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Full text of "The Gantt chart, a working tool of management;"

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Ronald 

Manufacturing Management and 
Administration Series 

Edited by L. P. ALFORD, M.E. 



STORES AND MATERIALS CONTROL. 

By MADISON CARTMELL. Includes procurement by manufacture 
and by purchase. 1922. 459 pages. $4.50. 

THE GANTT CHART. 

By WALLACE CLARK. Illustrates applications in management. 
1922. 157 pages. $2.50. 

TIME STUDY AND JOB ANALYSIS. 

By WILLIAM O. LICHTNER. Detail procedure for standardizing 
processes and operations. 1921. 397 pages. $6.00. 

PLANNED CONTROL IN MANUFACTURING. 

By WILLIAM O. LICHTNER. Methods of coordinating all activities 
of a manufacturing concern. 1924. 329 pages. $5.00. 

THE CONTROL OF QUALITY IN MANUFACTURING. 

By G. S. RADFORD. Fundamental principles and practical methods. 
1922. 404 pages. $5.00. 

SCALES AND WEIGHING THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICA- 
TIONS. 

By HERBERT T. WADE. Relates especially to control of plant 
operation, transportation and commercial transactions. 1924. 473 
pages. $6.00. 



Volumes uniform in size and style. 5% x8% inches. Cloth Binding. 



THE GANTT CHART 



A WORKING TOOL OF MANAGEMENT 



By 

WALLACE CLARK 

Member, American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers ; Taylor Society 



WITH APPENDICES 
by 

WALTER N. POLAKOV 

and 
FRANK W. TRABOLD 




Second Printing 



NEW YORK 
THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY 

1923 



COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY 
THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY 

All Rights Reserved 



PREFACE 

In 1917, after a careful inspection of certain fac- 
tories in which Mr. H. L. Gantt had installed his 
methods, General William Crozier, then Chief of Ord- 
nance, retained Mr. Gantt to act in a consulting ca- 
pacity on production, first at the Frankford Arsenal, 
and then, immediately after the declaration of war, in 
the Ordnance Department at Washington. 

Large orders had been placed with arsenals and 
other manufacturing plants for the production of arms 
and munitions, but it was difficult to get a comprehen- 
sive idea of what progress was being made in the filling 
of these orders. Quantities had suddenly jumped from 
hundreds to millions, and it was impossible to convey 
by means of typewritten tables the significance of such 
unusual quantities or the time necessary to produce 
them. Charts of the usual type were unsatisfactory 
because they did not sufficiently emphasize the time and 
because of their bulk, since only one item could be put 
on a sheet. 

Mr. Gantt concentrated his attention on the devel- 
opment of a method of charting which would show 
a comparison between performance and promises. 
Several years previous to this time, he had used a chart 
on which the work for machines was "laid out" accord- 
ing to the time required to do it. The Gantt Progress 
Chart, as developed from this early form, was found to 
help in the making of definite plans and to be highly 
effective in getting those plans executed. The rate at 



iv PREFACE 

which the work goes forward is continuously compared 
with the advance of time, which induces action to ac- 
celerate or retard that rate. These charts are not static 
records of the past they deal with the present and 
future and their only connection with the past is with 
respect to its effect upon the future. 

General Crozier quickly grasped the possibilities of 
this chart in helping to fix responsibility for action or 
lack of action and had it introduced in various branches 
of the Ordnance Department. During 1918 these 
charts were used in the United States arsenals, in the 
production of naval aircraft, and in other government 
work, such as that of the Emergency Fleet, the Ship- 
ping Board, etc. 

After the Armistice Mr. Gantt resumed his private 
consulting practice. With these charts, which provided 
a new method of presenting facts, he was able to re- 
verse the usual way of installing production methods 
and to build up a system of management which could be 
understood not only by every individual connected with 
the management, but by the workmen as well. This 
marked a new era in the usefulness of the management 
engineer. 

Mr. Gantt never made any attempt to patent or 
copyright his charts. He not only gave samples to any- 
one who asked for them, but published them in several 
magazine articles and as illustrations to his book on "Or- 
ganizing for Work." He was always glad to have other 
people make use of his knowledge. 

Since Mr. Gantt's death, November 23, 1919, there 
has been an increasingly earnest desire on the part of 
workmen, managers, and owners of industrial plants to 



PREFACE v 

get at the facts in regard to the operation of their indus- 
tries, to measure the effectiveness of management, and to 
secure fair play for both workman and owner. Because 
the Gantt chart, wherever it has been used, has been 
of such great value as a means to attain these ends and 
because the author believes that in its development Mr. 
Gantt has rendered an undying service to industry, it is 
here presented in such a way as to make it available for 
more general use. 

At the beginning of the book the principle of the 
Gantt chart is stated, especially the feature which dis- 
tinguishes it from all other charts, namely: Work 
planned and work done are shown in the same space in 
their relation to each other and in their relation to time. 

The technique of drawing the charts is explained 
fully, not with the idea of confining the reader to any 
rigid rules but to give him the result of years of experi- 
ence in the development of the charts to their present 
state, so that it will not be necessary for him to go over 
the same ground. This technique has been worked out 
with the purpose in view of making it easy to draw the 
chart and easy to read it correctly, that is, to understand 
readily the action which should be taken. 

The application of the chart to the various classes 
of work in the usual industrial plant is outlined and the 
possibilities of a much broader application are suggested. 

Collectively the charts show whether or not equip- 
ment is being used at any given time and, if not, the 
reasons for idleness; fix responsibility for idleness and 
are effective in preventing it ; show how the work of in- 
dividual employees compares with a standard of per- 
formance and emphasize the reasons for failure, thus 



vi PREFACE 

fixing the responsibility for the removal of those ob- 
stacles; enable the work to be readily planned so as to 
make the best possible use of available equipment and 
to get work done when it is wanted. These charts show 
the load of work planned for a whole plant or an entire 
industry, give a continuous comparison of performance 
with schedule, and make it possible for an executive to 
foresee future happenings with considerable accuracy 
and to overcome obstacles more easily. 

In the chapter on the American Merchant Marine an 
outline is given of the application of the various types of 
Gantt charts to the solution of an exceedingly compli- 
cated problem which arose during the Great War. 

In conclusion, the effects of the use of these charts 
are outlined briefly. Although they are only lines 
drawn on paper, where they are used production is 
increased, costs and inventories are reduced, special 
privilege is eliminated, initiative is stimulated, an or- 
ganization is built up of men who "know," and workmen 
become interested in their work. 

In the Appendix Mr. Frank W. Trabold has given 
his experience as to "How a Manager Uses Gantt 
Charts" and Mr. Walter N. Polakov, in "The Measure- 
ment of Human Work," has explained the philosophic 
concept behind these charts. 

The reader should not get the idea that this book 
presents a complete method of management; it merely 
presents a part of such a method, that is, the part played 
by the Gantt chart in solving specific problems, in get- 
ting at the facts in any situation, and in presenting those 
facts so that they will be understood in their relation to 
time. 



PREFACE vii 

There is perhaps no limit to the application of these 
charts. They have been successfully used in both small 
and large businesses, ranging from automobile painting 
shops, employing two or three men, to nation-wide in- 
dustries. They have been used in storekeeping, all 
kinds of office work, foundries, drop forge shops, textile 
mills, printing and publishing plants, machine shops, 
power plants, public service corporations, shipbuilding, 
and many other kinds of work. 

The author wishes to acknowledge help in the prepa- 
ration of this book, which has been so generously given 
by Messrs. Walter N. Polakov, Frank W. Trabold, 
Fred J. Miller, George M. Forrest, Howard A. Lin- 
coln, George H. Howe, Karl G. Karsten, William E. 
Camp, and by Leon P. Alf ord, who suggested the series 
"of articles on "The Gantt Chart" for Management 
Engineering, from which this book has been developed. 

Above all, the author wishes to acknowledge his in- 
debtedness to Mr. H. L. Gantt. He placed service to 
others before profit to himself. It was such men as 
Gantt that Woodrow Wilson had in mind when he said : 
"All that saves the world is the little handful of disin- 
terested men that are in it." 

WALLACE CLARK. 
New York City, 
April 10, 1922. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

I THE PRINCIPLE OF THE GANTT CHART 3 

An Aid to Management 

The Advantages of the Gantt Chart 

The Principle of the Chart 



II How TO DRAW A GANTT CHART . 

THE SHEET ON WHICH THE CHART Is DRAWN 

Size 

Paper 

Binding 

Perpendicular Ruling 

Horizontal Ruling 

Printing the Form 

DRAWING THE CHART 

Entering the Schedule 
Entering Work Done 

III THE APPLICATION AND USE OF THE GANTT CHART . 17 

Three Classes of Charts 

The Broad Field for the Gantt Chart 

Use During the War 

Measuring Efficiency of Industry 

IV THE MACHINE RECORD CHART 22 

Drawing the Machine Record Chart 
Using the Chart 
Summary of Idleness 

V THE MAN RECORD CHART 35 

Purpose of Man Record Chart 

Drawing the Man Record Chart 

Acting on the Chart 

Getting the Workman's Co-operation 

Short-Line Men 

Long-Line Men 

The Superintendent 

VI THE LAYOUT CHART 53 

Use of Layout Chart in Planning 
In a Stenographic Department 



x CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

In a Machine Shop 
Other Plants 
In a Foundry 

VII THE LOAD CHART 67 

Difference Between Layout Chart and Load Chart 

How the Gantt Load Chart Is Drawn 

A Foundry Load Chart 

A Load Chart for Machine Tools 

A Load Chart for a Department 

VIII THE PROGRESS CHART ,. . 81 

Purpose of the Progress Chart 

The Value of the Gantt Progress Chart 

Saving Time for the Executive 

Drawing the Progress Chart 

Manufacturing on Order 

Continuous Manufacture 

Comparing Operations 

Office Work 

Sales Quotas 

Storeskeeping 

Budgets and Expenses 

A Public Service Plant 

Charts for Executives 

IX CHARTING THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE . . . 110 

The Shipping Problem During the War 

First Methods of Keeping Ship Records 

Ship Movement Charts 

Harbor Performance Charts 

The Task of the Shipping Board 

The Import Problem 

Ship Charts of Commodities 

Individual Commodity Charts 

Summary of Imports 

Individual Trade Region Charts 

Summary of Trades 

X CONCLUSION 137 

Facts in Their Relation to Time 
Uses of the Various Gantt Charts 
General Benefits of Gantt Charts 

APPENDIX A How A MANAGER USES GANTT CHARTS . . . 143 
BY FRANK W. TRABOLU 

B THE MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN WORK . . 151 
BY WALTER N. POLAKOV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FIGURE PAGE 

1. Gantt Chart Showing the Daily Schedule 6 

2. Gantt Chart Showing the Work Actually Accomplished . . 7 

3. Gantt Chart Showing the Cumulative Schedule and the 

Cumulative Work Done 8 

4. Binder for Charts 10 

5. Standard Ruled Sheets Used in Plotting Gantt Charts. . 12 

6. Lettering Pen Used for Making Gantt Charts 15 

7. A Gantt Machine Record Chart 24, 25 

8. Machine Record Chart of Drop Forge Hammers . . 26, 27 

9. A Summary of Idleness Chart 30, 31 

10. A Gantt Idleness Expense Chart 32, 33 

11. A Gantt Man Record Chart 38, 39 

12. Improvement in Conditions Brought About by Man 

Record Chart 42, 43 

13. A Man Record Summary Chart 46, 47 

14. Man Record Summary Used for Sharing Profits. . 50, 51 

15. Layout in a Stenographic Department 54 

16. A Gantt Layout Chart for a Machine Shop 58, 59 

17. How Work Ahead of Schedule Is Shown by the Gantt 

Layout Chart 60 

18. How Work Behind Schedule Is Shown by the Gantt 

Layout Chart 61 

19. A Gantt Layout Chart for a Foundry 62, 63 

20. A Gantt Load Chart Used in a Foundry 70, 71 

21. A Gantt Load Chart Used in a Machine Shop 72 

22. A Gantt Load Chart for a Machine Shop Department 74, 75 

23. Load Chart for a Drop Forge Plant 78, 79 

24. A Gantt Progress Chart Used in a Plant Which Manu- 

factures on Order 86 

25. A Gantt Progress Chart Used in a Plant Where Manu- 

facture Is Continuous 88, 89 

26. Progress of Work Through Various Operations .... 92, 93 

27. Progress Chart of Office Work 96, 97 

28. Progress Chart for Sales Quotas 100, 101 

29. Progress Chart Showing Unbalanced Conditions of 

Stores 102, 103 



XI 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIGURE PAGE 

30. Progress Chart Used to Determine Shop Costs .... 106, 107 

31. A Public Service Plant 108 

32. Movements of Tanker "Vesta" 112 

33. Movements of S.S. "Kronstad" 113 

34. Ship Movement Chart 114, 115 

35. Chart of a British Steamer in Harbor of Baltimore. ... 116 

36. Chart of a Danish Sailing Ship in Harbor of Baltimore. . 117 

37. Chart of a Steamer in New York Harbor 118 

38. Ship Chart of Commodities 122, 123 

39. Individual Commodity Chart 126, 127 

40. Summary of Imports 128, 129 

41. Individual Trade Chart 132, 133 

42. Summary of Trades 1 34, 135 

43. Graphic Brief of Development of Subject Matter in "The 

Measurement of Human Work" , 149 



THE GANTT CHART 



CHAPTER I 
THE PRINCIPLE OF THE GANTT CHART 

An Aid to Management 

Management is concerned almost entirely with the 
future. Its task is to decide on policies and to take ac- 
tion in accordance with those policies which will bring 
about a desired condition. Decisions which affect the 
future must be based on a knowledge of what has hap- 
pened in the past, and while a record that certain events 
have taken place or that a certain amount of work has 
been done is of value in making such decisions, it does 
not give us sufficient insight into the future. We must 
know when those events took place or the rate at which 
the work was done. In other words, the relation of facts 
to time must be made clear. 

If management is to direct satisfactorily the opera- 
tion of our industries under conditions of ever-increas- 
ing difficulty, its decisions and its actions must be based 
not only on carefully proved facts but also on a full ap- 
preciation of the importance of the momentum of those 
facts. The Gantt chart, because of its presentation 
of facts in their relation to time, is the most notable 
contribution to the art of management made in this 
generation. 

The Advantages of the Gantt Chart 

The use of a Gantt chart makes it necessary to have 
a plan. Recording that plan on a chart where it can be 

3 



4 THE GANTT CHART 

seen by others has a tendency to make it definite and 
accurate and to promote the assignment of clear-cut 
tasks to individuals. The plan is presented so clearly on 
these charts that it can be understood in detail and as a 
whole not only by the executive himself but also by those 
above him and by his subordinates. 

The Gantt chart compares what is done with what 
was done it keeps the executive advised as to the pro- 
gress made in the execution of his plan, and if the 
progress is not satisfactory it tells the reasons why. 
The executive's time is thus saved because each time a 
figure is received he does not need to compare it with 
past records and decide whether it is good or bad. He 
has determined once for all what figures will be satis- 
factory and has recorded them on the chart. The com- 
parison of the accomplishment with the plan then 
becomes merely a clerical task and the executive is left 
free to study the tendencies and take the action in- 
dicated by the chart. 

The Gantt chart emphasizes the reasons why per- 
formance falls short of the plan and thus fixes the 
responsibility for the success or failure of a plan. 
Causes and effects with their relation to time are 
brought out so clearly that it becomes possible for the 
executive to foresee future happenings with considera- 
ble accuracy. 

The Gantt chart is, moreover, remarkably compact. 
Information can be concentrated on a single sheet 
which would require 37 different sheets if shown on the 
usual type of curve charts. There is a continuity in the 
Gantt chart which emphasizes any break in records or 
any lack of knowledge as to what has taken place. 



THE PRINCIPLE OF THE GANTT CHART 5 

The Gantt chart is easy to draw. No drafting ex- 
perience is necessary, for only straight lines are used. 
The principle is so simple that anyone with average 
intelligence can be trained to make these charts. 

Gantt charts are easy to read; no lines cross each 
other and all records move with time across the sheet 
from left to right. Charts drawn in pencil or black ink 
convey an impression of practicability, simplicity, econ- 
omy, and strength which it is not possible to obtain 
by the use of colored inks or even squared paper. Since 
no colors need be used on Gantt charts, prints are as 
intelligible and effective as originals. 

The Gantt chart visualizes the passing of time and 
thereby helps to reduce idleness and waste of time. 

