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PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID
All rights reserved
MICHAELMAS DAISY. TRITOMA. CLEMATIS.
NA CAV.YC; rox, CAXTERBVR v.
Mrs C. W. EARLE
E. V. B.
by JLJ. v . ju. * %> *f
AUTUMN ? ROSE KINGSLEY
WINTER fyOeHon VICARY GIBBS
NEW YORK: E. P. BUTTON fcf COMPANY
" A Horn / Whoever you are, come travel with me !
Travelling 'with me you find ivhat never tires.
The earth never tires,
The earth is rude, silent, incomprehensible at first,
Nature is rude and incomprehensible at first,
Be not discouraged, keep on, there are divine things well enveloped,
I swear to you there are divine things more beautiful than words can tell"
THE wealth of garden books given us during the last
years might make it seem unnecessary to add to their
number. But it is hoped that these writings on Garden
Colour may prove useful to the inexperienced, or to those who,
newly in possession of a garden, suddenly awake to its possible
delights, and desire to attain the ideal so well expressed by Lord
Bacon that, " in the Royal ordering of gardens, there ought to
be gardens for all months of the year in which severally things
of beauty may be in season." Another early writer, who speaks
of " painting a field with beautiful objects like colours upon a
canvas," well describes the further object of this book, which is
to illustrate the value of artistic massing of colour and skilful
grouping of one variety of plant, and to suggest an ideal for the
garden lover of to-day pictures in flowers changing from day
to day and month to month.
Various modern garden writers have, with much knowledge
and skill, already laid stress on the importance of colour-effect
in our gardens suggestions which many have been able to
adopt ; but there are those to whom these word pictures
convey but little help owing to their limited knowledge of
flowers and the effect produced by them. To them this book is
offered with the hope that the addition of sketches in colour to the
writings of the well-known authorities who have kindly helped
me may be of real practical assistance. The pictures give
examples of successful results already obtained by more experi-
enced gardeners, and should be suggestive of countless others.
Fortunately this grouping for colour-effect is irrespective of the
size of the garden ; most of the illustrations have been painted
from our own or other small gardens, giving effects which are
within the reach of many.
Cottage gardens show us what admirable results can be
achieved on a small plot of ground with simple flowers
results which grander gardens often fail to attain : the latter
often suffer in general effect from a too great variety of
plants, and a too widespread diffusion, or from an attempt
to grow interesting plants not suited to the soil. Want of
opportunity for procuring a great variety of plants, or a slender
purse, obliges the cottage gardener, unintentionally perhaps, to
produce his effect by one flower at a time. This special charm
of the cottage garden is finely expressed by Lord Tennyson :
" One look'd all rose tree, and another wore
A close-set robe of jasmine sown with stars :
This had a rosy sea of gillyflowers
About it ; this a milky way on earth,
Like visions in the Northern dreamer's heavens,
A lily avenue climbing to the doors ;
One, almost to the martin-haunted eaves,
A summer burial deep in hollyhocks ;
Each its own charm."
Perhaps the truth that simplicity gives strength of effect, and
that selection and concentration are the two essential principles
if the garden is to be rich in flower pictures all the year round,
could hardly be better illustrated.
It only remains for me to express my gratitude to the
writers who have kindly contributed valuable articles to my
book, also to those who have so courteously allowed me to
paint in their gardens, and to Mr Robinson, whose books first
fired me with enthusiasm for this form of gardening.
MARGARET H. WATERFIELD.
SPRING. By Maria Theresa Earle , . . i
FEBRUARY. By Margaret Waterfield . .* . 18
MARCH. ... 22
APRIL. ... 29
SUMMER. By E. V. B. . . . . 57
JUNE. By Margaret Waterfield . . . 72
PEONIES. By W. Richmond Powell . . . 83
CLIMBING ROSES. By Helen Crofton . . , 88
JULY. By Margaret Waterfield ... 93
CULTURE OF ROSES. By George Mount . . 102
AUGUST. By Margaret Waterfield . . . 117
AUTUMN. By Rose G. Kings ley . . . . 127
SEPTEMBER. By Margaret Waterfield . . .142
OCTOBER. . 15 *
WINTER. By the Hon. Vicary Gibbs . . . 161
Michaelmas Daisy. Tritoma. Clematis
Crown Imperials .
Iris Reticulata and Crocus
Anemone Blanda. Daffodil Cernuus
Daffodils and Forget-me-nots
Bourne Park, Canterbury
Pyrus Japonica. Rose Shoots
The Holt, Harrow, Weald
Magnolia Conspicua. Jonquil
Garden House, Salt-wood, Kent
Cytisus. Solanum. Tulip
The Holt, Harrow, Weald
May Tulips . . . . V 46
Pink May Tulips . . . .48
Home Farm, Bundling.
Bluebell and Pheasant-eye Narcissus . . 48
Peony . . . .50
Purple Iris. Welsh Poppy. Columbine . . 54
Arum Lilies . . . . 56
Madonna Lily. Delphinium . . .62
Sweet Rocket . . . .74
Iris and Roses . . . .76
Iris Orientalis. Spiraa. Day Lily . . 76
R.H.S. Garden, Wisley
Tree Lupin. Iris. Broom . . .78
R.H.S. Garden, Wisley
Oriental Poppy and Lupin . . .78
Valerian . . . .80
Old Dover House, Canterbury
Giant Parsnip . . . .82
Chartham Rectory, Kent
Delphinium and Giant Parsnip . . .82
Delphinium. Lily. Pppy 9^
Cluster Rose . . . ..96
Cluster Rose . . . .98
Skarsted Court, Sittingbourne
Foxgloves. Rose Euphrosyne . . . IOO
Milton Court, Dorking
Rose Garden . . . : . IO2
Lilium Szovitzianum . . Io6
R.H.S. Garden, Wisley
Lily and Vine Pergola . . . Io8
Milton Court, Dorking
Water Lilies . . . . Io8
R.H.S. Garden, Wisley
Japanese Iris . . . . I Io
R.H.S. Garden, Wisley
Border of Annuals . . . .112
Milton Court, Dorking
Clematis Perk d* Azure and Caroline Testout Rose . . Il8
Tucca and Pampas . . . I2O
Chilham Castle, Canterbury
Tropaolum Speciosum . . .120
Hollyhock . . 122
Milton Court, Dorking
Tritoma . . . .124
Hyacinthus Candicans. Gladiolus . . 126
Michaelmas Daisy . . . 1 2O
Milton Court, Dorking
Aster Sinensis and Clematis . . .142
Cyclamen Neapolitanum . . .144
Anemone Japonica. Autumn Crocus. Erigeron . 146
Amaryllis Belladonna and Zephyranthes . .148
Vine. Plumbago. Cobtta Scandens . . 152
Bocconia and Michaelmas Daisies . \ CA
The Holt, Harrow, Weald
Olive and Roses . . . .158
''And the Spring arose on the garden fair,
Like the Spirit of Love felt everywhere ;
And each flower and herb on Earth's dark breast
Rose from the dreams of its wintry rest.
The snowdrop, and then the violet,
Arose from the ground with warm rain wet,
And their breath was mix'd with fresh odour, sent
From the turf, like the voice and the instrument"
YOU ask me to write about Spring and Spring gardens. Spring.
What a worn-out subject, and how old ! And yet, Renewal
although some of us may not realise it, how eternally o f Hope
new even to those near the end of life, who have seen many,
many Springs, and watched the awakening of the earth year
If it is a saddening season for the old, and perhaps now
and then even for the young, this renewal of hope ; for the
gardener, at any rate, it is a happy time, full of fruition, the
reward of past thought and work. For, as the Dutch raise
gardens from heaps of sand, and cities out of the bosom of the
waters, so our spring gardens are in great part the result of our
autumn labours, thought, work, and money spent. How rare
in England, and how appreciated, is a really beautiful Spring
such as we were blessed with in 1904. Slow and sure, full of
promise, developing gradually with very few prematurely warm
days and yet no severe checks. There were no dangerously
cruel hard frosty nights such as make one turn in one's bed
and long to rush out and quickly cover some early Camellia in
flower, or protect the fat buds of a tree Peony, just as one
would seize with warm hands the pink feet of some precious
baby, if they were cold. The nights should be just cool
enough to keep things back, as says the old French proverb,
"The prettiest April wears a wreath of Frost." Then the
velvety buds open safely and slowly. Ordinary people com-
plain, but the cautious gardener says approvingly : " It's a
backward Spring." There have only been a few days, balmy
and divine like the spring of the poets.
Even in towns every one appreciates the first change
when January days begin to lengthen, and the first really fine
The afternoon comes towards the end of the month. In the country
January Nature seems to make a great bound forward towards light and
Flower hope. All the months are busy to the gardener, but January is
Shows particularly so. There are the seeds to order and the hot-beds
to make up, so much re-potting to be done. The C annas, which
have been dried off under bushes after the first frost, and stored
in a cellar, have to be brought up and potted up, only allowing
one shoot in each pot. This makes them grow and flower out
of doors much better than putting two or three shoots into a pot.
If this potting up is postponed they come to perfection too late.
All gardening means looking forward, imagining what is not,
and at the end of January the first real sign of autumn planting
shows itself. The straight spears of the Snowdrops and the cool
glaucus green leaves of the Daffodil pierce the brown earth.
The colour of the Narcissus leaves is not only beautiful in itself,
but strongly suggestive of water, and certainly constitutes a
most delicious ground-work for the bright yellow of the
In England, where the progress of early Spring is so slow,
I think it is an instructive joy to go and meet her in the halls of
the Royal Horticultural Society on dark afternoons in January
and February. There one realises all that can be done under
glass, and how things ought to look when well-grown. It is
never pleasant to acknowledge one's own failures, but it is well
to feel them, and it is a very helpful plan to compare the chronicle
of one's own errors side by side with the brilliant successes seen
at these shows.
So early as the 26th of January this year (iqo4), at one of
these Drill Hall shows, there was a beautiful plant, in a pot, of
Clematis clrrhosa covered with flowers. This excited my admira-
tion, as for years I have had a plant in a pot, and never flowered Spring,
it at all. I cannot think why it is not more grown in cool yet Late
sunny greenhouses, or even with the slight protection of a glass Chrvsan-
verandah, as it is all but hardy round London, and quite so in th emums
Devonshire and Ireland. It comes from North Africa. The
improvement in late flowering Chrysanthemums is marked :
" Winter Green " and " Tramfield Pink " struck me last spring
as especially worth growing for table decoration in January.
Cannell had a really fine show at the end of January of a com-
paratively new plant, which is very effective when massed
together the beautiful blue Coleus Tbersoidens. The only
chance of its living when gathered is to plunge the stalks, the
moment they are picked, into warm water. It is the same with
other varieties of Coleus, and many plants besides : if once they
flag in the least they never recover.
To me the most attractive things in the February shows
were the small half-hardy winter Irises, grown in pans and pots :
L Sindjarensis, with a pretty green foliage ; /. His trio, L Reti-
culata, I. Persica, etc. ; all rather expensive to buy, but the
whole tribe come out beautifully in water if picked in bud a
great merit for those who care to send flowers away. Cutbush's
Highgate Nurseries catalogues and Wallace's, of Colchester, have
long lists of bulbous and tuberous-rooted Irises. How few
people take the trouble to find out the requirements of the hardy
Iris Stylos a, the most beautiful of our winter-flowering plants.
When well established, this Iris flowers unprotected through the
whole winter a precious garden gem.
But while we in towns are talking of shows and the culti-
vation of Spring under glass, in the country her tender feet are
spreading far and wide into the hedgerows, and in the herbaceous
The borders great strong tufts are growing and covering the ground.
February In our warm Surrey soil all this comes to pass early and more
Flower happily than in colder, heavier soils, and the weeds that cause us
Shows so muc h trouble later on are very beautiful in early Spring. The
only thing which makes spring gardening really ugly, I think,
is when bulbs are grown out of clean, bare, well-weeded beds.
My garden, generally speaking, looks brown and colourless
in early Spring. The large trees are too close together to stretch
their brown arms handsomely against the pale sky, though their
edges shiver in the wind. One piece of spring gardening I have
which gives me great pleasure year by year. It is a broad grass
border by the side of a gravel path under these self-same trees,
most of them tall Spanish chestnut. From February to May it
is really a pretty sight. Snowdrops there are to begin with, but
they never grow luxuriantly in our soil. At the bottom of this
green border, where the path turns and the long sweep of grass
catches the Eastern sunshine, there is a very good Crocus effect.
First, yellow Crocuses all in a mass coming through the brown
fronds of dead ferns ; then a shady place with Dog-tooth Violets
and Daffodils, that come later in the year ; then a mass of the
dark purple Crocus, fading away into a mass of pale grey ones
slightly striped ; round a corner, some more yellow ones, into
which now and then appears, as a wanderer, a lilac or a white
bunch with five or six flowers. The procession ends with a
quantity of pure white Crocus. The yellow ones are perhaps
the least pretty in the grass, but one loves them as they come
out the first ; and in the ferns and grass, curiously enough, the
sparrows leave them alone, though they attack them savagely in
bare beds. Jack Frost's icy fingers do not turn the rims of the
purple ones white under the protection of the trees, as they do
in the open. When first I planted this Crocus walk, some years Spring,
ago, I put in 500 of each sort at the same time. It seemed Crocuses in
rather extravagant when I did it, but it has quite answered, and Grass
turned out a most satisfactory piece of planting. All grass where
bulbs are planted wants mowing twice a year, in July and
October. This last is most important, and facilitates spring
growing; and when the leaves are swept up in November, a
sprinkle of fresh earth and leaf mould does good supplying
what you take away.
To go back to the succession under the trees facing north-
west, and getting little sun all the spring-time. After the Snow-
drops come the first early wild Daffodils or Lent- Lilies, then Dog-
tooth Violets, white and purple ; and though liliaceous bulbs,
they have stood the dryness well, being quite shaded all the
summer. The beautiful North American kinds, which do so
well in damp woods, I have not ventured on, as they want more
moisture than I can give them. All the plants and bulbs in this
spring grass border are planted in masses and clumps, in imitation
of Nature growing together, and yet without formality, one
kind spreading more or less into the next group. I have also
some Corydalls, or bulbous Fumitory^ with lovely fresh leaves
and dull purplish flowers, as well as a good white variety. All
these flower very early, protected by trees from wind and night
frosts, and they are most precious. Primroses, wild Violets, and
wood Hyacinths are all planted in the same place. Later, round
the beautiful stems of the Chestnut trees, comes the prettiest sight
of all the hardy Anemones. The loveliest, perhaps, are A.
blanda, A. apennina^ which flower a little later, and our single
wood Anemone and the old double kind, A. nemorosa fl. pl.^
white as driven snow. In the shade, too, flourishes the pretty
Some sweet wild Woodruff, with its whorled leaves and its miniature
Spring white flowers. I have failed utterly to grow any of the wild
Flowers O rcn ids : the dryness in summer kills them. Solomon's Seal does
well. It seems a pity that on rockeries or in small beds in sunny
places the type Crocus' are so seldom grown. The yellow Crocus
Vernus is a perfect flower, the shape far more beautiful than that
of any garden kind. The back of the graceful cup is striped
with a series of dark-brown lines, which must not be mistaken for
veins : they seem to be only for ornament. At Kew one year
I saw several of these type Crocuses C. Etruscus, C. Biflorus,
C. Chrysanthus, C. White Tuscany, C. Susianus, Both the
orange and bronzed Susianus flower very early, are importations
from the Crimea, and look very well grown in pots or pans.
In the paper called The Garden, of the 28th of January 1882,
there is an interesting account of the Crocus family.
Somewhat neglected in gardens, but one of the loveliest of
Nature's spring decorations, are the catkin growing plants, begin-
ning with the handsome male plant of the Garry a elliptica, which
in favourable winters is most lovely. In dry, light soils it wants
a good deal of pruning and feeding to make it do well. I have
not succeeded in growing it as a shrub, though it does well so
grown in moist soils.
Hazels, which are so useful as food, are too little grown
and cultivated now in small gardens. Every one knows the
pretty catkins which hang all through the winter, and wave like
fairy flags in the wintry blast, but few notice how the real
flower of the Hazel appears also in an expanded state in Autumn.
The hardy male catkin passes the Winter without external pro-
tection, but the female flowers are tenderly wrapped up within
an enveloping scale. In March the styles lengthen, and though
very small, their lovely crimson colour makes them quite con- Spring,
spicuous for those who look for them. The bracts grow steadily Careful Nut
through the summer, and form envelopes round the nuts, and Cultivation
these envelopes have the shape and often the colour of leaves.
In cultivating Cob-nuts and Filberts for fruit-bearing pur-
poses, it is most essential to keep down suckers, the more tree-
like the plants, the more productive they are ; hence the
importance of removing all plants of any description from the
stem, and latent buds from the base and stems of seedlings.
The height of stem may vary from one foot to six feet. The
trees are classified according to the height of their stems as
standards, half standards, and dwarf standards, the natural or
many stemmed bush being generally termed a nut or filbert
stool. For beauty of growth along wood paths these are much
the prettiest, and if the soil is carefully prepared by trenching
and manuring they do well in almost any soil. A good deep
loam in a rather dry sunny position is what suits the Cob-nuts
best, as it encourages the production of short fruit-bearing wood.
During severe Winters the male blossoms are often injured by
frost. In other seasons and in certain localities, the cultivated
Filbert produces few catkins. In either case, these should be
collected from wild Hazel nuts, and suspended among the better
varieties. When planting, choose well-established suckers, or
layers, four or more years old. Firmly stake them as soon as
planted, and place a spadeful or two of manure on the soil over
the roots. The botanical name for the nut is Corylus, from
Korys, a hood or helmet, in reference to the calyx covering the
nut. This nut cultivation has led me into a long digression,
but I feel sorry to see nut trees so seldom grown with care.
All the Willow tribe have pretty flowers on the bare stems;
An early pussies or palms the children call them ; wild or cultivated they
Flowering- ar e lovely objects. The catkins of the white Poplar are par-
Shrub ticularly showy. A stall at the Horticultural Show one day in
February was entirely devoted to Catkinas and flowers of this
nature, and very interesting and beautiful they were.
A very early flowering-shrub, and one rarely grown, as it
is not showy, is Mtttallta cerasiformis^ a deciduous shrub, a
native of California. It grows anywhere, and is quite hardy.
It can be lifted for early flowering, as can also the Kibes
Sanguineum, and its white variety, which the Mittallia some-
what resembles when in bloom. No garden lover who cares
for individual plants should be without an A%ara microphylla,
a South American shrub, with small, delicate, evergreen foliage,
and quite hardy. I suppose it likes a light sandy soil, as it does
equally well with me on a north wall, and also facing south, as
a bush. Both flourish, and both in spring are covered with
miniature yellow flowers, which grow on the underneath side of
the branches, and are so small they might easily be passed over,
but that for a few days in March they fill the whole air with a
delicious delicate scent exactly like vanilla.
I suppose we all have, in spite of much disappointment and
many fits of depression, moments of pride and pleasure in our gar-
dens ; moments when we long to show them off, these our children
making perhaps a special gardening effect, to some understanding
friend. This comes to me most years when late frosts have not
been severe, and the beautiful Crown Imperials raise their stately
heads in very large clumps. They are strong plants, and are no
doubt able to take care of themselves in some soils and some
climates, but here, in this sandy, dry Surrey, nothing does well
if left really alone. "Wild gardening" as a synonym for
leaving alone, spells failure and deterioration for everything, Spring.
even the common Primroses ! The soil must be renewed every Crown
two or three years, and the greatest difficulty is to know when Imperials
to replant things in a full border. Crown Imperials must be
done in June or July, as, once the bulbs have started into
growth, moving them, as gardeners generally do when digging
up the borders in October and November, is fatal, and results in
a quantity of weak green shoots and no flowers at all. I have
three coloured Crown Imperials the so-called red, which is a
terra-cotta colour ; the pale yellow, and an orange-coloured one
which is less free flowering and comes into bloom a little later
than the others. Mr Robinson's charming new periodical,
" Flora and Silva," which is not nearly well enough known, is
published monthly, with a beautifully reproduced coloured plate,
for the small sum of is. 3d. In the July number of 1903 there
is an article on Fritillaria, and a coloured illustration of
F. Askabadenis^ which I have never seen. Apparently it is only
half hardy, and has to be treated like other spring bulbs potted
up in early Autumn, plunged in the open till well rooted, and then
put in a cool green-house or cold frame, when it will flower early
in the year. The article recommends raising Frltillarias from
seed. This I have never tried.
For a brilliant, showy effect in shrubberies in early Spring,
there is nothing like bold clumps of Honesty, Lunaria biennis ;
but, like the Foxglove, it is one of those biennials which puzzle
amateurs who think that because they have a fine show one
year they will get the same in the next, and this is just what
does not happen. These biennials sow themselves freely, and
all the cultivation necessary is thinning out and transplanting
last year's seedlings to where they are to flower. This can be
Grape done as soon as the autumn weather gets cool and wet, and the
Hyacinths earlier the better. Grape Hyacinths (Muscari) look lovely
and grown on a bank or along a shady hedge, planted thickly and in
Iris Stylosa a ^ ar S e quantity. They appear year after year, probably in
some soils for ever, if not disturbed ; their Crocus-like leaves are
well above the ground in early Autumn.
I find it a great privilege to be near a first-rate nursery like
Mr Barr's at Surbiton, and he is so kind and so willing to teach
the amateur really interested that I learn there a very great deal.
He is most successful with the Iris stylosa, which flower at
Surbiton from December to April, planted right in the open
ground with no sort of protection. They are never moved,
only pieces taken off if he wants to increase them, and mulched
with manure now and then in August when they are forming
their buds deep down among the rushy growth. Being well in
the open, they catch every ray of the low winter sun. Though
so unshowy when growing, is there any winter flower half so
lovely as an Iris stylosa picked in bud, early in the morning,
and joyfully bursting into full bloom in the warm room ? But
to return to the nursery: at perhaps its most glorious time, the
Tulip time in May for the Daffodil season in April is very
attractive, is all more or less of one colour but at the Tulip time,
there are sheets and bands of beautiful pure colour of every
shade and every kind except blue. I have never seen the
famous Tulip acres in Holland, so I know nothing that surpasses
Mr Barr's fields of early and late Tulips. I long to have them
all ; but apart from the question of room in a private garden, there
is the very important consideration of price, and one should order
with care, as many of the cheap Tulips are just as beautiful as
the expensive ones. In Tulip-planting in gardens, there are
many plants besides the Forget-me-nots which help to cover the Spring.
ground : Sax. Wallace* taken up after flowering, and divided Early Tulip
and replanted over Tulips in October, makes a beautiful ground- Effects
work ; so does the double Arabis, Sllene^ Limnanthus
Douglas ii^ Wall-flowers, and many other things. Tulips planted
in groups in full herbaceous borders look very well, and can be
planted so deep that they need not be disturbed. If Tulips are
taken up too early they are little use for the next year. But if
this must be done, then the best way is to take them up and
plunge them at once into pails of water, then plant them in a
trench in half shade that has been well wetted, and leave them
there till the leaves and stalks are quite gone ; then lift them, dry
them in the sun, and plant again in October. For forcing and
table decoration, pink double Tulips are, I think, the best. The
names of a few of the good ones are : Salvator rosa^ Lady
Palmerston, Murillo, Princess Beatrice, Couronne de Roses ; this
has a very fine soft rose-colour when forced. I think quite the most
beautiful early flowering Tulip out of doors is T. Greigii, but it
is a bit difficult ; it wants to be planted deep, and to be left
alone in a warm sheltered place. T. Sylvestris and T. Reflexa
are both lovely in shape. Three very good purple expensive
ones are u Remembrance," " Zephir," and " Valentine." " Mrs
Moon " is a lovely shaped yellow, something like Reflex a, but
later flowering. " Susan " is a lovely Tulip by candle-light.
" Blushing Bride " and " Cottage Maid " are very pretty cheap
Tulips. A double Tulip, called " Yellow Rose," is an excellent
one for planting in grass, or on a slope. Its head is a little
heavy for its stalk, and it gets rain-splashed in the border, but
in the grass it lies smiling upwards, and is very repaying, as it
lasts a long time. In all planting of Tulips with other plants
Difficulties between, they look far better if not planted formally but in
of Spring large and small groups. Laying flat stones on the bed and
Gardening" planting round them is a great help. This is the great difficulty
of all spring planting avoiding formality and getting the right
contrast of colour. To achieve these two things is the great
triumph of Spring Gardening. Tulips do well planted in grass
in moist soils, but that is not the case in light sand.
In Summer nature throws her arms about and plays all sorts
of unexpected and beautiful tricks, but in Spring everything
depends on the imagination of the gardener. Nature brings
forth what you have yourself put in ; she does nothing else for
you. The aim of the horticulturist for large masses of all one
colour and for every bulb to be the same height is, I think, a
mistaken ambition, especially in small and informal gardens.
These should always be an enlargement of the cottage garden,
not an imitation of the stately, formal terraces of large places,
such as figure with magnified dignity and all the exaggerated
perspective of photography in " Country Life."
Once the bulbs are nearly over, and when the tall, single
Cottage Tulips, graceful and varied, reminding one of the em-
broideries of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, are only
straight green seed pods, and the Parrot Tulips bow their heads
and lie down to drop their lovely petals on the ground then
comes a time of rest and dulness difficult to cope with in almost
every garden. Spring is dying, and the lingering cold winds
frighten away the approach of Summer.
The Ranunculus tribe which help to fill the gap are
difficult to grow in light soils. R. amplexicaules, so well
worth growing, has a tiresome way of disappearing. In a
half shady border, full in Autumn of the flowers of the
Japanese Anemones, the roots of which so resent being dis- Spring,
turbed, I grow R. Aconltefolius, with its pretty name of Some of the
" Fair Maids of France," and its single form, which grows by Ranunculus
Swiss mountain streams. R. Acris, the double and single
" Bachelor's Buttons," also survive. With difficulty and care,
and some spring watering, I manage the two commonest varieties
of the Trollius, which are well worth all trouble. First comes
*T. Europtzus, with its almost uniquely globular form, " Globe-
flower" being its well-deserved name. Pale yellow, with its
moonlight hue like the Mimosa, and then a little later
T. Asiaticus^ smaller, with bright orange yellow flowers show-
ing orange red anthers, it seems to flourish better here in my
warm soil than the European variety, in memory, perhaps, of
its warmer home in China and Japan. The difficulties of
growing well so many desirable plants make one often long for
a new garden and another soil, where present failures would
grow abundantly and easily. But this discontent I observe
only grows if yielded to ; a garden here means wishing for a
garden in Cornwall, and a garden in Cornwall means wishing
for one in the South of France. There the wishes wander to
Sicily or North Africa, and so it is best to return to the old
platitude, and be content to fight and conquer one's own
difficulties. There are at least two distinct sorts of modern
gardens : one planted to get good permanent effects three or
four months in the year ; the other to grow as many healthy
plants as possible the whole year round that is my object, and
the reason why my garden is so great a disappointment to many
people. The general effect is often crowded, spotty, and untidy,
but I can pick incessantly without any fear of spoiling a combina-
tion or destroying a contrast that makes a picture while it lasts.
Some of the Whatever we do or do not do, Spring in England must
Ranunculus always be lovely, and we all of us long to share our country
Spring with our town friends. Tennyson's spring invitation to
an old friend in his last volume called Demeter all will be glad
to have recalled :
" Spring flowers while you still delay to take
Your leave of Town,
Our elm-tree's ruddy-hearted blossom-flake
Is fluttering down.
Be truer to your promise. There ! I heard
One cuckoo call.
Be needle to the magnet of your word,
Nor wait, till all
Our vernal bloom from every vale and plain
And garden pass,
And all the gold from each laburnum chain
Drop to the grass.
Is memory with your Marian gone to rest,
Dead with the dead ?
For ere she left us, when we met, you prest
My hand and said :
'I come with your spring flowers.' You came not, friend ;
My birds would sing,
You heard not. Take, then, this spring flower I send,
This song of Spring,
And you that now are lonely, and with Grief
Sit face to face,
Might find a fleeting glimmer of relief
In change of place.
What use to brood ? this mingled life of pains Spring".
And joys to me,
Despite of every Faith and Creed, remains
The silver year should cease to mourn and sigh
Not long to wait
So close are we, dear Mary, you and I
To that dim gate."
The wish to share what we have with those we love
cannot, I think, be more charmingly expressed than is done
in these verses by the poet of the generation now passing
away, the Tennyson we loved in our youth.
MARIA THERESA EARLE.
"Out of the snow the Snowdrops,
Out of Death comes Life."
Heralds of ~^ TRICTLY speaking, February belongs to the Winter
Spring" ^^ months, but when it grants us mild sunny days, and
we feel the life stirring in the garden around us, and
the first flowers begin to bloom, our thoughts turn to the
delights of Spring, looking forward with happy anticipation to
the wonderful succession of beauty which the year is to bring us
in our gardens. We forget for a time that long spells of East
wind are sure to follow, that the moist earth will again be
hard as iron, and all vegetation suspend its growth. This year
the heralds of Spring are later than usual. Anemone Blanda,
which often cheers us early in January by the sight of its bent
stalks and blue tips forcing their way through the ground, now
on February 1 8th is hardly showing. It has been a mild winter
too, only one spell of hard frost which lasted about a week, but
the sun has refused to shine, and rain has fallen almost in-
Snowdrops undoubtedly bring the first real effect of the
year. They are in perfection now in a neighbouring garden,
and seem to have taken entire possession of a wood. There
must be millions of them, single and double, long stalks
holding their graceful bells, and making lovely sheets of
glistening white through the rich warm brown of last year's
leaves. They seem to grow equally well under the fine old
Elms half covered with Ivy, looking almost like gigantic ever- February.
greens, and under the brushwood already warm in tone with Snowdrops
coming life. Sunshine reveals them at their best, the three- an( j Cycla-
petalled bell is then open, displaying the green spotted frill men Coum
inside. The low winter rays turn the grey-green leaves to a
golden green, and transfigure a white that can look almost too
coldly pure We have tried to naturalise them in our wood,
but they will not grow as they do at Bourne Park, only three
miles away, and it is foolish to hope for a real effect if they
refuse to multiply of themselves ; a thousand bulbs planted,
sounds rich in promise but the result is disappointing. They
seem to revel and increase rapidly in a loose soil, rich with
decayed wood and leaf mould and rather damp. My
ambition is to get them established at the foot of a bank
running up a slip of wood of mixed Beech, Elm and Oak, and
lying open to the West. In the dampest part there is also to be
a colony of the Swiss spring Snowflake, with its big round bell
and spots of green outside.
On the bank itself are already Cyclamen Coum^ ranging
from almost white to pink and rosy red. They are in flower
with the Snowdrops, sometimes appearing as early as January,
and make a precious and unusual bit of colour in these winter
months. They last many weeks and stand bad weather well,
reappearing as bright as possible from under a heavy fall of
snow. Their leaves are very dark and round and smooth, with
a rosy-purple underside, and help very much to make the tiny
flowers effective. Their position on the top of the bank seems
to suit them perfectly ; the tubers, throwing up a profusion of
flowers, grow larger each year, and distribute seedlings round
them in a most satisfactory way. To increase the stock it is a
Winter good plan to pick the curled seed vessels when ripe and sow
Aconite them at once in pots, which should be placed in a cold frame ;
and early re Pt them when they have thrown up their first tiny leaves, and
Shrubs k ee P under glass till they are strong enough to be trusted out of
doors. Cyclamen Neapolttanum prospers on the same bank,
forming a pretty contrast to Cyclamen Coum. The leaves are
mottled green and white, very handsomely marked, heart-shaped,
and rather serrated at the edge. Unfortunately, no dainty white
flowers are to be found on it now : this plant divides its
beauties, the flowers being in perfection in the early Autumn,
and the leaves in the Winter and Spring.
Winter Aconite (Erantbis Hyemalis] is another invaluable
plant for this season. It flowers from January to March, and
is easily naturalised in woods or thin grass ; beneath big trees
where even grass will not grow, this tuberous rooted perennial
forms a carpet of yellow under low sweeping boughs. Grown
with Snowdrops it gives beautiful and simple effects of colour
in the wood, but it is as well to keep it away from the neigh-
bourhood of the Cyclamen, as the pink and yellow are too gaudy
a combination and spoil each other. The early Grape Hyacinths,
Muse art Axureum and Heavenly Blue, also look well with
Snowdrops, and are quite hardy.
Two very charming shrubs are in flower now Cbimon-
antbus fragrant and Winter Jasmine Jasminium nudiflorum.
The Chimonanthus needs a South wall, and then from January
to March will bear strange little faintly-coloured flowers close
to the woody stems with a very sweet smell ; they are delicious
for picking, but insignificant on the plant. In a good season
the Jasmine can be counted on for a gay bit of colour all
through the Winter, but this year the frequent rain has never
given it a chance. It is a convenient hardy climber, growing February.
very rapidly, and easily increased by the suckers which form
round the roots of an old plant. It is contented with any
aspect, but is worth granting a share of a Southern wall as it
repays the attention by beginning to flower well in November,
and in the early Spring will cover itself with yellow sprays.
