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Horticulture and Allied Subjects. 









The Gardeder;^' Chronicle] 

JllliC 16, 1S80. 


Aaron's Rod, 408, 436, 468, 500 

Abies Albertiana, 50 ; A. bifida. 308 ; 

A. concolor, 648 ; A. lasiocarpa at 

Brownsover Hall, 8 ; A. N'eitchii, 48 
Abies or Picea. 243 
Abutilon, a red, 242 
Abutilons, on raising seedling, 30D 
Acacia longifolia var. nuicronata, 507 ; 

A. lionialoph\lla. 209 
Acalyphas as table and room plant'^, 436 
Acantliorhiza aculeala, yj6 
Acer circinatum, 498 
Achimenes, basket, at Cliatsworlh, 210 
Aciphylla Colensoi, 75 
"Acme" labels, the, 119, 183 
Aconite root, poisoning bv, 20 
Actinidia. a new species of, 754 
Adiantum fulvum, synonymy of, 119, 182 
Adjuda, the Dragon tree of, 42 
Advertising exaggeration, 691 
Aerides Schroederi, 492 ; \'eitchii, 653 
.^isthetic wild gardening, 786 
Afghanistan, the vegetation of, 263 
Agaricus ICnierici, 240 
Agathaca caMestis fol. variegatis, 627 
Agave Rpgclii macrodonta, 489 ; A. \'ic- 

toriiie Regina?. 788 
Agricultural experience, forty ye.ars ol, 

Agroslis stolonifera, 122 
Ainsleia W'alkeri, 112 
Ainsworth's, Dr., Orchids, 492 
Alexandra Park, Manchester, spring bed- 
ding at. 598 
Algit, British, 369 
Algeria, the flora of, 754 ; the Grape 

louse in, 754 
AUman, Dr., on the winter and the 

plants. 331 
Allotment gardens, 393 
Aloes and Vuccas, 146 
Alpine garden, an, 299, 425 
Alpine plant culture, 211 
Alternantheras, on propagating. 341, 372 
Amaryllis .'Vckermanni pulcherrima. 341 ; 

A. Belladonna, 653 ; A. Mrs. Baker, 

716 : the yellow. 21 
Amaryllis and Hyacinths. Mr. Hibberd 

on, 405 ; Messrs. \'eitch's new seed- 
ling. 402 
Amateur gardener's experiences, an, 523 
America, horticultural notes from, 620 ; 

horticultural progress in, 787 
America, Sorghuin cultivation for the 

production of sugar in, 471 
-American Roses, 265 
Amorphophallus Rivieri, 338 
Amphiscopia Pohliana, 306 
Anacardium occidentale, 660 
Anchomanes Hookeri. 434 
Andaman Islands, new luminous fungi 

from the. 240 
Andersson, Dr. Xils Johann, 592 
Anemone blanda, 433 
Anemones, seedling, 469 
.Angraecum Christyanum, 806 ; A. citra- 

lum, 338 ; A. hyaloides. 264 
.Annuals for pot culture, 491, 523 
Ant. a soldier, cleverness of a, 376 
-Anthurium .Andreanuni, 464, 490, 497, 
56r, 592 : .A. colocasiai-folium, 121 ; .\. 
Scherzerianura. a bracteate form of, 
808 ; .A. S. var. pygmreum, 630 ; A. S. 
var, Rothschildianuni, 369, 631 
Antibes, the frost at, 23 
Aphelandra puniila, 76 
Aphelandra Roezlii from seed, 49G 

.Apiary ; the Ligurian Queen Bee, 89 

.Apple crop prospects, 658 

Apples, American, 57 ; for cultivation for 

market. 273 ; free bearing, 117 
.Apple trees d\ing. 724, 757 ; efiects of the 

winter upon, 692 
.Apricots, the slauglitcr of the, 53 ; tlie 

frost and the, 308 
.\pricol flowering, memoranda of, 310 
-Aquatic plants, 247 
.Araucaria imbricata, 790 
-Arboretum, the new Edinburgli, 298 
.\rbutus Unedo, 51 
Argentine Horticultural Society, 16 
Arisajma concinnum, 434 ; .A. curvatum, 

467 ; A. galcatum, 121 ; .A. speciosimi, 

338 ; A. utile, 458 
-Aristolochia ungulifola, 817 
.Aristotelia racemosa, 75, 535 
.Aroids, Mr. Brown on some new, 560 ; at 

Schunbrunn, 83 
-Arran. the past winter in, 535 
.Artichokes, Jerusalem, 82 ; globe, 149 
-Artificial lighting, 436 
.Artificial manures, 300, 470 
-Art in Japan, 592 
.Art in the conservatory, loj, 112, 139, 

150, 181, 214, 297, 329, 372; in the 

flower garden, 176 
.Artists' materials, the adulteration of, 601 
.Arundo conspicua, 171 
.Arundo Donax, a new use for the stems 

of. 499 
.Ash root, deformed, 215 
Ashton Court, the Orchids at, 466 
-Asparagus, prizes for, 338 
-Asparagus Kale, 372, 404, 469, 499 
.\sparagus plumosus, 789 
Asplenium Prenticei, 306 ; A. viride, 469; 

in Vermont and Jamaica, 780 
Aster, the quilled, as an exhibition flower, 


Atlas, Letts , 145 
.Aubrietias, notes on. 81 
.\ucuba superba, 146, 184 
.Auricula, alpine, -\. F. Barron, 458 
.\uricula bloom of 1880, the, 722 
Auricula, the old Dusty Miller, 598 
.Auriculas, new, 501, 555 ; notes on, S33 • 

and other flowers, 461 
Australian Orchids, Fitzgerald's illustra- 
tions of, 306 
-Autunni Strawberries. 523, 590, 662, 692 
.Autunm. the effects of a dry, 465 
.AzaleaDukeof Connaught, 203 ; -A. Fiel- 
der's White. 119; .A. Madame L. van 
Houtte, 716 ; -A. ledifolia var., 184 ; A. 
Mrs. Carmichael, hardiness of, 789 
.Azaleas, 302 ; and Camellias, American 
raised, 589 ; Mr. Carmichael's seedlings. 
437 ; note on Chinese, 234 ; new 
Indian, 402, 626 


B.ICON, Lord, on Forcing, 727 

Bahama Oranges, 660 

Baillon's Hbtoire des Phuilc's, 560 

Banana, a new, 242 

Bananas, &c., at .Ashridge, 786 

Barb fences, 8 

Bargains, 274 

Bark, Carthagena, 240 

Barkeria cyclotclla, 72, 82, 88, 112; B. 

elegans, 716 
Barometrical tables, 59 
Baskets, Trug, 373, 402, 405, 436, 469, 499 
Batemannia Wallisii, 77G 

Beaimiontiagrandiflora, 27B ; in Jamaica, 

Bean-cake manure in China, 178, 209, 

Beiin Vield, the, 726 

Beans, kidnev, dwarfs and runners, 553 ; 
kidney, 618 ; history of the, 597 ; long- 
pod and broad, 167 ; the Mazagan, 

Beckwith & Sons', Messrs., nurseries, 

Bedding-out, 244 

Bedding-out system, the, 267 ; the 
]5ioneers of the, 22 

Bedding, spring, summer and winter, 71 

Bedding plants, propagation of, 531 

Bee-keeping in Ireland, 440 

Bees as fertilising agents, 149, 182 

Beetle, the carpet, 520 

Begonia Brilliant, 716 : B. Comte de Lini- 
minghe, 340; B. J. H. Laing. 203; 
B. Schmidtiana, 203; B. Teuscheri, 203 

Begonia, a new seedling, 372 

Begonias, 302' 

Bellidiastrum Michelii, 425 

Bell, Professor, death of, 368 

Belvoir Castle, the spring flowers at, 457, 

Berberis Aquifolium, wine made from, 

Bertolonia Hrubyana X , 716; Kodeck- 

ianax , 716 
Betula utilis var., 406 
Biarritz, notes from, 330, 426 
Bignonia speciosa, 465 
Bignoniacea. a new herbaceous, 496 
Bilbergia Liboniana, 307 
Birch, Japan, 406 
Birds and berries, 17 ; and Primroses, 

276, 565 
Bitter sweet, eftects of, on animals, 117 
Bitter Vetch, the, 17 
Blaize Castle, a garden view at, 48 ; a 

dell in the grounds of, 80 
Boea hygrometrica, 76 
Bohemia, fruit trees in, 814 
Boilers, horticultural, 22, S4. 86, 119, 

692, 790 ; Mr. L.add's, 76 ; Messrs. 

Beckwith's, 77 ; soot on, 118, 148, 214 
Boisduval, Dr., death of, 304 
BoUea ccelestis, 203 
Bone-dust as a manure, 408 

Books Noticed ; — .Annuaire de I'Horti- 
culture Beige, 78 ; Aroidcne Mnximili- 
ana;, 46 ; Botany of Captain Wheeler's 
Survey, 594 ; Braithwaile's British Moss- 
F'lora, 814 ; Britten's European Ferns, 
310 ; Bulletin de la l-'edcration des 
.Societesd'Horticulture,78; Davis, Drey- 
fus and Holland's Sizing and Mildew 
in Cotton Goods, 12; D'Ombrain's 
Rosarians' Year- Book, 242 ; Douglas' 
Hardy Florists' Flowers, 78 ; Dumas' 
La Culture Maraichere, 631 ; (Jird- 
wovn's Diseases of Fish. 558 ; Godman 
and Salvin's Botany of Central .America 
and Mexico, 439 ; Gordon's Piuetum, 
18 : Henslow's Botany for children, 
304 ; Hibberd's G.arden Oracle, 48 ; 
Hinds' Strawberries All the Year 
Round, 686 ; Hooker and Bentham's 
(ienera Plantarnm. 236 ; Hughes on 
Ceylon Coffee Soils and Manures, 46 ; 
Jeffrey and Howie's Trees and Shrubs 
of Fife and Kinross, 334 ; Lansdell's 
\'cgetables and How to Grow Them, 
78 ; Letts' PopuKar Atlas, 145 ; 
Marriott on the Frost of December, 

1B79, over the British Isles, 558 ; Maw- 
ley on the Weather of 1879 near Lon- 
don, 750 ; \'on Mueller's Adas of the 
l-'.ucalyptus of .Australia, 144 ; Piesse's 
The Art of Perfumery, 151 ; Pizzetta 
and do Bon's Fish and Osyter Culture. 
558 ; Prantls Llemenlary Text-book of 
Botany, 750 ; Puydt's Lcs Orchidees, 
599 ; Revue Mycologique, the, 242 ; 
Royal Horticultural Society's Journal, 
113; Sadler's Report on Temperatures 
during the Winter of 1879-80 at I'.din- 
burgh, 686 ; \\'are's Sugar Beet, 631 ; 
Wilson's Introduction to the Study of 
Flowers, 750 

Borrowash, evergreens at the Elvaston 
Nursery, 743 

Botanical Enterprise of the I'mpire, 615, 

Botanical Gardens, Mr. Dyer on, 615, 
649, 682, 713; .Australia, 650; Calcutta, 
616 ; Ceylon, 649 ; Fiji, 650 ; Guiana, 
682 ; Hong Kong, 650 ; New Zealand, 
650 ; Saharunpore, 616 ; Singapore, 
650 ; South .\frica, 713 ; West Indies, 

Botanical prize, a, 594 

Botanical terms, the vocabulary of, 627 

Botanic Gardens, a label for, 304 

Bothy at Ferrieres, the, 18 

BougainviUea speciosa, 560 ; B. glabra, 
724 ; in cool <|uarters, 653 

Botiquet from Bordighera, 596 

Bouquets, Miss Cypher's, 460 

Bouvardia culture for market, 180 

Bouvardias, on the culture of, 521 

Bowenia spectabilis var. serrulata, 716 

Box edgings, substitutes for, 692, 724 

Brassia euodes, 6S0 

Brisbane, flora of the neighbourhood of, 

Broccoli, 244, 27s, 308, 566 ; and llie 

frost, 436 ; hariliness of, 629 : a lianl.v, 

309 ; on heeling-in, 438 ; Richmond 

Late White, 693, 789 
Bromelias, hybrid, 48 
Bioom, a procumbent, 816 
Broonu-apes, 45 

Broughtonia sanguinea at home, 430 
Brownea -Ariza, 203 
Brussels Botanical and Horticultural 

Congress, 272 
Brussels Sprouts, 118, 183, 214, 246 ; not 

sprouting, 86. 149 
Buckland Yew, the removal of the, 303, 

556. 755 
Bulb fields of Haarlem, the, 498 
Bulbs forced for market, 202 
Bulbophyllum iners, 776 
Burford Lodge Orcliids, the, 423, 519, 

Bush fruit prospects, 658 

Cabbage Broccoh, Gilbert's, 24t 

Cactus, a seedling, 245 

Caladium argyrites and Scarlet Pelargo- 
niums for winter decoration, 566 

Caladium argyrites, 598, 629, 662 

Calanthe Veitchii, 50 

Calceolaria, the herbaceous (with Coloun'd 
Plate), 688 ; a double, 754 ; giant her- 
baceous, 626 ; Messrs. Sutton's strain 
of, 722 

California, troublesome weeds in, 19 

Califoriiian Tobacco, 808 


Th« Gardenefs' Chronicle.] 


[June i6, 1880. 

Calochortus Renthami, 458 
Caltlia leplosepala, 498 
Camellia Duke of Lancaster, 183 
Camellias and Azaleas out-of-doors, 304, 

402. 437 
Campanula persicifolia alba (lare-plcno, 

Camphor, the production of, in Japan, 


Canadian notes, 525 

Cantua dependens, 661, 784 

Cape Colony, the introduction of plants 

into, prohibited, 240 
Cape, fruit growing at the, 524 
Carex secta, 171 
Carissa grandiflora, 627 
Carlina acaulis, 720, 722 
C.irludoviea Wallisii, 203 
Carnation Souvenir de la Malmaison, 532 
Carpet bedding plants, 376 ; hardy, 56 
Carpet beds, 692 ; at Chelsea Hospital, 

Carpet beetle, the, 520 
Carthagena bark, 240 
Castle Ashby, spring bedding at, 814 
Catalogues, trade, improvement in, 2U 
" Catalogus Plantarum," 502 
Catalpas, the, 650 ; C. Bungei, 651 ; C. 

bignonioides, 650 ; C. Kaempferi, 651 ; 

C. longisiliqua, 651 ; C. speciosa, 113 
Catalpa, the durabihty of the, 276 ; as a 

timber tree, 748 
Catananche ccerulea, 278 
Cattleya citrina, 500 ; C. crispa superba, 

470 ; C. Mardelii, 776 ; C. Skinneri, 

530, 594 
CauliHower, Dean's Early Snowball, 87 
Cobu, the vegetable products of the 

island of, 51 
Cedrus aUantica, 277 ; C. Dcodara shed- 
ding its leaves, 243 
Celery seed, on sowing, 113 
Celosia pyramidalis plumosa, 594 
Centigrade thermometer, i8 
Centropogon Lucyanus, 468 
Cerastium alpinum, 299 
Cereals, transmutation in, 214 
Ceylon Coffee leaf disease, 80 
Ceylon Coffee soils and manures, 46 
Ceylon soils suitable for Cinchonas, 778 
Chamxrops Fortunei and Bambusa Me- 

lalce, 661 
Chambers' sand-distributing machine, 587 
Charcoal dust, 436, 470 
Chatswortli, notes from, 714 ; the culture 

of Achimenes at, 210 
Cherries, 84 ; on forcing newly planted, 

Chestnut, the Horse, in Greece, 498 
Chevalliera Veitchii, 716 
Chia, S08 

Chickens in the garden, 761 
Chilham Castle, Kent, 199 
Cliimonanthus fragrans, 372, 405 ; not 

flowering, 436 
China and japan, note on some plants 

introduced from, 234 
China, bean-cake manure in, 178, 209, 

242 ; opium in, 306 
Chionodoxa nana, 121 
Chiswick, Chinese Primroses at, 19 ; the 

rockwork at, 336 
Chives, 808 

Choisya ternata, 625, 626, 693 
Chorispora Greigii, 203 
Christmas Roses, 74 
Chrysanthemum frutescens var, Etoile 

d'Or, 241, 308, 560, 723 
Chrysanthemums, Japanese, Mr. Fortune 

on die, 73 
Chrysobactron Hookeri, 171 
Chusan Daisy, Mr. Fortune on the origin 

ot the, 73 
Chysis Sedeni x , 616 
Cigars, concerning, 467 
Cinchona officinalis var. Bonplandiana 
429 ; C. officinalis, a Urilusinga, 428 ' 
C. siiccirubra in Jamaica, 806 • 

Cinchona plantations, the establishment 

of, in Jamaica, 247 
Cinchonas, soils suitable for, 778, 809 
Cineraria, a new type of, 277 
Cinerarias, double, 338, 468 ; perfection 

in, 337 
Classification in gardens, 136 
Clay's fertiliser, 500 

Claytonia alsinoides. 755 ; C. sibirica, 597 
Cleaning stove plants, 52 
Clematis I'airy l,)ueen, 458 ; C. Louise 

Carriiire, 458 
Clianthus Dampieri, 373, 597 ; C. puni- 

ceus, 171 
Clockwork subservient to the ripening of 

fruit, 150 
Clove, Susan Askey, 203 
Clover and grass seeds, the import and 
export trade in, 74 ; the crops of 1879, 
Clover and rib-grass, 119 
Cockchafer grub in (Jermany, the, 695 
Ca-logyne barbata, 8 ; C. cristata at 
HoUoway, 242 ; C. humilis var. tri- 
color, 394 ; C. Massangeana, 121 
Coffee, Liberian, 274 
Coleus Tricolor, 203 

College Botanic Garden, Duljlin, 690 
(.Colours of flowers, the, 594 
( olour statistics, 619 
Connnelynacca;, the, 209 
Commercial plants, now, 274 

Co.mmittkt;, tub Scientific— Subjects 
brought before the: — Appointment of a 
now Secretary, 761 ; Aristolocliia im- 
gulil'olia, 817 ; Ash, malformed root 
of, 88 ; -Ash root, 215 ; Birch,, 
406 : Calceolaria, double, 761 ; Cata- 
h\!;us PhintarHm, 502 ; Colchicum 
as a catde poison, 694 ; Coccus on 
Acacia, 817 ; Cocoons from West 
.Africa, 88 ; Crocus, new species of, 
215 ; Cytisus Adami, 694 ; Dionaea 
witli double lamina to the leaf, 694 ; 
Dragon's Blood tree, 566 ; l-^ffects of 
the winter of 1879-80, 344 ; Electric 
Light, 344. 406 : Eucalyptus, gall on, 
630, 694 ; I'ir, Spruce, bud variation in, 
88 ; FritiUary, a malformed, 761 ; 
Fungus on glass, 502 ; Insects found 
upon Juni]jerus virgiuiana, 501, 566 ; 
Insectsinjuriousto Larch, 566; Injurious 
insects; report on, 406; Ismene, a 
hybrid, 761, Japanese objects, 88; 
Lilium nitidum, 761 ; New Zealand 
plants, 88 ; Peach blossom, malformed, 
761, 817 : Peach shoots injured by gal- 
vanised wire, 215, 343 ; Pelargonium, 
an alleged hybrid, 817 ; Phylloxera at 
the Cape, 215 ; Phyllo.\era question, 
the, 566, 630, 761 ; Pitcher on 
Broccoli, 761 ; Plant supposed to be 
poisonous to sheep, 502 ; Plants exhi- 
bited, 344, 406, 501, 566, 630. 761, S17 ; 
Plants, unhealthy condition of, 630; Puc- 
einia \'iolarum, 694 ; Retirement of 
Mr. Jennings, 406; Sarraconia, insects in 
pitchers of, 88 ; Senipervivum, parasite 
on, 630 ; Solanum Dulcamara, 88 ; 
1'ulips, 566 ; \'ine disease, 88 ; Wood 
from gravel deposit, 406 ; Winter and 
the plants, the, 630 ; Yeast, destruction 
of insects by, 88 

Conifers, Japanese, 115, 212, 233, 273, 

300, 363, 589 
Conifers, the uprooting of, 182, 215, 246, 

308, 373 ; surface dressing for, 266, 308 
Conservatory and billiard room, a, 172 
Conservatory at Eagle Cliff, the, 236 
Conservatory, art in the, 104, 112, 139, 

150, 181, 214, 297, 329, 372 
Cooke, Edward W., R.A., death of, 41 
Cool Orchids, 117 
Coprosma Baueriana variegata, as a 

bedding plant, 341 
Cordyline australis, 171 
Coriaria ruscifolia and C. sarmentosa, 75 
Cork agricultural experiments. 814 
Corn, cheapness of, in the sixteenth 

century. 344 
Corokia Cotoneaster, ^^ 
Corydalis Ledeboiu-iana, 369 
Cottage gardens, 9 
Couve Ironcliuda, 341 
Covcnt Garden, 805 
Cowslips on the Coombes, 627 
Cranbourn Court, spring flowers at, 816 \ 
Creepers, wall, 722 
Crinum podophyllum, 716 
Cripps'. Messrs., nursery at Tunbridge 

Wells. 638 
Crocus Korolko\vii, 531 
Crocus, Mr. Maw's monograph of the 

genus, 434 ; new species of, 215 
Crops in the San Louis Valley, 595 
Cross fertilisation. Dr. Ernst on, 48 
Croton Baronne James de Rothschild, 

213, 716 ; C. Warrcnii, 432 
Crotons, two new, 369 ; for decorative 

work, 465 
Cuckoo, the, 724. 761, 790 
Cucumbers, 597 

Cultivation, what it can do, 653 
Cupressus macrocarpa, 808 
Currant bushes on railway embankments, 

Custard-.Apple, the, 203 
Cut flowers, green glasses for, 565 
Cuttings, sea-sand for propagating, 274 
Cycas media, 716 
Cymbidium cochleare, 168 ; C. elegans var. 

obcordatum, 41 ; C. Mastersii, 136, 458 
Cynoches Warscewiczii, 76 
Cypella ccerulea, 338 
Cypresses in the Buena Vista Garden at 

Verona, 752 
Cypripcdium insigne, a twin-flowered, 

174, 213 ; C. Lawrenceanum, 777, 780 ; 

C. Petri, 680 ; C. selligerum, 776, 780 ; 

C. .Spicerianum, 40, 74. 363 ; C. stcno- 

phyllum, 200 ; C. vexiUarium, 780 
Cypripcdiums, hardy, notes on, 490, 531 
(.'ytisus flowering at Kcw, 560 

Daddy Lonclrgs, the, 621 
Daffodil, the, 492, 533 ; Mr. Hibberd on 
thc,'50i| 777 

D.ahlia Juarezii, 76 

Dahlia 'trade, the. 601 

Dahlia tubers, on preserving. 656 show and fancy, a selection of. 
621 ; from seed, 174 ; planting, sor 

Daisies, double. 629 

Dalkeith \'oimg Men's Mutual Improve- 
ment Society. 787 

Daphne lilag.ayana, 244; D. coUina, 209 ; 
n. Mcze'reum, 20 ; and other wild 
plants in North Lanca.shire, 53 

Dasylirion glaucophyllum, 242 ; D. glau- 
cuni, 205 ; D. glaucum flowering at 
Handcross Park, Sussex, 82 

Date Palm wine, 82 

Date Plums, io5 

Davidsonia pruricns, note on the fruit 

of. 434 
Dean's Early Snowball Cauliflower, 87 
Dedemsvaart, along the, 56 
Defence in plants. 364 
Delphinium tricorne, 653 
Dendrobium aureum philippinense, 72 ; 

D. callipes var. elegans, 743 ; D. 

chrysanthum, 654 ; D. infundibulum, 

438 ; D. linguoeforme, 337 ; D. litui- 

florum, 400 ; D. lituiflorum candidum, 

586 ; D. scabrilingue, 616 ; D. tctra- 

chromum. 712 
Dentaria pentaphylla. 466 
Design for a flower-bed yielding summer 

and winter effects. 397 
Deutzia gracilis. 627 
Diamonds, artificial. 48 
Dinner-table, flowers for the, 144 
Diospyros Kaki, 369 ; D. Kaki =; D. 

,Sclii-tze, 16 
Dirca palustris, 402 
Discaria Toumatou, 75 
Diseases, the prevention of, 814 
Dix, Mrs., death of, 536 
Dog Rose, the, 268 
Dominy, Mr., retirement of. 752 
Dracfena Princess Marguerite, 716 ; D. 

regia, 716 
Dragon's-blood tree, 566 
Dragon tree of .Adjuda, the, 42 
Drosera lineata, 716 
Druids, the. and their religion. 500 
Dunnett, Mr. William, death of, 311 
Diu-ian, the, 203 
Dynamite, for the removal of tree-roots, 

531. 629 

E.vsTNOR Castle, Grape growing at, 

Eastvvell Park. 775 
Echeverias, on wintering, 79 
Edelweiss, the. 469 
Edgings for garden walks, 789 ; Box, 

substitutes for, 692, 724 
Edinburgh .\rboretum. the. 298 
Edinburgh, the weather at, 658 
Education, practical, 752 
Edwardsia pulchella and E. grandiflora, 

Eggs, the gender of hens', 461 
Electric light for forcing, the. 336, 400, 

406, 432 ; Dr. Siemens on forcing by, 

361 ; the influence of, on vegetation, 

404 ; and plants, M. Hervt^ Mangon's 

experiments, 464 
Electro-horticulture, 496 
Electro-horticultural dialogue, 682 
Elm, the, as a Rose prop, 747 
Elvaston Castle, effects of the winter at, 

Embryo sac, the, 113 
Encephalartos Hildebrandtii, 458 ; villo 

sus, male cone of, 181 
Endophyllum sempervivi, 660, 815 
Engadinc, plants collected in the, 278 
Enkyantiuis himalaicus, 203 
Ensilage, 343 
Epidendrum brachiatum, 648 ; E. macro- 

chilum, 368 
Epigasa repens, sexual differentiation in, 

Epimediums, 562 
Epimedium, a synopsis of the species and 

forms of, 620, 683 ; E. alpinum, 620 ; 

E. alpinum var. pubigerum, 620 ; E. 

concinnum, 683 ; E. diphyllum, 683 ; 

E. datum, 620 ; E. macranthum, 683 ; 

E. Musschianum, 683 ; E. Perralderia- 

num, 683, 724 ; E. pinnatum, 683 ; E. 

pteroceras, 683 ; E. rubruni, 620 ; E. 

sagittatum, 683 
Epipactis latifolia, 19 
lipping Forest, &c.. Naturalists' Field 

Club, 18 
lipping Forest. 144. 146 ; Mr. W. Paul 

on the future of, 152 ; election of Ver- 

derers for, 400 
Eranthcmum .-Vndersoni, 203 
Ercnuirus robustus and turkestanicus, 

490 ; E. turkestanicus, 306, 340, 458 
Eria extinctoria, 426 ; E. merguensis, 616 
Ernst, Dr., on cross fertilisation, 48 
Erysimum pulchellimi, 653 
Ervum Ervilia, 17 
Eiythrina (?) m.amiorata, 716 
Eryihroniumgiganteum, 594 

Eucalypts of Australia, the, 592 
Eucalyptus amygdalina, 745 ; E. coccifera, 

395 ; E. diversicolor, 695 ; E. globulus, 

182; E. themes, 653 ; E. ros- 

trata. 439 
ICucalyptus seeds, vitality ol, 811 
liucalyptus. the genus. 144 ; gall on, 694 
Euchriris. twin-nowcrcd, 82 
Eupalorium riparium, 499 
Euphorbias, the hardy, 656 ; E. Chara- 

cias. 657 
ICuphorbia jacquinineflora, 521 
Eurycles aniboinensis, 121 
Exhibition plants, Mr. Cypher's, 466 
lixhibition of the works of Old Masters, 

Exhibitors, classification of, 279 
Evergreens, the, at Boirowash, 743 ; on 

transplanting, 373 
Evolution of the vegetable kingdom, a 

history of the, 466 

FAiiMF.KS and the income tax, 144, 176 

Fclton, Mr. J., death of, 502 

Fences, barb, 8 

Ferns, European, 310 ; tree in \'ictoria, 

Ferrieres, the bothy at, 18 
Ficus stipulata, 595 
Fig Dr. Hogg, 816 
Figs for town planting, 661 ; outdoor, 

Florin grass, 122 
Fir plantations, Scotch, on thinning. 44. 

77. 109, 238 ; the value of, 301, 334, 

Fir, the Clanbrassil, origin of the, 52 
Fir, Spruce, bud variation in, 88 
Fir tree oil, 22, 438 
Fish, diseased, in the Tweed, 89 
Fitch. Mr. W. H., and the Civil List, 528 
Fixtures, the law of, 177 
Flies, the beheading of, by Mentzeha 

oruata, 50 
Flora of the neighbourhood of Brisbane, 

459 ; of British India, 754 ; of St. 

Croix and the Virgin Islands, 178 ; of 

Spain, 723 

F1.0RIST.S' Flowers : — .Auricula, the, 
and other flowers, 461 ;, 
new, 501, 535 ; .Auriculas, on potting, 
782-; Dahlias, selection of show and 
fancv, 621 ; Dahlias, on planting, 501 ; 
Gladiolus, the, 342 ; greenhouse 
flowers, seasonable notes on, 44, 204. 
302. 430. 390, 717 ; hardy flowers, sea- 
sonable notes on, 141. 270, 408, 429, 
523, 686, 809 ; new of 1879, the, 12 ; 
quilled Asters, 342 ; seedling gold- 
laced Polyanthuses, 500 

Flotu-, Potato, 627 

Flower shows, on the management of. 

169. 235. 332. 425 
Flowers, the colours of, 594 ; early, 342 ; 

for the dinner-table, 144 ; single and 

double, 661 ; London market, 180 ; a 

winter bed of, 18 
Forcing, on, 16 ; Lord Bacon on, 727 ; 

by the electric light, 336, 400, 406, 432 ; 

Dr. Siemens on, 361 
Forest trees of North America, 560 

Forestry : — The diseases of forest trees, 
634, 716 ; the Pinetum, 600 ; planting, 
preparations lor, 269 ; what to plant, 
438 ; trees for various soils, 494 ; thin- 
ning Scotch Fir plantations, 44, 77, 151, 
238, 301. 334. 366 

Forestry enquiries, Capt. Wood's, 792 

Fortune, Mr., plants, trees, .and shrubs in- 
introduced bv, II, 48. 87 

Fortune. Mr., on the Chusan Daisy, 73 ; 
the Japanese Chrysanthemums. 73 ; on 
the plants introduced by. from China 
and Japan, 234 ; on the Chinese Tree 
Pajony, 179 

Fortune, Mr. Robert, death of, 487, 528, 


Fossil plants of Sheppey, 113 

Fragaria indica, 735, 784 

Frame Potatos, 303 

Frame, Messrs. Foster & Pearson's, 809 

France, the weather in, 18 ; the frost in 
the south of, 23 ; the severe weather 
in, 48 ; destruction of trees by the 
severe frosts in, 177 ; preserved vege- 
tables in, 178 

Fremontia californica, 302 

FritiUaria lutea, 597 ; F. Moggridgei, 
533 ; F. Tliunbergii. 532 ; F. oranensis, 
340 ; F. Wahijewi, 438 

Frogs, green, in the Orchid-house, 692 

Frost, the, of December, 1879, 53, 267 ; 
lost and saved, 52 ; effects of the, in 
France, 339 ; in Lancashire, the, 145 ; 
and the shrubs, 276 ; plants saved from 
tlie, 242 ; a late, 690 

Fruit and vegetable market, tlie new 
London ceutral, 114, 369 

June a6, i8 


[The Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Kruit culture, restriction or extension, 52, 


Fruit, eftecls ol climate upon, 20 

Fruit growing at the Cape, 524 

I'niit prospects, 209, 597, 598 ; in \'ork- 
sliire, 565 

Fruit trees in the pleasure grounds and 
by the roadside, 405 ; in Bohemia, 815 

Fruit trees, scale on, 57 

Fruit, winter, how should it be stored, 

Fruiting of Yuccas, 81 

I'Yuits and vegetables, new, of 1879, 11 
■ Fruits, hardy, 83 ; on the raising of new, 
240 ; bush, 658 ; standard, 658 ; of 
the Malay peninsula, 203, 209 

Fruits, on the ripening of hardy, 130 years 
ago, 278 

Fuchsia Earl of Beaconsfield, origin of 
the, 304; Jean Sisley, 112 ; Lye's Fa- 
vourite, 716 

Fuchsia excorticata, 75 ; F, procumbens, 


Fuchsias for market, i8i 

Fungi, double, 790 

Fungi, luminous, from the Andaman 

Islands, 240 
Fungoid diseases, 183 
Furniture woods of Milan, 50 

Galanthus Ehvesii, 244 

Gale of December 28. effects of the, in 

Scotland, 465 
Galtonia (Hyacinthus) candicans, 560 
Game coverts, on planting, 438 
Gardenias, 499 ; on the cultivation of, 

489 ; at Luton Hoo, 598 
Gtrden gossip, 299, 425 ; a bouquet from 

BDrdiijhcra, 596 ; the Daffodil, 492 ; a 

grumble. 236 ; old-fashioned gardens, 

Garden supplies of Londoners, the, 467 
Gardeners, English, 758, 816 ; a caution 

to, 626 
Gardeners' Royal Btnevolent Institution, 

18, 244. 815 
Gardeners' troubles. 436 
Gardens, classification in, 136 ; cottage, 

9 : suburban, 780 
Gardens of Kampen, the, 623 
Gardening at Oporto, 277 
Gardening for ladies, 200 
Gas engine, the Otto silent, 562 
Geese, hybrid, 48 
General Horticultural Co. Limited, the, 

Genista prrecox, 18 
Gentiana Kurroo, 203 
Geranium atlanticuni, 121 
German gardeners in England, 727, 791 
Geum montanum, 425 
Giant Gum trees. 439 
Gilbert's Cabbage Broccoli, 241 
Gladiolus ColviUei albus, 592 ; brachyan- 

drus, 76 
Gladiolus, notes on the, 342 
Gladiolus seed, on sowing, 114 
Glasnevin. seedlmg Disas and Droseras 

at. 305 ; Orchids in flower at. 242 
Glass, green, 307 
Gloxinias, on the cultivation of, 89 ; 

maculated, 690 ; M. Vallerand's, 780 
Gnaphalium Leontopodium, 469 
Goniophlebium lachnopus, 594 
Gooseberries and Currants, 84 
Gooseberry caterpillar, 673 
Gordon's Pinetum, 18 
Grafting, mock, as practised by the 

Chinese, 489 
Grape growing at Eastnor CasUe, 522 ; 

at Elvaston Castle, 723 
Grapes, Mr. Coleman's method ol pack- 
ing for market, 104 ; on keeping, 214 ; 

on keeping in water, 183 ; stealing, 243 
Grass and Clover seeds, the import and 

export trade in, 74 
Grass, Fiorin. 122 
Grassy beds, 500 

Greece, the Horse Chestnut in, 498 
Green glass. 307 

Green glasses for cut flowers. 565 
Greenhouse plants for winter and spring 

decoration, 715 
Greenhouse poverty, 364 
Greenlands, Henley-on-Thames, 806 
Grevillea robusta, in South Africa, 173 ; 

G. Thelemanniana, 530 
Grier, Mr. John, death of, 58 
Grim discovery, a. 465 
Griselinia littoralis. 76 
Grosvenor gallery, the, 42, 711 
Grubs and the frost, 722 
Gum trees, giant, 344, 439 
Gunnersbury Park, the gardens at, 147 
Gypsum for Polatos, 555 


Haarlem, the bulb fields of, 498 
Haberlea rhodopensis, 303 
Habrotbamnus fasciciilatiis, 472 

Ha;manthus Kalbrcyeri, I2r 

Halley's Mount, St. Helena, 396 ; Tree 
Ferns and Shee-Cabbage on, 401 

Halliday, Mr. \Vm., death of, 344 

Hally, \Ir. John, death of, 23 

Hampshire garden, a, 681 

Handcross Park, tlic gardens at, 204 

Hardy flowers shown by Mr. Elwes, 554 

Hardy stone fniits, on the culture of, in 
die Highlands, 58 

Haricot Chevrier, 784 

Hawkstone, Poinscttias at, 21 

Hawthorn flowers scarcity of, in Corn- 
wall, 790 

Hazel Nuts, on the raising of, for sale, 

Heaths, Mr. Turnbull on the hybridisa- 
tion of, 177. 179 

Heating, rules for, 246. 277 ; trade refuse 
as fuel. 55 

Hellebores, 304 ; notes on new, 498 

Hemerocallis flava, as a winter flowering 
plant. 276 

Henwick Grange, exhibition plants at, 


Hibiscus rosa sinensis schizopetalus, 76 ; 
H. rosa sinensis as a screen-plant, 594 

Hill. Mr. E. .s.. death of. 659 

Hoar frost, 178 

Hollies, descriptions of some new, 45 

Hope, the late Miss F. J., of Wardie, 585 

Hops, another substitute (or, 626 ; spent, 
as a fertiliser. 405 

Hornbean. on the raising of, for sale. 232 

Horticulture in Nebraska. 695 ; at Singa- 
pore, 273 : restrictions upon, 467 

Hothouses for India. 148 

Hothouses, rating. 531 

Houses for market plant growing. 568 

Houses t'. pits. 119 

Humea elegans. 1S2. 214 

Hut. the Livingston, at Kelly, 269 

Hyacinth at home, the, 596 

Hyacinths, new. 72. 402 

H)'acinths and Amaryllis. Mr. Hibberd 
on. 405 

Hyde Park decorations. 530 

Hyophorbe Verschaff'eiti, 59 

Hypericum a'gyptiacum, 716 

Ili;x .Aquifolium conspicua, 45 ; I. A. 

laurifolia iatifolin, 45 ; I. A. niaderen- 

sis medio-picta. 45; I. .A. magnificn. 

45 ; I. -A. nobilis picta. 45 ; I. \. prin- 

ceps, 45 
India, hothouses for, 148 
Indian Tea, 659 

Insects in pitchers of .Sarracenia, 88 
Insects, observations on injurious, 496 
Ireland to Biarritz, from. 243 
Ireland, the horticultural look-out in. 746 ; 

seed Potatos for, 208 
Irish farmers, the relief of, 400 
Iron rafters, 308 
Ismene, a hybrid. 761 
Italian horticulturists, congress of. 528 
Italy, the \'ine louse in, 592 
Ivies, standard. 117 
Ixiolirion Pallasii, 659 

jAMAtcA, on the establishment of Cin- 
chona plantations in, 247 ; the rainfall 
in, 242 

Japan, art in, 592 ; how a botanic garden 
is formed in, 210 ; a temple garden in, 

Japanese Conifers, 115, 212, 233, 275, 

300. 363. 589 
Japanese curiosities, Mr. Maries'. 80 ; 

nurseries, 528 
Japanese plants, Mr. Fortune's, 82 ; and 

spring trosts. 627 
Jasminum nudiflorum. 242 
Java, the Cinchona plantations of, 815 
Juan Fernandez, the Palms of, 86 
Justicia flavicoma, 182, 213 


Kale, Asparagus. 372. 404. 469, 499 
Kampen, the gardens of, 623 
Kelly House, the gardens at, 268 
Kerria japonica variegata, 498 
Kettle, the clean and sooty, 245 
Kew, the arboretum at, 659 ; bulbous 
plants at, 562 ; decorative gardening 
at, 54 ; a garden for students at, 561 ; 
hardy plants in bloom at, 304 ; hardy 
herbaceous plants at, 594, 626, 726, 
786 ; shrubs in flower at, 368 ; notes 
made at, 789 ; noteworthy hardy shrubs 
at, 656 ; Orchids in flower at, 627 ; the 
Palm stove at, 141 ; a presentation to, 
48 ; the show-house at, 50, 82 ; the 
winter garden at. 658 
King William's Town botanic garden, 

the. 467 
Knight's pyramidal Lauriistinus, 50 

Kohl Rabi. a heavy. 209 
Kubanka and Saxonka Wheat, 108, 172 
Kuram and Hariab Valleys, the vege- 
table products of, 121 
Kuram Valley, the vegetation of the. 263 

Label, the "Acme." 119 

Label for botanic gardens, 304 

Labels, tree, dipped in kerosene, 146 

Labelling plants, 241 

Laburnum, the. 691 

Lacrena spectabilis, 466 

Lachenalia, the genus, Mr. Baker on, 

Lachenalia, a seedling, 307 
Lachenalias, the culture of, 340 
Ladies, gardening for, 200 
La;lia anceps allia. 53 ; L. anceps n. var. , 

19 ; L. anceps var. rosea, 104 ; L. 

anceps vestalis, 136 ; L. Dormanniana. 

168 ; L. flava, 434 ; L. Peirinii nivea, 

Lamium longiflorum, 780, 789 
Lancashire garden, notes from a, 712 
Lapageria, a double. 722 
Larch, insects injurious to, 566 
Laurustinus, Knight's pyramidal, 50 
Law notes, no ; Sutherland v. Keid, 

Lawn-tennis in gardens, 340 
Lawson, Professor G., on Britisli .\meri- 

can Violas, 363 
Leafage, unseasonable, 120 
Leafing, early, 301 
Leather-wood of X'irginia, the, 402 
Leaves, vertical and horizontal, 59 
Leptospermum scoparium, 75 
Leptotes bicolor, 299 
Lewisia rediviva, 807, 
Liberian Coffee, 274 
Liberia grandiflora major, 171 ; ixioides, 

Libonia floribunda, 305 
Lichen, on the application of the results 

of Pringsheim's researches on chloro- 
phyll, to the life of the, 755 
Light and heat for plants, artificial 

sources of, 426 
Light, more, 617 
Liliumgiganteum, 790, 816 ; hardinessof. 

436 ; L. longiflorum. 780; L. I'arryi. on 

the cultivation of. 138 ; L. nitidium, 

817 : L. polyphyllum, 690 ; L. umbel- 

latimi, 780 
Lily of the \'alley, imported, 149 
Limekiln heating. 56 
Lincolnshire, a tramp in, 115 
Linnaeus' Spccia Plautaruut, 722 
Linseed, the adulteration of, 6oi 
Linum trigynum, 468 
Liparis formosana, 394 ; L. Strickiand- 

iana. 232 
Liciuid manure. 564 
I.ithospermum prostratuni. 590 
Little Aston Hall, the gardens at, 12 
Liverpool Horticultural .\ssociation, the, 

Living-rooms, plants in, 814 
Llandudno, the Lizard Orchis at, 628 
Lomaria obtusata, 595 
Lost and saved, 52, 54 
Loughton, Messrs. Paul & Sons' nursery 

at, 679 
Luminous paint, 465 
Luzuriaga radicans, 76 


MackAYA bella, 461, 500, 563 

Macradenia Brassavolte. 104 

M.alacca, the Settlements on the Straits 

of, 397 

Malachra fibre, 439 

Malaga, the produce of, 51 

Malayan fmits, 203. 209 

M.alta, the flora of. 557 

Mangoes, the process of grafting, on the 
trees, 57 

Mangoostan, the, 203 

Manure, a good artificial, 113 ; farmyard, 
the quality of, 185 ; amount of, applied 
per acre, 695 

Manure heaps, 245 

Manures, artificial, 300, 470; Potato, 500 ; 
hqnid, 202, 455, 564 

Marechal Niel Rose, 628 

Marguerite, a yellow, 241, 308, 560, 723 

Marica Northiana, 466 

Market gardens, 113 

Market garden prices, 754 ; supplies, 272 

Market plants, London, 202 

Market plants, 237 ; prices, 20 

Market, the new central fruit and veget- 
able, 369 

Marnock portrait, the, 16 

Marshland, a plea for, iij 

Masdevallia bella, 757, 760 ; M. Chelsoni 
X , 501, 554 : AI. Harryana. origin of the 
"buU's-blood" variety of, 423; M.ignea 
var. Boddiertii, 203 ; M.ImiUtaris, 742 ; 
M. pulvinaris, zoo ; M.rosea, 554, 648, | 

68i ; M. tovarensis, 88 ; M. vespertilio , 

712 ; M, xanthina. 68t 
Masdevallia, the first hybrid, 501 
Masdevallias in flower at Sudbury House, 

Matricaria inodora flore-pleno. 627 
Maude. Mr. Thomas, death of, 440 
Maurandya, liardiness of, 120 
Mauve Beauty Stock, 465 
Maxillaria arachnitis, 394 
M.ixwell, Mr. G. , the late, 433 
May blossom in ^I■^y, 724 
Mazagan Bean, the, 310 
M'Combie, Mr. W., death of. 177 
Measure, the new five-gallon, 627 
Measure, what is a?, 117 
Meconopsis nepalensis, 373 
Medicinal plants, 715 
Medina, the kingdom of, 273 
Melasphoerulea graminea, 467 
Melica ccerulea, 408 
Melon, the Davenham Early, 498 
Men, number of, required in a garden, 

Mentha Pulegium gibraltaricum, how to 

propagate, 311, 340 
Mentzelia ornata beheading flies, 50 
Mesospinidium incantans, 586 
Metal, a new, 404 

Meteorological summary for 1879, 207 
Mexican plants, new, 498 
Mice, how to destroy, in fields, 465 
Milan, the furniture woods of, 50 
Mildews found on cotton goods, 12 
Milk, the great domestic want, 52 
Minuilus, spotted, 691 
Minorcan plants, hardiness of, 339, 374 
Mistleto, on propagating, 21 ; on the 

Oak. the. 459 
Mock grafting as practised by the Chinese, 

.Molinia cojrulea, the cultivation of, 436 ; 

for paper making, 563 
Monkshood, poisoning by, 20 
More light, 617 
Mosses, rare and new, 146 
Moule, Rev. H.. death of, 178 
Muhlenbeckia complexa, 171 
Munro, General, death of, 169, 208 
Musa Ensete, 72 
Musk, Harrison's, as a bedding plant, 

Myrsiphyllum asparagoides, 276 


Xakcissi, Mr. Leeds', 498 

Xarcissus, canariensis, 722 ; \. Graellsii, 

203 ; N. ornatus. 531 ; N. pallidulus, 

203 ; N. rupicola, 203 
Xarcotic, a new, Pituri, 306 
Xatural history — the Daddy Long-legs, 

621 ; a white rook, 782 
Nebraska, horticulture in, 695 
Xectarine, the Galopin, 76 
Xepenihes bicalcarata, 200, 264 ; N. 

Outramiana :< . 76 ; X. zeylanica, 109 
Xepenthes, a double. 146 
Xew Forest, the. 304; appointment of a 

deputy-surveyor to the. 177 
Xe«spapers as protectors, 245 
Xesv Zealand Flax in the Orkney Islands, 

Xew Zealand plants, that withstood the 

winter of 1878-9, 75; notes on, &c., 

Xew Zealand Spinach, 662 
Nurseries, Messrs. Backhouse's, 491 ; 

Japanese, 528 
Xursery stock, on the raising of, 231 
Nymphcea alba, var. rosea, 279 

Oak, the Mistleto on the, 459 
Oak timber, buried, 42 

Obitu.vry : — Dunnett, Mr. W., 311 ; 
I-'elton. Mr. T., 502 ; Grier, Mr. John. 
58; HalKday. Mr. W.. 344; Hally. 
^Ir. John, 33; Hibberd, .Mrs.. 344; 
Maude, Mr, T., 440; M'Combie, Mr. 
W., 177; Moule. Rev. H., 178; 
Munro, Gen., 169; Parker, Mr. Thos., 
311 ; Perkins, Mr. T., 471 ; Powell, 
Mr. John, 502 ; RolUsson, Mr. G., 23 ; 
Scott, Mr. John, 794 ; Souchet, M., 
503 ; Speed, Mrs., 662 ; Stansfield, Mr. 
T., 58 ; Stewart, Mr. A. B., 727 ; Vers- 
chaffelt, M. Jean Nuytens, 727 

Octomeria Saundersiana, 264 

Odon toglossum cordatum , 1 2 1 ; O. crispum , 
276 ; O. crispum var. flaveolum, 41. 232 ; 
O. crispum Lehmanni, 712 ; O. cristatel- 
lum. 690; O. Eduardi, 72;0. Horsmanni, 
41 ; O. Londesboroughianum, 244 ; O. 
maculatuiu. 121 ; O. Pescatorei lim- 
bosum. 169 ; O. Pescatorei, 434 ; O. 
ramosissimum var. xanthinum et viride, 
298 ; O. Rossii musaicum. 200 ; O. 
Rossii pallens, 200 ; O. vexillarium, 
148, 562, 724, 761, 780, 787 ; O. vexil- 


1 he Gardeners' Chronicle.] 


[June i6. iSEo. 

larium floribundum, 784 ; O. vexil- 
lariuin LL-liniamii, 586 ; O. W'ilcke- 
aiiumx, 2Cj8 

Oleander, the, 743 

Olearia Haaslii, 171 

Oncidium concolor, 594 ; O. Kranieria- 
mim, 595 ; O. xanthocentron, 104 

Onions and Carrots, on sowing on clayey 
soils, 374 

Onion fly, the, 728 

Opera, a gardener in, 723 

Opium in China, 306 

Oporto, gardening at, 277 

Oranges. Jiahania. 660 ; large, 48 

Orchard-houses, loS, 150 ; cold, 816 

Orchards for farms, 183 

Orchidace;y, the vegetative organs of, 400 

Orchid culture, 212, 246 ; Mr. Swan on, 
147 ; wiUi other plants, 472 

Orchicl-liouses, destruction of Dr. Pat- 
erson's, 16 

Orchid-hcuse. green frogs in the, 692 

Orchids, Dr. Ainsworlh's, 492 ; Mr. Day's, 
741 ; Mr. Hardy's, 776; Sir Trevor 
Lawrence's, 423, 519, 619 

Oiehids in flower, 274 ; at Ashton Court, 
466 ; at Hrentham Park, 339 ; at Mr. 
BuU's, 434, 659 ; at Davenham Bank, 
530 ; at Mr. Leech's, Fallow field. 595 ; 
at The Kirs, Laurie Park, 51 ; at Forest 
Farm, 178, 338, 465 ; at Lake House, 
530 ; at Kew, 627 ; at the Victoria 
and Paradise Nursery, 113, 339 ; at 
Porthgwidden, 59S ; at Messrs. \'eitch's, 
22, 83, 562, 755 ; at the York Nur- 
series, 22 

Orchids, cool, 117; on staging, 214; 
yellow, 598 ; sale of the late Mr. 
Serjeant Cox's, 402 ; thinning the 
pseudobulbsof, 469; sale of Mr. Turner's 
collection of, 84, 754 ; at the Man- 
chester show, 692, 724. 761 

Orchids, Fitzgerald's illustrations of Aus- 
tralian, 306 

Orchis, the Lizard, at Llandudno, 628 

Ornithogalum arabicum, 72), 

Orobus alpestris, 529 

Orythia oxypetala, 10 

Otto silent gas engine, the, 562 

(Juvirandra fenestralis, on the culture of, 
458. 532 

Overcrowding, the evils of, 656 

Pacuvstoma Thomsonianum, 203 

Prt^ony, the Chinese tree, Mr. Fortune 
and others on the, 179, 244, 276, 308 ; 
the time to plant, 438 

Paint, luminous, 465 

Palm-house at Potsdam, dcstrucUon of 
the, 815 

Palm roots, on pruning, 300 

Palm stove at Kew, the, 139 

I'alms, Iiardy, 373; of Juan Fernandez, 
86 ; successful experiment in the mov- 
ing of large, 366 

Pampas-grass, effects of the winter on, 

Pansies in pots for exhibition, 338, 343 

Papaya gracilis, lo 

Parasol, with handle of Arundo Donax, 

Parker, Mr. Thomas, death of, 311 
Parks, free seats in the, 814 
Passiflora racemosa, 691, 724 
Pasturage of Wester TevioLdale, on the, 

Paulton's House, Hants. 681 
Pavonia Wioti, 121 
Peaches, evergreen, 82, 113 ; on setting, 

628, 693, 724 ; leaves, falling of, 629, 

724. Ih^ 
Peaches and Nectarines, 470 
Peach-houses, 139 
Peach twigs and galvanised wire, 246, 

276, 309 
Pear, Bergamotte Hertrich, i2t ; P. 

C'harles ICrnest, 10 ; P. Rival Dumont, 

121 : a graft hybrid, 53. 594 
Pear and Apricot blossoms, the scarcity 

of. 374 
Pear blossoms, notes on. 464, 521 ; effects 

of frost on, 659 
Pear culture under glass, 20 
Pear prospects, 562 

Pear, the Prickly, in ostrich farming, 369 
Pears, street, 103; sorts of, that have done 

well, 54 
Pea weevil in Canada, the, 434 
Peas, early, 21, 790 ; market, 690 
Peasmarsh. Sussex, the rainfall at, 114 
Pelargonium (Decorative) \'olonte Na- 

tionale, 76 ; Zonal, The Major, 21 
Pelargonium (Ivy-leaved), Mrs. Cannell, 

264 ; St. (ieorge, 76, 531 
Pelargoniums and Geraniums, 2r 
Pelargoniums, new decorative, 626, 755 
Pentstemons, 341 ; on the culture of, 404 
Peperomia, origin of the adventitious 

roots and Inuh on leaf cuttings of, 50 
Perennials, hardy ilowering, at Soulh- 

wootl, Biekloy, 723 
perfumery, the art of, 152 

iV-ikins, Mr. T.. death of, 471 

Pescatorea Klabochorum, 118 

Petunias, seedling, 565 

Phala:nopsis, a feast of, 372 

Phakvnopsis Schilleriana, 242 

PhelipL\ia coccinea, in cultivation, ■]^-j 

Phillyrea Vilmoreana, 48 

Pldox Nelsoni. 590 

Phloxes for a rockery. 758 

Pliormium tenax, 171 ; flowering in the 

Orkney Lslands, 10 
Phosphoric acid, free and combincil, 143 
Phyllovera, and the Cape wine growers, 

150, 20S, 215, 240; the Syndicate of 

(ihcnt nurserymen, and the, 814 
Phylloxera in France, tiie, 656 ; in Italy, 

the, 592 ; in Sicily, the, 691 ; the Berne 

Convention, 528, 560, 563, 628, 656, 

813 ; M. Boiteau's experiments, 814. 

(See Vine louse.) 
Picea ajanensis, 115; P. Alcockiana, 

212 ; P. Glchnii, 300 ; P. lasiocarpa 

(Lowiana), ^^, 87 ; P. Maximowiczii, 

363 ; P. pofita. 233, 434 
Pine-apple at home, a, 240 ; cultivation 

in Jamaica, 426 
Pine-apples from Florida, 51 
Pines, white scale on, 183, 213 ; how to 

remove, 374 
Pink, the florist's, origin of the, 722 
Pinks for pot culture, 1 t3 
Pinus, Dr. Lngelmann's revision of the 

genus, 592 
Pinus Massoniana. 336 
Pitcairnea Andreana, 716 
Pitcher, a double, 109, 146 
Pittosporum tenuifolium, 75 ; P. Tobira, 

hardiness of, 434 
Pituri, a new narcotic, 306 
Plagianthus betulinus. 'j'^ ; I', divaricatus, 

Plantains, proliferous, 364, 405 

Plant, a talking, ig 

Plant-houses, the Messrs. Beckwith's, 

Plant killer, the sun as a, 720 
Plant portraits, 76, 121, 716 
Plant thirst and root-rest, 202 

Pl.-\nts, New Garden, Desckibrd :— 
Angraecum Christyanum, 806 ; A. 
hyaioides, 264 ; Anthurium Andre- 
anum, 490 ; Barkeria cyclotella, , 76 ; 
Batemannia Wallisii, 776 ; Brassia 
euodes, 680 ; Bulbophyllum iners, 776 ; 
Caltleya Mardelii, 776 ; Chysis Sedeni x, 
6r6 ; Ccelogyne barbata, 8 ; C. humilis 
tricolor. 394 ; Cymbidium cocldeare, 
16B ; C. elegans var. obcordatum, 41 ; 
C. Mastersii, 136 ; C. Petri, 680 ; C, 
Spicerianum, 363 ; C. stenophyllum, 
200 ; Dendrobium aureum var. philip- 
pinense, 72 ; D. lituiflorum candidum, 
586; D. scabrilingue, 616; D. tetra- 
chromum, 712 ; Epidendrum brachia- 
tum, 648 ; Eriamerguensis, 616 ; Lnelia 
anceps var. rosea. 104 ; L. anceps 
vestahs, 136 ; L. Dormanniana, 168 ; 
L. Perrinii var. nivea, 264 ; Liparis 
formosana, 394 ; L. Stricklandiana, 
232 ; Macraclenia Brassavolac. 104 ; 
Masdevallia Chelsonix, 554; M. mili- 
taris, 742 ; M. pulmonaris, 200 ; M. 
rosea, 554, 648, 681; M. vespertilio, 712; 
M. xanthina, 681 ; Maxillaria arach- 
nites, 394 ; Mesospinidium inuantans, 
586 ; Nepenthes bicalcarata, 200. 264 ; 
Oeloiueria Saundersiana, 264 ; Odonto- 
glossum crispum var. flaveolum, 41, 232 ; 
O. crispum var. Lehmanni, 712 ; O. 
Eduardi, 72 ; O. Horsmanni, 41 ; O, 
Pescatorei limbosum, 169 ; O. ramo- 
sissimum vars. xanthinum and viridc, 
298 ; O. Rossii musaicum, 200 ; O. 
Rossii pallens, 200 ; O. vexillarium 
Lehmanni, 586 ; O. Wilckeanum v, 
298 ; Oncidium .xanthocentron, 104 ; 
Pothos celatocaulis, 200 ; Restrepia 
l''alkenbergii, 232 ; Thrixspermum 
Moorei, 104 ; Tillandsia distachya, 
200 ; Vanda lamellata var. Boxallii, 
743 ; v. Parishii var. Marriotliana, 

Plants, artificial sources of light aiul heat 
for. 426 ; Dr. AUmann on the winter 
and the, 331 ; changing their names, 
660 ; defence in, 364 ; exhibition at 
Henwick Grange, 587 ; and the frost, 
437 ; hardy, for carpet-bedding, 56 ; 
hardy, in bloom. 304. 787 ; hardy, 
effects of the wintta* upon, 469 ; tlie 
winter and the, 563 ; introduced from 
China and Japan by Mr. Fortune, 11 ; 
Japanese, and spring frosts, 627 ; of 
the Kurrum Valley, 209 ; labels for, 
215; on labelling, 241 ; London mar- 
ket, 237 ; in living rooms, 214 ; the 
migration of, and replacement of one 
species by another, 17 ; names, 22 ; 
new Mexican, 498; the new, of 1879, 
739 ; hardiness of Minoroan, 339 ; 
by post, 468 ; on the action of the sun 
on the foliage of, after rain, 57 ; effect 
of uninterrupted sunlight on, 272 

Plants, on watering, 239 

Plumbago rosea, 521 

Plum prospects, 529 

Plum, the Waterloo, 154, 187 

Plum trees, scale on, 789 

Plums, Dale, 106 

Plums, on the culture of, 83 

Poetry of a root crop, 6 .1 

Poinsettia pulcherrima plenissima, iiS 

Poinseltias at Hawkstone, 21 

Poor soils, 87 ; on the iiuprovenient of, 

Polyanthus, a racemose, 594 

Potvanlhuses, seedling gold-laced, 500, 

l^olygonum aflmc, 203 

Polystichum vestilum, 171 

Potato, Champion, 52, 117 ; Magnum 
Bonum, 20, 178 ; Fluke Kidney, 178 

Potato crop, the, 786 ; the Irish, of 1879, 

Potato cultivation, rcconunendations of 
the International Potato Committee, 395 

Potato Diseases Committee, the Irish. 812 

Potato Exhibition, the International. 50, 
176 ; a Midland Counties', 306 

Potato famine in Ireland, the, 210 

Potato flour. 627 

Potato manures, 500 

Potatos, on the cultivation of, 142 ; on 
planting, 437 ; frame. 305 ; gypsum 
^^i'- 555 ; seed, for Irelanrl. 208, 434 ; 
" improvements " in, 54. 8r, 118, 144; 
selected, 149 

Pothos celatocaulis, 200 ; P. glauea, 121 

Poultry, winter laying, 184 

Poverty in the grecnliouse, 364 

Powell. Mr. John, death of, 502 

Practical education, 752 

Primrose, calycanthemy of, 629 

Primrose. Cloth of Gold, double, 661 

Primrose, Oxlip, and Cowslip, the, 722 

Primi'oses, Birds and, 276. 565 

Primroses, Chinese, brilliancy of colour 
in, 146 ; at Cliiswick, 19 ; in Jersey, 
120 ; double, 182 ; double, on the culti- 
vation of, 116 ; new, 211 ; a novelty in 
the Chinese, 308 

Primroses, crimson, 662 

Primula capitata, 121 ; P. corlusoides 
amama, hardiness of 402 ; P. farinosa, 
148, 183, 214 ; P. nivea for furnishing 
wliite flowers, 306 ; P. pubescens, 465, 
500 ; P. Sieboldii, 375, 563 ; P. sinen- 
sis, 370 ; P. spectabilis, 424 ; P. Steinii 
X, 203 ; villosa, 531 

Primulas, notes on hardy, 333 ; wintering 
hardy, 182 

Prunus pennsylvanica, 594 

Psyehotria jasminiflora, 121 

Ptelea trifoliata, 368 

Pteris serrulata cristata major, "144 ; P. s. 
cristata bella, 817 

Public town gardens, 746 

Puerto Rico, vegetation and products of, 

Pulmonarias, 404 
Pyrethrum Golden Feather, oriEjiii of, 

Pyrethrums, double, 691 
Pyriis japonica, 597 ; P. salicifolia, 595 ; 

P. sinensis, 595 


(^)LrEDi.INiiUKG, seed grouing in, 498 
Queensland, exotic plants naturalised In, 

Quick, how and where raised, 231 


Rajni ALL of 1879, Mr. Bailey Denton 
on the, 113 ; at Greenlands, Henley- 
on-Thames, 118 : in Jamaica, 242 ; at 
Leonardslee, 50 ; in Xorthiunberland, 
82 ; at Peasmarsh, Sussex, 11 [ 

Rafters, iron. 308 

Rambutan, the, 203 

Raspberries, 84 

Rating hothouses, 531 

Renanthera coccinea, 754 

Restrepia Falkenbergii, 232 

Restriction or extension in fruit culture, 

Restrictions upon horticulture, 467 
Resurrection plant, the, 808 
Retinosporas, M. Carriere on the 

synonymy of, 145 
Rheum nobile flowering at Kdinburgh, 

692, 792 
Rhodanthes in pots, 690, 780 
Rhododendron barbatum, 374 ; R. cau- 

casicum luteum, 499 ; R. Dalhousia?, 

a double flower of, 722 ; R. ferrugi- 

neum, 566 ; R. jasminitlorum, 87 ; R. 

Kate Watercr, I2i ; R. Salvini, 807 
Rhododendrons at Pinkhill, 52 ; new 

hybrid. 691 ; hardy, 761, 807 
Rhododendron shows, the, 756 
Rhubarb, enormous, 785 
Rivina hmuilis, 468 
Robin Retlbreast nests, 662 
RoUisson, Mr. U., death of, 23 

Rook, a white, 7S2 

Roots, the functions of, 342 

Rose of Jericho. Lord P.acon on the, 659 

Rose, ^\nne Marie de Montravel, 754 ; 
Baronne Prevost, 121 ; lioutiuel tl'Or, 
203 ; Cheshunt Hybrid, 275 ; the iJoi;, 
268 ; H.P. Duke of 'Peck, 203 ; Jules 
Chretien, 121 ; Little (ieni, "121 ; 
Marechal Xiel, 598; Masterpiece, 121 ; 
Tea, Mdlle. Alarie Van Iloutte, 716 ; 
Pride of Waltham, 121 ; Tea, \'is- 
countess I'almouth, 370 

Rose houses, 658 

Rose judging at tlie Crystal Palace, the 
Messrs. Paul's protest, 758, 790 

Rose show, Messrs. William Paul & Sons', 

Rose stock pruners. 87, 182, 213, 245 
Roses, 244 : American, 265 ; on the 
culture of, in pots, 135 ; and the frost, 
212 ; in pots for market, 690 ; notes on, 
596 ; old and new leaves on Mart'chal 
Niel. 499 : pedigree, 500 ; the .Staple- 
ford, 499 
Roupellia grata in Jamaica, 621 
Royal Academy, the, 42 ; notes from the, 

Royal Horticultural Society, 112, 208 ; 
the committees of the, 57 ; annual 
report of the Council, 184 
Rubus australis, 784 ; var. cissoides, 75 ; 
R. biflorus, or leucodermis, 145 ; 1<. 
phanicolasius, 716 
Rumex sanguineus as a rock-plant, 790 
Russian Steppes, in the, 651, 684 
Russia, ]5rotecting plant-houses in, 370 ; 
the winter in, 370 

Sadlkr, Mr. J., presentation of a testi- 
monial to, 112 
S.alvia columbarine, £08 ; S. Schimperi, 597 
Sand-distributing machine, Chambers', 

San Donato sale, the, 433 
Sanitary view of 1879, 113 
Sap, rapid rise of the, in \'ines, 341, 438 
Sarracenia, insects in pitchers of, 83 
.Sarracenias, new hybrid, 722 
Saxifraga Burseriana, 298 : S. flagellaris, 

530; S. geranioides, 10; S. oppositifolia, 

Scale, white, on Pines, 183, 213, 374 
Schajffer, Dr., death ol, 400 
Schimper, Prof., death of, 465 
Schizxa pusilla and Littorella l.acustris in 

Nova Scotia, 210 
Scientific serials, 83 

Scion, influence of the stock upon the, 53 
Scirpus crespitosus, double-flowered, 19 ; 

S. parvulus in Surrey, 215 
Schizanthus pinnatus, 595, 724, 701 
Scorpion Senna, the, 785 
Scotland, extensive planting in, 176 
Scott, Nfr. John, death of, 794 
Scottish Seed and Nursery Trade Associ- 
ation, 143 
Scutellaria Mocinlana, 118 ; pupurascens, 

Seakale, forcedTurnip-tops as a substitute 

for, 12 
Sea-sand for cuttings, 274, 308, 341 
Seaside planting, 438 
Season, some notes on the, 308 ; aiifl 

vegetation, 496 
Secateur Kglantier, 87 
Sedge, a double-flowered, 19 
Seed growing in Quedlinburg, 498 
Seed sowing, 118, 816 
.Seed Supply (Ireland) Act, 370 
Seed trade, the, 82 
Seeds, badly ripened. 275 ; a c.nition 

against early so\\ing, 80 : old, 304 
.Seeds, the use of the feet in sowing, 1:4 ; 

on the transport of, in the time of 

Linnajus, 82 ; the vitality of, 344 
Sekirensy, the gardens of, 631, 684 
Selagineila lepidophylla, 808 
Selaginellas and Lycopodiums for winter 

decoration, 50 
Senipervivum disease, 660, 724, 815 
Senecio pulcher, 372 
Sericographis Ghiesbreghtiana, 468 
Settlements on the Straits of Malacca, 


Scw.ige farming. 178 

Shantung, the vegetable products of, 462 

Sheep poisoned by Xightshade berries, 
87, 117 

Sheppy, fossil plants of, 113 

Shrubs, in flower at Kew, 368 ; note- 
worthy hardy. 656 

Sicily, the N'ine-louse in, 691 

Singapore, horticulture at, 273 

Slugs, 598 ; the past winter and the, 565 

.SOCIETIES: — Arts, 152; Bath and 
West of England Agricultural, 726 : 
Bristol Spring .Sliow, 407 ; Chertsey ar.d 
District Horticultural, 8i3 ; Cliiswick 
Flower Siow-, 600; Cr\st:il Palace, 
725 ; Edinburgh Botanical, 83, 278, 
375, 726, 793 ; Epping Forest ami 


Jane 26, iSSo.] 


[The Gardeners' chronicle. VI 1 

Coiint\ of I-^^sex Xaluralists' Field 
Club, 89 ; Manclicster Royal Piotaiiical 
and Horlicultunii, 567, 662 ; Mete- 
orological. 184 ; Xational Amicula 
(Southern Section), 533 ; (Northern 
Section), 567 ; Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
liotanical and Horlicultunii, 502 ; Paris 
Horticultural, 793 : Pelargonium, 817 ; 
Reading Horticultural, 694 ; Royal 
liotanic, 407, 534, 664, 791 ; Royal 
Caledonian Horticultural, 470; Royal 
Horticultural, 83 ; annual meeting, 215 ; 
.ndinary meetings, 343, 405, 501, 566, 
030, 694, 761, 817 ; Great .Summer 
Show, 759 ; Scottish Horticultural 
.\ssociation, 58, 184, 375, 534, 665, 793 ; 
Scottish Pansy, 818 ; South Essex 
Kloricultural, 794 ; N'ork Ciala, 817 

Socotra. expedition to the Island of, 80, 
240 ; the Pliylloxera, 63S 

Soil,, 19 

Soil temperature, 54 ; during winter, 458 

.Soils, poor, on the improvement of, 119 

Soja bean, the, 48 

Solaiuim Dulcamara, 53 ; S. Torreyi, 203 

Solanums for market, 181 

Soldanella Clusii, 466 

Sonerila margaritaeea, 210 

Soot and wood-ashes, 405 

Soot on boilers, 118, 148, 214, 245 

Sorghum cultivation for the production of 
sugar in America, 471 

Sorrel, the herb, 760, 789 

"Souchet, M., deatli of, 502 

Sparrows and Primroses, s97 

Sparrow question, the, 62'3 

Spinach, New Zealand, 662 

Spiraea palmatn, 436 

Spondias of Jamaica, the, 682 

Spring, a dry, 754 

Spring flowers at Belvoir Castle, 457, 532 ; 
at Castle Ashby, 814 ; at Cranhoiirn 
Conrt, 816 

St. Croix and the X'irgin Islands, tlu' 
flora of, 178 

St. P.aul's weather, 145 

Standard fruits, 658 

Stansfield, Mr. T., death of, 58 

Statistics, colour, 619 

Staub, Dr., on temperature and vegeta- 
tion, 10 

Stephanotis floribunda, 566, 597, 790 

Sternbergia lutea, 21, 87, 120, 140, 182, 

Stewart, Mr, .-\. B., death of, 727 

.Stock, new crimson iLast Lotliian. 592 ; 
Mauve Beauty, 465 

Stock, effect of scion on, 627 ; influence 
of the, upon the scion, 53 

Storm in Scodand, the great, 16 

Stove plants for \\ inter and spring bloom- 
ing, 468, 521 ; on cleaning, 52 

Strawberries, 84, 213 ; autumn, 523, 590, 
662, 692 ; early, 123, 214 ; flowering, 
59S ; preparations for potting, 788 

.Street Pears, 103 

Strelitzia regina- Lemoinieri, 716 

Suburban gardens, 780 

.Sugar Beet industry in Kurope, the, O31 

Sunflowers, 807 

Sunlight, effect of uninterrupted, on 
plants, 272 

Sun, the, as a plant killer, 720 

Sutherland, the wcaUier in, 120 

Swede, a malformed, 332 
Switzerland, tlie winter in, 1 
Symphytum peregrinuni, 12 

■r.\iiERN.i;MO.\T.VN.\ coronaria flore- 
pleiio, 808 

Taxus baccata var. fructu-luteo, 87 

Tea, brick, the manufacture of, in China, 

Tea, Indian, 659 

'I'eleplione in the nursery, the, 601 

Temperature and vegetation, 10 

Temperature of the soil during winter, 458 

Temperatures registered in Edinburgh, 83 

Temple garden in Japan, 304 

Theory and practice, 348 

'I'liermouieter, (_'entigrade, 18 

Thevdon Gro\"e, a conservatory and 
billiard room at, 172 

Thistle, a monstrous, 141 

Thorn, the single pink, 683 

Thread from wood, 498 

Thrixspermum Moorei, 104 

Thunbergias, note on, 653 

Thunderstorm, a destructive, in .Somerset- 
shire, 467 

Tliuya arbor-vit.i', is it injurious to cattle? 
118, 150 

Thuya ericoides, 112; T. Standishii, 589 

Tillandsia distachya, 200 ; T. tricolor, 10 

Timber, South .\fricaii, i36 

Tipula oleracea, 621 

Tobacco, Californian, So3 

Todea superba, 171 

Tomatos, 183 ; all the year round, 73 ; in 
cold frames, 19 

Tomato, Vicks' Criterion, 21 

Torenias, new, 532 

Town gardening, 659 

Town gardens, public, 746 

Town refuse, 146 

Traehelospermum jasminoides, 374 

Tradescantia zebrina as a bedding plant, 

Traill, Dr., on the flowering of the New 

Zealand Flax in the Orkney Islands, 10 
Transmutation in cereals, 214 
Transplanting evergreens, 373 
Trapa nalans, 436 
Tree planting, commemorative, 690 
Tree stumps, removing by tonite, 590 
Tree, the whistling, 216 
Trees, destruction of, at Kcw, 146 ; on 

the correct measurement of, 89 ; Mr. 

W. C. Barry on weeping, 744 
Trenching, 17 

Trentham Young Gardeners' Mutual Im- 
provement Society, 61S 
Triauiea bogotensis, 626 
Trillium grandifloruni, 594 
Tripliasi.i trifoliata, 653 
Tritonia MacOwani, 121 
Troi^X'oliim Cooperi, 594 
Trop;eolums as bedding plants, 340 
Triig baskets, 373 ; why Trug ?, 402, 405, 

436, 469, 499 
Tsuga Pattoniana, 460 
Tulip.a triph)lla, 203 
Tulips, early, 402; as imported, and after 

three years' cultivation, 653 
Tunis, ten days at, 748 
Tuikcitan, a new Crocus from, 531 

Turiibull, Mr. \., presentation to, 179 
Turner collection ot Orchids, the. 84, 754 
Turnip-tops, 368 ; forced, as a substitute 

lor Seakale, 12 
Typhonium divaricatum, 306 


L'k.vri poison, tlie, 23 

X'Ai.K Rov.M., gardening at, 404 
Vanda Denisoniana, 597 ; V. laniellata 
var. Boxallii, 743 ; V. Parlshii wir. 
Marioltiana, 743 
Vegetables and fruits, new, of 1879, 11 
V^egetables, Continental, 209 ; early, 438 ; 
in London, 18 ; killed by the frost, 21 ; 
market, 19 ; market prices of, 53 ; pre- 
served by drying, 376 ; preserved in 
France, 178; select, 119, 183: winter 
and spring, 120 ; effects of tlie past 
winter upon, 564 
Vegetable kingdom, a history of tlie 

evolution of the, 466 
N'egetable products of .Shantung, 462 
Vegetable wax, the production of, in 

Japan, 211 
Vegetation and arcliilecture, 20 
Vegetation and products of Puerto Rico, 

Vegetation, influence of the electric light 
on, 404 ; open-air, 366 ; temperature 
and, 10 ; effects of the weather on, 
724 ; effects of the winter on, 433 

Verbascum phix'niceuni, 724 

Verbena, tlie, as a garden plant, 50 

Verbenas from seed, 747 

Vermin traps, hvimane, 398 

Verona, view in the Ruena \''ista (larden 
at, 752 

Wronica Huli<.eana, 17T ; V. L\allii, 121 ; 
V. pinguifoiia, 171 ; V. salicifolia var., 
171 ; \'. 'i'raversii. 171 ; hardiness 
of, 307 

Veronicas, the names of, 816 

Verschaffelti M. Jean N., death of, 727 

\'etch, the bitter, 17 

Victoria, Tree Ferns in, 726 

Vine disease, 88 

Vine louse laws, the, 656. (See Phyl- 

Vine louse at the C'ape, 20S 

Vinery, spite in a, 241 

Vines, defoliated, 433 ; 
by frost, 437 ; old, 
cutting down, 816 ; 
on, 691, 790, 816 

\'iola argentiflora, 345 

Violas, British American, 363 

Violet odoratissima, hints on the culture 
of, 341 

Violets, Neapolitan, 338 

Violets, on the cuUivation ol, 365 ; wild, 

\'itality of seeds, 3(.| 

; failing, 532 ; killed 

the best time for 

stopping laterals 

Wall creepers, 722 

Wallflowers, double lierman, 690 

Vv'all fruit trees, 88 

Walls, on pointing old, 340 

Wasps, 684 

Water Cresses for winter use, 138 

Water plants, 176 

Watering plants, on, 239 

Weather, at ICcUnburgh, the, 6^58 ; in 
France, the, 18 ; in Sutherland, the, 
120 ; in the North of Scotland, 374 ; 
in January, the, 2£o ; al the end of 
May. 693 ; in June, 724 ; and the fruit 
blossoms, 597 

Weather m 1879, summary of the, 207 

Weather records, 784 

Weeds, troublesome, in California, tg 

Weeping trees, Mr. W. C. Barry on, 744 

Wheat harvest of 1879, 89 

Wheat, Kubanka and Saxonka, 108, 172 

Whistling tree, the, 216 

Willermoz, Ch. F.. death of. 48 

WHne of Berberis Aquifolium, 594 

Wine, Date Talm, 82 

Winter Greens, 210 

Winter of 1879-80, the, 459 ; and the 
coming summer, 597 ; in Arran, the 
past, 535 ; at I'^lvaston Castle, 748 ; 
and the plants, the, 368, 563, 790 ; 
effects of the, on hardy plants, 404 ; 
effects of the, on plants, 434, 630 ; 
effects of the, in different parts of Scot- 
land, 793 ; and the slugs, 565 ; in 
Switzerland, 18 ; effects of the past, on 
vegetables, 564 ; and the wall trees, 

Wire, galvanised, and Peach twigs, 309, 

Wistaria sinensis, stand:ird plants of, 594, 

Wolverhampton, the new park for, 586, 

Wood ashes and soot, 405 
Wood from gravel deposit, 406 
Wood, thread from, 498 
Wood trade, the, 82 
Woodsia, species of, 121 
Worms on lawns, 376 

Xanthium Strumarium, 17 
Xerophyllum asphodeloides, 432, 468 

Yeast as an insecticide, So 

Yellow Orchids, 598 

Yew, the Buckland, removal of, 305;, 5",6 

\'ew trees, remarkable, 693, 724 

York Gala, the, 210 

York Nurseries, the, 491 

\'orkshire, fruit prospects in, 565 

^'ucca gloriosa var. medio-striata, 716; 

V. filamcntosa variegata, 594 
Yuccas and Aloes, 146 
Yuccas, the fruiting of. 81 ; on the ft^rtili- 

sation of, 2t ; hybrid, 807 


Wahlknbekuia lenuifolia, 716 
Waldensteinias, the, 493 

Zinnias, double, 590 


FROM 184 1 TO 1878, INCLUSIVE. 

Ele. to Geo. 
Geo. to HvH. 
Hye. to Liu. 
LiLi. to M.^sn. 
Masd. to Odon, 






















page 403 

„ 435 

„ 588 

„ 68s 

„ 779 

VI 1 1 The Gardeners' Chronicle. ] 


[June 26, 18S0. 




Abies concolor, 649 ; A. lasiocarpa at 

Brownsover Hall, 9 ; A. \'eitchii, 273 
" Acme " plant labels, 119 
Aconite root, 20 
Aerides Schroederi, 493 
Agave Victoria? Regina?, 788 
Alpines, two, 425 
Anthurium Andreanum, 497 ; A. Scher- 

zerianum, a bracteate form of, 808 ; A. 

Scherzerianum var. pygmceum, 630; A. 

Scherzerianum var. Rothschiklianum x , 

Arundo Donax handle for parasol, 4;);) 
Asparagus plumosus, 749 


Barkeria elegans, 72 

Bellidiastrum Michelii, 425 

Belvoir Castle, plans of spring bedding 

arrangements at, 456 
Billiard-room and conservatory at They- 

don Grove, 173 
Blaize Castle, a ravine in the grounds at, 

49 ; view of a dell in the grounds of. 

Boilers. Mr. Ladd's, 76 ; Messrs. Beck- 

with's, 77 
Bouquet from Bordighera, 596 
Brook-side view, a, 177 
Brownsover Hall, Abies lasiocarpa at, 9 
Buckland Yew, views of the, 556, 564 

Calceolarias, ancient and modern, 

688 ; and Coloured Plate issued with 

the number for May 29 
Campanula persicifolia flore-pleno, 693 
Cantua dependens, 785 
Carlina acaulis, 720, 721 
Carpet-bed at Chelsea, plan of a, 617 
Cerastium alpinum, 299 
Chinese flower-pot, 524 
Choisya ternata, 625 
Chrysanthemum frutescens Etoile d'Or, 

Chysis Chelsonix, 717 - 

Cinchona officinalis var. Bonplandiana, 

429 ; C. ofiicinalis, a Uritusinga, 428 
Cineraria, a new type of, 277 
Conifers, Japanese : Abies concolor. 649 ; 

Thuya Standishii, 589 
Conservatory at Eagle Cliff, Greenhithe, 

237 ; and billiard-room, at Theydon 

Grove. 173 
Cotton-cloth, with mildew growing out 

ofit, 13 
Cypresses at Verona, the, 753 
Cypripedium Lawrenccanuni. 777 ; C. 

selligerum, 776 ; C. Sijicerianum, 41 ; 

C. vexillarium, 781 

Dai'iine Blagayana, 245 
Dasylirion glaucum, 205 
Design for a winter and summer flower 

bed. 397 
Dieffenbachia " regina," 745 

Electric light, diagram illustrating the 

use of tlie, in forcing, 432 
Eneephalartos villosus, male cone of, 181 
Endophyllum sempervivi, 660 
Eucalyptus coccifera, 395 
Euphorbia Characias, 657 

Firs, tufted branches of, 52 

Flow'er-bcd, design for a winter and 
summer. 397 

Mower-i30t, a Cliinese. 524 

Mowers from Bordighera. 596 

Forcing by electric light, diagram illus- 
trating the arrangements for, 432 

Forcing-house, section of a, 140 

F'lame, l'"oster t>; Pearson's new, 809 

I'ritillaria Moggridgei, 532 ; F. Thun- 
bergii, 532 ; V. oranensis, 341 

Fniits of the Malay peninsula, 209 

l'"ungus attacking Sempervivums, 660 

Geum montanum, 425 

Grafting, mock, as practised by the 
Chinese, 489 

Grapes, ^Ir. Coleman's method of pack- 
ing, illustrated, 10^ 

Greenlands, views in the gardens at, 802 

Gunnersbury House, Acton, 145 


Halley's Mount, Tree Ferns and 

Shee-Cabbage on, 400 
Henslow, Prof., delivering a village 

lecture, 309 

ILR.X AquifoUum conspicua, 45 ; 1. Aqui- 
folium princeps, 45 

Japan, view of a temple garden in, 305 
Japanese nursery garden, view in a, 529 

Kelly, the Livingstone hut at, 269 

Lawn-tennis net, standard for a. 340 
Little Aston Hall, view of. 17 
Livingstone hut at Kelly, the, 269 


Masdevallia bella, 756 ; M. rosea, 
680. 681 

Malayan fruits, 209 

Mildews found growing out ol cotton- 
cloth, 13 

Mock grafting as practised by the Chinese, 

Mountain in a flower-pot, a, 525 


Nei'ENThes bicalcarata, 201 
Nepenthes zeylanica, a double pitcher of, 

Onio.n-1-ly, the, 728 

Palm-iiouse at Kew, general plan and 

cross section of the, 141 
Parasol, with a stem of Arundo Donax, 

Peach-house, section of a, 140 
Pear blossoms — Bcurre d'.'\nianlis, 

521 ; Beurrc Diel, 464 ; Easter BeurrtS 

520 ; Flemish Beauty, 461 ; Forelle, 

460 ; Glou Morceau. 465 
Pears— Beurre Diel. 469 ; Flemish Beauty, 

469 ; Forelle, 469 
Pears — Diagrams illustrating the influ- 

ence^of stock on scion. 53 
Pelargonium (Ivy-leaved), Mrs. Cannell, 

Picea ajanensis, 115, 213 ; P. Alcockiana, 

213 ; P. Glehnii, 301 ; P. Maximowiczii. 

section of the leaf of, 363 ; P. polita, 233 
Pine-apple at liome, a, 241 

Pinus Massoniana in a Japanese ceme- 
tery, 337 

Plan of a carpet-bed at Chelsea, 617 

Plan of a garden designed to contain a 
classified collection of plants, 137 

Plantains, proliferous, 364 

Plant and fruit houses, plans of, 140, 141 

Plant labels, the "Acme," 119 

Ptelea trifoliata, 369 

Rheum nobile, 793 
Rose stock pruncr, 87 

S.\rracenia Chelsoni x , 725 
Secateur Eglantier, 87 
Sempervivum disease, 660 
Shee-Cabbage on Halley's Mount, 400 
Sternbergia lutea, 21 
S*ede, a malformed, 333 

Temple garden near Yokohama, 305 
Theydon Grove, the conservatory and 

billiard-room at, 173 
Thuya Standishii, 589 
Trug basket, a, 373 
Tulipa Kolpaliowskyana, as imported, 

652 ; after three years' cultivation, 653 
Tulip Van Thol, 652 
Tufted branches of Firs, 52 

Verona, the Cypresses at, 753 


Water plants, 177 

Wolverliampion, plan of the new public 
park for, 593 

Xerophvllu.m asphodeloides, 433 

Yew, the Buckland, views of the, 564 
Yokohama, view of a temple garden at, 
556. 305 




^stablisheb 1841. 




No. 314. — Vol. XIII. {sS^rs. } 


Regi-tereJ at ihe Gmiial 
Posi-office as a Newspaper. 

Price 5d. 

Post Free, 5V. 

— With this Number is issued, Gratis, a 


Abies lasiocarpa (with cut) 


Market prices 

. so 

Aconite root, puisoning by 

,. vegetables .. 

• '9 

(with cull 


Marnock portrait .. 

. 16 

Antibes, notes from 



. ai 

Antiquary, the 



• 23 

Barb fences 


Orchids at Chelsea 


Birds and berries .. 


,, at York Nurseries 

. 22 

Bitter Vetch, the .. 


Pear culture under glass 




Pelargonium The Major 


Books, notices of (with 

Plant names 

. 22 



,. portraits 


Bothy, a French . , 


Plants, migration of 

■ 17 

Ccelogyne bai bata 


,, new garden .. 

. 8 

Committees, the Royal 

,, new, of 1879 . . 


Horticultural Society .. 

Poinsettias at Hawkstone 


Cottage gardens . , 


Potato Magnum Bonum 


Cotton mildew (with cuts) 


Primroses, Chinese 

- 19 

Daphne Mezereon 


Sedge, a double- flowered 


Diospyros Kaki .. 


Siernbergia lulea (wi 


Fir-tree oil . . 



. 21 

Flax, the New Zealand .. 


Storm in Scotland, the 

. 16 

Florists' flowers . . 


Talking plant, a .. 

■ 19 

Forcing, on . 


Temperature :ind veget 


Foreign correspondence .. 




Foitune's introductions . . 


Tomatos in cold frames 

. 19 

France, weather in 


Tomato, Vick's Criterion 


Fruit, effects of climate 

Trenching .. 

• 17 



Vegetables in London 

. 18 

Fruits, new. of 1879 


„ new. of 1879. . 


Gardeners" Royal Benevo- 

Vecetaiion and architec 

lent Institution .. 



. 20 

Garden operations 


Weather, the 

. 23 

Genista prsecox 


., change in the 

. 16 

Gordon's Pmehtm 


Weeds in Calilornia 

Little Aston Hall (with 

Winter in Switzerland 

. 18 



Yuccas, fertilisation of 

. 21 


Now Ready, In cloth, 16s., 

Volume XL, JANUARY to JUNE, 1879. 
W. RICHARDS, 41. Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

To the Seed Trade. 

CO.'S General Who'esale Seed CATALOGUE is now 
leady. and will be forwarded on application. A copy was 
posted to all their Customers on December 23, should it not 
have been received, another copy wi'l be forwarded on an 
intimation to that elTect being sent them. 

Seed Warehouse, 79, Southwatk Street, London, S.E. 

offer STANDARD PURPLE-LEAVED (6 to 7 feet, 
and 5 to 6 feet, well grown grafted trees), also SCARLET 

The Nurseries, Sawbridgwoalh. Herts. 

LUles of the VaUey. 


f-' i3r, Koepnickerstrasse, Berlin SO. 

The Plants are fine this year. Prices, £i i?s. per loco, 
X15 per 10,000. Every one strong flowering. Stock, 400.00c. 

— To effect a speedy clearance of the ground, specially 
low quotations will be given for choice CONIFERS, 
about 10 plant are invited to apply for particulars. 
J. J. MARRIOTT, Highfield Nurseries, Matlock, Derbyshire. 

ASH. — 150,000 — 2 to 3 and 3 to 4 feet — good 
stout plants, offered to the Trade or otherwise, on very 
reasonable terms, by 
J. CHEAL AND SONS, Lowfield Nurseries. Crawley, Sussex. 

Special List of Cheap Fema. 

of a large number of varieties ot FERNS and SELAGI- 
NELLAS, offered at very low prices, will be forwarded on appli- 
cation. Ferns being our Speciality, and having an immense 
Stock, we are able to supply them at the most reasonable prices. 
W. AND J. BIRKENHEAD, Fern Nursery. Sale, near 

Gracds Tills Year 

ripened without bottom-heat ; leading kinds "js. 6d. and 
lOJ. 6</. each ; planting Canes -^s. 6d. to 51. each. 
CATALOGUE on application. 
JAMES DICKSON and SONS, '-Newton" Nurseries, 

GRAPE VINES. — Fruiting and Planting 
Canes of leading sorts. 
FRANCIS R. KINGHORN, Sheen Nurseries, Rich- 
mond, Surrey. 

To the Trade. 


HAND F. SHARPE are now prepared to 
• make Special Offers of their fine selected stocks of 
GARDEN and FIELD SEEDS of 1879 growth. 
Seed Growing Establishment, Wisbech, 

QALE of ORCHIDS. — Orchid Growers are 

O invited to INSPECT the ORCHIDS of the late 
Mr. SERIEANT COX, previovis to their removj to 
Stevens' Auction Rooms, For Cards to view, apply to 

Captain EDWARDS, Moat Mount. Mid Hill. N.W. 

To the Trade Only. 


HELLEBORUS NIGER.— Strong Pl.ints, 
full ot fl )wer-buds, ^5 per loo, for cash. Sample ten 
forwarded on receipt of P. GO. for io.r. 

THOMAS KITLEV, Oldfield Nursery, Bath. 

Established in 1815, 

Hollamby's Nurseries, Groombridge, Tunbridge Wells, 
loo Acres tn select from. 

EDWIN HOLLAMBY'S Descriptive Priced 
CATALOGUE of Roses, Evergreens, and Flowering 
Shrubs, Conifers, Fruit and Forest Trees, &c.| will be forwarded 
free on application. 
N.B. — Through trucks to all parts : a great saving in packing. 

Immense Quantities of 


CATALOGUES will be sent free on rp^iication. 
LEVA VASSEUR AND SON, Nurserymen, Ussy, Calvados, 

Agents: Messrs. R. SILBERRAD and SON. 15. Harp 
Lane, Great Tower Street, London, E C. 

SPRUCE FIRS, very bushy,' suitable for 4S 
and 32 size pots, ifX to 2 feet, 355 per 1000. 
W. BALL AND CO., Bedford Road Nursery. Northampton. 

PRUCE FIRS.— Many thousands, 2, 3, 4 and 

5 feet. Stout, well furnished, and good rooted. 
ANTHONY WATERER. Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, Surrey. 

PRUCE FIRS for Christmas Trees, well 

formed, 3 to 4 feet, 30J. per 100 ; 4 to q feet, 40^-. per loo. 
RICHARD SMITH and CO., Nurserymen, Worcester. 

T fiiii*pls! 

THOMAS PRESSLEY has again much 
pleasure in offering his stock of very strong, healthy, and 
well-rooted Laurels; 2!^ feet, 7^. per 100; 65J. per 1000; cash 
with order. Trade supplied. 

The Gardens, Fonthill, Tisbury, Wilts. 

Jean Verschaffelt's Nurseries. 

free on application to 
de Bruxelles, Ghent, Belgium. 

London Agents : Messr;. R. SILBERRAD AND SON, 15, 
Harp Lane, Great Tower Street, E.C. 

To the Trade. 

PEARS (Marie Louise and Beurrif Diel), 
extra Strong, fan and horizontal trained trees, i8j. per 
dozen ; extra fine pyramids, 6 to 8 feet, 245. per dozen. 
FILBERTS, transplanted layers, 20^. per 100. 
ELMS, English and Chichester, 8 to 10, and 10 to 12 feet, Cos. 
and Tos. per loo. 
CARAWAY AND CO., Durdham Down, Clifton, Bristol. 

TANDARD PEARS, to offer :— Williams' 

Bon Chretien. Hessel, EeutriS Capiaumont, and others. 
STANDARD CHERRIES. Eigarreau and Black Heart. 
MUSSEL STOCKS. Price per 1000 on application to 

WILLIAM FLETCHER, Ottershaw Nursery, Chertsey, 


GRAPE VINES, a large and fine stock, now offered for Sale, 
THOMAS RIVERS and SON, Sawbridgeworth, Herts. 

RUIT TREE STOCKS.— Strong, fit to 

graft — Apples, Pears, Plums, Mussel, Mahaleb, Cherry, 
SOJ. per iq:o. Very fine 3-yr. and 4-yr. (transplanted) QUICK., 
14J. and i6j. per 1000. 

W. JACKSON. Blakedown. Kidderminster. 


V_/ — Saved in 1879 Good ripened Seed. Excellent Cropper, 
Hardy variety. 20 beeds for thirteen stamps, or 100 for 5f. 
J. GARDENER, Sutton Road Nursery, Kidderminster. 

ON SALE at a reasonable offer, or 
EXCHANGED for Specimen CAMELLIAS or other 
plants, a Pair of splendid PALMS, in consequence of having 
outgrown their house ; in robust health, 10 feet by 8. Good 
opportunity for any one about to furnish a large conservatory. 
Fine for exhibiting. 

T. J. HART, Birr Castle Gardens. Parsonstown, Ireland. 



CAMELLIAS of any kind, or Grafts of LADY HUME, 
J. GRIFFIN, Florist, Eastbourne Road, Birkdale, Southport. 

FIG, and Two LEE'S PROLIFIC FIG, in extra 
strong Trees, dwarf-trained preferred. Send sizes and all 
particulars to 

JAMES DICKSON AND SONS, "Newton" Nurseries, 


Oold Medal Begonias. 

SEED, superior to all others, i-i now h.irve?ted frum 
their unequalled collection, which was again awarded the Royal 
Horticultural Society's Medal m August. Scaled packets Irec 
by post. IS. and -zs. 6if. each. The Trade supplied. 

JOHN LAING AND CO.. Seedsmen. Forest Hill. S.E. 


DOWN IE AND LAIRD, Royal Winter 
Gardens, Edinburgh, are prepared to supply the Finest 
Dwarf Roses in cultivation. Their own selection, gs. per dozen. 
Purchaser's selection, i7S. per dozen. 

CATALOGUES of the above free on application. 

Bedding Roses. 

V->' No Gardon should be without a bed of this brilliant 
crimson and perpetual flowering bedding Rose (Hundreds of 
testimonials.) Strong ground plants lor. per dozen, y^t. per loo. 

Other choice select Roses for bedding, 60s. to 75J. per 100. 

King's Acre, near Hereford. 


comprising Multillora de la Grifferaie, Manetti, and 
Brier— about 10,000 in all, many of them disbudded, price i8j. 
per 1000. 
J. J. MARRIOTT, Highfield Nurseries, Matlock, Derbyshire. 

LILIES, Superior, of English growth. 
BULBOUS PLANTS of all kuids. 
HARDY ORCHIDS, and ORCHIDS for Cool-house ruliurc. 
Before Purchasing, see CATALOGUE of the NEW PLANT 
AND BULB CO., Colchester. Post-free on application. 
Dr. Wallace's '"Notes on Lilies," Illustrated, post-free 5?. Cif. 

PIR.4I:A PALMATA. — The largest and 

b'^st stock in Europe, loi. 6J., 15J , soy,, and 2$s. per 100. 
SPIR/EA JAPON'ICA, for forcins, the finest possible clumps. 
CHARLES NOBLE, Sunningdale, 

PIR^A PALMATA.— This beautiful pink 

variety, with immense flower bunches, justly called 
"The Queen of Spiraeas, " is offered at 20.r. per loo, strong clumps. 
Wholesale CATALOGUES free on application. 
BUDDENBORG BROTHERS, Bulb Growers, House, 
Eloemswaard, Hillegom, near Haarlem, Holland. 

To Iflie TfRde 

NUTTING AND SONS have now posted 
their Annual Wholesale Garden, Agricultural and 
Flower Seed CATALOGUE to all their friends ; if not to band, 
on application another shall be immediattly forwarded. 

NUTTING AND SONS, Seed Merchants, 6d, Barbican, 
London, E.C. 


and GREENHOUSE PLANTS, is now ready, and wdl be 
sent, post-free, on application. 

Elvaston Nurseries, Borrowash, near Derby. 

CHARLES NOBLE has a vei-y cheap and 
Kood Stock to offer of the following : — 
APPLES, PEARS, and CHERRIES, Standards. 
PEARS on Quince, Dwarf. 
ROSES, Dwarf, including Moss Perpetuals. 
An unsurpassable lot of Standard RHODODENDRONS. 
Post address— Sunningdale. Staines. 


Roots, for Forcing, exceedingly fine. Special quotations. 
Apply to 

H. THORNTON, i. Maxwell Road, Fulham, S.W. 


growing on them. Price from js. 6d, to 21s. each. 
RICHARD SMITH and CO., Nurserymen, Worcester. 

EED POTATOS.— We have a f^ne Stock 

of all the principal Old and New Varieties. 

Special Price List on application. 

KERR AND FOTHERINGHAM, Seed Merchants, Dumfries. 

To the Trade. 


• POTATOS is now ready, and will be forwarded on 
application. It comprises all the best varieties in cultivation, 
including their latest novelty, *' Pride of Ontario." 
Seed Growing Establishment, Wisbech. 


disposal, true stock, about two tons, in one lot preferred. 
Cash price on application to 

DAVISON AND CO., White Cross Nurseries, Hereford. 

Rhubarb and Seakale Forcing. 
TRONG, well-made POTS for the above 

can be supplied by 

J. MATTHEWS, Royal Pottery, Weston-super-Mare. 

Price List Free. 

RCHID BASKETS (great reduction in).- 

Teakwood Rods, rounded edges, made with strong; coppei 
or galvanised wire. Every kind made for growing Orchids, at 
50 per cent, less than usually charged. Sample sent carriage 
free on receipt of twelve stamps. "TEAK RODS supplied, pfe* 
pared and drilled, ready for making up. 

ALFRED GRANT and CO., Steam Works, ^9%, Leather 
Lane, London, £.C> 




[January 3, 1880. 


Auction Mart, Tokenliouse Yard, E.G. 

IMPORTANT SALK of a splendid consignment of 7X)0 
LILIUM AURATUM juit arrived fioin Japan, in tine 
conditioir ; also a quantity of LILIUMS and other roots 
fiom California, a consignment of rare PLANTS from 
Fionda; fine clumps of DISAGRANDIFLORA, FREE- 
SIAS, and other IJULIJS, from the Cape ; a fine assort- 
ment of English-grown LILIES, including very large 
bulbs of Hrownii, gi?anteum, and pardalinuin ; HARDV 
BaLBS, CHRISTMAS ROSES, and a few lots of choice 
established ORCHIDS. 

will SELL the above by AUCTION, at the Mart, on 
MONDAY NEXT, at half-past ii o'clock precisely. 

On view morning of Sale. Catalogues at the Mart, and 
98, Graccchurch Street, E.C. 

Bases, Sbrubs, and Bulbs. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 3S, King Street, 
Covent Garden, \V.C., on WEDNESDAY, January 7. at half- 
past T2 o'clock precisely, 1000 choice named STANDARD, 
and 500 HALF-STANDARD ROSES, from a well known 
English Nursery; HARDY and ORNAMENTAL TREES 
and SHRUliS. from Surrey ; FRUIT TREES. 5500 LILY of 
the VALLEY, and DUTCH liULIiS, including HYA- 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Highly Important Sale of Extensive Importations 

MR. J. C. STEVENS has received instruc- 
tions from Mr. F. S.ander to SELL by AUCTION, at 
his Great Rooms, 38, King Street, Covent Cirden, W.C, on 
THURSDAY. January, 8, at half-past 12 o'clock precisely, a 
magnificent importation of the grand and rare L.(EL1.\ 
ANCEPS DAWSONI ; the masses and pieces are in 
splendid health and full breaks and leaves. 'I'lie plants 
haying been brought home in Wardian cases, are in a con- 
dition which could not possibly be improved, and having 
arrived some five weeks since, they are all perfect'y safe. 
At the same time will be offered a magnificent new ODONTO- 
GLOSSUM, dedicated by Professor Rcichenbach to its 
discoverer, Mr. F. C. Lehmann— ODONTOGLOSSUM 
LEHMANNI, Rchb.; grand masses of L/ELIA ANCEPS, 
finest var. ; a splendid Importation of the beautiful large- 
flowering TRICHOPII.IA FRACRANS. and the splendid 
CENTRUM, Rchb., which will be shortly described in the 
GarJeners' Chronicle : sl large lot of ONCIfJlU.M M ikC- 
MEDUS/E : together with an Importation of the very rare 
SIMUM; also anew yellow flowering MAXILLARIA, 
flowers and drawings of which will be shown. 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

10,000 Splendid Bulbs of Lilium auratum, 

just arrived from Japan. 

lyrR- J. C. STEVENS will SELL by 

XTJ. AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King Street 
Covent Garden, W.C, on FRIDAY, Janu.ary 9, at half past 
12 o Clock precisely, io,ooo extra fine bulbs of LILIUM 
AURATUM, just arrived from Japan in the best possible con- 
dition, and comprising some of the finest bulbs ever imported in 
?:2^.»,V,",'.','J!?.T''"^^ ""** Private Buyers : 5000 TIGRIDIA 
^^^^^?^\\^^,^^•i.?°° 7- CONCH I FLORA, and 5000 fine 
i!.,;A,r- '■■°™ ^^^ Jersey ; 6000 crowns of LILV of the 
VALLEY, from Germany ; 2000 LILIUM KRAMERI, some 
tine roots of a blue-flowered WATER LILY MONT. 
VIGIA JOSEPHINA, S-c , from the Cape; LILIUM 
l';!r''„"™ others, from California; and a great variety of 
IRIS, and other BULliS from Holland. ^^^KUlbbUb, 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Florist's. Gardener's, and Fruiterer's, 

TSilii.ate within two miles of Covent Garden, 
O BE DISPOSED OF, Proprietor hkvincr 
another occupation.— To Gardeners or others wishing to 
commence business this 13 an opportunity seldom olTered. 
Capital about ii6o, or by arrangement. 

CwS'office: wl!' '' ■■""""'"^ ^- ""■ ^- '"'"-''""''' 

Fifty Nurseries, Market Gardens, Florist and Seed 



^^l::l±lcH'st^^%°'c: ^"'^ "" "' .""■^'-'d gratis at ^sS, 

.T ''1-, ^.^^NE, Landscape G.\rdener.— 

Rockwork"^'!^' ^ Contmct or Otherwise, Ornamental Lakes, 
G^mirmi' 1 '*'=f"""^ kindly permitted to Noblemen and 
Gentlemen - P aces already earned out. Plans and Estimates 
furnished— Wellesley House,Wellington Road. Orpingron.Ke m 


. , . ^'''' ^^- '" Maiti.and having now NOTHING TO nn 
with the WORKING or MANAgImENT' of the abov^ UU 
requested that all Communications be addressed to 

Mr. CHARLES EDEN, Merton Abbey Nursery, S.W. 

S P A R A G U S . — Stroni?, for forcing- 
Seven years old. For price, anolv to " 
CHARLES EDEN, Merton Abbey Nursery, S.W. 




respectfully invite attention to their E.xtensive 

PLANTING FRtHT i!'dS.?J^=^'^'',?'*~'^'^'ENTAL, and 

RoVis V "^^^i?' ^r^"' ""'' Standard 

ROSES, \inc5 &c., all in splendid condition. 

SEASON. ,■", P^son^' inspection is not convenient, 

fArrTc."/"" '^'" ''= """^=- ^"d CATA- 
l.UL,Ufc,b sent on request. 

Special Railway Tickets to and from the New Nurserie. 
Granton Road, may be had gratis, at i, t^eorge IV Bridge 

T ILIUM AURATUM.— Splendid Bulbs of 

-i— ^ this fine Lily at Reduced Prices, 6,^., gd., rj. and 
IS. 6d. each. For other new Lilies, rare and cheap Orchids, 
apply for CATALOGUE to 

WM. GORDON, Bulb and Plant Importer, 10, Cullum 
Street, London, E.C discount to the Trade. 

Kent, the Garden of England. 

COB NUTS, fine Kentish ; Kentish PLUMS, 
specimen MULBERRIES, large AUCUBAS. large LIMES, 
YUCCAS, and the finest general .stock of FRUIT TREES in 
the Kingdom, some 200,000 to choose from. 

General Descriptive FRUIT LIST on application. The 
Trade supplied 
THQS. BUNYARD and SONS. Old Nurseries. Maidstone. 

New Potato! 


XT AND F. SHARPE have succeeded in 

_L-L» securing a very fine Stock of the above-named 
POTATO, which has given so much satisfaction wherever it has 
been sent this season, m not only resisting the disease, but pro- 
ducing an excellent yield. 

Price to the trade on applicatirin. 
Seed Growing Establishment. Wisbech. 

M. c. jongkTndt coninck, 

• Dedemsvaart, near Zwolle, Netherlands, has much 

pleasure in oftering the following choice hardy perennials and 

alpines. Prices on application : — 

ARENARIA C/ESPITOSA. — A dwarf compact growing 
alpine, not e.xceeding 2 inches in height. Almost during 
the whole summer it is covered with numerous small white 
flowers. This little gem is sure to become a great favourite 
when more generally known. 

Plants grown in pots sure to bloom next summer. So much 
admired by tourists in the Alps, so highly spoken of by the 
honicullural prets, that it needs no further description 

golden-striped Rush. A very interesting plant. 

JUNCUS EFFUSUS SPIRALIS.-Eachleafim.tates 3 cork- 

PHLOX SETACEA.— In early spring this charming plant, 
not exceeding 1 inches in height, produces a profusion of 
roie-coloured flowers. 

SELAGINELLA HELVETICA. -A native of the Swiss 
Alps. The only reason why this plant is so seldom met 
with seems to be its perfect hardiness, it not being less 
pretty than indoor Sela ginellas. 



PICEA PUNGENS, (Abies Menzlesii Parryana, or " Blue 
Spruce •'), strong 2-yr. old plants, £i per 1000, £io per 
PICEA ENGELMANNI. 2-yr. old plants, £6 per looo. 
PSEUDOTSUGA DOUGLASII, very strong 2 yr. old plants, 

^6 per iroo. £^0 per 10,000. 
ABIES CONGO LOR, very strong 2-yr. old plants, /to per 

PIN US PONDEROSA, very strong j-yr. old plants £^o 
per lo.ooa. 
Sample packages of the above, warranted to reach their 
destination in good condition, will be sent by mail, post paid, to 
any address on receipt of an International Money Order for the 

100 Picea pungens, 15J. 
100 Picea Enifclmanni, i$s. 
35 Abies concolor, Sr. 
25 Pseudotsuga Douglasii, 6s. 
25 Pinus ponderosa, 4J. 
Also 10 plants of the new CATALPA SPECIOSA for 2S 
R. DOUGLAS AMD SONS, Waukegan , Illinois, U.S.A. 

I To tlie Trade and Large Buyers. 

Special ofl^er : — 
300,000 ASH, Mountain, 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 feet. 
100.000 ,, Common, 3 to 4 feet. 

So.ox) ALDER, 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 feet. 
150,000 FIR, Scotch, 15 to 18 inches and i\i to 2 feet. 
50.000 ., Spruce, I "^ to 2 feet and 2 to 2 i< feet 
50,000 PRIVET, Evergreen, 2 to 3 feet. 
50.000 WILLOWS, Osier, 3 to 4 feet. 
20,000 RHODODENDRON, splendidum, white. 
20,000 ,, Jacksoni. 

50,000 „ Ponticum, 1% to 2 feet and 2 to 2K feet. 
50,000 ,, Hybrid Ponticum, seedlings, I'/i to 2 feet. 
20,003 ,, named varieties, 2 feet. 
50,000 YEWS, English, i^A to 2 feet. 

For prices and particulars apply to 
The Nurseries, Milton, Stoke-on-Trent. 

New Rose Trees. 

New Sorts obtained by - 

lyrARGOTTIN PERE (Prize of Honour 

1 tT ■ ^/o'".'"','°'i °f '^7*' Pa"*)-— 22, Grande Rue, Bourg- 
la-Reme (Seine), France. 

Nvliridts Remonlantcs. 
Very vigorous plants: large flowers, most beautiful red- 
scarlet colouring, surpassing in brilliancy all sorts in existence. 
1 nee ^t per plant. Shipments upon orders. 



CRFSt'^-^t^tS^'^''"'"' '* '"/'^ f"'' 8i"i"S 5 to 7 inches. 
CMESINUT, Horse, r2 to r4 feet, girting 5 to 7 inches. 

,, Horse, 14 to t6 feet, girting 3 to 10 inches. 
I T■•^.IR■°'■^^■ Sc.irlet, to to 14 feet, girting 6 to 8 inches. 

d) axtW *^"5:7*' '?' •''"'' =° f^"'' E'"'"S 6 'o I" inch"- 
l-LANLS Occidental, 10 to 12 feet, girting 4 to 5 inches. 

,, Occidental, r2 to 14 feet, girting 5 to 6 inches. 

A few hundred splendid PLANES, 16 to iS feet, girting 8 to 
10 inches. " 

^^^^6^ncL?^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^' " '° '^ ^«^- E'^'^S 
MAPLES, Norway, la to i6 feet. 
IJEECH, Purple, lo to 12 feet. 
OAKS, Scarlet, 10 to 12 feet 

Svr?AT?!^J^' SP""'^''' " " " f«'- 
SYCAMORE, 12 to 15 feet. 

They have straight stout clean stems, and handsomely 
I'Jrs'nl'nH^Hl" ''^'f "f^^^ he^d'. ='nJ f™m frequently transp an™ng 
of A?J^?, x'' T'^?- They are without doubt the finest stock 
of Avenue Trees to be met with in any Nursery in Europe 

nor=f .^h K ^^ J'T- 'S'-''''^" "' < f«' '■'■<'"> 'he ground, and 

\ x!.i'!= ''■"'■' '^'"'^h IS often deceptive 
Su'^rey™'^''^ CATERER, Kna'p HUl Nursery, Woking, 

Vines-Vines— Vines. 

J COWAN, The Vineyard and Nurseries, 
• Garston, near Liverpool, is now offering a large and 
splendid jtock of strong, short-jointed, and thoroughly ripened 
GR.-\PE VINES, suitable for fruiting in pots and planting 
Vineries. Catalogues free. T'he Trade supplied. 


(Established 1787.) 

Our stock, which is one of the largest in Scotland, comprbes 
HOUSE PLANTS. &c. ; also a very large and splendid stock 
of THORN QUICKS, for hedging and for filling up gaps. 

The Trees and Shrubs are of all ages and sizes, and are well 
adapted for extensive planting, or giving immediate effect in the 
formation and improving of Ornamental Parks, Pleasure 
Grounds, &c. Prices on application. Special offers to the Trade 

THOMAS KENNEDY and CO., Seed and Nursery 
Establishment, Dumfries. 

n H O I C E SEEDS.— 

^--^ Carriage free. 

CUCU.MBER, Rollisson's Telegraph, warranted true, 2i. 6jf. 

per packet. 
BEGONIAS, Gower's Superb Tuberous, saved from the best 

English and Continental Varieties, i^. bd. per packet. 
PRIMULAS, White and Red, very choice, saved from all the 

beat strains, rj. td. and 21. td. per packet. 
CYCLAMEN PERSICUM, extra choice, 11. Cd. and 2j. Id. 

per packet. 
WM. HUGH GOWER (bte Manager to Wm. Rollisson & 
Son). Nurseryman and Seedsman, Tooting. London. 

Dickson, Brown & Talt's Eclipse Cauliflower. 

See advertisement. Gardeners' Chronic'e, Nov. 22 if 79 p 646 


-J-^ Mekchants, Manchester, have pleasure in intimating 
that the following Firms have received a supply of the above 
new Cauliflower. 

Trade price on application. 

Ireland & Thomson, Edin 

Austin & McAslan, Glasgow 
Backhouse & Son, York. 
Brotherton, W., Leeds. 
Cattell, John, Westerham. 
Connon & Reld, Aberdeen. 
Cooling, George, Bath. 
Cooper. Robert. London. 
Dickson, F. & A., & Sons 

Dickson & Co., Edinburgh. 
Dickson & Turnbull, Penh. 
Dixon. E. P., Hull. 
Downle & Laird, Edinburgh. 
Edmondson Bros., Dublin. 
Finney. S., & Co., Newcastle. 

on-Tyne. [field 

Fisher, Son & Sibray, Shef 
Eraser, John, Lea Bridge. 
Fraser & Murley, Exeter. 
Caraway, Jas., & Co.. Bristol. 
Hogg & Wood, Coldstream. 
Howdeu & Co., Inverness. 
Hurst & Son, London. 

Jackson T., & Son, Kingston- 

Kent & Brydon. Darllni^ton 

Ker, R. P., & Son, Liverpool. 

Lee. Chas., & Son, Hammer- 

Little & Ballantyne, Carlisle. 

Nairn. S., & Son, Newcastle- 

Nutting & Sons. London 

Shaw, Hiram, Sheffield. 

Smith & Simons, Glasgow. 

Stuait. Mein & Allan, Kelso. 

Sutton & Sons, Reading. 

Veilch, Jas., & Sons, Chelsea 

Williams, E. .S., Hnlloway. 

Wood & Ingram, Huntingdon. 

Wrench, Jacob, & Son, London 

Wright, W., Retford. 

Yates, James, Stockport. 

Yates. Samuel, Manchester. 

Special Offer of Hardy Conifers. 

-LT-L haviDE a large stock of the above, will be plad to <;end 
carriage paid to any address, 6 r-yr. transplanted Plants of each 
of the following fine sorts for £«^ lo^ , or 12 of each for /8 
ABIES Douglasii " ~ 

,, Douglasii glauca 

,, Englemanni 

„ Hookeriana 

,, Menziesii 

,, Merterisiana 

„ orientalis 

,, Schrenkiana 
CEDRUS atlantica 

,, Deodara 

.. Libani 
CUPRESSUS Lawsoniana 

,► ,, erecta viridis 

M o lutea 

,, macrocapa 
PICEA bifolia 

„ concolor violacen 

,, magnifica 

,, nobilis 

,, Nordmanniana 
PINUS aristata 

„ lienthamiana 

,, Hobnderii 

PINUS contorta 
,, Coulterii 
,, defiexa 
,, flexilis 
,, insignis 
,, Jeffrey ii 
,, Lambertiana 
,, monticola 
,, muricata 
„ parviflora 
,, ponderosa 
,, tuberculata 

,, obtusa 
,, pisifera 
„ plumosa aurea 
.. squarosa 

THUJA gigantea 
„ Lobbii 
,, orientalis 
,, Verva:niana 

THUJOPSIS dolabrata 
ti laetevirens 
,, Standishii 

Being able to offer most of the above varieties by the lo-o 
will be glad to make special offers to large buyers. ' 

rr-;?!^?"?^ ''"""^^ ^'^^'^ °^ Seedling and Transplanted FOREST 

Priced CATALOGUES may be had on application 
Forbesfield N urseries, Aberdeen. 

Special Trade Offfer 

WBALL AND CO., Bedford Road 
• Nursery. Northampton, have a very large stock of 
the undermentioned to offer to the Trade and large 
Buyers, in fine condition : — 
APPLES, good Standards, best market rarieties, our selection 
55.r. to b^s. per roc. ' 

PEARS, good Standards, best market \-3rieties, our selection 
65J. to las. per loo. ' 

PLUMS, good Stand.-u-ds, best market varieties, our selection 
65^. to 7ar. per loo. ' 

Arru'i^l mh-'.^^tT,'"'';"^'"^'' Moorpark, joj. to 24J. per dozen. 
CURRANlb, Bl.ack, 3-yr., very strong, 12J. per 100 
LIMES, Standards, fice, 5 to 6 feet, 6 to 7 feet stems 80J. to 

looj. per 100. 
CHESTNUTS, Common, 6 to 7 feet stems, line heads 7ej 

per 100. 
ELMS, Standard Italian, 6 to 7 feet stems, fine heads, oci to 

ni-\;huT"°"' ^ '° 3 ''"'• '3^- P^"" '°-^- ['«M. per 100. 

!i7^T>i;T ■ '-•""">°"> strong, 5 to 7 feet, 25^. per 100. 
HtJKNBEAM. strong. 3 to 5 feet, 25s. per 1000. 
QUICK, very strong, 3-yr., 15J. per loco. 
BLACKTHORN, very strong, 3-yr., 15J. per 1000. 
J^PrVolv'-'?^" "^O"?™""' ","=• 3 to 4 feet, 501. to 601. per 100. 
LAUREL, Portugal, very fine, bushy, 3 to 3K feet, 60s. to 701. 

per 100. 
YEWS, Common, fine Pyramids, 3 to 4 feet, and 4 to s feet, 

90J. to looj. per 100. 
„ well rooted. 3 to 4 feet, 6as. to -jas. per 100. 
ROSES, fine Standards, 4 feet stems, large heads, our selection, 

7ar. to 75J. per 100, 




NEW SEED CATALOGUE. May be had Gratis on application. 



Now ready, fricc \s..tOit-free, or gratis to Ctistoii:jrs, 



Wuh copious and Original Articles on 


With One Hundred Pages of beautifully printed Letterpress, 
handsomely Illustrated with two magnificent Coloured Plates, 
and nearly 2co fine Wood EnRravings. This is the most beau- 
tiful and comprehensive Seed Catalogue yet published, and 
should he in the hands of all interested in Horticulture. 



series, Chertsey, will be glad to quote prices to the 
Trade, as named : — 

BIRCH, 2 to 3 feet, 3 to 5 feet, and 5 to 8 feet. 
HAZEL, 2 to3^^ feet. 
ASH, Common, 2 to 4 feet. 
ALDER. 2 to 3 feet, 3 to 5 feet. 

