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Mrs C. W. EARLE 
E. V. B. 

by JLJ. v . ju. * %> *f 
Etc. Etc. 




5/2^ rf 


" A Horn / Whoever you are, come travel with me ! 
Travelling 'with me you find ivhat never tires. 

The earth never tires, 

The earth is rude, silent, incomprehensible at first, 

Nature is rude and incomprehensible at first, 

Be not discouraged, keep on, there are divine things well enveloped, 
I swear to you there are divine things more beautiful than words can tell" 

Walt Whitman. 


THE wealth of garden books given us during the last 
years might make it seem unnecessary to add to their 
number. But it is hoped that these writings on Garden 
Colour may prove useful to the inexperienced, or to those who, 
newly in possession of a garden, suddenly awake to its possible 
delights, and desire to attain the ideal so well expressed by Lord 
Bacon that, " in the Royal ordering of gardens, there ought to 
be gardens for all months of the year in which severally things 
of beauty may be in season." Another early writer, who speaks 
of " painting a field with beautiful objects like colours upon a 
canvas," well describes the further object of this book, which is 
to illustrate the value of artistic massing of colour and skilful 
grouping of one variety of plant, and to suggest an ideal for the 
garden lover of to-day pictures in flowers changing from day 
to day and month to month. 

Various modern garden writers have, with much knowledge 
and skill, already laid stress on the importance of colour-effect 
in our gardens suggestions which many have been able to 
adopt ; but there are those to whom these word pictures 
convey but little help owing to their limited knowledge of 
flowers and the effect produced by them. To them this book is 
offered with the hope that the addition of sketches in colour to the 

writings of the well-known authorities who have kindly helped 


me may be of real practical assistance. The pictures give 
examples of successful results already obtained by more experi- 
enced gardeners, and should be suggestive of countless others. 
Fortunately this grouping for colour-effect is irrespective of the 
size of the garden ; most of the illustrations have been painted 
from our own or other small gardens, giving effects which are 
within the reach of many. 

Cottage gardens show us what admirable results can be 
achieved on a small plot of ground with simple flowers 
results which grander gardens often fail to attain : the latter 
often suffer in general effect from a too great variety of 
plants, and a too widespread diffusion, or from an attempt 
to grow interesting plants not suited to the soil. Want of 
opportunity for procuring a great variety of plants, or a slender 
purse, obliges the cottage gardener, unintentionally perhaps, to 
produce his effect by one flower at a time. This special charm 
of the cottage garden is finely expressed by Lord Tennyson : 

" One look'd all rose tree, and another wore 
A close-set robe of jasmine sown with stars : 
This had a rosy sea of gillyflowers 
About it ; this a milky way on earth, 
Like visions in the Northern dreamer's heavens, 
A lily avenue climbing to the doors ; 
One, almost to the martin-haunted eaves, 
A summer burial deep in hollyhocks ; 
Each its own charm." 

Perhaps the truth that simplicity gives strength of effect, and 
that selection and concentration are the two essential principles 
if the garden is to be rich in flower pictures all the year round, 
could hardly be better illustrated. 

It only remains for me to express my gratitude to the 
writers who have kindly contributed valuable articles to my 
book, also to those who have so courteously allowed me to 
paint in their gardens, and to Mr Robinson, whose books first 
fired me with enthusiasm for this form of gardening. 






SPRING. By Maria Theresa Earle , . . i 

FEBRUARY. By Margaret Waterfield . .* . 18 

MARCH. ... 22 

APRIL. ... 29 

MAY. 44 

SUMMER. By E. V. B. . . . . 57 

JUNE. By Margaret Waterfield . . . 72 

PEONIES. By W. Richmond Powell . . . 83 

CLIMBING ROSES. By Helen Crofton . . , 88 

JULY. By Margaret Waterfield ... 93 

CULTURE OF ROSES. By George Mount . . 102 

AUGUST. By Margaret Waterfield . . . 117 

AUTUMN. By Rose G. Kings ley . . . . 127 
SEPTEMBER. By Margaret Waterfield . . .142 

OCTOBER. . 15 * 

WINTER. By the Hon. Vicary Gibbs . . . 161 



Michaelmas Daisy. Tritoma. Clematis 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Crown Imperials . 


Cyclamen Coum 

Iris Reticulata and Crocus 

Anemone Blanda. Daffodil Cernuus 

Daffodils and Forget-me-nots 

Pyrus Japonica 

Woodlands, Cobham 
Bourne Park, Canterbury 
Nackington, Canterbury 
Nackington, Canterbury 
Nackington, Canterbury 
Nackington, Canterbury 
Nackington, Canterbury 

Pyrus Japonica. Rose Shoots 

The Holt, Harrow, Weald 

Magnolia Conspicua. Jonquil 

Garden House, Salt-wood, Kent 


Cytisus. Solanum. Tulip 

The Holt, Harrow, Weald 

Tregothnan, Cornwall 


Facing page 






Facing page 

May Tulips . . . . V 46 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Pink May Tulips . . . .48 

Home Farm, Bundling. 

Bluebell and Pheasant-eye Narcissus . . 48 

Easeney, Hertfordshire 

Peony . . . .50 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Purple Iris. Welsh Poppy. Columbine . . 54 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Arum Lilies . . . . 56 

Trelissick, Cornwall 

Madonna Lily. Delphinium . . .62 

Sweet Rocket . . . .74 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Iris and Roses . . . .76 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Iris Orientalis. Spiraa. Day Lily . . 76 

R.H.S. Garden, Wisley 

Tree Lupin. Iris. Broom . . .78 

R.H.S. Garden, Wisley 

Oriental Poppy and Lupin . . .78 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Valerian . . . .80 

Old Dover House, Canterbury 


Facing page 

Giant Parsnip . . . .82 

Chartham Rectory, Kent 

Delphinium and Giant Parsnip . . .82 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Delphinium. Lily. Pppy 9^ 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Cluster Rose . . . ..96 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Cluster Rose . . . .98 

Skarsted Court, Sittingbourne 

Foxgloves. Rose Euphrosyne . . . IOO 

Milton Court, Dorking 

Rose Garden . . . : . IO2 

Gravetye, Sussex 

Lilium Szovitzianum . . Io6 

R.H.S. Garden, Wisley 

Lily and Vine Pergola . . . Io8 

Milton Court, Dorking 

Water Lilies . . . . Io8 

R.H.S. Garden, Wisley 

Japanese Iris . . . . I Io 

R.H.S. Garden, Wisley 

Border of Annuals . . . .112 

Milton Court, Dorking 

Clematis Perk d* Azure and Caroline Testout Rose . . Il8 

Gravetye, Sussex 

Tucca and Pampas . . . I2O 

Chilham Castle, Canterbury 


Facing page 

Tropaolum Speciosum . . .120 

Gravetye, Sussex 

Hollyhock . . 122 

Milton Court, Dorking 

Tritoma . . . .124 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Hyacinthus Candicans. Gladiolus . . 126 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Michaelmas Daisy . . . 1 2O 

Milton Court, Dorking 

Aster Sinensis and Clematis . . .142 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Cyclamen Neapolitanum . . .144 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Anemone Japonica. Autumn Crocus. Erigeron . 146 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Amaryllis Belladonna and Zephyranthes . .148 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Vine. Plumbago. Cobtta Scandens . . 152 

Nackington, Canterbury 

Bocconia and Michaelmas Daisies . \ CA 

The Holt, Harrow, Weald 

Olive and Roses . . . .158 




''And the Spring arose on the garden fair, 
Like the Spirit of Love felt everywhere ; 
And each flower and herb on Earth's dark breast 
Rose from the dreams of its wintry rest. 


The snowdrop, and then the violet, 
Arose from the ground with warm rain wet, 
And their breath was mix'd with fresh odour, sent 
From the turf, like the voice and the instrument" 


YOU ask me to write about Spring and Spring gardens. Spring. 
What a worn-out subject, and how old ! And yet, Renewal 
although some of us may not realise it, how eternally o f Hope 
new even to those near the end of life, who have seen many, 
many Springs, and watched the awakening of the earth year 
after year. 

If it is a saddening season for the old, and perhaps now 
and then even for the young, this renewal of hope ; for the 
gardener, at any rate, it is a happy time, full of fruition, the 
reward of past thought and work. For, as the Dutch raise 
gardens from heaps of sand, and cities out of the bosom of the 
waters, so our spring gardens are in great part the result of our 
autumn labours, thought, work, and money spent. How rare 
in England, and how appreciated, is a really beautiful Spring 
such as we were blessed with in 1904. Slow and sure, full of 
promise, developing gradually with very few prematurely warm 
days and yet no severe checks. There were no dangerously 
cruel hard frosty nights such as make one turn in one's bed 
and long to rush out and quickly cover some early Camellia in 
flower, or protect the fat buds of a tree Peony, just as one 
would seize with warm hands the pink feet of some precious 
baby, if they were cold. The nights should be just cool 
enough to keep things back, as says the old French proverb, 
"The prettiest April wears a wreath of Frost." Then the 
velvety buds open safely and slowly. Ordinary people com- 
plain, but the cautious gardener says approvingly : " It's a 
backward Spring." There have only been a few days, balmy 
and divine like the spring of the poets. 

Even in towns every one appreciates the first change 
when January days begin to lengthen, and the first really fine 


The afternoon comes towards the end of the month. In the country 
January Nature seems to make a great bound forward towards light and 
Flower hope. All the months are busy to the gardener, but January is 
Shows particularly so. There are the seeds to order and the hot-beds 
to make up, so much re-potting to be done. The C annas, which 
have been dried off under bushes after the first frost, and stored 
in a cellar, have to be brought up and potted up, only allowing 
one shoot in each pot. This makes them grow and flower out 
of doors much better than putting two or three shoots into a pot. 
If this potting up is postponed they come to perfection too late. 
All gardening means looking forward, imagining what is not, 
and at the end of January the first real sign of autumn planting 
shows itself. The straight spears of the Snowdrops and the cool 
glaucus green leaves of the Daffodil pierce the brown earth. 
The colour of the Narcissus leaves is not only beautiful in itself, 
but strongly suggestive of water, and certainly constitutes a 
most delicious ground-work for the bright yellow of the 

In England, where the progress of early Spring is so slow, 
I think it is an instructive joy to go and meet her in the halls of 
the Royal Horticultural Society on dark afternoons in January 
and February. There one realises all that can be done under 
glass, and how things ought to look when well-grown. It is 
never pleasant to acknowledge one's own failures, but it is well 
to feel them, and it is a very helpful plan to compare the chronicle 
of one's own errors side by side with the brilliant successes seen 
at these shows. 

So early as the 26th of January this year (iqo4), at one of 
these Drill Hall shows, there was a beautiful plant, in a pot, of 
Clematis clrrhosa covered with flowers. This excited my admira- 


tion, as for years I have had a plant in a pot, and never flowered Spring, 
it at all. I cannot think why it is not more grown in cool yet Late 
sunny greenhouses, or even with the slight protection of a glass Chrvsan- 
verandah, as it is all but hardy round London, and quite so in th emums 
Devonshire and Ireland. It comes from North Africa. The 
improvement in late flowering Chrysanthemums is marked : 
" Winter Green " and " Tramfield Pink " struck me last spring 
as especially worth growing for table decoration in January. 
Cannell had a really fine show at the end of January of a com- 
paratively new plant, which is very effective when massed 
together the beautiful blue Coleus Tbersoidens. The only 
chance of its living when gathered is to plunge the stalks, the 
moment they are picked, into warm water. It is the same with 
other varieties of Coleus, and many plants besides : if once they 
flag in the least they never recover. 

To me the most attractive things in the February shows 
were the small half-hardy winter Irises, grown in pans and pots : 
L Sindjarensis, with a pretty green foliage ; /. His trio, L Reti- 
culata, I. Persica, etc. ; all rather expensive to buy, but the 
whole tribe come out beautifully in water if picked in bud a 
great merit for those who care to send flowers away. Cutbush's 
Highgate Nurseries catalogues and Wallace's, of Colchester, have 
long lists of bulbous and tuberous-rooted Irises. How few 
people take the trouble to find out the requirements of the hardy 
Iris Stylos a, the most beautiful of our winter-flowering plants. 
When well established, this Iris flowers unprotected through the 
whole winter a precious garden gem. 

But while we in towns are talking of shows and the culti- 
vation of Spring under glass, in the country her tender feet are 
spreading far and wide into the hedgerows, and in the herbaceous 


The borders great strong tufts are growing and covering the ground. 

February In our warm Surrey soil all this comes to pass early and more 

Flower happily than in colder, heavier soils, and the weeds that cause us 

Shows so muc h trouble later on are very beautiful in early Spring. The 

only thing which makes spring gardening really ugly, I think, 

is when bulbs are grown out of clean, bare, well-weeded beds. 

My garden, generally speaking, looks brown and colourless 
in early Spring. The large trees are too close together to stretch 
their brown arms handsomely against the pale sky, though their 
edges shiver in the wind. One piece of spring gardening I have 
which gives me great pleasure year by year. It is a broad grass 
border by the side of a gravel path under these self-same trees, 
most of them tall Spanish chestnut. From February to May it 
is really a pretty sight. Snowdrops there are to begin with, but 
they never grow luxuriantly in our soil. At the bottom of this 
green border, where the path turns and the long sweep of grass 
catches the Eastern sunshine, there is a very good Crocus effect. 
First, yellow Crocuses all in a mass coming through the brown 
fronds of dead ferns ; then a shady place with Dog-tooth Violets 
and Daffodils, that come later in the year ; then a mass of the 
dark purple Crocus, fading away into a mass of pale grey ones 
slightly striped ; round a corner, some more yellow ones, into 
which now and then appears, as a wanderer, a lilac or a white 
bunch with five or six flowers. The procession ends with a 
quantity of pure white Crocus. The yellow ones are perhaps 
the least pretty in the grass, but one loves them as they come 
out the first ; and in the ferns and grass, curiously enough, the 
sparrows leave them alone, though they attack them savagely in 
bare beds. Jack Frost's icy fingers do not turn the rims of the 
purple ones white under the protection of the trees, as they do 


in the open. When first I planted this Crocus walk, some years Spring, 
ago, I put in 500 of each sort at the same time. It seemed Crocuses in 
rather extravagant when I did it, but it has quite answered, and Grass 
turned out a most satisfactory piece of planting. All grass where 
bulbs are planted wants mowing twice a year, in July and 
October. This last is most important, and facilitates spring 
growing; and when the leaves are swept up in November, a 
sprinkle of fresh earth and leaf mould does good supplying 
what you take away. 

To go back to the succession under the trees facing north- 
west, and getting little sun all the spring-time. After the Snow- 
drops come the first early wild Daffodils or Lent- Lilies, then Dog- 
tooth Violets, white and purple ; and though liliaceous bulbs, 
they have stood the dryness well, being quite shaded all the 
summer. The beautiful North American kinds, which do so 
well in damp woods, I have not ventured on, as they want more 
moisture than I can give them. All the plants and bulbs in this 
spring grass border are planted in masses and clumps, in imitation 
of Nature growing together, and yet without formality, one 
kind spreading more or less into the next group. I have also 
some Corydalls, or bulbous Fumitory^ with lovely fresh leaves 
and dull purplish flowers, as well as a good white variety. All 
these flower very early, protected by trees from wind and night 
frosts, and they are most precious. Primroses, wild Violets, and 
wood Hyacinths are all planted in the same place. Later, round 
the beautiful stems of the Chestnut trees, comes the prettiest sight 
of all the hardy Anemones. The loveliest, perhaps, are A. 
blanda, A. apennina^ which flower a little later, and our single 
wood Anemone and the old double kind, A. nemorosa fl. pl.^ 
white as driven snow. In the shade, too, flourishes the pretty 


Some sweet wild Woodruff, with its whorled leaves and its miniature 
Spring white flowers. I have failed utterly to grow any of the wild 
Flowers O rcn ids : the dryness in summer kills them. Solomon's Seal does 
well. It seems a pity that on rockeries or in small beds in sunny 
places the type Crocus' are so seldom grown. The yellow Crocus 
Vernus is a perfect flower, the shape far more beautiful than that 
of any garden kind. The back of the graceful cup is striped 
with a series of dark-brown lines, which must not be mistaken for 
veins : they seem to be only for ornament. At Kew one year 
I saw several of these type Crocuses C. Etruscus, C. Biflorus, 
C. Chrysanthus, C. White Tuscany, C. Susianus, Both the 
orange and bronzed Susianus flower very early, are importations 
from the Crimea, and look very well grown in pots or pans. 
In the paper called The Garden, of the 28th of January 1882, 
there is an interesting account of the Crocus family. 

Somewhat neglected in gardens, but one of the loveliest of 
Nature's spring decorations, are the catkin growing plants, begin- 
ning with the handsome male plant of the Garry a elliptica, which 
in favourable winters is most lovely. In dry, light soils it wants 
a good deal of pruning and feeding to make it do well. I have 
not succeeded in growing it as a shrub, though it does well so 
grown in moist soils. 

Hazels, which are so useful as food, are too little grown 
and cultivated now in small gardens. Every one knows the 
pretty catkins which hang all through the winter, and wave like 
fairy flags in the wintry blast, but few notice how the real 
flower of the Hazel appears also in an expanded state in Autumn. 
The hardy male catkin passes the Winter without external pro- 
tection, but the female flowers are tenderly wrapped up within 
an enveloping scale. In March the styles lengthen, and though 


very small, their lovely crimson colour makes them quite con- Spring, 
spicuous for those who look for them. The bracts grow steadily Careful Nut 
through the summer, and form envelopes round the nuts, and Cultivation 
these envelopes have the shape and often the colour of leaves. 

In cultivating Cob-nuts and Filberts for fruit-bearing pur- 
poses, it is most essential to keep down suckers, the more tree- 
like the plants, the more productive they are ; hence the 
importance of removing all plants of any description from the 
stem, and latent buds from the base and stems of seedlings. 
The height of stem may vary from one foot to six feet. The 
trees are classified according to the height of their stems as 
standards, half standards, and dwarf standards, the natural or 
many stemmed bush being generally termed a nut or filbert 
stool. For beauty of growth along wood paths these are much 
the prettiest, and if the soil is carefully prepared by trenching 
and manuring they do well in almost any soil. A good deep 
loam in a rather dry sunny position is what suits the Cob-nuts 
best, as it encourages the production of short fruit-bearing wood. 
During severe Winters the male blossoms are often injured by 
frost. In other seasons and in certain localities, the cultivated 
Filbert produces few catkins. In either case, these should be 
collected from wild Hazel nuts, and suspended among the better 
varieties. When planting, choose well-established suckers, or 
layers, four or more years old. Firmly stake them as soon as 
planted, and place a spadeful or two of manure on the soil over 
the roots. The botanical name for the nut is Corylus, from 
Korys, a hood or helmet, in reference to the calyx covering the 
nut. This nut cultivation has led me into a long digression, 
but I feel sorry to see nut trees so seldom grown with care. 
All the Willow tribe have pretty flowers on the bare stems; 

B 9 

An early pussies or palms the children call them ; wild or cultivated they 
Flowering- ar e lovely objects. The catkins of the white Poplar are par- 
Shrub ticularly showy. A stall at the Horticultural Show one day in 
February was entirely devoted to Catkinas and flowers of this 
nature, and very interesting and beautiful they were. 

A very early flowering-shrub, and one rarely grown, as it 
is not showy, is Mtttallta cerasiformis^ a deciduous shrub, a 
native of California. It grows anywhere, and is quite hardy. 
It can be lifted for early flowering, as can also the Kibes 
Sanguineum, and its white variety, which the Mittallia some- 
what resembles when in bloom. No garden lover who cares 
for individual plants should be without an A%ara microphylla, 
a South American shrub, with small, delicate, evergreen foliage, 
and quite hardy. I suppose it likes a light sandy soil, as it does 
equally well with me on a north wall, and also facing south, as 
a bush. Both flourish, and both in spring are covered with 
miniature yellow flowers, which grow on the underneath side of 
the branches, and are so small they might easily be passed over, 
but that for a few days in March they fill the whole air with a 
delicious delicate scent exactly like vanilla. 

I suppose we all have, in spite of much disappointment and 
many fits of depression, moments of pride and pleasure in our gar- 
dens ; moments when we long to show them off, these our children 
making perhaps a special gardening effect, to some understanding 
friend. This comes to me most years when late frosts have not 
been severe, and the beautiful Crown Imperials raise their stately 
heads in very large clumps. They are strong plants, and are no 
doubt able to take care of themselves in some soils and some 
climates, but here, in this sandy, dry Surrey, nothing does well 
if left really alone. "Wild gardening" as a synonym for 




leaving alone, spells failure and deterioration for everything, Spring. 

even the common Primroses ! The soil must be renewed every Crown 

two or three years, and the greatest difficulty is to know when Imperials 

to replant things in a full border. Crown Imperials must be 

done in June or July, as, once the bulbs have started into 

growth, moving them, as gardeners generally do when digging 

up the borders in October and November, is fatal, and results in 

a quantity of weak green shoots and no flowers at all. I have 

three coloured Crown Imperials the so-called red, which is a 

terra-cotta colour ; the pale yellow, and an orange-coloured one 

which is less free flowering and comes into bloom a little later 

than the others. Mr Robinson's charming new periodical, 

" Flora and Silva," which is not nearly well enough known, is 

published monthly, with a beautifully reproduced coloured plate, 

for the small sum of is. 3d. In the July number of 1903 there 

is an article on Fritillaria, and a coloured illustration of 

F. Askabadenis^ which I have never seen. Apparently it is only 

half hardy, and has to be treated like other spring bulbs potted 

up in early Autumn, plunged in the open till well rooted, and then 

put in a cool green-house or cold frame, when it will flower early 

in the year. The article recommends raising Frltillarias from 

seed. This I have never tried. 

For a brilliant, showy effect in shrubberies in early Spring, 
there is nothing like bold clumps of Honesty, Lunaria biennis ; 
but, like the Foxglove, it is one of those biennials which puzzle 
amateurs who think that because they have a fine show one 
year they will get the same in the next, and this is just what 
does not happen. These biennials sow themselves freely, and 
all the cultivation necessary is thinning out and transplanting 
last year's seedlings to where they are to flower. This can be 

1 1 

Grape done as soon as the autumn weather gets cool and wet, and the 

Hyacinths earlier the better. Grape Hyacinths (Muscari) look lovely 

and grown on a bank or along a shady hedge, planted thickly and in 

Iris Stylosa a ^ ar S e quantity. They appear year after year, probably in 

some soils for ever, if not disturbed ; their Crocus-like leaves are 

well above the ground in early Autumn. 

I find it a great privilege to be near a first-rate nursery like 
Mr Barr's at Surbiton, and he is so kind and so willing to teach 
the amateur really interested that I learn there a very great deal. 
He is most successful with the Iris stylosa, which flower at 
Surbiton from December to April, planted right in the open 
ground with no sort of protection. They are never moved, 
only pieces taken off if he wants to increase them, and mulched 
with manure now and then in August when they are forming 
their buds deep down among the rushy growth. Being well in 
the open, they catch every ray of the low winter sun. Though 
so unshowy when growing, is there any winter flower half so 
lovely as an Iris stylosa picked in bud, early in the morning, 
and joyfully bursting into full bloom in the warm room ? But 
to return to the nursery: at perhaps its most glorious time, the 
Tulip time in May for the Daffodil season in April is very 
attractive, is all more or less of one colour but at the Tulip time, 
there are sheets and bands of beautiful pure colour of every 
shade and every kind except blue. I have never seen the 
famous Tulip acres in Holland, so I know nothing that surpasses 
Mr Barr's fields of early and late Tulips. I long to have them 
all ; but apart from the question of room in a private garden, there 
is the very important consideration of price, and one should order 
with care, as many of the cheap Tulips are just as beautiful as 
the expensive ones. In Tulip-planting in gardens, there are 

many plants besides the Forget-me-nots which help to cover the Spring. 

ground : Sax. Wallace* taken up after flowering, and divided Early Tulip 

and replanted over Tulips in October, makes a beautiful ground- Effects 

work ; so does the double Arabis, Sllene^ Limnanthus 

Douglas ii^ Wall-flowers, and many other things. Tulips planted 

in groups in full herbaceous borders look very well, and can be 

planted so deep that they need not be disturbed. If Tulips are 

taken up too early they are little use for the next year. But if 

this must be done, then the best way is to take them up and 

plunge them at once into pails of water, then plant them in a 

trench in half shade that has been well wetted, and leave them 

there till the leaves and stalks are quite gone ; then lift them, dry 

them in the sun, and plant again in October. For forcing and 

table decoration, pink double Tulips are, I think, the best. The 

names of a few of the good ones are : Salvator rosa^ Lady 

Palmerston, Murillo, Princess Beatrice, Couronne de Roses ; this 

has a very fine soft rose-colour when forced. I think quite the most 

beautiful early flowering Tulip out of doors is T. Greigii, but it 

is a bit difficult ; it wants to be planted deep, and to be left 

alone in a warm sheltered place. T. Sylvestris and T. Reflexa 

are both lovely in shape. Three very good purple expensive 

ones are u Remembrance," " Zephir," and " Valentine." " Mrs 

Moon " is a lovely shaped yellow, something like Reflex a, but 

later flowering. " Susan " is a lovely Tulip by candle-light. 

" Blushing Bride " and " Cottage Maid " are very pretty cheap 

Tulips. A double Tulip, called " Yellow Rose," is an excellent 

one for planting in grass, or on a slope. Its head is a little 

heavy for its stalk, and it gets rain-splashed in the border, but 

in the grass it lies smiling upwards, and is very repaying, as it 

lasts a long time. In all planting of Tulips with other plants 


Difficulties between, they look far better if not planted formally but in 

of Spring large and small groups. Laying flat stones on the bed and 

Gardening" planting round them is a great help. This is the great difficulty 

of all spring planting avoiding formality and getting the right 

contrast of colour. To achieve these two things is the great 

triumph of Spring Gardening. Tulips do well planted in grass 

in moist soils, but that is not the case in light sand. 

In Summer nature throws her arms about and plays all sorts 
of unexpected and beautiful tricks, but in Spring everything 
depends on the imagination of the gardener. Nature brings 
forth what you have yourself put in ; she does nothing else for 
you. The aim of the horticulturist for large masses of all one 
colour and for every bulb to be the same height is, I think, a 
mistaken ambition, especially in small and informal gardens. 
These should always be an enlargement of the cottage garden, 
not an imitation of the stately, formal terraces of large places, 
such as figure with magnified dignity and all the exaggerated 
perspective of photography in " Country Life." 

Once the bulbs are nearly over, and when the tall, single 
Cottage Tulips, graceful and varied, reminding one of the em- 
broideries of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, are only 
straight green seed pods, and the Parrot Tulips bow their heads 
and lie down to drop their lovely petals on the ground then 
comes a time of rest and dulness difficult to cope with in almost 
every garden. Spring is dying, and the lingering cold winds 
frighten away the approach of Summer. 

The Ranunculus tribe which help to fill the gap are 
difficult to grow in light soils. R. amplexicaules, so well 
worth growing, has a tiresome way of disappearing. In a 
half shady border, full in Autumn of the flowers of the 

Japanese Anemones, the roots of which so resent being dis- Spring, 
turbed, I grow R. Aconltefolius, with its pretty name of Some of the 
" Fair Maids of France," and its single form, which grows by Ranunculus 
Swiss mountain streams. R. Acris, the double and single 
" Bachelor's Buttons," also survive. With difficulty and care, 
and some spring watering, I manage the two commonest varieties 
of the Trollius, which are well worth all trouble. First comes 
*T. Europtzus, with its almost uniquely globular form, " Globe- 
flower" being its well-deserved name. Pale yellow, with its 
moonlight hue like the Mimosa, and then a little later 
T. Asiaticus^ smaller, with bright orange yellow flowers show- 
ing orange red anthers, it seems to flourish better here in my 
warm soil than the European variety, in memory, perhaps, of 
its warmer home in China and Japan. The difficulties of 
growing well so many desirable plants make one often long for 
a new garden and another soil, where present failures would 
grow abundantly and easily. But this discontent I observe 
only grows if yielded to ; a garden here means wishing for a 
garden in Cornwall, and a garden in Cornwall means wishing 
for one in the South of France. There the wishes wander to 
Sicily or North Africa, and so it is best to return to the old 
platitude, and be content to fight and conquer one's own 
difficulties. There are at least two distinct sorts of modern 
gardens : one planted to get good permanent effects three or 
four months in the year ; the other to grow as many healthy 
plants as possible the whole year round that is my object, and 
the reason why my garden is so great a disappointment to many 
people. The general effect is often crowded, spotty, and untidy, 
but I can pick incessantly without any fear of spoiling a combina- 
tion or destroying a contrast that makes a picture while it lasts. 


Some of the Whatever we do or do not do, Spring in England must 

Ranunculus always be lovely, and we all of us long to share our country 

Spring with our town friends. Tennyson's spring invitation to 

an old friend in his last volume called Demeter all will be glad 

to have recalled : 

" Spring flowers while you still delay to take 

Your leave of Town, 

Our elm-tree's ruddy-hearted blossom-flake 
Is fluttering down. 

Be truer to your promise. There ! I heard 

One cuckoo call. 
Be needle to the magnet of your word, 

Nor wait, till all 

Our vernal bloom from every vale and plain 

And garden pass, 

And all the gold from each laburnum chain 
Drop to the grass. 

Is memory with your Marian gone to rest, 

Dead with the dead ? 
For ere she left us, when we met, you prest 

My hand and said : 

'I come with your spring flowers.' You came not, friend ; 

My birds would sing, 
You heard not. Take, then, this spring flower I send, 

This song of Spring, 

And you that now are lonely, and with Grief 

Sit face to face, 
Might find a fleeting glimmer of relief 

In change of place. 

What use to brood ? this mingled life of pains Spring". 

And joys to me, 
Despite of every Faith and Creed, remains 

The mystery. 

The silver year should cease to mourn and sigh 

Not long to wait 
So close are we, dear Mary, you and I 

To that dim gate." 

The wish to share what we have with those we love 
cannot, I think, be more charmingly expressed than is done 
in these verses by the poet of the generation now passing 
away, the Tennyson we loved in our youth. 



"Out of the snow the Snowdrops, 
Out of Death comes Life." 

David Gray. 

Heralds of ~^ TRICTLY speaking, February belongs to the Winter 
Spring" ^^ months, but when it grants us mild sunny days, and 
we feel the life stirring in the garden around us, and 
the first flowers begin to bloom, our thoughts turn to the 
delights of Spring, looking forward with happy anticipation to 
the wonderful succession of beauty which the year is to bring us 
in our gardens. We forget for a time that long spells of East 
wind are sure to follow, that the moist earth will again be 
hard as iron, and all vegetation suspend its growth. This year 
the heralds of Spring are later than usual. Anemone Blanda, 
which often cheers us early in January by the sight of its bent 
stalks and blue tips forcing their way through the ground, now 
on February 1 8th is hardly showing. It has been a mild winter 
too, only one spell of hard frost which lasted about a week, but 
the sun has refused to shine, and rain has fallen almost in- 

Snowdrops undoubtedly bring the first real effect of the 
year. They are in perfection now in a neighbouring garden, 
and seem to have taken entire possession of a wood. There 
must be millions of them, single and double, long stalks 
holding their graceful bells, and making lovely sheets of 
glistening white through the rich warm brown of last year's 
leaves. They seem to grow equally well under the fine old 








Elms half covered with Ivy, looking almost like gigantic ever- February. 

greens, and under the brushwood already warm in tone with Snowdrops 

coming life. Sunshine reveals them at their best, the three- an( j Cycla- 

petalled bell is then open, displaying the green spotted frill men Coum 

inside. The low winter rays turn the grey-green leaves to a 

golden green, and transfigure a white that can look almost too 

coldly pure We have tried to naturalise them in our wood, 

but they will not grow as they do at Bourne Park, only three 

miles away, and it is foolish to hope for a real effect if they 

refuse to multiply of themselves ; a thousand bulbs planted, 

sounds rich in promise but the result is disappointing. They 

seem to revel and increase rapidly in a loose soil, rich with 

decayed wood and leaf mould and rather damp. My 

ambition is to get them established at the foot of a bank 

running up a slip of wood of mixed Beech, Elm and Oak, and 

lying open to the West. In the dampest part there is also to be 

a colony of the Swiss spring Snowflake, with its big round bell 

and spots of green outside. 

On the bank itself are already Cyclamen Coum^ ranging 
from almost white to pink and rosy red. They are in flower 
with the Snowdrops, sometimes appearing as early as January, 
and make a precious and unusual bit of colour in these winter 
months. They last many weeks and stand bad weather well, 
reappearing as bright as possible from under a heavy fall of 
snow. Their leaves are very dark and round and smooth, with 
a rosy-purple underside, and help very much to make the tiny 
flowers effective. Their position on the top of the bank seems 
to suit them perfectly ; the tubers, throwing up a profusion of 
flowers, grow larger each year, and distribute seedlings round 
them in a most satisfactory way. To increase the stock it is a 


Winter good plan to pick the curled seed vessels when ripe and sow 

Aconite them at once in pots, which should be placed in a cold frame ; 

and early re Pt them when they have thrown up their first tiny leaves, and 

Shrubs k ee P under glass till they are strong enough to be trusted out of 

doors. Cyclamen Neapolttanum prospers on the same bank, 

forming a pretty contrast to Cyclamen Coum. The leaves are 

mottled green and white, very handsomely marked, heart-shaped, 

and rather serrated at the edge. Unfortunately, no dainty white 

flowers are to be found on it now : this plant divides its 

beauties, the flowers being in perfection in the early Autumn, 

and the leaves in the Winter and Spring. 

Winter Aconite (Erantbis Hyemalis] is another invaluable 
plant for this season. It flowers from January to March, and 
is easily naturalised in woods or thin grass ; beneath big trees 
where even grass will not grow, this tuberous rooted perennial 
forms a carpet of yellow under low sweeping boughs. Grown 
with Snowdrops it gives beautiful and simple effects of colour 
in the wood, but it is as well to keep it away from the neigh- 
bourhood of the Cyclamen, as the pink and yellow are too gaudy 
a combination and spoil each other. The early Grape Hyacinths, 
Muse art Axureum and Heavenly Blue, also look well with 
Snowdrops, and are quite hardy. 

Two very charming shrubs are in flower now Cbimon- 
antbus fragrant and Winter Jasmine Jasminium nudiflorum. 
The Chimonanthus needs a South wall, and then from January 
to March will bear strange little faintly-coloured flowers close 
to the woody stems with a very sweet smell ; they are delicious 
for picking, but insignificant on the plant. In a good season 
the Jasmine can be counted on for a gay bit of colour all 
through the Winter, but this year the frequent rain has never 






given it a chance. It is a convenient hardy climber, growing February. 

very rapidly, and easily increased by the suckers which form 

round the roots of an old plant. It is contented with any 

aspect, but is worth granting a share of a Southern wall as it 

repays the attention by beginning to flower well in November, 

and in the early Spring will cover itself with yellow sprays. 



