

68. B 17. 

70. F 15. 
72. A 18. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



9i 



Black 

73. G 19. 

75. K 14. The three white 
stones, J 15, K 15, and K 16 are 
dead. They were sacrificed in order 
to break up Black's territory at the 
top of the board. 

77. M 16. 

79. Q7. 

81. P8. 

83. Q.9. Takes. 

85. O 13. An effort to deprive 
the white group of the necessary 
"Me" and to envelop them. 

87. N 13. 

89. L 10. 

91. K 10. Kn would not do; 
White could break through in that 
case. 

93. S 12. 

95. S 10. 

97. S 14. 

99. T13. 

101. N 12. 

103. M9. 

105. J 11. 



White 



"Watari." 



White is now shut in. 



74. L 14. 
76. M 15. 



78. Q8. 

80. R 7. 

82. S 8. 

84. R 9. 

86. O 14. 



88. N14. 
90. L 11. 
92. R 12. 



94. Q.13. 

96. R 14. 

98. S 13. Takes. 

100. L 12. 

102. M 10. 

104. K 11. 

106. O 12. White saves his 
group in this way because he can get 
the position called "Magari shimo- 
ku wa me" no matter what Black 
does. 



107. R4. 


108. 


0.4- 


109. R3. 


110. 


R2. 


111. S2. 


112. 


Q.2. 


113. S 5. 


114. 


Q.6. 


115. Si. Black's corner is small, 


116. 


Q.8. 


but it will surely live. 







Takes. "Ko. 



9 2 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 



White 



117. 


P7- 








118. 


P 9 . 




119. 


R8. 


JS.O. 






120. 


T 3 - 


An effort to destroy 












the corner. 




121. 


S3- 








122. 


Q.8. 


"Ko." 


123. 


Pio. 








124. 


N 4 . 


White eventually wins 












the game by 


means of the territory- 












he now maps 


out. 


125. 


E16. 








126. 


E15. 




127. 


D 14. 


"Nozoku." 






128. 


D15. 




129. 


c 7 . 








130. 


J 10. 




131. 


L8. 








132. 


H 11. 




133. 


J 12. 








134. 


J9- 




135. 


Gn. 


Not very 


good. 


136. 


N8. 




Black 


should have played 


at 








K8. 
















137. 


N 9 . 








138. 


K8. 




139. 


L 9 . 


Black must play h 


ere 


140. 


B 4 . 




to protect his 


two stones. 












141. 


B3- 








142. 


D 4 . 




143. 


C3- 








144. 


c 5 . 




145. 


C6. 


An unusual 


way 


of 


146. 


N6. 




playing the corner. 












^47. 


L6. 








148. 


K 5 . 




149. 


K6. 








150. 


J5- 




151. 


J 6. 








152. 


H6. 




153. 


H 7 . 








154. 


Gio. 




155. 


Fn. 








156. 


G 7 . 




157. 


G6. 








158. 


H 5 . 




159. 


G8. 








160. 


F7- 




161. 


F8. 








162. 


H8. 




163. 


J 7- 


Note how th« 


: center 


164. 


F 10. 




fills up 


> with< 


jut either side 


getting 








territory there. 












165. 


E8. 








166. 


E 7 . 




167. 


E 11. 








168. 


E 10. 





ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



93 



Black 



White 



169. 


Dn. 


171. 


D 7 . 


173. 


E 5 . 


175. 


C14. 


177. 


R8. 



"Ko. 



weak 



move. White's position is already 
better, and Black should play at 
B 14, where he might have a chance 
to kill White's group, in the upper 
left-hand corner. 

179. B 13. 

181. C 12. 



183. L 7. 

185. C8. 

187. B5. 

189. A 4. Takes. 

191. B 7. 

193. A 6. Takes. 



195. E4. 



197. J 8. 

199. R8. "Ko." 

201. H 19. 

203. O9. Takes. 

205. G 4. Invading White's ter- 
ritory. 

207. E 2. 



170. 


D8. 




172. 


F5- 




174. 


F6. 




176. 


M7. 




178. 


B14. 


White's group is now 


safe. 







180. A 14. 

182. B 16. This is an interest- 
ing problem. If White plays at 
B 15, Black could kill the group. 

184. D5. 

186. D9. 

188. B6. 

190. D6. 

192. B 8. 

194. F 2. Defending his large 
territory on the lower edge of the 
board. 

196. Q8. "Ko." Attacking 
Black's group which has still to 
form the necessary two "Me." 

198. H 9. White cannot afford 
to fill the "Ko" at R 8. 

200. G i€. 

"Ko." Returning to 



202. Q8 
the attack. 

204. E 6. 
tion. 

206. G5 



A necessary connec- 



Takes. White must 



do this or lose ten stones. 
208. G3. 



94 THE GAME OF GO . 

Black White 



209. P6. 








210. P5. 




211. M5. 








212. N5. 




213. M4. 








214. M3. 
vasion. 


This ends 


215. F4. 








216. Q14. 




217. R 13. 








218. B 19. 


"Sente." 


219. D 18. 


Black must 


connect. 


220. S 13. 


"Ko." 


221. R 5. 








222. Q5. 




223. R 13. 


"Ko." Black 


must 


224. J 18. 




win this "Ko 


or lose five 


stones. 






225. J 19. 








226. S 13. 


"Ko." 


227. L4. 


"Sente." 






228. L3. 




229. R 13. 


"Ko." 


Bl 


ack's 


230. H 12. 




group is now 


safe. 










231. S 13. 


"Ko tsugu.' 


» 




232. E 13. 




233. B 10. 








234. B9. 




235. F 13. 








236. E 14. 




237. G 14. 








238. H3. 




239. S 6. 








240. D3. 




241. D2. 








242. C 10. 




243. Cll. 








244. B 11. 




245. R 8. 


"Ko." 






246. M 6. 




247. L 5 . 








248. Q8. 


"Ko." 


249. R 1. 








250. Q_i. 




251. R 8. 


"Ko." 






252. S 7. 




253. S 9. 








254. Q_8. 


"Ko." 


255. E 12. 








256. D 13. 




257. R 8. 


"Ko." 






258. G 12. 


"Sen te." 


259. F 12. 








260. Q8. 


"Ko." 


261. F3. 








262. G2. 




263. R 8. 


"Ko." 






264. T4. 




265. T2. 


Black must 


de 


fend 


266. Q8. 


"Ko." 


lis group. 












267. T 16. 








268. T 17. 




269. R 8. 


"Ko." 






270. T6. 









White 


272. 


Q.8. 


"Ko." 


274. 


R 19. 




276. 


P19. 


"Ko." 


278. 


Q.8. 


"Ko." 


280. 


T=*8. 


S 1 Is 


282. 


N15. 




284. 


K13. 


"Ko." 


286. 


L13. 


" Ko tsugu." 


288. 


Q.8. 


"Ko." 


290. 


R8. 


"Ko tsugu." 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 95 

Black 

271. T 5. Black must stop the 
White advance. 
273. Q.19. 
275. R8. "Ko." 
277. O 18. 

279. S-rS.^if Black can also 
1 play at T^9, White's corner is dead. 
P 281. R8. "Ko." 

283. L 13. Purposely starting 
another " Ko." 
285. B 12. 
287. A 11. Takes. 
289. C 13. 

291. K9. Black must form an- >292. O 6. 
other "Me" for this group at once. 

293. J 4. 294. H 4. 

295. K4. 296. C2. 

297. B 2. 298. E 1. 

299, C 1. Takes. 300. J 3. 

301. T9. The game is prac- 302. N 16. 

tically over at this point. 

303. J 14. Taking three stones. 304. O 8. 

305. T 19. Takes. 306. O 7. ^ 

307. y 9. Connecting. 308. T 15. Takes. ^ X 

309. T8. 310. C 19. 

311. F 17. 312. A 13. 

^ £ 313. A 12. 314. A 17. 

\ O 315. D 19. 316. A 19. 

" 317. R 10. 318. A 9. 

|P 319. A 10. 320. Q19. "Kotsugu." 

^ - 321. A 7. 

The game as published ends at this point, but there 
still remain moves to be made that are not strictly "Dame." 
White must kill the three black stones at E 8, F 8, and G 8, 



9 6 



THE GAME OF GO 



as that portion of the board is not quite disposed of, and 
"Seki" might easily occur if White plays badly. The game 
might continue as follows: 



Black 

323. G 13. 

325. H 13. 

327. A 8. 

329. D 10. 

331. D 1. Stopping White's ad- 
vance. 



White 

322. F 1. 

324. E 9. 

326. H 10. White must connect. 

328. F9. 

330. G 9. White must take the 
three stones. 

332. T16. "Tsugu." 



The following moves are strictly "Dame": 
F 14, H 18, M 8, O 15, T 14. Either side can fill these 
"Me." 

The following stones are dead and can now be re- 
moved : 

White. — K 8, L 17, T 3, T 4. 

Black. — N 12, N 13, O 13, S 18. 

White wins by four stones. After the dead stones are 
used to fill up the vacant spaces, and the board is rearranged, 
it will be found that White has fourteen "Me" and Black 
ten "Me." 

More than the usual number of moves were made in 
this game. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



97 



IV 



Plate 1 6 

White. — Hirose Heijiro. fifth degree. 
Black. — Nagano Keijiro, fourth degree. 

Black has a handicap of two stones. (D 4 and Q 16.) 
Played March, 1907, in Tokio. Both players were of 

the Hoyensha School. 

When this game was published, it was annotated by 

Mr. Iwasaki Kenzo, and I have translated his annotations; 

these are indicated by the initials "I. K." 



White 

1. R4. 
3. E17. 

5. C 11. To prevent Black form- 
ing territory on the left side. 
7. O3. 



9. R 14. White breaks into 
Black's territory at once. 
11. O 17. 



13. N16. 
15. P 17. 
17. Q.13. 



White must look out 



for the stone at R 14. 



19. O 13. 



Black 

2. C 16. 

4. D15. 

6. C 7. P 3 would have been 
better. (Iwasaki Kenzo.) 

8. R 10. This move is called 
"Moku Shita." It is one of Murase 
Shuho's inventions. 

10. R6. 

12. O 16. These moves will be 
found in the chapter on " Joseki." 

14. O 15. 

16. Q.17. 

18. R 15. This move secures 
the corner, and at the same time 
protects the connection of Black's 
stones on lines O and Q. "Ikkyo 
ryo toku." 

20. N 14. 



9 8 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 

21. L 17. Replies to Black's last 
move. 
23. S 14. 
25. G 17. 
27. Pio. 

29. C 14. 
31. C13. 



33. D 11. 

35. E 11. 

37. F 12. White cuts off. This 
is an aggressive move. 

39. G 12. 

41. G13. 

43. D 8. White provides an es- 
cape for stones on line 11. 

45. H 10. 

47. D7. 

49. D6. 

51. F6. 

53. J 10. White cannot risk 
jumping farther. 

55. H 17. Not good. K 8 would 
have been better. (I. K.) 

57. C 8. Good, but not the best. 
M 12 would have helped the white 
stones near the center. 

59. J 14. White retreats. 

61. L 14. 

63. L 12. 



Black 



22. Q14. 



24. F 16. 

26. S 15. Secures the corner. 

28. Q8. P 6 would have been 
better. (I. K.) 

30. D 14. 

32. D 12. Not the best move. 
M 3 would have been better. 
(I. K.) 

34. E 12. 

36. F 11. 

38. F 13. G 14 would have been 
better. (I. K.) 

40. F 10. 

42. F 14. 

44. H 15. H 14 was better, as 
White dare not cut off at G 14. 
(I. K.) 

46. F8. 

48. C6. 

50. D5. 

52. H 9. Black must provide an 
exit for his stones on line K. \~ 

54. H8. 

56. K 8. Black promptly es- 
capes. 

58. L 10. Black commences an 
attack on White's five stones. 

60. J 15. 
62. L 15. 

64. } 12. This is a "Sute ishi," 
but it greatly aids Black's attack. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



99 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 




ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

§ PLAYED AT L17 IN "KO" @ PLAYED AT 5 12 IN "KO" 

PLAYED AT L17 IN KO" © PLAYED AT K17 IN "K0" 

§ PLAYED AT L19 IN "RO" © PLAYED AT K17 IN "K0" 

PLAYED AT K17 IN RO" 

Plate i6 



100 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 

65. K 12. Not a good move. 
By reason of this Black's sixty- 
eighth move is made possible. 
(I. K.) 

67. J 13. Another move which 
arrests the development of the game. 
(I. K.) 

69. K 18. 

71. J 17. 

73. K 16. Takes. 



75. P 8. White abandons the 
field and plays elsewhere. 

77. 8. 

79. F4. 

81. F2. 

83. F 7. White perfects his con- 
nection. 

85. Q_ 9 . 

87. Q.7. 

89. P6. 

91. O7. Takes. 

93. C 18. Stronger than C 17. 

95. S4. 

97. P 14. 

99. R 13. 

101. L17. Takes in "Ko." 

103. K 3. Invading Black's ter- 
ritory. White can connect on either 
side. 

105. H 2. 

107. J 3. 



Black 



66. K 15. 



68. K 17. Attacks White's stones 
at the top of the board. 

70. L 18. 

72. M 17. 

74. L 16. Black's attack on the 
upper right-hand corner is now well 
developed. 

76. P7. 

78. H 5. 

80. H 3 . 

82. D2. 

84. M3. 

86. R 9. 

88. R8. 

90. M 5. Black enlarges his ter- 
ritory at the bottom of the board. 

92. S 5. Forming "Me" for the 
side group. 

94. K 17. Takes in "Ko." 

96. R 12. 

98. Qi 5. 

100. T 4 . 

102. M 18. 

104. L4. 



106. G3. 
108. J 4. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES • 101 



White 



109. G2. 
111. E2. 



113. L 8. Threatening Black's 
territory. If Black defends, White 
can connect somewhere. 

115. J 6. 

117. L 6. White's attack on this 
territory is very fine. 

119. K4. 



Black 

110. M 7. 

112. C 3. If Black plays at D 3, 
White could reply at D I with the 
"Sente." 

114. K9. 



116. H6. 
118. L7. 

120. K5. 



121. 


J 5- 






122. K6. 


123. 


H 4 - 


Takes. 




124. S3. 


125. 


R3- 






126. S 2. 


127. 


J 7- 






128. M 9. Black cannot neglect 
this — the whole center of the board 
might be lost. 


129. 


R2. 






130. H 7. 


131. 


T15. 






132. S 17. Better than T 16, as 
it provides for "Me" in the corner. 


133. 


S 12. 






134. S 11. 


135. 


L 19. 






136. K 17. Takes in "Ko." 


137. 


N 9 . 






138. N8. 


139. 


L17. 


Takes in 


'Ko." 


140. M 16. 


141. 


N7. 






142. M 8. 


143. 


B17. 






144. B 16. 


145. 


B8. 






146. M 12. Threatening to sur- 
round the ten white stones in the 
center. 


147. 


E 9 . 






148. F9. 


149. 


K14. 


Forming 


"Me" 


for 150. G 11. 


roup i 


n center. 






151. 


H 11. 






152. H 14. 


153. 


Mn. 






154. H 13. 


155. 


H 12. 






156. M 13. 



KU 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 



157. L n. 



159. B 6. B 5 might have been 
more aggressive. 

161. B 7. 

163. N5. 

165. N4. 

167. N2. 

169. G5. 



171. B 12. 

173. E 18. 

175. P 12. 

177. E 16. 

179. R 5. 

181. R 1. 

183. Q_5. This part of the board 
is now completed. 

185. A 5. 

187. A 6. 

189. Mf 

191. K2. 

193. J 19. 

195. L 19. Takes in "Ko." 

197. F 18. 

199. C 17. 

201. D 19. "Watari." 

203. D 10. 

205. M 10. 

207. K 10. 

209. P9. 

211. K 13. 

213. M 14. 



Black 

158. S 1. This move is worth 
five or six points. 

160. B 5. 

162. C 5 . 

164. N6. 

166. L2. 

168. M 2. Otherwise White 
would play at L 3. 

170. A 13. This stone is con- 
nected with stone at B 16. This 
move often occurs. 

172. D 17. 

174. Qi2. 

176. T 16. 

178. E 15. 

180. S 7. 

182. Q6. 

184. M 19. 

186. A 4. 

188. B4. 

190. L3. 

192. K 19. Takes. 

194. K 17. Takes in "Ko." 

196. F 17. 

198. D 18. 

200. D 16. 

202. E 10. 

204. E8. 

206. Qio. 

208. L9. Takes. 

210. L 13. 

212. N 12. 

214. N 13. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 103 

White Black 



215. 


Nil. 




216. 


Ol2. 




217. 


On. 




218. 


O14. 




219. 


P13. 




220. 


D 9 . 


Takes. 


221. 


c 9 . 




222. 


Qn. 




223. 


Ph. 




224. 


J 16. 


Takes. 


225. 


G16. 




226. 


F15. 




227. 


N 3 . 




228. 


M6. 




229. 


T14. 




230. 


T12. 




231. 


T13. 




232. 


S13. 


Takes. 


233. 


P15. 




234. 


P16. 




235. 


S 12. Takes in 


"Ko." 


236. 


Tn. 




237. 


E3- 




238. 


6. 




239. 


O5. 




240. 


A 17. 




241. 


A 18. 




242. 


A 16. 




243. 


A 12. 




244. 


B 14. 




245. 


B13. 




246. 


A 14. 




247. 


D3- 




248. 


C2. 




249. 


M15. 




250. 


N15. 





Black wins, the report says, by "Ichi ban," which means 
anything up to ten "Me." According to my continuation, 
Black won by seven "Me." 

