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Full text of "The Gardeners' Chronicle : a stamped newspaper of rural economy and general news"

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http://www.archive.org/details/gardenerschronic1842gard 



THE GARDENERS' 



CHRONICLE 



FOR 



1842 




LONDON: 
PUBLISHED FOR THE PROPRIETORS, 

AT 3, CHARLES STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 



LONDON : 
BRADBURV AND EVANS, PRINTERSj WHITEFRIAR3. 



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ICSHH 




INDEX OF CONTENTS 



THE VOLUME FOR 1842. 



A. 

Aberthnw lime, 726. 

Abies, distinct from the genns Piiius, G97 

Abntilon striatum, its treatment, 793 

Acacia, a work on. announced, 128 ; cause of its scarcity, 496 j 
its treatment, 66S, 693, 709 ; platyptera, 271 j armata, adv., 801 j 
biflora, 871 

Acer campestre, 305 

Achimenes longiflora, adv., Mountjoy, 82; notes on, 176, 239; 
pcduQculata. 455; grandiflora, 607 ; adv., Mountjoy, 785; to 
propagate, 497 

Acorns, metamorphosed from leaves, 707; to sow, 745; their 
germination in water, 755 

Acrostichum aareura, 252 

Adiantum, 252 

Advertisements, remarks on, 143; gardeners*, 206 

Aeridcs Brookii,559 ; crispum, 71 1 

Affghanistan, its vegetation, 623, 654 

Agapanthus, an aquatic, 409 

Agaricus flammula, 252 

Agave americana, 496 j at Salcombe, 725 : to preserve in winter, 
809 

Agricaltural education, adv., 538; fund, 'in Scotland, adv., 866; 
labour, remarks on, 867 

Agriculture, practical, elements of, adv., 266; prize essays, adv., 
8IS; in Bermuda, 318; in Algiers, 671 ; in Italy, 679 

Aimatic compost, 273; adv., Clarke, 345; noticed, 681 

Air plants, 681 

Albumen, remarks on, 678; analysis of, 822 

Alder-seed, to sow, 561 

Algse, best works on, 321 

Algiers, its progress in agriculture, 671 

Alkalies of plants, 24 

Allcard, Mr., his garden noticed, 271, 855 

AUnutt, J., Esq., his garden noticed, 96 

Allotment system, remarks on, 867; beneficial effects of, 869 

Aloe, curious metamorphosis of, 455; American, at Salcombe, 
725 ; to preserve in winter, 809,857 

Alpaca, adv., 283 

Alpinia racemosa, 26s 

Alstroemeria nemorosa, 559 

Amaryllis Banksiana, 287 ; Belladonna, its treatment, 822; for- 
mosissima, to flower, 680 

Amateur's stoves, new method of heating, 267 : see also 348, 380, 
421 

American plants, Waterer, adv., 281 ; to transplant, 692 ; border, 
plants for, 625 ; to prepare, 652; healing plant, 497 

Ammoniacal liquor, quantity used per acre, 1 55 j its application, 
203, 221, 238, 654; experiments with, 221; upon slugs, 4/0 ; 
vapour, its effect on Vines, 725, 761 

Ammonia, to fix, 51, 251,25/, 7r2, 806; as a manure, 219, 236; 
adv., Eyton, 314; substances used in fixing, 604; hydrosul- 
phuret of, beneficial to plants, 635 ; test for, 742, 776, 853, 868 ; 
contained in the atmosphere, 774 ; not contained in sugar, 
nor in the breath, 8"0 

Amphicome arguta, hardy, 494 

Anemone, adv., Groom, 49; treatment of seed, 113; nemorosa, 
monstrous, 143 ; rivularis, 207; its treatment, 808 

Ania bicornis, 382 

Animalcules, their effect on water, 838 

Animal manures, 636. G52, 6G8, 692, 707 

Animals, habits of, 287; peculiar forms of, 640 

Anisanth, Plant's, 639 

Annuals, adv., Nutting, i ; a selection of, 94, 193, 772 ; cause of 
failure, 421; for borders, 219, 772; greenhouse, 225; to sup- 
port, 286 ; to transplant, 364 ; to save seeds of, 492 : list of 
hardy, 6O9, 772 ; to bloom in autumn, 694 

AnthEeum at Brighton, 86 

Antholyza rethiopica, its treatment, 495 j cunonia, 577 

Anthriscus sylvestris, monstrous, 143 

Antler Rose Saw-fly, described, 604 

Ants, effects of sulphur on, 269. 558 ; to dislodge, 302, 561 

Aphides, described, 3; to destroy, 57, IQ3, 321, 409, 756; to 
destroy on wall-trees, 396; on Roses, 777 

Apples, adv.. Masters, 18; Dillistone, 201; advantage of root- 
pruning, 22 ; to train, 41, 804, 820; for a lawn, 57; treatment 
of dwarf, 73; aselection of, 25, 113, 321, 756; treatment before 
grafting, 161 ; double-bearing, 319; dwarf, to graft, 453; to 
preserve, 588, 638, 805 ; trees, to protect from rabbits, 605 ; to re- 



when grafted with Pears, 697; to prune, 709; stocks for, 776 

Apricots, adv.,^Masters,' IS; to prune, 305 ; to- plant in summer,' 
561 ; cause of their un fruit fulness, 577 

April, instances of heat in, 160 

Aquatics, select, 369 

Aquilegia Skinneri, 39 ..•.■■:.' 

Araucaria imbricata, to propagate, 641; account of, 289, 494; 
disease in, 317; adv., Youell, 106; Skirviug, 377; Braziliensis, 
tender, 457, 470; hardy, 526 

Arbor-vitse, treatment of, 193 

Arbour, climbers for, 305, 836 

Arbutus, treatment of seeds, 145 

Arctostaphylus pungens, 287 

Aristolochia, its treatment, 239 ; gigas, 759 

Amott stoves, unfit for forcing, 305 ; treatment of, 337; recom- 
mended for forcing, 573 

Arthropodium paniculatum, 776 

Artichoke, contains gallic acid, 857 

Arundina densa, 239, 5H 



Asclepias tuberosa, treatment of, 73 

Ashes, soap-boilers', to use, 337 

Ash, value of the sexes, 235, 251 ; disease of, 269, 332, 455; for 
coppice wood, 285, 758 ; to renovate, 425 ; action of wasps on, 
332 ; insects injurious to, 454 ; remarks on the .sexes. 653 

Asparagus, treatment of, 97, 159, 187, 2G9, 283, 577, 593, 777, 8O9, 
857 ; to cut, 302, 315 ; its treatment at Nice, 33 1 , 347 ; in bottles, 
369, 435; large, 577, 670, 725; effect of salt upon, 435; to 
pick the fruit from, 457; grown in tin tubes, 471 ; to apply 
salt to, 729, 760 ; effect of house-slops on, 789 

Asphalte coverings at the Hort. Soc. Garden, 8; adv., Creggon, 
18 ; walks, 379 ; layer of, to prevent the descent of roots, 422 ; 
Seyssel, adv., Farrell, 800 

Asphodeleous plants, 4/8 

Assam Tea, its first discovery, 55, 67, 70, 155, 157, 607 ; remarks 
on, 726; Company, its report, 727 

Association, British, at Manchester, 419 

Aster seed, adv., Haage, 49 

Atmosphere, action of plants on, 571 

Auriculas, a selection of, 4i ; properties of, 159, 27I; adv.. 
Groom, 265; Clegg, 666 ; culture qf, 283 

Australian Colonies, narrative of a visit to, adv. Backhouse, 850 

Azalea indica, treatment of, 284, 441, 793; to cause a good 
bloom of, 381; altaclerensis, 382 J double red, 695; to propa- 
gate, 425, 641 ; adv., Rivers, 80 1 

E. 

Babingtoniacamphorosmse, 223 

Bagshot Park, noticed, 591 

Bainbridge's Guide to the Conservatory, adv. 834 

Balantium culcita, 252 

Balsams, to grow, 209, 268, 513 ; experiments on, 741 

Bamford Hall, noticed, S72 

Bank farm, noticed, 208 

Barkeria spectabilis, 455 

Barometer, improved, 254 ; price of, 8/3 

Baryta, sulphate of, 257 

Bassano Beet, remarks on, 787 ; where procured, 82.^; 

Bateman, Mr., his garden noticed, 304; Orchidacese of Mexico 
and Guatemala, rev., 512 

B'axter's British Flowering Plants, rev., 256 

Bayfordbury, noticed, 543 

Beans, to produce a second crop, 589; a preventive to the 
attacks of Caterpillars, 638; denied, 821 ; kidney, good kinds, 236 

Becium bicolor, 438 

Beck, Mr., his garden noticed, 128 

Beds for lawns, 236 

Beech-trees, their effect upon plants, 253, 332 ; not injurious, 510 

Beechwood Melon, 289 

Bees, to feed, 173, 223 ; habits of, 381 ; hives, adv., Nutt, 234; 
neglect of, 39s ; to take their honey, 422, 437, 493, 509. 545, 558 ; 
their migration, 640 ; cause of not swarming, 654 ; to preserve 
in winter, 837, 854; query respecting, 837 ; their treatment in 
Kashmir, 478 ; to cure the sting of, 509, 542 ; to hive, 525, 670 ; 
to stupify, 529; leaf-cutter, described, 573; hybernatory for, 
837; letters on, adv.. Cotton, 850 

Beetles, black, not injurious in gardens, 558; to destroy, 621 

Beet, sugar, 654; its refuse as a manure, 740; Bassano, re- 
marks on, 7S7 ; where procured, 825 

Begonia crassicaulis, 543 

Belladonna Lily, poisonous, 209 

Benevolent Institution for Gardeners, adv., 265 

Berberis umbellata, 438 

Berlin Royal Garden, 351 ; intended winter garden at, 791 

Bermuda, agriculture in, 318; advantage of emigrating to, 507; 
Remarks on, rev,, 807 

Bertha's Journal, rev. 855 

Beurre, Spence, remarks on, 713 ; Bosc, described, 868 

Bevan, Mr., his garden noticed, 336 

Bicton, noticed, 24, 128 

Bignonia radicans, to make it flower, 457; picta, 559; Tweed- 
iana,its culture, 593 

Birch-seed, to sow, 561 

Bii-ds, frightened from seeds, 19O; their habits, 237; arrival of, 
454; their natural instinct, 653 

Bischoff's History of Woollen Manufactures^ rev., 320 

Bistort, to destroy, 321 

Blackwood's Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, rev., 383 

Bletting, its derivation, 805, 838, 854 

Blight, on plants, cause of,, 454; American, to cure, 709* 741,806 

Blood, as a manure, 692, 755 

Bodmin, earliness of vegetation there, 288 

Bog-eaith, adv., Davis; 800 ,■ ■ ■ ■ • ' ■ \- 

Boiler, adv., Stephenson, 1 ; Shewen, IS; Rogers's, experiments 

■■ on fuel for^'pG; Stephenson's, described, 175," 654 ;;shape'_of 
Rogers's,^ 681 ; ^ remarks on, 693,' 710V weight and 'price of 
Slieweh's smallest, 729 ' ■ . ' . 

Bokhara Clover, 288, 3IS, 369, 761 

Bono-dust, effects of, 126, 158; to prepare, for manure, 425, 652, 
668; to detect adulteration in, 641 ; analysed, 66S; machine 
for crushing, 8O6 

Books, as prizes at Hort. exhibitions, 39 ; for cottagers, 94 ; for a 
gardener, 145; for studying botany, 161, 625, 697, 8O9, 825 ; for 
farmers, 761, 825 ; on fruit and vegetables, 841 ; on Arithmetic, 
857 ; on the Cucumber, 873 ; on drawing plans, 873 

Borders for trees, to prepare, 712 

Boronia anemonsefolia, 543 

Botanical names, English, remarks on, 467; confusion of, 509 

Botanic Garden, adv., 361 

Botany should be studied by gardenera, 37 j Indian works on, 



adv., Pamplin, 417; que.stions on, 543; Royle*s, 352; works on, 
809 

Box-edgings, to clip, 177; treatment of, 289 j branches of, as a 
manure, 740 

Brachycome, treatment of seeds, 145, 257, 269, 285 

Brande's Dictionary of Science, rev., 255 

Bread, pharmaceutical, described, 159 

Briar, sweet, hedges of, 193 

Brickdust, to strike cuttings in, 742 

Brindled Beauty Moth, described, 787 

British plants, good works on, 577 

Broccoli, adv.. Fames, l; Hammond, 105; club in, prevented, 
143; to procure a succession of, 193, 300; sorts noticed, 269, 
317; treatment of, 300; Legg's Early White, a good sort, 869 

Broughton Gardens, noticed, 560 

Brugmansia floribunda, 159; treatment of, 8/3 

Erunsvigia, treatment of, 145, 173 

Bryony, described, 555 

Buckthorn, its service in fixing loose soils, 437 

Budding, described, 89, 451, 452, 526, 541 ; remarks on, 603, 621 

Bug, to cure the bite of, 638 

Bulbs, conditions for growing, 3; which bloom in August, 41 ; 
for a greenhouse, 825; Cape, 238, 638; treatment of certain 
sorts, 397, 680, 873; adv., Youell, 537; Ehrard, 585 ; Marnock, 
585; Carter, 601 ; Forrest, 666; Sutton, 649; Corsten,753 

Bullfinch, its depredations, 221 

Bunch, described, 25 

Bundle, described, 25 

Burnes' Narrative of Cabool, rev., SIQ 

Bushel-sieve, its contents, 788 » 

Butter, bad, 23; to improve, 302 



Cabbage, season for sowing, 37, 54 ; remedy for club, 1/3, 205 ; 
seed preserved, 742 ; variegated, 207 ; Portugal, its treatment, 
257, 625; effects of soap-suds on, 47O; to^water, 510 ; butter- 
flies, to destroy, 657 ; to boil, 839 

Cacalia articulata, treatment of, 305 

Cacti, their cuUivation, 35, 241, 393, 577, 825 ; to graft, 495, 725 ; 
to pack, 529; Conway's Giant, 367, adv., 721, new, 383 

Calamus, or Sweet Cane, remarks on, 744, 757 

Calceolarias, treatment of, 113, I61, 177,337, 513; adv.,Catleugh, 
201; Major, 233; select. 776; StandisUii, 36d 

Calcutta Botanic Garden, 695 

Calico, oiled, its preparation, 177 

Calla rethi'^pica, its treatment, 605 

Callcott's Scripture Herbal, rev., 743 

Caliitricbe aqiiatica, 268 

Calycanthus, to propagate, 409. 513 ; time to prune, 56l 

Cambridge Bat. Garden, Massachusetts, 560 

Camellias, ad v., Stewart, 105; Pardie, 121; Chandler, 217; culture 
of, 123, 125, 1 39. 239, 497, 729, 857 ; cause of not flowering, 273 ; 
to propagate, 425, 529 

Campanula pyramidalis, 225,289; speculum, 332 ; liliifolia, 332 ; 
grandis, 423; Lreflingii, 591 

Candollea tetrandra, 423 

Canker, cause of, 73. 605 ; to check, in fruit-trees, 457 

Canterbury Bells, double, 471 

Cape Bulbs, their treatment, 238, 638, 697, 809 

Capsicums, their treatment at Guipuscoa, 452 ; to dry, 777 

Carbonic acid, decomposed by plants, 404, 438; assimilated by* 
plants, 405 ; its effects on vegetation, 807 

Cardoons, their cookery, 143 ; Puvis, 239 

Carnations, adv.. Groom, 49; Youell, 65; Twitchett, 81 ; Tyso, 
105; Wilson, 153; Orson, 265; Hogg, 802; Ely, 585; Norman, 585; 
A"nsell,6S9; list of, 545, 556 ; treatment of seed, 1 13, 513 ; fancy, 
in Paris, 190; Tveitchett's Don John described, 545; charac- 
teristics of the best, 556; Don John y. Martm's Splendid, 589, 
621, 638; soil for, 856 

Carrot, adv., Fames, l; manures for, 57; in unmanured soil, 190; 
Belgian, its effect on animals, 253 ; effect of spirits of tar on, 
365 ; to preserve, 693; from wire-worms, 821 ; early sort, 85/' 

Cart for distributing liquid manure, 758 

Casawba Melon, 209 

Case for plants, attached to a sitting-room, 657 

Castor-oil plant, culture of, 108 

Catasetum fuhginosum, 39; Wailesii, 2S7; abruptura, 287; glo- 
biflorum, 352 

Caterpillars, to destroy, 16I; Negro, 638 

Catlow's Popular Conchology, rev., 808 

Cats, inimical to hedgehogs, 302; white, to frighten birds, 759. 790 

Cattle, Dr. Playlair's lectures on feeding, 822,838; analysis of 

■ their food, 82 -■ ' ' ' a ■ 

Cattleya granulosa, 56 ; superba, fine variety of, 676 

Cauliflower, to produce early; 54 ; fritters.to prepare, 455; useful 

' to cottagers',-'606;' to'prepare"grpund'foir, 641 ■' ' _ ' ', . 

Ceanothus azu'reus, how affected in' various parts of Britain, 72b 

Cedar, of Lebanon, disease in, 380; to rear, 436; best time to 
prune, 545; Bermuda, to raise, 529; nitrate of soda for, 577 ; 
used in the temple of Solomon, 825 

Celeriac, its treatment, 113, 126 

Celery, adv.. Lane, 33 ; Seymour's Superb White, 37; adv., 8o5 ; 
treatment of, 174, 189, 222, 523 ; large, 624; improved by the 
application of salt, 693 ; refuted, 725 ; to boil, 8O7 

Cement for lining open gutters, 697 ; adv.. White, 72O ; Keene s 
patent, 752 

Cereus cEerulescens, 287; small-flowered Show, 632; truncatus, 



its treatment, 761 
Cesspool, to convert into manure, 457 
Chalky soil, plants suitable for, 273 



IV 



INDEX. 



ig^SM^i^MMU«iMBa> 



Chamber-ley, to prepare for use, 409 

Chamomile, restorative to sickly plants, 349, 43", 606} to destroy 

seal*' insects, 743, 8u5 
Chandler's Naisery, noticed, 72, 192, 823 
Charcnal dust, a preventive to grubs, 173; to grow plants in, 

591. 605. "41 ; injurious to bam in forcing-houses, 7^1 
Chatsworth. described, 3, 20,51. 67, 107, 18/; notes on, 143, 807; 

nearest railroad station to, 481 
Chatwin's Catalogue of Potatoes, rev., 424 
Cheese. Schabziguer, to flavour, 369, 331 

Chemistry, its objec^ 40 ; lectures on, 219. 296, 302, 318, 250, 355 ; 
adv., 267, 283; Liebig's Organic, rev., 403, 422, 438; rural, 
good works on, 425. 577 ; applied to agriculture, 493 ; horticul- 
tural, 635; its advance in Scotland, 867 
Chermes Pear, described, 156 
Cherries, adv.. Masters, 18 ; a lost variety, 70, 143 : a selection of, 

157, 772; grafted on a Laurel, 237; Laurel grafted on, 253 
Cbesnuts, Horse, to sow, 529 ; Spanish, adv., Cattel, 121 ; singular 

growth of, 557 
Chess, good work on, 729 
Chickens, to core crop in, 365 
Chicory described, lis 
Chimaphilas, medicinal properties of, 873 
Chma, effects of the late peace with. 803 ; collector for, S19 
Chironia decassata, its treatment, 761 
Chloraeas, habit of, 304 
Chorozcma varium, treatment of, 2S9 
Chou Pomme d'Hiver, 207 
Christmas Rnse, its duration in water, 205 
Clrysalids of silkworms as a manure, 755 

Chrysanthemums, good sorts, 221, 804, 8O9 ; adv., Chandler, 314; 
Salter, S33: treatment of, 436, 524; dark, 841; to force, 527; 
cause of leaves dropping, 825 
Chryseis compacta, 425 
Chrysosplenium as an edging, 23 
Chunk stoves, unfit for forcing, 305 
Cicada interropta, account of, 542 
Cider, to make, 71, 727,823,855; ropiness in, 641; refuse, as a 

manure, 740, 856 
Cinder-ashes, as a manure, 441 
Cineraria, Webberiana, 511; adv., Webber, 665 ; Ivery, 633 ; Ward, 

705 ; to sow seeds of, 593 ; caose of their leaves spotting, 841 
Cirrhoueiakim Medusse. 223; chiuense, 382 
Cisterns, slate, adv.. Beck, 2 
Citrus, remarks on, 70 
Claremont t.arfleiis. uoticed, 255, 7/5.791 
Clay, to improve. 25,713 ; to plant trees on, 126, 713 ; burnt, for 

sulking cuttings in, 8u6 
Cleanlines-s, remark*; on, 571 
Clematis, azurea, not a subject for exhibition, 289 ; to propagate, 

457 
Clerodendron splendens, 207; speciosum, cause of leaves spotting, 

76 i 
Ciey Pippin noticed, 225 

C!ianthas,.Browo on the open wall, 269 ; to protect, 825 
Climate, artificial, 367 ; mildness of, 870 

Climbers, hothouse, a list of, 57 ; to train, 70, 729 ; for a conser- 
VHtory, 73; lor a souili aspect, 16I; sweet, 273; account of, 
399; hardy, 836; good grt-enbouse, 441, 681, 873; for a ve- 
randah, 577; trellises for, 651, 667, 692, 707, 756, 772, 788, 804, 
869; for verandahs, 669; stove, 873 
Clii'tonia pulchella, its creatment, 529 
Cloth, for prottciion, 172 
Cloadheiry, lasmannian, 192 

Clover. 1 ew kinds 239; Bokhara, 268,318; Affghan, 379 
Clubbing in cabbages, to prevent, 173, 205 
Coal, shale as a manure, 6; its constituents, 385 j animal, as a 

manure, 71*7 
Cobse-i scaniiens, hardy, 172 

Cockroaches. \o destroy, 317, 332, 347, 350, 8O6 
Cock>fo' t Grass, unfit for lawns, 305 
Coeiogyiietestacea, 352 
Coe-ia htrsuta, 439 
Colchicum autunmale, 640 
CoHector, adv., 737 
Colours, rule of, 97; of flowers, supposed cause of change in, 

555 ; adv., Nixey, 26S ; to match, in planting, 301 
Coltsfuor, I., eradicate, 545, 7/6 
Columned Scliiedeaoa, 191 

Conibretum purpareom, propagation of, 129; grandiflorum, 654 
Cnmmelina coeiesns, its ireaiment, 545 
Compost, to form, 540, 572, 587 
Conciete foundations, to lorm, 5/1 
Conferva fluviatilis, 759 

ConiferEe. notes on rare kinds, 52, 652 ; to raise seeds, 83; select, 

825 ; to propagate, 219 ; new, 319; of New Zealand, 477 ; adv., 

jslasiers, 170 ; Lawson.769; Himslayaa, to procureseeds of, 857 

Conservative wall, described, 331, 6S1 

Conservatories, cooling of, 189 ; soil for, 305 ; plants for, 305, 841 ; 

Bainbridge's Guide to, adv., 834 
Cookerv, of vegetables, 94,807, 839; problem in, 822; solution of, 

936, 854, 870 
Cooley'sFigures of Euclid, adv., 235 
Copenhagen Botanic Garden, 727 
Coppice- wood, to cut, 753, 7^9 
Coprosma microphylla, 192 
Correa Harrisii 209 

Corrosive sublimate, destructive to plants, 257 
Cottage, mechanic's model, 407; criticised, 436, 453; plans for, 

468; model, 470, 492 
Cottagers, hints for. 56. 838 ; prizes, remarks on, 83, 86, 453; calen- 

-dar, H7. 453; books lor, 94; recommended to keep rabbits, 142 
Cotton, its treaiment in India, 454; oiled, its preparation, 146 
Cotton's My Bee Book, rev., 440 : adv., 3o2 
Coach Grasfi, to destroy, 8/3 
Country Shows, remarks on, 525, 542 
Cranberries, to coltivate, in England, 789 
Crane-fly, to destroy, 369 
Craisegos, the most ornamental kinds, 4, 492 
Crawshay, Mr., his treatment of the Vine, 603, 739 
Creepers for verandahs, 869 
Crewe Hall, remarkable Cactus at, 40G 
Crickets, to destroy, 422, 437 
Crinum Capense, a hardy aquatic, 599 
Crocuses, treatment of, 305 ; autumnal, 640 
Crops, rotation of, 16O, 43/ 
Crypsis aculeata, 268 
Crypt-igamic plants, adv., Gardiner, 314 

Cucumbers, adv.. Nutting, 1 ; Cathill, 17; WatkinsOD, 780; Wild, 
802; to pack. 805; Allen's Victory, 22; exhibition, form for, 54; 
boxes, adv.. Watts, 81 ; reason of becoming deformed, 97; 
Smith on, adv., 122 ; management of, 158,253,441; fertiliza- 
tion of, 172, 204, 237, 253; frame described, 172; Green's bed, 
177; to strengthen, 355; grown from -cuttings, 455 ; forwinter 
forcing, 593} singular instance of growth, 653 ; effects of nitrate 
of soda upon them, G54 ; grown in turf jiits, 710 ; nitrate of 
soda for, 745 ; to preserve, 825 ; Mills' Treatise on, adv., 834 
Conninghamia lanceolata, hardy, 457 
Cunningham's Designs for Farm Cottages, rev., 352 
Cineata nucum, described, 108 ; tenebricosus, to destroy, 273 
Curculio, to destroy, 337 ; abietis, to destroy, '409 
Currant.fly,236 

Currant, red, its improvement, 21 ; black, to prune, 25; adv., 

Cattell, 121; Black Naples, 3S0; May's Victoria, late, G07 ; 

white jam, cause of its turning red, 625 ; good kinds of, 857.; 

whife and red on the same branch, 873 

Curtis, Mr., pension to, 774 

Cuttings, to prepare for India, 558, 6o5 ; to strike in brick doflt, 

742 ; in burnt clay, 8O6 ; their treatment, 873 
Cyclamens, European species, 383; a,dv., Imons, 849 
Cynips umbraculus, 852 



Cynoglossumanchusoides,223 ^ , ^^ ^„„ ^^„ 

Cypripedium, calceolus, 381 ; treatment of the genus, 492, 542 ; 

barbatum, 223 ; insigne, 253 
Cyrtanthus, its treatment, 729, 873 
Cyrtopodiums, treatment of, 188, 409 
Cytisus Weldenii, 382 
Cytoblasts, defined, 759 



Dahlias, to keep striped clean, 8; treatment of, 113,305 ; selection 
of 113, 239, 793; Satirist, 155, 172; of 1841, notes on, 155 ; 
fancy, in Paris, 190 ; new sorts, 237 ; to grow in pots, 353 ; de- 
stroyed by wire-worm, 365, 381 ; stand for, 45? ; triple bloom, 
526; to graft, 621; kept in pits as Potatoes, 657; to preserve, 
7^6 - two colours upon one stem, 7^9; adv., Low, 1 ; Edwards, 
1 ■ Appleby. 17; Bates, J7 ; Pamplin, 17; Keynes, I/; Girhng, 
17- Whale, 17: Jackson, 33; Watts, 33; Neville, 65; Smith, 65; 
Wheeler, 65 ; Cart*er, 65 ; Essex Triumph, Brown, 801, JefiVies, 
217- Harrison, 217; Dnimmond, 249; Stein, 265; Spary, 297 ; 
Biagg 817; Dodds,817; W^hale, 72I; Meade, 737; Langeher, 65 ; , 
Mountjoy,82; Gaines, S2; Headly, 82; Jones.US? ; Mortlock, | 
137- Brown, 154; Catleugh, 201 ; Mitchell, 201; Hillier, 329; 
Wildman, 217; Evans, 753; Smith, 770: Yan Houtte, 849; 
shade, adv., Duffett, 153 

Dsedalea quercina, 252 

Daffodil, described, 172 

Dandelion for salad, 321 „ „ „ 

Daniell's manure, remarks on, 139, 171, 189. 206, 286, 638, 807 

Daphne, three new species, 206; treatment of 225 ,- Indica, 273 

Deakin's Florigraphia Britannica, adv., 186 

DeCandolle's Prodromus, noticed, 95 

Decay of fruit, its cause explained, 739 ; remarks on, 771 

Decomposition, the manner in which it is caused, 283 

Dendrobium, scopa, 591; sanguinolentum, 639; speciosum, its 
treatment, 64i ; macranthum, 743 

Deodar from cuttings, 159 

Dial of Flora, 711 

Dickson's Nursery, noticed, 352 

, Messsrs., Chester, their model-room noticed, 512 

Digitalis, new sp., adv., Gaines, 666 

Doronicum plantagineum, 8O7 

Dowoing's Cottage Residences, rev., 679 

Doyle's Cycloijeedia of Practical Husbandry, rev., 424, 576, 7U 

Drabaverna, described, 124 

Drainage, effects of, 56, 144 ; importance of, 789* 835 

Draining, machine described, isg ; tiles, made of peat, 382; cost 
of, 839 

Drains, to form, 724 

Drawing plans, best works upon, for young beginners, 52_9 

Dropmore gardens, noticed, 406 

Dryas octopetala, on its varieties, 143 

Dryraooia punctata, 639 

Dung, stable, as a manure, 321 ; its proportionate value, when 
mixed with ammoniacal liquor, 729) from inns in the South of 
France, 755 

E. 

Echeveria rosea, 239; acutifolia, 382 

Echites, suberecta, to flower, 41 ; atropurpurea, 743; zplendens, 
671 

Edgings, turf to make, 7; plants for, 37,44, 125, 333; of brick, 14-2 

Education, general remarks on, 539 

Eiseodendron Argan,332 

Eider seeds, their vitality, 24 ^ 

Elements of nutrition, 822; of respiration, 822 

Elms, gigantic, 205 

Embankments, to prevent slipping, 70 

EncyclopEedia,Britannica.adv.,266; rev.,288; Farmers'.adv.,363 

Endive, its treatment at Goipuscoa,452; Frenchmethod of cook- 
ing. 872 

Engines, hydraulic, adv., 298 ; forcing, adv., Jones, 346 

English cottage, 367 

Entomology, best works on, 23 

Epacris coccinea, adV., Low, 649; collection of, adv., Fairbann, 

Epidendrum latilabrum, 24; cinnabannum, 367; pnoenicenm, 
433: raniferum, 511 ; Grahami, 527; lancifoliura, 639 

Epiphytes, defined, 841 

Ergot, action of, 478; experiments with, 855 

Eria acutifolia, 382; paniculata, 382; polyura, 477; pannea, 639 

Erica, echiiflora, adv.. Story, 4 17 ; Neillii, 71 1 J select kinds, adv., 
Fairbairn, 569; Jackson, 721 

Erinus alpinus, as an edging, 125 

Eriobotrya japonica, its treatment, 756 

Erophila vulgaris, described, 124 

Erythrina, its treatment, 209 ; to bloogj in tbe opgn. air, 742 

Eucomis nana, hardy, 621 

Eumerus aeneus, described, 252 

Euphorbia splendens, its treatment, 761 

Evergreens, to transplant, 7, 37, 125, 175, 204, 223 ; in summer, 636 

Exhibition, horticultural, at Chiswick, comments on, 395, 651, 803 

Exhibitors, remarks on their misconduct, 69I 

Exotics, at Woodhall, adv., 394 



F. 



Fairbaim's nursery, noticed, 96. 7U 
Fairy rings, how produced, 825, 873 ^ 
Falling stars, 793, 8O9 
Fall of the leaf, 6S1 ; its cause, 724 

Farmers' and Gardeners', Hail-btorm Insurance Company, adv., 
184; Encyclopeedia, rev., 240; Magazine, rev-, 424; Calendar, 
noticed, 640 
Farming implements, where figured, 425 
Felt, natural, 759 
Fence, iron, adv., Baker, 33; on raising Quick, 142; Wl^itethorn 

recommended 793 
Fence, the, notes on, 191 
Fermentation, how produced, 439 
Fernando Po, vegetation of, 318 

Ferns, in a parlour case, 9; to raise from seed, 124; their dis- 
tinction, 206; time of sowing, 305; of New Zealand, 477 ; food 
for pigs, 691 ; adv., Pamplin, Goi ; network in their woody 
system, 825 
Fertilization of plants, 6si 
Fertilizer, Count Hompesch's patent, 603 
Ficas australis, grown without soil, 653 

Figs, adv.. Masters, 18 ; culture of, 70, 593, 761 ; capriecation of, 
317, 588; cause of fruit dropping, 441, 457; the wild kinds, 
where grown, 653; sugar extra^cted. from, 654; for an E.S.E. 
aspect, 793 
Filberts, a selection of, 9; to preserve, 574 ; treatment of, "93,825 
Fir, spruce, adv., Cattell, 121; Grigor, 802; Scotch, effect of 
snow on, 142; extraordinary growth of, 574; to transplant, 
159; toplantout, 177; citrate of soda applied to, 251 j insects 
injurious to, 709; Silver, disease in, 301, 470, 822 
Fish, as a manure, 707 ; gold and silver, their treatment, 857 
Fish-pond, to form a bottom for, 4S1 
Flax, Iriih, its improvement, 40 
Fleas, to destroy, 6g4 
Flora's Cabinet, adv., 266; dial, 7 11 
Floriculture, state of, in Frauce, ill ; in Paris, 100 
Florist and Amateur's Guide, rev., 256 
Florists' flowers, prizes for, 39, 70, HO i deception in, 509 
Flower garden, rules for, 305 

Flowers, cut, to preserve fresh, 315 ; cause of becoming double, 
321 ; cause of dropping prematurely, 384; to pack, 3GB, 457; 
supposed cause of their changing colour, 655, 637; their meta- 
morphosis, 653; autumnal, 654; winter, 681; in religious 
buildings, 655; TOP, Dickson on, 55 j a selectipn of, 93 ; early, 

857 



Flower-seeds, adv., Nutting, 1 ; Hadge, 49 ; Masters, 65 ; Kernan, 

65- Warner, 81; Brown, 105 ; Fames, 105; Sutton, 105; Lu- 

combe, 137; Charlwood, 17O; Carter, 521; Lockhart, 721 ; 

pots, dimensions of, 577; double-sided, 803; adv., Erovm, 786 

Flower-stand described, 190,457 

Flue for a propagating pit, 793 

Fly, common, remarks on, 470 ; disease among, 641; green, see 

Aphides 
Food, economical, 286 ; analysis of various kinds, 823 
Forcing, necessity of light in, 86; plants for, 209, 337; early, re- - 

marks on, 744 
Foreign parts, transmission of trees to, 539 

Foresting, its importance, 3; remarkson, 19, 54,86; good works 
on, 625 „ , ~ 

Forest trees, to prune, 110, 205, 301, 332, 363, 365, 380, 397, 43b, 
451, 453,470, 523,526, 557,588, 761, 792; adv., Rogers, 705j 
Smith, 705 
Forking Land, remarks on, 86g 
Foundations, to form concrete, 571 
Fountain in St. James's Park, strictures on, 379, 396 
Fowling-piece, new, 655 
Foxglove in November, 37 

Frames, suited to the growth of greenhouse plants, 588 
Frogs, musical, 728 

Franciscea latifolia, 366; treatment of, 873 
Froth-fly described, 608 . ^„ * 

Fruit, set without pollen, 171 ; classical, 254 ; to protect, 299 ; to 
preserve, 821 ; brought from France, 496; the metamorphosis of 
a leaf, 587, G53; cheap, 561 ; cause of its decay explained, 739 
Fruit-room and ice-house combined, 141; necessity of cleanli- 
ness in the former, 771 . t *. 
Fruit-trees, formation of borders for, 22, 142, 745 ; their treat- 
ment, 57, 873; aselection of, 93, 161, 481, 641, 657, G81, 857. 
8/3; cause of canker in, G05; seedling, 620; pruning, remarks 
on, 741 , ,, 1 
Fuchsia, treatment of seeds, 73; radicans, 127; adv., Marnock, 
138- Cripps, 153; Todd, 153; Youell, 185, 393; Catleugh, 201 ; 
fulgens, time to disroot, 161 ; to preserve, 222, 239 ; afiims, 225 ; 
corymbiflora, 225, 529; select sorts of, 273, 353, 497,841 ; adv.. 
May, 281; account of, 337; for planting out, 305 ; treatmentof, 
773- rosea alba, 423; integrifolia, 423 ; to cleanse their seeds, 
425 •• to preserve in winter, 435, 680 ; adv.. Smith, 345 : Bellana, 
437; new, 509 ; racemiflora elegans, adv., Maule. 537; St- Clare, 
adv., Youell, 633; fulgens, cause of its dropping its blooms, 
457, 470, 505, 526; in Scotland, 773; Riccartonia, 713, 726; La- 
neii, adv. 833 
Fuel, Grant's patent, 40 
Fumigation, how performed, 6 
Fungi, to preserve, 725 
Furze seed, quantity per acre, 193 

G. 

Galium aparine, monstrous, 143, 332 
Galvanic Protector, to make, 7 
Galvanism, its effect on plants, 16O 
Gardener and Practical Florist, adv. 830 . 

Gardeners, and Masters, 7, 23; and weeds, 605, 6.19; privileges of, 
142- advertisements, 206; their laws, 221; education, 222 ; ma- 
nual, adv., 82; life of, 21, 68; effects of dissipation on, / 72 ; ot 
the Hall, a poem, 791 ; imposed on, 333 ; at exhibitions, 395, 441 
Gardenias_,theirtreatment,209, 241, 76.1 ^, ^, ,. ^^^ ^^^^ 
Gardening in France, 95 ; in mines, 205 ; West Indian, 222 ; prac- 
tised by the fair sex, 725, 742 „ ,. „ 1 
Garden, on laying out and planting, 9, 85, 140, 809 ; Berlin Royal, 

351 ; new forcing and kitchen at Wuidsor, 299 
Garrya elliptica, sexes of, 873 
Gas, from grapes, 76O 

Gastrochilus pulcherrimus, 271 . j. . , ^ , * 

Gas- water to apply, 273 ; tar for walks, 318 ; prejudicial to plants, 
321; waterfor grass, 321, 623; its effects on Spinach^ 3Q7 ; on 
wheat, 655 ; mixed with leaves, 681 
Gaultheria hispida, 192 
Geine, to prepare, 303 

Gentiana, acaulis, soil for, 577 ; to sow seed of, 793 
Geodorura nutans, 589 
Geographical Society's Journal rev., 271 
Geology, lectures on, adv., 265 
Geometra hirtaria, described, 787 

Geranium, see Pelargonium; pusillum, moustrgu?, 143; eri- 
anthum, 622 ^ *. 4. ha 

Gesnera elongata, a greenhouse plant, 21; its treatment, 70 ; 
a stove plant, 143 ; situation for, 174 ; zebrina, 23 ; to "Winter, 
41; Suttoni, white, 423; longifolia, 5U 
Guipuscoa, horticulture of, 284, 452 
Gladiolus, cultivation of, 171, 205, 206, 253, 669. 680; cardinahs, 

209 ; adv., Mackenzie, 705; hardy kinds, 76I ; cunonia, 268 
Glasgow, New Botanic Garden, opened, 319 
Glass, adv., Drake, 1; violet, promotes germination, 1^3 ; coohng 

power of, 174 ; to putty laps of, 177 ; destroyed by frost, 384 
Glasses, propagating, adv., Pellatt, 266 
Glazed flower-pots, remarks on, 507, 539, 541 
Glossocomia ovata, 56 ,_,»■" 

Gloxinia, speciosa, var. macrophylla vanegata, 287; Menziesn, 

352 ; tubiflora, 743 ; to sow seed of, 793 
Glue, refuse, as a manure, 707 ; water, to destroy scale, 338 
Glycine Harrisonii, remarks on, 623 
Goat's-milk, remarks on, 742 
Godetia albescens, 223 ; grandiflora, 759 
Goldfussiaisophylla, 287; its treatment, 857 
Goldham's nursery, noticed, 367 . . ,„_ ^-, „_, 

Gooseberry, caterpillars, their destruction, 7, 86, 12b, 3D5, 38i, 
526, 821 ; adv., Masters, 18 ; Dickson, 489 ; Cattell, 121 ; treat- 
ment of, 68, 84; to preserve the fruit, 526; to force, 589 ; weight 
of, 758 ; good sorts, 729, 7^1 ; trees, newly-planted, to keep 
moist, 286; Growers' Register, rev., 775 
Gourd, the largest, 681 
Govenia lagenophora, its treatment, 126 
Government Currency Pamphlets, rev., 824 

Grafting, some absmrdities connected with, 35 ; \vax described, 
- 71,286; described, 87; stunted shoots, O7O ; remark* on, 85? 
Grafts, treatment of, 385 

Grant's patent fuel, 40 r^ ,,-> fn 

Grapes, adv., Masters, 18; in hothouses, to ^°^'=^^'Jt''J-i 'or 
grow in pots. 126; on shrivelling of, 189, 193, 237, 267, 26E), 286, 
301.317,561,689; reason for decaying, 193; forwaUs, 593. 809 . 
rust on, 289, 349. 805, 853 ; not suitable for walls m "i orf lure, 
457 ; cause of their bursting, 481 ; of not colouring, 025, /uy, 
725, 741, 757. 773; diseased, 694 ; remarks on various kinds, 
792 ; effect of ammoniacal vapour on, 725 ; Escholata superba, 
776 ; weight of, 669, 741, 820 ; Poonah, 713 ; Albert, described, 

742; gas from, 760 . .^ ^ e a r^^ r7 

Grass, cause of its dying under trees, 41 ; nitrate of soda lor, b/ , 
seed, adv., Sutton, 82 ; ammoniacal liquor for, 203 ; lor lana, 
254; cocksfoot, 305 ; to remedy its coarseness,, 761 ; for lawns, 
77G ; effect of guano on, 778 

Gray's Botanical Text-Book, rev., 695 

Greaves, as a manure, 707 , 

Green-fly, see Aphides 

Greengage-trees, to renew, 656 

Greenhouses, on their construction, 53, 76lj for amateurs, J3. 
656; portable, adv., Treggon, 154; vines for, 345; for lead-roofs, 
161 ; heating, 174, 385, 513, 697, 808; lights, their preservation, 
205; floor for, 793; plants, sweet-scented, 289; select, 80.9; 
autumnal plants for, 625 ; bulbs for, 825 ; winter management 
of, 788; plants, adv., Smith, 281; good work upon, 425; suc- 
cession, 697 ; portable plants for, 852 

Gregory, Dr., his critique upon Dr. Schleiden, 435 

Groom's Nursery, noticed, 319, 3G7, E92 

Guano, its effects, 142, 158, 189, 470, 494, 742, 771, 775, 788, 831 
equivalent for, 144; described, 161, 305; price of, 776; bowap- 



INDEX. 



plied in Peru, 222 ; its application, 286, 5-15 ; adv,, Dickson, 185 ; 
Skirving, 265; Gibbs, 818; proportion used, 321; effects on 
plants, 422, Gor ; on Potatoes, 693, "10, 8u6 j on Balsams, 741 ; 
on Turnips, 789, 806 ; for Camellias, 8i)6, 853 ; -when to apply, 
745 ; its value, 755 ; adv., 784 ; liquid, to prepare, 775, S09, 
840, 856; weight of, 873 ; Potter's artificial, adv., 690 

Guava, its treatment, 96 

Guernsey Lily, its treatment, 641, 841 

Guillemin, M., his death, 67 

Gam on fruit-trees, cause of, 923 

Gunter, R„ Esq., his garden noticed, 112 

Gymnogramma pQdata, 252 

Gypsum, its preparation as a manure, 41 ; machine to distribute, 
207; of what composed, 273 j how used, 289, 305, 321 ; where 
procured, 441 

H. 

Habranthus pratcnsis, 437 

Hacon's Pear, its origin, 2S5 

Hictnanthus, its treatment, 8/3 

Hair-dust, 273 ; as a manure, 707; adv, Clarke, 345 

Half-sieve, its dimensions, 783 

Hampton Court, forcing garden, noticed, 112 

Handbooks for the People, adv., 866 

Hand, described, 25 

Hardenbergia raacrophyila, 39 ; adv., Mamock, 13S 

Haricots, sorts of, 236 

Harrison's Garden ^Umanac. adv., 66 

Hartweg, Mr., account of, 36", 623, S23 

Hawk-moth, Privet, 513; Humming-bird. 529 

Hawthorn, the most ornamental, 4j fences, formation of, 15S 

Hay, to prevent heating, 383 

Healthian, adv., 533 

Heartsease, adv., Maule, 49; May, 49; Henchman, 121 ; Shep- 

pard, 121; Brown, 154; Catleugh. 201; J. May, 281 j Buxton, 

314; Mellon, 345; Pearson's Black Prince, 321; adv., 361 ; 

Major, 6o2; Buxton, 6^6; new, 353; treatment of, 177,513; 

good sorts, 289, 793 
Heathery, its construction and management, 316 
Heaths, Cape, management of, 140, 398, 657 ; in summer, 5/4 ; in 

■winter, 641; greatest growers near London, 793- best work 

on, 793 ; for a border, 820 
Heating by hot air, 723; remarks on, 741, 757, 771 ; Penn's 

system, adv.. Hill, 786; by hot-water, 174, 421; remarks on, 

776, S24, 357 ; new methods, 348, 380, 422, 654 
Heat, instances of, in May, ii2j in March and April, 160 ; in 

autumn, 383 
Heddon House, garden noticed, 143 
Hedgehog, notice of, 95 ; attacked by cats, 302 
Hedges, to prune, 253 

Hedychium coronarium, 252 ; Gardnerianum, its treatment, 729 
Helichrysum retortum, adv.. Backhouse, 153 
Heliotropium europoeum, 332; peruvianum, its treatment, 556 
Hellebore, powder, its effect on caterpillars, 349, 365,381, 3971 

Eastern, 47-; Olympian, 711 
Helonias, treatment of, 209 
Hemerocallis, treatment of, 23 
Henderson's nursery, noticed, 40, 223, 624 
Hesperantha longiflora, its treatment, 873 
Hexton House noticed, S72 
Herbarium, paper for, 457 
Hibiscus Caraeroni, 354; esculentas, 257 
Hippophae rhaninoides, its use in fixing loose soils, 437 
Hirundines, their use, 791 
Hoddesdon Hall, noticed, 607 

Hollies, to plant, 5, 97; size of, 205 ; berries, treatment of, 97 
Hollyhock, treatment of, 113 ; gigantic, 711 ; adv., May, 737 
Hompesch's patent fertiliser, 603 
Honey-dew, its apparent cause, 422 
Honey, effect of plants on, 330, 558 ; to take, 422, 437, 403, 509^ 

545, 55S »._/»»,»« 

Hooker's London Journal of Botany, adv., 2 ; Icones Plantamm, 
adv., 202; rev., 576: British Flora, rev., 728; adv., 6S9 

Hopean apparatus, described, 315 

Hop-refuse as a manure, 740 

Horn, as a manure, 692 ; shavings, their effect on Potatoes, S06 

Horse Chestnuts, to sow, 529 ; their use, 745 ; food for cattle 773 

Horses, cheap food for, 655 * 

Horticultural Society's garden noticed, 239,512,640; means of 
admission as a member, 609, S57; exhibitions, remarks on, 
051, S03, 857 ; Catalogue of Fruits, adv., 803 j rev. 872; privi- 
leges of the members, 873 

Horticulture of Guipuscoa, 284, 452 

Hot-air stove, 723, 741, 757; fuel consumed by, 773 

Hotbed at Ejiigiit's nursery, 25 

Hothouses, on the ventilation of, IS8; mode of heating, 348, 380, 
421 ; adv.. Watt, 722 ; regulators for, 761 ; buildine, remarks on, 
856 

Hot-water apparatus, adv., Bailey, 1 ; Weeks, 1 ; Stephenson, 1 ; 
Baker, 33; Walker, 154; Davis, 186; Shewen, 586; Corbett, 
706; pipes injurious to the roots of Vines, 529, 56i 

Houlletia vittata, 40 ; Brocklehurstiana, 366 

Hovea racemulosa, 332 

Howitt's Domestic and Rural Life in Germany, revd., 855 

Humus and humic acid, remarks on, 619 

Hyacinths, grown in Beet-roots, 5 ; management after flowering, 
107; adv., YoueU, 569; select, 625; their cultivation, 740, 756; 
in Moss, 745 ; in pots, 868 

Hybernia bramata, 254 

Hydrangeas, to turn blue, 9 ; blue, 803 ; treatment of, 369, 525 • 
mfiuence of soil in changing its colour, 654 : experiments with, 
667; sporting of, 806, 822 

Hydro sulphuret of ammonia beneficial to vegetation, 635 

Hydrotsenia meleagris, 495 

HylurgQs piniperda, remarks on, 357 

I. 

Icehouse, construction of, 6j to fill, 22, 23, 853: and fruit-room 

combined, 141 
Ice, to pack, 55, 86, S73 ; to keep out of doors, 838 ; 
Icones Plantarum, remarks on. Hooker's, 593 ; rev. 576 
Illicium religiosum, 270, 639 
Impregnation of Cucumbers, 204, 237, 253 
India, Transactions of the Agri-horticultural Society, rev., 824 
Indigofera dosua, 695 
Indigo of Africa, 6^9 
Ink for zinc labels, 139 
Insects, injurious to Apples and Roses, 332; to trees, 3S1 ; to 

Ash.&ees, 454; to des'troy with boiling-water, 509; remarks 

on theu: appearance, 509; injurious to the Pine tribe, 709: 

effect of smell upon, 757 
Ipomcea stans, its treatment, 9 ; Learii. its treatment, 161. 776; in 

the open an:, 589 ; seeds produced by, 605, 621 ; QugmocUt, in 

the open air, 591 ; rubro-cserulea, to flower, 713 
Ins, Its treatment, 113 ; firabriata, its treatment, 573: good 

kinds, 590 ; Chinese, its treatment, 681 ; bulbous, to plant, 729 : 

tuberous, good, 776 j their treatment, aos 
Isoetes lacustris, 252 
Isopogon roseus, 332 
Italian Scientific Association, 439 
Italy, state of agriculture in, 679 
Itea virginica, 332 

Ivory, vegetable, whence procured, 729, S36 
Ivy, to cover walls, 241 ; yellow-berried, 301 ; its effect on trees 

and walls, 697 ; on walls, 726, 742, 758, 773 : on water, 808 
Ixias, their treatment, 56l, 641, 669 
Isora coccinea, its treatment, 481 

Jasminura caudatum, 382; to increase, 409; to prune, 761 
Johnston's Farmer's Encyclopaadia, rev., 8, 66: ElemeAtS of 

Agricultural Chemistry, rev., 272 



Jonquils, their treatment, 809 

Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, rev., 456, C44 

Judges, remarks on their awards, 509 

Junipers, to raise from seed, 593 j notes on rare kinds, 652 

IC. 

Kale, Buda, to blanch, 113 

Kalmia latifolia, poisonous, 839 

Kashmir, floating gardens, 367 ; firuit-trees and plants of, 479 

Kennedyas, soil for, 73 

Kenrick's New American Orchardist, rev., 24 

Kensington Gardens, to improve, 380, 420 

Kew Botanic Gardens, remarks on, 123; notes on, 175, 528, 65i 

Khelat Lucerne, 379, 481 

Kidney-beans, sorts of, 236 ; synonyms of, 284 

Kingston Gardens, noticed, 743 

Kirby and Spencc's Entomology, rev., 808 

Kittens, dead, a manure, 5 

Knapp's British Grasses, adv., 533 

Knight's nursery, hotbed, at, 25 ; noticed, 160 

Knight's (T. A.), horticultural papers, adv., 82 

Kotschy, M., his death, 823 

Kyan's patent, its value in preseiTing wood, 839 



Labels for pots, 57 

Labourers, to employ, 819, 835, 851, 868 

Laburnum, adv., Parkes, 705; should not be pruned, 776; de- 
scribed, 347; new, 365; poisonous, 385, 421, 510, 709; con- 
sidered harmless, 4/0,558; purple, sporting of, 397; rejected 
by animals, 437, 453 

Lariakh, climate of, 382 ; Apricots of, 383 ; treatment of Rhubarb 
there, 575 

Ladies turned gardeners, 7-12, 7^9 

Lielia superbiens, about to flower, 679 ; flava, 77-1 

Lalage HoveEefolia, 654 

Lambert, ISIr. A. B., his' death, 35; his library, 235, 271 ; herba- 
rium, sale of, 439 

Lammas Wheat, its produce, 910 

Land, to inoculate, 161 ; to crop, 729; necessity of its being 
broken up, 739; to restore neglected, 776; importance of 
draining, 789 j to double dig, 856; to fork, 869 

Lane's Catalogue of Roses, rev., 72s 

Larch, extraordinary vitality of, 365 ; its value for timber, 919 

LathjTus grandiflorus, to propagate, 457 

Lauder's Essay on Taste, rev., 320 

Launceston (Van Diemen's Land), remarks on the weather, 454 

Laurel, common, described, 452; destruction of its leaves, 381 
berries, to sow, 681 ; leaves, bruised, to destroy insects, 425 
to prune, 73,129,467; treatment of, 161 j adv., Cattell, 121 
Rendle, 121; Cherry grafted on, 237; Portugal, treatment of 
seed, 145 : eaten by cattle, 57-t; curious growth of, 453 

Law of gardens, 126, 6S1 

Lawns, beds for, 236; to prepai-e, 305, 349; grass for, 776; to 
improve, 353 

Layering, described, 90 

Lead, its solubility in water containing carbonic acid, 791 

Leather, Russia, its preparation, 838 

Leaves transformed into fruit, 587 ; their value as a manure, 739 ; 
their germination, 821 

Lee's nursery, noticed, 112; Botanical Looker-out, rev., 456 

Leicester, monument to the Earl of, 511 

Lemon-trees, cause of ill health, 257 

Leonotis Leonurus, its culture, 4, 85 ; to flower, 545 

Leschenaultia biloba, 95; to strike from cuttings, S4l 

Lettuce, adv., Farnes, i; Lane, 521; artichoke-leaved, 223; 
treatment of, at Guipuscoa, 452 ; best winter kinds, with their 
treatment, 557; drowsine^ss produced by, 839 

Leycesteria formosa, for game, 713 

Library, gardener's foreign, 543, 560, 575, 591, 607, 623, 639 

Lichens described, 84 ; on trees, 177 ; to destroy, 273, 321 

Liebig, critique on, 395 ; his Agricultural Chemistry, adv., 2 ; 2d 
edit,, rev., 40; Organic Chemistry, rev. by Dr. Schleiden, 403, 
422, 433 ; remarks on, 469 

Light, tendency of pltmts to seek, 6 ; its effects on plants, 471 

Lilium lancifolium, 225 ; distinct from L. speciosum, 666 ; adv., 
Groom, 361 ; album, to increase, 497 ; by bulbs from the axils 

. of the leaves, 526 

Lily, of the VaUey, situation for, 158, 76l ; of Scripture, remarks 
on, 744, 854 ; Water, to multiply, 335 

Lime, water, to mix, 273, 712, 809 ; dry, its value upon land, 382 ; 
kilns, then* formation, 435; its effect on the Gooseberry- cater- 
pillar, 494; rubbish as a manure, 545; its application, 620; 
water, in tanks, 620 ; not injurious to the growth of the Pota. 
toe, 651, 853 ; Aberthaw, 726 ; ash floor, to make, 605 : and salt, 
to preserve, 856 

Lingard on the Decay of Timber, rev., 7(jO 

Literary Fund, adv., 2 40 

Lobelia gracilis, hardy, 589 ; pytamidalis, 24 

Locust-tree, its treatment, 668 

Locusts in England, 807 

Loddiges' nursery, noticed, 56, 508 

Lodoicea sechellarum, 423, S70 

Lonicera flexuosa, its treatment, 697 

Logwood as a manure, 840 

Lophospermum erubescente-scandens, 234 

Loquat, its treatment, 756 

Loudon's (Mrs.) Ladies* Flower-garden of Ornamental Annuals, 
adv., 2; Botany for Ladies, rev., 424; (Mr.) Year-book of Nat. 
History, rev., 223 ; Hortus Lignosus, and Arboretum Bri- 
tannicura, rev,, 352; Encyclopsedia of Cottage Architecture, 
rev., 407 ; Suburban Horticulturist, rev., 775 ; EncyclopEedia of 
Trees and Shrubs, adv., 800; complete works, adv., 832 ; Sub- 
urban Gardener, adv., 722 

Low's nursery, noticed, 240 

Lucombe's nursery, noticed, 176 

Luculia gratissima, its treatment, 41 ; to propagate, 793 

Lupinus Hartwegii, an annual, 729; albus, as a green manure, 
867 

Lysimachialobelloides, 191 

M. 

M'lutosh's Flower- Garden, adv., 34; Orchard and Fruit-Gai'den, 
adv., 34 ; Greenhouse, Hothouse, and Stove, adv., 34 

Macleania angulata, 8/1 

Madia sativa, accoimt of, 255 ; its value as a green manure, 740 

Magazin Botanique, 510 

Magazine of Domestic Economy, rev., 456 

Magnolia in the open air, 337 

Mahonias, their treatment, 385 ,• aquifolium, hardy, S25 

Maize, sugar extracted from, 651 

Malacca, vegetation of, 638, 790 

Manettia bicolor, adv., Veitch, 449 

Manganese, black oxide of, for pEunt, 441 

Mango, its treatment, 142 

Mangel Wurzel, to dibble in the seed, 190 ; to preserve, 726,758 ; 
for cattle, 758, 806 

Manufacturers, to relieve the distressed, 509, 541 

Manure, a new kind, 1 9 ; effect of Darnell's, 67, 8O7 ; some kinds 
described, 92, 303; Darnell's, remarks on, 139, 171, 189, 206, 
382, 454^638; not beneficial, 851; of great value, 869; de- 
scribed, 159, 271, 286; adv., Chatwin, 154; Potter, 720 ; re- 
marks on, l6l ; its preparation, I87, 219, 241, 257, 308; in 
Alsace, 191 ; ammoniacal, 221 ; Chinese, 255 ; green, 335 ; 
liquid, to make, 177, 332, 80S; its value, 379, 654, 856; to 
apply, 545, 654 ; injurious to Vine-borders, 273 ; its waste, 283, 
s5l; to improve, 451, 510; besttime to apply, 792; for Potatoes, 
435 ; effects on Fuchsias, 470 ; organic •mineral, 607^ 52i, £40, 



572, 587 ', liquid, to apply. 545, 654 ; animal, 636, 652, 668, 692, 
707, 724 ; green, 803, 820 ; Boussingaull's memoir on, 724,730, 
755; for cottagers, 838; Dutch, 755; table showing the value 
of various kinds, 736; experiments upon, 771, 839, 853; liquid, 
cavt for distributing, 753; adv., Crosskill, 786; pumps, adv.. 
Fowler, 766 

Manm-ing with green crops, 803, 620, 867 

Marchand de Bouquets, 4/1 

March, instances of heat in, 160 

Margan, noticed, 679 

Marl, its use, 286, 456; to bum, 712 

Marmalade, to boil, 870 

Marrow, Vegetable, its treatment, 353 

Marryatt, JSIrs., her garden, noticed, 40G 

Martagon, its derivation, 777, 790 

Martynia fragrans, 4-23 ; adv., Mamock, 138 

Massachusetts, climate of, 95 

Masters' nursery, noticed, 24 

Mathews, Mr. A., his death, 319 

Matter, organic, decomposed, 347 

Maund's Botanic Garden, adv., 832 

Maxillaria acutipetala, 654 

Mayhew's How to Teach, rev., 208 

May, instances of heat in, 112 

Measures, of capacity, 669, 691 ; in the London markets, 788 

Medical Life Assurance, adv., 26S 

Medlars, to ripen, 7G1 

Megachile centuncolaris, destructive to the flowers of Pelargo- 
niums, 422; described, 573 

Melon, adv., Ferguson, l ; Cuthill, 17 ; the Ispahan, 22; Cuthill's 
Early, 23; from cuttings, 3S ; boxes, adv., Watts, 81 ; Smith 
on, adv., 122; cultivation of, 124, 285; to save seed, 177; C&- 
sawba, 209 ; Beechwood, 289 ; cause of fruit dropping, 409, 
776; disease of, 437, 457 : grown in open-sided frames, 656 ; 
Cantaloupe, adv.. Carter, 784; Beechwood, 841 

Menzies, Mr., his death, 123 

Mercury, how used, 257 

Merodon Narcissi, described, 203 

Merulius lachrj'mans, 252 

Mesembrj-anthemum lequilaterale, 192; for planting out, 369,; 
tricolor, 307 

Mice, their destruction, 7, 237, 318 

Microscope for botanical purposes, 729 

Mignonette, cause of its dymg, 441 ; remarks on, 623 

Mildew in Peas, 333, 365, 4/1,526,777; to prevent, on Peach- 
trees, 553 **•' 

Milk, analysis of, 338 

Mills's Treatise on the Cucumber, adv., 754; adv. 834 ; r^v. 8"2 

Mimetes hirta, 331 

Miraulus roseus, 271 ; Maclainanus, 607 

Mina lobata, 23, 366 

Mines, gardening in, 205 

Misconduct at exhibitions, remarks on, 69I 

Misfortune, great, 4/8 

Mistletoe, to graft, 304 ; remarks on, 834 

Mitchella repens, 332 

Mites, not formed by electrical action, 793 

Model Mapping, 855 

Bloles, to destroy, 56o 

Monster, vegetable, 711 

Montreuil, Peaches of, 870 

Monument to the Earl of Leicester, 511, 543 

INIorEea tripetala, 225 

Morraodes lineatura, 573; luxatum, 391 

Mortar, asphalte, to preventthe descent of roots, 422 ; for walks, 
379 

Morton's Nature and Property of Soils, rev. 336 

Moss, on travel -walks, its destruction, 57, 593 ; on lawns, 129, 
825 ; on trees, 273, Z2i ; spontaneous combustion of, 8/0 

Moth, Honeycomb, its destruction, 193; large, to kill, ^57, 694, 
8O6 ; Brindled Beauty, described, 7S7 

Mould, remarks on, 507 

Mount Ophir, its botanical productions, 700, 

Mouse-trap, described, 126, 237 

Mowing-machine, price of, 161 ; new, 3l6 

Mud from ponds as a manure, 545 

Mulberry-, to prevent the fruit from dropping, 657 ; trees, adv., 
Dennis, 737 

Mule plants sometimes seed, 161 

Muriatic acid beneficial to vegetation, 667 

Musa Cavendishii, its usual size, 825 

Museum, Lambert's botanical, adv., 329 

Mushrooms, good properties of, 385 ; remarkable growth of, 425, 
beds for, 513 ; spawn, to prepare, 604 ; cause of failure," 712 j 
821, 853, S69 ; their treatment, 793 

Myatt's Pine Strawberry, its treatment, 401, 510, 525, 529, 542 

Myrtle, its treatment, S73 

N. 

Names of plants, confusion created by altering, 491 j hotJ)in\ea 

542 ..-__.-.- 

Naming plants, remarks on, 777 ; fruit, 777 

Narcissus-fly, described, 203 

Naturalist's Comer, 623, 640, 655, 727, 791, 839 

Nature, her works, 640, 791 

Neapolitan Violets, culture of, 204, 233 

Nectarines, adv.. Masters, 18; protection of, 69; to prune in 
summer, 425 ; Newington, 625 

Negro caterpillar, remarks on, 63S 

Nelumbium, to raise from seed, 745 

Nematus trimaculatus, time to kill, 33S 

Nerim, its treatment, 873 

Netherlands, cultivation of, 270 

Netting, adv., RichEu-dson, 202 ; as a protection for fruit* 299* 332 

News, botanical, 239, 367, 760, 774 ; Ipdian, 759 

New Zealand Comp., adv., 234 ; Hort. Society formed, 267 ; co- 
niferous plants and ferns of, 477 ; prosperous state of the 
colony, 523 ; works on, adv., 734 

Niger, model farm there, ill 

Night-soil, to prepare, 305, 425, 755, 76O 

Nikita, letter from, 206 

Niphsea oblonga, igi 

Nitrate, of soda, Lymbum on, 7 ; its action, 38, 205 ; its effects, 
70, 123, 160, 494, 667, 321; on Onions, 725; for Pine-apples, 
193; Potatoes, S06; when applied, 223; to Cedars, 577; to 
Firs. 254, 239 ; to use, 257, 305, 385 ; where procured, 273, 321 ; 
on Strawberries, 437; on Roses, 456, 4Sl ; destructive to slugs, 
456; its adulteration, 603 ; quantity to apply, 624 ; on Potatoes, 
710; on Cucumbers, 654; on SeakEile, 655; on Onions, 71a, 
775 ; on Balsams, 741 ; on corn, 83p; of potash, as a manure, 
693 ; test for, 853 

Nitre, as a manure for corn, 839 

Nitrogen essential to plants, 241 

Norfolk Island, its vegetation, 471 

Normandy Cress, its treatment, 625 

Nuthatch, its habits, 270 

Nuts, to preserve, 657; adv., Masters, IS; weevil, describe^, 108 

Nyctanthes arbor tristis, 268 

NjTnpheea Lotus, its stems edible, 495 

O. 

Oak, British, remai'ks on, .'', ; at Dunmore, 24 ; of Hs^rres^i^usen, 
described, 36; effect of rapid growth on, 67, 83; lungs 
described, 84; Fulham, noticed, 111; to renovate, 425; cause 
of degeneracy in, 723 ; Durmast, 709 ; separation of the twigs 
in autumn, 726 ; to raise, 776 ; spangles eaten by p^eas^ntSj 777 i 
evergreen, adv. Langelier, 833 

Oat- tea, 55 

CEnanthe crocata, poisonous, 790 



VI 



INDEX. 



CEnothera, biennis, as forage, S j serotina, 333 

Oil-cake, as a manure, 740 

Oiled cotton, its preparation, 145 

Oleander, its treatment, 209; caase of not flowering. 305 

Oncidium Insleayii, 23 j long-ifoUum, 95; nanum, 382} sphace- 
latum, 3S2; urophyllum, 622; barbatum, 639 

Onions, treatment of, 145,337,453; seed per acre, i6i ; remedy 
for grub, 173, 574, 5S9, 725, 806, S53 ; Nocera, 223 : Druse, 'c 
described, 252 ; to destroy, 385 ^ their treatment at Guipuscoa, 
452 ; to transplant, 457 ; to bend down their tops, 481 ; Lisbon, 
its treatment, 642 ; thick-necked, 713; undergroundj to plant, 
873 

Orange, remarks on some varieties, 5; viviparous, 70 j treat- 
ment of, 9(>. 25", 5/7 ; adv., Marsano, 217; King, 345; to re- 
novate, 289 

Orchard, to plant, 177 ; select trees for, 641, Gsi 

OrchidacetC, a list of, 57 ; treatment of, when imported 97; tem- 
perature for, 204 ; for growing in stoves, 235; treatment of, 
380, 472, 625 ; noticed, 471, 496; adv., Harrison, 330; Stevens, 
449; Winstanley, 4S9; Stevens, 537; Sage, 784 

Organic matter converted into manure, 34" 

Organic mineral manures, 507, 524, 540, 572, 587 

Orgyia antiqua, described, 540 

Ornithogalum divaricatum, 3^2 

Osborne's nursery, noticed, 240 

Otiorynchus tenebricosus, described, 316 

Otochilus fuscQS, 366 

Oxalis crenata, its excellence, 22 ; its properties, 125 ; lasiopetala, 
271 ; acetosella as an edging, 333, 422; rubro-cincta, 759; 
sensitiva, 840 

Oxlip, notes on, 171 

Oxygen necessary to seeds, 269 

Osmazome, defined, 759 



Pseonia, tree, treatment of, 156, igS; best sorts of, 241, 589 

Paint, to soften, 761 ; for out-door buildings, 825 

Pansy, see Heartsease 

Papaver bracteata coccinea, adv., Foster, 233 

Parasol Gall-fly, described, 852 

Paris, exhibition at, 694, 774 

Park, St. James's, improvements in, 347 

Parloar-case, plants for, 73 

Parnell's Grasses of Scotland, rev., 791 

Parsley, fine plant of, "08 

Parsneps for fattening pigs, 837 - 

Passiflora fragrans, adv., Marnock, 138; Middletoniana, 254 
Loudoni, 8O9 ; coccinea, a stove plant, 545 

Pasture, Grasses for, 161 ; to renovate, 1/7 

Paulovnia iraperialis, adv., Baumaun, 65 ; at Paris, 471 ; hardy, 681 

Paul's Catalogue of Roses, rev., 624 

Paxton's Magazine of Botany, adv., 2; Pocket Botanical Dic- 
tionary, adv., 2 

Peaches, adv., Masters, 18; protection of, Gg ; cause of the leaves 
blistering, 289, 333, 349; treatment at Naples, 301; manage- 
ment of, 317 ; to graft, 512 ; good forcing kinds, 745 ; cause of 
fruit dropping, 513, 657 ; a preventive of mildew on, 558; unfit 
for growing with Vines, 657; hai-dy kind, 681 ; to wash the 
trees, 857 ; of Montreuil, 870 

Peach-house, management of, 494 

Pear, adv.. Masters, 18: Harrison, 185; Langelier, 786 ; Rivers, 
801 ; Mollet s Guernsey Beurre described, 36, 85 ; in Stirling 
Castle gardens, 37; King Charles's, 40; to renovate, 57,337; 
Dunmore, described, 85 ; Knight's Monarch, described, 109, 
142, 177; to train en queuouille, 145; Chermes described, 156; 
Seckel, 7O8; Hacon's Incomparable, 172, 180; its origin, 869 ; 
effects of a bell-glass on its setting, 253 ; to summer prune. 369, 
441, 637, 709; to train as pyramids, 453 ; to prepare &oU for, 577 ; 
prolific branch, 543; to ripen late kinds, 588 ; effects of root- 
pruning, 637; weight of, 669, 67O, 708, 741, 820; espalier, 6q7 ; 
effect of canker on, 707 ; losing its flavour from root-pruning, 
825; stewing, remarks on, 841, 870; a selection of, 25, 113, 145, 
157,161, 577. 593, 772, 776; best late kinds, 225, 841 ; tree, pro- 
lific, 760 ; kinds for espaliers, "61 ; to train, 804, e20 ; Althorpe 
Crassane, 806 ; Figue de Naples, 809; Van Mons. Leon le 
Clerc, 809; remarks on various kinds, 852; to graft on the 
Quince, 873 

Peas, adv., Fames, 1 ; their germination at various temperatures, 
22; to raise early, 22, 70 ; preservation from mice, 173; 
resined, 189; cause of mildew, 333, 365, 471, 526, 621 ; green, 
to preserve, 558, 574; Russian method, 574; select dwarf, 620; 
difference in their boiling, 654, 8O6; Prince Albert, adv., Cor- 
mack, 665 

Peat, improvement of, 144, 873 ; useful in promoting the vegetation 
of seeds, 558 ; house for preserving plants, 620 

Pedicularis megalantha, 607 

Pelargoniums, to bloom iu autumn, 9; notes on some new, 36, 
6S, 140; adv., Groom, 49; Stewart, 105; Conway, 137; Pamp- 
lin, 153; Catleugh, 201; Rogers, 201; Adams, 249; Rendle, 
361 ; Pontey, 569; Fuller, 585 ; Jeffnes, 689; Hancock, 705; 
Gaines, 737; Lawton, 737; treatment of, 161, 177, 469, 636, 
761 ; hints on, 235; Enchantress, 177; good kinds, 257, 441. 
697, 7G1 , 776, 873 ; cause of their leaves spotting, 257, 273 ; of 
petals d ropping, 425; definition of the term, 425; their treat- 
ment after flowering, 457; cause of their seed not swelling 
off, 481 J new, 509; to house, 545; to cut back, 557; scarlet, 
to propagate, 605 ; experiments on, 655; cannot be pre- 
served n the open border, 656 ; to preserve in winter, 656 : 
ardens, to flower, 657; to apply nitrate of soda to, 697; for 
exhibition, 825 

Pencarrow, noticed, 560 

Pentstemon speciosum, 209; good kinds of, 481; gentianoides 
var. splendens, 711 ; select kinds, 841 

Perelra's Materia Medica, 320 

Perennials, a selection of, 94; hardy, 225, 807 

Perianth, its designation, 641 

Petrophila diversifolia, 268 

Petunias, propagation of, 129; adv.. Wood, 281; its cultivation. 
316 ' 

ThxcJon vitellina, on Willows, 6 

Phajjena brumata, 337 

Phalangium cancroides, to destroy, 337 

Pharbitis ostrina, 639 

Philadelphus Mexicanus, 527 

Phillips, Mr., his garden noticed, 624 

Phlox stolonifera flowered twice, 95 ; Drummondi for the green- 
house, 527; adv., Wood, 666; picta, adv., Mountjoy, 689; Van 
Houttc's adv., 849. 

Phytologist, adv., Voorst, 362 

Picea orientalis, its habit, 206 

Pickles, ancient, 711 

Picotee, its variability, 5; adv.. Groom, 49; Youell, 65 ■ Tyso, 

105; Wilson, 153; Ely, 649 ; list Of, 545, 572 

Pies, to make,' 873 ■ ' 

Pigs, to' improve; 351; to feed on Parsneps, 837 ' ' " * 

Pines, to destroy the scale on, 793, 805; at-Thornfleld. 86,805, 
838; external air upon, 209; growing, 222, 253, 654; large, 
624; adv., Whalley, 361 ; cause of leaves spotting, 441; of 
tummg yellow, 593; weight of, 669, 708, 725, 741, 789, 820 

Pmks, adv., Willmer, 393 ; Brown, 602 ; treatment of. 396 • pro- 
pagation, 420,509; select kinds, 713 

Pinus, a distinct genus from Abies, 697 

Pipes, hot-water, their radiating power, 22 

Pitcamia bromeliaifolia, treatment of, 139 

Pitch for the inside of boxes, 513 

Pit, construction of, 53; Mill's improved, 349, 453; for growing 
plantsm,497; covering for, 840, 857; atHeckfield, described. 742 

Pitol plant, 561 » »/ 

Plane tree, history of, 108 

Plantain, to destroy, 626; tree, remarks on, 655 



Plantas Hartvvegianas imprimis Mexicanis, adv., Pamplin, 417 

Plantations, thinning of, llO 

Planting, remarks on, 107, 109, 139» 174; effect of trenching 

before, 126 
•Plants, Iheir tendency to seek light, 6; agricultural improve- 
ment of, 54 ; for a parlour case, 73 ; for vases, 92 ; for windows, 
92; to dry, 161, 527; edible, of Tasmannia, 192; for forcing, 
209; for market, 2og; for a north aspect, 225; to water, 273, 
421; adapted for a chalky soil, 273; indigenous, 333;' new, 
adv., Veitch, 29s, 468; fossil, 335; luminous, 351 : greenhouse, 
in the open air, 364 ; chemical analysis of, 364, 381 ; nutriment 
of, 423 ; for a S.W. wall, 425, 776; for a S.W. border, 425 ; 
their excretions, 439 ; for borders, 604 ; Asphodeleous, 478 ; 
for trailing on the ground, 481 ; old, sold under new names, 
49I; to flower in autumn, 605 ; their action on the atmosphere, 
571 ; ornamental border kinds, 589, 604; for the edgings of 
walks, 589; their growth in charcoal, 605 ; not benefited by 
watering in dry weather, 61 9 ; to preserve in winter, 620, 669, 
670, 708, 713, 728 ; for an American border, 625; greenhouse, 
autumnal, 625; do they breathe ? 636; their fertilization, 681; 
window, tlieir treatment in winter, 681, 804; not injured by 
poisons, 670 ; hardy, to prune, 713; for the climate of Devon, 
729, 820 ; Asphalte covering for, 729 ; dried, adv., 721 ; herba- 
ceous, adv., 721, 769; growing in a sulphurous atmosphere, 
758 ; to rest in winter, 808 ; to prepare for microscopical exa- 
mination, 825; carbonic acid disengaged by, 855; for shady 
banks, 857; food of, 857 ; growth of, 857; loss of colour in, 
873 ; stages for, 873 

Playfair, Dr., his lectures noticed, 819; reported, 822, 833 

Ploughs, their draught, 544 

Plums, adv.. Masters, 18; management of, 36, 337,745; selection 
of, 157, 772; Ickworth Imperatrice, described, 176; to preserve, 
633, 821 ; new American, 639 

Plusia gamma, described, 52 

Podotheca gnaphalioides, 367 

Poinsettia, its treatment, 25 

Poison, dangerous to strew about, 364; mineral, certain kinds 
not injurious to plants, 670 

Polyanthus, its culture, 20, 39; select sorts, 841 

Pond-mud for manure, 545 

Pontcderia crassipes, cause of its not flowering, 481 ; to flower, 493 

Poor, to employ, 819, 835,851,868; laws, deficiency of, 315 

Poplar, its treatment in Ladakh, 591 

Port Nicholson Horticultural Society, 267 ; flourishing condition 
of, 267 

Portugal Cabbage, its treatment, 257 

Potash, nitrate of, as a manure, 670 

Potato, to raise an early crop, 38 ; Chapman's new, 40, 221 ; rot 
in, 54, 110; adv., Laing, 65; a monstrous, 85; good kinds of, 
97; to prevent becoming waxy, 97 ; adv., Chatwin, 105 ; Beck, 
137; to plant, lio, 155, 253, 638 ; on producing new, 125, 221, 
301 ; on ripening, 143; Chapman's, remarks on, 15P, 173, 188, 
235,238; the Shaw, 173; salad, described. 173; Kidney-bean, 
191 ; to obtain, 193; experiments upon, 221, 71O, 8O6, 838 ; to 
prevent failure, 254; cause of failure, 269; to protect early, 
286 ; manure for, 455 ; good early, 513, 593; in the East, 607 ; 
in India, 621 ; effects of Guano on, 693 ; not injured by lime, 
651 ; to cook for cattle, 654, 710 ; salt as manure for, 657; to 
cook in the Lyons fashion, 727; its value, 728; injured by 
burning the eyes, 742 ; for seed, their treatment, 777-, to pre- 
serve, 7S9; raw, for cattle, 789 ; to boil, 791 ; for clayey soils, 
806 ; heavy crop of, 806, 821 ; quantity to plant per acre, 841 ; 
seed adv., 849. 

Potentillas, hybrids produce seed, 5 ; to separate. 593 

Pots, glazed, 23, 507 

Potter's Word or Two on Guano, rev., 368 

Pottle, its contents, 25 

Poultry, weight of, 807, 822, 837, 870 ; to feed, 239 

Prangos, described, 351 ; to introduce, 365 

Price, Sir Uvedale, on the Picturesque, rev, 320 

Primrose, Chinese, soil for, 129, 825 ; to obtain fringed, 129 ; its 
habitat, 206; its landing in Australia, 636; Shakespeare's pale. 
rema.rks on, 789, 822, 854 

Primufa, notes on, 143; denticulata, sgi 

Prize men, Botanical, 655 

Privet, Chinese, to propagate, 624 

Proceedings of the Geological Society of Yorkshire, rev., 240 ; of 
the Horticultural Society, rev., 655 

Produce, average agricultural, 513 

Propagation, as practised iu Paris, 238 ; in England and France 
compared, 285, 317 

Prophets, vegetable weather, 207 

Props, flower, adv., Trudell, 345 

Proteas. their treatment, 353 

Protecting houses, materials for, 7^7 

Pruning, described, 91, 110, 205 ; forest-trees, .332, 451, 453, 470, 
523, 526, 557, 583 ; advantage of summer, 437 

Prussian-blue, its refuse, as a manure, 755 

Pumpkin, its treatment at Guipuscoa, 4 52 

Punch, revd., 872 

Punnet, its contents, 25, 783 

Puppies, dead, a manure, 5 

Putteridge Bwry, noticed, 695 

Pyrus doraestica, in Italy, 301 

Q. 

Quarterly Journal of Meteorology, rev., 128; of Agriculture, 

rev., 223, 6O8, 824 
Quick fences, to raise, 86 
Quince, to propagate, 825 

R. 
Rabbits, to protect trees from, 605 
Radish, adv., Fames, l ; Fuller's Hybrid Winter, adv., May, 521 ; 

seed, to clean, 625 
Rags, woollen, as a manure, 425 ; to apply, 656 
Railroad embankments, to prevent slipping, 70 ; to embellish, 349 
Rain, prognostic of, 807 ; water, to construct tanks for, 653 
Rampion, its uses, 126; treatment of, 364 
Ranunculus, adv., Groom. 49 ; Tyso, 105; selection of, 97 ; its 

culture, 420, 469, 5og, 909; aquatilis, 300 
Raspberries, adv.. Masters, 18; double-bearing, 193; neat mode 

of training, 836; Fastolff adv., Youell, 3^9 ; Royal Victoria, 853 
Rats, to destroy, 821 , 853 ; new mode of catching, 790 
Read's Hydraulic Machines, adv., 82 
Red spider, to destroy, 321, 508, 773, 777; by sulphur, 403, 557, 

625 ; by turpentine, 574 ; effect of sulphur on, 838 
Redstart, its habits, 127 
Reid's Elements of Astronomy, rev., 424 
Rhodanthc, treatment of seeds, 145 
Rhodochiton volubilc, its treatment, 161 

Rhododendron, to flower arboreum at Christmas, 90; treat- 
ment of,-"l77; to prune, 353 ;, Smithii aureum, 352, soil for, 
■^^39,7,";G52 ;'adv.; Rivers, 801 : barbatum, 825; hardy sorts of, 873 
Rhubarb, adv., Myatt, l ; Youell, 801 ; its treatment, 57, 126, 

191,353; in Ladakh, 575; Tobolsk, remarks on, 869 
Ribcs, new variety, 288 ; described, 301 
Rib-grass, to destroy, 625 

Ricauti's Rustic Architecture, adv., 138 ; rev., IGO 
Riddle, 854. 

Ridging land, described, 724 
Rigidella immaculata, 10, 494 
Rivers'a nursery, notes on, 192, 439 ; Catalogue of Roses, rev., 

7U -^ 

Rivers, on their wearing, 159, 175 
Roads, formation of, 523 
Robinia pseud-acacia, unsuitable for planting largely, 606; its 

treatment, 668 
Rock Lily, 841 
Rockwork, to form, 868 



Roella ciliata, its treatment, 761 ■ 

Rogers's boiler, experiments on fuel for, 96 

Rollison's nursery, noticed, 288 

Rondeletia longiflora, 774 

Rookery, to establish, 188, 222, 257 

Rooks, their use in destroying slugs, 478 ; to frighten, 222 

Root, absorption by, 638 ; carbonic acid disengaged by, 855 

Root-pruning, Hay ward on, 6; remarks on, 21, I89, 332, 775 
Rivers on, noticed, 86; its value, 142, 821; its effect on the 
flavour of fruit, 825 

Roses, double yellow, cause of not flowering, 23; to strike 
cuttings of, 41; at Monaltria, 86; treatment of, 205, 353; 
stocks for, 57 ; Banksian, 333 ; to prone, 57, 305, 419, 453, 670 ; 
treatment of, 73 ; Christmas, 205 ; in pots, treatment of, 123; 
to bloom early, 125 ; manure for, 161, 841 ; to prune, 161, 305, 
691, 708; a selection of, 193, 577; as standsuds, 225; good 
forcing, 270, 857 ', lecture on, 304 ; for a hedge, 305 ; for a wall, 
369; everlasting, 363, 873 ; hardy, 697 ; adv., Paul, 377; Rivers, 
377 ; Lane, 377 ; Wood, 378 ; Denyer, 786; autumnal, 457, 481, 
492; yellow Banksian, to flower, 385 ; improvements in ex- 
hibiting, 396; qualities of, 397 ; malformation of, 397 ; increase 
by cuttings, 409, 457 ; to check mildew on, 40g ; Messrs. Lane's, 
424; Mr. Rivers, 439; Mr. Denyer's, 440 ; Moss, 452 ; to bud, 
452; curious instance of vitality, 453 ; their loss of Moss, 453 ; 
Smith's yellow, 481 ; to entrap injurious insects, 513; stocks 
for, 742 ; excrescences upon their branches, 577 ; good China, 
625 ; double yellow Persian, 729 ; Devonlensis, adv., Hally, 
753; for exhibition, 825 ; to protect, 836; treatment of seed, 
836; to manure, 841 

Rosmarinus officinalis, 268 

Rove-beetle, fetid, described, 740 

Rowland, Mr., his garden noticed, 455 

Rucker, Mr., his garden noticed, 4g6 

Russelia juncea, its treatment, 841, 873 

Russia leather, its preparation, 838 

Rust on Grapes, remarks on, 805, 853 

Rye, horned or spurred, 478 



Salsify, its treatment, 528 ; to boil, 774 

Salt, Evelyn's opinion of it as a manure, 383; its application, 
620 ; to Potatoes, 657, 792, 853 ; to Celery, 693, 725 ; to kill weeds, 
712 ; quantity used for Asparagus, 729, 760 ; as a manure, 806, 
869; cake, as a manure, 222 ; water, to apply, 225, 241, 273 ; pro- 
portion of, 353 ; of the alum works, for fixing ammonia, 809 ; 
and lime, to prepare, 856 

Saltpetre, its effects, 385 

Salvia, fulgens, its management, 38 ; patens, its treatment, 39, 
143; not hardy, 254 ; cause of its destruction, 285 ; preserved, 
301,318, 680; cause of its withering in the open ground, 529; 
dropping its flo'^ers, 558 ; to preserve in winter, 787 

Sap, its course in the stem, 707, 7^1 

Sarcinula, notes on, 143 

Sashes, to preserve, 205 

Saussurea pulchella, 223 

Savoy, Yellow, a good sort, 853 

Saw-dust as a manure, 824 

Saw-fly, antler Rose, described, 604 ; Turnip, 620 

Saxifrage, three-fingered, 252 

Scaevola scandens, 332 

Scald, cure for, 70, 189 

Scale, its destruction, 145, 353,529,558,697,793; on trees, to 
destroy 713, 841 ; cured by chamomile 743, 805 ; on Pines, to 
destroy, 793 

Scarecrow, 759, 790 

Schleiden, Dr., criticised by Dr. Gregory, 43.^ 

Scions, their treatment, 305 

Scotch Farming in the Lothians, rev., 76O; agricultural fund, 
remarks on, 867 

Screens for trees, adv., Hulme, 122 

Seakalo, treatment of, 385,745 

Seasons, remarks on, 187 ; effects of, 709 ; mildness of, 854 

Seamud, to convert into monure, 524 

Seaweed, to convert into manure, 409, 745, 755, 776 

Secale cornutum, 726 

Sedum Sieboldii, treatment of, 177 

Seeds, examples of their vitality, 38, 471 ; their preservation, "0, 
454,574; American, adv., Whalley, 153; to germinate, 161, 
558; treatment of, 161 ; oxygen necessary to, 269 ; Brazilian, 
to raise, 321, 349 ; vitality of, 525, 526, 541 ; Turnip, to preserve 
from the attacks of insects; 541 ; Cabbage, to preserve, 742 ; of 
fruit, to sow, 745 ; of vegetables, adv., Fames, 818; of flowers, 
Lockhart, 737 ; average quantity required for agricultural pur- 
poses, 613 ; Australian, best time to sow, 793 

Selby's British Forest-trees, rev., 480, 711 ; adv., 738 

Sepal, its definition, 629 

Service-tree, Italian, 301 

Shakespeare's foresting, 38, 125; paragraph, remarks on, 789, 
822, 854 

Shale, a manure, 159, 190 

Shallots, to check their decay, 409 ; to preserve, 793 ; cause of 
their shrivelling, 821 

Shetland, its botanical productions, 790 

Shows, country, remarks on, 125 

Shrubberies, management of, 69, SiQ ; plants for, 857 

Shrubs, hardy, to propagate, 97; a selection of, 161 ; adv., 
Masters, 170 ; to transplant, 208; evergreen, adv. Ogden, 849 

Sierra Leone, its products, 494 

Sieve, its contents, 25, 788 

Signatures, remarks on, 35 

Signs of the times, 439 

Silkworm chrysalids as a manure, 755 

Sinhara used as food, 405 

Sinningia, treatment of, S73 

Siphocampylus bicolor, 273; betulECfoUus, 759 

Sistotrema confluens, 252 

Slate, adv., Beck, 250 

Slugs, to prevent their attacks, 5 ; their prevalence on corn, 5G; 
to destroy, 129,205. 456,470, 545, -€53, 821 

Slug-worm described, 692 ; to destroy, 692 

Smith on Cucumbers, adv., 122 

Soapsuds as a manure, 385; their effects on Cabbages, 470, 
Whale-oil, nseful in destroying vermin, 575 ; best mode of 
applying, 792 

Sobralia macrantha, 591 

Societies.— Aberdeen, 474, 606; Adelaide Agri-horticultural, 
439; Agricultural, 39, 55, 71, ill, 127, 143, 159, 175, 190, 207. 

222, 254, 27't, 286, 302, 318, 335, 350, 365, 331, 400, 422, 437, 455, 

527, 559, 759,774, 807» 822, 838, 855 ; Journal, rev., 144, 840 i Derby 
meeting, adv., 297. 754, 769, 785 ; meeting at Bristol, 474, 495 ; 
Alnwick, 590; Anglesea, 672 ; of Arts, 175; Aylesbury, 672 

Bath, 400, 474, 575, 672, 694 ; Battle and Hastings, 5go, 672 ; 

Benevolent Institution for Indigent Gardeners, 39 ; Beulah Spa, 

\ adv., 361 ;, Beverley, 672; Birmingham,, 303, 366,433, 475, 559, 

"' 590", 726, 871 ; Birm. Midland, 474; Bolton', 401 ; Botanical, 351, 

. 382, 455, 559, 606, G94, 759, 870; i.Brightpn, 694; Bristol and 

Clifton,' adv., 377, 672 ; British Association at Manchester, 454, 

471 ; Bromley, adv., 577 

Caledonian, 191, 400, 476, 511,559, 638,671,871; Cambridge 
303, 366, 401, 642, 575, 672; Cheltenham, 559; Chiches- 
ter, 475 ; Chowbent, 673 ; Cork, 287, 40i, 475 ; Cornwall, 401, 
495,695; Crieff, 590 ; Croydon, adv., 377 ; 

Devon, 401, 575, 590, 676, 695 ; Dumfries, 606, 673, 871 ; Dur- 
ham, 695 

Eccleston, 673; Edinburgh, 143, 206,351,790,871; Ever- 
ton and Kirkdale, 401, 673, 695 ; Exeter, 402, 8O7 

Felton Florists', 335, 402, 475, 59O, 710 ; Floricultural, 23, 39, 
55,71, 95, 127, 169, 190. 238, 286,335, 351, 382, 422, 455,495,510, 
627, 559, 606, 622, 633, 655, 671, 823 

Glasgow, 366, 673; Guernsey, 4^5, 575, 726; Guildford 
Hort., 223 



INDEX. 



ni 



Hammersmith Cucumber, 222; Ham. Heartsease, 402 ; Harap- 
shire, 20", -102, 6;3. 774; Hants, 475, 673; Harcstield, ooti; 
Harleston, 476, 673 ; Haydon-Hriderc. 710 ; Herts, 303, 
475. G22; Hexham, 13/3, 726; Hie:hlancl Agricultural. 542; 
High Wycombe, adv., 281 ; Horticultural, 55, 95, 127, 159. 190, 

238, 270, 286, 302, 318, 33'1, 3G5, 381, 422, 45r>, 491, 526, G7I, 742, 

823; ProceedinpTs, reviewe.1,06; Transactions, reviewed, 176; 
Kxhibition, adv., 33, 203, 219, 297, 329. S63, 393, 521, 735; 
Anniversary Meetine:. adv., 251; Exhibitions at the Gardens, 
339,398,4725 remarks on, 841; award of medals, 329, 393, 46j ; 
terms of admission to, 841 : Hull Floral, 335, 607 

India AgricuU. and Hort., 55; Inverness, 475. 67-* ; Ipswich 
Cucumber, 127, 402 ; adv., 7O9 ; Ireland, Practical Hort. Soc. 
of, 591 ; Isle of Man, 402 

Kelso, G07, 074; Kendal, 674; Kenilworth, 495 ; Kent and 
Canterbury, 271, 335, 674; Kingston, 674 ; Kirkby Lons- 
dale, 676 

Labourer's Friend, 593 ; Lancaster, 335, 475, 6"4 ; L?iun- 
ceston (Van Diemen's Land)Hort..Soc.,3l9,455; Leamington, 
607; Leyland,7lO; Lin.erick, Practical Hort., 23, 319,511.6-22; 
Llnnean.fl, 55, 9'., 127, 15.9, 190. 239.270, 302, 350,382,422, 743, 
774,823, 855; on the librarianship of, 19, 5J ; Louth, 675; 
Luton. 675 

Maidenhead, 675 ; Maidstone, 675 ; Manchester Cucumber, 
923; adv. SJp : Hort., adv., 377; Microscopical, 127, 19I, 7"^» 
870 ; Morningside, 402, r.90, 675, 759 

Newby Wiskc Cottagers', 543; Newcastle on Tj'ne, 574, 
*C72; New Holland Hort. Soc, 319; North British Prof. 287.47.".. 
710, 8O7 ; North Devon, 475, 675 ; Northern Dahlia. 675 ; North 
of England, 675; Norwich, 475, 559, 675, 871 ; Nottingham, 

402, 476, 676 ; Nuneham, 476 

Oxford, 402, 47G, 759, 791 ; Ox. Pink Show, 475 

Paris Royal Horticultural, 303, 318 ; Di^partementde la Seine, 
694 ; Pelargonium, 363; adv., ,S93; Port Nicholson, New 
Zealand, 743 ; Practical Soc. of Ireland, G'/ 

Ratho Hort., 303, 403,676; Regent's Park Mutual Instruction. 
655; Reigate Cottagers', 51 1 ; Roxburghshire, 676. S71 ; Royal 
Hort. Soc. of Ireland, 476, 676; Royal Hort. Soc. of Perthshire, 
676; Royal South London Hort. 270, 335, 400, 510, 622; adv., 
249 ; Royal Botanic. Exhibitions, adv., 8-19 

Salt-hill Dahlia, 622; Sandback,'476; Sheffield, 335; Shrews- 
bury, 319; Shrivenham, 676; Slough, 476; Smithfield Cattle 
Show, 823; South Essex, 403,477,623; Stamford, 677; St. 
Andrew's, 319, 677; Sudbury, 477; Sunderland, 403, sgo, 607, 
727; Sutton, 677 

Tamworth, 366, 455, 543, 710; Thaiiet, adv., 377, 511, 677; 
Thombury, 477 

Vale of Evesham, 319 ■ 

Walton le Dale, 677; Warrington, 403, 713; Warwick, 
303; adv., 361,673; Weem, G78; West London Gardeners* 
Association, 56, 303 ; grand Horticultural Exhibition, adv., 281, 
345; West Renfrewshire, 678 ; Whitefield, 711 ; Whitehaven, 

403, 477; Winchester Polyanthus, 27I ; Winghara, 403,527, 
639; Wisbeach, 622, 678; \Yorcester. 477 ; Wrexham, 727 

Yetholra, 67s ; York adv., 465 ; Yorkshire N. Riding, 403 : 
Youghall, 67s 

Soda, nitrate of, its action, 38, 205, 3S3 ; sulphate of, 222, 409 
Soil, treatment of stiff, 73 : importance of knowing its chemical 
properties, 471 ; its influence in changing the colour of Hy- 
drangeas, 654 ; on Peas, 806 ; its proper condition at the time 
of sowing seeds, 542 ; to prepare, 573 
Solanum laciniatum, 192 
Sollyaheterophylla, its treatment, 593 

Solly, Mr., liis lectures on cheraistrj'-, 2S3, 236, 302, 318, 350, 365 
Sonnets, rural, 304, 759 

Soot, its adulteration, 641,742,773,790; its effect on Potatoes, 853 
Sophronites grandiflora, 711 
Sorrel, Snow, 191 

Sparrows, to frighten, 206 : their value, 206 
Specimens of plants, substances best adapted for preserving, 

, to prepare, 527 
Spergula arvensis as green manure, 620 
Spider, red, to destroy, 321, 337 
Spinach, effects of gas-water on, 397 
Spiraia ariscfolia, 492 ; Lindleyana, adv., 521 
Spiral vessels, their peculiar form in the Vegetable Marrow, 7"-* 
Spirits of tar on Carrots, 222, 289, 365 
Spode's tallies, to write upon, 593 
Spooner's Compendium of the Veterinary Art, rev., 2o6 
Sprengel on organic mineral manures, 507, 524, 540, 572, 537 ; on 
animal ditto, 636, 652, 66s, 692. 707, 724; on green manuring, 
803, 820, 867 : on mould, S07 ; its analysis, 508 ; on the mud of 
ponds, 524 ; on sea- mud, 524; on the mud from streets, 524; on 
rubbish from farm-yards, 524; on the formation of compost, 
.'■10, 572 ; to apply, .587; his remarks on patent manures, 517 ; 
on animal offad, 636 ; carcasses of dead animals, analysis of, 
636; entrails, 636; on bones, 652; analysis of, 663; plants 
most benefited by their application, 669 ; on blood, 692 ; on 
horn-shavings, 692 ; on hair and wool, 707 ; on the refuse of 
);lue, 707 ; on greaves, 707 ; on animal coal, 707 ; on refuse sugar, 
707; on fi&h, 7O8 : on feathers, 724; on May-flies, 724; on 
chrysalids, 724 ; on cockchafers, 724 ; on Spmry as a green ma- 
nure, 820; on Lupines, 867. 
Sproule's Treatise on Agriculture, rev., 288 
Squirrels, carniverous, 494 
Stages for plants, their construction, 635 
Standish's nursery, noticed," 523 
Staphylinus olens described, 74O 
Stars, falling, 8O9 
Staticemonopetala, var. denudata, 711 j arborea, its treatment, 

745 
Stelis argentata, 639 

Stephens' Book of the Farm, rev., 72, 256, 456, 775, 824 
iStewing Pears, remarks on, 841 
Sticta pulmcnaria, described, 84 

|stocks, seed, adv.,' Haage, 49 ; German, treatment of, 145 ; cause 
, of their decay, 337 

IStocks, aflfectedby the scion, 54 ; effect of on fruit, 126 
[stoves. Amateur's, new method of heating, 267; fit for Orchi- 
dacere, 285 ; small, to heat, 380; Cliunk and Arnott, injurious in 
forcing,305; Vestafor a greenhouse, 3S5, 857; Arnott's recom- 
mended for forcing plants, 573 
tratiotes aloides, 453 

strawberries, adv., Masters, IS; Wyatt, 217; Brewer, 601 ; treat- 
ment of, 25 ; grown in a pit, 317; Swainstone scarlet, 437; 
effect of nitrate of soda on, 437 ; hest season to plant, 453, 457, 
CQJ; good] early sort, 467; to pack, 497; great crop, 574; 
adv., Princess Royal, Newsom, 281; remarks on, 471, 510, 525 : 
Prince Albert, 457; Myatt's Pine, its treatment, 49l» 510, 535, 



629, 542; Eliza, 593; for succession, 513, 5tl, 857; Emperor, 
adv., 705 ; to render fruitful, 041 ; Hautbois, to fertilise with the 
Russian Alpine, 853 

Stylidium ciliatum, pilosum, 5^7 

Succulents, their culture, 4 ; for a greenhouse, 825 

Su^ar from the Asphodel, 3.'.i ; from Maize, 651 ; from Figs, 654 : 
fefu-ic. as a manure, 707, 740 

Sulphate of copper, its action on weeds, 620; iron, to fix am- 
monia, 635; of ammonia, for Corn, 839 ; of soda, its effect on 

^Potat-'cs, 71O; on balsams, 741 of lime, adv., Carter, 752 

Suipliuric acid, to fix ammonia, 273, 497, 712 

Sulphur, its effect on plants, 222 ; on anU, 2G9, 280, 558 ; on red 
spider, 493, C57; its application, 557 ; found in plants, 710 

Summer, proof of its extraordinary heat, 691 ; its etlV-ct upon ve- 
getation, 742 

Sunflower, its treatment, 255 ; remarks on, 623 : following the 
sun, 637 

Swallows, their departure, C53, 790; their use, 791 

Sweet-cane of Scrinture, remarks on, 757 

Sweetmeats, to boil, 870 • 



Tabanus bovinus, Gu 

Tanks, to line, 005 ; to construct, 653 

Tan, unsuitable for manure, 545, RD8 ; for pits, 834 

Tape, usgd instead of bast in budding, 542 

Tariff', as it cfl'ects agricultural and horticultural produce, 479 

Tar, repulsive to rabbits, 470 ; spirits of, for Carrots, 222, 289 

Tasmannian Journal of Natural Science, &c., rev., 192 

Tayloi's Inquiries on Foreign Corn, rev., 208 

Tea, Assam, its first discovery, 55, 67, 70, 155, 157, 607 : of 

Thibet, 455 

Tendril, its definition, 421 ; remarks on, 821 

Tenthredo Cerasi, to destroy, G92 

Tettagonia spumaria, described, 508 ; to destro}-, 541 

Theory, its nature, 220 

Thermometers, on placing, 128, S6S; at Chiswick, 593 ; test for, 841 

Thibet, tea of, 455 ; plums of,4S0 

Thrips, to destroy, 425, 625 ; to drive from Dahlias, 593 ; from 

Calceolarias, 671 
Thrush, remarkable taraeness of, 709 
Thuja filiformis, 239 
Thunbergia coccinea, to flower, 41 ; aurantiaca, a greenhouse 

plant, 70 ; alata, its treatment, 6S1, 745 
Thya or Thyon, noticed, 223 
Tillandsia rubida, 759 
Timber, its growth, 19, 758; effect of soilon, 37; effect of rapid 

growth on, 51, 67, 83 ; shrinkage of, 110 ; to preserve from the 

white ant, 223 ; quality of,317 
Tinakori Cottage, New Zealand, 710 
Tipula oleracea, remarks on, 821 
Titness, garden, noticed, 304 
Toads, inimical to bees, 558 

Tobacco, treatment of. 353; effect on Vines, 369; its abuse, 637 
Tomatoes, prepared like figs, 95 ; ketchup, to prepare, 697, 713 
Transplanting, season for, 593 ; evergreens in summer, 633 ; re- 
marks on, 805 
Travellers, Botanical works for, 385 
Trees, barked, to heal, 545 ; to fell for timber, 593 ; flowering, 

593; planted by her Majesty, 612; for a steep bank, 657; orna- 
mental deciduous, 741 ; their gradual decay in England, 773; 

to plant, 789; increase of timber in, 789; large, to remove, 792; 

topreveut their being barked, 8O6, 857; overhanging law of. 

126; a selection of, 129, 161 ; for walls, 825 : adv., Masters, 17O; 

remedy for lichen, on, 177; to transplant, 208, 593, S05 ; to 

prune, 253, 36.i ; variations of, 317; wall, to summer prune, ! 

396, 470; to stop their bleeding, 421 ; their transmission to 

foreign countries, 539. 7-'»5 ; guards for, 357 
Trellises for creepers, G51, 667, 692, 756, 772, "83, 804 ; to secure 

to flowex'-pots, 707 
Trenching, described, 6; necessity of, 739 
Trevirana coccinea, treatment of, 145 
Trichosma suavis, 287 
Trifolium, new kinds, 239 
TriUiums, hardy, 793 ...... 

Trimmer's Practical Chemistrs', rev;, 367 

Triptilion spinosum, treatment^f, 455 

Trollius acaulis, G07 

TropjEoluni.tricolorura, its treatment, 9 ; azureum, 591,671; adv., 

Veitch, 665 ; new species of, 301 ; edule, 349, 495 ; tuberosum, 

blooming freely at Holme House, 759 
Tropical seeds, to raise, 349 

Truffles, their propagation, 22, 287; where found, 8O9 
Tuberose, its treatment, 129 ; adv., Marsano, 801 
Tulipa Clusiana. 209 
Tulip, fancy in Paris, I90; good qualities described, 238, 2/1 ; 

adv., Macefield, 297; Lawrence,. 297 ; Groom, 314 ; Tyso, 601 ; 

Pope, 770 ; new sorts, 351 ; monstrous price of, 791 
Turf, to obtain, 97; to make green, 257; edgings, to make , 7; 

pits for plants, 710 
Turnip, adv., Haines, 1 ; Purdie, 121 ; gigantic, 40, 821 ; purple- 
topped Aberdeen, 96; saw-fly, remedies for, 144,406 ; described, 
621 ; its culture, 289; to preserve in winter, 365, 745 ; fly, to 
eradicate, 422, 453, 495, 560 ; seeds, to preserve from insects, 
541 ; to preserve from the flea, 574 ; effect of guano on, 789; 
cause of their running to seed, S73 
Turpentine, its effects upon the red spider, 574; upon wasps, 

637; upon cockroaches, SOG 
Tussilago alpina, as an edging, 125 
Tussock-raoih, brown, described, 540 

U. 
Urate, its effect on Potatoes, 71O; on balsams, 741 ; on Wheat, 

772 
Urine, human, as a manure, 755, 824 
Utricularia vulgaris, 263 

V. 

Vallisneria spiralis, in the open air, 694 

Vallota purpurea, its treatment, SO9 

Vandacristata, S39, 591 

Vanilla, account of, 288; palmarura, 639 

Varieties of plants, remarks on, 825 

Vases for Cottage Gnrdens, 92 

Vegetable-marrow, to raise seeds of, 5S9 ; peculiar form of its 
spiral vessels, 774 ;— ivory, remarks on, 836 

Vegetables, a selection of, 93, S40, 841 ; cookery of, 94 ; weather 
prophets, 207 ; monsters, 471 ; self-combustion of, 66g ; refuse, 
to convert into manure, 745; to save seed of, 789 

Vegetation, effect of sulphur on, 286; of Aflghanistan, 654 



Veitch's Nursery, noticed, 208 

Verandahs, Creepers for, 8G9 

Verbenas, adv., Stewart, 105; Ivcry, 153; Catleugb, 201 ; Dilli- 
stone, 201 ; Knight, 265; Giriing, 60I; treatment of, 145; 
good sorts, 273, 588 

Veronica hederaifolia, described, 2i0; officinalis, 263; nivea, 438 

Vines, effect of root-pruning, 38, 14?.; for out-door growth, 657; 
to stv.p, 173, 321 ; adv., Hoare, 753; Buck, 201 : Hoareon, adv., 
237; Verjus, 209; leaves, cause of diseased, 241, 457 j to pre- 
vent bleeding, 2bG, 317, 333, 712; management of, 316,353,421, 
425,510, 559; exposure to external temperature 'unnecessary, 
321 ; to syringe, r>89 ; hot- water pipes, injurious to their roots, 
561 ; treatise on, adv., Roberts, 586; their treatment by Mr. 
Crawshay, 603, 739 ; brought into bearing by sawing the stem, 
6)6; to train, 792; benefited by autumn pruning, 69 1 ; to reno- 
vate, G97. 840; supposed cause of their failure, 709 ', border.s 
advocated, 739; out-door, to train, 757; border, to improve, 
7G1, 776, 857 ; remarks upon varieties of, 787, 824 ; Victoria. 787 ; 
adv., Merrick, 786; large, to remove, 792; winter treatment of, 
808; to train above plants, 729; tendril of, remarks on, 821 ; 
wash for, 841 ; to water, 857 

Vinery, angle of roof, 22 

Violets, Russian, treatment of, 73 ; Neapolitan, their culture, 204, 
253,652,625; change of colour in, 3S1 ; cause of failure in, 841 

Vipers, 313; to catch, 3U5, 3S1 

Vitality of seeds, 525, 520 

Vitriol, green, to apply, 38s ; as a manure, 577 ; blue, different 
from green, 657 

Vogei, Dr., his death, 319 

Voorst's Heraldry of Fish, rev. 320 

W. 

Wagtail, its habits, 205 
Wakeling's Florists' Guide, rev., 256 

Walks, to keep clean, 318; asphalte, to make, 379 ; plants for 
£? edgings of, 37, 44, 125, 333, 589 
Wallflower, seed, adv., 49; night-smelUng, 337 
Wall, south east, trees for, 97; remarks on coloured, 161, 177 j 
conservative, described, 331 ; stone, for fruit trees, 369 ; a pro- 
tection to plantations, 419; trees, to train neatly, 431 ; to prune 
in summer, 470, 491, 556, 572 ; fruit, to protect from wasps, 
545, 558, 741 ; trees for, 657, 825 ; their management, by Mr. 
Ayres, 556, 572, 621 ; to prepare borders for, 712; remaiks on, 
741 ; naked, to hide, 77^ ; cause of damp on, 857 
Walnuts, to raise, 113 ; to preserve, G93 
Ward, Mr., his glass cases advertedto, 299 ; described, 852 ; plants 

for, 852 ; where procured, 873 
Warpur, its vegetation, 606 

Wasps, on Ash trees, 332 ; nest, immense, 543 ; to cure the sting 
of, 470, 6j3, 694; to protect fruit from, 545, 558; their de- 
struction, 51.5, 589 ; nests, to take, 50o, 574, 637, 83/ ; their 
sting, not cured by Battley's preparation of Opium, 621 ; utility 
of destroying them in spriug, 759; their use, 857 
Water cup, described, 300 
Waterer's nursery, noticed, 352, 3G7 

Wateringinthe open air duringsumraer, 421 ; pot, improved, 470 
Water, to keep pure, 743; effect of animalculeson, 838 ; rain, for 

greenhouse plants, 177 ; from iron tanks, not injurious, 193 
Wax, for grafiing, 236 
Weather, statement of, 553, 871 ; prophets, animal, 123; vegetable, 

207, 351 
Weeds, to extirpate, 409, 555, 537 ; to destroy their seeds, 593; 

action of sulphate of copper on 620 
Weevil, nut, described, lOS; red-legged, described, 316 
Weights, of horticultural productions, 66g, 7O8, 741, 820 ; in the 
- London markets, 733 

Wellington, New Zealand, remarks on, 710 
West's Remarks on the Mismanagement (>f Timber, rev., 592 
Whale-oil soap, useful in destroying insects, 575 
Wheat, its culture in the West Indies, 20, 36, 53, 238; prevention 
of smutin, 127 ; utility of cutting before fully ripe, 603; experi- 
ment with, 771 ; Lammas, its produce, 710 ; quantity grown in 
England and Wales, 857 ; great crop of, 867 
White's Natural History of Selborne, rev., 856 
Whitethorn, its treatment for a hedge, 35 ; raised from roots, 54 ; 

treatment of, 85, 110, 158, 174 
Whitlow Grass, described, 124 
Whitmorc Lodge, noticed, 575 
Widgeon, its habits, 254 
Wiers, Mr. Brinsden's, l43 
Wighton on Bees, rev,, 256 
Willow, dedicated to grief, 623; its treatment in Ladakb, 655; 

new weeping kind, 726 
Windows, cultivation of plants in, 92, 348, 804 
Windsor, polluted by the effluvia of sewers, 851 
Wine, new, 20"; of bad quality when made from unripe frviit, 7-15 
Winter weed, described, 220 

Wire protector for fruitj 577; leaden, its effect on plants, 825 
Wirework, adv., Thompson, 154; Baker, 266 
Wireworms, destructive to Dahlias, 365, 361; remedy for, 398 » 

457, 545, 777, 821 
Wistaria Backhousiana, 793, 825 
Wither's Treatise on the Acacia, rev., 496 
Woodhall, noticed, 71 1 

Wood, kyanised, its eflects on plants, 96, 176; its preservation, 
207; rendered incombustible, 381,419; to collect specimens of, 
492 ; to season, 841 
Woodlice, to destroy, 273, 425, 777, 841 
W^ood's Catalogue of Roses, rev., 76O 
W^oodsorrel, as an edging, 23 
Wool, as a manure, 707 

Words, meaning altered by Act of Parliament, 39S 
Worm casts, to get rid of, 8O9, 841, 870 
Wrest Park gardens, noticed, 679 
Wright's Popular CyclopEedia of Science, rev., 320 



XanthorihEea arhorea, 192 
Xylography, hints on, 492 



Y. 



Yeast, artificial, to make, 823 ; as a manure, 824 
Yews, Irish, adv., Farrell, 737 
Young's nursery, noticed, 607 

Z. 

Zinc labels, ink for, 189 

Zingiber officinalis, 268 

Zoological Society, terms of admission to, 609 

Zoologist, adv., 8G6; rev., 872 



LIST OF WOODCUTS IN THE PRESENT VOLUME. 



Acom, growing in water, 755 
Amateurs' stores, 268 
Antler Rose saw fly, 604 
Aphides, 4i apparatus to destroy, 396 

Beans, support for, 284 

Bees, hybernatory for, 837 

Bryony, 556 

Budding, diagram to illustrate, 89 

Cart for distributing liquid manure, 756 

Chermes Pear, 15G 

Climbers, training illustrated, 70 

Conservative wall, 331 

Cottages, plans of, 407, 468 

Cucumber frame, 173 

Cynips umbraculus, 852 

Designs for creepers, 651, 6C7, G92, 707, 756, 772, 788, 804, 8C9 
Draba verna, 124 

Farmhouse, in Guipuscoa, 284 
Flowerpot, double sided, 803; stand, 190 

Geometra hirtaria, 783 
Grafting, diagram to illustrate, 8/ 
Greenhouse, portable, 852 

Hawthorn fence, 158 

Heating apparatus, 4 diagrams, 723 

Hopean apparatus for flowers, 315 



Hothouses, 3 diagrams to illustrate the ventilation of, 188; 2 dia- 

grams to illustrate the heating of, 348 
Hyacinths, pots for, 868 

Icehouse, 6; and fruit-rooin combined, 141 

Layering, diagram to illustrate, go 
Lime-kilns, 3 diagrams, 435 

Megachile centuncularis, 573 

Melon pit, section of, 124 

Moth, Gamma, 52 j brown tussock, 541 ; brindled beauty, 788 

Mousetrap, 126 

Narcissus fly, 204 
Nut weevil, 108 

Oak of Harreshausen', 3Gj Ixmgs 84 
Onion-fly, 252 

Parasol Gall-fly, 852 

Pear, Mullet's Guernsey BeurrcS, 36; the Dunmore, 85 ; Knights^ 
Monarch, 109; Chermes, 156; Hacon's Incomparable, 1/2; 
Seckel, 708, Beurr^ Bosc, 863 ; trained in the pyramidal form, 
453 ; 2 diagrams of, in a state of metamorphosis, 58/ 

Pit, transverse section of, 63 

Potato, a monstrous, 85 

Pot for cuttings, 238; double sided, R03 

Prepai-atitm of land, diagram of, 739 

Ranunculus aquatilis, 300 

Raspberry, 2 diagrams to illustrate training, 836 



Saw-fly, antler Rose, 604 ; Turnip 620 
Saxifrage^ three-fingered, 252 
Shrubbery, diagram to illustrate planting. 
Slug worm, 692 
Stages, diagram of, 635 
Staphylinus olens, 740 
Sticta pulmonaria, 84 



Tettagonia spuraaria, 508 

Timber, section of, 19 

Training fruit trees, 10 diagrams, 820 

Trees, 9 diagrams to illustrate the pruning of, 363-4 

Trellis, for fruit trees, 421 ; for plants, 651, 667, 692, 

788, 804, 869 
Trenching, diagram of, 6 
Turnip fly, 620 ; machine to ^estroy, 454 
Tussock moth, bro'^'h, 541 



Vase, a rustic, 92 , 

Veronica hederasfolia, 220 

Vinery, section of, 22 

Vines, to show the system of training, 758 

Wall, stone, to piotect plantations, 419. 

Ward's Case. 852 

Watering pot, improved, 470 

Weevil, nut, 108 

Whitethorn, hedges, diagram to illustrate the pxuni 

Whitlow grass, 12-^ 



THE GARDENERS CHRONICLE. 

A STAMPED NEWSPAPER OF RURAL ECONOMY AND GENERAL NEWS. 

THE HORTICULTURAL PART EDITED BY PROFESSOR LINDLEY. 



No. 1. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1842. 



6fl, 



FRUITS.— A CATALOGUE of the FRUITS culti- 
vated in the Garden of the Horticultaral Society. Sccoud 
Edition. Price 7s. &d. 

Ridgrway. Piccadilly, and all Booksellers. 

D FERGUSON, Aylesbury Nursery, respectfully in- 
• forms the public, tliat he has still Seeds of bis Early 
Green- Fleshed MELON*. In packets of Six Seeds, 7s. 6d. Money 
returned or deducted ifnot satisfactory*, al^cr a fair trial. 

MYATT'S VICTORIA RHUBARB. 

J AND W, MYATT Isaving a good Stock of Strong 
• Roots raised by offsets from the original Seedling-, can 
supply them at lOl. per hundred.— N. B. As various spnrious sorts 
have been sold and are now selling: under the name of " Myatt's 
Victoria," purchasers wonld do well to require them warranted. 
—Manor Farm, Deptford, Oct. 23, 1S41. 



XEW AND SUPERIOR SEEDLING DAHLIAS FOR 1S12. 

JAMES EDW.\RD. Florist. Layehthorpe, York. 
begs most respectfully to invite the attention of Cultivators 
of the Dahlia to the following Three Seedling- Varieties raised in 
1S40, and fully proved in 184 Oi which are (luite distinct from any 
hitherto produced; of very superior habit, and constant in pro- 
ducing- good Show Flowers throughout the season; In proof of 
which J. E begs to state that he has shown above uon blooms of 
the three, during: the season, at various Exhibitions open to all 
England, and has had nine Seedling Prized awarded for them, 
namely,— four 1st prizes, three seccnd ditto, and two third ditto; 
they have also been shown in the following wiiming trays : — 
In the 1st Tray of 2-1 at the Horticultural Society, York, Aug. IS, 



SPLENDID SPECIMEN CAMELLIAS.— An Am a 
tear in the neig-hbourhood of Exeter has a fine Collection 
of CAMELLIAS, which he intends to dispose of in one lot, 
having no longer convenience to cal:ivate them. It consists of [ 
fine large specimens of all the best kinds in the highest hcalthj I 
finely set with flower-buds ; many of thera arc quite unique, and 
will be sold a bargain.— Particulars respecting them may be had i 
on application to Llcombe, Pixce, and Co., Exeter Nursery. ! 
Dec. 29th, 18-il. ! 

CHAPPELL'S CREAM BROCCOLI. 

CHARLES FARNES, Seedsmen, No. 128, St. John- > 
street. Louden, begs to inform the Public that he has pur- 
chased of Mr. Chappell, Market- gardener, Edmonton, the whole 
of the SEED saved by him this year of that splendid variety of 
BROCCOLI, which for size and flavour is not surpassed by any ; 
kind grown. Also now ready to send out— < 

Fames' superior first Early Pea. j Legg'sEarlyWalcberenBroccoli. 
Flack's new large Victory do. 1 Fine Early Frame Radish. 
Young's do. do. Marrowfat do. Ady's tine large Cos Lettuce. i 
Knight's Dwarf Green do. do. True Brighton do. do. 1 

New ,\uvergne Pea. | Black-seed Bath do do. 

American Dwarf do. Imported Early Dutch Turnip. 

Chappell's Early White Broccoli. , Imported Dutch Horn Carrot. 

BRACHYCOME IBERIDIFOLIA seed in small 
packets at 55.. to be had of W. J. NUTTING. Seedsman, 46, 
Chcapside. Lisianthus Russelliajius, 2s. 6d- : Pink, from fine 
named flowers, f?s. 6i. ; Calceolarias, from 30 varieties, 2s. 6d. • 
Pansies, selected from a few first-rate flowere. 5s.; do., from a ' 
superior collection, 2s. 6d. ; Dahlia Scapigura Mexicana, 15. ■ 
Clintonia pulchella, is.; Scliizo petal on Waikerii, u. ; Phlox 
Drunimondii, Is. : &c. &c.— Packets of the following Cucumbers 
at 2s 6d.: Man of Kent ;Bames';, Victory of Suffolk ;Allen'5\ 
Prize-fighter, AVcedon's Frame, Roman Emperor, Euid Windsor 
Prize. 

ty A Catalogue of Seeds to be had on application. 

A LAING and C. M. M'lNTOSH beg to announce ' 
-iJ- • that they have made arrangements to rarrv on business ■ 
as NCRSERYilEX, SEiiDSMEN, and FLORUTS general!-, and 
trust that by attention, and the, oppoitunity t'cvy have of pro- 
curing their Stock of Seeds, Fruit-trees, Shrubs, &c. from the 
most respectable growers, and the facility the situation affords 
(being within nine miles of Huli; of transmitting such orders as 
they may be honoured with, to all parts of the United Kingdom ' 
and the Continent, will induce gentlemen to favuur them with a ' 
share of their patronage. j 

LAING and M'INTOSH begleave to say that aU orders will he i 
punctually attended to, and forwarded without deiay. 

Beverley, Yorkshire, 1st Nov., iSil. 



2d 

J St 

2d 
2d 

1st 

I5t 

1st 
1st 
1st 
1st 
1st 
1st 
1st 
2d 



21 

IS ,. „ 

36 at the Botanical Gardens, Hull, Sept. 2d ■ 
12 , , ' 

24 at the Horticul. Soc, Scarborough, Sept. 3d; 
12 „ „ ,, 

6 

48 at the Yorkshire Philosophical Soc, Sep. gth- 
36 ~ . - ^ . -. - . - 

36 
24 

4S 
43 



-lohn North 
Jas I,aneelot Foster 
William West 
John Robinson. 