WBALL AND CO. have many thousands 
also a large quantity of HERBACEOUS and ALPINE 
PLANTS, at very low Prices to the Trade and large Buyers. 
Price LISTS forwarded on application. 

Bedford Road N'iirsery, Northampton. 

Groa GuiUaume Grape.— Roberts' Variety. 

WTAIT AND CO. are oftering strong 
• well-grown CANES of this wonderful variety at 
5^., 7^. 6</., and los. td. each, grown from eyes taken from the 
parent Vine. Orders ftom strangers should be accompanied 
with remittance. 

The Old Established Nursery and Seed Warehouses, 119 
and 120. Capel Street, Dublin. 

Prices and full parlicnlars oj 



Mr. R. PlllLLETT, Westoii-supcr-Mare, writes 
,,j.._«The Magnum Bonum Potatos you sup- 
pUed me with this year produced a most extra- 
ordinary crop, amounting to an average rate of 
210 sacks per acre, of 240 lb. per sack, and there 
was not a single diseased one among them." 




WM. CUTBUSH AND SON have a very 
fine stock of the above, both of Fruiting and Planting 
Canes, of most of the leading sorts. Prices and sorts on 

Highgate, London, N. : and Barnet, Herts. 

Shedsmen, i» Waterloo Place, Edinburgh, are now 
Booking Orders for the beautiful DOUBLE MATRICARIA, 
figured in the Gardftien' Ckronicte of Dec. 13, 1879, at \s. 6J. 
each, 12S. per dozen, or 75^. per 100 — all free by post ; and are 
now sending out well-established Plants of their lovely new 
SAXIFRAGA WALLACEI, at is. 6d. each, I2i. per dozen, or 
75^. per 100, free by post. Usual discount to the Trade. 

D. & Co. have the largest stock of BEDDING VIOLAS in 
the country. 

Descriptive CATALOGUE free on application. 


Thomas Methven & Sons 

Beg to intimate that their Descriptive Priced CATALOGUE of KITCHEN GARDEN and 
ready, and may be had, post-free, on application. 

EAST liOTHIAN INTERMEDIATE STOCK (true). White, rurple, Scarlet, and White Wall-leaved. 
In packets, is., 2J. 6</., and 5J. each colour. 


packets, is., 2s, 6</., andS-i. each. 
GODETIA WHITNEYI RUBRA. An improvement on G. Lady Albemarle. Per packet, is. 6d. 

MELON, CAPTAIN BURNABY, Raised from seed sent home from Khiva. Received First-class 
Certificate from Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society in October last. Per packet, 2s, 6d. 

For Descriptions see Catalogue. 


vegetab le and flower seeds. 

Ireland & Thomson 

Have pleasure in intimating that their 


Is now ready, and will be sent., post-free, on application, 
BEGONIA, TUBEROUS, from finest sorts In cultivation, extra choice, Per packet, i.s. dd. nnd Jf. 

packet, 2t. (>d., and 5^. 

STOCK, EAST LOTHIAN (tme), in four colours. Per packet, is., zs, ed., and gj., each, 

LIST Of N OVELTIES, 1 879-80. 







The Invincible is about 3 feet in height, of a robust branching 
habit. The pods are produced in pairs, and occasionally three 
together, from near the ground to the top of the stem— the 
rows having the appearance of being clothed with pods fiom 
top to bottom. The pods are closely packed wiih from 10 to 12 
large Peas, which, when cooked, are of exquisite flavour, and 
of a beautiful deep green colour. 

As a main-crop Pea, either fir the Gentleman's Garden 
or the Market Gardener, Charles Shaki-k & Co. have no 
hesitation in saying that the Invincible Pea will be found 
superior to anything yet sent out. 

The Editor of the Gardc-ners' Ckronich', in his review of New 
Vegetables in the spring of 187S, mentions Sharpe's Invincible 
as one of the three Peas of the season worthy of notice. 

Price, per Quart, 3^-. Gd. 
Half-phit Packets, free by post, is. 6d, 


This is a seedhng from Vick's "Criterion," and for culti- 
vating under glass or in the open air there is no Tomato can 
approach it for fruitfulness. The plant requires no stoppmg, as 
it keeps growing and fruiting in the greatest abundance. The 
fruit is pyriform and grows in bunches, each bunch containing 
from eight to twenty fruit, which are the size and colour of a 
Victoria Plum ; it contains but few seeds, and for flavour is un- 
surpassed. . . t 

" 'I'he original plant is growing under glass at Aswarby, 
covering a space 15 feet by 6 feet, and at the present time is 
carrying a crop of 600 bunches of fruit, as many more having 
been gathered from it during the summer.— Richard Niscet, 
Cnrdefit'r, Aswarby Park, August 30, 1879." 

Price 2s. 6d. per Packet. 

This splendid New Green-fleshed Melon was raised by 
Mr. Brown, the Gardener at Rauceby Hall, and has been 
exhibited many times— in every case gaining a First Prize. It 
is hardy, a fine setter, and a very hea^y cropper. The fruit 
is very beautifully netted, the flesh juicy, sweet, and melting, 
and of a very rich flavour. Altogether it is a variety of un- 
questionable superiority, and worthy of a place in every garden. 
List of Testimonials on application. 

Price, 2s. 6d. per Packet. 


This fine New Melon was raised by Mr. Nisbet, at Aswaiby 
Park, and is a cross between the Victory of Bath and Colston 
Bassett Seedling, and is certainly one of the Best Melons yet 
introduced. It is deeply ribbed, finely netted, and when 
ripening off it changes to a beautiful soft golden colour, thm 
skinned, great depth in flesh, which is of a nch transp.arent 
white : flavour exquisite. Strongly recommended. 

Price, 2S. 6d. per Packet. 

BEAN.— The longest and best of all Longpods. Price 
IS. td. per Pint. 


Splendid stock— dwarf, very deep in colour and glossy. 
Price IS. per Packet. 


ONION.— It is impossible to obtain anything finer for 
exhibition purposes than the Seed we now offer. Price 
\s. per Packet. 

LEY (The Lincoln Green).— The perfection of garnishing 
Parsley. Price (id, per Packet. 


This lovely little alpine, with woolly silvery-white bracteaj- 
leaves, is yet little known in our gardens, though the culture is 
very easy. Sown early in spring in a flat pot, filled with sandy 
peat mixed with some good loam and kept moist, it will grow 
m about a fortnight ; replanted and put in a cool frame they will 
be fit for pktnting out-of-doors in about six weeks. Any good 
garden soil, not too stifl", will be sufficient, and a good place 
freely exposed to the sun will suit them. In the winter a thin 
cover of leaves will be of use. 

Price per Packet, zs. 6d. 

Price 2^. ()d. per Packet. 


Price 2f. 6d. per Packet. 

NENSIS, Red, White, and Mixed. -Price 21. 6d. per 
These three varieties of Florists' Flowers are the finest ever 
offered, having been carefully selected for years and grown 
specially for us. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^___^ 

Merchants. Sleaford, beg to intimate that their De- 
scriptive CATALOGUE, witd Cultural Instructions, for 18S0, 
is now ready. Post-free on application. The Cultural Instruc- 
tions have been revised by Mr. WiLLUM Ingram, The Gardens, 
Belvoir Castle. ^ 



[January 3, 1880. 


Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, 
Apricots, and other Fruit Trees, as Standards, Dwarfs, 
Pyramids, Bushes, Cordon and Trained Trees, in great variety, 
all full ot vigour and warranted true to name. Descriptive 
Price List, containing a sketch of the various forms of Trees, 
with Directions for Cultivation, Soil, Drainage, Manure, 
Pruning, Lifting, Cropping, Treatment under Glass ; also their 
Synonyms, Qu.-.lity, Size, Form, Skin, Colour, Flesh, Flavour, 
Use, Growth, Duraiion, Season, Price, &c., for a penny stamp. 

TWELVE ACRES of ROSES.— Standard, 
Dwarf, and Climbing, all the popular sorts ; also So, 000 
choice Tea-sceiited and Noisette Roses in pots ; extra strong 
Koses in pots for immediate forcing. See Descriptiv* Price 
List, free for a penny stamp. 

TREES in POTS.— Grape Vines, extra strong, and 
warranted free from Phylloxera. Oidium, and all disease ; Plant- 
ing Canes, y. td. to 5^. each ; extra strong Fruiting Canes, 
•js- f>ii. to 10^. td. each. Orchard-house Trees, fruiting in pots, 
consisting of Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, Plums, Cherries, 
Pears, Apples, and Figs. Descriptive Price List for a penny 

(awarded a First-class Certificate by the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society). — One of the handsomest and most useful 
Apples in cultivation. For full description see " Extract from 
\\\^ Journal of Horticitltnrey and Richard Smith & Co.'s 
Fruit List, which may be had for a penny stamp. Coloured 
Plates, 6:^. each. Maiden Trees, \s. yi. each ; Bushes, is. €>d. 
each ; Standards, Pyramid and Dwarf-trained Trees, 35. td. 
and 5^. each. 

suitable for Britain, giving size, price, popular and 
botanical names, derivations, description, form, colour, foliage, 
growth, timber, use in arts, native country, and size there, 
situation, soil, and other information, with copious index of 
iheir synonyms. Free by post for six stamps. 


J— J PLANTS, comprising the best selections of Camellias, 
Azaleas, Ericas, Epacris, Ferns. &c., free for a penny stamp. 


PLANTS, with their generic, specific, and English names, 
native country, height, time of flowering, colouring, &c., and 
general remarks, free for a penny stamp. 

ALL kinds of GARDEN SEEDS, of first 
REQUISITES. See Lists, which may be had on application. 

^ Wo R C E S T E R «iP. 


• Nurseries, Knutsford, are now offering the above, in 
strong, short-jointed, and well-ripened CANES, suitable for 
Fruiting or Planting. 

Price on application. The Trade supplied. 



Respectfully invite inspection of their immense stock of 
CATALOGUES Free on application. 
LITTLE AND BALLANTYNE, Knowefield Nurseries, Carlisle. 

The Largest R ose Garden s in England 



The following Descriptive and Priced Catalogues are now 

- puljlishcd, and ni.ay be bad free on application : — 









By John Cranston. 
Sixth Edition. Price 2J., free by Post for 27 stamps. 
Addtess — 




And all other Leading Sorts. 

THE Subscribers offer several hundred tons 
of fine samples of the above for seed. The Champions 
have this year been almost proof against disease. Victorias, 
Improved Regent's, Snowflake,.and Myatt's Kidneys inq uantity, 
all fine samples, especially grown for seed. 

Seed Growers and Nurserymen, Carlisle. 


^ "Newton" Nurseries, Chester. 

Nurseries, Two Hundred and Fifty Acres. 

FOREST TREES, many millions, all kinds and sizes. 

QUICKS, 3,000,000, strong, transplanted, and smaller. 

EVERGREENS, a grand lot, covering about 50 acres. 

K(^SES, 2co,ooo splendid plants. 

FRUIT TREES, remarkably well gi-own and healthy trees. 

CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS. HEATHS, and all other Green- 
house plants. 


VINES, 20C0 thoroughly ripened Canes. 

HERIJVCEOUS and ALPINE PLANTS, including rare and 
beautiful kinds. 

SEEDS, BULBS, and every requiiite! or Estate, Garden and 


'f\lEWroN" hJuHSERiEs C H EST E R . 


Late Fisher, Holmes & Co., 


Nurseries : — Handsworlh, 

Seed Warehouses :— Corner of Market Street, Sheffield, 

and Church Street, Rotherham. 

Now Ready, 

B. S. W, begs to announce tliat the above 


Is now ready. cont.iining upw.irds of 60 pages, with numerous 
Engravings of all the NEW and CHOICE FLOWER and 



JACKMAN'S Descriptive Priced CATALOGUE, Free on 

application, containing— 
JACKMAN'S List of FRUIT TREES, suitable for large or 

small Gardens. 
JACKMAN'S List of ROSES-selected Dwarfs and Standards. 
JACKMAN'S List of AMERICAN PLANTS, for Peat and 

Loamy Soils. 
JACKMAN'S List of CONIFERS, for Lawns and Pleasure 

JACKMAN'S List of HARDY SHRUBS, adapted for Belts, 

Shrubberies, Screens. &c. 

for P.irks and Private Gardens. 
JACKMAN'S List of HARDY CLIMBERS, including their 

celebrated Clematises. 
JACKMAN'S Assortment ol TREES and SHRUBS, adapted 

for planting by the Sea-coast, on Chalk Soil, 

beneath the Shade of Trees, and in Cities 

and Towns. 


^sWOKINC Nttr=;fry ^tidppyI?^ 


Wandswortli Common and Garret Lane Nurseries. 

P> AND G. Nt:AL beg to call the attention of 
y>* Gentlemen, Builders, and the Trade to their large and 
FRUIT TREES, ROSES, SHRUBS, S:c., grown at their 
Nurseries, which comprise 70 Acres of a remarkable collection 
of those Plants and Trees most suitable for growing in or near 
large towns. An early inspection is solicited. 

All goods delivered free on rail in London or at own residence 
withm six miles of the Nurseries. 

CATALOGUES free by post on application. 

Frisby's Excelsior Beet. 

For Testimonials see Card. Chron., Nov. 15 and 22, 1879. 

EP. DIXON begs to state that he has 
• purchased the entire stock of Mr. Frisby's new BEET, 
named trisby's Excelsior, and has the pleasure to announce 
that it is acknowledged by a number of practical growers who 
have tested it to be ihe best and most distinct variety of Beet 
in cultivation. Price, per packet, u. td. 

1'he following Firms Iiave already ordered a supply : — 

Bull. \V., Chelsea, S. W. 

Backhouse, J., & Son, York. 

Bolton & Co., Wood Green, N. 

Cooper, R,, London. 

Cutbush. W., & Son, High- 
g3te, N. 

Dickson. Brown &Tait, Man- 

Downie & Laird. Edinburgh. 

Dixon, J. E,, Gainsborough. 

Daniels Bros . Norwich. 

Fisher, Son, &: Sibray, Shef- 

Fraser, J., Lea Bridge Road, 
Ley ton, E. 

Gibbs, 'i'hos. & Co., London. 

Hurst & Son, London. 

Hogg ^ Wood, Coldstream. 

Holmes, E., Lichfield. 

Lawson Seed and Nursery 
Company, Edinburgh. 

Low, Hugh. 8: Co , Clapton. 

Little & Ballantyne. Carlisle. 

Lee, C.,& Son, Hammersmith, 

Minier, Nash & Nash, Lon- 
don, W.C. 

Nutting & Sons, London, E.G. 

Nairn & Son, Newcastle-on- 

Sutton & Sons, Reading. 

Smith, R., & Co,, Worcester. 

Smith, Wm., & Co , Aberdeen. 

Samson, W., & Co , Kilmar- 

Williams, B. S , Upper Hollo- 








all uninjured by frost. 



LIST of SOI is -ioith present Prices on application to 






SEEDS. CATALOGUES gratis and post-free, on application. 
Established 1793. 



Seed Grower to Her Majesty the Queen and His Royal 

Highness the Prince of Wales. 

JOHN SHARPE can offer to the Trade well 

^ harvested SEED, and of full growth— Crop '78. Samples 
INTERMEDIATE and LONG RED on application. 
Bardney Manor, Lincoln. 


The Finest Collection of Dahlias in the World. 

H CAN NELL wishes to announce that 
• his stock of POT ROOTS consists of not less than 
10,000, and are in fine condition. Price from 6s. to i8j. per 

H. C.'s Selection in loo distinct first-class kinds for £-2. 

PARAGON and other choice Single varieties. 

Price LIST on application. 

Fuchsia Stock Plants. 

HCANNELL has several thousand old 
• Stock Plants full of cuttings, iZs. to 2^^- pei do7. 
Nothing could be better for working up a large quantity of 
plants for Market or Exhibition. 

Cuttings, 12 for i.r. Cd. ; 50 for sf. ; 100 for gs. 
H. C's Selection post free. 

Calceolarias, Cinerarias, and Cyclamens. 

HCANNELL has now a fine lot of the 
• above, in small pots, just ready for shifting. 
The two former, 3^. per doz., nos. per 100. CYCLAMEN, 
5J. per doz., 305. per 100, package included. 

Strawberries— Wholesale and Retail. 

HCANNELL begs to announce that he has 
• now 200,000 prepared very strong Runners of all the 
best Kentish varieties in cuUivation, and if planted at once will 
produce fruit this year. Every one warranted true tojname. 
LIST (also those in pots) fost-free. Special prices for large 

IT has long been known that my TOBACCO 
FUMIGATING MATERIAL, both by the quantity sold 
and the perfection to which I grow my plants, must be by far 
the best. u. Zd, per pound ; 5 lb., "js. 6d, ; 2S lb., £1 10s. 

No apparatus required. H. C.'s secret, and every particular 
of his art of exterminating the fly for a long time, sent with 
every parcel. 

J. J. Smith, Esq.. Willow Lodge, Mudeford. Christchurch, 

Hants, December 22, 1S79 • — 
" I will thank you to send me 6 lb. of your Tobacco Cloth, 
for it is the best which I have ever used and the least trouble." 



January 3, iSSo.] 



MR. J. C, STEVENS has received instructions from Mr. F. Sander to 
SELL by AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King Street, Covent Garden, W.C, on THURS- 
DAY, January 8, at half-past 12 o'Clock precisely, 


The masses and pieces are in splendid health, and full of breaks and leaves. The Plants having been brought 
home in Wardian Cases are in a condition which could not possibly be improved, and having arrived some 
five weeks since they are all perfectly safe. 

At the same time will be offered a magnificent NEW ODONTOGLOSSUM dedicated by Prof. 
Reichenbach to its discoverer, Mr. F. C. Lehmann— ODONTOGLOSSUM LEHMANNI, Reich.; 
grand masses of LyELIA ANCEPS (finest variety), a splendid importation of the beautiful large 
flowering TRICHOPILIA FRAGRANS, and the splendid red-spotted MORMODES PARDINUM, 
which will be shortly described in the Gardeners Chronicle; a large lot of ONCIDIUM MACRAN- 
with an importation of the very rare CHYSIS AUREA and ODONTOGLOSSUM RAMOSIS- 
SIMUM, also a new yellow-flowering MAXILLARIA, flowers and drawings of which will be shown. 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 




For Raising Water for the Supply of Towns, Villages, Irrigation, Railway Stations, Mansions, 

Fountains, Farms. 
No Cost for Motive-Power, which is obtained from the Stream of Water passing through the Rams. 

No Oiling or Packing Required. 
Made in sizes to raise from 300 to 100,000 Gallons per day. 


Parties requiring a Waler Supply should not 11 ^^^js r BLAKE'S SPECIAL RAMS, 

too readily conclude tliat the quantity and fall oj 
water, if any is available, is too small to work a 
Ram before consulting J. B. 


Will force up One Third of the Water passing 
through them. 

Fig. B.— Tlila Kam wUl raise a part of the same water that works it. or will raise pure water from a well or spring whilst worked 

by a stream of Impure water, ajid will force to a height of 1500 feet. 


From JoHM Taylor, Esq. T^ie Rocks, Bath, August 22, 1878. —" The Self-acting 
Hydraulic Ram you fixed here in March of last year continues to work well. It only the 
same quantity of water and fall to work it as the waier-wheel and pump which I used previously 
to force a height of 294, feet, and yet the Ram sends up more than double the quantity of water 
that the wheel did to the same height." 

From W. Sc-^rth, Esq.. A^ent to His Grace the Duke of Cleveland.— " Raby Castle, 
Darlington, July 16, 1878.— The Hydraulic Ram you supplied to his Grace the Duke of Cleveland 
in 1875 is a complete success. It worked for more than two years without once stopping, and 
throws more water than promised." 

From Major Starkie, Lovely Hall, Black&urn, Afay 13, 1878.— ** Sir,— T have great 
pleasure in testifying to the good qualities possessed by the Ram you erected here last year. It 
has done its work well, and not failed as the other Ram did, which was of a different construction, 
and supplied by a different firm. I consider that there are great difficulties to contend with here, 
but your practical mechanical knowledge, both as to the construction of the Ram and its situation 
here, overcame most of the difficulties that we had to contend against." 

From JoH"* Penningtom, Esq., Emmytt Hall, ne.zr Colne, December 21, 1868. — " Slr,^ 
The Self-acting Hydraulic Ram you supplied me with nine months ago continues in excellent 
condition. It receives water from a spring through a 2-inch pipe, of which it forces -1600 gallons 
per day of twenty-four hours to a height of 90 feet, exceeding all you promised, and far surpassing 
the water-wheel and force-pumps which it has displaced, Its cost is small, it occupies but little 
space (2 sq<iare feet}, and in mechanical detail is simplicity itself. I have much pleasure in 
tecommending it as a cheap and efficient method of raising water." 

From tJic Right Hon. T. Sotheron-Estcourt, Estcourt Park, Gloucestershire. Septemler 
6, 1875.—" You will be glad to hear, as t am to tell you, that your Self-acting Hydraulic Ram has 
worked exceedingly well and continuously since it was erected, more than twelve months ago. 
It is. in fact, perfectly successful." (The delivery pipe in the above case is 4200 feet long, with a 
100 feet rise.) 

From Captain Townshend, IViftekim, February lo, 1877.-" In answer to your inquiry, I 
am glad to say the Hydraulic Ram you sent me in November, 1875, is working exceedingly well 
and gives no trouble. It will work when quite immersed, as it has been several times during the 
floods this winter, forcing up water through a delivery pipe, 900 yards long, at the rate of 
80,000 gallons per day, although you only promised 30,000." 

Deanew.zter. IVilmslow, November 20, 1873.—" Dear Sir.— In answer to your inquiries 
respecting the Hydraulic Ram you supplied me with six months ago, I beg to state thac I am 
more thin satisfied with it. as it is in perfect order, sending up to the top of the house about 
2000 gallons of water in the twenty-four hours, whereas you only contracted to deliver in that 
time 500 gallons I have, 'therefore, every reason to be welt pleased with your work, and more 
especially as I had a Ram supplied me by another maker which could not send up a single gallon 
of water to the height required, and a second maker informed rae that no Ram with a fall of 3 feet 
could send up water to the distance required— namely, 120 feet. But yours is an accomplished 
fact, and does its work most effectually.— Yours, &c., L. Hanmer." 

From Mr. Thomas Mason, Alkincoates Hall, Colne, September 30. 1S71. — *' Sir,— Your 
Self-acting Hydraulic Ram gives me entire satisfaction ; it has been at work about fifteen months, 
and has only been seen once during the last six months ; it is forcing about 1400 gallons per day 
of tweaty-four hours, to a height of 194 feet." 



[January 3, 1880. 



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AMONGST the many introductions of the 
year just closed theie have been none of 
such extraordinary splendour as to throw a ray 
of Ijrilliancy upon the sombre hue of a season, the 
records of which, so far as gardens and gardening 
are concerned, must be written down as dreary 
and disappointing. Yet, though we cannot 
point to any star of the first magnitude as 
having risen above the floral horizon, we have a 
galaxy of lesser luminaries, each of which we 
may assume will throw its own particular ray of 
beauty across the path of those who, in the 
future, lovingly watch over it, while some of 
these minor meteors, though not so dazzling as 
others which have formerly appeared, may serve 
to throw a gleam of brightness over the garden, 
or the greenhouse, in the coming season. Let 
us then proceed to advert to some of the most 
remarkable of the novelties of 1S79. 

Hardy Trees and Shrubs. 

The list is brief, but not unimportant, since 
it may include the valuable Japanese evergreen 
coniferous trees which have been recently illus- 
trated in these pages, although it is true that some 
of them have been in cultivation under other 
names for some time. Abies brachyphylla (xii., 
P- 557, figs- 9I1 92), homolepis (xii., p. 823, fig. 
136), Mariesii (xii., p. 789, fig- 129), and sacha- 
linensis (xii., p. 589, fig. 97), all of which may he 
expected to prove fine additions to the group cf 
Silver Firs, heretofore called Piceas in this 
country — a name which it seems the law of 
priority, to say nothing of a mistake on the part 
of Linna:us — what a consolation for his suc- 
cessors !— will prevent them from retaining. So 
far as can be at present judged they are meri- 
torious introductions, which we shall estimate 
the more highly when they get up— that is, 
become more fully developed, and show more 
of their natural form and character. 

As an ornamental flowering tree the ^sculus 
rubicunda Briotii, raised by M. Briot, of Ver- 
sailles, is highly spoken of for its attractive inflor- 
escence, the blossoms being of a bright violet- 
tinted red, with an orange-red blotch on the 
upper division of the flower. 

Amongst hardy shrubs, the Hibiscus syriacus 
var. ccelestis is perhaps the most striking — not 
absolutely new, but so little known that its 
novelty has not yet worn off; the flowers, of a 
soft celestial blue, with crimson eye, are indeed 
so charming that the shrub ought to be planted in 
every shrubbery. The variety, which bears the 
somewhat ungainly name of H. syriacus totus 
albus {Gardeners' Chronicle, x., 525, fig. 91), is 
also a good introduction, the flowers being pure 
white, and produced with exceptional freeness. 
Both are of Continental origin. The Japanese 
Rosa rugosa, syn. R. Regeliana [Gardeners^ 
Chronicle, x., 565, fig. 98), is also not abso- 
lutely novel, but is only now beginning to be 
known : its fine flowers, bold rugose foliage, 



[January 3, 1880. 

and handsome fruits, together with its thoroughly 
distinct aspect, give it a claim to a very promi- 
nent position in every garden. Two fine single 
white Lilacs, of garden origin, have been made 
known— Syringa vulgaris alba grandiflora, 
a very fine pure white, far superior to the older 
whites, and S. Mdllc. Marie Legraye, a splendid 
form, with white flowers fully an inch across, 
named by Professor Morren after the raiser, a 
flcuriste of Li^ge. The Weigela Candida of 
the French gardens is another valuable white- 
flowered hardy shrub, vigorous in habit and 
very prolific of blossoms, and, like the Lilacs, an 
invaluable plant for forcing purposes. The 
Yucca gloriosa elegans variegata, which is, we 
believe, extremely rare, is a remarkably hand- 
some plant, and has appeared at one of the 
metropolitan exhibitions during the past sum- 
mer. It is said to be very slow or difficult of 
increase, but from its fine appearance it deserves 
to be widely grown. 

Hardy Perennials. 

The most striking plant of this group— in 
point of genuine botanical interest perhaps the 
plant of the year — is the Conandron ramondi- 
oidcs {Gardeners' Chronicle, xii., 232), a native 
of the higher mountains of Japan, with the habit 
of Ramondia pyrenaica, a dwarf herbaceous 
plant, with a small glabrous tuber, a solitary or 
almost solitary ovate-oblong, rugose, coarsely 
serrated leaf, and a forked cyme on a leafless 
scape of pinkish flowers, with a subglobose, 
whitish tube, internally spotted with yellow ; its 
botanical interest consists in its being a regular- 
flowered, fivc-stamened Gesnera ; its horticul- 
tural interest in its probable hardiness, which, 
however, has not yet, we believe, been com- 
pletely tested. Two other pretty tuberous- 
rooted plants are the Corydalis Kolpakows- 
kiana and C. Ledebouriana, both dwarf 
plants with purplish flowers, the latter 
having broader, less divided, glaucous leaves. 
A very pretty Spirrea, S. nivosa, from 
Japan, with bipinnate leaves made up of obo- 
vate cuspidate serrate leaflets, and showy 
panicles of abundant white flowers, promises to 
be a useful border plant, and will perhaps be 
eligible for indoor work also. Dracocephalum 
Ruyschiana japonicum [Gardeners' Chronicle, 
xii., 167, fig. 29), a Japanese labiate, is a showy 
subject, with bright blue flowers in dense spike- 
like heads. Erigeron aurantiacus, from Eastern 
Tuikestan, has orange-coloured flowers with 
numerous narrow ligulate flowers, in five or six 
series resembling the blossoms of the orange 
Mesembryanthemum, and showy if sufficiently 
numerous. In Iris Eulefeldi, collected by Dr. 
A. Kegel on the mountains of Thian-Schan, we 
have a pretty dwarf-habited species, with short 
glaucous ensiform leaves, and pale violet 
bearded outer petals, marked with coppery 
veins, and contrasting strongly with the erect 
inner petals, of a coppery-bronze hue. In Iris 
iberica insignis {Gardeners' Chronicle, xi., 693, 
fig. 100) we gain a much improved form of that 
fine species, which was selected from a batch of 
imported roots. A fine Cainpanula, grown in 
the French gardens under the name of C. Van 
Houttei, is in the way of C. nobilis, and has the 
large drooping blossoms of an indigo-blue. 
Strongly contrasting with this is the Androsace 
Laggeri, a pretty little rock plant of the Primu- 
laceous order, growing in tufts, the short stems 
having linear oval-shaped leaves, and looking 
not unlike those of a Polystichum, while the 
heads of little pink flowers are very abundant. 
The dwarf rosy-tinted Primula rosea, from 
Kashmir, is another gem belonging to the same 
group, as is the purple-flowered P. cashmiriana 
from the same region. 

Hardy Bulbs. 

Amongst the novelties in this group we find 
a gem of the first water, Chionodoxa Lucilias, 
one of the niost charming of spring decorative 

subjects, humble in its habit, but perfectly 
dazzling in the brilliant blue of its starry blos- 
soms, which rival if they do not excel those of 
the Scilla sibirica, being larger in size and at 
the same time fully equal to them in intensity 
of colouring. Novel in character but several 
grades lower in merit than the foregoing, 
though still a pretty plant and worth a place in 
every bulb garden, is the Gladiolus Lemoinei, a 
hybrid in which the blood of the mother, G. 
purpureo-auratus, is strongly marked ; the 
creamy flowers are flushed with salmony-red, 
and handsomely blotched with maroon-crimson 
and orange ; quite different from those in the 
ordinary Gladioli, and quite hardy, having stood 
in the open ground uninjured for the past two or 
three winters. There are two new American 
Lilies of the affinity of L. canadense, with pen- 
dent bell-shaped flowers : L. maritimum, with 
deep orange-brown flowers spotted with dark 
purple ; and L. lucidum, with translucent light 
orange-yellow flowers and dark purple spots in- 
side. Sundry new Tulips have been obtained 
from Central Asia, of which none are perhaps so 
striking as the spotted-leaved T. Greigi, intro- 
duced a year or two ago, but some are very 
interesting, as T. Schrenkii, which resembles 
T. Gcsneriana, the parent of our garden Tulips, 
but is smaller and more funnel-shaped, the 
colour crimson with a yellow base ; T. Kes- 
selringi, which has the same relationship, 
and is also small-flowered by comparison, 
the outer segments being yellow streaked out- 
side with purple, the inner whitish towards 
the tips ; and T. Kolpakowskiana, also a pretty 
species, already affording sundry varieties of 
colour. To these may be added a rather 
good-looking Fritillary, namely, F. Burnatti, 
which belongs to the same set as our native 
F. meleagris, and is much like it in marking, 
only the colours are richer, being a deep lurid 
brownish-red closely tesselated with white, espe- 
cially on the inside, the outer surface having a 
glaucous blooin. 

Hardy Annuals. 

The Chorispora Greigi, found by Dr. A. 
Kegel in Thian-Schan, in Central Asia, is a very 
pretty but simple-looking cruciferous annual 
(or biennial) with pinnatifid leaves and erect 
racemes of purplish flowers somewhat like 
those of a "Virginian Stock, the seed-pods of 
which are prettily torulose ; it may possibly 
become a rival to the popular annual just alluded 
to if it proves equally amenable to cultivation. 
In the Californian Erythraa venusta we have 
a charming little plant of 8 to 10 inches high, 
with the dichotomous branching of the genus, 
and showy star-shaped rosy-scarlet flowers. 
Nemesia cynanchifolia {Gardeners' Chronicle, 
xii., 136, fig. 22) is a showy Scrophulariad from 
Natal, growing some i\ or 2 feet high, with 
close terminal clusters of rich lilac-blue flowers. 
The additions here are few, but they are 
all interesting plants in their particular group. 
T. Moore. 

{To be ccntituied.) 

New Garden Plants. 


Tamicm aliquando! How long have we had to 
sigh for this beauty, growing on Anglo-Indian ground 
and lurking in our herbaria for more than a 
quarter of a century, having been discovered 
by one of the very best and keenest of English 
botanists, Dr. William Griffilh. There they lie, 
two mighty inflorescences, the one with a peduncle 
more than 2 feet long, strong, rigid, with eight 
stiff imbricate brown scales under the inflorescence, 
thus showing ihe plant to belong to Dr. Lind- 
ley's section, Imbricata:. The inllorescence bears 
ten flowers, which might be compared to those 
of Ccclogyne elata (though they are much larger), 
if it were not for the glorious labellum which is trifid 
with projecting triangular acute middle lacinia, three 
rows of narrow lamellre on the disk, and a border 
of cilice. These lamella:, those cilias, and the top 
are altogether of a sepia-brown verging to black, 
which gives an exceedingly neat contrast to 
the beautiful white colour of the other parts 

of the flowers. The upper part of the column is 
hooded, and there is a toothletted membrane around 
the anther. The stigmatic hollow is transverse under 
the very broad projecting rostellum. 

To the credit of the collections of Burford Lodge, 
and High Cross, Tottenham, it may be said that the 
internodes between the flowers are shorter than in the 
wild specimens, and not one of the fourteen wild 
specimens has so many flowers as the glorious Bur- 
fordian raceme. Perhaps in consequence of this the 
individual flowers are smaller than in Mr. Day's 
splendid but few-flowered inflorescences. I have a 
letter of Thomas Lobb himself (kindly presented by 
Messrs. Veitch), who says, " flowers must shrink in 
drying, as is always the case with Orchids." Now 
those shrunken flowers are larger than those of my 
fresh many-flowered peduncles. I must also stale that 
the zigzag bends of the inflorescence are much less 
apparent in the garden plant than in the wild one. 

A good orchidist should have a microscope (of 
course a compound one) to increase his enjoy- 
ment and to astonish his profane guests in the 
drawing-room before dinner. This plant offers much 
interest in the c\\\'X and lamella; as seen under the 
microscope, as they have numerous projecting conical 
teeth, making a wonderful appearance ; all those 
organs belonging to De Bary's " Zotten " (see his in- 
valuable VergUichende Anatomic: Leipsig, 1877). 
Tticn the telaconductrix of the stigmatic hollow is un- 
rivalled in the multitude of shapes assumed by the cells. 
Ungcr mentioned as an inexhaustible store of various 
kinds of cells the fruit of Elajagnus (even mentioning 
the forms of biscuit cell, and the bagpipe cell I), we 
may cite the biscuit cells and numerous other kinds 
in our Crelogyne, though, I am sorry to say, there 
are no bagpipe cells. Dr. Lindley gave a very good 
description of the plant in his Folia, which is very 
Lindleyan in saying all that was wanted in as few 
words as possible. His censure of Dr. Griffith's figure 
is a little hard, though not quite undeserved. We 
must bear in mind that the faults — and faults there are 
— are decidedly not due to our lamented hero, but to 
Mr. McLelland and his would-be lithographers. 

My specimens come from Bootan, Griffith ! Khasia 
Hills, Lobb ! Dr. Hooker and Dr. Thomson ! 
Mann ! A memorandunr from this excellent friend 
states that it flowers in November, at the height of 
3000 to 4000 feet ! I must also state that I have 
some specimens (once the property of the Horticul- 
tural Society), signed " iNIalacca, Griffith." This 
appears to be a great mistake. 

Dr. Lindley calls the bulbs "sub-ampuUaceis " (see 
Folia). This is quite true for my single specimen of 
Hooker-Thomsonian origin ; but my other speci- 
mens have a different shape of bulb, which are almost 
sessile at the base, hence conical, and not swelling out 
in the middle. 

I was told by my English acquaintances that the 
specimens require a continuous and abundant supply 
of water while growing. I have to express my 
warmest thanks for these glorious inflorescences to Sir 
Trevor Lawrence, for the first, and to Mr. John Day, 
for the second. What a pity the beauty did not flower 
in Dr. Lindley's days, who called it "perhaps the 
finest of this fine genus." I believe the introduction 
is due to Mr. W. Bull, for whom it was collected by 
Mr. Freeman, H. G. Rclib.f. 


For the photograph of the beautiful specimen 
engraved at fig. I, p. 9, we are indebted to Allesley 
Boughton Leigh, Esq., of Brownsover Hall, Rugby. 
The height of the tree is 13 feet ; the girth of the 
stem, at 3 feet from the ground, 17 inches. Its 
weeping habit renders it unusually elegant. The 
small spray sent to us was very like one of A. grandis, 
but the leaves were paler, on which account we think 
it not unlikely that the plant is really a form of 
A concolor. Balfour's lasiocarpa is generally ad- 
mitted to be the same as grandis ; while, according 
to Dr. Engelmann, the lasiocarpa of the nurseries 
is a young state of A. concolor which has not as 
yet produced cones. A, concolor on the same autho- 
rity includes as synonyms Lowiana (Gordon), Par- 
sonsiana (hort. Barron), and amabilis. A. .concolor 
has, as its name implies, no, or but slight, difference 
in colour between the upper and the lower surface of 
the leaf, while all the forms of grandis have the upper 
surface of the leaf of a darker green than the lower. 
British Columbia and Northern California are given 
as the localities of both these species. 

Barb Fences. — The American Agriculturist 
gives figures of various wire fences, with formid- 
able barbs at intervals, so that the fence has all 
the impenetrability of a quickset hedge without the 
loss of time in growth, and the numerous evils con- 
nected with hedges. 

January 3, iSSo.] 



One day during one of my auUininal rambles I was 
walking along a pleasant road in Derbyshire, making 
towards Darley Dale and the lovely rock gardens of 
Sir Joseph Whitworlh, at Stancliff, where Art has 
been summoned to the aid of Nature, and disused 
stone quarries have been transformed as by the ma- 
gician's wand into things of beauty, which I trust 
may continue "joys for ever. ' 

I tage had windows on both sides of the door, and a 
1 small narrow plot before each running from the cot- 
I tage to the road, from which it was separated by a 
:' low fence of rustic palings of split Larch with the 

bark on. 
' The total area of this plot was small, and though 
' not an inch of it was unoccupied, there was no 

over-crowding. The brightness of the flowers lit 
I up the front of that cottage to such a degree that no 

one with eyes could pass it without having his atten- 

bore testimony to industry, well-direcled labour, and 
never-ceasing love for the gentlest of human pursuits. 
A few years passed by ere I was in that neighbour- 
hood again. I made a journey to my pet cottage on 
the first opportunity ; but, alas ! what a different 
sight awaited me ! The bright flowers were all gone ; 
the neat brightly furnished garden had lost all its dis- 
tinctiveness; the climbers on the house were either 
dead or dying ; the vegetable garden was mostly 
occupied by weeds ; all was as miserable and forlorn 

Fig. I.— AUiEs lasiocari'A (? concolok) at brownsover hai.l, (see i'. S.j 

During the greater part of my walk 1 saw nothing 
of much interest except the natural beauties of the 
surrounding scenery. They, however, were ample 
for my delight, and I wandered on, well content to be 
in the midst of so much that was lovely. I had 
nearly reached the limits of my walk when I came 
upon a small, decently-kept cottage, apparently 
occupied by some gentleman's servant (I afterwards 
found it was a coachman's cottage), with a small 
garden in front and on one side, which was absolutely 
perfect as an instance of good cultivation. The cot- 

tion arrested, and the tiibte It was e.xamined the inore 
there was found to admirci 

The cottage itself was covered with a Gloire de 
iJijon Rose, two kinds of Clematis, and a Japanese 
Honeysuckle, except at the extreme limits at both 
ends, where a small-leaved digitate Ivy, trained 
closely to the wall, acted as the sides of a green-frame 
to the other plants. The garden at the side of the 
cottage was filled with excellent vegetables ; not a bit 
of it but was bearing a useful crop. There was no 
sign of untidyness or neglect anywhere ; the whole 

as could be. The former tenant of the cottage was 
gone elsewhere, and had been followed in the occu- 
pation by an idle fellow on whom the lesson of that 
sweetly pretty garden was thrown away, and a spot 
of brightness and beauty was transformed into one ( f 
ugliness, disorder, and neglect. I left the spot sad- 
dened, and felt that the world was all the poorer for 
the loss of what was once so comely and beautiful. 

Another of my autumn holidays was passed in 
Dorsetshire. I started one morning lor a walk from 
Weymouth to Maiden Castle, and thence to Dor- 



[January 3, 18S0. 

Chester. During my ramble t pissed through ?. 
village which has ever since lived in my memory as 
!Ui especially bright spot. The cottages were mostly 
low in height and grey in colour ; the roofs were 
uniformly made of thatch, and however different in 
appearance, were all more or less picturesque. Vines 
were trained over the cottage fronts, or on the gables 
when they chanced to have the sunniest aspect. 
Every cottage had its garden, and all were bright 
with flowers, while in many, besides the vege- 
tables, which were everywhere in plenty, there were 
heavily laden fruit trees. Apples, Pears, and Plums, 
adding to the value and be.auly of the gardens. I 
have never had the chance since of ascertaining as a 
fact the reason for the uniform excellence and uni- 
versality of gardening in that village ; but doubtless it 
was due to the all- pervading inllucnce of some good 
and wise man or woman, who by example and pre- 
cept had set the villagers on a path of a useful and 
refining tendency. Not improbably the Vicar of the 
parish was the cause ; for I have usually found that 
wherever a village is famed for its gardens, the parish 
priest is also a gardener, and fosters the , pursuit 
among all within the range of his Influence. 

A striking instance of a clergyman's power to make 
his parishioners good gardeners is afforded by a parish 
in Staftbrdshire, not far from the borough boundaries 
of a large town in an adjoining county. The villagers 
are a mixed community .as to occupation, some being 
farm labourers, others workers in the mills and forges 
near at hand, or skilled artisans of one kind or other. 
Before the advent of the present Vicar the village was 
just like hundreds of others similarly situated. Being 
mainly built on land belonging to a neighbouring 
nobleman, the cottages were good and substantial ; 
some of them picturesque and pretty ; all having 
gardens, which were generally cultivated in the 
manner usually prevailing. Somewhere about 
Good Friday signs of activity were seen in 
them. The rows of Kidney-Bean sticks remaining 
from the last year were then removed ; spades were 
once more brought into use, and the soil, which had 
remained untouched from the previous spring, was 
dug, seeds sown, Potatos dibbled in, and Cabbage- 
plants placed in the rows. Here and there a few 
flowers were to be seen. It was, as will be inferred, 
an ordinary common-place village. All is now 
changed, as it has been for years past. The present 
Vicar, while unremitting in the performance of his 
duties as a parson, as they are usually understood, is 
a living influence in many other ways, but in none 
more marked and visible than as the chief gardener 
of the district. He is himself a most skilful culti- 
vator ; he has made all his humble parishioners 
scarcely less so. He commenced quietly, but none 
the less effectually. He instituted social gatherings 
of his people long before the days of penny read- 
ings. He chatted with them on a variety of topics, 
and .amongst others on the subject of gardening. 
Having awakened an interest, he fanned it by judi- 
cious presents of seeds, cuttings, plants, cS:c. ; now 
and then a Rose tree, a few flower-roots, or some 
tubers of a good sort of Potato. Before long some 
one suggested the holding of a village show of 
vegetables ; this the next year grew in proportion, 
and included fruit and flowers. For a time it was 
limited to the cottagers, but as years rolled on the 
neighbouring gentry sent in plants to add to the 
interest of the show, and now there is a flourishing 
and admirable horticultural society, distributing 
annually a goodly sum in prizes. And what tale do 
the village gardens tell ? Why there is now to be 
seen, in this once commonplace village, as fine a lot 
of well-tilled gardens as can be seen anywhere. Roses 
abound in them ; fruit trees are to be seen in every 
plot, and the houses are covered with beauty-giving 
climbers. Truly the Vicar has been an influence for 
good, and his cottagers are living instances of his 
beneficent reign. May it long continue, and may his 
example be followed in every parish in the kingdom I 
Now for a contrasting picture. I pass from the 
centre of England far northwards. I am in one of 
the lovely dales of the Lake country. I shall never 
forget my delight when I first saw it. It is out of the 
line along which the bulk of summer tourists usually 
travel. It is surrounded on all sides by magnificent 
mountain scenery. Down its centre runs a merry 
beck. Not far from it is a glorious lake. I was out 
of health when I went there, and had lodgings, which 
a friend in the neighbourhood had taken for me, in a 
quaint old-fashioned dalesman's farm, where I found 
myself surrounded by conditions altogether unlike 

those of my ordinary life. I look back on my quiet 
leisurely life there with regret, and often wish myself 
back among the lovely scenery of that quiet dale. 
My first visitor was the "fell-side priest," as the par- 
son is called. A fine specimen of a robust, vigorous- 
minded man, I found him. Chatting on one subject 
or another, I asked him, "What about gardening?" 
" Oh," he replied, "the farmers don't do much that 
way ; they are too busy with the sheep, or in the 
fields." I soon found this to be so. With theexcep- 
tion of the parson's garden there was not even an 
approach to a decent garden in the whole dale. The 
pieces of ground called gardens, attached to the 
houses, I found to be the worst cultivated plots in the 
holdings. A few b.adly grown Cabbages, of a degree 
of badness new to my experience ; a few herbs, occa- 
sionally a row or two of indifferent I'eas, and fairly 
good Potatos, were all I saw. And yet the climate 
was good ; the soil not by any means bad. I 
inquired, "Could not these men be induced to pay 
more attention to their gardens?" " No," was the 
never-failing reply. I suggested that an attempt 
should be made. "It's no use," said my clerical friend. 
But I maintained, in many a talk that followed, if 
he would but take the lead, and set the example, a 
great change might be effected. The parson, how- 
ever, was not to be moved ; and when I came away 
from that pleasant spot I felt as I have never failed to 
do ever since — that if the Staffordshire clergyman of 
whom I have spoken had been living in that dale, his 
influence would soon have been felt, and the charms 
of pleasant, profitable gardens would have been 
added to the many natural charms of that lovely spot. 

E. ir. 


Orythia oxypetala, Kunth, Gartenflora, t. 9S7, 
f. 2. — A yellow-flowered TuUp, the outer surface of 
the outer perianth segments being green. The stalk 
bears two green glabrous leaves. It only differs 
from Tulipa in the presence of a style. Native of 
the mountains of the Southern Altai, whence it has 
been introduced by Mr. Alfred Regel. 

Papaya gracilis, Kegel, Gartenflora, t. 9S6. — A 
slender unbranched tree, 4—6 feet high, with 3 — 5 
partite leaves, whose lobes are again divided ; flowers 
funnel-shaped in terminal cymes. New Granada. 
Introduced by M. Linden. 

Pear Charles Ernest, Revue Hortkok, Nov. i. 
— Highly spoken of as a very fruitful new Pear ; 
fruit large, pyriform, turbinate, oblique at the base, 
peduncle short, stout ; eye shallow ; skin sulphur- 
yellow, spotted with fawn-coloured spots, and blotched 
with crimson on the sunny side ; flesh white, melting, 
flavour delicate. November — December, Raised by 
MM. Baltet, of Troyes. 

Saxifraca geranioides, L., Garteiifloi-a, t. 989. 
— A Pyrenean species, with the habit of S. granulata. 

TiLLANDSiA tricolor, Schlecht. and Cham., 
Bclg. Hort., 1879, t. xxi. — Bromeliacece. A hand- 
some Mexican species, with tufted habit, narrow 
arching leaves, which on the flowering-stem become 
rose-coloured ; spike compound, flattened ; bracts 
green ; flowers purplish, white at the tips. 


Dr. Stauii, of Buda-Pesth, has been following up 
the observations of De Candolle and others on the 
influence of "sums of temperature" on the leafing and 
flowering of various trees. We are indebted to the 
Botanisclic Zcilung for the following particulars, 
which are of special interest in relation to forcing. 
Dr. Staub's deductions, we may mention, were made 
from a large number of observations in various parts 
of Hungary. One of the most striking results obtained 
was the exceeding susceptibility of plants in relation 
to the changeableness of climatal factors, especially 
of temperature. This peculiarity becomes even more 
prominent on a closer examination of the observa- 
tions of years at the various stations. Com- 
paring, for example, on the one hand, the monthly 
mean of the temperature of one year's observations 
with the monthly mean of several years' observations, 
and on the other hand, the devi.ations in the com- 
mencement of the flowering period in the months for 
single years with the general mean of the flowering 
period (.as may also be determined by the observa- 
tions of several years), we recognise the following 

phenomena. The flowering period is only has- 
tened when the mean temperature for the month 
in question is 3^.5 Fahr. higher than the mean of 
several years ; a smaller augmentation of the 
temperature does not affect vegetation. An excep- 
tion to this law occurs when the temperature 
of the preceding month or months is above the 
average mean ; for in such a case vegetation is 
under the influence of the secondary effects of tem- 
perature. The smallest fall in the average mean 
temiieraturc of the month entails a corresponding 
retardation of the flowering period, and the retarda- 
tion is all the greater the more the temperature of the 
preceding months has been below the average mean. 
Should the mean temperature of the preceding 
months be higher than the average, the lower tempe- 
rature of the one month is unable to hinder the develop- 
ment of vegetation. Some other peculiarities observed 
by Dr. Staub, or those who have co-operated with 
him, are interesting. Thus the large-leaved Lime, 
according to ten or more years' observation in several 
places, always flowers some days before the small- 
leaved. In one place it is a week later, and in 
another upwards of a fortnight. Dr. Weszelowsky 
has noted that Colchicum autumnale has flowered 
twice every year at Arva-Varalja ever since 1874. 
The white-flowered varieties of Syringa vulgaris and 
Nerium Oleander always come into blossom under 
the same conditions at Buda-Pesth, earlier than 
the typical red-flowered varieties. From a geo- 
graphical standpoint the thermal constants certainly 
offer a useful basis. Dr. Staub had observed the 
flowering of 128 plants for five years, and recorded 
the daily mea-n temperature from January i to the 
day the first flower opened of its species, and from 
these sums he calculated the mean for five years. 
As an example, we give the dates of flowering and 
the sums of heat, in degrees Centigrade, for the 
Horse Chestnut : — 

Heat RcquireJ. 
5 '4° 3' C. 
432". 78 C. 
465°. 8a C. 
514^.20 C. 
470'. 20 C. 

First Flowers Opened. 


April 26 




>, 9 




May ,, 


April 27 Mean . 


Comparing, for woody plants, Dr. Staub states, 
the calculated sums of heat of each year, with the 
commencement of the flowering period, we involun- 
tarily come to the conclusion that the expansion of 
their flowers is bound up with the season— that is to 
say, woody plants in their struggle with the climatal 
factors strive to keep within the limits of a certain 
flowering season to which they have become accus- 
tomed during generations. In relation to this there 
is a characteristic mean temperature for a certain 
period, say from the beginning of the month in ques- 
tion preceding the appearance of the flowers. Thus, 
according to five years' observation at Buda I'esth, it 
amounts to -f 11.5 C. for the Horse Chestnut, with 
a mean error of +i°.836 C. 

The accompanying table includes five examples lor 
the period named : — 

S 5 2 

n bjCkS , 

fc. o o 

B a , 

3 4) *> 

" E o 

n « „ 

/Ti' cuius hippo-' 

April 27 479 .70 C. ii'o C/ ± I .8.^6 C. 

Convallaria maja 

Ligustrum vul 


April 251 5o6".oo C. ii .6 C. ± i -430 C 

gaic .. .. June 6 1135^00 C. ig'.o C. ± 3°.82o C. 

Prunus spinosa .. April ii 339°. So C. : 9^9 C. ± 2°.i68 C. 

"*•=" -"-lifera ..'June 6 ii26".2oC. i9°.9 C. ± 2 .741 C. 

Vitis vin 


The acclimatisation of foreign plants in this coun- 
try is a subject of so much general interest, whether 
as regards their economic value or as ornamental 
additions to our gardens, that I have put together the 
following notes on the result of a late attempt to 
introduce the Phormium tenax, or New Zealand Flax 
Lily, into the Orkney Islands, which islands, from 
their high latitude — 59^ north — enjoy comparatively 

* " On ttie Growtfl of tfie New Zealand Flax Plant (Phor- 
mium tenax) in the Orkney Islands." A paper read by Dr. 
W. Traill, at the December (1S79) meeting of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh. 

Ianuarv J, iSSo.] 



little hent in summer, though their winters are remark- 
ably milel, there being little snow and frost, which is 
perhaps partly attributable to their insular position, 
but is chiefly caused by the action of the Gulf Stream, 
which makes its presence felt, not only by raising the 
temperature of the sea f above that of the air in the 
months of December and January, but by frequently 
casting up seeds of tropical plants on the shores of the 
different islands. During the severe gales of wind 
that often occur, there is usually a good deal of 
salt in the atmosphere, hence the extreme difficulty of 
growing trees or even shrubs, although there are a 
few exceptional plants that do not seem to be much 
affected by this, such as different kinds of evergreen 
shrubby Veronicas, and a few other plants, such as 
the New Zealand Manuka or Captain Cook's Tea-plant 
(Leptospermum scoparium), the Pernettya mucronata, 
and the Japan Kuonymus, &c., which, favoured by the 
mildness of the winters, thrive remarkably well, and 
to all appearance the New Zealand Flax Lily is likely 
to prove as well adapted to the climate of Orkney as 
any of them. 

About eight years ago or rather more I got some 
of the seeds from a friend in New Zealand, which I 
raised in a hotbed in St. Andrews, and during the 
same season I planted out several of them in the open 
air in my garden at North Ronaldshay, Orkney, where 
they have remained ever since with no protection 
beyond the proximity of a low wall, some having a 
southern exposure and others an eastern aspect. 
These plants seem in no way affected by the winter 
except that the tips of their leaves become somewhat 
frayed and ragged, but in the course of the following 
summer they soon recover their beauty, and they have 
gradually increased in size until the leaves on some 
plants now measure from 5 to 6 feet, and in others 
from 6 to 7 feet long. 

I had also distributed duplicate plants among friends 
in the neighbourhood, in whose gardens they appear 
quite healthy. It was not until the first week 
of June this year that my plants showed any 
signs of flowering, but I then observed that (of the 
three largest plants) two were throwing out e.ach 
two flower-shoots ; the third and largest plant, 
however, produced no fewer than live flower-stalks, 
enveloped by long sheathing leaves that closely 
embraced the stems, which were at this time from 4 to 
5 feet high ; the upper part, which evidently contained 
the future flower, being inflated, and tapering to a 
point at the apex, not unlike the head of a spear. 
They increased in length at the rate of about an inch 
a day ; the swollen mass of spathes separating, succes- 
sively unfolding, revealing numerous bunches of 
flower-buds, until when the stem reached the length 
of 8 to 9 feet, there were twelve or fourteen distinct 
clusters of flower-buds of a purplish-brown colour, 
disposed alternately on each side of the stem. The 
spathes at this stage added much to the efl'ecl, their 
interior being of a deep orange colour. Our weather 
had been rather dry for some time, which seemed to 
retard the opening of the buds ; but after a heavy 
shower of rain on August I the buds rapidly increased 
in size, and in three or four days the first flowers 
opened; they were tubular in shape, li or 2 inches 
in length, of a deep red colour, with projecting orange 
stamens. The odour of the flowers was powerful, like 
that of Russia leather. It seemed to be very attractive 
tu bees, moths, and other insects. Each main stem 
bore at least 300 flowers. Altogether it is a most 
magniticent example of the Lily family, and the 
general appearance of the plant is highly suggestive 
of tropical vegetation. It is well known that the 
libre of the leaves possesses extraordinary tenacity, 
though, from its containing a large quantity of silica 
in its composition, the economic value of the plant 
has hitherto fallen short of what was at first expected. 
For the manufacture of ropes and cordage, however, 
I should think it most valuable. The leaf, even in 
its natural state, is so strong and pliable, that I have 
seen strips of it torn off and used ns boot-laces, and it 
s evident that the flower-stalks partake of the same 
tough character as the leaves, as they were not at all 
damaged by the equinoctial gales of last September, 
though they were not tied to sticks or otherwise 
secured from injury. I may add that the flowers, 
after lasting for some two months, were succeeded by 
numerous seed capsules containing apparently well 
ripened seeds. I understand that two other plants 
from the same batch of seeds have also flowered this 
season ; one at Strathkinness, here, and another at 
Professor Swan's residence on the west coast. It is 
curious that they should all flower in the eighth year 

of their age, but whether the phenomenon is attri- 
butable to that entirely, or to any peculiarity in the 
past season, time alone can determine. 



I HAVE llie pleasure to enclose to you a list of the 
trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants (Uscovered and 
introduced by me during my travels in China and 
Japan. They are described as follows, namely, 1st, 
Chinese plants discovered and introduced by me while 
in the service of the Horticultural Society of London 
from 1843 to 1S46 ; 2d, Chinese plants discovered 
and introduced by me on my own account ; and 3d, 
Japanese plants discovered and introduced by me, 
also on my own account. Most of these have proved 
perfectly hardy in the climate of England, and I hope 
will long continue to adorn our gardens and pleasure- 

May I hope the list will prove interesting to the 
readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle. There may be 
some omissions, as it is somewhat difficult to get a 
complete list after so many years. The names are 
those under which the plants were originally intro- 
duced :^ 

Chinese Plants Discovered bv Robert Fortunb while 
!N THE Service of the Horticultural Societv of 
London, from 1843 to 1846. 

Abies Kaimpferi I Chamierops Fortunei 

Cephalotaxus Fortimei (male Cryptomeria japonica 
and female) | 


Abella rupestris 
Akebia quinata 
Azalea obtusa 

„ ovata 

„ squamataand other spring 
variegated kinds 
Berberis Fortunei 
Daphne Fortunei 
Edgeworthia clirysantha 
Fingered Citron 
Forsythia viridisslma 
Gardenia florida Fortunei 
GIy«:ine sinensis alba 
Indigofera decora 

Jasminum nudiflorum 

Kumquat (Citrus japonica) 

Mandarin Orange 

Prunus sinensis fl.-pl. albo 

Rose (line coloured) 
„ Anemone-flowered 
,, yellow (Foriune'a) 

Rhynchospermum jasminoides 

Spathoglottis Fortunei 

Shanghae Peach 

Spiraea prunifolia flore-pleno 

Viburnum macroccphalum 
,, plicatum 

Weigela roiea 

Herbaceous Plants. 

Adamia versicolor 
Anemone japonica 
Arundina smensis 
Calistegia pubesceiis 
Chirita sinensis 
Chrysanthemum (Chusan 

Dielytra spectabilis 

Platycodon grandifloruni 

„ ,, album 
Paionia (a large number) 
Lycopodium caesium 

,, Wildenovii 
Shantung Cabbage 
Staiice Fortunei 

Chinese Plants Discovered and Introdlxed dv 
Robert Fortlne. 


Abies jezoensis 

Cupressus funebri^ 

Peach (double red) and others 

,, Carnation flowered 
Pinus Bungeana 


Abelia unlflora 

Kambusa Fortunei variegata 

Berberis Bealei 

,, consanguinea 

„ japonica 

,, Irifurca 
Camellia Cup of Beauty 

,, Prince Frederick William 

Olea fraxinus, a line copper- 
coloured flowered kind 
Quercus sinensis 
1 orreya grandts 

Camellia reticulata fl.-pI. 
Clematis lanuginosa 
Ilex cornuta 
Lonicera fragrantissima 
Prunus triloba 
Rose Fortunei 
Skimmia japonica 
Spiraa caliosa 

Herbaceous Plants. 

Campanula nobilis 
Farfugium grande 
Ferns (many species) 

I Moutan Pa;ony (thirty vars.) 
,, stock for grafting 

Japanese Plants Discovered and Introduced nv 



Acers (many species) 
Corylopsis parvirtora 

,, spicata 
Cryptomeria sp. nov. 
Elseagnus variegata 
Sciadopitys verticillata 
Ligustruni japonicum 

Osmanihus Aquifolium 

Aralia variegata 
Aucuba japonica (male) 

,, ,, vera 

,, ,, limbata 

„ ,, narrow-leaved 
Clematis Fortunei 

,, John Gould Vcitch 

„ Standishii 
Daphne variegata 
Deutzia crenata f1.*pl. 
Eurya sp. 

,, japonica variegata 

Osmanthus variegatum 

,, ,, Danum 
Pittosporum variegatum 
Retinospora aurea 

, , obtusa 

., pisifera 
Thujopsis dolabrata variegata 

„ Standibhii 


Euonymusof sorts (many very 

Kerria japonica variegata 

Lonicera aureo-reticulata 
and Podocarpus {many kinds beau- 
tifully variegated 

Prunus japonica 

Raphiolepis ovata 

Skimmia japonica (vera) 
,, nova, and some others 

Thea viridis variegata 

Yedo Vine 

Herbaceous Plants and Bulbs. 
Chrysanthemums of sorts (the Rhododendron Metternichii 
] Rhaphis flabelliformis vari 

gat a 
I Saxifraga Fortunei 

Japanese kinds) 
Convallaria variegata 
Lastrea Standishii 
Lilium auratum and others 
Lychnis Senno and variegata 

Robert Fortune. 

Spira:a palmata 
Tricyrtis sp. [hirtaj 

TABLES OF 1879. 

A VEIL might well be drawn over the past year In 
respect of new fruits, for never have we had to record 
such a disastrous season for fruit crops in general as 
that of 1879. The cold wet spring played sad havoc 
with the fruit blossoms, and prevented their setting, 
and the continued cold, wet, sunless summer, extending 
to the very end of the season, entirely destroyed the 
true character and quality of the outdoor fruit crop in 
this country. No open-air grown fruit of any kind, 
it may be safely stated, reached its average quality 
or character during the past season. It would, 
therefore, be manifestly unfair to gauge the merits or 
demerits of new introductions by the experience of 
such a season. Better by far would it be to blot it 
out, and wait for brighter prospects to come. 

The inclement character of the season was very 
fitly illustrated by some of our commonest and 
hardiest of fruits. The Ilessel Pear, for example- 
one of the very hardiest sorts grown — although a full 
crop in almost every part of the country, never 
attained much more than half its natural size, and was 
almost uneatable. Louise Bonne of Jersey, usually 
one of the most reliable, was one of the very worst. 

Messrs. Kwing bring forward the Norwich Prolific 
Nut as a new and distinct variety. It bears a 
close resemblance to the Atlas Nut, and wants 
careful comparison with that variety. 

Coming to fruits grown under glass — although 
these were to some extent protected from the immedi- 
ate climatal influences, they suffered from the absence 
of solar heat, resulting in a loss of flavour, the most 
noticeable new variety that came before us being a very 
handsome black Grape, from Mr. Allen, of Gunton 
Hall. This is a cross between Syrian and Alicante, 
and promises to become a useful variety. New 
Melons form a triplet — one of the finest, a large 
green-skinned sort, resembling the old Egyptian 
green-flesh, being named after that good old gardener, 
William Tillery. We hope it may prove a worthy 
memento of a worthy man. Mr. Carmichael's Victory 
of Bristol is a very fine, free-fruiting, good sort, and 
the same may be said of the Davenham Early. We 
go no further this season. 

Vegetables have been also injuriously affected by 
the inclemency of the past season — not perhaps to 
such an extent as fruit, but very greatly so, and suffi- 
cient in many cases to render all comparative tests 
as to special merits nugatory. In light soils many 
vegetables succeeded fairly well, but on heavy lands 
the failure was melancholy. Seeds during the present 
season cannot but be scarce and unsatisfactory. 

Peas, in most cases, where they grew at all, were 
remarkably good. Carter's Telephone and Culver- 
well's Telegraph — the former a wrinkled selection of 
the latter — proved well, and maintained the high cha- 
racter awarded to them the previous year ; and Mr. 
Culverwell is to be congratulated as the raiser of two 
such meritorious Peas. But yet another giant comes 
to us from the same source, named Autumn Marrow. 
This is an extraordinarily large-podded Pea, excellent 
for autumn use and splendid for exhibition purposes. 
Carter's Stratagem, a dwarf wrinkled blue marrow, 
is a grand acquisition — a heavy cropper, with large, 
remarkably well-filled pods. This will, no doubt, be 
largely grown for market purposes. Big Peas being 
the fashion, Messrs. Veitch are at last to give us 
Laxton's The Baron, a monster variety, grown at 
Chiswick in 1S7J, but only now sent out. 

Amongst Kidney Beans a very desirable variety will 
be found in Messrs. Hurst's New Mammoth Negro, 
having fine long pods like Canadian Wonder. Of 
Turnips Benary's Early Munich is very valuable for 
its earliness, coming into use three weeks in advance 
of the earliest varieties. Amongst Radishes, a very 
extensive and excellent trial of which was made by 
the Fruit Committee at Chiswick, the earliest and 
finest stock proved to be the Early Rose Globe 
(Rond Rose Il.itiO of Leroy. This is a rose-coloured 
variety, intermediate in form between the Turnip and 
Olive-shaped sorts. The Earliest Red Erfurt short- 
top white Turnip Radishes may also be mentioned as 
very desirable varieties for forcing, being very early 
and with very small tops. Of Lettuces Messrs. Webb 
speak of Summerficld Gi.ant, a variety of the Drum- 
head Cabbage. 

New Potatos have not been quite so prominent 
during the past year, the capability of resisting dis- 
ease seeming to have been the chief desideratum. 
Two varieties have come pmminently forward in thi* 



[JanuaUy j, 18S0. 

garb — Magnum Bo:uim and Scolch Champion. The 
latter lays claim to some novelty. Although already 
grown to a very great extent it is comparatively new, 
and only last month received a certificate from the 
Royal Horticultural Society. It comes from Forfar- 
shire, and is intermediate between the Regent and 
Irish Rock. Although by no means a handsome 
Potato, it is one of fine quality and a most satisfac- 
tory cropper. Amongst newer varieties may Ije men- 
tioned Cosmopolitan and Avalanche, smooth white 
kidney varieties of great promise ; also McKinlay's 
Beckenham Beauty, Vicar of Lalehani, and Davis' 
Model Seedling, a very handsoine variety, exhibited 
by Mr. Perry at Birmingham. 

Let us hope that the coming year may prove more 
kindly disposed. 


The residence of the Hon. E. S. Parker-Jervis, is 
near to Sutton Coldlield and Birmingham, and since 
the formation of the new branch of the Midland 
Railway, running from Birmingham to Walsall and 
Wolverhampton, is easily reached from Streetly 
Station. Although within a short distance of the Black 
Country — in fact, on the border of it — Little Aston 
Hall (see p. 17) nestles in a beautiful and well-wooded 
district, and the mansion, a noble structure, does full 
justice to the handsome and spacious park in which 
so many grand old specimens of Beech, Oaks, and 
other trees abound. The Beeches especially are per- 
fectly at home here, attaining a great size and perfect 
luxuriance of growth, and are very numerous. In a 
stroll through the park I obtained the measurement 
of one fine patriarch, wliich has a girth of 15 feet at 
4 feet from the ground, and it must be borne in mind 
that this is in the Black Country district. 

The lawn at the garden front of the house is 
extensive and admirably kept, the standard pyramidal 
Vews and Hollies in pairs, alternating down the broad 
walk leading to the ornamental water, forming a very 
pleasing feature, as they are in good condition and 
are well looked after. Betwixt these specimen ever- 
greens are ten long beds in pairs, each bed requiring 
1000 bedding and edging plants, and as several other 
large beds exist in the pleasure grounds, and nooks 
and corners have to be filled, besides a great number of 
balcony and window work about the mansion to be 
supplied, a large stock of bedding plants has to be 
kept up. 

In a conservatory — one of the old-fashioned struc- 
tures such as were very common some forty or more 
years since — is a fine old tree of the Rosa indica 
odorata, planted fully thirty years ago, and which must 
be one of the oldest examples of this long since popular 
variety to be found in England. In the pleasure 
grounds about the mansion are noble specimen trees 
of Ailantus glandulosa, Tulip tree. Beech, some 
grand old Scotch and Larch, some rare Oaks, ever- 
green as well as deciduous, and a fine Taxodium 
distichum, 50 feet high, and the girth 4 feet 9 inches 
at 4 feet from the ground. 

The pleasure grounds under the scythe and mowing 
machine consist of 7 acres, and the ornamental water 
is spacious and forms a most pleasing feature in the 
park scenery, the steam launch being considerably 
more than a toy boat. 

Flower gardening is not carried out in a pretentious 
manner, although there is quite enough to lighten up 
the pleasure grounds with groups of colour. Still carpet 
bedding is adopted in a nicely designed garden near 
the conservatory, but here, as in so many other gardens 
this season, Allernanthcras and Iresines failed, and 
colours had a very washed-out appearance. 

The kitchen gardens are 4 acres in extent and en- 
closed by walls. Some capital pyramidal Pears are 
in good condition but bore thin crops, whilst the walls 
are well planted. Filberts and Cob Nuts abound, 
large plantations of them ; and the trees were loaded 
with Nuts, but it is probable at the gathering of them 
that many were without kernels. This seems to have 
been the case in many places, Filberts showing the 
effects of so much cold, wet, sunless weather. 

There are sever.rl fruit and plant houses, in which, 
without aiming to ensure great results, Mr. William 
Ward contrives to grow a good lot of Grapes and other 
fruits, as well as plants. The gardens, like the con- 
servatory, belong to a past generation, still Little 
Aston Hall vs'ell deserves a niche in the temple of 
fame where good gardens are enrolled. Here in a 
nojk o( the kitchen garden are several plants of the 

white Mediterranean Heath, which some time since 
were in full beauty, and how prettily it works into 
bouquets and table decorations ! 

In one of the vineries, 30 feet by 13 feet, is a fine 
old Black Hamburgh Vine, planted fully thirty years 
ago, monarch of almost all it surveys, for it has the 
greater portion of the house to itseil, and notwith- 
standing its age yearly gives a crop, and this season it 
had a capital crop of fruit, and good wood promising 
well for 18S0. It is planted on the north side of a 
lean-to house, with a 6 feet border, but the roots have 
no doubt travelled far away. The stem was brought 
through a hole in the back wall at the time of plant- 
ing, and of course the Vine has been trained down- 
wards to the front of the house. A broad gravel walk 
exists beyond the 6 feet border. 

Strawberries are extensively cultivated here for 
forcing ; and in another vinery, containing \'ines 
which have been planted several years, is a fine old 
Mill Hill Hamburgh, quite thirty years old, which 
occupies a considerable space ; some fine bunches 
weighing from 3 lb. to 4 lb. have been cut, and fit for 
the exhibition table. One bunch was 6.^ lb. in weight, 
and in excellent character. 

The practice of having a prolific supply of a sub- 
stitute for forced Seakale has long existed here, 
and a visit to this place in the middle of De- 
cember aflbrded ample proof of the excellence of 
forced Swede Turnip-tops, Mr. Ward having given 
us an opportunity of testing their value in a cooked 
form, and it would puzzle nine out of ten to detect 
the difference betwixt it and Seakale. The roots are 
gently forced in an old Mushroom-house, where the 
temperature is kept at an average of 60". Like -Sea- 
kale, when the forced crowns are cut out and used, 
a quantity of side-shoots are formed, which are equally 
delicious. As Swede Turnips are within the reach of 
all, a trial can easily be made at little or no cost, and 
where Seakale roots for forcing are not easily obtain- 
able, the Seakale substitute will be welcomed. 

Uatitcs of §00lvS. 

Sizing and Mildew in Cotton Goods. By G. 
K. Davis, C. Dreyfus, and P. Holland. Man- 
chester : Palmer and Howe. 

Every now and then profane outsiders hear rumours 
that John Chinaman, or some other remote barbarian, 
has had the etfrontery to complain of the goods sent 
out from Manchester. It is even said that the 
character for integrity of the British manufacturer 
and the British merchant has been somewhat impaired 
in consequence of the inferior quality of the goods 
supplied. We cannot say whether this is so or not — 
it is out of our line — but only supposing it to be so, 
our far off friends, did they but know it, are avenged 
by the existence of cankering mildew, the direct con- 
sequence of the process of "sizing" to which 
cotton goods are subjected. Sizing consists in wash- 
ing or steeping the yarn with a size made from Wheat 
flour and water. This is allowed to ferment, and after 
some days the nitrogenous or glutenous matters are 
removed, and the liquid is then ready for use. \'arious 
other farinaceous substances are used, which we need 
not enumerate. Suffice it to say, that the object of 
the sizing process is not, as some might think, to 
give a superior appearance to an inferior article, but 
is, within proper limits, absolutely necessary to manu- 
facture the fabric and to strengthen it when made. 
Fatty substances arc also used in the manufacture to 
soften the yarn, while various mineral substances are 
specified as " weight givers ! " — such are China 
clay, soapstone, gypsum, and Epsom salts. Other 
materials are used to keep the yarn moist during the 
weaving process, such as chloride of calcium. The 
simple operation of sizing (so-called by our authors) 
is not fraudulent unless a large excess of starchy 
matter be introduced — "nor is the practice neces- 
sarily open to censure even then, provided the price 
for a pure cloth be not charged for one containing 
much size. Since the weaving process cannot be con- 
ducted without a dressing of the warps, it is not fair 
to the weaver that all the evils which have since arisen 
in connection with the subject should be accounted to 
him as the one responsible for them." The weight- 
ing process, however, seems less defensible, and, as 
we have said, the sizing process brings its own retri- 
bution in the shape of various fungi or moulds. 
These pests do not confine their ravages to the field 
or to the garden— the store-cupboard, the cellar, and 

the harness-room all afford them scope for their mis- 
chievous activity, and the glutenous and nitrogenous 
constituents of the size used in the manufacture of 
calico afibrds Ihem just the very aliment they like 
best. The mischief they do in this case is twofold — 
they impair the strength of the fabric, and they de- 
lace it by causing unsightly spots and blemishes. No 
less than twenty-seven different kinds of moulds and 
mildews have been detected on cotton cloth, figures 
of which, from the pencil of Mr. Worthington 
Smith, are given in the volume before us. We 
are indebted to the publishers for the use of the 
blocks illustrative of these fungi, and as the list 
of names is so long we refer to the book itself 
for the catalogue of these miscreant mildews. In 
''g- 3> P- '3> ^fs represented, very highly magnified, the 
individual fungi ; in fig. 2 a portion of the woven 
cloth, with the fungi growing in situ — though we 
expect that the artist has taken the liberty of depict- 
ing more kinds then are ever met with at one time on 
a piece of cloth. At r> (fig. 2) is shown a Cotton fibre 
looking like a twisted ribbon with thickened edges and 
invested by numerous minute threads, which con- 
stitute the spawn of the fungus. In consequence of 
these facts the authors have devoted a large space to 
the explanation of the mode of growth and other 
characteristics of fungi, including the phenomena of 
fermentation, and detailing numerous experiments 
made with a view of ascertaining the conditions under 
which they are produced, and the best means of pre- 
venting their growth. Chloride of zinc is one of the 
most efficient substances for the latter purpose, and 
various preparations of carbolic acid (phenol) are also 
very serviceable. 

The remarks we have already made will suffice 
to convey a notion of the nature and scope of the 
book before us. It seems to have originated in an 
action brought to recover a large sum of money 
lost in consequence of the discoloration of the 
goods by a reddish brick-coloured stain, the nature 
of which was contested. The report of the trial is 
given, and it is instructive, as showing the necessity 
in such cases of having a jury of experts — manufac- 
turers, chemists, and botanists — rather than a hap- 
hazard selection of gentlemen without any special 
knowledge of the matters in dispute. 

Not so many years ago our great mycologist, in 
the preface to his Introductioit to Crypto:^ainic Botany, 
thought it necessary to make what reads like an apology 
for the study of such minute and obscure organisms as 
fungi. He has lived to see the importance of the 
study universally recognised as a necessary prelimi- 
nary to the study of the life history of man, as very 
essential in the study of the nature of many diseases of 
plants and animals, and in the investigation of 
the best means of preventing them ; and now, from 
practical Manchester comes the evidence that what at 
one time was looked on as mere laborious trifling, mere 
harmless amusement, is now considered in very prac- 
tical fashion — indeed from a pounds, shillings, and 
pence point of view. 

Let some of our cui bono friends, who want to 
know what use science is in the practical business 
of life, peruse this little volume, and apply its lessons. 

Florists' Flowers. 

New Florists' Flowers qi- 1S79. — In spite of 
storm and wet— frost, snow, and sunless weather — 
with the elemen's in apparent array against the horti- 
culturist, and the seasons in somewhat eccentric 
action — the floral records of the year are yet as 
numerous, full of interest, and valuable, as in any 
preceding year ; the faculty of happy conception and 
the quality of enterprise, knows no diminution of 
zeal. The fervour shown by the florist is as praise- 
worthy and as full of consequence in small things as 
in large ones. We ought never to lose sight of the 
value of the simplest work in relation to the produc- 
tion of new forms in floriculture. 

" Pay not thy praise to lofty things alone : 
The plains .are everlasting as the Iiills " — 

is a couplet suggestive of the truest philosophy in 
relation to progress. The man who produces a new 
Verbena or a new Pansy {taking these as representing 
the lowliest forms engaging the attention of the florist), 
if either be something higher in development than any 
that has gone before, wins as much honour as the 
skilful hybridiser who produces a new Cattleya or a 
distinct and splendid Nepenthes. 

Tan'I'arv 3, iSSo.] 



But to the task of passing in review the new floral 
prochiclions of the year. What a wealth of new 
forms of the Amaryllis is one part of the heritage 
from 1S79. Since the Hon. and Rev. Wm. Herbert 
sketched Hippeastrum splcndens in his preliminary 
treatise in 1S21, what wonderful strides have been 
made. In point of colour, size and form we appear 
to have come very close to the goal of perfection, only the ideal recedes as we approach it. Take as 
illustrations Dr. Masters, Duke of Connaught, Mrs. 
Baker, Mrs. Morgan, and Virgil, as representing the 
best ; it seems ditficult to improve upon them, only 
that results are co-equal with enterprise. 

The Auricula is not overlooked ; it is now 
receiving a greater share of attention than for years 
past, and new forms are a certain result of an en- 
larged interest. Of white edges, Read's Acme is a 

respect of A. indica, Williams" Duchess of Connaught 
is a charming and useful decorative variety, and the 
same estimate holds good of Van Geert's Empress of 
India, a very attractive double form ; White Made- 
line is a large, pure white, semi-double variety, 
shown by Mr. Turner. The hardy Belgian varieties 
of Azalea exhibited from Knap Hill, and by Messrs. 
Veitch & Sons, and especially (.Iraaf von Moran and 
Narcissiflora, show that this section is advancing. 

Still the production of new TUliEROUS-ROOTED 
Begonias goes on with almost flood-like persistency; 
and they come near to the Rose, Chrysanthemum, 
and Zonal Pelargonium in attracting a large share of 
public attention. When a dozen or more new varitties 
are certificated in one season, there is abundant 
proof of added quality. Whether we take the double 
varieties, which are represented by greatly improved 

surprising that but a very few good new flowers came 
to the fore, though it must not be inferred that they 
do not exist. S.B. Robert Lord, C.B. J. T. D. 
Llewellyn, both raised by Mr. E. S. Dodwell, and 
r.F. G. F. Wilson (Turner), promise to make a 
good reputation. Picotees — H.R.E. Dr. Aber- 
crombie (Turner), L.R.E. Violet Douglas (Si- 
monitc), L.P.E. Clara Penson (Wilmer), and 
Baroness Burdett Coutts (Turner), are of excellent 
quality, as the Certificates of Merit they received 
proves. A Northern Carnation named William Sporr 
(Adams), S.B., is said to possess excellent proper- 
ties. In the way of Clove Carnations, Susan Askey 
(Culverwell), pure white. Heather Bell (Turner), 
pale pink, finely fringed, and Coroner (Barron), 
rosy crimson, very fine, are capital additions to this 
useful class, Mr, Turner's batch of new yellow 

Fig. 2. — COTTON' cloth, with mildews growing out of it (magn. 

Fig. 3.— mildews found on cotton cloth (magn. 

charming and chaste flower, with much refinement 
of colour. Llewelyn's Grey Friar is a bold variety, 
of large size and good properties, perhaps a little too 
over-sized to be compatible with refinement, while 
Horner's Ringdove is a dark violet self, with all the 
qualities so well balanced as to form an approximately 
perfect Auricula. Mr. Turner's new alpines, A, F. 
Barron, Duchess of Connaught, Mrs. Ball, and Susie 
Matthams, give added lustre to this interesting class. 

In regard to the Azaleas, the new varieties of A. 
indica fall into the second place, as compared with 
the splendid new types of A. mollis. On the Conti- 
nent the improvement of these fine decorative plants 
has been pushed on with great success, and with the 
addition of rare depths of colour united to size and 
form. Baron de Constante Rebecque, Comte de 
Comer, Charles Kckule, M. Arthur de Warelles, 
Ebenezer Pycke, and Isabella Van Iloutte, all intro- 
duced by M. Van Houtte, are very fine indeed. In 

orm in such flowers as Clovis, Comtesse H. de 
Choiseul, Edouard Morren, and Marie Bouchet— or 
the large flowered single types, as seen in J. H. Laing, 
Maude Churchill, Mrs. Howe, Reine Blanche, a very 
fine white-flowered type ; Royal Standard, Souvenir 
de Gand, or Rival— or the d war '-growing 
forms represented by Constance Veitch, and Mrs. 
Arthur Potts— the headway is very satisfactory. 

The beautiful Transatlantic Camellias, brought 
over by Mr. C. M. Hovey in the spring, are cha- 
racterised by so much quality and refinement as to be 
valuable acquisitions. C. H. Hovey, rosy-crimson ; 
C. M. Hovey, bright crimson ; and Mrs. Hovey, 
ple.asing fleshy pink, are the new introductions. The 
first and last received First-class Certificates of Merit 
from the Floral Committee ; they are being distri- 
buted in this country by Mr. Bull. 

In a season not at all adapted to show off the Car- 
nation and PicoTEE to the best advantage, it is not 

Picotees was noticed at length on p. 537 of the last 
volume of the Gardeners Chrouidc. Of their value 
there can be no doubt. 

Named Cinerarias are still certificated, as Mr. 
Tames produces every year some varieties distin- 
guished by large size, approved form, and rich 
colouring. Earl of Beaconsfield, Master Harold, 
and Mr. Bland, had the foregoing award during 
1S79; and the same award was made to Mrs. 
Joseph Grimond, a deep purple-flowered double 
variety of dwarf habit. The double Cinerarias, how- 
ever, do not appear to be making much headway, and 
are only sparingly grown. 

The handsomely marked CoLEUSES have been 
strongly reinforced during the past year, their golden 
leaves being flamed, flushed, marbled, and pencilled 
with brilliant colours, such as purple, orange, crimson, 
pink, green, black, &c. There is great diversity 
combined with striking hues. Butterfly, Duchess of 



[January 3, 18S0. 

Teck, Empress of Germany, Glow, Harlequin, James 
Barnshaw, Starlight, and Yellow Gem, from Mr. 
Bull's collection, are as beautiful as they are numerous ; 
Dr. Brushfield (Lloyd), Majesticus, and Maud, raised 
by Mr. King, are strikingly handsome. Whether 
sOTie of these new forms will retain their brilliant 
colouring when grown into size remains to be seen ; 
it is to be hoped they will, as they cannot fail (with 
th.s proviso) to make most acceptable decorative 
and exhibition plants. 

Each succeeding year the Cyclamen is found rising 
to a higher level of beauty. Take Mr. H. B. Smith's 
new large-flowered varieties, viz., Duke of Connaught, 
I'icturala, Queen of the Belgians, among others, and 
they will be found uniting size and beauty of form 
with great freedom of bloom. Crimson King, very 
fine in colour, and Baroness Burdett Coutts, pure 
white, from the same raiser, are fine additions to the 
smaller flowered types, and so is Mr. Little's Gem. 
Reading Gem (Sutton & Sons) is also a very fine 
large-flowered variety of massive proportions and 
excellent form. 

There has been no lack of new Dahlias, but, 
owing to the hostile character of the season, growers 
had poor opportunity of showing their flowers to the 
best advantage. The only certificated flower was 
Ethel Britton (Keynes & Co.), blush ground, tipped 
with pale reddish-purple. Trlumphans, a rich purple 
self, and Mrs. Hodgson, rich yellow, tipped with 
crimson, are fine varieties by the same raisers. 
Messrs. Turner, Rawlings, Harris, and Smith, have 
new varieties also, of which we shall hear more next 
summer. P'rom Germany have come some charming 
bouquet or Pompon Dahlias, and Mr. Turner's 
George Thomson is a rare yellow-flowered bedder, 
having all the good qualities that can well be desired 
in a plant used for this purpose. Mr. Cannell's 
Dahlia Juarezii, with its brilliant scarlet Cactus-like 
flowers, is the leading floral surprise of the year. 

In the way of new Fuchsias, the varieties raised 
and distributed by Mr. Lye during the past year have 
proved valuable acquisitions, because of their excel- 
lent habit and free-blooming qualities. Beauty of 
Wilts (Lye), to be distributed in the coming spiing, 
is a very fine light variety of the highest quality. 
Eclipse (G. Smith) is a very fine dark variety, of 
good habit, and very free. 

Messrs. Kelway & Son have again produced some 
varieties of the Gladiolus for their 
superb quality, and that as many as eight varieties 
should be certificated is a good proof of their value. 
A few years must elapse before there will be suffi- 
cient stock to put them into commerce. A fine 
hybrid of M. Victor Lemoine's, named Hybridus 
Lemoinei, is of a very distinct and pleasing cha- 

The Gloxinia, too, keeps pace with other flowers 
in the march of improvement, and some of the delicate 
maculated varieties are as beautiful as they are dis- 
tinct. Charme de Latice (Lemoine), Yakoob Khan 
(Veitch), and Lady Holmesdale (Veitch), are excellent 
representatives of this section : while Duchess of 
Connaught (Veitch), and Mrs. Bause (Wills), are very 
fine in the section of ordinary marked types. 

That Messrs. Veitch & Sons should receive some- 
thing like a dozen Certificates of Merit for new 
Hyacinths in one season, demonstrates that the 
year 1879 produced an unusual number of fine 
novelties. They are so good and distinct as to 
deserve separate mention. 

Tile group of the new Jap.anese Iris Kaempferi 
has had distinguished additions during the past year. 
Messrs. Veitch & Sons have shown a select collection 
of very fine new forms, Charles Maries and Jersey 
Belle being especially noticeable ; and Imperatrice, 
from H. J. Elwes, Esq., is a grand form also. No 
description can do justice to their superb beauty. 

The production of new Show and Fancy Pansies 
is confined mainly to Scotland, and they are rarely 
seen southwards in what may be termed show condi- 
tion. But that there are marks of improvement is 
plain beyond doubt, though it manifests itself slowly. 
Bedding P.insies and Violas are also annually pro- 
duced. Some of the varieties of the latter raised by 
Messrs. Downie & Laird are remarkable for good 
form and fine colours. Dr. Stuart, Chirnside, has 
also raised some useful and pleasing varieties. 

A larger number than usual of new show or large- 
flowering Pelargoniums appeared in 1879. The 
existence of the Pelargonium Society serves as a 
stimulus to their production. As usual, Mr. E. B. 
Foster takes the lead as a raiser, and Alice, Emperor 

William, Fireball, Flag Captain, Queen of Scots, 
Sensation, The Baron, and The Pope, received 
Certificates of Merit. Amethyst (Brchaut) and Joe 
(Matthews) were similarly honoured. What are 
termed the "decorative " varieties grow in the popular 
esteem as they undergo improvement, and their value 
for market work is constantly being illustrated. 
Countess of Rosebery (Methven), M.adame Andre 
(Jackson), Maid of Kent (Hayes), Nellie liayes 
(Hayes), and Volunte National (F. Perkins), are the 
best of the year's production and well deserving of 
cultivation. In the Fancy class Mr. C. Turner can 
be credited with a dozen or so new varieties. Electric 
Light, Mrs. Milne-llowe, andThuriohad Certificates 
of Merit. The Zonal class shows a large augmenta- 
tion, and Dr. Denny, who is not forgetful of doulile 
varieties, received certificates for Dauntless and 
Pioneer, both scarlet in colour, with full double 
flowers. In the single class this same raiser is to the 
fore with Allegro, Commander-in-Chief, a most use- 
ful pale scarlet bedding variety and equally fine for 
pots ; Dudu, Horatio, Leander, and Romeo, all 
showing that stoutness of texture, refined form and 
rich colouring characteristic of Dr. Denny's flowers. 
Mr. Catlin has Edgar Catlin, Fanny Thorpe, and 
Lizzie Smith, all of fine quality. In Mrs. Henry 
Cox (Hayes) we get a new variegated Zonal worthy 
of a Certificate of Merit, the well-formed leaves being 
richly coloured. Mr. Bull has obtained some pretty 
double and single varieties of the Ivy-leaved section, 
.and to one of the former, Gazelle, a Certificate of 
Merit was awarded. The same award was made to 
Mons. V. Lemoine for a pleasing single variety named 
Vicountess Cranbrook, white shaded with rosy-lilac. 

New Pentstemons have been produced by 
Messrs. Downie & Laird, Dicksons & Co., Laing, 
and Cannell, and the two former and Mr. Hooper 
have new varieties of Phloxes, early and late flower- 
ing. Pinks, both show and forcing, are found coming 
to the fore also. 

A new gold-laced Poly'ANTHUS is obtained in Mr. 
Brockbank's John of Gaunt, a Northern flower of 
some promise. Mr. Ingram's Golden Gem is a use- 
ful bedding variety with yellow flowers; Prince* of 
Orange (Dean) is the same, but of a deeper 
colour, very fine, and having Hose-in-Hose 
flowers. Superbus (Dean) is a very fine glossy 
dark variety, excellent for pot culture and ex- 
hibition purposes. The new mauve-coloured P. 
acaulis platypetala plena is a good addition to our 
double garden Primroses ; and Munro's white variety 
of P. denticulata is a desirable acquisition. Of Chinese 
Primroses, Mr. R. Gilbert's double variety. Earl of 
Beaconsfield, with its bright salmon-rose flowers, 
well deserved the certificate it obtained. Ruby King 
(Sutton & Sons) is a very fine richly coloured single 
variety ; and the two Chiswick varieties, Chiswick 
Red and fimbriata rubro-violacea, have decidedly 
improved depths of colour. 

Lovers of hardy hybrid Rhododendrons for 
forcing purposes should not overlook the claims of 
Mr. J. Davies' (Ormskirk) varieties. Duchess of 
Teck (Veitch) is another of the free greenhouse 
hybrids ; and Mrs. Townshend, shown by the Rev. 
Mr. Boscawen, is a fine, pure white, of the arboreum 

The new Roses of the year are well reinforced by 
Mr. H. Bennett's hybrid Teas, which find much 
favour with rosarians generally ; by Charles Darwin 
(Paul & Son), Duke of Teck (Paul & Son), and 
Isabella Ward (Ward.) A hybrid Tea, named 
Madame Alexandre Bernaix (Guillot), of a pleasing 
rose colour, was awarded with the afore-mentioned a 
Certificate of Merit. Of new Continental varieties 
there is, as usual, a formidable list, which require a 
season's culture to afford an estimate of their quality. 
Of new Verbenas there has been a considerable 
number. Mr. Mould's Mrs. Thompson was the only 
one that received a Certificate of Merit. His 
Beethoven, Lord Chelmsford, Mr. L. Harrison, Mrs. 
Mould, Sir Garnet Wolseley, and Sylvia are all fine 
exhibition flowers. Messrs. Cannell and Keynes & 
Co. have also raised new forms. A rich scarlet 
variety, named Lustrous, from the latter firm, is cha- 
racterised by size, brilliancy, and splendid form. 

It is only possible to touch on the leading new 
flowers of the year. Their multitude is prohibitory 
of anything like an extended notice. The times may 
be somewhat out of joint, and trade dull, but floricul- 
ture will flourish despite apparent, if not real, draw- 
backs. We turn with hopefulness to iSSo, in the full 
belief that the procession of months will furnish their 
quota of novelties, and that the new will transcend 
the old in signs and tokens that will be as a valuable 
legacy to floriculture when the year on which we are 
now entering fades away into the irrevocable past. 

(^arbeix #pcraiioits. 


Peas. — The season for this invaluable and much 
esteemed leguminous edible in a green state is looked 
for with much more interest than the coming in of 
many other subjects, simply because it is a vegetable 
so universally appreciated, and for this reason it 
is grown everywhere. The advanced crops at all 
places, without exception, are given the best position 
the garden affords, and every attention and care are 
given to them in order to obtain them in a fit state 
for use at the earliest date possible ; but alter all, 
how often does it follow that the ultimate result is 
much delayed, and oftentimes very disappointing? 
Whilst admitting there are naturally some sheltered 
pl.ices situated at a moderate altitude, where frost is 
not quite so destructive, and where the crop in ques- 
tion may, with some degree of certainty, be depended 
on almost every year, yet in general this is not the case ; 
and here, as in many other gardens similarly situated 
in a low valley, with air almost constantly charged 
with moisture enough to make vegetation most 
susceptible to frost, the crop is most doubtful. For 
this reason we have of necessity been compelled to 
resort to a more certain and effectual method to secure 
the same end, and from past experience we strongly 
recommend the practice to the notice of those who 
labour under like difficulties as we ourselves- — it is 
to have recourse to a temporary erection in the shape 
of a frame about 3 feet high at the back and 2 feet in 
front, with a strip under the junction of the lights in 
order to facilitate ventilation, and a width according 
to the size of the lights available for the purpose. 
This should be placed on a suitable border, and dwarf 
kinds of Peas only should be sown at about 18 inches 
apart between the rows, which should run from north 
to south. With such a convenience, covering an area 
of about 20 feet by 6 feet, and with ordinary coverings 
applied, a crop of Peas may be safely secured before 
the end of May, the average of which will favourably 
compare with the produce of many outside borders of 
far greater extent with but little additional trouble. 
For this purpose} we sow thinly, in rows iS inches 
apart, I^axton's Unique and Little Gem the first 
week in January — keeping the lights on until such time 
as the Peas are becoming visible, when a little air is 
given them every day. As soon as they are well up 
they are thinned out to about 2 inches apart, and 
before they have made much growth they are care- 
fully staked to a height which will just admit the 
lights to run, and at this time they are mulched 
with 3 or 4 inches of the best decomposed manure, 
and well watered whenever necessary, and covered up 
likewise when occasion requires it. 

Forcing Department. — The demand for forced 
vegetables, like many other things, is steadily increas- 
ing at most places, and supplies of Asparagus, Sea- 
kale, French Beans, Mushrooms, and Rhubarb are 
not only expected occasionally, but are supposed to be 
ready in quantity whenever demanded. After the 
new year comes in, to maintain such supplies, together 
with Cucumbers, Chicory, Radishes, Mustard .and 
Cress, with a supply of Carrots and Potatos in due 
course, is a task which not only requires much labour 
and attention, but considerable ability and fore- 
thought in management. See, therefore, that timely 
preparations are made in order to receive the supple- 
mentary crops which are to be introduced into the 
respective places to come in after those which are now 
in bearing have become exhausted ; and it is at this 
season always advisable, in order to be prepared for an 
emergency in the way of prolonged frost, to have a small 
store of roots of Asparagus, Seakale, and Rhubarb 
on hand for the purpose. Give bearing crops of Aspara- 
gus plenty of air whenever favourable, as without this 
element the quality will be much impaired. Seak.ale 
comes good with us this year, and it will be made a 
substitute to help us out of difficulties which we shall 
experience in the way of a deficient crop of some 
of our usual hardy edibles. For this object good quan- 
tities of this valuable subject should be put in at 
intervals .as may be required. Rhubarb will with the 
advance of the year come much more kindly ; this 
will also be in greater request than usual, owing to 
the short supply of ."Apples last year. This may be 
put into almost any place where there is heat, and 
it will now start freely. Crops which are in bearing 
will want ample supplies of tepid water. French 
Beans will, unless the utmost care is exercised, 
become infested with the red-spider ; should this be 
apparent on the foliage be cautious in removing such 
plants to newly started vineries or similar places, or 
the pest will assuredly be quickly established. We 
prefer to sow the Beans in the houses in which they 
are to be grown, because it prevents the evil. As 
advanced crops of Tarragon, Chervil, and Mint show 
indications of failing, let others be brought in : a 
Peach-house at work is a fit place for these subjects. 
Soil-up early crops of Potatos as soon as they are fit, 
and use manured soil for the purpose. Sow Carrots 
for secondary crops, and thin out advanced ones— also 

January 3, iSSo.] 



Radishes to succed former sowings. These will 
require air every day until rough leaves are made. 

iMusHROOM-llousE. — See to the watering and the 
sprinkling in this place every day. As the Mush- 
rooms become fit for use remove them from the beds, 
and stand them in trays or shallow boxes until they 
are required : in this way they will keep good for a 
considerable time. G. T. Miles, IVycombe Abky. 


Orchard-house. — Those who have had little 
experience with forcing Peach and Nectarine trees 
will need to practise patience at this early period. 
They may expect to see the blossom-buds swell 
almost as soon as artificial heat is applied, but this 
will not be likely to happen unless the temperature 
is kept too high to begin with. It ought not to ex- 
ceed 45° on cold nights .and about 50° in mild weather. 
If the pots could be placed over a bed of fermenting 
material, that would excite the roots into active 
growth at the same time as the buds ; but it is very 
certain that artificial heat must be applied with con- 
siderable caution, both to the roots and also to the 
temperature of the house. Another point to be con- 
sidered is the supply of water to the roots : I would 
rather err by giving too much than too little ; the 
atmosphere ought to be moist while the buds are 
swelling, although it ought to incline to dryness while 
the trees are in blossom. We are now clearing out 
the Chrysanthemums from our late house to make 
room for the trees that are still plunged out-of-doors. 
They certainly look remarkably well this 3'ear, 
showing that severe and long-continued frost 
does not injure them, although excessive rainfall 
probably wdl ; indeed it does, as the late Mr. 
Pearson, of Chilwell, could testify from his ex- 
perience at Nottingham, at the time that our trees 
at Loxford were braving the winter without the least 
injury — the inference being this, that the rainfall at 
Nottingham is too much for the trees in ordinary 
winters, while that in South Essex is not sufficient to 
cause any injury to them. Where the rainfall is very 
excessive tiles could be placed over the surface of the 
pots to throw off the water. I find that when the 
trees are placed out-of-doors to winter they do not 
suffer much from the attacks ol insect pests of any 
kind. The Strawberry plants were placed on the 
shelves near the roof of the house some time ago. 
We used to grow about twelve varieties, but have 
reduced the number to less than half. We grow the 
Black Prince for earliest ; this is followed by Keens' 
Seedling, and it ought to be stated that some persons 
have a spurious stock of this. An inferior variety here for the true sort, and I only obtained 
it through a friend who exhibited the true sort in 
London. Next to this is President, then British 
• iueen, and lastly Loxford Hall Seedling, which is the 
latest we have ever grown. See that the pots do not 
sutler for want of water, but be rather sparing with it 
until they start into growth. J. Douglas. 

Orange-house. — There is little'to be added to the 
instructions given in the number for December 20, 
p. 79'. See that the requisite temperature is main- 
tained, that the plants receive a sufficient quantity of 
water, and that the leaves are kept quite clean. It is 
usually best to trust to the nurserymen to supply us 
with young trees of most varieties of fruit, and I do 
not think of propagating any except Oranges ; but 
when the trees are quite clean in a house, it is very 
monstrous to introduce trees that are infested wilh 
scale, and to prevent this I graft our own trees on 
Lemon stocks. Now is a good time to do it. The 
stocks ior dwarf trees should be about as thick as a 
cedar pencil, and they may be grafted a few inches 
above the surface of the ground. After the operation 
is completed, place the pots (they may be 5 or 6 
inches in diameter) in a forcing-house over a bed of 
tan or leaves, and cover them with a hand-glass ; 
the union will soon be complete, when the trees may 
be removed from the hand-glass, and be placed over 
the bed. With careful management they will grow 
apace, and soon require repotting into 8 or g-inch 
pots. By the end of the season the trees will be of 
considerable size, and after making another year's 
growth will produce blossoms and fruit. During the 
season the young growths must be stopped at the 
fourth or fifth leaves. The potting material should 
be the turf taken from a clayey loam, with a fourth part 
of rotten stable-manure and some ^--inch bones, say 
a 9-inch potful to a barrowload, added, y. Douglas, 
Loxford Hall, Ilford, E. 

Pines. — In the preceding Calendar upon this 
matter rather comprehensive remarks were given in 
regard to the general treatment of these plants 
for that period which embraces the dullest time 
in the whole year. The details of management 
then described should continue to remain in force 
for the present, excepting in the case of plants which 
it may be necessary to bring together for the purpose 
of inducing them to come into fruit sooner than they 
would under other circumstances. If this should be 
necessary provide a light place in pit or house, as the 

case may be, where they can have the advantage of 
more both at the roots and tops. Assuming 
this to be done, and a batch is to be selected from 
amongst the successional plants, choose those which 
indicate signs of speedily showing fruit. These arc 
quickly distinguished by practical hands, and others 
may be materially assisted in the matter by an examin- 
ation of the centre or heart of the plant. Let these 
plants be plunged into a bed which should be con- 
stantly kept at about 90" to 95° at the base of the 
pots. If the plants be at all dry water them copiously, 
and maintain the top heat at 65'' to 70' at night, with 
a few degrees more during the daytime, and keep 
the temperature about the plants in an invigorating 
and genial state, by syringing, &c., as may be neces- 
sary. G. T. Miles, Wycomhc Abbey. 

Figs. — When the terminal buds on the early pot- 
trees have fairly broken, advantage may be taken of 
the favourable change to milder weather for increas- 
ing the mean temperature of the house, as the Fig, 
when fairly storied into growth, delights in a good 
heat, plenty of moisture, and all the light that can 
be secured to it. On this account the glass should 
be kept perfectly clean, and the increase will be 
more beneficial if it can be obtained from fire-heat 
combined with solar influence by day, in preference 
to making any great advance by night. Syringe the 
trees and walls twice a day, according to the state of 
the weather, and damp the floors in the evening when 
the weather is dark, wet, and unfavourable to the 
performance of the afternoon syringing. Examine 
the plunging material, and if it exceeds 70° to 75° 
let it be turned over as a means of reducing the 
bottom-heat, and setting moisture at liberty. Aim 
at a night temperature of 55' to 60°, give a little air 
at 68" when the morning gives promise of an increase 
from gleams of sunshine, and close sufficiently early 
for the house to run up to So" after it is shut up. If 
the succession-house is conveniently arranged for the 
introduction of a good body of fermenting leaves and 
short stable manure, but little fire-heat will be re- 
quired by night until the buds show signs of 
swelling, particularly when the trees have 
been started about the same time for a 
number of years ; but young trees that have not been 
forced will require a somewhat higher temperature to 
cause them to break. Syringe twice a day with water 
a few degrees warmer than the house, and if it be 
thought necessary to repeat the root-watering, use 
water at a temperature of So° to 90°. Prune or rather 
thin-out the wood that has reached the extremity of 
the trellis in late houses, wash the trees well with 
warm soap-water, and, in the event of scale having 
gained a lodgment, a wineglassful of paraffin to 
the gallon of water may be used with advantage. Put 
in cuttings or eyes of favourite kinds, and make pre- 
parations for potting on young plants intended for 
next year's forcing, using strong loam, old mortar, and 
a little thoroughly rotted cow-dung. Train to a clean, 
straight, single stem, and allow the r.adiating shoots 
to for™ the foundation of a good pyramid. If wanted 
for early work the plants should be placed in gentle 
bottom-heat by the end of the month, in order that 
they may make and properly ripen their growth by 
September. W. Coleman, Eastnor. 


Orchids. — The year 1879 is gone, and these 
plants have no cause to lament over its departure. 
Time has glided us into the new year, the first day of 
which is looked up to by so many as the starting point 
in many undertakings. In Orchid culture the new 
year does not commence or finish at any particular 
period, but may be taken as the centre of the resting 
and slow-growing period, which extends from Novem- 
ber to February. The remarks in the two last months' 
Calendars are still appropriate. For the benefit of new 
readers of this paper I may as well state that I group 
the various structures in which Orchids are grown into 
three divisions — namely, cool-house, intermediate- 
house, and East Indian-house. In the aforemen- 
tioned Calendars their respective temperatures are 
given as, night, 45°, 55°, 60'; day, 50°, 60°, 65', as 
maintained by fire-heat, with a few degrees rise by 
sun-heat, and a few degrees less during exceptionally 
severe nights, when the houses, owing to the unusual 
amount of fire-heat, are, comparatively speaking, dry. 
During the last six weeks our night temperatures 
have rarely been, for a short time even, below those 
given ; on some days our temperatures at noon 
have been a few degrees above those given, but a 
trifle of air has been on at the same time. In the 
three houses or divisions mentioned almost every 
tropical Orchid can be grown more or less well ; at 
the same time, where a large number of some particu- 
lar class has to be grown, it is wise to give them a 
structure to themselves. Thus in many places there 
will be besides those mentioned a Cattleya-house, a 
Mexican-house, and a Dendrobium-house. The 
Cattleya-house will be a low light structure contam- 
ing such plants as C. MossIk, C. Triance, C. gigas, 
C. Mendelii, C. labiata, C. maxima, and C. ex- 
oniensis, &c., with an intermediate temperature. 

The Mexican-house will be thinly shaded, so as to 
receive abundance of sun-heat and light. It will 
contain such plants as La;lia m.ijalis, L. acuminata, 
L. aulumnalis, L albida, L. furfuracea, Odontogkis- 
sum Londesboroughianum, 0. citrosmum, O. Keich- 
enheimii, Epidendrum nemoralc, E. Parkinsonianuni, 
•Sic. The winter temperature of this will be a Itille 
under intermediate. The Dendrobium-house will be 
somewhat lolty, so as to allow of that famdy being 
suspended from the roof. A whole host of plants 
requiring a less close atmosphere than the I'hal.x'- 
nopsis division will furnish the side stages. Through 
the summer this house will be hot, moist, and airy ; 
and in the winter a trifle above intermediate. If any 
reader possessing only the first-named divisions should 
find me at any time recommending the growing of 
some plant in one of the last-named ones he need not 
despair, but may take it for granted that in some por- 
tion of his houses conditions almost identical wilh 
those advised can be found. 

After six weeks' almost close confinement, no col- 
lection of Orchids will look in quite so brilliant a 
condition as they did at the commencement of winter. 
The foliage of some of the plants will be looking 
more yellow than usual, and too often in such cases 
water is rushed into them in order to speedily bring 
them green. This is a fatal error, ending as it does 
in the destruction of the roots. The proper thing to 
do is to keep the plants rather on the dry side, trust- 
ing entirely to the genial atmosphere which, thanks 
to a south-west wind, it is now easy to maintain, to 
bring them round. Wilh such a gale of wind as we 
are now getting, there will be no necessity to open 
any ventilators, as enough fresh air will be forced 
through the laps, which are excellent and safe venti- 
lators. As regards open laps, I have no hesitation in 
saying that nearly every Orchid-house would be all 
the better if a pane of glass here and there over- 
lapped ils fellow enough to keep out the rain, but with 
a space between sufficient for a penny to pass through. 
Houses in exposed positions will of course require no 
such openings. 

Plants of Cypripedium villosum and C. Boxallii 
will now be fast sending up their flowers, which will 
require guiding up through the luxuriant foliage these 
plants make, or they in some cases get weighted 
down wilh leaves, and so grow distorted. In lying 
up the flowers of large plants where the breaks have 
become much crowded, care must be taken that the 
slakes do not injure the growths. J. C. S/ycrs, Bur- 
ford Lod^e, Dorking. 

The late hard frost gave a good opportunity for 
getting flower-beds and borders manured^that is to 
say, to have the manure carted or wheeled on and laid 
in heaps, so that when the season arrives for plant- 
ing the manure may be spread and forked in. It 
is not a good plan to have the manure put on 
and dug in, in the autumn, as is often done ; for 
if a wet winter follows all the goodness of the 
manure will be washed away before the planting 
season commences, and the labour and manure 
will be lost. Now is a good time for planting and 
pruning trees and shrubs, and turning in plantations, 
if not already done. With regard to pruning flower- 
ing trees and shrubs, I would remark that there 
should be a certain amount of discretion used before 
cutting off a branch. Look and see if is necessary to cat 
it off, for remember that every branch in many flower- 
ing shrubs is a bunch of flowers. I do not think there 
is much gained by pruning flowering trees and shrubs : 
if it can be avoided the best plan is to thin them out and 
re-arrange them. Nothing looks worse than to see a lot 
of naked sticks, the result of rough pruning, standing 
about in plantations. The last two winters have 
proved a very hard time for border plants, such as 
Veronicas, Phloxes, Pentstemons, Antirrhinums, Holly- 
hocks, cite. Last season nearly all were killed, and the 
present seems so far to have been equally as destruc- 
tive to those that are left out. It is not wholly the 
frost that kills them, it is the fog. I have known 
Pentstemons, Antirrhinums, killed in one day with 
fog and frost combined. There are very few border 
plants that will stand out in town in such winters as 
this and last. Plants that are quite hardy in the 
country require a cold frame in town, and even such 
things as Pansies, Golden Thyme, Mentha Pulegium 
gibralLaricum, and Cerastium tomentosum, Veronica 
incana, and Sedum glaucum, are the better for being 
taken up in the autumn and planted out early in the 
spring, for if left out nine-tenths will be lost. This is 
a very bad season for keeping bedding Pelargoniums, 
the season being so wet when the cuttings were put 
in which caused them to be so sappy that a very 
small portion of them were well struck before they 
were potted oft'. I am speaking of cuttings that weie 
put in in the open ground, which I believe is ihe best 
plan to follow. Pot them in the latter end of 
September in small 6o's to stand through the 
winter, and one plant in a small 60 in the spring 
will be worth two of those crowded six to ten in 
a 48. W, Gibson, Royal Hospital Cardais, Chelsea, 
S. IV. 



Qanuarv 3, 1880, 


MOND.u, Jan. sj ;„ ,|,e Mart, by l'i-"ll'croc & Mmris. 

WElKESaW, J^n. 7 { S-'J^^.^'l'^f^ I'"-". ""It's. S":-. =' Sieves' 

TiUMlSDAV, Jan. 8 — Sale of Oreliidfi, at Stevens' Rooms. 
i,.„,,,,„ *., „ J Salt: of I ■,'■00 Japanese I-iliuin auratum, at 

I'imwy, Jan. 9 J Stevens' Koonis. 

AN appropriate subject at the preserit time 
is that of Forcing, and one that is testing 
the mettle of gardeners as well as the metal of 
boilers. First let us define the word forcing, 
which in a broad sense is as comprehensive a 
subject as any with which we have to deal in 
horticulture. Forcing is a work of time 
and skill rather than a display of stoking 
capacity or of mathematical exactness in the 
daily readings of the thermometer, and yet 
stoking has an important bearing upon the 
work of forcing, inasmuch as it affects the 
commercial value of the crop. 

Forcing consists in changing the season of 
fruiting of the Vine or Peach tree, or the hasten- 
ing of the flowering period. Otitside the horti- 
cultural circle early produce, whether it be fruit, 
flowers, or vegetables, is regarded as the natural 
outcome of artificial heat and moisture — a mere 
mechanical process — such, for example, as a 
joiner would employ in making a chair or table, 
or a plumber in mending a burst pipe, and so on. 
Is this a fact.' — is forcing a merely mechanical 
operation requiring nothing further than a fairly 
equipped hot-water apparatus, and a capacity 
for shovelling on coals in sufficient quantity to 
keep a house at a given temperature ? If this 
were so the gardener's lot might fairly be com- 
pared with that of an ordinary mechanic, nor 
would the majority of the gardening fraternity 
object to such comparison if this assumption 
fairly represented their position ; but how dif- 
ferent is the true nature of the case. The 
mechanic having a fairly good set of 
tools to perform his work, and being 
a wood workman, fulfils his engagement cre- 
ditably. The gardener, however well he may 
understand his work, is more or less at the 
mercy of the clerk of the weather, who cannot 
be said to ha\e been over-lenient with the sons 
of Adam during the past year. Nor must we 
lose sight of the fact that in forcing the pre- 
paratory process, in other words the ripening of 
the wood of all kinds of fruit and flowering 
plants, is influenced in no inconsiderable degree 
by the conditions, whether favourable or other- 
wise, under which they have been grown the 
season before. Thus the practitioner who 
understands his work will review his position 
before starting, and if he is not a mere machine 
or a rule-of-thumb person, who is merely 
prompted by what he has seen others do, irre- 
spective of circumstances, he will have a pretty 
accurate conception oi what results may be 
expected after he examines the condition of the 
material which is to be forced. 

Having determined a course of action to be 
pursued according to personal requirements, 
the next point to be considered is the principle 
upon which forcing should be conducted ; and 
here again we turn to the great storehouse of 
Nature for an e.xample. The days of steaming, 
stewing, and roasting, by means of trough. pipes, 
fermenting materials, &c., are happily being 
succeeded by a more rational system. Take 
the Vine, for instance, planted against an 
open wall, and mark when the sap first 
begins to move by the action of solar heat, 
and see if there be any precedent for 

building hotbeds from 2 to 3 feet deep on 
our outside Vine borders. It is the elabo- 
rated sap stored up in the branches that 
first moves in response to the action of solar 
heat, and not from any effect that is produced 
at the root by the application of fermenting heat, 
although an influx of water from the root is 
very speedily called for. By way of illustration 
it may be urged that a Pear or other fruit tree, 
trained, say, partly on a west and partly on a 
south wall, will be clothed with flowers and 
leaves on the south side several days before 
there is an expanded flower on the west side ; 
proving conclusively that Nature, left to herself, 
does not start into active growth at the root 
until she has expended the supplies with which 
she had filled the cells and tissues during the 
season of maturation the year before. Artificial 
heating of Vine borders by means of dung beds 
"in the first stages of forcing" is therefore 
wrong in principle, and, indeed, it is impractic- 
able — even if it were necessary — to warm a 
body of earth from the surface to any appreci- 
able degree ; and secondly, if its power be 
admitted it is applied at the wrong time, as it 
deranges the legiiimatc course of Nature by 
forcing root-action prematurely, to the subse- 
quent injury of the crop. Those who follow the 
course of Nature rigidly, and whose principle it 
is to assist her according to her own teachings, 
will therefore have entrapped the warmth of 
the summer sun, and prevented its escape in 
late autumn by covering their borders with a 
thick layer of dry Oak leaves. These should 
be protected by boards laid obliquely from the 
front of the border to th2 back, in order to 
throw off the heavy winter rains, which would 
c luse them to ferment and rot, thereby render- 
ing the surface of the border a cold stagnant 
mass. Some persons defeat the very object 
they have in view by raising beds of material 
which ferments quickly, and ultimately rots, 
leaving the border seldom at the same tempe- 
rature for three days in succession. The same 
rule is applicable with regard to the internal 
temperature — with this qualification, that there 
is no objection, except that of appearance, to 
a slight body of fermenting dung and leaves 
being placed contiguous to the Vines in order 
to engender a gentle warmth, and steam to 
assist the forces to break, representing in an 
artificial way the influence of an April shower. 

And again, forcing is not, or rather ought not 
to be, as is commonly supposed, a very expen- 
sive series of operations. A vinery, or Peach- 
house, for instance, at the present time will not 
exceed a temperature of from 45° to 50°, or a 
very little more, at night ; and bedding plants, 
or anything else, can hardly be safely left at a 
lower temperature for the night. It is in the 
last stages that fire-heat comes in useful, and 
that is when the increased heat makes the 
mark. Strawberries, like the Vine, will only 
bear hard forcing at the finish, and are gene- 
rally grown in forcing-houses with other things. 
Melons and Cucumbers, being raised from seed, 
require a rather high teiuperature, and are per- 
haps the most expensive early commodities that 
we grow ; but upon the whole, forcing (as far, at 
any rate, as fruit is concerned) is more a work 
of skilful computation than is generally sup- 

The Cha.nge in the Weather. — The 

wind bloweth where it listeth, just as it did in the 
time of the sacred writer, and still are we unable to 
tell of its whence or its going. Science somewhat 
cruelly tells us that somewhere or other Nature has 
produced an apparent vacuum which the wind is 
rushing in to fill up, but that still leaves behintl the 
impression that the wind which rushes in with such 
fierceness and strength must leave a vacuum else- 
where ; and thus the lay mind is puzzled when a dis- 
cussion on natural causes comes uppermost. Based 
upon the hypothesis that there must have been a very 
considerable vacuum somewhere to necessitate such a 

rush of air as was experienced on Sunday last, and 
holding, as all orthodox believers in science-leach- 
ing should, that vacua are created by an excessive 
heating of the air somewhere, which causes it to 
ascend, and thus make room for the onward rush, we 
naturally wonder whereabouts in north-eastern 
regions has this extraordinary heat been found. So 
far, however, from there lieing any reason to prove 
such to be the fact, wc really have seen, or rather 
felt, an immense volume of warm air rushing to expel 
the cold, and thus inverting the order of ihings as 
taught to us in our elementary science books. It would 
doubtless be a great advantage to us in an enquiry of 
this kind if we could get behind the south-west wind 
and trace its origin, its gathered force, and how it is 
impelled. The orthodox theory seems to be that of 
suction or attraction ; but in the present state of 
knowledge of the action and cause of winds and cur- 
rents, the explanation dues not satisfy the enquirer. 
Though all due to natural causes that are perhaps not 
difficult of explanation, yet the sudden change in the 
temperature, and in the nature and force of the 
air currents, seems little else than the residt of some 
phenomenon. To steadfast believers in the influence 
of the moon upon the weather, this very remarkable 
change, coming almost simultaneously with its attain- 
ment of entire fulness, will be regardeil as positive 
proof, so much will one success outweigh a hundred 
failures. Whatever the cause, none the less is the 
change most welcome, antl if we have seen the worst 
of the present winter, the more heartily will we greet 
the glad new year. 

• The Storm in Scotlanij : Destruction 

OF Orchid-houses. — Dr. Paterson writes from 
Bridge of Allan, under date December 29 : — 

"Last night (December 28) we had a most terrific 
storm of wind arid rain. Such a gale has never been ex- 
perienced in Bridge of .'\llan. Along with other damage 
done, I regret to say that two ol my Orchid-houses were 
blown down at the same time as the Tay Bridge was 
ilestroyed, causing such lamentable loss of life. The 
injury done to the plants is wonderfully small, and it was 
very fortunate that the temperature, for the season, was 
high, being 52'' Fahr." 

Argentine Horticultural Society. — 

This society proposes to hold an international exhi- 
bition of fruits, plants, flowers, and other matters of 
garden interest at Buenos Ayres, from February 22 
to February 29 next. It is hardly likely any of our 
exhibitors will send plants or fruits, but seeds, bulbs, 
tubers, implements, &c., are mentioned in the pro- 
gramme. Prizes in the form of medals will be 
awarded. Seiior Fernando Mauduit, ioi, Recon- 
quista, Buenos Ayres, is the secretary, to whom 
application for information should be addressed. 