V 

Plate 17 

This is a game between a Japanese player and a beginner. 
It is inserted solely to show the character of the mistakes 
which beginners are likely to make. Such errors never 
occur in games between good players, and therefore this 
game may be more useful to a novice than the games con- 
tested between players of greater skill. 

Played May 7, 1907. 

Black has a handicap of five stones. 



104 



THE GAME OF GO 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 




ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 
® PLAYED AT H 16 IN "K0" © PLAYED AT H 17 IN "KO" 
(fit) PLAYED AT H 17 IN "K0" (2$) PLAYED ATP" 



Plate iy 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 105 

White Black 

I. C 14. 2. E 3. Bad; too close to the 

handicap stone. Besides it is better 
to respond to White's attack in the 
same part of the board. 

3. O 3. 4. C 15. This would be too con- 

servative if the players were any- 
thing like equal. 

5. R 14. 6. D 6. Much better to play in 

one of the right-hand corners. C 6 
would be better also. 

7. F 17. 8. P3. O4 is much better. 

9. R6. 10. Q.14. 

II. S 16. This would not be 12. O 4. Black should reply to 
played against a good player. White's last move. 

13. N 3. 14. D 8. Unnecessary; much 

better to play in one of the threat- 
ened corners. 

15. C 3. 16. C 4. B 4 would be better. 

17. B3. 18. D2. 

19. D3. 20. E2. 

21. B5. 22. B4. 

23. A 4. 24. C2. 

25. B 8. 26. D 5. Over cautious. 

27. C 7. 28. D 7. Unnecessary; Black 

could gain a decisive advantage at 
B6. 

29. B6. 30. C8. Too near the White line, 

a common mistake of beginners. 

31. B 9. 32. B 2. 

33. A 3. 34. C 9. Too near; Black can 

jump one or two spaces with much 
better effect. 

35. C 10. 36. D 10. 

37. C 11. 38. D 14. 

39. C 13. 40. D 12. At this point Black's 



41. 


Ci 7 . 


43. 


Bi 3 . 


45. 


Bl2. 


47. 


D17. 



106 THE GAME OF GO 

White Black 

position is good enough, as his line 
on D is very strong. 

42. B 14. 

44. C 12. Black gains very little 
by this. 

46. B 15. 

48. B 16. Very bad; Black has 
the whole board to gain ground in 
elsewhere. 
49- E 16. 50. D 15. If Black feels he must 

play here, D 13 is better. 

52. E13. 

54. D11. 

56. E 14. 

58. E 11. 

60. F II. If Black hopes to save 
his group in the upper left-hand cor- 
ner, he must escape toward the 
center at this point. 
Black's group is now 62. A 14. Black cannot possibly 

form "Me"; this move is merely 
wasted. 

64. E 9. Too cautious. 

66. H 11. 

68. F 10. Black forms "Me" in 
this group long before it is threat- 
ened, while he might gain ground 
elsewhere. 

Another lost move. 



51. 


D13. 


53. 


E12. 


55. 


F13. 


57. 


G12. 


59. 


F 12. 



61. 


F14. 


>pel 


ess. 


63. 


J3- 


65. 


G 3 - 


67. 


Gn. 



69. 


Gio. 


71. 


F 4 . 


73. 


G8. 


75. 


H 9 . 


77. 


H 10. 


79. 


G 7 . 


81. 


G6. 



70. 


A 16. 


72. 


E 4 . 


74. 


Go. 


76. 


F 9 . 


78. 


F8. 


80. 


F6. 


82. 


G 5 . 



Should have been 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 107 

White Black 

played at F 5. 

83. F 5. 84. J 10. Black should play 

nearer the edge of the board. J 10 
is radically wrong. 

85. K 8. 86. H 13. Black tries to form a 

living group in the center without 
support; this can seldom be done. 

87. H 12. 88. J 11. 

89. J 13. 90. H 8. 

91. J 8. 92. H 7. These stones are hope- 

less from the start. Black should 
play in the right-hand corners. 

93. H 6. 94. J 7. 

95. L 7. 96. J 6. 

97. H5. 98. J 5. 

99. G4. Takes. 100. J 9. 

101. M 6. 102. N 5. M 5 would be much 

better. 

103. M5. 104. K4. Black adds more 

stones to his already hopeless group. 
This is one of the commonest mis- 
takes. 

105. Mf 106. J 12. Black should jump 

to the right, say at M II. 

107. K 13. 108. G 14. F 15 might have' 

helped Black. 

109. F 15. 110. H 4. 

111. J 4. 112. F 7. 

113. H 3. Takes. 114. E 6. Unnecessary. Black 

should play somewhere in the un- 
occupied portion of the board. 

115. M 12. 116. A 13. Wholly wasted un- 

less Black were an expert. 

117. B 11. 118. B 17. 

119. B 18. 120. C 18. 





White 


121. 


Di8. 


123. 


C 19. Takes. 


125. 


B7- 



127. 


Ll 3 . 


129. 


M 10. 


131. 


Nn. 


133. 


N13. 


135. 


M 9 . 


137. 


M8. 


139. 


K 7 . 


141. 


P5- 



108 THE GAME OF GO 

Black 

122. A 18. 

124. C6. 

126. K 12. Like all beginners, 
Black keeps his stones too close 
together. M 10 would be bet- 
— ter; — 

128. L 12. 

130. Mil. 

132. L 11. 

134. L 10. Black again adds 
stones to a dead group. 

136. L8. 

138. L9. 

140. 6. 

142. O 2. S 4 would have been 
much better. 
143. N2. 144. N 1. Black overlooks that 

he must connect at P 2. This is a 
common error of novices. 

146. J 14. 

148. J 16. 

150. K 15. Black tries to form 
another living group. His only 
chance was near Qi4-Q_i6. 

152. L 14. 

154. K 14. 

156. M 15. 

158. G 16. Black again adds to 
a hopeless position. 

160. H 17. 

162. H 15. Black thinks he has 
the necessary "Me." Two of them, 
however, are "Kageme." 

164. J 18. 

166. G 18. 



145. 


P2. 


147. 


K16. 


149. 


Ki 7 . 


151. 


L15. 


153. 


M 14, 


155. 


M13. 


157. 


L 16. 


159. 


G17. 


161. 


G15. 


163. 


H 18. 


165. 


J *7- 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 109 

White Black 

167. H 16. Takes, "Ko." 168. A 2. Black plays this cor- 

rectly. 

169. A 5. 170. H 17. Takes, "Ko." 

171. H 19. 172. K 18. 

173. H 16. Takes, "Ko." 174. L 18. 

175. H 17. "Ko tsugu." 176. M 17. Black has a chance 

to make some territory in this part 
of the board. 



177. 


Ol 7 . 




178. 


N16. 




179. 


Q.17. 




180. 


O15. 




181. 


P16. 




182. 


Q.15. 




183. 


P15. 




184. 


R17. 




185. 


R16. 




186. 


Q.18. 




187. 


P17. 




188. 


R15. 




189. 


S17. 




190. 


R13. 




191. 


S 14. 




192. 


P14. 




193. 


Sl 5 . 




194. 


O13. 


Black should live, 








although he 


has gained little 








space. 






195. 


Nl 4 . 




196. 


P12. 


Black should have 








occupied O 14. 




197. 


014. 


Black's groups are 


198. 


N18. 




now se 


parated. 










199. 


O 18. 




200. 


P 18. 




201. 


R 18. 


Takes. 


202. 


O 12. 




203. 


N 12. 




204. 


E15. 


This is pure waste. 


205. 


M 19. 


If Black had played 


206. 


E17. 




here 


his g 


roup would have 








lived. 












207. 


ei8. 


Takes. 


208. 


A 12. 




209. 


An. 




210. 


O16. 


Too late; this group 








is hope 


less now. 


211. 


Q.11. 




212. 


Q.12. 




213. 


R 11. 




214. 


On. 




215. 


Oio. 




216. 


Q.2. 





no 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 
217. O I. Takes. 



219. P4. 
221. Q_5. 

223. R4. 

225. P 10. 

227. F2. 

229. G 1. 

231. F3. 

233. R 3. 

White permits Black to play 
again. 

White permits Black to play 
again. 

237. L 19. 

White permits Black to play 
again. 

White permits Black to play 
again. 

White permits Black to play 
again. 

242. S 19. 
244. R 17. 



Black 

218. M 1. This is nonsense; 
Black might still save the corner by 
correct play. 

220. Qj. 

222. M 2. If Black played at S 5 
he would still have a chance. 

224. O5. 

226. R 12. 

228. F 1. 

230. E 1. 

232. C 1. Black wastes one of 
his few vacant spaces. 

234. N 19. 

235. L 17. 

236. J 19. 

238. M 18. 

239. P 19. 

240. N 17. 

241. R 19. 
243. O 19. 



"Dame" — E 5 and C 5. White wins by one hundred 
and ninety-seven spaces and eighty-eight stones. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



in 



VI 



Plate 1 8 

White. — Inouye Inseki. 
Black. — Yasui Shintetsu. 

Played December, 1835. No handicaps were given. 
This game is from a Japanese work called "Kachi Sei 
Kioku." The notes are taken from Korschelt, and 
as in the previous instance involve the repetition of 
some things that have been touched on in the preceding 
chapters. 



Black 

I. R 16. 

3- Q.3- 

5. C4. 

7. Q5. This may be the best 
play under the circumstances. The 
secure position Q.3-Q.5 supports 
the advance posts at C 4 and R 16 
in equal measure. 

9. P16. 

II. Q.15. 
13. P15. 
15. R 14. 
17. Q.13. 



White 

2. D 17. 
4. P17. 

6. C 14. Just as good as D 15, 
which we already know. 
8. Q.14. 



10. Qj6. 

12. Q_i 7 . 

14. R 15. 

16. S 15. 

18. N 17. The eighth stone 
played at Q_ 14 cannot be saved. 
If White attempts to save it, the 
following would be the continua- 
tion: 



112 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 



White 



19. P 14. Takes. S 14 prob- 
ably would have been better, because 
it would have retained the "Sente" 
for Black; that is to say, a play which 
the opponent is compelled to an- 
swer, or otherwise sustain too great 
a loss. Had Black played at S 14, 
White must have answered at S 16, 
in order not to lose the stones at 
R 15-S 15, and also the corner, 
which is worth about fourteen " Me." 
To White's play at S 16 Black would 
probably have answered at R 12 
and thus obtained a secure posi- 
tion. 

21. R 9. 

23. J3- 



25. C5. 
27. C6. 
29. C7. 



B. 



W. 

P14 

P13 

O13 

O12. 



O14 
P12 

N13 

O 1 1 etc. 
If White had had an opportunity of 
placing a stone on the line of retreat 
at say E 3, then White could have 
saved No. 8. (This has already 
been explained in defining the 
Japanese expression "Shicho.") 
20. S 16. 



22. E 3 . 

24. D 5. This is analogous to 
No. 8, but it is not advanced so far 
because Black has already occupied 

J 3- 

26. D6. 

28. D7. 

30. D8. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



IJ 3 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 




ABCDEFGH.I KLMNOPQRST 
@ PLAYED AT J 7® AT RIO© AT P12(K0)@AT P13(K0)© AT P 12(K0) 
©ATP13(KO)®ATP12(K0)©AT Q 14 @) ATP13(K0)©AT P12(K0) 
(g)AT P13(K0)(g) AT P12 @)AT S ll(KO)®AT S 12(kd)©AT S 11 

Plate i8 



ii 4 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 



31. C9. 



33. 
35. 
37. 
39. 
41. 



D3- 

C2. 

C 3 - 
F3- 
E 4 . 



Black compels White 
to take 41, in order to make good 
his escape. 



43. 
45. 
47. 
49. 
51. 
53. 
55. 
57. 
59. 
61. 
63. 



G 3 - 
G 4 - 
G 5 - 

F6. 

J 2. 

H6. 

J 7- 
P4- 

Q.2. 

O5. 
6. 



"Sente." 



White 

32. L 3. White has established 
the long line on D and allowed 
Black a large territory in order to be 
able to occupy L 3. If he had 
played there immediately in answer 
to Black's twenty-third move, then 
either L 3 or E 3 would have been 
in great danger. 

34. D2. 

36. D4. 

38. L5. 

40. F2. 

42. E2. 



44. 


F4- 


46. 


F5- 


48. 


K2. 


50. 


E 5 . 


52. 


H 7 . 


54. 


G 7 . 


56. 


P3- 


58. 


o 3 - 


60. 


O4. 


62. 


N 5 . 


64. 


K 7 . 



Takes. 



65. K 3. "Sente." White must 



An interesting attack 
that determines the course of the 
game for a long time. 65 J 8, 
would mean abandoning the po- 
sition on G-J (26 "Me"), but it 
would give an opportunity for a bold 
attack. If Black played 65, J 6, 
his stones would scarcely sur- 
vive. 

66. L 2. 



ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 



ii5 



Black 

reply to it, or he would find him- 
self without the necessary "Me" in 
that group. 

67. K6. 

69. L6. 

71. K 5. Avoids "Ko" and 
nevertheless assures a connection. 

73. L 7. 



75. 


J 5- 


77. 


K8. 


79. 


O7. 


81. 


L 9 . 


83. 


8. 


85. 


Kn 



87. Qjo. 

89. R 11. 

91. S 10. Takes. 

93. R 10. Q.I2 would probably 
have been better; at all events it 
would have been surer, because it 
assures the connection by way of 
Pn after White has taken. If 
White does not take, but plays at 
P 11, his stones on the edge of the 
board will die. 

95. L 11. 

97. L 14. 

99. K 13. 

101. K 14. 

103. S 14. 

105. T 15. 

107. On. It is certain that 



White 



68. J 8. 

70. J 6. Takes. 
72. N6. 

74. K 4. Is played for the same 
reason as No. 66. 

76. N7. 

78. J 7. 

80. N8. 

82. J 10. 

84. N 10. 

86. R 10. Now the effect of the 
mistake at move 19 begins to be 
apparent. 

88. Q_n. 

90. R 12. 

92. S 11. 

94. M 11. This move separates 
P 14 from K n, and is at the same 
time "Sente" as regards the black 
stones near K, because if Black 
does not answer, these stones would 
be cut off by W-K 10. Moves Nos. 
98, 100, and 102 isolate the black 
stones in the neighborhood of P 14. 

96. Q12. 

98. L 13. 

100. M 13. 

102. M 14. 

104. S 13. 

106. N 15. 

108. O 12. 



n6 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 

either the eight black stones or the 
five white stones must die, and on 
this depends the result of the game, 
because it would make a difference 
of about 40 "Me." 

109. P 12. 

111. O 13. 



White 



113. 


Oio. 




115. 


M16. 




117. 


T14. 




119. 


P12. 


"Ko." 


121. 


K12. 




123. 


R17. 




125. 


P12. 


"Ko." 


127. 


Pio. 




129. 


D16. 




131. 


P12. 


"Ko." 


133. 


Q.14. 


Connecting. 


135. 


S 18. 




137. 


P12. 


"Ko." 


139. 


L8. 




141. 


E17. 




143. 


C17. 




145. 


C15. 




147. 


E18. 




149. 


B15. 




151. 


E 16. 





153. B 14. 
155. B 13. 
157. B 12. 



110. 


Pll. 




112. 


N12. 




114. 


P13. 


Takes, "Ko." 


116. 


T 16. 




118. 


O 16. 




120. 


J 12. 




122. 


Pi3- 


"Ko." 


124. 


S17. 




126. 


R13. 




128. 


P13. 


"Ko." 


130. 


C16. 




132. 


T13. 




134. 


Pi3- 


"Ko." 


136. 


R 18. 


Takes. 


138. 


Kg. 




140. 


P*3- 


"Ko." 


142. 


P12. 


Connecting. White 


would 


have h 


ad another "Ko" at 


M 10. 






144. 


D18. 




146. 


B 16. 




148. 


C18. 




150. 


D15. 




152. 


B 17. 


Takes. The series 


of moves from 143 to 152 should 


be carefully 


noted, as they fre- 


quentlj 


r occur. 




154. 


C13. 




156. 


C12. 




158. 


Cu. 





ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES 117 

Black White 

159. F 14. "Sente." 160. D 14. 

161. B 11. 162. C 10. 

163. B 9. Is not played at B 10 164. D 9. It would have been 

in order to retain the "Sente" better to play at K 17. 
without conceding too great an ad- 
vantage. 



165. 


K17. 


167. 


G13. 


169. 


G11. 


171. 


F15. 


173. 


E n. 


175. 


G 12. 


177. 


Fu. 


179. 


Du. 


181. 


D 12. 


183. 


H17. 


185. 


J i7. 


187. 


Fl 3- 


189. 


G18. 


191. 


M 17. 


193. 


Pi. 


195. 


Q.I. 


197. 


N18. 


199. 


H 5 . 


201. 


M18, 


203. 


A 10. 


205. 


B 1. 


207. 


B2. 


209. 


Gio. 


211. 


T11. 


213. 


S 12. 


215. 


B8. 



Takes. 



166. 


H14. 


168. 


H13. 


170. 


G 14. 


172. 


J 11. 


174. 


F 12. 


176. 


E 12. 


178. 


E 10. 


180. 


Dio. 


182. 


H 16. 


184. 


G17. 


186. 


E13. 


188. 


G16. 


190. 


G6. 


192. 


P2. 


194. 


Oi. 


196. 


L 4 - 


198. 


G 2. "Sente." It threat- 


ens the 


: three black stones on J and 


K. 




200. 


O18. 


202. 


B 10. 


204. 


Ci. 


206. 


Di. 


208. 


F 10. C 8 ought to have 


been occupied first. 


210. 


G 9 . 