The Gantt chart presents facts in their relation to 
time and is, therefore, dynamic. The chart itself be- 
comes the moving force for action. 1 

The Principle of the Chart 

In the Gantt chart a division of space represents 
both an amount of time and an amount of work to be 
done in that time. Lines drawn horizontally through 
that space show the relation of the amount of work 
actually done in that time to the amount scheduled. 
This is the feature which distinguishes the Gantt chart 
from all other charts. Equal divisions of space on a 
single horizontal line represent at the same time: 

1. Equal divisions of time. 

2. Varying amounts of work scheduled. 

3. Varying amounts of work done. 



1 The word "dynamic" is used in its popular sense. " Kinetic" would be more exact. 



6 



THE GANTT CHART 



Thus it shows the relation of time spent to work 
done. Furthermore, since knowledge of what has hap- 
pened and when it happened causes action, the past 
projects itself into the future and records charted in this 
way become dynamic. A single example may make 
this method clear. 

A week's work is planned as follows: 

Monday 100 

Tuesday 125 

Wednesday 1 50 

Thursday 150 

Friday 1 50 

A sheet is ruled with equal spaces representing days 
(Figure 1) and the amount of work planned is shown 
by figures on the left side of the day's space. So far the 
chart shows the schedule and its relation to time. 













MON. 


TUES. 


WED. 


THURS. 


FRI. 


iob 








3 








isb 








IS 











3 



















































FIGURE 1. GANTT CHART SHOWING THE DAILY SCHEDULE 
The work actually done through the week was: 

Monday 75 

Tuesday 100 

Wednesday 1 50 

Thursday 1 80 

Friday 75 

This is charted as shown in Figure 2. 

Lines are drawn through the daily spaces to show a 
comparison between the schedule and the actual ac- 



THE PRINCIPLE OF THE GANTT CHART 7 

complishment. On Monday the space represents 100; 
only 75 were done, so a light line is drawn through 75 
per cent of the space. On Tuesday 125 were planned ; 
100 were done; a line is therefore drawn through 80 











1 


HON. 


TUES. 


WED. 


THURS. 


FRI. | 


10 


) 








1 








isb 








isb 








IS 





























\ 








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1 



FIGURE 2. GANTT CHART SHOWING THE WORK 
ACTUALLY ACCOMPLISHED 

per cent of the space. On Wednesday 150 were to be 
done and 150 were done, so the line is drawn through 
the entire space. On Thursday 150 were scheduled and 
180 were done, i.e., 120 per cent of the schedule; a line 
is therefore drawn all the way across the space to re- 
present 100 per cent and an additional line through 20 
per cent of the space. On Friday 150 were planned, 
but only 75 were done; a line is accordingly drawn 
through 50 per cent of the space. The chart now gives 
a comparison day by day of the amount of work done 
and the amount scheduled and the relation of both 
schedule and accomplishment to time. 

It is, however, desirable to know how the whole 
week's work compares with the schedule and so the 
figures representing the cumulative schedule are entered- 
on the right of the daily space (Figure 3). At the 
end of the day on Friday, for instance, the total amount 
to be done up to that time was 675. A heavy line is 
therefore drawn to show a comparison between the 
cumulative work done and the cumulative schedule. On 



8 THE GANTT CHART 

Monday the heavy line is the same length as the light 
line. Of the 100 done on Tuesday, 25 have to go to 
make up the shortage for Monday. The remaining 75 
are applied on Tuesday's schedule and the heavy line 













MOM. 


TUES. 






WED. 






THURS. 


FRI. 








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3 








4- 




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/5J? 




4 s 


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FIGURE 3. GANTT CHART SHOWING THE CUMULATIVE 
SCHEDULE AND THE CUMULATIVE WORK DONE 

is drawn through 60 per cent of the Tuesday space. Of 
the 150 done on Wednesday, 50 are needed to meet the 
schedule to Tuesday night and the remaining 100 are 
applied on Wednesday's schedule of 150, the line being 
drawn through 66 per cent of the space. Of the 180 
done on Thursday, 50 are used to meet the schedule to 
Wednesday night and the line representing the remain- 
ing 130 is drawn through 87 per cent of the day's space. 
Of the 75 done on Friday, 20 go to meet the schedule 
to Thursday night, leaving 55 to be applied to Friday. 
The cumulative line, therefore, shows us that on Friday 
night the work is two-thirds of a day behind the 
schedule. 

This chart (Figure 3) shows the relation of the 
schedule to time, the work done each day in relation 
both to time and the schedule, and finally the cumulative 
work done and its relation to time and the schedule. 



CHAPTER II 
HOW TO DRAW A GANTT CHART 

THE SHEET ON WHICH THE CHART is DRAWN 

Size 

Gantt charts can, of course, be drawn on paper of 
any size or shape. It has been found, however, that the 
most satisfactory size is 11 x 17, because when records 
are charted by months there is ample space for a com- 
plete year, and when they are charted by days, two 
weeks can be shown on one sheet. A sheet 11 x 17 is 
also a standard size for binders, and when folded once 
to 8l/2 x 11 it can be placed in a standard letter file. 

Paper 

If no copies of charts are needed or they are to be 
photostated, it is possible to use any kind or weight of 
paper, although bond paper 16 pounds in weight is 
possibly most satisfactory. When charts are to be kept 
a number of years, 28-pound bond or ledger paper may 
be used. 

If blueprints of charts are desired, bond paper with- 
out any water-mark should be used, because on a 
blueprint a water-mark will sometimes show up as 
prominently as the lines drawn on the chart. The 
weight of the paper determines the time necessary to 
make the blueprint, i.e., the heavier the paper the longer 
it takes for the light to penetrate it. When paper is 



10 THE GANTT CHART 

very light in weight, it crinkles and soils easily. The best 
results are, therefore, obtained by using a medium 
weight say, 12 or 13 pounds. 

Binding 

It has been found more satisfactory to bind these 
sheets on the right rather than the left, for two reasons : 

1. Records charted naturally move with time from 
left to right. This puts the index at the outer edge of the 
binder and makes it easy to find a specific item in a book 
of charts. 

2. When the time shown on one sheet has passed, a 
sheet without indices is placed on top of it. In this way 
the weeks or months are built up on top of each other 
with only one index. (See Figure 4.) 




FIGURE 4. BINDER FOR CHARTS 



Perpendicular Ruling 

First lay off from the right side of the sheet a bind- 
ing edge of not less than 2 inches. 

From the left side of the sheet lay off a space in 



HOW TO DRAW A GANTT CHART 11 

which to write the necessary description of the work to 
be charted. This space may vary in width, but it has 
been found that one column 2 inches wide and another 
1/2 inch wide will serve most purposes. In some cases, 
still another column % inch wide has been added. 

The space remaining between the binding edge and 
the indexing space is divided into columns representing 
units of time, i.e., hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc. 
If the hours of the day are to be shown, the space is 
divided into two parts, each representing a week. Each 
half is then divided into the days of the week and each 
day into the working hours of the day. (See 
Figure 5a.) 

If days and weeks are to be shown, divide this space 
into ten equal parts for weeks and subdivide those 
spaces into five, six, or seven narrow columns, according 
to the number of days per week during which work is to 
be done. ( See Figure 5b. ) 

If months are to be shown, divide the space into 
twelve columns for months and subdivide each month 
into five columns, each representing 20 per cent of the 
month's total. ( See Figure 5c. ) Separate days, weeks, 
and months by heavy lines or by double or triple lines. 

Use black ink for ruling chart forms, since gray or 
colored inks are not so readily blueprinted or photo- 
graphed. 

Horizontal Ruling 

From the top of the sheet lay off a space 2/3 inch 
high in which to write a description of the information 
contained on the sheet. Under that lay off another space 
2/3 inch high in which to print or write the units of time 











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HOW TO DRAW A GANTT CHART 13 

and dates. Above and below this space use double or 
heavy lines. (See Figure 5a.) 

Through the remaining space rule horizontal lines 
three to the inch, which is double typewriter spacing for 
standard Pica type. This spacing is also considered the 
best for written records. See that the first line on which 
records are to be entered is typewriter spacing (multi- 
ple of 1/3 inch) from the top edge of the sheet. It 
will then be possible to insert the sheet in the typewriter 
and turn the cylinder until the writing point is brought 
to any desired line without adjustment by means of the 
variable line spacer. 

Where charts are not to be typed and it is desirable 
to get as much information on a sheet as possible, the 
horizontal lines can be ruled four to the inch. 

Printing the Form 

These forms may be either printed or machine-ruled, 
the quantity required determining which method is the 
more economical. 

If any type is used on the form, such as the days 
of the week or the form name, Gothic type should be 
used. Since all the lines in the letters of that style of 
type are of equal weight, the type matter will be read- 
able when blueprinted or photostated. 

DRAWING THE CHART 

Entering the Schedule 1 

At the top of the sheet enter a description of the 
information to be charted on the sheet, placing at the 

1 Entering the schedule, and other information expressed in words or figures, can be 
done more economically on a typewriter than by hand. The charts used as illustrations in 
this book are lettered by hand in order to make the cuts clearer. 



14 THE GANTT CHART 

extreme left the one or two words which distinguish this 
sheet from others in the same binder. 

At the heads of the columns representing units of 
time enter the dates. 

In the columns on the left side of the sheet write a 
description of the work to be charted on the various 
lines. 

The date or hour when work is to be begun is indi- 
cated by a right angle opening to the right thus : 

r 

The date on which work is to be completed is 
indicated by an angle opening to the left, thus : 



The amount of work scheduled for any period of 
time is indicated by a figure placed at the left side of a 
space, thus: 

I" 

The amount of work to be done up to any specified 
time is indicated by a figure placed at the right side of 
a space, thus: 

40 

If these entries are made by hand, use India ink so 
that good blueprints can be made. If they are type- 
written, use a heavily inked black record ribbon and 
place a sheet of carbon face up against the back of the 
paper. The resulting blueprints will show clear white 
typing. 



HOW TO DRAW A GANTT CHART 15 

Entering Work Done 

Light lines represent work done during any given 
period of time. 



The length of the line bears the same relation to 
the width of the space as the amount of work done bears 
to the amount scheduled. 

Heavy lines represent the cumulative amount of 
work done and show its relation to the amount scheduled 
to be done up to any given date. 



When charts are drawn in shops, where they are for 
immediate use and do not need to be kept for reference, 
they are drawn up in lead pencil. 

If charts are to be kept for future reference or are 
to be reproduced, India ink is used. Light lines can be 
drawn with a sharp pen point or a drawing pen; heavy 
lines are most easily drawn with lettering pens 
(Figure 6). 



FIGURE 6. LETTERING PEN USED FOR MAKING GANTT 
CHARTS 

Size O, which is 1/16 inch wide, is the best for indi- 
vidual cumulative lines, while size 1, which is ^ inch 
wide, is used for group totals. 

No colors need be used on Gantt charts because lines 
representing different things never cross each other and 



16 THE GANTT CHART 

can be clearly described in words in the left margin. 
Whatever emphasis is desirable, as in the case of lines 
representing totals, can be secured by varying weights 
of lines. The use of black ink has the same advantage 
mentioned in connection with lines printed in black, in 
that blueprints or photostat copies are as legible as the 
original charts. 



CHAPTER III 

THE APPLICATION AND USE OF 
THE GANTT CHART 

Three Classes of Charts 

The principle of the Gantt chart can be applied 
to any human activity, but up to the present time it 
has been applied most extensively to industrial produc- 
tion. Even in that field there are great possibilities for 
its further application, but the Gantt charts used up to 
date fall into three general classes: 

1. Man and Machine Record Charts. 

2. Layout and Load Charts. 

3. Progress Charts. 

In the Man and Machine Record Charts, Gantt 
provides a mechanism to show the relation between what 
is done and what could be done by a man or a machine. 
The gap between actual and possible accomplishment is 
idleness, that is, the neglect to make any use of time or 
a proper use of it. 

The Machine Record Chart shows when a machine 
is not made use of and the reason why. The Man 
Record Chart shows whether or not a man makes a 
proper use of his working hours, and if not, it indicates 
the reason why. 

The reasons for idleness, which are emphasized by 
the Man and Machine Record Charts, indicate that 
steps must be taken some time in advance in order to 
3 17 



18 THE GANTT CHART 

avoid idleness. The Layout Chart is Gantt's mechan- 
ism to plan work so as to avoid idleness of men and 
equipment and to get work done in the order of its 
importance. The Load Chart shows the amount of 
work, in hours or days, ahead of a plant or any part of 
a plant. 

The executing of a plan is of equal importance with 
the making of that plan. The Progress Chart is Gantt's 
mechanism to get work done by showing a comparison 
of the accomplishment with the plan and the reasons for 
failure to live up to that plan. 

The Gantt chart simplifies a complex situation or 
problem and points to the action which should be taken. 

The Broad Field for the Gantt Chart 

The value and adaptability of these charts is 
recognized by all progressive engineers. In an article 
on "Routing Considered as a Function of Up-To-Date 
Management," H. K. Hathaway, industrial engineer, 
says: 

For continuous flow production such as this I know of 
nothing better for recording output and comparing per- 
formance with capacity or what ought to be produced, than 
the straight line charts developed by Mr. H. L. Gantt, which 
show required and actual production in terms of both quan- 
tity and time. Their use, however, is not limited to the class 
of work just described. 

In his book, "Organizing for Work," Gantt quoted 
a letter which shows the broad applicability of his chart. 
This letter was dated December, 1917, and written by 
Dean Herman Schneider of the University of Cincin- 
nati to General C. B. Wheeler, then Chief of Ordnance 



APPLICATION AND USE 19 

Referring to the Gantt charts in use in the Ordnance 
Department, he said: 

Each production section has production and progress 
chart systems. . . . The charts give a picture of the progress 
of the whole Ordnance program including lags and the causes 
therefor. Combined in one office and kept up to date, they 
would show the requirements as to workers, . . . materials, 
transportation, accessory machinery and all the factors which 
make or break the program. 

. . . Finally, these charts assembled in one clearing 
office would give the data necessary in order to make the 
whole program of war production move with fair uniformity, 
without disastrous competition and with justice to the 
workers. 

Use During the War 

About six months before Dean Schneider's letter, 
Colonel (later General) John T. Thompson, then in 
charge of the Small Arms Division, had adopted these 
charts with enthusiasm. At the end of the war he 
received the Distinguished Service Medal "for ex- 
ceptionally meritorious and conspicuous service as Chief 
of Small Arms Division of the office of Chief of 
Ordnance, in which capacity he was charged with the 
design and production of all small arms and ammuni- 
tion thereby supplied to the U. S. Army, which results 
he achieved with such signal success that serviceable 
rifles and ample ammunition therefor were at all times 
available for all troops ready to receive and use 
them." 

When this medal was awarded to General Thomp- 
son, he sent a copy to Mr. Gantt with the following 
generous word of appreciation : 



20 THE GANTT CHART 

A large share in this reward for the accomplishment of a 
great war task is due to H. L. Gantt and his assistants. 
The Gantt general control production chart was my compass. 

In the leading editorial in Industrial Management 
for February, 1918, entitled "Master Control of Ameri- 
can Industries for War Man or Method?" L. P. 
Alford said: 

How are we to obtain master control of the efforts of 
these millions of people who are engaged, or to be engaged, 
in manufacturing, of the production equipment that they 
operate, of the business organizations of the country? in 
short, how are we to control the industry of the United 
States? This question is the most critical one facing the 
American people today. Tied up in it are all the problems 
of transportation, mining, shipbuilding, war industries, and 
the production of everything needed to care for our civilian 
population during the war. . . . 

The solution of this problem involves the complete organ- 
izing of American industry, both that part engaged in pro- 
ducing war materials and supplies and the other part turning 
out articles for civilian consumption. Once organized, all of 
this industry must be coordinated, so that its efforts will 
be directed to the production of those things needed by the 
Government in the quantities demanded by the needs of war 
and no more and beyond that for such civilian needs as 
are most pressing, for not all of the latter can be satisfied. 
This demands a form of control far different from anything 
that has been looked forward to in this country. It is more 
proper to ask for the way in which this form of master con- 
trol might be set up. Fortunately, a suggestion is at hand 
based upon work already done. . . . 

Plot all of the Government requirements of materials of 
every kind on Gantt charts, together with the receipts of all 
this material. That is, bring under graphic analysis all of 
the facts in regard to the production of Government material 
necessary to give managerial control. 



APPLICATION AND USE 21 

Measuring Efficiency of Industry 

Another engineer, Walter N. Polakov, in a paper 
on "Principles of Industrial Philosophy," presented at 
the annual meeting of the American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, December, 1920, said: 

The achievement of Gantt offers a means of measuring 
the human or social efficiency of industry. . . . Gantt's 
method has made it possible to ascertain the cause of the 
diseased industry just as blood analysis established the 
cause of malaria. While the latter made the completion of 
the Panama Canal possible, the former will transform in- 
dustry from servitude into creative service and its pensioners 
into respectable members of the community. . . . 