DiospYROs Kaki. — M. Naudin writes from 

Antibes ; — 

" I see in the last number of the Gardc/wf^' ChronicU 
(p. 795) diat Mr. Wilson presented to the Horticultural 
Society a ripe fruit of Diospyros, similar to a Tomato, 
under the name of Kaki. This name is incorrect ; the 
Diospyros with red fruits (slightly 4-lobed) is the 
D. Schi-tze of China and Mongolia, a more hardy 
species than Kaki, which is Japanese. I have collected 
this year more than a hundred fruits of D. Schi-tze, in 
wliich I have not found a single seed. The fruits of 
Kaki are smaller, have neither ribs nor furrows, and 
they are never red, but greenisli-yellow, which changes 
to brown when ripe ; moreover, they always contain 
seeds, about seven or eight in number. Like those of 
Schi-tze, they only become eatable after having been 
exposed to frost. In this state the fr«its of Schi-tze, 
which are very beautiful, can never be mistaken — before 
the frost they are always slightly sour. One can 
liardly understand how Mr. Hn:KN, in his admirable 
monograph of Ebenacea-, could have confounded D. 
.Schi-tze with D. Kaki. These two species are quite as 
different one from another as are the Melon and the 
Cucumber — one may recognise them a mile away." 

The Marnoch Portrait. — We are in- 
formed that this very successful portrait of a greatly 
respected man — Ihc landscape artist of our day — has 
been presented, with an appropriate letter signed on 
behalf of the subscribers by the Rev. Canon Hole. 
.\n original painting of one of the gardens Laid out 
by Mr. Marnoch has also been purchased for pre- 
sentation to him. May his declining years be cheered 
by the feeling of gratitude which is felt for one who 
has done so much to enhance the pleasure and 
happiness of others. 

January 3, iSSo.] 



The liiTTER Vetch. — It is only the other 

day that we had occasion to record the finding of the 
charred seeds of this plant, Ervum Ervilia, amid the 
ruins of Troy. A more practical, but not the less 
important aspect is given to the plant by Mr, 
SOUTHALT., who, in the Plianimccutical Jonnial, 
devotes a long and interesting paper to the history of 
this plant, to whose poisonous properties the death of 
sundry pigs in divers places has been traced. Under 
the name of Egyptian Peas or Rovi, seeds are im- 
ported, the meal of which has been proved to be 
poisonous. The seeds when grown by Mr. SouTHALL 
turned out to belong to Ervum Ervilia, the poisonous 
properties of which are well known. The seeds have 
a dangerous resemblance in colour and size to the 

MicRATiox OF Plants, and Replace- 
ment OF One Species by Another. — About 
thirty years ago, as we read in the Botaiiischc Zci- 
tiing, only one species of Xanthium grew in the 
neighbourhood of Posen, and that was X. Struma- 
rium, which was very common. Since that time, 
however, and shortly after 1850, as herbarium speci- 
mens prove, X. italicum appeared, and soon almost 
entirely supplanted X. Stramarium. The latter 
retained its ground in a few isolated places, espe- 
cially about farmyards. It was curious to note, about 
four kilometers north of Posen, that on one side of 
the broad sandy road, where there are some cottages, 
hundreds of plants of X. Strumarium flourished, 
whereas on the other open side not a single plant of 

or other occupations, few of whom can be brought to 
understand that a trench should be as broad at the 
bottom as at the top, and who, if this mistake be pointed 
out, still persist in the blunder. It is not because of any 
wilful desire to be obstinate that they do the work so 
imperfectly, but they are as a rule the victims of 
ignorance and of want of educational training in early 
years. Nothing can be more stupid or false than the 
common expression that we are in danger of edu- 
cating our agricultural labourers too much, for in the 
most elementary or common avocations, such as in 
trenching, digging, mowing, and many other acts of 
labour, the best taught man will always show the 
highest intelligence, and make the best workman. 
Such an one will soon perceive that in trenching he 


Egyptian Lentil, which is so cheap and useful an 
article of food. The true Lentil, however, is, as its 
name implies, Icnlicular, convex, like a watch-glass, 
on both sides, while the Bitter Vetch seeds are more 
nearly triangular ; still, when mistakes are made 
between .\conite and Horse Radish, it is reasonable 
to expect much more frequent mishaps between the 
two seeds in question. The Rovi seed of the Greek 
Archipelago is considered by Mr. Southall to be 
the Orobus of the ancient Greeks. He tells us, 
moreover, that the poisonous properties may be 
eliminated by soaking the seeds in water, and probably 
by decortication. As the matter is one of some con- 
siderable importance, we hope that Mr. Southall 
will supplement his historical notes on the plant by 
some experiments on the best way of neutralising its 
poisonous properties, whether by heat or by soaking, 
or both. 

this species was to be seen, though .\. italicum 
abounded. On the other hand, the latter was only 
very sparingly associated with the former on the 
inhabited side of the road. Hybrids between the 
two species are not rare. 

Trenching. — There are few winter garden 

operations of more value than trenching, but that 
value largely depends upon the way in which it is 
performed. In all good private gardens where it is 
the rule to deeply move all vacant ground, to the 
extent perhaps of one-fourth of the whole area of 
vegetable ground each winter, trenching is usually 
well done, because the labourers get plenty of training 
in this peculiar work, and not only know how it 
should be done, but, what is more satisfactory, want 
little looking after. This kind of appreciation, unfor- 
tunately, seldom applies to men taken from the field 

must have his base as wide as the top, and the sides 
of the trench must be perpendicular, and no cores 
allowed to remain. Whether the work shall be deep 
or shallow must depend upon the nature of the sub- 
soils, as gravel should be let alone, and clays incor- 
porated slowly. It is in this deep cultivation that 
garden culture so much excels field culture, and 
enables crops to be grown that, if universal, would 
make England the most prolific country in the world, 

Birds and Berries. — A warm-hearted 

feminine friend of wild song birds has been writing 
to the papers protesting against the wanton waste of 
the natural food of our aerial warblers seen in the 
enormous use of berried Holly and Mistleto at Christ- 
mas. It is not so much the use of these hardy shrubs 
for decorative purposes against which the protest is 
directed, but rather against the withdrawal from free 



IJAM'ARY 3, 1880. 

access by the birds in trees and woods of so much 
good food for them at a time of the year when, as 
seen this winter as well as last winter, the poor 
birds have need of every berry to keep their little 
bodies from starvation. It is scarcely probable that 
such an appeal will be heeded ; it appeals too much 
to men's selfish desires and fancies grounded on long 
established custom. The use of Holly and Mistleto 
so- universally at Christmas is, apart from all consi- 
derations such as arise when the birds and hard 
winters are in view, a pleasing and delightful custom. 
It carries some of the charms of the country, of its 
trees and woods, into the midst of our dull and 
gloomy town life, and evokes much that is sweet and 
loving in our work and in money-grubbing humanity. 
Still the birds deserve some consideration. If there 
are berries enough for them and to spare there is no 
room to complain, but there seems to be a universal 
concensus of opinion that berries suitable as bird food 
arc comparatively scarce. Those who have taken 
from the birds Nature's food unthinkingly, may well 
in the season of human festivity remember our 
feathered friends, and scatter for them, when frost and 
snow robs them of their proper food, such crumbs 
and seeds as may save them to charm and delight us 
with their songs in future years. 

Gordon's "Pixetum."— A new edition, or 

a new issue (for it is called both) of this well-known 
Iraok has just been published by Mr. H. G. J'ohn 
(Henrietta Street, Covent Garden). The publisher 
has added a reference list of coloured plates to three 
books only — Lawson's Pinctuni, Lamuert's I'huis, 
and FoRiiEs' Pinctuni lVobitniensc—s\\ three \alu- 
able books, but not very accessible to the majority 
of people. A full list of references to figures, espe- 
cially to books that are easily accessible, might easily 
have been compiled, and would have added materially 
lo the value of the work. It is a pity, how- 
ever, that it should not have been critically over- 
hauled before re-issue, so as to have increased its 
trustworthiness. Though dated 1880 we have not 
f nmd any additions to the addenda as published in 
1875 ; moreover, the very trade catalogues bound up 
with this new edition or new issue bear the date 

The Gardeners' RovAt. Lexevolent L\- 

STiTtiTiON.— At the annual meeting to be held on the 
14th inst. nine applicants, whose cases have been care- 
fully investigated and found in every way satisfactory, 
and who, or their husbands, have been subscribers for 
over fifteen years, will be placed on the pension list with- 
out the trouble or expense of an election ; this will 
exclude all other applicants who have not subscribed 
so long, or not at all. We desire to give prominence 
to these facts, because some time since, we had 
occasion to appeal to the gardening fraternity to con- 
tribute more of their mites to the funds, so as to 
render less obtrusive the objectionable disproportion 
between subscribers who are, as it were, outsiders, 
without expectation of ever profiling by the Society, 
and those of the craft, any one of whom may, for 
aught he knows, live to be thankful for the benefits it 
yields. When we appealed for help on ^)ehalf of the 
Society, the appeal was not responded to as we hoped 
it might be. Moreover, it brought us letters stating 
that, for the work they do, gardeuers are ill paid — that 
i?, the better sort of gardeners — in comparison with the 
steward or the butler, or even the under-butler. 
Another told us that he had subscribed for a time, 
but was obliged to discontinue doing so, owing to the 
many calls upon his slender income. We do not 
dispute such facts as these, but now comes a more 
serious matter, which we mention because, as will be 
seen by our opening sentence, whatever may have 
been the case formerly, it does not hold good now. 
"I was often disgusted," says a correspondent, speak- 
ing of some twenty years back, "to find men placed on 
the list and carried through, while subscribers were 
passed by. Interest rather than compliance with the 
regulations served to secure the benefits of the Institu- 
tion." If this were so once, of which we express no 
opinion, it is clearly not so now, and it is time 
that so injurious an opinion should be .annulled. 
Other alleged reasons for non-subscription are the facts 
that the pensions are so small and so few. The 
obvious answer to this is that they are few and small 
in proportion to what they ought to be, simply because 
the funds at the disposal of the Society are small also. 
We are quite aware that a gardener with from £(10 
to ^100 a year, and a family lo educate, feed, and 

clothe, cannot spare a guinea a year for the Society, 
liut where guineas cannot be expected shillings or 
even . pence might be ; a general collection in all 
garden establishments once a year would surely suffice 
to place a few more pensioners on the list or augment 
the existing pensions. Moreover, it would encourage 
those whose duty it is to beg from richer men on 
behalf of the Society to undertake their task with a 
bolder front by enabling to say, as they cannot fairly 
do now, that the gardeners do their best to support 
their own Society and should be helped accordingly. 

Eppixg Forest and County oi- Essex 

Naturalists' Field Cluu.— The inaugural meet- 
ing of this Club will be held on Saturday evening, 
January 10, at 3, St. John's Terrace, liuckhurst Hill ; 
the chair to be taken at 7 o'clock by K. Mel- 
DOLA, Esq., F.C.S., &c., Secretary to the Ento- 
mological Society of London. The objects of the 
Club, as set forth in the proposed rules, are :— " The 
investigation of the natural history, geology, and 
archrcology of the county of Essex (special attention 
being given to the fauna, flora, geology, and anti- 
quities of Epping Forest) ; the publication of the 
results of such investigations ; the formation of a 
library of works of local interest and other publica- 
tions, and the dissemination amongst its members of 
information on natural science and antiquities." 
Excursions, under skilful direction, to various local- 
ities of interest to the naturalist and antiquary, will 
also be a main object of the Club. We are pleased 
to hear that the Club will strongly discourage the 
practice of removing rare plants from the localities 
where they are to be found or of which they are 
characteristic, and of risking the extermination of 
rare birds and other animals by wanton persecution. 
The Hon. Sec. pro Icni. is Mr. WILLIAM Coi.E, 
Laurel Cottage, Buckhurst Hill. 

VEGETAiii.ES IN London.—" C. L.," writing 

to the Times from Manchester on December 29, says : 
— " Some six months ago I happened to be in Covent 
Garden when a sale of fruit and vegetables was being 
held. I saw Asparagus, which, I presume, had been 
consigned for sale, knocked down at \s. per 100. I 
followed the buyer to his shop there, and priced the 
same bundles which he had just brought with him 
from the auction, and he told me that the price was 
zs. 61/. per 100; that is, 150 per cent, was the profit 
put upon the articles, for which the grower would 
receive only is., and out of this shilling he would 
have to pay rent for the soil, manure, labour, carriage, 
and commission, not to mention the time he has to 
wait for Asparagus to mature. I said to myself, 
' Why is this thus ? ' " 

Genista i-r.ecox.— This graceful shrub has 

withstood the late severe frosts, and is not injured in 
the least, while the white Broom is cut down to the 
snow line. We remember seeing last spring, in the 
York Nurseries, two fine specimens of this handsome 
Broom, where it was flowering most profusely. The 
bushes were literally smothered with drooping 
racemes of pale yellow flowers. For planting in 
borders, shrubberies, or on rockwork, it is very use- 
ful and conspicuous. 

Institution of Surveyors.— The next 

meeting will be held on Monday evening, January 5, 
1S80, when a paper will be read by Mr. E. R. KoB- 
SON, member, entitled, "The Non- Educational 
Work of the School Board for London." The chair 
to be taken at 8 o'clock. 

The Winter in Switzerland. — The 

Geneva correspondent of the Tiiiu-s writes, under date 
December 28 : — "A peculiarity of the present season 
in Switzerland, which will doubtless prove interesting 
to meteorologists, is the fact that, while extreme cold 
prevails in the valleys and at low elevations generally, 
the weather in the mountains is mild and enjoyable, 
and the temperature for the time of the year is unusually 
high. In the early part of last week, relates a Lu- 
cerne paper, two young men, weary of the icy cold 
and perpetual fogs of the valley, made an excursion 
to the Righi. There they found unclouded sunshine, 
and the slopes about the Righi-Kulm Hotel were free 
from snow. In the middle of the day the thermo- 
meter marked 18° above zero (64° Fahr.), and 
on the southern slope of the mountain below Kalt- 
bad, Gentiana verna, Gentiana bavarica, and other 
alpine plants were in full bloom, A correspondent of 

the Biiihi, writingfrom St. Beatenberg, nearlnterlaken, 
on Christmas Eve, describes the weather there as superb. 
The sun shines from S.30 in the morning to 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon in undimmed sjilendour. Children 
play about in the open air as in summer ; fires in the 
daytime are unnecessary ; people sit out on their 
balconies ; the trees are beginning to bud, and the 
snow has almost disappeared." 

CentigradeThermometers.— M. Naudin 

writes : — 

" At p. 792 of your last volume I see a criticism on the 
use of the Fahrenheit thermometer, which appears per- 
fectly reasonable. This thermometer is in fact one of 
tin- most inconvenient. The Centigrade is objectod 10 
because the degrees of temperature are too largo ; liut 
this objection is cleared away by the fact that the degrees 
may be divided into ten, and, at will, into one hundred 
sub-divisions. The Centigrade thermometer is in reality a 
Milligrade thermometer, and even Dix-milligrade. In 
everything simplicity is better than complication." 

"The Antiquary."— This is the title of a 

new monthly periodical " devoted to the study of the 
past " (Eliot Stock), but judging from the excellent 
article on the value and charm of antiquarian study, 
evolution and progressive development are as charac- 
teristic of the modern antiquary as conservatism and 
narrowness of view were in the case of the Drj'asdust 
of olden time. The publication before us may be 
safely recommended as interesting to others than pro- 
fessed antiquaries. The paper and type are excellent, 
but is it heresy to suggest that the rough edges be 
carefully ploughed off and the sheets folded evenly ? 
With all our reverence for antiquities, we do not think 
it is good sense or good taste to copy defects and 

A Winter Bed of Flowers.— Miss Hoi'e, 

writingfrom Wardie Lodge, Edinburgh, on Decem- 
ber 26, and forwarding an excellent photograph, 
says : — 

"The late season is the cause of our having a fine bed 
of flowers this Christmas week. I send a photograph 
taken on December 16. The Helleborus niger ma\i- 
mus (?) is quite three weeks later than ordinary. There 
are above one hundred blooms fit to cut, and more than 
one hundred buds to come on. Facing the south we 
covered the bed with thin mats to prevent the sun 
thawing the frozen flowers suddenly. Plants of the 
same Hellebore away from the south were unprotected, 
and have stood the severe frost perfectly. We are 
between 2° and 3° higher than the Itotanie Garden. .\ 
row (36 yards) of the double Colchicum autumnalo is 
also late, and the snow having protected the flowers, 
it is now in fine blow. At Messrs. Mkthven's nursery 
to-day I noticed a large bed quite lilac. Mr. McKenzd: 
said he never had them so late. It is very delight- 
ful to have two plants in quantity and in perfection of 
flower, after such a storm as we have already expe- 
rienced this winter. The Aucubas (all sorts) have 
suffered desperately about Edinburgh, and wherever we 
turn our eyes here we are met witli the burnt black 
foliage. The ouUine of Meth\en''s Coniferous beds is 
quite black ; Aucubas are not to be counted on for 
winter beds if a wet summer and unripening autumn 
has preceded. Our 27 yards of Rosemary has again 
suffered as it did last winter, and again the half that is pro- 
tected by a wall is browner than the portion merely 
backed by evergreens. " 

A G.-vrden Bothy in France.— As most 

gardeners have had some experience of bothy life in 
this country, it may interest them if we give some 
details concerning the bothy at Ferrieres, the seat of 
Baron A. DE Rothschild. The bothy at Fer- 
rieres is a large house, three storeys high, which 
stands at the bottom of the flciiristc, a department 
of the establishment in which are situated the forcing- 
houses and pits, and which is separated by a road 
from the show garden. The front of the house faces 
a large yard, in which is a shed and stables for the 
housing of the horses, vans, carts, &c., employed in the 
park and gardens. The ground floor of the house 
is occupied as a stable for four horses, next to 
which is a kitchen for the young men, a large 
dining-room and a store-room. On the other two 
storeys are twelve single-bedded rooms, a large fruit- 
room, and seed-room ; the accommodation being 
for twelve young men. Each room contains bedding, 
table, chair, wash-stand, cupboard, and looking- 
glass, and, not forgetting a most useful thing in 
winter, either a fire-place or a small stove. The 
w.ages average from £:i 4^. per month to ^'5, with 

January 3, 18S0.J 



fire and light free. To do their cooking the young 
men have a cook, one-half of whose remuneration 
is paid by themselves, and the other half by the 
gardens. The working hours are from 6 A.M. to 
6 P.M., two hours being allowed for lunch {dL-jcuner), 
viz., from II to I in summer. In winter they 
begin at daylight, and finish at dark, with only 
one hour for lunch. On Sunday they all work till 
10 A.M., that is to say, they clean their respective 
houses, and water the plants contained in them. 
The young men are divided into two sections o( si\ 
e.ach, and go on guard or duty every other Sunday 
from 10 A.M. to 6 P.M. Their work is to show 
visitors round, to t.ike the air off, &c. As regards 
attending to the fires at night, they take the night- 
guard weekly in turn. The one then on duty has 
to look after the fires, which are forty in number. 
As for the food, it is arranged in the following 
manner :— Before work in the morning each takes 
what he likes ; at 1 1 they all lunch together, and 
dine together at 6. Their bill of fare generally includes 
meat, either roast, boiled, or stewed ; vegetables, 
cooked in the French fashion ; and salad or cheese. 
They drink wine, which they buy in casks, each of 
them paying according to the number of bottles he 
drinks. The cost of food for each man, including 
wine, averages monthly from £z to £z ioj., accord- 
ing to the quantity of wine they drink. At new year 
they each receive a present, ranging in amount from 
5 fr. to 20 fr. The day on which falls the/fVi.' of St. 
Fiacre, the patron saint of gardeners, is regarded as 
a holiday, and the young men again receive some little 
money present, from 5 fr. to 20 fr. each, according to 
their qualifications. Lately a library has been estab- 
lished in the bothy, to which the best of the English 
and French horticultural papers are supplied ; and as 
the funds get more plentiful books will be bought. 
The money used for the library comes from gratuities 
received from visitors, fines paid by the young men 
for neglect in their work, and an entrance fee of 4.?. 
from each new-comer. We are sorry to hear, however, 
that, with the exception of a few amongst them, the 
young men do not seem to care much lor improving 
their knowledge by reading. 

The Weather in France. — M. Marie 

Davy, director of the Observatoire de Montsouris, 
near Paris, remarks that " the present winter is the 
sixth severe winter of the century. These six winters 
hive recurred with great regularity in three periods of 
two each, thus : 1788-89 and 1794-95, an interval of 
si-t years ; 1S29-30 and 1837-38, an interval of eight 
years; 1S71-72 and 1879-80, an interval of eight 
years. Least distance from the first group to the 
second, forty-two years ; least distance from the 
second group to the third, forty-two years. Is this 
simply a coincidence ? The fact is not less strange. 
(){ these three groups the two extremes are the 
most severe. Below are noted the lowest observed 
temperatures, as well as the number of days of frost, 
as indicated by the thermometer of the Observatoire 
of Paris : — 


Days of Frost. 

Greatest Degrees 
of Cold. 










Thus the French, like ourselves, are experiencing the 
severest winter of the century, and the measures 
taken for public assistance are unfortunately but too 
well justified." 

Market Vegetables. — The miserable 

appearance presented by vegetables in markets and 
shops during the severe weather has found its 
counterpart even in that favoured market city, Paris. 
We have so often been told in regard to vegetables, 
"They do these things better in France," that we 
learn with something like surprise that even there 
hard weather can create almost a vegetable famine, 
and that prices are exorbitant. The correspondent 
of a daily paper tells how just recently he visited the 
chief Paris markets, and found a scarcity of fruit and 
vegetables, that reminded him of the days of the 
siege. Leeks had doubled in price, and meagre. Let- 
tuces were quoted at from ten to fourteen francs each, 
which in normal weather would have been sold at the 

rate of two sous each. The French people, therefore, are 
finding, what British gardeners so long have known, 
that the weather rules their destinies. Give them a 
good season, and in all things of the garden they can 
compete with the best French growers, whilst the 
French growers find that, under bad weather condi- 
tions, they are no better off than their neighbours. 
Hard weather is a great leveller — it paralyses work in 
all kinds of gardens, and in the same way it makes 
the supply of vegetables everysvhere difficult. Those 
who are so fond of sending their petty complaints 
about the scarcity of vegetables to the Times or other 
papers, know little of the difficulties that in hard 
weather surround growers, and render their work 
anything but enviable. There is so much energy and 
labour bestowed upon the production of vegetables 
for the London market, and the profit in past years 
has been so trivial, that market growers much 
more deserve sympathy than discredit. 

Chinese Primroses at Chiswick. — Any 

one interested in the different types of these charming 
and useful winter flowering plants will find much to 
interest them at the Chiswick Gardens just now, as 
Mr. Barron has flowered a large and interesting 
collection, including several of the newer Continental 
types, which are just now in good condition, and 
aftbrd good tests of comparison. Some of the high- 
coloured varieties, originally of Continental origin, but 
which Mr. Barron has materially impoved, are 
particularly striking in the great depth of red 
shown by some of the flowers. 

■ The Linnean Society. — Mr. N. E. 

Brown, of the Herbarium, Kew, who has given 
much attention and study to the Aroideae, was 
elected an Associate of the Linnean Society at their 
Last meeting, December iS. 

TOM.vros IN Cold Frames. —Of culinary 

vegetables there are some so little palatable to 
those who have not accustomed themselves to 
their use as to be absolutely nauseous. Amongst 
these are Tomatos, which notwithstanding the re- 
putation they have ever had as being particularly 
wholesome, have only in recent years, in this 
country, become appreciated. And unfortunately, 
just as people began to rightly estimate them, 
they have become so subject to disease, like 
that which affects the Potato, that their cul- 
tivation in the open air is very precarious, and 
for the last two summers has resulted in almost 
total failure, — a disappointment much felt by those 
who for a considerable time each summer and autumn 
look forw.ird to their sunny south walls affording a 
regular supply. Those who have heated houses, or 
pits, at command, of course are so far independent of 
adverse sunless seasons, and are also able to escape 
the disease, as it has shown itself little under glass. there are many who like Tomatos whose garden 
appliances in the shape ol artificially warmed houses, 
or pits, are too limited, or non-existent, to enable 
them to grow them in this way ; yet any one who has 
an ordinary good-sized garden frame can grow To- 
matos so as to have a good supply, even in such 
exceptionally sunless summers as the past. All that 
is needed is to sow the seeds sufficiently early, to get 
the plants on as forward as the solar warmth will 
admit of, to turn them out in moderate-sized hills of 
earth placed at the bottom of each light, and to train 
them on a trellis made of laths, oziers, or ordinary 
wire netting, supporting it at a distance of 9 inches 
or 10 inches from the glass, simply giving the plants 
air proportionate to the weather, and w.ater as they 
need it, with the requisite thinning of the shoots, and 
plenty of well ripened Tomatos may be depended 
upon, as we can vouch from what we have this last 
summer seen accomplished with such simple means as 
this. The full flavour present in this vegetable when 
ripened on the plant, .as compared with that which is 
possessed by the half-matured examples gathered in a 
semi-green state, and which .attain their colour imper- 
fectly afterwards, is such as to leave the latter far in 
the shade. 

Troublesome Weeds in California. — 

Malva borealis is said to be the most persistent and 
troublesome weed in California. Mrs. Bingham 
states in Coulter's Bolanical Gazelle, "It some- 
times grows 10 feet high in cultivated ground. It 
dies during the dry season where the ground is not 

irrigated, but whenever the ground is moistened for a 
few hours the seeds will germinate. Solanum nigrum 
grows everywhere, blooming and bearing fruit the 
year round ; it is very difficult to eradicate. Brassica 
nigra covers thousands of acres of pasture land, ren- 
dering it almost entirely useless. Among other 
common weeds are : Stellaria media, Matricaria 
discoidea, llemizonia fascicularis, &c. Erodium 
moschatum and Medicago denticulata cover large 
areas, and are valuable for pasturage. 

A Talking Plant. — In Coulter's Bolani- 
cal Gazelle for November we observe that Sir Joseph 
Hooker is made to say, respecting Epipactis lati- 
folia, wdiich has recently been discovered in America, 
"Another curious point is that your plant should 
talk with us of the European varieties of the species, 
that species being so variable a one, that, a prion', 
it would have been expected that the North American 
form should have dilfered from all the European 
ones." It would be curious indeed were the Ameri- 
can plant to talk of its European or any other rela- 
tions, but we believe "talk with lis" should read 
" tally with one." 

A Double-Flowered Sedge. — In the 

Abhxiiillnni^en tics Natunoissenschafllichcn Vercins 
til Jh-cmev, vi., p. 432, Dr. Franz Buchenau de- 
scribes a double-flowered state of Scirpus CKspitosus, 
which he found in company with a friend last sum- 
mer. Each flower transformed into a dense tuft of 
bracts, .and it is impossible to decide which answer 
to the stamens, perigonium, &c., as they are much 
more numerous than the floral organs. No 
traces of anthers or stigmas could be found. Mr. 
Buchenau regards this as an instance of real duplifi- 
cation, a phenomenon not previously observed by him 
in the, a family to which he has devoted 
much attention. In l87ohe described double flowers 
of Juncus squarrosus in the same publication, ii., 
p. 380. We doubt the correctness of the application 
of the term " double " to such growths, which are 
not uncommon in grasses. Rushes, Restiacex, &c. 

■ Alluvial Soil. — By the Thames' side, near 

Kew, is a small market garden which has been 
reclaimed from the Thames by an embankment. We 
are afraid to quote the figures as communicated to us ; 
suffice it to say that, large as the expense was, it was 
more than recouped in a comparatively very short 
time. The proprietor has the means, by the use of 
sluice-gates, of enriching his ground with a fresh 
layer of soil at pleasure. The Celery grown 
this season has been unusually fine. 

Horticultural Pursuits. —The paper 

on this subject, read at Manchester on December 3 
by Mr. Bruce Findlav, and of which we gave .an 
epitome at p. 751 of our last volume, has been issued 
in pamphlet form, at the price of !</., by Mr. 
John Hey wood of that city. 

A New L.i;lia.— Mr. Bull is lucky, and 

no one deserves good luck better he. Last year 
about the same time he was fortunate enough to 
flower a new Lxlia, and now again we have to chro- 
nicle, on this 1st day of January, iSSo, a new v.ariety 
of Lxlia anceps — a great beauty, with white sepals, 
blush petals, and rose-coloured labellura. Next week 
we shall be in a position to give a full description from 
the pen of the " arch-orchido-diagraphist," Profes- 
sor Reichenbach, to whom our readers are under so 
many obligations. 

The Weather. — General remarks on the 

weather during the week ending December 29, 1S79, 
issued by the Meteorological Office :— The weather 
was moderately fine and dry generally until the 26th, 
after which date it became dull, squally, and very un- 
settled over the whole country. Fog, however, was 
experienced during the first three days in the 
S.E., and was very dense all over that district 
on Christmas Day. The temperature readings 
in Ireland and Scotkand have been high during 
the whole period. In England, however, a 
very decided change has occurred, low readings 
having been reported until the 27th, when a very 
rapid rise occurred, and the thermometer continued 
high until the close of the week. The wind was 
generally south-westerly over the whole country, fresh . 
to strong in force in the West .and North on the first 
few days, and moderate or light in the South and East. 



[January 3, 18S0. 

On the 2Slh .1 severe g.ile prevailed in nearly all parts 
of the kingdom, and on our norlh-westerly and north- 
easterly coasts blew with great violence in the even- 
ing. The rainfall was more than the average in 
Ireland and the greater part of Scotland, but again 
less in all other districts. 


Morrison, who for the last six years has been a 
foreman at Dalkeith, under Mr. Djn.n, and proved 
himielf to be an able and intelligent practitioner, has 
been appointed to succeed the late Mr. Kc;rTr.ES as 
gardener to Lady Mary C. Nesbit Hamilton, at 


The Gothic arch, such as is represented in our 
Supplement, in the opinion of some, took origin in the 
forms presented by the overarching boughs of trees. 
The supposition is not an unnatural one, but we 
expect the architects would tell us that the inter- 
section of two round-headed arches of Norman work- 
manship was more likely to have suggested the form 
in question. In any case the beautiful curves of the 
boughs and of the foliage, so admirable not only in 
their beauty but in their fitness for their varying 
purpose, afford lessons which the engineer and the 
architect can never study too deeply. If the pointed 
arch really did take origin in the way above men- 
tioned, it might as readily be conceded that the upright 
mullionsand pillars arethe representatives of the trunks 
of trees. We do not think that any one who glances 
at the forms ot vegetation drawn in our Supplement 
in connection with the lines of the conservatory in the 
background can doubt that in structural detail, where 
strength and adaptability to purpose are concerned, 
as well as in beauty, the conscientious architect is 
bound to study the contrivances and forms which 
Nature affords in the disposition of the leaves, the 
curve of the boughs, the direction and set of the 
veins, and in countless other matters which a trained 
eye speedily seizes on, but which are so numerous 
that not the keenest student can ever hope lo exhaust 

Our Supplement takes the form of an Almanac, 
and it speaks for itself: but as the postal regulations 
require us to speak of it also— a thing which other- 
wise we should be too modest to do — we may venture 
to call attention to its effectiveness and nicely balanced 
colour. The contrast between the design 
and the foliage and flowers is also pleasing, but in 
reference to the details of the vegetation we shall not 
be surprised if our artist friends (such of them as are 
not pre-Raffaelites) are not better satisfied with it 
than the gardener and the botanist. Last year the 
artist's leading idea was Egypt, the recent arrival of 
the Obelisk having given birth to that suggestion ; 
this year there was no Obelisk to commemorate, and 
our artist was left fancy-free ; the consequence is that 
there are some peculiarities in the foliage and flowers 
in the upper part of the design which have not yet 
been observed by the botanist and the gardener to 
our knowledge. 

^ The calendar matter contains the usual information 
given in similar publications, with perhaps this im- 
portant addition, which may not be noticed else- 
where, that on the 2d inst. this journal completes its 
thirty-ninth year— a goodly age for a gardening 
journal ; and we look to our readers to supply the 
usual compliments on our condition, only assuring 
them that we will do our best in the future, as in the 
past, to merit them. 

The column devoted to the mean temperature gives 
the average mean temperature for each day in the year 
at Chiswick, near London, as deduced from the 
elaborate observations of the late Mr. Robert Thomp- 
son during forty years, reduced and corrected by Mr. 
Glaisher. Tliey may be taken as fair representatives 
of the average temperature of London and its vicinity, 
and let us hope the weather in iSSo will conform more 
closely to its proper standard than it did in 1879. 

The dates of meetings of the principal metropolitan 
horticultural and natural history societies arc given, 
and as many of those referring to the provinces as are 
yet fixed. Among the latter appointments are two 
which are interesting and significant of the progress 
which gardening is making even in unpromising 
localities— we mean the artisan's show on the August 
Bank Holiday al South Kensington, and the cottagers' 
show on the same day at Manchester. 

Daphne Mezereon.— I observe that my friend, 
Mr. Harpur-Crcwe, mentions this plant as not un- 
common some years ago in woods in Bucks. Your 
correspondent, Mrs. Alfred Watney, a short time 
since appealed in your pages to " Liss," Hants, for 
similar testimony. I live a few miles from Liss, and 
not many years ago I dug plants of Daphne Mezereon 
out of my own woods, from seeds of which I raised a 
numerous progeny. Two of these I sent the other 
day to the poet, Matthew Arnold, as a native produc- 
tion. J. II. Mangles, Valrcuood, Ilasleiiicrc. 

Poisoning by Aconite Root.— Another of those 
sad catastrophes which, if they did not happen toler- 
ably regularly, we should suppose to be almost beyond 
the range of possibility, is recorded from Malmesbury. 
The family of a farmer partook, on Christmas Day, 
of Aconite, or Monkshood roots, instead of Horse 
Radish. All were seriously affected, and the wife, in 
spite of medical aid, succumbed. When the two 
plants are in flower it would seem as if no mistake 
could be made, and even at this time of year it taxes 
one's faith to believe in such an utter want of observa- 
tion as to lead any one to confuse the two roots. 
Size, colour, form, taste, smell, all are different ; 
and even when scraped the yellowish colour, the 
taste and smell of the pungent Horse Radish are 
as diflerent as possible from the pinkish hue, 
faint smell, and at first sweetish taste of Aconite. 
Terrible calamities such as these might be 
avoided if a knowledge of " common things " 



were insisted on in every school in the kingdom. 
Surely it ought to be possible to make people use their 
eyes and their other senses even if it be not possible to 
endow them with intelligence. We subjoin a cut of 
Aconite root (fig. 5), showing the central old root and 
the two new ones for the coming season's growth. The 
skin or rind is of a more or less deep brown colour, 
quite diflerent from the pale, dirty yellow tint of the 
rind of Horse Radish. No Aconite — no poisonous 
plant of any description — should be allowed in the 
kitchen garden or the herb border. The slightest 
amount of ordinary observation and care should 
suffice to prevent such very unnecessary calamities. 

Magnum Bonum Potato.— This variety appears 
to be getting very considerably "improved" since 
it was introduced by Messrs. Sutton & Sons of Read- 
ing, as we now have an "improved " from Messrs. 
Carter & Co., and Messrs. Webli & Sons announce 
their "improved." As an amateur cultivator I am 
getting fearfully perplexed anent Potalos, and if we 
continue to have such a host of improved varieties I 
must give up my small garden and take a farm, or 
ce.ase to be a Potatoist. It would be an immense 
advantage to such growers as myself if iSIessrs. Carter 
& Co., and Messrs. Webb & Sons, would tell us in 
what respect their " Magnum Bonums " are improve- 
ments, and in fiict I call upon them to do so ; and in 
the event of not getting a reply through your paper I 
think we may safely consider that they take to them- 
selves honours not belonging to them, and that in 
common honesty the Potato should henceforth be 
known only as Sutton's [or Clarke's] Magnum Bonum. 
Not that I approve of any dealer taking to himself 
the honour of being the originator of the variety : for 
instance, Messrs. Sutton & Sons call the Woodstock 

h 12 


3 "o 


Kidney theirs, and for what earthly reason ? This 
excellent variety was raised by Mr. Robert Fenn, and 
was one of the results of careful hybridisation, and his 
name should be connected with it as the raiser, and 
henceforth it should be known as Fenn's Woodstock 
Kidney, and Messrs. Sutton should be the first to 
strike a blow at the pernicious example now so pre- 
valent amongst the great seed firms. It is high 
lime that a protest should be made against this 
system of appropriating spurious honours. I have 
before me a catalogue of a pushing seed firm in the 
Midland districts, who give us their " Improved 
Sangstcr's No. i Pea, ' an Improved Early Frame 
Radish ! their selected Scarlet Runner, and a host of 
other things " too numerous to mention." The same 
firm has done wonders in Polatos— such a lot of " im- 
provements ; " but oh, you British public ! who pays 
for such "improvements"? Solaiiiim. [The fashion 
.being now to charge no more for the " improvements'' 
than for the original types, in what way are pur- 
chasers defrauded ? Eds.] 

Market Prices.— I have read with interest the 
discussion in your columns respecting salesmen and 
their charges, and enclose a bill received from one of 
my salesmen for your perusal, which salesman is one 
of the best we can find to sell too. As you will see, 
had my salesman taken his full commission there 
would have been very little left for me. The hampers 
of green stuff consisted of small Ulm Savoys, about 
sixty heads in a 2-bushel hamper — some hampers just 
the heads out of Brussels Sprouts, others were small 
Cabbages, somewhat like the Savoys ; five or six 
heads would have made any family a nice dish of 
greens for dinner. I live about one mile from the 
station. Those seventy-two hampers cost me as 
empties about ii/. each. All the greens we cut with- 
out frost on them, and packed as cut. There were 
four I -horse cartloads to take to the station, and 
e\ery hamper was tied down with good string, and 
each directed. A'. A'. 

" Market, Dec. 23, 1879. 

" Dear Sir,— I have received from you as under :— 

Dec. 20. — ^2 hampers of grcenstuflF, at IS. 6rf. ..£2 8 o 
.1 23 — 40 ,, ,, Sit IS. -id, .. 2 10 o 

!• It —4 skips of Sprouts, at 3^. 6ii. .. .. o 14 o 

Carj i ige 

By cheque £3 ig 3 

Green-stuff plentiful to-day. Your hampers were almost 
unsaleable. You \vi 1 sec that I have not charged you 
any commission on tlie last forly hampers, and only 3./. 
on the thirty-two. Yours obediently, ." 

Effects of Climate upon Fruit.— If the fruit- 
rooms throughout the country are not particularly 
attractive this year, there are but few of them it m.ay 
be presumed, judging from our own, that do not 
afford some instructive and striking instances of the 
effects of climate upon fruit generally, and of the 
vagaries of Pears in particular. The lessons to be 
learnt in this way m.ay be turned to profitable account 
by the answer they aflbrd to the question of what to 
plant in any given locality, or for any particular 
purpose. Here we have small but ripe and present- 
able fruit of the following Pears :— Styrian, Flemish 
Beauty, Forelle, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Marie 
Louise, Jersey Gratioli, Beurre Diel, Beurre Superfin, 
and Doyenne du Comice all in together, and all later 
than usual, some ol them being as much as two 
months beyond their usual time of ripening. Thomp- 
son's and Beurre d'Amanlis may be named among 
the sorts that are only just over, while Winter Nelis, 
Glou Morceau, Beurre Ranee, and a number of other 
sorts look more likely to wither and be useless than 
to ripen. /'. Hanisoii, k'nowsUy. 

Pear Culture under Glass. — "J. J. JL" asks, at 
p. Soi of your last volume, for information about grow- 
ing Pears under glass. As I have so grown them for 
the last twenty years, I can assure him that no fruit is 
more easy to grow in cold glasshouses, and none 
repays the labour better. I grow them in both span- 
roof and lean-to houses, as pyramids and bushes, and 
also trained. They set only too well, for if there is 
much blossom the labour of thinning is considerable. 
If properly treated and not coddled, the flavour is 
excellent, and as to size and colour, no fruit grown in 
the open air even on walls can compare with them. 
In a warm summer they are apt to ripen rather before 
their time, but the very late sorts keep uncommonly 
well. My garden is situated in the centre of the 
island, and in latitude 55. i°. I may here say 
when people send you communications about the 
growth of fruits, much more information would be 
gained by your readers did they always state the 
latitude or name of the county. I append a list of the 
diflerent varieties of Pears grown by me under glass : — 
Chaumontel, Beurre Superfin, Pitmaston Duchess, 
Glou Morceau, Bergamotte d'Espercn, Beurre Diel, 
Dr. Trousseau, Orphelin d'Enghien, Doyenne du 
Comice, Marie Louise, Josephine de Malines, Beurre 

January 3, 18S0.] 


d'Aremberg, Passe Colmar, Beurre Ciairgeau, Passe 
Crassane, Madame Milet, Groise Calabasse, Catillac, 
Uvedale'sSt. llermain, Winter Nelis, General Todtle- 
ben, Fondante d'Aiitomne, Duchesse d'Angoulcme, 
Bciirre Bachelier, Marie Benoist, Easter Beurre, 
Olivier des Serres, Marie de Guise, Iris Gregoire, 
Beurre de Ronde, Louise Bonne, Beurre de Jonghe, 
Conseiller a la Cour, Fortunee. D. 

I now have about sixty pyramidal Pears 

under glass, and they succeed well. They require 
plenty of water and air in summer. I find the best 
sorts for house work are Winter Nelis, always good ; 
Glou Morceau, good ; and Beurre Ranee, and Easter 
Beurre, have done well this year. The under-men- 
tioned kinds have not ripened but have shrivelled — 
Knight's Monarch, Josephine de Malines, and Berga- 
niotled'Esperen. \Vm. Siiiyt/ic, The Ganicns, Basing 
I'arl;, Atlon. 

Fertilisation of Yuccas (p. 822). — I have not 
seen Mr. Meehan's account of the fertilisation of 
Yuccas, but there can be no doubt that the Vucca can 
be fertilised by other means than by the agency of 
the Vucca moth (Pronuba yuccasella). I have 
more than once had well-formed fruit on V. recurvi- 
folia, but the seeds did not come to maturity. Dr. 
Engelmann, in his Xolcs on the Genus Yucca 
says: — "In the Botanical Garden of Venice 
gathered the pulpy pods from a large Vucca aloifolia 
"about 15 feet high. This was the only Vucca fruit seei 
by me in Europe, though I have since learned that ii 
other instances also, though only exceptionally, frui 
and good seed have been produced there, principall; 
by the same species, and very rarely by others." As 
Dr. Engelmann and Prof. Riley are both positive 
that the Vucca is incapable of self-fertilisation, it 
follows that the specimens at \'enice and Bitton must 
have been fertdised by some European and British 
insect, and it is then not easy to understand why the 
fruit should not be more frequently produced. 
Jfenry N. Ellacoiiibc, Bitton Vicarage. 

Mistleto. — I have been very successful in getting 
Mistleto to take upon Apple trees. My plan is to 
rub the berry upon the young wood on the top side of 
the Apple till it slicks well, in January. I believe 
that failures are attributable to putting the berries 
upon the old wood, the roots not being able to get to 
the alburnum for a support ; hence in hot and dry 
weather the young plant shrivels up and falls off. 
John Bolton, Graiilhain. 

Vegetables Killed by the Frost. — When I sent 
you the letter published at p. 765 of your last volume I 
expected that a great deal of damage would be done by 
the frost, and now that it has broken the tale is told. 
When the frost set in we had a fine lot of Veitch's 
Autumn Giant Cauliflower sown in, and every one 
has been killed. Of Snow's Winter White Broccoli 
hardly any escaped. Carter's Champion and Adams' 
Early White are also killed ; and the Osborns and 
Backhouses have suffered to some extent, but I think 
will come round, but will be late. Savoys are com- 
pletely rotten through ; but Borecole and Scotch Kale 
have stood better. Seakale Beet has stood the severe 
weather, and the crowns look well. As the spring 
advances it will come in as a substitute for Spinach, 
and I think more of it should be grown, as the midrib 
makes a good Seakale — the green part as Spinach, and 
where warm pits could be had it can be taken up 
and planted, and give some tirst-rate crops through 
the winter. Spinach Beet has stood well : I find that 
in some gardens which stand higher than this it has 
not suffered to any extent. H. Little, Rusland Hall, 

Seedling Pelargonium, The Major. — In an 
article about a fortnight ago, " On (Growing Pelargo- 
niums for the London Market," it was mentioned, if I 
remember rightly, thit they were obliged to be grown 
at a temperature of not less than 60" at night and 10° 
more for the day. I enclose you a bloom of a seed- 
ling that I have raised and named The Major, that I 
think will be invaluable for market purposes, as it 
flowers well at a temperature of 45' for the day and 
35° for night. What I send was grown at even less 
than that. All my other seedlings and also named 
varieties will not grovs- out even, much less open, in the 
same house. I may mention the habit of the plant is 
good, and it flowers freely. Harrison Weir, H'eirleigh, 
Brcnchley, Kent. [This quality, if permanent, will 
give The Major a high position. It is a good 
flower, of bold character ; the colour a cerise-scarlet. 

Vick's Criterion Tomato. — I send herewith a 
few fruits of Vick's Criterion Tomato, cut to-day 
(December 28), from plants that were fruiting in July 
last. I grow them in pots on the single stem system. 
They were in a Peach-house till October, when they 
were transferred to a stove. They now have stems 
18 feet long running up the roof. A. Hopkins, Gr,, 
Ashstcad Park, Epsom. [A nice sample. Ens.] 

The Yellow Amaryllis (Sternbergia lutea). — 
This autumn flowering bulbous plant has special 
attr.actions for the plant lover. In the first instance 
it may put in a goofl claim to be one of the " Lilies of 
the field " whose growth we are enjoined to consider. 
In the next place its burnished dark green leaves, 
contrasted with the clear yellow flowers, give it a 
title to regard which no lover of flowers will dispute. 
Next, it is quite hardy, its leaves being evergreen, or 
at least surviving the winter ; next, the best way of cul- 
tivating it is to let it alone, which saves trouble. Any 
common garden soil suits it, so that it may be grown 
in clumps in the border by itself, or in association with 
autumn Crocus and Colchicums. Stagnant moisture 
does not suit it in the open ground, nevertheless it is 
a good plant to grow in gl.\sses like Hyacinths, as we 


can testify. The plant is a native of Southern Europe 
and the Levant. The pollen grains, as driwn by Rlr. 
W. G. Smith, seem curiously marked. Eds. 

Poinsettias at Hawkstone. — At the present time 
these are in excellent condition, and well worthy of 
special notice. The plants are in 4, 5, and 6-inch pots, 
and from I2to iS inches high, manynf their floral bracts 
measure iS inches across. It is something wonderlul 
the ettect produced by this beautiful winter decorative 
plant when well grown and in quantity, "both single 
and the double variety," as at Hawkstone. The 
brilliancy of the bracts is also striking when we con- 
sider the sunless weather they have had to develope in. 
They are arranged amongst a quantity of Zonal Pelar- 

goniums, intermixed with Calanthe Veitchii, vestita 
and vestita lutea, which are really m.ignificent. It 
is evident from the immense size of the bulbs that Mr. 
Pratt is thoroughly conversant with the wants and 
requirements of this beautiful cl.ass of Orchids. We 
have never had the opportunity of seeing bulbs of 
larger size, nor blooming more profusely. Mr. Pratt 
is certainly to be congratulated upon his success with 
this class of plants as well as the Poinsettias. Visitor 

Early Peas.— During the last eight years we have 
invariably gathered our first dish of Peas on or 
between iMay 20 or 24, excepting last year (1879), 
when, notwithstanding that the same variety of Peas 
were sown at the same time, and planted out in the 
same aspect as heretofore, and in every other respect 
received the same treatment, they were, like every- 
thing else in the vegetable world, a month later. 
Although our mode of treatment is not new, it may 
not, however, be so well known as it should be, 
therefore I will briefly detail our modus operandi for 
the information of those of your readers who, like 
myself, may be anxious to obtain young Peas as early 
as possible without having recourse to forcing ihem. 
About the end of December or beginning of January 
we make our first sowing in large 60-pots, which are 
crocked, and three-parts filled with leaf-mould, and 
about a dozen Peas put in each pot, which is then 
covered with the same material, and put into an early 
vinery near the glass to prevent their becoming 
drawn. When they have made a couple of inches of 
growth they are gradually hardened ofi', and finally 
planted out about January 20, or as soon after as cir- 
cumstances may permit o( its being done, in a south or 
south-west border, in rows 4 feet apart and i foot 
apart in the row. The Peas are simply turned out of 
the pots and planted, with the balls of mould and 
roots undisturbed, in ground previously and suitably 
prepared for their reception. This done, a little soil 
is drawn up to the plants on either side, and then a 
line of soot and lime follows in the same direction, 
after which some short sticks are put to them pro 
tcin., and then some short Spruce boughs are placed 
on either side the rows sufticiently close to shield 
the haulms from the chilling effects of frost, snow, 
and biting wind. As the Peas progress in growth, 
and become inured to the weather, the boughs 
should be gradually removed, which will pre- 
vent their making a weakly growth, and so 
soon as the weather becomes favourable enough for 
the purpose (about the end of February) the boughs 
should be removed altogether and the Peas finally 
sticked. In conclusion I may remark that we stop 
the haulms of our early Peas when they come into 
flower, with the obvious object of causing them to 
pod quicker than they would under ordinary treat- 
ment. The kinds we grow for early crops are 
Sutton's Ringleader, Sutton's Emerald Gem, and 
Laxton's William I., in the earliness of which there 
is little, if any, difference. We depend most upon 
Ringleader, it being a well tested, good constitutioned, 
and prolific Pea. However, William I., in point of 
size, beats the (ormer, and I have no doubt as it 
becomes better known it will be grown extensively as 
an early Pea ; but, nevertheless, until it has been 
fairly tested on a small scale in different districts and 
soils, it will be advisable to stick to whatever variety 
has been found to succeed best in each indi- 
vidual district. About the same time that we make 
our sowing in pots we make a sowing of the same 
kind, and a row, or rows, according to the length of 
the same, of Dickson's Favourite out-of-doors, which 
make a good succession. Our early Beans we treat 
in a similar way, but in this case we sow a 
quantity in a box, which, after being properly har- 
dened off with the Peas, are transplanted individually 
in rows 2 feet apart and about 4 inches in the row. 
In every other respect, minus the sticks, are 
treated the same as the Peas. H. IV. IVard. 

Pelargoniums and Geraniums— I think it 
would be as well to settle by authority the e.xact 
names of those flowers that seem to be indiscrimi- 
nately called Pelargoniums and Geraniums. Botany 
has been described as the " science of giving poly- 
syllabic barbarian Greek names to foreign weeds," 
but while some plants, Abies Mariesii, for instance, 
are most carefully described, others, as Geraniums, 
seem to be called by names that do not belong to 
them, but to quite a different flower. I notice, both 
in your letterpress and advertisements, mention made 
of Zonal Pelargoniums : now I should certainly decline 
to receive Zonal Geraniums if I ordered Pelargoniums. 
t am old enough to remember that we had a parti- 
coloured greenhouse flower of a violet shape that was 
called a "Geranium ; ' then came a lot of hardy bedding- 
out stuff" with a truss of red flowers all of one colour, 
followed by "Tom Thumbs" and "horseshoes," 
which grew nicely out-of-doors. Then we were told 
that we must no longer call those greenhouse plants 
" Geraniums," that their right and proper name was 
Pelargonium, and that those bedding-out plants 
were strictly speaking Geraniums. [No, no I] Now, 
however, the old name Geranium seems to be 




dropped for both, and the new name Pelargonium 
given to both, surely erroneously ? [No 1] Let 
us, however, have it fairly settled which is 
which, so that we may clearly and distinctly 
know what we are talking about, and not make 
mistakes either in writing or talking, in sending to 
shows, or in ordering plants. James Kiihard Haig, 
lUtiir Hill, Stiiiin,i;. [All the so-called Geraniums 
are really Pelargoniums. The wild Cranesbills of the 
fields are Geraniums. Eds.] 

The Pioneers of the Bedding-out System. 
• — In your last volume (p. 4S9) Mr. Fish states that 
Ihe late Mr. Caie was the first person who commenced 
the bedding-out system, but this I beg to correct, as 
I helped to fill the beds here in the spring of 1S23, 
long before Mr. Caie had charge of the Campden Hill 
gardens. It was Lady Grenville who began the bed- 
ding system in the first place, but she quite abhorred 
both ribbon and carpet bedding. The Dowager 
Duchess of Bedford used to visit the grounds here, 
and much admired the garden, and when she went to 
Campden Hill to live she sent Mr. Caie here to see 
the place, and very probably to take notes of what he 
saw. I had never seen Mr. Caie before, and never 
met him afterwards. Philip Frost, Dropinorc, 

Orchids at the York Nurseries. — A con- 
siderable amount of care and attention has for many 
years past been given to these highly interesting, 
singular, and beautiful class of plants. They are 
mostly grown in low span-roofed houses, where the 
plants can be placed in such positions as to be 
near the glass, to obtain the greatest amount of light 
— a position which evidently suits them, as the large, 
vigorous masses of Pescatoreas, and the rare Eolleas, 
&c., abundantly prove. In passing through house 
after house filled almost to overflowing with the very 
choicest and rarest species and varieties, one feels no 
little difficulty which to notice amongst so many. 
Entering one of the ranges of the before-mentioned 
houses, the first sight which attracts the eye of the 
visitor is a splendid collection of the very chaste and 
captivating Orchid, La;lia albida, with its numerous 
varieties, varying as they do in colour from snow- 
white to those heavily suffused with purple. The 
blossoms of the typical form of L. albida are about 
, an inch in diameter, pure white, waxy, and very firm 
in texture. They are borne on stout, nearly erect 
stems, with from five to twelve blossoms. The 
varieties bella and grandiflora are charming forms, 
the sepals and petals are more or less suffused with 
clear purple near the apex, while the lips are clear 
purple throughout, ornamented with a bright orange 
centre. Another gorgeous sight here rivets our 
attention. We are all well acquainted with the 
lieauty of Lselia anceps, with its large, warm, rosy- 
purple flowers. However beautiful that may be, it is 
quite eclipsed both in size and colour by the very rare 
variety liarkeriana, which has blossoms fully 4! 
inches in diameter, with sepals and petals of the 
most charming, brilliant rosy-purple, while the lip is 
of the richest velvet-crimson — which reminds me of a 
very old favourite, the double crimson Primrose, now 
so scarce. It is indeed an exquisite kind, and a 
valuable acquisition, and will, I feci sure, be much 
sought after by lovers of these plants. Advancing a 
few steps further, we are almost surrounded by splen- 
did specimens of Cattleya maxima, with its enormous 
flowers, which are produced in considerable quantity, 
varying in colour and slightly in form from every 
shade of deep rosy-purple to almost .white. My 
attention was drawn, while passing through another 
house, to a very interesting, singular, and very 
pleasing species of Oncidium with dcliciously fragrant 
flowers. The individual blossoms are by no means 
large, but they are borne in considerable profusion on 
a 'dense branching spike about 12 inches long and 
half that across. The singularly pleasing feature in the 
appearance of the jilant may jjossibly arise from the 
fact that the branchlets of the spike all stand off 
at right angles to the main stem, and the flowers are 
placed so close to each other upon two opposite sides of 
the stems as to form two distinct rows or lines. The 
blossoms are in colour a pleasing yellow more or less 
tinged with chocolate, .and are .about an inch across, 
with recurved sepals .and petals. Altogether the 
[ilant is a very pleasing and attractive object. Messrs. 
liackhouse have not yet ascertained its specific name. 
It has all the appearance of proving a vigorous and 
free-growing kind. Odontoglossum cirrosum is 
another very fine species, with immense branching 
spikes bearing a profusion of beautiful white blossoms, 
irregularly but prettily spotted with brownish-purple ; 
the sepals, petals, and lip have long accuminated 
twisted points, which give the flower a spider-like 
appearance. Another Odontoglot was also con- 
spicuous — O. maculatum, which is very distinct, 
having deep-green leaves with parallel longitudinal 
veins, and with large showy blossoms. The outer half 
of the sepals and petals is of a clear sulphur-yellow, 
while the inner half, that is the centre of the flower, 
is a similar colour, but heavily spotted or blotched 
with brownish-purple ; the lip is triangular in form : 

and deeply jagged or toothed on the margin. It 
would occupy too much time and space to speak of 
the numerous other species now in, or showing 
flower of Odontoglots, Cypripediums, Dendro- 
biums, &c.; but the large and magnificent specimens 
of Odontoglossum Londesboroughianum I cannot 
pass over without a remark. It throws up majestic 
arching stems bearing a dense spike of from eight 
to twenty handsome blossoms, each blossom being 
about i^ inch in diameter, with a clear bright yellow 
lip, and with sepals and petals barred and spotted 
with brownish-purple. Amongst these there are distinct and pleasing varieties, which are more 
or less spotted on the lips. Oncidium tigrinum v. un- 
guiculalum is another vigorous and free-growing Orchid 
with branching stems 3 to 4 feet long, and bearing 
upwards of fifty yellow and brown flowers, which are 
very pleasing and conspicuous. A few paces from 
where this was growing I saw a nice batch of the true 
Barkeria Lindleyana, which was one of the most 
beautiful sights I have seen for a long time. It has 
short spikes of brilliant rosy-purple blossoms borne 
on slender stems 9 to 18 inches high, with six to 
twelve flowers on each stem. P. 

Plant Names.— The Rev. C. W. Dod (see Gar- 
deners^ Chronicle, December 13, 1S79, p. 767) is quite 
right in complaining about long names being given to 
garden plants. I agree with him that garden varieties 
ought to receive short names, if possible. It would 
seem preferable too to avoid Latin names for them, 
and if once a name is given to keep it, and not to 
translate it into another tongue ; much confusion is 
caused sometimes by not doing so. I agree also 
with Mr. Dod when he wishes to avoid long Latin 
names for new Daffodils. It seems to me preferable 
to give to these new hybrids English short names, 
as in former years the large number of varieties of 
Polyanthus Narcissus were given vernacular names by 
the Dutch raisers. But when Mr. Dod, coming to 
Lilies, takes as example the Schrymcekersi Lily, I 
think his example is not quite good. Allow me to 
say that this Lily is no new one, and not a Dutch 
variety, as far as I know ; it has been cultivated here 
for years, and can now be supplied annually by 
thousands. This name therefore cannot be altered or 
shortened much. For Lilies till lately the rule 
was adopted generally to give them Latin names 
too, to indicate by Latin names varieties and 
sub-varieties. The reason of it is that only 
in later times has the number of varieties increased 
so much as to require common names. However, 
in Holland a hundred years ago the varieties of 
Lilium Martagon, chalcedonicum, &c., are found in 
Dutch catalogues with common names (these v.arieties 
are now lost for the greater part), so I have given 
recently to my new varieties of Lilium umbellatum 
the names of fJutch artists. Now for the Lilium Schry- 
m;x:kersi. This name being generally known, it 
would not be advisable to alter it. Perhaps 
Lilium speciosum Schryma;kersi would have been 
sufficient, but as the name of rubrum is usually added, 
it seems to be preferable to write Lilium speciosum 
rubrum Schrymrekersi. There seems no reason to 
say atropurpureum .Schrymiekersi, as the Lily belongs 
to the rubrum form, and atropurpureum being only 
a description of the flower. I mention this point to 
explain that if there has been an error in naming 
varieties with long Latin names the fault is not with 
Dutch gardeners. I suppose they were among those 
who first introduced Dutch and other common names 
for naming varieties, and in <he old lists of Tulips of 
1634, or of Hyacinths of 1734, in general only such 
names are to be found. For examples of long Latin 
names which had been better avoided one can find 
plenty in the list of flower seeds of late years. J. //. 
A'rela':;e, JIaarlciii, Holland, Dec. 24. 

Orchids at Messrs. Veitch's, Chelsea. — In 

looking through the collections of Orchids from time 
to time in these nurseries I have been struck with the 
numerous and beautiful examples of garden hybrids. 
"Within the recollection of most of us some of the 
principal Orchid growers and fanciers persistently set 
their faces against hybridising Orchids, and I think 
the late I >r. Lindley and also Mr. Bateman may be 
mentioned as the most prominent names. But what- 
ever ideas may have possessed growers, fanciers, and 
others, in the early days of this science, antagonistic 
to il, must have been expelled many years ago. The 
same feeling prevails to a certain extent in reference 
to crossing different species of herbaceous plants. An 
instance may be given in the case of the two hybrid 
Aquilegias raised at Loxford Hall — A. coerulea 
and .\. californica hybrida. Ominous whispers were 
heard about the impropriety of crossingdiflercntsjiecies 
of Aquilegia, and that the scientific experiment was 
quite wrong in principle could be proved to a demon- 
stration. [How? why?] But a demonstration was 
proved on the other side, when a group of these 
hybrids was exhibited in London last June, and 
hundreds of admirers crowded round them testifying 
to their beauty. The 'practical value of hybrid 
Orchids has been demonstrated in the same way. 

Mr. Dominy, Messrs. Veitch's foreman, did not 
waste words or shed inky streams to prove that cer- 
tain learned expositors were wrong ; he produced 
Cattleya exoniensis x , by crossing C. Mossia: and 
L:elia purpurata. "There!" he says, "look at that 
Orchid. Its two parents are amongst the most beauti- 
ful and splendid of Orchids. They flower in June. I 
show you a distinct Orchid (species of Orchid it ought 
to be, for it is quite .as distinct, specifically, as many 
imported species), quite as beautiful and splendid as 
its parents, but it gives you its wealth of magnificent 
flowers in September." Certainly there is no possi- 
bility of confuting a practical demonstration of that 
kind. At the time of my visit to Chelsea (Decem- 
ber 22) Dendrobium endocharis x was in flower ; this 
is a cross between D. japonicum, female, and D. 
heterocarpum as the male parent. Its sweetly-scented 
flowers, with pure white sepals and petals, are very 
pretty. The lip is brownish-purple, with rosy-purple 
lines at the base. It was exhibited last February 
before the Floral Committee, 'out was passed over as 
not worthy of a First-class Certificate. Only quite 
recently the very elegant Oncidium ornithorhyncum 
albiflorum, which also is very sweet, was passed over. 
Notwithstanding this, it is quite certain that both 
these Orchids deserve some mark of recognition. They 
will be sought after by many Orchid fanciers, and 
will be grown for their perfume, although their beauty 
is not so striking as a Cattleya or the more richly 
coloured Dendrobiums. Lselia Schilleriana major is 
a very splendid Orchid ; it has the long, two-leaved 
growths of L. elegans or L. Devoniana. The flowers 
are large, pure white, with a broad purplish-crimson 
lip. Mr. Dominy believes that L. elegans is a natural 
hybrid, as it is so much like L. Devoniana. The 
Orchids alluded to a week or two ago are many of 
them still in flower, and the Masdevallia tovarensis 
had much improved ; Dendrochilum glumaceum had 
in the interim expanded some graceful spikes of its 
delicately scented white flowers. Being a native of 
the Philippines, it requires heat when making its 
growth, but was flowering freely in a moderately cool 
house, y. Douglas, 

Fir-tree Oil. — and Plum trees are not un- 
frequently troubled with scale of different sorts which 
can only be effectually dealt with when the trees are 
in a leafless state, ^"arious remedies for this and 
other tree pests have been put forth from time to 
time, some of which are decidedly unsafe in ordinary 
hands, and uncertain in their action at all times. In 
this category may be placed spirits of turpentine, 
every form of petroleum, and oils in general. The 
preparation called "Fir-tree oil," recently introduced 
to public notice by Mr. Griftith Hughes of Manchester, 
appears, however, to be an exception to this rule, as 
it mixes readily with water, and though it is very 
deadly in its effect upon insect life, it seems to be 
quite harmless to all but the most tender vegetation 
when used at a strength of half a'pint to two gallons 
of water. It is a safe plan to try new remedies on a 
small scale at first — better make their acquaintance 
by degrees than bring about a disaster through mis- 
placed confidence. /•. Harrison, Kno^i'slcy. 

Horticultural Boilers. — One of your corre- 
spondents suggests that "horticultural builders pos- 
sessing no special boiler of their own " should give 
their opinion on the various boilers used. Our expe- 
rience is very like Mr. Lascelles' in this matter. We 
have no boiler of our own. We buy in the open 
market those boilers which we find give most satis- 
faction to our customers. As showing how the matter 
stands from this standpoint \vc cannot do better than 
give the number of the various boilers used by us 
during this year. We find from our books that from 
Jan. 1, 1879, to the present date (Dec. 23) we have fitted 
up altogether ninety-three boilers, consisting of forty- 
one terminal saddles (including two Gold Medal 
boilers), of the value /6S3 7.f. g</. ; fifty plain saddles 
(including nine having cross tubes), of the value of 
^^278 13^. \d.; and two indejiendent upright boilers 
(one of them a patent), of the value of /,'i4 4.1. We 
may state, in explanation of the great difference 
between the v.alue of the forty-one terminals and fifty 
plain saddles, that for large quantities of piping we 
prefer the terminal, but for small quantities, 500 feet 
(4-inch) and under, we prefer the plain s.addle. We find 
a long boiler, even though a plain saddle, more satis- 
factory than a short terminal. \"our readers may 
depend upon it the whole secret of successful heating 
lies in a large long boiler and plenty of piping. We 
may state that we tested for our own satisfaction a 
terminal s.addle against a patent boiler — which cost 
IT, per cent, more the terminal, and which has 
been lauded to the skies for its economy and power — 
by joining both to the same system of piping, with 
valves to shut off the one while the other was being 
used. Each boiler was fired on alternate days, the 
coal used being weighed to a pound, the firing carried 
on .as nearly as possible at set interv.als by an expe- 
rienced stoker, and the temperature taken every 
quarter of an hour, each boiler treated exactly alike — 
three thermometers inserted in the 4-inch pipe, the bulb 

January 3, 1880.] 



being about I incli down amongst the water ; and the 
result of four days' trial of each that the highest tenipe- 
riture the patent boiler raised the water was to 129° — 
the highest with the terminal 175°. Exactly the 
same number of pounds of coal were used in each trial. 
Our opinion is that patent boilers are like patent 
medicines — 99 per cent, quackery, I percent, genuine. 
Machen-Jc iS~ Aloiiaa; Edinburgh. 

Jforeigii Corrcspiikiice. 

A.N niiEs ; Da. 24, 1S79. — Frost in the South of 
France. — Vou may perhaps be interested in receiving 
an account of our garden of the Villa Thuret after the 
severe frosts of the month of December. The ill 
etifects of the cold are always instructive, and prudent 
people know how to profit by them. On Dec. 2 the 
thermometer had already fallen to —4° Cent. (23° F.) 
in the lowest, and consequently the coldest part 
of the garden, and many of the plants suffered 
severely. xVmongst others I may mention Dahlia 
imperialis, then in bloom ; all the Mexican 
.Salvias, the Tecomas and Bignonias of .South 
Africa, the Pithecoctenium, Pisonia hirtella, Helinus 
ovata of I'ort Natal, with a number of Stapelias, and 
other fleshy plants. Diospyros Kaki had all its leaves 
injured by the frost as well as the fruit, which had 
not arrived at maturity. Nevertheless, this first frost 
was slight compared with that of Dec. 10, when the 
thermometer fell to —%' and —9° (15 — 17' F.) in the 
coldest part of the garden, and this time great harm 
was done even in the higher situation, where the 
cold did not exceed —4*' or — 5' (23°— 24' F.). 
Jacaranda mimos.-Efolia had all its leaves frozen ; 
B)ugainvillea spectabilis, on the southern side 
of the house, and consequently very sheltered, was 
terril)ly injured : all the young shoots are destroyed, 
and probably it will not flower next summer. The 
damage has not been less among the plants of the 
Canaries — the Sempervivums, in particular, are ruined, 
and will scarcely recover. I pass over in silence 
many other less remarkable plants, but all have been 
eq^ially ill-treated. 

Side by side with these dead and wounded I am 
surprised to see other plants which one would have be- 
lieved equally liable to injury, but which have not been 
dimaged in the least. Most of the cactiform Euphor- 
bias (E. canariensis, E. resinifera, &c.), the Opuntias, 
Echinocacti, Cereus, Mamillarias, many Aloes, 
amongst these the beautiful Aloe Hanburyana (or 
roseo-cincta) nearly all the Agaves, &c., have been 
spared. Not less surprising is the fact that one 
side of some plants has been completely killed, while 
the other has escaped altogether. Also of two 
specimens of the same species, almost side by side, 
one has perished while the other has not lost a leaf. 
These phenomena seem to be explained by the sup- 
position that the various currents of air to which the 
plants are exposed are not all of the same temperature, 
so that two currents, one cold, the other comparatively 
warm, travel side by side without mingling, and thus 
it follows that the one must be injurious, the other 
harmless. If the draughts of air of different tem- 
peratures could be coloured in any way one would be 
able to see at a glance the cause of these anomalies. 

The Palms have, as a rule, resisted the cold well. 
One of the most hardy, and therefore it must be 
noticed, is Cocos australis, of South America, which 
in all exposures has retained unhurt its beauti- 
ful glaucous verdure. This Palm seems to me as 
hardy as Jubtea and more so than Pritchardia fila- 
mentosa, of which the leaves have suffered slightly. 
The large Eucalyptus globulus has not suffered, but 
E. melliodora and some others have lost a part of their 
leaves. According to news I have received, the cold 
has been terrible in Paris : they speak of —25° 
( — 13° F.) — a cold equal to that of Russia. The 
Jardin des Plantes has had some cruel losses, and 
they will count them by hundreds. Even the native 
plants have felt it, and some are seen that have been 
split by the cold the entire length of their stems. 
Ch. Namiin. 

The Urari Poison. — Dr. Schomburgk has 
lately published in pamphlet form a resnnu of all 
that is known concerning the deadly arrow-poison 
used by certain tribes in British Guiana. Dr. Schom- 
burjk gives the personal experience of his brother 
and himself, and adds a summary of the information 
obtained by other travellers, as well as by chemists 
and physicians. The essential ingredient consists in 
the bark of various species of Strychnos, nevertheless 
the presence of strychnin has not been detected, 
neither are the effects produced those that are cha- 
racteristic of that drug. In fact, urari has been used 
as an antidote to strychnin, and as a sedative in cases 
of tetanus and rabies ; but the uncertain and varying 
composition of the drug, and tlic difficulty of pro- 
curing it, must for a time prevent its successful use on 
a large scale. 


We have to record — we can scarcely say with 
sorrow — the death of Mr. George Rollisson, in 
his eightieth year. His decease took place at 
Grove Villas, Balham, on December 15, and may be 
said to have been a happy release from a state of 
paralysis and unconsciousness in which he had been 
lying for the long period of fourteen years — long 
enough, fortunately, for him to have been in 
ignorance of the recent break-up of the world- 
famed establishment, of which he had once been one of 
the chiefs. Mr. G. Rollisson was the the elder of the 
two sons of the founder of the Tooting Nursery, 
by whom the business was carried on for very many 
years after theirfather'sdeath, and under whose auspices 
it acquired a great reputation for the successful cul- 
tivation, as well as the raising, of new and valuable 
varieties of Heaths, also for the introduction and 
cultivation of Orchids, and the importation and dis- 
semination of new plants. In the days to which wc 
allude, the Tooting nursery — Tooting is but a suburb 
of London — ranked as one of the most important 
plant nurseries of the metropolis ; but now both it 
and the aged members of the firm have passed away, 
the younger of the two, IMr. W. Rollisson, having 
predeceased his brother in 1S71;. The gentleman 
whose decease we now record was esteemed for his 
amiable, kind-hearted, and generous disposition, and 
his memory will be feelingly cherished by all those 
who knew him. 

Of Mr. John IIally, formerly of Black- 
heath, whose death was briefly noted last week, we 
may mention that he was for many years pro- 
prietor of the Blackheath Nursery, and was well 
known as a grower of Camellias, Pelargoniums, 
&c. He was a member of the National Flori- 
cultural Society, an active floral body whose business 
it was to afford florists and the raisers of novelties an 
opportunity to bring them before the public, and out 
of the ashes of which the Royal Horticultural Society's 
Floral Committee may be said to have sprung. We 
find that in 1S61-62 he was amongst the earlier con- 
tributors of new Zonal Pelargoniums to the trial col- 
lections at Chiswick ; in the former year Black- 
heath Beauty, a salmon-pink of his raising, was 
amongst the kinds selected for approval, and in 1862 
another of his novelties, Adonis, a zonate scarlet, was 
selected for a First-class Certificate. Mr. Hally died 
at Arundel on December 21, in the eighty-first year 
of his age. 

For the Six Days ending Tuesday, December 93, 1879. 

tri'cal De- 


HAROMtTtK ■'■''"™^"^';™- °'' 


Tables 6tli 





= 0. 

:i ou. 

Jo . 

3 S 







In. 1 III. 

• ° 


. . 



3a42 -1-0.60 

37.4 22.2 

IS-23I-7— 8s'28.4 86 




30.44 +0.61 


7.232.0, — 8.030.0 92 




3030 -(-0.46,34.829.0 

5.8 31.7- 8.029.4 91 




30.19 +0.3432.025.0 

7. 028. 6|— 10.7 

26.4' 92 




30.44 |-^o.6o 42.0:28.0 

14.035.9'— 2.9 

34-5 96 

WNW: ^ 
E.N.E. i°<" 


30.57, -(-0.72^5.9 27.3 

8.633.0'— 5.4 

1 t 

3" .8 95 

S.S.\v: ,'"« 


3039 -(-os6[36.i,26.."( 

9.632.2- 7.3 

30.1 92 


18. — Overcast till 2 p.m., fine after. Cold day. Cloud- 
less, but a little fog at night. Hoar frost. 

ig. — Fine till 11 .\ M., overcast afterwards. Much hoar 
frost in morning. Slight rain in evening. 

20. — A dull cold damp day. Overcast throughout. Frosty 
at nighf. 

21. — A fine, cold morning. No mist. Fog after 3 i'.i\i. 
Overcast at night. The minimum temperature 
of the day, viz., 25', took place at about 10 a m. 

22. — Overcast till i r.M ; fine, cloudy after. A thaw. 
Frosty at night. Slight rain in morning. A very 
dense fog prevailed after 6 p.m. Very dark. 
Traffic impeded. 

23. — Overcast, dull, cold day. Fog in morning. 

For the Week ending Wednesday, Di^ctMBtR 31, 1879. 

Temperature of 
THE Air. 


tricai De- 



Tables 6th 




Dec. I In. In. 
24 30.28 '-^a42 40. 222. 218.032.5— 5.729.71 

23 30.41 +0.5435.029.0 6.o.32',4— S.632.1 

;6 30.33 -}-o.4i'32. 1 27.0 5.1 29.S1— 8.328.2 

-'/ 3017 -ho.28 39.0 25.5 13 5 32.21— 5.428.4 

28 29.P9 — 0.01*52.039.0 13.0 46.3 -H 8844.4 

= I ' 

29 29.80 —0.10 51 .4 39.0 12.4 44 9 + 7.539.3 

30 I 29.58 —0.3243.934.7 9.239.1 -I- 1.833.6 









I 29.5^ —0.3332.032 6ig.4'44.2 

Mean; 30.00 +0.1113.231.1 la.i 37.6 0.034.7 

4- 7.0 41 .6 

9^ { I S^S W. 








O 00 







A fine bright day. Frosty in morning and evening. 
Hoar frost. Cold. Fog in morning. 

— 25. — A very miserable damp day. Thick black fug 

throughout. Very dark. Artificial light required 
neatly the whole of the day. 

— 26. — A cold dull day. Sharp frost at night. No fog. 

— 27. — Dull in morning, then fine till evening; dull at 

night. Hoar frost. Cold. The temperature 
rose at night. 

— 28. — A rapid and decided thaw. Quite warm. Damp. 

Mizzling rain. A very strong wind. The ma.\i- 
mum temperature occurred at midnight( — 52"). 

— 29. — A fire bright day. Thaw continued. A very 

strong wind. Cloudless at night. 

— 30, — Frequent heavy showers of rain in morning and 

afternoon. Cloudless at night. Thunder and 
lightning with hail at i p.m. A strong gale of 
wind. Cool day. 

— 31.— Overcast, dull, and wet throughout. Mild. 

Strong wind. The maximum temperattire — viz,, 
52' — occurred at midnight. 

NulE. — The severe cold weather which set in on November jo 
continued until December 27— a period of thirty-eight days. 
The mean temperature of the air for these thirty-eight days 
was 31". I, being 9^.7 below the average from sixty years' 

London ; Barometer. — During the week ending 
Saturday, December 27, in the vicinity of London the 
reading of the barometer at the level of the sea 
decreased from 30.45 inches at the beginning of the 
week to jO.35 inches by the evening of the 2l3t, in- 
creased rapidly to 30.80 inches by the morning of 
the 23d, decreased to 30.42 inches by the afternoon 
of the 24th, increased to 30.60 inches by the morning 
of the 25th, and decreased to 30,27 inches by the 
end of the week. The mean reading for the week 
at sea level was 30.52 inches, being 0.02 inch below 
that of the preceding week, and 0.47 inch above the 
average. The mean daily readings were above their 
averages throughout the week ; the greatest departures 
in excess were 0.60 inch on the 22d, and 0.67 inch on 
the 23d. 

Temperature. — The highest temperalures of the air 
observed by day varied from 42° on the 22d to 32° 
both on the 21st and 26th; the mean value for the 
week was 36.^°. The lowest temperatures of the air 
observed by night varied from 22 j^ on the 24th to 
29° on the 25th ; the mean value for the week was 
26^°. The mean daily range of temperature in the 
week was lo.i" ; the greatest range in the day being 
iS', on the 24th, and the least 5°, on the 26th. 

The mean daily temperatures of the air and the 
departures from their respective averages were as 
follows:— Dec. 21, 2S°.6, — lo°.7 ; 22d, 35^.9, — 
2°.9 ; 23d, 3i°.8, —6\6 ; 24th, 32".5> — 5°-7 ; 251I'. 
32'.4, - 5°.6 ; 26th, 29°.5, - 8=.3 ; 27th, 32°.2, - 
5''.4. The mean temperature of the air for the week 
was 31°. 8, being 6°. 5 below the average of si.\ly 
years' observations. 

The highest readings of a thermometer with black- 
ened bulb in vacuo, placed in the sun's rays, were 64^ 
on the 24th, and 49° on the 22d ; on the 2 1st and 
26th the readings did not rise above 35°. The lowest 
readings of a thermometer on gr.ass, with its bulb 
exposed to the sky, were 21° on the 24th, and 23' on 
the 2ist ; the mean of the seven lowest readings was 

IVinJ. — The direction of the wind was variable, 
and its motion almost calm. The weather during 
the week was very dull, dark, and the sky cloudy. 
The air was very still, very cold, and sharp frosts 
were experienced. Fog and hoar frosts were preva- 
lent throughout the week, the fog being unusually 
dense on the 22d and 25th. 

England : Temperature. — During the week end- 
ing Saturday, December 27, the highest temperatures 
of the air observed by day were above 50° at Truro, 



[January 3, 18S0. 

Liverpool, and Sunderland; and below 41° at both 
Norwich and Wolverhampton ; the mean value from 
all places was 45!°. The lowest temperatures o( the 
air observed by n'ght were belosv 25',° at Truro, 
lirighton, lirislol, lllackhuath (London), Cambridge, 
Norwich, Nollinyham, Sheffield, Hull, liradford, and 
Leeds ; and above 27' at Liverpool and Sunderland. 
The general mean from all stations was 25°. The 
extreme range of temperature in the week was 
aliove 25' at Truro and Liverpool, and below iS° at 
Norwich, Wolverhampton, and Hull ; the mean range 
of temperature from all stations was 20i°. 

The mean of the seven high day temperatures 
was above 45° at Truro and I'lymoulh, and below 
J7" at Dlackhcalh (London), ('nmliridge, Norwich, 
Wolverhampton, and Hull ; the mean from all places 
was 40,i°. The mean of the seven low night tempe- 
ratures was below 28° at Blackheath (London), Cam- 
liridge, Norwich, Wolverhampton, and Nottingham ; 
and above 32.', at Truro, I'lymoulh, and Sunderland ; 
the mean from all stations was 29'J°. The mean 
daily range of temperature in the week was above 
12' at Truro, Plymouth, Bristol, and Liverpool, and 
below 9' at Cambridge, Norwich, and Hull ; the 
mean daily range from all places was lo^". 

The mean temperature of the air for the week from 
all stations was 35", being 3I' higher than the value 
for the corresponding week in 1S78. The mean 
temperature was above 30' at Truro, Plymouth, and 
Sunderland ; and below 32' at lilackheath, Cam- 
bridge, Norwich, and Wolverhampton. 

Kaiii. — The amounts of rain measured were small 
everywhere. The greatest falls were three-tenths of 
an inch at Truro and Hull, and the least falls were 
one-hundredth of an inch at Nottingham and Sunder- 
land ; at Norwich, liradford, and Leeds no rain was 
measured ; the average fall over the country was one- 
tenth of an inch. 

The weather during the week was still very cold 
and dry. The sky was generally cloudy, and very 
dense fogs were frequently prevalent. 

Scotland : Temperature. — During the week 
ending Saturday, December 27, the highest tempera- 
tures of the air observed by day varied from 551° at 
Aberdeen, to 492° at Edinburgh ; the mean value 
from all stations was 51.5°. The lowest temperatures 
ol the air observed by night varied from 25° at lidin- 
burgh, to 31° at Paisley ; the mean value from all 
places was 2SJ°. The mean range ol temperature in 
the week from all places was 23\ 

The mean temperature of the air for the week 
from all stations was 39^;°, being 10° higher than 
the value for the corresponding week in 1878. The 
mean temperature was the highest at Paisley and 
Leith, 404°, and the lowest at Aberdeen and 
Perth, 39°. 

Rain. — The amount of rain measured at Greenock 
was 1 4 inch, whilst at Aberdeen only four-hundredths 
of an inch fell, and at Perth no rain was measured ; 
the average amount over the country was half an inch 

Dublin. — The highest temperature of the air 
was 52,}°, the lowest 23^°, the extreme range 28A°, 
the mean 43°, and the fall of rain 0.39 inch. 



He that qucstlouctk nntch shall learn mneh.—JjACOfJ. 

BAUOiMi;TRiCAL REGISTERS. — I am anxious to ob- 
tain the name and address of a printer who supplies 
monthly sheets for registering die barometer, &c. The 
sheets I mean are similar to those in use for the self- 
registering barometers. Will some of your corre- 
spondents kindly give the desired information ? A'. R. 

CoMI'i-.NSATION.— .■/ Correspomknt writes :— .'\ Rail- 
way Company proposes to extend its line through one of 
my best fields whicli I have taken on a lease of twenty-one 
years, and I am bound by covenants to plant the same as 
a plantation within two years. Can 1 charge the company 
my profits for the whole twenty-one years as a planta- 
tion, or what would be a fair claim ? I am paying ^'5 
per acre for die land besides tithe and rates, &c.,'and am 
liound to find the trees myself. The land is under fruit 
and vegetable cultivation for market. 

Market Gardening. — Having a small piece of 
ground to be used for market gardening purposes, I 
should like to know how best to utilise it as regards 
kitchen garden crops, so as to obtain the best results. 
What would be the best varieties of Cabbage, or other 
vegetables, that might be planted at once, or within a 
few weeks' time ? A Subscriber. 

Roses i-or Market.— I have a Marechal Xicl house, 
half-span, south aspect, loo feet by 12 feet ; apex lo feet 
high ; front wall, 2 feet ; heated' with 2 pipes ; Roses 
planted against liack wall and two-thirds uji front rafters ; 
the back and front borders are free. What can bo 
grown under the Roses lor market, to pav? Would 
any other Roses ]iay better than Mareclial N'iel ? C. G. 

The Pine Beetle.— Can you tell me whether there 
is any known cure for the grub that destroys the tips of 
the shoots of I'inus insignis ? C. Halfuni Thoiiipsi/ii. 
\ We believe not. Encourage the birds. Eds.] 

Answers to Correspondents. 

Diseased Pear Trees : S. M. iy .-1. ex- 
amination of the trees themselves, it is scarcely possible 
to give a good opinion, ^'oung shoots are often 
exactly in this condltiou where either the lower por- 
tions are cankered or the soil does not suit. There 
is no appeannce of fungi on the shoots. We have 
Pear trees almost in the same condition from the cause 
above st.iteil. A/. J. 13. 

Gardeners' Benefit Societies : E. Ilecp. We do 
not know of any besides the (iardeners' Royal 
Benevolent Institution (Secretary, Mr. E. R. Cutler, 
ri, Tavistock Street, Covent (la'rden, W.C.), and the 
United Gardeners' Benefit Society (.Secretary, Mr. 
McElroy, Moray Lodge, Campden Hill, Kensington). 

Graeiei) Vines : /•". A. The precise influence of the 
stock upon the scion amongst (Jrapes is very imper- 
fectly ascertained or understood .as yet. There is no 
evidence of one \ariety succeeding better than 
another. It must be purely a matter of experiment 
for yourself. The Mill Hill Hamburgh and Muscat 
Hamburgh are both good, but tastes differs— C/Mr//;/ 
ii son L^oii '. 

Hera( LFAM GicANTEi-M : If. B. The seeds of this 
free-growing, hardy plant, may be sown as soon as 
the seed ripens, or in spring. It grows from 6 feet 
to 10 feet or more in height ; the flowers are white. 

Ivy ON W.VLI.s : Hedcra. If your wall is sound, and 
in good order, the Ivy will do no harm, but rather 
good. If the wall is dilapidated, it is another matter. 

Mushrooms : W. L. Send us a sample of die Mush- 
rooms and vermin. 

Names of Fruit : W. .17. , Romford. The Pears are 
shrivelled and unripe, and so much out of character 
that we can do nothing with \.\\cm.^M i dJlesex . Your 
Grape is the Buckland Sweetwater. — W.I.. Pear: 
Uvedale's St. Germain. App'es not recognised. 

Names of Plant.s : W. Poit.ii. Your plants are pro- 
bably— r, Juniperus Bedfordiana ; 2, Cupressus fune- 
bris ; 3, Cupressus lusitaniea. — Dinne tiiatliach. The 
leguminous plant is Parochastus communis ; the other 
Senecio mikanoides.— G'lV. Wall. The specimen was 
smashed when it arrived in bits ; send 
another, and pack it better. — ./. li. i, Strelitzia 
regina ; 2, send .again ; 3, indeterminable without 
flowers ; 4, Scutellaria Mociniana, — <;. C. B,accharis 
trinervis, male plant. — W. H. Poyntcr. Browallia 
demissa, a native of tropical America, not of Zululand. 
See Hot. Mag., t. 1136. 

Peat : Aiioii. The sample of peat you send appears to 
be sound and wholesome, containing a large pro- 
portion of vegetable matter. If mi.xed with turfy loam 
and plenty of coarse grit we should suppose that 
Lapagerias would grow well in it, and so would 
Ixoras, Gardenias, or Ferns ; but the drainage must be 
effectual. Azaleas require a harder kind of peat. 

Plants for Conservatory : W. E. You cannot do 
better than plant climbing Devoniensis Rose, which 
should do very well in the position indicated. Give it 
good loamy soil, and keep it well fed. For the other 
subject we should recommend Jasminum azori 


graudiflorum, Tacsonia \'an Volxemi, Passifiora Ini- 
peratrice Eugenie. 

Primulas: W. Tail iy^ Co. The flowers arrived in a 
wretched condition, through being badly packed— in 
cotton-wool. They appear to be of an average good 

Stephanotis : C. F. O. No wonder the plant is sick. 
The leaves received are in a filthy condition with 
scale, mealy-bug, and dirt. The plant wants a 
thorough washing to commence with ; perhaps fresh 
potting, or top-dressing if planted out, and a stronger 
heat than is applied to an ordinary conservatory. 

I^° Foreign Subscribers sending Post-office Orders 
are requested to make them payable at the post-oflice, 
King Street, Covent Garden, London, and at the 
same time to inform the Publisher at the office of this 

Catalogues Received :— Downie & Laird (17, Soudi 
Frederick Street, Edinburgh), Descriptive Catalogue 
of Garden, Flower, and Agricultural Seeds, Gladioli 
Roots, Implements, &c. — Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons 
(Royal Exotic Nursery. King's Road, Chelsea), Cata- 
logue of Garden .and Flower .Seeds, Implements, &c. 
— B. S. Willi.ams (Upper HoUoway, London, N.), 
Descriptive Catalogue of Flower, Vegetable, and 
Agricultural .Seeds, &c. — Messrs. Osborn & Sons (The Nurseries, London, .S.W.), Catalogue of 
Kitchen Garden and Flower Seeds, &c. — Messrs. 
Dickson & Robinson (12, Old Mitigate, Manchester), 
Priced Descriptive Catalogue of Select ^"egetable and 
Flower Seeds. 

Communications Received.— A. B.— L. Dow —I. Wood.— 
G. R.-W. D P.-C. Siir..=.-A. O.-K. A.-M. D.-J. I'inf. 
—P. & H.— W, Jamicsoii— H. ]. H.— W. G S.— I. 
I'eed.-Cli. Joly— J. H. K -W. M.-H. E.-New PLint & 
I'.ulb Co.— W, W.— T. C— W. H.-C. G.— \V. P.— G. 
liiamh^m.— J. C— W. Buil.— Nonli Counlry.— T. li.— 
W. F. R.-G. S.-G, H,-C. -S. .S-G. E.-C. N.-B. E.- 
H. G. Rchb. f.-W. B.— The Publisher of ttie Canien — 
A. S.-J. G.-J. V. V.-A. B. L.-W. B. H.-E. B -I. R. 
-J. C.-B. F.-A. J. M.-J. P.-M. J. B.-I D.-R. S. N. 

DIED, on the ist inst., at The Nurseries, Wands- 
worth Common, Robert Neai., Sen., aged seventy- 


COVENT G.IK DEN, January i. 

We are now at a complete standstill, and all classes of 
goods are much depreciated in value by the present .\ large consignment of .\nierican .Apples reached 
us during the week, but in inferior condition. tJood 
samples of Grapes are in better demand. James Webber, 
Wholesale .Ipple .\/ar/cel. 

Apples, ^-sieve .. 2 c- 6 o 

— American, barrl. 10 0-30 o 
Cob Nuts, per lb. 
Grapes, per lb. 

— Muscat, per llj 


Artichokes, p. bush. 
Asparagns, Sprue, 

per bundle 
Beans, French, p. lb 
Beet, per doz. 
Brussels Si^routs, lb. o 6 
Cabbages, per doz. ,, 
Carrots, per bunch . . 
— New Fr. , p. bun. 
Cauliflowers, per doz, 
Celery, per bundle .. 
Chilis, per 103 
Cucumbers,, each .. 
Endive, per 5Core . . 
Garlic, per lb. 
Herbs, per bunch 


J. d. s. d. 
4 o-io o 

Lemon?, ppr 100 
Oranges, per 100 
Pears, per dozen 
Pine-apples, per 

s. d. s. d. 
3 o-io o 
6 0-12 o 


s. d. s. d. 

I c- , . 






I 6- 2 O 


I 6- .. 

Horse Radish, p. bun. 
Lettuces, Cabb.ige, 

per doz. 
Mint, green, bunch.. 
Onions, new, p. bun. 
Parsley, per bunch . . 
Pes.s, per lb. 
Piitarti,(ne\v), oer lb 
KhuSatl)(Let:ds), per 

Seaka'e, per punnet 3 o 
Shallots, per lb ,. 06- .. 
Spinach, per bushel 8 o-io o 
Tomatos. per dozen j o- . , 
Turnips, new, bunch. 06-.. 

I 6- .. 
I c- .. 

o g- .. 

Potatos ;— Regents, loos. to 14 ij. ; Flukes. 120^. to 150J. ; and 
Champions. 1301, to 150*. per t. n. The large supplies 
rect-ived from Germiny are miking from 41. to 7-. p' r bag. 

Cut Fi,o\\"ers, 
d. s. d 

Abutilon, 12 blooms 
Arum Lilies, p. doz. 
Azalea, 12 sprays . . 
Bouvardias, per 

Camellias, per doz. . . 
Carnations, per dozen 
Chrysanlh?m., large 

flowers, per doz. 

g o 24 o 

4 0-18 o 


S. d. s. d. 
3 o- 9 o 
6 o- q o 

per doz. bundlebi2 0-24 o 

Cyclamen, 12 bims. 
Epiphyllum, 12 blms. 
Eucharis, per doz. .. 
Gardenias, 12 blms.. 
Heliotropes, 12 sp. .. 
Hyacmths, Roman, 
12 spikes . . 

6 0-18 o 
9 0-24 o 

Plants i> 
s. d. s. d. . 
Arum Lilies, p. doz.24 0-36 o 
Aialeas, per dozen 30 0-60 o 
Begonias, per doz. .. 6 0-18 o 
Bouvardias, per doz.12 0-24 o 
Chrysanthemums, p. 

dozen . . • • 9 0-30 o 

Cinerarias, per doz.. 12 0-18 o 
Cyclamen, per dozeni2 0-30 o 
Cyperus, per dozen 6 0-12 o 
Dracaena terminalis 30 0-60 o 
— viridis, per doz. ..18 0-24 o 
Erica gracilis, per 

Lily of Val., 12 spr. 
Vlienonetle, 12 bun 
Narci!-sus. Paper- 
white. 12 spikes .. 26-60 
Pelargoniums. 12 spr. 10-20 

— zonal, 12 sprays 09-20 
Poinsettia, 12 b'mi... 6 0-12 o 
Primula, double, per 

bunch . . ..16-30 

— single, per bunch 06-16 
Roses (indoor), doz. 20-90 
Spiraea, 12 sprays .. 30-60 
Tropaeolum, 12 bun. 10-30 
Tuberoses, per dozen 20-40 
Violets, per bunch . . 60-90 
White Lilac, Fr., per 

bundle .. ..10 0-15 o 


s. d. s. d. 
Ferns, in var., doz. 4 0-18 o 
Ficus elastica, each 2 6-15 o 
Foliage Plants, vari- 
ous, each .. ..2 O-IO 6 
Fuchsias, per dozen 6 0-18 o 
Hyacinths, per doz. .10 o-iS o 
Myrtles, per doz. .. 6 0-12 o 
Palms in variety, 

each ^ .. ..2 6-21 o 
Pelargoniums, scar- 
let zonal, per doz. 40-90 
Poinsettia, perdozeniz 0-24 o 

dozen .. ..9 0-18 o Primula, single, per 

— hyemalis, p. doz.i2 0-30 o dozen .. ..6 0-12 o 

Euonymus, various, Solanum. per dozen . g 0-24 o 

per dozen .. ..6 o-i8 o Tulips, 12 pots .. g 0-15 o 


London ; Dec. 31.— To-day, being the last market of 
the year, the attendance of bu\-ers, as was to be e.vjiected, 
was very limited, and the business doing was as nearly 
;/// as possible. Notwithstanding, however, the quiet 
feeling which has recently prevailed, the seed trade 
nmintains a firm position, and a fair amount of activity 
early next month may reasonably be expected. As 
regards red Clover seed the situation is unchanged : of 
new English there is absolutely none, whilst choice 
foreign continues scarce. The total shipments from 
New York since .August 15, 1879, until December 19, 
1879. have been as, follows : — To the United Kingdom, 
25,391 bags ; to the Continent of Europe, 42,588 bags. 
White Clover has lately been in greater favour ; and, as 
the wretched yield of the German crop has become more 
apparent, values have in consequence materially ad- 
vanced. Alsike also at current rates is regarded as 
thorough good value. Compared with the average of 
former years Trefoil is undoubtedly now \ery dear ; but 
against this is its extreme scarcity, and also the import- 
ant facts that no overwhelming importations can come 
from .\merica, and that the small quantity on hand is 
strongly held. The inquiry which has sprung up during 
the last few weeks for Italian R)e-grass has revealed a 
surprising shortness of stocks, aiid as a result of this a 
steady upward movement been in progress : in spite, 
however, of the rise which has been established, to-day's 
quotation for fine seed, say, about a guinea per cwt., is 
moderate. Perennials are unchanged. In the absence 
of transactions there is nodiing to be said concerning 
Hemp, Canary, Millet, or Rape seed. The extremely 
low rates at which Tares are now obtainable have 
stimulated some business therein. Haricots, Lentils, 
and I' mainlaiu last week's currencies. John 
&" Sons, Seed Merc/ian/s, 37, .Mark Lane, London, E.C. 

Government Stock —On Monday the closing 
price for Consols was 97S to 07J, for both the account 
and delivery. There was no alteration in the final 
figures of I'uesd.iy. Wednesday's closing price was 
973 to 973. fof delivery and account. Thursday being 
New Years Day, the Stock K.\change was closed'. 

January 3, 18S0.] 




JARED T. Hunt & Son's 




Delivered at any Railway Station. 

Moe _ ^rt^ 



Also the LARGEST STOCK of CRUSHED BONES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, consisliiig of half-inch, quarter-inch, 

Pulverised for Grass Lands, and Bones specially assorted for I 'incs. 


CHIEF OFFICES and WORKS: Bow Bridge Bone Mills and Chemical Manure Works, STRATFORD, LONDON, E. 

Branch : Downham Market, Norfolk. 

BY E, Y A L 

By Special Warrant, dated December 27, 1865. 


By Special Warrant, dated February 10, 1866. 

Day, Son, & Hewitt, 

Inventors and Sole Proprietors of the "ORIGINAL" 




And Invetttors of the First Animal Medicines ever knozvn as " Day's." 
The No. 2 MEDICINE CHEST contains the following matchless remedies :— 

' THE GASEODYNE." for Parturition in Mares, Ewes. &c. 

' THE BRONCHOLINE." for Husk. Hoose, or Cough in Sheep or Calves. 

' THE ALCOHOLIC ETHER." for Colds and Chills. 

' THE CARMINATIVE CHALK," for Diarrhoea in Lambs and Calves. 

£2 16s. Sd. 

No. 1 COMPLETE MEDICINE CHEST, £6 6s., Carriage Paid. 

• THE CHEMICAL EXTRACT." for Cuts, Bruises, Sore Udders, and Ewes Lambing. 

' THE GASEOUS FLUID," for Colic in Horses, and Scour and Debility in Cattle and Sheep. 

' THE RED DRENCH." for Cleansing after Calving and Lambing, Fevers, &c. 

'THE RED PASTE BALLS," for Conditioning Horses. 







Its saline and ferruginous elements prevent langour, exhaustion, want of energy, and loss of appetite. All animals should 
have an ounce or two of the KOSSOLIAN or BLOOD SALT mixed with their food once or twice a week, from the hunter down 
to the carriage horse and hack. All young animals, whether colt, calf, or lamb, should have half an ounce of the KOSSOLIAN 
or BLOOD SALT mixed with their food, for it is a safeguard against contagious diseases, and it is destructive to the parasites in 
the bronchial tubes, causing that distressing malady the Hoose or Husk. It converts the food, while in the stomach, rapidly into 
flesh and bone making elements, and gives a firmness to the flesh to resist all poisonous effluvia ; and it also renders all animals 
capable of enduring with safety the heat of summer, and the cold rains and sleet of winter. 

Sold in Boxes, containing one dozen packets, price 12s. Beware of Imitations. 






[January 3, iSSo. 





Is now largely used by the principal Nursery- 
men, Market Growers and Gardeners through- 
out the United Kingdom, and is admitted by 
them to be the cheapest, safest, and best 

The fact that One Hundred of the most 
celebrated Plant Growers in the world have 
allowed their names to be published as re- 
ferences, should be sufficient to convince the 
most sceptical. 


Is the best Manure for VINES. 


Is the Best Manure for FRUIT 
TREES in Pots. 


Is the Best Manure for STRAW- 


Is the Best Manure for CUCUMBERS. 


Is the Best Manure for ROSES. 


Is the Best Manure for all SOFT- 


Is the Best Manure for all KITCHEN 


Is the Best Manure for Lawns. 

Sold in Packets Is. each, and in Bags, 

\ Cwt. 

7s. 6d. 

\ Cwt, 
ISs. 6cl. 

1 Cwt. 


Mattufaclured by 



We have now posted our Wholesale CATALOGUE of 
AgricuUural, Vegetable and Flower Seeds to all our Customers. 
Any one not having received it will oblige by letting us know. 
Free by Post on application. 
WATKINS AND SlMl'SO N. i, Savoy Hill, Strand, W.C. 



3(f. per bushel ; ico for 2or. ; truck (loose, 250 bushels), 

30s. : 4-bushel bags, ^d. each. 

LIGHT BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, 51. dd. per sack ; 

5 sacks, 25J. ; 12 for 45^., or 365. per ton. 
BLACK FIBROUS PEAT, 5s. per sack, 5 sacks 22s. ; 12 for 

40J., or 341. per ton : sacks, ^d. each. 
COARSE SILVER SAND, u. <)d. per bushel ; lis. half Ion, 

26r. per ton ; in i cwt. bags. ^d. each. 

MOULD, IS. per bushel. 
SPHAGNUM MOSS, 3s. 6d. per sack. 

Manures, Garden Sticks, Virgin Cork, Tobacco Cloth and Paper, 

Russia Mats, &c Write for Free PRICE LIST. 


10, Castle Street, Endell Street, Long Acre, London, W.C. 


IS. per bag, 30 bags for 20s. No charge for bags. Truck- 
load (loose), free to rail, 231.— BULBECK AND SON, Suffolk 
Place, Snow's Fields , Bermondsey, S.E. 

supplied to the Royal Horticultural Society.— Four-bushel 
bag (bag included), u. ; 30 bags (bags included), 20s. ; truck 
free to rail, 25J. 

T. RICH (late Finlayson & Hector), Cocoa-Nut Fibre Works, 
24 and 25, Redman's Row, Mile End Road, Lon don. E. 

pOCOA-NUT fibre" REFUSE.— Useful 

V^ at all seasons. Largest makers in the Kingdom, is. per 
bag, 30 bags £1 (bags included), truck 25s. free to rail : 5s. van- 
load, at Works. Janet Street, Millwall, E. P.O.O. payable at 
General Post Office, London. Orders to be addressed to 
A. FOULON, Fibre Merchant, 32, St. Mary A.\e, London,E.C. 

Fibrous Peat for Orcliids, &c. 

quality for Orchids. Stove Plants, &c., £6 is. per truck. 
BLACK FIBROUS PEAT, for Rhododendrons, Azaleas, 
Heaths, American Plant Beds, 15^. per ton. 

Delivered on rail at Blackwater, S. E. R., or Famborough, 
S. W. R., by the truckload. Sample bag, 41. ; 5 bags, 201. ; 
10 bags, 365. Bags, ^d. each. 

Fresh SPHAGNUM, 10s. 6d. per bag. 

WALKER AND CO., Farnborough St ation, Hants. 

An Important Discovery. 

CIDE. — The cheapest and best of all insecticides for 
small and large nurseries, plantations, S:c Once tried always 
used. Full directions with each Bottle, price is. 6d., 7S. td. 
and 12s. 6ii. each. Special quotations for lar^e quantities. 

London Agents : HOOPER and SONS, Covent Garden ; 
and from all Seedsmen. Manufactured by E. GRIFFITHS 
HUGHES, Operative Chemist. Victoria Street, Manchester. 

I S H U RS T C O M P O U N D.— 

Used by many of the leading Gardeners since 1859, 
against Red Spider, Mildew, Thrips, Greenfly, and other Blight, 
in solutions of from i to 2 ounces to the gallon of soft water, and 
of fiom 4 to 16 ounces as a winter dressing for Vines and Fruit 
Trees. Has outlived many preparations intended to supersede it. 
Sold Retail by Seedsmen m Boxes, i^., -^s., and loj. td. 

One Fume effectu- 
ally destroys the 

whole family of 


Two Fumes in 
(]uick succession f^' 
will annihilate the 



6S. 6d. 





" Ready Cut Up," " Self Consuming," 
" Most Effective," " Perfectly Safe." 

This " Special " Article has now been extensively used by 
Horticulturists for some years, and hundreds can bear testi- 
mony to the fact that it is the cheapest, safest, and most 
efficacious Asphyxiate in the market. 


James Dickson & Sons, 

mS, Eastgate ST, CHESTER, 

Who will be pleased to send, post-free, on application, Circular 
containing Testimonials and all particulars. 

Price, Is. 8d. per pound. 

Carriage Paid on Orders of 28 lb. and upwards. 

For Sale, Wholesale, 

extract of Vegetables ; on board at Rouen or Dunkirk. 
Address, Mr. PETITHUGUENIN, Genlis, France (C4te 
d'Or), in French Language, and forward Testimonials. 

A. & J. MAIN'S 


These Frames are glazed with 2i-oz. glass, and painted three 
coats best pamt. The frame is 24 inches high at the back and 
r3 inches at front ; sides are iK inch thick, and the bars of the 
lights 2 inches deep. The wood used is best selected red deal. 
Each light has an iron strengthening rod and handle. No 
brickwork is required for these Frames. 

i-light FRAME, 4 feet by 6 feet, Z;? o o 

2-light ,, 8 feet by 6 feet, 376 

3-light „ 12 feet by 6 feet, 4176 

Price Lists with other sizes on api-lication. 

Orders over 605. free to any station in England. Packing 

Cases extra ; allowed for when returned free. 





IlUistrations, Price Lists, and Testimonials free. 

Hot-Water Apparatus fixed in any part of the 
Kingdom, and guaranteed. 


Horticultural Builders & Hot- Water Engineers, 





Plans and Estimates on application for every description ol 
Horticultural Buildings in Wood or Iron. 

Garden Frames and Sashes in Stock. 

J. B. BROWN & CO.'S 






making the 
Netting stronger 

more rigid, 

and much more 


Prices per Lineal Yard 24 Inches high. 


Mostly used for 



Gauge. 1 

11 in. 

Small Rabbits, &c. 
Smallest R,ibbits. 




18 Z\d. 
i8 4J</. 




ILLUSTRATED PRICE LISTS of ^\■ire Netting, Iron 
Hurdles, Bar and Wire Fencing, French Espalier 
Fencing and Wall Wiring for Training Fruit Trees, 
on application. 

J. B. BROWN & CO., 

January 3, 1880.] 







GARDEN POTS, from 2 to 30 inches diameter. 



11" 'l«!| 

All of Superior duality. Seldom turn green. 
Price List free. Book of Patterns, \s. Sheds of ditto, dd. 








Exhibited at the P.iris Exhibition, iSyS, and re-erected for Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., M.P., at Sudboume Hall. 

Illustrated List sent post-free^ and Estimate given for all kinds of Horticultural Work without 

charge, on application to 


The Thames Bank Iron Company 


Have the largest and most complete stock in the Trade ; 
upwards of ^20,000 worth to choose from. 



Their New Illustrated Catalogiie^ qtk Edition, now ready 

(price Sixpence). 

Hot-water and Hot-air Apparatus erected complete, or the Materials supplied. 

Price List on application free. 





Flowers, Fruit, & Vegetables. 

Established 1839. 


Perfection in Artificial Manures for all Plants 
on British Soil and Conservatories. 

Numerous Testimonials from all parts of the 
Kingdom justify us in stating that our different 
Manures and Plant Foods are perfect. Tes- 
timonials confirm the Analyst's favourable 
opinions given below. 


Will prevent disease to sound seedlings, and 
will double the yield. 


A highly-concentrated Manure, is admitted 
by all practical Men who have tried it to be the 
very best ever offered to the public. 

It gives bloom and vigour to Flowers, abund- 
ant growth to Vegetables, size and aroma to 
Strawberries, and fertility to all. 

Copies of confirmatory Testimonials will be 
sent on application to the Manager. 


"In this Manure the Phosphates are present in a Bone 
Material, and a large proportion of the Ammonia is ready- 
formed Ammonia, and, judging from its composition and fine 
state of preparation, should prove most v.aluable for Horticul- 
tural purposes.— Jos. CRiFPS,/o««cr/>' Senior Assistant to Dr. 
Voclckcr.'* Date, June ig, 1879. 

" I have carefully examined Gyde's Imperial Fertiliser, and 
from the results shown by analysis it must prove a very efficient 
Manure for Horticultural purposes— one which will not only 
stimulate the growth of the plant, but carry it on through its 
vaiious stages unto perfection.— D. BatcheLOR, Analytical 
Ckemist." Date, fune 20, 1879. 


I cwt., 16s.; i cwt., 9s. 6d. ; J cwt., 7s.; 

141b., 5s.; /lb., 3s. 6d.; Tin, is. 

To be obtained of principal Florists and Seedsmen. 

London Office : 

27, Crosby Hall Chambers, Bishopsgate, E.C, 


The Works, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 


W, TRINDER, Hauager. 



[January 3, 1880. 

.#: ^"^'J'^ 





vo.^ 0^' 





FUMIGATING. -Buy of the Maker direct. Write for 
samples before purchasing elsewhere. Best in the Market. 
Cloth, Sd. per lb. ; 38 lb., iSs. ; 56 lb., 361. ; i cwt., 65J. 
Paper, yd. per lb. ; a8 lb., i6s. ; 56 lb., 32s. ; i cwt., 56s. 
J. DENYN, 73, Rendlesham Road, Clapton, London, E. 


J- 30 feet by 19 feet, for Sale. 

Suitable for a Showhouse, with Pipes, Iron Stand, and 
Flooring complete. Price jCBo, or Shrubs of that value. 

Cost ,;^900. 

A Photograph will be sent on application to 
J. GROVER, Builder, Wilton Works, New North Road, 
London, N. 


The Cheapest House in the Trade for 
4-inch Pipes, is. lod. per yard. Other sizes equally low. 
F. AND J. SILVESTER. Castle Hill Foundry, Engineering 
and Boiler Works, Ne\Ycastle, Staffordshire. 




s now being extensively used by many of the principal Growers, 
and is found to be preferable to any other kind of fuel in respect 
to cheapness and durability, and particularly on account of its 
being perfectly free from .sulphur, and that it does not clinker 
the fire-bars. 

WOOD AND CO. deliver in truckloads to any Railway 
Station, prices for which can be had on application, or can be 
delivered by Wood & Co.'s Vans (in the Metropolis). 

WOOD AND CO. append a testimonial given to them by 
Messrs. Beckwith & Sons, a firm of great experience, and who 
have kindly allowed them to make whatever use of it they may 
think fit. 

Tottenham Nurseries^ London, N,, Dtc. 3I, 1877. 
To Messrs. Wood & Co. 

Dear Sirs,— With reference to your enquiry respecting the 
" Star " Anthracite Coal with which you supplied us— as to how 
it suited, its economy or otherwise — we have much pleasure in 
informing you that in every respect it \% the best Anthracite we 
have ever used. We find there is no smoke from it, which i& 
very essential, and there is no trace of sulphur. It requires 
very little stoking, and leaves very little ash, and certainly does 
not clinker. Our consumption of coal is about 500 tons a year, 
and we have no hesitation in saying that, by using your " Star" 
Coal in the place of ordinary fuel, we shall effect a saving of 
at least £^00 this year. We attribute this to the powerful and 
lasting properties of your Coal. — Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) G. Beckwith & Sons. 

WOOD AND CO. supply all kinds of Coal for House and 
Manufacturing purposes, in single truckloads, to any Kailway 
Station, at Wholesale rates, prices for which will be sent on 

WOOD AND CO., Coal and Coke Factors, Merchants, Con- 
tractors to Her Majesty's Government, 58, Coal Exchange, 
E.C. ; and 4, Coal Department, Great Northern Railway, King's 
Cross, N. ; and Midland Sidings, St. Pancras, N.W. ; 94, High 
Street, Kensington ; London, Chatham and Dover Railway Coal 
Depot, Elephant and Castle ; and Great Northern Railway Coal 
Depot, Sydney Koad, Hackney Wick, E. 



All the usual kinds at reduced rates. SACKS and SEED 
B.\GS, new and second-hand, of every description. RAFFIA 
TWINES. Price LIST on application to 

J. BLACKBURN and SONS, ^ and s. Wormwood Street, 
London. E.C. 


are highly recommended for diu-ability and cheapness. De- 
scriptive Catalogue sent post-free on application. SACKS and 
BAGS of every description. TARPAULINS, HORSE- 
ANDERSON, I4g, Commercial Street. Shoreditch, London, E. 


Bamboo Canes, Virgin Cork, &^c. 

C. J. BLACKITH and CO., 


MERCHANTS.— New Archangel and St. Peters- 
burg MATS of every description. RAFFIA FIBRE. 
g. James Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Under tlie Patronage of the Queen. 



The above Labels are made of a White Metal, with RAISED 


The Gardeners' yl/rto-«2i«^ says :—" We must give these^ the 
palm before all other plant labels, as the very first in merit." 
Samples and Price Lists free. 
J. SMITH, The Royal Label Factory, Stratford-»n-Avon. 

CORK, MATS, RAFFIA, &c. None cheaper. Prices of 
WATSON AND SCULL, qo. Lower Thames St.. London, E.C. 




Horticultural Buildings erected on Messenger & Co.'s Patent Method of Construction are very strong, most 
durable, light, elegant, amply ventilated, perfect efficiency for intended purpose is guaranteed, are economical in cost 
and maintenance; combine the peculiar advantages of Wooden and of Iron Houses, without their disadvantages. 

MESSENGER and CO., from their long experience, and having large Works e.\clusively devoted to the 
Construction and Heating of Horticultural Buildings, are in a position to e.xecute with despatch, in the best manner, 
the Orders with which they are entrusted. Only thoroughly well se.asoned timber used. 

The Plans of Landscape Gardeners, Architects, and Others carried out. 
Plans and Estimates forwarded free on receipt of Particulars by Post. Estimates sent free of charge. 

Ladies and Gentlemen waited on. 
Illustrated CVFALOGUES of GREENHOUSES, VINERIES, HE.\TING APP.-\R.-\TUS, &c., sent (ree 
on application. Richly Illustrated CATALOGUE of HORTICULTURAL BUILDINGS and HEATING 
APPARATUS (the Designs taken from Works executed by M. & Co.), post-free lor thirty-three stamps. Gentlemen 
consulting this Catalogue have the advantage of inspecting designs whose efficiency has been tested by actual 

)f(acfarlane's Castings, 
Architectural, Artistic, and Sanitary, 




on every Casting. 



Applied to Conservatories and Greenhouses. 

With Illustrations, Prices, &c. 

Fart I., now ready. Post-free, twelve stamps. 

Illustrations and Prices Gratis. 

T. H. P. DENNIS & CO., 



January 3, iSSo.] 





To Burn Petroleum, Paraffin, &c. 

The only perfect oil sieves 
to bvni absohitely without 
smoke or smell, trouble or 

For warming r.reenhouses, 
Vineries, Shop^, Halls, Bed- 
rooms. &c., ihey are un- 

They are perfectly safe, re- 
quire no pipes or fittings, will 
burn from tweUe to twenty 
hours without attention, give 
cff no injurious vapour, and 
are the best ever invented to 
our DAMP. cS:c. 



from a Few 

Write for Illustrated List to 

And say where you saw this Advertisement. 



After lone experience, has proved the most SIMPLE. 
extant ; recently improved. 

Sole Makers, 







Sole Proprietors and Manu^'acturers, 




Catalogues Free on /ipptication. 


6 feet by 4 feet. 2 inches thick, iron strengthening rod 
through, 5^. each. Orders amounting to 4--^. carriage paid. 
BOULTON AND PAUL. Horticultural Builders, Norwich. 

As adopted for the Prince of * 
Wale'^, at Sandringham. \ 


All oui-il'- \\ i.Mii K covered. No Painting Required. 
Cost of House Saved in Ten Years. No Rattle or Looseness 
of Squares. No Breakage Jrojn Expansion or Contraction. 
Squares instantly replaced. Testimonials. — "Sir: I went 
yesterday and examined the glass roof glazed by you, under my 
directions, at Sandringham, for H.R. H. the Prince of Wales, 
and find it perfectly satisfactory in all respects. The appear- 
ance is vastly superior to the old system of wood and putty, and 
I shall be glad to recommend it whenever I can. Yours faithfully 
(Signed), C. Smedley Beck, Aichltect. T. W. Helliwell, Esq."— 
" Mark Lane, London. Nov. 14, 1878. Dear Sir : I cannot see 
what Testimonial you can rquire from me, than the fact that I have 

taken off all my putty glazings, and removed 's work to 

replace it with yours. Any one seeing the two systems would say 
that yours is far ihe superior, and that nothing yet out cantouch 
it. Yours, W, R. Preston. T. W. Helliwell, Esq , Brighouse." 
For Estimates. Drawings, or Particulars, apply to the Patentee, 
T. W. HELLIWELL. Brighouse. Yorkshire. 

BOOTE AND MILLSON, Lead and Glass 
Mercfiants. 64, City Road, E.C.. have always on the 
PREMISES a large Slock of all kinds of Horticultural Glass, at 
lowest market rates. 



Price post-free on receipt of requirements. 

The Trade supplied. 

T. WILKINSON, Newton-le-Wiilows, LANCASHIRE. 

Roslier'3 Garden Edging Tiles. 


HE ABOVE and many other PATTERN.S 

are made in materials of great durability. The 
plainer sorts are specially 
suited for KITCHEN 
GARDENS, as they har- 
bour no Slugs or Insects, 
j^ »i|« take up little room, and, 

S^i<ri^^ once put down, incur no 

' further labour or expense, 

as do " grown " Edqings, consequently being much cheaper. 

GARDEN VASES, FOUNTAINS, &c., in Artificial Stone, 

very durable and of superior finish, and in great variety of design 

F. KOSHER AND CO., Manufacturers, Upper Ground 

Street. Hlackfriars. S.E. ; King's Road, Chelsea. S.W. ; 

Kin^iland Road, E. 


Illustrated Price Lists free by Post. The Trade supplied. 

for Conservatories. Halls, Corridors, Balconies, &c , 
from 35. per square yard upwards. Pattern Sheet of Plain or 
more elaborate Designs, with Prices, sent for selection. 

WHITE GLAZED TILES, for Lining Walls of Dailies, 

Larders, Kitchen Ranges, Baths. &c. Grooved and other Stable 

Paving of great durability, Wall Copings, Drain Pipes and Tiles 

of all kinds Roofing Tiles in great variety. Slates, Cement, &c. 

T. ROSHER AND CO.. Bri^k and Tile Merchants. 

See Addresses above. 


