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By J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S. &c. 






London : 

Printed by A. Spottiswooue, 



SCAft - r: 


In this Tenth Volume we have complied with the unanimous request 
of our readers, and with the spirit of the times, in bringing out the 
Gardeners Magazine monthly and at a reduced price ; and the suc- 
cess of this measure, we are happy to say, has fully answered our 

The improvements which we contemplate in the succeeding 
Volumes are as follows : — 1. An occasional article to be headed 
Pomological Notices, or Notices of new Fruits deserving, or seeming 
to deserve, general cultivation ; 2. Olitorial Notices, or Notices of 
new Culinary Vegetables, either originated in this country, or intro- 
duced from other countries, which seem to merit, or have been proved 
to deserve, general introduction in kitchen-gardens ; and 3. Arbori- 
cultural Notices, or Notices of new species or varieties of hardy Trees 
or Shrubs, useful or ornamental, which merit a place in shrubberies 
or pleasure-grounds, as hedge plants, or in useful plantations. 

To aid us in perfecting these Notices, the Council of the Horticul- 
tural Society of London have kindly granted us permission to apply, 
from time to time, for information, to their head gardener, Mr. Munro, 
and to their fruit-gardener, Mr. Thompson ; and we have received the 
same indulgence from the Council of the Caledonian Horticultural 
Society, with reference to their head gardener, Mr. Barnet. We have 
directed the attention of all our foreign correspondents to these stand- 
ing articles ; and we earnestly request the assistance of the secretaries 
of all horticultural societies, of the curators of all botanic gardens, of 
all nurserymen, domestic and foreign, and, in short, of every gardener 
and amateur of gardening, in order that we may render them as com- 
plete as possible. 

We intend, in future Numbers of this Magazine, to direct particularly 
the attention of our readers to the more general distribution of foreign 
hardy trees and shrubs in our pleasure-grounds and plantations. We 
cannot help regretting that the taste of amateurs should be so much 
absorbed in the acquisition of temporary novelties, chiefly of herbaceous 

a 2 


flowering plants, or of plants requiring the protection of glass ; while 
many trees and shrubs that have been long in the country, though 
they are as little known as if they had never been introduced, and 
which would contribute to the permanent ornament and improvement 
of country seats, are suffered to remain uncalled for in our nurseries. 
Thus, while considerable sums, all over the country, are given for a 
new florist's flower, a new variety of camellia, or a hybrid calceolaria, 
which require the most assiduous care and attention to prevent them 
from degenerating, and which are, perhaps, lost the year after they 
are received, those more noble objects, foreign hardy trees and shrubs, 
which are less expensive to purchase, require far less care in culture 
and management, and which, when once established, will increase every 
year in size and in beauty, and will remain useful and ornamental 
objects on an estate for generations, are comparatively neglected. Of 
a taste for fine flowers and a taste for fine trees and shrubs, it surely 
will not be denied that the latter is of a far more elevated kind than 
the former. It is more elevated, because it is more useful, more 
durable, and more influential on the general face of the country ; and 
because it not only affords enjoyment to the possessor and the close 
observer, but to every one for whom landscape scenery has any attrac- 

One reason why a taste for foreign trees and shrubs is not more 
common among country gentlemen is, the neglect of nurserymen to 
preserve and exhibit, in their nurseries, specimen trees of the more 
uncommon kinds, of eight or ten years' growth. Were this a general 
practice, the result could not be otherwise than advantageous. To 
compensate, in some measure, for the neglect of nurserymen, and to 
aid in promoting an object which we consider of national importance, 
we have undertaken our Arboretum Britantiicam, which, we con- 
fidently anticipate, will be more useful, both to nurserymen and 
planters of trees, than any work on Arboriculture that has hitherto 
been produced. The plan is altogether original, as will be seen by 
the notices of it in p. 558. and p. 581. 

We have left ourselves no room to expatiate on the contents of the 
present Volume of our Magazine ; and have, therefore, only to refer 
our readers to the Table of Contents, in which, under the different 
divisions of the subject, they will find, we are confident, a rich fund of 
instruction and entertainment, In conclusion, we beg to thank, most 
sincerely, our contributors and our readers, and to solicit a continu- 
ation of their favours. 

Bmjsivater, Nov. 10. 1834. J. C. L. 




Notes on Gardens and Country Seats, visited 
from July 27. to September 16., during a Tour 
through Part of Middlesex, Berkshire, Buck- 
inghamshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Dorset- 
shire, Hampshire, Sussex, and Kent. By the 
Conductor - - 1. 97. 193. 245. 301. 413. 469 

A short Account of a late Journey through Bel- 
gium and Part of France in the Autumn of 
1833, by Joseph Knight, Esq. F.H.S. Com- 
municated by Mr. Knight - 7 

Investigation of the Theory of the Rotation of 
Crops. By the Author of the " Domestic Gar- 
dener's Manual," C.M.H.S. - - 12 

On the Scientific Management of Hot-houses, so 
far as it regards Temperature. By Scientia? et 
Justitia? Amator - - - - 18 

Description of a portable Hot-water Apparatus. 
By Mr. Joshua Major, Landscape-Gardener 
and Garden Architect - - - 21 

Remarks on the State of Gardening in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Ramsgate. By Calycanthus - 119 

Notices of some Country Seats in the North- 
Eastern Counties of England. By G. W. 120. 


On the Advantages which Gardeners may derive 
from inspecting the Gardens of others; and on 
the Destruction of different Insects. By R. T. 


Notice of a Hot- water Apparatus, invented by 
Mr. John Darkin, Engineer, Norwich. By 
Mr. Darkin - - - - 302 

On the different Modes of Budding ; and of Her- 
baceous, or Summer, Grafting - - 304 

Notes made during a Professional Journey 
through Belgium and Part of France, for the 
House of Messrs. Low and Company, Nursery- 
men, Clapton, in March and April, 1834. By 
Mr. William Garvie, Foreman in the Clapton 
Nursery ... . 357. 419 

Short Notices of the Gardens at Ravensworth 
Castle, the Seat of Lord Ravensworth ; and of 

Gibside, the Seat of Bowes, Esq. M.P. for 

South Durham. By G. W. - . 363 

On the Importance, to Gardeners, of visiting 
Gardens ; and on the Restrictions, in some 
Cases, thrown in the Way of their doing so. 
By Scientia? et Justitiae Amator - - 365 

An Experiment made with a view to determine 
the Efficacy of Oxalic Acid in stimulating dor- 
mant Vegetable Life. By William Hamilton, 
Esq, M.D. - - - 368 

On Live Moss as a Substitute for Potsherds, 
Cinders,, and similar Matters, as Drainings for 
Pots. By Mr. Thomas Parkins - - 369 

Notices of the State of Gardening in Part of 
France, as observed in a recent Excursion in 
that Country. By Mr. George Charlwood, 
Seedsman, Covent Garden - - 473 

Observations made during a Horticultural Tour 
through the Eastern Part of the County of 
Fife. By Mr. William Smith, Gardener to 
John Small, Esq., the Priory, St. Andrew's, 
Fireshire - - - - 525 


On the different Kinds of Fountains adapted to 
Gardens. By William Mason, Jun. Esq. 23 

Design for a Gardener's House, adapted for the 
South Wall of a Kitchen-Garden. By Mr. Ro- 
bertson, Architect - - 24 

Descriptive Notice of the Garden of the Rev. 
Thomas Gamier, at Bishopstoke Vicarage, 
Hampshire. By the Conductor - - 124 

Observations on the Landscape-Gardening of 
Germany, as compared with that of England. 
By the Chevalier Charles Sckell, Director-Ge- 
neral of Gardens in the Kingdom of Bavaria 197 

Remarks on the Leafing of Oak Trees, and the 
Tints of the early Foliage. By the Rev. W. T. 
Bree, A.M. - - - 200 

On producing Picturesque Effect in Plantations, 
as well as Shelter and Profit. By Mr. T. Rutger 


A Series of Designs for laying out Kitchen-Gar- 
dens. By Mr. T. Rutger. Design 1.. Contain- 
ing an Acre within the Walls, 259. ; Design 2., 
Containing an Acre within the Walls, and 
Half an Acre in the Slips, 313. ; Design 3., 
Containing an Acre and a Half within the 
Walls, and about the same Quantity in the 
Slips, 373; Design 4., Containing Two Acres 
within the Walls, and an Acre and a Half in 
the Slips, 429; Design 5., Containing nearly 
Three Acres within the W T alls, and an Acre 
and a Quarter in the Slips, 485 ; Design 6., 
Containing Three Acres and a Half within the 
Walls, and Two Acres and a Half in the Slips, 

Design for a Gardener's House, adapted for the 
North-Fast Angle of a walled Kitchen-Garden. 
By Mr. Robertson - - -261 

Strictures on disposing Plants in Masses. By 
Calycanthus .... 263 

On the distinguishing Characters of Trees, con- 
sidered witli regard to Landscape-Gardening. 
By Mr. T. Rutger - - - 370 

Hints on Landscape-Gardening, on the Use of 
Botanical Rarities in Picturesque Scenery, and 
on the Size and Arrangement of Flower-Gar- 
dens. By Calycanthus - 372 

Design for a Gardener's House, for the North- 
west Angle of a walled Kitchen-Garden. By 
Mr. Robertson .... 375 

Considerations on the various Modes of con- 
structing Forcing- Houses, relatively to the 
Degree of Heat to be obtained in them from 
the Sun's Rays. By Mr. George M'Leish 376 

On the improper Choice that is frequently made 
of Trees and Shrubs for furnishing small Por- 
tions of Pleasure- Grounds. By Mr. T. Rutger 


Hints on Shrubbery and Ornamental Planting. 
By Charles Lawrence, Esq. - - 479 

On Wooden Rustic-work as Garden Ornaments. 
By Selim - - - - 485 

On the Employment of Vases as Receptacles for 
Plants in Town Gardens ; with some Remarks 
on their Use in Garden Scenery in the Country. 
By the Conductor - - - 489 

A Description of the Moss House in the Flower- 
Garden at Bagshot Park. Designed and exe- 
cuted by Mr. Andrew Toward, Gardener to 
Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Glouces- 
ter. Communicated by Mr. Toward - 532 


On adopting a regular Plan in forming Plant- 
ations, with a view to facilitating yieir after 
Management. By Charles Lawrence, Esq. 26 

On the Trees and Shrubs which are most suit- 
able for Planting, to afford Food and Shelter 
for Game, and more especially for the Phea- 
sant. By Mr. James Munro - - 431 

Brief Observations on preparing the Ground for 
Planting, on Pruning, and on the Cultivation 
of Trees for Timber. By Mr. Geo. Burton 378 

Notice of a remarkable Ash Tree at Kincairney, 
in Perthshire. By Mr. A. Gorrie, F.H.S. C.S. 
&c. ..--. 384 

On raising Plantations near the Sea. By Mr. T. 
Rutger - - - - 495 

On Pruning Forest Trees ; and on Planting and 
Managing Belts of Trees. By Mr. T. Rutger 


On the Rot in Larch ; with Information on the 
Dimensions of the Layers of Wood produced 
in the Annual Growth of the Larch Tree, in a 
Series of Years, in connection with a State- 
ment of the Quantity of Rain which fell in 
each of those Years. By Mr. A. Gorrie, F.H.S. 
C.S. &c. - - - - 544 


Considerations on the evil Effects of exposing 
Green-house Plants to the open Air of Britain 
during the Summer Months. By Mr. Robert 
Marnock - - - - 31 



A Notice of certain Conditions in connection 
with which Rhododendrons have been found 
to grow and flower very satisfactorily. By Mr. 
John Gow - - - - - 33 

Floricultural Memoranda. By Mr. T. Rivers, 
Jun., Sawbridgeworth, Herts - - 131 

A Note on the Culture of Zxiae and Gladioli. 
By Mr. T. Rutger - - - 134 

The Result of Experiments tried with Coal Cin- 
ders as Drainage for Pots. By Mr. Henry 
Turner, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Bury 
St. Edmunds - - - - 134 

Description of a Machine for removing Orange 
Trees and other Plants in large Tubs or Boxes. 
By Mr. John Davidson, Gardener to the Mar- 
quess of Ailsa, at St. Margaret's, Middlesex 136 

A Sketch of a Flower-Garden, with Remarks. 
By Mr. T. Rutger - - - 204 

On planting Cape Ericas in the free Soil, and 
sheltering them with a sashed Frame. By Mr. 
Robertson, Nurseryman, of Kilkenny - 206 

On growing Ferns and other Plants in Glass 
Cases, in the midst of the Smoke of London ; 
and on transplanting Plants from one Country 
to another, by similar Means. By N. B. Ward, 
Esq. F.L.S. - - - - 207 

Descriptive Notice of the Gardens of the Misses 
Gamier, atWickham, near Fareham, in Hamp- 
shire ; by the Conductor : with a Monthly Ca- 
lendar of the Work done, and of the principal 
Flowers produced ; by Mr. James Moore, Gar- 
dener to the Misses Gamier - - 209 


Description of the Lime, Citron, Orange, and 
Lemon Trees at Coombe |Royal, the Seat of 
John Luscombe, Esq., Devonshire. Commu- 
nicated by the Proprietor - -36 

On- training the Peach Tree. By Mr. Edward 
Callow, Author of a Treatise on the Cultivation 
of the Mushroom - - 37 

A successful Mode of securing a Crop of Fruit 
on Pear Trees. By Mr. B. Saunders, Nursery- 
man in the Island of Jersey - - 40 

On growing large Gooseberries for Exhibition. 
By Mr. M. Saul - - - 42 

On propagating the Purple Broccoli from Slips, 
and on the Agency of Manure prepared from 
Sea Weed in improving various Vegetables. 
By Mr. T. Rutger _ - - 42 

On the Mode of securing a supply of young Car- 
rots throughout the Year. By Mr. T. Rutger 44 

Remarks on the Cultivation of Sea-kale, as prac- 
tised by the Bath Gardeners. By Walter Wm. 
Capper, Esq. - - - 45 

On the premature Shriveling of Grapes in Forc- 
ing-Houses. By Mr. J. D. Parkes, F.H.S., Nur- 
seryman, Dartford - - 137 

On the Coiling System of cultivating the Vine in 
Pots. By Mr. John Mearns,F.H.S., Gardener 
to His Grace the Duke of Portland, Welbeck, 
Nottinghamshire - . 138 