TTLGH LOW & CO. have much pleasure in sub- 
A -■■ mitting to the attention of their Friends and the Public 
the two under-named first-rate DAHLLAS. Strong Plants will ! 
be ready for delirer\- the first week in Mavat lOs. 6d. each 

WINTERTON RIVAL .Nelson , Prinvose, good form, fine 1 
habit, flower.^ well above the foliage, height five feet, A figure ' 
will appear in the March number of the Fiorists' Journal I 

DUKE OF CORNWALL, Rosy Ruby, fine habit, well up in I 
the centre, veiy constant, has all the properties of Le Grand 
Baudin,-with the additional recommendation of being of much 
dwarfer habit; height four and a hsdf feet. ! 

The last-named was raised by the person who obtained Le ' 
Grand Baudin and Conservative, acknowledged to be two of the ' 
best Dahhas of iSiO, and exhibited in more winning stands than ! 
any two of the same season. 

H. L. &Co. think it needless to inform those who have hitherto ' 
favoured them with their orders as to rheir way of doin°- busi- ■ 
ness ; but think it right, for the satisfaction of strangers, t*o state 
that should the two Dahlias now offered not answer the descrip- I 
tion given, they will most willinglv deduct them. 

Roots of most of the leading sorts of last year may be had on ' 
early application. 

Clapton Nursery, Nov. 24th, 1841. 



ryUE ANNUAL DINNER of tbe SUBSCRIBERS 
J- to, a»d FRIENDS of, the GARDE%"ERS' BEVEA'OLEXT 
INSTITUTION, ti;e MEMBERS of the Ff.ORICULTURAL 
SOCIETY of LONDON, and the NURSERYMEN, GARDEN 
ERS. and AMATEUR FLORISTS of GREAT BRITAIN will 
take place at the CROWN and ANCHOR TAVERN, STRAND 
on THURSDAY, the lath of Jaxuary, 1S4-2, at Four o'clock' 
Protessioxal Sikcers will aitend. 

The GENERAL MEETING 01 the GARDENERS' BENEVO- 
LENT INSTITUTION, the FLORICULTURAL SOCIETY of 
LONDON, and ANNUAL MEETING of the TRADE, at One 
o'clock the same day. 

Dinner Tickets 12s 6d. each {including a bottle of^^ine^may 
be obtained of the following Members of the Committee: — 

Messrs. Beaton, Shrublands. near Ipswich; Bristow, 
Knightsbridge _: Chavdler, Vaushall : Charlwood, Covent- 
garden: Gained, Battersea; Gregorf, Cirencester- Hkxder 
SON, Pme App:e.place; Low, Clapton; Mou.xtjoy, Ealuig- 
KoBLE, Fleet-Street; Osborne, Fulham; Rogers. Eaton.square- 
Smith, gardener fc> Lord Tenterden, Hendon; Thomsov Iver- 
Toward, gardener to H. R. H. the Duchess of Glouce==ter' 
Bsgshot Park; Warner and Wasxes, CombiU; Waterer, 
Kuapp-liul, Bagsbot. 

Of Messrs. Atkins, NorthamDton : Dav, Oxford; Dick«ox- 
Acre-lane. Bnxton; Flanagan, Mansion-house-street; G\r^ 
RAWAV and Co-. Bristol; Giruxc, Stowmarket; M*ceav. 
Badmmgton; Nutting, 45, Cheauside: Ogden," Coventrv • 
Orson, Orange row, Kennington ; Wood & Sons, Maresfield ■ at 
the Gardeners' Gazi:tte Office, 320, Strand; of ^ir.WiLnMix 
Hon. bee. of the Floncultural Society, Grove place, Sonthampton- 
street, Camberwell; and of Mr Bowler, Hon. Sec. of the Bene- 
volent Society, Albany-road, Keut-mad. 



Botanical Gardens,^Sheffieid, Sept. 15th; 
Hoiticultural Soc ,Barusltry, Sept. 2lsti 

Botanrcal Gardens, Leeds. Sept. 22<ii 
, Horticultural Society, York, Sep. 24tlij 

Besides baving taken other Frizes in addition to the above. 

Premie.^.- Fine bronze salmon, very superior form, of excel- 
lent habit, throwing its bloon,s well above tbe foliage, and always 
to be depended upon in producing good show flowers. Ttiis 
variety obtained the first prize, in it> class, at the York Ancient 
Florists' Society, September 20th. and had also the premier prize 
awarded, as the best Dahlia of anv colour.— Height 4 to 5 feet.— 
Plants lOs. 6d. 

Marv Jane —White ground, vcxy deeply tipped and edged with 
purpled carmine— constant throughout the season, well up in the 
centre, of excellent habit, and never fails in producing good 
flowers. This vaj-iety obtained the fii'st and second prize at 
Scarborongb, as the best light-ground flower lipped or edged, 
and has justly been pronounced the most distinct and atti"active 
Dahlia ever produced in its class.— Height 4 feet. — Plants iCs. orf. 

Dike of Richmond. — bine light pink and yellow, colours 
beautifully blended together, with a light-yellow tip at the end 
of each petal, similar to the Duchess 01 Richmond, but quite dis- 
tinct from that variety ; ver>- superior habit, always constant, 
and will prove a noble and excellent show flower.— Height 5 feet. 
—Plants I OS. 6d. 

Good strong plants will be sent out the first week in May ; and 
for the convenience of parties at a disteUice. orders will be re- 
ceived, and plants supplied, by Mr. George Chariwooii, Seedsman, 
Covent Garden, London; and Messrs. Heridersou, Nurserymen, 
Brechin, Scotland. No allo^vance to the trade uidess 12 plants are 
ordered, and aremittance or respectable reference will be required 
from unknown correspondents. .1. E. canaiso supply plants ol all 
tbe best Dahlias in caliivation, of which a catalogue is annually 
printed, and can be had on application. 

We the undersigned, memlers of the Committee of the York 
Horticultural Society-, do attest the correctness of Mr. Edward's 
description of the above Dahlias; aiid we strongly recommend 
them as distinct varieties from any yet sent out, and well worth a 
place in the most limited collection. 
James Richardson Richard Land 
John Roper John Walker 

J. Heseltine Edward Uearpark 

Henry Bellerby Robert Dempsey 

William Dove 

Report of tJie York Amateur Florist Societif, held on JTonday, 
August 9th, iS4l.- The Judges and Members of this Society con- 
sider it their duty to notice a seedling Dahlia of last year ^sent for 
inspection] raised by Mr. Edward, .^urseryman, of this city. The 
colour is pure white, with a dark tip of purpled carmine; the 
form, depth of petal, and above all, good eye, require no con- 
sideration to pronounce it one of the best Dahlias yet seen of its 
class; and from the evident superiority of this distinct variety 
over such flowers as Glory ol Plymouth, Beauty of the Plain, &c., 
there is no doubt but the year IS42 will cause these flowers to 
fall in the rear when brought into competition with the seedling- 
exhibited this day, as it may safely be pronounced a gem of the 
first water, and will refiect the greatest credit on the fortunate 
raiser, for so long as Dahlias remain in Ciltivation this flower 
must form a prominent feature in a stand of six. — From the York 
Courant. 

HOT-WATER APPARATUS FOR HEATING 
HORTICULTURAL BUILDINGS, DWELLING-HOUSES 
CHURCHES, and MANUTACTORIES, upon improved prin- 
cip'es, and at very mcderate charges, erected bv DANIEL and 
EDWARD BAILEY, 272, HOLBORN. 

D. andE. BAiLtv having devoted much time to the considera- 
tion of this subject, and had much experience in the erection of 
apparatus for the above-mentioned purposes, have, by improve- 
ments suggested in their practice, rendered their mode of heat- 
ing not only verj' efiicient. but very simple, and have combined 
durability in the apparatus with economy m the charge. They 
have erected apparatus in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for 
many noblemen and gentlemen, and have had the honour to be 
employed by the Horticultural Societj- of London, in executing the 
works of their splendid Conser^-ator>-^ lately erected at Chiswick 

D. and E- B.\ii.kt also construct in metal all descriptions of 
Horticultural Buildings and Sashes, and invite noblcmeji, gentle 
men, and the public to an inspection 01 their various drawings 
and models, at 272, Holbora, where they have the opportunity ol 
exhibiting, amongst other metal works, an extremely complete and 
convenient kitchen apparatus, orrange, adapted for the continued 
supply of hot water, and an arrangement of the oven more com- 
plete than has hitherto been brought before the public. 

D and E. Bailey were the first to introduce metallic curvih- 
near houses to horticulturist-^, and can refer to the Conservatorj- 
attached to the Pantheon as one of their works, besides many 
others in this country and on the Continent, 

D. and E. Bailey have prepared a quantity of the Galvanic Plant 
Protectors, which are now ready for immediate deliver}-; they 
beg to introduce to public notice a new Trough Pipe, for Orchi 
daceous or other Houses where vapour is constantly, or at inter- 
vals, required, and which maybe seen at their manufactory. 

BRITISH SHEET-GL.ASS for HORTICULTURAL FURFOSES 

X'OhLEMEN, GENTLEMEN, and HORTICUL- 
-^^ lURlSTt- generally, are respectfuiiy informtd ihat they 
maybe lurnisbed with Lists of Prices, and everj particular re 
garding the above article, which has been aticpiefi so success 
fully at Chatsworth. upon application to J. DRAKE, Plate ar.n 
Crown Glass Warehouse. S.Jermyu-street, St. James's, and 100, 
Edgeware-road. 

Orders for small or large quantities of Glass for Lights 01 
Houses hccuratcly cut to the required size, and punctUHily exe- 
cuted upon the lowest wholesale terms. Wii.dcw Lt-ad, Solner. 
Putty, Pifipared Cement, and every requisite for GtirdeB Glazing, 



Wants a situation as shopman or TRA- 
' ' VELLER to a Wholesale Seed and Nurseryman, a respect- 
able Young Man, who well understands the business in all its 
branches, and from his connexion could increase the business 
cf his employer. The most satisfactorv testimonials could be 
given. Letters addrcsi^cd B. L., at the Office of the Gardeners* 
Chronicle, will be forwarded. 

TXr ANTED by a 'first-rate Gardener and Forester, a situ- 
* » ation as GARDENER, to take the management of the 
Garden. Pleasure-ground, Pianring, Sec. The advertiser has been 
in constant practice for the last 10 years, and has been equally 
successful in Fruit anl Flower forcins" ; and, in addition to the 
above, has carried on an extensive business as Nurseryman ai.d 
Florist, and jiow intends to tiim his attention to the laying out 
or general imj^rovcmcut of any gentleman's gardens, and will un- 
dertake to renovate old Vineries, or get a crop of Grapes in Fif- 
teen momhs from the time of planting young Vines,— with every 
improvement in modern gardening. Can be highly recom- 
mended by the first Horticulturists of the day. 

Apply (prepaid) to Mr. Jno. shalders, Secretary to the Holt 
Horticultural Society, Norfolk. 



'rO GARDENERS and OTHERS.— TO LET, in ihe 
*■ County of Kent, IS miles from town, a good HOUSE and 
G.^RDEN, with sbout Twelve Acres of Fruit Planting. Rent, Sec, 
moderate. For further particulars apply to Mr. Pawlev, White 
Hart Inn, Bromlev, Kent. 



^rO MARKET GARDENERS and FLORISTS.— TO 

-1 LET, on LFASE, at Clapham, Surrey, 4 mi, es from London, 
a largCGARDEN and FIELD of excellent earth, about 2 acres, 
on which are 3 Forcing Houses, and 2 Cottages walled in on two 
sides, and the rest close paling, with choice Fruit-trees. Apply to 
view the property at Evans's Cottage, middle of Bedford-road. 
Clapham, and letters to S. W. C, at 54. Col eman-street. London , 

TO NURSERYMEN, SEEDSMEN, and FLOR- 
ISTS. -To be disposed cf, a NURSERY and SEED BUSI- 
NESS, v.ith au unexpired 1 ease of Ibi Years, containintr up- 
wards of li acres of Land, well stoclied v.ith Fruit and other 
Trees, &c. &c., with Dwelliug-house, Seed-shop, Cottage, three 
Greenhouses and l-its well stoct-ed with Saleable plants, at a 
moderate rent. The above Nurserj-is situated not more th;tn five 
minutes' walk from the prncipal squares in the West-end, and 
may be taken, with immediate possession, by private contract or 
by valuation. 

For further particulars, apply to Mr. Matthews, buUder, No. 1, 
Newman- street, Oxf-rd-street; if by letter, prepaid. ^ 



^rO BE SOLD for ^ 10 10s. 27 SPECIMEN 
A PLANTS, aU well-grown, and in excellent health. The 
Judges at the Exhibitions of the Horticultural Societies have de- 
nominated some of tbern the mo.st penect of their kinds tliat 
have yet been seen, and as such they have had medals awarded to . 
them. 

2 plants of Russelliajuucea, very large; 2cf Pimeleadecussata^ 
2 Elichrysum pmliferum : 2 Grevillea rosmarinirolia; 2 Eutaxifr 
mvitiiolia; 2 Kennedva monophylla; 1 Brachysema latiloJia ;|1 
Epacris latifolia; 1 Epacrisiropressp ; 1 Hovea lanceulata; 1 Kei- 
nedvaiMarrj-attse; 1 Amarj His purpurea; 1 EupiiorbiHsplendtn*; 
iCo'rnea s;iecics:.: ! Erica Hartneliij Do. eximia; Do. came a ; 
Do.radiata., Do. lulgida; Do. coccinea ; Do. cerinthoides. 

Ap pl y at 34, W'ych Street, Strand, London. 

NNUITIES.— In the AUSTRALASIAN, COLO- 
NIAL, and GENE P.AL LIFE ASSURANCE and -ANNUITY 
COMPANY, Annuitants participate in the Profits 01 theCompany, 
and receive a rate of ANNUITY much more favourable than can 
be granted by any Comi-.my making its investments wholly in 
England The Company is enabled securely to grant these fa- 
vourable terms from tbe advantage it possesses of investing a 
portion of its Funds at a high raTr of Interest. 

Directors. 
Edward Barnard, Esq., F.R.S. 1 C. £. Mangles, Esq. 



Henry Buckle, Esq. 
John Henry Capper, Esq. 
Gideon Colquhoun, jun., Esq. 
John Edwardes Lyall, Esq. 

Solicitors.— Messrs. 



J. B. Montetiore, Esq. 
J. H. Ravenshaw, Esq. 
Caiit. Sir Jas. Stirling, R.N. 
William Walker. Esq. 
wain, Stevens, and Co. 



Prospectuses, with Tables, Forms of Proposal for the purchase of 
an Anuuitv or for making an Assurance, and ever>' information, 
may be obtained by application at the Office of the Company, No. 
I2di Bishopsgate-street, Cit\'. 

I)V order of the Board, 
CHRISTOPHER COUSINS, Accountant. 



HEATING BY HOT WATER, WITH THE CIRCULATION OF 
ATMOSPHERIC AIR- 

J^yEEKS & CO., Arcbittcts, &c., Gloucester-place, 
• King's-road, Chelsea. Hothouse Builders, and Hot-water 
Apparatus Manufactmers, beg leave to inform the Nobilitj- and 
Gentn- that their business, which has been extensive throughout 
the country- for manv vcars, is entirely confined to the BUILD- 
ING OF HORTICULTUR-AL ERECTIONS of every description, 
and tbe HE.\T1NG of them by HOT WATER; seethe 3rd and 
37th Numbers of the Garde/iers^ Chronicle, 

References may behad.and their works seen, at Mr. Perry's Nur- 
serv. Banbury; Mr. Green s. Lower Cheam; Messrs. Henderson's, 
Pin'e-apple Nurserj- ; Messrs. Rollisson's Nursery, Tooting; Mr. 
Knight's Exotic Nursery, Chelsea; Messrs. Low's, Clapton Nur- 
.^erv: Mr. Catleugh's Nurser^-, Chelsea; Mr. Gaines's Nursery, 
Battersea: Mr, Buck's, PorUand Nursery ; Mr. Young's, Miliord 
Nursery-; Mr. Smith's Nurseq'j Dalston ; Mr. WoodrolTs Nur- 
<erv. Keusall Green; Mr. Hopgood's Nursery, Bayswater; Mr. 
Wiilmer's Nnrserj-, Chelsea; and at most of the Nobility and 
Gentlemen's Scats in the country. 

Every particular to be had at their Horticultural Manufactory, 
Gloucester place, Chelsea, near Sloane-squarc. 



H 



OT-WATER APPARATUS, upon 
proved and Economical principles, for 



other Buildings.— STEPHENSON & CC^ 
Park Iron-works, and Manufacturers, fig 
London, annex the following list of pric^'of 
the best description, to assist persons desirffijS .&f 
mode of heating in their calculations of-tE^pn ' 
andiespectinlly solicit an opportunity cf tehderin; 
the completion of any work required. Spck'et-pip 
of two, thiee, and four inches diameter, at Ss-. .3^ 
4.V. 3d. pel yard. Ditto, with Troughs for Drgpids! 
5s. M. and as. per yard. ^', ^^ 

Tbe much- approved Conical Boilers made of -^i 
per, and which reqm're no furnace or settings in." brick vroj;k,-li;ojn 
o;. OS. upwards. Also every other description of BAilcvs r-tths. 
most approved construction. -~r '' 

Fuither particulars maybe obtained at the "WareTiottses, Graces 
church-street, where also may be seen a variety of patterns of 
Iron and strained-^ire Fencing, Knrdles, Brass and iron Bed- 
steads, &c, &c, 



'^.^ 




THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[N°- 1. 



SLATE CISTERNS, SHELVES, TROUGHS, &c., 
for Horticultural purposes.— EDWARP BECK, Manufac- 
turer, Isleworth, near Brentford. Orders, AVorkiug Drawings, 
&c., forwarded by post, will receive due attention. 

%* Slate Edg^ing-s for Flower Borders, &c. 

TO SEEDSMEN, NURSERYMEN, AND OTHERS. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MORRIS are in- 
structed by Mr. Hevry Clarke, of the Hign-street, Bo- 
rough (in consequence of his declining a part of his Country 
Trade), to submit to Public Auction on the Premises, White Hart 
Inn Yard, High-street, Borough, on Thm-sday, Jan. 6th, 1S42, at 11 
o'clock, the surplus Stock of Garden and Flower Seeds, con- 
sisting of Onion, Lettuce, Cabbage, Broccoli, Cucumber, Cauli- 
flower, Carrot, Mangel Wurzel, Maw Seed, &c. Also a quantity 
of Herbs, Kests of excellent Seed-drawers, and other effects. 
May be viewed two days previously to sale. Catalogues may be 
had of the principal Seedsmen and Nurserymen; on the Pre_ 
misesj and of the Auctioneers, AmericEin Nursery, Leytonstone 



FOR CHILDREN CUTTING THEIR TEETH. 
STEEDMAN'S SOOTHING POWDERS.— The good effects 
of these Powders in preserving a liealihy state of the constitu- 
tion during the period of teething have now had 20 years' ex- 
perience, (the propiietor first gave them to his own children with 
great bencfit,j during wiiich time thousands of cliildren have 
been relieved annually from all those distressing symptoms 
which children snfler wtiile cutting their teeth; viz —FEVERISH 
HEATS, FII'S. CONVULSIONS, SICKNESS OF STOMACH, 
and DRBILITV, accompanied with Relaxation of the Bowels and 
Inflaninmtiod ot the <3ums.— Prepaieri and sold in packets at 
Is. \^d- by J. Stkedman, Ciicniist, Walworth, Surrey, and sold 
by all Chemists and Medicine Venders in the United Kingdom ; 
or any lady wishing to try them, by enclosing a shilling in a 
letter to the proprietor, will receive a packet by return of post, 
free of expense. 

On the First of January, No. I., price 2s. 6d., 
Hf^HE LADIES' FLOWER-GARDEN OF ORNA- 
-*- MENTAL PERENNIALS. By Mrs. LounoN. Each Num- 
ber will contain Tiirec Plates, demy 4to size, comprising from 15 
to 20 Figures accurately coloured from Nature. 

London: Published by William Smith, U3, Fleet- street. 

Just published, cloth boards, gilt, price 45. Gd., dedicated by 
^peci-tl pt-rmisston to H. R. H, Prince Albert, 

THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, as elected to the 
Fourteenth Parliament. By Williahj Atkinson WAfiv>'iCK. 
Opinioi s of the Press :— "This account of the House of Commons 
will prove a valuable companion to every session of Parliament, 
of whic^l the present members of the lower House shall form a 
part, it (T'lmmcncis with a britf introductory history of the 
origin of the House, and gives the iiate of each Parliament, witli 
the names of the Speakers, from the eailiest time, and the 
number olP-rliamentsheUl in each reign. After giving the uames 
and titles, the following inforniati"n as to alniost every member 
is suppiitd:-hi» politics, whelher Tory or Liberal, whithcT he 
voted for or against the Sugar Question, and for or against the 
last Ministry j and ti.e name of the place for which every 
mcmher h< Ids his se,:t, with its populatinn. Then lollnw the 
parfnia:,'e, marriage, and state of the family, with the fasuily 
scats. &c., Sec, and various lii'le pieces of pergonal history, very 
pleasant to 'h^^e to wliom they relate, inasmuch as they afford 
proofs of a successful and honourable ambition, either in the 
present memhers orTlit-ir ancestors. As far as we have been 
able to te-st the work from ■ ur own knowledge, it is very accu- 
rate; and !n the fi-rihcoining i^ession. hnsy and excited as that 
VFill probably be, th-- eictnils which it affoidswill prove, we doubt 
not, eenerally acctpt:^.bic " — The Juaiwe ofi/it: Peace. 

"This is a most useful rdition."— iL'.rWer Flying Post. 

*• Contains much matter of general U\t.Gve>V'— Norwich Mcr. 

"There is a good deal of nseful miscellaneous inlormation in 
tliis work, which is comprehensive and accurate, without being 
bulky."— r«/^'* Edinburgh .tfugazine. 

"Of 'he many publicati'ujs professing to give a true and par- 
ticular account of the new Hru^e of Commons, this api,ears 
to us to be, both in plnn and execution, the most complete. 
The design ol the publication is to give, at one glance, with- 
out any second reterence, every important detail connected 
with the public and private history of the Members of the 
House of Commons. In addition to' this inforni'^iinn, which is 
innch more full and complete than in any rival work, Mr. War- 
wick has given every particular relative to each constituency ■ 
the results of the two geiural elections, the names of the un^uc- 
ccssiul candidates ; the oflieial state of ihe poll ; the i>opulation : 
and many other statistical and political tacts. We have looked 
to the names of tho>c Members with whose political and private 
movements we are be^t acquainted, apid are able to report fa- 
vouraby of the notices which are attached to them. We may 
therefore venture to pronounce this the most correct and useful 
Jitile manual of its class which h;is fallen nndei our notice du- 
ringthe pTei>entyeB.r. "—United Service Gazette. 

"This is a very useful manual, embracing more of the personal 
and political hist.ry of the Members of the Lower House than 
any similar workthathas come under our notice."— TAe Ituilwcit/ 

" A work in which the personal and historical details connected 
with each Member of the present House ol Commons are more 
extensive than in any f^imilar publication we ore acquainted 
with.' — Camtjridgc Chronicle. 

" This is the moht complete guide to the present House of 
Commons wliicli has yet ■d.\>\iQa.reA.— Bristol Mercury 

*' Mr. W^arwJck has conferred a service on IhciJrii'ish public bv 
the issue of this valuable little manual. It presents iu a small 
compass e- ery information connected with the public and. nrivate 
history of the Members of the preser.t House of Commons Such 
awork was much wanted; for though several Pariiamentary 
Guides are befoie .ha public, we are not aware that any has vet 
appeared which comprises all the features of that before us " 
— J/uTW Sun. 

" A very useful manual; and as party bia.-; does not appear 
■we may safely recommcDd it to the attention ol all classes of 
readers, the arrangement being irreproachable."— jAe JrcA^c- 

"Containing a large amount of useful information in a w-ll 
arranged form, and is one of the best books of reference for nar- 
ticulars connectt-d with the constitution of the present Pa lia 
ment that we have yet ^een. It gT\es much more than the usual 
informanon with respect to the personate of the House of Com- 
mons. We beg to recommend the work to tho^e parties to whom 
mlormalion touching electioneering and Pariiamen ary mltteS 
in general .8 useful, n hns the merU of impartintitl!^^ndU 
paJd(nL '''''"^'''^^'J"^''^^-' 'f "^' opinioL-lHampshirelnde. 
"u^'^''^*'!^' manual which has hitherto been pubhshcd as a 

,,^;^ar^j;:;^^-'^:,^:^--SS^--3nta.. ana. 

^«a , ^'""^"^'l'"^"'"'^*'"" ^*''^'» 's necessary to enable the 
reader to comprehend the components of the present P^Ma 
ruzxit:'~hinci,lnshire Chronicle. present Pailia- 

'• Mr. Warwick's work displays much perspicuity of arranee- 
Td^^r.:;;';;!"'^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ itscompilat.on..Lc.;rge 
JohrCummfnT"''"^^''''- ^'^^"^'"^e^ ^ W. Tait. Dublin: 



PAXTON'S MAGAZINE of BOTANY, No. xcvi. 
for January, which completes the Eighth Volume, contains 
the ifoUowing Illustrations— 1. Oncidium Tnsleayii; 2. Harden- 
bergia macrophj Ua ; 3. Beauf6rtia decussata ; 4. Gesnera ze- 
briua; the usiial Operations for the Month j and . a copious 
Index, &c. 

<Cr Arrangements have been made for executing the Illustra- 
tions for the new volume in avcry superior manner, and also for 
introducing other points of general interest and attraction. 
London : W. S. Orr and Co. Paternoster Row. 



To appear on the 1st of January and to be continued monthly, 
Svo, containing o(5 pages of Letter- press and 2 Plates, 
No. 1, price 2s. 6d., of 
a^HE LONDON JOURNAL OF BOTANY; being 
-L a NEW^ SERIES of the "JOURNAL OK BOTANY." By 
Sir WiLi-iAsi Jackson Hooker, K.L., LL.D., F.R.A., and L.S., 
and Director of the Royal Botanic Garden of Kew. 

H. Bailliere, 219, Regent- street, Foreign Bookseller to the 
Royal Society and the Royal College of Surgeons, London. 

LIEBIG'S AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.- NEW EDITION. 
This day is published, a much-improved and cheap edition, 
containing a nev.' chapter on Soils, of 
i^HEMISTRY, initsAPPLICATlO-NStoAGRICUL- 
' -^ TURE and PHYSIOLOGY. By Justus Liebig. M.D., 
F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Qiessen. 
Edited from the Manuscript of the Author, by LYON PLAY- 
FAIR, Ph. D. Small Svo, 9s. 6d. cloth. Printed for Taylor and 
Walton, Upper Gower-street. 



PEOPLE'S EDITION OF SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NOVELS. 
On Saturday, 1st Jauuai-y, 1842, and to be continued each Satur- 
day till the whole is completed, No. 1, Price Two-pence, 
containing One Sheet Royal Svo., double columns, of 

WAVERLKY; OR, 'TIS SIXTY YEARS SINCE. 
With all the Author's Introductions and Notes. To be 
immediately followed by GUY MANNERING, The ANTIQUARY, 
and all the other Novels and Romances of Sir Walter Scott. 

The Proprietors are anxious to meet the wishes of many intel- 
ligent correspondents among the Working Classes, who represent 
that, notwithstanding the great circulation and unparalleled 
celebrity of THE WAVERLEY NOVELS, thousands upon thou- 
sands of our industrious countrymen have yet to form acquaint- 
ance with the Baron Bradwai dines and Fergus M 'Ivors, the 
Meg Merilees and Dominie Sampsons, the lidie Ochiltrees, Old 
Mortalities, Di. Veinons, Rob Roys, Jeanie Dcanses, and num- 
berless other immortal creations of the Prince of Novelists. The 
Edition now announced will, it is hoped, be allowed to put 
these marvellous performances within the reach of the masses. 

It is expected that the entire Novels will comprise about 260 
sheets; and, besides the Weekly Issue, a Monthly stitched Part, 
price Ninepcnce, will be delivered with the Magazines. 

Robert Cadell, Edinburgh; Houlston & Stoneman, London. 



•'PHE NONCONFORMIST, a Weekly Meiropolitan 
"L Newspaper. — This Paper— commenced on the l-ith April, 
1841, containing a full digest of News clearly arranged, and more 
Original Matter than any similar Journal— has already taken the 
position of an established organ of Liberal principles both Pcdi- 
tical and Ecclesiastical. The numerous quotations from it by the 
contemporary press of all parties- its rapidly increasing circu- 
lation—and the unsolicited testimony to its character furnished 
bv several of the leading men of the day, have stamped the 
NONCONFORMIST as a paper worthy the support of all classes 
interested in promoting the cause of civil and religious liberty. 

The NONCONFORMIST contains l6 pages ( " Spectator size), 
Price 6(/. Published every W^ednesday afternoon at the Ofiice, 4, 
Crane Court, Fleet-street, and may be had of all News Agents. 



THIS DAY, PRICE FOURPENCE, 

[Stamped, to go free by post, Fivepence,) 

The first Number for 1842, of 

^p H E A T H E N ^ U M.— 

-*• CONTENTS : 

Reviews— of Botta's Travels in Arabia— Frederick the Great 
and his Times, edited by Thomas Campbell— Fragments of the 
Greek Historians, includin- an Account of the Parian Marbles and 
the Rosetia Stone— Literature of the Toilette— Mechanics of 
Engineering, by Prof. Whewell— Principles of Mechanics, by 
Prof. Willis— Capt. Jesse's Notes on Russia, Circassia, the'Cri- 
mea, K:c. 

Original P<)Etry.— A Voice of the Birthday— A Kew Year's 
Carol. 

FoREiGNCortRESPONDENCK.— Letter from Dresden— Note from 
Berlin announcing that the contemi)lated piracy of the Athenccum 
&c., has been forbidden by the Governrjent. 

REPORTS of Proceedings at the Geological, the Astrouoniical, 
the Statistical, and other London Societies; of the Ashmolean 
Societj' of Oxford and the Academy at Paris— with Abstracts of 
Professor Owen's Paper on Marine Turtle found in the Louden 
Clay— Mr. Porter's Examination of Facts deduced from the late 
Census — Dr. Twiss on the Sepulchral Circles in Sligo — Air. 
Drach on Sliootuig- Stars and Comets. &c., and of the Meteoro- 
logical Observations continued for 62 consecutive hours, by 
order of the President and Council of the Royal Society, and 
furnished exclusively to the At hen (Eum— 'Notices of contemporary 
Musical Composers, Chopin— Opening of Drury-Lane -^ Panto- 
mimes — Home and Foreign Gossip — Announcements of pub- 
lished and forthcoming Works, &c. 

The Athtnteiim of this d^y is enlarged to 36 pages, to include 
the Index for the past year. 



On the 1st of January will be published, the FIRST NUMBER 

for 1842 of 
'-rHE ATHEN^UM JOURNAL OF LITERA- 
-L TURE, SCIENCE, and ART, Price FOURPENCE (Stamped 
to go Free by Post, Fivepence). 

THE ATHENAEUM is the largest Literary Journal published. 
It is pruited in Large Quarto, sixteen pages of three columns 
each, and Double Numbers are given as often as required (25 
were given in the year 1940, and 22 in 1841.) 

IT CONTAINS 

Reviews, with copious Extracts, of all important New Works, 

both English and Foreign, 
Reports of all that is intcresthig in the proceedings of the Learned 
and Scientific Societies; witli abstracts of tlie more important 
papers Also, the Meteorological Table kept by order of the 
Royal Society, and furnished crcfitsivet// to this Journal 
Authentic Accounts of all Scientific Voyages and Expeditions- 
Criticisms on Art— Critical Notices of Exhibitions, New Prints, 
New Music, the Opera, Concerts, Theatre.';, &c.— Biographical 
Notices of distinguished Men— Original Papers and Poems- 
Foreign Correspondence. With Miscellanea, including all that 
is likely to interest tlie informed and intelligent. • 
*»* The Atuen.eu.m is published on Saturdays, but is re-issued 

each Month, stitched in a wrapper. 
On the 5th of January will be published, with Titlc-nage and 
Index, bound in Cloth, Price it., 
The Volume for 1841 of the ATHENAEUM, consisting of One 
Thousand and Eight Pages, and containing a complete History 
of the Literature of the Period- an Abstract of the many valuable 
Papers read before the Learned and Scientific Societies -Report 
of the Proceedings of the British Association — Authentic Accounts 
of Scientific Expeditions, and of the Progress of Discovery gene- 
rally—Foreign Correspondence, relatingto the state of Literature 
and Art on the Continent— Biographical Notices of the distin- 
guished Men deceased during the yesu", &c., &c., and will be a 
most acceptable present to friends in the Colonies or on the 
Continent* 



Published every Saturday, price Threepence, 

PUNCH; or, the LONDON CHARIA^^RT ! ^A 
weekly budget of Wit and Whim, political and satirical, 
with Cuts and Caricatures. 

On the First of January will be published, being the FirstNumher 
of the New Volume, 
PUNCH'S ALMANACK; 
Illustrated with upwards of Fifty Humorous Cuts of the World 
as it is to he in 1842. It will also be enriched with FIVE HUN- 
DRED ORIGINAL JOKES ! at the irresistibly Comic Charge of 
THREE PENCE! Published in Weekly Numbers and Monthly 
Parts, at the Ofiice, 13, Wellington-street, Strand, and sold by 
all Booksellers. 



In one small volume, price 15s. 

PAXTON'S POCKET BOTANICAL 
DICTIONARY. 

In what may be called an age of C>clnpEedias, when the com- 
pression of a great variety ot inforniatiou into one volume, in 
order to bring it within the moans of persons of all ranks, is so 
universally sought, it is evidently desirable that the Gardener, 
and those connected with his profession, should be as well ac- 
commodated as other classes in this particular. No such work 
existing, however, prior to the issue of the present publication, 
its value will be at once apparent; since it con. bines the more 
essential features of a Botanical Catalogue, an Horticultural 
Guiile, and a Technical Glossary. 

Besides being of this comprehensive description, it is especially 
adapted for the Amateur or Fluriculturist; who may, by carry- 
ing it in his pocket, examine all the plants thatai-e at anytime 
submitted to his inspection, and immediately cerivecvir) intel- 
ligence respecting the peculiarities or afiinities of particular spe- 
cies which could reasonably be wished for. This is an advantage 
that can only he sufficiently csiimated by iho.'^e who have felt 
the want of such an assistant; and to all such individuals, as 
well as to every agent or friend of horticulture, the Pockei Bota- 
nical Dictionary is decidedly indispensable. 
London: J. Andrews, Bond-street; Oir & Co., Pateraoster-rcw. 

Handsomely nound in cloth, with 93Wood Engravings, price Gs.Qd. 
1 LLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE, AND CON- 
-i- FIKMATIONS OF SACRED HISTORY, from the Monu- 
ments of Egypt. By W. C. rAYLOB, LL.D. 

From ihe British Magazine- — "Ibis is an elegant and well- 
executed littlf book, 00 a most interesting subject." 

From the Birmingham Herald. — "A valuable and indispensable 
accession to thelibrary of every Biblical student." 

Frojn the Rev. Thomas Hartwetl Home's Introduction to the 
Critical Study of the Scriptures.— " KeRily three hundred texts of 
Scripture are more or less explained in this elcguuUy-cxccuted 
volume, and in a manner equally curious: and intcrestrng." 

Post Svo, price Qs., 

LETTERS FROM PALESTINE, written during a residence 

there in the years 1836-7-8. By the Rev. J. D. Paxtox. 

The more important places in reierence to Scripture History, 
visited by the a.uthor, were — 

Damascus, Eethkhcni, Mount Tabor, 

Jerusalem, Samaria, Mount Carmel, 

Beer, Mount Lebanon, Jericho, 

Bey rout, Hebron, Tiberias, 

Mount Olivet, The Plain of Esdra!on, TiiePlain cfSharon, 

Nazareth, Jaffa, The Dead Sea. 

Baalbeck, The Valley of the Jordan, 

Also may be had. price 7s. 6d. cloth, 
THE HISTORY OF FRANCE FROM THE EARLIEST PE- 
RIOD. ByE.DE Bo.vxECKosi;. 

This History has been adopted by the Royal Council of Public 
Instruction for the use of the Normal Schools of Fiance. The 
French Minister of War has also just subscribed for a large num- 
ber 01 copies for distribution amt ngst the Regiments in the 
French service. Ihe English translation of this popular work 
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THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



Vy ANTED, a GARDENER for the Bahama IsUinds. 
V' He mubt be a steady, wcll-infarmc<l man, who may he 
married, aetivminteil witli the maiingemeiit of Oranges and tropi- 
cal fruit- trees (ceuerally. Wages 50(. a year, a liouse, and gar- 
den produee. '1 he expense of his voyage will be paid out. The 
chuiate of the Bahamas is good and very hcaltliy.— Apply, by letter 
only, to Dr. JJndley', ■>\, Regent str eet, London. 

^Ije ffiai'^ciicris' anfjtoiucle. 

SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1842. 

MEETINGS IN THE ENSUING WEEK. 
:Moil(la>' . . . • . KntomoloRical .... 8 p. M. 

TiicMijty . . . . ■ Floriciiltiiral 7 P. M. 

W«ilin.'sd;iy .... GeuloffiiiHl 8^ P.M. 

Fi-idity Boianiial a p. M. 

Salurdity Royal Botanic , . . . -1 p. M. 



FFauming or agricullure is, according to Liebig, 
beyoiifl all' comparison the most important of human 
pursuits. This may be, because it produces food. In 
the opinion of the world, Gardening, or Horticulture, 
stands neNt among the arts' of cultivation; and Fo- 
resting, or Arboriculture, last. Here we do not agree 
with the world. It may be that Gardening produces 
directly more enjo_\ ment than Foresting, ministering, as 
it does, to our senses of vision, taste, and smell ; but Fo- 
resting is the science which a money-getting man 
should prefer, because it produces wealth, with which 
all the rest may be procured, and which the public 
should best loi e, because it furnishes the setting, with- 
out which a diamond is but glass, and a country of 
gardens but a wilderness. 

A\'hat is the use of our pretty flowers if we are to 
wander among their mazes without shade? of what 
avail our forcing-houses if they are to be mere oases in 
a desert.'' and where the beauty of a palace if, like 
that of Buckingham, its adjuncts are but dirty walls 
and dingy rov/s of fireburnt clay, dignified liy the 
name of streets } It is to trees that the great features of 
natural beauty will be traceable in every country, and 
which fiinii the difference between the rich and de- 
licious scenery of South Wale^~, as compared with the 
craggy savageiiess of Llanberis. 

AV'here, too, lies the natural wealth of a country, 
after counting the flocks and herds, the corn-fields and 
meadows, but in its forests, the source of naval 
force, of manufaciuiing power, of all domestic comfort ? 
People talk of the mines of coal and iron, of the ver- 
dant fields and the hardy sons of Britain, as the secret 
of her preeminence among nations; but are her woods 
as nothing:' And people distract themselves .tbout the 
importance of not having to depend on foreign coun- 
tries for our corn, as if the preservation of our native 
tiiiber were not as important a suly'ect of consideration. 

To be sure, we hear of vast sums e.'ipended in 
planting ; of the thousands of acres covered with forest 
by the patriotism of one man, or the munificence of 
another, or the ])rovident investments in wood of the 
careful truslees of a third. We know that ihese things 
are happening daily ; biit what then? Is our home 
supply of timber increased thereby? Doubtless it 
should be ; but certainly it is not to anything like the 
extent that ought to be expected from the outlay in- 
curred ; for this simple reason, that to plant is not 
necessarily to create timber. 

An excellent correspondent, whose letters have been 
too long on our table unused, has stated this in forcible 
terms, A very great proportion, he truly says, of what 
are called plantations cannot ever come to maturity, 
that is, to the noble timber which the original planter, 
we must suppose, intended. One man buys an estate, 
reads a book about the patriotism of planting, lays out 
a good round sum with his nurseryman, sacrifices the 
rental of his broad acres, and then — leaves the trees to 
take care of themselves, which they do by fighting like 
theKilkenny cats,till each is eaten by the other. Another 
man takes care of his trees, that is to say, follows Mr. 
Pontey's directions ; strips off all the branches ; turns 
his goodly Oaks and Ashes into hop poles, whip-liandles, 
fishing-rods, or whatever else of that sort the reader 
may please to imagine — under the sage idea that the 
more trees he has on a given piece of ground, the more 
timber he will have. And thus, between ignorant 
neglect and ignorant solicitude, the natural wealth of 
the country is frittered away, till we must look to any 
country rather than our own for supplies of timber. 

It may be supposed that these are e.\-aggerated 
statements, and that no such cases as we have referred 
to really exist. Alas for those who think so ! They 
know little of the Foresting of England. We have no 
desire to hurt the feelings of any man, and therefore 
we shall not point to those spots where all that we 
have described is to be witfaessed. The majority of 
our readers \vill, we doubt not, remember such cases 
within their own vicinity. Certainly some country 
gentlemen manage their woods extremely well; but 
most certainly also a large proportion are by no means 
sufficiently alive to their own interests, whether they 
consider the acquisition of money, or the beauty of 
their residences. 'We will engage to say that, between 
prejudice and ignorance, a large part of the woodland 
property of Great Britain is utterly wasted. 

How; strange^it is that while ^gentlemen will be 



guided by the men engaged by them 'in other occupa- 
tions—as gardeners, land-agents, mining agents, &c. — 
yetwhen woodland property is in question, they will not 
listen to reason, and even allow their ladies to interfere 
with the sensible observation that they cannot bear to 
see a. tree cut down. 

So few there be 
That choose the narrow path, or seek the right : 
All keep the broad highway, and take delight 
With many rather for to go astray, 
And be partakers of tlieir evil plight. 
Than with a few to walk the Tightest way : 
O foolish men ! why haste ye to your own decay ? 
We know how dangerous it is to condemn general 
practices, and how large a share of odium is likely to 
be incurred by him who, with whatever motives, shall 
set about exposing ignorance; nevertheless in this 
great national object we are content to run these risks, 
and therefore we shall address ourselves in future Num- 
bers to some at least of the points in which it is most 
important that common practices in plantations should 
be corrected — in doing which we must crave the 
countenance and assistanceof our experienced foresting 
friends, to some of whom, particularly Mr, Hamerton 
of Hellifield Peel, and Mr. Billington, we are already 
under obligation. 

■We owe _,our 'readers some apology for having so 
long delayed" to renew the subject of cultivating Bu lbs. 
Now that a new year is begun, we hope to redeem all 
our promises. For the present we shall confine our- 
selves to general principles. 

One of the commonest questions asked by gar- 
deners, as well as amatem'S, is what they are to do 
with bulbs they have just received from abroad. 
That they do not treat them rightly is sufticiently 
shown by the miserable health of those which are 
saved from the general loss that so often attends upon 
all such importations. To this point, then, we first 
address ourselves. 

\yhen a bulb has only lain dormant in the earth 
during its natural period, it is ready to spring into 
renewed life upon the application of warmth and 
moisture ; and it matters little whether it is suddenly 
transferred from dryness to moisture, or whether the 
change takes place gradually ; because its powers of life 
are unimpaired, and like the stomach which has recently 
digested one meal, it is ready to commence the imme- 
diate digestion of another. Not that in nature such 
sudden changes actually occur : on the contrary, when 
rain begins to fall, it soaks but slowly into the earth ; 
and when it does reach the bulb, it is still arrested in 
its action by the numerous dry coats with which this 
body is invested, and through which it must gradu- 
ally filter. 

But when a bulb has been long out of the earth, its 
vital energies are much diminished, and it cannot bear 
even that slow supply of moisture — its food — which 
is furnished by wet soil, whose humidity penetrates 
the bulb coats, and is absorbed by the living tissue. 
To continue the analogy — the bulb is then, like the 
stomach of a famished man, enfeebled by the pro- 
longed cessation of its natural action, ami unable to 
bear any food whatever except by very slow degrees. 
If a weakened bulb is suddenly brought in contact 
with water, it will absorb it, but will be unable to 
digest it. Then the water will become st.agnant and 
putrid, and destroy the bulb ; although, if the bulb 
could have digested it, it would have been converted 
into new elements, and have proved its proper ali- 
ment. 

The rule, therefore, to observe with newly-imported 
bulbs is, to place them where they absorb moisture 
very slowly. The driest earth is full of water, which 
can only be driven off by the application of intense 
heat. A bulb, therefore, should be planted in what is 
called dry soil, and placed in a shady part of a green- 
house until it has become plump and begun to shoot ; 
if it has begun to shoot when received, still the same 
treatment should be observed, and the driest soil used 
to plant it in. It is only when decisive signs of natu- 
ral growth can be detected that a very little water 
should be given, while the temperature is at the same 
time slightly increased; and no considerable quantity 
of water should be administered until the leaves are 
an inch or two above ground, and evidently disposed 
to grow rapidly. If these precautions are taken, no 
failures are ever likely to occur; if neglected, no suc- 
cess can be anticipated. We once saw oOO bulbs of 
one of the rarest and finest of all plants destroyed by 
an unskilful gardener, who planted them in the wet 
earth of an open border immediately after their arri- 
val from a fifteen months voyage, every bulb of which 
would have grown had he known what we have now 
stated. 



CHATSWORTH. 
I HAVE visited in my time nearly all the noted " resi- 
dences" on this side of the Tweed, but not one of the en- 
tire set — Abbej'S, Courts, Castles, Priories, Parks, Halls, 
or Palaces — lives in my memory like Chatsworth. No- 
where have I found so much to admire, nowhere so little 
to condemn, as at Chatsworth. Nowhere have I seen a 
place more favoured by nature, noij at the same time, 



more indebted to art ! Nowhere have I beheld a place so 
tlioroughly consistent as Chatsworth. Here one is never 
disgusted by an offensive display of wealth in one quarter, 
nor pained by an out-peeping of poverty in another. Here 
is nothing gaudy, nothing shabby ; the work is all well 
done, and the materials good throughout. Here is no ar- 
tificial stone, no fictitious marble, no imitative wood, no 
Brummagem plate — nothing, in short, that tends to 
weaken the legitimate effect, or to lead you to suspect that 
pomp is produced by illegitimate means. All the magnl- 
hcetice on which you gaze has a sort of reality and dignity 
about it which makes you feel at once that there is nothing 
of arrogance or pretension in the case, and that what you 
see is no more than the natural and becoming exposition 
of the rank, affluence, and taste of the proprietor. You 
feel, in fact, a respect for him, and thus is attained the 
only true and proper object wliich can be supposed to 
induce the display of an individual's taste or resources — 
an object, by the way, which never fails to defeat itself 
when anything spUrious is suffered to enter into the com- 
position. 

Chatsworth has been called the Palace of the Peak — a 
very offensive and cockneyfied appellation truly ; yet, dis- 
daining *' alliteration's artful aid,'' this noble mansion es- 
pecially recommends itself, not as a palace indeed, but as 
the befitting habitation of a British Peer, where the re- 
quirements of comfort are never sacrificed to a morbid 
love of show, and where splendour is in no wise suffered 
to interfere with the propriety that pervades the whole. 
To the guide-books I must refer you for an enumeration 
of the treasures that are to be found within the walls — 
merely remarking, that art, both ancient and modern, and 
in all its branches, would seem to be appreciated by the 
Duke of Devonshire, as the galleries of painting and 
sculpture, the libraries, the mosaic pavements (just laid 
down), the oak-room (just completed), the Egyptian an- 
tiquities, &c. abundantly testify. In his love, however, 
for the fine arts, the Duke has rivals not a few ; but in 
uniting a keen perception of the various beauties of na- 
ture with a high relish for the creations of art, he standi 
pre-eminent, or rather, he stands alone. There are books 
atAlthorpe; at Dropmore there is a noble Pinetum ; at 
Highclere there are beautiful grounds ; the Duke of 
Northumberland has a rich collection of tropical plants ; 
the Duke of Sutherland boasts his pictures, the Duke of 
Rutland bis sumptuous plate, and Lord Westminster his 
fine house ; but at Cliatsworth there are all these, and 
moi'e. In fact, all the diver.se materials which go to 
make up the separate celebrities of the places I have enu- 
merated, and of others also that I could name, are to be 
found concentrated here. It is only, however, with the 
gardens and their contents that I have now to deal ; and 
among these likewise I have good choice of subjects : the 
water-works, terraces, the great conservatory, the conser- 
vative wall, the collection of Orchidacese, &c., are all fea- 
tures of great interest, and most of them peculiar to the 
place. Let me take them serintim. 

Fii'st, then, the water-works ; and of these — first, the j'e^« 
d'eaii, or upright fountains. Of all forms in which water 
can he spouted, this is unquestionably, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, the worst ; for it has no formal architectural 
effect to compensate for the violence it does to the laws of 
gravitation. This objection, however, applies solely to 
these jets when of insufficient altitude ; for water, wiiich 
when thrown only to the height of 20 or 30 feet falls back 
in heavy and lumpish masses, is dissolved into the most 
exquisite spray when projected to the height of 60, 70, or 
even 90 feet, as we see it in the great fountains at Chats- 
worth. To enjoy these in perfection, a person ought to 
station himself in the park, a quarter of a mile or more 
from the scene of action ; for thus only can a full view be 
caught of the beautiful effect of fleecy light produced by 
the agitated column of water. If the sun shines, so much 
the better. Another fountain there is, which, I was told, 
greatly delights the good folks of Manchester and its vi- 
cinity when lionising Chatworth; but which, neverthe- 
less, if it were mine, should soon spout its last. I mean 
the weeping Willow (as by courtesy it is called), made up 
of copper tubes, from the eitreraity of which water issues. 
The idea is unquestionably poetical — a tree in tears. 
When first named to me, it charmed me much ; but the 
e.\ecution is stiff and awkward, and reminds one more of 
some of the monstrosities that vegetate upon the 
China cups and saucers than of the graceful tree it is 
designed to imitate. This ds?idritic fountain, when first 
approached, does not appear ia melting mood, nevertheless it 
is ever ready to surprise the unwary visiter by a jhowerof 
spray, and in this its charm consists ; in fact, it is a 
mere toy, and therefore unworthy of the dignity that rsigns 
around. — Argus. 

(To be coatinued.) 



ENTOMOLOGY.— No. XXII. 
Aphides, or Plant-lice. — It is quite unnecessary to 
dilate upon the mischief done to the gardener and agri- 
culturi^-t by this extensive tribe of insects ; not a tree, 
shrub, or flower seems to be entirely free from their at- 
tacks. We therefore will confiue ourselves principally to 
an elucidation of their economy, which will not prove the 
less interesting from the valuable observations that have 
recently appeared in this Journal. There is no family of 
insects which deviates in its habits more from the general 
laws of nature than the Aphides ; for whilst it is almost 
a universal rule that this class of animals should progress 
through the various transformations of epg, larva, pupa, 
and imago, the Aphides have the power of evading three of 
these states by the faculty they possess of producing 
young ; for, influenced by natural causes, they are both vi- 
viparous and oviparous, bringing forth young at mild sea- 
sons, when the temperature is not injurious to their tender 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[N°- 1. 



offBprlng, and laying eggs in autumn, ■which are better cal- 
culated to resist the cold of winter. But this is not the 
Inost curious anomaly in their history; for a succession of 
young Aphides can be produced without the presence of 
the male insects. For instance, as soon as an Aphis is 
born, if it \^e taken away and placed upon a plant under a 
glass where nothing can possibly gain access to it, it will 
notwithstanding produce young, one of which being also 
removed, and treated with the same care, will possess the 
same prolific faculty ; and thus Bonnet succeeded in ob- 
taining oflfsprtng for many generations, and he believed that 
the experiment might have been successfully pushed to 
thirty. The countless myriads therefore that appear in our 
hop-gardens and greenhouses may be easily accounted 
for, without having recourse to miraculous causes. Reau- 
mur has calculated that in five generations one female 
might become the progenitor of 5,904,900,000 descendants. 
"With such an inexliaustible power of fecundity, it is fortu- 
nate for man that no insects are subject to the attacks of 
such a variety of enemies. First, there are the Lady-birds, 
which feed upon the Aphides both in their larva and per- 
fect states ; 2dly, the aphidivorous SyrphidK, the maggots 
of which, as we have shown in a former paper*", are ex- 
cp-edingly useful in diminishing the numbers of the Plant- 
lice. Then there aie the Hemerobii, or Golden-eyes, 
whose larvie are called Aphis-lions, a ferocious family 
nearly related to the Ant-lions. Another set of insects are 
parasitic, and deposit minute eggs in the old Aphides, which 
then change to dull ochreous, horny objects, sticking to the 
leaves on which they had fed, frequently exhibiting a hole 
in their sides, from whence the parasitic little ichneumon 
called Aphidiusf had issued. I find also several other ge- 
nera of insects which assist in keeping in check these pests 
of the greenhouse and garden; and even the troublesome 
Earwigs in some measure make compensation for the mis- 
chief they do to our flowers by feeding upon the Aphides 
in the leaves, distorted and curled by their attacks, in 
which the Earwigs seek retirement from the light after 
their nocturnal depredations. The soft-billed birds are 
likewise eminently serviceable in the spring in clearing off 
the Aphides, as they hatch from the eggs which had been 
laid on the buds the preceding autumn. 

The mischief that follows the presence of the Aphides 
arises from their thrusting a hollow proboscis into the 
leaf or stalk of a plant, through which they imbibe the 
juices, thus supporting themselves at the expense of the 
plant ; and by thus draining it of its due nourishment, it 
soon becomes exhausted, droops, and often dies, when the 
number of the Aphides is very great. 

There are three genera of thciC Plant-lice, Eriosoma of 
Leach, of which the Apple Aphis, E. lanigera (lU.). and 
the Poplar Plant-louse, E. Bursaria (Linn.), belong; and 
Aphis and CinaralJ:, the former genus comprising the Rose 
and Cabbage Aphides, A. Rosai (Linn.) and A. Brassiere 
(Linn.), and the latter the Oak and Pine Plant-lice, Sec. 
I shall conclude these remarks by recording a new species. 
On the 1st of last May a very fine variety of Indian Corn 
was sown in a garden where probably the Jlaizehad never 
grown before; and I am not aware that it has ever been 
cultivated in the neighbourhood. The plants grew very 
luxuriantly, until one reached the height of eight feet; and 
in August I discovered clusters of a pretty Aphis beneath, 
the leaves, which struck me as being dlQ'erent from any that 
I had seen before. I watched them until about the middle 
of September, when they all disappeared, although the 
Aphis Rosse was neither affected by the wet nor by the 
colder nights which might occasionally intervene. I have 
since examined the specimens very carefully, and feel con- 
vinced that they belong to a species with which I am quite 
unacquainted. I have no doubt that it is confined to the 
Maize ; but how it could find its way to the plants in this 
locality is very unaccountable. The seed I took from the 
spike or ear, which was not left in the garden ; I sowed 
the seeds myself; and I freely confess that I am at a loss 
to account for the suddenappearanceof this species, which 
I shall name Aphis Zeje. The females first attracted my 
notice. This sex is distinguished by a pale ochraceous 
head and thorax ; the back was dark green, curiously 
marbled with a palish greeu, and the portion beyond the 
middle was rosy ; the lubes were moderately long, and very 
remote; the legs ochreous and pubescent, the tips of the 
shanks and the feet being brown; the antennae blackish, 
ochreous at the base (fig. 4). These females were sur- 
rounded by little groups of young ones, generally of a 
blackish-green colour, and eventually a few males made 
their appearance. They were of a pale rose colour ; the 
head, portions of the thorax, and back of the abdomen, 
were pale green ; the tubes were pale, long, and slender ; 
the antennje and legs were very pale ochreous ; the wings 
were like those of the true Aphides, with very pale ner- 
vures, but in some specimens they were rather darker, 




* Gardeners' Chronicle, Entomology, No. I. 
t Curt. Erit. Ent. fol. and pi. 383. j Id, fols. & pis. 57O & 577, 



with the stigmatic spot pale green (fig. 2). The natural 
sizes of the sexes are shown at figs. 1 and 3. 

As numerous remedies for the destruction of these in- 
sects in the various departments of the garden have been 
frequently published in this Journal, it does not seem to 

he necessary to repeat them upon the present occasion. 

Jiuricofa. 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF LEONOTIS 
LEONURUS. 
I HAVE for several years grown this without obtaining 
satisfactory specimens, the plants having sometimes flow- 
ered badly, and always lost all their lower leaves before 
the flowers expanded, so as to leave bare unsightly stems. 
I have this year succeeded in producing several fine plants, 
and one in particular, which is not yet out of bloom. - It 
is about 8ft. high and 12ft. in circumference, and ten days 
ago was well covered with leaves, and bore on each branch 
from three to four full and perfect whorls, forming a really 
splendid sight. This plant was struck from a cutting in 
May 1840, kept in a 48 pot during the winter; in the 
beginning of April put into a pot 13in. in diameter, and 
11. Un. high, and placed in a forcing frame, heated by hot- 
water pipes covered with sand, and kept at a temperature 
varying from 75*^ to 50^, the fire being lighted in general 
only every other evening for four or five hours ; here it 
remained for about seven weeks, when the branches 
touching the glass, it was removed to the greenhouse. 
After the end of June, when the other plants were taken 
out and the stage removed, it was forced as much as pos- 
sible by keeping the house shut up during the day, so as 
to concentrate all the heat which could be obtained from 
the sun, but no fire was lighted except for about four 
nights in September and October. The thermometer 
often stood at 120°, but no heat seemed too great for it, 
provided it had plenty of water, and in this respect only 
my treatment has differed from that of previous years ; I 
never suffered the surface of the earth to become dry, and 
generally kept about an inch of water in the pan. The 
quantity required in hot weather was nearly three gallons 
daily. After Nov. 5th a number of other plants being 
placed in the greenhouse, it was kept quite cool and ven- 
tilated, and on the •22d the Leonotis was removed into a 
room without a fire, as the stage was then required for the 
rest of the Pelargoniums, &c. Notwithstanding this check, 
several whorls have expanded in the last three weeks, and 
very few leaves fell till within the last ten days. Had the 
weather been ordinarily fine and warm in October, I have 
no doubt the blossom would have been a month earlier, 
but in some respects it is preferable to have it at a season 
when most other flowers are gone. — i*. W. J. 



GREENHOUSE SUCCULENTS. 

You requested me a few days ago to give your corre- 
spondent II. L. some practical directions for the manage- 
ment of Succulent Plants. In his letter to you he says 
that he has a collection of about ;^00 plants, consisting of 
Cactese, Ficoidese, Crassulae, Aloes, &c. ; that they are 
kept in a small greenhouse, which is heated by a common 
smoke-flue ; and he therefore wishes to know at what 
temperature the house should be kept — how often the 
different kinds should be watered — when they should be 
shifted — and what kind of soil should be used. As I have 
no doubt the subject may be generally interesting to your 
readers, I shall endeavour to give a few directions as 
plainly and concisely as possible. 

Succulent plants are very different in their structure 
and habits from the majority of others which compose the 
vegetable kingdom. The Almighty Creator, who doeth all 
things well, has created plants upon the same grand plan 
which may be observed throughout the whole of animated 
nature, and by which each individual is fitted for the pe- 
culiar circumstances in which it is destined to exist. 
Thus Ferns delight to grow on our damp walls, in our 
woods and shaded glens ; other plants, having large thin 
leaves full of evaporating pores, either grow in an atmo- 
sphere saturated with moisture, or if they are placed in 
dry air and exposed situations, have numerous root- 
lets extending in all directions, capable of supplying the 
leaves with moisture as quickly as it is extracted from 
them. But succulents are formed to exist in countries 
and situations where they are often exposed to intense 
light and dryness; their skins are thick, they have few 
evaporating pores, and they have likewise few roots to 
gorge their tissoe with food during the rainy season. 
Therefore we find the dry sandy plains of the Cape abound- 
ing in Aloes and Mesembryanthemums, and the bare vol- 
canic rocks of Mount Etna covered in many places with 
the common prickly Pear. In Mexico, also, and in many 
other parts of Central and South America, the extensive 
race of Cacti, with their curious unvegetable-like forms, 
are at home, and flourish even in those dry and parched 
seasons when the whole face of nature besides seems 
withered and destroyed. 1 wish particularly to draw at- 
tention to the natural circumstances in which these plants 
are found, because if these are once known, they are sure 
and certain guides in cultivation. 

To be grown well, the whole race of what are called suc- 
culent plants requires to be kept in the lightest possible 
situation in the greenhouse. It is true they may be grown 
in heavy shaded greenhouses, but their leaves will never 
acquire that beautful colour which is seen in light situa- 
tions, nor will they flower so freely. The colouring matter 
in the leaves of some of these plants, the Echeveria gibbi- 
flora for example, is delicate and beautiful, hut this is never 
seen in perfection unless a light situation is attended to. 

In an extensive family of this kind it is difficult to point 
out the proper soil which ought to be used, as some 
of the species require it much richer than others. 1 
have generally found the free-growing kinds of Aloe, 



Crassula, Mesembryanthemjji^m, and plants of like habits, 
do^'^es't in a rtiJ&Tree'soil, such as equal portions of lighfc 
sandy loam, and peat or leaf-mould, with a small quantity 
of bruised bricks. For the free-growing Cacti, such as 
Cereus speciosissiraus, the soil ought to be made lighter 
and richer by using less loam, and more peat, leaf-mould' 
and dung; but for the slow-growing Mammillarias and 
the very succulent Mesembryanthemums, such as M. 
tigrinum, it is best to use about one-third light loam, one 
of peat or leaf-mould, and one of bruised bricks and lime- 
rubbish. As a general rule, to which I believe very few 
exceptions will be found, I would advise all persons not 
acquainted with the particular habits of these plants, to 
use soil richer or poorer according to the quantity of roots 
which they produce, at the same time taking care that the 
poor soil is also loose and open, to prevent the plants from 
damping. In every case the pots must be well drained. 
The best season for shifting is the month of February or 
March. Once a year will Jn general be quite sufficient for 
the free-growing kinds; and although many of the others 
will not require it so often, yet it will be found the best 
plan to go over the whole at this time, examining their 
roots and adding*a little fresh soil, taking care not to pot 
them too deep, nor to overpot them, as they are safest in 
small pots. 

Water should be given to the slow-growing kinds at all 
times with a judicious hand, but particularly during winter, 
as more plants are killed by over-watering than by any 
other cause. At this time once in ten days or a fortnight 
will generally be found sufficient ; but as this depends 
upon the situation of the weather, much must be left to 
the good sense of those who attend them. Those kinds 
which are more luxuriant in growth and not so succulent 
require more water, and are not so easily injnred by it. 

A great deal of misapprehension exists in the minds of 
many persons concerning the temperature which many of 
these plants require. The whole race of Mammillarias in 
books on gardening are generally consigned to the dry 
stove, and thus many persons are prevented from growing 
them who would do so if they knew the plants would 
succeed in the greenhouse. By far the greatest number 
succeed perfectly there, where the temperature is merely 
high enough to exclude frost — that is, anywhere betweeen 
35 and 45 deg., as may be mostagreeable to the cultivator. 
If my memory does not deceive me, several plants of thif 
kind lived out of doors for several winters in the Edin- 
burgh Botanic Garden some years ago. When Cacti are 
either very young, or old and sickly, there is nothing better 
for their health than growing them in fli common dung 
frame during summer, but they must always be removed 
to a dryer atmosphere before the approach of winter. 

Succulents are generally easily multiplied either by seeds . 
or cuttings. If the- cutting is very soft and liable to 
damp, it ought to be dried a little before it is put into the 
sand. .Sometimes a little quicklime is useful for prevent- ■ 
ing decay, and can be either used for the base Of the cut- 
ting, or applied to any part of the plant from which a 
damping piece has been removed. 

Mesembryanthemums are very ornamental when planted 
in beds in the open garden during summer, but the free- 
blooming kinds alone should be chosen for this purpose. 
In some parts of the Continent where they excel in the 
cultivation of Cacti, it is common enough to see groups of 
these plants growing in the open air amongst rocks and 
stones in summer, where they not only produce a curious 
exotic effect, but also grow much faster than they do in 
pots. But if this system is practised in England, it must 
only be in our sunny spots in front of walls or hothouses, 
where they can be protected from continued rains. — R, 
Fortune, Horticultural Society's Garden. 



THE MOST ORNAMENTAL SPECIES OF 
CRAT^GUS, OR HAWTHORN. 

Aro'nia. — This is the most showy species of all in 
the autumn ; it has very large bright yellow fruit, which 
are produced in great abundance. 

Tanacetifo'lia. — This is an upright-growing kind, 
with finely-cut leaves, and bears the largest fruit of all; 
they are yellow, but not produced in such abundance as 
those of Aronia. 

Odokati'ssima. — This species forms a spreading tree ; 
it has downy leaves, and numerous large bright red fruit 
in the autumn; and with 

Ohie'jntalis, which has large dark-red fruit, should be 
in every collection. 

Cocci'nka." — This species and its varieties are very 
showy ; they have rather large and numerous bunches of 
bright-red fruit in the autumn. The variety called max- 
ima is the most deserving of notice. 

Glandulosa. — This kind has numerous small twigs 
with large spines, forming a dense bush, and is ornamental 
in the autumn, when it is covered with an abundance of 
rather large red fruit. 

Punctata. — Of this there are three varieties well worthy 
of notice ; one with red fruit, another with yellow, and a 
third with an upright or fastigiate habit of growth. All of 
them have very large showy fruit in the autumn. 

Oliveriana. — This kind has small, deeply-cut, 
woolly leaves, and small black fruit, which are very numer- 
ous, and ornamental in the autumn. 

Dougla'sii. — This is a very distinct kind, with va- 
rious-shaped leaves and black fruit, which ripen early in 
the autumn, and contrast well with the bright shining 
leaves and strong spines. 

Nigra. — This is a strong-growing kind, with black 
fruit and deeply-divided leaves, flowering rather early. 

Heterophylla. — This is a beautiful species, on ac- 
count of its profusion of flowers in the spring, and the 
numerous small red fruit in the autumn. 

Macracantha. — A singular kind; with iaimen«e 



Jan. 1.] 



THE GAUDENERS* CHRONICLE. 



spines, and small, shining, yellowish-red fi'uit, produced in 
large bunches early in the autumn. 

Pyrifo'lia. — This is a free-flowering kind, with 
rather small but very numerous yellowish-red fruit, which 
ripen very late in the autumn. 

Crus-Galli.— This sjiecies and its varieties are desir- 
able on account of their bri'^'ht-sliining green leaves and 
numerous bunches of dark-red fruit, which ripen very late 
in the autumn. Tlie most desirable is Ihe variety called 
salicifdlia, which has horizontal branches, forming a fiat 
table-shaped head. 

Prunifo'lia. — This is a desirable kind, forming 
a close bush; it has rather large, shining leaves, and nu- 
merous bunches of dark-red fruit, which ripen late in the 
autumn. 

Flava. — This is very distinct ; it has a rough-barked 
stem and straggling branches ; it produces small greenish- 
"yellow fruit, which ripen late in the antnnin. 

Virginiana. — This is a dwarf kind, with numerous 
green fruit, which ripen late in the autumn. It is very 
desirable, as it retains its fruit nearly all the winter. 

Cordata.— This is the latest in flower, and bears the 
smallest fruit ; it has bright-shining angular leaves and 
bright-red berries. 

Ox Y AC ANTH A ROSEA SUPERB A. — 1 his is the most bril- 
liant of all when in flower ; it bears bright crimson blos- 
soms in May. The double variety of it has also flowers 
nearly as intense in colour, and quite double. Both these 
should have a place in the most select collection. 



THE AMATEUR'S GARDEN.— No. I. 

In commencing the Amateur's Calendar of weekly ope- 
rations, it may be as well to point out its objects, and the 
particular class of gardens for which it. is intended. 
Among the readers of the Chronicle there is a large 
number who possess small gardens, and who manage them 
themselves. These gardens, in many instances, do not 
exceed two acres in extent, consisting of pleasure-ground, 
flower-beds, a greenhouse, and some pits and frames. It 
is to the management of such, therefore, that my remarks 
will chiefly apply ; but I propose occasionally to advert to 
particular kitchen-garden operations, and to the treat- 
ment of plants in rooms ; and also to introduce from time 
to time short accounts of any pretty plants which may 
seem deserving of notice, with practical directions for 
their cultivation. The objects will be to make such in- 
formation practical and useful, as well as popular and in- 
teresting. 

In these holiday times, it is of little use to recommend 
cut-door operations, as people are more inclined to mirth 
and gaiety than to gardening ; besides, the weather is soun- 
settled, that nothing can be done with any degree of plea- 
sure. Greenhouseorhalf-hardyplants, however, mustnotbe 
neglected ; they require very little water at this season, but 
must have plenty of air when the days are fine and mild. 
The hard-wooded kinds in particular should have very 
little artificial heat, not more than is necessary to dry off" 
the damp and keep out the frost. Take care that the 
weather does not deceive you, as we frequently have it 
mild at night and get several degrees of frost before the 
morning ; if the wind is northerly, and the thermometer 
below 40° and falling, it is time to look after fires in the 
greenhouse. All dead and damping leaves should be care- 
fully removed from the plants in cold pits or frames, when 
they are open on fine days. Mat them well up at night. 

Examine Dahlia roots, and see that they are not mould- 
ing, as it will be provoking for you to find them a month 
or two hence with all their buds destroyed. If you are 
fond of Roses and of budding them, you ought now to get 
in as many Stocks as are likely to be wanted, and plant 
them in any spare corner of the garden. 

Window-plants require very little water, but the quan- 
tity ought to be regulated by the habits of the kinds ; Pe- 
largoniums, for example, ought to have more than succu- 
lents ; Fuchsias generally have lost their leaves, and 
therefore need very little. The principal attendance 
which is necessary consists in preserving them from the 
frost, and taking care not to force them into growth by 
keeping them in a room which is too warm. Hyacinths 
in glasses may have a little fresh water occasionally. — Ji. F. 



HOME CORRESPDNDENCE. 

What to do with Kittens and Puppies. — The Spanish 
plan, named in your Paper (p. 815, 18J1), of assassinating 
stray dogs for the benefit of sick Orange-trees, does not 
quite agree with English tastes, and 1 would beg to sug- 
gest that the little kittens and puppies generally thrown 
into the river when larger litters are born than required, 
would be a good substitute, and the gamekeeper may often 
help the gardener in this way. Spoiled game 1 have found 
a great help at the root of an old Jloss-rose tree. — Salopi- 
ensis. 

Holly Flanling. — I doubt not you will think the sub- 
ject of Holly-planting and pruning well-nigh exhausted, 
after the appearance of at least three sensible articles on 
that subject. But my own experience leads me to point 
out to your correspondents the necessity there is for stat- 
ing the localities to which their remarks refer, or, if anony- 
mous writers, the latitude and longitude. They forget 
that your Paper circulates in districts and counties far 
distunt from those in which they live ; and yet even at a 
■vast distance and in a different climate their remarks 
would be equally profitable if the county, at least, to which 
'they refer is stated, and so the discreet reader be enabled 
to make all due allowance for difference of situation. To 
show the connexion of this remark with Holly-planting, I 
have no doubt whatever that in a large, perhaps by far the 
largest part of England, spring-planting is the best, and 
yet my own experience, in 33'^ latitude and longitude, 



gives the preference to autumn-planting. In the year 
1837, 1 planted a Holly-hedge of more than eighty yards 
in length, in a double line, after the way recommended by 
Cobbett in his "English Gardener," page 21, i.e., "one 
row eighteen inches from the other — the plants in each 
row fifteen inches apart, and placed opposite the middle 
of the intervals of the other row." Thus you will find 
I planted in all 384 plants ; the soil low, wet, and peaty. 
I first planted these in the month of June, and they ap- 
peared to be going on most prosperously, till a cutting 
N. E. wind, near the close of the month, blackened them 
all and killed nearly half! I carefully supplied the places 
of the dead ones in the October following, of which ] lost 
forty plants; but you will remember the extreme rigour of 
that winter. I again supplied their places in the spring 
of 1838, and again more than half died; the October of 
the same year 1 filled the vacant places, and not one died ; 
and at this moment, 1 have every plant, as intended, rooted 
and settled, 384 in number, as originally. Thus you see, 
on the N. E. coast, three miles from the sea, the cutting 
winds which prevail in spring would seem to render au- 
tumn the preferable season for planting Hollies. After 
all, 1 am fully convinced that if trouble is taken in water- 
ing and puddling the roots at the time of planting, there 
is no time for evergreens like Midsummer. I have large 
Portugal Laurels, several Laurustini, and a few Hollies, 
all transplanted at Midsummer, and somewhat later this 
very year, all alive, with new shoots, and the Laurustini 
in full flower. I intend next Midsummer, in spite of the 
warning voices of two of your very clever correspondents, 
to cut down my Holly-hedge within sir inches of the 
ground. Midsummer is the time to prune evergreens 
safely. I am glad to find that some notice is likely to be 
taken of the proper methods of warming, ventilating, &c., 
the common domestic greenhouses — as they are attached 
to dwelling-houses, and would venture to suggest, as an 
invaluable article in itself and one that would at once 
answer a host of inquirers, that the whole plan and proper 
directions be given for a good average-sized greenhouse, 
attached to the house, in which a few Vines might also be 
allowed, divided under the following six heads : — 1. Size 
(say 30 by 15 feet); 2. Inclination of roof (say 45°); 
3. Glazing J 4. Height in front (which when a greenhouse 
is attached to a dwelling-house should not be less than 
five and a half feet) ; 4. Best way of heating ; 5. Vines, 
how many in number and what sorts best j and 6. Best 
arrangement of the stages for plants ; perhaps, 7. A cata- 
logue of plants easy to keep and cheap to purchase. — 
Ce pophi lus, (Lat. and Long. 35°). [The latter part of 
our correspondent's letter describes very nearly the plan 
of tlie forthcoming articles on Domestic Greenhouses.] 

The Fiff. — it would be of great service to those who 
are not well acquainted with the real culture of the Fig- 
tree, if some experienced gardeners would give informa- 
tion upon its management in pots and tubs, in Grape- 
houses, Peach-houses, and pits ; on the back walls of 
Vineries with a prepared border, in a pit with border and 
a table trellis of wire, in a Grape-house with the Vines Up 
the rafters only, and also in a Fig- house. The writers 
should name the most proper sorts for all the above me- 
thods of growing Figs. — Fictis. 

llitn-Flovjers. — Now that the subject of run-flowers is 
occupying the att^;ntion of the skilful in horticulture, you 
may, perhaps, think the following worth a place in the 
Gardeners^ Chronicle^ regarding a Picotee which flowered 
in my garden this summer. The plant is an old one of 
two or three years' growth, consequently of considerable 
size in the stem, which, after rising a few inches, throws 
out two branches right and left, having an equal quantity 
of layers on each, or nearly so, and possessing an equal 
luxuriance of growth. It bloomed freely ; one branch 
producing self-coloured flowers, the other variegated. — 
E. C, Bants. 

Hyuoinths. — I have read in the Chronicle what has 
been considered a new mode of growing Hyacinths; but it 
is not a new mode, for I grew them myself last year in 
London nearly in a similar manner in Beet-roots ; my 
father told me how to do it more than twelve years ago, 
and I believe he knew the method twenty years before. I 
think it wiong to put them in the roots immediately after 
the root is scooped out ; but the proper way would be to 
hollow the roots, as your correspondent says, then to fill 
them with water, and suspend the roots inverted in some 
dark place, until the leaves are long enough to hide the 
roots ; they will grow up, not down. The bulbs intended 
for the Beet-roots should be set in glasses, at the same 
time the Beet is filled with water and suspended in a dark 
place ; then they may be taken out of the glasses when 
roots and bulbs aresuificiently forward, and they look very 
curious. I do not think they receive any nourishment 
from the Beet. — J. C. [Another correspondent speaks 
of the Hyacinth succeeding equally well in Turnips and 
Carrots. He also recommends the dark varieties to be 
placed in Turnips, and the light ones in Beet-ioot, when 
the contrast of colour is striking and beautiful.] 

Polenlillas. — On reading the Gardeners' Chronicle of 
Dec« mber 11, page 817, in answer to an inquirer on Po- 
tentillas, I fiud the remark that hybrid Potentillas never 
produce Seed, at least perfect seed, and several varieties 
are mentioned as having this peculiarity ; now I beg to 
dissent from the above assertion, having, in 183(1, saved 
seed from P. Hopwoodjana, which produced plants in 1837 
and bloomed the year following. I also saved seed last 
year from P. Garneriana, which have this year produced 
a pot of healthy plants, which I expect to bloom next 
summer; and I am informed by a respectable gardener 
that he has succeeded in raising plants from seed of P. 
Russelliana, so that the above remark must be an error of 
the press, or a lapsus of the pen, which I have considered 
it my duty to correct. — T, S. [We wish our corre- 



spondent had informed us whether the seeds of the hybrid 
Potentillas reproduced the varieties from which they were 
saved.] 

Sliii/s V. Sand. — There is in p. 766, (1841,) a recom- 
mendation of sea-sand as a preventive of the attacks of 
slugs. 1 have tried it, and am able to say little in its 
favour ; for a short time it may do, but after that it is of 
no more use than if it had not been there, for I have 
caught them crawling on it in less than one week after it 
has been taken from the shore. Lime has been recom- 
mended, but, unless it is thrown over the plants often, it 
will not keep them off, for as soon as the dampness of the 
ground has slacked the lime, they are on it as much as 
ever; if the lime falls on the slugs in its unslacked state 
it is sure to kill them. As a proof that lime is of little 
value, I planted out about 250 Lettuces, and sprinkled 
them well with lime, and now I have not a single plant 
left. The best thing that I have found to keep off slugs 
is soot ; I sowed two crops of Lettuce this year, one after 
the other — they were both eaten off, but the third time I 
sprinkled them with soot, and after that I never lost one. 
— A Constant Reader, Jlyde. 

British Oaks. — Under this title there is an article, at 
p. 3, (1841,) that brought to recollection a paper read 
before the Horticultural Society, January 1.5th, 1833, by 
the late William Atkinson, Esq., of Silvermere, not less 
celebrated for his talents as an architect, than for his 
knowledge of all relating to the vegetable kingdom, 
but above all for h's modest, unassuming manners and 
general amiability of character. As many of your readers 
may not possess the Proceedings of the Horticultural So- 
ciety to refer to, subjoined is an extract of his valuable 
paper — other parts cliiefly relate to Oak of foreign growth, 
also very interesting, but omitted, not to swell tliis article 
beyond a fair proportion of space in your Jourryil : — 
" "There are only two species of Oak that are consi- 
dered natives of Great Britain and Ireland, the Quercus 
pedunculata and Quercus sessiliflora. The Q. pedunculata 
is called by some Q. Robur ; and by others Q. sessiliflora 
is called Q. RoburT"to prevent mistakes 1 think it better 
to adopt the name Q. pedunculata. This kind is easily 
known by the Acorns having long stalks and the leaves 
very short foot-stalks, or in some specimens hardly any. 
In the Q. sessili flora. the leaves have footstalks from a 
quarter to one inch in length, and the Acorns sit close to 
the branch, having hardly any stalks. With respect to 
the qualities of our two native Oaks, the Q. pedunculata 
contains a great quantity of the silver grain which shows 
when the wood is planed — what workmen call the flower 
in the wood. In consequence of this, the wood splits 
clean and easy, and is best adapted for split paling and 
laths. It is also stiffer wood, and though it may be 
broken with a less weight than the Q. sessiliflora, yet it 
requires a much greater weight to bend it, and is, there- 
fore, best calculated for beams, or to bear the greatest 
weight without bending. The Q. sessiliflora contains sg 
small a portion of the silver grain or flower, that wood of 
that kind from old buildings has generally been miatakeji 
for Sweet Chestnut (Ca^staiiea vesca) : during the last 
thirty years I have taken every opportunity of procuring 
specimens of wood from old buildings, and particularly 
what the carpenters called Chestnut; but I have never, in 
a single instance, seen a piece of Chestnut from an old 
building : what has been taken for that wood, I have al- 
ways found to be the Q. sessiliflora, mistaken for Chest- 
nut from its deficiency of the flower or silver grain. The 
roof of Westminster Hall has been said to be Chestnut; 
while it was under repair, I procured various specimepa 
from different parts of the roof ; the whole of them were_ 
Oak, and chiefly the Q. sessiliflora. Most of the black 
Oak, from trees dug out of the ground, I have found to 
be of the same kind. From finding the wood from the 
oldest buildings about London to be chiefly the Q. sessi- 
liflora, I should suppose that some centuries ago the chief 
part of the natural woods were of that kind * ; at present 
the greater part of the Oak grown in the south of England 
is Q. pedunculata. Specimens of Oaks that I have pro- 
cured from difl"erent parts of Yorkshire and the county of 
Durham have been all Q. lessiliflora, which is very scarce 
in the south. There are some trees of it at Caen-wood, the 
Earl of Mansfield's, near Highgate, which I believe to be 
one of the oldest woods near London, and a greater part 
of the Q. sessiliflora appear to be trees from old stools. 
Q. sessiliflora appears to grow equally well with Q. pedun- 
culata ; it is a handsomer tree in the foliage, aud from 
finding so much of it sound in old buildings, I suspect it 
may be the most durable. It bends from a weight much 
sooner than the Q. pedunculata, but requires a much 
greater weight to break it ; from its toughness I consi- 
der it best calculated for ship-timber. The old Sove- 
reign of the Seas was broken up after forty-seven years' 
service, much longer than the general durability of ships, 
and as the wood tlie thip was built of was had fronq the 
north of England, it is verv probable it was the Q. sessi. 
liflora."_iV/. D. P. 

Genus Citrus. — The author of some remarks on 
Oranges, in your Number of Saturday, Dec. 11th, 1841, 
page 814, has made some few mistakes, which 1 hope he 
will allow mc to correct ; and although correction and re- 
proof are not often well received from any one, and much 
less from strangers, I am willing to hope that the excuse 
on my part of having been rather a successful cultivator 
of what is commonly called the Orange will induce him 
to pardon me and look over the impertinence. In the 
first place, there is no such word as Aurantia ; Arrancio is 
the vulgar name for the f)range in Italy. Aurantium 

* " Mr. Atkinson's opinion upon this subject is confirmed in a » 
remarlcable manner by the discovery that the Oalc in an extensive 
sub-marine forest at Haatings is Q. sessiliflora." r-iN'o^e lij/ ths 
Secreturyt 



i±iJ3i liAKDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[N°- 1. 



(Citru^Ji.urantium) is the proper botanical name for the 
Sweet or China Orange. Your readers may not be aware 
that Citrus is the generic name of all that large class and 
Tariety of fruits which are called Oranges, Lemons, Ci- 
trons, Limes, &c. Citrus Aurantium is the sweet Orange, 
Citrus Bigaradia the bitter Orange (vulgarly called Se- 
ville, from its having originally come from Spain), Citrus 
Limonum the Lemon, Citrus Medica the Citron, Citrus 
Bergamia the Bergamotte, Citrus Limetta the Lime, 
Citrus Pompeltnos decumanus the Pompoleon and Shad- 
dock, &c. &c. &c. Of all these there are varieties 
as abundant as the Apples of our own country *. 
Melangolo, Arrancio, and Portogallo, are the vulgar 
names for Orange in Italy ; the. latter, as having been 
introduced from Portugal. In Rome the Orange-sellers 
call their fruit Portogalli ; in Florence the name is not 
known, and there you must apply for Arrancio. The Chi- 
notto, and Naniuo da China, large and small rayrtle-leaved, 
are Bigarades, or bitter Oranges — Cilrus - Bigaradia si- 
nensis and myrtifolia. The Mandarin, Citrus Aurantium 
nobilis, so much cultivated in Malta, of the merits of 
which your correspondent justly speaks so highly, was, I 
believe, originally introduced into that island from China 
direct, whence, and from its superior flavour, is derived 
the specific of M^njlariji, par excellence. The Tangerine 
I suspect to be only a variety of it, having changed its 
nature and form, in a degree, by cultivation on the coast 
of Africa, to which country it very probably may have 
been exported. I have both kinds ; they vary in the 
form of the leaves and blossoms, but to no great extent. 
The fruit and peel (which should be eaten together) are in 
one, the Tangerine, finer in the grain, but the flavour, 
which is excellent, is perfectly alike in both. They are 
much more tender, and require consequently a warmer 
climate, than all others, and may almost be considered 
stove plants. The Portogallo coramune of your corre- 
spondent is the common sweet or China Orange, Citrus 
Aurantium sinensis. The Portogallo di Malta is the same 
plant grown in Malta, of which, anS many others, there 
are varieties with red juice ; the chief being denominated 
Citrus Aurantium Hierochunticum fructu sanguineo. The 
Otaietie is Citrus Aurantium otaitensis, as supposed com- 
ing from Otaheite. The Peretta di San Domingo is a 
Lemon, Citrus Limonum domingensis ; Peretta is pear- 
shaped. By Pomarosa must be meant Mellarosa, of 
which there are CUrus B.ergamia mellarosa and Citrus 
Limonum mellarosa. I have cultiva^d "the Citrus tribe 
for~some~years, and have had, and I believe have now, 
more than 70 varieties. I have from the first adopted 
the classification of Messrs. Risso and Poiteau, to whose 
splendid volume, " L'Histoire Naturelle des Orangers," I 
beg to refer all such of your readers as may wish for far- 
ther information on the cultivation of this "Tree of the 
Hesperides." The true Tangerine has nothing curious or 
remarkable in the scent of its foliage. The plants men- 
tioned by your correspondent must belong either to the 
Lemons, Citrons, or Bergamottes, wher-e highly-scented 
leaves are alone to be found, and of which the Citrus Me- 
dica odoratissimus is the chief. The shrivelling and fall- 
ing of the embryo fruit arises, no doubt, from some evil 
at the root. The soil is evidently not congenial, and 
perhaps too much water, and that not rain, may be the 
cause. The small-fruited plants of the Citrus tribe re- 
quire lighter and less rich soil than the larger fruited 
sorts ; they require also less water and more warmth. It 
is a great mistake to suppose that Citrus Bigaradia myrti- 
folia will bear exposure on terraces ; most of our collec- 
tions in this country are greatly injured by the old- 
fashioned and perverse habit of putting them out of doors 
during the summer. I cannot conclude these remarks 
and not say, what indeed may appear unkind to a respect- 
able class of persons, viz., the Italian nurserymen, that 
no reliance whatever can be placed upon their nomencla- 
ture ; for they scarcely ever send out the real and true 
kinds required of them : few of them have any scien- 
tific knowledge, and they are, one and all of them, at 
least a hundred years behind the intelligent men of our 
own dear land. Were proof wanting of this, it might be 
seen in the clumsily-budded trees annually sent over 
from Nice, Genoa, Malta, &c. It is, however, to these 
men that we are chiefly indebted for our collections, and 
it is not fair, therefore, to abuse them ; but it is by Bri- 
tish science and British zeal that we can show the now 
rapidly-increasing and well-managed collections around us. 
— C. A. F. A., E. H., Dec. 21, 1841. 

Phadon Vitelline on Willows, — We have been much 
troubled for a few years past with a small beetle, the 
Phsedon vitellina, on our Willows ; it increases yearly, 
and bids fair to destroy the whole. Can any of your 
readers inform us how to get rid of it.-' We think it 
would be best destroyed in its winter quarters. We have 
found it clustering in the clefts of trees near at hand, but 
only partially, and have sought for it in vain among the 
"Willow stools. — R. Lymburn. 

Tendency of Plants to seek Light. — We are of opinion 

* Hybridizing of tile Citrus tribe is as prevalent in tlie warm 
climates, as it is with us in the Apple countries; and fancy names 
are given to the same extent, i possess now a Pompoleon- 
lookiDg plant called Risso, another Gordon, and a third Are- 
thusa ; Risso from the author of the work mentioned above, 

Gordon from Lord Aberdeen Arethusa? The most curious 

and intere.stinf? of hybrids is now to be seen at Versailles, under 
the name of Le Grand Bourbon ; it is a Bigarade of great size, 
and far advanced in years. It is said that it sprang from a pip 
sown by a queen of Navarre, in the year 1421, at Pampeluna : it 
passed by snccession to France, and for some time rested at 
Chantilly. In the ycal- 1532 Francis I. had it conveyed to Fon- 
tainebleau, and subsequently Louis XIV. transported it at great 
cost to Versailles, where it is doomed, we will hojie, to pass the rest 
of its days in that magnificent abode of the sovereigns of France. 
I possess a young plant of it : the foliage is large, and of a re- 
markably deep green— such a green as only IU« cultivatofs of the 
Citnu tribe know well how to appreciate. 



with^.,p. 749 (1841), that most of the drawing of plants 
is to be ascribed to expansion by heat, and removal of atmo- 
spherical pressure. In a glass receiver subject to the ac- 
tion of light all around, plants are found to spindle ex- 
cessively. The light will shorten the side exposed to it, 
by deposition of carbon, and thus cause plants to bend 
towards the light; but this is different from attraction, 
and acting from above, should rather depress than extend, 
— R. Lymburn. 

Ice-houses. — I send you the plan of an ice-well which 
has succeeded perfectly. It is far less expensive than 
those in general use, and will be found to succeed either 
in clay or chalk. In porous soils, or where water is found 
near the surface, nothing will answer but a well above 
ground, with double walls. 





/ 


4 

■n 

*--■'- — >■ 




\ 


/ 






Oak Board; 












" : 


14 ^ft. 




.... 




Boiling water must be poured on each layer to harden it, 
and it must be well beaten. If the soil should not be a stiff 
clay or chalk, the sides of this well should be brick or con- 
crete, and well wattled before the ice is put in. Small 
door, opposite the large one, 2J feet square : this door, 
and the small one of 18 inches in the large one, to be 
opened every evening, and shut before daylight. Price of 
sucha well from 14/. to 16/. — Forester, Ring-wood. 

Ice-houses — We have received a letter on this subject 
from "J. W.," who states that he knows an instance 
where ice has been kept for two years in a small house 
only holding between 50 and 60 cart-loads. During the 
winter, when the house was filled, there had been but little 
frost to the middle of March, and at this time the ice was 
not more than lin. thick j and as there seemed but little 
chance of obtaining any thicker, this was taken, broken 
into pieces about the size of walnuts, and closely packed 
in the house. Two years after this the house was opened, 
and found to contain a considerable body of ice. This 
house is situated on a slope, and has a few trees round it ; 
it is built of freestone, and has a door level with the 
ground. "W.J." thinks it is best for ice-houses to be 
quite under ground, and to have perpendicular entrances, 
as they keep out the air much better than side ones. 
He also objects to ti'ees being near ice-houses, as their 
foliage creates a coolness, and the motion of their leaves 
and branches causes the air to be constantly changed, 
which must be injurious, he says, to houses half above 
ground. He recommmends a swan's-neck pipe to be 
placed below tlie centre of every ice-house, and to keep 
water continually in its neck, to prevent the admission of 
air through the drain. He also says that a drain should 
be carried round the building like a corkscrew, which 
will keep the walls dry. Where there is no declivity 
to carry off the water, he recommends a large tank, 
to be made, 6 feet square, by 4i feet in depth, below 
the base of the building, and a pipe placed in it, 
with a pump fixed upon it to pump up the water, 
which only requires to be done once a raontli, unless the 
ground is naturally wet; stones in this instance will be 
necessary to be packed all round it, in which case the 
building will be kept as dry as one upon a sloping bank. 
The ice is taken out, by having two upright pieces of 
wood fixed in the side, with hinges to turn them, 3ft. 
above the ground, a cross piece to fix on spikes, and a 
pulley on its centre for a man below to pull up the ice 
with. [We do not pubhsh more than the substance of 
" J. W.'s" communication, thinking his recommendations 
injudicious, for the following reasons :— 1st, because it is 



well known that ice should be broken as thin as possible 
previously to placing it in the house ; 2nd, because we 
think an entrance from the top objectionable, for the 
reason given in p. 797 ; 3rd, because we do not think 
a few single trees abont a house are of much conse- 
quence; and 4th, because a tank at the bottom is, we 
think, injudicious; for a liouse in the situation described 
ought to be entirely above ground, and covered up with 
soil something like a potato-pit]. 

Fumigation. — Having experienced some difficulty in 
effectually fumigating places in which a man could not 
conveniently operate, such as low pits and frames ; and 
having had plants injured in such places whei'e coal cinders 
have been used in the operation, from the dust, when bel- 
lows have been used ; besides, the process being disagreeable 
— 1 have adopted the following system, which has answered 
admirably. According to the size of the place to be fumi- 
gated, one or more pieces of cast-iron, one inch thick and 
three inches over, are made red-hot (pieces of old tiles, 
such as are used for covering smoke flues, would probably 
answer equally well) ; one of these is placed in a twenty- 
four sized pot, on which is put the quantity of tobacco 
considered necessary to charge the structure with smoke 
tuflicient to destroy insect life. To fumigate an ordinary- 
sized eiglit-light house, I use three heaters and three 
twenty- four sized pots, which I have placed on the front 
flue or walk ; one pound of strong tobacco is put on the 
three heaters in equal parts, and tiiis I find sufficient to 
fill the house, so as to destroy all the kinds of insects 
that perish by fumigation. The system has these ad- 
vantages : the tobacco is so quickly consumed, that the 
house is completely filled in a very short time, and but 
little smoke can escape before the insects are destroyed ; 
the pure heat from the iron heaters prevents injury from 
gas, and as no blowing js required there is no dust, it being 
only necessary to put the tobacco on the heaters and leave 
the house. I have had Cucumber and Melon plants in- 
jured by fumigation when I used coal cindei's to consume 
the tobacco; but since I have adopted cast-iron heaters no 
injury has been done to plants of any kind by fumigation, 
from which I infer that the mischief was caused by gas 
from the coal cinders. — Geo. Mills. 

Trenching.- — In No. 27 of the Chronicle, for 1841, 
in the article of weekly operations, Mr. Paxton has given 
some salutary hints to his brethren on the necessity of 
trenching vacant ground in the winter season. I believe 
there are few gardeners but what are fully sensible of the 
beneficial effects resulting from such opeiations. But by 
the old method of ridging or trenching, we do not obtain 
such a thorough pulverisation of the soil as may be desir- 
able. During my twelve years' service at Cannon Hall, 
where I had to contend with a stubborn and clayey soil, 
I found the method (which the annexed diagram may 
serve to explain) answer my wishes better than any other 



\\ 



a 


'- e / 
,— 

1 




\ ' 


d 


■'- / 








that I could hit upon. Let abed represent a section of 
the ground to be trenched, two feet deep. In the first 
place, the ground is measured oat in longitudinal beds, 4 
feet wide ; tliis done, the top spit of the bed e is laid on the 
bed g, and the second spit of Ihe bed e is laid on k. The 
first or top spit of the bed /is then laid on the bed «, end 
the second spit from the bed /is laid on h, so that the top 
soil and subsoil are kept on separate and alternate beds, 
and may be mixed, reversed, or returned as taken out, at 
the willof the operator. By this method, the advantages 
are, a much greater exposure of surface to the action^of 
the weather; the opportunity of incorporating with the 
soil any desirable or obtainable manures, and at any de- 
sired depth ; a thorough blending of the soil to the depth 
of two or three feet ; and it also facilitates the operation of 
draining where necessary. It is needless to add, that when 
the first thrown-out beds are sufficiently pulverised, they 
are levelled domi, and the others thrown out in the same 
manner. — T. Putkisis, Owsioii, near Doncaster, [P.S. 
g hi represents the ridges tluown out and left as rough as 
possible.] ' 

Coal-shale a Manure. — About 12 years since there ap- 
peared in a provincial paper a paragraph tending to throw 
much light upon the vegetative qualities of Coal-sliale, 
which your correspondent, Mr. Mackenzie, A^^est Plean, 
from his proximity to tile locality to be named can easily 
verify, and upon due inquiry possibly be able to furnish 
more valuable facts in confirmation of one or other of the 
hypotheses advanced in the Gardeners* CInonicIej at 
p. 764. It happened that a few Potatoes were thrown 
aside in one of the Duke of Hamilton's coal-pits at the' 
Redding, three miles east of Falkirk, which soon became 
covfred with the refuse shale, and there at the depth of 
some thirty or forty fathoms vegetated most vigorously 
and in perfect darkness. In due time the roots were'^ex- 
amined by the pitmen, and the tubers found to be of the 
full size, and of excellent quality ; and further, which is 
particularly deserving of attention, at the time of the 
writer making known the circumsrance, the men had for 
three mouths successively resorted to the same shaws for 
successive supplies of the Potatoe., Was the prolonged period 
of production to be attributed to the virtues of the coal- 
shale as a manure, or to the total absence of light, or to 
both.'' — /. U.S. — [We insert this, as our correspondent 
is known to us, but we confess the statement seems to 
require confirmation.] 

Theory and Practice^ and Uool-priinlng. — If the writer 
of the observations on Theory and Practice in No» 27 of 



Jan. 1.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



this Journal bad read and admitted my definition of tlie 
term science in No. 26, lig niiglit iiave summed up all he 
had to say in the few folhiwing words:—" No gardener can 
be master of his art if he is ignorant of the science." A 
greut value of late seems to be attached to root-pruning, 
and many appear to claim the merit of its discovery ; but, 
to wliomsoever this may be due, it is pretty clear that this, 
like all other operations in gardening, can only be benefi- 
cial under certain circumstances ; and unless tlie causei 
of the effects — it may be desired either to produce or to 
prevent — be understood, even these operations may be as 
likely to work evil as good. And as those onuses do not 
appear to be fully described in this journal, the following- 
explanations are offered. In the " Science of Horticul- 
ture," published by mc in 1820, I have said, " The office 
of the roots is to collect and supply the food, which formi 
and determines the growth and productions of a plant or 
tree ; and the constitution aud habit of the roots deter- 
mine those of the brandies. If the roots grow luxuriantly, 
the brandies will also : and the reverse. From hence it 
mu8t be concluded that in planting trees, two essential 
objects present themselves for consideration : first, to 
ns.;ertain the soil best adapted to afTord a sufficient and 
accommodating body, bed, or space, for the roots to re- 
pose and range freely in, and induce and support such 
habits as are most desired ; and next, that it contains, or 
wilt admit the application of, a due sup|dy of food of a 
proper quality," &c. " In preparing beds or borders due 
attention must be paid both to the soil and subsoil, as 
each equally affects the health and fruitfulness of trees, 
and principally as it retains or discharges water, stagnant 
water being at all times particularly detrimental to the 
fructification of trees." " When trees are found to grow 
too luxuriant, and to esceed their bounds, the better way 
to check their growth is to open the earth two or three 
feet round the stem, and cut through one or more of those 
roots that g;"ow the strongest and that run the deepest 
into the soil ; by these means, the form and regularity of 
the tree will not be altered, as they would be by shortening 
and cutting out the branches." "When old trees are 
very subject to canker, the cause will generally be found 
either in the soil or subsoil, from its being too retentive 
of moisture, or from water stagnating from other causes : 
in the first case, therefore, th'e soil must be carefully re- 
moved from the surface so as to uncover the roots to their 
full length, or as nearly so as practicable, and then cut off 
such roots' as appear to run downwards, or grow deep ; or 
if some extend beyond the good soil into bad, they must 
be shortened ; then mix with the soil some coarse sand, 
fine gravel, or brick rubbish — or in case these are not at 
hand, some coal-ashes, in a proportion sufficient to break 
its tenacity, or to make it open and free. If th'^ subsoil 
only be in fault, or water stagnating from other causes, 
the cutting off the downright roots and making proper 
drains will be found efficient." I have also stated it to be 
a law of nature, that " Whether the supply of food be 
great or small, the fluids taken up must flow or spread 
over a proportionate surface of trunk, branches, and 
leaves, and be duly exposed to the action of light, heat, 
and air, before a tree can attain a perfect fructiferoui 
state." Then if a plant or tree does not fructify because 
its surface of branches and leaves is not proportionally as 
large as the supply of food, it must be obvious that al- 
though nothing but time will produce a sufficient enlarge- 
ment of the surface, we can, by cutting off and curtailing the 
organs of the supply of food, which are the roots, thus adjust 
the supply of food to the existing surface, as immediately 
to produce fructification. Then if the effect desired to be 
produced be fructification, or the effect to be prevented 
be a too extended growth of wood — diseases consequent 
on great repletion or unwholesome food — the causes as 
here described being established or removed, the desired 
object will be obtained. — Jos. Hayward, Lyme. Regis. 

Transpkniiing Evevffrceus. — ^"Much has been said, pro 
and con., for both autumn and spring planting of ever- 
greens, "and yet tlie question must appear to amateurs 
and beginners anything but settled. I, therefore, beg to 
offer a few hints founded on consideral^le and successful 
practice. I have invariably found autumn the best for 
the following reasons : — 1st, the atmosphere of autumn is 
by far less dry and capricious than that of spring ; 2ndly, 
evergreens have then the greatest number of healthy leaves 
in full action whereby to produce roots ; 3rdly, the sur- 
face of the soil possesses, in an eminent degree, the re- 
maining heat of the past summer ; 4lhly, as spring always 
brings its own business, and that by no means trifling, it 
is folly to delay that until spring which may be done at 
least equally well in autumn; 5thly, "first come first 
served" — an old maxim, for in the case of purchasers' 
from a nursery, those who come first get the choice, a cir- 
cumstance by no means to be lost sight of. I will now 
endeavour to explain the points that I have assumed :— 
1st, "the atmosphere of autumn." Compare the ordi- 
nary state of the atmosphere in March, April, and May, 
with that of October, November, and December ; the 
first is as an arid or parching state of air, as the latter is 
the reverse. A tree newly removed, more especially 
an evergreen, requires the same state of atmosphere (only 
varied in degree) as a cutting; the variation in degree 
dependent on the ball of e.irth and the condition of the 
fibres at the time of removal, together with a due regard 
to the atmosphere.— 2ndly, "the number of leaves." 
" Leaves make roots, and roots make leaves," a truism 
which I conceive needs no disputation. It will be granted, 
I think, that an evergreen has a greater number of active 
agents, in the shape of leaves, in the months of September 
and October than at any other period. Now, although 
those leaves are in full exercise of their functions at a 
much earlier period, yet it not unfrequently happens, that 
in hot and dry periods; occurring through July and August, 



they become of a leathery texture, or, in other words, the 
secreting piiwer is in advance of tlie absorbing, causing 
thereby a tendency to fructification in the wood more than 
renewal of the roots. This, I conceive, is for"a time a kind 
of stagnation of the growing or woody principle, which is 
somewhat restored by the autumnal rains.— 3rdly, " the 
bottom heat," if I may so term it. The utility of bottom 
heat is well known : I mean, of course, as related to the 
heat of the atmosphere, and the degree of solar light at 
any given period. This is an important affair, and not 
sufficiently understood. It has, in fact, to do, less or 
more, with nine tenths of our gardening operations, in 
many of which it is a matter of greater importance than is 
commonly imagined. I conceive it to be an argument of 
no small weight in the case in hand. — 4thly, "spring 
brings its own business." Who more busy than a gar- 
dener in March, April, and May? — 5thly," the advantages 
of an early purchase." Everybody knows, or should 
know, that the best of the nurseryman's stock is taken 
first ; therefore, I say, in the case of a purchase be early 
in the market. Some of your correspondents, I perceive, 
recommend July for planting Hollies; now I have re- 
moved large Hollies at that period, but it has been a mat- 
ter of necessity. I did so in the 'past summer, one of 
which was eleven feet high aud bulky in proportion, and 
it did well ; but the past summer has proved an exception 
to the rule. The rains here have been almost incessant 
from that period until the middle of September. I have 
also known Holly-hedges planted, by farmers in this 
country, in April and May answer well, but it has been in 
cases in which I had advised them to skreen the young 
plants with long litter from the dunghill ; this litter was 
thrown on loosely and thinly the moment they were^ 
planted ; and I directed them to form the surface of the 
ground into a channel or basin to retain water, and ad- 
vised also a slight sprinkling overhead twice a week, at 
least," done in the morning. Some of your correspondents, 
whose opinions cannot be lightly esteemed, recommend 
puddle planting, though I cannot see its utility. What 
would be thought of puddle potting ? Your recommend- 
ation of raking the tree leaves into the bottom of the holes 
for planting is good ; I have made it an invariable prac- 
tice for some years, and no small benefits have followed 
that course. I hope the question, as to the time of plant- 
ing, is not finally closed, and that some of those who have 
" grown grey in the service " will give their experience on 
this subject, and say something about the removal of de- 
ciduous trees. — Hobert ErHmjJon, Oulton^ near Tur- 
poriey. 

Neatness in Turf Edgings Having to renew some 

turf edgings this spring, I sunk pieces of thin tile between 
the gravel and turf about au inch high, and the edging 
has been particularly neat all the summer. The tile (slate 
would do as well) prevents the grass from growing or 
spreading over the gravel, so that it does not require cut- 
ting every year; but when the grass has grown over the 
side, merely clipping with the shears. Care must be taken 
not to raise the tiles above the turf, so as to catch the 
scythes in mowing it. Nothing looks so bad in a walk as 
a high raw edge, as though a plough had cut it ; the lower 
the edge, the neater it looks. — Wm. TilUry. 

Nitrate of Soda. — In compliance with the request in 
p. 749, I send the following remarks on the nitrate. It 
is not at all likely, I think, that the roots will escape in- 
jury more than the leaves ; and the difference of effect 
must arise from that spread on the ground finding its 
way to the roots, by degrees only, in smaller quantities 
and in a more diluted state, as washed down by the 
rain. If the spongioles of the roots were presented to 
the direct action of the nitrate, they would probably suffer 
in the same way; perhaps, however, the upper surface of 
the leaf, from its deficiency of absorbing powers, may 
may retain the nitrate longer at the surface, in connexion 
with the skin, and be more apt to be injured than the 
spongiole of the root, which passes it through more freely. 
Substances the most nutritive are found to produce 
disease and death when in excess, as pointed out by Sir 
H^Davy in his experiments narrated in "Agricultural 
Chemistry;" and it is probably from this cause that 
urine and other powerful manures produce death of the 
leaves when administered in small quantities, and death 
of the whole plant when applied in large quantities, not 
properly diluted, to the roots. It is not at all likely that 
any chemical alteration will take place on any quantity 
of the nitrates before absorption. It is on the nitrogen 
they contain, in the form of nitric acid, tha^ the benefits 
of the nitrate of soda principally depend. Muriate of 
soda or chloride of sodium (common salt), and sulphate 
of soda (Glauber's salts), containing the same base of 
soda as the nitrate, are found to produce little effect. If 
the nitrate were thus acted on chemically before absorp- 
tion, the nitric acid would most likely be lost. The 
nitrate absorbed into the system of the plant is then de- 
composed, the soda separated and excreted ; probably to 
be again united to carbonic acid, absorbed and decomposed, 
and again excreted ; unless the plant be one of the few 
which prefer soda to potash as a constituent. The nitric 
acid will be decomposed also ; part of the nitrogen will 
go to form the gluten, albumen, and diastase of the plant, 
and thus be assimilated as a constituent; but a great 
proportion will unite to the free hydrogen of the plant, 
and form ammonia, which circulating in the cortex of the 
plant, more especially as here life is most active, will 
greatly increase the vigour and growth of the plant ; by its 
powers of transformation hastening the compositions and 
decompositions going on in the plant, to supply the ne- 
cessary substances as wanted by the different organs; and 
by its action on the walls of the tissue as it circulates, 
stimulating their vital actions. In accordance with the 
Ekbore opinions, it will be found that the first effect observed 



on plants subjected to manures containing nitrogen or 
ammonia, is to cause extension of the stem and growth, 
a deeper colour in the leaves, and greater breadth of 
foliage. If the weather is light and clear, greater benefit 
will be derived from them, in the greater action of the 
light on the extended surface of the foliage. In dull 
cloudy weather, however, we may have much more in- 
crease of stem than of grain or roots. — R. Lyrnburn, 
Kilmarnock. [We do not agree with our correspondent 
on several points regarding the action of nitrate of soda, 
and think the subject still much involved in obscurity. We 
believe that in some cases sulphate of soda produces si- 
milar and equally beneficial effects on plants to the nitrate. 
And again, there is no proof that the nitrate does suffer 
decomposition after it has been absorbed. We shall be 
very glad to hear accounts of experiments of all kinds in 
the use of this curious and powerful manure.] 

Gooseberry Caterpillars arid Mice. — In my last com- 
munication on the Gooseberj"y caterpillar, there was a 
mistake made in substituting the word one man, in place 
of our men. W'e were at the time the experiment was 
made of the same opinion as W. R. of St Ives, that the 
best way was to pick off the caterpillars ; but we had 
employed our men 8 or 10 days in picking, at a cost of 
3/. or Al., as we were anxious to get the plot cleared, 
being a few hundreds of the best new Lancashire sorts, and 
indispensable to us for cuttings. At the end of that time 
and expense, they were not, however, half cleared ; and 
the remainder were cleared at an expense of \s.Zd. for 
hellebore powder, and a morning's work of two men. 
Most people seem of the same opinion as W. /i., that it 
is better to exhibit the powder mixed among water, than 
in a dry state: we, however, as stated before, jirefer the 
powder to be thrown on the caterpillar dry. We do not 
think it is necessary that the caterpillar should eat the 
Hellebore, as stated by Mr. Groom. Most of the appli- 
cations to kill insects are external, and act on the delicate 
absorbing skins of insects. When the hellebore pow- 
der is mixed among the water, it is held in suspension, not 
infusion ; and when it falls on the upper surface of the 
leaf, it falls on a surface that does not absorb, and will 
lie there till the water is evaporated, and the powder re- 
mains. AU the benefits of the water are therefore con- 
fined to spreading the powder more evenly, and fixing it 
on the leaf till eat through, when it will fall on the cater- 
pillar. The close hairy surface of the caterpillar will not 
admit water so easily as the minute dry powder; and we 
cannot doubt of its effects on the tender skin of the insect 
wherever it penetrates, when we perceive the spasms it 
causes in the nostrils. Mr. Henderson of Leadhall, a 
reader of the Chronicle^ from whom we got the receipt 
for the caterpillars, we believe still applies it dry. He 
has one of the best Gooseberry gardens we have seen any- 
where, the crop always excessive in quantity and quality; 
and a description of his particular mode of culture we 
have no doubt would be interesting. His receipt for pre- 
venting the attacks of mice on early-sown Pe;is, is to 
pound about a halfpennyworth of rosin to powder, and 
roll the Peas amongst the powder, which will suffice for 
21bs. ; and he says he has never found it to fail. The 
chopped whins long ago recommended in the Gardeners' 
Ulagaxinc, he has found effectual too, but not so easily 
got. — R. Lymburn. 

Galvanic Protectors.- — As most likely many of those 
T7ho have supplied themselves with the zinc and copper 
protectors have found them to retain their repulsive powers 
but a short time, the information that if they remove 
the oxide of the metals, by cleaning with brickdust or 
sand, the repulsive power will be restored, and if the pro- 
tector be bent like a dog-collar, with a catch at each end, 
they may be readily removed and replaced — may not be 
unacceptable. — Jos. Hayward. 

Gardeners. — Whilst the Gardeners* Chronicle is a 
channel through which "^'e, as gardeners, often have con- 
veyed to us useful hints, and which I hope we shall always 
receive in the best feeling, it is also open for courteous 
remarks from us to proprietors, which 1 hope may be ac- 
cepted in the same spirit. A short time back, a little dis- 
cussion upon the subject of proprietorship in plants, which 
was decided in the only way it could be, left an opening 
for a hint or two which I hoped would have been contri- 
buted by an abler pen than mine ; but such not being the 
case, I am induced respectfully to advocate the cause of 
my brother green-aprons. I often hear persons say to my 
master, when walking round, " Well, I do not know how- 
it is, but my man has nothing like this ; where did you get 
such a thing.'" I am appealed to, to know where it came 
from. " That, sir, was given to me by Mr. so and so's 
gardener; I gave him two or three Columbines last season, 
and he has sent us two or three bulbs.' "That is it," 
lays my master's friend ; " my man never gets anything sent 
him." Now, if that gentleman were to go to the bottom 
of the thing, he would find that my master paid Mr. Cat- 
leugh several pounds for the Columbines ; I increased the 
stock and had to spare. My friend's roaster paid some 
pounds for a collection of bulbs, and they increased with 
him ; and here is not unfrequently the secret of the beau- 
tiful variety found in many collections. Sometimes when 
I come home from a visit to some establishment, which I 
have visited for information, I bring a plant in my haifd, 
which I show my employer. The first question is, Can we 
do anything for them ? and so the stock of good-will and 
friendly feeling goes on increasing. And let it not be sup- 
posed this hurts the florist's trade— just the reverse ; give 
a man six plants of a kind, sufficiently good for him to 
become interested in their growth and bloom, and he will 

not stop there he -will be found to buy new varieties. 

Gentlemen who do not buy, or cannot with propriety 
afford to do so, should not compare their collections with 
those who do. Buildings, ever go suitable, do not make 



8 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[N°' 1- 



collections, any more than a steam engine without fuel con- 
stitutes power, and I would respectfully submit to masters 
wheiher they can, on reflection, like their gardeners to get 
collections by begging instead of by their buying. I be- 
lieve it only wants the attention of employers to be di- 
rected to the subject to correct what has been f;)und a 
source of humiliation to many good servants, and to have 
it fully understood that we cannot be expected to obtain 
plants from our acquaintances unless we have something 
to offer in return ; it would be injustice to our friend's 
employer, — P. G. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

LINNEAN SOCIETY. 
Dec. 21, 1841.— Edw. Forster, Esq., in the chair. The secretary 
announced the death of the librarian of the society, Professor 
Davi d Don . The society, lie saitly in his death had sustained a 
greafToss. His proficiency as a naturalist, and his excellence as 
a man, had secured for him the respect and esteem of all who 
knew him —An extract from a letter of Mr. Griffiths was read, 
coutaininp a summary of the result of his observations on rhe 
development of the embryo in Santalum, Viscum. Osyris, and 
Loranthus ; also some remarks on the reproductive organs of 
Isoetes. A paper more fully detaiUng the author's views is on 
its way from India to the society. — A paper from BIr. Myers, 
F.L.S., was read, giving a description of some new ])lants. 1. 
Solenomelcs chiuensis, a plant he had formerly published with 
the name of CruiUshankia. but this name had been given to 
another genus. 2. Two species of a new monocotyledonous 
genus, which the author called Distrepta— D. vaginata and D. 
oblita.— A letter from Mr. Bidwell of Sydney was read, describing 
a new species of j\raucaria^ It attained the height of 200 feet. 
and was frequently branchless for the first lOO feet of the stem. 
A description was also given of Knightia tioribunda, which was 
growing in the botanic garden at Sydney, and in the embryo of 
which the writer had discovered three cotyledons. The secretary 
called the attention of the society to a communication (rom the 
Spanish naturalists at Barcelona, inviting the scientific men 
of Europe to join them in paying some permanent tiibute of 
respect to their illustrious countryman La Gasca. The date of 
this document was Oct. i, 1839 j and it stated that subscriptions 
■would be received by the secretary of the Linnean Society in 
London. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Run-Fioniers. — According to a writer in Hovey's '* Ma- 
gazine of Horticulture," striped Dahlias will be best kept 
clean by planting in poor soil, while rich soil invariably 
runs them. He relates the following experiment with a 
variety called Striata formosissima, in which he is con- 
firmed by Mr. Hovey, who says he lias had the same re- 
sults. No. 1, planted in poor, gravelly soil, in an open si- 
tuation ; all the flowers but two were beautifully mottled. 
No. 2, planted upon a rich, cool, sandy loam ; not one- 
half of the flowers were mottled. Nu. 3. Three plants, 
very highly enriched; evecy bloom but one was self-co- 
loured. 

CEnofhera hiennis (Onagre, French). — The roots of this 
■weU-knowD plant are eaten in Germany, like those of Scor- 
zonera, and the points of the shoots may be used m salads. 
The herbnge would form a good furage for cattle, which 
are very fond of it. This use is of very old date. For- 
merly the roots were eaten as a relish for wine ; and hence 
the name CEnothera, which being interpreted appears to 
mean *' wine-hunter" (oTcos and dvpdtv). 

Asphnltt' Prnteetiny Material. — We find this material 
has been employed in the garden of the Horticultural So- 
ciety of London in the construction of boxes to protect 
tender plants. The cases are made like little sentry- 
boxes, with a door opening to the north, and have a very 
neat appearance. It is expected that they will prove an 
ample protection to Camellias, hybrid Rhododendrons, und 
such plants, in the open air. The sanie boxes will do well 
at a later season as screens against spring frosts. 

Lobelia cardnialis. — A specimen is mentioned in an 
American paper, which consisted of fourteen stems arising 
from one root, each covered with fine blossoms. This 
unusual number was in consequence of some injury whii h 
occurred to the main stem after it had pushed up for flow- 
ering. The number of individual blossoms was upwards 
of 300 ; and it being of the white variety, presented a most 
beautiful appearance. Another variety, in which a dis- 
tinct pale stripe, is perceptible on each of the lower petals, 
contrasting with the usual scarlet, was also a pretty ob- 
ject. The first-mentioned had been cultivated in a large 
pot, with rich earth and abundance of water ; the latter 
in the open border. 

lUcbtctus. 

The Farmer^s Encyclop<edia and Dictionary of Rural 
Affiiirs. By C. W. Johnson Esq. Longman & Co. 
8vo. To be completed in ten monthly parts. Parts L 
to IV. 
One of the most useful books we have on Agricultural 
affairs is that " On Fertilizers," bj the author of the work 
now before us, who has also contributed much valuable 
information on similar subjects in a variety of publica- 
tions. When, therefore, the "■ Farmer's Encyclopaedia'* 
was announced as about to appear from the same himd, we 
anticipated a work which would prove of great interest to 
farmers. The author's name and fame, and the respect- 
ability of the publishers, setiined to offer a guarantee that, 
whatever the EncychipEedia might contain would be such 
as could be safely appealed to as a standard of accuracy. 
It is only in this respect indeed that it could be of any 
real service; for the newspapers and the pages of Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural magazines contain an abun- 
dance of information, although not always of good quality, 
upon current topics of interest. Accurate inform- 
ation in such a work was the more indispeusable, consi- 
dering the badness of the education in our country schools, 
and the total absence in them of all that has any direct 
bearing upon the future pursuits of the farmer, who must 
either get U[) his science and knowledge of the nature of 
the material objects that surround him after he has quitted 
his country school, or must be conteuted; as many arCi to 

remain ia wtt§r ignorance qt tb?iBi_j3 



Upon the appearance of the first Number, the work was 
received with unanimous approbation by all the newspaper 
critics, except perhaps ourselves, who did not feel justi- 
fied, by what we there found, in joining in the exaggerated 
encomiums which were bestowed upon it in all directions. 
An examination of the succeeding Numbers, ia our opi- 
nion, fully justifies our caution. 

We regret that we cannot agree with our contempora- 
ries in considering this a standard book of reference, or 
even a very good work; and as we have the misfortune to 
differ from them, we shall, without further preface, pro- 
ceed to state our reasons. 

The work professes to contain articles upon all the 
plants of which the farmer takes cognisance, and includes 
notices of Agaric, Agrostis, Aira, Azalea, Celandine, Cedar 
of Lebanon, Festuca, Fir-tree, and the like. Now, if 
these plants are worthy of a place in the Dictionary, upon 
what principle, let us ask, are JJcidium, or the Berberry 
bligtit — Alaternus, one of the commonest of evergreen 
shrubs — Carpinus, the Hornbeam, and a thousand more 
omitted.'' Surely some kind of consistency should be ob- 
served upon a point of this kind. If it is intended to in- 
troduce such subjects in other parts of the work, they 
should have been referred to, as is done in some in- 
stances. Nor is it among plants alone that we find important 
omissions. Under acids, not a word is said of any other than 
vegetable acids, which is very strange ; and what is said 
is not true, for vegetable acids do not abound in most 
plants, as is stated ; on the contrary, they are found but 
in a very limited number of plants in any quantity. 

But if many things are omitted which ought, for consist- 
ency's sake in one place, and from their importance in 
another, to have been introduced, there is no end to un- 
important matter that should have been left out. What 
possible object, for instance, can be attained by the intro- 
duction of trifling varieties of Agrostis, of no sort of use 
to a farmer? — of Alvearium, the Latin name for a bee- 
hive ; of Amaryllis — which, by the way, is not an Ama- 
ryllis; of Azorean Fennel, which cannot be cultivated in 
England ; of the species of Elymus, of no value as fodder ; 
of Epacris nivalis, a greenhouse plant ; of Festuca uni- 
glumis ; of Fishing-net, if we are to learn no more than that 
it is a contrivance of a reticular texture, with two or three 
varieties? It can scarcely be denied that all this shows 
very unskilful arrangement of materials. 