Price by post per Ton 

fine or coarse grain as desired, 
or Tiuckload, on Wharf in London, or delivered direct from 
Pits to any Railway Station. Samples of Sand free by post. 
Fl.IN IS and BRICK BURRS fur Rockeries or Ferneries. 
KE.Vr PEATS or LOAM supplied at lowest rates in any 

F. ROSHER AND CO.— Addresses see above. 

N B — Orders promptly executed by Rail or to Wharves. 

A libera! Discount to the Trade. 


15-or. and 2r-oz , in Boxes containing 700 fePt, 

Carriage Paid to any Railway Station In England. 

P^'ee Lists on application. 
ALFRED SYER, Glass, Lead, Zinc, Oil and Colour 
Merchant, 6 and 8, Pentonville Road, London, N. 


Can be obtained in all sizes and qualities, of 



B. Si. Son have always a large Stock in London of 20-in. by 12-in., 

20-in. by i4-in., ao-in. by 16-in., 20-in. by 18-in., in 16-oz. & 21-oz. 

Illustrated Catalogues 

• of over SEVEN HUNDRED BLOCKS suitab'c for 
the above purpose. Customers can have the use of any of them 

H. M. P. Publishes Small SEED CATALOGUES In two 
sizes, which can be alteied to suit the requirements of small 
consumers. Specimens and Prices on application, 

POLLET'S Horticultural Steam Printing Works, 42 to 48, 
Fann Street (late Bridgewater Gardens), Aldersgate Street, E.C. 

Just commenced, in Monthly Parts, price 7./. 
(Parts L to V, now ready), 



Witli Coloxired Plates, painted from Nature, 

By D. BLAIR, F.L.S., 

And numerous Wood Engravings. 

" The coloured plates have been painted from Nature, and 
will be reproduced in the best style of chromo-lithography. so 
as to secure life-like representations of the objects figured." — 
Brfad Airo^u. 

" An extremely handsome and instructive work ; at once 
scientific and popular, useful alike to the thorough student of 
Ferns and the merest amateur. Illustrations and letterpress are 
excellent." — NottingJlant Guardian. 

" The large size of the book (quarto) enables Mr. Blair to do 
more justice to the exquisite plants he has to delineate than is 
always possible in a work of this character, and the cjloured 
plate accompanying this part is a very fine specimen." — 


Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. ; and all Booksellers. 

Just Pitblishcd, a i hird Enlarged Edition, 
Price iSj., Cloth Gilt. 



Synopsis of all the known 
Coniferous Plants, 







To which is now first added a 



\* Sir Joseph Hooker, in speaking of the 
former edition of " Gordon's Pinetum," pro- 
nounces it "a standard work amongst Nursery- 
men and Foresters." 

HENRY G. BOHN, iS, Henrietta Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C. ; SIMPKIN, MAR- 
SHALL AND CO., and the Garden Office, W.C. 





SPORTING and the FIELD, in which is incorporated 

RECORD of RACES, and NOTES on the TURF. 
THE FLORA of AUSTRALIA. (Drawn and Engraved 

specially for this Journal.) 
NATURAL HISTORY. (Original Articles ) 
GOLD FIELDS and MINING generally. 



The SYDNEY MAIL has a wide circulation throughout the 
Australian Colonies, New Zealand, Polynesia, &c. It contains 
a large amount of information on a great variety of subjects. 

Subscription in Advance, £1 6s. per Annum. 

Single Copies, 6d. ; Stamped, 7./. 
Publishing Office— Hunter Street, Sydney, New South Wales. 


The undermentioned Newspaper and Advertising Agents 
are authorised to receive ADVERTISEMENTS for the 
London ...... Messrs. Geo. Street & Co., 30. Cornhill, E.C. 

Mr. F. Algar. 8, Clement's Lane, Lombard 

Street, E.C. 
Messrs. Gordon & Gotch, St. Bride Street, 

Fleet Street, E.C. 
Messrs. W. H. Smith & Son, tSS, Strand. 

Bristol James & Henry Grace, Royal Insurance 


Manchester . . James & Henry Grace, 73, Market Street. 
Edinuurgh .... Robertson & Scott, 13, Hanover Street. 

Glasgow W. Porteous & Co., 15, Royal Exchango 


1^" Copies of each Journal are filed at the abmt 
Offices for the use of Advertisers, 



Qanuary 3, 1880. 





Of all amylaceous or farinaceous substances this will be found THE 
most Nutritious and Strengthening. As an article of daily food it is 
excellent, but in Convalescence from ANY form of Disease, either in 
Adults or Infants, it is invaluable. 

In Atrophy or wasting disease in Children there is no food to be 
compared with it, inasmuch as it contains a very large percentage of those 
properties requisite to repair and build up the wasted structures of the 

body, and therefore only requires to be given in small quantities. It 
supersedes Medicinal Tonics, which in extreme cases of Debility fre- 
quently do more harm than good, on account of there being generally 
great irritability of the Stomach. 

This preparation is absolutely free from the admixture of any fari- 
naceous substance. It is guaranteed perfectly pure, and may safely be 
taken by the weakest Infant or most aged Invalid. 

Its beneficial properties may be sunivied tip as follows : — 

It is highly nutritious. 
Its nutrient and strengthening properties are in a condensed or concentrated form. 

Is most easy of Digestion. 

Is alike agreeable to young or old. 

Is a non-irritating Tonic. 

OPINION of W. B. O'SHATTGHNESSY, M.D., F.B.S., &c. Medical Service, 
Late Professor of Clicmistry and Materia Medica in the Mcdicil College, Calcutta, 

East India. 

" Two drachms aftbrd a sufiicient meal for an Invalid. Good 
Sakip Misree, properly prepared, is in truth one of the best articles of 
diet a Convalescent can use." 

FOR ATHLETES.— Those in training for Rowing, Racing, or 
Bicycling will find this a most excellent diet, as it is essentially a muscle 
invigorator .and producer. 

It is recommended by many of the most eminent Members of the 
Medical Profession. 

For Directions see Label on the Bottle. 










Price 3d., Post Free S^^d. 


January 3, 18S0.] 




Head Line c/uirged as tivo. 

4 Lines 



15 Lines 

€0 8 


5 „ 



16 , 


G ,, 


17 , 



7 .. 




IS , 


8 „ 

19 ■ 



9 „ 



20 , 


10 „ 


21 „ 



11 „ 



22 , 


12 „ 

13 „ 




23 , 

24 , 



14 „ 


25 , 






set across 


umns, the lowest 

charge will be 



• * 









26 words i^. 6(/. , and 61/. for every additional line 

(about 9 words) or part of a line. 

the=;e advertisements must bh prepaid. 

IMPORTANT NOTICE.— Advertisers arc cautioned 

og-aiMst futvini^ Letters addressed to Initials at Post-offices, as 

all Letters SJ addressed are opened l>y the authorities and 

returned to the sender. 

Births, Deaths and Marriages, 5^. each insertion. 

Advertisements ^or the current week must reach the Office 
by Thursday noon. 

All Subscriptions payable in advance. 

The United Kingdom; 12 Months. £\ ^s. ioi.\ 6 Months, 

11^, 11^. : 3 Months, OS". 

Foreign : 26^., including Postage for 12 Months. 

P.0.0. to be made payable at the King Street, Covent Garden, 

Post-ofHce, W.C., to W. Richards. 

Publishing Office and Office for Advertisements, 

41, Wellington Street, Strand. London, W.C. 

WANTED, in a Small Nursery, an active 
GARDENER, who thoroughly understands Growing 
Plants and Cut Flowers for Market. ^I^it be a good I'udder 
and Grafter of Roses, and successful P.-opasator of Soft-wooded 
Plants. Als") a competent MAN (married preferred) to Grow 
Vege'ables, Fruit, Herbaceous Plants, and Outdoor Roses. — 
Apply by letter to C. CLEMENTS and CO., Oak Farm 
Nursery, Cliigwell, Essex. 

DENER, in a situation about 20 miles from London. 
Flower and Kitchen Garden, Greenhouses, hot and cold. 
Single man preferred. — Apply by post, stating age, last situa- 
tion, and salary required, to S, P., Mr. Bedford, 26, Change 
Alley, London. E.G. 

WANTED, an experienced reliable Man as 
FOREMAN and MANAGER in a Nursery where 
choice Flowers and Plants are Grown for Market Trade. 
Wages not so much an object as an energetic, competent, and 
trustworthy man.— Mr. G. STRUTTON, Baker's Farm Nursery, 
Harlesden Green, Willesden, N.W. 

an active industrious young Man (single) for Outdoor 
Department. Must be steady, sober, honest, and have a good 
knowledge of Propagating and Growing a General Collection of 
Hardy Ornamental I'rees and Shrubs, and Fruit Trees. — Apply 
by letter only, stating wages, including bothy, fuel and light, to 
IRELAND AND THOMSON, Craigleiih Nursery, Comely 
Bank, Edinburgh. 


who thoroughly understands the Propagation of Rho- 
dodendrons, Roses, and Coniferae, Hardy Trees, and Shrubs 
under Glass. Liberal Wages to an experienced Man with good 
reference ; a cottage or comfortable lodgings on the premises. 
—Apply by letter, with particulars, to EDWIN HOLLAMBY, 
Groombridge, Tunbrldge Wells. 

WANTED, a GROWER of Soft-wooded 
Plants — one that has Grown for Market preferred.— 
Apply to R. CHILDS, Blenheim Nursery, Rye Lane, 
Peckham, S.E. 

WANTED, a respectable Young MAN, 
age 18 to 20, accustomed to Grow for Market. To 
live in house. A comfortable home for a steady man. — W. T. 
CHILD, Avenue Nursery, Acton. 

WANTED, a steady, respectable Youth as 
APPRENTICE in the Seed Business. Good refer- 
ences required.— Apply to E. WILSON SERPELL, 21, Corn- 
wall Street, Plymouth, 

To tjhfi Sficd Trads 

WANTED, as SHOPMAN,' for a Provincial 
House in Ireland, a young Man accustomed to the 
General Retail Trade, and if with a knowledge of the Nursery 
Trade it would be an advantage (but not absolutely necessary) 
— State full particulars as to experience, where last employed, 
and salary expected, to B. W., Gardeners' Chronicle 
Office, W.C. 

W" ANTED, ^^ SHOPMAN (Single- 
handed), a young Man, capable of taking Charge of a 
Seed and Florist's Shop in a Provincial Town. Must be well 
recommended from previous employer as to character and 
ability. None but thoroughly competent men need apply.^ 
JOHN TUCKER, High Street, Bridgwater. 


for a good Provincial House. Must be quick at 
Counter Work, and of good address. — Apply, stating age, 
experience, and salary required with board and lodging, to 
SEEDSMAN, Mr. R, Cooper, 90, Southwark Street, 
London, S E. 


the Seed Trade, for a Provincial House.— Apply, with 
references and full particulars, by letter only, to N., Messrs. 
Bolton & Co., Seed Merchants, Wood Green, London. 


DOWN IE AND LAIRD can at present 
recommend with every confidence several first-rate 
SCOTCH GARDENERS, whose character and abilities may 
be thoroughly depended upon, either for Large Establishments 
or Single-handed Situations; also FOREMEN, UNDER 
GARDENERS, and FARM BAILIFFS. — 17, Frederick 
Street, Edinburgh. 

BS. WILLIAMS begs to intimate that he 
• has at present in the Nursery and upon his Register 
some excellent Men, competent either to fill the situation of 
JOURNEYMAN. Ladies and Gentlemen requiring any of the 
above will please send full particulars, when the best selections 
for the different capacities will be made. — Holloway, N. 

GROWERS. —Advertiser is prepared to Work up a 
Connection, and Establish and Manage a Business for a Gentle- 
man with capital, intending Growing, for Trade purposes only. 
Grapes, Peaches, Strawberries, Mushrooms, Cucumbers, &c., 
also choice Cut Blooms. First-class references.— HORTLJS, 
5, Duffield Street. Battersea, S.W. 

M^'ATT, Market Gardener, is prepared to undertake 
the Management of a Sewage Farm, and will be happy to treat, 
by letter in the first instance, with the representative of Local 
Towns.— JAMES MYATT, Myland. Colchester. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 30; can be 
highly recommended. Reference — Mr. Otiey, Dayles- 
ford Gardens, Chipping Norton, Oxon. — C. SPALL, 11, 
Mexican Terrace, Caledonian Road, King's Cross, N. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 31 ; thorough 
good Grower of Fruit, Flowers, and Vegetables. His 
mother and sister excellent laundresses. Highest references.— 
H., Furley Street, Goldsmith Road, Peckham, S.E. 

GARDENER (Head), to any Nobleman or 
Gentleman, — Age 34, married, two children: thorough 
knowledge, of the profession m all its branches. First-class 
references. — GARDENER, Leyland, near Preston, Lancashire. 

GARDENER (Head).— Married, no family ; 
thoroughly practical. No Single-handed place accepted. 
Highly recommended from present and'previous situations. — J,, 
Mr. Edmonds, Broad Street, Hereford. 

GARDENER (Head).— Age 30 ; has a good 
knowledge in the different departments of Gardening; 
14 years' expeiience— 4 years as Foreman in present situation. — 
E. DOLBY. Alton Towers, Stoke-on-Trent. 

GARDENER (Head), to any Nobleman 
or Gentleman requiring the services of a Man thoroughly 
practical in all branches of Horticulture in large establishments, 
where Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables are grown extensively. 
Married, no incumbrance. — X., 16, Springfield Cottages, 
Highgate, London, N. 

GARDENER (Head); age 30. — W. 
Davidson, Gardener to the Earl of Harrowby, Sandon 
Hall, Stone, Staffordshire, will be pleased to recommend S. 
Brown to any Lady or Gentleman requiring a thorough 
practical and enegetic man, who has been here as principal 
Foremanfor four years, with credit to himself and to my entire 

GARDENER (Head, Working).— Age 28 ; 
thoroughly practical in every branch. Fourteen years' 
experience. Excellent character from present situation. — 
G. S., The Gardens, Crawley Court. Winchester. 

ARDENER (Head, Working), where 

several men are kept.— Age 30, married, no family ; ex- 
perienced in every department. Three and a half years' excel- 
lent character from present employer. — Apply, stating wages, 
Sue, to F. A. GOODE, the Gardener, Ashstead Park, Epsom, 

ARDENER (HEAD, W0RKlNG).~Age 28 ; 

fourteen years' thorough practical experience in all 
branches. Well up in the Management of all kinds of Plants, 
Fruit, and Vegetables, and the General Routine of Gardening. 
Can be highly recommended from present employer. Two 
years' excellent character.— E. B., Leigh Road, Eastleigh, 

ARDENER (Head), or GARDENER and 

BAILIFF.- Can be highly recommended. Reason for 
leaving— death of employer, and disposal of estate— G. HAR'T, 
Mayfield Lodge, Shooter's Hill, Kent. 

ARDENER (Head, or good Single- 

handed). — Age 31, married, no family ; thoroughly 
understands Gardening in all its branches. Eighteen years' 
experience. Staunch Teetotaler. Four years in present situa- 
tion.— W. B , Gisby's Library, Lee, S.E, 

GARDENER (EiRST-CLASS) ; age 27.— Mr. 
R. Git.BERT begs to intimate he is now in a position to 
recommend James Vert to any place of trust in Horticulture. 
J. V. has filled the post of principal Foreman at Burghley for 
three years, with infinite credit to himself and great satisfaction 
to me. Well up in all matters relating to the profession. A 
Protestant, strong and healthy, and a most respectable young 
man. Wages expected, ;^8o to ^qq per year.- Apply to R. 
GILBERT. Burghley, Stamford. 

GARDENER, where two or more are kept. — 
Age 30, married ; thoroughly understands the duties in 
all branches,— J. DAWE. Ravensden House, near Bedford. 

GARDENER.— Age -^^i, married, no family ; 
thoroughly experienced; three years' good character. 
Disengaged. Left through employer giving up establishment. 
— J. S., 19, Edward Street, Cheltenham. 

GA R D E N E R.— Age 44, widower, two 
children : thoroughly understands all branches. 
Eighteen months' good character. Seven years previously in a 
nobleman's family.— E. R., Poppleton Hall, York. 

GARDENER. — Aged 40, married ; 25 years' 
practice in all branches,— M., i. Times Terrace, Maylord 
Street, Hereford. 

C^ARDENER (Second).— Age 22 ; well up 

V_J m Early and Late Forcing. Good character from last 
situation.— W. GRANT, s, Somerset Place, Llandaff. Cardiff. 

/^ARDENER (Under), in a Gentleman's 

V.>^ establishment.— Age 23, single ; eight years' experience. 
Can be well recommended from last and previous employer. — 
J. B., 43, Richmond Place, Beacon Hill, Bath. 

I^j^OREMAN. — Has had long experience in 
Growing and Forcing all kinds of Fruit and PLinls for 
Market. Good character and reference. — W. T., 4, Knowsley 
Cottages, Long Lane, Church End, Finchley, N. 

FOREMAN.— Age 26 ; has had twelve years' 
experience in first-class establishments. Can be highly 
recommended from each place.— A. Z., The Gardens, Swith- 
land Hall, Loughborough. 

To Nurserymen, Florists, and Market Growers. 


-L MANAGEMENT in a first-class concern.— Thoroughly 
understands the Trade in all its branches. First-class references. 
— \V. J. B , GarJciu-rs' Chronicle Office, W.C. 

To tlie Trade. 

FOREMAN (Working).— Steady, strictly 
sober, attentive, and trustworthy. Thoroughly practical 
in Propagating and Growing Soft-wooded and Bedding StutT, 
quick and ready for Small Market Trade in Plants, Cut 
Flowers, &c. Wages not the object, but a kind master. A 
month's trial solicited.— A. B., Miss Crawford, Stationer, &c., 
High Street, Brentwood, Essex. 


-L^ Sec. — Age 36, married, without family; in the trade 
entirely for the past twenty years. First-class references as 
to ability honesty, and sobriety.— W. B., lo, Tyrrell Road, East 
Dulwich. S.E. 


J- nine years' experience in two of the leading Nurseries of 
Roses, Soft- wooded and Herbaceous Plants, &c. Good 
refeiences. — A. UPHILL, Norris Hill, Heaton Norri?, 

JOURNEYMAN, in the houses.— Age 20; 

^ six years' experience under glass. Good character. Can 
be highly recommended. State wages.— W. ADAMS, Bent- 
worth, Alton, Hants. 

TMPROVER, in a Gentleman's Garden.— 

-A- Age 19; sixteen months' good character. Leaving through 
deith of employer.— P. O., The Rectory, Great Bookham, 
Leatherhead, Surrey. 

SHOPMAN (Second), in the Wholesale 
Seed Trade, or the Management of a Retail Business in 
the Provinces. — Advertiser has had eight years' good experience, 
and possesses a fair knowledge of Book-keeping and Corre- 
spondence. Statesalarj'given.— ULMUS, Gardciitrs Chronicle 
Olfice, W.C. 

To the Seed Trade. 

SHOPMAN (Assistant).— Six years' ex- 
peiience. Good references.— H. T., Messrs. Kent & 
Brydon, 3, Tulwell Row, Darlington. 


-L Age 30 ; good reference. State terms.— H. HOLMAN, 
Junction Road, Burgess Hill. 



Pure, Mild and Mellow, Delicious and Most 
Wholesome. Universally recommended by the 
Profession. The Cream of Old Irish Whiskies. 

Dr. Hassall says-" Soft and Mellow, Pure, 
well Matured, and of very excellent quality." 

Gold Medal, Paris Exhibition. 1878 ; Dublin Exhibition, 
1S65, the Gold Medal.— ;o, Great Titchfield Street, London, W. 


The Medical Profession for over Forty Years have approved of 

this pure solution as the Best Remedy for 



and as the safest Aperient for Delicate Constitutions, Ladies, 

Children, and Infants. 


Freedom from Cough In Ten Minutes Is given by 

^-^ which taste pleasantly, and effect a rapid cure. 
Read more Cures {this week) of Pulmonary Complaints. 
Mr. Burgess, M.P.S., 63, Regent Road, Salford, writes:— 
"December 22j 1879.— I can bear testimony to the efficacy 
of Dr. Locock's Pulmonic Wafers in Pulmonary Complaints. 
Asthma, Consumption, Bronchitis, Coughs, Colds, Shortness 
of Breath, are instantly relieved and rapidly cured by the 
Wafers." Sold at is. i%d. and o-S, gd. per Box. 


— Old Sores, Wounds, and Ulcers. — The readiness with 
which Holloway's unguent removes all obstructions in the 
circulation of the vessels and lymphatics explains their irre- 
sistible influence in healing Old Sores, Bad Wounds, and 
Indolent Ulcers. To insure the desired effect the skin sur- 
rounding the diseased part should be fomented, dried, and im- 
mediately well rubbed with the Ointment. This will give 
purity to the foul blood, and strength to the weakened nerves, 
the only conditions necessary for the cure of all those ulcera- 
tions which render life almost intolerable. No sooner is this 
Ointment's protective powers exerted, than the destructive 
process ceases and the constructive business begins — new healthy 
growth appears to fill up the lately painful excavated pit. 



[January 3, iSSo. 


Of every form and well Ventilated, made of well-seasoned Red Deal and Englisli Glass wim or without Top Putty, Painted best White Lead and 
Oil Colour,-sent out ready Glazed and Fitted for local workmen to fix, or Erected Complete in any part of the Kingdom. 

Estimates and Plans 
given for 










, \ 




&c., &c.. 

"^^fe"^'' '^ -«r.;_^,^.- . '.::^ v^^^t= — -- ^"^^^^^s^ On receipt of full part'ic 


of size and site. 

CONSERVATORY or WINTER GARDEN attached to Mansion. 

Architects' Plans and Specifications carefully worked to, or Special Designs made after personal inspection of site, if preferred. 

GLASS SCREENS, to hide Kitchen Garden or unsightly objects, or as BOUNDARIES instead of Walla in New Gardens. 



Testimonials and Illustratea Price Lists {greatly reduced) free on application. 
A HANDBOOK, containing several Views of Houses, Hints for Heating, Culture of Vines and Fruit Trees, for 12 stamps. 



For all purposes -with any reasonable form of Boiler-fixed complete to any extent. 
Prices ^ivcn to Detailed Descriptions, or to Figured Plan and Sections if only rouglily made. 



A simple, powerful, and durable Boiler. 





of the " Gold Medal " type. 

Adapted for shallow stokeholes. 



Economical of fuel and powerful. 

B. W. WARHURST (successor to HEREMAN & MORTON, 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " 1 ha Editors ; " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The Publisher," at the Office, 41, WellinRton Street, Covent Garden, London, W.G 
Printed by William Richards, at the Office of Me^sfi. Bradbury, Agnew & Co., Lombard Street, Precinct of Whitefriars, City of London,! n the County of Middlesex, and Published by the 
Baid William Richards, at the Office, 41, Wellington Street, Parish of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, in the said County. — Saturday, January 3. 1880. 

Agent for Manchester— John Hevwood. Agents for Scotland— Messrs. J. Menzies & Co., Edinburgh and Glasgow. 



feablishij 1841. 


315.— Vol. XIII. {s,^,";^;} SATURDAY, JANUARY 10, 18S0. j 

Rcfii-tercd at llie General 
Posi-office as a Newspaper. 

Price 5d. 

Post Fkee, 5^. 


Abies Alberiiara .. 

,, Veitchii 
Apricots, sluughler of ih^ 
Arbmiu Uinrdo 
Bean, the Scji 
lilaize Castle (with cui) .. 

Book=, notices of . . 
Bromelia';, hybrid 
Broomrapes. . 
Calantlie Veitchii .. 
Cebu, vegetable products 


Qanbras-silian Fir, origia 

of (with cut) 
Cooke. R.A.. the late E.W. 
Cross fertilis.-tioii . . 
Crotons at The Firs, Laurie 


Cymbidiiim eltgans 
Cypripedmm Spiceiianum 

(with cut) 
Daphne Mezereum 
Diamonds, ariificial 
Dragon-tree of Adjuda . . 
Honstb' flowers 
Foreign correspondence . , 

Fortune's introductions .. 
France, the late liosts in.. 
Frost, the late 
Friiit culture 

Furniture woods in Milan 
Garden operations 
Garden Oracle, the 

„ view in Gloucester- 
shire (with cut) .. 
Geese, hybrid 
Grosvenor Gallery 
Heating, limekiln .. 

Hollies, new (with cuts) . 
Kew, a presentation to . 

,, show house at 
Ltclia anceps albi , . 
Lauru'.linu-, Kiiiyhi's, pruduce of 
Market prices 
Masters, the old . . 
Mentzelia ornata behead 

ing flies . . 
Oak timber buried .. ,_ 

Obituary . . .. . . 58 

OJoiitoglossum crispum .. 41 

,, Horsmani 
On and Ofl" Duty .. 
Oranges, large 
Orchids in flower . . 
Peperomia, adventitious 

roots of . . 
Phillyrea Vilmoreana 
Picea lasiocarpa . . 
Plants, new garden 
,, new of 1879 . , 
,, select index .. 
Potato Champion .. 
,, exhibition, the 
Rainfall at Leonardslee .. 
Rhododendrons at Pink- 

Royal Horticultural So- 
ciety's Committees 
Rural Population .. 
Scottish Horticultural As- 
sociation . . 
Selaginella and Lycop> 

Stock, influence of on 

scion (cuts) .. .. 53 

Verbena as a garden plant 50 
Weather, the .. . . 58 








Now Ready, in cloth, 16s.» 

-* Volume XH.. JULY to DECEMBER, 1879. 

W. RICHARDS, 41. Wellington Street. Strand, W.C. 

South Kensington. S.W. 
Floral at 11 a.m., and Scientific, on TUESDAY NEXT 
January 13. Admission, is. * 


*<-> SOCIETY. 

The Shows for i83o will be : — ROSE SHOW Tulv i • 
SUMMER SHOW, August xi and 19 : FRUIT and CHRy: 
f? J','''^-^ POUNDS in PRIZES. Open lo all Ensland. 
Schedules in due course may be had from 

n-^ c ou ADNITTandNAUNTON, Hon. Sees. 

1 he square, Shrewsbury. 

"OOR SALE, cheap, several thousand LARCH 

-t- and SCOTCH, 2 to I'A feet high, very fine plants, finely 
rooted. Must be cleared otf at once. Apply to 

JAMES ANDERSON, Nurseryman and Valuator, 
Meadowbank, Uddmgston, Glasgow. 

_ Bedding Roses. 


\J No Garden should be without a bed of this brilliant 
crimson and perpetual flowering bedding Rose. (Hundreds of 
testimonials.) Strong ground plants lor. per dozen, 751. per 100 
Other choice select Roses for bedding, 6ar. to 7m per 100 
King s Acre, near Hereford. 

OTo the Seed Trade. 
IS now ready, and may be had on application. A Copy 
has been posted to all our Customers. If not received an early 
intimation will oblige. 
MINIER, NASH and NASH. 60, Strand, Lond on, W.C. 

OR SALE, a quantity of Plain and Curled 

CRESS SEED (New). Apply to 
Mr. S. W. CAMPAIN, Deeping St. Nicholas, Spa lding. 

FOR SALE, a quantity of Lancashire Lad 
GOOSEBERRY BUSHES. 2-yr old. Apply 
W. MANN, Mogden Lane, Isleworlh, Middlesex. 


COWAN, The Vineyard and Nurseries, 
1 * ,.y"ston, near Liverpool, is now offering a large and 

f''KAli^'vTM?='"'°"^'v',*'°/'"J°;'"='''="'J thoroughly ripened 
GRAPE VINES, suitable for fruiting in pots and planting 
Vmeries. Catalogues free. Th e Trade supplied. 

r:j.RAPE VINES.— Fruiting and Planting 

Vr„ Canes of leading sorts. 

FRANCIS R. KINGHORN. Sheen Nurseries, Rich- 
niDDd, Surrey. 

S Grapes This Year. 

ripened without bottom-heat; leading kinds 7J. ei? and 
101, 6rf. each ; planling Canes y. td. to 51. each, 

CATALOGUE on application 
C^JAMES DICKSON and SONs! -Newtcn" Nurseries, 

To the Trade. 

^|--^ of SEKBS, &c., has been posted to all Customers. 

ahould any have miscarried another copy will be sent on 


237 ajidj38. High Holborn, London, W C, 


growing on them. Price from ^s. 6d. to 21s. each. 
RICHARD SMITH and CO., Nurserymen. Worcester. 



^— ' Roots, (or Forcing, exceedingly fine. Special quotations. 
Apply 10 

H. THORNTON, t. Maxwell Road, Fulham, S.W. 

CHARLES NOBLE has a very cheap and 

^-^ good Stock to ofler of ihe following :— 

APPLES, PEARS, and CHERRIES. Standards. 

PLARS on f^luince. Dwarf 

ROSLS, Dwarf, including Moss Perpetuals. 

An unsurpassable lot of Standard RHODODENDRONS. 
Post addre ss— Sunningdale. Staines. 

T ILIUM AURATUM.— English grown far 

J—' superior to Imported. Fine Bulbs, in three sizes, izr., 
lis , and 3oi. per dozen respectively. A few, extra laree at 
3r. 6t/ each. 

HOOPER AND CO.. Covent Garden. L ondon, W.C. 

QPIR^A PALM ATA.— This beautiful pink 

IX., "ariety, with immense flower bunches, justly called 
1 he Queen of Spira:as," is ofl'ered at 20s. per loo, strong clumps. 

Wholesale CATALOGUES free on application. 
EUDDENBORG BROTHERS, Bulb (Srowers, House, 

Bloe mswaard, Hillegom, near H aarlem, Holland. 

V E W S, from 3^ to 4^ feet, goj-. per 100 ; 

Hnri?^!'' 1/°.^^'^^' =" '''!'■ J'-'- P" '"o; Variegated 
HULLllib, ij^ to 2 feet, good Plants and well rooted. All 
good young bushy Plants, well rooted— as good as any one 
wishes to see for Hedges, cSlc. Nicely furnished 
JOSEPH SPOONER, Woking Suti on. 

LILIES, Superior, of English growth. 
„.„„,,„ BULBOUS PLANTS of all kinds. 
HARDY ORCHIDS, and ORCHIDS for Cool-house culture 
Before Purchasmg, see CATALOGUE of the NEW PLANT 
AND BULB CO., Colchester. Post-free on application. 
Dr. Wallace's "Notes on Lilies," Illus trated, post-free 51. Cd. 


i"™.,.9°K'"' Garden Market, are now olTering MAGNUM 
BONUM SEED POTATOS, true to name, at ts. per Bushel 
or i,n per Ton, Cash. ' 

SEED POTATOS.— We have a fine Stock 
of all the principal Old and New Varieties. 
,,„«., Special Price List on application. 

KERR AN D FOTHERI NGHAM, Seed Merchants. Dumfries. 

QRCHID BASKETS (great reduction in).- 

Vy Teakwood Rods, rounded edges, made with strong coppei 
or galvanised wu-e. Every kind made for growing Orchids, at 
50 per cent, less than usually charged. Sample sent carriage 
free on receipt of twelve stamps. TEAK RODS supplied, pro- 
pared and drilled, ready for making up. 

ALFRED GRANT and CO., Steam Works, ^M. Leather 
Lane, London. E.G. 


ANTED, CUT FLOWERS of all kinds. 

Cash by return of post. 
W. F. BOFF, 203, Upper Street, Islington, N. 

Floral Commission Agent. 
TyANTED, a regular supply of choice CUT 

» » FLOWERS, daily or otherwise. Consignments and 
letters to 

W. CALE, 1!, James Street. Covent Garden, W C. 

TyANTED, a quantity of CAMELLIAS, 

' T set in bud. from 18 to 36 inches. State price and sorts to 
M., G ardeners' Chronicle Office, W.C. 

WANTED, large plants of White 
AZALEAS. White CAMELLIAS, Lapageria alba 
Croton, and Dracxna. State price and full particulars to ' 

C. SHAW. The Fernery, Finchfi eld, Wolverhampton. 


(Dogwood). GOLDEN OSIER. State size and price 
per 1000 to 

HOWDEN AND CO., Nurs erymen, Inverness, N.B. 

TyANTED, about 15,000 LARCH FIR 

; ; PLANTS, 2 to 3 feet high : also about 20,000 SEED- 
LINGS. Send price, delivered to South Eastern or South 
Coast Railtvay, to 

JAS. C. VIDLER, SON and CLEMENTS, Estate Agents 
Rye. Sussex. ' 

ANTED, THYME, Lemon and Common. 

State lowest cash price and quantity. 
B. M., Gardeners Chronicle Office, W.C. 


Mangel Wurzel. 
TyANTED, 3 Tons of good MANGEL 

t T VVURZEL. Reply, stating price, delivered at Railway 
station, addressed 
Mr. C. SPRINGFIELD, Kerne HUl Station. London, S.E. 


-1-^ KONUM (ihe famous Disease resisting POTATO). 
Mr. Sllrui.KV Hifibkhd. wiitingabout this remarkable Polalo in 
the Cttrdeners Magazine. February 24. 1877, says :— " Sutton's 
Magmim lionum was selected by Mr. Martin Sutton from a set 
of seedlings. The entire stock was purchased by Messrs. Sutton. 
r/tese An Is will have some interest for those who are inquiring 
mlo the history 0/ this useful variety." All orders for the Hue 
variety should be sent to 

SUTION AND SONS. The Queen's Seedsmen, R eading. 


j7~\ GUIDE. The above will be ready in a few days. 

H. C. has great pleasure in assuring the Public that it is in 
every way superior 10 any preceding it, and quite away from 
and more to the practical purpose than anything of the kind yet 
issued. Post free. u. 
"f he H ome for Flowers, Swan'ey. Kent. 

T Special List of Cheap Ferns. 

ofa large number of varieties of FERNS and SELAGI- 
NELLAS. offered at very low prices, will be forwarded on appli- 
cation. Ferns being our Speciality, and having an immense 
stock, we are able to supply them at the most reasonable prices. 
W. and J. BIRKENHEAD, Fern Nursery. Sale, near 

QUICKS. — 3-yr. old, 12s. per 1000; a few 
thousand, exlra strong, 2 to 3 feet, 15s. per 1000. ASPAR- 
AGUS PLANTS, 3-yr. old, is. td. per 100, los. per rooo 
S. COOPER. The Nursery, Hadleigh, S uffolk. 

A SH.— 150,000— 2 to 3 and 3 to 4 feet— good 

-i- i- stout plants, offered to the Trade or otherwise, on very 

reasonable terms, by 

J. CHEAL and SONS, Lowli eld Nurseries, Crawley, Sussex. 

lyfANETTI STOCKS.— Strong carefully 

XJ-M. eyed Manetti Slocks, for cash, at i8s. per 1000. 

W H. CHARMAN and SON, Heath End Nursery, 
Farnham, Surrey. 

"POR SALE, Cheap, for Cash, Fourteen 

-*- CAMELLIAS, 4 to 10 feet, bushy, in bloom, in pots, 
comprising three White, three Red, and others various. Must 
be Sold. No reasonable offer refused. 

J. B. BUTTERFIELD, Nurseries, En field. 


FiAi.°l vr^M^o"^^' NECTARINES. APRICOTS, and 
^aV. VlNhii. a large and fine stock, now offered for Sale 
THOMAS RIVERS and SON. Sawbridge worth, Herts. 

S Special Offer to the Trade. 

ANGSTER'S No. i PEA (True, and Fine 
Stock), White Spanish ONION, and a few lots of 
FLOWER SEEDS. Prices and samplas on application 
JOHN K. KING, Seed Growe r, Coggeshall, Essex. 

STANDARD PEARS, to offer :— Williams' 

f<^ Bon Chretien, Hessel, Beurr^ Capiaumont and f^h^rt 
MufsEt^S?ogi^PI'-^'' '''^="^"" -d°"^lack' S^^?! 

D Jean 'Verschaffelt's Nurseries. 

free on application to 
de Bruxellcs, Ghent, Belgium. * 

London Agents : Messrs. R. SILBERRAD and SON i? 
Harp Lane, G reat Tower Street, E.C. 

QPRUCE FIRS for Christmas Trees, well 

RTCHTR'n' qv},^4.'=i' 3°^- fA'^°°J 4 '° S feet, 40s. per ,00. 
RICHARD SMITH and CO., Nurserym en, Worcester. 

QPRUCE FIRS.-Many thousands, 2,T7^ 

^.„,. S feet. Stout, well furnished, and good rooted. 
ANTHONY WATERER, KnapHiUNursery,Woki^| jiOTey. 

F Immense Quantities of 

and FRUIT TREES. ' '^^^■=-^ 

. „. CATALOGUES will be sent free on application, 
p LEVAVASSEUR AND SON, Nurserymen, Ussy, Calvados, 

Agents: Messrs. R. SILBERRAD AND SON rs Ham 
Lane. Great Tower Street, London, EC. ^ 

.^ , ,, EstabUshed in 1816. 

Hollamby s Nurseries, Groonibridge, Tunbridge Wells. 

Eroo Acres to select from. 
DWIN HOLLAMBY'S Descriptive Priced 
=1. , '^A'^'^^°'^UE of Roses, Evergreens, and Flowerine 
Shrubs, Conifers, Fruit and Forest Trees, &c, , will be forwarded 
free on application. 
N.B.— Through trucks to all parts : a gr eat saving in packing. 


-C^ Conover's Colossal, 6 yr. , 8r. per 100, 751. per 1000 • 
3-yr., for planting. 31. per 100, 251. per rooo; 2-yr., 2j 6d per 
100, 201. per 1000 ; grand ditto, 3-yr., 21. 6d. per 100 ■ 2-vr 
21. per 100. Packages gratis. Discount to the 'Trade' 
Remittances to accompany all orders. 
CHRISTMAS QUINCEY, Peterbo rough. 

Khubart) and Seakale Forcing 

STRONG, well-made POTS for the above 
can be supplied by 
J. MATTHEWS, Royal Pottery, Weston-super-Mare. 
Price List Free. 



[January io, 1880. 


Important Consignment from Japan. 

will SELL, at The Matt, on JANUARY 19, 6000 extra 
fine bul!>s of LILIUiM AURATUM : also ten Cases of 
PLANTS, consisting of new and distinct Iris, Nymph.xas, 
Nelumbiums. &c. The native Drawings may be seen at the 
Auctioneers' Offices, and will be produced at the Sale. Also an 
assortment of English-grown LILIES and other BULfJS. 

Fin ther particulars next week. ^^ 

Eatablislied and Imported Orchids. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King Street, 
Covent Garden. W.C, on MONDAY. January 12, at half-past 
12 o'clock precisely, ESTABLISHED and SEMI-ESTAB- 
LISHED BRAZILIAN ORCHIDS, comprising Caltleya 
marginata, C. Schilleriana, C. Leopoldii, C. amethystina ; 
LEelia Dayana, L. prastans, L. purpurata : Oncidium curium, 
O. crispum, O. Marshallianum, O. dasytyle, O. t'orbesii, O. 
concolor — consisting of fine masses in healthy condilion, from 
Mr. R. Bullen, of Lewisham ; an importation from Soulh 
America of Catlleya Mossix and its varieties, in good con- 
dition ; an importation of AnKCtochilus Dawsoni ; an importa- 
tion of Disa grandillora ; several CASES of ORCHIDS and a 
perty of a gentleman deceased. 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

RoScS, Fruit Trees, Shrubs, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C, on WEDNESDAY, J.anuary 14, at h.alf- 
past 12 o'clock precisely, 2000 first-class STANDARD and 
PLANTS, and a quantity of HYACINTHS, TULIPS, and 
IOLI, &c. 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

8000 Splendid Bulbs of LUium auratum, &c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C, on THURSDAY, January 15. at half- 
past 12 o'clock precisely, 8000 fine BULBS of LILIUM 
AURATUM, just arrived from Japan in the finest possitjle 
condition I 5000TIGRIDIAGRANDIFLORA, 1000 T. CON- 
CHIFLORA, and 5000 fine GLADIOLI, from New Jersey: 
6000 bujs of LILV of the VALLEY, from Germany; 2000 
LILIUM KRA.MERI, cases of ARAUCARIAS, fine roots of 
ANEMONE FULGENS: also excellent bulbs of the follow- 
ing choice and handsome LILIES— Leiclitlinii, Batemaniiise, 
neilgherreiise, Browiii, Wasliingtonianuin, Kioctzeri, luper- 
bum, tigrinum jucundum. giganteum, Szovitzianum, Melpo- 
mene, and BULBS from Holland. 

May be viewed the m:,rning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

and SEED BUSINESS. Good Dwelling-house, Shop, 
and 32 Acres of Land. Market Town in Yorkshire Established 
83 years. The whole or part may be taken, or the Seed Busi- 
ness alone would be Disposed of Details of 

PROTHEROE AND MORRIS, 98, Gracechurch Street, 
E.C. (4832.) 

English Lake District, Ambleside. 


NURSERIES, Ambleside, together with the SEED 
BUSINESS, established by the late Mr. John Grier about the 
year 1846. The Grounds, about 7 acres in extent, admirably 
laid out, and fitted with necessary appliances, are conveniently 
situated close to the head of Windermere Lake, in a central 
part of the Lake District, and are easy of access by rail or 

Full information will be given on application to Mr. G. C. 
COOKMAN, 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C ; or 
to Mr WILLIAM BARTON, Crescent Villa. Ambleside. 

moderate terms, the BATH ROAD NURSERIES and 
MARKET GARDEN— 6 acres Garden, &c.. 12 acres Grass, 
Barn, Piggeries, Two Greenhouses, Potting-shed and Office. 
Twelve years unexpired Lease : moderate rental. 
H. T. BATH, Seedsman, &c.. 80, High Street, Lymington. 


NURSERY, Swindon. The only bne in the neigh- 
bourhood : a rare opportunity. Possession at once, or Lady- 
day next. Stock, belonging to Owner, at a valuation, half of 
which can remain at 5 per cent. For a pushing man wiih 
a capital of ;£6oo to j^7oo this is an opportunity seldom met. 
The Vines produced last season over a ton of Grapes ; there is 
also a ready Sale for Plants of all descriptions. 

Apply to the Owner, JAMES HINTON, Auctioneer and 
Estate Agent. New Swindon. 

Wandswortli, S.W. 

TO BE LET on LEASE, a EARM of 150 
acres, within half an hour's drive from the City or West 
End of London. Good Dwelling-house, Cottages, and Shedding 
for Sixty Head of Cattle, and other outbuildings. Immediate 
possession. The Farm could be reduced to no acres or 
increased to 2:10 acres. 

Apply to Mr. ALFRED W. OBORNE, Resident Agent, 
Wimbledon Park, S.W. 

Grazing Lands Suitable for Dairymen, Horse and 

TO BE LET, about 94 Acres of MEADOW 
and PASTURE L.\NUS adjoining the Lake in 
Wimbledon Park, 'only six miles from Town ; also 40 acres of 
Pasture with Cottages and Huildings ne,irer Wandsworth. 
Some of the fields would be let separately ; the rents vary from. 
^1 \os. to ;C5 per acre. Immediate possession. 

Apply to Mr. ALFRED W. OBORNE, Resident Agent, 
Wimbledon Park. S.W. 


and Valuers. gS, Giacechurch Street, City, E.C.and at Leyton- 
stone, E. Monthly Horticultural Register had on application. 

• Planting by Contract or Otherwise, Ornamental Lakes, 
Rock work, i*tc. References kindly permitted to Noblemen and 
Gentlemen — places already earned out. Plans and Estimates 
furnished. — Wellesley House.WcIlington Road, Orpington, Kent. 

To tlie Trade. 

HAND E. SHARPE can supply the Trade 
• with a very true stock of the above-named POTATO, 
grown from carefully selected tubers. It is one of the be^t 
disease-resisting varieties in cultivation. Further particulars as 
to price, &c. . may be had on application. 

Seed Growing E^tablis.hment, Wisbech. 

Oak, English, 4 to 8 feet, 1000 to 1500 for Sale. 

all transplanted two years ago. Price on application to 
W. P. LAIRD AND SINCLAIR, Nurserymen, Dundee, N.B. 

pYCLAMEN " PERSICl7M7~sho^Wng" large 

V_y quantiiies of bloom, 30J. per 100 ; sample dozen, 55. 

WHITE VESUVIUS, 2as. per joo ; 3s. per dozen, package 
GEORGE CUMMOW, 114. LoughboroughRoad, Brixton, S.W. 

Special Offer. 

POTS, ripened under glass, well-shaped trees. 3^. each. 
VINES, leading sorts, extra strong Canes for fruiting in pots 
this .season, 55. and ts. each. Very fine planting Canes, 
3^. each. 
JAS. CARAWAY AND CO., Durdham Down, Clifton, 


Strong Roots of this splendid variety are ofTered in three 
sizes, at 7.9. td., ics. 6if., and ts^. per too respectively. 

HOOPER AND CO., Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

To tlie Trade. 

NUTTING AND SONS have now posted 
their Annual Wholesale Garden, Agricultural and 
Flower Seed CATALOGUE to all their friends ; if not to hand, 
on application another shall be immediately forwarded. 

NUTTING AND SONS, Seed Merchants, 60, Barbican, 
London, E.G. 

Gold Medal Begonias. 

SEED, superior to all others, is now harvested from 
their unequnlled colleclion, v/hich was again awarded the Royal 
Horticnliiiral Society's Medal in August. Sea'ei packets, free 
by post. IS. and 2S 6ii. each. The Trade supplied. 

JOHN LAING AND CO., Seedsmen. Forest Hill, S.E. 

Strong Pear and Crab Stocks. 

EDWD. HOLMES, Whittington Nursery, 
Lichfield, offers the above to the Trade. 
Price on application, and Sample if desired. 

To Clear tlie Ground, 

Preparatory to a change of Residence, specially low quotations 

will be given for 


yj and DECIDUOUS TREES and SHRUBS. Gentlemen 

about to plant are invited to apply for particulars. 

J. J. MARRIOTT, Highfield Nurseries, Matlock, Derbyshire. 

To tlie Trade. 

FOREST TREES, e.xtra strong and well- 
rooted, 4, 5, 6, and 7 feet, consistme of 
Special Prices, to clear ground, on application. 
JAMES DICKSON and SONS, "Newton" Nurseries, 

New Cucumber, Sir Garnet Wolseley. 

Wellington Place, near Carlisle, will supply SEEDS of 
the above, in Packets of 6 Seeds, Post-free for 30 stamps. 

" The points in which Cucumber Sir Garnet Wolseley sur- 
passes all other long-fruited varieties are the symmetry of its 
fruit, and the abundance with which they are produced ; there 
being no shank or handle to Sir Garnet.'' — Gardeners' 
Chronicle, September 27^ 1879. 

Standard Apples and Pears. 

EDWD. HOLMES offers the above to the 
Trade, cheap. Sorts and Prices on application. 
Whittington Nursery, Lichfield. 

To the Trade. 


HAND F. SHARPE are prepared to make 
• special offtrs of their choice stocks of HOME- 
GROWN GARDEN and FIELD SEEDS to those who have 
not yet completed their supplies for the coming season. 
Seed Growing Establishment, Wisbech. 


PEARSON'S SET of thirteen splendid varieties, Zd. 
each ; the set for D.S.. post-free. 

Selected varieties :— Jeanne d'Arc, finest single white ; Candi- 
dissima plena, double white ; Zonal Tricolor H. M. Pollett, 
Mr. Parker, Lord Gifford, Arnobius, Brennus, Laverna, 
Numltor, Syressa, Tereus, %d. each, 12 for 6s ^ post-free. 

Executors of H. WALTON, Edge End Nursery, Brieifield, 
near Burnley. 

Potatoa— Potatos— Potatos. '. ' 


subject to being unsold on receipt of order. 
MYATl'S ASHLEAF, is. per stone 
OLD ditto, IS (>d. per stone 
RIVERS' ROYAL ditto, M. 6d. per stone 
VEITCH'S IMPROVED ditto, 2j. 6rf. per stone 
MONA'S PRIDE, zj. 6./. per stone 
ALMA KIDNEY, 2J. per stone 
MAGNUM HONUM, 21. per stone 
RECTOR of VlfOODSTOCK, -^s. per stone 
PATERSON'S VICTORIA, is. gd. per stone 
SCOTCH REGENT, is. 6rf. per stone 
JOHN HOUSE, Eastgate Nursery, Peterborough. 

To the Trade. 

HAND F. SHARPE are now offering the 
• above excellent POTATO, grown from their original 
stock. It gave tniiversal satisfaction last season, having pro- 
:duced a fine yield, and comparatively free from disease. As 
'the stock this season is limited early orders are requested. 
Seed Growing Establishment, Wisbech. 







proved itself to be the hardiest, sweetest, n ost solid, and 
best Celery ihis unfavourable season ; when mnst kinds have 
l)een soft and watery tliis has been good in every way. Those 
wishing to obtain the true article should have it in printed 
packets, price IJ'. : post-free on receipt of 13 stamps. 
BROC COLl, Harrison's new Dwarf Haidy ; a late valuable 

kind, IS. per packet. 
SAVOY, Harrison's King Coffee Garden, is. per packet. 
TURNIP, Harrison's Hxhibition ; a perfect round white 

variety, from 6d. per packet. 
CARROT, Harrison's Early Market, 6d. per packet. 


choicest quality, are sufplied in collections of z\s. 
and upwards, sent carriage free. Trade Prices and full 
particulars on application to 

HARRISON AND SONS, Seed Growers, Leicester. 


O HAZEL and ALDER, stout, well-rooted, transplanted. 
Also a large quantity of i and 2-yr. Seedling SPANISH 
CHESTNUT, at 6s. and is. per looo. 

GEORGE CHORLEY, Costers" Nursery. Midhurst. 

LARCH. — Part of our Land being required 
for Feuirg purposes, we beg to offer i-yr. Seedling 
LARCH from .C4 lo.^. to £,6 10s. per 100,000, as per samples. 
R. AND A. MORRISON, The Nurseries, Elgin. 




respectfully invite attention to their Extensive 
Stocks of FOREST, ORNAMENTAL, and 
FRUIT TREES, Dwarf and Standard 
ROSES, Vines, &c., all in splendid condition. 
Where personal inspection is not convenient, 
special offers will be made, and CATA- 
LOGUES sent on request. 
Special Railway Tickets to and from the New Nurseries. Granton 
Road, may be had gratis, at i, George IV. Bridge, Edinburgh. 

H. POYNTER can offer to the Trade 

Surplus Stock as follows : — 
PEAS, Knight's Excelsior Marrow. 
PETUNIA, one of the finest prize strains. 
CLOVER, Somerset red, or Marlgrass. 
GOOSEBERRIES, i-yr.. to name. 
APPLE STOCKS, 2-yr., 2-yr. 
PRIVET, Evergreen and ovalifolium, i-yr. 
LIMES in various sizes, 

LARCH, transplanted, in sizes, iJK to 2/4 feet 

Taunton Nurseries, Somerset. 



To the Trade. 

ofTer the following : — 
ROSES, strong, on Manetli, 305. pet 100 
APPLES, Pyramids, 50J. per 100 

APRICO IS, Moor Park, dwarf, cut back. 50^. per 100 
CURRANTS, Black, strong, 105. per ico, Sew. per icoo 

.. Red, ditto, 10^. per 100, 80s. per IC03 
ELMS, Wych, 3 to 4 feet, 70s. per 1000 
HAZEL, 2 to 3 feet, 18s. per 1000 ; 3 to 3J^ feet, 20s. per icoo; 

3% to 4!2 leet, 30J. per 1000 
PRIVET, Evergreen, 2 to 3 feet, 20^. per 1000 
LAURELS, Common, 2 to 2^2 feet, 12.S. per 100 

.. Portugal, 1% to 2 feet, 20s. per ico 
YEWS, English, 2^2 to 3 feet, 30^. per 100; 3 to 4 feet. 6oj. 
per 100 

52, Market Square, Northampton. 

To the Trade, 


EDWD. HOLMES offers the above, all 
good, well-rooted plants. 
LIST of Sorts, with Prices (moderate) on application. 
Whittington Nursery, Lichfield. 

ALNUS CORDATA, 12 to 16 feet, 2j. each 
BIRCH. Silver. 12 to 16 feet, is. 6d. each 
CHESTNUT, Scailet, 8 to 10 feet, is. each 
ELM, Chichester, 8 to 10 feet, 8s. per dozen, 50.J. per 100 ; 10 
to t2 feet, los. per dozen, 655. per too 

,, English, very fine. 8 to 12 feet. i$s. per dozen 
ORNUS EUROP-EUS, flowering Ash, 8 toiofeet, rs &/. each 
THORNS, with good heads, single Pink, gr. per dozen 

,, with good heads, double Crimson, 10^. per dozen 
CURRANTS. Black and Red, loi. per too 
FILBERTS, best named, transplanted layers, 20^. per 100 
GOOSEBERRIES, all leading kinds, 15s. per 100 
WALNUTS, 6 to 8 feet, 12s. per dozen. 

JAS. CARAWAY and CO., Durdham Down Nurseries, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

Important Notice. 

V^ begs to inform the Trade and Potato Growers that he 
has Imported a very large quantity of that invaluable Early 
Potato, THE BEAUTY OF HEBRON, which he now offers 
at ^d. per lb., 2^. gd. per stone of 14 lb , 20s. per cwt. Special 
quotations for large quantities. Wholesale prices on receipt of 
Trade Card. Peck Bags 31/. each ; Cwt. ditto ^d. ; new Sacks, 
i.r. each. Remittances to accompany all orders. 

From the msny Testimonials received, C. Q. has selected 
the two following as agreeing with his own experience last 
season, when he grew over 10 acres : — 

" Lcverin;^ton Road, IVisbech, November 29. 1879. 

" Dear Sir, — The twelve varieties of Potatos which I pur- 
chased from you last spiing I planted with five varieties I had 
raised from Berries, selected during a period of five years, and 
which sorts I considered as discase-resislers ; but this season the 
whfjle seventeen varieties were scarcely worth the digging, except 
'The Beauiy of Hebron,* which came up fifteen to twenty 
tubers to the root, entirely sound, handsome shaped, and were 
good cookers. I have been a Potato grower for twenty years, 
but never found such a marked superiority as in ' The Beauty 
of Hebron ' over the other sixteen varieties. A Potato which 
will resist the blight in a season like the last should be tried by . 
all growers. — 1 remain, yours truly, "J. T. Smith. 

" Mr. C QuiNCEV, Potato Grower^ Peterborough," 

"St. Afary's, Ramsey, December iB, 1879. 

"De.^r Sir.— The 10 cwt. of ' Beauty of Hebron" PotatosT 
which I bought of you last spring, I planted on 2 roods and 30 | 
poles of land. They produced 6 tons of very fine Potatos, and \ 
there were but very few diseased ones, surpassing all my other 1 
crops this season, and were fit for digging about the same time j 
as the ' Myatt's Prolific.'— I am, dear »ir, faithfully yours, 

"David Cornev. 

" To Mr. C. QuiNCEY Potato Grower, Peterborough" 

January io, iSSo.] 



WBALL AND CO. have many thousands 
also a large quantity of HERBACEOUS and ALPINE 
PLANTS, at very low Prices to the Trade and large Buyers. 
Price LISTS forwarded on application. 

Bedford Road N-ursery. Northampton. 

ILLIAM FLETCHER, Ottershaw Nur- 

series, Chertsey, will be glad to quote prices to the 
Trade, as named :^ 

BIRCH, a to 3 feet, 3 to 5 feet, and 5 to 8 feet. 
HAZEL, 2 to lYi feet. 
ASH. Common, 2 to 4 feet. 
ALDER. 2 to 3 feet, 3 to 5 feet, 

Vines-Vines— Vines. 

WM. CUTBUSH AND SON have a very 
fine stock of the above, both of Fruiting and Planting 
Canes, of most of the leading sorts. Prices and sorts on 

Highgate, London, N. ; and Barnet. Herts. 


We have now posted our Wholesale CATALOGUE of 
Agricultural, Vegetable and Flower Seeds to all our Customers. 
Any one not having received it will oblige by letting us know. 
Free by Post on application. 
WATKINS AND ShMPSON, i. Savoy Hill, Strand, VV.C. 

FUton and Callendarfleld Nurseries, Falkirk, N.B. 

ROBERT STEUART, Nurseryman, is 
now offering Transplanted Scotch FIR, strong true 
Highland PINE. SPRUCE, Norway LARCH, extra fine, to 
•i% feet ; PINUS AUSTRIACA. often and removed last 
season, extra strong. Prices and samples on applicatioa 
THORNS, &c. 

To tHe Trade. 
(\ J. ALBERTS AND CO. (Successors to J. 

VJ • W. Ottolander & Son), Boskoop, Holland, be^ to offer : - 
LIMES (splendid trees), ii to 15 feet, girthmg 4 to 5 
inches, per 100, xoos. \ girthing 5 to 6 inches, per io3, 135J. ; 
girthing 6 to 7 inches, per 100, 170;. Carriage free to 


ALDER, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6 feet. 

BEECH, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6 feet. 

BIRCH, ij^ to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4. and 4 to 5 feet. 

ELMS, of sorts, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6 feet. 

LARCH, 1^2' to 2, 2 to 3, and 3 to 4 feet. 

SCOTCH, iK to 2, and 2 to 25^ feet. 

SPRUCE, ij-i to 2, 2 to 2^, 2^ to 3, and 3 to 4 feet. 

OAKS, English, 4 to s. 5 to 6, and 6 to 7 feet. 

PINUS AUSTRIACA, 4 to 5, 5 to 6, and 6 to 7 feet. 
The above are all stout well-grown Plants, and a very 
reasonable price will be quoted. Apply to 
JOHN HILL, Spot Acre Nurseries, near Stone, Staffordshire. 


Seedsmen, r, Waterloo Place, Edinburgh, are now 
Booking Orders for the beautiful DOUBLE MATRICARIA, 
figured ni the Ganfeners' Chronicle of Dec. 13, 1879, at is. 6d. 
each. r2^. per dozen, or 75^, per loo—all free by post ; and are 
now sending out well-established Plants of their lovely new 
SAXIFRAGA WALLACEI, at rs. 6d. each, 121. per dozen, or 
75J. per 100, free by post. Usual discount to the Trade. 

D. & Co. have the largest stock of BEDDING VIOLAS in 
the country. 
Descriptive CAT.\LOGUE free on application. 

New Rose Trees. 

New Sorts obtained by 

MARGOTTIN PERE (Prize of Honour 
Exhibition of 1878, Paris).— 32, Grande Rue, Bourg- 
la-Reine (Seine), France. 

Hybrides Remontantes. 
Very vigorous plants ; large flowers, most beautiful red- 
scarlet colouring, surpassing in brilliancy all sorts in existence. 
Price £1 per plant. Shipments upon o rders. 

To the Trade and Large Buyers. 

-*- Special offer :^ 

»oo,ooo ASH, Mountain, 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 feet. 
100,000 „ Common, 3 to 4 feet. 

50,030 ALDER, 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 feet. 
150,000 FIR, Scotch, 15 to i3 inches and z\i to 2 feet. 

50,000 ,, Spruce, \% to 2 feet and 2 to 2^2 feet. 

50,000 PRIVET, Evergreen, 2 to 3 feet. 

50.000 WILLOWS, Osier, 3 to 4 feet. 

20,000 RHODODENDRON, splendidum, white. 

ao,ooo ,, Jacksoni. 

50,000 „ Ponlicum, i5^ to 2 feet and 2 to 2!^ feet 

50,000 ,, Hybrid Ponticum, seedlings, \% to 2 feet. 

20,000 ,, named varieties, 2 feet. 

50,000 YEWS, English, i"^ to 2 feet. 

For prices and particulars apply to 
The Nurseries, Milton, Stoke-on-Tren t. 

CKent, the Garden of England. 
OB NUTS, fine Kentish ; Kentish PLUMS, 
t'',','?.^'.",.'^'^^''^'*'^'^^, large AUCUB AS. large LIMES, 
YUCCAS, and the finest general stock of FRUIT TREES in 
the Kingdom, some 200,000 to choose from. 

General Descriptive FRUIT LIST on application. The 
Trade supplied. 
THOS. BUNYARD and SONS, Old Nurseries. Maidsto ne. 

Wandsworth Common and Garret Lane Nurseries. 
"D AND G. NEAL beg to call the attention of 

-l-*J» Gentlemen, Builders, and the Trade to their large and 
FRUIT TREES, ROSES, SHRUBS, &c., grown at thei^ 
Nuperies, which comprise 70 Acres of a remarkable collection 
of those Plants and Trees most suitable for growing in or near 
large towns. An early inspection is solicited. 

All goods delivered free on rail in Londoner at own residence 
within SIX miles of the Nurseries. 
CATAL OGUES free by post on application. 

Gros GuUlaume Grape.— Roberta' Variety. 
"Vy TAIT AND CO. are offering strong 

» I •well-grown CANES of this wonderful variety at 
5*., 71- orf., and loj. 61/. each, grown from eyes Uken from the 
JMrent Vine. See Gardeners' ChronicU. Dec 20, 1870, page 704. 

-?!" '^^ """,Sers should be accompanied with remittance. 

The Old Established Nursery and Seed Warehouses, no 
and 120, Capel Street, Dublin. 

WE B B S' 


(Disease Resisting-) 

This splendid new round variety has become deservedly 
popular, being the acme of perfection in quality and flavour. It 
is an immense cropper, producing tubers of large size, uniformly 
round and handsome, with shallow eyes : flesh, snowy white, 
and very mealy— undoubtedly the best Potato for table use ever 
introduced. Stock limited. 

Price <,s. 6d. per peck of 14 Ib,^ or 2os, per 
bushel of ^d lb. 



Tlie Great Disease-Resister. 

This remarkably late Kidney Potato is of grand quality. 
The tubers are of very large size, symmetrical in shape, with a 
few small eyes, and of exceedingly fine flavour ; the flesh is firm, 
very white and mealy. It is an enormous cropper on all soils, 
and fit for use when got up, also an excellent late keeping 
Potato, as it resists the disease to an extraordinary degree. 

Price 3J-. 6d. per peck of 14 lb. ; lis. per 
bushel of 56 lb.; 30^". per sack ojf i6Z lb. Much 
cheaper by the half ion or ton. 

WEBB AND SONS being probably the largest growers of 
Seed Potatos in the kingdom, can offer other excellent varieties 
in large quantities on very advantageous terms. 

Potatos of ■20s. value carrias^e Jne ; 5 per cent, discount for 






Now ready. Price is.j Poit-freey or j^atis to Customers, 




With copious and Original Articles on 






With One Hundred Pages of beautifully printed Letterpress, 
handsomely Illustrated with two magnificent Coloured Plates, 
and nearly 200 fine Wood Engravings. This is the most beau- 
tiful and comprehensive Seed Catalogue yet published, and 
shouldhQ in the hands of all interested in Horticulture. 




JOHN SHARPE can offer to the Trade well 

tf harvested SEED, and of full growth— Crop 'yS. Samples 
INTERMEDIATE and LONG RED on application. 
Bardney Manor, Lincoln. 

GEE'S superior Bedfordshire-grown FARM 
and other PLANTS and ROOTS, &c. For truthfulness of stocks, 
purity of growth, and general excellence, not to be surpassed. 

Fredk. Gee's selected stocks of Bedfordshire-erown Seeds 
and Plants have attained a world-wide celebrity. The rich soils 
in Mr. Gee's occupation are admirably adapted to the growth 
of seeds and plants, and offer facilities enjoyed at few places for 
bringing them away to perfection ; and under his skill and 
perseverance they are turned to good account. — F/*/^*' Opinions 
of the Press." 

Select CATALOGUE for the coming Season may be had 
post-free on applicntion. Also Special Trade LIST of Bedford- 
shire-grown Seeds, Plants, Roots, &c., m:;y be had on 
application to 

FREDK. GEE, Seed Grower. Seed Merchant, and Nursery- 
man, Biggleswade, Bedfordshire. 


and GREENHOUSE PLANTS, is now ready, and will be 
sent, post-free, on application. 

Elvaston Nurseries, Borrowash, near Derby. 

R E E S for AVENUE, PARK, or 

ACER DASYCARPUM, 14 to 16 feet, girting 5 to 7 inches. 
CHESTNU r, Horse, 12 to 14 feet, girting 5 to 7 inches. 

,, Horse, i\ to 16 feet, girting 8 to 10 inches. 

„ Horse, Scarlet, 10 to 14 feet, girting 6 to 8 inches. 
LIMES, 14, 15, 16, 18, and 20 feet, girting 6 to ro inches, 
PLANES. Occidental, 10 to 12 feet, girting 4 to 5 inches. 

,, Occidental, 12 to 14 feet, girting 5 to 6 inches, 

A few hundred splendid PLANES, 16 to 18 feet, girting 8 to 
10 inches. 
POPULUS CANADENSIS NOVA, 12 to 14 feet, girting 

6 inches. 
MAPLES, Norway, 12 to 16 feet. 
BEECH, Purple, 10 to 12 feet. 
OAKS. Scarlet, 10 to 12 feet. 
CHESTNUTS, Spanish. 10 to 12 feet. 
SYCAMORE, 12 to 15 feet. 

They have straight stout clean stems, and handsomely 
furnished well balanced heads, and from frequently transplanting 
are splendidly rooted. They are without doubt the finest stock 
of Avenue Trees to be met with in any Nursery in Europe. 

The girt of the stems is taken at 4 feet from the ground, and 
not at the base, which is often deceptive. 

ANTHONY WATERER, Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, 

Special Trade Ofifer. 

WBALL AND CO., Bedford Road 
• Nursery, Northampton, have a very large stock of 
the undermentioned to offer to the Tiade and large 
Buyers, in fine condition : — 
APPLES, good Standards, best market varieties, our selection, 

^^s. to 65.T. per 100. 
PEAKS, good Standards, best market varieties, our selection, 

65^. to 70J. per 100. 
PLUMS, good Standards, best market varieties, our selection, 

6^s. to 7ay. per 100. 
APRICOTS, Dwarf-trained Moorpark, aoj. to 243'. per dozen. 
CURRANTS, Black, 3-yr., very strong, 12s. per 100. 
LIMES, Standards, fiLe, 5 to 6 feet, 6 to 7 feet stems, 8ar. to 

IOCS', per 100. 
CHESTNUTS, Common, 6 to 7 feet stems, fine heads, 7 5^. 

per 100. 
ELMS, Standard Italian, 6 to 7 feet stems, fine heads, gcs. to 
ASH, Common, 2 to 3 feet, 23J'. per io30. [100^. per 100. 

BEECH, Common, strong, 5 to 7 feet, 25^. per 100. 
HORNBEAM, strong, 3 to 5 feet, 251. per 1000. 
QUICK, very strong, 3-yr., 15J. per loco. 
BLACKTHORN, very strong, 3-yr., 15^-. per 1000. 
HOLLY, Green common, fine, 3 to 4 feet, 50J. to Cos, per 100. 
LAUREL, Portugal, very fine, bushy, 3 to ^^ feet, 60s. to 70J. 

per 100. 
YEWS, Common, fine Pyramids, 3 to 4 feet, and 4 to 5 feet, 

gos. to locr. per 100. 
„ well rooted, 3 to 4 feet, 60s. to "jos. per too, 
ROSES, fine Standards, 4 feet stems, large heads, our selection, 

•JOS. to 75^". per 100. 

Special Offer of Hardy Conifers. 

having a large stock of the above, will be glad to send, 
carriage paid to any address, 6 i-yr. transplanted Plants of each 
of the following fine sorts for ^4 zos., or 12 of each for £Z. 

ABIES Douglasii 

,, Douglasii glauca 

„ Engelmanni 

,, Hookeriana 

,, Menziesii 

,, Mertensiana 

„ orienlalis 

,, Schrenkiana 
CEDRUS atlantica 

,, Deodara 

,, Libani 
CUPRESSUS Lawsoniana 

,, ,, erecta viridis 

,, ,, lutea 

,, macrocapa 
PICEA bifolia 

„ concolor violacea 

,, magnifica 

„ nobilis 

,, Nordmanniana 
PINUS aristata 

„ Benthamiana 

,, Bobnderii 

,, Cembra 

PINUS contorta 

,, Coulterii 

,, deflexa 

,, flexilis 

,, insignis 

,, JefTreyii 

,, Lambertiana 

,, monticola 

„ muricata 

„ parviflora 

„ ponderosa 

,, tuberculata 

,, obtusa 

,, pisifeia 

,, plumosa aurca 

,. squarosa 

,, Lobbii 

,, orientalis 

,, Vervreniana 
THUJOPSIS dolabrata 

,, Ixtevirens 

,, Standishii 

Being able to offer most of the above varieties by the 1000, 
will be glad to make special offers to large buyers. 

Also a large stock of Seedling and Transplanted FOREST 

Priced CATALOGUES may be had on application. 
Forbesfield Nurseries, Aberdeen. 


V^ Carriage free. 

CUCUMBER, Rollisson's Telegraph, warranted true, ^s.ed. 

per packet. 
BEGONIAS, Gower's Superb Tuberous, saved from the best 

Engli-sh and Continental Varieties, is. 6d. per packet, 
PRIMULAS, White and Red, very choice, saved from all the 

beat strains, js. 6d. and 2s. 6d. per packet. 
CYCLAMEN PERSICUM, extra choice, ij. 6(/. and zs. 6d, 

per packet. 
WM. HUGH GOWER (lata Manager to Wm. RoIKsson & 
Son), Nurseryman and Seedsman, Tooting, London. 



[January io, iSSo.- 

BOX EDGING. — 5000 Nursery Yards 
Each yard guaranteed to lay three yards of edging 
Dwarf and fine, in (act, without a fault. An old establiiihed 
firm in Edinburgh says of it :— " We never can get Box Edging 
so fine as from you. and shull for the future buy nowhere else." 
Many ■ 1! er Testimonials have been received from the Trade in 
England, Scotland, and Wales, as to the superior quality and 
value, Price ;£g \os. per 1000 nursery yards. Carriage paid to 
London for cash with order. 

J. n. YOUNG, Landscape Gardiner. Uridge of Allan. 







SELOS CATALOGUES gratis and post-free, on application, 
Established 1793. 



Seed Grower to Her Majt-sty ilie Queen and His Royal 

Highness the Prmce ol Wales. 

FOR SALE, 2,000,000 



ALDER .. ,, .. 2 to 3 feet 171. per 1000 
3 'o 4 ,. 19'- .. 

ASH .. .. ..I to ij ,, 1 0.1. ,, 

,, . . . . . . 1^ to 2 ,, \.\s. ,, 

, , . . . . . . 2 to 3 , , 17s. , , 

,, .. .. .. 3 to 4 ,, 23s. ,, 

,, Mountain .. . . 3 to 4 ,, 22^. ,, 

. , ..4106 , , 3 3J. , , 

BROOM iJ to 2 ,, 14?. ,, 

,. •• .. .. 2 to 3 ,, lys. ,, 

BUCKTHORN.. ..12 to 18 inches ioj. per 100 

,, ,. .. .. 27 to 4 feet 20J. ,, 

CHESTNUT, Spanish .. iJ to 2 ,, i6j. per 1000 

,, ,, .. .. ..2 to 3 ,, 25f. ,, 

, ,. ..3 to 4 ,, 30J. , , 

ELDER, Scarlet . . .. i to 2 ,, i4r. ,, 

ELM, Scotch .. .. I to 2 ,, i+r. ,, 
.. ..3105 ,, 30s. , , 

HOLLY, 2-yr. and 3-yr., 

mixed .. .. ., ., 6s. ,, 

HORNBEAM .. . . 4 to 6 ,, 28^. ,, 

LIMES ,, ., ,.2 to 3 ,, Ss. per 100 

,, •• •• ••3 to 4 ,, 12s. ,, 

4 to 5 ,, 17s. ,, 

,, •• •• '. 5 to 6 ,, 40J. ,, 

M.'\PLE, English and 

Norway .. ., . , 3 to 4 ,, 30^. ,, 

OAK, Evergreen, three 

times transplanted , . 2 to 3 , , 25^. , , 

,, Evergreen, do., do .. 3 to 4 ,, 50X. ,, 

,, Evergreen, do., do. 4 to 5 ,, 100s. ,, 

POPL.-^RS, Black It.ilian, 

Balsam, and Ont.irio . . 3 to 4 ,, 2ar. per 1000 

PRIVET, Evergreen .. ij to 2 ,, 15J. ,, 

,, ,, .. .. . . 2 to 3 ,, 24?. ,, 

QUICK .. ., .. 9 to 15 inches gs. ,, 

,, .. .. ..12 to 18 ,, 14J. ,, 

,, . . . . . .18 to 24 ,, 20J. ,, 

, , . . . . .. 2 to 3 feet 2+1. , , 

SYCAMORE .. .. 2 to 3 ,, 16s. ,, 

,, 3 to 4 ,, 25-f- ,, 

, , ■ • . . . • 4 to 5 , , 40J. , , 

THORN, Black .. .. li to 2 ,, iSs. ,, 

WHINorGORSE ..18 to 24 inches 15^. ,, 

, , . . . . .. 2 to 3 feet 20s. , , 

WILLOW, Bedford and 

Huntingdon ., . , 3 to 4 ,, 20s. ,, 


ASH . , . , . . i-yr. jQ6 6 o per 100,000 

SYCAMORE .. .. 2-yr. 036 per 1000 

BEECH 2-yr. 050 

AUSTRIAN PINE' ., 2-yr. 12 lo o per 
CORSICAN PINE ■ ..2-yr. 15 o o 

LARCH i-yr. 600 

,, all fine leading tops 2-yr. 4J. to 5,^. per 1000 
SPRUCE .. .. .. 2-yr. 600 per 100,000 

., s-y- 7 10 o 






all UBinjured by frost. 



LIST 0/ soils ivilh presfnt Prices on application to 





WOOD AND INGRAM have just compiled 
greatly reduced prices. Free on applic.ition. 

The Nurseries, Huntingdon, Prampton, and St Neots. 

The Largest Rose Gardens in England 




The following Descriptive and Priced Catalogues are now 

published, and may be had free on application : — 






By John Cranston. 

Sixth Edition. J'rice 21., free by Post for 27 Ltamps. 





Re!-pectfully invite inspec ion of their imm-^nse stock of 
hardily arow,, EVERr.REF.N ar.d DECIDUOUS TREES 
CATALOGUES Free on application. 
LITTLE AND BALLANTYNE. Knowefield Nurseries, Carlisle. 


• Nurseries, Knutsford, are now ofFcrmK the above, in 
stron?, short-jointed, and well-ripened CANES, suitable for 
Fruiting or Planting. 

Price on application. The Trade supplied. 

• R i G HARD S Ml t H- & C h 

^PKM<ai?l f8gaRHW31 g^^i 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, 
Apricots, and other Fruit Trees, as Standards. Dwarfs, 
Pyramids, Bushes, Cordon and Trained Trees, in great variety, 
all full of vigour and warranted true to name. Descriptive 
Price List, containing a sketch of the various forms of Trees, 
with Directions for Cultivation, Soil, Drainage, Manure, 
Pruning, Lifting, Cropping, Treatment under Glass ; also their 
Synonyms, Quality, Size, Form, Skin, Colour, Flesh, Flavour, 
Use, Growth, Duration, Season, Price, &c., for a penny stamp. 

TWELVE ACRES of ROSES.— Standard, 
Dwarf, and Climbing, all the popular sorts ; also 80,000 
choice Tea-scented and Noisette Roses in pots ; extra strong 
Roses in pots for immediate forcing. See Descriptiv* Price 
List, free for a penny stamp. 

TREES in POTS.— Grape Vines, extra strong, and 
warranted free from Phylloxera, Oidium, and all disease \ Plant- 
ing Canes, 35. (yd. to 5^. each ; extra strong Fruiting Canes, 
•js. 6d. to 10^. 6d. each. Orchard-house Trees, fruiting in pots, 
consisting of Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, Plums, Cherries, 
Pears, Apples, and Figs. Descriptive Price List for a penny 

(awarded a First-class Certificate by the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society). — One of the handsomest and most useful 
Apples in cultivation. For full description see *' Extract from 
ih^ 'journal of Horiicuiture," and Richakd Smith & Co.'s 
Fruit List, which may be had for a penny stamp Coloured 
Plates, 6d. each. Maiden Trees, i.r. 3(/. each ; Bushes, is. 6d. 
each ; Standards, Pyramid and Dwarf-trained Trees, ^s, 6d. 
and 5i. each. 

suitable for P>ritain, giving; size, price, popular and 
botanical names, derivations, description, form, colour, foliage, 
growth, timber, use in arts, native country, and size there, 
situation, soil, and other information, with copious index of 
their synonyms. Free by post for six stamps, 

PLANTS, comprising the best selections of Camellias, 
Azaleas, Eneas, Epaciis, Ferns. S:c., free for a penny stamp. 


PLANTS, with their generic, specific, and English names, 
native country, height, time of flowering, colouiing, &c. , and 
general remarks, free for a penny stamp. 

ALL kinds of GARDEN SEEDS, of first 
REQUISITES. See Lists, whicti may be had on application. 

jErcHARD SK[ltH&C2- 
fe- W6 RCE STER - <^ 

^^WokmC Nursery Surrey/ 

JACKMAN'S Descriptive Priced CATALOGUE, Free on 

application, containing — 
JACKMAN'S List of FRUIT TKEES, suitable for large or 

smalt Gardens. 
JACKMAN'S List of ROSES-selected Dwarfs and Standards. 
JACKMAN'S List of AMERICAN PLANTS, for Peat and 

Loamv Suils. 
JACKMAN'S List of CONIFERS, for Lawns and Pleasure 


JACKMAN'S List of HARDY SHRUBS, adapted for Belts, 

Shrubberies, Screens. &c. 
JACKMAN'S List of O^iNAMENl'AL TREES, suitable 

fur Pftrk-; and Privnte Gardens. 
JACKMAN'S Ll.1t of H^RIJV CLI \1 RERS, including their 

celebrated Clem ilises 
JACKMAN'S Assortment ol TRKES and SHRUBS, adapted 

for plamins by the Sea-coast, on Chalk Soil, 

beneath the Shade of Trees, and in Cities 

and Towi.s. 

^Woking nur^sef^y 


B. S. W. begs to announce that the above 

Is now ready, containing upwards of 60 pages, with numerous 
Engravings of all the NEW and CHOICE FLOWER and 



Late Fisher, Holmhs & Co.» 


Nurseries : — Handsworth. 

Seed Warehouses :— Corner of Market Street, Sheffield, 

and Church Street. Rotherham. 


fJ " Newton " Nurseries, Che?;ler. 

Nurseries, Two Hundred and Fifty Acres. 

FOREST TREES, many millions, all kinds and sizes. 

QUICKS, 3.000,000, strong, transplanted, and smaller. 

EVERGREENS, a grand lot, covering about 50 acres. 

R(^SES, 200,000 splendid plants. 

FRUIT TREES, remarkably well grown and healthy tree?. 

CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS, HEATHS, and all other Green- 
house plants. 


VINES, 2000 thoroughly ripened Canes. 

HERBACEOUS and ALPINE PLANTS, including rare and 
beautiful kinds. 

SEEDS. BULBS, and every requisite for EsUte, Garden and 


M EW^Of^" Nurseries CHESTER. 

And all other Leading Sorts. 

THE Subscribers offer several hundred tons 
of fine samples of the above for seed. The Champions 
have this year been almost proof against disease. Victorias, . 
Improved Regent's, Snowflake, and RIyatt's Kidneys in quantity, 
all tine samples, especially grown for seed. 

Seed Growers and Nurseiymeo, Carlisle. 

January io, iSSo.] 



SPIR.EA PALMATA. — The largest and 
best stock in Europe, las. dd., 15J., ?or, and 2^s. per 100. 
SPIRjEA JAPONICA. for forcing, the finest possible clumps. 
CHARLES NOBLE, Sunningdale. 

HOMAS^^IVERS and SON beg to 

6 to 7 feet, and 5 to 6 feet, well grown grafted trees ; also 

The Nurseries, Sawbridgwor' h. Herts. 


Dedemsvaart. near Zwolle, Netherlands, has much 
pleasure in offering the following : — 

CONIFERS, 1 foot high. 

25J'. per 100, 10 of each sort. 
^10 \os. per 100, 100 of each sort. 


ABIES Menzie.^ii 


sierii argentea 
,, ,, fol. arg. var. 


fol. atireo var. 


,, leptoclada (squairosa, 
THUJA Vervaeneana 

CONIFERS, half a foot high 

12^. per 100, 7 of each sort. 
£,^ per 1000, 7J of each sort. 
roidea Andelyensis 
,, leptoclada 

sierii argentea 

, ,, compacta 

, ,, fol. arg. var. 

, „ fol. aureo var. 

, ,, gracilis 

, ,, miDima glauca 

, pisifera 

I plumosa aurea 


,, squarrosa 
THUJA Vervaeneana 
THUJOPSIS Dolabrata 

ABIES nigra 

., pectinata 

pressus Lawsoniana) .. 
THUJA occidenralis 


Height. Price per 100. 
I foot . . gs. 
" \ foot . . gy. 

[ foot 
I foot 


The Finest Strain of Large-flowering 


in Cultivation. 
" The finest strain of seedlings I have ever seen." — W. Pater- 
SON, Gardener to Her Majoty the Queen, Balmoral Castle. 
"The Petunia Seed I had of you were splerdid, and greatly 
admired by thousands who visited the Park." — C. Brown, 
Kennington Park, London. "Your Petunias are the finest 
I have seen. Have taken first prize three years with them " — 
^V. RoRERTS, Haverrordwest. " I am pleased to tell you that 
your Petunias have turned out remarkably well, producing 
60 per cent, doubles." — R. Gabi, Nurseryman, Herzogen- 
buchsee. Switzerland. 

Per Sealed Packet, 250 Seeds, double 5X., single 2s. 
HENDKR AND SONS, Nursery. Plymouth. 


DOUBLE 135. per 100 

PEARL 14^. „ 

Special prices to large buyers. Samples on application. 

All who Desire to have the Best 


Should make immediate application for 


For 1880. 

It contairts Beautifully Coloured and other Illustrations, with 
Descriptions of the Best Vegetables and Flowers of the year. 

Price Is. 3d., post-free, Gratis to Customers. 



FAVOURABLY with other Leading 

in plain figures. 


ICHARD WALKER can supply CAB- 

BAGE PLANTS, Enfield Market, 5i. 6J. per looo ; 
Red Dutch, for pickling, 5-T. per 1003. My Plants are the best 
stock in England. Best Sovereign RAUBARB ROOTS in 
cultivation, no other can touch it for earliness. For forcing. 
5S. per dozen ; for planting out, ai. per dozen. SAGE and 
BLACK THYME, 51. per 100; LEMON THYME and 
PENNYROYAL, 81. per 100, Terms cash. 

Market Gardens, Biggleswade, Beds. 


Nurserymen for Forest, Ornamental, and Fruit Trees, 
Shrubs, and all kinds of House Plants. 


THE CHAMPION POTATO has been most appropriately named, for, in Scotland at all 
events, it has thoroughly beaten every other variety in disease-resisting properties, and has lately been lifted 
at the rate of lo to 12 tons an imperal acre, grown as an ordinary field crop. Having paid much attention to 
the Champion since it first appeared, we can fully endorse all that has been said in its praise, and certainly the past 
unfavourable season has proved It to be the most valuable introduction of the last few years. It originally came from 
Forfarshire, and, after trial, was recommended in the Lawson Seed List of 1875. In general appearance it comes 
between the Scotch Regent and the Irish Rock, embodying the good qualities of the former and the hardy constitu- 
tion of the latter. Like other Potatos, its eating quality varies according to circumstances as regards soil, climate, 
and cultivation, but it may safely be classed among good table sorts. The Champion is a strong, rank grower, and 
should be allowed a fourth more space at least than that which ordinary kinds require in planting. It is, perhaps, 
the latest field Potato to ripen, the haulm remaining fresh when that of all others is witliered. It should, conse- 
quently, be planted earlier than is usual for late sorts generally in order to do it justice. It will grow remarkably well 
on poor soils where other kinds would not succeed, and altogether it is highly recommended for a main crop in every 
garden and farm. It cannot, however, be too prominently kept in view that to fortify its disease-resisting character 
a thorough change of seed is necessary. 

We are now prepared to book Orders for fine Seed samples of the true variety, either for present or 
future delivery. Price per Ton on application. 



splendid sample of the above, grown from Seed direct 
from the raiser (Mr. Clark), price -js. bd. per bushel of 56 lb, 
Iree on rail, sacks included. 

H. T. BATH, Seedsman, &c., 80., High Street, Lymmgton 



3^. per bushel ; 100 for 201. : truck (loose, 250 bushels), 

30^. ; 4-bushel bags, ^d. each. 

LIGHT BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, 51. id. per sack ; 

5 sacks. 25J. ; 12 for 45^., or 36^. per ton. 
BLACK. FIBROUS PEAT, 55. per sack, 5 sacks 23J. ; 13 for 

4ar., or 34J. per ton ; sacks, ^d. each. 
COARSE SILVER SAND, u. grf. per bushel ; ijs. half ton, 

26J. per ton : in i cwt. bags. 4^. each. 

MOULD. IJ. per bushel. 
SPHAGNUM MOSS, 81. M. per sack. 

Manures, Garden Sticks, Virgin Cork. Tobacco Cloth and Paper, 

Russia Mats, &c Write for Free PRICE LIST. 


10. Castle Street. Endell Street. Long Acre, London. W.C. 

Fibrous Peat for Orchids. &c. 

qiialily for Orchids. Stove Plants, &c., £fi 6s. per truck. 
BLACK KIBROUS PEAT, for Rhododendrons, Azdeas. 
Heaths, American Plant Beds, 15J. per ton. 

Delivered on rail at Blackwater, S. E. R., or Famborough, 
S. W. R, , by the truckload. Sample bag, 4s. ; 5 bags, 20s. ; 
10 bags, 36^. Bags, 4//. each. 

Fresh SPHAGNUM, 10s. Sd. per bap. 

WALKER AND CO.. Farnborough Sution, Hants. 


V-^ at all seasons. Largest makers in the Kingdo ri. u. per 
bag, 30 bags £1 (bags included), truck 25^. free to ra I ;5a. van- 
load, at Works, Janet Street, Millwail, E. P.O.O. puable at 
General Post Office, London. Orders to be addressed to 
A. FOULON, Fibre Merchant, 32, St. Mary Axe. LoiHnn, E.G. 


V_^ Reduced Prices, as supplied to Messrs. J. Carter & 
Co., High Holborn, W.C. ; at the International A^jricultural 
Exhibition, Kilburn ; and all the Principal Nurserymen and. 
Seedsmen in England : — In 4 bushel bags at is., bags included ; 
30 bags, bags included, 20i. ; or truckload of about 250 bushels^ 
251. (truckload free on to rail). —J. STEVENS and CO., 
Greyhound Yard, and 134, Kigh Street, Battersea. S.W. 


V_^ supplied to the Royal Horticultural Society.— Four-bushel 
bag (bag mcluded), i.r. ; 30 bags (bags included), aor. ; truck 
free to rail, 2'^s. 

T. RICH (late Finlayson & Hector), Cocoa-Nut Fibre Works, 
24 and 25, Redman's Row, Mile End Road, London, E. 


V^ IS. per bag, 30 bags for 20^. No charge for bags. Truck- 
load (loose), free to rail, zs^.—BULBECK and SON, Suffolk 
Place, Snow's Fields, Bermondsey, S.E. 

One Fume eff'ectu- 
ally destroys the 
whole family of 


Two Fumes in 
quick succession 
will annihilate the 


6s. 6d, 





" Ready Cut Up," " Self Consuming," 
"Most Effective," "Perfectly Safe." 

This "Special" Article has now been extensively used by 
Horticulturists for some years, and hundreds can bear testi- 
mony to the fact that it is the cheapest, safest, and most 
efficacious Asphyxiate in the market. 


James Dickson & Sons, 

1^, Eastgate ST, CHESTER. 

Who will be pleased to send, post-free, on application, Circular 
containing Testimonials and all particulars. 

Price, Is. 8d. per pound. 

Carriage Paid on Orders of 28 lb. and ufnuards. 

Used by many of the leading Gardeners since 1859, 
against Red Spider, Mildew, Thrips, Greenfly, and other Blight, 
in solutions of from i to 2 ounces to the gallon of soft water, and 
of from 4 to 16 ounces as a winter dressing for Vines and Fruit 
Trees. Has outlived many preparations intended to supersede it. 
Sold Retail by Seedsmen in Boxes, ts., 3J., and loj. 6rf. 

MALTING — 70 Quarters to dispose of,^lose 
to a Station in one of the best Barley Districts ^a 
England. Apply to 

WA;. TOMLINSON, Asgarby, SMford. 



[January io, i88o. 







S K E D S. 



The Invincible is about 3 feet in height, of a robust br.-inching 
habit The pods are produced in pairs, and occjsLonally three 
together, from near the ground to the top of the stem-the 
rows having the appearance of being clothed with pods Irom 
top to bottom. The pods are closely packed with from 10 to 12 
large Peas, which, when cooked, are of exquisite flavour, and 
of a beautiful deep green cjlour. « , . /^ j 

As a main-crop Pea, either for the Gentleman s Garden 
or the Market Gardener, Charles Sjiakhe & Co. have no 
hesitation in saying that the Invincible Pea will be fuund 
superior to anything yet sent out. _ . 

The Editor of the Gardeners Clirontde, in his review of New 
Vegetables in the spring of 1878, mentions Sharpe s Invincible 
as ouc of the three Peas of the season worthy of notice. 

Price, per Quart, y. 6d. 

Half-pint Pacl;ets, free by post, \s. Gd. 


This is a seedling from Vick's " Criterion," and_ for culti- 
vating under glass or in the open air there is no Tomato can 
approach it (or fruitfulness. The plant requires no stopping, as 
it keeps growing and fruiting in the greatest abundance, ihe 
fruit is pyriform and grows in bunches, each bunch containing 
from eight to twenty fruit, which are the size and colour of a 
Victoria Plum ; it contains but few seeds, and for flavour is im- 
surpassed. . a i 

" The original plant is growing under glass at Aswarby, 
covering a space 15 feet by 6 feet, and at the present time is 
carrying a crop of 600 bunches of fruit, as many more having 
been gathered from it during the summer.— Richard Nisbet, 
Gardener, Aswarby Park, Angust 30, 1S79." 

Price IS. dd. per Packet. 

This splendid New Green-fleshed Melon was raised by 
Mr. Brown, the Gardener at Rauceby Hall, and has been 
exhibited many times— in every case gaining a First Pnz=- '.< 
is hardy, a fine setter, and a very heavy cropper. Ihe truit 
is very beautifully netted, the flesh juicy, sweet, and melting, 
and of a very rich flavour. Altogether it is a variety of un- 
questionable superiority, and worthy of a place in every garden. 
List of Testimonials on application. 

Price, IS. 6d. per Packet. 


This fine New Melon was raised by Mr. Nisbet, at Aswaiby 
Park and is a cross between the Victory of IJath and Colston 
Bassett Seedling, and is certainly one of the Best Melons yet 
introduced. It is deeply ribbed, finely netted, and when 
ripening ofT it changes to a beautiful soft golden colour, thin 
skinned, great depth in Besh, which is of a rich transparent 
white ; flavour exquisite. Strongly recommended. 

Price, 2J. 6d. per Packet. 

BEAN.— The longest and best of all Longpods. Price 
■IS. dd. per Pint. 


Splendid stock— dwarf, very deep in colour and glossy. 
Price IS. per Packet. 


ONION.— Crop filled. It is impossible to obtain any- 
thing finer for exhibition purposes than the Seed we 
now offer. Price is. per Packet. 

LEY (The Lincoln Green).— The perfection of garnishing 
Parsley. Price 6i. per Packet. 


This lovely little alpine, with woolly silvery-white bracteal- 
leaves is yet little known in our gardens, though the culture is 
very easy. Sown early in spring in a flat pot, filled with sandy 
peat mixed with some good loam and kept moist, it will grow 
in about a fortnight ; replanted and put in a cool frame they will 
b- fit for planting out-of-doors in about six weeks. Any good 
garden soil, not too stiff, will be sufficient, and a good place 
freely exposed to the sun will suit them. In the winter a thin 
cover of leaves will be of use. 

Price per Packet, 2S. dd. 

Price IS. 6d. per Packet. 


Price 2J. 6i. per Packet. 

NENSIS, Red, While, and Mixed. -Price 2J. 6d, per 
These three varieties of Florists' Flowers are the finest ever 

ollered, having been carefully selected for years and grown 

specially for us. 


V^ Merchants. Sleaford, beg to intimate that their De- 
scriptive CATALOGUE, with Cultural Instructions, for iSSo, 
is now ready. Post-free on application. The Cultural Instruc- 
tions have been revised by Mr. Wli.LlAM Ingram, The Gardens, 
Eelvoir Castle. 


OsBORN & Sons- 


It contains a Choice Selection of KITCHEN GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS, including 
the following New and Improved Varieties : — 


BROCCOLI, IS. 6d. per packet. 


BROCCOLI, 2S. 6rf. per ounce. 


2S. per quart. 

OSBORNS' (Dell's) RED BEET, is.6d. peroz, 

(true), IS. 6d. per packet, 

POTATOS, all the best varieties. 

OSBORNS SELECT MUSHROOM SPA IVN, price 5^. per bushel. 
Best Archangel Mats, Sis. per dozen. Tools, Knives, and other Garden Sundries. 

(^" All Orders for Seeds will be forwarded. Carriage Paid, to any Railway Station in Eni;land. ij 
amounting to las. or upwards; and to any Railway Station in Scotland, or Seaport in Ireland, if amounting to 
40J. or upiuards. Five per Cent, discount allowed on payments made within One Montti of date of Invoice. 

CATALOGUES forwarded, Post-free, on application. 


vegetab le and flower seeds. 
Ireland & Thomson 

Have pleasure in intimating that their 


Is now ready, and will be sent, post-free, on application. 
BEGONIA, TUBEROUS, from finest sorts in cultivation, extra choice. Per packet, zs. 6d. and 5^. 


packet, 2s. 6d., and 51. 
STOCK, EAST LOTHIAN (true), in four colours. Per packet, is., zi. (id., and 5^., each. 




H. & F. Sharpe 

Invite the attention of the Trade to their Special PRICED LIST of 
SEED POTATOS, issued last November, 

Which co77zprises, amongst many others, the following excellent 

varieties.^ viz. : — 








The above have heen Grown from the Finest Selected Stocks, are of Splendid ttuality^ 

and Free from Disease. 


January io, 1880.] 













At all the Bookstalls, or Post-fiee for 15 Stamps. 

Gratis and Post-free. 

All Goods value 203. Carriage Free. 
ALL SEEDS (except Peas and Beans) POST-FREE. 



The Queen's Seedsmen, 






Price One Shniing, poBt-lree. Gratis to Customers. 

ft^ The bast and most complete Guide for the 
successful Ciilth'ation of J 'es^etables and Flow ers, 
alike invaluable io the Amateur and Profe s- 
sional Gardener. 



will be found to compare favourably 
with those of other leading Firms. 



(The great Disease-Resisters ) 

Gratis on application. 
Reduced Rates for Large Quantities. 

iW Orders of 20s. value Carriage-free. All Seeds 
(except Beans and Peas) Post-free. 5 per Cent. 
Discount for Cash. 




(iHrileiter.f #r0itide. 



iCoMcliided from /. S.) 

Greenhouse Plants. 

WE include here the half-hardy subjects 
which may be grown outdoors in sum- 
mer, but which require to be housed during 
winter. The most striking plant we have to 
record is the Dahlia Juarezii (see Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1879, vol. xii., p. 433, fig. 66), which, 
like some others, though only brought into notice 
during the past season, is not absolutely new. 
This Dahlia is a very remarkable one, its rich 
crimson colour, and its spreading, pointed florets 
giving it a striking aspect, which has suggested 
a comparison with the crimson Cereus, whence 
it has been called the Cactus Dahlia. The 
South-African Senecio speciosus, which was for 
awhile called S. concolor, is a plant of consider- 
able promise ; it has a good deal the aspect of 
a Cineraria, and, like that, may give rise to a 
distinct race of ornamental plants ; the novelty 
has pinnatifidly-lobed, blunt, hairy leaves, and 
bears a succession of beautiful bright purple 
radiate flower-heads on a corymbosely-branched 
stem. Belonging to a very different order, but 
a suffrutescent plant of considerable merit, is 
the Lopezia grandiflora of Mexico, which has 
turned up in the French gardens ; the almond- 
like foliage is elegant, and towards the ends of 
the vigorous stems the many subumbellate 
heads of flowers are collected into an irregular 
panicle, which is exceedingly showy, both calyx 
and corolla being of a lively cherry-red colour. 
The Blandfordia flava, with its golden-yellow 
flowers, will form a very nice contrast with the 
more familiar orange-coloured species and 
varieties, and will therefore prove a welcome 
addition to a family of great beauty and interest. 
In the Imanto.ihyllum miniatum Lindeni 
(Clivia, ///. Hort.) -we have a grand variety of 
this beautiful plant, remarkable for the large 
size of its flowers and flower umbels. Here may 
be included, with the reservation that it requires 
an intermediate-house, the Coutarea Scherffiana, 
of New Granada, a fine shrubby evergreen 
Rubiaceous plant, with opposite ovate acumi- 
nate shining leaves (alternate in the figure in the 
Illustration Horticole) and largish funnel-bell- 
shaped white flowers in cymes at the end of 
the branches. Here, too, should be mentioned 
the Rockwood Lily of New Zealand, Ranun- 
culus Lyallii, which requires special treatment 
for its successful cultivation. 

In the group of greenhouse foliage plants 
the principal subject to refer to is the Meryta 
sonchifolia, a rather nice-looking evergreen 
shrub from New Caledonia, thriving in a cold 
house, and remarkable for its brown-spotted 
leaf-stalks, and its lyrately-pinnatisect leaves, 
resembling those of the Sow-thistle in form, but 
variegated with numerous yellow spots. Aspa- 
ragus flexuosus and A. virgatus, both pretty 
feathery subjects, claim a notice here, as also 
do various novel Sarracenias, as S. fonnosa, 



[January io, 1880. 

an interesting hybrid between S. psittacina and 
S. variolaris ; S. atrosanguinea, a remarkably 
fine variety in the way of S. flava, but with a 
rich blood-crimson orifice to the pitchers ; and 
S. flava ornata, a form in which the deep red 
venation of the lip of the pitchers is singularly 
prominent and conspicuous. 

Palms and Cycads. 

Of Palms which have appeared prominently 
during the past year, we have to mention 
the bolder-habited pinnate species, Kentia 
McArthuri and Cyphokentia robusta, and the 
more elegant and finely divided Cocos elegan- 
tissimus, Astrocaryum decorum, and Calamus 
densus. The thick trunked Phoenix cycadifolia 
of the Athens garden, if not an altogether abnor- 
mal growth, is peculiar for its striking resemb- 
lance to a Cycad. Pritchardia macrocarpa and 
Trithrinax acanthocoma, are interesting Fan 
Palms, the latter especially remarkable for the 
spinescent sheaths which clothe the dwarfish 
trunk (see Gardeners^ Chronicle, 1878, vol. ix., 
p. 661). 

Of Cycads we may name the beautiful erect- 
growing Cycas pluma, the provisional name of 
which may need critical rectification ; and the fine 
Mexican Ceratozamia fusco-viridis, a species of 
distinct and striking character, producing pin- 
nate leaves with lanceolate acuminate leaflets, 6 
or 7 inches long. 


One of the most interesting which have lately 
appeared is the Adiantum Bausei {Gardeners' 
Chronicle^ xii., p. 465), a Fern remarkable both 
for its distinct aspect and supposed hybrid origin. 
Its peculiarity is the pendent character of its 
pinnules, a feature which, in combination with 
itsfreeandhealthy growth, will give it much value 
for decorative purposes. The charming little 
Adiantum mundulum, which has sprung from 
A. cuncatum in Continental gardens, is another 
gem in its way, quite dissimilar to its parent. 
The South Sea Aspleniums horridum and nco- 
caledonicum, though very dissimilar, are both de- 
sirable kinds for ornamental purposes — the latter 
for the narrow elongated segments of its firm 
leathery fronds, the former for its bold habit 
and great arching pinnate shaggy-stiped fronds, 
requiring stove heat and a plentiful water sup- 
ply for their full development. Polystichum 
viviparum and P. lentum, the first from Western 
the second from Eastern India, are Ferns of 
decorative merit and evergreen, viviparum hav- 
ing arching fronds, proliferous towards the tip, 
and lentunr growing more' erect and shuttle- 
cock fashion. As a greenhouse evergreen Fern 
Lomaria fluviatilis multifida is likely to prove 
of some decorative value, as are most of 
the varietal forms which have the multifid or 
tasselled character. Finally, the Japanese 
Polypodium Krameri is a very pretty dwarf 
creeping hardy species, ranking beside P. 
Dryopteris, but perfectly distinct ; and Davallia 
Mariesii (shown under this provisional name) 
seems to differ from the smaller species 
to which it is allied in being evergreen : its 
affinity is with D. bullata, which is deciduous, 
and with D. decora, which, so far as we know, 
is not hardy, while the present plant is ever- 
green, continuing to grow throughout the winter 
in a cold frame, and therefore nearly if not 
absolutely frost-proof. 

The golden variety of the common garden 
Selaginella, S. Kraussiana aurea, which origin- 
ated in the North of Scotland, and has been 
once or twice seen in public at the London 
shows, is a remarkably brilliant decorative 
l>lant, whore the golden hue can be advantage- 
ously introduced. 

The first 
the Bornean 
Cf^ronicle, xii., 

Stove Plants. 
place here must be 

400, fig. 63), 

claimed for 
nitida {Gardeners' 
on account of its 

combined botanical interest and floral beauty. 
Its tall clustered stems bear elliptic-lanceolate 
leaves, and are surmounted by panicles of from 
twelve to twenty rich orange-scarlet flowers, of 
which the three outer segments are broad and 
spreading, and the inner reduced to a small bifid 
yellow lip placed opposite to and folded round 
the anther, in which resides its botanical singu- 
larity. In its native country, Mr. Burbidge 
tells us, it grows and flowers for nine months 
out of the twelve. Dipladenia carissima, of 
garden origin, is a charming addition to this 
genus of Dogbanes, and on account of its very 
delicate blush colour will produce a fine con- 
trast with the deeper-coloured species and 
varieties, which are now becoming plentiful. 
Another most striking plant is the Hibis- 
cus rosa sinensis schizopetalus {Gardeners' 
Chronicle, xii., 273, fig. 45), whose flowers grow 
on long pendent stalks from the leaf-axils, and 
whose orange-red petals are reflexed and cut 
deeply into a multitude of fringed segments. 
Amongst flowering stove plants the Brome- 
liaceffi have come rather prominently to the 
front — not all new, but some of the species rein- 
troduced. There is Tillandsia Balbisiana, with 
its sparkling bouquets of purple and orange ; Til- 
landsia tricolor, with its red stem-bracts, and 
green distichous floral bracts, and narrow 
purple petals tipped with white ; Tillandsia 
Gardneri — known also as T. argentea — with its 
sparkling foliage, as if made of frosted silver ; 
Caraguata Van Volxemi, with its short spike- 
lets of yellow flowers, compacted together on 
the axils of orange-red bracts to form a narrow 
compound spike ; Bilbergia nutans, with its 
slender scape nodding at the top, its rosy-pink 
conspicuous bracts, and its pink-calyxed flowers 
having green recurved blue-edged petals ; 
yEchmea Furstenbergii, with its dense cone- 
shaped rosy inflorescence seated in the heart of 
the leaf-tuft ; Hohenbergia exudans, with its 
crimson stem-bracts, and compact roundish 
paniculate band of yellow flowers tipped with 
orange, and with a copious white ceraceous 
exudation in the interspaces ; and finally Canis- 
trum cburneum with its rosette of maculate 
green leaves, in the midst of which is set a tuft 
of short, broad, ivory-wliite floral leaves sur- 
rounding numerous small white clavate flowers 
which just fill out the opening — all interesting 
objects, and strikingly dissimilar for closely- 
allied family friends. 

Of the foliage plants the Crotons or Codia?uiTis 
are still unexhausted, newly introduced and 
hybrid forms continually cropping up. C. 
Evansianus, with dense subtrilobate leaves, the 
veins at first yellow then orange, is a distinct 
and pleasing form. C. Hawkeri with the 
middle of the plant and of the leaves yellow, 
the outsides and the border green, is also dis- 
tinct and striking. C. Massangeanus, a long 
lance-leaved spreading foreign hybrid, is very 
showy in its yellow, green, and carmine-rosy 
colouring. C. roseo-pictus has the pretty rosy 
tint of Williamsii present in its older leaves, 
which are obovate and well displayed. C. 
Burtoni is another fine kind in the way of 
Veitchii as to coloration, but with the leaf 
margins wavy ; while in C. Brageanus, the long 
inch-wide leaves are marked with a creamy 
variegation which turns to rose. Of another 
type of elegance is Aralia regina;, a New Cale- 
donian plant, of erect habit, with palmatifid 
leaves, divided down to the top of the mottled 
petiole into about six flat narrow pointed bright 
green leaflets. Some handsome Bertolonias, as 
B. Killickii, and B. Rodeckii, bronzy with silvery 
ribs and spots, and some charming Marantas, as 
M. Kerchoviana, which is of the Massangeana 
type, have also been added to our lists. 


Many interesting and ornamental additions 
have been made to tips ever popular family— 

now more popular than ever — and some of these 
when they become established, so as to be seen 
in their true character, will probably take a 
very high rank in public estimation. Of those 
alluded to Cymbidium Lowianum may certainly 
be noted as an acquisition (see Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1879, vol. xi., p. 405). Its handsomely 
spreading foliage, and its long drooping spikes 
of strikingly if not gorgeously coloured flowers 
— pale olivaceous green, with a yellowish lip, 
the terminal segment of which is a rich maroon 
— together with their large size and handsome 
insect-like form, all mark it out as a popular 
subject. Dendrobium cerinum, in the way of 
the old sanguinolentum, is a showy species 
from the Malayan Archipelago, with large 
ochraceous flowers, firm and strong, like wax, 
the lip marked with rich brown lines radiating 
from the base. We have also to note two fine 
hybrid Dendrobes : the one, Dendrobium 
micans, a cross between Wardianum and litui- 
florum, with knotted stems and large pallid 
flowers with deep purple tips, the lip having 
also two dark Indian-purple spots, one on each 
side, near the base ; the other, D. splendidis- 
simum, which our orchidic friend, Reichenbach, 
describes as " a great beauty," and which has 
large flowers shining as if varnished, cream- 
coloured, with purple at the tip, while the disk 
of the lip is of a dark Indian-purple, with many 
radiating lines running out from its base, being 
moreover covered with velvety hairs, and having 
a broad hairy line running backwards to the 
base. We have to note sundry choice additions 
to the fine group o; Pescatoreas, e.g., P. Gairiana, 
with deep violet sepals and petals, and a broad 
rose-coloured lip having a radiating callus of 
some fifteen to seventeen lamellae covering 
half its surface ; P. Klabochorum, with 
white flowers tipped with chocolate, and 
an ochre-coloured lip with many small purple 
spots and a sulphur-yellow callus of nine- 
teen lamellae : and P. Lehmanni, in which 
the sepals and petals are white densely 
striped with purple, and the lip a deep violet- 
purple, covered with long bristle-like papillse 
on the anterior part, and with a callus of eleven 
lamella; at the base. Disa grandiflora psitta- 
cina is a new form of that wonderful plant, in 
which the lateral sepals appear to be of a crim- 
son colour, from the number of crimson spots, 
and the upper sepal is striped with purple. In 
Pachystoma Thomsonianum {Gardeners' Chron- 
icle, xii., 582, 624, figs. 102, 103) we have an 
interesting plant from tropical Africa, of a dis- 
tinct type, with clustered roundish pseudobulbs, 
and two or more flowered scapes of shining 
white flowers, with a recurved lip of the 
brightest purple. 

And what more shall we say, for time and 
space would fail us to tell of the lovely little 
Coelogyne Hookeriana, of the broad-sepaled 
Cypripedium Lawrenceanum, of the wonderful 
Masdevallias Backhousiana and Parlatoreana, 
of Comparettia speciosa, of the mammoth Bol- 
bophyllum Beccarii, of Odontoglossum elegans, 
of the violet-scented Oncidium Edwardi, of 
Miltonia Bluntii — all worthy of more extended 
record ; to say nothing of the wondrous Orchid 
hybrids now so frequently startling us by their 
unexpected apparition, and of which Cattleya 
MardelliiX, Cattleya MarstersoniaX, Lajlia 
Dominianax, Lajlia PhilbrickianaX, Cypripe- 
dium Ainsworthiix, and Cypripedium ver- 
nixuinx are comparatively recent and meri- 
tgrious illustrations. T. Afoore. 


This species, which was exhibited before the 
Floral Committee on October iS, is one of the 
smaller flowered species, noted at the time of exhi- 
bition as having the upper sepal white with a central 
purple line, lateral sepals greenish, also with a central 
line, the lip greenish shining, and the top of the 
column white spotted with violet, 

TanUaky i6, iS86.] 



New Garden Plants. 

Odontoglossum IIoRSMAiNi, n. !p.({-oiius hybnil).* 

This has been collected near Ocafia, in New 
Granada, by Mr. Fred. Ilorsman, for the New Plant 
and Bulb Company, Lion Walk, Colchester. About 
Ocana grows, it is well known, Odontoglossum Pes- 
catorci, and there can be scarcely a doubt left that 
the present plant is a mule between O. Pescatorci and 
hiteopurpureum, represented in that neighbourhood 
by rather indiflerent varieties. Thus nur new Odon- 
toglossum would appear to be the "pendent" of 
Odontoglossum Coradinei (obtained from Messrs. 
Veitch, Bockett, Day, Borwick), as that is no doubt 
the offspring of the cross-fertilisation of Odontoglos- 
sum crispum and hiteopurpureum, or a similar species. 
This one has much longer lloHcrs. The pseudobulb 
of our novelty is compressed, pear-shaped, with 
furrosvs and folds, I inch long by two-thirds over the 
base. The linear-lanceolate leaf is 5 inches long and 
J inch wide. The peduncle bears a flower as large 
as that of a middle-sized Odontoglossum Pesca- 
torei, and nearly same shape. The ground colour is 

as the bogs of Ireland arc noted as the grave of the 
giant deer, extinct in historical times. 

Mr. Horsman has seen few flowered inflorescences 
at the place. Unfortunately he did not dry any. 
The petals arc said to have been while when flower- 
ing at Colchester. \Vhcn they arrived at Ilanilinrgh 
they had just the same while-sulphur tinge as the 
sepals and lip. //. G. Rilth. f. 

Odontoglossum crispum (Lindl.) Bi.untii 


It is well known that we were not aware of the 
immense richness of variation this splendid Orchid 
offers. The one set of varieties has usually smaller 
flowers, \ery often, nearly always, of a much stronger 
substance, always with a blunt lip. Those are the 
Blimtii, dedicated to Mr. Blunt, who is so famous 
for having sent that glorious stock of Lrclia clegans 
^^■hich is one of the quite unique marvels of the Dayan 
collection, all those Catileya Milleriana, that fresh 
collection ol glorious Oncidium Gardneri that came 
imdcr the hammer as much inferior O. curtuni, so 
that there was a deception in favour of the purchaser — 
not a very common caic. I have just now at hand two 

Fig. 7. — CYPRirEDlUM spiceriaku.m. (see v. 40.) 

a veiy light whitish sulphur. The sepals bear a lew 
cinnamon blotches. Lip broad, cuneate at base, 
obscurely pandurate, toolhletted, with two bidentate 
ancipitous linear diverging keels before the disc, having 
enclosed a thick tumour and each outside, arching 
towards the base, thickened furrowed plates, show- 
ing small obscure teeth at the rounded outer border. 
The whole of this callus is orange-coloured, and there 
is a dark cinnamon blotch on the disk in front. Column 
wings nearly square, with very small crenulations and 
a row of brown spots. The plant is, of course, 
inscribed to its lucky discoverer. It is a grand thing 
to find now-a-days a new Odontoglossum in the 
hilly, much trodden environs of Ocafia, which in some 
time may be as famous for its destroyed Orchid flora 

• Odotito^hssum Horstnani, n. sp. (n. liybr. potius). — 
Pseudobulbo compresso pyriformi sulcato ac plicato ; foliis 
llneaii-ligulatis acuminalis; pedunculo unifloio ("nunc pliiri- 
floro"); sepalis Inargulo-ligutatis ; tepalis oblongis acutis, 
labello pandiirato miiiule denliculato, callis ancipitibus ligvi- 
lalis bidentatis geminis in medio, interposito callo rotiuido 
multo breviore, callo utrinque humillimo depres^o niultisul- 
cato extus minute denliculato ; columna; alis subqnadratis, 
angulo utrinque extus in co'umnai angulo antico sub fovea. 
Flores albo-sulphurei. Sepala cmnamomea maculata. Calii 
labelli auranliati. Macula cinnamomea in disco aiiti' o 
labeili. Alae columnae albo-smlphurea; cinnamomeo maculatje. 
Macula lurca antice sub fovea.— Ocanae detexit dom. Horsman. 
H. G. Rikb./. 

inflorescences of a very curious form of Bluntii, sent 
from Mr. Bull. They both deserve the name of flaveo- 
lum, though not in same degree. The oire variety has 
pure while flowers, with only some red on wings, and 
those few red well known stripes on base of lip. The 
whole disk of the lip, as well as the crests, are good 
yellow. The other variety is rather distinct, having 
lip and petals very crisp, which is not so often the case 
in the herd of Bluntii, and sulphur in disk, odd sepal 
equallycoloured, equal sepals totally sulphur-coloured. 
Sepals with few brown spots, which are chiefly marked 
inside, though they are translucent outside. Inflor- 
escence very dense and rich. //. G. RcJib. f. [This 
plant has also flowered with the New Plant and Bulb 
Company, Colchester, whose stock of it was collected 
by Mr. William Wallace, near Bogota, in 1878. The 
New Plant Company therefore share with Mr. Bull 
the honour of its introduction. Eds.] 

Cymbidium elegans [Lindl.] 
nov. var. 


Mr. Stuart Low sent me the other day flowers of 
two Cymbidia, obtained from one of his acquaint- 
ances. The one belonged to Cymbidium affine, 
(jtilf. , a plant the limits between which and Cym- 
bidium Mastersii, Lindl., do not appear very decided, 
and which may be a local variety, though I am not 

sure now about it ; the other was this great curio- 
sity. Pallid honey colour flowers in a rich raceme : 
perhaps they are a little shorter— at least I had 
such an impression. The anterior lacinia of the 
lij}, in lieu of being oblong and acute, is obcordate 
and cmarginatc at the top. Those small ap|)endices, 
so highly characteristic of Cymbidium elegans, were 
also perfect, yet in lieu of being rose, pink, or mauve, 
they were white. As long as there are no richer 
materials at hand it appears safer to establish a 
variety only. The plant is in the collection of Arthur 
Potts, Esq., Hoole Hall, Chester. //. G. Rdib. f. 


It is with a sense of irretrievable loss and deep 
grief that we announce the death of this accomplished 
gentleman, at his residence. Glen Andred, Tun- 
bridge Wells, on the 4th inst. Best known to the 
general public as an artist, he was still more widely 
known in scientific and literary circles by the 
catholicity of his sympathies. As a painter he is 
familiar to most ol us by his numerous Venetian 
scenes, which bring before the spectator the light 
and air and colour of modern Venice with all its 
wealth of architectural detail. Equally faithful and 
sympathetic were his sea pieces. The long low 
sandy shores of Holland with their fringe of angry 
sutf— the clouded skies— the quaint craft with their 
effective patches of colour, have never had a better 
illustrator. The artistic talent with him was here- 
ditary. He was the son of a famous engraver, and 
himself practised the art in early life. But, as we 
have said, Cooke was many-sided. His genial 
earnest temperament was ever in full sympathy 
with what was beautiful, good, and true in 
all departments of knowledge. He seemed to 
be interested in everything, and, more, he made 
those who were with him share his interest. It 
was impossible to be in his company for any length of 
time without catching something ot his zeal and 
enthusiasm : art, virtu, Venetian glass, fossils, me- 
chanism, botany, geology, and we know not what 
beside, found in him an active lover. His zeal and 
enthusiasm often seemed too great for his feeble frame, 
but it may be that they supported him in trials which 
would have injured a stronger man not so endowed. 

No wonder that such a man was a gardener. More 
than thirty years ago we knew him as one of those 
landscape gardeners who had, what few landscape 
gardeners have, such a knowledge of plants as to give 
him the choice of the w'ealth of material in the nur- 
series and to enable him to dispose them to the best 
advantage. The small gardens attached to his resi- 
dences in Kensington were models of what small town 
gardens might be made by one who combined ariistic 
power of grouping and genuine love of plants. Mr. 
Cooke's counsel was eagerly sought after by his 
acquaintances in the arrangement and pl.anting of their 
grounds. But the boldest and most original of his 
work in this way may be seen at Glen Andred. 
Rocks and rock scenery were a sine qua non with Mr. 
Cooke. Rocks were not to be had anywhere elso so 
near London, hence the choice of a site for his house 
and garden. But even then the rocks were not always 
just where they were wanted. But they came at his 
command. If they would not show themselves above 
the surface he made them do so. With a long wire 
probe he probed the soil around and betvveen the 
buried rocks, and then scooped away the sand with a 
diligence f<iopiio inaiiii, till bold blufls, mountain 
gorges, wooded ravines, with limpid rivulets trickling 
between, rewarded his exertions. Here was fit resting 
place for Ferns, for alpines, for aquatics, for any- 
thing that would grow. What some would reject as 
weedy rubbish, Cooke, by putting into a suitable place, 
made attractive to those who had eyes to see. 

Mr. Cooke married into the Loddige family, which 
may partially account for his knowledge of and gcod 
taste in plants. Many of the illustrations in Loddige's 
Cabinet were from the brush of his father — some 
were executed by hiinself, as also were some of the 
drawings for Loudon^ s Eneyehpicdia of Plants, Later 
on, by the marriage of his sister to one of the sons of 
the late N. B. Ward, he became intimately connected 
with that most amiable man. There was much in 
common in the two men, the same lovable character, 
the same appreciation of what was pure and good and 
beautiful — the same keen love of Nature in all her 
manifestations, the same sympathy with knowledge 
and progress, the same freedom from petty afiiscta- 
tions and shams, the same generosity towards others. 