212. 


T12. 


214. 


C8. 


216. 


Sn. "Ko." 



n8 THE GAME OF GO 

Black White 

217. T 10. 218. E 19. 

219. F 19. 220. F 17. 

221. F 18. 222. M 15. 

223. L 15. 224. J 15. 

225. N 16. 226. O 17. 

227. H 10. 228. H 9. 

229. K 10. 230. J 9. 

231. M6. 232. O9. 

233. P9. 234. N9. 

235. M 5. 236. M 4. 

237. O 19. 238. P 19. 

239. N 19. 240. A 15. 

241. A 14. 242. A 16. 

243. H 2. 244. J 4. 

245. L 12. 246. M 12. 

247. G 1. 248. F 1. 

249. H r. 250. K 16. 

251. L 16. 252. K 1. 

253. S 12. "Ko." 254. C19. 

255. S 11. Connecting. 256. D 19. 

White wins by seven stones. 



VI 

*JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 

From the earliest times the Japanese have studied the 
opening of the game. Especially since the foundation of 
the Go Academy there have been systematic treatises on 
this subject, and for keen and thorough analysis, these 
treatises have nothing to fear from a comparison with the 
analogous works on Chess openings. There is, however, 
a difference between the opening of the game in Chess and 
the opening in Go, because in the latter case the play can 
commence in each of the four corners successively, and 
therefore, instead of having one opening, it might be said 
that there are four. 

The Japanese masters usually overcome this difficulty 
by treating a corner separately, as if it were uninfluenced 
by the position or the possibility of playing in the adjacent 
corners, and in their treatises they have indicated where 
the first stones in such an isolated corner can advantageously 
be played. These stones are called " Joseki." As a matter 
of fact, these separate analyses or "Joseki" differ slightly 
from the opening of the game as actually played, because 
it is customary in opening the game to skip from one corner 
to another, and the moment a few stones are played in any 
corner the situation in the adjacent corners is thereby influ- 
enced. It is due to this fact also that in their treatises on 
the "Joseki" the Japanese writers do not continue the analy- 

119 



120 THE GAME OF GO 

sis as far as we are accustomed to in our works on Chess. 
While this method of studying the openings persists to the 
present time, one of the greatest of the Japanese masters, Mu- 
rase Shuho, compiled a series of openings which correspond 
more closely to our Chess openings; that is to say, the game 
is commenced, as in actual play, all over the board, and is 
not confined to the study of one corner as in the case of the 
conventional " Joseki." Korschelt, in his work on the game, 
inserts about fifty of these openings by Murase Shuho, with 
notes that were prepared by the Japanese master especially 
for the use of foreigners, and I have selected a few of these 
in addition to the collection of "Joseki" which we will first 
consider. 

The work from which my "Joseki" have been selected 
was compiled by Inouye Hoshin, and published in Novem- 
ber, 1905. It was originally written for the "Nippon Shim- 
bun," a newspaper published in Tokio. Of course, the 
annotations accompanying these "Joseki" are not the 
original ones from the Japanese text. Many of the things 
which I point out would be regarded as trite and obvious 
to a good player, and my annotations are intended solely 
to aid beginners in understanding some of the reasons for 
the moves given. It must also be understood that the 
series of "Joseki" which I have inserted falls far short of 
completeness. In a Japanese, work on the game there 
would be at least five times as many. 

Although the "Joseki" have been studied by the Jap- 
anese masters from the earliest times, it does not mean that 
the ordinary player in Japan is familiar with them; just as 
in this country we find a majority of Chess players have a 
very limited acquaintance with the Chess openings, so in 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 121 

Japan many players attain a fair degree of skill without a 
thorough acquaintance with the "Joseki." It would cer- 
tainly very greatly aid the beginner in attaining proficiency 
if he were to study these examples, and follow them as nearly 
as possible in actual play. 

It would seem to us that in compiling a work on " Joseki, " 
or openings, we would commence with the openings where 
no handicap is given, and later study those where there were 
handicaps; it is another instance of the divergent way in 
which the Japanese do things that they do just the opposite, 
and commence their treatises with the study of openings 
where handicaps are given. Inasmuch as this is a book 
on a Japanese subject, I shall follow their example and shall 
commence the study of " joseki" in games where Black has 
a handicap. 

As we have already seen, the handicap stone is always 
placed on a certain fixed point, which is the fourth inter- 
section from the edge of the board in each direction, and 
White has five recognized methods of playing his first stone 
in relation to such handicap stone. These are called 
"Kogeima kakari," "Ogeima kakari," "Daidaigeima 
kakari," "Ikken taka kakari," "Nikken taka kakari." 
We shall take up examples of these in their order. 

I 

Handicap 

Plate 19 (A) 

White Black 

1. R 14. "Kogeima kakari." 2. N 17. This move supports the 

This is the most usual move for at- handicap stone and also gains as 

tacking the corner. The purpose of much ground as possible for Black. 



122 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 

White's first move is to lay a basis 
for future aggression; he cannot, of 
course, play in the corner immedi- 
ately, neither can he play nearer the 
black stone with advantage. 

3. R 17. This is a direct attack 
on the corner. White can either 
connect with his first stone or form 
a living group in the corner. 

5. S 16. White threatens to con- 
nect. 

7. S 17. White cannot play at 
R 15 at this time because he would 
lose the stone at S 16. 

9. P 18. Since White cannot 
connect, he must play to form two 
"Me" in the corner. 

11. Q_i7- White makes his cor- 
ner as large as possible. This move 
is also "Sente," because it threatens 
to break through Black's line. 

13. S 14. White threatens "Wa- 
tari," and again Black must reply 
at once. ("Sente.") 

15. Q14. To confine Black's 
group and prepare for territory on 
the right side of the board. 



Black 

Beginners would generally find O 17 
more safe and conservative. 



4. R 16. Black plays to prevent 
the connection of the white stones. 



6. S 15. Black breaks the con- 
nection by this move. 

8. R 15. Black also must con- 
nect. Beginners are prone to neg- 
lect these necessary connecting 
moves. 

10. P 17. Black plays to connect 
his stones, and at the same time con- 
fines White to the corner. 

12. O 17. Black must connect 
to prevent White's escape. 



14. T 14. Prevents "Watari." 



16. P 15. An important defen- 
sive move. Otherwise White could 
almost envelop the black stones. 



Even game. White has a small territory in the corner, 
but Black has greater possibility of expansion. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



123 




ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

IS « — 1 — 1 — r~r-i — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 19 



18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 



7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



























fG^ 




| 


— fn4 


\(fc 








* 










_Jwi 








ft 


yy^ 


"l 








f 




yflJ/Vl 


k>®- 








_X 














y — 

(\ 




-#3 


t\ 






~^ 












A 








c 




















14 


S^xj 






v 
































—Q 


~is 
































\) 
















































































































































c 


\ 


D 






























\ 


J 






-A 


f\ 








B 




















9\t 




^ 












\j 








Kft 


^ 


v 














(* 








\i 


\)\J 


















r> 






























\c 


D 


^ 


-ci 


1^ 



18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRS' 

Plate 19 



124 



THE GAME OF GO 



II 

Handicap 

White Black 

1. R 14. 2. N 17. 

3. R 17. 4. R 16. 

♦'5. Q_i7- In place of trying to 6. P 16. Black prevents White 

connect as before, White threatens from getting out. 
to extend in the other direction. 



7. S 16. Threatens to connect 
again. 

9. S 17. 

11. O 18. White again must 
form "Me" in the corner. 

13. N 18. White extends as far 
as possible. 

15. P 17. White must look out 
for the safety of the stones at N and 
O 18. 

17. P 14. To prevent Black's 
extension and form a basis for terri- 
tory on right side. 

19. O 13. 



8. S 15. Black stops it again. 

10. R 15. 
12. O 17. 

14. M 18. Black stops the ad- 
vance. 

16. M 17. Black must connect. 



18. O 14. Black extends as far 
as he can. 

20. N 14. 



Again White has the corner and Black has better oppor- 
tunities for expansion. 

Ill 

Handicap 

Plate 19 (B) 



White 
1. O3. 2. R 7 . 

3. Q_3- This variation is called 4. R 3. 



Black 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



J 25 



White 

" Kiri Kaeshi." This move does not 
attack the cornet so aggressively as 
the preceding examples. 

5. R 4. This is the characteris- 
tic move of this variation. 



Black 



6. Q5. This is an important 
move for Black; if he plays else- 
where, he will get a bad position. 

8. S3. 



7. R 2. White threatens the 
black stone. If Black defends 
White can divide the corner. 

9. P 2. "Kaketsugu." If White 
does not make this move, Black will 
get the "Sente" with a superior 
position. 

11. S 1. White cannot neglect 
this move. If Black were allowed 
to play at R 1, he would get the 
better game. 

In this opening the corner is about evenly divided. 



IV 



10. S 2. Formerly S 4 was given 
as Black's move, but it is not so good, 
because White replies at R 8 with 
a fine attack. 

12. R5. 



Handicap 



White 

1. R 14. 

3. P 14. Preparing for "Kiri 
Kaeshi" on the other side of handi- 
cap stone. 



.5. P16. 

7. Q17. "Kiri Kaeshi." The 
effect of this move is generally to 
divide the territory. 
9. Q.18. 



Black 

2. N 17. 

4. R 11. Called "Tenuki." Not 
necessarily played at R n. The 
word means that Black "draws 
out" and plays in another part of 
the board. 

6. P 17. 

8. R 17. 



10. R 18. 



126 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 



Black 



12. 


O17. 


14. 


Q.15. 


16. 


Rl 5 . 


18. 


S15. 


20. 


P15. 



11. PI8. 

13. R 16. 

15. S 18. 

17. S 16. 

19. S 17. 

White has the corner, but Black has better chances to 
make territory later. 

V 

Handicap 
Black is supposed to have another handicap stone at D 4. 
Plate 19 (C) 



1. C14. 



White 
"Kogeima." 



3. H 17. White confines Black's 
advances. 

5. B 16. White plays to take the 
corner. 

7. C15. 

9. C17. 
11. H 15. 
13. B 18. 
15. B 17. 



Black 

2. F 16. "Ikken taka hiraki." 
This "Joseki" was an invention of 
Murase Shuho. 

4. C 11. Black prepares to get 
territory on left side of the board. 

6. D 14. 

8. D 13. Better than D 15, as it 
confines White more effectively. 

10. D 17. 

12. C 16. 

14. C 18. 

16. C 13. A very good move; it 
shuts White in the corner and assures 
Black a large territory on the left 
side of the board. 



This opening might be continued as follows: 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



127 



17. D 18. 
19. C 19. 



White 



Takes. 



18. E 18. 
20. D 7. 



Black 



17. C6. 
19. B 13. 
21. B 14. 



18. D 18. 
20. B 12. 
22. C8. 



VI 



Handicap 



$v 



pv 



Black is supposed to have stones at O 4 and 04 a! 
these are called "Shiki ishi." 



so; 



1. F 3 . 



White 

"Kogeima. 



3. F 5. White must get out 
towards the middle of the board. 



5. D 6. White attacks the handi- 
cap stone. 

7. E2. 

9. B6. 

11. C 5. C 7 would be good 
also. 



c 



Black 

2. H 3. By this move Black at 
once attacks the white stone and 
also prepares to connect with the 
stone at O 4. 

4. L 3. "Tenuki"; that is, it 
has nothing to do with the corner 
in dispute; Black feels he has an 
opportunity to take territory. It is 
interesting to note that if the "Shiki 
ishi " at O 4 were at N 3, then Black 
would play No. 4 at H 5. 

6. D 2. This is an important 
defensive move. 

8. B 5. Black tries to escape. 

10. C6. 

12. C7. 



128 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 
13. B4. 

15. C4. 

17. B7. 

19. E 6. White must support 
stone at D 6. 

21. A 4. 

23. A 6. Takes two. 

25. A 3. The corner is now an 
example of "Semeai"; the question 
is which side can kill the other first. 

27. A 2. 

29. D 1. 



Black 
14. D5. 
16. C3. 
18. C8. 

20. A 5. This is a very well con- 
sidered move for Black. 
22. B 3 . 
24. B8. 
26. B2. 



28. B 1. 

30. A 8. If Black plays at C 1, 
the corner will become "Seki," as it 
is, the white group is dead. 



Black has much the best of this variation. 



VII 
Handicap 
Black is supposed to have a handicap stone at Q 4 also. 
Plate 19 (£>) 



White 



1. F 3 . 



G 4 . 

E 3 - 
G 5 . 



9. J 5. White's best move. 
Black has the better position 



Black 

2. F 4. "Tsuke te." Again 
Black takes the aggressive from the 
start. 

4. F5. 

6. D 3 . 

8. G6. 

10. D6. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



129 







VIII 








Handicap 








Plate 20 (A) 






White 




Black 


1. 017. 


" Kogeima." 


2. O 16. 


"Tsuke te, 


3. N16. 




4. O 15. 




5. Q.17. 




6. P17. 




7. P18. 




8. P16. 




9. N 18. 




10. R 17. 




11. Q.18. 




12. N 15. 




13. M 16. 




14. R 10. 


Black aba 



15. R 16. 
17. S 16. 
19. S 17. 



at R 17 in order to get territory; 
an amateur might be tempted to 
play No. 14 at R 18, but in that 
case White could spoil Black's 
chance to get space on the right 
side of the board. 

16. R 15. 

18. S 15. 

20. Pio. 



White has the corner, but Black has practically secured 
a large territory on the right. 



IX 
Handicap 



White 



Black 



1. R 14. 
3. Q.13. 



2. Q.14. "Tsuke te. 
4. P14. 



130 



THE GAME OF GO 



White Black 

5. O 17. White attacks from the 6. R 15, 
other side also. 

7. R 13. 8. P18. 

9. N 16. 10. S 14. 

Black has the corner. White has a chance on both sides. 



X 

Handicap 



White 

I. R 14. "Kogeima." 
3. Q.13. 

5. O 17. White attacks from the 
other side as before. 

7. P17. 
9. P 16. 

II. R 15. 
13. R 12. 
15. S 12. 
17. N 16. 
19. M 17. 
21. M 18. 
23. M 16. 
25. Q12. 



Black 
"Tsuke te." 



2. Q.14. 

4. P 14. 

6. O 16. Black responds from 
the outside as in the case of move 
No. 2. 

8. Q.17. 

10. R 13. 

12. Q_i 5 . 

14. S13. 

16. N 17. 

18. O 15. 

20. N 18. 

22. N 13. 

24. T 13. 

26. S 15. 



Black has the corner and also an outlet to the center. 
White has a chance to form territory on both sides. Black's 
position is preferable. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



l 3 l 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 
©(DIAGRAM D)TENUKI 

Plate 20 



132 



THE GAME OF GO 



XI 

Handicap 
Black is supposed to have a stone at D 4 also. 
Plate 20 (B) 



White 



1. R6. 



3. O 3. White attacks the right- 
hand corner from both sides. 

5. Qj. 

7. R 3. This is a direct attack 
on the corner. 

9. R 7. White must connect. 
11. Q.2. 



13. R2. 

15. M 3. White must extend his 
boundaries or his stones will die. 



Black 

2. K 3. This move is an inven- 
tion of Murase Shuho; it would not 
be played unless Black had a stone 
at D 4. Black's intention is to de- 
velop territory in either corner de- 
pending on the nature of White's 
attack. 

4. Q.6. 

6. P6. 

8. R 5. Black must play here 
before playing at Q.3. It also gives 
Black the "Sente." 

10. 0.3. 

12. S 2. This is a clever move. 
Amateurs would be tempted to plav 
at P 2, which would be very bad for 
Black, as White would then get the 
entire right side. 

14. S 3. Secures Black's con- 
nection with R 5. 

16. K 5. Black plays to shut in 
White as much as possible; he also 
supports his stone at D 4. 



Black has the better game. 



JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



*33 



White 



XII 
Handicap 

Plate 20 (C) 

Black 
2. C15. This 



1. C 13. "Ogeima Kakari." This 2. U 15. 1 his is to prevent 

is another method of commencing White from playing at B 16. 
the attack; it does not attack the 
corner so directly, but it gives 
White a better chance on the sides 
or center. 

3. G 17. White attacks from the 
other side in the same way. 



5. C 17. This is a "Sute ishi" 
or sacrificed stone. White threatens 
to connect it with one side or the 
other. 



4. E 17. Preventing White from 
entering at D 18; this secures the 
corner for Black. 

6. B16. 



The game is about even; if White does not play at C 17 
on the fifth move, Black gets much the better of it. 



White 
1. N 17. "Ogeima 



XIII 
Handicap 



Kak; 



3. R 14. White attacks the other 
side with "Kogeima." 



Black 



2. P 17. Preventing the entry 
at Q.18. 

4. S 15. Very important move 
for Black; if Black makes a move 
elsewhere at this point ("Tenuki,") 
White gets much the better of it. 



134 



THE GAME OF GO 



XIV 

Handicap 

Plate 20 (D) 



White Black 

I. C7. 2. C5. 

3. G 4. "Nikken taka kakari." 4. E 2. A very important move; 

This is another method of attacking if Black plays "Tenuki," White can 

from the other side. at once enter the corner. 

Suppose Black does not play No. 4, E 2, but plays else- 
where, then the following continuation might occur: 

White 

5. D2. 
7. E2. 
9. G 3 . 

II. G2. 
13. C 3 . 
15. B 3. 16. D b. Black must get 

17. B 6. Threatening "Watari." 
19. H 1. 

21. B 1. By means of this move 
the white stones in the corner live. 

White has the better of it. 







Black 


4. 


1 enuki. 


6. 


E 3 - 




8. 


F3- 




10. 