Unlike statistical diagrams, curve records, and similar 
static forms of presenting facts of the past (Gantt) charts 
.... are kinetic, moving, and project through time the 
integral elements of service rendered in the past toward the 
goal in the future. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MACHINE RECORD CHART 

Drawing the Machine Record Chart 

The purpose of the Machine Record Chart is to 
show whether or not machines or equipment are being 
used and, if not, the reasons for idleness. 

In a manufacturing plant the foreman uses a sheet 
ruled to represent the working hours of his shop or 
department. If he works an 8-hour day, he has each 
wide column which represents a day ruled off into four 
narrower columns, each representing 2 hours. If he 
works a 9-hour day, he rules the day off into four wide 
spaces of 2 hours each and one narrower space for 1 
hour (Figures 7 and 8). 

On the left side of this sheet the foreman or his 
assistant lists all the machines, benches, or work spaces 
in his department, arranging them in groups according 
to responsibility, if there are any sub foremen. If there 
are no subforemen, the foreman arranges them by kinds 
of machines. At the top of each group he leaves a space 
for the total of that group and at the top of the sheet 
a line for the total of the department (Figure 7) . 

Opposite each machine number the foreman indi- 
cates whether or not the machine has been running by 
drawing a light line across the space to indicate how 
many hours the machines ran. The ratio of the line to 
the space is the same as the ratio of the hours the ma- 
chine ran to the working hours of the plant. A blank 

22 



THE MACHINE RECORD CHART 23 

space indicates that the machine did not run, and in that 
space a letter or symbol is placed to indicate the reason 
why. The letter indicating the reason is placed at the 
beginning of the space representing the idleness, so that 
it would be bisected by the light line if the line were 
continued, thus: 



The fewer the symbols used, the easier it is to get men 
to understand them and use the chart. 

Under the light line a heavy line is drawn to indicate 
the cumulative running time of the machine for the whole 
week. The length of this heavy line is always equal to 
the sum of the light lines for the various days. The heavy 
line rests on the printed line and the light line is drawn 
about 1/10 inch above the top of the heavy line. 

The running time of the individual machines in a 
group is averaged and the light and heavy lines entered 
for the group total. In the same way the groups are 
averaged to get the total running time of the shop, and 
the lines are drawn at the top of the sheet (Figure 7). 

Keys should be attached to charts the first two or 
three times they are given to anyone. When the charts 
are thoroughly understood, the keys may be discon- 
tinued or kept for reference in the binder in which the 
charts are placed. 

It is better not to send charts regularly to men who 
have not the authority to act on them. They may get 
the impression that the charts are merely cleverly drawn 
records rather than facts so presented as to indicate the 
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28 THE GANTT CHART 

Using the Chart 

In the Machine Record Chart the foreman has a 
graphic record of the running of his machines which ena- 
bles him to visualize his problem and to grasp the facts 
and the tendencies much more firmly than he could from 
any written record or from watching the machines. 
Moreover, the chart emphasizes above everything else 
the reasons for the idleness of machines, and those 
reasons indicate very clearly who is responsible for the 
idleness. 

Since it is the foreman's aim to get work done, he 
studies the facts shown and translates the chart into 
action. He eliminates as much as possible of the idle- 
ness over which he or his subordinates have control. If 
machines have been "waiting for set-up," he plans the 
work of his set-up men more carefully, and, if necessary, 
trains an additional set-up man. If machines are idle 
for "repairs," he does all he can to push the completion 
of the repairs. If the trouble is "lack of material," he 
asks the storekeeper for help. 

A considerable part of the idleness of machines ap- 
pears to be due to causes over which the foreman has no 
control, so he takes the matter up with his immediate 
superior, who may possibly be the superintendent. He 
shows the charts to him and asks for his assistance in 
avoiding further idleness. 

If machines are down for "lack of help," the superin- 
tendent discusses the matter with the employment 
department and finds out what prevents the securing of 
the kind of workmen needed. 

If idleness is due to "lack of tools," the superin- 
tendent takes the matter up with the foreman of the tool- 



THE MACHINE RECORD CHART 29 

room; if due to "lack of power," he finds out whether or 
not it would be wise to provide for auxiliary power 
service. 

If the trouble is "lack of orders," the superintendent 
takes it up with the sales department to see that he is 
manufacturing what can be sold or that the salesmen 
are provided with information in regard to the product 
which will enable them to sell it. 

Summary of Idleness 

In order to get a better idea of the progress made 
in the running of his machines, the foreman prepares a 
Summary of Idleness Chart on which he enters each 
week the one line which summarizes his whole depart- 
ment and he shows the hours of idleness due to the vari- 
ous reasons (Figure 9) . When machine rates have been 
developed to show the actual cost of idleness, he uses 
dollars and cents on the chart instead of hours. 

The foreman in whose office these charts are kept 
not only advances his own interests by keeping them, 
since they enable him to become a more important and 
capable man in the eyes of the management and his 
workmen, but by the same means he calls to the attention 
of other individuals their responsibilities in regard to 
keeping the shop busy. 

The Machine Record Charts are of great value to the 
superintendent because they bring to his attention the 
problems on which his help is most needed. He does not 
have to go around the shop asking his foremen what is 
wrong and frequently finding out only when it is too 
late. The obstacles which prevent his foremen from 
keeping their machines running are brought to his atten- 



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34 THE GANTT CHART 

tion regularly and in detail. In order to get a compre- 
hensive grasp of conditions, he has the records of all his 
departments summarized on an Idleness Expense Chart 
(Figure 10), showing the cost of idleness of his entire 
plant. 

Because of his greater experience and broader au- 
thority the superintendent can be of most service in 
advancing production by helping the foremen overcome 
the obstacles with which they are daily confronted and 
which they report to him on the Machine Record Chart. 



CHAPTER V 
THE MAN RECORD CHART 

Purpose of Man Record Chart 

The purpose of the Man Record Chart is to show 
whether or not a man does a day's work and, if not, 
the reason why. 

The fact, however, that a man took a certain time to 
do a piece of work is of but little interest until it is com- 
pared with the time in which the work could have been 
done. The foreman readily sees the advantage of 
making an estimate of the time it should take before the 
work is actually begun. If the foreman has accurate 
information, he makes use of it, but if not, he makes as 
close an estimate as possible based on his past experi- 
ence, his estimate approximating the amount of work 
which any good man should do on a good machine. 

As time goes on, the foreman compares the estimated 
time with the time actually taken and his estimates be- 
come more accurate. When he has made use of all the 
knowledge he has as to the best and quickest way to 
perform each job, he asks the superintendent for expert 
assistance in developing still better methods. 

Drawing the Man Record Chart 

In keeping a Man Record Chart the foreman uses a 
sheet which is ruled according to the working hours of 
his shop and is similar to the one used for the Machine 
Record Chart shown in Figure 7 of the preceding chap- 

35 



36 THE GANTT CHART 

ter. On the left side of this sheet he lists the men in 
his control arranged in groups under his subforemen, 
if he has any. At the top of the sheet he leaves a line 
for the total of the department. 

On the chart the foreman indicates by a line drawn 
through the daily space how the work done by each 
man compares with his estimates. The space repre- 
sents the amount of work the foreman believes should 
be done; the light line indicates what was done. For 
instance, an operator has done 150 pieces of work in a 
day, whereas the foreman believes a good man should 
do 200. He therefore divides 150 by 200, which gives 
him 75 per cent, and draws a light line through 75 per 
cent of the space for that day, thus: 



Expressing this in a different way, the space represents 
the time actually taken to do a certain amount of work, 
while the light line shows how much time it could rea- 
sonably be expected to take. For instance, a workman 
has taken 8 hours to do work which the foreman had 
expected him to do in 4 hours. The width of the column 
for the day represents 8 hours. He therefore draws a 
light line through an amount of space equal to 4 hours. 
Another workman has done in 8 hours what the fore- 
man expected would require 12 hours of a good man's 
time. He therefore draws a light line thus: 



through an amount of space equal to 12 hours, i.e., one 
line all the way across and another halfway across. 



THE MAN RECORD CHART 37 

Light lines drawn through a second day's space are 
offset from those of the first day so that they will not 
appear to be continuations, thus: 



If the foreman has not estimated the time the work 
should take, he draws a broken line through an amount 
of space representing the time actually spent on that 
work, thus: 



L 



The portion of the daily space through which no line 
is drawn shows how much the operator has fallen behind 
in the work expected of him, and the letter at the be- 
ginning of the space indicates the reason, thus: 



The reasons which occur most frequently are listed in 
the key to the Man Record Chart (Figure 11) together 
with the method of determining which of several reasons 
should be used. At the end of the week a heavy cumu- 
lative line is drawn to show the weekly total of each 
operator, the heavy line always being equal in length 
to the sum of the light lines. To get the totals of the 
various groups and of the whole department, the hours 
represented by the cumulative lines of the individual 
workmen are added and divided by the number of men. 
A line about % inch wide is used for a group total 
and 1/6 inch wide for a department total. 





















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39 



40 THE GANTT CHART 

Acting on the Chart 

The foreman watches the first line of his chart be- 
cause it shows him how his department as a whole is liv- 
ing up to his idea of what it should do. If he is not 
satisfied, he glances over the various group totals to 
see which group or subforeman has fallen farthest be- 
hind. He then looks over the lines for the individuals 
responsible to that subforeman and studies the detailed 
reasons why they could not do a full week's work. This 
enables him to concentrate his attention on the indi- 
viduals most in need of help and on those hindrances 
to production which occur most frequently. 

The foreman is usually surprised to see that the 
failure of the operator to do the work within the esti- 
mated time is more often his own fault than that of the 
workman (Figure 12). He learns how much of the 
time of his men is wasted because of the improper 
sharpening of tools, defects in materials which should 
have been caught by the inspectors, the unsatisfactory 
condition of machines, and the lack of proper instruc- 
tions on new work. He understands better than ever 
before why the costs of so many jobs exceed his esti- 
mates. 

The discovery that possibly nine-tenths of the ob- 
stacles which prevent a man from doing a day's work 
are the fault of the management should not surprise the 
foreman, for management has assumed the task of se- 
curing materials, machines, and tools, of keeping those 
machines and tools in proper condition for work, of 
bringing material to the operators when it is needed, of 
giving workmen complete instructions, and of doing 
whatever else is necessary to leave the workman free to 



THE MAN RECORD CHART 41 

do the kind of work for which he is best fitted and which 
gives him the largest return. 

Those problems which are the most complicated in 
modern manufacturing confront the management. The 
task of the workman, namely, to make use of the knowl- 
edge and follow the instructions given him is easier. 

The foreman knows that he is judged to a great ex- 
tent by his ability to run his department so that his 
men can do a fair day's work and that it is to his ad- 
vantage to help those who keep the average down. He 
realizes that the idler and the slow worker require more 
assistance than the good worker. From the Man Rec- 
ord Charts the foreman secures such information about 
individual production as enables him to instruct those 
men who are most in need of help. 

Getting the Workman's Co-operation 

When he has removed most of the obstacles for 
which the management is responsible, the foreman 
shows these charts to his workmen with the idea of de- 
veloping their ambition and their interest. The charts 
are so simple that they can be understood by anyone 
even by a foreigner who cannot read- the language in 
which they are written. When his line and those of his 
companions are pointed out to him, he can see how his 
work compares with that of others. 

A foreman soon learns that the long production lines 
of the two or three men who are head and shoulders 
above the others seem to have little effect on the average 
workman, but that the average workman is very 
strongly influenced by the lines of the men he considers 
his equals. He hates to be beaten by an equal and 



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44 THE GANTT CHART 

will do all he can to keep up with him. But above all 
he appreciates the opportunity to watch his own pro- 
gress from day to day. 

Short-Line Men 

There are some workmen, however, who cannot 
measure up to the average and do not respond to the 
foreman's effort to stimulate their ambition. These 
are the men he studies most carefully. Even without 
records these men know whether they are better or 
worse than those around them, and they resent the in- 
troduction of methods which make this fact evident to 
the foreman and the other workmen. Those who have 
in the past tried to cover up their low production by 
attempting to stand in with the foreman and can no 
longer do so, are opposed to these records and do all 
they can to undermine their usefulness. 

Experience has taught the foreman that men who 
feel their inferiority are very apt to do everything possi- 
ble to distract the attention of others from that fact. 
This shows itself in flagrant breaches of shop discipline 
or in creating discontent in the minds of others. In this 
way they secure an outlet for their energy and distract 
their own attention, at least, from their inferiority. 

When the foreman studies these men who have short 
lines on the chart, he realizes that this type is usually the 
backbone of strikes and discord in his department. 
Their consciousness of inferiority and their discontent 
is continually smouldering and is easily fanned into 
flame by some fancied grievance, some real injustice, 
or some capable agitator. The foreman who wants 
fewer labor troubles in the future realizes that he must 



THE MAN RECORD CHART 45 

solve the problem of what to do with those men who are 
below the average whose lines are short on the chart. 
Shall he drop them from his pay-roll and ask the em- 
ployment department to hire others to fill their places? 
He knows that the available supply of good workmen 
in most cities, except in times of business depression, 
is inadequate and that those hired will probably be just 
as poor as those discharged. If he spends an hour in 
the employment department watching the applicants, 
he will see that in good times they are made up largely 
of men who have never learned to do any job well 
men who have been discharged from other jobs because 
the quality of their work has been poor and their pro- 
duction low. 

Discharging the poor workmen in his department 
will merely add to this mass of floating labor. The 
foreman who is looking into the future does not dis- 
charge these men; he trains them to do at least one job 
well. He tries them out on various kinds of work until 
some job is found on which they can do better work 
than on others. On this job a man is given special in- 
struction, so that no matter how long it takes to bring 
him up to the average, there are always sufficient in- 
structors to help him. If there is no work in the fore- 
man's own department for which one of these men is 
fitted, he asks another foreman if he will not try the 
man out. 

This method of handling short-line men appeals to 
the foreman's sense of fair play, for he is giving these 
men for once in their lives a real chance to make good. 
When these men, who formerly had short lines, get to 
the point where they are turning out a full day's work 



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48 THE GANTT CHART 

week after week, they have almost invariably forgotten 
their discontent and some of them even show an awaken- 
ing ambition. 

When a man learns to do even one job well, he gets 
a different outlook on life. A man who for years has 
considered himself a "wage slave" gains confidence in 
himself and a control over himself which helps to make 
a free man of him. He shows possibilities which were 
entirely unsuspected until he mastered his job. 

Long-Line Men 

Man Record Charts are invariably welcomed by 
good workmen, provided the charts are used to help 
the workmen rather than to drive them. The charts 
also provide the foreman with a fairly accurate basis 
for regulating the wages of his operators in accordance 
with their production. Favoritism and special privilege 
are done away with and promotions are based on facts 
rather than impressions. 

One day Mr. Gantt in walking through a plant of 
one of his clients stopped to talk to an operator and 
asked him what he thought of the Man Record Charts. 
The operator replied, "I always knew I was the best 
man in the shop, but no one would believe it. Now 
everyone knows it." For the first time in his experience 
this man had secured proper credit for the work he did 
and it was natural for him to welcome these records. 

The workman who thinks, knows that he cannot 
continue indefinitely to get paid for a good day's work 
when he does only half a day's work and he resents the 
continued recurrence of difficulties which will not enable 
him to do a full day's work. When he brought these 



THE MAN RECORD CHART 49 

delays to the attention of the foreman, he was often con- 
sidered a "kicker"; but when the obstacles are brought 
to the foreman's attention by means of charts, an un- 
usual degree of co-operation is secured between the 
foreman and the workman. 

Careful consideration is given by the foreman to a 
workman's suggestions for improvements which will in- 
crease his output, because to do so is to the foreman's 
interest, since an increase in output will lengthen his 
production line as well as the operator's. 

The workman sees the man whose line is longest, 
whose production is greatest, appointed to the position 
of subforeman when there is a vacancy. He sees the 
subf oreman whose group line is longest become a fore- 
man. As he watches these changes take place through- 
out the organization and positions of authority given 
to men who "know what to do and how to do it," he sees 
opening up before him possibilities of advancement 
limited only by his ability and his interest. 

The Superintendent 

In order to get the help of the superintendent in 
removing delays over which he himself has no control, 
the foreman sends copies of his Man Record Charts to 
the superintendent each week. With them he sends a 
Man Record Summary (Figure 13) showing the total 
line of the department for each week. This summary 
enables the superintendent to see very clearly any ten- 
dencies toward lower production and to take whatever 
steps may be necessary to guide his shop policy. It also 
enables him to reward his workmen according to the 
amount of work done (Figure 14) , 



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52 THE GANTT CHART 

When the estimates of all the departments are made 
on the same basis, the superintendent is also enabled to 
compare the ability of his various foremen to get work 
done. Since production is the aim of the entire organiza- 
tion and these charts point out the men who are suc- 
cessful in getting production, the superintendent or 
the manager will be able to build up an organization 
composed of men who have proved their ability to pro- 
duce. 