The grand complaint, however, we have to make con- 
cerning this Encyclopsedia is, its numerous and incom- 
prehensible errors in matters of the most every-day occur- 
rence. As regards the plants, the compiler of that part 
has sometimes taken the old, forgotten names of herbal- 
ists as those of science, and sometimes those of modern 
botanists. Abutilon is said to be "the yellow Marsh mal- 
low," while it is, in fact, the name of a genus of tropical 
Malvaceous plants, and ought not to have been found in 
the book; Acorus is defined to be a plant of the Thistle 
kind, which is something like describing a horse to be an 
animal of the hedgehog kind ; Adonis is said to be Adonis 
annua, instead of Adonis autumnalls. Alburnum is called 
*' an integument composed of a soft white substance, 
scarcely perceptible in some sorts of trees, situated between 
the libtrr and the wood,". — a most absurd definition, which 
seems to have been intended for Cambium, which, by the 
way, is left out ; Alexanders are called Hipposelinum, the 
name by which they are described in Gerarde's Herbal ! in- 
stead of Smyrnium Olusatrura : this, again, is like calling 
England, Brittia ; and Finger-grass Cock'sfoot, is named 
Daciylis sauguinalis, instead of Cynodon Dactylon. In 
short, what with incessant blunders of this sort, and 
very reprehensible typographical errors, the whole of the 
botany is little better than waste paper. The chemistry is 
not much more deserving of praise : the authorities that 
have been consulted are often obsolete, and not uncom- 
monly misunderstood. Take the following memoranda as 
a sample of this department : — 

Aeration is said to be ^' the process by which the soil is 
exposed to the air, and imbued therewith ;'' a very bad 
definition, ns aeration is the general term applied to the 
absorption or condensation of air by any substance: thus 
the *' aeration of the blood," "of water," *' of earth," or any 
oiher matters, are common expressions. Under this head, 
carbonic acid ought to have been mentioned ; but here, as 
under the head " Acid," it is quite left out. Alabaster : 
we are here told that it is sulphate of lime, which is right ; 
but directly following, the author says, *' it differs from 
marble in being easier to cut, and less durable ; the basis 
being a calcareous earth, which is soluble in 500 limes its 
weight of water." This is absurd ; for carbonate of lime, 
as well as the sulphate, have a calcareous base, and the 
duiability of a substance does not depend on the solubility 
or insolubility of its base. Albumen is said to be the 
" impure liquid which constitutes the while of an egg;*' 
this is not albumen, but a solution of it. Alcalies : — 
here we are minutely given the derivation of the 
name, but hardly anything about the nature and pro- 
perties of the substances. Ammonia is said not to be 
produced by plants (it is), and therefore nothing is said 
about it in this place. Alumina : — the earthy smell 
which clay gives out when breaihed on is said to be due 
to the presence of iron. This is a strange story, and not 
true : the smell is due to the presence of ammonia. Am- 
monia: — the use of decimal proportions is very objection- 
able (for Carmers), and mig'.it easily be avoided. At 
p. 95 ammonia is said to be composed of hydrogen 0'125, 
azote 1-75, whilst at p. 154 it is said to consist of hydro- 
gen 74, azote 26 : this will quite confuse any ordinary 
reader. 

But we are weary of tliis ungrateful ta^^k. It is appa- 
rent from the evidence now produced, that whatever merit 
particular articles in Mr. Johnson's Encyclopsedia may 
have— autl gprne are excellent,— -written, we presumej by 



himself — yet that in other respects the matter is of so bad 
a quality, that the book can never be regarded as an 
authority of any value. We may, however, add, that it is 
cheap and well printed, with some good woodcuts. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS /or Me enmingWeek, 
In the Weekly Calendar of Ojjerations for tlie ensuhig: year, no 
deviation will be made from the plan adopted by Mr. Paxton, 
which, it is conceived, cannot be mateiially improved. In the 
details it is hoped tliat some additional useful hints will be found 
by the young cultivator, although, from the very nature of the 
subject, much repetition is unavoidable. 

Neatness in all operations, and general cleanliness, cannot 
be too rigidly enforced by the master upon his men ; discipline in 
these matters benefits not only the gardener bat those employed 
under him, by making them good workmen, and consequently 
more valuable servants. 

I.— KITCHEN-GARDEN AND ORCHARD. 
Jn-door Department. 

Pinery. — Great care is necessary in the watering of Pine- 
plants at this season of the year, when their vegetation is neces- 
sarily languid ; the soil in the pots ought rather to be prevented 
from getting dry than be made wet. For this purpose it is an ex- 
cellent plan to fill the houses with steam occasionally; but where 
this cannot be done, slight syringings through a very fine rose 
should be given, daily if strong fires are required; and shallow 
vessels of water, to supply moisture by evaporation, should be 
placed upon the flues or pipes. As the chief object to be aimed 
at in the winter management of fruiting Pines is the preservation 
of their roots in a healthy state, without exciting the plants into 
an unnatural growth, an atmosphei ic temperature of 60°, with a 
bottom heat of about 90°, is amply sufiicient. Plants that are in 
fruit ought, if possible, to have a house or a pit to themselves, 
where the temperature might be eight or ten degrees higher; 
where there is no such convenience, they should be placed at the 
warmest end of the fruiting-house. Succession plants intended 
to be disrooted at the spring-potting must not be forced into 
growth ; a temperature of 55° is sufficiently high. Let them have 
all the light possible by uncovering as early in the morning as the 
state of the weather will permit 

ViNERY.—Vines which are in motion will now require careful 
nursing. If two or more buds break at each eye, remove all ex- 
cept the strongest one. When the roots are outside of the house, 
they must be carefully protected from the influence of frost by a 
sufficient mulching of leaves or litter laid over the whole of the 
border. A good thick covering of fermentmg horse-dung 
might be used with advantage for this purpose. Keep a moist 
atmosphere in the house, and avoid sudden depression of tempe- 
rature by the injudicious admission of cold air. If the young 
bunches are visible, the temperature ought not to vary much from 
CS'^ by fire-heat. Where Grapes are grown on the rafters of Pine- 
stoves, a few Vines might now be introduced ; these, if tolerably 
early sorts, will ripen their fruit from the middle to the end of ISfay. 

Peach-house. — Do not attempt to hurry Peach-trees at this 
season ; a crop is often lost by this error. If the blossoms are not 
beginning to expand, syringe the trees moxning and evening with 
luke-warm water, and keep open vessels of water on the warmest 
end of the heatmg appai'atus. Protect the roots from frost, as 
directed for Vines. 

Cherry-house.— If early fruit is required, gentle fires may 
now be lighted, by way of preparing the trees ; or a few trees in 
pots might be put into the Peach house. 

Figs.— A few plants in pots miglit be introduced into a gentle 
heat, in any house where there is room. 

CucuftiBERS must be cai'efuUy attended to. If grown in pits, 
the stems should not be suffered to trail over the soil, but be 
trained to a moveable treliis, leaving sufiicient space between it 
and the soil to allow the fruit to hang perpendicularly. An arti- 
ficial temperature between G5° and 70° is suitable, with a moist 
atmosphere. A seed-bed might now be made of well prepared 
dung, for a one-light box, in case there is no pit or stove at work 
in which young plants can be raised. Look sharply afterwoodlice, 
or all your labour may be lost in a single night. 

MiiLONs.— Sow for an early crop; a small green-fleshed sort, 
called "Mosulipatama," is very good for this purpose. 

Strawberries. — Some plants might be put into the early 
Peach-house, on shelves near the glass. These are intended for 
removal to a warmer house after the fruit is set, and to be re- 
placed by others which have been forwarded a little in any con- 
venient place. Top-dress them with rich earth before they are 
taken into the house. 

Kidney Beans which are in bearing should be frequently sy- 
ringed, and not be stinted with water. Sow a successional crop. 
*' Kulmer's Early " is an excellent sort for forcing. 

Asparagus.— If the first made bed has done bearing, it might 
be again planted with fresh roots, renewing the heat by Unings, 
if necessary. 

Sea-kale and Rhubarb Roots, where there is no other con- 
venience, may be forced beneath the trellis of the early Peach- 
house, or on the Vinery floor. 

Asn-LEAVEU Kidney Potatoes, if planted now in small pots 
and placed in heat, will be fit to turn out by the end of the month 
into the pits or frames prepared for them. 

Pot Tarragon and Mint, and sow small salading. If it is wished 
to have early Cairots, sow the Scarlet Horn 011 a slight hotbed, 
in alternate drills with Radishes of various sorts. 
Out-door Department. 

Continue to trench^ manure, and dig vacant ground, if the 
weather permits. If Irosty, see to the covering of Endive, Ce- 
lery, young Lettuces, or any other crop liable to injury from cold. 
If not already done, protect Artichokes by a mulching of half- 
rotten leaves ; these might be dug in when no longer necessary. 
Should severe frost set in, top and house Turnips. Broccoli 
which is showing flower should also be taken up with a ball, and 
put into a shed, or other place of shelter. 

Orchard.— Prvmrng and naihng should be persevered in when- 
ever the weather is favourable. Prune dwarf and standard fruit- 
trees of all kinds, and head down any trees which it is proposed 
to graft in spring; but leave the branches sufficiently long to 
allow an inch or two more to be taken off at the time of grafting, 
when a clean cut should be made. 

II.— FLOWER-GARDEN AND SHRUBBERY. 
hi-door Dfpartvient. 

Stove.— Devote all spare time to the eradication of insects ; at 
this season of the year they are less formidablein number, there- 
fore try to prevent their increase. Continue to re-pot Orchida- 
ceous plants, and go over all those that hang up, making them 
firm to the blocks with copper wire, and adding some fresh turfy 
peat or sphagnum for them to root in and retain moisture. Many 
of the Catasetums and Cycnochcs are now resting, and ought to 
be kept rather dry. Those which are in pots and growing may 
be watered freely at the roots, but seldom over the leaves; the 
others which hang up may be frequently syringed. Use every 
means to destroy snails and slugs ; young Cabbage-leaves £u:e 
excellent decoys for them. Several of the Mexican kinds may 
now be expected to be in flower, such as OiicJdium oruithor- 
hynchum, La^'lia albida, and some Stanhopeas. 

Greenhouse.- Little water is required unless severe weather 
compels frequent fires, in which case a more liberal supply must 
be given ; look particularly to Heaths and similar plants in this 
matter, for if these once get thoroughly dry, they often perish in 
consequence. Give air at every opportunity. 

Conservatory.— Camellias growing in the open border will 
now be advancing their flower-buds; see, therefore, that the 
plants do not want water, or the buds will probably fall ofl". 
Prune and train cUmbers. Plants in cold pits, intended for bed- 
ding out, should be well protected from frost, but exposed to the 
air at every favourable opportunity. Introduce a succession of 

RlWdoa9ftUf9ns; LU^cs, JFijikSi ^n4 other forcioe; plwits inW ft 



Jan. 1.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



gentle heat. Hyacinths antl other bulbs should be forwarded 
slowly. 

Out-door Drpar/mcnt. 

Beds of Fuchsias, Salvia patens, and similar plants, should be 
covered two or three inches thick with rotten leaves, if not al- 
ready done. Mice olten make yreat havoc among: beds of Tulips, 
Anemones, and other choice bulbs, therefore they ouRht to he 
strictly watched. Protect young trees and shrubs of which the 
hardiness is doubtful by some kind of covering:. Planting: might 
he proceeded with if tlie weather is open and the ground sutRci- 
ently dry. Avoid planting when the ground is very wet. 
NURSERY AND FOREST DEPARTMENT. 

NtfRSEnv.— Take up young trees which requipc rcniovaljprune, 
and replant in lows, the largest .at increased distances. 'Trench 
and otherwise prepare ground on which it is intended to sow 
seeds of forest-trees. 

FoBKST A.vn Copi'icE Woods. — Continue to fell, prune, and 
thin as required. Also plant and prepare lor planting at every 
favourable opjiortunity. In planting, suit the kind of tree to the 
natuie of the soil and situation as far as practicable; too little 
attention is generally paid to this important point. — J.JS. IIVh^iw^', 
The Dtepdcne. 

Stfite of the Weather nor London between the 23d and 30th 
Dec, 1841, iisnbserveil at the llurtiiu.uiral Garden, Chiiwick. 





liAiioi 


BTKB. 


Tti 


KltMOMl'.r 


'K. 


Wind. 




Dec. 
Thursaay 23 


Mar. 
29 854 


Min. 
£9 793 


Max. 
4': 


Min. 

27 


MeHn. 

80 5 




S.W. 


.m 


Frlduy 24l 


30.016 


29. 91 '2 


6U 


Al 


4G.0 


S.W. 


.12 


S.iiiirciay 251 


29.71-9 


29.1.57 


49 


22 


35.5 


s.w. 


.OG 


Sunday £6 


£9.E)44 


29.-S5 


39 


24 


81.5 


N.W. 


.01 


Monday 27i 


3H.121 


30.001 


36 


25 




\v. - 


.02 


Ttiesday 28 


30.0r!3 


30 051 


44 


37 


40.5 


N.W. 


.02 


Wednesday 2Q| 


3o.o;n 


30.035 


45 


39 


42.0 


N.W. 


.05 


TJiursday 30 


30. 1 lit) 

~30.00"l 


29.937 


A2 


31 


Sfi.S 


S.E. 




AverBRe | 


1^9.1101 


43.9 


30 9 


37.4 




,34 



Dec. 23. Hazy ; dnzzly ; cloudy and fine at night. 

24. Overcast in the morning; rain; slight frost at night. 

25. Rain in the morning; showers and fine throughout the 
day ; very clear in the evening ; frosty. 

26. Overcast; fine with light clouds ; frosty at night. 

27. Frosty and ffggy ; hazy; thickly overcast. 

28. Cloudy and fine; slight rain at night. 

29. Drizzly; dense fog; overcast; close drizzling rain at night. 

30. Hazy throughout the day : calm and overcast. 



State of the Weather at Chiswick during the last I6 years, for 
the ensuing Week ending Jan. 8, 1342. _ 



Jaa. 

Mun, 

Tnes, 

Wed. 

Thiin. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



4?.5 
42. 5 
41 
39.7 



Aver. 
Lo^veat 
Temp. 



31.8 
80-7 
23.9 

sal 

29.4 



Hfean 
Temp 



Na of 
Years in 
which it 
Rained. 



0.21 in. 

0.30 

0.35 

a 06 

1.33 

0.13 



Prevailing Winds. 



4 • 


ftl 




r> 


l^ 


■J. 














I a 




£ 


.1 


I, 3 





:■ 


.s 


3 21 2 


I 


a 


I 4'_ 


1 


4 




5 


4 


230 


2 




2. -; 


1 




4 



i I 



The highest temperature during the above period occurred on 
the 8th in 182^, and 6th in 1S39— thermometer 53° j and the lowest 
on the 7th and 8th in 1841- thermometer 6°. 



REPORT ON COVENT GARDEN MARKET, 
For the Week ending December 3\, 1S41. 
The market has becii, generally speaking, well supplied during: 
the week, though many articles are of dull ssile.— Fruit. Pines 
are tolerably plentiful and of excellent quality; the kinds are 
Queens, with a few Providence. Foreign Grapes are excellent, 
particularly some samples of Almeria ; a few good hothouse may 
still be obtained. Apples of good quality are abundant; among 
the kinds are Nonpareil, Ribston Pippin,' and Blenheim Orange. 
Pears of various kinds are plentiful, and among others we noticed 
Beurrd Ranee, Easter Beurre. and Nelis d'hivev.— Vegetables . 
■White Broccoli is becoming rather scarce. Brussels Sprouts are 
plentiful, and of good quality. Forced French Beans are ex- 
cellent and tolerably plentiful. The supply of Asparagus and 
Sea-kale is increasing, and the quality is excellent. Lettuce, 
Endive, and most other kinds of salading are plentiful. Some 
of the Lettuces are slightly frosted. Many excellent samples of 
Celery are offered. A good supply of excellent Rhubarb has made 
its appearance. A few Tomatoes may still be obtained. Mush- 
rooms and Truffles are tolerably plentiful.— F/ou'ej-5. Among cut 
flowers were Stenorhynchus speciosus, Thunbergia alata and 
aurantiaca, Amaryllis auliea, Bign6nia venusta, and Jasminum 
grandiflorum. A few pots of forced Tulips and Crocuses have 
made their appearance. 

PKICES, Sati-RPAtt, Jan. 1, 1842.— FHUITS:— 
Apple?, Kilclien, perbushel, 3*c,t! to 7* Lemons, per 100, Gt lo 14j 



jssert, per bushel, 4j6if to l£t 
Pears, desseit, per hf. -sieve, 3itid to 12i 
Pine Applf . per lb. 5i to8j 
Grapes, hothouse, per lb., 3t to B» 

— Spanihh, per lb., 1/ to ]t 3d 

— rortii)jHl, per lb., U to 3» 
Oranges, per dnz., 9d to 2* 

— per ion, 4s tn Uj 

_ — Bitter, per 100, Bjto lit 
LemoBM, per doz. Ii to ~ 



Savoys, per dozen, 6J to 1*1 
Cabbage, White, per dozen, SJlolj 

— Red, for pickling, 2* to 4s 
Cabbage Plants, per doz , 2j to 3« 
Brussels Sprouts, p. hf, sve., 1* SdtoSt 
Ueiinan Greens, or Kale, per doz., 6d 
Broiiculi, M'hite.p. bnch, 2*.to4* 

— Cspe, 1* to 2« 

Kidney Beans, forced, per 100,3jto3«e(f 
Potatoes, per ton, 50s to OJ* 

— per cwt. 2j 6d to 4j Gd 

— perbushel,iU Gd to 3j 

— Kidney, per bushe], St to 3i 
Artichokes, Jerusalem, prhalf eieve, 

9d toU 6d 
Till nips, pr doz. bunches, U6d to2j Gd 
Carrots, per diiz. banishes, 3* lo5* 
Parsneps, per dozen, 6d tol* 
Red Beet, per dozen, 6J to 1* Gd 
Scorzonera, per bundle. It lo l*3d 
Salsify, per bundle. It to li 3d 
Horse Kadish, per bundle, 2j to 5s 
Badiah, p. doz- hands (24to3neat:h) 1» 
Spinach, per sieve, 3i to 3j Gd 
Leeks, per dozen bunches, Od lo1< 
Garlic^ perlb.j 8d 



VEGETABLES. 



per peil:, 7* to "» 
Sueet Almonds, per pound, St 
Chesnuis, per peck, 5« to in» 
Walnuts, perhusliel. 14* tn 24*1 
Filberts, English, pr.lOO lbs. J20* to 130/ 
Cobb?, per peck, 3* to 3tGd 
Nuts, perbushel — 

— Brazil, 30i 

— Spanish, Ifij""^'" 

— Barcelona, 20j to 24$ ^ 



Shallots, per lb., 1* 

Onions, per bushel, 2a to3tGd ' 

— for pick., per hf. -sieve, 2» to 4/, 

— Green, per bunch, 4(i 

— Spani sh, per dozen, 2j to 6< 
Asparagus, per 100, Inipe, 9* toll* 

— Second or Middling, -it 

— Sprue, or Small, 3a to 3*6d 
Sea-kale, per punnet, li to 3* 
Lettuce, Cabbage, pr. score, fid to 9d 

— Cos, per score, 1* 
Endive, perscore, Ij to 4* 
Celery, Ked.p.bdle (12 to 15) 6d loliSd 

— '\\'hite, pr bund., (id to l« 
M'iiteri-ress.p.d/.small bimcli. Gd to 9d 
Parsley, per half sieve, 3* to 4« 
Tarragon, per dozen bunches, 6* 
Thj me, per doz. bunches, Ss 
Sage, per doz. bunches, 2* to 3f 
Mint, per doz. bunches, 2f-to ^ij 
Savory, per dozen bimchea,5« 
Rhubarb Stalks, per bundle, 1* to2i 
Chilis, per lOO, Is ad to 2< 
Mushrooms, per pottle, J* loljSd 
Truffles, per pound, 2j to 3j 



Notices to Correspondents. 

To CoRUESPONDKNTS.— Our Tule is to refuse to receive all par- 
cels which are not Cdrriag:e-paid. We will, therefore, be^ those 
of our correspondents who for any reason send packets without 
paying- the carriage, to apprise us by post of their having done so. 
in order that they may not be refused. 

IfT. C., or any other correspondent, did send a parcel to the 
Office without paying the carriage, it was, as a matter of course, 
not taken in. 

John Head will find an answer to his question in the advertise- 
ments of to-day. 

J. C. Z,.— Your flowers having been placed in dry cotton wool, 
■without having been previously wrapped in tissue-paper, were 
nearly ruined. The Zygopetalum is unknown to us, and the On- 
cidium was crushed ; it looked like O. Suttoni. We are sorry 
we cannot adopt your recommendations, but there are many con- 
siderations, of which you are not aware, that prevent us. 

Mr. Gardner's Manettia seems to be new; but in so difficult a 
genus a positive opinion cannot be formed upon such a small 
specimen. As our artist is not in town now, it will be better to 
forward specimens hereafter. 

A. L. iU.— The blue and pink Hydrangeas are the same ; the dif- 

»«?ati-cpl9Hve4 flWMS beipg caused by Oiflferent soJJs# 2n geae- 



ral a strong loamy soil produces the blue flowers, and any com- 
mon t;ardcn soil the red ones. By cutting back some of the 
strong-growing Pelargoniums at various times during the sum- 
mer, so as to keep them from flowering, you may make them 
bloom late in the autumn, and particularly the scailet and Ivy- 
leaved kinds. Gas-tar and the ammoniacal litiuor of the gas- 
works are quite different J you will hear of this in a leading arti- 
cle in a week or two. 

Mr. ir. Hiirnt, of Cheshvnt, says he remembers to have seen, 
about the year 1518, at the garden belonging to the Castle-inn, 
Salt Hill, an immense quantity of a sort of semi-double Ranun- 
culus, which grew very strong and much branched, producing 
tlowcrs of all colours, continuing in flower a long time, and seed- 
ing abundantly. He has never seen anything of the kind culti- 
vated elsewhere, and asks if any of our readers can inform him 
where he can procure some roots. 

R. A.— G-\x\y3k elKptica is a hardy shrub well known about 
London, where it flowers every year in abundance. Pray give 
us the descriptions of trees. 

T. D.— The "Botanical Register" contains the greatest num- 
ber of new plants, with coloured plates; antl as it comes out 
monthly, it exactly answers your purpose. With the year 1833 a 
new scries was commenced, and that part is quite independent of 
what precetles it. 

A Btttomtni. — Do you take us for the wondi-ous Michael Scott, 
or for Lord Cranstoun's goblin page, that you send us such 
puzzles? One leaf like a Dolichos, another like a Mallow, and a 
sprig like a Leptospermum, crushed in dry cotton wool, without 
being protected by tissue-paper, with the information that they 
were raised from seeds, would puzzle the greatest master of 
" Gramarye " that ever lived. r.\ias, Watsonias. and Gladioli are 
from the Cape of Good Hope, not Brazil. You will find some in- 
formation about tliem in the leading article of to-day. Keep 
Gloxinias dry and cool in winter. 

Ihe double yellow Rose has produced us some further corre- 
spondence, to which we shall advert in a short time. 

T. CJ's plant is Maxillaiia Harris6nia?. 

M. D '5 account of the Bokhara Melon has already been pub- 
lished in the Chronicle, p.fi03 (1841). The seed can only be had from 
Bokhara, through the Court of Directors of the E. I. Company. 

.4 Reginner\t plant is the MeliaAzcdarach, or Azadirachta; they 
arc the same thing. 

Salopiciisis. — The Pear is the Chaumontel ; the Apple is proba- 
bly Coe's Golden Drop, and if so you will observe ferruginous 
specks on the surface of the fruit occasionally, a characteristic 
which is wanting in the specimen received. 

AT.— Perhaps we were wrong. We have forgotten all about it 
now. Another time we will try to be more critical. 

T. D.— A thousand thanks. 

Mr. Towers soon. 

W. D.'s plant is Fuchsia tliymif^lia. We doubt whether the 
bog-earth of salt marshes will suit any kind of tree; perhaps 
" W. D." will try the experiment, and let us know. 

S. S.— Your information is too slight to enable us to judge why 
the blossom-buds of your Pear-trees are cankered ; probably the 
soil wants under- draining. The Belladonna Lily will live under 
a south wall in the open air, and flower beautifully, if kept dry 
in winter. You had better pot the bulbs you have just received 
and turn them out next May. 

T. S. — The plan of a snow-scraper is to us unintelligible. We 
have already given as much space to communications concerning 
icehouses as we can find room for. 

B. K.— For so small a house a Rogers' boiler, if set reverber- 
atory, will answer your puipose well. It should have a flow and 
return-pipe carried along the front and both ends of your house; 
or one end may he without pipes, if that is an important point. 
We dare not offer an opinion as to what a house should cost. 

Fhilo-fern.— 'ProcuTe your Ferns in, the summer; a little peat 
will do to grow them in ; and if the air is once made damp in a 
parlour-case, it will not again become dry unless it is often 
opened ; in which case the plants must be watered. Ferns like a 
very damp atmosphere, without water. They love the tempera- 
ture of 50° or 60'', or more, and prefer shade. The mode of culti- 
vating Ferns has already been given at p. 519, for IS'JI. 

C. D. — Ipomo?a stans is a greenhouse herbaceous plant ; it dies 
down in autumn, and ought now to be kept perfectly dry until 
spring, when the roots should be examined, and the plant lepottcd 
if ncce.ssary. Gardeners as yet have not been able to make it 
flower freely, probably from the plants not being strong enough ; 
or perhaps it may require a warmer situation than is commonly 
given to it. We would advise you to start a plant of it very eai'ly 
in spring and grow it in a warm greenhouse near the light. Be 
sure to check the red spider if it makes its appearance upon the 
leaves, of which it is remarkably fond. The Gesnera is elongata, 
not oblongata. The Linnean system is abandoned by all botanists 
of any reputation, except for local floras. Endlicher's "Enchi- 
ridion" only gives the names of the genera of plants; their 
detailed characters are to be found in his " Genera Plantaium," a 
most excellent work. Another, also very useful, but not yet 
completed, is Meisner's "Genera Plantarum Vascularium," in 
which the genera are all analysed as far as the middle of Apeta- 
lous Exogens. 

T. Gayman's plants are — 1, Oneldium ranlferum ; U, RodriguiJ- 
zia recurva ; 3, Maxillaria, very near M. vitellina, but different, 
and probably new; the specimen is not in a state for full examina- 
tion ; 4, a :^milax. These plants arrived in bad order, in conse- 
quence of having been packed in dry cotton wool without the 
protection of tissue-paper. 

Cecilia. — Lamps may be used in greenhouses to keep out frost; 
but they should be of the Ai'gand construction, and so contrived 
as to consume all their smoke. Thtre is little probability of arti- 
ficial light being empldyed in Horticulture during winter; nor 
would it be useful except in a very few cases. We are obliged 
by the books, which, notwithstanding their,strangetitles, we will 
read. 

Timothy CorA-Acarf.— Passiflora incarnata may be had in any of 
the great nurseries. Oxalis Bowiei has only to be potted in light 
rich soil, and placed in a greenhouse, exposed to light, and it will 
not fail to flower. 

W. T. C.^The Pinus excclsa ai-.d Abies Khutrow arc certainly 
different plants, and perfectly hardy. The question about fruit 
will be answered next week. 

A Brother.— The scaly root like stems of TrevirEina are called 
" scaly rhizomata." 

G. B. K. next week. 

M. M'. K. —All the questions you ask about growing Hyacinths 
in Beet-roots are immaterial. The roots are not put in water, but 
are suspended in an inverted position by wire attached in any 
way that will make them steady. Repot Fuchsia corymbiflora. 
White Lilies, if forced, need only be taken out of the ground at 
the time it is desired to start them ; they like moderate heat. It 
is as well to cover over the Hcpaticas with a handglass in a 
frosty night. Lilium longitlorum should be allowed to die down, 
and should not be cut down. You will flnd, to-day, a paper on 
the cultivation of Lconotis Leonurus. We never supply copies 
of the Chronicle ; you should insist upon your newsman procuring 
what you want. 

A Subscriber.— To give instructions as to laying out a garden is 
beyond the means of a newspaper, and can only be done by 
actual inspection. Either common Thrift or Box maybe used 
for the edgings : the former is very pretty, but takes more room 
than the latter, and requires to be fi'cquently renewed. You will 
find in some of our late Numbers some lists of ornamental shrubs 
which will suit you ; but as you say your garden is very limited, 
we would particularly recommend such things as Rhododendrons, 
Azaleas, Kalmia latifolia, the common Strawbero-tree and its 
varieties, and Laurustinus. If you fill your beds with the follow- 
ing plants, they will make your garden very gay : Heartsease, 
Roses, Ranunculuses, Hyacinths, Gladiolus psittacinus, hardy 
annuals— such as Nemophila insignis, Collinsia bicolor, and Ery- 
simum Ferofskiauum ; or if you h^Y« the me^s of preserving: 



tender plants in winter, you iray plant Verbenas, Salvia patens 
and others, scarlet Pelargoniums, Petunias, and Anagallises. 
You have done quite right in bbnting your ground ; but if you 
could drain it, it would be all the better. 

Tutty asks how to glow TropKolum tricolorum and pentaphyl- 
lum well. Tlicy both require a light sandy soil, such as ecjual 
parts of peat and leaf mould well mixed with sand. They .should 
be potted as soon as they show any signs of growth, and placed 
in a light and airy part of the greenhouse, and by no means 
forced to grow rapidly during the dull winter months, as they 
will certainly lose their leaves afterwards if this is not attended 
to. Trellises, such as "Totty" has oltcn seen at Horticultural 
exhibitions, should be fixed to the pots, and the plants carefully 
trained over them. The latter makes the most handsome plant 
when started early in spring, and turned out against a wall ; in 
this situation it grows to a great size, and flowers freely during 
the summer and autumn long after Pelargoniums arc killed by 
the frost. 

Br. Harris's suggestion will be taken into consideration, but 
not nt present. 

Mr. Kinchunt will have full information about Pine seeds in a 
short time. There is plenty of timej nothing can be done with 
them for some weeks to come. 

P/HVo-/t'r«.— Your wishes concerning a paper on the cultivation 
of Ferns shall be attended to. In the mean time, we would ad- 
vise you not to send for the collection for your case until there 
is no danger of its being frozen by the way. 

A Constant Reader must never use fires except to exclude the 
frost, otherwise he will start his Vines. If tboy are greenhouse 
plants which he keeps in this house, a temperature of 3S°, orfrom 
that to 40°, will be high enough. Vineries of this kind should 
always be constructed so that the Vines can be taken out during 
winter, and then any degree of temperature can be kept up which 
may be reguired. 

A'cnio.— Nothing will be gained by binding your hot-water pipes 
with canvas. If you cannot reduce the heat without casing thera 
over, you had better enclose them in a brick or tiled flue, open at 
both exti'emitics; the one end passing through the west end into 
the open air, and the ( thcr stopping half-way along the back 
wall ; this will produce a strong current of air, and will cool the 
greenhouse. In that case, your flue may be made hollow at the 
top for water, but it must on no account be so used at this season. 
We, however, would suggest to you that the casing must be un- 
necessary if your fire were well managed. We presume it is 
overheated, and canhaidlybe furnished with proper dampers. 
If it were, the temperature of the water ought to be capable of 
behig maintained at too low a point for the pipes to overheat the 
house. 

/I S/«g'-/ii/7i/er.— "Bonnycastle's Introduction to Mensuration 
and Practical Geometry," and " Crocket's Land Surveying," will 
answer your purposes. When Professor Henslow's ideas on ro- 
tation are published, we will report on them. 

Reader. ~T\\Q blistered or swollen state of the leaves of your 
Peach-trees is the disease which the French call "LaCloque," 
and is solely owing to cold ; this you can partly guard against by 
woollen netting in the spring, which, however, must be gradu- 
ally withdi awn as the heat ol the season increases. 

Mr. Bell's plants are,— 1, Marchantia conica; the other, M. 
polymorpha. Either will, in all probability, do as well as M. he- 
misphEsrica. 

Medicus will find instructions for the cultivation of Sea-kale at 
p. 263 (1841). If two-years old roots are carefully taken up, they 
will answer for the purpose of being once forced; but he had 
better procure one- year old plants for his more permanent plan- 
tation. Night-soil will form very good manure for trees, but it 
should be mixed with a large proportion of any common soil, or 
still better with gypsum. 

G. S. r.— The annual meeting of the Institution for the Relief 
of Aged and Indigent Gardeners will take place on the 13th of 
January, of which a full report will be given in the Chronicie. 

B. J^.— On the side of a steep hill, facing the south,' and shel- 
tered from cold quarters, Filberts will succeed. Provided the 
weather is not frosty, they may be moved at this period of the 
season. As your soil is not over rich, the Kentish mode of dwarf- 
pruning will be proper. Sorts most deserving of cultivation are 
the Cosford, Downton large square nut. Cob Nut, Red Filbert, 
and White Filbert. The plant is apparently Acacia melanoxylon. 

As usual, many letters have arrived much too late for answers 
tliis week. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 

The new year opens under circumstances of consider- 
able interest to the political world, both as bearing evi- 
dence of the increasing desire of the Great Powers for the 
maintenance of peace, and as proving that the questions 
which have agitated Europe during the past year are at 
length advancing towards a settlement. The French 
Chambers were opened on Monday by a Speech from the 
throne, which is characterised by its pacific expressions 
towards other Powers, and by its uncompromising tone in 
relation to domestic affairs. It alludes with satisfaction 
to the Convention of July, which restored France to her 
position in the rank of nations, and consolidated the Otto- 
man Empire under the protection of the Allies. It di- 
rects the attention of the Chamber to the establishment 
of a balance between the expenditure and the revenue, 
and to the construction of a national system of railroads, 
as measures which honour peace, and render it perma- 
nent. It concludes by a powerful appeal against the re- 
volutionary pHrty, denouncing its intrigues against the 
dynasty and person of the King, as obstructing the ener- 
gies of France, and retarding the development of her 
legal and pacilic liberty. For the future it declares, in 
language not to be mistaken, that the King and Govern- 
ment will do its duty, and maintain the authority of the 
laws. On the following day the Chamber of Deputies 
met for the election of a President, when the result gave 
a large majority in favour of the Ministerial candidate. 
The Court of Peers has made known its sentences on the 
prisoners found guilty at the recent trials ; Qui'nisset and 
two others are condemned to death ; and the remainder, 
including M. Dupoty, are sentenced to different terms of 
imprisonment. Recent advices slate that the King has 
consented, at the request of the Duke d'Aumale, to spare 
the lives of the condemned prisoners ; but little interest 
appears to he felt in the affair beyond that connected w-ith 
the fate of M. Dupoty. The entire press, with only one 
exception, are unanimous in reprobating tlie conviction of 
this gentleman ; and declarations have been published by 
the leading journals and by the committee of the Literary 
Society, protesting against his sentence as an attempt 

t9 Uit^s the liberty of the press< The subject, it it 



10 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[N°- 1. 



thought, will give rise to serious discussion in the 
Chambers, and is expected to add considerably to the 
difficulties of tlie Ministry during the present session. — 
The affairs of Spain have been somewhat complicated by 
a difference which has arisen between the Government 
and the French Ambassador, on a question of court pri- 
vilege, connected with the presentation of his credentials ; 
but although the Ambassador has threatened to leave 
Sladrid, it is not expected that the dispute will lead to 
any serious rupture of diplomatic relations. The Cortes 
were to be ojicncd on the 26th ult., and the speech of 
the Regent was looked for with some interest. The Pre- 
sidency of the Chamber of Deputies was to be made a 
party question by the opposition ; and the republicans, 
entertaining hopes, it is said, of obtaining power, have 
published their political programme, avowing their plan 
to be the overthrow of the constitution, the throne and 
the regency, and the establishment of a union between 
Spain and Portugal under a federal republican govern- 
ment. — Our news from Germany announces that the 
King of Prussia is preparing for a visit to this country, 
in compliance with an autograph letter of the Queen, con- 
veying her Majesty's request that, as the great Protestant 
sovereign of continental Europe, he would officiate as one 
of the sponsors at the christening of the Prince of Wales. — 
By the Levant mail we have recent intelligence from Con- 
stantinople, from which we learn that an important change 
in the Ministry has taken place ; a new Grand Vizier has 
been appointed, and further changes are expected to fol- 
low. The Ottoman troops. still continue their movements 
towards the Greek frontier ; and new causes of complaint 
against the government of King Otho are said to have been 
discovered. Advices from Persia, received through the 
Turkish capital, mention that our ambassador has had an 
interview with the Schah, and that the treaty of commerce 
with Persia has been signed, and is now on its way to Lon- 
don for ratification. — From the United States we have re- 
ceived the message of President Tyler on the opening of 
Congress. It considerably exceeds the ordinary limits of 
these documents, and embraces a minute review of every 
circumstance connected with the foreign relations and do- 
mestic affairs of the Union. It refers of course to the re- 
cent trial of Mr. M'Leod, and praises the independent 
action of the Justiciary, although it admits the necessity 
of giving more power to the Federal Government in inter- 
national questions involving the suspension of diplomatic 
intercourse. In regard to the Slave Trade, the message 
explicitly professes hostility to the traffic, but insists on 
the exemption of American ships from the right of search 
established by the great European treaty. The Boundary 
question is declared to have made no progress, although 
nothing has occurred to diminish the probability of an 
amicable adjustment. 

At home, the chief point of public interest is the mission 
of Lord Ashburton on a special embassy to the United 
States, for the purpose of facilitating the speedy and final 
settlement of all points now at issue between the two 
countries. The christening of the Prince of Wales is said 
to be fi.xed for the 25lh inst., unless any circumstances 
should arise to retard the arrival of the King of Prussia 
previously to that day. 



CotrUT. — Her Majesty, Prince Albert, the Prince of 
Wales, and the Princess Royal, are all well, and continue 
at Windsor. Her Majesty has taken her accustomed rides 
and walking exercise during the week, and on Wednesday 
was present at a stag-hunt in the Great Park.^It is stated 
in the Court Circular that Tuesday the 2.")th inst. is now 
positively fixed fur the christening of the Prince of Wales ; 
dependent, however, on the arrival of the King of Prussia, 
for whom preparations are already making among Minis- 
terial and diplomatic personages. His Majesty, as will be 
seen under our Foreign intelligence, is expected to leave 
Berlin for London, with a numerouB suite, on the 17th or 
18th inst. 

T/ie Queen Dowager.— The latest intelligence received 
with respect to the health of her JIajesty the Queen 
Dowager informs us that it i]rogressively improves, and 
that her Majesty still continues in a convalescent state. 

Diplomatic Arrangemenls. — It has been announced by 
the Ministerial papers that Lord Ashburion, at the re- 
quest of Government, is about to proceed to the United 
States on a special mission, with the object of settling all 
existing differences between that country and our own. 
It is further stated, that his Lordship, who will sail in a 
few weeks, had been asked to undertake this service, and 
had consented to do so, before the President's Message 
had been received,— and tliat the mission in question has 
been had recourse lo v,li.,lly irrespective of anything con- 
tained or omitted in tlnit document. 

Parliamenlurtj Movements.— K vacancy has occurred 
in the representation of Forfarshire by the death of Lord 
Douglas Gordon Uallyburlon, who died on the evening of 
Christmas day — The death of Mr. West, which took place 
on Monday, has occasioned a vacancy in the representation 
of the city of Dublin. Mr. Vance, a miinufacturer of 
Leeds, is proposed as the Conservative candidate ; and, on 
the Liberal side, it is reported that Lord Morpeth will be 
put forward. 



.-jforrign. 

France. — The King's Speech. — On Monday, the 
Chambers were opened with the usual ceremonies. The 
King proceeded from the Tuileries in a close carriage 
strongly guarded, precautions having been taken to pre- 
vent the approach of any persons within musket-shot of 
the line of march, e.icept the mihtary on duty ; and even 
the terraces of the Tuileries gardens were closed. On his 
arrival at the Chambers, the King delivered the Speech 
from the throne. The opening paragraph alludes to the 
Convention of July 13, which restored France to her posi- 
tion in the rank of nations, and announces that the settle- 
ment of that question " consecrates the common intention 
of the Powers to maintain the peace of Europe, and con- 
solidate the repose of the Ottoman empire." The re- 
mainder of the Speech is on domestic affairs, and the tone 
is firm and uncompromising, indicating considerable con- 
fidence in the stability of the existing order of things. 
The King directs the attention of the Chambers to the 
establishment of a balance between the expenditure and 
the revenues of the State, and to the construction of a 
national system of railroads, as labours which "honour 
peace, and render it stable and fruitful ; " and at the 
same time he assures them that he is endeavouring, by 
negotiations prudently conducted, to extend the commer- 
cial relations, and to open new markets for the production 
of the soil and arts of France. In a paragraph referring 
to Africa, he says, " I have taken measures to prevent 
any external complication from disturbing the security of 
our African possessions. Our brave soldiers are pursuing 
on that land, henceforth and for ever French, the course 
of their noble labours, in which I am happy that my sons 
have had the honour of concurring. Our perseverance 
shall comjilete the work undertaken by our courageous 
army, and France will introduce into Algeria her civiliza- 
tion as the consequence of her glory." He then concludes 
by noticing the disaffection of the revolutionary party 
towards his person and dynasty. " Whatever," says his 
Majesty, " may be the burdens of our situation, France 
would support them without difficulty, if faction did not 
unceasingly obstruct the course of her powerful activity. 
I will not dwell upon the intrigues and crimes of the fac- 
tious, but let us not forget, gentlemen, that it is that which 
debars our country from fully enjoying all the blessings 
which Providence has conferred upon it, and which retards 
the development of that legal and pacific liberty which 
France has at last achieved, and of which I make it my 
glory to ensure her the possession. We shall follow up 
this task, gentlemen. My government will do its duty. 
It will maintain everywhere and constantly the authority 
of the laws, and cause them to be respected, as it will re- 
spect them itself. Your loyal support will aid me." The 
members of the Royal family were in the tribune, and the 
King's four sons sat at his side ; Lord Cowley and Mr. H. 
Bulwer were also present. Immediately after the delivery 
of the Speech, the King returned to the Tuileries; no dis- 
turbance whatever took place, and perfect order reigned 
throughout the capital. The effect of the Speech on the 
Bourse, however, was a fall in the funds of -4 per cent. 

Election of President of the Chamber. — On Tuesday, 
the Chamber of Deputies met, and alter the usual routine 
business proceeded to the election of a President. This 
question, it will be remembered, has for some time occu- 
pied much attention, and has been looked for with consi- 
derable interest, as one likely to show, by its result, the 
comi]arative strength of opposing parties in the Chamber. 
The result has been favourable to the Government. The 
whole number of voters present was 309 ; thus making 
155 votes necessary to constitute an absolute majority. 
The numbers on the division were : — M. Sauzet, 191 ; 
M. de Lamartine, 64 ; M. Odillon Barrot (about) 67. 
M. Sauzet was accordingly declared duly elected. Our 
accounts add that the nominations and elections of Presi- 
dents and Secretaries of bureaus were also proceeding in 
favour of the ^linistry. 

Queuissel and his Co-accused. — The Court of Peers 
made known on Thursday its sentences on Queiiisset and 
the other persons implicated with him in the late con- 
spiracy, and in the attempt on the Princes. They are, 
however, almost the same as given by anticipation in our 
last Number.' Quenisset, Colombier, and Just, alias 
Brazier, are condemned 10 death ; the former, it is said, 
will be pardoned in consequence of the important revela- 
tions made by him with respect to the conspiracy ; but it 
is supposed that the other two will be executed, although 
there appears to be an impression, in fome quarters, that 
all their lives will be spared by the King. The other jui- 
soners are sentenced to different periods of imprisonment ; 
of these M. Dupoty's case is the only one that occupies 
attention, which it does to an extraordinary extent. He 
has been condemned to five years' imprisonment, w-ith loss 
during that time of civil rights, and condemnation for all 
the rest of his life to be under the surveillance of the 
police ; that is to say, he is never to live in Paris, but to 
remain in some frontier town under the eye of a police 
commissary. M. Dupoty, with some of the prisoners, 
has been removed to Doulens, and the remainder to 
Mount St. Jlichel. The three condemned prisoners re- 
main in the Lu.\enibomg, and await the decision of Go- 
vertimeiit as to lieir fate. 

Proceedings of /he Press. — The entire press, with the 
single exception of the '* Journal des D^batsJ' the org:-n 
of the Court, have been unanimous in their reprobation 
of the conviction and jiunishment of I\T. Dupoty, editor of 
the ^Journal du Peiiple." They have discussed the subject 
with considerable earnestness, arguing against the legality 
of the judgment, and the princi[ile therein laid down of 
moral coniplicity ; and their general tone ip that of firm 
resolve to resist what is regarded as an attack on the 



liberty of the press. On Thursday night, immediately 
after the sentence was made known, several editors of the 
Paris papers, with a few directors of provincial journals, 
to the number of fourteen in all, held a meeting to deli- 
berate on the subject. A committee was appointed to 
investigate and report upon it, and they again met on 
Sunday. The result of their deliberations was, that on 
Monday an important declaration in reference to this 
subject appeared in the Paris papers, signed by sixteen 
journals of the capital, the publication of which has pro- 
duced considerable sensation, not only in Paris, but 
throughout the country. The declaration is an energetic 
protest against the sentence passed on M. Dupoty, on 
the principle of moral complicity ; it deprecates the power 
assumed by the Court of Peers to act as a judicial body 
for the trial of such cases, which, it maintains, ought only 
to be tried by juries ; it calls for some modification of the 
Se|itember lav,'s, which bear so stringently on the freedom 
of discussion, and concludes by expressing, in a firm but 
moderate tone, their determination to resist, by every 
constitutional means in their power, such an attempt, as 
it is termed, to fetter the liberty of the press. A some- 
what similar declaration, expressing in strong terms its 
condemnation of the sentence passed by the Court of Peers 
on M. Dupoty, has been published by the committee of 
the Literary Society in Paris. Government had not 
thought proper to seize the papers in which these declara- 
tions had appeared. The subject, it is thought, will gi^e 
rise to serious discussion in the Chamber of Deputies, and 
is expected to add materially to the difficulties of the ex- 
isting Ministry. It is said that the press, which signed 
the declaration, have agreed not to report the' debates or 
proceedings of the Peers. 

New Peers. — By individual ordonnances, dated Dec. 
25ih, the King has raised to the dignity of Peer of France 
— Vice Admiral Bergeret, Count Arthur Beugnot, Vis- 
count de Bondy; M. Baillet, First President of the RoyaL 
Court of Amiens ; Baron de Bourgoing, Baron Edmond 
de Bussiere, Lieut. -Gen. Count Charbonnel; JI. de Cha^- 
tellier, formerly Deputy and ex-Mayor of Nismes ; Baron, 
Dufour, Mayor of Metz ; M. Ferrier, President of the 
Council General of the Department of the North; Viscount 
de Flavigny; M. Frank Carre, First President of the Royal 
Court of Rouen ; M. de Gascq, President of the Court of 
Accounts; Lieut. -Gen. Baron Gourgaud, Chevalier Jau-^ 
bert ; Lesergeant de Bayenghen, formerly Deputy Presi- 
dent of the Council General of the Pas de Calais ; Count 
Murat, Baron d'Oberlin, Lieut.-Gen. Viscount Pelleport, 
and Count Alexis de St. Priest. Of these twenty creations 
private accounts state that nine have been Royalists. 

The Fortifioations. — The journals state that Govern- 
ment is not content with the number of detached forts 
contemplated by the Chambers, and that the Jlinister of 
War has advertised to receive contracts for the erection of 
a new fort at Charenton. The amount to he expended on 
this construction, they add, is estimated at 3,000,000 
francs ; and the bail to be provided by the contractor is 
fixed at 50,000 francs. The fort is to have five bastions, 
connected by casemated curtains. The fort of Charenton, 
it is said, did not figure on the map delivered to the depu- 
ties when the law permitting Paris to be surrounded by 
fortifications was voted. This fort is one of those com- 
menced in 1833, but which the opposition raised by the 
National Guard caused to be abandoned, as well as the 
fort I'Epine, upon the foundation of which magazines for 
the artillery have been erected, The hill of I'Epine com- 
mands the north of the Fautiourg ,St. Antoine, as the fort ■ 
of Charenton will command the south. The continuous 
wall will pass within 500 or 600 yards of the bastions of 
this fort and of works that are about to be erected on the 
hill of I'Epine to protect the artillery magazines. 

The Provinces. — Accounts continue to be received 
from the Provinces, of fresh damage done by the inunda- 
tions. A letter from Nice states that, a few days ago, the 
bridge of the Var was carried away for the second time 
within three months. The engineer-in-chief of Nice was 
engaged, with several workmen, clearing away the trees 
which obstructed the passage of the water through the 
arches, when the bridge gij.ve way, and they were swept 
off by the current. The engineer and one of the workmen 
were drowned, and the others were saved with great diffi- 
culty. Despatches from Avignon announce that on the 
23d ult. the Rhone again overflowed its banks, and that 
several quarters of the town were again flooded. The 
Marseilles journals represent the Rhone to be very high, 
the lands near Aries, Boulbon, and Tarascon being still 
under water. The road between the latter place and ,St. 
Remi is from three to four feet under water, but jiublic 
carriages continue to run on it. A severe storm occurred 
oi> the night of the ICth ult., in the neighbourhood of St. 
Jean de Luz, when lightning fell on the steej)le of Ciboure, 
and nearly destroyed it. The chateau of Jolimont was 
also set on fire at the same time by the lightning, and to- 
gether with a farm situated near it was burnt down. The 
Council-General of the Meuse has voted 1,000,000 francs 
towards the formation of the Paris and Strasburg rail- 
road ; and the Municipal Councils of Bar-le-Duc and 
Commercy have voted '200,000^ andSO.OOOf., respectively, 
for the same purpose. On Sunday morning, the 19th 
ult., the Custom House at Lisle suddenly burst into flames, 
and bi-ii;g built of light materials, was in less than an hour 
reduced to asl-.es. The cause of the fire is not stated. 

The Capital. — Private letters refer to the still-increas- 
ing amount of distress in the capital, and which, it is 
feared, will shortly bring about another commercial crisis, 
A comparative statement of the number of lodging-bouses 
in Paris, since 1833, has been published by the journals, 
from which it appears that, in that year, there were 3,147 
furnished houses and hotels, containing 39,619 lodgers ; 
ia 1839, there were 4,967, with 62,153 lodgers; and at 



Jan. 1.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



11 



present tliere are S.OGS, luiving 75,500 lodgers. Tlie 
Municipal Council has decided upon corstrucling two 
fountains in the Place de la Bourse, and one on the pro- 
menade behind the church of Notre Dame. The latter is 
to be of a Gothic style, to correspond with the cathedral, 
and the oilier similar to that in ihe Place Richelieu. A 
sum of .">2,000f. has aheady been voted towards the ex- 
pense of that near Notre Dame. Tlie King, it is said, 
has resolved to restore the chapel of Henry IV., at the 
Louvre, in the tower of the gateway towards the Tuileries, 
to the same state in which it was in the time of that mon- 
arch, and has given orders to the Koyal Manufactory at 
Sevres for painted glass to till the windows. 

Spain. — Our accounts from Madrid, which are to the 
21st ult., inform us that serious difficulties have arisen 
between the Ministry and M. de Salvandy, the French 
ambassador, on the subject of the presentation of his cre- 
dentials. The question, it is said, involves the necessity 
of sending some couriers to Paris before it can be settled, 
and threatens a schism between the two Governments. 
The question at issue appears to be as follows. M. de 
Salvandy claims to deliver his credentials to the Queen in 
person, in a private audience, while on the other hand the 
Ministry insist that, as her Majesty is a minor, they must 
be presented to the Regent, as the actual Sovereign. ]\'l. 
de Salvandy, it is added, threatened to demand his pass- 
ports, and the reply of Seiior Gonzales, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, was, that his Excellency might have them if he 
thought proper. M. de Salvandy appears to have dis- 
played much feeling on the subject; but the Ministry was 
firm in maintaining the etiquette of the Spanish Court. 
Ul^to the 13th ult. his E.\cellency had been a week in 
Madrid, and had not jiresented his credentials to the Re- 
gent. Ministers had held frequent meetings for the pur- 
pose of preparing the speech to be delivered by the Regent 
at the opening of the approaching session, which was to 
take place on the 26th ult. — The question of the Presi. 
dency of the Chamber of Deputies continued to be dis- 
cussed with much warmth by the journals. The Minis- 
terial Deputies, it is said, intended to give their support 
to M. Arguelles, the guardian of the Queen. The Oppo- 
sition seemed to be divided on that question, one party 
proposing for its candidate M. Vadillo, former Minister 
and deputy of Cadiz, and the other, M. Acuna, Vice- 
President of the Assembly during the session of 1841. 
The latter, it is thought, will obtain the votes of the de- 
puties who have turned against M. Arguelles since his 
acceptance of the guardianship. The republicans, in the 
mean time, are represented as entertaining hopes of re- 
suming the direction of affairs. They openly proclaim 
their intentions, and their organ, the Htiracati of the 
17th ult., declares, in an article which is regarded as their 
political programme, that " their plan is to overtur/t the 
Constitution of 1837, the Throne, the Regency, and the 
Regent Espartero ; that they wish to realise the union of 
Spain with Portugal, and to establish for both countries a 
federal republican Government.— -The Military Commission 
had been suppressed by a decree of the Regent, and the 
political offenders remaining to be tried were placed at the 
disposal of the Capt.-General of the province. The jour- 
nals svate tliat the widow of Gen. Diego Leon, who was 
shot for the October attempt, had been allowed a pension 
by Government. The Infante Don Francisco de Paula 
and family would, it was believed, spend the winter in 
Burgos. Rubini sang for the last time at Madrid on the 
2Ist ult., for the benefit of the religious orders and hos- 
pitals of the capital. The Duke of Ossuna had presented 
him with a magnificent pin, in the centre of which was a 
splendid brilliant, surrounded by rubies. Some riots had 
taken place at Alicant, in connexion with the municipal 
elections : the assistance of troops from Valencia had been 
demanded, and a number of persons had been arrested. 
Government, it is added, has ordered the authorities to 
prosecute the parties connected with the disturbance with 
all the severity of the law. The territorial tribunal of 
Toledo has acquitted 43 clergymen who had been arrested 
in the convent of Gelitos, and tried for disobeying the 
orders of Government, by whom they had been enjoined 
to cease their clerical duties. Accounts received from 
Gibraltar, dated the Iflth ult., inform us that the English 
Levant packet, the Great Liverpool, hai3 arrived in that 
harbour in so damaged a condition that she was unable to 
proceed on her journey. There were upwards of 100 
passengers on board, and another steamer was to be 
freighted for the purpose of conveying them and the mail 
to Malta. It is feared that in consequence of this accident 
to the Great Lirerpool, our receipt of the next overland 
India mail will be delayed. — Our latest advices from the 
capital, which are to the 23d ult., inform us, that at that 
time M. Salvandy had somewhat modified his pretensions. 
He had addressed a new note to the President of the 
Council, demanding permission to deliver his credentials 
into the Queen's hands, in presence of the Regent. It 
was believed that the Cabinet would not accede to this 
demand. Advices from Barcelona, to the 20th ult., state 
that the majority of the members of the municipality re- 
turned for 1842 was favourable to the Government of the 
Regent. The members of the Junta of Vigilance, who 
had gone into voluntary exile, had been authorised to re- 
turn. Accounts received from St. Sebastian, dated the 
25th ult., announce the arrival of three French ships of 
war and a tender at the port of Passages, which had given 
rise to some speculations. 

Germany. — Our German intelligence this week is not 
of much importance. It is stated by the Frankfort papers 
that the Austrian and Prussian Governments have come 
to an agreement, in virtue of which the two grand lines of 
railroads in Prussia and Saxony will be united with those 
of Bohemia and Hungary. Letters from Vienna state, 
that Sir S. Canning has gone from that capital to Athens, 



previously to going to Constantinople, in order to commu- 
nLcate the result of his conferences with Prince Metternich 
to the Greek Government. His Excellency, these letters 
add, is to recommend the Porte to follow altogether a 
pacific and moderate line of policy. The same accounts, 
dated the 15th ult., inform us that the Duke de Bordeaux 
had been allowed to get up the day before, and had re- 
mained in the company of the persons of his household. 
On the next day his Royal Highness received the Papal 
Nuncio, and was shortly to be visited by the other mem- 
bers of the diplomatic body. The journals state that for 
some time past the Austrian Government has entertained 
the project of lowering the duties of the last taiiff, in order 
to render trade with the other German States more easy, 
and to remove certain prohibitions. Princess Paskiewitsch 
has passed through "N'ienna, on her return to Warsaw from 

Rome Letters from Berlin of the 19th ult. announce, 

that in consequence of an autograph letter of invitation of 
Queen Victoria, received by the King of Pi'ussia, his Ma- 
jesty will be present at the christening of the Prince of 
Wales as one of the sponsors. His Majesty was toleaveBer- 
lin on the 17th or 18th Jan., and was expected to proceed to 
Cologne, and thence by the Belgian railroads to Calais, on 
his way to London, a Government steamer conveying his 
Majesty up the River. The Royal suite will he numerous, 
occupying 14 carriages, and will comprise Gens, de Natz- 
mer, de Neumann, and Roeder, Baron Alexandre de Hum- 
boldt, Count de StoUberg, and Bishop Ncender. Accounts 
from Berlin, dated 21st ult., mention that the last number 
of the collected Prussian laws contains the treaty between 
Prussia, the Zollverein States, and Lippe, relative to the 
accession of the principality of Lippe to the existing Zoll 
system ; and also the treaty between Prussia, the Zoll- 
verein States, and Brunswick, relative to the accession 
of the dukedom of Brunswick to the same system These 
accounts also state that the conference of the States of 
the Germanic Customs' Union on the sugar question are 
terminated, and the diplomatic commissioners are prepar- 
ing to leave Berlin. 'The duty on lump sugar is raised 
from 5^ to 10 thalers ; but this augmentation is not to 
begin until the 16th March, until which day the treaty 
with Holland will consequently remain in force. — In the 
sitting of the Chamber of Deputies of Wurtemberg on the 
18th ult., a motion was made by M. Knapp, one of its 
members, having for its object to call on the Alinistry to 
demand of the Germanic Confederation the re-establish- 
ment of the Hanoverian Constitution of 1833. The House, 
after some discussion, adopted the motion by unanimous 
acclamation. According to the Franltfort Journal of the 
23d, the Municipal Council of Osnabruck has also ad- 
dressed a memorial to the Legislative Body, praying the 
assembly to urge the King of Hanover to restore the Con- 
stitution of 1833. 

Hanover. — The Chambers, as announced in our last, 
have adopted the address proposed in reply to the speech 
from the throne without any amendment. The minority 
in the Chambers proposed to insert in the address a para- 
graph relative to the ordinance requiring the Deputies to 
declare in writing that they do not acknowledge any other 
Constitution than that of 1837 ; but the amendment was 
rejected, and the address was presented to the King. It 
commences by expressing their deep regret inspired by the 
lamented death of the Queen, and their sympathy with his 
Majesty in this loss as well to the country as to himself. 
Presuming that matters of the highest importance must 
have induced his Majesty to call them so suddenly together, 
they have hastened to assemble round the throne. They 
thank his Majesty for calling on them to exercise their 
constitutional right on concerns of such importance, and 
promise to devote their earnest attention to them. They 
conclude with fervent wishes that his Majesty may be 
permitted for many years to promote the welfare of his 
faithful subjects, promising on their part the" most con- 
scientious exercise of their important duties. The Cham- 
ber of Deputies also announces in the address that they 
will devote particular attention to the execution of rail- 
roads, and a committee has been appointed for that pur- 
pose. It is said that Government intends to demand from 
the States a guarantee of interest for a capital of 4,040,000 
thalers, to be destined to the construction of railways. 
The individual accused of having attempted to assassinate 
the Privy Councillor Lutken remains in prison. In the 
sitting of the Second Chamber of the States on the 16th 
ult. a debate was opened on a bill for regulating the posi- 
tion of the Jews of the kingdom ; this people being at 
present excluded from all participation in political rights. 
A Deputy proposed an amendment granting the right of 
voting at elections, but it was negatived, 

Holland. — Letters from the Hague mention that MM. 
Simons and Pescatare, members of the States of Luxem- 
bourg, are in that city. They have been received by the 
King, who has confided to them a mission to Berlin, for 
which place they were to set out in a few days. The mis- 
sion, it is said, is principally for the purpose of making 
the Court of Berlin comprehend that the King Grand 
Duke could not act otherwise with respect to the non-rati- 
fication of the treaty of Aug. 8 than he has done. It appears 
that the exchange of diplomatic notes between the Cabinets 
of Berlin and the Hague has not si;cceeded in restoring har- 
mony ; and it is stated that the King of Prussia is so dis- 
satisfied with the replies of the King Grand Duke, as to 
have threatened to refer the differeuce to the Germanic 
Diet, according to the fundamental law which declares 
that^ in the event of any difference between States of the 
Confederation which cannot be amicably settled, the 
points in dispute shall be referred to the Diet. Messrs. 
Simons and Pescatare are to represent to the Court of Ber- 
lin that the King Grand Duke owed it to his independence 
to refuse to ratify the treaty, as, by his accession to theGer- 

tuan Customs Utiion^ according to that treaty, be must 



have seen the affairs of Luxembourg decided upon at 
Berlin without his having even a vote. His Majesty has 
appointed a commission, consisting of three members, to 
examine into the administration and the manufacturing and 
agricultural jiroceedings of Ihe Benevolent Society and its 
colonial establishments. We learn that the Count of 
Nassau, ex-King of Holland, has contributed a thousand 
llorins towards the subsci'iption for the erection of a statue 
in honour of Rembrandt. It is also said that the Count is 
endeavouring to get the domain of Neuland, which he has 
purchased for his wife, the Countess d'Oultremont, created 
a principality. 

Belgiuji. — On the 23d ult. the Chamber of Represen- 
tatives appointed a deputation to congratulate his Majesty 
on New Year's Day. The Chamber has voted a credit of 
two millions for the M^ar dejiartments ; and has agreed to 
the law fixing the amount of the army at 80,000 men, and 
the contingent for 1842 at 10,000. The fetes at Mens on the 
occasion of opening the railway have passed off with great 
dclat. One circumstance, however, occurred which threat- 
ened for an instant the general harmony. A man rushed 
from the crowd, and endeavoured, by laying hold of the 
bridle of one of the horses, to stop the Royal carriage ; 
but he was immediately seized, and found to be a poor 
person who has sometimes exhibited signs of mental alie- 
nation, and who wished to present a petition to the King. 
RtJSSiA. — Intelligence has been received, by way of 
Trebizond, announcing a victory gained by the Circassians 
over the Russians, the most signal and decifive, it is said, 
that has occurred since the beginning of the war ; but as 
no further details have been received, the account may be 
considered to require confirmation. A large expedition, 
this account states, consisting of 30,000 men, had been 
disembarked on the coast, with a view of destroying the 
grain which had been collected by the Circassians after the 
harvest, when a storm having suddenly arisen, drove the 
ships from their anchorage. The Circassians, availing 
themselves of the opportunity, assailed them vigorously on 
every side, and the Russians, separated from their stores, 
which had been carried out to sea, were compelled to com- 
mence a disastrous retreat through a country consisting 
entirely of mountain, forest, and defile. With the excep- 
tion of 2,000 who escaped to Anapa, the whole of the 
30,000 were killed or made prisoners. Such are the ac- 
counts received from Trebizond. — Letters from St. Peters- 
burgh state that the Emperor, in further commemoration 
of the events of 1812, has erected at Smolensko a column 
similar to that which stands on the field of the battle of 
Borodino. It is 36 archines in height, including the pe- 
destal, and 13 archines and a half in circumference, and 
placed in front of the King's B.astion, which was the prin- 
cipal point of attack, and forms a fine ornament to the pa- 
rade. It was inaugurated Nov, 17, the day on which the 
French retreated before the troops of the garrison,, in the 
presence of all the nobles of Smolensko, with their mar- 
shal at their head, and also of the veterans who took a 
share in the battle. The Emperor has granted various 
presents, pensions, and additions to former pensions, to 
several widows and orphans of persons who fell in opposing 
the insurrection at Warsaw in 1830, on occasion of the 
recent inauguration of a monument to their memory. 

Italy. — Letters from Rome of the 14th ult. state that 
the authorities have published the list of the foreign jour- 
nals allowed to cii-culate in the States of the Church. The 
De'bals, French Ministerial paper, does not appear in this 
list, and is therefore considered to be prohibited. Among 
the papers to which permission is given are the Commerce 
and the Mode. Prince Frederic of Prussia arrived at Rome 
on the 10th ult., under the iiicogiiitooi Cowni of Rheinstein, 
and immediately visited his uncle, Prince Henry of Prussia, 
who has resided many years in the Pontifical capital. The 
young Spanish Princes, sons of Don Carlos, have had 
their audience of the Pope, to take leave previously to goitig 
to Naples. The Diario di Roma says that a fresh perse- 
cution of CaJ;holic missionaries has taken place in China, 
and that the Acinar Apostolic, M. Ignace Dalgado, lias been 
put to death under torture. Upwards of twenty other 
Christians are also said to have been put to death. 

Greece. — By intelligence received from Athens, of the 
10th ult., we learn that the arrangements for establishing 
the bank were completed; and that M. George Stavros 
was appointed President. The answer of the Turkish 
Minister for Foreign Affairs (Rifaat Pacha), to the note of 
the Government demanding explanations of the warlike 
preparations in progress in Constantinople, was deemed 
unsatisfactory ; and war with Turkey appeared to be re- 
garded as unavoidable, unless the protecting Powers should 
interfere. 

Turkey'.- — By the arrival of the Levant mail, which by 
some irregularity, it is said, in the arrangement of the 
French post-office authorities, was delayed several days in 
its delivery, we have intelligence from Constantinojile to 
the 7th ult., from which we learn that a change has taken 
place in the Ministry, and that much surprise has been 
ci'eated by the appointment of Mehemed Izzed Pacha, 
friend of Redschid Pacha, as Grand Vizier. Izzed Pacha 
was in the Syrian campaign, and was removed for incapa- 
city. No other changes had as yet taken place ; but the Echo 
de rOiient of the 10th ult., the Ottoman organ at Smyrna, 
announces that they will soon follow. The h^tti-scheriff, or 
imperiauescript, nominating Mehemed Izzed Pacha, is dated 
Dec. 4, and it states that the age of Raouf Pacha, the late 
Vizier, was the cause of his being replaced. The document 
terms the Grand Vizier 'absolute lieutenant of the empire.' 
A private letter states that the Turkish troops stiil conti. 
nue their movements towards the frontier of Greece, and 
that the Porte having discovered a ramification of the 
Philorthodox Society in Thessaly, had founded on it some 
new subjects of complaint against Greece. An envoy from 
the Syrian Maronites had arrived from Beyrout to com< 



1'2 



THE GARDENEHS' CHRONICLE, 



[N°- 1. 



plain of the conduct of the Druses. We also learn from 
the same communication that Rifaat Bey, Minister for Fo- 
reign Affairs, and Taliir Pacha, Grand Admiral of the fleet, 
were at issue respecting a permission granted by the for- 
mer to the Austrians to enter the Turkish arsenal to repair 
their frigate the Venere, and tiiat tlie Capitan Pacha had 
positively refused to acquiesce in the permission. Tlie 
Turkish squadron had sailed with troops on board for Sa- 
lonica. The Porte had also ordered transport vessels to 
convey two regiments to Varna. 

Egypt. — By the Levant mail we have intelligence from 
Alexandria tothe 9lh ult., but it is not of much import- 
ance. The Pacha was still in Upper Egypt, buying up the 
grain. The Turkish treaty of commerce was put in force 
at Alexandria. Vnder the old duty British goods paid^ 
less than three per cent. ; but now, it appears, they will 
have to pay eight per cent. — Soliman Pacha had left 
Alexandria for Suez under the pretence of ascertaining the 
practicability of re-establishing a canal between that point 
and Cairo, but the real object of his journey was ujider- 
Etood to be for the purpose of fortifying Suez. 

Persia. — Intelligence has been received, through the 
medium of private correspondence from Constantinople, 
that the Schah has given an interview to Sir John M'Niel, 
our ambassador, and that the treaty of commerce with 
Persia has been signed, and is now on its way to tliis 
country, Major Farrant having been expected daily in the 
Turkish capital, the bearer of the document for its ratiti- 
cation in London. It is also said that the Schah was going 
to make an expedition against the predatory Turcomans. 
United States. — By the packet- ship Independence and 
the Acadia steam-ship, which have arrived at Liverpool 
this week, we have received New York Papers to the 15th 
ult. They contain the President's message, a document 
of much interest, and which, from the state of the rela- 
tions between this country and the United States, and the 
several important questions still remaining unadjusted, has 
been looked for with some anxiety. The message adverts 
to all the subjects at present under discussion between the 
two governments. After some preliminary congratulations 
tipon the happy and prosperous condition of the country 
during the last 12 months, the subject of Mr. M'Leod's 
recent trial is referred to. " Since the last adjournment 
of Congress,'' says the President, " Alexander M'Leod, a 
Eritish subject, who had been indicted for the murder of 
an American citizen, has been acquitted by the verdict of 
an intelligent and impartial jury, and has, under the judg- 
ment of the court, been regularly discharged." He then 
says that " Great Britain, whose Government had taken 
upon itself the responsibility of M'Leod's act, has thus 
been answered in the only way in which she could be 
answered by a Government, the powers of which are dis- 
tributed among its several dejjartments by the funda- 
mental law ; that happily for the people of Great Britain, 
as well as those of the United States, the only mode by 
which an individual arraigned for a criminal offence before 
the courts of either can obtain his discharge, is by the in- 
dependent action of the judiciary, and by proceedings 
etiually familiar to the courts of both countries ; but that 
the precise stage of the proceedings at which such order 
may be made is a matter of municipal regulation exclu- 
sively, and not to be complained of by any other Govern- 
ment." In concluding this subject the President admits 
the necessity of giving more power to the Federal Go- 
Ternment, to act in international questions like Mr. 
M'Leod's, without feeling itself fettered by the laws 
of individual States ; he promises that the corre- 
spondence relating to it shall he laid before Congress, 
and adds a hope that " the British Government will 
see the propriety of renouncing, as a rule of future 
action, the precedent which has been set in the affair of 
Schlosser.'' Of the boundary question all that we learn 
from the Message is that its discussion has made no pro- 
gress, and that this has arisen from cicumstances, alluding, 
it is supposed, to the change of administration in Great 
Britain, which are not calculated to diminish the proba- 
bility of an amicable and satisfactory adjustment. As far 
as concerns the slave trade, which the Message, among 
other condemnatory terms, designates " that wicked 
traffic," the President's professions in hostility to it are 
very explicit ; every possible device, he sajs, that Ame- 
rican ingenuity can discover has been put into operation 
to suppress it among the United States vessels frequenting 
the African Seas. But as the Washington Government has 
not been a party to the general European treaty, in virtue 
of which the right of search is exercised. President Tyler 
is of opinion that to board and det.iin delinquent shij-.s 
sailing under the American flag is both an outrage which 
cannot be endured, and when promiscuously committed, 
involves such an injury to American commerce as demands 
the most ample compensation. This question, indeed, 
appears to be one of much delicacy, and is treated of in 
the Message with great earnestness. The remarks of the 
President on this subject acquire an additional interest 
from the circumstance that it is contemporaneous with the 
conclusion of the trealy by the Five Great Powers of 
Europe noticed in our last, having for its object the entire 
suppression of the slave traffic. The other portions of the 
Message apply to domestic topics of little interest to the 
general reader. The Grand Jury of Pliilailelphia have 
found true bills against Messrs. Biildle. Jaudon, and 
others, for a conspiracy to defraud the United States 
Bank of 400,000 dollars in 1830. 

West I.n-dies. — The Captain of the brig EUzabelh 
Wood, arrived at Liverpool, reports that the brig Cienle, 
of Richmond, Virginia, bound to New Orleans, arrived at 
Nassau in the Bahamas on the 9th Nov., with about 150 
negro slaves on board, in a mutinous state ; they had taken 
possession of the vessel, and demanded to be landed at a 
British colony, and compelled a shipmaster, vrho was on 



board as passenger, to steer the vessel to Nassau. Capt. 
Orkin, who had commanded the Creole, was severely 
wounded, and considered dead ; the mate and several of 
the crew were also much injured. A Mr. Hev\ell, who 
was part owner of the slaves on board, was murdered, and 
afterwards thrown overboard. Several ringleaders of the 
negroes were lodged in prison at Nassau, and the rest were 
set at liberty. It was reported that the American Consul 
had protested against their being allowed to land. The 
Creole had sailed again for New Orleans in charge of the 
mate. — By private letters from Dominica, dated the 9th 
Nov., it appears the yellow fever and black vomit had pre- 
vailed to a great extent, and that the 92d Reg. of Gordon 
Highlanders has lost several officers and a number of its 
best men. Two officers of two companies, and three 
Serjeants of one company, who had been in the habit of 
paying it, all fell victims in the course of one week. 39 
rank and file had died previously to the 18th Oct., and 
there v\ere upwards of 30 men in the hospital at that date. 
The disease having somewhat abated, it was hoped it 
would have ceased entirely ; but about the end of the 
month it returned with increased severity, and no less than 
52 men of the garrison became its victims, and there were 
a great many hopeless cases in the hospital at the date of 
the latest letters. The following description of this dread- 
ful disease is from a non-commissioned officer belonging 
to the detachment of Capt. Morgan's company, Royal 
Artillery, at present serving in Dominica : "No sooner 
does the black vomit commence than you may consider 
yourself a sure victim ; there is no remedy, no cure ; you 
linger for about the space of 12 or 14 hours in all the 
agonies of death, raving mad, and sometimes it takes three 
or four men to hold those who are attacked with it down 
in their bed. I do not know what will be done, if the 
sickness lasts, for duty men. There are only two sentries 
at present, and should the sickness continue, there will be ' 
but few to mount guard. Our men (the Royal Artillery) 
are all in the enjoyment of good health, which, I think, is 
on account of our having so little duty to do, and no ex- 
posure to the night air. With the exception of the death 
of one of our non-commissioned officers, who died the loth 
Sept., and one gunner and driver, who died on the 28th of 
the same month, we have had no other casualties. The 
disease has committed great havoc in the island. ?= The 
Fort Adjutant died first, the Governor's lady and the Pre- 
sident of the House of Assembly were the next ; it then 
became general, and carried off a great number of the re- 
spectable Inhabitants and the military." 



CITY. 

Money Market, Friday. — Consols for the Account 
closed 891, i; Three per Cents. Reduced, 89A, J; Three- 
and-a-Half per Cents. Reduced, 99j, \; India Bonds, Is. 
to 3s. premium ; and Bank Stock, 166 to 7. 



ilWEtropoIis fluii I'ls Vkiniiv. 

House of Lords. — For some days past, workmen, by 
direction of the Earl of Lincoln, First Commissioner of 
Woods and Forests, have been engaged in decorating the 
interior of the House of Lords. The old dark-coloured 
flock paper has been removed from the walls, and they are 
now painted a light buff colour, which is thought greatly 
to improve the appearance of the house. The seats of 
Peers are ordered to be re-co-vered with scarlet cloth, and 
the other alterations in progress are expected to add ma- 
terially to the splendour of their lordships' house. It is 
generally thought that his Majesty the King of Prussia, 
the King of the Belgians, and many diitinguished foreigners 
will be present at the opening of the ensuing session of 
Parliament on the 3d Feb. 

Metropolitan Improvements.- — An improvement has 
just been completed at the north entrance to St. Paul's 
Cathedral, by the erection of additional doors on the out- 
side of the large ones that are under the portico. The 
addition has been made to prevent the continual opening 
and shutting of the original doors, which are very iieavy, 
every time a visitor required admission when divine ser- 
vice was not being performed. The new doors are but a 
few inches from the old ones : they open outwards and 
close witli a spring, and there are two panes of glass in 
each door, so that the doorkeeper may see the approach 
of persons desirous of being admitted. 

Public Institutions.— The number of persons who have 
visited the different public buildings in the IMetropolis, 
during the past week, has been unusually great ; no less 
than 14,763 visited the British Museum on Monday, 
being a much larger number than on any " boxing-day " 
since that institution has been open on public holidays. 
On the same day last year, Christmas-day falling on Fri- 
day, and the Museum being closed on Saturday, the num- 
ber of visitors was 2,531, whilst last Whit Monday they 
were 9,031. Notwithstanding the large concourse of 
persons, consisting chiefly of holiday folks, three only 
were refused admission on the ground of intoxication ; 
and in consequence of the precautions taken by the jiolice, 
no robbery or damage of any kind was committed. There 
was, however, much confusion, and many parties were 
refused admission on account of having children under 
eight years of age, who are not, by the regulations, ad- 
mitted into the Museum. The numbers which have visited 
other places of amusement, viz., the 'I'ower, National 
Gallery, Polytechnic Institution, and more particularly 
the theatres, have been equally large ; and the good order 
of the City has been little disturbed. In confirmation of 
this, it is stated that although, in consequence of Saturday 
being Christmas-day, the reports brought by tlie police 
under the notice of the City magistrates on Monday em- 
braced two days and two nights, no more than five 
eharges of intoxication and disorder appeared in the 



charge-sheets for their adjudication. This unusual event 
appears to be ascribed by the aldermen to the efficacy of 
the Police Bill, particularly to that clause which closes 
public-houses from 12 at night till one next day, and 
includes in the same regulation Christmas-day and Good 
Friday, and the night preceding each of those great 
holidays. 

Metropolitan Post. — The following is the statement 
of London letters for the four weeks ending Decem- 
ber 27, compared with the corresponding period in 
the years lii39 — 40: — Through the General Post: 
Four weeks ending Dec. 25, 1841, 5,338,639; con-e- 
sponding period of 1840, 4,318,790; ditto, as nearly as 
can be given, of 1839, 1,G82,912. Increase since 1840 
on the four weeks' letters, 1,01.9,849; ditto since 1839 
on the four weeks' letters, 3,655,727. Through the dis- 
trict post : Four weeks ending Dec. 25, 1841, 1,785,125 ; 
corresponding period of 1840, 1,507,833 ; ditto, before 
the reduction of postage, as nearly as can be given, of 
1839, 1,021,3H(;. Increase since 1840 on the four weeks' 
letters, 217.290 ; ditto since 1839 on the four weeks' let- 
ters, 703,739. 

New Royal Exchange.- — TheGresham Committee have 
held a meeting for the purpose of receiving the rei)ort of 
the sub-committee appointed to make the requisite ar- 
rangements for the ceremony of laying the first stone of 
the new Royal Exchange. The arrangements have been 
completed, and the following are said to be the correct 
particulars :^The ceremony is to take place on Monday, 
the 17th Jan., that day having been appointed by Prince 
Albert, who, as already announced, has consented to lay 
the first stone of the building. The site appointed by the 
committee is the foundation of one of the columns of the 
merchants' area on the north side of the ambulatory, the 
particular column being the one which is to be west of the 
centre' opening or interval. This spot, it seems, has been 
fixed upon as being relatively the same as that adopted 
when Charles II. laid the first stone of the old Exchange, 
and is said to be very near the actual site. Round the 
stone the architect has constructed a large amphitheatre, 
which will contain seats for 1,200 visitors, the whole of 
which is to be roofed and decorated, so as to appear like a 
large tent, the roof being supported by a pillar in the 
centre. The access to the arena will be from Cornhill, by 
a covered way, descending gradually from tlie level of the 
street to the level of the platform; and the company are 
to assemble between the hours of 12 and 2 — Prince Albert 
being expected to arrive about the latter hour. The Lord 
Mayor will give a banquet in the evening at the Mansion- 
house, in honour of the occasion ; at which are expected 
to be present, besides Prince Albert, all her Majesty's 
Ministers, the Judges, officers of state, the principal mer- 
chants of London, the aldermen, some of the members of 
the Court of Common Council, the Gresham Committee, 
and private friends of the Lord Mayor. 

Metropolitan Statistics. — The following is a general 
statement of the christenings and burials within the City 
of London and Bills of Mortality, from Dec. 15, 1840, to 
Dec. 14, 1841 : — In the 97 parishes within the walls: 
christened, C78 ; buried, 582. In the 17 parishes with- 
out the walls : christened, 2,654 ; buried, 2,419. In the 
24 outparishes in Middlesex and Surrey : christened, 
10,132; buried, 9,696. In the 10 parishes in the city and 
liberties of Westminster: christened, 1,670; buried, 
1,902. Total christened : Males, 7,505 ; Females, 7,629 ; 
total, 15,134. Total buried: Males, 7,193; Females, 
7,406 ; total, 14,599. Of the number buried, were — un- 
der 2 years of age, 3,749 ; 2 and under 5, 1,499 ; 5 and 
under 10, 611 ; 10 and under 20, 53fi ; '20 and under 30, 
1,0G5; 30 and under 40, 1,230; 40 and under 50, 1,347; 
50 and under 60, 1,293; 60 and under 70, 1,474; 70 
and under 80, 1,255 ; 80 and under 9i), 483 ; 90 and un- 
der 100, 59; 100, I. Buried, 777 still-born children, 
not included in tha foregoing. 

Public Meetings. — On Thursday the annual meeting 
of tlie jiroprietors of the Bolivar Mining Association was 
held in Throgmorton-street. The report was read by the 
Secretary, from which it appeared that the illness of the 
company's agent had retarded operations at the mines ; 
and the quantity of oie supplied having been so much less 
than was aniicipated from the statement of Capt. Mat- 
thews, the produce of the mine was insufficient to meet 
the expenditure. Under these circumstances, the trus- 
tees had ordered that the expenditure of the mine be sus- 
pended and the affairs closed, till ihe opinion of the whole 
proprietors was taken on the eligibility of a further con- 
tinuance of the company. The receipts for the year 
amounted to 24,385/., in which was an item for sale of 
888 tons of copper ore, 14,095/. ; and advanced on ore not 
yet arrived, 2,500/. The expenses at the mine were 
17,20(1/., and the half-yearly rental of the mine at Aroa 
(belonging to Miss Dent) was 1,4 02/., which, together 
with other items of expenditure, left a balance of 834/. in 
favour of the company. The report was adopted. A 
proprietor expressed himself in favour of a longer conti- 
nuance of the works, in hopes of finding seme method of 
raising the ore at a gi-eater per-cenfage, and spoke of the 
advantage of a wooden railway, which might be made for 
5,000 dollars a mile. Mr. Thomas said it might he dona 
for that in Ihe United States, but not in Columbia. He 
had found that their working on the reverbatory system 
icould not answer, but with good blast furnaces he had no 
doubt that fortunes were to he realised from the mines. 
A proprietor said that other companies had failed for the 
same reason, and it was to be regretted that our miners 
were so ignorant of the rudiments of chemistry. 

Wood Pavement. — A meeting of the inhabitants of 
Oxford.street and its vicinity was held on Thursday, for 
the purpose of taking measures to oppose the proposition 
at present before the Marylebone vestry, noticed in our 



Jan. 1.:| 



THE GARDENERS* CHRONICLE. 



13 



last, that the further employment of the wooilen pave- 
ment in Oxford-street should be postponed for three 
years. Mr. Underwood, the chairman, opened the busi- 
ness of the meeting by aniniadverlintr upon the conduct of 
the vestry in reference to this subject, and said that the 
teat which the wooden pavement had undergone was quite 
sufficient to prove its advantages over granite; and he 
could not conceive how the vestry, after their former de- 
claration, that a year would be sufficient to test the ' 
wooden pavement, could now for a moment entertain the ! 
proposition of ei'ending the probationary period over 
three years. A series of resolutions were then passed ex- 
pressing the belief of the meeting in the success of the , 
experiments already tried ; deprecating any further delay I 
in continuing the wooden pavement, and condemning the 
conduct of the vestry, in entertaining the proposition in i 
question, as one directly opposed to the interests and the ! 
repeatedly expressed wishes of the inhabitants of Oxford- j 
street. Lord Nugent, in defending the conduct of the , 
vestry, of which he was a member, expressed himself 
strongly in favour of wooden pavement, and stated that ' 
he believed the mnjority of the vestry thought with him. j 
Several gentlemen spoke in strong condemnatory terms of 
the conduct of the vestry, as being extraordinary and in- ' 
comprehensible. It was then resolved that as many of I 
the inhabitants of the parish as could make it convenient, 
would on Saturday (this day) attend the vestry and urge 
the propriety of continuing the wooden pavement in 
Oxford-street ; and that all the vestrymen should likewise 
be invited to attend. 

Keiulngton. — At a recent meeting of the vestry in this 
parish the following resolution was adopted : " That it is 
the opinion of this vestry that the guardians be earnestly 
requested to apply to the Poor Law Commissioners to 
dis-olve the Kensington union as far as regards this 
parish, the union being too large for the proper and effi- 
cient management of the poor of the several parishes, 
Kensington alone being large enough for any parochial 
management." A poll was in consequence opened, which 
continued for three days. At its close another meeting 
was held, when the respective numbers were as follows : 
for the resolution 503, against it 8 ; being a majority 
against the union of ^0.5. Tlie result was announced 
amid loud cheering. Mr. Hanson then moved that a 
copy of the resolution adopted by the vestry by the result 
of the poll, and also of a former resolution that the reslry 
do not approve of the projected erection of a union work- 
house, should be sent by the vestry clerk to the Poor Law 
Commissioners, the board of guardians of t)ie Kensington 
union, and individually to each of the guardians for the 
parish. The motion was put by the ciiairmen, Archdea- 
con Pott, and carried unanimously. Mr. Perelval then 
moved, ** That the vestry-clerk be likewise instructed to 
make known to the Poor Law Commissioners, to the 
board of guardians, and to the guardians of this parish, 
the almost unanimous opinion of the parishioners tliat 
the building of a union workhouse would be an impolitic 
and unnecessary expense." This resolation was also 
unanimously adopted. 

Spilalfields. — M^c referred, in a previous Number, 
to a meeting held on the subject of the existing dis- 
tress of the weavers of Spitalfields and its vicinity, 
and the application made on the subject to the Lord 
Mayor, On "Wednesday a deputation of the weavers 
again appeared at the Mansion-house, for the purpose of 
applying to the Lord Mayor for his immediate interference 
to procure a distribution of the funds already subscribed for 
their relief, amounting, ss they said they did. with their 
families, to 24,000 individuals. Alderm.an Wilson re- 
ceived the deputation in the absence of the Lord Mayor, 
with whom he had communicated on the subject. One of 
the deputation stated, that by the desire of a numerous 
meeting, they waited upon the Lord -SLiyor for the pur- 
pose of calling his Lordship's attention to certain resolu- 
tions which had been passed upon the subject of the ex- 
isting distress, which was extreme, and entreating that his 
Lordship would exercise his great influence to alleviate it. 
The resolutions referred to were then read, which entered 
at length into some startling details of the privations 
under which the %veavers were surTering ; and the deputa- 
tion concluded their address by handing a card to the 
Alderman, showing the mode of distributing relief when 
Queen Adelaide interfered a few years ago in their behalf. 
Alderman Wilson said, that but a short time since a state- 
ment on the subject was made to the Lord ."Mayor, who 
felt deeply for the multitudes who were reduced to such a 
deplorable condition. His Lordship was, however, in dif- 
ficulty with respect to the distribution of the funds at his 
disposal, but he was convinced that immediate measures 
would be adopted to distribute the funds already in hand, 
and that a public meeting would be called in consequence 
of the increasing distress. The men expressed themselves 
grateful for the sympathy shown; and it was understood 
that some steps would be at once taken to facilitate the 
distribution of the funds in hand. 

Robberies. — A few days since the following robbery was ' 
committed at Westmoreland-place, City-road. It appears ! 
that about nine in the evening, as Jlrs. Gooch, an elderly i 
lady, was sitting alone in her parlour, she was startled by ' 
the sudden entrance of two strange men, one of whom, I 
before she could call for assistance, thrust a handkerchief j 
into her mouth, whilst the other pinioned her arms, and I 
with a rope bound her to the chair. They then told her ' 
that if she remained quiet, and gave up what money she 
possessed, they would not hurt her ; but if she attempted 
to move or give the least alarm, they would murder her. 
Having rifled her pockets, they took her keys and un- 
locked a writing-desk, from which they stole gold and 
silver to the amount of 10/., and several articles of value. 
Onjiearing footsteps on the stairs, however, they were 



alarmed and took to flight, knocking down in the passage 
the servant, who attempted to oppose their retreat. It is 
supposed that tliey gained an entrance to the house by the 
servant having left the street-door open while she went on 
an errand to a shop in the neighbourhood. The police 
have hitherto been unable to trace them. — On Sund:iy 
evening a man dressed as a porter knocked at the house 
of Mrs. Maddox, Bridport-place, Hoxton, and requested 
the servant to de'iver a letter, and lie would wait for an 
answer. On taking it to her mistress, it was discovered 
to be a hoax, being nothing more than a blank sheet of 
paper, folded in the form of a letter. Upon the servant's 
return th^ man was nowhere to be seen, and supposing him 
to be gone, she closed the door. Sliortly afterwards Mrs. 
Maddox hearing footsteps on the stairs, went into the 
passage, and discovered a man with a large bundle in his 
hand, who knocked her down with a severe blow on the 
head, and immediately ran off", Mrs. Maddox afterwards 
found that her bedroom had been entered and robbed of a 
quantity of wearing apparel, jewellery, and a variety of 
other articles. The thief has not been apprehended. — 
On "Wednesday information was received at the iMetropo- 
litan police stations of the following extensive robberies of 
Bank of England notes, iSrc, to the amount of 1, ■202/., 
viz. from a gentleman, on Monday, while travelling by 
the London and Birmingham night train to Manchester, 
the sum of 9o0/., consisting of one 500/. note, one 300/., 
one 100/., and one 50/. note. A reward of 50/. has been 
off"ered for their recovery. On Sunday evening there was 
also stolen from the dwelling-house of Mr. Grant, of 
Bingham, Notts, the sum of 252/. in notes and sovereigns. 
The house was broken open, and the money taken from 
an old oak chest. A reward of 50/. is offered for the ap- 
prehension of the thieves. — On "Wednesday a man in the 
dress, and assuming the manner of a gentleman's coach- 
man, called with a letter addressed to the lady who is the 
secretary of the Friendly Female Benevolent i:ociety, and 
which purported to be from Lady Emily Farmer, of Clan- 
vill-park, Petworth, announcing herself and three daugh- 
ters as subscribers of t^vo guineas per year each. It stated 
that, having occasion to send her coachman to town, he 
would take the receipts and the difference of 10/., the 
amount of the check enclosed. The letter was in the first 
style of writing and address. The lady to whom it was 
addressed not being at home, the change was about to be 
handed to the man, when, in recollection of similar at- 
tempted frauds, a note to her ladyship, premising re- 
ceipt, &.C,, by post, was substituted ; and it was afterwards 
found, on presenting the check at Messrs. Westcn and 
Co.'s, that it was a forgery. 

Fires, — No less than eight fires occurred in the Metro- 
polis on Christmas-day, some of which were attended 
with great loss of property. Three of these occurred in 
the southern and western suburbs. The first was in the 
house of Mr. Lavell, High-street, Camberwel!. The 
familv, it seems, retired to rest about twelve, and shortlv 
after one the house was discovered to be in flames. The 
inmates made their escape with difficulty. Several en- 
gines were soon on the spot, but unfortunately there was 
a bad supply of water, and in a short lime the whole 
building was reduced to ruins, and several adjoining 
houses much injured. The loss is estimated at lOUO/. 
The engines had scarcely left, when they were snmnicned 
to a fire in the manufactory of Messrs. Bryan, patent 
leather-dressers, Dacre-street, Westminster, and which, 
from the thickly populated neighbourhond, excited great 
alarm. The fire commenced in that portion of the pre- 
mises where the process of varnishing the leather is car- 
ried on, and so violent were the flames, that this portion 
of the building was soon reduced to ruins. By the ex- 
ertions of the firemen, however, the other portion of the 
building was saved. The loss is said to amount to nearly 
2000/. — Shortly after, information was received that the 
Eagle saw-mills, at Old Brompton, were on fire. Here, 
also, there was a scarcity of water, and the fire burnt 
itself out, destroying the whole of the mills and stock in 
trade. The damage is said to amount to several thou- 
sand pounds. — Five other fires cccurred in the course of 
the day, by which much damage was occasioned. They 
took place severally at the premises of Messrs. Martinez 
and Co., wine-merchants, 77, Mark-lane ; at Mr. Sahiue's, 
card-maker and hot-presser, Lovell-court, Paternoster- 
row ; at a house in Charles-street, Bethnal-green ; at 
Limehouse ; and at Stepney-causeway, Nearly the whole 
of these origTnated, it is stated, from the overheating of 
stoves in cooking their Christmas dinners. It appears 
that the occurrence of numerous fires on Christmas-day 
has been observed for many years past. 



^Brcbiiuial Kctos, 

Bertclck-on- Tweed. — The failure of the banking-house 
of Messrs. Batson, Berry, and Co., has led to a meeting of 
the inhabitants of this town, to consider the best means of 
supplying the wants of the district, when it was resolved 
that an application should be made to the Bank of England, 
through the medium of one of the sitting members, to es- 
tablish a branch bank in this town. An answer has been 
received from the Directors, declining, it is understood, 
the proposal, but intimating that every encouragement 
should be given to a joint-stock bank, should it be esta- 
blished, and the circulation conducted with Bank of Eng- 
land paper. With this object in view, a prospectus for a 
new bank has been issued ; and it is said to be the iutention 
of the parties concerned in its formation to call a public 
meeting shortly on the subject. A meeting of the creditors 
of the late bank has been held, when assignees were de- 
clared ; the claims proved against the estate are said to be 
upwards of 250,000/. The entire liabilities of the firm are 
said to be nearly 350,000/., of which the claims of deposi- 
tors ia the to^n and immediate neighbourhood are 



100,000/.; similar claims in Alnwick and south of th 
town. 50.000/. ; and notes in circulation, 40,000/. 

Blackburn — A few days since, two young men, nam* 
David Fisher and Robert Horsman, were summoned before 
the magistrates at the petty sessions, to answer the charge 
of not attending church en Sunday the 5th Dec, in accord- 
ance with a law still retained upon the statute-book, im- 
posing a fine of five shillings upon those who do not attend 
a place of worship on the Sabbath-day. The constable 
who preferred the charge said, that on the day in question 
he accompanied the churchwardens of Clayton-le-Moora 
in their perambulations in search of disorderly characters, 
when they met the defendants in their working-clothes. 
The churchwarden! asked them why they were not at 
church, bat they made no reply, and walked away. The 
wardens then ordered the constable to summon the parties 
fornon-attendance at church, and accordingly the young men, 
were brought before the magistrates. The bench however dis- 
missed the case ; and the superintendent of police said that 
the summons bad been taken out without his sanction, and 
as it w'.s contrary to rule, the constable must answer for 
■his misconduct. 

BTighion. — A man, who gave his name Thomas Adams, 
has undergone an examination before the magistrates of 
this town on a charge of forgery. The checks which he 
had forged purported to be those of I\Ir. Serj. Adams, 
whose son prisoner had represented himself, under the 
name of Charles Adams. The police-officer said he had 
I'eason to believe his name was George Thomas Davies, 
and prayed a remand, as he expected a warrant to convey 
him to Kent, wl.ere several charges were likely to be 
brought against him. The prisoner was accordingly re- 
manded. 

Bristol. — It is reported that Sir C. "U'etherell, the re- 
corder of this city, is about to resign that oflSce.— An ac- 
cident of a severe nature occurred to Mrs. Monck, the 
lady of the Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, on Sa- 
turday. It appears that while passing down some steps 
which lead from the hall-door of the palace, her foot 
slipped, and she fell, dislocating her collar bone by the 
accident. The latest accounts, however, state that she is 
going on favourably, and that her recovery may be soou 
espected. 

Carnarvon A local paper (the Herald) states that a 

correspondent has communicated some interesting parti- 
culars of a storm of thunder and lightning, accompanied 
by hail, that passed over the peninsula of Lleyn on the 
morning of the 17th ult. In its passage over the park at 
Madryn, it was of a very serious character, and did consi- 
derable damage to a, long range of glassh-'uses, j>its, and 
frames, that are used for forcing, besides endangering a 
large collection of valuable plants. Some of the hnilstones 
measured, it is stated, 3 inches and one-<"ighth round the 
base, all of them being of a conical shape. The writer 
adds, that he caunot find that any hail of the same magni- 
tude and quantity has f,iUen in that part of the country 
within the memory of the present age. 

Chelmsford. — A serious fire occurred on the premises 
of Mr. Zurhorst, at pilgrim's Hatch, in this county, 
on Friday the 24lh ult. Ths house was burned to the 
ground, and nearly all the furniture destroyed. Mr. Zur- 
horst, it seems, has also incurred a serious loss by the 
burning cf a cabinet, in which he had deposited 250/. ia 
hank notes, IG sovereigns, a check for 19/., and a bill for 
89/, ; the furniture being the only part of the property in- 
sured. It is not yet known how the fire originated. 

Derby. — On ]\Ionday addresses from this town were 
presented by a deputation of gemlemen and tradesmen to 
Lord Melbourne at Melbourne Hall. The address con- 
tained a summary cf the leading measures of the ministry 
of which his Lordship w.is the head, and adverting to the 
measures proposed by them for meeting the deficiency of 
the revenue by an amendment of the general tarifl^, it ex- 
pressed a conviction that though that attempt bad been for 
a time defeated, it could not long be resisted by any party ia 
power, and conveyed the hope that either the present mi- 
nisters would be compelled to pursue the same line of con- 
duct as their predecessors, or else that his Lordship, toge- 
ther with his late colleagues in office, would again ere long 
be called to her Majesty's councils. Lord Melbourne in 
his reply alluded to the language beheld in the same place 
in the autumn of 1034, when he pressed upon the gentle- 
men whom he had then the honour of receiving, the ne- 
cessity of union and concord, without which, from the 
natural strength and compact array of the adversary, there 
was no hope of success. Discord hiid succeeded to union, 
and the natural and necessary consequence, defeat and 
failure, followed. "Union alone," observed his lordship, 
*'is irresistible; and union can only be insured by the 
choice of defined objects, not doubtful, speculative, andha- 
zardous, but dictated by reason, approved by experience, 
and of a practicable character." His lordship having com- 
plimented the inhabitants of Derby on their consistency, 
and adverted to the expressions in the addresses of kindly 
feeling towards himself personally, concluded his answer 
by animadverting on the conduct of his political oppo- 
nents. He referred to the measures for the supply of the 
pecuniary deficiency, and the relief of the commercial em- 
barrassment, proposed, he said, in good faith, and in the 
hope that they would have received the sanction of Parlia- 
ment, but which were met by a vote of want of confidence. 
"It will now be," said his lordship, " for her Majesty's 
present advisers to bring forward upon their part such plana 
as they may think better suited to the circumstances of the 
times ; and it will be for your representatives to consider 
those plana with reference to and in comparison with the 
measures which we submitted to the lust Parliament. I can 
only say that for myself they shall receive a full and fair 
consideraiion, and that, as far as in me lies, I will do to 
Others that justice which I hold to have been denied to me 



14 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[NO- 1. 



and my colleagues, and in being denied to ns, to have also 
been denied to the country." — We are informed by a local 
paper that the only cotton factory that was worldng at 
Chapel-en-le-Frilh stopped last week. This factory, it 
seems, belon2;s to Messrs. Ashton and Co., of Hyde, who 
have been obliged, it is said, through depression of trade 
and ether inconveniences, to stop all their works, both at 
Hyde and Chapel-en-le-Fritb ; wliereby upwards of a hun- 
dred and fifty liunds have been tlirown out of emjiloyment 
at Chapcl-en-le-Frith, who were altogether depending upon 
Messrs. Ashton for support. 

Ilitll. — On Christmas night about twelve o'clock, a 
person on board a steamer then on her passage from 
London to this port caused a serious alarm among the 
passengers, of whom there were several of both se.xes, by 
stamping on the deck over the fore-cabin, and crying out 
that the ship was on fire. The consequence was a general 
confusion among the fore-cabin passengers, during which 
a man, jumping from an upper berth, fell upon a woman 
beneath and seriously hurt her. All rushed to the ladder ; 
but it was soon discovered to be a hoa.x, and that there 
was no cause for alarm. The author of the mischief, on 
being told he should be given into custody on arrival 
at this place, threatened to stab any one who dared to lay 
bands on him ; and this deterred the summary punish- 
ment which many of the passengers, it is said, were dis- 
posed to inflict on him. The law, it seems, does not 
apjily to such a case. 

Ips'-oich. — A local paper informs us that one of the 
steamers from this port conveyed no less than ten tons of 
turkeys from the Suffolk coast during the last week; eight 
tons of the same description of Christmas fare having been 
previously forwarded by the same steamer lor the London 
market. 

Launccston. — A local paper states that this county is so 
extensively undermined, that churches and churchyards, 
mansion-houses and hostelries, are many of them sus- 
pended over a yawning gulph, and in constant danger of 
falling upon tlie miners below. The Cornwall Gazelle of 
last week gives the following account of a narrow escape 
which occurred at lUogan : As the wife of a labourer called 
Dunstone was crossing her kitchen, the ground suddenly 
gave way, and she was left suspended by her arm over a 
shaft, but fortunately was rescued from her peiilous situa- 
tion without any injury.'' 

ilitnchester. — The property recently destroyed by fire 
in this town has since been the scene of a still more serious 
calamity. The particulars of the fire alluded to were de- 
tailed in our last Number, the building destroyed being a 
large warehouse in Piccadilly, in the occupation of the 
Union Carrying Company. Tlie ruins, which had re- 
mained undisturbed since the fire, were about to be re- 
moved on Friday, Christmas- eve, when another accident 
occurred. Though the building had been completely gut- 
ted by the fire, two of the entire walls v,-ere left standing, 
and that at the back of the warehouse was about 90 feet 
high by 100 in length, and was carried by means of two 
stone arches over the Rochdale Canal. This wall was 
.about to be removed by a number of men, who were erect- 
ing some scaffolding against it, when the -stone of one 
of the arches, which had become rotten and nearly pul- 
verised by the action of the fire, giving way, the arch col- 
lapsed, and the wall dividing into two portions, fella heap 
of ruins upon the men below. There were upwai'ds of a 
hundred labourers about the building when the accident 
occurred, of whom five were killed on the spot, and ten 
others seriously wounded, two of whom afterwards died : 
all the rest escaped uninjured. Great excitement imme- 
diately prevailed throughout the whole town, and all the 
thoroughfares leading to the scene of the accident became 
densely thronged with thousands of jiersons ; and it re- 
quired great e.xertions on the part of the jtolice to keeji 
them from the ruins, and thus prevent the danger of further 
accidents. A considerable time elapsed before all the bodies 
were dug out, and general alarm was for some time felt from 
a report that all the men who were in the building at the time 
had been buried. This, however, proved incorrect, and 
the extent of the calamity was found to be as stated above. 
An inquest has been held, and after a lengthened investi- 
gation the jury expressed themselves satisfied that the un- 
fortunate event was the result of mere accident, and that 
no blame or want of precaution attached to any of the par- 
ties connected with the removal of the ruins. They ac- 
cordingly returned a verdict of "Accidental death" in all 
the cases. With the exception of one young man, who 
still lies at the Infirmary in a precarious state, all the 
others who were injured are doing favourably, and likely 
to recover. — On Monday the inmates in the iiouse of Mr. 
Carman, F'aulkner-street, St. Peter's, were thrown into a 
state ofalaim, caused by the sudden indisposition of nine 
individuals, shortly after dinner on that day. It seems 
that Mr. and Mrs. Baker, of the Theatre Royal, and two 
daughters, anJ Mr. ajid Mrs. II. Hull, have apartments at 
Mr. Carman's; and that, oa Monday, at dinner, they, as 
well as Mr. Carman and bis two daughters, partook of 
some mutton broth. Shortly afterwards they were seized 
with severe illness, attended by all the symptoms of hav- 
ing taken poison. Medical assistance being called in, 
active remedial measures were adopted, and they were all 
restored ; though some of them continued fur several 
days greatly indisposed. There appears to be some mys- 
tery connected with the alfair ; no suspicion attaching to 
any of the inmates, though it is supposed that arsenic 
must have been mixed with the oatmeal used in the 
broth, and which had been some time in the house. The 
suspected substance is in the hands of some chemists, who 
are to examine and report upon it. — Some surprise has 
been expressed in this town, during the last week, by the 
report that a confidential clerk in the employ of the Man- 
chester, Bolton, and Bury Canal^aad Railway Company 



bad absconded with a large amount of property in his 
possession. It appears that his name is Samuel Hay ward, 
and that he held the situation of book-keeper and collecting 
clerk, in which capacity large amounts of cash were con- 
tinually passing through his hands. On the 4tb ult. he 
jiaid over a balance of 80^. to the cashier, requesting per- 
mission to go into the country by the next coach, and re- 
turn on the succeeding Monday. The permission was 
granted, and he left the town, but not being heard of for 
some time, search was made after him by the police, sup- 
posing that he might have been murdered, and finally his 
private desk was broken open, when two letters were dis- 
covered in his hand-writing, one directed to his wife, and 
the other to the cashier, in both of which he said that he 
had left the country for ever, and that he had remained as 
long as he could without being discovered and punished. 
A policeman was immediately despatched to Liverpool to 
-see if he could trace him, and succeeded in apprehending 
him on board a packet in that port which was on the point 
of sailing for America. The prisoner was brought back to 
this town, and has undergone an examination before the 
magistrates, when four cases of embezzlement exceeding 
1000/. were proved against him, and he was committed 
to take his trial. The prisoner is 27 years of age, re- 
spectably connected, and has a wife and family. His 
salary was 200/. per annum, and he states that the vessel 
in which he intended to have taken his departure had 
only sailed from Liverpool two hours before his arrival in 
that town. It is feared that he will be found a defaulter to 
a much larger amount than that already discovered. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. — Mr. William Gibb, the agent, 
at Alnwick, of Messrs. Lambton and Co., bankers of this 
town, has absconded ; and since his departure it has been 
discovered that forged bills to a considerable extent have 
passed through his hands, but to what amount is not yet 
publicly known. It is stated that the Messrs. Lambton 
possess security from Jlr. Gibb to the amount of 3,000/., 
and that four persons I'esiding in Alnwick are his sureties 
to that extent. This circumstance, coniing so soon after 
the failure of the Tweed Bank, has created additional alarm 
in Alnwick, where there are several instances of loss oc- 
casioned by the latter event. It seems Mr. Gibb left his 
home about three weeks since, but it is only a few days 
since it was suspected that be had absconded. 

Shrewsbury. — An inquest has been held on Emma 
Evans, the woman who was murdered at Chirk, the cir- 
cumstances connected with which were detailed in our 
last. The magistrates did not wish the coroner to enter 
into any subject beyond the immediate cause of death, 
fearing the ends of justice might be defeated, and the jury 
consequently returned a verdict of " Wilful murder against 
some person or persons unknown.'* The two men, Wil- 
liams and Lawson, from whom the bundle of goods was 
taken, which belonged to deceased, wei'e not at first appre- 
hended, although they were supposed to be lying secreted 
somewdiere in the neighbourhood. They have since been 
captured at Coventry ; and were discovered on Monday in 
consequence of their endeavouring to dispose of some silver 
spoons at a pawnbroker's, who suspecting they were the 
parties concerned in the murder, forwarded information to 
the police of this town, who immediately proceeded there 
and succeeded in apprehending them. Their arrival in this 
place produced considerable excitement, and great numbers 
of persons assembled to meet them, but by the arrange- 
ments of the police they were safely secured in the gaol, 
without any interruption or violence being use<i towards 
them by the mob. They have since undei'gone an exami- 
nation before the magistrates, which did not elicit any 
fresh fact^ of importance, and was adjourned for a few days. 
— Another murder has within the last few days been 
committed in this county, at Wliexall near Wem. 
It seems that a wife, with the assistance of her hus- 
band, has administered poison to both her parents, 
whereby the mother has lost her life — the father 
escaped; but a third party unconnected with the transac- 
tion has since died from the effects of the food of which he 
had also been a partaker. The perpetrators of the crime are 
named Thomas and Mary Harries, living in the same cot- 
tage with the father, Arthur Williams, and his deceased 
wife. It seen s that deceased had been in the habit of 
correcting two children which Harries had by a former 
wife, and that he had threatened her for so doing, and this 
is sujiposed to be the motive that led to the commission 
of the crime. The circumstances are as follows ; — On Sun- 
day deceased partook of an apple-dumpling at dinner, and 
was immediately taken ill, and died the same evening. Her- 
husband did not eat any, being too ill, from having taken 
a small portion of poisoned food on the previous night ; 
and the third party was the son of a neighbour to whom 
the female prisoner had given the remainder of the dump- 
ling. An inquest has been held, and after the conclusion 
of the evidence the male prisoner made a statement to the 
effect that he had told his wife on Saturday that something 
was the matter with the meat, to make the old man so ill. 
He said he had purchased the poison some months ago for 
the purpose of destroying rats ; and hinted that hit wife 
must have administered the poison, if deceased really was 
poisoned. The female prisoner said that if any one knew 
about it, it was her husband. The jury returned a verdict 
that deceased's death was occasioned by poison administered 
by Thomas Harries, and that he was assisted by his wife ; 
and they were both committed to take their trial. 

Stamford. — A serious accident, attended by loss of life, 
has occurred at a coal-pit belonging to Messrs. Job and 
Page Taylor, at Darlaston. It appears that three men and 
a boy were descending to their work, when the skip on 
which they were standing, before their heads were lower 
than the mouth of the pit, got detached from the rope, 
and they fell a depth of more than thirty yards. One of 
the men was killed on the spot, and the other two have 



since died. The boy lies in a dangerous state and is not 
expected to recover. It was at first feared that the rope 
had been burnt nearly through designedly, as the end was 
charred, but on inquiry it appeared most probable that the 
loose end of the knot tied in the rope to secure a ring and 
hook, which carries the skip, had caught fire accidentally, 
as the men were in the. habit of sticking a lighted candle 
to the bow of the skip, and that it smouldered till it got 
to the tight part of the knot, when it was extinguished. 
In consequence of this, it is thought that the weight of the 
men uutied the knot, or slipped it through the ring, and 
thus caused the accident. 

Slocklon. A local paper states that a singular evidence 

of the eflects of railways upon the growth of towns is to 
be found at Middlesborough, a shipping port, on a branch 
of the railway from Darlington to this place. This little 
town at the terminus of the railway, from which there is 
a branch to it, has, it seems, been entirely formed in the 
course often years ; and now numbers about 5,0U0 inha- 
bitants, with a church, market, and all the accompaniments 
of a town of active industry and business. Many of its 
houses bear the appearance of being occupied by persons 
in comfortable circumstances, and the town looks more 
like one of settled and matured habits than of recent 
growth. 

Sloke-zipon-Trent.—A. meeting of the ratepayers of 
this parish, pursuant to public notice, has been held to 
take into consideration the propriety of granting a church- 
rate. The vestry was crowded, nearly 1000 persons, it is 
said, being present, and many being unable to gain admis- 
sion. The rector took the chair alter considerable oppo- 
sition, when Mr. Tomkinson, the churchwarden, read an 
estimate for the coming year' ; which for the two churches, 
he said, was 345/. 5s. Id. He therefore proposed that a 
rate of IJrf. in the pound, for the repairs and otber;!ex- 
penses of Stoke and Shelton churches, be ordered. Mr. 
Robinson, a Chartist, then addressed the meeting, oppos- 
ing the rate with considerable warmth ; and concluded by 
proposing as an amendment, " That the meeting was of 
opinion that the church-rates were unjust in principle, 
and ought lo be resisted, and that the meeting do adjourn 
for twelve months." The amendment having been 
seconded, the chairman slated that he should not put it 
to the meeting. Some warm and angry discussion en- 
sued, during which one of the speakers, Mr. James Hol- 
den, said that the 10,930,000/. which the tithes produced 
ought to be appropriated to the support of the church, 
the clergy, and the poor, as it was before the time of the 
Protestant reformation. A gentleman of the name of 
Ridgway then spoke at considerable length, arguing 
against the imposition of church-rates on the ground of the 
existing distre.-;s among all classes ; and after enumerating 
the difficulties in which the manufacturers are at the pre- 
sent time placed, the hardships of the shopkeepers, and 
the distress of all, he proposed to make use of the words, 
"that this meeting therefore do adjourn to Easier Monday." 
That, he said,would be legal, and then the rate-payers could 
come again and do likewise. Mr. Robinson [then with- 
drew his amendment in favour of Mr. Ridgway's, amid^>» 
loud cheers. The chairman called for a show of hand3_. 
for the rate, when a few only were held up, and a great 
number against it, A poll was then demanded, which 
the , chairman said should open immediately ; and after- . 
wards be adjourned to Friday. He declined to put the 
amendment, and left the room amid great confusion. 
After his departure the chair was taken by one of the 
opposite party, and the amendment of Mr. Ridgway was 
carried unanimously. 

Sulton in Ashjield. — We have noticed in previous Num- 
bers the frequent recurrence of incendiary fires in this 
place and neighbourhood, without any clue being disco- 
vered to the authors of them. On Sunday an attempt 
was made to set fire to the church. It appears that when 
the sexton went to ring the bell, he discovered that some 
pitch, cotton, and sticks had been inserted in one of the 
pews through a window, where a pane of glass had been 
extracted. No mischief, however, was done, the combus- 
tibles having fortunately fallen upon a part of the floor of 
the pew, which is old oak ; otherwise, it is thought, the 
consequences might have been serious, as even the oak it- 
self was partly burnt. No clue has yet been discovered to 
the author of this or the other numerous fires that have 
occurred in this neighbourhood. 

fKaJrf/re/rf. — A public meeting, which was numerously 
attended, has been held in this town, to consider the pro- 
priety of forming a diocesan board of education, in ac- 
cordance with the principles of the Established Church. 
The meeting was called by the Bishop of Ripon, in com- 
pliance with a numerously-signed requisition. The pro- 
posed rules were agreed to, and many S])eeches were made ; 
but the most important featuie of the meeting was the ad- 
dress of the chairman. Lord Wliarnclilfe, the substance of 
which was as follows : — '' Government could not do much. 
It could not provide and support those schools ; it could 
only aid and encourage them. Government could not pro- 
vide the funds necessary for the education of the people ; 
for, as a Government, it had no power to do that, even if 
willing. It depended entirely on the representatives of the 
people in the House of Commons. They had appropri- 
ated a small sum for the inirpose ; but before any govern- 
ment could go to Parliament with a proposition to increase 
that grant to any extent, it would be necessary to show 
that the laity, the clergy, and all ranks of the people were 
ready to contribute liberally to the object. He had some 
knowledge on the subject, and he was happy to say there 
was a disposition to contribute liberally. When that was 
done, then Parliament would give further aid. He had 
given the matter the most anxious consideration, and he 
believed all who had given attention to it would, with him, 
deprecate strongly that the charge of educating the peo- 



Jan, 1.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



15 



pie slioultl be taken out of the hands of those who were 
willinj voluntarily to supeiintendit." 

IVhulsor.— Oil Wednesday, the Queen, accompanied 
by Prince Albert, several members of the Royal suite, and 
a select party of sixty, proceeded to the Great I'arU, about 
a mile from the Castle, to be present at a meeting of the 
Royal buckhounds, and to witness a stog-hunt. Her 
Majesty was in a carriage and four, attended by outriders. 
The Dinham stag, which had been liunted during the past 
two seasons, and let out to rove at liberty during the sum- 
mer, was selected from the herd, and the hounds laid on 
. ut Bishopsgate, whither her Majesty and the Court pro- 
ceeded to witness the sport. The stag, after a run of an 
hour, was taken close to Cumberland-lodge. The Queen, 
in her carriage, traversed the Park in various directions, 
and had a good view of the whole of the run, with which 
her Majesty, who was looking very well, appeared much 
pleased. Not only were the whole company comprising 
the field in at the take, but her Majesty also, who arrived 
at tlie Lodge at the moment of the capture. The stag, by 
the Queen's command, was immediately afterwards brought 
to her Majesty's carriage, by the keepers, for the Queen's 
inspection, the Prince, Lord Rosslyn, Master of the 
buckhounds, and the members of the Court, forming a 
circle. The Royal paity then returned to the Castle. 
The equestrian statue of the late King George the Fourth, 
in bronze, by Sir F. Chantrey, nine feet high, is, it is said, 
likely to be placed in the Long Walk. 

Worcesler.—TUe spirit of incendiarism appears to 
have, manifested itself on the borders of this county, two 
fires having occurred about the same time a few nights 
since, which, it is said, there is every reason to suppose 
-were occasioned wilfully. Tn one case a blacksmith's 
shop and adjoining premises at Spernal, belonging to a 
widow named Blackburn, were burned to the ground ; and 
in the other a rick belonging to Mr. Bennett, farmer, re- 
siding at Studley tlolt. They occurred within half a mile 
of each other, and in Mr. Bennett's case, but for great 
exertions, two other stacks, it is thought, must have been 
consunied. 

Raihvuijs. — An accident, which produced considerable 
alarm at the lime and has since occasioned much escite- 
njent, took place on the line of the Great Western Rail- 
way, the day before Christmas-day, whereby eight pei'sons 
were killed on the spot, and many others seriously injured. 
It appears that a luggage-train, with a number of passen- 
gers of the labouring class, left the Paddington terminus 
at 4 A.M., and had proceeded as far as the .Sunning-hill 
cutting, near Reading, when it suddenly carae into con- 
tact with a slip of earth that had fallen from the embank- 
ment, and covered the rails. It was quite dark at the 
time, and the immediate consequence was that the engine 
was forced off the line, and the heavily-laden luggage- 
trains (whicli were placed behind the passengers) in con- 
stfjuence of the momentum they had acquired, and the 
sudden check they thus received, were thrown on the car- 
riages of the passengers, crushing eight to death and se- 
verely wounding twelve others. The sufferers were chiefly 
mechanics, and among the killed were several stonemasons 
from the Kew Houses of Parliament, who were going 
down into the country to spend the Christmas holiday 
with their friends. An inquest, which lasted two days, 
has been held, and a lengthened investigation gone into as 
to the cause of the accident. Two questions more parti- 
cularly occupied the atteution of the jury, the first of 
which was the practice of placing the passengers in trucks 
before the luggage, and to which in a great measure is at- 
tributed so extensively fatal a result; and the second 
wliether the slip had been sudden and without notice, or 
whether it had token place after a previous indication, 
which ought to have demanded the attention of the com- 
pany. As related to the first inquiry, the position of the 
passengers' trucks, Mr. Brunei, the engineer of the line, 
stated that the plan was adopted because it was deemed 
the safest. The reasons he gave for this ojiinion were, 
that the luggage trains were uncertain in the time they 
kept, that they proceeded more slowly than the other 
trains, and hence there was always risk of their being 
overtaken and run into by a faster train, in which case, if 
the passengers were placed behind, they would necessarily 
be exposed to the greatest danger. Wi.th regard to the 
second inquiry, whether proper precautions had been 
taken by the directors for the security of the embankment, 
it appeared in evidence that the part where the accident 
took place had been observed for some time previous to 
be in an insecure state, so much so as to attract the notice 
of persons living in the neighbourhood, some of whom had 
expressed their apprehensions to servants of the Railway 
Company ; tLat partial slips had taken place some short 
time before, and had been repaired under the direction of 
one of the assistant engineers, Mr. Berthram, and although 
this witness and his foreman deposed that everything was 
done which was thought necessary, and expressed them- 
selves quite sure that the particular slip which led to the 
fatal catastrophe was new, and without any previous indi- 
cation of danger, another witness, Mr. Gosling, jun., 
stated that he had perceived the ground bulging, where it 
afterwards fell in, on the very day before the accident hap- 
pened. It further appeared that there was no watchman 
nearer the spot than half a mile, and he, not being aware 
of the obstruction, made the signal of safety for the train 
to proceed. Some evidence, which however did not ap- 
pear satisfactory to the jury, was adduced to show that 
the slip took place at the moment the train was passing, 
and under circumstances against which the presence of a 
■watchman could have afforded no security. The state- 
ment of the engine driver, however, who with the stoker 
singularly escaped uninjured, went to disprove this, for he 
stated that the engine ran into some loose earth which 
had slipped from the side of the cutting on to the rails. 