F2. 




12. 


Gi. 




14. 


B 4 - 




16. 


D6. 


Black must 


towai 


d the 


center. 


18. 


B 5 . 




20. 


F 1. 





XV 

Handicap 



White 
1. N 17. 
3. Q14. This is another method 



Black 
2. P17. 
4. O 15. Black plays to get out 



JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



J 35 



White 

of attack, called "Ikken taka ka- 
kari"; it does not give White a base 
for attacking the corner immediately. 

5. N 15. White also plays out 
toward the center, otherwise Black 
would shut him in at M 16. 

7. M 15. 



9. Q.13. 

11. R 11. Beginners might play 
at Q_I2; this is always bad play. 
13. L15. 



Black 

toward the center, as White's third 
move does not menace the corner. 

6. N 14. 



8. P 13. Amateurs might play 
at O 14; the text move protects the 
connection and extends also. 

10. P12. 

12. M 14. 

14. S 15. Protecting the corner 
against the white stone at Q13. 



Even game. 



White 



1. M 17. "Daidaigeima"; not 
so much used as the other attacks. 

3. R 14. "Kogeima." White 
attacks from the other side. 

5. P 16. White threatens the 



XVI 

Handicap 

Plate 21 {A) 

Black 
2. O 17. Black defends the cor- 



ner from that side. 

4. S 16. Black again prevents 
the advance into the corner. 

6. P 15. P 17 looks like the 



connection between the handicap obvious defense, but this would 

shut Black in the corner and give 
White the better game. 



stone, and No. 2, otherwise Black 
would play at R 12, with the advan- 
tage. 

7. P17. 8. Q17. 

9. O 16. 10. P 18. 

11. O 18. 12. O 15. 



136 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 

13. N 16. Much better than im- 
mediately taking the single black 
stone. 

15. R 12. Much better than 
R 13; in that case White would lose 
both stones. 

17. S13. 

Black has the better of it. 



Black 

14. Q13. This attacks the 
white stone at R 14; it also defends 
the connection at Q.15. 

16. R13. 



18. Q.14. 



H 3 - 
C6. 



5. D6. 



7. F6. 
9. J 4. 
11. G 3 . 



13. J 3- 



XVII 

Handicap 



White 



Black 

2. F 3 . 

4. C 5. This is an alternative 
method of defending the corner. 

6. F 5. Black plays to avoid 
being shut in the corner, also it can 
be demonstrated if he neglects this 
move his stones will be killed. 

8. H 4 . 

10. H5. 

12. F 2. This is a good move. 
F 4 would be weak. The text move 
defends and at the same time 
threatens White's stones on line 3. 
F 4 would give White a chance to 
play elsewhere ("Tenuki") which 
is a great advantage. 

14. E 5. Black cannot neglect 
this move, or White can break in 
with a winning attack. 



Again Black has the better of it. He has a chance to 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



l V 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

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16 

15 

14 

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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 21 



138 



THE GAME OF GO 



play at J i on the next move. The relation of this stone 
to the stone at F 2 when at the edge of the board is called 
"Ozaru," or the "great monkey," and it generally gains 
about eight spaces. This is also shown among the ex- 
amples of end positions. 

XVIII 



White 
1. C8. 

3. E 2. This is another method 
of trying to get in the corner 
5. D 3 . 



7- C 3 . 
9. C4. 

11. F2. 
13. B4. 
15. G4. 

Black has the better of it. 



Handicap 




Black 






2. 


C6. 








;thod 4. 


D2. 








6. 


E 3 . 


This is the 


crucial move 


of thi 


is variation; if Bl; 


ick plays 


No. 


6 at 


C 3 , 1 


ie gets the 


corner, 


but 


White gets 


the better ] 


game. 




8. 


C2. 








10. 


D 5 . 








12. 


B 3 - 








14. 


B2. 








16. 


E 4 - 









XIX 

Handicap 
Plate 21 (B) 



White 

1. O 4. "Ikken taka kakari." 
This is the fourth method of com- 
mencing the attack. 



Black 



2. Q_6. This is 
answer. 



Black's best 



JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



'39 



White 



3. R8. 



5. 


Q,IO. 


side. 




7. 


N 5 . 


9. 


M6. 


11. 


P3- 


13. 


8. 


15. 


S6. 


17. 


R 5 . 


19. 


R6. 


21. 


o 3 - 



Qio. White defends on one 



White must get out. 



Black 

4. P J. Black intends to follow 
up this move on one side or the other, 
the two points being Q.O. and M 3. 
This is called "Hibiku," or "to 
echo." 

6. M 3 . 

8. M5. 



10. 


M 4 . 


12. 


0.3- 


14. 


L6. 


16. 


S 5 . 


18. 


s 4 . 


20. 


P4- 


22. 


S2. 



Black prepares to form 



"Me" in the corner. 



White must now play at O 6 to save his stones on the 
left side. 

This "Joseki" is very much spread out; it is difficult to 
say who has the better of it. 



XX 



Handicap 



White 



1. D 14. 

3. C 15. This is not White's 
best move; it is done to confuse 
Black, and will win if Black does 
not know how to reply. 

5. C13. 

7. B15. 



Black 



2. C 14. Not so good as F 16. 
4. D15. 



6. B 14. 

8. B 13. D 13 would be bad. 



140 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 

9. C 17. 

11. C18. 

13. D13. 

15. D 19. 

17. B 16. 

19. A 17. 

21. C 19. 



A 16 would not do. 



23. B 18. White plays on the 
only point to save the corner. 
25. D 12. 
27. D 11. 

Black has the better game. 



Black 








10. 


D 


l 7- 








12. 


C 


12. 








14. 


1) 


18. 








16. 


c 


16. 








18. 


A 


i5- 








20. 


E 


19. 








22. 


F 


18. ' 


'Kak 


e tsugu." 


Black 


must 


protect 


his connection 


; this 


situation 


arises 


; freq 


uently. 




24. 


F 


J 5- 








26. 


C 


11. 








28. 


C 


10. 









XXI 

Handicap 

Plate 21 (C) 

Black 
2. F 16. Black has a variety of 
moves at his command; the text 
move is probably best. 

4. C 10. Really "Tenuki." 
Black can play equally well at C 7. 
6. C 16. 
8. B 17. 

Black has the corner and White has commenced to en- 
velop his stones. The following continuation might occur: 

White Black 

5. F 18. 6. D 18. 

7. E 17. 8. C 15. 

Black's last move in this continuation is interesting, be- 



White 

1. D 13. "Nikken taka ka- 
kari"; this is the fifth method of 
opening the attack. 

3. H 17. 

5. B 16. 
7. B 14. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



141 



cause it will make " Kake tsugu" no matter which way 
White tries to break through. If he should play at D 17, 
White could get through at E 16. 



1. N 16. 

3. N 17. 
5. O 15. 



7. M 18. 
9. M 15. 



White 



XXII 

Handicap 



11. N 15. White must connect. 
Black has the better of it. 



Black 

2. O 17. This is an alternative 
defense. 

4. O 16. 

6. N 18. This is Black's best 
move. If he plays at P 15, White 
replies at O 18 with a good attack. 

8. O 18. 

10. N 14. This stone will be 
sacrificed, but'while White is killing 
it Black gets advantage elsewhere. 

12. Q14. 



1. G4. 



3. D 3 . 



E 4 . 
D2. 
F 4 - 



White 



XXIII 
Handicap 



Black 



11. C2. 



2. D 7. This is another defen- 
sive move. 

4. E 3. This is better than C 3; 
in that case Black gets the worst of it. 

6. C 3 . 

8. E5. 

10. C 4. C 2 is not so good. 

12. B2. 



H2 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 
13. E 2. White must look out 
for his three stones. B I would be 
a bad move. 



Black 
14. Cio. 



The corner is divided, but Black has better prospects. 



XXIV 



Handicap 



White 



F3- 
C 9 . 



5. C 5. The point of this varia- 
tion is to show that White can strike 
in on this move and yet live. 

7. C6. 

9. B7. 

11. B6. 

13. D6. 

15. E 7. White threatens from 
the outside. 

17. B9. 



19. A 8. 'Watari." 



Black 

2. C 7 . 

4. D 3. Black's three stones are 
now called "Ogeima shimari"; 
they are supposed to be a strong 
formation protecting the corner. 

6. D5. 



8. D7. 
10. B8. 
12. C8. 
14. E6. 
16. C4. 

18. E 8. Black cannot venture 
A 8, as his four stones would then 
die. 

20. F7. Takes. 



White has entered the corner and still his stones will 



live. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 143 

XXV 

Handicap 

Plate 21 (D) 

White Black 

1. C6. 2. G3. 

3. J 3. 4. C 4 - 

5. E 6. Instead of entering the 6. G 5. Black tries to get out 

corner, White attacks from both toward the center; this move also 

sides. prevents White from playing at E 3. 

7. J 5. 8. G 7 . 

9. F 8. 10. H 2. 

Black has a good game. 

We now come to the "Joseki" where no handicaps are 
given. In such cases, of course, Black has the first move. 
The first stone is generally played on an intersection adja- 
cent to the point on which the handicap stone is placed when 
given. There are, therefore, eight intersections on which 
the first stone might be played. In the lower left-hand 
corner, for instance, these would be C 3, C 4, C 5, D 3, D 5, 
E 3, E 4, E 5. By common consent C3 has been rejected 
as disadvantageous for the first player, because the territory 
obtained thereby is too small. E 5 has been rejected because 
it allows the adversary to play behind it and take the corner. 
D 4, or the handicap point, is also not used. The other 
six points may be divided into duplicate sets of three each, 
and, therefore, there are only three well-recognized methods 
of playing the first stone. These are: in the lower left-hand 
corner, C 4 or D 3, the most usual and conservative, which 
is called "Komoku," or the "little 'Me'"; E4 or D5 which is 



i 4 4 



THE GAME OF GO 



bolder, called "Takamoku," or the "high 'Me'"; and E 3 
or C 5 which is not so much used as either of the others, 
called "Moku hadzushi," or the "detached 'Me.'" We shall 
give about an equal number of examples of each of these 
methods of opening the game, commencing, as is customary 
in the Japanese works, with "Takamoku." 



I 



No Handicap 
Plate 22 (D) 



Black 



White 



1. D 5. "Takamoku." This is 2. D 3. This is White's best 

the most aggressive of the three answer. E 3 is also good. C 3 is 

methods of opening. bad. 

3. C 3. Black plays to get terri- 4. C 2. Best; if he attempts to 

tory on the left; he attacks from cut off at C 4 he gets a bad game, 
inside. 



5. C 4. Black extends. 

7. C 9. Black takes territory on 
left side. 



6. E 2. Necessary to secure the 
connection at D 2. 

8. G 4. White takes space to 
the right. 



Even game. 



II 
No Handicap 



Black 



White 



1. Q.15. 
3. P17. 
outside. 
6. P16. 



"Takamoku." 

Black attacks from the 



2. Q.17. 
4. P18. 

6. O 17. White plays to get ter- 
ritory on one side or the other; he 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



H5 



Black 



White 



will sacrifice one of his stones on 
line 17. 
7. O 18. This stone is intended 8. N 18. White plays to secure 

as a sacrifice to aid Black in getting the left-hand side, 
the corner. It is better than Q18. 



9. Q.18. 
corner. 
11. R 17. 



Black now secures the 10. O 19. Takes. 



13. P 14. This is also important 



12. O 16. An important stone; 
it is played to secure White territory 
on the left, also to aid in an attack 
on the right-hand side. 

14. K 16. White returns to his 



as it extends Black's territory; he original plan and secures territory 
cannot neglect it. to the left. 

Even game. 

Suppose Black neglects P 14 on his thirteenth move, we 
would then have the following continuation: 



Black 

13. "Tenuki." 

15. Q14. 

17. R13. 

19. Q12. 

21. R 11. 

23. S 11. 

25. R 14. 

27. P 12. 

29. R 10. 

31. R 9. 



White 



14. 


P14. 


16. 


Q.I3- 


18. 


R 12. 


20. 


Pi3- 


22. 


S 12. 


24. 


S13. 


26. 


Q.11. 


28. 


S 10. 


30. 


Q.10. 



White has the better of it. 



146 



THE GAME OF GO 



III 



No Handicap 
Plate 22 {A) 
Black 

I. P 16. "Takamoku." 
3. Q_I4- The purpose of this 

move is to confine White to the 
corner. 

5. O 17. Black prevents this. 

7. O 16. 

9. R 13. Black stops him. 

II. Q.16. If Black wishes 
"Tenuki," this is good, otherwise 
S 13 would be better. 

13. E 17. "Tenuki," but, never- 
theless, played with reference to the 
stones on line O. 



White 



2. 


R16. 










4. 


Pl 7 . 


White 


tries 


to g« 


;t out 


on th 


e left. 










6. 


Q.17. 










8. 


R 14. 


White 


tries 


the 


other 


side. 












10. 


S 14. 










12. 


R17. 











Even game. White has the corner, but Black has better 
possibilities. 

IV 



No Handicap 







Black 








1. 


E16. 


"Takamoku." 




2. 


C16. 


3. 


D14. 






4. 


E17. 


5. 


D16. 


Black threatens 


to 


6. 


D17. 



break into the corner. 

7. C 17 Black repeats his threat; 
in reality it is a sacrificed stone. 



8. B 17. 



White 



JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



H7 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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10 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 22 



i 4 8 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 
10. B 1 8. White must play here 
to save his stones. 

12. B 1 6. 
14. D 18. 
16. C 19. Takes two. 



Black 

9. C 18. This stone may be lost, 
but it aids Black in attacking from 
the outside. 

11. C15. 

13. F 17. 

15. E 18. 

17. G 16. 

This is an old "Joseki" which used to be popular; it 
fell into disuse and was revived by Murase Shuho. It is 
good enough for White if he has an outlying stone or two 
in the neighborhood, otherwise it is bad play for White. 

V 

No Handicap 

The following stones are supposed to be on the board: 
Black, Q 13, R 13, R 15; White, Q 14, P 16, Q 17. 



Black 



White 



1. Q5. Black plays "Taka- 2. R 3. White plans to prevent 

moku," thinking to connect with Black's connection and reduce the 



stones on line 13. 

3. P 3. Thts is an error; if Black 
wishes to frustrate White's plan, R 4 
is the correct play. 

5. P 4 . 

7. R6. 

9. R7. 

11. R8. 



13. R9. 
15. Q.6. 



Black territory. 
4. Q.4. 



6. R5. 

8. S6. 

10. S7. 

12. S 8. White has now made a 
formidable attack on the Black ter- 
ritory. 

14. P 5. If Black gets this point, 
his line would be too strong. 

16. Q2. Important; not merely 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 149 

Black White 

to attack Black on line P, but it 
prevents Black from coming to R 2, 
which would mean io "Me"; it 
also prepares for O 2. 

White has the better of it. 

Variation commencing at White's sixteenth move: 

Black White 

16. O 5. Not so good as No. 16, 

Q.2. 

17. R 2. 18. S 2. 

19. Q_z. 20. S 4. White secures the neces- 

sary two "Me." 
21. M3. 

Black now has secured territory at the bottom of the 
board and confined White to the corner with the better 
game. 

VI 

No Handicap 

Plate 22 (B) 
Black White 

1. Q.5. 2. Q.3. 

3. O4. 4. R5. 

5. R 6. 6. R 4. 

7. S6. 8. O2. 
9. "Tenuki" at Q.15. 

White has the corner; Black can afford "Tenuki" at 
move nine because if White cuts at Q 6 Black can still get a 
good game. In fact Q 15 indirectly defends the connec- 
tion at Q 6. 



I 5° 



THE GAME OF GO 



VII 

No Handicap 
Plate 22 (C) 
Black 
1. D 15. 2. D 17. 

3. G 16. Old "Joseki," origi- 4. C 15. 

nated by KonnoGenkoin the Middle 
Ages. 

6. D 16. 
8. C18. 
10. D 18. 
12. C14. 
14. C13. 
16. B 19. 
18. B13. 
20. G 18. 



5. 


Ci 


6. 


7. 


Cl 


7- 


9. 


Bi 


8. 


11. 


B 


15- 


13. 


B 


14- 


15. 


E 


15- 


17. 


B 


17- 


19. 


A 


16. 


"Me. 


" 




21. 


H 


18. 


23. 


H 


17- 


25. 


F 


15- 


27. 


G 


15- 



This gives Black two 



22. 
24. 
26. 
28. 



G17. 
F16. 

E16. 
F18. 



defense. 



29. C 10. 
Black has the better of it. 



White 



Important move for 



VIII 

No Handicap 

Plate 23 (A) 



Black 

1. P 17. "Moku hadzushi"; not 
so much used as the other two open- 



White 

2. Q15. This is called "Taka- 
moku kakari"; it is one of the two 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



!5i 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

19 i — i — i — i — i — i i i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i 19 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 23 



!52 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 



White 



ings. It is more conservative than general methods of replying to 

"Takamoku." "Moku hadzushi." 

3. R 16. Black plays to secure 4. R 15. 
the corner. 

5. S 16. The corner is now safe. 6. Rn. S 15 would be good 

also. 

Even game. 



IX 



No Handicap 



Black 

1. R 15. "Moku hadzushi." 

3. P 15. Black plays to confine 
White. 

5. P 14. Necessary to prevent 
White breaking in. 

7. R 16. 



9. R 10. 

11. S 17. 

13. R 18. 

15. S 16. 



White 

2. P 16. 
4. O 15. 

6. Q16. White plays to get the 
corner. 

8. N 16. Very important; if 
neglected, Black gets the corner, 
and also destroys White's adjacent 
territory. 

10. R 17. 

12. S 18. 

14. Q17. 

16. K 17. 



The corner is evenly divided, and neither side has an 
advantage. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



l 53 



X 

No Handicap 



Black 



White 



1. PI7. 












2. Q_I5- "Takamoku kakari." 


3. P15. 












4. P 16. This is an invention of 
Murase Shuho. 


5. O 16. 


Black 


cannot play 


at 


6. Q16. 


Q_i6 without getting 


a 


very b 


ad 




position. 
7. Q.17. 
9. R 18. 