" Often, in sheltering brakes
As one from rest disturb'd in the first hour,
Primrose or violet bewilder'd wakes,
And deems 'tis time to flower ;
Though not a whisper of her voice he hear,
The buried bulb does know
The signals of the year,
And hails far Summer with his lifted spear."
Crocuses \ It ARCH brings us as its first great joy the Crocuses ; a few
in Grass I y I days ago the green tips were hardly visible, now the
sun has forced their hearts open, and the grass is
streaked with their brilliant colour:
"... And winter sped,
Whirled before the Crocus the year's new gold."
The common Crocus lends itself to a great variety of effect
with its rich purples and yellows and delicate mauves and
whites, and will grow in almost any position, semi-shade or
sun, in grass, round trees or shrubs, or in the open borders.
It is not particular about soil but increases fastest in a good
loam with some sand added. Everywhere they are delightful,
but for greatest beauty grow them in the grass, because, having
only insignificant leaves of their own, they look the better
for a background of green. An old orchard near here is one
of the loveliest Spring sights of the year the grass under the
trees transformed into shimmering waves of mauve and white, March.
with Primrose tips which promise a further pleasure, and white Crocus
and purple Violets already opening their fragrant flowers. The Colour
Crocuses look as much at home as the small wild one of the pff ec t
Swiss Alps. There the white one with a deep purple stem is
the commonest, but a few of the mauve are generally inter-
spersed. A little damp seems to suit them, as wherever there is a
dimple on the slope or a terrace shaded by trees, the ground
will be almost as white as if snow were lying.
To obtain the most brilliant effects, plant " Cloth of
Gold " a name which truly describes it or " Cloth of Gold "
mixed with Purpurea grandiflora, making together a truly regal
carpet if planted in large masses. Intermixed too much they are
apt at a distance to give a speckly result. A graduated stream
of white and mauve and purple winding through the grass
and round stems of trees looks beautiful. Mont Blanc, Madame
Mina, and Purpurea grand'tflora may be used if the small
expense of about 2s. a hundred be not a consideration, or cheap
lots can be had at lod. a hundred in separate colours only in
mixed kinds ; but these economies are generally regretted after-
wards. In this way they are used largely in the London parks,
and many more gardens might imitate the plan with great
advantage ; while the beds are still bare, filled with their
dormant plants, there are stretches of grass which should be
made at this time to burst into lovely blossom. The only
penalty attached to this pleasure is that the grass must remain
unmown till May, but that is a small one if the places are
chosen with wisdom. I find a good tool for planting
them is an ordinary weeding spud; a hole about 3 in.
deep is quickly made with it, and a basket of good soil and sand
Iris mixed should be handy ; a pinch must be put under each bulb
Reticulata and a handful on the top, and then the grass be pressed back
into place. In really thick grass a heavy iron bar about
4 ft. 6 in. long, with a blunt point at one end, is a very useful
weapon for putting in bulbs ; if raised a little and then
dropped, its own weight drives it into the ground several inches,
and by a twisting movement the hole is easily made big enough
even for Narcissus bulbs.
Besides these Dutch kinds, which lend themselves so well
to massing, there are many rare kinds flowering earlier, which
must be treated as treasures. By the bestowal of a little care
it is possible to have Crocuses in flower from the end of August
On a warm bank Iris reticulata and Mont Blanc Crocus
are making a charming group, the white throwing up the rich
purple and orange of this Iris. It belongs to the bulbous section
of Irises or Xipbions, and only grows about 10 in. high, but
flowers are so precious in February and March that it is worth
while planting a good big clump of them. The blossoms
last in water a week or ten days, and have the great merit of
being very sweet-scented. For some time it was a disappointing
plant with us, as it flowered only the first year in the borders
and then disappeared, but it seems to appreciate its present
position on a dry bank facing west. For success it must have
good drainage, some sand, plenty of sun, and protection from
slugs. It can be increased from seed, but it takes three years to
form a bulb, and the quicker way is to take the off-sets from
the old bulbs, disturbing them as little as possible, and planting
the babies early in the Autumn. There are other early kinds
which flower at the same time and want a similar treatment ;
IRIS RETICULATA AND CROCUS.
/. bis trio is perhaps the loveliest of all, with bright blue standards, March,
cream falls and blue markings ; /. histrioides also very blue Hepaticas
and /. persica purple scented like Violets. j n "Wood
In some gardens Hepaticas Anemone hepatica are now
a feature, but they do not thrive very well with us. One longs
for them to grow as they do in the Pine forests and low woods
of Switzerland. Under the Pines they do not flower so freely
as in less shady places, but make up for the failure in number
by bearing much larger flowers, longer in the stalk and fuller in
colour. In one lovely spot I remember they were surrounded
by tufts of shining white Violets, while not far away in a wood of
Oak-scrub the ground was mauve and yellow with them and
Primroses, making, with the old brown leaves above, a lovely
picture worth a great effort to imitate at home. I brought back
several dozen roots, and have planted them on a wooded bank,
hoping to prove myself a successful rival on a small scale. They
will get light shade in Summer, and sun in Spring when it is
needed to open the buds and expose the pretty circle of white
stamens. The soil should be light and rich, with plenty of leaf
mould and well drained ; when once planted they should be
left alone, and will grow in time to fine tufts bearing a profusion
of flowers. The single ones can be increased by seed, but will
not flower for three years. Hepaticas may be had double or
single in pink, white, or mauve, but the double white is new
and still very rare.
Anemone blanda must be considered our greatest early
Spring success, particularly as it will not grow well in all
gardens and so gratifies our pride with the sight of the lovely
patches of blue. It really is nearly a true blue, certainly degrees
nearer it than the many flowers which are described as such. We
Anemone had our first tubers many years ago, they were planted under
blanda the east and west walls of the kitchen garden and took to us in
the kindest way. Facing west they are always two or three
weeks earlier than those with an eastern aspect, generally be-
ginning to flower in January and reaching their full beauty in
March. Both seed freely, and have increased so much that
we have been able to try naturalising them under trees and
in the grass. A piece of ground was well cleared on the south
side of an old Yew and the Anemones put in with a clump or
two of Daffodil cernuus, the early soft cream-white one
which is so delicate it wants some colour to show it up. This
year the bed has been quite beautiful ; the ground and even
their own green were quite hidden with the large starry flowers,
set close together, all turning their eyes to the sun, and in
every shade of blue, from a pale one almost grey to a real deep
azure. The loveliest variety of all has a clear white ring round
the base of the petals. The bed has the great merit of re-
taining its beauty for several weeks the flowers saving them-
selves by shutting every night and only opening on dry days.
We are trying them too in the rough grass into which our
lawn merges. It would be delightful if the blue stars could be
scattered there as the mauve-pink ones are in the Italian fields,
but with us that plan does not answer as the grass is too coarse,
forming a mass of roots half a foot deep. The only plan when
starting a colony of some fresh flower is to clear the ground
completely and carpet it with some small-rooted green plant.
Ornitbogalum umbellatum and nutans might be used to succeed
the fading Anemones. The former might perhaps struggle
successfully in the grass itself certainly in the meadows above
Como it is almost as common as Daisies; on grey days
Wi.jn the striped green petals are closely shut it is hardly March.
noticeable, but in the sun each stem bears eight or nine white Chionodoxa
satin-like flowers. Nutans is taller, ten or twelve inches in an( j Scilla
height, with the flowers arranged up the stem forming a
handsome spike. In a light soil it increases very fast and somer
times becomes a troublesome weed.
Another flower which gives us great delight in March is
Chionodoxa Lucilitz. Here it takes time to establish itself and
then sends up spikes 8 in. high, bearing ten or so most
exquisite sky-blue flowers with a pointed white centre to each.
A few dozen scattered about a rockery give no idea of its beauty,
there should be at least a large group of them. No great
preparation is needed when planting, a little leaf mould and
sand will content them, and 35. will buy a hundred but will
probably not satisfy the purchaser. Chionodoxa Sardensis is a
little earlier and a little bluer, but the flowers do not form such
a pretty spray. Scilla Siberica is in the same border, but
they ought not to be very close together; the two blues a
little spoil each other's beauty, and Siberica is dwarfed by
its taller neighbour. I feel that all these early blue flowers
are helped very much in effect by the addition of some
cream-white, such as Hyacinths, white Polyanthus, and the
double white Primroses. They are low-growing and not
seen to the best advantage against their mother earth : very
little green is out except that of the Welsh Poppy, which is a
good neighbour to any early bulbs low while they are in flower
and growing tall enough later to cover the faded remains with
its yellow flowers.
Two of the sweetest scented plants of the year belong to
this month -Daphne Mezereum and the Violet. The Daphne,
Daphne though of an unobtrusive shade of pink, is very effective if
and grown in sufficient quantity ; several good-sized bushes look
Violet we ^ together against Yews or dark evergreens with white
Polyanthus beneath them. On a warm spring day the scent
is delicious and travels far. We are very fortunate in having
many wild sweet Violets about the place it seems almost a
contradiction to talk of the modest Violet making an effect, but
they certainly form delightful patches of colour growing wild
in the grass there are white, lavender grey, puce and purple,
and all very sweet.
u Whan that Aprille with his shoures sote
The drogte of Marche hath perced to the rote,
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour ;
Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne,
And smale fowles waken melodye,
That slepen all the night with open ye
(So priketh hem nature in hir corages) :
Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
(And palmers for to seken straunge strondes)
To ferae halwes, couthe in sondry londes ;
And specially, from every shires ende
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende."
FOREMOST in beauty among April flowers are the Narcissi
Daffodils, or rather the Narcissi Daffodils being only a and
group of the genus. So rich in colour and so lush in Daffodil
growth, they seem, coming at its height, to be the very essence
of Spring. If careful in our choice of varieties their bloom can
be enjoyed from March to the middle of May.
As yet we have few of the rarer sorts, and from our own
experiences can only offer suggestions for some simple arrange-
ments of the old kinds ; but these will fill the garden with a
beauty which no summer flowers can excel. They lend them-
selves above all others to naturalisation : by which I mean they
can be planted and left alone year after year, and be made to look
as though they were really wild in field or wood. Our own
Wild West Country pastures, rich with the small wild Daffodil, and the
Narcissus Pheasant-eye Narcissus of the Swiss Alps, suggest an ideal to
Effects at tain to. Few things are more wonderful than the Narcissus
fields above the Lake of Geneva, gleaming from miles away
like a fall of snow on the slopes of the mountains : to hope for
similar acres of scented bloom would be useless in most gardens,
but we can adapt the idea to our own country. Our woods,
fields, the banks of streams and the edges of lakes can be thickly
planted with them, enhancing the beauty on every side. If we
have not the opportunity of planting on this large scale, we can
fill the dull spaces in front of our shrubberies, and the bare
ground between young shrubs, or any stretches of grass running
perhaps under the shade of trees which can be left unmown till
the leaves are dead. For picking it is a good plan to plant
them in clumps between Gooseberry and Currant bushes.
Early in April the rough grass lying between the lawn and
wood is dancing with Daffodils. The first out are Obvallaris
and the old double yellow; Primroses cluster at their feet,
the lemon and deep yellow making a pleasant contrast round an
old Yew-tree. Then a little later, where the branches of a big
tree sweep the ground, the Stellas raise their pointed buds and
open lemon-coloured petals, revealing the yellow cups ; Obval-
laris, only half the height of Stella, displays its golden-yellow
flowers in the foreground, Emperor raises its strong wide trumpets
behind, and the early Forget-me-not [dissitiflora] encircles them
with a sky-blue ring. For this particular group we took the
coarse grass right away, replacing it with Forget-me-not and
Welsh Poppy. The latter enjoys the shade as much as the
Daffodils, but as it resents being transplanted it is best to sow it
where wanted and it will soon multiply itself. Later, when the
dead flowers of Stella have all been picked off, there is a pretty April,
effect with Pheasant-eye rising from its blue setting, and, still Planting of
later again, towards the end of May, the double Gardenia-like Daffodils
Narcissus will be in flower.
Where the grass does not grow strong enough to stifle the
bulbs the best plan is to lift the turf, fork the soil well to a good
depth, and when it has settled down again plant the bulbs, and
replace the turf. If it is too sticky add some gritty stuff or
wood ashes, and never allow strong manure to lie round the
bulbs, though in some soils they will be the better for old
manure filtering through from above. To increase the stock
plant in fresh ground deeply dug, with good drainage. In two
years the strong kinds ought to have doubled themselves ; it is
most important that any lifting should be done in June or July,
whenever the leaves have turned yellow about half way down.
August and September are the right months for replanting and
give the strongest growth, but the bulbs will flower fairly well
if put in as late as November.
All the common, and many of the new lovely sorts, do
well in any average soil and under deciduous trees if not too
near the roots. The " Book of the Daffodil," by the Rev.
S. S. Bourne, would be found a great help by any one wishing
to make a collection. It gives most valuable information con-
cerning the best kinds to grow, and how to grow them, with
much useful general advice, such as : to buy well to start with,
good bulbs taking no more room than bad ; to have all the most
beautiful classes represented, and to consider the succession of
flower and the different shades of yellow. It is a mistake to
mix the bulbs of several kinds which flower at the same time,
they look so much better in distinct groups the groups being
Selections of sometimes allowed to intermingle and a full yellow being used
Narcissus to show off a pale one.
The number of varieties is now so great that a selection
must be made. At every Spring exhibition new and most
beautiful flowers are produced which one longs to buy by the
hundred, and on inquiry finds that even a single bulb is a
prohibitive price. The following list gives the names of a few
of those suitable for massing, and reasonable in price. They
are arranged in five groups, as far as possible in the order of
Group I. Large Trumpeted varieties, or " Long Crowns "
Pseudo-Narcissus. The early English wild one.
Princeps. Larger than the former but the same colouring,
pale yellow perianth and a golden yellow trumpet.
Telamonius plenus. Common double Daffodil good for
effect from a distance.
Obvallaris. Self yellow, rather short and not so hardy
Medium Crowns or Star Narcissi
Queen Bess. The first of the Stella variety. Lemon
Group 2. "Long Crowns"
Horsfieldii, quite one of the finest, with its wonderful
blending of palest lemon perianth and very yellow
trumpet, and its handsome blue-green foliage.
Empress is very like the above but a little larger and more April,
expensive, and flowers later. Good
Medium Crowns Narcissus
Sir Watkin, very large, self yellow full colour.
Stella^ very strong grower, tall and graceful, nearly white
perianth and pale yellow cup.
Odorus rugulosus. Yellow jonquil, very sweet.
Group 3. Long Crowns
Emperor, full yellow, very large, tall and strong.
Medium Crowns Double
Orange Phoenix (Eggs and Bacon), white and reddish
Golden Phoenix (Butter and Eggs), pale and deep yellow.
Burbidgei, white perianth and orange cup.
Group 4. Medium Crowns
Barri conspicuus^ very useful large starry yellow flowers
with orange red cups.
Sulphur Phoenix double (Codlins and Cream) white and
Mrs Langtry ^
Minnie (. all pale starry flowers.
Duchess of Brabant )
Good Group 5. Long Trumpets
Varieties of Grandee, like Horsficldiivetj fine.
Beatrice Heseltine, rather more expensive, with red-edged
Ornatus, small but very sweet, pale eye.
Narcissus biflorus, two flowers on a stem with lemon
Poetarum^ with a very red eye.
Poeticus, the garden Pheasant-eye, tall and strong.
Poetic us plenus^ like a gardenia.
The Pheasant-eye Narcissi in this group all flower one
after the other in the kindest way.
No white-trumpeted varieties have been included because,
though quite lovely, they are delicate and expensive for mass-
ing. The small Cernuus does pretty well with us, and looks
lovely growing from Anemone Blanda, but we have not trusted
it in the grass, and for pale yellow effects it is best to use the
Leedsi and Incomparabilis varieties which are among the
Grape Hyacinths belong to this month. The common
one Muscari botryoides looks lovely planted thickly in front of
Horsfieldii. They seem just the right tone and strength of blue
to go well together, or a rich carpet of two distinct blues can
be made by Muscari rising from a bed of Forget-me-not
dissitiflora. There are white and pale blue varieties as well
as the deep blue one, all hardy and thriving in almost any soil.
Muscari Armeniacum and Heldreichi are later and finer, but April,
they cost 2d. and 4d. apiece instead of is. a hundred. M. conicum Grape
from the Campagna is a useful sort and due to flower in Hyacinths
Close to one of our groups of Daffodils, and just between p i v o n f nll o
two big trees, we have a colony of white and bright yellow
Polyanthus. They are now in full flower and carry on very
charmingly the light and deep yellow tones of the Daffodils. I
must confess though that they are not growing as well as they
did in a garden border under the shadow of a box edging, and
fear their new home was not well enough prepared for them,
and that the roots of the trees are robbing them of what little
nourishment there is. The shade they appreciate one day of
hot sun being apt to lay leaves and flowers prostrate on the
ground and will thrive under and round trees if given a good
deep soil and, if possible, a cool, moist situation. A north
aspect under a wall where little or no sun reaches them suits
them well, and they will be all the better if some old manure
be forked in at the time of planting. We have only two kinds
in any quantity at present : white with a yellow eye, and full
yellow with an orange eye. I prefer them to the many gold-
laced pink, brick-red and crimson ones ; many of these are
beautiful when looked into, or arranged in water, but from the
point of view of colour, for bedding or naturalising in
woods, the less gold lacing and the purer the colours, the
better they look. A good selection of yellows and rich red
browns with Wallflowers of the same tone give an unusual effect
of quiet yet deep rich colouring.
Prettier really than the Polyanthus are the bunched
Primroses. Unfortunately we have very few, but a corner of
Bunched wood in a friend's garden looks now as if a rare Eastern carpet
Primroses had been spread beneath the trees. Polyanthus and Primrose
and are growing there together, the latter with an especially fine
Polvanthus ran e f c ol urs white, pale and deep yellow, lilac, pink and
red through many shades to blue and red purple, each plant
forming a round tuft of bloom. With care one might have the
most beautiful and varied effect, blending one colour into
another and sorting out those which were not harmonious.
The whites and yellows might lead to the shades of blue and
blue purple. The pinks, and the numberless shades between them
and the red purples, could form a group by themselves. Among
Spring flowers they come certainly next to the Daffodils for use
and beauty and ease of growing. To get up a stock, buy or
beg seed of some good strain when it is ripe in June, sow it at
once either out of doors in a bed of fine soil and sand, or in
shallow boxes. Prick them out when big enough in a shady
place, and by the following Spring they will be flowering plants.
Or if a particular colour is wanted, as the seeds cannot be
depended on to come true, ask for some bits off a friend's plants
at the end of May. To grow them well, both Primroses and
Polyanthus should be taken up every year or two, according to
the soil and growth, directly the flowers have faded, the
tufts pulled to pieces and the crowns replanted separately.
In good soil the plants will increase so fast that many crowns
go to the waste-heap which might more profitably be given
away. If they are to be replanted in the same place in the wild
garden or wood, the ground must first be well dug and manured.
If wanted for Spring bedding, plant in some out-of-the-way
shady spot for the Summer.
The double and single Primroses, being grateful for the
shade and shelter, may also be used as woodland plants, and such April.
sorts as Primula Altaica, a very early mauve-pink one which Blossoming
begins to flower quite in the Winter. It is best to leave them un- Trees and
disturbed except for the purposes of increase, when they must be Shrubs
taken up and divided like the others. The double white is
lovely, and the pale yellow and the mauve. There is a magenta
one which is almost too startling in colour.
Spring seems to reach its highest point of beauty by the
middle of April. The trees are all bursting into leaf, and on
the warm still days a feeling of life and growth pervades the
whole garden. It is the moment for the blossoming trees and
shrubs, and each year one feels that nothing can be more lovely.
This year the late cold weather has brought everything out
together, wild Cherry, Almond, Prunus, Pyrus japonica,
The Pyrus japonica has been out some weeks and is still
in beauty. The sketch was made at Harrow and shows how
very much one plant can help another in making an effect.
The delicate colouring of the Japonica, its cream flowers
splashed with salmon and rose-pink, is well thrown up by the
deep plum-red shoots of the Rose growing beside it and trained
to the corner of the house. It is often not realised how beautiful
the shoots of a free-growing Rose are at this time of year if left
unpruned, as many of the Teas should be. The old red Japonica
is also very effective. We have a cascade of it over the roof
of a tool-house. On a grey morning it is delightful to look
up and catch the rose-red branches against the spreading boughs
of the Elms still bare, and silhouetted against the sky.
To-day : April I yth the wild Cherry has looked white for
the first time. We have two old trees happily placed near a
Blossoming group of Ilexes, but it is difficult to say if they are really more
Trees and beautiful against dark foliage than with deciduous trees in their
Shrubs Spring dress as a background. A Hornbeam close by is a mist
of exquisite pale green, sweeping down to the greener grass and
melting into the sky. The Hawthorns are in emerald leaf at
the edge of the wood, and form a beautiful contrast with the
rose-purples and browns of the Elms, Oaks, and Beeches.
Almond and purple-leaved Prunus (Pissardii] are charming
together. Unfortunately our Almond trees are still small, and
the Prunus with us seems a shy flowerer. I am full of envy
of their beauty in the Villa gardens on the outskirts of the town
where they are white to their very tips ; graceful long boughs
with an upward growth seen in bold relief against the sky, and
great sprays of pink Almond sweeping across them. It is
annoying of them not to flower in the same way here where
they could have sky and wood as background, and no new red
houses to strike a discordant note.
Forsytbia suspensa, with its curved growth and rings of
yellow blossom set all down the long flowery stems, is one of
the loveliest shrubs. Daffodils in the grass with Forsytbia above
them, repeating the yellow in a more delicate tone, make a
pretty picture. If space allows a large group of these should
be planted in a sunny spot. The graceful pendulous branches
fall to the ground and will sometimes root themselves. It is
excellent too for training up a house, and will convert a very
large extent of wall into a sheet of yellow. Any pruning
that is necessary should be done directly the plant has done
flowering, but if the situation admits, it is prettier if allowed to
grow naturally. Cuttings strike very easily.
Kerria japonica is another hardy shrub of great beauty
with yellow flowers, the single kind is not very often seen but April.
is charming and remains much longer in flower. Blossoming
Ribes, both cream and red, are out, and look particularly Shrubs and
well together if planted against Hollies or any dark evergreens, but Anemones
they are not so attractive as many of the more delicately coloured
blossoms, and might be grown in some rather secluded corner.
By the third week in April many less common shrubs
can be seen in beauty at Kew. Amelanchier canadensis is a
shower of white and looks lovely falling on to its bed of Stella
Narcissus. Close by there are clumps of pink and bright red
Prunus, most effective and lovely in colour either against the
Ilex or the bare Elms. Prunus triloba flore-pleno is out too,
making bushes about five feet high, a little too regular in form,
but very lovely with the long sprays of pale double pink
blossoms. Magnolia stellata is a glistening mass of white stars.
With us it does not grow freely, but in warm light soils it will
make a bush four or five feet across and as many in height.
Anemone pulsatllla looks lovely below it the tufts of silvery-
haired Lilac flowers, with golden centres, thrown up by the
white of the Magnolia ; the creeping dark purple Ox alls makes
a pretty carpet round the Anemone, and there should be clumps
of white Fritillary as its exquisite bells are open at the same time.
This Anemone is perfectly hardy, and can be increased by seed or
division. It likes a well-drained position and rather calcareous
soil. Anemone sylvestris is another useful variety for growing
under or round bushes ; it is said to like moisture and shade, and
plenty of room for its creeping roots, but it is a plant with whims
and sometimes does well in sun. It became quite a weed with
us in a Rose bed, but refused to grow at all when moved to what
was supposed to be a more suitable position.
Berberis Many sorts of Berberis are gay now and worth planting in
and prominent positions : B. Stenophylla most graceful and showy
Magnolia w ^ l n S sp ra ys of fine green and hanging orange-yellow
flowers; B. Nepalensis with a very handsome foliage and
upright spikes of bloom, and B. Darwinii making a fine dark
evergreen bush covered in April with hundreds of orange
flowers ; B. Vulgar -is , and many others. B. Wallichiana and
*Ibunbcrgi, as they turn to many shades of red, are even more
beautiful in the Autumn than in the Spring.
Magnolia conspicua should now be a wonder of shining
white, cup-shaped flowers. The one illustrated is growing in
a very sheltered garden at Saltwood. In sunshine when the
flowers are wide open the effect is dazzling, but the sketch
unfortunately had to be done on a grey cold day when it was
not looking its best. The grass underneath was sprinkled with
yellow Jonquils, and close by, Camellia trees were in splendid
condition, their glossy foliage covered with red and white
blossoms, but they were a month behind their usual flowering
time. Even these very fine specimens are not attractive to
me, they are a little too stiff in form and spotty in effect.
Much prettier is a mauve Azalea, sweet-scented and very useful
at this time of year, but looking fragile as if a storm of rain
would destroy it. Spiraa Ihumbergii looks well near by, with
its masses of tiny white flowers in graceful sprays.
This month, which opened with Daffodils, sees them at
their very best towards the close ; only the earliest are over,
while the latest are in bud and Pheasant-eye Narcissus have
begun. A sight of them at Kew made me long more than ever
to plant them by the thousand in their separate varieties. The
hill by the pond, which earlier in the year seemed all Crocus, is
now all Daffodil and Narcissus. Under some of the big trees, April,
where the grass grows thin, Anemone Apennina is flowering well Spring"
with Pheasant-eye. Though not so fine as A. Elan da, it is certainly Effects
worth growing, as it only begins when Blanda has been out
two months or more and is at last on the wane. In the wilder
parts of the garden are the most beautiful effects wide grass
glades wander between great irregular clumps of white Narcissus
and in the Queen's Cottage Garden, Emperor Daffodil is a marvel
growing tall and strong under the big trees, and showing from
a distance as great stretches of yellow between the stems. Round
the cottage itself Jonquils flourish in the grass, scenting the air.
A few days later near Harrow I saw yet another effect.
The garden lies on the top of a hill with a gorgeous view,
and extends into a wood on three sides ; Daffodils are every-
where out in the open, on either side of the sloping lawn, are
plantations of rare kinds, and stretching back under the trees the
commoner ones. My sketch was made in a dell in the very heart
of the wood when the Beeches were just bursting into tender green.
The very light effect is given by Duchess of Brabant, last year's
fallen leaves with their rich browns making a pretty setting.
Those named in the following list all thrive in this wood,
but all common kinds and many of the new lovely ones will do
equally well in any average soil under deciduous trees if not
planted too near to the roots. A lovely companion for them is
Anemone Robins onia, of a soft grey-blue colour.
Tenby Barrl consplcuus
Sir Watkin Mrs Langtry
Golden Spur W. J. Berkeley
Katherine Spurrell Madame de Graaf
Iris, Tulip Most of these are inexpensive, running from 45. to 155. a hundred,
and The last three are considerably dearer, and Madame de Graaf,
Primula though cheap compared to what it was a few years ago, is still
2s. 9d. each bulb.
Two or three little plants must be mentioned among the
April treasures as givers of most delicate colour effect. Iris
tuberosdy the green and black velvety one, which it is such a
pleasure to find wild on the Italian Riviera, and Tulip a clusiana
(the Lady Tulip), white with a purple eye and a rose streak up the
outside of each narrow petal. They always flower together
with us, and both prefer a sheltered corner. Dentaria pinnata,
with heads of almost a dozen cruciform flowers and bright green
palmate leaves, I have longed to establish here since seeing it
grow on Monte Generoso. The outskirts of the woods were
white with it, and it had spread to the grass slopes near by,
mixing with the Pheasant-eye Narcissus and the big blue Gentian.
It can be grown from seed and increased by division, and likes
a light soil and a moist place.
Some of the many lovely Primulas should be established in
shady places. P. Denticulata^ with a round, blue-lilac head, and
P. Casbmeriana^ rather deeper in colour and stronger in growth,
like a rich moist soil, and are delightful when they have formed
large tufts. P. Sieboldi is another most useful sort and quite
hardy. It varies in colour a good deal, and wants a well-
drained position and plenty of leaf mould. If Cowslips are not
indigenous they should be started in the fields, so that their
sweet-scented flowers can be enjoyed when Primroses are
over. With small trouble, and in about a year's time, an effect
could be obtained such as Coventry Patmore so vividly
THE HOLT, HARROW, WEALD.
" Meadows of fervid green, April.
With sometime sudden prospect of untold
Cowslips, like chance-found gold ;
And broadcast buttercups at joyful gaze
Rending the air with praise."
"... Green flame the hedgerows.
Pageants of colour and fragrance
Pass the sweet meadows, and viewless
Walks the mild spirit of May,
Visibly blessing the world."
" And earth unto her leaflet tips
Tingles with the spring."
Late Tulips A ft AY is above all things the month of Tulips. Many of
and their I V I the early-bedding kinds flower in April, but they are
uses still in beauty the first week of May, and then open
the much more lovely late-flowering varieties Cottage, Darwin,
Bybloemens, Bizarres, Roses, etc. These have many great
advantages over the early ones graceful foliage and long
stalks holding their big cups two feet or more from the ground.
They can be treated as perennials and left alone for several
years, or they can be used as bedders, above all in formal Dutch
gardens, and be lifted and dried when they have done flowering.
In borders they should be planted deep enough to allow of
annuals or low-growing permanent plants being put in above
them, and they are often invaluable for strengthening the
colour one wishes to predominate in a particular spot. The
group of flowering shrubs Solatium crispum and Cytlsus in
the sketch made at Tregothnan was completed in an attractive
way by the clump of yellow Tulips. Wonderful colour effects
CYTISUS. SOLANUM. TULIP.
can be arranged with them, tones which harmonise or vivid May.
contrasts. There is a large colour key to be played on pink- Colour of
mauves to rich brown and red purples, and almost black : lilacs Tulips
which are called blue, they have so much more blue than red in
them : white, palest lemon to clear bright yellow and orange : soft
rose-pinks or full deep reds, magenta, crimson, salmon, and
flaming orange-vermilion : and then beside all these self-coloured
ones are all the marvellous combinations in a single flower.
What can be more remarkable than Zomerschoon yellow
splashed with salmon-red, or more vivid than Greigei^ or more
lovely than Rose Pompon, semi-double lemon shaded to pink at
the tips of the petals ? The names to be mentioned with honour
are almost endless, and a sight of the bunches exhibited at the
May Horticultural Show fills the gardener with envy. I am
told that most of these many and lovely varieties were originally
started in Holland, sold by the raiser to English growers and
kept as much as possible out of the hands of the neighbour-
ing Dutch gardeners for mercantile reasons ; certainly many
kinds exhibited here are not to be found in the best Dutch
catalogues, an extra reason for supporting the home industry
and buying in England or Ireland.
It is often said that May, when Spring is over and Summer
not yet fully come, is rather a poor month for flowers, but a
few shillings expended on these late Tulips will fill the garden
with beauty. Although new sorts are expensive, some indeed
almost prohibitive in price owing to the stock being still so
small, many old ones are extraordinarily cheap and can be got
from 2s. to i os. or I2s. a hundred.
To ensure yellow in the garden when the Daffodils have
Varieties of Bouton d'Or a round, clear yellow flower shown up by
May Tulips black stamens, but not very large.
Golden Eagle slightly fragrant, with pointed petals.
Golden Crown pointed in form, opens yellow petals
then take a red edge, gradually becoming suffused
with a brown-orange.
We have a long border of these Tulips with clumps of yellow
Wallflowers between and purple Pansies below ; only a light
railing divides it from a field, and when that is full of Butter-
cups the effect is most beautiful. Other good varieties are :
Retroflexa with curved back petals looking more
like a Lily than a Tulip.
Yellow Rose double and very full rich colour.
Magnificent if only its stalk were firmer ; but
it needs a carpet of some low-growing plant to
lay its head on.
Vltellina pale lemon.
These last four are comparatively expensive.
For pinks grow
Shandon Bells (syn. Isabella) Lemon yellow
splashed with rose colour, getting rosier with
age ; it is quite lovely but shorter and stiffer in
growth than many of the others.
Picotee palest lemon with pointed petals, turned back
tips and a scarlet edge which gradually suffuses
the whole flower.
Rose Pompon semi-double, primrose and pink in May.
flushes. Very tall and large flower. Tulip
Gesneriana rosea^ with a deep blue base. Effects
Rosalind, with a white base.
Sweet Nancy ) i i j
Tr . . r J f. both white with a pink edge.