CHAPTER VI 
THE LAYOUT CHART 

Use of Layout Chart in Planning 

Idleness of men and machines is usually the great- 
est source of waste in a manufacturing plant, and yet 
it is possible to take definite steps to prevent its recur- 
rence by presenting to the management in such detail 
as to fix responsibility, the reasons for idleness, such as 
lack of help, material, orders, tools, etc. This is done 
by planning work sufficiently far in advance to advise 
each individual concerned what he is to do and when. 
In some plants where a uniform product is manufac- 
tured this is not a difficult matter. If, for instance, 100 
machines are being made each week, every foreman or 
workman knows that he is to turn out enough parts to 
make 100 machines. The planning in such a case is 
very simple and can sometimes be done without any 
written record. 

There are very few plants, however, which produce 
only one article usually a department has to turn out 
a great many different parts to be used in the assem- 
bling of a varied product. Moreover, it is probable that 
these different parts are worked on in other departments 
also. It therefore becomes necessary for the foreman 
to plan carefully the work to be done on each machine 
in his department and also for the superintendent or 
manager to plan the work to be done in all the depart- 
ments of the plant. 

53 




Wednesday , July 14 



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THE LAYOUT CHART 55 

The Gantt Layout Chart is used in working out a 
plan to get the orders in hand done when they are 
wanted and to make the best possible use of the available 
men and machines. No method of doing this can be 
satisfactory unless it emphasizes above everything else 
when jobs are to be begun, by whom, and how long 
they will take. 

In a Stenographic Department 

One of the simplest forms of the Gantt Layout 
Chart is that used in assigning work to stenographers. 
With the two ends in view of sending stenographers to 
the same dictators whenever possible and of getting all 
work out the day it is dictated, the proper assignment of 
stenographers becomes a difficult problem. It is neces- 
sary for the head stenographer to know at all times 
how much work each operator has ahead of her, so 
that when she receives a call for stenographic service 
she will not have to take the time to ask the individual 
operators how soon they will finish the work in hand. 

The head stenographer takes a sheet ruled to show 
the hours of the day and divides the hour either into six 
columns representing 10 minutes each or four columns 
representing 15 minutes (Figure 15). On the left side 
of the sheet she lists the stenographers and shows the 
time it takes each individual to write out one page of 
her notes. This figure does not represent the best pos- 
sible time but the time the operator takes normally. 

When a stenographer comes back to the stenogra- 
phic department after taking dictation, she lays on the 
head stenographer's desk a slip of paper showing the 
time of her return and the number of pages of notes to 



56 THE GANTT CHART 

be transcribed. The head stenographer multiplies the 
number of pages by the minutes per page which appear 
on the layout sheet. This will give her the time it will 
take for that individual to complete the work in her 
book. The head stenographer draws a line on the lay- 
out sheet representing this amount of time, beginning 
at the time noted on the slip of paper which the stenog- 
rapher has placed on her desk. When this has been 
done for all the operators in the department, the head 
stenographer can see at a glance from her layout 
sheet when each stenographer will complete her work. 

When a dictator calls for a stenographer, she looks 
to see if the one who is in the habit of handling that 
man's work can take this dictation and get it out that 
day. If not, the head stenographer sends to the dictator 
the one who will first be available. 

One of the most difficult problems in handling a 
stenographic department is to get all the letters into the 
mail the day they are dictated. To get these letters out, 
it is necessary to distribute them evenly over the availa- 
ble stenographers so that one will not be loaded up with 
two days' work while another sits waiting. 

If the capacity of the whole stenographic depart- 
ment is taken up for the day and a dictator calls for 
a stenographer, the head stenographer will then tell him 
that it is impossible to get out any more work that day 
unless he prefers to have left over until the next day 
some of the letters he has already dictated. 

Another advantage of this plan is that the work is 
evenly assigned to stenographers, so that if the work is 
light they all finish early in the afternoon and if it is 
heavy, they all work up to closing time. 



THE LAYOUT CHART 57 

In a Machine Shop 

The planning of work in a machine shop is more 
complicated and the Layout Chart must show more 
detail in regard to the work to be done (Figure 16). 

A sheet is used which is ruled to represent the work- 
ing hours of the plant, the ruling depending upon the 
average length of jobs. If they extend over several 
weeks, the wide columns represent weeks and the nar- 
row ones days; if they run less than a week, the wide 
columns represent days and the narrow ones hours; 
if they last less than a day, the wide columns represent 
hours and the narrow ones fractions of hours. 

All the machines or work-benches in a department or 
shop are listed on the left side of this sheet. When an 
order is received, a list of the operations through which 
the material is to go is looked up, if it is not already 
shown on the order. On the Layout Chart opposite the 
, machine to be used, the first operation is laid out. 

An angle opening to the right : 



indicates when the job is to be started. 
An angle opening to the left : 



indicates when the job is scheduled to be completed. 

A light line connecting the angles indicates the total 
time scheduled for the order: 

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60 



THE GANTT CHART 



The machine on which the next operation is to be 
done is looked up on the chart to see when it will be 
ready for additional work. The order is then assigned 
to this machine and the angles and the light line are 
drawn. This procedure is followed in laying out all 
the operations on that order and continued until all 
the orders are laid out. 

In assigning work to machines it is necessary to 
know what progress has been made on the work already 
assigned. Accordingly, as daily reports are received 
showing the amount of work done, a heavy line is drawn 
under the light line : 



If the work is exactly on schedule, the end of the 
heavy line will be directly under the proper date and 
hour. If the work is behind or ahead of schedule, the 
end of the heavy line will be behind or ahead of the 
date. In assigning a new order to a machine, if the 
work is ahead of schedule, the new order is placed over 



V 


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FIGURE 17. How WORK AHEAD OF SCHEDULE Is SHOWN 
BY THE GANTT LAYOUT CHART 

the old one (Figure 17) and the date of beginning is 
placed in advance of the date of completion of the old 
order. 



THE LAYOUT CHART 



61 



The V indicates the date on which the chart is 
copied. The work is 1 day ahead of schedule and con- 
ditions in the shop indicate that it will be 1 day early in 
finishing. The new order, A424, is therefore laid out to 
be begun Thursday morning. 

If the work is behind schedule, there is no advantage 
in planning to begin the new order until the old one 
is complete. . Therefore sufficient time must be set 
aside to make up for past delays before the new work 
can be begun. This is done by connecting the angles 
by crossed lines (Figure 18). 




FIGURE 18. How WORK BEHIND SCHEDULE Is SHOWN BY 
THE GANTT LAYOUT CHART 

On the date indicated by the V the work was 1 day 
behind schedule. Before assigning order A426, 1 day 
is allowed to make up for the delay and is indicated by 
crossed lines. 

Above the light lines are written whatever numbers 
and quantities may be necessary to identify the orders. 

When work stops on any order a jog is placed under 
the line with an initial to indicate the reason. 




I 



The usual reasons are repairs, lack of help, material, 
power, or tools, as shown by the legend accompanying 
Figure 16. 



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63 



64 THE GANTT CHART 

This graphic layout makes it possible to group 
orders and distribute them over the available machines 
in a much more intelligent manner than by the hit-or- 
miss method of deciding what the next job will be when- 
ever a machine runs out of work. When a machine 
breaks down, it is easy to transfer work from it to other 
machines without disturbing the proper sequence of 
work. When it is desirable to rush a certain order 
through ahead of other work, the use of a layout chart 
makes it possible to do so with maximum speed because 
the chart visualizes not only the time required to do the 
rush order but to get the other work out of its way. 
There is an added advantage in that the chart shows 
clearly how this rush order interfers with the work al- 
ready in the plant and makes it possible to revise any 
promises which are likely to be broken. 

Other Plants 

In a machine shop or textile plant work is planned 
by machines (Figure 16), but in a foundry by floors, 
benches, or machines (Figure 19). The chart for the 
heavy tool department (Figure 16) illustrates the plan- 
ning of work for machine tools on which only one job 
can be done at one time. On drills with more than one 
spindle, on grinders with two wheels, and other ma- 
chines, it is possible to run more than one job at a time. 
On a molding floor in a foundry, for instance, the 
molder frequently works on several jobs in a day, the 
number depending on the importance of the work, the 
number of patterns he has for each order, the time 
necessary to put up each mold, and the size of the 
floor. 



THE LAYOUT CHART 65 

In a Foundry 

The Layout Chart for a foundry (Figure 19) shows 
how a variety of orders is planned for each man. 
Holder No. 909, Conden, is behind schedule, which is 
indicated by the fact that the heavy lines representing 
work done do not run to Tuesday night when the chart 
was reproduced, as shown by the V. The reason he is 
behind is made clear by the B's showing 'that he had 
had to break up on some orders and start new ones, 
and by the H's, which indicate that his helper was 
absent for a day. The last molder on the sheet, No. 
859, Richardson, is ahead of schedule on all but one of 
his orders. 

It will be observed that the heavy lines on the Gantt 
Layout Chart show how much work has been done and 
how far it is behind or ahead of the schedule, but they 
do not show just when the work was done. If an at- 
tempt were made to show that information also, the 
chart would become so complicated that it would not be 
clear. The purpose of the Layout Chart is to plan 
work ; it is necessary to show how the work stands when 
a new job is assigned, but it is not necessary to know in 
detail what has happened in the past. That can be done 
much more effectively on a Gantt Progress Chart. 

The same type of Layout Chart is used by the 
various foremen and by the central planning office, 
except that the foremen plan only one day in advance 
while the planning office lays out all the work ahead of 
the plant. 

The Gantt Layout Chart is much more satisfactory 
than a layout board because it is more easily handled. 
It does not require any wall space, but can be used on 



66 THE GANTT CHART 

a desk or table, kept in a drawer, and carried around 
easily. Work is laid out in pencil and no expensive 
equipment is needed. 

It is never necessary to erase anything from a Lay- 
out Chart unless a mistake has been made. If work has 
been laid out according to the best knowledge available 
at the time and further information obtained at a later 
date makes a change advisable, the original plan is al- 
lowed to remain on the sheets and "Transferred to 

"is written over it. This makes clear all 

the steps taken and the reasons for changes in plans. 

The Gantt Layout Chart helps to get work done 
because it makes clear who is to do any piece of work, 
when it is to be done, and how long it will take. It can 
be successfully made out only by one who knows what 
is to be done, how it can be done, and how long it will 
take. Instructions based on this chart will, therefore, 
create confidence in the mind of the one who is to do 
the work. It is possible through this chart to assign 
definite tasks, and the more definite the task the easier 
it is to get it done. 



THE LOAD CHART 

Difference Between Layout Chart and Load Chart 

The purpose of the Gantt Load Chart is to keep the 
executives of any producing plant advised as to the 
load of work ahead of their plant. This information is 
of particular value to managers, superintendents, fore- 
men, employment departments, and sales departments, 
for it gives them an accurate picture of the work which 
is to be done and it is necessary to have a clear under- 
standing of that before effective steps can be taken to 
do it. 

The Load Chart is similar to the Layout Chart in 
that it shows how much work is to be done, but it is more 
compact than the Layout Chart and does not show de- 
tails. Layout Charts show each operation on each order 
and the individual machines which are to do the work, 
but a Load Chart merely shows classes of machines and 
the hours of work assigned to them by weeks or months. 
The drawing of the Load Chart is similar to that of the 
Progress Chart so far as light and heavy lines are con- 
cerned; but the similarity ends there, for the Progress 
Chart shows work done and lines are added as more 
work is done; but the Load Chart shows only work 
which is to be done and represents the status of plans at 
a specified date. It is not a record added to day by day 
but an analysis of a situation at a given moment. 

67 



68 THE GANTT CHART 

How the Gantt Load Chart Is Drawn 

At the left of the sheet are listed the classes or groups 
of operators, machines, work-benches, or floors and in 
the next column the numbers in each group. In the 
columns representing months or weeks, the figures indi- 
cate the number of operating hours for a group of men 
or machines; the light lines show the hours of work 
which have been assigned to that group during each 
week or month; and the cumulative lines represent the 
total hours of work ahead of each group. The informa- 
tion for this chart is secured from Layout Charts which 
show what orders are ahead of each machine, and from 
this it is easy to foot up the hours of work planned for 
the various classes of machines for each week or month. 

When a picture of the amount of work ahead of 
a plant is placed before an executive on a Load Chart, 
it is possible for him so to grasp the situation that he 
can adjust equipment, operators, and working hours 
to the amount of work ahead or adapt the work to the 
equipment and operators. 

If there is a great amount of work ahead, he can 
secure information from the Load Chart as to : 

1. What deliveries may be quoted on future orders. 

2. What kinds of orders must be declined. 

3. Where congestion is likely to occur, so that 

those processes can be studied, shortened, or 
improved. 

4. What additional equipment to buy. 

5. How many men to employ and the kind of work 

they will have to do. 

6. Where hours need to be lengthened. 



THE LOAD CHART 69 

If there is not enough work ahead, the manager can 
learn from the chart: 

1. What kinds of orders are needed to keep the 

men or equipment busy (this information 
may be the basis of sales or advertising 
campaigns, of reductions in prices, etc. ) . 

2. What men to assign to other work. 

3. What equipment can be disposed of. 

4. Where hours should be shortened. 

In order to furnish this information a Load Chart 
must be accurate and up to date, but this is not difficult 
if the Load Chart is based on Layout Charts such as 
were described in the preceding chapter. 

A Foundry Load Chart 

In the foundry where the Load Chart illustrated in 
Figure 20 was drawn the main divisions of the work were 
iron, steel, brass, and core-making; and in the iron 
foundry, for instance, the secondary divisions were 
"crane floors," "side floors," "bench floors," and 
"squeezer machines." The molds for the largest cast- 
ings were put up on the crane floors because they were 
served by large cranes. On the side floors they poured 
medium-sized castings which could be lifted by .jib 
cranes or by hand, and on the bench floors and squeezer 
machines they made the smallest sizes. 

When this particular chart was placed on the 
superintendent's desk, he saw that on the crane floors of 
the iron foundry there were 16 molders whose hours per 
week amounted to 640. For the first week charted, 
310 hours of work had been assigned to them, which 











































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Shop No. 10 . Load on Machine Tools. 




NO.OF 

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FIGURE 21. A GANTT LOAD CHART USED IN A MACHINE SHOP 

This chart shows how far in the future the machine tools will 
be kept busy by orders in the plant when it is drawn up. On 
the first line, for instance, it is clear that the one horizontal boring 
mill will be busy 80 per cent of the time during October, 20 per 
cent during November, and all of December and January. The 
heavy lines indicate that the work ahead of these machines is not 
well balanced. 

This chart was drawn at a time when the machine shop did not 
have a normal amount of work. Some of the operators were laid 
off and their machines shut down, and therefore in the upper half 
of the illustration the work ahead of this reduced force was charted. 
To prevent anyone from getting the impression that this chart 
represented the capacity of the plant, the same amount of work 
was also charted against the total capacity of the machines. 

72 



THE LOAD CHART 73 

would keep them busy half their time. For the 5 suc- 
ceeding weeks 30 per cent or less of their time would 
be. required. The cumulative line showed him that half 
a week's work was behind the schedule for lack of pat- 
terns and other reasons, and that the total work ahead 
amounted to the molders' capacity for only 2% weeks, 
although that work would have to be spread over 6 
weeks. 

In the steel foundry, however, the superintendent 
saw that there was more work to be done on the side 
and bench floors than could be done by the molders 
assigned to those floors. In all there was 12 weeks' 
work ahead and it was wanted in 7 weeks. It was im- 
portant to deliver the castings when they were wanted, 
so the superintendent immediately issued instructions 
to run an additional heat each day and he transferred 
2 molders from the brass to the steel foundry. He 
knew that these changes would enable him to make the 
deliveries promised. In the iron and brass foundries 
there was not enough work to keep the molders busy, 
so the superintendent reduced the hours per week until 
additional orders could be secured. 

This Load Chart enabled the superintendent to re- 
duce the idleness in his plant, but, above all, to deliver 
the castings when they were wanted. 

A Load Chart for Machine Tools 

The Gantt Load Chart shows very clearly whether 
or not the machine tools in a plant are going to be kept 
busy in the near future which ones are overloaded and 
which have little work ahead. In Figure 21 the ma- 
chine tools in shop No. 10 are listed in groups and the 





































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76 THE GANTT CHART 

lines show what part of the time they will be kept run- 
ning to turn out the orders then in hand. This chart 
was drawn in a period of dull business and the informa- 
tion was, therefore, presented in two ways, the first half 
of the chart listing only those machines to which 
operators were assigned at that time, and the second 
half listing all the machines in the shop. The latter 
half, therefore, shows well in advance what machine 
tools will be idle unless more orders are secured, while 
the first half goes further and, in addition to telling 
what machines will be idle, shows what operators will 
have to be kept in the shop in idleness or be laid off if 
no more work is provided. 