8. R 17. 
10. S 16. 


11. S 18. 












12. O 17. 


13. N17. 












14. O18. 


15. P18. 












16. N 18. This and the two pre- 



17. M 17. 


Black cannot neglect 


18. 


O15 


this move. 








19. N 16. 




20. 


P14. 


21. K17. 


Defensive; Black loses 


22. 


R 10, 


the " Sente.' 









ceding stones are sacrificed; Black 
naturally expects White to cut at 
O 15. The text move is a brilliant 
invention of Murase Shuho. 



Takes. 



White has much the better game. 





XI 






No Handicap 






Plate 23 (B) 






Black 


White 


1. p 3 . 


" Moku hadzushi." 2. Q 5- 


"Takamoku kakari." 


3. P 5 . 


4. P 4 . 





154 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 



White 



5. Q_4. This is not a good move 


6. 


O4. 


for Black and will result in his 






getting a confined position. 






7. R5. 


8. 


Q.6. 


9. R4. 


10. 


OS- 


11. P2. 


12. 


O2. 


13. R 6. 


14. 


Q.7- 


15. S 8. Black cannot play at 


16. 


E3. 


R 8, as White would cut at R 7. 







White has the better position. 



XII 



1. C15. 



3. F17. 
both sides. 



No Handicap 
Plate 23 (C) 



Black 



White 



Black attacks from 



2. D 17. "Komoku kakari." 
This is the alternative method of 
defense to this opening. 

4. E 17. This is the crucial 
move. White plays thus first to 
get a strong position on line 17, also 
to prepare for getting out at D 15. 
Two connected stones always form 
a strong base. 



5. G 16. 


6. 


D15. 


7. D 14. 


8. 


E15. 


9. B 16. Black now invades the 


10. 


B17. 


corner; he wishes to occupy C 17, 






an important point. 






11. C 17. 


12. 


C18. 


13. C 16. 


14. 


B18. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



155 



White 



Black 

15. E 18. 16. D 18. 

17. G 14. 18. F 14. 

19. D 13. Guarding the connec- 20. G 13. 
tion at C 14. 

21. H 14. 22. F 12. 

Black has the better position. This is an old "Joseki." 
It is not much liked at the present time. 



XIII 
No Handicap 



Black 

1. C15. 

3. F 16. This is a variation; 
the intention is to confine White to 
the margin. 

5. E 15. This is to prevent 
White from coming to D 15. 

7. H 16. 

9. G 16. 

Even game. 



D17. 
E17. 



White 



6. G 17. 

8. H 18. This is a correct move. 
H 17 would be inferior. 
10. K17. 



XIV 

No Handicap 

Plate 23 (D) 





Black 








1. c 5 . 






2. 


D3 


3. F4. 






4. 


E3- 


5. C 3 . 


This is unusual; 


E 5 is 


6. 


C2 


ie customary move. 









White 



156 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 



7. C 4 - 

9. Ba. 

11. E 5 . 

13. G 5 . 



8. G 3 . 

10. Gf 

12. D2. 

14. J 4 . 



Even game; the corner is divided. 



White 



XV 



No Handicap 



Plate 24 {A) 



Black 



1. R 16. This move, called 
"Komoku" is the most frequently 
used opening when there are no 
handicaps; it is also the safest for 
the weaker player. 

3. N 17. This move is called 
"Ikken basami"; this is the most 
usual way of continuing: it gives 
Black an attack at once. 

5. S 17. 

7. R 15. Black must extend; 
R 18 would be bad. 

9. Q.13. 



White 
P 17. White's best reply. 



4. R 17. White plays to get the 
corner. 



6. Q_i6. 

8. R 18. White must do the 
same; he cannot play at S 18. 

10. S 18. White cannot neglect 
this move after Black plays at Q.13; 
if Black had played at R 12, White 
could have played elsewhere. 



Black has the better position. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



157 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

19 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 19 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 24 



i 5 8 



THE GAME OF GO 



XVI 

No Handicap 



Black 



White 



1. 


Q.I 7 . 


"Komoku." 




2. R15. 


3. 


R13. 


"Ikken basami." 




4. Q13. This time White does 
not try for the corner, but attacks 
the black stone at R 13. 


5. 


Q.I2. 






6. Q.14. 


7. 


N17. 


Black abandons 


the 


8. R 12. 



stone at R 13 in order to get greater 
territory; if he defends it at R 11, 
White plays at N 17 with a better 
game. 

9. R 11. 10. 

11. Q_u. S 11 would be bad. 12. 

13. R 16. 14. 

Black has the better position. 



S 12. 
S13. 
S15. 



XVII 

No Handicap 





Black 


1. D 3 . 


"Komoku." 


3. C7. 




5. D5. 


Black connects 


stones and 


shuts White in. 


7. E4. 




9. D6. 




11. E2. 




13. E 3 . 





White 

2. C 5 . 

4. H 3. White in turn attacks 
the black stone at D 3; G3 would 
be too near, 
his 6. D4. 

8. C4. 

10. C 3 . 

12. Da. 

14. L 3. White can afford to 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 159 

Black White 

play for a greater space, as his 
stones in the corner will live even 
if he loses the stone at D 2. 

15. B6. 16. B5. 

17. C2. 18. B2. 

19. D 1. Takes. 20. B 1. 

Even game. 



XVIII 
No Handicap 

Plate 24 (B) 
Black White 



1. R 4. " Komoku." 


2. 


P3- 




3. M 3. "Nikken basami." This 


4. 


0.5- 


White plays to get out 


is the second variation in this 


towai 


rd the center. 


opening. 








5. R 5. 


6. 


Q.6. 




7. R 7. 


8. 


R6. 




9. S6. 


10. 


S 7 . 


"Sute ishi." 


11. S8. 


12. 


0.7- 




13. R 8. It would be bad play 


14. 


S 5 . 




to take immediately. 








15. T 7. Takes. 


16. 


Rs- 




17. S 4 . 


18. 


S3- 


This move is made to 




secure "Me 


" in the corner. 


19. Q.4. 


20. 


P4- 





The game is about even. 



i6o 



THE GAME OF GO 



XIX 

No Handicap 



Black 



White 



1. 


c 4 . 


" Komoku." 




2. E 3 . 




3. 


H 3 - 


"Nikken basami." 




4. D5. 

at C 4. 


White attacks the stone 


5. 


D 4 - 






6. E4. 




7. 


E 5 . 


This is a bad move 


if 


8. D6. 





White replies correctly, otherwise 
Black gets the better of it. 
9. F 5 . 



11. B6. Black defends 
threatened position. 
13. F7. 
15. B2. 



his 



10. D 2. This is an important 
move; it attacks the black stones 
on line 4 and also prepares for 
White to extend at G 4. C 2 
would be bad, as Black would play 
at F 4. 

12. G4. 

14. D 8. White must extend. 
16. H4. 



Black's third stone at H 3 is now called " Uke ishi," or 
a " floating stone." White has the better position. 



Black 



XX 

No Handicap 
Plate 24 (C) 



1. D 17. "Komoku." 

3. C 12. "Nikken basami." 

5. D 11. 



White 



2. C15. 

4. D 12. White attacks the stone 
at C 12 in this variation. 
6. C13. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



161 



Black 



7. Cn. 



9. E 16. 

11. C 16. The old book move 
was E 15, but this gave "Tenuki" 
to White. 



Even game. 



White 

8. G 17. White attacks the other 
black stone. 
10. F15. 
12. E15. 



XXI 



No Handicap 

Black White 

I. C4. "Komoku." 2. E3. 

3. J 3. "Sangen basami." This 4. R 4. White takes advantage 

move attacks the white stone but not of his opportunity and plays in an- 
so directly as the preceding varia- oth 
tion. It is the invention of Honinbo 
Dosaku. 

5. Dj. 

7. B6. 

9. M 3. It will be seen in this 
variation that the stones are played 
farther apart than in the preceding 
" Joseki." 

II. H2. 
13. D 8. This is an important 

move for Black. 
15. M5. 



her 


corner, 


6. 


E 4 - 


8. 


J 5- 


10. 


H 3 - 



17. L 3. If Black defends at 
M 4, White replies at K 2. 



12. H4. 
14. O3. 

16. L 4. "Nozoku." It threat- 
ens Black's connection on lines M 
and 3. 

18. G2. 



162 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black 



White 



19. J 2. 20. L 5. 

21. Mf 22. P5. 

This "Joseki" really deals with two corners. 

XXII 
No Handicap 



Plate 


24 (D) 




Black 




White 


1. D 3. " Komoku." 


2. c 5 . 




3. C 9. "Sangen basami." 


4. c 3 . 




5. C2. 


6. D4. 




7. E 3 . 


8. B 3 . 




9. E 4. Preparatory to 11 at C 


10. D6. 


A good move. E 5 


;; generally No. 9 is played at H 3. 


would be bad, because Black would 




reply at D 6 with a better game. 



11. C 15. (Not in diagram.) 



We will now insert ten examples of openings, as dis- 
tinguished from " Joseki." As already stated, these are by 
Murase Shuho. In these examples Black is supposed to 
make the best possible moves, and therefore White always 
finds himself at a disadvantage. 

I 

Plate 25 
Black has a handicap of four stones. 

White Black 

1. R 14. 



3. Q.13. 



2. Q_i 4 . 

4. P 14. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



163 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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vi 













































19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 25 



9. 


Pl 3 . 


11. 


Q.15. 


13. 


R13. 


15. 


N13. 



164 THE GAME OF GO 

White Black 

5. R 15. 6. R 16. 

7. O 3. 8. R 10. Formerly in such a 

case as this Black played at R 7. 
This move replied to White's move 
at O 3 and at the same time from a 
distance attacked White's stones at 
R 14 and R 15. It is better to con- 
fine the last two stones by the text 
move. 
10. R 12. 
12. P 15. 
14. P16. 

16. P 10. This move is better 
than R 7. 
17. R 3. 18. R 4. This move is better 

than Q_3, which although it cuts off 
O 3 and R 3 would leave Black's 
stone at R 10 weak. 
19. Qj. 20. P 4 . 

21. P3. 22. N5. 

23. L 17. 24. G 17. 

25. O 17. 26. N 16. 

27. P 18. 28. Q18. Black is quite satis- 

fied to have merely the necessary 
two "Me" in this corner, because he 
has a much larger territory to the 
left. 
29. J 17. 30. C 10. 

31. Q6. 32. O4. 

33. M4. This move is better 34. O 8. 

than O 7 because Black could fol- 
low at N 3 in that case. Q_6 is a 
"Sute ishi" or sacrificed stone. It 
has the effect of forcing Black to 
play 34 O 8, and later on will help 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



165 



White 

still further to narrow down Black's 
territory. At the same time every 
attack on the Black position from 
the outside would be made more 
effective by the presence of this 
stone. Possibly it could also be 
used later in "Ko." Black makes 
his 36th, 38th and 40th moves in 
order to secure his position which 
is weakened by the presence of the 
white stone at Q6. 

35. F 3 . 

37. L4. 

39. K5. 

41- J 5- 

43. G4. 

45. F5. 

47. G 3 . 

49. R 18. Beginners would play 
at S 16 or Q.17. 

51. O 18. 



Black 



36. 


M 5 . 


38. 


L5- 


40. 


K6. 


42. 


F 4 - 


44. 


E3- 


46. 


E 4 . 


48. 


D 7 . 


50. 


P17 



52. Q_i 9 . 



II 

Plate 26 



Black h 


as 


a handier 


IP 


of foil 


r stones. 




White 








1. R 14. 










2. Q14. 


3. Q.13. 










4. P 14. 


5. R15. 










6. R 16. 


7. R 10. 










8. K17. 


9. O3. 










10. G 3 . 


11. H 17. 










12. F 17. 


13. M 17. 










14. O17. 



Black 



1 66 THE GAME OF GO 

White 



15. 


Oi8. 


17. 


K 18. 


19. 


Li 7 . 


21. 


Ki6. 


23. 


Ji6. 


25. 


M 18. 


27. 


o 4 . 


29. 


J 3- 


31. 


C6. 


33. 


C8. 


35. 


F7- 


37. 


Cl2. 


39. 


D8. 



41. 


E 12. 


43. 


F8. 


45. 


H 7 . 


47. 


C 14. 


49. 


M 15 


51. 


K 7 . 


53. 


L 3 - 







Black 


16. 


P17. 




18. 


L18. 




20. 


J 18. 




22. 


J 17- 




24. 


H 18. 




26. 


I J 3- 




28. 


Q.6. 


This move has the 


same 


effect as R 6. 


30. 


C 10. 




32. 


c 4 - 




34. 


E 10. 




36. 


G 5 . 




38. 


D 7 . 




40. 


Cn. 


This move is very im- 


portant because it prevents the 


stone 


at C] 


[2 from making a con- 


nection with that at C 8. 


42. 


F 9 . 




44. 


Hg. 




46. 


H 12. 




48. 


KlQ. 




50. 


J 5- 




52. 


K 9 . 




54. 


R8. 





III 

Plate 27 
Black has a handicap of three stones. 

White Black 

1. R4. 2. P 3 . 

3. L 3 . 4. G 3 . 

5. Q_ 3 . 6 P + . 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



167 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 26 



i68 



THE GAME OF GO 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

19 . — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i 19 



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6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 27 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



169 



White 



Black 



7. 


Q.6. 










8. 

good. 

White 


M 5. The following is also 

B. L5, M3, M4 
W. J 3> M2, Q.8 

: playing at Q8 in order to 














prevent Black from playing at R 5. 


9. 


K 4 - 










10. 


K6. 


11. 


H 4 . 










12. 


G 4 - 


13. 


J 6. 










14. 


K 7 . 


15. 


G6. 










16. 


R 11. Black cannot play at 














R 5 without seeing P 3 and 4 cut off. 


17. 


R 9 . 










18. 


Q.I4- 


19. 


C6. 










20. 


c 4 - 


21. 


C 14. 










22. 


Gl 7 . 


23. 


C17. 










24. 


CI6. 


25. 


D17. 










26. 


EI6. 


27. 


B16. 










28. 


Bl 5 . 


29. 


B17. 










30. 


Cl 5 . 


31. 


E17. 










32. 


Fl 7 . 


33. 


D14. 










34. 


Fl 5 . 


35. 


M 17. 










36. 


C8. 


37. 


E6. 










38. 


Du. 


39. 


B14. 


The 


ordir 


lary 


answer 


40. 


E8. 


to this is A 


14, but 


: this 


time Black 






cannot play 


in this 


way 


since White 






wouk 


1 follow at 


B12 


ar 


id thus 






threaten the 


black stones 


at C8 






and D n. 














41. 


J 7- 










42. 


K8. 


43. 


H 9 . 










44. 


Gu. 


45. 


A 15. 


Black cot 


.Id 


not oc- 


46. 


J 10. 



cupy A 14 on his 42d and 44th 
moves. 

47. H 3 . 

49. J 17. 



48. O 17. 

50. G 2. This move is necessary 



170 THE GAME OF GO 



White Black 



for the security of the Black po- 
sition, and at the same time Black 
does not lose the "Sente" by this 
move. 



IV 
Plate 28 
Black has a handicap of three stones. 

White Black 



1. R 14. 












2. 


R 5 . 


3. P 4 . 












4. 


Q.3- 


5. P3. 












6. 


Q.2. 


7. R 7. F 


ormerly 


in 


this case 


8. 


R6. 


White played 


at 


L3 


and 


Bl; 


ack re- 






plied at Q_6. 
















9. Q.7. 












10. 


P5- 


11. O 17. 












12. 


Q.14. 


13. Q.13. 












14. 


P14. 


15. R 15. 












16. 


R 16. 


17. P13. 












18. 


O16. 


19. N 16. 












20. 


P17. 


21. O 18. 












22. 


O13. 


23. O 12. 












24. 


O14. 


25. K 17. 












26. 


L3- 


27. C 14. 


At 


this 


move 


White 


28. 


L 5 . 



abandons P 3 and 4. If he replied 
to Black L 3, then there would fol- 
low: 

B. L 3, L 4, L 5, L 6, G 4 
W. M 4, M 5, M 6, M 7 
and Black has a decisive advantage. 

29. C8. 30. C6. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



171 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

19 1 1 1 — 1 — 1 1 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 1 — 1 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 1 — 1 19 



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5 

4 

3 

2 



Plate 28 



172 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 



31. 


E14. 


33. 


B 14. 


35. 


E2. 


37. 


D3- 


39. 


E3- 


41. 


J3- 


43. 


G 3 - 



45. J5- 
47. 8. 
49. O 11. 



Black 

32. C15. 

34. F 16. 

36. Da. 

38. C 3 . 

40. C2. 

42. E4. 

44. K 2. The importance of this 
move, when a territory merely has 
the protection of L 3-L 5, has been 
commented on before. 

46. P6. 

48. N 12. 

50. H 17. 



V 

Plate 29 
Black has a handicap of two stones. 
White 



1. 


R 4 - 




3. 


D17. 




5. 


C15. 




7. 


C16. 




9. 


C8. 


F 17 is i 


Then 


would 


follow: 
B. G17 
W. F 18 


11. 


D18. 




13. 


L3- 




15. 


R 7 . 