For dearer ones
When after some years the yellow Tulips had to be taken
up and divided, the same border was planted with Picotee,
Shandon Bells and Rose Pompon, but, lovely as these were, the
whole effect was not so good as before. The sea of Buttercups
behind had to be taken into account, and we have gone back
to the simple yellow arrangement, and are trying the pinks on
either side of a straight grass walk leading to the wood through
a youthful avenue of Pryus Mains floribunda and P. M.
spectabills. These are two of the loveliest of pink blossoming
trees and quite unlike each other. The first makes a shower
of pink and white, the tips of the boughs soft red with buds ;
the second is upright in growth with much larger semi-double
pale pink flowers. The Tulips are planted in large clumps
but the trouble is that the grass has to be cleared right away
as they would never pierce it, and though they look very gay,
just topping the waving grass, the delightfully wild effect of
the Daffodils can never be attained.
For reds we have an old-fashioned Tulip splashed with
orange which makes a long border under the shade of the Elms,
Tulip gorgeous for a week or two, especially when they last till the
Effects and purple Flags are out. Other good sorts are :
Colour Gesneriana major or spathulata the largest of all the
Tulips, with dazzling scarlet petals and a deep
blue base. Massed together they are magnificent
and are well worth growing in quantities.
Elegans scarlet pointed petals and reflexed.
Elegans alba, similar in form but white with narrow
carmine edge, most exquisite.
Gesneriana aurantiaca maculata, red-orange with a
dark -brown base.
Lion d' Orange.
La Merveille, orange and red.
Two useful white Tulips are :
La Candeur, double.
For mauve and purple, grow Blue Flag and the many
toned Darwin Tulips. All sorts of queer soft shades of mauve
and lilac and purple not seen in other flowers are to be found
in these besides the exquisite pinks and cherry-reds of such kinds
as Margaret, Clara Butt, and Salmon King. We have a pretty
border of Darwins with a Pansy called Coquette de Poissy
which makes a beautiful carpet for them, being of the same odd
pink-mauve as the Tulips.
Then there are still to be mentioned the Parrot Tulips with
strange torn petals and most brilliant colouring, but inclined to
weak stalks and drooping heads : the Bizarres, various shades of
red with yellow and orange flakes ; the Bybloemens, white with
flakings of lilac and purple ; the Roses with flakings of rose and
red on a white ground, and such little treasures as T. Sylvestris,
with its pendant yellow head ; which really will grow in grass, May.
and T. Clusiana, white with a bar of pink on the outer side of Bluebells
each petal and a purple centre, small but very lovely. In good anc [
rich loam, Tulips are very quickly increased from their off-sets. Anemone
They should be taken up when the foliage dies down, dried
and stored in a cool place till the Autumn, when the young
bulbs can be planted in a nursery bed for one season.
Bluebells, though essentially one of nature's most lovely
effects, must not be forgotten in the wild garden, and if they
do not grow naturally can easily be introduced. The sketch
was done from a Hertfordshire garden. Close round the house
were several acres of wood, blue with the wild Hyacinths, and
to these have been added thousands of Pheasant-eye Narcissus.
The two rising from the red-brown bracken and dead leaves
form a picture which once seen can never be forgotten more
lovely even than Bluebells and low-spreading boughs of Beech
just burst into tender green, or, as I have seen them in Cornwall,
surrounding groups of orange and flame-coloured Azaleas. When
Bluebells and Narcissus are over, the Bracken springs up and covers
the dead flowers.
Anemone Coronaria and its varieties the Caen single and
double, and the St Brigid very double are still gay with us,
although they have flowered most of the Spring. They are
useful for borders and edgings, and we have found them
very successful round some of the Rose beds, as they enjoy the
rich soil when well drained, but they have also done exceedingly
well along the Tulip border on the edge of the field where the
soil is light and the chalk close below. We leave some in
altogether, and in this way secure a good number of flowers in
the Autumn, but a safer plan is to lift them after they have
Anemones done flowering, dry them in a shady place, and put them away
and Peonies in sand till the following October or November, when they
should be planted about 3 inches below the surface. They
grow easily from seed sown in June, and if given shade and
moisture the first three weeks, and then sun and continued
moisture, they will be large enough to prick out in October, and
will flower the following Spring. In a few cold soils they do
not stand the Winter, but are generally quite hardy. The effect
of all the mixed colours, white, pink, scarlet, violet, etc., is very
bright and pretty ; but it is a good plan to mark distinct colours,
so that when replanting in the Autumn they can be arranged
in groups of self colours or in suitable shades. Anemone fulgens
is a useful variety the brilliant vermilion stars, with narrow
petals and deep purple stamens, give the impression that it must
be a real sun-loving plant, but it prefers a shady situation and
a rich, moist soil. Anemone Aldboro is another good sort,
magnificent crimson with a white ring to the purple centre, and
there is a lovely pink one of the same starry form.
Quite the showiest of all plants for the wild garden just
now are the Moutan Peonies they are so beautiful and so
gorgeous in colour that one can hardly believe that they will
grow in rough half-shady places. Indeed with us they have
done better, and last much longer in flower in such places, than
in a border which was chosen as a particularly suitable spot.
My sketch was done from one of the new, intensely double
varieties. Even this one plant is a remarkable feature in the
garden, its flaming pink is so brilliant, rising above the feathery
grass, and catching the eye from a distance. Close by we have
made a plantation of the old-fashioned double soft pink kind
Peony officinalis^ clearing the grass, and encouraging instead
Forget-me-not and Stitchwort. The latter is a most useful May.
wild covering plant as it makes a spreading mass of delicate Peony
green without too many roots, and is lovely when spangled officinalis
with its white flowers. Peony officinalis flowers before the anc j Moutan
Tree Peonies are over, and looks so much at home that we hope
to establish a regular Peony garden near by, and grow many of
the new Hybrids and varieties imported from China and Japan.
The flowering period could thus be extended to quite the end
The Moutans can be had double or single, pure white, and
from flesh-colour through a wonderful range of salmon-pink to
intense tawny reds, or in shades of purplish pink which are
beautiful if grown right away from the others. The singles
are lovely, but disappointing because the petals drop at once
in bad weather. They like a lot of manure, and resent being
moved. When planting, a hole should be dug, 2 feet or more
in depth, and manure put in at the bottom, and they are
grateful for a good mulching in Summer when they have done
flowering, and for many doses of liquid manure.
About the same time as the Tulips many low-growing
plants are out, suitable for forming carpets or edgings, and for
growing over the Tulips themselves. One of the commonest is
Aubrletia^ too common to be grown some gardeners think, but it
gives an effect quite unlike any other plant with its soft creeping
cushions of mauve; given a suitable spot, it will spread itself
very quickly. In a mill garden near Ware it has taken
possession in this way, tumbling in cascades down the walls
which confine the rushing stream, and trailing over all the beds
in the garden. This old variety is called A, purpurea, but
there are many new sorts with larger blossoms and deeper
Aubrietia colouring, such as the purple Eyrei and Campbelli, which are
and other well worth growing. Some which are highly recommended are
Carpet q u i te pink, Leichtlini, for instance, and should not be mixed
Plants wl *-h the mauves. They can be grown from seed, or cuttings
taken in April and May, or the rambling trailers can be laid in
and covered with sandy soil. The young plants thus formed
should be removed in the Autumn.
Yellow Alyssum (Saxatlle] blends well with the Aubrietias
liking much the same sort of position, and plenty of sun.
It will spread over a dry bank, or grow in a wall, making
soft tufts of yellow beloved by the bees. It can be increased in
the same way as the Aubrietias. The common Arabis albida
must be included, and the newer double form, which is
invaluable for cutting and for giving a real sheet of white.
When it has done flowering every shoot can be struck as a
cutting and will be a large plant by the following Spring. All
these look well together if planted in sufficient quantity the
white, yellow, and mauve being in distinct patches, or there are
many plants they group well with Alyssum making a fine
carpet near purple Iris, or Arabis florc pleno with pink Tulips.
The Candytufts are another useful race of white ground-
work plants ; Iberis corifolia, only 3 or 4 inches high,
and Correasfolia, about a foot high, forming an evergreen
tufted carpet, covered the end of May with white flowers.
Sempervirens the commonest of all, an evergreen perennial,
will grow anywhere, and is particularly useful as an edging or
bedding for shrubs. Semperflorens, a sweet-scented evergreen
shrub about 2 ft. high, is rather delicate, and needs a warm
sunny place if it is to justify its name.
If one is lucky enough to be able to grow Lithospermum
prostratum a glorious patch of gentian blue can be enjoyed May.
through this month. It wants a warm dry soil and some rock Carpet
to creep over. With Arcnaria montana grandiflora a Plants and
pretty white flower like a glorified Stitch wort it makes a fJonestv
charming picture. I have seen them growing together on a
rough stone wall, the Litbospermum making trailing cushions of
blue, several feet long. In a cool damp place Primula japonica
will give a splash of brilliant crimson, but handsome as it
undoubtedly is, the colour is too near magenta to be always
pleasing. At Burncoose, near Truro, it was certainly magnificent
in effect, growing very strongly in large quantities, with
Bamboos all about it. There it seeds freely, but in soils where
it will not multiply itself the seed should be picked and sown
in a seed-pan directly it is ripe, and kept in a cold frame. Seed
of the white variety can be obtained separately and is much
In a shady corner London Pride looks delightful against
tufts of green and white striped grass.
Ompbalodes verna is a good plant too for establishing on the
edges of woods, with pretty bright green foliage and flowers like
a Forget-me-not. For a patch of glistening white nothing can
beat Trillium grandiflorum ; its three-petal led flowers with the
three encircling leaves below are quite beautiful, but it will not
grow everywhere and likes a shady damp spot and peat soil.
The name Wood Lily suggests the uses that might be made
A great feature in our wood just now is the Honesty
Lunaria bicnnis the rich violet and white flowers being
especially fine from a little distance. It seeds profusely and
widely, establishing itself as if it were really a wild thing of the
Iris and wood. It is important to remember to plant out seedlings two
Columbine years running when first introducing it to a spot, as it is one of
those troublesome biennials which take fully two years to flower.
Towards the end of the month come the German Irises and
the Columbines the common purple Flag is with us the earliest of
them all by a week or two, and therefore never to be cast out of
the garden for newer or finer sorts. The border illustrated is so
filled with Elm roots that it will grow hardly any perennial
decently, but the Flag seems to be perfectly content and flowers
profusely. Welsh Poppies and Columbines grow rampantly
with it, seeding themselves almost too much, and tufted Pansies
struggle in the foreground but really want a better soil. The
Columbines are mostly a cross between the wild dark sorts and
the pure white one, and though the flowers are small compared
to the Alpine varieties, they have long stiff stalks holding their
heads well above the Flags and give a pretty light look to the
bed. We are also trying to establish them in rough grass,
hoping to get an effect like a Swiss hay-field enamelled with flowers.
They are admirably suited to naturalising in woods or shrubberies
where it is not too shady. The pure white one, Aquilegia
Vulgaris alba^ a most beautiful variety, is good for picking, looks
lovely in large clumps by itself, and comes true from seed. The
Alpine varieties are larger in the flower, shorter in the growth,
and much less hardy, having a sad way of disappearing
altogether. Good drainage is important, and the rockery perhaps
the best place for them. They are so lovely it is well worth an
effort to grow them well, especially the blue ones, Alp'tna and
Cacrulca. Aquilegia Chrysantha, yellow, and Californica
Hybrida, orange red, are very useful border varieties, growing
about four feet high and flowering a long time. A stock of any
of these varieties can easily be raised from seed it should be May.
sown in a pan and kept in a shady place till the seedlings are Some
big enough to prick out. Climbing
As the border of common Flag begins to lose its beauty two pi an t s
other early kinds come out in the walled garden, a white and
a deep violet purple, and by accident Darwin Tulips in queer
mauve shades and Coquette de Poissy Pansy are growing close
by, making a pleasant harmony of colour. Doronicum plant a-
gineum excelsum is an extremely useful and gay herbaceous
plant ; it will grow almost anywhere and can be counted on to
give an effect of brilliant yellow for several weeks. Its tall
daisy-like flowers and bright green leaves make a pleasant
contrast to the Tulips which flower with it. It can be in-
creased to any amount by division, and thrives best in a moist
but sunny situation.
Some of the most luxuriant creepers are now beginning to
wreath unsightly places with beauty. Eccromocarpus scaber
and Ceanothus Veitchii are out on the east side of the house, the
orange and soft real blue looking delicious together ; the former
is a most useful half-hardy evergreen climber easily raised from
seed ; with us it does well through any ordinary Winter, growing
30 feet up the house and seeding itself. There is now a pink
form which is very pretty. Clematis Montana grows here in
the most rampant fashion, garlanding itself with white from the
ground to the roof of the house, and doing equally well on a
south exposure or a north one. It is beautiful if grown so that
it may fall in a shower of white down a Yew hedge, or trained
up one side of a wall and allowed to form a cascade down the
other ; it will work its way up through the shade even of ever-
greens, and when it reaches the light will clothe some bare tree
Arums in with blossom, giving the impression at a first glance of some
Cornwall wonderful new flower. Wistaria succeeds the Clematis with its
hanging lilac trusses, and the Japanese Guelder Rose (Viburnum
p lie at urn] looks very well trained up a wall. It is quite hardy
and makes also a graceful shrub, the boughs laden with white
The accompanying sketch of Arums was painted near
Truro in the middle of the month. Even then the lake with
its fringe of white Lilies only separated from a tidal river by a
bank a few feet across was a wonderful sight ; later in the
month the effect must have been even finer. The strong growth
of the plants, their fine healthy foliage, and the multitude of
buds and flowers show how absolutely the position suits them.
They grow in the shallow water about two feet deep round
the edge of the lake, and in Winter if there should be severe
frost, which is very unusual in that part of Cornwall, their roots
are protected by the water above them. That their feet should
be absolutely in the water in this way is not necessary, but it
makes the growth more luxuriant. They may often be seen in
cottage gardens looking strangely foreign to the eye only accus-
tomed to see Arums in a greenhouse.
GARDENS IN SUMMER
IN THE WRITER'S GARDEN, 1904
" T AM coming to see how you have arranged your Summer Summer,
borders." So wrote a friend in June. I answered, Colour
" Come. But there has been no arrangement for
Summer, nor there never is ! " Since, I have thought, what
did we both mean ? Arrangement of a kind there has to be
surely, to begin with. Yet in this garden, I scarcely think
such necessary arrangements of plants as there must always be
to keep up a succession, Spring, Summer and Autumn, is
precisely the system supposed by my friend.
Is it not rather tiring this idea of the planning of garden
effects, and so long before the time ? How many sorts of things
tire one ! So many books one reads : so many people one sees !
So often also long descriptions of well arranged colours in a
garden, where all the colours come just right. I am afraid the
colours here come very often wrong. That does not pain me
much I merely feel " the flowers chose to do it, it is no fault
of mine." And if they are happy, what matter though pink
does at times mass unkindly against magenta, or if two different
lilacs clash, or even if scarlet and crimson come together ? Dear
flowers ! we know they can never look really wrong, or like a
mistake, as so often bad contrasts in women's gear. We only
say to ourselves or the gardener when flower colours come
very much amiss, " It is unfortunate ! " That is all. Crimson and
scarlet by choice would hardly mass together. Therefore there
was sorrow when a grand glow of scarlet oriental Poppy began
Crimson to flame round the dazzling crimson of Carmine Pillar, most
and Blue brilliant of red Roses. But when I began to speak this thought,
Flowers an ^ to Sa 7 besides that of course another season the Poppies
would have to be moved away somewhere else, the remark
of a visitor in the garden opened my eyes as with the force
of revelation. " Is there not," he said, " a certain barbaric
pomp about so strange a contrast ? " The hint was enough.
When I looked again, what Indian visions steeped in glory,
visions of Delhi and last year's Durbar floated through the
fiery brilliance of those border flowers. I think the Poppies
will not be moved. That very day their great silken petals began
to fall, and wind and weather scattered them away. In their
place unfolds a yet more enchanting " arrangement." Carmine
spoil of Roses is rained down upon the azure of Anchusa Italica.
Not the deep splendour of ultramarine, but that tenderer,
sympathetic blue, which more abounds in gardens best loved of
Anchusa, and where she flourishes the most willingly. Day by
day clouds of bright azure blue spread themselves abroad, and,
stealing upwards through the lowest branches of a Ptdia Kuhli
growing near, lay glimmering softly within the green, full half-
way to the Ptelia's top. Beside this blue, between tall ribbon
leaves, shone the flowers of milk-white bloom, of a great bed of
Iris ochroleuca, and, beyond, a dark tree of Prunus plsardi
dressed in Summer brown made an ideal background.
At right angles with the flower-border which has been
thus delighting us, opens out a straight gravel path running
east and west, radiant in June with the colours and fragrant with
the rich bloom, of some choice perfumed Peonies. On each side
glow great round heads of deepest crimson, or rose-pink ; or of
white lit up all gloriously within, by a golden glow. The great
flowers tumble about in clusters ; or sway forward amid their Summer,
leaves on bending stalks too weak by far to upbear their weight. Peony and
There is one, clad in murrey colour or maroon, that for some Buddleia
reason unknown, is longest lived of all these fine Peonies, (our
grandmothers used to say Piony^ and in " Hill's Eden " it is
also " Piony,") brief as is the life-summer of them all. The old-
fashioned red, scentless Peony, once common in cottage gardens,
makes a grand show disposed in distant patches on the grass.
The flower of it lasts shorter even than the finer kinds. With-
out any warning, in the fulness of its most fulgent red, down it
comes in a shower poured out on the grass beneath, and there's
an end. The others are different. Their fainting flowers
linger long, loth to take leave for ever of dear happy Summer.
The single pink Peony, yellow stamined, with blue-green
leaves, is not, 1 think, very often seen. It is almost like a large
single cabbage Rose, if such a thing could be imagined. One old
plant of it struggles on in a shrubbery near where Peony walk
begins. There also, stiffly will hang up till about the end of
June, a thousand little fairy balls of Buddleia globosa. Among
the colours of Summer, orange is not so commonly seen as blue
or red or pink. The Buddleia is not quite hardy, in Bucking-
hamshire at least ; and we cover it up with matting in winter.
Soon it will grow too large to be treated thus. Nothing is more
desired by a gardener than that his trees should grow. Yet
what more tiresome than the gradual, undesired, too generous
growth of a young tree if planted where there is neither
room for it, nor an increase of picturesqueness gained by its
enlargement. . . .
A BEAUTIFUL GARDEN
The Walled I OPENED the gate and went in. The garden was like no other
Garden garden of my knowledge, it seemed to surpass, in its wonderful
indefinableness, other gardens of pleasure that I knew. It was
well kept ; in perfect order. Few and far between were its
wandering weeds ; and yet it was a wilderness. The season of
the year was mid- July, the hour, seven A.M. : the space of
ground, an oblong square enwalled. Four gates and one, gave
entrance to it. The gates were all of wrought iron, of English
make, and old. The walls red brick coloured with the greys
and golds of age, crested with Wall-flowers, seed-laden, and with
light waving grasses and all kinds of bird-sown vegetation.
The fifth gate, small and narrow and most delicately
wrought, is Empire Gate ; so named, for like the links of our
Great Empire, it is " strong as steel yet light as gossamer ! "
Not here I entered, but by the tall eastern gate that opens
upon lawns and dark Yew hedges and " herbaceous borders "
at this season filled with Delphinium rising above pink clusters
of Polyantha Rose, in rich abundance. One tires of all the
garden-talk of " herbaceous borders." Some are too apt to talk
for ever of herbaceous this and that. To a young lady visiting
my garden and rejoicing in recent possession of one of her own,
and voluble of garden terms, I once cried in despair " I don't
know what herbaceous is ! " Her instant reply, " Oh, it means
come up again." Perhaps the definition is as good as many a
more studied one.
The morning sun shone through and through each crimson
Rose, each white Sweet-pea "on tiptoe for a flight," and Summer,
illumined every flower till for the moment it would seem that Fascination
you saw jewels of silver and gold sparkling with emeralds and o f Gardens
The secret of this small garden's fascination lay, it may be,
in its mystery. Small though it be, from no one point could
the whole, or even half of it be seen at one time. Between the
many narrow intersecting paths, flowers of various kinds had
grown into clumps of such grand luxuriance as to hide all
others beyond, save where perchance some blue Delphinium,
exquisitely pale, aspired above the rest ; or if one caught sight of
hanging gardens of sweet Roses : or in some opening, a gate-head
of fretted iron empurpled with large-flowered Clematis. Here
the green turf lay between an orange and scarlet glow made by
rampant Alstroemeria and scarlet Lychnis, or Summer light-
ning as children call old Parkinson's favourite " flower of Bristol
and Constantinople " with many a little upright pillar of lilac
Linaria intermixed. There, fragrant Lilies stand together like
white angels in a dream, calling silently across the Roses. . . .
These Lilies ! they stood at the meeting of four green
grassy ways. Divinely tall, for the season favoured them, the
faces of them each met mine : and they shone as though fresh
from Elysian meadows, shining like the face of Moses shone
when he came down from the mountain. In the memory of
such pure radiant presence, how can one sit down to write dull
All plants love an open corner : they do the best that is in
them when so placed. Within the cloistered angle of an old
Apple espalier, grew in this garden a white Moss Rose. The
spread of its branches made shelter for a wondrous Japan Iris
The Care of beneath. Strong and full of vigorous life although no stream
Plants or watershed was near, up from the crowded root sprang tall
stalks crowned with the splendid flower, or with blue-green
buds. Unafraid, the Japan Iris looks straight up into the sun
how hot soever he may shine, with petals flat and expanded
wide to receive and rejoice in each burning glance. The colour
of this Iris was a strange weird blue, deepening a little into
violet, with three central spots of golden yellow. The earth at
the roots was damp as though after a last evening's watering.
And round about a few large stones were laid, for coolness and
to retain the water. Some careful hand had done this ! and
moreover I saw no withered flower or brown unsightly leaf
defacing the white Moss Rose bush above. Well I knew
whose guardian hands had been at work.
Early and late the Lady of Flowers is there, weeding and
watering and laying the cool stones wherever most needed, or
snipping off the withered leaves.
" If the flowers had been her own children, she
Could never have nursed them more tenderly."
I never saw her face ; although since that July morning I have
again and again revisited the Beautiful Garden and marked
how she had comforted the flowers : choosing times and seasons
when she might be alone with them, to enjoy to the full their
delightful society. Plainly enough, Iris and Honeysuckle are her
favourites, best loved of all the others. With these in most
gardens failures have been not unknown. So is it here also.
Thus in the broad band of Spanish Iris, the purple and the
blue had all prematurely gone. They seem to have altogether
failed. Only a few blooms of yellow yet remained ; and for
the most part, the poor lank leaves of them fell about along Summer.
the earth as yellow as the flowers. Full sad no doubt was the Colour and
Lady of Flowers to see them in so sad a plight ; yet she wisely Contrast
trusted the gardener with the whole matter as one too large for
her small knowledge. It was for this reason I saw no nursing
stones of comfort amongst the Spanish Iris. " King of the
blues " is the very best blue Spaniard ; and along the edges of
a stone-flagged path, several of this kind still lingered on,
braving the July sun-heat. Colour, along that stony edge,
seemed well arranged, although I believe chance rather than
forethought brought the various hues together. The primrose
yellow of Platystemon Calif or nic um contrasted with an azure
exhalation if it so might be described a Salvia of deeper tone,
and spikes of feathery lightness. I believe there is a country
where this Salvia grows wild in the fields. A small plant of
Inula crowded with orange Daisies, mixed in a tangle of seedling
Indian pink and Phlox Drummondi^ and crimson Roses and
honey-scented Alyssum ; the parti-coloured Colinsia too. Rich
purple Kasmpferi Iris leaned against radiant bunches of pink
Polyantha Rose, and out of the midst in its pride arose one
single great, pure white, English Iris. Almost I quoted as I
passed, from some old poet : " I know your spirit to be
tall ! " Underneath among the Iris leaves' might be discerned
a large rough stone. The Lady of Flowers then had been busy
there ! Whose hand but hers would have laid those tell-tale
stones ? And soon I found more stones at the feet of her other
Love, a Honeysuckle. A strange, rare Honeysuckle, climbing
the western side of the garden wall. The leaves are distinctly
blue, and therefore it is named the blue Honeysuckle or
Lome era Douglesi. This poor plant seemed to need all the
Honey- care that had been given. It grew uncomfortably, the upper
suckle parts smothered in " fly." Black fly, which one likes worse
than green fly. Apparently she could not reach up to cut
them off. But nearer to the ground the branches were neatly
trimmed, and they bore one or two large well perfumed blooms,
proving how fine a thing with fair chance this Honeysuckle might
be. In the north of Scotland only, is it known to flourish ;
there one sees cold granite walls conspicuously covered with the
abundant pale, doubly fragrant, flowers. No Honeysuckle, so
far as I know, thrives perfectly in these more southern counties.
The abounding strength and beautiful vigour of them in the
north, seems wanting here. And where in England are Honey-
suckle hedges common ? I have seen many north of the
Tweed, luxuriant, white-flowered hedges which the Lady of
Flowers would sigh vainly to possess. Yet even hereabouts
there are places deep in the country, where almost every tree is
festooned, and the roadside hedges stream with Honeysuckle
amid the wild spangle of Dog-Roses. Seldom in our gardens is
Honeysuckle seen, luxuriantly, comfortably at home. If grown
against a wall, it must be alone, for it dislikes companions. It
consents to climb, solely to reach the top and there be free to set
up a wild riot of perfumed loveliness. With the support of
some light railing a thick hedge of Honeysuckle may soon be
made for the delight of all who pass. In Scotland, cottagers
plant Honeysuckle on the garden side of their rude stone fence ;
there it increases rapidly, overflowing right on to the public
road in magnificent profusion of bloom. Once I knew a humble
little roadside homestead near the shores of the North Sea, the
tumble-down old garden dyke before the door, beauteous with
a mass of Honeysuckle, crimson-budded, while a million little
honey-coloured horns uplifted, bearing their viewless burden of Summer.
rich scent, made each one, to the wandering bee, a very horn of Garden
plenty. In the secret soul of me as I went past that dyke came Pictures
a great desire to break off and plunder. But the thought
arose of how many daily passed, school children, men and
women to and from the town, cattle driven past to pasture, and
yet none meddled, for not one broken stalk was seen, nor wasted
bloom. . . . With a silent act of thankfulness for having beheld
such loveliness and breathed such sweetness, I guiltless went my
On the south and eastern aspect the walls were, as is some-
times said, " a picture." There, grew alternate Nectarine and
Peach trees. Between their narrow leaves lay hid at that season
hard green spheres of polished fruit. Later, the ripening peaches,
rounded full with the promise of Summer, will harmonise with
the old brick walls, in soft cadences of rose and amber. Here
and there a Blue Gloria enlaced the formal, pleached branches,
with great, wide flowers, with their evanescent glow of stainless
blue. The Gloria refuses to unroll the silken splendours of her
azure robe unless the sun in heaven shines fair. In our short-
lived Summer days " too often is his gold complexion dimmed,"
and thus too often will this fairest flower of the Beautiful Garden
begin to wrinkle and take leave of life, before the bell in the
turret clock tells noon. Yet in their own land they do not
last even so long.
To the hidden self in the Lady of Flowers when Gloria
was dead, came a voice from the gardens of the east. A far-
off voice that said " I saw you in your garden with a back-
ground of your Elms in their May glory, not quite green and
not quite brown, but just as if some fairy had touched the brown
An Indian branches with a shimmer of gold and green. Do you remember ?
Garden And then in June, when you picked me a blue convolvulus-
shaped flower ; what is it called ? They hardly last an hour.
Yesterday I sat facing a wall covered with them. It was in
the garden at Jeypur ; built and planted for the mother of one
of the Maharajahs. In front of me was a broad terrace ending
in a marble balustrade covered with a creeper with delicate pink
flowers like small flutes, from the Philippine Islands. Beyond,
a long vista of tropical foliage with here and there a fine tree
like an English Elm, and covered thickly with a kind of
Stephanotis flower. In the far distance a triple archway
entrance of purest white, built in the exquisite Mahomedan
shape of a hundred years ago. The foreground is all
Bougainville a and Hybiscus illuminated by the late afternoon
sun. On the left stood a white marble fountain with graceful
little wild doves and pigeons drinking, and close by a feathery
Palm reaching right away into the air, making a resting-place
for dozens of chattering, brilliant green parrots flying round it
like emeralds. Just in front was the fernery made of matting,
as all ferneries are here, and above on the wall, your blue
Convolvulus. Never have I seen such a contrast to your
own garden ! . . . ."
What fascination there is in blue ! I do not say in blue
paint* The various blues of flowers are countless. Yet every
one in turn is loveliest. In some strange way, legion though
they be, a blue flower is always more or less a surprise. The
most sumptuous rain-bow border of a palace garden never
could compare with the selvedge of a common field road I saw.
The road was rimmed on either side, with a crowd of blue
moons of Chicory (or Devil's bit scabious). Colour so cold,
so pure, so spirit-blue, surely came down straight from Summer.
Paradise ! Blue
Once, very early one grey April morning, I looked up as Flowers
I passed by a garden limestone rockery, and saw suddenly
arise right from the very heart of a large plant of Libert'ta
formosa, a bright blue starry flower ! Never before had I or
any of the gardeners beheld any such flower anywhere in the
garden. As if by magic the fairy vision was born, and none
could tell its name, nor how it came there. Afterwards, we
discovered the name, but not the mystery of its coming. For
many days those studded stars of blue lived on, the joy of our
eyes. Stiff with vigorous health and animation, the starry spike
of flower stood, till in due time it seeded. Then it lost itself
for ever, down among the thick, mothering leaves of Libertia.
As usual in the Beautiful Garden, it was more by chance
than design that a border shone with blue alone, at the south
end of it. Here a certain Sal via from Teneriffe made great
show. Small as is the flower itself, the whole plant covered all
over blue, outrivals in its colour even Salvia patens, in so great
profusion does he carry his innumerable sprays of little intensely
brilliant blooms. There, grew also a little pale blue Daisy,
yellow-centred ; a flower that no one ever could pass without
stooping down to look more closely, so subtle is the charm of it.
It owns a tiresome name, Kaulfussia amtlloidcs. And then
close by, another treasure, Broivallia speciosa major, is another
fascinating blue. Foremost among garden unattainables surely
are good simple English names !
A group of bronze-leaved and as yet flowerless plants I
know for Lobelia cardlnalis. In their season they will flash
out into fiery scarlet. In an angle of the walls, here made
A curious lovely with fig leaves, and where most luscious figs ripen under
Plant late September suns, a great Palm is planted. It is the kind
with quivering fan-like leaves, and takes no harm however cold
the Winter, for the stem is warmly clad, swathed round in its
own warm vegetable wool. The same south corner shelters
a robust and rather enticing large leaved shrub, Clerodendron
fcetidissima. The flowers are rosy umbels, strongly scented.
It is very handsome, although perhaps the scent may seem a
little too much like its name.
Before the turret clock strikes eight there is just time to
visit a certain common looking, shrubby plant, half hid among
the Roses. There is many a more showy plant to be found in
the Beautiful Garden, but none more curious. Only the initiated
might show any interest in so unattractive a plant. Yet
Physostegia Dracocephalum was once the object of hot dispute
and intense curiosity amongst the learned. The habit of the
Physostegia's little pale pinkish flower to stay fixed and still in
whatever position it may be turned, was thought to be caused
by coma. Yet a state of coma had hitherto been unknown,
unguessed, in the vegetable kingdom. It was deemed impossible,
and the phenomenon remained unaccounted for : the cause of it
shrouded in mystery. The plant even received the additional
name of Cataleptica. Unfortunately, some youthful student
resolved to clear up the matter. He never rested until he had
discerned some all but invisible hairs, which according to him,
hold the little flower fast, after it has been turned by the finger
to the right or left. This is disappointing ; yet truth is truth !
(I have been unable myself to find a vestige of these minute,
A characteristic of the Beautiful Garden is that here and
there immense clumps of different plants grow up unchecked. Summer.
As a rule, within so small a space the beds would be laid out in Secret of
low, level plots, and the whole garden would be seen at once, Variety
without a break. Here, however, are vistas between orange
Alstroemeria and scarlet Lychnis, or lawns two yards square
shut in with Roses and Larkspur and double white Campion, and
short lengths of espalier, and trees of the brown-leaved Prunus ;
so that one secret of laying out a small garden is unconsciously
attained the secret of variety. For in your limited space, you
must vary the lines as much as possible, and if your ground
lacks length and breadth, then variation must come in the
differing heights. Thus Cosmos bipinnatus grows here in the
Beautiful Garden, in great thickets four feet high : a maze of
delicate green filagree. As July wanes into August Cosmos ap-
pears " attired in stars " of pink interchanged with crimson.
. . . There is the sound of a click ! of lifting the latch of
a gate ; the narrow little gate called Empire. And there is but
time for one glance at that choice flower of delight, Incarvillea
Delavayi, erect in all his pride of stature flushed with rose, as
he stands near the little portal. I must make haste away before
she enters, for to meet the Lady of Flowers thus early within her
sacred garden precinct would be, in her eyes, unforgiveable
E. V. B.
" June takes up the sceptre of May."