A Defence of the Practice of Cropping the Bor- 
ders in which Wall-Fruit Trees grow ; and 

various Considerations in relation to the Cul- 
ture of Wall- Fruit Trees. By Mr. John Mearns, 
F.H.S. - - - 141 

On forcing Asparagus ; by Mr. T. Rutger : with 
an Account of the French Method, translated 
from the " Bon Jardinier " for 1834 - 146 

On the Management of the Vinery. By a Young 
Gardener - - - - 221 

Notes on the Cultivation of the Peach Tree. By 
Mr. James Hart - - - 222 

On the Laying out and Planting of Fruit-Gar- 
dens. By Mr. John Jennings, of the Shipton 
upon Stour Nursery - - - 224 

On Defects in the Management of Fruit Trees. 
By Mr. Robert Errington - - 264 

Notes on Vines and Vineries. By An Expe- 
rienced Grape-Grower - - - 266 

Notice of some Modes of training Wall Trees, 
practised in the Gardens of Hopetoun House. 
By Mr. James Smith, Gardener there - 267 

On the Culture of the Onion by Sowing and 
Transplanting. By Mr. Wm. Taylor, Gardener, 
Liverpool - - - 268 

On taking up the Roots of the Scarlet Runner 
in the Autumn, preserving them through the 
Winter, and replanting them in Spring. By 
Mr. James Cuthill, Gardener to Lawrence Sul- 
livan, Esq., Broom House, Fulham - 315 

On Fruits and Fruit Trees. By Mr. T. Rivers, 
Jun. ... - 316 

On the Culture of the Cucumber at Stoke Place, 
with a Ground Plan and Elevation of the Pits 
in Use there. By Mr. Patrick - - 386 

On the Culture of the Cucumber during the 
gloomy Months of Winter. By Mr. James 
Young, Gardener to J. Pulteney, Esq., Norther- 
wood, New Forest, Hants - - 388 

On the Cultivation of Potatoes, the Cause of the 
Curl, and the Manner of keeping and preparing 
the Sets. By W. M. - - - 433 

An Account of a Mode of cultivating Potatoes 
in the Neighbourhood of Aberdeen ; preceded 
by some Remarks on the Potato Culture of 
the Neighbourhood of Dublin. By Mr. James 
Wright, Gardener at Westfield, near Aber- 
deen - - - - 435 

A Method of expediting the Fruiting of Kidney- 
beans in the open Air; and a Mode of obtain- 
ing a Second Crop from those forced in the 
Stove. By Mr. James Cuthill, Gardener to 
Lawrence Sullivan, Esq., at Broom House, Ful- 
ham - - - - 438 

A Diary of the Course of Culture applied to the 
Grape Vines at Oakhill, East Barnet, in Herts. 
By A. Forsyth . - - 547 

On the Culture of Persian Melons. By a Hert. 
ford Journeyman Gardener - - 550 

On Protecting and Preserving Fruit Trees. By 
Mr. James Eaton, Gardener to the Earl of II- 
chester, at Melbury, Dorsetshire - - 552 

On the Method of growing Mushrooms practised 
at Stoke Place, with a Plan of the Mushroom 
House there. By Mr. Andrew Patrick - 554 

Short Communications - 148. 225. 389. 439. 499 


Transactions of the Horticultural Society of Lon- 
don. Second Series. Vol. I. Part III. 226. 500 

1. Paxton's Magazine of Botany and Register of 
Flowering plants. 2. Maund's Botanic Garden. 
3. Harrison's Floricultural Cabinet. 4. Har- 
rison's Gardener's and Forester's Record. 
5. Paxton's Horticultural Register - 230 

The Physiology of Plants, or the Phenomena and 
Laws of Vegetation ... 269 

Ladies' Botany ; or, a Familiar Introduction to 
the Study of the Natural System of Botany. By 
John Lindley, Ph.D. F.R.S. &c. - . 390 

Hooker's Journal of Botany, &c. Part III. 391 

Royle's Illustrations of the Botany and other 
Branches of the Natural History of the Hima- 
layan Mountains, and of the Flora of Cash- 
mere, Sec. Part III. - . -392 

Transactions of the Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society of India ... 440 

L'Horticulteur Beige, Journal des Jardiniers et 
Amateurs - . . . 444 

Elements of Practical Agriculture; comprehend. 

ing the Cultivation of Plants, the Husbandry 
of the Domestic Animals, and the Economy of 
the Farm. By David Low, Esq. F.R.S.E., Pro- 
fessor of Agriculture in the University of Edin- 
burgh - 447 

An Inquiry into the Causes of the Fruitfulness 
and Barrenness of Plants and Trees. By Joseph 
Hayward, Esq. ... 500 

Report of the Exhibition of Agricultural Pro- 
ductions, new Implements, &c, at the Premises 
of Dickson and Turnbull, Perth - 504 

A new Descriptive Catalogue of Roses. By T. 
Rivers and Son, Nurserymen, Sawbridge worth, 
Herts - - - - 509 

Arboretum Britannicum. By J. C. Loudon, 
F.L.S. H.S. &c. - - - 558. 581 

Catalogue of Works on Gardening, Agriculture, 
Botany, Rural Architecture, &c, lately pub- 
lished, with some Account of those considered 
the most interesting - 49. 149. 232. 270. 319. 


Literary Notices - - - 51. 156. 449 




General Notices - 53. 233. 272. 321. 393. 450. 516. 


Foreign Notices - 54. 157. 234. 272. 322. 516. 569 

Domestic Notices- 56. 160. 234. 273. 323. 394. 451. 


Floricultural and Botanical Notices of new Plants, 

and of old Plants of Interest, supplementary to 

the latest Editions of the " Encyclopaedia of 

Plants," and of the " Hortus Britannicus " 

63. 169. 237. 284. 347. 399. 458. 511. 564. 583 

Retrospective Criticism - 73. 179. 240. 289. 350. 

405. 520. 573 

Queries and Answers - 80. 181. 242. 294. 353. 408. 

462. 576. 

Arboretum Britannicum ; or, Portraits, to a Scale 
of a Quarter of an Inch to a Foot, of all the 
Trees which endure the Open Air in Britain 581 
London Horticultural Society and Garden - 188. 
244. 298. 355. 410. 468. 523. 579 
Covent Garden Market - 84. 191. 243. 297. 354. 
409. 467. 522. 578 
Supplement to the Notices of the Provincial Hor- 
ticultural Societies for 1833 - - - 86 
Notices of the Exhibitions of the Provincial 
Horticultural Societies for 1834 - - 588 

Obituary - .96. 192. 300. 412. 468. 

Calls at Nurseries and Suburban Gardens - 167. 

279. 325. 

INDEX to Books reviewed and noticed 






44 — 55. Illustrations of twelve modes of per- 
forming budding - - 305—310 

56 — 61. Illustrations of six modes of ingraft- 
ing herbaceous plants - - 310 — 312 

5. A figure of a tree of the white nectarine, 

in exhibition of the effects of a com- 
mended mode of training - - 39 
37 — 40. Illustrations of a mode of pruning 
and training apple trees and pear trees 
through six successive years - 267, 268 

6. A diagram exhibitive of a mode of 

blanching sea-kale, and of a mode of 
forcing it - - - 46 


23 — 34. Diagrams explanatory of modes of 
applying steam, conducted in narrow 
tubes, to the heating of water and beds 
of stones, relatively to the culture of 
plants of various kinds - - 226 — 229 

43. The plan of an apparatus for heating 

water, and then circulating it - 303 

1. A view of a portable apparatus for heat- 
ing water, and then circulating it - 23 


22. A garden for fruit plants only - - 224 

35. A kitchen-garden to contain 1 acre with- 
in the walls ... 260 

63. A kitchen-garden to contain 1 acre with- 
in the walls, and half an acre in the 
slips ; or, the same quantity to be ap. 
propriated, in part, to a flower-garden, 
the remainder to a kitchen-garden - 314 

70. A kitchen-garden to contain 1| acre 
within the walls, and about the same 
quantity in the slips - - 374 

75. A kitchen-garden to contain 2 acres 
within the walls, and lj acre in the 
slips - - - - 430 

79. A kitchen-garden to contain nearly 
3 acres within the walls, and 1\ acre in 
the slips - ... 484 

95. A kitchen-garden to contain 3| acres 
within the walls, and 2J acres in the 
slips • - . .538 

11. The flower-garden of the Rev. Thomas 
Gamier, and the disposition of the 
plants in it, at Bishopstoke Vicarage, 
Hampshire - - 126, 127 

15. The flower-garden of the Misses Gamier, 
and the disposition of the plants in it, 
at Wickham, Hampshire - 210, 211 I 

14. A geometrical flower garden, half of 

which was once made at Woolmers - 205 I 

62. A flower-garden in the Dutch style, to 

adjoin an entrance - n -313 

No. page 


3. A plan for laying out ground intended to 
be planted with trees designed for 
timber - . . - 27 

4. A plan for the disposition of trees of the 
kinds oak, ash, and larch, in a plant- 
ation . - - 29 

41. A diagram of the results of leaving trees 

designed for timber unpruned - 293 

42. A diagram of the results of pruning trees 

designed for timber - - 293 

88. A sketch illustrative of the effects of 
wind upon plantations of trees growing 
near the coast ~ - - 196 

97. A figure of a tree, as a specimen of the 
figures to be introduced into the Arbo- 
retum Britannicum . . 582 


10. A view of the vicarage house, at Bishop- 
stoke, in Hampshire - . 125 
69. A view of St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall 351 


2. A design for a gardener's house adapt- 
able to the south wall of a kitchen- 
garden = - 25 
36. A design for a gardener's house adapt- 
able to the north east angle of a walled 
kitchen-garden ... 262 

71. A design for a gardener's house adapt- 

able to the north-west angle of a walled 
kitchen-garden ... 375 

72, 73. Diagrams of forcing-houses to exhibit 

the relation of the inclination of their 
roofs to the incidence of the rays of light, 
in illustration of the effects of this upon 
the temperature and light within . 376 

74. The ground-plan and elevation of a pit 

suited to the culture of the cucumber - 387 

96. The ground-plan and a transverse sec. 
tion of a house suited to the cultivation 
of the mushroom in the winter . 557 

89 — 94. The ground-plan, sections, elevation, 
and details of structure, of the moss- 
house in the flower-garden at Bagshot 
Park - - - 533—537 

19. A view of a roofed seat lined with moss 

and hazel rods ... £12 

80. A view of a rustic seat for a garden - 488 

20, 21. Trellised arches for supporting 

climbing plants - - 212 

78. A design for a building for the accom- 
modation of dogs - - 473 


66. A vase devoid of a plinth 

67. A vase upon a plinth 




No. Page 

68. A vase upon a pedestal and plinth - 827 

82 — 87. Figures of vases designed as recep- 
tacles of plants in town gardens - 490 — 492 
81. A rustic vase of wood as a receptacle 
for plants, and placed upon a tripod 
pedestal, in ornament of a country gar- 
den - - - - - 489 
18. Figures of rustic vases - - 211 


12. A machine for transporting orange trees 
in their large tubs or boxes, and other 
plants alike conditioned - - 136 


8. A mechanical device for effecting the 

opening of a gate by the pressure of the 
approaching vehicle - - 81 

9. A mechanical device for effecting the 

No. Page 

opening of a gate, by turning a winch 
within a house contiguous to the gate 81 
7. A fall-down gate-stopper - - 54 


64. A hook for holding aquatic plants in 

pots, suspended at any required height 
in the water ... 326 

65. A sectional view of an aquarium to show 

the application of the mentioned hook 326 

16, 17. Patterns of iron rods for supporting 
rose shrubs, and other shrubs requiring 
support - - - 211 

13. Figures of earthenware tallies for label- 
ing plants ... 164 

77. An instrument for gathering, singly, 

fruit beyond reach without it - 446 

76. A dibble for planting potatoes with 
greater despatch than is usual - 437 


Abdalonymus, 408. A Constant Reader, 295. 
Adamson, W., jun., 405. Adolescentulus, 163. 
499. A Florist and a Reader, 181. A Hertford 
Journeyman Gardener, 550. Allen, William, 
236. An Admirer of good Gardening, 181. An 
Amateur of Flora, 296. An Asker, 182. An 
Experienced Grape Grower, 266. Anon., 241. 
A. S., 499. A Subscriber, 276. 577. A Young 
Gardener, 221. 

B., 570. Ballard, Stephen, 76. Barnard, Frances, 
186. Bateman, James, F.H.S., 572. Baxter, 
William, A.L.S., 289. 350. Bradford, William 
M., 290. Bree, Rev. W. T, M. A., 148. 166. 200. 
241. 291, 292. 296. 439. 572. 575, 576. Brooks, 
John Thomas, 518. Brown, John, 182. 466. 
Browne, Henry A., 55. Burton, George, 378. 

Callow, Edward, 37. Calycanthus, 119. 184. 263. 
372. Calvert, W. C, 575. Cameron, David, 
A.L.S., 163. Capper, W. W., 45. Charlwood, 
George, F.L.S., 473. C. L.,154. C. M. W.,354. 
Cockburn, James, 573. Cuthill, James, 315. 438. 

D. B., 55. 295. Darkin, John, 302. Davidson, 
John, 136. Davidson, William, 56. Davis, P., 
408. Denson, J., sen., 576. Dunsford, Wil- 
liam, 389. 

E., 187. 522. Eaton, James, 522. E. B., 186. 
E. C, 321. E. L., 608. Elliott, G. M., 69. 587. 
E. M., 236. Ensor, George, 81. E. P., 186. 
Ephebicus Horticultor, 74. 78. Errington, Ro- 
bert, 264. 

F. L. S., 272. Forsyth, A., 547. 

G., 241. Garvie, William, 357. 419. G. C, 
86. 192. 244. 298. 355. 409. 468. 523. 579. 
Geddes, G., 324. Godsall, William, 58. Gorrie, 
Archibald, F.H.S. F.C.H.S., 183 384.398.457. 
544. Gow.John, 33. G. P., 462. Gracchus 
Colonus, 162. G. W., 120. 194. 363. 

Hamilton, William, M.B., 61. 296. 368. 396. 405. 
453, 454. 577. Hart, James, 222. Haydon, Sa- 
muel, 236. H. B., 185. Hertz, William, 159. 
Hodson, N. S., A.L.S., 166. Howden, John, 293. 
Hoy, J. D, 277. Hurst, William, 453. Huth- 
waite, F., 322. 