17. 


L 5 . 




19. 


L 7 . 




21. 


S3- 





just 



good. 



2. 
4. 
6. 
8. 
10 



D15. 

F16. 
C 14. 

Dl 4 . 
EI8. 



12. 


P3- 


14. 


P6. 


16. 


J3- 


18. 


J5- 


20. 


R3- 


22. 


0.4- 



Black 



This move and 24- 
R 2 are necessary because of the 
white stones on line L. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



173 



ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPQRST 

19 1 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — I — I — I — I — I — 1 — 1 — 1 19 



18 

17 

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10 

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4 

3 

2 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 29 



174 



THE GAME OF GO 





White 








Black 


23. 


R 5 . 




24. 


R2. 




25. 


O17. 




26. 


C6. 




27. 


Dn. 




28. 


F 12. 


This move is very 








good, 


otherv 


/ise White plavs at E 16 








and b 


reaks 


into the Black position. 


29. 


F 9 . 




30. 


Q.14. 




31. 


K16. 




32. 


R 9 . 




33. 


S 2. If Black plays 


at R 9, 


34. 


P 9 . 




this move is necessary for 


the se- 








curity 


of the white group. 










35. 


C12. 




36. 


E17. 




37. 


D16. 




38. 


F 14. 




39. 


G15. 




40. 


F15. 




41. 


H17. 




42. 


J 7- 




43. 


O4. 




44. 


0.5- 




45. 


R8. 




46. 


M6. 




47. 


L6. 




48. 


0.9- 




49. 


F3- 




50. 


E3- 




51. 


G 2. This is a fine 


: move. 


52. 


K2. 





By means of it Black is compelled 
to play at K 2 and White can occupy 
F 5 on his 53d move and thus escape, 
whereas without G 2 White could 
only have played at F 4, whereupon 
Black could have cut off" the retreat 
atF6. 

VI 

Plate 30 
Black has a handicap of two stones. 



White 



Black 



1- 0.3- 
3. C 15. 

5- J 17- 



2. D17. 
4. C13. 
6. D 15. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



75 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 




ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 30 



i 7 6 THE GAME OF GO 

White Black 



7. 


Di6. 


8. 


E 16. 


9. 


Ci6. 


10. 


D 14. 


11. 


C17. 


12. 


E18. 


13. 


C18. 


14. 


L 17. Black could prevent 






White's next move of E 15 by play- 






ing 14 


-G 15. 


15. 


E15. 


16. 


F16. 


17. 


E13. 


18. 


E14. 


19. 


F 15. "Shicho" is impos- 


20. 


H 16. This move makes the 


sible 1 


because White already occupies 


Black 


position secure. 


Q.3- 








21. 


F14. 


22. 


Cn. 


23. 


L16. 


24. 


M 17. 


25. 


J 16. 


26. 


H15. 


27. 


G13. 


28. 


J H. 


29. 


M 16. 


30. 


N16. 


31. 


N15. 


32. 


O16. 


33. 


L 14. 


34. 


J 12. 


35. 


Gn. 


36. 


D 9 . 


37. 


H 10. 


38. 


Jio. 


39. 


J 9- 


40. 


K 10. 


41. 


G8. 


42. 


D6. 


43. 


K 9 . 


44. 


L 10. 


45. 


M8. 


46. 


Nio. 


47. 


J 15. 


48. 


H 14. 


49. 


N13. 


50. 


J 3. White could not occupy 






this p 


oint without endangering the 






upper 


position. 


51. 


L3- 


52. 


J 5- 


53. 


P8. 


54. 


Pio. 


55. 


Q.I3- 


56. 


L 5. Black does not need 






to further defend his position E 17- 






Pio, 


because it surely has two 






"Me. : 


" 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



*77 



VII 
No Handicap 



Plate 31 



Black 



White 



1. 


c 4 . 












2. 


0.3- 


3. 


D17. 












4. 


E3- 


5. 


D 5 . 












6. 


R16. 


7. 


R 5 . 












8. 


O17. 


9. 


F 4 . 












10. 


G 3 - 


11. 


O4. 












12. 

might 


O 3. From here the game 
continue as follows: 
B. W. 
















N 3 P4 
















O2 P3 
















N4 Q,6 
















R 


■7 K 3 
















but th 


is is bad for Black. 


13. 


P4- 












14. 


P3- 


15. 


N 4 . 


M 3 


would 


be 


just 


as 


16. 


R4- 


good. 


















17. 


N 3 . 












18. 


S 5 . 


19. 


J 3- 












20. 


Cll. White abandons the 
















stones at E 3 and G 3. If he were to 
















play at G 4, Black would reply at 
















C 1 1 with too great an advantage. 


21. 


C14. 












22. 


C8. 


23. 


D3- 












24. 


J i7- 


25. 


G17. 












26. 


Ji5. 


27. 


J 5- 


Now 


the 


twc 


1 white 


28. 


Q.12. 


stones 


; are cut off. 














29. 


L15. 


Blac 


:k cannot 


venture 


30. 


L17. 


any farther 1 


in. 














31. 


P16. 












32. 


P17. 


33. 


Q.16. 












34. 


Q.17. 



i 7 8 



THE GAME OF GO 



ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPORST 

19 i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i 1 — i 1 — i — r—\ — i i— . 19 



17 
16 
15 
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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 

Plate 31 



35. 


Ri 5 . 


37. 


Pl 3 . 


39. 


Ni 3 . 


41. 


O14. 


43. 


L13. 



45. D7. 



1. 


c 4 . 


3. 


0.3- 


5. 


Rg. 


7. 


N 3 . 


9. 


P 9 . 


11. 


R4- 


13. 


P4- 


15. 


M 4 . 


17. 


O17. 


19. 


C 10. 


21. 


D 5 . 


23. 


R 17. 


25. 


R 16. 


27. 


Q.18. 


29. 


R 18. 


31. 


R 14. 


33. 


R13. 


35. 


S12. 


37. 


C13. 


39. 


Q.12. 


41. 


S15. 


43. 


S 14. 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 179 

Black White 



36. 


S16. 


38. 


P12. 


40. 


O13. 


42. 


Ol2. 



44. R6. 
VIII 

No Handicap 

Plate 32 

Black White 



2. 


C16. 


4. 


R 5 . 


6. 


O5. 


8. 


R 12. 


10. 


Q.16. 


12. 


0.5- 


14. 


P5- 


16. 


M7. 


18. 


E 16. 


20. 


E3- 


22. 


K17. 


24. 


Q.17. 


26. 


Q.15. 


28. 


P18. 


30. 


P17. 


32. 


Q.14. 


34. 


Q.I3- 


36. 


K15. 


38. 


E 13. 


40. 


R15. 


42. 


S 16. 


44. 


P12. 



i8o 



THE GAME OF GO 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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ABC DEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 32 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 181 

Black White 

45. R II. Takes. 46. M 5. This move is necessary 

because Black's position above it 
has become strong. 
47. O 13. The continuation 
would now be either 48 P 13, 49 
O 15, or 48 O 15, 49 P J 3- 

IX 

No Handicap 

Plate 33 
Black White 



1. 


c 4 - 






2. 


0.3- 


3. 


D 17. 






4. 


E3- 


5. 


R 16. 






6. 


C15. 


7. 


D 5 . 






8. 


P17. 


9. 


F 4 . 






10. 

at G 


C 11. White cannot play 10 
3 because Black would then 










occupy C 11. 


11. 


F3- 






12. 


K 3 - 


13. 


R 5 . 






14. 


O4. 


15. 


F16. 






16. 


H17. 


17. 


C13. 






18. 
at C 


C 8. Abandoning the stone 
r 5- 


19. 


C16. 






20. 


R13. 


21. 


Q.15. 






22. 


N16. 


23. 


Q.17. 






24. 


P18. 


25. 


R 9 . 


If 25 were 


played 


26. 


P14. 


at Q_8, 26 


R 8 would 


be the 






result 












27. 


O16. 






28. 


O15. 


29. 


P16. 






30. 


N17. 


31. 


Q.18. 






32. 


R 7 . 



l82 



THE GAME OF GO 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 33 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



■83 





Black 












White 


33. 


S 7. This move 


insures 


a 


34. 


E 4 . 


This move rescues No. 


connection between 


the 


stones 


at 


4- 






R 5 and R 9. 














35. 


E2. 








36. 


D2. 




37. 


G2. 








38. 


E 5 . 




39. 


D3- 








40. 


D6. 




41. 


C 3 - 








42. 


H15. 




43. 


0.7- 








44. 
from 


N13. 

cutting 


This prevents Black 
at N 15 and Q.13. 


45. 


F 14. 








46. 


C6. 




47. 


G13. 















X 

No Handicap 



Plate 34 







Black 








1. 


c 4 . 






2. 


0.3- 


3. 


D 17. 






4. 


E 3 - 


5. 


R 16. 






6. 


C15. 


7. 


D 5 . 






8. 


F 16. 


9. 


D15. 






10. 


D16. 


11. 


E16. 






12. 


C16. 


13. 


E17. 






14. 


E15. 


15. 


D14. 






16. 


C17. 


17. 


F17. 






18. 


G16. 


19. 


H 18. 


This move is much 


20. 


C 14. 


bettei 


: than 


G17. 








21. 


E 14. 






22. 


F15. 


23. 


F14. 






24. 


H 16. 


25. 


J*7- 






26. 


G18. 


27. 


F 18. 






28. 


G14. 


29. 


E 12. 






30. 


Cn. 



White 



i8 4 



THE GAME OF GO 



19 

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4 

3 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 34 



"JOSEKI" AND OPENINGS 



185 



Black 

31. G13. 

33. G 12. H 14 would be bad. 

35. M 17. 

37. G 10. 

39. R 10. 

41. P16. 

43. P 10. 

45. R 12. 

47. Q,i7. 

49. H9. 



White 

32. H 13. 

34 J 14. 

36. J 11 

38. Q.5. 

40. R8. 

42. J 3- 

44. P 12. 

46. R 17. A sacrifice. 

48. D8. 

50. N 12. 



VII 
THE END GAME 

A work on the game of Go would not be complete with- 
out a chapter especially devoted to the subject of the end 
game. 

On the average a game of Go consists of about two 
hundred and fifty moves, and we might say that about 
twenty of these moves belong to the opening, about one 
hundred and fifty to the main part of the game, and the 
remaining eighty to the end game. The moves which may 
be regarded as belonging to the end game are those which 
connect the various groups of stones with the margin, and 
which fill up the space between the opposing groups of stones. 
Of course, there is no sharp distinction between the main 
game and the end game. Long before the main game is 
finished moves occur which bear the characteristics of end 
game play, and as the game progresses moves of this kind 
become more and more frequent, until at last all of the 
moves are strictly part of the end game. 

Toward the end of the game it becomes possible to 
calculate the value of a move with greater accuracy than 
in the middle of the game, and in many cases the number 
of points which may be gained by a certain move may be 
ascertained with absolute accuracy. Therefore, when the 
main game is nearing completion, the players survey the 
board in order to locate the most advantageous end plays; 
that is to say, positions where they can gain the greatest 



THE END GAME 187 

number of "Me." In calculating the value of an end 
position, a player must carefully consider whether on its 
completion he will retain or lose the "Sente." It is an 
advantage to retain the "Sente," and it is generally good play 
to choose an end position where the "Sente" is retained, in 
preference to an end position where it is lost, even if the 
latter would gain a few more "Me." 

The player holding the "Sente" would, therefore, com- 
plete in rotation those end positions which allowed him to 
retain it, commencing, of course, with those involving the 
greatest number of "Me." He would at last come to a 
point, however, where it would be more advantageous to 
play some end position which gained for him quite a number 
of points, although on its completion the "Sente" would 
be lost. His adversary, thereupon gaining the "Sente," 
would, in turn, play his series of end positions until it became 
advantageous for him to relinquish it. By this process the 
value of the contested end positions would become smaller 
and smaller, until at last there would remain only the filling 
of isolated, vacant intersections between the opposing lines, 
the occupation of which results in no advantage for either 
player. These moves are called "Dame," as we have 
already seen. 

This is the general scheme of an end game, but, of 
course, in actual play there would be many departures there- 
from. Sometimes an advantage can be gained by making 
an unsound though dangerous move, in the hope that the 
adversary may make some error in replying thereto. Then 
again, in playing against a player who lacks initiative, it 
is not so necessary to consider the certainty of retaining the 
"Sente" as when opposed by a more aggressive adversary. 



188 THE GAME OF GO 

Frequently also the players differ in their estimate of the 
value of the various end positions, and do not, therefore, 
respond to each other's attacks. In this way the possession 
of the "Sente" generally changes more frequently during 
the end game than is logically necessary. 

The process of connecting the various groups with the 
edge of the board gives rise to end positions in which there 
is more or less similarity in all games, and most of the illus- 
trations which are now given are examples of this class. 
The end positions which occur in the middle of the board 
may vary so much in every game that it is practically im- 
possible to give typical illustrations of them. 

Of course, in an introductory work of this character it 
is not practicable to give a great many examples of end 
positions, and I have prepared only twelve, which are se- 
lected from the work of Inouye Hoshin, and which are 
annotated so that the reasons for the moves may be under- 
stood by beginners. The number of "Me" gained in each 
case is stated, and also whether the "Sente" is lost or re- 
tained. To these twelve examples I have added eight 
positions from Korschelt's work. 

I 
Plate 35 (A) 
The following stones are on the board: White, S 15, 
R 14, P 14, L 17; Black, R 16, Q 16, N 15, N 17. 

If White has the "Sente," he gains eight "Me," counting 
together what he wins and Black loses. 

White Black 

1. S 17. This is White's only 2. S 16. If Black had had the 

good move; S 16 does not take ad- move or "Sente," he could have 



THE END GAME 



189 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 

19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 







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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRS' 

Plate 35 



I 

190 THE GAME OF GO 

White Black 

vantage of the opportunity, and he avoided White's invasion by play- 

cannot risk S 18. ing here. 

3. T 16. An instance of "Wa- 4. R 17. 
tari." 

5. S 18. White cannot venture 6. R 18. If Black neglects this, 

to play at R 18. White would jump to Q_ 18. 

White retains the "Sente." 

II 
Plate 35 (B) 

The following stones are on the board : White, R 9, O 5, 
3 ;Black,P7,Q3,Q4,R 7 . 

If White has the first move, it makes a difference of 
six "Me." 

White Black 

1. P2. 2. Q_ 2 . 

3. Q_i. 4. R 1. 

5. P 1. 6. S 2. Black cannot neglect 

this move. 

White retains the "Sente." 

If Black had had the first move, the play would have 
been as follows: 

Black White 

1. P2. 2. O2. 

3. Oi. 4. Ni. 

5. Pi. 6. M 2. 

And Black has the "Sente." 



THE END GAME 191 

III 

Plate 35 (C) 

The following stones are on the board: White, B 16, C 14, 
E 15; Black, C 17, D 16, E 16, G 17. 

If White has the move, it makes a difference of seven 
41 Me." 

White Black 

1. B 17. White dare not go to 2. B 18. 

B 18 because he would be cut off 
eventually at B 15. 

3. A 18. 4. C 18. 

White retains the "Sente." 

IV 

• Plate 35 (D) 
The following stones are on the board: White, B 8, 
C 7, C 8, D 6, E 2, E 6, F 3, F 5; Black, B 6, B 7, C 6, D 2, 

3> 4> 5- 

If White has the move, it makes a difference of four 

"Me." 

White Black 

1. B 4. This stone is sacrificed, 2. B 3. Black's best move be- 

but there is no loss because it is cause it defends the connection at 
so threatening that Black must play C 5, and also prevents White from 
twice in order to make his position trying to connect at D I. 
secure, meanwhile White advances 
on line A. 

3. A 7. White gains one "Me" 4. A 6. 

by this move. 



192 



THE GAME OF GO 



White 



5. A 8. 



Black 

6. C 4. Necessary because the 
connection at C 5 is now in immedi- 
ate danger, but Black thereby fills 
up another of his "Me," and White 
retains the "Sente." 



V 

Plate 36 (A) 

The following stones are on the board: White, M 16, 
M 17, M 18, N 16, O 15, P 14, R 14; Black, N 17, N 18, 
O 16, P16, Q16, R 16. " 

If White has the "Sente," it makes a difference of six 
"Me." 



White 



1. N 19. 



3. O 19. White pushes his in- 
vasion farther. 
5. M 19. 

White retains the "Sente." 



Black 

2. O 18. Black cannot stop the 
invasion at O 19, as White would 
then play at O 18 and kill the black 
stones on line N. 

4. P 19. Black can now arrest 
the advance. 

6. P18. 



VI 

Plate 36 (B) 

The following stones are on the board: Black, M 2, 
M 3, N 3, N 4, O 4, Q 4, R 4, S 4; White, L 3, N 2, O 2, 
O3, P 3 , R2, S3, R6. 



THE END GAME 



193 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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19 
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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 36 



194 



THE GAME OF GO 



Black has the "Sente" and gains nine "Me. 



Black 



1. T 3 . 



3. S2. 
invasion. 



Black proceeds with his 



Black retains the "Sente. 



White 

2. Q^2. The obvious answer is 
at T 2, but if White plays there, 
Black replies at Q_2 and White 
loses all his stones unless he can 
win by "Ko." He plays at Q_2 in 
order to form the necessary two 
"Me." 

4. Pi. If White tries to save 
his stone by playing at R 3, Black 
replies at Pi, and the white group 
is dead. 



VII 

Plate 36 (C) 

The following stones are on the board: Black, B 17, 
C 17, D 16, G 17; White, B 16, C 13. 