" There's a music of bells from the trampling teams,
Wild skylarks hover, the gorses blaze,
The rich, ripe rose as with incense steams
Midsummer days ! midsummer days !
A soul from the honeysuckle strays,
And the nightingale as from prophet heights
Sings to the earth of her million Mays
Midsummer nights ! O midsummer nights ! "
W. E. Henley.
Selection A S the year progresses it becomes increasingly difficult to
and Effect y\ gi ye suggestions as to what flowers to grow for the
best effect ; the profusion of them is so great that
sacrifice becomes unavoidable. If the aim for the garden is that
it should be rich in flower pictures rather than in the number of
its plants and this is a much more feasible ambition for many
small gardens selection is a necessity. Many lovely flowers
must be omitted from want of space, or want of time to arrange
Among the wealth of June flowers the Iris, Peony, and
Rose stand out pre-eminently, and, roughly speaking, may be
said to follow each other in the order given, and to be willing
to grow fairly well in any soil.
In some parts Azaleas are the glory of this month, but
though so particularly beautiful if grown in peaty or sandy
soil with shelter from wind, they are disappointing, and
give a sad sense of failure, if these conditions are wanting.
It is in some ways a misfortune that the same soil suits June.
Azaleas and Rhododendrons equally well, as the colours clash Azalea and
and diminish each the beauty of the other. Rhododendrons Rhododen-
range from white through pink to crimson, and from mauve to
purple, and, like the Azaleas, they are disappointing if they
cannot be grown at their very best.
On peat or sand, even the common kinds will be wonder-
fully beautiful, if given plenty of room and planted in shades
which blend; too often one sees a mixed bed, the colours of
which clash rather than harmonise.
Gardens in Cornwall or Devonshire, or very sheltered ones
along the South Coast, are fortunate in being able to grow the
Himalayan varieties, which surpass all other shrubs in the trans-
cendent loveliness of their flowers. At Tregothnan, in May,
the stretches of Rhododendrons seen against the sloping
woods, and the distant curves of the river wending its
way to Falmouth, make a wonderful picture. In more
sheltered spots are trees of such rare kinds as R. F ale oner i
and argenteum, covered with their marvellous flowers.
Perhaps the most beautiful of all is R. JJucklandi, which
bears trusses of about seven immense pure white flowers, five
inches across. The sketch of this Rhododendron was done at
Killiow, where there is a magnificent plant over twenty feet
Azaleas run from white to yellow, orange, pink and flame-
colour; the darkest are fine Indian reds; every tone blends,
and at the moment their colour beauty seems to surpass that of
every other flower.
Here, every scrap of soil would have to be imported for
them, while twelve miles away, at Saltwood, all the kinds,
Azalea and Mollis, Ghent and Indica, thrive luxuriantly. Early in June
Sweet the Azalea garden there is full of delicious combinations of
Rocket c l ur > mauve, with white or yellow near by, and orange
Mollts, dwarf in growth, with larger flowers more strongly
scented than the Ghent varieties. At every turn a new picture
comes into view ; foremost in remembrance is a pathway gar-
landed with a Reve d'Or rose, thick with its bronze shoots,
which form, together with fine evergreen trees, a beautiful
background for the blaze of colour given by the Azaleas, their
hues of warm yellow and red orange, flesh and full salmon-
pink, all culminating in a brilliant flaming red.
In suitable soil these Ghent Azaleas will thrive in woods.
They take care of themselves among the undergrowth, and soon
look as if they were native to the place.
Our only woodland effect just now is given by Sweet
Rocket and wild Parsley. It seems a poor effect to mention after
Azaleas, but in its own humbler way it is very beautiful. The
Rocket is perennial and gives no trouble ; it grows about three feet
high, and bears spikes of white and pale pink flowers, delicately
but very sweetly scented in the evening. The old plants
maintain a successful struggle against the many weeds, and seed
themselves. The double white Rockets are delightful garden
plants, but require much more care, and must be divided every
second year to keep them strong. They can be increased by
cuttings made of the spring shoots, or by division.
In the early part of June the flower which we count on
above all others for pleasure is the Iris not that its flowering
time is confined to that short space, but some of the showiest
varieties are out then, and they are of the greatest value before
the Roses open. Throughout the Spring and Summer they are
among the most beautiful of garden flowers, graceful in form June.
and most varied in colour, running through many shades of Varieties of
white, mauve, purple, yellow, bronze and claret. Some are j r j s
most exquisitely veined and marked, vying in this way with
many rare hothouse plants, and in many cases their foliage has
the advantage of lasting and looking well for months of the
year ; even in winter bright fresh green tips are to be seen
Irises are generally divided into two classes, the bulbous or
Xiphions, and those with fleshy roots or rhizomes. The bulbous,
as a rule, like a light rich sandy soil, good drainage and plenty
of sun. The rhizomatous section may be divided again into
groups of bearded and unbearded Irises. The bearded, in which
are included all the varieties of Iris Germanica, are generally
quite easy to grow, liking a dry sunny position and plenty of
good feeding. In some soils they increase so fast that it is
necessary to pull them to pieces every second year to prevent
overcrowding of the fleshy roots ; in other soils they can be left
undisturbed some years. It is important that replanting should
be done as soon as possible after flowering, and that the rhizomes
should not be buried underground.
The beardless class to which belong our wild English
Flag and the Japanese Iris as a rule love moisture, and the
different kinds want more varied treatment ; some prosper in
loam, others in peat or bog.
As one Iris or another can be had in flower for nine months
of the year, it is only possible to suggest a few of the varieties
which might be grown. Iris pumlla succeeds such kinds as
Stylos a, Reticulata, etc. they are dwarf, but bear large flowers,
purple, white, mauve, or yellow, and are out about the
Succession same time as the Daffodils, the purple looking particularly well
of Iris in front of Emperor Narcissus. On soil they like they are
excellent for borders ; a nursery gardener near here uses them to
edge many of the paths ; they make a firm band of low green,
brilliant when in flower. After the pumlla group come one
after the other, through the Summer, the many forms of Iris
Germanica, Sibirica, Spanish, Ocbroleuca^ Aurea, Monnieri and
Spuria, the English, and latest of all the Japanese, in July and
Iris Germanica is in beauty now. The illustration was
taken from borders of them running down each side of our
pergola. The purple and white varieties, which were flowering
the end of May, are over, and they are succeeded by a few of
the numberless kinds worth growing. The whole effect is a
lovely mauve blue it is often called, but blue to me is the
colour of Forget-me-not or Anchusa Italica, for instance. There
are red-mauve and blue-mauve flowers, combined with purple
and bronze, an infinite variety of shades. They bloom for some
weeks, and are there to greet the early roses like Madame Alfred
Carriere and Reine Olga de Wurtemburg. An added charm is
the difference in their heights. Dalmatica is a foot taller than
the others, giving a pleasing irregularity to the outline it flowers
later, too, and looks particularly well grouped at the foot of a
Reve d'Or Rose with its loose bunches of yellow Roses.
My favourites are
Pallida a large self mauve.
Dalmatica another large round flower of most exquisite
mauve set well apart on tall stems.
Conte de St Glair white standards, violet and white falls.
Mrs H. Darwin white with a waved edge, veined and
margined with mauve, nearly as tall as Dalmatica, June.
very free flowerer. Iris Ger-
Louis Van Houtte
All having lavender standards and falls Sibirica
of various shades of purple.
Flavescens-- cream and yellow.
Madam Chereau white veined and edged with mauve.
Darkie yellow and red mahogany.
Le Vesuvel , , , ,
. , ,. moth very dark.
Many of the mixed bronze, yellow, and purple Irises are
fine in colour; to see them at their best they must be
grown away from the neighbourhood of mauve, and near
white or cream flowers. Some of the queer almost pink kinds
are fine against copper Beeches, being shown up by the dark
background. Clumps of Iris look well almost anywhere, but
the most delightful way to grow them is in a garden of their
own with grass paths and many beds filled with the best sorts.
Iris Germanica is followed by Iris Sibirica, much the
finest form being orientals. In a damp sunny spot it grows
four or five feet high, with luxuriant grassy foliage and brilliant
violet flowers on slender stalks ; the distinguishing feature is the
deep red sheath which holds the bud. The sketch was done at
the Royal Horticultural Garden at Wisley, where they formed
a^magnificent mass of colour near the ponds. Spirtea Aruncus
grew on the slope above and there were a few plants of fine Day
Lilies. After sibirica come the Spanish Iris and ochroleuca.
These are making a very effective group in a nursery garden
close by, clumps of white Spanish Iris thrown out by a very
Late Irises fine violet Canterbury bell, and behind, Iris ochroleuca, with its
and Lupins l n g sword-like leaves and tall white and yellow flowers. These
Spanish Irises are most useful for picking, and are so cheap, only
about tenpence a hundred, that if space is a great consideration
they can be treated as annuals and thrown away when the flower
is over ; otherwise they should be kept in the ground as they then
increase and make strong clumps. A good plan is to put
them under Pinks, or any plant with small roots and the same
spreading habit. It is worth while paying a little extra to have
the bulbs in separate colours, and then good effects can be made
of white, blue, bronze and yellow. The English Iris, which
does not flower till July, wants much the same treatment, and
is equally useful.
A very valuable plant for grouping, which is out at the same
time as Iris orientalis, is Luplnus arboreus. At Wisley this Tree
Lupin has taken complete possession of some rough banks made
by digging out a ditch ; they have seeded themselves, and there is
now a wealth of white and pale yellow bloom, with a scent as
sweet as that of Beans. Here and there are tufts of golden
Broom and purple Iris, and a few Briars toss their long sprays
towards the sky, making altogether a picture much more lovely
than I can describe or paint, but easily attainable in many
gardens. These Lupins grow quickly from seed, and it is better
to raise some every year to be sure of a stock, as the old plants
may disappear suddenly in a bad Winter, and never seem to be
very long lived.
Lupinus polyphyllus, a perennial also quickly raised from
seed, is useful for naturalising, and can be had white or in
lovely shades of blue; it is delightful, growing in clumps in
long grass with Columbines, or massed in the borders. The
shades of blue vary a good deal, some being of an exquisite soft June,
tone and others of a more ordinary mauve or purple. It is Poppy
worth while securing the seed from some really good stock to Effects
start with, or begging a root, as it can be increased by division.
We grow the white with the Oriental Poppies ; it makes a most
brilliant effect, but, alas, one very quickly over.
The trouble of these magnificent Poppies is that they want
a great deal of room when they are in flower and are very
untidy afterwards. If space admits, it is best to devote a bed
to them in some wild part of the garden where saxifraga
hypnoides making a sheet of white with its tiny flowers or
some of the big Thistles, might be grown among them. The
two best red kinds are shown in the sketch ; or lent ale is an
orange-scarlet having sometimes a large black blotch at the base
of each petal bracteatum is a fine crimson with black blotches,
and much taller and stronger in growth. There are several
pink kinds to be had as well now, a pale, rather dirty mauve-
pink, and a good terra-cotta, which is less gaudy than the bright
scarlet and very effective.
Papaver pilosum is another delightful perennial Poppy about
two feet high, bearing apricot-coloured flowers on branched stems,
and leaves of a soft grey-green. It is very easily raised from seed.
In Mrs Boyle's garden a charming picture was made by
this orange Poppy and blue Nemophila growing at the base of
an old sun-dial. It looks particularly well too with white near
it, Columbines or Campanulas for instance.
There are several useful blues out just now ; Love-in-the-
mist and Anchusa Italica being two of the most lovely. In
both the colour is apt to vary a good deal. Love-in-the-mist is
sometimes very pale, but it can be obtained deep soft blue ; and
Anchusa it is important therefore to look out for a good strain of seed.
and Autumn sown plants are always much the strongest. Anchusa
Campanula f fa ^ ca can be either a rather crude French blue or pure cobalt.
It is a most valuable plant as it continues flowering most of the
Summer and looks well anywhere. I like it best of all with
white, but if a gayer effect is wanted, grow it in the borders
near posts of Paul's Carmine Pillar Rose.
Many kinds of Campanulas are in beauty now, and are
invaluable in the borders and the wild garden. The biennial
Canterbury Bells lend themselves to a great variety of treatment ;
the more they are massed the better they look, and they are not
particular where they grow. We have a plantation of them
in the open, a gay mixture of all the colours, and I have seen
them doing equally well on a piece of rough ground under large
trees. Seed can be had in separate colours, and single or double,
the violet being particularly fine. It should be sown in April,
and flowers will then, be produced the following June year.
Later on in the month several perennial kinds of Campanula
are out which should be in every garden. C. grandis, mauve
and white, comes first growing about two feet high, and bearing
handsome spikes of flowers. They are strong growers, and
increase quickly by division. C. Macrantha, purple, about four
or five feet high, and C. Glomerata, either purple or white,
with tufts of flowers at the tops of the stems, do well in woody
places. Rather later in the month come two of the most
useful, C. persicifolia and lactiflora. Persiclfolia is both mauve
and white, and in soil it likes increases very fast. To get the
best flowers it should be taken up and divided pretty frequently.
There was a lovely mass of it at Wisley, looking as if it had
seeded itself profusely under a bush of Sfiirtea Reevesi^ the long
OLD DOVOR HOVSE, CANTERBURY.
white sprays of the latter bending over to meet the erect spikes June,
of the Campanula. Valerian
For rough places where little can be expected to grow, Geranium
Valerian must not be despised ; it enjoys old walls or steep an( j Giant
banks. The sketch, made in a garden which not many years p
ago was nothing but an old chalk pit, shows how gay a clothing
it can be to arid spots. There are three distinct sorts, white,
pink, and a fine red.
Geraniums are worth introducing, especially into the wild
garden, where they look thoroughly appropriate, and are gay
with flowers all the month. There is a pale mauve one, native
to Scotland, which in garden soil makes a good clump three feet
high. Geranium pratense is a large deep purple one. The
handsomest of all is claret-coloured, the large flowers pencilled
very delicately with dark lines.
The giant Parsnip, Heracleum giganteum, is a splendid
plant f)r naturalising under trees, or in any spot of which it can
be allowed to take entire possession. Handsome as it is, the
immense leaves and great white umbels ten feet or more in
height, and the freedom with which it seeds, make it an almost
impossible plant for the border. We have spared a few in one
place, because they make such a good background to Delphiniums.
It is magnificent if given room and allowed to form a miniature
forest of its own.
The flowering shrubs of this month are too many to be
included in these short notes, but it must not be forgotten that
Lilacs, Laburnums, Guelder Roses, Weigelas, etc., all belong to
the early Summer. Honeysuckles, too, flower through May,
June and July, and some kinds, like the late Dutch, right up
to the Autumn. They should be largely grown in the wild
Honey- garden, planted to grow up trees and hedges, or to creep over
suckle the roots of dead trees, so as to bring their sweetness down to
earth. The wild one Lomcera periclymenum is lovely on
some of the Suffolk commons, covering low Gorse bushes, and
even trailing over Heather clumps. In our part of the world its
beauty is nearly always out of reach at the very top of the
Of Peonies and Roses there is so much to be said that they
must have special articles to themselves ; that on Peonies has
been kindly contributed by Mr Richmond Powell, and that on
Climbing Roses by Mrs Crofton. Roses in general are treated
of in " July."
FROM the earliest period of Greek Mythos, the age that June,
through the mist and glamour of time appears to us Home of the
glowing with poetry and exuberant fancy, there comes Peony
the legend of Poeon, the medicine-man, disciple of ^Esculapius,
whose function it was to heal the wounds received by the gods
during the Trojan war. Having cured Pluto of injuries that
had been inflicted by Hercules, jEsculapius, under the sting of
torturing jealousy, compassed his death. But Pluto, out of love
and gratitude, transformed the ensanguined body into a crimson-
stained flower, so that the world should for all time have a
memorial of the renowned healer, and the flower was endowed
with his name, the Paeonia, and still perpetuates it.
Peonies, in their different varieties, are at home in many
parts of the globe. One need travel no further than to the
Southern slopes of the Alps, Monte Generoso, for instance, to
see them growing wild in profusion ; and other distinct species
are to be found throughout Southern Europe, the Caucasus,
Persia, Siberia, China, Japan and North America. All are
denizens of the Northern Hemisphere, and in their natural state,
are single, or at most semi-double; but the stamens, as with
Roses, readily lend themselves under cultivation to development
into petals, and hence we get the fine double flowers that are
now so popular.
Thirty, twenty years ago, even to not a few people at the
present day, the name of Peony suggested nothing but the old
double red May-blooming flower that has now been banished
from so many gardens, but that still is to be found in cottage
Colour plots. "A crude, hard, flaunting colour," is the accusation
Effect of levelled at it by those whose nerves are delicate and who are,
Peonies Perhaps, deficient in a sense of the fitting. A jarring note it
may be if set in an uncongenial environment, choking and
crushing out the more tender beauties of Aquilegias, Tulips or
Pansies. But place this flaunting flower discriminatingly at the
edge of a shrubbery : plant a mass of it on a grassy bank in
close proximity to the soft fresh green of early Spring foliage :
or near the margin of a pool in company with Solomon's seal
no harm if in partial shade from trees and see what a striking
effect of colour may be produced. In the Officinalis section, to
which the old double red Peony belongs, there are also white
and pink forms of the same flower, both single and double, free
growing, so that with this section alone considerable variety and
contrast may be attained.
There are also other natural species, such as Paeonia Albi-
flora, P. Decora^ P. Emodi, P. Peregrina, P. Tenuifolia (single
and double), and the charming pale yellow P. Wittmanniana,
besides others which are rarely met with in cultivation, but all
well worth growing in wild gardens, or where space is not a
The great advance in Peonies that has taken place in late
years has, however, been brought about by crossing and recross-
ing the Officinalis and Albiflora groups, the so-called herbaceous
or Chinese Peonies, on the one hand, and by the careful selection
and development of the Moutan or Tree Peony on the other.
Every shade of colour from purest snow-white through cream,
sulphur, diaphanous pink, rose, salmon, cherry red, magenta to
deep purple-crimson has now been produced : and variety of
colour has been almost equalled by diversity of form, for we
have singles huge cups like Water-lilies, filled with a sheaf of June,
golden stamens lovely semi-doubles, and full doubles ; some Culture of
with high centres under which the guard (outer) petals almost Peonies
disappear, some like gigantic Anemones, some with a bunch of
tassel-like stamens, others with centre petals like silky white or
pink feathers, amongst which soft lights and shadows play with
Moutan Peonies which flower earlier have been described
in the May notes, so that here we are concerned only with
the June-flowering herbaceous Peonies. These are hardy as
any Dock or Dandelion, and are handsome plants in the border
from the time their carmine shoots push up from the crowns in
March till the strong foliage fades through deep green-red and
orange-russet to its last shrivelled brown in November. Here
in East Kent they thrive splendidly, either in full sun or partial
shade, and seem to revel in the disintegrated chalk soil of the
locality. I set new plants in October or November, if possible,
and prepare their resting place by digging a hole from two to
three feet in depth and of about similar diameter: at the
bottom is laid a layer of three or four inches of well rotted
stable manure, then six inches of soil (good loam) and then
further alternate layers of manure and soil till the surface level
is reached. The plant should then be placed in the middle of
this prepared plot and the crown covered with about an inch of
soil. There it should remain undisturbed for many years, for
Peonies resent being moved and if subjected to this indignity
revenge themselves by refusing to flower, or flowering badly, for
a year or two. They are gross feeders and enjoy three or four
good draughts of liquid manure during the growing stage,
especially when just coming into bloom. I also give them a
Useful liberal mulching of manure each winter. Some of my Peonies
Varieties of have been in their present position for seventeen years : the
Peony st l s are now very large, although I constantly cut off pieces to
give away, and they bear from forty to sixty magnificent heads
of flower each June.
Florists' catalogues are overcrowded with names of Peonies,
very many of which resemble each other so closely that the
ordinary amateur can detect no practical difference between
them. It would be impossible here to give an exhaustive list
of even really distinct varieties, so I must content myself with
naming a few of the best kinds out of the fifty-six carefully
selected specimens that grow well here.
Albert Crousse pale pink.
Candidissima large pure white.
General Cavaignac guard petals pink, centre bright sul-
phur on opening changing to white.
Kelway's Queen flesh pink, very lovely and sweet-
Lady Alexandra Duff French white very large.
Madam Auruffle cherry red, some of the centre petals
Madame de Vatry pale pink changing to cream,
very high centre flecked with crimson large and
Magnifica white, centre stained with deep crimson one
of the finest.
Magome jiro white guard petals, with thread-like
stamens, very distinct.
Peach blossom lovely self pink.
Princess Louise rose pink charming.
Prolifera Tricolor cream with yellowish centre blotched June.
Whitleyi large single white with golden stamens
W. RICHMOND POWELL.
Effect of T F authors wrote of Roses all the livelong day, and painted
Carmine them in words to match their sweetness, they would never
Pillar and te ^ one na ^ f tne gl rv f tne Queen of Flowers.
other ^ am no authority on Climbing Roses, I only write from an
Climb artistic point of view, and after all if we planted from this view
we should make more points of interest in a garden. What
could be more beautiful than to come suddenly round a corner
and find Penzance briars trained up larch poles as pillar Roses,
red-orange in the sun, with dark blue Firs for background ?
It is no use having a new Rose if it is not a good grower,
and old favourites should never be discarded for new if they are
strong, of good colour, and flower courageously.
Nothing can compare with the " Carmine Pillar " Rose.
One of the most perfect memories I have had this year was a
glorious June day in the Barn Garden at Limnerslease. The
great artist was dying in his London home I felt we were on
holy ground. Two arches of Carmine Pillar spanned the
path, great single petalled Roses shining like rubies in the sun.
Their white centres were like pearls ; I never saw such a mass
of colour anywhere before. The wondrous tiled roof of the
great grey barn was half smothered in clusters of the yellow
rambler " Aglaia." The wall on one side of the square was a
wealth of the dear old Gloire de Dijon, and bushes of old-
fashioned pink Roses were in the beds with the grey wood of
the barn for background. Next the " Carmine Pillar " arches,
pale blue Delphiniums grew they borrowed their tint from the
sky when the sun was out on a day in June. They were
wonderful spires, some of the fairest blue petals just washed with June.
the softest touch of pink. At their feet grew very pale yellow Some Rose
Irises and soft white and blush Canterbury Bells. It was all Gardens
sunshine arid colour.
Another picture I see was in July. It was eventide, and
the setting sun rested lovingly on an arch of Leuchstern Roses.
A mass of bright pink clusters growing closely together from
the base to the topmost twig. Each tiny single Rose has a
white centre like Apple-blossom. Through the arch I saw a
mass of white Madonna Lilies in the shade. They were almost
ghost-like in their whiteness and wove themselves into a dream.
I never saw their like. The background of dark trees, with
sunlight glinting through the branches here and there, made the
pink and the white brighter and purer.
I know a garden which has a Sweetbriar hedge all round it,
the scent of which carries far in the evening breeze. Over the
hedge, chains carry Roses from point to point, making drooping
garlands as they go. There is a gate in the middle of each side
of the garden spanned by an arch covered with Rosa polyantha,
which falls in great showers, when the hedge is covered with
pink. There is a fountain of water in the middle, and beds of
all the most beautiful Hybrids and Tea Roses round. Through
the white arches were golden-cut Yews, blue Delphiniums,
golden Mulleins (" Ladies' fingers " as they are called by
the women-folk). It is a garden where Roses love to
I grow the Carmine Pillar up larch poles in my garden,
and by the door of my Garden Room. It is by far the best
Pillar Rose that there is, and though it sometimes loses leaves it
never gets mildewed like the dear Crimson Rambler, and is a
A Pergola of more possible colour to paint. " Dorothy Perkins " is a lovely
Yellow pink climber, but I have not yet tested its strength.
Roses There is another Rose garden that I love, with a sundial in
its midst. It has a Rose hedge all round, a double rough trellis
covered with Roses on either side. You enter by an arch covered
on one side with " Queen Olga of Wurtemburg," a blaze of
colour, meeting " Papillon " with much smaller flowers, varied
from paler to fuller salmon-crimson. " Madame Alfred Carriere "
is on the trellis-hedge, the large white flowers faintly tinged
with blush are always sweet-scented. " Claire Jacquier " is
there, and the colours blend, for the branches get entwined, and
you see it as a whole and do not trouble to bend over labels of
I saw a wall covered with " E. V. Hermanos," I wonder
why so few people grow this Rose ? It was one mass of bloom,
very sweet-scented, of rosy-yellow shaded with peach and pink.
A loving hand disbuds the Rose lest it should bloom itself to
I once saw a long pergola, leading on to the blue beyond,
covered with yellow Roses of many kinds " William Allen
Richardson" with its dark orange buds, " Alister Stella Gray"
shading almost to white, " Aglaia," " Reve d'Or," and
" Bouquet d'Or." It was a wonderful sight, for the flowers
crept underneath and over, and grew in a golden tangle catch-
ing the sun in showers. At its base ran a narrow border of
dark purple Heliotrope, its sweet fragrance meeting the scent f
Roses in mid-air.
After all we may prate of new climbing Roses, but is there
any Rose which really beats our faithful old friend Gloire de
Dijon ? with its great strong arms reaching round the house and
covered with bloom. It comes into flower first to greet the June,
love of June, and it flowers in Autumn to show us it does not Climbing
dread the coming of Winter. Roses for
One side of my home is buried in June in the flowers of ^ e j-[ ouse
the Gloire, great branches of Reve d'Or, with its golden tresses
and long brown shoots, Longworth Rambler with its wonderful
bright rose-pink flowers, and pink China Roses at the base which
have wandered up the trellis, envious of the sunshine higher up.
On my verandah I have masses of " Felicite Perpetue' "
" Maids of the Village " I prefer to call it it is a far prettier
name. The blossom hangs like great white waves and bends
the branches low. Crimson Ramblers mix up with the white,
the dashes of crimson colour making the Roses whiter and purer.
There is nothing so beautiful in all my garden when the sky is
dark blue and the doves are cooing. I am not surprised that
the birds choose such a shelter for their nests.
"... Round ray casement blow
Those clustering roses fancy hath baptized
Maids-of-the-Village ; and adown they hang,
Like to a waterfall you see far off,
That foams but moves not."
Then Fortune's Yellow ? Who would not grow Fortune's
Yellow if they could ? It is such a sadly capricious Rose ! I
know of two cottages literally covered with it, and the loose
untidy flowers are the loveliest blooms in the world. They
are yellow with shades of apricot and red and pink, no two
blossoms alike in colour or size. You will be told this Rose will
only grow on a sheltered south wall, but I have seen it as a
Pillar Rose facing east, with great branches covered with gold.
The best gardeners in the world fail to make it grow, and then
Some Rose at other times it will " go away " with no lavish care or extra
Pictures trouble at all. There is a spirit of mischief in the heart of this
Another one which grows beautifully on a south wall is
L'Ide'al, a Tea Rose which climbs freely and throws out long
branches covered with flowers. I cannot describe the colour ;
it is not so golden as Fortune's Yellow, it has almost a bronze
shade in it, and pink and yellow and red. Plant it with bushes
of soft blue Ceanotbus under it, and in front white Madonna
Lilies, and then if an artist does not call it a picture bid him walk
on to the next garden to see scarlet Geraniums, Calceolarias, and
Lobelias planted in rows.
In many places folk plant climbing Roses up the bare stems
of old trees or living Fir trees. In a churchyard where Scotch
Firs grew, every stem was covered with climbing Roses, crimson
and white. They grew to the top of the trees ; I never saw a
fairer sight. In George Herbert's garden there is a very old
Acacia tree, too old to support branches any longer, which is
covered with Crimson Rambler. It is most picturesque, and
the colour seems to weave into the peace of the garden
as one stands by the well-known old Medlar tree watch-
ing the river flowing past on its way to the great sea, and
thinking of the one who loved that garden, and watched the
same river flow. There is a wonderful atmosphere about a
garden. I am sure you can feel the spirit of George Herbert
is still there just as you can realise when you enter any garden,
the atmosphere created by the owner.
DELPHINIUM. LILY. POPPY.
" Soon will the high Midsummer pomps come on,
Soon will the musk carnations break and swell,
Soon shall we have gold-dusted snapdragon,
Sweet-william with his homely cottage-smell,
And stocks in fragrant blow ;
Roses that down the alleys shine afar,
And open, jasmine-muffled lattices,
And groups under the dreaming garden-trees,
And the full moon, and the white evening-star."
" And nearer to the river's trembling edge
There grew broad flag-flowers, purple, prank'd with white,
And starry river-buds among the sedge,
And floating water-lilies, broad and bright."
NO hard and fast line can be drawn between the last week July,
of June and the first of July ; the flowers crowd and Succession
overlap each other, and vary in their dates for coming o f Roses
out with the variations of the weather. Roses and Lilies reign
supreme above all the beauty that Midsummer brings us.
Roses, in which we have been revelling through June, are
still entrancing in their beauty through the earlier weeks of
July. Fresh kinds are opening every day to fill the places of
those tired out with flowering; these have earned a rest, and
many of them in a little time will have made fresh growth and
be full of bud again. Some of the most lovely Cluster Roses
unfortunately bloom only once, and it is difficult to dissociate
from them a feeling of regret that their beauty is so transient,
and will shortly be gone for another year.
Some early Among climbers Madame Alfred Carriere a Hybrid Tea
Climbing with us excels all others for early and late blooming. The end
Roses f May sees it in bud, through June it is covered with its very
sweet white flowers, and up to Christmas there are always good
blooms to be found. It needs only plenty of room ; we have it
on walls and pergola and fence, growing equally well every-
where, but perhaps most successfully on the fence, where the
long shoots can spread as they like, not even restricted by the
clinging embrace of Clematis flammula. Other quite early Roses
and rampant growers are :
ReVe d'Or yellow, beautiful in Spring and Autumn, with
Paul's Carmine Pillar, and the White Pillar both single
Roses, which rush into bloom the beginning of June,
and make sheets of red and white, but, unfortunately,
soon come to an end. They must have room ; we
have the red on a wall about ten feet high, and it
is quite difficult to know what to do with the new
wood each year.
Aglaia with cream and yellow clusters.
Papillon a pink noisette, which flowers again in the
Autumn, and bears bunches of from three to twelve
good-sized flowers, with fascinating, well-shaped buds
varying in colour from cream to several shades of full
pink ; it does equally well on a wall or pillar.
Reine Olga de Wurtemburg, Reine Marie Henriette,
Cheshunt Hybrid three good reds.
Marechal Niel, the Banksian Roses, and Fortune's
The latter is one of the earliest of all, but lovely as it is
here, with its delicate foliage and numbers of loose orange-pink July.
flowers, its greatest beauty can only be seen in a warmer climate ; Banksia and
memories of it wreathing Olive trees and falling in golden China Roses
showers, or climbing tall Fir trees with Wistaria, festooning the
whole tree with garlands of mauve and orange, invite com-
parison against one's will.
The Banksian Roses, both white and yellow, grow freely
here, probably liking the dry chalk subsoil ; one old white
plant, now some forty feet in height, has been on the house
thirty years or more. It must not be forgotten that the little
pruning these Roses want must be done directly they have ceased
to flower ; the young growth of the year should be cut back,
and weak wood taken right out.
Among dwarf varieties, the China Roses are the first and also
the last to bloom. They look particularly well planted in large
masses, and are literally perpetual. Directly the flowers have
been cut off they set to work to form new sprays, and are just
as gay as ever in a week or two. The old blush-pink should
never be left out ; it is a stronger grower than many of the new
sorts with finer colouring, and is first-rate for a low wall, or for
forming a double hedge with Lavender or Rosemary, or a bed
of it alone looks particularly well, giving a soft pink effect.
If room allows, nearly all the Monthlies are worth growing,
Eugene Re*sal copper and bright rose pink.
Laurette Messimy salmon pink.
Comtesse du Cayla orange and red ; gorgeous.
All these are vigorous and quite lovely, and seldom without
flowers. Other good kinds are :
Irene Watts white.
China and Hermosa pink.
Pompon Fabvier fine red.
Roses Cramoisie-supe'rieure red ; will climb.
The free-growing Monthlies can be planted among shrubs
in herbaceous borders. A tangle of Cramoisie Superieure with
Spiroea Aruncus and the Gum Cistus is delightful. The white
flowers of the Cistus glisten all the morning, but by twelve
o'clock their beauty is gone, the petals fallen to the ground,
and only the sprays of buds are left, with their promise for the
morrow. Another good contrast of white and red can be got
with this same red China Rose and double Deutsia. This bush
grows eight or ten feet high, forming graceful sprays of white,
and the Roses will tumble about over the topmost shoots.
Perhaps the prettiest effect of all is a white Cluster Rose wreathed
with the long trails of Tropteolum Speciosum.
The Pompon Roses are also among the earliest, and make
neat little plants which cover themselves with bloom, and flower
again late in the year. Perle d'Or is one of the most fascinating ;
when nearly all other Roses have disappeared we often pick
fine shoots bearing ten to fifteen of its miniature copper-coloured
flowers. All the following kinds are good :
Anna Marie de Montravel white.