The jury ultimately returned a verdict of Accidental death 
in all the eight cases, with a dcodand of ICOfl/. on the 
engine and tender; their reasons, which the coroner how- 
ever refused to give, bting understood to be that the pas- 
sengers' trucks, in the first |)lacc, were not placed in the 
safest position ; and secondly, 'th'at due precautions had 
not been taken for the security ofrthe embankment, after' 
the recent sli])S that had occurred rifear the spot. The last 
accounts report that the wounded persons, who had been 
received into the Reading Infirmary, were proceeding 
favourably, and that they are all likely to recover. — K 
fatal accident has occurred on the line of the Grand .Junc- 
tion Railway, to one of the down-trains, within two or 
three miles of Leeds. It appears that one of tlie wheels 
of the engine suddenly broke, whereby the rail was cut in 
two, and the engine twice overturned on a slight elevation 
at the side of the line. The engine driver was so seriously 
injured that he has since died, but the stoker, by keeping 
on the tender, escaped with only a few slight cuts. The 
carriage next to the tender was overthrown by the shock, 
but fortunately none of the passengers were injured. — An 
inquest has been held on John Clagg, aged 34, a labourer 
on the London and Brighton Railway. It appeared by 
the evidence of a fellow workmen, that he had left him on 
the line about six in the evening, walking towards his 
home, and shortly after he learned that he had been run 
over by one of the trains. Deceased had been taking a 
little beer, but was not intoxicated. The engine driver of 
the train which ran over deceased deposed that he never 
saw him, and not being aware of the accident, did not 
stop the train. Deceased was picked up a few minutes 
after by a railway labourer, but though he did not die for 
some days, he could give no explanation how the accident 
occurred. A surgeon deposed, that when deceased was 
brought to him to the hospital he found that he was seri- 
ously injured, and appeared under the effects of drink. 
His right hand and three of his ribs were broken, and he 
w:.^s labouring under a pulmonary affection at the time. 
Deceased appeared to have been injured by the fire-box ; 
and witness was of opinion tljat the wheels did not go 
over any part of him, or he must have been killed on the 
spot. The only conclusion witness could come to was 
that deceased lay down on the line ; and he could not 
positively say whether the cause of death was the result 
of the accident or the previous disease. Some of the 
jury proposed an adjournment, in order Ih^iti post-mortem 
examination might take place, but after some consultation 
it was overruled, and a verdict returned of " Death from 
natural causes, accelerated by the accident." — A special 
general meeting of j)roprietors of the Manchester and 
Leeds Railway has been held at Manchester, for the pur- 
pose of taking into consideration a proposal "to unite the 
company with certain other railway companies in taking 
a lease of a railway proposed to be made from Darlington 
to the Durham Junction Railway, antl also for the pur- 
pose of considering the propriety of proceeding with the 
formation of the projected extension of the Manchester 
and Leeds Railway to Hunt's-bank, under the powers ob- 
tained by Act of Parliament for the purpose." There was 
a numerous attendance of the proprietary, and after some 
discussion resolutions were adopted, authorising the direc- 
tors to proceed with the undertaking to Hunt's-bank, and 
also to unite with other companies for the extension of 
railway conveyance in the north. — An accident, attended 
with very serious consequences, occurred on Monday, on 
the line of the Bristol and Gloucester Railway, about 15 
miles from the former city, whereby three men were killed 
on the spot, and five other persons severely injured. 
From the accounts received, it appears that the men were 
engaged in the formation of a tunnel, two miles from 
Wickwar ; and on Saturday, a barrel of gunpowder, in- 
tended to be used in blowing up the rocks, had been 
placed for safety in a neighbouring shed, used as a black- 
smith's shop. On Monday, wliilst the blacksmith was 
sharpening the men's tools, a spark of fire fell from the 
anvil on the powder, which immediately exploded, and 
the men were blown in different directions. The shock, 
which was heard at the distance of six or seven miles, j)ro- 
duced great alarm in the surrounding hamlets ; and as 
soon as the extent of the mischief was ascertained, the 
dead bodies were removed to a neighbouring shed to await 
an inquest, and the five wounded men were conveyed to 
the Bristol Infirmary, where four of them continue in a 
dangerous state. 

- IRELAND. 

Dublin. — A meeting for the purpose of taking into 
consideration the repeal of the Corn-laws has been held 
at the Mansion-house. The Lord Mayor, who presided, 
began his speech by stating that the effect of the present 
Corn-laws was actual starvation, and that the pressure of 
the Corn-law was grossly unequal. The quantity of bread 
consumed by the wealthier classes, he said, was insignifi- 
cant compared with their wealth, while that consumed by 
the poor man amounted to nine-tenths of the value of his 
productive powers. The Corn-lav/ tax was unjust in that 
respect, but it was also grossly unjust that one class of 
the people should deri\e an income from the food made 
use of by another. After some further remai'ks in the same 
strain, Mr. O'Connell added that when he looked at the 
recent accounts of the manufacturing interests of England, 
he found the quantity of manufactured goods diminishing 
day by day, the number of employers likewise diminishing, 
mercantile men failing, banks broken, manufactories shut 
up, artisans turned out, and starvation spreading far and 
wide ; he found this progressive scale of deterioration, 
lasting and augmenting for six years, accompanied by 
serious accounts of the melancholy condition of the people. 
All nations of the earth had had their great revolutions. 
There was no great state that had not bad it^ise and 



progress, its gradual decline, and ultimatelyjts fall ; and 
he confessed it struck him with something — he hoped of 
.superstition — which led him to think that the pride of 
lilngland's greatness had pussed away, and that her decline 
and fall were coming on. He reflected nj>on the subject 
with horror, although he felt that England had inflicted- 
much bitter injury upon his country, and that a greater 
enemy his country never had had. But he wept over the 
miseries of the British people, and he was ready to struggle 
with them to maintain that superiority which lie feared 
they were losing. His whole thought was engrossed in 
contemplating the coming misery of England, and he 
shuddered with horror at what might be its results. 
Hunger, it was said, would break through stone walls, and 
no political institution was strong enough to stand against 
the clamouring of a starving people. He prayed, how- 
ever, that in saying this he might not turn out to be a true 
prophet. The Lord Mayor then announced Mr. Bright, 
of Rochdale, as the first speaker, who addressed the meet- 
ing at great length. Having adverted to the difficulties 
thrown in the way of Catholic Emancipation, and of the 
Negro Emancipation Acts, he proceeded to contend that 
the objections to the repeal of the Corn-laws were equally 
unjust, and would prove equally futile. Having given 
some instances of the injurious effects of restrictions on 
the import of foreign corn, the speaker appealed to the 
assembly to record their assent to a repeal of these laws, 
not merely, he said, on account of their English brethren, 
who were rapidly coming down to the low standard of food 
of the Irish peasantry, but on account of the sufferings of 
their own countrymen in England, in consequence of the 
ruinous operations of these destructive laws. After some 
further observations, Mr. Bright was succeeded by Mr. 
G. Thompson and several other speakers, -aho addressed 
the meeting at considerable length. The meetinsLMlTO^ 
nated by the adoption of the following resolutp^, pro- 
posed by the Lord Mayor : — " That a total and immediate 
repeal of the Corn-laws is necessary for the revival of 
trade and manufacture, and that it is expedient that all 
Ireland should petition for their immediate repeal, and 
that measures be taken immediately for doing so. — 
The weekly meeting of the Repeal Association was held 
on Tuesday. The Lord Mayor, in handing in some money, 
congratulated the Association on the circumstance of a 
great demonstration in favour of Repeal having been made 
the previous day at Kells, county Meath; when from 
10,000 to 20,000 persons he said attended, and came to 
the determination to post up in a conspicuous part of their 
dwellings " There is nothing for Ireland but the Repeal." 
A hatband with the same inscription was to be generally 
worn by the people of that district, and he had no doubt 
it would become universal in Ireland. He cautioned the 
people against being deluded, he said, by gangs of spies 
that were going through the country, trying to induce 
them to join illegal societies, for the very purpose of after- 
wards betraying them. His Lordship slated with great 
gratification that the Right Rev. Dr. Cantwell, the Cathohc 
bishop of Meath, and nearly all his clergy were thorough 
Repealers, and concluded his remarks by moving the 
thanks of the association to Dr. Cantwell, his clergy, and 
the people of the county Meath, for the noble demonstra- 
tion in favour of repeal made on the previous day. The 
resolution was passed. After several subscriptions had 
been acknowledged, the Lord Mayor alluded to the death 
of Mr. West, late member for this city, who di;d on Mon- 
day, for whose private character he expressed high admi- 
ration. He wished it to be known that he could take no 
part in the approaching election ; the law had made him 
returning ofliicer, and unless he resigned his ofiice I.e could 
not conscienliously take part one way or another. In 
short, he was determined that during his year of office he 
would act with strict impartiality, and, according to his 
best exertions, with equal justice to all. 

Belfast.' — A public meeting of persons interested in the 
linen trade of Ireland has been held in this town, for the 
purpose of adopting some measure to relieve Ihe existing 
pressure on tnat department of trade. After some discus- 
sion it was unanimously resolved. — " That a memorial be 
forwarded to the Board of Trade, embodying a statement 
of the present position of the linen manulacture." This 
document was signed by all the banking companies of this 
town, and by a large portion of the merchants and capital 
ists of the neighbourhood ; the whole of the signatures- 
representing, it is said, nearly three millions of capital. 
The memorial, which extended to some length, stated that 
the manufacturers had for some time been suffering from 
the seriously depressed state of the linen trade, on the 
prosperity of which depends the welfare of almost the 
entire province of Ulster ; this staple trade giving sup- 
port, directly or indirectly, to one-half of its population. 
That from ihe improvement of manufactures in other 
countries, more particularly in Gern any, and the restrictive 
measures lately adopted on the continent with respect to 
British goods, the memorialists are unable to find a suf- 
ficient market for their productions, and their trade, they 
fear, will ultimately be annihilated. They therefore 
suggest whether it would not be the interest of the country 
generally, as it would be their own particularly, to remodel 
our commercial relations, and, by a principle of conces- 
sion, incltice other countries to receive, on a more extended 
scale, our manufactures. The memorial was forwarded to 
Lord Ripon, President of the Board of Trade, who has 
replied to it, stating that he is fully sensible of the great 
importance of the matter to which it relates ; and the me- 
morialists may rely upon his readiness to consider every 
practicable means of endeavouring to meet the exigencies 
of the case. 

SCOTLAND. 
Edinburgh. — The committee of the General Assembly 
lately published a statement of their views, as to the set- 



16 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[N°- 1. 



tlement of the questions at present affecting the clmrcli. 
It was extensively circulated, and a copy, it is said, was 
sent to every Cabinet Minister. On Tuesday, the 21st 
Dec, a meeling of the committee was held, for the pur- 
pose of approving of the statement, when one of the mem- 
bers protested against it in strong terRis. lie said that all 
the agitation against patronage had proceeded on the 
ground of supporting the rights of the Cliristian people, 
by preventing ministers from being improperly thrust 
upon them ; but tliat the statement proved that this was a 
mere pretence ; that the lights of the people were to be 
thrown aside, and the whole power, both of ihe patrons 
and of the people, vested in Ihe clergy. Any such mea- 
sure he should oppose to the utmost, as establishing a 
clerical domination, which, he considered, must be at- 
tended with fatnl ci nscquenccs to the liberties of the 
country, and never would be submitted to. A long dis- 
cussiou followed. Dr. Gordon, TMessrs. Candlish and 
Cunningham, &c., voted an approval of the statemeiit, the 
member alluded to alone dissenting — It is announced that 
INIr. T. Carlyle has declined becoming a candidate for the 
Chair of History, now vacant in this University ; and that 
he has communicated this determination to the students, 
who, as mentioned in a previous Number, were getting up 
a requisition to the Facnlty of Advocates in Ids favour. 

Perth, — The Scottish bishops have publislied a synod- 
ical letter on the subject of the proposed university in 
the neighbourhood of this city. It is to be called *' The 
College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity ;'' and is in- 
tended to receive .and board from 150 to 200 of youths 
from eight to eighteen years of age. 6,000/. have been 
already privately contributed \ and, when the sum result- 
ing from a public subscription amounts to 20,000/., tlie 
edifice, it is said, will be commenced. According to a 
prospectus of the institution, which acconi])anies the sy- 
nodical letter, the purposes to which the funds will be 
devoted, comprise the providing of a chapel, with halls 
and otlier suitable buildings, the salaries of a warden, pro- 
fessors, and teachers, and the foundation of bursaries. 
Subscribers to the amount of one hundred guineas, and 
upwards are to have a perpetxial right of nomination of 
young men to the college, with a deduction of 10 per 
cent, in their favour, from the current rate of annual pay- 
ment for board and education. 

Paisley. — The numerous bankruptcies which have lately 
occurred in this town, and which have seriouslyadded to the 
existing distress, have now been followed by the bank- 
ruptcy of the Corporation itself. It is stated that on ac- 
count of the great depression of trade, and partly on ac- 
count of a run raised by the circulation of some statements 
regarding the affairs of the Corporation, the Town Coun- 
cil, at a meeting on Wednesday, 22d Dec, ordered the 
chamberlain to suspend receipt or jiayment of deposits in 
the mean time, but to proceed with all possible despatch 
in realising the outstanding debts due to the community 
for the regular payment of the, interest on the money bor- 
rowed, and other current ena;3geuients of the burgli. It 
appears with respect to the finances of the Corporation, 
that there is a deficiency of income to meet the expendi- 
ture by at least 700/, annually ; that the income is about 
3,300/., and the unavoidable expenditure not under 
4,000/. This unfortunate occurrence, it is feared, will 
greatly add to the distress of the working classes in" this 
town ; the more so, as it is stated that the wliole of a local 
gavings fund, amounting to 19,000/., has been thus sank; 
that sum, it seems, haVing been lent to the trustees of the 
Cart (River) Improvement, connected with the Corpora- 
tion. The Council having established two savings fnnds, 
as part of their system, some confnsion appears to have 
arisen in connexion with these and the National Savings 
B.ink ; but it is positively announced that the latter has 
nothing whatever to do with the corporation. 



THEATRICALS. . 

Drve.v-La.ne, — On Monday evening this theatre was 
re-opened for dramatic representations under the manage- 
ment of Mr. Macready. The house was filled throughout, 
and after the national anthem had been sung by the whole 
strength of the company, an attempt was made to com- 
mence the play, which, however, was unanimously resisted 
until Mr, Macready had obeyed the call for his appear- 
ance, when the whole audience rose, and greeted him with 
long-continued acclamations. The performance selected 
for the occasion was Sliakspeare's Merchant of Venice, 
which was finely illustrated as regards scenery and cos- 
tume, and as strongly cast as the force of the company 
would admit, JTr. Macready took the part of Si'iylock, 
Mr. Phelps played Anlonio, Mr. Anderson Bassanio, Mr. 
Hudson from Dublin made his debut successfully as Gra- 
tiajw. Lorenzo was per.sonaled by Mr. Elton, and Gohho 
by Mr.^Compton. Among the lady performers were, Mrs. 
Warner as Portia, Mrs. Keeley as Ncrissa, Miss E. 
Phillips as Jessica, and Miss Poole and Miss Gould as 
Portia\i ** minstrels fair." The jday was tliro.ighout 
well sustained, and the acting of Mr. Macready was more 
espec'ally well received. The play was followed by a 
pantomime, the usual entertainment at this season of the 
year, under the title of JTnrtrquin and Duke Humphreifs 
Dinner, or Jack Cade Lord uf Ijondon Slone, It con- 
tained the usu-il quantity of merriment, and began and 
ended with considerable spirit and attraction. There 
WHS very loud applause at its conclusion, accompanied 
however with a few hisses. Mr. Macready has carried out 
several reforms in the general management of the bouse, 
and some important changes and improvements in the 
embellishmenis and fittings up of the interior have been 
effected. 

CovENT Garden The subject of the pantomime at 

this theatre is the old and popular story of Guy JEarl of 
ff^aricickf or Harlequin and the Dun Cow. The adven- 



tures of the knight are represented in a very attractive 
form, and the moving panorama of the beauties, of land 
and sea, sky and night, and day and twilight; the princely 
hall, battled tower, magic wood, and fairy palace, were 
all beautiful, and received with great approbation by the 
audience. In the scenery, indeed, appears to lie the chief 
strength of the pantomime at this theatre, containing a 
fine combination of lovely views. The material of the 
pantomime, however, appeared to want life and energy ; 
the tricks were neither new nor comical, and, if not pro- 
nounced a failure, it appeared to be regarded as bearing 
no comparison to the adjuncts with wiiich it was put on 
the stage. Some good transformations, Iiowever, were 
made, and the changing of the " Cannon Brewery" into 
*' Prince Albert's Gate," and that of Harris's far-seeing 
telescope into a view of the "past and future" showing a 
series of medallion portraits of the Kembles, from " the 
noblest Roman of them all" to Miss Adelaide — were those 
which drew down tlie greatest approbation. The launch 
of the TriifuJgar was also a fine coup d^osH, and was 
loudly cheered. Altogether the pantomime was successful, 
and tlie house was well filled. 

Haym.vrket. — The performances at this theatre have 
been the ; of Pizarro, and a new afterpiece, as a sub- 
stitute foi d pantomime, entitled, The IVorld of Dreams, 
or the Man i?i the Moon. The former piece was got up 
with spirit, and its chief characters were well supported : 
the only .lOvelty, however, was the performance of Mr. 
V/allack as PirarrOt and Mrs. Stirling as Cora. Both 
gave satisfaction to the audience, and Mr. Wallaclc was 
called for at the fall of the curtain. The World of Dreams 
is rather a complicated piece. Violetie (Mdlle. Celeste), 
the daughter of an aged, biiad woman, falls asleep under 
the Elfin oak tree, on a night in the merry month of Jlay ; 
and, according to the legend, is transferred in body as 
well as spirit to the moon. Here she inspires the " man 
iu the moon" with the tender passion ; and after she has 
received all manner of civilities at his hands, is sent down 
again to earth, under convoy oi Andy rim (Mr. Mitchen- 
Eon), the spii • >f troubled dreams. On her arrival, how- 
ever, she findr sale in her mother's cottage, who is her- 
self on the p0!.^c of being ejected by Hans Braunwig 
(Mr. Strickland), a rich old miser of the village ; but the 
proceedings are stopped on her agreeing to become his 
wife, which she does to save her mother. The night of the 
marriage, however, is marked by a catastropiie. The 
bridegroom is led across moss and moor by an ignis fatuus, 
while Violetie, separated from him, is safely reconducted 
to her mother's cottage. Old Braunwig falls asleep at 
the close of the night, just under the Elfin oak, and is 
tormented by the spirit, of troubled dreams. The piece 
concludes wi " 'he abrogation of tile contract of marriage 
between Vioiette and ILans Braumvig, the acceptance of 
the " man in the moon " by the betrothed bride, and her 
apotheosis after death. The man in the moon turns out 
to be a certain Prince Fazenheim (Mr. J- Webster), who 
has been compelled to carry the well-known " bundle of 
sticks" by a potent enchanter with whom he was at en- 
mity, and all ends happily. The piece was well got up, 
and was favourably received by a numerous audience. 

Olympic. — After the first piece, entitled Sixteen-siring 
Jack, — being the history of a highway robber, which has 
for some time been successfully performed at this theatre, 
a new pantomime was produced, entitled Riddle-dee 
Riddle-dee Riddle -Dum-ree. It contained a number of 
devices as to passing events, but the jokes, which were of 
an ordinary character, were but poorly received. There 
are few really comic e.\pressions throughout the whole 
piece ; but the superior singing and comic powers of the 
Clown (Mr. T. Mathews) carried it through successfully. 
There was also some pretty dancing during the CIowtCs 
feats, which tended to soften the effect of the amusing 
antics which he played. The pantomime was announced 
for repetition. 

Adelphi. — After the performance of Barnaby Rudge, 
and Norma burlesqued, which have been given for some 
time at this theatre with considerable success, a pantomime 
of unusual length was produced, entitled The Little Old 
IVoman and her Pig ; or, Harlequin Pedlar and ihe 
Magic Petticoat. This entertainment, purported by the 
bills to be selected from " the most approved nursery bal- 
lads," and its plot appears to consist in the amalgamation 
of three of these old rhymes, relating respectively to the 
*' Little Old Woman and her Pig," as recited in its title; 
to the adventures of the old lady whose petticoats were 
"cut round about" on her way from m^arket ; and to the 
successful destruction of a magic duck upon a magic lake, 
and by a magic gun. A ])lot is framed in which a great 
variety of views are introduced ; and with the aid of well- 
managed scenery, the pantomime, properly so called, is 
brought forward. Miss BuUin was a pretty and agile 
Columlnnc, Mr. Frampton made a good Harlequin, and 
Mr. Wielaud and Mr. Sanders rendered their respective 
characters of Clowii and Paninlooji effectively. Some 
disn)ij)robation, however, was exhibited at the close of the 
performance, by a very full hous:^, wliose patience seemed 
to have bcca wearied by the protracted entertainment. 

iJliscclIfliuous. 

Longevity. — In our last obituary we recorded the 
death of IMr. George Smart, a gardener, who died lately 
at the age of 102. We learn from an article in i\\t Mont- 
rose Review tiiat this patriarchal gardener was born in 
the parish of Methlick, Aberdeenshire, iu November 1739. 
In tlie troubles of 1745 he removed with his father to the 
parish of Fyvie, thence to the parish of Echt, then to the 
county of Montrose, when he married at the Wbiteriggs, 
in 1777, and went to Stonehaven in 1781 ; when, after 
having numbered his 102d year, he, on the 2f)th Nov., 
18H, at last " crossed that bourne from whence no tra- 



veller returns." Until within '24 hours of his dissolution 
he retained all his faculties. He had 1 1 children, 53 grand- 
children, and 8 great-grandchildren, making a family of 72, 

Domestic Servants in France — During a recent trial 
before the Correctional Tribunal at Verdun, it was shown 
that out of the 700 domestic servants employed within the 
town 500 were under suspicion of the police, as being 
dishonest or immoral. In consequence of this state of 
things, it lias been recommended to bring into force the 
old law enjoining every servant to be the bearer of a book 
containing a certificate of character, signed by every ena- 
ployer, without which no servant could obtain a place. 
This regulation is iu force at Bordeaux, and, it is said, 
works well. 

Antiqxiities. — The French journals inform us that there 
has been recently found, in a loft at tiie Ministry of Com- 
merce, a table given by the King of Spain to Henry IV., 
on occasion of his marriage, and on which the nuptial 
banquet was served. As soon as the genuineness of this 
piece of furniture was proved, M. Cunin Gridaine gave 
orders for its being repaired with the utmost care, in order 
that it might be placed in the Museum of the Louvre. 

Chinese Curiosilies. — A singular collection of Chinese 
curiosities, made by a Mr. Dunn, of Philadelphia, has just 
arrived in this country, having, by a treasury order, been 
admitted free. Mr. Dunn, it is stated, has spent consi- 
derable time and spared no expense in forming it ; and, 
as giving some estimate of its value, it is added that the 
French Government have offered 65,000/. for it. It is 
said to present a complete epitome of the various trades 
and occupations, as well as the progress which the arta 
and sciences have made in China ; and that in every in- 
stance where it has been possible, the reality has been ob- 
tained ; but when that could not be done, an accurate 
model was procured. A building, near Hyde Park-corner, 
is in the course of erection, and will be completed in about 
six weeks, when the collection will be opened to the pub- 
lic for inspection. 



MARK LANE, FniDAY, Dec 31.-0f English Wheat there is 
but little offering ; prices may be cousideretl nominally the same 
as labt Mond:-iy. There has been less business doing iu Foreign 
than we have noticed for some time, which we may attribute in 
some measure to the holidays. We did not hear of any transac- 
tions in Bonded Wheat. — Barley is a slow sale at our quotations. 
— Peas and Beans are unaltered in value.— Oats are almost un- 
saleable, although offered at a further reduction. 

BRITISH, per linpeiial Quarter. a. s. t. t. 

Wheat, Essex, Kent, and Suilolk . . . WliUe 

Norfolk, LiiK^olnHhiieand Voiltsliire . . . 

Barley Maltinf^ and distillinf^ 

Oats, [.ini-nlnshire and,Yor Its hire .... I'olands 

Norlhunibei'land and Scuti^b .... Fttrd 

Irish Feed 1 

Rye 

Beans, IMazagan, old and new . £6 to 38 Tick 2810 4it Jlairow EO to 41 . 

Pipenn, Helif^oland . . . 36 to 44 'Windfi. 4() to 50 Lon-ppod ;i3 to 40 

Peas, White £6 to 88 Maplp 33 to ai tiiey 30 to 33 

WEEKLY IMPERIAL AVERAGES. 

Nov. 10 

— 2tJ 

Dei;. , 3; 



oG lo 72 


Red 


66 to 64 


6-1 10 fi6 


AVJfite 


60 lo'64 


2fi loai 


Grii.a. 


Ea lo 28 


£0 to 2ft 


Feed 


20 to £4 


2-1 to 25 


IV.tato 


22 to 28 


16 to 22 


Potato 


:0 to £6 


36 to 42 







Q weeks' Aggregate Aver.! 63 a 
Duties ' 



Wheat. 


Bailey. 


Oats. 


Rye. 


Beans. 


Peas 


65 11 


U3 4 


B2 6 


4U 2 


40 4 


40 3 


04 9 


32 4 


22 C 


44 7 


41 2 


40 9 


63 6 


3t 9 


£2 2 


44 5 


39 4 


30t 7 


C2 7 


30 9 


£2 2 


44 C 


39 


39 « 


62 9 


30 ft 


21 6 


39 5 


37 9 


39 


62 10 


30 2 


21 1 


44 


37 


J6 G 


63 •> 


31 6 


22 


43 


39 1 


39 3 


S3 8 


15 4 


13 g 


5 


11 


11 



TATTERSALL'S, Tuursday— The betting proved but an in- 
different wind-up to the year, there being- only three engagements; 
viz., 1,250 to 50 agst Lord Verulara's Robert de Gorham, 1,300 to 
50 agst Mr. Gregory's t^vo (Barrier and Defier), and y5 to l,to 35^. 
ag-st Lord George Bentinck's Topsail, the latter for the Oaks. It j' 
is not thought probable that there will be any improvement pre- 
viously to Ihe meeting of Parliament. 

GAZETTE OF THE WEEK. 

INSOLVENTS— R. MitU'rs, Newport, Monmouthshire, iion and tin-plate 
niamitHciurer — T. Wnoster, jun., laie of Newiastle-iipon-Tyne,'NorlhiimbiT- 
land, but now of PcckhNTn Kyeteriace, Surrey, mcn-hant— T. Forty, laie of 
the lUiyal Hotel, Riilimond, Surrey, hotel-keeper— J, H. Riibberda and S. 
l>!iy, Taverham, Suffolk, paper makers. 

B.ANKHUl'TCY ANNULLED — C. J. Carttar, Greenwich, banker. 

BANXiKUPTS F. T. West, Lambeth, loalmercbiint— R. Riihards, J. 

Briant, and J. Cnkt-r, Shadwell, Middlesex, ropomakers— W, Hnrsnaill, 
Dover, carpenter— J. Fowkes, Beeston, Nottinghamshire, gmccr— T. Benrose, 
Spalding, Lincolnsliire, grneer— A. Phillips and J. Pliillip.-:, window glasa 
tiitlera J. Ford, Bristol, cooper— T. Berriman, Montague cottage. Camber- 
well, builder— C. Robottom, BJacU Bull Inn, Holborn-hill, tavern-keeper— T. 
Barnnley, Tipton, Staffordshire, engine roHker— H. Clark, Fleet street, brueh 
manufacturer— T. F. Bulla, Vassal road, Brixton, and of Vauxhall-road, Lam- 
beth, couch proprictoi— J. Stevens, 1, Jamesstreet. Limehouse, briikmnker— 
J. Gardiner, Cathay, Briotol, common brewer- M. Marshall, Chew Magna, 
Somersetshire, money scrivener— S. Shingler, Liverpool, linendtaper — J. 
Close, Worcester, glove inaniifactni-er- A. Procter and K. Procter, Kingsiou- 
upi n-Hun, couch proprietors — E. Whitney, Liverpool, soap boiler — J. Bedford, 
Hnnslet Monrside, Yorksliire, cinibear-munufacturer- ^^'". Biddle, Holbnrn- 
hill, rtshmonger— S. Shinpler and S. T. Jiimus, Liverpool, silk merce s— J. J. 
Lock, Northampton, teu deuler— W. Swift and R. Crnrnpton, Manchester, 
drapers— G. Carpenter, Chclinsford, chemist— W. Goodwin, Dronlield, Derby- 
shire, multster — W. E. PouLen, 'Lurlgate-liill, cheiniMt— T. H'lmfrey, jun., 
Oreat Stiinmore, Middlesex, builder— J. Stevens and R. H. W. Dtumm<ind, 
Alite-cnd, road con true tors— J. Thompson, Blackburn, Lancasliire, power- 
loom cloth manufacturer— J. Newstead and J. Hexiall. Regent-street, Mid- 
dlesex, luiemen— J. Fislici und E Fisher, Meghtill, Lancashire, spirit-mer- 
chunls— C. H, WeiK»n, Condiiit-slieet, Regent-street, tailor— C. Hilton, Man- 
chestnr, cotton manufacturer. ■ 

SCOTCH SEQLJKSTRA'riONS.— W Johnstone, Edinburgh, baker— Rus- 
sell, ."Uacnigh, and Co., and Russell and Macniah, Glasgow; Arthur, Sirauhun, 
and Co., London; and Murray, Greig. and Co., Adeluide, South America, 
merchante— P. Henderson, Pctih, coal ir.erchant— A. Bannalyne, Gla^gow, 
grain merchant— P. Lowsi.n, Dnndee. >lii,. muster. 



., at vv iihvoitli, Mrs. H. Groom, of a son — On the 
outhwark, the lady of the Rev. W- litey, of a 



BIRTHS,- On the 23d u 

l7Lb ult., at St. Tliomas'a, - . - . . -- 

daugliliT— On the 23d ult., the wife of W- H. Cary, Esq., of Woodford, of a 
duiightcr— On the i'Oth ult., at Brighton, t)ic lady of .1. B. Loiisudu, Esq , of 
Oalificld-lodgc, SiisBcx,of a son— At Sydenham, on the 30tli ult., the wife of 
E n. Colville, juti., Esq., of a son- On the 30th ult., Mrs. W. F. Hodgson, 
StockwelJ, of a (.on—On the B3d ult , at Miiida Vale, Edgware-road,: the wife 
ot A. A. Muckcy, Esq., of a daujjhler- On Christmus-duy, in Old Burliomon- 
Btreet, the lady of Dr. Aldis, ot H duuKhter— On Cliri.^imas day, at the Par- 
fionuuc, Diirp.-liy, Cheshire, the liiUy of the He v. CliurleH Dodgson, of a daughter. 

MAKUIEU.-On the llth ult., ut Fetcham, Surrey, T. E. Eden, Esq., of 6, 
Langham-place, to Klizubeib, second daughter of the late W. B Orunfield, 
Evq., ol Askew-villa, Slupherd's-bush- On the 22d ult.. A, J. Gulsion. i-f 
l.Iundilofawr, Carmarihon-liire, Esq., to Augusta Catherine, only daughter 
of the laie Capt. Givcen, lOth Hussars—At Edinburgh, on ihe 27ih ult., Edw., 
Fcnion, Esq., youngest non of the late J. Fenion, Esq , of LovergaU, in the 
county of York, to Gtorgiana, the only diiu^hier of Col. J. Camac, ot Bret- 
tenlium park, in the couiiiy of Sullolk, and of Woodville, in the county of 
Wicklow. 

DIED At Constantinople, on the 1st. ult , J Ponsonby, the only son of S. 

M'Guffoy, Esq , M.D , physician to the British Embassy in that city, aged 20 
inonths-On the 15lh ult., at Malta, E- Jacob, Esq., fli A., Fellow ot Uaiua 
College, Cambridge, and one of her Alajeaty's Counsel- On the lllth ult., in hii 
7(iih year, M. Dyer, Esq., of Eden-place, Old Kentroud, and formerly of 
Kniglilsbridgu— Un the Wd ult,, at the Rectory, Everiiigliam, Yorkshire, iho 
Kcv. W. Mursden, M.A., aged Z\ 



^ w 



Primed by MeBBrn. Bradhurv and Evanb, Lombard-street, Fleel-BSreel, in 
the Precinct of Whiiefriars, in the City ol London, and Puliliahed by them at 
the Oyyicn, 3, CnARi.na-sTnKBT, Covekt G/\ii1)kn, in the County irf Middlearx* 
where all AdvarticementB and ComtnunlcatioiiE aifl to be Eddicsiei to Xh€ 
Editor.— Saturday , Jtinuary I, leu. 



THE GARDENERS CHRONICLE. 

A STAMPED NEWSPAPER OF RURAL ECONOMY AND GENERAL NEWS. 

THE HORTICULTURAL PART EDITED BY PROFESSOR LINDLEY. 



No. 8. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 8, 1842. 



Price 6d, 



TAND C. LOCKHART, SEEDSMEN, &c. 156, 
• CHEAPSIDE, LONDON, beg to announce that their 
LIST OF SEEDS, &c. is now published, and will be forwarded 
Post-paid on applicatio n.— 5th Jan.. 1842. 

MELO-^S AND CUCUMBERS. 

CUTHILL'S EARLY IMPROVED MELON, 
Snow's Horticultural Prize Cueumber, and Cuthill's Black 
Spine Cucumber. The above at 25. 6rf. per Packet each. Lisiau- 
thus Russellianus, 2s. Gd. — James Cuthill, Love-walk, Cam- 
berwe ll, London. ^_^ 

MYATT'S VICTORIA RHUBARB. 

J AND W. MYATT having a good Stock of Strong 
• Roots raised by offsets from the original Seedluig, can 
supply them at 10/. per hundred.— N. B. As various bpurlous sorts 
have been sold and are now selling- under the name of" Myatt's 
Victoria," purchasers would do well to require them warranted. 
—Manor Farm. Deptford, Oct. 23, 1S4I. 

(^PLENDID SPECIMEN CAMELLIAS.— An Ama- 
^ teur in the neiglibourhood of Exeter has a fine Collection 
of CAMELLIAS, which he intends to dispose of in one lot, 
having no longer convenience to cultivate them. It consists of 
fine large specimens of all the best kinds in the highest health, 
finely set with flower-buds ; many of them are quite unique, and 
will be sold a bargain.— Particulars respecting them may be had 
on application to Lucombe, Pixce, and Co., Exeter Nursery. 
Deo 29th. 1841. 

APPLEBY'S "QUEEN OF LILACS."— This Dahlia 
has been pronounced to be iu reality the " Queen of 
Lilacs," by every grower who has seen it, and is sure to give 
geniTHl satisfaction, as there is no Lilac Dahlia out th^t can be 
atall comparedwith it. For a faithful descr'-ption and prices of it, 
see advertisement in the 47th Number of the G-rdeners' Chro- 
nicle.— i^.B. If the above Dahlia does not Emswci to the descrip- 
tion given of it, the price will be deducted. 

^ CHAPPELL'S CREAM BROCCOLI. 

CHARLES FAKNES, Seedsman, No. 128, St. John- 
street, London, begs to inform the Public that he has pur- 
chased of Mr. Chappei.l, Market- gardener, Edmonton, the whole 
of the SEED saved by him this year of that splendid variety of 
BROCCOLI, which for size and flavour is not surpassed by any 
kind grown. Also now ready to send out- 



Fames' superior first Early Pea. 
Flack's new large Victory do. 
Young's do. do. Marrowfat do. 
Knight's Dwarf Green do. do. 
New Auvergne Pea. 
American Dwarf do. 
Chappell's Early White Broccoli. 



Legg'sEarlyWalchcrenBroccoli. 
Fine Early Frame Radish. 
Ady's fine large Cos Lettuce. 
True Brighton do. do. 
Black-seed Bath do do. 
Imported Early Dutch Turnip. 
Imported Dutch Horn CaiTct. 



BRACHYCOME IBERIDIFOLIA SEED in small 
packets at 5s.. to he had of W. J. NUTTING, Seedsman, 46, 
Cbeapside. Lisianthus RusselHanus, 2s. 6d. ; Pinli, from fine 
named flowers, 2s. 6rf. ; Calceolarias, from 30 varieties, 2s. Gd. ; 
Pansies, selected from a few first-rate flowers, 5s. ; do., from a 
superior collection, 2s. 6d. ; Dahlia Seapigura Mexicana, is. j 
Clintonia pulchella, is. ; Schizopetalon Walkerii, is. j Phlox 
Drummondii, Is.; &c. &c.— Packets of the following Cucumbers 
at 2s. 6d.: Man of Kent (Barnes'), Victory of Suffolk (Allen's), 
Prize-fighter, Weedon's Frame, Roman Emperor, and Windsor 
Prize. 

«3r A Catalogue of Seeds to be had on application. 

SEEDLING DAHLIAS. ' 

J BATES, Nurseryman and Florist, Oxford, 
• begs to inform his friends and the public that he has the 
following New Varieties to send out in dry root immediately, and 
in plants the first week in May, 1842. 

BATES' OXFORD CHAMPION, a secdUng of 1340, shaded, 
claret and purple flower, good depth of petals, and a first rate 
show flower ; height, 4 ft. Stock, 8 roots, 5^, 5s., or lOs. 6d. per 
plant. 

BATES' LADY JULIA LANGSTON, a seedling of 1840; fine 
large pure white flower, rather low in the centre, but superior 
to any flower in the class alieady sent out j height, 5 ft. Stock, 
16 roots, 4/. 4s., or 8s 6d. per plant. 

BATES' Al.BA PURPUREA SUPERBA, a seedling of 1840, 
with a dark purple ground, edged and tipped with white, acknow- 
ledged by all who have seen it as the best in that character, very 
constant, always fills and throws its flowers above the foliage, 
rendering it a most desirable border variety ; height, 5 ft. Stock, 
15 roots, 3/. 3s., or 7s 6d. per plant, 

COOPER'S MAID OF LANGOTHLIN, a seedling of 1839, but 
almost lost last year, light rosy crimson flower, fills well in the 
centre, very constant, a superior show flower j 4 to 6 ft. in height. 
Stock, 10 roots, 3/. 3s , or 7s. 6d. per plant. 

TAMES DICKSON lSc SONS, NURSERY SEEDS- 
O MEN and FLORISTS, in returning their sincere thanks 
for the liberal patronage they have eiijoyed from the Nobility, 
Gentry, and Public at large, both in this country, England, and 
Ireland, beg respectfully to intimate that they have received their 
full supply of SEEDS, in fine condition, for SPRING SOWING, 
of first-! ate quality. 

From the arrangements they have recently made with some of 
the first Growers, their Customers may depend on receiving Fresh 
Seeds of all descriptions, carefully selected for J. D & S.'s sales. 

J. D. & Sons beg to call the attention of their Friends to their 
Stock of EVERGREENS, FRUIT and FOREST TREES, in their 
Nurseries of Invcrleith and Bioughton Park, which will be found 
equal in quality and extent to any in Scotland. 

J. D. & Sons beg further respectfully to intimate that they have 
considerably extended the Floral Branch of their Business; and 
they assure their numerous Customers and the Public at large 
that no pains or expense will be spared by which the eflSciency of 
every department of the concern shall he secured, so as to ensure 
a first-rate article at the lowest figure. 

N.B.— Noblemen and Gentlemen provided with experienced 
Gardeners, Land Stewards, and Wood Foresters, whose charac- 
ter and abilities may be depended on. 

32, South Hanover-street, Edinburgh, Dec. 31, 1841. 

lOHN PAMPLIN and SON, Nurserymen, Hornsey 
*^ Road, Islington, begs to acquaint the Dahlia Trade that they 
have purchased the entire Stock of " The Marr,uis ot Camden " 
Dahlia, that was raised by Mr. Garratt, of Hampstead, and 
shown Sept. 7th, 1 841, by Mr.Ansell, at the Horticultural Rooms, 
Regent- street, where it was much admired ; and the same even- 
ing six Blooms were shown at the Meeting of the Floricultural 
Society of London, Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand. (See the 
Report in the Gardeners* Gazette, I ith Sept ) Four Blooms gained 
the first prize at the Hampstead Floricultural Society in Sept.— 
Dark crimson, first-rate.'cupped petals, throwing all blooms out 
of the fuliaiie, with a long, stiff stalk ; always to he depended on 
for a show flower. Five ground roots to be parted with, at 5/. 5s. 
each . Plants in May, JOs. 6rf. each. The Stock is only Six Ground 
Roots and Two Pot do. Early orders, to prevent disappointment. 
Ready Money from unknown correspondents. 



DAHLIAS. — J. KEYNES, on announcing his Cata- 
logue of SeedHng Dahlias for 1842, most respectfully begs 
to offer his acknowledgments to his Friends whom he had the 
honour to supply with Plants last season. J. Kkvxks begs to 
assure them it shall be his study to send out nothing but First- 
rate Show Flowers, in accordance to which the new Flowers 
advertised by him arc all ufirrunted as such. Catalogues con- 
tainhie: all the best varieties which were exhibited by J. Keynes 
at nearly all the principal Shows in the Kingdom, obtaining 
Sixteen Prizes, Eleven of which were First, may be had on appli- 
cation. Amateurs intrusting to him their orders, either for the 
old or new sorts coming out, may depend on nothing being sent 
them but Show Flowers and extra fine Plants, such as they may 
depend on for Blooming. 

Plants in May as usual. 
DODD'S PRINCE OF WALES. 
Clear bright circular Yeltow, most decidedly the best ever 
offered to the Public, combining every quality necessary to con- 
stitute a first-rate Show Flower. Great depth of petal, form un- 
rivalled and not to be surpassed, fine centre always full, never 
showing the eye, most certain, and open to show Twelve Blooms 
against any yellow in the world ; obtained the folh wing Prizes :— 
First Prize, Salisbury Plain, . August 1840. 
First „ Bath, . . . Sept. 1840. 

Third „ Salisbury Plain, . August 1841. 

First ,, Chippenham, . . Sept. 1841. 

First „ Bath (Victoria Park), Sept. 1841. 

Second „ Calne, . . .. Sept. 1841. 

First ,, Bath (Sidney Gardens), Sept. 1841. 

Second ,, Salisbury, . . Sept. 1841. 

Fourth „ Salt Hill, . . . Sept. 1841. 

Plants in May, los. 6d. Warranted by J. Kejaies. 
KEYNES' PRINCESS ROYAL. 
Blush deeply tipped with Purple; quite a new variety', and 
first-rate, was exhibited only at Bath, where it obtained the 
Second Prize. There being but Ta-o roots of this variety, early 
orders only will insure Plants. 

Plants in May, lOs. 6d. Warranted by J. Keynes. 
YOUNG'S TWYFORD PERFECTION. 
Dark Puce shaded with deep Crimson; perfectly round full 
centre well up, one of the most perfect shell-petals ever seen. 
This beautiful variety was raised from Egvptian King by Mr. 
Peter Young, of Twyford, near Winchester, who is well known as 
an established Florist. 

Plants in I\lay. lOs. Gd. Warranted by J. Keynes. 
ADA^IS' PRINCE ALBERT. 
Fine shaded Bronze ; quite distinct variety : most perfect petal, 
and first-rate noble show flower. Second prize Salisbury Plain. 
Wairanted first-rate; 4 ft.; plants, lO.---. 6rf. 

HALL'S WESTBURY RIVAL. 

Fine bright Puce ; very constant ; full high centre ; decided 

improvement on President of the West , one of the finest selfs of 

the season ; new colour. Warranted fii'st-rate, 4 ft. ; plants, lOs 6d. 

Pot and Ground-roots of all the fine varieties of last year at 

moderate prices, on application. Salisbury, Nov lOtb, 1841. 



DANECROFT NURSERY, STOWM ARRET.— 
SAMUEL GIRLING, impressed with gratitude to his nu- 
merous friends, both British and Foreign, begs to return his sin- 
cere thanks for the distinguished patronage he has been so libe- 
rally favoured with, having sold at least 2000 more Dahlia plants 
this than in the previous year ; it will be his constant study to do 
all in his power to merit a continuance of their support. Having 
made arrangements for a supply of plants from distant growers of 
:?earh' all the leading sorts in new flowers coming out next May, 
>_, i if ii,'-,! unseen accident or loss of stock, he can engage to 
supply all orders committed to his Care without disappointment. 
S. G. has 10 superior SEEDLINGS coming out in May next, in 
some points, perhaps, considered a little short of first-rate, but 
every one of them will be found serviceable to all growers for 
competition, however limited the number shown. The prices at 
which they are advertised may, in the opinion of some people, 
condemn them, but he confidently recommends them, not wishing 
payment till blooming season ; and should any one fall short of 
the description given, it will be deducted from the account en- 
tirely ; the price separately, "s 6d. per plant. Any Amateur taking 
the set of 10 will be charged 3/. or for 6 selected plants, ii. I8s. 

Thankful for past, and solicitous for future support, I am, gen- 
tlemen, your obedient sei-vant, SAMUEL GIRLING. 
No. 242. CAPTIVATOR— Bright Pink, finely shaded with 
dark Crimson, well up in the centre, excellent habit, and s. d. 

fine show flower ; four feet 76 

169. LOUISA— Dark Nankeen, very constant, well cupped, 

and good show flower ; three feet 76 

52. PLOUGHBOY— Fine Purple Rose, free bloomer, beauti- 
fully up in the centre, colour of Amato, constant, and 
desirable show flower ; has taken two first Seedling prizes ; 

(our feet 76 

36. GIPSY MAID— Bright Purple, shaded and striped with 
Crimson, profuse bloomer, a little pointed, but a desirable 

and useful show flower ; three feet 76 

29. FAVOURITE— Buff", fine round cupped petal, well up in 

the centre, rather uncertain, new m colour, when caught, 

the best flower of its class; three feet . , . .76 

9. LIBERTY— Bright Lilac, large and well-formed, free 

bloomer, good centre, and fine back-row show flower; four 

to five feet .... * 76 

PRINCE OF WALES — Dark Purple, finely shaded, well 
cupped, short round petal, superior form, and most desirable 

show flower ; four feet 76 

ANNA MINERVA— A Bright Rose, free-bloomer, well cupped 
and constant, good show flower. Seedling prize at Bury 

and Stowmarket ; three to four feet 76 

NANETTE— Buff, shaded with Puik, good habit, well cupped 
petals, free-bloomer, flowers well up, a superior show 

variety ; three to four feet 76 

SAMBO— Very dark, well cupped, good habit, and constant 

show variety ; four feet 76 

7he four last are Seedlings of 1840, bought in and warranted 
by the raisers to be superior show flowers ; have been seen and 
approved by many growers in the neighbourhood, and highly 
deserving a place in every collection. The first six are selected 
from many thousand Seedlings of IS40, and raised by S. Girling. 
The stock of nearly all being limited, early orders are solicited to 
prevent disj'ppointment. 

The fancy seedling varieties, sent out by S. Girling last May, 
as superior border flowers, will, in May next, be sent out, adding 
two varieties of fancy kinds, for iSs. the dozen, or 12s. for the 
best six. Every kind of Dahlia worthy of cultivation will he sent 
out at moderate prices in May 1842. S. G. has a few of the 
leading kinds in dry roofs to part with, at moderate prices. His 
Catalogue of Geraniums, Pansies, and Verbenas can now be had, 
on pre-paid application. Foreign orders faithfully executed, 

Robinson's Northern Beauty Dahlia. S. Girling having pur- 
chased the entire Stock of the above Dahlia, plants will be sent 
out in May next at 1 Os. 6(/. each ; admitted to be one of the most 
distinct and beautiful Dahlias to be sent out next season. For 
particulars refer to the " Floricultural Cabinet" of January next. 
It took the 5th Prize at Salt Hill open Show in September last 
and was generally admired. 



\\/ANTS a SITUATION as GARDENER, a Middle- 
» » aged Married Man, without incumbrance, who perfectly 
understands his business in every department— as Forcing, Fram- 
ing. Kitchen Garden. Pleasure Ground, Farming, &c. ; his wife 
could take care of the Dairy, Poultry. &c. The Advertiser has 
lived in his last place eight years, and can be highly recommended, 
—Direct to G. C, at the Post Oflice, Ch urch-street, Chelsea. 

\\/ANfs a SITUATION as GARDENER in a No- 
■ ' bleman or Gentleman's family, a single middle-aged man, 
master of his business in all iis various branches, who can he 
well recommended from the last situation he has just left. Direct 
to A. B., at Mr. Grimes', post-oflice, Hornsey, Middlesex. 

TO NURSERYMEN AND OTHERS. 

WANTED, a FINE STRONG PLANT of ARAU- 
CARIA IMBRICATA, from 18in. to 3ft. high. Any one 
having such to dispose of, may hear of a purchaser by stating 
the height in inches and the price.— Direct to W. Bassett, Weston° 
birt, Tetbury, Gloucestershire. 

DAHLIAS. 

WR. WHALE begs to announce to the Floricnltural 
• World in general, that he intends to send out the next 
approaching season three varieties of New and Splendid Seedling 
DAHLIAS, which he trusts will give general satisfaction, equal to 
his three former Flowers, which he has had the honour of send- 
ing out to bis numerous friends— viz. President of the West, 
Phenomenon, and Royal Standard. W. R. W. had not an oppor- 
tunity of exhibiting them at the different shows of last season, iu 
consequence of a heavy family affliction ; but those friends who 
saw them growing can vouch for their superiority. 

1st— Attila : A Lilac, shaded with bright Rose, a decided im- 
provement on Lady Cooper, being possessed of a full centre and 
a greater depth of petals, an abundant bloomer and good habit, 
took the flrst prize at Marlborough and first at Andover in 1840, 
the only places ever exhibited at. Htight4 to sfeet. Price, lOs. 6d. 

2nd— C^A^'CEl.L0R : A rich glossy Crimson, shape of Springfield 
Purple, full centre, and a fine-cupped Shell Flower. Height 4 to 
rt feet J His. 6d. • . . 

3rd- MAncHioNEss of AvLESBuay : A clear white ground, 
beautifully tipped with bright scarlet, good centre, a"inos^leasing 
variety, and an abundant bloomer, a good bac'k-ro\^^ow''er:' In 
consequence of the Stock of Roots being smallTand orders already 
numerous, this variety will not be sent out before the third week 
in May. Height 4 to 5 feet ; 10s. 6d. ' ' • ' 

Eltco,Nevvbur}', Berks. December 1841. .^^ ' ' 

''THE ANNUAL DINNER of the SUBSCRIBERS 

i- to, and FRIENDS of, thfe GARDENERS' BENEVOLENT 
INSTITUTION, the MEMBERS of the FLORICULTURAL 
SOCIETY of LONDON, and the NURSERYMEN, GARDEN- 
ERS, and AMATEUR FLORISTS of GREAT BRITAIN, wiU 
take place at the CROWN and ANCHOR TAVERN, STRAND, , 
on THURSDAY, the 13th of January, 1842, at Four o'clock. 
Professional Singers will attend. '' 

The GENERAL MEETING of the GARDENERS' BENEVO- 
LENT INSTITUTION, the FLORICULTURAL SOCIETY of 
LONDON, and ANNUAL MEETING of the TRADE, at One 
o'clock the same day. 

Dinner Tickets \2s. 6d. each (including a bottle of wine), may 
be obtained of the following Members of the Committee: — 

Messrs,' Beaton, Shrublands. near Ipswich ; Beistow, 
Knightsbrid,--e ; Chandler, Vauxhall ; Chablwood, Covent- 
garden ; GAir.v.s. Battersea; Greoory, Cirencester; Hkndeb- 
s on, Pine App-e-place ; Low, Clapton ; Mo untjo y, Ealing ; 
Noble, Fleet-street; Osborne, Fulham; Rogers, Eaton square; 
SaiiTH, gardener to Lord Tenterden, Hendon; Thomson, Iver; 
Toward, gardener to H. R. H. the Duchess of Gloucester, 
Bagshot Park; Warner and Warneh, Cornhill; Watereh, 
Knapp-hill, Bagshot. 

Of Messrs, Atkins, Northampton; Day, Oxford; Dickson, 
Acre-lane, Brixton; Flanagan, Mansion-house-street; Gar- 
raway and Co., Bristol; Girling, Stowmarket; M.ackay, 
Badmington ; Nutting, 45, Cbeapside; Ogden, Coventry j 
Orson, Orange row, Kennington ; Wood & Sons, Maresfield ; at 
the Gardeners' Gazette Office, 320, Strand; of Mr. Wildman, 
Hon. Sec. of the Floricultural Society, Grove place, Southampton- 
street, Camberwell; and of Mr. Bowler, Hon. Sec. of the Bene- 
volent Society, Albany-road, Kent-road. 



ECONOMIC LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY, 
I No, 34, BRIDGE-STREET, BLACKFRIARS, LONDON. 

Established 1823. Empowered by Act of Parhament, 3 William IV. 

Lower rates of pkehiium than those of any other offick 

that entitle the assured to participate in the profits, as follows :— 



Age. 

Annual 
Premium 
per cent. 



1 14 71 19 



2 19 9 



3 11 9 



4 8 



The Bonus declared in 1834 amounted upon an average to 16/. 
per cent, ou the premiums then paid; emd in 1839 a second 
Bonus was awarded, amounting on the average to 31/. per cent, 
on the premiums paid during the preceding five years. 

No extra charge for residence in any part of Europe, nor for 
proceeding (in a decked, sailing, or steam-vessel) from any one 
Port thereof to another during peace, to Assurers not being sea- 
faring men by profession. Licenses are granted to go to any part 
of the world upon terms proportionate to the risks. 

Policies on the lives of persons dying by suicide, duelling, or 
by the hands of justice are not void as respects the interests of 
parties to whom they may have been legally assigned. 

Assurances may be effected on any and every day. 

By order of the Board of Directors, 
Ca mpbell James Downer, Secretary. 

HEATING BY HOT WATER, WITH THE CIRCULATION OF 
ATMOSPHERIC AIR. 

J WEEKS & CO., Architects, &c., Gloucester- pi ace, 
• King's-Toad, Chelsea, Hothouse Builders, and Hot-water 
Apparatus Manufacturers, beg leave to inform the Nobility and 
Gentrj' that their business, which has been extensive throughout 
the country for many years, is entirely confined to the BUILD- 
ING OF HORTICULTURAL ERECTIONS of every description, 
and the HEATING of them by HOT WATER; see the 3rd and 
37th Numbers of the Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Referencesmaybehad,and theirworksseen,atMr. Perry'sNur- 
sery, Banbury ; Mr. Green s. Lower Cheam; Messrs. Henderson's, 
Pine-apple Nursei-y ; Messrs. Rollisson's Nursery, Tooting; Mr. 
Knight's Exotic Nursery, Chelsea; Messrs. Low's, Clapton Nur- 
sery ; Mr. Catleugh's Nursery, Chelsea; Mr. Gaines's Nursery, 
Battersea; Mr. Buck's, Portland Nursery ; Mr. Young's, Milford 
Nursery; Mr. Smith's Nursery, Dalston ; Mr. W'oodrofl^s Nur- 
sery, Kensall Green; Mr. Hopgood's Nurseiy, Bayswater; Mr. 
Willmer's Nursery, Chelsea; and at most of the Nobility and 
Gentlemen's Seats in the country. 

Every particular to be had at their Horticultural Manufactory, 
Gloucester- pi&ce, Chelsea, near Sloane- square. 



18 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan, 8. 



Important to the nobility, gentry, and landed 
proprietors in general. ^ 

DONALD and SON, (Goldworth Nursery, Woking, 
near Ripley, Surrey,) have to dispose of from 2000 to 3000 
handsome ENGLISH OAKS, from 9ft. to iGit. high, and from 
2in. to Sin. in circumference, at Is. 6rf. each, if taken one with 
the other; or, if not, at Is. to 2s. 6rf. each. They were large when 
quartered, and have excellent spreading roots. 

EXOTIC NURSERY, CANTERBURY. 
■\T7ILLIAM MASTERS bavins; for many years culti- 

VV vated upwards of THIRTY ACRES of Land as Nursery 
Gardens, beg^s to submit to the public the following List of Fruits : 
PEARS.— W. M. having collected in the first instance, through 
the kindness of the late J. Braddick, Esq., and subsequently from 
his own personal visits to the Netherlands, a large collection of 
the celebrated FLEMISH PEARS, as well as many others from 
■various sources, planted a specimen of each variety in his 
Nursery, and they ha\ing for several years produced fruit, he is 
enabled to pronounce with certainty that many are wholly worth- 
less—some are too tender for our exposure- and that many are of 
the utmost importance on account of their prolific and early 
hearing, as well as of their delicious flavour. Out of a very large 
collection W. M. confidently recommends the following, which 
become fit for use nearly in the order in which thej stand: — 
DESSERT PEARS.— Madeleine, Jargonelle, Williams' Bonchre- 
*:ien, Flemish Beauty, Rouppe. Capiaumont, Beurre Diel, Autumn 
iBergamot, White Doyenne, IMarie Louise, Princess of Grunge, 
Seckle, Monsieur le Cure, Althorp Crassane, Bezy dc la Motte, 
Napoleon, Duchess of AngouK>me, Louise bonne de Jersey. Knight's 
Monarch, Rouse Lench, Swan's Egg, Beurri^ d'Aremberg, Nut- 
meg,, Ne plus Meuris, Passe Colmar, Winter Nelis, Hacon's In 
comparable, Beurre Ranee, Easter Beurre. BAKING PEARS.— 
Royal Coreless, Double de Guerre, Uvedale's St. Germain, Catillac. 
Many other sorts are stilt cultured, but a garden furnished with 
these will produce fine fruit for every season. 

APPLES — W. M. having been a Fellow of the Hort. Society 
nearly from its commencement, has availed himself of t!ie pri- 
vilege cf selecting from that liberaf establishment such sorts of 
Apples as appeared to merit particular notice, and which, added to 
the selections from the famed Kentish orchards and elsewhere, 
have produced a number far exceeding the point of usefulness. 
The whole have been fruited, and the following condensed list is 
particularly recommended. The sorts are arranged as nearly as 
possible in the order in which they become fit for use :— Juneat- 
ing, Borowitski, Kerry Pippin, Quarrenden,Hawthornden, Keswick 
Codlin, Franklin's Golden Pippin, Summer Nonpareil, King- of the 
Pippins, Beauty of Kent, Gloria Mundi, Downton Pippin, Hughes' 
Golden Pippin. Ribston Pippin, Blenheim Orauge, Margil, Sam 
Young, Scarlet Pearmain, Dumelow's Seedling, Forman's Crewe, 
Eeachamweil Seedling, Dr. Harvey, Lemon Apple, Pile's Russet, 
Screivton Golden Pippin, Cornish Gilliflower, Scarlet Nonpareil, 
Knight's Ganges, Court of Wick, London Pippin, Walmer Court, 
Canadian Reinette, Alfriston, Court Pendu, Cockle Pippin, Hub- 
bard's Pearmain, Old Nonpareil, Downton Nonpareil, Braddick's 
■\S'inter Nonpareil, Collins' Russet, Golden Harvey, Dutch Mi- 
gnonne. Hunt's Green Newtown, Norfolk Bcaufin, French Crab. 
With the above selection, fruit for all purposes and all seasons 
ttiay be obtained. 

CHERRIES.— Purple Griotte, Early Black, Masters' White 
Heart, Elton, Black Eagle, May Duke, Kentish, Black Tarta- 
rian, Canterbury Black, Bigarreau, Late Duke, Florence, Small 
Morello, Large Morello. The above have proved the most valu- 
able out of a lai'ge number of sorts. 

PLUMS.— Lawrence's Early, Early Orleans, Hative Royal, 
Orleans. Denyer's Victoria, Greengage, Nectarine, W'^shiiiEton, 
Black Griffin, Catherine, Coe's Golden Drop, Imperatrice, Wine- 
Bour, Large BuUace, Damson, Small Bullace. 

Of PEACHES the following have given most satisfaction: — 
Early Ann, Grosse Mignonne, Early Newington, Noblesse, Red 
Magdalen, Old Newington, Admirable, Royal. 

Of NECTARINES— The White, Elruge, Roman, Newington, 
Violet Hative. 

Of APRICOTS— The Hemsklrke, Large Early, Moorpark, 
Bredp, Orange. 

Of STRAWBERRIES— Grove-end Scarlet, Rbseherry, Old Pine, 
Keen's Seedling, Myatt's Pine, Downton, Elton. 

Of GRAPES Miller's Bui gundy. Sweet water. Muscadine, 
Black St. Peter, White Cluster, Esperione, Hamburgh, Fron- 
tig-nan, Muscat of Alexandria, V«rdelho, Horsforth Seedling, 
Black Damascus. 

Of GOOSEBERRIES, selected out of 80 kinds-Early Green, 
Early Red Rough, Queen of Sheba, Lady Delamore, Warrington 
Red, Rookwood, Roaring Lion, Gunner, Duke of York, Crown 
Bob, Woodward's Whitesmith, Heart of Oak. 

Of NUTS— Cosford, Frizzled, Dwarf Prolific, Knight's Large. 

Of RASPBERRIES^Red Antwerp, White Antwerp, Barnet. 

Of FIGS— Lee's Prolific, Brunswick, Common Purple, Brown 
Kaples, Black Ischia, French Prolific. 

W. Mastkiis offers the above List of Fruits, all of which are 
grown, and nearly the whole of which have been proved in his 
Nursery, as a more complete one than those usually submitted 
to public notice. 

*»* Early Commissions will insure immediate attention. 

SLATE CISTERNS, SHELVES, TROUGHS, &c., 
for Horticultural purposes.— EDWARD BECK, Manufac- 
turer, Isleworth, near Brentford. Orders, W^orking Dravrings, 
&c., forwarded by post, will receive due attention. 

*** Slate Edgings for Flower Borders, &c. 

USTRALASIAN, COLONIAL, AND GENERAL 

LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY COMPANY. 
C.'iPITAL ^200,000— 1^' 2,000 SlIARliS. 
DIRECTORS. 



Edward Barnard, Esq., F.R.S. 
Henry Buckle, Esq. 
John Henry Capper, Esq. 
Gideon Colquhoun, jun , Esq. 
John Edwardes Lyall, Esq. 



C. E. Mangles, Esq. 
J. B. Montefiore, Esq. 
J. H. Ravenshaw, Esq. 
Capt. Sir James Stiriing, R.N. 
William Walker, Esq. 



TRUSTEES. 

Edward Barnard, Esq. J. H. Capper, Esq. T. Richardson, Esq. 

^w(ii7o*-s,Su- F.H.Doyle, Bart., &C. Richardson, Esq. (72, Comhill.J 

HfiiicUors, Messrs. Swain, Stevens, & Co. 

BuTikers, The Union Bank of London. 

Physician, R.D.Thomson, Esq., M.D., 20. Gower-st., Bedford-sq. 

Manager, Major J. A. Willows, E.l.C. Service. 

Secretary, Edward Ryley, Esq. 

The following are soecimens of the low rates of Premiums for 

the Assurance of lOO/., which the method of Investment in Aus- 

tralasia adopted by this Company enables it to offer to the pubhc. 



Age 



Annual Premiums £ijq_z\^2 7 ^2 15 3 ^4 1 8 ^6 3 9 



60 



To EMIGRANTS to the Australasian Colonies, the' Company 
offers the permission to proceed to and reside in any of those 
ShtT^^l^H*'"^ ^^^""^ Premium, and to pay their Premiums and 
f^^^lM T^"*°^ ^^^^^ ^^^'"^ ''' ^hesame. For Residence 
in New Zealand a moderate extra Premium is chEtrged 

r.Z^-M^ PERSONS the Company offers the advantages of the 
£5n n fv. ,^'V^["'^n Subscribed Capital,-of permission to re- 
St^innl >;^ "^^^'^ Premium in their own hands (the portion so 
WW > 'h ^^^ '"^"'f- "P°" *^' ^'''^"''' deducted from the Policy 
Sna^?, nf P ™'' ^ claim )-of Ascending, Descending, and other 
Scales of Premiums, and of Parttcipation in Profits 

Prospectuses and full Particulars may be had at the Offices of 
the Company,No. 12% Bishop sgate- street. By order of the BolrS. 
CHRISTOPHER COUSINS, Accountant. 



NEW ZEALAND COM PAN Y.— TERMS of 
PURCHASE of PRELIMINARY LANDS in the SETTLE- 
MENT of NELSON, NEW ZEALAND. 

GOVERNOR. 

JOSEPH SOMES, Esq. 

DEPUTY- GOVERNOR. 

Hon. FRANCIS BARING. 

DIRKCTORS. 

VISCOUNT INGESTRE, M.P. 

LORD PETRE. 

HENRY A. AGLIONBY, Esq., M.P. 

JOHN ELLERKER POULCOTT, Esq. 

JOHN WILLIAM BUCKLE, Esq. 

CHARLES BULLER, Esq., M.P. 

WILLIAM TAYLOR COPELaND, Esq., Aid., M.P. 

RUSSELL ELLICE, Esq. 

JAMES ROBERT GOWEN, Esq. 

JOHN HINE, Esq. 

WILLIAM HUTT.Esq., M.P. 

ROSS DONNELLY MANGLES, Esq., M.P. 

STEWART MARJORIBANK, Esq., M.P. 

SIR WILLIAM MOLESWORTH, Bart. 

ALEXANDER NAIRNE, Esq. 

THE LORD MAYOR. 

SIR GEORGE SINCLAIR, Bart. 

JOHN ABEL SMITH, Esq., M.P. 

WILLIAM THOMPSON. Esq., Aid., M.P. 

HON. FREDERICK JAMES TOLLEMACHE,M.P. 

ARTHUR WILLIS, Esq. 

GEORGE FREDERICK YOUNG, Esq. 

1. The Court of Directors of the New Zealand Company hereby 
give notice, that a limited number of allotments of preliminary 
Lands, each of which consists of three sections, viz., one acre of 
Town Land, fifty acres of Suburban Land, and one hundred and 
fifty acres of Country Land, are still open for Sale in their second 
Settlement of Nelson. The price of each allotment is 300/. 

2. These allotments were un.soldwhen the general ballot for 
priority of choice was held on the 30th August last ; nevertheless 
the numbers which repiesent them in the original Registry of 
applications were placed in the wheel with all the other numbers, 
and the unsold numbers were drawn promiscuously with those 
which had been previously disposed of; consequently, to each of 
the unsold numbers definite rights of priority of choice (distinct 
in respect to each of the sections above described) have been at- 
tached by the ballot. 

3. Until further notice, any party, or his agent, attending at 
the New Zealand House on any Thursday at three o'clock p.m., 
and producing the receipt of the Company's Bankers, Messrs. 
Smith, Payne, and Smiths, for 300/., will be entitled to draw in 
the presence of the Court of Directors, from a wheel in which the 
registry numbers of all unsold allotments have been deposited, 
with special precautions for their security and for the fairness 
of the proceeding. The register of the original ballot will then 
show to the party drawing any number, to what rights of priority 
of choice he is entitled. 

4. Applicants, therefore, will obtain preliminary allotments, 
on precisely the same terms, witli respect to price and the chances 
of priority of choice, as original purchasers. 

5. A list of the registry numbers, with the rights of choice 
which were attached to each by the original ballot may be seen 
at the New Zealand House, on application to the Secretary. 

6. Present purchasers wiU be entitled to the same privileges, in 
respect to an allowance for cabin passengers (notexceeding25 per 
cent, on the purciiase-mouey), as those who bought allotments 
before the general ballot. 

7. Purchasers not proceeding to New Zealand will be entitled 
to delegate their rights of choice to any agent whom they may 
nominate ; or, if they should prefer it, such choice will be exer- 
cis,ed on their behalf by the officers of the Company. 

By order of the Court, 

New Zealand House, JOHN WARD, 

Broad-street-buildmgs, 1st Jan., 1842. Secretary. 



^1 HE CONICAL HOT-WATER BOILERS invented 

^ by J, Rogers, Esq., may be obtained to any size of JOHN 
SHEWEN, Ironmonger, &c., Sevenoaks, Kent. 

J. Shewen having had every opportunity afforded him by an 
extensive practice to bring this apparatus to perfection, begs to 
offer it as most efficient and economical: it may be seen at 
Messrs. Chandler & Sons' Nursery, Vauxhall ; Messrs. Loddiges', 
Hackney ; Mesars. Henderson's, Pineapple-place; Mr. Knight's, 
King's road, Chelsea; Messrs. Veitch and Son's, Exeter^ and at 
the Gardens of the Horticultural Society of London. 



HOT-WATER APPARATUS FOR HEATING 
HORTICULTURAL BUILDINGS, DWELLING-HOUSES, 
CHURCHES, and MANUFACTORIES, upon improved prin- 
ciples, and at very moderate charges, erected by DANIEL and 
EDWARD BAILEY, 272, HOLBORN. 

D. and E. Bailey having devoted much time to the considera- 
tion of this subject, and had much experience in the erection of 
appai'atus for the above-mentioned purposes, have, by improve- 
ments suggested in their practice, rendered their mode of heat- 
ing not only very efficient, but very simple, and have combined 
durability in the apparatus with economy in the charge. They 
have erected apparatus in England. Scotland, and Ireland, for 
many noblemen and gentlemen, and have had the honour to be 
employed by the Horticultural Society of London, in executing the 
works of their splendid Conservatory, lately erected at Chiswick. 

D. and E. Bailey also construct in metal all descriptions of 
Horticultural Buildings and Sashes, and invite noblemen, gentle- 
men, and the public to an inspection oJ their various drawings 
and models, at 272, Holbom, where they have the opportunity of 
exhibiting, amongst other metal works, an extremely complete and 
convenient kitchen apparatus, or range, adapted for the continued 
supply of hot water, and an arrangement of the oven more com- 
plete than has hitherto been brought before the public. 

D and E. Bailey were the first to introduce metallic curvili- 
near houses to horticulturists, and can refer to the Conservatory 
attached to the Pantheon as one of their works, besides many 
others in this country and on the Continent. 

D.and E.BAit.Evhave prepared a quantity of the Galvanic Plant 
Protectors, which are now ready for immediate delivery ; they 
beg to introduce to public notice a new Trough Pipe, for Orchi- 
daceous or other Houses where vapour is constantly, or at inter- 
vals, required, and which may be seen at their manufactory. 

EXPIRATION OF LEASE AND SALE OF NURSERY STOCK. 
To Noblemen and Gentlemen, Public Companies, Nurserymen, 

Gardeners, and others, 
IV/TESSRS. PROTHEROE and .MORRIS have re- 
J-tJ. ceived instructions from Messrs. Buchanan and Co. to 
announce for Sale by Auction early in February the valuable 
stock growing upon that portion of their Nursery situated in 
Wyndham Road, Camberwell, the lease thereof having expired, 
and being required for building purposes. The stock will be 
found to be remarkably thriving and healthy, consisting of the 
greatest variety of Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Evergreens, 
Roses, American Plants, and Fruit Trees, ever offered to the 
Public by auction. 

Noblemen and gentlemen, and the proprietors of public gar- 
dens, will find this a most desirable opportunity of enriching 
their collections with many scarce and valuable hardy trees and 
shrubs. There are several splendid specimens of Crataegus and 
other ornamental trees; also fine Beech hedges. A consider- 
able portion of the stock will be lotted, to suit those gentlemen 
who have only a limited space adapted for horticultural purposes. 
Catalogues and further particulars will be announced in a few 
days. In the mean time the stock may be viewed by applica- 
tion to Messrs, Buchanan and Co. 



BRITISH SHEET-GLASS for HORTICULTURAL PURPOSES, 

NOHLEMEN, GENTLEMEN, and HORTICUL- 
TURISTS generally, are respectfully informed that they 
maybe furnished with Lists of Prices, and ever> particular re- 
garding the above article, which has been adopted so success- 
fully at Chatsworth, upon application to J. DRAKE, Plate and 
CrowD Glass Warehouse, 8, Jermyn-street, St. James's, and 100, 
Edgeware-road. 

Orders for small or large quantities of Glass for Lights or 
Houses accurately cut to the required size, and punctually exe- 
cuted upon the lowest wholesale terms. Window Lead, Solder, 
Putty, Prepared Cement, and every requisite for Garden Glazing. 



PATENT ASPHALTE PROTECTING MATERIAL. 
■*- — fcxtract Irom Gardeners^ Chronicle, Dec. 25. 1841, p. 843. — 
" In the midst of frost it will not be unseasonable to WEurn all 
our Readers of the great importance of preventing their more 
tender Plants that may have been frozen from being thawed 
suddenly by the sun. All Gardeners know how often Peas frozen 
below a south wall are killed, and that if any contrivance to pre- 
vent their being suddenly thawed is made use of, they recover. 
What is true of Peas is, to a great extent, true of other things. 
A few weeks ago we had a severe frost, 16°; at that time young 
Araucarias exposed to the south died, while others within a few 
yards, but screened from the sun by stone, did not suffer at all. 
We may remark by the way that CROGGON'S ASPHALTE 
ROOFING forms a most excellent material for such screens." 
In page 8 of same Journal, Jan. 1, 1842, is fully described the 
purposes to which it is applied by the Royal Horticultural So- 
ciety. Being a non-conductor it eflFectually protects from heat 
or cold.— Thomas John Croggon, 8, Ingram-court, Fenchurch- 
street, London. 



•"PHE NONCONFORMIST, a Weekly MetropoUtan 
■*- Newspaper.— This Paper— commenced on the 14th April, 
1341, containing a full digest of News clearly arranged, and more 
Original Matter than any similar Journal— has already taken the 
position ot an established organ of Liberal principles both Poli- 
tical and Ecclesiastical. The numerous quotations from it by the 
contemporary press of all parties- its rapidly increasing circu- 
lation—and the unsolicited testimony to its cliaracter furnished 
by seveiai of the leading men of the day, have stamped the 
NONCONFORMIST as a paper worthy the support of all classes 
interested in promoting the cause of civil and religious liberty. 

The NONCONFORMIST contains 16 pages (" Spectator size). 
Price 6rf. Published every Wednesday afternoon at the Office, 4, 
Crane Court, Fleet-street, and may be had of all News Agents. 

In one small volume, price 15s. 

PAXTON'S POCKET BOTANICAL 
DICTIONARY. 

In what may be called an age of Cyclopsedias, when the com- 
pression of a great variety ot information into one volume, in 
order to bring it within the mt ans ol persons of all ranks, is so 
universally sought, it is evidently desirable that the Gardener, 
and those connected with his profession, should be as well ac- 
commodaied as other classes in this particular. No such work 
existing, however, prior tu the issue of the present publication, 
its value will be at once apparent^ since it combines the more 
essential features of a Botanical Catalogue, an Horticultural 
Guide, and a 'Jechuical Glossary. 

Uesides being of this comprehensive description, it is especially 
adapted for the Amateur or Floriculturist; whomay, by carry- 
ing it in his pocket, examine all the planis that are at any time 
submitted to his inspection, and immediately derive evtry intel- 
ligence respecting the peculiarities or afl!inities of particular spe- 
cies which could reasonably be wished for. This is an advantage 
that can only be sufficiently estimated by those who have felt 
the want of such an assl^taut; and to all such individuals., as 
well as to every agent or friend ol horticulture, the Pocket Bota- 
nical Dictionary is decidedly indispent-able. 
London: J. Andrews, Bond-street; Orr & Co., Paternoster-row. 



In cr. Svo. 4s. 6rf. bd.with 220 Diagrams engraved for the work, 

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS OF PLANE GEOME- 
TRY ; with Explanatory Appendix, and Supplementary 
Propositions for Exercise. Adapted lor the Use of Schools, or 
for Self-instruction. By W. D. Coolly, A.B., author of the 
•' History of Maritime and Inland Discovery." 

"This is the best edition of the Elements which has yet ap- 
peared." — Athenceum. "For brevity, clearness, and discerning 
attention to the wants of learners, cannot be easily surpassed." 
— Dublin University Mag. 

II. 
Uniform with the "Elements," price 3b. 6d. 

p OOLEY ' S GEOMETRICAL PROPOSITIONS 

v^ DEMONSTRATED; or a Supplement to Euclid: being a 
KEY to the Exercises appended to the "Elements," for the use 
of Teachers and private Students. Upwards of 120 Propositions 
deduced from the first Six Books of Euclid, are illustrated in it 
by new diagrams. 

" Will be found of considerable value as an aid to Teachers of 
the Mathematics."— iVeu; Monthly Mag. 
III. 
In foolscap 8vo, price \s. 6d. 
pOOLEY'S FIGURES OF EUCLTD ; being the 
V-^ Diagrams Illustrating the "Elements," with the Enuncia. 
tions, printed separately for use in the Class-room. 
%* Orders received by all Booksellers. 

IV. 

FUN FOR THE FIRESIDE 1 ! 
Bound in cloth, price 5s. 6d.f 

TOE MILLER'S JEST-BOOK. 
*^ A Reprint from the first and genuine edition, such omissions 
and alterations only having been made as were required by the 
greater delicacy obseived in modern conversation. But that the 
volume might have some substance, and be a good table or 
travelling book, copious additions have been made from other 
old volumes of Facetiae. 

K a: tract from the Preface. 
'* Another strange circumstance connected with this work je, 
that everybody presumes that he himsell, and everybody else, ia 
perfectly familiar with its contents .... and yet if the reader 
will ask his actjuaintance, it will appear that not one in five 
hundred ever set eyes on a copy, it is inconsequence of like 
questions that this edition is published.'* 

V. 

One Volume, price 7s.6d.t 

THE LIFE AND TIMES OF RIENZI. 
" Not less interesting than Sir E. Lytton Bulwer's elo- 
quent Romance, and scarcely less romantic, is this historical 
record of the Conspiracy of Gahuni.^'—Mo7ith/y Bepoaitury. 

"To all who have read Sir E. Lytton Bulwer's * Rienzi,* its 
perusal is, in a measure, a duty. "~ Spectator. 

" A curious and pleasing volume, and full of matter of histo- 
rical character and illustration."— Li7er«r?/ Gazette. 

" The publication of this work is well timed .... The Life of 
Rienzi is to us full of interest. " — Athenceum. 

" Those that wish to become acquainted with the true history 
of a man who was, in some sort, the JVopo/eon of his own age 
and country, would do well to consult the extraordinary nax- 
ratire of the * Life and Times of Rienzi.' "— TaiV's Magaxint* 
TVhittaker and Co., Are -Maria-lane, London. 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



19 



This day is published, price 6s, cloth. 

THE HAND-BOOK OF CHEMISTRY; with a 
complete Index of refercDce. By G. H. Cauntee, Esq. 
London: W. S. Orr 8t Co.; andW. & R. Chambers, Edinburgh. 



Zi)e Q^avtiemt^' ©f)rontcle* 



SATURDAY, JAN. 8, 1843. 

MEETINGS IN THE ENSUING WEEK. 

TuMdar ZooI..^L-al ai ». K. 

W'tiatti^T .... Mifdico-Boiaaicai . . . 8 P- M. 
Tfaursdaj* . . . ' . . Gardeners' Uenes-oleQt . 1 p. jf. 

AViTBocT entering into the entangled and vexed 
question of Coen-Laws — which, fortunately, is not 
our vocation — we may be permitted to express a de- 
cided opinion that some more efficient means of in- 
crrasing the produce of land than we at present em- 
ploy musl be introduced. To this we will also add, 
that no reasonable doubt can be entertained that it mai/ 
be introduced. The extravagant manner in which 
the substances fitted for this purpose are wasted, and 
the rude mode of preparing that which is principally 
employed, can only be tolerated where food is more 
abundant than the demand for it, and cannot possibly 
go on in a densely-popidated country like England 
unless half the inhabitants are famished. 

This is evidently also the conviction of the farmers 
themselves, and their landlords ; and hence the eager- 
ness with which the important works of Liebig, Spren- 
gel, Cuthbert Johnson, and others have been read, 
in the hope of discovering some method of augment- 
ing the efficacy of those manuring substances we pos- 
sess : hence, too, the unexampled demand for nitrate 
of soda, guano, and other powerful foreign sub- 
stances. 

We have now to announce to our readers the result 
of the application of science to the art of manuring, in 
the form of a report made to the Bath and West of 
England Agricidtural Society.by Mr. G.Webb Hall, as 
given in the Bath Chronicle. The substance of this 
report is as follows : — 

In 1827, a piece of land (from which four successive 
crops of wheat have since been taken) was . sown with 
barley after being manured with ashes obtained by burning 
the weeds from the ground ; the produce did not amount 
to four sacks of barley per acre. In 18;i8, 1839, and 
1840, it was sowed with spring wheat, manured only with 
a new manure, and lime and ashes procured as above. The 
crop after the first year was bh sacks ; in the nest, 6 ; 
the next also 6, averaging 64 lbs. per bushel ; and in 
18-41, the crop while in straw was calculated at seven 
sacks per acre. The crop of straw in each year was ex- 
ceedingly heavy, quite equal alone in value to any one en- 
tire crop of grain or other produce grown on the land dur- 
ing the previous nine years. The last time, prior to 1838, 
this piece of land was sown with wheat, was about eight 
years ago, after a summer fallow, and then it did not pro- 
duce four bushels per acre ; in fact, the crop was so bad 
that the farmer who rented it did not think it worth reap- 
ing, and had it cut with a scythe. There has been no 
stable or farm-yard manure put on this piece of land 
eince that time ; there has been no manure on it of any 
description that could have produced this improvement, 
excepting that which is referred to, and that only in small 
quantities, and imperfectly got up ; and notwithstanding 
these successive crops, the land on which they grew is so 
increased in productive value as to be worth double at 
least that immediately adjoining. In 1836 the value 
of this land was taken by Mr. Armstrong, of Bristol, an 
eminent land-sunreyor, at 15s. 6d. per acre." 

Such was the statement read by Mr. W'ebb Hall, a 
gentleman of unquestionable veracity ; who added, 
that he had himself verified a part of it, and that 
others present at the meeting would testify to the re- 
mainder. There could be no doubt, that by the ap- 
pUcaiion of the manure in question, land valued at 
los. 6d. an acre had been made to carry irhcat four years 
mccess'wely, and that the last year it bore more than 
the first; and this, too, by sowing three pecks and a 
pint of seed, instead often pecks an acre. Samples of 
the straw and the corn were produced, and appeared 
of the best quality. 

It did not transpire how the manure was made ; but 
it was mentioned that a Mr. Daniel, of Twenton, had 
prepared it; that it was a carbonate of ammonia; 
that it could be manufactured at so cheap a rate, that 
20s. worth would suffice for an acre, and that it could 
be obtained to an extent almost unlimited. 

Here then, almost at the outset of a scientific in- 
quiry into the preparation of manures, is a discovery 
by which, upon the best and most disinterested testi- 
mony, the produce of wheat is capable of being in- 
creased sixfold ! 

It would seem that, in this instance, the manure is 
a combination of carbonic acid and ammonia ; but we 
are much inclined to suppose that a mixture of sul- 
phuric acid and ammonia would be as energetic ; and 
■we have some reason to believe that reports upon the 
extraordinary efficiency of this kind of manure, 
fonned by the mixture of gypsum and urine, will, 
before many months, he made by at least one practi- 
Sal agriculturist. 
. At all eyents, the fact that we now lay before oar 



readers ought to show them that our present practice 
with regard to manure is immeasurably inferior to that 
which must be very soon universally adopted. 

The death of the late Professor Don has created a 
vacancy in the Librarianship of the Linnean Society, 
and in the Professorship of Botany at King's Col- 
lege. It is rumoured that Mr. Babington, of Cam- 
bridge, has offered himself for the latter office, and 
we know that two candidates for the former are 
recognised by the Council, namely, Mr. Kippist, who 
was Mr. Don's assistant, and Dr. Leman, a gentleman 
of education, and considerable scientific knowledge as 
a botanist. We also learn that the Council of the 
Linnean Society are divided in their views as to the 
eligibility of the two candidates. Upon this subject, 
then, we beg to make a few remarks. 

The Linnean Society is one of the most respectable 
of the scientific bodies of London, whether we regard 
the members who constitute it, or the proceedings 
which it has published. It is entitled to the support 
of all Naturalists, as being the repository of the papers 
and books of Linnfcus. But we regret to add that its 
finances are by no means flourishing, and that it re- 
quires more than all the support which its friends can 
give it. We shall not enter at present into the cause 
of this, the first Natural History Society of the country, 
declining, at a time when all branches of Natural 
History are cultivated in an unprecedented degree. 
We shaU for the moment only ask the Fellows of 
the Society to consider well what they are doing in 
the election of Mr. Don's successor. 

M'e have stated who the two candidates are ; let us 
add a few words concerning their respective fitness 
for the office they seek. Mr. Kippist is acquiiinted 
with the business of the Society, is diligent, zealous, 
and very respectable, — but he is a mere lad. Dr. 
Leman ^_ on the other hand, is a travelled Naturahst, 
an experienced Botanist, a man of education, and a 
gentleman. Can any member of the Linnean Society 
doubt which it is the interest of the Society to elect ! 
We think not. If any one supposes that the failing 
fortunes of the Society are to be supported by the 
election to the most responsible office it has of a mere 
boy, however respectable, he must have a strange idea 
of human nature. With what satisfaction, let us ask, 
can any Fellow of the Society consult the library if 
he learns that all his inquiries are to be addressed 
to a lad without experience.'' What kind of appear- 
ance will it have with foreigners who visit England, to 
find the representative of the Linnean Society such a 
youth as one of the candidates .^ And yet some per- 
sons — well-meaning but unwise friends of the Society 
— are bestirring themselves in favour of ^Ir. Kippist, at 
the election, which is expected to come on at the next 
meeting, on January 18th. We, therefore, as sincere 
well-wishers to the Society, would call on all persons 
who possess votes to record them for Dr. Leman. 

We wish Mr. Kippist well, we have not a word to 
say against him as the Assistant, and some years hence 
he will be eligible as hbrarian ; but if he is wise, he 
will not now persevere in a contest which, if successful, 
can only injure the Society under which he would 
have to act. 



In a treatise upon Forestmg, the most logical mode 
of proceeding would be toTegin with the beginning, 
when the seed is sown, and to end with the end, when 
the forest-tree is fully grown. But as the observations 
we at present propose to offer are not of so formal a 
character, we may be permitted to treat the subject in 
a more desultory manner, and to commence with the 
very important question of thinning plantations — an 
operation best performed at the present season. 

To look at the plantations in some parts of the 
country, it seems evident that their owners are not 
aware that crowding trees together ruins them ; for 
acres of land may be found in which the trees of all 
kinds have run up to the state of hop-poles. In some 
instances this has been done under the impression that 
the first thing to secure is a straight stem, and that 
when that has been gained, by compelling the trees to 
maintain a crowded growth, they can then be thinned 
at any time— a most fatal error. 

Let any one take a handfid of mustard-seed, and 
with it sow two contiguous patches of ground, very 
thickly, so that when the seedlings come up they may 
be excessively crowded. Leave the plants in one 
without thinning, and from the other patch continu- 
ally remove so many as will allow the remainder of 
the plants to touch without crowding each other. At 
first both patches will present the appearance of green- 
ness and vigour ; but by degrees the crowded plants 
will become more crowded, their green will change to 
yellow, their growth wUl be arrested, and in no great 
time a large proportion will die; or if, when this yel- 
low state has been brought on, they are then thinned, 
the plants that remain will never lose their ori- 
ginal feebleness of habit. None of these symptoms 
of disease wiU, however, present themselves among the 
plants in the patch regtilarly thinned, where, on the 
contrary, the vegetation will h^iealthy and uninter- 



rupted to the last. For this there are two reasons. In 
the first place, the soil can only yield a certain quantity 
of food to the plants that occupy it ; the food may 
be enough for ten individuals, but not for a hundred, 
and may therefore prove an abundance in the one case, 
and cause a famine in the other. In the next place, 
the life of a plant cannot be maintained unless the 
leaves are fully exposed to light and air, which will 
happen when plants are sufficiently separated, but 
will be prevented when they crowd each other. 

Now what is true of the Mustard plants is equally 
so of any other plant, whether herb or tree, and ex- 
plains in a manner familiar to every one the disad- 
vantage of allowing trees in plantations to be drawn 
up by crowding each other. 

The object of a planter is either the decoration of 
his estate, or the profitable investment of capital, to he 
repaid by the production of timber. In the majority 
of cases both ends are sought for ; and they are never 
incompatible. As there is no disputing about taste, 
we shall drop that part of the argument, lest corre- 
spondents should be produced who may maintain that 
a tree loaded with aU the foliage intended for it is less 
beautiful than one in which the greatest possible quan- 
tity is abstracted consistent with the mainienance of 
life. We shall confine ourselves to the question of 
profit. 

That the quantity of timber found in a tree is in di- 
rect proportion to the breadth of its foliage, is what no 
one acquainted with the nature of vegetable life wUl 
dispute. That a crowded tree has less foliage than one 
fully exposed to light and air is self evident. There- 
fore a crowded tree must form less timber than a tree 
freely exposed to hght and air. But this is not a 
question dependent upon reason alone; it is capable of 
being reduced to the plainest evidence. 

Segnius irritant aniraos demissa per aares 
Quam quiE sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus. 

A memorandum from Mr. Hamerton, of Hellifield 
Peel, furnishes it: — The two following transverse 
sections as nearly as possible resemble the originals, 
one of which is taken from a tree of my own growth, 
and the other from a crowded plantation of about 
1000 acres, which it gave me very great pain to view. 
The one is progressively advancing to maturity ; the 
other retrograding, dying year by year — the dimi- 
nution of its concentric rings proving to demonstra- 
tion that it has not room to grow. 




In this case it is sufficiently evident, that in the 
right-hand specimen the growth was at first, when the 
trees did not choke each other, fully as rapid as in 
that on the left, when they continued to be properly 
thinned ; but after the third year, the formation of 
timber in the former case began to be arrested, and 
was immediately after reduced to a minimum quan- 
tity ; whUe in the latter it continued to form, with 
little variation, year by year. 

In the east of Yorkshire there are some thousands of 
acres of plantations going to ruin for want of thinning, 
and a great deal of it is gone already. The same 
friendly hand which sent us the sketch above given, 
has also furnished us with a specimen of Spruce-fir 
from this estate. 

The following are the rates of growth exhibited in 
this specimen : — 
In the first five years the tree grew 26-lOths of an 

Second .... 24 [in. diani. 

Third .... 20 

Fourth .... 12 

Fifth .... 8 

Sixth .... 6 

Seventh . . " . .10 

Here, in 35 years, the tree onlv acquired a diameter of 
ten inches and a half, the annual formation of timber 
beginning to diminish after the 5th year, and rapidly 
after the 1 5th, as the trees became more and more 
crowded together; and it was only after the 30th year, 
at which time the increase in diameter had been re- 
duced from more than o-lOths to little more than 
1-lOth of an inch annually, that the formation of tim- 
ber began to be restored, and this, which was appa- 
rently owing to some accidental clearing, only in a 
slight and very unequal degree ; for, from the section 
before us, it appears that, although on one side an 
inch of increase in diameter took place in five years, 
yet over the principal part of the cbcumference not 
more than two-teulhs of timber iverefonnedin five years. 
Now, had this tree been properly treated, it ought, by 
the end of 35 years, to have been eighteen inches in 
diameter, instead of ten inches and a half. 

But, bad as are the consequences of a crowded 
growth to the formation of timber — and, let us also add, 
to its quaUty, it is not the onlyevU. Plantations which 
have been allowed to remain crowded for many years 
cannot afterwards be thinned successfully. The trees 



20 



THE GARDENERS* CHRONICLE. 



[Jan, 8. 



become bark-bound and rootless, so that they are blown 
over by the fii'st storm. 

Roots, like timber, are formed in proportion to the 
quantity of foliage, and to the space a tree has to grow 
in. A tree whose trunk is divided into limbs, loaded 
■with healthy leaves, fixes itself to the soil by gigantic 
roots, which hold it immoveably, and help it to defy 
the storm. But a tree drawn up to a pole, with a few 
limbs at the summit, has neither the means of form- 
ing roots, nor the space in which to develop them. A 
few fibres are all that it produces, bearing no due pro- 
portion to the head ; and the moment the protection 
of the trees around it is withdrawn, it necessarily falls 
over. Not to go further in illustration of this, our 
readers have only to look now at Kensington Gardens, 
and some years hence to plantations not a hundred 
miles from W indsor. 

It may now be expected that we should offer some 
directions as to the manner of thinning plantations. 
It does not, however, appear to us possible to give par- 
ticular rules for such an operation. Instead, therefore, 
of saying that when a tree is of such a height it ought 
to be at such a distance from those around it, we 
think it far better to state the general rule, which is, 
that no one tree should be allowed to touch another, 
but that they should be allowed to remain as close as 
circumstances will permit, provided they do not touch. 
Practically, it will be impossible to adjust the thinning 
of a plantation with much exactness ; and in the an- 
nual removal of such trees as are touching others, 
spaces much larger than are actually requisite, accord- 
ing to this rule, will be formed. 1 his is, however, a 
great advantage, because it will allow the wind to find 
its way freely among the trees, and will give them suf- 
ficient room to spread their roots about. But this 
part of the subject is connected with the subject 
of pruning plantations, to which we shall advert on a 
future occasion. 

We shall only add that the planter should be care- 
ful to mark during summer the trees that are to be re- 
moved in winter ; because it is only at that season, 
■when the trees are covered with leaves, that it is possi- 
ble to ascertain in what degree deciduous trees really 
interfere with each other. 



CHATSWORTH. 

{Continued from page 3.) 
And now a word about the " Grand Cascade," of 
which the merits have been freely canvassed of late, by 
many names deep in the mysteries of the picturesque, with 
Mr. Loudon at their head. This cascade, as all the world 
knows, consists of an almost interminable flight of broad 
steps, with a water-temple at the summit, from whence 
foaming torrents of water burst forth, and afterwards im- 
petuously descend the stairs. The grandeur of this vast 
flight of water-stairs is undeniable, but it has been objected 
that its termination is meagre (the water escaping into 
underground culverts), and its commencement awkward. 
As regards the "meagre termination," the dissentients 
are right as to the fact, but completely at fault as to the 
means of remedying it. This, however, may safely be 
left in the hands that have already with wonderful skill 
overcome the far greater difficulties that beset the "awk- 
ward commencement," before alluded to, of this famous 
cascade. The awkwardness complained of was this : that 
at the back of the water-temple rose a steep and lofty hill, 
down a portion of which leaped a quasi-natural cataract, 
which was seen bounding from rock to rock, until it lost 
itself for a moment behind trees, to reappear in foam and 
spray, on the roof of the temple ; the transition from the 
supposed natural to the avowedly artificial, as seen from 
the grounds below, being peculiarly abrupt and offensive 
to the critical eye. But how was the blemish to be reme- 
died? A more difficult task could scarcely be imagined, 
and therefore the having completely accomplished it is no 
puny triumph. Returning from Italy, where the Duke's 
keen eye had become familiar with its noble aqueducts, it 
occurred to him that a similar structure abutting against 
the mountain side, and sustained on a long series of arches, 
might with perfect propriety be placed in a position where 
its original intention having apparently been to cross the 
valley, nevertheless, either through the lapse of time or 
the abandonment of the design, the range of arches should 
be suddenly interrupted, and the water which had been 
carried smoothly along the summit of the aqueduct, be 
precipitated with tremendous violence from the point of 
its termination. This grand and most original idea has 
been nobly worked out ; a long range of arches is seen issu- 
ing from the declivities at the back of the cascade, and pro- 
ceedmg in a direct line towards it uutil they have attained 
the height of nearly a hundred feet, when they abruptly 
cease, and the water pours down in a magnificent volume, 
apparently close in tlie rear of, though in reality at a con- 
siderable distance behind, the water-temple, which is thus 
worthily supported, and an air of completeness given to 
the whole scene. When viewed in profile, this unfinished 
aqueduct has also a noble efTcct, The present is, so far as I 
am aware, the only instance in which any structure of the 
kind has been impressed into the service of purely orna- 
s II n'^''^' *^^' scenery. But, however successful the experiment, 
« '^ 'V" ■- • '' '^. "<" probable that it will be frequently repeated— its 
costliness amounting to almost a prohibition. 

But *^-must now hurry on to the Great Conservatory, 
ot which glimpses may have been already caught from 
some of ii^sj higher points in the park and grounds : nor 



l"^^- 



can anything be more beautiful than its appearance as it 
is seen, 

"Gleaming like a silver shield," 
above the level of the woods by which it is surrounded. 
And here let me remark on the peculiarly judicious selec- 
tion of the site, at such a distance from the mansion as in no 
respectto interferewith theeffect of the latter, and yetwithin 
tive minutes' walk of it. There never was, and there never 
will be, an instance of a structure suited to, the habitation of 
plants being tacked on to a building adapted to the habita- 
tion of civilised man without the effect of both being de- 
stroyed. Each has a beauty and propriety of its own ; but let 
none attempt to unite the twain. What a horrid excrescence 

is the Conservatory at ! (any one will fill up the blank 

a hundredfold.)— But to return to the matter in hand. The 
approach lo the great Chatsworth Stove winds through a 
wood, and is excavated to a considerable depth, the banks 
being sprinkled with masses of evergreens, &c., and studded 
with huge fragments of rock. As you come closer to the sa- 
cred territory, a massive arch, of a peculiar character, and 
which it would be vain to range under any of the five or- 
ders, spans the road. This passed, a scene the most ex- 
traordinary and peculiar presents itself, and which has 
certainly no parallel in the world. You are in the midst 
of an extensive clearing, in the form of a parallelogram, 
that has been cut in a wood of " old patrician trees." 
This again has been surrounded by tall embankments or 
terraces, or I would rather call them ramparts, which pro- 
tect a level area, and from which the wondrous Conserva- 
tory rises in all its majesty. The effect of the clearing is 
good, as impressing the beholder with an un-English sensa- 
tion ; while the ramparts, as I style them, are quite in keep- 
ing, inasmuch as they afford a sort of security to the fragile 
edifice within their pale, and which may well be supposed 
to stand in need of some protection of the kind. Terrace- 
walks are carried along the ramparts, and flights of steps 
descend to the plateau at their angles and centres. — Argus. 
[To be continued.) 




CULTURE OP WHEAT IN THE WEST INDIES. 

I HAVE read with much interest the article on the cul- 
ture of wheat in the West Indies, which appeared in the 
Gardeners' Chronicle for the 10th of July last, and con- 
ceiving that a short historical sketch of the attempts which 
have been made to introduce this valuable grain into gene- 
ral cultivation there may not be without utility in promot- 
ing it, or unacceptable to such of your readers as feel de- 
sirous of advancing the prosperity of our West Indian 
colonies, I venture to solicit a short space in your columns 
for the purpose of contributing all the information which 
I have been able to collectupon the subject, abridged frcB 
a " Memoir on the Cultivation of Wheat within the Tro- 
pics," which I printed for circulation in our colonies last 
year, but of which the impression was so small, that few 
if any copies can at present be obtained. 

It is now upwards of 347 years since the first attempt 
was made to cultivate wheat in the Antilles by one of the 
companions of the adventurous Columbus, whose experi- 
ment was made with the most satisfactory results at the 
settlement of Isabella, on the north side of St. Domingo, 
about 10 leagues to the eastward of Monte Christ, in lat. 
19" 58' N. nearly. Of this experiment, the only record 
which I have been able to procure is the brief notice con- 
tained in the following extract from Washington Irving's 
Life of Columbus, vol. 2, ch. xi.,p. 129. 

" The appearance of everything in the vicinity of the 
harbour was calculated to increase his anticipations of fu- 
ture prosperity. The plants and fruits of the Old World, 
which he was endeavouring to introduce into the islands, 
gave promise of rapid increase. The orchards, fields, and 
gardens were in a state of great forwardness. The seeds 
of various fruits had produced young plants. The sugar- 
cane had prospered exceedingly in the soil ; a native vine, 
trimmed with care, had yielded grapes of tolerable flavour ; 
and cuttings from European vines already began to form 
their clusters. On the 30th March, 1494, a husbandman 
brought to Columbus ears of wheat which had been sown 
in the latter part of January. The smaller kind of garden 
herbs came to maturity in sixteen days ; and the larger 
kind, such as Melons, Gourds, Pumpkins, and Cucumbers, 
were fit for table within a month after the seed had been 
put into the ground. The soil, moistened by brooks and 
rivers, and frequent showers, and stimulated by an ardent 
sun, possessed those principles of fecundity which surprise 
the stranger accustomed to less vigorous climates, by the 
promptness and prodigality of vegetation." 

Here we have a striking instance of the successful cul- 
ture of wheat introduced at once, and without any inter- 
mediate acclimatisation, from Europe — a fact which ap- 
pears to be somewhat at variance with the opinion 
expressed in your Paper as to the probable failure of Eng- 
lish red or white wheat, if suddenly transferred to the soil 
of an abandoned sugar plantation. English wheats have, 
I must admit, been the subject of many unsuccessful expe- 
riments, made at my request in various parts of the West 
Indies, especially in the Bahamas, Antigua, and Barbados ; 
but as failure to an equal extent was the result of experi- 
ments with wheat the growth of warmer climates, as 
Sicily, Poonah, &c., and as the temperature of the cycle 
of wheat varies little from the mean temperature of the 
cooler months in the West Indies, I should be inclined to 
look for some other cause of failure than the mere abrupt- 
ness of introduction ; and I should wish to know why the 
experiment of 1494 made with wheat introduced directly 
from the western parts of Spain should have succeeded so 
fully, while even Talavera wheat, the produce of the same 
part of Spain, and Poonah wheat, the produce of the ele- 
vated but hot district adjoining to Bombay, should have 
wholly or partially failed in 1840. The Victoria wheat 
produced from Caracas seed sownia England, retained its 



native properties unaltered by the change of climate, and 
succeeded in the West Indies as well as that introduced 
directly from the region adjoining to La Victoria and San 
Mateo. 

To return, however, to matter of history: — No record 
which has come within my reach throws the faintest ray of 
light upon the subsequent history of the culture of wheat 
in the Antilles, or explains the causes which led to its dis- 
continuance, with the exception of the short and unsatis- 
factory notice taken of its existence in £ubaby Humboldt. 
who, in his valuable dissertation ■' De Distiibutione Geo- 
graphica Plantarum," published at Paris in 1817, says, 
somewhat perhaps too dogmatically, at page 161, that 
" Frumenti quodcunque genus calores plagse sequinoctialis 
jegrS tolerat, ideoque in universum Cerealia Europsea in 
Orbe novo, lat 0° — 10", ea altitudine coli incipiunt, qua in 
zona temperata, lat. 42° — 46° fere crescere desinunt. Ta- 
men ob certas causas, locis proprias, nee satis erutas, in 
Provincia Caracasana, Triticumcolitur propter Victoriam, 
alt. 270 hexapodarum j et, quod magis mirandum, in parte 
interiori Insulae Cubce, lat. 23°, propter Las Quatro 
Villas, in planitie paulum supra mare elevatS." And in 
the fourth volume of his " Personal Narrative," published 
in London in 1819, he admits, at page 111, that the fine 
harvests of Egypt and of the kingdom of Algiers, those of 
the valleys of Aragua and the interior of the island of 
Cuba, sufficiently prove that the augmentation of beat is 
not prejudicial to the harvest of wheat, unless it is attended 
with an excess of drought or moisture. To this circum- 
stance, no doubt, we must attribute the apparent anomalies 
that are sometimes observed between the tropics in the in- 
ferior limit of corn. "We are astonished," he continues, 
"to see to the east of the Havannah, in the famous district 
of ftuatro Villas, this limit descend almost to the level of 
the ocean ; while to the west of the Havannah, on the slope 
of the mountains- of Mexico and Xalapa, at677toi5es of 
height, the luxuriance of vegetation is such that wheat 
does not form ears." 

Struck with the facts furnished by this distinguished 
traveller, but unconvinced by the reasoning adopted for 
their explanation, I resolved to apply myself to the solu- 
tion of the problem, not by the delusive light of theory, 
but by the direct interrogation of nature. Accordingly, 
having through the kindness of Sir R. K. Porter obtained 
a supply of seed from Caracas, I transmitted a portion to 
Dr. Bancroft in August 1834, for trial in Jamaica, 340 
years after its first introduction into the neighbouring 
island of Haiti. The wheat thus sent was distributed 
among some of the niore intelligent and enterprising 
planters, by whom it was tried on the mountains of St. 
Ann's and those of St. Andrew's, with the most satisfac- 
tory results, having been planted in both cases in the 
latter part of January, and been reaped in the latter part 
of April. On one of the estates in the mountains of St. 
Andrew's, called Fair Hill, 2000 feet above the level of the 
sea, a single grain produced 28 ears, yielding altogether 
1500 grains ; notwithstanding which success, the owner of 
the estate informed Dr. Bancroft that he thought it " un- 
likely that the planters would grow the Victoria wheat in 
preference to the Great Corn," Zea Mays. On another 
estate in the same mountains, called Charlottenberg, the 
property of the Hon. W. B. King, an assistant judge of 
Assize, at an altitude of about 4000 feet above the sea, 
"the seed," as Dr. Bancroft informed me, "was sown 
early in March, and received a top-dressing ; in the course 
of a few days it had sprung up three inches above the 
ground ; and as favourable and moderate rains continued 
to fall subsequently, the corn throve, and ripened in the 
early part of June, producing abundantly grain of a larger 
size than the parent seed, the ears being large and full. 
Six of these, for instance, yielded 336 grains, weighing 
half an ounce to each ear." From the success of this 
trial Mr. King was fully satisfied of the practicability and 
advantage of this new culture. — W. Hamilton, M.D., 

Plymouth. 

{To be continued.) 



ON THE CULTURE OF THE POLYANTHUS. 

This beautiful flower has had bestowed upon it a most 
appropriate name, derived from the Greek words ttoAuj, 
many, and avQosy a flower — many-flowered. It is ot the 
natural order Primulacese, and must be considered as but 
a variety of, and derived from, the Primula vulgaris, or 
common Primrose, though some Botanists rather suppose 
it to be the more immediate offspring of the Primula 
elatior,orOxlip, thisagainbeingthought bySir JamesSmith 
and others to be a hybrid between the Primrose and the 
Primula veris, or Cowslip. The great difference between 
tha^ Polyanthus and Primrose is, that while the former 
bears its umbel of flowers on an elevated scape or stem, 
the latter possesses only a sessile stem, the flowers being sup- 
ported on peduncles. By cultivation, however, the Prim- 
rose not unfrequently throws up a stem, bearing an 
umbel of flowers of different colours, as light crimson, 
purple, brown, &c. ; while, on the other hand, the seed of 
the Pojjanthus will often produce plants which are sessile, 
or withbut~'eleifated stems. With these facts before us, 
therefore, and taking into consideration other points of 
more exact resemblance, as of foliage, &c., I am induced 
to consider the Polyanthus as immediately derived from 
the Primrose itself. Its rich and variegated colours pre- 
sent, of course, no difficulties to this derivation of its origin, 
as the effects of cultivation in it are not more remarkable 
than in the Pansy, Pink, Carnation, &c. 

There are, perhaps, none of the peculiar favourites of 
the florist which really require so little care and trouble as 
this flower ; and yet its cultivation is, for the most part, so 
greatly misunderstood and mismanaged, that it is fre- 
quently left either to pine in comparative neglect, or is 
entirely thrown aside as being of difficult and unsatisfac- 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



21 



tory culture. The grand mistake is in the attempt, the 
fruitless attempt, of growing it in pots. So thoroughly 
am I convinced, both by reason and experience, of the 
futility of this mode of culture, that I shall not speiik of it 
further than to state, that it differs but little from the 
treatment proper for the Auricula, which I fully detailed in 
a previous Number of the Chronicle. It is true that the 
Polyanthus may be made to exist in pots ; but its poor, 
stunted growth, when so treated, presents but a miserable 
contrast with the luxuriant large green foliage, bold stem, 
and noble head of flowers, which are invariably obtained 
by the simple means I shall now point out. 

Situation and Soil. — A free and pure air is necessary 
for its vigorous growth ; hence it never does well in con- 
fined situations, or in the immediate vicinity of large and 
smoky towns. It should always be grown in a bed or 
open border, and in one which has an eastern aspect. It 
is most impatient of beat and drought, but delights in a 
cool, or rather moist, and shaded locality, where it can 
enjoy about two hours of the morning sun. Light or 
rich compost are quite unsuitable ; it thrives best in a re- 
tentive soil, from a rich old pasture, to which has been 
added about the sixth part of cow-manure, two or three 
years old, and the same quantity of leaf-mould. The 
natural soil of the garden should be dug; out to the depth 
of a foot, and the space filled up with the above, three 
months previously to planting them, that the bed may 
have become settled before it is required for the plants. 

Planting. — The proper time is at the end of July, not 
later, for it is important that the plants should get well 
established in the soil before the approach of winter. The 
operation should be thus proceeded with. Shorten the 
main or tap-root, as it is called, to within about half an 
inch of the leaves, that a few of the vigorous young fibrous 
roots only may be retained ; with a small trowel make a 
hole in the soil sufficiently deep that the plant, when once 
set therein, may have the very crown of the main root 
covered at least one inch with the soil. It is of the 
utmost importance that the Polyanthus should be thus 
deep set, for the young roots always emanate from the very 
top of the main root, and throw themselves out for the 
most part in a somewhat curved or horizontal manner, 
and it is essential that they should at once meet with 
support, which they cannot do when a superficial method 
of planting is adopted : hence, how frequently do we see 
the common Polyanthus in the borders exhibiting bunches 
of bare curly roots above the soil ! Having well watered 
the bed, the plants require no more care whatever, except 
being kept clean ; they should be left entirely without 
covering or protection in the winter. 

Blooming, tfc. — In spring, as soon as they have thrown 
up their bold stems, and just when the pips (corollas) are 
about to expand, if they are wanted for the purpose of 
exhibition, or to ornament the stage or cool greenhouse, 
they may be taken up with a moderately-sized ball of 
earth, and put into common Auricula pots, for they bear 
this removal without the slightest injury or apparent check. 
Water must now be supplied rather freely, and should occa- 
sionally be sprinkled over the foliage also (avoiding the 
flowers), for this is invigorating to the Polyanthus. When 
in bloom, whether they have been removed into the cold 
frame, &c., or have been suffered to remain in the bed, 
they must be entirely protected from the sun and rain, or 
the richness and beauty of their flowers will be injured ; 
and, as is the practice with Auriculas, the smaller and 
central pips should be thinned out, that the truss or 
umbel of flowers may have a uniform and uncrowded 
appearance. When the bloom is over, the plants should 
be turned out of their pots into the border from whence 
they were taken ; here they must remain, without further 
care, except an occasional watering, till the end of July, 
when they should be taken up, the soil crumbled 
from their roots, and those which present two or 
more heads, divided gently with the fingers, and pre- 
pared and planted as before described. The properties 
which constitute a perfect flower have already, together 
with a plate, been most accurately given in the Chronicle. 

No one who has not seen an extensive^coUection of the 
finest varieties of Polyanthuses can form an adequate idea 
of their extraordinary beauty and loveliness, when treated 
in the above manner. And let not these instructions be 
thought the less of because they are uncomplicated and 
without mystery ; for it is even with floriculture as it is 
with the arts and sciences themselves, that those dis- 
coveries and processes approach the nearest to perfection, 
which are the most simple and devoid of intricacy. 
Let us then, in conclusion, hope that this good old- 
fashioned, old English flower, one of the first and loveliest 
daughters of spring, associated and endeared as it is, 
together with its parent the Primrose and its twin sis- 
ters the Oxlip and Cowslip, with all the mild, pure, and 
innocent delights of our earliest childhood, may obtain in 
the estimation of the florist that consideration to which its 
peculiar beauties so eminently entitle it.—F. li. Homer, 
M.D., Hull. 

SCRAPS FROM~THE LIFE OF A GARDENER. 
Under this title we propose to introduce occasionally 
some papers by a Gardener, which a correspondent has 
put into our hands, in the hope that they may tend to 
show the real feelings and true condition of this important 
class of men, in whose welfare we take a lively interest. 
As genuine pictures of a gardener's life, they cannot but 
have their value, however humble the subject to which 
they relate. 

NO. I. — MY FIRST ADVENTURE. 

From my earliest infancy I entertained a great love for 
flowei-s — while the dance and the game had attractions 
for my play-fellows, they had none for me ; I always 
loved the fields and the green wooda beyond everything 



else, and ever found a peculiar happiness in the place 
where Nature finds a home. I loved flowers for their 
beauty. I was one day busy among my flowers, watering 
and tying them up, for I .always like neatness, when a 
pei-sou came in ; he had been a gardener, .ind a fortunate 
one. He admired my garden and my flowers ; he talked 
with energy on the subject ; he took hold of them ten- 
derly to examine their class and order ; he showed me 
and told me that they were arranged in families, and he 
produced such a thirst for Florieultural information that I 
was resolved to make gardening my trade. My parents 
gave consent, and a place was sought for and found many 
miles from home. I was taken from my kindred, but I 
had one cheering hope, that I should live amongst the 
fairest a«d brightest of created beings. 

It was night, in the latter end of October, when I arrived 
at the Hall, which was situated in the immediate vicinity of 
dark and long woods and plantations ; the night was dark, 
and as I entered the gateway of the paved court-yard all 
was silent and lonely ; no sound was heard but the echo of 
my footsteps. The ancient turrets appeared dhn im utlines 
still darker than the cloudy heavens ; I never felt such a 
sense of loneliness ; the thoughts of my happy, merry home 
and the dear friends I left there came over me, and I was 
sorrowful for the change I had made. There were no 
lights visible in the house, and such an awful stillness 
reigned around that I was chilled into fearfulness : of all 
the lonely places to be found there is not one to compare 
with a large house in the country, when the family has 
left. With Hallerton Hall, where I then was, this was 
particularly the case. At last I saw a light glimmering 
in the distance, and to it I rep.aired, passing through 
solemn arches, until I arrived before a small house. I 
stood at the door a little while considering what to do ; at 
last I knocked, and was bid to come in by a voice any- 
thing but lemark.able for its sweetness. I did so, and in 
a chair opposite a comfortable fire sat an old man ; his 
hair was grey, and his forehead was wrinkled with fur- 
rows of thouglit ; his table was covered with dried spe- 
cimens of plants, and living ones were scattered about in 
confusion, in the midst of which a microscope was stand- 
ing. It required no telling, but I .at once knew that this 
was to be my future master. I inquired if Mr. H artley 
lived there — his answer was, " Yes, I am heT^'^Ttlien 
handed him my letter of introduction — he told me to sit 
down, and broke the seal of the letter and read it through. 
I watched his features during tlie time, as if to read my 
future fate in his countenance, but it was rigid and fixed 
like a statue. I took advantage to look about me while he 
was engaged ; his room was hung round with shelves, on 
which rested rows of books and piles of dried specimens 
bound and tied in their cases, together with many papers 
of his own ; he was happy in the midst of his own books 
and the pursuance of the study he loved. After reading the 
letter, he eyed me with a glance so keen and penetrating, 
thatmyeyes fell in the struggle to return his scrutiny, and I 
felt my own littleness and incapability. He said, " So you 
are come to receive instructions from me, young man V 
"Yes, sir," was my rejoinder. "Well, "he said, "you must 
be attentive and industrious at your trade, you must be 
obliging and friendly to your fellow-workmen, for your 
success depends upon the good fellowship existing between 
you and your companions in labour — for they will have it 
in their power to show you more than I can ; be indus- 
trious and obliging, and you will succeed — but be pre- 
sumptuous and saucy, or impertinent, and you will rue 
it."—W. P. 

(To be continued.) 



THE AMATEURS' GAilDEN.— No. II. 

The directions which were given last week concerning 
the protection of greenhouse and half-hardy plants ought 
to be carefully attended to. Amateurs should always bear 
in mind that the beauty of the greenhouse and flower-gar- 
den in summer depends upon a little attention being paid 
to these things now. All that is required, is to protect 
them and keep them alive, but not to force them into 
growth with a high temperature ; they will grow fast 
enough when the season is more advanced. 

Half-hardy plants in the lawn or borders ought to have 
been protected long ago ; but if in any cases this has not 
been done, it may not yet be too late to do so. Decidu- 
ous shrubs, such as Fuchsias, may be tied up and thatched 
over with dry fern-leaves or straw, in a conical form, to 
throw off the wet. The asphalte roofing described by Mr. 
M'lntosh will be found very useful for evergreens, such 
as Rhododendrons and Camellias ; or frames made with 
stakes and hoops, and covered with mats, may be used 
for the same purpose : in both cases, however, they should 
be made with sloping roofs to carry offtlie rain, and each 
should have a door on the north side, which can be opened 
when the weather is favourable. Many things may be 
used for covering tender herbaceous plants or bulbs, such 
as leaves, ferns, straw, or old tan ; ashes will do if no- 
thing else can be had. 

As many of our friends have little fruit-gardens as well 
as pleasure-ground and flower-beds, it may be proper to 
remind them that the season is at hand for making any 
additions to their collections of fruit-trees, and also for 
getting those into a good bearing state which they now 
possess. If trees degenerate from a healthy or fruitful 
state, the cause will generally be found in the depth of the 
roots or in the wetness of the soil ; the remedy in these 
cases is a most simple one, which any amateur may easily 
perform. The trees should be taken up with care, and 
all the roots preserved except the more perpendicular 
ones ; the latter should be cut close off, and those hori- 
zontal ones which extend to an inconvenient length may 
be shortened. If the soil is cold and wet, it ought to be 
taken out to the depth of two feet six inches, and the bot. 



torn paved with stones or bricks, and well drained with 
brick rubbish, the object being to prevent the roots from 
running too deep and getting into a cold and wet subsoil. 
The drainage may be about a foot in depth, and then co- 
vered over with another foot of soil, upon which the roots 
ai ■; spread out and fastened down if necessary. The 
whole may then be covered over, the trees pruned, and, if 
large, supported with stout stakes until the roots get suffi- 
cient hold ot the ground. Where the bottom is dry, the 
drainage will not be required ; the only thing necessary 
in this case will be to raise the roots. This operation 
will generally be a sufficient check to the luxuriance of 
the tree; if not, a trench can be cut round it the following 
autumn, about three or four feet from the stem : the dis- 
tance, however, should be regulated by the luxuriance of 
the tree, the object being not to kill, but to check and to 
cure. Much useful information will be found on this 
subject in the former volume of the Gardeners' Chroni- 
cle.— R. F. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 
Gesnera Elongata a Greenhouse Plant. — This being a 
very desirable plant, from its flowering at the present sea- 
son when little else is to be had, perhaps it may be accept- 
able to some to know that I have found it succeed better 
in a greenhouse than in the stove. Having two plants, 
one was this summer placed out of doors and removed to 
the greenhouse in the autumn ; it is now at a temperature 
of 55°, loaded with bloom and in the highest health. The 
other was kept in the greenhouse and afterwards in the 
stove ; it is much more weakly, the flowers are paler, and 
not half so abundant as those of the former. — C. D. 

Improvement of the Red Currant. — I wish I could 
persuade some influential individual in South Lancashire 
to endeavour to prevail upon the growers of the Goose- 
berry, to grow the Red Currant instead, with a view to 
prizes. They who are acquainted with the writings of 
Mr. Knight will know that he paid some attention to the 
improvement of this fruit, and raised two or three im- 
proved varieties. He had arrived at the conclusion, from 
his extensive experience, that fruits which in their unim- 
proved state are acid, first become sweet and then insipid 
by improved culture and successive generations, and on 
that account he considers that the Apple and Gooseberry 
alone, of our fruits, have been shown in the greatest state 
of perfection, nearly what they have the power of acquir- 
ing in our climate. Mr. Knight, in a letter written a very 
short time before his death, laments that the improvers of 
the Gooseberry did not in preference select the Red Cur- 
rant. Culture, he observes, has a tendency to render 
fruits less acid, and, to some extent, more tasteless ; and 
the Currant, on that account, promised a wider extent of 
improvement than the Gooseberry. And he thought it 
not improbable that the Red Currant might be made, by 
successive generations and improved culture, a sweet, 
perhaps a very sweet fruit. Many varieties of the Goose- 
berry which we now have, are grown to three times the 
size they were when the workmen of Lancashire first 
grew them for prizes; and the best of the Red Currants 
we have are not much larger than the wild fruit of the 
plant. If only one energetic and influential individual in 
the Gooseberry districts would take the matter in hand, 
the object would, I think, be readily accomplished. Let 
it only be explained to the men why it is desirable that 
they should substitute the Red Currant for the Goose- 
berry, supply them with cuttings or plants of the best 
known varieties, and let them have a printed account of 
the mode of cross-breeding, with a plain statement of its 
objects and effects. As their object in cultivating the 
Gooseberry is principally amusement, I think it is advis- 
able that, at the shows amongst themselves, size should 
slill be the test of merit. I question if we should have 
had so many good varieties of the Gooseberry if flavour 
as well as size had been taken into consideration at their 
shows. About the mere size of a fruit there can be no 
mistake — no room for unpleasant disputes about the sup- 
posed unfairness of the awards of the judges : but if gen- 
tlemen connected with the Horticultural Societies in these 
parts would offer a medal or some other prize worth con- 
tending for each year for the best-flavoured Red Currants, 
the prize to be accessible to all without the payment of 
any subscription, then, I think, it is probable that they 
might be induced to endeavour to raise varieties uniting 
excellence of quality with large size. And if, in addition 
to this, two trees of each of the best seedlings were sent 
to the garden of the Horticultaral Society of London, 
there to be grown, and if another and more valuable 
medal was awarded by that society — say once in three 
years — for the seedling which was proved to be the best, 
it would act as a further stimulus. The thoughts of their 
exertions and amusements being thus recognised and ap- 
preciated by such a powerful society, would, 1 consider, 
have a very beneficial efi'ect ; and I think that such a pro- 
ceeding would be in accordance with the objects of the 
society, and well worthy of its attention. — John Townley. 
Root-pruning. — Root-pruning and the benefits to be 
derived from it cannot be too clearly pointed out to the 
readers of the Chronicle. Its application to Hollies, 
Yews, Junipers, Portugal Laurels, and evergreens gene- 
rally, in the nursery, where they are taken up at least 
every two years, root-pruned, and replanted, furnishes the 
plants with a mass of roots that will ensure their safe re- 
moval with as much certainty as many other trees and 
shrubs, provided their roots are not allowed to get over- 
dry in transmission from the nurseries. A little research 
will prove that neither Mr. Billington, Mr. Errington, or 
Mr. Rivers can lay claim to the merit of having been the 
first to publish the root-pruning system. If they will 
refer to the Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural 
Society, vol. i. page 84, published in 1814, they will find 



22 



THE GARDENEHS' CttRoNlCLE. 