In his pictures— to revert once more to the work 



{January io, 1880. 

by which he achieved fame and fortune — his menial 
characteristics may he traced — his love of truth, his 
accurate observation and fidelity in reproducing 
them. Many of his pictures are scientific lesson- 
books : the dip of the strata, the grains of the sand, 
the shapes o( the leaves, the curvatures of the trunks 
of the Pahn trees, the form of the rain-clouds, the 
line of the waves, and hundreds of such instances 
betoken, not only the artist, but the man of science. 
There is an amount of absolute truth about them, 
apart from imagination, which will give his pictures 
a permanent value beyond that of many of his con- 

If, humanly speaking, anything can lighten the 
sense of such a loss to the survivors it must be the 
remembrance of such a career and the manifold 
assurances of widely-spread decply-felt sympathy. 


Before these notes are published the Winter 
Exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery will be open to the 
public. There are no large and important pictures 
in oils in the gallery, the collection consists principally 
of water-colour drawings of moderate or small size, 
and a large number of artists' studies in ink, chalk, 
and pencil. The first fifty-five water-colour drawings 
are contributed by the Society of Painters in Water- 
colours of the Hague ; many of these pictures are 
bold and sketchy productions, representing flat land- 
scapes, such as one is familiar with in some parts of 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire. The first 
picture of horticultural interest is 9, and this is 
termed " Flowers," Madame Mesdag Van Houten ; 
it is Whistlerian in its treatment, and the Roses are 
of the tea-tray variety : what the other " flowers " in 
the composition may be meant for we know not. 
15, "Pears," by the same artist, shows the same 
want of knowledge as 9. In passing a pause may 
be made at 13, to admire the curious study 
termed "Amateurs," by L. Alma Tadema. 50, 
" Roses," Mdlle. G. J. Van de Sande Bakhuysen. 
This picture is of a very different class from 9 and 15 : 
it represents a group of while Roses with grass in 
flower, and the drawing of the blooms and fore- 
shortening ol the foliage is everywhere carefully 
studied and well painted. 55, "Morse Chestnuts," 
by the same lady, is equally good, the spray of Oak 
and Bramble, and the ripe Horse Chestnuts, are 
excellently represented. No. 58, " Holywell, Conne- 
mara," W. Small, will repay study; and 73, " Llang- 
harne Castle, South Wales," J. W. Whymper, "one 
of this admirable artist's best productions. The 
building represented is probably the somewhat 
modern Llaugharne Castle, near Carmarthen. 92, 
" Roses," Miss Maud Naftel, is both well drawn and 
well painted, but the whole picture is in body colour. 
100, " Chrysanthemums," J. J. llardvvicko, is at 
best a poor thing. 103, "AMorningfor Mushrooms;" 
Mr. F. Smallfield — the artist — is probably right in his 
representation of the iiiornin^ in this capital picture, 
but the painting certainly does not show \he place for 
Mushrooms, viz., a wet grassy stream-traversed 
meadow. Although Mushrooms are generally 
termed "meadow Mushrooms," yet these esculents 
do not generally grow in meadows, but rather in 
pastures where the "ewes bite." 113, "Wild Cherry 
Blosiom," J. M. Jopling. This is a carefully 
painted picture of a very realistic large glass 
jar with a few sprays of the wild Cherry in- 
serted — the latter not remarkable for correct drawing. 
126, " D.miel," Briton Riviere, A.R.A., is the fine 
study of hungry lions and lionesses, the extraordinary 
figure of Daniel, seen from behind, being quite subser- 
vient. 130, "Circe," by the same artist, is the still 
better study of swine in all imaginable attitudes, and 
with all imaginable expressions. " Circe " commends 
herself to one's pre-conceived notions better than 
does the back elevation of Daniel in 126. 162, 
"The Wars of the Roses," Lady Lindsay, is a 
pretty and carefully drawn and painted picture of red 
and white Roses, in which body colour is to a great ex- 
tent used. To reach our next number we have to pass 
into the Sculpture and Water-colour Galleries. 222, 
"Iris and Rhododendron," Mrs. W. Duflield, is one of 
the best flower subjects in the exhibition, but it has a 
too marked inclination towards botanical stiffness ; 
there is a spray of scarlet Begonia in the fore- 
ground, a plant seldom attempted by cautious flower- 
painters. 228, " Flowers," by the same artist, is better 
thaa the last, the unobtrusive pot, of simple form and 

low colour, greatly aids the varic 1 outlines and 
brilliant colours of the flowers. Close by is 230, 
"Rhododendrons," Mrs. K.Taylor. This is a wretched 
representation of the blooms and foliage of the Rhodo- 
dendron. We here pass minygood landscapes and 
figure subjects, together with many pictures calling 
for no special comment froni us, till we get to the 
East Gallery, where there is a large collection of 
artists' studies in chalk and pencil. Mr. E. Burne- 
Jones sends a number of elaborate studies 
and sketches on paper, mostly of figures in this 
artist's well-known style. 379, "Study of Lilies," 

E. Burne-Joncs, is one of the best pencil studies of 
the White Lily (Lilium candidum) that we have 
seen: it is small in size, and drted 1865, but the 
flowers, buds, and leaves, seen in all stages of 
growth and perspective, are worthyof careful attention. 
3S4, " Studies of Flowers," Sir F. Leighton, P.R.A., 
are carefully drawn blossoms of the Pumpkin ; there 
is nothing extraordinary in two small Pumpkin 
flowers, but the extreme accuracy and beauty of the 
drawing is worthy of attention. 395, " Studies of 
Thistles and Teazles," by the same artist, aims more at 
the general exact effect of form and colour in these 
plants than minute detail ; the Knap-weed is included 
in the group. 418, "A Lemon Tree," by the same 
artist, is the most remarkable piece of botanical 
drawing in the exhibition : the exactitude and 
elaboration of detail in every leaf and twig through 
the complete tree, and the general beauty and 
excellence of the entire drawing, call for special 
remark. 417, "Poppy in Seed," also by Sir 

F. Leighton, is another good drawing, but, strange 
to say, the plant represented is not a Poppy 
at all. It is a Knap-weed (Centaurea Scabiosa), 
with the well-known globular involucres and the 
numerous bracts. 442, " Study of a Poppy in Seed," 
A. Moore, is a life-like drawing of the White 
Opium Poppy. In 452 we have one of a group of 
four drawings by L. Alma Tadema, R.A. This 
special drawing, termed " Studies of Architecture," is 
interesting as showing with what care this artist 
studies and sketches architectural details with a pos- 
sibility of their introduction in some future picture. 
4154, "Studies of Flowers," A. Moore: these are 
remarkably well drawn and truthful scraps represent- 
ing Marigolds in a tumbler of water, the wild Hearts- 
ease, and the red Poppy of our cornfields. 497, 
" Study of Thistle-heads and Leaves," Sir F. Leigh- 
ton, is a faint but careful pencil study of these parts 
of Thistles. Sir Coutts Lindsay, Bart., contributes 
several drawings of merit, the decorative pictures 
being perhaps the best. In 535, "A Study," the 
perspective of the piano is uncommonly bad, and 
could hardly have been studied from the real object. 
If Sir Coutts will walk round his drawing-room and 
keep his piano in view he will find that wherever he 
places himself he will still be able to see the top of 
the piano : if Sir Coutts will now sit in a chair, first 
in one part of his drawing-room, then in another, he 
will find that the top-surface of the piano invariably 
appears as a horizontal line. In the drawing here 
referred to the bade of the piano is shown to sud- 
denly drop at an angle of 45'. No spectator could 
possibly see such an angle on a piano-top unless he 
first laid himself flat on the floor near the bottom of 
the piano, and there made his observation. 


This exhibition of pictures, which includes works 
by deceased masters of the British school and a special 
collection of works by Holbein and his school, is now 
open at the rooms of the Royal Academy at Burling- 
ton House. It does not contain a single work of 
horticultural or botanical interest, though there are 
many landscapes of great beauty, notably (11) 
" Somer Hill," near Tunbridge, Kent, by Turner, 
showing the house on a wooded slope with a lake in 
the foreground. It seems hardly credible that the 
paincer of this picture could ever have painted 
35, " The Grand Canal, Venice — Blessing the 
Adriatic ;" the first is quiet and low in tone, whilst 
the latter is a harsh blaze of staring colour. Gallery 
No. I. contains four old paintings by George Morland, 
one by John Crome, and two by Hogarth. Gallery 
No. II. has four works by Albert Cuyp, and in the 
three first rooms there are nine works by Thomas 
Gainsborough. Reynolds, Vandyck, Nicholas Pous- 
sin, Salvator Rosa, Tintoretto, Guido, Sebastian del 

Piombo, Canaletto, Titian, Paulo Veronese, Ruysdael, 
Rubens, Teniers, Paul Potter, Etty, Romney and 
Sir Edwin Landseer, are represented in the first 
three galleries by one or more pictures (some of these 
being well known by steel engravings). Gallery 
No. IV. is set apart for examples of Holbein and his 
school, the room being full of prim but highly 
finished and life-like portraits. Many ate of great 
historical interest, others are indefinite as to persons. 
" Portrait of a ^Lan" frequently occurs — an old man 
being in one instance termed "a young man," the 
compiler of the catalogue possibly having his own 
views of "old "and "young" as applied to men. 
In Gallery No. V. and last is a curious collection of 
old paintings belonging to the Sienese, Italian, 
Umbrian, Venetian, Early Tuscan, Arragonese, 
Castilian, and Florentine schools. Some of the 
painters here (like the subjects) are unknown. The 
four illustrations of the story of Nastagio degli 
Onesti, 212, 213, 253, and 254, from the Decameron, 
are very amusing, as is 218, " The Marriage Feast of 
Peirithous," where the servants who bring in the 
viands are Centaurs. " Centaur Helps " might have 
answered in the times of Peirithous, but Mrs. Craw- 
shay herself would hardly recommend such adjuncts 
for modern households. 219 is a " Battle Scene," a 
somewhat indefinite title, but the compiler of the 
catalogue makes up for any obscurity in the subject 
by kindly giving a full explanation of the letters 
.S. P. Q. R. as seen on one of the banners — no one 
ought to be ignorant in these days. There are many 
illustrations of Christian and heathen subjects in this 
room, and no picture is more amusing than 245, 
"The Last Judgment," by an unknown artist of the 
Castilian school. 


The Dracjena Draco, growing in the Royal Gardens 
of Ajuda, Portugal, is illustrated in a recent number 
of the Revue Hoiiicole. It is a noble tree, coeval with 
the foundation of the garden by the Queen Dona 
Maria I., and at least is not younger than 120 — 150 
years. The dimensions given are, 6 metres in height, 
36 m. in circumference, the girth of the principal 
trunk being 4 m. 65 cm. This divides into eleven 
principal branches, and an infinitude of minor sub- 
divisions, the ultimate extremities bearing tufts of 
sword-shaped leaves, which form an impenetrable 
shelter from the sun. The tree produces seeds 
annually to the extent of 3 alqueiries (i alqueire — 
13 litres 80 centilitres). In France, a packet contain- 
ing fifteen seeds costs about i f. 25 c. When the 
French Sisters of Charity took up their residence at 
the asylum of Ajuda they obtained 30 alqueiries of the 
seeds, which they constructed into necklaces and 
rosaries, which were sent to France and sold for a 
good price. The tree, moreover, yields an abundance 
of resin, used for varnish making. It is a noble 
looking object, and strongly excites the attention of 
visitors. Our contemporary tells as a fact, for the 
authenticity of which he vouches, a story of a British commanding a fleet in the Tagus, who was 
so impressed with the grandeur of the tree that he 
wished to purchase it. " Unable to restrain his 
enthusiasm he walked up tout ami like the good 
Englishman that he was [sic] to one of the gardeners, 
and asked him, in the best Portuguese that he could 
command, if this magnificent tree were for sale. The 
gardener, smiling, replied in the negative, but this 
did not satisfy the Admiral, who gave the gardener 
no peace until he had communicated his wishes to his 
(the gardener's) superiors. The enthusiastic English- 
man said that he would give /'looo sterling, and 
would come with his sailors and dig up the tree with 
the greatest care and transport it to England. But in 
truth the enterprise was impossible, even for an Eng- 
lishman. . . . The episode is on the faith of eye- 
witnesses worthy of credence, absolutely authentic." 
We suspect our Portuguese friend did not understand 
the Admiral's little joke, especially as his Portuguese 
was somewhat defective. 

'■i Buried Oak Timber. — In deepening a river in 
the neighbourhood of Norrkoping, in order to 
make it accessible for ships of heavier draught, 
amongst several objects of interest brought up from 
the bottom, eight oak trees were found at a depth of 
about 7 feet under the old bottom. The bark is 
almost decayed, and when it was taken oft" the wood found to be hard and bl.ack, resembling ebony. 
The trees are supposed to have been lying 900 years 
in the earth. The trees have been sold to a firm of 
joiners, who intend using them for cabinet work. 
Timber Trades Journal, 

JANUARY 10, iSSo,] 



SELECT INDEX OF PLANTS FROM 1S41 TO 187^.— {Con/imwd from j,. y -,3,^1. xii.) 


anoniala, 844, '43 


[st-e Ht'lichrysuni) 
niacrnnthum, 185, '4-; 


longipetala, 363, ^y^ 
Eli.eanthits — 

xinthocomus, 353, 'y^ 
Elm — 

526, '47 : 344. '57 ; 54. '69 

inarching of branches, 421, 

the Huntingdon, 526, '47 
Embothrium — 

coccineum, 105, ix., '78 
Emilia — 

coccinea, 133, '45 
Enxephalartos — 

acantha, Mast. («= Frederic! 

Guilielmi), 810, x,, '78 
Altensteinii, 392, vi., 'y^ (fig-) 
GheUincIcii, 1338, '63 
Hildebrandtii, 11, 430, ix., 

horridus, 1131, '65 (fig.) : 

1338, '68 
villosus, 312, i., '74 (fig.) ; 
419, ii., '74 : 708, vi , '76 ; 
21, vii., '77 (fig.) 
Encholirium — 
(see Tillandsia) 
corallinum, 363, '73 
roseum, 440, ix. , '78 
Saundersii, 419, ii., '74 
Endera — 

conophalloidea, 363, '73 
Endives — 

sorts of, 196, '50 
Engraving — 

woods for, 1017, '73 

quinqueflorus, 696, '70 

double, 340, v., '76 (fig.) 
ccr;eflora, 298 (for 398). '41 
hvacinthiflora candidissima, 

'1-2, '48 
impressa Candida, 172, '48 
Epidendrum — 

aeridiforme, 259, '45 
advcnuni, Rchb. f., 1194, '72 
alatum, 703, '47 
amethystinum, 376, '(j-j 
arbusculum, 523, '43 
bicanieratum, 119 t, "71 
Brasavolce, 682, 1239, '67 
Ciili^iiriiim, Rchb. f., 11 10, 

Catillus, 139'^, 'ji ; 419, ii., 

cinnabarinum, 367, '42 
cncmidophorum, 292, '64 ; 

364, '6 1 ; 1 142. '6j 
Cooperianum, 852, '67 
Coxian urn, Rchb. f. , 358, 

viii., 'tj 
chniferum, 1291, '71 ; 419, 

ii., '74 
decipiens, 253, '57 
dichromum var. striatum, 

218, '66 
eburneum, 404, '67 
evectum, 646, 't^ 
falcatuni, 230, '41 
favoris, Rchb. f., g'', ii., '74 
Frederici GuiUelmi, 646, 't2> 
CJhiesbreghtianum, 815, '68 
Grahami, 527, '42 
hastatum, 436, '41 
inversum, 493. '68 
Kanvinskii, Rchb. f. , 710, 


lacertinum, 503. '41 
lancifoiium, 639. '42 
latilabium, 24, '42 
leucochilum, Klotzsch, 780, 

iii., '75 
Lindleyanum (=: Carkeria), 

419. "•■ '74 
marmoratum, A. Rich, et 

Gal., 688, v., '76 
meliosmiuK, Rchb. f. , 989, 

microchans, Rchb. f. , 1246, 

nocturiium, 699, 763, '72 
nsevosum, 167, '46 
paniculatum, 1338, '63 
Parkinsonianum, 724, ix., '78 
phoeniceum, 551, '41 ; 423, 

pkysodes, Rchb. f. , 289, '73 
phcatum, 591, '47 
prisrtiatocarpum, 413. '65 
pscudepidendrum, 505, 763, 

pyriforme, 671, '47 
radiatum, 503, '4,1 ; 607, '44 
raniferum, 518, '41 ; 511, '42 
sanguineum, 30*3, x., "78 


Schomburgkii, 631, '43 

seriatum, 1323, '71 

Sophronitis, 655, '6y ; 19S, 
viii., 77 

iripunctiitnm, Lindl. {see 

turialvjc, 1678, '71 

vitelHnum, 151, '41 

Wallisii, Rchb. f., 66, iv., 
75 ; ^62, ix., '78 

{see Stanliopea) 
Epigynium — 

IcLicobotrys, 774, '60 
Epimedrim — 

concinnum, 646, '-^i^ 

list of, 698, '70 

media, 532, "52 (fig.) 

phyllanthes, 660, '52 
Epiphoka — 

rnbcscens, Lindl., 437, '58 
Epipiiyllum — 

Russellianum. 911, '43 

grafted. 234, '47 (fig.) 

list of, 547, '41 ; 318, '64 
EprsciA — 

bicolor, buds on leaves, 4, 

■53 (fig.) 

chontalensis, 505, '72 
Eranthemum — 

Andersoni-, Mast., 134, 136, 

aspcrsum, 136, '69 
cinnabarinum, 778, viii., '"j-] 

ocellalum, 505, '72 

elegans [■=. Andersoni), 1234, 

igneum, 627, '63 
laxiflorum, 778. viii., '■jj 
palatifcrum, 646, 't^ 
pulchcllum, 247, '44 ; 284, 

Eremostachys — 

laciniata, 659, '45; 306, x., 

robustus, 419, ii., '74 
spectabilis, 596, '^5 

acutifolia, 382, '42 
acutissima, Rchb. f, 567, 

v., '76 
armeniaca, 300 {for 400), '41 
Berringtoniana, Rchb. f. , 

666, '72 
bipunctata, 783, '41 
bractescens, 230, '41 
convallarioidcs, 551, '41 ; 783, 

Corncfi, Rchb. f., 106, x., '78 
coronaria, Rchb. f. , 234, v., 


Dayana, Rchb. f., io2, viii., 

extinctoria, 646, '73 

floribunda, 298, '44 

loiigilabris, 300 (for 400), '41 

paniculata, 382, '42 

pannea, 639, '42 

spha^rochila, 106, x., '78 

vestita, 104, '70 
Erica — 

Cavendishiana, 435, '43 (fig.) 

Chamissonis, 419, ii., '74 

codonodes, 463, vii., 'y-j (fig.) 

Murr.ayana, 318, '44 

Niellii, 711, '42 

obbata, 301, x., '78 (fig.) 

hybrid, 461, '43 

squarrosum, 415, '41 
Eriospermu.m — 

albucoides. Baker, 716, iii., 

Ciilcaratum, Baker, 7x6, iii., 


scaber, 139, '48 

nanum, 1117, '70 

m.acradenium, 1267, '67 

Munbyanum, 646, '^-^ 
Ervcina — 

[see Oncidium echinatum) 
Ekvngium — 

p mdanifolium, 76, v., '76 


panicalatum, 76, v., '76 (fig.) 

serra, 76, v., '76 (fig.) 

species of, 376, x., '78'm— 

Peroffskianuni, 133, '45 
Ervtiirea — 

venusta, 720, x., '78 

Bidwillii, 271, '47 

niarmorata, 430, ix., '78 

Parcellii, 393, ii., '74 (fig-) 


pictn, 419, ii., '74 

brasiliensis, 775, '43 
hypoiDhyllanthus, 734, '70 

Ervtiiro.nil'M — 

gr.mdiflorum, 83T, i., '74 
(fig.) ; 419, ii., '74 

. albiflorum, 419, ii., '74 

revolutuni, .Smith, 138, v., '76 


Coca, 559, v., '76 
mexicanum, 1158, '69 


densa, 599, '54 
macraniha, 947, '73 
montana, 947. '73 
PllilippUint, Mast., 947, '73 I 

loS, X.. 73 (fig.) 
pterocl.adon, 36, '53 (fig.) 
descriptive list of species, 978, 



M.indarin, 36O, vii., '77 
tenuifolia, 301, '55 (fig.) 
double, 470, '41 


gr.ass, 1030, '62 

EtJCALVPrus — 

calophylla, 783, '41 
globulus, 2-6, '51 (fig.) ; 
1567. '73 (fig.) 1461, X., 78 
ma.rocarpi, 159, '48 
resinifera, 1041, '72 'fig.) 
Sout!i Australian, 267, ix.,'78 


Candida, 631, '53 ; 242, v., '76 
grandiflora, 804, '55 
paradoxa, 242, v., '76 (=r Cal-' 
liphruria subedentata, 622, 
vii., 'yj 

n^gelioides, 627, '67; 762,' 68 

am-xryUidifoli a , leaker, 492, 

X., '78 
bicolor. Baker, 4^;2, x. , '78 
clavata, 646, 'y^ 
punctata, 778, viii., 2, '77 
Eugenia — 

oleoides, 615, '54; 306, x., 

Ugrn, 644, 's( (fig.) 


japonici, 565, vii., 'y-j (fig.) 


Helleborina, 646, 'y-i, 
scripta, 1003, '72; 332, X., 


japonicus, 86, '44 

variegatus, 733, '61 

sport, 86, '44 


Bcrlandieri (gracile odoratum, 

Hort. ), 44, ix. , '78 
Haagcanuni, 236, '68 
odoratum (=ligustrinum), 44, 

ix., '78 
ripariuni, 292, '(^j 
Weinmannianum, 236, '63 (^ 

ligustrinum, 44, ix., '78) 
Euphorbia — 

corollata, 786, x,, '78 
geniculata, 646, '73 
plumerioides, 419, ii., '74 


Litchi, 293, '73 (fig.) 
Eurya — 

species, 735, '61 


Gunniana, 324, '57 


australasica, 277, vii., '77 

Eurygania — 

ovata, 720, X., '78 
Eustephia — 

Macleanica, 38, '41 

macrophylla, 6, '41 


(fCt* Phacelia) 
viscida, 133, '45 


capitata, 475, '48 


flowers, 217, '61 ; 493, v. 


purpureo-coemleus, 23, '46 


tetragonum, 7, '48 

var. bicolor, 855, '47 


grandiflora, 925, '58 


[see Ipomnsa) 
Purga, 687, '47 


longiflorum, 738, '43 


zeylanici, 419, ii., '74 
Fagus — 

521, ii., '74 (fig.) 

grande, Lindl., 4, '57 ; 170, 

(see Aralia) 
Ferns — 

hybrid, 500, '44 

variations of, 1046, '61 (fig.) 
Fertilisation — 

560, vii., '77 

of Anemone, 451, '55 

Dr. Denny on, 872, 904, '72 

ofgrasses.362, 400, '73; 341, 

i.. '74 (fig.) 
of Potatos, i^^, '46 
of Passion-flowers, 1068, '66 ; 

1341, '68 
of .Scarlet runners, 561, x., '78 
of Vines, 636, '68 ; 737, 836, 

of Yuccas, 941, '72 
parentage iu, 50, x., '78 
Ferul..\. — 

foetidissima, 786, x., '78 
Ficus — 

Cooperi, 478, '62 

exscidpta. Mast., 84, x., '78 

(fig.) (= .'\rtocarpus, hort.) 
macrophyha, 710, '53 (=: Ar- 

tocarpus imperialis, hort.) 
Parcellii. 419, ii., '74 
Roxburghii, 646, 'y'^ ; 419, 

".. '74 
\irgata, 207, '46 

604, '58 (fig.) ; 143, 498 ii., 

'74 (fig.) 

(sec Abies, Picea, Pinu^) 


argyroncura, 627, '67 
giganiea, 41, '71 

disease, the, 611, '51 (fig.) 
Flowers — 

double, 623, '43 ; 626, '65 ; 

290, 364, 681, 73^, 897, 

901, '65 ; 381, '67 ; 1113, 


everlasting, 217, '61 ; 493, v., 

'76 ; 779, X. , '78 
sweet-scented, list of, 44, 
iii., '75 

Fortune!, 579, '64 
Forsythia — 

Fortunei, 412, '64 
viridissima, 711, '46 
suspensa, 469, ix., '78 (fig.) 


chinensis, 503, '46 
Foxglove — 

monstrous, 435, '50 

gigantea, 540, '44 

lougajva, 81, v., '76 (fig.) 
Franciscea — 

acuminata, 738, '41^ 

lalilolia, 799, '41 ; 366, '43 
Fraxinus — 

(j,-,- Ash) 

dipetak, 582, '54 
Frees I A — 

Leichtlinii, 591, iii., 'y^ (fig.) 
Fremonti.\ — . 

c.alifornica, 52, '59 (fig.) 

Banksii, 1282, '70 ; 646, '73 ; 

419. ii.. '74 
FRrnLLARi.\ — 

acmopetala, Boiss. and Biker, 

621, iii., '75 ; 503, viii., '77 
armeuia, 1S9, x. , '78 
aurea, Schott, 720, v., '76 
dasyphylla. Baker, 653, iii., 

'7.';; 503. ii.. '77 
Hookeri (Lilium), 810, vii., 

'77 ; 85, 752, X., '78 
murandra, Baker, 715, iii., 

pudica, 831, 1., '74 (fig.) ; 

419. ii.. 74 
Sewerzowi, 1S9, x. , '78 
tulipifolia, 646, '73 
Fruits — 

list of new, 364, '66 
raised by T. Rivers, 532, 
viii., '77 
Fruit Trees— 

origin of, 944, '63 
Fuchsia — 

Ar.ibclla, 211, vii., '77 (fig.) 
Chandleri, 299 (for 390), '41 
cordifolia, 299 (for 399). 455, 
832, '41 

Fuchsia — 

corymbiflora, 54, '41 ; 192, 

exoniensis x , 663, '43 
tulgens, fruit oT, 685, '41 
inic^rifolia, 423, '42 
Monypennii X , 334, '42 
pauiculata, 301, '56 
procumbens, 419, ii., '74 ; 

291 (fig. I. 322, ii., '74 
r.idicans, 599, '41 ; 127, '42 
refulgens, 471, '41 
Ricoartoni, origin of, 245, iii., 

rosco-alba, 423, '42 
scrratifolia, 53r, '45 
sessiiifolia, 646, '73 
spectabilis. 319, '48 (fig.) 
splendens, 7, '43 ; 471, '71 
syringredora, 419, ii., '74 
Towardi, 471, '41 
triumphans, 471, '41 
Youcllii, 471, '41 
double, 989, '63 
hybrid, 299 (for 399), 470, '41 
list of, 630, '41 ; 55, '67 ; S5S, 

sport, 536, 'so 
vars. of, 503, viii., 'yj 
Funkia — 

I'ortuiH'i, Baker, 36, vi. , '76 
grandiflora, 629, x. , '78 (fig.) 
species of, 1015, '68 



xanthophylla, 1668, '73 (fig.) 
Gaillardia — 

amblyodon, 419, ii., '74 
Galactodendron — 

utile, 419, ii., '74 
Galanthus — 

latifolius, 136, '69 

plicatus, 340, '56 (fig.) 

(see Snowdrop) 
Gai.eandka — 

Devoniana, 54, '41 ; 419, ii. , 

minax, Rchb. f., 786, i. , '74 ; 
98, ii., '74 
Galeottia — 

fimbriata, 660, '56 (fig.) 
Galium — 

Vaillantii, 71S, '44 
Galls — 

116, 189, '55 (fig.) 
G..\mochlamys — 

/letenifidra, Baker, 164, vi., 
Garcinia— [(fig.) 

Mangostana, 657, iv. , '75 
Gardener — 

bird, the, 333, ix. , '78 
Gardenia — 

Devoniana, 663, '46 

florida, var. Fortuneana, 447, 

longistyla, 671, '47 
malleifera, 223. '43 
nitida, 855, '47 ; 7, '48 
radicans fol. variegatis, 715, 

Rothmanni, 436, '55 (fig.) 
Stanleyana, 611. '45 
Whilfieldii, 452, '48 
Garrya — 

elliptica, 169, ix., '78 (fig.) 
Gasteria — 

coliibrina, N. E. Br., 38, viii., 

diet J, N. E. Br., 68, ii., '76 

Gastronema — 

sanguineum flammeum, 646, 


spinosum, 654, '44 

villosum, 639, '47 

fragrantissima, 646, '-y^ 

glabra caracasana, 419, ii., 

insipida, 419, ii., '74 
Gaylussacia — 

pseud jvaccinium, 834. "44 

grandis. 646, '73 
Genetyllis — 

(see Dar.vinia : Hedaroma) 
Genista — 

Everesliana, 419, ii., '74 

virgata, 151, '44 
Gentiana — 

Andrewsii, 4-2, x. . '78 

double-flowered, 628, '43 — 

arundinacea, 78, '72 (fig.) 

corallifera, 68, '55 

Ghiesbreghtiana, njS, fa 



[January io, iSSo. 


Thinning Scotch Fni Plantations. — A letter 
appeared in your last number for 1879 from Mr. C. 
Y. Michie, forester on the CuUen estates of the Earl 
of Seafield, in which he disputes the authenticity of 
some figures in a circular written by me for Messrs. 
Little & Ballantyne, to show the possible returns 
realised from the sale of young .Scotch Fir trees during 
fifty years' growth. Will you kindly allow me part of 
your valuable space to reply to Mr. Michie's stric- 
tures, which are, I think, likely to mislead landed 
proprietors who are at present preparing to plant 
their poor lands with trees ? 

In regard to the figures referred to by Mr. Michie 
in my paper " On Our Timber .Supplies," they were 
certainly authentic, and not "purely imaginary and 
speculative," as Mr. Michie somewhat h.istily calls 
them. They are extracted from a very interesting 
report on the "Woods and Plantations of Iligh- 
clere," by Mr. Andrew Peebles, a practical forester of 
great experience, and which was printed by the 
Scottish Arboricultural Society in their Transactions. 
In this report Mr. Peebles gives his opinion very 
distinctly as follows :—" From this it appears that 
land not adapted for agricultural purposes, if planted 
with Scotch Fir, judiciously managed, will pay some- 
thing like £2 per acre at the end of fifty years, and 
that, too, in a locality where there is little demand 
for such produce." 

In case, however, Mr. Michie should still adhere to 
his rather strong assertion that the value of thinnings 
is in all cases simply " a self-imposed deception," let 
me remind him that his opinion is not sufficient by 
itself to settle such an important question ; and that 
as his experience has been probably confined to the 
northern locality in which he has so long worked, we 
must claim the right to summon witnesses from other 
districts, whose evidence will be entitled to equal 
weight with Mr. Michie's. For this purpose I have 
made the following extracts from authentic reports 
published by a few well-known foresters, and who it 
will be seen confirm the estimate made by Mr. 
Peebles of the results of well-managed plantations of 
Scotch Firs. 

The late Mr. William Thomson, Deputy Surveyor 
of II.M. Chopwell Woods, Durham, in a paper pub- 
lished in the Scottish Arboricultural Society's Trans- 
actions, states : — 

" Let us, however, leave a margin for contingencies, 
and assume that in a space of tifty years the value of 
plantations will be— not ^300, not ;^iSO (according to 
some estimates) — but say .^100 per acre, just one-third. 
Woodlands of ordinary capabilities ought to yield this 
sum, and unless they do so we submit tliat tlieir manage- 
ment must be, not only indifferent, but unskilful in the 
highest degree. This, it will be observed, is a return of 
£■2 per acre per annum, exclusive of thiimings whieii 
have been taken out during the whole period of the 
plantation's growth. But as we are now computing in 
round numbers, we may allocate these to the liquidation 
of the rent of the land," &c. " We wish no one may be 
able to say that our statements are of a merely theo- 
retical character, which cannot be carried out prac- 

Mr. D. F. Mackenzie, forester, Meldrum House, 
Aberdeenshire, in a report on " Felling Timber 
Trees," published in the Scottish Arboricultural 
Society's Transactions, says :^ 

"None of our timber trees are more extensively culti- 
vated than the Scotch I''ir, its timber being "applied to 
almost all purposes to which common wood is applicable. 
This tree is not particular as regards soil or situation, and 
can be cut down with profit at the age of thirty-five j'ears 
and upwards. I felled a large wood of Scotch Fir on an 
estate in the North on laud worth less than 2j. 61/. per 
acre. The age of this plantation was thirty-five years, 
and the nett return, after manufacture, was ^33 per acre.' 

This wood was cut down too young. 

Mr. James Wood, wood-man.ager, Bayham Abbey, 
Tunbridge Wells, in a p.aper on " The Arboriculture 
of the County of Kent," in the Scottish Arboricultural 
Society's Transactions (1877), writes : — 

"There are several hundred acres of moorish soil, part 
of whicli is covered with a healthy thris-ing crop of 
Scotch Fir ; but much is still lying waste, which if it 
were planted would realise 201. per acre for tlie time it 
occupied the ground, .although small .Scotch Fir only 
sells at present at (>i, per foot, and trees 8 inches 
through at <)d. per foot. It is principally used for barrel 
Staves, and who can tell but it may yet realise u, 8rf. to 

21. ; in all prob.abilily it will do so ; and if the thou- 
sands of acres of waste land throughout Britain, 
worth in many cases only 2J. td. per acre, were planted, 
much money would be secured to posterity, and the 
humidity of our island maintained." 

Mr. John Grigor, of Forres, N.B., the author 
of an excellent Treatise on Arboriculture, gives the 
following instance, among others ; — 

"On an adjoining mo )rland on the estate of Dalvcy, 
about four miles from Forres, there is a plantation of 
native Highland Fir, about forty-five years old, and 
which has been carefully thinned. The value of the 
thinnings cannot be now ascertained, but the trees as 
they stand are worth"/ 50 per acre on land which under 
any other circumstances would not have fetched nearly 
£i per acre per annum." 

I could give many similar quotations. There 
are also many interesting reports on the value of 
Larch plantations, showing much greater returns 
per acre than any I have given from Scotch Fir. 

Mr. Michie's remarks on the thinning of Scotch 
Fir I must leave to pr.actical foresters, whose opinions 
will carry equal weight with his. I would merely 
remind him that Scotch Fir requires less space for its 
growth any other trees, and that the value of 
thinnings differs greatly in different localities ; in 
some even the smallest are readily disposed of, while 
in others they are unsaleable. 

There is also a wide divergence of opinion as to 
the proper age at which woods should be cut down, 
and different localities and soils, and exposures, 
require different treatment. If Mr. Michie would 
give us authentic statements of the sums realised from 
time to time per acre from the plantations which 
have been cleared on the Seafield properties, he 
would do more service by giving us the use of such 
valuable experience than by calling in question the 
experience of other foresters, and thereby, it may be, 
checking the profitable occupation of the large extent 
of waste land which at present lies almost useless 
throughout the country. Wni. Baxter Smith, 4, Sal- 
combe Villas, Merton, Surrey, Jan. I. 

Florists' Flowers. 


Flowers. — Bouvardias. — A few of these will still 
continue to produce flowers in a warm conservatory 
or greenhouse. Their flowers are very useful now, 
few things being better adapted for small vases or 
bouquets. It is very desirable to retain the plants in 
flower for as long a period as possible, and one way 
of doing this is to place the earliest plants that 
flowered in September or October in heat, say the 
first week in January or even earlier. Those who 
have not the convenience of a forcing-house, may 
place the plants in an early vinery : this would be 
started with a moist heat of 45° at night, rising a 
degree or two every week, which would do well for the 
Bouvardias, and the plants are generally grown 
sufiiciently to produce cuttings before the roof is 
covered with leaves. Prop.igate and treat .as advised 
last month. 

Much the best place for Calceolarias at the pre- 
sent time is on a shelf or stage near the glass in 
a house or pit from which the frost can easily be 
excluded by means of hot-water pipes ; no soft- 
wooded plants suffer more readily from the effects of 
over-healing the hot-water pipes than these : it will 
cause the oldest leaves to droop, and usually causes 
greenfly to appear on them. Many persons have 
only a greenhouse in which their plants must both be 
grown and flowered : such persons must scheme a 
little, and either raise the plants on pots near the 
glass, or place them on a shelf suspended over the 
path from the rafters overhead. Carefully look over 
the plants about once a fortnight, turn each round 
and look well under the leaves, and remove all those 
that are decayed, and if one solitary aphis is observed 
fumigate at once. Large plants should have their 
growths tied or pegged out, and any pl.^nts that 
require repotting should be attended to at once. 

Chinese Primulas. 

In dull damp weather Chinese Primulas have a 
great tendency to die ofl" .at the collar. When 
they are arranged amongst other flowering plants in 
the greenhouse at this season, it is always difficult 
to give each particular pl.ant just the treatment it 

requires ; but choice Primulas of this type well 
deserve to be pl.aced in a light position near the glass, 
and also where they can have 5" higher tempera- 
ture than Calceolarias at this season. Water with 
rain-water rather warmer than the temperature of the 
house, and with careful attention as to ventilation 
few or none will damp oft". Should any decay appear 
near the collar of the plant remove it with the 
fingers, and rub the afl^ecteJ part with dusty quick- 

The earliest plants are now in full beauty, and 
very useful they are with their brilliant colours 
when the Chrysanthemums are over, and few of 
the forced flowers are yet in. These do not require 
any more attention at present than just to see that the 
plants do not suffer for want of water, that they are 
kept free from greenfly, and are not placed where 
there is a draught of air blowing directly upon them. 
In a cool moderately dry house they remain in per- 
fection for a very long time ; the difi'erent shades of 
blue furnish us with flowers for cutting at this season 
that are very valuable indeed, but nearly all of them 
are well adapted for bouquets or vases. Plants 
intended to flower lat^-r, if not yet potted into their 
flowering pots, should be seen to without any delay ; 
the young growths must also be tied out as they 
require it. Decayed leaves must be carefully removed, 
mildew destroyed by dusting with flowers of sulphur, 
and aphis and thrips annihilated by fumigation. On 
no account let any plant suffer for want of water at the 
roots. Keep the foliage dry. 


It is now a good time to sow the seeds of Cj'cla- 
mens, using pots or p.an3 according to the quantity to 
be sown. The pans may either be placed on a shelf 
near the glass in a temperature of 50' to 55°, or they 
m.ay be plunged in a gentle bottom-heat ; when the 
seeds vegetate it is best to place the pans near the 
glass, and when the small plants have formed one 
leaf they may be potted singly in thumb-pots, using 
light sandy soil, still keeping the plants near the 
glass and in the same temperature. Flowering 
plants succeed best in a warm greenhouse, where the 
attention will be the same as that advised last month. 
Some of our large plants, six or seven years old, pro- 
duce a large quantity of flowers, but the leaves and 
flowers .also are very small, and it is better to throw 
such plants away, and trust to younger ones to 
produce flowers. 

The whole stock of Hyacinths should now be 
taken from the plunging material and be placed 
under glass. Those intended for exhibition on any 
date from the middle to the end of JNIarch should be 
placed in a pit or house on shelves near the glass, 
from which frost can be excluded. They must never 
want for water, but it would be a mistake to give too 
much of it, on the supposition that plants that will 
grow in water cannot have too much of it when 
planted in soil. If it is intended to keep a portion 
back for exhibition or any other purpose, the pots 
should be plunged to the rims in some light, dry 
material in a cold frame facing the north. Cover 
the glass at nights with mats if severe frost is 

Large-flowering Pelargoniums. 
Where there is a large collection they are con- 
tinually requiring attention as to tying-out the 
growths and forming the plants for the next season. In- 
structions as to how this is to be done were given last 
month. The plants intended to flower in May and 
June have of course been potted some time ago ; 
those intended to flower in July may be repotted any 
time this month. By careful attention to watering 
and judicious ventilation, the plants are not likely to 
sutTer from "spot;" this is brought on by watering 
with cold water, or giving too much of it, or from a 
too low damp atmosphere. 

Fancy Pelargoniums. 
The fancy Pelargoniums must be carefully trained 
into shape, and, as previously advised, keep 
the temperature rather warmer, besides placing the 
plants at the w.arm end of the house. The ventilators 
may be kept rather closer, as the shoots are not so 
liable to become drawn up weakly as the others. 
Now is the time to destroy greenfly, or prevent its 


Januarv 10, iSSo.] 



Zonal Pelargoniums. 

The plants intonded to flower early in the 
summer should be placed in a house where 
the temperature is warmer than the green- 
house, say 50° at night. The difficulty with this 
class of Pelargonium is to get them well in flower for 
the early exhibitions, and they do not bear much 
forcing later in the year. Small plants at present in 
the pots they were placed into in the autumn must 
not be excited into growth; water very sparingly, and 
give plenty of air and light. 

If it is intended to produce good flowering 
specimens of Petunias in pots by the end of summer, 
the plants should now be potted into 5-inch pots 
from the 3-inch ones in which they have been win- 
tered, that is, if they have started to grow and are 
forming roots. Immense specimens maybe produced 
if the plants are strong and they are started at this 
time in a temperature of 50°, and this ought not to be 
exceeded until the season is well advanced and air 
can be freely admitted. If the plants have been 


We have to thank Messrs. Fisher, Son & Sibray, 
of the Ilandsworth Nurseries, Sheffield, for specimens 
of some very fine new Hollies, which have been 
raised by them from seed amongst many thousand 
others of crossed origin, and of two of which we 
have had the accompanying figures prepared. 

Ii.KX Aquifolium pkinceps (fig. S). — This 
remarkably grand Holly, one of the finest of which 
we have any knowledge, was raised at the Hands- 
worth Nurseries, from seed of the BLick Holly, I. 
A. nigrescens, crossed with a male seedling from 
b.alearica. It is a free berry-bearing variety. The 
wood is of a brownish green ; the leaves are 
broadly oval, 4 to 4A inches long, and 2^ to 3 inches 
broad, with strong distant spines standing out directly 
from the edge with a broad equal base, the edge of 
the leaf thus forming a series of wide even scollops or 
indentations, the points of the spines from half an inch 
to three-quarters of an inch asunder. The leaves are 
dark green, very stout in texture, wit'i deeply sunk 

Holly, and will make a fine and striking addition to 
the varieties already in cultivation. 

I. AouiKor.iUM MAGNii-icA.— Thisis agrand form 
of the laurifolia type, slightly breaking into the spiny- 
edged. We understand it is very distinct in the plain- 
edged series, in consequence of the profusion of berries 
it produces, laurifolia being a sterile variety. The 
leaves are oval-oblong, dark green, glossy, leathery 
in texture, 4 inches long by 2 inches broad, with a 
rather long spiny point, but otherwise usually spine- 
less, occasionally with one, two, or more spines vari- 
ously placed on the edge. Detached leaves or twigs 
have somewhat the appearance of Messrs. Paul & 
Son's I. A. laurifolia latifolia, but it is quite distinct, 
being a berry-bearing form as well as being of a pen- 
dulous habit. Messrs. Fisher & Co. inform us that 
it bears raceme-like clusters of berries sometimes fully 
a yard long, and some samples they have sent fully 
bear out this character. Its rapid growth, loose 
and consequently somewhat pendent habit, and its 
extraordinarily free berrying property, together make 
it 3 very conspicuous variety. 

Fig. S. — li.E.x aijuifolium princeps : under-surface of leaf. 

Fig. 9. — ILEX aquifolium conspicua : unper-surface of leaf. 

stunted in the pots it is better to take cuttings now, 
strike them in a gentle bottom-heat, and make a 
fresh start. 

These, like the Petunias, are easily grown, 
and require rather similar treatment. The plants 
will be now in store pots, and they should be 
encouraged to make growth ; and as soon as the cut- 
tings are ready they may be taken off and struck in 
bottom-heat. As soon as the plants are rooted they 
may be potted into small pots and placed on a shelf 
near the glass. Greenfly, red-spider, thrips, and 
mildew all attack the Verbena, and it is needless to 
say that the plants will do no good unless all these are 
kept from them. J . Doitglas, Loxfoni Hall. 

Eroomrapes. — It appears from a communication 
made to the Horticultural Society of Paris, that in 
Persia Melons, Cotton plants. Cabbages, and other 
plants, suffer so severely from the presence of a para- 
sitic plant allied to our Eroomrapes or Orobanches, 
that popular riots have ensued in consequence of the 
scarcity thereby occasioned. M. Baillon has deter- 
mined the plant to be Phelip^a ramosa. 

venation, which is very prominent on the lower surface, 
and which gives the upper surface an almost rugose 
appearance. In this form the principal veins run 
outwards at a very obtuse angle. The figure, though 
not representing the largest size of leaf which has been 
attained, will yet show that this is a noble Holly, of 
distinct and well-marked character. 

I. Aquifolium conspicu.\ (fig. 9). — This is 
a distinct and striking form of Holly, with leaves 
almost as large as those of I. A. princeps, but the 
midrib is distinctly decurved, as in some of the small- 
leaved sorts, so that the leaves cannot be laid flat. 
This also is a Ilandsworth seedling from nigra, 
believed to be crossed with I. A. ciliata major. The 
wood is black or very dark coloured ; and the curved 
leaves vary in shape from ovate to oval, the length being 
from 3^ to 4^ inches, and the breadth 2}, to 3 
inches. The texture is thinner, the colour paler, and the 
surface more glossy than in the variety just mentioned ; 
the veins are slightly sunk on the upper, prominent on 
the lower surface, and the teeth are rather more 
closely placed, seldom exceeding a distance of half an 
inch, and also directed forwards more towards the 
apex of the leaf. It is one of the bolder forms of green 

I. Aquifoliu.m laurifolia latifolia. — This is 
a large-leaved form of the laurifolia type, and makes a 
fine ornamental Holly. The leaves are elliptical, 
wider towards the base so as to become ovate-oblong, 
4I inches long, and nearly 2 inches wide towards the 
base, and i^ inch tow'ards the top, which is elongated 
and spiny. VVe have previously referred to this in 
noticing Messrs. Paul & Son's High Beech nursery, as 
a very fine form of the oblong spineless type, with the 
leaves of a very deep glossy green, and as one of the 
most striking of Hollies for ornamental purposes. 

I. Aquifolium maderensis medio-picta. — A 
pretty variety, with lanceolate-elliptic leaves, and 
rather fine and numerous small sharp spines, four or 
five to the inch, and directed towards the apex, 
which is elongated. The disk of the leaf is varie- 
gated with yellow in large irregular blotches gener- 
ally extending lengthways, sometimes reaching the 
margin, at other times confined to the centre, more 
or less freely associated with smaller patches of 
greyish-green, the margin sometimes wholly green, 
sometimes broken up by the colours of the varie- 
gation. Sometimes as much as three-fourths of the 
surface is yellow, rarely as little as one-fourth. The 



[January io, 1880. 

average-sized leaves are 3 inches long, and barely 
ij inch wide. This form originated wilh Messrs. 
Paul & Son of Cheshunl. 

I. Aquifolium nobilis picta. — A fine Holly, 
received from Messrs. Paul & Son, of Cheshunt. It 
has the broad leaves and bold stout spreading spines 
of nobilis, and has in addition a slight median varie- 
gation of a creamy-yellow colour, much less deve- 
loped, however, than the variegation in Lawsoniana. 
T, Moore, 

Aroideae Maximilianae. By Dr. Peyritsch. 
Vienna, 1S79. (Williams & Norgate.) Large 
folio, coloured plates. 

This truly magnificent book, published so soon after 
Engler's monograph of the order, is devoted to the 
Brazilian Aracere, collected and introduced into culti- 
vation through the late Archduke Maximilian, 
the unfortunate Emperor of Mexico. It rarely 
if ever before happened that a book containing 
so little matter has passed through the hands of so 
many independent editors as this one. The work 
was begun by Schott, the well known monographer 
of this order— by him almost all the descriptions were 
made, and most of the plates were prepared under his 
supervision. After his death it was placed in the 
hands of Dr. Wawra to complete, but owing to the 
warlike events of 1866 it was, at his proposal, 
entrusted to Dr. Kotschy, under whose superin- 
endence a few more plates were drawn. At the 
death of Dr. Kotschy the work passed to the care 
of M. Reissek, who was the only one after Schott 
that did much ; whilst under his charge the draw- 
ings were completed, and he drew up an explana- 
tion of the plates. The work was next entrusted 
to Dr. Fenzl, by whom the text and explanation of 
the plates were slightly modified. Finally the book 
was entrusted to the care of Dr. Peyritsch, and by 
him completed. It is printed in large clear type, on 
good stout paper, and is embellished with forty-two 
magnificent coloured plates, representing thirty out 
of the thirty-eight species described, besides a hand- 
some frontispiece. The size of the book, and the 
beauty and excellence of the plates — which were 
drawn by M. Liepoldt — render it a fit companion 
to Schott's Icones Aroidcarum ; its only defect 
appears to be the use of a different language for 
the habitats and explanations of the plates — 
these being written in German, whilst the descrip- 
tions are in Latin. Of the species figured, Montri- 
chardia linifera is the most remarkable; this plant is a 
marsh, or aquatic species, and has very stout, erect, 
tapering stems, 6 — 12 feet high, bearing distant, long 
petioled, large sagittate leaves j from the axils of the 
upper leaves arise the large yellowish inflorescences, 
followed by large, oblong, dark greenish heads of 
fruit : altogether the plant has a very striking appear- 
ance, quite different from everything else in culti- 
vation, PhUodendron imperiale is also a very 
ornamental foliage plant, especially rn its young 
state, when the petioles are red and the leaves 
of a pale chalky-green, marked with small blotches 
of dark green along the course of the midrib and near 
the margins. Zomicarpa Steigeriana, Z. Pythonium, 
and Z. Riedeliana are also striking and interesting 
foliage plants. yV. E. Broioii, A'cw. 

Ceylon Coffee Soils and Manures. A Report 
to the Ceylon Planters' Association. By John 
Hughes, F.C.S. 

This book, though somewhat late in its appearance, 
supplies a want which has long been felt by intelli- 
gent Coffee planters in Ceylon. Up to the date of 
Mr. Hughes' arrival in the island, under the auspices 
of the Planters' Association, scarcely any analyses 
had been made of the soils of the different Coffee 
districts, and all that the would-be proprietor of 
an estate did when examining the soil previous to 
purchase was to turn up a few spadefuls to see if 
heavy clay lay beneath. If none were found, and the 
climate and aspect were favourable, no further thought 
was bestowed on the soil until the Coffee trees ten 
or fifteen years afterwards showed signs of debility. 
As a consequence of this carelessness of inspection 
some of the Government lots that were passed over 
by clever planters as unsuited for Coffee turned out to 
be excecedingly valuable, whilst others that were 

eagerly sought after proved failures. There is no 
doubt that climate and situation have as much to do 
with the production of Coll'ee in Ceylon as the nature 
of the soil, but at the same time it is quite true that 
enormous sums of money have been expended in 
opening Coffee estates that ought never to have been 
opened. The money has been thrown away because 
the proprietor would not be at the trouble to consult 
an analyst as to the suitability of the soil. There was 
a feeling prevalent amongst planters that if the climate 
was fairly good they could force the tree to produce 
good crops by means of manure, and no doubt with 
high prices and an absence of " leaf disease " such a 
plan might have succeeded. 

In estimating the character of Ceylon soils it is well 
to remember that the whole island, with the exception 
of a fragment of secondary limestone on the north- 
west coast, is composed of metamorphic rocks and their 
A'in's. In some places there are bands of quartzite 
disintegrating into a very friable soil, in others 
isolated remnants of a highly crystalline and much 
disturbed stratified magnesian limestone. There are 
no secondary or tertiary strata, no large deposits of 
older disintegrated rocks accumulated under the 
action of water, but the primitive crystalline gneiss is 
found everywhere close to the surface, and almost 
everywhere it can be seen undergoing the pro- 
cess of disintegration ; this disintegration being 
only slightly in advance of the denudation. With 
such an origin, and with a rainfall of 100 inches 
to 200 inches in the year, it is not surprising 
if the Ceylon soils proved on analysis to be 
somewhat poor in comparison with those of Europe, 
or that the application of thoroughly good manure 
should have been found a vital necessity after a few 
crops had been gathered. It is in this respect that 
Mr. Hughes' book is of such great value to Coflee 
planters. It shows them distinctly by numerous 
analyses what the Coffee tree requires to keep it in a 
vigorous crop-bearing condition, as well as in what 
necessary constituents their soils are naturally defi- 
cient. It gives them the relative values of the different 
manures that are most easy to be obtained on Coffee 
estates — e.^., castor and cocoa-nut cake, Ceylon 
cattle and pig manures, Ceylon wood-ashes. Coffee- 
pulp, Ceylon burnt coral, and magnesian lime, &c,, 
together with the foods that are most valuable for 
producing their favourite cattle manure. Where the 
manure applied to an estate may cost year by year 
;£'20oo or ^3000, a knowledge of what the soil 
requires may effect an immense saving in outlay. It 
is much to be regretted that the presence of the 
dreaded " leaf disease " renders it all but impossible 
for planters to incur the double expense of fighting 
their fungoid enemy by means of disinfectants and 
restoring their exhausted soils to fertility by means of 
manures, and that it has become a question which of 
the two is most likely to repay expenditure. When 
it is remembered that new products, especially Cin- 
chona and Cocoa, are coming very extensively into 
cultivation in the Coffee districts, and that in districts 
at a lower elevation Liberian Coffee is being largely 
planted, the Planters' Association is to be congratu- 
lated on the wisdom it has shown, though late in the 
day, in obtaining a thoroughly scientific opinion as to 
the nature and capabilities of the soils which its 
members are engaged in cultivating. 

^iirbeiT 40|3cniti0irs. 


In writing the first Calendar of the year for this 
important department of fruit culture, one's first 
thought is naturally of the future ; and yet however 
unpleasant the task m.ay be, if still keeping in 
remembrance the experience of a year which has left 
sad records behind it, the practical horticulturist 
cannot afford to lose sight of anything which may 
serve as a lesson for the future, or which may enable 
him to grapple with difficulties which appear to grow 
in magnitude with every recurring season. We have, 
therefore, while arranging work for the present year, 
to keep constantly in mind the experience of its 
predecessor, and, if possible, to render a repe- 
tition of the same results less possible by adopt- 
ing measures which will modify the conditions 
under which certain classes of fruit trees have 
been so unproductive, not to say absolutely barren. 
The first step, and the one that I think the most 
likely to succeed in the end with any degree of cer- 
tainty, will be that of a re-adjustment of our present 
system of wall planting, by which the chosen and 
more tender kinds of hardy fruit trees will be con- 

densed within a more limited area, and covered 
wilh glass. On the other hand, there is too 
much "copying" amongst the general body of 
gardeners, irrespective of soil, situation, and 
locality, and that our present system of culti- 
vating hardy fruits is narrowed too much into one 
groove. Take, for example, the dwarf system of 
growing Apples and Pears, than which there is no 
form I admire more where it succeeds ; the tops are 
being continually cut in order to squeeze the trees 
into the shape of a teacup or a balloon, while the 
roots are travelling with unbridled liberty. The bor- 
ders, too, are frequently, and in many cases unavoid- 
ably, cropped wilh vegetables, so that such a thing as 
surface-fibre is rarely to be found. Thus we have 
trees restricted in branch-growth and sustained by 
roots which are continually pumping up crude aqueous 
matter from the earlh much too far from the genial 
influence of the sun to be healthy ; add to this an un- 
precedented rainfall, with hardly a clear sky for days 
and weeks, and I think it will be obvious that there 
is something manifestly wrong in the system, and 
that many cases of canker and decay may be fairly 
ascribed to some, if not all, the causes I have men- 
tioned. All that I plead for is that the branches of a 
tree shall be allowed to extend themselves propor- 
tionately with its roots, and that the roots when once 
formed shall not be cut away to make room for other 
crops, but be fed and nourished on the surfice. 

That there will be many vacancies in the hardy fruit 
garden to be made up is admitted, and there might 
also be additions made where practicable by throwing 
an arch over one of the principal walks and growing 
the trees as cordons. The roots should be confined 
at first, in order to ensure fertility, and have a space 
entirely devoted to themselves. The same principle 
might be carried out on vacant spaces on walls, and 
the roots could be allowed to extend annually with 
the tops. Wilh regard to Peaches, Plums, and Apri- 
cots that are growing in rich soils it is perfectly cer- 
tain that, so long as they are allowed to ramble at 
pleasure through large masses of earth, so long will 
they cease to bear fruit unless our climate soon changes 
for the better. Perhaps the suggestion will be taken 
up, and that a few will act upon it according as cir- 
cumstances will permit and report results, as I hope 
to do after a trial: Narrow borders for fruit trees, " all 
to themselves," and mulched both summer and winter, 
would at least produce wood more likely to get 
ripened than that which generally results from our 
present system. The planting of young trees, if not 
already done, should be completed whenever the earth 
is in a fit state for planting. It is always convenient to 
have a nursery, however small, in every garden where 
trees can be grown for a year before they are trans- \ 
ferred to their permanent quarters. All such operations 
should be anticipated where weeding out is intended. 

Young plantations of Raspberries, Gooseberries, 
Currants, &c., should also be made where old 
trees are showing signs of going back, or where a 
change of quarters will prove beneficial in other 
respects, and cuttings of approved kinds should be 
got in readiness and legibly named, so that they may 
be planted when the weather is favourable. The 
pruning and nailing of wall trees has fallen into 
arrears, owing to the severity of the weather ; and 
all preliminary work, such as preparing shreds and 
nails, and other kindred operations of a routine 
description, will require to be pushed forward wilh 
vigour whenever opportunity presents itself. 'K 
Hinds, Canford Manor. 


Necessarily my notes can only be suggestive of what 
may be or of what requires to be done at certain 
seasons of the year, and they are intended to serve 
as suggestions rather than as models for strict 
imitation. Every garden has its own special re- 
quirements at certain seasons, leaving out of account 
the difference in weather in the various parts of 
the kingdom ;. so that after taking into account 
circumstances and conditions, each for himself 
must decide as to what extent the hints and 
directions here given should be carried out. It may 
be observed that the rule followed in giving these 
hints will be that only arising from work actually 
being done under the direction of the writer. During 
the prev.alence of hard frosts, such .as have prevailed 
now for several weeks past, all heavy carting or 
wheeling of soil and manure should be done, also 
grubbing-up of old tree stumps, dead shrubs, and the 
cutting away of dead boughs or those that intercept 
or interfere with the growth or appearance of neigh- 
bouring shrubs or trees. Shrubbery clumps may also 
be well cleared out, and the leaves carted to the 
soil-yard to be thrown together with a little salt or 
fresh lime to kill insects and render them the more 
quickly avaikable for manurial purposes. Hedges of 
Beech, Thorn, and Privet can also be trimmed and 
ditches cleaned out. We have also been trimming 
ofl^ the str.aggling growths in clumps of common 
and Portugal Laurels .and Rhododendrons, work 
that would have been best left till spring, but the 
pressure of work at that season is so great that we 

January io, 1880.] 



have had it done now, and having done it for several 
years previously we do not anticipate any harm ; but 
in pans of the country where the thermometer has 
receded to zero no such cutting should yet be done, 
as the probability is that common if not PortugaL 
Laurels will be killed to the ground. As soon as 
weather permits let all alterations be pushed on, such 
as making new walks and roads, draining, excavating, 
or the forming of gardens for Ferns, alpine and her- 
baceous plants. 

In preparing ground for the planting of trees and 
shrubs no labour should be thought too great ; for 
the reason that when this is well done at first, 
the plants not only start off" vigorously, but no 
other disturbance or addition of soil is required for 
years ; therefore trench deeply, and manure liberally 
for even the commonest shrubs. The present is also 
a good time to render assistance to any favourite trees 
or shrubs that seem in waning health, by applying 
surface mulchings of fresh soil and manure. The 
roots of Coniferous plants soon find their way into 
dressings of fresh peaty or vegetable soil, and all 
kinds of deciduous trees are equally sensitive to 
dressings of a richer nature, such as the refuse soil 
from Vine and other fruit tree borders. Before apply- 
ing; such dressings it is generally advisable to remove 
as much of the old soil as possible without disturbing 
the roots. 

In the flower garden proper there is as yet, beyond 
the maintenance of neatness and order, very little 
requiring attention. Bulb beds, however, may require 
some slight protection, such as that afforded by 
Laurel or Vew spray, and the depredations of mice 
and rats must be guarded against by keeping traps 
near the runs of those vermin constantly baited. It is 
to be feared that Roses have suffered from the severity 
of the frost. The Noisette and Tea classes that have 
had no protective mulching will certainly die back to 
the ground-line, but meanwhile all kinds should be 
heavily mulched, and those recently planted be 
securely staked, for without this attention all new 
roots made would be liable to be destroyed by wind- 
waving. The reserve stock of summer bedding 
plants should now be examined, and any that are 
required in quantity, and the stock of which is short, 
should have the most favourable positions available 
for the production of cuttings, that propagation may 
begin early. As a rule, none but the most tender 
kinds will yet need additional heat. There are also 
some few kinds of bedding plants that are generally 
raised from seed, and which, being of slow develop- 
ment, require to be sown thus early ; amongst them 
are Acacia lophantha, Cannas in variety, Centaurea 
candidissima, Echeveria metallica and E. glauca metal- 
lica, Ferdinanda eminens, Grevillea robusta, Solanum 
pyracanthum, S. marginatum, Wigandia caracasana, 
W. urens, and \V. Vigieri. IV. WiUsmith, Heckfidd. 


Vines. — Under the favourable influence of mild, 
bright days since the breaking up of the frost, early 
started Vines have made good progress, and look very 
promising. As days increase in length they will, 
under judicious management, soon make up for the 
time apparently, though not really, lost while passing 
through the early stages of swelling and bursting their 
buds ; for Vines started in this way invariably pro- 
duce more compact shows and make better progress 
than when forced against Nature through the dark 
month of December. Vigorous young canes that 
have been suspended over fermenting material should 
be tied up to the wires as soon as the most backward 
buds have pushed freely from the rods. Proceed 
gradually with disbudding, and tie down the young 
growths before they touch the glass. Stopping, like 
forcing with or without bottom-heat for the roots, is a 
matter of great importance with some growers, while 
with others the first or fourth joint answers equally 
well. In my own practice, where the Vines break 
and grow away evenly, I prefer stopping to the third 
or fourth joint beyond the bunch, providing there is 
space at command. After this I allow the laterals to 
extend until I have sufficient wood to cover every 
available part of the trellis with fully developed 
foliage, when the strongest points are .again stopped 
to prevent overcrowding. As the bunches become 
prominent the house may be kept a few degrees 
warmer — say 58° at night, with a rise of 10° to 15° by 
day from fire-heat, allowing it to run up to So° under 
the invigorating influence of gleams of sunshine. If 
fermenting materials are used on inside or outside 
borders, and good Grapes can be secured by their 
use, the prudent grower will unwillingly depart from 
the route that has safely landed him across the stream, 
and in this case attention must be paid to the tempera- 
ture, which will not vary much where the border has 
been kept well covered with dry Fern and shutters 
up to the time that a body of dry warm Oak 
leaves were substituted for the Fern. Succession 
houses from which ripe Grapes are to be cut in June 
will have been closed and well watered with water at 
a temperature of 90°. Syringe the rods twice a day 
with warm water, taking care to wet every part of 

the wood, and allow the night heat to range from 45° 
to 55' on mild nights, with 10° more by day. As a 
means of economising the use of fuel, introduce a 
good heap of Oak leaves, to which one-third of short 
stable manure has been added : turn it frequently, 
and make additions as the heat declines. If not 
already done late Grapes may now be cut and re- 
moved, that the Vines may be cleansed and allowed 
to rest. Although I have never perceived any differ- 
ence in Grapes taken from \nnes that have bled after 
pruning, the application of a little styptic to the fresh 
cuts is so simple that its use after the turn of the year 
is always advisable. When the Vines, glass and walls 
have been properly cleaned the inside borders should 
be cleared of all exhausted mulching, and top-dressed 
with a thin layer of turfy loam, crushed bones, and 
rotten manuie over all. The outside borders that 
have been covered up all the winter may also be 
exposed to the influence of the weather, leaving a 
slight covering only of litter to keep out frost. 
Fruiting pot Vines placed in or over fermenting 
material may be kept warmer and drier as the 
bunches come into flower. Tie down and slop 
young growths, and afterwards allow them to grow 
until every part of the trellis is covered with foliage. 
Select thoroughly ripened wood for eyes, and insert in 
pots or sods at once ; if for fruiting canes, no time 
should be lost in getting them into heat. Win. 
Coleman, Eastnor. 

From plants raised from seeds sown now, ripe 
Melons may be cut by the end of April or beginning 
of May, providing everything goes on satisfactorily 
with them, and that the weather continues favourable 
to their growth. The seeds should be sown singly in 
6o's in light fine loam and leaf-mould, leaving room in 
the pots for top-dressing when the plaots require it, 
plunging them to the rims in a hotbed made of 
fermenting materials as recommended in our last 
Cucumber Calendar, and covering them with a 
piece of clean glass, which, however, should be re- 
moved as soon as the plants appear through the soil. 
When they have made 2 inches of growth they 
should be top-dressed, still keeping them as near the 
glass as possible without touching it, to prevent their 
becoming drawn. Should the frame upon looking 
into it in the morning be found rather full of steam, 
arising from the fermentation of the dung and leaves, 
it will be advisable to le.ave sufficient air on at night 
to allow of its escaping, otherwise probably the young 
plants would damp off ; but where the young plants 
are raised under more favourable circumstances there 
need be no apprehension in this respect. If the pots 
are placed on a shelf near the glass in a fruiting Pine- 
stove or Cucumber-house, with a piece of glass, ^ as 
above stated, placed over the pots, the object in view 
will be satisfactorily attained. However, should any 
one lack the accommodation referred to above the 
necessity of the case will in this, as in sundry others, 
suggest a means by which the difficulty may be 
surmounted. As to varieties most growers have their 
own well tested sorts ; however, I may remark in con- 
clusion, for the guidance of those who have not, that 
Eastnor Castle, Scarlet Gem, and Victory of Bath 
Improved are three excellent early varieties. //. IV. 
Ward, Longford Castle. 


Young Cucumber plants must be got ready now 
for the early spring supply of fruit. For this 
purpose there are none better than Rollisson's Tele- 
graph, if any so good, notwithstanding the numerous 
varieties of recent introduction. The seeds should be 
sown singly in large 60-pots (which is better than 
sowing several in one pot, thus subjecting them 
to a check in potting off), in a rich light mould, 
leaving room for top-dressing the plants when they 
require it, and plunge in a brisk bottom-heat — which 
the hotbed recommended to be made in last Calendar 
will now be in a position to supply— near the glass, 
and cover with a clean piece of glass, which must be 
removed as soon as the plants come up. Maintain a 
genial atmosphere with a night temperature of from 
65° to 70°, according to the nature of the weather — 
running up from 80" to 85' with sun, putting air on 
on all favourable occasions. Let the tying and arrang- 
ing of the shoots, &c., be attended to as occasion may 
arise. //. W. Ward, Longford Castle. 


Fernery. — The fronds of Ferns being now in a 
mature condition, it will be a good time to go over 
the stock of plants and give them a thorough clean- 
ing, as they will bear stronger doses of insecticide 
while at rest than it would be safe to apply at any 
other season. In the case of those infested with 
thrips, if they happen to be growing in pots, the most 
expeditious and best way to eradicate these pests is to 
dip the heads in strong tobacco-water, to each gallon 
of which an ounce or so of nicotine soap should be 
added— a mixture that will then be very potent and 
sufficiently strong to kill the eggs as well as the 
insects. The practice of removing the fronds with a 

view of getting rid of the insects is bad, as so long as 
there is life in them they are of great use to the plants, 
which require their aid till the young ones are in an 
advanced stage to replace them, and it is only then 
that they bear the loss without being injuriously 
affected. It often happens, however, that the tree 
kinds grow too robust for the positions assigned them, 
and in order to restrict these and check any undue 
luxuriance it is sometimes necessary to apply correc- 
tive measures, the simplest and most effective being 
to remove some of the soil around the stems and cut 
their roots close to the same, and then fill in with 
poorer stuff containing some soft porous brick broken 
small, or some cinders rammed in firmly, either of 
which will help to drain away the water and keep the 
mass in a sweet healthy state. In cases where plants 
may have become too tall fur the houses they 
are in, it is a very easy matter to cut through 
the trunks and reduce them to the desired height 
by dropping them down, which, if done at once 
before they start, is a safe operation, espe- 
cially in case of such kinds as Cyathea medullaris, C. 
dealbata, Dicksonia antarctica, Cibotium princeps, 
and such as are generally provided with plenty 
of young feeders up the entire length of their stems. 
After being treated in the way above-named and 
replanted it will be necessary to keep them frequently 
syringed in order to prevent the fronds from flagging, 
but in doing this the less water there is allowed to 
so.ak into the soil, till the bottom of the trunk is 
healed over a bit, the better, as otherwise there is a 
risk of that part rotting, to prevent which it is a good 
plan to stand it on some dry dusty charcoal and sand, 
as the absorbent properties of these assist the plant 
very materially in callusing over the wound. Where 
F"erns are grown on the natural system it will be 
found that there is much shrinkage of the soil from 
the sides of the pockets in the artificial rock, which 
requires seeing to at this season and the crevices 
filling, for if these are allowed to remain the water 
drains away at such a rate that the roots receive but 
little benefit from it. A stout stick made \yedge- 
shaped is the best instrument to use to thrust in and 
search out these cavities, which can then be made 
good with fresh loam and peat, and a surface-dressing 
given to each plant, which will be a great assistance 
to them by-and-bye when they make a fresh start. 


For Conservatories to be really enjoyable and 
suitable for the many forced things that will 
soon be coming on, it will be necessary to maintain a 
temperature varying from 50° to 55°, in which most 
flowers will expand properly and last a long time in 
perfection. Camellias, however, object to such a 
degree of heat, and therefore if there happens to be 
many of these it will be better for them to be kept 5° 
or so lower, especially if the atmosphere is at all dry, 
which prevents the swelling of the buds, and is a 
frequent cause of their falling. To aid these in open- 
ing out fully, clarified soot-water is a fine thing to 
give, and is preferable to most kinds of liquid manure, 
imparting at the same time a healthy deep green to 
the foliage. Roof climbers will now soon be on the 
move, and in cases where the border room is of too 
limited an extent it will be advisable to remove a por- 
tion of the old inert soil and give the roots some fresh 
turfy loam, after which a good soaking will settle it 
down and encourage the plants to feed on it at once. 
Such things as Passifloras and Tacsonias that bear 
their flowers on the young growth, may with advan- 
tage be thinned out considerably, as not only will 
they be benefited thereby and made to break back, 
but the pruning away of superfluous shoots will let 
in the light and air so much needed by the 
occupants beneath. Beautiful and desirable as 
are Tacsonias in all conservatories, they are about 
the worst thing possible for scale, and unless these 
pests are kept down it is surprising how soon they 
spread themselves over the bark. The quickest and 
best remedy to hold them in subjection that I have 
ever found, is to paint the stems with some of the 
insecticides, mixed at the usual strength, with the 
addition of a little clay to give it consistency, which 
smothers the enemy and holds the plants clear for 
the rest of the season. The white kind that infests 
Lapagerkis is not so easily dealt with, and the only 
safe way is to hand-sponge the leaves, in doing which 
great care must be exercised, as owing to their hard 
brittle nature they are apt to break or become 
damaged near the slalk when turning them up or 
downio get at them. Camellias, too, are sometimes 
subject to this same species of scale, but more 
frequently the Ijrown turtle scale, which gets on the 
wood, and by its excreta, so freely exuded, soon covers 
the foliage with a sticky black mass. If the plants are 
in pols they may be readily dealt with by laying them 
on their sides and syringing them with dilute nicotine 
soap, which, so far as I have had experience of it, 
seems the best of the various insecticides. When this 
or any other is used the great thing is to keep it out 
of the soil, where, if it so.aks in, damage is done to 
the roots. J. Shcppard, IVoolverstoiie Park. 



[January io, 1880. 




Monday. Jan. 12 — Sali: nf Orchiiis, at Stevens' Ruums. 

f Royal Hurticuitural Su.iet> : Mcetiil;^^ of 

Tuesday, Jan. 13 < l-iuit and Floral Coiniiiittccs, at 11 a.m.; 
L Scientific Committee, at 1 p.M 
( S;ile of Roses, Fruit Trees, Sliiubs, &c., at 

Wi-nvi-^nw I-.n ..' •'tcvens' Rooms. 

\ Annual Meeting. 

{ S.ilc of I.ilium auralum, &c,, at Sicvens' 
Thursday, Jan. i5-{ Rooms. 
( J.iniican S 

Saiurdav, Jan. 17 { "=',ljsf„,V'"'.''.>:-'''^""' '*"""• """''■ *"-'■• 

an Society's Mectin;,', at 8 1'. M. 
Hardy PlanI: 
veils' Rooms. 

IN this great country, where the arts and 
sciences flourish, not because of imperial 
patronage but rather in spite of it, it would 
doubtless soem incongruous were any illus- 
trious worker in horticultural pursuits to receive 
any special notice at the hands of the powers 
that be, or any of those honours that are so 
eagerly sought for by the fighting services of 
the country and so freely bestowed, yet it is 
diflicult to repress a feeling of humiliation that 
so little national recognition is given to the 
services rendered to the nation in general by 
other than Government servants, and to horti- 
cultural science and practice in particular, by 
such men, for inst.ince, as RpBtRT Fortune — 
a record of whose introductions from the far-off 
countries of China and Japan appeared in these 
pages last week. It is not possible to calcu- 
late the benefits the country has received 
from Mr. FORTUNE'S labours ; they were quiet, 
plodding, and unpretentious, carried on too 
often peichance under great privation and pos- 
sible danger to life. None of the clash and 
pomp of war shed a halo over his work ; there 
was no wading through slaughter, or records of 
thousands and tens of thousands of dead 
defenders of their hearths and countries to 
chronicle. It is the men who can boast of these 
trophies of civilisation ! that get the popular 
cheer, the national welcome, and the imperial 
honours, whilst th'..; unpretentious seeker after 
good, like FoRt'UNE, finds his reward only m 
the almost utter forgetfulncss of the nation that 
such a man ever was its benefactor. Yet 
FORTUNli's testimonials, silent but impressive, 
are found amongst us in their thousands ; they 
e.\ibt in abundance in every garden, and are found 
now almost throughout the whole civilised 
world. Wherever a love for flowers and trees 
is, there also are the abundant evidences of his 
labours. Not to carry into aboriginal homes 
death and desolation was his mission, but rather 
to give comfort, beauty, and life to all 
humanity. By-and-bye, perchance, when the 
grave has closed over his earthly career, the 
world will realise how much it owes to Robert 

■ A G.MiDE.v View \^ GLOacESTiiRsniRE.— 

In our l.ibt volume ([). 725) we gave a view in the 
flower garden at lihize Castle, llenbury, near Uristol, 
the seat of Mrs. IIakI'Ord, the laying-out of which 
place, it will be remembered, was to some extent 
accomplished by Rei'Ton. On the opposite page 
we give anothet iMuilration of a striking bit of scenery 
from the same place. Leaving the Mower garden 
previously illuslr.atei.1, tlie visitor passes the front of 
the Castle, anti follows the guide along a winding 
walk through the grounds leading by a sleep ascent 
to a hill, on which stands a tower, erected about 
176S on the site of an old chapel. From this point 
is obtained one of the finest views in the kingdom, 
extending over the .Severn chann'^l to the Glamorgan- 
shire hills, and over a vast extent of country in every 
direction. On the south side of the tower the ground 
terminates in a precipitous ilescent into a deep gorge 
some 20Q feet below, and which forms the subject of 
our present engraving (fig. lo). On the opposite side 

of the gorge, which is almost as steep, there is a 
group of rocks known as the Giant's Arm-chair, to 
which, ai usual with these mythical personages, a 
legend is attached. In the bottom there is a pool of 
water, and the sides of the gorge are thickly clothed 
with trees, rising tier upon tier above each other ; 
and the view, as seen from the Castle side of the 
ravine, is far the most picturesque that we h.ive seen 
in the West of England. 

■ Mr. .Spencer Le M.\rchant Moore has 

resigned his appointment as Senior Second Assistant 
in the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Professor Arcilwceii, late of Florence, 

has assumed the direction of the Botanic (harden of 

• A Presentation to Kew. — Mr. 1!. IJav- 

DON Jackson, F.L.S., has presented to the Royal 
Gardens, as "some slight acknowledgment of the 
help which at various tnries I have received from 
Kew," a microscope by Crouch of the most approved 
pattern, with i inch, \ inch, and J- inch object glasses. 
The instrument was offered in the first place for the 
use of the Jodrell Laboratory, "or if that is already 
supplied," of the herbarium. Thejodrell Laboratory 
being well equipped with microscopes, through the 
munificence of the founder, Mr. Jackson's microscope 
has been placed in the herbarium. 

AniES Veitciiii. — Messr?. \'Errrii advise 

US that ihey have in culiivaiion the true A. Wilchii, 
and which is, as was originally stated, a very remarkable 
species. In reference to the suViject of Japanese 
Conifers we may allude to a slip of the pen at p. 2S 3, 
where the word nephrolepis is erroneously written 
for selenolepis. 

Belgian National Exinr.iTioN. — We 

learn that it is proposed to erect at Brussels, on the 
occasion of this exhibition, a large glazed structure, 
ihe interior of which will be arranged as a picturesque 
winter garden, with rockwork, grottos, &c., as at the 
exhibitions at Florence, Cologne, St. Petersburg, &c. 
Outside will be a picturesque garden for hardy plants, 
shrubs, &c. The exhibition will remain open from 
July 21 to July 28. 

The "Journal of Eotany." — O'.ving to 

the appointment of Dr. to ihe post of .super- 
intendent of the Botanic Garden, Peradenyia, the 
editorship of this useful periodical has been confided 
to Mr. James Britten, of the British Museum. 

■ Hybrid Bromelias. — At a recent meeting 

of the Central Horticultural Society of France M. 
fJ.VNZANVlLLiERS exhibited a hybrid between Bil- 
bergia amcena as seed parent and B. Leopold! as 
pollen parent. The habit is described as that of the 
latter pbnt, while the seed parent shows itself in the 
coloured bracts. 

• " On AND Off Duty." — Our wandering cor- 
respondent, Captain Oliver, to whom these p.iges 
owe several illustrations of exotic vegetation, the last 
of which was the singular and beaulifal Pandanus, 
figured at p. 820 in our List volume, intends to pub- 
lish a work with the above title early in the present 
year. It will contain notes of travel in China, Japan, 
i\Lidaga,car, &c., with illustrations by the author. 

Phillyrea Vilmoreana is, according to 

^L LavallIiE, a dwarf hardy evergreen shrub, with 
large lanceolate leaves. The habit is globose. The 
form is not generally known in this country. 

The Sov.-\ Bean.— According to an analysis 

published in ihe. Biilk/in of tlic Central Horliciillurat 
Soi'uty of France the seeds of this plant. Soya his- 
pida, are considerably richer in nitrogenous and fatly 
matters than other pulse. It would seem, therefore, 
to be well worth growing in warmer latiUides than 

The Rei'jIstrar General. — Some ex- 
planation is surely required of the Government for 
their action in p.assing over the accomplished statis- 
tician, Dr. William Farr, and in appointing a 
gentleman to the task whose qualifications have to be 
proven. Dr. Farr's European fame and his brilliant 
services should have secured him from such an in- 

Artificial Diamonds. — Mr. Nevill 

Story Maskei.yne has rather summarily dispelled 
the notion that the crystals produced in the St. Rollox 
Works, Glasgow, were really diamonds, but he does 
not doubt that the ordinary opaque black condition of 
carbon may ultimately be permuted into the limpid 
crystal of the diamond, only it is not done yet. 

"The Garden Oracle." — Oracles generally 

give dubious utterances, but such is not the case with 
Mr. Shirley IlmnERD's Oracle. It speaks plain. 
It tells us of the Creed of Si. Athamasiiis 10 begin 
with, and of Wrighi's Endless Flame Impact Hot- 
water Boilers lo end with. What there is between 
may fairly be inferred lo be varied in character. If 
we did not think it useful also we should not, as we do, 
recommend it lo the notice of our readers. It may 
be had at 11, Ave Maria Lane, Paternoster Row. 

IIVRRiD Geese.— Mr. Darwin communi- 
cates to A'afiire an interesting case, in which hybrid 
birds, the offspring of two distinct species, have proved 
quite fertile inler se. The common goose and Ihe 
Chinese goose are so distinct that they have been 
placed in different genera or sub-genera : neverthe- 
less they interbreed, and Iheir offspring prove fertile. 
Mutual sterility is therefore shown to be no safe or 
immutable criterion of specific difference. We have, 
however, Mr. Darwi.n remarks, much better evidence 
on this head, in the fact of two individuals of the 
same form of heterostyled [ilanls (those in which the 
style varies in length in different flowers) which 
belong to Ihe same species as certainly .is do two 
individuals of any species, )'iclding, when crossed, 
fewer seeds than Ihe normal number, and the plants 
raised from such seeds being, in the case of Lyihrum 
Salicaria, as sterile as are the most sterile hybrids. 

Charles Fortiini^ Willermoz. — French 

papers record the death of this gentleman, one of the 
founders and the General Secretary of the French 
Pomological Congress. 

Portrait of Mr. Rouert Marnock — We 

regret to find that by a printer's error in our notice of 
the presentation of this portrait, at p. 16, Mr. Mar- 
nock's name is misspelled Marnoch. Fortunately, 
Mr. Marnock is so well and so wiilely known, that 
many of our readers will have made the correction for 

Cross Fertilisation. — Dr. Ernst of Carac- 

cas reports in Nature the result of some observations 
on Melochiaparviflora, some plants of which have long, 
others short styles (heterostylism). Dr. Ernst grew 
plants of both kinds in his garden, and experimented 
on them with the view of ascertaining their relative 
degrees of fertility when intercrossed. When a 
long-styled form was fertilised by the pollen from a 
short-styled or long-stamened form, all the flowers 
produced capsules, each containing five seeds. 
Corresponding facts were observed when short-styled 
flowers were fertilised by pollen from long-slyled 
forms. But when the long-slyled or shorl-styled 
flowers were fertilised with iheir own pollen respec- 
tively, the number of capsules and seeds was observed 
to be less. The favourable influence of cross-fertilisa- 
tion is evident, as in no other case did the average 
number of seeds per capsule reach the normal 

Large Oranges. — We have received from 

Mr. James Wood, seedsman and flori>t, of Newport, 
Isle of Wighl, a couple of large Oranges, which 
together weighed 2 lb. 8 02. The largest one 
weighed I lb. 7 oz., and measured iS inches in 
circumference. Mr. Wood states that they were 
grown with two others of about the same size on a 
tree about 3 feet high, and 2 feet in diameter of 
branches, standing in a cool house from which frost 
and damp are excluded by the use of fire-heal. They 
are very handsome as decorative objects, but quite 
useless for dessert. 

The Late Severe Weather in France. 

— The Paris correspondent of the Times quotes a 
par.agraph from the Temps to the effect that the late 
frost has done great damage to trees and shrubs, 
especially Pines, Cedars, Planes, &c. In the forest 
of Montmorency several hundred hectares of Chest- 
nuts have been killed. Laurels and other evergreens 
have been greatly damaged, the leaves wherever not 

The Gardeners Chronicle,] 

Fig. 10,— ravine in the grounds at blaize castle, (see p. 

[Jamiarj' r?, 18 



[January io, 1880. 

covered by the snow having turned brown, and many 
shrubs are not likely to recover. Game has also 
suffered. A gamekeeper in Sologny picked up in one 
day twenty-three dead partridges ; in the north the 
partridges have all been destroyed. In a forest in 
the east four fine wild boars have been found dead 
from starvation, and in the forest of St. Germain 
roedeer quite exhausted have been killed with sticks 
by the peasants. Birds of prey have been unusually 
rapacious. At Ferritres a number of ravens pursued 
a hare which, when picked up half dead by a passer- 
by, had an eye phicked out and a large wound in the 

The Internatio.val Totato Exhidition. 

— With a desire to secure in the class for new varie- 
ties bond fide seedling sorts it is, we hear, purposed at 
the next show to create, in addition to a class for new 
varieties in commerce, one for new kinds not in com- 
merce, the pedigrees of which must be shown in 
writing at the time of entry. This is, without doubt, a 
step in the right direction, as the great difBculty 
hitherto in adjudicating upon new kinds has been the 
lack of evidence — beyond in some cases clearly 
defined distinctiveness — that the kinds staged in com- 
petition really were what they were represented to be. 
Raisers will thus learn to record their crosses in future, 
just as a very few have done in the past ; and then some 
few years hence we may be able to trace the 
ancestry of any new kind for several preceding 

Calanthe Veitchii. — A recent visitor at 

Londesborough Lodge, Norbiton, informs us that 
there is at present a wonderfully fine display of this 
grand Orchid in one of the houses at that place. The 
plants are suspended from the roof in a double row, 
and being intermixed with fine-foliaged plants they 
have a grand effect. There are upwards of one hun- 
dred plants with fine spikes, and the flowers of a good 
colour too. Where a supply of cut flowers is in 
demand through the dreary winter months nothing 
can suit better for this purpose than Calanthes as they 
are grown by Mr. Denning. 

The Weather in the North of Lon- 
don IN 1S79. — Mr. Duffield has sent us, from 
Winchmore Hill, nine miles north of London, a 
record of the temperature and rainfall registered there 
during the past year, from which it appears that the 
total rainfall was 32.65 inches, the greatest amount 
which fell in any one month being 5.03 inches in 
August, and the smallest 0.50 inch in November. 
The average mean temperatures for the different 
months were as follows: — Jan., 3i'.7 ; Feb., 37°.6 ; 
March, 40°.; ; April, 43° ; ALay, 47°.S ; June, 56°.8 ; 
July, 57°.8 ; Aug., 6j°.i ; Sept., 55°.5 ; Oct., 49^.8 ; 
Nov., 39°.6; Dec, 32°.! — in every case less than in 
the corresponding months of 187S. 

Selaginellas and Lycoi'Odium for Win- 
ter Decoration. — At Combe Abbey Mr. Miller 
is able to illustrate in a remarkable degree the great 
value of these plants, as most useful subjects for 
decoration and other purposes in winter. Availing 
himself of a somewhat narrow, unoccupied space 
between two houses, he covered this with a low glass 
roof, and warming it so that there should be no lack 
of a suitable temperature, he here grows an excellent 
collection of these plants, that are very interesting in 
addition to being serviceable at this season of the 
year. The greater part of the plants are on, or slightly 
raised above the ground level, and while all the green 
types were healthy and luxuriant, the variegated 
forms were particularly pleasing. Mr. Miller asserts 
that the variegated forms take on their best character 
during the winter, and that all mosses ought to be so 
managed as that they should be at their best in the 
winter season. Selaginellas are in strong force at 
Combe Abbey, there being a large and varied col- 
lection ; especially good were the variegated forms of 
S. Kraussiana. One, under the name of S. umbrosa, 
had the foliage tipped with white, and from the 
smallest to the largest plants, whether in large pans 
or small pots, they were most effective. S. insequali- 
folia is a strong and graceful species, very handsome 
in the mass. S. Warscewiczii is a form that rests in 
summer, but in winter it comes handsomely tipped 
with gold, when it is very pretty. The variegated 
form of S. denticulata was very fine indeed, growing 
in large pans on mounds of soil, principally of peat, 
raised above the rims of the pans to the depth of 4 or 

5 inches. For winter culture, the pans and pots of 
mosses are nearly filled with broken crocks and char- 
coal, with a surface of a free sandy soil. The plants 
are apt to be affected with damp in winter, but the 
maintenance of a brisk warmth and a constant over- 
sight keeps this under. Their value for cutting from 
during winter cannot be too highly estimated. 

The Verhena as a Garden Plant.— We 

sometimes hear the Verbena spoken of as a plant that 
is declining in cultivation, but the extent to which it 
is propagated by some firms who make it a speciality, 
shows that it is yet in very large demand. Messrs. 
Keynes & Co., of Salisbury, grow during the season 
from 50,000 to 60,000 propagated plants of N'^erbcnas. 
During the summer, plantations of the leading sorts 
are made in the open ground, and from these cuttings 
are taken in August, as soon as convenient, which are 
struck in heat, and put into small 60 pots. Later 
cuttings are put into store-pots, five or six in a pot, 
and the plants kept in frames, giving fire-heat when 
necessary. In spring plenty of cuttings are forth- 
coming, and plants are increased almost indefinitely. 
These are so managed that there are always supplies of 
fine young stocky plants ready for sale from March 
onwards. The demand for the Verbena for bedding 
purposes is said to be very large. 

■ Knight's Pyramidal Laurustinus. — 

After a spell of severe frosty weather that has severely 
tried the endurance, and there is reason to believe 
irretrievably injured some at least of our hardy shrubs 
— the young late growths of the common Laurel hav- 
ing been sorely punished — it is well to notice some- 
thing that can lay claim to rare hardihood of cha- 
racter. This Laurustinus is an illustration of the 
possession of this quality ; it is hardier than the com- 
mon form, which is a great recommendation ; takes 
on a handsome pyramidal habit of growth, while the 
trusses of bloom, as well as the individual flowers, 
are larger than in the case of the common Laurus- 
tinus. It will be some time before we shall fully 
realise the damage wrought, not so much by the keen 
frosts, as by the cruel blasting winds of the first week 
in December, and especially on the 4th of that month. 
The walls at Chiswick show many traces of the deadly 
influence of these winds, the Escallonias in particular 
having been much damaged. The variegated Aucuba, 
even in the coldest and most exposed positions about 
London, shows no traces of the elemental strife, and 
is at the head of our hardy evergreen shrubs. 

Abies Aluertiana. — The last number of 

the yoiinial of Forestry contains the measurements 
of a fine specimen of this ornamental tree growing at 
Leslie House, Fife, which is stated to be a model of 
symmetry. Its height is 40 feet 6 inches ; its girth 
at the base 3 feet 3 inches ; and the circumference of 
its spread of branches 78 feet. 

Origin of the Adventitious Roots 

and Buds on Leaf-cuttings of Peferomia. — 
The changes which take place in leaf-cuttings of 
Peperomia, and the processes of the formation of 
new plants, have been investigated by E. Beinling, 
and published in Cohn's Beilrage zur Biologie. As 
in most cases, the cut surface is first covered with a 
callus, or corky tissue, through which the rootlets 
afterwards emerge. In about ten to fourteen days 
small whitish elevations appear on the cut surface ; 
these are buds, or the beginnings of new plants. 
They originate in the fundamental tissue of the stalk 
and blade of the leaf, and are therefore exo- 
genous ; the origin of the first rootlets, on the con- 
trary, is endogenous, as they proceed from the cam- 
bium region of the vascular bundles. 

The Show-house at Kew. — A correspond- 
ent in another column calls attention to the poor 
cultivation exhibited in the decorative house at Kew. 
Those indeed who have but a short time to spend at 
Ivew, or who have no other special object in view, 
generally make their way first to No. 4, "to see 
what is in bloom," and it rarely happens but that 
they find something of interest. The rafters, especi- 
ally at some seasons, are noteworthy, as they are 
clothed with some of the rarer and more beautiful 
climbing plants. But as No. 4 is the show-house, where 
purely botanical considerations are set on one side in 
favour of what is more generally attractive, it is, as our 
correspondent justly points out, disappointing to find 
the " cultivation " of the plants so very inefficiently 

represented. The staple decorative plants lately 
have been some small plants of Azalea amorna, 
some straggly Chrysanthemums, wretched Poinsettias, 
and a host of scrubljy Chinese Primroses, Mignonette, 
Lobelias, Pelargoniums, and such-like, which would 
not be tolerated in a small private establishment. 
While there are such multitudes of lovely Cape and 
New Holland plants, which are but little known to 
gardeners, we own that we should prefer to see them 
at Kew in preference to plants which one can see 
vastly better "done" in Covent Garden Market. But 
aa the general public, who supply the funds, are not yet 
educated beyond Pelargonium point, it is requisite and 
right to provide for their delectation. To our thinking, 
it would be a waste of money, energy, and time to 
enter largely upon matters of pure decoration at Kew, 
where so many and more important matters have to be 
attended to ; but if a show-house is maintained at all it 
should be thoroughly well maintained, and the cultiva- 
tion of the plants in it should be such as to furnish a 
model and example to gardeners and amateurs. A 
well-grown specimen (even from an educational point 
of view — a matter always to be borne in mind at Kew) 
is far more instructive than an imperfectly developed 
or poorly cultivated scrub. 

Furniture Woods in Milan. — In a 

recent report on the industries of Milan some interest- 
ing details are given on the utilisation of timber for 
building, art, and domestic purposes. The manufac- 
ture of furniture is an important industry in the 
province. The common furniture is nearly all made 
in the villages of the Upper Milanese, in the district 
of Monza. The woods used for the outer surfaces 
are Walnut, Cherry, and Pear ; for the linings, 
Poplar and Alder. In the town of Monza, tables, 
chairs, sofas, wardrobes, and other articles are made ; 
and not only of common wood, as was formerly the 
case, but of finer kinds. In the surrounding vill.ages 
makers confine themselves to some special articles^ 
thus, in the village of Mede, chairs, sofas, and 
tusliks only are made ; at Lessone, beds, tables, 
casseltons, &.c. Excepting at Monza, where the 
furniture is entirely finished, the articles made in the 
other communes, on commission, for the Milan 
dealers, are always in the rough, being 
finished by the wholesale purchasers, by whom they 
are sent for sale in large quantities to the other cities 
and principal towns of Lombardy, as well as to 
Venice, Parma, Piacenza, and elsewhere. The fur- 
niture made is solid, of good appearance and cheap. 
This industry in the territory of the Upper Milanese 
gives employment to some 3500 operatives, of whom 
about 500 are boys. Furniture of superior quality is 
made only at Milan, where articles of all descriptions 
are manufactured, carving, intarsiatura and buhl 
work being largely used in ornamentation. The 
woods employed are Mahogany, Indian Walnut, 
Ebony, Rosewood, foreign Maple, Hungarian Ash, 
&c., with sometimes Walnut roots, and of late years 
Oak for dining-room furniture. The fine and finest 
Milan furniture enjoys considerable reputation. It is 
solid without being heavy in reality or in appearance ; 
the work is good, well joined, well finished, and 
carefully polished ; the woods are well seasoned, and 
put together with intelligence, so that they do not 
suffer from time or variations of climate. There are 
from 100 to 120 makers of first-class furniture in 
Milan, who give employment to not less than 2000 
workmen, including boys. Much artistic furniture, 
carved or inlaid with tortoise-shell, or decorated with 
porcelain medallions after the French fashion, is also 
made, but for carved work it is acknowledged that 
Tuscany has the pre-eminence over Milan. 

The Rainfall at Leonardslee. — Mr. 

Sidney' Ford has sent us an account of the rainfall 
last year at Leonardslee, Horsham, Sussex, from 
which it appears that the total for the year was 
36.50, an excess of 4.12 inches over the amount 
which fell in 1S78. The heaviest falls occurred in 
June, 5.45, and August, 5.62 ; and the lowest in 
December, o.Sr. The average rainfall at Leonardslee 
during the last ten years is 31.86 inches. 

Mentzklia ornata Beheading Flies. — 

Some time ago Mr. J. PoissoN published in the Bui- 
klin de la Sociitl Botanique de France an account of 
some observations on the behaviour of Mentzelia 
ornata towards flies and other insects, of which we 
are reminded by seeing an abstract, by Dr. A. Gray, 
of the paper in question in Coulter's B.:ai:ical 

January io, 1880.]] 



Gazelle. We rcproJuce Dr. Cray's abstract. It is 
well known that the roughness of Mentzelia ornata 
and other Loasacc.-e is owing to the stiff bristles of 
the surface being provided with an armature, at 
certain points along their length, of retrorse barbs. 
There are three or four whorls of these barbs, and 
four or five barbs to a whorl, on the larger bristles ; 
in the smaller there is only a terminal whorl of barbs, 
in the manner of a hooked bristle. Mixed with these 
harpoon-like bristles are some soft ones tipped with 
a capitate gland, and which secrete a viscid matter 
attractive to insects. It appears that flies so attracted 
thrust in their snouts between the thickly set 
hooked bristles to feed upon the secretion of the 
glands between and below. The retrorse barbs inter- 
pose no obstacle to this ; but when the proboscis is 
withdrawn, its dilated and cushion-like tip catches in 
the barbs, and holds all fast. The harder the back- 
ward pull, the firmer and the more extensive the 
attachment to the sharp barbs ; the wounded and 
impaled organ becomes congested and swollen ; and 
the insect is seldom able to disengage itself. Especially 
is this the case with the larger flies. Some perish by 
exhaustion ; but more of them, passing round and 
round in a circle and in one and the same direction, 
come to an end by twisting off their heads I Dried 
specimens of the plant in herbaria exhibit many small 
coleoptera and the remains of various other small 
insects, but these have been caught by their feet or 
mandibles or other parts. Insects too small to be 
impaled on the barbs are held fast by the viscid 
secretion of the glands, and likewise perish. 

Arbutus Unedo. — Some gardeners are 

found expressing the opinion that the Strawberry tree 
is not fruiting so freely this year as in previous 
seasons, and opinions are hazarded as to the causes 
which worked to bring this about. By one section 
it is attributed to the general infertility of the blos- 
soms of fruit trees in 1S79 ; by another to the cold 
and wet character of the summer. Perhaps the 
position of the trees and the character of the soil in 
which they were growing had something to do with 
the matter. It has been found in the experience of 
planters that if the Arbutus be planted in a common 
soil, with a wet and retentive subsoil, it will grow 
vigorously, and flower, and be in every respect 
healthy, though it will not bear its fruit until the tree 
is old ; but if the shrub be planted upon a bed of 
gravel, or upon a sandy bottom and in an elevated 
situation, so as never to be subject to undue moisture 
at the roots, the gravel, or sand subsoil, carrying off 
the superfluous moisture and keeping the roots com- 
paratively dry and warm, it will be found to bring its 
fruit to maturity when quite young, and by the time 
the tree attains a tolerable size — in five or six years or 
thereabouts — it will, in a favourable season, be 
entirely covered with a profusion of crimson berries, 
forming an object of great beauty. The efl'ects 
wrought by the diflerence between a dry and warm 
and a cold and wet subsoil will, in all probability, 
account for what used to be a generally received 
opinion, that the Arbutus Unedo, when young, does 
not fruit, and that it is only in its older state that the 
bright coloured fruits attain to maturity. 

Notes o.n the Vegetable Products of 

THE Island of Cebu. — Cebu is described, in a 
report on the trade and commerce of the place, as the 
commercial centre for the eastern group of the Visayas 
Islands, which have a total population of 982,000 
souls, 32,473 comprising the population of the town 
and suburbs, and 417,543 that of the entire island. 
The island belongs to the Spanish Government, and 
the principal staple of trade is sugar. Most of the 
land adjoining the capital suitable for the cultivation 
of the sugar-cane has been taken up ; and as the soil 
never receives any manure, little increase can be 
expected in the yield in the island of Cebu ; but the 
natives are extending the cultivation of the cane in 
Bohol, and that coast is becoming an important 
feeder to Cebu. 

Manilla Ilcmf (Musa textilis). — The cultivation 
of this plant received an impetus during the past 
year from the high prices ruling from 1869 to 
1872, when as much as II dols. per picul was 
at one time paid for Cebu Hemp. Many planta- 
tions were opened in districts better suited to other 
crops, and as the stimulus of high prices has since 
subsided, these have been gradually abandoned. 
The port is, however, a convenient one as an entre- 
p3t for the Leyte producers of Hemp ; and the whole 

of the production of that island is likely in time to be 
diverted to this market, instead of part of it going to 
Manila, as is now the case. It is stated that the 
plant is proof against the ravages of locusts, but some 
damage was done to the plantations last year from 

Colfec. — Patches of Coffee-trees have been planted 
by the natives in the islands of Cebu and Bohol, 
and small parcels of Coffee in the husk are offered 
for sale in the market, but the quantity pro- 
curable is too small to form an article of direct 
export. The quality of this Coffee is excellent, and 
the price at the early part of last year ranged from 
14 to 16 dols. per picul. Small quantities of an 
inferior quality of Coffee are also brought from 
Vligan in Mindanao, which realised at the time men- 
tioned above from 12 to 13 dols. per picul. 

Tobacco. — This is a state monopoly, the growers can 
sell only to Government ; and as the natives are not 
paid in cash but in paper which cannot be collected 
probably in less than a year after the Tobacco has been 
delivered, the production has lately fallen off con- 
siderably. Unless the Government should alter the 
mode of payment, the cultivation of leaf Tobacco in 
the Visayas districts promises to become extinct. 
These southern islands possess a soil and climate well 
adapted to the growth of Tobacco, and under a free 
system of cultivation and export the yield would be 
very large. If the Government would only leave the 
Visayas natives free to sell their Tobacco to the 
highest bidders, the trade would vastly increase, and 
be lucrative to all concerned in it, while the state 
might impose a scale of duties on the export of raw 
and manufactured Tobaccos which would speedily 
compensate for the loss of the monopoly. The total 
yield of leaf Tobacco for the Cebu district during the 
past year was S780 quintals, of the value of 70,000 
dols., the whole of which was shipped to the cigar 
factories of Cadiz and Alicante. 

Orchids in Flower at The Firs, 

Laurie Park. — A correspondent favours us with 

the following list of Orchids which are now in flower 

in the beautiful collection of C. Dorman, Esq., The 

Firs, Laurie Park, Sydenham, and which make a 

splendid show at this dull season of the year : — 

Angra;cum sesquiptd-ile 
liarkeria eleg.ins 
Calanthe Veilchii 
Ccelogyne cristala 
Cattleya super ba 
,, Harrisonia; 

,, maxima 
Cypiipediuni Bjxalli 

,, iiisigne 

,, ,, iMaulei 

,, longifolium 

,, Roezlii 

,, Schlimii 

,, Sedeni 
Dendrobium Ainsworthii 

,, bigibbum 

,, ebiirneam 

,, forin:)surn 

,, GoldieanuTl 

,, helerocarpuin, very finely 

,, infandibul in 

,, Wardianum, also very 

The collection is in fine condition, and bids fair to 

become, for its size, one of the best in cultivation. 

At present the plants certainly reflect great credit upon 

Mr. Coningsby's abilities as a cultivator. 

Crotons at the Firs, Laurie Park..— 

The same correspondent writes : — " In addition to the 
Orchids Mr. Dorman has a very fine collection of 
Crotons, and the plants are superbly coloured. They 
are not large specimens, averaging from 18 inches to 
2^ feet, and as seen here, beautifully arranged, they 
form one of the prettiest features it has been my 
pleasure to see. The following are very noticeable 
and .perfectly distinct — there are in all about forty 
sorts :— The old angustifolius, not yet beaten ; aureo- 
maculatus Disraeli, Earl of Derby, Evansianus, 
good ; Hawkeri, Macarthuri, niaculatus Katoni, 
majesticus, Mooreanus, Mortii, nobilis, ovalifolius, 
picturatus, well named ; the old pictus, still one of 
the best ; Prince of Wales, well worthy of the name 
it bears ; Queen Victoria, Williams' beautiful hybrid, 
the best of all the hybiids ; regins, undulatus, fine ; 
Weismanni, so well known for its beautiful and 
graceful habit ; lancifolius, mutabilis, Chelsoni, 
grand ; volutus, Andreanus, chrysophyllus, spiralis. 
Rex, roseo-pictus, splendidus, triumphans, albicans, 
Williamsii, &c. These are splendidly coloured, and 
any on fond of seeing a good neat collection should 
pay Mr. Dor.MAn's garden a visit." 

Lasha albida 

,, anceps 

,, „ Barkerl 

., Day! 
Lvcaste Skinneri 
Masdevallia Chimaira 

,, bclla 

,, tovarense 

,, polyslicta 
Mesospinidium vulcanicum 
Odontoglossum grande 

,, Insleayi leopardinum 

,, maculatum 

,, nebulosum candidum 

,, pardiniun 

,, palcheiluin 

,, Roezlii 

,, roseurn 

,, Rossii 

,. ,, majiis 
Oa' idmni clieirophorum 
Sophronites grandiflora 
Vanda cccrulea 
Zygopetalum Mackayi 

Produce of Malaga. — The importation 

into this country of Muscatel Grapes from Malaga 
seems to have been effected recently with loss to 
those who speculated in the packing of this fruit as 
an experiment. Notwithstanding this, as many as 
26,377 barrels were sent from the above port to Eng- 
land during the past year. The result, we are in- 
formed, has shown that such parcels as reached their 
destination in a sound condition have yielded such 
large profits as to entirely justify risks incurred by the 
shippers. The Grapes thus sent are packed in cork 
sawdust in small barrels, containing 46 lb. of fruit. 
The first cost and expenses on e.ach barrel of Grapes 

at the port of Malaga is given as follows : — 


first cost of 46 lb. of Grapes 42 oo 

Expenses : — 

'I'owii dues .. .. .. •• •• ^-^2 

Urokerage .. .. •■ .• ■. * o*^ 

Sorting and marking .. .. .. •• 400 

Cost of barrel 60° 

Corkdust i2-o° 

Cartage and lighterage .. .. ■. 1-87 

Portdues °-22 

61;. 00 

— equal to about 14?. \J. per barrel, free on board. 
Regarding the suitability of the soil and climate of 
the country for the introduction of foreign plants of 
economic value. Consul Wilicinson says, " A more 
enterprising people than the Andalusians would have 
availed themselves of the great advantages offered to 
them by their fine climate and fertile soil to cultivate 
m.any a tropical fruit and valuable tree, the produce 
of which would compensate them for any losses 
sustained through the failure of their other crops. 
The following may be mentioned amongst the tropical 
fruits which grow in the open air, namely, the Custard- 
apple, Banana, Date, Guava, and in some sheltered 
spots Pine-apple. With the exception of the Custard- 
apple and Banana, which although not abundant are 
common, the other tropical fruits above enumerated 
are not cultivated, though specimens of each may be 
seen flourishing in the open air in many a private 
garden, where also grow several valuable trees, such, 
for instance, as Mahogany, Rosewood, Cinchona, 
Mulberry, &c." 

Pine-apples.— About the finest Pines now 

in the market are those from Madeira, which average 
from 6 lb. to 8 lb. each. While on the subject of 
Pines in Covent Garden, it is worth noting that 
Messrs. Garcia have just made the first importation 
of these frnm Florida— from the neighbourhood of 
Jacksonville. This is an experimental lot, and the 
fruits have come to hand in first-class condition. In 
quality they are very fair, the leaves being somewhat 
like those of the Smooth Cayenne. 

Horticultural Club.— The annual meet- 
ing of this Club will be held at the Club-house, 37, 
Arundel Street, Strand, on Tuesday next, the 13th 
inst. After the formal business the members will 
dine together, under the presidency of Mr. John Lee. 

■ Mr. Maries' Japanese Collections.— 

Mr. Maries, who has been collecting plants in 
Japan at the instance of Messrs. Veitch, proposes 
to exhibit at the Royal Horticultural Society, at its 
meeting on Tuesday next, a selection from' the 
numerous curiosities and objects of najtural history 
collected by him in Japan and China. The collections 
comprise birds, insects, fossils, shells, Japanese books, 
implements, &c. 

The Weather. — General remarks on the 

weather during the week ending January 5, iSSo, 
is,ued by the Meteorological Office :— The weather 
was very dull, unsettled, squally, and rainy during 
the first part of the period, but afterwards moderately 
fine ; in some parts of England on the 3d and 4lh it 
was very fine and bright. The temperature was 
above the mean in all districts— as much .as 4° or 5° 
in excess over the greater part of England and in 
Ireland, but only 2° in "England, S." and "Scot- 
land, E." The wind was generally south-westerly 
all over the kingdom ; strong to a gale in several 
places until January 2, when it became moderate or 
light, except in the West of Ireland, and continued 
so during the remainder of the week. The rainfall 
was more than the mean in Ireland, Scotland, and in 
"England, N.W.," but less than the mean in all 
other districts. At most stations the bulk of the fall 
occurred during the first three days. 



[January io, iS8o. 

Ifaiuc CaiTfspiibcncc. 

Fruit Culture : Restriction or Extension. — 
Discussions as to the relative value of the two 
methods of producing fruit, viz., by "the restric- 
tion " or " the e.\tension " sj'stom, may be productive 
of much instruction ; Ijut when one side is entirely in 
favour of unmodified extension, and the other as 
enthely in fiwour of reslriclion, and can see no good 
under any circumstances in its opponent's views, 
much good time may be wasted in reading or paying 
attention to them. Under certain circumstances 
there is no room for doubt but that the extension 
system, reasonably modified, is the right one, while 
under other circumstances it would be folly to ado|it 
it. .Su|i|)ose a man hires a house and new garden of 
moderate dimensions on a seven years' lease, that he 
is fond of fruit growing, and wants a succession of 
good Apples, Pears, Plums, &c., all through the sea- 
sons at which they are to be had, and prefers growing 
them to buying them, he may satisfy his desires in 
this respect by purchasing a quantity of " restricted " 
pyramids, cordon, or espalier-trained trees ; and by 
continuing to restrict their growth both in root and 
branch, and by liberally supplying them with suitable 
food, depend on their producing him a supply of fruit 
from the first to the last of the seven years, and after 
the first season or two they will, if he thoroughly 
understands the management of them, become very 
" models of fertility." A great number of sorts may, 
by the restrictive system, be grown on a very small 
piece of land, and, what is also an object to many 
people, immeiliate results may be obtained. Some 
people may oliject, " But the restrictive system is 
so unnatural." I maintain that, properly carried 
out, it is artistic and scientific, and proved 
by success to be natural also. I go further, 
and say that, if it were not natural, neither could 
it be artistic or scientific. An Apple tree entirely 
in a state of Nature would be a wild Crab, pro- 
ducing fruit of very little use to man. It is natural in 
man, by all the scientific and artistic means in his 
power, to improve the fruits Nature has given him, and 
it is further perfectly natural in him to produce, by 
artificial and scientific means, various results from 
improved varieties, in accordance with his wishes. 
The little restricted pyramids, cordons, or bushes, 
laden with fruit and in the lustiest health, are a 
splendid agument against the means used to produce 
them having been unnatural. It is my humble 
opinion that the restrictive system may be carried out 
by natural scientific methods and in highly artistic 
ways, with the most successful results, far beyond 
anything yet atlemped on a large scale in Pjritish 
gardens. When success is not secured, it is because 
something in the application of the methods or the 
conditions of growth is unnatural, and therelore un- 
scientific. People who talk of growing their fruit- 
trees in a perfectly natural w.iy, seldom, I think, 
know quite what they mean. Man in a jjerfeclly 
natural stale {i.e., when Nature has had no aid from 
natural science or art) is a savage, and man under the 
highest influences of art, science, and religion, is not 
more above man in a savage state than is an Apple 
tree on which natural science and art have expended 
their utmost care above a wild Crab. J. E. E'wiug, 

Our Rural Population, and its Great Domestic 
\A^ant. — In every village we have a church and 
minister, a school with its teacher and inspector, and 
the children now are obliged by law to' go to school, 
and not allowed to be employed until they have passed 
a certain standard or reached a certain age. We also 
have a sanitary district medical officer and inspector 
to look after and improve our drainage and drinking 
water, and to try and keep off if possible all infectious 
diseases, for sanitary science now-a-day teaches "that 
prevention is better than cure." But with all these laws 
and regulations, the poor people in nearly every 
village are totally unable to procure milk for love or 
money. People living in towns are much better off, 
for there a regular supply is sent round night and 
morning at 2d. per pint, but in the country village 
and in many places surrounded by large dairies where 
there are gallons and gallons made daily into butter 
and cheese, not a drop of milk can be had. This 
seems strange, but no less true. Go into the cottage, 
and the morning meal is made off bread and a weak 
decoction of cheap tea and sugar, instead of cocoa 
made from the nibs, and plenty of hot boiled milk 
with either bread or a basin of oatmeal porrage, a 
health-giving and hearty breakfast. Now the com- 
position of milk includes all the substances which the 
tissues of the growing child needs for its nutrition, 
and which is required for the production of animal 
heat. I saw an account some short time since where 
a celebrated chemist said, "a pint of good milk con- 
tains as much [available] solid animal matter as a full- 
sized niutlf^n chop." Such being the case, how impor- 
tant and how necessary it becomes that children should 
have a plentiful supply of milk. Teetotalers are very 
energetic in proclaiming against drink, but they do 

not find a poor man a substitute. All he can now 
get is some flavoured water highly charged with car- 
bonic acid gas, a very expensive and very indigestible 
drink. Let a poor man be able to buy his pint of 
milk for 2d., and be persuaded that it is much better 
than beer (even if made of pure malt and hops), and 
thousands would be glad of the chance. Our American 
cousins arc now sending us such a large supply of 
cheap bulter and cheese that the value of our own 
goods has been greatly depreciated ; would it not be a 
great gain and saving of trouble and expense, and 
also a great boon and blessing to our poorer neigh- 
bours, if some of our producers would sell milk in its 
pure state ? W. /■'. Radilyffc. 

Rhododendrons at Pinkhill. — When passing 
througli the linuses at Pinkhill Nurseries the other 
flay I saw some very fine varieties of Rhododendron 
in bloom. Amongst them I noticed Duchess of 
lOdinburgh and jasminiflorum ; the pure white flowers 
of the latter variety scented all around. It is strange 
this variety is so seldom met with, as none of all the 
other varieties are so useful for cut flowers, and none 
so rich in perfume. A plant that can be had in 
bloom at this season of the year having so many 
qualities as Rhododendron jasminiflorum is worth pos- 
sessing, and should be in every conservatory. /. Doiv, 
Saiiglilon Hall, near Edinhuri^h. 

The Origin of the Clanbrassil Fir.—" A 
Lover of Trees " has sent us one of those curious 
tufts of densely crowded branches which occur now 
and again o.i the .Spruce Fir, as shown in the figure 
(ll). They are quite different from the Witches' 
brofmis of the Germans, which are the result of fungus 
growth. In .Switzerland some few years since we had 
reason to think that those growths were perpetuated 
from seed, at least young plants may be seen on the 
ground as well as on the boughs. The Clanbrassilian 

Fig II.— tufted branches of firs. 

and other dwarf varieties of Firs have apparently 
originated from these forms. Eos. 

Cleaning Stove Plants. — At this dull season, 
when work in the garden is not quite so pressing as 
at other times, a few practical remarks on the clean- 
ing ofstove and greenhouse plants may not be out of 
place. For the last few years it has been my lot to 
take charge of collections of jilants that have 
hul mealy-bug, scale, &c., upon them, and I have 
tried various insecticides, but with no success until I 
tried a mixture made as follows : — Paraffin oil, two 
wineglassfuls ; soft soap, ^Ib. ; and common shag to- 
bacco, 2 oz. The tobacco I put into a jar and pour a 
quart of boiling water over it, covering u tightly down 
until it becomes cold, and then the strength is drawn 
out of it. I then take a small galvanised iron pail, 
put the \ lb. of soft soap into it, and add the paraffin 
oil, beating the same up with a flat stick until it 
becomes a paste ; then put with it the tobacco-juice, 
and add one gallon of boiling water. When cold it is 
ready for use. When about to clean the plants we 
put one wineglassful of the mixture into a pan, and 
add about a quart or so of lukewarm water, then pro- 
ceed to sponge the plants. With stove plants 
and Camellias I find it exceedingly useful ; in 
fact, I use the mixture every time I have my plants 
washed, and thereby have no further trouble with 
insects of any sort. And now that Azaleas, Cytisus, 
Bouvardias, Cyclamen, Eucharis, and plants of a like 
nature are being introduced into the forcing-house it 
will be found useful to syringe the plants so introduced 
at least once a-day with a solution of the mixture, 
putting a wineglassful into a4-galloncan, and keeping 
the same well stirreji with the syringe whde using it. 
It will not hurt the most delicate foliage plant. A. B. 

The Champion Potato : a Farmer's Lesson. 
— Some of Mr. CulverweH's statements at p. 694. 
of your last volume are not quite correct 
(though I am sure not intentionally so), and 
might tend to lead some of your readers into 
cvvor if not corrected. The rows were 40 inches 

apart, which, I think, was quite far enough, and not 
4 feet as stated by Jlr. Culverwell ; the price of the 
land was £\Ci los. per acre, the Potatos to be hoed 
and cleaned to my satisfaction : the rest of the par- 
ticulars, as to manure, &c., are about correct. I am 
glad to say that the Potatos were a good crop, but 
not so good as Mr. Culverwell thinks. I tried the 
crop carefully before it was lifted, and considered 
there would be a little over 7 tons per acre ; but now, as 
they are all out of the ground, I have measured them 
and find I have over-estimated Ihem. About 
6 tons will be nearer the mark, which will leave 
a nice profit to the planter if sold at f^t per 
ton, the top price here at present for them. I 
think he deserves a fair profit after spending at least 
^20 per acre for only luie crop. I may say thai I 
have been interested in Potato growing for over 
twenty years, but I have not learnt the lesson by this 
one transaction to grow all Champion Potatos in 
future, as it is only in such seasons as the last and 
1S77, that was almost fatal in some districts to the 
Regent, that the Champions will come to the front. 
Last year, when the top qualities of Regents about 
here were only worth about ^4 4-f. per ton, the 
Champions could be bought for ^3 per ton ; any one 
looking at the quotations of the London Potato mar- 
kets last year about this time you will find the Cham- 
pions quoted at from £1 to £\ los. per ton le^s than 
Regents. Though the Champion this year is not a 
bad table Potato it is very much inferior to the 
Regent, which has kept sound and good about here 
this year, though a light crop. Mr. Culverwell asks 
where the farmers can find a better friend than the 
land they cultivate if they treat it liberally and fairly. 
No doubt it is a good friend in good seasons, but I 
am sure a great many farmers will say they could have 
found a better last year had they known what sort of 
weather they would have had to contend with, and 
which has brought ruin to many a hardworking and 
careful man. janics Greaves, Snape Castle, BedaU, 

The Late Frost. — It is too early in the year to 
speak confidently of the saved, but unfortunately 
some of the lost are too distinctly visible, as one 
makes a tour of the beds — a somewhat melancholy 
operation, though the air is bland this New Year's 
Day. First of all, the old Stauntonia [lalifolia is 
killed to the ground, so is the Myrtle-leafed Sumach. 
Rhus glabra laciniata seems all right. Erica codo- 
nodes and mediterranea are both gone ; Muhlen- 
beckia complexa severely punished, as also Mesem- 
bryanthemum uncinatum and Margyricarpus setosus 
on the rockeries. The beautiful Selaginella hel- 
vetica vera seems quite fresh, and many other 
alpine treasures ; but a lovely old solitary Rose, 
BInirii No. 2, on the lawn, will never bloom again. 
The exquisite Tea, Mane van Huutle, called " Lemon 
Ice " by the master of the house, is dead : it had 
three buds when the frost seized it, so the sap 
was high. Catherine Mermet, another lovely Tea, 
loiiks well as yet, and all the beds of Roses on their 
own roots look happy. That pearl of shrubs, Olearia 
Haastii, is lusty and green, evidently very hardy. 
Azara microphylla is rather brown ; the Escal- 
lonias are dreadfully punished, also three Ceano- 
ihus trees, the worst being the oldest in 
age, C. azureus ; Bridgesia spicata is injured. 
The Rhododendrons look comfortable, and are well 
budded. The Tritomas arc sutTering ; Libertia 
ixioides stands well. With regard to ihe common 
things, Lavender, Rosemary, and Lavender-cotton are 
better than last year, and so is the Golden Thyme. 
All the double Wallflowers are dead with one excep- 
tion — the early Belvoir Dwarf Yellow is quite fresh. 
The evergreen Magnolias are flourishing, but the 
Sweet Bay and Laurustinus are wretched. Cistus 
laurifolius is very hardy, but the Gum Cistus is not ; 
C. formosus has been nearly killed, and Jasmines 
humilis and fructicans also. The sweet Coronilla 
Emerus is well, but Eugenia Ugni is all but dead. 
The lovely variegated Olive looks deplorable, and 
many of the Euonymus would have been dead had 
not the smaller plants been lifted ; E. Due d'Anjou 
and E. radicans picta are especially tender. The 
large bushes of Euonymus are perfect martyrs to this 
arctic regime. Though the frost here was not so 
severe as in our Lincolnshire garden, where 36 were 
marked, and here only 29', there all the Laurus- 
tinus are killed, and even the Aucubas nearly 
so. The most tender Ivy in a collection of 
eighty-seven sorts is Hedera canescens ; it is 
dead, a jjtetty hoary plant. H. himalaica, also 
grey, and delicately cut, stood well on a west wall. 
Van Houtte's purple Daphne is very robust, 
and its bronze rosettes are effective in the foliage 
beds. Cineraria acanthifolia is beautifully hardy in a 
most exposed bed facing north. The charming Hy- 
pericums proliferum and oblongifolium are well ; H. 
nepalensis, the most lovely of all, perished last season. 
The Camellias and Cyclamens have done very badly 
in the houses, but the little alpine Sowbread never 
fails, both pink .and white, spring and fall. There are 
still some autumn Crocuses struggling into existence 

Jaxuarv 10, iSSo.] 



to cheer the heart ami please the eye of garJen-loving 
people ; and, to crown all, we have finished planting 
the bulbs to-day for the spring garden. The old tufts 
of Christmas Rose are crowded with buds, and we 
have already picked some of the lovely roseate-tinted 
cups of Helleborus niger maximus (altifolius), ihe 
most engaging of winter flowers ; and, finally, Ihe 
Ivies, great and small, green, golden, silver, and 
arborescent, are in perfect heaUh, Hedera denlata 
is a grand plant, quite tropical in its efl'ect, suits in 
any situation, and is never discoloured by the most 
intense frost. //. .1/. /;'., MiJlaiid Counties. 