" Often, in sheltering brakes 
As one from rest disturb'd in the first hour, 
Primrose or violet bewilder'd wakes, 
And deems 'tis time to flower ; 
Though not a whisper of her voice he hear, 
The buried bulb does know 
The signals of the year, 
And hails far Summer with his lifted spear." 

Coventry Patmore. 

Crocuses \ It ARCH brings us as its first great joy the Crocuses ; a few 
in Grass I y I days ago the green tips were hardly visible, now the 
sun has forced their hearts open, and the grass is 
streaked with their brilliant colour: 

"... And winter sped, 
Whirled before the Crocus the year's new gold." 

The common Crocus lends itself to a great variety of effect 
with its rich purples and yellows and delicate mauves and 
whites, and will grow in almost any position, semi-shade or 
sun, in grass, round trees or shrubs, or in the open borders. 
It is not particular about soil but increases fastest in a good 
loam with some sand added. Everywhere they are delightful, 
but for greatest beauty grow them in the grass, because, having 
only insignificant leaves of their own, they look the better 
for a background of green. An old orchard near here is one 
of the loveliest Spring sights of the year the grass under the 

trees transformed into shimmering waves of mauve and white, March. 
with Primrose tips which promise a further pleasure, and white Crocus 
and purple Violets already opening their fragrant flowers. The Colour 
Crocuses look as much at home as the small wild one of the pff ec t 
Swiss Alps. There the white one with a deep purple stem is 
the commonest, but a few of the mauve are generally inter- 
spersed. A little damp seems to suit them, as wherever there is a 
dimple on the slope or a terrace shaded by trees, the ground 
will be almost as white as if snow were lying. 

To obtain the most brilliant effects, plant " Cloth of 
Gold " a name which truly describes it or " Cloth of Gold " 
mixed with Purpurea grandiflora, making together a truly regal 
carpet if planted in large masses. Intermixed too much they are 
apt at a distance to give a speckly result. A graduated stream 
of white and mauve and purple winding through the grass 
and round stems of trees looks beautiful. Mont Blanc, Madame 
Mina, and Purpurea grand'tflora may be used if the small 
expense of about 2s. a hundred be not a consideration, or cheap 
lots can be had at lod. a hundred in separate colours only in 
mixed kinds ; but these economies are generally regretted after- 
wards. In this way they are used largely in the London parks, 
and many more gardens might imitate the plan with great 
advantage ; while the beds are still bare, filled with their 
dormant plants, there are stretches of grass which should be 
made at this time to burst into lovely blossom. The only 
penalty attached to this pleasure is that the grass must remain 
unmown till May, but that is a small one if the places are 
chosen with wisdom. I find a good tool for planting 
them is an ordinary weeding spud; a hole about 3 in. 
deep is quickly made with it, and a basket of good soil and sand 

Iris mixed should be handy ; a pinch must be put under each bulb 
Reticulata and a handful on the top, and then the grass be pressed back 
into place. In really thick grass a heavy iron bar about 
4 ft. 6 in. long, with a blunt point at one end, is a very useful 
weapon for putting in bulbs ; if raised a little and then 
dropped, its own weight drives it into the ground several inches, 
and by a twisting movement the hole is easily made big enough 
even for Narcissus bulbs. 

Besides these Dutch kinds, which lend themselves so well 
to massing, there are many rare kinds flowering earlier, which 
must be treated as treasures. By the bestowal of a little care 
it is possible to have Crocuses in flower from the end of August 
to April. 

On a warm bank Iris reticulata and Mont Blanc Crocus 
are making a charming group, the white throwing up the rich 
purple and orange of this Iris. It belongs to the bulbous section 
of Irises or Xipbions, and only grows about 10 in. high, but 
flowers are so precious in February and March that it is worth 
while planting a good big clump of them. The blossoms 
last in water a week or ten days, and have the great merit of 
being very sweet-scented. For some time it was a disappointing 
plant with us, as it flowered only the first year in the borders 
and then disappeared, but it seems to appreciate its present 
position on a dry bank facing west. For success it must have 
good drainage, some sand, plenty of sun, and protection from 
slugs. It can be increased from seed, but it takes three years to 
form a bulb, and the quicker way is to take the off-sets from 
the old bulbs, disturbing them as little as possible, and planting 
the babies early in the Autumn. There are other early kinds 
which flower at the same time and want a similar treatment ; 




/. bis trio is perhaps the loveliest of all, with bright blue standards, March, 
cream falls and blue markings ; /. histrioides also very blue Hepaticas 
and /. persica purple scented like Violets. j n "Wood 

In some gardens Hepaticas Anemone hepatica are now 
a feature, but they do not thrive very well with us. One longs 
for them to grow as they do in the Pine forests and low woods 
of Switzerland. Under the Pines they do not flower so freely 
as in less shady places, but make up for the failure in number 
by bearing much larger flowers, longer in the stalk and fuller in 
colour. In one lovely spot I remember they were surrounded 
by tufts of shining white Violets, while not far away in a wood of 
Oak-scrub the ground was mauve and yellow with them and 
Primroses, making, with the old brown leaves above, a lovely 
picture worth a great effort to imitate at home. I brought back 
several dozen roots, and have planted them on a wooded bank, 
hoping to prove myself a successful rival on a small scale. They 
will get light shade in Summer, and sun in Spring when it is 
needed to open the buds and expose the pretty circle of white 
stamens. The soil should be light and rich, with plenty of leaf 
mould and well drained ; when once planted they should be 
left alone, and will grow in time to fine tufts bearing a profusion 
of flowers. The single ones can be increased by seed, but will 
not flower for three years. Hepaticas may be had double or 
single in pink, white, or mauve, but the double white is new 
and still very rare. 

Anemone blanda must be considered our greatest early 
Spring success, particularly as it will not grow well in all 
gardens and so gratifies our pride with the sight of the lovely 
patches of blue. It really is nearly a true blue, certainly degrees 
nearer it than the many flowers which are described as such. We 

D 25 

Anemone had our first tubers many years ago, they were planted under 
blanda the east and west walls of the kitchen garden and took to us in 
the kindest way. Facing west they are always two or three 
weeks earlier than those with an eastern aspect, generally be- 
ginning to flower in January and reaching their full beauty in 
March. Both seed freely, and have increased so much that 
we have been able to try naturalising them under trees and 
in the grass. A piece of ground was well cleared on the south 
side of an old Yew and the Anemones put in with a clump or 
two of Daffodil cernuus, the early soft cream-white one 
which is so delicate it wants some colour to show it up. This 
year the bed has been quite beautiful ; the ground and even 
their own green were quite hidden with the large starry flowers, 
set close together, all turning their eyes to the sun, and in 
every shade of blue, from a pale one almost grey to a real deep 
azure. The loveliest variety of all has a clear white ring round 
the base of the petals. The bed has the great merit of re- 
taining its beauty for several weeks the flowers saving them- 
selves by shutting every night and only opening on dry days. 
We are trying them too in the rough grass into which our 
lawn merges. It would be delightful if the blue stars could be 
scattered there as the mauve-pink ones are in the Italian fields, 
but with us that plan does not answer as the grass is too coarse, 
forming a mass of roots half a foot deep. The only plan when 
starting a colony of some fresh flower is to clear the ground 
completely and carpet it with some small-rooted green plant. 
Ornitbogalum umbellatum and nutans might be used to succeed 
the fading Anemones. The former might perhaps struggle 
successfully in the grass itself certainly in the meadows above 
Como it is almost as common as Daisies; on grey days 










Wi.jn the striped green petals are closely shut it is hardly March. 
noticeable, but in the sun each stem bears eight or nine white Chionodoxa 
satin-like flowers. Nutans is taller, ten or twelve inches in an( j Scilla 
height, with the flowers arranged up the stem forming a 
handsome spike. In a light soil it increases very fast and somer 
times becomes a troublesome weed. 

Another flower which gives us great delight in March is 
Chionodoxa Lucilitz. Here it takes time to establish itself and 
then sends up spikes 8 in. high, bearing ten or so most 
exquisite sky-blue flowers with a pointed white centre to each. 
A few dozen scattered about a rockery give no idea of its beauty, 
there should be at least a large group of them. No great 
preparation is needed when planting, a little leaf mould and 
sand will content them, and 35. will buy a hundred but will 
probably not satisfy the purchaser. Chionodoxa Sardensis is a 
little earlier and a little bluer, but the flowers do not form such 
a pretty spray. Scilla Siberica is in the same border, but 
they ought not to be very close together; the two blues a 
little spoil each other's beauty, and Siberica is dwarfed by 
its taller neighbour. I feel that all these early blue flowers 
are helped very much in effect by the addition of some 
cream-white, such as Hyacinths, white Polyanthus, and the 
double white Primroses. They are low-growing and not 
seen to the best advantage against their mother earth : very 
little green is out except that of the Welsh Poppy, which is a 
good neighbour to any early bulbs low while they are in flower 
and growing tall enough later to cover the faded remains with 
its yellow flowers. 

Two of the sweetest scented plants of the year belong to 
this month -Daphne Mezereum and the Violet. The Daphne, 


Daphne though of an unobtrusive shade of pink, is very effective if 

and grown in sufficient quantity ; several good-sized bushes look 

Violet we ^ together against Yews or dark evergreens with white 

Polyanthus beneath them. On a warm spring day the scent 

is delicious and travels far. We are very fortunate in having 

many wild sweet Violets about the place it seems almost a 

contradiction to talk of the modest Violet making an effect, but 

they certainly form delightful patches of colour growing wild 

in the grass there are white, lavender grey, puce and purple, 

and all very sweet. 



u Whan that Aprille with his shoures sote 
The drogte of Marche hath perced to the rote, 
And bathed every veyne in swich licour, 
Of which vertu engendred is the flour ; 
Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth 
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth 
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne 
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne, 
And smale fowles waken melodye, 
That slepen all the night with open ye 
(So priketh hem nature in hir corages) : 
Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages 
(And palmers for to seken straunge strondes) 
To ferae halwes, couthe in sondry londes ; 
And specially, from every shires ende 
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende." 


FOREMOST in beauty among April flowers are the Narcissi 
Daffodils, or rather the Narcissi Daffodils being only a and 
group of the genus. So rich in colour and so lush in Daffodil 
growth, they seem, coming at its height, to be the very essence 
of Spring. If careful in our choice of varieties their bloom can 
be enjoyed from March to the middle of May. 

As yet we have few of the rarer sorts, and from our own 
experiences can only offer suggestions for some simple arrange- 
ments of the old kinds ; but these will fill the garden with a 
beauty which no summer flowers can excel. They lend them- 
selves above all others to naturalisation : by which I mean they 
can be planted and left alone year after year, and be made to look 
as though they were really wild in field or wood. Our own 


Wild West Country pastures, rich with the small wild Daffodil, and the 
Narcissus Pheasant-eye Narcissus of the Swiss Alps, suggest an ideal to 
Effects at tain to. Few things are more wonderful than the Narcissus 
fields above the Lake of Geneva, gleaming from miles away 
like a fall of snow on the slopes of the mountains : to hope for 
similar acres of scented bloom would be useless in most gardens, 
but we can adapt the idea to our own country. Our woods, 
fields, the banks of streams and the edges of lakes can be thickly 
planted with them, enhancing the beauty on every side. If we 
have not the opportunity of planting on this large scale, we can 
fill the dull spaces in front of our shrubberies, and the bare 
ground between young shrubs, or any stretches of grass running 
perhaps under the shade of trees which can be left unmown till 
the leaves are dead. For picking it is a good plan to plant 
them in clumps between Gooseberry and Currant bushes. 

Early in April the rough grass lying between the lawn and 
wood is dancing with Daffodils. The first out are Obvallaris 
and the old double yellow; Primroses cluster at their feet, 
the lemon and deep yellow making a pleasant contrast round an 
old Yew-tree. Then a little later, where the branches of a big 
tree sweep the ground, the Stellas raise their pointed buds and 
open lemon-coloured petals, revealing the yellow cups ; Obval- 
laris, only half the height of Stella, displays its golden-yellow 
flowers in the foreground, Emperor raises its strong wide trumpets 
behind, and the early Forget-me-not [dissitiflora] encircles them 
with a sky-blue ring. For this particular group we took the 
coarse grass right away, replacing it with Forget-me-not and 
Welsh Poppy. The latter enjoys the shade as much as the 
Daffodils, but as it resents being transplanted it is best to sow it 
where wanted and it will soon multiply itself. Later, when the 











dead flowers of Stella have all been picked off, there is a pretty April, 
effect with Pheasant-eye rising from its blue setting, and, still Planting of 
later again, towards the end of May, the double Gardenia-like Daffodils 
Narcissus will be in flower. 

Where the grass does not grow strong enough to stifle the 
bulbs the best plan is to lift the turf, fork the soil well to a good 
depth, and when it has settled down again plant the bulbs, and 
replace the turf. If it is too sticky add some gritty stuff or 
wood ashes, and never allow strong manure to lie round the 
bulbs, though in some soils they will be the better for old 
manure filtering through from above. To increase the stock 
plant in fresh ground deeply dug, with good drainage. In two 
years the strong kinds ought to have doubled themselves ; it is 
most important that any lifting should be done in June or July, 
whenever the leaves have turned yellow about half way down. 
August and September are the right months for replanting and 
give the strongest growth, but the bulbs will flower fairly well 
if put in as late as November. 

All the common, and many of the new lovely sorts, do 
well in any average soil and under deciduous trees if not too 
near the roots. The " Book of the Daffodil," by the Rev. 
S. S. Bourne, would be found a great help by any one wishing 
to make a collection. It gives most valuable information con- 
cerning the best kinds to grow, and how to grow them, with 
much useful general advice, such as : to buy well to start with, 
good bulbs taking no more room than bad ; to have all the most 
beautiful classes represented, and to consider the succession of 
flower and the different shades of yellow. It is a mistake to 
mix the bulbs of several kinds which flower at the same time, 
they look so much better in distinct groups the groups being 

3 1 

Selections of sometimes allowed to intermingle and a full yellow being used 
Narcissus to show off a pale one. 

The number of varieties is now so great that a selection 
must be made. At every Spring exhibition new and most 
beautiful flowers are produced which one longs to buy by the 
hundred, and on inquiry finds that even a single bulb is a 
prohibitive price. The following list gives the names of a few 
of those suitable for massing, and reasonable in price. They 
are arranged in five groups, as far as possible in the order of 
their flowering. 

Group I. Large Trumpeted varieties, or " Long Crowns " 

Pseudo-Narcissus. The early English wild one. 
Princeps. Larger than the former but the same colouring, 

pale yellow perianth and a golden yellow trumpet. 
Telamonius plenus. Common double Daffodil good for 

effect from a distance. 
Obvallaris. Self yellow, rather short and not so hardy 

as some. 

Medium Crowns or Star Narcissi 

Queen Bess. The first of the Stella variety. Lemon 

Group 2. "Long Crowns" 

Horsfieldii, quite one of the finest, with its wonderful 
blending of palest lemon perianth and very yellow 
trumpet, and its handsome blue-green foliage. 


Empress is very like the above but a little larger and more April, 
expensive, and flowers later. Good 

Varieties of 

Medium Crowns Narcissus 

Sir Watkin, very large, self yellow full colour. 
Stella^ very strong grower, tall and graceful, nearly white 
perianth and pale yellow cup. 

Short Crowns 
Odorus rugulosus. Yellow jonquil, very sweet. 

Group 3. Long Crowns 

Emperor, full yellow, very large, tall and strong. 

Medium Crowns Double 

Orange Phoenix (Eggs and Bacon), white and reddish 

Golden Phoenix (Butter and Eggs), pale and deep yellow. 

Short Crowns 
Burbidgei, white perianth and orange cup. 

Group 4. Medium Crowns 

Barri conspicuus^ very useful large starry yellow flowers 

with orange red cups. 
Sulphur Phoenix double (Codlins and Cream) white and 

pale yellow. 
Mrs Langtry ^ 

Minnie (. all pale starry flowers. 

Duchess of Brabant ) 

* 33 

Good Group 5. Long Trumpets 

Varieties of Grandee, like Horsficldiivetj fine. 


Short Crowns 

Beatrice Heseltine, rather more expensive, with red-edged 

Prtecox grandiflorus. 

Ornatus, small but very sweet, pale eye. 

Narcissus biflorus, two flowers on a stem with lemon 
yellow eye. 

Poetarum^ with a very red eye. 

Poeticus, the garden Pheasant-eye, tall and strong. 

Poetic us plenus^ like a gardenia. 

The Pheasant-eye Narcissi in this group all flower one 
after the other in the kindest way. 

No white-trumpeted varieties have been included because, 
though quite lovely, they are delicate and expensive for mass- 
ing. The small Cernuus does pretty well with us, and looks 
lovely growing from Anemone Blanda, but we have not trusted 
it in the grass, and for pale yellow effects it is best to use the 
Leedsi and Incomparabilis varieties which are among the 

Grape Hyacinths belong to this month. The common 
one Muscari botryoides looks lovely planted thickly in front of 
Horsfieldii. They seem just the right tone and strength of blue 
to go well together, or a rich carpet of two distinct blues can 
be made by Muscari rising from a bed of Forget-me-not 
dissitiflora. There are white and pale blue varieties as well 
as the deep blue one, all hardy and thriving in almost any soil. 


Muscari Armeniacum and Heldreichi are later and finer, but April, 
they cost 2d. and 4d. apiece instead of is. a hundred. M. conicum Grape 
from the Campagna is a useful sort and due to flower in Hyacinths 
March. and 

Close to one of our groups of Daffodils, and just between p i v o n f nll o 
two big trees, we have a colony of white and bright yellow 
Polyanthus. They are now in full flower and carry on very 
charmingly the light and deep yellow tones of the Daffodils. I 
must confess though that they are not growing as well as they 
did in a garden border under the shadow of a box edging, and 
fear their new home was not well enough prepared for them, 
and that the roots of the trees are robbing them of what little 
nourishment there is. The shade they appreciate one day of 
hot sun being apt to lay leaves and flowers prostrate on the 
ground and will thrive under and round trees if given a good 
deep soil and, if possible, a cool, moist situation. A north 
aspect under a wall where little or no sun reaches them suits 
them well, and they will be all the better if some old manure 
be forked in at the time of planting. We have only two kinds 
in any quantity at present : white with a yellow eye, and full 
yellow with an orange eye. I prefer them to the many gold- 
laced pink, brick-red and crimson ones ; many of these are 
beautiful when looked into, or arranged in water, but from the 
point of view of colour, for bedding or naturalising in 
woods, the less gold lacing and the purer the colours, the 
better they look. A good selection of yellows and rich red 
browns with Wallflowers of the same tone give an unusual effect 
of quiet yet deep rich colouring. 

Prettier really than the Polyanthus are the bunched 
Primroses. Unfortunately we have very few, but a corner of 


Bunched wood in a friend's garden looks now as if a rare Eastern carpet 
Primroses had been spread beneath the trees. Polyanthus and Primrose 
and are growing there together, the latter with an especially fine 
Polvanthus ran e f c ol urs white, pale and deep yellow, lilac, pink and 
red through many shades to blue and red purple, each plant 
forming a round tuft of bloom. With care one might have the 
most beautiful and varied effect, blending one colour into 
another and sorting out those which were not harmonious. 
The whites and yellows might lead to the shades of blue and 
blue purple. The pinks, and the numberless shades between them 
and the red purples, could form a group by themselves. Among 
Spring flowers they come certainly next to the Daffodils for use 
and beauty and ease of growing. To get up a stock, buy or 
beg seed of some good strain when it is ripe in June, sow it at 
once either out of doors in a bed of fine soil and sand, or in 
shallow boxes. Prick them out when big enough in a shady 
place, and by the following Spring they will be flowering plants. 
Or if a particular colour is wanted, as the seeds cannot be 
depended on to come true, ask for some bits off a friend's plants 
at the end of May. To grow them well, both Primroses and 
Polyanthus should be taken up every year or two, according to 
the soil and growth, directly the flowers have faded, the 
tufts pulled to pieces and the crowns replanted separately. 
In good soil the plants will increase so fast that many crowns 
go to the waste-heap which might more profitably be given 
away. If they are to be replanted in the same place in the wild 
garden or wood, the ground must first be well dug and manured. 
If wanted for Spring bedding, plant in some out-of-the-way 
shady spot for the Summer. 

The double and single Primroses, being grateful for the 




shade and shelter, may also be used as woodland plants, and such April. 

sorts as Primula Altaica, a very early mauve-pink one which Blossoming 

begins to flower quite in the Winter. It is best to leave them un- Trees and 

disturbed except for the purposes of increase, when they must be Shrubs 

taken up and divided like the others. The double white is 

lovely, and the pale yellow and the mauve. There is a magenta 

one which is almost too startling in colour. 

Spring seems to reach its highest point of beauty by the 
middle of April. The trees are all bursting into leaf, and on 
the warm still days a feeling of life and growth pervades the 
whole garden. It is the moment for the blossoming trees and 
shrubs, and each year one feels that nothing can be more lovely. 
This year the late cold weather has brought everything out 
together, wild Cherry, Almond, Prunus, Pyrus japonica, 
Forsytbia^ etc. 

The Pyrus japonica has been out some weeks and is still 
in beauty. The sketch was made at Harrow and shows how 
very much one plant can help another in making an effect. 
The delicate colouring of the Japonica, its cream flowers 
splashed with salmon and rose-pink, is well thrown up by the 
deep plum-red shoots of the Rose growing beside it and trained 
to the corner of the house. It is often not realised how beautiful 
the shoots of a free-growing Rose are at this time of year if left 
unpruned, as many of the Teas should be. The old red Japonica 
is also very effective. We have a cascade of it over the roof 
of a tool-house. On a grey morning it is delightful to look 
up and catch the rose-red branches against the spreading boughs 
of the Elms still bare, and silhouetted against the sky. 

To-day : April I yth the wild Cherry has looked white for 
the first time. We have two old trees happily placed near a 


Blossoming group of Ilexes, but it is difficult to say if they are really more 

Trees and beautiful against dark foliage than with deciduous trees in their 

Shrubs Spring dress as a background. A Hornbeam close by is a mist 

of exquisite pale green, sweeping down to the greener grass and 

melting into the sky. The Hawthorns are in emerald leaf at 

the edge of the wood, and form a beautiful contrast with the 

rose-purples and browns of the Elms, Oaks, and Beeches. 

Almond and purple-leaved Prunus (Pissardii] are charming 
together. Unfortunately our Almond trees are still small, and 
the Prunus with us seems a shy flowerer. I am full of envy 
of their beauty in the Villa gardens on the outskirts of the town 
where they are white to their very tips ; graceful long boughs 
with an upward growth seen in bold relief against the sky, and 
great sprays of pink Almond sweeping across them. It is 
annoying of them not to flower in the same way here where 
they could have sky and wood as background, and no new red 
houses to strike a discordant note. 

Forsytbia suspensa, with its curved growth and rings of 
yellow blossom set all down the long flowery stems, is one of 
the loveliest shrubs. Daffodils in the grass with Forsytbia above 
them, repeating the yellow in a more delicate tone, make a 
pretty picture. If space allows a large group of these should 
be planted in a sunny spot. The graceful pendulous branches 
fall to the ground and will sometimes root themselves. It is 
excellent too for training up a house, and will convert a very 
large extent of wall into a sheet of yellow. Any pruning 
that is necessary should be done directly the plant has done 
flowering, but if the situation admits, it is prettier if allowed to 
grow naturally. Cuttings strike very easily. 

Kerria japonica is another hardy shrub of great beauty 






with yellow flowers, the single kind is not very often seen but April. 

is charming and remains much longer in flower. Blossoming 

Ribes, both cream and red, are out, and look particularly Shrubs and 
well together if planted against Hollies or any dark evergreens, but Anemones 
they are not so attractive as many of the more delicately coloured 
blossoms, and might be grown in some rather secluded corner. 

By the third week in April many less common shrubs 
can be seen in beauty at Kew. Amelanchier canadensis is a 
shower of white and looks lovely falling on to its bed of Stella 
Narcissus. Close by there are clumps of pink and bright red 
Prunus, most effective and lovely in colour either against the 
Ilex or the bare Elms. Prunus triloba flore-pleno is out too, 
making bushes about five feet high, a little too regular in form, 
but very lovely with the long sprays of pale double pink 
blossoms. Magnolia stellata is a glistening mass of white stars. 
With us it does not grow freely, but in warm light soils it will 
make a bush four or five feet across and as many in height. 
Anemone pulsatllla looks lovely below it the tufts of silvery- 
haired Lilac flowers, with golden centres, thrown up by the 
white of the Magnolia ; the creeping dark purple Ox alls makes 
a pretty carpet round the Anemone, and there should be clumps 
of white Fritillary as its exquisite bells are open at the same time. 
This Anemone is perfectly hardy, and can be increased by seed or 
division. It likes a well-drained position and rather calcareous 
soil. Anemone sylvestris is another useful variety for growing 
under or round bushes ; it is said to like moisture and shade, and 
plenty of room for its creeping roots, but it is a plant with whims 
and sometimes does well in sun. It became quite a weed with 
us in a Rose bed, but refused to grow at all when moved to what 
was supposed to be a more suitable position. 


Berberis Many sorts of Berberis are gay now and worth planting in 

and prominent positions : B. Stenophylla most graceful and showy 

Magnolia w ^ l n S sp ra ys of fine green and hanging orange-yellow 

flowers; B. Nepalensis with a very handsome foliage and 

upright spikes of bloom, and B. Darwinii making a fine dark 

evergreen bush covered in April with hundreds of orange 

flowers ; B. Vulgar -is , and many others. B. Wallichiana and 

*Ibunbcrgi, as they turn to many shades of red, are even more 

beautiful in the Autumn than in the Spring. 

Magnolia conspicua should now be a wonder of shining 
white, cup-shaped flowers. The one illustrated is growing in 
a very sheltered garden at Saltwood. In sunshine when the 
flowers are wide open the effect is dazzling, but the sketch 
unfortunately had to be done on a grey cold day when it was 
not looking its best. The grass underneath was sprinkled with 
yellow Jonquils, and close by, Camellia trees were in splendid 
condition, their glossy foliage covered with red and white 
blossoms, but they were a month behind their usual flowering 
time. Even these very fine specimens are not attractive to 
me, they are a little too stiff in form and spotty in effect. 
Much prettier is a mauve Azalea, sweet-scented and very useful 
at this time of year, but looking fragile as if a storm of rain 
would destroy it. Spiraa Ihumbergii looks well near by, with 
its masses of tiny white flowers in graceful sprays. 

This month, which opened with Daffodils, sees them at 
their very best towards the close ; only the earliest are over, 
while the latest are in bud and Pheasant-eye Narcissus have 
begun. A sight of them at Kew made me long more than ever 
to plant them by the thousand in their separate varieties. The 
hill by the pond, which earlier in the year seemed all Crocus, is 




now all Daffodil and Narcissus. Under some of the big trees, April, 
where the grass grows thin, Anemone Apennina is flowering well Spring" 
with Pheasant-eye. Though not so fine as A. Elan da, it is certainly Effects 
worth growing, as it only begins when Blanda has been out 
two months or more and is at last on the wane. In the wilder 
parts of the garden are the most beautiful effects wide grass 
glades wander between great irregular clumps of white Narcissus 
and in the Queen's Cottage Garden, Emperor Daffodil is a marvel 
growing tall and strong under the big trees, and showing from 
a distance as great stretches of yellow between the stems. Round 
the cottage itself Jonquils flourish in the grass, scenting the air. 
A few days later near Harrow I saw yet another effect. 
The garden lies on the top of a hill with a gorgeous view, 
and extends into a wood on three sides ; Daffodils are every- 
where out in the open, on either side of the sloping lawn, are 
plantations of rare kinds, and stretching back under the trees the 
commoner ones. My sketch was made in a dell in the very heart 
of the wood when the Beeches were just bursting into tender green. 
The very light effect is given by Duchess of Brabant, last year's 
fallen leaves with their rich browns making a pretty setting. 

Those named in the following list all thrive in this wood, 
but all common kinds and many of the new lovely ones will do 
equally well in any average soil under deciduous trees if not 
planted too near to the roots. A lovely companion for them is 
Anemone Robins onia, of a soft grey-blue colour. 

Tenby Barrl consplcuus 

Emperor Empress 

Sir Watkin Mrs Langtry 

Golden Spur W. J. Berkeley 

Katherine Spurrell Madame de Graaf 
F 41 

Iris, Tulip Most of these are inexpensive, running from 45. to 155. a hundred, 
and The last three are considerably dearer, and Madame de Graaf, 
Primula though cheap compared to what it was a few years ago, is still 
2s. 9d. each bulb. 

Two or three little plants must be mentioned among the 
April treasures as givers of most delicate colour effect. Iris 
tuberosdy the green and black velvety one, which it is such a 
pleasure to find wild on the Italian Riviera, and Tulip a clusiana 
(the Lady Tulip), white with a purple eye and a rose streak up the 
outside of each narrow petal. They always flower together 
with us, and both prefer a sheltered corner. Dentaria pinnata, 
with heads of almost a dozen cruciform flowers and bright green 
palmate leaves, I have longed to establish here since seeing it 
grow on Monte Generoso. The outskirts of the woods were 
white with it, and it had spread to the grass slopes near by, 
mixing with the Pheasant-eye Narcissus and the big blue Gentian. 
It can be grown from seed and increased by division, and likes 
a light soil and a moist place. 

Some of the many lovely Primulas should be established in 
shady places. P. Denticulata^ with a round, blue-lilac head, and 
P. Casbmeriana^ rather deeper in colour and stronger in growth, 
like a rich moist soil, and are delightful when they have formed 
large tufts. P. Sieboldi is another most useful sort and quite 
hardy. It varies in colour a good deal, and wants a well- 
drained position and plenty of leaf mould. If Cowslips are not 
indigenous they should be started in the fields, so that their 
sweet-scented flowers can be enjoyed when Primroses are 
over. With small trouble, and in about a year's time, an effect 
could be obtained such as Coventry Patmore so vividly 
describes : 




" Meadows of fervid green, April. 

With sometime sudden prospect of untold 
Cowslips, like chance-found gold ; 
And broadcast buttercups at joyful gaze 
Rending the air with praise." 



"... Green flame the hedgerows. 

Pageants of colour and fragrance 
Pass the sweet meadows, and viewless 
Walks the mild spirit of May, 
Visibly blessing the world." 


" And earth unto her leaflet tips 
Tingles with the spring." 

William Watson. 

Late Tulips A ft AY is above all things the month of Tulips. Many of 
and their I V I the early-bedding kinds flower in April, but they are 
uses still in beauty the first week of May, and then open 

the much more lovely late-flowering varieties Cottage, Darwin, 
Bybloemens, Bizarres, Roses, etc. These have many great 
advantages over the early ones graceful foliage and long 
stalks holding their big cups two feet or more from the ground. 
They can be treated as perennials and left alone for several 
years, or they can be used as bedders, above all in formal Dutch 
gardens, and be lifted and dried when they have done flowering. 
In borders they should be planted deep enough to allow of 
annuals or low-growing permanent plants being put in above 
them, and they are often invaluable for strengthening the 
colour one wishes to predominate in a particular spot. The 
group of flowering shrubs Solatium crispum and Cytlsus in 
the sketch made at Tregothnan was completed in an attractive 
way by the clump of yellow Tulips. Wonderful colour effects 




can be arranged with them, tones which harmonise or vivid May. 
contrasts. There is a large colour key to be played on pink- Colour of 
mauves to rich brown and red purples, and almost black : lilacs Tulips 
which are called blue, they have so much more blue than red in 
them : white, palest lemon to clear bright yellow and orange : soft 
rose-pinks or full deep reds, magenta, crimson, salmon, and 
flaming orange-vermilion : and then beside all these self-coloured 
ones are all the marvellous combinations in a single flower. 
What can be more remarkable than Zomerschoon yellow 
splashed with salmon-red, or more vivid than Greigei^ or more 
lovely than Rose Pompon, semi-double lemon shaded to pink at 
the tips of the petals ? The names to be mentioned with honour 
are almost endless, and a sight of the bunches exhibited at the 
May Horticultural Show fills the gardener with envy. I am 
told that most of these many and lovely varieties were originally 
started in Holland, sold by the raiser to English growers and 
kept as much as possible out of the hands of the neighbour- 
ing Dutch gardeners for mercantile reasons ; certainly many 
kinds exhibited here are not to be found in the best Dutch 
catalogues, an extra reason for supporting the home industry 
and buying in England or Ireland. 

It is often said that May, when Spring is over and Summer 
not yet fully come, is rather a poor month for flowers, but a 
few shillings expended on these late Tulips will fill the garden 
with beauty. Although new sorts are expensive, some indeed 
almost prohibitive in price owing to the stock being still so 
small, many old ones are extraordinarily cheap and can be got 
from 2s. to i os. or I2s. a hundred. 

To ensure yellow in the garden when the Daffodils have 
faded, plant 


Varieties of Bouton d'Or a round, clear yellow flower shown up by 

May Tulips black stamens, but not very large. 

Golden Eagle slightly fragrant, with pointed petals. 
Golden Crown pointed in form, opens yellow petals 
then take a red edge, gradually becoming suffused 
with a brown-orange. 

We have a long border of these Tulips with clumps of yellow 
Wallflowers between and purple Pansies below ; only a light 
railing divides it from a field, and when that is full of Butter- 
cups the effect is most beautiful. Other good varieties are : 
Parisian Yellow. 
Retroflexa with curved back petals looking more 

like a Lily than a Tulip. 

Yellow Rose double and very full rich colour. 
Magnificent if only its stalk were firmer ; but 
it needs a carpet of some low-growing plant to 
lay its head on. 

Vltellina pale lemon. 
Gesnertana lutea. 
Mrs Moon. 

These last four are comparatively expensive. 
For pinks grow 

Shandon Bells (syn. Isabella) Lemon yellow 
splashed with rose colour, getting rosier with 
age ; it is quite lovely but shorter and stiffer in 
growth than many of the others. 

Picotee palest lemon with pointed petals, turned back 
tips and a scarlet edge which gradually suffuses 
the whole flower. 

Rose Pompon semi-double, primrose and pink in May. 
flushes. Very tall and large flower. Tulip 

Gesneriana rosea^ with a deep blue base. Effects 

Rosalind, with a white base. 

Sweet Nancy ) i i j 

Tr . . r J f. both white with a pink edge. 
virginalis j 

For dearer ones 


May queen. 


Loveliness, etc. 

When after some years the yellow Tulips had to be taken 
up and divided, the same border was planted with Picotee, 
Shandon Bells and Rose Pompon, but, lovely as these were, the 
whole effect was not so good as before. The sea of Buttercups 
behind had to be taken into account, and we have gone back 
to the simple yellow arrangement, and are trying the pinks on 
either side of a straight grass walk leading to the wood through 
a youthful avenue of Pryus Mains floribunda and P. M. 
spectabills. These are two of the loveliest of pink blossoming 
trees and quite unlike each other. The first makes a shower 
of pink and white, the tips of the boughs soft red with buds ; 
the second is upright in growth with much larger semi-double 
pale pink flowers. The Tulips are planted in large clumps 
but the trouble is that the grass has to be cleared right away 
as they would never pierce it, and though they look very gay, 
just topping the waving grass, the delightfully wild effect of 
the Daffodils can never be attained. 