[JaII. 8, 



an essay on the cultivation of French Fears, by Mr. J. 
Smith, gardener to the Earl of Hopetoun, where root- 
pruning is hinted at ; and at page 104 is a short account of 
the state of the fruit-trees on the garden-walls at Loan- 
wells, near Kirkaldy, by Mr. Sang, where he says, " I had 
formerly experienced the good effects of cutting the 
roots of fruit-trees which were too luxuriant in growth. 
I found it necessary to shorten them, not only to stop the 
rambling growth complained of above, but to furnish the 
tree with proper feeders, in order to render it fruitful." 
Had Mr. Sang considered the system new, he would no 
doubt have entered more into particulars as to how the 
operation should have been performed. The above gives 
a priority of publication before Mr. Billington of 11 years. 
The priority of practising the system may also be traced 
back to earlier than 1800, the date of the commencement 
by Mr. Billington ; the trees that were the subject of the 
above-quoted paper having been planted by Mr. Sang in 
1792, who before that date, and before he resided at Loan- 
wells, I know had been witness to the good effects of 
root-pruning wall-trees as practised by a gardener in 
Fifeshire, both to render them fruitful and to check their 
farther growth when they had nearly covered the wall. 
No doubt hundreds of gardeners have both invented and 
practised root-prunin», whenever the necessity for doing 
10 presented itself, without ever considering that they had 
made any wonderful discovery. — D. Cameron, Botanic 
Garden, Birmiiigham, 

Temperature of Germination. — In respect to the time 
of germination of Peas at various temperatures (page 832, 
1841), I observe that it is omitted to state whether the 
temperature be that of the air or the earth. At Meerut, 
in the East Indies, Peas sown in December, when the 
temperature of the air is about 70° in the day, and some- 
times as low as 40^ in the night, appear above ground in 
about five days. The temperature, occasionally, is below 
the freezing point at Meerut about a quarter of an hour > 
before sunrise, at the end of December and beginning of 
January. In 1818 and 1819, the thermometer fell as low 
as 30° on the 14th and loth of February ; the Wheat and 
Barley crops then in ear were all cut off, and a famine 
ensued. — Anon. 

The Radiating Power of Hot-water Pipes. — Amongst all 
that has been said yet on the heating of houses, we have 
seen no notice taken of the radiating power of the sub- 
stances employed as pipes. When the radiating power of 
lamp-black is 100, polished iron is estimated at 15; and 
though rough cast-iron, and oxidated on the surface, will 
be much more, still it would add greatly to the effect, to 
have them coated with lamp-black. One of the greatest 
benefits to be derived from Mr. Corbett's open gutter 
system, will be the radiating power of water, which is 
equal to lamp-black. The new improvement lately sug- 
gested in steam-boilers, to connect the fire and water by 
pins of iron passing from the fire through the bottom of 
the boiler into the water, thus conducting the heat at 
once to the water, should be useful, especially when speedy 
effect is wanted. — R. Lymburn. 

Oxalis Crenata. — I have no doubt that the writer in 
the New Farmers Journal speaks of Oxalis crenata and 
knows nothing of the Deppei, and I am glad you noticed 
his letter, as I hope your observations may lead to further 
remarks from some of your correspondents on the respec- 
tive merits of these two new vegetable products. I know 
nothing of Oxalis Deppei as a vegetable, but I am glad to 
say that I am pretty well acquainted with O. crenata, 
having grown it in my kitchen-garden I believe upwards 
of eight years, and consider the stems when young far 
superior in tarts to either Rhubarb, Apples, or Gooseber- 
ries. I cannot say, however, so much for its tubers, which 
I have given up dressing, finding no one likes them ; but 
some of my neighbours who also cultivate the Crenata tell 
me that its acid leaves are a great addition to a bowl of 
salad, but of this I am no judge, never eating salads my- 
self. I think it, therefore, very probable, that while 
Oxalis crenata is valuable for its leaves and stems, Oxalis 
Deppei may be more bo for its tubers — but I cannot con- 
ceive that the latter is as superior to the former as " a 
Crab Apple to a Brown Beurre Pear " for tarts and pud- 
dings. — a. /3. 7. 

Truffles. — I am not aware that any mode has hitherto 
been devised of propagating that culinary luxury the 
Truffle in gardens, as in the case of the Mushroom, now 
so successfully cultivated ; but I apprehend that indivi- 
duals possessing parks where it grows naturally, may, by 
a simple process, greatly extend its produce. Many years 
ago, when residing at Highclere, I had much amusement 
in watching the operations of the Truffle-hunter and his 
dog, a pair of originals, who occasionally came from the 
neighbourhood of W'interslow, and obtained permission to 
pursue their professional avocations in the park. I could 
not help observing that the old man confined his attentions 
principally to certain old and umbrageous Beech-trees, 
whilst others of much younger standing were passed by 
nnvisited ; and a little inquiry elicited the fact that he 
had become practically acquainted with every individual 
tree, and consequently spared himself the trouble of in- 
vestigating those which experience had shown him to be 
unproductive. Reflecting upon this matter, it seemed to 
me that the sterility of these younger trees in Truffles ad- 
mitted of explanation. They were thinly interspersed 
among the older trees, and they had been brought 30 years 
previously from a distant grove, where no Truffles existed, 
to their present locality, differing in soil, which was on a 
substratum of chalk. Now it was not easy to apprehend 
in what manner the seeds of this subterraneous plant 
could transfer themselves from one tree to another, at a 
considerable distance. It was clear that the process must 
always be slow and accidental. Might it not be assisted 
by art ? Snch was the train of thought which led me to 



propose to the old Truffle-hunter to bnry at the proper 
depth some of his Truffles that were in a state of decay 
and unfit for the table, under one of the unproductive 
trees sufficient in stature and in umbrageous develop- 
ment. At the beginning of the next winter, when his 
visit was repeated, he sought for me, and told with great 
satisfaction that my scheme had answered, for he had 
found two or three pounds of excellent Truffles beneath 
the hitherto barren tree under which we had experimented. 
I urged him never to throiv away an unserviceable Truffle, 
but always to dispose of it in a similar manner; and I 
know that he did so for two or three years. By following 
this example, proprietors of places adapted to Truffles, 
and where the proper trees have been planted, may in a 
short period do that which a lapse of years unassisted 
would not effect. I may here observe, that of all trees 
the Cedar of Lebanon is the most favourable to the growth 
of the Truffle.— J. R. Gowen. 

Root-pruning. — When I first came to my last place, the 
orchard had been planted 12 years, without one bushel of 
fruit per year having been obtained, and yet the trees 
looked well. When they were first planted, the ground 
was trenched to the depth of three feet, the soil being a 
moist brick earth ; however, I caused three or four of the 
largest roots to be cut off each tree ; iu the autumn and 
the following spring the benefit was visible, for the trees 
were covered with blossom, and in the autumn I gathered 
above 20 bushels of Apples, and from that time there has 
been on an average 30 or 40 bushels per year. The wall- 
trees were also pruned at the roots in the same manner as 
the orchard, and for the last nine years there has been a 
full crop. After the orchard had been planted some years, 
another piece of ground was added to it ; this was merely 
turned up with the plough, and the trees were planted ; but 
though the trees never grew quite so strong as those on the 
other part, they always bore well, even the first year after 
planting. — A Constant Reader, Ryde. 

Icehouse Filling. — A few years back I had the charge 
of an icehouse built on the declivity of a large pit ; it was 
egg-shaped, bad double walls, with a cavity of six inches 
between the walls closely filled with pounded charcoal, 
the dome being well secured and thatched over, and the 
outer walls protected as far as possible from the influence 
of the weather ; the drainage was good, and the house was 
surrounded by a close plantation of tall trees on the S. W. 
and north ; but this seemingly well-constructed house pre- 
served ice indifferently, and some seasons barely until the 
end of August. As this was the case, when filling the 
house I used salt and boiling water with complete success. 
The diameter of the house was 14 feet, and on every layer 
two feet deep of well-broken ice I poured 14 gallons of 
boiling water, having as many pounds of salt dissolved in 
it, and finished at the top with a double quantity. This 
solidified and cemented the mass so closely that the house 
contained about 15 tons more than in any previous year ; 
and when required for use, the force of a strong pickaxe 
was always necessary to break it up. At the time of re- 
filling there was a quantity of the old store remaining. 
This was unprecedented in the history of the house, and 
showed the benefit of salt and water, for in every other 
respect the house was filled as usual. Where there is a 
small house and a bad preserver, I think it would be ad- 
visable, when filled and about to be closed up, to have a 
few loads of well-broken ice thrown into the passage, 
covered with dry wheat-straw — and this will give an early 
supply for several weeks ; and whenever the house is 
open the ice should be regularly taken from the sides and 
a few days' supply placed in the passage ; this saves open- 
ing the house daily, and the consequent waste of much 
ice. — H. Boti'ers, Laleham. 

Fruit-tree Borders. — Several interesting articles on 
Root-pruning fruit-trees have appeared lately in the 
Chronicle, but though it is a subject of importance, yet I 
think the necessity of making properly-prepared bottoms 
to fruit-tree borders cannot be too strongly advocated, be- 
cause even root-pruning and shallow planting will only be 
a temporary relief from the evils complained of, unless a 
properly-prepared bottom is made the whole width of the 
border. This will keep the root near the surface, and in 
great measure prevent the necessity of root-pruning, and the 
want of fruit for one or two years after that process. It 
is of little consequence what sort of materials the bottom 
is made of, so that it is impervious to the roots ; perhaps 
in a wet or swampy soil, about a foot of small stones or 
brick-bats well blended on the surface would be equal to 
anything else that could be used, as the surface would be 
impervious to the roots, while the bottom would act as a 
drain. We have lately made a bottom to a Peach -wall 
border in the garden here at a trifling expense, as the 
stones were near at hand, and the work was done by the 
garden labourers. Some of the trees on this wall had 
been planted about 20 years, and I am informed that they 
produced excellent crops of fruit for several years after 
they came into bearing, but the roots having penetrated 
into the subsoil, the trees became less fruitful, and were 
annually attacked with mildew. The leaves were curled 
and diseased, and they never ripened their young shoots 
in the autumn to form blossom-buds for the following sea- 
son. Considering that nothing but making a bottom the 
whole width of the border would be of permanent benefit, 
I commenced at one end of the border by digging out a 
trench two feet deep, nine feet wide, the whole width of 
the border ; this being half the space allowed for each 
tree, enabled me to get the roots carefully taken up ; they 
were then pruned more or less as it was found necessary. 
The whole of the trench was then paved with stones of 
any sort or size that came in the way, from two to nine or 
ten inches thick ; they were laid to a level 20 ins. below 
the surface of the border, and sloped a little towards the 
walk ; the joints were filled with small pieces of stones ; 



then new slacked lime and gravel, such as is generally uses 
for garden-walks, were mixed with water, and made similar 
to mortar ; it was then mixed with more water, and when 
it was laid on the pavement it partly ran into the joints, 
and the rest was worked in with a broom until every 
crevice was full. The soil of the next trench was thrown 
npon the one finished, and so on until the whole border 
was done. — J. Alexander, Carton Gardens. 

Cucumbers and Melons. — In pp.814, 815, (1841,) there 
are some remarks respecting the advertisements of new 
Cucumbers and Melons, and I think the fairest way to test 
them is for gardeners to speak of them as they find. I 
am a fancier of Cucumbers and Melons myself, and gene- 
rally succeed pretty well. Amongst other things last 
spring, 1 had a little seed of Allen's Victory Cucumber ; 
but having supplied myself with plants of other sorts be- 
fore, I did not give it the attention it should have had. I 
grew one plant in a pot in which Carnations had been 
flowered, and it produced eight fruit at one time, three of 
these upon one stem ; one measured twenty-six and a 
half inches long, another twenty-six, and the third 
twenty-four and a half. The form and colour of Allen's 
Victory are all that could be wished ; my fruit were as 
straight as a line, and regularly swelled from top to bottom ; 
but what pleased me was its prolific disposition. I only 
suffered my plants to mature eight fruit, and these I kept 
for seed, as I intend to grow the kind again, for I believe 
it to be the best for a house, though perhaps Kenyon is 
the best adapted for early frame forcing, at least I have 
found it so. I know about 30 varieties of Melons, and t 
have grown most of them, but both for crop and flavour 
I have never found any equal to the Ispahan. Last year 
I cut ripe fruit on the 26th of May ; the'worst fault it has 
is the difficulty of getting a second crop, for it is apt to 
rot off at the main stem, if the grower is not cautious in 
watering. I always put a wire trellis all over my beds, 
six or eight inches above the soil, and train the plants over 
it. I water without a rose, and never pour the water 
within a foot of the stem. I grew the Pine-apple Melon 
last year from seed procured from the Horticultural 
Society ; it is an excellently-flavoured fruit, but I found it a 
shy bearer. The Beechwood Melon also sent out by the 
Horticultural Society I grew last year, and found every 
way worthy of cultivation ; but there appears to be little 
difference between it and the Ispahan, except that the 
former is netted, and the latter smooth ; but this is not 
always the case. — Robert Towers, Gr, to D. Waterhouse, 
Esq., Aitjburth, Liverpool. 

Vineries. — The accompanying section of a Vinery is of 
the form, in my opinion, best suited for keeping late 
grapes. I was struck on seeing it towards the end of 
November with grapes in as good a state of preservation 
as they are generally seen during the summer months, 
and that without lighting a single fire. My attention was 
more particularly called to this subject from the fact of 
my having had a late house of grapes under my care, and 
in which, although I had the command of fire-heat to the 
fullest extent, I was unable to keep the fruit. I may, 
however, remark that my house was in a much more un- 
favourable situation than the one here alluded to. The 
great superiority which a house of this construction has over 
the old form is, first, that by the nearly upright position 
of the glass, scarcely any of the rays of the sun are lost ; 
while, for the same reason, scarcely a drop of wet can 
find its way into the house. Another recommendation 
for this plan is, the small space to be heated; conse- 
quently the temperature can the more readily be raised to 
any degree required. This kind of house would also be 
the very best for early forcing, as from the small space to 
be heated, one boiler placed in the centre would be quite 
sufficient for heating a house of 150 feet in length. This 
kind of structure differs very little from that recommended 
by the late Mr. Atkinson, except in the more upright 
position of the sashes ; and probably the method of ven- 
tilation adopted by Mr. Atkinson would be found the 
best. The upper sashes could, however, be made to slide 
up and down if necessary. — A. Saul, Castle Hill. 




A, back wall J B, rafters j C, trellis upon which the Vines are 
trained which are planted inside j D, parapet wall upon which 
the sashes rest at bottom ; E, ground level. 

Peas in Pots. — I have found the following method very 
successful for having early peas ready by the 1st of May, 
and I think it may be advantageous for gardeners who 
have extensive Vineries under their care. The Peas are 
supposed to be ready for transplanting by the 1st of 
February ; so that the same sowing does for the first out 
of doors as well as for those I am about to mention. The 
seedlings are removed from the boxes or pots where they 
have been thickly sown, when about four inches in height, 
and are planted thinly into large pots (twelves) which 
have b^en hUed with good soil, not too rich._The; aie 



i 



1842.] 



tHE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



23 



staked with moderately strong willows, and run round at 
distances of six inches with small twine, which has a 
neater appearance, and does not shade so much as com- 
mon pea-sticks. The situation I have found quite suit- 
able is the back walls of the late -vineries. The pots so 
filled and staked are placed on the top of the back flues, 
elevated to the glass as near as the stakes will permit ; 
where they are to remain till the crop is gathered, which 
will be from the 1st to the 15th of May. It will 
readily be seen that the Peas are certainly kept from the 
frost and severe weather, and have always plenty of air 
when the weather is fine. They are watered rather 
sparingly at first, but plentifully as they advance into 
bloom. The following is the result of two years' e.xpe- 
lience on the above method : — In 1839 and 40 I gathered 
a peck of Peas on the 1st day of May ; on the 11th of 
last May, above two pecks ; and a peck on the 15th, 20th, 
and 25th days of the same month. The whole was ga- 
thered from pots standing on the back flues of two vine- 
ries each 40 feet in length. I have tried the early-frame 
Pea, the Warwick, and Thompson's early dwarf; but I 
have found very little difference as to earliness or pro- 
duce. I have tried to force Peas in pits and various ways, 
and have found that they will not bear forcing till they are 
out of bloom, and the pod set ; then they will bear it, and 
be forwarded admirably. I have tried them in the autumn 
on the same principle, but could not get them after the 
20th of Nov.— iV. Wilson, Gopsall. 

Bad Buller. — In reply to " R." I have to say that the 
cause of the butter being bad, was nothing of the kind 
(upposed by those who noticed my inquiry, and conse- 
quently Mrs. M.*s directions were nothing new, as every- 
thing about the dairy was perfectly clean. The only cause 
seems to be the cows having eaten the tuberous-rooted 
Kanunculus ; for when that plant died down in the autumn, 
the butter improved. To get rid of such a nuisance, it 
would appear necessary to pare and burn the sod, paring 
so thick as to take up the roots. As the field I com- 
plain of is not my own property, I cannot attempt this 
process. The curious thing is, that it is only after the 
butter is made that the bad taste comes out, the milk and 
the cream being perfectly sweet. — A. B. 

Cuthill's Early Melon. — I was last year struck with 
the advertisement in the Chronicle respecting " Cuthill's 
Early Melon," and I was induced to buy a packet of his 
seed. As he has been alluded to by a correspondent, in 
p. 731,(1841,) who, it appears, has made an unsuccessful 
attempt to grow it, I am sure you will consider it justice 
to Mr. Cuthill that I should state that it proved with me 
fiilly equal to the character given of it. It was early, a 
great bearer, it continued to bear for a long time ; the fruit 
was well shaped, of a rich colour, with a sweet and high 
flavour — its rind so thin and its flesh so deep, that though 
a small-sized Melon, there was more to eat of it than in 
some other kinds of double its size. I have, for a number 
of years, successfully grown a variety of Melons ; but this 
season, in our part of the country, was so wet and cold, 
that I should have had little fruit, had I not sown Cuthill's 
seed. A nurseryman, near me, grew it with similar re- 
sults ; and has informed me that other persons in this 
country have found it equally good. — C. A. Walker, Bel- 
mont, Wexford. 

Cepophilus — of the Home Correspondence of the 
Chronicle of the 1st of Jan., describes himself as garden- 
ing in " Lat. and Long. 35°." I beg to ask where that 
may be ? Is it in N. or S. Lat., in E. or W. Long. ? I 
have looked on a map for the position of the spots on the 
earth's surface corresponding witli that described by your 
said correspondent, but not finding any spot suitable for 
such pursuit, I am at a loss to guess at his " whereabout," 
and trouble you with this line of inquiry. — A. B. oj Wood- 
bridge — [We overlooked the absurdity of " Cepophilus" 
dating from a place where, as another correspondent truly 
says, " his HnUies were not likely to vvant water for some 
years to come."] 

Ice. — Your Hull correspondent has, I fear, given you 
an over-safe plan for the keeping of ice ; as it would be 
impossible to get it out at the bottom of the house, for 
this reason — the whole of the ice, when put into the house. 
Would of course very soon form one entire solid mass : 
consequently, when ice is wanted, it is necessary to use a 
pickaie to break it up, which could not be effected with 
the aperture at the bottom. I have been in the habit of 
filling icehouses for the past fourteen years, and invariably 
have found the ice to keep better when I was able to be 
present myself to superintend the well pounding and pack- 
ing of the ice ; and upon these two points, I consider, 
rests the principal secret in keeping ice. — T. Parkins. 

Edgings. — In the Gardeners' Chronicle, Oxalis ace- 
tosella, Vinca minor, and Omphalodes verna, are all 
three recommended to form edgings to shady walks: allow 
me to add to the above the two species of the genus Chry- 
sosplenium, C. oppositif6Uum, and C. alternifolium ; they 
are both suitable plants for an edging to a shady walk, 
and I strongly recommend them as they are not particular 
to a shade. Should it be a dark one, they will grow in 
either a wet or dry situation, and form a low and compact 
edging, not more than four inches high, always green ; 
and in the months of March and April, they send up their 
numbers of small yellow flowers in abundance. — T. Fuller, 
Bramham Park. [This is very good when the plants can 
be had, but that is not often.] 

Double Yellow Rose. — I have just finished reading your 
article in the Chronicle regarding the Double Yellow Rose, 
in which you say you have not heard of one north of 
Cheshire. Having had one for some years in this county 
(near Bala), Merionethshire, North Wales, perhaps you 
would like to hear the result of its growth. About seven 
years ago it was planted in a light, rich soil, in an eastern 
aspect, where it grew very luxuriantly, but never slewed a 



sinitle flower. Afterwards it was moved to a due southern 
aspect (a brick wall, as before), where it has several times 
made attempts to blossom ; but the buds have always burst 
on one side, and decayed, only one ever having reached a 
yellow colour. I am now quite at a loss what to do with it, 
whether to try it on a north wall, or train it on moss and 
•tones pegged down to the ground, as I am in the habit of 
training moss roses, wliich flourish remarkably well here. 
I shall not touch it until 1 see by the Chroniclr. what you 
advise me to do. — An Original Subscriber. [In this case 
it is evidently want of vigour that prevents the flowering. 
It would be worth trying the effect of placing a glazed sash 
from a cucumber pit over it early, in a slanting direction, so 
as to keep it dry, and to raise the temperature of the soil 
and air.] 

Edgings for Walks. — I am not sorry that I troubled you 
with a short notice respecting Woodsorrel, recommending 
it as an edging for shady walks, as it has been the means 
of bringing into notice plants apparently better adapted 
for that purpose than the one I recommended. Several 
plants have been recommended in the Chronicle as fit 
for planting in shady places : these lowly flowers will 
make little noise whatever way the opinion of the world 
may take, for or against them ; and although I am far 
from believing that the prize would be awarded to the 
Wooodsorrel, for the other plants appear to have superior 
qualities which the Woodsorrel does not possess, yet I 
still think it is not without its charms, and might come 
in for a small share of patronage. There is a Rose 
known by the name of Lancaster and York — the one half 
is white and the other red ; it may not rank high in the 
estimation of the dealer in Roses, and yet to others it may 
be very interesting. It recalls to their minds the " wars 
of the Roses." It conjures up before them Margaret of 
Anjou, the Battle of Wakefield, and the field of Bosworth ; 
and when the "laud of red heather" is mentioned, many 
a thrilling emotion is produced in the hearts of others : 
and setting aside the beauty of the leaves and flowers of 
the Woodsorrel, numbers may find pleasure in looking 

upon it as the Shamrock of Ireland Peter Mackenzie. 

Entomologg One of your correspondents asked what 

were the best works on British Entomology, and I confess, 
as a ci-devant entomologist, I did not think your answer 
satisfactory. If his object be to learn something of the 
general habits and arrangement of insects, Kirby and 
Spence's *' Introduction to Entomology," 4 vols. 8vo, with 
Mr. Westwood's admirable " Classification of Insects," 
2 vols. 8vo, are by far the best works for the purpose. If 
the expense (about 6/. 65 ) is an object, then some of the 
vols, of the " Library of Entertaining Knowledge," and 
Burmeister's "Manual of Entomology," translated by 
Shuckard, 1 vol. 8vo, and Newman's *' Grammar of En- 
tomology," 1 vol. small 8vo, might suffice. If he wishes 
to study the genera and species, and to " make out " the 
insects themselves, Stephens' "Illustrations of British 
Entomology," though incomplete, is indispensable. The 
cost is somewhere about 20/. Should that be deemed too 
much, the Coleoptera, or Beetles, will be found succinctly 
described by Mr. Stephens in a single small 8vo. vol. pub- 
lished by Murray. The bees, by Mr. Kirby, in his " Apum 
Anglice Monographia," '2 vols.Svo, or by Mr. Shuckard, in 
a similar work, which I believe he published in 1 vol. 8vo, 
and the *' Fossorial Hymenoptera," by the same author, in 
1vol. 8 vo. The pigmy, but highly-interesting "Chalcididse," 
by Mr. Walker, in 1 vol. 8vo. "The " Lepidoptera," or But- 
terflies and Moths, in a " scissors and paste " translation 
of the specific characters of Stephens' larger work, in a 
small 8vo vol. by an unknown hand. For the numerous, and 
to a gardener very important race of Ichneumons, Gra- 
venhorst's " Ichneumonologia Europea," in three large 
8vo vols., is the only work ; and for the Diptera (Flies) 
recourse must be had to Meigen's "European Diptera," 
6 vols. 8vo, and Macquart's " Dipteres du Nord de la 
France," in 6 parts, 8vo. For the other orders, various 
papers in periodical works and many Continental works 
must be consulted, with whose titles an entomologist will 
soon become acquainted. If the minute anatomy of 
the genera of British insects forms his study, then Curtis' 
'■ British Entomology " ought at least to be consulted (its 
cost is above 40/.) ; or so far as the beetles, the most 
difiicult portion of Entomology in this respect, are con- 
cerned. Spry and Shuckard's " British Col»optera deline- 
ated," and Shuckard's " Elements of British Entomology," 
will afford a cheap substitute. I must not forget Sa- 
mouelle's " Entomologist's Compendium," I vol. 8vo, 
which gives a very good idea of the arrangement of British 
insects, according to the views of the celebrated Dr. Leach, 
and is especially useful to a beginner, for its calendar of 
insects and the times and places of their appearance. I 
would observe that, like most other works, many of the 
above are to be met with at very reduced prices in the 
catalogues of the various second-hand booksellers in 
London- — iS*. 

Masters and Gardeners. — Your remarks, in p. 731, 
on the relation between masters and gardeners, are very 
proper and very much needed. Still there are proprietors, 
though you are unaware of it, who though willing to see 
their gardens admired by others for their beauty as well as 
utility, yet grudge the expense of plants. The beauty of 
the garden is no doubt a source of gratification, as well as 
the ornamenting of the person ; but it has not been cus- 
tomary in some places to pay so freely for it. If the poor 
gardener in such situations, rather than be behind his 
neighbours, should purchase plants to help his credit, 
while his master, if he gave the time, enjoyed the pleasure 
of showing them, it would certainly be hard, though it 
might be legal, to lose them at the end of the year. — 
R. Lymburn. [In our opinion this is not to the purpose. 
The gardener should not have purchased them ; having 
done so, they are his master's property.] 



Glazed Pots.-^l was reading M'Nab's Treatise oa 
Heaths the other day ; and I met with an observation in 
that work which seems to support my suggestion, that the 
difference in the value of the pots may he owing to the 
temperature and moisture of the soil. It is as follows : — 
" In an oaken tub, with three good coats of paint on the 
outside, and a thick coat of pitch or coal-tar inside, when, 
to all appearance, it is as impervious to moisture as even a 
glazed earthenware pot; in such a tub I have seen no 
instance in which Heaths did not grow as freely as in ordi- 
nary flower-pots ; and yet, though I have repeatedly made 
the experiment, 1 have seen no instance of a Heath thriv- 
ing in a hard-burnt earthenware pot." — 3l'N. on Heaths, 
p. 24. Is it not probable that this is owing to the wood 
Deing a much worse conductor of heat than the pot.^ Sup- 
posing a small Heath was planted in a large hard-baked 
pot, and one in anothersoft-bakedpotof the same size, would 
the growth of the two be the same until the roots reached 
the sides of the Pots? — J. Townley. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

_ FLORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

■ Jan. 4th. — Mr. Wrench in the Chair. The accounts of the past 
year were audited, preparatory to their being read at the Annual 
Meeting on January 13th. 



Limerick Practical Horliculturat Society. — At a numerous meet- 
ing of the Society, held 1st January, tlie Right Hon. Lord Claiina 
in the chair, a full report of tlie proceedings for the past year was 
read Ijy Mr. Bevan, the treasin-er, sho\ving the improvement and 
progress of the Society, and submitting the treasurer's accoimt, 
all which was considered highly satisfactory. It appeared that 
220 prizes, amounting to 50^, were obtained, awarded, and distri- 
buted amongst the different gardeners, in the several classes of 
fruitsi flowers, and vegetables : and after arrangements were 
made for the three exhibitions for the new year, the meeting sepa- 
rated, much pleased, and returned a vote of thanks to the chair- 
man for his continued patronage and support, and to the trea- 
surer and secretaries for their management and attention to the 
inteiests of so useful a society. 



NOTICES OF NEW PLANTS WHICH ARE 
EITHER USEFUL OR ORNAMENTAL. 

OTJ ct'D iuM I'ysLEAYit. Mr. Insleay's Oncidium. (Stove Epip'i/te}. 
— ThenumbefiSf species in the genus Oncidium, which have flowers 
only v.^ryiDg slightly in the combination of their brown and yellow 
tints, seems to render each acquisition in which the colours ot tha 
blossoms are in any degree similar, of comparatively smaU value. 
Such, however, is the extreme richness of hue in the flowers of the 
O. Insleayii, that, connected with their great size and pleasing arrange- 
ment, this property places the species in the first rank of Orchida- 
ceous plants. It is a native of Oaxaca, in Mexico, whence it appears 
to have been introduced by George Barker, Esq., of Birmingham ; 
this gentleman having succeeded in blooming it two or three years 
back, named it after Ms gardener, Mr. Insleay. Messrs. Loddiges 
also imported it from the same district, and it flowered in their 
nursery in the autumn of 1810. In the "Botanical Register," Mr. 
Barker's plant is described as producing a rigid, erect raceme of 
flowers ; but the specimen wliich flowered at Messrs. Loddiges bore a 
raceme of a half-drooping character. The flower-stalk issues in a 
graceful curve, and depends in an elegant flowing manner. The 
species was originally thought to be identical with Odontoglossum 
grande, on account of the partial resemblance of their pseudo-bulbs ; 
but even in this particular a practised eye will easily detect a differ- 
ence between the two plants, if both are in a perfect and fully de- 
veloped state. The pseudo-bulbs of O. grande are larger, and with a 
greater tendency to roimdness ; while those of O. Insleayii are mora 
concave on one side, and with sharper edges. In the flowers, the 
latter plant is fiir inferior to O. grande, except in the colours of the 
labellum, where it has a manifest pre-eminence. The colours, the 
forms of the \vings of the column, of the tubercles and appendages of 
the labellum, and of the latter organ itself, are essentially remote ; 
and O. Insleaj-ii comes much nearer to O. papiho, with which, again, 
it can never be confounded, from the pecuharities of each. Messrs. 
Loddiges cultivate it on a block of wood, keeping it in the warm 
Orchidaceous house, during summer, and remoi-ing it to a cooler and 
drier place when its new pseudo-bulbs are perfected, which will be 
towards the month of November. Here it will most likely flower 
about Februarj- or March ; at least, that is the period at which it 
blossomed with Mr. Barker.— J/aa. cf Botany. 

Gesn-era Zebrina. Zebra-leaved Gesnera. (Stave Herlaceout 
plaiifj^GeSnSm^nna may properly be accounted one of the most 
meritorious plants which h,ave developed themselves in the year just 
closed ; for, not only does it arrest the attention during the time at 
■which its blossoms are unfolded, but, by the diversified markings of its 
leaves, at every season when these are in perfection. And whether, 
on further experiment, it will prove an evergreen sub-shrubby plant, 
or will lose its stems and foliage in the later winter months, we are at 
present unable to say. The probability is that it wiU be found an 
herbaceous perennial, flowering in October, November, and Decem- 
ber, and dnng dow-n, like some other species, after the inflorescence 
has all withered ; though it is possible that it will partake more of tha 
character of G. moUis, and acquu-e a woodiness of stem at the base. 
A plant flowered finely at Jlr. Low's, Clapton, in October and No- 
vember last, and on which there is vet a considerable number of 
flower-buds, if the season would permit their expansion. It was ob- 
tained by Mr. Low from .Mr. Doncklaer, director of the Botamc Gar- 
den of G'hent, and is doubtless from some district of South America. 
The species produces stout, succulent stems, which mostly grow to 
sLx or nine inches m height before they protrude a flower-spike from 
their summit ; but we have seen plants not more than three niches 
high beginning to show flower. The flower-stem rises perpendicu- 
lariy from the top of the general stem three or four inches, where the 
lovely blossoms are spread out on long, slender stalks, and continue 
to be" thrown out, indefinitely, till the height of a foot or eighteen 
inches is attained, when there stiU seems an equal number of buds at 
the lap, and lateral flower -bearing shoots are, moreover, liberally de- 
veloped from near the base. The colour of the blooms is of a nch 
orange red on the upper part, and a hght yeUowish orange beneath, 
with a quantity of bright red spots in the throat Being pendulous, 
thev are, when the plant is elevated on an ordinary stage, examined 
to great advantage. But the leaves are, perhapj, the most interesting, 
because the most permanent features. They »re of a nob and hvely 
green, with numerous and irregular streaks and bands of a purphsn 
tint, and the whole has a remarkably velvety appearance. It has 
hitherto been managed as a stove plant, and kept in a moderate heat, 
ivith proper supphes of moisture. As it blooms in the .autumn, and 
does not cease on the approach of winter, it wiU be adnsable to go on 
watering it tUl it shows natural signs of decay, when its habits may 
be fuUv ascertained. A rather rich compost wiU be appropriate ; and 
it would seem capable of ready increase by cuttings. Seeds, too, \tU1 
most likelv be perfected. -.S/fC?. ('/5of. 

MiKA LOBAJA. Lobe-leaved Mina. {QremJioiise Climlier.]— 
This is aConvolnikiceousplant of much beauty and more singularity, 
for which we are indebted to G. F. Dickson, Esq., who presented its 
seeds to the Earl of Burlington. Under the care of his Lordship s 
gardener, Mr. Wilson, a single specimen was raised last year, ana 
produced its curious flowers iii November. The h.ibit of the plant is 
quite that of a common lobed-leaved IpomoBa, but the flowers grow m 
forked erect racemes, and have not at ah the aspect of a Convolvuiuii. 
At first they are deep crimson, but when expanded are 01 a pais 
lemon colour. Bv aU modem .authors this genus Mma is regaraea as 
the s.ame with E.x"ogdniuni , an error which can only h.ave arisen irom 
the plant itself not having been seen. It is in reaUty qmte a distinct 
form of the Conyoh-ulaceous order. It i? ijultiyated l)y m Sl^Msaw 



24 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 8, 



for the beauty of the flowers. It will no doubt be a greenhouse plant ; 
but it is at present in no collection except that of the Horticultural 
Societj-, to which it was presented by the Earl of Burlington.— jBc^ 
Hcffister. 

Lobe'lia pyaASHDAMs. Pyramidal Lobelia. {Hardy Herba- 
ceous Plant.)— An herbaceous plant from the Himalayas, of no 
beauty. It has narrow, lanceolate, finely serrated leaves, and 
greenish -violet flowers, so embosomed among- long green leafy 
bracts, that they are hardly distinguishable by a passer-by. The 
tube of the stamens stands back aloof from the corolla, and of 
the latter the two dorsal petals are quite free down to their base. 
—Bot. Reg. 

EpinKx&au^M LA TLLABg^u M. Broad-labellumed Epidendrum. 
{Stove EpiphyTe'!)'^^ Brazilian plant, allied to Epidendrum um- 
bellatum, of which it has the habit. But its lip, which is four 
times broader than long, and cuived downwards on each side, so 
as to bear no little resemblance to a stiffly- starched lady's apron, 
gives it a most singular appearance. It has lately flowered at 
Messrs. Loddiges'.— 5o?. Reg. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

The VHaJily of Seeds. — The following remarkable in- 
stance of the tenacity of life in the seeds of the common 
Eider is mentioned in the *' Annals and Magazine of Na- 
tural History " for the present month. The seeds in 
question were derived from the dregs of some Elder wine, 
which was strewn as manure over a flower-border, where 
hundreds of them grew. The lady%with whom it hap- 
pened says that they had been twice boiled in making 
wine; had been present during the fermentation; after 
which the wine was drawn off, and the dregs were bunged 
up for 20 months, in the cask where the seeds remained 
witliout injury. 

Instinct of Plants. — A rather remarkable instance of 
the instinct of plants in searching out food and support 
for themselves, is now to be seen in the woods of Comrie. 
An Oak-tree, high perched upon the point of a compara- 
tively bare rock in the face of Dunmore Hill, finding its 
home supplies of soil and hold rather stinted, and observ- 
ing (one is almost inclined to think) a more fertile spot 
below, has sent oflf a foraging party, in the shape of a 
large *' root-trunk/' for several yards directly down the 
precipice on which it stands. This root-trunk, after 
reaching a projecting point of the rock, bends horizon- 
tally onwards, clinging firmly to the rook in all its course, 
till it reaches another face, down which it again descends, 
until it eventually seizes, in its many-fingered grasp, the 
object it travelled so far in search of. — Stirling Advertiser. 
Alkaline Substances of Plants. — M. Fr. Giibel has 
given a very valuable chemical examination of the princi- 
pal Halophytes of the Caspian steppe with regard to the 
quantity of potash and soda they contain. The research 
was undertaken, partly in order to learn whether the 
quantities of potash and soda vary with the age of the 
plants, and partly to settle the question whether plants 
are capable of converting the one alkali into the other. 
The principal results are as follows : — The young plants 
give a much larger quantity of impure soda than the old 
fully developed ones, but the substances soluble in water 
contained in the rough soda do not differ much from one 
another in quantity. In the case of Halimocnerais cras- 
sifolia it appears that during growth a part of the chloride 
of sodium is converted into carbonate and sulphate of 
soda, as is seen by analysis. The young plants of Salsola 
clavifolia contain no chloride of sodium, but considerable 
quantities of chloride of potassium ; while in the old plants 
there is less chloride of potassium, but a nearly equivalent 
quantity of chloride of sodium. The quantity of carbon- 
ate of soda is nearly equal in both young and old plants. 
The young plants of Salsola brachiata also contain less 
chloride of sodium than the old ones, while the quantity 
of carbonate of soda remains the same. M. Gobel thinks 
it is j)erfectly immaterial whether young or old plants are 
used for procuring soda, for the quantity of carbonate of 
soda is the same in both cases. The plants might there- 
fore be burnt at any time, and the value of the impure 
soda would not materially differ. The analyses of Hali- 
mocnerais crassifolia, Salsola clavifolia and brachiata, both 
in their young and old state, show " that the quantity of 
soda has remained nearly constant in all." The quantity 
of potash is always greater in the young plants than in 
the old ones, and strikingly so in Salsola clavifolia ; so 
that one might really be led to believe, "that in the course 
of the vegetative process potash U metamorphosed into 
sodi, or, at least, is got rid of in some manner or other.'* 
If this were correct, it would certainly be a wonderful 
discovery, but I may be allowed to propose a question 
which is not answered in M. Gobel's treatise : M^ere the 
old specimens of the three above-mentioned plants (which 
M. Gobel did not collect himself) from exactly the same 
spot as that from which, in the same manner, M. Gobel 
gathered the young ones ? Probably this was not tlie 
case, and as all these salts are extracted from the soil, a 
difference therein will of course make a change in the re- 
sults of the analyses. We must therefore consider this 
metamorphosis of one substance into the other as yet un- 
proved. M. Gobel also states, that in other plants the 
quantity of potash is larger in the young than in the old 
ones. With respect to the relative value of the Halophytes 
for the fabrication of soda, M, Gobel gives the following 
list : — 1. Salsola clavifolia, young dried individuals, 42 
per cent.; 2. Halimncnemis caspica, young specimens, 
22-9 per cent. ; 3. Salsola Kali, young specimens, 25 per 
cent. ; 4. Kochia sedoides, old specimens, O'lC per cent. ; 
5. Salsola brachiata, young specimens, 33 per cent. ; 6. 
Haliraocnemis crassifolia, young specimens, 3U per cent.; 
7. Tamarix laxa, young specimens, 33-6 per cent. ; Ana- 
basis aphylla, young specimens, 19 per cent., &c. — Annals 
of Natural Ilistor//. 



for their large size andthe number of handsome spikes of scarlet 
flowers; and plants of the Ram's-hom Aloe, Pachydendron afri- 
cauum, were flowering abundantly, young as well as old. The 
soil used for succulents here consists chiefly of sand, peat, loam, 
and broken bricks, which, judging from the vigorous growth they 
make, suits them well. From the roof of the house plants of 
Epiphyllum truncatum and various kinds of Cereus are suspended, 
which add to the picturesqueness of the scene. In the hothouse 
we observed a handsome Bauhinia, received from Ur. Wallich, 
under the name of piperiftilia ; it has curious binate leaves, which, 
when young, are of a delicate pink colour. Among the Orchida- 
cese were several Zygopetalums, Cypripediums, and the lively 
Ornithidium cocclneura, which has been in constant flower fOr 
many months. In a large conservatory devoted to Camellias and 
Oranges, is a handsome tree, which has probably numbered a 
hundred years, full of ripe fruit, some of which are shaped like 
Oranges and others like Lemons ; near it is a fine Seville Orange, 
with fruit as large as any foreign ones we ever saw. The most 
remarkable plant out of doors is a handsome specimen of Garrya 
elllptica, which is between six and seven feet high, and is at pre- 
sent covered with elegant long, pendulous catkins, which look 
at a distance like locks of hair. Owing to the extreme humitlity 
of the autumn we found many of the hybrid Rhododendrons ex- 
panding their flowers, though, from want of light, they are not 
so brilliant as they would have been in May.— Dee. 27th. 

BictoHy tlie seat of Lord Rolle. — At Bicton the houses are superb ,- 
they are well constructed, and admirably adapted for the various 
purposes intended, and all in thebest possible repair. Portland stone 
being cheap and easily obtained, is much used in the various build- 
ings about the estate. Benches, pits, and paving, both within and 
without the houses, are of this material, which has a neat and sub- 
stantial appearance. Although Bicton is rather elevated, water of 
excellent quality for every purpose abounds ; there are beautiful 
streams of fine soft water running in various directions, brought 
from the neighbouring hills, supplying the whole of the houses, sheds, 
and every part of the premises, there being water-taps in nearly every 
corner of each building, and the fountains are constantly at play in 
different parts of the flower-garden. The whole of the houses are 
heated by hot water, on various principles ; so that hot-water taps 
are placed in each house as well as cold. The convenience of sheds 
for growing Mushrooms, and other purposes, surpasses anything I 
ever saw, there being fine roomy ones at the back of all the houses, 
so constructed that large plants may be shifted in them without 
trouble or inconvenience. Here are some of the largest specimens of 
the Cactus tribe I ever saw ; those I have seen exhibited at Chiswick, 
at various times, are flnely grown, but there is no comparison between 
them ; one remarkably fine bush of Epiphyllum speciosum, grafted on 
Cereus hex^gonus, when in flower must be magnificent ; and another 
on its own bottom measures five feet in diameter. A plant of Cereus 
speciosissimus growing in a tub is eight feet high, and finely propor- 
tioned. Jenkinsonii and the varieties of Ackermanni are equally as 
good. The collection, altogether, if brought into flower and exhibited 
at one of the Chiswick fetes, would surprise the growers of this tribe 
in the neighbourhood of London. There is a fine collection of Ca- 
mellias, all in good health, in the house, although they grow and 
flower well in the open air. I saw some clumps of Camellias growing 
as large and vigorous as Portugal Laurels, well set for bloom. The 
Heaths and New Holland and stove jflants were clean and healthy, 
and among them were many new and good ones. A little distance to 
the left of the greenhouses is a beautiful Palm-house, the inmates of 
which consist of many good kinds, which ai"e healthy. The roof of 
this house has been considerably heightened this summer, to give 
more head-room to some of the plants, which were growing too lofty. 
Near this house, in the open air, stands the stem or tmnk of the 
beautiful Acacia affinis, measuring in several places S^feet in circum- 
ference , it is now nearly lifeless, having suffered greatly from the 
severity of last winter, which seems to have been felt more here than 
the severe frost of 1837-3S, for the Acacia withstood that winter and 
many previous ones, and flowered beautifully every autumn. A. 
dealbata, armata, and several other kinds are growing in great 
luxuriance in the open air, as well as many other half-hardy trees and 
shrubs. Here was also a fine specimen of Araucdria imbricata up- 
wards of 13 feet high and well proportioned, a Deodar Pine from 12 
to 13 feet in height, and, in fact, all the Idnds of Pines. An avenue 
of Araucaria imbricata is contemplated in the park fronting the first' 
range of houses. The flower-beds for planting out tender plants in 
summer, are capable of containing all the best and prettiest ; the 
terrace-walks, which are weU kept, the ornamental water, the foun- 
tains playing in all directions, the slopes, and the American ground, 
with banks of Magnolias, and clusters of all the flnest hybrid Rho- 
dodendrons and Azaleas, must certainly produce a delightful appear- 
ance.—/. R. S., Dec. 27th. 



GARDEN MKMOKANDA. 

Matters'' Exotic Nursery, Canterbury.— The most attractive 
house at present is the one devoted to succulents, as well for the 
strangeness of the forms of some as for the beauty of the flowers 
of others. The Soccotrine Aloes were particularly coasplcaouBf 



IRcbiftu. 

The New American Orckardist ; or an Account of the 
most valuable varieties of Fruit, of all climates, adapted 
to cultivation in the United States. By William Ken- 
rick. 3d Edition ; 8vo. Boston, U. S., 1841. 
This is an 8vo %'olume of between 400 and 500 pages, 
written upon the plan of Lindley's '^ Guide to the Orchard 
and Kitchen-garden." It contains an account of a large 
number of fruits, both European and American, and is 
the best guide we possess to those of the United States. 
Those, however, who may read the work must bear in 
mind that the descriptions apply to the climate of North 
America, where the summers are very hot. and that, con- 
sequently, it by no means follows that a fruit will be good 
in England because it is so in the United States. Some 
allowance must also be made for the difference between 
American and English tastes ; this is particularly apparent 
in the chapter about the Vine, where a great deal is said 
of the excellence of American Grapei. With us, how- 
ever, their foxy flavour and mucilaginous pulp will always 
prevent their being esteemed. 

An appendix contains some useful information con- 
cerning vegetables, flowers, and other matters related to 
gardening. The following vegetables, or their uses, will 
probably prove new to our readers : — 

^' Bitter- Root. Racine Amere — A new plant, found 
growing in the valley of the Columbia River, in form re- 
sembling a Carrot. It is used as an article of food by 
the Indians and hunters, and although not very pleasant 
to the taste, its use as food is considered by them as being 
conducive to health. 

" Bread-Root. Psoraleaesculenta. — A southern peren- 
nial plant, a native of Missouri. Its roots are eaten like 
those of the Potatoe, and with cultivation produce abun- 
dant crops. 

Cammas. — Anew species of plant, found growing in the 
valley of the Columbia River ; a truncated root, which 
grows in moist, rich land, in the form of an Onion. It is 
first roasted, then pounded, and made into loaVes, like 
bread, and has a liquorice taste. An article of fuod of 
great importance to the Indians. (Probably Camassia 
esculenta.) 

** Cowish. — A new species of plant, or biscuit-root, 
found growing on dry land in the valley of the Columbia 



River ; its size that of a walnut, but sometimes larger. In 
taste it resembles the Sweet Potatoe, and is prepared for 
food by the same process as the Cammas, in which state 
it is a tolerable substitute for bread. 

" Wappatoo. Sagittaria. — A bulbous root ; a new 
species of the Arrowhead, which is found only in the 
valley of the Columbia River, below the cascades. It 
grows in shallow lakes, and in marshes covered with water. 
When roasted, it becomes soft, and is then both a palatable 
and nourishing food, and is much used by the Indians as 
an article of trade. The Indians search for the roots with 
their feet, and these being extracted by their toes, rise to 
the surface of the water. 

^' Martynia. Martynia. — An annual plant, with con- 
spicuous, showy flowers. The green pods are fine for 
pickling. Sow in May ; the plants may remain two feet 
asunder." 



CALENDAR OF O'^^'KkTlO'^^ for the ensuing Week, 

At this season of the year there ought to be little left undone in 
the way of manuring and digging ; if, however, a press of other im- 
portant work has suspended these operations, advantage should now 
be taken of every suitable day to resume them The benefit that 
ground, particularly if of a clayey texture, derives from exposure to 
frost, is well known ; but besides this, the more perfect incorporation 
of the manure witn the soil, which will be effected by the necessary 
processes of ridging, levelling, &c., is advantageous to the ensuing 
crop ; therefore, as a general rule, all vacant ground ought to be 
manured and dug as early in winter as practicable. Should the 
weather be frosty, sufficient employment might be found in getting 
together a quantity of leaves for hotbeds, in turning and nuxing 
composts, pointing and dressing flower-stakes, tS:c. iSic. 

KITCHEN-GARDEN AND ORCHARD. 
1)1 door Department. 

Pinery.— It is desirable, in a gentleman's family, to obtain ripe 
Pine-apples at different periods, in preference to having a great num- 
ber ripe at one time ; therefore, where there is convenience, and 
a sufficient stock, some plants should now be encouraged to start, by 
raising the tenipemture five degrees in as many days ; the bottom- 
heat should also be increased if below 90°. To effect this, only the 
front row of plants need be removed, when a trench three feet wide, 
and the same in depth, is to be taken out along the front of the bark- 
bed, and the space tilled up with new bark, not recent from the tan- 
pits, but such as is already warm. This method of increasing or re- 
newing the bottom-heat might often be adopted in preference to dis- 
turbing the plants, which is always injurious to them in some degree. 
In very cold weather it will be necessary to cover the linings of dung- 
heated succession-pits with long litter, fern, or any similar material, 
to prevent their being suddenly chilled ; and if, not^rithstanding this 
precaution, a decUne of temperature should occur, the coverings had 
better be kept upon the lights, except for a short time in the middle 
of the day, until means can be taken for renewing the heat. 

Vinery. — Especial care must be taken to prevent the access of 
frost to the roots of growing Vines ; for if they are once paralysed by 
this cause, there will be very little chance of obtaining fruit. As the 
young shoots advance in growth they should be carefully tied to the 
wires, by no means too tightly at first, for fear of brealdng them ; to 
prevent this mishap, it will be advisable to go over the Vines every 
morning, tieing and loosening as may be required, until all the young 
shoots are gradually brought into their proper position. Stop all the 
shoots (except the leader}, one clear joint above the bunch, and 
pinch clean out all the laterals below the bunch. Vines recently 
introduced should be syringed every morning and evening with luke- 
warm water (by this term water heated to about 70° is meant) up to 
the period of their breaking. In case of severe frost, any A'^ines which 
have been turned out of I'inestoves, or other hothouses, should be 
protected ; if they are tied in a bundle along the front of the house, . 
close to the glass , a double covering of mats will secure them from 
injury. 

Peach-house. — Trees wiiich blossom excessively would be greatly 
benefited, particularly if weak, by pulling off the half or more of their 
flowers, leaving, of course, those for fruit .which are best situated. 
The night temperature should range within a few degrees of 50. 
Where a succession of Peaches is required, a second house should 
now be shut up, but no fires made unless necessary for the exclusion . 
of frost. The fruit in this house, if moderately forced, will ripen 
from the middle of June to the middle of July, according to the 
earliness of the sorts and the propitiousness of the season. 

Cherky-house. — If forcing was begun in December, the tempera- 
ture by fire-heat should not even now exceed 45° for any length of 
time ; but if a continuance of dull, cold weather occurs, it might 
occasionally be increased 10 or l2 degrees by day, for the sake of ad- 
mitting fresh air ; merely keep the frost out of the house if forcing ■ 
has been commenced since Christmas. 

Cucumbers. — Guard against sudden variations of temperature. 
The tender leaves are exceedingly liable to injurj- at this season of the 
year, and upon their health and vigour the productiveness of the 
plant depends. Mix a good portion of the leaves with the dung in- 
tended for Cucumber and Melon beds ; they will moderate, and con- 
sequently prolong, the fermentative process. 

Kidney Beans that have been so\vn in pots half filled with soil, 
must have their stems gradually earthed up as they advance in growth , 
and not more than five plants suffered to remain in a 24-sized pot. 
If thrips appear upon the older plants, they should be repeatedly 
fumigated, and no other plants brought into contact with them. 

Sea-kale is best forced in beds in the open ground ; for this pur- 
pose leaves should be used, because there is not much danger of their 
overheating; a light covering of litter will, however, be requisite, to 
prevent them from being blown about. Wooden boxes with hinged 
lids are better than earthen pots, and more economical in the end. 

Khiibakb might also be forced in a similar way, and very httle 
heat is sufficient to induce vegetation. 

Mu.snnooM-HousK. — Keep the temperature between 55° and 60°, 
and the atmosphere humid. Rearing-beds ought not to be watered 
unless absolutely necessary. Turn fresh horse-droppings frequently. 
Out-door Bepartmaii. 

If severe weather is apprehended, Peas and Beans, as they make 
their appearance above ground, should be kept covered with rotten 
leaves or tan ; or in case these materials are not at hand, a little soil 
might be di-a^vn over them. If the ground is in a fit state, a few 
more rows might be sown across a south border ; a better plan, how- 
ever, is to sow in pots or boxes, and afterwards transplant. " Mar- 
shall's Early Prohfic" is the best Bean for early cropping, but it 
cannot always be procured true. If not already done, advantage 
should be taken of a fine day to earth up the late crop of Celery. 
Take up and house Jerusalem Artichokes, and make every prepara- 
tion against severe frost. In mild days look over Cauhflower and 
Lettuce plants under walls, to see that no slugs harbour among them. 
In places where Spinach is in gi-eat demand at this season, a few rows 
might be sheltered from cold by a covering of Fern, or by some Fir 
branches laid over it ; the same also of Parsley. 

Si'ccoBV is sometimes used as a substitute for Endive in salads, in 
which case the roots are now to be taken up, planted in boxes or ■ 
other conveniences, and stowed away in a cellar or any dark place 
where there is a little warmth. 

Orchard. — Where there are any wall-trees yet to remove no time 
should be lost, particularly if the aspect is south, in which situation 
vegetation commences somewhat earlier than in any other. 

Gooseberry, Currant, and RaspbeiTy trees, if not yet pruned, ■ 
should be no longer delayed provided the weather will permit it to be 
done. In pruning Raspberries, take care not to leave too many bear- 
ing canes, which weaken the stools without a coiresponding increase 
of fruit. The best support for Raspberry plants is a row of stakes 
placed at intervals of eight or ten feet, with a strong wire fixed along 
the tops of the stakes, between four and five feet from the ground ; 
and to thia vrtre the tops of the canes are to be fastened by a single 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE: 



25 



tie of matting ; the plants will thus be reguhirly arrangea in single 
rows, whereby each will enjoy its share of light. Dig lightly between 
the rows. 

II.— FLOWER-GARDEN AND SHRUliBEJlY. 
In-duor Df'iiartmtnit. 

Stove. — The opemtiuns in the Orchidaceous house recommended 
last week may still be carried on. Some of the plants in pots which 
are growing rapidly, such as Phiiius grandifolius, ought to be liberally 
supplied with water, but the greater part ought to be kept rather dry 
at this season ; those which hang up, however, must be frequently 
syringed. The night temperature ought always to be kept from live 
to ten degrees lower than usual during the winter months. 

GnsKNnou.sri. — Tropa^ulunis, Keunedias, and other twining or 
climbing plants, should bo frequently tied to their supporting frames ; 
for if the shoots are suffered to entwine with each other, they cannot 
be separated without injury, nor can the plants be so neatly and 
Bymmetrically trained, (.'binese Primroses will now be coming into 
flower, and will require rather more water in consequence ; but take 
care not to give them too much, and do not water over the tops. 

CoNSKRVATonv. — Apply no more fire than is just sufficient to ex- 
clude frost ; unless Hoses, Lilacs, and other forced plants in bloom 
are placed/ there, in which case the house should be kept a little 
warmer. ^ 

Out-door Dcparhiu'uf. 

Proceed with the digging of shrubbei-y borders, and similar rough 
places. Hardy Rose-trees might now be pruned, but the more choice 
sorts bad better be deferred till .all danger from frost is over. In 
frosty weather, wheel rotten leaves, or other manure, onto the flower- 
borders. 

NURSERY AND FOREST DEPARTMENT. 

The directions given for last week are equally applicable to this ; 
or, should bad weather prevent their being carried on, seeds of all 
kinds should be got ready for sowing ; number-sticks and layering- 
pegs made ; axes and other tools ground and repaired, and everj-- 
thing got in readiness against the return of open weather, so that no 
time may then be lost.—/. B. WItiliiif/, Tlic Beepdcne. 

State of the Weather near London for the Week ending .January 6, 
1S42, as observed at the Horticultural Garden, Chiswick. 



BAnnw 


KTEB. 


Thkb..o..,^ 


BR. 

Alenn. 
36 5 

32.5 
31.0 
20.5 
31.6 
33.0 
30.0 
~li2.0~ 


Wind. 

S.E. 

S.E. 
N.VV. 
N.W. 
. N. 
N. 

N.E. 


Mar. 
30.211 

30.19? 

30.170 

30.013 

30.00.5 

30.051 

30.311^ 

30.137 


Min. 

30.187 

30.171 . 
311.053 

29.917 
S9 939 
30.008 
30. 1 ■■& 
30.0l!li 


U-sx. 
40 

»s 

37 
37 
31 

36 
37 
37.0 


Min. 
33 

• 27 
S5 
82 
2D 
30 
23 
270 





Dec. 
Trlday 3 

Jan. 
Samrrlay 
Sunday 
Mnnday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 
Thursday 

Average 

Dec. 31. Very fine throughout ; overcast at night. 
Jan. 1. Fine; slightly overcast ; cloudy; slight frost at night. 

2. Ovei'cast ; cloudy ; snow-flakes ; overcast. 

3. Frosty and overcast ; clear and dry ; shai-p frost. 

4. Frosty and cloudy ; clear ; slight frost at night. 

5. Frosty ; calm, overcast and fine ; veiy slight frost. 

6. Showers of broad snoiv-flakes in the morning ; cloudy and fine ; 
densely overcast at night. — The deposition denoted by the small frac- 
tion in the rain ccriumn is melted snow. 



state of ihe Weather 


at thiswick d 


anne: the 


last IC 


^ 


ears 


.for 


the ensuing Week endinE Jan. l.'i, 1142. 




Aver. 


A ver. 


i\rean 
Teinp 

35.2 


No. of 
Vears in 
whuh it 
Rained. 


Greatest 


PrevailinR WindB. 




Highest 


Lowest 


quantity 


. 


W - 


W 




:> 


3 


p: 


Jhil 


Temp. 

.,a.s 


Temp. 


ol Rain. 


1 


3 2 


V. 

1 


3 


2 


K 


Sun. 9 


3).n 


4 


0.20 in. 


1 


Miin. 10 


40.6 


29.5 


35.1 


5 


0.40 '— 


5 2 


2 


3 


1 


I 


a 


Ttiei. 11 


40 3 


30.0 


35.fi 


7 


0.83 3 


a 2'_ 




2 


1 


1 


Wed. 12 


41.1 


BO.l 


35. G 


6 


3iJ 1 


2 2j 1 


4 


3 


2 


I 


Thiir..l3 


41. .5 


33.0 


87-3 


8 


0.29 3 




4 


2 


3 


1 


Fri. 14 


41. t 


ai.3 


36.2 


8 


080 4 




S 


1 


1 


?. 


Sat. 19 


39.3 


30.3 


34.8 


fl 


0.64 2 


2 2i 1 


1 


2 3 


3 



The highest temperature during the above period occurred on the 
15th, in 1834 — thermometer 56° ; andthe lowest on the 14th, in 1838 
—thermometer 4°. 



REPORT ON COVENT GARDEN MARKET. 

For the week ending Jan. 7th, 1842. 
Considering the season the market has been well supplied during 
the week, and many articles have advanced in price. Fruit. — Pines 
of the kinds noticed last week are plentiful. A few good hothouse 
Grapes may still be obtained ; foreign are generally excellent. Ap- 
ples of the kinds mentioned in our last report are abundant, and dif- 
fer but little in price. Pears of the varieties mentioned last week are 
plentiful. There are many excellent samples of Oranges and Lemons. 
Vegetables. — The frost has rendered many of the vegetables indif- 
ferent, and consequently the better samples have advanced in price. 
White Broccoli is rather scarce. Brussels Sprouts of good quality 
are plentiful. Good forced French Beans may be obtained from 
3*. to 3^. 6d. per hundred. The supply of Asparagus and Sea-kale 
13 well kept up , and the quality of both is generally speaking excel- 
lent. Lettuces are injured by the frost, and good ones are difficult to 
be obtained. ; other kinds of Salading are pretty good for the sea- 
son. Excellent forced Rhubarb abounds. Mushrooms and Truffles 
are plentiful, i^'/diivr^.— Among Cut Flowers we observed some ex- 
cellent Gardenias, large-flowered and yellow Jasmine, Epacrises and 
Heaths of several kinds, some beautiful Chinese Primroses , and forced 
Tulips and Roses. 

PRICES. Pattjkdav, JiN. 8, 1B42.-FHU1TS:— 
Xpplei, Kitchen, perbushel, 3« to 7' Lemons, per lOO, 6* to 14* 



I^ — Dei'sert, pev buHhel,4jto 
Peari,dt?fseu, per hf, -sieve, 3i6d to 14* 
Pine Apple, perlb. 5j toll* 
Grapes, hothouse, ppr lb., 3* to 8( 

— Spanish, per lb., 9d to 1* 3i2 

— PorliiKul, per lb., 1* to 3$ 
Oranges, per doz., Sd to 2* 

— per 100, 5i to 14* 
_ — Bitter, per 100, 7* to 12* 
Lemoni, per doz. 1/ to 2* 

VEGETABLES. 



, U. 7* to 8f 
Sweet Almonds, per pound, 3* 
Chesnuts, per peck, 5* to lOj 
Walnuts, per buahel, i:2* to 24* ~ 
Filberts, Engliah, pr.lOOlba. 120«tol30* 
Nuts, perbushel— 

— Brazil, 20* 

— Spiinish, 16* 

— Barcelona, 20* to 24* 



Savoys, per dozen, 6d to I* 
Cabbage, White, per dozen, Sd l» 1* 

— Hed. tor pieklinj:;, 2* to4j 
Cabbage Plants, per doz ,2* Gdin 4* 
B.rU3Pel 5 Sprouts, p.hf.sve., I* 6dto2t6d 
Broccoli, Whiie.p. bna.h, 2* to 4* 

— Purple, 1* to 3i 

Kidney Beans, torced, per 100, 3»to3*6(f 
Potatoes, per tun, SSi to 30* 

— per cwi. 3* to 4i 6d 

— perbushel, 1i lo 2* 6(f 

— Kidney, p. bush, 2* Od to 3* 
Artit^'hokes, Jerusalem, prhalf sieve, 

9J to 1( GJ 
Turnips, pr doz.bunrhes, 2* to3* 6rf 
Carntts, per doz. bunahes, 3* toSi 
Parsneps, per dozen, tid tol* 
Red Beet, pi'r doxen, 9d to 1* CJ 
Scorznnera, per bundle. I* to I*3ii 
Salsify, per bundle, 1* to 1* 3d 
Horse Radish, per bundle, 2* to 5* 
Spinach, per sieve, 3* 6d 
L«ek«, per dozen bunches, 9d to 1» 
Garlic, perlb., 8d 
Shallots, per lb., 1* 



Onions, per bushel, ?< to 3* 

— forpick., perhf.-sieve,3i to3*6J 

— Green, perbunLh,4J 

— Spanish,per dozen,2* to 6* 
Asparagus, per 100, larRe, 9* to 1 U 

— Second or Middling, 4* 

— Sprue, or Small, 3* to 3* Gd 
Sea-k.ile, per punnet, 1* Gd to 3* 
tettui-e. Cabbage, pr. score. 4d tol* 

— Cos, per store, 1* 6J 
Endive, perscore. U C./ to 4* 
Celery. Red, per bundle CJ tol* Gd 

— White, per bundle, (Jd to 1* 3d 
Small Salads, per punnet, 3d 
^^'ate^cIe^El,p.dz.smHll bunch. Gd lo9d 
Parsley, per half sieve, 1*6J to 2* fid 
Tarragon, per dozen bunches, g J 
Thjme, per doz. bunohes, 2* 
Sa^e, per doz bunches, 2* to 3* 
Mtntiperdoz. bunches, 2* to 3* 
Savorv, per dozen bunches, 2* to 3* 
Rhubarb Sialka, per bundle, 1* to 2* 
^Mushroom.*, per pottle, I* to 1* 6d 
TruiBes, per pound, 2* to 3» 



Notices to Correspondents. 
Will anv of our Correspondents favour us with a de- 

TAILED ACCOUNT OF Mr. CrAWSHAY's MODE OF MANAGING THE 
VINE ? "We have MANY INQUIRIES ABOUT IT, 

C. D., if he wishes to complete his set for binding, must order the 
Numbers he wants immediately, as we are nearly out. 

Wood and Sons.— Yonr Pear is the Bezy de t'aissy, often sold in 
Covent-garden market under the name of the Nutmeg Pear. 

A Pupil has sent the pod of the Algaroba, or Cerat6nia' Siliqua ■ 
wmmonly called in English St. John's Bread, upon the supposition 
tnat It was the WUd Locust that supported him in the Wilderness 



The pods are eaten for the sake of the sweet nutritive substance thej 
contain. Such pods are often sold in London by the foreign fruiterers. 

A Subscriber. —'iihii generality of American plants thrive best in 
dump places, especially Rhododendrons ; but if too much shaded, 
they will not flower so well as if they are fully exjio-Hed to the sun. I f 
grown in dry places, the ground should be screened from the sun by 
the plants theni^i Ives, wliicb must therefore be placed close together. 

F. li. — 'ibiinli.s for the hint. Your wishes shall be complied with. 

Vlareiiifh. — I'pon looljng back to the observations 'made by us on 
the rights of property in plants, we find nothing to alter or retract. 

jr. P. had better not go on till we have made some progress with 
what he has sent 

W. ]y. P. — Crj-ptogamic plants are not subjects of Horticulture, 
except Ferns, and we cannot undertake to name them. 

Inquisitor. — The pipes in the hotlred at Knight's Nursery are 
arranged horizontally, and are not more than six inches apart. To 
prevent the pots from slipping down between them, boards are 
placed on them, and over these about six inches of old tan, in which 
the pots are plunged. Copper pipes are sooner heated than iron, but 
they do not retain the heat so long ; the latter are in every respect 
preferable. The asphalte roofing would, with proper care, last, in all 
probability, for ma,uy years. It is advertised at p. 825 (1841). 

Omikron. — Your loam and leaf-mould, nlixed with a little river or 
bank sand, ^vill be found a good substitute for peat. Grafting Rho- 
dodendrons is not of much value to you, as any of the stronger- 
growing varieties may ea-sily be trained as standards. 

ir. Jiassett. — You will be able to procure young Gooseberries, cor- 
rectly named, from any respectable nurseryman. 

Man/. — Poinsettia pulcherrima is a native of Mexico ; in the early 
part of summer it may be kept in the greenhouse, but when it begins 
to show flower it should be removed to the stove. During the season 
of growth, and also when in flower, it may be freely supplied with 
water, but at other times rather sparingly. The best method of im- 
proving your clay soil is to dig in sand or coal ashes, or lime rubbish, 
which will render it more open and friable, Perhaps you can burn it. 

J. Marshall. — A sieve contains about 5 pecks ; a Currant-sieve, 
2^ pecks. A punnet is a round flat basket that holds from 12 to 18 
good-sized Plums, A pottle is a long tapering basket that holds 
about a pint and ahalf. ' Hand ' applies to a bunch of Radishes, which 
contains from l2 to 30, according to the season. A bundle contains 
a to 2lJ heads of Broccoli, Celery, &c., and in the case of Asparagus 
from lUO to 150. A bunch is applied to herbs, and varies much in 
size, according to the season. 

A Young Gardetier. — The best method of pruning the black Cur- 
rant is to thin out the branches where they are too thick, and not 
shorten, unless where a shoot or branch requires to be cut back, in 
order to produce one or more additional to fill up an adjoining 
opening. 

G. S. had better send his newsman a post-office order for 13^. (the 
half-year's subscription) in advance, and tlien there can be no diffi- 
culty about price. 

W. T. C. — The following varieties of Pears and Apples will improve 
any deficient collection : — Pkars — Dunmore, Louise Bonne (of Jer- 
sey), Beurre Bosc, Althorp Crassane, Passe Colmar, Winter Nelis, 
Flacon's Incomparable, and Knight's Monarch. Apples — Wormsley 
Pippin, Hughes's Golden Pippin, Court of Wick, Herefordshire 
Pearmaiu, Hubbard's Peannain, Scarlet Nonpareil, Boston Russet, 
Court-pendu Plat, Reinette du Canada, Sturraer Pippin, Bedford- 
shire Foundling. 

J. Jr. — Wilmot's New Hamburgh Grape can still be procured from 
Mr. Wilmot, of Isleworth. See Advertisement in this Chronicle, 
p. 465 (1841). — Cookery by-and-bye. 

Inquisitor and A Yorkshire Gardener. — The following dessert and 
kitchen Apples are proper for dwarf training in the open ground : — ■ 
Dessert — Early Harvest, Oslin, Summer Golden Pippin, Golden 
Reinette, Maclean's Favourite, Golden Harvey, Braddick's Non- 
pareil, Pearson's Plate, Old Nonpareil, Boston Russet, and, though 
last, none more suitable than the Court-pendu Plat. As Kitchen- 
Apples, the Hawthornden, Royal Russet, and Alfriston may be men- 
tioned ; but as most kitchen varieties are strong-growers, it is best to 
keep them within proper limits by pinching or otherwise shortening 
the shoots in summer. Kitchen- Apples for Standards — Dutch Cod- 
lin, Bedfordshire Foundling, Keswick C'odlin, Wormsley Pippin, 
Waltham Abbey Seedling, Yorkshire Greening, Dumelow's Seed- 
ling, Brabant Bellefleur, Northern Greening, M6re de Manage, and 
the three above-mentioned. 

A Subscriber. — Your plan is a x-ery good one. 

X. X. X. — It is the Minorca Honeysuckle, Caprifolium baleiiricum, 
orimplexum, two names for the same species. 

J. M. — We are endeavouring to procure some seeds for you of the 
Trifolium giganteum, which is a tnie Clover, and not one of the 
worthless Melilots. If we can get them, they shall be sent by post. 

P. P. — We had by no means put away your Stat, but have delayed 
it for a short time ; we will, however, take advantage of your per- 
mission to shorten it. Many thanks for your land remembrances. 

A. Ji. and C. will find their questions fuUt/ aiistvered in Mr. Ain- 
ger's excellent papers upon heating with hot water, already published 
in our columns. 

Mr. Bainhridge. — We can form no opinion of the value of your 
prevention of mildew from the specimen sent. All we can see is that 
the shoot was covered with fungus, which seems dead ; but for any- 
thing in the nature of evidence before us, the .shoots may be killed by 
the mixture, or the mildew may all revive. If you will send us a 
bottle of the preparation, we \vill try its effects and report upon them. 

-F. , Berks, and another, will have a reply concerning Quicks next 
week. In the meanwhile nothing can be done with the Haws, except 
to break them up with sand and throw them in a heap. 

L — n. — If your Strawberry plants have not set their fniit, it is in 
all probability owing to your having forced them too quicldy ; 68° to 
7G° is far beyond the temperature they will bear. You should have 
placed them close to the light, have kept them thoroughly ventilated, 
if possible, so that the leaves were actually in motion, and the tem- 
perature should have been raised very slowly. Consider how slowly 
the heat of the spring is increased which brings the Strawberry to 
maturity in the open ground. Have you not also kept them as warm 
at night as in the day ? Read our Calendar for last spring. 

Linimensis. — 'The different species of Hemerocallis require to be 
planted in a rich loamy soil, kept rather dry in winter, but freely 
supplied with moisture in the growing season. They are also the 
better if planted in a situation where they are partially screened 
from the mid-day sun. The Japan species, now called Funkias, are 
more delicate and are apt to suff"er from superabundant moisture 
during the winter ; they should be protected either with a handglass 
or a large flower-pot inverted to keep them dry. H your Pentstemon 
seeds are from the colder parts of North America, sow them as soon 
as they are ripe in the autumn ; but if they are from the warmer parts 
(such as Mexico and Texas) , do not sow them before the spring. 

As usual, many letters have arrived much too late for answers this 
week. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 

By the arrival of the Overland Mail, we have received 
intelligence of considerable importance from India and 
China. The Chinese news 'comes down to the 10th Oct., 
and brings an account of the capture of the great fortress 
of Amoy. It appears from the detailed particulars of 
the operations adopted by the new Plenipotentiary, Sir 
Henry Pottinger, that finding the trade at Canton com- 
paratively uninterrupted, he determined to coast the 
Chinese shore with the fleet and troops under Admiral 
Parker and Sir Hugh Gough, and to destroy the fortifi- 
cations met with in his progress, until, in the event of his 
failing to obtain justice from the Kmperor by his previ- 
ous measures, he should renew his demand under the 
walls of Pekin itself. As the first fruits of this policy, 



the large city of Amoy, with its extensive lines of formid 
able fortresses, protected by about 500 pieces of cannon, 
was carried by storm on the 26tb Aug., after consider- 
able firing, but without the loss of a single man belong- 
ing to the British forces. The particulars of this event 
will be read with considerable interest, as an assurance 
that the main objects of the Expedition are no longer 
likely to be thwarted by Chinese diplomacy. At Canton, 
also, there have been some operations of a hostile cha- 
racter ; the Chinese having broken the truce by repair- 
ing their b.atteries and placing barriers to obstruct the 
navigation, Capt. Nias, of H.M.S. Herald, proceeded up 
the river, destroyed the fort of Wangtong, and issued a 
proclamation to the Chinese, intimating that any fur- 
ther breach of faith would be immediately followed 
by a renewal of hostilities. — Our Indian news relates 
chiefly to Burm.ah and Cabul. We learn that the 
Calcutta Government has assembled a considerable 
force on the Burmese frontier, in order to resist the ap- 
prehended attack on our possessions ; that the King of 
Burraah was at Rangoon, but it was believed that the 
warlike preparation^ of Government and the recent suc- 
cesses in China would deter him from any act of aggres- 
sion. A battle has taken place between our local 
troops and the Ghilzies, a mountain tribe holding 
the passes from Cabul to Jellalabad, in conser|uence 
of the suspension of an allowance for their services in 
keeping open the roads ; the British forces were suc- 
cessful in carrying the disputed defiles, but at a sacrifice 
of life which has given rise to severe comments in the 
Indian journals. The Governor-General has published an 
order from the Directors, authorising the p.ayment of a 
further portion, of the booty captured in the late Bur- 
mese war, the amount of which is said to be not less than 
nine lacs of rupees. — Our European news is likewise in- 
teresting : In France, the leading topic of attention is the - 
dispute which has arisen between the Spanish Cabinet 
and the French Ambassador, in consequence of his refu- 
sal to deliver his credentials to the Regent ; the ques'tion 
begins to assume an appearance of much difiiculty, and 
it is formally announced that the Ambassador has re- 
ceived instructions to leave Madrid, if the Spanish Go- 
vernment does not modify its pretensions. The addresses 
presented to the King by the diplomatic body, by the 
legislature, and by the clergy, in accordance with the 
annual custom on New Year's. day, are regarded by the 
Paris journals as an additional assurance of pacific in- 
tentions on the part of the European Powers, and as a 
proof of the determination of the Chambers to support 

the King in enforcing his authority at home From 

Spain we have received the Speech of the Regent on the 
opening of the Cortes ; it entered at great, length into 
the foreign and domestic aflfairs of the kingdom, alluding 
with satisfaction to the complete suppression of the late 
revolt, and to the favourable relations now exist- 
ing with those European Powers whil-h had al- 
ready recognised the Queen ; while it announced that 
those Governments which had not acknowiedged her 
authority regarded the political condition of the country 
without hostility, and were likely at no distant day to 
give their sanction to the triumph of the national cause. 
It takes a lengthened review of domestic subjects, and 
concludes by recommending a reform in the administra- 
tion of justice, the modification of the Basque /»eros, the 
restoration of the navy to its ancient character, and the 
necessity of preserving faith with foreign creditors. The 
Senate .and the Chamber of Deputies have since assem- 
bled for the election of officers ; but the appointments 
made by both houses are considered unfavourable to the 
Cabinet, in which several changes are already antici- 
pated. — The accounts received from Germany in relation 
to the accession of Austria to the Customs' Union are 
somewhat contradictory, although it is still urged that 
by a modification of duties the commercial relations be- 
tween the Austriiin States and the remainder of Germany 
will be considerably extended. From Berlin we learn 
that the departure of the King of Prussia for London is 
now definitively fixed for the 16th inst., and that his 
Majesty may be expected to reach London on the 21st. 
— Receut advices from Turkey announce some new 
changes in thq, Slinistry, and the organization of two ■ 
military divisions in the neighbourhood of the capital ; 
the one being intended for the frontiers of Greece, and 
the other as a corps of observation to keep in check the 
northern provinces of the empire. 

At home, active preparations are making for the 
christening of the Prince of Wales, which will take place 
on the 25th inst. in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. It 
is rumoured that her Majesty has intimated her inten- 
tion of opening Parliament in person, and that additional 
interest will be given lo that ceremony by the presence of 
the Kings of Prussia and Belgium. The naval and mili- 
tary services will receive with satisfaction the announce- 
ment in the Ministerial papers ' tliat a large portion of 
the sum received by Government as the ransom of Can- 
ton has been appropriated as prize-money to the oflacera 
and men engaged in the operations against that city. 



S6 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE^ 



[Jan. 8. 



CoTTRT. — Her Majesty, Prince Albert, the Prince of 

Wales, and the Princess Royal are all well, and continue 
nt Windsor. Her Majesty has walked as usual in the 
grounds adjoining the Castle, and taken her accustomed 
exercise during the week. Lord ByTon has succeeded 
Viscount Sydney as the Lord in Waiting on her Slajesty. 
and Sir F, Stoviu has succeeded Admiral Sir R, Otway 
as the Groom in Waiting on Iier Majesty, Lord C. 
Wellesley (Clerk JIarshal) has succeeded Col. Arbuthnot 
as the Equerry in Waiting on the Queen, and Col. Bou- 
verie has succeeded Alajor-Gen. Sir E. Bonater as the 
Equerry in Waiting on Prince Albert, Active prepara- 
tions have already commenced at St, George's Hall and 
Chapel for the ceremony of the christening of the Prince 
of Wales. The presence of the Earl of DelawaiT, Lord 
Chamberlain, and ihe Earl of Jersey, Master of the Horse, 
has, it is said, been commanded at the Castle, to make 
further arrangements in their respective departments of 
the household for the same occasion. It is stated that 
the reigning Duke of Saxe Coburg, uncle of Prince Al- 
bert, and the Dowager Duchess of Saxe Coburg-Gotha, 
will unavoidably be aljsent ; but that his Excellency Baron 
Gersdorff, the Saxon Minister, will officiate as represen- 
tative of his Serene Highness, as one of the sponsors ; 
and that the Duchess of Kent will act for the Dowager 
Duchess. 

The Queen Dowager. — The latest aceotmts from Sud- 
bury-Hall inform us that her Majesty the Queen Dow- 
ager continues to improve, but that she is stiJl too weak 
to undergo the fatigue of the journey to toT\Ti. 

Parliamentary JMovevients Mr. Vance, mentioned in 

our last as the proposed Conservative candidate for the 
City of Dublin, has retired ; and a deputation has waited 
on Mr. Wolverley Attwood, to request his permission to 
put him in nomination ; and in the event of his declining, 
the same proposition, it is said, will be made to Mr. Col- 
qnhoun. Lord Morpeth is now positively announced as 
the Liberal Candidate. — Viscount Joeelyn has accepted 
the invitation of the Conservative electors of King's Lynn 
to come forward to represent that borough iu the place of 
Sir S. Canning, appointed Ambassador to Constantinople. 
Army and Nary, — A Ministerial Paper states that 
the Queen has been pleased to grant to the forces em. 
ployed at the capture of the outworks of Canton, out of 
the sum received under the Convention, a donation equal 
to one year's amount of the Indian allowance known by 
the name of " Batta." The shares of colonels will be 
800/. each ; of lieutenant-colonels, 720/. ; of majors, 
540/. ; of captains, 216/. ; of lieutenants, 144/., &c. ; the 
officers of the navy sharing according to their relative 
rank with those of the army. Those who were not pre- 
sent at the operations against Canton, but who were 
engaged at the other operations of the war, such as the 
takiug of Chusan, are to receive si.x months' Batta. 

The Revenue — The official tables of the Revenue for 
the years and quarters ended oth Jan., 1841 and 1842, 
have just been published, and appear to be on the 
whole of a satisfactorj' character. On the general re- 
venue for the year ended the 5th uist., as compared with 
that of last year, there is an increase of 506,095/. ; and 
on the revenue for the quarter an increase of 338,549/, 
On the year there is an increase in the Customs of 
145,246/. ; in the Excise, of 6,356/. ; in the Taxes, of 
536,467/. ; in the Post-office, of 14,000/. ; Miscellaneous, 
19.622/ : and there is a decrease iu the Stamps of 26,456/.; 
and in the Crown Lands of 5,500/. On the quarter there 
k an increase in the Customs of 414,368/. ; in the Stamps, 
of 21,871/. ; in the Taxes, of 123,239/. ; in the Post-office, 
of 29,000/. ; in the Crown Lands, of 9.000/. ; and Miscella- 
neous, of 2,615/. ; while there is a decrease in the Excise 
of 277,096/. The total ordinary Revenue for the year is 
44,387,598/. ; or including imprest and other moneys 
and repayments of advances, not specified in the ordinary 
receipts, 45,252,495/. 

Post-Office. — The following is an official table, just 
published, of the number of letters delivered in the 
United Kingdom, for the year ended the 5th inst., com- 
pared with those of the two previous years. It is, how- 
ever, premised that the numbers given are, in some 
degree, the result of estimate, more especially those pre- 
Tious to the reduction in the rates. 

LETTERS SENT THROUGH THE LONDON GENERAL POST. 

Year immediately preceding reduction, viz., 
that ending Dec. 4, 1839 (chargeable letters 



only) 
1S40 
1841 . 



21,088,000 
49,309,000 
08,671,000 



Increase'in the last year's letters since 1840 19,362,000 
Ditto, since reduction .... 47,583^000 

LETTERS SENT THROUGH THE LONDON DISTRICT POST. 

Year immediately preceding reduction, viz., 

that ending Dec. 4, 1839 
1840 ;;.... ' ' 
1841 



13,278,000 
20,306,000 
'22,820,000 



Increase in the last year's letters since 1840 
Ditto since reduction .... 



2,514,000 
9,540,000 

LETTERS DELIVERED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

The letters sent out of the United Kingdom are ex- 
cluded from this account. 
Year immediately preceding reduction, viz., 
thatendingDec. 4, 1839 (exclusive of franks. 



which are estimated at 7,000,000) 
1840 . 
1841 

Increase in the last year's letters since 1840 
puto, giiiee reduction .... 



75,469,000 
168.7C8,0U0 
196,500,000 

27,732,000 
121,031,000 



Church Preferment. — The death of the Bishop of 
Ossory, against whom a commission of lunacy was re- 
cently issued, took place on the 31st ult., and the names 
of Dr. Elrington, Regius Professor of Divinity, and the 
Very Rev, R, Daly, Dean of St, Patrick's, are mentioned 
as the probable candidates for the vacant bishopric. 

Official Appointments. — The Right Hon. H. Hobhonse, 
formerly Under-Secretai-y of State for the Home Depart- 
ment, has been appointed on the commission of inquiry 
into the Exchequer Bill fraud, in the room of Lord Ash- 
burton, who is about to leave on a special mission to the 
United States. 



iforcign. 

France. — Relalions iciih Spain. — The leading topic 
which appears to occupy the attention of the journals is 
the difference which it is apprehended may arise between 
France and Spain, on the question of etiquette at the latter 
court, already known to our readers. The Opposition 
prints impute the blame of the whole transaction to the 
French Cabinet; whilst on the other hand the ^Ministerial 
papers contend that the Government is altogether in the 
right, and the Regent of Spain is alone responsible. The 
question has given rise to a great deal of discussion ; and 
on the ministerial side it is urged that M. Salvandy never 
presumed to conceal himself from the Regent ; that he 
never pretended to the right of speaking to the Queen 
without witnesses ; and that the letters he took with him 
were so far from containing any mysterious matter, that 
51. Salvandy offered to give the Regent authenticated co- 
pies of them. They further urge, that the Spanish Go- 
vernment had a minister at Paris, who was beforehand 
perfectly aware that M. Salvandy would he accredited to 
the Queen ; and argue, from diplomatic precedents, that it 
is to the Queen in person that the ambassadors' letters 
should be delivered, and refer to the Spanish ambassador, 
Cellamare, during the minority of Louis XV., and the 
ambassadors of the European Powers to the Emperor of 
the Brazils, who refused to dehver their credentials in each 
case to a Regent. They concludeby saying that they should 
much regret that an unexpected difficulty should suspend 
the good effects which both countries had a right to expect 
from M. Salvandy's mission, and which they maintain was 
purely one of peace and amity. Though the question has 
assumed an appearance of much difBcuIty, it is hoped that 
the new instructions sent to the British and French Minis- 
ters at Madrid will prove of a nature calculated to effect 
an arrangement, unless the Spanish Government should ma- 
nifest obstinacy, in which latter case M. de Sahandy will, 
it is positively stated, withdraw. The retirement of M. 
Gonzales, Spanish Foreign Minister, from office would, it 
is added, be a consequence, if not a preliminary, of the 
amicable adjustment of this affair. 

Addresses to 'he King. — On New Year's day, the diplo- 
matic body in Paris, the Chamber of Peers, the Chamber 
of Deputies, and other great functionaries, presented to the 
King, according to custom, their several congratulatory 
addresses. That of the diplomatic body was spoken by 
the Marquis Brignole-Sale, ambassador of Sardinia, as 
the senior member, and was marked by pacific assurances. 
He congratulated his Majesty on the providential escape 
of the young princes from the attempt of the assassins, 
and on the adhesion of France to the treaty of July, 
which, he said, had drawn closer the bonds of union be- 
tween the great Cabinets — a union so necessary to the re- 
pose of nations, and to the preservation of general peace. 
The King, after returning thanks for the expressions of 
sympathy thus conveyed to himself and family, observed, 
that the year 1.141 had been productive of happy results, 
since the great Cabinets had given in that year, by their 
accord, a new guarantee to the general peace, which his 
Majesty trusted the Powers would continue to maintain 
unimpaired. The speeches of the Duke de BrogUe. Vice 
President of the Chamber of Peers, in the absence of 
Baron Pasquier, the Chancellor, from iodi.sposition — of M. 
Sauzet, President of the Lower Chamber, and the Minister 
of Justice, conveyed to his Majesty their several congra- 
tulations for the protection displayed towards the Royal 
Family by Providence, whose goodness, they said, had pre- 
served his Majesty's life for them, and his children for 
theirs. They desired to express tht-ir admiration of the 
noble example offered by his Majesty and the Royal Fa- 
mily, whose lives were devoted to the practice of every vir- 
tue and the dispensation of favours. They expressed their 
belief that there was nothing in the aspect of events that 
seemed to forebode new storms, and nothing to dim their 
joy and their hopes on that auspicious day ; and concluded 
by assuring his jlajesty that they would devote their atten- 
tion to the several interests they represented, and that 
whatever difference of opinion might be expressed in the 
approaching debates in the Chambers on other subjects, 
on this occasion all parlies coalesced in assuring his Ma- 
jesty that they were the sincere defenders of his person. 
The King in reply thanked them for himself, and in the 
name of his family : he said that it was for the sake of 
saving the country '* that he had undertaken the fearful 
task of conjuring the hurricane which was gathering round 
France ; and that he was happy to find that, thanks to the 
progress of public tranquillity, the institutions were daily 
acquiring additional strength. It was, as they remarked," 
added his Majesty, "alaborious undertaking to found in 
France a free and regular Government ; but the support 
which he had ever found in the Chamber of Peers was one 
of the great means of attaining that end," His Majesty 
concluded by saying that there were parties who would 
deprive the country of the blessings of tranquillity by ex- 
citing alarm, and making those incessant attacks against 
propertv which were calculated to shake society to its very 
foundation ; but with their assistance he trusted to triumph 
over all guch attacks, and guarantee to France the maiS' 



tenance of repose and the development of her prosperity, 
which could only be effected by a firm execution of the 
laws, so as to render them a protection for all, and an op- 
pression to none." Numerous other addresses were pre- 
sented to the King on the same occasion, the most remark- 
able of which was that of the Archbishop of Paris, which 
was a formal act of submission, on. the part of the clergy, 
to " the Royal power, so clearly recommended by the pre- 
cepts of Christianity." The papers remark, that not only 
was the Russian minister, and all belonging to the Russian 
embassy, absent from the reception on New Year's day, 
but also that no Russians were presented to the King, 
which they suppose to be owing to orders from the Emperor. 
Meeting of the Chambers. — The Chamber of Deputies 
met on Jlonday, to nominate the commission to draw up 
the rejilv to the Speech from the Throne, when more than 
320 members were present. The discussions in the bu- 
reaux were long and animated, and a speech of the Mi- 
nister for Foreign Affairs, M Guizot, appeared to produce 
a great sensation. The Ministry obtained the advantage 
in the whole nine bureaux, as all the members chosen 
are Conservatives. M. Passy — and this is looked upon as 
important, as proving his party to be with the Cabinet — 
warmly defended the Ministry on the Eastern question. 
He stated that the system of isolation was impracticable 
for France. M. Came, who has joined 51. de Lamartine, 
severely attacked the Jlinistry for the treaty respecting 
the right of search ; and M. Thiers, who declared himself 
in favour of the treaty with Belgium, said that he was for 
the infusion of the two people, and the disappearance of 
the custom-house lines. M. Fould, the banker, formerly 
an ally of M. Thiers, approved of the policy of the 
Ministry. It is now expected that the address of the 
Commission will be a mere echo of the Speech. 

Quenisset and his Co-accused. — Qoenisset, together 
with his two accomphces, Colombier and Brazier, who 
were condemned to death by the Court of Peers, have re- 
ceived their respite. They still, however, remain at the 
Luxembourg, and their removal will not, it is said, take 
place until after the termination of the new trial of the 
persons arrested in consequence of their disclosures, since 
they will have to appear as principal witnesses for the 
prosecution. The number of new political prisoners ia 
stated to be eleven — they have been conveyed to the Lux- 
embourg, and most of them are represented to have the 
appearance of persons in easy circumstances. Some im- 
portant papers, it is said, have been seized at their resi- 
dences, and numerous other warrants are stUl out in 
different parts of the capital, 

Proceedinas of tlie Press. — Nothing of importance has 
occurred since our last relating to the proceedings of the 
press, with respect to the sentence on 51, Dupoty, which 
excited at the time so much alarm and indignation. The 
provincial papers, however, continue to send in their ad- 
hesion to the declaration, noticed in our last, protesting 
against the sentence, and the implied attack on the liberty 
of the press. The Conr Royale of Limoges has just con- 
demned, without the intervention of a jury, two journals 
for libel upon M. Bourdeau, Peer of France. One of 
them is sentenced to pay 6,000f., and the other l,500f. 
damages and costs. The prosecution was, in the first in- 
stance, brought before the Tribtmal Civil of Limoges, 
which declared itself incompetent ; hut on the appeal of 
M. Bourdeau to the Cour Royale, that Court declared it- 
self competent, and gave the above decision. M. Gaugain, 
the editor and proprietor of another provincial paper, haa 
been sentenced by the Police Court of Caen to pay a fine 
of oOOf., and to imprisonment for one month, for having 
published in his journal an account of the deliberationi 
of the Court of Peers. 

Spain, — We have received the Speech of the Regent, 
on the opening of the session of the Cortes, on the 26lh 
ult. On the arrival of the procession at the Palace of the 
Senate, her Majesty, the Regent, and her Royal Highness 
the Infanta, were received by deputations from the two 
Chambers. Her Majestv took her seat on the throne, 
with her sister on her left, and the Regent upon her right, 
one step lower than the throne, which was surrounded by 
the ministers and officers of the palace. The President 
of the Council then delivered the Speech to her Majesty, 
who placed it in the hands of the Regent, by whom it was 
read to the assembled Cones. It was of considerable 
length, and commenced with the assurance that the rela- 
tions of the country with friendly Powers continued to 
gather strength by the bonds of strict harmony and good 
inteUigence ; that those nations which bad recognised the 
Queen preserved those sentiments of justice which dic- 
tated that recognition ; and that the Governments which 
had not taken that step contemplated them without hos- 
tility, made continued inquiries respecting their political 
situation, and as it became more stable, the day, it said, 
was not far distant when reason would triumph, and the 
national cause complete its victory. No allusion is made 
in the Speech to the present difference between M. Sal- 
vandy the French Ambassador, and the Government. 
The Speech then alludes to " the revolt which broke out 
in October, disturbed the public tranquillity, and obliged 
Government to proceed with activity and energy to crush 
it in its origin. The Constitution," it says, '* as well as the 
precious lives of our innocent Queen and her august sis- 
ter, were menaced by an armed conspiracy. But Provi- 
dence enabled loyal Spaniards to save those dear objects 
of our hopes. Ail the means at our disposal were em- 
ployed to repress this horrible attempt, and the hand of 
justice chastised the principal delinquents ; their criminal 
attempt failed ag-ainst the firm attitude of the nation, and 
the energy of Government. The public vengeance once 
satisfied. Government deemed that it might exercise 
clemency, and spare the lives of some of the rebels." 
Allusion is also made to the disturbances that took place 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



27 



at Barcelona, " obliging Government to declare that rich 
and populous city in a state of siege. This measure, 
which had for its object to avoid the effusion of blood, 
produced neither violence nor ponishments, and the tran- 
quillity of the city had again been happily re-established. 
Since those events peace had been restored throughout 
the whole monarchy by the triumph of the laws, and 
every cause of new disturbance had disappeared." The 
remainder of the Speech is occupied with domestic sub. 
jects ; the administration of justice, the regulation of the 
finances, and the proposal of various reforms in different 
civil and military departments. It recommends some 
modification of the Basque fueros ; proposes to renovate 
the navy, and restore it to its ancient character; and 
advises measures to be adopted to promote the interests 
of the trans-marine provinces of the empire. The neces- 
sity of preserving faith with foreign creilitors is also en- 
forced, and a plan is proposed for securing this desirable 
end. The Regent concluded in the following words :■ — 
" The eyes of the nation are fi.x'cd upon you ; its hopes 
repose on your integrity and your patriotism. Rely upon 
my e-xertions, and upon the honest heart of a soldier, who 
has always fought for the liberty and glory of his country. 
For myself, I have no ambition ; my life belongs to my 
country ; and the glory of having served it in good faith 
will form my patrimony. May the existing Constitution, 
the throne of the young Isabella, the national independ- 
ence, and the Government created by the will of the 
people, be the objects of our fidelity, and guide us in our 
legislative labours for the consolidation of a strong 
and just Government, which, avoiding the snares laid 
for it by ambitious factions, shall for ever assure the 
prosperity and the happiness of the nation ! '' The 
Senate and the Chamber of Deputies met on the fol- 
lowing day, and proceeded with the election of officers. 
The appointments made by both houses were considered 
to be hostile to the Cabinet. The difference between the 
Government and M. Salvandy has not been arranged ; 
and some sensation was produced in the capital on the 
25th ult. by the departure of that ambassador to visit 
Aranjuez and Toledo, in order, it is said, to avoid assist- 
ing at the meeting of the Cortes, where " his position 
could not be clearly defined." He was, however, ex- 
pected to return to Madrid the day after the ceremoniah 
Nothing new had transpired relating to the subject in dis- 
pute ; and M. Salvandy was, it is said, awaiting instruc- 
tions from his Government before taking any further 
steps. The definitive convention for the capitalization of 
the coupons, signed by the Spanish Minister of Finance 
on the 53d ult., was despatched on the same day for Lon- 
don by a cabinet courier. M. Salamanca, as one of the 
contractors, and M. Borrajo, a chief of division of the 
Financial Department, were to leave Madrid in a few 
days for Paris and London. A change of Cabinet, with 
Cortina as the Premier, was one of the rumours of the 
day. Senor Arguelles, it is said, will not be re. elected 
President of the Chamber of Deputies ; and Don Pedro 
Acuna, First Vice-President of the first session, is spoken 
of as his successor. Accounts received from Barcelona 
inform us that the manufacturers in that city had burnt a 
large quantity of foreign goods. — Subsequent accounts, to 
the 29th ult., inform us that up to that date M. Salvandy 
had not left Madrid ; but Paris letters state that he was 
expected to demand his passports, so as to be in that 
capital by the 14th or 15th inst., to take part in the de- 
bates on the address in the Chamber of Deputies. In 
the sitting of the Cortes on the 29th ult., the bureau of 
the Chamber of Deputies was formed ; and the organiza- 
tion of the standing committee is said to prove a decided 
advantage over the exaltado, or democratic portion of the 
Chamber. The debates on the address were expected to 
be of a stormy character. 

PoRTDGAL. — We have received, by the Tagus steamer, 
intelligence from Lisbon to the 27th ult. The critical 
and embarrassing state of financial affairs still appears to 
absorb public attention. The difficulty of raising the- 
ways and means on the terms deemed eligible by Senhor 
Avila, Minister of Finance, appears to have nearly occa- 
sioned that gentleman's resignation ; but it is now 
thought that Government will be able to carry its views 
into effect on its own terms. The election of the corpo- 
ration of the capital had terminated in favour of the Go- 
vernment candidates by considerable majorities. The 
municipal election at Oporto was also proceeding favour- 
ably to Government. It was expected that the Cortes, 
on their meeting pro formd this month, would be ad- 
journed for the despatch of business till March. Lord 
Howard de Walden, the British Ambassador, had, it was 
understood, in consequence of the abolition of the Portu- 
guese differential duties, recommended his Government 
to revoke the orders in council, establishing retaliatory 
duties against Portuguese shipping, and thus prevent 
the imposition of additional duties on goods imported in 
British shipping, which would otherwise take place on 
and after the 19th inst. The change about to take 
place in the Spanish mission seems to be looked upon 
with satisfaction; and it is thought that in consequence of a 
declaration which has been made by Lord Aberdeen on the 
subject, the demand as to the giving up the political re- 
fugees will be abandoned. One of these, Gen. Oribe, 
was on the point of sailing for England. The Prince de 
Joinville had arrived at Lisbon from New York, and was 
expected to make a stay of some days. 

Germany.— The journals state, that hopes are enter- 
tained that Austria will join the Prussian Customs' Union, 
and that by a modification of duties the commercial rela- 
tions between the Austrian States and the remainder of 
Germany will be extended. Private accounts, on the 
contrary, said to have been received from the Swiss Mi- 
nister at Vienna, declare that Austria has decided en not 



joining the German Customs' Union ; and a letter from 
the Rhine, published in a French paper, states that Prince 
Metternich is opposed to the junction, and that even if 
Austria were inclined to effect such a measure, many of 
the smaller States of Germany would strenuously oppose 
the admission of that Power into the Union. Accounts 
received from Pesth, of the 19th ult., inform us that the 
deputation of the Hungarian Diet has displayed great ac- 
tivity. A small majority had decided against the esta- 
blishment of trial by jury. The minority, however, was 
about to publish the reasons of its vote, and in the ensu- 
ing session the proposition was expected to be renewed. 
The deputation on the 19th ult. was engaged in the adop- 
tion of some new plan of publicity for judicial jiroceedings. 
— From Berlin we learn that the departure of the King 
for London, to be present at the christening of the Prince 
of Wales, is now definitively fixed for the 1 6th inst. These 
accounts add that he will stop the first night in Magdeburg, 
from thence proceed to Hagen, and arrive on the i9th, 
by way of Aix-la-Chapelle, at Liege. On the 20th he 
will reach Ostend, where a Government steamer will be 
in readiness to receive him, and he will reach London on 
the 21st. The journals, speaking of the autograph letter 
sent by Queen Victoria to the King on this occasion, say 
that it was written in German, and that it contained the 
following passage : " I shall indeed regard it as a favour- 
able augury of the happiness of my child, if my beloved 
cousin would be so kind as to be godfather in person at 
the christening." Some of the papers state that the well- 
known theologian. Bishop Neander, will also accompany 
the King for the purpose of conferring with certain of the 
English clergy on measures hereafter to be adopted in the 
ecclesiastical concerns of Prussia ; but this seems to be 
unauthenticated. They also express the possibility of an 
approximation being made between the churches of Prussia 
and England, and associate with this view of the case the 
recent departure of two clergymen from Berlin for London. 
The object of their mission is, however, said to arise out 
of the necessity of increased church accommodation at 
Berlin, and they are sent to England in order to ascertain 
the plan adopted in this country under similar circum- 
stances. Accounts from Frankfort of the 1st inst. state, 
that unexpected difficulties had impeded the conclusion of 
the arrangements agreed on between the King of Prussia 
and the Holy See relative to the Archbishop of Cologne. 
It would appear that the Chapter of Cologne refused to 
grant M. Geysell, the coadjutor, the rights of succession ; 
nor would the Archbishop sign the manifesto which the 
Prussian Government proposed to publish relative to the 
origin and conclusion of the affair. Government, it seems, 
have just prohibited the sale, within the kingdom of Prus- 
sia, of all works published by Messrs. Hoffmann and 
Campe of Hamburg. This firm, it seems, has for some 
years published most of the works of the ultra Liberal 
party in Germany, as well as a great number of school- 
books in general use, and also many works of a miscel- 
laneous character. This extreme measure will, it is said, 
be imitated by other German Governments. — Prince 
Piickler Muskau had a narrow escape from being killed a 
short time since. He was riding in his park at night, 
when his horse fell into a deep fosse, and was nearly killed ; 
but the Prince escaped without injury. 

Russia. — Accounts received from St. Petersburgh, 
dated the 19th ult., state that the winter this year in that 
capital is the most extraordinary ever experienced ; that 
at the same period last year the cold was very severe, and 
the frost continued without intermission all the winter 
through. In one of the journals the following description 
is given by a correspondent of the state of the weather 
during the last month : " In our city gardens no trace of 
winter is to be seen. The grass-plots are all green, and 
the flowers are budding out. To-day, Dec. 1 (13th), I 
gathered in a garden at Wassili-Ostrow a nosegay, con- 
sisting of daisies, half-blown primroses, auriculas, and 
various other flowers, which I earned to an invalid lady 
residing on the English Quay. 1 rowed across the Neva 
in a little boat, the river being as free of ice as in the 
month of May." — We learn from the papers that on the 
1st inst. the first number of an English periodical was to 
appear in the Russian capital, under the title of the iS*^. 
Petersburgh English Review. The work was to appear 
twice every month, each number consisting of five or six 
sheets, and composed chiefly of extracts from English 
publications. The Empress, it appears, takes the under- 
taking under her immediate patronage. The editor is 
Mr. S. Warrand, teacher of English to the Emperor's 
children. — Savings banks have been established at St. 
Petersburgh and Moscow. Private letters from the banks 
of the Memen state that, in consequence of the treaty of 
London closing the Dardanelles, the tribes of the Caucasus 
who revolted no longer receive assistance so regularly as 
formerly, and no doubt was entertained but that they 
would be obliged to submit, and recognise the rights of 
sovereignty acquired by Russia in consequence of the 
treaty concluded with the Sultan. 

Italy. — Intelligence has been received from Rome, 
under date the ICth ult., announcing the assembling of 
the Consistory in the course of the present month, wben 
it was expected that four or five prelates would be raised 
to the rank of Cardinal. Private letters state that official 
notice had been communicated to the Auditor-General, 
MoDsignore Acton, and the Governor of Rome, Monsi- 
gnore Casoni, that they were to be immediately created 
Cardinals. Cardinal della Porta, Vicar-General to the 
Pope, died at Rome on the 18th ult., after a short illness. 
His Eminence was in the 60th year of his age, and had been 
invested with the purple by the reigning Pope in 1835. 
The following persons are reported among the distin- 
guished foreigners who have lately had the honour of being 
presented to the Pope : Lord Somerset and family, Sir W. 



W. Wynn, Sir J. Hope, Mrs. Trollope, and Mr. Siventon 
It is said that the Abbe Drach, librarian to the Propa- 
ganda, had been invited to Paris by Louis-Philippe, with 
the intention of conferring on him the functions of hbrarian 
at the Palace of Versailles, to replace M. de Valery, who 
was obliged to retire in consequence of ophthalmia. 

Greece. — Private letters, received through Ancona, in- 
form us the Government had proposed to M. Mussurur, 
the Ottoman Chargd d'Affaires, to refer to arbitration the 
territorial question and the indemnity due to Turkish sub- 
jects : but that M. Mussurur had refused this proposition. 
Government had not yet formally replied to the note of 
the Ambassadors. Trieste letters, however, of the 22nd 
ult., assert that the dispute with the Porte will be arnica- 
bly arranged. 

Turkey — Private letters from Constantinople, of the 
8th ult., published in the German papers, state that the 
Sultan intended to appoint Hussein Pacha, Seraskier ; and 
Hafiz Pacha. Minister of Finance. Zekeria Pacha had 
been recalled from the pachalic of Diabekir to take the 
command of the Roumelian division amounting to 50,000 
men, to which 15,000 Albanians, 2000 Spahis, and 3000 
Baschi Boruk were to be joined as the irregular corps. 
This large force, it is said, was to be divided into a corps 
of observation and a corps of operation: the first, 30,000 
strong, to be concentrated at Adrianople, Philippopolis, 
Sophia, Varna, Silistria, and Shumla, for the purpose of 
watching Bulgaria ; and the second, 40,000 strong, to take up 
positions near Salonica and the provinces on the frontiers. 
If the differences with Greece were not arranged, this 
army, it is said, would take the offensive. In the capital an 
army of 50,000 men was organising. The fleet was to be 
divided into two squadrons, each of six ships of the line, 
one destined for the Gulf of Volo, and the other for Can- 
dia. Tahir Pacha, the Grand Admiral, and Walker Pacha, 
had received the command of the two expeditions. The 
Porte's avowed intentions as to these armaments wrre to 
keep the Christian populations in ci eck in Roumeha, and 
to thwart the plans of the Phil-orthodox societies of Greece; 
but the accounts add, it is generally thought that a divi- 
sion of this fleet is intended for Tunis, to replace the pre- 
sent Bey by a Turkish Pacha, and to submit this pachalick 
to a more rigorous subjection to the authority of the Porte. 

India. — By extraordinary express, in anticipation of 
the overland mail, which arrived on Thursday morning, 
we have received intelligence from Bombay to the 30th 
Nov. The news of chief interest relates to Burmah and 
Cabul. From Burmah we learn that the extraordinary 
activity of the Calcutta Government had surprised Tha- 
rawaddie ; and that within a very short space of time a 
considerable force had made its appearance ready to resist 
his contemplated attack on the British possessions. This 
force consisted of 8000 men, several vessels of war, and 
some steamers ; and it is thought that there is now little 
chance of his beginning a war, particularly as he has been 
made aware of the British successes in China. There has 
been some fighting between the Ghilzies, a tribe of hardy 
mountaineers, who hold the mastery over the passes lead- 
ing from Cabul to Jellalabad and Peshawar. It appears 
that a tribute, or blackmail, paid to them for liberty to 
pass through their defiles having been reduced or not paid 
by Shah Soojah, they stopped the mails coming from Cal- 
cutta and through the Sikh country. There were orders 
issued to clear the passes, and a force under Sir R. Sale 
proceeded from Cabul for the purpose. This force encoun- 
tered considerable obstacles : the mountaineers, being fully 
acquainted with the ground, chose such positions as enabled 
them with their long matchlocks to do great execution 
among the British. Of the officers, three were killed ; 
Capt. Wyndham and Lieut. Jenkins, Bengal 35th N. I,, 
and Lieut. Edward King, 13th Queen's Light Infantry; 
and ten wounded, among whom was Sir Robert Sale. This 
fighting in the defiles, with an enemy almost unseen, is 
much commented on by the Indian journals, and the uti- 
lity of forming an effective Rifle Corps is also urged. Sir 
W. H. M'Naghten was expected in Bombay some time in 
January, but the date was not positively known. He was 
coming, it was said, by the Bolan pass, which through the 
management of the new politicul agent, Major Outram, is 
represented as being in a fair state of becoming a safe 
communication : the conciliatory arrangements adopted 
by Major Outram appearing to be highly acceptable to the 
neighbouring tribes. In the Sikh districts tranquillity is 
stated to prevail : and nothing is said of their expedition 
in Thibet. The trials of the Arab revolters on the frontiers 
of the Nizam's country are over : one of them has been 
executed, several ordered to be transported, and tranquil- 
lity has been entirely restored to those districts. There 
were some apprehensions of a famine in some districts of 
Bengal, where the rice crop had failed. 

Egypt. — By the overland mail we have recent intelli- 
gence from Alexandria, but it brings no political news. 
The Pacha had returned from Esneh, within 24 hours' dis- 
tance of Cairo. The new tariff had been put in force for 
imports, which was found to weigh heavily on trade ; but 
the freedom of trade in exports remained yet to be finally 
settled. — Accounts received from Syria stated that that 
country was a little more tranquil. The evacuation had 
taken place, all the British officers and soldiers, artillery 
and stores on service there, having embarked. A Russian 
Envoy had arrived at Alexandria on a mission to Mehe- 
met .4Ii. The Divan, it is said, has insisted that the 
Pacha shall introduce the free commercial system imme- 
diately, the Pacha, it seems, having proposed to the 
Porte to do it in three years, 

China. — Our intelligence from Canton brought by the 
overland mail reaches to the 10th Oct., and brings the 
account of the taking of the great Chinese fortress of Amoy, 
on the 27th Aug., after considerable firing, but without the 
loss of a man on the side of the British, The following 



28 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 8, 



are detailed particulars of the movements of the squadron 
after leaving Canton, and the circumstances connected 
withthislast achievementof the British forces : — The fleet, 
consisting of 34 sail, including steamers and transports, 
having left Hong Kong Bay on the 21st Aug., arrived at 
noon on the 2 oth within 40 miles of Amoy. As the fleet 
neared the harbour, the Admiral made the signal for the 
Druid and Blonde frigates, to run ahead and report the 
soundings ; the remainder of the fleet following at a mo- 
derate distance. The Chinese from the batteries on the 
islands immediately opened their fire on the leading ships. 
Of this, however, no notice was taken, the shot either fall- 
ing short or passing over the vessels. At daylight of the 
26th all the boats were hoisted out, and the two Com- 
manders-in-Chief proceeded in a steamer to reconnoitre. 
At S A. M. they returned to the flag-ship. Shortly 
afterwards a mandarin came on board the WtUesley 
•with a flag of truce. The ostensible purpose of his mis- 
sion was to inquire why so many ships had come there 
to trade at one time, and what commodities they required. 
He was, however, soon dismissed by the Plenipotentiary ; 
it having been clearly explained to him that the visit of 
the fleet to Amoy was not of a commercial nature. In 
consequence of its continuing calm during the whole 
forenoon, nothing further was done until about half-past 
twelve, when a breeze having sprung up, the signal was 
made to weigh. The steamers Sesostris and Queen first 
got into action, and were engaged half an hour before the 
other ships joined against a long battery mounting 7G guns, 
on the right-hand side of the harbour. The Blonde, closely 
followed by the Druid and Modeste, led the larboard 
division ; and about twenty minutes before two these 
three vessels were closely engaged with the batteries on 
the left-hand shore. At the same time, the centre division, 
consisting of two line-of-battle ships, Wfllesley and 
Blenheim, followed by the Culumline, Pi/lades, Cruiser, 
and Alyerine, stood across the harbour to relieve the 
steamers, running along shore at the distance of about 
400 yard- from the beach and 600 from the fortifications. 
The line-of-battle ships anchored by the stern, and com- 
menced a heavy cannonade, in which they were aided by 
the smaller sailing vessels ; the Queen and Sesostris having 
been despatched to aid the larboard division. The can- 
nonade lasted about two hours, by which time H. M. 18th 
and '26th Reg., with parties of seamen and marines, had 
been landed at various points. Sir H. Gough put himself 
at the head of the first-named corps, and took possession 
of one end of the long battery. About the same time, the 
26th Reg., with the sailors and marines, attacked and 
carried the batteries on the island of Koolangsu. Shortly 
afterwards the end of the long battery furthest from the 
point held by the Major-General was seized by the sea- 
men and marines of the Wellesley. The fortifications 
■were now entirely in the hands of the British ; the Chinese 
having fled in all directions without offering any resistance 
worth mentioning to the storming parties ; so that very 
few lives were lost by the enemy, and none by the victors. 
The fortifications of Amoy were found to be of immense 
thickness, composed of huge blocks of granite faced with 
mud. Scarcely any impression was made on them by the 
ships' guns ; and had not recourse been had to storming, 
the Chinese might have remained uninjured under shelter 
of their ramparts for an indefinite period. On the morn- 
ing of the 27th Aug. Sir H. Gough marched into the city 
at ibe head of the troops. He met with no opposition, 
all the mandarins and soldiers having quitted the place. 
Eighteen war-junks and a few gun-boats were captured. 
The treasure found in the city did not exceed 5,000 
dollars, everything valuable having been removed prior to 
the entry of the British. The future movements of the 
expedition being too important to allow of its being 
weakened by leaving a sufficient number of troops to retain 
possession of the town of Amoy, the Guards were with- 
drawn from the fortifications on the evening of the 30th 
of August. It was, however, determined to garrison the 
island of Koolangsu with ."lOO of the 18th and 26th Regts., 
together with a few artillerymen. The rest of the troops 
were embarked in the squadron which sailed to the north- 
ward on the 5th Sept. H. M. ships Druid, Pylades, 
and Alyerine remain at .\moy, to keep the provincial 
authorities in check, and afford assistance, if necessary, to 
the garrison on the island. The Chinese in the neigh- 
bourhood of Canton having broken the truce, by repairing 
tlieir batterie.-*, and placing stakes and stones to obstruct 
the navigation of the river, Capt. Nias, of H. M. ship 
Herald, senior officer at Hongkong, proceeded up the 
river, and destroyed the fort of \Vangtong. He also 
issued a proclamation to the Chinese, intimating that 
any further breach of faith on their part would be imme- 
diately followed by a renewal of hostilities. No other 
event uf importance has occurred near Canton. Trade is 
going on in the usual style, the Chinese offering no oppo- 
sition to British ships taking in cargoes. The merchants 
at Macao, however, consider the duration of this state of 
affairs to be very uncertain. 

United .St.\tes.— By the steam-ship Acadia, which left 
Halifax on the lOtli, and whose arrival we noticed in our 
last, we have New York papers to the IGth ult. With the 
exception of the presentment, submitted by the Grand 
Jury of Philadelphia, charging Messrs. Biddle, Cow- 
perthwiiite, Jaudon, and several of the late directors of 
the Bank of the United States with conspiracy and mis- 
management, as relates to the funds of that institution, 
these papers are almost filled with the correspondence be- 
tween Mr. Stevenson, the American Minister at London, 
and Lords Palmerston and .^bf-rdeen, on the subject of the 
right of search. The matter discussed between the two 
Governments, as far as the question of facts is concerned, 
does not appearto be a long or complex one. Mr. Steven- 
son, it seems, complains of certain proceedings of British 



cruisers towards American merchantmen in the African 
seas. Lord Palmerston justifies these proceedings, by re- 
ferring Mr. Stevenson to an agreement entered into be- 
tween the English and American commanding officers on 
that coast. To this defence no exception appears to have 
been taken by Mr. Stevenson, and even the Journals ap- 
pear to regard Lord Palmerston's explanation as satisfac- 
tory. Mr. Stevenson, however, says that Lieut. Payne, 
the American officer on the African coast, was not author- 
ised to enter into such an agreement ; but this disclaimer, 
it is urged, only affects any case of detention or search 
that might occur after it was made ; and that such is not 
likely to take place appears from Lord Palmerston's reply 
on that occasion, which stated that ** Such cases could 
not happen again, because positive orders were sent by the 
Admiralty, in February last, to all her Majesty's cruisers 
employed for the suppression of the slave trade, not again 
to detain or meddle with the United States vessels engaged 
in the slave trade These orders have been sent by her 
Majesty's Government with great pain and regret, but as 
an act due by them to the rights of the United States." 
In a subsequent correspondence with Lord Aberdeen, 
Mr. Stevenson claims the exemption of all ships carrying 
the American flag from search by the ships of war of other 
nations, under all circumstances whatever ; but Lord 
Aberdeen contends that the admission of this doctrine 
would virtually ofi'er a premium to the pirates and slavers 
of all countries to evade detection by sailing under Ameri- 
can colours ; and his Lordship claims, not only for Eng- 
land, but for the whole civilised world, the right of vessels 
of war to satisfy themselves by an inspection of the ship's 
papers, when reason for suspicion exists, that the vessel is 
entitled to carry the flag under which she professes to sail. 
This question, which appears still to be regarded as one of 
great difficulty, will however, it is thought, be satisfac- 
torily arranged, without giving rise to any misunderstand- 
ing between the two Governments ; and it is hoped that 
the mission of Lord Ashl urton will be successful in this 
as well as the other points which are to be the subjects of 

his negotiation The New York papers notice with strong 

approval the appointment of Mr. John Quincy Adams as 
Chairman of the Committee of Congress on Foreign Re- 
lations, in the room of Mr. Cushing, and the change is 
regarded as one of considerable importance by the friends 
of peace. 

CITY. 
Money Market, Friday. — Consols for money left off, 
89^ f ex div. ; do., account, 89^-, ex div. ; Bank Stock, 
167, 168 ; Three per Cents. Reduced, 89^ f ; Three and 
a Half per Cents. Reduced, 99| ^ ; New Three and a 
Half per Cents , 98J 99 ; India Stock, 247 ex div. 



iWetropoIt's anU its ITi'ctniijj. 

The Weather. — The weather has again become cold 
and severe; and the frost, which set in on Sunday, has 
continued without interruption during the week. The 
weather, however, has been fine and dry ; and the Parks, 
where the waters have again become fit for skaiting on, 
have attracted, as usual, a great number of visitors. 

Metropolitan Improvements. — It is stated that his 
Grace the Duke of Bedford has finally arranged with Go- 
vernment respecting his claims for compensation for cer- 
tain land in the neiglibourhood of Covent-garden, where 
the intended improvements are projected ; and that in lieu 
of money his Grace has agreed to take the Crown lands in 
the Regent's Park. 

Wood Pavement. — On Saturday, a meeting of the 
Marylebone vestry was held, at which a deputation of the 
inhabitants of Oxford-street, amounting to nearly 200 
persons, waited upon the board, for the purpose of pre- 
senting a memorial, agreed to at a public meeting, and 
which set forth the feeling of surprise and regret which 
the inhabitants of Oxford-street entertained on hearing 
that a proposition was in contemplation by the vestry to 
postpone the further use of wood-paving for three years, 
although one year had been assigned by them as a suffi- 
cient trial ; that after the repeated memorials and deputa- 
tions to the vestry upon the subject, it was hoped, if they 
were disposed to meet the wishes and welfare of their con- 
sli'uents, that they would complete wood-paving through- 
out the whole street without delay. After detailing the 
adxantages to be derived from this description of paving, 
and stating that a trial of eighteen months Lad proved its 
success beyond the most sanguine expectations, the me- 
morialists expressed a difficulty of comprehending on what 
grounds the proposal for so long a postponement rested ; 
and concluded by praying the vestry to reject suidi a pro- 
position, and carry out the motion before them for paving 
the entire street with wood forthwith. The deputation 
having withdrawn, a long discussion ensued, after which a 
division was demanded, and there appeared for the amend- 
ment of Mr. Biers, proposed at the previous meeting — 
" That the sum of 3,000/. having already been expended 
upon experiments in Oxford-street, the vestry deem it in- 
expedient to entertain the question of wood-paving within 
a period of three years from the present time," 21 ; and 
for the original motion proposed by Mr. Cochrane on the 
same occasion — "That the wood-paving be laid down 
throughout the whole of Oxford-street at the earliest pos- 
sible convenience," 19. — Majority for postponing the fur- 
ther consideration of the question for three years, 2. 

The Tower. — The number of persons who paid for ad- 
mission to view the ruins of the armouries during the 
week ending Saturday last was 2,494 ; viz. on Monday, 
828; Tuesday 519, Wednesday 13G, Thursday :i49, Fri- 
day 350, and Saturday 312. The sale of the relics of the 
fire still continues ; and most of the visitors, it is said, 
make a purchase of some article. The new jewel-office 



still remains closed, although it is stated to have been some 
time ready for the reception of the regalia ; and this cir- 
cumstance occasions considerable disappointment to the 
numerous persons who visit the ruins. 