Poisonous Plant. — Another plant from which 
farmers often suffer, is the .Solanum Dulcamara, 
which in some districts grows very freely in hedge- 
rows, where sheep are fond of browsing, and 
these after eating the berries soon pine away and die. 
A friend o( mine lost eight of his flock in a few days, 
and only saved the others by removing them from the 
field till the plants were grubbed up and destroyed. 
S. nigrum is even more deadly than S. Dulcamara, 
but fortunately is less common, jf. S. [Can this be 
authenticated? Eds.] 

Laelia anceps alba. — Having noticed in several of 
you r numbers that Mr. \V. Bull, of Chelsea, first bloomed 
this beautiful variety of anceps, I beg tos-iylhat it was 
in bloom with me just twelve months ago, which I 
think l.'efore it bloomed at Chelsea. I shall have 
it in bloom again in the course of a week or ten days, 
when I will forward you a bloom by post, ymncs 
Hill, Gr. to Geo. Hardy, Esq., Pickering Lo.lx'c, 
Tiinpcrkv, Cheshire. [Mr, Bull's plant was recorded 
by us as being in bloom in our number for Dec. 14, 
1S7S, p. 756. Et)S.] 

Influence of the Stock upon the Scion. — I here- 
with forvvardsome Pears anda sample of Horse Radiah, 

Fig. 12. — ASTON town 

forthemeetingof the Scottish Horlicullural Association 
on December 2. I send the Pears as an illustration of 
the possibility of the stock allering the character of 
the fruit. I must own th.-it I have hitherto been 
sceptical on ihe point, but (he members can see and 
judge for themselves of the great dift'erence produced 
in the fruit by the specimens I send for examina- 
li m. A tree of Aston Town Pear, which seldom pro- 
duced any fruit, was headed back some years ago, and 
grafted with Beurre Clairgeau Pear. This year some 
of the old spurs left on the Aston Town stock bore 
fruit, of which fig. 12 is a sample. The sample fig. 13 
is fruit of Beurre Clairgeau, produced by a pyramid 
tree from which the grafts were taken for working 
upon the Aston Town. No. 3 (fig. 14) is the produce of 
these grafts — Beurre Clairgeau worlced upon the tree 
which produced No i fruit, Aston Town. The fruit 
is rather smaller than usual with us in Cheshire, 
owing to the bad season. I would have kept them 
till they were ripe, so that their quality might be 
judged of at the meeting, but I am afraid they will 
not keep sound till the next meeting in January. 
However, the members will be able to see and dis- 
cuss the great change produced in the character of the 
fruit of No. 3, by being grafted upon a particular stock. 
[The above note, by Mr. William Burns, Thingwall 
Hall, Birkenhead, was read at one of the recent 
meetings of the .Scottish Horticultural Association. The 
illustrative specimens were obligingly forwarded to us, 
and, as will be seen from our drawings (figs. 12, 13, 14), 
they are singularly interesting. The graft, No 3, is 
curiously intermediate in form and size between Aston 
Town and Beurre Clairgeau. If the variations had been 
in external characters only we might have attributed 
them simply to that innate tendency to vary which 
all plants possess more or less, and which may pos- 

sibly be due to their mixed ancestry, but, in the 
present instance, not only is the outward form inter- 
mediate, but the form of the core and of the seeds. 
The speckling of the graft was like that peculiar to 
Aston Town, but less in amount. There is still 
another possible cause of the variation, and that is 
that Ihe pollen from the flowers of the stock were 
transmitted to those of the scion, and so produced a 
hybrid production. Such cases are asserted to have 
happened, but \ve think such a supposition much more 
improbable than that of graft hybridisation. Kl)S.] 

Much has been written upon the subject 

of what stocks are the best for certain sorts of 
Iruit, but I should like to know if any one 
noticed whether any varieties of fruits or flowers 
grafted or budded upon wild stocks of any sort 
have thereby been deteriorated ? We often hear 
that the Golden Pippin Apple and others are not so 
good as they were, and in my opinion, looking at the 
subject from a physiological standpoint, the blending 
of the superior with the inferior must tend to dete- 
riorate the former ; and if this is so it is evident that 
we should endeavour to get the superior varieties of 
fruits on their own roots. We see in the case of 
Roses that the first )'ear or so the flowers are best, 
and many growers are getting them on their own 
roots. It also becomes a question if we do not retard 
progress by raising seedlings from grafted plants, as 
the progeny must have more or less of the wild sap in 


them. The results of observations on this point made 
by others would be interesting, y. Croticher. 

Slaughter of the Apricots. — Herewith I send 
you a portion of a dying branch of an Apricot, which 
upon examination you will find pretty well filled with 
grubs in various stages of development, the said grubs 
being — in my opinion, at least — the primary cause of 
death in the branch referred to. Hercfordian. 

Daphne Mezereum and other Wild Plants in 
North Lancashire. — Near Grange-over-Sands, 
which is on mountain limestone at the head of Morc- 
cambe Bay, Daphne -Mezereum is common in the 
rocky woods, far from gardens or ornamental walks, 
and I think is undoubtedly indigenous. The cottagers 
dig it up freely for their gardens. Daphne laureola 
is common in the same woods. Aquilegia vulgaris 
(Columbine) is of general occurrence throughout the 
district, growing in wild lanes and out-of-the-way 
places in which it would be diflicult to account for 
its introduction, if not native. Two other plants of 
more general distribution are very conspicuous from 
their great aljundance here, occurring Irom the very 
top of the limestone hills, 700 feet high quite to the 
sea level — Verbascum Thapsus (Great Mullein) and 
InulaConyza( Ploughman's Spikenard). These biennials 
take the place of Foxgloves, which are found rather 

sparingly on the limestone. I also observe fine clumps 
ofAtropa Belladonna (Deadly Nightshade) growing 
out of the limestone rock close to high-water mark. 
All these plants I have seen, and I am also told by 
more than one trustworthy authority that Ophrys 
apifera is often found here, associated with Ophrys 
muscifera, though less common. In .Sowerby's 
English Botany we are told that O. apifera does not 
occur on the western side of the island farther north 
than Tenby. C. IV. Dod, Grange-over-Sands, Jan. 5. 

Market Prices of 'Vegetables. —There is one 
phase of this subject that, if explained, may perhaps 
tend to throw some light upon the cause of such un- 
satisfactory returns from market salesmen as are now 
and then complained of, and which are loo apt lo 
lead the reader to imagine that these said salesmen 
are but a voracious set of vultures preying upon the 
poor grower and on the public. On the west side of 
London there are a very large number of market 
growers who do not, as a rule, take their produce to 
market, but dispose of it at the greengrocers' shops 
through the immense western suinirbs, thus coming 
more immediately into contact with the consumer 
than is the case when a salesman is the go-between. 
These growers are unanimous in the opinion that the 
present winter has been one of the worst ever known 
to effect profitable sales ; the shopkeepers, who are 
the best barometers of the rise and fall of the wages 
income, all declare that there is no money about ; 
that their best purchasers in limes of labour and 
prosperity are the working classes, who are ready- 
money customers, and that the general depression has 
told so heavily upon these that they have little spare 
money wherewith to purchase garden products. It is 

Fig. 14.— grait hviikid 

therefore evident that if the dealers cannot afford lo 
pay remunerative prices to ihe growers direct, they 
nor their fellows can better afford to do so through 
market salesmen. 1 )epend upon it whenever trade and 
commerce shall so improve as to mal;e labour abun- 
dant, and the purchasing power of the masses perhaps 
double what it now is, we shall hear few complaints 
as to low prices, for the wants of the metropolitan 
community are enormous. X, 

Picea lasiocarpa (Lowiana). — I notice that in 
the Gardeners' Clironiele ol .Saturday last you say that 
the Picea Lowiana had not yet fruited in this coun- 
try. I had a few cones, about ihiee or four, on the 
top circle of branches of a lately moved plant of what 
I had from Mr. Low as P. Lowiana. I intended to 
have sent you a cone, but unfortunately I find that 
they have all broken up and fallen to the ground. 
Howe\'er, to show that there were cones I have sent 
a small box with a few of the seeds, a lot of the scales, 
and a core of what was the cone. I also send a branch 
of the tree on which the cones grew, and a branch of 
what I have for P. grandis. They seem lo me to be 
perfectly distinct ; what do you say to them? y. B. 
Mackay, Totteridge, Herts. [We thank you, and will 
give you the benefit of our opinion after we have had 
lime to study your specimens. Eds.] 

The Late Frost. — I fear the late severe wealher 
has finished off some things that just escaped 1S7S 
and the spring of 1S79. I see that IVIagnolia grandi- 
liora ferruginea, which is generally the hardiest of the 
two, has suffered very much this winter. On looking 
over some few things concerning last season there 
were several (to me) strange occurrences as to the way 
in which the frost affected the same genera and species 



[January io, iSSo. 

under different circumstances. Cistus laurifolius, 
planted on a small island with about 30 feet of water 
all round, and which last season was frozen over 
under 22" of frost, has escaped unhurt and looks well 
at the present'.! me ; yet of other plants of the same 
species planted by a south wall several died. I judge 
from this that there is too great a change in that 
situation between the day and night temperature, 
■while that of the island was much more regular up to 
the time the frost broke up altogether. I give you 
below the names of a few things that have been 
killed or injured, and a list of some among the plants 
whose hardiness is generally considered doubtful but 
which have escaped :^ 

Jasmiiiiim azorlcum I Cistus corbcriensis 

Solanum jasmi noides ,, cordatus 

Olea europx-a | ,, sagittifuiius 


Rosa bracteala 

Myrtles, cut down 

Ceanoihus t-p., points killed 

Leptospermum virgatum 

Gynerium, nearly killed 


EschschoUzia polystachya 

j Kubus rossefolius, tops cut 
' Libertia formosa 

Calycanlhus macropbylbjs 
' Garrya ellipiica 

Azara microphylla 

Kdwardiia microphylla, points Phormium tenax, partly sliel- 
killed tered, flowered in summer 

Aloysia citriodora 1 

The late growths of common Laurels and PortugaU were very 

much injured. 

Not Injured. 

Berberidopsis corallini 

Olearia Haastil, hardy as any 

Lardizabala biternata 


Bignonia capreolata 

Veronica plnguifolia 

Escallonia macrantha 


Rubus deticiosus 



Gunnera minicata, a few 


Daphne collina 


HymeuLinihera crassifoHa 

„ scabra, ditto 

Canna Achiras 

Fuchsia procumbens 

Charles Green, Peiulcll Court, Bklchiiigky. 

Potatos. ^Referring to the letter of " Solanum " 
in your last week's paper, I shall be glad if you will 
allow nie to say, that it was not merely with my 
consent, but by preference, that in sending out the 
Woodstock Kidney to the public through the Messrs. 
Sutton, their name was attached to it rather than my 
own. I had, of course, no facilities for the distribution 
of my Potato such as are possessed by those gentle- 
men, and I have had no reason to regret having put 
it into their hands. My name is quite sufficiently well 
known to my friends in connection with my seedlings, 
and I considered it important to entrust my seedlings 
to a firm from whom the public would certainly be 
able to obtain a supply, not only in the first but 
in all subsequent years, of the true stoclc raised by me. 
It is curious that it takes about two years after a 
novelty is sent out for it to reappear in your 
advertising columns under other auspices, and bearing 
the names of other firms, with or without the word 
"improved." Two years maybe enough time after 
having been purchased from the raiser to get up a 
stock of the original thing, but it certainly is not 
sufficient time for others to create any improvement, 
sufficient for commerciiil purposes, upon the original 
stock. Robert Fenn, Cottage Farm, Siilhainstcad 
Abbots, Jan. 5. 

In justice to Messrs. Sutton & Sons I wish to 

state that I sold them the entire stock of my Potato, 
with the clear understanding that the purchase in- 
cluded the right to call it whatever they liked. Of 
course having parted with the whole stock to those 
gentlemen, I never wished or expected my name 
to be used, and they did quite right in sending 
it out to the public as Sutton's Magnum Bonum. 
Messrs. Sutton having allowed me to 'keep the pro- 
duce of some small " chats " left in the ground, which 
came up in my field the following year, these 
greatly increased during the next two years ; and 
finding the Messrs. Sutton had ijy that time as many 
of their own growth as they required, I sold some to 
my neighbours and others, including a London seed 
merchant. I soon found, however, by the gardening 
papers, that the London firm in question were calling 
the Potato by their name, which, of course, they had 
no right to do, as I sold that right to Messrs. Sutton. 
Whether their adding the word "improved" saves 
them from getting themselves into trouble I do not 
know, but I thought it only fair to myself and 
Messrs. Sutton that the facts should be told by myself, 
James Clark, Christchurch, Hants. 

Your correspondent " .Solanum " appears to be 

unaware of the fact that we purchased a portion of the 
original stock of Magnum Bonum Potato from the 
raiser, Mr. Clark, .and offered them in our catalogues 
as far back as the year 1S77. At that time we sent a 
portion of the original stock of Potatos to one of the 
best and most reliable gardeners in the country, and 
after a selection by that gardener, we received 
back the " improved " stock of Magnum Bonum 
Potato, to which our name has ever since been 
attached. We hardly know that we are called upon 
as a well-known house of business to defend ourselves 
against an anonymous correspondent, but we think 
that in justice to the public we ought to make a few 
remarks. As regards great seed firms and their 
practices, if " Solanum " had any practical knowledge 

of the production of seeds, he would be aware that 
original types rapidly deteriorate in character during 
the process of ordinary cult:v.ation, but some of 
the great seed houses who wish to keep their 
stocks pure and distinct use extraordinary efforts 
to attain for their seeds a high standard 
of excellence, and in order to do this they are 
compelled very often to remove a large portion of 
plants from the seed crops, whenever any are found 
showing the slightest tendency to deteriorate in 
quality, and when, on the other h.ind, they observe 
occasional plants in every way superior to the crop 
in general, the jiroduce of these superior plants is 
carefully harvested by itself, and grown 'again and 
.again, and if the superiority is of a fixed character 
an improved variety has been secured. This has 
probably escaped " Solanum's " attention, or perhaps 
he is imperfectly acquainted with the subject, there- 
fore it is prudent for a careful producer to offer these 
select stocks as being of greater value than the 
originals : this is reasonable and truthful. It would 
be perhaps justifiable in some instances to rename 
the selected variety, but this course would be more 
confusing to the trade, .and pernicious to the public if 
adopted ; and any one who attempts to check the use 
of the word " improved," as applied to superior 
vegetable productions, is striking a blow at the 
purity of stocks : for what seedsman would care to 
take the trouble, and bear the great addition 
to the expense of production, if he did not get 
one of two things, either extra profit or enlarged 
reputation ? It will be found on reference to the 
catalogues that some houses make no extra charge 
for these improved varieties, relying for recompense 
upon an increase of renown for their house, so that 
" Solanum's " imputation, that the British public have 
to pay for such improvement, is hardly justified. We 
should have almost thought that the necessity for 
careful production of vegetables and flowers for seed 
purposes was so well known to the professional 
gardeners and amateurs that the remarks of "Sola- 
num " would have been unnecessary. We trust, 
however, that in any future communication "Sola- 
num " will have the courage to sign his real name, 
otherwise the purport of his letter might be reasonably 
subject to what ".Solanum" would consider uncharit- 
able criticism. We have perhaps a greater right 
to call things "improved" than most houses, as 
it is a well known fact that our seed farms are larger 
than any in England, and it is also a well-known 
fact that we are always selecting and re-selecting 
stocks, fames Carter ^ Co. [Would not the word 
"selected" be preferable to "improved, "as not liable 
to mislead ? Eds.] 

Pears that Have Done Well. — In a previous 
number I named some Pears that had failed here, 
I now turn to a more pleasing view of the sulijcct and 
specify kinds without which our supply for the dessert 
and kitchen would have presented a great falling off. 
Jargonelle, on a north wall, carried a good crop, fruit 
not quite so large as usual but tolerably well up in 
flavour ; Comte de Lamy, a standard fruit, quite equal 
to other years in size, was a month later than usual in 
ripening and supplied the table until December : with 
us this is the highest flavoured of autumn Pears, 
colours beautifully and is worthy of a place in every 
collection ; M.arie Louise, on walls and standards a fair 
crop, had to thin the wall tree ; ripened and finished 
well, not fit for table until the beginning of this month ; 
will keep up the supply to the end of the year. 
Doyenne du Cornice not quite so large as in other 
years, but nearly up in quality ; Duchesse d'Angou- 
leme on wall had a fair crop, but fruit not so regular 
in size as usual, a few at the extremities of the branches 
are large and well finished — makes a fine dish on the 
dinner table, and this season will be fit for use up to 
the end of January ; Beurre Clairgeau, standard, 
good crop and showy Pear, not quite so large .as last 
year, will not be fit for use this month ; Catillac, on 
wall, carried a good crop of average-sized fruit ; 
Uvedale's St. Germain, grown on wall, heavy crop, 
had to be well thinned, fruit not quite so large as 
usual, but well coloured, sound and good. The two 
last are kitchen Pears, which keep up the supply until 
the beginning of June. T, Blair, 

Decorative Gardening at Kew. — I have often 
seen the opinion expressed editorially in the Gar- 
dencrs' Chronicle, that, so far as the reasonable de- 
mands of the general public will permit, the purely 
decorative phase of gardening should be subordinated 
at Kew to the development of horticulture of an 
educational or scientific character ; and with that 
opinion I entirely agree. At the same time I think it 
most unwise on the part of the Kew authorities, 
while they profess to devote some portions of the 
establishment to the decor.ative element, to allow 
that portion — which is little enough, goodness knows 
— to be so much neglected as it appears to be at the 
present time. I never remember to have seen the 
show-house — popularly known as No. 4 — look so 
mean as it did a few days ago, when the side stages 
were decorated (?) with third-rate Primulas, a few 

miserable Hyacinths, here and there a leggy Cineraria, 
a couple of lean Bouvardias, Chrysanthemums all 
legs and pots, their flowers passing into the decom- 
position stage ; starved and weakly little Heaths, a few 
ancient Solanums, and Zonal Pelargoniums that 
would drive Mr. Cannell crazy. Not a Cyclamen, 
a Carnation, a Tulip, or a Violet, not even a spray of 
Lily of the Valley to be seen in the first week of 
January, 1S80, in the one show-house maintained in 
Kew Gardens. There was, however, one plant in 
flower that pleased me much — a pretty .Strobilanthus, 
and that, which is by no means so common as it de- 
serves to be, was unnamed. Disappointed with No. 4 
I went to the Orchid-houses, and in the great national 
garden, that we are all so proud of, there was not a 
solitaryCalantheto gladden one's vision. My old friend 
Ansellia africana was there in good form, but not a 
single Calanthc ! Can the reason of their absence be 
that they cannot grow these splendid flowers at Kew ? 
I am loth to believe that. Of the science put on paper 
at ivew the general public knows nothing, and, worse 
luck, cares less ; but as regards the art of cultivation, 
I do think that those who pay for it have an undoubted 
right to demand that it should be, as far as it goes, 
at least no worse than the general average attained 
at other places ; at present, as exemplified by the 
contents of No. 4, it is sadly below par. Townsman, 

Soil Temperature. — In the last week the changes 
have been very striking. Up to December 29 the 
earth thermometer at my station here, i foot below the 
surface, had ranged between 32° and 33° from Dec. 
7 to Dec. 29. Since then it has risen daily until 
up to 41°. I on January 2. The thermometer at 2 feet 
below the surface stood between 36' and 37° from 
Dec. 7 [to Dec. 16 : from that date to the iSth 
was for the most part between 35" and 36', then 
rose gradually to 37' on the 31st, and now stands at 
40°.6. It seems to me very interesting in connection 
with plant growth. 0. 

Horticultural Boilers and Heating. — I sym- 
pathise with Messrs. AVeeks in one very cogent 
observation adduced by them, viz., that their work 
in many cases has been brought into bad repute 
by so-called engineers, who, divested of their 
hardfacedness, are either plumbers, blacksmiths, or 
gasfitters, sometimes better and sometimes worse, but 
seldom capable of undertaking the duties of a com- 
petent engineer. A person should at least understand 
the rudimentary principles of heating before he dubs 
himself with the title of "engineer." There can be 
no doubt that the Messrs. Weeks execute their work 
thoroughly ; indeed, their houses are models of what 
horticultural buildings should be, and where the glass 
is arranged in " blocks " according to modern ideas, 
their boilers are jiowerful, and there need be no fear 
of them doing their work. Mark ! I say nothing 
about "consumption of fuel." According to lawyers, 
however, there are alw.ays two sides to a case, and 
upon the other side I agree in the main with Mr. Baines. 
Rlcssrs. Weeks' boilers are public property, and there is 
nothing wrong in criticising their merits ; moreover, it 
is claimed for them that they are the best boilers 
extant. The point I should like to see discussed is 
the respective " principles " upon which the upright 
tubular and saddle boilers are made. If the principle 
of the uptight tubular is wrong there is an end of the 
case, and vice versa. Gardeners, as a rule, are a 
matter-of-fact body of men, and it is hard to knock 
out of them what they have observed in pr.actice and 
acquired by hard work. When I used to stoke in 
my younger days, I was sometimes severely cautioned 
when charging a saddle boiler for putting a lot 
of fuel in such a way that the whole mass 
burned aw.ay together. It was understood by 
us juveniles in those days that in order to be 
economical the body of fuel should burn steadily 
from the back of the boiler to the furnace-door, and 
if this be correct it cannot be done with the tubular, 
for self-evident reasons. There cannot be two opinions 
as to their great consumption of fuel. Within the 
last few years I have had several opportunities of 
choosing any form of boiler that I liked to heat 
several ranges of houses, and I have invariably chosen 
the common saddle boiler w'ith watcrw.iy back, or the 
terminal-end saddle. It is supposed or rather 
asserted that night stoking can only be abolished by 
having those tubular boilers. This is a fallacy which 
has gone abroad, because many people are tempted 
through a kind of mistaken economy and sometimes 
under the advice of those whose interest it is that the 
work should be done "some w.iy, " to have small 
boilers .and insufficient heating surface which neces- 
sarily keeps the stoker continually busy and entails 
more cost in a very short time, besides not being so 
good for pkants than if a good-sized boiler and plenty 
of piping were put in at first. I had a practical illus- 
tration not long ago, near to where I then lived, in 
arranging the heating of two ranges of houses for 
Gilbert Winter Moss, Esq., of The Beach, Aigburlh, 
near Liverpool. The architect (not being a horti- 
cultural one) had no say in the heating, and I deter- 
mined when my advice was taken not only to put in 

January io, 1880.] 



an ample quanlity of piping according to the tempera- 
ture that was required to be l<ept in each house, but 
also to see that the boilers were large enough for all 
future anticipations : the result being that the stoker 
could go comfortably to bed all last winter at loo'clock 
without doubting the capacity of the apparatus to keep 
the different houses at the requisite temperatures until 
7 o'clock the following morning. The mischief of 
large boilers (and I do not name the tubular more than 
any other kind) is most felt in places where the glass 
is scattered, and the houses that require the highest 
temperature are not so arranged as to be nearest the 
boiler. The loss of heat in "the mains" must be 
great (especially if they are not laid within the houses 
where it could be utilised), in fact a waste of heat 
before it reaches the point where it is most required. 
Mr. Baines was .also undoubtedly correct when he 
stated that in such places two or three saddle boilers 
woidd be much more useful and economical than a 
couple of tubulars or a couple of any other kind that 
any one else can mention. W. IlinJs. 

I have read most of the letters on this 

subject which have appeared in the Gardeners^ 
Chronicky and I am sorry to say with very little 
advantage, for they amount to a mere squabble of 
words without communicating any useful information. 
Comparisons are made between tubular and saddle 
boilers without any proper basis. Even in the para- 
graph which appears in your last volume, p. 822, 
it is stated, " the tubular boilers in the Palmhouse at 
Kew, of which we g.ave an illustration in November, 
1S77, are giving great satisfaction — giving a propor- 
tionately larger amount of heat for the same quantity 
of fuel than the flued saddle in the temperate-house." 
No fellow can understand this. The fuel is equal, but 
the other member of the proportion is wanting. 
The only other letter I shall refer to is that quoted 
on p. 760, and to which you seem to attach some 
importance, where the writer says that " It is not so 
much the shape of the boiler as the position in which 
it is set, the work it has to do, and chiefly the manner 
in which it is stoked." With this I cannot agree, for 
I think the shape of the boiler is most important, the 
work it has to do is comparative to its efficiency. I 
look at the question in this way. 1st. A hundred- 
weight of fuel gives out a certain amount of heat 
when consumed in the mist perfect manner. IIow 
is this heat best utilised for heating our hothouses? 
It cannot be used direct, .and therefore one must have 
some means of rapidly absorbing it, and conveying it 
to where it is wanted. 2d. The most convenient 
means of .absorption is a boiler, and therefore the 
boiler which is so formed as to absorb the greatest 
amount of heat developed from the fuel must be the 
best. Now, looking at the advertisement on p. 672 of 
November 22 Last, I cannot conceive that the tubular 
boiler there shown can be the best, either for gener- 
ating the heat or for absorbing it. I had one of Woeks' 
boilers some ten years ago ; it cost a good deal, and a 
good deal more for setting. It worked a short time, 
when the bottom ring split. I had to pull the brick- 
work to pieces to get a patch put on — no e.asy job for 
the mechanic. It gave way again in a storm. I then 
determined to make an end of it. I telegraphed to 
Russell & Co , Glasgow, and got an upright mal- 
leable iron boiler from them, which required 
no brickwork, and I had it at work again 
within forty-eight hours. I h.ave not had the 
least trouble since. On breaking up the Weeks' 
boiler I found the tubes coated on the outside with 
about half an inch of hard soot, which, being a non- 
conductor, must have caused a great loss of heat. My 
present boiler is certainly not the best form, but I 
was oVjliged to take it to save my stove plants and 
vineries. I intend to alter it next summer, and hope 
to save much fuel. As it is impossible to compare 
two boilers doing different work, I would suggest that 
the makers of saddle, tubular, and other boilers, 
should have a competitive trial, each putting up a 
boiler capable of heating, .according to their state- 
ments, say 5000 feet of 4-inch pipe, up to 100° or 
some agreed temperature. Let these boilers be un- 
connected with any pipes, but open to the atmo- 
sphere, so that the steam generated can escape 
rapidly. Each must have a tank containing a certain 
quantity of water, with a tap to allow the water to 
enter the boiler, so as to keep a constant level in it ; 
give them a certain quantity of fuel to start with, 
keep the boilers going for ten hours, then weigh the 
fuel remaining, and measure the water evaporated. 
In this way will be ascertained the quantity of water 
evaporated per pound of coal, and prove which is the 
best boiler. There is no other way of doing it. The 
work done is the heat absorbed through the boiler by 
the water evaporated, and this is equivalent to a cer- 
tain number of feet of pipe kept hot in a temperature 
of so many degrees. No two houses are alike, and 
therefore the heat of 1000 feet of pipe in a Palm- 
house cannot be compared with 1000 feet in another 
house. Unless some such experiment is agreed on and 
made, the squabble may go on; but "facts " which are 
mere assertions are not " proofs," or proved by other 
assertions which are not true. No mere inspection 
of a boiler at Bull's or Cowes, even by H.R.II. this 
or Sir William that, will prove anything as to work 

done, which is what we are all most anxious to ascer- 
tain. R. S. Ncw.iU, Fcni:/c:ic, CitahcaJ, Dcccmher 27. 

This subject, which has occupied so much of 

the Gay.Uiicrs' Chronicle of late, is a mo»t difficult 
one, and it is doubtful if any good results will be 
derived from such a discussion unless some plan, 
as suggested by your correspondent, Mr. Bramham, 
at p. 75s, could be successfully carried out, for 
there are but few gardeners who have not a fancy 
for a particular boiler, either from their own expe- 
rience or because it has been strongly recommencled 
by a friend, and all the writing imaginable would not 
convince them that they had not the best boiler out, 
unless you could prove by some undisputed fact to 
the contrary. During the last thirty years I have had 
experience in the working of at least a dozen different 
boilers, including both cast and wrought iron saddle 
boilers, .and my idea for a long time was that 
there was nothing equal to the saddle boiler, 
and I should have held very strong arguments in its 
favour. In 1S73 we had one of Weeks' No. 4A 
patent duplex compensation boilers fixed here, to 
heat the following range, viz., two greenhouses, two 
plant stoves, three vineries, Fig-house, Peach-house, 
Mushroom-house, potting-shed, a room for keeping 
Grapes in bottles, and my office. Since the above 
date my views have quite changed as regards the 
saddle boiler where you have a large quantity of 
piping to heat by one boiler ; and I am prepared to 
say, when you have several thousand feet of 4-inch 
pipes to heat there is no boiler that has come under 
my notice that has given me such satisfaction as 
Weeks' duplex compensation. It is rapid in circu- 
lation, easily managed, and consumes a remarkably 
small qu.antity of fuel for the amount of piping it has 
to heat. /. Dell, Stoke Roc h for J. 

During the present discussion on this subject, 

there has not appeared anything from the stokers. 
Surely, if some of them would speak their minds, 
they would help to solve this difficult problem, for it 
depends principally on the stoker's attention and 
intelligence whether a boiler does its work efficiently 
or not ; and, as one of your correspondents has 
very forcibly remarked, " the best fuel economiser is 
a good stoker." With your permission I will relate 
my experience during my term of probation as an 
assistant gardener ; but let it be distinctly under- 
stood that I have no interest in recommending one 
boiler more than another, as I am not in any way 
connected with the trade, and am quite unknown to 
all the large fiims of hot-water engineers, &c. I 
can therefore give a strictly unbiassed opinion, as 
far as my experience goes ; but, first of all, I will 
just enumerate the various kinds of boilers I have 
had to work. They are the old form of wrought- 
iron saddle, the flued saddle, the terminal saddle, 
the corrugated saddle, the saddle used by the 

Cowan Company for their limekiln a|j[)ara- 

tus, the conical boiler, the upright cylinder, 
Kurd's tubular, Thompson's tubular, the old 
form of Weeks' tubular, and Weeks' tubular 
with pitent diaphragm, &c. — amounting in all to 
thirty-three apparatus, in various parts of the king- 
dom ; and I unhesitatingly say that, for quickness in 
getting up a good heat, smallest quantity of fuel re- 
quired according to the work done, minimum 
amount of labour required in stoking, length of time 
they can be left without attention in any way, general 
efficiency and trustworthiness, I have found none 
that will bear any comparison with Messrs. Weeks' 
patent as fixed by them at present. Of their dura- 
bility I am not able to give an opinion for any length 
of time, but I can say I have never known a tubular 
boiler to fail except Thompson's, which gave way 
through the melting of a lead pipe which had been 
fixed to the boiler to clean it out by — a fault which 
was easily remedied, and which would never have 
existed had the boiler been properly erected in the first 
place. I could mention one tubular boiler which had 
been at work to heat a mansion for upwards of forty 
years. As regards the saddles, I have a lively recollec- 
tion of one which had been put in to heat a Pine-stove, 
&c., giving way in a severe frost through a bad 
crack, which had to be replaced at once by a new 
one, causing no end of trouble to all concerned ; and 
several others have cracked in a less degree, and 
had to be repaired. I have never heard of a tubu- 
lar causing any bother in this way. As regards 
the quality of fuel, tubulars certainly require the 
best coke that can be got, in order to do their work 
thoroughly ; so also do saddles, and they burn a 
greater quantity in proportion than the improved 
tubulars. I am strongly in favour of a mixture of 
coke and coal for both classes of boilers. A much 
greater heat will be got if a small quantity of the 
latter is added. IV. H. Divers, Burghlcy. 

Throughout this correspondence we feel that 

we have rebutted by the best possible testimony, 
namely, that of facts and figures, every statement 
made by Mr. Baines, 'until nothing is now left to reply 
t5 but the promised "long list" of failures, which we 
presume Mr. Baines has done his best to produce. 
In this endeavour he, as we knew he must, has 
signally failed simply because the much-talked-of 
failures never had any existence ; and we feel perfectly 

justified in repeating, that this as well as many others 
of his statements was reckless and consequently un- 
fair and misleading, ami as to the four cases he has 
somewhat insinuatingly mentionerl they can be easily 
disposed of. In the first place the boilers discarded 
by Messrs. Veitch were not of our design, manufac- 
ture or fixing, but were of a totally different con- 
struction ; and as every unbiassed person knows there 
are tubulars and tubulars. As to those at Manley Hall 
we never had a duplex boiler either fail, crack or go 
wrong in any respect. The simple facts are, two of 
our duplex boilers worked part of that establishment 
for five years with great success, and were only re- 
moved when the establishment was unfortunately 
broken up, and the collection of plants, hothouses, 
boilers, and pipes sold. That these boilers were in 
good condition and .sound at that time, after five years' 
wear and tear, we can furnish the most clear testimony. 
As to the boiler at the Messrs. Henderson's, Pine- 
apple Nursery, the late Mr. J. Weeks — than whom 
few men were more zealous and successful in advancing 
the principles of heating by hot water — here worked 
out a series of experiments of which we possess the 
benefit. The old boiler constructed by him is .still 
there, and may be seen working, so that it neither 
failed nor broke down. True, there is more than one 
boiler at this establishment, and, owing to the great 
acreage of glass, we doubt if any one boiler could be 
made to do the work ; but this does not interfere 
with the fact that what two improved saddles here 
failed to do is now being easily accomplished by one 
of our duplex boilers. With regard to the boiler at 
Columbia Market, it was fixed by us about ten years 
ago, and successfully worked the apparatus for several 
years. Of late it has had no fire in it, simply because 
the hall or market as a market has ceased to exist. 
.So far, however, from the boiler having failed or 
broken down it still exists as fixed, and can 
be inspected by any one. It has never failed, broken 
down, or been repaired, and on examination is found 
to be now in good working condition. 7- Weeks 
dr» Co. 

Heating : Trade Refuse as Fuel. — In your 
number of December 20 I advised your readers to 
burn refuse material for heating purposes and save 
their coke bill, and that this can be done I have no 
doubt whatever. For some years prior to 1S64 I had 
great difficulty at my factory in disposing of my 
trade refuse ; my furnaces were small, and nothing 
but the best coal and coke would keep the steam up. 
I therefore had two boilers made especially to burn 
refuse ; each boiler was 20 feet long and 7 feet in 
diameter, of the double-flued Cornish pattern, with 
very large flues and deep fuel spaces so as to hold a 
large quantity of fuel. Each fuel space 7 feet 
deep and 2 feet 6 inches in diameter, making in all 
70 feci super of fire-bar and the contents about 140 
feet cube of fuel. The fire traverses the builci twice, 
or about 40 feet in all. Now as to its results : from the 
time of my setting these boilers, sixteen years ago, they 
haveconstantlydriven a coupled 50-horse high-pressure 
engine, and except on Sundays and holidays the fires 
have not been out a week altogether during the whole 
time. During the whole time not a ton of best coal 
nor a chaldron of coke has been used, and I have 
succeeded in disposing of the whole of my trade 
refuse, and utilising it for fuel with the addition .of 
coal screenings or dust. There are employed an 
engineer and a stoker, with a man to wheel the refuse 
from the vertical shaft, which passes through the 
floors, and is some distance from the stokehole 
for safety. My stoker estimates the fuel burnt 
at about fifty barrowloads a-day ; it consists of chips, 
shavings, and sawdust, and my small coal bill averages 
at the present time 14^. per day, and the water used 
2750 g^'' a-day, as measured by meter. The best of 
the shavings and sawdust, amounting to about twenty 
sacks a-day, are not burnt but are sold, and realise 
about 35-t. per week. I do not consider my arrange- 
ments as perfect. I should like to carry the flame 
once more round the boiler, only the shaft is at the 
wrong end, and I am strongly of opinion that none 
of our boilers are swept as often as they should be. 
A friend of mine has just set a Cornish boiler with a 
flue space of 3 feet all round it. Supposing the boiler 
is 4 feet in diameter, the flues added make 10 feet in 
all ; this enables a man to walk round it and tho- 
roughly cleanse it from soot, and everybody knows 
how much quicker a kettle with a clean bottom will 
boil than a foul one. At all events, my friend tells 
me the boiler set in this way does double the work 
it did before with the same amount of fuel. I think 
those twisting, cranky flues the curse of the horticul- 
tural boilers. I know I shall make boiler-makers 
open their eyes when I talk of a man walking round 
his flues, but "out of sight out of mind" applies to 
foul flues as well as other things, and in heating we 
must never forget that whilst iron is one of the best 
conductors of heat, carbon or soot is one of the 
worst. I will leave your readers to make their own 
estimate as to the relative power of driving a 5o-horse 
steam-engine and heating hothouses, and how many 
miles of pipes these boilers would be equal to. This 
is a point I should much like information on if any 



UanuaRy 10, iSSo. 

of your icatlcrs could su]i|ily it. I suppose no one at 
the present clay is simple enough to say that fuel that 
will get up steam wfll not heat i>ipes in a hothouse. 
Now, a word for the smaller liinils of houses. We don't 
all want boilers we can walk round ; and, for small 
houses, I quite believe that hot ait will drive hot-water 
boilers out of tlie Held. I liave just had a hot-air 
apparatus advertised in your paper set up in a con- 
servatory, and the advantages I hope to gain are as 
follows : — In a small house you have your stokehole 
where you keep your fuel to heat the boiler ; the 
boiler heats the pipes, and the pipes heat the air. It 
is hot air you want ; but what a roundabout way to 
get it. Why not do away with the pipes, the stoke- 
hole, the boiler, and put a stove in the house itself? 
There are diflicullics in the way— sulphur is one : this 
can be obviated by feeding outside ; drawing the 
ashes is another ; this can be done by having the ash- 
door outside ; dry heat is another : a large shallow 
evaporating-pan, kept at a level by a ball-tap and a 
cistern connected by a pipe, will remedy that. The 
stove is ugly ; well, make it pretty— put a case on it, 
and make it beautiful for^ever. Now, let boiler-makers 
look at that and look .at this, and ask themselves if 
they have not got into a bad, stupid groove, and 
whether it is not possiljle to heat hothouses in a very 
much less costly method than the present system ? 
IV. H. LasccUcs, 121, Bimhill Koiv, E.C. 

Limekiln Heating.— For the information of iMr. 
Cowan, I may stale that when engaged in making 
a limekiln of Weeks' tubular boilers I was a sub- 
ordinate, consequently his remark on my failing 
with the tubulars goes for nothing ; but I have 
still a vivid recollection of the trouble that was 
taken to make it answer. The course pursued 
was simply this : two of Weeks' large-sired tubu- 
lars were fixed side by side, each was filled 
with coal and chalk in layers, and when one had 
nearly burnt out the other was lighted ; but it never 
paid for the trouble, and the heating, as may be sup- 
posed, was anything but satisfactory. iVor/h Country. 

I send you an account of fuel consumed 

here in heating h^z ranges of early forcing-houses 
and one range of sheds during the three years 1S76- 
77-78. ICach of the five ranges is 100 feet long, 
and they are each divided into three compartments. 
They are used for cultivating Pines, Cucumbers, and 
Melons, stove plants, early Grapes, general forcing, 
and propagating. The sheds consist of Mushroom- 
house, potting-shed, seed-room, and fruit-room, all 
of which are heated. The amount of piping in use, 
including bottom-heats and mains, is equal to 5000 feet 
of 4-inch. The boilers (two of Weeks' upright No. 6 
tubulars) are placed in a central position, and each 
boiler is worked every alternate week, and they are so 
fixed as to allow of a gradual rise in the main fiowpipe 
into the lowest house. The (lues are rojjul.-irly cleaned 
after c.ich week's work, and every two months the 
boilers are thoroughly flushed and cleansed from all 
sediment, by taking out the pads at the base. Neglect 
of this simple precaution is, I fear, the cause of nine- 
tenths of the failures which occur to horticultural 
boilers. To prevent furring by the lime, we use 
soft water in the apparatus here, and even from this 
we get a deposit of soot and dirt, which is washed 
from the roofs of the houses, and would soon prove 
destructive to any boiler if not removed. 

AtHOunt rf Fuel CpnsuiftCii. 

1876. — 64 tons iS cwt. of culm coal, at 22J. .. ..£,-ji 7 9 

,, 10 tons of clialk, digging and carting, at 

JS. 6d. o 13 o 

1877*— 55 tons 17 cwt. of culm, at 20J. . . ^. .. 5517 o 

„ 18 tons of chalk, at I J. 6(^. .. .. ., 170 

1878. — 6i tons 14 cwt. cf culm, at 191. ,. .. .. 53 iz 3 

„ 2o tons of chalk, at 15. 6(/, .. .. .. 1 10 o 

Total cost of fuel for three years .. £i^g 9 o 

Deduct value oflime burned and us^d in the 

garden, 16S qr., at 4s. per quarter. . .. 33 12 o 

Cost of fuel for three years .. .. ;C'55 17 o 

— or for one year ;^SI \gs. There being eighteen 
compartments, about t,^ feet, by 12 feet wide, 
to heal, it costs exactly £2 ijs. ^\iL per 
year to heat them, or if.?, per day. In giving 
these iteins, I am not so presumptuous as to think 
they show greater economy in heating than many 
others could show if they felt disposed, but my object 
is to induce others to state the amount of fuel they 
consume in a given time in heating a specified 
number of houses of a given area, for what purposes 
the houses are used, and the quantity of jiiping 
employed in heating them. Having failed to attain 
the object at which we aim, viz., " to prove which is 
the best boiler, and which the best .system of 
heating," by freely airing our fancies and theories, 
perhaps this, the more practical metliod, may in a 
slight degree aid us in our endeavours to attain that 
object. That chalk can be used as fuel to advantage 
when it can be obtained near at hand there can be 
no doubt whatever, especially in the upright tubulars, 
where the fuel is directly under, inside, and in direct 
contact with every part of the boiler. I do not mean 
by this that any direct heat is obtained from the 
chalk, but when dry it absorbs and conserves the 

heat from the coal, which would otherwise pass into 
the flue ; the greater portion of that heat is again 
liberated so gradually as to produce a long-enduring 
moderate heat. Had Mr. Cowan claimed for the 
limekiln system of heating .somewhat less advantages, 
and had he suspended an upright tubular boiler 
therein, made to fit the kiln, I venture to think his 
system would not. even at the present time, be desig- 
nated a failure by ils opponents. We have just added 
to the present apparatus here 5000 extra feet of piping, 
to heat a range of late vineries and Peach-houses, 
which is worked by the same boiler very satisfactorily. 
If sp.-ired till the end of iSSo it will aft'ord me great 
pleasure to again send you an account of the fuel 
consumed. T. Challis, The Ganfcns, Wilton House. 

Jforfipi Corrtspniifiicc. 

^ Al.ON'G THE Dkdemsvaakt.- I have several times 
visited remarkable parts of the Netherlands, and long 
ago resolved on going to the province of Friesland, 
and stop at the Dedemsvaart, to have a look at the 
nurseries of one of the old pupils of the horticultural 
school of Ghent— Mr. A. M. C. Jongkindt Coninck. 
Besides, having promised to give a lecture on arbori- 
culture at Zwolle and at Arnhem, I wished to avail 
myself of that opportunity of visiting Meppel Leeuw- 
wardcn, Groningen, and Arfen, consequently I had to 
pass by the Dedemsv.aart. 

At the hour agreed upon my host met me at the 
station, and conducted me to his establishment. Un- 
fortunately I W.1S taken ill, and was obliged to return 
home immediately. I had scarcely time to make a 
few notes on the nurseries of iMr. Jongkindt Coninck, 
which, however, are so important, that I think it my 
duty to him to send yoa the following lines. 

Dedemsvaart is the name of the second station 
after Zwolle on the railway towards Meppel. It is 
also the name of an immense district, which stretches 
for miles from that point. As is still to be seen, the 
country was a few years ago partially an arid desert, 
partially a marshy turf-field. But courageous, saga- 
cious, and industrious men united themselves, in 
order to furnish the necessary capital to make a 
canal, hours and hours long, provided with several 
sluices, and serving not only to import turf and wood, 
to bring manure, &c., but also to make the country 
wholesome and habitable. At the head of that enter- 
prise stood an active man, Baron van Dedem, one of 
the chief proprietors of that country. In his honour 
the cnnnl is called Dedemsvaart, in English Dedem's 
Canal. But, as often occurs, that gigantic work 
required enormous sums of money, and in the begin- 
ning gave little or no rent, which caused the worthy 
man to lose a good deal of his fortune. However, 
people were not ungrateful towards him. His con- 
temporaries erected a irionument in his honour, which 
the passer-by respectfully salutes when he considers 
how many thousands of acres of unproductive land 
have been transformed into a beautiful, populous and 
industrious country by the Dedemsvaart (Dedem's 
Canal). From the station to Mr. Jongkindt Coninck's 
establishment, one and a-half hour's drive along the 
canal, a vigorous growth of trees, chiefly of Oaks, is 
to be seen; it is a pity they are so badly ]>runed. 
On both sides of the canal fields are being grubbed 
up ; the cultivated ones already produce good crops. 
Further on people are digging turf, making small 
canals in connection with the large Dedemsvaart, 
and bringing the sand from those small canals over 
the peat in order to improve the soil. It is easily 
understood that the greatest activity shows itself 
everywhere. There are not only churches and schools, 
but also post and telegraph offices, shops, manufac- 
tories, and even one devoted to glasswork. Wharfs 
especially are very numerous ; nearly all materials 
are transported by ships and boats. All the houses 
are neat, 'often very elegant, with nice gardens, in 
which especially Conifera; and Rhododendrons do 
admirably well. Luxury is not known, still less 

At last we reached our destination. Mr. Jong- 
kindt Coninck's nurseries comprise at present about 
20 acres of excellent land. Convinced that his 
enterprise will extend, he made the necessary 
buildings, packing-sheds, propagating-house and 
frames, but before everything had the land thoroughly 
drained and trenched, which, of course, was very 
expensive. To insure a good drainage several narrow 
but deep ditches have been made ; these divide the 
land into squares of about 50 metres long and 30 metres 
broad, each square being surrounded by hedges of Abies 

excelsa as a wind-break. This is a capital thing, 
generally practised in the Netherlands, but too often 
neglected in 01 her countries. The soil has been 
trenched at a depth of I metre. This labour, already 
very expensive in ordinary circumstances, wjs still 
more so here, because the land was to be levelled, and 
the peat to be mixed with the sand from the ditches. 

Of course, trenching being done in autumn, both 
peat and sand being exposed to the frosts during 
winter, excellent soil has been obtained, besides large 
quantities of manure have been used. All those heavy 
expenses and the extraordinary advertisement costs 
(few Continental nurserymen advertise so largely as 
Mr. Jongkindt Coninck) will give some idea of the 
sacrifices he had to make in a country where he is the 
only nurseryman, and where he has to help himself. 
I should not have been at all surprised had 
he been discouraged ; however, at present he is 
pleased with what he has done, and has reason to be 
proud of it. It was very cold when I visited the said 
nurseries, but scarcely felt any wind because of the 
nftny hedges. The soil, a mixture of peat and sand, 
is in splendiil condition, and very favourable to the 
growth of almost all sorts of plants. In winter nothing 
is to be feared from moisture, neither does dryness in 
summer do any harm. One is entirely master of the 
water, and able to keep the soil dry in winter and 
tnoist in sumtner. I will explain how such is possible. 
The nurseries, being surrounded at the south by the 
Dedemsvaart and at the north by a small river, the 
water level of which is from i to ij foot lower than 
that of the Dedemsvaart, floodgates have been made, 
by means of which the water level can be regulated 
as required. This of course is most important. Mr. 
Jongkindt Coninck chiefly grows perennials, rock 
plants, bulbs, flower roots, Conifer.-e, fruit trees, Roses, 
hardy Rhododendrons, and Azaleas, Rose stocks, &c. 
All plants are grown by the thousand for wholesale, not 
for atnateurs, and sold at very low prices. About 
300,000 Rose stocks (RosamultifloradelaGrifi'eraieand 
Rosa Manetti) are grown and oflered at £1 per 1000. 
The department of fruit trees deserves special men- 
tion. There is a complete collection of these, as well 
as regards the varieties as the different forms. What 
also attracted my special notice is the large collection 
of rock plants, planted as in their native spots, on an 
artificial rockwork m.ade by the proprietor himself. 
This rockwork, 2,i metres long and 22 metres large, 
has been very naturally made. From the summit, 
5^ feet high, a small cascade, making several 
windings and passing through a grotto, comes 
down into the surrounding water. The whole 
rockwork is planted with rock and alpine plants, 
which grow admirably well and give an excellent idea 
of what can be done with these lovely plants. 
Amongst other interesting things I must not forget 
to mention the winter carpet beds, cf which I saw 
many beautiful specimens. Several rock plants, 
when planted by themselves, are easily passed byunper- 
ccived, because of their being so modest, at least one 
cannot imagine what eflect they produce when 
planted together and well arranged according to the 
different colours. Especially in summer one is little 
aware how much the colours of a great many of these 
plants get altered in winter ; of course the colours are 
always somewhat faded, but still sufliciently marked 
to produce a pleasant effect. Near Mr. Jongkindt 
Coninck's office I saw several of these winter carpet 
beds, really well made as concerns the form, the 
design, the symmetrical distribution ol the plants, and 
the different colours. Can any one believe that at a 
time of the year (it was in the beginning of April) 
when, especially in that northern country. Nature was 
still sound asleep, where snow had scarcely disap- 
peared and the soil was still frozen — can any one 
believe, I say, that a'ready at a distance one is struck 
by the attractive colours of what at the first sight is 
thought to be a flower-bed ? And still such was the 
impression which those beds of rock plants produced 
on me. A great many diflcrent plants are suitable 
for such carpet-beds, but care should be taken only to 
plant those which sufficiently v.ary one from another. 
In a great hurry I marked the following : — 

It''/i/7c.— .\ntennaria tomentosa, Cerastium Biebor- 
steinii, Sedum brevifoliuni, Stachys lanata, \"cronica ' 

Gnyh/i-Wliilc.—?yci\im dasyphyllum, S. glaucum, 

dry. — Fcstuca glauca, Sempervivum chrysanthum, 
Thymus lanuginosus. 

lV//ii:i'. — Lamium maculatum aureum, .Sedum acre 
iiureiim, Stellaria graminea aurea. 

HcJ. — Sedum pruinatum. 

January io, iSSo.] 



Rcdiish-Brown.—Kyig'x reptans atro-purpurea, Sem- 
pervivum fimbriatum. 

G/a-».— Saxifraga cajspitosa, S. muscoides, Sedum 
angUcum, S. lydium, Thymus montanus albus. 

What variety ! And such of plants which with- 
stand any amount of frost, which require no other 
care than being replanted from time to time. 
Really one is inclined to use show plants in 
summer as well as in winter, instead of Alternan- 
thera, Pyrethrum, Coleus, and other plants, which 
are only effective during three months. My opinion 
is that rock plants, which are so appropriate for all 
sorts of designs and edgings, because of their remain- 
ing so dwarf and having such characteristic colours in 
winter, deserve much more attention from a decora- 
tive point of view than they have hitherto received. 

Whilst most nurserymen in the Netherlands who 
grow perennials have no frames, a large quantity of 
these are to be seen here. Mr. Jongkindt Coninck 
has visited good schools and excellent horticultural 
establishments in dilTerent countries, and very 
well understood that to grow plants well and 
in the shortest time possible, glass is indispens- 
able. Besides, he had a propagating-house made, 
the hot-water apparatus of which also warms 
two long rows of frames, consequently these are 
always full of seed-pans, cuttings, grafts, repotted 
plants, &c. 

Everywhere order shows itself, each square has 
its proper destination, and is as much as possible 
planted with plants of the same class ; thus errors are 
easily avoided, work is much facilitated, and general 
inspection greatly simplified. In one word, the 
nurseries very much pleased me. Although a little 
out of the way, they greatly deserve to be seen, 
and may be considered a model of good organisa- 
tion. The plants sold are cheap and good, their 
roots are so numerous that it is difficult to shake 
off the soil ; last, not least, one is sure always to be 
heartily welcome. I experienced this, and present my 
sincere thanks to Mr. Jongkindt Coninck. //. J. 
I an Hulk, Curator, Botanic Gardens, Ghent. 

Buffalo, New York : American Apples. — In 
reading the article by "J. S.," in your paper of 
November 8 last, in his selection of the best Apples 
to plant I notice that he does not include any one of 
our four leading winter Apples — viz.. Northern Spy, 
Baldwin, Spitzenberg, and Rhode Island Greening. 
They are strong growers, heavy croppers, and of the 
highest quality. They may have all IJeen tried m Great 
Britain and found wanting in some particular, but I 
scarcely think they can have been, or they would stand 
high in the first dozen winter Apples. Our crops in 
this locality (Western New York), the greatest Apple- 
producing district in the United States, have been a 
great contrast to the sad accounts we get from 
England. Fine fall Apples have been sold at 
30 cents per bushel ; good winter Apples are now 
worth 75 cents per bushel. Polatos are plentiful and 
good, and worth 50 cents per bushel. In September 
we bought very fine Peaches at 1.50 dol. per bushel. 
I think there is nothing, among the many blessings of 
this country, more enjoyed and appreciated by the 
emigrant Britisher than the abundance of good whole- 
some fruit always within reach of the poorest family. 
W. S., December 11, 1S79. 

Department of Agriculture and Commerce, 
N.-W. P. AND OuDH : Nov. 17, 1879.— The follow- 
ing is an account of Mango grafting practised with 
some successs as regards number of grafts and cheap- 
ness at Allahabad, N.-W. P., India, by the Superin- 
tendent of the Government Gardens. I shall be glad to 
learn whether there is any reason to believe that trees 
thus raised will be less hardy and fruitful than those 
which are raised from scions on three year old stocks— 
the usual practice. As there is a great saving in 
time and money in raising trees in the method pro- 
posed by the Superintendent, I shall be obliged by 
receiving your opinion, or that of any of your corre- 
spondents, on the subject. E. C. Buck, C.S., Depart- 
ment 0/ Agriculture, A'.-AF. P. 

" Process op Grafting Mungoes on the Tree. — The pro- 
cess by which this is accomplished is very simple. In 
the first place the seedling with seed attached thereto, 
when it is about 6 or 8 inches high and three weeks old, 
is carefully lifted with a small ball of earth. The roots, 
with the earth intact, are then wrapped up in a little 
grass, and the young seedling plant tied to the tender 
branch of the tree required to be grafted from, care being 
takon that the young seedling tree and the branch to be 

grafted should lie pointing in the same direction, and be 
of the same age, i.e., both seedling and and graft should 
be of that year's growth. When grafted the joint should 
be covered with grafting clay to exclude the air. 

" 2. The roots of the seedlings, suspended as above 
described, when grafted must be kept moist by watering, 
either by hand or with a garden syringe, in case there be 
not sufficient rain. 

" 3. The process of grafting should be commenced in 
the beginning of the rainy season, as soon as the young 
Mango seedlings are procurable. The plant should be 
ready for cutting, i.e., the graft should have taken well, 
within a month ; * but I have succeeded in cutting them 
so soon as thirteen days after grafting, and the plants so 
removed are now in good growth in the nursery. In 
fact, plants thus grafted in this season are now growing 
strongly and ready for sale. The plants grafted in this 
way on young wood, where the junction is so complete, 
will, in all probability, be much stronger than those 
grafted on two or three years' old plants where, the wood 
being hard between the grafts, such a comple union is 
impossible, from which cause a great number of plants 
die or are broken down by the wind. 

" 4. The following is the actual cost incurred in 
raising 2000 grafted Mango trees by the above method : 

Rs. a. p. 
To digging bed and sowing seed . . ..100 

„ lifting and tying up plants for grafting . . 440 
,, grafting 2200 plants .. .. .. ..500 

,, Bhisti watering, one month .. ..480 

„ cutting and planting tfie young grafted 

trees in bed . . . . . . ..280 

,, twine for tying plants to trees .. ..220 

Total . . . . Rs. 19 6 o 

" Total say Rs. 20, equal to less than 2 pie per plant ; 
add watering in the nursery for one year, Rs. 10 ; the 
plants when ready for sale would thus cost about 3 pie 
per plant. Plants raised at such a trifling cost, and in 
such numbers, and which promise to be so hardy, should 
soon take the place of the common seedling Mango 
trees on roadsides, canal banks, topes, &c." 

Grahamstown Botanic Garden, Cape Colony : 
Foliage of Plants Injured l>y the Action of the Sun 
after Rain (.'). — During the last twenty years it has 
been my constant practice to disregard the generally 
received opinion on the above subject ; and, with the 
exception of one family of plants — viz., the Gesner- 
worts — I do not scruple to water all over the foliage 
of any plant during the hottest sunshine, and to the 
best of my knowledge I never saw a leaf injured in con- 
sequence. We even treat small seedlings just breaking 
through the soil in this manner ; in fact, there is no 
other way of keeping them alive, unless the beds nre 
shaded, which is not possible at all times. I am so 
sure of the absence of danger in watering during the 
heat of the day, that all my seed customers are 
strongly advised to follow my own practice in this 
matter, and they do so with good results. Finally, 
on the principle that " Fools rush in," &c., I may 
state my opinion to the effect that although it is just 
possible that drops of water hanging in the foliage of 
plants may concentrate the rays of the sun in sutlficient 
number to scorch any leaves placed in the ex.act focus 
of the said drops, it is not at all probable. By hottest 
sunshine I mean thermometer at from 130' to 140° in 
the sun. 

Scale on Fruit Trees, ^fic. — The mixture described 
in the Gardeners'' Chronicle of October 4 is strongly 
recommended by me for dressing all hard-leaved 
plants subject to scale, such as the Orange tribe. 
Camellias, Crotons, Aucubas, Gardenias, Myrtle and 
allies. Palms, also Conifers, some of which are much 
injured by scale — Araucaria excelsa, for instance. I 
trouble you again on this subject because the above 
heading is, to my mind, misleading. "Fruit trees" 
hardly include the above-named subjects. E. Tid- 
marsh, Nov. 27, 1879. 



The following are the names and addresses of the 
gentlemen elected by the Council to serve on the 
three committees during the present year :— 


Chairman.— 'Sv J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., M.D., C.B., 
F.R.S., V.P.L.S.. Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Vice-Chairtnen.—li\iK Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.R.S., 
Sibbertoft, Market Harborougll ; Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., 
F.R.S., Mount Avenue, Ealing, W.: Arthur Grote, F.L.S., 
20, Cork Street, Burlington Gardens, W. 

• The graft should be partly secured at first, and completely 
severed a f^w days afterwards. 

Secretary. — Samuel Jennings, F.L.S. , 58, Granville Park, 

Baker, J. G., F.R.S., Royal Herbarium, Kew. 

Bennett, Alfred W., M.A , B.Sc., F.L.S., 6, Park Village 
East, N.W. 

Btenkins, George E., g, Warwick Square, S.W. 

Bjscawen, Hon. and Rev. J. Townshend, Lamorran, Probu«, 

Church, A. H., F.C.S., Koyston House, Kew. 

Clarke, Colonel R. Trevor, Welton Place, Daventry. 

Cooke, M. C, Ph. D. , 2,Grosvenor Villas, Junction Road. N. 

Crewe, Rev. H. Harpur, Drayton Beauchamp Rectory, 

Denny, John, M.D., Stoke Newington, N. 

Dyer, W. T. Thisclton, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., Royal Gardens, 

Edgeworlh, M. P., F.L.S., 6, Norham Gardens, 0.\ford, 

Gilbeit, J. H., Ph.D., F.R.S., HarpenJen. St. Albans. 

Hemsley, W. B., A.L.S., 2, Woodland Cottages, Gunners- 

Henslow, Rev. G., F.L.S., 6, Tichfield Terrace, Regent's 
Park, N.W. 

Hogg, Robert, LL.D., F.L.S., 95, St. George's Road, Pira- 
lico, S.W. 

Joad, George Curling, F.L.S., Oakfield, Wimbledon Park, 

Maw, George, F.L S., Benthall Hall, near Broseley. 

McLachlan. R., F.R.S., Limes Grove, Lewisham. 

Moore, F., F.Z.S , ito, Oakfield Road, Penge, Surrey. 

Renny. J.. 106, W,irwick Street, Pimlico, S.W. 

Scofield, W. J., M.R.C.S., 13, South Hill Park Gardens, 
Hampstead, N.W. 

Smith, Worthington G., F.L.S., 125, Grosvenor Road, Canon- 
bury, N. 

Webb, Sydney, Redstone Manor House, Redhill. 

Wilson, Geo. F., F.R.S., Heatherbank, Weybridge Heath. 

Ch.zirJnan. — Henry Webb, Redstone Manor House, Redhill. 

I'ice-Cfiairtnen. — John Lee, Royal Vineyard Nursery, Ham- 
mersmith. W. ; Philip Crowley. Waddon House, Croydon ; 
William Paul, F.L.S , Waltham Cross, N. 

Sec-clary.— krd\\h2L\i F. Barron, Royal Horticultural 
Society, Chiswick, W. 

Badger, E. W.. Mostyn Villa, Mosely, Birmingham. 

Beale E. J., F.L.S., Stoneydeep House, Teddington 
Grove, S.W. 

Berkeley, Rev. M. J., F.R.S., Sibbertoft, Market Har- 

Bunyard. George, The Nurseries, Maidstone. 

Cox. John. Redleaf, Penshurst, Kent. 

Dancer. F. N-, Chiswick. 

Gardiner, William, The Gardens, Eatington Park, Stratford- 

Haycock. Charles, The Gardens, Barham Court, Maidstone. 

Hogg, Robert, LL.D., F.L.S., 99, St. George's Road, 
Pimlico, S. W. 

Killick. Lewis A., Mount Pleasant, Maidstone. 

McKinlay, Peter, Headley Lodge, Croydon Road, Penge, 
S E 

Miles. G. T., The ;Gardens. Wycombe Abbey, High 

Nutting. W. J., fo. Barbican, E.C. 

Osborn, Robert. Fulham, S.W. 

Sage, George, The Gardens. Ashridge Park, Berkhamslead. 

Silverlock, Charles, 412. Strand, W.C. 

Smith, J , The Gardens, Mentmore. Leighton Buzzard. 

Smiiti, ^V. Baxt«r, 3. Broarllands, S. Northwood. 

Stevens, Zadok, The Gardens, Trentham Ilall, Stoke-on- 

Veitch, H. J., F.L.S., Royal Exotic Nurs«ry, Chelsea, 

Weir, Harrison. Weirleigh. Brenchley, Staplehurst. 

West. James Firth, Lynmoulh Lodge, Reigate. 

Wildsmith, W., The Gardens. Heckfield Place, Winchfield. 

Wood. Charles. Woodlands Nursery, Maresfield, Uckfield. 

Woodbridge, John, The Gardens, Syon House, Brent- 
ford, W. 


Chairman.— }o\in Denny, M.D., Stoke Newington, N. 

l'';ce-Chairmen.—Caa.^\ei Noble, Bagshot, Surrey ; James 
Mcintosh, Duneevan, Weybridge ; W. B. Kellock, F.L.S., 
Stamford Hill, N. 

Secretary. — Archibald F. Barron, Royal Horticultural 
Society. Chiswick, W. 

Baines, Thomas. Avenue Road, Southgate, N. 

Baker, George, Coombe Cottage, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Barr, Peter, 12, King Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

Bennett, H., Manor Farm Nuisery, Stapleford, Salisbury. 

Bethell, George. The Gardens, Nonsuch Park, Cheam. 

Bull, William. F L.S , &c.. King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. 

Cannell, Henry, Swanley. 

Crewe, Rev. H. Harpur, Drayton Beauchamp Rectory, 

Cutbush, James, Highgate, N. 

Denning, William, The Gardens, Londesborough Lodge, 
Norbiton, Surrey. 

D'Ombrain, Rev. H. Honywood, Westwell Vicarage, Ash- 
ford. Kent. 

Douglas, J., The Gardens. Loxford Hall. Ilford, E. 

EKves, H. J.. F.L.S., F.Z.S.. Preston. Cirencester. 

Fellowes. Rev. E. J.,., Wimpole Rectory, Royston. 

Eraser, John, Lea Bridge Road Nursery, Leyton. 

Green, Charles, The Gardens, Pendell Court, Bletchingly. 

Hudson, James, The Gardens, Gunnersbury House, Acton. 

James, J., The Redlees Gardens. Isleworth. 

King, James, Gardener to G. Simpson, Esq., Wray Park, 

Kinghom, F. R., Sheen Nursery, Richmond, Surrey. 

Lee. Charles, Royal Vineyard Nursery. Hammersmith. 

Llewelyn, J. T. D., F.L.S., Ynisygerwn, Neath, Glamorgan- 
shire. ..,,., 

Little, Henry, Hillingdon Place, Hillingdon, near Uxbndge. 

Mayor, H. K., Bamlord Lodge Winchmore Hill, N. 

Mclntyre, A., Victoria Park, Hackney, E. 

Moore, Thos., F.L.S., Botanic Gardens, Chelsea, S.W. 

Paul, George, Cheshunt, Herts. 

Roger, Alexander, Era House, Surrey Lane, Battersea, S.W. 

Smith, F. T., The Nurseries, Dulwich, S E. 

Smith, G., New Villa, Hedge Lane, Edmonton. 

Smith, Geo,, Tollington Nursery, Homsey Road, N. 

Turner, Harry, Royal Nursery, Slough. 

Veitch, Arthur, Royal Exotic Nursery, Kings Road, 

Williams, Henry. Victoria Nursery, Upper Holloway, N. 

Wills, John, Onslow Crescent, Onslow Square, S.W. 

Wilson, Geo. F., F.R.S., Heatherbank, Weybridge Heath. 



Qanuary 10, 1880, 

Reports of Societies. 

Scottish Horticultural Association. — The 

usual monthly meeting of this Association was held 
on Tuesday, the 6th inst., at 5, St. Andrew Square, 
Edinburgh, Mr. Dunn, Dalkeith Gardens, presid- 
ing. Mr. George Robertson, Mordington Gardens, 
Berwick-on-Tweed, read a paper on herbaceous 
plants, his object being to enlist the sympathies of 
members in their behalf as substitutes for the more 
transitory and often disappointing tender plants that 
now occupy our flower gardens. No gardener could 
forget the anxiety and labour expended on the tender 
occupants of the flower-beds last summer, and the 
poor results secured by his painstaking. The points 
which he paid particularjattention to in the cultiva- 
tion of these, were their propagation, the preparation 
of the soil, and the production and arrangement of 
colour. He gave a description of his mode of plant- 
ing so as to produce'a constant succession of flowers 
from March to November. Some discussion ensued, 
and a hearty vote of thanks was given to Mr. Robert- 
son for his paper. 

Mr. P. W. Fairgrieve, gr. to the Dowager Duchess 
of Atholc, Dunkeld Gardens, afterwards read a tho- 
roughly instructive practical paper on " The Culture 
of Hardy Stoned Fruits," the result of his own 
experience in the Highlands. After some prelimi- 
nary remarks as to the interesting character of fruit 
culture, he gave an idea of the situation of Dunkeld 
Gardens. They were situated on a delightful slope, 
and the ground was well sheltered on every side. 
The gardens were, he believed, formed by His Grace 
John, fourth Duke of Athole, well known to horti- 
culturists as "the planting Duke." They stood about 
176 feet above the sea level at the lowermost and 
about 244 feet at the uppermost part. His Grace must 
have had an eye to fruit-growing, if they judged from 
the positions of the walls and the various aspects thereby 
gained. He exhibited a plan of the gardens to illus- 
trate what he said, and observed that the Duke must 
have had as good an idea of the science of horticulture 
as they had now. The soil was of light loam, with a 
gravelly subsoil, which he thought, with a little assist- 
ance, suited the cultivation of stoned fruit admirably. 
Selection of the fruit to be grown was a very impor- 
tant matter, and he thought was too little practised 
as a branch of fruit-growing. Judicious selection 
must always hold a paramount place to having a large 
number of varieties. He then gave a few general 
hints as to the rearing of Peaches, Apricots, Nec- 
tarines, and Plums. He named a few of the varie- 
ties of each of these fruits which he thought were the 
best and most remunerative for growing. Among the 
varieties of Peaches which he mentioned were the 
Early York, which was a good Peach, of capital 
colour and flavour; the Early Alfred was a fine 
variety, with beautiful flesh, liale's Early was 
also an excellent new variety. Among the Nectarines 
he specially mentioned the Balgowan and the Pine- 
apple. Apricots, required a stifler soil. Of the 
Plum there were a great many varieties, but he 
thought most of the Kirke's Seedling. He concluded 
by laying great stress on the importance to fruit- 
growers of keeping the trees clean. The trees ought 
to be syringed at least twice during the season, and 
for this purpose he used a liquid of his own for exter- 
minating vermin. He Jalso called attention to the 
mode he had of protecting his out-of-door trees from 
frost by the exhibition of a model framework, which 
was covered with Frigi Domo, and which could be 
drawn up like a blind when necessary. He said he 
had found it very effective, that it cost about is. per 
superficial yard, and would protect the borders with 
early vegetables also. Mr. Fairgrieve received the 
thanks of the meeting for his paper. 

The following subjects were exhibited : — From Mr. 
A. M'Millan, Broadmeadows, twenty varieties of 
Chrysanthemums, sixteen of Cinerarias, sixteen of 
single Zonal Pelargonium trusses, sixteen of double 
Zonal Pelargonium trusses, and one Carnation bloom 
— Souvenir de la Malmaison ; from Messrs. Downie 
& Laird, two trusses of Rhododendron — Princess 
Alexandra and Jasminiflora ; from Mr. John Forbes, 
Hawick, Calceolaria deflexa in flower ; from Mr. 
Laurence Dow, Saughtonhall, a bloom of Lasiandra 
macrantha : from Dr. Paterson, Bridge of Allan, the 
original white variety of Odontoglossum Alexandrae, 
which was very much admired ; and from Messrs. 
Todd & Co., West Maitland Street, a table bouquet, 
consisting of Roses, Lily of the Valley, and Maiden- 
hair Ferns. 

We have to record the death of Mr. Thomas 
Stansfield, of Tanshelf Nursery, Pontefr.ict, which 
took place on December 30. Mr. T. Stansfield — 
Tom Stansfield as he was familiarly called amongst 
his friends — was well known as a member of the 
firm of A. Stansfield & Sons, of Todmorden, one of 
the nursery establishments in which the cultivation 

of British and exotic Ferns was taken up many years 
ago in good earnest, and which has always since 
maintained a good reputation for cultivating an exten- 
sive collection, with a trustworthy nomenclature. 
The .Stansfields, father and sons, were, indeed, not 
merely cultivators of Ferns, they were collectors also ; 
and for the knowledge of many novel additions of 
great interest and beauty to our Fern lists we are 
indebted to them. They were moreover raisers of 
Fern novelties, and for several interesting and orna- 
mental hybrid forms we have to thank them. In all 
this work our deceased friend was for many years 
intimately mixed up. So great was his knowledge of 
these plants, so wide-spread his acquaintance with 
Fern lovers, and so genial his disposition, that many 
members of the fraternity of British pteridologists 
will deeply regret to learn that his smiling cheerful 
countenance will no more be seen amongst his 
favourite plants, of which he has generally kept a 
good illustrative collection before the public at the 
principal exhibitions held in that part of the country. 
Mr. T. Stansfield had attained the age of fifty-three 
years, and was interred at Christ Church, Todmorden, 
on Saturday last. 

We also note the death, on December 20, of 

Mr. John Grier, of Ambleside, Westmoreland, a 
well-known nurseryman in the Lake district, where 
he had carried on business for many years. 

For the Week ending Wednesday, January 7, 1880. 


trical De- 



Temper.\ture of 
THE Air. 




Tables 6lh 









•i . 

3 rt _u 







" " s 






In. 1 In. 1 " 1 • ° ; • 1 " 1 • 1 • 



29.82 1 0.0054.348.9 S-6.«.o]-fi4.847,6| 85 






50.941.0 9.946.3-1- 9.439. 9^ 79^ 

WSW : 





46.936.710.242.0+ S.137.S 







43.833.010.838.64- 1.935.1 







4I-33I.S 9'-8 36.8-l- a334.5 


S.S.E. : 
S.E. : 





36.431.0 S-433-9— 2.529.2 

III 1 

83 1 




30.48 ,-1-0.74 

38.1 31.3 6,8^34.8- 1.533.0 


S.E. : 









+ 39 



S.W. : 



I. — A dull overcast day. Very mild. Strong wind. 

Rain fell before g a.m. 
2. — A fine bright day. Mild. Colder at night. Gale 

in early morning. Few drops of rain at 9 A.M. 
3. — A very fine day. Pleasant. Little colder. 
4.— A very fine bright day. Clear. Colder. Cloudy at 

5. — A fine day. Much colder. Some fog in morning. 
6. — Overcast, dull, and cold throughout. 
7, — A very dull overcast day. Cold. Thin nuzzling rain 

at night. 

London : Barometer. — During the week ending 
Saturday, Jan. 3, 1880, in the vicinity of London the 
reading of the barometer at the level of the sea 
decreased from 30.27 inches at the beginning of the 
week to 29.64 inches by the afternoon of December 30 ; 
increased to 29.78 inches by the morning of the last 
day of the year, decreased to '29.67 inches by the 
afternoon of the same day, and increased to 30.50 
inches by the end of the week. The mean reading 
for the week at sea level was 30.02 inches, being 
0.50 inch below that of the preceding week, and the 
same as the average. 

Temperature. — The highest temperatures of the air 
observed by day varied from 54^'' on January i, and 
52° both on December 28 and 31, to 44° on Decem- 
ber 30 ; the mean value for the week was 5oJ°. The 
lowest temperatures of the air observed by night 
varied from 32.5° on December 31 to 49° on January i ; 
the mean value for the week was 383". The mean 

daily range of temperature in the week was ii^°; 
the greatest range in the day being I9i°, on Decem- 
ber 31, and the least 5!°, on January I. 

The mean daily temperatures of the air and the 
departures from their respective averages were as 
follows : — Dec. 28, 46^.3, -+ S'.8 ; 29th, 44°.9, -H 
7°,S ; 30th, 39°,4, + i°,8 ; 31st, 44°,2, 4- f ; Jan. i, 
52°, + I4°,8 ; 2d, 46°.3, + 9^.4; 3d, 42°, + 5°.!, 
The mean temperature of the air for the w-eek was 
45°, being 7°. 8 above the average of sixty years' 
observations, and 4° higher than the value for the 
corresponding week in 1879. 

The highest readings of a thermometer with black- 
ened bulb in vacuo, placed in the sun's rays, were 72° 
on December 29, 67° on January 3, and 65° on Janu- 
ary 2 ; on the remaining days the highest readings 
were between 50" and 55°. The lowest readings of a 
thermometer on grass, with its bulb exposed to the 
sky, were 30" on December 31, and 30.!" on the 30th. 
The mean of the seven lowest readings was 35°. 

Wind. — The direction ol the wind was W,S.W. 
and S.W., and its strength strong. The weather 
during the week was generally fine, though occa- 
sionally dull and very mild ; the thaw which set in 
on December 28 continued throughout the week. A 
tlnindcrstorm, accompanied by hail and rain, occurred 
at I I'.M. on Tuesday, December 30. 

Rain fell on four days during the week ; the amount 
measured was 0.51 inch. 

England : Temperature. — During the week end- 
ing Saturday, January 3, 18S0, the highest tempera- 
tures of the air observed by day were above 55° at 
Bristol, Cambridge, Norwich, Nottingham, and Sun- 
derland, and below 50° at Brighton; the mean value 
from all stations was 543°. The lowest temperatures 
ol the air observed by night were below 32° at 
Cambridge, Norwich, Wolverhampton, Nottingham, 
and Bradford ; and above 35" at Plymouth and 
Leeds. The mean from all stations was 32^-°. The 
extreme range of temperature in the week was 
above 26° at Cambridge and Nottingham, and below 
16° at Plymouth and Brighton ; the mean range of 
temperature in the week from all stations was 22°. 

The mean of the seven high day temperatures 
was above 51° at Truro, Plymouth, Cambridge, and 
Nottingham, and below 49° at Brighton and Hull ; the 
mean value from all places was 5o|°- The mean of the 
seven low night temperatures was below 39° at Brigh- 
ton, Blackheath (London), Wolverhampton, Notting- 
ham, Hull, Bradford, and Sunderland, and above 43" 
at Truro and Plymouth ; the general mean from all 
stations was 394°. The mean daily range of tem- 
perature in the week was above 12° at Wolver- 
hampton, Nottingham, and Sunderland, and below 
10° at Truro, Plymouth, Bristol, and Sheffield ; 
the mean daily range of temperature from all places 
was 11°. 

The mean temperature of the air for the week from 
all stations was 44x°, being 5J° higher than the value 
for the corresponding week in 1879, The mean 
temperature of the air was above 47° at Truro and 
Plymouth ; and below 44° at Brighton, Wolverham- 
mpton, Hull, Bradford, and Sunderland. 

Rain. — Rain fell on every d.ay in the week at 
Bristol and Bradford, and on five or six days at most 
other places. The heaviest falls were 1.82 inch at 
Bradford, and 1,69 inch at Sheffield; and the least 
falls were 0.13 inch at Cambridge, and 0.33 inch at 
Norwich ; the average fall over the country was three- 
quarters of an inch. 

The weather during the week was somewhat fine, 
though the sky was generally cloudy, and frequent 
rain fell. The thaw which set in on .Sunday, 
December 28, continued throughout the week ; the 
weather was very mild. 

Thunderstorms were pretty general over the country 
on Tuesday, December 30, 

Scotland : Temperature. — During the week 
ending Saturday, January 3, 1880, the highest tem- 
peratures of the air observed by day varied from 57° 
at Perth, and 56^° at Leith, to 54!° at Edinburgh 
aiid Greenock ; the mean value from all places was 
551°. The lowest temperatures of the air observed 
by night v.iried from 29° at Perth to 34!° at Leith ; 
the mean from all stations was 32j°. The mean 
range ol temperature in the week from all places was 

The mean temperature of the air for the week 
from all stations was 424", being 8^ higher than 
the value for the corresponding week in 1879. The 
mean temperature was the highest at Leith, 4Sl°, 
and the lowest at Dundee, 41 J°. 

Rain. — The amount of rain measured at Greenock 
was 3.85 inches, .and at Perth 2. 58 inches, whilst at 
Aberdeen the amount was 0.53 inch only ; the average 
fall over the country was 1.69 inch. 

DlTBLiN. — The highest temperature of the air 
was 564°, the lowest 33°, the extreme range 23t°, 
the mean 455°, and the fall of rain 0.93 inch. 


January lo, iS8o.] 




IlyOPHORBE Verschaffelti (Wendl,, in ///. 
Hort., tt. 462, 463). — A Palm spread over the 
whole island (Rodriguez), but never occurring on the 
coralline limestone. It is of a very striking appear- 
ance by reason of the bulging which takes place in 
the stem towards the middle, the stem on both sides 
of the swelling decreasing in size. If the tree be 
lofty there may be a second ventricosity. But the 
tree seems rarely to attain an altitude above 20 feet 
to 25 feet. The external hard part of the stem is very 
thin, not more than I inch thick, and within it is a 
soft succulent mass of cellular tissue and fibro- vascular 
bundles. The juice from this tree is said by the inha- 
bitants not only to be unwholesome, but even 
poisonous, causing, if taken in small quantities, severe 
emesis. The leaves have an exceedingly plumose ap- 
pearance, and with their yellow stripe beneath are very 
picturesque. The parts of the tree are put to no use. 
Hyophorbe, to which the species belongs, is a 
Mascarene genus represented by only three species. 
Of these, the one here mentioned is endemic in 
Rodriguez. H. amaricaulis, Martius, Hist. Palm. 
iii. 309, formerly cultivated in Europe under the 
name Areca speciosa, is a second species endemic in 
Round Island, about six miles from Mauritius. This, 
from its habit, is not unfrequently termed in Mauritius 
the "Bottle Talm," and hence it has for long been 
confounded with the Chilian Bottle Palm, Jubaea 
spectabilis, with which, however, it has no connection. 
The Rodriguez Palm, I should have said, has also 
been confounded with Juba:a. The Round Island 
Palm is very distinct from the Rodriguez plant. The 
third species is the most delicate. Originally described 
rs Hyophorbe indica, by Giirtn., de Friict. ii. 186, 
the name, H. Commersoniana, was substituted by 
Martius, Hist. Palm. iii. 164. There seems, how- 
ever, no sufficient ground for the alteration. BoRY 
St. Vincent, I'oy. ii. 296, mentions and describes 
this Palm as Areca lutescens, under which name 
it is frequently and most commonly met with 
in gardens. The species has a wider distribution 
than the others, occurring in both Mauritius and 
Bourbon. It is in these islands confined to the 
shady parts of the woods and valleys, and is 
now extremely rare. It differs in habit from 
the other species in having a slender tapering stem, 
not dilated, and with no ventricosities. Dictyosperma 
album, Wendl., in Linmza, xxxix. 181, var. aureum ; 
Areca alba, Bory, Voy. i. 306. This p.ilm is vpry 
abundant in Rodriguez, growing freely both on the 
volcanic soil and on the coralline limestone. It has 
for many years been cultivated in the gardens of 
Europe as Areca aurea. This is a very variable 
plant, and by reason of this several garden names 
have been given to its forms under cultivation. Thus 
we have Dictyosperma furfuraceum, D. rubrum, and 
D. aureum. These are, however, all varieties of the 
one Palm, Dictyospermum album, Wendl., and the 
last-mentioned is that form which occurs in Rodri- 
guez, y. Bay ley Balfour, on the Botany of Rodriguez. 

Vertical and Horizontal Leaves. — Grise- 
oach, in his account of the vegetation of Australia,* 
dwells on the close relation of interdependence which 
exists between the tree vegetation and the coating 
of grass which covers the ground beneath it, and 
remarks that the amount of light allowed by the trees 
to reach the ground beneath them is rendered more 
than usually great by the vertical position in which their 
leaves grow. Hence the growth of the grass beneath 
is aided. It may be that this permitting of the 
growth of other plants beneath them, and consequent 
protection of the soil from losing its moisture, besides 
other advantages to be derived, is the principal reason 
why, as is familiarly known, two widely different 
groups of Australian trees, the Eucalypti and Acacias, 
have arrived at a vertical instead of a horizontal dis- 
position of their leaves by two different methods. 
The Acacias have accomplished this by suppressing 
the true horizontal leaves, and flattening the leaf- 
stalks into vertical pseudo-leaves, or "phyllodes." 
The Gum trees, on the other hand, have simply 
twisted their leaf-stalks, and have thus rendered their 
true leaves vertical in position. There must exist 
some material advantages which these different trees 
derive in common from this peculiar arrangement, 
and the benefit derived from relation to other plants 

• A. Grisebach, Vegetation der Erde, p. 216. Leipzig : 
W, Engelman, 1872. 

by this means may be greater and more important 
than that arising from the fact that the vertical leaves 
have a like relation to the light on both sides, and 
are provided with stomata on both faces. In support 
of this conclusion I was told when at Melbourne that 
when the native vegetation was cleared away from 
under Gum trees they ceased to thrive, and in time 
perished. I was shown a number of Gum trees not 
far from the city, scattered over some public land, 
covered with only short turf, which seemed to be 
mostly in a dying condition. N^ctcs of a Naturalist 
on the " Clialknger," by H. N. Moselcy. 


He that qiiestioneth much shall learn miich.--B\i:ON. 

Greening of Artificial Lake. — I have a small 
artificial lake, cemented at the bottom and sides, about 
20 yards long by 10 broad, in the middle of wh cli is a 
fountain supplied from the main. There is an outlet for 
llic water near the ground, but I am compelled— espe- 
cially in the summer — to clean and paint it all over about 
every two or three weeks, owing to the whole bottom 
and sides becoming so green with some short vegetable 
Ti-owth. Will any of your correspondents tell me how I 
can prevent tliis forming? Water Lily. 

White Azaleas. — If any of your readers know of 
any better white Azaleas for the cut flower and market- 
ing trade than A. Fielderi, I sliould be much obliged if 
they would give me their names. VV. T. S. 




Apple Trees Dying : W. P. Your Apple twigs are 
not affected with American Blight, but there is the 
spawn |of a Fungus on them— of what species cannot 
be ascertained without fruit. M. y. B. 

Barometrical Tables (see p. 24): If " R. R." will 
send thirteen stamps to Mr. H. West, 73, Upper 
Kennington Lane, S.E., he will receive a book of 
barometrical tables for one year, which will answer his 
purpose exactly. The linear system is, of course, 
preferable to that recommended. H. King, Captain 
K,N. — " R. R." should apply to Mr. G. J. Symons, 
62, Camden Square, N.W. ; or to Mr. Stanford, of 
Charing Cross, who supply Meteorological Registers 
for one year in stiff covers at zs., ruled for two obser- 
vations daily for barometer, thermometer, wind, rain, 
&c., with the opposite page blank for observations. 
Diagram sheets can also be had for barometrical, 
thermometrical. &c.. readines. 7. E.. North W.ilcs. 

Books : C. W. i, Thompson's Gardeners' Assistant, 
■^is. (Blackie& Co.) ; 2, The Farmers' Calendar, 15J. 
(Wame & Co.) ; 3, tastes differ. Ask your publisher 
to advise you.— 7. F. Ballet's The Art of Budding 
and Grafting, published at the Garden office, South- 
ampton Street, Strand, W.C. 

Catalogue : Troublesome. Perhaps it was Biddle's, 
of Loughborough, Leicestershire. 

Climbers for Verandah : J. B. J. Jasminum offi- 
cinale, or J. revolutum ; Clematis lanuginosa and 
lanuginosa nivea, Bignonia capreolata, or some of the 
finely coloured varieties of Pyrus japonica. 

Cypripedium Maulei : J. Cocker if Sons. Cypripe- 
dium Maulei is a variety of C. insigne, but superior to 
the type. It has a much larger proportion of white on 
the back sepal, and the spotting on the white portion 
is purple. 

Fungus : O. M. B., Isle of Wight. Your fungus is one 
of the Starry Puffballs, probably Geaster fimbnatus— 
i.e., if the mouth, A, is finely fimbriated, hke the folds 
of a minute fan. 

Kainit and Wool Manure : Jardinier. Kainitis 
a sulphate of potash mixed with other salts, and costs 
about fs, a ton. It would be a good manure for Vines. 
Wool manure would be very useful as a slowly acting 
nitrogenous manure— like shoddy. We do not know 
the price. Any dealer in artificial manure would supply 
yoiur requirements. 

Mushrooms: C. S., Hemel Hempstead. We have fre- 
quently seen Mushrooms and other Agarics in a similar 
condition with those sent by you — viz. , bloated stems 
and no tops, or with tops so distorted as to be un- 
recognisable as such, the Fungi being in shape like 
irregular massive clubs. We beUeve the distortion is 
caused by frost whilst tlie plants are making growth. 
The specimens may be wholesome, though far too 
ugly and suspicious-looking for the table. They pro- 
bably differ in edibility, the same as Potatos and 
some other esculents differ after frost either for good 
or bad. 

Names of Plants : J. B. f. Cotoneaster Simonsii. 
—A. J. Maule. Sarcanthus pallidus. 

Responsibility for Damaging a Boiler. J. S. 
does not say whether C was the agent of A, or whether 
B simply followed his advice. At any rate B was 
rather simple to light a fire before seeing whether there 

was water in the boiler. Such simpUcity makes B 
morally responsible, if not legally. 

Seeds : D. M. G. We cannot answer either of your 
questions. Write to the growers direct. 

The Woodlouse : M. The female insects (myriapods) 
carry their eggs in a pouch, where they are hatched. 
The young resemble their parent, except in being very 
small, more clumsy in make, and in wanting one of the 
seven pairs of legs of the adult insect. They cast 
their skins, their transformations resembling those of 
the cockroach. /. O. W. 

Vine Roots: Troublesome. The roots are dead, but in 
the absence of any information as to the treatment 
they have received, we cannot suggest the cause. You 
should encourage them to root nearer the surface by 
replacing as much as you can of the present soil with 
a fresh compost. 

*,* Correspondents are specially requested to address, 
post-paid, all communications intended for publica- 
tion to the "Editors," and not to any member of the 
staff personally. The Editors would also be obliged 
by such communications being sent as eariy in the 
week as possible. Correspondents sending news- 
papers should be careful to mark the paragraphs they 
wish the Editors to see. Letters relating to Adver- 
tisements, or to the supply of the Paper, should be 
addressed to the Publisher, and not to the Editors. 

t^" Foreign Subscribers sending Post-office Orders 
are requested to make them payable at the post-office, 
King Street, Covent Garden, London, and at tlie 
same time to inform the PubUsher at the office of this 

Catalogues Received: — Messrs. Thos. Methven & 
Sons (is, Princes Street, Edinburgh), Catalogue of 
Garden, Flower, and Agricultural Seeds, &c. ; also 
Select Descriptive List of Gladioli. — Messrs. C. Daly 
& Son (13 and 15, Bridge Street, Coleraine), Catalogue 
of Roses ; also General Catalogue of Forest and Fruit 
Trees, Shrubs, Herbaceous Plants. &c. — Messrs. 
James Dickson & Sons (108, Eastgate Street, Chester), 
Catalogue of Seeds, Pot,atos, Tools, &c.— Messrs. 
Samuel Finney & Co. (35, Mosley Street, NewcasUe- 
upon-Tyne), Catalogue of Vegetable and Flower 
Seeds. — Messrs. Ireland & Thomson {20, Waterloo 
Place, Edinburgh), Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds, Gladioli, &c.— Messrs. Daniels Brothers 
(Norwich), Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue and 
Amateurs' Guide. 

Communications Received.— Troublesome (thanks for the 
seed).-J. Laing & Co.-T. King. -J. H. C -C & S -J. 
Veltch & Sons.— H. L.-W. L.— II. B. A.-R.— Douglas & 
Sons.-Florist.-T. B.-F. W. B.-R. D.-E. G. H.-One 
who has seen a thing or two.— J. R. J— N. E. Br.— M. J. B. 
_T G— J M.— J. v. V. (with thanks).— R. J.— M. H.— 
J. P.-J. J.-S. H.-T. W. 


COVI^IVT GAKniZl^, yannary S. 
Trade somewhat improving, with a belter demand for 
high-class goods, while inferior_samplcs meet with little 
encouragement. American Apples and St. Michael 
Pines are still arriving in large quantities, the former in 
rather better condition. James Webber, Wholesale Apple 


s. d. s.'d. 

Apples, 5^-sieve . . 20-60 

— American, barrl.18 0-30 o 
Cob Nuts, per lb. .. 10- .. 
Grapes, per lb. ,,16-60 

— Muscat, per lb... 36-80 

Lemons, per 100 
Oranges, per 100 
Pears, per dozen 
Pine-apples, per lb. 2 o- 3 o 

s. d. s. d. 

. 3 O-IO o 
, 6 0-I2 o 


. d. s.'d. 

Artichokes, p. bush. 60-70 
Asparagus, Sprue, 

per bundle . . i c- .. 

— French, per bun. 70-.. 
Beet, per doz. .. 10-20 
Brussels Sprouts, lb. 06-.. 
Cabbages, per doz. .. 10-20 
Carrots, per bunch.. 08-.. 

— New Fr., p. bun. 10-.. 
Cauliflowers, per doz. 20-50 
Celery, per bundle .. 16-30 
Chilis, per loa ..30-.. 
Cucumbers, each . . 16-26 
Endive, per score ..16-.. 
Garlic, per lb. ..06-.. 
Herbs, per bunch . . 02-04 

s. d. s. d. 
Horse Radish, p.bun. 40-,. 
Lettuces, Cabbage, 

per doz. .. ,. i 6- ,. 

Mint, green, bunch.. 20-.. 
Onions, new, p. bun. 06-., 
Parsley, per bunch.. 06-.. 
Peas, per lb. ..10-., 

Potatos (new), per lb. 09-20 
Rhubarb (Leeds), per 

bundle .. ..09-.. 
Seakale, per punnet 30-.. 
Shallots, per lb. .. 06- .. 
Spinach, per bushel 50-60 
Tomatos, per dozen 30-.. 
Turnips, new, bunch, o 6- .• 

Potatos :— Regents, loos. to 140^. ; Flukes, 120^. to 150J. ; and 
Champions, 130s. to 1505, per ton. The large supplies 
received from Germany are making from 4*. to 71. per bag. 


^ s. d. s. d. 

Lily of Val., 12 spr. 30-90 
Mif;nonette, 12 bun. 60-90 
Narcissus, Paper- 
white, 12 spikes .. 26-60 
Pelargoniums, 12 spr. i o- 2 o 

— zonal, 12 sprays 09-20 
Poinsettia, 12 blms... 6 0-12 o 
Primula, double, per 

bunch .. ..16-30 

— single, per bunch 06-16 
Roses (indoor), doz. 20-90 
Spiraia, 12 sprays .. 30-60 
Tropaeolum, 12 bun. 10-30 
Tuberoses, per dozen 40-60 
Violets, per bunch . , 60-90 
White Lilac, Fr., per 

bundle .. 0-15 o 

Abutilon, 12 blooms o 
Arum Lilies, p. doz. g 
Azalea, 12 sprays .. i 
Bouvardias, per 

bun. .. .. 1 

Camellias, per doz. . . 4 
Carnations, per dozen i 
Chrysanthem., large 

flowers, per doz... x 
— per doz, bundlest2 
Cyclamen, iz blms.. o 
Epiphyllum,i2blms. i 
Eucharis, per doz. .. 6 
Gardenias, 12 blms.. 9 
Hehotropes, i2sp. .. o 
Hyacinths, Roman, 

j2 spikes .. ..1 


d. . 
6- I 

o- 4 

o- 3 

6- 6 
4- I 
o- 3 
'6- I 

6- 4 



[January io, iSSo. 

s. d. s. if. 
Arum Lilies, p. doz.24 0-36 o 
Azaleas, per dozen .30 a-60 o 
Begonias, per doz. . . 6 0-18 o 
Bouvardias, per doz.12 0-24 o 
Chryianthemums, p. 

dozen . . ..9 0-30 o 

Cinerarias, per doz.. 12 0-18 o 
Cyclamen, per doreniz 0-30 o 
Cypenis, per dozen 6 0-12 o 
Dracaena terminalis 30 0-60 o 

— viridis. per doz. . . 18 0-24 o 
Erica gracilis, per 

dozen .. . . 9 0-18 o 

— hyemalis, p. doz. 12 0-30 o 
Euonymus, various, 

per dozen .. ..6 0-18 o 

IN Pots. 

Ferns, in var., doz. 4 
Ficus elastica. each 2 
Foliage Plants, vari- 
ous, each . . . . 2 
Fuchsias, per dozen 6 
Hyacinths, per doz. . 10 
Myrtles, per doz. . . 6 
Palms in variety, 

each . . . . 2 

Pelargoniums, scar- 
let zonal, per doz. 4 
Poinsettia, per dozeni2 
Primula, single, per 

dozen . . . . 6 
Solanum, per dozen.. 9 
Tulips, 12 pots .. 9 

./. s. d. 
0-18 o 
6-115 o 

o-io 6 

0-18 o 
0-18 o 
0-12 o 

6-ai o 

0-24 o 

0-12 o 
0-24 o 
0-15 o 


London : Jan. 7. — Increased nctivity is now seen 
on the seed market, and on all sides there is more dis- 
position for business. Fine parcels of yearling English 
red Clover are exceedingly scarce. One parcel realised 
this week on Mark Lane £$ per cwt. Not a single 
new sample has yet come to market. Of American seed 
the arrivals into London continue on a surprisingly 
moderate scale. For choice Trefoil high prices are 
obtained. In while Clover the late advance is well 
maintained. Timothy is in very short supply. A good 
business is passing in Italian Rye-grass, and rates are 
steadily advancing : to-day's quotation is js. per bale 
above that ruling a month ago. The available stocks in 
France and also here are at an unusually low ebb. The 
trade for Canary seed is inactive ; Hemp and Millet 
seed are both about is. per quarter higher. Boiling 
peas move off slowly on former terms. No change in 
Linseed, Haricots, or Lentils. Spring Tares meet a 
greatly improved inquiry, yohn Skaiu b* Sons, Seed 
Merchants, ^j, Mark Lane, London, B.C. 


Trade at Mark Lane on Monday was much in the 
same state as last reported. Holders of Wheat demanded 
full prices, and a small business was concluded. The 
paucity of business, however, made it a difficult matter 
to maintain quotations. Barley was dull, and prices as 
regards feeding qualities were rather easier. Malt was 
quiet and unaltered. For Oats quotations gave way to 
a slight extent. Maize was from dd. to \s. per quarter 
cheaper on the week. For Beans and Peas prices were 
unchanged. Flour was in full supply, and the turn 
easier. — On Wednesday trade was quiet, Wheat, both 
English and foreign, sold slowly at late rates. With 
regard to Barley, fine malting produce remained firm ; 
but grinding samples were weak. Oats were neglected, 
and rales were perhaps a shade easier. Maize met wilh 
a moderate demand at former currencies. Peas and 
Beans were unaltered, while the flour market was in- 
active at late rates. — Average prices of corn for the 
week ending Jan. 3, 1880: — Wheat, dfis. jid.'. Barley, 
37J. yd. ; Oats, 21J. jd. For the corresponding period 
last year : — Wheat, 39J. yd, ; Barley, 38J. lod. ; Oats, 
soj. 3^/. 


At Copenhagen Fields on Monday prices advanced for 
all kinds of beasts, and a clearance was effected earlier 
than usual. Prices for sheep were on the average lower, 
and it was difficult to clear out. Trade was dull for 
calves at about late rates. Quotations : — Beasts, 4J. 6d. 
to 5^. "zd,, and 5/. 6d. \o6s. 2d. ; calves, y. to (>s. ; sheep, 
y. to $s. 4d., and 51. lod. to 6s. 8d. ; pigs, $s. 8d. to 
4s. 8d. — Thursday's trade was firm. Supplies of all 
kinds were short. There was not much animation in the 
demand, but both beasts and sheep were rather higher 
in value than above recorded. Calves were steady. 


The Whitechapel Market report lor Tuesday states 
that good qualities were firm, and supplies fair. Quo- 
tations : — Prime Clover, 100s. to 126s. ; inferior, yos. to 
95^. ; prime meadow hay, 82s. to 95J. ; inferior, 60s. to 
75J. ; and straw. 30J. to 37J. per load. — On Thursday 
there was a fair supply of fodder on sale. The trade was 
rather quiet, except for best Clover, prices for which 
were dearer. — Cumberland Market quotations : — Supe- 
rior meadow hay, 98J. to 105J. ; inferior, 42J. to 80s. ; 
superior Clover, 120/. to 130J. ; inferior. Bos. to 1035. ; 
and straw, 365. to 40J. per load of 36 trusses. 


The Borough and Spitalfields Markets reports state 
that sound Potatos command a steady inquiry, but there 
is not much demand for inferior sorts. The supplies are 
moderate. Scotch Regents, 130J. to i6oi^. ; do. Cham- 
pions, 140^. to 150J. ; Lincoln Regents, 140J. to 150^^. ; 
French whites, 85^. to 95J. per ton. — The imports into 
London last week were very limited, the total receipts 
rom the Continent barely exceeding 1000 bags. There 
have been several small consignments from the United 
States, and 1772 barrels were also received from Halifax. 


The figures current at market during the week have 
been as loUows : — Bebside West Hartley, 14J. ^d. ; East 
Wylam, i6s. ; West Hartley, 14J. ^d. ; Walls End— 
Helton, i6s. 6d. ; Helton Lyons, i^s. ; Hawthorns, 151. 
and 15-f. 3(/. ; Lambton, j6s. ; Original Hartlepool, 
16s. 6d. ; Wear, 15J. ; Tunslall, 155. ; Tees, i6s. ^d. ; 
Radford Navigation, i6s. ; Chilton Tees, 15^. 6d. ; 
past Hetton, i6s. and 16^. 6d, ; South Hartlepool, 
i5f- 3^. 



70, MARK I,\N'R. |i>NI)(iV V. C. 

An Important Discovery. 

CIDF,. — The cheapest and best of all insecticides for 
small and large nurseries, plantations, &c Once tried always 
used. Full directions with each Bottle, price is. 6ti., as. 6d. 
and i2S. 6d. each. Special quotations for larpe quantities. 

London Agents : HOOPER and SONS, Covent Garden ; 
and from all Seedsmen. Manufactured by E. GRIFFITHS 
HUGHES, Operative Chemist, Victoria Street, Manchester. 


This jusdy celebrated Medicine for more than 30 years 
has proved to be the best and cheapest for 


Cheaper because required to be given only once a week, 
and not every second or third day, 
Their cost, too, is saved by the food turning to a better 
account, for it is a fact that Horses will keep up their condition 
better upon three feeds of Oats daily when a Ball is occasion- 
ally given than with four feeds without the Balls. 


Will find the Balis most valuable, not only in case of disease, 
but in Rearing Young Stock, they will Grow to a Larger Size, 
come to Perfection Sooner, and to a Greater Weight with the 
same quantity of food if a Dose (see directions) of the Balls is 
given occasionally. 

Prepared by the Proprietor^ 



Author of the Prize Essay on the " Diseases of the Liver 

of the Horse." 

g^ Sold by all Chemists, in Packets at Is. 9d. and 3S 6d. 

each ; or 7 large Packets for 21s., or 7 small for lOS. 6d. 

Gentlemen using tJu Balls may consult the Proprietor 


For Sale, Wholesale, 

-^ extract of Vegelables : on board at Rouen or Dunkirk. 
Address, Mr. PETITHUGUENIN, Genlis, France (C6te 
d'Or), in French Language, and forward Testimonials. 


MERCHANTS.— New Archangel and St. Peters- 
burg MATS of every description. RAFFIA FIBRE. 
g, fames Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 


Bamboo Canes, Virgin Cork, &r'c. 


C. J. BLACKITH and CO., 



are highly recommended for durability and cheapness. De- 
scriptive Catalogue sent post-free on application. SACKS and 
BAGS of every description. TARPAULINS, HORSE- 
ANDERSON. 140. Commercial Street. Shoreditch. London. E. 



All the usual kinds at reduced rates. SACKS and SEED 
BAGS, new and second-hand, of every description. RAFFIA 
TWINES. Piice LIST on application to 

J. BLACKBURN and SONS, 4 and 5, Wormwood Street, 
LiOndon. E.G. 


CORK, MATS, RAFFIA, &c. None cheaper. Prices of 
WATSON AND SCULL, qo. Lower Thames St.. London, E.C 

Under the Patronage of the Queen. 


The above Labels are made of a White Metal, with raised 


The Gardeners' Magazine 5nys : — " We must give these the 
palm before all other plant labels, as the very first in merit." 
Samples and Price Lists free. 
J. SMITH, The Royal Label Factory, Stratford- ©n- A von- 


Can be obtained in all sizes and qualities, of 

betham: & SON, 

B. & Son have always a large Stock in London of 20-in. by t2-in., 
20-in. by 14-in., 20-in, by i6-in., 2a-in. by i8-in., in i6-oz. & 21-oz. 


15-or. and 21-oz., in Boxes containing 500 feet, 

Carriage Paid to any Railway Station in England. 

Price Lists on application. 
ALFRED SYER, Glass, Lead, Zinc, Oil and Colour 
Merchant, 6 and 8, Penlonville Koad, London, N. 

Rosher's Garden Edging Tiles. 

THE ABOVE and many other PATTERNS 
are made in materials of great durabihty. The 
plainer sorts are specially 
suited for KITCHEN 
GARDENS, as they har- 
bour no Slugs or Insects, 
take up little room, and, 
once put down, incur no 
further labour or expense, 
as do " grown " Edgings, consequently being much cheaper. 

GARDEN VASES, FOUNTAINS, &c., in Artificial Stone, 

very durable and of superior finish, and in great variety of design. 

F, ROSHER AND CO., Manufacturers, Upper Ground 

Street. Blackfriars. S.E. ; King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. ; 

Kingsland Road. E. 

Illustrated Price Lists free by Post. The Trade suppUed. 

for Conservatories, Halls, Corridors, Balconies, &c , 
from 3J-. per square yard upwards. Pattern Sheet of Plain or 
more elaborate Designs, with Prices, sent for selection. 

WHITE GLAZED TILES, for Lining Walls of Dabies, 

Larders, Kitchen Ranges, Baths, &c. Grooved and other Stable 

Paving of great durability. Wall Copings, Drain Pipes and Tiles 

of all kinds. Roofing Tiles in great variety. Slates, Cement, &c. 

T. ROSHER AND CO.. Brick and Tile Merchants. 

See Addresses above. 


fine or coarse grain as desired. Price by post per Ton 
or Truckload, on Wharf m London, or deliveied direct from 
Pits to any Railway Station. Samples of Sand free by post. 
FLINTS and PRICK BURRS for Rockeries or Ferneries. 
KENT PEATS or LOAM suppUed at lowest rates in any 

F. ROSHER AND CO.— Addresses see above. 

N. B. — Orders promptly executed by Rail or to Wharves. 

A hberal Discount to the Trade. 





ILLUSTRATED SHELTS of Conservatories, Green- 
houses, &c., and Prices of Garden Boxes and Lights, sent post- 
free on application, and Estimates given for all kinds of Hor- 
ticultural Work, without charge. 

The Patent Bent Wood Curved Greenhouses can 

be erected at the same cost as a Plain Straight one. They are 
much lighter, better in appearance, and can be glazed with 
s'raight Glass. For particulars apply to the Patentee and 



MELON and CUCUMBER FRAMES always in stock. 
i-light FRAME, 6 feet by 4 feet, ^200; Packing Cases, 3*. 
2-light ,, 8 feet by 6 feet, £^ t S\ „ „ 4X. 

3-''ght ,, 12 feet by 6 feet, /< 17 6 ; ,, „ 4^. 6^. 

4-light „ 16 feet by 6 feet, ;^6 76; „ ,, 5*. 

M-nde of the best seasoned red wood deal. Glazed with 
English 2t-oz. Sheet Glass. All painted three times in best oil 
colour. Iron Handle to each Light, and an Iron Cross Bar. 

Carriage Paid to any Railway Station in England and 
Wales, also to Dublin, Edinburgh and Glasgow. 

Lights only — glazed, j6s. each', unglazed, $s. each. 
Orders amounting to 40s. carriage paid. 


B\V. \VARHURST(lateHereman&Morton) 
• will give Prices for all kinds of 


on receipt of particulars. 

Reduced Price Lists free. A Pamphlet for three stamps. 

B. W. WARHURST, 43. Highgate Road, London, N.W. 

January io, iSSo.] 



Interior of a Range of Span Plant and Fruitins Houses, 200 feet long, erected for 
K. N. BYASS, Esq., Daylesford House. 


Undertakes the Erection of all kinds of Horticultural Buildings of the 

best description, and the Heating thereof by Hot Water, 

And will be happy to furnish Flans and Estimates on application. 


The Thames Bank Iron Company 



Have the largest and most complete stock in the Trade ; 
upwards of ^20,000 worth to choose from. 



Their New Illustrated Catalogue^ c)tk Edition^ now ready 

{price Sixpence). 

Hot-water and Hot-air Apparatus erected complete, or tlie Materials supplied. 

Price List on app/icatiojt free. 

Having extensive works, special machinery, and first-class workmen, who have been many years in the trade, we sre able 
to supply the very best class of buildi7igs at an extremely Icnv price. As we are the only ftrtn in the kingdom that has ever been 
awarded Tivo Gold Medals by the Royal Horticultural Society, this will be some proof of the quality of our productions. 

Our buildings are constructed so as to combine great strength, simplicity, and durability, with extreme lightness, and being 
made of the very best materials, will, with ordinary care, last a lifetime. The ventilators at top and bottom open the whole 
length with one handle to each series. The glass used is 21-oz. British sheet, and the paint the best genuine white lead and oil. 

HEATING APPARATUS, with thoroughly reliable Boilers supplied and fixed in the most practical and efficient manner, 
and guaranteed to work economically and answer its purpose in all seasons. We devote special personal attention to this branch 
of our business, and have never had z. failure. 

Plans, Estimates, and Catalogues free. Customers waited on in any part of the Kingdom. 

R. HALLIDAY k CO., Royal Horticultural Works, MIDDLETON, MANCHESTER. 


The Cheapest House in the Trade for 


F. AND J. SILVESTER, Ca-^tle Hill Foundry, 

Engineering and Boiler Works, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 



Quadruple '"'* *^5»^^ ' JOINTS. 


Sole Proprietors and Manufacturers, 




Catalogues Free on application. 




is now being extensively used by many of the principal Growers, 
and is found to be preferable to any other kind of fuel in lespect 
to cheapness and durability, and particularly on account of its 
being perfectly free Irom sulphur, and that it does not clinker 
the fire-bars. 

WOOD AND CO. deliver in iruckloads to any Railway 
Station, prices for which can be had on application, or can be 
delivered by Wood & Co.'s Vans (in the iMetropolis). 

WOOD AND CO. append a testimonial given to them by 
Messrs. Beckwith & Sons, a firm of great experience, and who 
have kindly allowed them to make whatever use of it they may 
think fit. 

Tottenhant Nurseries^ London^ N., Dec. 28, 1877. 
To Messrs. Wood & Co. 

Dear Sirs, — With reference to your enquiry respecting the 
" Star " Anthracite Coal with which you supplied us — as to how 
it suited, its economy or otherwise — we have much pleasure in 
informing you that in every respect it is the best Anthracite we 
have ever used. We find there is no smoke from it, which is 
very esbential, and there is no trace of sulphur. It requires 
very little stoking, and leaves very little ash, and certainly does 
not clinker. Our consumption of coal is about 500 tons a year, 
and we have no hesitation in saying that, by using your *' Star" 
Coal in the place of ordinary fuel, we shall effect a saving of 
at least ;Cioo this year. We attribute this to the powerful and 
lasting properties of your CoaL — Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) G. Beckwith & Sons. 

WOOD AND CO. supply all kinds of Coal for House and 
Manufacturing purposes, in single truckloads, to any Railway 
Station, at Wholesale rates, prices for which will be sent oa 

WOOD AND CO., Coal and Coke Factors, Merchants, Con- 
tractors to Her Majesty's Government, 58, Coal Exchange, 
E.C.; and 4, Coal Department, Great Northern Railway, King's 
Cross, N. ; and Midland Sidings, St. Pancras, N.W. ; 94, High 
Street, Kensington ; London, Chatham and Dover Railway Coal 
Depot, Elephant and Castle ; and Great Northern Railway Coal 
Depot, Sydney Road. Hackney Wick, E. 

"ONES'S i^Ai£-iVT "noTTHT.E 

These Boilers possess all the advantages of the old Saddle 
Boiler, with the following improvements— viz. , the water-space 
at back and over top of saddle increase the heating surface to 
such an extent that a '* PATENT DOUBLE L SADDLE 
BOlL-ER" will do about twice the amount of work with the same 
quantity of fuel ; the cost of setting is also considerably reduced, 
and likewise the space occupied ; at the same time these Boilers 
are simple in construction, and being made of wrought-iron are 
not liable to crack. They are made of the following sizes : — 


To heat of 
4-in. Pipe. 






£ i. d. 

zo in. 

18 in. 

i3 in. 



30 „ 

18 „ 

24 .. 



ao ,, 

18 „ 

30 1. 



'♦ ,. 

24 1, 

24 , 



24 ., 

24 1. 

30 „ 



24 .> 

24 1. 

36 „ 



=4 .. 


48 ,. 



=3 „ 

60 „ 



Larger sizes if required. 

From Mr. Charles Young, Nitrserics, BaUtam Hill, S. li^.. 
May 29, 1873. 

"Having given your Patent 'Double L.' Boilers a fair trial 
at my Nurseries, I beg to say that they are most satisfactory. 
I consider them the best in use, and without doubt the most 
economical of all boilers ; they will burn the refuse of other 
tubular boilers I have i n work." 

TIONS, with Boilers, of all sizes and shapes : or ESTIMATES 
for HOT-WATER APPARATUS, erected complete, will be 
sent on application. 

J. JONES AND SONS, Iron Merchants, 6, Bankside, South- 
wark, London, S. E. 
When ordering Boilers please refer to the above advertisement. 



[January io, 1880. 



4 Lines 











UL\id Line chart^t-d as two. 

.£0 8 
. o 9 
. o 9 

.. o 13 
.. o 13 


If set across columns, the lowest charge will be 30J. 

Page 29 o o 

Half Page 500 

Columa 3 5 <3 


15 Lines 



16 .. 


17 ,. 



18 „ 


19 .. 



20 „ 


21 „ 



22 „ 


23 „ 



24 ,. 


25 „ 


26 words IS. 6J., and 6(i. for every additional line 
(about 9 words) or part of a line. 


IMPORTANT NOTICE,— Advertisers are cautioned 
against hiving Letters addressed to Initials at Post'OfflceSy as 
all Letters so addressed are opened by the authorities and 
returned to the settder. 

Births, Deaths and Marriages, 5^. each insertion. 

Advertisements ^or t)w- current week must reach the Office 
by Thursday noon. 

All Subscriptions payable in advance. 

The United Kingdom : 12 Months, £,\ 3^. -Lod. ; 6 Months, 

1 1 J. \\d.\ 3 Months, ds. 

Foreign : ^ts., including Postage for 12 Months. 

P.O.O. to be made payable at the King Street, Covent Garden, 

Post-office, W.C., to W. Richards. 

Publishing Office and Office for Advertisements, 

41, Wellington Street, Strand, London. W.C. 

The Boiler of the Day for Amateurs is 

PENSION.— Warranted Safe, Substantial, Economical, 
and Effective, also to do well without attention, and to well 
work pipe sufficient for a 40-feet house, from Twelve to Sixteen 
Hours. Apply for prospectus, enclosing stamp, to the Patentee, 
J. WATSON. The Nurseries, St. Albans. 
P.S.— The Boiler is in action at the Nurseries, open to in- 
spection, three minutes from the Midland Railway Station. 


30 feet by 19 feet, for Sale. 
Suitable for a Showhouse, with Pipes, Iron Stand, and 
Flooring complete. Price ;^8o, or Shrubs of that value. 
Cost X^goo. 

A Photograph will be sent on application to 
J. GROVER, Builder, Wilton Works, New North Road, 
London, N. 

P'^^^ 8^ m>N^^^ 

ENGINEERS anrl TKoNroT7i*i>JSK.», 









Medal Awarded Horticultural Show, Aston, 1875. 





Specially adapted 
Illustrated CIRCULAR and Price LIST ; also Estimates for 
Heatin|;with the most improved BOILERS, EXPANSION 
JOINT PIPES, or COILS, on application. 


Neater and more easily driven than old patterns. 


ICO yards long and b feet high, Standards free from Welds, 
can be had for 21J, | Compare Prices and (^nality. 

„ StraininR SCREWS and HOLDFASTS „ 41- o.l. 

„ CLIMAX EYES cs. 4,/. 


GALVANISED WIRE, ( No. 14, No. 13, J per hank 
best quality, ( is. 6t/. 7S. J of loo yards. 

Lists or Samples on ArrLlCATION. 

A. & J. MAIN & CO., 


and 25, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

BOOTE AND MILLSON, Lead and Glass 
Mhrchants. 64, City Road, E.G., have always ON THK 
PREMISES a large Stock of all kinds of Horticultural Glass, at 
lowest market rates. 

As adopted for the Prince of 

Walc^, at Sandringham. 