For reds we have an old-fashioned Tulip splashed with 
orange which makes a long border under the shade of the Elms, 


Tulip gorgeous for a week or two, especially when they last till the 
Effects and purple Flags are out. Other good sorts are : 

Colour Gesneriana major or spathulata the largest of all the 

Tulips, with dazzling scarlet petals and a deep 
blue base. Massed together they are magnificent 
and are well worth growing in quantities. 
Elegans scarlet pointed petals and reflexed. 
Elegans alba, similar in form but white with narrow 

carmine edge, most exquisite. 
Gesneriana aurantiaca maculata, red-orange with a 

dark -brown base. 
Lion d' Orange. 
La Merveille, orange and red. 
Two useful white Tulips are : 
Dame Blanche. 
La Candeur, double. 

For mauve and purple, grow Blue Flag and the many 
toned Darwin Tulips. All sorts of queer soft shades of mauve 
and lilac and purple not seen in other flowers are to be found 
in these besides the exquisite pinks and cherry-reds of such kinds 
as Margaret, Clara Butt, and Salmon King. We have a pretty 
border of Darwins with a Pansy called Coquette de Poissy 
which makes a beautiful carpet for them, being of the same odd 
pink-mauve as the Tulips. 

Then there are still to be mentioned the Parrot Tulips with 
strange torn petals and most brilliant colouring, but inclined to 
weak stalks and drooping heads : the Bizarres, various shades of 
red with yellow and orange flakes ; the Bybloemens, white with 
flakings of lilac and purple ; the Roses with flakings of rose and 
red on a white ground, and such little treasures as T. Sylvestris, 












with its pendant yellow head ; which really will grow in grass, May. 

and T. Clusiana, white with a bar of pink on the outer side of Bluebells 

each petal and a purple centre, small but very lovely. In good anc [ 

rich loam, Tulips are very quickly increased from their off-sets. Anemone 

They should be taken up when the foliage dies down, dried 

and stored in a cool place till the Autumn, when the young 

bulbs can be planted in a nursery bed for one season. 

Bluebells, though essentially one of nature's most lovely 
effects, must not be forgotten in the wild garden, and if they 
do not grow naturally can easily be introduced. The sketch 
was done from a Hertfordshire garden. Close round the house 
were several acres of wood, blue with the wild Hyacinths, and 
to these have been added thousands of Pheasant-eye Narcissus. 
The two rising from the red-brown bracken and dead leaves 
form a picture which once seen can never be forgotten more 
lovely even than Bluebells and low-spreading boughs of Beech 
just burst into tender green, or, as I have seen them in Cornwall, 
surrounding groups of orange and flame-coloured Azaleas. When 
Bluebells and Narcissus are over, the Bracken springs up and covers 
the dead flowers. 

Anemone Coronaria and its varieties the Caen single and 
double, and the St Brigid very double are still gay with us, 
although they have flowered most of the Spring. They are 
useful for borders and edgings, and we have found them 
very successful round some of the Rose beds, as they enjoy the 
rich soil when well drained, but they have also done exceedingly 
well along the Tulip border on the edge of the field where the 
soil is light and the chalk close below. We leave some in 
altogether, and in this way secure a good number of flowers in 
the Autumn, but a safer plan is to lift them after they have 

G 49 

Anemones done flowering, dry them in a shady place, and put them away 
and Peonies in sand till the following October or November, when they 
should be planted about 3 inches below the surface. They 
grow easily from seed sown in June, and if given shade and 
moisture the first three weeks, and then sun and continued 
moisture, they will be large enough to prick out in October, and 
will flower the following Spring. In a few cold soils they do 
not stand the Winter, but are generally quite hardy. The effect 
of all the mixed colours, white, pink, scarlet, violet, etc., is very 
bright and pretty ; but it is a good plan to mark distinct colours, 
so that when replanting in the Autumn they can be arranged 
in groups of self colours or in suitable shades. Anemone fulgens 
is a useful variety the brilliant vermilion stars, with narrow 
petals and deep purple stamens, give the impression that it must 
be a real sun-loving plant, but it prefers a shady situation and 
a rich, moist soil. Anemone Aldboro is another good sort, 
magnificent crimson with a white ring to the purple centre, and 
there is a lovely pink one of the same starry form. 

Quite the showiest of all plants for the wild garden just 
now are the Moutan Peonies they are so beautiful and so 
gorgeous in colour that one can hardly believe that they will 
grow in rough half-shady places. Indeed with us they have 
done better, and last much longer in flower in such places, than 
in a border which was chosen as a particularly suitable spot. 
My sketch was done from one of the new, intensely double 
varieties. Even this one plant is a remarkable feature in the 
garden, its flaming pink is so brilliant, rising above the feathery 
grass, and catching the eye from a distance. Close by we have 
made a plantation of the old-fashioned double soft pink kind 
Peony officinalis^ clearing the grass, and encouraging instead 


Forget-me-not and Stitchwort. The latter is a most useful May. 
wild covering plant as it makes a spreading mass of delicate Peony 
green without too many roots, and is lovely when spangled officinalis 
with its white flowers. Peony officinalis flowers before the anc j Moutan 
Tree Peonies are over, and looks so much at home that we hope 
to establish a regular Peony garden near by, and grow many of 
the new Hybrids and varieties imported from China and Japan. 
The flowering period could thus be extended to quite the end 
of June. 

The Moutans can be had double or single, pure white, and 
from flesh-colour through a wonderful range of salmon-pink to 
intense tawny reds, or in shades of purplish pink which are 
beautiful if grown right away from the others. The singles 
are lovely, but disappointing because the petals drop at once 
in bad weather. They like a lot of manure, and resent being 
moved. When planting, a hole should be dug, 2 feet or more 
in depth, and manure put in at the bottom, and they are 
grateful for a good mulching in Summer when they have done 
flowering, and for many doses of liquid manure. 

About the same time as the Tulips many low-growing 
plants are out, suitable for forming carpets or edgings, and for 
growing over the Tulips themselves. One of the commonest is 
Aubrletia^ too common to be grown some gardeners think, but it 
gives an effect quite unlike any other plant with its soft creeping 
cushions of mauve; given a suitable spot, it will spread itself 
very quickly. In a mill garden near Ware it has taken 
possession in this way, tumbling in cascades down the walls 
which confine the rushing stream, and trailing over all the beds 
in the garden. This old variety is called A, purpurea, but 
there are many new sorts with larger blossoms and deeper 


Aubrietia colouring, such as the purple Eyrei and Campbelli, which are 

and other well worth growing. Some which are highly recommended are 

Carpet q u i te pink, Leichtlini, for instance, and should not be mixed 

Plants wl *-h the mauves. They can be grown from seed, or cuttings 

taken in April and May, or the rambling trailers can be laid in 

and covered with sandy soil. The young plants thus formed 

should be removed in the Autumn. 

Yellow Alyssum (Saxatlle] blends well with the Aubrietias 
liking much the same sort of position, and plenty of sun. 
It will spread over a dry bank, or grow in a wall, making 
soft tufts of yellow beloved by the bees. It can be increased in 
the same way as the Aubrietias. The common Arabis albida 
must be included, and the newer double form, which is 
invaluable for cutting and for giving a real sheet of white. 
When it has done flowering every shoot can be struck as a 
cutting and will be a large plant by the following Spring. All 
these look well together if planted in sufficient quantity the 
white, yellow, and mauve being in distinct patches, or there are 
many plants they group well with Alyssum making a fine 
carpet near purple Iris, or Arabis florc pleno with pink Tulips. 

The Candytufts are another useful race of white ground- 
work plants ; Iberis corifolia, only 3 or 4 inches high, 
and Correasfolia, about a foot high, forming an evergreen 
tufted carpet, covered the end of May with white flowers. 
Sempervirens the commonest of all, an evergreen perennial, 
will grow anywhere, and is particularly useful as an edging or 
bedding for shrubs. Semperflorens, a sweet-scented evergreen 
shrub about 2 ft. high, is rather delicate, and needs a warm 
sunny place if it is to justify its name. 

If one is lucky enough to be able to grow Lithospermum 

prostratum a glorious patch of gentian blue can be enjoyed May. 

through this month. It wants a warm dry soil and some rock Carpet 

to creep over. With Arcnaria montana grandiflora a Plants and 

pretty white flower like a glorified Stitch wort it makes a fJonestv 

charming picture. I have seen them growing together on a 

rough stone wall, the Litbospermum making trailing cushions of 

blue, several feet long. In a cool damp place Primula japonica 

will give a splash of brilliant crimson, but handsome as it 

undoubtedly is, the colour is too near magenta to be always 

pleasing. At Burncoose, near Truro, it was certainly magnificent 

in effect, growing very strongly in large quantities, with 

Bamboos all about it. There it seeds freely, but in soils where 

it will not multiply itself the seed should be picked and sown 

in a seed-pan directly it is ripe, and kept in a cold frame. Seed 

of the white variety can be obtained separately and is much 

more attractive. 

In a shady corner London Pride looks delightful against 
tufts of green and white striped grass. 

Ompbalodes verna is a good plant too for establishing on the 
edges of woods, with pretty bright green foliage and flowers like 
a Forget-me-not. For a patch of glistening white nothing can 
beat Trillium grandiflorum ; its three-petal led flowers with the 
three encircling leaves below are quite beautiful, but it will not 
grow everywhere and likes a shady damp spot and peat soil. 
The name Wood Lily suggests the uses that might be made 
of it. 

A great feature in our wood just now is the Honesty 
Lunaria bicnnis the rich violet and white flowers being 
especially fine from a little distance. It seeds profusely and 
widely, establishing itself as if it were really a wild thing of the 


Iris and wood. It is important to remember to plant out seedlings two 
Columbine years running when first introducing it to a spot, as it is one of 
those troublesome biennials which take fully two years to flower. 
Towards the end of the month come the German Irises and 
the Columbines the common purple Flag is with us the earliest of 
them all by a week or two, and therefore never to be cast out of 
the garden for newer or finer sorts. The border illustrated is so 
filled with Elm roots that it will grow hardly any perennial 
decently, but the Flag seems to be perfectly content and flowers 
profusely. Welsh Poppies and Columbines grow rampantly 
with it, seeding themselves almost too much, and tufted Pansies 
struggle in the foreground but really want a better soil. The 
Columbines are mostly a cross between the wild dark sorts and 
the pure white one, and though the flowers are small compared 
to the Alpine varieties, they have long stiff stalks holding their 
heads well above the Flags and give a pretty light look to the 
bed. We are also trying to establish them in rough grass, 
hoping to get an effect like a Swiss hay-field enamelled with flowers. 
They are admirably suited to naturalising in woods or shrubberies 
where it is not too shady. The pure white one, Aquilegia 
Vulgaris alba^ a most beautiful variety, is good for picking, looks 
lovely in large clumps by itself, and comes true from seed. The 
Alpine varieties are larger in the flower, shorter in the growth, 
and much less hardy, having a sad way of disappearing 
altogether. Good drainage is important, and the rockery perhaps 
the best place for them. They are so lovely it is well worth an 
effort to grow them well, especially the blue ones, Alp'tna and 
Cacrulca. Aquilegia Chrysantha, yellow, and Californica 
Hybrida, orange red, are very useful border varieties, growing 
about four feet high and flowering a long time. A stock of any 




> i 










of these varieties can easily be raised from seed it should be May. 
sown in a pan and kept in a shady place till the seedlings are Some 
big enough to prick out. Climbing 

As the border of common Flag begins to lose its beauty two pi an t s 
other early kinds come out in the walled garden, a white and 
a deep violet purple, and by accident Darwin Tulips in queer 
mauve shades and Coquette de Poissy Pansy are growing close 
by, making a pleasant harmony of colour. Doronicum plant a- 
gineum excelsum is an extremely useful and gay herbaceous 
plant ; it will grow almost anywhere and can be counted on to 
give an effect of brilliant yellow for several weeks. Its tall 
daisy-like flowers and bright green leaves make a pleasant 
contrast to the Tulips which flower with it. It can be in- 
creased to any amount by division, and thrives best in a moist 
but sunny situation. 

Some of the most luxuriant creepers are now beginning to 
wreath unsightly places with beauty. Eccromocarpus scaber 
and Ceanothus Veitchii are out on the east side of the house, the 
orange and soft real blue looking delicious together ; the former 
is a most useful half-hardy evergreen climber easily raised from 
seed ; with us it does well through any ordinary Winter, growing 
30 feet up the house and seeding itself. There is now a pink 
form which is very pretty. Clematis Montana grows here in 
the most rampant fashion, garlanding itself with white from the 
ground to the roof of the house, and doing equally well on a 
south exposure or a north one. It is beautiful if grown so that 
it may fall in a shower of white down a Yew hedge, or trained 
up one side of a wall and allowed to form a cascade down the 
other ; it will work its way up through the shade even of ever- 
greens, and when it reaches the light will clothe some bare tree 


Arums in with blossom, giving the impression at a first glance of some 
Cornwall wonderful new flower. Wistaria succeeds the Clematis with its 
hanging lilac trusses, and the Japanese Guelder Rose (Viburnum 
p lie at urn] looks very well trained up a wall. It is quite hardy 
and makes also a graceful shrub, the boughs laden with white 

The accompanying sketch of Arums was painted near 
Truro in the middle of the month. Even then the lake with 
its fringe of white Lilies only separated from a tidal river by a 
bank a few feet across was a wonderful sight ; later in the 
month the effect must have been even finer. The strong growth 
of the plants, their fine healthy foliage, and the multitude of 
buds and flowers show how absolutely the position suits them. 
They grow in the shallow water about two feet deep round 
the edge of the lake, and in Winter if there should be severe 
frost, which is very unusual in that part of Cornwall, their roots 
are protected by the water above them. That their feet should 
be absolutely in the water in this way is not necessary, but it 
makes the growth more luxuriant. They may often be seen in 
cottage gardens looking strangely foreign to the eye only accus- 
tomed to see Arums in a greenhouse. 






" T AM coming to see how you have arranged your Summer Summer, 
borders." So wrote a friend in June. I answered, Colour 
" Come. But there has been no arrangement for 
Summer, nor there never is ! " Since, I have thought, what 
did we both mean ? Arrangement of a kind there has to be 
surely, to begin with. Yet in this garden, I scarcely think 
such necessary arrangements of plants as there must always be 
to keep up a succession, Spring, Summer and Autumn, is 
precisely the system supposed by my friend. 

Is it not rather tiring this idea of the planning of garden 
effects, and so long before the time ? How many sorts of things 
tire one ! So many books one reads : so many people one sees ! 
So often also long descriptions of well arranged colours in a 
garden, where all the colours come just right. I am afraid the 
colours here come very often wrong. That does not pain me 
much I merely feel " the flowers chose to do it, it is no fault 
of mine." And if they are happy, what matter though pink 
does at times mass unkindly against magenta, or if two different 
lilacs clash, or even if scarlet and crimson come together ? Dear 
flowers ! we know they can never look really wrong, or like a 
mistake, as so often bad contrasts in women's gear. We only 
say to ourselves or the gardener when flower colours come 
very much amiss, " It is unfortunate ! " That is all. Crimson and 
scarlet by choice would hardly mass together. Therefore there 
was sorrow when a grand glow of scarlet oriental Poppy began 


Crimson to flame round the dazzling crimson of Carmine Pillar, most 
and Blue brilliant of red Roses. But when I began to speak this thought, 
Flowers an ^ to Sa 7 besides that of course another season the Poppies 
would have to be moved away somewhere else, the remark 
of a visitor in the garden opened my eyes as with the force 
of revelation. " Is there not," he said, " a certain barbaric 
pomp about so strange a contrast ? " The hint was enough. 
When I looked again, what Indian visions steeped in glory, 
visions of Delhi and last year's Durbar floated through the 
fiery brilliance of those border flowers. I think the Poppies 
will not be moved. That very day their great silken petals began 
to fall, and wind and weather scattered them away. In their 
place unfolds a yet more enchanting " arrangement." Carmine 
spoil of Roses is rained down upon the azure of Anchusa Italica. 
Not the deep splendour of ultramarine, but that tenderer, 
sympathetic blue, which more abounds in gardens best loved of 
Anchusa, and where she flourishes the most willingly. Day by 
day clouds of bright azure blue spread themselves abroad, and, 
stealing upwards through the lowest branches of a Ptdia Kuhli 
growing near, lay glimmering softly within the green, full half- 
way to the Ptelia's top. Beside this blue, between tall ribbon 
leaves, shone the flowers of milk-white bloom, of a great bed of 
Iris ochroleuca, and, beyond, a dark tree of Prunus plsardi 
dressed in Summer brown made an ideal background. 

At right angles with the flower-border which has been 
thus delighting us, opens out a straight gravel path running 
east and west, radiant in June with the colours and fragrant with 
the rich bloom, of some choice perfumed Peonies. On each side 
glow great round heads of deepest crimson, or rose-pink ; or of 
white lit up all gloriously within, by a golden glow. The great 


flowers tumble about in clusters ; or sway forward amid their Summer, 
leaves on bending stalks too weak by far to upbear their weight. Peony and 
There is one, clad in murrey colour or maroon, that for some Buddleia 
reason unknown, is longest lived of all these fine Peonies, (our 
grandmothers used to say Piony^ and in " Hill's Eden " it is 
also " Piony,") brief as is the life-summer of them all. The old- 
fashioned red, scentless Peony, once common in cottage gardens, 
makes a grand show disposed in distant patches on the grass. 
The flower of it lasts shorter even than the finer kinds. With- 
out any warning, in the fulness of its most fulgent red, down it 
comes in a shower poured out on the grass beneath, and there's 
an end. The others are different. Their fainting flowers 
linger long, loth to take leave for ever of dear happy Summer. 

The single pink Peony, yellow stamined, with blue-green 
leaves, is not, 1 think, very often seen. It is almost like a large 
single cabbage Rose, if such a thing could be imagined. One old 
plant of it struggles on in a shrubbery near where Peony walk 
begins. There also, stiffly will hang up till about the end of 
June, a thousand little fairy balls of Buddleia globosa. Among 
the colours of Summer, orange is not so commonly seen as blue 
or red or pink. The Buddleia is not quite hardy, in Bucking- 
hamshire at least ; and we cover it up with matting in winter. 
Soon it will grow too large to be treated thus. Nothing is more 
desired by a gardener than that his trees should grow. Yet 
what more tiresome than the gradual, undesired, too generous 
growth of a young tree if planted where there is neither 
room for it, nor an increase of picturesqueness gained by its 
enlargement. . . . 



The Walled I OPENED the gate and went in. The garden was like no other 
Garden garden of my knowledge, it seemed to surpass, in its wonderful 
indefinableness, other gardens of pleasure that I knew. It was 
well kept ; in perfect order. Few and far between were its 
wandering weeds ; and yet it was a wilderness. The season of 
the year was mid- July, the hour, seven A.M. : the space of 
ground, an oblong square enwalled. Four gates and one, gave 
entrance to it. The gates were all of wrought iron, of English 
make, and old. The walls red brick coloured with the greys 
and golds of age, crested with Wall-flowers, seed-laden, and with 
light waving grasses and all kinds of bird-sown vegetation. 

The fifth gate, small and narrow and most delicately 
wrought, is Empire Gate ; so named, for like the links of our 
Great Empire, it is " strong as steel yet light as gossamer ! " 

Not here I entered, but by the tall eastern gate that opens 
upon lawns and dark Yew hedges and " herbaceous borders " 
at this season filled with Delphinium rising above pink clusters 
of Polyantha Rose, in rich abundance. One tires of all the 
garden-talk of " herbaceous borders." Some are too apt to talk 
for ever of herbaceous this and that. To a young lady visiting 
my garden and rejoicing in recent possession of one of her own, 
and voluble of garden terms, I once cried in despair " I don't 
know what herbaceous is ! " Her instant reply, " Oh, it means 
come up again." Perhaps the definition is as good as many a 
more studied one. 

The morning sun shone through and through each crimson 






Rose, each white Sweet-pea "on tiptoe for a flight," and Summer, 
illumined every flower till for the moment it would seem that Fascination 
you saw jewels of silver and gold sparkling with emeralds and o f Gardens 

The secret of this small garden's fascination lay, it may be, 
in its mystery. Small though it be, from no one point could 
the whole, or even half of it be seen at one time. Between the 
many narrow intersecting paths, flowers of various kinds had 
grown into clumps of such grand luxuriance as to hide all 
others beyond, save where perchance some blue Delphinium, 
exquisitely pale, aspired above the rest ; or if one caught sight of 
hanging gardens of sweet Roses : or in some opening, a gate-head 
of fretted iron empurpled with large-flowered Clematis. Here 
the green turf lay between an orange and scarlet glow made by 
rampant Alstroemeria and scarlet Lychnis, or Summer light- 
ning as children call old Parkinson's favourite " flower of Bristol 
and Constantinople " with many a little upright pillar of lilac 
Linaria intermixed. There, fragrant Lilies stand together like 
white angels in a dream, calling silently across the Roses. . . . 

These Lilies ! they stood at the meeting of four green 
grassy ways. Divinely tall, for the season favoured them, the 
faces of them each met mine : and they shone as though fresh 
from Elysian meadows, shining like the face of Moses shone 
when he came down from the mountain. In the memory of 
such pure radiant presence, how can one sit down to write dull 
prose ? 

All plants love an open corner : they do the best that is in 
them when so placed. Within the cloistered angle of an old 
Apple espalier, grew in this garden a white Moss Rose. The 
spread of its branches made shelter for a wondrous Japan Iris 


The Care of beneath. Strong and full of vigorous life although no stream 
Plants or watershed was near, up from the crowded root sprang tall 
stalks crowned with the splendid flower, or with blue-green 
buds. Unafraid, the Japan Iris looks straight up into the sun 
how hot soever he may shine, with petals flat and expanded 
wide to receive and rejoice in each burning glance. The colour 
of this Iris was a strange weird blue, deepening a little into 
violet, with three central spots of golden yellow. The earth at 
the roots was damp as though after a last evening's watering. 
And round about a few large stones were laid, for coolness and 
to retain the water. Some careful hand had done this ! and 
moreover I saw no withered flower or brown unsightly leaf 
defacing the white Moss Rose bush above. Well I knew 
whose guardian hands had been at work. 

Early and late the Lady of Flowers is there, weeding and 
watering and laying the cool stones wherever most needed, or 
snipping off the withered leaves. 

" If the flowers had been her own children, she 
Could never have nursed them more tenderly." 

I never saw her face ; although since that July morning I have 
again and again revisited the Beautiful Garden and marked 
how she had comforted the flowers : choosing times and seasons 
when she might be alone with them, to enjoy to the full their 
delightful society. Plainly enough, Iris and Honeysuckle are her 
favourites, best loved of all the others. With these in most 
gardens failures have been not unknown. So is it here also. 
Thus in the broad band of Spanish Iris, the purple and the 
blue had all prematurely gone. They seem to have altogether 
failed. Only a few blooms of yellow yet remained ; and for 

the most part, the poor lank leaves of them fell about along Summer. 

the earth as yellow as the flowers. Full sad no doubt was the Colour and 

Lady of Flowers to see them in so sad a plight ; yet she wisely Contrast 

trusted the gardener with the whole matter as one too large for 

her small knowledge. It was for this reason I saw no nursing 

stones of comfort amongst the Spanish Iris. " King of the 

blues " is the very best blue Spaniard ; and along the edges of 

a stone-flagged path, several of this kind still lingered on, 

braving the July sun-heat. Colour, along that stony edge, 

seemed well arranged, although I believe chance rather than 

forethought brought the various hues together. The primrose 

yellow of Platystemon Calif or nic um contrasted with an azure 

exhalation if it so might be described a Salvia of deeper tone, 

and spikes of feathery lightness. I believe there is a country 

where this Salvia grows wild in the fields. A small plant of 

Inula crowded with orange Daisies, mixed in a tangle of seedling 

Indian pink and Phlox Drummondi^ and crimson Roses and 

honey-scented Alyssum ; the parti-coloured Colinsia too. Rich 

purple Kasmpferi Iris leaned against radiant bunches of pink 

Polyantha Rose, and out of the midst in its pride arose one 

single great, pure white, English Iris. Almost I quoted as I 

passed, from some old poet : " I know your spirit to be 

tall ! " Underneath among the Iris leaves' might be discerned 

a large rough stone. The Lady of Flowers then had been busy 

there ! Whose hand but hers would have laid those tell-tale 

stones ? And soon I found more stones at the feet of her other 

Love, a Honeysuckle. A strange, rare Honeysuckle, climbing 

the western side of the garden wall. The leaves are distinctly 

blue, and therefore it is named the blue Honeysuckle or 

Lome era Douglesi. This poor plant seemed to need all the 

Honey- care that had been given. It grew uncomfortably, the upper 
suckle parts smothered in " fly." Black fly, which one likes worse 
than green fly. Apparently she could not reach up to cut 
them off. But nearer to the ground the branches were neatly 
trimmed, and they bore one or two large well perfumed blooms, 
proving how fine a thing with fair chance this Honeysuckle might 
be. In the north of Scotland only, is it known to flourish ; 
there one sees cold granite walls conspicuously covered with the 
abundant pale, doubly fragrant, flowers. No Honeysuckle, so 
far as I know, thrives perfectly in these more southern counties. 
The abounding strength and beautiful vigour of them in the 
north, seems wanting here. And where in England are Honey- 
suckle hedges common ? I have seen many north of the 
Tweed, luxuriant, white-flowered hedges which the Lady of 
Flowers would sigh vainly to possess. Yet even hereabouts 
there are places deep in the country, where almost every tree is 
festooned, and the roadside hedges stream with Honeysuckle 
amid the wild spangle of Dog-Roses. Seldom in our gardens is 
Honeysuckle seen, luxuriantly, comfortably at home. If grown 
against a wall, it must be alone, for it dislikes companions. It 
consents to climb, solely to reach the top and there be free to set 
up a wild riot of perfumed loveliness. With the support of 
some light railing a thick hedge of Honeysuckle may soon be 
made for the delight of all who pass. In Scotland, cottagers 
plant Honeysuckle on the garden side of their rude stone fence ; 
there it increases rapidly, overflowing right on to the public 
road in magnificent profusion of bloom. Once I knew a humble 
little roadside homestead near the shores of the North Sea, the 
tumble-down old garden dyke before the door, beauteous with 
a mass of Honeysuckle, crimson-budded, while a million little 

honey-coloured horns uplifted, bearing their viewless burden of Summer. 

rich scent, made each one, to the wandering bee, a very horn of Garden 

plenty. In the secret soul of me as I went past that dyke came Pictures 

a great desire to break off and plunder. But the thought 

arose of how many daily passed, school children, men and 

women to and from the town, cattle driven past to pasture, and 

yet none meddled, for not one broken stalk was seen, nor wasted 

bloom. . . . With a silent act of thankfulness for having beheld 

such loveliness and breathed such sweetness, I guiltless went my 


On the south and eastern aspect the walls were, as is some- 
times said, " a picture." There, grew alternate Nectarine and 
Peach trees. Between their narrow leaves lay hid at that season 
hard green spheres of polished fruit. Later, the ripening peaches, 
rounded full with the promise of Summer, will harmonise with 
the old brick walls, in soft cadences of rose and amber. Here 
and there a Blue Gloria enlaced the formal, pleached branches, 
with great, wide flowers, with their evanescent glow of stainless 
blue. The Gloria refuses to unroll the silken splendours of her 
azure robe unless the sun in heaven shines fair. In our short- 
lived Summer days " too often is his gold complexion dimmed," 
and thus too often will this fairest flower of the Beautiful Garden 
begin to wrinkle and take leave of life, before the bell in the 
turret clock tells noon. Yet in their own land they do not 
last even so long. 

To the hidden self in the Lady of Flowers when Gloria 
was dead, came a voice from the gardens of the east. A far- 
off voice that said " I saw you in your garden with a back- 
ground of your Elms in their May glory, not quite green and 
not quite brown, but just as if some fairy had touched the brown 

An Indian branches with a shimmer of gold and green. Do you remember ? 
Garden And then in June, when you picked me a blue convolvulus- 
shaped flower ; what is it called ? They hardly last an hour. 
Yesterday I sat facing a wall covered with them. It was in 
the garden at Jeypur ; built and planted for the mother of one 
of the Maharajahs. In front of me was a broad terrace ending 
in a marble balustrade covered with a creeper with delicate pink 
flowers like small flutes, from the Philippine Islands. Beyond, 
a long vista of tropical foliage with here and there a fine tree 
like an English Elm, and covered thickly with a kind of 
Stephanotis flower. In the far distance a triple archway 
entrance of purest white, built in the exquisite Mahomedan 
shape of a hundred years ago. The foreground is all 
Bougainville a and Hybiscus illuminated by the late afternoon 
sun. On the left stood a white marble fountain with graceful 
little wild doves and pigeons drinking, and close by a feathery 
Palm reaching right away into the air, making a resting-place 
for dozens of chattering, brilliant green parrots flying round it 
like emeralds. Just in front was the fernery made of matting, 
as all ferneries are here, and above on the wall, your blue 
Convolvulus. Never have I seen such a contrast to your 
own garden ! . . . ." 

What fascination there is in blue ! I do not say in blue 
paint* The various blues of flowers are countless. Yet every 
one in turn is loveliest. In some strange way, legion though 
they be, a blue flower is always more or less a surprise. The 
most sumptuous rain-bow border of a palace garden never 
could compare with the selvedge of a common field road I saw. 
The road was rimmed on either side, with a crowd of blue 
moons of Chicory (or Devil's bit scabious). Colour so cold, 


so pure, so spirit-blue, surely came down straight from Summer. 
Paradise ! Blue 

Once, very early one grey April morning, I looked up as Flowers 
I passed by a garden limestone rockery, and saw suddenly 
arise right from the very heart of a large plant of Libert'ta 
formosa, a bright blue starry flower ! Never before had I or 
any of the gardeners beheld any such flower anywhere in the 
garden. As if by magic the fairy vision was born, and none 
could tell its name, nor how it came there. Afterwards, we 
discovered the name, but not the mystery of its coming. For 
many days those studded stars of blue lived on, the joy of our 
eyes. Stiff with vigorous health and animation, the starry spike 
of flower stood, till in due time it seeded. Then it lost itself 
for ever, down among the thick, mothering leaves of Libertia. 

As usual in the Beautiful Garden, it was more by chance 
than design that a border shone with blue alone, at the south 
end of it. Here a certain Sal via from Teneriffe made great 
show. Small as is the flower itself, the whole plant covered all 
over blue, outrivals in its colour even Salvia patens, in so great 
profusion does he carry his innumerable sprays of little intensely 
brilliant blooms. There, grew also a little pale blue Daisy, 
yellow-centred ; a flower that no one ever could pass without 
stooping down to look more closely, so subtle is the charm of it. 
It owns a tiresome name, Kaulfussia amtlloidcs. And then 
close by, another treasure, Broivallia speciosa major, is another 
fascinating blue. Foremost among garden unattainables surely 
are good simple English names ! 

A group of bronze-leaved and as yet flowerless plants I 
know for Lobelia cardlnalis. In their season they will flash 
out into fiery scarlet. In an angle of the walls, here made 

A curious lovely with fig leaves, and where most luscious figs ripen under 

Plant late September suns, a great Palm is planted. It is the kind 

with quivering fan-like leaves, and takes no harm however cold 

the Winter, for the stem is warmly clad, swathed round in its 

own warm vegetable wool. The same south corner shelters 

a robust and rather enticing large leaved shrub, Clerodendron 

fcetidissima. The flowers are rosy umbels, strongly scented. 

It is very handsome, although perhaps the scent may seem a 

little too much like its name. 

Before the turret clock strikes eight there is just time to 
visit a certain common looking, shrubby plant, half hid among 
the Roses. There is many a more showy plant to be found in 
the Beautiful Garden, but none more curious. Only the initiated 
might show any interest in so unattractive a plant. Yet 
Physostegia Dracocephalum was once the object of hot dispute 
and intense curiosity amongst the learned. The habit of the 
Physostegia's little pale pinkish flower to stay fixed and still in 
whatever position it may be turned, was thought to be caused 
by coma. Yet a state of coma had hitherto been unknown, 
unguessed, in the vegetable kingdom. It was deemed impossible, 
and the phenomenon remained unaccounted for : the cause of it 
shrouded in mystery. The plant even received the additional 
name of Cataleptica. Unfortunately, some youthful student 
resolved to clear up the matter. He never rested until he had 
discerned some all but invisible hairs, which according to him, 
hold the little flower fast, after it has been turned by the finger 
to the right or left. This is disappointing ; yet truth is truth ! 
(I have been unable myself to find a vestige of these minute, 
detaining hairs.) 

A characteristic of the Beautiful Garden is that here and 


there immense clumps of different plants grow up unchecked. Summer. 
As a rule, within so small a space the beds would be laid out in Secret of 
low, level plots, and the whole garden would be seen at once, Variety 
without a break. Here, however, are vistas between orange 
Alstroemeria and scarlet Lychnis, or lawns two yards square 
shut in with Roses and Larkspur and double white Campion, and 
short lengths of espalier, and trees of the brown-leaved Prunus ; 
so that one secret of laying out a small garden is unconsciously 
attained the secret of variety. For in your limited space, you 
must vary the lines as much as possible, and if your ground 
lacks length and breadth, then variation must come in the 
differing heights. Thus Cosmos bipinnatus grows here in the 
Beautiful Garden, in great thickets four feet high : a maze of 
delicate green filagree. As July wanes into August Cosmos ap- 
pears " attired in stars " of pink interchanged with crimson. 

. . . There is the sound of a click ! of lifting the latch of 
a gate ; the narrow little gate called Empire. And there is but 
time for one glance at that choice flower of delight, Incarvillea 
Delavayi, erect in all his pride of stature flushed with rose, as 
he stands near the little portal. I must make haste away before 
she enters, for to meet the Lady of Flowers thus early within her 
sacred garden precinct would be, in her eyes, unforgiveable 

E. V. B. 

7 1 


" June takes up the sceptre of May." 

" There's a music of bells from the trampling teams, 
Wild skylarks hover, the gorses blaze, 
The rich, ripe rose as with incense steams 
Midsummer days ! midsummer days ! 
A soul from the honeysuckle strays, 
And the nightingale as from prophet heights 
Sings to the earth of her million Mays 
Midsummer nights ! O midsummer nights ! " 

W. E. Henley. 

Selection A S the year progresses it becomes increasingly difficult to 
and Effect y\ gi ye suggestions as to what flowers to grow for the 

best effect ; the profusion of them is so great that 
sacrifice becomes unavoidable. If the aim for the garden is that 
it should be rich in flower pictures rather than in the number of 
its plants and this is a much more feasible ambition for many 
small gardens selection is a necessity. Many lovely flowers 
must be omitted from want of space, or want of time to arrange 
for them. 

Among the wealth of June flowers the Iris, Peony, and 
Rose stand out pre-eminently, and, roughly speaking, may be 
said to follow each other in the order given, and to be willing 
to grow fairly well in any soil. 

In some parts Azaleas are the glory of this month, but 
though so particularly beautiful if grown in peaty or sandy 
soil with shelter from wind, they are disappointing, and 
give a sad sense of failure, if these conditions are wanting. 