In this plant it was not necessary for the superin- 
tendent to spend hours in conversation with his foremen 
in an attempt to learn just how much work they had 
ahead of them, nor did he have to read long reports; 
on the Load Chart he had accurate information in 
condensed form. 

A Load Chart for a Department 

In issuing orders for manufacture, it is desirable to 
know what work is already in the plant and when the 
machines will be free for additional orders. Figure 
22 shows the machines in a shop department listed 
according to the sequence of operations. For instance, 
the first operation on a strap bar was milling and it was 
done on machine M259; the next was grinding on 
machine G340; etc. The lines show that the orders 
then in the department would keep the first machine 
busy for only 4 weeks; the second machine, G340, 
would have no work during the first week and about 



THE LOAD CHART 77 

half a week's work for each of the next 4 weeks; the 
third machine, D401, would be busy the whole of 
the first week, but have nothing to do the second 
week. 

The chart emphasizes the fact that the operations 
were not well balanced, i.e., it took so long for some 
machines to do their part of the work that those on 
succeeding operations would have to stand idle a part of 
the time. For instance, the first machine, although it 
ran all the time for 4 weeks, would keep the second and 
third busy only part of each week. The chart made it 
clear that the first operation should be speeded up by 
some means in order to manufacture these parts eco- 
nomically, and an investigation revealed that improved 
jigs and fixtures were needed. 

As to the cutter bars, the chart made it clear that 
the orders then in the department could not be com- 
pleted on the last operation for about 11 weeks, and that 
the breakdown of a machine or the absence of an 
operator would have a serious effect on the output of 
the department. 

In a drop forge plant it is necessary to promise 
delivery on each order and that delivery depends largely 
on the work already assigned to the hammers. A Load 
Chart (Figure 23) shows how far the capacity 
of the hammers is taken up by orders already 
entered. 

The amount of work ahead of any manufacturing 
plant constantly varies and the management must be 
able to change its plans as quickly as the work changes. 
Whatever action is taken, must be based on accurate in- 
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80 THE GANTT CHART 

on general impressions which have been carried over 
from some previous time. 

The Gantt Load Chart gives the manager or super- 
intendent an insight into the future which it is very 
nearly impossible for him to get in any other way. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE PROGRESS CHART 

Purpose of the Progress Chart 

The purpose of the Gantt Progress Chart is to show 
what progress is being made in the execution of a plan 
or program. 

One of the fundamental principles of management 
was formulated by Gantt when he said : "The authority 
to issue an order involves the responsibility to see that 
it is executed/' It is obvious, therefore, that when an 
executive, i.e., anyone who has control over others, has 
issued instructions that certain things are to be done, 
his next step is to provide a mechanism which will at 
all times keep him advised as to whether or not his 
orders are being carried out and, if the progress is not 
satisfactory, will tell him the reason why. The Gantt 
Progress Chart gives this information clearly and con- 
cisely and, since the facts are presented in their relation 
to time, the chart induces action. 

Some executives look back over their records at 
the end of a given period of time, possibly a year or a 
month, compare actual accomplishment with what they 
believed was possible, and conclude that the perform- 
ance was either good or bad. It is the wise executive, 
however, who goes carefully over conditions at the 
beginning of any period, studies the tendencies, and 
decides then what performance will be satisfactory. 
This is his plan or schedule. Should there be, later on, 

6 81 



82 THE GANTT CHART 

a marked change in conditions which it was not possible 
for him to foresee, he will, of course, make the necessary 
alterations in the schedule. 

In this way the executive relieves himself of the 
necessity of analyzing records every time a new figure 
is received, comparing it with other figures and deciding 
whether it is good or bad. Usually in the rush of busi- 
ness, comparison of this kind is likely to be done hastily, 
and the decision is apt to be unwise. However, where 
the executive determines beforehand what will be satis- 
factory to him, he is almost sure to study the matter 
thoroughly and to secure all the expert advice and ac- 
curate information available. 

After this schedule is worked out, a comparison of 
accomplishment with the plan becomes merely a clerical 
task; the executive's time is saved and he is left free to 
study the tendencies and take the action indicated by the 
records. 

The Value of the Gantt Progress Chart 

In this phase of an executive's work the Gantt 
Progress Chart is of inestimable value. Its use makes 
a definite plan necessary and presents that plan so 
clearly that it can be readily understood in detail 
and as a whole by the executive's associates and sub- 
ordinates. It compares the performance with the plan 
both as to time and amounts, and makes it possible for 
the executive to foresee future happenings with con- 
siderable accuracy. It shows what part of the work has 
been done in accordance with the schedule and empha- 
sizes the reasons why performance has fallen short of the 
plan, fixing responsibility for its success or failure. 



THE PROGRESS CHART 83 

Usually it is not necessary for the higher executive 
to follow on Progress Charts all the details of the work 
being done under his direction, but he does wish to 
follow the progress of the work as a whole, which may 
be done by following key operations, typical items, or 
totals. If the progress made on one of these subdivi- 
sions of the work is satisfactory, he will pay little atten- 
tion to it, but if another part of the work is behind 
schedule, he will call for the detail charts in the hands 
of one of his subordinates. From these records he can 
see what particular items are being delayed and the 
reasons. He can then concentrate his efforts on that 
particular problem and, because of his broader au- 
thority and greater resourcefulness, may overcome 
difficulties which to his subordinates are insurmountable. 

Saving Time for the Executive 

This method makes it unnecessary for the general 
manager of a manufacturing plant, for instance, to 
wade through volumes of reports or to go the rounds 
of his superintendents or foremen in an attempt to find 
out what work is not progressing satisfactorily. His 
subordinates are likely to minimize the importance of 
some delays and on other items not to realize the effect 
a short delay will have on other work. Gantt charts 
emphasize the fact that time is the most important 
element in production they bring to the attention of the 
general manager the things which are most urgent and 
hold his attention until betakes action and sees the results. 

The Progress Chart also enables the general 
manager to know whether or not he will be able to live 
up to whatever promises of delivery he has made, for 



84 THE GANTT CHARF 

he knows that a reputation for keeping promises is one 
of the most valuable assets of any organization. Of 
course, the ability to make quick deliveries will fre- 
quently secure an order which would otherwise be lost, 
but quick deliveries depend entirely on the volume of 
work ahead. If a customer is continually promised 
quick deliveries by a certain plant and much later 
deliveries by its competitors, the reputation of that 
plant will be injured rather than enhanced, for the 
customer is likely to conclude either that the poor 
quality of the product prevents the plant from securing 
orders or that another customer's orders are being set 
aside for his. One impression is as detrimental as the 
other, for the customer knows that if another customer's 
work is set aside for his, it is probable that his work will 
be set aside for the next insistent customer. 

It is clear, therefore, that a reputation for deliveries 
must be founded on the ability to live up to whatever 
promises are made. If a promise of delivery is to be 
kept, all the work in a plant must be planned so 
accurately that, when a new order is received, it is possi- 
ble to tell almost to a day when the work will be com- 
pleted. The Gantt Progress Chart enables the 
manager to keep before him all the promises he has 
made, to concentrate his attention on overcoming obsta- 
cles and avoiding delays, and, when it is impossible to 
live up to a promise, it enables him to give the customer 
advance notice of the fact. 

Drawing the Progress Chart 

Angles opening to the right and to the left indicate 
respectively when the work is to be begun and com- 



THE PROGRESS CHART 85 

pleted. The amount of work scheduled is shown by a 
figure at the left of the space and the amount to be done 
to date by a figure at the right of the space ; light lines 
represent work done during any period of time and 
heavy lines the amount done to date, as explained in 
Figures 1, 2, and 3 in Chapter I. 

If work is done in a period of time for which no 
work was scheduled, it is shown by a figure in the middle 
of the space, for instance : 

120 

When the amount of work done is more than that 
scheduled, the light line is drawn across the space more 
than once, thus: 



These lines are built up from the bottom to emphasize 
the fact that they belong to the heavy line below them. 
If no work is done in a period for which some was 
scheduled a Z (for zero) is placed in the middle of the 
space; thus: 



A chart will look crowded if more than three light lines 
are drawn, so when the number of lines exceeds three, 
the figure is shown thus: 



This indicates that the work done was seven times as 
great as the amount scheduled. 







































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86 



THE PROGRESS CHART 87 

The heavy cumulative lines are drawn on the scale 
of the space through which they pass. Therefore, if the 
scale of the spaces or periods of time varies, the sum of 
the light lines may not equal the length of the cumu- 
lative line, as is the case in Man and Machine Record 
Charts. 

Broken lines represent work which has been done 
previous to the date when the chart is drawn. If, for 
instance, a chart is to show quantities of parts manu- 
factured, a heavy broken line would indicate the 
quantity in stock when the chart was begun. 

Manufacturing on Order 

In a plant which manufactures only on orders from 
its customers or its own sales organization, a promise of 
delivery is usually made on each order and each must be 
watched to see that the promise is kept. The Progress 
Chart of Crank Handles (Figure 24) was drawn in 
a plant where all orders were charted. The angle which 
opens to the right indicates the date on which the 
material was to be issued from stores; the figures indi- 
cate the dates on which the various operations are to be 
begun, that is, on the first line of the chart, 1 indicates 
that the first operation was to be begun on January 19, 
operation No. 2 on the 21st, etc.; the angle which opens 
to the left indicates the date on which the parts were to 
be shipped, the heavy line shows what operations have 
been done, and the letters under the lines indicate the 
reasons for delay. 

The V indicates that this chart was reproduced on 
March 3. If the work had proceeded exactly according 
to schedule, the heavy lines would all end under that 



Links Manufactured on Schedule \ / 










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89 



00 THE GANTT CHART 

date except for those orders which were due to be com- 
pleted before that date. However, the work had not 
made the expected progress ; the third order on the sheet 
was a week behind schedule, the fifth about 2 weeks 
behind, the sixth 2 weeks ahead, and the seventh 10 days 
behind time. 

From this chart the manager could see at a glance 
which orders were behind schedule. On the fifth order 
on the sheet, for instance, he could see that the eleventh 
operation had been begun but not finished, and the R 
showed that the delay was caused by repairs. Reference 
to the shop order told the manager what that operation 
was and the department in which it was being done. 
Over the telephone he found out in detail from the fore- 
man the repairs needed and the probable date when that 
operation would be finished. The chart showed how 
much more time would be needed for the remaining 
operations, so that the manager could take whatever 
action he deemed wise to rush the work and he could 
advise his customers as to the probable date of delivery. 

Continuous Manufacture 

In a plant where articles are manufactured con- 
tinuously, the Progress Chart is, of course, somewhat 
different from that used in a plant which manufactures 
on order. The chart of Links Manufactured on 
Schedule (Figure 25) illustrates this. 

On the first type of link, No. 467-BT, it was found 
that the normal usage based on sales for the last 
two years with more weight given to recent months was 
10,000 per month. The broken lines were the first ones 
entered on the chart; it was found that about 16,000 



THE PROGRESS CHART 91 

finished links were in stock, and accordingly a broken 
line was drawn through the first month ancl 60 per cent 
of the second month. It was also found that manu- 
facturing orders were in the shop for 10,000 additional 
links, so a broken line was drawn through an amount 
of space representing 2.6 months, that is, 1.6 months for 
the links in stock, which, of course, had been covered by 
past orders, and 1 month for the uncompleted orders. 
An inventory showed that there were in the storeroom 
30,000 forgings besides the 26,000 links in process or 
in finished stock. Accordingly, a line was drawn 
through 5.6 months to represent 56,000 forgings and 
links. 

During the month of June, 7,000 links were sold and 
a light line was, therefore, drawn through 70 per cent 
of the space, with a cumulative line of the same length. 
Also 12,000 links were received in stock, so a light line 
was drawn through 120 per cent of the June space and 
a heavy line of equal length was added to the broken 
line. During the same month orders were placed for 
27,500 links because the management had decided to 
build up a 4 months' stock and after that to manu- 
facture each month an amount equal to the sales of the 
previous month. No forgings were received that 
month, so a Z was entered in the space. 

During July and August, sales fell below the 
normal usage with the result that at the end of August, 
when the chart was reproduced, the difference between 
the cumulative line representing sales and the line 
representing receipts into stock showed the amount of 
links in stock, namely about 3 l / 2 months' supply. Dur- 
ing August manufacturing orders had been entered 



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94 THE GANTT CHART 

which would bring into finished stock during September 
another month's supply. It was evident, therefore, that 
there would be a 4 months' supply on hand sometime 
in September, and accordingly no further manu- 
facturing orders were placed. It was also evident that 
there were sufficient f orgings on hand so that no further 
purchase orders were necessary. 

On the next type of link, No. 1297-BP, the normal 
usage was 4,000 per month. When the chart was made 
up June 1, 5 months' supply was already in stock with 
manufacturing orders placed for 15,000 more and f org- 
ings on hand sufficient to last up to October of the 
following year. The chart made it clear that it was 
unnecessary to Dlace additional orders for the manu- 
facture of links or for forgings. 

Comparing Operations 

At times a series of delays occur which interfere 
seriously with production, but it is difficult to get a com- 
prehensive understanding of the situation from a table 
of figures and still more difficult to explain it to someone 
who is not familiar with the details. 

During the latter part of the Great War, the 
Director of Arsenals considered the recuperators, or 
recoil mechanisms, for the 75mm. field guns the most 
important work in American arsenals. There had been 
a number of delays on this work with various explana- 
tions given and finally the director asked to have the 
progress shown on a Gantt chart. Figure 26 shows the 
progress made during a certain week on the framework 
of the recuperator, usually called the "brake," and 
compares that progress with the schedules. 



95 

A large machine shop had been erected and machine 
tools installed to manufacture these recuperators at the 
rate of 4 per day. The chart shows that on the first 
operation 5 were done on Monday and Tuesday, 4 on 
Wednesday, and none the remainder of the week. The 
production for the week was, therefore, 2% out of 6 
days. Going through the various operations it was 
evident at a glance that the principal delays were occur- 
ring on operations 4A and 5, planing, and on A6 and 
A7, reaming, and that on the remaining operations little 
or nothing was being done. This chart focused the 
attention of the management on those operations and 
made apparent to everyone concerned the relative im- 
portance of this delay. 

Office Work 

The work of an office is usually more difficult to 
measure than that of a shop, but it can be done in nearly 
all cases. Office departments usually have a few things 
around which their other work revolves; in an advertis- 
ing department, for instance, they have several indi- 
viduals whose duty it is to get out circular letters. It 
is easy to decide on a daily task of a certain number of 
letters. Another group in this same department may 
be answering inauiries, and since no one knows in 
advance how many inquiries will be received each day, 
no one can say how many should be answered. How- 
ever, it is most important to have those inquiries handled 
promptly, so the real task of this group of people is 
to answer each day all the inquiries received. Their 
daily task is then expressed in numbers of inquiries 
received. 





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98 THE GANTT CHART 

The daily task in most office departments can be ex- 
pressed in one of these two ways, i.e., by a definite quan- 
tity per day or by the amount of work received each day. 
Of course, it is impossible to get out at closing time, say, 
5 o'clock, work which is not received until 10 minutes be- 
fore 5, but the day for receiving work may be regarded 
as ending at 3 o'clock or possibly at noon, while 
the day for finishing work may not end until 5 o'clock. 

In a purchasing department, for instance, the task 
may be to send out requests for quotations or purchase 
orders by 5 o'clock, covering all requisitions received up 
to 3 o'clock. The task of a stenographic department 
would be to transcribe before closing time all letters 
dictated before 4 o'clock. The filing department's task 
would be to get into their proper places in the files all 
papers secured from the various office departments at 
9 o'clock that morning. 

In order to get things done on time in an office, a 
department head or office manager must be kept advised 
continually and promptly as to whether or not those 
under his control are doing their work on time. It is 
also his duty to maintain a definite standard of quality 
in the work turned out, but that is not quite so difficult 
as to keep the work up to date. A Progress Chart such 
as is illustrated in Figure 27 keeps an office manager 
accurately and promptly advised as to the status of the 
work under his charge and enables him to give whatever 
assistance may be necessary to those behind schedule. 

Sales Quotas 

During the last decade sales quotas have come into 
such general use that it is no longer necessary to point 



THE PROGRESS CHART 99 

out the advantages of giving a salesman a definite task. 
In most well-managed sales companies today the 
managers and salesmen sit down together and agree 
upon what will be a fair quota for each territory or indi- 
vidual. However, a satisfactory method of showing a 
comparison between actual sales and quotas is not so 
generally understood and unless this comparison is con- 
stantly brought to the attention of those responsible for 
sales, much of the value of the quota plan is lost. 