Black 

1. B 14. This move is really 
"Go te"; that is to say, White is not 
forced to reply to it, but it is very 
advantageous for Black, as it effec- 
tively separates White's two stones. 

3. B 15. The white stone at 
B 16 is now hopeless. 



White 
2. C 14. C 15 is not so good. 



Black has given up the "Sente," but has gained con- 



siderable ground. 



THE END GAME 



!95 



VIII 
Plate 36 (D) 

The following stones are on the board: Black, C 4, 
D 4, E 4, C 7; White, C 3, D 3, E 3, F 3. 
Black has the move. 

Black White 

1. B3. 2. B2. 

3. B4. 

These moves seem obvious, but the importance of Black's 
opportunity is likely to be underestimated; Black gains 
about eleven "Me" by this play. If the opposing lines 
extend one space nearer the edge of the board, the territory 
gained by a similar attack is not nearly so great. 

IX 

Plate 37 (A) 

The following stones are on the board: White, M 16, 
N 16, N 18, O 17, P 18, Q 17, 18; Black, N 15, O 15, 16, 
P 16, 17, Q 16, R 12, R 17. 

White has the move. 

White Black 

1. S 17. 2. S 16. 

3. R 18. 4. R 16. 

5. T 18. 

White has given up the "Sente," but these moves make 
a difference in his favor of about fourteen "Me." 



196 THE GAME OF GO 

X 

Plate 37 (B) 
The following stones are on the board : White, M 3, 
O 3, P 2, Q 3, R 2; Black, N 4, O 4, Q 5, R 3> R 4- 
White has the move. 

White Black 

1. S 2. 

This move is really "Go te," but if Black neglects to 
answer it, White can then jump to T 5. This jump is 
called by a special name "O zaru," or the "big monkey," 
and would gain about eight "Me" for White. 

XI 

Plate 37 (C) 

The following stones are on the board: White, C 15, 
D 15, E 15, 16; Black, C 16, D 16, E 17, 18, F 16, G 17. 
White has the move. 

White Black 

1. B16. 2. B 17. 

3. B 15. 

White has given up the "Sente" and has gained some- 
what, but if Black now neglects to defend and plays else- 
where, White can jump to B 18, and gain about seventeen 
"Me" altogether. 

XII 

Plate 37 (D) 

The following stones are on the board: White, B 8, 
C 7, 1 1, D 5, 6, 7, E 6; Black, B 7, C 5, 6, D 3, 4, E 4, 5. 



THE END GAME 



197 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 

Plate 37 



198 THE GAME OF GO 

White has the move. 





White 




Black 


1. B6. 




2. B5. 




3. A 7. 


Takes. 







White has given up the "Sente," but this method of play 
gains about fourteen "Me," as it is now no longer neces- 
sary to protect the connection at C 8. 

We will now insert two plates from Korschelt's book. 
The notes at the foot of the illustrations are his. 



THE END GAME 



199 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 



ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPORST 

A WORTH SIX "ME" (S 17, 18, 19 T 17, 18, 19); SENTE IS RE- 
TAINED 
B WORTH FIVE "ME" ; SENTE IS RETAINED 
C WORTH THIRTEEN "ME" ; SENTE IS RETAINED 
D WORTH EIGHT "ME"; SENTE IS RETAINED 

Plate 38 



200 



THE GAME OF GO 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 



A WORTH 29 "ME: SENTE IS LOST 
B WORTH ABOUT 8 "MEl SENTE RETAINED 
C WORTH 12 "ME : " SENTE IS RETAINED 
D WORTH 18 "ME: SENTE IS LOST 



Plate 39 



VIII 
PROBLEMS 

After the student has become familiar with the rules 
and the methods of play, and perhaps has played a few 
games either with another beginner or with a Japanese 
master, the impression left on the mind is likely to be that 
the game is too vague, and that there is too wide a latitude 
of choice of positions where stones may be placed. This 
impression might be corrected by the study of illustrative 
games, or of " Joseki" and end positions, but such a course 
is rather dry and uninteresting, and, in the opinion of the 
author, by far the best way of attaining a correct idea of 
the game is by means of problems. 

Many of us are familiar with Chess problems, and I 
think Chess players will agree that they benefit the student 
of Chess very little, because the assumed positions are not 
such as arise frequently in actual play. The opposite is 
the case in regard to Go problems. These are for the most 
part taken from actual games, and the typical problem is a 
situation that is quite likely to arise in actual play, and some 
of them are positions that occur again and again. 

If the student of the game will set up these positions 
from the text and attempt to solve them, preferably with 
the aid and encouragement of some friend, he will find that 
the task is an interesting one, and he will be impressed 
by the great accuracy which is necessary in attacking and 
defending difficult positions. 

With the knowledge obtained in this way, he will be 



202 THE GAME OF GO 

able to judge with far greater skill what to do when a po- 
sition is threatened in actual play. He will be able to dis- 
tinguish whether the danger is real, and whether it is, 
therefore, necessary to reply to his adversary's attack, or 
whether he can afford to ignore it and assume the "Sente" 
in some other part of the board. He will also be able to 
perceive when an adversary's group is vulnerable so that 
it will be profitable to attack it. 

The collection of problems which I have given in this 
book are rearranged from Korschelt's work, and they were 
in turn taken by him from a Japanese treatise called "Go 
Kiyo Shiyu Miyo." Necessarily the collection here given is a 
very small one, but if any reader of this book becomes so" 
much interested in the game that he desires to study other 
examples, he will doubtless find some Japanese acquaintance 
who can supply him with further material, as the Japanese 
literature of the game contains large collections. 

The most important kind of problems are those in which 
the question is how to kill an adversary's group, or how to 
save one's own group when threatened. It is also often 
very important to know how a connection between two 
groups can be forced. 

For greater clearness these problems are arranged under 
seven heads; to wit, 

i. Saving Threatened Groups. 

2. Killing Groups. 

3. Playing for "Ko." 

The advantage gained by this operation is not appar- 
ent in the group itself, but depends upon which player has 
the larger threatened group elsewhere. 

4. Reciprocal Attacks or "Semeai." 



PROBLEMS 203 

This is a combination of the first two kinds of prob- 
lems, and it only differs from them in that both players have 
comparatively strong groups which are so intertwined that 
both cannot live, and the question is, which can kill the other 
first. 

5. Connecting Groups. 

The problem here is to force a connection between a 
small group having insufficient " Me" and some larger group. 

6. "Oi OTOSHI." 

This really means a "robber's attack." It ariseswhere 
a group is apparently engulfed by the opponent, and when, 
by adding further stones to it which the opponent must 
take, the threatened player can force his opponent to aban- 
don a part of his surrounding chain in order not to sustain 
greater losses. The attack is so sudden and unexpected 
that the Japanese compare it to the methods of a highway- 
man. It is an example of the finest play in the game. 

7. Cutting. 

This is another method of escape, and the problem is 
to cut off and kill part of the adversary's surrounding chain. 

In the following examples the side having the first 
move is given in italics. 

I. Saving Threatened Groups 

1. (Plate 40, A) White, Q.18, R 18, S 16, 17, 18. 

Black, O 17, P 18, Q17, R 15, 17, S 15. 

2. (Plate 40, B) White, O 3, Q.3, 4, R 3, 5, S 5. 

Black, R 2, 4, S 3, 4. 

3. (Plate 40, C) White, A 14, B 11, 13, C 13, 14, 15, 17, D 17, 18, E 16, 

F17. 

Black, A 13, B 14, 15, 17, 18, C 16, 18. 



2o 4 THE GAME OF GO 

4. (Plate 40, D) White, B 3, C 3, D 2, E 2. 

Black, B 4, C 4, D 3) E 3, F 2, G 3. 

5. White, B 5, C 4, D 5, E 2, 3, 4, G 2. 
5/ar*, B3, 4, D2, 3, E 1. 

6. White, B 12, 13, 15, 16, C 13, 15, D 13, 14. 

Black, A 16, B 11, 17, C 10, 12, 16, D 12, 15, 16, E 13, 14. 

7. White, M 16, 17, N 16, O 15, 17, P 14, 17, Q.18, R 14, S 15. 
^sf-Black, N 17, O 16, P 16, Q.16, R 16, S 16, 18 . 

8. White, O 1, P 2, Q.2, 3, R 3, S 3, 4. 

Black, N 2, O 2, P 1, 3, 4, 0.4, R 4, 6, S 5, T 4. 

9. White, A 4, B 5, 6, C 4) D 5, E 2, 3, 4. 
Black, A 5, B 3, 4, C 3, D 2, 3. 

10. White, B 15, 16, C 17, 18, D 18. 

Black, A 15, B 14, C 14, 15, 16, D 17, E 17, 18. 

11. White, L 18, M 16, 17, N 14, 18, O 13, 19, P 18, Q12, 13, 17, 18, R 12, 

14, 18, S 14, 17, 19. 
Black, N 17, O 15, 17, 18, P 14, 17, Q.14, 15, 16, R 13, 16, 17, S 13, 
18. 

12. White, Q.3, R 2, 3, S 3. 
Black, P 2, 3, 5, Q.2, 4, R 5, 7. 

13. White, B2, C3, D 1, 3, E2. 

Black, B 4, C 5, D 4, E 3, 4, F 1, 2, G 3. 

14. White, A 16, B 15, C 15, 16, D 17, E 17, F 18, G 18. 
Black, B 16, 17, C 17, D 18, E 18, F 19. 

. 15. White, Q.15, R 14, 15, 16, S 17. 

Black, P 15, 17, Q.13, 14, 16, R 11, 12, 17, 18. 

16. White, R 3, 4, 5, S 2. 

Black, O 3, P3,Q. 4 ,6,R6,S6,T 3 . 

17. White, B 4, C 3, 4, 5, E 4, F 2, 3, H 2. 
Black, B 3, C 2, D 3, E 2, F i. 

18. White, C 13, 15, 16, 17, E 14, 15, 16. 

Black, B 14, 15, C 12, 14, D 13, 17, E 12, 17, F 15, 16, G 13. , 

19. White, M 17, N 18, O 17, 19, P 15, 17, R 14, 16, S 16. 
Black, O 18, P 18, Q.16, 17, R 17, S 17. 

20. White, P 2, 3, 6, Qz, 4, R 2, 4, 6, 7. 
Black, Q.3, R 1,3, 9, S2, 4, 5- 



PROBLEMS 



205 



ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPORST 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 40 



206 THE GAME OF GO 

21. White, B 13, 14, 16, C 13, D 13, 14, 15, 18, E 16, 17. 
Black, B 15, C 14, 15, 17, 18, D 16. 

22. White, C 7, D 3, 5, 6, E 2, 3, 7, F 5. 

Black, C 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, D 2, E 8, F 2, 8, G 3, 5, 6, J 3. 

23. White, O 2, 3, 4, 6, Q.4, R 4, 6, S 5, T 4. 
Black, P 2, 3, R 3, S 3, 4. 

24. #7>^, Q_i7, R 16, 17, S 18. 

Black, N 17, O 17, P 16, Q_i6, R 15, S 16, 17. 

II. Killing Groups 

1. (Plate 41, A) White, O 17, P 18, Q14, 15, 16, 17, R 13, S 13, 14, 15. 

Black, Q18, R 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, S 16, T 15. 
2.. (Plate 41, B) White, P 5, Qj, R 2, 5, S 5, 6. 

Black, O 2, P 3, 4, 6, Q_2, 5, R 6, 7, S 8. 

3. (Plate 41, C) White, B 15, 18, C 16, 17. 

Black, B 14, C 14, D 15, 16, 17, 18. 

4. (Plate 41, D) White, B 4, C 3, 4, E 1, 3, F 2, 4, G 2. 

Black, A 3, B 2, 3, C 2, D 2, E 2, F 1. 

5. White, B 4, C 4, D 3, E 3, F 2, G 3. 
Black, A3, B3, C2, D2, E2. 

6. White, B 16, C 10, D 13, 15, 16, 17. 

Black, B 14, C 12, 15, D 18, E 12, F 14, 15, 17, G 17. 

7. White, P 17, 18, Q.15, 16, R 13, 15. 
Black, Q.17, 18, R 16, S 16. 

8. White, Q_i, R 2, 3, 5, S5. 
Black, O 2, Q,2 3 3, 4, 5, 6, R 7, S 7. 

9. White, B 5, C 5, 8, D 5, E 2, 4, F 2, 3, 4. 
Black, B 4, C 4, D 2, 3, E 3. 

10. White, B 15, C 15, 17, 18. 

Black, B 14, C 12, 14, D 15, 16, 17, F 17. 

11. White, M 16, O 15, 16, 18, P 18, Q_i4, R 12, 15, 18, S 16. 
Black, L 16, P 16, 17, Q_i6, 18, S 17, 18. 

12. White, Q_2, R 2, S 3, 4, 5. 
Black, P 2, 3, Q.3, R 4, 5, 7> S 6. 

13. White, B 4, C 4, 6, D 4, E 3, F 3, G 2, H 3. 
Black, B 3, C 3, D 3, E 2, F 2. 



PROBLEMS 



207 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 

19 . — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 19 



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A B C D E F 



G H J K L M 

Plate 4. 1 



N O P O R S T 



I 

208 THE GAME OF GO 

14. White, C 17, 18, E 16, 17, F 15, G 16, H 16, 17, K 16. 

Black, B 17, 18, C 16, D 14, 16, 17, E 13, 15, G 14, 15, 17, J 14, 15, 
K, 17, L16. 

15. White, N 17, P 16, 17, 18, Q.15, R 13, 15, S 14. 
Black, Q.16, 17, 18, R 16, S 15. 

16. White, P 2, Q.2, R 3. 
Black, N 3, O 3, Q.3, 4, R 5- 

17. White, B 16, 17, C 17, D 18, 19. 
Black, C 12, 14, 16, D 16, 17, E 18, F 17. 

18. JFfcite, H 3, K 3, 4, M 3, N 4, O 2, P 3, 4, 0.6, R 5, S 1, \. 
Black, Pi, 2, Q.3, R 2, 3, S3. 

19. JF£ffe, M 17, O 16, 17, P 15, R 13, 15, S 15, 16. 
Black, P16, Q16, 18, R 16, S 17. 

III. Playing for "Ko" 

1. (Plate 42, A) White, O 16, P 17, 18, Q.16, R 14, 16, S 15. 

Black, Q.17, 18, R 17, S 16. 

2. (Plate 42, B) White, O 4, 5, P 2, 3, 6 , R 2, 6, 7, S 3, 5. 

Black, L 3, N 3, O 3, P 4, 0.4, R 4, 9, S 4, 7, T 4. 

3. (Plate 42, C) JP&ifc, B16, 17, C18. 

Black, C 13, 15, 16, 17, D 18, E 17. 

4. (Plate 42, D) White, B 4, C 4, D 4, E 3, 4, F 2, G 4. 

A/a*:*, C 2, 3, D 3, E 2. 

5. 0te, B 4, C 4, D 3, E 3, F 2, 3. 
Black, B3, Ci,3, D2, E2. 

6. White, C 15, 16, 17, D 18. 

Black, B 14, C 12, 14, D 15, 16, 17, E 18, F 17. 

7. White, P 17, 18, Q.17, R 15, 16, S 15. 
Black, Q18, R 17, 19, S 16, 17. 

8. /Tto, 03> R 3. s 4- 

Black, O 3, P 3, Q.4, R 4, 6, S 5. 

9. White, B 5, C 4, 5, E 4, F 4, H 2, 4, 5, J 3- 
Black, B3,4,D3,E 3 ,F3,G 3 . 

10. JPfcrt*, B 15, 16, C 17, 18, D 19. 

Black, B 14, 18, C 14, 15, D 16, 18, E 18, F 16. 



PROBLEMS 



209 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 42 



210 THE GAME OF GO 

11. White, N 17, O 18, P 16, 17, Q.16, R 16, S 16. 
Black, P18, Q.17, R 17, S 17. 

12. F/>i>* 5 P 2, Q.2, R 3, 4, S 2. 

Black, M 3,0 3, P 3 , Q.5, R 5 , S3, 4, T2. 

13. White, A 2, B 3, 4, C 5, D 4, 5, F 4, G 2, 3. 
Black, B 2, C 3, 4, D 3, E 3, F 2. 

14. FAz'te, C 15, 16, 17, D 16. 

Black, C 14, D 14, 15, 17, 18, E 16, F 17. 

15. White, N 17, O 18, P 16, 17, Q.15, R 15, S 16. 
5/«r£, P18, Q.16, 17, S 17. 

16. White, R 2, 4, S 3. 

Black, O 3, P 4 , 0.2, 4, R5, 6, S 4 . 

IV. Reciprocal Attacks (" Semeai ") 

1. (Plate 43, A) White, N 17, P 17, Q.17, R 17, S 18. 

Black, Q.18, R 14, 16, 18, S 16, 17. 

2. (Plate 43, B) White, O 3, P 2, Q.2, R 3, S 3, 5. 

5/ar£, Q_3, 4, R 2, 6, S 2, 7. 

3. (Plate 43, C) White, B 15, 16, C 15, 17, 18, D 17, E 18. 

Black, B 17, C 16, D 16, 18, E 16, 17, F 18. 

4. (Plate 43, D) White, B 2, 3, 4, C 5, D 3, 4, 6, F 3, G 2, 3. 

Black, B 5, 6, C 2, 3, 4, 7, D 2, E 2, F 2. 

5. »to, B 3, C 2, 3, 4, D 4, E 3, F 3, G 2, 3. 
Black, A 3, 5, B 4, 6, C 5, D 2, 3, 5, E 2, 4, 5, F 2. 