It is in some ways a misfortune that the same soil suits June. 
Azaleas and Rhododendrons equally well, as the colours clash Azalea and 
and diminish each the beauty of the other. Rhododendrons Rhododen- 
range from white through pink to crimson, and from mauve to 
purple, and, like the Azaleas, they are disappointing if they 
cannot be grown at their very best. 

On peat or sand, even the common kinds will be wonder- 
fully beautiful, if given plenty of room and planted in shades 
which blend; too often one sees a mixed bed, the colours of 
which clash rather than harmonise. 

Gardens in Cornwall or Devonshire, or very sheltered ones 
along the South Coast, are fortunate in being able to grow the 
Himalayan varieties, which surpass all other shrubs in the trans- 
cendent loveliness of their flowers. At Tregothnan, in May, 
the stretches of Rhododendrons seen against the sloping 
woods, and the distant curves of the river wending its 
way to Falmouth, make a wonderful picture. In more 
sheltered spots are trees of such rare kinds as R. F ale oner i 
and argenteum, covered with their marvellous flowers. 
Perhaps the most beautiful of all is R. JJucklandi, which 
bears trusses of about seven immense pure white flowers, five 
inches across. The sketch of this Rhododendron was done at 
Killiow, where there is a magnificent plant over twenty feet 

Azaleas run from white to yellow, orange, pink and flame- 
colour; the darkest are fine Indian reds; every tone blends, 
and at the moment their colour beauty seems to surpass that of 
every other flower. 

Here, every scrap of soil would have to be imported for 
them, while twelve miles away, at Saltwood, all the kinds, 

K 73 

Azalea and Mollis, Ghent and Indica, thrive luxuriantly. Early in June 
Sweet the Azalea garden there is full of delicious combinations of 
Rocket c l ur > mauve, with white or yellow near by, and orange 
Mollts, dwarf in growth, with larger flowers more strongly 
scented than the Ghent varieties. At every turn a new picture 
comes into view ; foremost in remembrance is a pathway gar- 
landed with a Reve d'Or rose, thick with its bronze shoots, 
which form, together with fine evergreen trees, a beautiful 
background for the blaze of colour given by the Azaleas, their 
hues of warm yellow and red orange, flesh and full salmon- 
pink, all culminating in a brilliant flaming red. 

In suitable soil these Ghent Azaleas will thrive in woods. 
They take care of themselves among the undergrowth, and soon 
look as if they were native to the place. 

Our only woodland effect just now is given by Sweet 
Rocket and wild Parsley. It seems a poor effect to mention after 
Azaleas, but in its own humbler way it is very beautiful. The 
Rocket is perennial and gives no trouble ; it grows about three feet 
high, and bears spikes of white and pale pink flowers, delicately 
but very sweetly scented in the evening. The old plants 
maintain a successful struggle against the many weeds, and seed 
themselves. The double white Rockets are delightful garden 
plants, but require much more care, and must be divided every 
second year to keep them strong. They can be increased by 
cuttings made of the spring shoots, or by division. 

In the early part of June the flower which we count on 
above all others for pleasure is the Iris not that its flowering 
time is confined to that short space, but some of the showiest 
varieties are out then, and they are of the greatest value before 
the Roses open. Throughout the Spring and Summer they are 






among the most beautiful of garden flowers, graceful in form June. 

and most varied in colour, running through many shades of Varieties of 

white, mauve, purple, yellow, bronze and claret. Some are j r j s 

most exquisitely veined and marked, vying in this way with 

many rare hothouse plants, and in many cases their foliage has 

the advantage of lasting and looking well for months of the 

year ; even in winter bright fresh green tips are to be seen 

pushing up. 

Irises are generally divided into two classes, the bulbous or 
Xiphions, and those with fleshy roots or rhizomes. The bulbous, 
as a rule, like a light rich sandy soil, good drainage and plenty 
of sun. The rhizomatous section may be divided again into 
groups of bearded and unbearded Irises. The bearded, in which 
are included all the varieties of Iris Germanica, are generally 
quite easy to grow, liking a dry sunny position and plenty of 
good feeding. In some soils they increase so fast that it is 
necessary to pull them to pieces every second year to prevent 
overcrowding of the fleshy roots ; in other soils they can be left 
undisturbed some years. It is important that replanting should 
be done as soon as possible after flowering, and that the rhizomes 
should not be buried underground. 

The beardless class to which belong our wild English 
Flag and the Japanese Iris as a rule love moisture, and the 
different kinds want more varied treatment ; some prosper in 
loam, others in peat or bog. 

As one Iris or another can be had in flower for nine months 
of the year, it is only possible to suggest a few of the varieties 
which might be grown. Iris pumlla succeeds such kinds as 
Stylos a, Reticulata, etc. they are dwarf, but bear large flowers, 
purple, white, mauve, or yellow, and are out about the 


Succession same time as the Daffodils, the purple looking particularly well 
of Iris in front of Emperor Narcissus. On soil they like they are 
excellent for borders ; a nursery gardener near here uses them to 
edge many of the paths ; they make a firm band of low green, 
brilliant when in flower. After the pumlla group come one 
after the other, through the Summer, the many forms of Iris 
Germanica, Sibirica, Spanish, Ocbroleuca^ Aurea, Monnieri and 
Spuria, the English, and latest of all the Japanese, in July and 

Iris Germanica is in beauty now. The illustration was 
taken from borders of them running down each side of our 
pergola. The purple and white varieties, which were flowering 
the end of May, are over, and they are succeeded by a few of 
the numberless kinds worth growing. The whole effect is a 
lovely mauve blue it is often called, but blue to me is the 
colour of Forget-me-not or Anchusa Italica, for instance. There 
are red-mauve and blue-mauve flowers, combined with purple 
and bronze, an infinite variety of shades. They bloom for some 
weeks, and are there to greet the early roses like Madame Alfred 
Carriere and Reine Olga de Wurtemburg. An added charm is 
the difference in their heights. Dalmatica is a foot taller than 
the others, giving a pleasing irregularity to the outline it flowers 
later, too, and looks particularly well grouped at the foot of a 
Reve d'Or Rose with its loose bunches of yellow Roses. 

My favourites are 

Pallida a large self mauve. 

Dalmatica another large round flower of most exquisite 
mauve set well apart on tall stems. 

Conte de St Glair white standards, violet and white falls. 

Mrs H. Darwin white with a waved edge, veined and 






margined with mauve, nearly as tall as Dalmatica, June. 
very free flowerer. Iris Ger- 


Louis Van Houtte 

Miss Maggie 

manica and 
All having lavender standards and falls Sibirica 
of various shades of purple. 


Flavescens-- cream and yellow. 

Madam Chereau white veined and edged with mauve. 

Darkie yellow and red mahogany. 

Le Vesuvel , , , , 

. , ,. moth very dark. 
Arnoldi J 

Many of the mixed bronze, yellow, and purple Irises are 
fine in colour; to see them at their best they must be 
grown away from the neighbourhood of mauve, and near 
white or cream flowers. Some of the queer almost pink kinds 
are fine against copper Beeches, being shown up by the dark 
background. Clumps of Iris look well almost anywhere, but 
the most delightful way to grow them is in a garden of their 
own with grass paths and many beds filled with the best sorts. 

Iris Germanica is followed by Iris Sibirica, much the 
finest form being orientals. In a damp sunny spot it grows 
four or five feet high, with luxuriant grassy foliage and brilliant 
violet flowers on slender stalks ; the distinguishing feature is the 
deep red sheath which holds the bud. The sketch was done at 
the Royal Horticultural Garden at Wisley, where they formed 
a^magnificent mass of colour near the ponds. Spirtea Aruncus 
grew on the slope above and there were a few plants of fine Day 
Lilies. After sibirica come the Spanish Iris and ochroleuca. 
These are making a very effective group in a nursery garden 
close by, clumps of white Spanish Iris thrown out by a very 


Late Irises fine violet Canterbury bell, and behind, Iris ochroleuca, with its 
and Lupins l n g sword-like leaves and tall white and yellow flowers. These 
Spanish Irises are most useful for picking, and are so cheap, only 
about tenpence a hundred, that if space is a great consideration 
they can be treated as annuals and thrown away when the flower 
is over ; otherwise they should be kept in the ground as they then 
increase and make strong clumps. A good plan is to put 
them under Pinks, or any plant with small roots and the same 
spreading habit. It is worth while paying a little extra to have 
the bulbs in separate colours, and then good effects can be made 
of white, blue, bronze and yellow. The English Iris, which 
does not flower till July, wants much the same treatment, and 
is equally useful. 

A very valuable plant for grouping, which is out at the same 
time as Iris orientalis, is Luplnus arboreus. At Wisley this Tree 
Lupin has taken complete possession of some rough banks made 
by digging out a ditch ; they have seeded themselves, and there is 
now a wealth of white and pale yellow bloom, with a scent as 
sweet as that of Beans. Here and there are tufts of golden 
Broom and purple Iris, and a few Briars toss their long sprays 
towards the sky, making altogether a picture much more lovely 
than I can describe or paint, but easily attainable in many 
gardens. These Lupins grow quickly from seed, and it is better 
to raise some every year to be sure of a stock, as the old plants 
may disappear suddenly in a bad Winter, and never seem to be 
very long lived. 

Lupinus polyphyllus, a perennial also quickly raised from 
seed, is useful for naturalising, and can be had white or in 
lovely shades of blue; it is delightful, growing in clumps in 
long grass with Columbines, or massed in the borders. The 










shades of blue vary a good deal, some being of an exquisite soft June, 
tone and others of a more ordinary mauve or purple. It is Poppy 
worth while securing the seed from some really good stock to Effects 
start with, or begging a root, as it can be increased by division. 
We grow the white with the Oriental Poppies ; it makes a most 
brilliant effect, but, alas, one very quickly over. 

The trouble of these magnificent Poppies is that they want 
a great deal of room when they are in flower and are very 
untidy afterwards. If space admits, it is best to devote a bed 
to them in some wild part of the garden where saxifraga 
hypnoides making a sheet of white with its tiny flowers or 
some of the big Thistles, might be grown among them. The 
two best red kinds are shown in the sketch ; or lent ale is an 
orange-scarlet having sometimes a large black blotch at the base 
of each petal bracteatum is a fine crimson with black blotches, 
and much taller and stronger in growth. There are several 
pink kinds to be had as well now, a pale, rather dirty mauve- 
pink, and a good terra-cotta, which is less gaudy than the bright 
scarlet and very effective. 

Papaver pilosum is another delightful perennial Poppy about 
two feet high, bearing apricot-coloured flowers on branched stems, 
and leaves of a soft grey-green. It is very easily raised from seed. 
In Mrs Boyle's garden a charming picture was made by 
this orange Poppy and blue Nemophila growing at the base of 
an old sun-dial. It looks particularly well too with white near 
it, Columbines or Campanulas for instance. 

There are several useful blues out just now ; Love-in-the- 
mist and Anchusa Italica being two of the most lovely. In 
both the colour is apt to vary a good deal. Love-in-the-mist is 
sometimes very pale, but it can be obtained deep soft blue ; and 


Anchusa it is important therefore to look out for a good strain of seed. 

and Autumn sown plants are always much the strongest. Anchusa 

Campanula f fa ^ ca can be either a rather crude French blue or pure cobalt. 

It is a most valuable plant as it continues flowering most of the 

Summer and looks well anywhere. I like it best of all with 

white, but if a gayer effect is wanted, grow it in the borders 

near posts of Paul's Carmine Pillar Rose. 

Many kinds of Campanulas are in beauty now, and are 
invaluable in the borders and the wild garden. The biennial 
Canterbury Bells lend themselves to a great variety of treatment ; 
the more they are massed the better they look, and they are not 
particular where they grow. We have a plantation of them 
in the open, a gay mixture of all the colours, and I have seen 
them doing equally well on a piece of rough ground under large 
trees. Seed can be had in separate colours, and single or double, 
the violet being particularly fine. It should be sown in April, 
and flowers will then, be produced the following June year. 
Later on in the month several perennial kinds of Campanula 
are out which should be in every garden. C. grandis, mauve 
and white, comes first growing about two feet high, and bearing 
handsome spikes of flowers. They are strong growers, and 
increase quickly by division. C. Macrantha, purple, about four 
or five feet high, and C. Glomerata, either purple or white, 
with tufts of flowers at the tops of the stems, do well in woody 
places. Rather later in the month come two of the most 
useful, C. persicifolia and lactiflora. Persiclfolia is both mauve 
and white, and in soil it likes increases very fast. To get the 
best flowers it should be taken up and divided pretty frequently. 
There was a lovely mass of it at Wisley, looking as if it had 
seeded itself profusely under a bush of Sfiirtea Reevesi^ the long 




white sprays of the latter bending over to meet the erect spikes June, 
of the Campanula. Valerian 

For rough places where little can be expected to grow, Geranium 
Valerian must not be despised ; it enjoys old walls or steep an( j Giant 
banks. The sketch, made in a garden which not many years p 
ago was nothing but an old chalk pit, shows how gay a clothing 
it can be to arid spots. There are three distinct sorts, white, 
pink, and a fine red. 

Geraniums are worth introducing, especially into the wild 
garden, where they look thoroughly appropriate, and are gay 
with flowers all the month. There is a pale mauve one, native 
to Scotland, which in garden soil makes a good clump three feet 
high. Geranium pratense is a large deep purple one. The 
handsomest of all is claret-coloured, the large flowers pencilled 
very delicately with dark lines. 

The giant Parsnip, Heracleum giganteum, is a splendid 
plant f)r naturalising under trees, or in any spot of which it can 
be allowed to take entire possession. Handsome as it is, the 
immense leaves and great white umbels ten feet or more in 
height, and the freedom with which it seeds, make it an almost 
impossible plant for the border. We have spared a few in one 
place, because they make such a good background to Delphiniums. 
It is magnificent if given room and allowed to form a miniature 
forest of its own. 

The flowering shrubs of this month are too many to be 
included in these short notes, but it must not be forgotten that 
Lilacs, Laburnums, Guelder Roses, Weigelas, etc., all belong to 
the early Summer. Honeysuckles, too, flower through May, 
June and July, and some kinds, like the late Dutch, right up 
to the Autumn. They should be largely grown in the wild 

L 81 

Honey- garden, planted to grow up trees and hedges, or to creep over 
suckle the roots of dead trees, so as to bring their sweetness down to 
earth. The wild one Lomcera periclymenum is lovely on 
some of the Suffolk commons, covering low Gorse bushes, and 
even trailing over Heather clumps. In our part of the world its 
beauty is nearly always out of reach at the very top of the 

Of Peonies and Roses there is so much to be said that they 
must have special articles to themselves ; that on Peonies has 
been kindly contributed by Mr Richmond Powell, and that on 
Climbing Roses by Mrs Crofton. Roses in general are treated 
of in " July." 












FROM the earliest period of Greek Mythos, the age that June, 
through the mist and glamour of time appears to us Home of the 
glowing with poetry and exuberant fancy, there comes Peony 
the legend of Poeon, the medicine-man, disciple of ^Esculapius, 
whose function it was to heal the wounds received by the gods 
during the Trojan war. Having cured Pluto of injuries that 
had been inflicted by Hercules, jEsculapius, under the sting of 
torturing jealousy, compassed his death. But Pluto, out of love 
and gratitude, transformed the ensanguined body into a crimson- 
stained flower, so that the world should for all time have a 
memorial of the renowned healer, and the flower was endowed 
with his name, the Paeonia, and still perpetuates it. 

Peonies, in their different varieties, are at home in many 
parts of the globe. One need travel no further than to the 
Southern slopes of the Alps, Monte Generoso, for instance, to 
see them growing wild in profusion ; and other distinct species 
are to be found throughout Southern Europe, the Caucasus, 
Persia, Siberia, China, Japan and North America. All are 
denizens of the Northern Hemisphere, and in their natural state, 
are single, or at most semi-double; but the stamens, as with 
Roses, readily lend themselves under cultivation to development 
into petals, and hence we get the fine double flowers that are 
now so popular. 

Thirty, twenty years ago, even to not a few people at the 
present day, the name of Peony suggested nothing but the old 
double red May-blooming flower that has now been banished 
from so many gardens, but that still is to be found in cottage 


Colour plots. "A crude, hard, flaunting colour," is the accusation 
Effect of levelled at it by those whose nerves are delicate and who are, 
Peonies Perhaps, deficient in a sense of the fitting. A jarring note it 
may be if set in an uncongenial environment, choking and 
crushing out the more tender beauties of Aquilegias, Tulips or 
Pansies. But place this flaunting flower discriminatingly at the 
edge of a shrubbery : plant a mass of it on a grassy bank in 
close proximity to the soft fresh green of early Spring foliage : 
or near the margin of a pool in company with Solomon's seal 
no harm if in partial shade from trees and see what a striking 
effect of colour may be produced. In the Officinalis section, to 
which the old double red Peony belongs, there are also white 
and pink forms of the same flower, both single and double, free 
growing, so that with this section alone considerable variety and 
contrast may be attained. 

There are also other natural species, such as Paeonia Albi- 
flora, P. Decora^ P. Emodi, P. Peregrina, P. Tenuifolia (single 
and double), and the charming pale yellow P. Wittmanniana, 
besides others which are rarely met with in cultivation, but all 
well worth growing in wild gardens, or where space is not a 

The great advance in Peonies that has taken place in late 
years has, however, been brought about by crossing and recross- 
ing the Officinalis and Albiflora groups, the so-called herbaceous 
or Chinese Peonies, on the one hand, and by the careful selection 
and development of the Moutan or Tree Peony on the other. 
Every shade of colour from purest snow-white through cream, 
sulphur, diaphanous pink, rose, salmon, cherry red, magenta to 
deep purple-crimson has now been produced : and variety of 
colour has been almost equalled by diversity of form, for we 


have singles huge cups like Water-lilies, filled with a sheaf of June, 
golden stamens lovely semi-doubles, and full doubles ; some Culture of 
with high centres under which the guard (outer) petals almost Peonies 
disappear, some like gigantic Anemones, some with a bunch of 
tassel-like stamens, others with centre petals like silky white or 
pink feathers, amongst which soft lights and shadows play with 
delicate grace. 

Moutan Peonies which flower earlier have been described 
in the May notes, so that here we are concerned only with 
the June-flowering herbaceous Peonies. These are hardy as 
any Dock or Dandelion, and are handsome plants in the border 
from the time their carmine shoots push up from the crowns in 
March till the strong foliage fades through deep green-red and 
orange-russet to its last shrivelled brown in November. Here 
in East Kent they thrive splendidly, either in full sun or partial 
shade, and seem to revel in the disintegrated chalk soil of the 
locality. I set new plants in October or November, if possible, 
and prepare their resting place by digging a hole from two to 
three feet in depth and of about similar diameter: at the 
bottom is laid a layer of three or four inches of well rotted 
stable manure, then six inches of soil (good loam) and then 
further alternate layers of manure and soil till the surface level 
is reached. The plant should then be placed in the middle of 
this prepared plot and the crown covered with about an inch of 
soil. There it should remain undisturbed for many years, for 
Peonies resent being moved and if subjected to this indignity 
revenge themselves by refusing to flower, or flowering badly, for 
a year or two. They are gross feeders and enjoy three or four 
good draughts of liquid manure during the growing stage, 
especially when just coming into bloom. I also give them a 


Useful liberal mulching of manure each winter. Some of my Peonies 

Varieties of have been in their present position for seventeen years : the 

Peony st l s are now very large, although I constantly cut off pieces to 

give away, and they bear from forty to sixty magnificent heads 

of flower each June. 

Florists' catalogues are overcrowded with names of Peonies, 
very many of which resemble each other so closely that the 
ordinary amateur can detect no practical difference between 
them. It would be impossible here to give an exhaustive list 
of even really distinct varieties, so I must content myself with 
naming a few of the best kinds out of the fifty-six carefully 
selected specimens that grow well here. 
Albert Crousse pale pink. 
Candidissima large pure white. 

General Cavaignac guard petals pink, centre bright sul- 
phur on opening changing to white. 

Kelway's Queen flesh pink, very lovely and sweet- 

Lady Alexandra Duff French white very large. 
Madam Auruffle cherry red, some of the centre petals 

salmon pink. 

Madame de Vatry pale pink changing to cream, 
very high centre flecked with crimson large and 
Magnifica white, centre stained with deep crimson one 

of the finest. 
Magome jiro white guard petals, with thread-like 

stamens, very distinct. 
Peach blossom lovely self pink. 
Princess Louise rose pink charming. 

Prolifera Tricolor cream with yellowish centre blotched June. 

with red. 
Whitleyi large single white with golden stamens 




Effect of T F authors wrote of Roses all the livelong day, and painted 
Carmine them in words to match their sweetness, they would never 

Pillar and te ^ one na ^ f tne gl rv f tne Queen of Flowers. 

other ^ am no authority on Climbing Roses, I only write from an 

Climb artistic point of view, and after all if we planted from this view 
we should make more points of interest in a garden. What 
could be more beautiful than to come suddenly round a corner 
and find Penzance briars trained up larch poles as pillar Roses, 
red-orange in the sun, with dark blue Firs for background ? 

It is no use having a new Rose if it is not a good grower, 
and old favourites should never be discarded for new if they are 
strong, of good colour, and flower courageously. 

Nothing can compare with the " Carmine Pillar " Rose. 
One of the most perfect memories I have had this year was a 
glorious June day in the Barn Garden at Limnerslease. The 
great artist was dying in his London home I felt we were on 
holy ground. Two arches of Carmine Pillar spanned the 
path, great single petalled Roses shining like rubies in the sun. 
Their white centres were like pearls ; I never saw such a mass 
of colour anywhere before. The wondrous tiled roof of the 
great grey barn was half smothered in clusters of the yellow 
rambler " Aglaia." The wall on one side of the square was a 
wealth of the dear old Gloire de Dijon, and bushes of old- 
fashioned pink Roses were in the beds with the grey wood of 
the barn for background. Next the " Carmine Pillar " arches, 
pale blue Delphiniums grew they borrowed their tint from the 
sky when the sun was out on a day in June. They were 

wonderful spires, some of the fairest blue petals just washed with June. 
the softest touch of pink. At their feet grew very pale yellow Some Rose 
Irises and soft white and blush Canterbury Bells. It was all Gardens 
sunshine arid colour. 

Another picture I see was in July. It was eventide, and 
the setting sun rested lovingly on an arch of Leuchstern Roses. 
A mass of bright pink clusters growing closely together from 
the base to the topmost twig. Each tiny single Rose has a 
white centre like Apple-blossom. Through the arch I saw a 
mass of white Madonna Lilies in the shade. They were almost 
ghost-like in their whiteness and wove themselves into a dream. 
I never saw their like. The background of dark trees, with 
sunlight glinting through the branches here and there, made the 
pink and the white brighter and purer. 

I know a garden which has a Sweetbriar hedge all round it, 
the scent of which carries far in the evening breeze. Over the 
hedge, chains carry Roses from point to point, making drooping 
garlands as they go. There is a gate in the middle of each side 
of the garden spanned by an arch covered with Rosa polyantha, 
which falls in great showers, when the hedge is covered with 
pink. There is a fountain of water in the middle, and beds of 
all the most beautiful Hybrids and Tea Roses round. Through 
the white arches were golden-cut Yews, blue Delphiniums, 
golden Mulleins (" Ladies' fingers " as they are called by 
the women-folk). It is a garden where Roses love to 

I grow the Carmine Pillar up larch poles in my garden, 
and by the door of my Garden Room. It is by far the best 
Pillar Rose that there is, and though it sometimes loses leaves it 
never gets mildewed like the dear Crimson Rambler, and is a 

M 89 

A Pergola of more possible colour to paint. " Dorothy Perkins " is a lovely 
Yellow pink climber, but I have not yet tested its strength. 
Roses There is another Rose garden that I love, with a sundial in 

its midst. It has a Rose hedge all round, a double rough trellis 
covered with Roses on either side. You enter by an arch covered 
on one side with " Queen Olga of Wurtemburg," a blaze of 
colour, meeting " Papillon " with much smaller flowers, varied 
from paler to fuller salmon-crimson. " Madame Alfred Carriere " 
is on the trellis-hedge, the large white flowers faintly tinged 
with blush are always sweet-scented. " Claire Jacquier " is 
there, and the colours blend, for the branches get entwined, and 
you see it as a whole and do not trouble to bend over labels of 

I saw a wall covered with " E. V. Hermanos," I wonder 
why so few people grow this Rose ? It was one mass of bloom, 
very sweet-scented, of rosy-yellow shaded with peach and pink. 
A loving hand disbuds the Rose lest it should bloom itself to 

I once saw a long pergola, leading on to the blue beyond, 
covered with yellow Roses of many kinds " William Allen 
Richardson" with its dark orange buds, " Alister Stella Gray" 
shading almost to white, " Aglaia," " Reve d'Or," and 
" Bouquet d'Or." It was a wonderful sight, for the flowers 
crept underneath and over, and grew in a golden tangle catch- 
ing the sun in showers. At its base ran a narrow border of 
dark purple Heliotrope, its sweet fragrance meeting the scent f 
Roses in mid-air. 

After all we may prate of new climbing Roses, but is there 
any Rose which really beats our faithful old friend Gloire de 
Dijon ? with its great strong arms reaching round the house and 


covered with bloom. It comes into flower first to greet the June, 
love of June, and it flowers in Autumn to show us it does not Climbing 
dread the coming of Winter. Roses for 

One side of my home is buried in June in the flowers of ^ e j-[ ouse 
the Gloire, great branches of Reve d'Or, with its golden tresses 
and long brown shoots, Longworth Rambler with its wonderful 
bright rose-pink flowers, and pink China Roses at the base which 
have wandered up the trellis, envious of the sunshine higher up. 

On my verandah I have masses of " Felicite Perpetue' " 
" Maids of the Village " I prefer to call it it is a far prettier 
name. The blossom hangs like great white waves and bends 
the branches low. Crimson Ramblers mix up with the white, 
the dashes of crimson colour making the Roses whiter and purer. 
There is nothing so beautiful in all my garden when the sky is 
dark blue and the doves are cooing. I am not surprised that 
the birds choose such a shelter for their nests. 

"... Round ray casement blow 
Those clustering roses fancy hath baptized 
Maids-of-the-Village ; and adown they hang, 
Like to a waterfall you see far off, 
That foams but moves not." 

Then Fortune's Yellow ? Who would not grow Fortune's 
Yellow if they could ? It is such a sadly capricious Rose ! I 
know of two cottages literally covered with it, and the loose 
untidy flowers are the loveliest blooms in the world. They 
are yellow with shades of apricot and red and pink, no two 
blossoms alike in colour or size. You will be told this Rose will 
only grow on a sheltered south wall, but I have seen it as a 
Pillar Rose facing east, with great branches covered with gold. 
The best gardeners in the world fail to make it grow, and then 

9 1 

Some Rose at other times it will " go away " with no lavish care or extra 
Pictures trouble at all. There is a spirit of mischief in the heart of this 

Another one which grows beautifully on a south wall is 
L'Ide'al, a Tea Rose which climbs freely and throws out long 
branches covered with flowers. I cannot describe the colour ; 
it is not so golden as Fortune's Yellow, it has almost a bronze 
shade in it, and pink and yellow and red. Plant it with bushes 
of soft blue Ceanotbus under it, and in front white Madonna 
Lilies, and then if an artist does not call it a picture bid him walk 
on to the next garden to see scarlet Geraniums, Calceolarias, and 
Lobelias planted in rows. 

In many places folk plant climbing Roses up the bare stems 
of old trees or living Fir trees. In a churchyard where Scotch 
Firs grew, every stem was covered with climbing Roses, crimson 
and white. They grew to the top of the trees ; I never saw a 
fairer sight. In George Herbert's garden there is a very old 
Acacia tree, too old to support branches any longer, which is 
covered with Crimson Rambler. It is most picturesque, and 
the colour seems to weave into the peace of the garden 
as one stands by the well-known old Medlar tree watch- 
ing the river flowing past on its way to the great sea, and 
thinking of the one who loved that garden, and watched the 
same river flow. There is a wonderful atmosphere about a 
garden. I am sure you can feel the spirit of George Herbert 
is still there just as you can realise when you enter any garden, 
the atmosphere created by the owner. 






" Soon will the high Midsummer pomps come on, 

Soon will the musk carnations break and swell, 
Soon shall we have gold-dusted snapdragon, 

Sweet-william with his homely cottage-smell, 
And stocks in fragrant blow ; 
Roses that down the alleys shine afar, 

And open, jasmine-muffled lattices, 

And groups under the dreaming garden-trees, 
And the full moon, and the white evening-star." 

Matthew Arnold. 

" And nearer to the river's trembling edge 

There grew broad flag-flowers, purple, prank'd with white, 
And starry river-buds among the sedge, 

And floating water-lilies, broad and bright." 


NO hard and fast line can be drawn between the last week July, 
of June and the first of July ; the flowers crowd and Succession 
overlap each other, and vary in their dates for coming o f Roses 
out with the variations of the weather. Roses and Lilies reign 
supreme above all the beauty that Midsummer brings us. 

Roses, in which we have been revelling through June, are 
still entrancing in their beauty through the earlier weeks of 
July. Fresh kinds are opening every day to fill the places of 
those tired out with flowering; these have earned a rest, and 
many of them in a little time will have made fresh growth and 
be full of bud again. Some of the most lovely Cluster Roses 
unfortunately bloom only once, and it is difficult to dissociate 
from them a feeling of regret that their beauty is so transient, 
and will shortly be gone for another year. 


Some early Among climbers Madame Alfred Carriere a Hybrid Tea 

Climbing with us excels all others for early and late blooming. The end 
Roses f May sees it in bud, through June it is covered with its very 
sweet white flowers, and up to Christmas there are always good 
blooms to be found. It needs only plenty of room ; we have it 
on walls and pergola and fence, growing equally well every- 
where, but perhaps most successfully on the fence, where the 
long shoots can spread as they like, not even restricted by the 
clinging embrace of Clematis flammula. Other quite early Roses 
and rampant growers are : 

ReVe d'Or yellow, beautiful in Spring and Autumn, with 

red-brown shoots. 

Paul's Carmine Pillar, and the White Pillar both single 
Roses, which rush into bloom the beginning of June, 
and make sheets of red and white, but, unfortunately, 
soon come to an end. They must have room ; we 
have the red on a wall about ten feet high, and it 
is quite difficult to know what to do with the new 
wood each year. 

Aglaia with cream and yellow clusters. 
Papillon a pink noisette, which flowers again in the 
Autumn, and bears bunches of from three to twelve 
good-sized flowers, with fascinating, well-shaped buds 
varying in colour from cream to several shades of full 
pink ; it does equally well on a wall or pillar. 
Reine Olga de Wurtemburg, Reine Marie Henriette, 

Cheshunt Hybrid three good reds. 
Marechal Niel, the Banksian Roses, and Fortune's 


The latter is one of the earliest of all, but lovely as it is 

here, with its delicate foliage and numbers of loose orange-pink July. 
flowers, its greatest beauty can only be seen in a warmer climate ; Banksia and 
memories of it wreathing Olive trees and falling in golden China Roses 
showers, or climbing tall Fir trees with Wistaria, festooning the 
whole tree with garlands of mauve and orange, invite com- 
parison against one's will. 

The Banksian Roses, both white and yellow, grow freely 
here, probably liking the dry chalk subsoil ; one old white 
plant, now some forty feet in height, has been on the house 
thirty years or more. It must not be forgotten that the little 
pruning these Roses want must be done directly they have ceased 
to flower ; the young growth of the year should be cut back, 
and weak wood taken right out. 

Among dwarf varieties, the China Roses are the first and also 
the last to bloom. They look particularly well planted in large 
masses, and are literally perpetual. Directly the flowers have 
been cut off they set to work to form new sprays, and are just 
as gay as ever in a week or two. The old blush-pink should 
never be left out ; it is a stronger grower than many of the new 
sorts with finer colouring, and is first-rate for a low wall, or for 
forming a double hedge with Lavender or Rosemary, or a bed 
of it alone looks particularly well, giving a soft pink effect. 
If room allows, nearly all the Monthlies are worth growing, 
particularly : 

Eugene Re*sal copper and bright rose pink. 

Laurette Messimy salmon pink. 

Comtesse du Cayla orange and red ; gorgeous. 

All these are vigorous and quite lovely, and seldom without 
flowers. Other good kinds are : 

Irene Watts white. 


China and Hermosa pink. 

Pompon Fabvier fine red. 

Roses Cramoisie-supe'rieure red ; will climb. 

The free-growing Monthlies can be planted among shrubs 
in herbaceous borders. A tangle of Cramoisie Superieure with 
Spiroea Aruncus and the Gum Cistus is delightful. The white 
flowers of the Cistus glisten all the morning, but by twelve 
o'clock their beauty is gone, the petals fallen to the ground, 
and only the sprays of buds are left, with their promise for the 
morrow. Another good contrast of white and red can be got 
with this same red China Rose and double Deutsia. This bush 
grows eight or ten feet high, forming graceful sprays of white, 
and the Roses will tumble about over the topmost shoots. 
Perhaps the prettiest effect of all is a white Cluster Rose wreathed 
with the long trails of Tropteolum Speciosum. 

The Pompon Roses are also among the earliest, and make 
neat little plants which cover themselves with bloom, and flower 
again late in the year. Perle d'Or is one of the most fascinating ; 
when nearly all other Roses have disappeared we often pick 
fine shoots bearing ten to fifteen of its miniature copper-coloured 
flowers. All the following kinds are good : 

Anna Marie de Montravel white. 

Schneewitchen white. 

Colibri white shaded to yellow in middle. 

Leonie Lamesch deep orange and red, most brilliant and 
unusual in colour. 

Mignonette pink. 

It is impossible to do more than mention my own favourites, 
as a suggestion towards a few of the many Roses that should 
be grown for mid- June. 



Lamarque, with its clusters of large white flowers and lovely July. 

scent, cannot be beaten as a wall Rose if it likes the Some good 
soil, but it is variable. Climbing 

Seven Sisters, an old-fashioned white cluster, is quite one of R O ses 
the best ; it bears great heads of small flowers and buds 
and is intensely white. The sketch shows it flowering 
over an outhouse, the north side of the house, where 
it made such splendid growth that a trellis had to be 
put up in front to support the many boughs. 

Alister Stella Grey and William Allen Richardson blend 
well together, the first being cream in flower and 
yellow in bud, and the second orange copper. It is 
well to remember that this Rose is much more deeply 
coloured if it is not grown in full sun. 

Griiss an Teplitz is a magnificent deep red and a perpetual 
flowerer, going on till late Autumn. 

Thalia, a white cluster, and Euphrosyne, pale pink, are 
out together ; they should be grown where they can 
form a tangle at their own sweet pleasure, and will 
shower cascades of white and pink. 

Garland, Bennett's Seedling, and Climbing White Pet are 
all white free-growing climbers, and lovely anywhere, 
trained up poles, wreathing arches or walls, or climbing 
into trees and falling in showers. 