J. B., 82. J. B. W., 290. J. D, sen., 66. J. D. 
P., 295. Jennings, John, 224. J. F.,322. J. G 
181. 296. 300. J. M.,577. J. M., Philadelphia, 
406. 570. J. S. B., 54. J. S. P., 466. Juvenis, 
225. 236. 

Kendall, Henry, 324. Kent, William, 407. 
Knight, Joseph, F.H.S., 7. Knight, T. A., Pre- 
sident of the London Horticultural Society, 74. 

Lawrence, Charles, 26. 465, 456. 479. Lindley, 
Dr. John, 50. L. L. L., 54. Luscombe, John, 

M'Leish, George, 376. Maddison, John, 55. 
Blajor, Joshua, 21. Malcolm, William, F.H.S., 
351. Mallet, Robert, 62. 241. Marnock, Ro- 
bert, 31. Mason, William, jun., 23. 74. Mearns, 
John, F.H.S., 138. 141. 145. Mills, George, 466. 
Mitchinson, James, 242. Moore, James, 209. 
Munro, James, 77. 406. 431. 

N. S. N., 407. 

O. P. Q., 578. 

P., 157. Parkes, J. D., F.H.S., 137. 184. Parkins, 
Thomas, 369. Patrick, Andrew, 386. 554. Phil- 
lips, George, 70. P. N., 398. Priest, Myles, 
57. 79. 

R., 80. 452. 520. 571. 575. Rauch, C, 323. Redyer, 
W., 575. Rivers, T., jun., 131. 185. 242. 316. 
408. 452. Roberts, James, 466. Roberts, John, 
399. Robertson, John, architect, 24. 261. 375. 
Robertson, John, Kilkenny, 185. 188. 206. 
Rowan, Martin, 78. R. T, 83,84. 122. Kutger, 
T, 42. 44. 80. 134. 146. 165. 185. 202. 204. 242. 
259. 294. 296. 313. 353, 354. 370. 373. 429. 477. 485. 
495. 539. 

S., 574. Salter, John, 575. S. A. M., 267. Sang, 
John, 94. Saul, Matthias, 42. 61. 96. 451. 453. 
518. Saunders, B., 40. Sciential et Justitife 
Amator, 18. 2/0, 295. 365. 465. Sckell, Charles, 
158. 179, 180. Selim, 485. 572. Simson, James, 
520. Smith, James, 267. Smith, John, 188. 
Smith, William, 525. Solus, 82. Stewart, D. 
W., 465. Stewart, John, 572. Strachan, James, 
573. S. W., 236. 

T, 296. 395. T. A. B., 59, 60. 80. 82, 83. Taylor, 
William, 268. The Author of The Domestic 
Gardener's Manual, 12. Thompson, John, 159. 
Thompson, Robert, Lieut.-Col., Royal Engi- 
neers, 56. Thompson, Robert, 518. Toward, 
Andrew, 532. Trevelyan, W. C, F.L.S., 452, 
453. Turner, Henry, 134. 179. 188. 518. T. W., 

V., 54. 

W. A., 353. Wallich, K, L.L.D., 272. Ward, 
N. B., F.L.S., 207. Whiddon, William, 78. 
Wilson, Thomas, 84. W. M., 433. Wright, 
James, 435. 

X. Y. Z., 295. 

Young, James, 388. 

Zoller, Charles, 323. 


FEBRUARY, 1834. 


Art. I. Notes on Gardens and Country Seats, visited, from July 27. 
to September 16., during a Tour through Part of Middlesex, Berk- 
shire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Hamp- 
shire, Sussex, and. Kent. By the Conductor. 

{Continued from Vol. IX, p. 683.) 

Caversham Park. — Aug. 9. We proceeded to this place 
through the village of Caversham (in which are many beautiful 
cottage gardens), up the hill road, and entered by the back ap- 
proach. We must notice one of the cottage gardens, which has, 
in two angles, formed by small wings projecting from the front 
of the house, two Ismail green-houses in the form of outside 
cupboards, with shelves full of pots of flowers, the glass doors 
being removed. We had never seen anything of this kind before ; 
and we like it, not that we think it in good taste, but because 
it shows such a thorough love of plants. Every one who has 
read the descriptions of the fine old places of England, in 
Whately's Observations^ fyc., knows something of Caversham, 
and therefore we shall say nothing of the magnificent mansion, 
containing fifty rooms, and its broad gravelled terrace, 50 ft. 
wide and a furlong in length, on a perfect level. Though the 
mansion is dilapidated within, yet exteriorly it is in good repair. 
The place is worth visiting for the grandeur and beauty of the 
situation of the house, the terrace, and more especially the 
descending approach, which has been so finely described by 
Whately. The pleasure-ground scenery is now entirely over- 
grown, and only to be recognised by a few cedars and other 
trees. The kitchen-garden forms a deplorable ruin ; the walls 
Vol. X. — No. 48. b 

2 Noles on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

are overgrown with bushes, the hot-houses leaning in all di- 
rections, the back sheds roofless, and even the gardener's house, 
which held out till within these few years, uninhabitable. The 
commanding position of the mansion, and the extensive and 
varied prospect seen from it, are the same as they ever have 
been. Among the trees along the descending approach are a 
number of very large maples. 

Comparing Caversham Park with Bear Wood, the situation 
of the house, in the former case, is much more commanding 
than in the latter, because of its greater elevation. The pros- 
pect is also more extensive for the same reason, and because 
at the base of Caversham Park is the broad and extensive valley 
of the Thames. The grandeur and dignity of expression, there- 
fore, of the house at Caversham Park are greater than those of 
the house at Bear Wood. Comparing the grounds of the two 
situations, those of Bear Wood are distinguished by undulations, 
knolls, valleys, and steep banks; those at Caversham, on the 
other hand, present a uniform surface, flat on the upper part of 
the park behind the house, and gently sloping on all the re- 
maining part in front of it. There are, therefore, no sources of 
natural beauty and variety in the grounds at Caversham. When 
once the view from the house has been seen, nothing about the 
place remains worth seeing ; nothing invites to further exa- 

There is thus an essential difference between these two situ- 
ations ; for, though both are grand, but in different degrees, yet, 
in one, the grounds are positively varied and beautiful, while 
those of the other are wholly without either beauty or variety. 
For a constant residence, it is evident that the place containing 
the greatest natural variety and beauty would be by far the more 
desirable, independently altogether of the heightening of these 
beauties by gardening. 

By reflecting on the natural features of Bear Wood and Caver- 
sham, and on their respective capabilities for improvement, the 
reader will see the immense importance, in the choice of a 
country residence, of fixing on one that possesses positive natural 
beauties ; that, unassisted by art of any kind, is capable of affect- 
ing the imagination, and raising the emotions of grandeur, 
sublimity, or beauty. On such a foundation, the art of the land- 
scape-gardener and the architect will work with tenfold effect ; 
whereas, where natural beauty is wholly wanting, though art, 
more particularly in the house, may do a great deal, yet it can 
never supply the deficiencies of nature. There is this disadvan- 
tage, also, in the beauties created by art, that they require con- 
tinual care and expense in order to maintain them ; whereas those 
engrafted on nature in a great measure maintain themselves. 

The ride from Reading to Pangbourne, along the banks of 

Caver sham Park, Basildon Park. 3 

the Thames, is one of very great beauty. The valley is about 
half a mile in width, bounded on each side by chalk hills, ex- 
hibiting the greatest variety of outline ; sometimes clothed with 
grass, and at other times with corn or wood, or crowned by a 
gentleman's seat. Near Purley is Purley Hall, a place of con- 
siderable beauty, from the undulation of its surface, and the 
judicious disposition of its woods. There are also some beautiful 
cottages with gardens, and some small villas, both at Purley and 

Basildon Park, Sir Francis Sykes, Bart. — The house, a large 
quadrangular pile with wings, by Carr of York, is placed on a 
piece of table land on the top of a hill, and commands very 
extensive views. The ascent to it is by a very steep approach, 
which is both disagreeable and dangerous. We repeat here, 
what we have frequently stated before, that in no possible case 
need the road to a house be steeper than an inch to a yard. 
The approach here might have been led to the house at that 
rate with the greatest ease, and horses might have trotted up 
and trotted down. There is but very little pleasure-ground, 
and this is placed on one side of the house ; but the park and 
farm are of considerable extent. The pleasure-ground has been 
taken care of for many years past by a local labourer, of the 
name of Hillsbury, who appears to have some natural taste for 
laying out flower-beds. He showed us different scroll-like 
shapes which he had laid out, and lamented his ignorance of the 
names of plants and their culture. His master, he said, had 
ordered him to collect some "fir apples" (cones), and sow the 
seeds of them, and he would be glad to know the proper season 
for doing so, with the manner of sowing, &c. This shows the 
great necessity of gardeners being reading men, and possessing 
books on the subject of their art. This man is doubtless an 
honest and faithful servant, as he has held his present situation, 
as he told us, nearly 30 years. The kitchen-garden is on the 
side of a hill, facing the east, and contains upwards of four 
acres, with an extensive range of hot-houses; the soil is ex- 
cellent, and the crops abundant, but choked up with weeds, as 
there is no assistance allowed for either the kitchen-garden or 
the pleasure-ground, but a boy. The kitchen-gardener, who is 
also a local labourer, we did not see. We observed heaps of 
leaves and twias being burned, which we would never suffer 
under any circumstances, as it is throwing away a certain portion 
of valuable manure. We observed also a paling fence round a 
part of. the pleasure-ground, with the pales, instead of being 
placed vertically, nailed to the rails at an angle of 45°. The ob- 
ject of this, we were told, is to prevent the entrance of rabbits, 
which might get between upright pales at the same distance 
apart, but which must necessarily place their bodies in an angular 

b 2 

4 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

position to get through these. This, it is found from experience, 
they cannot readily do. 

Mongensoell, Uvedale Price, Esq., novo occupied by Mrs. Ba- 
thurst. — Our principal object, in visiting this place, was to see 
if there wei'e any remains of the botany and gardening of the 
celebrated Daines Barrington ; and of the landscape-garden- 
ing of Major Price, an amateur, who assisted the late Bishop of 
Durham in laying out some part of the grounds here, and who 
laid out Frogmore, and also a small place at East Sheen near 
Richmond, the residence of Lord Chief Baron Macdonald. We 
were on the whole disappointed. Nothing remains that can be 
attributed to Daines Barrington, and there is only a small flower- 
garden, which, we were informed, was laid out by Major Price. 
It is an irregular glade, partly surrounded by trees, but open to 
the south, with a walk round it, and the turf varied by roundish 
clumps. Altogether, it is very well designed, and it is kept very 
neatly. The kitchen-garden is under the management of Mr. 
Perry, formerly in business for himself at Leamington : his crops 
of wall fruit are excellent, and the garden seems well managed. 
The peach trees, when in blossom, are protected by beech boughs 
with the leaves on ; the branches being cut green, and dried and 
stacked for that purpose, as birch boughs are in some districts. 
The fruit was now covered with cotton wadding, instead of wool, 
to preserve it from the birds. In a conservatory there is a branch 
of Araucaria excelsa planted in the ground, which has attained 
the height of 12 ft.; the stem is half an inch in diameter at 1 ft. 
above the ground, but increases to 1 in. in diameter at about half 
its height. There is a large mass of woody matter at its root, 
from which, we have no doubt, an upright shoot will, sooner or 
later, be produced. The church is close by the house, and near 
the latter are a flower-garden and an opaque-roofed green-house. 
The plants were out, and their place was supplied by a large 
table and several chairs ; on the table were bulbs, that the young 
ladies, we were informed, were sorting, naming, and putting 
away in bags for the planting season ; thus occupying themselves 
at once usefully and agreeably. Close by the kitchen-garden we 
met with Mr. Munn, a native of Bedfordshire, who has been 
here 47 years ; part of the time as gardener, and the remainder 
as steward and general manager of the estate. He is a fine 
elderly gentleman-like man ; and, when we saw him, it being 
evening, he had on his blue apron, with his watering-pot in his 
hand for watering his own garden, and seemed to us a personi- 
fied beau ideal of a gardener of the old school, such as we may 
see in some of the frontispieces to the works of Mawe or Aber- 
crombie. He is very intelligent, and, among other interesting 
things, informed us that a sum of money was left for keeping up 
for ever the fine old geometric gardens at Wrest Park, Bedford- 
shire (see III. 245.), where he had been gardener in his youth. 

Mongewell, Wallingford. 5 

This sum, he said, was sufficient to pay 14 men throughout the 
year, and that number would keep the gardens in the highest 
possible order and neatness. As far as we recollect, when we 
saw these gardens in 1826, there were only three or four men 
employed on them, and many parts were then in disorder, and 
going to decay. We hope some one interested in this subject will 
look into it, for the sake of the beauty of the neighbourhood and 
the credit of gardening. It is highly desirable that there should 
be at least one place, in the geometrical style, kept up for ever 
in high order, as a standing specimen of that mode of art. Wrest 
Park, we believe, was one of the very last gardening works of 
London and Wise. 