Colibri white shaded to yellow in middle.
Leonie Lamesch deep orange and red, most brilliant and
unusual in colour.
It is impossible to do more than mention my own favourites,
as a suggestion towards a few of the many Roses that should
be grown for mid- June.
Lamarque, with its clusters of large white flowers and lovely July.
scent, cannot be beaten as a wall Rose if it likes the Some good
soil, but it is variable. Climbing
Seven Sisters, an old-fashioned white cluster, is quite one of R O ses
the best ; it bears great heads of small flowers and buds
and is intensely white. The sketch shows it flowering
over an outhouse, the north side of the house, where
it made such splendid growth that a trellis had to be
put up in front to support the many boughs.
Alister Stella Grey and William Allen Richardson blend
well together, the first being cream in flower and
yellow in bud, and the second orange copper. It is
well to remember that this Rose is much more deeply
coloured if it is not grown in full sun.
Griiss an Teplitz is a magnificent deep red and a perpetual
flowerer, going on till late Autumn.
Thalia, a white cluster, and Euphrosyne, pale pink, are
out together ; they should be grown where they can
form a tangle at their own sweet pleasure, and will
shower cascades of white and pink.
Garland, Bennett's Seedling, and Climbing White Pet are
all white free-growing climbers, and lovely anywhere,
trained up poles, wreathing arches or walls, or climbing
into trees and falling in showers.
Rosa Multiflora, a Himalayan Rose, when it first bursts
into its wealth of blossom is like a glorified Bramble,
making a beautiful background to clumps of
Delphiniums, or any other border plant of fine
Flora, an exquisite blush and pink Rose, must have room to
Scotch ramble and fall, and will cover every inch of itself
Briers, with bloom.
Japanese Blush Rambler has the growth of the old Crimson
Roses Rambler, and is a lovely soft pink.
The very hardy Scotch Brier Roses make delightful bushes
for the wild garden, and the double white and yellow both do
well here left to themselves in the rough grass. Rosa rubrifolia
is good, the dark red stems and leaves making a mass of rich
sober colour, and Rosa rugosa and its Hybrids are all useful in
the same sort of place. The latter are vigorous and very hardy,
and such kinds as Blanc double de Coubert, Madame Georges
Bruant, Schneelicht dead white and Conrad F. Meyer
salmon-pink are very beautiful and flower a long time.
At the end of June, and lasting into July, come the
Wichurlana Rose and its Hybrids, the best of all for planting
to tumble down a haha wall, or grassy banks, as they trail and
creep like Ivy. The wild Japanese Wichuriana is a single
cream- white, with large sprays of buds which open slowly,
so that it remains in flower a long time, and even in early
August still looks full of promise. It is charming for growing
down such a place as the stone edging to a flight of steps.
Among the Hybrids the best are :
Gardenia with a full cream white flower.
Jersey Beauty single white with yellow buds.
Alberic Barbier clustered cream.
Ren Andre* salmon pink.
Paul Transom lovely pink full flower.
Dorothy Perkins a lovely bright pink with large clustering
heads like Crimson Rambler.
The Penzance Briers are at their best too here in July, and
can be trained to form first-rate hedges or pillars. They, or the July,
ordinary Sweet Brier, are particularly useful for clothing fences Late
in reach of cattle, as they will not touch them. Climbing
For late July there are many useful climbers, such as : Roses
Madame Plantier very white and free with a medium-
Felicite Perpetue with clusters of small white pompon-
like flowers and pink buds.
Psyche soft pink medium-sized flower.
Dorothy Perkins flowering much later than the other
Aime Vibert with large heads of buds and semi-double
The white Rose of which I cannot find the name painted
at Sharsted Court on July I4th, is a wonder of beauty. There
are wreaths of it all round the Rose garden, and, unlike many
other climbing Roses, it seems to flower all the more profusely
when pruned back pretty hard. The Rose garden itself is
surrounded by old brick walls and fine trees, so that these Rose
wreaths are delightfully thrown out by a variety of backgrounds.
In another part of the garden a wall bounding a terraced walk is
draped in white with the flowers of Madame Plantier.
The uses to which these free-growing Roses can be put
are almost endless. If there is an ugly fence to cover, or a
screen is wanted to separate one bit of garden from another, a
few posts and a light trellis may be easily put up, and will be
covered in two years with Roses. Walls, Pergolas, arches,
bridges, banks of streams, etc., may all be clothed. The more
naturally they are grown the better they look. Crimson
Rambler is at its best clambering over an evergreen hedge, as of
Roses in Thuya, and such kinds as Garland, Felicit6 Perpetu6, Flora,
the Wild Dawson's Pink, will make fountains of Roses over almost
Garden and anything. The sketch of Rose Euphrosyne with white
Churchvard Foxgloves shows how charmingly they can be used to form a
tangle of beauty in the wild garden.
A Rose alley is a delightful sight ; one in an Algerian
garden always remains in my remembrance a winding avenue
of Eucalyptus, and on either side tumbling masses of a semi-
double blush Rose with a bright pink centre. Hybrids of Rosa
multtflora and Wichurlana, or the Ayrshire Roses, could well
be used in this way. If a good square hole were cut in the
grass when they were first planted, and the soil properly made,
they would need very little attention for years. On soil that
looked like pure gravel I have seen Reine Olga de Wurtemburg
growing in the form of a huge umbrella, flowering all over on
strong shoots, so that the Roses could be picked with stalks
nearly two feet long. Close by Marie Van Houtte was ten
feet high, and Madame Lambard had grown into a tree right
in the wood. In this particular garden the Roses are chosen for
strength as much as beauty, and very little pruning is allowed
of either Teas or climbers.
Above all Roses should be planted in our churchyards, the
more rampantly growing kinds to form groups of lovely flower
between the graves or against the walls, and the low growers
at the base of the old grey tombstones so often uncared for
and only half erect. The Wichurianas, which creep almost like
Ivy, or Roses good for pegging down such as Una a large
single white or Gloire Lyonnaise, which throws up perfect
white flowers the whole length of its six-foot shoots, are among
the best for this purpose.
Readers of Miss JekylPs delightful book, " Roses for July.
English Gardens," will remember many suggestive pictures for Carpet
the use of Roses in these and other ways. Plants for
Teas, Hybrid Teas, and Hybrid Perpetuals, I have left till R O se Beds
the last, partly owing to the difficulty of picking and choosing
a few names out of the hundreds of beautiful kinds. The
sketch, made at Mr Robinson's at Gravetye, shows what a
Rose garden may be even in the third week of July, when the
first flush of Roses is really over. The strength of the Roses may
be attributed a great deal to their being mostly on their own roots.
The cuttings are made in September, and laid in sideways in
the open ground with a long piece buried. Many kinds will be
found to grow much more freely in this way, as the Briers
perish in many soils in which the Teas and Hybrids will grow well.
The beds are not devoted to Roses alone but are filled with many
low-growing plants : Violas white, mauve, yellow, and purple ;
Sedums ; annual white Alyssum, Rhodanthe, a pink annual
lovely with pink Roses ; Veronica, above all good with
white Roses ; Kaulfussia, Dwarf Campanulas, Phacelia, Dwarf
Lavender, Platstemon californica, Simpkin Pinks, Gilias,
Carnations and blue Lobelia, Cupid Sweet Peas, and numbers
of others. In our own soil we find it best to devote the beds to
Roses alone, using such plants as Anemones or Violas for borders ;
so close above the chalk the Roses need all the nourishment
they can get. With Violas we find it most important to get
the young plants, made from cuttings the preceding September,
planted out early in the year, so as to get them established
before drought or great heat.
A list of the best kinds of Roses will be found in Miss
Kingsley's " Autumn " Article, as good Autumn Roses are also, as
Some a rule, the strongest and best for Summer flowering. Mr Mount,
beautiful ur celebrated Canterbury Rosegrower, has also given many
Roses names m tne following useful Paper, which he has kindly con-
tributed on the growth and culture of Roses.
The few favourites of mine not mentioned in either list are :
Corallina, Papa Gontier, Rainbow, Madame Jules Grolez,
Mademoiselle Yvonne Gravier, all pinks of different shades;
Madame Pierre Cocher, Madame Chedane Guinosseau, and
Sulphurea, yellow; Virginie, Rubens and Gloire Lyonnaise,
white; also the single Irish Roses Irish Beauty, Glory, and
CULTURE OF ROSES
FOR any person fond of growing flowers, there is no flower
that will better repay the care and attention bestowed on it
than the Rose, provided that one starts with the best and
most suitable varieties for the particular place that is chosen,
and also that the soil and position is fairly well suited for
them, and not altogether opposed to what they really
First, as to position. A fairly open ground, and exposed
to as much sun as possible, sheltered a little from the
strongest wind by hedges of Privet, shrubs, etc., but not over-
hung by large trees, as trees make too much draught and
Secondly, as to soil. A good moderately stiff loam is the
best soil, but any soil will grow them if properly prepared. The
soil should be double dug (not trenched) to a depth of 1 8 inches, July.
and if it is very light or sandy, it is improved by an addition of Planting of
heavy clay or loam. If too stiff, some light, well-rotted Roses
manure, and rough sharp sand, etc., is an improvement. Some
well-rotted manure may also be dug in before planting. When
the ground is prepared, select if possible a fairly dry day for the
planting, as the ground will work so much better, and will be
benefited all the following Summer by not being trodden about
in wet weather. The Roses can be planted either 2 feet square
or 2 feet by 1 8 in., according to the size of the bed, with a path
about a yard wide between every two or three rows, if a great
number are planted. A hole should be dug to about the depth
of one foot and about one foot square, and made nice and level at
the bottom with fine earth. The roots should be evenly spread
out over the soil, a spadeful or two of fine earth thrown in on
them, and be well trodden down. A little manure can then be
put in on top of the earth, the hole filled up with some more
soil, and very lightly pressed down with the foot.
When finished, the union of the Rose to the stock should be
about two inches below the ground. After the bed is planted
a mulching of manure on top of the ground all round the plant
is a good thing. If the ground is at all dry at the time of
planting a half gallon or so of water to each plant is beneficial,
but it is better done after the mulch is on, as that prevents the
soil from cracking.
About the beginning of March the Roses will require pruning,
and this is an important matter with young plants, as a great
deal depends on the first year's pruning as to whether the plants
will make good-shaped bushes or not. The different classes of
Roses require different methods of pruning. (The N.R.S. issue
Pruning of a good manual on this subject, with directions for any
First. The Hybrid Perpetual Roses as a rule require to be
pruned to within 4 to 6 inches of the ground, and to an eye
pointing away from the middle of the plant.
The Teas require the thin wood to be cut out, and also any
soft sappy wood, and to be cut back to some sound hard wood
The Hybrid Teas require varying treatment according as to
whether they partake more or less of the Hybrid Perpetual or
Tea type. A good general idea can be formed from the look of
the growth, such varieties as " Marquise Litta," " Mildred Grant,"
and " Mrs W. J. Grant," etc., requiring to be treated similarly
to the Hybrid Perpetuals, while " Madame Abel Chatenay,"
" Marquis Salisbury," " Papa Gontier," etc., require to be pruned
more after the manner of the Teas. All three classes also
require to be pruned much harder for exhibition than for
ordinary garden purposes.
The climbing varieties require the long shoots cut back a
little, but not very much, with one or two shoots each year cut
right back to within a few eyes off the ground. This is to
induce fresh strong shoots each year from the bottom of
the plants, as otherwise they get ugly and straggly in the
course of a few years. Climbing varieties as a rule flower
better from the long one-year growths, so that any wood
more than two or three years old is better cut out where
Now as to varieties. The Hybrid Perpetual class is
usually considered the hardiest of the lot, though it often
happens that the more delicate Teas do better than the Hybrid
Perpetuals near the sea in exposed places. They seem to like July,
the sea air more than the H.P.'s. The best
For general cultivation the following are a few of the best Roses to
Hybrid Perpetuals : Red and dark Crimson, etc., Alfred p-row
Colomb, Chas. Lefebvre, Capt. Hayward, Duke Edinburgh,
Fisher Holmes, General Jacqueminot, La Rosine, S. M.
Rodocanachi, and Ulrich Brunner. For Pink : Mrs John
Laing, Mrs Sharman Crawford, and Madame Gabriel Luizet
are by far the best growers and all-round good sorts.
For White : Frau Karl Druschki is a long way ahead of
all others, though Margaret Dickson is a strong grower, but it
is rather subject to mildew.
In the Teas for Pink, Catherine Mermet, Maman Cochet,
Madame Lambard, and Madame de Watteville are good. For
Yellow and shades of yellow, Anna Ollivier, Marie van
Houtte, Madame Hoste, and Souv. de Prince Netting are
the best. For Whites, The Bride, White Maman Cochet,
Souv. de S. A. Prince, and Hon. Edith Giffbrd are all
In the Hybrid Tea class, for Red, Liberty, Marquis
Salisbury, and Grliss an Teplitz (Autumn flowering) are all fine
in their own way, Liberty being almost scarlet sometimes. For
Pink and shades of pink, Mrs W. J. Grant, Marquise Litta,
Caroline Testout, La France, Killarney, and Viscountess
Folkestone are good. Whilst for Yellow, White and inter-
mediate shades, etc., Bessie Brown, Madame Pernet Ducher,
Clara Watson, Antoine Rivoire, Madam Abel Chatenay, and
Souv. de President Carnot are all very fine.
All the above varieties can be recommended for any garden,
as they are all fair growers, and under ordinary treatment will
Rose Pests thrive. They are not all the best exhibition varieties, but for
general effect in the garden, or for cutting purposes, they are all
Some people like to grow Roses as standards with stems
from 2 to 4 feet high. If standards are required they must be
planted in a fairly sheltered place to get the best results, as of
course being higher than the dwarfs they feel the wind a great
deal more. Some of the trees do remarkably well as half
standards, and for exhibition purposes they cannot be beaten, as
the flowers come larger, better, and cleaner. It is advisable to
stake them after planting, and in very frosty weather a light
protection of straw or hay over the heads is advisable. Standards
are not recommended if the place is at all unfavourable, at any
rate not until a few have been tried first to find out if they will
Before finishing I will give a few directions for getting rid
of pests that infest the Rose. Early in Spring caterpillars may
appear in the foliage and bud, and the best way to get rid of
them is to pick them off and crush them. Later on green fly
often appears, and that is best destroyed by a solution of soft-
soap in water, just strong enough to make the water lather
freely. When the solution is made, syringe the Roses in the
evening, and again the next evening if the first time was not
sufficient to kill the green fly ; it is better to syringe twice than
to do it too strong the first time. Mildew often appears about
the end of June ; the best remedy is to dust flower of sulphur
over the plant and to take off and burn the worst leaves. Later
on in the season it is almost impossible to stop mildew, and it is
hardly worth while to try.
Red rust is sometimes troublesome, and this is again practi-
cally impossible to stop, but it does not often attack the plants July,
until the first flowering is over. The best way to keep it in Hardy
check is to pick off and burn the worst leaves. Lilies
If these few hints and directions are followed out there
need be no doubt about the ultimate success of growing Roses in
All through this month a succession of lovely Lilies are
in flower. On peaty or sandy soil nearly all the best may be
grown, especially such beautiful kinds as Giganteum^ Auratum,
Pardalinum^ Hansoni, Umbellatum, etc. On pure loam the
choice is more limited, but there are four Lilies which should
thrive in almost any garden. Candidum, Croceum, Tesfaceum
and Martagon. Lilium Szovitzianum also likes loam, but is
more difficult to grow well. We have it in a border, but
though it throws up a wonderful spike each year it does not
increase. At Wisley, where my sketch was done, it was growing
in all sorts of positions the exquisite pale yellow heads, rising
five and six feet in height on a steep bank above grass fit to
cut for hay, or looking even more beautiful under an Apple tree
with a background of dark trees. Like most Lilies it enjoys
shade, and in this spot looked as if it were increasing fast. The
scent too is delicious.
Croceum, the orange Lily, seen in so many cottage gardens,
is always most effective if planted in large quantities. It looks
particularly well with Delphiniums, the yellow and orange
Alstroemerias, or any white flower such as Epilobium angustt-
folium alba. This white Willow Herb is as hardy as the
Lilium common pink one, and very useful where it can be given room
Candidum to run.
and f Lilium candidum the Madonna Lily it is impossible
Testaceum to ^ ave to man 7> anc ^ t ^ ie g ar den is lucky which has old estab-
lished plants not yet touched by disease. It should never be
disturbed if doing well, as sometimes it is difficult to re-establish.
The radiant white of the flower, and the shining buds pointing
upwards, are supremely beautiful. Suggestions as to where to
plant this Lily seem almost superfluous, indeed, it is hard to go
wrong, but lovers of its beauty will not be content with one
good effect but will try for many. Large clumps should be in
the borders against blue or orange, or near a fountain of white
Roses, or again in groups on the lawn where the lovely heads
will be seen only against grass and trees ; some should certainly
be where the garden is open to the west, so that the last low
rays of the sun should add their glory to the pure petals. The
sketch shows a line of them planted under a year. One secret
of success is to put the bulbs in early, never later than August.
In this particular case the soil, which is sandy, was dug out,
lime rubbish and turf sods put in at the bottom of the hole,
then the soil replaced, and a little chalk added round the
Lilium testaceum, called also excelsum and isabellinum,
prolongs the Lily beauty to the end of the month. The long
stems, sometimes six feet high, with seven to twelve soft
apricot flowers, are very lovely. This Lily is probably a hybrid
between Candidum and Chalcedonicum, and does not demand
any particular care, growing where the Madonna Lily
Lilium Martagon the Turk's cap Lily so often picked
in Swiss hay-fields, is excellent for naturalising in our own wild July,
gardens, in grass or wood. In the borders their soft red purple Lilies for
colour is often eclipsed by some more showy neighbour, though the Wood
it looks well near white. The white variety is much more lovely
Many of the rarer kinds of Lilies do well in woods ; they
need the shade and damper atmosphere; in full sun, even if
they succeed, their beauty fades terribly quickly. Wandering
down a woodland glade what more delightful surprise than to
come suddenly on a group of Lilies raising their stately heads
to the canopy of trees above. Lilium pardalinum may well
be planted in this way, and is very effective with its tall heads
of orange and flaming scarlet. It needs a light rich soil with
plenty of manure and leaf mould.
L. Giganteum flowers at the same time, and wants much
the same soil and position. The great stems may be eight or
ten feet high, and should bear about a dozen drooping bells,
white, shaded to dull purple in the throat.
Lilium Hansoni, bright orange with dark spots, also does
well under trees, or in the shade of such a bush as Spiraa
aritffolia, which is just opening its soft cream tassels when the
Lily is in flower.
In a sheltered garden at Saltwood, as early as the last
week of June, clumps of the great orange Lilium umbellatum
were out. These Lilies were nearly five feet high, and clothed
to the ground with healthy green foliage, their huge heads of
bloom looking most effective against a mass of evergreens con-
bined with the tumbling sprays of a white Rose.
If the garden contains water, the hybrid Water Lilies
should certainly be grown, and will give great beauty through
Water July and August. There is something wonderfully beautiful
Lily and an d appealing in the big wide-open flowers, lying in serried
Japanese ran ks on the surface of the water, always just out of reach in a
j r j s tantalising way. Even the smallest pond may be made of use
to grow them, and on large sheets of water their round flat
leaves will soon spread into islands of loveliness. The flowers
have the form of the common Water Lily, but are much in-
creased in size and varied in colour. Large pure white ones
may be had, or white flushed with rose, a clear yellow, and a
fine rose pink.
Another feature of the water-side through this month
should be the Japanese Irises (Iris Kaemffcrfy Water is not
absolutely necessary to their success except just before flowering,
but they like to be at the edge of a pond in the full sunshine,
as illustrated by the sketch painted at Wisley. The whole
growth and colouring is different from any other Iris ; the
leaves are very bright green and grass-like, and the flowers of
varied and unusual colours, running mostly from white through
queer pinks to plum colour, but there are also wonderful violets
and greys. The form is different too the standards are quite
small, sometimes hardly showing at all, and the falls are wide
and flat many of them with a distinct white or yellow band
down the centre. They should grow four feet high and be about
seven inches across the petal. They can be raised easily from seed,
and flowering plants obtained in two years. They are not very
particular about their soil, but prefer loam and peat and then
increase freely, seeding themselves.
The profusion of annuals and perennials in July give
many opportunities for arranging pleasing schemes of colour on
a large scale, according to the individual taste of the grower. A
special colour may well be chosen to prevail at a particular July,
season ; I have often wished to have white alone. This A blue
year near Dunwich I came across a blue and a pink garden. Garden
Only a few yards of cliff, covered with Heather and Honey-
suckle, separated it from the North Sea. Turning from the
wild beauty of that view, and entering the garden sheltered from
the north-easterly gales by an old curved red brick wall one is
greeted on the threshold by the vision of a fairy scene, with blue
for the key-note. A straight path leads from the door right up
the centre, and on either side are ranks of Delphiniums, some fully
seven feet high, all carefully chosen for their clear tones ; others
dwarf, show their heads of flower against the green of the
taller-growing kinds. Spikes with a tendency to mauve, or too
densely packed, have been carefully discarded, and shades from
sky blue to a real French blue encouraged. Nemophila
grows below, creeping on to the path and breaking its stiff line,
with patches of Lobelia interspersed to carry on the blue effect
later in the year. For plants of intermediate height there are
Cornflowers, White Mallows, White Galega, Madonna Lilies,
Summer Daisy, Anchusa capensis like a big Forget-me-not
white Canterbury Bells, etc. Other plants might be added
according to circumstances : Campanula persicifolia and
Lactifolia, Anchusa Italica, Crambe cordifolia, CEnothera
speciosa to throw white flowers on the pathway and pillars
and garlands of late white Cluster Roses behind and above the
spikes of blue.
Through a gateway at the other end one passes into the
pink garden ; the cream-yellow clusters of Rose Alister Stella
Gray, hang over the entrance, clumps of Delphinium stand
sentinel on either side with Convolvulus Minor at their feet,
A pink and a French Poppy of a perfect shade of pink, called Sutton's
Garden Chamois Rose, is added to the group as an introduction to the
new scheme. The straight path continues through hedges of
common Monthly Rose with Lavender waving above ; late
evening is the time to see this border at its best, when the
sun lights up the soft pink to a more glowing colour. On the
right is the Rose-garden with a cupola of Climbing Roses in the
centre, and beds of free-growing Hybrids and Teas about it.
Forming a boundary between this scene of beauty and the
wood are borders of French and Mikado Poppies, Godetias, pink
Mallows, Clarkia, etc.
The sketch done at Milton Court, near Dorking, shows a
totally different effect gained by a gorgeous blending of all sorts
of annuals in a border, opposed to one of cool blues, whites and
yellows mostly of perennials, such as, White Phlox, Veronicas,
Anchusas, Sidalcea Itsteri, Achillea mongolica^ Arctotis grandis,
Eryngiums, Campanulas, etc.
In the Annual border were :
All sown in their
Lalcnaula ofncinalis , . A/r ,
T > . i if I places in March.
Luptnus Menziesi, nanus and albus
Sweet Peas sown in February, in pots in a cold frame, and
planted out later in well-manured ground, with a
slight depression left round each plant to hold the
All sown in heat
and pricked out
Antirrhinums Sutton's deep crimson,
coral red, pure white, and cloth
Stella Sunflowers primrose and full
Dianthus Hedivegi in separate
colours, salmon pink, deep red
Lobelia cardinalis fulgens
Ten- week Stocks are splendid either for picking or effect.
Princess Alice and East Lothian are two of the best white the
one secret for obtaining spikes of double flowers ten inches long,
and numbers of side shoots, is never to check the growth of the
seedlings. Seed should be sown early in March, and the soil
first thoroughly soaked, so that watering can be avoided if
possible till the seeds are up. Prick the young plants out when
big enough in wet soil, do not water till necessary, and plant
out of doors when the weather is fit. A lovely border can be
made with these Stocks and red H.P. Roses the scent is so
delicious, it should be near the house if possible. Or they
might be grown with a selection of blue annuals, such as Love-
in-the-Mist, Cornflowers, Nemophila, Phacelia campanularia,
Convolvulus minor, Kaulfussia amelloides, small blue Pea, and
Useful the loveliest of all blues, the Convolvulus, Ipomea rubra carulea.
Summer Such an effect, or the blue alone, could well be realised on a
Annuals bed f ^ ate Tulips, and would give very little trouble once started,
as many of these annuals seed themselves well. A border of
Antirrhinums alone is very effective ; the dark red, with almost
purple foliage, is particularly fine, and they last months in flower.
There are many other useful annuals which should be
grown, such as those mentioned in the following list, not
forgetting the indispensable Mignonette and Night-scented
Annual Toadflax Ltnaria bipartita, rettculata or aureo
purpurea, should be sown early in the year in the
Schi-zanthus if sown in heat in March, will make a
feathery mass of flower eighteen inches or two feet
high in July.
Asperula orientalis blue.
Eartonia aurea sow out of doors in April or sooner in a
frame. Bright yellow.
Phacelia tanacetefolla with grey-blue fuzzy heads of
flowers. Sow out of doors.
Gilia pretty little edging and carpet plants of various
colours. Sow out of doors.
Verbena, in many good colours. Sow early in heat.
Iceland Poppies nudicaule white, yellow and orange.
Cosmos, white, very useful for the late Autumn, it grows
four feet or five feet high and bears a lot of white
flowers good for picking. Sow early in heat.
In the wild garden in July there should certainly be an
effect of pure white Foxgloves, either in big beds in the open
by themselves, or with Shirley Poppies or loose-growing Roses ; July.
also in glades of the wood where they can freely seed them- Foxglove
selves. To keep the strain white the greatest care must be an j Phlox
taken to pick off all the pink flowers that may appear; they
are pretty in their way but do not approach the white in
beauty. On a soil they like, with space round them, these are
magnificent ; the best I have ever seen were at Teynham where
many of them reached six feet in height, and one particularly
fine plant had twenty good shoots round the central spire,
making a pyramid of flower. Like every other plant they
repay the grower for giving them a position they like. Being
biennials, they must be sown two years running in May, and
then ought to be self-supporting. Dozens of young plants
will come up round the old stems, and some should always
be pricked out in a nursery bed for stock.
For the borders, and for large beds where a brilliant colour
effect is wanted, Phloxes will be found most useful. By using
both Summer and Autumn varieties their flower can be enjoyed
through July, August, and September. They are to be had in
beautiful shades of flaming red, pink and white. Coquelicot
and Coccinea will be found two of the best reds ; other good
kinds are Mrs Farquhar, Etna, Mrs Oliver, J. C. Hamisch,
Sylphide, Aurore and Pascale. They are all perfectly hardy
and very easily increased by seed, cuttings, or division. Cuttings
may be taken, at almost any time of the year, but a very good
plan is to make them from the early shoots thrown up in March ;
they strike well then, and better flower is produced by the old
plant if some of the shoots are thinned out. For division, the
plants should be taken up in the Spring, cut into small pieces,
Monarda Monarda didyma planted between Phlox Coquelicot makes
didyma a splendid effect ; its height is half that of the Phlox and a very
pleasing harmony of colour is given by the low masses of soft
dark red with the flaming points above.
" And Nature holds, in wood and field,
Her thousand sunlit censers still ;
To spells of flower and shrub we yield
Against or with our will."
7. G. Whittier.
WHEN most Roses are out of bloom, resting after their Clematis
lavish gifts of flower earlier in the Summer, and Garlands
preparing for a second harvest in the Autumn, the
Clematis has its day of triumph. For this reason the Rose
garden is one of the best places in which to plant it.
Grown up short posts and trailing along the chains between
them, the Clematis thus forms a garlanded enclosure for the
Roses. The effect somewhat recalls the fields in parts of
Italy, where Vines are trained in great festoons between
Maple trees, and through their young leaves we see the
ripened corn. Another and simpler effect of growing Clematis
is to train it up stakes and allow it to form a natural
bower of flowers at some point where colour is wanted. For
other parts of a garden advantage should be taken of its free-
growing habit, and it should be planted to creep down a rockery
or steep bank, or to climb up trees or clothe walls. If there is
room to give them a bed to themselves, a delightful effect may
be got by collecting some old stumps of trees and making a
rough pyramid or two with strong branches, and then en-
couraging Clematis to grow over it all and form a tangle of
white, mauve and purple.
In the Spring Clematis alplna (or Atragene alpind]
Varieties of looks charming growing just as it does in the Tyrol, wreathing
Clematis the stumps of old trees with its delicate soft blue flowers,
never more than a few feet high. In a mild climate,
like that of Cornwall, Clematis indivisa is hardy, and in
April is quite lovely with its branches of starry white flowers
and plum-coloured stamens ; here, unfortunately, it needs
glass. Later in the year come C. Montana^ C. florida with
white flowers three or four inches across and purple stamens,
and its double forms, such as the Duchess of Edinburgh and
C. patens, with its many beautiful garden hybrids, Miss
Bateman, and Sir Garnet Wolseley being among the best. All
these three types of Clematis bear flowers on the old wood, and
should only be pruned if their growth becomes too extravagant.
To August and the Autumn months belong the varieties of
Lanuginosa, viticella, coerulea, coccinca, Jackmanni, flammula,
and paniculata. All these flower on Summer shoots, and are the
better for the thinning out of weak wood in the Spring. Strong
growing kinds like Jackmanni may be cut right back in the
Autumn, and made to form new shoots from the crown, but this
method should not be tried with other varieties unless the size
of the plant is to be reduced. A Clematis called Perle d'azure,
the colour of Neapolitan Violets, is a charming one for growing
on stakes about five feet high among Rose bushes. This
sketch was done in Mr Robinson's garden at Gravetye,
where two or three plants form a beautiful cluster over the
scattered blooms of Caroline Testout. A white form of
C. viticella was out at the same time bearing a multitude of
small white flowers, and hanging in a delicious tangle from the
lower branches of two small trees. Jackmanni bears its magni-
ficent violet-purple flowers for many weeks, beginning as a rule
CLEMATIS PERLE D'AZURE AND CAROLINE TESTOUT ROSE.
in the middle of July and going on till late September. We August,
have it growing up posts in the Rose bed with the climbing Varieties of
Dorothy Perkins, the two making a fine bit of colour together. Clematis
With us it is much the strongest of any of the large flowered
sorts, and grows magnificently over a six-foot fence exposed to
the north-east, with white Aimee Vibert Rose as a neighbour.
The lanuginosa type we find much more difficult to grow,
though our soil, loam on chalk, is what a Clematis is supposed
to enjoy above all things. In spite of carrying out all the best
advice, mulching in Summer and dosing with manure water,
they have an unkind way of suddenly failing when in full
flower. Once they get established they do well, lasting many
years, and are so lovely that they are worth a lot of trouble.
My favourites are Henryi, cream-white ; Lady Caroline Neville
and lanuginosa, a lovely grey ; Beauty of Worcester, Princess of
Wales, and Sensation, mauve ; William Kennett and Louis Van
Houtte, violet. There are now a number of varieties of red or
plum-coloured Clematis, most of them small-flowered, which
are not to me nearly so attractive as the old-fashioned kinds.
C. coccinea has small flowers of a really bright salmon-red, but
is quite unlike the Jackmanni type ; the coloured sepals are all
closed together till near their tips and form a tube. For the
Autumn C. paniculata and flammula should be planted ; they
are both very free growing, resembling strongly the Travellers'
Joy of our hedges, but bearing larger sprays of white flower
with a very sweet scent.
The sketch shows a fine effect of Clematis Jackmanni^
Yuccas and Pampas, at Chilham Castle, near Canterbury.
The Yuccas, the first week in August, were a wonderful
sight. Every plant in this border under the wall had its spike
Yucca, of cream- white flowers about 8 ft. high, contrasting with the
Montbretia warm soft heads of the Pampas. They look even more magnifi-
and cent m isolated clumps on a terrace, showing the full beauty
Nasturtium f tne ^ r growth, as the foreground to some distant view. A
little later I saw another Yucca picture made by groups of a
dwarf kind on a sunny bank, with orange and red Montbretias
growing thickly round them. The very green grass-like foliage
of the Montbretias looked particularly well with the dark blue-
green spiky growth of the Yuccas ; their cream heads were
about 3 ft. 6 in. high, and seemed to spring from the
Montbretias (Tritonia) increase so fast in many soils that
they need to be taken up at least every other year in the Autumn
and replanted in the Spring. When too crowded they cease to
flower. Etoile de Feu red and Aurore are two of the best.
Nasturtiums could well be added to such a group ; they
are gorgeous as a carpet, and at their best in this month. Poor
soil is all they need, on good they run to leaf, and the blaze of
colour is not obtained. Both tall and dwarf varieties are among
the easiest of all annuals to grow, and remain in flower a very
long time. They should be sown out of doors in April and
May, or even as late as June they will succeed, so that they can
be used to replace some spring flowering plant which has come
to an end, such as Pansy. Earlier plants are got by sowing
the seed under glass in Spring, and planting out in May.