Rosa Multiflora, a Himalayan Rose, when it first bursts 
into its wealth of blossom is like a glorified Bramble, 
making a beautiful background to clumps of 
Delphiniums, or any other border plant of fine 

Flora, an exquisite blush and pink Rose, must have room to 

N 97 

Scotch ramble and fall, and will cover every inch of itself 

Briers, with bloom. 

Japanese Blush Rambler has the growth of the old Crimson 

Roses Rambler, and is a lovely soft pink. 

The very hardy Scotch Brier Roses make delightful bushes 
for the wild garden, and the double white and yellow both do 
well here left to themselves in the rough grass. Rosa rubrifolia 
is good, the dark red stems and leaves making a mass of rich 
sober colour, and Rosa rugosa and its Hybrids are all useful in 
the same sort of place. The latter are vigorous and very hardy, 
and such kinds as Blanc double de Coubert, Madame Georges 
Bruant, Schneelicht dead white and Conrad F. Meyer 
salmon-pink are very beautiful and flower a long time. 

At the end of June, and lasting into July, come the 
Wichurlana Rose and its Hybrids, the best of all for planting 
to tumble down a haha wall, or grassy banks, as they trail and 
creep like Ivy. The wild Japanese Wichuriana is a single 
cream- white, with large sprays of buds which open slowly, 
so that it remains in flower a long time, and even in early 
August still looks full of promise. It is charming for growing 
down such a place as the stone edging to a flight of steps. 
Among the Hybrids the best are : 

Gardenia with a full cream white flower. 

Jersey Beauty single white with yellow buds. 

Alberic Barbier clustered cream. 

Ren Andre* salmon pink. 

Paul Transom lovely pink full flower. 

Dorothy Perkins a lovely bright pink with large clustering 
heads like Crimson Rambler. 

The Penzance Briers are at their best too here in July, and 






can be trained to form first-rate hedges or pillars. They, or the July, 
ordinary Sweet Brier, are particularly useful for clothing fences Late 
in reach of cattle, as they will not touch them. Climbing 

For late July there are many useful climbers, such as : Roses 

Madame Plantier very white and free with a medium- 
sized flower. 

Felicite Perpetue with clusters of small white pompon- 
like flowers and pink buds. 

Psyche soft pink medium-sized flower. 

Dorothy Perkins flowering much later than the other 
Wichuriana Roses. 

Aime Vibert with large heads of buds and semi-double 
white flowers. 

The white Rose of which I cannot find the name painted 
at Sharsted Court on July I4th, is a wonder of beauty. There 
are wreaths of it all round the Rose garden, and, unlike many 
other climbing Roses, it seems to flower all the more profusely 
when pruned back pretty hard. The Rose garden itself is 
surrounded by old brick walls and fine trees, so that these Rose 
wreaths are delightfully thrown out by a variety of backgrounds. 
In another part of the garden a wall bounding a terraced walk is 
draped in white with the flowers of Madame Plantier. 

The uses to which these free-growing Roses can be put 
are almost endless. If there is an ugly fence to cover, or a 
screen is wanted to separate one bit of garden from another, a 
few posts and a light trellis may be easily put up, and will be 
covered in two years with Roses. Walls, Pergolas, arches, 
bridges, banks of streams, etc., may all be clothed. The more 
naturally they are grown the better they look. Crimson 
Rambler is at its best clambering over an evergreen hedge, as of 


Roses in Thuya, and such kinds as Garland, Felicit6 Perpetu6, Flora, 

the Wild Dawson's Pink, will make fountains of Roses over almost 

Garden and anything. The sketch of Rose Euphrosyne with white 

Churchvard Foxgloves shows how charmingly they can be used to form a 

tangle of beauty in the wild garden. 

A Rose alley is a delightful sight ; one in an Algerian 
garden always remains in my remembrance a winding avenue 
of Eucalyptus, and on either side tumbling masses of a semi- 
double blush Rose with a bright pink centre. Hybrids of Rosa 
multtflora and Wichurlana, or the Ayrshire Roses, could well 
be used in this way. If a good square hole were cut in the 
grass when they were first planted, and the soil properly made, 
they would need very little attention for years. On soil that 
looked like pure gravel I have seen Reine Olga de Wurtemburg 
growing in the form of a huge umbrella, flowering all over on 
strong shoots, so that the Roses could be picked with stalks 
nearly two feet long. Close by Marie Van Houtte was ten 
feet high, and Madame Lambard had grown into a tree right 
in the wood. In this particular garden the Roses are chosen for 
strength as much as beauty, and very little pruning is allowed 
of either Teas or climbers. 

Above all Roses should be planted in our churchyards, the 
more rampantly growing kinds to form groups of lovely flower 
between the graves or against the walls, and the low growers 
at the base of the old grey tombstones so often uncared for 
and only half erect. The Wichurianas, which creep almost like 
Ivy, or Roses good for pegging down such as Una a large 
single white or Gloire Lyonnaise, which throws up perfect 
white flowers the whole length of its six-foot shoots, are among 
the best for this purpose. 










Readers of Miss JekylPs delightful book, " Roses for July. 
English Gardens," will remember many suggestive pictures for Carpet 
the use of Roses in these and other ways. Plants for 

Teas, Hybrid Teas, and Hybrid Perpetuals, I have left till R O se Beds 
the last, partly owing to the difficulty of picking and choosing 
a few names out of the hundreds of beautiful kinds. The 
sketch, made at Mr Robinson's at Gravetye, shows what a 
Rose garden may be even in the third week of July, when the 
first flush of Roses is really over. The strength of the Roses may 
be attributed a great deal to their being mostly on their own roots. 
The cuttings are made in September, and laid in sideways in 
the open ground with a long piece buried. Many kinds will be 
found to grow much more freely in this way, as the Briers 
perish in many soils in which the Teas and Hybrids will grow well. 
The beds are not devoted to Roses alone but are filled with many 
low-growing plants : Violas white, mauve, yellow, and purple ; 
Sedums ; annual white Alyssum, Rhodanthe, a pink annual 
lovely with pink Roses ; Veronica, above all good with 
white Roses ; Kaulfussia, Dwarf Campanulas, Phacelia, Dwarf 
Lavender, Platstemon californica, Simpkin Pinks, Gilias, 
Carnations and blue Lobelia, Cupid Sweet Peas, and numbers 
of others. In our own soil we find it best to devote the beds to 
Roses alone, using such plants as Anemones or Violas for borders ; 
so close above the chalk the Roses need all the nourishment 
they can get. With Violas we find it most important to get 
the young plants, made from cuttings the preceding September, 
planted out early in the year, so as to get them established 
before drought or great heat. 

A list of the best kinds of Roses will be found in Miss 
Kingsley's " Autumn " Article, as good Autumn Roses are also, as 


Some a rule, the strongest and best for Summer flowering. Mr Mount, 
beautiful ur celebrated Canterbury Rosegrower, has also given many 
Roses names m tne following useful Paper, which he has kindly con- 
tributed on the growth and culture of Roses. 

The few favourites of mine not mentioned in either list are : 
Corallina, Papa Gontier, Rainbow, Madame Jules Grolez, 
Mademoiselle Yvonne Gravier, all pinks of different shades; 
Madame Pierre Cocher, Madame Chedane Guinosseau, and 
Sulphurea, yellow; Virginie, Rubens and Gloire Lyonnaise, 
white; also the single Irish Roses Irish Beauty, Glory, and 


FOR any person fond of growing flowers, there is no flower 
that will better repay the care and attention bestowed on it 
than the Rose, provided that one starts with the best and 
most suitable varieties for the particular place that is chosen, 
and also that the soil and position is fairly well suited for 
them, and not altogether opposed to what they really 

First, as to position. A fairly open ground, and exposed 
to as much sun as possible, sheltered a little from the 
strongest wind by hedges of Privet, shrubs, etc., but not over- 
hung by large trees, as trees make too much draught and 

Secondly, as to soil. A good moderately stiff loam is the 
best soil, but any soil will grow them if properly prepared. The 






soil should be double dug (not trenched) to a depth of 1 8 inches, July. 

and if it is very light or sandy, it is improved by an addition of Planting of 

heavy clay or loam. If too stiff, some light, well-rotted Roses 

manure, and rough sharp sand, etc., is an improvement. Some 

well-rotted manure may also be dug in before planting. When 

the ground is prepared, select if possible a fairly dry day for the 

planting, as the ground will work so much better, and will be 

benefited all the following Summer by not being trodden about 

in wet weather. The Roses can be planted either 2 feet square 

or 2 feet by 1 8 in., according to the size of the bed, with a path 

about a yard wide between every two or three rows, if a great 

number are planted. A hole should be dug to about the depth 

of one foot and about one foot square, and made nice and level at 

the bottom with fine earth. The roots should be evenly spread 

out over the soil, a spadeful or two of fine earth thrown in on 

them, and be well trodden down. A little manure can then be 

put in on top of the earth, the hole filled up with some more 

soil, and very lightly pressed down with the foot. 

When finished, the union of the Rose to the stock should be 
about two inches below the ground. After the bed is planted 
a mulching of manure on top of the ground all round the plant 
is a good thing. If the ground is at all dry at the time of 
planting a half gallon or so of water to each plant is beneficial, 
but it is better done after the mulch is on, as that prevents the 
soil from cracking. 

About the beginning of March the Roses will require pruning, 
and this is an important matter with young plants, as a great 
deal depends on the first year's pruning as to whether the plants 
will make good-shaped bushes or not. The different classes of 
Roses require different methods of pruning. (The N.R.S. issue 


Pruning of a good manual on this subject, with directions for any 
Roses Rose.) 

First. The Hybrid Perpetual Roses as a rule require to be 
pruned to within 4 to 6 inches of the ground, and to an eye 
pointing away from the middle of the plant. 

The Teas require the thin wood to be cut out, and also any 
soft sappy wood, and to be cut back to some sound hard wood 
or joints. 

The Hybrid Teas require varying treatment according as to 
whether they partake more or less of the Hybrid Perpetual or 
Tea type. A good general idea can be formed from the look of 
the growth, such varieties as " Marquise Litta," " Mildred Grant," 
and " Mrs W. J. Grant," etc., requiring to be treated similarly 
to the Hybrid Perpetuals, while " Madame Abel Chatenay," 
" Marquis Salisbury," " Papa Gontier," etc., require to be pruned 
more after the manner of the Teas. All three classes also 
require to be pruned much harder for exhibition than for 
ordinary garden purposes. 

The climbing varieties require the long shoots cut back a 
little, but not very much, with one or two shoots each year cut 
right back to within a few eyes off the ground. This is to 
induce fresh strong shoots each year from the bottom of 
the plants, as otherwise they get ugly and straggly in the 
course of a few years. Climbing varieties as a rule flower 
better from the long one-year growths, so that any wood 
more than two or three years old is better cut out where 

Now as to varieties. The Hybrid Perpetual class is 
usually considered the hardiest of the lot, though it often 
happens that the more delicate Teas do better than the Hybrid 


Perpetuals near the sea in exposed places. They seem to like July, 
the sea air more than the H.P.'s. The best 

For general cultivation the following are a few of the best Roses to 
Hybrid Perpetuals : Red and dark Crimson, etc., Alfred p-row 
Colomb, Chas. Lefebvre, Capt. Hayward, Duke Edinburgh, 
Fisher Holmes, General Jacqueminot, La Rosine, S. M. 
Rodocanachi, and Ulrich Brunner. For Pink : Mrs John 
Laing, Mrs Sharman Crawford, and Madame Gabriel Luizet 
are by far the best growers and all-round good sorts. 

For White : Frau Karl Druschki is a long way ahead of 
all others, though Margaret Dickson is a strong grower, but it 
is rather subject to mildew. 

In the Teas for Pink, Catherine Mermet, Maman Cochet, 
Madame Lambard, and Madame de Watteville are good. For 
Yellow and shades of yellow, Anna Ollivier, Marie van 
Houtte, Madame Hoste, and Souv. de Prince Netting are 
the best. For Whites, The Bride, White Maman Cochet, 
Souv. de S. A. Prince, and Hon. Edith Giffbrd are all 

In the Hybrid Tea class, for Red, Liberty, Marquis 
Salisbury, and Grliss an Teplitz (Autumn flowering) are all fine 
in their own way, Liberty being almost scarlet sometimes. For 
Pink and shades of pink, Mrs W. J. Grant, Marquise Litta, 
Caroline Testout, La France, Killarney, and Viscountess 
Folkestone are good. Whilst for Yellow, White and inter- 
mediate shades, etc., Bessie Brown, Madame Pernet Ducher, 
Clara Watson, Antoine Rivoire, Madam Abel Chatenay, and 
Souv. de President Carnot are all very fine. 

All the above varieties can be recommended for any garden, 
as they are all fair growers, and under ordinary treatment will 

O 105 

Rose Pests thrive. They are not all the best exhibition varieties, but for 
general effect in the garden, or for cutting purposes, they are all 

Some people like to grow Roses as standards with stems 
from 2 to 4 feet high. If standards are required they must be 
planted in a fairly sheltered place to get the best results, as of 
course being higher than the dwarfs they feel the wind a great 
deal more. Some of the trees do remarkably well as half 
standards, and for exhibition purposes they cannot be beaten, as 
the flowers come larger, better, and cleaner. It is advisable to 
stake them after planting, and in very frosty weather a light 
protection of straw or hay over the heads is advisable. Standards 
are not recommended if the place is at all unfavourable, at any 
rate not until a few have been tried first to find out if they will 

Before finishing I will give a few directions for getting rid 
of pests that infest the Rose. Early in Spring caterpillars may 
appear in the foliage and bud, and the best way to get rid of 
them is to pick them off and crush them. Later on green fly 
often appears, and that is best destroyed by a solution of soft- 
soap in water, just strong enough to make the water lather 
freely. When the solution is made, syringe the Roses in the 
evening, and again the next evening if the first time was not 
sufficient to kill the green fly ; it is better to syringe twice than 
to do it too strong the first time. Mildew often appears about 
the end of June ; the best remedy is to dust flower of sulphur 
over the plant and to take off and burn the worst leaves. Later 
on in the season it is almost impossible to stop mildew, and it is 
hardly worth while to try. 

Red rust is sometimes troublesome, and this is again practi- 


cally impossible to stop, but it does not often attack the plants July, 
until the first flowering is over. The best way to keep it in Hardy 
check is to pick off and burn the worst leaves. Lilies 

If these few hints and directions are followed out there 
need be no doubt about the ultimate success of growing Roses in 


All through this month a succession of lovely Lilies are 
in flower. On peaty or sandy soil nearly all the best may be 
grown, especially such beautiful kinds as Giganteum^ Auratum, 
Pardalinum^ Hansoni, Umbellatum, etc. On pure loam the 
choice is more limited, but there are four Lilies which should 
thrive in almost any garden. Candidum, Croceum, Tesfaceum 
and Martagon. Lilium Szovitzianum also likes loam, but is 
more difficult to grow well. We have it in a border, but 
though it throws up a wonderful spike each year it does not 
increase. At Wisley, where my sketch was done, it was growing 
in all sorts of positions the exquisite pale yellow heads, rising 
five and six feet in height on a steep bank above grass fit to 
cut for hay, or looking even more beautiful under an Apple tree 
with a background of dark trees. Like most Lilies it enjoys 
shade, and in this spot looked as if it were increasing fast. The 
scent too is delicious. 

Croceum, the orange Lily, seen in so many cottage gardens, 

is always most effective if planted in large quantities. It looks 

particularly well with Delphiniums, the yellow and orange 

Alstroemerias, or any white flower such as Epilobium angustt- 

folium alba. This white Willow Herb is as hardy as the 


Lilium common pink one, and very useful where it can be given room 
Candidum to run. 

and f Lilium candidum the Madonna Lily it is impossible 

Testaceum to ^ ave to man 7> anc ^ t ^ ie g ar den is lucky which has old estab- 
lished plants not yet touched by disease. It should never be 
disturbed if doing well, as sometimes it is difficult to re-establish. 
The radiant white of the flower, and the shining buds pointing 
upwards, are supremely beautiful. Suggestions as to where to 
plant this Lily seem almost superfluous, indeed, it is hard to go 
wrong, but lovers of its beauty will not be content with one 
good effect but will try for many. Large clumps should be in 
the borders against blue or orange, or near a fountain of white 
Roses, or again in groups on the lawn where the lovely heads 
will be seen only against grass and trees ; some should certainly 
be where the garden is open to the west, so that the last low 
rays of the sun should add their glory to the pure petals. The 
sketch shows a line of them planted under a year. One secret 
of success is to put the bulbs in early, never later than August. 
In this particular case the soil, which is sandy, was dug out, 
lime rubbish and turf sods put in at the bottom of the hole, 
then the soil replaced, and a little chalk added round the 

Lilium testaceum, called also excelsum and isabellinum, 
prolongs the Lily beauty to the end of the month. The long 
stems, sometimes six feet high, with seven to twelve soft 
apricot flowers, are very lovely. This Lily is probably a hybrid 
between Candidum and Chalcedonicum, and does not demand 
any particular care, growing where the Madonna Lily 

Lilium Martagon the Turk's cap Lily so often picked 

1 08 






in Swiss hay-fields, is excellent for naturalising in our own wild July, 
gardens, in grass or wood. In the borders their soft red purple Lilies for 
colour is often eclipsed by some more showy neighbour, though the Wood 
it looks well near white. The white variety is much more lovely 
and uncommon. 

Many of the rarer kinds of Lilies do well in woods ; they 
need the shade and damper atmosphere; in full sun, even if 
they succeed, their beauty fades terribly quickly. Wandering 
down a woodland glade what more delightful surprise than to 
come suddenly on a group of Lilies raising their stately heads 
to the canopy of trees above. Lilium pardalinum may well 
be planted in this way, and is very effective with its tall heads 
of orange and flaming scarlet. It needs a light rich soil with 
plenty of manure and leaf mould. 

L. Giganteum flowers at the same time, and wants much 
the same soil and position. The great stems may be eight or 
ten feet high, and should bear about a dozen drooping bells, 
white, shaded to dull purple in the throat. 

Lilium Hansoni, bright orange with dark spots, also does 
well under trees, or in the shade of such a bush as Spiraa 
aritffolia, which is just opening its soft cream tassels when the 
Lily is in flower. 

In a sheltered garden at Saltwood, as early as the last 
week of June, clumps of the great orange Lilium umbellatum 
were out. These Lilies were nearly five feet high, and clothed 
to the ground with healthy green foliage, their huge heads of 
bloom looking most effective against a mass of evergreens con- 
bined with the tumbling sprays of a white Rose. 

If the garden contains water, the hybrid Water Lilies 
should certainly be grown, and will give great beauty through 


Water July and August. There is something wonderfully beautiful 
Lily and an d appealing in the big wide-open flowers, lying in serried 
Japanese ran ks on the surface of the water, always just out of reach in a 
j r j s tantalising way. Even the smallest pond may be made of use 
to grow them, and on large sheets of water their round flat 
leaves will soon spread into islands of loveliness. The flowers 
have the form of the common Water Lily, but are much in- 
creased in size and varied in colour. Large pure white ones 
may be had, or white flushed with rose, a clear yellow, and a 
fine rose pink. 

Another feature of the water-side through this month 
should be the Japanese Irises (Iris Kaemffcrfy Water is not 
absolutely necessary to their success except just before flowering, 
but they like to be at the edge of a pond in the full sunshine, 
as illustrated by the sketch painted at Wisley. The whole 
growth and colouring is different from any other Iris ; the 
leaves are very bright green and grass-like, and the flowers of 
varied and unusual colours, running mostly from white through 
queer pinks to plum colour, but there are also wonderful violets 
and greys. The form is different too the standards are quite 
small, sometimes hardly showing at all, and the falls are wide 
and flat many of them with a distinct white or yellow band 
down the centre. They should grow four feet high and be about 
seven inches across the petal. They can be raised easily from seed, 
and flowering plants obtained in two years. They are not very 
particular about their soil, but prefer loam and peat and then 
increase freely, seeding themselves. 

The profusion of annuals and perennials in July give 
many opportunities for arranging pleasing schemes of colour on 
a large scale, according to the individual taste of the grower. A 

1 10 

special colour may well be chosen to prevail at a particular July, 
season ; I have often wished to have white alone. This A blue 
year near Dunwich I came across a blue and a pink garden. Garden 
Only a few yards of cliff, covered with Heather and Honey- 
suckle, separated it from the North Sea. Turning from the 
wild beauty of that view, and entering the garden sheltered from 
the north-easterly gales by an old curved red brick wall one is 
greeted on the threshold by the vision of a fairy scene, with blue 
for the key-note. A straight path leads from the door right up 
the centre, and on either side are ranks of Delphiniums, some fully 
seven feet high, all carefully chosen for their clear tones ; others 
dwarf, show their heads of flower against the green of the 
taller-growing kinds. Spikes with a tendency to mauve, or too 
densely packed, have been carefully discarded, and shades from 
sky blue to a real French blue encouraged. Nemophila 
grows below, creeping on to the path and breaking its stiff line, 
with patches of Lobelia interspersed to carry on the blue effect 
later in the year. For plants of intermediate height there are 
Cornflowers, White Mallows, White Galega, Madonna Lilies, 
Summer Daisy, Anchusa capensis like a big Forget-me-not 
white Canterbury Bells, etc. Other plants might be added 
according to circumstances : Campanula persicifolia and 
Lactifolia, Anchusa Italica, Crambe cordifolia, CEnothera 
speciosa to throw white flowers on the pathway and pillars 
and garlands of late white Cluster Roses behind and above the 
spikes of blue. 

Through a gateway at the other end one passes into the 
pink garden ; the cream-yellow clusters of Rose Alister Stella 
Gray, hang over the entrance, clumps of Delphinium stand 
sentinel on either side with Convolvulus Minor at their feet, 


A pink and a French Poppy of a perfect shade of pink, called Sutton's 
Garden Chamois Rose, is added to the group as an introduction to the 
new scheme. The straight path continues through hedges of 
common Monthly Rose with Lavender waving above ; late 
evening is the time to see this border at its best, when the 
sun lights up the soft pink to a more glowing colour. On the 
right is the Rose-garden with a cupola of Climbing Roses in the 
centre, and beds of free-growing Hybrids and Teas about it. 
Forming a boundary between this scene of beauty and the 
wood are borders of French and Mikado Poppies, Godetias, pink 
Mallows, Clarkia, etc. 

The sketch done at Milton Court, near Dorking, shows a 
totally different effect gained by a gorgeous blending of all sorts 
of annuals in a border, opposed to one of cool blues, whites and 
yellows mostly of perennials, such as, White Phlox, Veronicas, 
Anchusas, Sidalcea Itsteri, Achillea mongolica^ Arctotis grandis, 
Eryngiums, Campanulas, etc. 

In the Annual border were : 

Blue Pea 
Shirley Poppies 

All sown in their 

Lalcnaula ofncinalis , . A/r , 

T > . i if I places in March. 

Luptnus Menziesi, nanus and albus 

Kaulfussta amelloides 

Sweet Peas sown in February, in pots in a cold frame, and 
planted out later in well-manured ground, with a 
slight depression left round each plant to hold the 





All sown in heat 
and pricked out 

Antirrhinums Sutton's deep crimson, 
coral red, pure white, and cloth 
of gold. 

Stella Sunflowers primrose and full 

African Marigolds 

Dianthus Hedivegi in separate 
colours, salmon pink, deep red 
and white. 




Phlox Drummondi 


Coreopsis grandiflora 

Lobelia cardinalis fulgens 

Ten- week Stocks are splendid either for picking or effect. 
Princess Alice and East Lothian are two of the best white the 
one secret for obtaining spikes of double flowers ten inches long, 
and numbers of side shoots, is never to check the growth of the 
seedlings. Seed should be sown early in March, and the soil 
first thoroughly soaked, so that watering can be avoided if 
possible till the seeds are up. Prick the young plants out when 
big enough in wet soil, do not water till necessary, and plant 
out of doors when the weather is fit. A lovely border can be 
made with these Stocks and red H.P. Roses the scent is so 
delicious, it should be near the house if possible. Or they 
might be grown with a selection of blue annuals, such as Love- 
in-the-Mist, Cornflowers, Nemophila, Phacelia campanularia, 
Convolvulus minor, Kaulfussia amelloides, small blue Pea, and 

P 113 


Useful the loveliest of all blues, the Convolvulus, Ipomea rubra carulea. 

Summer Such an effect, or the blue alone, could well be realised on a 

Annuals bed f ^ ate Tulips, and would give very little trouble once started, 

as many of these annuals seed themselves well. A border of 

Antirrhinums alone is very effective ; the dark red, with almost 

purple foliage, is particularly fine, and they last months in flower. 

There are many other useful annuals which should be 

grown, such as those mentioned in the following list, not 

forgetting the indispensable Mignonette and Night-scented 


Annual Toadflax Ltnaria bipartita, rettculata or aureo 
purpurea, should be sown early in the year in the 
open ground. 

Schi-zanthus if sown in heat in March, will make a 
feathery mass of flower eighteen inches or two feet 
high in July. 

Asperula orientalis blue. 
Eartonia aurea sow out of doors in April or sooner in a 

frame. Bright yellow. 
Phacelia tanacetefolla with grey-blue fuzzy heads of 

flowers. Sow out of doors. 
Gilia pretty little edging and carpet plants of various 

colours. Sow out of doors. 

Verbena, in many good colours. Sow early in heat. 
Iceland Poppies nudicaule white, yellow and orange. 
Cosmos, white, very useful for the late Autumn, it grows 
four feet or five feet high and bears a lot of white 
flowers good for picking. Sow early in heat. 
In the wild garden in July there should certainly be an 
effect of pure white Foxgloves, either in big beds in the open 

by themselves, or with Shirley Poppies or loose-growing Roses ; July. 

also in glades of the wood where they can freely seed them- Foxglove 

selves. To keep the strain white the greatest care must be an j Phlox 

taken to pick off all the pink flowers that may appear; they 

are pretty in their way but do not approach the white in 

beauty. On a soil they like, with space round them, these are 

magnificent ; the best I have ever seen were at Teynham where 

many of them reached six feet in height, and one particularly 

fine plant had twenty good shoots round the central spire, 

making a pyramid of flower. Like every other plant they 

repay the grower for giving them a position they like. Being 

biennials, they must be sown two years running in May, and 

then ought to be self-supporting. Dozens of young plants 

will come up round the old stems, and some should always 

be pricked out in a nursery bed for stock. 

For the borders, and for large beds where a brilliant colour 
effect is wanted, Phloxes will be found most useful. By using 
both Summer and Autumn varieties their flower can be enjoyed 
through July, August, and September. They are to be had in 
beautiful shades of flaming red, pink and white. Coquelicot 
and Coccinea will be found two of the best reds ; other good 
kinds are Mrs Farquhar, Etna, Mrs Oliver, J. C. Hamisch, 
Sylphide, Aurore and Pascale. They are all perfectly hardy 
and very easily increased by seed, cuttings, or division. Cuttings 
may be taken, at almost any time of the year, but a very good 
plan is to make them from the early shoots thrown up in March ; 
they strike well then, and better flower is produced by the old 
plant if some of the shoots are thinned out. For division, the 
plants should be taken up in the Spring, cut into small pieces, 
and replanted. 

Monarda Monarda didyma planted between Phlox Coquelicot makes 

didyma a splendid effect ; its height is half that of the Phlox and a very 
pleasing harmony of colour is given by the low masses of soft 
dark red with the flaming points above. 



" And Nature holds, in wood and field, 

Her thousand sunlit censers still ; 
To spells of flower and shrub we yield 
Against or with our will." 

7. G. Whittier. 

WHEN most Roses are out of bloom, resting after their Clematis 
lavish gifts of flower earlier in the Summer, and Garlands 
preparing for a second harvest in the Autumn, the 
Clematis has its day of triumph. For this reason the Rose 
garden is one of the best places in which to plant it. 

Grown up short posts and trailing along the chains between 
them, the Clematis thus forms a garlanded enclosure for the 
Roses. The effect somewhat recalls the fields in parts of 
Italy, where Vines are trained in great festoons between 
Maple trees, and through their young leaves we see the 
ripened corn. Another and simpler effect of growing Clematis 
is to train it up stakes and allow it to form a natural 
bower of flowers at some point where colour is wanted. For 
other parts of a garden advantage should be taken of its free- 
growing habit, and it should be planted to creep down a rockery 
or steep bank, or to climb up trees or clothe walls. If there is 
room to give them a bed to themselves, a delightful effect may 
be got by collecting some old stumps of trees and making a 
rough pyramid or two with strong branches, and then en- 
couraging Clematis to grow over it all and form a tangle of 
white, mauve and purple. 

In the Spring Clematis alplna (or Atragene alpind] 


Varieties of looks charming growing just as it does in the Tyrol, wreathing 
Clematis the stumps of old trees with its delicate soft blue flowers, 
never more than a few feet high. In a mild climate, 
like that of Cornwall, Clematis indivisa is hardy, and in 
April is quite lovely with its branches of starry white flowers 
and plum-coloured stamens ; here, unfortunately, it needs 
glass. Later in the year come C. Montana^ C. florida with 
white flowers three or four inches across and purple stamens, 
and its double forms, such as the Duchess of Edinburgh and 
C. patens, with its many beautiful garden hybrids, Miss 
Bateman, and Sir Garnet Wolseley being among the best. All 
these three types of Clematis bear flowers on the old wood, and 
should only be pruned if their growth becomes too extravagant. 
To August and the Autumn months belong the varieties of 
Lanuginosa, viticella, coerulea, coccinca, Jackmanni, flammula, 
and paniculata. All these flower on Summer shoots, and are the 
better for the thinning out of weak wood in the Spring. Strong 
growing kinds like Jackmanni may be cut right back in the 
Autumn, and made to form new shoots from the crown, but this 
method should not be tried with other varieties unless the size 
of the plant is to be reduced. A Clematis called Perle d'azure, 
the colour of Neapolitan Violets, is a charming one for growing 
on stakes about five feet high among Rose bushes. This 
sketch was done in Mr Robinson's garden at Gravetye, 
where two or three plants form a beautiful cluster over the 
scattered blooms of Caroline Testout. A white form of 
C. viticella was out at the same time bearing a multitude of 
small white flowers, and hanging in a delicious tangle from the 
lower branches of two small trees. Jackmanni bears its magni- 
ficent violet-purple flowers for many weeks, beginning as a rule 



in the middle of July and going on till late September. We August, 
have it growing up posts in the Rose bed with the climbing Varieties of 
Dorothy Perkins, the two making a fine bit of colour together. Clematis 
With us it is much the strongest of any of the large flowered 
sorts, and grows magnificently over a six-foot fence exposed to 
the north-east, with white Aimee Vibert Rose as a neighbour. 

The lanuginosa type we find much more difficult to grow, 
though our soil, loam on chalk, is what a Clematis is supposed 
to enjoy above all things. In spite of carrying out all the best 
advice, mulching in Summer and dosing with manure water, 
they have an unkind way of suddenly failing when in full 
flower. Once they get established they do well, lasting many 
years, and are so lovely that they are worth a lot of trouble. 
My favourites are Henryi, cream-white ; Lady Caroline Neville 
and lanuginosa, a lovely grey ; Beauty of Worcester, Princess of 
Wales, and Sensation, mauve ; William Kennett and Louis Van 
Houtte, violet. There are now a number of varieties of red or 
plum-coloured Clematis, most of them small-flowered, which 
are not to me nearly so attractive as the old-fashioned kinds. 
C. coccinea has small flowers of a really bright salmon-red, but 
is quite unlike the Jackmanni type ; the coloured sepals are all 
closed together till near their tips and form a tube. For the 
Autumn C. paniculata and flammula should be planted ; they 
are both very free growing, resembling strongly the Travellers' 
Joy of our hedges, but bearing larger sprays of white flower 
with a very sweet scent. 

The sketch shows a fine effect of Clematis Jackmanni^ 
Yuccas and Pampas, at Chilham Castle, near Canterbury. 
The Yuccas, the first week in August, were a wonderful 
sight. Every plant in this border under the wall had its spike 


Yucca, of cream- white flowers about 8 ft. high, contrasting with the 
Montbretia warm soft heads of the Pampas. They look even more magnifi- 
and cent m isolated clumps on a terrace, showing the full beauty 
Nasturtium f tne ^ r growth, as the foreground to some distant view. A 
little later I saw another Yucca picture made by groups of a 
dwarf kind on a sunny bank, with orange and red Montbretias 
growing thickly round them. The very green grass-like foliage 
of the Montbretias looked particularly well with the dark blue- 
green spiky growth of the Yuccas ; their cream heads were 
about 3 ft. 6 in. high, and seemed to spring from the 

Montbretias (Tritonia) increase so fast in many soils that 
they need to be taken up at least every other year in the Autumn 
and replanted in the Spring. When too crowded they cease to 
flower. Etoile de Feu red and Aurore are two of the best. 

Nasturtiums could well be added to such a group ; they 
are gorgeous as a carpet, and at their best in this month. Poor 
soil is all they need, on good they run to leaf, and the blaze of 
colour is not obtained. Both tall and dwarf varieties are among 
the easiest of all annuals to grow, and remain in flower a very 
long time. They should be sown out of doors in April and 
May, or even as late as June they will succeed, so that they can 
be used to replace some spring flowering plant which has come 
to an end, such as Pansy. Earlier plants are got by sowing 
the seed under glass in Spring, and planting out in May. 
Some of the double varieties are very handsome, and can be 
increased by keeping a few pots through the Winter for cuttings 
in the early Spring. There are charming shades of colour 
to be had from cream to fiery crimson, all blending one with 
another : one of the handsomest is Empress of India with dark 














plum-coloured foliage and vivid red flowers. A white easily- August, 
grown annual that looks very well with these dwarf varieties is Tropcelium 
Gypsophila elegans ; it is most valuable for picking to mix with speciosum 
other flowers, being both light and graceful. The tall varieties 
should be planted to cover bare trellises or palings ; cottages are 
often gay with them, the low white ones of Somersetshire look- 
ing particularly pretty clothed with flowers up to the thatch. 
7. Lobbianum is a more uncommon but beautiful variety, very 
easily raised from seed sown out of doors in April. 

The most beautiful of all Tropasolums is the perennial 
speciosum, so often seen in Scotland. There it grows in the most 
delightful way with wreaths of delicate green, and scarlet flowers, 
and gives no trouble at all ; in the South it is not so easy to 
cultivate successfully. Position seems much more important than 
soil ; it needs a cool place with shade most of the day, and above 
all some shrub or tree to climb into. Its delicate tendrils are much 
happier twining round living branches and forming festoons of 
burning red from bough to bough than trained up a wall on 
strings. The sketch shows how well it can be made to grow over 
Holly trees, finding its way even to the very tops. Near it should 
be the wild Japanese Wichuriana Rose, which bears at the same 
time its clusters of single flowers and many buds, or it would be 
hard to imagine anything prettier than garlands of Clematis 
Viticella alba and the Tropceolum meeting in the same tree. 