All outside Wood is covered. No Pamtmg Required. 
Cost of House Saved in Ten Years. No Rattle or Looseness 
of Squares. No Breakage Jr07n Expansion or Contraction. 
Squares instantly replaced. Testimonials. — '* Sir : I went 
yesterday and examined the glass roof glazed by you, under my 
directions, at Sandringham, for H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, 
and find it perfectly satisfactory in alt respects. The appear- 
ance is vastly superior to the old system of wood and putty, and 
1 shall be glad to recommend it whenever I can. Yours faithfully 
(Signed), C. Smedley Beck, Architect. T. W. Helliwell, Esq."— 
" Mark Lane, London, Nov. 14, 1878. Dear Sir : I cannot see 
what Testimonial you can rquire from me, than the fact that I have 

taken off all my putty glazings, and removed 's work to 

replace it with yours. Any one seeing the two systems would say 
that yours is far the superior, and that nothing yet out can touch 
it. Yours. W. R. Preston. T. W. Helliwell, Esq , Brighouse." 
For Estimates. Drawings, or Particulars, apply to the Patentee, 
T. W. HELLIWELL, Brighouse, Yorkshire. 

Loss of time is Loss of Money.— Accidents cause Loss 

of Time, and may be provided against by a Policy of the 

COMPANY. —The Oldest and Largest Accidental 
Assurance Company. Right Hon. Lord Kinnaird, Chairman. 
Subscribed Capital, ;^r, 000,000. Moderate Premiums. Bonus 
allowed to Insurers of five years* standing. A fi,\ed sum in case 
of Death by Accident, and a Weekly Allowance in the event of 
Injury. One Million and a Half has been paid as compensation. 
Apply to the Clerks at the Railway Stations, the Local 
Agents, or 64, Cornhill, London, E.G. 

WILLIAM J. VIAN, Secretary. 

Illustrated Catalogues. 

• of over SEVEN HUNDRED BLOCKS suitable for 
the above purpose. Customers can have the use of any of them 

H. M. P. Publishes Small SEED CATALOGUES in two 
sizes, which can be alteted to suit the requirements of small 
consumers. Specimens and Prices on application. 

POLLET'S Horticultural Steam Printing Works, 42 to 48, 
Fann Street (late Bridgewater Gardens), Aldersgate Street, E.C. 

Mr. Porter's Treatise, 

CESS for EXHIBITION, is now reduced in price to 
7.S. td. per Copy, and can be had at the Office of 

The Garden, 37, Southampton Street, London, W.C. ; or, 
through the Booksellers supplied from TJie Garden Office. 





SPORTING and the FIELD, in which is incorporated 

RECORD of RACES, and NOTES on the TURF. 
THE FLORA of AUSTRALIA. (Drawn and Engraved 

specially for this Journal.) 
NATURAL HISTORY. (Original Articles.) 
GOLD FIELDS and MINING generally. 



The SYDNEY MAIL has a wide circulation throughout the 
Australian Colonies, New ZeaLand, Polynesia, &c. It contains 
a large amount of information on a great variety of subjects. 

Sutsoriptlon In Advance, £1 6s. per Annum. 

Single Copies, 6d. ; Stamped, "jd. 
Publishing Office— Hunter Street, Sydney, New South Wales. 


The undermentioned Newspaper and Advertising Agents 
are .authorised to receive ADVERTISEMENTS for the 

London Messrs. Geo. Street & Co., 30, Cornhill, E.C. 

Mr. F. Algar, 8, Clement's Lane, Lombard 

Street, E.C. 
Messrs. Gordon & Gotch, St. Bride Street, 

Fleet Street, E.C. 
Messrs. W. H. Smith & Son, t86. Strand. 

Bristol James & Henry Grace, Royal Insurance 

Manchester .. James & Henry Grace, 73, Market Street. 
KdindurGH .... Robertson & Scott, 13, Hanover Street. 

Glasgow V*'. Porteous & Co., is. Royal Exchange 


I^° Copies of each Journal are filed at the aiove 
Offices for the use o' Advertisers, 

Price bd. 

THE GARDENER.— A Monthly Magazine 
of Horticulture and Floriculture. Edited by David 
Thomson, author of " Handy Book of the Flower- 
Gardcn," " Fruit-Culture under Glass," &c., aided by a 
Staff of Practical Gardeners. 

The Gardener during the year 1880 will contain several im- 
portant Series of Papers on subjects of practical _ interest. 
Ainorg olhers— On the Cultivation of Ornamental Foliaged and 
Flowering Stove Plants— Decorative Greenhouse Plants— Early 
Forcing and Out-door Culture of Vegetables— Cultivation of 
Cape Heaths— Ferns— Hardy Herbaceous Plants and Florists* 
Flowers. The Amateur Flower Garden will have special atten- 
tion ; while Notes from the Gardening Papers, and Notices of 
New Plants shown in London, will be continued as usuaL 
Occasional Papers on Orchids will be given : and the Editor's 
Contributions will embrace the important subject of Fruit 
Forcing ; while, in addition, there will be furnished the usual 
amount of Miscellaneous matter relating to all departments. 

The Number for January contains :— The Year 1879, and 
some of its Lessons.— Stove Plants: No. I., The Ixora.- On 
New, Rare, and Choice Ferns.— The Management of Wall 
Fruit Trees.— Early Vegetables : No. I.— Cape Heaths : No. I. 
— Hints for Amateurs : January. — An Over-wooded Country. — 
The Early Forcing of Flowers and Fruit.— Notes on Decorative 
Greenhouse Plants.— The G.ardener's Primer, No. VIII. — Root 
Lifting versus Root Pruning.— The Chrysanthemum as a 
Florist's Flower. — Iledding Plants.— Scottish Horticultural As- 
sociation.— Calendar : Kitchen Garden ; Forcing Department. 

Yearly Subscription, free by Post, 7J., payable in advance. 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD and SONS, Edinburgh and 


A Portuguese Monthly Agricultural Journal, which 
circulates in Portugal and her possessions, and in the Principal 
Towns of the Brazils. 

This paper offers an excellent medium for Advertisements of 
every description of industry and of every article of Consump- 
tion in the countries and places above mentioned. 

Advertising charges. %d. per square inch. Translation included. 

Ten per cent. Discount for six months ; 20 per cent. Discount 
for twelve months, if paid in advance. 

Address, the Editor of the Cultivator^ St. Michael's, Azores. 

et ETRANGERE (Belgian and Foreign Horticultural 
Review). — Among the principal Contributors are : — A. Allard, 
E. AndrtS C. Baltet. T. Buchetet, F. Burvenich. F. Crepin. 
Comte de Gomer, De Jonge van Ellemeet, O. de Kerchove de 
Denterghem. P. E. de Puydt, C. de Vis. J. Gillon. A. M. C. 
Jongkindt Coninck. J. Kicks, L. Linden, T. Moore, C. Naudin, 
B. Oliver, H. Ortgies, B. Pynaert, E. Rodigas, A. Siraux. O. 
Thomas. A. Van Geert Son, H. I. Van Hulle, J. Van Volxem, 
H. J. Veitch, A. Westmael, and P. Wolkeostein. 

This illustrated Journal appears on the ist of every month, 
in Parts of 24 pages, 8vo, with a Coloured Plate and numerous 

Terms of Subscr'ption for the United Kingdom :— One year, 
10?., payable in advance. 

Publishing Office : 143, Rue de Bruxelles, Ghent, Belgium. 

Post-office Orders to be made payable to M. E. PYNAERT, 
at the Chief Post-office. Ghent. 



A PiiTORiAL Monthly Magazine of Gab- 
PKNiNG— Kloweks, Fruits, Vegetables. 
Ei^tLil.lished ISiS. Imperial Octavo, price 
1^., with 3 Coloured Plates. Adaptpd for 
the Drawiug-room and the Library of 
the Amateur or Professional Gardener, 
Treats on Garden Practice, Garden Novel- 
ties, and advises Seasonably on Garden 
Management. A grood medium for Gardoningr Advertise- 
ments. Order of any bookseller, or from the Publishers, 
KENT and CO., 23 PATEnNOSTER Row, London, E.C. 


CHfeRE. A monthly horticultural work, with superb Coloured 
Plates and Illustrations. Published since iS65by F. Burvenich, 
F. Pavnaert, E. Rodioas, and H. J. Van Hulle, Professors 
at the Horticultural School of the Belgian Government at Ghent. 
Post-paid, lOJ. per annum. 
H. J. VAN HULLE, Botanical Gardens, Ghent, Belgium, 

WM. PAUL AND SON are in WANT of a 
FOREMAN to take charge of half of their Glass 
Department (between 20,000 and 30,000 feel), including the 
Cultivation of Camellias, Vines, Winter Heaths, Miscellaneous 
Greenhouse Plants, and a few Specimen Roses. A man of 
character and experience required.— PAUL'S Nurseries, 
Waltham Cross. ^___^__ 

Head Working Gardener.—Married, Without Family 

WANTED, on February i, at Chislehurst. 
Very little glass. Assistant kept. Wages 251. a week, 
with free house and gas.— Apply by letter to HOUSE- 
KEEPER, 2, Gresham Buildings, Basinghall Street, E.C. 


at Queen's College. Cambridge, on Lady-day next. 
Salary, £ts per annum, with a house. For further particulars 
apply personally (if possible) to the Rev. the President. 


GARDENER; married, no children. Must thoroughly 
understand Grapes, Stove and Greenhouse Plants, and Kitchen- 
Garden work. None but those with first-class recommendation 
as to character and ability need apply. Wages ^is. per week 
with cottage— one labourer kept.— Capuin VERNON 
CARTER, Southw ick, Tewkesbury. 

RESS,— The Board of Management of the Brentwood 
School District require the services of a Married Couple, with- 
out children, as Gardener and Portress, at the District Schools, 
Brentwood, Essex. Salary, £,y> per annum for the Man and 
jCio per annum for his Wife, with furnished lodge, rations, and 
washing. The Man must be able to Train the Boys in Practical 
Gardening.—For particulars of duties apply to the Superintend- 
ent of the Schools. Applications must be made upon forms to 
to be obtained at my office, to be returned not later than TUES- 
DAY. Jan. 2oinst., endorsed " Gardener and Portress." 

By order, ROBERT CLAY, Acting Clerk. 

213, Kingsland Road, London, E., Jan. 2, 1880. 

January io, i8So.] 



WANTED, a GARDENER, married, with- 
out children preferred. Must have a thorough 
practtc^I knowledge of Gardening in all its branches, with 
especial experience in ihe Treatment of Fruit Trees, Herbaceous 
and other Hardy Pianls. Terms, One Guinea a week and cottage. 
—JOHN BULTEEL. Pamflete, Ivy Bridge, Devon. 


handed), in a small situation in the suburbs, a skilled 
Orchid Grower. Age not under 30 nor over 40. Must have at 
least three or four years' good personal character. — Apply at 
Messrs. VEITCH and SONS, King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. 

ANTED, a GARDENER, to proceed to 

Grahamstown, Cape of Good Hope : a good general 
Gardener. Good wages given, with or without cottage and 
rations as may be agreed upon. Free passage by Royal Mail 
steamer.— Apply to C H. HUNTLEY, Esq., 80, Ladbrooke 
Giove Road, Netting Hill, W. 


recommend a good WORKING GARDENER, who 
understands Vines, &:c. , with Wife as Laundress. He would 
have two or three under him. Good cottage in garden. Young 
family objected to. — R. L. W. , Esq., Tyberton Court, Hereford. 


—Steady : must especially and thoroughly understand 
the Growing of Roses, Indoor and Outdoor, also Pelargoniums 
and other Greenhouse Plants, and he will be required to make 
himself generally useful about the place. — Address, stating 
qualifications and wages expected, \V. OWEN, Silverdale, 
Qxton , Cheshire. 


married. He must thoroughly understand Inside and 
Outside Work ; a large extent of Glass Forcing carried on. 
Wages, £,\ per week, with house, coals, and milk Also Two 
UNDER MEN, wages \^s. and 16^. respeciively, and milk 
found, with vegetables when to spare. — Apply to J. CARTER, 
Gardener, Thurcrofc Hall, Rotherham, Yorkshire. 

ANTED, a FOREMAN in a Market 

Nursery ; one that is practical in Growing Plants for 
Market, with good testimonials. Must be honest, sober, and 
industrious. Liberal wages to a suitable man : a constant place. 
—J. PERKINS, Bounds Green Nursery, New Southgate, N. 

ANTED, as IMPROVER in the Houses, 

a steady industrious young man : age 18 to 20. Wages 
to begin with, 15^-. per week and Bothy. — GEO. SMITH, Gar- 
dener, The Street, near Chorley, Lancashire. 


the Herbaceous Department, having some knowledge 
of Herbaceous and Alpine Plants ; a rare cpportuniiy for 
acquiring a comp'ete knowledge of this class of plants. Ap- 
plicant must have had experience in the executing of Nursery- 
men's or Seedsmen's orders. Apply, stating age, experience, 
and salary expected.— THOMAS S. WARE, Hale Farm 
Nurseries, Tottenham, London. 

ANTED, as SHOPMAN, an active 

young man, well acquainted with the Seed Trade in all 
its branches. — Apply with references, and stating salary ex- 
pected, to JOHN COWAN. The Vineyard and Nurseries, 

WANTED, an active, honest, and experi- 
enced Young MAN, in an Agricultural Seed Store, to 
take charge of Delivery Orders, &c. None but those who have 
a thorough knowledge of Qualities. Trying Growths, &c., and 
can furnish the highest testimonials, need apply. State lowest 
salary.- G. M.. Hurst & Son, 6, Leadenhall Street, E.G. 

WANTED, immpHJately, an dctlvc, 
steady young man, as ASSISTANT in Seed Shop. 
One who has been accustomed to the Country Trade preferred. 
— State salary required, age, &c.. to J. WOODS, Nurseryman 
and Seedsman, Woodbridge. Suffolk. 

WANTED, a respectable MAN, who under- 
stands Buying, for a Florist's; also to make himself 
useful. — Apply at gr, Piccadilly, London, W. 

WANTED, for the Counting-house, a good 
WRITER, accustomed to Invoicing. Salary at the 
rate of ^70 per annum, — Address application with particulars of 
experience, " B. S.," Barr & Sugden, 12, King Street, Covent 
Gaiden, W.C. 



My.\tt, Market Gardener, is prepared to undertake 
the Management of a Sewage Farm, and wUl be happy to treat, 
by letter in the first instance, with the representative of Local 
Towns.— JAMES MVATT, Myland. Colchester. 


GROWERS. — Advertiser is prepared to Work up a 
Connection, and Establish and Manage a Business for a Gentle- 
man With capital, intending Growing, for Trade purposes only. 
Grapes, Peaches, Strawberries, Mushrooms, Cucumbers, &c., 
ako choice Cut Blooms. First-class references.— HORTUS. 
5, Duffield Street. Battersea. S.W. 

GARDENER (Head), where two or three 
are kept. Thoroughly competent to undertake Vineries 
or Bedding-out. Good character from late employer. — J. S., 
Tadcaster, Yorkshire. 

(:;<ARDENER (Head).— Age 30; can be 

V.^ highly recommended. Reference, Mr. Otley, Daylcs- 
ford House, Chipping Norton, Oxon.— C. SPALL, ii, 
Mexican Terrace, Caledonian Road, King's Cross, N. 

(^ARDENER (Head).— Age iz, no family ; 

V^ thoroughly practical. Wife (age 30) good Cook. Good 
character.— H, H., 2, Salop Terrace, Lyham Road, Brixton, 
London, S .W. 

r^RDENER (Head).— J. S.mith, Gardener 

^-^ '1? '''^ ^*''' °' Rosebery, Mentmore, Leighton Buzzard, 
wou d be glad to recommend a young man as above, who was 
employed in the gardens here for over three years.— Address as 

r:j.ARDENER (Head), where three or more 

k J"" , ?,'-"",^^.^ 35. married : thoroiighly practical in all 
branches of Gardening. -WM. POLMEAR, Bohun Lodge, 
East Bamet, Herts. 

GARDENER (Head). — Married ; long 
practical experience as above, in Forcing Choice Fruits, 
Flowers, snd Vegetables, and general routine of Gardening. — 
GARDENER, i, Brownswood Terrace, Green Lanes, South 
Hornsey, N. 

ARDENER (Head).— Age 36 ; thoroughly 

experienced in all branches. Understands Stock. 
Many years' good character. Total Abstainer, and member of 
WesUyan Society.— GARDENER, Fairseat House, Highgate, 
London, N. 

GARDENER (Head), to any Nobleman or 
Gentleman requiring the services of a thorough practical 
Man. — Age 3?, married, no family; well experienced in all 
branches of the profession. Land and Stock. Wife can Manage 
Poultry if required. Good character. — ALPHA, Hide's, 
Stationer, New Maiden, Surrey. 

GARDENER (Head), where others are 
kept. Age 44, married, no encumbrance. Has a 
thorough practical knowledge of the profession ; can imdertake 
Lands and Woods if required. Good testimonials. Please 
state wages, <S;c. — S. M., 22, Cambridge Place, Praed Street, 
Paddington, London, W. 

GARDENER (Head); age 30. — \V. 
Davidson, Gardener to the Earl of Harrowby, Sandon 
Hall, Stone, Staffordshire, will be pleased to recommend S. 
Bkown to any Lady or Gentleman requiring a thorough 
practical and enegetic man, who has been here as principal 
Foreman for four years, with credit to himself and to my entire 

GARDENER (Head) ; age 30.— Mr. A. 
Young, Annesley Park, Nottingham, can wiih confidence 
recommend his Foreman to any Lady or Gentleman requiring a 
thoroughly practical and trustworthy man, who has had the entire 
Management for the last fifteen months over the whole depart- 
ments, and the charge of a large staflf of men under him, and 
has given every satisfaction. 

GARDENER (, to any Lady or Gentle- 
man. — Age 35 ; has had a long and thoroughly practical 
experience in the Growing of all classes of Fruits, Plants, 
Flowers, and Vegetables, in every degree of progress. His 
testimonials prove his worthiness. Eight and a half years* most 
excellent character from last appointment as Head Gardener, 
— N., 10, Crampton Street, Newington Butts, London, S.E. 

A respectable Man, who perfectly understands his 
Business in all its branches, the Growth of Plants, Grapes, 
Melons, Cucumbers, Peaches, Mu<ihrooms, 8:c., and would 
take charge of Small Farm if required ; has long and satisfactory 
character. Wife could take charge of small Dairy and 
Poultry.— J. A. SAVERS, Chingford, Essex. 

GARDENER (Head, or Foreman). — Age 
25, married : understands Forcing Peaches, Strawberries, 
Vines, Orchids, Stove and Greenhouse, and General Gardening. 
Total abstainer.— Mr. GARNHAM, 2. Paradise Place, Ernest 
Street, Lower Norwood, S.E. 

GARDENER (Head, Working).— Age 32, 
married ; has had good experience in the general routine 
of Gardening in Noblemen's and Gentlemen's establishments.— 
RL R., 4S, Girdlestone Road, Upper Holloway, London, N. 

GARDENER (Head, Working).— Age 36, 
married ; twenty years' practical experience in all 
branches. Land and Stock. Good personal character. — T. A.. 

_.j, II«.^v^ 

. r\uiiu, Oil 

GARDENER (Head, Working).— Married, 
two daughters (youngest six) ; thoroughly experienced in 
all branches. Wife good Laundress if required. Three yeais 
and six months' good character. — H, G, W., Addlestone 
Common, Surrey. 

GARDENER (Head, Working), where 
two or more are kept. — Age a6 ; over twelve years' thorough 
practical experience in all branches ; well up in all kinds of 
Plants, Fruit and Flowers, and General Routine of Gardening. 
Can be highly recommended. Four years' excellent character 
from present employer, — W. E., Messrs. Sutton, Fareham, 

GARDENER (Head, or Second), in a 
Gentleman's establishment. — Age 27, single ; twelve 
years' experience. Good character. — A. B., 2, Nunery Place, 
Stoke Newington, London, N. 

GAR D E N E R. — Temporary employment, 
three or four months. Charge of Planting, Ground- 
work, &c. — J. C. B., Prospect House, Northend, Batheaston, 

and Wife wish for a re-engagement. The Man is a good 
Gardener, and the Wife a thorough Laundress. Good characters. 
No encumbrance. — A. B., Terlings Park, near Harlow, Essex. 

GARDENER (Single-handed).— Age 36, 
married, no family ; thoroughly experienced. — E., Mason 
Hill Bank, Crouch Hill, Upper Holloway, N. 

GARDENER (Second), in a Gentleman's 
establishment. — Age 27 ; thoroughly sober and trust- 
worthy. Good character. — E. S., Mr. Sillence, Lodge Cottage, 
Fern Bank Road, Ascot, Staines. 

GARDENER (Second), or under a good 
Foreman. — Age 22; nine years' experience in Houses, 
Flower and Kitchen Gardening.— H. P., 73, Cromwell Road, 
Redhill, Surrey. 

C:j.ARDENER (Second).— Age 26, married, 
^ one child ; understands Plant and Fruit Growing. Three 
and a half years in last situation. Good recommendation. — 
A. B., Mr. Manktelow, Northiam, Sussex. 

GARDENER (Second, or Third).— Age i8. 
Good character.— G. G, , is, Ordinance Road, Hounslow. 

GARDENER (Under).— Age 22 ; indoor 
and out preferred. Seven years' experience. —H. KING, 
18, Grant Street, Halifax, Yorkshire. 

FOREMAN. — Age 26 ; eleven years' practical 
experience in first-rate places.— E. C., 9, Mills Build- 
ings, Knightsbridge, S.W. 

FOREMAN. — Age 26 ; has had twelve years' 
experience in first-class establishments. Can be highly 
recommended from each place.— A. Z., The Gardens, S wit h- 
land Hall, Loughborough. 

FOREMAN, in the Houses, in a private 
establishment. — Mr. W. Simtson, Norman Court, 
Salisbury, will be pleased to recommend to any Gardener a 
young man as above. 

FOREMAN, in a good establishment. — Age 
24 ; has had practical experience with Orchids, Stove 
Plants, Pines, Vines, Figs, Melons. Cucumbers, Forcing, 
Pruning, &c.— FOREMAN, 9, Ashton Terrace, West Kensing- 
ton Road, W. 

FOREMAN (Inside), in a good private 
establishment. — Has had good experience in Plant and 
Fruit Growing. Early and Late Forcing. First-class refer- 
ences. — \V. WILSON, Barnct Nurseries, New Road, High 
Barnet, Herts. 

I;j^OREMAN (or Second), in a Nobleman's 
or Gentleman's establishment. — Age 25 : good references 
from late employer. — K. H., 43, Thornhill Place, Maidstone, 

Outdoor). — Twelve years' practical experience in 
leading Nurseries. Good Salesman. First-class references.^ 
J. K. K., Messrs. Hurst & Son, Seed Merchants, 6, Leadenhall 
Street, London. E.C. 

SALESMAN, &c. — Age 36, married, without family ; 
twenty years entirely in the Trade. First-class references. — 
W. B.. 10, Tyrrell Road, East Dulwich. S.E. 

JOURNEYMAN, in a good establishment.— 
Age 22 ; good references from present and previous 
employers. Bothy preferred. — JOHN LISSEY, Wellhead 
Gardens, Halifax, Yorkshire. 

Tn Gsj'dsnfirs 
JOURNEYMAN, in a good Garden.— Age 

^' 23; good references. — A. B., Kenipston Grange, 

To the Trade. 

C:;< ROWER, or ASSISTANT — Twelve 
^ years' experience in Soft-wooded Plants in the Market 
Trade. — J. S., 22, North Kent Terrace, Woolwich, Kent. 

GROWER, or SALESMAN, or any such-like capacity 
where the Growth of Plants and Choice Cut Flowers is carried 
on with spirit. Good Bouquetist, &c. Good experience in 
Growing Plants and Cut Flowers for the London Markets. 
Good references, and can be well recommended. — State full par- 
ticulars to A- O., Church Walk Nursery, Stoke Newington, N. 

— Twenty-three years' experience in Stove, Greenhouse, 
Soft-wooded Stuff, Vines, Roses, Bouquet Making, &c. 
Abstainer. Good references, — E., 3, St. James' Cottages, Alpha 
Street, Slough. 

PLANTSMAN. in a large establishment. — 
Has had practical experience 1.. „f .v,^ u-irKnrt 

Nurseries and Noblemen's establishments in the North. Four 
years in present situation. Highest reference from all previous 
situations. Private place preferred. — D. W. F., Askham 
Richar, York. 

To the Seed Trade. 

SHOPMAN (Assistant), — Age 20 ; good 
experience. First-class reference.— R. M. B , 6i, English 
Street, Carlisle. 

To SEEDSMEN, &c.— A highly respectable 
man desires an engagement in a London Seed Warehouse, 
cr a Seedsman's and Florist's. Weil up in all departments. 
Highest references. — W., 49, New Street, Kennington 
Park, S.E. 



Pure, Mild and Mellow, Delicious and Most 
Wholesome. Universally recommended by the 
Profession. The Cream of t)ld Irish Whiskies, 

Dr. Hassall says — " Soft and Mellow, Pure, 
well Matured, and of very excellent quality." 

Gold Medal, Paris Exhibition, 1878: Dublin Exhibition. 
1865, the Gold Medal.— 20, Great Titchfield Street, London, W. 


The Medical Profession for over Forty Years have approved ol 

this pure solution as the Best Remedy for 



and as the safest Aperient for Delicate Constitutions, Ladles, 
Children, and Infants. 


HOLLOWAY'S PILLS.— Much watchful- 
ness must be exercised at the present t'me, and the 
earliest evidences of ill-health must be immediately checked, or 
a slight illness may resit in a serious malady. Relaxed and 
Sore Throat, Colds, Quinsy, Coughs, Chronic Coughs, 
Bronchitis, and most other Pulmonary Affections, will be 
relieved by rubbing this cooling Ointment into the skin as near 
as practicable to the seat of mischief. This treatment, so simple 
and effective, is admirably adapted for the removal of the 
Diseases during infancy and youth. Old asthmatic invalids 
will derive marvellous relief from the use of Holloway 's 
remedies, which have brought round many such sufferers, and 
re-established health after every other means had signally failed. 



[January io, 1880. 

S. OWENS & CO., 




This useful Self-acting Apparatus, which works day and night without needing attention, will raise water to 
any height or distance without cost for labour or motive-power, where a few feet fall can be obtained, and is 
' suited for supplying Public or Private Establishments, Farm Buildings, Railway Stations, &- 

DKKP WliLL PUMPS for Horse, Hand, Steam, or other Power. 

PORTABLE IRRIGATORS, with Double or Treble Barrels for Horse or 
Steam Power. [Gardens, &c. 

No. 50 and S4<r. FARM and MANSION FIRE ENGINES of every description. 
No. 38. PORTABLE LIQUID MANURE PUMPS, on Legs, with Flexible Suction. 

S OWENS AND CO Manufacture and Erect every description of Hydraulic and General Engineers' Work for Mansions, Farms, &c., comprising PUMPS, TURBINES, 
HYDRANTS, HOSE PIPES, &c., &c. Particulars taken in anv part of the Country. Plans and Estimates furnished. 












GARDEN ENGINES, of .all siEes, in Oak or Galvanised Iron Tubs. 


Right Hon, the Earl of Essex. 
IMPROVED HOSE REELS for Coiling up Long Lengths of Hose for 

Garden use. 








Price 3d., Post Free S^d. 



Applied to Conservatories and Greenhouses. 

With Illustrations, Prices, &c.- 

Part I., now ready. Post-free, twelve stamps. 

Illustrations and Prices Gratis. 

T H. P. DENNIS & CO., 



Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The Editors : " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The Publisher," at the Office, 41, WellinEton Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
_ Printed by William Richards, at the Office of Messrs. Bradbury, Agnkw & Co., Lombard Street, Precinct of Whitefriars, City of London, in the County of Middlesex, and Published by the 
laid William Richards, at the Office, 41, Wellington Street, Parish of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, in the said County.— Saturday, January 10, 1880. 

Agent for Manchester— John Hbvwood. Agents for Scotland— Messrs. J. Menziks & Co., Edinburgh and Glasgow. 




feabHsbcb 1841. 

No. 316.— Vol. XIII. {s^^Z.} 


Registered at ihe General 
Post'office as a Newspaper. 

Price 5d. 
Post Free, shd. 


Apbry .. .. ..89 

Aroids at Schuobruna . . 83 
Aubrictias . . . . _ ..81 

Banana, the Abyssinian .. 71 

BarVieria cyclcjtellfx (cui).. 72 
Bedding, spring, summer, 

and winter . . .. ji 

BlaJze Cabile Garden (with 

cut) . . . . . . 8j 

Boiler?, novel (wiihcutsj.. 66 

Books, notices, of . . . . 78 

Brussels Sprouts . . . . 86 

Cauliflower, early Snow- 
ball 87 

Ceylon. Coffee-leaf disease 80 
Christmas Koses .. ••74 
Chrysanthemums, Japa- 
nese ,, .. • • 73 
Clover and grass seed . . 74 
Cypripeduini Spicerianum 74 
Dasylirion glaucum .. 82 
Date Palm wine .. . . 82 
Dendrobium plulippinense 72 
Edinburgh, temperatures 

in 83 

Eucharis, a twin-Howered 82 

Forestry . . . . 82 

Fiuit culture .. .. 87 

Garden operations .. 78 

Gloxinias . . . . . , 89 
Hardy fruits . . ..83 

Horticultural boilers .. 86 

Hyacinihs, new of 1879 . . 72 

Japanese curiosities .. 80 

Jerusalem Artichokes .. 8> 

Kew, the show-house at .. 82 

New Zealand plants . . 75 

Nightshade berries, sheep 

poisoned by 
Odontoglossum Eduardi.. 
Orchids in flower . . 
Orchids, the Turner col- 
lection of . . 
Palms of Juan Fernandez 
Picta lasiucarpa .. 
Plants introduced by Mr. 

Fortune . . 
Plants, new garden (cut) . . 
I'laiit poriiaits 
Potaios. improved 
Puerto Rico, products of 
Rhododendron jasmini- 

Rose-stock pruner, a (with 


Scientific serials . . 
Seed harvest of 1879 _ .. 
Seeds, transport of 
Societies : — 

Edinburgh B._.taiiical ., 


Royal Horticultural .. 

Epping Forest natura- 

Socotra, the Island of ., 
Soil, poor . . 
Sternbergia lutea .. 
Taxus baccata fructu-luteo 
TomatOi all the year round 
Wall fruit trees .. 
Weather, the .. ^ 

Wood trade, the .. 
Yeast as an insecticide , . 
Yuccas, fruiting of 

Now Ready, in cloth, 16s.. 

■* Volume XII., JULY to DECEMBER, 1879. 

W. RICHARDS, 41. Wellington Street. Strand, W.C 

Garden Seeds. 

CATALOGUE of the above is now ready, containing 
selections of the best kinds only, as well as several interesting 
aad valuable novelties. 

The Royal Nurseries, Slough. 

To the Seed Trade. 

ALFRED LEGERTON has now posted 
his Annual Wholesale Garden, Agricultural, and Flower 
Seed CATALOGUE, to all his Customers ; if any of his friends 
have not received it, another shall be sent on application. 
ALFRED LEGERTON, 5, Aldgate, London. E. 

Established in 1815. 

Hollamby's Nurseries, Groombridge, Tunbridge Wells, 
100 Acres tn select from. 

EDWIN HOLLAMBY'S Descriptive Priced 
CATALOGUE of Roses, Evergreens, and Flowering 
Shrubs, Conifers, Fruit and Forest Trees, &c , will be forwarded 
free on application. 
N. B. — Through trucks to all parts : a great saving in packing. 

Immense Quantities of 


CATALOGUES will be sent free on application. 
LEVAVASSEUR AND SON, Nurserymen, Ussy, Calvados, 

Agents: Messrs. R. SILBERRAD and SON, 15, Harp 
Lane, Great Tower Street, London, E.C. 

Jean Verschaffelfa Nurseries. 

free on application to 
de Bruxelles, Ghent, Belgium. 

London Agents ; Messrs. R. SILBERRAD AND SON, 15, 
Harp Lane, Great Tower Street, E.C. 

HARLES NOBLE has a very cheap and 

good Stock to offer of the following ; — 
APPLES, PEARS, and CHERRIES, Standards. 
PEARS on Quince, Dwarf. 
ROSES, Dwarf, including Moss Perpetuals. 
An unsurpassable lot of Standard RHODODENDRONS. 
Post address — Sutuiingdate. Staines. 



growing on them. Price from -js. td, to 2ix. each. 
RICHARD SMITH and CO., Nurserymen, Worcester. 

For Sale, 

E Fifty Thousand Faatolf 

201. per 1000. Sample loo, 4J. 
Posl-office Order or Cheque with Order. No deliveries made in 

any case without a previous remitunce. 
^ R. BATH, Crayord, Ken t. 

Rhubarb and Seakale Forcing. 

STRONG, well-made POTS for the above 
can be supplied by 
J. MATTHEWS, Royal Pottery, Weston-super-Mare. 
Price List Frc«. 

BONUM (the famous Disease resisting POTATO). 
Mr. Shirley Hibbbrd. writing about this remarkable Potato in 
ihe Gardeners' Magazine, February 24. 1877, says: — "Sutton's 
Magnum Bonum was selected by ^lr. Martin Sutton from a s,et 
of seedlings. 'I'he entire stock was purchaf.ed by Messrs. Suttnn. 
7 he ^e /acts ivill kaz<e somj interest _for those ivho are inquitHng 
into the history of this useful variety." All orders for the true 
variety should be sent to 

SUTTON AND SONS, The Queen's Seedsmen, Reading. 

PRUCE FIRS for Christmas Trees, well 

formed, 3 to 4 feet, 30.?. per 100 ; 4 to t; feet, 40.r. per 100. 
RICHARD SMITH and CO., Nurserymen, Worcester. 

ASH. — 150,000 — 2 to 3 and 3 to 4 feet — good 
stout plants, offered to the Trade or otherwise, on very 
^ea^onabIe terms, by 
J. CHEAL AND Sons. Lowfield Nurseries. Crawley, Sussex. 

FOR SALE, cheap, several thousand LARCH 
and SCOTCH, 2 to 2'.< feet high, very fine plants, fintly 
rooted. Must be cleared off at once. Apply to 

JAMES AN DE RSON, Nurseryman and Valuator, 
MtadowbanV, Uddingston, Glasgow. 

Special List of Cheap Ferns. 

of a large number of varieties of FERNS and SELAGI- 
NELLAS. offered at very low prices, will be forwarded on appli- 
cation. Ferns being our Speciality, and having an immense 
stock, we are able to supply ihem at the most reasonable prices. 
W. AND ;. BIRKENHEAD, Fern Nursery, Sale, near 

Bedding Roses. 

No Garden should be withuut a bed of this brilliant 
crimson and perpetual flowering bedding Rose. (Hundreds of 
testimonials.) Strong ground plants los. per dozen, 751. per 100. 
Other choice select Roses for bedding, 6oi'. to t^s. per 100. 
King's Acre, near Hereford. 

Vines -Vines-Vines. 

WM. CUTBUSH AND SON have a very 
fine stock of the above, both of Fruiting and Planting 
Canes, of most of the leading sorts. Prices and sorts on 

Highgate, London, N. ; and Barnet. Herts. 

Grapes This Year. 

ripened without bottom-heat ; leading kinds -js. tti. and 
laj. 6d. each ; planting Canes 35. €xi. to ^s. each. 
CATALOGUE on application. 
JAMES DICKSON and SONS, "Newton" Nurseries, 

/^RAPE VINES. — Fruiting and Planting 

^— ^ Canes of leading sorts. 

FRANCIS R. KINGHORN, Sheen Nurseries, Rich- 
mond, Surrey. 

Vines —Vines— Vines. 

J COWAN, The Vineyard and Nurseries, 
• Garston, near Liverpool, is now offering a large and 
splendid stock of strong, short-jointed, and thoroughly ripened 
GRAPE VINES, suitable for fruiting in pots and planting 
Vineries. Catalogues free. The Trade supplied. 

STANDARD PEARS, to offer :— Williams' 
Bon Chretien. Hessel, BeurriS Capiaumont, and others. 
STANDARD CHERRIES, Bigarreau and Black Heart. 
MUSSEL STOCKS. Price per 1000 on application to 

WILLIAM FLETCHER, Ottershaw Nursery, Chertsey, 

anted, CUT FLOWERS of all kinds. 

Cash by return of post. 
W. F. BOFF, 203, Upper Street, Islington, N. 

To Floral Cornmlsslon Agents. 

FLOWERS. Must be best quality. Consignments and letters to 
W. CALE, 13, James Street. Covent Carden, W.C. 

ANTED, large plants of White 

AZALEAS, White CAMELLIAS, Lapageria alba, 
Croton, and Dracxoa. State price and full particulars to 
C. SHAW, The Fernery, Finchfield, Wolverhampton. 

ANTED, B O U V aITd I A , 

PLANTS. C. Z.. Crediton, Devon. 


(Dogwood), GOLDEN OSIER. State size and price 
per 1000 to 

HOWDEN AND CO., Nurserymen, Inverness, N.B. 

WANTED, 20,000 Common Evergreen 
PRIVET. State size and lowest price to 
C. HAYCOCK, The Gardens, Barham Court, Maidstone. 

ANTED, 500 SPRUCE FIRS, 3 to 4 

feet high, welt-furnished trees, with good roots. 
ISAAC DAVIES, Brook Lane Nursery, Ormskirlc. 

ANTED, extra strong bedded CHERRY 

STOCKS. Price with sample to 
Kiug's Acre, Hereford. 

JAMES CARTER and CO. find it again necessary lo 
CAUTION the public against puichasinfi Unirue Potatos 
under the above name. This variety was selected from 
the old Magnum Bonum, purchased in 1S77 by Mcssr.s. 
Carter direct from the raiser. Mr. James Clark. Messis. 
Carter find it necessary to issue this caution, as it has come to 
their knowledge that Potatos have been sold as Carter's 
Improved Magnum Bonum, but which were a spurious and 
very inferior kind Orders now being booked fur delivery 
in strict rotation. Early orders recommended. 

The Queen's Seedsmen, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

We have now posted our Wholesale CATALOGUE of 
Agricultural, Vegetable and Flower Seeds to all our Customers. 
Any oiie not having received it will oblige by letting us know. 
Free by Post on application. 
WATKINS AND SIMPSON, i, Savoy Hill, Strand, W.C. 

WBALL AND CO. have many thousands 
also a lar-e quantity of HERBACEOUS and ALPINE 
PLANTS, at very low Prices to the Trade and large Buyers. 
Price LISTS forwarded on application. 

Bedford Road Nursery, Northampton. 

6 to 7 feet, and 5 to 6 feet, well grown grafted trees ; also 

The Nurseries, Sawbridgworth. Herts. 

PIR-4iA PALMATA. — The largest and 

best stock in Europe, los. 6J., iss., 2oy., and 2^s. per too. 
SPIR/EA JAPONICA. fur forcing, the finest possible clumps. 
CHARLES NOBLE, Sunningdale. 

FOR SALE, about 100,000 i-yr. seedling 
OAKS and Spanish CHESTNUTS. For price and 
samples apply to 
J. HARTNELL, Bailiff, Houghton Hall, Swaffham, Norfolk. 


HAZEL and ALDER, stout, well-rooted, transplanted. 
Also a large quantity of r and a-yr. Seedling SPANISH 
CHESTNUT, at 6s. and 8j. per looo. 

GEORGE CHORLEY, Costers' Nursery. Midhurst. 

Oak, Englisii, 4 to 8 feet, 1000 to 1500 for Sale. 

' all transplanted two years ago. Price on application to 
W. P. LAIRD AND SINCLAIR, Nurserymen, Dundee, N.B. 

QUICKS— QUICKS.— About 170,000 ^ood 
strong 3-yr. THORN QUICKS, cut back and trans- 
planted last spring, to be sold at i2r. per i,ooo. Apply to 
W. B1<AY, Nurseryman, Okehampton. 

LILIES, Superior, of English growth. 
BULBOUS PLANTS of all kinds. 
HARDY ORCHIDS, and ORCHIDS for Cool-house cuhure. 
Before Purchasing, see CATALOGUE of the NEW PLANT 
AND BULB CO., Colchester. Post-free on application. 
Dr. Wallace's "Notes on Lilies," Illustrated, post-free 55. C</. 

ILIUM AURATUM.— EngHsh grown far 

superior to Imported. Fine Bulbs, in three sizes, 12s., 
iSx , and 30^. per dozen respectively. A few, extra ]arf;e, at 
3^. 6d. each. 

HOOPER AND CO.. Covent Garden, London. W.C. 

ILIUM AURATUM.— Splendid Bulbs of 

this fine Lily at Reduced Prices, td., gd., is. and 
If. 6d. each. For other new Lilies, rare and cheap Orchids, 
apply for CATALOGUE to 

WM. GORDON, Bulb and Plant Importer, lo, Cullum 
Street, London, E.C. 

Liberal discount to the Trade. 

PIR/EA PALMATA.— This beautiful pink 

variety, with immense flower bunches, justly called 
' "The Queen of Spira;as," is offered at 20s. per ico. strong clumps. 
Wholesale CATALOGUES free on application. 
BUDDENBORG BROTHERS, Bulb Growers, House, 
Bloemswaard, Hillegom, near Haarlem, Holland. 

Gold Medal Begonias. 

SEED, superior to all others, is now harvested from 
their unequalled collection, which was again awarded the Royal 
Horticultural Society's Medal in August. Sealed packets, Ireo 
by post, IS. and 2s. 6d. each. The Trade supplied. 

JOHN LAING AND CO., Seedsmen. Forest Hill, S.E. 

SEED POTATOS.~We have a fine Stock 
of all the principal Old and New Varieties. 
Special Price List on application. 
KERR AND FOTHERINGHAM, Seed Merchants, Dumfries. 

Covent Garden Market, are now offering MAGNUM 
BONUM SEED POTATOS, true to name, at 8^. per Bushel, 
or ,^14 per Ton, Cash. 

RCHID BASKETS (great reduction in).— 

Teakwood Rods, rounded edges, made with strong copper 
or galvanised wire. Every kind made for growing Orchids, at 
50 per cent. less than Usually charged. Sample sent c^irriage 
free on receipt of twelve stamps. TEaK, RODS supplied, pre* 
pared and drilled, ready for making up. 

ALFRED GRANT and CO., Steam Works, 39%, Leather 
Lane, London, E.C. 



[January 17, 1880. 



6000 extra fine Lllium auratum, &c. 

will SELL by AUCTION, at the Mart. Tokenhouse 
Yard. E.G.. on MONDAY NEXT, at half-past ii o'CIock, 
6000 extra fine LILIUM AURATUM ; also ten Ca^es of new 
and beautiful IRIS, NYMPHAilAS, and NELUMBIUMS, 
just arrived from Japan in good condition (ihe native draw- 
ings of each variety will be produced at the Sale) ; an importa- 
tion of Californian LILIES, Plants from India, DISA 
BEROSUM, an assortment of English-grown LILIES, Includ- 
ing very large bulbs of Krownii, Humboldtii. pardalinum, and 
ROSES, and a collection of choice estabUshed ORCHIDS, 
comprisinfj Epidendrum vitellinum majus, Laslia anceps, Onci- 
diums, Odontoglossums, and Cattleyas. 
Catalogues at the Mart, and qS. Gracechurch Street, E.C. 

Paddock Wood, Kent, Close to Railway Station. 

Ke Yeldham, deceased. 

will SELL by AUCTION, on the Premises as above, 
on TUESDAY. January 27, at 12 o'CIock, 0500 HOP- 
View day prior to Sale. Catalogues on the Premises, at the 
local Inns, and of the Auctioneers, qS, Gracechurch Street, E.C. 

Consignment of Plants from Ghent. 
R. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by 

AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38. King Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C, on WEDNESDAY. January 21, at half- 
past 12 o'clock precisely, fine Pyramid-shaped Specimen 
Standard LAURUSTINUS, &c., from Ghent; Standard, 
Dwarf, and Trained FRUIT TREES, SHRUBS, HER- 
BACEOUS PLANTS, first-class ROSES, choice GLADIOLI, 
LILIUMS, and other BULBS and ROO'l S. 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

8000 LiUum auratum, and a Great Variety of Rare 


MR. J. C STEVENS will SELL by 
AUCTION, at his Rooms. 3S. King Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C., on FRIDAY. lanuary 23. at half-past 
12 o'clock precisely, I RIS K^M PFERI, a fine lot from New 
Jersey, consisting of some very fine varielie-;, both single and 
double : a quantity of Trilliums, Habenaiias, Cypripediums, 
Smilacina. Dodecatheon, and other plants from North 
America ; a small case of Primula deiiticulata, Disa grandiflora, 
Crinums, Gladiolus, Amaryllis, and others, from the Cape ; 
many varieties of Pancratiums, Erodia;as, Erythroniums, Cala- 
diums. Ixias, Sparaxis, and others; also a few of the lovely 
Erythrina berbacea, Crinum americana and Pancratium rotatum 
from Florida ; also a first-class lot of hardy English-grown 
LILIES, consisting of all the best varieties in cultiva- 
tion, and of extraordinary size ; 8000 splendid bulbs of Lilium 
auratum, from Japan ; 5000 Tigridia grandiflora, 2000 Tigridia 
conchiflora, from New Jersey ; 50 plants of Epiga:a repens, 
and an importation of Sarracenias from America, lic. 

May be viewed the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had. 

Reading, Berks.— In Liquidation. 

are instructed by the Trustee to SELL by AUCTION, 
at the Queen's Hotel, Reading, on THURSDAY, January 2q, 
at 3 o'clock punctually, the LEASE of the NURSERY 
GROUNDS in the Oxford Road, Reading, for many years 
carried on by Messrs. Phippen & Robinson. They are about 
2 acres in extent, and include a seven-roomed Residence, 12 
Greenhouses and Hothouses, and 3 unheated ditto, with 
numerous Ranges of Cold Pits and Frames, Carpenter's Shop, 
Packing and Potting Sheds, Stabling, Cart Shed, and 
Piggeries. The NURSERY contains an extensive Collection 
ol Fruit Trees, Shrubs, Ornamental Trees, Greenhouse. 
Hothouse, and Bedding Plants, and General Nursery Stock 
suitable for a local trade. There are in addition a considerable 
stock of Shrubs and Trees on three outlying pieces of nursery 
ground. There are also Two Horses, Two Carts and Van 
The whole, including GENERAL NURSERYMAN'S 
STOCK of Tools, Fittings, and Appliances, will be sold as a 
going concern. The unexpired term of the lease is about eight 
years, and the annual rent is £^1^, 

Full particulars of sale may be obtained of EGGINTON 
AND PRESTON, Auctioneers and Valuers, 150, Friar Street, 

Horse Pit Field. 

Within half a mile of Twyford and us Station on the Great 

Western Railway. 


60 ACRES of highly productive ARABLE LAND. 

have received instructions from Edward Gosling Esq 
to LET by AUCTION, at the King's Arms Hotel, Twyfotd! 
on TUESDAY, January 27, at 3 for 4 o'clock precisely (unless 
previously disposed of by Private Contract), in r4 Lots, 60 
ACRES of highly productive ARABLE LAND, known as 
Horse Pit Field, lying within a ring fence, and most desirably 
situate within half a mile of Twyford. immediately adjoining 
and having extensive frontages to the Wargrave Road. 

The property, which is Lotted, may be viewed and parti- 
culars had of Mr. GOODCHILI). builder, Twyford : K. C. 
HANROTT, Esq., Solicitor, r4, Bedford Row, London] W.C; 
and of the Auctioneers. 

Estate and Auction Offices, Marlow and Maidenhead. 

To Seedsmen and Florists. 

WANTED to PURCHASE, a small 
BUSINESS. London or neighbourhood preferred. 
W. B., Messrs. Minier, Nash& N ash, 60. Strand, London, 'W.C. 

ANTED to RENT, a low SPAN^- 

ROOFED GREENHOUSE, not less than 40 feet lon», 
?J'° '6 feet W(de— also a MEDIUM-SIZED FORCING 
HOUSE, with good bottom-heat— until the end of March ne.\t. 
Must be in a good open position, within easy access of St. 
John s Wood. Child's Hill or Hendon preferred. 

J. B., 13, Bolton Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

To Lovers of the Garden. 


V-y fine old-fashioned Garden, Lawn, Fish Pond, productive 
walled Kitchen Garden, well-constructed Greenhouses with a 
good Collection of Orchids. Vinery, Fernery, Forcing Pits (all 
heated by hot water), Poultry Houses, &c., pleasantly situate 
on the main road, Tottenham, near the station. The LEASE, 
of eighteen years, at the low rent of ^50. TO BE DISPOSED 
OF, with or without Furniture, by order of the Administrator of 
of late Lessee, who occupied the property for many \ears. 

Cheapside, E.C. (32,087.) 

To Florists, Nurserymen. &c. 
A BOUT FIVE ACRES of first-class LAND, 

-i^*- admirably adapted for the above, with or without two 
Freehold^ Villas, containing four bedrooms, dining and drawing- 
rooms, kitchen, &c. Most admirably situate on high ground, 
within easy distance of Bushey Park, Hampton Court, S:c. 
Possession can be had at once. 
Apply to J. EMBLETON, Suffolk House, New Hampton. 

TT. DEANE, Landscape Gardener.— 
• Planting by Contract or Otherwise, Ornamental Lakes, 
Rockwork, &c. References kindly permitted to Noblemen and 
Gentlemen — places already carried out. Plans and Estimates 
furnished.-—, Orpington, Kent. 



APPLES, Pyramid, extra strong and well rooted. 40^ per 100. 

PEARS, Pyramid and Standard, extra strong and well rooted, 

50^. per ico. 
CHERRIES, Standard trained. 1 „. 
PLUMS, Standard trained, \ ""^" "™ .^""''s on 

PEARS, Dwarf trained. j application. 

SPRUCE, Norway. 2 to 3 feet, very bushy and well rooted, 

40X. per Tooo. 
THUJOPSIS BOREALIS, 5 to 6 feet, 24^. per dozen; 6 to 7 

feet. 305. per dozen : 7 to 8 feet, 48^. per dozen. 
W. G. CALDWELL and SONS. The Nurseries, Knutsford. 

May be had Gratis on application. 

Prices and full particulats of 



Mr. R. Phillett, Weston-super-Mare, writes 
lis : — "The Magnum Bonum Potatos you sup- 
plied me with this year produced a most extra- 
ordinary crop, amounting to an average rate of 
210 sacks per acre, of 240 lb. per sack, and there 
was not a single diseased one among them." 



Nurseries, near Matlock, Derbyshire, offer as under :— 
At per 1000 :— 
ALDER. 2 to 3 feet, 221. ; 3 to 4 feet, 27J. 
ASH. Mountain. 3 to 4 feet. 20^. 
DOGWOOD. Red, i to x\i foot, 401. ; i"^ to 2 feet, 60J. ; 3 to 

4 feet, 80J. 
FIR, Silver, 4 to 6 inches, Zs. 

,, Spruce, 4 to 8 inches, 5J. ; 6 to 9 inches, 7J. ; 9 to rs 
inches. 91. ; t to i^ foot, I2j. ; il^ to 2 feet, 20J. 
LARCH, I to ij^ foot, isj. 

POPLAR, Black Italian, 3 to 4 feet, 23J. ; 4 to 5 feet, 28J. 
PRIVET, yellow-berried. \\i to 2 feet, t6i. 
QUICKS. 9 to 15 inches, i-zs. \ rj^ to 2 feet, 22J. 
WILLOW. Huntingdon, 4 to 5 feet, 30J. 
FLOWERING SHRUBS, in variety, 40J. to 60J. 
BERBERIS. Aquifolia. 6 to 9 inches, I2j. 
,, Darwinii, i to tJ< foot, 705. 
.. Dulcis, 9 to 12 inches, 20J. 
MEZEREON. Red, 9 to 18 inches, 6as. 
IVY, Irish, 25J. and 40f. 
LAUREL, Common. 9 to 12 inches, 35^. ; t to ij< foot, 40^. 

,, Portugal, ij^ to 2 feet, 6o.r. 
PERNETi'YA. mucronata. 6 to 9 inches, 21;^. 
RHODODENDRON, hybrids, 4 to 6 inches, 501, ; 6 to 9 
inches. 65J, ; 9 to 15 inches, 85J. 
., ferrugineum and hirsutum. Sof. 
WHIN or GORSE, double, i to i;4 foot. 8oj. 
YEWS, 9 to 12 inches, 75^. ; i to i'4 foot, looj. ; 2 to 3 
feet, 100s. 

At per 100:— 

ARBOR-VITVE, Tom Thumb, 6 to 9 inches, 7/. 

AZALEA, pontica, ij^ to 2 feet, 30J. 

BOX. elegantissima. 6 to 12 inches, \os. 

CEDRUS, Deodara. i% to 2 feet, 601. 

CRYPTOMERIA, eleg.ans, 9 to 15 inches, 15J. ; iji to 2 feet, 

30^. ; 2 to 3 feet. 35^. 
HOLLY, I to i>^ foot, 2oj ; ij^ to 2 (eet, 281. 
PICEA, nobilis. 2 to 3 feet, bos. 
PINUS. Cembra, 4 to 6 feet, ViS. 
RETINOSPORA, plumosa, 4 to 6 inches, xis. 
THUJOPSIS. dolabrata, 3 to 4 inches, loj. ; 6 to inches, 

18s. : &c. 

GEE'S superior Bedfordshire-grown FARM 
and other PLANTS and ROOTS, &c. For truthfulness of stocks, 
purity of growth, and general excellence, not to be surpassed. 

Fredk. Gee's selected stocks of Bedfordshire-ijrown Seeds 
and Plants have attained a world-wide celebrity. The rich soils 
in Mr. Gee's occupation are admirably adapted to the growth 
of seeds and plants, and offer facilities enjoyed at few places for 
bringing them away to perfeciion ; and under his skill and 
perseverance iheyaie turned to good account.— K/'A' "Opinions 
of the Press." 

Select CATALOGUE for the coming Season mav be had 
post-free on application. Also Special Trade LIST of Bedford- 
shiregrown Seeds, Plants, Roots, &c., may be had oa 
application to 

FREDK. GEE, Seed Grower, Seed Merchant, and Nurservw.j 
man, Biggleswade, Bedfordshire. I 

QPRUCE FIRS.— Many thousands, 2, 3, 4 and' 

f^ 5 feet. Stout, well furnished, and good rooted. 
ANTHONY WATERER. Knap HillNursery.Woking.Surrcy. 

splendid sample of the above, grown from Seed diree 
from the raiser (Mr. Chark), price 7s. M. per bushel of 56 lb. 
free on rail, vacks included. 
II. T. BA'IH. Seedsman. Re. go . High Street. Lymington, 

A Quantity of Plain and Curled ' 

RESS SEED (New) for Sale. Will< 

GROW small SEEDS by CONTRACT. Ap,,ly to 
Mr. S. W. CAMPAIN. Deeping St. Nicholas, Spalding. 1 



(CYCLAMEN PERSICUM, showing large," 

V^ quantiiies of bloom, 30J. per 100 ; sample dozen, ^s 

WHITE VESUVIUS. 201. per 100 ; 31. per dozen, packaee 
GEORGE GUM MOW, 1 14. Loug hborough Road.Bri.\ton,S. W. 

Jolinstone's St. Martin's Rhubarb, 
a T R O N G ROOTS, 9.^. per dozen. 

^^ _ Trade price on application. 

This well I-nown and highly esteemed variety has now been 
supplied by us to most of the leading Nurserymen in Britain ' 
but where any difficulty arises in procuring it true, application 
should be made to us direct. 
W. P. LAIRD AND SINCLAIR, Nursery men, Dundee, N.B. 



GRAPE VINES, a large and fine stock, now ofTered for Sale 

THOMAS RIVERS and SON, Sawb ridgeworth, Herts. ' 


J- Strong Roots of this splendid variety are offered in three 
sizes, at -}$ td., loJ. 6</., and i^s. per loo respectively 
_ HOOPER AND CO., Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

PINE PLANTS.— Two dozen Pine Plants 
to be disposed of. Enquire of 
The GARDENER, S.zewell House, Saxmur.dh am. Suffolk. 

Green and Variegated Ivies of Sorts, 

Large and small-leaved, in ei^ht kinds 

"OOBERT PARKER, having a Surplus 

-Lli Stock of fine Plants in pots of the above-named, will be 
pleased to dispose of them in quantities at very low prices. 
Names, sizes, and prices per dozen, 100, or 1000, will be given 
on application. 
Exotic Nursery, Tooting. S urrey. S.W. 

Surplus Stock of 
"POREST TREES and SHRUBS, stout and 

J- good m every respect, viz., Scotch FIR, iJ4 to 2 feet 
(native); ALDER, ASH, HORNKEAM, narPow-leaved 
ELM, 3 to 4 feet ; WYCH ELM, POPLARS (sorts) SYCA- 
MORE, Purple BEECH. LAIiURNUMS, .3 to 6 feet. Prices, 
and also General Nursery CATALOGUE, oil application to 

JOHN CARTER, Nurseryman and Seedsman, Keighley 

To the Trade Only, 
OPIR^A JAPONICA.— Very strong clumps 

k_7 for forcing, toj. per 100, .£4 loi. per 1000. Package free 
for cash, with order. 

H. B. SMITH. Ealing Dean Nursery, Ealing, W. 

New Celery, Claywortb Pride. 
T5 OGLEY respectfully invites all Celery 

^v» Growers to give this variety a trial, and they will not 
be disappointed. There were over 400,000 heads grown in 
Clayworth last season. It is considered the only variety worth 
growing here. It is a pink Celery, of the highest e.xcellence, 
—the best m cultivation. Packets post-free tj stamps. Address 
Clayworlh, near B.iwtry. Yorkshire. ' 


now ready, and will be forwarded post-free on apnlicaticn 
The FLOWER SEED LIST will be found to conSr, m 
excellent assortment of Perennial and Rock Plants, whch have 
been saved from their well known Collection ; to which is added 
a well assorted descriptive list of Gladiolus Roots 

JAS. BACKHOUSE and SON. Th e Nurseries, York. 

SHRUBS.— Any Gentleman or Builder in 
want of a quantity of good Shrubs, can meet with a 
bargain. They can take them as they want them, any time from 
now until next Christmas. Good road close at hand • "ood soil 
to them. Close to rail.— RICHARD RICHARDSON Cot- 
tenham Park, Wimbledon. 

STo the Trade. 
FOREST TREES, and other useful H.\RDY NUR- 
SERY STOCK always in demand. 
,,, „ , Priced LI.ST on applicaticn. 

W. P. LAIRD AND SINCLAIR. Nurserymen. Dundee, N.B. 

Vines— Vines— Vines! 
■p AND A. SMITH can supply the above in' 

J- • strong close-jointed Canes.'true to name. Fruiting and 

Planting. Price on application. 

The Nurseries, West Dulwich, S.E. 

Garden Seeds. 

TAMES IVERY and SON'S Illustrated 

f/ CATALOGUE, with Cultural Directions, is now re.ady. 
It contains a selection of the best Kitchen Garden and Flower 
Seeds, including the novelties of the season, .and is a neatly got- 
up work of between fifty and sixty p.ages, comprising much 
useful information. Price 6,/., post-free. Gratis to Customers, 
The Ntu-series, Dorking, Surrey. 

January 17, iSSo.] 



To the Trade. 

HAND F. SHARPE are now offering the 
• above excsllent POTATO, grown from their original 
stock. It gave universal satisfaction last season, having pro- 
duced a fine yield, and comparatively free from disease. As 
the stock this season is limited early orders are requested. 
Seed Growing Establishment, Wisbech. 

BEECH, 3 to 4 feet, 4 to 5 feet, 5 to 6 feet, for cover and 

SPRUCE FIR, iJ4 to 2 feet, 2 to 1 feet, for covers and hedges. 
LARCH, i\i to 2 leet, 2 to 3 feet, very good. 
QUICKWOOD, strong, 3 and 4 yr. transplanted. 
Write for prices and particulars to 
W. J ACKSON AND CO . Nurseries, Bedale. Yorkshire. 

Webb's Prize Cob Nut Trees. 

MR. COOPER, having succeeded to these 
Gardens, and being about to make considerable altera- 
tions, is desirous of reducmg the valuable stock of PRIZE COB 
FILBERT TREES, for the cultivation of which the late Mr. 
Webb was so justly celebrated. 

Mr Cooper desires to caution the public in purchasing Nut 
Trees advertised as WEBB'S PRIZE COB FILBERT 
TREES, as no one is authorised by him to sell them. 
Early applications should be made, addressed 
Mr. COOPER, Calcot Gardens, near Reading, Berks. 







posted their CATALOGUES of Kitchen 
Garden and Flower Seeds, including Gladioli 
Roots, &c, to all their customers : if however, by 
any chance they have not been received, and their 
friends will kindly let them know, a copy will be 
forwarded in course of post. 

DOWNIE AND LAIRD, Seedsmen and 
Nurserymen, 17, Frederick Street, Edinburgh. 


ALNUS CORDATA, 12 to 16 feet, is. each 
BIRCH. Silver. 12 to 16 feet, i^. 6</. each 
CHESTNUT, Scailet, 8 to 10 feet, 11. each 
ELM, Chichester, 8 to 10 feet, 8^. per dozen, scr. per too ; 10 
to 12 feet, loj. per dozen, 65^. per 100 

„ English, very fine, 8 to 12 feet. 15J ptr dozen 
ORNUS EUROP.EUS, flowering Ash. 8 to 10 feet, li 6</.each 
THORNS, with good heads, single Pink. gj. per dozen 

., with good heads, double Crimson, loj. per dozen 
CURRANTS. Black and Red, loi. per 100 
FILBERTS, best named, transplanted layers, 2oy. per ico 
GOOSEBERRIES, all leading kinds, 15J. per 100 
WALNUTS, 6 ts 8 feet, 121. per dozen. 

JAS. CARAWAY AND CO., Durdham Down Nurseries, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

To the Trade. 

offer the following : — 
ROSES, strong, on Manetti, 305-. per 100 
\PPLES, Pyramids, %os. per joo 

APRICOTS, Moor Park, dwarf, cut back, soJ. per 100 
Z^URRANTS, B!ack, strong, xos. per 100. Sar. per 1000 

,. Red, ditto, lOJ. per 100, %os. per looo 
ELMS, Wych. 3 to 4 feet, boj. per 1000 
fiAZEL, 2 to 3 feet, \%s. per 1000 ; 3 to sJ^ feet, los. per 1000 ; 

1% to 4H teeti 30^- per 1000 
PRIVET, Evergreen, 2 to 3 feet, zor. per 1000 
_,AURELS, Common, 2 to 2J3 feet, \zs. per 100 

., Portugal, ij^ to 2 feet, 20J. per 100 
<'EWS, English, 1% to 3 feet, 30J. per 100 ; 3 to 4 feet, tos. 
per 100 

52, Market Square. Northampton. 


PEARSON'S SET of thirteen splendid varieties, 8*/. 
:ach : the set for ts., post-free. 

Selected varieties :— Jeanne d'Arc, finest single white ; Candi- 
llssima plena, double white ; Zonal Tricolor H. M. PoUett, 
Vlr. Parker, Lord Gifford. Arnobius, Brennns, Laverna, 
■^umitor, Syressa, Tereus, 8*/. each, 12 for 6.r. , post-free. 

ExecutorsofH. WALTON, Edge End Nursery, Brierfield, 
lear Burnley. 

To the Trade. 


HAND F, SHARPE are prepared to make 
• special offers of their choice stocks of HOME- 
:iROWN GARDEN and FIELD SEEDS to those who have 
lOt yet completed their supphes for the coming season. 
Seed Growing Establishment, Wisbech. 

New Cucumber, Sir Garnet Wolseley. 

*J Wellington Place, near Carlisle, will supply SEEDS of 
,he above, in Packets of 6 Seeds, post-free for 30 stamps. 

" The points in which Cucumber Sir Garnet Wolseley sur- 
passes all other long-fruited varieties are the symmetry of its 
ruit, and the abundance with which they are produced ; there 
leing no shank or handle to Sir Garnet." — Gardeners* 
rAr<7/f/t"/^, September 27. 1879. 


respectfully invite attention to their Extensive 
Stocks of FOREST, ORNAMENTAL, and 
FRUIT TREES, Dwarf and Standard 
ROSES, Vines, &c., all in splendid condition. 
Where personal inspection is not convenient, 
special offers will be made, and CATA- 
LOGUES sent on request. 
Special Railway Tickets to and from the New Nurseries, Granton 
Road, may be had gratis, at i, George IV. Bridge, Edinburgh. 

Strong Transplanted 

-*- FIR, Spruce, i to 1% foot, ij^ to 2j^ feet. 

„ Scotch, 3 to lYx feet. 
,, Silver, I to 2 teet, 2 to 3 feet, 3 to 4 feet. 
HAZEL, i"^ to 2 feet, 3 to 4 feet. 
BEECH, J to 2 feet. 3 to 4 feet, 4 to 5 feet. 
OAKS, English, 8 to 10 feet. 

,, Evergreen, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 feet. 
lizes. APPLE and QUINCE STOCKS, Raby Castle Black 

Special cash prices on application to 
^ J. GEO. HILL (late John Scott), Royal Nurseries, Merriott, 




To tlie Trade. 

\J of SEEDS, S:c., has been posted to all Customers. 
Should any have miscarried another copy will be sent on 

237 and 238, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Special Trade Offer. 

WBALL AND CO., Bedford Road 
• Nursery, Northampton, have a very large stock of 
the undermentioned to offer to the Trade and large 
Buyers, in fine condition : — 
APPLES, good Standards, best market varieties, our selection, 

55^. to 65^. per loo. 
PEARS, good Standards, best market varieties, our selection, 

65^'. to 'JOS. per 100. 
PLUMS, good Standards, best market varieties, our selection, 

655-. to 70J. per 100. 
APRICOTS, Dwarf-trained Moorpark, %os. to ii,s. per dozen. 
CURRANTS, Black, 3-yr., very strong, i2J. per 100. 
LIMES, Standards, fice, 5 to 6 feet, 6 to 7 feet stems, 8oj. to 

looJ. per roo. 
CHESTNUTS, Common, 6 to 7 feet stems, fine heads, 75^. 

per 100. 
ELMS, Standard Italian, 6 to 7 feet stems, fine heads, gcf. to 
ASH, Common, 2 to 3 feet, 23,1. per iodo. [iooj. per 100. 

BEECH, Common, strong, 5 to 7 feet, 25J. per 100. 
HORNBEAM, strong, 3 to 5 feet, 25J. per 1000. 
QUICK, very strong, 3-yr., 15^. per loco. 
BLACKTHORN, very strong, 3-yr., 155. per 1000. 
HOLLY, Green common, fine. 3 to 4 feet, 50^. to 60^". per 100. 
LAUREL, Portugal, very fine, bushy, 3 to 3J2 feet, 6oj. to 7o.*'i 

per 100. 
YEWS, Common, fine Pyramids, 3 to 4 feet, and 4 to 5 feet, 

f^os. to looj", per 100. 
,, well rooted, 3 to 4 feet, ^qs. to 'jos. per too. 
ROSES, fine Standards, 4 feet stems, large heads, our selection, 

7o.r. to 75J. per 100. 

in full bearing, from the noted Merriott Nurseries. 
No. I COLLECTION of 6 best sorts for succession, \qs. 6d. 
No. 2 ,, ,, 12 ,, ,, ms. 

No. 3 ,, „ iS ,, ,, 3o.r. 

No. 4 ,, ,, 24 ., ,, 4oy. 

J. GEO. HILL (late Scott), Royal Nurserie!!, Merriott, 

To tilie TrSide 


HAND F. SHARPE can supply the Trade 
• with a very true stock of the above-named POTATO, 
grown from carefully selected tubers. It is one of the best 
disease-resisting varieties in cultivation. Further particulars as 
to price, &c. , may be had on application. 

Seed Growing Establishment, Wisbech. 

Special Offer. 

POTS, ripened under glass, well-shaped trees, 3.S. each. 
VINES, leading sorts, extra strong Canes for fruiting in pots 
this season, 5^. and 6s. each. Very fine planting Canes, 
3 J. each. 
JAS. GARAWAV AND CO.. Durdham Down, Clifton, 

ALDER, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6 feet. 
BEECH, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6 feet. 
BIKCH, iH to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4. and 4 to 5 feet. 
ELMS, of sorts, 3 to 4, 4 to 5, and 5 to 6 feet. 
LARCH, ijs to 2, 2 to 3, and 3 to 4 feet. 
SCOTCH, i\i to 2, and 2 to 2J4 feet. 
SPRUCE, 1% to 2, 2 to 1%, 2% to 3, and 3 to 4 feet. 
OAKS, English. 4 to 5, 5 to 6, and 6 to 7 feet. 
PINUS AUSTRIACA. 4 to 5, 5 to 6. and 6 to 7 feet. 
The above are all stout well-grown Plants, and a very- 
reasonable price will be quoted. Apply to 
JOHN HILL, Spot Acre Nurseries, near Stone, Staffordshire. 



Dedemsvaart, near ZwoUe, Netherlands, has much 
pleasure in offering the following :— 

CONIFERS, 1 foot high. 

25^. per too, 10 of each sort. 
£,10 iQS. per 100, 100 of each sort. 

ABIES Menziesii 

sierii argentea 
,, ,, fol. arg. var. 
,, ,, fol. aureo var. 
„ ,, glauca 


,, leptoclada (squarrosa 
THUJA Vervaeneana 

CONIFERS, half a foot high. 

I2J'. per 100, 7 of each sort. 
£s pe"" 1000, 70 of each sort. 

sierii argentea 
,, „ compacta 
„ ,, fol. arg. var. 
„ ,, fol. aureo var. 
,, ,, gracilis 
,, ,, minima glauca 
,, pisifera 
,, plumosa aurea 


roidea Andelyensls 
,, leptoclada (squarrosa, 

,. squarrosa 
THUJA Vervaeneana 
THUJOPSIS Dolabrata 

ABIES nigra 

Height. Price per 100. 
.. .. ..I foot . . gr, 

,, pectmata .. .. .. .. J^ foot .. gr. 

CHAM/ECYPARIS Boursierii (Cu- 

pressus Lawsoniana) .. .> .. i foot .. 17J. 

THUJA occidentalis . . . . . . i foot . . 9^. 

Gros Guillaume Grape.— K cherts' Variety. 

WTAIT AND CO. are offering strong 
• well-grown CANES of this wonderful variety, at 
S^-, 7s. 6d.j and io5'. 6</. each, grown from eyes taken from the 
parent Vine. See Garde7icrs Chronicle ^ Dec. 20, 1879, page 794. 
Orders from strangers should be accompanied with remittance. 

The Old Established Nursery and Seed Warehouses, iig 
and 120, Capel Street, Dublin. 

Wandsworth Common and Garret Lane Nurseries. 

RAND G. NEAL beg to call the attention of 
• Gentlemen, Builders, and the Trade to their large and 
varied Stock of HARDY ORNAMENTAL, FuKEST, 
FRUIT TREES, ROSES, SHRUBS, &c., grown at their 
Nurseries, which comprise 70 Acres of a remarkable collection 
of those Plants and Trees most suitable for growing in or near 
large towns. An early inspection is solicited. 

All goods delivered free on rail in London or at own residence 
withm six miles of the Nurseries. 

CATALOGUES free by post on application. 

Kent, the Garden of England. 

COB NUTS, fine Kentish ; Kentish PLUMS, 
specimen MULBERRIES, large AUCUB AS. lar-e LIMES, 
YUCCAS, and the finest general stock of FRUIT TREES in 
the Kingdom, some 200,000 to choose from. 

General Descriptive FRUIT LIST on application. 

The Trade supplied. 

THOS. EUNYARD and SONS, Old Nurseries. Maidstone. 

To the Trade and Large Buyers. 

J- Special offer : — 

200,000 ASH, Mountain, 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 feet. 
100,000 ,, Common, 3 to 4 feet. 

5o,o:;o ALDER, 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 feet. 
150,000 FIR, Scotch, 15 to 18 inches and 1J2 to 2 feet. 

50,000 ,, Spruce, ij^ to 2 feet and 2 to 2J2 feet. 

50,000 PRIVET, Evergreen, 2 to 3 feet. 

50,000 WILLOWS, Osier, 3 to 4 feet. 

20.000 RHODODENDRON, splendidum, white. 

20,000 ,, Jacksoni. 

50,000 ,, Ponticum, 1^2 to 2 feet and 2 to 2^^ feet. 

50,000 ,, Hybrid Ponticum, seedlings, ij^ to 2 feet. 

20,000 ,, named varieties, 2 feet. 

50,000 YEWS, English, iJ4 toafeet. 

For prices and particulars apply to 
The Nurseries, Milton, Stoke-on-Trent. 

ICKSONS and CO., Nurserymen and 

Seedsmen, i, Waterloo Place, Edinburgh, are now 
Booking Orders for the beautiful DOUBLE MATRICARIA, 
fifiured m the Gardeners' Chronicle of Dec. 13. 1879, at \s. 6d. 
each, 125^, per dozen, or 75.J. per 100— all free by post ; and are 
now sending out well-established Plants of their lovely new 
SAXIFRAGA WALLACEI, at is. td. each, 12^. per dozen, or 
7SS. per 100, free by post. Usual disccunt to the Trade. 

D. & Co. have the largest stock of BEDDING VIOLAS in 
the country. 

Descriptive CATALOGUE free on application. 


ACER DASYCARPUM, 14 to 16 feet, girting 5 to 7 inches, 
CHESTNUT, Horse, 12 to 14 feet, girting 5 to 7 inches. 

,, Horse, 14 to 16 feet, girting 8 to lo inches. 

„ Horse, Scarlet, 10 to 14 feet, girting 6 to 8 inches. 
LIMES. 14, 15, 16, 18, and 20 feet, girting 6 to 10 inches. 
PLANES. Occidental, 10 to r2 feet, girting 4 to 5 inches. 

,, Occidental, 12 to 14 feet, girting 5 to 6 inches. 

A few hundred splendid PLANES, 16 to 18 feet, girting 8 to 
10 inches. 
POPULUS CANADENSIS NOVA, 12 to 14 feet, girting 

6 inches. 
MAPLES, Norway, 12 to 16 feet. 
BEECH, Purple, 10 to 12 feet. 
OAKS. Scarlet, 10 to 12 feet. 
CHESTNUTS, Spanish, 10 to 12 feet. 
SYCAMORE, 12 to 15 feet. 

They have straight stout clean stems, and handsomely 
furnished well balanced heads, and from frequently transplanting 
are splendidly rooted. They are without doubt the finest stock 
of Avenue Trees to be met with in any Nursery in Europe. 

The girt of the stems is taken at 4 feet from the ground, and 
not at the base, which is often deceptive. 

ANTHONY WATERER. Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, 

series, Chertsey, will be glad to quote prices to the 
Trade, as named : — 

BIRCH, 2 to 3 feet, 3 to 5 feet, and s to 8 feet. 
HAZEL, 2 t0 3H f=«- 
ASH, Cnmmon, 2 to 4 feet. 
ALDER. 2 to 3 feet, 3 to s feet. 



Qanuarv 17, 18S0. 


Late Fisher, Holmes & Co., 


Nurseries ;— Handsworth. 

Seed Warehouses -.—Corner of Market Street, ShefTicld, 

and Church Street. Rotherham. 


TO ~THlf~~TA'ADE. 


all uninjured by frost. 


PEARS. PLU.MS, CONlFEK-i;, &.;. 

LIST 0/ sotis i{>i>h present Prices on appbc'ttitni to 





SEEDS, CATALOGUES gratis and i-OSt-fiee, on application. 
Established 1793. 



Seed Grower to Her M.ijesty the Queen and His 

Highness the Prince ol Wu!ts. 



H^WOKINQ NuiiSERY Surrey/ 









Descriptive Priced C.'\TALOGUE, Free on 

application, containing — 
List of FRUIT TREES, suitable for large or 

small (Jardens. 
List of ROSES— selected Dwarfs and Standards. 
List of AMERICAN PLANTS, for Peat and 

Loamv Soils. 
List of CONIFERS, for Lawns and Pleasure 

List of HAKDV SHRUBS, adapted for Belts, 

Shrubberies, Screens. &c. 
List of ORNAMENTAL TREES, suitable 

for P.irks and Private Gardens. 
List of HARDY CLIMBERS, including their 

celebrated Clem.Ttises. 
Assortment ol TREES and SHRUBS, adapted 

for planting by the Sea-coast, on Chalk Soil, 

beneath the Shade of Trees, and in Cities 

and Towns. 

H ^ I , . ^ U^ I ^ E. 

^^yVOKINQ NuF^sERY Surrey/ 

•Richard Smith & c^- 
fe. A^^o R GE s te:r <^ 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, 
Apricots, and other Fruit Trees, as Standaids. Dwarf-;, 
Pyramids, Hushes, Cordon and Trained Trees, in great vdriety, 
all full ol vigour and warranted true to name. Descriptive 
Price List, containing a sketch of the various forms of Trees, 
with Dirtrctions for Cultivation, Soil, Drainage, Manure, 
Pruning, Lifting, Cropping, Treatment under Glass ; also iheir 
Synonym^, Quality, Size, Form, Skin, Colour, Flesh, Flavour, 
Use, Growth, Duraiion, Season, Price, &c., for a penny stamp. 

TWELVE ACRES of ROSES.— Standard, 
Dwarf, and Climbing, all the popular sorts ; also 80,000 
choice Tea-scented and Noisette Roses in pois ; extra strong 
Roses in pots fur immediate forcing. See Dcscripuv* Price 
List, free for a penny stamp. 

TREES in POTS. — Grape Vines, extra strong, and 
warranted free from Phylloxera. Oidium, and all disease ; Pbnl- 
ing Canes, 3r. dd. to 51. each ; extra t-trong Fruiting Canes, 
7i". (>d. to lojf. dd. each. Orchard-house Trees, fruiting in pots, 
consisting of Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, Plums, Clitrries, 
Pears, Apples, and Figs. Desc.iptive Price Liat for a penny 

(awarded a First-class Certificate hy the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society). — One of the handsomest and must useful 
Apples in cultivation. For full descnptim see " Extiact Ironi 
\\i^ Journal of Horticulttirey and Richard Smith & Co.'s 
Fruit List, which may be had for a penny stamp Coloured 
Plates, 6t/. each. Maiden Trees, \s 3./. each ; Bushes, is. dd. 
each ; Standards, Pyramid and Dwarf-trained Trees, 31. td. 
and 5^. each. 

suitable for Rritain, givin-^ size, price, popular and 
botanical names, derivations, description, form, colour, folia;;e, 
growth, tindjer, use in arts, native country, and size ihero, 
situation, soil, and other infortnation, with copious index of 
their synonyms. Free by post for six stamps. 

PLANTS, comprising the best selections of Camellias, 
Azaleas, Ericas, Epacris, Ferns, &c., free for a peimy stamp. 


PLANTS, with their generic, specific, and English namc'^, 
native country, height, time of flowering, colouring, &c., and 
general remarks, free for a penny stamp. 

ALL kinds of GARDEN SEEDS, of first 
REQUISITES. See Lists, which may be had on application. 

rRiG HARD Smith &.C2- 


WOOD AND INGRAM have just compiled 
greatly reduced prices. Free on application. 

The Nurseries, Huntingdon, Brampton, and St Neots. 



WG. CALDWELL and SONS can still 
• supply extra strong FiuitinT CANES, at \s. i<d. 
each, of the following varieties : — Bla k Hamhureh. ^Iadle^- 
field Court, Foster's Seedling, Mrs. Pince, L dy Dijwne's of Alexandria. 

Also a few strung Planting Canes at 3^. each. 
Ihe Nurseries. Knutsford. 

The Largest Rose Gardens in England 



The following Descriptive and Priced Cat.nlogues are now 

published, and may be had free on application : — 








By John Cranston. 

Sixth Editioo. Price ar., free by Post for 27 stamps. 

Address — 






Nozv ready, price is.,poii/reef or gratis to Custo/ncrs, 




With copious and Original Articles on 






With One Hundred Pages of beautifully printed Letterpress, 
handsomely Illustrated with two magnificent Coloured Flales, 
and nearly 200 fine Wood Engravings This is the miSt beau* 
tifiil and comprehensive Seed Catalogue yet published, and 
should be in the hands of all interested in Horticulture. 



JOHN SHARPE can ofter to the Trade well 

M harvested SEED, and of full growth— Crop '78. Samples 
INTERMEDIATE and LONG RED on application. 
Bardney Manor. Lincoln. 


,>^ GROWN BV ^-^ , 



(Disease Resisting.) 

This splendid new round variety has become deservedly 
popular, being the acme of perfection in quality and flavour. Ic 
is an immense cropper, producing tubers of large size, uniformly 
round and handsome, with shallow eyes ; flesh, snowy white, 
and very mealy— undoubtedly the best Potato for uble use ever 
introduced. Stock limited. 

Price 5-f. 6d. per peck of 14 Ib.^ or 20s. per 

bushel 0/ ^6 id. 



The Great Disease-Reslster. 

This remarkably late Kidney Potato is of grand quality. 
The tubers are of very large size, symmetrical in shape, with a 
few small eyes, and of e.TceedinEly fine Havour : the flesh is firm, 
very white and mealy. It is an enormous cropper on all soils, 
and fit for use when got up, also an excellent late keeping ' 
Potato, as it resists the disease to an extraordinary degree. 

Price y. 6,1 per peck of 14 lb.; \\s. per 
bushel of 56 lb. ; yis. per sack of ibZ lb. Much 
cheaper by the half 1 01 or ton. 

WEBB AND SONS being probably the largest growers of 
Seed Potatos in the kingdom, can offer other excellent varieties 
in large quantities on very advantageous terms. 

Potatos o/aos. m/ue carria^ Jr.e ; s per ctnt. duccuMt fir 




January 17, iSSo.] 






In spite of a season of unprecedented badness, Hooper & Co. are able to offer Seeds that will grow, and 

mve satisfaction— an end that has been attained only by the most strenuous exertions and unusual diligence. 

M g ^ p Hooper's Catalogue lays no claim to acceptance on the score of splendour 

§—i ^>-:r>^ ^y^C ^ either of covers or interior ; it has no coloured pictures to amuse the fancy 

y y 1/ e^^-C^X ft'""^ or to shock the artist; but is a plain and well-stored book of lOO pages, 

y/ -—*"*'' compiled to show what Seeds and Plants they have to offer, and to 

y^^^J^^ y£/kjs, r/a^ instruct the reader in all that is necessary about them. H. & Co. do not issue 
yr^y^jVy^Cl^lMAi^nj ^^^^^ catalogues to sell, but have good Seeds to sell, and a good Catalogue 

^^^ embellished with the gilt 
Catalogue is a book which will not disgrace the library table. 

and colour of many contemporaries, Hooper's 
Sent Free to all applicants. 








Have the above to offer, of their own growing. 

In an extensive Scries of Field Trials of Potatos last year the 
above varieties were alone found to resist the Potato Disease— producitig 
heavy crops in every instance. 








lale valuable 


RED CELERY has again 

I i proved itself to be the hardiest, sweetest, most solid, and 
best Celery this unfavourable season ; when most liiiids have 
been soft and watery this has been good in every way. Those 
wishing to obtain the true article should have it in printed 
packets, price i^.; post. free on receipt of 13 stamps 
BROICOLI, Harrison's new Dwarf Hardy; r " 

kind, \s. per packet. 
SAVOY, Harrison's King Coffee Garden, il per packet. 
TURNIP, Harrison's Exhibition; a perfect round 

variety, from 6*/. per packet. 
CARROT, Harriso n's Early Market, dd. per packet. 

choicest quality, are supplied in collections of 2tJ. 
and upwards, sent carriage free. Trade Prices and full 
particulars on application to 

H.^RRISON AND SO NS. Seed Growers, Leicester. 

Westwood Park Late White Broccoli 


JLV have pleasure in again offering this 
excellent BROCCOLI, and respectfully 
solicit early Orders, as the stock this season 
IS limited. Price is. M. per packet, the 
g usual discount to the Trade. 

From T/ie Gardener, July, 1876:— "The 
most valuable Broccoli we have seen this 
year is a kind coming into use in June ; it is very white, and of 
large size betoie the leaves expand, and though yet in a private 
garden, we hope to see it comeatable by the public. It is grow- 
ing in Westwood Gardens, near Droitwich, and Mr. Gough, 
the gardener, has been saving seed from the finest heads for 
some years, and has been rewarded with great success." 
RICHARD SMI TH and CO., Seed Merchants, Worcester. 


DOUBLE 13s. per 100 

PEARL 141. .. 

Special prices to large buyers. Samples on application. 





id. per bushel ; 100 for 201. ; truck (loose, 250 bushels), 

3QJ. : 4.bushel bags, i,d. each. 

LIGHT BROWN FIBROUS PEAT, 5s. 6</. per sack ; 

5 sacks, 251. ; 12 for 45J., or 36s. per ton. 
BLACK FIBROUS PEAT, 51. per sack, 5 sacks 22i. ; 12 for 

40J., or 341. per ton ; sacks, ^d. each. 
COARSE SILVER SAND, is. grf. per bushel ; 151. half ton, 

26.1. per ton ; in i cwt. bags. 41/. each. , , „ . _ 


MOULD, rs. per bushel. 
SPHAGNUM MOSS, 81. 60^. per sack. 

Manures, Garden Sticks, Virgin Cork, Tobacco Cloth and Paper, 

Russia Mats, &c. Write for Free PRICE LIST. 


10, Castle Street, En dell Street, Long Acre, London, W.C. 


\j IS per bag. 30 bags for 201. No charge for bags. Truck- 
load (loose), free to rail, 25J,-BULBECK and SON, Suffolk 
Place, Snow's Fields, Bermo ndsey, S.E. 


Vv* supplied to the Royal Horticultural Society.— Four-bushel 
bag (bag included), is. ; 30 bags (bags included), 20s. : truck 
free to rail, z^s. . 

T. RICH (late Finlayson & Hector), Cocoa-Nut Fibre Works, 
24 and 25, Redman's Row, Mile End Road, Lon don. E. 

riQCOA-NUT fibre' REFUSE.— Useful 

\J at all seasons. Largest makers in the Kingdom, is. per 
bag 30 bags £1 (bags included), truck 25J. free to rail ; ss- van- 
load at Works, Janet Street, Millwall, E. P.O.O. payable at 
General Post Office, London. Orders to be addressed to 
A. FOULON, Fibre Merchant. 3 2. St. Mary Axe, London, b.C. 

Fibrous Peat for Orclilds. &c. 

quality for Orchids. Stove Plants, &c., £6 6s. per truck. 
BLACK FIBROUS PEAT, for Rhododendrons, Azaleas, 
Heaths, American Plant Beds, 15J. per ton. 

Delivered on rail at Blackwater, S. E. R., or Famborough, 
S. W. R., by the truckload. Sample bag, 41. ; 5 bags, 201, 
10 bags, 36i. Bags, id. each. 
Fresh SPHAGNUM, im. 6d. per bag. 

WALKER AND CO.. Faraborough Station, Hants. 



[January 17, 1880. 











" Rcyal Horlkiif/iiral Society, 
'''■October 13, 1879. 

" Carter's Stratagem is the only Pea 
awarded a First-class Certificate by the 
Royal Horticultural Society this season. 

"A. F. BAREON." 

Carter's Stratagem grows 
to a height of 2 feet, and the 
plant is hterally covered 
with immense pods, many 
measuring nearly 6 inches in 
length, and containing ten 
large fine-flavoured Peas. 

Special Caution. 

Caftcrs Stratagem Pea 
can only he had direct from 
lis, ajid all packets bear our 

Price, in sealed packets, 

7s. 6d. per pkt. 

(sufficient for a moderate 





Aivarded a First-class 
Certificate by the Royal 
Horticultural Society. 

"Carter's Telephone is 
the best Pea I have had in 
the garden, bearing large 
semi-doublepods, well filled, 
and of excellent flavour." — 
Mr. Rauone, Gardener to 
th Right Hon. the Earl of 

Price, in sealed packets, 
3s. 6d. per pkt. 



Culverweil's Telegraph 
Pea is the longest and hand- 
somest Pea grown, very 
productive, and excellent 
quality." — Mr. Good acre, 
C xrdencr to the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Harrington 

I Price, insealed packets, 
3s. 6d. per pkt. 



" I never saw such a 
heavy crop of Peas as I had 
on your Little Wonder ; it 
is first-rate in flavour and 
colour." — Mr. Norman, 
Gardener to the Right Hon. 
the Marquis of Salisbury, 
K.G., 1879. 

Price, in sealed packets, 
3s. 6d, per pkt. 

markably fine New Pea, much in ad- 
vance of any other dwarf variety— for 
size of pods and Peas unsurpassed by 
any Pea I am acquainted with." — Peas in 
i"79. " Journal of Hoiticiillurc," Jan. 8, 1880. 



Thomas Methven & Sons 

Beg 10 intimate that their Descriptive I'riced CATALOGUE of KITCHEN GARDEN and 
ready, and may be had, post-free, on application. 

EAST liOTHIAN INTERMEDIATE STOCK (true). White, Purple, Scarlet, and White W.iU-leaved. 

In paclicts, -IS., zs. 6./., and s.t. each colour. 

packi'ls, ij. , 2J. 6(/. , and 55. each. 

GODETIA WHITNEYI RUBRA. An improvement on G. Lady Albemarle. Per packet, is. 6d. 

MELON, CAPTAIN BURNABY. Rai-scd from seed sent home from Khiva. Rec.eivcd First-class 
Certificate from Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society in October last. Per packet, 2J. (id. 

For Descriptions see Catalogue. 




H. & F. Sharpe 

Invite the attention of the Trade to their Special PRICED LIST of 
SEED POTATOS, issued last November, 

Which comprises^ amongst many others, the following excellent 

varieties^ viz. : — 










The above have been Grown from the Finest Selected Stocks, are of Splendid Quality, 

and Free from Disease. 



Wm. Paul & Son 

(Successors to the late A. Paul & Son— Established, 1806) 




is now Ready, and will be forwarded Post-free on application. Many Seeds are home-growni 
and all are selected with the titmost care, from the most celebrated stocks at home and abroadi 
in order to secure their Customers the best quality that can be obtained. 

Important.— Observe Christian Name — 




January 17, iSSo.] 












At all the Bookstalls, or Post-fiee for 15 Stamps. 

Gratis and Post-free. 

All Goods value 203. Carriage Free. 
ALL SEEDS (except Peas and Beans) POST-FKEE. 



The Queen's Seedsmen, 







Post-free. Gratis to Customers. 

^45" The best and mast complete Guide for the 
successf ul Cultivation of Vegetables and Fioziiers, 
alike invaluable to the Amateur and Profes- 
sional Gardener. 



Will be found to compare favourably 
with those of other leading Firms. 

Prices and full particulars of 


(Th e great Disease-Resisters) 

Gratis on application. 
Reduced Rates for Large Quantities. 

isr Orders of 20s. value Carriage-free. All Seeds 
(except Beans and Peas) Post-free. 5 per Cent. 
Discount for Casti. 




(iiirdcttcr,')' (Ulirunick. 




NOTWITHSTANDING all the sarcastic 
abuse and denunciation that has been, 
and is still being, said and written against 
summer bedding, there is yet no diminution 
of it, but rather a growth, happily in an im- 
proved form, by the more free use of foliage 
plants, both as masses and as single specimens. 
By their means the gaudiness and monotony, 
for years so prevalent, have been relieved ; 
but there is yet room for further improvement, 
more particularly in the way of a more general 
use of hardy plants. And once this is accom- 
plished, the objectors to the system will have 
little ground on which to found their objection, 
seeing that if they have not the desired " Fars- 
ley-bed" on which to relieve their eyes, they 
have other and more graceful plants ; and the 
hardy plants would remain all the year round- 
thus meeting other objections, viz., the transitory 
nature of summer-bedding, the long season of 
bare beds, and the immense labour involved in 
wintering and getting up a stock of tender 
plants. It is with a view of assisting to 
bring about such a desirable result that I now 
advocate the increased use of hardy plants, so 
that in the autumn, as soon as frost seems immi- 
nent, and the tender bedders must be removed, 
they may be so few, that, with a little supple- 
mentary planting, the beds shall be effective, 
if not gay, during the whole of the winter and 
spring months. 

That an effective winter bedding arrangement 
is possible, none will doubt who saw the Messrs. 
Lee's exhibit at South Kensington in October 
last, and as practised in some few private 
gardens. Spring bedding is more than well 
done in many places, but how to combine the 
three— spring, summer, and winter— to get a 
maximum of effectiveness at all seasons by a 
minimum of labour, is a difficult problem. I 
think, however, that it can be solved— indeed, it 
is being solved ; and though it may take years 
to complete the solution, the incentives to 
grapple with it are very great. During the last 
fifteen or twenty years there have been intro- 
duced, principally from Japan, a large number 
of small slow and compact growing shrubs, of 
almost every hue from dark purple to bright 
yellow, nearly all of them suitable for the 
adornment of the parterre, as they harmonise 
well with all kinds of bedding plants, and can 
be transplanted at any season with safety. 
They are in full beauty the whole year round, 
and are about the most effective " dot " plants 
that can be found for a groundwork of any variety 
of bedding plants : I allude more 
the Retin'osporas, though there are other kinds 
of almost equal merit, particularly the smaller 
growing Thujas, the variegated Euonymus and 
Yuccas. It is to plants of this character that we 
must pay greater attention, by using them— if 
I may be allowed the expression— as permanent 



[January 17, 1880. 

bedding plants. Other hardy all-the-year-round 
plants, well suited for lines or groundworks, 
are found in Ajuga reptans rubra, Arabis lucida 
variegata, Antennaria tomentosa, Cerastium 
tomentosum, Pyrethrum Golden Feather, Santo- 
lina incana, Festuca glauca, F. viridis, and 
various well known Sedums, Saxifrages, and 
Thymes. These two sets of plants, with others 
of like nature, will as it were form the frame- 
work of the beds the entire year, and the rule or 
guide that should be observed in planting them 
should be to use them as largely as possible, 
but so to dispose them in the most varied 
arrangements that their repetition be not 

The summer filling in, and the most suit- 
able plants for that purpose, will be understood 
by all, and when frost necessitates the removal 
of these the spaces may be effectively filled 
for the winter with small shrubs, the following 
being some of the best kinds for the pur- 
pose : — - Cotoneaster microphylla, variegated 
Ivies, variegated Periwinkles, Mahonia Aqui- 
folium, Laurustinus, small variegated Aucubas, 
Portugal Laurels, Pernettyas, Osmanthus, &c. 
Plants of this class will produce the best winter 
efl^ect, but should spring effect be that most 
desired then the following will be best to take 
the place of the summer bedders :— Hardy 
Heaths, especially Erica herbacea, E. mediter- 
ranea, E. carnea, and E. rubra ; Alyssum sa.\a- 
tile, Aubrietia Campbellii, Daisies, Pansies, 
Myosotis, Primroses, Crocus, Narcissus, Tulips, 
Hyacinths, and many others— only that when 
bulbs are used the ground should be carpeted 
for the winter with Sedums or some other neat 
surface-rooting plant. Such a furnishing of the 
bare soil, whilst it enhances considerably the 
winter appearance, is in no way detrimental to 
the growth of the bulbs. 

Such a system of bedding as I have here 
sketched out necessarily implies the removal of 
the whole of the plants once each year for the 
purpose of renovation of the soil and working 
out fresh designs. It also necessitates a reserve 
garden, where the shrubs can be transferred till 
required, and division and propagation of spring 
plants be done during the summer season. All 
this, of course, involves labour, but if accounts 
were balanced I have no doubt that the verdict 
would be all-the-year-round effectiveness and 
less labour than that now required to produce 
with tender plants at the most sixteen weeks of 
summer beauty. 

But some may ask— do ask— Why advocate 
bedding-out at all .' Is there not a sufficiency of 
hardy plants and flowers to keep our gardens 
cheerful without having recourse to such artifici- 
ality.? To such I answer— I. That as servants 
we are required to please our employers, many 
of whom demand that bedding-out shall be a 
speciality. 2. Bedding-out, or formal planting, 
is the only style adapted to all geometrical- 
formed gardens, surrounded with statuary, 
vases, &c., and till these become extinct the 
formal planting of gardens will continue. More- 
over, the major part of flowering, herbaceous, 
and other hardy flowering plants, are not suit- 
able for such planting ; so that, much as some 
of us would like that there should be an end to 
the system, obviously our wish is not yet likely 
to be gratified ; and it therefore behoves us, not 
to vent our abuse on what we are unable to 
alter, but to make the best of it, though it may 
be "a bad bargain," by doing our utmost to 
lessen the labour it entails by using all the 
hardy plants available, that the parterre may be 
gay the whole year round. W. Wildsmith 
Heckjiehi Gardms, Winchjicld. 

The Abyssinian Banana.-A magnificent sped, 
men of the noble Musa Ensete is at present in flower 
at Mentmore, Bucks, where it forms a most striking 
Pbject m the larg? temperate-house. ' 

New Garden Plants. 

Barkeria cyclotella.* 

This plant has cost me much trouble. Once more 
a miserably short winter's day was spent in looking 
over all my materials ; and now I think myself 
entitled to establish this as a new species. It stands 
just between Barkeria Lindleyana and B. melano- 
caulon, having the characters of the keels of the first 
and in the shape of the lip coming nearer the second. 
One might even surmise it to bea mulebetween the two. 

Barkeria Lindleyana (and the variety Centeroe, of 
course) is easily recognised by the oblong square lip, 
the rniddle keel ceasing at a distance from the apex of 
the lip, while the lateral keels are much shorter. The 
anterior part of the lip is of a beautiful dark purple. 
The column has dark spots. I had the other day a 
splendid plant of it, kindly sent by Mr. Backhouse, 
of Ilolgate House, York. Herr Consul Kienast sent 
me dried specimens, quite of late prepared (and of 
course ruined) by the application of hot iron by the 
Indians. Thus do the mistakes of civilisation spread I 
No doubt the same natives made the pencil sketch— a 
great proof of unusual talent, though, by an extravagant 
liberty, the keen artists drew in one of the flowers the 
column outside and underneath the lip, which, if 
really found in Nature, would alarm all the morpho- 
logists of the globe. The colours are very fine, and 
quite worthy of the excellent Dr. Lindley, to whom the 
species was dedicated by Mr. Bateman. 

Barkeria melanocaulon has a lip that is broader at 
the base thanatthetop, where it is generally emarginate. 
The side borders are crenulate and very distinctly 
undulate, the middle keel just ceasing at the very tip 
of the lip. The column is green in the middle of the 
back, whitish at the sides over the very prominent 
wings, and covered with small dark stripes (not spots). 
From sketches I m.ade from living specimens I see it 
folds down on each side of the lip, so as to look finally 

Fic. 15. — ;arkegia cyclotella. 

like an old-fashioned military cocked hat, as they 
were worn in the old times, and such as are even now to 
be seen with the Italian Carabinieri. As far as my re- 
membrance reaches, the whole flower is light rosy, with 
the exception of the column, and there is no dark blotch 
on the top of the lip. Biologically this is quite dis- 
tinct from .all other species, since gardeners have the 
greatest difficulty in killing this— a quality one misses 
m the other species. In 1844 we had at Dresden fresh 
plants sent by Galeotti himself, .and its descendants 
lived till 1870. It is a long time since I have seen 
fresh flowers, but I have twenty-three herbarium 
specimens at hand, which give me a very satisfactory 
idea of the species combined with my sketches and 

Now Barkeria cyclotella has a lovely inflorescence : 

the flowers are near those of B. Lindleyana, with the 
same keels, but the lip has neither the square outline 
of that species, nor has it the form and undulation 
of Barkeria melanocaulon, but it has its broadest trans- 
verse diameter through the centre, and there are no 
crenulations. The column has neither blotches nor 
lines ; it is purple on the hinder surface near the top, 
whitish at the sides and in front. The colour is 
wholly that of a good " Barkeria Skinneri " (Epiden- 
drum .Skinneri of Lindley, but it sells much better as 
a Barkeria, though, scientifically, Barkeria is nothing 
but Epidendrum). Add to this, that the anterior 
part of the lip is nicely adorned by a dark purple 
spot as in B. Lindleyana. This appears never to be 
the case in B. melanocaulon. 

Thus this novel Barkeria is a lovely thing. 
I made its first acquaintance by a single flower, 
kindly sent me by Mr. Bull (No. 413). I called 

• Barkeria cychtelln., n. sp.— Racemosa, bracleis triangulis 
scinosis ovariis pedicellatis quinquies brevioribus ; stpalis 
triangulis acuminatis ; tepalis ovatis acutis. labcUo supra basin 
columnse adnato, basi leviter cordato, celerum plus minus 
circulan, integerrimo, piano, carinis a callis depressis baseos 
excuntibus bene ante apicem abruptls, vulgo obscuris ; columnx 
apice utrinque apiculata, alis semioblongis. baud conspicuis.— 
Lolores Barkeria: Lindleyana, sed columna immaculata. (Vidi 
sP=f ™';" a eel. Bull et V)x^.)—Eipidcndrvm o'chullum. IJ Q. 

it reluctantly B. Lindleyana, but wrote to my inde- 
fatigable correspondent that my conscience was not 
easy about the name. How can one expect a botanist 
to have an easy conscience after the " homreopathic 
dose of a single flower"? Now, my second oldest 
English correspondent, who has been so very often my 
helpmate and my teacher, having had a hint of 
my feeling uncomfortable in this Barkeria ques- 
tion, immediately sent me a complete inflorescence, 
nice and fresh. If there do not appear new and 
unexpected difficulties, as is so often the case in 
venturing upon knowledge of plants, I would regard 
the question settled. I have, however, some reason 
to guess that one of these days some critical plant may 
come from Mr. Backhouse, which may require us to 
re-open the question. //. G. Rchb.f. 

Odontoglossum Eduardi, Rchb.f. ' 

When I named this on July 4, 1878, I did not hope 
to see it so soon in flower. I have a panicle at hand 
with sixteen flowers, coming from a bulb a third 
smaller than the wild bulb. Now this pretty in- 
florescence is quite a poor dwarf when compared to 
the giant specimens in my herbarium, gathered by 
the discoverer, Mr. Edward Klaboch. The flowers 
make one-third of those of Oncidium ornithorrhyn- 
cum, yet they are larger, and the lip is rather 
triangular. Their colour is mauve, with a light 
purple hue. The lip is not totally yellow, as had 
been stated, but of same colour, with only the callus 
ochre-coloured, and if you look carefully you will 
see a small narrow zone of light sulphur surround- 
ing the anterior part of callus. I do not recognise 
in the fresh flowers such asperities outside the 
sepals as I have described them in the dried flowers. 
The callus is subject to several variations. It is 
oblong square, both sides going out in lobed keels, and 
an obscure ridge running through the middle. It 
appears sometimes that a square blade rises at its apex, 
and sometimes there is an obscure callus each side. I 
did not find any more in the fresh flowers, the lateral 
keels being forcipate, as I saw in a dried flower. 
It has just flowered with Mr. H. J. Buchan, Wilton 
House, .Southampton. A First-class Certificate was 
awarded to this gay novelty by the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society last December 16 (see our columns, 
p. 787). No doubt Mr. Edward Klaboch will feel 
pleased, when reading this statement in some little 
known posada of some distant valley in the Andes. 
I have to thank for the specimen Mr. Arthur Vehch, 
who was delighted with the delicious perfume. H. G. 
Rchh. f. 


«. vai: 

This is a stately variety, with much taller bulbs 
than those of the Indo-continental form. It has 
larger flowers of a very pallid colour. The lip is 
far more acute, as are also the sepals. It has a single 
broad purple blotch under the velvety disk. On both 
sides of the base stand orange areas. It comes very 
near the Dendrobium heterocarpum Henshalli ot Bot. 
Mag., 4970, which has shorter bulbs and two dark 
blotches on the lip. It is well known that D. aureum, 
Lindl., and heterocarpum, Wall., are the same. 

Just as Cattleya labiata, Dendrobium aureum, 
Lindl., is an exceedingly polymorphous species — to 
speak with Engler, in his monograph of Saxifraga, it is 
"typus polymorphus." This species is exceedingly 
variable, as my numerous specimens from Ceylon, 
Moulmein, Khasia Hills, Minahassa, Philippines, 
give evidence as well as my very copious garden 
specimens. If somebody compares the various good 
English representations (also of D. rhombeum and 
aureum pallidum) he will have an idea of the vari- 
ations. Dr. Wight's plate, 1646, is a most indifl'erent 
representation. Those cheap Indian artists are very 
dangerous in their thoughtless, mechanical work. 

I have had this variety at various times from Messrs. 
Low, Veitch, and Bull, and now it flowers once more 
with Messrs. Veitch [and with Mr. Thomas Christy!. 
H. G. Rchb.f. 


The throstle's song in April, so clear, sweet, and 
inspiring, has been denominated " the first redresser 
of the winter's wrong." Its hopeful song, so full of 
joyous life, is heard in the early days of the month, 
and with it there are many precocious flowers gilding 
the fields and hedgerows, full of gladsome beauty in 
the invigorating rays of the sun. Ravishingly wel- 
come as all this beauty is, it is but a gleam of the full 
flow of the light of floral life seen under glass when 
Spring, coming victorious from its tussle with and 
overthrow of Winter, leads forth numberless beautiful 
flowers as earnests of its triumph. 

This thought was deeply impressed on my mind as, 
one sunny day in April last, I went into one of the 
span-roofed plant-houses in Messrs. Veitch & Sons' 
nursery i»t Chelsea, and saw th^re soinethipg likg one 

JANUARV 17, 18S0.] 



lumdred plants of the newest Hyacinths of the sea- 
son, including a few plants of each variety, making 
up a collection of novelties of unparalleled extent and 
remarkable beauty and quality. How actively at 
work the Dutch growers must be to produce in one 
small epoch of horticultural time so much of trans- 
cendent worth ! When not less than eleven First- 
class Certificates of merit are awarded to new 
Hyacinths in one season, there must needs be some- 
thing particularly fine and striking among them. Let 
us pass in review a few of the autocrats of this floral 
assembly, and note their characteristics. 

Of blue-flowered varieties the doubles were repre- 
sented by Duke of Norfolk, rich deep purple, almost 
a claret-purple, good bells, ami fine close spike — a 
good and useful addition to this class ; and Frans 
Hals, deep purple with dashes of bright blue — a 
variety that in all probability will require good cul- 
ture to bring it to perfection. Of pale blue single 
flowers Duchess of Connaught took the lead ; the 
surface of the segments delicate silvery-lilac, with a 
fine pale blue reverse, excellent form, and very fine 
handsome spike. Pottigieter, of a very delicate tint 
of grey-blue, with a bright pale blue reverse; distinct 
and very pretty. Lord Beaconsfield, bright pale blue 
reverse to the segments, with a delicate tint of lilac- 
blue on the surface ; large and massive bells, of fine 
form : very fine spike, extra extra. John Bright, 
somewhat rough in the spike, a defect that may dis- 
appear with cultivation ; the segments delicate blue 
on the face, with a good deal of pale bright blue on 
the reverse : this will most likely make a good Hya- 
cinth ; and Pauline Lucca, a very distinct flower, the 
reverse of the bells blue, with a deep tint of lilac-blue 
on the face, the segments margined with silvery-grey; 
very fine, and of excellent quality. The blues of a 
darker shade were — Masterpiece, black margined with 
deep purple, very dense symmetrical spike, and one 
of the finest new Hyacinths of the year. Duke of 
Connaught, more of purple and less of black, was 
characteristic of this variety as compared with the 
foregoing ; great depth of a rich shade of a blue- 
purple colour ; good bells, fine close spike ; a rich 
looking and showy variety. Royal Blue, a variety 
with large and well-formed bells, the segments having 
dark stripes down the centre, with bright purple 
margins ; a fine, distinct, and promising flower ; and 
Ainsworth, dark purple segments edged with a 
brighter hue ; rather rough, but with plenty of stuff 
in it to make a good Hyacinth. 

In the class of red flowers King of the Reds stood 
out from all the rest for its strikingly rich and glowing 
hue of colour ; deep bright lake, with a light centre 
to the bells, the latter of excellent form, and very fine 
close .spike. Vurbaak and other fine reds looked 
pale by the side ol this. Delicata, a bright deep red, 
an improved Lina, very good spike, and small well- 
formed bells ; a pleasing flower of good quality. 
Lord Derby, the centre of the bells marked with a 
deep stripe of red, the margins delicate flesh ; fine 
long showy spike, plenty of bells, the segments nar- 
row ; but, as in the case of the white Seraphine, they 
are so numerous as to form a symmetrical spike. 
Trocerado, pale pink, with stripes of deep rose ; a 
very fine pleasing variety ; excellent bells and spike, 
combined with a good habit of growth. Loveliness, 
blush ground with deep pink stripes along the seg- 
ments and across their tips ; very fine spike, a 
strikingly delicate flower, and most appropriately 
named. Romeo, rosy-lake, with a broad stripe of 
colour along the segments and pale margins ; good 
close spike. Salmon King, an almost semi-double 
variety, delicate salmon-pink, with a stripe of deeper 
salmon-pink along the segments, this colour deeper 
still on the reverse ; very large massive bells, and 
grand spike : extra fine. Leviathan, flesh-colour, 
and flushed and delicately striped with pink ; very 
delicate and chaste, and extra fine quality. 

Of white varieties there was a most promising 
double under the name of The Bride. This was a 
really pure white double Hyacinth ; large handsome 
bells, and fine spike. Of single varieties there were 
Galatea, French-white, with very slight stripes of the 
most delicate lilac only just perceptible ; very distinct 
in colour, and fine close spike. L'Ornement des 
Roses, almost a yellow ; white, with very slight buff 
stripes along the segments ; fine bold-looking bells; 
and Catherine Hermina, a wonderfully pretty Hya- 
cinth, a kind of refined La Grandesse : if the spike 
will but lengthen and become more massive with 
cultivation, it will make a rare white Hyacinth. 

Of new yellow varieties there were Kenan Hasse- 

laar, of which it may be said that if the dash of 
yellow on the reverse was on the face of the seg- 
ments, it would be grand in colour ; rare close spike, 
and suggestive of getting near perfection as a yellow 
save in wanting greater depth of colour. McMahon, 
in the same way, but wanting the massiveness of 
texture and form. Canary Bird, also a good yellow, 
but below the first-named in point of quality. 
Obelisk, also wanting in massiveness. Lord Derby, 
pale buff yellow with dashes of pink in the tube ; 
distinct in colour, and may improve with cultivation. 
Lastly Brutus, like Due de Malakofl^, but with less of 
red on the segments. 

Two claret-coloured varieties must be mentioned — 
viz.. The .Shah, having pale wine-purple segments 
with dark stripes, forming a dense spike — a fine 
bright-looking Hyacinth ; and The Sultan, claret 
and magenta, with bright purple dashes — a bold and 
showy Hyacinth ; excellent spike. 

With so much wealth of form, and such varied 
flushing of hues, with their distinct and novel tints 
and shades, there is no lack of new Hyacinths ; but 
when they will be put into commerce is a matter 
which cannot now be rightly determined. K. D. 



H.wiiNG given a list of the names of plants dis- 
covered and introduced by me from China and |apan 
(see p. II), I now propose to make some remarks upon 
some of the species. And, first, I shall take the Chry- 
santhemum named by me the " Chusan Daisy." This 
was found in a cottage garden on the Island of Chusan, 
and sent home to the Horticultural Society of London. 
I well remember writing a letter to the late Dr. 
Lindley, who was then Secretary, telling him not to 
despise the modest little flower, as it was probable 
that great things might be done with it in hybridising 
independently of its being a very pretty little plant. 
It reached England alive, but for a time did not 
attract much attention. 

About this time the late Mr. Salter, of Hammer- 
smith, had settled in Versailles, where he was making 
the culture of the Chrysanthemum a speciality. In 
his book published a few years ago he thus speaks 
of the " Chusan Daisy " : — "In 1S46 a new era com- 
menced in the history of the Chrysanthemum, for at 
that time Mr. Fortune brought from China two small 
flowering varieties known as the ' Chusan Daisy ' and 
' Chinese Minimum.' Although Mr. Fortune admired 
them in Chusan they were considered too small and 
insignificant for English taste. The French opinion 
of them, however, was far different, for immediately 
upon their introduction in 1S47 into the already well- 
known collection at Versailles the little ' Chusan 
Daisy ' became a favourite. From these two varieties 
have sprung all the Pompons now in cultivation." 
So much for the " Chusan Daisy " and for the effect 
it has produced in the history of the Chrysanthemum. 

At that time the Chrysanthemums in England were 
far superior to those of China. I could find nothing 
worthy of being introduced except those small varie- 
ties already mentioned. A few years afterwards, how- 
ever, in 1866 and 1861, on visiting Japan I found 
myself in the very home of the Chrysanthemum. 
Here not only was the culture far superior to anything 
met with in England, but the varieties were altogether 
different. In so far as the culture was concerned, 
the Japanese were greatly assisted by their climate. 
What a glorious autumn they have in Japan ! The 
sun shines from morning to evening in a clear sky, 
with scarcely a cloud to obscure his rays. 

The place most famed for its Chrysanthemums in the 
vicinity of Yeddo is Ah-sax-sau. At the time of my 
visit the Chrysanthemums were in full bloom, and 
most certainly would have delighted our English 
florists had they found themselves so far away from 
Hammersmith, the Temple, or Stoke Newington. I 
procured some extraordinary varieties, most peculiar in 
form and colouring, and quite different from anything 
of the kind at that time known in Europe, and 
luckily they reached England alive. I observe the 
following notice in my diary at the time : — " If I can 
succeed in introducing these varieties into Europe, 
they may create as great a change amongst Chrysan- 
themums as my old firoli'^J the modest ' Chusan 
Daisy' did when she became the parent of the 
present race of Pompons." 

In Mr. Salter's book noticed above he has the fol- 
lowing notice ;— " In 1862 Mr. Fortune introduced 

several Japanese varieties, some of which were 
spotted and striped ; others were of fantastic forms 
called Dragons, and one, laciniatum, was a beautifully 
fringed while flower, most invaluable for bouquets, 
having the appearance of a Japanese Pink rather than 
of a Chrysanthemum." From my journal I quote 
the following description of these plants: — "One 
had petals like long thick hairs, of a red colour, but 
tipped with yellow, looking like the fiinge of a shawl 
or curtain ; another had broad white petals, striped 
with red, like a Carnation or Camellia, wliilst oihers 
were remarkable for their great size and brilliant 

On the first introduction of these plants they were 
not appreciated by the florists of this country. But 
the effect they produced in our greenhouses and 
conservatories was most charming, and they were 
highly prized by the public and by artists. At last 
the opinions of our florists seem to have changed, and 
the Japanese Chrysanthemums are, I think, generally 

There is one curious circumstance about these 
plants which I must not omit to mention. Of course 
there were many varieties that I did not succeed in 
introducing ; but, strange to say, many of these 
varieties were raised afterwards by Mr. Salter at 
Hammersmith from those I had introduced. An 
old lady who lived near me in Kanaganea used to 
point to a number of varieties in her garden, and say 
that they all came from one and the same plant. I 
had the experience of Mr. Salter, and knew this was 
not unlikely. I think she was rather surprised when 
I said I fully believed her. Robert Fortune. 


Not many years ago Toniatos were grown only 
from seeds sown in the spring, just in time to have 
plants ready for planting out against a south wall 
early in June. As the seeds germinate quickly and 
the plants grow rapidl)', a few weeks sufiiced to have 
fine plants grown and fairly hardened off for planting 
out at the desired time, and with this meagre atten- 
tion good crops have been produced year after year 
up to a recent period. The appearance of the Tomato 
disease and the change that has taken place in our 
seasons (the former I verily believe being the direct 
result of the latter) has aroused cultivators to a true 
sense of their position with regard to the cultivation 
of this esteemed edible. A good aspect in which to 
plant out the plants early in the summer, and keeping 
the shoots thinned out and regularly stopped after 
each successive bunch of fruit was formed, was about 
the sum total of the labour expended upon Tomato 
culture so long as the use of the vegetable was con- 
fined to the few families who possess walled-in gar- 
dens and a stafi' of competent gardeners. Now, how- 
ever, things have changed ; the vegetable has become, 
or is fast becoming, a public commodity, and a good 
many find it pays to grow whole houses of them, and 
no sooner is this move noticed by private gardeners 
than they at once take another step to the front by 
forcing Tomatos in winter, leaving the middle classes 
to fall back upon American produce, which is sadly 
inferior to what is grown in private gardens. 

It is one of the best paying crops that can be grown, 
and no doubt when this fact is discovered by the en- 
terprising portion of those whose interest it is to keep 
in advance of the times the market will become better 
stocked with English-grown Tomatos at a much lower 
price than good samples are at present sold. A good 
sample of Tomatos is now sold at a proportionately 
higher price than an inferior one, much after the 
manner that finely finished black Grapes take pre- 
cedence of brown ones ; indeed form, colour and size 
are the distinctive marks of public appreciation in this 
as in other branches of either fruit or vegetable trade. 
This being so there is little doubt that before long 
Tomatos in winter will be as much sought after 
as Asparagus, Seakale, and other choice winter 

There is nothing to bar the extension of this rapidly 
increasing branch of vegetable cultivation "all the 
year round," providing proper steps be taken at the 
commencement. It is a difficult matter toobtain through 
the medium of a seedsman a variety of Tomato that is 
worth growing in winter. Vou order two or more 
varieties that are highly spoken of in public — you sow 
the seed, grow the plants, and tend them up to the 
bearing period, only to find that Imlf or more of 



[January 17, iSSo. 

your "nurslings" are what are vulgarly termed 
" mongrels." 

It was a disappointment of this kind that first in- 
duced me to seek a remedy for myself, by selecting a 
good strain of seed, and maintaining, if not improving, 
its character by annual selection. You have no chance 
at an exhibition with such crack e.xhibitors as Mr. 
Miles, of Wycombe Abbey, unless you have a stock 
of something far beyond mediocrity to appear in public 
with ; and these remarks hold equally good in the 
matter of market competition, where the good article 
brings the correspondingly high price. The month 
of February is early enough to make the first sowing, 
in a pot or pan of rich mould according to the number 
of plants required. 

The details of cultivation are so well understood, 
that it is hardly necessary to particularise except with 
reference to plants that are intended for special pur- 
poses. Those who intend growing for exhibition 
early in the season, cannot do better than time their 
plants as nearly as possible to come into bearing 
about the date the e.xhibition takes place. The first 
fruits are invariably the best. An average of three 
months will not be far wide of the mark to allow 
from the time the seed is sown until the first fruits 
are ready for gathering. In the early st.ages of 
growth plants intended to bear show fruit should be 
grown " stubby " and vigorous by keeping them near 
the glass, well ventilated, and in a moderately dry, 
not over high atmosphere. They may also with 
advantage be kept in small pots, say from 6 to 7 inches 
in diameter, until they show flower and set their first 
batch of fruits if time is a consideration. 