Walling/ford. — Aug. 10. This is a comfortable little town, on 
the site of a Roman station. The ancient fosse forms three 
right-angled sides of a square, of which the Thames is the fourth. 
A few years ago, Wallingford was unknown in the annals of 
gardening ; but of late it has become celebrated for florists, of 
whom our esteemed correspondent, the Rev. J. Tyso, constitutes 
the life and soul. Two other florists of eminence, whom we 
visited, are Mr. Allnatt, jun., the son of the mayor of the town, 
and Mr. Clarke, a banker. Mr. Tyso is well known by his 
Catalogue of Ranunculuses, one of the best which has ever been 
published, and of which he has just produced a new edition for 
the year 1833. (See IX. 612.) By this it appears that Mr. Tyso's 
son is possessed of the same enthusiasm for flowers as his father, 
and that the latter intends, in a very short time, to transfer the 
whole of this department of his occupations to the former. We 
first visited Mr. Tyso's garden, in which we found the laying of 
carnations in a state of forwardness ; the first crop of ranun- 
culus roots was taken up and dried ; the second crop was in 
full foliage, but not yet showing flower stems; the collection 
of heartseases was beginning to fade; and the georginas, for 
the greater part, were in bloom. The miscellaneous collection 
of Mr. Tyso's garden included a select assortment of pelargo- 
niums, a few heaths, some of the newest annuals, and several of 
the better sorts of roses, and other flowering shrubs, such as the 
different noisettes, wistaria, chimonanthus, &c. Mr. Tyso has 
four gardens, of which we saw three. The fourth is a kitchen* 
garden. The garden of Mr. Tyso's residence may be considered 
that of the parsonage-house of the very respectable body (the 
Baptists) to which he belongs, and it is in part used as a burial- 
ground. It was something new to us to see peach trees arranged 
on the walls, and graves and tombstones in the compartments; but 
on expressing our surprise to the reverend occupier, he replied, 
that, if his congregation continued to increase as rapidly as it was 
now doing, the whole of his garden might be occupied in the same 
manner. We were much gratified to learn, from this gentleman, 

- b 3 

6 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats. 

that though there are a number of varieties of the protestant 
species of Christianity in Wallingford, yet not only the mem- 
bers but even the clergy of the different congregations all live 
in perfect harmony. We sincerely hope that the period will soon 
arrive when all religions and all clergy shall be placed upon a foot- 
ing of equality in every respect, each depending for support on his 
hearers ; and, when this is the case, we feel certain that Christian 
harmony will be confirmed in such a manner that neither time 
nor accident shall be able to prevail against it. 

Allnatt, Esq. — The garden of this gentleman surprised 

and delighted us. It contains nearly an acre of seedling hearts- 
ease, and upwards of that extent of seedling georginas. The 
beauty of some of the varieties of heartsease astonished us, not- 
withstanding we had seen the 270 varieties in the Epsom Nur- 
sery, and the select collection of Messrs. Brown at Slough. 
The colour and shading of the petals of some of the varie- 
ties were as superior to those of the common heartsease of 
the gardens, as those of the finest green-edged auriculas are to 
those of the native self-coloured flowers of that plant. As to the 
georginas, we will not speak of them ; they are too numerous 
for our circumscribed learning in this flower, and we were lost 
in admiration among them. Mr. Allnatt, jun., cultivates a variety 
of articles besides these two flowers. We saw the same rare 
shrubs and annuals as at Mr. Tyso's, and a variety of excellent 
practices displayed in the culture of culinary vegetables. For 
example, there were melons of a new variety, grown to a great 
size, in a bed of tan, heated by a lining of dung introduced 
through a porthole in a wall, covered by a shutter, so as to show 
nothing but the luxuriant bed of melons ; a tall-growing variety 
of Indian corn in pots, having, from the scitamineous character 
of its foliage, a most Oriental, or Tropical, appearance; the 
Altrincham carrot, grown in rows 18 in. apart, and the carrots 
at the same distance from each other in the rows, the roots 
attaining the thickness of a man's thigh, and the length of 3 ft., 
with a vigorously growing top, for feeding cows or other cattle ; 
Spanish and Portuguese onions in rows at the same distances, 
the size enormous ; and all other kitchen crops in proportion. 
Mr. Allnatt, sen., has grown on his farm a large quantity of 
Bishop's dwarf pea, for Mr. Ronalds of Brentford ; and he has 
a moderate breadth of that new and valuable field turnip, Dale's 
hybrid, the bulb of which is said to be as solid and nourish- 
ing as a Swedish turnip, and as tender as an early Dutch. 
It is also said to be not in the least degree injured by the frost, 
and it is thought that it will prove to be invaluable for field 
produce in wet soils. The seed of this variety is also for Mr. 
Ronalds ; and, if a fourth part of what we heard of this turnip be 
true, it must be a prize of immense value to the farmer. An 
apple called the creeping apple, a variety of the burr-knot kind, 

Journey through Belgium in 1833. 7 

and, like the Carlisle codling, coming early into use both for 
sauce and eating, is a great favourite with Mr. Allnatt; and the 
trees are now, as they are every year, covered with abundance of 
fruit. (See Ency. of Gard., §4803. new edit.) We had almost 
forgotten to express our admiration of a long straight walk, bor- 
dered on each side with a row of China asters, and beyond these 
by three rows of georginas, the first row dwarfs, the second 
higher, and the third highest ; also of dung hot-beds, the sides of 
which were thatched with drawn rye straw, kept close to the 
dung with rods and hooks, in order to prevent the escape of 
heat and moisture, to exclude the external rains, and to produce 
a neat appearance. 

The Garden of Clarice, Esq., contains a superb collection 

of seedling georginas; an assortment of heartseases, and a good 
collection of heaths. Mr. Clarke is an enthusiastic cultivator of 
the first-named flower, and grows heaths far better than any 
person whom we have seen between Wallingford and Slough. 
Altogether, he is a most enthusiastic florist, and a fit cooperator 
with Mr. Allnatt, jun., and Mr. Tyso. 

(To be continued,} 

Art. II. A short Account of a late Journey through Belgium and 
Part of France in the Autumn of J 833, by Joseph Knight, Esq. 
F.H.S. Communicated by Mr. Knight. 


According to your request, I now endeavour to give you a short 
account of my late journey through Belgium and part of France. 
As horticulture is not in so advanced a state in those countries 
as in England, I directed my attention to various other subjects 
as they came in my way. 

I left home on the 1 1 th of October, by way of Dover and 
Calais. Near the latter place, the land is barren, sandy, and 
neglected. Near Gravelines the soil improves, and continues to 
do so on to Dunkirk, where it varies. From thence to Burg, we 
found chiefly very rich grazing land. The farmers are indus- 
trious, but poor. The pigs and sheep are of a long-legged 
bony description ; the cows and horses are tolerable ; the imple- 
ments of husbandry are heavy and inconvenient ; the poultry 
is abundant. We next ascended to Mont Cassel, a small town 
considerably elevated, from which the prospect over an extensive 
country is very fine and picturesque : the neighbourhood is much 
undulated, wooded, and interesting to the traveller. 

On the road to Poperingen, the land is rich, crops various, con- 
sisting of wheat, beans, rape, with mangold wiirzel, grass, and 
wood: the latter consists of alder, willow, poplar, elm, &c., 
chiefly planted in rows and by the roadside, at from 10 ft. to 15 ft. 

b 4 

8 Journey through Belgium 

apart. The trees selected for planting are from If in. to 2 in. in 
diameter : before they are planted, the heads are cut off at about 
8 ft. high. After two or three years' growth pruning commences, 
and is performed with great judgment and good effect; the timber 
becoming generally straight, to the height of from 30 ft. to 40 ft. 
The practice is, to cut the larger shoots close and smooth, which 
is usually performed in August or September, leaving the smaller 
branches perfect. It is probable that this operation is performed 
every fourth year. In the second pruning the strong shoots 
are cut off close as before, when the smaller branches, before 
left, are also cut off close. This is done with great care, not 
to injure the trunk of the trees, which become, generally, as 
straight as the mast of a ship. The branches are chiefly cut 
upwards with chisels of various sizes, having handles of different 
lengths. This operation is performed with great despatch, ge- 
nerally, I conceive, by two men, one guiding the chisel, and 
the other striking with a mallet, cutting the branches perfectly 
smooth and close to the trunk of the tree : these wounds, in con- 
sequence of being made before the return of the sap, become 
nearly, if not entirely, healed over before the winter. 

[A similar practice will be found accurately described, II. 226. 
and 461. We consider it excellent, and are happy to find it 
confirmed by so intelligent an observer as Mr. Knight.] 

The cottagers in these parts, though destitute of many do- 
mestic comforts, are much less wretched than in England : ge- 
nerally they are provident, industrious, and economical; but 
few attend to cottage gardening; and, where they do, the produce, 
from want of the best varieties of seeds, and a better manage- 
ment, is but of little value. 

From Poperingen on to Ypres, the land is good : near the 
latter town there is a tolerable nursery-garden for forest trees: 
the land is rich, and the country generally flat. Through Cour- 
tray to near Ghent, the land is rich and well cultivated. Rape 
appears to be an important crop, and is cultivated to a very great 
extent in this country. It is surprising how few indigenous 
birds are to be seen, which is the more extraordinary in a 
country abounding so much with food for them: the sparrows 
are few, the magpies rather numerous, and there is a grey crow 
or rook seen occasionally. 

Near to Ghent there are some market-gardeners, who cultivate 
excellent vegetables, but display little or no taste for neatness or 
regularity. Ghent is a large manufacturing town, abounding in 
nursery-gardens, the cultivators of which are a very industrious 
class of men, but rather limited in the objects of their cultivation. 
They have many good and some rare plants. Magnolias and 
azaleas thrive with them admirably. There is a botanic garden 
here, which may boast more of its antiquity than it can of its 
stock of new plants. 

and Part of France in 1833. 9 

Apples, pears, cherries, plums, &c, thrive well, produce 
abundantly, and remain healthy. The apples are grafted chiefly 
on paradise stocks, the pears on quince stocks, which limits their 
growth, and renders them productive at an early age. The mode 
of culture here, as in France, is worthy of imitation; a well- 
arranged fruit-garden being an object of great profit as well as 
amusement. The trees are planted at 10 ft. or 12 ft. apart, and 
trained and pruned in the pyramidal form, by which means 
abundant crops of good fruit are obtained from small trees. 
Among the conveniences which attend on this mode of training 
may be reckoned, that it allows space to remain for inspecting 
the fruit, and performing all the operations required. 

The pleasure-grounds of the rich here, in Holland, and in 
France, appear meagre and cold, when compared with those of 
England, being nearly destitute of laurels, phillyreas, alaternus, 
arbutus, bays, laurustinus, &c. The general opinion is, that 
these plants will not survive the Continental winters ; but I have 
seen some proofs of the contrary, and am of opinion that the 
plants mentioned might be inured to all these countries, and I 
nave no doubt but many of the Chinese plants would be found to 
thrive well there ; as camellias, pittosporums, &c. &c. 

Beyond Ghent the land is rather light; but near to and 
beyond Aloste the quality improves, and hops are cultivated. 
About Brussels the country is slightly undulated ; the land is 
tolerably good, and the market-gardeners are rather numerous ; 
but they are of the old school, and do not appear desirous to 
improve either in their mode of culture, or in the quality of their 
stock. Brussels sprouts, dwarf savoys, dwarf red cabbage, and 
a few other articles, are very good. There is here a new bo- 
tanic garden, which, in external appearance, is a noble establish- 
ment, and is seen from the Boulevards to great advantage [a 
view of this garden will be found in V. 327, and a ground plan 
and description in VIII. 401.]. The collection of plants is not 
modern, but the director, M. Woters, and the head-gardener, 
M. Bresurs, are both very anxious to improve. 

About four miles from Brussels, on the left of the road to Ant- 
werp, stands the palace of Lacken, upon a gentle eminence, oc- 
cupied by the king of the Belgians, who is fond of gardening, and a 
promoter of it. To accomplish his objects, and establish some of 
the British principles of gardening at Lacken, he has had his gar- 
dener, Mr. M'Intosh, from Claremont, who is carrying on great 
improvements in the erection of hot-houses, green-houses, pits, 
&c, upon the most modern and best English construction; and 
it is reported to be the intention of His Majesty to erect conser- 
vatories, &c, and to have a good and general collection of 
rare and ornamental plants, to which he is very partial. The 
orangery here is a large, noble-looking, well-proportioned build- 

10 Journey through Belgium 

ing; it is 360 ft. long, 50 ft. wide, and 40 ft. high, with a slated 
roof, and contains a very large stock of as handsome and healthy 
orange trees as are to be found any where. The pleasure-grounds 
have been lately increased, and are very extensive, but require 
the introduction of new ornamental plants, and particularly of 
evergreens, of which they, like most of the pleasure-grounds 
in these countries, are almost wholly deficient. 

At Enghien, a few miles beyond Brussels, there is a nursery 
garden, belonging to M. Parmentier, who has a considerable 
collection of exotic plants, and amongst them some rare and 
good species. The Duke d'Aremberg has here a small country 
residence and garden; the range of hot-houses, &c, in it is 
handsome and extensive ; but the duke's collection of plants, 
though spoken of here as good, contains little that is rare. 

The road from Brussels, through Louvain, is slightly undu- 
lated and well wooded. The land is tolerable, but not rich. At 
Louvain there is a botanic garden, containing a good collection 
of tropical plants and others, which are in a state of high cul- 
tivation : the place is altogether in good keeping, and does high 
credit to M. Donkelaar, the head gardener, who, for civility and 
attention, is an ornament to the establishment. The Duke 
d'Aremberg has near this a large old mansion, in ruins, and an 
extensive and tolerably well kept kitchen-garden, in which are 
cultivated some very excellent apples and pears. There is a 
considerable extent of land, here called pleasure-ground, in t the 
most neglected state that it is possible to conceive. 

M. van Mons, M.D. Professor of Chemistry, &c, has given 
very great attention to the cultivation of pears. On visiting his 
garden and fruit rooms, I had ample proof of his labour and 
attention. Both must have been incessant, and the result must 
be of great public advantage. He has sown seed, and proved 
the quality of the produce of, as I was told, eleven thousand 
seedling pear trees , from these, they say, he has obtained about 
three hundred good sorts. I saw the fruit of many of excellent 
quality, adapted to the various seasons and objects for which this 
fruit is applicable. I hope the day is not distant when all the 
really good sorts will not only be cultivated in this country, but 
also accurately described. 

The road to Liege is through a country of little interest to the 
traveller. The land is tolerable, but the cottages are miserable 
poor clay huts, and the general surface of the country is bleak 
and open, for want of bridges and trees. At Liege, a large 
town on the banks of the river Meuse, which is there about 
equal in width to the Thames at Chelsea, there is a nursery 
garden, kept by Mr. Jacob Makoy, where an excellent col- 
lection of exotic plants is cultivated. Coals are here abundant, 
and also from this place to Namur. The road is on the bank of 

and Part of France in 1833. 1 1 

the river Meuse, which is very romantic and beautiful ; re- 
sembling much the road from Bakewell to Buxton, in Derby- 
shire. The country abounds in mines of lead, iron, and coal, 
and quarries of marble. The latter may at no distant day prove 
an article of great commercial importance; it is obtained in 
blocks of various lengths, some nearly 20 ft. long : it is uniform in 
its quality, is easily worked by the chisel or saw, and is readily 
converted into slabs of large dimensions, of less than an inch in 
thickness. [See Mag. Nat. Hist., vi. 76.] Orchard fruits are 
cultivated here to a considerable extent; and, on the southern 
exposure of the hills, vineyards are numerous and extensive. 