Our own .garden is not successful in the late Summer, the 
ground gets parched and the plants have a starved look which 
fills me with despair when I contrast them with others growing 
on a good deep soil. Any suggestions for fine effects therefore, 
through the greater part of this month, must be borrowed from 
what I have been fortunate enough to see in the gardens of my 

Q 121 

Hydrangeas friends. At Gravetye, in the second week of August, there 
and Tiger were several most attractive colour groups. Hydrangeas were 
Lilies coming out, their soft blue panicles of flower beautiful near a 
great mass of salmon-orange Lilium tigrinum Fortunei. These 
Lilies were only just beginning to open a few of their number of 
grey woolly buds, and should still be in beauty in September. 
The variety splendent is perhaps the finest of all, and flowers 
a little later. All the Tiger Lilies are easy to grow, and are 
wonderfully effective anywhere. They like a sandy loam with 
some leaf-mould and manure as a top-dressing. Hydrangeas 
suffer from frost, and to be seen at their best must have a mild 
warm climate. There are clumps in a cottage garden near here, 
on some of the highest land in Kent, which flower profusely, 
but they remain low and rather stiff in form. In Cornwall or 
Devonshire they grow into big bushes and make a lovely soft 
effect of blue under the shade of trees. Hydrangea paniculata 
grandtflora is a handsome kind, growing four or five feet high 
with pointed white sprays about a foot long. We have not 
been successful with it, but I have seen it growing splendidly 
on a cold clay soil. 

The Everlasting Pea Lathy r us latifolius is most useful 
now, either forming great bushes supported by stakes or 
fastened to a trellis and allowed to tumble negligently at will. 
White, blush-pink, and a rather common rose-pink, may be 
had. The white looks well anywhere, under a tangle of 
Clematis Jackmanni for instance, or climbing round the base 
of a pergola with the vivid scarlet of that delightful little 
plant Zauschnerla californica beneath it. The real Sweet Pea 
can be very effectively used in gardens too if distinct colours are 
grouped together, mauve and purple in one place, and pink and 




red which harmonise in another. For this purpose they need August. 

to be well grown from the first, must be given plenty of Hollyhocks, 

food and water, and never be allowed to seed. Evening 

Hollyhocks Althasa rosea which began in July are still p r i m rose 
fine in August. The great height of their spikes, seven or even 
nine feet, and the long heads of buds opening by degrees from 
the bottom, make them particularly striking among late Summer 
flowers. At the back of herbaceous borders, against Yew hedges 
or stone walls, or in big beds in the open, they are certain to 
look well. In some gardens they are troublesome plants either 
rotting in the Winter or failing under the attacks of their special 
disease in others they flourish and seed themselves, keeping up 
a perpetual supply of good strong plants. They grow in this 
way on a bank above a stream in a garden near here, with a 
background of fruit trees, and their tall spikes reflected in the 
water below. July r August is the best time for sowing. 
The young plants should be kept in a cold frame through the 
Winter and planted out in April or May. If they are sown in 
January in heat it is possible to flower them the same year, but 
they will be late and never so fine as those sown the Summer 
before. Cuttings can be made at almost any time from the 
small shoots round the old roots ; if taken in Winter or 
early Spring they will need bottom heat to strike them. 
The Fig-leaved Hollyhock is a useful variety, slender and 
branching in growth, and producing a number of flower 

Two varieties of Evening Primrose are particularly showy 
now, CEnothera Fraseri^ bright yellow, about one foot high, 
and Lamarckiana, four or five feet high, with large pale yellow 
flowers which are in blossom for many weeks. The latter sort 


Tritoma in is useful for the wild garden or shrubberies, as it seeds itself and 
the Wild needs no care. 

Garden Tritomas Kniphofia should be largely grown in the 

borders for colour through August and September, or in large 
masses on the lawn or in the wild garden. They can be 
allowed really prominent positions as they are magnificent when 
in flower, and are never ugly or untidy, and in Winter one is 
glad of their dark green tufts. Coming from a hot climate they 
are not always quite hardy in severe weather, but in the south 
of England they ought to be safe and should grow well in 
good loam or sandy soil with an annual top-dressing of manure. 
In Spring and Summer they like plenty of water, with good 
drainage. They should be increased by division in the Spring, 
but it is better not to disturb the old plants more than is 
necessary. There are a number of varieties, and many new 
hybrids ; some flower quite early in the year, but the most 
worth growing are the later Summer and Autumn ones. Such 
kinds as grandis, nobilis, or longiscarpa are all particularly hand- 
some; many of the hybrids Obelisk, Pfitzeri, or Ophir, for 
instance have fine yellow and orange spikes of flowers seven 
feet high. The sketch is done from a group of the common 
" red hotpokers " growing in our wild garden. They revel 
in the open position in the sun and rear their strong vivid 
spikes to the sky, burning like torches. Their colour is a 
wonderful blending of yellow, rose, and orange-scarlet, with 
a mysterious bloom thrown over all these brilliant shades. 
They grew very slowly to start with, but are fine clumps 
now, though the individual spikes are not as fine as those in 
the borders. There are many strong growing plants which 
might well be grouped with them ; the big blue Globe Thistle, 





Ecbinops rutbenicus for instance, or the Cotton Thistles, with August, 
their spiked leaves and stalks, covered with white down, and Hyacinthus 
their purple heads. On op or don illyricum and arabicum are both candicans 
good biennial sorts. We are planting a handsome very blue- 
green grass called Elymus glaucus, with ribbon-like leaves, as a 
neighbour, and a most successful bed can be made with clumps 
of Hyacinthus candicans between the Tritomas. Bamboos, 
Pampas, or Spirtea Douglas i form a fine background for them. 
This Spiraea grows splendidly here, making bushes ten or twelve 
feet high, covered with large white plumes ; it is said to like 
chalk, and of that it certainly gets plenty. 

In the flower garden just now our only really good effect 
is given by Hyacinthus candicans (Galtonid] and Gladiolus, 
in the beds running down each side of the Rose pergola. 
For weeks their handsome blue-green foliage and the 
crowded heads of unopened buds have been ornamental ; now 
their pendant bells rising on firm stalks, make a twinkling mass 
of white, with promise of much lasting beauty. The bulbs 
were planted in the early Spring between young Roses for which 
the ground had been well prepared. They were second size 
bulbs, only costing 35. a hundred, and very small. In spite of 
this many of them have sent up three spikes of flower, all five or 
six feet high and very strong. Plenty of nourishment seems to 
suit them ; the Roses are watered once a week with manure 
water, but I fear they are robbed by the Hyacinthus, as it must 
be confessed they have not done so well as I had hoped. 

The Gladiolus, hybrids of Gandavensis^ Childsii and 
Lemoinei^ are throwing up fine spikes of bloom too ; they like 
good rich soil and a mulching of manure in hot weather, and 
are very suitable for planting in Rose beds, as they flower when 


Some useful the Roses are out of bloom, and never overpower them. G. 
Perennials Brenchleyensis, the scarlet one, does well out of doors with us, 
and increases, but all the finer sorts have to be lifted before 
severe frosts begin, and should be dried and stored in a cool 
place through the Winter. If planted at intervals from March 
to the end of May, a succession of flower will be got extending 
to the late Autumn. 

While our own perennial borders are looking so starved 
and poor, those on good deep soil are a blaze of colour, looking 
better than the whole year through. At Godinton, near Ashford, 
the whole effect of one border is white and yellow with Phloxes 
and Helianthus^ annual and perennial, and the low starry 
Rudbeckia with a dark eye. In a neighbouring border, to these 
plants are added big clumps or the deep blue Globe Thistle, tall 
Summer Daisies, Eryngium^ Sea Lavender, scarlet Phloxes, and 
such annuals as Alonsoa, vivid salmon-pink and deep red Indian 
Pinks, Nicotiana affims^ etc. The places for all these annuals 
were well prepared in the early Spring, and plenty of spent 
mushroom manure dug in, which probably accounts for their 
vigour. In the kitchen garden the sweet-scented white Bouvardia, 
which is delightful for picking, forms a regular hedge under a 
line of greenhouses ; it must be kept under glass through the 
Winter, cut back pretty hard in the Spring, then started in a 
little warmth, and when danger of frost is over planted out of 
doors. A lovely bed can be made with it and Plumbago in 
any sheltered sunny spot. 





" When fruit and leaf are as gold and fire 
And the oat is heard above the lyre, 
And the hoofed heel of the Satyr crushes 
The chesnut husk at the chesnut root.' 1 ' 1 


WHY should we talk of the sadness of Autumn ? of Autumn, 
the hectic flush of nature before it dies ? Do we Colour in 
talk of the sadness of sunset ? Nay, rather of its fas Borders 
glory. And so in Autumn all nature flames in triumph before 
it sinks peacefully into its Winter's sleep the sleep that is 
rest, not death ; rest in which to renew its youth and its 
strength, as sunset brings us nearer the sleep from which 
we rise with renewed energy for the work of the new day. 
In the garden Autumn is, indeed, the crowning glory of 
the year, bringing us the fruition of months of thought and 
care and toil. And at no season, save perhaps in Daffodil 
time, do we get such superb colour effects as from August to 

Our borders are now all ablaze with a hundred brilliant 
flowers; and foremost in startling colour, more vivid even 
than the Penstemons, are Begonias, the easiest grown of all 
modern innovations. Whether we raise them from seed or 
buy the seedlings, the kindly creatures increase in size with 
surprising rapidity, and only ask to be kept in a little dry 
sand or cocoanut fibre in some frost-proof corner for the Winter. 
Much as one loves one's faithful Geraniums, it cannot be denied 
that Begonias make a far finer show in the borders, while they 
take a quarter of the trouble to grow and keep. But I rejoice 
to think that nothing can take the place of our Geraniums for 
certain purposes. For Begonias are useless for cutting; and 
how could we dispense with the rich scarlets, the clear pinks, 
and the delightful ivy leaf Geraniums ? Few things are prettier 
or more satisfactory in the Autumn garden than the mixture 
of white Paris Daisies with the pink Mme. Crausse, or the 
vivid crimson Souv. de Charles Turner, whether in beds, or in 

R 129 

Cannas, tubs and boxes, hanging over a low terrace wall, or trailing 

Dahlias and down a long flight of steps. 

Sweet Peas How fine, too, are the Cannas in our Autumn garden. 

The mere recollection of certain beds of Cannas and Begonias, 
with here and there a touch of the dark leaves of the Ricinus 
to temper the blaze of colour, in a world-famous garden that 
I love, is enough to warm one through on these grey, chill, 
snowy days. And Cannas again are even more accommodating 
than Begonias ; for they can just be laid under the green house 
stage and left there for the Winter with, if possible, less thought 
than we give the Fuchsias stored on their sides along with them. 
Dahlias are in their fullest beauty in these Autumn 
months ; and few plants give us a greater variety of rich and 
delicate shades. Planted in a row to shut out some bit of the 
garden that is past its beauty, or massed together in some 
prominent spot, Dahlias are seen at their best. I came across 
a long hedge I can call it nothing else of tall cactus Dahlias 
of every imaginable colour set against the edge of a Fir wood, 
on a late Autumn day a couple of years ago ; and their effect 
against the dark shade of the Scotch Firs showed, so I thought, 
that this was indeed the perfect usage for these grand and 
easily grown flowers. In this neighbourhood every cottage 
garden is gay with them in Autumn ; and the churchyard on 
Sunday is turned by loving hands into a veritable parterre 
with their handsome blooms. 

Late plantings of Sweet Peas, which are too often considered 
mere Summer flowers, make a rare addition to our Autumn 
show. Personally I prefer these most delightful of flowers 
grown in rows of separate colours ; and a hedge of Salopian, 
Hon. Mrs Kenyon, Gorgeous, Alice Eckford, Blanche Burpee, 








Black Knight, Dainty, Miss Willmott, Celestial, Oriental, Autumn. 
Dorothy Eckford, and Mrs Walter Wright, sown in five-foot Larkspur 
lengths, has this year flowered on till the frosts, a really beautiful an( j 
object for nearly three months. Michaelmas 

Another annual which will even survive a few quite sharp ^ . . 
frosts, is perhaps the most effective introduction in this class 
that exists Button's rosy-scarlet stock-flowered Larkspur. It 
is impossible to praise this flower too warmly. Growing about 
three feet high, with vigorous and yet graceful branching 
habit, it blooms continuously all through the Autumn, and pro- 
duces, if grown in masses with the plants some six inches apart, 
an effect which for brilliancy and duration cannot be surpassed ; 
while its long spikes of beautiful semi-double flowers last for 
many days in water and travel well. 

Michaelmas Daisies, beloved of bees and butterflies, peren- 
nial Sunflowers, the curse of the farmers of Western America, 
and Chrysanthemums, the joy of high and low to these our 
thoughts naturally turn in Autumn ; and they open a large 
horizon. Endless are their varieties and invaluable their use, if 
used with discretion ; for even these, or to speak more accurately 
the first two, may be abused. In one garden I know, a fine 
collection of Michaelmas Daisies carefully called Starworts by 
their owner, but I am old-fashioned and love the old name 
best have been crowded together in two huge borders on 
either side of a path, with nothing to relieve them. The effect 
is so utterly dismal as to get on one's nerves and make one 
wish never to see the plant again. And I was only enabled to 
tolerate the poor misused flowers by recalling a vision above 
the Hudson River one October day long years ago, when the 
feet of the Cadets, as they marched to chapel at West Point 

Helianthus, Academy, brushed through a delicate lilac mist of dwarf Asters, 

Helenium a s they are called over there, among the sparse grass of the parade 

and Chry- ground. And then as I recollected other taller kinds growing 

santhemum w ^ tn Golden Rod and Lobelia cardinalis along the Erie Railroad, 
in Northern New York State, mother nature's way seemed best 
after all. For if we must needs make " collections " of these 
Autumn flowers, let us at all events remember that she does not 
grow them all alone in straight beds, but subtly blends them 
with many another plant in their own homes. No " collection," 
however perfect, can rival nature's gardening ; and if we would 
enjoy our treasures to the full we must humbly endeavour to 
follow her methods, planting them among other flowers that 
shall enhance their beauty and ensure us a steady succession of 
colour throughout the year. The endless varieties of Helianthus, 
single and double, and the Heleniums, especially the handsome 
H. gran die eph alum striatum, are invaluable both for effect in 
the Autumn garden and for decoration indoors. And they 
mingle well with the Asters. 

But as we turn for some of our most precious Spring 
delights to Japan, so do we turn to the Island Kingdom for the 
most priceless of Autumn flowers, the badge of Nippon, the 
Chrysanthemum. Of show Chrysanthemums as big as a hat this 
is not the place to speak. But of late years the humble border 
Chrysanthemums which, with their small yellow, white, and 
purple-brown flowers still make many a labouring man's garden 
as gay in Autumn as his ranks of Our Lady's Lilies do in 
Summer, have been developed to such an amazing extent that 
no self-respecting garden can do without them. The varieties 
are now so endless that it is difficult to indicate which are the 
best. But for actual effect, some of the older yellow sorts, both 

pompon and large flowered, are hard to beat when grown in Autumn, 
masses; and the same may be said of many of the beautiful Colour 
white varieties ; while for cutting as well as for border decora- Effects 
tion there are every imaginable shade and shape in pink, bronze, 
and darkest brown-crimson. 

Possible combinations in planting beds so as to produce a 
continuous colour effect from Spring till Winter frosts end all, 
are pleasant food for thought. One might be made of pale 
blue Delphiniums as a foundation, thickly planted between with 
the white border Chrysanthemum, pierced through with scores 
of the flaming swords of Gladiolus. Or for a late effect in some 
fairly sheltered spot, what could be more effective than the 
tall, graceful, white Michaelmas Daisy, with masses of Lobelia 
cardinality the branching delicacy of the one set off by the 
dark brown pointed leaves and vivid scarlet flowers of the 
other, while Lilium auratum should tower over all ? And 
such a bed need not go bare till Daisy and Lobelia and Lily are 
in flower ; for a carpet of blue or mauve Violas will keep it gay 
till the proud Autumn beauties rise above their lowliness. Or in 
place of Chrysanthemum or Aster the noble Hydrangea pani- 
culata grandiflora, another treasure for garden and conservatory 
from Japan, may be used with Lilies, Gladiolus and Lobelia. 
For we cannot have too much of this fine and hardy plant, 
either planted among choice Rhododendrons and Azaleas, or in 
groups by itself, always allowing plenty of room for each 
plant to expand. In the famous Garden of Delight that I 
love, it is used in many ways ; as small standards in the more 
formal borders, or growing at will in the water and wild 
gardens, or sunk in pots among other choice flowers on the 
steep slope of the lawn ; while its pink and blue cousin has a 

Autumn fairy glade to itself beyond the Lily ponds, under the great 
Roses Oak trees against the wooded hillside, dozens of the plants being 
sunk together in the green moist turf. 

But precious and lovely as all these are, there is something 
more precious still. An Autumn Rose. What magic there is in 
the mere word. And such a joy is within the reach of all who 
own a garden in these days. Each year adds to the number of 
all kinds of Autumn-flowering Roses, especially among the Teas 
and hybrid Teas. Nor must we forget the many faithful 
friends among the hybrid perpetuals, such as the invaluable 
Ulrich Brunner, Mrs John Laing, Fisher Holmes, Mrs 
Sharman Crawford, Alfred Colomb, Pride of Waltham, 
Margaret Dickson, and the new and superb Frau Karl 
Druschki. Few things in the Autumn garden are more 
effective than a mass of some of those glorious copper-red and 
china-pink shades which we get among the Teas, such, for 
instance, as Souv. de Catherine Guillot, or the darker Souv. de 
J. B. Guillot, General Schablikine, Mme. Lambard, Papa 
Gontier, Baronne de Hoffman, and Amabilis, though these two 
last are not known as they should be in English gardens. Or 
of some of the clear pinks of such hybrid Teas as Belle Siebrecht 
(Mrs W. G. Grant), Killarney, La France, Captain Christy, and 
the exquisite Caroline Testout, one of the most invaluable of 
the class, and never to be forgotten by any one who has seen 
the two long borders of this grand Rose leading down to the 
north front of Holland House. While among the darker shades 
we find such free blooming Roses as the fiery Gruss an Teplitz, 
in flower from May to December against a west wall, Lady 
Battersea, Liberty, and Marquise de Salisbury. Of the yellow, 
orange, white and flesh-coloured Teas and hybrid Teas that flower 


freely in Autumn the faithful Marie Van Houtte stands pre- Autumn, 
eminent, closely followed by Anna Olivier, Antoine Rivoire, Late Roses 
Enchantress, G. Nabonnand, Gustave Regis, Kaiserin Augusta 
Victoria, Mine. Cadeau Ramey, Mme. Ravary, Dr Grill, 
Prince de Bulgarie, Viscountess Folkestone, and Coquette de 
Lyon. But a group of that most perfect of modern Roses, 
Mme. Abel Chatenay in October, is hard to beat ; for until a 
really sharp frost comes her lovely flowers are borne in abundance 
on the branching shoots of the same year, and last better in 
water than almost any other late Rose. The effect of several 
plants of this Rose is very striking. But there is one other, 
scarcely known in England, which is just as lasting and even 
more brilliant, Monsieur Tillier, raised by Bernaix of Lyons. 
Why this Rose should not be more generally cultivated is a 
mystery, except that being of medium size and curiously im- 
bricated, it is not strictly speaking an exhibition flower. Its 
handsome, nearly evergreen foliage, its abundant blossoms, its 
singular colour, a vivid brick red on a copper base with 
crimson on the outer petals, its sweet scent, and its usefulness as 
a cut flower, ought to bring it into favour in every garden. A 
group of three or four plants are here in constant flower from 
May to November, and make a bright splash of colour right 
across the garden. 

Of China Roses we can never have too many : yet how 
few amateurs bestow sufficient care and kindness upon them. 
" The common old China," one hears them say, " that can be 
grown anywhere ; " and being neglected and starved it does in 
very truth bear out the scornful description. But grown with 
the same generous treatment bestowed on a Rose that costs 
75. 6d. instead of 9d., what a lovely object is a big plant of the 


Autumn old pink China, the parent of so many beautiful children. In 
Roses the Garden of Delight where nothing is considered common or 
unclean, huge bushes of it grow at intervals along the side of 
the broad walk above the Lily ponds, and make a striking show 
even when just across the walk rare sub-tropical plants, with 
Fuchsias, Geraniums, Plumbagos, pink Hydrangeas, and dazzling 
scarlet Erythrinas are sunk in the velvet turf. Of the newer 
kinds, Laurette Messimy and Mme. Eugene Resal, no praise 
can be excessive, for a bed of these mixed with a few of the pink 
sorts, planted pretty close together, is a never-ending delight. 
And now that the new climbing Field Marshal, with its large 
fine flowers of deepest scarlet-crimson, has added a fresh joy, 
this lovely family is indeed complete. 

Of white Roses many are at their best in the Autumn, 
such as the faithful Souv. de Malmaison, and two charming 
Musk Roses, Princesse de Nassau and Fringed Musk. The two 
double-white Rugosas, Blanc Double de Coubert and the en- 
chanting Mme. Georges Bruant, which, by the way, is seen to 
perfection as a standard, both flower freely in Autumn. And 
among the delicious little dwarf Polyanthas numbers of white, 
pink, and coppery-yellow seem as if they could never flower 

Though we have not yet found a perpetual Crimson 
Rambler, Field Marshal, which I have just mentioned, has 
added a noble rose to our red Autumn climbing Roses, and 
with Reine Olga de Wurtemburg, Francois Crousse, Ards 
Rover, Longworth Rambler, and handsome Bardou Job, there 
need be no lack of strong colour on pillars, arches, or walls. 
Most of the Noisettes prolong the Rose season right into the 
Winter, and begin again in April. On the old Jaune Desprez, 


sweetest of all the family, for which we now look in vain in Autumn. 

most catalogues, clusters of soft yellow and pink blossoms hang Trees for 

from the end of every shoot filling the air with their fragrance, Colour 

its handsome foliage keeping green on a south-west wall till 

nearly the end of Winter. Close by little Ophirie is a mass of 

bloom till long after the first frosts. Climbing Captain Christy, 

which was at its best in July, manages still to give a few huge 

blossoms in October ; and the invaluable and semi-evergreen Reve 

d'Or, with Celine Forestier, Alister Stella Gray, Belle Lyonaise, 

give us our needed yellows and creams, while Aimee Vibert 

flings its vigorous shoots and white clusters over the nearest 


Colour effects in the Autumn garden are, however, by no 
means dependent on flowers alone, fortunately for us. For the 
first frosts, which blacken our Dahlias and make us hasten to 
clear the beds of Begonias and their other charms, create a fresh 
glory among the trees and shrubs. And, in planting our 
gardens, it is well to pause and reflect upon this very important 
and attractive question ; as many and great are the possible 
mistakes that come from haste and carelessness. Things beauti- 
ful in themselves may be so misused as to produce a perfectly 
detestable effect. And this we should always bear in mind in 
our plantings ; for it is on the use, not the abuse, of our 
materials that our picture depends. As an instance of what 
should and should not be done with that invaluable tree, 
Prunus Pissardi, the purple Japanese Plum, I see two gardens 
in my mind's eye. In one, fine trees of the Plum are planted 
alternately with equally fine trees of the white Acer negundo 
var., among stiff borders on either side of a broad walk, and 
their monotonous formality is the one and only thing that 

S 137 

Shrubs for strikes the mind of the spectator. In the other a few a very 
Colour few trees of the Plum stand at far intervals on the right of 
another long broad walk, among masses of every kind of flower, 
Roses, Hollyhocks, Gladioli, Lilies, pink and white flowering 
Cherries, with a background of fruit trees against a high red- 
brick wall ; and on the left velvet-green turf slopes down to 
the chain of Lily ponds, with the wild garden and lofty forest 
trees beyond them. In the first, the unimaginative soul of some 
head gardener has produced an effect as hideous and uninterest- 
ing as the squares on a chess-board ; in the other, exquisite 
feeling for nature, and a deep and artistic sense of her beauty, 
has written a veritable poem in flower and foliage ; for all blend 
into one subtle harmony, each item enhancing the loveliness of 
its surroundings. 

Again, how easily that handsome and useful shrub, the 
Golden Elder, becomes a nightmare in some gardens. And 
yet what is more brilliant for many months than its vigorous 
growth, set against a background of dark Hollies, or reflected 
in the still waters of a lake. On the dullest of days, under the 
most leaden of skies, it is light in a dark place, a little blot 
of sunshine in itself. Yet how intolerable when planted in long 
rows with so obvious a contrast as purple-leaved Nut ! But 
if these rather positive and violent shrubs are used sparingly 
and with due caution, they are the source of delight they are 
meant to be. 

Of the shrubby Spiraeas one can hardly have enough in 
the garden, especially of the invaluable S. pruntfolia. This 
is a joy from early Spring with its fairy rosettes of white borne 
in long wreaths along each stem, and its fine metallic blue- 
green foliage in Summer, which in Autumn runs through every 

138 ' 

shade of the green and purple one sees on a pigeon's lustrous Autumn, 
breast, till the yellow and red from the heart of the bush turn Shrubs for 
it to clear flame just shot at the points of the shoots with Colour 
amethystine purple. Invaluable, indeed, is such a shrub, 
vigorous, hardy, and keeping its foliage long after its hand- 
some companion, S. opulifolla aurea y has shed its golden leaves. 
A group of these Spiraeas, with the Guelder Rose, Rbus Cotinus, 
Exocborda grandtflora, a snowy Mespilus, and just one or 
two moderate-sized plants of Cornus sanguinea for the deepest 
note, would produce an exquisite harmony of tender and rich 
tones through all the months of flower and leafage. 

Among Japanese Maples we get endless and beautiful 
colour effects, from brilliant green through reds of various tones 
to deepest crimson-purple. But these precious gifts among the 
many that Japan has bestowed upon the Western world, must 
not be thrust pell-mell into a shrubbery bed, but planted out 
on the lawn, and for choice on some brow of the lawn, where 
their beauties can be seen from all sides. Nothing is more 
attractive than a well-selected group of the many varieties of 
Acer palmatum, placed in such a manner that while sufficient 
space is left to allow us to move between them and examine 
the singular delicacy of their many forms and colours, they shall 
be near enough to blend one with the other when seen from a 
little distance. But strangely enough, though all plants and 
trees from the land of our gallant little allies seem perfectly 
in place in the English landscape, the American Maples are 
apt to look crude among our British foliage and under our 
quiet skies. Crude enough they are in their own land in all 
conscience ; yet in that light atmosphere, under that implacable 
sky, they seem part and parcel of the whole. But when they 

Colour in are transported to the older and more sober continent, they 
the Hedge- strike a somewhat harsh and disagreeable note, and produce a 
rows s Ptty effect in the subdued and solid tints of the landscape. 

Another charming colour effect even after the leaves have 
fallen is due to the wild Briar-Rose and the Sweet-briar, in hedge 
or shrubbery. As I write in bright sunshine on the snow-clad 
land, the deep green of Gorse, Broom, and Holly hedges is broken 
in many places by a crimson mist the fruit of the wild Roses, 
which, much against the gardener's wish, have been allowed to 
grow as they please, and fling their long shoots high above the 
green. Fairy-like masses of pink and white in June, they turn 
from scarlet to crimson as the Autumn goes on ; and as the birds 
greatly prefer the handsome fruits of Rosa rugosa to the humbler 
English Rose, they are left to adorn the hedges even in twenty- 
five degrees of frost. And many another beautiful effect may 
be gained by the use of everyday trees which are usually left 
to grow wild in copse and woodland, or relegated for " useful " 
purposes only to the kitchen garden or orchard. I mean fruit 
trees both wild and tame. Who that has lived in the north of 
Hampshire can forget the vivid flame of our wild Cherries in 
Autumn, huge mountains of snow in Spring that turn to trees 
of fire in October ; or the beauty of Crab Apples both in flower 
and fruit, growing with May trees right out among the Firs and 
Heather. And why should we not bring some of the Pears, 
which take on such gorgeous Autumn clothing, into our gardens, 
instead of banishing them to unseen and unvisited regions ? 
They would fulfil the object for which they are grown every 
whit as well, and add a fresh delight to the eye in Spring and 
Autumn. Some of the Apples also, such as Worcester Pearmain, 
and the dear old red Devonshire Quarrenden, set thickly in late 

August and September with scarlet and crimson fruit, vie in Autumn, 
intensity of colour with many of our most brilliant flowers. The Colour of 
Medlar again is among the most ornamental of Autumn trees, Fruit Trees 
its leaves lasting in a glory of orange and red for a full month, 
while close by the Spindle tree's fringes of pink coral in the 
hedge hang above the rich foliage of the Bramble. 

Thus by wisely using all that is beautiful, whether costly 
or common, may we prolong the glory of Autumn into the heart 
of Winter. And by such dreams of beauty, the remembrance of 
what has been and the faith in what will be, may we keep 
warm, thankful hearts and hopeful souls through the dark 
days to come. 




" Spring, the young morn, and Summer, the strong noon, 
Have dreamed and done and died for Autumn's sake." 

R. Le Gallienne. 

"Where are the songs of Spring? ay, where are they? 
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, 
While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, 
And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue." 

John Keats. 

Late T N September many late annuals are in perfection ; coming 
Annuals at a time when the great burst of summer flowers is 

over, they form a valuable addition to the colour of the 

China Asters CaUlstephus are among those universally 
grown for this purpose. I am not personally fond of the stiff low 
kinds with flowers which imitate Chrysanthemums, but the single 
one illustrated Aster sinensis is a much more graceful plant, 
bearing Daisy-like flowers five inches across, mauve, pink or 
white. We grow them round one of the Tea-Rose beds, the 
cool mauve tones and the bronze autumn shoots of the Roses 
making a pleasing scheme of colour which the purple and 
lilac of the Clematises trained on chains above complete very 
well. These Asters should be raised in a little heat and be 
planted out early in June. They repay very much a share 
of the manure water given to the Roses. 

The tall varieties of the annual Larkspurs to be had 
in separate colours such as rose-scarlet, white or purple will 
make effective clumps of colour three feet high in front of 




shrubs, and have a happy way of seeding themselves and September, 
reappearing another year. White Cosmos, growing a foot Late 
or so taller, looks very well associated with them, and lasts Annuals 
till November. 

Gorgeous effects of orange and red are easily attainable 
now, with such plants as Nasturtiums, Marigolds tall and 
dwarf, single and double Gaillardias, Zinnias, Escboltxia, 
Viscaria, Coreopsis, etc. Next to the orange such purple 
annuals as Whitlavia, Salvia horminum, Linaria, etc., give 
brilliance. There are numbers of other useful annuals, but a 
few which should not be omitted are, late-sown Sweet Peas, 
Antirrhinums, Nicotiana affinis, and the new pink N. Saun- 
derce, Autumn Stocks, Salpiglossis with its fine range of 
colours and finely-shaped and veined flowers and Marguerite 
Carnations. The latter must be raised in heat early in the 
year ; if planted out in May they will flower well through the 
autumn and up to the end of November out of doors, and can 
then be potted up and grown in the greenhouse through the 

The biennial Campanula pyramidalis is a most adaptable 
plant, excellent for pot culture, and prospers in shade or sun. 
It seeds and establishes itself, sometimes in such unlikely spots 
as a gravel path or a brick wall. Under trees the individual 
flowers are generally larger and the spikes more graceful. For 
pots, seed should be sown in May or June, and the young 
plants kept in a cold frame through the winter. If given 
plenty of good nourishment they lose the rather sturdy growth 
which they have out of doors, and make several graceful spires 
five to eight feet long. So much effect is given from one pot 
that they are particularly useful for filling up gaps made by 

Lobelia plants that have gone over, or for grouping where colour is 
and wanted. Down a Rose Pergola, for instance, one may be 
Penstemon sun k at every post ; the green Rose sprays make a good back- 
ground to their upright growth, and if the dead flowers are 
picked off they will flower from the end of July to the 
beginning of November. 

Lobelia cardinalis and L. fulgens both flower the 
same year from seed sown early in heat, but they are really 
perennial, and should be stored in a cold frame through the 
Winter, and kept rather dry while they are at rest. Lobelia 
fulgens or splendens is the handsomer variety, as the foliage 
and stems are dark plum colour ; it is more delicate than 
cardinalis, being apt to die from disease in the Winter if not 
carefully looked after and all signs of rust cut away. When 
planted out in the early Summer they need a moist, leafy soil, 
and plenty of water. The stock can be increased by standing 
a few plants in heat early in the Spring and making cuttings of 
the young shoots, which will become good flowering plants the 
same year. Their handsome red spikes, set off by the dark 
leaves, are very effective, and are worth massing in beds by 
themselves, with Gannas and Castor Oil plants, or with plants 
of a cooler tone, such as Variegated Maize or Hyacinthus 

The Hybrid Penstemons also make rich beds through the 
Autumn, the shape and setting of the flower-heads reminding 
one of Foxgloves. They are easily raised from seed sown 
in heat early in the year ; the young plants should be put out 
in May in a well-drained bed of good rich soil, and will flower 
well through the Summer and up to the end of November. 
We cannot rely on them here to stand the Winter ; those that 












do are evergreen, make big bushes and flower much sooner September, 
than the seedlings. Good varieties can be increased from Penstemon 
cuttings made from the side shoots in September, struck in boxes 
of sandy soil, and kept in a cold frame through the Winter. 
Many of the new seedlings are beautiful, with large, well- 
opened flowers, running through shades from white to crimson, 
and including good pinks and cherry-reds with white throats. 
Some ugly magenta kinds are sure to appear, but they should 
be an exception and can be discarded. The finest of all the 
dark ones is called M. Millardet, and is a deep, glossy, Indian 

There are other useful varieties of Penstemon, such as 
Barbatus called also Chelone barbata with graceful long 
spikes of salmon-pink flowers, but much smaller individually 
than those of the Hybrids. P. Newry Scarlet is a small- 
flowered variety with a long trumpet, deep crimson-scarlet in 
colour, a profuse bloomer, and lasting until late in the Autumn ; 
it is hardier than most kinds, and can be left in the open border 
through a not too severe Winter. One of the most charming of 
all is P. heterophyllous ; the buds are pink on opening, and 
change as does a Forget-me-not to an exquisite shade of pale 

A plant nearly related to the Penstemons, and like them in 
the form of the scarlet flower spike, is Pbygelius capensls. 
It does well with us under a south wall, flowering till late 
Autumn, but in the borders it is not a success. 

In the wood we have an effect which has almost the 
delight of a spring one Cyclamen Neapolitanum are making 
shining clumps of white among the Ivy trails and the already 
falling leaves. These tiny, pure white flowers, with their 

Cyclamen pointed petals and warm yellow stalks, have a peculiar charm of 

Neapoli- their own. They last five or six weeks, and then the leaves 

tanum t> e g m to appear growing up through the fading flowers and 

themselves lasting in beauty all through the Winter and 

Spring; they are light green, beautifully blotched and veined 

with grey. This Cyclamen has been established with us many 

years on its wood bank, and has now made large tubers, but 

growth is very slow to start with, and it does not seed itself like 

Cyclamen Coum, probably owing to the date of its flowering. 

We pick the ripened seed and raise young plants in a cold frame. 

A complete contrast, in the way of woodland effect, is 
given by a mass of Tansy Tanacetum-vulgare and Aaron's 
Rod. They are both strong perennials, too coarse for many of 
the borders, but useful for filling some rough spot where colour 
is wanted. The yellow fluffy heads of the Aaron's Rod and 
the flat dead gold heads of the Tansy blend well together. 