Some of the double varieties are very handsome, and can be
increased by keeping a few pots through the Winter for cuttings
in the early Spring. There are charming shades of colour
to be had from cream to fiery crimson, all blending one with
another : one of the handsomest is Empress of India with dark
plum-coloured foliage and vivid red flowers. A white easily- August,
grown annual that looks very well with these dwarf varieties is Tropcelium
Gypsophila elegans ; it is most valuable for picking to mix with speciosum
other flowers, being both light and graceful. The tall varieties
should be planted to cover bare trellises or palings ; cottages are
often gay with them, the low white ones of Somersetshire look-
ing particularly pretty clothed with flowers up to the thatch.
7. Lobbianum is a more uncommon but beautiful variety, very
easily raised from seed sown out of doors in April.
The most beautiful of all Tropasolums is the perennial
speciosum, so often seen in Scotland. There it grows in the most
delightful way with wreaths of delicate green, and scarlet flowers,
and gives no trouble at all ; in the South it is not so easy to
cultivate successfully. Position seems much more important than
soil ; it needs a cool place with shade most of the day, and above
all some shrub or tree to climb into. Its delicate tendrils are much
happier twining round living branches and forming festoons of
burning red from bough to bough than trained up a wall on
strings. The sketch shows how well it can be made to grow over
Holly trees, finding its way even to the very tops. Near it should
be the wild Japanese Wichuriana Rose, which bears at the same
time its clusters of single flowers and many buds, or it would be
hard to imagine anything prettier than garlands of Clematis
Viticella alba and the Tropceolum meeting in the same tree.
Our own .garden is not successful in the late Summer, the
ground gets parched and the plants have a starved look which
fills me with despair when I contrast them with others growing
on a good deep soil. Any suggestions for fine effects therefore,
through the greater part of this month, must be borrowed from
what I have been fortunate enough to see in the gardens of my
Hydrangeas friends. At Gravetye, in the second week of August, there
and Tiger were several most attractive colour groups. Hydrangeas were
Lilies coming out, their soft blue panicles of flower beautiful near a
great mass of salmon-orange Lilium tigrinum Fortunei. These
Lilies were only just beginning to open a few of their number of
grey woolly buds, and should still be in beauty in September.
The variety splendent is perhaps the finest of all, and flowers
a little later. All the Tiger Lilies are easy to grow, and are
wonderfully effective anywhere. They like a sandy loam with
some leaf-mould and manure as a top-dressing. Hydrangeas
suffer from frost, and to be seen at their best must have a mild
warm climate. There are clumps in a cottage garden near here,
on some of the highest land in Kent, which flower profusely,
but they remain low and rather stiff in form. In Cornwall or
Devonshire they grow into big bushes and make a lovely soft
effect of blue under the shade of trees. Hydrangea paniculata
grandtflora is a handsome kind, growing four or five feet high
with pointed white sprays about a foot long. We have not
been successful with it, but I have seen it growing splendidly
on a cold clay soil.
The Everlasting Pea Lathy r us latifolius is most useful
now, either forming great bushes supported by stakes or
fastened to a trellis and allowed to tumble negligently at will.
White, blush-pink, and a rather common rose-pink, may be
had. The white looks well anywhere, under a tangle of
Clematis Jackmanni for instance, or climbing round the base
of a pergola with the vivid scarlet of that delightful little
plant Zauschnerla californica beneath it. The real Sweet Pea
can be very effectively used in gardens too if distinct colours are
grouped together, mauve and purple in one place, and pink and
MILTON COURT, DOKKIXG.
red which harmonise in another. For this purpose they need August.
to be well grown from the first, must be given plenty of Hollyhocks,
food and water, and never be allowed to seed. Evening
Hollyhocks Althasa rosea which began in July are still p r i m rose
fine in August. The great height of their spikes, seven or even
nine feet, and the long heads of buds opening by degrees from
the bottom, make them particularly striking among late Summer
flowers. At the back of herbaceous borders, against Yew hedges
or stone walls, or in big beds in the open, they are certain to
look well. In some gardens they are troublesome plants either
rotting in the Winter or failing under the attacks of their special
disease in others they flourish and seed themselves, keeping up
a perpetual supply of good strong plants. They grow in this
way on a bank above a stream in a garden near here, with a
background of fruit trees, and their tall spikes reflected in the
water below. July r August is the best time for sowing.
The young plants should be kept in a cold frame through the
Winter and planted out in April or May. If they are sown in
January in heat it is possible to flower them the same year, but
they will be late and never so fine as those sown the Summer
before. Cuttings can be made at almost any time from the
small shoots round the old roots ; if taken in Winter or
early Spring they will need bottom heat to strike them.
The Fig-leaved Hollyhock is a useful variety, slender and
branching in growth, and producing a number of flower
Two varieties of Evening Primrose are particularly showy
now, CEnothera Fraseri^ bright yellow, about one foot high,
and Lamarckiana, four or five feet high, with large pale yellow
flowers which are in blossom for many weeks. The latter sort
Tritoma in is useful for the wild garden or shrubberies, as it seeds itself and
the Wild needs no care.
Garden Tritomas Kniphofia should be largely grown in the
borders for colour through August and September, or in large
masses on the lawn or in the wild garden. They can be
allowed really prominent positions as they are magnificent when
in flower, and are never ugly or untidy, and in Winter one is
glad of their dark green tufts. Coming from a hot climate they
are not always quite hardy in severe weather, but in the south
of England they ought to be safe and should grow well in
good loam or sandy soil with an annual top-dressing of manure.
In Spring and Summer they like plenty of water, with good
drainage. They should be increased by division in the Spring,
but it is better not to disturb the old plants more than is
necessary. There are a number of varieties, and many new
hybrids ; some flower quite early in the year, but the most
worth growing are the later Summer and Autumn ones. Such
kinds as grandis, nobilis, or longiscarpa are all particularly hand-
some; many of the hybrids Obelisk, Pfitzeri, or Ophir, for
instance have fine yellow and orange spikes of flowers seven
feet high. The sketch is done from a group of the common
" red hotpokers " growing in our wild garden. They revel
in the open position in the sun and rear their strong vivid
spikes to the sky, burning like torches. Their colour is a
wonderful blending of yellow, rose, and orange-scarlet, with
a mysterious bloom thrown over all these brilliant shades.
They grew very slowly to start with, but are fine clumps
now, though the individual spikes are not as fine as those in
the borders. There are many strong growing plants which
might well be grouped with them ; the big blue Globe Thistle,
Ecbinops rutbenicus for instance, or the Cotton Thistles, with August,
their spiked leaves and stalks, covered with white down, and Hyacinthus
their purple heads. On op or don illyricum and arabicum are both candicans
good biennial sorts. We are planting a handsome very blue-
green grass called Elymus glaucus, with ribbon-like leaves, as a
neighbour, and a most successful bed can be made with clumps
of Hyacinthus candicans between the Tritomas. Bamboos,
Pampas, or Spirtea Douglas i form a fine background for them.
This Spiraea grows splendidly here, making bushes ten or twelve
feet high, covered with large white plumes ; it is said to like
chalk, and of that it certainly gets plenty.
In the flower garden just now our only really good effect
is given by Hyacinthus candicans (Galtonid] and Gladiolus,
in the beds running down each side of the Rose pergola.
For weeks their handsome blue-green foliage and the
crowded heads of unopened buds have been ornamental ; now
their pendant bells rising on firm stalks, make a twinkling mass
of white, with promise of much lasting beauty. The bulbs
were planted in the early Spring between young Roses for which
the ground had been well prepared. They were second size
bulbs, only costing 35. a hundred, and very small. In spite of
this many of them have sent up three spikes of flower, all five or
six feet high and very strong. Plenty of nourishment seems to
suit them ; the Roses are watered once a week with manure
water, but I fear they are robbed by the Hyacinthus, as it must
be confessed they have not done so well as I had hoped.
The Gladiolus, hybrids of Gandavensis^ Childsii and
Lemoinei^ are throwing up fine spikes of bloom too ; they like
good rich soil and a mulching of manure in hot weather, and
are very suitable for planting in Rose beds, as they flower when
Some useful the Roses are out of bloom, and never overpower them. G.
Perennials Brenchleyensis, the scarlet one, does well out of doors with us,
and increases, but all the finer sorts have to be lifted before
severe frosts begin, and should be dried and stored in a cool
place through the Winter. If planted at intervals from March
to the end of May, a succession of flower will be got extending
to the late Autumn.
While our own perennial borders are looking so starved
and poor, those on good deep soil are a blaze of colour, looking
better than the whole year through. At Godinton, near Ashford,
the whole effect of one border is white and yellow with Phloxes
and Helianthus^ annual and perennial, and the low starry
Rudbeckia with a dark eye. In a neighbouring border, to these
plants are added big clumps or the deep blue Globe Thistle, tall
Summer Daisies, Eryngium^ Sea Lavender, scarlet Phloxes, and
such annuals as Alonsoa, vivid salmon-pink and deep red Indian
Pinks, Nicotiana affims^ etc. The places for all these annuals
were well prepared in the early Spring, and plenty of spent
mushroom manure dug in, which probably accounts for their
vigour. In the kitchen garden the sweet-scented white Bouvardia,
which is delightful for picking, forms a regular hedge under a
line of greenhouses ; it must be kept under glass through the
Winter, cut back pretty hard in the Spring, then started in a
little warmth, and when danger of frost is over planted out of
doors. A lovely bed can be made with it and Plumbago in
any sheltered sunny spot.
HYACINTH US CAND1CANS. GLADIOLUS.
" When fruit and leaf are as gold and fire
And the oat is heard above the lyre,
And the hoofed heel of the Satyr crushes
The chesnut husk at the chesnut root.' 1 ' 1
WHY should we talk of the sadness of Autumn ? of Autumn,
the hectic flush of nature before it dies ? Do we Colour in
talk of the sadness of sunset ? Nay, rather of its fas Borders
glory. And so in Autumn all nature flames in triumph before
it sinks peacefully into its Winter's sleep the sleep that is
rest, not death ; rest in which to renew its youth and its
strength, as sunset brings us nearer the sleep from which
we rise with renewed energy for the work of the new day.
In the garden Autumn is, indeed, the crowning glory of
the year, bringing us the fruition of months of thought and
care and toil. And at no season, save perhaps in Daffodil
time, do we get such superb colour effects as from August to
Our borders are now all ablaze with a hundred brilliant
flowers; and foremost in startling colour, more vivid even
than the Penstemons, are Begonias, the easiest grown of all
modern innovations. Whether we raise them from seed or
buy the seedlings, the kindly creatures increase in size with
surprising rapidity, and only ask to be kept in a little dry
sand or cocoanut fibre in some frost-proof corner for the Winter.
Much as one loves one's faithful Geraniums, it cannot be denied
that Begonias make a far finer show in the borders, while they
take a quarter of the trouble to grow and keep. But I rejoice
to think that nothing can take the place of our Geraniums for
certain purposes. For Begonias are useless for cutting; and
how could we dispense with the rich scarlets, the clear pinks,
and the delightful ivy leaf Geraniums ? Few things are prettier
or more satisfactory in the Autumn garden than the mixture
of white Paris Daisies with the pink Mme. Crausse, or the
vivid crimson Souv. de Charles Turner, whether in beds, or in
Cannas, tubs and boxes, hanging over a low terrace wall, or trailing
Dahlias and down a long flight of steps.
Sweet Peas How fine, too, are the Cannas in our Autumn garden.
The mere recollection of certain beds of Cannas and Begonias,
with here and there a touch of the dark leaves of the Ricinus
to temper the blaze of colour, in a world-famous garden that
I love, is enough to warm one through on these grey, chill,
snowy days. And Cannas again are even more accommodating
than Begonias ; for they can just be laid under the green house
stage and left there for the Winter with, if possible, less thought
than we give the Fuchsias stored on their sides along with them.
Dahlias are in their fullest beauty in these Autumn
months ; and few plants give us a greater variety of rich and
delicate shades. Planted in a row to shut out some bit of the
garden that is past its beauty, or massed together in some
prominent spot, Dahlias are seen at their best. I came across
a long hedge I can call it nothing else of tall cactus Dahlias
of every imaginable colour set against the edge of a Fir wood,
on a late Autumn day a couple of years ago ; and their effect
against the dark shade of the Scotch Firs showed, so I thought,
that this was indeed the perfect usage for these grand and
easily grown flowers. In this neighbourhood every cottage
garden is gay with them in Autumn ; and the churchyard on
Sunday is turned by loving hands into a veritable parterre
with their handsome blooms.
Late plantings of Sweet Peas, which are too often considered
mere Summer flowers, make a rare addition to our Autumn
show. Personally I prefer these most delightful of flowers
grown in rows of separate colours ; and a hedge of Salopian,
Hon. Mrs Kenyon, Gorgeous, Alice Eckford, Blanche Burpee,
Black Knight, Dainty, Miss Willmott, Celestial, Oriental, Autumn.
Dorothy Eckford, and Mrs Walter Wright, sown in five-foot Larkspur
lengths, has this year flowered on till the frosts, a really beautiful an( j
object for nearly three months. Michaelmas
Another annual which will even survive a few quite sharp ^ . .
frosts, is perhaps the most effective introduction in this class
that exists Button's rosy-scarlet stock-flowered Larkspur. It
is impossible to praise this flower too warmly. Growing about
three feet high, with vigorous and yet graceful branching
habit, it blooms continuously all through the Autumn, and pro-
duces, if grown in masses with the plants some six inches apart,
an effect which for brilliancy and duration cannot be surpassed ;
while its long spikes of beautiful semi-double flowers last for
many days in water and travel well.
Michaelmas Daisies, beloved of bees and butterflies, peren-
nial Sunflowers, the curse of the farmers of Western America,
and Chrysanthemums, the joy of high and low to these our
thoughts naturally turn in Autumn ; and they open a large
horizon. Endless are their varieties and invaluable their use, if
used with discretion ; for even these, or to speak more accurately
the first two, may be abused. In one garden I know, a fine
collection of Michaelmas Daisies carefully called Starworts by
their owner, but I am old-fashioned and love the old name
best have been crowded together in two huge borders on
either side of a path, with nothing to relieve them. The effect
is so utterly dismal as to get on one's nerves and make one
wish never to see the plant again. And I was only enabled to
tolerate the poor misused flowers by recalling a vision above
the Hudson River one October day long years ago, when the
feet of the Cadets, as they marched to chapel at West Point
Helianthus, Academy, brushed through a delicate lilac mist of dwarf Asters,
Helenium a s they are called over there, among the sparse grass of the parade
and Chry- ground. And then as I recollected other taller kinds growing
santhemum w ^ tn Golden Rod and Lobelia cardinalis along the Erie Railroad,
in Northern New York State, mother nature's way seemed best
after all. For if we must needs make " collections " of these
Autumn flowers, let us at all events remember that she does not
grow them all alone in straight beds, but subtly blends them
with many another plant in their own homes. No " collection,"
however perfect, can rival nature's gardening ; and if we would
enjoy our treasures to the full we must humbly endeavour to
follow her methods, planting them among other flowers that
shall enhance their beauty and ensure us a steady succession of
colour throughout the year. The endless varieties of Helianthus,
single and double, and the Heleniums, especially the handsome
H. gran die eph alum striatum, are invaluable both for effect in
the Autumn garden and for decoration indoors. And they
mingle well with the Asters.
But as we turn for some of our most precious Spring
delights to Japan, so do we turn to the Island Kingdom for the
most priceless of Autumn flowers, the badge of Nippon, the
Chrysanthemum. Of show Chrysanthemums as big as a hat this
is not the place to speak. But of late years the humble border
Chrysanthemums which, with their small yellow, white, and
purple-brown flowers still make many a labouring man's garden
as gay in Autumn as his ranks of Our Lady's Lilies do in
Summer, have been developed to such an amazing extent that
no self-respecting garden can do without them. The varieties
are now so endless that it is difficult to indicate which are the
best. But for actual effect, some of the older yellow sorts, both
pompon and large flowered, are hard to beat when grown in Autumn,
masses; and the same may be said of many of the beautiful Colour
white varieties ; while for cutting as well as for border decora- Effects
tion there are every imaginable shade and shape in pink, bronze,
and darkest brown-crimson.
Possible combinations in planting beds so as to produce a
continuous colour effect from Spring till Winter frosts end all,
are pleasant food for thought. One might be made of pale
blue Delphiniums as a foundation, thickly planted between with
the white border Chrysanthemum, pierced through with scores
of the flaming swords of Gladiolus. Or for a late effect in some
fairly sheltered spot, what could be more effective than the
tall, graceful, white Michaelmas Daisy, with masses of Lobelia
cardinality the branching delicacy of the one set off by the
dark brown pointed leaves and vivid scarlet flowers of the
other, while Lilium auratum should tower over all ? And
such a bed need not go bare till Daisy and Lobelia and Lily are
in flower ; for a carpet of blue or mauve Violas will keep it gay
till the proud Autumn beauties rise above their lowliness. Or in
place of Chrysanthemum or Aster the noble Hydrangea pani-
culata grandiflora, another treasure for garden and conservatory
from Japan, may be used with Lilies, Gladiolus and Lobelia.
For we cannot have too much of this fine and hardy plant,
either planted among choice Rhododendrons and Azaleas, or in
groups by itself, always allowing plenty of room for each
plant to expand. In the famous Garden of Delight that I
love, it is used in many ways ; as small standards in the more
formal borders, or growing at will in the water and wild
gardens, or sunk in pots among other choice flowers on the
steep slope of the lawn ; while its pink and blue cousin has a
Autumn fairy glade to itself beyond the Lily ponds, under the great
Roses Oak trees against the wooded hillside, dozens of the plants being
sunk together in the green moist turf.
But precious and lovely as all these are, there is something
more precious still. An Autumn Rose. What magic there is in
the mere word. And such a joy is within the reach of all who
own a garden in these days. Each year adds to the number of
all kinds of Autumn-flowering Roses, especially among the Teas
and hybrid Teas. Nor must we forget the many faithful
friends among the hybrid perpetuals, such as the invaluable
Ulrich Brunner, Mrs John Laing, Fisher Holmes, Mrs
Sharman Crawford, Alfred Colomb, Pride of Waltham,
Margaret Dickson, and the new and superb Frau Karl
Druschki. Few things in the Autumn garden are more
effective than a mass of some of those glorious copper-red and
china-pink shades which we get among the Teas, such, for
instance, as Souv. de Catherine Guillot, or the darker Souv. de
J. B. Guillot, General Schablikine, Mme. Lambard, Papa
Gontier, Baronne de Hoffman, and Amabilis, though these two
last are not known as they should be in English gardens. Or
of some of the clear pinks of such hybrid Teas as Belle Siebrecht
(Mrs W. G. Grant), Killarney, La France, Captain Christy, and
the exquisite Caroline Testout, one of the most invaluable of
the class, and never to be forgotten by any one who has seen
the two long borders of this grand Rose leading down to the
north front of Holland House. While among the darker shades
we find such free blooming Roses as the fiery Gruss an Teplitz,
in flower from May to December against a west wall, Lady
Battersea, Liberty, and Marquise de Salisbury. Of the yellow,
orange, white and flesh-coloured Teas and hybrid Teas that flower
freely in Autumn the faithful Marie Van Houtte stands pre- Autumn,
eminent, closely followed by Anna Olivier, Antoine Rivoire, Late Roses
Enchantress, G. Nabonnand, Gustave Regis, Kaiserin Augusta
Victoria, Mine. Cadeau Ramey, Mme. Ravary, Dr Grill,
Prince de Bulgarie, Viscountess Folkestone, and Coquette de
Lyon. But a group of that most perfect of modern Roses,
Mme. Abel Chatenay in October, is hard to beat ; for until a
really sharp frost comes her lovely flowers are borne in abundance
on the branching shoots of the same year, and last better in
water than almost any other late Rose. The effect of several
plants of this Rose is very striking. But there is one other,
scarcely known in England, which is just as lasting and even
more brilliant, Monsieur Tillier, raised by Bernaix of Lyons.
Why this Rose should not be more generally cultivated is a
mystery, except that being of medium size and curiously im-
bricated, it is not strictly speaking an exhibition flower. Its
handsome, nearly evergreen foliage, its abundant blossoms, its
singular colour, a vivid brick red on a copper base with
crimson on the outer petals, its sweet scent, and its usefulness as
a cut flower, ought to bring it into favour in every garden. A
group of three or four plants are here in constant flower from
May to November, and make a bright splash of colour right
across the garden.
Of China Roses we can never have too many : yet how
few amateurs bestow sufficient care and kindness upon them.
" The common old China," one hears them say, " that can be
grown anywhere ; " and being neglected and starved it does in
very truth bear out the scornful description. But grown with
the same generous treatment bestowed on a Rose that costs
75. 6d. instead of 9d., what a lovely object is a big plant of the
Autumn old pink China, the parent of so many beautiful children. In
Roses the Garden of Delight where nothing is considered common or
unclean, huge bushes of it grow at intervals along the side of
the broad walk above the Lily ponds, and make a striking show
even when just across the walk rare sub-tropical plants, with
Fuchsias, Geraniums, Plumbagos, pink Hydrangeas, and dazzling
scarlet Erythrinas are sunk in the velvet turf. Of the newer
kinds, Laurette Messimy and Mme. Eugene Resal, no praise
can be excessive, for a bed of these mixed with a few of the pink
sorts, planted pretty close together, is a never-ending delight.
And now that the new climbing Field Marshal, with its large
fine flowers of deepest scarlet-crimson, has added a fresh joy,
this lovely family is indeed complete.
Of white Roses many are at their best in the Autumn,
such as the faithful Souv. de Malmaison, and two charming
Musk Roses, Princesse de Nassau and Fringed Musk. The two
double-white Rugosas, Blanc Double de Coubert and the en-
chanting Mme. Georges Bruant, which, by the way, is seen to
perfection as a standard, both flower freely in Autumn. And
among the delicious little dwarf Polyanthas numbers of white,
pink, and coppery-yellow seem as if they could never flower
Though we have not yet found a perpetual Crimson
Rambler, Field Marshal, which I have just mentioned, has
added a noble rose to our red Autumn climbing Roses, and
with Reine Olga de Wurtemburg, Francois Crousse, Ards
Rover, Longworth Rambler, and handsome Bardou Job, there
need be no lack of strong colour on pillars, arches, or walls.
Most of the Noisettes prolong the Rose season right into the
Winter, and begin again in April. On the old Jaune Desprez,
sweetest of all the family, for which we now look in vain in Autumn.
most catalogues, clusters of soft yellow and pink blossoms hang Trees for
from the end of every shoot filling the air with their fragrance, Colour
its handsome foliage keeping green on a south-west wall till
nearly the end of Winter. Close by little Ophirie is a mass of
bloom till long after the first frosts. Climbing Captain Christy,
which was at its best in July, manages still to give a few huge
blossoms in October ; and the invaluable and semi-evergreen Reve
d'Or, with Celine Forestier, Alister Stella Gray, Belle Lyonaise,
give us our needed yellows and creams, while Aimee Vibert
flings its vigorous shoots and white clusters over the nearest
Colour effects in the Autumn garden are, however, by no
means dependent on flowers alone, fortunately for us. For the
first frosts, which blacken our Dahlias and make us hasten to
clear the beds of Begonias and their other charms, create a fresh
glory among the trees and shrubs. And, in planting our
gardens, it is well to pause and reflect upon this very important
and attractive question ; as many and great are the possible
mistakes that come from haste and carelessness. Things beauti-
ful in themselves may be so misused as to produce a perfectly
detestable effect. And this we should always bear in mind in
our plantings ; for it is on the use, not the abuse, of our
materials that our picture depends. As an instance of what
should and should not be done with that invaluable tree,
Prunus Pissardi, the purple Japanese Plum, I see two gardens
in my mind's eye. In one, fine trees of the Plum are planted
alternately with equally fine trees of the white Acer negundo
var., among stiff borders on either side of a broad walk, and
their monotonous formality is the one and only thing that
Shrubs for strikes the mind of the spectator. In the other a few a very
Colour few trees of the Plum stand at far intervals on the right of
another long broad walk, among masses of every kind of flower,
Roses, Hollyhocks, Gladioli, Lilies, pink and white flowering
Cherries, with a background of fruit trees against a high red-
brick wall ; and on the left velvet-green turf slopes down to
the chain of Lily ponds, with the wild garden and lofty forest
trees beyond them. In the first, the unimaginative soul of some
head gardener has produced an effect as hideous and uninterest-
ing as the squares on a chess-board ; in the other, exquisite
feeling for nature, and a deep and artistic sense of her beauty,
has written a veritable poem in flower and foliage ; for all blend
into one subtle harmony, each item enhancing the loveliness of
Again, how easily that handsome and useful shrub, the
Golden Elder, becomes a nightmare in some gardens. And
yet what is more brilliant for many months than its vigorous
growth, set against a background of dark Hollies, or reflected
in the still waters of a lake. On the dullest of days, under the
most leaden of skies, it is light in a dark place, a little blot
of sunshine in itself. Yet how intolerable when planted in long
rows with so obvious a contrast as purple-leaved Nut ! But
if these rather positive and violent shrubs are used sparingly
and with due caution, they are the source of delight they are
meant to be.
Of the shrubby Spiraeas one can hardly have enough in
the garden, especially of the invaluable S. pruntfolia. This
is a joy from early Spring with its fairy rosettes of white borne
in long wreaths along each stem, and its fine metallic blue-
green foliage in Summer, which in Autumn runs through every
shade of the green and purple one sees on a pigeon's lustrous Autumn,
breast, till the yellow and red from the heart of the bush turn Shrubs for
it to clear flame just shot at the points of the shoots with Colour
amethystine purple. Invaluable, indeed, is such a shrub,
vigorous, hardy, and keeping its foliage long after its hand-
some companion, S. opulifolla aurea y has shed its golden leaves.
A group of these Spiraeas, with the Guelder Rose, Rbus Cotinus,
Exocborda grandtflora, a snowy Mespilus, and just one or
two moderate-sized plants of Cornus sanguinea for the deepest
note, would produce an exquisite harmony of tender and rich
tones through all the months of flower and leafage.
Among Japanese Maples we get endless and beautiful
colour effects, from brilliant green through reds of various tones
to deepest crimson-purple. But these precious gifts among the
many that Japan has bestowed upon the Western world, must
not be thrust pell-mell into a shrubbery bed, but planted out
on the lawn, and for choice on some brow of the lawn, where
their beauties can be seen from all sides. Nothing is more
attractive than a well-selected group of the many varieties of
Acer palmatum, placed in such a manner that while sufficient
space is left to allow us to move between them and examine
the singular delicacy of their many forms and colours, they shall
be near enough to blend one with the other when seen from a
little distance. But strangely enough, though all plants and
trees from the land of our gallant little allies seem perfectly
in place in the English landscape, the American Maples are
apt to look crude among our British foliage and under our
quiet skies. Crude enough they are in their own land in all
conscience ; yet in that light atmosphere, under that implacable
sky, they seem part and parcel of the whole. But when they
Colour in are transported to the older and more sober continent, they
the Hedge- strike a somewhat harsh and disagreeable note, and produce a
rows s Ptty effect in the subdued and solid tints of the landscape.
Another charming colour effect even after the leaves have
fallen is due to the wild Briar-Rose and the Sweet-briar, in hedge
or shrubbery. As I write in bright sunshine on the snow-clad
land, the deep green of Gorse, Broom, and Holly hedges is broken
in many places by a crimson mist the fruit of the wild Roses,
which, much against the gardener's wish, have been allowed to
grow as they please, and fling their long shoots high above the
green. Fairy-like masses of pink and white in June, they turn
from scarlet to crimson as the Autumn goes on ; and as the birds
greatly prefer the handsome fruits of Rosa rugosa to the humbler
English Rose, they are left to adorn the hedges even in twenty-
five degrees of frost. And many another beautiful effect may
be gained by the use of everyday trees which are usually left
to grow wild in copse and woodland, or relegated for " useful "
purposes only to the kitchen garden or orchard. I mean fruit
trees both wild and tame. Who that has lived in the north of
Hampshire can forget the vivid flame of our wild Cherries in
Autumn, huge mountains of snow in Spring that turn to trees
of fire in October ; or the beauty of Crab Apples both in flower
and fruit, growing with May trees right out among the Firs and
Heather. And why should we not bring some of the Pears,
which take on such gorgeous Autumn clothing, into our gardens,
instead of banishing them to unseen and unvisited regions ?
They would fulfil the object for which they are grown every
whit as well, and add a fresh delight to the eye in Spring and
Autumn. Some of the Apples also, such as Worcester Pearmain,
and the dear old red Devonshire Quarrenden, set thickly in late
August and September with scarlet and crimson fruit, vie in Autumn,
intensity of colour with many of our most brilliant flowers. The Colour of
Medlar again is among the most ornamental of Autumn trees, Fruit Trees
its leaves lasting in a glory of orange and red for a full month,
while close by the Spindle tree's fringes of pink coral in the
hedge hang above the rich foliage of the Bramble.
Thus by wisely using all that is beautiful, whether costly
or common, may we prolong the glory of Autumn into the heart
of Winter. And by such dreams of beauty, the remembrance of
what has been and the faith in what will be, may we keep
warm, thankful hearts and hopeful souls through the dark
days to come.
ROSE G. KINGSLEY.
" Spring, the young morn, and Summer, the strong noon,
Have dreamed and done and died for Autumn's sake."
R. Le Gallienne.
"Where are the songs of Spring? ay, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,
While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day,
And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue."
Late T N September many late annuals are in perfection ; coming
Annuals at a time when the great burst of summer flowers is
over, they form a valuable addition to the colour of the
China Asters CaUlstephus are among those universally
grown for this purpose. I am not personally fond of the stiff low
kinds with flowers which imitate Chrysanthemums, but the single
one illustrated Aster sinensis is a much more graceful plant,
bearing Daisy-like flowers five inches across, mauve, pink or
white. We grow them round one of the Tea-Rose beds, the
cool mauve tones and the bronze autumn shoots of the Roses
making a pleasing scheme of colour which the purple and
lilac of the Clematises trained on chains above complete very
well. These Asters should be raised in a little heat and be
planted out early in June. They repay very much a share
of the manure water given to the Roses.
The tall varieties of the annual Larkspurs to be had
in separate colours such as rose-scarlet, white or purple will
make effective clumps of colour three feet high in front of
ASTER SINENSIS AND CLEMATIS.
shrubs, and have a happy way of seeding themselves and September,
reappearing another year. White Cosmos, growing a foot Late
or so taller, looks very well associated with them, and lasts Annuals
Gorgeous effects of orange and red are easily attainable
now, with such plants as Nasturtiums, Marigolds tall and
dwarf, single and double Gaillardias, Zinnias, Escboltxia,
Viscaria, Coreopsis, etc. Next to the orange such purple
annuals as Whitlavia, Salvia horminum, Linaria, etc., give
brilliance. There are numbers of other useful annuals, but a
few which should not be omitted are, late-sown Sweet Peas,
Antirrhinums, Nicotiana affinis, and the new pink N. Saun-
derce, Autumn Stocks, Salpiglossis with its fine range of
colours and finely-shaped and veined flowers and Marguerite
Carnations. The latter must be raised in heat early in the
year ; if planted out in May they will flower well through the
autumn and up to the end of November out of doors, and can
then be potted up and grown in the greenhouse through the
The biennial Campanula pyramidalis is a most adaptable
plant, excellent for pot culture, and prospers in shade or sun.
It seeds and establishes itself, sometimes in such unlikely spots
as a gravel path or a brick wall. Under trees the individual
flowers are generally larger and the spikes more graceful. For
pots, seed should be sown in May or June, and the young
plants kept in a cold frame through the winter. If given
plenty of good nourishment they lose the rather sturdy growth
which they have out of doors, and make several graceful spires
five to eight feet long. So much effect is given from one pot
that they are particularly useful for filling up gaps made by
Lobelia plants that have gone over, or for grouping where colour is
and wanted. Down a Rose Pergola, for instance, one may be
Penstemon sun k at every post ; the green Rose sprays make a good back-
ground to their upright growth, and if the dead flowers are
picked off they will flower from the end of July to the
beginning of November.
Lobelia cardinalis and L. fulgens both flower the
same year from seed sown early in heat, but they are really
perennial, and should be stored in a cold frame through the
Winter, and kept rather dry while they are at rest. Lobelia
fulgens or splendens is the handsomer variety, as the foliage
and stems are dark plum colour ; it is more delicate than
cardinalis, being apt to die from disease in the Winter if not
carefully looked after and all signs of rust cut away. When
planted out in the early Summer they need a moist, leafy soil,
and plenty of water. The stock can be increased by standing
a few plants in heat early in the Spring and making cuttings of
the young shoots, which will become good flowering plants the
same year. Their handsome red spikes, set off by the dark
leaves, are very effective, and are worth massing in beds by
themselves, with Gannas and Castor Oil plants, or with plants
of a cooler tone, such as Variegated Maize or Hyacinthus
The Hybrid Penstemons also make rich beds through the
Autumn, the shape and setting of the flower-heads reminding
one of Foxgloves. They are easily raised from seed sown
in heat early in the year ; the young plants should be put out
in May in a well-drained bed of good rich soil, and will flower
well through the Summer and up to the end of November.