Along the road to Charleroi, Mons, Comines, and Valenciennes, 
coals are abundant and good, and produce little smoke. The coun- 
try is open, and the soil moderately good. Succory is cultivated 
to a very great extent; it is taken up at this time (the latter end 
of October), and laid in large heaps about the farm yard, pre- 
paratory to storing it up for the winter, during which season it 
is forced in cellars and the blanched leaves sent to market as 
salading. [See the practice described in detail, II. 460.] 

The road through Peron to Paris traverses an open agricul- 
tural country, affording little interest to the traveller. Approach- 
ing to Paris, the land is partially occupied in the cultivation of 
culinary vegetables in alternate ridges or beds, of corn, &c, in 
which neither art, regularity, nor neatness of method is attended 
to. Near to Paris the greater part of the land is occupied in the 
cultivation of vegetables for the Paris market, where they appear 
to much greater advantage than in the gardens. At a village 
called Montreuil, about four miles east of Paris, the chief part of 
the peaches for the supply of this great metropolis are grown ; 
and, considering the rough state the trees are kept in, the fruit is 
surprisingly fine, and the crops abundant. The trees are trained 
on stone walls, generally plastered over, of 8 or 10 feet high, 
enclosing portions of ground, varying from the eighth of an acre 
to an acre, and they are planted on all aspects with similar suc- 
cess. The mode of pruning these trees seems to be without rule 
or regularity, notwithstanding which, they retain perfect health 
to an old age, and grow to a good size. The soil is of a brown 
free-working loam, upon a loose freestone bottom, never very 
wet or very dry. [See Encyc. of Gard., new edit. § 474. 

The nursery gardens in and about Paris are somewhat nu- 
merous. The few engaged particularly in the cultivation of 
exotic plants are not in a prosperous state, nor do they possess 
a great variety of species, though they have many good plants. 

The nursery gardeners of Vitry, a village about four or five 
miles from Paris, are very numerous, and are chiefly engaged in 
the cultivation of hardy fruit trees, forest trees, and shrubs, 
which they grow well, considering the great irregularity and the 

12 Investigation of the Theory 

confused way in which they crop their lands. Their nurseries 
are chiefly in open fields, and their trees are grown on alternate 
ridges with crops of wheat, rye, &c. On the same ridge may 
frequently be seen, intermixed, apples, pears, plums, cherries, 
and peaches, but very rarely a number stick, to indicate the 
particular kind of any of the sorts ; so that little dependence 
can be placed on the accuracy of the growers as to names or 

The nursery gardeners, or florists, who supply the markets of 
Paris with flowers, reside chiefly in or very near that city ; the 
produce of their labours, at all the seasons in which I have visited 
Paris, from July to November, has always surprised me much. 
The beauty and superiority of the articles they bring forth 
amount to perfection itself, and are truly surprising. To enu- 
merate all the articles which I saw exposed in the Paris flower- 
markets would form a very long list, and, indeed, would be 
quite beyond my recollection. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Joseph Knight. 
Exotic Nursery, King's Road, Chelsea, Jan. 8. 1834. 

Our readers, we are sure, will agree with us in thanking Mr. 
Knight for this interesting communication, and entreating him 
(as he makes an annual Continental tour) always to give us a 
similar account of it. We wish all nurserymen and gardeners 
who travel on the Continent could be persuaded to do this. 
There is a great want of spirit among the young nurserymen 
about London. They think they have done a great deal if they 
have ventured as far as Paris ; but we are sure, that, if they were 
to travel through Germany, and even into Italy, they would greatly 
enlarge their minds, acquire much more professional inform- 
ation than they have any idea of; and, what they will, perhaps, 
like best of all, extend their commercial connections. — Cond. 

Art. III. Investigation of the Theory of the Rotation of Crops. By 
the Author of the " Domestic Gardener's Manual," C.M.H.S. ' 

My attention was arrested by the remarks of the reviewer of 
what is termed " De Candolle's Theory of the Rotation of Crops," 
in a late number of the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture (xxi. 
320 — 327.). I shall notice a few of these remarks as I proceed; 
but, before I do so, I feel imperatively called upon to place 
before you and your numerous readers a statement of a few 
plain facts. They who know me, or who have perused any of 

of the Rotation of Crops. 1 3 

my papers with candour and disinterested feelings, will, I con- 
ceive, acquit me of undue assumption, or of endeavouring to set 
up a claim for originality, without just and sufficient reason. 
That which I borrow I ever wish to avow, as a subject from 
which I have derived benefit and improvement; but, if I feel 
confident of having advanced an opinion, or advocated a practice, 
that, as far as my means of information extend, I conscien- 
tiously believe to be originally my own, I should be unjust to 
myself to relinquish that confidence, until, by proof positive, I 
become convinced that I have laboured under a mistake. 

To quit further preamble, I observe that, at p. 324., we read, 
" Bragmans stated that a portion of the juices which are ab- 
sorbed b}' the roots of plants are, after the salutiferous portions 
have been extracted by the vessels of the plant, again thrown 
out by exudation from the roots, and deposited in the soil. This 
idea has been more fully pursued by De Candolle, who sees in 
it the true theory of the rotation of crops. He thinks it pro- 
bable that it is the existence of this exuded matter, which may 
be regarded in some measure as the excrement of the preceding 
crop of vegetables, that proves injurious to a succeeding vege- 
tation. . . . The particles which have been deleterious to one 
tribe of plants cannot but prove injurious to plants of the same 
kind, and probably to those of some other species, while they 
furnish nutriment to another order of vegetables. Hence it is 
why one kind of corn crop is injured by immediately succeeding 
another of the same kind ; hence why different kinds of crops 
may with advantage succeed one another ; hence, in short, the 
propriety of a rotation of crops." 

I do not by any means object to the theory alluded to in this 
quotation ; far from it, I believe it to be substantially correct : 
but why is it termed " De Candolle's theory ?" That learned 
professor has advocated the facts stated : so, it appears, did Pro- 
fessor Brugmans. I was not, indeed, aware that that learned 
German had written at all on the subject ; nor do I now know 
in what work his opinions are to be found ; but it appears that 
he preceded M. de Candolle at the least. Dr. Lindley, also, it 
can be proved, published a hypothesis by no means at variance 
with the theory under consideration. In his Outlines of the First 
Principles of Horticulture (No. $2 — 56.) we read, " Spongioles 
secrete excrementitious matter, which is unsuitable to the same 
species afterwards as food ; for poisonous substances are as fatal 
to the species that secrete them as to any other species. ... But 
to other species the excrementitious matter is either not unsuit- 
able or not deleterious. . . . Hence, soil may be rendered impure 
(or, as we inaccurately say, worn out) for one species, which will 
not be impure for others. . . . This is the true theory of the 
rotation of crops." 

14 Investigation of the Theory 

Which of the two professors can lay just claim to priority? 
for the theory is one and the same. But now we come to another 
consideration. What did / write in the Domestic Gardener' s 
Manual in 1829, which work was published complete in 1830? 
The reader who can turn to that work, at p. 397., under the 
head " General Remarks upon the Raspberry," will find the 
following observations : — " Whenever raspberry plants are re- 
moved to another situation, the old ground ought to be well 
manured, deeply digged and turned, and then it should be placed 
under some vegetable crop. By this mode of treatment it will 
be brought into a condition to support raspberries again in two 
or three years. This is a curious and interesting fact, one which 
proves that it is not solely by exhausting the soil that certain 
plants deteriorate, if planted on the same ground year after year ; 
for, were this the case, manuring would renovate the ground ; 
but it fails to do so : and thus, if peas or wheat, for example, be 
grown repeatedly on a piece of land, the farmer may manure to 
whatever extent he chooses, his crops will dwindle, and become 
poorer and poorer. . . . To account for this specific poisoning of 
the soil, we must suppose that particular plants convey into the 
soil, through the channels of their reducent vessels, certain spe- 
cific fluids, which, in process of time, saturate it, and thus render 
it incapable of furnishing those plants any longer with wholesome 
aliment: in fact, the soil becomes replete with fecal or excre- 
mentitious matter ; and, on such, the individual plant which has 
yielded it cannot feed. But it is not exhausted; so far from that, 
it is, to all intents and purposes, manured for a crop of a different 
nature : and thus, by the theory of interchange between the 
fluids of the plant and those of the soil, we are enabled, philo- 
sophically, to account for the benefit which is derived from a 
change of crops." 

The foregoing remarks, whether they be correct or incorrect, 
philosophical or unphilosophical, are tolerably pointed and 
definite : they cannot be misunderstood ; and it will scarcely be 
contended, that I did not pen them in the year, and in the work, 
above mentioned. 

But Brugmans, it may be said, wrote to the same effect. I 
deny it not : I only observe, that I know not when he did so. 
I am ignorant of all concerning his writing, except from the few 
lines which I have extracted from the Quarterly Journal of Agri- 
cidture. His works are, and have been, wholly unknown to me ; 
and you, Sir, do not appear to have referred to any of them in 
your Encyclopedia of Plants or Hortus Britannicus. He therein 
only is named as having given a new title to a semihardy and 
most beautiful shrub, formerly called Datura arborea, now Brug- 
mansm suaveolens. It is of little consequence what and when 
he wrote, in respect to the subject under consideration ; it is 

of the Hotation of Crops. 15 

enough to be able to adduce proof of the priority of the hypo- 
thesis of the Domestic Gardener's Manual to that now ascribed 
to M. de Candolle. That learned professor may have presented 
enlarged views of the theory, he may have added fact to fact in 
corroboration thereof; but still his claim to originality falls to 
the ground. 

It is not contended that the necessity of a change of crops is 
a new theory ; far from it : the practice is proved by fact to be 
more or less expedient. Let me not be mistaken ; what I argue 
for is simply this : that the theory of a fecal exudation of some 
matter by the roots, saturating the soil, and rendering it poisonous 
or unwholesome to the individual, but nutritive and salubrious 
to some other plant, is new ; and appears never to have been 
advanced, or even hinted at, until I wrote the passage extracted, 
as above, from my work. 

I do not for a moment desire to detract from the ability or 
authority of so able a botanist as De Candolle; but, great and 
deservedly high as his name and reputation may be, I, a com- 
paratively nameless writer, cannot abandon the consciousness 
that I penned, from my own unassisted observations and reflection, 
in 1829, those remarks that now form the sum and substance of 
what is considered a neia theory. I have supposed it possible 
that Brugmans may have anticipated me and every one else; but, 
even in this case, as was before hinted, what becomes of the 
present claim ? But I have good reason to believe that the fact 
was not so ; for, in a letter very recently received from the pre- 
sident of the Horticultural Society, that gentleman observes : — > 
" The Continental naturalists have lately imagined that trees emit 
some matter into the soil, of the nature of excrement, which sub- 
sequently becomes noxious." If, then, the doctrine be deemed 
recent, the priority ought to rest with one who wrote nearly four 
years anterior to the publication of the theory which is thus 
blazoned forth as new. I quit this part of my subject, in order 
to allude to matters of pleasing interest in the other parts of the 
article by the reviewer. 

It appears that M. Macaire has made many experiments to 
confirm the theory of the exudation of matter from the roots. 
He is stated to have ascertained the fact from a comparison of 
results, in attempting to raise plants " in pure siliceous sand, 
pounded glass, washed sponge, white linen, and particularly in 
rain water. After cleansing the roots thoroughly, he placed 
them in pure water. After they had put forth leaves, expanded 
their flowers, and flourished for a time, he ascertained, by the 
evaporation of the water, and the use of chemical reagents, that 
the water contained matter which had exuded from the roots." 
I cannot allow myself space to quote the experiments at large. 
One, however, with the bean (Ficia .Faba) must be noticed. 

16 Investigation of the Theory 

" The bean grows pretty well in pure water. It was found, on 
trial, that the water continued clear, but assumed a yellow tint. 
Chemical tests and evaporation seemed to detect a matter similar 
to gum, and a little chalk. Another bean was placed in this 
liquor, and would not thrive : and then, in order to determine 
whether this was occasioned by the want of carbonic acid, or by 
the presence of some exuded matter, plants of wheat were placed 
in the water. They lived well, the yellow colour of the fluid 
became less intense, the residuum less considerable, and it was 
evident that the new plants absorbed a portion of the matter 
discharged by the first. Hence, the practice of cropping wheat 
after beans is justified by this experiment." 

Tlie potato scarcely coloured water wherein it was placed, 
left little residuum, and gave but little taste. " This experiment," 
M. Macaire observes, " was made upon a plant at an early stage 
of developement. The experiment would lead to the inference, 
that the potato is not a very good preparation for corn crops, 
which is known to be the case in practice, unless it is assisted by 
an extraordinary quantity of manure. All these facts tend to 
prove the theory of the rotation suggested by M. de Candolle." 