The Progress Chart of Sales Quotas (Figure 28) 
shows how the sales of one company in the various 
districts of the United States compared with the quotas. 
It is evident from the chart that the sales from the 
southern and southwestern states had fallen very far 
below what was expected and the attention of the 
management was turned toward an investigation of the 
reasons for the poor business in those states. 

Storeskeeping 

In keeping materials or finished ^oods in stores, 
time is the most important feature to be taken into con- 
sideration, and any analysis of conditions in a store- 
room must be expressed in terms of days, months, or 
years as well as in quantities. Information that there 
are 1,000 pieces on hand is not of nearly so much value 
as that there are enough pieces on hand to last a year at 
the normal rate of usage. 

The chart illustrated in Figure 29 compares the 
stock on hand at the first of the year with the average 
sales of the 5 previous years. It is possible to see at a 
glance that they were out of stock of one item, that on 
two others they had less than a week's supply, and that 







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104 THE GANTT CHART 

on 10 items they had more than enough to last for 3 
years. In one extreme case, where the usage was small, 
they had enough to last for 80 years. 

For the analysis of a situation of this kind no table 
of figures or form of chart can convey the information 
in so illuminating or compact a way as the Gantt 
Progress Chart. 

Budgets and Expenses 

The ability of an executive is judged to a consider- 
able extent by the cost of .doing the work assigned to him. 
The best way to control expenditures is to keep con- 
tinually before those who authorize them a comparison 
between what they are spending and what they should 
spend. The Gantt chart presents such records more 
clearly and concisely than can be done on any other 
type of chart or by any table of figures. A comparison 
of actual expenses with predetermined expense in a 
foundry is shown in Figure 30. The first line indicates 
that in January the total expenses of the foundry 
amounted to about 90 per cent normal, and in February 
60 per cent. The succeeding lines show which depart- 
ments have been within the budget and which have 
exceeded it. , 

A Public Service Plant 

The amount of coal loaded into ships by a large coal 
pier belonging to an eastern railway was not considered 
satisfactory. This was one of the finest coal piers on 
the Atlantic coast and it appeared to be in good repair. 
The pier was known to be capable of dumping more 
than 40,000 tons per day, so that figure was taken as the 



THE PROGRESS CHART 105 

capacity of the pier and official reports for 2 weeks 
were charted (Figure 31). The "amount actually 
dumped" into vessels was first charted; on the first day, 
the 20th, 12,000 tons were dumped, which was 30 per 
cent of the pier's capacity. The chart made it clear that 
in 2 weeks an amount of coal was dumped into vessels 
which could have been dumped in 3 days, if the capacity 
of the pier had been used. 

It was natural to expect that as soon as this fact 
was presented the excuse would be advanced that larger 
quantities of coal had not been dumped either because 
there had been no more coal in the yards or because 
there had been no more vessels in the harbor ready to be 
loaded. Therefore information was taken from official 
reports and entries were made on the chart to show 
how much coal was in the yards which served the pier 
and the tonnage (the coal-carrying capacity) of the 
vessels available at the end of the day. 

It was apparent from this chart that the amount of 
coal dumped into vessels had not been limited at any 
time by a shortage of coal in the yards or of vessels to 
receive it, and that the responsibility for the failure of 
this pier even to approach its capacity was due to the 
management of the pier itself. 

Charts for Executives 

Modern business is so complicated that unless an 
executive takes effective steps to prevent it, he will be 
so overwhelmed by detail that he will not be able to 
discharge the real duties of his office. Gantt charts 
intelligently handled will go far toward clearing his 
desk for action. They will greatly reduce the writing 




106 





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THE PROGRESS CHART 109 

of letters and wordy reports; they will make it easy to 
discover inaccuracies in reports; they will make clear 
what is to be done and what has been done. 

Since the task of an executive is to get work done 
and the Gantt Progress Chart compares the work done 
with what was planned, it is evident that this chart pro- 
vides a method of measuring the service rendered by an 
executive. It is no longer necessary to depend upon 
general impressions in judging the ability of an ex- 
ecutive, since by the use of the Gantt chart executive 
ability is capable of being fairly accurately measured. 



The Shipping Problem During the War 

During the war years of 1917 and 1918 Gantt charts 
were of great value in getting things done in the Ord- 
nance Department, the Navy, the Emergency Fleet, 
the Shipping Board, and other government departments. 
The following account of how the Gantt chart was 
applied to the handling of ships will show how it sim- 
plifies problems of the greatest magnitude and com- 
plexity. 

Even before the entrance of the United States into 
the war, shipping had undergone great changes; the 
number of ships at sea had been greatly decreased by 
losses due to submarines and raiders and by the intern- 
ment of German vessels; the production of foodstuffs 
in allied countries had suddenly decreased, causing a 
greater demand for the transportation of food from 
overseas; the increased production of war materials in 
Europe created a greater demand for raw materials and 
consequently more ships to carry them; the menace of 
the submarine made it necessary to convoy all vessels 
approaching or leaving Europe, causing untold delay; 
the submarine also drove all sailing vessels and all slow 
steamers from the North Atlantic. The concentration 
of millions of men on a narrow front in France focused 

no 



THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 111 

the shipping of the world on that point and overtaxed 
existing docking facilities. v All these circumstances 
combined to cause a shortage of shipping at a most 
critical time. 

As soon as the United States entered the war, steps 
were taken to build more ships. The Shipping Board 
was created and it formed a subsidiary organization 
called the "Emergency Fleet Corporation" to build 
ships, but the board itself operated them. The period 
of time which necessarily had to elapse before new ships 
could be built made the use of the existing ships even 
more important, if that were possible, than the building 
of new ones. The ships already at sea were, of course, 
going to whatever ports and carrying whatever cargoes 
the ship-owners found most profitable. Consequently, 
it became necessary for the Shipping Board to com- 
mandeer all vessels owned or leased by Americans and 
to charter as many additional vessels as possible from 
foreign nations. 

First Methods of Keeping Ship Records 

The handling of this large and ever-growing fleet 
was a stupendous task probably the most difficult 
problem which had ever arisen in the shipping world. 

It was found impossible at first even to keep track of 
the movements of vessels in general, to say nothing of 
determining whether they were on the right jobs and do- 
ing their work efficiently. For a time there was little 
progress. The old plan of tracing ships by sticking 
pins and flags on large maps was tried, but it was soon 
discovered that this system with its thousands of pins 
and flags was so cumbersome that it was impossible to 



112 



THE GANTT CHART 



follow the movements of even coastwise vessels. The 
most serious limitation of this system was that it did 
not take any account of time a flag bearing the name 
of a steamer and stuck in a port gave no information 
as to how long the steamer had been there or where it 
had been before that. 

Card records were next tried, but there was such a 
mass of information and it was so difficult to secure any 
comprehensive idea of its tendencies or to visualize what 
was happening that the information remained buried 
in the files. 

At this point Mr. Gantt was called in. He first 
worked out a simple method of visualizing what the 
ships were doing day by day by means of ship move- 
ment charts of which some typical specimens are de- 
scribed below. 

Ship Movement Charts 

A right angle opening to the right indicated that 
the "Vesta" arrived in Baltimore on the 27th, coming 
from Port Arthur, Texas, loaded with oil (Figure 
32). She left Baltimore on the 28th and reached Nor- 



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folk on the 2nd, sailing from there on the 3rd in ballast. 
After 6 days at sea, she arrived at Port Arthur and 
sailed from there on the 12th with oil for Norfolk. 

The "Kronstad," a Norwegian vessel chartered by 



THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 113 



the United States government, sailed from New York 
with a general cargo and on the 14th arrived at Car- 
denas, on the north coast of Cuba, dropping anchor in 
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next day she had loaded all the sugar in the warehouses, 
but her hold was not yet filled, so she weighed anchor 
and steamed to Caibarien and took on enough to make 
a full cargo. 

On the 18th, the "Kronstad" sailed for New York, 
which she reached on the 24th. After discharging part 
of her cargo at a refinery there, she steamed up through 
the Sound to Boston, where she discharged the re- 
mainder of the sugar. She then came back to New 
York for a general cargo, but not being able to pick 
up enough to fill up her holds, she went down to Nor- 
folk and took on coal. 

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bor of Matanzas where she lay at anchor 4 days while 
bags of sugar were loaded from lighters. On the 24th, 
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116 THE GANTT CHART 

To summarize: In the 53 days from April 10 to 
June 2 the "Kronstad" spent 18 days at sea on two 
round trips to Cuba, 9 days in sugar ports, and 27 days 
in and around United States ports discharging and 
picking up cargoes, and this at a time when the Ameri- 
can people were on rigorous sugar rations. 

These Ship Movement Charts showed the facts 
clearly, with few words and in little space. The number 
of ships whose movements were recorded in this way 
( see Figure 34 ) was rapidly increased until the arrivals 
and departures of 12,000 vessels were kept on record. 

Harbor Performance Charts 

While the movements of vessels from port to port 
were being followed in New York and Baltimore, charts 
were being made of what the vesssels were doing in port 
day by day. Of these harbor performance charts the 
following are typical: 

A certain British steamer with a general cargo from 





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BALTIMORE 

Liverpool entered the harbor of Baltimore on the 15th, 
as is indicated by the angle opening to the right ( Figure 
35 ) . She went immediately to her berth and began dis- 
charging her cargo the same day. The light line shows 
that the unloading took a little over 3 days and was 
completed on the 18th. On the 19th she filled her bun- 



THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 117 



kers with coal and began loading on the 20th, as is 
shown by the heavy line. On the 25th she sailed with 
a general cargo for Liverpool. 

This was a good record, for she had been in the har- 
bor only 9 full days and in that time she had discharged 
her cargo, bunkered, and loaded another cargo without 
a single idle day. 

Contrast that record with this (Figure 36) : 





16 19 20 21 22. 23 24 


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On the 18th a large full-rigged ship, a Danish ves- 
sel, entered Baltimore harbor. She dropped anchor in 
Canton Hollow and waited for permission to move to 
a dock to unload. 

She dried her sails, the sailmaker mended a few that 
had been strained off Hatteras, new ropes were spliced, 
the painters were busy on her hull all sorts of odd 
jobs were done while she waited. After 11 days of idle- 
ness orders were received and a tug came alongside and 
she moved slowly to her pier. She spent the rest of that 
day unloading ballast from one of her holds, as shown 
by the circles for idleness and the V for ballast. The 
next morning a big force of longshoremen began un- 



118 



THE GANTT CHART 



loading her cargo of 3,000 tons of manganese, which 
she had taken on at Rio. 

The following day she spent waiting for ballast to 
keep her on an even keel and then for 2 days double 
shifts of men unloaded the remainder of the manganese. 
On the 3d a tug towed her to a shipyard and 2 days were 
spent on a repair to her hull. Saturday afternoon, the 
4th, she was towed out of the repair yard. Sunday and 
Monday were spent taking on a cargo of coal for Rio; 
Tuesday no labor could be secured; Wednesday she 
completed loading the coal. Then she anchored in the 
harbor again and waited for permission to sail. For 
8 days she tugged at her anchor before her orders came, 
then she dropped down the stream and started on her 
long voyage back to Rio. 

To summarize: She had been in port 30 days; only 
3 days had been used in discharging her cargo, 2 in 
repairs, and 3 in loading an outward cargo ; she had been 
idle 22 days. 

Here is another actual case in New York Harbor 
(Figure 37) : 





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FIGURE 37. CHART OF A STEAMER IN NEW YORK HARBOR 



On the 23rd a large steamer passed Sandy Hook, 
coming in from Brazil, anchored off the Statue of 



THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 119 

Liberty, and waited for a pier 9 days. She then went 
to a Brooklyn dock and for a day and a half loaded a 
cargo ; for 2 days she was idle for some unknown reason ; 
2^/2 days were spent in idleness because there was no 
more cargo ready to load. She then moved to a pier at 
Constable Hook; for 3 days she loaded case oil; she 
was idle for half a day; then loaded for a day and a 
half; and was idle again for a day and a half (Satur- 
day afternoon and Sunday). She loaded for another 
day and half and then moved away from her pier and 
anchored off Tompkinsville. There she stayed idle for 
10 days, waiting for her sailing orders. 

This steamer had been in port 5 weeks and only 8 
days had been spent in loading her cargo. 

The Task of the Shipping Board 

While this information as to the movement of ships 
both at sea and in port was being collected, Mr. Gantt 
was helping to solve the bigger problem of what the 
ships ought to be doing. The three jobs to be done 
were, in the order of their importance : 

1. To carry troops, munitions, and supplies to 

France and food to the Allies in Europe. 

2. To import into this country the necessary food 

and the raw materials needed for the manu- 
facture of munitions. 

3. To export to foreign countries the things they 

had to have in order to produce the raw mate- 
rials needed by the United States. 

The ships which carried troops, munitions, and sup- 
plies to France were operated by the army, but the ves- 



120 THE GANTT CHART 

sels under its control were inadequate. It was there- 
fore important for the Shipping Board to bring in the 
necessary imports with as few ships as possible and to 
turn over all others to the army. 

The export problem was also important; for in- 
stance, to get nitrate for munitions and agricultural 
purposes from the mines of northern Chile, it was neces- 
sary to supply the coal and fuel oil needed to operate 
the mines and the railroads which brought the nitrate 
to the coast. Before manganese for armor-plate steel 
could be brought from Brazil, coal had to be sent for 
their railroads and coastwise shipping. If agricultural 
machinery and coal were not shipped to the Argentine, 
that country could not send wheat or meat to the Allies. 
This problem was important, but it was not particularly 
difficult, because export requirements were very much 
smaller than import requirements and cargoes could be 
carried out by vessels which were going after necessary 
imports. 

The Import Problem 

The hardest task before the Shipping Board was this 
import problem: 

1. What had to be imported in order to manufac- 

ture munitions and to feed the people? 

2. What raw materials produced in this country 

could be substituted for those which had here- 
tofore been imported? 

3. When would these things be needed by the vari- 

ous government departments, manufacturers, 
and consumers? 



THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 121 

No one knew the answers to these questions and it 
seemed a superhuman task to secure such information. 
Nothing of the kind had ever been heard of in the ship- 
ping world, but nevertheless it was done. Experts were 
called together from universities, trade organizations, 
and government departments and they put into con- 
crete form the task before the Shipping Board. About 
a hundred different commodities were found to be abso- 
lutely necessary and the amounts needed month by 
month were determined. The list was short but the 
quantities were staggering; 2,000,000 long tons of ni- 
trate were required per year and between 3,000,000 and 
4,000,000 tons of sugar. Moving such quantities in 
ships with average capacities of between 3,000 and 4,000 
tons seemed impossible. 

When the necessary commodities and the proper 
quantities had been determined, these requirements had 
to be translated into terms of individual ships and their 
cargoes : 

1. What ships were available to bring in these im- 

ports? 

2. What could they be expected to do per month 

or year? 

3. What commodities could be secured from near- 

by countries which had heretofore been 
brought from ports several thousand miles 
away? 

The lists of available ships were easily made up, but 
the answer to the second question was not so quickly 
arrived at. No two vessels seemed to do a job in the 
same way, so it was useless to estimate the time required 



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123 



124 THE GANTT CHART 

for a "turnaround," as a round trip is called in shipping 
circles, by figuring the distance, the speed, and the 
possible time of loading. The only information which 
was of any value was a record of what had actually been 
done in the past. Accordingly, charts were drawn 
showing turnarounds based on averages of all voyages 
for which accurate records were available and they pro- 
vided a fairly dependable basis for forecasting the dates 
on which vessels could be expected to discharge their 
cargoes. 

Ship Charts of Commodities 

One of the most important commodities to be 
brought into the country was nitrate, for it was used in 
the manufacture of nearly all explosives as well as for 
agricultural purposes, and neither the munitions nor 
the food programs could proceed without it. The large 
deposits in the northern part of Chile were the only 
source of supply and the nitrate was needed in the cen- 
tral and eastern states, so vessels had to come up the 
west coast of South America through the Panama Canal 
to Atlantic ports from Norfolk to Boston. 

The quantities required varied from 178,000 long 
tons in January to 116,000 in August. These require- 
ments were entered at the top of a chart (see Figure 
38) and immediately below them were shown the esti- 
mated deliveries, i.e., the tons of nitrate which could 
be delivered by the vessels chartered for that purpose. 
The first charts for nitrate were made up in February, 
1918, and they made it clear that the vessels then on the 
nitrate trade could not bring in more than half of the 
requirements. The charts caused the assignment of 



THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 125 

additional vessels to the trade, but the average turn- 
around to North Atlantic ports was 66 days. Conse- 
quently it was not until May that the arriving vessels 
unloaded anywhere near a month's supply. At the end 
of July sufficient vessels had been chartered to meet 
our requirements up to the middle of November and 
there was ample time to assign additional vessels to 
bring in the total yearly requirements. 