We cannot rely on them here to stand the Winter ; those that
do are evergreen, make big bushes and flower much sooner September,
than the seedlings. Good varieties can be increased from Penstemon
cuttings made from the side shoots in September, struck in boxes
of sandy soil, and kept in a cold frame through the Winter.
Many of the new seedlings are beautiful, with large, well-
opened flowers, running through shades from white to crimson,
and including good pinks and cherry-reds with white throats.
Some ugly magenta kinds are sure to appear, but they should
be an exception and can be discarded. The finest of all the
dark ones is called M. Millardet, and is a deep, glossy, Indian
There are other useful varieties of Penstemon, such as
Barbatus called also Chelone barbata with graceful long
spikes of salmon-pink flowers, but much smaller individually
than those of the Hybrids. P. Newry Scarlet is a small-
flowered variety with a long trumpet, deep crimson-scarlet in
colour, a profuse bloomer, and lasting until late in the Autumn ;
it is hardier than most kinds, and can be left in the open border
through a not too severe Winter. One of the most charming of
all is P. heterophyllous ; the buds are pink on opening, and
change as does a Forget-me-not to an exquisite shade of pale
A plant nearly related to the Penstemons, and like them in
the form of the scarlet flower spike, is Pbygelius capensls.
It does well with us under a south wall, flowering till late
Autumn, but in the borders it is not a success.
In the wood we have an effect which has almost the
delight of a spring one Cyclamen Neapolitanum are making
shining clumps of white among the Ivy trails and the already
falling leaves. These tiny, pure white flowers, with their
Cyclamen pointed petals and warm yellow stalks, have a peculiar charm of
Neapoli- their own. They last five or six weeks, and then the leaves
tanum t> e g m to appear growing up through the fading flowers and
themselves lasting in beauty all through the Winter and
Spring; they are light green, beautifully blotched and veined
with grey. This Cyclamen has been established with us many
years on its wood bank, and has now made large tubers, but
growth is very slow to start with, and it does not seed itself like
Cyclamen Coum, probably owing to the date of its flowering.
We pick the ripened seed and raise young plants in a cold frame.
A complete contrast, in the way of woodland effect, is
given by a mass of Tansy Tanacetum-vulgare and Aaron's
Rod. They are both strong perennials, too coarse for many of
the borders, but useful for filling some rough spot where colour
is wanted. The yellow fluffy heads of the Aaron's Rod and
the flat dead gold heads of the Tansy blend well together.
Virginia Creeper ought to be now wreathing its glowing
trails over trees and bushes. Though so commonly seen as a
house creeper, it is not enough used in the wild garden, where
there are so many opportunities for its picturesque use. If one
is trained to the top of an old Apple tree, and then allowed to
fall naturally, it will soon convert it into a shower of scarlet and
deep red, pierced only by bunches of round green fruit, and
relieved by the cool lawn stretching below. Or it may be
planted at a little distance from a Fir or Larch, and swung to
some bough a good height up, making a scarlet garland. If a
low effect is wanted, it looks well creeping over old tree roots,
with Clematis paniculata which is like C. flammula, but
flowers earlier or Hydrangea scandens, with its large apple-
ANEMONE JAPONICA. AUTUMN CROCUS.
In the grass, Colchicum autumnale, often called Autumn September.
Crocus, should now be coming into flower. The common one Colchicum
is a British plant, and a first-rate one for the wild garden as its
natural home is a meadow ; grass too makes the best setting for
the fragile flowers which are quickly soiled in the borders, as
their leaves do not appear till later. They may be had double
or single, white or lilac-pink. There are other finer varieties,
such as Colchicum giganteum and speciosum ; the flowers of the
former are very round and cup-shaped, and twice the size of the
C. autumnale, but they are expensive for naturalising.
The real autumn Crocuses also begin to flower now, and
bring even more pleasure and hope than the spring varieties,
starting into fresh life when most plants are beginning to prepare
for their winter rest. The illustration was painted from a lovely
blue-purple one Crocus speciosus with veins of dark maroon
spreading delicately over the petals, and uniting to make a dark
stem. The stigma is very long, even the buds show a bright
orange spot before they open. These Crocuses must be planted
in June or July, as their foliage does not die down until the end
of May ; like the Colchicums they look best if grown in grass.
There are a number of European varieties which should be
introduced into the garden if possible, such as C. nudiflorus
very much the colour of speciosus but increasing very fast
and pulchellus and longiflorus, mauve with yellow throats.
Of the Japanese Anemones growing beside the Crocus too
much can hardly be said as to their use and beauty at this season,
either for effect in the borders or for picking. They may be had
white, a lovely pale pink and a rather commoner full pink, and
once established should be left undisturbed.
The little pink plant Erlgeron mucronatus shown in
Erigeron front of the picture, and so often seen on the Riviera or the
mucronatus, Italian lakes, is most valuable for edges, for covering ground
Dahlias wnere bulbs are planted, or in the rock garden, where it estab-
lishes itself even in a brick wall. It spreads into a round tuft
about nine inches high, covered for five or six months with
delicate pink and white Daisy-like flowers. A stock can be easily
and quickly raised from seed.
Another good border plant is Sedum spectabile ; the attrac-
tion it has for Red Admirals is its great delight any sunny day
this month a flight of these butterflies may be seen hovering
round the flat pink flower-heads.
If skilfully grouped in the borders with several of the same
colour together, a great effect can be obtained from Dahlias.
Three or four tall pink kinds under a wall covered with the soft
blue flowers of Ceanothus, Gloire de Versailles look particularly
well ; clumps of white and yellow may be placed near blue
Monkshood, or white near some low bright orange plant, such
as African Marigolds ; or the bright salmon-red ones against
such a dark foliage tree as the purple Prunus Pissardii. The
Cactus varieties run through a fine range of colour, and are most
valuable for picking. Some of the flaming reds and salmon-
pinks are wonderful in their brilliance, and the more delicate
tones white tinged with sulphur, and all shades of yellow up
to a rich deep gold are equally useful. Dahlias have to be
taken up in Autumn when frosts have cut them down, and must
be stored in a dry place through the Winter. In May they should
be planted out again, and need room and plenty of manure and
water. They are most easily increased by cuttings; for this
purpose pot them up in February and place in a warm frame ;
young shoots will be quickly thrown up, which should be struck
in bottom heat ; by May they will be strong enough to plant September,
out, and make fine plants the same year. Amaryllis
There are a good many half hardy plants which add Belladonna
greatly to the beauty of the garden this month. Amaryllis
Belladonna is one of the most charming the illustration was
painted from a group near a bush of lemon-scented Verbena.
The safest place for these lovely Lilies is a sunny border in
front of a greenhouse, but in many gardens the protection of a
south wall is enough. They like a soil made of good loam, leaf
mould and sand, and must not be allowed to get too dry in the
Summer. The leaves appear early in the Spring, disappear about
July, and all through September they push up their dark red
flower stalks and unfold their heads of fruit-scented white and
pale pink flowers, which get rosier with age. Zephyranthes
Candida growing alongside needs a warm corner too, and is a
good neighbour with its pretty white crocus-like flowers and
The African Lily Agapanthus umbellatum is lovely all
through August and September it lives out of doors with us
under a south wall, but does not flower as well as those in tubs
which are kept in the Orangery through the Winter and carried
out of doors for the Summer. They are most effective used in
this way on a terrace or along a stone balustrade, as the foliage is
plentiful and of a rich dark green, showing up well the large
blue umbels of flower. A beautiful group may be made with
them and Plumbago, with its light graceful growth and paler
blue flowers, their pots sunk in a bed or in the turf. The
Plumbagos also spend the Winter in the Orangery, in June they
are planted out, and if it is a fine Summer give quantities of
flower through the Autumn. They combine well in the south
Solanum border with the Bignonia, and its sprays of red-orange trumpet-
jasminoides shaped flowers on the wall, or would look well with Auratums.
These immense Lilies should be a feature now in the garden, but
they refuse to grow even tolerably well with us. In a sandy or
peaty soil they are magnificent, rearing their great heads of bloom
among Azaleas and Rhododendrons, and lasting even till
October, when the Azaleas have taken on their autumn shades
of plum and russet and red which form such a perfect setting for
the white richly-spotted flowers.
A lovely creeper which we cannot succeed in flowering well
is Solanum jasminoides, but in the West of England I have seen
many houses wreathed with its delicate leaves, and the hanging loose
white bunches of tiny flowers, looking like some hot-house creeper.
Another climber for this time is the annual Mina Lobata
with gay red and yellow flowers, produced in great profusion on
a sunny wall.
All the bedding plants which need the protection of glass
through the Winter are at their best now. The reaction against
the formal use of these should never deprive a garden of such
flowers as Heliotrope, the white and yellow French Daisies,
Begonias, and a certain number of Geraniums. There are many
places, especially near a house, where plants certain of giving
colour through August, September and October are very valu-
able. Begonias are among those possessing a great range of
colour white, pink, yellow and red in which all the tints
harmonise, and mixed beds can safely be planted without fear of
a clashing pink or magenta. They like shade, especially in
the early morning, and lots of water. In wet Summers, when
Geraniums lose all beauty, they get richer and richer in effect
and last till severe frosts begin.
" Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom friend of the maturing sun ;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the Vines that round the thatch-eaves run ;
To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core ;
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells
With a sweet kernel ; to set budding more,
And still more, later flowers for the bees,
Until they think warm days will never cease,
For summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells."
ALTHOUGH few trees are turned as yet, real autumn Autumn
colour is appearing in the garden. colour
Vitis purpurea enriches its colour every day the
whole Vine is still a mysterious tint between plum and blue-
green with a look of bloom spread over it, but many leaves are
already purple, and some a brilliant scarlet ; presently these
bright tints become universal, and blend well with other richly
coloured shrubs, such as Rbus cotinus Sumach and its many
toned red leaves and smoke-like heads. Just now the Vine
forms a wonderful background, as the picture shows, to plants
of delicate colouring like Plumbago, or a pale Michaelmas
Daisy. On the iron grill close by is Cobcea scandens, a half
hardy perennial creeper with a very quick and charming growth.
It will not withstand the Winter in this country, but may
be treated as an annual, sown in heat during March,
and planted out in June; directly the roots have hold, it
Coboea begins to race up pillar or wall. Most of all it seems to prefer
scandens a light sunny trellis ; on the lightest of supports string stretched
and Vine fro m post to post a green veil will soon be formed with
numbers of pale erect buds ; as these expand they turn down
their trumpet-shaped flowers, which appear first cream, then
mauve, and lastly a full purple, and are lovely in form and
colour at all their stages. It lasts till cut off by frost, often being
still beautiful the end of November and beginning of December.
Vltis Coigaetia and V. Tbunbergii from China and Japan
have not yet taken on their most brilliant tints. Both are very
strong growers, and have very large leathery bright green leaves,
which in Autumn turn red, orange and yellow. Thunbergii is
the richest in colour of the two, but a little less vigorous. A very
charming, but much smaller Vine both in foliage and growth is
Vltis heterophylla humulifolia the bunches of turquoise blue
berries form its great delight ; to get their full colour they must
have plenty of sun and the warmth of a wall.
Vines are first-rate for covering pergolas, as they keep well
clothed to the bottom, and the colour of the leaves is much
heightened when seen with the light through them against the
sky. If the pergola winds through a shrubbery, or near trees,
the long trails should be allowed to tumble naturally, or branches
may be led up into the trees. I have seen Coigflctia spreading
in this way from the top of a pergola into a neighbouring Yew
tree the dark evergreen making a beautiful setting for the
magnificent foliage either in its light green summer dress, or
decked in its autumn hues. Two other very different pictures
are in my remembrance ; one where it was trained on a low
terrace-wall, as foreground to purple and brown moor, with
boughs of a strong, late blooming yellow Rose, resembling
VINE. PLUMBAGO. COB^A SCANDENS.
Bouquet d'Or, held well above it; in the other, covering the October,
upright supports of an old barn, and led thence on to the roof Chrysan-
supported by a rough wooden trellis. The uses for these large themum
Vines are many and diverse if given loam and plenty of
manure they can be counted on for rapid growth.
Throughout September and October and the early part of
November, outdoor Chrysanthemums are in beauty, and most
useful and easy to grow. In some soils they stand the Winter
well, but a long spell of cold damp often kills them; it is
desirable therefore to take up some plants of all varieties, store
them for the Winter in boxes in a cold frame or outhouse, and
divide them when replanting in the Spring; or cuttings can be
made in the Autumn and grown on through the Winter.
One border is now gay with clumps of cream-white
Madame Desgranges, a bright violet Michaelmas Daisy and
the great white Pyretbrum uliginosum^ with its bunches of large
Daisy-like flowers. Ry croft Glory blooms in the same border
a little later, and lasts till the end of November, blending well
with the golds and yellows of the trees in their autumn dress.
The single white Mary Anderson with just the faintest touch
of pink also does well, but all the singles, though so pretty, are
less useful, being easily spoilt by bad weather.
There are a number of kinds worth growing if space can
be given them in an open sunny border. The following are
some of the best :
J _. ' >. Both good bright colours.
Goachers Pink )
Madame Auguste Nonin pretty mauve pink.
Mademoiselle E. Poirette pale, particularly pretty
colour at night.
Pompon White. Esperance green- white with a good-sized flower.
Chrysan- White Quintus one of the best and very free
Fiancee large flower and good stiff upright
Yellow. Jenny orange-gold.
Frankie orange brown.
Paul Valade dead gold with good loose flowers.
Plentiful small yellow.
Orange Masse rose orange, beautiful colour.
Red. Madame de Sabatier large flower of good deep
Many of the cottage gardens about us are gay for several
months with Pompon Chrysanthemums, and seem often to have
taller and better kinds than can be procured from a nurseryman.
The nearer one gets to the sea the better they seem to do.
White, crimson, yellow and terra-cotta are generally grown, all
making good bushes four or five feet high and crowded with
flowers. Some of the best-named sorts are :
W. Holmes terra-cotta.
William Westlake yellow.
Mademoiselle Marthe white.
Black Douglas fine dark red.
Mademoiselle Elise Dordain pale pink.
White St Grouts showing a yellow centre.
Crimson Precosite good bright colour.
BOCCONIA AND MICHAELMAS DAISIES.
THE HOLT, HARROW, WEALD.
White Lady very pretty, turning blush-pink before it October,
Perhaps the most useful of all autumn flowers are the Michaelmas
Michaelmas Daisies ; they should be used freely in the wild r) a j sv effects
garden, and in borders, in large groups by themselves or mixed
with strong-growing perennials. The sketch shows some
well-placed clumps of a tall loose variety and a low dense one,
in front of Bocconia cordata. The cool grey-green leaves of
this plant and the handsome spikes of seed vessels, six or seven
feet high, and tawny-gold in the sunlight, make a delightful
The variation in their heights, sizes and colours, and the
different dates of flowering, must all be carefully considered
when planting. Some open in August, others not till November,
when nearly all flowers have disappeared ; new seedlings are
constantly being raised, so that it is difficult to choose among
the number of names. Aster amellus is very early, and bears
large and very bright violet flowers ; the bush only grows about
two feet high, and is so sturdy it needs no staking. In Septem-
ber A. Acrls and A. Bessarabicus, low growing kinds bearing
a multitude of flowers, will make a sheet of mauve, and with
Monthly Roses I have seen them making a delightful foreground
to a distant view. F. W. Burbidge, a tall strong growing one
producing large heads of bloom on erect stalks, is excellent for
picking or effect, the flowers are mauve and the buds rose-pink,
giving a warm tone to the whole bush. The two small white
kinds, Multlflorus and Niveus both blend well with it.
For October several good effects might be planned. If
room allows, it is delightful to be able to devote a good sized
piece of ground to Michaelmas Daisies alone ; some rather out-
Michaelmas of-the-way corner, too sunless for many flowers, will suit them
Daisy effects quite well, where they can remain unnoticed till they become
a feathery mass of white, mauve and purple. In planting for
such an effect, it is very important to know the heights of each
variety, so as to be sure of not swamping some altogether, and
yet to give a varied outline, bringing some tall sorts near the
front of the bed and some to break the edge with their graceful
sprays. Their soft colouring would be well thrown out by
Hollies or Yews, or they may be given a background of warmer
tone, formed of shrubs that turn a golden brown or deep soft
purple in Autumn. The varieties given in the following list
will be found to make an effective group :
Robert Parker tall good-sized mauve flower making a
large, well-divided head.
Margaret a blue-mauve, very tall.
Harper Crewe tall white flowers smaller than the above
and set in a close head.
Punisius Pulclerrimiis very tall with large flowers of the
Top Sawyer a large tall mauve one.
Candida good tall white one.
Cordtfolia elegans with a very branching growth, dark
stems, and a multitude of tiny mauve flowers.
Cordtfolia elegans grandis much the same as above, only
finer. Both these sorts are excellent for picking and
Ericoides a low white, with sprays of tiny flowers.
Viminius similar to Ericoides^ but with longer and very
For forming a border of graduated heights, Amellus Bcssa-
rabicus growing only about two feet high, and the later purple October.
Grandtflorus are suitable for the front row: Multiftorus and Culture and
Flora white, Bouman and Amethystinus, purple and mauve, Staking
might form a second row : Robert Parker, Harper Crewe, and
two plants strongly resembling Michaelmas Daisies the tall
white Pyrethrum uliginosum and Baltonia asteroides^ with soft
grey-green leaves, would make a third taller row at the back.
It is surprising what a delightful mass of colour an arrange-
ment like this will give, but it will look too stiff if not carefully
broken in some way with taller growing plants. A circle of
Rose arches cutting the long straight lines with their green
wreaths, and allowing a further vista of the lilac and purple
bank to be seen, completes the picture very well.
The big Daisy-like Pyrethrum, already mentioned, is a
most robust grower, increasing almost too fast for the border,
but very useful for massing. In a friend's garden I have seen
a delightful cool green and white glade made with an unbroken
line of the white bushes one side of a grass path, and Nut trees
To get the best results all the Michaelmas Daisies must be
divided about every second year or else the middle of the clump
gets exhausted. Many of the kinds need great care in staking ;
the simplest way to support them is on pea-sticks, which avoids
all risks of their being tied into unsightly bundles. If properly
staked the result is even better, but to get a well-shaped bush
this means using from ten to twenty light sticks for every plant.
There are many rich-coloured plants intensifying the glory
of the trees, to form a contrast to these cool Autumn effects just
described, and many delicate harmonies which may be planned
between flowers and shrubs of soft warm tones. Most of the
Some following suggestions are taken from a garden at Harrow Weald,
Autumn and many more will be found in the Winter article which follows,
effects Helenium striatum, with its yellow flowers splashed with
red is uninteresting as a single plant in a border, but massed
near a purple Filbert or Prunus the effect is magnificent or a
calmer colour scheme is given by grouping it with pale Michael-
mas Daisies against a background of green and white plants.
Salvias both blue and red are most useful at this time. S.
patens, the deep Gentian blue one, looks well in a clump against
the handsome foliage and white flowers of Nicotiana sylvestris.
S. Pitcheri is of a softer, more lovely blue than the above with
sprays of small flowers it blooms rather late for the garden but
can be potted up and grown on in the greenhouse. There
are several red kinds, such as S. coccinea and splendent well
worth having; I am uncertain of the name of the one we
grow but it makes good bushes three feet high and gives a
glowing mass of colour till late in November. The flower spike
is of two distinct reds, crimson and scarlet, which adds very
much to the richness of the effect.
The flower spikes of Hydrangea paniculata are now a soft
flesh pink, and look well thrown out by Berberis purpurea
the colour of a purple plum with the bloom on and above
these might be the bright scarlet of Quercus coccinea superba.
This Oak keeps its brilliant foliage till February, the commoner
Quercus coccinea is never so brilliant, and is over much more
Prunus sinensis which bears in Spring clusters of double
white or rose coloured flowers, is now a wonderful soft copper
pink almost impossible to describe, and delightful standing by
itself relieved only by stretches of lawn.
The old-fashioned Fuchsia used so frequently in Ireland October,
for hedges makes a glowing mass of red, intensified in tone if Some
given a background of dark Yews and something soft in colour as Autumn
a foreground, such as the streaked green and white ribbon grass. e ff ec fc s
A group so arranged in this Harrow garden is doing well, quite
in the shade of tall trees and close by is another quieter but
lovely bit of colour. At the edge of a tiny pond grows a fine
plant of Gunnera manicata, the gigantic leaves which in a
warm moist climate are sometimes seven or eight feet across
still bright green, their magnificent form shown up by the
brilliant copper yellow of Beech leaves on trees and ground.
Japanese Maples, mentioned elsewhere, are magnificent grouped
with Pampas grass, with space left around them to show their
Some good shrubs are growing well in clearings in the
same wood. Abd'ia rupestris with its clusters of tiny flowers
of the palest pink, delicate but very useful coming into flower
at this time. Skimmia Fortunei, with very bright green foliage
and clusters of vermilion berries. It makes rather a stiff bush,
but is not particular about soil and will grow under trees.
Pernettias, ten or twelve of these shrubs will make a striking
bit of colour : the berries, which are produced in great pro-
fusion, vary from pale pink to crimson, and hang in bunches
along the graceful stems.
Many of the Berberis turn the most brilliant colours in
the Autumn, especially Tbunbergil, the whole bush becoming a
blaze of rosy scarlet and orange. The sketch done at Bordighera
in early Spring when the Roses are all making their fresh brown
red shoots, shows how brilliant an effect leaves alone can give.
The vividness of the colour here was due a great deal to the
Autumn effect of light, the sun being low and shining through the leaves,
effects but many shrubs bear as brilliant colour on their leaves, and
should be more used to give beauty of this kind.
Medlars turn to wonderful shades of red, russet, and
purple making a beautiful background to many flowers, and
few rare shrubs excel in colour the common wild Cherry with
its shades of rose and orange and yellow. In Mrs Boyle's
garden at Huntercombe a delightful late autumn effect was
given with a tangle of Clematis-flammula shown up by the
vivid copper tones of a big Beech, while under the Clematis
were clumps of big Winter Cherry Physalis Francheti
making a mass of brilliant orange-red and yellow.
Many of our hedgerows are full of suggestion and beauty
at this time : Spindlewood is plentiful here covered with its
profusion of lovely deep rose-pink berries, disclosing as they
open the orange seeds within : growing with the Spindlewood
are sometimes to be seen masses of ripe Rose-hips and large
bunches of shining black Privet berries which set off both
pink and red.
" I, singularly moved
To love the lovely that are not beloved,
Of all the Seasons, most
Love Winter, and to trace
The sense of the Trophonian pallor on her face.
It is not death, but plenitude of peace ;
And the dim cloud that does the world enfold
Hath less the characters of dark and cold
Than warmth and light asleep,
And correspondent breathing seems to keep
With the infant harvest, breathing soft below
Its eider coverlet of snow.
Nor is in field or garden anything
But, duly looked into, contains serene
The substance of things hoped for, in the Spring,
And evidence of Summer not yet seen."
PLANTING FOR AUTUMN AND WINTER
CONSIDERING how many people in England spend Winter
the Autumn and Winter in their country homes, and Colour
the Spring and Summer in London, it is curious that
more pains are not taken to plant trees and shrubs which are at
their best during the later season of the year. I propose in
this paper to make some suggestions as to plants suitable for
this purpose, and as to the way in which they should be treated.
It is quite a mistake to suppose that to get good winter-colour-
ing it is necessary to obtain rare and expensive or delicate
specimens ; some of the finest effects can be produced by quite
cheap and common stuff if properly handled. For instance,
among trees, no finer contrast of coloured stems exists than that
between Scotch Firs, when they have reached a certain age and
lost their lower boughs, and Silver Birches, if they are inter-
mingled, and the latter are pruned up to a height of some 1 2
or 15 feet. Again, among shrubs, the common Snowberry
(Sympboricarpos racemosus], which generally occurs in neglected
shrubberies as an unpleasing half-starved weed, if the suckers
are collected and planted in a solid mass in open ground, with
nothing over them to obstruct the light and air, and if in the
spring, when the sap is rising and the first sign of foliage peeps
out, they are cut down level with the soil, so that nothing is
visible, they will produce an appearance hardly recognisable by
those who are only accustomed to them under ordinary condi-
tions. They make a compact growth during the year of 2 feet
1 Reprinted by permission from the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society.
Massing of 6 inches to 3 feet, are covered with their delicate pink flowers
Shrubs for in the Summer, and in the Autumn are set all over with the
effect white fruit-balls, which last until the birds have eaten them.
This plan of cutting down to the ground in the Spring is requisite,
or at least highly desirable, with many other subjects to which
I shall refer later, where winter-colouring is sought for. I have
often found it very difficult to persuade gardeners (whether
amateur or professional) to carry out my recommendation in
this particular with regard to such things as Spircea Douglasii
or Cornus sanguinea, and even when they have promised to do
so, I have found that they have not been able to harden their
hearts, and at the last moment have adopted the half-measure
of cutting the plants a foot from the ground. This has the
result of showing in Winter a stiff uniform artificial line through
the bed with bright colouring above the line and dull below. It
should be borne in mind that it is invariably in the young wood
that the most vivid colour is procurable.
What is really wanted to show autumn and winter-colour-
ing to full advantage is that the planting should be in groups
and masses of the same species, and though this can be more
completely carried out in large places, yet it can be done much
more than it is at present in gardens of every size.
It is only of late years that it has been realised that Roses
and herbaceous plants look far better when the same variety is
massed together, and before long, gardeners will recognise the
advantage of treating shrubs in the same fashion so as to develop
the full beauty, whether of their flowers, foliage, or wood. I
will now mention in detail some plants which, owing to their
cheapness and hardiness, are suitable for planting in quantity
and whose foliage turns a fine colour in Autumn.
Pyrus ar but if oil a or Aroma floribunda can be bought Winter,
from some of the wholesale nurserymen at a very small price Hardy
per hundred. It is a vigorous grower, and after it has been cheap
planted twelve months it should be cut down, when it will Shrubs
shoot up again freely and make good compact bushes, which
are profusely covered with sweet-scented white flowers, and
later with small black fruit. In the Autumn the leaves turn a
bright clear red, and remain in that state from ten days to a
fortnight, according to the weather.
Euonymus europteus, or common Spindlewood, treated in
the same fashion, that is to say cut down in the Spring when
it gets at all leggy and bare below, will make a fine free-growing
bed of rich green colour, covered in its season with rosy-pink
seed-cases, and will require no care or attention except weeding
while the plants are young.
Rosa rubrifolla. This is very seldom grown in England,
nor does it, I think, figure generally in the nurserymen's
catalogues here, but it is largely used on the Continent for
hedges, and can be bought anywhere in France or Germany,
strong plants at 6d. a piece, with of course a reduction if bought
in any quantity. It grows fast, and, if pegged down, makes a
very showy bed. The flower is a pretty pink, though insignifi-
cant, but the fruit is showy, and both wood and leaf are of a soft
downy plum-colour. If planted near a mass of Golden Elder
or Golden Sympboricarpos^ the effect is brilliant and pleasing.
Rosa rugosa^ the Japanese Rose, is, of course, well known,
and the wealth of odorous flower, especially of the white variety,
is not to be despised ; but the fine haws through August and
September are its chief merit, being large, abundant, and showy.
The rough hirsute stems, too, show up well when the leaf is
Hardy off; moreover, it has the advantage of being cheap and repro-
cheap ducing itself readily by suckers. It requires no treatment except
Shrubs tne knifing back of the strong shoots in the Spring.
Leycesteria formosa, a very old-fashioned and meritorious
shrub now too little planted. The white Jasmin-like flowers,
backed up by the warm Bougainvillsea-like bracts, followed
again immediately behind by the small black cherry-like fruit,
without stalk, mark it out to anyone who has a seeing eye, and,
coming late in August, are very welcome. It is sub-evergreen,
and a rampant grower where the frosts are not too hard on it.
It stands the knife perfectly, and can be pruned back in Spring
as severely as is thought desirable. The bright green of the large
hollow stems makes it useful in Winter.
Kerria japonic a var. Its habit is quite different from the
common green type, as it is compact and bushy, the effect in a
mass of its delicate silver foliage is excellent, being soft and not
the least garish, it has the additional virtue of doing comparatively
well under the shade of trees, and it holds its leaf until Winter is
well advanced, when the green stems show up almost as bright
as the Leycesteria.
Fuchsia Riccartoni is a profuse autumn flowerer, and
although anywhere north of London it dies down to the ground,
however mild the Winter, yet the clear dark-brown wood looks
very pretty until the time comes for it to be cut away for the new
growth. I have never known the roots to be killed however
severe the season.
Among the Bamboos, Arundinaria japonic a syn. Bambusa
Metake is the only one which is at once cheap, hardy, and
indifferent as to soil and situation^ provided it be not too much
exposed to wind. Though it enjoys the vicinity of water, it
does not insist on it, and its foliage is at the best in Autumn and Winter,
Winter ; in fact the only time when it looks shabby is after a Bamboos
course of easterly winds in Spring. It sends up suckers very
freely, and in some shrubberies it has a tendency to become
a nuisance on this account, like the Polygonum. One fault it
has in common with all Bamboos, that occasionally (though
fortunately not often) it produces flowers something like dirty-
looking Oats, and when it flowers it dies. I do not remember
observing this phenomenon before last year, when in my father's
garden at Aldenham, Herts, we lost a large mass of Metake
about 15 feet high by 20 feet round, and about fifteen years
old, from this cause. It flowered all over, not merely on the
strong canes but on every tiny shoot, and this year every particle
is stone-dead, nor has it, as I hoped it might, shot up again from
This Summer also I have, to my grief, detected Pbyllostacbys
Casttllonis and another rare Bamboo in flower, so I fear that I
shall lose them too, although I have tried the experiment of at
once cutting them to the ground in hopes that I may be in time
before the exhaustion caused by flowering has reached a fatal point.
The Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoldes] looks very well
in Autumn if planted in a mass, but being dioecious it is
necessary to have male plants intermingled in the proportion of
about one to six ; when this is done the females berry profusely
and the bright orange fruit contrasts admirably with the silver-
grey foliage, having also the advantage, from the gardener's
point of view, of being unpalatable to birds. It is often
supposed that this plant requires sea air, but though the
seaside is its home it will do perfectly well inland, and on soils
so diverse as chalk and London clay.
Shrubs for Perhaps one of the most effective masses of autumn
Autumn colouring can be produced by collecting a lot of suckers or
Colour young plants of the common Stag-horned Sumach (Rbus
typblna] and treating it precisely as I have suggested earlier in
this paper in the case of the common Snowberry. The
ordinary sticky, leggy appearance of the plant is avoided, and
by summer time you have a dense level sheet of semi-tropical
looking foliage, 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet high, which attracts
universal attention in September by the brilliance of its red and
Rbus glabra lacimata colours equally well and has a more
elegant form, but it is far less vigorous, and more expensive.
Among late-flowering trees and shrubs I can recommend
Robinia neo-mexicana (pale violet) ; Olearla Haas til (white) ;
Spartium junceum (rich yellow), a very suitable flower for table
decorations ; Desmodium penduliflorum syn. Lespedexa Sieboldi
(dark violet) ; Hibiscus of sorts, particularly the single white (totus
alb us] ; Hub us frutlcosus fl. pL roseo, a free double-flowering
Bramble with pompons of light pink ; Colletia spinosa (white),
covered with Lilac-like blooms in mid-September; Ceanothus
americanus (white), a very free flowerer; also the light blue
deciduous variety, as to the proper name of which I am not
certain ; and latest of all, not flowering till September, Caryopteris
Mastacanthus (Heliotrope blue), which is one of the Sage
Besides the above plants which I have suggested as pro-
ducing a good autumn effect when planted in groups, I would
recommend the following as suitable for single specimens :
Taxodlum distichum^ or the deciduous Cypress, prefers the
neighbourhood of water, but will do quite well without, and
develops at the fall of the year a bright rust-colour which is very Winter.
conspicuous. The weeping form is also distinct and beautiful. Trees for
P bo timid villosa^ a deciduous form, is a small, erect-growing Colour effect
tree, not unlike a Pyrus in appearance, whose autumn colouring
is amber and orange ; it is very rarely seen in English gardens,
but quite worth growing, though it does not appear to be of
very vigorous constitution. I obtained our specimens from my
neighbour, Mr Cutbush, at Barnet. Liquidambar styraciflua
is perhaps too well known for description. It prefers a lightish
soil, is rather troublesome to start, but when once established
grows rapidly. The change of foliage varies very much on
different specimens from red and orange to purple and green, but
it is almost always beautiful.