Late Forgery of ExchequerBills. ^A. laotice-was issaei 
from the Treasury on Wednesday, stating, that applica- | 
tions having been made to the Exchequer Office by | 
holders of unstamped Exchequer-bills, who had hitherto 
omitted or been prevented from sending them in for exa- 
mination, all such bills as should be presented on Friday 
(yesterday), under the regulations previously in force, 
should be examined, and where found genuine, stamped 
and returned to the owners. Exchequer bills have during 
the week suddenly risen considerably in value ; and this 
has been endeavoured to be accounted for by a report 
that Government have it in contemplation to make an al- 
teration in the character of these securities ; and that 
instead of being payable for duties at stated periods only, 
they will be continually payable, and bear interest from 
the day of their date to the day of such payment. 

The Convict Smith. — On Monday, an order from the 
Secretary for the Home Department was received by the 
Governor of Newgate, for the immediate removal of £dw. 
Beaumont Smith, recently sentenced to be transported for 
life for being concerned in the Exchequer-bill forgery, to 
the hulks at Woolwich. It is not yet known whether this 
is merely the preparatory step to his final removal from 
the country altogether by the next convict-ship that sails, 
or whether Government has given orders that he shall be 
kept at the hulks. 

Public Meetings. — On Tuesday, was held the half- 
yearly meeting of the London Dock Company. The Se- 
cretary, Mr. J. D. Powles, read the report, from which it 
appeared that the number of loaded ships that had entered 
the docks from foreign parts in the six months ending the 
30th Nov. was 602, of the aggregate burden of 131,893 
tons. In the corresponding period of 1840, there had 
entered the docks 581 ships, of the tonnage of 124,627 
tons, showing an increase in the last half-year of 7,266 
tons. The stock of goods in the warehouses of the docks 
on the 30th Nov. was 94,345 tons, and at the correspond- 
ing period of 1840 it was 87,127 tons. The income of 
the company in the last six months had exceeded the ex- 
penditure by 81,589/. 17s. lOf/. ; and the directors, in 
consequence of this prosperous state of affairs, recommend 
that the half-yearly dividend upon the stock should be 
raised to 1/. 155. per cent. After paying interest and 
providing for the liquidation of the debt incurred for new 
works, there would remain a large surplus to theoredit of 
the company. The report also stated, as has been already 
announced, that additional warehouses for the accommo- 
dation of the importers of East and West India produce 
were to be erected, which would cause an outlay of 23,000/. 
The report was adopted, as well as the proposal for an 
augmented dividend. — On Tuesday, a half-yearly general 
court of proprietors of the Colonial Bank was held, for the 
purpose of receiving the report of the directors, and for 
other business. The report, which was read by the Se- 
cretary, stated that the total debts of the bank during the 
half-year ending the 30th June were 1,578,653/., com- 
prising 183,180/. as its circulation, 847,000/. deposits and 
other liabilities, 500,000/. paid-up capital, 24,000/. re- 
served fund, and 24,000/. profit. Its assets were, specie 
266,437/., other assets 1,299,710/., and balance of preli- 
minary expenses 12,500/. The Bank had sustained losses 
by the money crisis in the West Indies, but the directors 
were nevertheless in a situation to declare with confidence 
a dividend at the rate of 8 per cent, per annum. The re- 
port, after some discussion, was adopted. — On Wednes- 
day a meeiing of the proprietors of stock in the South Sea 
House Corporation was held, to declare a dividend, and 
for the transaction of other business. The Secretary 
read letters from the Secretary for the Home Depart- 
ment, and also one from the Secretary to Prince Albert, 
acknowledging the receipt of addresses voted by the cor- 
poration on the birth of a Prince. The accounts of the 
corporation for the half-year were then read ; after 
which, the Governor proposed that a dividend of 13 per 
cent, for the half-year should be paid, which was agreed 
to unanimously. 

Spitalfields. — On Saturday, a general meeting of the 
Spitalfields silk-weavers was held at Bethnal-green, for the 
purpose of receiving the report of the acting committee 
appointed to investigate the state and condition of the 
silk-weavers in that district. !Mr. Britten having been 
appointed to the chair, said that he was sorry he was un- 
der the necessity of again having to address them on the 
subject of their present state of distress ; which he de- 
scribed as still seriously increasing. He then animad- 
verted on the conduct adopted by the guardians, under 
the New Poor Law, towards the distressed weavers who 
applied for relief, which was, he said, refused unless the 
applicant employed himself at stone-breaking, a work for 
which he was not qualified, and which had the effect of 
rendering him unfit to resume his former occupation for 
some time, in consequence of its effect on his hands. Mr. 
Fox said that, as had been stated at the previous meeting, 
three of the committee had paid a visit to the district, and 
visited nearly 800 families in three days, and they had 
found that their previous account as to the state of the 
distress was not at all exaggerated. He then entered into 
some details of the privations to which the weavers and 
their families were reduced, and added that an early meet- 
ing of the committee would take place to make arrange- 
ments for the distribution of the funds raised for their 
relief. He then made some observations on the subject 
of employing the poor on stone-breaking, and on other 
practices adopted in workhouses under the present sys- 
tem, which he characterised as cruel in the extreme. 
After some further discussion the report was received, and 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



S9 



the following resolutions were carried unanimously : — 
"That this meeting, from the various accounts given by 
the several victims of stone-breaking, are disgusted vtitli 
the practice, and further are of opinion that it is unconsti- 
tutional and unchristian ; and from the knowledge of the 
effect that it has on the hands of the silk-weaver, by dis- 
abling him from working, do pledge themselves to oppose 
this horrible system to its utmost. That copies of this 
resoluiion be forwarded to the Poor Law Commissioners, 
and the Board of Guardians of the Union." 

Kensint/lon. — On Tuesday, a numerous meeting of the 
inhabitants of St. Mary Abbott's was held, to take into 
consideration the working of the union, and the steps ne- 
cessary to be taken by the authorities to obtain the sepa- 
ration of Kensington therefrom. After some discussion 
the following resolutions were jiassed : — '* 1, That an as- 
sociation of the ratepayers of the parish be formed to aid 
the parochial authorities in tlieir endeavours to obtain a 
separation of Kensington parish from the Kensington 
union, and to prevent by all legal and constitutional means 
in their power the erection of a new union workhouse ; 
and further to watch the progress of the New Poor Law 
Amendment Act in the forthcoming Parliament. 2. That 
a subscription be entered into for defraying the expenses 
of the association. — On Thursday a numerous meeting of 
_the inhabitants of the Brompton district of the parish of 
St. Mary Abbott's was held, for the purpose of taking the 
same subject into consideration ; and after several gentle- 
men had spoken in deprecation of the introduction of the 
New Poor Law into that parish, where, it was stated, the 
poor-rates had increased 2,000/. on the present half-year, 
resolutions similar to those passed at the meeting held on 
Monday, were unanimously adopted. 

Robberies. — We noticed in previous Numbers that se- 
veral frauds have been committed on different charitable 
institutions in the Metropolis by means of forged cheques, 
among which have been the Magdalen Hospital, the Lon- 
don Asylum for the Protection of Young Females, the 
Foundling Hospital, and the Seamen's Hospital. On 
Monday, a man named William Yates, advanced in years, 
was examined before the magistrate at Union Hall, charged 
with this offence. It seems that several letters and 
chetjues which had been thus used were taken by a police- 
man, who had directions to search for the guilty party, to 
the Secretary of the Mendicity Society, who on examin- 
ing them immediately recognised the handwriting to be 
that of the prisoner, a well-known begging-letter writer, 
who had been frequently before convicted of that offence, 
and had scarcely been one week out of gaol. The magis- 
trate asked the prisoner if he had anything to say in an- 
swer to the charge, and whether he denied being the 
writer of the letters produced .' The prisoner said, that 
at ^iresent he did not wish to say anything on the subject 
of the accusation. He was then remanded for a week, to 
give the secretaries of the institutions he has defrauded 
an opportunity of attending. — On Sunday evening an ex- 
tensive robbery of jewellery was cotnmitted at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Pedder, 7, Great Cumberland-street, "Hyde 
Park. From the examination of the premises made by 
the police immediately after, it was ascertained that the 
thieves had effected their entrance into the house through 
the back yard, but they have not yet been apprehended. 
The Talue of the property stolen is stated to be 200/. 
— A few nights since several vessels lying at the Scotch 
wharfs on the north side of the River, in the vicinity of 
the docks, were boarded by thieves from the River, and 
had the copper tops of their cabin fnnnels carried off. 
It is reported that no fewer than fourteen were stolen 
in one night. The Thames police have been unable to 
detect the thieves. — A few days since a man of respect- 
able appearance called at the Colonial Office and inquired 
for Lord Stanley. He was informed that his Lordship 
and Lady Stanley were at the time on a visit to her Ma- 
jesty at Windsor, and were not expected to return for 
some days. He then said that he was commissioned by 
the principal officers of the Custom-house to deliver to 
Lord Stanley a box which he had with him, and which 
contained a costly chandelier, intended as a Christmas 
present to Lady Stanley from some of the foreign Courts, 
and added, that 35 cases of wine had been received as a 
present for his Lordship, which would be delivered on the 
following morning. He then showed what appeared to 
be regular Custom-house certificates, signed " George 
Lamb," and stated that he was to receive 3/. 5s. 4d., the 
amount of the regular dues, The office-keeper gave him 
the money, for which he wrote a receipt and left. The box 
was removed to the residence of the Colonial Secretary ; 
and on his Lordship's return from Windsor, was opened 
in his and Lady Stanley's presence, and found to consist 
of a few brickbats. The wine spoken of was, of course, 
never received. Information was immediately given to 
the police, and after a short time the individual, whose 
name is William Esworthy, was apprehended in the 
neighbourhood of the Custom-house, and on Wednesday 
underwent an examination before the magistrate at Bow- 
street. The facts above stated were proved in evidence ; 
and the prisoner being called on for his defence, denied 
that he was the party who committed the fraud, and said 
that he could call several witnesses to prove he was in the 
City at the hour it was alleged he was in Downing street. 
On being called, however, none of them answered, except 
the prisoner's brother-in-law, who, on being asked if he 
could identify the prisoner's handwriting, said that he 
could write six or seven different hands ; but on looking 
at the receipt he thought it -was the writing of the pri- 
soner. Witness went on to say that the prisoner once 
sent him with a similar parcel, for which he was tried at i 
the Old Bailey and nearly transported. The prisoner was 
then committed to take his trial. 
Fires.— On Tuesday mormbg a fire broke out on board 



a schooner in the London Dock. One of the dock police 
observed smoke issuing from the forecastle, and having 
procured assistance, they broke open a bulkhead, leading 
to that part of the ship, which they found on fire ; but by 
active exertions they soon succeeded in subduing the flames. 
The fire is supposed to have been caused by the ignition 
of a box of lucifer-matches which a boy who slept in the 
forecastle placed under his bed to keep them dry. The 
boy narrowly escaped with his life. — On Wednesday morn- 
ing a fire was discovered by the police in the rear of 
Liiwndes'-square, Pimlico, in some premises belonging to 
Mr. Cubitt, the builder, and which were used by the ca- 
binet-makers in his employ. Before it could be got under, 
the fire had destroyed the whole range of buildings in 
which it originated, but it fortunately did not extend fur- 
ther. It is supposed to have been occasioned by a spark 
falling among the shavings at the time the men left work. 
The loss is stated to be ;iO0/. 



^Brofafncial Nctos. 

Bradford {Wilis) A daring burglary was committed 

a few nights since at South Wraxhall, in this county, in 
the house of Mr. Awdrey. It appears that after having 
forced their way into the house, several of the robbex'S 
remained below to keep watch, while three others pro- 
ceeded upstairs, entered the rooms of the two daughters, 
and compelled them, under threats of murdering them, 
to give up all their money and jewellery. The ladies 
also fearful that their father, if he met the robbers, might 
resist, and lose his life, went into his bed-room and pre- 
vailed on him to give up all the money in the house. 
The robbers then demanded the surrender of the silver 
plate, and all the other portable valuables, which they 
took to the extent of half a sackful, -carefully selecting 
the solid silver articles and leaving the plated behind. 
They next demanded wine and brandy, of which they 
drank a quantity, and finally left about four in the morn- 
ing, having remained in the house between four and five 
hours. The plunder, in addition to 30/. in money, is said 
to have been very great in plate, jewellery, and other valu- 
able articles. The daring character of the outrage has 
alarmed all the neighbourhood, more especially those 
inhabiting solitary houses. 25/. was immediately oflfered 
as a reward for the detection of the robbers, who were 
thought to be London thieves. A man named Roberts, a 
clock and watch maker, of Bath, has been apprehended 
with part of the stolen plate in his possession ; and eleven 
other men have since been taken into custody charged 
with being concerned in the robbery. Their apprehen- 
sion, it seems, was the result of information received by 
the police at Bath, in consequence of which they went 
over to a house at Twerton, well known, it would appear, 
to the officers, where they found concealed a large quan- 
tity of the stolen plate, the crest upon which had, in some 
instances, been obliterated, whilst upon others traces of 
it were left ; they also found a number of articles used 
by thieves. On Saturday all the prisoners were examined 
before the magistrates. The examination was strictly 
private, but it is understood that they are eleven in 
number, eight men and three women. Miss Awdrey 
gave her evidence at considerable length, from which it 
appeared that two men, called Burge and Milsom, were 
the parties more immediately concerned in the robbery, 
and those who made her give them money and every- 
thing else of value in the house, as the condition on 
which the lives of the whole household were to be saved. 

Briphton A vestry meeting of the inhabitants of tliis 

town has been held for the purpose of taking into con- 
sideration a prohibitory order issued by the Poor- 
law Commissioners relating to some alterations of the 
workhouse, and the correspondence of the Poor-law 
Commissioners thereon ; and also a report on the said 
order and correspondence adopted at a special meeting. 
The committee in their report complained of the inter- 
ference of the Poor-law Commissioners in the contem- 
plated outlay at the workhouse, and recommended that 
they should be resisted to the utmost, and that prompt 
steps should be taken to remove the order issued by 
them to this parish by certiorari into the Court of Queen's 
Bench ; but first recommending that the matter should 
be submitted to the inhabitants at large in vestry assem- 
bled. The Rev. J. Anderson, Chaplain to the Queen 
Dowager, addressed the meeting at considerable length, 
and said he conceived the occasion which had summoned 
them together was a most important one, and that every 
step which they took would be pregnant with conse- 
quences to the best interests and welfare of the parish. 
He did not come forward to oppose the law. If the pro- 
hibitory order of the Poor-law Commissioners were law, 
it would become them as good citizens to obey it ; but 
the question was whether they were justified iu opposing 
that prohibitory order, and he thought they were. Similar 
orders on three or four metropolitan parishes had been 
quashed ; and at all events, if a doubt existed, it might 
be cleared up. Mr. Anderson proceeded to comment on 
several clauses in the New Poor-law Bill, which he con- 
sidered objectionable ; more particularly the work-house 
test, and the uniform plan of refusing relief to out-door 
paupers : and concluded by moving the first resolution, 
expressive of the entire concurrence of the meeting in 
the sentiments contained in the report of the directors 
and guardiaus with reference to the introduction of the 
Poor-law Commissioners into this town. This resolution 
being unanimously carried, Mr. Evershed moved that 
the matter be referred back to the directors and guar- 
dians to be carried into effect, and for them to take such 
steps thereupon as might be advisable ; which was also 
carried unanimously. 

Canterbury,~At^\Q borough sessions on Monday, the 
appeal of Sir E, Knatchbull against a late conviction by 



the magistrates for refusing to pay a toll, was brought on 
for hearing. The case excited great interest, from the 
character of the party concerned, and the importance of 
the question involved. Mr. Deedes stated that he ap- 
peared to support the conviction made by the justices ; 
and as all the facts were admitted, it would be simply for 
the court to decide upon the merits of the case. He 
then briefly detailed all the circumstances connected with 
it, which are already well known, and added that it was 
unnecessary for him to detain the court with any length- 
ened remarks, until he saw what cases were adduced in 
support of the appeal. Mr. Bodkin, M.P., for the appel- 
lant, contended that the clause in the act under which 
his client had been convicted, was simply directed against 
those who, in defiance of law, wilfully and unlawfully 
drove through the gate at which such toll was set up, 
in order to avoid payment ; but that the hon. baronet 
had refused, upon his belief that he was exempted, and 
had claimed it at the time of passing through the gate. 
It would be seen, he said, by the conviction itself, that 
those who passed this act felt it necessary to intro- 
duce the very argument he was now using, for it applied 
to those who passed through the gate refusing to pay 
the toll demanded without any supposed ground of ex- 
emption. It was absurd to suppose that any one passing 
through on this belief, and with the intention of paying 
the next day, if he was wrong, was to be subjected to the 
penalty of 10/. The appellant lived .at a distance of 20 
miles from the place of election, and it being necessary that 
he should be at the nomination at an early hour, he pre- 
pared himself by leaving home on the Saturday previous; 
and not liking to travel on Sunday, he proposed to spend 
the intermediate time at a relative's house, Sir B. Bridges, 
at Goodwestone Park, which was only three miles from 
the place of election, in order to be ready for it on the next 
Monday. Sir B. Bridges and the Rev. C. H. Hallett 
were here called to depose to the fact of Sir E. Kuatch- 
buU's paying a visit to their residences entirely unsoli- 
cited, as they supposed that he might be ready for the 
election, and that Lady Knatchbull accompanied him. 
Mr. Deedes rephed at some length, and cited several 
cases to prove that "Privilege of Court" was not 
allowed to extend to instances in which parties had de. 
viatedfrom the direct line of their course, as in the present 
instance ; and further urged that if the right hon. baronet 
claimed the privilege for himself, he could not for his 
lady, who could in no way be considered as going to 
the election. He contended that the conviction came 
within the Act of Parliament provided for such cases, 
and therefore that the court must confirm it. The 
Recorder gave an elaborate decision coufirraatory of the 
conviction, but recommended that the appellant, if dis- 
satisfied with his view of the case, should obtain the 
decision of the Court of Queen's Bench. Mr. Deedes 
applied for costs, but these were allowed to be settled in 
the usual way. 

Carlisle. — A public meeting was recently held for tlie 
purpose of inquiring into the distressed state of the poor 
in this city, at which a committee was appointed for that 
purpose. A public meeting has again been held, at 
which the report of the committee was read, which iu its 
details presented a serious statement of suffering and 
distress. " The number of families without any means 
of subsistence, beyond a dependence on casual charity, 
was found to be 309, and the individuals belonging to 
these families, amounted to 1,'14G. Exclusive of those 
who have no visible resources, the number of persons 
whose weekly means of maintenance do not exceed \s. 
per head is i,465 ; of those who have more than Is., 
but not above Is. 6('. per head, the number is 1,623 ; 
above Is. Hd., but not more than 2s., 692 ; and more 
than 2s., but below 3s , 6 i5." It hence appears that 
there are no less than 5,5bl individuals, in a population 
of 22,000, reduced to such a state of suffering, that im. 
mediate relief has become necessary to save them from 
starvation. 

Chelmsford. — A serious fire has occurred at Panfield 
Hall Farm, belonging to Messrs. J. and R. Lambert, near 
Braintree, in tliis county. It broke out in the middle of 
the night, but by great exertions, and the tmiely arrival 
of the engine from Braintree, the neighbours succeeded in 
saving three large stacks of barley and beans, closely 
adjoining the barn where the fire commenced ; but the 
latter, together witli its contents, about 200 quarters of 
barley, beans, and peas, was entirely destroyed. It is 
feared that the fire was the act of an incendiary. 

Chichester.—Ai the Sessions held in this city on Mon- 
day, William Styles Goodeve, and William Williams, late 
cashiers of the old Bank, were tried on a charge of em. 
bezzlement. It will be remembered that this bank recently 
stopped payment ; and this charge was made by the 
principals of the firm against the prisoners of having, 
shortly before the bank closed, embezzled a considerable 
sum of money. The trial, which lasted ten hours, excited 
considerable interest, and the Court was much crowded. 
The prisoner Williams was tried first. The case for the 
prosecution having been stated, the Messrs. Ridge, part- 
ners in the firm, were examined at great length ; and 
from their evidence it appeared that the prisoners had 
almost the uncontrolled management of the cash accounts 
of the firm, which had not been balanced for 20 years. 
The method in which the business of the bank was con- 
ducted was minutely explained, and it seemed that the 
day before the bank stopped, an inquiry into the state of the 
books was made, and a balance struck, when it was found 
that there was a deficiency to a considerable amount ; the 
cash account appearing to be deficient 122/. 7s., and the 
notes 1,660/. These witnesses further deposed that on 
charging the prisoner Williams with the fraud, he ad- 
mitted he had done wrong, and said he would explain 



30 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 8, 



everything ; that he then proceeded to show the actual 
state of the cash account, and the fictitious entries that 
had been made, but even after this there still appeared to 
be a deficieucy, 84/. I'is. 4rf. Mr. Ridge said he asked 
the prisoner whether he had taken the general deficiency 
in cash or notes ; and that he replied in both, and that he 
had taken it some years since, when his family were in 
distress. This having closed the case for the prosecution, 
the coinisel for the defence addressed the jury at con- 
siderable length for the prisoner. He conmiented in 
severe terms on the management of the bank, and called 
the attention of the jury to the fact that for twenty years 
the accounts had never been balanced, nor the cash 
counted by any member of the firm to see that it agreed 
W'ith the books. A number of witnesses were then called 
who gave the prisoner a good character, after which the 
Recorder summed up, e.splainiug the law, and reading the 
evidence. The jury returned a verdict of " Not Guilty," 
which was received with marks of approbation by nume- 
rous persons in Court. The other prisoner was then ar- 
raigned on tlie same charge, but no evidence being offered 
for the prosecution he was acquitted. 

Dorchester. — Sir James Graham has paid a visit to 
his constituents in this town, on which occasion a public 
dinner was given to him. After dinner the customai'y 
toasts were given, and on the health of the Prince of 
Wales being proposed. Sir J. Graham rose and said, that 
within the last week hehad the satisfaction to hear from the 
lips of her Majesty, at Windsor, a pledge which he had 
much pride in repeating on that occasion. He heard 
her Majesty tell the civil and religious authorities of the 
realm assembled within the walls of the Palace of Wind- 
sor, that it should be her care to train up her Royal son 
in the paths of virtue and religion, and to instil into his 
mind a respect and veneration for the civil and religious 
liberties of the country — a pledge which, he was sure, 
her Majesty would fulfil. On his own health being pro- 
posed. Sir J. Graham addressed the company at consi- 
derable length. After alluding to the recent treaty con- 
cluded between the five great powers of Europe, for the 
total suppression of the slave-trade, effected by a Go- 
vernment which, he added, he was proud to belong to, 
he said that Nothing of much importance had occurred 
since he last saw them. At a period of great public 
difiiculty the present ministers came into power, and 
they asked for a small space of time to arrange and pre- 
pare their measures. Their opponents said that their 
request was unreasonable ; but the people of England were 
more reasonable, and were ready to grant what was asked. 
It would not be e.xpected, and would, indeed, be improper 
in him to enter into detail on any measures which 
government might have it in contemplation to propose ; 
but this he might say, that every feeling of gratitude 
would prompt them to use every exertion to meet the 
reasonable expectations of the best portion of the com- 
munity, and so to form their measures as to meet the 
wishes of the public. The Right Hon. Baronet then 
alluded at some length to the speech recently made by 
Lord John Russell in answer to the address presented him 
by the inhabitants of Plymouth ; and remarked " that 
certainly in the West of England the sun had gone down, 
the sun of Lord J. Russell had gone down amid a 
lowering and angry sky, probably foreboding a stormy 
rising in February ; but assuredly he did not anticipate 
witli much apprehension any measures for displacing the 
present ministers." He then alluded to the assertion 
made by tlie noble Lord on that occasion, that the former 
Ministry had left to the present Government " an easy 
task." This he endeavoured to prove untrue by enter'ing 
at length into the state of the country, its, relations 
abroad, and its conditions at home, which was such, lie 
said, as threw on present Ministers anything but an " easy 
task." He should say nothing of the particular course 
they should pursue ; but that having looked steadily at 
the difficulties of the country, it would be their duty 
manfully to meet those difficulties. The Right Hon. 
Baronet then animadverted on the conduct and measures 
of the late Ministry, and said that it was not a combina- 
tion of monopolists that overthrew them, but the loss of 
the confidence of the people : and that loss of confidence 
preceded, and did not follow the loss of the confidence of 
Parliament. He concluded by assuring the company that 
speaking for himself, and he was sure that he might 
speak also for the head of the administration. Sir R. 
Peel, they would never consent to drag out a miserable 
official existence, like the late administration, from year to 
year, when the public confidence was forfeited ; but rely- 
ing on that confidence so long as they possessed it, they 
would proceed in the fearless discharge of what they 
considered to be their duty. 

Durham. — We learn i'rora Barnard Castle, in this 
county, that the carpet-weavers and others in that town, 
amounting to upwards of 120 families, are reduced to 
great distress owing to the want of emijloy, most of the 
manufactories having stopped working. The town, it is 
added, has been divided into districts, and the habita- 
tions of the poor visited to ascertain the nature of each 
case of distress ; and the result has shown that for the 
last six or seven weeks the average incomes of the above 
families have been at the rate of Is. 2Jd. per head per 
week, and that now it will not be more than Is., many 
having no employment whatever. A subscription is 
making amongst the neighbouring gentry and inhabitants 
of the town, and it is proposed, as far as it is practicable, 
to give employment to those able to work in improving 
footpaths, roads, &c., and also to afford some relief by 
supplying corn at a reduced price, in those tirgent cases 
where the parties cannot be employed at outdoor work. 

Hastings. — Accounts from this port inform us that the 
Mackerel fishery has already commenced with some pro- 



spect of success. A few days since one of the boats be- 
longing to this place, being the first on the southern 
coast, put off to fish, and succeeded in catching 200, 
which readily sold at the price of it. 10,?. per lOO. 

Hertford. — The following unusual circumstances oc- 
curred at the Quarter Sessions of this county, on Mon- 
day. A man named Godfrey, was charged with stealing 
a quantity of wheat, the property of his mistress, and 
convicted on satisfactory evidence. The verdict, how- 
ever, had scarcely been recorded, when the counsel for 
the prisoner moved for an arrest of judgment, on the 
ground that an improper affirmation had been adminis- 
tered to one of the jurors, a Quaker, or rather that this 
juror had made no affirmation at all. The affirmation 
repeated to him by the clerk began with, " You being 
one of the people called Quakei-s do solemnly affirm," and 
ended with "So help you God." In addition to this in- 
formality, the clerk had neglected to require the Quaker 
juror to repeat the words of the affirmation after him. 
The Court admitted tlie objection of the counsel, and 
ordered the prisoner to be discharged. Shortly after this 
occurrence the jury returned a verdict, in the case of a 
young girl charged with shoplifting of " Guilty of stealing, 
but without a felonious intention." The counsel for the 
prisoner submitted that such a verdict was a verdict of 
acquittal. The Court also admitted the objection, and 
ordered the prisoner to be forthwith discharged. — 
A serious fire has occurred at Truig, in this county, 
in the silk factory of Mr. Evans, which is situate at 
New-mill-end. Several engines were soon on the spot, 
and the fire was speedily subdued, but not before damage 
had been done to the amount, it is said, of from 3,000/. 
to.4,00i7. The fire appears to have originated in the 
engine-room. A number of operatives will, it is said, be 
thrown out of employment in consequence. 

Ipswicf). — On the night of Friday the 31st ult., a fire 
supposed to have been the act of an incendiary, broke 
out in the stack-yard of the Rev. H. Owen, of Havening- 
ham, in this county ; and but for the active exertions of 
the neighbours, it is thought that not only the stack-yard 
which contained 7 corn and hay-stacks, but the barn, 
stables, and farming-buildings adjoining, must have been 
burnt to the ground. The loss was confined to two 
stacks, which were quite consumed. The police have 
been active in their endeavours to discover the author of 
the fire, and a 3'oung man of bad character living in a 
neighbouring parish, who it seems has been twice com- 
mitted by Mr. Owen, in his official capacity as magis- 
trate, was apprehended on Saturday on suspicion, and 
will undergo an examination before the magistrates. 

Liverpool. — A local paper, the Journnl, gives an ac- 
count of the arrival in this city of three Canadian Indians 
from Quebec. They are, it seems, on their way to the 
Colonial Office, bearing with them letters from Colonel 
O'Halloran, of the 68th Reg., who has lately, it is said, 
been elected great White Chief of the Micmacs. They 
are described as well-dressed, respectable-looking men 
of strong Indian features. One of them is chief of 
the tribe, and the other two have been deputed to accom- 
pany him. The chief writes and understands English 
pretty well ; and the other two, although they understand 
the language, find it rather difficult to speak it. It does 
not appear to be known what is their object in coming to 
this country, but one ])art of it is said to be to solicit the 
aid of Government in completing the erection of a Catholic 
chapel, which the tribe liave commenced, but for want 
of funds have not been able to complete. 

Manchester.- — On Friday night, the 31st ult., another 
serious fire occurred in this town, in a large warehouse 
forming |)art of Bateman's-buildings, in Blackfriars'- 
street. The premises, which are in the occupation of Mr. 
Finch, calenderer and maker-up, and Mr. Thorp, calico- 
printer, are situate close to the Irwell, on the Manchester 
side, and consist of a building six stories high. The fire 
was first discovered by a casual passer-by, and it is 
thought from the retired situation of the building, that it 
must have been burning for some time before it was ob- 
served. Before the engines could arrive the whole build- 
ing was in flames, and there beuig little hope of saving it, 
active exertions were used to preserve the adjoining pro- 
perty, for which serious apprehensions were for some time 
entertained. Ultimately, however, the fire was got under, 
without destroying more than the building where it ori- 
ginated. The entire loss is estimated at 6000/. The origin 
of the fire is not known, the premises having appeared to 
be safe when the workmen quitted them a short time 
before. — We noticed in our last the circumstance that 
several persons in this town had been suddenly taken ill, 
after jiartaking of some mutton broth, which it was con- 
cluded must have been poisoned. An analysis, both of 
the broth and the oatmeal, has since been made, and in 
both the presence of arsenic has been clearly detected. 
The whole affiiir, however, still continues to bo involved 
in mystery, although it is said that suspicion has fallen 
on some individuals wlio, some short time since, were in- 
mates of the house. No judicial investigation, however, 
has taken place. All the parties who partook of the 
poisoned food have sinca recovered from its effects. 

Nottingham. — Tlie village of Mansfield near this town 
has been thrown into a state of alarm by the discovery of 
another murder. The perpetrator of the crime is a 
young man aged 24, named John Jones, a shoemaker in 
the town ; and deceased was a young girl aged 19, named 
Mary Allen. It appears that the prisoner had some time 
since paid his addresses to deceased, which were at first 
admitted by her parents, but the prisoner becommg dis- 
solute in his habits, they had broken off the connexion. 
The prisoner, it seems, was much attached to deceased, 
who possessed considerable personal attractions ; and this 
interruption to their intercourse is supposed to have led 



him to the commission of the crime. Deceased had gone 
out on Thursday evening, the 30th ult., induced it would 
seem to do so by the prisoner, and not returning for a 
considerable time,f her parents became alarmed, and the 
father went in search of her ; but not finding her, he 
thought at last of looking in through the window of pri- 
soner's room, and there ho saw his daughter lying on the 
floor quite dead, with her throat cut. The prisoner was 
not in the room, but had, it seems, after the commission 
of the crime gone to a neighbouring public-house, where 
he continued drinking some time. On being apprehended, 
he confessed that he had murdered the girl ; that he had 
first asked lier if she would marry him, and on her stating 
that her parents would not give their permission, he said 
that she should marry no one else, and murdered her. 
He expressed no regret at what he had done, but said 
that he had intended to have murdered himself, but that 
he was afraid of the responsibility of two murders. He 
wished to be hanged, and hoped his example might prove 
a warning to others. An "inquest has been held, and a 
verdict returned of " Wifful Murder" against the pri- 
soner, who has been committed to take his trial. 

Oj-/oi-(/.— We learn from a local paper. The Herald, 
that the election of a Professor of Poetry for this Univer- 
sity, which has already given rise to so much discussion, 
and created such general interest, is fixed to take place 
on Wednesday, the 26th inst. 

Shrewsbury. — John Williams and Joseph Slawson, the 
two men apprehended on suspicion of having murdered 
Emma Evans at Chirk, have undergone a final examina- 
tion before the magistrates. The evidence adduced 
against them was only circumstantial and has already- 
been before our readers. The strongest circumstance 
against them was the possession of the bundle containing 
articles which have since been identified as belonging to 
deceased. The two prisoners concurred, though their 
statements were taken separately, in saying that they 
found the parcel lying in the road, along which they hap- 
pened to be walking together— that they knew nothing as 
to whom it belonged, and th.at they were innocent of all 
knowledge of the murder. They were committed to take 
their trial. 

Southampton, — Intelligence has been received that 
Springfield House, the fine mansion of K. Digby, Esq., 
was on Tuesday entirely destroyed by fire. It seems 
that it was first discovered about two in the morning by 
a man-servant, who slept over the kitchen apartments, 
and who made his escape through a window, and alarmed 
the family in another part of the house, just in time to 
save their lives. Mr. Digby, it is stated, has lost by the 
fire some very valuable manuscripts. 

Stockport. — A meeting was recently held at the Court- 
house, to adopt means of relieving the distresses of the 
working classes. The rector, seconded by the Rev. J. 
Waddington, moved that the meeting regarded with deep 
sympathy the present suffering of the working classes in 
the borough ; and that to assist in relieving their distress 
a public subscription be entered into. Several gentlemen 
addressed the meeting, and resolutions were adopted for 
carrying their intentions into effect. A general committee 
was appointed ; several sums of 50/. and 100/. were im- 
mediately subscribed, and a donation of 500/. was an- 
nounced from the Manufacturers' Relief Committee in 
London. From statements made by different speakers 
during the meeting, it appeared that of 1 5,823 individuals, 
inhabiting 2,065 houses, lately visited under the direction 
of a committee appointed for the purpose, 1,204 only were 
found to be fully employed, 2,866 partially employed, and 
4,148 able to work were wholly without employment. 
The remaining 7,405 persons were unable to T,-ork. 

Windsor. — The morning papers announce, on the au- 
thority of a correspondent, that preparations have already 
commenced for enclosing the land intended for the Royal 
Gardens at Frogmore. The ground has been set out 
under the directions of a surveyor from the office of 
Woods and Forests, and comprises about twenty acres of 
the finest arable land on the Frogmore estate. The soil 
consists of a rich sandy loam upwards of three feet in 
depth, and is, it is said, in every respect calculated for the 
purposes required. The range of glass will extend up- 
wards of eight hundred feet in a direct line ; and in the 
centre of this will be erected a cottage, for the residence; 
of the head gardener. On each side of the cottage there 
will be a handsome conservatory, and corresponding 
houses throughout the whole line for the production of 
pines, grapes, peaches, and other forced fruit. The di- 
mensions of these houses, however, have not yet been 
finally determined upon. At the back of the range of 
glass a number of sheds will be constructed for the culti- 
vation of mushrooms, stowage of fruit, potting, tool- 
houses, &c. ; and this part of the garden will also be ap- 
portioned for the forcing-pits. There will be a terrace 
upwards of twenty feet wide in front of the hothouses, 
and the garden will be intersected with bold and uniform 
walks, 'riie forcing department will be heated by hot- 
water pipes, upon a new and improved principle. The 
whole will be surrounded by a brick wall twelve feet high, 
and the garden, when complete, is expected to be one of 
the most perfect in the kingdom. The present gardener's 
residence, with the forcing and other houses and buildings 
in the Maestricht gardens, which are now to be observed 
from the north terrace, will, it is added, be pulled down, 
and the garden thrown into the park immediately the 
new gardens can be brought into a state of cultivation. 

Ilailways. — We learn from the " Railway Magazine" 
that the reoejpts of the railways for the last week are as 
follows: — Birmingham, 16,907/.; Great Western, 
12,428/. ; Midland Countiee, 2(533/. ; North Midland, 
3,975/.; York and North, Midland, 1,677/.; Hull and 
Selby, 810/, ; Northern ^jjd Eagtern, 1,12H. J Great 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



31 



North of England, 1,200/. j Eastern Counties, 799/. ; 
Birmingham and Gloucester, 1,707/.; Southwestern, 
4.449/.; Birmingham and Derby, 1,145/.; Manchester 
and Birmingham, 400/. ; Manchester and Leeds, 4,004/. ; 
Blacknall, 583/. — Sir F. Smith on Saturday retired from 
the office of Inspector-General of Railways, and was suc- 
ceeded by Major-Gen. Pasley An inquest has been held 

at Reading on Richard Woolley, another of the passengers 
by the luggage train which met with the serious accident 
on the Great Western Railway noticed in our last, and 
who has died since the previous inquest was held. The 
investigation lasted upwards of ten hours, and excited con- 
siderable interest. Nothing new, however, was elicited, 
and the only evidence of any imjtortance was that of the 
engineer, Mr. Brunei, who was again examined at great 
length. That gentleman stated that he arrived at the spot 
shortly after the accident occurred, and before the earth 
had been removed from the rails ; that he examined the 
site carefully and particularly, because he was surprised at 
so much mischief having been produced by the compara- 
tively small quantity of ground which had slipped, and he 
found some large stones which had slipped down with the 
clay, being part of a bed of stones, which lies a considera- 
ble height up the cutting. One of these stones, probably 
two feet square, appeared to have been on the rail just at 
the point where he thought the engine first left the line, 
and he had no doubt that these stones were the cause of 
the accident, as the engine, he considered, would have run 
through the clay, and the train have been stopped much 
more gradually. He thought that the stones and part of 
the slip were still moving at the time of the arrival of the 
train, but were nearly all down when the engine ran into 
it. In reply to some questions from the jury, he said that 
if the passengers had been in the last carriages they would 
have escaped of course ; but, generally speaking, it was 
Dot a safe position for them, as they would there be ex- 
posed to more danger than in front. Mr. Brunei gave 
the same reasons for forming this opinion which were 
given by him when asked a similar question at the previous 
inquest, namely, that there was more danger of their being 
run into by the fast trains which followed them. He 
begged also to add, with respect to the relative safety of 
the passenger trucks, that be had frequently travelled by 
them himself, and at one period generally went by them 
once a week to Bristol, as being the last train out of Lon- 
don at night ; and taking the speed of travelling into con- 
sideration, he considered them rather a safe train than 
otherwise. He concluded by saying that the whole line 
was particularly well watched, and that there was no rail- 
road in the kingdom which had a stronger body of police 
engaged. After some further evidence of no importance, 
the jury returned a verdict that " Richard Woolley came by 
his death from a fracture on the skull, caused by the en- 
gine called the Hecla coming into collision with a mass of 
earth, having fallen from the slope of a cutting on the 
Great Western Railway, at Sonning, and they are of opi- 
nion that the accident might have been avoided had there 
been a night police or watch in the cutting. They there- 
fore place a deodand on the engine and train of carriages 
of the sum of one hundred pounds. And further, they 
recommend that the passenger trucks be in future placed 
further from the engine." — An inquest has been held on the 
three men killed by the explosion of gunpowder on the 
Bristol and Gloucester railway, noticed in our last; and 
on Henry Williams, the blacksmith, who has since died of 
the injuries be received. From the evidence of one of 
the labourers present at the accident, it appeared that little 
precaution was taken for the security of the powder ; that 
it was placed in the blacksmith's shop, because there was 
BO other place for it, and to keep it dry ; that there were 
at the time two barrels of gunpowder in the shop, one 
containing a hundred-weight, for the use of the miners, and 
the other several pounds of wet powder placed there to 
dry. No precautions were taken to prevent the powder 
fi-om exploding. When it was opened, a small hole was 
made in the head of the barrel with a knife, and that was 
sometimes stopped up wiih a cork or some clay. Any 
person that worked at the shafts went for the powder, 
sometimes one, and sometimes another; and it was never 
locked up. This evidence having been corroborated by 
another of the men who suffered by the accident, the Co- 
roner addressed the jury, and expressed his regret that they 
had no power to mark in an effectual manner the negli- 
gence displayed by those who had the charge of the pow- 
der. Verdict, " Accidental death, in consequence of a 
large quantity of gunpowder having been improperly placed 
in the smith's shop ; and the jury regret they had it not 
in their power to lay a heavy deodand, and wish to express 
their strong feeling of the improper management on this 
railway."— On Wednesday night, the 22d ult., some ill- 
disposed person, as stated by the " Devizes Gazette," 
placed a number of large stones on the Great Western 
rads, between Box and Bath, just before the approach of 
the mail train. Fortunately the guard-iron of the train, 
which was bent double by coming into contact with them, 
in some measure cleared the largest stones, and the wheels 
crushing others, no injury was sustained. — On Thursday, 
a special general meeting of the Northern and Eastern 
Railway Company was held, for the purpose of confirming 
the forfeiture of certain shares on which the calls due 
were unpaid. The chairman. W. Crawshay, Esq., stated 
that the number of shares to be forfeited had been re- 
dnced to 50, the calls nn the rest having been paid prior 
to the meeting ; and that of the sum of 240,000/. ordered 
to be borrowed, 68,000/. had been obtained. The re- 
mainder would go towards the Hertford and Ware branch, 
if the proprietors should so determine, as a dispute had 
arisen with the road trustees. A proprietor suggested the 
placing of an empty carriage before and after those con- 
tamujg passengen, for the sake of safety; in reply to 



which it was stated that there was frequently one heavy 
carriage so placed, and sometimes two. Mr. Peto, the 
builder, thought the line would be opened to Bishop's 
Stortford by 1st April. Some conversation followed, and 
before the meeting adjourned a check was handed to the 
chairman for the calls on 40 of the above shares. 



IRELAND. 

Dublin, — The weekly meeting of the Repeal Associa- 
tion was held on Wednesday, when the Lord Mayor began 
the day's proceedings by handing in 11/. Is., 3d.|being his 
own subscription for the present year ; 7/. from his seven 
sons, as members, and 1/. Is. from his twenty-one grand- 
children, as associate members. The Secretary read a 
letter from the managers of the New York Repeal Asso- 
ciation, inclosing an extract from the will of Felix O'Neill, 
deceased, who bequeathed 500 dollars to Mr. O'Connell, 
towards forwarding the Repeal of the Union. The Lord 
Mayor said that he received this bequest in the spirit in 
which it was offered. If he had given up the repeal ques- 
tion previously to this bequest, he should have been guilty 
of political dishonesty ; but if he abandoned it now, he 
should be guilty of knavery. This was his retaining fee 
in the cause of Ireland against her oppressors, and while 
he had the power it should bind him to her service. He 
concluded by calling on the Association to join him in an 
expression of gratitude to the memory of the donor, and 
the Americans generally, for their sympathy and support. 
An address was also read from the Repeal Association of 
Norfolk, Connecticut, to the Lord Mayor, congratulating 
him on his election to the mayoralty, and inclosing 20/. 
towards the association. The Lord Mayor again spoke 
at considerable length on the subject of American sym- 
pathy, and proceeded to deliver his usual weekly address 
on the subject of Repeal, but no new topic of any interest 
was introduced. 

Louth. — A repeal meeting was held at Dundalk,in this 
county, on Saturday, at which Mr. O'Connell was pre- 
sent. It was numerously attended, and Mr. O'Connell 
delivered an address at great length on the ordinary topics 
connected with the subject of Repeal. He said that he 
struggled for repeal because it would enable Ireland to 
get rid of a hostile Ministry, and every other grievance, 
now called a rent-charge, but which he hated under one 
name just as much as under another : and there was, he 
added, that abominable tithe rent-charge, the very reflec- 
tion on which prevented him from sleeping on his bed. 
" The Repeal of the Union," concluded Mr. O'Connell, 
" would cause the exclusion from Ireland of everything 
that was not of Irish manufacture. It would revive and 
extend the manufactures of the country ; it would enlarge 
her commerce, and give fair i^ay to all ; it would confer 
upon every man 21 years of age a right to vote, protect 
him by the introduction of the ballot, and would restore 
Ireland to the full noontide of justice. Every man, 
woman, and child, must enrol themselves in the Repeal 
Association. It was the easiest thing in the world. He 
asked only a farthing a week, a penny a month, or a shil- 
ling a year. Let them grant his request, and he pledged 
himself that in six months after he had obtained 3,000,000 
of Repealers he would have a Parliament in College-green. 
It was not the shilling, but the man at the back of it, that 
produced the effect ; and that was the way in which he 
wanted his exertions to operate and to tell." After the 
meeting there was a public dinner, at which a great num- 
ber of persons were present. 

Sligo. — The following murder was committed a few days 
ago near Grunge, in this county : — Two labouring men 
went into a whisky-shop to drink, and after sitting some 
time talking, one of them pulled a knife from his breast, 
and stabbed his companion to the heart. He then walked 
out as if intending to return in a few moments ; but not 
doing so, the landlord went into the room to see what the 
other man was about, when he found him lying on the 
ground insensible, bleeding profusely, and the knife still 
in the wound. The murderer has not yet been appre. 
hended, nor is the cause of quarrel known which led to 
the perpetration of the deed. 

Waterford. — On Wednesday, the 29tb ult., the Marquis 
of Waterford had several of his hounds destroyed by poison, 
which had been laid for them while hunting in the covert 
of Dungan. The gentlemen who bunt with his Lordship 
are to hold a meeting for the purpose of trying to discover 
the authors of the outrage. — The following singular scene 
took place on Sunday, the 26th ult., in the Protestant 
Cathedral of this city. A member of the Society of 
Friends, named Joshua Jacob, accompanied by a female 
friend, both attired in white garments, entered the church 
during Divine service, and remained standing in silence 
close by the sialls of the dean and chapter till the service 
had concluded, and the congregation were preparing to 
depart. Mr. Jacob and his friend then advanced a few 
paces in front, when the former proceeded to address the 
congregation. After looking around the church and the 
persons assembled in it with an expression of concern and 
pity, he cried out with a loud voice — "This is not the 
house of the Lord Jesus Christ ; this is the house of 
Babylon." The deep and firm tone in which this was 
uttered, and the singular appearance and manner of the 
parties, produced considerable sensation among the con- 
gregation. On being requested by the clergyman to leave 
the church, Mr. Jacob remonstrated, and said the Lord 
bad sent and inspired him to raise his voice against the 
abominations practised there. The two friends, however, 
quietly retired from the church on being further urged. 

Limerick. — This city was a few days since thrown into 
a state of considerable alarm by the report of a serious 
accident said to have occurred in the Shannon to the 
steamer plying between Portumna and this city, which 
was stated to have foundered with 36 persons on board. 



It was afterwards ascertained that she struck during the 
night upon Cow Island, but the flyboat and passengers 
escaped, having, however, suffered great privations from 
want of food. — A local paper, the Chronicle, states that 
this city will shortly be raised by the Customs Department 
to a first-class port. 

King\i County. — An account appeared in some of the 
papers last week of a serious outrage committed at Phi- 
iipstown on a poor idiot, by a number of gentlemen, the 
majority of whom, it is said, were officers. The circum- 
stances attending the outrage, which terminated in the 
man's death, were so extraordinary that the report was not 
at first credited. It has, however, been since confirmed, 
and there appears to be little doubt of the truth of the 
main facts, which are briefly as follows. The man, 
who, as before stated, was an idiot, after being subjected 
to various acts of outrage, was finally smeared over 
with oil and turpentine, and then, in order it is said to 
make him run, set fire to, whereby he was burnt to death. 
An inquest was held, when the jury returned a simple 
verdict of "Accidental death." The parties concerned 
were said to be officers, on a visit in the vicinity of the 
town. An inquiry is expected to be instituted into the 
affair. 

SCOTLAND. 

Edinburgh. — The directors of the railway from this 
city to Glasgow have made an experimental trip along the 
line, preparatory to its opening to the public, which, it is 
stated, will take place on the 1st of February. 

Glasgow. — Two large establishments in this city, one 
that of a corn-merchant, Messrs. Bannatyne, and the 
other, Messrs. Wingate and Co., wholesale warehousemen, 
both in extensive business, have stopped payment. The 
debts of the two are said to exceed 400,000/. These fail- 
ures, it is feared, will seriously affect the town of Paisley, 
and add to the already depressed state of the trade in that 
place. We also learn that an old and respectable ship- 
building firm in Leilh has become insolvent, in conse- 
quence, it is said, of an unfortunate law-suit. 

Greenock. — An accident of a serious nature has oc- 
curred in this town, at the sbip-building yard of Messrs. 
Scott and Co. It appears that a large vessel, intended 
for the East India trade, was launching in the presence of 
a number of spectators, the deck of the ship being 
crowded with boys to the number of from 150 to 200. 
While she was gliding down the slips the ballast suddenly 
shifted, when she fell to one side, and sunk gradually till 
her masts were covered, and the water was within two feet 
of the hatch. Immediate assistance was afforded, by 
means of boats, to the lads, who were carried with the 
vessel into the stream, hanging on by the side which was 
uppermost ; and fortunately the whole of them were 
saved without any lives being lost. 

Renfrew. — We noticed in our last a public meeting 
which had been held by the noblemen and gentry of this 
county, to inquire into and propose some measure of re- 
lief for the existing distress so extensively experienced in 
all parts of the county, and at which it was resolved that 
a memorial on the subject should be forwarded to Govern- 
ment. Sir R. Peel has since acknowledged the receipt of 
this memorial, which, he says, he has read with great at- 
tention and^witb painful interest, conveying as il does so 
serious a statement of the distress which prevails in the 
town of Paisley and the neighbouring villages, and that 
he will not fail to avail himself of an early opportunity of 
bringing it under the notice of his colleagues. The Right 
Hon. Baronet adds, that he cannot close his acknowledg- 
ment of their communication without expressing his sin- 
cere satisfaction at learning that the privations to which 
the labouring classes have been necessarily exposed have 
affected the general health in a less degree than might 
have been expected, and without at the same time record- 
ing, as the head of her Majesty's Government, his grate- 
ful sense of those local exertions which have been made 
with so much perseverance, liberality, and sound judg- 
ment, for the mitigation of the sufferings of the unem- 
ployed in the neighbourhood of Paisley, 

Ross-shire. — A severe shock of an earthquake was ex- 
perienced at Kintail, and several of the neighbouring 
parishes in this county, on the 20th ult., at 4 p.m. It is 
said that there was nothing peculiar in the state of the 
weather, or the appearance of the day, excepting a calm- 
ness in the atmosphere, not uncommon even at this sea- 
son of the year. There was no recumnce of the shock. 
The noise which usually accompanies such visitations, hke 
the rushing of water or the rattling of a carriage, is repre- 
sented as very distinct. It appears that there has been an 
unusual prevalence of lightning with occasional thunder in 
the west and north Highlands this winter, but this seems 
to be the only case of earthquake in the same districts 
which has been experienced. 



iHiltscfUaiuous. 

The Niger Expedition. — We are informed by the 
Shipping Gazette^ that further accounts have been re- 
ceived of this expedition, derived from a private letter, 
which states that ** the Albert alone remains in the 
river ; that she has but twelve white men remaining, be- 
sides the captain, surgeon, and three or four other offi- 
cers." Two of the twelve men spoken of by the writer, 
it is added, were taken ill before his letter was closed, and 
an early departure from the coast was anxiously looked 
for. In confirmation of the facts contained in this letter, 
another correspondent writes, that " intelligence has been 
received, that the expedition has become dispirited ; that 
the whole of the steamers would rendezvous at Ascension 
on the 1st Jan., and that the Wilberforce, which was in- 
tended to remain in the Niger until the next season, had 
already arrived at Ascension. The expedition, howeTer, 



32 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 8. 



was reported to have left colonies up the Niger; but what 
■will be their fate without any establishment to communi- 
cate with outside, it is perhaps not difficult to foretell." 

N'eicspaper.-< iti China, — We learn from a recent num- 
ber of the Asiatic Journal, that there exists throughout 
China only a single newspaper, which is published at 
Pekin, and bears the title of ^* KitJff-paoii/^ or " Mes- 
senger of the Imperial Residence." Neither in its form, 
which is that of a pamphlet, nor its contents, does it bear 
a resemblance to the |iolitical journals of Europe or Ame- 
rica. The supreme council of the empire, in which the 
ministers have seats, assemble in the Imperial Palace at 
Pekin. Every day, at an early hour, copious extracts on 
the subjects decided or examined on the previous evening 
by the Emperor are stuck upon a board in one of the 
courts of the palace. A collection of these extracts com- 
poses the annals of the Government, in wliich are to be 
found the materials for the history of the Chinese em- 
pire ; hence all the government boards and public esta- 
blishmeuts are required to have copies made daily of all 
proceedings which have been under consideration, that 
they may be preserved in the archives. The provincial 
boards receive these records through their post servants, 
■whom they maintain in the capital for this sole object ; 
but, in order that all the people of the empire may obtain 
a certain degree of acquaintance witli the state and pro- 
gress of public affairs, the extracts placarded are, with the 
permission of government, printed at Pekin entire, with- 
out changing a single word, or omitting a single article. 
This is the Pehin Gazette, or newspaper of China, which 
comprises all the orders that have been submitted to the 
approbation or e.xamination of the Emperor by his minis- 
ters at Pekin, and by the different provincial authorities, 
as well as by the commanders of military corps. Appoint- 
ments to posts, promotions, sentences, punishments, re- 
ports from the different departments of the public ser- 
■vice, ai e, consequently, the principal matters contained in 
this publication ; and the reports made by the Imperial 
officers upon particular occurrences are thus brought to 
the knowledge of the world. Occasionally, the provincial 
reports contain interesting notices of physical phenomena. 
This Gazette may be subscribed for by the year, or for an 
indefinite period, and it ceases to be forwarded as soon as 
notice is given that it is no longer desired. The amount 
of the subscription is a leang, or tael, a quarter, being 
about 8s. id. per annum. Those only who reside in the 
capital have the advantage of receiving the Gazette every 
day at a certain hour; but as there is no regularly esta- 
blished post in China, the paper does not reach distant 
parts of the empire till very long after publication. 

Bishojtric of Jerusalejyi. — An official statement, which 
may be interesting to onr readers, with reference to the 
recently-established bishopric of the United Church of 
England and Ireland at Jerusalem, has just been pub- 
lished by authority. We are informed by it that the King 
of Prussia, who originated this design, had in view not 
only the great advantages to be derived from its adoption, 
with reference to the conversion of the Jews, but also the 
spiritual superintendence and care of such of his own sub- 
jects as might be disposed to take up their abode in Pales- 
tine, and to join themselves to the church so formed at 
Jerusalem ; and that there is reason to expect that a con- 
siderable number ot German as well as Englisli Christians 
will be attracted to the Holy Land by the influence of 
strong religious feelings. The principal object, therefore, 
to which the consecration of Bishop Alexander appears 
to be intended as subsidiary, is the settlement of a new 
religious colony, consisting partly of Knglishmen and 
partly of Germans, in the Holy Land. The Archbishop 
of Canterbury, having first consulted the Bishops who 
attended the Convocation in August last, assented to the 
King of Prussia's proposal, and obtained power, as our 
readers are aware, to carry it into effect. The practical 
arrangements made, and the plan laid down for the per- 
formance of the functions of the new Bishop, are detailed 
as follows : — -The endowment of the ^-ee is to be l,'20O/. 
per annum. Half of this sum consists of the interest of 
15,0'I0/. given by the King of Prussia ; the other half is 
to arise from an equal amount wliich it is expected will 
be raised by voluntary contributions in England. This 
capital is to be invested, upon the first advantageous 
opportunity, in land situate in Palestine, whence it appears 
that the institution is to be permanent ; and that the 
Bishop is to be independent, in point of income, of his 
spiritual superiors in this country. The Bishop is to be 
Dominated alternately by the two Crowns of England and 
Prussia ; t!;e Archbishop of Canterbury having an abso- 
lute right of veto upon the Prussian nominations. The 
Bishop will be subject to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
as his Metropolitan, and his spiritual jurisdiction will ex- 
tend over the English clergy and congregations, and over 
those who may join his church, and place themselves 
under his episcopal authority, in Palestine, and, for the 
present, in the rest of Syria, Chaldea, Egypt, and Abys- 
sinia ; such jurisdiction being exercised, as nearly as may 
be, according to the laws and customs of the Church of 
England. The statement goes on to explain the several 
duties of the Bishop, and the institutions which are to be 
established under him at Jerusalem ; the more important 
of which are that liis chief missionary care is to be di- 
rected to the conversion of the Jews, to tlieir protection, 
and to their useful employment ; and that a college is to 
be established for the purpose of educating, in strict con- 
formity with tlie doctrines of the United Church of Eng- 
land and Ireland, Jewish converts. Druses, and other 
Gentile converts, and, if the funds of the college should be 
sufficient, the large body denominated Oriental Christians. 

Stali^tics of Great lirilain. — An interesting report has 
been published by the Registrar-General, containing a 
detailed account of the causes of death iu England and 



Wales ; from which the following abstract, embodying the 
chief points of interest in it, is taken. The report com- 
mences with a statement of the number of murders regis- 
tered in 1838 and 1839. These were 156, of which 103 
were male, and 53 females. An analysis is also given of 
the ages and other particulars ; but the table extends to 
a greater length than our space will afford. Much tabular 
evidence is given with reference to the influence of tem- 
perature on the rate of mortality ; from which it appears, 
by the experiments of Mr. Farr, that the degree down to 
which the mean monthly temperature falls in Dec, Jan., 
and Feb. determines to a great extent the mortality during 
the winter season. Of diseases affecting the organs of 
respiration 12,140 died in winter, 9,890 in spring, 8,433 
in summer, and 11,008 in autumn. Of diseases of the 
organs of digestion, I,98'2 died in winter, 2,l39 in spring, 
2,978 in summer, and 2,263 in autumn. Mr. Farr ob- 
serves, that meteorologists have remarked that the mean 
temperature of Oct. represents very nearly the mean tem- 
perature of the year and the place ; and that facts show 
that the mortality rises progressively as the mean temper- 
ature falls below the mean temperature of Lon- 
don (50 deg. 5) ; the deaths in the week rising to 

1.000 and upwards, when the temperature of night 
falls below the freezing-point of water, and to 1,200 when 
the mean temperature of day and night descends a degree 
or two lower than 32 deg. The rise in the mortality is 
immediate, but the effects of the low temperature go on 
accumulating, and continue to be felt oO or 40 days after 
the extremities of the cold have passed away. A long list 
then follows of the cases included under the term 
" Violent deaths ;" from which it appears that there were 
953 -uicides, of whom 630 were males, and 307 females. 
Persons poisoned, 24 ; overlaid by mother, 32 ; and va- 
rious other lists, from accidents and otherwise, of less in- 
terest. A valuable table is also given, representing a view 
of all the diseases which have proved fatal in England and 
Wales, classified according to their pathological characters. 
The following selection gives the more general affections, 
with the number of persons who died of them. It appears 
that 18,151 died of inflammation of the lungs, of which 
10,000 were males, and 8,151 females. Consumption 
killed 59,659, of whom 28,106 were males, and 31,453 
females. 25,408 died of convulsions ; 14,245 males, and 
11,163 females. Typhus fever was fatal to 15,666; 7,643 
males. andS,023 females. 15,143 deaths were attributed 
to debility ; 6,524 to inflammation of the stomach and 
bowels conjoined ; 9,131 to smallpox, 10,937 to measles, 
10,329 to scarlet fever, 8,166 to hooping. cough, 5,183 to 
asthma, 4,1^2 to croup, 394 to cholera, 215 to gout, 
4.940 to inflammation, the part not stated; 1,151 to 
scrofula, 5,293 to apople.xVj 4,910 to paralysis, sudden 
death 3,693, 299 to the stoSe, 130 were starved to death, 
218 died of intemperance, 424 of insanity, and 35,063 
of old age. There appears to be a great disparity be- 
tween the numbers of violent deaths which took place in 
1 839 in the raining districts, and those which occurred in 
the agricultural parts of the country. In the former 
they amounted, from all descriptions of accidents, to 

1.1 S4, ahionga population, according to the census of 
1831, of 864,934 persons ; whereas, in the latter districts 
(Norfolk and Suffolk), the agricultural, there werebut 511 
violent deaths in a population of 682,788 persons. In 
1839 the deaths in the London hospitals, including St. 
George's, Charuig Cross, Middlese.x, London Fever, the 
Small-Pox, North London, Westminster, St. Bartholo- 
mew, London, Guy's, St. Thomas's, Greenwich, and the 
Dreadnought, were as follows : — Epidemic, endemic, and 
contagious diseases, 438 ; total deaths from these affec- 
tions in the Metropolis, 9,588 ; of the nervous system iu 
the hospitals, 161 ; in the Metropolis, 7,480; of the re- 
spiratory organs. 584 in the hospitals, and 13,198 in the 
Metropolis ; of the organs of circulation, 1 12 and 933 ; of 
the digestive organs, 134 and 2,989 ; of the urinary or- 
gans, 87 and 212 ; of the organs of locomotion, 58 and 
257; of the skin, 20 and 65 ; of uncertain seat, 386 and 
5,172 ; old age, 56 and 3,428 ; violent deaths in the hos- 
pitals, 390 ; causes not specified, 50 in the iiospitals, and 
403 in the Metropolis. 'Potal deaths in the Metropolitan 
hospitals in 1039,2,491 ; in the Metropolis, 45,441. A 
very large proportion of the deaths in the Metropolis oc- 
curred to infants within a year old ; 8,839 died at that 
time of life ; 6,988 at one year; 3,ii77 at three ; 2,349 at 
five ; 8G0 at ten ; 1 ,034 at fifteen ; 3,0(10 at twenty ; 
3,625 at thirty ; 3,772 at forty ; 3,412 at fifty ; 3,665 at 
sixty; 3,161 at seventy; 1,257 at eighty; 166 at 
ninety ; and 3 at one hundred years of age. The re- 
maining portions of the report consists of tables, showing 
the extent to which various diseases have prevailed 
through the agricultural and manufacturing districts of 
England and Wales ; but they are of less interest to the 
general reader, and too voluminous to be given here. 

Bank-note Circulation. — A statement has been )mb- 
lished in the Gazette containing the monthly circulation of 
the Bank of England and the county banks, embracing the 
period of four weeks preceding the 11th Dec. From this 
return it appears that the total circulation in England 
during the above period was 25,228,023/., showing a de- 
crease, as compared with the preceding four weeks ending 
the 13tb Nov., of 1,546,835/. Of this diminution in the 
amount of the circulation, 773,000/. is the decrease in the 
circulation of the Bank of England; 570,512/. is the de- 
crease in the issues of the private banks ; and 203,323/. is 
the decrease in the notes of the joint-stock banks. The 
returns from Scotland show a slight increase, and those 
from Ireland a slight decrease, but in both cases the dif- 
ference is inconsiderable. As compared with the four 
weeks preceding the 24th July the decrease in the total 
circulation of England is 2,074,469/., of which amount 
1 ,684,000/. is the diminution of the circulation of the Bank 



of England. The average amount of bullion in the Bank 
of England during the four weeks preceding the 11th 
Dec. was 5,031,000/., being an increase as compared witk 
the former return of 813,000/. ; and as compared with the 
return at the end of July the increase is 20,000/. 



l,ato. 



Prerogative Court."- J?i the Goods- of Ellen Leslie. — This was an 
important case, affecting the validity of a vdU, not attested according 
to the forms of the new law. The deceased, a widow, died at 
Brighton on the l4th Nov. , leaving personal property of the value of 
about 5,000^ A will of deceased, dated the 1st Oct., purported to 
have been executed in the presence of Mr. Gurdon, of Assington- 
hall, SufFoIli, and Sir Mattbew Tierney, Bart. From the joint affi- 
davit of these two gentlemen it appeared that deceased, on the day 
the paper bore date, produced the same to Mr. Gurdon, declaring it to 
be her will, and requested him to sign his name thereto as a witness, 
which he did in her presence (the will having been previously signed 
by her) ; that within a day or two after she produced the paper to Sir 
Matthew Tierney, and acknowledged her signature thereto, going over 
the same with a drj' pen, and declared it to be her will, requesting 
him to sign his name thereto as a witness, which he accordingly did. 
Deceased, however, did not sign or acknowledge her signature to the 
paper in the presence of the witnesses when " present at the same 
time," as required by the act. — Dr. Bayford moved for probate of the 
paper ; but Dr. Daubeny (who presided for Sir H. Jenner) rejected 
the motion. — Several other motions were disposed of, principally cases 
of neglect by testators and attesting witnesses of the simple pro- 
visions of the late act, whereby the intentions of the framers appear 
to be constantly defeated. 



TATTERSALL'S— Thursday. 

DERBY. 
The following were the only beta laid • — 
200 to 50 »gsL Attila and Chatham I 400 to~IO agst Auckland 
625 25 Barrier and Detier I 1000 15 Joanna c. (taken seve- 

270 to Uobert de (Jorhnm [ ral times) 

400 10 \ViI)iam de Fonibus I 

OAKS. 
35 to 1 agst Colonel Westenra's Kapture (taken to 50/.) 



MARK LANE, Friday, Jan. 7,— The "\Mieat trade continues 
exceedingly flat, and several parcels of English are left unsold, for 
which Monday's prices are asked. Foreign is completely neglected, 
and scarcely a transaction has taken place. There is some inquiry for 
Bonded, but the holders will not give way in prices, consequently 
nothing has been sold. — Barley is unaltered in value. — Peas and Beans 
go off slowly at our quotations. — The gi*eat decline in Oats has pro- 
duced a better demand, and the trade has recovered the heaviness of 
"Wednesday, and in some instances a trifling advance has been realised. 



I. *. 

6G to 73 
64 to G6 
26 toRl 
18 to 23 



BKITISH, per Imperial Quarter. 
Wheat, Essex, Kent, and Suffolk . . . While 

Norfolk, Lincolnshire and Yoihshire 

Barley IVIalting anddistilling 

Oats, Lincolnshire and Yorkshire .... Tolands 

. Korthumherland and Scotch .... Feed 

Irish Feed 

Rye 

Beana, Afazagan, old and new . EG to 28 Tick 

Pigeon, Heligoland . . . 36 to 44 Winds. 46 to 50 Longpod 32 to^o 



22 I 



i;3 



1 4 to £0 
S to 42 
2710 40 



Red 56 to 64 
^V'hite CO 10.64 
Grind. 24 to 28 
Feed 18 to 22 
Potato 20 to 26 
Potato 18 to 23 

Harrow 20 to 41 



Peaa, White 



26 10 38 Maple 32 to 34 
WEEI^I'Y IMPERIAL AVERAGES. 



Grey 



6 weeki' Aggregate Aver. 63 3 
Duties 



Barley 



23 8 I Iti 10 



Rye. 



21 8 43 6 



15 



5 I 12 6 



Peas 

40 9 



13 



GAZETTE OF THE WEEK. 

INSOLVENTS—H. A. Baber, Lindfield, Sussex, inaU?ter— J. Buckett, 
Great Biiurton, 0:tt"ord shire, sheep-dealer — G. Barnard, I'ortsea, coal merchant 
— B. ^\'ard, Cliarloite terrace, New-mi, Lambeth, boot and shoe maker — W. 
H Apsey, Globe Wharf, Rolherbithe, ship breaker. 

BANKRUPTCIES SWERSEDED— J. Hey, jun-, Halifax, carpenter— C. 
Ewhank. Liverpool, merchant. 

BANKRUPTS R. Collinson and W. Brown. Oxford-street, upholsterers— 

T. H. Fofd. Kochlord, Essex, victualler— (i. D. Clark, Strand, newspaper 
vendor— .T. J. Schenck, Addle-street, City, merchant— J. Biashopp, Westbur- 
ton, Sussex, rnarket gardener — J. Luscombe, Plymouth, malislcr — W. Williams, 
Ctiwarne. Hertfordshire corn dealer— W. Gibb. Alnwick, Northumberland, 
currier— W- Swift, Manchester, mercer — G. Gillard, Plymouth, tea dealer — 
T. Wood, jun.,iHeathfields, Yorkshire, merchant — W. WiUiams, Moon-etreet, 
Bristol, builder — W. BarnJield, Mark. lane, City, wine mercliani— W. Durrant, 
Brighton, wharfinger- G. Swift, Manchester, tailor— J. Shand, Liverpool, 
victualler— M. Paikes, Golden-square, priniseller — Samuel Tarborton, Leeds, 
chemist. 

SCOTCH SEQUESTRATIONS.— J. Wilson, Dundee, butcher— D. Chrystie, 
Glasgow, manutacturer— J- M'Millan, Newbigging, Musselburgh, grocer — N. 
M'Gibbon, Inverarj-, writer — A. Milne. Aberdeen, merihanc— A- Keith and 
Co., Paisley, manufaciureri— M';.iJace. Munro, and Co., Gla-i-Kow, merchants— 
A- M'Phait, Lawriestiin, Glasgow, provision merchant — J, Knsburgh and A. 
Roxburgh, Paisley, manutaciurers- D Lister, Edinburgh, corn dealer. 

BIRTHS.— On the 6th inst., in Grosvenor-street, the Lady Mary Farquhar, 
of a son—On the 6ih Jnst., ai 4.s, Cambridge-terrace, Hyde Park, the Indy of J. 
Murray, Esq., jnn., of Philijphaugh, of a si-n and heir — On the 4th inst., at 1, 
Chester place, Regenfe Park, the lady of F. V- Lee, Esq.. of a daughter- On 
the 4th inst., at Crabbelt, Sussex, the lady of F. S. Hunt, Esq., of a daughter— 
On the ith inst., at Sompting, Sussex, the Jady of S. R. Partridge, Esq,, of a 
dim— On the 6th inat., the lady of A- Beck, Esq., of a daughter — At Barnstaple, 
Devonshire, on the 5th inst-, the lady of Major C A. Munio, of a daughter— 
On the 3lBtuU-,ai Merivale hall, in the county of Warwick, the Jady of W. S. 
Dujfdale, Esq , M.P., of a daughter. 

MAKRIKD— On Wednesday, at Futham Church, the Rev. J. H. Malet, 
LL.D,, Chaplain of her Majesty's Dockyard, Bermuda, to Mary Loretta, eldest 
daughter of the late C. Kyte, Esq-, of Berbice— On the 5lh inst . at St. James's, 
Shoreditch, the Rev. C. S. Grueber, of St. Mary's Chapel, Lambeth, to Ca'he- 
rina, daughter of the late C. Appold, E^C|■, of Wilsfjn street. Fin-bury— On the 
6th inst-, at St- Maik'is Cl.urch, Kennington. R. C. Barton, E.-iq-. solicitor, 
Lambeth, to Sophia, second daughter of the late F. M'Gowran, Esq, of Spring- 
field, Surrey. 

DIED On the 29ih ult., at Tregothnan, the Right Hon^ the Earl of Fal- 
mouth Suddenly, of apoplexy, on the 30th uU., Edward Howard, Esq., author 

of *' Raitiin the Reefer " and other naval tales — On the JSih ult., at Mertoun, 
Berwickshir.*, the Bight Hon. Lord Polwarth, in his 81ih year—On the 39th 
ult., at Great Ealing, Henry John Penn, Esq , aged 3D— On the 4ih i^^t., at 
Chelsea, aged 7I, William Soiheby, Esq., the wellltnown book auctioneer- 
At Figueira, in Portugal, on the '4ih ult., aged 71, Mary, wife of S. Tozer, 

Ksq At Clifton, near Bristol, on the 30th uH., Catherine, relict of -1^ late 

CapL. R. Biliimore, formerly of the East India Company's Bombay ;. .trina, 
aged 72- At Edinburgh, on the 3oih ult., H. S. Wedderbiirn, Esq., (.t Wed- 
derhu— On thc7th inst., Lieut, -Col. Basset, Governor of the Military Itnights 
of ^Vindsor, aged 35. 



INDEX OF THE PRINCIPAL HORTICULTURAL SUBJECTS IN 



Amateur's Garden . 

Aphides dci^ciibud 

Asphalte coverings at the Hort. 
Soc. ..... 

Belladonna Lily, its cultivation . 

Bulbs, conditions of growing 

Chaisworth described . 

Coal-shale a manure 

Craticgus, the most ornamental . 

Dahlias, Btrip.^d, to keep clean . 

Evergreens, to transplant . 

Ferns in a parlour-case 

Filberts, selection of 

Foresting, its importance 

Fumigation, how performed 

Galvanic protectors, to make . 

Garden, remarks on laying out and 
planting ■ ■ • • 

Gardeners and masters 

Gooseberry caterpillars, their de- 
struction .... 

Hollies, to plant 

Hyacinths grown in Beet-roots . 

Hydmngt-as, to turn blue _ 

IcehoNses, their consliuction 



Ipnmtea stans, its treatment . 

Johnson's Farmer's Encyclopaedia, 
rev. .... 

Kittens, dead, a manure 

Leonoiis Leonurus, its cultivation 

Light, tendency of plants to seek 

Lobelia cardinalis, large specimen 
of . .... 

Mice, their destruction 

Nitrate of soda, Lymburn on 

Oaks, British, remarks on 

Oenothera biennis . 

Orange, remarks on some varieties 

Oxalia Bowiei, to fiower . . 

Pli£edon vicellina on \Villow3 

Ficotce, its variability 

Potcniillas, hybrids, produce seed 

Puppies, dead, a manure . . 

Uuot-pruning, Haytvard on 

Slugs, to pievcnt their atucks . 

"Succulents, their cultivation 

Trencliing described 

Tropceolum triuolorum, its treat- 
ment ■ . . ■ - 

Turf-edgingB, to make 



Printeii by .Messrs. BRAnniiRV and Evans, Lombard -street, Fleei-stteel, in 
the Precinct of WhiieJriars, in the City of London, and Published by them at 
the Of/icb, 3, CiiAni.Bs-BTBEBT, CovBNT GAiiDKN, in the County of Middlesex, 
where all Advertisements and CommunicatioQl lue to bl addreiied to Uu 
Editor .--Saturdfty, January 8« l&i3. 



THE GAEDENEES CHEONICLE. 






No. 3. 



A STAMPED NEWSPAPER OF RURAL ECONOMY AND GENERAL NEWS. 

THE HORTICULTURAL PART EDITED BY PROFESSOR LINDLEY. 

~ SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1842. 



\:> 



Price 6d. 






)0 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

EXHIHITIONS AT THE GARDEN for the year 1842. The Ex- 
hibitions will take place in the months of May, June, ami July, 
upon Saturdays, under the fnllowing regulations. 
EXHIBITORS. 

All persons, whether Fellows of the Society or not, will be at 
liberty to sentl subjects for exhibition. 

DELIVERY OF OBJECTS FOR EXHIBITION. 

Exhibitors are earnestly requested to notify in writing, previ- 
ously to the day of meeting, what plants they intend to supply, in 
order that due provision may be made for the proper distribution 
of the specimens, &c. on the exhibition tables. The best places 
will be secured for those who comply with tiiis request. 

As it is necessary that the judges should proceed to consider 
the respective merits of the exhibitions by it) a. m., and as it is 
absolutely indispensable that the tables should be arranged by 
that time, it has been determined that no subject for exhibition 
shall be admitted into the Garden after half-past S o'clock in the 
morning; and if the owners of any locked-up boxes, or other 
cases, should not be in the Exhibition-tent at the said hour, such 
cases or boxes must be excluded from competition for medals. 

All specimens, whether of fruit or flowers, will remain un- 
touched until after 6 o'clock, when they ^vill be delivered into 
the hands of the Exhibitors, who are most particularly requested 
not to give away their cut flowers in the tents, as much conlusion 
has been found to arise from that practice. 

ADMISSION OF EXHIBITORS. 

Exhibitors, or other persons required to assist in bringing in 
the objects for exhibition, will be admitted before half-past 8 in 
■ the morning at the Carter*s-yard entrance gate. 

Every principal exhibitor of subjects for which medals are 
specifically offered will be furnished with one pass-ticket, which 
is not transferable, for which he is requested to apply before 10 
o'clock, at which hour the Garden will be cleared of aU persons 
not officially detained there. 

Exhibitors may re enter the Garden after l o'clock, when they 
will be required to give up their pass-tickets at the Caiter's-yard 
gate. 

FLOWER-STANDS. 

No box or stand shall exceed eight inches in height at the 
back, or eighteen inches in depth from front to back. The lids 
of all boxes must either be loose or made to unhinge. No box 
■with a fixed lid will, on any pretence, be allowed to stand upon 
the tables. If a box not constructed of the dimensions above 
given is sent m, it may be placed on the tables, if there is room 
for it, but it is liable to exclusion. 

MEDALS AND REWARDS. 

The Society distributes the following Medals and Rewards; 
namely, jt' s. d. 

C. The Certificate . . . . value 10 
SB. Silver Banksian Medal 10 

SK. Silver Knightian ditto 15 

LS. Large Silver ditto 1 15 

SG. Large Silver Gilt ditto . . . . .10 
GB. Gold l^anksiau ditto . . . ... 7 

GK. Gold Knightian ditto . . . • 

LG. Large Gold ditto .... 

Exhibitors to whom any of these shall be awarded can exchange 
them one for another, or may receive their value in money, ^ iu 
plate. If within one month after the Third Exhibition cf {'V'i. y'eaj^ 
no intimation shall have been received from an exhibitor of the 
raanner in which he desires his medals to be disposed of, all the 
medals due to him ^vill be prepared and transmitted to him 
through the usual public conveyances, without fiu-ther notice. 

In case an exhibitor shall receive a first prize in any one letter, 
he shall not be entitled to receive anv other medal in the same 
letter. 

SUBJECTS OF EXHIBITION. 

These will be divided into Classes, as explained further on. 

No articles riot of horticultural produce will be allowed to be 
placed upon the tables. 

Exhibitors will do well to make themselves acquainted with 
the arrangements described in the foUo%\-ing list, as they will iu 
all cases be required to sign a declaration statuig under what let- 
ter their plants are to be shown ; and they are particularly re- 
quested to take notice, that if errors in the awards of the judges 
should occur, in consequence of mistakes on the part of exhi- 
bitors in filling up such declarations, the Society camiot under- 
take to rectify such errors afterwards. * 

To enable the officers of the Society to attach names to the ob- 
jects exhibited, it is requested that correct lists may be delivered 
to the clerk as soon as the exhibitor reaches the Gai'den. 
Class I.— Flowers for which Nurserymen and Private Growers 

exhibit independently of each other. 

A. Greenhouse Azaleas, to be shown in numbers not exceediue- 

.12, GB, LS, SK. 

B. Carnations, in pans of 24 blooms, LS, SK, SB. 

C. Picotees, in pans of 24 blooms. LS, SK, SB. 

D. Pinks, in pans of 24 blooms, SK, SB. 

E. Cape Heaths, in collections of 20 species, GK, SG, LS, SK. ' 

F. Cape Heaths, in collections of sLx species, GB, LS, SK.— 

N.B. No person who shows in E will be allowed to exhibit 
also in F. 

G. Exotic Orchidacepe, in collections of not fewer than six spe- 

cies, GB, LS, SK. 

H. Exotic Orchidacere, in single specimens, LS^ SK, SB. 

I. Pelargoniums, iu collections of 12 varieties, in pots, nut ex- 
ceeding 12 to a cast, GB, LS, SK, SB. 

K. Pelargoniums, in collections of six varieties, in pots, not ex- 
ceeding eight to a cast, SG, LS, SB. 

JL. Rhododendrons, in pots, not fewer than 12 plants, in 12 va- 
rieties, LS, SK, SB. 

M. Moss Roses, SK, SB. 

N. Common Gai-dcn Roses, exclusive of all Chinese or Chinese 
Hybriils, LS, SB. SK. 
Chinese or Hybrid Roses, sucli as Bourbon, Noisette, Tea- 
scented, and similar vaiieties, LS, SB, SK.— N.B. No ex- 
hibitor of Roses can be allowed to occupy more than 15 ft. 
run of tables for all his Roses, which, being double, is 
equal to 30 ft. of boxes. If any Exhibitor gains the first 
medals m M, N, and in O, he will be entitled to a Gold 
Banksian medal instead of the three Silver ones. 
Stove or Greenhouse Plants, in collections of from 50 to Go 
plants, GK, GB, SG. LS. 

Q. Stove or Greenhouse Plants, in coUecUons of from 15 to 20 
plants. GB, J.S, SK. 

R. Stove or Greenhouse Plants, in coUections of six distinct spe- 
cies, LS, SK.— N.B. Persons exhibiting in P and Q will not 
be allowed to compete in R also. 

S. Herijaceous Calceolarias, in sixes, LS, SK, SB. 

T. Shrubby Calceolarias, in sLxes, LS, SK. SB. 
. Class IL- Flowers, for which aU persons are admitted to equal 

competition : — 

U. Collections of Stove or Greenhouse Climbers, GK, CB, LS, 
SK.-N.B. The Gold Knightian medal is not to be awarded 
for fewer than 12 distinct kinds. 

■\". Tall Cacti in flower, LS, SK. 

w. .Single speciraen.-i of Onianicutal Plaiit-^ LS, .'5K, ^B, C. 



X. Miscellaneous Flowers, SK, SB, C— N.B. Cockscombs, 
Hydrangeas, and cut flowers are altogether excluded from 
prizes. 
Y. Seedhng Florists' Flowers, SK, SB, C— N.B. Every seedling 
must be shown singly, and must be marked with the name 
it is to bear. The same seedling cannot gain a prize more 
than once in the season. Pelargoniums are to be sliown 
in smgle trusses, with a single leaf, so far below the flowers 
as not to support them ; and they arc not to be dressed 
with cotton or wool, or any similar substance, but must be 
shown exactly as they grow ou the bush. 
Class HI.— l-ruit, for which market-gardeners, or persons in 
the habit of regularly supplying the market, and private growers, 
exhibit independently of each other. — N.B. All Fruit must be ripe 
and well-coloured ; if the contrary, it will be disqualified. 
Z, Miscellaneous collections of Fruit, consisting of at least 
three dift'erent kinds, Peaches and Nectarines being con- 
sidered as only one kind, GK, GB, LS.— N.B. Cucumbers 
Tomatoes, Gourds, and similar kitchen-garden produce, 
are excluded from this letter. 
AA. Grapes, SG, LS, SK, SB. 
BB. Pine-applcs, SG, LS, SK, SB. 

CC. Peaches or Nectarines, in dishes of six specimens, SK, SB. 
DD. Miscellaneous Fruit, SK, SB, C. 
JUDGES. 
The Judges have the power of increasing or diminishing the 
number and value of the Silver Medals offered by the Society for 
particular objects, and also of conferring Silver Medals or Certi- 
ficates in cases not contemplated in these regulations, if they 
think it necessary to do so. 

The Judges are also required to bear in mind that the Society's 
Medals cire oflered, less for new and curious objects, than for fine 
specimens of Horticultural skill, the design of the Council in 
instituting these meetings being not so much to encomage the 
Collector, as to reward the skilful Gardener : they are also not to 
make any award in cases where the objects exhibited do not ap- 
pear worthy of a Medal; otherwise a bad single exhibition may 
obtain a prize, merely because there is no better exhibition of 
the same class to oppose it. 

ANNUAL GARDENERS' ENTERTAINMENT. 

J "WEEKS, JUN., and CO. beg to announce that 
• their aimual Entertainment to the West London Gardeners' 
Association, ajid their numerous friends and supporters in the 
Horticultural profession, will take place on Wednesday next, 
the 19th inst. 



TAND C. LOCKHART, SEEDSMEN, &c. 156, 
• CHEAPSIDE, LONDON, beg to announce that their 
LIST OF SEEDS, &c. is now published, and will be forwarded 
Post-pEud on application.— 5th Jan., 1S42. 



MYATT'S VICTORIA RHUBARB. 
T AND W, MYATT having a good Stock of Strong 
*-^ • Roots raised by offsets from the original Seedling, can 
supply them at 10/, per hundred.— N. B. As various spurious sorts 
have been sold and are now selling under the name of " Myatt's 
Victoria," purchasers would do well to require them warranted. 
— Manor Farm, Deptford, Oct. 23, 18-n. 



O 



P. 



.'"ORACHYCOME 
-L' packets at 



IBERIDIFOLIA SEED in. small 
to be had of W. J. NUTTING, Seedsman, -1(1, 
Cheapside. Lisi^nthus Russellianus, 2s. 6d. ; Pink, from fine 
named flowers, 2s. 6u. ; Calceolarias, from 30 varieties, 2i-. Grf. j 
Pansics, selected from a few first-rate flowers, 5s. ; do., from a 
superior collection, 2s. 6rf. ; Dahlia Scapigura Mexicana, is. ; 
Clintonia pulchella, Is. ; Schizopelalon Malkerii, is. j Phlox 
Drummondii, Is. ; &c. &c. — Packets of the following Cucumbers 
at 2s. 6d. : Man of Kent (Barnes'), Victory of Suffolk (Allen's), 
Prize-fighter, Weedon's Frame, Roman Emperor, and Windsor 
Prize. 

$3" A Catalogue of Seeds to be had on application. 

CHAPPELL'S CREAM BROCCOLI. 
r^HARLES FARINES, Seedsman, No. 128, St. John- 
Vy street, London, begs to inform the Public that he has pur- 
chased of Mr. CHArPKi.i,, Market- gnrdener, Edmonton, the whole 
of the SEED saved by him this year of that splendid vaiiety of 
BROCCOLI, which for size and flavour is not surpassed by any 
kind grown. Also now ready to send out 



Fames' superior first Early Pea. 
Flack's new large Victory do. 
Yoimg's do. do. Marrowfat do. 
Knight's Dwarf Green do. do. 
New Auvergne Pea. 
American Dwarf do. 
ChappelPs Early White Broccoli. 



Legg's Early WalcherenBroccoli. 
Fine Eaily Frame Radish. 
Ady's fine large Cos Lettuce. 
True lirighlondo. do. 
Black-seed Eath do. do. 
Imported Early Dutch Turnip. 
Imported Dutch Horn Carrot. 



HUGH LOW & CO. have much pleasure in sub- 
mitting to the attention of their Friends and the Public 
the two under-named first-rate DAHLIAS. Strong Plants will 
be readv for dcliverv the first week in Mayat lOs. 6d. each. 

WINTERTOK RIVAL (Nelson), Primrose, good form, fine 
habit, flowers well above the foliage, height five feet. A figure 
will appear in the March number of the Florists' Joiirna/. 

DUKE OF CORNWALL, Rosy Ruby, fine habit, well up in 
the centre, very constant, has all the properties of Le Grand 
Baudiu, with the additional recommendation of being of much 
dwarfer habit ; height four and a half feet. 

The last-named was raised by the person who obtained Le 
Grand Baudin and Conservative, acknowledged to be two of the 
best Dahlias of isio, and exhibited in more winning stands than 
any two of the same season. 

H. L. & Co. think it needless to inform those who have hitherto 
favoured them with their orders as to their way of doing busi- 
ness J but think it right, for the satisfaction of strangers, to state 
that should the two Dalilias now ofi'ered not answer the descrip- 
tion given, they will most willingly deduct them. 

Roots of most of the leading sorts of last year may be had on 
early application. 

Clapton Nursery, Nov. 2-lth, 1S4I. 



T. 



JACKSON, Nursery Seedsman, ike, Kingston, 
Surrey, begs to offer the undermentioned Dahlias in 
Ground Roots, guaranteed correct to name, at the following 
prices, viz.; at 42s. each— Jackson's Dowager Lady Cooper; at 
3ls. 6d. each— Bridesmaid (Brown's) ; at2Is. each—Kingof Roses 
(Thomson's), Enterprise (.Langley's) ; . at 15s. each— Eclipse 
(Catleugh's), Famiy Keynes, Maid of Bath ; at lOs. 6d. each- 
Beauty (Parsons'), Constancy, Invincible (Smith's), Little 
Wonder (Parsons'), Rosaperfecta (Whale's), Scarlet Defiance ; at 
7s. each— Admiral Elliott, Bronze Unique, Brilliant (Whale's), 
Eclipse (King's^ Flora (Stanford's), Marquis of W'aterford, Re- 
venge (Cox's). 

A collection of 100 Dahlias, of lOO different sorts, in small 
crmpactdiy roots, well suited for exporting, with names attached, 
ol. A collection of 200 do., 200 different do., containing many 
new and choice kinds, 10/. 

A general Catalogue of Stove, Greenhouse, an^l Herbaceous 
Plants, may be obtained on application. 

Kingston Nursery. Jau. 12, lS4:i. 



WANTS a SITUATION as GARDENER, a 
' » Married Man, aged 35, who understands his business, 
and can be higlily recommended by the gentleman he is now about 
to leave. He is a native of Scotland. Direct to W, W., Post- 
oJfice, Gravesend. 



WANTED, a SITUATION, as GARDENER, or 
GARDENER and COACHMAN, a married man, aged 37, 
who has no objection to the care of stock or land, and can have 
a good character from liis last place, which he has just left. — 
Direct to A. B., Harper-street Dairy, New Kent-road. 

ANTED, a SITUATION as BAILIFF, to have 
the management of a Farm or Estate, a respectable and 
steady young married man, who perfectly understands Farming 
in all its branches, also the management of Timber Trees and 
Planting in gcjicral. Can give the most satisfactory references as 
to ability, and his character will bear the strictest investigation. 
Letters addressed to A. Si., at the Gurdeners\Chronicte Office, 
will be attended to. 

Tx^TANTS a SITUATION, as GARDENER in a 
» » Nobleman or Gentleman's Family, a married man, about 
43 years of age, with one son ; has lived I ;■ years in a nobleman's 
family, and left at the death of his lord, and since lived five years 
in a respectable family. — Direct J. B.,Mr. Palmer's, Nurseryman, 
Derby. Further reference can be had by applying to Mr. Stafford, 
Richard Arkwright's, Esq., Willersly Castle, Derbyshire. 



WANTS a SITUATION, as GARDENER, a married 
man j 36 years of age ; can be well recommended by his 
present employer, whom he has sened 10 years as Gardener, and 
Gardener and Bailiff; would not object to the management of a 
small Farm. Wages, 7ctl., cottage, and coals.— Apply, if by letter 
prepaid, for A. B. C, Mr. Keman, Seedsman, -1, Great Russell- 
street, Covent-garden. 

n^O NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN.— William 
-L Cornelius, late Foreman to Mr. Lee's Nursery, at Ham- 
mersmith, where he has been for many years, having left that 
establishment, will be happy to engage with any nobleman or 
gentleman as his GARDENER; and as he perieetly understands 
the whole routine of a garden from the hothouse to the kitchen- 
garden, he flatters hims^-lf that he will be found serviceable in all 
the departments of hoitieultm'al business. He is a married man, 
and without any encumbrance. Every information as to capa-^ 
city can be had from Messrs. Lee, where all letters, pre-paid, will 
be received and answered. 

TO NURSERYMEN AND OTHERS. 

WANTED, a FINE STRONG PLANT of ARAU>' 
CARIA IMBRICATA, from ISin. to 3ft. high. Any one : 
having such, to dispose of, may hear of a purchaser by stating'* , 
the height ininches and the price.— Direct toW. Bassett, W'estoa- , 
birt, Tetbury, Glouccstershii-e^ x 

YELLOW SEEDLING DAHLIA— WATTS' "SOL." 

W "WATTS, Nurseryman and Florist, CamV 
• de^i Nurserv, Camberwell, begs to inform his friends and '■* 
the public that he intends sending out early in May next, strong 
plants of the above SEEDLING DAHLIA, bright yellow, round 
cupped petal. Well foi^^d, and superior show vexiety ; has beejj 
seen'and appreciatM^y Mr. Neville and several other emhient 
judges. Price 7s. 6d. per plant. ' 

SEYMOUR'S SUPERB SOLID ^VHITE CELERY. 

HLANE and SON, Great Berkbampstead, Herts, 
o having received the most flattering testimonials of the 
great estimation iu which the above celebrated CELERY is held, 
and of the general satisfaction experienced by those to whom they 
supplied the seed last j'ear, are happy in being enabled again to 
offer it for sale in packets at 2.'!. 6d. each, postage included. 
N.B. —The usual allowance to the Trade. 
ROSES.— H. L. and S. take this opportunity of acquainting: 
Ladies and Gentlemen who have not yet supplied themselves 
with Roses, that notwithstanding the vast quantity they sent out 
during the autumn, they can still execute any orders with which 
they may be favoured to a considerable extent, by an early ap- 
plication.— Catalogues sent free by p ost. ._ 

I OHN DUNCAN, Author of Two Works on tlie 
^ Melon and Cucumber, and also a comprehensively Prac- 
tical Treatise on Vines, in progress of publication, is at liberty to 
ENGAGE with any Nobleman or Gentleman requiring a GAR- 
DENER, skilled iu the higher and practical departments of his 
business ; in eonfijmation of which he has testimonials from the 
first authorities, and from his esteemed and venerable employer, 
Thos. Daniel, Esq., whom he has served nearly eight years. He 
is married, and in the 3Jth year of his age.— Apply, Henhury, 
near Bristol. - . " ^_____ 









MR. KERNAN informs the friends of Henry Spare, 
tbattheappealin his behalf, and that of his suffering family- 
has been benevolently responded to by numerous benefactions, 
which with any others following will' be acknowledged in the 
Gardeners' Magazine of the 1st of Feb., and in the Gardeners' 
C/ironiele and Gazette of the 5th.— Jan. li. ; 



WlRE-WORIi, HOT -WATER APPARATUS, GREEN- " 
HOUSES. &c. 

ST. THOMAS BAKER, Manor House, Jlanor Place, 
King's Road, Chelsea, Manufacturer of INVISIBLE WIRE 
FENCE, to resist Grazing Stock, and rendered Rabbit-proof. 
WIRE- WORK in Trainers, Arches for Walks, Bordering, Flower 
Stands, Pheasantries, &c. HORTICULTURAL BUILDINGS, 
Green and Hothouses, Conseri'atories, &c. The same heated by 
I10T-\YATER APPARATUS, on improved and economical prin- 
ciples. 

Parlies waited on in Town or Country, and Drawings and 
Estimates free. Work f or the Trade as usual. 

A NNUITIES.— In ibe AUSTRALASIAN, COLO- 
/i NIAL and GENERAL LIFE ASSURANCE and ANNUITY 
COJIP.iNY, Annuitants participate in the Profits ol the Company, 
and receive a rate of ANNUITY much more favourable than carx 
be granted by any Company makiDg its investments wholly in 
England The Compaiiy is enabled securely to grant these fa- 
vourable terms from the advantage it possesses of investing a 
portion of its Funds at a high rate of Interest. 
Directors. 



Edward Barnard, Esq., F.R.S. 
Henry Buckle, Esq. 
John Henry Capper, Esq.' 
Gideon Colquhoun, juu., Esq. 
John Edwardes Lydll, Esq. 



I C. E. Mangles, Esq. 
J. B. Wonteficre, Esq. 
J. H. Kavenshaw, Esq. 
Capt. Sii- Jas. Stirling, R.N. 
William Walker, Esq. 
Solicitors. — iMcssrs. Swain, Stevens, and Co. 
■ Prospectuses, with Tables, Forms of Proposal for the purchase of 
an Annuity or for making an Assurance, and every information, 
may be obtained by application at the Office of the Company, Ko. 
UO, Bishopsgate-stiett, Cit^^ 
By order of the Board, CHRISTOPHER COUSINS, Accountant^ 



S4 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan, 15. 



NEW AND SUPERIOR SEEDLING DAHLIAS FOR 1842, 

JAMES EDWARD, Florist, Layerthorpe, York, 
begs most respectfully to invite the attention of Cultivators 
of the Dahlia to the following Three Seedling Varieties (raised in 
1840, and fully proved in 1841), which are quite distinct from any 
hitherto produced; of very superior habit, and constant in pro- 
ducing good Show Flowers throughout the season; in proof of 
■which J. E. begs to state that he has shown above 200 blooms of 
the three, during the season, at various Exhibitions open to all 
England, and has had nine Seedling: Prizes awarded for them, 
namely,— four 1st prizes, three second ditto, and two third ditto; 
they have also been shown in the following winning trays : — 
In the 1st Tray of 24 at the Horticultural Society, York, Aug. IS, 



2d 
ist 
2d 
2d 
Ist 
1st 
1st 
1st 
1st 
1st 
Ist 
1st 
1st 
2d 



24 

18 „ „ „ 

36 at the Botanical Gardens, Hull, Sept. 2d; 

12 „ . „ „ 

24 at the Horticul. Sec, Scarborough, Sept. 3d; 
12 

6 „ „ „ 

48 atthe^Yorltshire Philosophical Soc, Sep. Qtb; 



36 
36 
24 

48 
48 
24 



Botanical Gardens, Sheffield, Sept. I5th; 
Horticultural Soc, Barnsley, Sept. 2ist; 

Botanical Gardens, Leeds, Sept. 22d; 
, Horticultural Societj', York, Sep. 24th ; 



Besides having taken other Prizes in addition to the above. 

Premier. — Fine bronze salmon, ve»y superior form, of excel- 
lent habit, throwing its blooms well above the foliage, and always 
to be depended upon in producing good show flowers. This 
variety obtained the first prize, in its class, at the York Ancient 
Florists* Society, September 20th, and had also the premier prize 
awarded, as the best Dahlia of any colour.— Height 4 to 5 feet. — 
Plants 10s. 6d. 

Marv Jan'e. — White ground, vt^ry deeply tipped and edged with 
purpled carmine— constant throughout the season, well up in the 
centre, of excellent habit, and never fails in producing good 
flowers. This variety obtained the first and second prize ^t 
Scarborough, as the best light-ground flower tipped or edged, 
and has justly been pronounced the most distinct and attractive 
Dahlia ever produced in its class. — Height 4 feet.— Plants lOs. Gd. 

DuKK OF RicnwoNu. — Fine light pink and yellow, colours 
beautifully blended together, with a light-yellow tip at the end 
of each petal, similar to the Duchess of Richmond, but quite dis- 
tinct from that variety ; very superior habit, always constant, 
and will prove a noble and excellent show flower.— Height 5 feet. 
—Plants 10s. 6rf. 

Good strong plants will be sent out the first week in May ; and 
for the convenience of parties at a distance, orders will be re- 
ceived, and plants supplied, by Mr. George Charlwoori, Seedsman, 
Covent Garden, London; and Messrs. Henderson, Nurserymen, 
Brechin, Scotland. No allowance to the trade unless 12 plants are 
ordered, and a remittance or respectable reference will be required 
from unknown correspondents. .1 . E. can also supply plants of all 
the best Dahlias in cultivation, of which a catalogue is annually 
printed, and can be had on application. 

We the undersigned, members of the Committee of the York 
Horticultural Society, do attest the correctness of Mr. Edward's 
description of the above Dahlias ; and we strongly recommend 
them as distinct varieties from any yet sent out, and well worth a 
place in the most limited collection. 
James Richardson Richard Land John North 

John Roper John Walker Jas. Lancelot Foster 

J. Heseltine Edward Bearpark William West 

Henry Bellerby Robert Dempsey John Robinson. 

"William Dove 

Report of the York Amateur Florist Society^ held on Monday, 
August gth, 1841.— The Judges and Members of this Society con- 
sider it their duty to notice a seedUng Dahlia of last year (sent for 
inspection) raised by Mr. Edward, Nurseryman, of this city. The 
colour is pure white, with a dark tip of pui-pled carmine; the 
form, depth of petal, and above all, good eye, require no con- 
sideration to pronounce it one of the best Dahlias yet seen of its 
class ; and from the evident superiority of this distinct variety 
over such flowers as Glory of Plymouth, Beauty of the Plain, &c., 
there is no doubt but the year 1842 will cause these flowers to 
fcdl in the rear when brought into competition with the seedling 
exhibited this day, as it may safely be pronounced a gem of the 
first water, and will reflect the greatest credit on the fortunate 
raiser, for so long as Dahlias remain in cultivation this flower 
must form a prominent feature in a stand of six, — From the York 
Courant. 



HOT-WATER APPARATUS FOR HEATING 
HORTICULTURAL BUILDINGS, DWELLING-HOUSES, 
CHURCHES, and MANUFACTORIES, upon improved prin- 
ciples, and at very moderate charges, erected by DANIEL and 
EDWARD BAILEY, 2/2, HOLBORN. 

D. andE. Bailey having devoted much time to the considera- 
tion of this subject, and had much experience in the erection of 
apparatus for the above-mentioned purposes, have, by improve- 
ments suggested in their practice, rendered their mode of heat- 
ing not only very efficient, but very simple, and have combined 
durability in the apparatus with economy in the charge. They 
have erected apparatus in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for 
many noblemen and gentlemen, and have had the honour to be 
employed by the Horticultural Society of London, in executing the 
■works of theu: splendid Conservatory, lately erected at Chiswick. 

D. and E. Bailey also construct in metal all descriptions of 
Horticultural Buildings and Sashes, and invite noblemen, gentle- 
men, and the public to an inspection of their various cUawings 
and models, at 2/2, Holborn, where they have the opportunity of 
exhibiting, amongst other metal works, an extremely complete and 
convenient kitchen apparatus, orrange, adapted for the continued 
supply of hot water, and an arrangement of the oven more com- 
plete than has hitherto been brought before the public. 

D. and E. Bailey were the first to introduce metallic curvili- 
near houses to horticulturists, and can refer to the Conservatory 
attached to the Pantheon as one of their works, besides many 
others in this country and on the Continent. 

D'.and E. Bailey have prepared a quantity of the Galvanic Plant 
Protectors, which are now ready for immediate delivery; they 
beg to introduce to public notice anew Trough Pipe, for Orchi- 
daceous or other Houses where vapour is constantly, or at inter- 
Tals, required, and which may be seen at their manufactory. 

HEATING BY HOT WATER, WITH THE CIRCULATION OF 
ATMOSPHERIC AIR. 

J WEEKS & CO., Architects, &:c., Gloucester-place, 
• King's-road, Chelsea, Hothouse Builders, and Hot-water 
Apparatus Manufacturers, beg leave to inform the Nobility and 
Gentry that their business, which has been extensive throughout 
the country for many years, is entirely confined to the BUILD- 
ING OF HORTICULTURAL ERECTIONS of every description, 
and the HEATING of them by HOT WATER j see the 3rd and 
37th Numbers of the Gardeners^ Chronicle. 

References may be had, and their works seen, at Mr. Perry's Nur- 
sery, Banbury ; Mr. Green's, Lower Cheam ; Messrs. Henderson's, 
Pine-apple Nursery; Messrs. Rollisson's Nursery, Tooting; Mr! 
Knight's Exotic Nursery, Chelsea; Messrs. Low's, Clapton'Nur- 
sery ; Mr. Catlcugb's Nursery, Chelsea; Mr. Gaines's Nursery, 
Battersea; Mr. Buck's, Portland Nursery ; Mr. Young's, Milford* 
Nursery; Mr. Smith's Nursery, Dalston ; Mr. WoodrofPs Nur- 
sery, Kensall Green; Mr. Hopgood's Nursery, Bayswater; Mr. 
-Willmer's Nursery, Chelsea; and at most of the Nobility and 
Gentlemen's Seats in the country. 

Every particular to be had at their Horticultural Mwiufaetory 



EXOTIC NURSERY, CANTERBURY. 

WILLIAM MASTERS having for many years culti- 
vated upwards of THIRTY ACRES of Land as Nursery 
Gardens, begs to submit to the public the following List of Fruits : 

PEARS.— W. M. having collected in the first instance, through 
the kindness of the late J. Braddick, Esq., and subsequently from 
his own personal visits to the Netherlands, a large collection of 
the celebrated FLEMISH PEARS, as wellas many others from 
vEu-ious sources, planted a specimen of each variety in his 
Nursery, and they having for several years produced fruit, he is 
enabled to pronounce with certainty that many are wholly worth- 
less— some are too tender for our exposure— and that many are of 
the utmost importance on account of their prolific and early 
bearing, as well as of their delicious flavour. Out of avery large 
collection W. M. confidently recommends the following, which 
become fit for use nearly in the order in which they stand:— 
DESSERT PEARS.— Madeleine, Jargonelle. Williams' Bonchre- 
tien, Flemish Beauty, Roupp6. Capiaumont, Beurre Diel, Autumn 
Bergamot, White Doyenne, Marie Louise, Princess of Orange, 
Seckle, Monsieur le Cure, Althorp Crassane, Bezy de la Motte, 
Napolcon.Duchess of AngoulCme, Louise bonne de Jersey,Knight's 
Monarch, Rouse Lench, Swan's Egg, Beurr^ d'Aremberg, Nut- 
meg, Ne plus Meuris, Passe Colmar, Winter Nelis, Hacon's In- 
comparable, Eeurr^ Ranee, Easter Beurre. BAKING PEARS.— 
Royal Coreless, Double de Guerre, Uvedale's St. Germam, Catillac. 
Many other sorts are still cultured, but a garden furnished with 
these will produce fine fruit for every season. 

APPLES.— W. M. having been a Fellow of the Hort. Society 
nearly from its commencement, has availed himself of the pri- 
vilege cf selecting from that liberal establishment such sorts of 
Apples as appeared to merit particular notice, and which, added to 
the selections from the famed Kentish orchards and elsewhere, 
have produced a number far exceeding the point of usefulness. 
The whole have been fruited, and the following condensed list is 
particularly recommended. The sorts are arranged as nearly as 
possible in the order in which they become fit for use : — Juneat- 
ing, Borowitski, Kerry Pippin, Quarrenden,Hawthomden, Keswick 
Codlin, Franklin's Golden Pippin, Summer Nonpareil. King of the 
Pippins, Beauty of Kent, Gloria Mundi, Downton Pippin, Hughes' 
Golden Pippin, Ribston Pippin, Blenheim Orange, Margil, Sara 
Young, Scarlet Pearmain, Dumelow's Seedling, Forman's Crewe, 
Beachamwcll Seedling, Dr. Harvey, Lemon Apple, Pile's Russet, 
Screivton Golden Pippin, Cornish Giiliflower, Scarlet Nonpareil, 
Knight's Gauge", Court of Wick, London Pippin, Walmer Court, 
Canadian Reinette, Alfriston, Court Rendu, Cockle Pippin, Hub- 
bard's Pearmain, Old Nonpareil, Downton Nonpareil, Braddick's 
Winter Nonpareil, Colhns' Russet, Golden Harvey, Dutch Mi- 
gnonne. Hunt's Green Newtown, Norfolk Beaufin, French Crab. 
With the above selection, fruit for all purposes and all seasons 
may be obtained. 

CHERRIES.— Purple Griotte, Early Black, Masters' White 
Heart, Elton, Black Eagle, May Duke, Kentish, Black Tarta- 
rian, Canterbury Black, Bigarreau, Late Duke, Florence, Small 
Morello, Large Morello. Tlie above have proved the most valu- 
able out of a large number of sorts. 

PLUMS.— Lawrence's Eai'ly, Early Orleans, Hative Royal, 
Orleans, Denyer's Victoria, Greengage, Nectarine, Washington, 
Black Griffin, Catherine, Coe's Golden Drop, Impeiatrice, Wine- 
sour, Large Bullace, Damson, Small Bullace. 

Of PEACHES the following have given most satisfaction: — 
Early Ann, Grosse Mignonne, Early Newington, Noblesse, Red 
Magdalen, Old Newington, Admirable, Royal. 

Of NECTARINES— The White, Ehruge, Roman, Newington, 
Violet Hative. 

Of APRICOTS— The Hemskirke, Large Early, Moorpark, 
Breda, Orange. 

Of STRAWBERRIES— Grove-end Scarlet, Roseberry, OldPine, 
Keen's Seedling, Myatt's Pine, Downton, Elton. 

Of GRAPES— Miller's Burgundy, Sweet- water. Muscadine, 
Black St. Peter, White Cluster, Esperione, Hamburgh, Fron- 
tignan, Muscat of Alexandria, Verdelho, Horsforth Seedlmg, 
Black Damascus. 

Of GOOSEBERRIES, selected out of 80 kinds— Early Green, 
Early Red Rough, Queen of Sheba, Lady Delamore, Warrington 
Red, Rookwood, Roaring Lion, Gunner, Duke of York, Crown 
Bob, Woodward's Whitesmith, Heart of Oak. 

Of NUTS— Cosford, Frizzled, Dwarf Prolific, Knight's Large. 

Of RASPBERRIES-Red Antwerp, White Antwerp, Barnet. 

Of FIGS— Lee's Prolific, Brunswick, Common Purple, Brown 
Naples, Black Ischia, French Prolific, 

W. Masters offers the above List of Fruits, all of which are 
grown, and nearly the whole of which have been proved in his 
Nursery, as a more complete one than those usually submitted 
to public notice. 

*»* Early Commissions will insure immediate attention. 



SLATE CISTERNS, SHELVES, TROUGHS, &c., 
for Horticultural purposes.— EDWARD BECK, Manufac- 
turer, Isleworth, near Brentford. Orders, Working Drawings, 
&c., forwarded by post, will receive due attention. 

*»* Slate Edgings for Flower Borders, &c. 

ATENT ASPHALTE PROTECTING MATERIAL. 

—Extract from Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 25, 1841, p. 843.— 
" In the midst of frost it will not be unseasonable to warn all 
our Readers of the great importance of preventing their more 
tender Plants that may have been frozen from being thawed 
suddenly by the sun. All Gardeners know how often Peas frozen 
below a south wall are killed, and that if any contrivance to pre- 
vent their being suddenly thawed is made use of, they recover. 
What is true of Peas is, to a great extent, true of other things. 
A few weeks ago we had a severe frost, 16°; at that time young 
/Vraucarias exposed to the south died, while others within a few 
yards, but screened from the sun by stone, did not suffer at all. 
We may remark by the way that CROGGON'S ASPHALTE 
ROOFING forms a most excellent material for such screens." 
In page 8 of same Journal, Jan. 1, 1842, is fully described the 
purposes to which it is applied by the Royal Horticultural So- 
ciety. Being a non-conductor it effectually protects from heat 
or cold.— Tuo.MAs John Croggon, 8, lugram-court, Fenchurch- 
street, London. 



This Day, in 8vo, 

THE JOURNAL of the ROYAL AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETY of ENGLAND, VoL II., Part iii. 

CONTENTS. 

On Drainage of Land. By J. French Burke. 

Comparative Feeding Properties of Mangold- Wurzel and Swedish 

Turnips. By Earl Spencer, 
Cultivation of Mangold-Wurzel. By William Miles, M.P. 
On Guano. By Professor Johnston. 
Cottage Gardening, By James Main, A.L.S. 
Hopetoun Wheat, and on Comparative Trials of Wheat. By 

Patbick Shirreff. 
Report of Results in Thorough- Draining and Sub soil- Ploughing. 

By Richard White. 
Practical Instructions for Improving Turnpike and Parish Roads 

upon the Mile System. By Colonel Challoner. 
Natural Histoiy and Economy of the Turnip Saw- Fly, By John 

Curtis, F.L.S. 
Improvement of Peat Soils. By Cuthbert W. Johnson. 
Practice of English Farmers in Improvement of Peaty Ground. 

By Philip Pusey, M.P. 
Marine Peat in Carnarvonshire as Manure. By Rev. J. V.Vincent. 
On Compounding Mineral Manures. By F. Falkner. 
Comparative Quality of Milk from Aldemey and Kerry (Irish) 

Cows. By Richard White. 
Description of a Nev? Subsoil Plough. By Charles Gabell. 
Appendix, he. &c. 

John Murray, Albemarle- street, fubUslier tO the Royal Agri- 

cultuTiU SQciety qI Eugiaua. 



NEW ZEALAND COM PAN Y.— TERMS of 
PURCHASE of PRELIMINARY LANDS in the SETTLE- 
MENT of NELSON, NEW ZEALAND. 

GOVERNOR. 

JOSEPH SOMES, Esq. 

DEPUTV- GOVERNOR. 

Hon. FRANCIS BARING. 

niRECTORS. 

VISCOUNT INGESTRE, M.P. 

LORD PETRE. 

HENRY A. AGLIONBY, Esq., M.P. 

JOHN ELLERKER BOULCOTT, Esq. 

JOHN WILLIAM BUCKLE, Esq. 

CHARLES BULLER, Esq.. M.P, 

WILLIAM TAYLOR COPELAND, Esq., Aid., M.P. 

RUSSELL ELLICE, Esq. 

JAMES ROBERT GOWEN, Esq. 

JOHN HINE, Esq. 

WILLIAM HUTT, Esq., M.P. 

ROSS DONNELLY MANGLES, Esq., M.P. 

STEWART MARJORIBANK, Esq., M.P. 

SIR WILLIAM MOLESWORTH, Bart. 

ALEXANDER NAIRNE, Esq. 

THE LORD MAYOR. 

SIR GEORGE SINCLAIR, Bart. 

JOHN ABEL SMITH, Esq., M.P. 

WILLIAM THOMPSON, Esq., Aid., M.P. 

HON. FREDERICK JAMES TOLLEMACHE, M.P. 

ARTHUR WILLIS, Esq. 

GEORGE FREDERICK YOUNG, Esq. 

1. The Court of Directors of the New Zealand Company hereby 
give notice, that a limited number of allotments of preliminary 
Lands, each of which consists of three sections, viz., one acre of 
Town Land, fifty acres of Suburban Land, and one hundred and 
fifty acres of Country Land, are still open for Sale in their second 
Settlement of Nelson. The price of each allotment is 300/. 

2. These allotments were unsold when the general ballot for 
priority of choice was held on the 30th August last ; nevertheless 
the numbers which represent them in the original Registry of 
applications were placed in the wheel with all the other numbers, 
and the unsold numbers were draw'n promiscuously with those 
which had been previously disposed of; consequently, to each of 
the unsold numbers definite rights of priority of choice (distinct 
in respect to each of the sections above described) have been at- 
tached by the ballot. 

3. Until further notice, any party, or his agent, attending at 
the New Zealand House on any Thursday at three o'clock p.m., 
and producing the receipt of the'Company's Bankers, Messrs. 
Smith, Payne, and Smiths, for 300/., will be entitled to draw in 
the presence of the Court of Directors, from a wheel in which the 
registry numbers of all xmsold allotments have been deposited, 
with special precautions for their security and for the fairness 
of the proceeding. The register of the original ballot will then 
show to the party drawing any number, to what rights of priority 
of choice he is entitled. 

4. Applicants, therefore, will obtain preliminaiy allotments, 
on precisely the same terms, with respect to price and the chances 
of priority of choice, as original purchasers. 

5. A list of the registry numbers, with the rights of choice 
which were attached to each by the original ballot, may be seen 
at the New Zealand House, on application to the Secretary. 

G. Present purchasers will be entitled to the same privileges, in 
respect to an allowance for cabin passengers (notexceeding25 per 
cent, on the purchase-money), as those who bought allotments 
before the general ballot. 

7. Purchasers not proceeding to New Zealand will be entitled 
to delegate their rights of choice to any agent whom they may 
nominate j or, if they should prefer it, such choice will be exer- 
cised on their behalf by the officers of the Company. 
By order of the Court, 
New Zealand House, JOHN WARD, 

Broad-street-buildings, 1st Jan., 1842. Secretary. 



PAXTON'S MAGAZINE of BOTANY. No. xcvi. 
for Januaiy, which completes the Eighth Volume, contains 
the following Illustrations— 1. Oncidium I'usleayiij 2. Harden- 
bergia macrophylla; 3. Beauf6rtia decussMa; 4. Gesn6ra ze- 
brina; the usual Operations for the Month; and a copious 
Index, &c. 

SC^ Ari'angemffnts have been made for executing the Illustra- 
tions for the new volume in avery superior manner, and also for 
introducing other points of general interest and attraction. 
London: W. S. Orr and Co. Paternoster Row. 



THE GARDENER'S LIBRARY. 

THE FLOWER-GARDEN— its cultivation and gene- 
ral ariangement, with select Lists of the most desirable 
Annual, Biennial, and Perennial Flowering Plants, arranged ac- 
cording to their height, colour, and time of flowering, with hints 
and plans for laying out and arranging Garden Grounds. Price 
Gs. Qd, cloth, gilt edges ; and lOs. 6d. with plates. 

Ujiiform with the above in size and price, 
THE ORCHARD and FRUIT GARDEN ; including 
the management of all Wall, Standard, and Espalier Fruit-trees, 
and the forcing-pit, with select lists of the most choice varieties, 
and their synonyraes. By Charles M'Intosh, F. C, H. S. 
Uniform with the above in size and price, 
THE GREENHOUSE, HOTHOUSE, and STOVE ; 
including directions for the cultivation and management of Exotic 
Flowering Plants, the erection and management of Greenhouses 
and Conservatories, and the most approved mode of warming and 
ventilating, with lists of the most choice species. By Charlbs 
M'Intosh, F. C. H. S. 
London : Wm. Orr and Co., Araen-corner, Paternoster-row. 
Sold by all Booksellers. 



In one small volume, price 155. 

PAXTON'S POCKET BOTANICAL 
DICTIONARY. 

In what may be called an age of Cyclopaedias, when the com- 
pression of a great vai-iety ot information into one volume, in 
order to bring it within the means of persons of all ranks, is so 
universEdly sought, it is evidently desirable that the Gardener, 
and those connected with his profession, should be as well ac- 
commodated as other classes in this particular. No such work 
existing, however, prior to the issue of the present publication, 
its value will be at once apparent; since it combines the more 
essential features of a Botanical Catalogue, an Horticultural 
Guide, and a Technical Glossary. 

Besides being of this comprehensive description, it is especially 
adapted for the Amateur or Floriculturist; who may, by carry- 
ing it in his pocltet, examine all the plants that are at any time 
submitted to his inspection, and immediately derive every intel- 
ligence respecting the peculiarities or affinities of particular spe- 
cies which could reasonably be wished for. This is an advantage 
that can only be sufficiently estimated by those who have felt 
the want of such an assihtaut; and to all such individuals, as 
well as to every agent or friend of horticulture, the Pocket Bota- 
nical Dictionary is decidedly indispensable. 
London: J. Andrews, Bond-street; Orr & Co., Paternoster-row. 



In foolscap 8vo, price Is. 6d. 

COOLEY'S FIGURES OF EUCLID; being the 
Diagrams Illustrating the "EleraeDts," with the Enuncis- 
tions, printed separately for use in the Class-room. 
*»* Orders received by all Booksellers. 
Wliittftkw Rnd Co., ATe-Maria-Jaae London. 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



35 



This dav is pnblished, price 6s. cloth, 

THE HAND-BOOK OF CHEMISTRY; witli a 
complete Index of reference. By G. H. Caunter, Esii. 
London; W. S. Orr & Co. ; and W. & R. Chambers, Edinburgh. 

SATURDAY, JAN. Id, 1842. 

MEETINGS IX THE ENSUING WEEK. 

Mofldsr SIrdifo-B.ilankTil (.inn.) 8 r. K. 

rHiirtuuUural .... 3 r. a*. 

Tuejdav "S FloriL-ultural . . . . 7 r. m. 

i Lionean 8 p. «. 

W«ina<l«r . . ■ • Geolopcal 8^ ». m. 

Prld^v Botanu-al 8 T. M. 

Saturday Royal Botanic .... 4 7. u. 

Our remarks on Foresting will be resumed next 
week, with some considerations upon the rate of 
growth of trees. 

The Whitethorn is by far the best plant for 
fences, in land which it likes ; but it does not always 
answer the e.xpectation of its planters. It will grow 
freely in anv land that is not very poor or wet. It 
does not dislike heavy clay, and it succeeds admi- 
rably in ricli hght soUs; but in marshy situations, or 
in sterile sands and heathy land, it is not worth 
planting. 

The mode of multiplying it is by sowing the stones 
found in the haws, the preparation of which is the 
first subject to be considered. The haws may be 
gathered at any time after they are ripe. They should 
be beaten to pieces, and mixed with twice their quan- 
tity of sand ; after which they should be formed into 
a cone, :3ft. or 4ft. high, and well covered over with a 
thick layer of soil ; this must be made in a dry place. 
In March they may be unpacked, sifted from the sand, 
and sown broadcast in beds 4ft. wide, being covered 
about an inch with light soil. Further care they re- 
quire none. Some of them will come up the tirst 
year, some the second, many the third, and some the 
fourth ; so that the seeds need not be sown very thin ; 
for the successive thinnings, as the plants are removed, 
will form room for the new seedlings, or " layer," as 
it is technically called. 

The layer should be used when two years old, at 
which time, if well managed, it will be nine inches 
high. It is customary to pull it up with the hands, 
guarded by stout leathern gloves, and to shorten the 
roots by removing all the tap-root up to the bunch of 
fibres which springs from the crown. In this state it 
is fit for planting. 

Many persons prefer to use transplanted quick in 
hedge-making; but we doubt whether anything is 
really gained by doing so ; and for large operations 
the latter is too expensive. If, however, it is wished 
to prepare quick for such a purpose, it is only neces- 
sary to plant the layer, root-pruned as above de- 
scribed, in rows a foot apart, and to lift it partially 
every year, by introducing the spade on one side, 
until the plants are as large as is required. They 
must be lifted annually, or they wiU form coarse roots 
without fibres, and it will become difficult to trans- 
plant them with any certainty. 