From the foregoing passages, the reader may draw some infer- 
ence concerning the theory, and the nature of the experiments 
recorded. I am by no means disposed to retract what I had 
written upon the philosophy of the rotation of crops ; on the 
contrary, I rejoice to feel myself supported by physiologists of 
so much eminence. To know, beyond a doubt, that a Lindley 
and a De Candolle have adduced a theory exactly in accordance 
with that which some years past impressed my own mind, is at 
least highly gratifying : to ascertain that the direct experiments 
of another man of science have tended, as far as they have been 
carried, to confirm it, is still more so. But I must not neglect 
to say, that the practice of the rotation of crops may be, and is, 
carried too far. There can, I think, be no doubt that, whenever 
a crop fails upon repetition, that failure ought to be attributed to 
an unhealthy (specifical) saturation of the soil : but rotation, as a 
sine qua non, an indispensable and never to be omitted practice, 
ought not to be insisted upon. They who have boldly ventured 
to persist for a time in recroppings have not found a certain 
deterioration. As to the potato, it is no uncommon thing to 
hear of the same ground being planted and replanted, year after 
year, for a great period of time. M. Macaire's experiment with 
the potato bears upon the assertion, for it tends to show that it 
does not produce much radical matter. That plants, in many 
instances, give forth a considerable portion, may be inferred from 
the peculiar odour which they impart to the soil ; and also from 
the colour, the change of tint, which the ground acquires from 
croppings. Let new-turned maiden earth be put into a garden 

of the Hotation of Crops. 1 7 

pot, and with it a single strawberry plant, without any manuring 
substance. The soil, in the first instance, shall be of an ochreous 
yellow hazel colour. In a single year, how many shades, ap- 
proaching to black, will it acquire from the deposition of carbonous 
matter, although it be watered with pure rain water only ? Let 
experimenters determine this and other facts of the like nature, 
for their own satisfaction : I throw out the hint as a stimulus. 
It must be conceded, that great difficulty surrounds experiments 
of a nature similar to those instituted by M. Macaire; for 
plants in water are not in a purely natural situation : they live, 
and perhaps grow ; but they are not, as the plants in the field, 
rooted and established in soil, and exposed to the stimulus of the 
great natural agents. Hence, there is great danger of being 
deluded by appearances. A cutting, placed in a coloured in- 
fusion imbibes the colouring matter, and has induced microscopic 
observers to suppose that they have thereby detected the genuine 
channels of the sap : but, as I have shown [VIII. ] 42.], rooted 
plants do not evince the same appearances of colour, although 
the soil in which they have grown has been moistened for a long 
time with deeply coloured infusion. Plants, in a word, elaborate 
their own food ; they are their own chemists, and ought to be 
placed in their peculiar spheres of action ; otherwise, though life 
may be protracted, their functions are not naturally performed, 
nor are their secretions regularly and healthily effected. 

The writer in the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture invites che- 
mists to investigate and experimentise, in order to improve upon 
and establish, or to disprove, the theory of Professor de Can- 
dolle. I, for one, would volunteer my services, the more espe- 
pecially to consolidate my own hypothesis; but I must, in justice, 
caution every one, that, in order to determine the causes of 
natural phenomena, the subjects of trial must be placed in truly 
natural situations. Cuttings afford fallacious data. I am inclined 
to fear that even rooted plants, growing in pure water only, would 
not yield products exactly corresponding with those afforded to 
the soil. In order to operate efficiently, I conceive it would be 
prudent to wash a sufficient bulk of maiden earth in rain water, 
to drain it thoroughly, then to plant the subject in a pot of the 
washed earth, and to water it during its growth solely with fil- 
trated rain water. Plants so treated, and duly exposed to sun 
and air, might be expected to yield their specific radical exudation 
to the soil. After a given time, the mould should either be 
repeatedly watered to excess, and the drainage collected for 
experiment, or, the plant being removed, the whole bulk of soil 
should be immersed in rain water, and stirred over and over 
again. After three or four hours, the water might be filtrated 
through strong bibulous white paper, and tested according to art. 
These crude hints are thrown out, leaving the minutia? to the 

Vol. X. — No, 48. 

18 Scientific Management of Hot-houses 

science and skill of the operator. I could add much to this 
paper ; but, having trespassed very far on your pages, I must not 
farther enlarge. 

Dec. 4. 1^33. G. I. T. 

Art. IV. On the Scientific Management of Hot-houses, so far as it 
regards Temperature. By Scienti^e et Justiti^e Amator. 

"When we take into consideration the exertions made by 
philosophic individuals for the purpose of enlightening the 
mystified processes of vegetable developement, and impressing 
upon gardeners the importance of conducting their operations 
upon scientific principles ; it is scarcely more amazing to mark 
the indifference with which (comparatively speaking) we have 
treated their doctrines, than it is to behold the tenacity with 
which we have clung to systems of management, which can only 
be defended by pointing out the success which has followed 
them, and citing the authority of some distinguished writer, 
whose name we hold in veneration ; while a little calm investigation 
would be sufficient to convince us, that even a greater degree of 
success might be realised by other means, attended with less 
expense, and more in unison with the general operations of 
nature. In illustration of this position, few subjects could be 
more appropriately introduced, than the general management of 
hot-houses, so far as temperature is concerned. In using the 
word general, I beg leave to say that I am quite aware that a 
great many gardeners conduct their hot-house operations in a 
scientific natural manner ; but, so far as my observation informs 
me, they as yet prove exceptions from the great body, who con- 
tinue to keep, within a few degrees, as high a temperature in 
their houses at night, as when they are exposed to the influence 
of a cloudless sun. That a system so opposed to nature should 
so extensively prevail may be accounted for by the fact, that we 
have been more anxious to become acquainted with, and to act 
upon, the opinions of others, than to investigate for ourselves, 
taken in connection with the circumstance, that, with the ex- 
ception of the celebrated Mr. Knight, and a few modern writers, 
the system has received the support of almost every author 
whose writings are recommended to the attention of the tyro in 
gardening, as containing nothing which has not received the 
sanction of practical experience. That the prosecution of such 
a system has been practically successful I will not dispute ; but, 
at the same time, it appears clear as noonday that that success 
must wholly depend upon causing the means employed, in them- 
selves opposed to nature, so to counteract each other as to pro- 

with regard to Temperature. 1 9 

duce finally the result which would be the effect of an adherence 
to the simple dictates of nature. 

Almost every gardener is aware that, for all practical pur- 
poses, well-ripened, firm, short-jointed wood is greatly preferable 
to that which is luxuriant and long-jointed ; and, therefore, as 
an increase of temperature exerts the same expanding influence 
upon vegetables as upon other bodies, and as this expansion, in 
the case of vegetables, is greatly accelerated by their being kept 
in the shade, and in a humid atmosphere, it follows that the 
keeping up of a strong moist heat in hot-houses, at night, is the 
very best means for producing elongation of stem and long- 
jointed wood. But as it is very doubtful if, in these circum- 
stances, much valuable substance is added to the plant, as it is 
only when exposed to the agency of light (so say our most 
celebrated philosophers) that the process of decomposing car- 
bonic acid is effected, and the sap receives its final elaboration, 
so as to become, as it were, the nourishing blood of the plant; 
it becomes necessary to counteract this tendency to the pro- 
duction merely of elongation of stem, by preventing the ther- 
mometer from rising more than a few degrees above the fire- 
heat standard, by admitting large quantities of air during the 
day. .By this means the internal is reduced to almost an 
equality with the external atmosphere, and, by making an im- 
proper use of artificial heat, the cultivator is under the necessity 
of depriving himself of the advantages which he might otherwise 
have derived from the heat of the sun. The tendency of keeping 
a high temperature at night is to over-stimulate the plants, 
causing them to expend prematurely their powers of excitability, 
and, if not counteracted by the means I have referred to, the 
prejudicial effects soon become apparent. As one instance, I 
may mention, that last season (1832), it being very desirable to 
have grapes in a pine stove ripe as soon as possible, no trouble 
was spared to keep up a high temperature both night and day ; 
and the consequence was, that, although the vines made pretty 
good wood, the fruit never was high-flavoured, nor yet well- 
coloured, and soon became shriveled, or rotted off. As the 
shriveling of grapes is very much complained of, it may be 
worth the attention of the gardener to enquire, if, in addition to 
leaving too much fruit for the strength of the vine, &c, it may 
not sometimes be owing to the keeping up of a high temperature 
both night and day ; by which, notwithstanding the accommodating 
capabilities of plants, their powers of excitability become ex- 
pended before the fruit has received its due share of nourishment. 
But the circumstances to which I wish particularly to direct the 
attention of my "brothers in youth and in trade" is, that, inde- 
pendently of all our exertions, the grapes, in the pine stove referred 
to, were not fit to cut above eight days sooner than those in a 

c 2 

20 Management of Temperature hi Hot-houses. 

late vinery, which had received little assistance from fire heat 
except at the blossoming season. During this season (1833), 
the pine stove referred to, as well as all the other houses, were 
managed upon a natural system. The temperature at night in 
the pine stoves was frequently below 60°, and in the vineries as 
low as 50°, while during the day the temperature ranged from 
80° to 110°, the atmosphere being kept in a moderately humid 
state. The grapes in the pine stove formerly noticed were ripe 
from three weeks to a month sooner than last season ; the fruit 
was of the finest quality, both as respects colour and flavour, and 
so free from shriveling, that a number of bunches that were left 
upon a white muscat vine with very large berries were cut, in 
the end of last month, without containing one shriveling berry. 

Several gardeners with whom I have conversed upon the 
subject, while allowing that the present general practice is un- 
natural, at the same time contend that, when fruit is wanted 
early, it is necessary to keep up a high temperature both night 
and day; but the instance I have referred to tends to show that 
such a practice, instead of accelerating maturation, actually 
retards it, or, at any rate, leaves very little chance of obtaining 
fruit of the best quality. As an additional fact, I might refer to 
our field crops, which ripen most rapidly when exposed alter- 
nately to the cold dewy nights and bright warm sunny days of 
autumn. By allowing the temperature to fall at night, and to 
rise by sunshine during the day, much less air will be necessary 
than is generally given, and almost universally recommended, and 
much labour will be saved. Indispensable as atmospheric air is 
to plants, it appears to me that its importance has been greatly 
overrated. However necessary its free admission is, to counter- 
act the prejudicial effects of keeping a high temperature at 
night, it is not in like manner necessary when the plants are 
cultivated in accordance with the dictates of nature ; as the ex- 
panding influence of a high temperature, from sunshine, will, at 
the same time, be counteracted by the agerjcy of light effecting 
the elaborating and decomposing processes. Its free admission, 
for the purpose of imparting colour and flavour to fruit, may be 
very proper when the fruit has attained its full size, and the 
temperature is not much reduced; but it is worth enquiring 
if, even here, light be not the principal agent. The very argu- 
ment made use of by many, that it is necessary to admit a free 
current of air, for the purpose of keeping the atmosphere pure 
in which the plants are grown, will, when duly weighed, recoil 
upon themselves ; as it is only at night that plants can deteriorate 
the atmosphere, while they perform a salutary process of 
purification during the day : to act consistently, it is during the 
night that gardeners ought to give the greatest quantity of air. 
I know that even this practice is recommended by some, but it 

Portable Hot-water Apparatus. 21 

cannot be much adhered to in this country with advantage, unless 
the weather be very warm ; or the plants cultivated be such 
as do not require a temperature higher than that which our 
climate at the time affords. In general, it will be found most 
economical to shut up the house early in the afternoon, so as to 
have all the advantage of sun heat, and then open the top sashes 
a little the first thing in the morning, which will allow the close 
heated air to escape ; and, what is of some consequence, especially 
when the fruit approaches maturity, it will help to dry the 
leaves and fruit before the sun's rays become very powerful. 

It will be perceived that these observations are merely general, 
and do not at all refer to what may be called critical periods in 
the forcing of fruits, &c. Due attention must also be paid to the 
native locality of plants, as in some situations plants experience 
little difference of temperature during day and night. That the 
system I have pointed out will be attended with less labour and 
expense than the one generally acted upon requires no demon- 
stration. The young man who knows experimentally what it is 
to run about like a lamplighter, giving and taking away air, just 
as the sun emerges from or enters a cloud ; or who has had his 
health impaired by a midnight attendance upon furnaces ; in both 
cases, for the purpose of keeping the thermometer at the ordered 
degree ; will duly appreciate the ease and comfort with which 
hot-houses may be managed, by adopting a system more in unison 
with nature. Diminution in the quantity of fuel will of itself 
produce a reduction of expenses. To a great many of your 
readers, there will be nothing new in these remarks ; but, should 
you judge them likely to be of any use, your publishing them 
may be the means of leading young gardeners rigidly to scru- 
tinise all doctrines and opinions for themselves, and may teach 
them not to be the implicit followers of any man; for, small and 
confined as my knowledge of the science of gardening is, it has 
already taught me that, by attending to its dictates, results and 
advantages will be obtained, which industry and perseverance, 
unaided by its influence, never could accomplish. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Dec. 2,7. 1833. Scienti^e et Justitije Amator. 

Art. V. Description of a portable Hot-toater Apparatus. By Mr. 
Joshua Major, Landscape-Gardener and Garden Architect. 

I have sent for your inspection a model of a portable hot- 
water apparatus, which I have recently constructed, and wish to 
make known. While designing various fancy structures for a 

c 3 

22 Portable Hot-<water Apparatus, 

gentleman's pleasure-grounds, I was led to suppose that some- 
thing like the apparatus now sent might be advantageously ap- 
propriated to such of them as require some little artificial heat. 
My chief aim was to avoid the appearance of smoke and chim- 
neys, which cannot usually be dispensed with, in the case of the 
introduction of coal or wood fires ; and my next object was, to 
have the apparatus portable, so as to be able to remove it from 
place to place, as it might be wanted. It is probable the appa- 
ratus may be advantageously used, in small frames, to assist any 
insufficient heat in severe weather; and I think it could not 
fail also to be useful, were it introduced into some of the small 
green-houses which are frequently to be met with in the metropolis 
and other large towns; and which, being generally destitute of 
any mode of supplying heat artificially, seldom, if ever, exhibit 
healthy plants. 

I have employed this portable hot-water apparatus in warming 
one of the entrances of the conservatory formerly belonging to 
Bretton Hall (VIII. 361.), but which is now connected with a 
gentleman's drawing-room, for the reception of plants as they 
come into flower, which could not conveniently be warmed in any 
other way ; and, while writing this, I have received an order for 
one to be sent into Lincolnshire, of the size here described, for a 
very small green-house, 9 ft. by 6 ft., which, no doubt, will be 
quite sufficient for a place of that extent. 