The Maple class is too large to deal with in a paper of this
description, but their reputation for gorgeous foliage is well
established in America, and though perhaps not so resplendent
in this country, there is hardly one of them which is without
merit when the leaves begin to colour. The true Sugar Maple
(Acer saccbarinum] is a hardy free grower and one of the
cheapest and most effective of its genus.
Disanthus cercidifolia. I have known this only for two
or three years, and cannot speak as to its constitution or special
characteristics, but the quality of its autumn foliage is undoubted,
the tender green circular leaves turning to a beautiful uniform
Parrotia persica, a medium-sized tree, and like the
Disanthus a member of the Hamamdis order, takes on a fine
autumn colouring in which purple and orange predominate. It
is quite hardy.
Enkianthus japonicus and Stuartia pseudo Camellia are
Trees for two plants seldom seen in England, of which the dying leaves
Colour effect become deep red.
All the American Oaks are more or less effective at this
season of the year ; but far the best of them in my judgment,
both for brilliance and for the length of time during which it
retains its clear crimson colour is Anthony Waterer's variety
of Quercus coccinea.
The Amelanchiers, or Snowy Mespilus, are equally valu-
able for their blossom in Spring and their foliage in Autumn.
The three best with which I am acquainted are A. canadensis,
A. oligocarpa^ and A. asiatica.
I have found Rubus fruticosus fol. var. a general favourite
when grown as a creeper on a pole. About the second week in
September, when part of the fruit has ripened, the presence of
the four colours, black and red in berry, and silver and green in
leaf, all clearly defined, produce a unique effect.
Within the limits of this paper I cannot deal at length with
autumn fruits from a decorative standpoint, but I may just
mention in passing Pyrus Malus " Ringo," P.M. " Beauty of
Montreal," P.M. fructu luteo, and P.M. "John Downie" as
four of the best crab-apples.
Many of the Vines look well in September, such as Vitis
Thunbergii and the large-leaved V. Coignetite, if grown on larch
poles and dotted about in the shrubberies, but none surpass the
old-fashioned V. Vtnifera purpurea (often known as the Claret-
leafed Grape) which is hardy, free-growing, and inexpensive.
Rbus Toxicodendron, the Poison Sumach, can be grown
either as a creeper or bush, and is one of the most gorgeous in
foliage at the fall of the year. The colour is that of a glorified
Virginia creeper, orange-scarlet and vivid green intermingled.
The highly poisonous character of its sap is its chief drawback, Winter,
which prevents many from planting it, although we have grown Further
it for the last twenty years without experiencing any ill Shrub
T~* 7 f* 7 1 T~l 7 x^XlV^X* LO
iLuonymus europceus latijolius and E. alatus amencanus are
the two finest forms of the common deciduous spindlewood, and
are deserving of a place in every garden, the first (which can be
procured either as a shrub or standard) on account of its bold red
seed-cases, shaped something like a biretta, and the second
because the leaves turn a clear uniform rosy-red. They make
Cercidiphyllum japonicum looks like a refined pyramidal
form of Judas tree, and though not, I think, very hardy, and
suffering from spring frosts, is worth growing for the shape and
soft red autumn colour of the leaves.
Vaccinium corymbosum, the most showy variant of its class,
and Fothergilla alnlfolia are somewhat rare plants which
colour well, and both thrive better where the soil is peaty.
Spiraa ulmifolia and S. Fortunei superba are two of the
best of this large class ; in Autumn, in the case of the first the
leaves change to a deep plum colour, and in that of the second
they are varied and brilliant in tone.
For the same reasons Berber is Thunbergii, Cerasus vulgaris,
and Rbus Cotinus should not be neglected, but they are too well
known to need further recommendation. I would only add a
warning that the last is not very patient of the knife, and should
be but lightly pruned, and that only in Spring, just as the sap
I will conclude this branch of my paper with mentioning
Idesia polycarpa. It belongs to a rare order, the Bixince&, and
Coloured thrives well in a strong soil ; its large light green leaves and
Stems bright red petioles give it a decidedly taking appearance.
For brilliance of winter colouring of the wood or twigs,
nothing can surpass Cornus sanguinea or Scarlet Dogwood if
planted in quantity and treated as recommended for Symphori-
carpos. In Summer it has no special merit, but from the moment
the leaves begin to turn, it steadily improves in colour until the
sap is thoroughly down, and then on a bright frosty day the
hundreds of canes some 4 to 5 feet long glow in the Winter's
sun like a pigeon's blood ruby. The silver variegated form has
greatly the advantage in Summer, but it is, comparatively
speaking, a weakly grower, and does not make half the show in
Winter. I may mention here that we have succeeded lately in
fixing a bold yellow variegated sport which appeared on one of
our plants of C. sanguinea at Aldenham. It gives promise of
being just as vigorous as the type, and ought to prove a valuable
addition to the garden.
Cornus Jlaviramea. I have had this only two or three
years, having bought it from Spath in Berlin. At present it is
rare in England, but need not remain so, for it strikes very
readily from cuttings. It is similar in vigour and habit to the
preceding, but has, as its name imports, bright yellow instead
of scarlet bark in Winter. It will, I think, prove a desirable
Cornus sanguinea atro-sanguinea. This is a somewhat im-
proved form which was recently introduced by Veitch of Chelsea
and though at first it showed a disposition to revert to the type,
now that the variant is thoroughly fixed it is worth growing as
a single specimen by those who care for this interesting and
diversified order of plants.
Sambucus nigra aurea, the Golden Elder, is too garish Winter,
when seen close, and when too freely used, as is often the case Coloured
in small villa gardens, approaches nearly to a disfigurement; Stems
but when planted at the water-side the reflection is very brilliant.
The right way to use it is to mass it where it can be seen from
a distance, and to cut it also clean down every Spring. The
canes, which grow to about the same height as Cornus sanguinea,
are then in Winter of a uniform very light grey, and contrast
admirably with any adjoining dark evergreen mass such as
Forsythia suspensa is fast in growth and graceful in habit,
but wants plenty of room. The long waving pendulous shoots
are covered with yellow bloom in early Spring, and show up
with a clear brown colour in Winter.
The canes of Rubus odor at us roseus have much the same
colour as those of the common Raspberry, but it has the
advantage of a handsomer leaf and a more decorative compact
habit. Moreover, the bloom is very nearly as good as R.
nobilis, the charms of which I see my friend, Sir Herbert
Maxwell, has been vaunting. It has the additional advantage
where quantity is required of reproducing itself very freely from
suckers. It should be lightly pruned and the dead canes removed
Rubus pbtznicolasius, or Japanese Wineberry, is one of the
best of the Brambles in Autumn and Winter. It has much the
same habit as the common Blackberry, is perfectly robust, and
sends up a fair amount of young plants. The scarlet fruits,
with their rust-coloured sheaths and the stout hirsute lake-red
canes, all join to make it a valuable addition to a wild garden.
R. biflorus is generally treated as synonymous with R.
Shrubs, hucodermti, which is in fact distinct from it, and has a creeping
Spring" habit like a Blackberry, whereas the former has upright canes like
Pruning" a Raspberry, and is most showy in Winter, when it presents the
curious and distinct effect of having been washed all over with
lime white. In the cold, stiff clay soil to which I am accustomed
it does not, however, appear to-be over hardy or vigorous.
Spir<za Douglasii^ of which S. bella is a somewhat improved
form, grows with us like a weed, and reproduces itself by the
hundred. I used to look upon it as barely worth growing until
it was massed and cut down every Spring ; now the beds are
quite a sight. They are about 2 feet 6 inches high and perfectly
solid, a sheet of flower in August, rather later than if the plants
had not been cut, and a couple of months later the fine straightish
canes will all turn to the tone of the clearest hazel-nut.
Spir&a c allot a, though somewhat more expensive to plant
in mass, is very fine if treated in the same fashion. The flower-
ing is improved rather than injured by the treatment, and the
canes, though of the same colour when bare as the last named,
are much stouter, of looser habit, and bolder and more varied
Spir&a canescens or S. hypericlfolla look well at all times of
the year, and however dealt with, they make large graceful shrubs
of pendulous habit, covered with small clear white bloom, or if
cut down and massed they grow thickly about 18 inches high,
and the tiny refined leaves are always admired, while the bright
dark wood make them conspicuous in the dead of the year.
Berberis vulgaris purpurea. The handsome foliage of
this shrub is well known, but it has a tendency to get leggy,
carrying few or no leaves within 2 or 3 feet of the ground. A
couple of years ago I tried the experiment of cutting down a
fairly large bed in the Spring, with the result that we had a very Winter.
fine show of plum-coloured stems in the following Winter ; but Willows
this rich purple is entirely confined to the young wood.
Populus canadensis aurea. A showy bed can be produced
by cuttings of this free-growing plant if cut down each Spring,
and it has the merit of being at its best in September, when the
Golden Elder and other shrubs of like foliage have lost their
brilliance. Moreover, the yellow wood retains its tone for some
time after the leaf has gone.
Pauloivnia imperialis. The expense of buying this in
quantity has deterred me from making a bed of it and keeping
it cut down, but the good result of doing so can be seen at Kew,
where they have the nation's purse in which to dip their hands.
Deufzia crenata fl. pi. In the case of this well-known
shrub, I have also been prevented from taking a similar course,
but for a different reason, namely, that it hardly grows with
sufficient vigour on our heavy clay, but in a lighter soil I am
convinced it would be a success, for, as in nearly all plants, the
full beauty of the light brown ragged bark is confined to the
Ailanthus glandulosa. In many places I have seen this
tree sending up suckers freely over a wide circumference round
the parent stem ; and in such cases it would be well worth while
to collect them and form a bed treated as I have described in the
cases of Rbus typhina, Symphoricarpos, &c. By so doing, that
which hitherto has been a nuisance could be converted into an
Next to the Cornus there is nothing that looks brighter in
bark and stem than the young growth of Willows. I have been
collecting these for some years, and I do not think I can do
Varieties of better than give you the benefit of my experience by making
Willow a short list of those which I consider most striking among the
many varieties that exist ; several of them are easily obtainable
in England, and others I have got from Herr R. Larche,
Baumschulen, Muskau, Silesia, who possesses a fine collection of
forest trees. They are as follows :
Salix grandifolia moscbata (black).
daphnoides (chalky grey), one of the very best.
laurina (dark plum).
cardinal!* (bright red).
alba britzensis (scarlet).
incana (rich brown).
" Jaune des Ardennes " (yellow).
alba vitellina (yellow).
Owing to the length to which this paper has already run,
I have confined myself to the colour of the woods and not
attempted to describe the foliage of the above varieties, which
often differs materially and adds to the charm.
While on this subject, although not strictly germane to the
matter in hand, I cannot resist mentioning Salix annularis, which
may be unknown to some of you, and which presents one of
Nature's most curious " freaks " in the way of leaf-production.
Willows naturally are found, and look more at home by
the riverside, but I have observed that they do perfectly on high
ground far removed from water ; at any rate, that is the case
on a strong soil.
Colutea arborescent (Bladder Senna) forms a cheap and
free-growing bed. It stands annual cutting-down well, and
the greyish-green bark with whitish stripes, as well as the large
seed-cases from which it takes its popular name, alike distinguish Winter,
it in Winter from all its surroundings. It requires protection Seaside
from ground game. Shrubs
Corylus Avellana purpurea is certainly at its best when
the leaf is on, but, like all Hazels, it stands the knife so well,
and the darkness of the young wood is so conspicuous, that it
should not be overlooked when planting for Winter effect. The
plants will not require annual cutting-down, but only when
they begin to show too much wood.
Lycium chinense. This will grow anywhere, including
London and the seaside, and has a good appearance in Winter
when planted above an embankment wall or parapet, so that
its very long, trailing branches can be seen to advantage. Its
violet flowers make up in number and continuance for lack of
size ; the fruit is scarlet. It is sometimes absurdly called Tea
tree, though it has no relation whatever to the Theas, Camellias,
&c. The name arose owing to the labels on a Thea sinensis
and a Lycium which had been imported by a Duke of Argyll
having been transposed in error. However, the dog having
once got a bad name, there is no stopping it any more than in
the case of the so-called Mountain Ash, which, of course, is no
Fr ax in us at all but one of the Rosaces.
Tamarix japonic a is another of the few plants which enjoy
sea breezes but are happy away from them. The effect of
annual cutting-down on a large scale can be well seen at
Eastbourne ; when not so treated it is apt to look mangy and
ragged. The pink flower is most pleasing in September; the
young wood colours well, and the feathery foliage is so distinct
as to make it well worth growing inland for the purpose of
contrast with such types as Laurus nobilis or Arbutus Unedo.
Autumn I may remark here that the careful juxtaposition of plants which
Foliage differ in habit, colour, form, and size of foliage is too often
neglected in the case of both trees and shrubs.
Hydrangea panlculata grandlflora makes a grand show in
August and September, the profuse, clear, white inflorescence
being conspicuous from a great distance ; nor is the beauty over
then, for the dead flower-heads which remain on the plants all
Winter are very striking. When in December of last year
(1903) Lord Aldenham showed a collection of cut twigs and
stems at the Royal Horticultural Society, nothing attracted
more attention than this. The plants are rather expensive,
but I know a large bed of them which, with trifling renovation,
has lasted for seventeen or eighteen years a long life com-
pared with the choice Roses nowadays.
The plants should be lightly pruned in Spring.
Many of the Cytisus class are worth growing for the dark
green wood as well as for their flowers, and Spartium junceum
has a bolder, more open growth with stouter twigs than the
others; none of them will tolerate hard pruning in the old
Cassinla fulvlda syn. Diplopappus chrysophyllus has a
soft golden colour in twigs and leaf if pegged down and trimmed
over annually. It does best in a hot, dry, light soil.
Rosa nitida, which is far too rarely seen, should be dealt
with in the same way ; not only do the leaves all turn a clear
red in Autumn, but the fine hirsute twigs all take on the same
colour until the sap rises, and the plant is as hardy as it is
Among other plants for Winter which from rarity or other
reasons are more fitted for single specimens I would include :
Fraxinus excelsior aurea, the Golden-barked Ash in its Winter,
erect or weeping form, whose name is sufficient description. Specimen
Salix aurea pendula, a weeping form of the Golden Plants
Willow, which can be procured from Mr Bunyard of
Betula aurea. I have too recently received this new
Golden-leaved Birch, from Mr G. Paul of Cheshunt, to be able
to speak confidently as to the colouring of its wood in Winter,
but it mostly happens that the same cause, viz. insufficient
chlorophyll, which produces the yellow tone in the foliage,
makes for a like effect on the bark and twigs.
Taxodium sempervirens, the Red-wood Cedar.
Euonymus verrucosus, a rare deciduous variant of Spindle-
wood whose stem is covered with curious warts, and which
simulates to an extraordinary degree a rusty iron pole.
Arbutus Unedo, which when old and untrimmed shows a
great deal of fibrous chocolate-coloured bark. It is none too
hardy north of London, but has flourished and fruited well
with us, surviving the terrible Winter of 1894-5.
Stepbanandrajlexuosa has very delicate foliage, almost like
a Japanese Maple when seen a little way off; its very fine
waving twigs are a reddish-brown. I note that it suffered from
burning in the recent hot dry Summer.
S. Tanak<z is a stronger, coarser, less compact form which is
hardly ever seen in England ; it is inferior in grace of foliage
and superior in the clear red of its twigs. The charm of either
is destroyed if the ends of the shoots be cut over, so they must
be allowed such room as they require. They are said to be allied
to the Spiraeas, but have little or no superficial resemblance to
Specimen Dlmorphanthus mandshuricus which is an Aralla^ I have
Plants not yet tried in mass cut down, but I mean to do so, as it
suckers most freely with us in Herts. The sub-tropical-looking
foliage, large heads of flowers, small black fruit, and strange,
thorny, rugged limbs when bare, all tend to make an old plant
a remarkable object. It is perfectly hardy when dormant, but
is liable to be killed by hard late frosts in April.
Aristotdia Macqui, a native of Chili, is stated in the " Kew
Hand List " to be tender and to require a wall, but has grown
to be a large healthy bush with us; its flower is a greenish-
white, the petioles are bright red, and the wood is a conspicuous
Crattegus horrida is very remarkable in Winter, having
clusters of thorns at short intervals, which face every way.
Cratcegus saligna deserves mention for its bright red twigs
like a Lime.
Crattegus chlorosarca is a novelty which I got from Louis
Chenault at Orleans. It has stout limbs, a bold indented foliage,
chocolate-coloured varnished wood with large dark purple
Crattegus Pyracantha Lelandi, though usually grown as a
creeper, forms a valuable evergreen standard, and fruits very
freely on a strong soil, the orange berries lasting as long as the
birds will let them.
Ribes alpinum grows in a close compact form with slender
grey knotted twigs, and has an appearance after the fall of the
leaf quite unlike any other Currant, or indeed any other plant
known to me.
Sambucus pyramidata has the same light grey wood as the
common Elder, but its extremely close fastigiated form makes it
surprising that it is so rarely seen, especially as it is easily Winter,
propagated from cuttings. Specimen
Spiraa ariafolia and the old-fashioned S. Lindleyana, the Plants
largest grower of its varied tribe, are both conspicuous in Winter,
the former for its graceful dead flower-heads, and the latter for
Garrya elliptica, a dioecious plant, rather tender when not
on a wall, is of value for its evergreen Ilex-like foliage, and still
more, as far as the male is concerned, for its fine grey catkins,
lasting from November to February. No one but a botanist
would imagine that three plants, superficially so distinct as the
Garrya, the Aucuba, and the Cornus all belong to the same
Ligustrum coriaceum, a curious evergreen, quite hardy, but
a slow grower, has rich dark green convoluted leaves in such
profusion that no wood is seen ; they almost suggest a sea-shell
in their form.
Syringa Josikaa is an old Lilac which came from Hungary
in 1835 and for some reason has gone out of fashion here. It
is quite unlike the ordinary Persian type; it most nearly
resembles S. Emodl of any which I know, but the foliage is
larger, darker, and more striking, the stout, stiff, scarlet-coloured
twigs with dark purple leaf-buds make it very noticeable in
Winter. It grows to be a very large shrub. We have one 20
feet high in our London garden with the stem as thick as a
El&agnus parvtfolia is worth growing for the clear silvery-
grey wood. It is deciduous, and hardier than its evergreen con-
geners. E. argentea, another deciduous form, has the same merits
as the preceding in Winter, and the silver undersides of the leaves
Waterside look well when there is a breeze ; it bears also in Autumn a
Plants profusion of small red berries.
Cladrastls tinctoria, sometimes, but I believe incorrectly,
called Virgilia lutea, and popularly known as Yellow-wood, is
an elegant tree that thrives in any soil. It has drooping
racemes of white flowers ; the bark is a pale yellow, but not so
conspicuous as many that I have mentioned. The finest
specimen I know in England is in Anthony Waterer's
nursery at Woking.
Alnus in can a aurea is a recent introduction from Germany
as far as I am concerned. It is perfectly different in appearance
from A.glutinosa aurea, as the foliage is not specially brilliant, but
the twigs are orange-yellow and it is covered with red catkins.
I think that everyone whose grounds are blessed by the presence
of ornamental water ought to give it a place where it can
get its roots into the moisture and develop its remarkable
The mention of Alders brings me naturally to other water-
side plants, and at the risk of being wearisome, I cannot con-
clude this lengthy screed without enumerating a few herbaceous
plants that have learnt the art of dying gracefully, and are as
good or better in December than in June.
Polygonum sachalinense, the strongest grower with the
largest leaves of all the Knot-weeds, easily reaching to 1 2 or 15
feet high if planted in a moist site, does not absolutely require
water, and can safely be planted in shrubberies, as it only spreads
to a very moderate extent. It comes from Saghalien Island, I
believe, and has been in this country only about thirty
P. cuspidatum, a better known but less striking plant,
cannot be recommended for shrubberies, unless most carefully Winter.
kept in check ; nor does it show the full beauty of its red winter Waterside
stems unless its roots can reach water. Plants
Rumex Hydrolapathum, the Giant Water Dock, when on
the edge of an old moat, as it is seen in my home, is indeed a
case of a weed in its right place ; but it is not till it begins to
wither in September that the merit of its strong burnt-sienna-
coloured brown leaves can be appreciated.
Phragmites communis is a real joy, both Summer and Winter,
with its purple flower-spikes borne on the top of its tall reeds.
It is always waving and rustling on the stillest days, and gives
to a pond a natural and luxuriant look which is delightful ;
indeed it pleases eye and ear alike.
Typha latifolia and T. angusttfotia should both be planted,
and near together, the rich colour and large size of the first so-
called bulrush goes so well with the refinement and lighter
brown of the other.
Gynerium argenteum is the best form of Pampas grass. It
must have protection, or at any rate a very sheltered site, if it is
to survive very hard frost ; but its silvery lightness repays the
trouble which this entails.
Oreocome Candoblii is not often seen. The foliage reminds
one of fennel. It is one of the Selinums, and I note that
Nicholson's "Dictionary of Gardening," iii. 415, boldly states
that " the species possesses no interest from the garden standpoint."
In point of fact, it is one of the prettiest and most distinct water-
side plants. It grows to about 4 feet high, is covered with
flowers and keeps on the heads through Winter, while the foliage,
as it dries, turns to a soft golden hue. We have had a plant a
long time, but so far, alas ! it has not reproduced itself. This
Waterside Autumn (1904) it shows every intention of ripening its seeds, so
Plants I hope we shall be successful in raising some more.
Eulalia japonica xebrina and E. japonica gractllima foL
striatis^ or more correctly, Miscanthus, are both good all the
year round. They grow about 3 feet high and are highly
ornamental water-grasses. The first has yellow blotches or
transverse bars on the leaves ; the second has a longitudinal
stripe of cream-colour on both edges and on the centre of every
leaf. The flowers are reddish-brown plumes, something like
those of Phragmites, and in warmer countries, where they
appear more freely, add greatly to the beauty.
Cyperus longus is a perennial Sedge, rare in its wild state
as a native, though it grows freely in the Channel Islands. It
has a stiff three-cornered or triquetrous stem, and rises to 4
feet or more, carrying graceful brown flowers at the top of the
plant, borne umbel-fashion on radiating leafy bracts.
Now my long tale has really drawn to its end, and some
may think, who know the subjects which I have treated, that I
have exaggerated and laid on the colours too thick, that such
words as " brilliant orange " or " vivid scarlet " are out of place
in describing live woods. To them I would reply as Turner
did to the man who objected that he never saw such colours in
real sunsets as appeared in the artist's picture of them " Don't
you wish you could ? "
In deed and truth it is the old story of " eyes and no
eyes." Given bright sunlight, without which no colours can
be fully seen, there they are if we will only observe them, and
the more we look the more we see. It is the perfect harmony
of Nature's work which hides her brilliant hues from the
careless, though to the patient watcher she reveals fresh beauties
both of form and colour every day. Those who know Lord Winter.
Tennyson's works know that he was not only a great poet, but
a keen and accurate observer of England's flora. They will
find recalled the coal-blackness of the Ash buds, and the
sanguine vivid spot of ccjour in the heart of the Horse-
chestnut bloom things which many a countryman has lived
and died without noticing.
2 A 185
Abelia rupestris, 159
Acer negundo, 137
Agapanthus umbellatum, 149
Alstroemeria, 63, 71
Althoea rosea, 123
Alyssum saxatile, 52
Amaryllis belladonna, 149
Anchusa italica, 60, 79
Anemone apennina, 7, 41
blanda, 7, 18, 25
Annuals, border of, 112
blue, 1 13
Annuals, late, 143
orange, red, and purple, 1 43
Arabis flore pleno, 52
Arbutus unedo, 179
Arenaria montana, 53
Arundinaria japonica, 1 66
Asperula odorata, 8
early varieties, 155
Autumn Crocus, see Colchicum
Azara microphylla, 10
Bamboos, see Arundinaria, 1 66
Bedding plants, 150
Berberis, 40, 174
Berberis purpurea, 158
Thunbergii, 159, 171
Betula aurea, 179
Bluebells, 7, 49
Blue flowers, 1 1 1
Bocconia cordata, 155
Budleia globosa, 61
Campanulas, various, 80
Candytuft, see Iberis, 52
Canna, 4, 130
Canterbury Bell, see Campanula,
Carpet plants for Tulips, 1 3
Cassinia fulvida, 178
Catkins, 8, 9
Ceanothus, 92, 148
Cerasus vulgaris, 171
Cercidiphyllum japonicum, 171
Chelone barbata, see Pentstemon,
Cherry, wild, 160
China Aster, 142
Chimonanthus fragrans, 20
Chionodoxa Luciliae, Sardensis, 27
late flowering, 5
outdoor varieties, 153
Clerodendron foetidissima, 70
Clematis cirrhosa, 4
effects and varieties, 117-
Cobasa scandens, 151
Colchicum autumnale, 147
Coleus Thersoidens, 5
Columbine, see Aquilegia, 54
Convolvulus, see Ipomea
minor, in, 113
Cornus sanguinea, 172
Cosmos, 71, 143
Cotton Thistle, see Onopordon,
Crab-apples, see Pyrus malus, 170
Crocus in grass, 6, 7
- early varieties, 8
- vernus, 22, 23
- autumn kinds, 147
Crown Imperials, see Fritillaria
Cyclamen Coum, 19
- neapolitanum, 20, 145
Cyperus longus, 184
Cytisus, 44, 178
Daffodils, see Narcissus
- in wood, 41
Dahlias, 130, 148
Daphne mezereum, 27
Delphinium, 63, 81, in
Dentaria pinnata, 42
Disanthus cercidifolia, 169
Dogtooth Violets, see Ery-
Dogwood, scarlet, see Cornus
Eccromocarpus scaber, 55
ruthenicus, 1 25
Enkianthus japonicus, 1 69
Epilobium alba, 107
Eranthis hyemalis, 20
Erigeron mucronatus, 147
Erythronium, 6, 7
Eulalia japonica, 184
Euonymus europaeus, 160, 165
alatus americanus, 171
Evening Primrose, see CEnothera,
Everlasting Pea, see Lathyrus
Forget-me-not, see Myosotis
Forsythia suspensa, 38, 173
Fothergilla alnifolia, 171
Foxgloves, 1 14
Fritillaria imperialis, i o, 1 1
askabadensis, 1 1
Fruit trees, 140
Galanthus, 6, 18, 19
Garden, blue, 1 1 1
pink, 1 1 2
Garrya elliptica, 8, 1 8 1
Geranium, 81, 129
Giant Parsnip, see Heracleum,
Globe Thistle, see Echinops, 125
Golden Elder, see Sambucus
Grape Hyacinths, see Muscari
Guelder Rose, see Viburnam,
Gunnera manichata, 159
Hazel, 8, 9
Helianthus, 126, 152
Hepatica, see Anemone hepatica,
Hollyhock, see Althoea rosea, 123
Honesty, see Lunaria, 53
Honeysuckle, see Lonicera
Hyacinthus candicans, 125
Hyacinth wood, 7, 49
paniculata, 133, 158, 178
Idesia polycarpa, 171
Incarvillea Delavayi, 71
Ipomea rubra ccerulea, 115
blue, 67, 68
Iris stylosa, 5, 7
Iris Histrio, 25
germanica, 54, 75, 76,
ochroleuca, 60, 77
Japanese Maples, see Acer, 139
Jasminium nudiflorum, 20
Kaulfussia amelloides, 69
Kerria japonica, 38, 166
Kniphofia, 124, 125
Larkspur, see Delphinium
Lathyrus latifplius, 122
Leycestaria Formosa, 166
Libertia Formosa, 69
Lilium candidum, 63, 108
- Martagon, 108
-- tigrinum Fortunei, 122
- auratum, 133
Liquidambar styraciflora, 169
Lobelia cardinalis, 69, 132, 133,
- Fulgens, 144
Lonicera, 66, 81
- Douglesi, 65
-- periclymenum, 82
Love-in- the-Mist, see Nigella, 79
Lunaria biennis, 1 1 , 53
Lupinus arboreus, 78
Lupinus polyphyllus, 78
Lychnis, 63, 71
Madonna Lily, see Lilium can-
Magnolia conspicua, 40
Maple, see Acer
Meconopsis cambrica, 54
Mespilus, see Amelanchier, 170
Michaelmas Daisy, see Aster
Mina lobata, 150
Mittallia cerasiformis, 10
Monarda didyma, 1 1 6
Heldreichii, - 35
Myosotis dissitiflora, 30
Narcissus, Daffodil cernuus, 26
naturalisation, 29, 30
- list of kinds, 32, 33, 34
Narcissus effects, 30, 31, 40,
Nasturtium, see Tropceolum, 120
Nemophilia insignis, 79
Oak, American, see Quercus, 170
Omphalodes verna, 53
Onopordon illyricum, 125
Oreocome Candoblii, 183
Oriental Poppy, see Papaver, 79
Pansy, see Viola
Papaver orientale, 79
Parrotia persica, 169
Paulo wnia, 175
Peony Moutan, and officinalis in
grass, 50, 51
herbaceous, 60, 61, 83-87
list of varieties, 86
Phlox, 1 15
Photinia villosa, 169
Phygelius capensis, 145
Phyllostachys castillonis, 167
Physostegia dracocephalum, 70
Physalis Francheti, 160
Platystemon californicus, 65
Plumbago, 126, 149
Polyanthus, 35, 36
Polygonatum multiflorum, 8
Poppy, French, 112
Shirley, 1 1 2
Primroses, see Primula vul-
Primula vulgaris, 7
bunched, double, 35, 36
- altaiaca, 37
- denticulata, 42
- cashmeriana, 42
Prunus Pissardii, 38, 60, 137
- triloba flore pleno, 39
- sinensis, 158
Ptelia kuhlia, 60
Pyrethrum uliginosum, 153,
Pyrus japonica, 37
- malus floribunda, 47, 170
- spectabilis, 47
Quercus coccinea, 170
Ranunculus, 14, 15
Rhus cotinus, 151, 171
glabra lacinata, 168
Ribes, 10, 180
Rosa polyantha, 89, 136
rubrifolia, 98, 165
wichuriana, 98, 100
rugosa, 98, 136, 165
nitida, 1 7 8
Rose gardens, 88, 89, 90, 101
Carmine Pillar, 60,
Rose, Gloire de Dijon, 88
- climbing, 88-92
-- climbing early, 94
-- for mid- June, 97
Fortune's Yellow, 91, 94
Madame Alfred Carriere,
-China, 95, 135
-- Pompon, 96
Penzance Briers, 98
-- Scotch Briers, 98
-- Alley, 100
-- Ayrshire, 100
-- for churchyard, 100
-- beds, covering plants for,
-- Tea, Hybrid Tea, and
Hybrid Perpetual, 102-105
-- culture of, 102-106
-- pruning, 104
-- standard, 106
-- pests, 1 06
-- good autumn kinds, 134,
Rubus, 170, 173
- aurea pendula, 179
Salvia, 65, 158
Saxifraga hypnoides, 79
Sea Buckthorn, see Hippophoe
Sedum spectabile, 143
Scilla siberica, 27
Shrubs, late flowering, 168
Skimmia Fortunei, 159
Snowberry, see Symphoricarpos,
Snowdrop, see Galanthus, 6, 18,
Solanum crispum, 44
Solomon Seal, see Polygonatum
Spartium zunceum, 178
Spindlewood, see Euonymus
europseus, 160, 165
Spiraea Thunbergii, 40
Reeve si, 80
- Douglasii, 125, 174
Spirsea prunifolia, 138
colour in autumn, 139
ariaefolia, 1 8 1
Lindleyana, 1 8 1
Star of Bethlehem, see Ornitho-
Stephanandra, flexuosa, 179
Stocks, ten-week, 113
Stuartia pseudo camellia, 169
Sumach, see Rhus cotinus, 151
Sweet Pea, see Lathyrus odorata,
Symphoricarpos racemosus, 163
Tamarix japonica, 177
Tanacetum vulgare, 146
Taxodium distichum, 168
Trillium grandiflorum, 53
Tritoma, see Knifofia, 124
Tropceolum speciosum, 96, 121
Tulipa Greigii, 13
clusiana, 42, 49
Tulips, general, 12, 13
May, use of, 44
Vaccinium corymbosum, 171
Viburnum plicatum, 56
Vine, see Vitis
Violets, 7, 28
Vitis quinquefolia, 146
purpurea, 151, 170
Coignetise, 152, 170
Thunbergii, 152, 170
Walled garden, 62
Water Lilies, hybrid, 109
Welsh Poppies, see Meconopsis
Willows, see Salix, 9, 176
Willow Herb, white, see Epilo-
Winter Aconite, see Eranthis, 20
Winter Cherry, see Physalis, 160
Winter Jasmine, 20
Woodruff, see Asperula, 8
Yellow- wood, see Chdrastris, 1 82
Yuccas, 1 1 9
Zauscheneria californica, 122
Zephyranthes Candida, 149
TURNBULL AND SPEAKS, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
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