The next line showed actual deliveries, which were, 
at the end of July, 2 months behind schedule. 

Below these lines showing deliveries there was a list 
of steamers and sailing vessels on the nitrate trade. 
During a good part of the year over ninety vessels were 
engaged in this trade. The amount of nitrate which 
each ship could carry was shown alongside the 
name, and under the proper week and month an angle 
indicated the date of arrival and figures showed the tons 
of nitrate actually delivered. Angles without figures 
indicated expected arrivals. 

Charts of this kind were made up for all of the com- 
modities which were imported in large quantities. They 
showed the progress made toward meeting the require- 
ments; they emphasized the necessity of allocating ves- 
sels to bring in specific commodities; and, when vessels 
were allocated, they showed what effect that action 
would have on meeting requirements. 

Individual Commodity Charts 

Many of the one hundred necessary commodities 
were brought in in part cargoes and from various parts 
of the world. In order to emphasize the savings in 
ships' time by importing from nearby countries, each 









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130 THE GANTT CHART 

of these commodities was shown on a separate chart. 
Figure 39 illustrates how the importation of castor 
beans stood on August 31. The requirements amounted 
to 10,000 long tons a year, or 883 per month, and when 
the chart was reproduced enough had been received to 
last at that rate until October of the following year. 
Accordingly, no further import licenses were issued for 
castor beans and the vessels coming in from the various 
trade regions carried other necessary commodities. 

Summary of Imports 

In order to present the import situation so that it 
could be grasped as a whole, all of the necessary com- 
modities were listed alphabetically on a set of charts 
with the total at the top of the first sheet (see Figure 
40). The first commodity, ammonia, was almost 7 
months behind schedule, for although 575 tons were 
required per month, only about 100 tons had been re- 
ceived. Antimony metal was a month and a half behind 
the schedule, although some had been received every 
month as indicated by the light lines. Of the antimony 
ore only 2 months' supply had been received during the 
7 months. 

Although the requirements for bananas were 30,700 
tons per month, in the first 7 months in 1918 enough 
had been imported to meet the requirements for a year 
and a half. The vessels engaged in this trade were 
large, swift, seaworthy, and equipped with refrigerator 
compartments and, therefore, ideal for carrying meat to 
the troops in France. The chart made it plain that these 
banana boats should be taken off the West Indies trade 
and assigned to the army for trans- Atlantic service. 



THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 131 

At the top of this chart the total requirements and 
deliveries were shown and the heavy line indicated that 
at the end of July requirements had not only been met, 
but slightly exceeded. The light lines showed that in 
January and February the deliveries had been consider- 
ably short of requirements, but the assignment of ves- 
sels to specific tasks and the embargoes placed on un- 
necessary commodities brought in during March the 
amount required and in the three succeeding months 
more than was needed the surplus just balancing the 
shortage for January and February. It was clear at 
that time that there were more ships engaged in the im- 
port trade than were necessary and accordingly a large 
number of them were turned over to the army with the 
result that in July there was only a slight surplus of 
imports. In other words, the Shipping Board was mak- 
ing progress in its task of bringing in the necessary 
imports with as few ships as possible. 

Individual Trade Region Charts 

In order to get better control over the cargoes car- 
ried, the world map was divided into 27 trade regions 
and for each region a set of charts was made up show- 
ing what commodities were required from that region, 
in what amounts, and the progress made in meeting the 
requirements. The chart of the East Asian region ( see 
Figure 41) made it clear that at the end of July the 
imports were almost a month ahead of schedule and 
pointed out the shortages and oversupply of the various 
commodities. 

When a ship was chartered for a voyage to any trade 
region, it was possible by consulting this chart to 









































































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136 THE GANTT CHART 

advise the agents as to what commodities should be 
brought back on her return trip. 

Summary of Trades 

The allocation of ships to the various trades was 
the key to the successful handling of the import prob- 
lem. A Summary of Trades Chart (see Figure 42) 
was drawn to show how the requirements from all the 
trade regions had been met. As was shown in Figure 
41, the deliveries from the first trade region, East Asia, 
were nearly a month ahead of schedule ; the East Indian 
deliveries were nearly 4 months ahead, and the 
Hawaiian 3 months behind schedule. When a steamer 
arrived in this country from Singapore, in the East 
Indian region, the chart made it evident that she should 
be allocated to the Australian or Hawaiian trade in- 
stead of being sent back to Singapore. 

The line showing totals at the top of this chart ad- 
vised those in charge of the allocation of ships whether 
or not they could turn over more ships to the army for 
the transportation of troops and supplies. It showed 
how well their handling of the vessels controlled by the 
Shipping Board met the import requirements. A sin- 
gle line measured the service rendered by the entire 
American Merchant Marine. 

These charts as used in the Shipping Board showed 
the facts clearly and assembled those facts in such a 
way that they pointed to definite action. But at the 
same time they pointed clearly to the responsibility for 
lack of action. In September, 1918, the sources of 
information for the charts were shut off. 



CHAPTER X 

CONCLUSION 

Facts in Their Relation to Time 

The Gantt chart shows facts in their relation to time, 
emphasizing their movement through time, and there- 
fore compels a man to take action based on the facts 
shown just as if he were responding to a force of mo- 
tion. 

The use of Gantt charts makes it necessary to have 
a plan; they compare what is done with what was 
planned; they show the reasons why performance falls 
short of the plan ; they fix responsibility for the success 
or failure of a plan ; they are remarkably compact ; they 
are easy to draw and easy to read; they visualize the 
passing of time, and therefore help to reduce idleness 
and waste of time; they measure the momentum of in- 
dustry. 

Uses of the Various Gantt Charts 

The Layout Chart helps to plan work so as to make 
the best possible use of the available men and machines 
and also so to arrange orders as to secure whatever de- 
liveries may be desired within the capacity of the plant. 
The Load Chart keeps executives advised as to the 
amount of work ahead of the plant and enables them 
to co-ordinate workmen, equipment, processes, orders, 
and prices. The Progress Chart helps to get work done 
by showing a comparison of what is done with what 

137 



138 THE GANTT CHART 

should have been done and enables the executive to fore- 
see future happenings with considerable accuracy. It 
shows the effect of past decisions and points out the 
action which should be taken in the future. 

The Man and Machine Record Charts show whether 
management is good or bad : 

1. Are the machines being run all day? 

2. Are the men doing a full day's work? 

3. If not, what are the reasons? 

The answers to these questions are the ultimate facts 
in regard to the management of any manufacturing 
plant. If the men and machines are doing a full day's 
work, it is obvious that all the other details in the man- 
agement of the plant are being taken care of on time. 
Shop orders, production cards, layout charts, and 
reports of all kinds are merely a part of the mecha- 
nism which leads up to or follows the Man and 
Machine Record Charts. They measure the service 
rendered by the workman, the foreman, and the manage- 
ment. 

Each day when a man fails to do a fair day's work 
the reason is shown on a Man Record Chart. If that 
failure is due to absence, slowness, or avoidable mistakes, 
it is the fault of the workman, but if his failure is due 
to lack of instruction, to tool troubles, or to a machine 
in need of repairs, the fault is with the management. 
This chart, therefore, measures the service rendered by 
the individual workman and also the use the manage- 
ment makes of his service. The Machine Record Chart 
measures the ability of the management to make satis- 
factory use of the equipment at its disposal. The 



CONCLUSION 139 

Progress Chart shows how well the management is or- 
ganized to get work done. 

General Benefits of Gantt Charts 

In the previous chapters Gantt charts have been 
shown as: 

1. A simple and effective method of planning 

work. 

2. A way of presenting facts so that they can be 

easily understood. 

3. A means of eliminating idleness and waste. 

4. A method of getting things done on time. 

But Gantt charts stand for something more than 
that, for where they have been in use for some time one 
will find: 

1. Machines and equipment in good condition. 

2. Floor space arranged for use; neither cluttered 

up with unnecessary things nor arranged for 
appearance only. 

3. Work moving rapidly from one operation to 

another without confusion. 

4. Large reductions in inventories of raw mate- 

rials, work in process, and finished goods, be- 
cause of the shortening of manufacturing 
time. 

5. Increased production not through speeding up 

workmen but by removing the obstacles which 
prevent them from doing their best. 

6. Reduced costs, because of the elimination of 

idleness and waste as well as improvements in 
processes. 



140 THE GANTT CHART 

7. Men in subordinate positions willing to shoulder 

responsibility instead of "passing the buck," 
because they have definite duties and clear-cut 
jobs. 

8. Courage and initiative stimulated, because men 

know they will get fair play. 

9. No favoritism or special privilege, because 

every man's record can be seen by others. 

10. Satisfied workmen, because the delays over 

which they have no control are few and they 
are left free to do a full day's work and there- 
fore earn better wages. 

11. Poor workmen trained and developed until they 

make good. 

12. Promotions going to men who know their jobs 

and, therefore, an organization being built up 
of men who "know what to do and how to do 
it." 

13. Men interested in their work, not only because 

of the wages but because they have an oppor- 
tunity to increase their knowledge and im- 
prove their skill. 

Seeing such changes take place in one plant after 
another, watching arbitrary management become demo- 
cratic and finding workmen not only interested in their 
work but proud of it, strengthens the conviction that 
the Gantt chart is the most notable contribution to the 
art of management made in this generation. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX A 
HOW A MANAGER USES GANTT CHARTS 

By Frank W. Trabold 

Many years' experience as an executive in an industrial plant 
during which time I operated both with and without production and 
control charts convinces me that any executive operating without 
control charts of some satisfactory character in any plant that is 
more than a one-man proposition must of necessity be woefully 
ignorant of the actual conditions surrounding the work over which 
he has supervision. An executive without control charts can have 
but little idea of the potentialities in either sales or production, 
and when his operations show a profit it is usually because he is 
lucky enough to be in an industry where competition is not keen or 
to have an organization of subordinates of unusual ability. 

Such a position is at best hazardous and a reliance on good luck 
may be disastrous. Eventually competition stiffens, and men are 
lost through one reason or another. A change in the financial con- 
trol will almost invariably affect such an organization. Consolida- 
tions cause changes in departmental heads and their staffs are 
frequently disorganized, with a resultant chaos which is very diffi- 
cult to correct and the true causes of which it is difficult even to 
discern. Where no control charts exist, straightening out processes 
are practically fresh starts without the value of previous experience 
being available. 

One frequently hears from operating executives who do not use 
charts and do not "need" them certain comments on the futility of 
"getting in an efficiency man at the cost of several thousand dollars 
who did nothing except show a mass of charts indicating how poorly 
a good business was being run." I must confess that in my early 
days in operating a plant I too scoffed at these specialists whom I 
regarded as charlatans who through claims of superior knowledge 
drew down big, fat fees and went their way to the next gullible 

143 



144 APPENDIX 

owner who would take them on long enough to find out he must 
finally place his dependence on his "tried and true" crew. Now, 
however, I know from experience that just as there are good and 
poor tool-makers, good and poor stenographers, good and poor 
foremen, good and poor floor-sweepers, and good and poor policies 
inaugurated by the high officials, so there are good and poor men 
engaged in the installation of production and control systems. 
Moreover, I know from years of operation, first with an entire 
absence of charts and then with a fairly good assortment of charts, 
that I would never again even hope to get along intelligently with- 
out them. 

For years as a sales manager I had to wait every month for the 
report as to what time I could promise delivery, and this statement 
as a rule was not obtainable until about the tenth of the month 
covering conditions in the plant load as of the end of the preceding 
month. Usually accompanying this report would be a caution to 
exercise care in the use of this information, as in the time required 
to make it up conditions had so changed through the receipt of 
orders as to necessitate a further survey of the work ahead in the 
light of any promise which had to be kept. Better to have said the 
report was "no good" or, much better, to have saved the time and 
expense in preparing it at all simply because custom demanded that 
a positive delivery promise be furnished with each estimate given the 
sales department for quotation to customers. Frequently in periods 
of months these estimates averaged some 25 per day. Imagine the 
work involved in surveying the production possibilities of equipment 
25 times per day, and imagine still further the utter lack of de- 
pendability in such promises when this work in a plant containing 
some 200 producing machines of various types was delegated to a 
single individual who besides this "promise" making had many 
other things to do ! Still we went on and profitably, but how 
profitably in comparison with the possibilities can somewhat be 
gaged by the fact that later, during the stress of the war period 
with all its varieties of causes retarding production, the actual pro- 
duction in all departments of the plant in question increased 
materially over pre-war periods. 

The eventual installation of Gantt Load Charts showed always 
and instantly just how many days' work was assigned to each 



HOW A MANAGER USES GANTT CHARTS 145 

machine. If on July 1 a specific class of machine was shown to 
be loaded until September 15, it was obvious that no further work 
could be started until September 16. All orders were charted as 
they came in. By this means we avoided the giving of delivery 
promises out of all reason in comparison with what could be accom- 
plished, nor were we longer subject to a sales department represen- 
tative's inveigling a shop foreman into giving a promise that was 
impossible of performance without setting some other obligation 
aside. It permitted an intelligent promise to be promptly made and 
allowed correspondence, formerly held up for days while "working 
up a promise," to be promptly dispatched. As the charts were 
adjusted each week to cover the manufacturing contingencies con- 
stantly arising, and as blueprints were taken off and furnished 
to those concerned, the entire organization was kept acquainted 
with the current plant condition. 

Furthermore, these charts always showed clearly and unmis- 
takably work on which execution had failed; they made plain what 
classes of equipment were being loaded too far in the future for 
safety ; guided policies as to the wisdom of taking on new customers ; 
showed the expediency of overtime or night shifts; raised the 
question of proper equipment balance; and in case of low loads 
stimulated the sales activity. They also automatically prevented 
the jams which all uncharted shops are continually getting into, 
and by their use work was always charted in accordance with con- 
tract promise. For a given quantity and a given time, the estimated 
production time is charted. When charted the performance is 
gaged, and ordinarily accomplished. 

Within the past year I attended a gathering of department 
heads of a plant in Chicago where a most interesting instance of the 
necessity for chart control developed. A certain forging called a 
"cutter head" had been sold on the basis of delivery of approxi- 
mately 300 per day. The job was easy of accomplishment by the 
forging department, but the contract provided for a machine opera- 
tion, and only through the desire of a conscientious department 
head to seek relief was it disclosed that the machine equipment 
available could produce no more than some 70 per day. For months 
the customer complained, the sales department "kept after" the 
shop, and the shop promised to do better. Of course, it is plain that 



146 APPENDIX 

all the operations should have been investigated in the first instance, 
but they were not. If charting had prevailed in this plant, the 
inability to meet the service required would have been apparent 
before starting the job, merely through the plain fact that 300 
could not be squeezed into a 70 line. 

My first real respect for outside chart men was born when it 
was proved to me beyond a doubt that the idleness of the equipment 
in a plant under my supervision was three times as great as I 
believed it to be, and this at a time when work was booked for many 
months ahead of each machine. It was a distinct shock not only to 
find the extent of this idleness but to note the causes shown on the 
chart, most of which could be easily eliminated when known. These 
charts provided an excellent basis for greater productivity of the 
equipment. An account of a few of these causes, with the means of 
correction and consequent elimination of the idleness, will perhaps 
be of interest. 

Every week some new phase of idleness was disclosed by the 
charts and quickly brought under control, whereas until charted it 
had existed for many years unnoticed. I recall an instance when the 
charts showed an excessive amount of idleness due to repairs. An 
investigation showed that these repairs were on pumps on milling 
machines, and when this fact was brought in its magnitude to the 
attention of the superintendent it was quickly corrected by a simple 
mechanical means which practically eliminated the idleness through 
removing the cause. One hundred dollars per week would be a 
modest estimate as the saving in this one case. I have seen idleness 
costing hundreds of dollars per week almost entirely eliminated by 
a foreman who confessed it was "easier to keep the equipment 
going than keep explaining why it was idle." The department of 
which he was the head had for years been the "neck of the bottle," 
in which jams occurred, and which frequently had to go on over- 
time or night shifts to catch up. 

Idleness of machinery of another class to the extent of many 
hours per week was caused by an old rule that the machines must be 
oiled each day before the afternoon shift was started. This work 
took a man about an hour, during which time the machines stood 
idle. The average of half an hour for each of these machines per 
day for this purpose was tolerated for years, and yet the remedy 



HOW A MANAGER USES GANTT CHARTS 147 

was simply to shift the lunch period of two men half an hour ahead 
and have this oiling done during the regular lunch shutdown. Of 
course, the original arrangement should never have been made or 
allowed to exist; but it did exist, as did many other things disclosed 
by these charts. 