The apparatus may be made of tin or copper; the latter, 
though, of course, it would cost more at first, would, owing to 
its durability, in the end, no doubt, be the cheapest. Charcoal 
is employed for heating the apparatus ; oil lamps have been tried 
instead of it, but with not near so good an effect. As it is ne- 
cessary to employ pipes to conduct the effluvium (arising from 
the charcoal) out of the place required to be warmed, it will, in 
order to secure all the heat possible, be of importance to intro- 
duce a sufficient length to allow the whole heat to pass off, 
before the ends of the pipes are turned to the outside. In order 
to make the smoke conductors suitable for any situation, it is 
only necessary, in addition to the elbow-pipes, to be provided 
with several lengths of straight pipes, placing one elbow upon 
the permanent smoke conductor connected with the fire, and the 
other at the extremity, or midway, of the piping, as it may be 
required. The largest-sized apparatus could not well be more 
than 8 ft. long; as, if larger, it would be inconvenient to move 
about. The size of the one which appears the most useful is as 
follows: — The whole height of the centre portion of the apparatus, 
comprising the boiler, &c, is 15 in., and width 5^ in. by 7£in.; 
the fire-pan is 5f in. by 4 J in., and 3 J in. deep; surrounded on 
three sides by a boiler half an inch in diameter, which becomes 
more spacious upwards as the fireplace diminishes. The opening 

Different Kinds of Fountains for Gardens. 


necessary for the reception of the fire-pan, and for supplying it 
with fuel, is 6 in. wide by 5 J in. deep: at the top of this opening 
the fireplace commences tapering ; consequently the water in the 
boiler expands more immediately over the fire; the smoke pipe 
takes its regular width (l^in.) in the boiler, about an inch below 
where the lid unites; the horizontal water pipes {fig. 1. a) are 

each 28 in. long, by 2 in. in diameter ; the end pipes (b) are 
14^ in. high, by 3 in. in diameter : a feeder (c) is added, in case 
it should be thought better to have the lid fixed tight on the 
boiler. In order to promote the circulation of the water, small 
holes are to be perforated in the top of the lids (d d), which are 
also intended to be fixed tight. The apparatus may either be 
placed on the floor of the place to be warmed, or raised by 
bearers, or suspended by wire or cord , the two latter methods 
assist the fire to burn more freely. I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Joshua Major. 
Kiionostrop, near Leeds, Dec. 12. 1833. 

Art. VI. 


On the different Kinds of Fountains adapted to Gardens. 
By William Mason, Jun. Esq. 

Touching the arrangement of fountains, promised in my last 
(IX. 538.), I have only to observe that, as method, ever so little 
pursued, does, in the same proportion, facilitate operation, so 
would I say, that, by giving fountains the names of class and cha- 
racter, we shall assist the projector in his communications with 
those who employ him. Thus, then, I should divide fountains 

c 4 

24 Gardener's House, adapted for 

into two classes, the cascade and the jet: the cascade foun- 
tain invariably falling from an unseen source above and the jet 
fountain rising into the air from a source that is visible below. 
These classes I should again divide into the natural, the simple 
architectural, and the enriched. The taste of the projector 
must adapt class and character to the situation, or, as those have 
it who forget their mother tongue, to the locale : as, for instance, 
bad taste might, perhaps, adopt the jet near a Swiss cottage, where 
a natural cascade would be harmonious with the scene ; and, vice 
versa, would, perhaps, adopt the natural cascade in a geometric 
garden, and reject the jet, which would there be probably more 
in keeping with the general features, particularly if made of the 
enriched character. When such absurdities are put in juxta- 
position with each other, the critic is apt to scout the idea of 
treating such contradictions as chimerical; but the shade of 
Repton is not wanted to be summoned up, to testify that the 
remark is justified by every day's experience. 

Now, as to character: the natural speaks for itself, whether 
cascade or jet : the one falling from rockwork above, and form- 
ing rills below ; the other rising from a rockwork base, and falling 
into a pool around or against it. 

The simple architectural has nothing in it but what geometry, 
in the hands of a stone-mason, may execute ; while, on the con- 
trary, the architectural enriched opens a wide field for genius 
to display all its glorious riches by the hands of the sculptor. 

Having now briefly given all that perhaps may be said on the 
methodical arrangement of fountains, I beg to send you in this 
sheet a design for a natural cascade fountain and hermitage ; or, 
according to the foregoing project, a fountain of Class I. character 
1., and subscribe myself, till my next, Yours, &c. 

Necton, Norfolk, Nov. 1833. William Mason, Jun. 

We have not engraved the design sent, because there are 
many such already published ; several will be found in the new 
edition of our Encyclopaedia of Gardening, now publishing in parts. 
For example, in Parti, fig. 20, and Part in. fig. 134. We shall 
be glad of a continuation of Mr. Mason's communications. — Cond. 

Art. VII. Design for a Gardeners House, adapted for the South 
Wall of a Kitchen-Garden, By J. Robertson, Esq. Architect. 

In conformity with our promise, made in Vol. VIII. p. 551., 
we proceed with our designs for gardener's houses, suitable for 
being joined to the walls of a kitchen-garden. We have already 
given a design for an east wall (VIII. 551.), one for a west wall 
(VIII. 659.), one for a north wall (IX. 477.), and we now give 
one for a south wall. (fg. 2.) 

the South Wall of a Kitchen- Garden. 25 

The Ground Floor contains: a, entrance lobby; b, passage and staircase; c, kitchen ; d, parlour; 

e, apprentice's bed-room; /, servant's bed-room; g, office and library ; i i, water-closets ; It, fuel; 

The Chamber Floor contains : m, seed room over the kitchen ; n, best bed-room ; o, closet to best 

bed-room ; p, lumber closet ; q, press for linen ; r, s, t, bed-rooms. 

26 On forming Plantations on a regular Plan, 

Art. VIII. On adopting a regular Plan informing Plantations, zoith 
a vietv to facilitating their after Management. By Charles Law- 
rence, Esq. 


As you number amongst your readers many scientific men 
and persons of taste, I must premise that, on the present 
occasion, I have nothing to say to the one or the other; but 
that my business is with the country gentleman, who is thinking 
nothing about either science or taste, but who has the cacoethes 
plantandi upon him, and is about to plant his twenty acres of 
land this winter, merely as a crop ; and who, should he ever 
hereafter dream of thinning his plantation, would be much too 
idle to mark every tree which ought to be removed until the 
crop was half spoiled; when he would at length merely order 
men, probably without much more thought or judgment than 
the tools they wield, to " thin the plantation." 

I am sure I am far within bounds, when I assert that at least 
half the trees which are planted, whether for ornament or profit, 
are either disfigured, or rendered comparatively valueless, by 
being originally planted too near together, or by being allowed 
to remain too long without thinning. As there are but few that 
plant who, from want of observation and experience, are capable 
of directing this operation to the best advantage, and many of 
those who are competent are indisposed to undertake a task 
which requires so much time, attention, and perseverance; and 
having personally felt it a very irksome task to mark a large plant- 
ation of small trees, it occurred to me, some years ago, that, after 
selecting those species of trees which were best adapted to the 
soil under culture, instead of planting them indiscriminately, it 
would very much simplify both the first setting and the thin- 
ning, if they were planted upon a regular plan. I have tried 
this repeatedly, and can strongly recommend the adoption of the 
system by those who are planting merely for profit, and without 
any view to scenic effect. 

The first point to be considered is the selection of such trees 
as are observed to flourish most in the particular locality, and 
as are known to thrive in the soil you are about to operate 
upon. The next matter to be determined is the ultimate object 
in view ; viz., whether you wish to create a permanent wood, or 
to plant merely as a means of converting land, in its actual 
state neither profitable under tillage nor as pasture, into good 
pasture eventually; for this has been accomplished over and 
over again," especially by the agency of the larch. In order to 
explain my views intelligibly, I will suppose that the land to be 
planted has been previously cropped with the view of getting 
it perfectly clean (a very essential preliminary), and that it is 

"with a view to their after Management. 


intended for permanent wood ; that the soil is suitable for oak, 
larch, and ash ; and that the situation is sheltered, or at any rate 
not much exposed to winds. 

It is necessary, in the first place, to set out roads at suitable 
distances, with reference to the shape of the ground, in order to 
get out the trees as they are cut, without injuring those which 
are to remain. These should be 20 ft. wide, and so laid out 
that every part of the wood be equally accessible. (See^-. 3. 
the margin of which is intended to represent the outer fence.) 




The land, if retentive of moisture, should be formed into beds 
22 ft. wide, by throwing out alleys 2 ft. wide between them, 
which will give four rows to each bed ; the outer rows, on either 
side, being 2 ft. from the alleys. The holes should be dug over 
the entire piece immediately after harvest, about 2 ft in diameter, 
and spade deep; well loosen the bottom of each, in order that 
the soil may be thoroughly exposed to the sun and air for two or 
three months, till the beginning of November. To perform 
this operation with regularity, get a line, and tie a shred of 
scarlet cloth, or a bit of yarn, on it, at intervals of 6 ft. When 
the line is strained, dig round each shred, making that the centre 
of every hole. When the holes are dug the length of the line, 
measure off 6 ft. from the centre of the first and of the last 
hole in the first row, at right angles with them; then insert the 
stick exactly opposite the centre of the interval between the 
two first holes, and strain the line, dig round the shreds as 
before, which will bring every hole in the second row opposite 
the intervals in the first row, as shown in Jig. 4. This is 

28 On forming Plantations on a regular Plan, 

material, inasmuch as it breaks the force of the winds. When 
the beds are dug over, then the roads are to be holed upon the 
same plan, leaving the holes in this case 5 ft. apart, which will 
take four rows, allowing 2 ft. space from the edge on each side. 

1 recommend trees that have been two years transplanted, and 
not exceeding 3 ft. high. These will be found to answer in- 
finitely better than larger trees. It is a very common practice, 
in planting, to hold the tree in the bottom of the hole, throwing 
the soil over it, and then drawing it up, and shaking it, as it is said, 
to get the mould between the roots. This should be avoided ; 
for the obvious effect, or rather defect, of this is, to close the 
roots into a ball, whereas they should be spread out widely. 
Plant the tree as shallow as possible, consistently with its being 
firm in the ground. 

If the land be of a loose texture, and properly prepared, one 
hoeing, during fine sunny weather, in the month of May, for the 
first three years, will be sufficient. If it be of a close tenacious 
quality, a crop of potatoes (two rows between each line of trees) 
in the second year will be very beneficial. In the second winter 
after planting, cut off all the oak and ash, within 3 in. of the 
ground. In the following summer select the best shoot from 
each stool, and rub off all the rest : this will produce much 
better ash poles, and much straighter and more free-growing 
oak trees, than would otherwise grow. 

I have been led much more into detail than I contemplated ; 
and part of what I have said may appear to many very un- 
important; but I have felt decided practical advantages, and 
much subsequent convenience, result from a little attention to 
these minutias, and I therefore insist on them. I now come to 
the main point which induced me to take the pen in hand ; viz., 
to show that the thinning, so essential to a crop, need not be 
deferred for want of opportunity to the proprietor to mark, or 
from an indisposition to leave the operation to mere labourers 
for fear of damage, if the land be planted on a regular system. 

Fig. 4. is a plan for one square of a plantation formed of 
oak, ash, and larch, as an example. 

At the distance of 6 ft. apart, no thinning will be required 
until the ash attains a sufficient size for hurdles, hoops, &c, 
which will be from twelve to fifteen years' growth, according to 
the quality of the land; or even eighteen, if very poor. At this 
period cut out the ash in all. the roads, with a downright blow, 
rather under the ground, which will prevent its shooting again. 
Unless there be a great demand, this will produce as much 
wood as could be disposed of at one time to advantage. In the 
following year cut off every other ash, in the rows composed 
exclusively of ash, with a blow in an upward direction, from 

2 to 3 in. above the ground, in order that the stools should 

with a view to their after Management. 29 


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10 SO 3D IS SO 60ft 

l""" 11 '! 1 1 1 i ] 

shoot again. In the third year cut off the ash between the 
larch and oak in the same manner. In the fourth year cut out 
the remainder of the ash with a downright blow, under the 
ground, to prevent their shooting again. The ash left for stools 
will produce, in the summer after cutting, several shoots : these 
should be thinned out, leaving not more than three or four of 
those best placed for a crop. When these have attained suf- 
ficient growth to be crowded by the larch, the latter will be 
from 20 to 25 years' growth, and should be cut out as soon as 
the sap is sufficiently in action to admit of their being barked ; 
for, though their bark does not bear a price in proportion to that 
of oak, with reference to the tan it yields, it will pay for stripping. 
At this age, larch, in almost any soil but clay, is extremely 
useful for roofs of barns, cottages, sheds, and a variety of 
agricultural uses ; its value and usefulness for these purposes is 
as yet very little known in many districts. It has not sufficient 
credit for durability. I have used larch of this age for protecting 
young whitethorn fences. By cutting off the but end, 6 ft. 
long, and sawing it through the middle, two posts are obtained ; 
the remainder, sawed through, will give two rails of considerable 
length and strength. With a fence thus made, I have reared a 
quickset hedge till it was a perfect fence against any cattle ; and, 

30 On forming Plantations on a regular Plan. 

on taking up the posts and rails, I found them sufficiently sound 
as a fence to raise a second quickset hedge. 

Upon this plan it is obvious that any labourer could effect the 
necessary thinning without any superintendence ; he could not 
make a mistake. If a variety of timber be desired, sweet chest- 
nut may be substituted for every other oak ; both thrive well, 
generally, on the same soil; or any other timber trees may be 
planted more suitable for the particular soil, keeping them in 
the same places assigned in the plan to oak. The underwood 
may also be varied, by the introduction of oak, wych elm 
( £71mus montana), Salix caprea, hazel, &c, all of which form 
excellent coppice wood ; but they must be introduced in regular 
order, with reference to future thinning. 

If the ultimate object be a return to pasture, all the ash must 
be cut off under the ground ; the timber trees will then stand, 
after the removal of the larch, 36 ft. apart every way. Many 
will require removal ; and this may be accomplished according 
to the taste of the proprietor, selecting generally the largest, as 
the most useful for gate-posts, fencing, &c. 

In very bleak exposed situations, I would recommend planting 
a Scotch pine, or some other nurse, between the trees, so that 
the whole plantation should stand, at first, only 3 ft. apart ; and 
that all these should be cut out at four or five years' growth, 
when the other trees are well established. If the planter be a 
game preserver, he may, at intervals of 100 yards, plant a 
patch of laurel, holly, and yew, and in every tenth or twelfth row 
of ash substitute spruce, silver, or balm of Gilead firs for every 
other ash : this will shed a gloom over the plantation, and 
afford a secure roost for the pheasants on a moonlight night. 

I cannot conclude without cautioning gentlemen against what 
is misnamed cheap planting; merely loosening the earth with a 
pickaxe, sticking in the trees at so much per thousand, without 
any previous preparation or subsequent care. This is wretched 
economy; a term, by the way, sadly misunderstood, notwith- 
standing the lucid exposition of it which I recollect to have seen, 
I think, in the writings of Burke, — " Economy is a distributive 
virtue. It consists not in saving, but in selection. Great ex- 
pense may be an essential part of true economy." I am sure 
this is true as applied to planting. I feel half inclined to submit 
a few hints upon planting and managing ornamental shrubberies; 
but I will forbear, for fear of occupying space to the exclusion 
of much more valuable matter from the pens of others. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Cirencester, Oct. 4. 1833. Charles Lawrence. 