Virginia Creeper ought to be now wreathing its glowing 
trails over trees and bushes. Though so commonly seen as a 
house creeper, it is not enough used in the wild garden, where 
there are so many opportunities for its picturesque use. If one 
is trained to the top of an old Apple tree, and then allowed to 
fall naturally, it will soon convert it into a shower of scarlet and 
deep red, pierced only by bunches of round green fruit, and 
relieved by the cool lawn stretching below. Or it may be 
planted at a little distance from a Fir or Larch, and swung to 
some bough a good height up, making a scarlet garland. If a 
low effect is wanted, it looks well creeping over old tree roots, 
with Clematis paniculata which is like C. flammula, but 
flowers earlier or Hydrangea scandens, with its large apple- 
green leaves. 




In the grass, Colchicum autumnale, often called Autumn September. 
Crocus, should now be coming into flower. The common one Colchicum 
is a British plant, and a first-rate one for the wild garden as its 
natural home is a meadow ; grass too makes the best setting for 
the fragile flowers which are quickly soiled in the borders, as 
their leaves do not appear till later. They may be had double 
or single, white or lilac-pink. There are other finer varieties, 
such as Colchicum giganteum and speciosum ; the flowers of the 
former are very round and cup-shaped, and twice the size of the 
C. autumnale, but they are expensive for naturalising. 

The real autumn Crocuses also begin to flower now, and 
bring even more pleasure and hope than the spring varieties, 
starting into fresh life when most plants are beginning to prepare 
for their winter rest. The illustration was painted from a lovely 
blue-purple one Crocus speciosus with veins of dark maroon 
spreading delicately over the petals, and uniting to make a dark 
stem. The stigma is very long, even the buds show a bright 
orange spot before they open. These Crocuses must be planted 
in June or July, as their foliage does not die down until the end 
of May ; like the Colchicums they look best if grown in grass. 
There are a number of European varieties which should be 
introduced into the garden if possible, such as C. nudiflorus 
very much the colour of speciosus but increasing very fast 
and pulchellus and longiflorus, mauve with yellow throats. 

Of the Japanese Anemones growing beside the Crocus too 
much can hardly be said as to their use and beauty at this season, 
either for effect in the borders or for picking. They may be had 
white, a lovely pale pink and a rather commoner full pink, and 
once established should be left undisturbed. 

The little pink plant Erlgeron mucronatus shown in 


Erigeron front of the picture, and so often seen on the Riviera or the 
mucronatus, Italian lakes, is most valuable for edges, for covering ground 
Dahlias wnere bulbs are planted, or in the rock garden, where it estab- 
lishes itself even in a brick wall. It spreads into a round tuft 
about nine inches high, covered for five or six months with 
delicate pink and white Daisy-like flowers. A stock can be easily 
and quickly raised from seed. 

Another good border plant is Sedum spectabile ; the attrac- 
tion it has for Red Admirals is its great delight any sunny day 
this month a flight of these butterflies may be seen hovering 
round the flat pink flower-heads. 

If skilfully grouped in the borders with several of the same 
colour together, a great effect can be obtained from Dahlias. 
Three or four tall pink kinds under a wall covered with the soft 
blue flowers of Ceanothus, Gloire de Versailles look particularly 
well ; clumps of white and yellow may be placed near blue 
Monkshood, or white near some low bright orange plant, such 
as African Marigolds ; or the bright salmon-red ones against 
such a dark foliage tree as the purple Prunus Pissardii. The 
Cactus varieties run through a fine range of colour, and are most 
valuable for picking. Some of the flaming reds and salmon- 
pinks are wonderful in their brilliance, and the more delicate 
tones white tinged with sulphur, and all shades of yellow up 
to a rich deep gold are equally useful. Dahlias have to be 
taken up in Autumn when frosts have cut them down, and must 
be stored in a dry place through the Winter. In May they should 
be planted out again, and need room and plenty of manure and 
water. They are most easily increased by cuttings; for this 
purpose pot them up in February and place in a warm frame ; 
young shoots will be quickly thrown up, which should be struck 


in bottom heat ; by May they will be strong enough to plant September, 
out, and make fine plants the same year. Amaryllis 

There are a good many half hardy plants which add Belladonna 
greatly to the beauty of the garden this month. Amaryllis 
Belladonna is one of the most charming the illustration was 
painted from a group near a bush of lemon-scented Verbena. 
The safest place for these lovely Lilies is a sunny border in 
front of a greenhouse, but in many gardens the protection of a 
south wall is enough. They like a soil made of good loam, leaf 
mould and sand, and must not be allowed to get too dry in the 
Summer. The leaves appear early in the Spring, disappear about 
July, and all through September they push up their dark red 
flower stalks and unfold their heads of fruit-scented white and 
pale pink flowers, which get rosier with age. Zephyranthes 
Candida growing alongside needs a warm corner too, and is a 
good neighbour with its pretty white crocus-like flowers and 
grassy green. 

The African Lily Agapanthus umbellatum is lovely all 
through August and September it lives out of doors with us 
under a south wall, but does not flower as well as those in tubs 
which are kept in the Orangery through the Winter and carried 
out of doors for the Summer. They are most effective used in 
this way on a terrace or along a stone balustrade, as the foliage is 
plentiful and of a rich dark green, showing up well the large 
blue umbels of flower. A beautiful group may be made with 
them and Plumbago, with its light graceful growth and paler 
blue flowers, their pots sunk in a bed or in the turf. The 
Plumbagos also spend the Winter in the Orangery, in June they 
are planted out, and if it is a fine Summer give quantities of 
flower through the Autumn. They combine well in the south 


Solanum border with the Bignonia, and its sprays of red-orange trumpet- 
jasminoides shaped flowers on the wall, or would look well with Auratums. 
These immense Lilies should be a feature now in the garden, but 
they refuse to grow even tolerably well with us. In a sandy or 
peaty soil they are magnificent, rearing their great heads of bloom 
among Azaleas and Rhododendrons, and lasting even till 
October, when the Azaleas have taken on their autumn shades 
of plum and russet and red which form such a perfect setting for 
the white richly-spotted flowers. 

A lovely creeper which we cannot succeed in flowering well 
is Solanum jasminoides, but in the West of England I have seen 
many houses wreathed with its delicate leaves, and the hanging loose 
white bunches of tiny flowers, looking like some hot-house creeper. 

Another climber for this time is the annual Mina Lobata 
with gay red and yellow flowers, produced in great profusion on 
a sunny wall. 

All the bedding plants which need the protection of glass 
through the Winter are at their best now. The reaction against 
the formal use of these should never deprive a garden of such 
flowers as Heliotrope, the white and yellow French Daisies, 
Begonias, and a certain number of Geraniums. There are many 
places, especially near a house, where plants certain of giving 
colour through August, September and October are very valu- 
able. Begonias are among those possessing a great range of 
colour white, pink, yellow and red in which all the tints 
harmonise, and mixed beds can safely be planted without fear of 
a clashing pink or magenta. They like shade, especially in 
the early morning, and lots of water. In wet Summers, when 
Geraniums lose all beauty, they get richer and richer in effect 
and last till severe frosts begin. 


" Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, 
Close bosom friend of the maturing sun ; 
Conspiring with him how to load and bless 
With fruit the Vines that round the thatch-eaves run ; 
To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees, 
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core ; 
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells 
With a sweet kernel ; to set budding more, 
And still more, later flowers for the bees, 
Until they think warm days will never cease, 
For summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells." 

ohn Keats. 

ALTHOUGH few trees are turned as yet, real autumn Autumn 
colour is appearing in the garden. colour 

Vitis purpurea enriches its colour every day the 
whole Vine is still a mysterious tint between plum and blue- 
green with a look of bloom spread over it, but many leaves are 
already purple, and some a brilliant scarlet ; presently these 
bright tints become universal, and blend well with other richly 
coloured shrubs, such as Rbus cotinus Sumach and its many 
toned red leaves and smoke-like heads. Just now the Vine 
forms a wonderful background, as the picture shows, to plants 
of delicate colouring like Plumbago, or a pale Michaelmas 
Daisy. On the iron grill close by is Cobcea scandens, a half 
hardy perennial creeper with a very quick and charming growth. 
It will not withstand the Winter in this country, but may 
be treated as an annual, sown in heat during March, 
and planted out in June; directly the roots have hold, it 

Coboea begins to race up pillar or wall. Most of all it seems to prefer 
scandens a light sunny trellis ; on the lightest of supports string stretched 
and Vine fro m post to post a green veil will soon be formed with 
numbers of pale erect buds ; as these expand they turn down 
their trumpet-shaped flowers, which appear first cream, then 
mauve, and lastly a full purple, and are lovely in form and 
colour at all their stages. It lasts till cut off by frost, often being 
still beautiful the end of November and beginning of December. 
Vltis Coigaetia and V. Tbunbergii from China and Japan 
have not yet taken on their most brilliant tints. Both are very 
strong growers, and have very large leathery bright green leaves, 
which in Autumn turn red, orange and yellow. Thunbergii is 
the richest in colour of the two, but a little less vigorous. A very 
charming, but much smaller Vine both in foliage and growth is 
Vltis heterophylla humulifolia the bunches of turquoise blue 
berries form its great delight ; to get their full colour they must 
have plenty of sun and the warmth of a wall. 

Vines are first-rate for covering pergolas, as they keep well 
clothed to the bottom, and the colour of the leaves is much 
heightened when seen with the light through them against the 
sky. If the pergola winds through a shrubbery, or near trees, 
the long trails should be allowed to tumble naturally, or branches 
may be led up into the trees. I have seen Coigflctia spreading 
in this way from the top of a pergola into a neighbouring Yew 
tree the dark evergreen making a beautiful setting for the 
magnificent foliage either in its light green summer dress, or 
decked in its autumn hues. Two other very different pictures 
are in my remembrance ; one where it was trained on a low 
terrace-wall, as foreground to purple and brown moor, with 
boughs of a strong, late blooming yellow Rose, resembling 




Bouquet d'Or, held well above it; in the other, covering the October, 
upright supports of an old barn, and led thence on to the roof Chrysan- 
supported by a rough wooden trellis. The uses for these large themum 
Vines are many and diverse if given loam and plenty of 
manure they can be counted on for rapid growth. 

Throughout September and October and the early part of 
November, outdoor Chrysanthemums are in beauty, and most 
useful and easy to grow. In some soils they stand the Winter 
well, but a long spell of cold damp often kills them; it is 
desirable therefore to take up some plants of all varieties, store 
them for the Winter in boxes in a cold frame or outhouse, and 
divide them when replanting in the Spring; or cuttings can be 
made in the Autumn and grown on through the Winter. 

One border is now gay with clumps of cream-white 
Madame Desgranges, a bright violet Michaelmas Daisy and 
the great white Pyretbrum uliginosum^ with its bunches of large 
Daisy-like flowers. Ry croft Glory blooms in the same border 
a little later, and lasts till the end of November, blending well 
with the golds and yellows of the trees in their autumn dress. 
The single white Mary Anderson with just the faintest touch 
of pink also does well, but all the singles, though so pretty, are 
less useful, being easily spoilt by bad weather. 

There are a number of kinds worth growing if space can 
be given them in an open sunny border. The following are 
some of the best : 

J _. ' >. Both good bright colours. 

Goachers Pink ) 

Madame Auguste Nonin pretty mauve pink. 
Mademoiselle E. Poirette pale, particularly pretty 
colour at night. 

u 153 

warm yellow. 

Pompon White. Esperance green- white with a good-sized flower. 
Chrysan- White Quintus one of the best and very free 

themums flowering. 

Fiancee large flower and good stiff upright 

Yellow. Jenny orange-gold. 

Frankie orange brown. 

Paul Valade dead gold with good loose flowers. 
Plentiful small yellow. 

Orange Masse rose orange, beautiful colour. 
Orange Child 
Mytchett Beauty 
Red. Madame de Sabatier large flower of good deep 

soft tone. 
Crimson Pride. 

Many of the cottage gardens about us are gay for several 
months with Pompon Chrysanthemums, and seem often to have 
taller and better kinds than can be procured from a nurseryman. 
The nearer one gets to the sea the better they seem to do. 
White, crimson, yellow and terra-cotta are generally grown, all 
making good bushes four or five feet high and crowded with 
flowers. Some of the best-named sorts are : 

W. Holmes terra-cotta. 
William Westlake yellow. 
Mademoiselle Marthe white. 
Black Douglas fine dark red. 
Mademoiselle Elise Dordain pale pink. 
White St Grouts showing a yellow centre. 
Crimson Precosite good bright colour. 



White Lady very pretty, turning blush-pink before it October, 
fades. Early 

Perhaps the most useful of all autumn flowers are the Michaelmas 
Michaelmas Daisies ; they should be used freely in the wild r) a j sv effects 
garden, and in borders, in large groups by themselves or mixed 
with strong-growing perennials. The sketch shows some 
well-placed clumps of a tall loose variety and a low dense one, 
in front of Bocconia cordata. The cool grey-green leaves of 
this plant and the handsome spikes of seed vessels, six or seven 
feet high, and tawny-gold in the sunlight, make a delightful 

The variation in their heights, sizes and colours, and the 
different dates of flowering, must all be carefully considered 
when planting. Some open in August, others not till November, 
when nearly all flowers have disappeared ; new seedlings are 
constantly being raised, so that it is difficult to choose among 
the number of names. Aster amellus is very early, and bears 
large and very bright violet flowers ; the bush only grows about 
two feet high, and is so sturdy it needs no staking. In Septem- 
ber A. Acrls and A. Bessarabicus, low growing kinds bearing 
a multitude of flowers, will make a sheet of mauve, and with 
Monthly Roses I have seen them making a delightful foreground 
to a distant view. F. W. Burbidge, a tall strong growing one 
producing large heads of bloom on erect stalks, is excellent for 
picking or effect, the flowers are mauve and the buds rose-pink, 
giving a warm tone to the whole bush. The two small white 
kinds, Multlflorus and Niveus both blend well with it. 

For October several good effects might be planned. If 
room allows, it is delightful to be able to devote a good sized 
piece of ground to Michaelmas Daisies alone ; some rather out- 


Michaelmas of-the-way corner, too sunless for many flowers, will suit them 
Daisy effects quite well, where they can remain unnoticed till they become 
a feathery mass of white, mauve and purple. In planting for 
such an effect, it is very important to know the heights of each 
variety, so as to be sure of not swamping some altogether, and 
yet to give a varied outline, bringing some tall sorts near the 
front of the bed and some to break the edge with their graceful 
sprays. Their soft colouring would be well thrown out by 
Hollies or Yews, or they may be given a background of warmer 
tone, formed of shrubs that turn a golden brown or deep soft 
purple in Autumn. The varieties given in the following list 
will be found to make an effective group : 

Robert Parker tall good-sized mauve flower making a 

large, well-divided head. 
Margaret a blue-mauve, very tall. 
Harper Crewe tall white flowers smaller than the above 

and set in a close head. 
Punisius Pulclerrimiis very tall with large flowers of the 

palest lilac. 

Top Sawyer a large tall mauve one. 
Candida good tall white one. 
Cordtfolia elegans with a very branching growth, dark 

stems, and a multitude of tiny mauve flowers. 
Cordtfolia elegans grandis much the same as above, only 
finer. Both these sorts are excellent for picking and 
very graceful. 

Ericoides a low white, with sprays of tiny flowers. 
Viminius similar to Ericoides^ but with longer and very 

graceful sprays. 
For forming a border of graduated heights, Amellus Bcssa- 


rabicus growing only about two feet high, and the later purple October. 
Grandtflorus are suitable for the front row: Multiftorus and Culture and 
Flora white, Bouman and Amethystinus, purple and mauve, Staking 
might form a second row : Robert Parker, Harper Crewe, and 
two plants strongly resembling Michaelmas Daisies the tall 
white Pyrethrum uliginosum and Baltonia asteroides^ with soft 
grey-green leaves, would make a third taller row at the back. 

It is surprising what a delightful mass of colour an arrange- 
ment like this will give, but it will look too stiff if not carefully 
broken in some way with taller growing plants. A circle of 
Rose arches cutting the long straight lines with their green 
wreaths, and allowing a further vista of the lilac and purple 
bank to be seen, completes the picture very well. 

The big Daisy-like Pyrethrum, already mentioned, is a 
most robust grower, increasing almost too fast for the border, 
but very useful for massing. In a friend's garden I have seen 
a delightful cool green and white glade made with an unbroken 
line of the white bushes one side of a grass path, and Nut trees 
the other. 

To get the best results all the Michaelmas Daisies must be 
divided about every second year or else the middle of the clump 
gets exhausted. Many of the kinds need great care in staking ; 
the simplest way to support them is on pea-sticks, which avoids 
all risks of their being tied into unsightly bundles. If properly 
staked the result is even better, but to get a well-shaped bush 
this means using from ten to twenty light sticks for every plant. 

There are many rich-coloured plants intensifying the glory 
of the trees, to form a contrast to these cool Autumn effects just 
described, and many delicate harmonies which may be planned 
between flowers and shrubs of soft warm tones. Most of the 


Some following suggestions are taken from a garden at Harrow Weald, 
Autumn and many more will be found in the Winter article which follows, 
effects Helenium striatum, with its yellow flowers splashed with 

red is uninteresting as a single plant in a border, but massed 
near a purple Filbert or Prunus the effect is magnificent or a 
calmer colour scheme is given by grouping it with pale Michael- 
mas Daisies against a background of green and white plants. 

Salvias both blue and red are most useful at this time. S. 
patens, the deep Gentian blue one, looks well in a clump against 
the handsome foliage and white flowers of Nicotiana sylvestris. 
S. Pitcheri is of a softer, more lovely blue than the above with 
sprays of small flowers it blooms rather late for the garden but 
can be potted up and grown on in the greenhouse. There 
are several red kinds, such as S. coccinea and splendent well 
worth having; I am uncertain of the name of the one we 
grow but it makes good bushes three feet high and gives a 
glowing mass of colour till late in November. The flower spike 
is of two distinct reds, crimson and scarlet, which adds very 
much to the richness of the effect. 

The flower spikes of Hydrangea paniculata are now a soft 
flesh pink, and look well thrown out by Berberis purpurea 
the colour of a purple plum with the bloom on and above 
these might be the bright scarlet of Quercus coccinea superba. 
This Oak keeps its brilliant foliage till February, the commoner 
Quercus coccinea is never so brilliant, and is over much more 

Prunus sinensis which bears in Spring clusters of double 
white or rose coloured flowers, is now a wonderful soft copper 
pink almost impossible to describe, and delightful standing by 
itself relieved only by stretches of lawn. 







The old-fashioned Fuchsia used so frequently in Ireland October, 
for hedges makes a glowing mass of red, intensified in tone if Some 
given a background of dark Yews and something soft in colour as Autumn 
a foreground, such as the streaked green and white ribbon grass. e ff ec fc s 
A group so arranged in this Harrow garden is doing well, quite 
in the shade of tall trees and close by is another quieter but 
lovely bit of colour. At the edge of a tiny pond grows a fine 
plant of Gunnera manicata, the gigantic leaves which in a 
warm moist climate are sometimes seven or eight feet across 
still bright green, their magnificent form shown up by the 
brilliant copper yellow of Beech leaves on trees and ground. 
Japanese Maples, mentioned elsewhere, are magnificent grouped 
with Pampas grass, with space left around them to show their 

Some good shrubs are growing well in clearings in the 
same wood. Abd'ia rupestris with its clusters of tiny flowers 
of the palest pink, delicate but very useful coming into flower 
at this time. Skimmia Fortunei, with very bright green foliage 
and clusters of vermilion berries. It makes rather a stiff bush, 
but is not particular about soil and will grow under trees. 
Pernettias, ten or twelve of these shrubs will make a striking 
bit of colour : the berries, which are produced in great pro- 
fusion, vary from pale pink to crimson, and hang in bunches 
along the graceful stems. 

Many of the Berberis turn the most brilliant colours in 
the Autumn, especially Tbunbergil, the whole bush becoming a 
blaze of rosy scarlet and orange. The sketch done at Bordighera 
in early Spring when the Roses are all making their fresh brown 
red shoots, shows how brilliant an effect leaves alone can give. 
The vividness of the colour here was due a great deal to the 


Autumn effect of light, the sun being low and shining through the leaves, 
effects but many shrubs bear as brilliant colour on their leaves, and 
should be more used to give beauty of this kind. 

Medlars turn to wonderful shades of red, russet, and 
purple making a beautiful background to many flowers, and 
few rare shrubs excel in colour the common wild Cherry with 
its shades of rose and orange and yellow. In Mrs Boyle's 
garden at Huntercombe a delightful late autumn effect was 
given with a tangle of Clematis-flammula shown up by the 
vivid copper tones of a big Beech, while under the Clematis 
were clumps of big Winter Cherry Physalis Francheti 
making a mass of brilliant orange-red and yellow. 

Many of our hedgerows are full of suggestion and beauty 
at this time : Spindlewood is plentiful here covered with its 
profusion of lovely deep rose-pink berries, disclosing as they 
open the orange seeds within : growing with the Spindlewood 
are sometimes to be seen masses of ripe Rose-hips and large 
bunches of shining black Privet berries which set off both 
pink and red. 

1 60 


" I, singularly moved 
To love the lovely that are not beloved, 
Of all the Seasons, most 
Love Winter, and to trace 
The sense of the Trophonian pallor on her face. 
It is not death, but plenitude of peace ; 
And the dim cloud that does the world enfold 
Hath less the characters of dark and cold 
Than warmth and light asleep, 
And correspondent breathing seems to keep 
With the infant harvest, breathing soft below 
Its eider coverlet of snow. 
Nor is in field or garden anything 
But, duly looked into, contains serene 
The substance of things hoped for, in the Spring, 
And evidence of Summer not yet seen." 

Coventry Patmore. 




CONSIDERING how many people in England spend Winter 
the Autumn and Winter in their country homes, and Colour 
the Spring and Summer in London, it is curious that 
more pains are not taken to plant trees and shrubs which are at 
their best during the later season of the year. I propose in 
this paper to make some suggestions as to plants suitable for 
this purpose, and as to the way in which they should be treated. 
It is quite a mistake to suppose that to get good winter-colour- 
ing it is necessary to obtain rare and expensive or delicate 
specimens ; some of the finest effects can be produced by quite 
cheap and common stuff if properly handled. For instance, 
among trees, no finer contrast of coloured stems exists than that 
between Scotch Firs, when they have reached a certain age and 
lost their lower boughs, and Silver Birches, if they are inter- 
mingled, and the latter are pruned up to a height of some 1 2 
or 15 feet. Again, among shrubs, the common Snowberry 
(Sympboricarpos racemosus], which generally occurs in neglected 
shrubberies as an unpleasing half-starved weed, if the suckers 
are collected and planted in a solid mass in open ground, with 
nothing over them to obstruct the light and air, and if in the 
spring, when the sap is rising and the first sign of foliage peeps 
out, they are cut down level with the soil, so that nothing is 
visible, they will produce an appearance hardly recognisable by 
those who are only accustomed to them under ordinary condi- 
tions. They make a compact growth during the year of 2 feet 

1 Reprinted by permission from the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society. 


Massing of 6 inches to 3 feet, are covered with their delicate pink flowers 
Shrubs for in the Summer, and in the Autumn are set all over with the 
effect white fruit-balls, which last until the birds have eaten them. 
This plan of cutting down to the ground in the Spring is requisite, 
or at least highly desirable, with many other subjects to which 
I shall refer later, where winter-colouring is sought for. I have 
often found it very difficult to persuade gardeners (whether 
amateur or professional) to carry out my recommendation in 
this particular with regard to such things as Spircea Douglasii 
or Cornus sanguinea, and even when they have promised to do 
so, I have found that they have not been able to harden their 
hearts, and at the last moment have adopted the half-measure 
of cutting the plants a foot from the ground. This has the 
result of showing in Winter a stiff uniform artificial line through 
the bed with bright colouring above the line and dull below. It 
should be borne in mind that it is invariably in the young wood 
that the most vivid colour is procurable. 

What is really wanted to show autumn and winter-colour- 
ing to full advantage is that the planting should be in groups 
and masses of the same species, and though this can be more 
completely carried out in large places, yet it can be done much 
more than it is at present in gardens of every size. 

It is only of late years that it has been realised that Roses 
and herbaceous plants look far better when the same variety is 
massed together, and before long, gardeners will recognise the 
advantage of treating shrubs in the same fashion so as to develop 
the full beauty, whether of their flowers, foliage, or wood. I 
will now mention in detail some plants which, owing to their 
cheapness and hardiness, are suitable for planting in quantity 
and whose foliage turns a fine colour in Autumn. 

Pyrus ar but if oil a or Aroma floribunda can be bought Winter, 
from some of the wholesale nurserymen at a very small price Hardy 
per hundred. It is a vigorous grower, and after it has been cheap 
planted twelve months it should be cut down, when it will Shrubs 
shoot up again freely and make good compact bushes, which 
are profusely covered with sweet-scented white flowers, and 
later with small black fruit. In the Autumn the leaves turn a 
bright clear red, and remain in that state from ten days to a 
fortnight, according to the weather. 

Euonymus europteus, or common Spindlewood, treated in 
the same fashion, that is to say cut down in the Spring when 
it gets at all leggy and bare below, will make a fine free-growing 
bed of rich green colour, covered in its season with rosy-pink 
seed-cases, and will require no care or attention except weeding 
while the plants are young. 

Rosa rubrifolla. This is very seldom grown in England, 
nor does it, I think, figure generally in the nurserymen's 
catalogues here, but it is largely used on the Continent for 
hedges, and can be bought anywhere in France or Germany, 
strong plants at 6d. a piece, with of course a reduction if bought 
in any quantity. It grows fast, and, if pegged down, makes a 
very showy bed. The flower is a pretty pink, though insignifi- 
cant, but the fruit is showy, and both wood and leaf are of a soft 
downy plum-colour. If planted near a mass of Golden Elder 
or Golden Sympboricarpos^ the effect is brilliant and pleasing. 

Rosa rugosa^ the Japanese Rose, is, of course, well known, 
and the wealth of odorous flower, especially of the white variety, 
is not to be despised ; but the fine haws through August and 
September are its chief merit, being large, abundant, and showy. 
The rough hirsute stems, too, show up well when the leaf is 

Hardy off; moreover, it has the advantage of being cheap and repro- 
cheap ducing itself readily by suckers. It requires no treatment except 
Shrubs tne knifing back of the strong shoots in the Spring. 

Leycesteria formosa, a very old-fashioned and meritorious 
shrub now too little planted. The white Jasmin-like flowers, 
backed up by the warm Bougainvillsea-like bracts, followed 
again immediately behind by the small black cherry-like fruit, 
without stalk, mark it out to anyone who has a seeing eye, and, 
coming late in August, are very welcome. It is sub-evergreen, 
and a rampant grower where the frosts are not too hard on it. 
It stands the knife perfectly, and can be pruned back in Spring 
as severely as is thought desirable. The bright green of the large 
hollow stems makes it useful in Winter. 

Kerria japonic a var. Its habit is quite different from the 
common green type, as it is compact and bushy, the effect in a 
mass of its delicate silver foliage is excellent, being soft and not 
the least garish, it has the additional virtue of doing comparatively 
well under the shade of trees, and it holds its leaf until Winter is 
well advanced, when the green stems show up almost as bright 
as the Leycesteria. 

Fuchsia Riccartoni is a profuse autumn flowerer, and 
although anywhere north of London it dies down to the ground, 
however mild the Winter, yet the clear dark-brown wood looks 
very pretty until the time comes for it to be cut away for the new 
growth. I have never known the roots to be killed however 
severe the season. 

Among the Bamboos, Arundinaria japonic a syn. Bambusa 
Metake is the only one which is at once cheap, hardy, and 
indifferent as to soil and situation^ provided it be not too much 
exposed to wind. Though it enjoys the vicinity of water, it 


does not insist on it, and its foliage is at the best in Autumn and Winter, 
Winter ; in fact the only time when it looks shabby is after a Bamboos 
course of easterly winds in Spring. It sends up suckers very 
freely, and in some shrubberies it has a tendency to become 
a nuisance on this account, like the Polygonum. One fault it 
has in common with all Bamboos, that occasionally (though 
fortunately not often) it produces flowers something like dirty- 
looking Oats, and when it flowers it dies. I do not remember 
observing this phenomenon before last year, when in my father's 
garden at Aldenham, Herts, we lost a large mass of Metake 
about 15 feet high by 20 feet round, and about fifteen years 
old, from this cause. It flowered all over, not merely on the 
strong canes but on every tiny shoot, and this year every particle 
is stone-dead, nor has it, as I hoped it might, shot up again from 
the roots. 

This Summer also I have, to my grief, detected Pbyllostacbys 
Casttllonis and another rare Bamboo in flower, so I fear that I 
shall lose them too, although I have tried the experiment of at 
once cutting them to the ground in hopes that I may be in time 
before the exhaustion caused by flowering has reached a fatal point. 

The Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoldes] looks very well 
in Autumn if planted in a mass, but being dioecious it is 
necessary to have male plants intermingled in the proportion of 
about one to six ; when this is done the females berry profusely 
and the bright orange fruit contrasts admirably with the silver- 
grey foliage, having also the advantage, from the gardener's 
point of view, of being unpalatable to birds. It is often 
supposed that this plant requires sea air, but though the 
seaside is its home it will do perfectly well inland, and on soils 
so diverse as chalk and London clay. 


Shrubs for Perhaps one of the most effective masses of autumn 

Autumn colouring can be produced by collecting a lot of suckers or 

Colour young plants of the common Stag-horned Sumach (Rbus 

typblna] and treating it precisely as I have suggested earlier in 

this paper in the case of the common Snowberry. The 

ordinary sticky, leggy appearance of the plant is avoided, and 

by summer time you have a dense level sheet of semi-tropical 

looking foliage, 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet high, which attracts 

universal attention in September by the brilliance of its red and 

orange tints. 

Rbus glabra lacimata colours equally well and has a more 
elegant form, but it is far less vigorous, and more expensive. 

Among late-flowering trees and shrubs I can recommend 
Robinia neo-mexicana (pale violet) ; Olearla Haas til (white) ; 
Spartium junceum (rich yellow), a very suitable flower for table 
decorations ; Desmodium penduliflorum syn. Lespedexa Sieboldi 
(dark violet) ; Hibiscus of sorts, particularly the single white (totus 
alb us] ; Hub us frutlcosus fl. pL roseo, a free double-flowering 
Bramble with pompons of light pink ; Colletia spinosa (white), 
covered with Lilac-like blooms in mid-September; Ceanothus 
americanus (white), a very free flowerer; also the light blue 
deciduous variety, as to the proper name of which I am not 
certain ; and latest of all, not flowering till September, Caryopteris 
Mastacanthus (Heliotrope blue), which is one of the Sage 

Besides the above plants which I have suggested as pro- 
ducing a good autumn effect when planted in groups, I would 
recommend the following as suitable for single specimens : 
Taxodlum distichum^ or the deciduous Cypress, prefers the 
neighbourhood of water, but will do quite well without, and 


develops at the fall of the year a bright rust-colour which is very Winter. 

conspicuous. The weeping form is also distinct and beautiful. Trees for 

P bo timid villosa^ a deciduous form, is a small, erect-growing Colour effect 

tree, not unlike a Pyrus in appearance, whose autumn colouring 

is amber and orange ; it is very rarely seen in English gardens, 

but quite worth growing, though it does not appear to be of 

very vigorous constitution. I obtained our specimens from my 

neighbour, Mr Cutbush, at Barnet. Liquidambar styraciflua 

is perhaps too well known for description. It prefers a lightish 

soil, is rather troublesome to start, but when once established 

grows rapidly. The change of foliage varies very much on 

different specimens from red and orange to purple and green, but 

it is almost always beautiful. 

The Maple class is too large to deal with in a paper of this 
description, but their reputation for gorgeous foliage is well 
established in America, and though perhaps not so resplendent 
in this country, there is hardly one of them which is without 
merit when the leaves begin to colour. The true Sugar Maple 
(Acer saccbarinum] is a hardy free grower and one of the 
cheapest and most effective of its genus. 

Disanthus cercidifolia. I have known this only for two 
or three years, and cannot speak as to its constitution or special 
characteristics, but the quality of its autumn foliage is undoubted, 
the tender green circular leaves turning to a beautiful uniform 

Parrotia persica, a medium-sized tree, and like the 
Disanthus a member of the Hamamdis order, takes on a fine 
autumn colouring in which purple and orange predominate. It 
is quite hardy. 

Enkianthus japonicus and Stuartia pseudo Camellia are 

Y 169 

Trees for two plants seldom seen in England, of which the dying leaves 
Colour effect become deep red. 

All the American Oaks are more or less effective at this 
season of the year ; but far the best of them in my judgment, 
both for brilliance and for the length of time during which it 
retains its clear crimson colour is Anthony Waterer's variety 
of Quercus coccinea. 

The Amelanchiers, or Snowy Mespilus, are equally valu- 
able for their blossom in Spring and their foliage in Autumn. 
The three best with which I am acquainted are A. canadensis, 
A. oligocarpa^ and A. asiatica. 

I have found Rubus fruticosus fol. var. a general favourite 
when grown as a creeper on a pole. About the second week in 
September, when part of the fruit has ripened, the presence of 
the four colours, black and red in berry, and silver and green in 
leaf, all clearly defined, produce a unique effect. 

Within the limits of this paper I cannot deal at length with 
autumn fruits from a decorative standpoint, but I may just 
mention in passing Pyrus Malus " Ringo," P.M. " Beauty of 
Montreal," P.M. fructu luteo, and P.M. "John Downie" as 
four of the best crab-apples. 

Many of the Vines look well in September, such as Vitis 
Thunbergii and the large-leaved V. Coignetite, if grown on larch 
poles and dotted about in the shrubberies, but none surpass the 
old-fashioned V. Vtnifera purpurea (often known as the Claret- 
leafed Grape) which is hardy, free-growing, and inexpensive. 

Rbus Toxicodendron, the Poison Sumach, can be grown 
either as a creeper or bush, and is one of the most gorgeous in 
foliage at the fall of the year. The colour is that of a glorified 
Virginia creeper, orange-scarlet and vivid green intermingled. 


The highly poisonous character of its sap is its chief drawback, Winter, 
which prevents many from planting it, although we have grown Further 
it for the last twenty years without experiencing any ill Shrub 

effects< effects 

T~* 7 f* 7 1 T~l 7 x^XlV^X* LO 

iLuonymus europceus latijolius and E. alatus amencanus are 
the two finest forms of the common deciduous spindlewood, and 
are deserving of a place in every garden, the first (which can be 
procured either as a shrub or standard) on account of its bold red 
seed-cases, shaped something like a biretta, and the second 
because the leaves turn a clear uniform rosy-red. They make 
strong bushes. 

Cercidiphyllum japonicum looks like a refined pyramidal 
form of Judas tree, and though not, I think, very hardy, and 
suffering from spring frosts, is worth growing for the shape and 
soft red autumn colour of the leaves. 