Once the plants get into a bearing state over- 
luxuriance is counteracted, and a fair balance is 
struck between root and branch. The plants may 
then be shifted on into pots 10 or 12 inches in 
diameter, and stout stakes put to each plant to keep 
them from vibrating, or if there is room for them to 
st.and along the back wall of a vinery they will 
succeed perfectly in pots from 7 to 9 inches in 
diameter, allowing them to root into some rich pre- 
paration, which should be placed underneath them, 
and feeding them as their condition will indicate with 
liquid manure. The plants should be stopped regu- 
larly above the flowers as they appear, and of course 
all superfluous growths and side-shoots are removed 
in order that the energies of the plants may be directed 
to the swelling and development of the fruit. With 
regard to size and colour the former is secured by 
thinning the fruits, and the latter by exposure to sun 
and air. As far, however, as exhibiting is concerned, 
form and colour are indispensable, size being a 
secondary consideration. Plants required for fruiting 
in winter should be propagated from cuttings in 
August and early in September, earlier or later accord- 
ing to locality, by inserting cuttings in small pots, or 
by potting half-a-dozen cuttings in a 6-inch pot and 
plunging them in a moderate bottom-heat of from 65° 
to 70°. After the plants are potted off the same re- 
marks that are applicable to early spring cultivation 
are equally applicable in winter, with this difference, 
that they must be grown in a lower and drier tempe- 
rature as light decreases and the natural condition, 
instead of improving daily, as is the case in spring, is 
operating in an opposite direction. 

For winter work the Kick wall of a light airy lean- 
to house where other forcing is being carried on 
answers admirably. Shade and moisture are elements 
that are always inimical to the welfare of rapid-grow- 
ing subjects, and especially at the flowering stage 
moisture must be cautiously dispensed, otherwise the 
plants will fail to set their fruits ; although once set 
the swelling process may be materially hastened by 
its application, and a corresponding rise of tempera- 
ture up to the ripening stage, when more air and a 
drier hefit will be required. It strikes me that in 
future .Strawberries and Tomatos will be grown side 
by side for winter more than Ihcy have been ; both 
are useful winter crops, and both hold a high place in 
public estimation in their respective departments. 

W. Himis. 

CypRlPEDiUM Spicerianum. — We understand 
that this Cypripedium, which illustrated in our 
last issue, was received from India some lime ago 
by Mr. Spicer among a mixed collection of Orchids 
without any indication whatever as to its habitat. 
When it flowered for the first time a bloom was sent 
to Professor Reichenbach, who named the plant in 
compliment to the gentleman through whose in- 
strumentality it introduced to British gardens, 
and (rom whom Messrs. James Veitch & Sons pur- 
chased the stock. 


The extent of the import and export trade in grass 
and Clover seeds done by some of our larger London 
wholesale seed houses is of such an extent, and 
includes such enormous bulks, as to be absolutely 
astonishing to those unacquamted with the immense 
supplies received and distributed. The bulks of 
natural and perennial and Italian Rye grasses, 
for instance, are of such an extensive character, 
including of course the finer mixtures for lawns, 
croquet and cricket grounds, &c., as to supply statistics 
of a very interesting economical and commercial cha- 
racter. If it were attempted to give the quantities 
of seeds passing through some of the warehouses in a 
year, the figures might be taken as something in- 
credible, though they would be perfectly true never- 
theless. The visitor privileged to walk through the 
spacious floors of the w.arehouses, towering one above 
the other to the extent of seven or eight storeys, finds 
himself at this season of the year hemmed in with 
piles of bales of grasses and Clovers of alarming 
height and extent ; and the first question that arises 
in his mind is, " From whence are all these enormous 
supplies drawn?" We are in a position to give a 
reply to this question. 

All natural grasses are obtained from Germany, 
from the districts on the banks of the Rhine, the 
vicinity of Darmstadt, and others where the cultiva- 
tion of these is largely pursued. Holland has com- 
menced to furnish its quota, and it will be found that, 
when favoured with good harvests, the Dutchmen 
will furnish these in larger quantities year after year. 
Timothy-grass, a valuable grass either for hay or 
green food, and Alsike Clover, which when mixed 
with grass is good for permanent pasture or mowing, 
come from Sweden ; and the latter is said to have 
obtained its name from growing in abundance in the 
parish of Alsike, in Upland. Red Clover in varieties, 
white Clovers and Alsike also, are largely drawn from 
Germany and Austria. Lucerne, which on account 
of its tap-root succeeds better than the red Clover 
because of its ability to survive the effects of 
drought, and Sainfoin, as representing other foliage 
plants for feeding, mainiy come from France, and so 
do great quantities of Italian Rye-grass. Large 
quantities of Timothy-grass and red Clover come 
from the United States of America, and Canada, and 
some white Clover and Alsike also. It is from Scot- 
land and Ireland that the perennial Rye-grasses are 
obtained. This list gives a general idea of the main 
sources from whence these valuable supplies are 

Where do they go to ? is a matter of equal interest 
and importance. Large portions are consumed at 
home, and enormous quantities go abroad. The 
shipping trade, which is done to an extent that would 
savour of the romantic were its details set forth in the 
form of statistics, is replete with interest. Extensive 
shipments are made to Australia, New Zealand, Cali- 
fornia, Canada, and the United States ; smaller but 
increasing supplies go to the Cape of Good Hope and 
Natal. Clovers and natural grasses are used exten- 
sively in Australia and New Zealand. The land- 
holders in these latter countries appear to be fully 
alive to the necessity and importance of providing 
rich, healthy, and nourishing grasslands. In this 
respect they appear to betray a greater anxiety 
than do many of our English farmers. Of late 
years, in these colonies, large tracts of uncultivated 
land, described as "morass " and " scrub, "have been 
cleared and laid down with the most suitable grasses 
for cattle and sheep pasturage. In one instance, in 
Australia, 100,000 acres in one tract have been so 
treated with the best results ; and not only is the laying 
down of new pastures being actively pursued by the 
richer colonists, but the renovation of old pastures 
also, thus giving a good lead to agriculturists. The 
necessity for the latter process is perhaps greater in 
the colonies than in the mother country, where the 
land is less fertile in its natural state ; as in course of 
time the stronger rooting and more vigorous growing 
grasses assert their natural superiority over some of 
the weaker kinds, and either the process of de- 
pasturage or that of renovation has to be resorted to : 
the latter resource is necessary to maintain that 
equalisation of the particular grasses that provide the 
necessary principles of animal aliment. 

In order to give some idea of the export tr.ade done 
in gr.asses and Clovers, we may mention that, of the 
natural grasses, the largest shipments are made of 
Cock's-foot, one of the most luxuriant of grasses on 

good soils ; Timothy, hard, meadow and Sheep's 
Fescues ; meadow Foxtail — the verdure of many of 
our rich meadows depending on this grass ; the 
smooth-stalked Foxtail, and Yarrow, the common 
Milfoil, a subject which is very common to pastures 
on the roadsides in the country. Many of these are 
forwarded at the rate of tons each. Of the various 
Clovers, the white, red. Cow-grass, the perennial or 
wayside red Clover, and Lucerne, a deep-rooting 
perennial plant, sending up numerous tall Clover- 
like shoots. Rape is also largely sown in both 
Australia and New Zealand to ensure a quick crop, 
and considerable quantities are annually forwarded to 
the colonies. 

The care exercised in the preparation and ship- 
ment of these various articles is commensurate with 
the importance of the trade. The heavier shipments of 
these seeds having to cross the Equator, unless each 
subject is sent in the driest and most perfect condi- 
tion deterioration of the growing qualities is sure to 
take place, and consequently the risk of landing 
valuable consignments in an injured or worthless 
condition is very great. To avoid this as far as 
possible, certain precautions are taken. By means 
of careful trials of growth, seeds of the strongest 
vitality are ascertained, selected, and alone used. 
Each kind of seed is divided into small quantities, 
generally of half a hundredweight each, and these 
are placed m canvas bags, or, if sent loose, in water- 
tight or air-tight tanks. Formerly the greater part 
of the shipments were made in hogsheads, as these 
were the more easily disposed of when they reached 
their destination for such uses as water-tanks on 
river boats, for storing water in fields for irrigation 
and other purposes, and also for use in households. 
Italian and perennial Rye-grasses are exported in large 
quantities, and the demand is found to increase each 

Such then are some of the details of a very im- 
portant branch of the seed trade. The competition 
in this department is very keen, and it is found that 
the house that does the trade best is pretty sure to 
reap the greatest measure of support. Rare judgment 
is required, and a large capital, in order to make pur- 
chases and hold stock when it is politic to do so. In 
proportion .as the colonies and America become meat- 
producing centres for the mother country, so will 
the demand for these seeds increase. In our own 
country the farmers are advised to breed cattle in 
preference to growing corn. One of their own body 
is found asserting that " by breeding cattle, and pro- 
ducing mutton and beef instead of bare or open 
fallows, or Wheat, we should, with less anxiety, be 
better able to face the rent-day, and other demands 
which are now such a burden on the lands where only 
corn is grown." R, D. 


NOTWITHSTANDI.N'G the severity of the weather 
during the past winter, with little or no sun to cheer 
vegetation, we have had an abundant supply of the 
above-named for some time past, and have still many 
more showing, with others in various stages of 
development ; so that from present appearances they 
will continue to yield a succession for at least a month 
yet to come. The variety grown is H. niger maxi- 
mus, a robust habited kind that has large thick 
leathery leaves, and huge crowns which send up im- 
mense numbers of blossoms. These have .stout 
stalks about 6 inches in length, and being of such a 
fleshy nature they take up water freel)', thus enabling 
the blooms to last almost as long as they do on the 
plants. This enduring power renders them par- 
ticularly serviceable just at this season of the year, 
wdien flowers of all kinds are so scarce ; and seeing 
the great ease with which they may be grown, the 
wonder is that they are not more cultivated, .as all the 
protection they require in winter is that aflbrded by 
an old light or hand-glasses during the sharpest and 
worst of the weather. This simple covering not only 
renders them perfectly safe, but makes the blooms 
more pure by causing the petals to come quite white, 
instead of being stained with reddish green, as they 
generally are when left fully exposed. 

Besides being valuable for growing out-of-doors to 
cut from, they are equally serviceable for potting 
for greenhouse decoration, or the adornment of 
windows, a position in which they show ofl' their 
beauties and last a long time in perfection. The best 
way to nian.ige them is to choose a nice sheltered 

January 17, iSSo.] 



border under a wall, or along the front of a plant- 
house, as there the warmth prevents the ground from 
becoming frozen, and it is an easy matter in such a 
situation to place some sashes over them, and block up 
the ends by means of a mat, and so make the plants 
as snug and comfortable as if they were in a frame. 
There is an impression with some that Christmas 
Roses are difficult to increase, which is a fact so far 
as raising them from seed goes, as they seldom form 
any, the pods being generally barren, but like most 
perennials they may readily be propagated by divi- 
sion, if care is exercised, and the operation carried out 
without the use of a knife or other instrument to 
effect the necessary severance. The safest plan is to 
dig up the clump, and then either shake or wash the 
soil all away from .the roots, when each small crown 
will be distinctly visible, and may be pulled apart 
with a root or two attached, each piece of which is 
then sure to grow. The proper time to set about the 
work of division is immediately after the plants have 
done blooming, as just then they are about forming 
fresh growth, and will stand more liberties bemg 
tal;en with them than at any other season. 

Like most subjects of a kindred nature that send up 
and have to support such a vast quantity of large 
succulent flowers, this Hellebore requires good soil 
and plenty of depth of loose open material to work in, 
which may be afforded by mixing up a quantity of 
refuse peat, leaf-mould, and sand ; and these ingre- 
dients, if worked into the ordinary garden soil, will 
make a bed in which it will revel. As this variety of 
Christmas Rose has great spread of foliage, it should 
not be planted nearer together than iS inches or so. 
If well watered while making its growth, or given 
a soaking or two of liquid manure, it will be a 
great help in assisting the plants to become strong 
and fine. When required for potting, they should be 
lifted in November and stood in cold frames, that 
they may have time to take to the soil, when a few 
can be placed in a little warmth to bring them on, 
and so prolong the time of flowering. 

The way the blooms look best when cut is by 
arranging them in bowls, or low flat vases, filled with 
green moss, where, with some of their own foliage, a 
spray or two of Lily of the Valley, Cyclamens, and 
Violets, a most interesting and natural-looking group 
may be formed. J. S. [A fine specimen of this 
variety, maximus, grown in a tub, and profusely 
flowered, shown at South Kensington on Tuesday 
last by Messrs. Osborn & Sons, was very attractive. 
Eds.] ^ 



Having long been strongly impressed with the 
notion that on the mountain ranges of New Zealand, 
and more particularly those of the middle and 
southern islands — New Munster and New Leinster — 
many hardy forms of the southern flora might be got 
that would impart new and highly important features 
to our forests, pleasure grounds, and gardens, I secured 
the good services of some friends who, from time to 
time within the last fifteen years, sent me such seeds 
from the provinces of Canterbury and Otago as they 
thought likely to interest me. From these seeds a 
few generally known hardy plants were reared, as 
well as the after-named less known kinds that, having 
withstood the rigours of the unusually severe and long- 
protracted winter of 1S7S 9, may be looked upon as 
sufficiently hardy for our climate, f- 

I. Plagianthus eetulinus (Ribbon-tree of the 
settlers, and Iloui of the Maori natives). — Described 
in Sir J. D. Hooker's Handbook of the A'ew Zealand 
Flora as a lofty tree, attaining 40 — 70 feet in height, 
but that its wood is worthless ; and by Captain J. 
Campbell Walker, Conservator of State Forests, in his 

* " Notes on New Zealand Plants that withstood the severe 
Winter of 1878-9 at Rait Lodge, Trinity, near Edinburgh." 
A paper read at the Decemlier meeting of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh, by William Gorrie, of Rait Lodge. 

t 'I he minimums for the seven months of 187S 9 in which the 
temperature fell below the freezing point were as follows : — 
First column from observations taken at Edinburgh by ihe 
Scottish Meteorological Society with thermometer protected 
from direct radiation by louvre boarding, in the usual manner : 
and second column from observations at the Edinburgh Hotanic 
Garden, .by a thermometer fully exposed to direct radiation : — 

November, 1878 

.. 26 .s . 

. 24° 

December, ,, 



January, 1879 . . 

.. i6.'s . 

. 12° 

February, ,, ,. 

.. 21.4 . 

• 19' 



. ID 

April, , 

.. 28.7 . 

. 26 


. . 29 ,2 

. — 

report of 1877, as "a graceful tree, 30 — 50 feet high, 
having white, compact, fissile, but not durable wood." 
Of several trees that I raised from seeds about ten 
years since, one that was planted in the open ground 
now measures fully 15 feet in height, and one on the 
south wall of my house is 23 feet. Both are of straight 
handsome growth, bearing considerable resemblance 
to our native Weeping Birch, especially in the size 
and form of their lower leaves, but those on the upper 
branches are three to four times larger. Vou will see 
by Ihe branches before you that they are remarkably 
tough, so much so that they maybe used like packing 
twine in tying ; and I have found them very service- 
able for fastening the branches of wall trees, not as is 
usually done wilh twisted Willows, but by knot-tying. 
In fact, their toughness is so remarkable that on the 
occasion of a Botanical Club visit in 1S77 the members 
admitted that they had never fccn such toughness in 
any unmanufactured vegetable substance. Having 
devoted considerable attention in endeavouring to 
discover a vegetable fibre capable of being profitably 
cultivated for paper-making, I some years since felt 
satisfied that the tough fibrous twigs and wood of the 
Ribbon-tree would be much more suitable for forming 
paper-pulp than the native Poplar, Fir, or other trees 
now in most demand for that purpose, and in this 
opinion I have been fully confirmed by that of 
eminent paper-makers and others well qualified to 
judge. Neither of my plants have as yet flowered, 
and as their propagation is somewhat difficult as well 
as tedious ; seeds will have to be procured in consider- 
able quantity from the native habitats of the Ribbon- 
tree in order to ensure its early and extensive intro- 
duction to British forest culture. As to the fore- 
mentioned worthless and non-durable char.icter of its 
wood, it may be remarked that in young colonies the 
timber of unknown indigenous trees is generally 
judged of by its capability of withstanding the weather 
when employed for fencing and other out-of-door 
constructions, without regard to or in ignorance of its 
durability when kept dry ; hence it may be presumed 
that the fissile or splitting properties and toughness of 
the Ribbon-tree timber may recommend it for making 
riddle-rims, basket-handles, barrel-hoops, and many 
other purposes. A keen angler, on testing some small 
twigs that I gave him, reinarked that they would make 
excellent points for fishing-rods. 

2. Plagianthus divaricatus. — A small shrub, 
with many slender, spreading, tough branches. In 
all respects very different from and much inferior to 
the last, but equally hardy, and would seemingly make 
good sweeping-brooms and pot scrubbers. As it 
is only found in salt marshes, where very few shrubby 
plants thrive, its cultivation in such places might be 
found beneficial. 

nitives, and the fine-leaved Turpentine-tree of settlers). 
— "A bush or small tree, 20 — 40 feet high, with 
slender trunk." Timber, according to Captain J. 
Campbell Walker, "adapted for turnery purposes, 
and difficult of combustion." A plant 5 feet in 
height, on a south wall, withstood the last winter 
without injury, but several smaller ones of the same 
age suffered more or less in the open ground. Its 
beautiful glaucous, smooth, undulated, evergreen 
leaves render this an important addition to our orna- 
mental wall plants ; and a closely allied, species (P. 
Coknsoi) has thriven for a number of years in the 
shrubbery of iny neighbour, I. Anderson-Henry, Esq., 
of Woodend, at Hay Lodge, wdiere they now measure 
from 6 feet to over 13 feet in height. 

4. Aristotelia racemosa [Makoinako and IMako 
of the natives). — A small, handsome tree, 6 — 20 feet 
high. Wood white, very light, makes veneers." 
Has grown for seven years on a south wall, where 
its branches have frequently been partly killed down, 
but were reproduced in the following season without 
any apparent diminution in vigour. The very elegant, 
largish, irregularly formed deciduous leaves of this 
plant fully entitle it to a place on ornamental garden 
walls. Some plants which I gave to Lady Orde, 
four or five years since, have proved perfectly 
hardy in the mild west-coast climate of Kilmory, 

5. DiscARlA TouMATOU (the " Wild Irishman " 
of settlers). — "A thoniybush in dry places, becoming 
a small tree in dainper localities, with spreading 
branches, and branchlets reduced to spines 1 — 2 
inches long, which were used in tatooing " (Hooker). 

This curious and very interesting plant has stood in 
the open ground with ine perfectly unharmed for five 
or si.x years, as have also plants which I gave to Miss 
Hope, of Wardie, and Charles Jenner, Esq., Easter 
Duddingstone Lodge. The seeds from which these 
were raised were from the province of Canterbury ; 
and one of my plants produced in the middle of last 
June a number of pretty small white flowers, but 
these were not followed by seeds, owing, I suppose, 
to the inclemency of the season. 

botanists (the Toot poison-plant of settlers, and the 
Tjituox Tiia-tutu of the natives.). — The disastrous 
cattle-poisoning peculiarity of the Toot have rendered 
it too well known to New Zealand agriculturists. 
Having cultivated a number of plants for some years, 
the seeds of which I had from the province of Canter- 
bury, I found that at the base of a south wall they 
stood most winters unharmed, and had only the 
points of their shoots injured by those of unusual se- 
verity. In consequence of making some ground 
alterations at an unfavourable .season for transplant- 
ing, I lost my Toot plants three or four years since. 
Although they seemed to thrive well all the time I 
had them, they never assumed that tree-like form of 
growth which Sir J. Hooker and other New Zealand 
botanists attribute to this species, but presented more 
of a sub-shrubby habit. 

7. Edwardsia (Sophora) pulchella, and E. 
GRANDIFLORA (the native Laburnums of settlers, and 
Koiohai of the Maoris). — These two, and the E, 
microphylla, grow to about the size of our Euro- 
pean Laburnums, and, like them, have dark-coloured 
heartvvood, which is "valuable for fencing, veneers, 
&c." Although all very distinct, these three and 
another have been included under the generic name 
E. tetraptcfa ; and the first, although easily distin- 
guished by its slender, zigzag, flcxuose branches, has 
been deemed identical with the straight-branched and 
more robust-growing E. microphylla. It has grown 
quite freely wilh me for the last twelve years on the 
south side of a 7 feet high wall, which it now over- 
tops with its thickly-branched head ; and its seeds 
have this peculiarity — that while many came up the 
first season that they were sown, others came up in 
succession in each of the five following years. E. 
grandiflora was planted out in spring, 1S7S, when 
about 2 feet in height ; also on a south wall, and it 
stood the last winter perfectly uninjured. 

8. RuBus australis var. cissoides. — The 
leaves of this variety have the peculiar appearance of 
being almost exclusively composed of rigid, prickly 
midribs. It and several other varieties form thick, 
rambling, very prickly, various-sized bushes, and are 
all about equally hardy, standing our severest frosts 
in moderately sheltered dry places. They are termed 
"Lawyers" by the settlers, and Talaraiiwa by the 

9. Leptospermum scoparium (the Tea-tree 
and Brown Myrtle of settlers, and Manuka of 
the natives). — A pretty white-llowered, large ever- 
green bush or small tree, the leaves of which are used 
as tea, and the twiggy branches for brooms. Among 
a number of three-year-old plants in the open ground 
several almost escaped injury, while others were more 
or less killed down. Like No. 4, it appears to be 
perfectly hardy in our west-coast climate. 

10. Fuchsia excorticata (Ivohiifupu/ii of the 
iiatis'es). — This once common inhabitant of our green- 
houses, although never entirely killed, has its shoots so 
frequently cut down as to prevent it from flowering, 
and gives it a sub-herbaceous appearance. 

11. FucH.siA procumhens. — This pretly litlle 
trailing plant, which within the last few years has 
become common in our greenhouses and flower 
shows, has stood on a rockery for the last three years, 
and appears quite hardy. 

12. Aciphylla Colensoi (the "Wild Spaniard'' 
and "Spear-grass" of the settlers, A'urikuri and 
Papaii of the natives). — In Sir J. D. Hooker's 
Handbook of the New Zealand Flora this extraordinary 
evergreen herbaceous plant is described as forming a 
circular bush, 5 — 6 feet in diameter, of bayonet-like 
spines, impenetrable to men and horses, having 6 — 9 
feet high flowering-stems, covered with spreading, 
spinous leaflets. In another description its leaflets 
were stated to be as long, broad, and rigid as British 



[January i?, liJSo. 

bayonets, and a great deal sharper. Induced by these 
descriptions! procured a number of packets of " Wild 
Spaniard "seed in different years, but only one of those 
packets produced plants, and that after they had lain 
in the soil over one year. Although a real umbel- 
liferous plant, it has more an appearance of some of 
the dwarf Palms ; and an eminent botanist to whom 
I gave a plant, had it included among such in a list 
of his varieties which he afterwards sent me. The 
Carrot-worms knew better; for on looking at my 
pot of seedlings one morning I found that they had 
destroyed more than the half of them. Planted on 
rockeries where fully exposed, several plants have 
stood uninjured for live or six years. The strongest 
of these flowered last summer, when it sent up a 
flower-stem nearly 4 feet in height ; but owing, I sup- 
pose, to the very wet and cold weather, it damped or 
rotted off without perfecting seeds. 

13. Griselinia :.iTroRALis.— According to Capt. 
J. Campbell Walker, this in its native localities 
is a handsome tree 30 to 40 feet in height, the timber 
of which is hard, compact, and of great durability, 
valued for fencing-posts, sills, boat-knees, &c. A 
plant, now about 6 feet high, has stood in the open 
ground without injury for eight years. As as orna- 
mental broad-leaved evergreen it is superior to the 
common Bay Laurel, and is decidedly hardier than 
either it, the Laurustinus, or the Aucuba japonica ; 
hence its cultivation is being rapidly extended. 
Another species, G. iiiaci'oj'hvl/a, has been re- 
peatedly killed in the open air, even although hav- 
ing the protection of a south wall ; but its much 
larger and very handsome foliage entitles it to a 
prominent place among plants for house and table 

14. CoROlClA CoTONEASTER (Kofokia of the 
natives). — A low, spreading evergreen shrub, with 
thickly interlaced small tortuous branches. Two 
varieties of this curious and highly interesting plant, 
trained on a south wall — the one about 5 and the 
other fully 7 feet in height — were uninjured, and last 
spring both were thickly clothed with a profusion of 
small bright yellow flowers. In each of the last four 
seasons they have borne a few oblong bright red 
berries, which may te produced in much greater 
abundance as the bushes become older. Last winter 
some plants in the open ground were considerably 
injured, but these sent up numerous young shoots in 

(To be continned,') 


ArHELANDRA I'UMILA, Ilort. '&\x\\.; Bot. Ufa^., t. 
6467. — A short-stemmed species, with large cordate 
ovate-oblong acute leaves, purplish bracts, and 
orange flowers. Brazil, 

B.EA JIVGROMETRICA, Brown, Bol. Mag., t. 6468. 
— A Gesneraceous plant, with tufted leaves thinly 
covered with coarse white hairs, ovate acute at both 
ends, crenate serrate ; peduncles leafless, erect, with a 
few irregular violet flowers at the top. The capsule 
is elongated and spirally twisted. The plant is a 
native of North China, the headquarters of the genus 
being in the hills of East Bengal and Birma, but 
other species are found in the Philippines, North 
Australia, and in an island of the Western Pacific — 
an extraordinarily wide distribution. 

CvcN'OLUEs Warscewiczii, Foral Ma«., t. 3S1. 
— The very curious dimorphic Orchid figured in our 
columns, p. 493, vol. xii. 

Dahlia Juarrzii, Floral M.i;:, t. 3S3. — See 
Canl. CliroH., vol. xii., p. 433. 

Gladiolus urachvan'drus. Baker, sp. n., Bat. 
Mag., t. 6463. — A native of South-east Tropical 
Africa, with short leaves, and racemes of erect, funnel- 
shaped, reddish flowers, with unequal pointed seg- 
ments. Edinburgh Botanic Garden. 

Hibiscus rosa sin-exsis, Kcvuc Je t Horliculiurc 
Edge, December. — The varieties figured are those 
named Denisoni (a), and cruentus (11). 

Hibiscus rosa sinensis schizoi'etalus, Garden, 
Nov. 29. — A coloured figure of the remarkable plant 
figured by us at p. 273, vol. xii. 

LuzuRiAGA RADICANS, Ruiz et Pav., Bot. Mag., 
t. 6465. — A Smilaceous perennial, with slender wiry 
stems, sessile, glabrous, ovate lanceolate leaves ; 
nodding flower-stalks, shorter than the leaves ; flowers 
l\ inch in diameter, regular, star-shaped, pure white ; 
anthers yellow, connivent into a cone. Native of 

Chile. Thrives well in the Temperate-house at Kcw, 
and would doubtless be hardy in some localities. 

Nectarine Galopin, Florist, t. 504.— Fruit 
'•■^fgCi globose ; skin thick, yellowish-green, flushed 
on the sunny side with reddish-violet ; flesh greenish, 
juicy, melting, piquant, perfumed ; glands reniform. 
Raised at Liege by M. Galopin. A free grower and 
a good cropper. 

Nei'entues Outramiana X , Floral Mag., t, 384. 
— Pitchers green, brightly mottled and blotched with 
crimson, wings ciliatc, dentate. It is a cross be- 
tween N. Sedeni and N. Hookeri. 

Pelargonium (Decorative) Volonte National, 
Floral Mag. 3S2. — Flowers roundish ; petals undu- 
late, two upper with a deep shaded rose blotch, three 
lower with paler blotches. 

Pelargonium (Ivy-leaved) St. George, Florist, 
'• 5°3- — A cross between P. peltatum as the seed 
parent and a zonal variety which furnished the pollen. 
The leaves are of the Ivy-leaved section, the flowers 
circular, bright salmon-red. A cross as interesting as 
it is beautiful. 


This (fig. 16) is the boiler which Mr. Philip Ladds 
uses in his immense establishment at Bexley. No 
other form of boiler is here employed for heating the 
whole of his houses, which collectively represent a 
glass surface just upon 9 acres. It is a horizontal 
tubular, made of 2-inch pipes socketted into hollow 
water-spaces, which form the ends. As will be seen. 

introduction of a new tube, should one happen to be 
required, as now and then occurs through getting 
corroded by deposit from the water used. Valves 
are employed, so that each boiler can be shut off' 
from the other, as well as from the series of pipes 
which they heat. 

If a tube happens to require replacing, from the 
facilities provided for getting at it, it is done in a few 
hours through the light brickwork with which its 
sidis are enclosed, as well as the very simple covering 
over the tops of the boilers. This latter consists of 
about 9 inches of a^hes put on the tiles which cover 
the topmost tier of pipes. On the ashes are laid 
ordinary inch-boards, which rest on the walls that 
enclose each boiler, which for this purpose are 
carried 9 inches above the tiles. The boards are 
used in separate lengths across each boiler, and also 
separate lengths for the cavities, which, as will be 
understood, permits of any particular point that 
may require it being got at without disturbing 
the whole, as would be unavoidable if the 
boards were entire, running right across the boilers 
and the cavities. On the top of these boards is 
placed 8 or 10 inches more ashes. Wood, as is well 
known, is one of the best materials that can be 
employed as a non-conductor, and its eflect here is 
most marked, as the warmth on the top of the ashes 
is scarcely perceptible. At first sight it would be 
supposed that the boards so near the fire would 
ignite, but they are not found to do so, which 
is one of the best proofs that the heat from the 
fuel is absorbed by the water before it reaches the 

Fig. 16.— MR. PHiLir l\dds' boiler, (scale the same as in fig. 17,) 

these water-tubes act as fire-bars, and enclose the 
fire-space on each side as well as immediately above 
the fire, added to which there are two other addi- 
tional series of pipes above those immediately over 
the fire. The fire is made to traverse each course 
backward and forward the length of the boiler by 
means of tiles laid on the top of the pipes in such a 
way as to direct such portion of heat as leaves the 
fire-box immediately into contact with these upper 
tiers of tubes. The boiler is 6 feet in length. By the 
use of these tiles the heat is made to pass in absolute 
contact with each of the upper series of pipes— in all 
to an extent of 18 feet ; in fact, by this very simple 
division of each tier of pipes the boiler becomes abso- 
lutely a flued tubular. Its great advantage above 
that of other horizontal boilers composed of water- 
tubes IS that the heat is thus compelled to traverse 
and is brought in immediate contact with the whole 
surface of the pipes, and has not the chance as it 
escapes from the burning fuel of making its way right 
through them and into the chimney, as it would if 
the tile divisions were non-existent— a fault which 
most other horizontal tubulars have hitherto had more 
or less. 

Mr. Lidds buys the castings, and has them put 
together by his own men. The tulies are all put in 
with Portland cement— the packing being hempen 
cord material, something like an ordinary clothes line, 
not tar rope. Mr. Ladds finds that if the latter is 
used the tar destroys the cement. The boilers heat 
3000 feet of 4-inch piping each, and some of them 
over this amount ; he sets them mostly three together 
in each stokehole side by side, each enclosed up the 
sides with only 4i-inch brickwork, with a cavity 
betwixt each boiler as well as on the extreme outsides 
of about 2 feet 6 inches, so as to readily admit of the 

In addition to these boilers being cheap they con- 
sume little fuel, and are extremely powerful, which is 
evidenced by the return pipes which, after traversing 
the large houses here— over 300 feet in length— seem 
very little reduced in heat, when felt by the hand, as 
compared with the flows— a circumstance that cannot 
possibly occur without sufficient boiler-power to cause 
a rapid circulation. Something similar to this boiler 
has been used by others, but apparently it never 
became so much known as to bring it much into use. 
T. Bailies. 


The boiler here illustrated (rig. 17) is the one 
designed and used by Mr. Beckwiih, of Tottenham, 
who, as is well known, is one of the most extensive 
growers of plants for market. As will be seen, it is a 
very large one, and is immensely powerful— so much 
so, that I am not aware of anything in existence at 
all approaching it. It is made altogether of 3-inch 
pipes, cast with a smaller core than ordinary, so as to 
give increased strength and thickness to them. They 
are socketted in the usual w.ay into three hollow water- 
spaces, or, as more usually termed, coil boxes— the 
first of these, which, as shown in the illustration, is a 
square hollow water-way or rim, forming the front 
of the boiler, with a single row of pipes on each side, 
the top and the bottom. The back of the firebox, 
which is 4 feet 6 inches in length, is formed by 
another hollow water-way, in which the opposite 
ends of the pipes, which thus enclose and form the 
fire-space, are similarly socketted. 

The extension of the boiler beyond the furnace is 
13 feet 6 inches, and consists of what may be 
described as a stack of water-tubes nine deep and seven 


JAN'UARY 17, 18S0.] 



wide, socketted into the second water-space, already 
mentioned, that forms the back of the fire-chamber, 
and into the third of these hollow water-boxes at the 
extreme end, giving a length of boiler of iS feet in 
all. The whole rests, as shown, on three brick piers, 
running right across and immediately under the three 
hollow water-spaces. The current of heat which 
leaves the fire-box is directed through the entire 
length of the stack of tubes in the 13 feet 6 inches 
space beyond, and to force it to descend to the lower 
portion of them there is a division midway, composed 
of brickwork, extending across the whole from the 
top downwards to within some 10 or 12 inches of the 
lower series — without which, as will be easily under- 
stood, the action of the current of heat would in a 
great measure be confined to the upper coils of the 
tubes. After being in this manner forced down through 
the first half of the tubes beyond the furnace the cur- 
rent finds its way upwards through the second half to 
the chimney shaft. 

When set the boiler is enclosed from end to end 
with 4i inch brickwork with cavities on each side of 
about 2 feet 6 inches, formed by outer brick walls so 
as to effect any repairs that might want doing. All 
the joints with which the fire comes immediately in 
contact are made of one-fourth iron borings to three- 
fourths Portland cement alone. The return water 
enters at the bottom at the furthest end, the flows are 
of course from the top, and at each end of the boiler. 
It may be well to notice that the depth of these 
lioilers from top to bottom is about 12 inches more 
at the back than the front, and from the natural 

unusual power and economy in fuel of this description 
of boiler is unmistakably owing to their being hori- 
zontal, and to their great length— the latter an absolute 
essential, hitherto insufficiently kept in view in the 
construction of garden boilers. The small quantity 
of fuel required to drive these seven boilers would 
scarcely be credited ; yet I may state that of coal, 
coke, and breeze, the amount is in all six hundred and 
fifty tons per annum, which gives to each boiler 
ninety-three tons a year, or only an average of a ton 
and three-quarters weekly. 

Others of the market growers are adopting these 
boilers, in some cases slightly modified and reduced 
in size, according to the requirements of the respec- 
tive places where employed. Mr. Rochford, of Page 
Green, Tottenham, has two of them at work, but 
much smaller so far as the number of tubes goes. His 
fire-bars are of 2-inch tubes socketted into the front 
hollow water-space, with syphon ends at the back, 
resting in the brickwork that forms the b.ack of the 
furnace, which furnace is 4 feet 6 inches long by 
20 inches wide and 20 inches high ; the pipes, two 
in number, which form each side of the furnace, 
are also socketted into the front water-way, and run 
right through the wall at the back of the fire-space, 
and 9 feet beyond it, where they are inserted into 
another hollow water-way ; the top of the boiler con- 
sists of a double series of pipes, nine in number, 
angled, and, like the sides, running the whole length, 
are also socketteil into the front and back water-ways ; 
these tubes, which form the sides and top of the 
boiler, are all stron;; 4-inch pipes, such as used by the 

portant calculations upon them ; and I am sure Mr. 
.Smith would not risk his capital in an investment so 
vaguely described. The quotations are chiefly from 
essays contributed to the .Scottish Arboricultural 
Society, and the writers had in view the gaining of 
prizes.. The late Mr. Thomson, it will be observed, 
with one compound blow cut the round and hand- 
some ideal sum of ^^300 of somebody down to £100 ; 
and another, and by no means severe or unnecessary 
stroke, would have brought the figure down to ordi- 
nary capacity. 

Mr. Grigor, in his excellent treatise, where he 
quotes the value of the plantation at ^50 per acre, 
probably included its value as a shelter producer ; andas 
I know the plantation well to which he refers, I incline 
to this belief. I wish to state, however, once for all, 
that I am not inclined to discuss men, either living or 
dead, neither am I disposed to criticise books : to 
do the former is hazardous and dangerous, and to 
undertake the latter would involve a task analogous 
to what Solomon says of making them. The case 
under dispute is whether a .Scots Fir plantation at fifty 
years' growth, upon the poorest description of moor- 
land, is worth ^131 13^. 4'/. per acre as a marketable 
commodity, or even half that sum. My sole reason 
for disputing it is because I have never seen it, but, 
as Mr. Smith very justly remarks, others may have 
met with such subjects though I have not. What 
has been, I have no doubt is and will be, and there- 
fore I hope to hear through some source that such 
plantations actually exist in verity, and that I may 
have the pleasure of seeing them. Having from time 

Ec/.LE or iNci::^ 12 9 ^ 3 o 

Fig. 17.— MESSRS. beckwith and sons' boiler. 

inclination thus given to the lowest pipes to rise 
gradually from the back, where the return water is 
admitted to the front of the boiler, with a corre- 
sponding rise from front to back in the top pipes from 
whence the flow water proceeds, the arrangement 
helps the circulation. As will be easily understood, 
boilers of this description require to be put together 
in the place where they are tostand. They are in reality 
home-made, as Mr. Ueckwith simply buys the mate- 
rials, and has them put together by some of his 
own men. 

The enormouspower of these boilers may be judged 
from the fact that Messrs. Eeckwith, in the immense 
quantity of plants they force, in all probability keep 
up a higher temperature in a proportionately greater 
number of large houses than any other public or 
private establishment in the kingdom. In the whole 
of their houses there are over 74 miles of 4-inch 
piping, all of which is heated by seven of these boilers, 
consequently there is considerably over a mile of 
piping to each. The first of these boilers has been 
in work sixteen years, and I understand has not 
had so much as a single pipe replaced, or a joint 
made good in any way. The complete absorp- 
tion of heat before reaching the chimney can be 
easily seen through a little contrivance that Mr. 
Beckwith has devised for testing this. At the bottom 
of one of the chimney shafts, a foot or two from the 
end of the boiler, is inserted a small iron box-frame, 
something like a soot-door for cleaning out the flue of 
an ordinary boiler, and which can be similarly opened 
and closed ; during severe frost, when the fire isgoingat 
full swing the heat inside the chimney can be com- 
fortably borne by the hand thrust in here. The 

gas companies. Like Mr. Beckwith's boiler, there is 
midway, in the extension beyond the fire-space, a 
brickwork division extending right across the pipes, 
iu as to force the current of heat again to the bottom, 
from which point it rises through them to the extreme 
end, where it enters the chimney. 

Nothing could be more simple than this boiler, it 
merely consisting of the 2-inch pipes acting as water- 
bars, 4 feet 6 inches in length, and of thirteen 4-inch 
pipes, which form the sides and top of the boiler 
running the whole length, 13 feet 6 inches, and the 
two hollow water-ways back and front, each about 
6 inches : giving 14 feet 6 inches for the extreme 
length. One of these simple contrivances is now 
heating effectually 12,000 feet of glass without the 
slightest strain. So easily is the work done, that Mr. 
Rochford assures me it consumes no more fuel than a 
common 3-feet saddle usually requires, and a great 
portion of that which he uses is breeze. The second 
boiler will shortly have as much glass to heat as the 
one described. T. Baiius. 


Thinning Scotch F'ir Plantations. — I have 
read with care Mr. Smith's remarks upon my last 
article on Forestry, and am quite satisfied with both 
the letter and spirit of his remarks. I have also read 
the quotations, and do not find any of them, to my 
mind, sufficiently clear and explicit on the point. 
They all indicate what is desirable, possible, or 
probable, but none ol them give data sufficiently sub- 
stantial and positive to warrant any one basing ini- 

to time, as I had opportunity, valued the woods and 
plantations under my charge here, I annex a few 
examples taken at random from my reports, and 
shall be very glad to learn how they compare with 
others which have been carefully inspected and valued 
under like circumst.inces. No. i is what is termed a 
mixed Fir plantation, being composed principally of 
Scots Pine, with a small mixture of Larch, Norway 
Spruce, and a few hard-woods on the margins. The 
plantation was formed in 1S26, and comprehends in 
round numbers 63acres. At thedateof valuation (lS6g) 
it contained an average of 290 trees per acre, namely, 
266 Scots Pines, twelve Larch, four Norway Spruce, 
and eight various. The value of the whole planta- 
tion was /'1044 ; its stale of growth fair, making 
annually 17^. per acre ; the transferable value was 
;fl6 per acre, and prospective value, when sixty 
years old, £26 per acre. This plantation, having been 
several times thinned, and now being forty-three years 
old, is understood to have repaid the original cost ; 
hen( ■, in making up the transferable value, no allow- 
ance is made for such original outlay, but the value 
computed at the annual rate of growth. This plan- 
tation was thinned in 1870, the year after the valua- 
tion was made, and 3720 trees taken out of it, which 
on being sold by auction realised £10^ 5-r. (>'/■ The 
cutting, lotting, and preparing for sale cost ^23 6j. \il., 
and the sale itself an additional £$. 

Draining. — When the plantation was formed 
7860 yards of surface-drains were cut, and these, 
having filled up, have been twice cleaned out : the 
fence with which it was enclosed was a turf dyke 3432 
yards in length, and this has also required repairing 
from time to tmie. 



[January 17, iSSo. 

Roads. — Openings termed green roads were formed 
for clearing the thinnings, extending to 1290 yards. 
Since about twenty-five years' growth the plantation 
has been let for grazing purposes. The rent at first 
was ^5, and now it is £l\ per annum for the whole, 
and increasing. It will be seen that the highest 
attainable value of this plantation is estimated at 
only ^26 per acre — a small sum for a plantation 
whose annual value of increase of growth is 17.?. per 
acre. This is explained by the circumstance that a 
considerable number of deaths occur yearly, espe- 
cially of the Larch, the soil being too clayey and 
damp for Pine or Fir attaining age and perfection. 

No. 2 is another mixed Fir plantation, planted in 
1S44, containing 41 acres, and comprehends 345 Scots 
Pine, fifty Larch, five Spruce, equal to 400 trees per 
acre in all. The present market value of the whole 
plantation is ^^326 ; average annual growth 300 lineal 
feet per acre, value \2s. dJ.; transferable value, ;^8 per 
acre ; and prospective value, when sixty years old, 
;^2g 5/. It is let for grazing purposes at £l(> per 

No. 3 is a mixed Fir plantation, planted in 1837, 
and comprehends 14 acres. In 1868 it contained 
330 trees per acre, namely, 2S3 Scots Pine, forty-one 
Larch, two Spruce, and two vai'ious, and worth 
altogether £\2% ^s. Annual growth value, 27^. per 
acre ; transferable value, /'g per acre ; and pro- 
spective value at sixty years' growth, £^(> \ls. It 
was thinned in 1S69 to the number of 800, which 
realised by auction sale ;f 15, equal to about \\d. per 
tree ; cost of cutting, lotting, and sale, £2.. C. V. 
Michie, Cullen House, Cnllen, Jan. 12. 

Ilatkcs of §a0lis. 

Hardy Florists' Flowers : their CuUivation and 
Manageiiieiil. By James Douglas, F.R.H.S., 
Gardener to Francis Whitburn, Esq., Loxford Hall, 
Ilford, Essex. Published by the Author. 

This is a handbook of the culture of florists' flowers, 
especially relating to those hardy ones which are 
within the reach of everybody who cares to grow 
them. Sudi a book, alike concise and trustworthy, 
was much needed, now that the taste for these flowers 
is spreading amongst the general public, and now 
that new recruits may be expected to be enlisted in 
the cultivation of special flowers. Those who are 
commencing the collection of this class of plants will 
find such a guide .is this invaluable, and will welcome 
it accordingly. It is the amateur who has not yet 
bought his experience, and the professional gardener 
who has not come in the way of these subjects, and 
who consequently has no clear practical knowledge of 
the technicalities incidental to the successful growth 
of many of them, that the information contained in 
these pages will be found specially useful. It is 
to meet the want, the growing want of this in- 
formation, as the author tells us, that he has thus 
strung his thoughts together, and committed them 
10 print. 

The Rev. Mr. Horner well observes, 'in the course 
of a few introductory pages contributed to Mr. 
DougUas' book, that — 

" The spreading interest in what are known as florist- 
flowers will lead, it is hoped, to their gaining the favour 
and influence they deserve to hold in the floricullural 
world. Floral fashion may be to blame lor much, but if 
there has been really a forsaking and forgetting of florist- 
flowers, a heartless fashion has perhaps been least 
amongst possible causes. For these special flowers have 
not found a home in formal gardens, where play of 
changeful fancy was likely to displace them. They were 
never in the hands of those to whom flowers are mere 
masses of so much colouring matter in natural paints ; 
for whom garden arrangement, forms and tastes must 
ever alter — as though the garden were a huge mechanical 
optical toy, setting forth (like the child's kaleidoscope 
with its magic stained-glass flower-lieds) a new combina- 
tion of its colour-sets at every periodic twist of fancy. A 
touching history, if it could be written, would be the 
nurture and ministry of florist-flowers. They have been 
the delight of many a man in whom the love of Nature 
was inborn and inextinguishable, but whose means were 
very spare, whose leisure time was very scant, and whose 
advantages in pure air and light and garden space were 
very poor and cramped." 

On such as these did the spring smile in his 
Polyanthuses, his Auriculas, and his Pansies ; and on 
such as these did the summer ,'pour forth its bloom 
of Tulips, Pinks, RanuncuUises, Carnations, and 

Picotees ; and thus through one or more of these 
media the love of Nature found expression, and 
enough to live upon. 

Mr. Douglas has done good service to the floral 
cause by contributing to its literature at this juncture 
a handy little volume, which will prove "a guide to 
the stranger ; a remembrancer for him who may not, 
since long ago, have been able to tread the floricul- 
tural paths he loved of old." Both may repose con- 
fidence in the directions and instructions of one who 
has had the heart and the opportunity to grow skilful 
in the culture of the flowers of which he treats, and 
who has proved his right to an honourable place 
amongst the floral fraternity by his position on the 
prize lists at the floral exhibitions. 

The volume comprises chapters on all the more 
popular of our old hardy florists' flowers, as the 
Auricula, Polyanthus, Pansy, Tulip, Pink, Carnation, 
Picotee, Hollyhock, &c. ; on some of the more 
modern subjects, as the Gladiolus, Pentstemon, 
Phlox, Pyrethrum, &c. ; and on one or two other favourites, as the Dahlia, Chrysanthemum, 
&c. The increase, cultivation, and exhibition of 
these are briefly but clearly treated on, and a selec- 
tion of choice varieties is added as a guide for the 
purchaser. There are several illustrations, some from 
our own pages, scattered through the work, and the 
printing and get-up leave nothing to be desired. 
Thus, we have in Hardy Florists'' Flowers not only a 
trustworthy but a tasteful and presentable little 

Vegetables, and How to Grow Them. By 

Joseph Lansdell. Leicester: H.J.Marshall. 

This small brochure, as stated in the preface, is a 
condensed work of the practical experience of the 
author in growing vegetables for twenty years in 
some of the most noted gardens of England, and is 
intended for the use of amateurs. 

From a perusal of this little work, there can be no 
doubt of the sound, intimate, and practical knowledge 
which the author possesses of the subjects on which 
he writes, and there is much useful information to be 
found in its pages. The management of the ground, 
rotation of crops, and modes of cultivating the 
various sorts of vegetables, &c., are of the very best, 
and, carefully followed, would insure success ; but it 
is more the ordinary practice of the professional 
gardener that is detailed, than simple rules for 
amateurs to follow. For example — in the planting 
of Asparagus our author states that, to avoid the 
roots being exposed, it is best to have three men 
— the first to take up the plants, the second to 
place them, and the third to cover or plant them. 

It seems a pity the author should not have had 
this little work better revised before publication. 
There is scarcely a page free from some stupid or 
amusing blunder or miss-spelt word, that completely 
spoils the whole. For instance, in speaking of the 
rotation of crops, what can be understood by " No 
one kind of vegetable should be planted on the same 
ground unless it is Potatos " ? And again, in speak- 
ing of Lettuces, "Where slugs are troublesome, 
they should be watched night and morning." "A 
good plan is to take a flower-pot half full of fresh 
lime, and put them in as you catch them" — rather a 
sluggish occupation if followed literally. " Borecoles 
are to succeed a crop of Peas or Gooseberries " — as if 
Gooseberries were a rotation crop ; offset Onions are 
to be "sown thickly, in the same way as /iV/i/« ; " 
and, amongst Onions, " Covent Garden pickles is a 
good one." 

The mistakes in spelling are very numerous — 
for instance, "bulb«ous" for bulbous, "Castle 
Hardy" Beet for Castlenaudary, " Scrymar's " for 
Scrimgeour's, " Ay;-ton Castle" Leek for Ayton 
Castle, "large yellow Korton " Leek for large yellow 
Roiton, "large Rowin Leek " for large Rouen, 5;c. 

Bulletin de la Federation des Soeietes d' Horti- 
culture.- — The volume of the Bulletin o[i\\c associated 
horticultural societies of Belgium for 1878 is before 
us. It is largely occupied with statutes and official 
reports of the societies constituting the Federation, 
including a full report of the last quinquennial exhibi- 
tion at Ghent. In addition there is a compete list in 
French and Flemish of Belgian fruits; M. Morren's 
useful "Correspondance Botanique " ; and a detailed 
report by M. Delchevalerie on the horticultural 
section of the Paris Exhibition. 

Aiinuaire de r Horticulture Beige. — A uscfid 

little publication, intended for the special requirements 

of amateurs. The contents are very varied, and 
there are numerous illustrations, some of which, how- 
ever, arc rather coarse in execution, and have been 
carelessly printed. 

77/1.' Bio'^raphical Encyclopicdia of the Nine- 
teenth Century. — A recent part of this beautifully got 
up publication contains a finely executed portrait of 
lion. Marshall Wilder, and a sympathetic biographi- 
cal notice. 

Publications Received. — Proceedings 0/ 

the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelflda. 
Part II. April — October, 1S79. — The .Sizing of 
Cotton Goods, and the Causes and Prevention of Mil- 
dew. By William Thomson, F.R.S. Edin., &c. 
(Hey wood, Manchester). — Tlie Trees and Shrubs of 
Fife and Kinross. By John Jeffrey and Charles 

^ ark It ^eeralioiTS. 


Cauliflower. — The delicacy and excellence of 
this vegetable chiefly depend on the rapid and vigorous 
growth which the plant makes after it has once 
started. This circumstance, when considered in con- 
junction with other points, such as the nature of the 
plant and the mode of cultivation, renders it a subject 
which requires more than ordinary attention on the 
part of cultivators generally. Like all the rest of the 
Brassica tribe of plants, the Cauliflower requires soil 
of the very best description, which has been well cul- 
tivated, is moderately deep and highly enriched, and 
for a igeneral crop an open space is to be recom- 
mended. In the first instance the primary object in 
cultivation is to obtain a supply of it ready for use by 
the time the crop of Broccoli is either exhausted, or 
its quality has become so greatly impaired, and itself 
so unpalatable as to be unfit for certain purposes ; 
and secondly, to continue a subsequent supply as re- 
quired throughout the rest of the season, which only 
terminates when frost comes and renders a con- 
tinuance utterly impracticable. 

I may here remark that it is the extreme prolonga- 
tion of the season of certain culinary subjects which, 
under such changeable and conflicting circumstances 
as those to which we are exposed in this climate, is 
the cause of almost ceaseless anxiety and attention in 
order to attain the end required. In our endeavours 
to meet these requirements from year to year, the 
autumn seed-beds are here prepared on an open space 
where the soil is rich, and the seeds are sown about 
August 20. As early kinds we prefer Frogmore Forcing 
and Early London, with Walcheren as a late sort. 
We also grow another very excellent variety, which is 
not yet in commerce, named Bailey's Selected : this, 
undoubtedly, will prove to be the best extant. When 
the plants are ready, the most advanced of the early 
sorts are carefully lifted, and potted firmly in rich 
soil in 60-sized pots, and placed in an open frame 
where protection can be afforded. By-and-by these 
plants form the early section, and are planted out 
under hand-glasses, at the base of south walls, and in 
other sheltered places which have been prepared for 
them. By about the first week in February the next 
or second section of plants is taken from the same 
beds, and pricked out into prepared stuff", somewhat, 
adhesive and rich for lifting purposes. These plants 
are intended for the general crop, and are not trans- 
planted until about the first week in March, when 
they are placed with all the material possible ad- 
hering to them, about 2 feet 6 inches apart every 
way, on an open flat, in some of the best ground at 
command. The third and last section of plants, 
which we obtain from the same beds, are the smaller 
plants ; these are put into 60-sized pots, and kept as 
cool as possible during the winter months, and after- 
wards are removed in the pots to the back of a 
north w.all, and subsequently planted out tow.ards 
the end of May. On this occasion part of the plants 
are planted on north borders. By these means we 
h.ave been able invariably to meet all demands for this 
vegetable until such time as others come in from the 
early spring sowings, which should be made first in a 
frame or in a sheltered corner early in February, and 
another out-of-doors about the end of March. These 
plants undergo the same preparation by being pricked 
out in the first pl.ace, and then transferred to where 
they are to be grown afterwards. We find that by 
this process the plants become strong and sturdy, and 
capable of withstanding the attacks of those pests 
which under other conditions are so troublesome to 
this tender subject. 

The after-cultivation consists of merely stirring the 
surface soil occasionally about the plants until the 
mulching material is applied, which should be done 
before vigorous growth proceeds, after which all that 
is required will be copious supplies of water whenever 
dry weather prevails. When the heads begin to 
appear shade them from atmospheric influences by 
covering them with some of the larger leaves oft' the 

January 17, 18S0.] 



plant, and in the autumn months, if frost is expected, 
they should be taken up with a ball of earth attached 
and placed out of the reach of frost until they are 
wanted for use. In addition to the varieties which 
we have already named we can also confidently re- 
commend for autumn use Veitch's Autumn Giant and 
Dickson's Eclipse — the latter kind here has proved 
to be very true in its character and invaluable as an 
autumn kind, so much so that this year we are trying 
it beside such sterling sorts as those which we have 
before named. 

Ordinary matters which will now demand attention 
in this department will include the making of succes- 
sional sowings of Peas, Beans, &c., and to the arrears 
of any kind of work which has been neglected, which 
will need immediate attention in order to be ready for 
the purposes for which it is wanted at the time re- 
quired. G. T. Miles, IVycomhe Abbey. 


Orchard House. — When writing last on this 
subject, it was stated that the trees for late houses 
wintered out-of-doors were being moved into the 
house. They are now under cover, the pots washed 
clean, the trees all looked over to remove dead wood, 
of which there is none on the young trees, and but 
liule on the old ones ; and it may here be mentioned 
incidentally, that when some of the branches die back 
on old trees and continue to do so during the season, 
it shows that they are not vigorous enough to produce 
good fruit, and that they must be replaced with 
young ones as soon as they can be prepared. 
" Maiden " or trees one year from the bud may yet 
be potted, if this was not done in the autumn. 

There is one side of orchard-house culture that I 
have not looked at in these notes, and that is the 
profitable one. In the first place there are quick 
returns. A pot tree the third season from the bud 
will produce a fair crop of as good fruit as can be 
grown by any other means, and if it is ripened 
earlier than out-of-doors fruit, it will command a 
ready sale. Strawberries ripened on shelves near the 
glass in orchard-houses are of splendid quality, and 
may easily be ripe two or three weeks earlier than 
those out-of-doors. Lettuces and other vegetables 
may be produced early and of good quality from 
the borders ; and when all is done that can be done 
in the production of fruit and vegetables, the house 
may be cleared in October for a display of Chrysan- 
themums — not to produce cuttings or plants for 
sale, although there could be no objection to include 
this, but to produce cut flowers late in the season, 
and for this purpose only those that would command 
a ready sale should be grown. That the above system 
of management may be successfully and profitably 
carried out I am certain. 

In the late house we admit plenty of air at present, 
and we are rather careful as to watering the trees at 
the roots ; they are not watered until they really want 
it, and then enough is given to thoroughly moisten 
the ball of earth. A look-out must be kept for 
sparrows — in bad weather they like the dry warm 
air of the orchard-house, and repay us for the shelter 
by eating the flower-buds as soon as they show 
colour ; it may be necessary to place netting over the 
ventilators to keep them out. The glass and wood- 
work of our house, too, is quite coated with the 
"blacks" after the last fog, and it ought to be 
washed thoroughly ; this is even more needful in the 
house where forcing has commenced, as the swell- 
ing buds require all the light at our command 
at this season of the year. In fact, we never have 
too much light for Peach trees in England. J. Douglas, 
Loxford Ilall. 

Orange House. 

We are now gathering very large and good 
flavoured fruits of the St. Michael's variety. It is not 
quite so full of juice as we have had it in other 
seasons, but is certainly better in that respect and of 
superior flavour to the foreign fruit. It is best to 
place the trees in a cooler house when the fruit is 
quite ripe, and as soon as it is gathered the trees may 
again be placed into heat, or they may be kept in a 
coo! dry atmosphere for a month or six weeks. This 
plan may be pursued when the fruit has ripened in a 
Pine or Cucumber-house ; but if the house is entirely 
devoted to Orange culture the temperature may be 
lowered for a few weeks, and the alnjosphere be kept 
r.ather drier than usual. A period of rest such as 
the Vine requires is not necessary for the Orange tree. 
The way in which the blossoms burst into full beauty 
before the ripe fruit has been gathered shows this ; and 
I have obtained crops from trees for three successive 
seasons plentiful in quantity, of large size and excel- 
lent quality, that had been kept in a high temperature 
all the time. Some of the trees will blossom this 
month, and it is desirable to keep up a temperature 
of 60' at night for them and a rather dry atmosphere. 
J. DoKglas, Lo.xforU Hall. 

Peaches and Nectarines. 
Early houses, where space is limited, offer great temp- 
tations to the gardener who has Strawberries or Tea 

Roses, and other subjects requiring gentle excitement. 
These advance very well together until the Peaches 
come into bloom, when it often happens that the pot 
plants are removed to another structure and frequently 
leave a legacy in the form of greenfly behind them. 
To secure freedom from these pests during the bloom- 
ing period, and to prevent their spread into other 
houses, the Peaches should be carefully fumigated 
before the flowers begin to open. It is just possible 
that constant syringing may have kept the enemy out 
of sight only to appear in troublesome numbers 
when the dry warm fertilising period arrives ; and as 
fumigating injuries delicate flowers, every Peach- 
house, whether it be used for pot plants or not, should 
be smoked when this stage has been reached. Where 
forcing was commenced in November the buds on the 
most forward trees will now be opening. If ferment- 
ing material has been used, the moisture given off, 
combined with the occasional damping of paths and 
walls, will produce suitable atmospheric con- 
ditions for the present. 

Some growers adopt the plan of fertilising their 
Peaches with a camel-hair pencil, others apply 
the syringe or a hive of bees ; I give preference to the 
pencil, as the latter have disagreeable propensities. The 
foundation of a good set of fruit, however, depends 
more upon the work of the past autumn, and the pre- 
sent state of the roots, than upon detailed management 
at the time the trees are in llower. The cautious 
cultivator will of course adopt some method for 
securing his end, and I 'am doubtful if there is any 
plan better than the use of the brush on fine days, the 
ventilators being kept open as much as possible, 
unless the weather is very severe, with sufticient fire- 
heat to maintain a temperature of 50° by night to 60' 
by day, with a few degrees above or below these 
figures on bright days or severe nights. Succession 
houses that have been recently closed will require 
precisely the same treatment as that recommended for 
the early house ; s) ringe freely on all favourable 
occasions, force with constant ventilation, and fumi- 
gate before the flowers open. IV. Coleman, Eastiior. 


Orchids. — Members of the Miltonia family should 
now be examined to see if any of the plants are in 
want of more root-room, as the present time is the 
proper season to repot them. M. Clowesii and M. 
RegncUii, both strong-growing species, are best 
grown in pots in equal parts of fibry peat and sphag- 
num. The pots should be at least two-thirds full of 
drainage. Keep the plants well elevated above the 
rim of'the pot, with the base of the bulbs just touch- 
ing the compost, so that the young breaks now push- 
ing will be free from anything likely to rot them. 
Plants that do not require more root-room should 
have the surface of the old soil carefully picked out 
to the depth of .an inch. The space thus made should 
be filled up with a layer of broken crocks and char- 
coal and a top-dressing of peat and sphagnum. A 
very important item towards success in growing these 
two Miltonias is to see that the numerous small roots 
now pushing from the last made growths are in no 
way injured or devoured by insects. The dwarf- 
growing M. spectabilis and M. Moreliana are best 
grown in pans, and as they extend themselves rapidly 
in every direction they require considerable rooting 
room. Old plants which have grown bare in the 
centre may now be broken up. All spent bulbs 
should be cut away and the growing pieces made up 
afresh. Those pieces which have but few roots to 
hold them steady must be pegged down to the com- 
post, as they will never succeed if the least loose. 
With the peat and sphagnum use liberally small 
pieces of crocks and charcoal. M. Candida, with its 
beautiful and rare variety, grandiflora, may be treated 
exactly the same as M. Clowesii, but a fortnight hence 
will be soon enough to repot it. The white-lipped 
M. cuneata must not be disturbed at the roots now, 
as its spikes will be far advanced. This plant is not 
so much grown as it deserves to be ; its best form is 
certainly a first-class Orchid. The whole of the 
Miltonias mentioned will grow thoroughly well in a 
rather shady part of the intermediate-house. When 
grown in a very light position their foliage becomes 
far more yellow than is desirable. Frequent waterings 
must be given when throwing up their flowers ; at 
all other times the compost should be kept moist. 

Any plants of Vanda ccerulea which require more 
root-room should at once be seen to, for already a 
more rapid growth has commenced, and in a week 
or two young roots will be numerous. Nothing suits 
this plant better to grow in than an upright Teak 
rod cylinder. The rods should be kept at least half 
an inch apart, which will allow a free circulation of 
air amongst the roots, and for this Vanda should be 
about 15 inches long. The lower leaves of the plant 
need only just clear the tops of the rods, and with the 
exception of a thin layer of sphagnum at top, nothing 
more is necessary for the roots but crocks and char- 
coal. Plants that do not require more room must 
have all the old sphagnum picked out previous to 
being refurnished with fresh. Abundance of water 
must now be given at the roots. If at any time cock- 

roaches or woodlice harbour in the cylinder, plunge 
it for a few minutes in water, when they will rise to 
the surface and may be easily destroyed. 

The following species of Calanthe, namely, C. 
veratrifolia, C. Masuca, C. Dominiana, and all others of 
the evergreen section, will now be in the middle of 
their growing season, and will take frequent large 
supplies of water with an occasional dose of weak 
liquid manure. The members of this family are 
frequently troubled with brown scale, which must 
be kept under by sponging. A liberal shift should 
now be given to pot-bound plants of Cypripedium 
Sedeni, C. Schlimii, C. purpuratum, C. Harrisi- 
anum, C. insignc, and its varieties. The pots should 
be one-third full of drainage, secured by a layer of 
sphagnum. Lumps of peat mixed with a little 
sphagnum, and a moderate quantity of broken 
crocks and charcoal, will grow to perfection 
any of the above species. Water at all times of the 
year must be freely given. For the want of water 
and root-room many Cypripediums look anything but 
flourishing. Plants of Zygopetalum niaxillarc that 
have covered their blocks of Tree Fern stems, must 
now be seen to, as they will be starting into 
growth. We simply wire the old block on to a 
larger one, and the plant soon takes hold of the 
added portion. This Zygopetalum must never be in 
the least dry. So soon as Z. Mackayi and Z. crinitum 
pass out of flower let them be either repotted 
or top-dressed : fibry loam, and plenty of crocks 
and charcoal mixed with it, will suit either to 
root in. 

Imported plants of Lxlia anceps and L. Dawsoni 
should be potted at first in nothing but broken bits of 
crocks and charcoal. No water must be poured over 
the bulbs or rhizomes, or they will rot. W'ater once 
a week may be poured through the crocks to keep 
them moist, which will induce the plants to make 
fresh roots. The atmosphere immediately surround- 
ing these imported plants should be well charged 
with moisture. Both plants require a light position 
in the Cattleya-house. Plants of Dendrobium Ains- 
worthii, D. crepidatum, D. crystallinum, D. Boxallii, 
D. primulinum, and others, which have pushed out 
their flower-buds, will now require a more generous 
treatment in every way to enable them to properly 
develope such buds. In every case get the plants well 
to the light in the East Indian-house, so that the 
colours of the flowers may be clear and rich. J. C. 
Spyers, Binj'ord Lodge, Dorking. 


At the time of writing the weather is comparatively 
mild, and the ground in good working condition, so 
that such groundwork as altering walks, Hower- 
beds, lawns, &c., may be pushed forward. 
Ground may also be levelled and turf relaid 
or renewed, the best turf that I have found 
for the purpose being that on which sheep have 
grazed. Prune and train climbers on walls. Some 
of the best climbers that I have found to suit town 
are Ampelopsis hederacea and Veitchii, Passiflora 
courulea, Rose Gloire de Dijon, and Wistaria sinensis : 
these are on a south wall — the latter is a very shy 
bloomer here. 

Of plants suitable for forming permanent edgings 
of flower-beds Euonymus radicans variegatus stands 
the best, and is the easiest kept in order. Next in 
rotation is Euonymus flavescens and Euonymus 
japonicus variegatus, but this has a tendency to go 
green ; and Euonymus latifolius variegatus, which is 
rather tender. 

In wintering Echeverias, the best mode of pro- 
cedure with this succulent — invaluable for bedding 
purposes— is to make up a two or three light box, as 
the requirements may demand, and put 6 inches of 
drainage in the bottom in the following manner :— 
3 inches of brickbats, 3 inches crocks or clinkers, 
with a coating of rough soil on the top to keep the 
drainage open. Take the Echeverias up in the 
beginning of October, selecting a dry day for the 
purpose, take off all offsets, and shorten the stems a 
little ; place them in close together, working a little 
gritty soil amongst them. Do not give them any 
water till spring, when take the opportunity of a 
bright sunny morning : water early so that they 
may get dry before night. Cover them up well at the 
approach of frost, .and as soon as it is gone the covering 
should be taken off, and they should have all the light 
and air possible ; if the covering is left on too long 
they become blanched, which makes them very 
tender, and when exposed to the air and light they 
often turn black. By this mode many hundreds 
may Ije wintered in a small space with very little 

Lobelias should now be brought into heat to start, 
and a hotbed be made up of leaves and manure for 
striking the cuttings ; they strike far better with me 
here in a frame plunged in a hotbed, than in the 
regular propagating-house. Two of the best old sorts 
that I have found to suit here are Lobelia speciosa 
for a dark blue, and Blue King for a light blue, for 
ribbon borders. IVm. Gibson, Royal IIosJ<ilal 
Gardens, Clielsea, S. IV, 



[January 17, 1880. 



( Sale of lapan Lilies. Cape ISulbs. and Roots, 
Mo.ND.W, Jan, It; < at Tokcnliouse Yard, by I'rotUcroe & 

( Morris. 
,,, „ . f Sale of Miscellaneous Stock, at Stevens' 

WeDNESD.W, Jan. 2i \ j.,,,,,,,^ 

„„,„,„ , „ y Sale of Lilium auratum, &c., at Stevens' 

Frid.\v. Jan. 23 \ ,^„„„,, 

WE all of us know by observation, if not 
experience, the ill-effects produced 
by the abuse of fermented liquors. It will not 
be altogether surprising to learn that various 
diseases to which the human frame is liable are 
or are plausibly supposed to be due to some 
process of fermentation, or to the consequences 
thereby engendered. Less generally known is 
it that the process of digestion in animals, 
as also in the leaves of the so-called in- 
sectivorous plants, is accompanied by a 
similar phenomenon. But there are ferments 
and ferments, and the character of the 
changes they bring about varies according to 
their nature. The whole subject of fermenta- 
tion is very complex, and just now of special 
interest and importance, not only from a purely 
scientific point of view, but also from the stand- 
point of practice. Thousands of people are 
ready to sneer at what they would consider the 
time wasted in observing Bacteria and fungi of 
microscopic minuteness, because from want of 
training they have never come to appreciate 
the value of knowledge for its own sake. Tens of 
thousands, however, would be able to appreciate 
the importance of such observations when it is 
made known to them that the knowledge so ac- 
quired is immediately available in the prevention 
and extinction of certain forms of disease. In 
surgical practice, for instance, no greater boon — 
not even the discovery of anesthetics — has 
been conferred than that with which Mr. 
Lister's name is connected, and which is 
based simply on the prevention of the access 
to wounds after operations of those minute 
organisms which have, by his experiments and 
those of others, been proved to set up fermenta- 
tion in the fluids of the body, and consequent 
fevers, pyxmia, and other more or less fatal 
complications. To have well-nigh abolished 
the ill-effects of these malignant visitors to the 
h.ispital wards is no mean result of what some 
might consider laborious trifling._ 

A pamphlet of Dr. Hagan, Professor of Ento- 
mology in Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass., which was commented on by Mr. 
McLachlan at the last meeting of the Scientific 
Committee, draws attention to another phase of 
the subject which has special interest for the 
gardener. Dr. H.\GAN'S notion is, that ob- 
noxious insects of all descriptions may be killed 
by the application of the yeast fungus. Every 
one must have observed unfortunate (lies stick- 
ing to the window-panes in autumn and in- 
vested with a fine tuft of delicate cobweb-like 
threads. Those threads are the spawn of a 
fungus, which has caused the death of the fly 
by its rapid growth. The extremely minute 
spore, or, as we may popularly term it, seed, is 
deposited on or in the body of the fly, germinates 
therein, feeds on its substance, and speedily 
kills it. If, then, under what we may call natural 
circumstances flies may be killed by fungi, why 
may not flies and other creatures whose presence 
is undesirable be killed of set purpose by like 
agency? We need not enter into details as to 
the kinds of fungus alluded to in Dr. Hagan's 
pamphlet. There are doubts and conflicting 
statements as to this point. What is asserted 

positively is that mould (or mildew) introduced 
into mash produces fermentation and the for- 
mation of a yeast fungus, which kills insects. A 
Prussian naturalist. Dr. Bail, has, it seems, 
proved by numerous experiments that healthy 
insects brought into contact with mash 
and fed with it are directly infected, and 
with fatal consequences. A small drop of 
blood taken with the point of a needle from 
the body of a house fly so fed has been 
seen under the microscope to be teeming 
with spores of the fungus. Dr. Hagan pro- 
poses to turn this to practical account by using 
beer mash, or diluted yeast, by means of a 
syringe or a sprinkler. Plants infested with 
greenfly, for instance, may be so treated. 
Nevertheless, says the Doctor, " I should not 
be astonished at all if the first trial with this 
remedy would not be very successful— even a 
failure. The quantity to be applied, and the 
manner of the application, can only be known 
by experiment, but I am sure that it will not be 
difficult to find out the right method. I myself 
have more confidence in the proposed remedy, 
since it is neither an hypothesis nor a con- 
jecture, but simply the application of true and 
well observed facts." The Doctor adds a 
supplement to his paper, showing how various 
experimenters have tried the experiment, but 
we are bound to say with no great measure of 
success, amply sufficient, however, to justify 
further experiment. The application of diluted 
yeast to greenhouse pests is so easy that we 
may hope with Dr. Hagan that numerous trials 
will be made, and that the remedy " may prove 
to be a great benefit to horticulturists." It 
seems like setting a thief to catch a thief, but 
it may be none the less effectual for that. 

While the seedsmen, owing to the defective 
harvest of 1879, are very properly recommend- 
ing their customers to sow their seeds much 
more thickly than usual in consequence of 
many of them being imperfectly matured, it is 
well to caution gardeners of all degrees not to 
be too anxious to sow early. If the vitality of 
the seeds be of a less reliable character than is 
generally the case, it is obvious that, in order to 
give them as good a chance as possible of ger- 
minating in a satisfactory manner, that they be 
sown under conditions most favourable to this 

There is a great, an almost feverish, anxiety 
with some gardeners to sow early. If we are 
favoured with a bright day or two in January 
there are thoughts of sowing Beans, Peas, 
Lettuces, &c. In cases where the soil is light, 
early, warm, and well-drained, sowing can be 
pretty safely done in January, provided the 
weather be suitable for the proper carrying out 
of this operation. If the soil be heavy, late, 
cold, and retentive of moisture, it is like courting 
failure to sow before Nature has had time to do 
her share in preparing the ground for the 
precious seed. 

Many sowings of seeds made in the spring 
of 1879 perished because of the uncongenial 
character of the soil. Our misfortunes should 
teach us wisdom, and the lessons of failure 
should be to make the gardener careful — exer- 
cising the virtue of forethought, and waiting 
patiently till the conditions were most favour- 
able to the well-being of the crops. It is all 
the more necessary these virtues be exhibited 
at a time when it is important to take more 
than ordinary care in sowing for the season on 
which we are now entering. 

The Gardens at Blaize Castle. — To- 
day we give another illustration (fig. 18), from the 
pleasure grounds of Blaize Castle (see p. 49). The 
present view is of a dell with a pool in the centre, in 
which hardy aquatics are grown, and the surrounding 
banks clothed with suitable plants, interspersed in 
summer with Agaves, Yuccas, and others of like 
description, forming a cool and agreeable retreat. 
The gardens and pleasure grounds are well kept by 
Mr. LODEK, who has been gardener and general 

manager here for thirty-five years. He is an old Syon 
Houseman, whose loveand knowledgeol his profession 
are such as to mal;e his acquaintance most enjoyable, 
especially to those connected with the pursuit. The 
grounds, we understand, are open to visitors every 
Thursday by previous application to Mr. LoDER, 
Those who visit the place should not leave vvilhout 
seeing the Henbury Cottages, built by the late Mr. 
Harj-ORD for his old servants and other deserving 
individuals with limited means. They are ten in 
number, all detached ; their construction and the 
position they occupy is such as to give the whole a 
most picturesque, snug, and home-like appearance. 
They are very commodious, all or nearly all dis- 
similar, placed irregularly on a broad grassy slope 
well sheltered by trees, and by their arrangement 
there is a privacy secured not usual in dwellings of 
this description. 

The Island of Socotra.— On Friday 

evening last, Professor Baylev Balfour left London 
en roiile for Aden, from which he hopes to reach 
Socotra, the exploration of the natural history of 
which has been entrusted to him by the committee of 
the British Association. Professor Bavley Balfour 
carries with him strong official recommendations to 
the Government of Aden, which is a dependency of 
India. He will have to rely on chance facilities for 
teaching the island, from which, however, he, with 
his collector and attendants, will be fetched away in 
.\pril by the Assistant-Resident, Captain Hu.nter 
(who sent the Somali Dracaina and Myrrh plants to 
Kew), when he makes his accustomed visit in the 
flovernment steamer to pay the annual subsidy to the 
inhabitants, by which their adhesion to British inte- 
rests is secured. The results of Professor B.wley 
Balfour's mission are anticipated with much inte- 
rest, as hardly anything is known of the natural his- 
tory productions of the island, which the traveller 
Hn.LDEBRAND failed to reach. The zoological col- 
lections will be deposited in the Britiah Museum, 
while the botanical will be sent to Kew. Mr. Alex- 
ander Scott, of the Edinburgh Royal Botanic Gar- 
den, who was strongly recommended by Mr. Sadler, 
accompanies the expedition as chief collector. 

Ceylon : Coffee-leaf Disease.— Mr. II. 

Marshall Ward left London at the same time as 
Professor Bayley Balfour (whom he will accom- 
pany as far as Aden), en roiile for Ceylon, to take up 
his duties as cryptogamist, charged with the investiga- 
tion of the Coffee-leaf disease. The departure of Dr. 
Trimen, the new director of the Royal Botanic Gar- 
den, Peradeniya, is necessarily postponed for a few 

Coffee-leaf Disease. — We understand 

that the publication of the book which Mr. Morris 
has undertaken to write, for the Coffee Planters' 
Association, on the Coffee disease of Ceylon and 
Southern India may be shortly expected. 

jArANESE Curiosities. — The main (e-ature 

at the meeting of the Scientific Committee, on Tuesday 
last, consisted in the exhibition of a large and miscel- 
laneous collection of objects collected in Japan by 
Mr. Maries while travelling for Messrs. Veitch. 
The room in which the objects were displayed was 
ill-adapted for the purpose, but it was understood 
that this was a private view for the special behoof 
of the committees, and that probably, in due time, a 
public exhihilion under more lavourable auspices will 
be made of the objects which have been got together 
by Mr. Maries' industry and judgment. By the way, 
could not Messrs. VEircii contrive to exhibit some 
from their rich stores of Japanese and other curiosities 
at one of the eonvcysaziones of the Society, and so 
add a novel attraction for the Fellows ? To show the 
interest and variety of Mr. M.vries' collection we may 
note the following particulars. The photographs gave 
a better idea of the beautiesof Japanese landscape than 
any we have previously seen ; the Japanese pictures 
were curious and excellent in more senses than 
one ; the little tea-pots carved out of the rhizomes of 
the Bamboo into the form of Nelumbium flowers, &c., 
were tempting enough to make lovers of the curious 
break the tenth Commandment. The fans from For- 
mosa consisted of sheaths of the Bamboo, on which 
were traced artisiic designs with great freedom by 
means of a red-hot wire. We may say en passant 
that the large sheaths of Dendrocalamus giganteus 
grown at Syon House are utilised in like manner for 


January 17, 1880.] 



fans, designs being painted on them. Bow and arrows 
from Yesso, used by the aborigines (the Ainos) ; 
Japanese war-horn (a huge shell), used by the Daimio 
of Nanguoka j fossil from Ichang, China, called by 
the Chinese "pagoda" stone; snakes, various, col- 
lected in China and Japan ; birds, collected above 
Hankow, on the Yang-tse river ; insects, various, 
from North China and Japan ; Millet (mountain), 
cultivated in Japan ; square-stemmed Bamboo ; stone 
hatchets found on Yokohama Bluff; land shells, 
China and Japan ; hornets' nest, Japan ; a Japanese 
nursery picture; Chinese passport for Formosa; 
Japanese pictures ; recent Japanese botanical work ; 
"photographs of Japanese trees ; fungi (various), in 
bottles. These form op.I)' a portion of the treasures 

that careful experiment, with the most jealously strict 
regard to accuracy, will alone avail to bring out any 
reliable conclusion. The Journal of the Royal llor- 
ticullitral Soiicly would be rendered worthy of its 
name were we able to record on its pages such work 
as this, if undertaken aud carried out in a truly scien- 
tific spirit. The title of F.R.Ii.S. would then cease 
to be, as in too many instances it is now, a l^ox ct 
priclerca nihil. 

AUBRIETIAS. — No hardy plants appear to 

have stood the wet summer and the recent severe 
frosty weather better than the Aubrietia ; in cold, 
wet, shaded spots, where no sunshine falls, and where 
the wintry wirjds play with unchecked violence, have 

the Warwickshire Agricultural Society, held at 
Atherstone last year, in connection with which there 
was a display of horticultural produce, it was pro- 
posed that a meeting be called shortly to take into 
consideration the desirability of holding an annual 
horticultural exhibition in the town, .as the one held 
in conjunction with the agricultural show was the first 
flower show which had been held in the town for 
twenty years, and was a decided success. From the 
statistics produced by the local secretary it appeared 
that there were nearly 700 entries for the horticultural 
department. The show was entirely got up by the 
local committee, and the whole management of the 
same devolved upon the floral committee and the 
local secretary. As an exhibition in itself it was 

Fig. iS. — view of a dell in the grounds of l;laize c.wtle. (see p. bo.) 

brought home by Mr. Maries. His plants comprise 
numerous interesting and beautiful subjects, which 
will make their appearance in due time. 

Improved Potatos. — A well-known experi- 
mentalist .isks— " Has it been proved by any com- 
petent experimentalist that the Potato can be 
' improved ' by selection from the tubers ? For 
myself, I offisr no opinion, having made no special 
investigation of the subject. Bud-variation is a 
known phenomenon, and the Potato tuber is a bud : 
the thing, therefore, is possible ; but far more correct 
information than any we possess is needed to throw 
any real light on the subject. A new year lies before 
us, and it would be well if a few of the rising young 
Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society (and old 
ones, too, for that matter) would take up such subjects 
as these and work them out, remembering, however. 

been seen large and luxuriant tufts of Aubrietias grown 
from quite small slips planted out in a stiff soil 
last winter, that are perfect as hardy foliaged 
plants. In addition to its possession of the quality of 
endurance, we have nothing like it for early spring 
work in our gardens ; it it quite distinct in aspect and 
hue from anything else found there, and rarely perish- 
ing from those causes which will destroy numberless 
other plants. Whether it be the cold and wet of 
winter, or the heat and drought of summer, it is 
equally tenacious of existence ; and it is almost one 
of the earliest to bloom, putting forth its flowers ere 
winter has relinquished the reins of government ol 
the elements. 

Proposed Horticultural Exhiiution 

AT Atherstone. — At the final meeting of the local 
committee formed for carrying out the exhibition of 

superior to any previously held in connection with 
the Society, and it is to be hoped that it will be found 
practicable to hold an annual exhibition which might 
with advantage be held in connection with a show of 
dairy produce and a bee show. 

Fruiting of Yuccas. — The good offices of 

the moth (Pronuba Yuccasella), at one time con- 
sidered essential to the fertilisation of these plants, 
would seem to be by no means always necessary. Mr. 
Van Volxem tells us that in Rome some twenty 
years ago he observed numerous candelabra of dry 
pods on some of the Yuccas, and, amongst others, on 
those of Y. aloifolia fol. var. From the latter he 
procured seeds, all of which, however, produced 
green-leaved seedlings. In Mr. Hanbury's garden 
at La Mortola, near Ventimiglia, in 1S77, several 
species fruited. The pulp around the seeds has a 



[January 17, 1880. 

rather agreeable sweet taste. It seems clear, then, 
ihat allhougli the Pronuba does sometimes act as a 
match-maker, her mediation is not always required. 

A Midland Counties Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation has been formed under distinguished patron- 
age, for the encouragement, improvement, and 
advancement of bee culture, particularly as a means 
of bettering the condition of cottagers, agricultural 
and labouring classes, as well as the advocacy of 
humanity to that most industrious of labourers — the 
honey bee. Mr. James Nohi.e Bower, of Knowle, 
near Birmingham, has kindly consented to act as 
honorary secretary. 

Twin-flowered Eucharis are not un- 
common, but we have rarely seen so perfect an 
example as one sent us by Messrs. Ker, of Liver- 
pool, who received it from Mr. Delamere, of 
Bootle. Messrs. Ker tell us it is the third flower 
produced by the plant, so that there is some hope 
that the sport may be perpetuated. 

The Seed Trade. — From Messrs. \V. H. 

& II. Le May's Circular we learn that — "Owing to 
the unfavourable weather which prevailed throughout 
England last summer, there is an entire absence of 
new home-grown seeds ; but, fortunately for con- 
sumers, there is a fair stock of sound yearling English 
seeds in the hands of merchants and speculators. 
These remarks apply equally to red and white 
Clovers, Trefoils, and grasses. The crop of red 
Clover in America is above the average and of fine 
quality, and in consequence of the rise in prices, 
owing to speculative demand induced by the failure 
of the English crop, large shipments have been made 
to this market. In Germany red Clover is a fair 
aver.age as regards both quantity and quality, but of 
white and Alsike the crop is very small and the 
quality poor, owing to the heavy rains. In France 
the crop of red Clover is somewhat below the aver- 
age in quantity and of poor quality. Trefoil is not 
more than half a crop, and the quality is poor ; 
Italian Rye-grass yields an average crop of fine 
quality. The crop of grasses in .Scotland and Ireland 
is considerably below the average in quantity and 
weight per bushel, but there is a fair amount of heavy 
seeds still on hand from last year. Taking all things 
into consideration, it is our opinion that the present 
prices will not be exceeded if buyers will restrict 
their purchases to their immediate requirements." 

The Rainfall in Northumberland. — 

Mr. David Inglis, Howick Gardens, Jesbury, 
Northumberland, sends us the following details of the 
rainfall at that place in 1879: — Jan., 1.59 inch; 
Feb., 3.55 inches; March, 0.84 inch; April, 2.15 
inches; May, 2.73 inches; June, 3. So inches; July, 
5.56 inches ; Aug., 3.63 inches ; Sept., 0.86 inch ; 
Oct., 0.91 inch; Nov., 3.06 inches; Dec, 1. 14 
inch — the total depth for the year being 29.82 inches. 
In twelve days 6.90 inches fell, and the greatest fall 
in twenty-four hours was on July 21, when 1.48 inch 
fell. The number of days on which .01 inch or more 
fell was 204. In 1877 38.32 inches was recorded, the 
greatest depth there has been for the last forty years. 
Howick Gardens are about one mile from the sea, 
and 130 feet above sea level, consequently much 
damage from frost is never experienced. 

Japanese Plants. — In the list of Japanese 

plants and bulbs introduced by Mr. Fortune, which 
we published at p. 11, there is an important omission, 
i.e.. Primula japonica and its varieties, which we now 

The Wood Trade. — Messrs. Churchill 

& Sims state in their Circular that " The wood 
market has participated in the general improvement 
in the trade of the country which m.ade itself evident 
in the closing months of 1879. The importation into 
the United Kingdom, which had fallen off consider- 
.ably in 1878, shows a still further reduction in 1S79, 
the import having been little more than two-thirds of 
that of 1S77. It should be noted that the London 
railway sleeper import has been 90,000 loads less than 
that of 1S78 ; making allowance for this, it will be 
seen that the arrivals of wood into London for general 
purposes have exceeded those of any previous year 
except 1877. The demand, however, has been fully 
equal to the supply, and the stocks, although con-, are not in excess of the probable require- 

ments of the trade during the months in which the 
shipping ports will be closed. While the importation 
and consumption of the United Kingdom have been 
declining, the wood trade of London has been in- 
creasing. This increase is due not merely to a larger 
local demand — the port of London continues to grow 
in favour both with the importer by reason of the 
excellent dock accommodation it possesses for the 
storage of stocks, and with the shipowner by reason 
of the facilities it affords for the rapid discharge of his 
vessels, which, now that steamers are so freely em- 
ployed in the trade, becomes a more important con- 
sideration than ever." 

Date Palm Wine. — As is well known, a 

kind of wine or toddy is procured from many of the 
Palms, notably the Palmyra (Borassus flabelliformis), 
and the Cocoa-nut {Cocos nucifera). From the Date 
Palm, which is most valued for its fruits, only com- 
paratively small quantities of wine are obtained. In 
some notes on the Date Palms cultivated in the oasis 
of Laghouat in Africa, it is stated that Palm wine 
(the " lakmi " of the Arabs) is furnished by trees 
which must be at least forty years old, or in full 
vigour. If the Palm is very old and about to be 
sacrificed the terminal bunch is cut, but if it is in- 
tended to preserve the tree, a circular incision is 
made below the terminal bunch, which is carefully pre- 
served ; the fluid is conducted by means of a reed to an 
earthen pot. The yield is from seven to eight litres of 
wine daily. At the end of a month, which period is 
seldom exceeded so as not to enfeeble the tree, only 
about three or four litres are obtained. The collection 
being terminated, the incision is carefully closed with 
clay or earth. The Palm thus treated and well irri- 
gated will furnish Dates again in two years, and 
sometimes in the following year. The Arabs of the 
South use large quantities of palm wine, collecting it 
daily as a fresh drink. The bottles employed by the 
Arabs are of thin glass, the corks are tied down with 
string, upon cutting which they fly out, and the wine 
effervesces like champagne. Its colour is opalescent 
and rather milky. The odour is slightly exciting, 
and its taste at first is very agreeable, and some- 
what resembles bottled or sparkling cider. When, 
however, the wine has lost its carbonic acid it has an 
inr.ipid flavour. After being two months in bottle 
the wme appears not to undergo any material change. 
Its density is the same, but its acidity is rather more 

The Show-house at Kew. — We believe that 

the present unsatisfactory state of the decorative and 
purely horticultural department of the Royal Gardens, 
is nowhere felt more keenly than by the officers at 
Kew. Something, and indeed a good deal, must be 
credited to the prolonged repairs to which the houses 
were subjected last summer owing to the hailstorm, 
and other causes already referred to in our columns. 
The organisation of so vast an establishment, deal- 
ing with such different and so diverse interests, 
presents great difficulties in keeping every part up to 
a uniform standard. We have reason, however, to 
think that changes have been already in contempla- 
tion, which will tend to bring the horticultural 
department up to the same level of excellence, 
as is generally admitted to have been reached in the 
case of the other plant collections. 

Barkeria cyclotella. — This Orchid, 

which proved so attractive to the cognoscenti on 
Tuesday last, must, as it would seem, be equally or 
more attractive to certain insects. In any case, on 
the lip is a reddish-violet spot the size of a fourpenny 
piece, and pressed down close to it is the column 
bearing the anther. Any insect alighting on the 
flower would be attracted and guided by the patch 
of colour, and in its attempt to get at the honey in 
the spur must needs lift up the anther so as to squeeze 
himself in, and, in so doing, inevitably remove the 
pollen masses. The cut on p. 72 will show this 

Dasylirion glaucu.m. — At Handcross 

Park, Crawley, Sussex, the fine seat of J. Warren, 
Esq., a handsome specimen of this well known 
exhibition plant is now in flower in a house devoted 
to Agaves, Bonaparteas, and other succulent plants. 
The flower-spike is 10 feet high, and in general 
appearance is not unlike a gigantic spike of Celosia 
pyramidalis, but less feathery, and of an indescribable 
silvery-grey colour. The plant flowers so seldom in 

this country, that we hope shortly to give its 

Evergreen Peaches. — Some trees this 

winter seem to justify such an epithet, as, even after 
all the frost we have experienced, the leaves of some 
varieties still remain unhurt on the tree. We noticed 
this at Mr. CuTnusn's nursery at Highgate lately, 
and now Mr. BuNN, gardener at Hanger Hill, near 
Ealing, sends us a number of leaves as green as in 

Jerusalem Artichokes. — It has been 

noticed this season that the lifted tubers of Jerusalem 
Artichokes are large, much knotted, and uncouth in 
appearance. This is mainly owing, perhaps, to the 
wet season, which caused an unwonted growth in the 
foliage of these Artichokes, and caused them to take 
on an ugly and ill-shapen appearance, much as 
Potatos do when strongly grown. Those who grow 
the Artichoke for market purposes plant it in a stiff 
loam, and the excessive wet of the summer, causing 
the soil to run together, interfered to some extent 
with the regular swelling of the tubers. Some say 
they are more watery than usual when cooked, which 
is perhaps another result of the wet summer. An old 
gardener of many years' practice asserts that while the 
Jerusalem Artichoke will grow in almost any soil and 
situation, to have fine roots it should be planted 
in a rich mellow loam, in an open airy part of the 
garden. Now-a-d.ays gardeners plant this esculent in 
an out-of-the-way part of the garden, as if it were of 
no account or of but little value. It is a very prolific 
plant, and from a small piece of ground a consider- 
able supply can be drawn if the soil be suitable and 
some attention is given to the cultivation of it. The 
crop should be lifted in November when the stalks 
are quite withered, and the roots laid by in dry sand 
or housed as Potatos for use during the winter. If it 
is desired to discontinue the bed every tuber should 
be diligently searched for, or they will surely grow if 
left undiscovered in the ground. 

Transport of Seeds in the Time of 

LiNN.liUS. — The conveyance of seeds uninjured 
through adverse climates is still imperfectly under- 
stood, though it is now known that many seeds may 
be safely transmitted in earth which is neither too 
moist nor too dry. This was the chief difficulty 
encountered by the early introducers of exotic planls. 
In looking over some of' correspondence 
we find frequent allusion to the various contrivances 
for packing seeds so that they should retain vitality. 
John Ellis, F.R.S., who was the first to demon- 
strate the animal nature of corals, tried a number of 
experiments in preserving the germinative power of 
seeds during long voyages. In one of his letters to he says : — " I am now smearing over the 
acorns of the Quercus that bears the cork with a thick 
solution of gum arable, which soon dries ; others I 
cover with wax, others I enclose in clay and 
gum arable ; each acorn is covered or smeared 
singly. I sh.all enclose others in clay and tow, 
or flax, worked up together and then dried. 
Others I cover with a mummy made of pitch, resin, 
and bee's-wax, in equal quantities. They are after- 
wards put into jars, some in sand and some in paper, 
and some in boxes, and then covered up close and 
kept cool on board ship. This is the method I pro- 
pose to bring seeds from China ; and am now trying 
the experiment only for a short voyage to Charles- 
town, South Carolina, to Dr. GjVRDEn." Replying to 
this informs Ellis that " Fresh seeds may 
with great facility be conveyed in the following manner 
from any distant country. Fill a glass vessel with 
seeds, so deposited in dry sand as not to touch each 
other, that they may freely perspire through the sand, 
tying a bladder or piece of paper over the mouth of 
the vessel. This gl.ass must be placed in one of larger 
dimensions, the intermediate space of about 2 inches 
all round being quite filled with three-parts nitre, one 
of common sea-salt, and two of, all pow- 
dered and mixed ■together, but not dried. This mix- 
ture will produce a constant moisture, so as to pre- 
vent any injury to the seeds from external heat ; as 
has been proved by experience." This method may 
have answered in some cases, but it did not meet 
with Ellis' approval. In another letter Ellis states 
that he had succeeded in raising a number of acorns 
of the English Oak, which had been preserved in 
bee's-wax fourteen months. These acorns were put 
into an earthen vessel, into which the melted wax had 
first been poured, and before it was hardened the 

January 17, iSSo.] 



acorns were put in ; being first well dried on the 
floor of an airy room for a month. Tea seeds, how- 
ever, that had been enclosed in a coating of wax half 
an inch thick, failed to germinate after the voyage 
from China. Subsequently Ellis was successful in 
raising many imported seeds of the Tea plant and 
various other plants, which had been preserved in 
wax. He found this was the best substance to pre- 
serve the vitality of seeds. ELLIS used to send his 
seeds to Aiton' at Kew. 

Orchids in Flower. — The following 

Orchids are now in flower at Messrs. James Veitch 
& Sons', Royal Exotic Nursery, King's Road, 
Chelsea : — 

Calanthe nivalis 

„ Tiirneri 

,, VeitchiiX 

„ vestita 

„ ,, lutea 
Chysis Chel=onix 
Cuslogyne cristala 
Colax JU20SUS 
Cypripedium barbatum 

,, Boxallii 

,, albo-purpureumX 

, Dayamiin 

„ Harrisianum X 

„ Haynaldianum 

„ insigne 

,, SedeniX 

„ selligerumX 

„ venustum 

,, vexiilariumX 

„ viilosum 
Cattleya Tiiaii^ 
Dendrubiuin endocharisX 

,, formjsum 

,, iiobile 

,, Wardiarmni 
Dendrochiiuiu glumaceuol 
Lseha albida 

„ elegans alba 

Lycaste Skiiineri 
MasdevaUia polyslicta 

„ tovarensis 
Maxillaria grandiflora 
OdoDtoglossiim Alexandras 

„ Andersonianum 

,, cordatum 

,, blandum 

,, cirrhosuin 

,, grande 

,, Pescatorei 

„ Roezlii 

,, ,, album 

,, tripudians 

,, Londcsboroughiaiium 
Oncidium bicallosuni 

,, cheirophorum 

,, divaiicatum 

,, Forbesii 

,, obryzatum 
Phalasnopsis amabilis 

,, Schilleriana 
Pleione humilis 
Re&lrepia aiitennifera 
Saccolabiufii giganteum 
Sophronites grandifljra 
Zygopetalum JMackayi 

Temperatures Registered in Edin- 
burgh. — The following is an abstract of a report on 
the lowest temperatures registered at the Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from December i, 1S79, 
to January 8, iSSo, by Mr. John Sadler, Curator. 
During December last the thermometer was at or 
below the freezing point twenty-three times, and there 
were registered collectively during the month 230° of 
frost. From the 1st till the 13th there was hard frost 
every night. On the 4th the thermometer stood at 
1°, or 31° of frost, and on the 13 th at 28°, or 4° of 
frost. On eight mornings during the month there 
was no frost, although the temperatures were not high. 
On the 25th the register was 35', while on the 26th 
it was 20°, or 12° of frost. In December, 1S7S, there 
were registered 265" of frost for the month, and the 
thermometer was at or below freezing point twenty- 
nine times, the lowest temperature being on the 14th, 
when 23' of frost were registered. Since this year 
began there have been only 2° of frost. The following 
have been the lowest readings : — January I, 32° ; 2d, 
37°; 3d, 34°; 4th, 39'; 5th, 41°; 6th, 43°; 7th, 
36° ; Sth, 30°, or 2° of frost. The thermometer 
during the day frequently ranged from 42° to 52', but 
although the weather has been extremely mild for the 
season, spring vegetation has made no start as yet, 
which is to be accounted for by the decided check it 
received at the beginning of last month. Christmas 
Roses (Helleborus niger grandiflorus) are at present 
in fine flower on the rock garden, along with Crocus 
medius. In conclusion, says Mr. Sadler, let me 
express the hope that the present mild weather is 
the ushering in of that extraordinary "wave of 
solar heat " predicted by the Astronomer Royal for 
Scotland in 1872, to begin this year. 

Scientific Serials. — Under the auspices 

of the Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S., Mr. 
Samuel H. Scudder has compiled a most useful 
work, a work indispensable to all persons engaged in 
scientific pursuits. From a small beginning it deve- 
loped into a Catalogue of Scientific Serials of all 
Countries, including the Transactions of Learned 
Societies in the Natural, Physical, and Matlie- 
matical Sciences, 1633 to 1S76. It forms a large 
octavo of 350 pages, or rather of 700 pages, for 
the paper is printed on one side only, thus 
making provision for additions. Serials devoted to 
pharmacy, agriculture, horticulture, manufactures, 
philology, i&c., have not been admitted. The plan of 
the catalogue is geographical. Thus, first inter- 
national, then Great Britain and Ireland, and 
so on, concluding with the United States of 
America and British America. Under each of 
these heads the serials are enumerated under the 
names of the places where they are or were pub- 
lashed ; the names of the places being in alphabetical 

order. Cross references are given to the locations 
and titles of societies ; and there is an index of titles. 
The total number of serials enumerated is 4390. We 
have roughly calculated the numbers enumerated 
under each heading, and we reproduce them here 
as they may interest some of our readers. Of course 
the actual number of scientific serials published in a 
country affords only an approximate idea of the scien- 
tific activity of the population of the country in ques- 
tion, inasmuch as the serial publications of certain 
important societies outweigh a legion of serials of 
short duration. The numbers are : — 

International .. .. .. .. .. .. i3 

Great Britain and Ireland .. .. .. .. 550 

Denmark, Sweden, and No.- .\ay 151 

Holland 218 

Belgium .. .. .. .. .. •■ 57 

France .. .. .. .. .. -. .. 715 

Spain and Portugal .. .. .. .. .. 72 

Italy 333 

Switzerland .. .. .. .. .. .. 103 

Germany .. .. .. .. •. .. 1128 

Austria and Hungary .. .. .. .. 30S 

Russia 107 

G/eece and Roumania .. .. .. .. 7 

Asia, south of Russian Dominions .. .. 50 

Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand .. .. 37 

Africa .. .. .. .. .. .. ■■ 9 

South America, Mexico, and the West Indies . . 64 

United States of America .. .. .. .. 437 

British America .. .. 27 

From the above figures it will be seen that the Ger- 
man serials constitute more than a quarter of the 
total, and outnumber the whole of those published in 
the English language, 

Aroids at Schonbrunn. ^ From the 

Botanisclie Zeitung we learn that there are nearly 
300 Aroids at present under cultivation in the Imperial 
gardens of Schonbrunn, Austria. 

The Royal Jersey Agricultural and 

Horticultural Society. — The spring show of 
this Society will be held on May 12 ; the Rose show 
on June 23; the summer show on August 11 ; the 
fruit show on October 13; and the Chrysanthemum 
show on November 17. 

Growers of Market Produce. — " Unitas " 

writes : — " As you have inserted the complaints of 
market gardeners will you allow me to request all 
persons interested in the matter to write a few lines, 
addressed to The Vineyard, Newport, Isle of Wight, 
in order that a meeting of market gardeners may be 
called through the medium of the Press, for the pur- 
pose of coming to some arrangement, which will bring 
us into direct contact with the consumer, and enable 
us to get the profits which ought to go into the pocket 
of the producer? With this object, I invite every 
market gardener to address a few lines to ' Unitas,' 
simply stating his desire to assist in the formation of 
a Market Gardeners' Association. If this appeal is 
sufficiently answered, I see no reason, unless some- 
thing unforeseen occurs, why we should not be in 
working order before the spring produce comes in, 
and to a great extent independent of the delays and 
disappointments of Covent Garden." 

The Weather.— General remarks on the 

weather during the week ending January 12, 18S0, 
issued by the Meteorological Office, London : — The 
weather during this period has been very dry generally, 
but exceedingly dull and gloomy over England, rather 
so in Ireland, and at times in Scotland also. The 
temperature was slightly above the mean in IreUand 
and the greater part of Scotland, but as much as 4° 
or 5° below the mean in nearly all other districts. In 
most pLaces the highest of the maximum readings 
occurred at the commencement of the period, and the 

Jowest of the minima at its close. The wind was 
generally anticyclonic — being light from E. and S.E. 
in the S., light to moderate or fresh from S. and S.W. 
in the W., and light to moderate from S.W. and W. 
in the N. At our central and eastern stations calms 
and variable airs were experienced. The rainfall was 
exceedingly slight in all districts. 

Gardening Appointments. — Mr. Wm. 

Robinson, late Foreman at The Dell, near Windsor, 
has been appointed Gardener to L. D. Hall, Esq., 
Farnham Chase, near Slough, Bucks.— Mr. Hatcher, 
late foreman to Mr. Clayton, at Grimston Hall, 
Tadcaster, has been appointed Gardener at Dobroyd 
Castle, Todmorden, which place belongs to the same 
proprietor, John Fielden, Esq. 


Having touched on Apples and Pears, and given 
a list of the best varieties suitable for amateurs and 
others to plant, it now remains to treat shortly on 
Plums, Cherries, Raspberries, Gooseberries, and 
Currants, none of which are grown to anything like 
the extent in small gardens they might be were they 
only so arranged as to make the most of the room 
and cultivated in a systematic manner. Instead 
however of this being done it frequently happens that 
trees and bushes are planted and left to run riot and 
grow unrestrained till they become mere thickets, 
impenetrable to sun and air, and without these indis- 
pensable factors, fruit, if it shosvs, cannot ripen 
properly, and must therefore be deficient in those 
attributes that make it worth having. It is often 
said that our neighbours across the Channel manage 
certain things better than we do, and in the matter 
of fruit culture we might certainly take useful lessons, 
as there they plant by the wayside and utilise every 
spare nook, the result of which is that the population 
obtain abundant supplies of an article of food con- 
ducive to their health and well-being, while here it 
is at a forbidden price, and thousands of people in 
every town scarcely know the taste of it. Much of 
this scarcity arises from the well-to-do buying it 
instead of growing it for themselves, and from the 
insecure holding cottagers have of their houses, which 
debars them from planting even could they afford 
and were disposed to do so, as on removal they 
have to leave trees and bushes behind for the benefit 
of others without any recompense. 

If landlords would only give the cottage part of 
their property more attention, and stock the gardens, 
what a boon they would confer, especially if they 
allowed more land that might be devoted to vegetables, 
as the two crops combined would not only provide 
better for the tenant's family, but the sale of the sur- 
plus would supply the very produce that is so much 
needed in our half-famished towns, and yield the grower 
wherewithal to pay his rent. We hear of the agri- 
cultural interest being at a low ebb through the low 
price of corn, and of farms being given up in conse- 
quence, and if this depression in that branch of 
industry should lead to portions of fields being added 
to labourers' gardens, there will be truth in the old 
adage that good comes out of evil, for besides the 
increased supply of produce so much required, men 
would have home interests and occupation for their 
children's leisure hours. To become useful members 
of society there is nothing like . early training, as 
habits acquired in youth stick to us through life, and 
it is therefore a matter of the greatest importance 
that they should be of the right kind, instead of such 
as lead to waste of means and time at public resorts. 


Leaving this part of the subject, however, for abler 
pens than mine to plead, I return to the point at which 
I started, and would remark that, in the choice of 
Plums it is necessary to divide them into two classes — 
the one for walls, and the other to be grown as bushes 
or pyramids. The latter mode of culture suits very 
well for the ciUinary sorts, but those used for dessert 
require a better climate— at least, that portion of 
them which ripen late, and one of the very best of 
these is Coe's Golden Drop, a Plum that should be in 
every garden. To grow it to perfection it should 
have a warm, sunny aspect facing south-east or south- 
west, where in the autumn its fruit colours up splen- 
didly, and if allowed to hang till it just begins to 
shrivel it is a perfect sweetmeat. In favoured districts 
this variety likewise does very well as a standard, and 
as it comes late in that way is often most valuable to 
afford a succession, and to yield a supply for cooking 
when others are done. Another grand-looking Plum, 
and one of first-class flavour, is the Jefferson, and if I 
were only to grow one kind this would be it, as it is 
good at all points, and makes a most tempting-looking 
dish on a table, where its large size and fine rich 
colour are sure to attract notice. Besides being so 
noble in appearance, it is a very free-bearing variety, 
and succeeds well on a wall, having a similar aspect 
to the one above-named. To come in just before this 
I would strongly recommend ICirke's, a Plum which, 
when ripe, carries a beautiful blue-black bloom, the 
fruit being round, and of large size and most delicious 

If space can be afforded for other kinds, one of 
the most desirable is Reine Claude de Bavay, and 
it is quite a sufficient recommendation to this to say 



[January 17, 1880. 

that it is in look and quality a late variety of (ireen 
Gage. Of course, this lattermust not be forgotten, 
as who woukl be without a tree of such an old 
favourite ?— and, although it does fairly well as a bush 
or pyramid, the fruit is much finer on walls, as there 
it comes larger, and colours up splendidly on the side 
next the sun. Excepting Heine Claude Violette, 
those mentioned are all that any one, even with the 
largest garden, need care about to grow for dessert, 
as they ripen at different times throughout the season, 
and are the very pick of the sorts known, and such as 
are sure to give satisfaction to any one that may 
plant them. 

Among those for culinary use the Victoria stands 
first, and this is the one for Villa gardeners and 
cottagers to plant, as it may be depended on, if the 
season is anything at all favourable, to bear enor- 
mous crops. So free is it in this respect, that I have 
seen trees weighed down to such a degree that they 
had to be propped up to prevent the branches from 
splitting or breaking ofl' ; and another recommendation 
for this particular kind is, that it is a good market 
fruit, for, being somewhat dry in the flesh, it bears 
handling well without becoming bruised or damaged 
in the way those that are softer and more juicy do. 
Prince Engelbert is another excellent kitchen 
Plum, that should be largely planted for market 
purposes, and to grow for preserves, lielle de Sep- 
tembre is a most valuable late variety, coming into 
use after the forenamed are over. This is likewise 
known under the name of Autumn Leauty, and is 
much grown in the neighbourhood of London, where 
it is held in high esteem both for its good looks and 
high quality. These and Early Prolific constitute 
the best, and will afi'ord a continuous supply the 
whole season through. Where people make mistakes 
is in planting too many kinds ; instead of doing 
which, it is far better to keep to such as are known 
and well tried, for to go beyond this entails loss of 
time and much disappointment in the end. 

Method of Cultivation.— Plums succeed well 
in almost any kind of soil, but do best in that 
which is somewhat inclined to stiffness, or has 
a cool bottom. In cases where standards are 
planted, the right way to treat them is to simply 
thin out any branches which cross each other or 
liecome crowded, that the full influence of light and 
air may be let in on the remainder ; and if this is 
attended to every autumn they will require nothing 
else, except perhaps the reduction of the ends of the 
leading shoots, should the trees grow strong and 
appear likely to become too large for their position. 

In small gardens bushes and pyramids are 
preferable, and these are modes of training and 
culture to which the Plum is very amenable. When 
trained and treated in this way, they may be kept 
to .almost any size desired by simply pinching 
or stopping the young shoots during the summer, 
which manipulation, getting rid of this woody growth 
as it does, induces the growth of spurs that bristle with 
fruit-buds. Should the soil be too good, and the 
trees prove unruly on that account, the strong ten- 
dency is easily rectified and checi;ed by judicious 
root-pruning, an operation that should be taken in 
hand as soon as the leaves fall, as then fresh fibres 
are formed before winter sets in. Plums, like all 
other fruit-trees, pay for good attention at first start- 
ing, and therefore in planting it is advisable to dig 
large holes, and to give each plant a barrowload or 
two of fresh turfy loam, which will push them mto 
bearing size quick ; and, to get them to this desirable 
stage as soon as possible, they should be left to grow 
pretty much at their will, as to cut back causes loss 
of time, and leads to no good result ; and yet many 
are very free with the use of the knife when they 
get young trees hume from the nursery. Heading 
them in then or after is the greatest mistake possible, 
as they will always break back, and the thumb and 
finger can be made to do all that is necessary in 
the summer by removing any misplaced shoot, or 
nipping out the points of such as appear to be 
taking the lead. 

In growing Plums near towns or buildings, such as 
farms, the trees require close watching, as sparrows 
strip them of their buds, and being birds with which 
we are so familiar, their depredations are seldom 
noticed or thought of, and many go on year after year 
blaming the seasons for the loss of fruit instead of 
these culprits. Being so exceedingly bold, to keep 
them oft' is a very difficult matter, but as these hard- 
billed birds are more a plague than a blessing, the 

remedy I would suggest is to get rid of the greater 
portion of them by catching or shooting them when 
in flocks on the ground, where they may be decoyed 
by a train of corn when the weather is sharp. Those 
who may feel indisposed to adopt such means can 
only escape the loss of a crop by protecting the buds in 
some way, a good plan of doing which is to syringe 
the trees with limewash, as that not only renders 
them safe from the ravages of feathered depredators, 
but cleanses them from moss and lichen, so injurious 
to the health of the bark. 


Like Plums, these succeed in almost any soil, but 
do best in a free sandy loam where the drainage 
is good. Unless the trees can be grown on walls so 
as to be protected in front by a good net it is almost 
useless attempting their culture, so fond are birds of 
the fruit. The best kinds for dessert are the Elton, 
Bigarreau, Knight's Early Black, and Bl.ack Eagle, 
the former of which is very fine and delicious. For 
tarts there are none to equal the old ^Layduke, and to 
succeed this the Morello is held in great esteem. This 
kind will grow on any north aspect and makes hand- 
some bushes, but, as observed above, the difliculty is 
to preserve the fruit. Where many are required no 
doubt it would pay well to make compact plantations 
with late Gooseberries betsveen, and net the whole 
in ; and the same with the dessert sorts, if treated as 
pyramids. By pinching these latter in so as to form 
plenty of spurs they are very fertile, but Morellos 
should be allowed to make their young wood full 
length and kept thinned out. 

Gooseberries and Currants. 
Bush-fruit of this character may be most econo- 
mically grown by planting them in rows near the 
margins of walks, to which they make good 
boundaries and are easy to get at for the purpose of 
gathering. In the majority of cases, bushes of these 
are left till they get much too old, and are not suffi- 
ciently thinned out at pruning time to bear good crops 
of well-flavoured fruit. Bad as the sparrows are for 
denuding Plums of their buds, they are even worse 
among Gooseberries, which they often completely 
strip, beginning their attacks just as the buds 
are on the move, wdien the ground may often 
be seen strewn with the parts they reject. The best 
flavoured and most choice kinds are as follows: — 
RcJs: Highlander, Crown Bob, Wonderful, Slaughter- 
man, and Rifleman ; Warrington is valuable on 
account of its late keeping qualities, as it will hang 
after all others are over. Whiles: Whitesmith, Queen 
of Trumps, .Snowdrift, Antagonist, Lady Leicester, 
and Hero of the Nile. Greens : Telegraph, Gretna 
Green, Haspool, Keepsake, Shiner, and Matchless. 
Yello-ciis: High Sheriff, Mount Pleasant, Leader, 
Criterion, Leveller, and Catherina. Among Currants 
the red and white Dutch are as good as any, and 
Lee's Perpetual is the best among blacks. Black 
Currants delight in a damp situation, and where they 
can be so accommodated the berries swell to a very 
large size, and the bushes grow vigorously. In the 
pruning and management of these they should be 
simply thinned out in the autumn, and not spurred or 
shortened back in any w.ay like the others. 

These, too, like partial shade and moisture, and 
in the culture of these the ground cannot well be 
too loose and open, their nature being to spread 
their rootlets near the, %vhere they are much 
benefited by annual top-dressings of manure, which if 
forked in at all should only be done to a slight 
extent, so as not to cause any disturbance. Rasp- 
berries are there.''ore best grown in quarters by them- 
selves where they can have wires run along the rows 
for their support, which in the. end is cheaper than 
stakes, that soon decay and require constant renewal. 
Where wires are not used the next best things are 
iron rods, .as these, .although dear in the first place, 
are everlasting. To afiord Raspberries room, they 
should be planted 4 feet apart on fresh trenched land, 
and the rods cut back to near the surface of the 
ground the first year instead of making any attempt 
at taking a crop, which only weakens them with- 
out giving an .adequate return. For general pur- 
poses there are none equal to Fastolf, which is 
large, prolific, and excellent in flavour. The White 
Antwerp is quite worth growing to afford variety on 
the dessert, and the October Red for getting a 
supply for tarts in the autumn. This varietv should 

be planted in a warm sunny spot, and cut quite down 
every year, as the fruit is borne at the points of the 
young shoots that grow during the summer ; when to 
get them strong the ground under them should be 
heavily mulched. 

No fruit is more popular, and no plants are more 
accommodating in their nature, for although they suc- 
ceed far best in heavy soil, good crops may be obtained 
by skilful cultivation in just the opposite ; but in such 
cases the plants are short-lived, and require treating 
almost like annuals, that is, as regards renewal, the 
crowns if left coming weak and too small to flower. 
Those who happen to have such a light hungry soil to 
deal with will find that it can be greatly improved by 
trenching in a good dressing of clay or marl with the 
manure, which buried in that way is very retentive 
of moisture, and therefore a wonderful help to plants 
when the weather is hot, as then they drive their 
roots down and search it out, threading it through 
and through. Amateurs and others not having had 
much experience in gardening often allow their 
Strawberry beds to become completely overrun 
instead of keeping the crowns separate and confining 
them to rows about 2 feet apart, which is the only 
way really fine fruit can be obtained, as then it has 
full exposure and the benefit of the sun, under whose 
influence it colours up and acquires its proper flavour. 
When the plants run together in masses they become 
mere weeds, and are not strong enough to bear a 
crop that is worth having, the berries being small and 
inferior in quality. I have seen excellent beds made 
by pulling old plants to pieces and using the strongest 
crowns, planting the same triangularly, three in a 
clump, at from 2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches apart ; and if 
this is done early in August during a showery time 
they soon become established and bear well the fol- 
lowing year. For getting a fine plantation quick 
there are none equal for the purpose of form- 
ing it to those in pots that have been forced 
which, turned out and kept well watered, 
bear enormously the next season, and are just 
the thing for forming beds on light lands where there 
is a difficulty in getting young runners to grow. 
Although the soil for .Strawberries should be stirred 
deeply, it is important that it be well trodden and 
made firm after, otherwise they go too much to leaf, 
and do not make such full, fine crowns, that alone 
yield .an abundance of blossoms. The practice of 
denuding Strawberries of their foliage in the autumn, 
as is often done, is a very barbarous one, and weakens 
the plants much, besides leaving them without their 
natural protection, which they stand so much in need 
of during the winter and spring. To ward off' frost 
it is a good plan to give a heavy mulching of short 
manure at this season, which will likewise be a great 
aid in stimuLiting surface-roots, and sheltering the 
same from sudden changes of weather. As to sorts, 
British Queen is one of the best where it succeeds, 
and next in point of merit are Dr. Hogg, Sir J. Pax- 
ton, and Mr. Radclyffe, which partake of the character 
of the first-named. Keens' Seedling is superior to 
any of the earlier sorts, and \'icomtes3e Hericart de 
Thury and President are the best to succeed it. For 
late supply the Elton should be grown, and this is the 
only one that makes really fine preserve, as its firm- 
ness of flesh, fine colour, and sub-acid flavour, render 
it particularly adapted for this purpose. J. S. 


In a very interesting account of the aborigines of 
Puerto Rico the following fairy-like description of 
the country is given. " It is not easy," the writer 
says, "to imagine a more lovely country, or one to 
which Nature has been more bountiful. Indeed, it is 
almost impossible to describe the varied scenery 
of some of the mountain passes in this island, 
especially early in the morning, when the grey 
mist lies like a sheet of snow in the valley, and 
gr.idually disappears under the rays of the rising 
sun. One rides through groves of trees laden I 
with golden Oranges and Bananas, to be had for 
the gathering. Rich pasture lands, studded here [ 
and there with beautiful Palms and Cocoa-nut trees, 
extend to the horizon, wherein the fat cattle are 
almost hidden by the luxuriant grass upon which 
they are grazing ; Convolvuli and other pretty wild 
flowers of a hundred hues literally line one's path. 

January i~, iSSo.] 



Coffee plants covered with their delicious white 
blossom, and gently shaded by the larger trees under 
which they thrive, offer a tempting shelter when the 
sun's rays become too warm. Rich plants of Tobacco 
promise future hours of solace to the smoker as he 
lights his native weed ; while vast fields of Sugar- 
cane serve to vary the shade of the verdure of the 
plains. Here and there a stray child, destitute of 
clothing, and wanting none as far as the climate is 
concerned, escapes from a picturesque hut of Palm 
leaves to complete the charm of the scene, and to 
carry one back to the period of the Boringuens ; but 
the smoke issuing from the tall chimney on the distant 
sugar plantation destroys the illusion, and the cruel 
negro oxen-driver who goads his overladen bulls with 
nearly half an inch of sharp steel at the end of a long 
pole, serves to remind one that it is no longer the 
Boringuen who is the possessor of the soil." 

Regarding the commercial products of the island 
sugar forms the staple article. There are at present 
385 estates and plantations of all kinds. The majority 
of thelarge sugar plantations use mills worked by steam 
machinery, which is for the most part of British 
manufacture. A few mills are worked by water-power, 
and on the smaller properties mills worked by oxen 
are still in use. There are five establishments where 
the most improved plant and apparatus are in opera-