When the quick is ready for mating a hedge, it is 
either planted on the ground level (in which case it 
must be guarded by hurdles), or upon the top of a 
bank. The latter is a bad plan, because in the sum- 
mer the bank becomes very dry, and the young quick 
being deprived of the moisture required for its nou- 
rishment, becomes stunted and stops growing. It is 
far better to plant it on the level of the ground. 
But the necessity of ditching estates, and the conve- 
nience of banks as separations of fields, wOl probably 
always cause the preference to be given to planting 
upon them. In this case the quick should be placed 
on the top, and on no account at the sides, as is com- 
monly practised in some of our counties. 

The best way of planting is to put in the layer 12 
inches apart, in double rows, a foot asunder, taking 
care that the plants in one row alternate with those in 
the other. They should not be cut back when planted, 
but left at full length. 

The second year after planting, one row should be 
cut down to within five or six inches of the ground, 
and the other row left untouched. The next year the 
latter should be cut down in Uke manner. After this 
the hedge will require no other care than to cut back 
the leading shoots every year whenever they are be- 
coming too strong, so as to keep the mass a compact 
thicket of entangled branches. 

These are, in our opinion, the essential points to 
observe ; if we are wrong, we shall be glad of the 
corrections of our correspondents. In addition, it should 
Ibe borne in mind that the Mliitethorn is greedy of 
jmanure, and that the better the sod the sooner a fence 
Vill be made. The plants, of course, should be kept 
juite clean by frequent hoeing and loosening the sur- 
■■ace-soil. 

!l.We k-now that many persons -iviH prefer layer more 
:haa two years old. We doubt, however, whether 
Jie advantage of employing large quicks is equal to 
ie great additional expense j at least there is no 



doubt that if the ^VTiitethorn is not allowed to become 
dry, but is root-pruned and planted in the autumn 
immediately after being taken out of the ground, a 
very respectable fence will be formed in four years. 

We find that the election of the Librarian of the 
Linnean Society will not take place on Tuesday next, 
as was expected, but ihat special summonses will be 
issued to the Fellows whenever the day of election is 
appointed. In the mean while, it is gratifying to find, 
from the communications we receive, that the bring- 
ing forward Mr. Kippist on this occasion is generally 
regretted by the friends of tlie Society. 

It is with sorrow that we announce the decease 
of Mr. Aylmer Bourke Lambert, F. R. S., one of 
the Vice-Presidents of the Linnean Society, who died 
at his residence at Kew, on Monday last, at an 
advanced age. The liberality of this gentleman in all 
that related to Botany, and the unreserved manner in 
which he placed his library and herbarium — the latter 
at one time the richest in this country in Siberian and 
South American plants^ — at the disposal of men of 
science of all nations, would have identified his name 
with the history of Botany for nearly half a century, 
even although his magnificent work on the genus Pinus, 
and other tiseful publications, had never appeared. 

A CORRESPONDENT has Sent us the following extract 
from a periodical of high reputation, published in No- 
vember last: — 

''The yellow Rose, so rarely seen in England, is 
common here (at Macerata), and, we find, is easily pro- 
pagated by grafting the red Rose on the common 
Broom !" 

'We all know the extreme difficulty of removing 
popular errors ; but we must confess we were not pre- 
pared for such a statement as this in the year 1841. 
The Rose grafted on the Broom ! We wonder the 
writer did not add that in Sicily the Orange grows on 
the Thistle, and the Grape on Groundsel. One would 
be just as possible as the other. 

It is a universal law of nature that no plants wOl 
engraft on each other which do not belong to the same 
natural order ; and it not unfrequently occurs that, 
even in the same natural order, species which are dis- 
tantly related cannot be united to each other. For 
instance, the Rosaceous order is a small one, compared 
with many others ; and yet who can graft an Apple 
on a Plum, or a Rose upon a 'Whitethorn .'' For any 
organic union to be effected between different species, 
there must be a great similarity in the organisation 
and secretions of the species to be united. Ihat simi- 
larity exists between the Apple and the Crab, and be- 
tween the Peach and the Plum ; consequently they 
" take'' on each other. It does not exist between the 
Apple and the Plum,- or the Rose and the AVhitethorn ; 
and consequently they cannot be made to take. If, 
then, there is this physical impossibility of uniting 
plants of the same natural order, the belonging to 
which necessarily implies a great similarity of struc- 
ture and constitution, how can we conceive it possible 
in the case of plants of different natural orders, which 
necessarOy irapHes a great dissimilarity of structure 
and constitution.' "Doves mate not with kites, nor 
dogs with wild foxes;" and what is true of animals is 
quite as true of plants. 

To be sure, we are told by simdry veracious authors 
that Roses become black by being grafted on a Black 
Currant bush, and that the blood-red Oranges derive 
their colour from growing on Pomegranates ; but 
these statements are of the same class as that quoted at 
the head of these remarks. How old such stories may be 
we have not learning enough to tell ; but every school- 
boy knows that VirgU gossips of Plum-trees bearing 
Cornels, and Apples Pears ; and we think it is in 
Columella that is to be found the assertion that the 
Vine may be grafted on the Fig — a declaration that 
had its believers down to a very late period, when its 
impossibility was formally proved in the Garden of 
Plants by the late M. Thoiun. 

What a pity it is that the nature of an English edu- 
cation should be such as to leave the minds of even 
educated men impressed with a belief in the possibi- 
hty of such absurdities ! 

OtjR readers ^vill have occasionally remarked in our 
columns letters from correspondents who urge the 
authors of all communications to sign them with their 
real names. ^Ve have already given our own opinion 
upon this subject, and we now repeat that in many 
cases there is no kind of necessity for such a course. 
If a man indeed has a fact to state, then it is no doubt 
desirable that he should be known to us ; but it is not 
requisite that he should declare himself to all the 
world. Diflidence, a feeling we should like to see 
more common, is in itself the principal cause of many 
writers preserving the anonymous ; and we submit to 
our readers that it is by itself a sufficient reason. As 
to all other subjects, such as disctissions about matters 
of taste, and opinions upon modes of cultivation, there 
is no pretence.for calling upon a writer to avow liini- 



self; indeed, in many cases an argument will be con- 
ducted better when the parties to it are unacquainted 
with each other. 

If, however, we had any doubt about the propriety 
of the coiu-se we have taken, it would be removed by 
the following letter from our excellent correspondent, 
"P. P.":— 

" Slat nominis umbra. If you have not done it 
already, you have ample means and full power of 
yourself to justify your practice of giving insertion to 
anonymous contributions ; whether of the amateur or 
professional character; whether strictly horticultural 
and practical, or merely of that discursive kind which, 
without departing entirely from the principal object 
you have in view, aie at least innocent in themselves, 
or serve to give grace and expansion to the views of 
men engaged in one of the most intellectual of phy- 
sical pursuits, and diversity to your agreeable miscel- 
lany. A little consideration will, I am sure, convince 
your correspondent 'J. H.S.,' and some others who have 
gone before him in the same line of objection, of their 
mistake, and of the better taste you show, and the 
politer course you take iu not attempting to disturb 
the privacy of your friends, so long as they avoid per- 
sonal appeals, or a Une of argument in which personal 
authority was necessary to give weight to their dis- 
cussions. 'J. H. S.' has doubtless made himself 
known to you by other means than the holy initials 
(they are real initials) by which he has revealed him- 
self to your readers. But is it possible he can suppose 
that your memory is to be burthened with the names, 
habitats, and distinctions of all the ' men of letters' 
who crowd into your weekly correspondence? 

" For myself, 1 am not too old or too cold not to 
rejoice in the Uttle private gossips I have with you, or 
not to be rather proud of your recorded good opinion. 
But I am too chary of your disposable leisure to think 
of encouraging you with a name which would con- 
vey no definite sense of intellectual superiority, or 
artistical skill ; and so perfectly unknown to fame as 
to be of no manner of use to your Chronicle, — where, 
indeed, it would be astonished to find itself for the 
first time in its life in such good company. 

" If I were to declare my ' P. P.' to mean ' Peter 
Pratt,' the father of the pretty ' Lonicera,' or to an- 
nounce myself as the lineal descendant of ' P. P., 
Clerk of this Parish,' it would add no weight of proof 
to my assertions that HoUies are best moved when they 
are prepared to make the spring-shoot ; or that frost- 
bitten Bays, being dead, go the way of all flesh, or, 
being not so far gone, take the same course in their 
revival as other evergreeus ; or that Shakspeare was 
not a professional gardener — no more than it would 
give point to a dibble or an epigram." 



CACTACEOUS PLANTS. 
A KNOWLEDGE of their natural cUmate is essential to the 
cultivation of most plants, but many Cacti are eiceptions ; 
for instance, Cereus speciosissimus is a native of South 
America, and was for many years, and is by some still, 
treated as a stove plant, grown in old lime, brick rubbish, 
and the poorest of soil, and, of course, kept constantly ex- 
cited with heat and moisture ; in this case, departure from 
the treatment that their natural localities would suggest, 
has rendered it a desirable plant to every person that pos- 
sesses a common greenhouse. The soil that I grow the 
young plants in is one-half peat, with equal quantities of 
strong yeUow loam, pigeons' or sheep's dung, and river- 
sand, that has been at least exposed twelve months to the 
weather, and frequently turned. I never mix the soil be- 
fore it is wanted for use, when it is well sifted and the 
lumps placed over the potsherds for drainage. When the 
plants have attained a proper size for blooming, I add 
more of the loam in repotting them, particularly to C. 
speciosissimus, and in all cases give plenty of drainage. 
The best time for propagating by cuttings is when the 
plants are growing freely. I make them of whatever size 
can best be spared from the plants ; and those that are of 
young and unripe shoots I lay on a dry shelf in the green- 
house for a fortnight, to dry up the sap, which prevents 
them from rotting and causes them to emit roots much 
sooner. I plant them singly in small pots, and place 
them in a moderate hotbed frame ; when they have filled 
the pots with roots, they are repotted and placed in an in- 
termediate or Pelargonium house, where they remain for 
the summer and receive a good supply of water. In the 
autumn they are allowed to get quite dry, and they are 
wintered in a dry, airy part of the greenhouse. In spring 
they are again removed to the Pelargonium house, and a 
very Uttle water is given them, which is increased as the 
season advances. By the end of the second summer they 
will have grown to the size of good blooming plants ; and 
in the autumn they should be placed out in a;warm, airy 
part of the garden to ripen the shoots thoroughly. About 
the usual time of housing other greenhouse plants, they 
should be again dried and put, as before, in the green- 
house. I place the first for forcing iu the intermediate 
stove about Feb. 1, and continue a succession tiU they 
bloom in the greenhouse, which is about June. Such 
plants will bear the greatest extremes of dryness and 
moisture, and without proper attention is paid at the sea- 
son of rest to keep them quite cool and dry, they never 
wUl bloom properly. The forcing must be commenced 
at alow temperature, and water at first given sparingly : 

when they haye begun to grow ft««ly and theWoom-buds 



36 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 15, 



are well started, they must be watered, not by a continual 
dripping, but by copious applications, and at intervals of 
a fortnight during the growing season, with liquid ma- 
nure. When the bloom-buds are sufficiently advanced, I 
thin out all those which are large and small, leaving them 
as near one size as possible, and at proper distances to al- 
low the blooms to expand. When they have flowered, I 
keep the plants rather dry for a short time, and place 
them in a cool, shady part of the greenhouse, or under a 
north wall. In a few weeks they will again assume their 
usual firm and healthy appearance, and begin to grow ; and 
then I clear off all the decayed blooms and seed-pods, and 
place the plants for the autumn in the garden in a south 
aspect, where there is afreecirculationof air, giving them 
a good supply of water ; after this they are moved to the 
greenhouse and treated as before, I train them to iron 
stakes, made to fit the outside of the pots or tubs, and 
fasten them with wire. Attention should be paid to early 
training, and to stopping all shoots as soon as they attain 
the required height ; all useless side and bottom shoots I 
rub off, and occasionally some of the old shoots are cut out 
and replaced with young ones. I have raised many beau- 
tiful hybrids, some striped, with the habit of Cereus Mal- 
lissonii, and others intermediate, between Epiphyllum 
speciosissimum and E. Ackermanii grandiflorum, which is 
a strong grower and bears large scarlet blooms, with the 
purple tint of C. speciosissimus. — John Green, Gardener 
to Sir E, AntrobiLSf Bart., Lower Cheam. 



DIE HOHE EICHE, 

THE TALL OAK OF HARRESHAUSEN NEAR BAEEN- 
HAUSEN, G. DUCHY OF HESSE DARMSTADT. 

Harreshatjsen is a small village of the Grand Duchy 
of Hesse Darmstadt, about 25 English miles from Frank- 
fort, and two from Babenhausen. A considerable tract 
of forest lies on the west side of these two villages, and 
till within the last 20 years encompassed the remarkable 
tree of which a sketch is anne.ted. 

This tree stands about a quarter of a mile from the vil- 
lage, and about one hundred yards in front of the wood. 
It is an Oak, but of what species I am unable to deter- 
mine, not having seen the acorns. It is deciduous, but 
retains its leaves very much later than the spreading Oaks 
of the forest ; so much so, that at this season it is still 
perfectly green, while the others are yellow with the tints 
of autumn. From its shape and colour, it is a conspicuous 
object at a considerable distance, and might be taken for 
a Spruce Fir until the upward tendency of its branches 
is discovered. 

The total height of this singular Oak is estimated by 
the people at 90 Hessian feet, one third of which is a 
clean bare stem of perfect symmetry and straightness. 
The form of the head, the compactness of the branches, 
and the density and dark colour of the foliage, contribute 
to give to the tree the figure and appearance of a very 
fine Cypress, rather than of a Poplar, to which it has 
been compared. Much care is taken of it, a walled 
enclosure, with a locked door, having been built round it, 
to preserve it, according to the worthy forester's account, 
from the depredations of superstitious people, who used 
to come and cut pieces out of the bark and stem, as a 
charm — against what evil he was unable to say. 

There is a tradition that when the country was occupied 
by the belligerents in the SevenYears' War, this tree was on 
the point of being cut down for fire-wood, when a General, 
whose name is unfortunately not preserved, but who hap- 
pened to be an amateur of fine trees, saved it from de- 
struction by ordering his tent to be pitched at its foot. 

This Oak is usually propagated by grafting, the acorns 
not being sure to produce plants of the same strict habit ; 
some, however, turn out the same as the parent tree. The 
finest I have seen are on the lawn at Wilhelmshohe, near 
Cassel, and in Mr. Wild's garden in Cassel; they some- 
times assume a round bushy form, but will probably end 
by shooting upwards. A similar Oak is said to e,xist 
in the South of France, and is known in gardens under 
the name of Quercus fastigiata, or pyramidalis S. 

October 30<A, 1841. 



'; go Hessian feet total 
I height. 




12 Hessian fee^ fircnni. 



■|30 Hessian feet to the 
i first branch. 



:z3'''^ 



N. 13. 1 Hessian foot equal to ui E))glisli inches. 



CULTURE OF WHEAT IN THE WEST INDIES. 

(Continued from p. 20.j 
Such were the results of the first attempt, with the ex- 
ception of Cuba, made to produce wheat in the Antilles, 
since the year 1494, with which I am acquainted. Still, 
however, tliese trials threw little light on the important 
problem which I was desirous of solving, namely the 
minimum of latitude and elevation at which this culture 
could be carried on with advantage between the tropics. 
To the solution of this I next endeavoured to apply my- 
self, and with this view I sent some original Caracas seed, 
some the produce of Caracas seed planted in a garden in 
this town, and some Englisli red or white Wheat, to the 
Hon. J. C. Lees, Chief Justice of the Bahamas, and the 
enlightened and energetic Secretary of the Bahama Society 
for the Diffusion of Knowledge, accompanied by a request 
that he would use his influence in obtaining a fair trial of 
them by some of the members of the Society, and com- 
municate the results to me. From the reports thus ob- 
tained it appears that the success of experiments made at 
an elevation of not more than four feet above the sea was 
most complete, and subsequent experiments were suc- 
cessful in a still more striking degree. The number of 
ears produced by each grain, planted at an interval of 12 
inches between each, was from 50 to 60, each ear contain- 
ing from 60 to 70 grains. 

Sir William Colebroke, under whose auspices the Bahama 
experiments were made, having been removed to the 
government of the Leeward Islands, I availed myself of 
that opportunity to extend my experiments in that quarter, 
but could only succeed in partially overcoming the preju- 
dices of the planters in Antigua and Dominica. In the 
former, from causes connected probably with the nature of 
the soil, the neglect of dressing, and the character of the 
season, the results were by no means such as 1 could have 
wished, the grain being small and defective, and contain- 
ing an undue proportion of bran and gluten. In Dominica, 
however, though nearer to the line, 15 grains planted by 
the Rev. G. Clarke, Rector of Roseau, on the east side of 
his garden at an elevation of not more than 30 feet above 
the level of the sea, came up on the 20th of Nov., 1838, 
three days after sowing, and produced 165 plants, yielding 
3,630 grains of wheat, or 242 for 1, which came to 
maturity in about 104 days from the date of sowing, and 
exceeded the weight of the parent seed in the proportion 
of 1 to 1.03, or 132 to 136. 

In St. Kitt's, three grains of English white wheat 
which were planted by the late Mr. Olpherts, at an eleva- 
tion of 1200 feet in the neighbourhood of Brimstone- 
hill, yielded, notwithstanding the continued drought, 
four ears averaging 40 grains each, which were cut on the 
94th day from the date of sowing. The unfortunate death 
of this amiable and kind-hearted individual, which took 
place soon after, deprived me of my only auxiliary in that 
quarter, and prevented the farther prosecution of these 
experiments. I am inclined to suspect the existence of a 
mistake in Mr. Olphert's report, and that the three grains 
which vegetated were Victoria, not English wheat, as I 
cannot otherwise account for the singular change of habit 
evinced in the acceleration of the period of arriving at 
maturity. 

About the same time that these experiments were pro- 
ceeding in the Leeward Islands, further trials were in 
progress in Jamaica, which furnished a complete solution 
of the problem which had so long engaged my attention, 
and demonstrated the practicability of cultivating wheat 
with advantage at the level of the ocean, as well as in the 
elevated regions of the Blue Mountains at elevations of 
from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. From the address of the Pre- 
sident of the Agricultural Association we learn that the 
Victoria wheat succeeded equally well in the arid plains 
of Vere, and the humid mountains of Clarendon and 
St. Ann's. 

"The wheat produced in Vere was planted," as the 
president acquaints us in his address, " at Hill-side Estate, 
on the 22d of March ; it came up on the 27th ; the first 
ears came out on the 9th of May (58th day) ; it began to 
ripen on the 0th of June (7Cth day) ; and was cut on the 
20th (90th day), and might have been cut a day or two 
earlier, but for the frequent rain, which made it too wet 
to be taken in. The portion sown in Clarendon was on 
Mount Moses plantation ; it was planted in March and 
reaped in June. 

"In St. Ann's, Mr. King planted it on the 30th of 
March ; on the 2d of April it was up, and continued to 
grow very fast. In about two months from the time of 
sowing it began to show head, and blossom and improve ; 
on the 30th of June (the 92d day), it was quite ripe and 
full, and decidedly equal, if not superior, to the sample 
sown. The only attention it received was once weeding 
between the drills, which proved quite sufficient." — IF. 
Hamilton, M.D., Plymouth. 

{To ba cotttinued.) 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF PLUM-TREES. 

A CORRESPONDENT, " F. G. Z.," Writes as follows : 

I have got a Magnum-bonum Plum-tree with spurs pro- 
jecting a considerable distance from the stem, and naked 
at the bottom. Can these be profitably shortened ? and 
if not, must they he cut close to the stem ? In pruning 
Plums, what mode should be pursued to keep the shoots 
short and fruitful .' We suspect the cause of " F. G. Z.'s" 
Plum-tree being naked at the bottom is owing to the 
branches not having been properly regulated at first, so as 
to check the flow of sap, and prevent its being expended 
in the production of useless shoots, either in the middle or 
towards tlie upper part of the tree. It is, perhaps, too late 
now to remedy this defect, or to thin-out and shorten the 
projecting spurs with advanlage. The latter, however, may 
sometimes be done Euccessfully wherever a sound, healthy 
bud can be discovered near the base of the spur : hut when 



this is not the case, the result of shortening to within an 
inch or two of the stem will be the same as " F. G. Z." 
has already experienced — the whole of the spur will die 
without throwing out new shoots. Under the circum- 
stances above stated, we think the better plan for " F. G. 
Z." to adopt would be, to cut down his Plum-tree alto- 
gether in the beginning of February, and let it spring 
afresh. 

With regard to the mode of pruning Plums, the same 
directions will nearly apply to them when trained against 
a wall, as those already given for the management of 
Espalier Apples and Pears in the Gardeners' Chronicle, 
1841, page 797. The principal thing to attend to in either 
case, whether the trees are trained in the fan method, or 
with horizontal branches from an erect central stem, is 
the selection of the shoots which are best situated for re- 
taining as bearers, and afterwards laying them in at proper 
distances so as to balance the tree as equally as possible 
without allowing those on one side to obtain an undue 
advantage over those on the other. This is to be done 
very easily in the growing season, by elevating the weaker 
branches a little, and depressing in the same proportion 
such as are strong. It is also necessary to go over the 
trees at least twice in the course of the summer, for the 
purpose of cutting out all superfluous wood, and pinching 
off' the lateral shoots, which are to form the future fruit- 
spurs, to within three or four eyes of their base. This 
may be done in June, and again in the latter end of July, 
unless in the case of strong-growing trees, when it is better 
to defer the operation to a little later in the season. Any 
shoots which the spurs may throw out from time to time 
must also be shortened, or pruned off altogether, if they 
are vigorous and likely to injure the fruitfulness of the 
spur. If " F. G. Z." will pursue this mode of treat- 
ment, we think he will find it successful in maintaining an 
abundance of fruit-spurs, and in keeping them within 
proper limits. By pinching the shoots in summer, it is 
obvious little pruning will be required in winter, and the 
danger of the trees becoming diseased from using the knife 
too freely will thereby be avoided. — M, E. H. 



MOLLET'S GUERNSEY BEURRE' PEAR. 
This is a new Pear of great excellence, raised by 
Hilary 01. Carre, Esq., Valnord, Guernsey. Fruit middle- 
sized, obovate, or somewhat pyramidal, with a remark- 
ably fleshy extension of about half an inch at the insertion 
of the footstalk, in addition to which the footstalk is about 
an inch in length, of medium thickness, and yellow. The 
eye is in a shallow depression, quite open, the segments 
of the calyx closely reclining . on the fruit. The surface 
of the fruit is somewhat uneven ; the ground-colour 
yellow, but this is in a great measure obscured by ferru- 
ginous russet, sometimes equally scattered, but often dis- 
posed in broad longitudinal stripes. Flesh inclining to 
yellow, very melting and buttery, with a very rich Chau- 
montel flavour. December and January may be stated 
as its season. Nothing is at present known of its suit- 
ability to England. 




NOTES UPON SOME OF THE NEW PELAR- 
GONIUMS. — .-.-^ 

These elegant flowers .-il-e becoiJie objects of so much 
interest, and are now so generally cultivated, that we are 
glad to publish the following memoranda upon some of 
the leading varieties, in the hope that they will prove 
acceptable to our readers, especially to those who, resid: 
iiig at a distance from town, have no opportunity i 
of jiorsonally inspecting the " new candidates fur public \ 
favourj" iiml are therefore in Joul't and ditticultv as lo 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



37 



. Jl -.1 ]>,]!. II -i l IIIIL 



which, out of the numerous lists that ai'c puhhshed, 
they shall select in order to improve their collections. The 
remarks were all made when the plants were in bloom ; 
no doubt many other new varieties which have not come 
under our notice may possess fine qualities, but we have 
strictly confined our remarks to those we have seen. 

1. — The most decided novelty among the new flowers 
is the Queen of the Fairies ; this beautiful variety was 
raised by the Rev. R. Garth, and is remarkable for hav- 
ing a continuous well-defined rim of pure white surround- 
ing the upper petals ; in this peculiarity it is superior to 
any Pelargonium at present known ; the spot is a deep 
rich bright maroon, with the under petals pure white ; in 
its habit, free manner of blooming, and general chai-aeter, 
it bears a strong resemblance to Garth's Victory ; the 
foliage is of a deep green, which contrasting with the 
gaiety of the flowers, gives it a very lively and animated 
appearance. 

2. — As a most profuse bloomer the Prince of Waterloo 
ia conspicuous ; the flowers, which are full-sized, 
are produced in large and numerous trusses. The 
upper petals are of a deep rich orange crimson, with fiue 
dark spots ; the under petals areof a deep rose colour ; it 
bears some resemblance to the Jewess — the colour is 
brighter, and it is a superior variety ; the general form 
of the flower is fine, but the petals have a slight inclina- 
tion to curl. The habit is good, and it is a free grower. 

3. Lord Mayor. The habit of this flower is peculiar 

from being so remarkably compact ; the trusses rising but 
little above the foliage, are seen to great advantage, from 
the green leaves forming a background to the flowers ; the 
trusses are numerous and compact ; tlie under petals are 
rose-coloured, with a slight marking in each ; the upper 
petals have a large spot, surrounded by an edge the same 
colour as the under petals ; from the compact habit of its 
growth, this flower requires no tying and but little training. 

i Lady Mayoress. The ground colour is a clear 

X'ose, in all the petals alike, with a well-defined spot ; this 
is a beautiful variety, but it lias an objectionable quality 
as a show-flower, that of not having more than two flowers 
expanded at the same time upon a truss ; this is in some 
degree compensated for by the trusses being very nume- 
rous, but they look small, and the bloom appears to be 
too scattered ; the trusses rise well above the foliage, and 
the habit is compact, in the style of Lord Mayor. 
( 5. — The ground colour of the petals of Britannia is a 
very delicate pink, getting gradually lighter as it ap- 
proaches the centre, with a rich dark well-defined spot in 
the upper petals, from which bright crimson veins radiate ; 
the form of the flower is good, and it is a very free bloomer. 

6, — Jubilee has under petals of a bright pink; the upper 
petals are very rich, having a large dark spot softening 
into crimson, leaving but a narrow margin ; the trusses 
are remarkably fine and large ; it is a distinct and desir- 
able variety, and will prove an e^eelleut show-flower. 

7, 8, 9. — The tliree following varieties have each a 
delicate French white ground. Annette is a well-formed 
flower with a good dark blotch in the upper petals ; it is a 
very free bloomer, and one of the best of its class. Leila 
is also a good form, and is remarkable for having the 
petals perfectly even on the edge ; the spot is rather 
smaller and lighter than Annette. The spot in the Witch 
is large, having a lighter-veined edge surrounding it ; this 
is a fine flower, of good habit, and forms a very desii-able 
variety. 

10. — Coronation has been a favourite at the shows 
during the last season ; it is a free bloomer, and the large 
trusses of flowers have a very imposing appearance ; the 
lower petals are delicately veined, and the upper ones are 
furnished with a good dark spot ; we consider the flower 
rather coarse, and prefer Corona, which we consider an 
improvement upon it ; the lower petals are rose, with a 
dash of crimson surrounding the spot at the upper petals ; 
this is also a very free bloomer, and the flower is of a 
more delicate texture than Coronation. 

1 1 . — Wonder throws up a fine head of bloom ; the upper 
petals of light crimson, have a fine dark spot gradually 
softening to the edge ; the under petals are of a warm 
rosy tint ; in form and colour it is very fine, and will 
doubtless prove an excellent show-flower. 
(To be continued.) 



THE AMATEURS' GARDEN.— No. III. 

If the greenhouse contains shrubby plants, such as 
Acacias and Heaths, the night temperature with artificial 
heat should never be raised higher than 40°, nor allowed 
to sink lower than 32°. Any degree above the freezing 
point would be high enough for such plants ; but it is 
better when the fire is made up for the night to leave, the 
temperature a few degrees higher than is actually neces- 
sary. If the house is filled with such plants as Pelargo- 
niums, the thermometer may range from 40" to 45°. 
Pits or frames which are not heated must be carefully 
covered up at night ; dry hay, straw, or fern leaves are 
excellent materials for packing round the sides of the 
frames and over the mats on the top. Continue to re- 
move all damping leaves from the plants, and give air 
freely when the weather is mild, or when the sun shines. 
When the greenhouse becomes damp, a good fire should 
be lighted during the day, and all the ventilators opened ; 
this dries off' the moisture, and sends it out of the house 
at once ; but if a high temperature is kept up without 
ventilation, the damp merely condenses upon the glass, 
and falls down again when the house gets cool. 

Neatness is always a feature in the garden of the ama- 
teur, and therefore I consider it quite unnecessary to 
advert to such subjects as cutting hedges, sweeping 
lawns, and rolling and weeding walks ; these are their 
own remembrancers, and every one knows how to do 
them. 



When the weather is favourable for out-door opera- 
tions, shriibberios may be dug, if not already done ; new 
walks cut out, and any alterations made which may seem 
desirable ; frosty days should bo taken advantage of for 
wheeling and carting the gravel or manure which may be 
required. In making alterations in the shrubbery any 
time from autumn to spring, evergreens of a large size 
may be lifted and transplanted witli success, thus giving 
at once to the altered parts the appearance of having 
been planted for many years. It is done successfully in 
the following manner : — A trench is opened all round the 
shrub, about two feet from the stem, or as far as the 
greater part of the roots extend, and the ball of earth is 
afterwards reduced with a fork to a more convenient size, 
taking care to preserve the fibrous roots. The spade is 
then worked round the bottom of the ball, and as much 
of the soil cut away as is possible without throwing it 
over, and afterwards the whole is bound firmly round 
with mats and ropes. A short board is then put down 
under the ball on each side, and some pieces of old mats 
packed in between the boards and the ball. The only 
thing to be done now is to draw two ropes under the 
short boards, fixing them to a lever on each side, and the 
whole is ready for lifting. If the ball lias been much re- 
duced, two men may lift it and walk away with it to its 
destination in the same manner as they carry a hand- 
barrow, but of course the number of men required 
depends upon its size. It is now replanted with the same 
care ; the ropes and mats are drawn gently out, and the 
sides round the ball filled in with loose soil. A large 
basin is then made round the shrub to hold three or four 
tubs of water, which carries the loose soil down round 
the roots, and makes the plant much firmer than if the 
soil had been trod upon. When the soil gets firm, which 
is not the case until the day after the watering, the basin 
is then levelled down, and the operation is completed. — 
li. F. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. Gate's Substitutes for Turf and Box Edgings. — 
Mr, Caie has not given to what he recommends the con- 
sideration which the subject deserves. Surely he has shown 
little taste in his selection of plants for edgings for walks. 
If he thinks thatCerastiums, Myosotises,Corydalises,Chei- 
ranthuses, or Fumarias will make good edgings for walks, I 
think that few will be found to agree with him. Why 
does he not name the beautiful and enlivening variety of 
Armerias, Bellises, Primulas, and Gentians as a substitute 
for turf; and for the Box edgings, those plants which 
would have, in some situations, a most tasteful effect, 
such as the varieties of the Erica cinerea. carnea, and 
even vulgaris ; these would stand dressing, and when kept 
dwarf would make good edgings for walks : so would the 
varieties of dwarf Thyme. Plants to be used for edgings 
for walks should be dwarf, close growers, and such as 
retain their leaves. — Clareinch. 

The Foxglove. — One evening in November I found in 
an open part of a wood a Digitalis purpurea in full bloom. 
Although it was a November night, I could not help stay- 
ing to admire such a beautiful flower at such a season. 
Around it were many of the dead stalks of those that had 
bloomed in June and July, and although there had been 
several nights of frost and snow, yet there it was grow- 
ing, at an altitude of 400 feet above the level of the 
Forth, with its green capsules, and between 20 and 30 ex- 
panded blooms, as beautilul as those at Midsummer ; with 
as many unexpanded ones as would keep it in flower until 
Christmas, if the weather kept moderate. At this season 
of the year every flower is welcome, when the green of the 
meadow is exchanged for brown, and the soft gales of 
summer for .the sleety blasts of winter. From the hint 
thus given by nature, surely the art of the gardener could 
prolong the smiles of Flora, so that the lover of flowers 
may enjoy a treat even in a winter's day. — Peter 
Mackenzie. 

Ancient Castle Gardens at Stirling. — When Stirling, 
like Windsor at the present day, was the seat of royalty, 
it appears from history and tr:^dition that the kings of 
Scotland at that period were not without their royal gar- 
dens. Their pleasure-ground appears to have been on 
the south side of the castle, and there is a piece of ground 
on the north-east side of the town still pointed out as 
forming part of the orchard and kitchen-garden that be- 
longed to the palace. About three acres still remain as 
an orchard, and are occupied by Mr. Allan, nursery and 
seedsman, Stirling. A few months ago there was grow- 
ing in it a Pear-tree said to have been planted by King 
James the First of England ; it was named the King's 
Pear or Carnock Pear. For a number of years past it 
was rapidly decaying, one branch falling off after another ; 
the trunk was also mouldering away : but it was still 
respected, and it was surrounded with props to keep it 
from falling, but it could not be preserved ; and a short time 
ago the tree that was planted by that "most high and 
mighty prince" lay prostrate on the ground. Mr. Allan 
preserved what was sound of it, in order to give it away 
to those persons who have a desire to preserve such relics. 
— Peler Mackenzie, West Plean. 

Effect of Soil 071 the quality of Timber. — With whatever 
eclat root-pruning has receritly been brought before the 
public, Mr. Thompson in his quotation from Switzer has 
quite settled the question that it is no " new thing in the 
earth,"' had it not been settled so completely by others. 
My first instructor in these matters (aliis ! 'tis 40 years 
ago !) was a root-pruner ; although there was in those 
days no Gardeners^ Chronicle nor Horticultural Society's 
Transactions, in which to chronicle his practice or its 
results. Mr. BiUington has, in p. 796, given some sensible 
observations connected with the subject ; I shall, how- 
ever, at present only notice what Mr. BiUington says in 



p. 830 about the qualities of timber, as affected by soil, 
climate, altitude-- &c. When I offered my views about 
forest-tree pruning, in p. 213, I hazarded an opinion 
"that time was essential to quality." On giving the 
subject more consideration, I think that opinion ought to 
be in some measure qualified. I instanced the Scotch 
Fir, as of little value when grown rapidly ; so I think still 
in regard to that and to Firs generally : but such an opi- 
nion will not hold with regard to our more valuable deci- 
duous trees, such as Oak, Chestnut, and Beech. Mr. 
Billington's article is confirmatory of what I expressed 
respecting the qualities of Scotch Fir I had seen cut in 
Fifeshire grown upon poor gravelly soil ; but were the 
rapid-growing Scotch Firs of some of our modern plan- 
tations in fertile soils to stand for a thousand years, I 
question if age would much, if at all, improve their qua- 
lity, and I should be glad to have an opinion from Mr. 
BiUington on the subject. Whatever I advanced in 
p. 181 was connected with the propriety or impropriety, 
advantage or disadvantage, of forest-pruning ; my reasons 
for disapproving of which, as a general practice, I have 
stated ; and as this is the time for such operations, and 
none of your correspondents have mooted the subject, I 
begin to hope it has fallen into desuetude. You stated in 
a former Number, that Mr. BiUington's writings had never 
fallen in your way ; nor have they in mine : but some 
vague notion recurring to mind that I bad seen something 
of his reviewed, I presume he was, if not still, a forest- 
pruner ; and further, that he was an advocate for what 
he termed '* fore-shortening," instead of cutting close, 
or snagging. Now if this conjecture is right, I hope Mr. 
BiUington will not be angry if I cannot subscribe to his 
views, although preferable in practice to either close- 
cutting or snagging. My objections to these may be 
stated in few words : that, with some exceptions, they 
all tend to frustrate the object they profess to promote ; 
and I have formed such an opinion of Mr. BiUington's 
experience and sense as to anticipate his concurrence, 
and the use of his pen and influence to put an end to so 
injurious a practice — Quercus. 

Celery.— "R. C." agrees with "D. R.," at p. 781, 
(1841,) that Celery should be planted at such a distance 
as to allow the earth to be thrown up roughly, and that 
Seymour's Superb AVhite Celery is worthy of being recom- 
mended. In January last " R. C." had a trench dug two 
feet wide and one foot deep, and on the ridges he grew 
his early Peas. The trench being prepared, the Celery 
was planted out in the first week in June, and the Peas 
shade the plants from the sun. " R. C." believes that the 
reasons why early Celery does not always succeed is the 
check it receives when transplanted, and in being fully 
exposed to the sun, and also in not having sufficient 
moisture at the root. At the first earthing-up " R. C." 
ties the leaves of the Celery together with matting, and 
places fine soU firmly round the plant, taking care not to 
let any get between the leaves. He earths up frequently, 
for he finds that if the heart is too deeply buried, the plant 
is sure to rot. On September the 2d " R. C." e.'ihibited 
at the Hull Botanic Gardens four heads of Seymour's 
Superb AVhite Celery, weighing 181b. 8oz., the heaviest 
weighing 51b. 10 oz. ; and on Sept. 22d he dug up two 
heads that weighed 18 lbs. 4 oz. 

Thoughts on Botany. — In my opinion Botany should 
be studied by all Gardeners ; but I am sorry to say that I 
have found that five out of six know no more of the clas- 
sification of flowers than they do of steering a ship. I 
believe, however, it is only requisite to put young men in 
the right way, and give them some leisure time, and they 
will feel as much pleasure in ascending a lofty mountain to 
seek for Saxifragra oppositifolia, or to the beautiful lakes 
in Westmoreland for Lobi^lia Dortmanni, as they do in 
visiting places of amusement. I have walked with prac- 
tical gardeners through fields filled with Orchis m6rio 
(Meadow Orchis), and have seen them trod down un- 
heeded, while I have felt the greatest anxiety for their 
safety, I have watched with pleasure the gradual unfold- 
ing, day after day, of the stamens of Parniissia palustris, 
and I have gone over a patch of ground near Liverpool 
where the pretty Callistegia soldanella, one of the rarest 
British plants, has been growing, and seen it passed by 
unnoticed. Many gardeners wiU, no doubt, maintain that 
Botany does not constitute any part of their profession ; 
but even admitting that a man may be a good gardener 
without any knowledge of Botany, yet there is something 
60 pleasing in it, independent of its utility in determining 
the famUies of plants, that I recommend it to all gardeners, 
more especially the young, who wiU themselves become 
masters, and some day will take as lively an interest in the 
subject as I do.—/?. Towers, Gr. to D. Waterhouse, Esq., 

Aigburth, Liverpool [To know what he ought to know, 

and to know no more than he can make shift with, is one 
of the marks that distinguish a good gardener from a bad 

one.] 

The Season for sowing Cabbage.— In p. 784 (1841), 
you have given Mr. Paxton's opinion of " Price's Mo- 
dern Gardening," a book which the reviewer has shown 
to be unworthy of the title it assumes. However deserv- 
in" it may be of the account which Mr. Paxton has 
given of it, it nevertheless has some claims to originality ; 
for who was ever told before that ten or eleven sowings 
of Cabbage were necessary to ■ ensure a succession ? 
Surely there is something modern in this. Though the 
Cabbage is a vegetable that is almost universally esteemed, 
yet I cannot think there are many whose appetite for 
Cabbage will lead them to follow Mr. Price's directions 
respecting that article, as stated in his book, which is 
another added to the many calendars that have been 
published since the days of Abererombie ; all of which 
are at best but imperfect guides, and seldom followed by 
any one. It would be well if every gardener were to 



S8 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 15, 



make a calendar'for himself, for the system and rules 
adhered to in one place cannot be expected to suit every 
other, especially in a country like this, where there is so 
much difference in the climate. I know a town whose 
markets are well stocked with Cabbage, Green Peas, and 
Strawberries full a fortnight before I can'produee any 
one of these things, although the distance is no more 
than twelve miles. We gardeners living near the Men- 
dip Hills are obliged to sow our Cabbage about the 22nd 
of July for our spiing and early summer crop ; and if we 
deferred it till August, which Jlr. Paxton says is the time 
that every one sows their spring Cabbage, it would be 
nearly Midsummer before we had any fit for use. — W. S. 
Cepophilus. — I have excited, and with plenty of rea- 
son, no small astonislmient among your correspondents, 
at the latitude and longitude given of the place from 
which I wTote. To yourself more especially I owe some 
apology for such an error. It arose from my refeiTing 
to a companion in the same room in which I was writing 
to look at a map for me, and tell me the latitude and 
longitude. The map being merely a county one, pre- 
sented, I suppose, more minutes than degrees, for the 
former were all that were given to me ; and stupidly 
enough did I wTite it down without any reflection. Your 
overlooking the absurdity yourself, lessens, in some de- 
gree, my vexation at doing the same. On reading the 
article in print, the blunder at once struck me ; but as I 
had sufBciently indicated my "whereabout" by saying 
I was within a few miles of the north-east coast, I did 
not think the error sufficient to invalidate the article 
itself, and therefore of importance enough to require an 
inmaediate explanation. Having made the amende ho- 
norable, I have only to inform " A. B., of Woodbridge," 
that the locality, as it should have been given, is lat. 
52° N., long. 1" ; comprising, as he will see, the whole 

; of the N. E. coast of Norfolk and Suffolk. May I take 
advantage of this opportunity of inquiring whether the 
Pawldnia imperialis is hardy enough to stand our win- 
ters, and where it can be purchased ? I have applied to 
several nurserj-men in vain. — Cepophilus. — [P. impe- 

' rialis is believed to be quite hardy ; but Jlr. Paxton 

^ doubts it, in p. 718(1841). It is at present extremely 
rare and dear. We do not know who has it for sale.] 

ShaTsspere's Foresting. — Can any reader of the Gar- 
deners' Chronicle say precisely what Shakspere had in his 
tnind when he wrote the following lines, which have been 
before quoted in this Paper : — 

As knots, by the conflux of meeting sap. 
Infect the sound Pine and divert his grain, 
Tortive and errant from the course of growth. 

Troilus and Cressida. 
As there can be no doubt that these words were intended 

• to explain some popular notion, or some phenomenon which 
had come under the poet's own observation, it must be 
interesting to find their true meaning, and particularly so 
just now, when we are promised two new editions of the 
plays. The Gardeners^ Chronicle is the best place to 
discuss these questions, not only because the poet has been 
there shown to be a gardener, but because the Chronicle 

, takes precedence of Mr. Colher in publishing " Reasons 
for a New Edition of Shakspere." — A. 

< Melons from Cuttings. — The Masulipatam Melon is 
an excellent small green-fleshed variety, but, like others of 
its class, I have found it a shy bearer unless propagated 
firom cuttings. Plants raised in this manner produce fruit 
abundantly, require little room, and not much attention. 
Prom experience I believe that all the shy-bearing Melons 
would be more productive, and fruit in less time, if pro- 
pagated from cuttings instead of seed W. Kerr. 

To Raise Early Potatoes. — Last year I succeeded in 
raising an early crop of Potatoes, in open ground, Id the 
following manner : — I first dug a trench six inches deep 
by two feet wide, and into this put a layer four inches thick 
of dung from a Melon bed, composed of half leaves aod 
half horse-dung. On this I planted the Potatoes, covering 
them over with four inches of soil ; I bent sticks over the 

: bed, and in frosty weather I covered them with mats, and 
the result was that I had a tolerable dish of young Pota- 
toes by the 14th of May. I planted them on the 12th of 
]March ; the kind was the American Early. — Q. F. U. 

Vitality of Seeds. — This is the heading of the first of 
your Miscellaneous articles of last week ; and to the in- 
stance of tenacity of life there adduced, I offer you the 
following additional ones ; — No. 1. Several years ago, in 
the progress of some improvements about my premises, 
we had occasion to remove an old privy, with its cesspool. 
After the removal of the soil from the cistern of the lat- 
ter, a ladling or dipping-hole was discovered at one cor- 
ner, completely filled with Gooseberry, Currant, and 
Grape seeds, and a few Cherry-stones ; in all, about half- 

, a-bushel. It was evident that these seeds had been the 
contributions of many summers, and that after resisting 
the decomposing powers of human digestion, and then of 
the putrid mass in which they had lain so long, they had 
made their way, by their superior gravity, into the hole 
in question, to the exclusion of all the more soluble ma- 
terials. The cesspool and its superstructure were known 
to be at least 50 years old ; and although it was occasion- 

. ally cleared out, it had never been thought worth while 
to make the clearance so complete as to empty the hole 
in which this curious "depot" had been made. The 
brickwork being grubbed up, and the soil and seed 
thrown into a compost, little more was thought of the 

•matter till the next year, when, and for three or four 

- years after, seedUng Gooseberries, Cherries, and Currants 
were found springing in great numbers all about my 
garden, in various parts of which the manure of this 
compost had been distributed.— -No. 2. In a particular 
locality in my neighbourhood (a sandy common and 
rabbit-warren) wheneyer the turf is disturbed, and par- 



ticularly when embankments are tlirown up, the Datura 
Stramonium springs up on the loose earth abundantly. 
And that the seed had been living in the ground many 
years, perhaps ages, and had not been recently imported, 
is evident from the fact of its springing immediately the 
earth is so moved. By-the-bye, tliis is one'of the plants 
of our " Flora " which Sir J. E. Smith doubts of being 
indigenous. As the waste I speak of is of considerable 
extent, away from any gardens likely to grow the plant 
as an ornamental one, and the locality over which it pre- 
vails at least 10 or 20 acres, and the seed, as I have 
said above, always present in the soil, I have no doubt of 
its being native to it. — No. 3. The Verbascum Thap- 
sus and V. nigrum, grow in all our hedges ; but 
there are only two localities in which I have been able 
to find another species — the pulverulentum. At the 
distance of two miles from the nearest of these, and with- 
out any appearance of the plant before or siuee in any 
part of the vicinity, on trench-digging some waste of 
a congenial soil, to make a plantation of Firs, several 
fine plants of the last-named species made their appear- 
ance the first year after the ground was dug. The turf 
here had not, apparently, ever been moved before ; and 
unless, in remote times, for turf fuel, certainly had never 
been disturbed. Bii'ds may have imported the seed 
after the soil was turned up ; but the plant is not always 
to be found in the places I have indicated, and it is every- 
where a rare one These cases might be easily multi- 
plied, as every one knows ; and the knowledge of the 
wonderful power of Uving matter to resist the ordinary 
agents of decomposition is not without its uses in a prac- 
tical view. But they have still more interest when con- 
sidered in illustration of that point in vegetable physiology 
which relates to the change of passive into active WtaUty. 
We are not warranted in supposing that any animal o\'nm 
can exist for years, much less centuries, unchanged, 
under the most favourable circumstances we can have 
any conception of, resistive of external agencies. But, 
setting aside the doubtful stories of the vegetation of 
mummy-seeds, of Herculanian and Pompeian Wheat, 
and the like ; such instances as the above, and that of 
the boiled Elder-seed of your extract from the " Maga- 
zine of Natural History," would incline one to beUeve 
that in a lower order of created beings certain molecular 
attractions may subsist for an indefinite period conserva- 
tive of the predisposition to vegetative action. This can 
hai'dly be called life ; it must be merely chemical combi- 
nation, with aptitude for life. — Instinct of Plants is the 
title of your ne.xt paragi-aph, — an extract from the 5'/!>- 
ling Advertiser. We find here given a very good descrip- 
tion of a phenomenon by no means uncommon, though 
not always exhibited in such prominent characters as in 
the Comrie Oak, in situations where cliffs and hollow ways 
abound ; where trees standing on the verge of precipi- 
tous and rocky banks seem to have sent down foraging 
parties, or perhaps one single large root-trunk, into the 
softer and moister parts below, — a talus, perhaps, formed 
by the crumbling down of the parts from above . The 
fact is undoubted, and the appearances there exhibited 
have much of the air of an instinctive intelligence. But 
such an expression as " instinct of plants ' ' must not go 
forth to your readers without qualification, especially as 
coupled with the natural operation above mentioned, 
which is to be explained on the simplest principles of 
vegetable growth. You can best tell how much affinity 
exists between the instinct of animals and the percep- 
tivity of plants. Surely instinct impUes volition, or is at 
least intimately mixed up with that quaUty, and some 
degree of intellectuality — which must be denied to plants. 
Sensibility to certain stimuli when presented to the parts 
capable of excitement, and their enlargement and exten. 
sion in the direction in which these stimuli exert their 
influence, are no proof of intelligence, even of the lowest 
kind. I have studied many of these instances of subsi- 
diary growtli, and I observe that there are two natural 
operations at work in their formation. One is the luxuri- 
ant growth of the subsidising root, and the other the 
destruction, by meteoric action and other abrading causes, 
of the surrounding materials. A plant finds scanty 
rooting on the top of a wall, or at the edge of a precipice ; 
one of its fibrils chances to creep into a depression or a 
crevice into which water percolates and rotten leaves dis- 
charge their soakage. This gives it growth and vigour, 
and if the crevice extends to the softer and moister parts 
below the root, insinuates itself in the course of the 
drainage, or rather obeys the impulse thus given just as 
it would in the perfect mould. By-and-bye, by its expan- 
sive power, and the natural decay of the rock around or 
behind it, it begins to protrude, and, as it grows, gradu- 
ally acquires higher and higher relief till it stands alone 
and independent of the fissure or furrow that fostered it. 
This also is the history of all the bare roots that are 
seen creeping and twining in such grotesque shapes and 
picturesque arrangements about disintegrating rocks, and 
especially where veins and crevices of softer materials are 
interspersed. And very much on the same principle we 
account for the appearance of ourjAshes and Beeches that 

Wreath their old fantastic roots so high, 
—P.P. 

Nitrate of Soda. — In the essay on Nitrate of Soda, 
in p. 7, the word "cortex" should have been "latex." 
If there is no proof that the nitrate does suffer decompo- 
sition after being absorbed, how does it happen that in 
Wheat grown on soil dressed with the nitrate there is 
found a greater proportion of gluten than in soil not so 
dressed i. Is it not because the greater quantity of nitro- 
gen furnished by the nitric acid, supplies the nitrogen 
wanted for the additional quantity of gluten ? What 
more convincing proof have |We of water being decom- 
posed in the plant, than finding that hydrogen and oxygen 



are fixed constituents of plants ? Neither sulphuric acid 
nor soda is the proper food of plants, and cannot so im- 
mediately benefit plants as nitrates which contain nitro- 
gen — an essential requisite in food. They may ultimately 
be of benefit in the soil, when the sulphate of soda is 
decomposed, by becoming solvents of other substances 
that are food. In any experiments, however, that we 
have seen, no immediate perceptible benefit has been 
found. At Roselle, near Ayr, the seat of A. Hamilton, 
Esq., of Carcluie, where so many agricultural experi- 
ments are made, the sulphate of soda was found last 
season to produce no effect in several different trials on 
Potatoes, &c., when the nitrates on the rows next them, 
and in trials the year before, had a perceptible effect. 
Common salt also was found to have no effect the year 
before. — R. Lymburn. — [The exact mode in wliich the ni- 
trates act as manures is unknown, and all the explana- 
tions yet proposed are imperfect, because it is not certain 
that in all cases the nitrogen which they contain is the 
most important element. Under some circumstances, 
other salts, not containing nitrogen, produce as good, or 
even better effects than the nitrates of potash or soda. 
Besides, it has yet to be proved that plants which have 
been manured with nitrate do really decompose them, 
and that their nitrogen is employed in the formation of 
gluten. Some plants absorb nitrates, and grow very 
well, though the nitrates are not decomposed, but may 
be found in the plant unaltered. If the nitrates assist in 
retaining plants in a healthy state, and contribute to the 
due performance of their functions, they may increase 
the formation of gluten, without directly contributing 
niti'ogen themselves. ] 

Soot-pruning of Vines. — In p. 780, (1841,) mention was 
made of shortening the roots of plants ; and it has been 
adopted here with Vines, with perfect success. The Vines 
were in the 10th year of their age, growing in a border 
outside a range of Vineries, and were in a most pitiable 
condition. To restore them to health and vigour, without 
removal or the destruction of the crop in the subsequent 
year, was the real design of the following operations. To 
effect this purpose, it was supposed necessary to remove 
the whole of the soil surrounding the roots exterior to a 
bank of four feet close to their stems, which was left en- 
tire. The whole soil beyond that distance was removed 
and new added, good drainage being made at the same 
time. The roots extending beyond the distance men- 
tioned were cut off smooth, leaving the Vine with merely 
short stumps of roots outward ; but those emitted in a 
lateral direction, which, so far as could be ascertained, 
were more numerous than usual were not disturbed. It was 
found in a majority of the Vines, that each one had put 
out a leading root immediately following the foundation 
of the wall of the house, and some of them one on each 
side. These roots contributed, no doubt, to afford the 
proper aliment until new ones were emitted into the new 
soil provided for them in front. It is worthy of remark, 
that the business occupied the spare intervals included 
between autumn and spring, portions being begun and 
ended in one interval of time ; those which were done in 
the autumn were much better ripened and more vigorous 
than those done at a later period. Some of the Vines 
were cut down within the house, and some were permitted 
to remain as usual with single canes spurred, and others 
with the young wood they have made in the preceding 
year. Those cut down developed beautiful canes, remark- 
able for closeness of texture and a multiplicity of buds, 
and for being well ripened ; those not cut down bore 
some excellent Grapes, and made some good wood for the 
ensuing year, which they had never done before. All of 
them exhibited symptoms of weakness by flagging in the 
spring, when the eud shone strongly upon the foliage. 
Those Vines in the portions of the border not done until 
spring, were obliged to be cut down in consequence of 
the lateness of the operation, and the severity of the 
process, rendering a new development of roots necessary 
subsequently to the development of the ftiliage; the others 
not having a supply of that kind, protruded new roots into 
the new soil immediately the sap commenced flowing ; the 
others did not, and were not so good. I regard this ex- 
periment as interesting to prove the soundness of the 
practice of root-pruning the Vine, and the season when 
it is most proper to do so ; besides the evidence offered to 
prove the possibility of recovering Vines to health and 
fertility without removal, or the necessity of adopting 
more expensive or extensive methods to do it, I once 
saw a case tried with Vines much older than these, but it 
was in a less extensive way, which, in a certain degree, 
succeeded ; but I am not satisfied how far similar opera- 
tions could be effected with Vines much older than these, 
or whether it could be done at all with old Vines. Perhaps 
some of your correspondents may be able to offer some 
satisfactory addition to these statements. The time 
will come when the roots of trees and Vines will be pruned, 
if not so regularly, quite as systematically as the branches ; 
I have frequently done so to vigorous-growing Pears, 
Peaches, and Plums, by tracing out the leading roots that 
fed luxuriant branches ; but I have not been able to per- 
fect my views in regard to trees of old standing, nor have 
I seen any remarks yet to elucidate that part of the pro- 
cess. — John Duncan, Henhury Gardens. 

Salvia fulgens. — Salvia fulgens may be propagated by 
cuttings in the early part of June, and after being potted 
a short time, should be shifted into pots five or six inches 
across, filled with a soil composed of peat-loam and leaf- 
mould. They should be grown out of doors until the latter 
part of September, and then removed into the greenhouse, 
where they form a striking contrast with the Chrysanthe- 
mums in flower. From its tendency to bloom late when 
propagated in this way. Salvia fulgens is a great acquisition 
to the greenhouse at this season. — G. G, Watson, 



i 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



39 



Polyanthus!. — I beg to add my approval of the treatise 
on the Polyanthus in p. 20 : nothing is more easily 
grownjthan the Polyanthus, and it succeeds where no- 
thing else will, on a northern border. When a Polyan- 
thus ceases to throw out fine leaves and rises above the 
surface, it becomes pipy, and each shoot must be broken 
off and replanted, I recommend all young growers 
to watch that particular period of growth, as piping 
is a disease which causes the plant to degenerate, and 
in an early stage is easily cheeked ; but if allowed to 
go on too long, the young offsets seldom recover, and 
they become knobby. In that case I recommend their 
being broken off as near to the leaves as possible, and 
planted in a bed with a littlo lime-rubbish mLxed with 
the mould, which is liked by all the Polyanthus tribe. — 
G. R. G. JR. 

Salvia patens. — Salvia patens can hardly be too ex- 
tensively cultivated for turning out into the flower-garden 
in the summer, and is by no means unworthy of being 
grown in pots. The following mode of treating it has 
been successfully adopted : — A plant was raised from a 
cutting in May 1840, it bloomed iu September in the same 
year, and in nearly a dried state, was removed from the 
greenhouse where it had stood during the winter into a 
vioery, where forcing had just commenced in the early part 
of March 1841 . The soil in the pot was stirred up at the 
same time and watered in such a manner as to thoroughly 
soak it, and in a short time a strong shoot was percep- 
tible. As soon as this shoot was four or five inches long, 
the plant was taken out of the pot, the soil carefully 
removed from its tubers, the small fibres being injured as 
little as possible ; it was then placed in a pot eleven 
inches in width, with at least two inches of broken pot- 
sherds at the bottom, covered with a thin layer of moss to 
prevent the soil from settling, and rendering the drainage 



curing a first-class prize at a society such as the Horticul- 
tural Society of London, to say nothing of the pecuniary 
advantage afterwards derivable from it, are adequate to 
any moderately high pecuniary reward that could be 
offered. Besides which, I think the public will get no 
more justice done them, and the premium itself will be a 
greater incentive to deception and fraud than an honorary 
mark of approval and distinction. In addition to which, 
if the observation I make be not true, and the competition 
be for 30/. or 40/., as the case may be, and not for merit, 
it is obvious that the uncertainty attending a yearly col- 
lection for this object would of itself be a great draw- 
back. 1 am deceived if that would not alone defeat the 
object of your correspondent ; and I am led to think that 
unless any society offering premiums has actually at its 
disposal the amount of such rewards, either by its own 
funds or by the voluntary premiums of members and 
others, it acts injudiciously in holding them out for com- 
petition, if it were only for this reason, that if such 
society were once unable to meet the just calls at the pro- 
per period, the offers of such premiums would fail to have 
the desired effect at the ensuing season, to which incon- 
venient risk a subscription list would, I apprehend, be 
always liable. But even supposing these objections are 
not good ones, the partiality of Mr. Bowly's system would 
be of great disadvantage to the encouragement of horticul- 
ture in general. How many premiums (first and second 
together 50/.) could a floricultural society of moderate 
means offer in the same year — even with the addition of 
the subscription-list suggested ? If they could afford to 
give two, it would be to the exclusion of other produc- 
tions ; and how often, in the course of a few years, by 
this plan, would it come to the turn of each fancy flower to 
be rewarded ? We must not stand still in floriculture 
now. Every corner of the kingdom echoes a desire to 



imperfect. The soil was for the most part mixed with a promote this pursuit ; and it would be unseemly in any 



little turfy loam and sand, and over the drainage was laid 
an inch of rotten dung two years old. After potting, the 
plant was replaced in the Vinery, and when about a foot 
long a flower-stem appeared which was carefully pinched 
out. The plant soon made strong lateral shoots, which 
were also stopped as soon as their flower-stems became 
visible. It was removed to the greenhouse in the first week 
in May ; at that time the second laterals were growing 
vigorously, and were stopped in the same manner as the 
first. Water was always regularly applied, but no more 
was given than the plant could absorb from the soil. On 
the 27th of July the plant had 20 flower-stems, some of 
which were in blossom, forming one beautiful mass of 
bright blue. The dimensions of the plant were ; — Height 
from the surface of the pot, five feet three inches ; breadth 
of the head as it hung in one direction, four feet nine 
inches — on the opposite, three feet four inches. — G. G, 
TVatson, Siocklon-on-Tees. 

Salvia Patens from Seed. — When so much is said about 
Salvia patens, perhaps it would not be uninteresting to 
know that it ripens seeds perfectly in the open air. In 
the autumn of 1840, I had a plant in an exposed situation 
near the sea, from which I saved some seed. I sowed it 
io pots at the time, but the plants not appearing before 
the frost set in, the pots were placed in a cool frame, pro- 
tected from frost, where they remained during the winter. 
In the spring the pots were placed in the greenhouse, 
where the seedlings came up ; and in the early part of 
May I made a bed of them along with some cuttings ; 
Jiere they have bloomed beautifully during the summer 
and autumn. For beds, they are superior to cuttings, as 
they grow dwarf and more bushy ; when they are in 
bloom they form a splendid mass of brilliant blue, not to 
be surpassed by any other plants. 1 intend to have an- 
other bed of seedlings next year, and I think that if some 
of the dwarfer scarlet sorts were mixed with them at the 
time of planting, when they bloomed they would have a 
prettier effect. — A Constant Header, Ryde. 

Prizes for Horticultural Exhibitions. — Having fre- 
quently heard ladies and gentlemen observe that it is 
rttther beneath them to contend at horticultural exhibi- 
tions for money, I beg to recommend that books be sub- 
stituted, and the following appear to me suitable ones : — 
Illustrations of Botany, by Dr. Royle, lU. lis. ; Dr. Lind- 
ley's works ; DeCandolle's Vegetable Organography, trans- 
lated by Houghton Kingdon, Esq., 15s., or handsomely 
bound 1/. 1*. Od, ; Paxton's Pocket Botanical Dictionary, 
15*., or handsomely bound 1/. \s. ; the Gardeners' Chro- 
nicle for the last year, 1/. 6s. ; the London Journal of Bo- 
tany for the last year ; Mr. and Mrs. Loudon's works ; 
Vegetable Cultivator, by Rogers, 6s. ; the Handbook of 
Gardening, 2s. ; the Florists' Journal for the last year, &s. ; 
the Entomologist for the last year, Gs. An appropriate 
motto may be written in the prize-books — such as " Pal- 
mam qui meruit ferat," — Let him bear the palm who 
deserves it; or, " In tenui labor ; at tenuis non gloria," 
(Virgil,) — The labour was bestowed on a small object, but 
the glory is not the less. Probably the presidents and 
secretaries of horticultural societies may think of more 
suitable mottoes, but these are mentioned in default of 
better.—^. B. G. 

Prizes for Seedling Florists' Flowers. —The earnest- 
ness evinced by Mr. Bowly, at p. 845, (1841,) and my con- 
currence with the general spirit (though not entirely with 
the principle) of his communication, induces me to offer a 
few remarks on his system of offering premiums. I have 
always been an advocate for offering large premiums, 
especially in societies where the contention for them is 
attended with much expense to the competitors ; and I 
think that to a certain extent high premiums would have 
much of the desired effect in floricultural societies ; but I 
apprehend that in general the expenses of raising a Pelar- 
gonium, a Calceolaria, or any similar flower, are not so 
great but what the honour and merit attacked to the pro- 



floricultural society to recognise so partial a system as to 
reward one or two flowers in each year so bountifully at 
the expense of so many others. The tastes of florists 
differ so much in their choice of favourite flowers, each 
one seeking for his protege the same promotion and encou- 
ragement, that I think this exclusive system would occa- 
sion much discontent and dissatisfaction even among 
those most desirous to avoid it ; and I feel confident that 
the pride and ambition among florists in general are such, 
that you would have no stronger competition in conse- 
quence of these high subscription premiums than at pre- 
sent. I am a strong advocate for offering premiums, 
whether they be honorary marks of distinction or pecu- 
niary rewards ; but I as strenuously advocate a fair and 
equal distribution of such premiums as far as possible, I, 
as an amateur, take more delight in the cultivation of two 
or three particular flowers than others ; but at the same 
time, as a lover of floriculture, I desire to see the others 
progressing equally in their cultivation, and approaching 
nearer perfection every season ; and this, I fear, would 
not be the case if the exclusive system recommended by your 
correspondent were carried out, as it would be three or 
four seasons before it came to the turn of each kind of 
production to be rewarded. If Mr. Bowly is so desirous 
of offering a premium for Pelargoniums, or Calceolarias, 
or anything else, let him, like others, signify his intention 
of doing so, to any extent he is disposed, to the Floricul- 
tural Society of London, if he approves of it as a tribunal, 
and many will, in all probability, follow him. I would 
also suggest, that if your correspondent is really anxious 
to offer a higher premium than is convenient to him, from 
the conviction that the cause will be better served, might 
he not make the subscription he advocates among his 
friends — promoters of floriculture — that it might not be 
sent before the Society in the form of a subscription, nor 
the Society itself be supposed to give rise to it ? — S, D. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Jan. Wt.—HVQ Duke of Richmond in the Chair. Twenty-one 
gentlemen were elected. — Col. Challoner presented to the Council the 
report of the Finance Committee, announcing the current cash 
halance in favour of the Society, on the 3lst of December, 1841, as 
1,028/. 12s. 2d., and the amount of invested capital as 5,700?. stock, 
in the Three and a Half per Cent. Reduced Annuities. — On the 
motion of the Rev. AV. L. Rham, seconded by D.Barclay, Esq., 
M.P., it was ordered " That an account be laid before the Council of 
all sums paid to members of the Council for any services performed 
for the society, from the year 1839 to the present time. — The Duke of 
Richmond laid before the Council a further report of the proceedings 
of the General Bristol Committee. — The Council having revived the 
former House Committee appointed in June last, and having added 
to it the members of the General Bristol Committee, it was referred 
to the United House Committee to report to the Council the best 
arrangements to be made in reference to an established residence for 
the Society. — On the motion of the Duke of Richmond, a committee 
was appointed to prepare and lay before the Council a design for the 
great seal of the Society, to be attached to all documents in which 
the Society by their charter contract under a common seal in their 
individual and corporate capacity, consisting of the Duke of Rich- 
mond, Mr. Pusey, M.P., Mr. D. Barclay, M.P., and Mr. If. Gibbs. 
— The Duke of Rutland, as President of the Leicestershire Agricul- 
tural Society, transmitted to the Council a memorial, signed by the 
Hon. H. W. Wilson, their chairman, in the name and on the behalf 
of the committee of that society, in\1ting the Society to hold its great 
agricultural anniversary of 1843 at the town of Leicester ; and enume- 
rating in detail the various topics of information required by the 
resolution of the Council of the 8th of December last ; enclosing a 
sketch of the Leicester criclcet-ground, as the site recommended as 
most suitable for the erection of the pavilion for the dinner, and the 
general purposes of the show, and a plan of the street leading to the 
ground from the railway station. The Duke of Rutland concluded 
the communication by assuring the Council that should they consider 
favourably tliis request of the Leicestershire Committee, there was no 
town in the north-eastern district where the endeavour would be more 
strenuous to afford every accommodation to the visitors, and to ad- 
vance both the interests of the show and the general welfare of agri- 
culture. The thanks of the Council were voted to the Duke of Rut- 
land and the Leicestershire Committee for their attention to the 
Society, and their wishes to promote its objects ; and the secretary 
was directed to inform the Duke of Rutland that the memorial and 
plan had been received by the Council, and would have the best 
consideration at the time when the subject of the town at which the 
Society would hoia its annual county meeting of 1S43 should come 



under their consideration for final decision.— E. Bullen, Esq., secre- 
tary of the Royal Agricultural Improvement Society of Ireland, 
transmitted to the Council the second report of the proceedings of 
tlmt society, along with a list of suggestions to the local agricultural 
societies throughout Ireland, of such regulations as appear to the 
general society most calcuhited to perfect their organisation and 
ensure a uniform system of action and similarity of principle and 
detail in their establishment. Mr. Bullen stated that the Metropolitan 
society had been successful in its efforts to organise these societies 
and effect their correspondence with themselves, no less than 50 local 
societies being in communication witli them already ; that the society's 
annual show in the country would proliably be held at Kilkenny, and 
in the month of August ; and that it was the earnest hope of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland that such an interchange of 
communication would by that time have been effected between them- 
selves and the Royal Agricultural Society of England as would result 
in that connexion between the members of the two national societies 
having a common object of usefulness to the country' at large, which, 
would lead to the attendance at their meeting on that occasion of 
some of the principal agriculturists and breeders of England, wth 
their prime stock. — The Earl of Ducie presented to the Society a 
model of his Uley cultivator, one of the prize implements of the 
Liverpool show. The Rev. J. Heysham communicated a report of 
the epidemic ; Mr. Champion transmitted a note rektive to the 
question agitated by the Thanet Farmers' Club of the best kind of 
Swedish Tiuuip ; and various presents of books were announced. 
BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION FOR THE AGED AND IN- 
DIGENT GARDENERS AND THEIR AVIDOWS. 

Jan. 13. — The anniversary meeting was held this day at the Crown 
and Anchor Tavern ; Mr. Sangster in the Chair. Mr. Bowler read 
an abstract of the accounts for the past year, from which it appears 
that the society is in a most flourishing condition ; for in addition to 
paying all expenses, 200^. of the current year's subscriptions have 
been funded, which is as much as has been in the three preceding 
years. The sum paid for pensions for the last year is 33?. Ss. lOrf., 
which there is every reason to believe, from the grooving importance 
of the society, will soon be very much increased. Messrs Nutting, 
Fairhairu, Mills, Dickson, Fraser, Gray, Sadler, and Fames, were 
placed on the Committee, in the room of Messrs. Brown, Buchanan, 
Low, Mountjoy, Toward, and Warner. The thanks of the meeting 
were then voted to Mr. Bowler, for his sen-ices as honorary secretary. 

Soon after five o'clock, a large number of gentlemen, including 
most of the members of the Floricultural Society of London, sat 
down to dinner. Mr. Groom took the^bair. After " The Queen,'* 
*' Prince Albert,'* " The Queen Dowager and other branches of the 
Royal Family," and " The President and A' ice -Presidents of the 
Institution," had been given, Earl Ducie's health, as President of 
the Floricultural Society of London, was drunk. The next toast wat, 
" Success to the Institution ;" and Mr. Keman, in proposing it, re- 
marked that it was a great gratification to observe how progressively 
the institution was increasing in importance ; the number of persons 
whom he saw around bore sufficient testimony to its value ; and iu 
concluding, he ^rished it might ever prosper, and prove a benefit and 
comfort to many of its poorer members. IVIr. Bowler returned 
thanks, and congratulated the meeting on the advanced position of 
the institution, owing to the cordial support whicli all had given to 
it. He aUuded to the increase made in the funded property, and he 
had now but little doubt of the well-doing of the Society for the 
future. He said the committee had determined to recommend that 
two more pensioners should be elected about next June. " Success 
to the Horticultural and Floricultural Societies of London, the 
Country Florists, the Continental Nurserymen, and the Press,'* 
ha>'ing been given, the meeting separated. 

FLORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Jan. 13.— The annual general Meeting took place this day; Mr, 
Edmonds in the chair. An abstract of the accounts was read and 
ordered to be printed. It appears that the total sum received is 52^. 
17s., out of which 2,11. 10s. has been paid for prizes at the shows, and 
upwards of 8/. for periodical works on Gardening, to form the 
nucleus of a library. Mr. Groom proposed, and Mr. Shears seconded, 
that thanks be given to Earl Ducie, for ha\ing accepted the office of 
President. Mr. Shears was elected treasurer for the ensuing year, and 
Messrs. Fox, Masters, Charlwood, and Palmer were elected on the 
committee, in the place of Messrs. Clark, Verity, Mamock, and 
Rogers ; Messrs. Gaines and Mountjoy were re-elected, Messrs. 
Wrench, Burrup, and Barnard were elected auditors for the next 
year. It having been found that a IQs. subscription was not sufficient 
to carry out all the objects of the society, it was after some discussion 
proposed that in future the annual subscription should be 1^. Jhanks 
were then given to the Secretary, the Committee of the past year, and 
the Chairman, and the meeting broke up well pleased at the success 
of the first year's enterprise. 



NOTICES OF NEW PLANTS WHICH ARE 
EITHER U^nFUL OK ORNAMENTAL. 

Aquilf.'gta Ski'n.veri. Mr. Sldnner's CoUunbine. [Hardij 
Ilerbaceoi's Pa-cnnTal). — This fine Aquilegia was sent to "Wobum. 
Abbey by G. U. Skinner, Esq., from Guatemala, a country much to 
the south of any which had previously been supposed to produce a 
species of Columbine. A. Sklnneri proves to be perfectly hardy, 
having survived the severe winter of 1840-11, in the open ground at 
Woburn, and flowering in great beauty during the summer and 
autumn of 1841. Its nearest affinity is with A. canadensis. The 
flowers are drooping, yellowish green at the lower part, and prolonged 
into a nearly straight spur, almost two inches ia length, of a lively 
red colour. — Bot. Mag. 

Hakdenbe'rgia macrophylla. Broad-leaved Hardenbergia. 
(Greenhouse CliniUefj. — This most beautiful and valuable climbing 
shrub is one of the numerous interesting products of the Swan River 
Colony, the introduction of which to our gardens was effected by Sir 
J. Stirling, who sent seeds to England in 1835. These were raised 
at the seat of R. Mangles, Esq., SunninghiU, Berks, and probably at 
other places. In habit Hardenbergia macrophylla is remarkably 
luxuriant, growing to a considerable height, branching widely, and 
being well covered with its handsome foliage. The racemes of flowers, 
too, are particularly abundant, and often diverge into three or four 
branches, thus forming a large cluster. Their colour is a brilliant 
purple, which does not fade by drying. Its culture, though assimilating 
for the most part to that of H, Comptoniana, should be varied in one* 
important particular ; for, while that species seems to thrive an4 
flower best when kept in a pot, IT. macrophylla is more suitable* for 
planting in the border of a conservatory, where it can be allowed tot 
chng to the pillars, or to chains or wire placed purposely for the sup- 
port of climbers, and spread out its branches in jlII directions, withoufi 
having them materially shortened. So managed, it constitutes a 
beautiful object, with the combined appearance of a shrub and a 
climbing plant. It may, nevertheless, be grown in a pot, and either 
trained in a similar way, or fastened to any kind of trellis of adequates 
dimensions. We must mention, however, that when its growth 15 
stunted and contracted by confinement at the roots, it never exhibits 
tliat vigour and beauty which are common to it under more congenial 
and natural treatment. The soil in which it flourishes best is a fresh 
light loam, to which about a third as much heath-mould and sand is 
added, and the whole well reduced and incorporated, but not divested 
of its fibrous or decayed vegetable matter by sifting. It flowers in 
the principal summer montlis. Cuttings, ordinarily treated, root 
with the usual facility ; and, as it produces seeds abundantly, it may 
be extensively propagated by them, — Mag. of Bot. * ' 

Catasetu-m fuliginosum. Sooty Catasetura. (Stove J^pi-. 
^Aj/f?".)— This sitigulair plant has lately flowered at Sion, In the 
possession of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. Its habit 
is quite that of C. tridentatum, but its flowers are in v^ dense erect 
raceme, and of a deep grreen colour, spotted with a dull blackisix 
purple, so as to look as if they were soiled with soot. The sepals 
and petals are spotted, oblong, acute, and reflexed, so as to hang^ 
downwards. The lip, on the other hand, is fleshy, hooded^ 
stained with pale purple, and either entire at the margin, or very 
slightly serrated; hut it does not cover over the column, as ia 
usual in the hooded Catasetums ; on the contrary, it spreads 
away at almost right angles. The column itself is short, deep 
er«en> aad produced at the point into a straight bristle, in SsovX 



40 



THE gardenj:rs' chronicle. 



[Jan. 15, 



of which is placeda small and imperfect anther. In this raasquing 
g-enus it is impossible to say what is a species, and what is not. 
Judg'ing' by rules found good iu other genera, this is quite distinct 
from Edl species previously described ; judg:ing from the evidence 
we possess concerning' C. tridentatum, cristatum, and viride, we 
should suspect it to be a mere form of C. atratum, or some such 
species.— Bo^ Reg. 

RiciDELLA i.M.MACULATA. Spotless Stiffstalk. [Half hardi/ Bulb.) 
— Bulbs of Rigidellaimmaculata were sent to the Horticultural 
Society from Guatemala by Mr. Hartweg-. It differs from R. Hara- 
mea in having- much smaller flowers, uot spotted, and narrower 
leaves ; otherwise they are nearly the same, except that this is 
the more slender and dwarf of the two. Both are half-ha,rdy 
bulbs, requiring exactly the same management as the Tigridia, to 
■which they are very nearly alUed.— 5o?. Reg. 

H otjLL EJTi A vi TT.\TA. Striped HouUetia. {Stove Epiphyte. — 
This TWycun&fJfS' plant was received by Messrs. Loddiges from 
Mr. Schomburgk. It has the erect raceme of HouUetia Biockle- 
hurstiana, but the flowers are much smaller, form a pyramidal 
mass, and are yellow, streaked with so much deep chocolate- 
colour that the former is hardly seen except on the lip. From 
the similaritj- in habit between these plants and Maxilldria War- 
reana, one would have thought they must have belonged to the 
■amc genus, but an examination of the fructification does not 
confirm that opinion. — Bot. Reg. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

King Charles's Pear Tree. — A venerable object of 
some curiosity in Doncaster, known to several of our 
readers, has lately been doomed to fall under the stroke 
of the axe, and thus to share the fate of that unfortunate 
monarch, by whose hands, local tradition informs us, it 
was placed in the earth. — Do7icaster Gazelle. 

Grant's Patent Fuel The patent fuel of Mr. Grant is 

composed only of coal-dust and a preparation of coal-tar, 
or other bituminous material, which is converted by the 
influence of heat into a substance resembling pitch ; two 
gallons or 20 lbs. weight of this pitch (or bituminous ma- 
terial), when reduced to a liquid, are combined with 
one hundred weight of coal-dust; the composition is then 
moulded into the form of bricks, which constitutes the 
article patented by j^Ir. Grant, and patronised by Go- 
vernment. — Herts Reformer. 

■ Improvement of Irish Flax. — The following extract 
of a letter (says the Northern Whig) from an extensive 
English flax-spinning house to a respected Irish house 
has just been handed to us ; and we publish it, in the 
hope that it may serve to encourage the Northern Flax 
Society to persevere in their exertions, and stimulate 
growers to turn tlieu' attention, earnestly, to the most 
improved methods of treating the article, in preparing it 
for market : — " We are glad to see, by the Belfast papers, 
the exertions making to improve the Irish flax. We 
shall be very glad to come to your market, and be inde- 
pendent of the Continent. We see a great improvement 
in the twenty bags you sent as samples, upon that sent 
last year ; but, even yet, though very strong, it has a 
tow-like appearance, when in thread, which prevents jour 
using it, except by mixing a small proportion of it with 
Dutch, to make it take a good gloss in finishing. This, 
■which is the only defect, arises, we believe, solely from 
the improper treatment of the flax after it is pulled." — 
Londonderry Standard. 

Gigantic Turnip. — There is exhibiting, in Messrs. 
Drummond's Agricultural Museum, a white globe Tur- 
nip, which weighs '231bs., and measures 3 feet 8 inches 
round. This fine root was grown by Mr. D. M'Laren, 
on Bruce Castle farm, Carnock, Stii'lingshu'e, and is be- 
lieved to be the largest grown in this district for many 
years. — Stirling Observer. 

New Potato. — We have recently tasted a potato, sold 
by Messrs. C. and T. Chapman, market gardeners, Brent- 
ford, which seems to deserve to be made more generally 
known. In size and quality it bears much resemblance 
to young Potatoes of the best description ; and, accord- 
ing to the vendors, " no more trouble is necessary than 
in growing an ordinary crop of Potatoes ; glass is not re- 
quired to force them under ; and they will produce 
as good a crop as any border Potato known." There 
are two kinds — a round one and a kidney. It is the 
latter of which we are speaking as having proved excel- 
lent when cooked. In appearance it is very like what 
the Germans call the " Moren " Potato, and we are not 
prepared to state in what respect it differs from that va- 
riety, which is scarcely known in England. 



GARDEN MKMORANDA. 

Meltrs. Henderson 's, Pine Apple -place. — In the Orchidaceous-house 
HouUtHia Brocldehurstiana has been io fine flower ; the plant, which 
is not a Large one, has thrown up a very strong stem bearing six large 
blossoms of a rich brown colour. The singular and pretty Tricho- 
pilia tortills was also in flower, as well as a Maxilluria, apparently a 
variety of, or nearly related to, aromitica : it was dull yellow, with 
the labeUum bright orange beautifully marlted with crimson. The 
atove was greatly enlivened by some plants of Dracaena terminalis, 
whose bright crimson leaves form a good substitute for flowers at this 
season. The broad crimson bracts of Poinsi'ttia, the pretty scar- 
let star-like flowers of Euphorbia fulgens, and the brilliant blue of 
Eranthemum pulchellum made a display that at this season would 
not have been expected a few years since, — Jan. 1 1, 

Chemislry, in its application to Agriculture and Phy- 
siology. By Professor Liebig. Translated from' the 
German bv Lyon Playfair, Ph. D. 2d Edition. 8vo. 
pp. 409. Taylor and Walton, 1842. 
Having in the commencement of last year given a review 
of the firsynlition of this valuable work, accompanied by 
copiou^'^f^Jfticts, and a sketch of the view which the 
jy{^p8r^u><jEa^n of the subject, it might perhaps appear 
.-I^*^^l}DCc«3^apy.]TO^^f^lie any further observations upon it, 
""i^^ ,.«^'en thbu^tljj.?j|^tated to be an improved edition, fur- 
.; .^^f' 'thcr than to raprtrtlhat it is a woric of very great value, 
<■. /'- ,:',-: deserving most q^Wuland attentive perusal by all who 
|v^i'-' are interested in iMriculturc, and likely to lead to most 
\i _ important results, ^drawing the attention of practical 
'.■: ■ men to the sei^iicpjjf Chemistry, and pointing out to 
SP'^esaists a' ^jtliertoiCJnucli neglected, but nevertheless 



extensive and most fruitful field of inquiry. The rela- 
tion of chemistry to agriculture is, however, so new and 
so full of interest, that we shall take the opportunity of 
the publication of a second edition of Liebig's book to say 
a few words on the subject. Previously to the appear- 
ance of Liebig's " Organic Chemistry," there was no 
recently- written book on the subject which could be put 
into the hands of a practical Agriculturist that would 
give him much information of value. On the appearance 
of Liebig's book this deficiency was to some extent sup- 
plied, and it was accordingly received with the most 
general approbation, and eagerly read by a large number 
of intelligent practical men. There were some, it is 
true, who, averse to all alteration, whether improvement 
or not, set themselves against the whole subject of agri- 
cultural chemistry, and cried out against it as useless 
because it could not teach them everything. With these 
we have no sympathy. 

Such persons have an erroneous idea of chemistry 
— they seem to consider it as a mere theoretical science, 
consisting of crude and uncertain speculations, and there- 
fore unworthy of any confidence, and not to be put in 
competition with the experience of practical men. Now 
the fact is, the object of the chemist is to collect and 
arrange facts and observations, and by these means he is 
in time led to generalise or find out the laws which 
govern the processes he has been studying, Chemistry 
is by no means a theoretical science ; in fact it is the 
least so of all the sciences, for in it nothing can be pre- 
dicted, but in every step it must be the result of careful 
and repeated observation, and therefore leads to nothing 
but practical conclusions. 

The object of chemistry, therefore, is not merely to 
theorise and suggest impracticable plans for improving 
the processes of the farmer, but to collect, methodise, and, 
as far as possible, explain those processes, and the facts 
observed by practical men, on sound and rational prin- 
ciples, not according to new and uncertain theories, but 
in accordance with simple, rules deduced from attentive 
study and comparison of the results of a great multitude 
of similar operations. In doing this, the chemist or 
chemical argriculturist is led to make new experi- 
ments and observations, which, if properly conducted, well 
selected, and accurately recorded, are always valuable. 
In these experiments he cannot foretel or predict with 
certainty the results, but he can, by comparing his expe- 
riment with similar ones previously made, form some idea 
of the probable result. In so doing he theorises, or reasons 
by analogy : the result may prove the correctness or show 
the fallacy of his view, but till proved it must always be 
regarded as a mere supposition, and never for a moment 
considered as an established fact. The use of theory in 
this, as in all other sciences, is merely to assist in devising 
and making experiments. It is true that by making 
experiments at random we shall at last arrive at the truth; 
but if we for a time take up the most probable explanation 
of any subject, and then endeavour by a few appropriate 
expex'iments to ascertain whether or not it be correct, we 
shall certainly attain a satisfactory conclusion in a much 
shorter time, and with much less trouble. 

When Liebig's book was published about a year and a 
half ago in the form of a report addressed to the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and intended 
chiefly for the use of scientific men, its appearance was 
eagerly hailed by practical agriculturists, who expected to 
find in it a clear and distinct account of the great leading 
facts of agricultural chemistry, so arranged that they 
could easily understand and apply them to practical uses. 
For this purpose, however, the book was not well adapted, 
and consequently many were disappointed iu their expec- 
tations. Some believe everything iu it implicitly ; while 
others, going to the opposite extreme, doubt everything, 
and place no faith at all in the statements of its author. 
The right course to have pursued would have been some, 
where between the two ; but this, few except those who 
had already devoted a good deal of attention to the sub- 
ject would have taken. 

One of the great faults of the hook is, that the author 
does not sufficiently separate those certain and well-esta- 
blished facts which are the results of experience — whether 
deduced from the daily practice of the farmer, or from 
the smaller trials of the chemist — from the theoretical 
opinions of his own which he has advanced ; but gives to 
both the same weight and appearance of authority. 
Hence, as some of his views, which are apparently stated 
as facts, are unsupported by good evidence, and are, there- 
fore, questionable, or evidently erroneous, readers are 
led to doubt others of his statements ; and the value of 
the whole book is proportionably diminished. If we 
read it without carefully following up each train of argu- 
ment, but with a fixed conviction that everything in it is 
unquestionably true, we shall greatly mislead ourselves, 
and in place of deriving benefit from its perusal, acquire an 
imperfect and unsatisfactory knowledge of the subject : 
whilst if it is read with attention, the arguments weighed 
and examined, and the statements reviewed with caution, 
we cannot fail to be instructed and satisfied. 

It is this unfortunate style of the author which renders 
his book far less valuable than it would otherwise be to 
general readers. Those who have paid great attention to 
the subject, and are familar with the details of science, 
will readily separate the theoretical from the practical 
statements ; but the ordinary reader will be unable to 
do this, and will accordingly be led into unlimited 
belief or unlimited scepticism. 

Although we have the highest possible opinion of 
Liebig both as a chemist and likewise as a philosopher, 
and although ready to receive his views respecting the 
nourishment and growth of plants with all the respect 
due to his talents and research, we are by no m^ana 



disposed to receive them blindly or believe them implicitly, 
and we regret that it is so much the fashion at present 
amongst scientific men to follow Liebig in all things, 
adopting his views undoubted, and unquestioned. It will 
be far better to examine them practically and experi- 
mentally ; for those which are correct will then stand 
confirmed, whilst the sooner that any which are not 
correct are disproved,the better for the progr'ess of science. 

It would be impossible to give a condensed account of 
a book like Liebig's, because the matter of which it treats 
cannot be discussed in a cursory manner : if we were to go 
into the subject at all, we should be led into writing a 
commentary and taking up each head one by one — and we 
have already, in the early part of last year, given a general 
account of the work. In the second edition some attempts 
have been made to render the book more accessible to 
unleai-ned readers by a few explanatory and introductory 
observations, but still several parts are much iu need of 
being simplified. In many respects the work is consi- 
derably improved by additions and alterations, but we 
regret still to see many of those things which appeared 
objectionable in the previous edition. Thus in the 
commencement of the book it was stated that vegetable 
physiologists had " without any apparent reason" assumed 
certain positions regarding the use of Humus, and the 
office which it performs in the growth and nutrition of 
plants. Now, this statement, however it may be ap- 
plicable to German physiologists, is false when applied 
to those of this country ; and as the book was written in 
the form of a report to a British society, it would have 
been better if the author ascertained the views of British 
physiologists before he made so sweeping an accusation. 
We were both surprised and sorry to find the same 
passage unaltered by the author in the second edition. 
A note by the translator, it is true, is added, explaining 
that the statement is more applicable to German than to 
English physiologists ; but as we are not the translator, 
we shall at once say, what is perfectly true, that this as- 
sertion, and some others, are pieces of mere gratuitous 
imperthience. 

Amongst the additions to the book, the most consider- 
able are the new observations on Manures, and the sup- 
plementary chapter on Soils ; the latter principally from 
the works of Sprenge|, a laborious and zealous German 
chemist, whose writings are but little known as yet in 
this country. In the chapter on Manures much highly 
interesting matter will be found. Speaking of nitrate of 
soda, he observes, " The experiments which have hitherto 
been instituted with this manure do not wai-rant us in 
concluding with positive certainty, that it is the nitrogen 
alone to which it owes its efficacy ; but i\\^y certainly 
render this a plausible explanation of its virtues." We 
are glad to observe this doubt expressed, because we 
have always thought the action of this manure imper- 
fectly understood, and that the theories of chemists were 
somewhat questionable. As we have already said, a 
broad line of distinction must be drawn between facts 
and theories, or all will be confusion and uncertainty. 
Chemists may do much to improve Agriculture, but as 
yet they know too little of the processes of vegetation to 
enable them to explain with certainty the phenomena 
attendant on these processes ; and therefore their views 
must be brought forward as theories to be confirmed, or 
rejected by the results of experiment. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS /or Me ensum^W^eeS-. 

The wintry weather which has prevailed since our last will have 
prevented many of the operations therein recommended from being 
carried on ; nevertheless, time may have been profitably occupied out- 
of-doors in one or other of the departments of a large estabhshment, 
for a gardener will find it good policy to employ all his available 
strength in doing everything now which can he done to forward his 
•ut-work, rather than to wait for the return of more suitable weather. 
During frost, all he.aps of compost should be turned, laying the frozen 
lumps at the bottom ; and if the middle of the heap is tolerably dry, 
a good quantity might be wheeled into the potting-sheds, to be la 
readiness when wanted for use. Any rough ground-work, too, might 
be executed ; for if a little time be lost by the difficulty of breJlking up 
the frozen surface, it will be amply redeemed by the facility of 
wheeling. 

KITCHEN-GARDEN AND ORCHARD. 
In door Department. 

Pinery.— The heat of the house containing the plants whicb yoa 
are desirous of starting into fruit should be gradually raised to 10°, ia 
the course of the ensuing week, and the plants will most likely now 
require a little water at their roots. Take care that the plants so 
treated do not get too much bottom-heat. If the new lining causes 
the heat at the bottom of the pots to rise above 95°, as a precautionary 
measure it will be advisable to draw the tan partially aw-iy from the 
pots, and also to continue the temperature of the house at (J5° by 
fire-heat. The plants in all the houses had better be now examined ; 
for .as strong fires have been necessary to keep up the required tem- 
perature, some of the plants, especially those near thehe.ating appa- 
ratus, will prohably.be dry. In succession-pits heated hy dung only, 
the pLants should neither be watered nor syringed at this season. 

VlNEnv. — Four or five degrees of uninterrupted frost, ivith 
scarcely a gleam of sunshine to brighten or warm the atmosphere, is 
most unpropitious weather for forcing, and all the skill and energy 
of the gardener is requisite to counteract its withering influence. The 
most critical period of Vine forcing is when the embryo bunches are 
just beginning to develop their pedicles, and to assume the appear- 
ance of flowering organs. A sudden check or insufficient excitement 
at that stage will frequently cause aboi-tiveness, and the young bunch, 
instead of e.xpanding into blossoms, dwindles into a barren tendril. 
When signs of this are visible, the temperature should be kept 
steadily up to 70°, allowing it to rise 10 or 15 degrees by sun-heat 
rather th.an admit the external air, if cold and frosty : if, however, 
there is a considerable heat in the flues or pipes, a little air must be 
cautiously given in bright sunshine, and at .all times the atmosphere 
of the house must be kept sufficiently humid to prevent rapid evapo- 
ration by the leaves. 

Peach-house. — Do not wet the blossoms of Peach-trees ; but 
after the petals have fallen , the trees will be greatly benefited by a 
sprinkling every morning with tepid water ; or if the weather is fine 
and open, twice a day will do them good. AMiile the trees are in 
bloom, a night temperature between 50^ and b5° should be aimed at, 
with air every day, more or less according to the state of the weather. 
In very cold nights the thermometer might be permitted to fall to 45** 
in preference to wasting fuel by extraordinary, fires. Now is a good 
time, if not already done, to dress the trees in the late houses with 
the composition mentioned in p. 648 (1841). 

Cherry-house. — Trees which have been moderately excited since 
the hegianing of Dewmbet 'iviU bave begun to expwd tbeu; blossoms, 



Ji- 



V 



>-^'" 



1842.3 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



41 



and at this stage of tht^r progress a supjily of fresh air is inaispensable. 
While* the tiees are iii bV,om, do uot allow the temperature by arti- 
ficial lieat greatly to exceeAthat recommended last week. Although 
the trees would probably beat a greater heat, it would be attended 
with some risk, and it is best to keep on the safe side. - Syrinbing 
must now be iliscontiimed for a time; 

Figs.— Any pots that stand over the heating apparatus should 
have pans placed beneath them to protect the roots from too great 
heat. A better situation is the bed of fennenting dung which baa 
been recommended ip. 7nS, 1-S41| to be introduced into tho early 
Vinery ; and if the heat of this bed does not exceed lUO^, the pots 
may be partly plunged into it. 

Ouci'flinERs. — If the seed-bed already made maintains a tempera- 
ture between 100'^ and 12U° ju the body of the dung, it should be 
prepared for sowing by covering the surface regularly over with turf 
or slates, upon which six or eight inches of tine sand should be laid. 
Sow the seeds thinly in pots or pans ; or, if preferred, one seed only 
might be put into a'small pot. Plants already bedded out will pro- 
bably require the assistance of strong linings of hot dung, in which 
case they will be liable to injury by the steam finding its way into 
the frame when the lights are raised to admit air. To prevent this, 
one of the upper squares might be taken out of each light, and a 
moveable piece of wood litted into its place, which am be opened or 
closed as necessary. 

Strawbkrrv Plants in bloom must have all the air possible. 
This is esential to perfect impregnation, without which the flowers 
become what is techniciOly called " blind." The plants should also 
be regularly watered, but not over the fiowere. The temperature of 
the eai-ly Peach-house, at this season, is suitable for the Strawberry 
plant. 

■ Asparagus. — Make a succession bed to succeed that planted in 
thebeginningof the month : for this and other purposes, it is ad- 
visable always to have, at this season of the year, a substantial heap 
of dung and leaves ready mixed and prepared for immediate use. 

Peas and Beans for transplanting had better now be sown in 
boxes, pots, or any convenient substitute. They can afterwards be 
advanced or retarded as found necessary. 

Celery.— Sow a small quantity in heat for an early crop. The 
Celeri Yiolette. introduced from France by the Horticultural Society, 
and the Flat-stemmed ^^^]ite, are among the best. 

Mustard and Cress should be so\yii once or t«ice a-week, accord- 
ing to the consumption. 

Outdoor Deparfmoit. 
It will be better to suspend digging and trenching, should the 
occurrence of a thaw make such work practicable, until the frost is 
fairly out of the ground, and the surface in some degree dried. Ce- 
lerj' ground might, however, be levelled and manured; and every 
vacant comer not yet dug should have its allowance of dung wheeled 
out and spread. Pea and Kidney-bean sticks should be procured 
and pointed, tying them up in bundles according to their sizes, which 
will greatly expedite their use when wanted. See that the frost does 
not get into the fruit-room ; and examine Onions, Carrots, Beet, and 
similar stored articles. 

U.— FLOWER-GARDEN AND SHRUBBERY. 
In-door Department. 
Stove. — If the thermometer indicates 60° in the morning, it will be 
quite high enough ; or in very severe nights the temperature might be 
suffered to fall^a few degrees lower without inconvenience, provided it 
is increased to 65° or 70° during the day. During cold, sunless 
weather, the temperature should be kept as low as is consistent with 
the safety of the plants. Keep the atmosphere from getting too dry 
with so much fire-heat ; give air on tine days ; use every means to 
eradicate insects, and make preparations for potting. Euphorbia 
jacquiniflora is one of the most beautiful stove plants which flower at 
this season. 

Greenhouse and Conservatory. — Cinerarias and similar plants 
which require more pot-room might now be shifted, using plentj- of 
drainage. Verbenas, Heliotropes, and other pLants which it is in- 
tended to propagate for bedding out, should now be encouraged to 
grow, so that a plentiful supply of healthy cuttings might be obtained. 
See to the watering of Camellias and Orange-trees in the borders, aa 
the constant fire required of late may have dried the soil. 

Pits and Frames. — Every precaution must be used to keep out 
intense frost. If a remission should occur, take advantage of it to 
remove a succession of forcing plants to a warmer habitation. 
Out-door Department, 
Little can now be done with advantage in this department. Any 
condemned trees or shrubs might he felled, the stumps grubbed, and 
the tops fagotted. New beds or alterations in the form of old ones 
can be made if the frost be not too severe. 

NURSERY AND FOREST DEPARTMENT. 
Ndrserv. — Take care that tender seedlings are sufficiently pro- 
tected from frost. Guard also against the depredations of hares, 
which frequently commit great mischief during snow. 

Forest and Coppice Woods. — Felling and thinning might now 
be carried on where there is much to be done, leaving, of course, 
those trees which produce valuable bark till later in the spring. New 
ditches and drains might be dug, and dead fences made. — J. B. 
Whiting, TJie Deepdcne. 

Eebatum. — In p. 8, in the Calendar of Operations, in the article 
*• Pinerj'," for " with a bottom-heat of about 90°," read, " with a 
bottom-heat of about 80°." 



State of the Weather near Loudon for the Week ending Jan. 13, 
1842, as observed at the Horticu lura' Garden, Chiswick. 





Barom 


BTER. 


Th 


GRMOMKTKR. 


Wind. 


Rain. 


Jan. 
Friday 7 


Max. 
30.i50 


30.445 


35 


28 


Mean. 
31.5 


N.E. 






30,-110 


30.316 


r 34 


23 


81.0 


E. 




Sunday S 


30.233 


30.140 


30 


27 


28.5 


N.E. 






30.125 


311.027 


31 


25 


28.0 


S.E. 






30.007 


29984 


34 


20 


32.0 


S. 


.10 


WednesaaylS 


30.050 


£9.989 


3t> 


24 


30.0 


S. 




Thuraday 13 


29.878 


29.961 


33 


29 


31.0 


S. 


.28 


Average 


30.164 


30.123 


33.2 


27.a 


30.2 




.38 



- Jan. 7. Sharp frost J clear; cloudy; overcast; snow. 

8. Slight snow; overcast; dry air and frosty. 

9. Frosty and overcast ; snow flakes ; densely overcast, and 
very dark at night. 

10. Frosty; dry cold haze; overcast. 

11. Groundcovered with snow; slightthaw; drizzly; slightsnow. 

1'2. Overcast; clearing'; sunshine; slightly overcast at night. 

13. Snowing all day with wind from south, changing to south- 
east in afternoon. Snow nearly three inches deep all over the 
surface. 



State of the Weather at Chiswick during the last 16 years, for 
the ensuing Week ending Jan. 22, 194? 





Aver. 
Highest 
Temp. 

~39.6~ 


Aver. 
Lowest 
Temp. 


Mean 

Temp 

~34^ 


No. of 
Years in 
which it 
Rained. 


Greatest 
quantity 
otRain. 


FrevailinR Winds. 


. ■ Jan. 


Z 


5 3 




U; 2 


Sun. 16 


30.0 


9 


0.34 in. 


■1 4! 2 - 


Mun. 17 


41.1 


30.1 


35.6 


5 


0.11 


1 


4' 2 


3 


1 


o 


2, 1 


Tues. 18 


41.4 


30.8 


36.1 


9 


0.24 





3 — 




.1 


3 


4 1 


Wed. 19 


40.8 


28.6 


34-7 


B 


0.S7 


3 


2 


,1 





P 




-3 


1 


ThutB.20 


40.1 


29.3 


34-7 


4 


0.65 


o 


2 


S 




9 




9. 




Fri. 21 


43.0 


33.4 


38.2 


7 


0-31 


2 


3 







2 


? 


3 




Sat. 22 


43.6 


34.3 


38.9 


8 


0.57 


— 


1 


' 


3 


2 


5 


1 


2 



most of the Idnds in season are abundant ; many good samples of 
Ameriam New Town Pippins have an-ived. Many excellent samples 
of Fears are offered, but the kinds do not differ from those mentioned 
in a fonner Report, The supply of C'hesnuts is by no means large, 
though pretty gootl.— K(v;(7«t»/t'.v. Savoys and other Idnds of ("abbage 
are tolerably' plentiful. Broccoli, especially wliite, is scarce. Brussels 
Sprouts are' good and abundant. Forced French Beans are e.xcellent. 
Aspanigus and Sea-kate are good, and considering the seiison the 
supply has been well kept up. Most of the Lettuce are injured by the 
frost," and good ones are scarcely to be had. fiood forced Khubarb 
is plentiful. Mushrooms and Truffles are excellent and tolerably 
abundant. — Flowers dift'er but little from last week. 



PRICES, Saturda*. 
Applet, Kitchen, per bushel, 2» to 7* 

— Dessert, per bushel, 4i,tO I6( 
Pears, 'de&sett, per hal^-^ieve, 5> to 

16< 
Pine .\pple, rerlb.Si to8* 
Grapet. Spanish, per lb., U to 1« 3d 

— Fcirtu^nl.per lb., I< to 3f 
Orangei, per doz., iiJ to 2t 

— per 100, 3s 6d in Mt 

— Bitter, per 100, 6i to 12> 
Lemoni, per doz. It to 2t 

VEGET 
Hnvoys, per dozen, Gd to I* 3d 
Cabbage, White, per dozen, Sd to Ji 

— Red, for picklint;, 2* io4» 
Cabbage Plants, per doz ,3f to 5( 
Brussels Sprouts, p. hf.sve., li 6Jto3# 
Uroecoli, i\'hitc,p. bunch, 2t6d to 5* 

— Purple, U to 2i6d 
Potatoes, perton, 554 to 80* 

— puT uwt. 3i to 4» 

_ per bushel, \i6d to 2i 6d 

— Kidney, p. bush. 2* fid to 3* 
Artichokes, Jerusalem, prhaJf sieve, 

9d to 1< 6J 
Turnips, pr. dor, bunches, 2* to5« 
CarToiJi, per doz. bunches, 4» tnCt 
Parsneps, per dozen, 6d to ii6d 
Red Beet, per dozen, di to 1* 6d 
Scorzonera, per bundle. Is to U 3d 
Salsify, per bundle, Uto U 3d 
Horse Radii-h, per bundle, 2x to 5* 
Spinach, per half sieve, 2s to 3* 
Onion; , per bushel, 2( to 3j 6d 

— for pick., perhf. -sicve,3( to3(6(i 

— Spanish, per dozen, 2« to Gi 



The highest temperature during tlie above period occurred on 
the 23d, in 1834— thermometer 58° ; and tfae lowest on the night 
of the 19th and morning of the 20th, in 1838— thermometer 4^° 
below zero. 



REPORT ON COVENT GARDEX MARKET. 
For the u'cek c/iding Jan. l-ifh, 1842. 
- The weather during the week has prevented any great difference 
occurring since our last Report ; many articles are of rather indifferent 
quality, and consequently the better samples have somewhat ad- 
vanced in price. — Fruit. Pines of good quality are plentiful, and 
remain at the same price as last week. The different kinds of foreign 
Grapes are plentiful, and generally speaking pretty good. Applet of 



Jan. 15, 1843.— FRUITS:— 
Lemons, per 100, 6i to 12< 
Almonds, per peck, 7* to 8/ 
Sweet Aliiuinds, per pound. 3* 
Chesnuis, pet peck, 5( to I^j 
Walnuts, per biislicl, \2i to 24* 
Filberts, EnfjH-h, pr.lOOlbs. 120itol30f 
Cobbs, per loOlbs. 160* lo lOOl 
Nuts, per hnshel — 

— Brazil, 30* 
— . Spanish, 16* 

— Barcelona,tSOj to Sii 
ABLES. 

Leeki, per dozen bunches, 1* to I* 6d 

Garlic, perlb., 8d 

Shallots, per lb., 1* 

Asparagus, per ipo.IatRc, 9* loll* 

— Second or iHiddlinj;, 4* 

— Sprue, or Small, 3f 6d 
Sea-kale, per punnet, l* to 3* 
Lettuce, Cabbage, per score, Od to 1* 

— Cos, per score, 2* 
Endive, perscore, 2« to 3s Cd 
Celery, Red, p. bdle( 12 to 15) 6iiol*erf 

— White, per bundle, Cdto 1* 
Small Salads, per punnet, 3d 
Watercre»s,p.dz.Bmall bunch. Sd\.o9d 
Parsley, per half sieve, 2* to3« 
Tarragon, per dozen bunches, C* 
Fennel, per dozen bunches, 4s to 6* 
Thyme, per doz, bunches, 2* 
Sage, per doz- bunches, 3* 
Mint, per doz. biinches.h* to 8* 
Savory, per dozen bunches, 2/ 
Rhubarb Stalk:-, per bundle, 1* to 1j 9J 
^lushrooms, per pottle, 1* 3d to 2s 
TrufBes, per pound, 2* to 3^ 



Notices to Correspondents. 

The Publisher will be happv to give half-price for any copies of 
Ko. 9. Feb. 27, 1841. 

A Gardener wi'ites thus: — ** Everybody must have obsen-ed how 
much trees of all sorts, particularly Beech-trees, are apt to destroy 
the vegetation below their bouglis ; and the more so if their boughs 
are suffered to trail on or near the ground. Indeed, at this season 
of the year the beauty of our gardens is very much impaired by the 
large bare spots which disfigure them ; sometimes a little moss grows, 
but oftener nothing at all. Is there any remedy for this ? I remem- 
ber to have seen, some years ago, in an horticultural publication, this 
subject treated, and wood-ashes were recommended to be scattered 
under the trees. Has this ever been tried — and ^-ith what success ? 
or is there any plan that you would recommend as likely to obnate 
this defect ? [The cause of Grass perishing under trees is partly be- 
cause the soil is e.\hausted by the roots of the trees, so as to be 
unable to bear herbage, and partly because of the obstruction of light, 
without which Grass cannot thrive. AVe are not aware what the 
effect would be of wood-ashes ; but, as they are a powerful manure, 
they would doubtless repair the evil to a certain extent. They, how- 
ever, like nitrate of soda and similar agents, can only renovate the 
soil. , The injury derived from want of Ught can only be repaired by 
removing the cause; that is, by cutting away the branches that 
obscure the Grass.] 

If E. R. ^Yill forward us a post-office order for 26s., we will take 
care he has the Paper for twelve months without further charge. 

L. T. E. — "We really do not see how the method of growing Hya- 
cinths in Beet-roots can be made clearer. The apex of the root is to 
be cut off, and the bulb is to be inserted in a hollow scooped in the 
section. The leaves will then be downwards, the root being inverted ; 
and when they push, they will turn upwards. — See Sir. M'Nab's 
curious paper on inverted plants in the Chronicle for 1S41, p. 532. 

* H. *, Leiecstcr. — This has been accidentally overlooked. — AVe do 
not approve of remo\ing Gesneras to a cool greenhouse when they 
are resting during winter. It is much the best plan to put them out 
of the way on a shelf in the dry stove and to keep them diy. Gene- 
rally they will not grow much in this situation until spring, when they 
can be taken down, repotted, and liberally supplied with water. Your 
Ipomcea Learii blooms late ; it ought to be resting now and started 
as early in spring as possible. It is a chance if your Ipomaa Hors- 
fallise ever forms buds ; you should gi-aft it. AVe confess we are not 
very sanguine about success attending keeping either stove or green- 
house plants planted out in the border of a house which is kept very 
cold during winter and then used for forcing A'ines aftenvards. Any 
plants you may use for this pm-pose should be only things which you 
can afford to throw away every year or two. To those you have you 
may add Abutilon striatum, Fuchsia corj-mbiflora, Amphicome ar- 
guta, Geissomeria longiflora, Aphelandra cristata, Clivia nobilis, 
Strelitzia humilis ; but we do not say you iHU succeed. 

A. V. — The Apple mth the remarkably knobby, rugged, and 
thickly russeted surface is in the collection of the Horticultural So- 
ciety, under the name of Winter Apple. A fruit of the same sort 
was received from a place eight miles east of Gravesend, where it was 
called by the natives " Old Maids." 

A Constant Reader. — Your Pears are — No. 1, Jean de Witte ; 2, 
Bishop's Thumb ; 3, a crisp-fleshed Pear, unlmown ; 4, Bezi de 
Caissoy. Apples— No. 5, Pearson's Plate; G, Coe's Golden Drop; 
7, Court of AVick ; S, Orange Pippin. 

An Amateur, York. — Presuming that the wood of your Vines is 
sufficiently ripened, there is no danger of its being injured^from ex- 
posure to the cold of any ordinary winter in this climate. Previously 
to forcing, however, you cannot be too ciirefulin protecting the steun 
and roots. Strawben^' pots do not require to be placed in saucers. 

A. R. — Your Apple is the Blenheim Pippin. 

No Steel Pen will change his name if he uses Charles Knight's, 
which are the best that are manufactured, although odd-looldng ; 
they can be had at 22, Ludgate-street, London. The only bulbs that 
will blossom in August and September are such as the varieties ot 
Colchicum and Gladiolus, the Autumnal Squill, the Yellow Ama- 
r^'llis, the Saffron Crocus, and the Tigridia ; of these the tender 
kinds may be planted in the spring when the frosts are gone, and th« 
others as soon as the present frost is broken up. If you now plant 
those which should have been in the ground two months ago, they 
will blossom, but not quite so well. AH Uoses will strike frorn 
cuttings ; but the varieties of GaUica, Provins, Damask, and Hun- 
dred-leaved not so well as others. If cuttings of them are placed 
under handglasses in September, and left there all winter, many will 
strike in the ensuing spring. The Chrysosplenium is the Golden 
Saxifrage, a little plant found in damp places and by rills, common 
in some parts of England, but not found in others. 

If Mr. Forbes will send us the garden-pot he speaks of as an 
effectual protection against slugs and snails, we shall be happy to pub- 
lish an account of it. 

Flora. — AVe fear your plan No. 1 will not answer. Tery littl* 
bottom-heat is required for a consen-atory, and, even if you did not 
dry your soil by the underground pipes you propose to employ, you 
would certainly force your plants into growth at a period when you 
should only maintain a sufficient temperature to e.xclude frost. \\'e 
prefer your plan No. 2, mth the pipes ne.xt the wall; they will do 
the plants no harm, for we presume you do not intend to maintain a 
high temperature, and they will secure the warming of the air next 
the glass walls, which is important. Probably, however. No. 3 would 
do if you prefer the arrangement of pipes under the walks. 

W. B. asks why Cereus grandiflorus only flowers during night. AVe 
will answer him by inquiring why pheasants roost at night and owls 
by day ? or why Cherries are red and Medlars brown ? A\Tio knows ? 

C. S. C, — It would be well that the coping should overhang the wall 
two iaciies oy tlieieabouts, ai^d tliat it should liave a groove parallel 



with the edge ; otherwise the rain will run down the face of the 
wall. There is no advantage in building a wall hollow, except the 
cheapness of it. Your spaces are well calculated. 

T. S. P. — Good gardeners will produce excellent fruit upon dwarf 
Apples by various kinds of management. AVe dislike the espalier 
because of the expense of stakes, and prefer the common dwarf. 
Although a tree has been prepared for an espalier for a year or two, 
we should alter it again, which may be easily done by judicious 
pruning and by tying the shoots to a hoop. The largest growing 
Apples may be kept in bounds by summer pruning, that is, by pinch- 
ing the shoots in the summer when three-quarters gi'own. Heliotropes 
should be headed back just when they are beginning to grow. 

A .*<uhscriber, Dcconport, who asks us to publish some sketches 
of the manner of pruning and training fruit-trees, is informed that 
our excellent contributor" M. E. H." has undertaken to furnish them. 

E. li. — AVe anticipate little success in sending cuttings of fruit- 
trees to South Australia ; the voyage is too long for them to survive. 
If it is to be done at all, they should be despatched in October, packed 
in slightly damp Moss in a box buried in charcoal cased over. But 
there is in truth no object in sending cuttings of fruit-trees to distant 
colonies. The seeds will go safely, and without expense, and they 
will, if carefully selected, produce excellent varieties, though not 
exactly the same as the original. AAHiat does it matter whether a 
Peach is a Royal George, or something a little different, but just as 
good ? 

R. B. next week. 

A. jr. — In London, gypsum is sold by drj-salters. If you saturate 
it with the ammoniacal liquor of the gas-worlis, you will, no doubt, 
form a valuable manure ; but it will be ver>' different from saturating 
it with urine. The latter would certainly be the most efficient. In 
either case, the only direction to be given will be to use plenty of gyp- 
sum, and not to discontinue adding it till the fluid matter ceases to 
exhale all odour of ammonia. AVe shall soon take tliis subject up 
more formally. 

A. M.—The following Auriculas will suit your purpose ; they may 
be obtained at very moderate prices, and the list contsins a good 
variety. The other request in your letter shall receive attention. 



White ediied. 
Hughes' Pillar of Beauty 
Leigh's Bright Venus 
Popplewell's Conqueror 
Taylor's Glory 

Incomparable 

Simson'a Lord of Hallamshire 

Self. 
Burj's Lord Primate 
Grimes' Flora's Flag 
AMiittaker's True Blue 
Scholes' Ned Lud 



G^rccn-edgcd. 

Pearson's Badajoz 

Beeiie's Superb 

Smith's AVaterloo 

Thornicroft's Invincible 

AV arris "sBlucher 

Page's Duchess of Oldenburg 
Greif edged. 

Grimes' Privateer 

Metcalfe's Lancashire Hero 

Kenyon's Ringleader 

Oliver's Lovety Ann 

Taylor's Ploughboy 

Page's Lord Hill 

C. D.'s plant seems only Gesnera bulbosa. It appears verj- healthy ; 
we see no sign of the blight mentioned in our correspondent's letter, 

John Ei/le's plants are— 1, Podolobium staurophyllum ; 2, ilici- 
f6Uum ; 3, trilobatum. 

A Lady of Fortune.— The last edition of Sweet's " Botanical Cul- 
tivator " will best suit your purpose. 

J. G. — A'ou had better return your plant of Luculia gratissima to 
the house from whence you took it, unless your greenhouse is kept 
warmer than such places generally are. A temperature from 45^ to 
50° would suit it. It will gi'ow luxuriantly in a very cold conserN-a- 
torj' if planted out, but it does not seem to like such a dry, cold 
place, if grown in a pot. It is best propagated by layers, but it will 
also strike from cuttings. They should be taken off in summer, put 
out in the usual way, and covered with a bell-glass. Keep them in a 
place which is rather cool. 

A Young Lady. — Thunbergia coccinea in many places does not 
bloom freely, and it is rather difiicult to give a reason for it. If your 
plant is growing luxuriantly, you may tr>- what eftect would be pro- 
duced upon it by root-pruning. Echites suberecta is more easily 
managed. Plant "it in a large pot or box amongst free soil, and keep 
it in the lightest part of the stove ; or if you have convenience, you 
may plant it out in the comer of a tan-pit, and train it up the raiters 
near the glass. It likes bottom heat. 

il/r. Newman's letter was received too late for this week. 

Flora. — AVe have seen a few seeds upon both Ipomcea Learii and 
Sellowii, but neither produces them freely. 

As usual, many letters have arrived much too late for answers this 
week. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 

The foreign relations of France, and particularly the 
questions of diplomatic etiquette, which have arisen with 
the Courts of Madrid and St. Petersburg, are still the 
leading subjects of interest in our news from Paris. The 
dispute with Spain has assumed so serious an aspect, that 
the French ambassador is said to have left Madrid, not- 
withstanding the conciliatory instructions of his Govern- 
ment ; his departure has given rise to much apprehension, 
and although it is not regarded as indicating the proba- 
bility of a war, it is expected to suspend the diplomatic 
relations between the two countries during the minority 
of the Queen. The differences with the Cabinet of St. 
Petersburg arise out of the alleged withdrawal of the 
Russian Ambassador from Paris, in order that he should 
not be the organ of the diplomatic body in compli- 
menting the King on New Year's day ; and they have 
since been aggravated by the absence of the French 
Minister from the Russian Court, under ciixumstances so 
similar, as to suggest the idea of a reprisal. These diplo- 
matic quarrels are regarded with dissatisfaction by the 
leading j ournals, even of the Court party, and are described 
as unworthy the dignity of two powerful nations ; while the 
Opposition papers receive them as additional proofs of the 
unfriendly feelings with which France is still regarded by 
the Great Powers, notwithstanduig the convention which 
restored her to the European alUance. At the recent 
sittings of the Coui-t of Peers, the commutation of the 
sentence on^Quenisset and his accompUces has been for- 
mally announced, and the debates on the address in reply 
to the King's Speech Inp'e been carried on without much 
show of opposition. I'he release of the Abbe de Lamenais 
after a year's imprisonment for sedition, has been made 
the grounds of a public manifestation against the Govern- 
ment ; several of the ringleaders were aixested diu-ing 
the procession, but the populace appear to have evinced 
no sympathy with the movement, and order was soon 
restored. — Our intelligence from Spain confirms the 
announcement of the French papers that the Government 
have refused the demands of the French Ambassador : 
the JIadrid Journals state that every concession consistent 
with the national dignity has been made, but that the Am- 
bassadoi' persisted iu his rei'usal to deliver hia credentials 



42 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jaw. 15, 



to the Regent, because the latter represented tlie Govern- 
ment, and not the majesty of the Throne. The Committee 
charged with drawing up the address in answer to the 
Regent's speech are still occupied with that duty ; and the 
Chamber of Deputies have been engaged in the consider- 
ation of the various decrees issued by the Government 
during the late recess. — From Portugal we learn that the 
Cortes were opened on the 2d inst. by commission. The 
royal speech, read by the President of the Council, recom- 
mended to the Chambers the discussion of the budget, 
the organisation of the public finances, and the adoption 
of new measures for promoting the prosperity of the co- 
lonies, after which the Chambers were adjourned till, the 
21st Feb.— Letters from Vienna state that Prince Jlet- 
ternich has announced to the Porte that the great Powers 
will not allow the contemplated attack of the Turldsh 
Government upon Greece. Advices from Athens inform 
us that the king has not yet returned a reply to the note 
addressed to him by the representatives of the three 
protecting Powers respecting the complaints of Tur- 
kev against his Government ; and recent despatches from 
Constantinople, which have reached us tlirough Vienna, 
announce that the Porte has given notice to the Ambas- 
sadors that if within fourteen days the Greek Government 
did not comply with all their just demands, the Sultan 
was determined to have satisfaction by force of arms. 
We learn, also, that the Divan contemplates the appro- 
priation of the church property by the state, for the pur- 
pose of being sold or let on lease to purchasers or tenants 
without distinction of creed, — a scheme originating with 
the late Sultan, and requiring as much energy as his other 
great reforms, which constitute so remarkable an epoch 
in the historj- of the empire. — The news from the United 
States is chiefly confined to the proceedings of Congress, 
and to matters of domestic interest. The recent affair of 
the Creole slaver which the s'aves after murdering their 
OK-ner carried into one of the West India Islands, where 
they were allowed to go at liberty — and the question of 
the right of search, form the'leading topics of discussion ; 
the journals are unanimous in maintaining that the 
Federal Goverrmient must never concede that right to 
Great Britain or to any other maritime Power. 

At home, the only subject requiring especial notice is 
the approaching christening of the Prince of Wales. 
The Lord Chamberlain has issued invitations, to those 
personages who will be present at the ceremony, for Tues- 
day, the 25th inst. ; and the King of Prussia is expected 
to arrive at Windsor Castle in the course of the ensuing 
week. — In anticipation of the meeting of Parliament on 
Thursday, the 3d Feb., Sir R. Peel has issued the usual 
Ministerial Circular to the Consen'ative Members, re- 
questing their attendance on that day, and announcing 
that " public business of importance will be immediately 
proceeded with." 

CotJRT. — Her Majesty, Prince Albert, the Prince of 
Wales, and the Princess Royal, all continue well. The 
Queen and Prince Albert left Windsor Castle for Clare- 
mont on Tuesday, where her Majesty has remained a few 
days, and was to return to Windsor again this day. The 
Prince of Wales and the Princess Royal did not accom- 
pany her Majesty, but continued at the Castle. The 
Court Circular announces that the Lord Chamberlain 
has, by her Majesty's command, issued cards of invita- 
tion to the leading nobility for the approaching so- 
lemnity of the christening of the Prince of Wales at 
St George's Hall. The day of the christening is now 
announced to be definitively fixed for the 2-Sth inst. ; 
and the King of Prussia will embark at Ostend for this 
country on the evening of Thursday neit. His Excel- 
lency the Chevalier Bunsen will repair to Ostend to 
receive his Sovereign. His Majesty wiU proceed to 
Windsor immediately on his landing, which may be ex- 
pected to take place in the course of Friday. 

The Queen Dowager. — The accounts received respect- 
ing the health of her Majesty the Queen Dowager con- 
tinue to be favourable. The latest intelligence from Sud- 
bury Hall announces that her ilajesty is so much better, 
that she contempUtes returning to London at a very early 
period ; that orders have already been issued for making 
preparations for her Majesty's departure ; and that the 
21st iust. is the day fixed, according to present arrange- 
ments, for her Majesty's return to Marlborough-house. 