Vaccinium corymbosum, the most showy variant of its class, 
and Fothergilla alnlfolia are somewhat rare plants which 
colour well, and both thrive better where the soil is peaty. 

Spiraa ulmifolia and S. Fortunei superba are two of the 
best of this large class ; in Autumn, in the case of the first the 
leaves change to a deep plum colour, and in that of the second 
they are varied and brilliant in tone. 

For the same reasons Berber is Thunbergii, Cerasus vulgaris, 
and Rbus Cotinus should not be neglected, but they are too well 
known to need further recommendation. I would only add a 
warning that the last is not very patient of the knife, and should 
be but lightly pruned, and that only in Spring, just as the sap 
is rising. 

I will conclude this branch of my paper with mentioning 
Idesia polycarpa. It belongs to a rare order, the Bixince&, and 


Coloured thrives well in a strong soil ; its large light green leaves and 
Stems bright red petioles give it a decidedly taking appearance. 

For brilliance of winter colouring of the wood or twigs, 
nothing can surpass Cornus sanguinea or Scarlet Dogwood if 
planted in quantity and treated as recommended for Symphori- 
carpos. In Summer it has no special merit, but from the moment 
the leaves begin to turn, it steadily improves in colour until the 
sap is thoroughly down, and then on a bright frosty day the 
hundreds of canes some 4 to 5 feet long glow in the Winter's 
sun like a pigeon's blood ruby. The silver variegated form has 
greatly the advantage in Summer, but it is, comparatively 
speaking, a weakly grower, and does not make half the show in 
Winter. I may mention here that we have succeeded lately in 
fixing a bold yellow variegated sport which appeared on one of 
our plants of C. sanguinea at Aldenham. It gives promise of 
being just as vigorous as the type, and ought to prove a valuable 
addition to the garden. 

Cornus Jlaviramea. I have had this only two or three 
years, having bought it from Spath in Berlin. At present it is 
rare in England, but need not remain so, for it strikes very 
readily from cuttings. It is similar in vigour and habit to the 
preceding, but has, as its name imports, bright yellow instead 
of scarlet bark in Winter. It will, I think, prove a desirable 

Cornus sanguinea atro-sanguinea. This is a somewhat im- 
proved form which was recently introduced by Veitch of Chelsea 
and though at first it showed a disposition to revert to the type, 
now that the variant is thoroughly fixed it is worth growing as 
a single specimen by those who care for this interesting and 
diversified order of plants. 


Sambucus nigra aurea, the Golden Elder, is too garish Winter, 
when seen close, and when too freely used, as is often the case Coloured 
in small villa gardens, approaches nearly to a disfigurement; Stems 
but when planted at the water-side the reflection is very brilliant. 
The right way to use it is to mass it where it can be seen from 
a distance, and to cut it also clean down every Spring. The 
canes, which grow to about the same height as Cornus sanguinea, 
are then in Winter of a uniform very light grey, and contrast 
admirably with any adjoining dark evergreen mass such as 
Cotoneaster Simonsii. 

Forsythia suspensa is fast in growth and graceful in habit, 
but wants plenty of room. The long waving pendulous shoots 
are covered with yellow bloom in early Spring, and show up 
with a clear brown colour in Winter. 

The canes of Rubus odor at us roseus have much the same 
colour as those of the common Raspberry, but it has the 
advantage of a handsomer leaf and a more decorative compact 
habit. Moreover, the bloom is very nearly as good as R. 
nobilis, the charms of which I see my friend, Sir Herbert 
Maxwell, has been vaunting. It has the additional advantage 
where quantity is required of reproducing itself very freely from 
suckers. It should be lightly pruned and the dead canes removed 
in Spring. 

Rubus pbtznicolasius, or Japanese Wineberry, is one of the 
best of the Brambles in Autumn and Winter. It has much the 
same habit as the common Blackberry, is perfectly robust, and 
sends up a fair amount of young plants. The scarlet fruits, 
with their rust-coloured sheaths and the stout hirsute lake-red 
canes, all join to make it a valuable addition to a wild garden. 
R. biflorus is generally treated as synonymous with R. 


Shrubs, hucodermti, which is in fact distinct from it, and has a creeping 

Spring" habit like a Blackberry, whereas the former has upright canes like 

Pruning" a Raspberry, and is most showy in Winter, when it presents the 

curious and distinct effect of having been washed all over with 

lime white. In the cold, stiff clay soil to which I am accustomed 

it does not, however, appear to-be over hardy or vigorous. 

Spir<za Douglasii^ of which S. bella is a somewhat improved 
form, grows with us like a weed, and reproduces itself by the 
hundred. I used to look upon it as barely worth growing until 
it was massed and cut down every Spring ; now the beds are 
quite a sight. They are about 2 feet 6 inches high and perfectly 
solid, a sheet of flower in August, rather later than if the plants 
had not been cut, and a couple of months later the fine straightish 
canes will all turn to the tone of the clearest hazel-nut. 

Spir&a c allot a, though somewhat more expensive to plant 
in mass, is very fine if treated in the same fashion. The flower- 
ing is improved rather than injured by the treatment, and the 
canes, though of the same colour when bare as the last named, 
are much stouter, of looser habit, and bolder and more varied 
in growth. 

Spir&a canescens or S. hypericlfolla look well at all times of 
the year, and however dealt with, they make large graceful shrubs 
of pendulous habit, covered with small clear white bloom, or if 
cut down and massed they grow thickly about 18 inches high, 
and the tiny refined leaves are always admired, while the bright 
dark wood make them conspicuous in the dead of the year. 

Berberis vulgaris purpurea. The handsome foliage of 
this shrub is well known, but it has a tendency to get leggy, 
carrying few or no leaves within 2 or 3 feet of the ground. A 
couple of years ago I tried the experiment of cutting down a 


fairly large bed in the Spring, with the result that we had a very Winter. 
fine show of plum-coloured stems in the following Winter ; but Willows 
this rich purple is entirely confined to the young wood. 

Populus canadensis aurea. A showy bed can be produced 
by cuttings of this free-growing plant if cut down each Spring, 
and it has the merit of being at its best in September, when the 
Golden Elder and other shrubs of like foliage have lost their 
brilliance. Moreover, the yellow wood retains its tone for some 
time after the leaf has gone. 

Pauloivnia imperialis. The expense of buying this in 
quantity has deterred me from making a bed of it and keeping 
it cut down, but the good result of doing so can be seen at Kew, 
where they have the nation's purse in which to dip their hands. 

Deufzia crenata fl. pi. In the case of this well-known 
shrub, I have also been prevented from taking a similar course, 
but for a different reason, namely, that it hardly grows with 
sufficient vigour on our heavy clay, but in a lighter soil I am 
convinced it would be a success, for, as in nearly all plants, the 
full beauty of the light brown ragged bark is confined to the 
season's growth. 

Ailanthus glandulosa. In many places I have seen this 
tree sending up suckers freely over a wide circumference round 
the parent stem ; and in such cases it would be well worth while 
to collect them and form a bed treated as I have described in the 
cases of Rbus typhina, Symphoricarpos, &c. By so doing, that 
which hitherto has been a nuisance could be converted into an 

Next to the Cornus there is nothing that looks brighter in 
bark and stem than the young growth of Willows. I have been 
collecting these for some years, and I do not think I can do 


Varieties of better than give you the benefit of my experience by making 
Willow a short list of those which I consider most striking among the 
many varieties that exist ; several of them are easily obtainable 
in England, and others I have got from Herr R. Larche, 
Baumschulen, Muskau, Silesia, who possesses a fine collection of 
forest trees. They are as follows : 
Salix grandifolia moscbata (black). 
daphnoides (chalky grey), one of the very best. 
uralensis (dark). 
laurina (dark plum). 
cardinal!* (bright red). 
alba britzensis (scarlet). 
incana (rich brown). 
" Jaune des Ardennes " (yellow). 
alba vitellina (yellow). 

Owing to the length to which this paper has already run, 
I have confined myself to the colour of the woods and not 
attempted to describe the foliage of the above varieties, which 
often differs materially and adds to the charm. 

While on this subject, although not strictly germane to the 
matter in hand, I cannot resist mentioning Salix annularis, which 
may be unknown to some of you, and which presents one of 
Nature's most curious " freaks " in the way of leaf-production. 

Willows naturally are found, and look more at home by 
the riverside, but I have observed that they do perfectly on high 
ground far removed from water ; at any rate, that is the case 
on a strong soil. 

Colutea arborescent (Bladder Senna) forms a cheap and 
free-growing bed. It stands annual cutting-down well, and 
the greyish-green bark with whitish stripes, as well as the large 

seed-cases from which it takes its popular name, alike distinguish Winter, 
it in Winter from all its surroundings. It requires protection Seaside 
from ground game. Shrubs 

Corylus Avellana purpurea is certainly at its best when 
the leaf is on, but, like all Hazels, it stands the knife so well, 
and the darkness of the young wood is so conspicuous, that it 
should not be overlooked when planting for Winter effect. The 
plants will not require annual cutting-down, but only when 
they begin to show too much wood. 

Lycium chinense. This will grow anywhere, including 
London and the seaside, and has a good appearance in Winter 
when planted above an embankment wall or parapet, so that 
its very long, trailing branches can be seen to advantage. Its 
violet flowers make up in number and continuance for lack of 
size ; the fruit is scarlet. It is sometimes absurdly called Tea 
tree, though it has no relation whatever to the Theas, Camellias, 
&c. The name arose owing to the labels on a Thea sinensis 
and a Lycium which had been imported by a Duke of Argyll 
having been transposed in error. However, the dog having 
once got a bad name, there is no stopping it any more than in 
the case of the so-called Mountain Ash, which, of course, is no 
Fr ax in us at all but one of the Rosaces. 

Tamarix japonic a is another of the few plants which enjoy 
sea breezes but are happy away from them. The effect of 
annual cutting-down on a large scale can be well seen at 
Eastbourne ; when not so treated it is apt to look mangy and 
ragged. The pink flower is most pleasing in September; the 
young wood colours well, and the feathery foliage is so distinct 
as to make it well worth growing inland for the purpose of 
contrast with such types as Laurus nobilis or Arbutus Unedo. 

z 177 

Autumn I may remark here that the careful juxtaposition of plants which 
Foliage differ in habit, colour, form, and size of foliage is too often 
neglected in the case of both trees and shrubs. 

Hydrangea panlculata grandlflora makes a grand show in 
August and September, the profuse, clear, white inflorescence 
being conspicuous from a great distance ; nor is the beauty over 
then, for the dead flower-heads which remain on the plants all 
Winter are very striking. When in December of last year 
(1903) Lord Aldenham showed a collection of cut twigs and 
stems at the Royal Horticultural Society, nothing attracted 
more attention than this. The plants are rather expensive, 
but I know a large bed of them which, with trifling renovation, 
has lasted for seventeen or eighteen years a long life com- 
pared with the choice Roses nowadays. 

The plants should be lightly pruned in Spring. 

Many of the Cytisus class are worth growing for the dark 
green wood as well as for their flowers, and Spartium junceum 
has a bolder, more open growth with stouter twigs than the 
others; none of them will tolerate hard pruning in the old 

Cassinla fulvlda syn. Diplopappus chrysophyllus has a 
soft golden colour in twigs and leaf if pegged down and trimmed 
over annually. It does best in a hot, dry, light soil. 

Rosa nitida, which is far too rarely seen, should be dealt 
with in the same way ; not only do the leaves all turn a clear 
red in Autumn, but the fine hirsute twigs all take on the same 
colour until the sap rises, and the plant is as hardy as it is 

Among other plants for Winter which from rarity or other 
reasons are more fitted for single specimens I would include : 


Fraxinus excelsior aurea, the Golden-barked Ash in its Winter, 
erect or weeping form, whose name is sufficient description. Specimen 

Salix aurea pendula, a weeping form of the Golden Plants 
Willow, which can be procured from Mr Bunyard of 

Betula aurea. I have too recently received this new 
Golden-leaved Birch, from Mr G. Paul of Cheshunt, to be able 
to speak confidently as to the colouring of its wood in Winter, 
but it mostly happens that the same cause, viz. insufficient 
chlorophyll, which produces the yellow tone in the foliage, 
makes for a like effect on the bark and twigs. 

Taxodium sempervirens, the Red-wood Cedar. 

Euonymus verrucosus, a rare deciduous variant of Spindle- 
wood whose stem is covered with curious warts, and which 
simulates to an extraordinary degree a rusty iron pole. 

Arbutus Unedo, which when old and untrimmed shows a 
great deal of fibrous chocolate-coloured bark. It is none too 
hardy north of London, but has flourished and fruited well 
with us, surviving the terrible Winter of 1894-5. 

Stepbanandrajlexuosa has very delicate foliage, almost like 
a Japanese Maple when seen a little way off; its very fine 
waving twigs are a reddish-brown. I note that it suffered from 
burning in the recent hot dry Summer. 

S. Tanak<z is a stronger, coarser, less compact form which is 
hardly ever seen in England ; it is inferior in grace of foliage 
and superior in the clear red of its twigs. The charm of either 
is destroyed if the ends of the shoots be cut over, so they must 
be allowed such room as they require. They are said to be allied 
to the Spiraeas, but have little or no superficial resemblance to 


Specimen Dlmorphanthus mandshuricus which is an Aralla^ I have 

Plants not yet tried in mass cut down, but I mean to do so, as it 
suckers most freely with us in Herts. The sub-tropical-looking 
foliage, large heads of flowers, small black fruit, and strange, 
thorny, rugged limbs when bare, all tend to make an old plant 
a remarkable object. It is perfectly hardy when dormant, but 
is liable to be killed by hard late frosts in April. 

Aristotdia Macqui, a native of Chili, is stated in the " Kew 
Hand List " to be tender and to require a wall, but has grown 
to be a large healthy bush with us; its flower is a greenish- 
white, the petioles are bright red, and the wood is a conspicuous 

Crattegus horrida is very remarkable in Winter, having 
clusters of thorns at short intervals, which face every way. 
Cratcegus saligna deserves mention for its bright red twigs 
like a Lime. 

Crattegus chlorosarca is a novelty which I got from Louis 
Chenault at Orleans. It has stout limbs, a bold indented foliage, 
chocolate-coloured varnished wood with large dark purple 

Crattegus Pyracantha Lelandi, though usually grown as a 
creeper, forms a valuable evergreen standard, and fruits very 
freely on a strong soil, the orange berries lasting as long as the 
birds will let them. 

Ribes alpinum grows in a close compact form with slender 
grey knotted twigs, and has an appearance after the fall of the 
leaf quite unlike any other Currant, or indeed any other plant 
known to me. 

Sambucus pyramidata has the same light grey wood as the 
common Elder, but its extremely close fastigiated form makes it 


surprising that it is so rarely seen, especially as it is easily Winter, 
propagated from cuttings. Specimen 

Spiraa ariafolia and the old-fashioned S. Lindleyana, the Plants 
largest grower of its varied tribe, are both conspicuous in Winter, 
the former for its graceful dead flower-heads, and the latter for 
its stems. 

Garrya elliptica, a dioecious plant, rather tender when not 
on a wall, is of value for its evergreen Ilex-like foliage, and still 
more, as far as the male is concerned, for its fine grey catkins, 
lasting from November to February. No one but a botanist 
would imagine that three plants, superficially so distinct as the 
Garrya, the Aucuba, and the Cornus all belong to the same 

Ligustrum coriaceum, a curious evergreen, quite hardy, but 
a slow grower, has rich dark green convoluted leaves in such 
profusion that no wood is seen ; they almost suggest a sea-shell 
in their form. 

Syringa Josikaa is an old Lilac which came from Hungary 
in 1835 and for some reason has gone out of fashion here. It 
is quite unlike the ordinary Persian type; it most nearly 
resembles S. Emodl of any which I know, but the foliage is 
larger, darker, and more striking, the stout, stiff, scarlet-coloured 
twigs with dark purple leaf-buds make it very noticeable in 
Winter. It grows to be a very large shrub. We have one 20 
feet high in our London garden with the stem as thick as a 
man's thigh. 

El&agnus parvtfolia is worth growing for the clear silvery- 
grey wood. It is deciduous, and hardier than its evergreen con- 
geners. E. argentea, another deciduous form, has the same merits 
as the preceding in Winter, and the silver undersides of the leaves 


Waterside look well when there is a breeze ; it bears also in Autumn a 
Plants profusion of small red berries. 

Cladrastls tinctoria, sometimes, but I believe incorrectly, 
called Virgilia lutea, and popularly known as Yellow-wood, is 
an elegant tree that thrives in any soil. It has drooping 
racemes of white flowers ; the bark is a pale yellow, but not so 
conspicuous as many that I have mentioned. The finest 
specimen I know in England is in Anthony Waterer's 
nursery at Woking. 

Alnus in can a aurea is a recent introduction from Germany 
as far as I am concerned. It is perfectly different in appearance 
from A.glutinosa aurea, as the foliage is not specially brilliant, but 
the twigs are orange-yellow and it is covered with red catkins. 
I think that everyone whose grounds are blessed by the presence 
of ornamental water ought to give it a place where it can 
get its roots into the moisture and develop its remarkable 

The mention of Alders brings me naturally to other water- 
side plants, and at the risk of being wearisome, I cannot con- 
clude this lengthy screed without enumerating a few herbaceous 
plants that have learnt the art of dying gracefully, and are as 
good or better in December than in June. 

Polygonum sachalinense, the strongest grower with the 
largest leaves of all the Knot-weeds, easily reaching to 1 2 or 15 
feet high if planted in a moist site, does not absolutely require 
water, and can safely be planted in shrubberies, as it only spreads 
to a very moderate extent. It comes from Saghalien Island, I 
believe, and has been in this country only about thirty 

P. cuspidatum, a better known but less striking plant, 


cannot be recommended for shrubberies, unless most carefully Winter. 
kept in check ; nor does it show the full beauty of its red winter Waterside 
stems unless its roots can reach water. Plants 

Rumex Hydrolapathum, the Giant Water Dock, when on 
the edge of an old moat, as it is seen in my home, is indeed a 
case of a weed in its right place ; but it is not till it begins to 
wither in September that the merit of its strong burnt-sienna- 
coloured brown leaves can be appreciated. 

Phragmites communis is a real joy, both Summer and Winter, 
with its purple flower-spikes borne on the top of its tall reeds. 
It is always waving and rustling on the stillest days, and gives 
to a pond a natural and luxuriant look which is delightful ; 
indeed it pleases eye and ear alike. 

Typha latifolia and T. angusttfotia should both be planted, 
and near together, the rich colour and large size of the first so- 
called bulrush goes so well with the refinement and lighter 
brown of the other. 

Gynerium argenteum is the best form of Pampas grass. It 
must have protection, or at any rate a very sheltered site, if it is 
to survive very hard frost ; but its silvery lightness repays the 
trouble which this entails. 

Oreocome Candoblii is not often seen. The foliage reminds 
one of fennel. It is one of the Selinums, and I note that 
Nicholson's "Dictionary of Gardening," iii. 415, boldly states 
that " the species possesses no interest from the garden standpoint." 
In point of fact, it is one of the prettiest and most distinct water- 
side plants. It grows to about 4 feet high, is covered with 
flowers and keeps on the heads through Winter, while the foliage, 
as it dries, turns to a soft golden hue. We have had a plant a 
long time, but so far, alas ! it has not reproduced itself. This 


Waterside Autumn (1904) it shows every intention of ripening its seeds, so 
Plants I hope we shall be successful in raising some more. 

Eulalia japonica xebrina and E. japonica gractllima foL 
striatis^ or more correctly, Miscanthus, are both good all the 
year round. They grow about 3 feet high and are highly 
ornamental water-grasses. The first has yellow blotches or 
transverse bars on the leaves ; the second has a longitudinal 
stripe of cream-colour on both edges and on the centre of every 
leaf. The flowers are reddish-brown plumes, something like 
those of Phragmites, and in warmer countries, where they 
appear more freely, add greatly to the beauty. 

Cyperus longus is a perennial Sedge, rare in its wild state 
as a native, though it grows freely in the Channel Islands. It 
has a stiff three-cornered or triquetrous stem, and rises to 4 
feet or more, carrying graceful brown flowers at the top of the 
plant, borne umbel-fashion on radiating leafy bracts. 

Now my long tale has really drawn to its end, and some 
may think, who know the subjects which I have treated, that I 
have exaggerated and laid on the colours too thick, that such 
words as " brilliant orange " or " vivid scarlet " are out of place 
in describing live woods. To them I would reply as Turner 
did to the man who objected that he never saw such colours in 
real sunsets as appeared in the artist's picture of them " Don't 
you wish you could ? " 

In deed and truth it is the old story of " eyes and no 
eyes." Given bright sunlight, without which no colours can 
be fully seen, there they are if we will only observe them, and 
the more we look the more we see. It is the perfect harmony 
of Nature's work which hides her brilliant hues from the 
careless, though to the patient watcher she reveals fresh beauties 


both of form and colour every day. Those who know Lord Winter. 
Tennyson's works know that he was not only a great poet, but 
a keen and accurate observer of England's flora. They will 
find recalled the coal-blackness of the Ash buds, and the 
sanguine vivid spot of ccjour in the heart of the Horse- 
chestnut bloom things which many a countryman has lived 
and died without noticing. 


2 A 185 


Abelia rupestris, 159 
Acer negundo, 137 

palmatum, 139 

saccharinum, 169 

Agapanthus umbellatum, 149 
Ailanthus, 175 
Alnus, 182 
Alstroemeria, 63, 71 
Althoea rosea, 123 
Alyssum saxatile, 52 
Amaryllis belladonna, 149 
Amelanchier, 170 

canadensis, 39 

Anchusa italica, 60, 79 
Anemone apennina, 7, 41 

blanda, 7, 18, 25 

hepatica, 25 

pulsatilla, 39 

sylvestris, 39 

coronaria, 49 

fulgens, 50 

japonica, 147 

Annuals, border of, 112 

blue, 1 13 

various, 114 

Annuals, late, 143 

orange, red, and purple, 1 43 

Antirrhinum, 114 
Aquilegia, 54 
Arabis flore pleno, 52 
Arbutus unedo, 179 
Arenaria montana, 53 
Aristotelia, 180 
Arundinaria japonica, 1 66 
Asperula odorata, 8 
Aster, 131 

sinensis, 141 

early varieties, 155 

late 156 

Aubrietia, 51 

Autumn Crocus, see Colchicum 

autumnale, 147 
Azalea, 72-74 
Azara microphylla, 10 


Bamboos, see Arundinaria, 1 66 
Bedding plants, 150 
Begonias, 129 
Berberis, 40, 174 

Berberis purpurea, 158 

Thunbergii, 159, 171 

Betula aurea, 179 
Bluebells, 7, 49 
Blue flowers, 1 1 1 

garden, in 

Bocconia cordata, 155 
Bongainvillea, 68 
Bouvardia, 126 
Browallia, 69 
Budleia globosa, 61 

Campanulas, various, 80 

pyramidalis, 143 

Candytuft, see Iberis, 52 

Canna, 4, 130 

Canterbury Bell, see Campanula, 


Carpet plants for Tulips, 1 3 
Cassinia fulvida, 178 
Catkins, 8, 9 
Ceanothus, 92, 148 

Veitchii, 55 

Cerasus vulgaris, 171 
Cercidiphyllum japonicum, 171 
Chelone barbata, see Pentstemon, 

1 88 

Cherry, wild, 160 
Chicory, 68 
China Aster, 142 
Chimonanthus fragrans, 20 
Chionodoxa Luciliae, Sardensis, 27 
Chrysanthemums, 132 

late flowering, 5 

outdoor varieties, 153 

Pompon, 154 

Cistus, 96 
Cladastris, 182 
Clerodendron foetidissima, 70 
Clematis cirrhosa, 4 

montana, 55 

effects and varieties, 117- 


paniculata, 146 

flammula, 160 

Cobnuts, 9 

Cobasa scandens, 151 

Colchicum autumnale, 147 

Coleus Thersoidens, 5 

Colinsia, 65 

Colutea, 176 

Columbine, see Aquilegia, 54 

Convolvulus, see Ipomea 

minor, in, 113 

Cornus sanguinea, 172 

flaviramea, 172 

Corydalis, 7 

Corylus, 177 

Cosmos, 71, 143 

Cotoneaster, 173 

Cotton Thistle, see Onopordon, 

Crab-apples, see Pyrus malus, 170 
Crataegus, 180 
Crocus in grass, 6, 7 

- early varieties, 8 

- vernus, 22, 23 

- autumn kinds, 147 
Crown Imperials, see Fritillaria 

Cyclamen Coum, 19 

- neapolitanum, 20, 145 
Cyperus longus, 184 
Cypress, 168 

Cytisus, 44, 178 


Daffodils, see Narcissus 
- in wood, 41 
Dahlias, 130, 148 
Daphne mezereum, 27 
Delphinium, 63, 81, in 
Dentaria pinnata, 42 
Deutzia, 175 
Dimorphanthus, 180 
Disanthus cercidifolia, 169 

Dogtooth Violets, see Ery- 


Dogwood, scarlet, see Cornus 
Doronicum, 55 

Eccromocarpus scaber, 55 
Echinops, 126 

ruthenicus, 1 25 

Elceagnus, 181 
Enkianthus japonicus, 1 69 
Epilobium alba, 107 
Eranthis hyemalis, 20 
Erigeron mucronatus, 147 
Erythronium, 6, 7 
Eulalia japonica, 184 
Euonymus europaeus, 160, 165 

latifolius, 171 

alatus americanus, 171 

verrucosus, 179 

Evening Primrose, see CEnothera, 

Everlasting Pea, see Lathyrus 

latifolius, 122 

Filbert, 9 

Forget-me-not, see Myosotis 

1 80 

Forsythia suspensa, 38, 173 
Fothergilla alnifolia, 171 
Foxgloves, 1 14 
Fraxinus, 179 
Fritillaria imperialis, i o, 1 1 

askabadensis, 1 1 

Fruit trees, 140 
Fuchsia, 159 

Riccartoni, 166 

Fumitory, 7 

Galanthus, 6, 18, 19 
Garden, blue, 1 1 1 

pink, 1 1 2 

Garrya elliptica, 8, 1 8 1 

Geranium, 81, 129 

Giant Parsnip, see Heracleum, 


Globe Thistle, see Echinops, 125 
Golden Elder, see Sambucus 
Grape Hyacinths, see Muscari 
Guelder Rose, see Viburnam, 


Gunnera manichata, 159 
Gynerium, 183 


Hazel, 8, 9 
Hedgerows, 140 
Helenium, 132 

striatum, 158 

Helianthus, 126, 152 

Hepatica, see Anemone hepatica, 

2 5 
Heracleum, 81 

Hollyhock, see Althoea rosea, 123 
Honesty, see Lunaria, 53 
Honeysuckle, see Lonicera 
Hyacinthus candicans, 125 
Hyacinth wood, 7, 49 
Hybiscus, 68 
Hydrangea, 122 

scandens, 146 

paniculata, 133, 158, 178 


Iberis, 52 

Idesia polycarpa, 171 

Incarvillea Delavayi, 71 

Inula, 65 

Ipomea rubra ccerulea, 115 

blue, 67, 68 

Iris stylosa, 5, 7 
reticulata, 24 

Iris Histrio, 25 

histrioides, 25 

tuberosa, 42 

germanica, 54, 75, 76, 


ochroleuca, 60, 77 
sibirica, 77 
orientalis, 77 
Spanish, 78 
Japanese, no 


Japanese Maples, see Acer, 139 
Jasminium nudiflorum, 20 


Kaulfussia amelloides, 69 
Kerria japonica, 38, 166 
Kniphofia, 124, 125 

Larkspur, see Delphinium 
Lathyrus latifplius, 122 
odorata, 130 

Lavender, 95 
Leycestaria Formosa, 166 
Libertia Formosa, 69 
Ligustrum, 181 
Lilium candidum, 63, 108 

croceum, 107 

Szovitzianum, 107 

- Martagon, 108 

testaceum, 108 

giganteum, 109 

Hansoni, 109 

pardalinum, 109 

umbellatum, 109 

-- tigrinum Fortunei, 122 

- auratum, 133 

Linaria, 63 

Liquidambar styraciflora, 169 

Lithospermum, 52 

Lobelia cardinalis, 69, 132, 133, 

- Fulgens, 144 
Lonicera, 66, 81 

- Douglesi, 65 
-- periclymenum, 82 
Love-in- the-Mist, see Nigella, 79 
Lunaria biennis, 1 1 , 53 
Lupinus arboreus, 78 

Lupinus polyphyllus, 78 
Lychnis, 63, 71 
Lycium, 177 



Madonna Lily, see Lilium can- 

Magnolia conspicua, 40 

stellata, 39 

Maple, see Acer 
Meconopsis cambrica, 54 
Medlars, 160 

Mespilus, see Amelanchier, 170 
Michaelmas Daisy, see Aster 
Mina lobata, 150 
Mittallia cerasiformis, 10 
Monarda didyma, 1 1 6 
Montbretia, 120 
Muscari, 12 

azureum, 20 

botryoides, 34 


Heldreichii, - 35 


Myosotis dissitiflora, 30 


Narcissus, Daffodil cernuus, 26 

naturalisation, 29, 30 

culture, 31 

- list of kinds, 32, 33, 34 

Narcissus effects, 30, 31, 40, 

4i, 49 
Nasturtium, see Tropceolum, 120 

Nemophilia insignis, 79 
Nigella, 79 
Nymphaea, 109 


Oak, American, see Quercus, 170 
CEnothera, 123 
Omphalodes verna, 53 
Onopordon illyricum, 125 
Oreocome Candoblii, 183 
Oriental Poppy, see Papaver, 79 
Ornithogalum, 26 

Pansy, see Viola 
Papaver orientale, 79 

pilorum, 79 

Parrotia persica, 169 
Paulo wnia, 175 

Peony Moutan, and officinalis in 
grass, 50, 51 

herbaceous, 60, 61, 83-87 

planting, 85 

list of varieties, 86 

Pentstemon, 144 

barbatus, 145 

Pernettia, 159 
Phlox, 1 15 
Photinia villosa, 169 
Phragmites, 183 
Phygelius capensis, 145 
Phyllostachys castillonis, 167 
Physostegia dracocephalum, 70 
Physalis Francheti, 160 
Platystemon californicus, 65 
Plumbago, 126, 149 
Polyanthus, 35, 36 
Polygonatum multiflorum, 8 
Polygonum, 182 
Poppy, French, 112 

Shirley, 1 1 2 

Populus, 175 

Primroses, see Primula vul- 

garis, 7 

Primula vulgaris, 7 
bunched, double, 35, 36 

- altaiaca, 37 

- denticulata, 42 

- cashmeriana, 42 

Sieboldi, 42 

japonica, 53 

Prunus Pissardii, 38, 60, 137 

- triloba flore pleno, 39 

- sinensis, 158 
2 B 

Ptelia kuhlia, 60 

Pyrethrum uliginosum, 153, 

Pyrus japonica, 37 

- malus floribunda, 47, 170 

- spectabilis, 47 
arbutifolia, 165 

Quercus coccinea, 170 
superba, 170 


Ranunculus, 14, 15 
Rhododendron, 73 
Rhus cotinus, 151, 171 

glabra lacinata, 168 

toxicodendron, 170 

Ribes, 10, 180 

Rosa polyantha, 89, 136 

rubrifolia, 98, 165 

wichuriana, 98, 100 

rugosa, 98, 136, 165 

nitida, 1 7 8 

multiflora 100 

Rose gardens, 88, 89, 90, 101 
Carmine Pillar, 60, 


Rose, Gloire de Dijon, 88 
- climbing, 88-92 
-- climbing early, 94 
-- for mid- June, 97 

pergola, 90 

Fortune's Yellow, 91, 94 

Madame Alfred Carriere, 
90, 94 

-China, 95, 135 
Banksian, 95 

-- Pompon, 96 

Penzance Briers, 98 

-- Scotch Briers, 98 
-- Alley, 100 
-- Ayrshire, 100 
-- for churchyard, 100 
-- beds, covering plants for, 

-- Tea, Hybrid Tea, and 

Hybrid Perpetual, 102-105 
-- culture of, 102-106 

-- pruning, 104 

-- standard, 106 
-- pests, 1 06 
-- good autumn kinds, 134, 

Rosemary, 95 
Rubus, 170, 173 
Rumex, 183 

Salix, 176 

- aurea pendula, 179 
Salvia, 65, 158 

blue, 69 

Sambucus, 173 

pramidata, 180 

Saxifraga hypnoides, 79 

Sea Buckthorn, see Hippophoe 

rhamnoides, 167 
Sedum spectabile, 143 
Scilla siberica, 27 
Shrubs, late flowering, 168 
Skimmia Fortunei, 159 
Snowberry, see Symphoricarpos, 

Snowdrop, see Galanthus, 6, 18, 

J 9 
Solanum crispum, 44 

jasminoides, 150 

Solomon Seal, see Polygonatum 

multiflorum, 8 
Spartium zunceum, 178 
Spindlewood, see Euonymus 

europseus, 160, 165 
Spiraea Thunbergii, 40 

Aruncus, 77 

Reeve si, 80 

- Douglasii, 125, 174 

Spirsea prunifolia, 138 
colour in autumn, 139 

Fortune!, 171 
ulnifolia, 171 

callosa, 174 
canascens, 174 

ariaefolia, 1 8 1 

Lindleyana, 1 8 1 

Star of Bethlehem, see Ornitho- 

galum, 26 
Stephanandra, flexuosa, 179 

tanake, 179 

Stocks, ten-week, 113 
Stuartia pseudo camellia, 169 
Sumach, see Rhus cotinus, 151 
Sweet Pea, see Lathyrus odorata, 


Symphoricarpos racemosus, 163 
Syringa, 181 

Tamarix japonica, 177 
Tanacetum vulgare, 146 
Taxodium distichum, 168 

sempervirens, 179 

Trillium grandiflorum, 53 
Tritoma, see Knifofia, 124 
Trollius, 15 
Tropceolum, 120 

Tropceolum speciosum, 96, 121 
Tulipa Greigii, 13 

clusiana, 42, 49 

Tulips, general, 12, 13 

May, use of, 44 

colour, 45 

varieties, 46-48 

Typha, 183 

Vaccinium corymbosum, 171 
Valerian, 81 
Viburnum plicatum, 56 
Vine, see Vitis 
Violets, 7, 28 
Viola, 48 

Virginian Creeper, 
Vitis quinquefolia, 146 

purpurea, 151, 170 

Coignetise, 152, 170 

heterophylla humulifolia, 

Thunbergii, 152, 170 


Walled garden, 62 
Water Lilies, hybrid, 109 


Welsh Poppies, see Meconopsis 

cambrica, 54 

Willows, see Salix, 9, 176 
Willow Herb, white, see Epilo- 

bium, 107 

Winter Aconite, see Eranthis, 20 
Winter Cherry, see Physalis, 160 
Winter Jasmine, 20 
Wistaria, 56 
Woodruff, see Asperula, 8 

Yellow- wood, see Chdrastris, 1 82 
Yuccas, 1 1 9 

Zauscheneria californica, 122 
Zephyranthes Candida, 149 













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