6. White, B 14, 15, 16, 19, C 15, 17, 18, D 18, E 17, F 17. 
Black, B 13, 17, 18, C 13, 14, 16, D 15, 16, 17, E 14. 

7. White, N 17, O 17, Q.16, 17, R 18, S 18. 
Black, P18, Q.15, 18, R 15, 17, S 17. 

8. White, P 2, 4, 0.2, 6, R 3, 7, S 3, 6. 
5/a^, N 3, O 2, 3, P 3, Q.3, R 4, 5, S 4. 

9. White, A 4, B 5 ,C 5 , 7, D2, 3 , 5, E 3 , 4 . 
Black, B 3, 4, C 2, 4, D 4, 6, E 5, 6, F 2, 4, G 3. 

10. White, B 13, 14, 15, C 15, 18, D 16, 17, 18. 
Black, B 12, 16, C 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, D 15, E 15. 

11. White, O 2, 4, P 2, 4, Q,2, 3, 5, R 5, 7, S 4. 
5/^, M 3, N 2, 3, O 3, P 3 ,0.4, R3.4. 



PROBLEMS 



211 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

19 i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i 19 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 43 



212 THE GAME OF GO 

12. White, Q.H, 12, 13, R II, 14, 15, S 16, T 14. 
Black, Q.14, 15, R 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, S 11, 13. 

V. Connecting Groups 

1. (Plate 44, A) White, K 14, 16, 18, L 18, M 13, N 13, 15, O 16, P 14, 

17- 

Black, M 16, 18, N 14, 17, Q_i4, 15, 16, R 17. 

2. (Plate 44, B) White, N 5, O 4, 6, P 4, Q.3, 8, R 3, 8, S 3, 4, 7, 9- 

Black, N6, P5, 6, 8, 9, R 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, S 5. 

3. (Plate 44, C) White, C 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, D 14, 17, E 18, G 17. 

Black, B 10, C 9, 16, 17, D 10, 13, 15, E 11, 14, F 13, 
16. 

4. (Plate 44, D) White, C 2, 3, 5, 6, E 7, G 3, 5, H 3, 5. 

Black, D 3, 5, E 5, F 3, 6, G 6, J 4, 7, K 3, 6. 

5. White, A 2, B 2, 5, C 6, D 3, E 5, 7, F 5, G 2, 3. 
5/af£, C 1, 2, 3, 4, D 4, G 5, H 2, 3, 4. 

6. #%/>*, B 13, 17, C 13, 17, D 13, 16, 17, E 17, F 17. 
Black, B 15, C 10, 14, 16, D 11, E 14, 16, F 12, 14. 

7. White, M 2, 3, P 2, 3, R 2, 3, 4, S 5, 6. 
Black, N 4, P4, Q.2,3,4, 6, R 5, S 2, 3. 

8. White, M 13, 15, N 11, O 10, 15, P 13, Q9, 14, R 10, 15, S 12, 16. 

Black, O 12, 17, P 12, Ql6, R II, 12, 13, 17, S 13, 17. 

9 White, B 2, 3, C 2, 4, D 6, F 4, 7, G 3, 5, H 3, 5, J 6, K 5, L 4. 
5/ flf j&, C 3, D 2, 3, E 3, 5, F 3, G 4, J 4, 5, K 4, L 3, M 3. 

10. White, C 12, 17, D 9, 14, 18, E 10, 12, 13, 17, F 17, G 15, H 12, 14. 
Black, C 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, D 10, E 15, 16, F 13, 14. 

11. White, H 17, J 17, K 17, N 15, O 15, 17, P 17. 

Black, J 16, K 14, 16, M 14, 16, N 16, O 13, Q14, 17, R 16. 

12. White, Q8, 9, R 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, S 2. 
Black, P 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, Q,2, 5, 10, R 2, 7, S 1. 

VI. "Or otoshi" 

1. (Plate 45, A) White, P 18, 0,15, 16, 17, R 17, 18, S 17. 

Black, O 17, 18, P 14, 16, Q.14, R 14, 16, S 16, 18, T 17. 

2. (Plate 45, B) White, N 5, O 4, P 3, 4, 6, Q.2, R 2, 7, S 3, 4, 6, T 5. 

Black, M 4, N 2, 4, O 3, P 1, 2, Q.3, 5, R 3, 5, S 5- 



PROBLEMS 



213 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 

19 . — r-n — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — r— 1 — 1 — 1— 1 19 



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ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPORST 

Plate 44 



214 



THE GAME OF GO 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 



19 

18 
17 

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15 
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13 

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19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

Plate 45 



PROBLEMS 215 

3. (Plate 45, C) White, A 16, B 13, 15, 17, 18, C 14, 19, D 16, 17, 18, 

E 13, 16, F 16, G 14, 15. 
Black, B 16, C 15, 16, 17, 18, D 15, E 15, F 15, 17, G 16, 

17- 

4. (Plate 45, D) White, B 3, C 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, D 2, E 3, F 2. 

Black, A 3, B 2, 4, 5, 6, C 2, 7, D 7, E 4, 6, F 4, G 2, 3. 

5. White, A 3, B 4, C 4, D 3, 4, F 2, 3, 4. 

Black, B 3, C 3, 5, 6, D 2, E 2, 6, F 1, G 2, +) 5, H 3. 

6. White, A 18, B 15, 17, C 14, 18, D 14, 19, E 14, 18, F 15, 18, G 19, 

H 16, 17, 18. 
Black, A 16, B 16, 18, C 16, D 15, 17, 18, E 17, F 17, G 17, 18. 

7. White, P 5, 6, Q.3, 4, 9, R 3, 9, S 4, 5> 7> 8, T 6. 
Black, N 4, P 2, 3, 4, 05> R 4> 5. 6 > 7, 8 » s 6. 

8. JP&iw, O j 6, 17, 18, R 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, S 16. 

Black, O 17, P 12, 15, iS, O j 3> x 5> R I2 > J 7> S 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, T 16. 

9. White, A 3, 4, B 4, 6, C 2, 3, 5, D 1, 3, E 3, F 3, G 3, H 3, J 2, 3. 
Black, B 1, 2, 3, C 1, 4, D 2, 4, E 2, 4, F 2, 5, G 2, H 2, 5, J 1, K 2, 

3, 4- 

10. White, A 9, 12, B 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, C 8, 15, D 9, 15, E 11, 13, 

Black, A 18, B 9, 12, 18, C 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, D 14, 17, E 15, 16. 

11. White, H 17, J 15, 18, L 14, 15, M 14, N 15, 16, 17, O 17, 18, P 17, 

Q.I7- 
Black, K 17, L 16, M 15, 16, 18, N 14, 18, O 14, 19, P 18, OJ5> 18, 
R 16, 17. 

12. White, O 4, 6, P 2, 3, 8, 09> R 4, 5, 6, 9, S 3, 4, 7, 9, T 7, 8. 
Black, O3, 4, 5, 6, 7, R 3, 7, 8, S 2, 6, 8, T 2. 

VIE Cutting 

1. (Plate 46, A) White, C 15, D 17, 18, E 15, 17, G 18, H 18, J 13, K 13, 

14, 15. l6 » J 7> l8 - 
Black, E 18, F 12, 17, 18, G 13, 15, 17, H 12, J 11, 14, 
L 12, 16, 18, M 14, 16, N 18. 

2. (Plate 46, B) White, J 3, K 5, 6, L 3, 4, 7, P 3, 5, 7, 0.2, 3, 9> R 6- 

Black, L 5, 8, M 3, 8, N 3, 5, 7, O 3, 8, P 2. 

3. White, C 15, D 18, E 13, 1 5, 16, 17, H 18, J 12, 15, 17, K 13, 14, 15, 17. 



2l6 



THE GAME OF GO 



ABCDEFGHJ KLMNOPQRST 

19 i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i 1 — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i 19 



18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 





















































































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18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 



A B C D E F 



G H J K L 

Plate 46 



MNOPORST 



PROBLEMS 217 

Black, E 18, F 12, 13, 17, 18, G 15, 17, H 12, 13, J n, 14, L 12, 16, 17, 
M 14. 
4. White, H 5, 7, 9, 10, J 3, K 3, 5, 7, 9, L 2, 3, M 2, 9, O 4, 6, 7, 8, Qj, 

R3- 
fl/ac*, G 5, 6, 7, 9, H 3, 4, 8, J 2, M 3, 5, 7, N 2, 3, 5, 7, P 2, Q.2. 

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 

I. Saving Threatened Groups 

1. T 19. 

2. T2, S 1, T4, Q.2, R 1. 

3. A 18, A 16, B 16. 

4. B2, Ci, Bi, Di, C2. 

5. A 2, B 1, A 4 or A 2, A 4, B 1. 

6. C 17, C 18, D 17, E 17, B 18, D 18, A 18, B 19, A 12, A 14, B 14. 

7. O 18, N 18, Q.17, R 18, P 18, N 17, R 17, O 19, R 19, P 19, T 17 or 

O 18, P 18, R 18, or O 18, R 18, P 18. 

8. S2, R 1, S 1. 

9. B 1, A 2, B2. 

10. A 17, B 19, B 18, A 14, C 19, A 16, A 19, B 17, B 16. 

11. T 16, T 18, T 14 or T 16, S 12, T 18. 

12. S 5 , S6,T 5 . 

13. C 1. 

14. B 19. 

15. S 18, S 19, S 13, T 18, S 15, T 17, T 14 or S 18, S 13, T 16. 

16. S 5, T 5, T 4, S 4, T 2, T 6, Q.2, or S 5, T 5, T 4, S 4, T 2, Q.2, S 3, 

T 4 , T6, T 4 , T 5 , Si, S 8. 

17. A3, B i,B2, E3,A 1, A 2, C 1. 

18. F 17, G 17, F 18, G 18, D 18, E 18, D 19, E 19, D 16, F 19, B 19, A 18, 

B 18, A 17, D 14, C 18, B 17, C 19, B 16, or F 17, G 17, F 18, G 18, 
D 18, E 18, D 19, E 19, D 16, F 19, B 19, C 18, B 18. 

19. Q.15, Qj4, R 15, S 15, T 16, S 14, Q.19, T 17, S 18, N 19, R 19. 

20. T 3 , S6, T 5 , S3, R 3 . 

21. A 16, A 17, A 15, B 18, B 19, B 17, A 18, A 19, C 19. 

22. C 3, B 3, B 2, B 1, A 2, A 3, B 6, B 5, A 5, A 1, D 4, B 4, B 8, E 1, 

B 9 . 



2 i8 THE GAME OF GO 

23. S i, T 2 , T 3j P i, Q.i, Q.2, Q.3, R i, R 2. 

24. T 17, S 15, R 19. 

II. Killing Groups 

1. Q.19, S 18, T 17, T 16, R 19, S 19, T 18, P 19, Q_i 9 . 

2. S 2, Q.4, O 5, R 3, R 1, S 1, T 1, S 3, T 4, T 3, S4, or S 2, R 1, R 4, 

R 3, Q.4, S 4, S 3- 

3. B 19, C 19, C 18, A 19, A 17. 

4. A 1, D 1, B 1. 

5. Bi, B2, A 1, E 1, Ci. 

6. C 14, E 18, C 18, E 17, B 17, C 16, A 17, A 16, B 19 or C 14, C 18, 

E 18, B 18, C 16, C 17, A 16, A 15, A 17, B 15, C 19, B 19, A 18 or 
C 14, C 18, E 18, C 16, B 19, C 19, B 18, B 15, A 15. 

7. S 18, R 18, S 19, R 19, S 17, R 17, S 15. 

8. T 5 , T 4 , R 4 , S 4 , S2, S3, T2. 

9. B 2, A 2, C 2, D 1, A 4 , A 3, A 5, B 3, B 1, D 4, C 1 or B 2, B 3, C 2, 

D 1, A 2, B 1, A 4, A3, D 4. 

10. A 15, A 17, D 18, C 16, A 16, B 16, B 18 or A 15, B 16, D 18. 

11. R 19, P 14, O 13, O 17, N 18, R 17, P 19. 

12. T2,T 5 ,T 3 , Q.I.S2, R3, S i,orT2,T 5 , T 3, S 2, Q_i,R i,Ti. 

13. F 1, D 1, A 3, A 2, B 1, C 1, G 1, B 2, D 2, C 2, E 1. 

14. L 18, G 18, H i 9 ,D 18, E i 9 orL 18, D 18, F 18, G 18, F 17, E 18, H 18. 

15. S 17, S 16, S 19, R 18, S 18, T 18, T 17, T 16, Q.19, R 19, P 19. 

16. S 3, S 2, S 4, T 2, O 2, P 1, R 1, R 2, S 1. 

17. B 19, B 18, E 19, C 18, B 15. 

18. R 1, N 2, O 3, O 1, M 1, M 2, Q_i, L 2, N 1, L 1, N 1, M 1, T 3, T 2, 

T 4 , 

19. S 18, T 17, R 17, R 18, T 18, Q.17, T 16, R 17, P 18. 

III. Playing for "Ko" 

1. S 18, T16, T17. 

2. P 1, O 2, T 2, T 3, Q.2, Q.3, R 3, S 2, R 1, T 1, N 2 or P 1, Q.i, Q.3, 

Q.2, S2, T 2, S 1, R 3, O2 or P_i, S 2, O 2, Q.i, S 6, S 8, R 5, R 8, 
Q.3, Q.2, T3, T2, S 1. 

3. A 18, C 19, B 19. 

4. Di, B2, B 3 , A3, A 2, Ai,Bi. 



PROBLEMS 219 

5. A 2, B2, A3, E 1, B 1. 

6. B 18, D 19, C 19. 

7. T 18, S 18, P19, T19, Q.19. 

8. S2, T 4 , T 3 . 

9. C 3, C 2, B 1, A 2, E 1, F 1, F 2, E 2, G 1, A 4, C 1, D 1. 
^10. A 18, A 17, B 19. 

11. P 19, T 17, T 18, S 19, R 19, R 18, Q.18 or P 19, R 19, S 19, S 18, T 19 

or P 19, S 18, T 18, R 18, Cm8, R 19, S 19. 

12. R 1, S3, T 1. 

13. C 1, D2, A 1. 

14. B 14, B 13, B 18, A 14, A 17, C 18, A 15, B 15, B 16. 

15. R 18, R 16, S 19, T 18, T 17, P 19, Q.19. 

16. Q.3, P 2, S 5. 

IV. Reciprocal Attacks ("Semeai") 

1. S 19. 

2. S 4 ,R 4 ,RiT 4 ,T2,T 3 ,T6. 

3. Bjl8, D 19, B 19, C 19, F 19. 

4. B 1. 

5. B 1, A 2, F 1. 

6. A 18. 

7. T 18, R 19, R 16, S 16, S 15, S 14, P 17. 

8. S2, R2, T3. 

9. B 2, A 2, B 1, C 1, C 3, A 1, B 2, B 1, B 5. 

10. A 16, A 17, B 18. 

11. S 2, S3, R 2, T2, S 1. 

12. T 12, T 11, S 10. 

V. Connecting Groups 

1. O 15, N 16, M 15, O 14, O 17 or O 15, P 15, P 18, CmS, P 16, O 17, 

O 18,0.17,0 14. 

2. T 5, T6, S 6, T 4, Q.5, 0.6, P 7, O 7, O 5, Q.7, R 5, 0.4, R 5, 0.5, 

T 3 - 

3. EJ5, E 16, Bvj, B 16, D 16, C 15, Aj6. 

4. F 5, E 6, E 2, F 2, E 4, D 4, E 3, D 2, D 1. 

5. F4, E4, F3, E3, F2. 



220 THE GAME OF GO 

6. A 15, A 16, B 16, A 14, C 15. 

7. Q_i,S 4 , R i,0 3 , N 1,02, O 1. 

8. S 15, T 15, S 14, R 16, Q.15, R 14, P 14. 

9. J 2 ,H2,Hi,j3,K 3 ,H4,Gi,F2,Fi. 

10. F 12, F 11, D 11, E 11, B 17, B 18, B 11, B 12, A 12, B 13, B 14, A 13, 

D12. 

11. L 16, M 15, M 18, L 18, M 17, L 17, L 19. 

12. S 8, S 7, T 7, R 8, Q7, S 9, R 9, R 6, T 8, Q.6, T 5 or S 8, S 7, T 7, 

R 8, Q.7, R 9, S 9, T 6, Q.6. 

VI. "Ol OTOSHl" 

1. T 18, T 19, R 19. 

2. S 2, S i, T 2, T 3, Q_i, T 1, S 2. 

3. B 19, A 19, A 17, A 15, E 18. 

4. A 2, A 1, A 4, A 5, D 1. 

5. C2, B2, Bi,Ci, A 2. 

6. B 19, C 19, C 17, A 19, B 18, B 19, A 17. 

7. S 3, S 2, R 2, T 3, Q.2, S 3, T 5, Q.8, T 7, S 9, S 1, Q.7, T 2. 

8. T 15, T 14, T 18, S 19, T 17, T 19, T 17, T 18, R 19, S 11, T 17, S 17. 

9. H 1, G7, E 1, Fi, Di. 

10. B15, A 15, A 13, A 14, A 17. 

11. M 17, L 17, N 19, M 19, L 18, K 18, K 19, L 19, J 19. 

12. T 3 , S 5 , T 4 . 

VII. Cutting 

1. G 16, F 16, G 14, F 14, F 15. 

2. N 6, M 6, O 6, M 7, M 4. 

3. G 16, F 16, G 14, H 15, F 15. 

4. K 6, J 6, L 6, J 8, F 4. 



RETURN CIRCUIATION DEPARTMENT 



IS^RwH ?ABM.Sd H* 3-MONTHS. AND 1-YEAR. 
RiNEWAUS: CALL (415) 642-3405 

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