Parliamenlary Movements. — Mr. Wolverley Attwood 
and ilr. Colquboun having declined coming forward to 
contest the representation of the City of Dublin, Mr. 
Gregory has announced himself as the Candidate on the 
Conservative interest. — A requisition, it is said, is in 
cotirse of signature, inviting Sir R. R. Vyvyan, Bart., 
the present member for Helston, to become a candidate 
on the Conservative interest for the western division of 
Cornwall, vacant by Lord Boscawen Rose's accession to 
the peerage on the death of his father, the Earl of Fal- 
mouth ; and it is also stated that Sir Charies Lemon, 
Bart., the late member, will come forward to contest the 
county on the Liberal interest. — The decease of the late 
Earl of Elgin, by which Lord Bruce, M.P. for South- 
ampton, succeeds to the .Scottish peerage, having occa- 
noned a vacancy in the representation of that town, Mr. 
H. Mildmay, son-in-law of Lord Ashburton, has an- 
nounced himtelf as a Candidate on the Conservative in- 



terest. — The local papers contain a letter from Mr. 
Dawson to the electors of Devonport, resigning any 
future claim to the representation of that borough. 

Church Preferment. — The death of Dr. Shuttleworth, 
Bishop of Chichester, which took place after a short ill- 
ness on Friday, the 7th inst., has occasioned a vacancy in 
that see. Mr. Anderson and Dr. French are spoken of 
as hkely to fill the vacant bishopric. — The Archbishop of 
Dublin has committed the care of the united dioceses of 
Ferns and Ossory, until the appointment of a bishop, to 
the Rev. H. Newland, D.D., Dr. Pack, and Archdeacon 
Stopford. The latter is mentioned as likely to be the 
new bishop. 

Official Appointments. — It is stated that the Marquis 
of Exeter will be appointed Lord-lieutenant of the county 
of Northampton, in the place of the late Earl of West- 
morland ; and that Mr. G. Finch will be the new Lord- 
lieutenant of Rutlandshire, vacant by the Marquis of 
Exeter's new appointment. — Mr. Justice Bosanquet, in 
consequence of continued ill health, has sent in his re- 
signation to the Lord Chancellor. His Lorship's suc- 
cessor, as one of the Judges of the Common Pleas, is not 
yet known ; but Mr. Serj. Merewether, Mr. Law, Re- 
corder of London, and Mr. Serj. Goulburn, are mentioned 
as likely to be raised to the bench. 



^foreign. 

France. — Foreign Relations. — The foreign relations 
of the country, more especially with the Courts of Madrid 
and St. Petersburg, continue to be the leading topics of 
interest discussed by the journals. With respect to the 
first, viz., the difference that has arisen on the point of 
etiquette between the French Ambassador and the Spanish 
Cabinet, there appeared to be an impression in Paris on 
Monday that the matter in dispute would be amicably ad- 
justed ; and the Journal des Debats, in a long article on 
the subject, announced that a courier had been despatched 
from the Foreign Office, with conciliatory instructions to 
M. de Salvandy, adding that it was believed that the Am- 
bassador would not leave Madrid. The actual state of the 
question, however, does not appear to be considered satis- 
factory by the Opposition papers ; not, they say, that a war 
between the two countries is to be regarded as probable, 
but because the withdrawal, of the French Minister on 
such a ground would, they fear, suspend, during the mi- 
nority of Queen Isabella at least, the diplomatic relations 
between the two countries. The differences with the 
Court of St. Petersburg, already referred to, also con- 
tinue to occupy attention, and appear to be generally at- 
tributed to the withdrawal of Count Pahlen, the Russian 
Ambassador, from Paris ; in order, as it is stated, that he 
should not be the organ of the diplomatic body in compli- 
mentiug the King on New Year's day ; and also to the 
absence of his representative from the Tuileries on the 
same occasion. The Journal des Debats, in an article on 
this subject, expresses a hope that the French Charge 
d' Affaires at St. Petersburghhadnot. as stated, purposely 
absented himself from Court on the Emperor's birthday, 
in reprisal for the withdrawal of Count Pahlen from 
Paris, and proceeds to say that it " cannot understand a 
war of such a kind between two powerful nations. If 
France deems herself affronted by the proceedings of the 
Russian Cabinet, she can, as is competent to her, withdraw 
her agents from Russia ; but two great Governments never 
engage in a struggle of this irritating and illnatured sort. 
If they do not wish to plunge into a war and exchange 
cannon shots, they will not engage in a conflict of etiquette, 
and will not contend by attacks and retorts as ridiculous 
as impotent." The article concludes by " recommending 
that if the diplomatic relations between the two countries 
cannot be preserved on terms of reciprocal courtesy, it 
would be better to break them off altogether, as an open 
rupture would be less dangerous for peace than envenomed 
diplomacy." The Opposition papers also recommend 
Government to take high ground in this dispute, and en- 
deavour to draw as a conclusion from the affair, that not- 
withstanding the Convention of the 13th July, restoring 
France to the European concert, she is still regarded with 
unfriendly feelings by the other great Powers. 

The Chambers. — The Court of Peers assembled- on 
Saturday, when the President read a letter from the Mi- 
nister of Justice, announcing, as anticipated in our last, 
that the King had been pleased to commute the sentence 
of death, pronounced by the Court against Quenisset, 
Colombier, and Just Brazier; and that the first was to 
be banished for ever, and the two others condemned to 
hard labour for life. The commissioners appointed to 
draw up the address in reply to the King's Speech met on 
the same day to hear the explanations of the Ministers of 
Commerce and Marine, who, it is stated, are not disposed 
to second the views of Government in its objects of inter- 
nal improvement. On Tuesday, the debate commenced 
on the Address, which contains one passage relative to 
commercial relations, in the form of an amendment, and 
is directed against the conclusion of the treaty with Bel- 
gium. The Prince of Moskwa, Marshal Ney's son, 
opened the debate. He entered, at length, into the East- 
ern Question and the Convention of the 15th July, con- 
tending that the isolation of France, from which in conse- 
quence of that Convention she had departed, was an ab- 
solute necessity for her national honour and interests, and 
that some striking reparation ought to have been obtained 
before that isolation was abandoned. Upon these grounds 
he opposed the Address. The Marquis Boissy spoke in 
favour of it, and attacked the conduct of Spain towards 
France, accusing the former of ingratitude. In the course 
of his speech he made use of strong terms in reference to 
the Regent, which called up M. Guizot, who protested 
against the word " executioner " being applied to the 



Regent-of Spain, who was the present depository of the 
Royal power in a country with which France was at peace. 
M. Boissy then withdrew the words. M. Dumon, said 
to be a friend of M. Guizot, has been appointed reporter 
of the Commission of the Address in the Chamber of De- 
puties. It was expected that the Address would be ready 
by about Friday (yesterday), and that the debate would 
begin on Monday next. 

The Capital. — On Friday morning, the 7th inst., se- 
veral manuscript placards were affixed to the walls of the 
Schools of Medicine and Law, caUing on the students to 
make a manifestation on the Abbe de Lamenais coming out 
of prison after a year's confinement for sedition. These 
placards were removed by order of the authorities ; but 
about one o'clock, from 400 to 500 students assembled in 
a body, and marching four abreast, proceeded first to the 
Foreign Office, where they e.xhibited considerable feeling 
against the Foreign Minister, uttering cries of " Down 
with Guizot ! " and singing the Marseillaise Hymn. They 
then proceeded to the house of M. de Lamenais, where a 
deputation was sent in to congratulate him on his release, 
after which M. de Lamenais made his appearance at the 
balcony, and was loudly cheered. At this moment a detach- 
ment of troops of the line, headed by two Commissaries 
of Police, made its appearance, and the mob resumed its 
march on its return to the neighbourhood of the schools. 
Some demonstration of hostility was again displayed on 
passing the Foreign Office and Chamber of Peers ; and 
on arriving at the office of the Journal du Peuple, they 
stopped some time, shouting in favour of M. Dupoty. 
Having returned to the Place du Pantheon, they appeared 
inchned to remain there, and began again to sing the 
Marseillaise ; but a detachment of the Municipal Guard, 
headed by a Commissary of Police, came up and dispersed 
them. Several persons, students and workmen, who had 
made themselves prominent by their shouts and turbu- 
lence, were arrested at various points, and conveyed to 
prison. The population, throughout the entire line tra- 
versed by the procession, seem to have evinced no sym- 
pathy with this demonstration, and in the evening every- 
thing was again quiet in the Capital.— The weather in 
Paris has become very severe, and the latest accounts in- 
form us that the intensity of the cold was increasing. The 
Seine was nearly covered over with floating ice, and would, 
it was expected, should the frost continue, be soon com- 
pletely frozen over. The canals of St. Denis and St. 
Martin are entirely frozen, and skaiting has begun on them. 
The thermometer (Centigrade) marked 9 degrees below 
zero on Friday night, the 7th inst. ; on the following night 
it was still lower ; and on Sunday the temperature is said 
to have been so low as 18 degrees of Fahr., or 14 below 
the freezing point. The sky, however, was clear, with 
little or no wind. Most of the mail-coaches had been de- 
tained considerably after their usual time, in consequence 
of heavy falls of snow in the provinces. — It is rumoured 
that the King of Prussia will stop in Paris a short time on 
his return to Berlin from London. — It has just been de- 
cided by one of the Parisian tribunals that the tenant of a 
house with a garden attached to it can demand the can- 
celling of his lease if, the trees in the said garden being 
planted too near the property of the next-door neighbour, 
the latter should order them to be cut down, and that ha 
can claim damages as well. 

The Army. — The journals have recently made frequent 
reports of the capital conviction of soldiers by Court 
Martial in Paris, for assaults on their superiors— facts 
which appear to be regarded by them as indicating a state 
of increasing disorganisation in the army. On Sunday, it 
appears, according to an article in the National, that a 
pitched battle took place near the Champs de Mars, be- 
tween the soldiers of two regiments, forming part of the 
garrison of the capital. The combatants are said to have 
been 2,000 in number, and were armed for the greater 
part with sabres, the rest with stakes or bludgeons, and 
not only resisted and treated with contempt their officers, 
who threw themselves between them to induce them to 
desist, but disarmed the pickets of troops sent to restore 
order, and continued their conflict until compelled to leave 
off by sheer fatigue. A great number were severely 
wounded, and the affair caused lively alarm in the neigh- 
bourhood of the fight. The journal by which this ac- 
count is given, adds that the'conflict was renewed on the 
two following days ; but its final result is not stated. 

Political Trials. — M. Lenormand, ex-commissary of 
police at Toulouse, who was tried and acquitted on a charge 
of participating in the late riots of that city, has been or- 
dered to be prosecuted for corruption and mal-practices in 
the discharge of his functions. The charges against him, 
however, are said not to be heavy. The Court of Assizes 
of the Bouches du Rhone has just decided, without the 
intervention of a jury, that all the persons impHcated in 
the late republican movement at La ViUette, near Mar- 
seilles, who have not surrendered themselves for trial, 
shall be Uable to deportation. One of these individuals, 
named Deschamps, who has been pointed out as the chief 
of the plot, has been recently arrested at Toulon. One of 
the companions of Barbes, named Bourdon, condemned to 
imprisonment by the Court of Peers in the fort of St, 
Michel, has become insane, and been removed to the Lu- 
natic Asylum of Po^Jprson. This, it seems, is the third 
case of insanity, besides one of suicide, that has occurred 
among the prisoners convicted with Barbes for the attempt 
on the King, in the space of 15 months ; and all, it is 
stated, have been brought about by the infliction of the 
solitary regimen. It is said that the individuals lately ar- 
rested on the denunciation of Colombier and Brazier will 
not be tried by the Court of Peers ; that several have been 
or were shortly to be released ; and that the others will 
stand their trial before the ordinary tribunals. A file- 
maker, named Choquin, jwas arrested on Saturday under a 



I 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



43 



warrant from the Chancellor, ami conducted to the prison 
of the LuxembourgjSupposed tobe implicated in the attempt 
of Qucnisset. The members of the bar of Colmar have 
entered a protest against the sentence pronounced by the 
Court of Peers in the case of M. Dupoty, and forwarded it 
to the chairman of the bar of Paris. 

Spain. — The quarrel of etiquette between M. Salvandy 
and the Cabinet still continues. The latter, according to 
the Madrid journals, had made every concession consist- 
ent with the national dignity, in order to accommodate 
matters, but was still determined not to concede the point 
claimed by the French Ambassador. Private letters state 
that a last expedient, proposed by JI. Gonzalez, Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, and which consisted in M. Salvandy's 
presenting his credentials by duplicates — one to the 
Regent, and the other tot he Queen in presence of the 
Regent — had been rejected ; and Government refusing to 
give up the principle, the plan had been abandoned. M. 
Salvandy, it is added, insisted on delivering his letters to 
the Queen in presence of the Regent, because the latter 
represents the Government, and not the Majesty of the 
throne. It was deemed probable that M. Salvandy, on 
receipt of the new instructions, forwarded to him from Pa- 
ris, which he was expected to receive on the 10th inst., 
would address an ultimatum to the Spanish Cabinet, and 
set out for France, leaving a mere Charge' d'Affaires in his 
place. Notwithstanding, however, this impression pre- 
vailed in Madrid, it will be seen, under our French 
intelligence, that in Paris hopes were entertained that 
the dispute would be amicably arranged ; at the same 
time it appears that in the latter capital, the reason for 
these hopes was grounded on the expectation that the Re- 
gent would give way ; while, in Madrid, the impression 
was equally strong that no arrangement would be come 
to, unless the French Ambassador made the conces- 
sion. The Committee charged with drawing up the Ad- 
dress in answer to the Regent's Speech met, under the 
presidency of M. Olozaga, on the "2d inst. , and came to an 
understanding upon every paragraph of that document. 
The article relative to the events of Barcelona slightly 
blames the conduct and acts of Government on that occa- 
sion ; but as Ministers were yet to be heard, the Commit- 
tee was not expected to terminate its labours for seven or 
eight days longer. The Chamber of Deputies sat on the 
3d, and had fairly entered into business, three decrees 
having been formally laid before them for their consider- 
ation. The first, declaring the coast of Cantabria in a 
state of blockade during the insurrection of the Basque 
provinces, is now out of date ; the second, declaring all 
the officials who recognised the rebel Government esta- 
blished in Vittoria to be set aside, was expected to give 
rise to considerable discussion, in consequence of the pre- 
tensions of numbers of the dismissed to be considered in- 
nocent. The third is regarded as the most interesting of 
all— viz. " the suspension of the payment of the dowry of 
the Queen-Mother, Maria Christina." The question of 
the confirmation of this decree will, it is thought, bring 
to light all the yet hidden documents connected with the 
lubject, and afford the Ministry an opportunity of vindi- 
cating the policy which they are now pledged to pursue 
with respect to her Majesty. The greater part of the 
sitting was occupied in the discussion of the report on tlic 
individual members subject to re-election, inconsequenceof 
having received employment or honours from Government. 
An order had been sent by the Regent to Ferrol for a 
frigate to put to sea without delay. Her destination 
was said to be Havannah, but she was previously to call 
at Cadiz to take troops on board. Advices from Alicant 
state that tranquillity had been completely restored in that 
city, and that the municipal elections, having been re- 
sumed on the 27lh ult., were quietly proceeding " under 
the protection of a body of 300 infantry and 30 cavalry." 
Two individuals implicated in the recent riots had been 
apprehended ; and an oil-vendor, who had entered the 
Political Chief's house with the intention of murdering 
him, bed likewise been arrested. Accounts from Bay- 
onne, of the 3rd inst., state that Don Antonio Galiano, 
who bad been obliged to &y from Bilboa after the repres- 
sion of the Christino revolt in Navarre and the Basque 
provinces, had arrived on the French territory, after wan- 
dering for two months in the mountains of Biscay and 
Guipuzcoa. — We learn, by subsequent intelligence from 
Madrid of the 5th inst., that M. de Salvandy had made 
alibis preparations to quit that city on the following day 
with all the attaches of the embassy, and that he would 
leave only a person to sign passports. It is added, that 
Mr. Aston, the British Minister, had exerted all his in- 
fluence to eff'ect an arrangement of the differences be- 
tween M. de Salvandy and the Spanish Government, but 
Ineffectually. 

Portugal. — TVe have received intelligence from Lisbon 
to the 3d inst., which is of more than ordinary interest. 
The Cortes were opened, pro forma, on the 2d inst., by 
commission, but with a Royal Speech, which was read by 
the President of the Council. The chief points recom- 
mended by it to the Chambers for their especial consider- 
ation, are the discussion of the budget, and the organisa- 
tion of the public finances ; and new measures for pro- 
moting the prosperity of the Colonies are also stated to 
be urgently required. After the Speech had been read, 
the Chambers were adjourned till the 21st Feb. Govern- 
ment had concluded an important financial transaction, to 
effect which the Bank of Lisbon, the tobacco contractors, 
and the Confianga company of capitalists had joined in 
forming a new association, under the name of " Company 
of National Credit." This company was to advance 
1,000 contos of reis (230,000/.) in money, viz. 500 in the 
next three months, and 500 more in three months after- 
wards, in case the Cortes should have previously author- 
ised the present operation.^ Government, it_is said, would 



also virtually receive another advance of COO contos, as 
the bank had discounted to that amount for officers' pay, 
!jiC, which Government was liable to repay the bank out 
of the current revenues, and for which the latter will now 
receive inscriptions. The company was further to pur- 
chase the outstanding arrears, to the amount of -1,100 
contos of reis ; and also to purchase 2,000 contos of the 
foreign Five per Cent. Stock, with the corresponding 
coupons, and to receive for all these amounts inscriptions 
at 5 per cent, interest, according to a scale mentioned in 
the contract, payable by the Board of Public Credit, by 
funds set aside from the revenues derived from the tobacco 
contract. The total amount of inscriptions to be issued 
would amount to 7,520 contos of reis. Government was 
to commence cash payments to all classes of officials from 
the 1st Jan. The Prince de Joinville had left Lisbon for 
Toulon. There had been a review of the garrison during 
the Prince's stay, who had been with the King to Cintra 
and Mafra, and the French Minister gave a ball on the 
eve of the Prince's departure. 

Germany. — We have received German'papers of recent 
dates, but they contain little of importance ; the Stutt- 
gardt journals announce that the Count de Medem, Rus- 
sian Ambassador to the Court of Wirtemberg, has been 
appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to the Court of Austria, and is to be replaced at 
Stuttgardt by Count Gortschakoff. It is stated that Prince 
Metteruich has forwarded to the Turkish Minister for 
Foreign Affairs at Constantinople a strong note, in which 
he states that the Powers of Europe will not permit any 
attack upon Greece by Turkey. — The local news at present 
attracting attention in the diplomatic circles of Vienna is 
a duel lately fought in the suburbs of the city, between 
Prince Felix Lichnowsky and the Spaniard Montenegro, 
son of the celebrated Carlist General of that name, in con- 
sequence of some observations reflecting on the character 
of his father and brother, which appeared in the second 
volume of the Prince's " Reminiscences from Spain." 
Montenegro was seconded by Prince Schwartzenberg, who 
likewise served in Spain, and Count Blacas. The Prince 
was attended by Col. Rachden, formerly in Cabrera's ser- 
vice. Montenegro was wounded in the arm ; and Prince 
Lichnowsky received a ball in his side, which however has 
been extracted, and both combatants are now said to be 
out of danger. — M. de Mieg, Bavarian Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to the Germanic Diet, died at Frankfort on the 
7th inst. — The Prussian State Gazette of the 1st instant 
publishes the treaty concluded between Prussia, the Duchy 
of Brunswick, Hanover, and Oldenburg, for the accession 
of those states to the German Customs' Union. The 
journals also add that a manifest tendency is observed 
among the German cantons of Switzerland to join the 
Union, and that such an accession would confer consider- 
able advantages upon the Duchy of Baden, which exports 
a considerable quantity of Rhenish wine to Switzerland. 
The north German papers say that the King of Prussia 
has cancelled the decree, sending Dr. Jacobi to be tried 
for his pamphlet before the criminal senate of Berlin, and 
that he will be tried by the Chamber of Justice. Ac- 
counts from Berlin inform us that while the King is absent 
on his visit to London, the Queen will go to Dresden on a 
visit to her august sister. Many decorations of the order 
of the Red Eagle have been commanded by the King of 
the Court jeweller to be taken to London, and a decora- 
tion of the Black Eagle, in diamonds, valued at 10,000 
crowns (nearly 2,000/.) is also making; but it is not 
known for whom it is intended by his Majesty. Three 
commissioners who were some time since sent by the Prus- 
sian Government to England, to inquire into the prison 
system of this country, have made their reports to the 
Minister of the Interior and police. Two of them, it is 
stated, have formally declare'd against the system of soli- 
tary confinement called the Pennsylvania system ; the 
third. Dr. Julius, recommends his Government to adopt 
it, but the Ministry, it is added, do not seem disposed to 
agree with him : the opinion of the King on the subject 
is not yet known. It is said that Prussia is about to 
fortify Luek on ils eastern frontier. — It is stated by the 
journals that a modification of the present laws respecting 
the Jews in Prussia is much spoken of, and that not only 
will they be permitted to enjoy the worship of their reli- 
gion to the fullest extent, but that they will be restored to 
the possession of several civil rights of which they were 
heretofore deprived. 

Belgium. — In a previous Number we referred to the 
fact that extensive frauds had been committed on a Bel- 
gian bank, and that forged notes were in circulation to a 
large amount, both in England and in all parts of the Con- 
tinent. Within the last few days some important dis- 
coveries have been made relative to this affair ; and two 
of the parties concerned in it have been arrested in Paris ; 
but a third, of the name of Theodore Romanzow, who is 
supposed to be the principal in the fraud, has not yet been 
apprehended, though the police of Paris have, it is said, in- 
formation respecting his movements, and expect shortly to 
arrest him. The two prisoners who are in custody are a 
woman, named Madame Danelle, and a young man, called 
Pressel. The latter, it seems, has not made any confes- 
sions ; but those of Madame Danelle are understood to be 
very complete. All the particulars of the case are not yet 
made known, lest the ends of justice should be defeated. It 
is understood however that the prisoners form part of a very 
extensive body of Continental forgers and swindlers, who 
have been carrying on their operations for some time. 

HoLL.iND. — Accounts received from the Hague inform 
us that the King will again visit Luxembourg in the 
course of this month, in order to make himself acquainted 
with the real state of affairs in that country. In the course 
of last year one hundred and ninety-seven ships arrived in 
the port of Ghent, of which nine came direct from the 



Havannah and other distant ports, laden with raw sugar, 
cotton, and rice. The weather is represented as having 
become very cold and severe, and the navigation of the canal 
of Charleroi and Willebroeck has been interrupted by 
the frost. Alfred du Rosset, a foreigner, has just been con- 
demned to a year's imprisonment and costs for having 
altered his passport, which was originally authentic, or, 
at least, of having made use of an altered passport. 

Italy. — Intelligence has been received from Naples 
that Sir W. Parish and Mr. Sulivan, the British Commis- 
sioners in the affair of the sulphur monopoly, have suc- 
ceeded in the settlement of the various questions arising 
out of that matter; and that they have done so without 

having had to appeal to the French arbiter Private letters 

from Florence state that the new line of road in Tuscany, 
and the proposed branches to Civita Vecchia and Leghorn, 
will be a re-establishment of the old Roman roads, the 
" Via Aurelia" and " Via Emilia," which afforded easy 
communication between Rome and the Gauls. The new 
roads, it is said, will touch Corneto and Montalto in the 
Papal States, and Orhitello, Grosseto, FoUonica, and St. 
Vincenzio in Tuscany. At Cecina, it divides into two 
branches — one leading direct to Pisa, the other running 
along the seashore to Leghorn. The Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany while at FoUonica visited the foundries, which, it 
appears, have within the last few years been considerably 
extended and improved. 

Russia. — Private accounts from St. Petersburg, of the 
27 th ult., state that the question of etiquette that has 
arisen between the French and Russian Governments was 
expected to be soon arranged, and that the French 
Charge' d'Affaires in that capital, and bis attaches, purposed 
attending the Court festivities on New Year's day, but 
some doubts appeared to be entertained whether they 
would be invited. The same accounts state that the abrupt 
manner in which M. Pe'rier, the French Charge d'Affaires 
in the absence of M. de Barante, absented himself from 
the ftte day of the Emperor, had caused a great sensation, 
and the effect of it bad been to exclude M. Perier from all 
invitations in society which had taken part with the 
Czar. It is also said that M. Nesselrode, on getting into 
his carriage to attend the levee, received a brief and stiff 
note from M. Perier, accounting for his absence : that the 
Emperor was much moved at this, and was at first disposed 
to order the passports for M. Perier and suite ; hut that, 
on the representations of Count Nesselrode and others, 
the retaliation was confined for the present to the instruc- 
tions sent to M. Kisseleff, in Paris, not to attend the 
Tuileries on New Year's day, and which our readers are 
aware have been acted on.^ — On the 21st ult., an ukase was 
published addressed by the Emperor to the directing senate 
on the 28th Nov., announcing that the Minister of Finance 
had prepared, by his directions, a new edition of the 
tariffs for regulating the trade carried on along the fron- 
tier of Europe and that of Kiakhta, which had received his 
imperial sanction. The tariff on the European frontier 
was to have come into operation on the 1st inst., and the 
other on the 1st Nov., 1842. The ukase does not men- 
tion the changes introduced in the former tariff. The 
duties on wood and wooden articles, as well as those levied 
in the Asiatic and Transcaucasian provinces of the empire, 
had undergone no modification. The goods deposited in the 
customs stores at the above-mentioned periods were to he 
liable to the duties stipulated in the former regulations. 
No alterations are made by this ukase in the customs laws 
and regulations of the kingdom of Poland and of the Grand 
Duchy of Finland. The papers state that the annual pro- 
duce of the private gold mines and gold works in Siberia 
has increased, since 1829, from 100 to 212 pounds; or 
nearly S,5001bs. English. — The navigation of the port of 
Riga was closed for the season on the 3d ult. At Cron- 
stadt on the ISth the floating ice had appeared in the 
western channel, and the sea between that fort, Orianem- 
burg, and St. Petersburg was covered with solid ice. 
Private accounts received from Teflis inform us that not- 
withstanding the bad season, by which all the difficulties 
of the campaign are increased, the expedition against the 
Circassians continues, and that a serious affair has taken 
place between the mountaineers and the Russians, in which 
about forty officers and from six to seven hundred soldiers 
were killed, and great numbers wounded ; the losses of the 
mountaineers were not known. After this engagement the 
Russian troops, it is stated, took possession of about five 
leagues of territory, and occupied a valley situated between 
two small forts. 

Greece. — Accounts received from Athens, dated the 
20th ult., inform us that the King had not yet returned a 
reply to the collective note addressed to him by the repre- 
sentatives of the three protecting Powers respecting com- 
plaints of the Turks against his Government. The latter, 
it appears, had declared its readiness to settle amicably 
the portion of the claims which referred to Turkish pro- 
perty retained by the state or subjects of Greece, and had 
accordingly proposed, 1st, to refund to the Greeks who 
purchased nine years ago from the Turks property illegally 
disposed of by the latter, and which belonged to the 
mosques of Thebes, the price of their acquisition, together 
with 8 per cent, interest on the sums they had actually 
paid ; 2d, to pay to the Turks of Zeitouni or Isden the 
remainder of the balance due to them by Government on 
the acquisition of their lands, together with 8 per cent, 
on the capital ; and 3d, to place at the disposal of the 
Ottoman Government a sum of 500,000 piasters (5,000/.), 
being the amount of the indemnity claimed by the Vacoufs 
of EubcKa, in virtue of the protocols. The point respect- 
ing the ill-treatment complained of by the Turks living in 
the Grecian territory still remained to be adjusted. — The 
editor of a journal who had been brought to trial for an 
article entitled " The French Million and Collettism," 
had been acqviitted by the Court. The Christides Ad- 



44 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 15, 



ministration was considered to have been greatly shaken 
bv this verdict ; and the King, it is said, had written to 
Theocaris to return in all haste from Germany, his Ma- 
jesty designing; him as successor to Christides. 

Turkey. — By the arrival of the Levant mail we have 
recent intelligence from Constantinople, from which we 
learn that Baron de Bourqueney, the French envoy, ar- 
rived on the 17th alt. in that captal, in a steamer, which 
saluted the Seraglio by 21 guns, which was responded to 
from the batteries of Tophane'. — Mustapha Pacha, the 
Seraskier, and Muhtar Bey, as Councillor, were about to 
leave for Syria, to put an end to the existing troubles. 
Tahir Pacha, Grand Admiral, was to be the Commander- 
in-Chief of the Army during Mustapha's absence, and 
Jahoub Pacha, Governor of Adrianople, was also to go to 
Syria. The Porte has not yet decided who shall be named 
to command the troops recently sent into Roumelia. — 
Private letters give an account of a rumoured project of 
the Government, which, if carried into effect, will, it is 
thought, constitute one of the most remarkable epochs in 
the history of the empire. It is the appropriation by the 
state of the church property, or wakoofs, to be sold or 
let on long leases to purchasers, or tenants, without dis- 
tinction of creed or condition. The scheme, it appears, 
originated with the late Sultan Malimoud, but no authentic 
particulars relating to the subject are yet known. — The 
diplomatic circles of Pera are said to have been surprised 
at several religious conversions which have lately occurred 
in that quarter. A Frenchman, it seems, has turned 
Turk ; and the ladies of the Russian Minister, Madame 
Tithoff, who was a Protestant, and of the Russian first 
dragoman. Prince Hantcherly, who was a Catholic, have 
simultaneously recanted and become Greeks. — Subsequent 
advices, received through Vienna, announce that on the 
15th Dec. the Porte forwarded a note to the representa- 
tives of the five great Powers, apprising them, that if 
within fourteen days the Greek Government did not com- 
ply with all their just demands, the Sultan was determined 
to have satisfaction by force of arms. The period pre- 
scribed by the Divan in this communication consequently 
expired on the 1st of this month ; but from the intimation 
given by Prince Metternich as to the intentions of the 
great Powers, no fear of an actual collision is entertained. 
United Staies.— ^By the packet-ship New York, ar- 
rived at Liverpool on Tuesday, we have received papers 7 
days later than those brought by the Acadia. The pro- 
ceedings of Congress are reported to the 20th ult., inclusive ; 
but they are generally uninteresting to the English reader. 
The tariff question had been under discussion, and it seemed 
likely to give rise to long and animated debates. The 
main point was, wiiether it should be framed for protection 
or for revenue, and on it the discussions were expected to 
turn. The report of the Secretary to the Navy had been 
laid before Congress and printed. It is a long document, 
but the papers describe it as an able and satisfactory one. 
The report of the Secretary to the Treasury had also been 
presented and printed. To meet the deficiency in the 
revenue for 1842, the Secretary recommends to Congress 
to authorise an extension of the term of the portion of the 
12,000.000 dollars loan not yet taken, and a re-issue of 
the Treasury notes heretofore authorised by law, amount- 
ing to 5,000,0u0 dollars ; the balance of the deficit in the 
ways and means, together with 2,000,000 dollars (a surplus 
deemed necessary to be in the Treasury to meet emer- 
gencies in the public service), to be supplied from imposts 
upon such foreign articles imported into the United States 
" as may be selected with a due regard to a rigid restric- 
tion, in amount, to the actual wants of Government, and 
a proper economy in its administration." The report 
then goes into an argument as to the principles which 
ought to govern the adjustment of the tariff to the wants 
of Government. — The question of the right of search 
forms the leading topic of discussion in all the journals ; 
which are unanimous in approving the conduct of Mr. 
Steven&on, late ambassador to the Court of London, in 
reference to that question ; as well as in maintaining that 
the United States must never concede that right to Great 
Britain, or to any other maritime Power. — The Patent- 
office, at Washington, had been entered by false keys, 
and three valuable articles, to the amount of 12,000 dol- 
lars, stolen. The articles were, a snuff-box presented by 
the Emperor Alexander of Russia to Mr. Harris, the 
Charge d'Affaires, valued at 6,000 dollars; a pearl neck- 
lace, presented by the Imaum of Muscat to the late Presi- 
dent, Mr. Van Buren, valued at 3, GOO dollars ; and a gold 
scabbard, presented by the Viceroy of Peru to .Mr. Biddle, 
and valued at 2,600 dollars. A reward of 1,000 dollars 
has been offered by the Commissioner of Patents for the 
recovery of the articles. T)ie theft, it appears, was one 
of a very daring character ; the time of its occurrence be- 
ing known within 10 minutes, as the person having charge 
of the room containing the articles had visited it within 
that time. — The papers contain further particulars of the 
revolt of the slaves on board the Creole, which we have 
before noticed. This vessel, an American one, was, it 
will be recollected, on her voyage from Hampton-roads to 
New Orleans, with 13.^ slaves on board. On the voyage 
the slaves mutinied, murdered a passenger and part owner 
of themselves, wounded the captain and some of the crew, 
and compelled the remainder to navigate the brig to 
Nassau, New Providence, where the Governor, considering 
them as passengers, allowed them, contrary to the protest 
of the United States Consul, to go at liberty. 

Canada. — The invasion of the frontier by bands of 
men, who burn and destroy agricultural buildings and pro- 
duce, has been aga;n renewed this winter, and has produced, 
it is said, great heart-burnings and exasperations. The 
Papers recommend a system of retaliation to be practised 
by the Canadians ; but it fortunately does not appear that 
tbii auggeatioa lias yet been acted oa. 



CITY. 

Money Market, Friday. — There has been a fnither 
rise in the Government securities. Consols for moiiej 
closed at 89 to ^ ; ditto for the Account in Feb., 89| to^ ; 
New Three-and-a-Half per Cents., 98 to 9 ; Three per 
Cents. Reduced, 89-J- to -J- ; Three-and-a-Half per Cents. 
Reduced, 99f ; Bank Stock, 166i to 167i; Long An- 
nuities (expiring Jan. 5, IBGO), 12-11-16. 



JMetropoIis antf t'ts Fi'tmttg. 

Weather. — The weather still remains cold and severe ; 
and, with the exception of one or two partial thaws, the 
frost has continued throughout the week with consider- 
able severit}'. On Thursday there was the heaviest fall 
of snow that has occurred in the Metropolis this winter. 
It commenced in the morning and continued throughout 
the day, covering the streets and neighbourhood of town, 
in many places, it is stated, to the depth of ten inches ; 
and where it had drifted, travelling has been much im- 
peded. Several of the mails and stage-coaches have 
since been considerably beyond time, owing to the heavy 
state of the roads. The masters of several coasting ves- 
sels, arrived in the River yesterday, report having expe- 
rienced for several days heavy falls of snow, accompanied 
with strong variable winds and squalls. In the Parks, 
the waters have been visited by great numbers of skaters 
and promenaders ; and a variety of accidents, several 
unfortunately attended with fatal results, have occurred 
during the week. 

Metropolitan Improvements. — It is stated that a great 
improvement is about to be made in the appearance of 
Piccadilly consequent upon the removal of the ranger's 
house in the Green Park, which will be taken down early 
in the spring. The plan, which, it is added, has been 
suggested by Sir R. Peel, is to consist of a terrace and 
public walk from the gate into the Palace-gardens at Hyde 
Park-corner to the junction of the houses at the lower 
end of the basin ; the form of the ground on this line 
being considered favourable to picturesque effect in lay- 
ing out and planting, and to architectural beauty of de- 
sign in the esplanade. Fountains and statues, it is said, 
will also be introduced to add to the beauty of the plau. — 
On Monday the Bude light was for the first time applied 
to street illumination at the top of the Obelisk, in Water- 
loo-place, Pall-mall, opposite Carlton-gardens, in the pre- 
sence of several of the parochial authorities of St. James's. 
On that occasion, and on the two succeeding evenings, 
the experiment was successful, and the light, it is stated, 
will be kept burning in future every night till 12 o'clock. 
Wood Pavement. — On Saturday a meeting of the 
Marjlebone veStry was held, when the motion carried 
on the previous Saturday, for postponing for three years 
the further extension of wood paviug in that parish, was 
again discussed. A numerous deputation presented a 
memorial, signed by 58 inhabitants of Oxford-street, who 
had already the wood paving before their doors, detail- 
ing the advantages accruing to themselves and the public 
since its introduction, and praying the vestry not only not 
to confirm the minute, but to give the paving to their neigh- 
bours throughout the entire street. The deputation 
having withdrawn, Mr. Joseph moved the non-confirma- 
tion of tlie miuute, delaring that the proposition was not 
only most absurd, but that it was illegal for a fluctuat- 
ing body like the vestry to make a prospective resolution 
for three years. This motion having been seconded, a 
long and boisterous discussion ensued, in which Lord 
Nugent and several other gentlemen took part ; after 
which the chairman put the question, and amidst con- 
siderable confusion declared the non-confirmation to be 
carried. A division was then demanded, and a scene of 
great uproar followed, occasioned principally by the 
endeavours made by both parties to secure the vote of a 
wavering vestryman of the name of Abbott, who appears 
to have been pulled about with little ceremony. The chaii-- 
man ultimately succeeded in restoring some order, and on 
the division taking place there appeared — for the non- 
confirmation of the minute, 27 ; for the confirmation, 26 ; 
majority against postponing the question of wood paving 
for three years, 1. 

Distress in the Metropolis. — It is stated that the num- 
ber of applications for relief at the principal charitable 
institutions of the Metropolis has been much greater this 
season than the last, notwithstanding it has as yet been 
less sevei'e. Up to Sunday night the number of appli- 
cations from persons completely destitute, at the Refuge 
for the Houseless, in I'layhouse-yard, Whitecross-sti-eet, 
was 1,7U2, being 4.57 more than during the correspond- 
ing number of nights last year. On the first night of last 
year the number admitted was 40, whilst on the first of 
the present season it was 112. The nightly average 
number of inmates has been about 360, and on the last 
day of the year they were 3.93. The great majority of 
applicants, it is said, are strangers to London, having no 
claim upon any parish. At the Western Refuge for the 
Houseless, in Market-street, Edgware-road, where ad- 
mission is obtained only by tickets from subscribers, the 
number of applicants is also said to have been more 
numerous than in previous years ; and although nightly 
accommodation is only provided for 100, on one night 
last week no less than 1.36 were admitted. The applica- 
tions, however, at the De.stitute Sailors' Asylum, Well- 
close-square, the otiier remaining iustitution for the 
reception of the houseless, have been less this season 
than for some years past, on account, it is supposed, of 
the great demand for seamen for the navy and commer- 
cial service. 

Royal Mint. — On Monday a portion of the ransom 
paid by the Chinese for the evacuation of Canton arrived 
in Lpndon, and was transferred to the Royal Mint. The 



treasure was landed at Portsmouth from H. M. frigate 
Conway, and thende conveyed to Gosport, where a spe- 
cial train was engaged to bring it by the Southampton 
Railway to London, under an escort of the 32d Reg. 
On the arrival of the train at Vauxhall, the boxes of 
silver, about oue hundred in number, were transferred 
to a number of vans and carts, guarded by the soldiers. 
The procession attracted much notice in the streets 
through which it passed ; and upon its arrival on Tower- 
hill, the mob was so great that the guard on duty at the 
Mint was ordered under arms to clear a way for the 
carts to advance, and the treasure entered the gates of 
the Mint amidst the loud cheers of the populace. Its 
value is stated to be 550,000/., sterling ; and it consists 
of small bars and lumps of sycee silver, the whole of 
which, it is understood, will be melted down and refined 
previously to its being converted into the current coin of 
the realm. 

Public Meetings. — On Tuesday a meeting was held of 
the committee of management and of the defence fund 
committee of the Marylebone Joint-Stock Bank, Mr. 
Parnell in the chair. Mr. Abrahams entered into a 
lengthened statement of the affairs of the bank, and of 
the disputes between the directors and the shareholders. 
He also stated that the public creditors would be fully 
paid if the shareholders paid an additional advance of 51. 
on their shares, and if Mr. Hannay's estate paid but a 
fourth of what it had been estimated at by the ofBcial 
assignee ; who, it seems, has announced that it would 
return 20^. in the pound. The solicitor for the share- 
holders read a series of letters ^.between |him and the 
solicitor for the directors, in which the latter did not 
appear to evince much anxiety for an amicable arrange- 
ment. Letters were also read from country share- 
holders of 40, 20, and 10 shares, expressive of their 
desire to pay their 5/. on each share towards liquidating 
the claims of the public creditor, which were averaged at 
10',000/. It was ultimately resolved that a 5Z. call should 
be made, that Sir C. Scott be banker for the fund, and 
that Messrs. Parnell, Dukes, Robinson, Jackson, and 
Christmas be appointed trustees. It was also resolved 
to pay all bond fide debts, and that nine members of the 
Defence Fund should form a quorum to adjudicate the 
claims. — On Tuesday the half-yearly general meeting of 
the Royal Humane Society was held, when the report 
was read by the secretary, from which it appeared that 
during the past year the receipts amounted altogether to 
2,5(19/. 7s. \d. ; and the sum expended for rewards, sala- 
ries, apparatus, &c. was 1,479/. 10s. id. ; the expenses 
in Hyde-park, 58!/. 19s. \\d. ; and the stock purchased 
498/. 2s. 6(/., leaving a balauce in hand of 6/. 14s. &d. 
During the year 214 cases had been brought under the 
notice of the society, 200 of which were successful ; 
1 1 were beyond recovery ; and 3 were cases of suicide. 
Si-xteen honorary silver and twenty-seven bronzcmedal- 
lions had been awarded for cases of extraordinary 
courage ; and the thanlis of the Society, inscribed on 
vellum, had been pi-esented to nine individuals, and 
pecuniary rewards had been presented to 1 06 claimants. 
It was also announced that Prince Albert had lately en- 
rolled his name as an honorary member, and that several 
handsome legacies had been received. — On Wednesday 
the half-yearly general meeting of the shareholders of the 
London Joint Stock Bank was held. The chairman, G. 
Scholefield, Esq., read the report, from which it appeared 
that the paid-up capital now is 689,700/., and that the 
directoi's have thought it advisable to complete the issue 
of the whole C0,000 shares, the remaining 1,030 of which 
were to be sold in the market. The accounts showed a net 
profit on the half-year, ending the 31st Dec, of 25,923/. 
14s. 3(/-, from which a dividend for the half-year, after 
the rate of 6/. per cent, per annum, was recommended, 
which would amount to 17,601/., leaving 8,232/. 14s. 3rf. 
to be carried to the profit of the guarantee fund, which 
now amounts to 81,731/. Is. id. The report was uuani> 
mously adopted. 

Accidents and Inquests. — On Saturday evening, a.«» 
Mr. Aldridge, a builder residing at Shepherd's-bush, was 
driving on his way home, in the neighbourhood of Ham- 
mersmith, in consequence of its being very dark, and the 
road not being lighted, he unfortunately drove against a 
post, which caused him to be thrown out with great vio- 
lence on his head, producing severe concussion of the 
brain. He was conveyed to a neighbouring house and 
medical assistance procured ; but, it is said, he still con- 
tinues in a very dangerous state. — On Monday, a fatal 
accident, attended by the loss of three lives, occurred on a 
piece of frozen water on Clapham-commou. Deceased 
were a brother and two sisters, of the name of Dunce, of 
the respective ages of 17,19, and 21. It seems that at 
the time of the accident the ice of the pond was much 
crowded with skaters, sliders, and promenaders, and the 
three deceased being together, the ice gave way beneath 
them. One of the sisters succeeded in getting out of the 
water, but returned to the spot and extended her hand to 
her struggling sister ; the consequence of which was, that 
she was again drawn under water and perished. An in- 
quest has been held, and a verdict returned of "Accidental 
death." It appears that a fatal accident occurred to a boy 
a few days since on the same v/ater. — On Monday, an in- 
quest was held at Camden -town, on William Burke, aged 
98, said to have been formerly a gentleman of independent 
fortune, and companion of his Majesty George the Fourth, 
when Prince of Wales, but late an inmate of St. Pancras 
workhouse. There was nothing of interest in the case 
beyond the singular reverse of fortune referred to, and the 
fact that deceased's father died at the age of 102 years, 
his grandfather at the age of 11)4, and that there is now a 
brother living in the country at the advanced age of 101 
years. From the evidence of deceased's wife, it appeared 



1842.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



45 



that deceased having gone out of the workhouse by per- 
mission to visit some friends, Was suddenly seized witli an 
affection of the chest, and shortly after returning to the 
worl<house, expired. Verdict, " Natural death." 

Robbfries. — A burglary and extensive robbery has been 
committed on the premises of Messrs. Griffin and Co., 
Ironmonger-lane, Cheapsido, when a l.irge quantity of 
silks, satins, hosiery, and goods of a similar character were 
stolen. Information was forwarded to the police, but the 
thieves have not been traced, — On Wednesday a serious 
charge, showing in some measure the distress existing 
amongst the poor in the Metropolis, came before the ma- 
gistrate at the Mansion-house. A baker, living in Cannon- 
street, stated that on the previous evening 10 or 12 young 
men, some of whom were at the hai-, came into his shop, 
seized a quantity of bread, and then returned to the 
street and divided what they had stolen amongst 30 or 40 
others waiting outside for them. The prisoners, in their 
defence, said that they were in a state of starvation ; that 
they had applied at different workhouses and charitable 
institutions, without procuring any relief ; and that, not 
knowing what to do, they were obliged to take some 
bread. The prisoners were remanded, and expressed 
great satisfaction at being removed to the loek-up house, 
where they expected, at least, to get food and shelter. — 
On the following day, a similar charge was made against 
several other men and boys, who had been guilty of a 
like offence in the shop of another baker, in Bow-lane. 
After a long inquiry, the result of which was the same as 
the one on the previous day, Sir P. Laurie said that an 
example must be made, and committed the prisoners to 
Newgate. The other prisoners, against whom there was 
no evidence as to stealuig the bread, but who had been 
seen dividing it outside, were then put to the bai' and in- 
formed that sixteen had just been committed to Newgate, 
and that in all probability many of that number would 
be transported. The crowd of young men and boys who 
had been brought up as participators in the plunder out- 
side the shops of the two prosecutors were then dis- 
charged, with an assurance that if they joined in any fu- 
ture criminal act of the kind, they might calculate upon 
the most severe infliction i f punishment for the offence. It 
is stated that the City magistrates have under their 
serious consideration a suggestion, that when offenders 
are prosecuted for depredations committed under the 
impulse of hunger, after iiaving been refused relief by the 
parochial authorities, although such offenders should not 
be permitted to escape punishment, the respectiveparishes 
should be compelled to defray the expenses of the prose. 
Gutions. 

Fires. — From the annual report of Mr. Braidwood, 
superintendent of the London Fire EstabHshment, it ap- 
pears that the total number of fires which have occurred 
in the Metropolis and its vicinity during the last year 
have been 855, being an increase of 15 over those of 1840. 
Out of this number, however, only 24 total destructions 
have happened ; but of houses and buildings considerably 
damaged, there have been 234 ; and of those slightly da- 
maged, 438 : false alarms and chimneys on tire are stated 
to have been 159; of fires which happened at private 
houses there were 213 ; lodging-houses, 61; carpenters', 
37 i licensed victuallers', 34; drapers', 21 ; bakers', 18 ; 
sale-shops, 25 ; stables, 14; steam-mills, 6; churches, 3; 
wine and spirit merchants', 37 ; and of other trades and 
occupations the numbers vary from 1 to 9. — On Monday 
night, a serious fire broke out on the premises occupied 
by Mrs. Kennedy, milliner, of Stangate-street, near 
Astley's late Theatre. Some time elapsed before any 
engines arrived, and the entire destruction of the house 
where the fire originated being found inevitable, the ex- 
ertions of the firemen were directed to save the adjacent 
houses, which they succeeded in doing. — On Wednesday 
a serious fire broke out in Myrtle-court, Bermondsey-street, 
a place densely populated by the lower orders of Irish. It 
occurred in the room of a poor woman, and was occasioned 
by the accidental falling of a spark on her bed, which was 
composed of shavings ; she was so seriously burnt, that 
she was taken to the hospital, where she continues in a 
dangerous state. The fire, which at first created great 
alarm among the neighbouring poor, was soon subdued 
on the arrival of the engines, and the injury done was not 
great. — On Wednesday evening a fire occurred in the 
manufactory of Mr. Bartrnm, coach and omnibus builder, 
Whitechapel. In consequence of the building being en- 
tirely composed of wood, and the materials contained in 
it of a very inflammable nature, the flames spread with 
great rapidity, and the manufactory was soon entirely 
destroyed. The fire, however, was prevented from e.v- 
tending fui'ther. — On Tuesday a serious fire broke out in 
the cabin of a foreign vessel moored in a tier of shipping 
off the Tower. Mr. Childs, fruiterer, and who is the 
Tower-hill beadle, happened fortunately to be near the 
spot at the time, from which he engaged a wherry, and 
proceeded on board the vessel, where he found her crew, 
all foreigners, in great confusion, and afraid to enter the 
cabin, which was filled with smoke. Mr. Childs imme- 
diately went below, when he discovered that the bulk- 
heads were on fire ; and having been furnished with a 
plentiful supply of water, he succeeded in extinguishing 
the flames before they had communicated with the cargo 
in the hold. 

Woolioich. — A circular has just been received at this 
Dock-yard from the Ordnance Department, with particular 
instructions that it should be read in all departments of 
the ordnance service, stating that the attention of the 
Master-General and the Board having been drawn to the 
fact as disclosed by the evidence t aken before the com- 
mittee appointed to investigate the circumstances con- 
nected with the late fire in the Tower, that if the witness 
who first saw a light in the building where the fire broke 



out Iiad given an immediate alarm, the disastrous result 
might, in all probability, have been prevented, or, at least, 
greatly lessened, they desire to express to the several per- 
sons resident within the Tower and other garrisons, and 
in the Ordnance establishments generally in tlie British 
dominions, their hope that, in the event of any unusual 
appearance of fire or light, however trivial it may seem, 
instant notice will be given by the party witnessing it to 
the proper authorities, so as to guard as much as possible 
against any recurrence of the calamity that has recently 
taken place. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
have also issued instructions that all the fire engines in 
this Dock-yard shall be examined every ten days, to as- 
certain that every part of them continues in proper work- 
ing order, and be on such occasions exercised by the 
police force with water, to insure their efficiency in cass 
of their services being required. One of the inspectors of 
police to be present when the engines are examined, and 
be responsible that they are in good working order. 

Mortality of the Metropolis. — The following is the 
number of deaths in the Metropolis, from all causes, re- 
gistered in the week ending Saturday, the 1st inst. : — 
Males, 523 ; Females, 514. Weekly average 1838-9-40 : 
Males, 475 ; Females, 451. 



^Brofamctal Nttos. 

Abingdon. — A serious fire, which there is reason to 
think was the act of an incendiary, has occurred in the 
village of East Hanney, near this town. It commenced 
early in the evening, and though immediate assistance was 
procured, the flames were not got under until a barn, 
containing about 12 quarters of barley, a stable, and large 
barley-rick, were consumed. All the cattle, it seems, had 
been previously turned out of the rick-yard, as it is sup- 
posed, by the author of the fire, or several, it is thought, 
would have been burned to death. No clue, however, has 
yet been obtained to the discovery of the incendiary. 

Bradford, Wilts. — The parties apprehended on suspi- 
cion of being concerned in the daring burglary committed 
at South Wraxhall, which we noticed in our last, have 
undergone another examination before the magistrates. 
The evidence of the two Misses Awdrey and their servants 
was given at great length ; they identified three of the 
prisoners as those most actively concerned in the robbery, 
and other witnesses deposed to finding various portions 
of the stolen property in the possession of the other pri- 
soners. After along inquiry, the magistrates committed 
the following persons to take their trial for the offence : 
Nathaniel Burge, John Milsom, and Jonas Penny, as 
principals; George Hart, as an accessory after the fact; 
and John Roberts and Selina, his wife, for receiving the 
goods, well knowing them to have been stolen. 

Birmiiiglwm. — A serious accident, attended with loss 
of life, resulting from the incautious use of fire-arms, has 
occurred in this town. It seems that a man, named Ezra 
Steapenhill, about a month ago found a gun, as he stated, 
and a few days after was showing it to a friend, stating 
that it was unloaded ; bis wife 'happened to be present, 
and, in joke, pulled the trigger over his shoulder, when it 
went off, breaking the clock-case to pieces. A few even- 
ings since, he was cleaning the same gun, although it was 
heavily loaded and capped. His wife was sitting at the 
end of the table on which the gun rested, and when in the 
act of rubbing the lock it went off, and the contents en- 
tered her chest, and killed her on the spot. This appears 
to be the husband's statement, who is under the surveil- 
lance of the police. 

Chelmsford. — A general feeling, to which we have 
before referred, appears to be gaining ground in the great 
agricultural districts, against the continuance of the pre- 
sent rural police, on the ground of its inefficiency and 
great expense. At the quarter-sessions in this town on 
Tuesday several petitions were presented to the magis- 
trates against the system ; one of which stated that 
" although the police had made a considerable addition to 
the burdens of the parishes, it had not answered the pur- 
pose for which it was instituted, and the petitioners there- 
fore prayed the justices to take into their serious considera- 
tion, whether it was not expedient forthwith to report it 
as their opinion to the Secretary of State that the rural 
police force is unnecessary, and should be discontinued in 
this county." Another stated — " The petitioners humbly 
hope that the magistrates will neither suffer the present 
force to be rncreased nor continued, but that they may be 
allowed to appoint their own local constables, whereby 
they can reduce their present expenses, and at the same 
time detect as well as deter depredators." Some discus- 
sion having taken place, it was finally agreed that a regular 
notice should be given, in order that the question of aug- 
menting the force or abolishing it might be debated and 
decided upon at the next session. 

Derby.— An address to H.R.H. Prince Albert has 
within the last few days been forwarded from the silk 
stocking makers of this county and those of Nottingham- 
shire, deploring the depressed condition of their trade, 
and praying his Royal Highness to adopt silk stockings in 
ordinary wear. His Royal Highness has acknowledged, 
through his treasurer, the receipt of this address, adding 
" that it would give him much pleasure to be able to re- 
lieve a trade which is stated by so many respectable per- 
sons to be in so distressed a state. Since the accession 
of her present Majesty long silk stockings have been in- 
variably worn at Comt, so that no new order on that 
score can tend to give a lift to the trade." Two patterns 
of silk trousers and stockings were at the same time en- 
closed, which the letter stated had been made in England, 
and which his Royal Highness always wears, dii ecting six 
pairs of each pattern to be made for his Royal Highness's 
use ; whii.-h fashion, the letter adds, it_ people gene- 



rally could be prevailed on to adopt it, would be far more 
advantageous to their trade than the stockings. 

Devizes. — Another daring burglary has been committed 
in this county. A few days since the house of Mr. Gum, 
of the tithing of Seencl, was broken into by three thieves, 
and robbed of property .amounting to between .30/. and 40/. 
Mr. Gum, it appears, is advanced in years, and lives with 
bis sister in a lonely house, a short distance from the turn- 
pike road between this town and Malmesbury. The thieves, 
it is staled, first endeavoured to effect an entrance at the 
back part of the house by making a hole in the wall, but 
here they were unsuccessful. They then went round to 
the front door, which they burst open, and entered the 
house, after an ineffectual resistance by Mr. Gum, who, 
bearing the noise, had got up. They then told him that 
if he did not give them what he had, they would murder 
both him and his sister, and commenced ransacking the 
house, from which they took all the money and valuables 
they could find. Although they said they had plenty of 
assistance, Mr. Gum states that he is sure they were l)ut 
three in number, as he afterwards traced their steps to- 
wards Melksham. The face of each was blackened. Two 
men, named Townshend and Clarke, have since been appre- 
hended and committed for trial ; and two others, named 
Aust and Townshend, the latter a brother of the prisoner, 
have been remanded for further examination. 

Gloucester.— At a recent meeting of magistrates in this 
city, Mr. C. Bathurst, the chairman, stated, that after the 
present quarter-sessions he could not, from the impaired 
state of his health, any longer perform the duties of that 
office. It is expected that he will be succeeded by Lord 
Redesdale. 

Hertford. — It has been announced that Government 
has ordered the reward of 100/. offered for the apprehen- 
sion of the murderer Blakesley to be paid to the two con- 
stables, Dunn and Filgate, stationed at Hitchin, in this 
county, by whom, it will be remembered, he was taken 
into custody. 

Liverpool. — A serious accident has happened in this 
city to one of the sons of the Rev. Hugh M'Neih It 
seems that he was practisinga pistol in the neighbourhood, 
when, by some inadvertency, it went off accidentally, and 
the ball passed obliquely through the lower part of his 
stomach, inflicting a dangerous wound. Some hopes, 
however, appear to be entertained of his recovery. 

ij/n». — The Yarmouth and Birmingham mail was over- 
turned on Saturday night within a mile and a half of this 
town. The passengers escaped unhurt, but the coachman 
had his ankle fractured. It seems that the horses took 
fright at a drover's dog, whose master had been hanging 
on behind without the knowledge of the coachman. 

Maidstone^ — On Monday a serious fire occurred in the 
farm-yard of Mr. Jackson, a county magistrate, residing at 
Orpington, in this county. In consequence of its break- 
ing out early in the morning, assistance could not for some 
time be procured, and the result was that three stacks of 
wheat, one of hay, three barns, and a large quantity of 
agricultural implements, were totally consumed, and four 
other stacks of wheat and hay much damaged. The fire 
is supposed to have been the act of an incendiary ; and it 
is stated as a somewhat remarkable coincidence, that the 
first of the incendiary fires which took place in Kent in 
1836 commenced in the same village. 

Manchester. — The following Post-office robbery has 
recently been committed in this town. It seems that an 
individual, whose name is not yet known, went to the 
Post-office, and succeeded in obtaining the letters then in 
the box for delivery to Messrs. Joseph Rylands and Sons, 
cotton-spinners and manufacturers. New High-street, of 
which it is ascertained there certainly were two at least, 
each containing a remittance, viz,, one a cash order for 
20/. 17s., and the other a draft for a larger amount on the 
Provincial Bank of England, and the first halves of two 
Bank of England notes of 10/. each. It has been ascer- 
tained that on the same day a man went to the Manchester 
and Liverpool District Bank in the town, where he pre- 
sented the cash order. As, however, it was not indorsed, 
the bankers declined paying it, and, detaining it,gave him 
a check drawn for the same amount, to bring them signed 
by Messrs. Ryland and Sons, when they said they would 
cash it. The man, however, never returned, and on the 
following day a person went to the Provincial Bank of 
England, Mosley-street, where he made a similar attempt 
to get the draft cashed, but unsuccessfully, the bankers 
discovering in it some discrepancy with respect to the en- 
dorsement which induced them to decline paying it ; they, 
however, did not detain the prisoner, but suffered him to 
depart, and take the draft with him. A day or two since, 
Messrs. Rylands and Sons received through the Post- 
office a letter bearing the Manchester post-mark, consist- 
ing of a blank sheet of paper, inclosing the draft and the 
two half 10/. notes which had been sent with it in the 
intercepted letter of their correspondents. The super- 
scription of this blank letter was, it is said, in the same 
hand-wviting as that of the forged endorsement on the 
draft. The author of the theft, however, has not yet been 
detected. — Another serious fire has occurred in this town, 
in a machine manufactory on the south side of Store- 
street, near the viaduct of the Birmingham Railway. The 
building is one of large dimensions — being seven stories 
high, and about 40 yards by 25 in extent. The fire ori- 
ginated in the upper story, in the occupation of Messrs. 
Curtis, Parr, and Walton, patent card manufacturers ; but 
having been discovered early, and several engines being 
soon on the spot, the flames were prevented from com- 
municating to the other portions of the building, in which, 
it is stated, was about 15,000/. or 20,000/. worth of pro- 
perty, chiefly cards, ready finished for sale. The whole 
of the machines, however, with the exception of six or 
seven that were got out before the fiames had caught them, 



46 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 15, 



were totally destroyed, and the loss is estimated at about 
8,000/. The origin of the fire is not known, as all appeared 
to be safe when the workmen left the premises a few hours 
before. 

A''eiccaslle. — A local paper, the " Journal," informs us 
that the quantity of coals carried coastwise from the river 
Tyne exceeds 2,500,000 tons, and that the quantity ex- 
ported to foreign parts exceeds 1,500,000 tons annually. 

X'orwich. — A petition having for the last six 
months been in circulation throughout this county for 
the aboUtion of the rural police, and notice having been 
given by the Earl of Orford that he would present it, a 
general meeting has been held in this city, at which seve- 
ral magistrates and nearly all the great landed gentry of 
the county were present — among whom were the Earl of 
Orford, Lords Bayning, Walpole, Wodehouse, the Dean 
of Norwich, and many others. The usual routine of 
business having been disposed of, the Clerk of the Peace 
read the report of the Chief Constable, Col. Oakes. It 
stated that the force was in such an efficient state as to repay 
every expense the county incurred, and that the conviction 
of offenders was but a small part of the benefit derived 
from it. The regulations insured a quick return of every 
occurrence from every part of the county, and an accurate 
account was kept of every public-house and beer-shop, 
■with the characters of all who frequented them. The report 
went on to state at great length the benefits derived by the 
county from the force ; and after it had been read, the 
Earl of Orford rose, and said he had to present a petition, 
praying for exemption, in certain districts, from the oper- 
ation of the new rural police, or for its entire abolition. 
The noble earl proceeded to say that he entertained strong 
hopes that the growing dislike to the measure, the general 
public feeling of its non-necessity, and the great expense 
of the whole force, would press the matter upon the atten- 
tion of Parliament, which would result in the adoption of 
some means of modifying the Act. " Was there," his lord- 
ship said, " no other plan that could be adopted, without 
going so suddenly into one of the most unconstitutional 
methods ever proposed by a despotic administration, which 
had taken away from the inhabitants of the county their 
ancient right, and the most beneficial one — that of self- 
government .' The measure had placed an armed and dis- 
ciplined force at the disposal of the Secretary of State, 
robbing the public of the means they formerly had to pro- 
Tide for their own security. The petitioners hoped that the 
memorial of so large a body of ratepayers, 1,400 in num- 
ber, occupiers and owners of land to a great extent in the 
county, would receive due consideration, and that the re- 
solution for the establishment of the new rural police would 
be rescinded, and the system of parochial constables again 
adopted." The noble earl concluded by laying the petition 
before the Court, expressing his intention to call for a de- 
finitive resolution respecting it at the next sessions. Other 
petitions to the same effect from different parts of the 
county having been read, Mr. Jermy, the Recorder of this 
city, addressed the meeting at considerable length against 
the further continuance of the force, which, he contended, 
■was unconstitutional, and said that something must be 
done towards an alteration. The Hon. and Rev. R. 
"Wilson then rose, and at great length defended the new 
rural police; answering seriatim a\i the objections made 
by the preceding speakers. He said, after what had been 
urged by them, it was necessary that some opinion should 
be expressed by the Court ; and he concluded his address 
by moving a vote of approval of the force, and of thanks 
to the chief constable. Col. Oakes. The meeting con- 
curred in this 6uggei>tion, and the motion was agreed to. 

Oxford. — A requisition has been published, signed by 
244 non-resident members of Convocation, headed by the 
High Steward," the Bishop of Oxford, and five other 
bishops of the Church, urging upon the Committees of 
Mr. Garbett and Mr. Williams, the two candidates for the 
vacant Professorship of Poetry, that they should endea- 
vour to procure the consent of both candidates, and of 
their respective colleges, to the withdrawal of their names ; 
and that they will appoint a deputation from both com- 
mittees, to confer upon arrangements to that effect, in or- 
der that an opportunity may thus be afforded for a fresh 
nomination to the vacant chair. In reply to this requisi- 
tion. Lord Ashley, on behalf of the London committee of 
Mr. Garbett, has declined acceding to this proposal, stat- 
ing that the committee see no mode of avoiding an election 
in the usual course, unless the Oxford committees of both 
candidates could agree on some plan by which the senti- 
ments of Convocation could be so clearly ascertained as to 
decide the contest and supersede the necessity of a poll. 
The committee of Mr. Williams, however, have been au- 
thorised by the president and fellows of Trinity College to 
take steps for carrying into effect on their part the objects 
of the requisition, and have appointed a deputation for 
that purpose — at the same time announcing that they feel 
it due to themselves and to Mr. Williams to state, that 
they understand the objects of the requisition to be, peace 
for the University and for the Church, without the sacri- 
fice of principles or censure of persons. 

Salisbury. — At the late quarter- seisions in this county 
a motion was carried by a majority of 19 to 17, "for a 
committee to inquire into the operation of the rural police 
force, with a view to consider whether any alterations can 
be made in the system, so as to effect a reduction of the 
present large expenditure." An amendment was moved 
by Lord Radnor that all the words after the word " any " 
be omitted, and the following substituted, " improvement 
can be made in the direction and administration of the 
force, so as to render it more effective." After some dis- 
cussion his lordship's amendment was negatived. 

Sevenoaks. — We noticed some time since the details of 
an inquiry instituted into the working of the system pur- 
sued in tlie UoiQU at tliie place; utt4«£ IUq ppeiatiou of 



the New Poor-law, when, it will be remembered, several 
serious facts, relative to the accommodation and attend- 
ance on the poor, came out in evidence. The affair has 
since been under the consideration of the Poor-law Com- 
missioners, who have just made public their official 
decision on the subject. The Commissioners state that 
they " feel themselves called on to pronounce an opinion 
as to the parties who are to blame for this state of things; 
and, painful as the duty is, they cannot shrink from its 
performance. They regret that when Mr. Tufnell, the 
Assistant- Commissioner, became acquainted with the 
state of the house, on the 11th Feb., 1841, he did not 
make a special communication on the subject to the Com- 
missioners, and that he should have advised the post- 
ponement of building on account of the probable erection 
of district schools. They, however, conclude that he 
acted with the best intentions." With regard to the 
Board of Guardians generally, the Commissioners observe 
that they must have known that the total number of 
the inmates of the workliouse exceeded that which they 
considered it as capable of containing ; consequently 
their attention, ought to have been directed to the in- 
creased numbers, and they woul^ then naturally have made 
such inquiries of the officers of the workhouse as must 
have elicited the painful facts for the first time disclosed 
in the late investigation. The Commissioners proceed 
to say that they cannot acquit the visiting committee of 
blame in omitting to make a sufficiently close e.^iamination 
of all parts of the house ; and they see great reason to 
regret that no representation was made to the Board of 
Guardians by the visiting committee sufficiently strong to 
have pressed on the former body the absolute necessity 
which existed for hiring another building, or providing in 
some manner additional accommodation. The Commis- 
sioners, however, impute the principal share of blame to 
David and Elizabeth Gain, the late master and matron 
of the Sevenoaks Union workhouse, who, it is added, 
resigned their situations in September, and do not at 
present hold any office connected with the Poor-laws. 
Mr. Adams also, the medical officer, is pronounced to 
be guilty of very great neglect, and receives a severer 
censure than any other person mentioned in the judg- 
ment, because he made no written report of the state of 
disease in the workhouse before Jan. 1841. 

She^eld. — This town has been the scene of a serious 
attempt at murder, followed by suicide. It seems that 
three sisters, named Hannah, Sarah, and Harriet Poole, 
dressmakers, residing at Pye-bank, had for some time 
been persecuted by a young man named Vaughan, a table- 
knife manufacturer, who paid his addresses to the second 
sister, but who, in consequence of his dissolute habits, 
had been rejected by her. Having tried for some time to 
induce her to revoke her determination without effect, he 
adopted threatening language, saying he would destroy 
her, and in a variety of ways continued to persecute and 
annoy her. The girls at length found it necessary to apply 
to the magistrates to bind Vaughan over to keep the peace. 
He was summoned to the police-office, at which he made 
his appearance, but without remaining to answer to his 
name. A day or two after this occurrence, the sisters 
were alarmed by deceased rushing into the house where 
they were silting, when closing the door after him, he drew 
two pistols, declaring that he would be revenged. He 
immediately fired one of the pistols at the second sister, 
Sarah, which just grazed her forehead, but she made her 
escape without receiving any serious injury. Vaughan 
then fired a second pistol at the youngest, Harriet, who, 
in attempting to save her sister, had shut herself in the 
room with the murderer ; but fortunately, though the ball 
struck her shoulder and grazed her cheek, it caused only 
a slight wound, and she succeeded in making her escape 
through the window. The neighbours, being by this time 
alarmed, hastened to the spot^ and endeavoured to force 
the door open, when Vaughan fired a third pistol through 
the pannel, wounding one of the men in the thigh. The 
police, however, having arrived, the door was burst open ; 
but in the mean time two other shots were heard, and on 
entering the house Vaughan was found dead, having, with 
the last pistol, shot himself. An inquest was held on Sa- 
turday, when a verdict of Felo-de-se was returned. The 
affair has created considerable excitement in the town. — -A 
daring robbery has been committed in one of the suburbs 
of this town, at the Mount, the residence of Mr, Jlont- 
gomery, the poet. It appears that on Sunday evening, 
while all the inmates, except a maid-servant, were at 
church, two well-dressed men called, and saying they 
wished to write a note and leave it for Mr. Montgomery, 
succeeded in getting into the house, when, having bound 
the servant hand and foot, and shut her up in the cellar, 
they proceeded to ransack the house, which they robbed 
of money, plate, and other valuables to a large amount. 
On Mr. Alontgomery's return home, he was surprised to 
find the street-door wide open, and the servant crying for 
assistance in the cellar. The thieves, however, had dis- 
appeared with their plunder, and no traces of them have 
since been discovered. Among the articles stolen was a 
massive silver inkstand, presented to Mr. Montgomery by 
friends, principally ladies of Sheffield, as a public com- 
pliment, several years since. 

Windsor. — Active preparations are now making, both 
at the Castle and in St. George's Chapel, for the approach- 
ing christening of the Prince of Wales, on the 20th inst. 
A great number of workmen have, since Monday, been 
occupied in the chapel, making the necessary alterations, 
and on Saturday the first rehearsal of the music to be 
performed on the occasion took place in the presence of 
Prince Albert, by whom, it is said, the selection of the 
pieces has been made. It consists entirely of Handel's 
compositions, viz., the overture to ** Sampson,'' occasional 

OY6rtttr6s,agraud march from "Hsreules," and tli« Hal- 



lelujah Chorus. It is understood that the whole ceremony 
will be conducted on a scale of great splendour ; thirteen 
state carriages, with upwards of seventy horses, including 
the Hanoverian black and cream-coloured horses, have 
arrived from town ; and it is expected that there will 
be nearly one hundred carriages in the procession 
from the Castle to the chapel. During the christen- 
ing week, it is stated, there will be a grand review in 
the Great Park, when several regiments, in addition to 
the Royal Horse Guards (Blue) and the 72d Highlanders, 
are expected from the neighbourhood of London ; and it 
is rumoured that a park of artillery will arrive from 
Woolwich, in order that the military display in the pre- 
sence of the King of Prussia, &c., may be upon a grand 
and extensive scale. On the same day, it is reported, 
new colours will be presented to the 72d Highlanders; but 
it does not appear to be yet known whether that ceremony 
wiU be performed by Prince Albert or the Duke of Wel- 
lington. 

Railioays. — .Another serious slip took place on Friday 
the 7th inst. on the line of the London and Croydon Rail- 
way, near a place called Finch's Bridge, and immediately 
contiguous to the slip which took place a short time since. 
The quantity of earth which fell in was considerable, co- 
vering the rails on both sides for a distance of nearly 50 
yards, and to a depth of nine feet. It seems that the down- 
train had not long passed when the slip occurred, which 
was fortunately attended by no accident. A careful watch, 
it is stated, has been kept near this spot for the last two 
months, in consequence of several flakes of earth having 
fallen at various times, from which a shp was anticipated, 
though not of so serious a character as it has proved. Mr. 
Gregory, the resident engineer, at once repaired to the 
spot, accompanied by Mr. Wilkinson, the chairman, and 
Mr. Cubitt, consulting engineer of the company, and sir 
hundred men were set to work to remove the soil to a 
place near New Cross. In the course of the day, the num- 
ber of men was increased to one thousand, and a platform 
was erected, covered with an awning, for the purpose of 
conveying the passengers over the slip to the traini on 
that part of the line which is still free from obstruction, 
and the object of which is to prevent the closing of the 
line, and enable passengers to proceed on their journey 
without being detained longer than ten minutes. It is 
expected that the line will not be properly cleared for up- 
wards of a month. The accident is supposed to have been 
occasioned by the recent sudden variations in theweather. — 
An accident has happened on the branch of the St. Helen's 
and Runcorn Gap Railway, on the line of the London and 
Birmingham Railway. It appears, that as a train of coal- 
waggons was proceeding by the Union Plate-glass Works, 
at Pocket Nook, the swing bridge by which it should have 
crossed the Sankey canal was withdrawn, to allow a flat to 
pass, and, it is stated, without making the usual signal. 
The steam was immediately thrown off the engine, and the 
break applied ; but, finding that an accident was inevit- 
able, the engineer and stoker jumped off without receiving 
any injury, and the engine, with the tender and two of the 
waggons, were precipitated into the canaU With the ex- 
ception of the damage done to the engine, the accident 
was productive of no further mischief. — -We are informed 
by the " Railway Times" that the shareholders of the 
London and Birmingham Railway have recently presented 
to their chairman, G. C. Glyn, Esq., a piece of plate, of 
the value of upwards of sixteen hundred pounds, as a tokea 
of iheir approbation of the manner in which he has pre- 
sided over the affairs' of the railway during the last five 
years. — Another accident has happened on the line of the 
Great Western Railway in the Sunning cutting, near the 
spot where the late serious catastrophe occurred to the 
luggage train, whereby a policeman of the name of Dixon 
has lost his life. It appears that he was on the railway, 
signalling theup-train, when the down-train approached, 
unperceived by him, and killed him on the spot. — An ac- 
cident occurred on the JIanchester and Leeds Railway on 
Monday, owing to a collision of a luggage train and an 
engine and tender, by which an engineer was dangerously 
injured. It was stated at the time that this accident was 
followed by a second of a more fatal nature, occasioned by 
the rushing of the early passenger train amongst the broken 
carriages and overturned goods j but the report was found to 
be without foundation — the train, though delayed in con- 
sequence of the accident, having met with no injury. 

IRELAND. 
Dublin. — It has been intimated, in obedience to an 
order from the Lord Lieutenant and the Countess de 
Grey, to the gentlemen who intend appearing at the ap- 
proaching drawing-rooms, that they may adopt gold or 
silver tissue poplin for waistcoats, to be of any colour or 
pattern, only the usual cut or shape of Court waistcoats. 
This intimation, it is said, has been given in accordance 
with a suggestion made to the Viceroy and Lady de Grey, 
that it would be the means of greatly promoting employ- 
ment amongst the operatives of this city. It is stated that 
Sir J. Burgoyne and Mr. Pym are about to proceed from 
this city to be present at some experiments on the Atmo- 
spheric Railway, with Sir F. Smith and Professor Barlow, 
at Wormwood Scrubbs, the object of which is said to be 
to ascertain whether there is sufficient likelihood of success 
to justify the directors of the Dublin and Kingstown Rail- 
way in extending their line to Dalkey upon the atmo- 
spheric principle, and whether the Commissioners of Pub- 
lic Works in Ireland would be justified in lending money 
to the directors for this purpose. — On Sunday high mass 
was performed for the first time in the Mansion-house, 
Dr. M. Doyle, chaplain to the Lord Mayor, and Arch- 
deacon of Glendalagh, officiating. His lordship, and seve- 
ral members of his lordship's family and household, 

assembled on the gccaswn.T-Ths papers stats that a 



1842.:) 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



47 



curious will case is likely to occupy the attention of the 
legal profession this term, the particulars of which are as 
follows ; An old lady, a Roman Catholic, named Whe- 
lan, after leaving viirious sums to Catholic charities, 
directed that in case of failure of issue on the part of her 
son, a sum of 10,000/. to which he was entitled, should go 
to the "Archbishop of Dublin," meaning Dr. Murray, 
the Catholic bishop, whose name was mentioned in an- 
other part of the will, to be disposed of in charity as he 
might think proper. The son has died, and the money 
is claimed by the Commissioners of Charitable Bequests, 
on the part of the Protestant archbishop, inasmuch as the 
law does not recognise any other. — Intelligence was re- 
ceived on Monday that Howth Castle, the seat of the 
Earl of Howth, situate about nine miles north of this 
city, had taken fire, and that its destruction appeared 
inevitable. Before, however, the engines had proceeded 
far towards the spot, a second account reached, stating 
that the fire had been got under, owing to the presence 
of mind of the Countess of Howth, (his lordship being 
absent,) who, with the assistance of the domestics, threw 
wet blankets over the parts ignited, and thus extinguished 
the fire before it had done much damage. The accident 
is said to have been caused by the bursting of the fiue of 
an over-heated Arnott's stove. 

King's Courtly. — No official inquiry, beyond what was 
given in our last, has been instituted into the circum- 
stances connected with the death of the man Flanagan, 
near Philipstown, in this county. From communications, 
however, which h.ave appeared in the papers, it appears 
that the affair was much exaggerated ; that deceased, 
who was at the time greatly intoxicated, accidentally set 
his own clothes on fire with a candle, and thus received 
tlie injuries from the effects of which he afterwards 
died. It is also announced, that Mr. Magan, at whose 
house the alleged murder was perpetrated, is about to 
vindicate himself to his friends by an appeal in the 
shape of a criminal information to the Court of 
Queen's Bench. — A serious outrage was committed on 
the 28th ult. on a man named Patrick Morcan, his wife, 
daughter, and three sons, near Moneygall,in this county, by 
a party of persons from the parish of Toom, county Tippe- 
rary. The father died on the 1st inst., from the effects of 
the injuries he received ; the eldest son's life, it is said, is 
despaired of ; and all the others appear to have been se- 
riously injured. An inquest has been held, and, after a 
lengthened investigation, a verdict was returned of " Wil- 
ful murder" against Michael Shannahan, Thady Gleeson, 
John Kennedy, and William Kennedy, who have been 
taken into custody, and committed to take their trial. 
There are other parties, it is said, impHcated in the affair, 
but they have not yet been apprehended. 

Tipperar!/. — The gentry of this county have held a 
meeting in Clonmel, to give expression to their regret at 
the late wanton act of poisoning the Marquis of Water- 
ford's hounds, noticed in our last Number. The Chair- 
man, Mr. Moon, of Barr, said he would not be a party to 
offering a reward, as that might stimulate other ill-dis- 
posed persons to commit a like offence ; but he would sug- 
gest that an address be presented to the noble marquis, 
expressing indignation at the outrage. The proposal was 
agreed to, and an address drawn up, which, it is said, re- 
ceived several hundreds of signatures. 

Ulster — A decision which has produced general ex- 
citementjn this province, has just been given in the Court 
of Queen's Bench, Dublin, whereby all marriages in 
Ireland celebrated by Presbyterian ministers, where 
both parties are not Presbyterians, are declared invaUd. 
The Presbyterians in this county, it is stated, amount to 
upwards of 600,000, and hitherto it appears that the 
celebration of marriages between Presbyterians and the 
members of other communities by Presbyterian ministers 
has been very general. 



SCOTLAND. 

Edinburgh. — A local paper states that Ministers have 
intunated that they intend to grant 10,000/. for the esta- 
blishment of two normal schools, one in this city and one 
in Glasgow, with 1,000/. a year to defray the annual 
charge of management in both. 

Glasgow. — A case of considerable interest has been 
under the investigation of the magistrates of this city, in- 
volving a charge of embezzlement to a serious extent 
against^ Mr. R. Smith, one of the tellers of the Glasgow 
and Ship Bank. It appears that information having been 
given to the police, by persons connected with the bank, 
that there were in Mr. Smith's cash transactions defi- 
ciencies to the extent of 2,000/., that gentleman was taken 
into custody; and the books and papers found in his 
lodgings having been examined, there were found numerous 
documents of a suspicious character, and, among others, 
several bank checks for various sums, from 300/. to 
1,000/., on different banks, on which was the name of Mr. 
Wishart, wine and spirit merchant. High-street. It also 
appears that on being apprehended, Mr. Smith said that 
"he had been made a tool of," adding that he was "a 
second Beaumont Smith," or expressions of a similar im- 
port.^ In consequence of these expressions, and the dis- 
coveries above made, Mr. Wishart was also taken into cus- 
tody ; and among his effects it is stated there were found 
certam documents inducing the belief that the sum defi- 
cient must be to a much larger amount than at first re- 
ported, reaching, it is thought, to upwards of 10,000/. ; 
and that Wishart had obtained cash from Smith to the 
amount of 6,000/. The system by means of which this 
fraud was effected does not appear to be known. The 
investigation before the magistrates has been conducted in 
private; but the above facts have transpired, and are 
stated to be correct. The prisoners have been committed 
to prison, to await a further examiBation,— Oa Saturday 



an accident occurred on the Wishaw and Coltness Railway, 
by which two lives were lost. The particulars appear to 
be as follows : the railway runs on an inclined plane as far 
as the village of Motlierwell, and the waggoners, before 
starting from the top of the line at New Melius, are in the 
habit of placing the horses in a carriage or basket, when 
the train moves down the rails by its own momentum. On 
this occasion the waggoner followed the usual custom, and 
at the same time gave a man and woman a drive in one of 
the waggons. The train had proceeded to about half a 
mile from Wishaw when the first waggon entered a " lye" 
— the tongue having been left open — and being thus di- 
verted from the straight course at the moment it was mov- 
ing with great speed, it was overturned, and killed the two 
passengers on the spot. The accident is said to have 
been occasioned in a great measure by the carelessness 
of the driver. Each waggoner, it appears, has a large 
block between the wheels of the waggons that can be im- 
mediately put into operation, and restrain the speed, by 
simply moving a handle at the side of the vehicle. It is 
further said to be the driver's duty to go slowly when ap- 
proaching lyes on the line, but that none of these precau- 
tions were observed on this occasion. 

Slirl'mg. — It appears that trade in this town and the 
surrounding district has been for some time, and still con- 
tinues, in a depressed and discouraging condition. The 
local journals announce that three failures of houses con- 
nected with the woollen trade have taken place in the 
town within the last few days, and that it is feared these 
are merely the forerunners of a series of similar calami- 
ties. A great number of working people have been thrown 
out of employment in consequence, and general distress 
begins to prevail among the operative classes. 

Paisley. — It is stated that the Lord Advocate has re- 
quested the Procurator Fiscal for the district to forward 
an official report regarding the recent stoppage of pay- 
ments by this town, and the ^institution of the savings' 
fund by the corporation. 

Greenock The half-yearly meeting of the Glasgow and 

Greenock Railway Company has been held in this town, 
at which it was unanimously resolved that a dividend of 
four per cent, for the past six months be paid to the 
shareholders. 



iMt'scellanEoiis. 

Emigration. — The following return which has been 
lately published, shows that emigration is still proceeding 

upon an extensive scale. Emigration from the United 
Kingdom : — 

England. Scotland. Ireland. Total. 
To North American ' 

Colonies . . . 5,305 3,053 23,935 32,293 
United States . . 35,309 1,246 4,087 40,642 
Other parts of Ame- 
rica .... 44 -r- — 44 
West Indies . . 745 C87 159 1,591 
The Cape ... 315 8 — 323 
Australia and New 

Zealand . . . 14,495 817 538 15,850 



56,213 5,811 28,719 90,743 
The late Census. — From the recent population returns 
there appears to be an almost exact uniformity in the 
proportion of males to females in England, for the last 
three out of the five censuses taken during the present 
century. The disproportion is greater in the two first 
periods, which is supposed to have been occasioned by 
the extensive draughts of the population requisite to carry 
on the war. In England, in 1801, there were 47'86 
males to 52-14 females ; and in 1811, the proportion was 
47-97 to 52-03. In 1821 there were 48-69 males to 5 1-31 
females; in 1831 there were 4S-71 to 51-29 ; and in 
1841 the proportion was 48-82 to 51-18. No ijlistinction 
of sex was made in the published returns earlier than 
1821, except for England. For the whole of Great Bri 
tain, in 1821, there were 48-44 males to 51-56 females ; 
in 1831,48-49 to 51-51; and in 1841, the proportion 
was 48-64 to 51-36. — We also learn from the report of the 
registrar-general, that selecting the Metropolis and twenty- 
four of the principal town and city districts, and com- 
paring the registration returns from these districts with 
similar returns obtained from counties containing a less 
dense population, in which the inhabitants are chiefly en- 
gaged in agriculture, Mr. Farr has ascertained that the 
mean duration of life in the two classes of districts diggers 
nearly seventeen years, the average of life between fifty-five 
years in the country and only thirty-eight in the towns. 
The density of the population in the country districts 
referred to, compared to that in the towns, is as 10 to 
245 ; the mortality as 100 to 144. The returns also 
show an increase in the number of habitable houses 
within the last 40 years of no less than 89 per cent., 
whilst the population has only increased during the same 
period in the average of 78 per cent. In 1811 the actual 
increase of inhabited houses was 231,121, in 1821 it was 
328,033, in 1831 there were 421,307, and in 1841 it was 
not less than 593,911. With, respect to empty habitable 
houses, however, it seems that in 1801 they were 3-45 per 
cent., in 1811 as low as 2-88 ; in 1821 they were 3-27, in 
1831 they were 4-44, and in 1841 no fewer than 5-41 per 
cent. It appears, therefore that in the present year there 
are nearly one-fourth more houses empty than in 1831. 

A Female Village. — The following account appears in 
the Augsburg Gazette : — " The village of Madana, which 
is about sixty English miles from Rustchuk, in Walla- 
chia, offers at the present moment a curious ethnogra- 
phical singularity, having been inhabited by women only 
for the last thirty years. At one period this feminine po- 
pulation amounted to 2,000. The ladies did not live as 

Tfarrigrs, like the Amazons of old, but aToids(l_ all inter- 



course with men, and drove away from their territories all 
who approached with matrimonial intentions. This anti- 
social settlement is now supposed to he on the dechne ; 
at least, no more recruits are made from the disappointed 
or the love-crossed, and the members of the population 
are rapidly decreasing. These women are nearly all Ma- 
hometans." 



Hato. 

Court op Chancery. — Attorney -General v. Corporation of Ply- 
moH(/(.— This was an appeal from an order of the Master of the Rolls. 
The plaintiff claimed, as part of a charitable hequest, the possession 
of the leat constructed by the celebrated circumnavigator Sir Francis 
Drake, a watt-r-course running through the town of Plymouth, and 
supplying part of the houses with water. The corporation alleged 
that it was the waste water only whicli belonged to the charity. To 
determine this point, inspection of the original grant and other papers 
became necessary. The Master of the Itolla, however, refused leave 
to amend, on the ground that due diligence had not been used in the 
conduct of the suit, and in preparing the amendments. The Lord 
Chancellor briefly intimated his opinion that no unreasonable delay 
had occurred, and tlierefore the application to amend must be granted. 

In re Turner. — This was an application for conHmiation of the 
report in this case. The Lord Chancellor said that there was a refer- 
ence in the report to some leases ; but they were not set out as they 
ought to be. The better way, to save expense, would be to put in 
the original deeds, and verify them by aftida'\it before the officer. 
The report might then pass without further appliration to the Court. 

Vice-Chancelloii's Covkt. —fSalishxtry v. Morricc.— Th.is. Euit» 
which was heard at great length in Michaelmas term, was instituted 
by Mrs. Salisbury, daughter of the late Mr. F. Webb, who formerly 
carried on an extensive business as land-agent and sun-eyor, in part- 
nership with his nephew, Mr. Eichard ^^'ebb, and Mr. Attwood, at 
Salisbury', and the bill prayed an account against the representatives 
of Mr. K. AVebb, of those sums of money which, but for his ^'ilful 
default, might have been received by him in his alleged character of 
agent for I^lrs. Salisbury in respect of her being executrix of Mr. F. 
"Webb's personal estate, and also as land-agent for her in the manage- 
ment of the extensive real estate of wliich she was devisee for life 
under Mr. F. Webb's will. A cross-suit was instituted by the repre- 
sentatives of IMr. K. AVebb against Mrs. Salisbury, and the argument 
was raised upon the two suits. The A'ice-ChanceUor, in gi\ing 
judgment, entered at length into several points, wliich he said must 
be considered with regard to the form in which the decree should be 
made, and concluded by saying that he thought, on all the evidence 
taken together, Mr. I?. Webb was a man of great probity, though it 
was shown in the correspondence, as early as I8i7, complaints were 
made by Mrs. Salisbury of his not receiving the rents, and his back- 
wardness was also referred to by Lord Fitzharris and other persons ; 
but Ids Honour supposed the fact to he, that his talents were such, 
that he was employed by more people than allowed him time to 
execute all his business, and that a fall which he received rendered 
him, in some degree, physically unable to get through the load of 
business that was thrust upon "him. His character appeared, in a 
moral point of view, to have been quite irreproachable, but he was 
certainly negligent in maldng out those accounts which, as agent, it 
was his duty to have made out from time to time. He should there- 
fore pronounce one decree in both suits for an account to_be taken, 
and in that account he was of opinion that H. Webb's estate ought 
to be charged vdth what he might have received but for \\Tlfiil default. 

JiPDuffw Hi/dc and (mother.' — This was a motion cx-partc for an 
injunction on behalf of the plaintiff, who was an officer in the British 
Auxiliary Legion in Spain, to restrain the defendant, Hyde, from 
receiving any further instalments on a tilulo, or certificate, given him 
in Spain for the amount due to him for his services. The injunction 
was also asked against the Spanish agent authorised to pay the 
money. His Honour thought it a case for an injunction. 

Cockburn v. Singleton. — The substance of this case, which now 
stood for judgment, and which had already occupied the Court seve- 
ral days in the sittings after last Michaelmas term, was as follows :— 
In the year 1833, the Dean of York, the plaintiff, entered into a 
treaty or contract with William Henry Thompson, for the pujrchasa 
of a reversionary lease for lives of property in the county of York, 
beiug the farm at Kilham, containing about 570 acres, certain money 
payments at Kilham, amounting to 102^,, in lieu of rectorial tithes, 
and also a moiety of the rectorial tithes of the parish of Swathorpe, 
in the same county. The beneficial interest in the lease was vested 
in an elderly lady of the name of Anne Thompson, for life, and it 
subsequently became vested in William Henry Thompson. The 
farm at the time was in the occupation of the defendant Milner, and 
had been so for some years. Be held it as a yearly tenant under 
Anne Thompson, at a rent of between four and five hundred a-year. 
A passage had been read from one of the answers — from that of the 
defendant Singleton — showing that in the year 1834, the Dean, who 
thought the rent too low, was told by John Singleton, the younger, 
who was a suneyor or land agent, that he thought it was a fair rent. 
In April 1833, the treaty with AVilliam Henr>' Thompson was 
brought to a conclusion by a written agreement between him and the 
Dean, by which it was agreed that in consideration of 40lV. paid 
down, and 6, UOW. to be paid in the course of six months, the lease 
subject to Anne Thompson's life estate should be conveyed to the 
Dean. The Dean gave his bond for the (jOUOZ. It was in proof be- 
tween the parties that Singleton was consulted by the Dean on the 
Eubject of this purchase, and that he was to find the 6000^. for the 
Dean v.hen the purchase-money became payable, and agreeing to 
give him the preference in purchasing the lease when the reversion 
should come into possession. Milner, in his answer, stated his 
belief that the plaintiff had, for some years previously to 1835, em- 
ployed the defendant Singleton as his agent in the management of 
his affairs ; but he did not find in the answer any distinct statement 
whether, in April 1835, Milner bad or had not such behef, nor 
was he aware that such a question was put to him by the bill. His 
Honour Vice-Chancellor Bruce, in gtnng judgment, said it was 
necessary to see how far the parties stood in the same situation as 
they did at the close of 1835. It appeared that in 183(i iMilner tiled 
a bill for the purpose of establishing the agency of Singleton in the 
agreement of April, and to obtain a conveyance of the property in 
question. Singleton denied the agency and defended the suit, and 
both parties went into evidence. The Dean and othei-s were ex- 
amined, and in July 1840 a decree was made, directing an isssue to 
try the agency, which was found, at York, in favour of Milner. Sin- 
gleton afterwards moved unsuccessfully for a new trial, and on the 
21st July, 1841, a decree was made for a conveyance. The Dean 
was no party to the suit of Milner, nor was it necessary, for the legal 
estate had ^passed out of the Dean, and was vested in Singleton 
by the agreement of August 1835. MUner's suit was instituted 
within five months after the lease was granted ; but it was not until 
three years after the commencement of Milner's suit that the pre- 
sent bill was filed : and now the Court was asked to undo or to ren- 
der fruitless all that the verdict and the decree had done by taking 
back this property, to which Milner had been declared entitled after 
so much anxious and expensive litigation. His Honour, therefore, 
was of opinion that the plaintiff's own delay and conduct since May 
1835 precluded him relief as far as Milner was concerned. Con- 
sidering that the plaintiff himself did not put his case higher than 
inquiry — considering, too, the manner in which he had brought be- 
fore the Court the main question in the cause, and, moreover, con- 
Eidering his delaj-— he felt that he must dismiss the bill against 
Singleton as well as against MUner ; but he should not give any costs. 

Walker v. Jeffreys. — In 1791, John Read, being th« owner of cer- 
tain tenements and parcels of arable, meadow, and pasture land, 
consisting of about 47 acres, situate at Tibbington, in the county of 
Stafford, which was subject to a mortgage to Abraham Cocker, and 
being also owner of the mines and minerals under the same land, 
was desirous of working such mines, for the benefit of himself and 
partners, W. Bancks and J. Dumaresq ; and for that purpose 
Cocker joined with him (Bead) in conveying the premises to John 
Carpenter, in fee, to enable Carpenter to grant a lease of the same 
premises to Read and his partners. The lease was accordingly 

sraatsa, aaUwas tQi. ft t«na of 43 jews, wseinriPSft feat foi the 



48 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 15, 



Surface and a roj'alty for the minerals ; and it contained a covenant 
*hat the lessor nvould grant a renewed lease of the premises for a 
term of 21 years, to commence from the expiration of the first lease. 
The defendant refused to make a further lease, and the present bill 
was filed two years and upwards after the refusal for a specific per- 
formance of the covenant to grant the new lease. His Honour Vice 
Chancellor Wiyram, after entering at length into the merits of the 
case, said he should direct an issue to try the question, whether the 
mines were droi\-ned out by reason of any default in the lessees in 
not fully getting and regularly working the same mines, according to 
the covenants in the lease ? He did not intend that these should be 
the exact words of the issue. It would be better to have the form of 
the issue discussed, so that the real question in this respect might be 
properly sent to trial, and at the same time the opinion of a court of 
law obtained upon the construction of the covenant. 

2Iorris V.Vivian and olhas. — This was an application for an injunc- 
tion to restrain the defendants, who constitute the Swansea Coal 
Company, from continuing open the pit or shaft on the AVemtield 
Collien,', which is situate in Glamorganshire, or any pit or shaft, not 
being sufficiently secure and made water-tight ; and from continuing 
or using any pit or shaft, whereby the surface or crop-water should 
be drained into the plaintiff's colliery and works. The Vice-Chan- 
cellor did not Ihink it was a case for an injunction, which was ac- 
cordingly refused. 

Faitlt and Another \. Aguilar and Gibbs and Co. — This was an 
application to the Court made on behalf of the defendants, Messrs. 
Gibbs and Crawley, to dissolve an injunction which was awarded by 
this Court on the 4th July, lySS, restraining the defendant Aguilar 
and his agents from getting-in any part of the outstanding personal 
estate of Dominigo Mattey, in England, and restraining the defend- 
ants, Messrs. Gibbs and Co., from paying over to Aguilar, or to any 
person, save under the direction of the Court, any sum or sums of 
money due from them to tlie same estate, until the said defendant 
Aguilar had answered the phiintitF 's hill ; and the present notice of 
motion also asked that in cnse the Court should not deem it fit to 
absolutely dissolve the injunction, that it would at least dissolve so 
much of the injunction as restrained the I^Iessrs. Gibbs from proceed- 
ing in in action at law which they had brought against the plaintiffs 
upon certain bills of exchange in their possession. L!is Honour Sir 
L. Shadwell, decided that the injunction should remain in force 
against the parties, except as to that portion of it which restrained 
Messrs. Gibbs and Co. from proceeding in their action at lawupon the 
bills of exchange, and which action at law his Honour thought the 
defendants, Messrs. Gibbs and Co., might have, under the ch-cum- 
stances of the case, they being merely trustees of the bills, and not 
the agents of Aguilar, who have hitherto prosecuted notwithstanding 
the injunction which in this case has been obtained against them. 

Thompson V. Derham and others. — His Honour, Vice-Chancellor 
"Wigram, gave judgment in this case, which had been heard in his 
private room on the 3lst pec. and the 4th inst. 3t had been brought 
on as a motion for an injunction to restrain the defendants, who were 
assignees, from pa\ing any di\idend which might be declared upon 
debts which had been, or hereafter might be proved against the 
joint and separate estate of the bankrupts until the further order 
of the Court, or, at all events, ^\ithout resening so much as v,-ould 
insure -1IJ,0U'J^., ^nth interest, to which the plaintiff claimed to be 
entitled under the will of a Mr. "\V. Hind, who had during his life 
become a partner with the bankrupts, in the trade of worsted- 
spinners and wooUtaplers. ' His Honour, after reading through the 
articles of partnership, and the will of the testator, and also referring 
to the proceedings which hid already tak^n place in the Couit of"" 
Review, the details of which were wholly 'uninteresting, stated tha,t 
he should refuse the motion. 

Rolls CoLRT. — Thorp v. Oiven and rAhcrs. — In this case the plain- 
tiff moved for libertx to make an entry in the Six Clerks' office of a 
memorandum of tbft, service of the copy of the plaintiffs' bill, which 
was a §upi»lementaldne, omitting the interrogating part thereof, upon 
John AViliis Grane, one of the defendants.— Order gi-anted. 

In the matter of Browne'' 'J Charity. — This was a petition presented 
by Walter Hunter, John Trulock, and A\'alter Gandy, praying that 
the Rev. Hamlet Harrison, rector of St. :i\Jai-y, Stratford, Bow, and 
AVilliam Hoile, might be compelled to transfer a sum of 1 ,-iW)L, so as 
to vest the same in the Rev. H. Harrison and "William Hoile, jointly 
with Walter Hunter, who had been appointed a trustee. JS'o ob- 
jection, it appears, was made by the' defendants to the transferring- 
the fund, but they claimed exemption from the costs of the petition. 
Lord Langdale said that the costs which had been incurred had been 
occasioned by the rector; and therefore he nmst pay, not only the 
costs of the petitioner, but also those of Sir. Hoile. 

Coi'RT OF Qn:Ex's Bencu. — The Queen v. JohnKciiiUc Chapman, 
Printer and Ptiblishcr of the " Sunday Ti7rics." — This was an appli- 
cation on the part of 'Mr. Grove, the police magistrate of Greenwich, 
for a rule calliag upon defendant to show cause why a criminal in- 
formation should not be filed against him for a libel on Mr. Grove, 
which had appeared in the Sunday 2'(j/?r.ynewspaper of the istNov., 
1&41. The article complained of was headed, "Heartless Conduct 
of Mr. Grove, the magistrate," and contaiued some severe animad- 
versions on Mr. Grove's conduci; as a magistrate. — Rule gi'anted. 

The Queen v. Ike London and Greenwich Itailwoy Comjiany. — This 
was an appUcation for a rule caUing upon defendants to show cause 
why a mandamus should not issue, commanding them to direct a 
precept to the sheriff of Surrey to empannel a jury for the purpose of 
assessing the amount of compensation which ouglit to he awarded to 
Messrs. I'ayae and Slee, vinegar-merchants, in Chui'ch- street, Ber- 
mondsey, for the injury which they had sustained in consequence of 
the construction of the railway. — Rule granted. 

71<e Q'j/-m v. the lieu. Henry C'.eveland. — This was an application 
on the part of Earl Fitzhardinge for a rule calling upon the defendant 
to show cauee why a criminal information should not be filed against 
him for a libel on the noble Lord The libel complained of consisted 
In a letter signed "Junius," addressed to her Majesty, which ap- 
peared in the Morning JJeratd on the 27th Aug., in which the ^vrite^ 
went on to tell a story of a certain person who had seduced and 
carried off by force a young lady from Clifton, in the neighbourhood 
of Bristol. Allusions were made in the letter of such a character 
that the noble Earl felt satisfied he was the party refciTcd to, and on 
instituting inquiries he had ascertained that the defendant was the 
author of the letter. — Itiile granted. 

The Q'/cen v, the PoHinas/er- Genera I. —This was a motion for a 
rule to show cause why a 7n^//(rff(mM5 should not, issue to the Bost- 
master-General, or the proper officer under him, commanding him to 
deliver up to the interim factor (so called in the Scotch law, but who 
acts in the chai-acter of an English assignee) of Arthur Stvahan and 
Co.'s bankrupt estate, all the letters which might come to the post- 
office addressed to the bankrupts. The Bostmaster-f General, it 
Beems, had intimated that he could not comply with the wish of the 
factor. Lord Benman said that the case waa one of perfect novelty. 
If the learned counsel could find any case requiring the court to act 
on the future conduct of the Bostma^ter-General, be might renewthe 
application, othenvise it must now be considered as refused. 

The Queen v, Thomm Itf/wl^-y.—Thia, was an application for a rule 
calling upon the defendant to show cause why an information in the 
nature of a qno warranlo should not issue commanding him to shov-- 
by what authority he exercised the office of town -councillor of Lich- 
field.— Rule granted. 

Jmv:s V. Gurdon.—Th\s was an action for tre'^pa.'is. The defendant 
was a justice of the peace in the county of Sufi'olk, and had con- 
victed plaintiff under the game laws, for having unlawfully had a 
, hare in his pO'^ci^-sion, not being lii^ensed for that purpose. The in- 
ftjrmation on which the defend;irit adjudicitted had been originally 
laid before another justice. The plaintiff brought this action for 
faUe imprisonment, alleging that, under tliese circumstances, the 
conviction was illegal. At the triai, the jury assessed the damages at 
lOi. ; but the judge nonsuited the phiintiff on some technical objec- 
tions, giving liim , however, leave to move the court to enter the verdict 
in his favour for the amount of the damages assessed. A rule had 
since been obtained, according to the leave reser\'cd, and the case was 
argued in the course of hwt term. Lord Benman now delivered 
judgment, and -aid Ihfit the Cmirt w,-ts clearly of ojiininn that under 
the game :ii-ts it Wii,-, not romjictent fur <j?ie jnstire-to hcjir and di;- 
umiine » cvDipJuiut wliich Iwd i'r«Yioi(?)iy hevu exhibited- hrfor» 



another justice, and therefore the rule for entering the verdict for the 
plaintiff" for the damages found at the trial must be absolute. 

The Queen v. Topping. — This was a case in which a rule had been 
obtained to file a criminal information against the defendant for the 
publication, in a Hull newspaper, of a libel upon the justices assem- 
bled at the Hull sessions, in which certain slanderous imputations 
were cast by him upon them with relation to the matter of granting 
licences. The counsel for the defendant, however, having said that 
he was instructed by his client to apologize for the libel, the rule was 
discharged. 

Durbon v. Rosser. — This was an action for a breach of promise of 
marriage tried last term, when the jury returned a verdict for plain- 
tiff, with 1 ,600/. damages. An abstract of the trial was given in this 
paper at the time. An application was now made for a rule to show 
cause why the verdict should not be set aside and a new trial should 
not be had, on the ground that the damages were excessive. The 
Court intimated that it would he as well for the parties to have time 
to consider whether they could not agree to fix some reasonable 
amount of damages, and therefore gave leave to the learned counsel 
to mention the case again in a week's time. 

Brune v. Thompson. — This was an application for a rule to show 
cause why a nonsuit entered in this case should not be set aside, and 
a new trial granted. — Rule granted. 

The Queen v. Kenrich the elde)' and younger. — This was an in- 
dictment against the two defendants for conspiracy to defraud G. W. 
Featherstonhaugh of a sum of 168/. by falsely representing a phaeton 
and a pair of ponies to be the property of a lady. The case was tried 
before Lord Denman, when a verdict of guilty was pronounced. 
Application was now made to set aside that verdict on several 
grounds. — Rule to show cause granted. 

Bail Court.— J)oc dem. Start v. il/o&&^.— This was a motion for 
a rule to show cause why the plaintiff should not he at liberty to 
issue an execution on the judgment obtained in the cause, notwith- 
standing a writ of error.— Rule granted. 

Exparte Bernard Cavanagh. — This was a motion for a writ of 
habeas corpus, directed to the Keeper of Reading gaol, to bring up 
the body of Bernard Cavanagh, who had been committed to Read- 
ing gaol under a warrant which it was submitted was illegal. The 
details of this case have already appeared in this paper. Mr. Justice 
Williams said, that he woidd grant a rule to show cause why a vrrit 
of habeas corpus should not issue. He did so on the ground that it 
was doubtful whether the defendant had been guilty of an offence 
that brought him within the provisions of the Vagrant Act. He did 
not think there was anything in the objection taken by the counsel 
of the defendant, that the false pretence that he could fast five years 
and a half had not been negatived. 

CoL'RT OF Coni-MON Bleas. — AvcUtt V. Goddard. — This was an 
apphcation for a rule to show cause why the verdict found by the ar- 
bitrator in this case should not stand, and the issues be entered gene- 
rally for the plaintiff. The action was for a debt of 30U/., and de- 
fendant pleaded, in the first place, the general issue ; secondly, pay- 
ment ; and thirdly, a set-off to a greater amount than the sum claimed 
in the declaration. — Rule granted, 

Harrison and others y. Heaihorn and others, — This was an applica- 
tion for a rule to show cause why the verdict which had been found 
for the plaintiffs should not he set aside, and a verdict be entered for 
the defendants. The action was tried before the Lord Chief Justice 
at the London sitting after last term, and was brought to recover a 
sum of money from the defendants, as the shareholders and director* 
of the Anglo-American Gold Mining Association. Several objections 
were made during the trial, but overruled ; and his Lordship directed 
the jury to find a verdict for the plaintiffs, giving the defendants leave 
to move. — Rule granted. 

Crawshay v. Thompson and others.- — This action, it will he remem- 
bered, was tried at the London sittings after last term, before the 
Lord Chief Justice, and was brought by Mr. Crawshay, the iron- 
master, against the defendants, Alderman Thompson and Messrs. 
Foreman, his partners, on the ground that they had improperly 
marked their iron with the letters " W. O.," in an oval, in order 
that it might be taken in the Turkey market for the iron of Mr. 
Crawshay, which bore the mark of " W. C' in an oval. Applica- 
tion was now made for a rule to show cause wliy that verdict should 
not be set a.side and a new trial had, on the ground of misdii'ection, 
and of its being against evidence,— Rule granted. 

Bnlmer and another v. Gillman. — This was amotion for a rule to 
sho^v cause why the verdict which had been found for the plaintiff 
should not be set aside and a new trial had. The cause was tried 
before the Lord Chief Justice at the Middlesex sittings after last 
term, and was brought by the plaintiffs to recover a sum of money for 
work and labour done as parliamentary agents in carrying a bill 
t!u-ough the House of Lords for improving the city of Norwich. The 
motion was made on the ground of misdirection. The Court granted 
the rule. 

Court of ExcHEtj,ijEn.' — The Attorney General v. Pearson. — The 
Attorney- General said he was anxious to obtain the opinion of the 
Court on a question of very great importance touching the jurisdiction 
of the Court. Their Lordships, were aware thathy a late Act of Bar- 
liament the equity province of the Court in ordinary cases between sub- 
ject and subject was abohshed , and all proceedings then pending at the 
equity side of the Court were transferred to the Court of Chancery. 
The question which he wished to submit to their Lordships was, 
whether the equity jurisdiction of the Court in revenue causes, as well 
as in cases between subject and subject, had been transferred to the 
Court of Chancery ? He admitted that the language of the Act of 
Barliament left the matter in some doubt, but he believed that the 
opinion of persons best acquainted with the subject was, that the 
framers of tlie Act did not intend the equity jurisdiction of the Court 
in revenue causes to be transferred. Lord Abinger said that the 
Court would give no definite opinion on the point, but they thought 
it better that the matter should be argued in the first instance before 
the Lord Chancellor. 

Neiison V. Harford. — This was an action for the infringement of a 
patent which was tried before Baron Barke, and a verdict found for 
the plaintiff, with one shDling damages. An application was now 
made on the part of the defendant for a rule calling on the plaintiff to 
show cause why the Master should not he directed to reriew his tax- 
ation. — Rule granted. 

Hutchinson v. Hughes. — This was an apphc;'ition to set aside a 
judgment in an action on scire facias against the defendant as the 
public officer of a banking cominany. — Ride to show cause granted. 

Sheriff's Court. — The Qiiecii v. Hie late Theodore Hook.—'L'he 
Court sat specially on Monday for the piu-pose of executing a writ of 
extent which had )>een sued out at the instance of the Crown, to in- 
quire v.hat property the late Theodore Hook was possessed of and 
entit!'-d to at the time of his death. Mr. Rowe, who appeared for 
the Crown, in stating the facts of the case to the jury, said that in 
1813 Mr. Hook obtained an appointment under government in the 
Mauritius, which he continued to fill till 1318, when it was found 
there was a certain deficiency in his accounts, and a commission was 
appointed to inquire into them, the result of which was that he was 
found to be indebted to the Crown in the sum of 12,585/. 14^. 6rf. 
The Oown issued an extent against him at the time, but on the peti- 
tion of himself and some friends it was superseded. Still, however, 
if the Court should be of opinion that Mr. Hook was a Crown debtor, 
his property would be hablc to be seized by the Crown, inasmuch as 
his other debts and liabilities were incurred at a subsequent i)eriod. 
it apjjeared that before his death, IMr. Hook, who had been in dilH- 
culties, borrowed ■WiMH. of a Mr. Joel Edwards, as security for which 
Mr. Hook made over to that gentleman a quarter share of the profits 
and stock in tnide of the " John Bull" newspaper, of which he was 
po'-sessed at the time, and further promised to insure his life for 
2iJ(K)/. 'Jhis, however, he failed to do, and Mr. Edwards liad done it 
for him to the amount of 4000/. Tlie ju'emium Mr. lOdwaids had 
paid out of a sum of 400/. a year, which be received fro.m the " John 
Bull" office, upon the order of Mr. Hook, who as editor of that pub- 
lication received .500/, a year. On tlie whole, Mr, Edwards adiuittod 
he had received 2.300/. in tliis way, and on the death of Mr. lloolthad 
been paid the 4000/. from the insurance office, Mr, Rowe said that 
the Crown v/as anxious to do justice ; but if Mr. Edwards insisted 
Tipon the course he hail ado))ted. Mie Crown would take tlm higli 
ground <if aM?crting it^ iiviority uf claim, and the niojlgagc d<-i.-d licjd 

on Mr, Uook's mtvrt'il in Uk *' JyJm IfitU" >yf uUl K- Ihvahy rvn- 



dered as valueless as a piece of waste paper. Witnesses were then 
ealled by Mr. Rowe, and their testimony established the truth of the 
above statement. Mr. Edwards also underwent a lengthened exami- 
nation, dxiring which he admitted the facts as stated by Mr. Rowe, 
but added that Mr. Hook altogether owed him 8000/. at the time of 
his death, and he had applied the 4000/. towards liquidating that 
amount. Mr. Hopldnson addressed the court on behalf of Mr. Ed- 
wards, and contended that he was justified in what he had done; and 
after considerable discussion, the jury returned a verdict setting forth 
the facts as they appeared in eridence, and leaving the parties to 
contest the matter hereafter in the Court of Exchequer. 



TATTERSALL'S— Thursday. 

The Derby.- The only bets laid were 1,000 to 25 agst Mr. G. 

Clark's Meteor, 1,000 to 25 agst Lord "NVestminster's Auckland, 

2,000 to 40 agst Lord Chesterfield's Joanna colt, and 2,500 to 50 

agst Mr. Bettit's Espartero. No others mentioned. 



MARK LANE, Friday, Jan. 14.— The new Wheat sold on 
Monday comes in bad condition, consequently several refusals 
have taken place, from which cause the market is exceeding^ly 
flat. In free Foreign there has been scarcely any business doing-, 
but there is some inquiry for floating cargoes of yellow Polish ait 
50s.; freight and insurance included. — Barley, Peas and Beans 
remain as on Monday. — The Oat trade is in a state of stag'nation. 

BRITISH, per Imperiiil Quarter. *, *. t. g. 

Wheat, Essex, Kent, and Suffulk . . . White 56 to 72 Red 56to64 

Norfolk, LioL-ulnshii-eand Yoikshire . . . 64 to (iS "White 6"0lo64 

Barley Waiting and distilling 26 tn30 Grind, 24 to 38 

Oats, Lincolnshire and.Yorkahire .... Polands 18 to 23 Feed 18 to 22 

Northumberland and Scotch .... Feed 22 to 23 PoiKlo 24 to 26 

Irish Feed 14 to £0 Potato 18 to 23 

Rye .3Gto42 

Beansj Mazagan, old and new . 26 to 36 Tick 27 to 4i) Harrow 30 to 4J 

Pigeon, Heligoland . . . 36 to 44 Winds. 46 to 50 Lonp;pod32 to40 

Peas, White 32 to 35 Maple 30 to 33 Grey ao„io i 

WEEKLY IMPERIAL AVERAGES. 



ij ireeks' Aggregate Aver.' 62 U 
Duties 



Wheat. 


Barley. 


Oata. 


Rye. 


Beans. 


Peaa. 


C3 G 


3t 9 


22 2 


44 6 


39 4 


39 7 


62 7 


30 9 


22 2 


44 8 


39 


39 4 


62 D 


30 5 


21 6 


39 5 


37 9 


39 '0 


62 10 


30 2 


21 1 


44 8 


37 


36 e 


m I 


20 9 


20 7 


43 6 


36 


37 2 


61 


29 7 


20 7 


39 9 


36 


35 10 


62 U 


30 5 


21, 4 


42 9 


37 6 


.37 U 


24 8 


IC 10 


)5 3 


S Q 


14 


. 14 



GAZEITE OF THE WEEK. 

INSOLVENTS.— J. Nettleton, Old H^ii Inn, Ealing, Middlesex, licensed 
victualler— J. Ctiles, Victoria. Moninouthshire, surgeon and apothecary — T. 
HesWip, Ripley, Yorkshire, achonlmaster— J G. Smitn, Bath, common brewer 
— J. Cuisset, Blackfriars-road, Surrey, jeweller, 

BANKRUPTS.— T. Kitchener, Arundel street, Coventry-street.'Middlesex, 
engraver- J. Goodwin, Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, innkeeper— S. Moore» 
Kinf^ William- street, London-bridge, draper — D. Stevenson, sen. , 25, Compton- 
sireet, Brunsvvick-squaie, patent safety paper maker — T. Bartram, Sevenoaks, 
Kent, lincndraper— \Y- Nicholls, Adam's-mews, Edgware-road, Middlesex, 
livery stable keeper— J, F. Buisson, Brabant-court, Philpnt-lane,. Londori, 
merchant — A. Sirachan, Friday-street, Cheapside, warehouseman — D. B. 
Smith and J. W. Smith, Alton, Statfordshire, pHpermanufact.urcrs-R. Turner, 
Northampton, shoe manufacturer-D. Davies, jun., Glantrhywedog Llanidloes, 
Montgomeryshire, flannel manufacturer — W. Roberts, Rawmarsh, Yorkshire, 
grocer- J. Stephens, Menhenlot, Cornwall, irontoimder— U. Howarlh, late of 
Halifax, Yorkshire, but now of Todmorden, Lancasliire, corn dealer — W. H. 
Apsey, Globe Wharf, Rotherhithe, ship breaker— G, Novra, Red Lion-square^ 
Middlesex, importer of foreign goods — J. Dcnniss, sen., and J. Denniss, jun., 
To'.ley street, Surrey, linendrapers— B. Ward, Charlotte-terrace, New cuj;, 
Lambeth, boot and shoe manufacturer — W- Povey, Ashton-undei-Lyne, grocer 
—J. Sutcliffe, Halifa.t, grocer— J. Ellison, Leeds, nail manufacturer— W. Car- 
penter, Chippenham, AViltshire, innkeeper— E. Evans and A. Evans, Bir- 
mingham, painters- A. Spoor, sen, , and A. Spoor, jun-, Neircastle-upon-Tyne, 
builders— H. Tugweil, Fawley, Souihamp[onBhire, farmer — J. Lane, sen., 
Stockport, cottcn manufacturer— S. dough and 'W. T. Clough, Eucleston, 
Lancashire, alkali manufacturers- R. Wileock, Allethwaite, Cartme), Lan- 
cashire, banker. 

SCOTCH SEQUESTRATIONS.— J. Deans, Peacockbank, and T. Deans, 
Draffen, carpet' manufacturers—A. Steel, 'Stirling, merchant — D. MilPar, 
Glasgow, builder— \Y. Duuglas, Glasgow, manufacturer and dyer— J- Bende- 
low, Kiikaldv, innkeeper— A. M'Kinlay, Glasgoiv, cloth merchant— D. Smith, 
jiin , Airdriei ironmonger — R. Campbell, Dunfermline, iron and brass founder 
— W. Arbuckle, Ayr, flesher— J, Lindsay, Glasgow, victualler. 

. BIRTHS— On the 3d inst , at Neiifchaiel, in Switzerland, Mrs. F. Vulliamy, 
of a son — On the .5th inst., at 56, Hunter-street, Mrs. Mardon, of a son — On 
the Cth inst.j^t StraiLon Strawless, in Norfolk, Mrs. Arnold Keppel, of a 
daughter — On the 7tb inst-, in the Strand, Mrs. Halso, of a son, stillborn — O^ 
ihc^ath inst. J atG. Byng's, Esq., M.P., St. james's-square, the Lady J. Thynne, 
of a dauphier — On the Sth inst,, Mrs. J. F. Binsson, of a daughter — On the 8th 
inst., Mrs- Taylor, of Mecklenburgh-square, of a son — On the 8th inst,, ac 
"Windsor, the wife rpf J. Frazer, Esq., of .Aichnagairn, of a daughter — At Kens- 
worth, Herts, on the 6th inst., the ladv of F. Hamilton, Esq , of a son^On the 
Dth inst., the lady of W. Haigh, Esq., of a daughter— On the 9ih inst., at 
Lower Clapton, Mrs, R. Muni, of a son — At 13, Great Coram-street, Ruasell- 
square, on the 9tb inst., the ladv of Lieut.-Col.^C. Smyth, C.B., of a 'son- On 
the 9th inst., at the St. Katherine Dock-house, the widow of the late C.Carter, 
E-'q., of a jioii. 

MARRIED— On the 1 Cth Nov. last, at Bangalore. East Indies, Major H. 
Prior, commanding the 2:id Light Infantry, to^Georgiana Gifford, eldest daugh- 
ter of Major-General James Allan, C. B., commanding the Mysore division of 
that army — On the Oth inst., at St. Thomas's Church, Portsmouth, the Rey. I. 
P. Prescott, eldest son of Capt. Prescott, C.B., R.N., to Caroline Mary, eldest 
dauffhter of the late Capt. I'arke, R.M — On the Cth inst., at Rougham, tha 
Rev, E. J. Ash, rector of Brisley cum-Gately, Nurfolk, to Jane Charlotte, 
third daughter of Col, Ray, of Eldo House, near Bury St. Edmunds— On the 
0th instant, at Lee Churt-h, William Atkins, Esq., surgeon, to Matilda Eliza- 
beth, only daughter of W. Ive, Ksq., ship builder, both of Deptford, Kent — On 
(he 14th ult., at Hamburgh, George, son of tlie Jate T. Jones, Esq., of the 
Grove, High gate, to Anna Maria, only daughter of tb*e late G. N. Linck, Esq., 
of Hamburgh. 

DIED At Kew Green, on the lOtli inst., Aylmcr .Bourke Lambert, Esq., 

the eminent botanist, in the 8Ist year of his age— At Vienna, on the 1st inst.. 

Sir Samuel Hannay, Bart At Eatl's Court-terrace, Old Brompton, on the 

lUh inst., IV'alter Henry 'Wiiirs, Esq., aged CJ— At Hampton Court, on the 
11th inst., the CounteisofErne, mother to Lady ^Vharn<;UiV"e, and grandmother 
to the Hon. J. S. Wortley, M.P. for Yorkshire- At Cowes, on the llth inst., 
Lieutenant-General Mainivaring, aged 80 years- At Harlev, near IVenlocki 
the Rev. R. Ratcliffo, in the 70th year of his age— At Fernando Po, in the 333, 
year of bis age, Horatio Collman, assistant-surgeon in the Niger expedition, 
and late surgeon, of 41, Old Broad-street, City — On the seth Oct. last, in his 
33d year, R. Davidson, Esq , cf the Hon. East India Company's Madras Civil 
Service, Hfih son of James I)avids9n, Esq., of Sayes-courl, in the Icounty of 
Surrey — On the 2!lth Oct., in action, between Cabul and Jellalabadj'Capt, C, 
Wyndham, of the 35lh Regimp.ut,, British Native Infantry, aged 34, third son 
of G. Wyndham, of RoundJiill-grangc, near Wincant