Among other things I have seen an unusual amount of idleness 
disclosed because of "no help" when discussion with the employ- 
ment manager developed the fact that he relied upon men passing 
the plant and seeing the "Help Wanted" sign, whereas when $3 
was spent in local newspaper advertising it brought many times the 
number of applicants that could be hired. This experience also 
emphasized the necessity for an employment manager versed in 
shop conditions and operations, and showed the necessity for some 
supervision of the employed men, especially the new ones. In a cer- 
tain case an advertisement was inserted for a "broacher" and no 
responses developed. While it was true that what was wanted was 
a man for a broaching machine, the work really called only for a 
careful man who could be instructed properly and sufficiently in 
30 minutes. In another case an advertisement called for "trim- 
mers," when men were wanted for presses for trimming flash from 
forgings. The applicants were wood-trimmers, clothing-makers of 
a branch called "trimmers," trimmers of men's hats, and milliners. 

Beyond the "unearned burden," the expense of idle equipment 
is still more costly and often the pay of the operator goes on just 
the same. If the delay is caused by a repair which can be made in 
an hour, the operator stands around doing nothing. Loss of pos- 
sible profits in the work not performed is another factor making 
for expense of idleness. 

Many machines in shops have a burden rate of several times the 
wage rate for operating them. It seems wise, then, if we consider 
it necessary to put a man on a time-clock schedule in order to see 
that he gets in on time and does not leave until quitting time, that 
we provide a similar means for knowing whether our machines are 
actually operating during the hours the power and supervision ex- 
pense is being borne for their operation. From my own experience 
I know that the installation of idle machine charts provides a 
means of substantially increasing output. 

With the installation of Man Record Charts I have found that 



148 APPENDIX 

some men who for years had reputations as stars really proved such, 
but others with similar reputations consistently failed to approach 
the standards set. On the other hand, men who for years were 
unnoticed and had passed as ordinary workmen proved exceptional 
in consistently high production performance. In too many manufac- 
turing departments, as in other branches of business, the "good 
fellows" get the high rates, and this morale-disturbing practice goes 
on until some means is provided for measuring ability. Men who 
know themselves to be producing more each day than a fellow- 
worker who is getting a higher rate soon become disgruntled, and 
develop a grouch against the foreman for playing favorites and 
against the company for retaining the foreman. On the other 
hand, the fellow getting the high rate has little respect either for 
the foreman or the company because he knows he is "putting some- 
thing over." No one gains, everyone loses, because there exists no 
means of knowing exactly how the various men measure up. 

Piece work is somewhat different, but here also one finds much 
complaint because of certain favorites getting the best jobs. Load 
charts laid out, with each job to be done in its proper turn, elimi- 
nate the practice of favoritism; unless, indeed, the charts are dis- 
regarded by the foreman, in which case evasion of the proper 
sequence of jobs is quickly noticeable. 

Charts of this general character lighten materially the load on 
an executive, in that after the work is charted only such items as 
fail to come through on time or fail to measure up to standard 
require attention. Without charts an executive must necessarily be 
moving about, incessantly watching everything in order to catch 
the few items requiring attention, the result being a general and 
constant supervision rather than an application of corrective work 
just where it is needed. 

Charts remove much friction between the sales force and the 
shop, as by means of charts responsibility is quickly and justly 
placed and broken promises are quickly brought to light. The men 
are greatly influenced by the mere existence of these charts. The old 
methods of awaiting the arrival of costs to show a loss on account 
of poor production, the investigation of which seldom does any 
substantial good because of the long-elapsed period between its 
execution and the discovery of failure, should in these days be 



HOW A MANAGER USES GANTT CHARTS 149 

entirely done away with, and that shop is indeed unfortunate which 
continues to operate in the old way. 

I have frequently seen charts bring up an average accomplish- 
ment to a standard previously thought impossible and within a 
comparatively short time justify an intelligent raising of the 
standard without creating any friction. Charts viewed daily admit 
of an examination of the entire operation ; absence of charts permits 
an observation of just that proportion of the operation which an 
executive can keep actual watch over. Without charts an executive 
is utterly helpless and at the mercy of those on whom he depends 
for his departmental work. On the other hand, a daily supervision 
of the charts, with proper action taken on the necessities for action 
thus disclosed, will automatically insure a proper operating state- 
ment. If charts are used the arrival of the operating statement 
need not be anticipated with alarm. 



VALUE OF MATHEMAT- 
ICAL THINKING 
The Exact Measurement- 
of Facts 



PRODUCTION 
The Result of Universal and Cooperative Labor 



MOMENTUM TIME RATE 
The Sum-Total of Past- 
Achievements F9rming the 
Heritage of Civil igat ion. 



PROGRESS TIME RATE 
The Cooperative Use of Past 
and Present Achievements 
in Industry 




HUMAN WORK 

Time-rate the basic Characteristic 



PAST 

Shown on Machine 
Record Charts 



FUTURE 

Shown on Progress 
and Layout Charts 



MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN WORK 
Only Correctly Expressed in Units of Time 



FIGURE 43. GRAPHIC BRIEF OF DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT 
MATTER IN "THE MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN WORK" 



150 



APPENDIX B 

THE MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN WORK 

By Walter N. Polakov 

The fundamental distinction between arts and sciences is that 
the latter are evolved from sharp, complete, and precise definitions 
of phenomena and their relations, while arts are based chiefly on 
"senses" not capable of precise definition. Science therefore per- 
mits exact measurement of what we call "facts," whereas in the 
arts the correctness of a didactic conclusion depends on the quality 
of thinking employed, and it may be accepted as correct only when 
it is arrived at by a strictly mathematical method of reasoning. 

In the field of engineering this distinction is rather astonishing. 
Engineering has been defined as the science and art of directing the 
sources of power in nature for the use and well-being of mankind. 
Those branches which have been studied with the aid of mathematics 
have become branches of applied science; for instance, mechanical 
and electrical engineering, chemistry, etc. However, in that branch 
of engineering which deals with human forces, known as "manage- 
ment engineering," there has been until recently an almost complete 
absence of mathematical thinking, with the result that, instead of 
accurate measurement, we find vagueness, inadequacy, and looseness 
of reasoning. 

The recent movement known as "scientific management" claims 
at least one characteristic of the scientific method that of measure- 
ment with an accuracy and completeness unknown in industry even 
a score of years ago. Let us inquire into the methods and more par- 
ticularly the units of measurement employed. 

In the foreword to F. W. Taylor's "Shop Management," Henry 
R. Towne states: 

The monogram of our national initials, which is the symbol for 
our monetary unit, the dollar, is almost as frequently conjoined 
to the figures of an engineer's calculations as are the symbols 

151 



152 APPENDIX 

indicating feet, minutes, pounds or gallons. The final issue . . . 
resolves itself into a question of dollars and cents . . . The 
dollar is the final term in almost every equation which arises in the 
practice of engineering . . . 

and finally he remarks: 

I avail of these quotations to emphasize the fact that 
industrial engineering, of which shop management is an integral 
and vital part, implies not merely the making of a given product, 
but the making of that product at the lowest cost consistent 
with the maintenance of the intended standard of quality. 

Stated in the words of another engineer, H. L. Gantt : 

The aim of our efficiency has not been to produce goods, but 
to harvest dollars. . . . The production of goods was always 
secondary to the securing of dollars. 

The dollar has been used improperly as the unit for measuring 
production. It cannot measure human work for two reasons : First, 
because its magnitude is variable. It diminishes in value as the 
productivity per hour of human work increases. The cost of living, 
as expressed in terms of money, has increased throughout the 
history of economic development. Second, the dollar does not imply 
time. A man working for a dollar per hour may produce more or 
less during that hour, and a man working for a dollar per piece 
may produce a piece in more or less time than an hour. 

Whether the unit is suitable for measurement, clearly depends 
upon whether or not it is of the same dimensionality as the quantity 
to be measured. This is the core of our inquiry. If we are examin- 
ing lines we measure them in lineal units (inches, feet, yards, miles, 
etc.) ; if we are concerned with surfaces, we use square units 
(square inches, square yards, acres, etc.). What are we dealing 
with in production or, stated more accurately, what is the common 
attribute or characteristic of production which is necessary and 
sufficient to distinguish it from any other activity, and how can 
it be measured? In other words, what is the dimensionality of 
production? Upon the correct answer to this question depends 
the selection of the proper unit for measuring production. 

Production may be defined as human work organized on the 
co-operation of living and dead men for the conscious purpose of 



THE MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN WORK 153 

changing the form of matter or the direction or character of force. 
The outstanding factor in production is human work. That dis- 
tinguishes production from any other activity. It is human, and 
therefore, a logarithmic function of time which defines the human 
dimension. It is also work. A definition of work is given by 
R. H. Smith, Professor Emeritus of Birmingham University: 

Force itself is a time rate, namely, that of transference of 
momentum; and thus work done, which is of the same dimension 
as energy, is 

Momentum 

X Distance 

Time 

To take a concrete example : The momentum of a locomotive 
divided by time gives its rate per hour, but it must cover distance 
before it becomes work. 

What is meant by the phrase in our definition of production 
"co-operation of living and dead men?" Living men apply their 
knowledge and energy to work, but by far the greater part of their 
knowledge has not originated with them. It has been handed down 
from men who lived long ago. The machines or tools which living 
men use have been invented, designed, and even built largely by 
men who are no longer living. The construction of a locomotive, 
for instance, involves the work of geometricians back to Euclid, of 
the philosophers who created calculus, of chemists, metallurgists, 
and so forth. In fact, a great deal more has been done toward 
building a locomotive before the living man begins work on the 
first piece of steel that goes into it than is done during its actual 
construction. 

This co-operation of living and dead men creates all our ma- 
terial, intellectual, and spiritual wealth. Before we begin any work 
we have at our disposal sciences, knowledge, machinery, materials, 
ideals, methods all created and handed down by those who worked 
before us. It is our part to bring to the work our energy and 
the ability to co-ordinate and apply what we have received from 
preceding generations and thus by means of our time-binding energy 
to create further material, intellectual, and spiritual wealth. 

It is apparent, then, that the human work done is a product 
of two time rates: one the momentum of civilization, transferred 



154 APPENDIX 

from generation to generation, where the time element appears as 
an exponent; another the velocity or motion time rate of contempo- 
rary human beings performing the work. Inasmuch as during the 
life of an individual, even from day to day, a progress of accumula- 
tion of experience, knowledge, skill, etc., is being made, the rate of 
progress is also an exponential function of time. 

Coming back to our definition of production as human work or- 
ganized on the co-operation of living and dead men for the conscious 
purpose of changing the form of matter or the direction or character 
of force, this sharply distinguishes production from animal . effort, 
physical occurrence, individual discovery, disorganized conflicting 
effort, or activity independent of results accomplished by past 
generations of men. In the light of this definition and its signifi- 
cant limitations let us again ask the question: What is the dimen- 
sionality of production? The answer is now obvious: It is time. 
Time is the attribute or characteristic which is present in all pro- 
duction in industry and is susceptible to uniform measurement. The 
inappropriateness of the dollar as a unit of measure is again con- 
firmed. The blunder of confusing dimensions and expressing time 
in such units as weight, length, volume, etc., is likewise evident. 
None of these are of the same dimension as the quantity measured 
and therefore they cannot express the effect of the utilization of 
knowledge, experience, and co-operative effort for the well-being 
of man. 

In nature it does not matter how long it takes to convert a mass 
of ferns into anthracite, or how much time elapses while the mighty 
river digs its bed ; but for man, conscious of time and limited to the 
length of time he can live, it makes a cardinal difference how long 
it takes to accomplish a piece of work. Again quoting Professor 
Smith : 

The life of man and of generations of men is short, and ever 
since we emerged from the luxuries of the Euphrates Valley and 
more especially since we created the United States of America, 
the time element has been the chief domineering factor in indus- 
trial and commercial life. 

Time being the specific dimension of man and of production, 
the units of time are thus the only units by which production can be 
measured. Any theory in regard to mankind in which time is con- 



THE MEASUREMENT OP HUMAN WORK 155 

sidered of no consequence is utterly useless in our practical life or 
industrial world. In considering transportation we deal in miles 
per hour; in power production we reckon with pounds of steam per 
hour or kilowatts per hour; in production we deal with output per 
hour. 

The practical task of controlling production must of necessity 
begin with measurement and, to be correct, measurements must be 
made in the proper dimension. It would be a grave blunder to apply 
a unit of one dimension to an entirely different dimension or to use 
a measurement which contains a variable element. We cannot use 
for measuring human work the units of mechanical power such 
as foot-pounds or horse-power which embrace only the muscular 
work of men, even though these expressions contain the time rate, 
for it would be a confusion of part with the whole. The time rate 
of man's work is the only measure of production which is of the 
same dimensionality as the energy causing it and it is as constant 
as the solar system itself. 

The Gantt graphic method of controlling production, that is, 
the management of human work, is the only method ever presented 
which is based on a correct unit of measurement. The productive 
time rate is a prerequisite in the use of the Gantt methods. In the 
instructions for the use of Gantt charts in the Ordnance Depart- 
ment, United States Army, the first caption reads : 

TIME; THE ONE CONSTANT Is TIME 

The amount to be done in the time unit is always represented 
by the same length of line. Any chart may, therefore, have many 
scales on it. 

Since time may be spent for different purposes and the amounts 
of work that can be done in a unit of time may differ of neces- 
sity, the scales may be as varied as are the human activities them- 
selves, but we cannot conceive human activity without or beyond 
time. 

Time in its relation to our existence is divided into present, past, 
and future. Consciously or unconsciously, Gantt developed his 
mechanism of production control so as to enable us to visualize the 
use made of time in its present, past, and future aspects. Hence 
we have three fundamental managerial problems visualized in 



156 APPENDIX 

three forms of charts : applied to the present or to current work 
Man Record Charts; referred to work done in the past Machine 
Record Charts; and finally, projected to future work Progress 
Charts with their schedules laid out on the time scale of future 
requirements. 

During the time devoted to productive work there is a variable 
amount of work done, and this is what is shown on the Man Record 
Chart, but this work is performed and directed by men. "To feel 
the lure of perfection," says Professor C. J. Keyser, "in one or 
more types of excellence, however lowly, is to be human; not to 
feel it is to be sub-human." And a chart of this kind involves that 
ideal of service. It shows what is expected to be accomplished 
within the work time for any occupation, however lowly. 

In such a chart this ever-striving impulse of self-expression in 
service which throbs in every human being is given adequate expres- 
sion and stimulus. It is accomplished by predetermining the ideal, 
however modest, which is accepted by a man as within his power 
of attainment. Then, and only then, can the lines of attainment 
be drawn from day to day to denote the falling short of the aim or 
equaling and even surpassing it, as the obstacles of inertia, ignor- 
ance, or lack of co-ordination are overcome by the strongest of all 
human propensities the desire to excel oneself. This type of 
chart can truthfully be called a tool for humanizing industry, for 
it not only reveals to a man his own dignity and capacity as a 
creator, but subtly, though persistently, calls for co-operation be- 
tween the workers with brain and brawn. It tells what each of us 
and all of us are doing at present. 

The Machine Record Chart reveals to one who reads between 
the lines much more than merely the time a certain machine was 
idle. Its scale is also time, but the time during which a machine 
remains unproductive has a graver significance than a reminder 
that "time is money." It means that someone, who should have 
operated it or supervised its operation, did no work and the time 
of inventing, developing, and building this machine, which is 
greater in its productive significance than the time of the operator, 
is irretrievably lost. 

Likewise, the Material Utilization Chart (like that of fuel utili- 
zation developed by the author) indicating the waste of material 



THE MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN WORK 15? 

or energy, has a deeper meaning. 1 It shows the extent to which the 
work of other men in recovering, preparing, and delivering this 
material or energy has been destroyed. It means that the work of 
hosts of other men has been rendered useless and their productive 
time forever lost. This type of chart gives us the measure of our 
utilization of work that has been done before. It proves whether 
we are worthy of our inheritance from the past. 

Lastly, the Progress Chart integrates all elements of work. 
It sums up the progress made, its acceleration, its retardation, its 
time rate. Like other charts, it brings together the ideal and the 
fact. Its ideal projects into the future and sets before us the task 
which we are called on to perform, no matter how small or how 
great it may be whether filling an order in a shop, feeding a 
nation, or advancing the life and happiness of mankind. It calls 
for a plan and vision of the future. It is based on knowledge of 
the past and it reveals our position at present. 

This time concept in the control of industry, direction of pro- 
duction, and measurement of human work thus stands revealed as the 
wished-for solution, free from error of confused types and dimen- 
sions. It refers all facts to the irreducible and final element of 
human life time. Because it is true to the human dimension, it 
is both human and humane; hence it obliterates conflicts between 
men and management, promotes the fullest exercise of man's creative 
forces, and places work in its proper relation to life. 

I See Walter N. Polakor, "Mastering Power Production," Engineering Magazine 
Co., 1921. 




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