We shall be particularly obliged by our correspondent's re- 
marks on the subject mentioned ; and, indeed, by any article, on 
any subject suited to our pages, from his pen. — Cond. 

Evils of exposing Green-house Plants during Summer. 31 

Art. IX. Considerations on the evil Effects of exposing Green-house 
Plants to the open Air of Britain during the Summer Months. By 
Mr. Robert Marnock. 


The practice of turning green-house plants out of doors in 
summer may be necessary under particular circumstances, and 
with regard to certain species of plants; but, in cases where 
green-houses are properly constructed, and solely devoted to the 
cultivation of plants, these will generally be found to be injured, 
rather than benefited, by this treatment; particularly when 
turned out early in the season. Were it possible to manage 
green-house plants during the winter as it could be wished, and 
as they require, exposing them to the open air in summer would 
no doubt be highly beneficial to them ; but, from the changeable- 
ness of our climate, and the frequent (though often unnecessary) 
application of fire heat, to guard against the sudden attacks of 
frost, a considerable degree of excitement is induced, and, before 
the season has arrived at which they can be safely exposed to 
the open air, they are all, or nearly all, in a state of vigorous 
growth. Without regard to this circumstance, they are at once 
removed to their summer quarters, when, although the frosty 
nights may have gone by for the season, the temperature during 
the night is often so low that a complete check is given to their 
growth, from which they seldom recover till towards the approach 
of autumn; when, after having I'egained their energy, and become, 
as it were, inured to their new climate, they once more make an 
effort to grow. From the gross habit which they have, how- 
ever, now acquired, together with the lateness of the season, the 
shoots are seldom well matured, and the plants are, therefore, 
in the worst possible condition to resist the effects of frost, 
mildew, damp, and other causes by which green- house plants 
are liable to be injured. But, when plants are retained under 
glass during the summer, both the first and second growths are 
l'ipened sufficiently early in the autumn ; and, unless very im- 
proper excitement be applied, they will remain in a state of 
comparative rest till the following spring, when their flowers 
will be both more perfect, and much more abundant than such as 
may have stood but the preceding summer. 

I do not wish to be understood as recommending green-house 
plants to be kept crowded together in the house the whole of the 
summer, in the way we generally find them to be in winter. 
Duplicates and all the coarser and hardier kinds may very 
properly be removed out of doors ; and these would, in most 
cases, be sufficiently numerous to afford room enough for those 
that are left, to stand without touching each other. During the 
summer the whole of the movable sashes in the roof and front 

32 Evils of exposing Green-house Plants during Summer. 

of the green-house ought, except during long-continued rain or 
thunder storms, to be kept open both day and night, to admit as 
much air as possible; and the plants should occasionally be 
syringed over-head with water, which may be done at any hour 
of the day, without regard to the shining of the sun. I mention 
this, from having been myself sometimes cautioned never to wet 
the leaves of plants when the sun was shining upon them, unless 
I wished to have them burned. When the roots of plants thus 
exposed to the sun can be preserved in a tolerably cool and 
moist state, their tops will not only bear the sun, but his full 
influence is indispensable to their health and vigour, and the full 
developement of their flowers. 

Orange trees, camellias, and, indeed, all plants with coriaceous 
or thick fleshy leaves, are, from a variety of causes, liable to have 
their foliage injured by the sun ; but this injury would seldom 
accrue to them were they retained in the house both summer and 
winter, and kept as cool as possible during the latter season. 
Consistently with the above considerations and provisions, fire 
heat need never be applied till the thermometer in the house 
has indicated three or four decrees of frost. 

I offer these remarks in particular application to evergreen 
plants with heath-like foliage, but more especially to the several 
genera composing the two splendid natural orders £riceas and 
Epacrideae, which perhaps contain a greater number of really 
beautiful plants than are to be found in the whole of the other 
orders put together. Most of the plants belonging to these two 
orders are furnished with roots of an exceedingly delicate nature, 
but, from the fine hair-like substance of which they are composed, 
no plants are better adapted for growing in pots, or are sus- 
ceptible of a higher degree of perfection by this mode of culture. 
The means, however, which enable the attentive cultivator to 
produce specimens of great elegance and beauty, also operate to 
cause disappointment where the least neglect occurs, either in 
the application of too much or too little water ; and these are 
evils which cannot always be guarded against, even by those who 
are the most careful. In plants having their roots confined 
within the limits of a garden pot, and exposed to the sun on the 
shelf or stage of a green-house, and watered at certain periods 
of the day, without much regard either to the state of the weather 
or the degree of their several wants, it is no wonder that, when 
so treated, some of them should, occasionally, appear sickly, and 
others of them die ; indeed, it is certainly less to be wondered 
at than that they should exist at all. 

The chief objection, therefore, to plants being kept in the 
house in summer is, that, being exposed to the sun, the earth in 
the pots becomes dry, and the extremes of heat and cold, wet 
and dry, to which the roots are thence subjected, cause the 

Conditions favourable to the Rhododendron. 33 

plants to assume a brown and unhealthy appearance; and, 
generally, the leaves on the lower branches to fall off. These 
evils may, however, be effectually prevented by using double pots, 
as recommended by Mr. Blair in IX. 576., with this modification, 
that his pots, being intended for growing marsh or aquatic plants, 
require to be cemented together at the bottom ; but, for the 
purpose of which I speak, nothing more is necessary, than that 
the empty pot, which is intended to form a screen for the other 
which contains the plant, be sufficiently large to receive the 
latter within it, so that the tops of both are nearly on a level. I 
have practised this, less or more, for the last three years, both 
with stove and green-house plants, and, during the dry weather 
of last summer, at least one hundred of the latter had their pots 
protected in this way. 

Those who cultivate many of the tropical ferns will also find 
it of service in preserving the delicate roots of those plants from 
the effects of dry heat. I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Bretton Hall, Nov. 6. 1833. R. Marnoc&. 

Art. X. A Notice of certain Conditions in connection with which 
Rhododendrons have been found to grow andjlotver very satisfactorily. 
By Mr. John Gow. 


When I undertook, in Sept., 1827 5 the superintendence of 
these gardens, I found that my predecessor had left me a 
valuable legacy of several thousand seedling plants of Rhodo- 
dendron ponticum, in a three-light frame. In the last week of 
July, 1828, I had the whole of the plants lifted very carefully 
from the seed-bed, with a little ball of earth attached to each. 
Three thousand of the largest and the best were sized, and 
planted in nurse beds, in a north border behind the forcing- 
houses, in rows across the border ; the rows 1 ft. asunder, and 
the plants 9 in. apart in the rows. I had, preparatorily, had the 
original soil removed to the depth of 14 in., and the excavation 
filled up with peat earth: after the planting, I gave a good 
watering with a pot and rose. As I had still upwards of 1,500 
left, and the expense of preparing beds of peat earth was very 
considerable, I resolved upon giving them a trial in the common 
garden soil, which is of a light sandy nature. A part of a north 
border, within the kitchen-garden, was selected for the purpose. 
I had it well dug, and the surface made smooth with a rake ; 
the best of the plants were then again selected, and planted in 
rows across the border, at the same distances as before : after 
the planting, a good supply of water was given. Upwards of 

Vol. X. — No. 48. p 

34 Conditions favourable to the Growth 

700 of the worst plants still remained ; and, as I had not a 
spare piece of ground for them in a sheltered situation, I chose 
a spot on the outside of the garden, among a young plantation 
of filbert trees, with the soil of the same quality as that of the 
garden, but in a very exposed situation ; the ground was well 
dug, and the surface made smooth with a rake : in this they 
were planted in rows, at the former distances. 

I have now to state the progress of each plantation ; and, in 
doing so, I shall first remind you, that only the two first men- 
tioned stand upon an equal footing in point of climate. The 
first had an advantage in the vigour of the plants; and they 
certainly did make considerable progress in the first and suc- 
ceeding years, insomuch that three fourths of them were planted 
out in groups, in various parts of the pleasure-grounds and 
woods, in the winter of 1830 and 1831, without any other pre- 
paration than the ground being well trenched 2 ft. deep, and 
the surface well broken in the bottom of each trench. They 
continue to grow with luxuriance, and flower profusely. The 
second plantation, as might be expected, did not grow very 
strongly the first year after being planted ; but, the second year, 
they began to grow very vigorously, as they still continue to do. 
The greater portion of them have flowered during the last two 
seasons ; and they are equally as well rooted, and can be lifted 
with as good balls attached, as those planted in the peat earth : 
a circumstance which very few would credit did they not see it; 
but a circumstance which has been witnessed by many perfectly 
well qualified to judge, and, among others, by Mr. W. M'Nab 
of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. This eminent hor- 
ticulturist, when he saw them, said, in his usual straightforward 
way, " They look healthy and well, but I should like to see the 
bottom of them : " which request was instantly complied with ; 
when he expressed himself satisfied with the success of the 
experiment. The plants of the third parcel, which were planted 
in the exposed situation, did not make much progress for the 
first two years after being planted ; neither have they as yet 
made such strong shoots as the plants of either the first or 
second parcels. This I attribute, in a great degree, to the 
exposure of the situation ; and to want of shade, of which the 
family of rhododendrons seems to be peculiarly fond. Still the 
plants are veiy healthy, and flower profusely : their average 
height is from 2 ft. to 3 ft. 

It will be seen, by the above statement, that the adoption of 
my present practice was a matter, not of choice, but of neces- 
sity ; and, from the success which has attended it, I am led to 
infer, that, in all sheltered situations, where a moderate degree 
of shade is afforded, and where the soil is of a light sandy 
nature, the 22hododendron will grow and flower well, without 

and Flowering of the Rhododendron. 35 

any peat earth whatever ; provided the ground has been pro- 
perly prepared, by trenching and breaking of the surface, so 
that all the grass and vegetable matter be properly mixed. I 
deprecate the too general practice of pitting and planting with- 
out the ground being previously well trenched. It may be 
proper to state, that the .Rhododendron is to be seen growing 
here very luxuriantly, in banks of very strong clay : in this case, 
after the ground had been well trenched and broken, I had pits 
made according to the size of the plants, and a portion of peat 
earth placed under and around each plant (say, from one to two 
barrowfuls, according to the size of the plant). Notwithstand- 
ing my having filled the pits with peat earth, I am satisfied that 
rhododendrons, and other American plants of the same tribe, 
usually grown in peat, will grow and thrive even in clay, and 
perfectly well in loam, if it be trenched, and a portion of leaf 
mould and of the scrapings off roads be mixed with it ; the plants 
being planted in the neighbourhood of large trees, so as to be 
benefited by their shade. I have planted American shrubs with 
success at all seasons, but prefer from the second week of Au- 
gust to the end of December ; always taking advantage of a mild 
day, and always giving, after the planting, a good supply of 
water. I would add, that the same treatment that I have recom- 
mended for rhododendrons is here applied to kalmias, azaleas, 
andromedas, vacciniums, and cistuses : and to all with an equally 
satisfactory result. 

I would recommend all, who may wish to cultivate the .Rho- 
dodendron ponticum extensively, to provide their stock of plants 
by raising them from seeds. The mode is a cheap one ; and, 
besides the number of the plants which may be obtained by it, 
a considerable variety of kinds is acquired. In those which I 
have reared, the variety is almost endless, as to the shape, size, 
and colour, both of the leaves and flowers, particularly of the 
latter. The seeds should be sown in February, upon a gentle 

In offering the above observations, I disclaim all notion of 
originality : all I can say is, that I have attempted to give a 
detailed account of the method practised here. Should any 
admirers of these beautiful evergreens feel inclined to adopt the 
practice which I have endeavoured to describe, I can, with con- 
fidence, assure them, that it will be found an economical mode of 
obtaining fine healthy flowering plants. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

John Gow. 
Tulliallan Gardens, Dec. 13. 1833. 

d 2 

36 Limes, Citrons, $c., at Coombe Royal, 

Art. XI. Description of the Lime, Citron, Orange, and Lemon Trees 
at Coombe Royal, the Seat of John Luscombe, Esq., Devonshire. 
Communicated by the Proprietor. 

The following brief description of the lime, citron, orange, 
and lemon trees at Coombe Royal, and of the manner in which 
they are treated, may not prove unacceptable to the readers of 
the Gardener's Magazine : — 

The trees are planted against a south wall, which is divided 
by buttresses, forming recesses, in which the trees are trained 
in the manner of common fruit trees. Each recess is 12^ ft. 
wide, and about the same in height ; and is protected, during 
the winter, by a frame of wood, which is wholly removed in the 
summer ; and partially, by day, at other seasons, the trees only 
requiring to be guarded from severe frost. A more interesting- 
sight cannot well be imagined by the lovers of horticulture, than 
that which is presented by these trees on a sunny day in winter, 
when the open frames furnish a display of the richest foliage, 
and of fruit rivalling the produce of foreign countries. The 
soil, which is seldom manured, is light and rich, on a slaty sub- 
stratum, and seems admirably adapted to trees of the citron tribe ; 
the situation in which they are grown is in a sheltered valley, 
protected from wind. It is necessary to add, that the lime is 
grown under glass in winter ; but it is believed that the tree 
would thrive equally well under wood, and be more secure from 
frost and storms, a fine tree, in full bearing, having been de- 
stroyed a few years since by the accidental breaking of a frame 
or two of glass in winter. The fruit is produced abundantly by 
the citron, oranges, and lemons ; by the lime, more sparingly, 
from the tree being young, and in a vigorously growing state : 
and, when gathered at a proper period, the fruit is of a fine 
flavour, and full of juice. Specimens of the fruit accompany this 
communication ; and some idea may be formed of the size which 
they attain, when it is stated that citrons are every year ripened, 
measuring from 14 in. to 18 in. in circumference : and, as a fur- 
ther proof of their luxuriancy, the reader is informed that there 
are now on the tree between three and four dozen green fruit, 
from blossoms produced in May and June last ; some of which 
measure, at this time (September), J2 in. and 14 in. in circum- 
ference. Several young trees have recently been planted, which 
are in a thriving state. 

A Banksian medal was presented to the late John Luscombe 
Luscombe, Esq., by the London Horticultural Society, for 
oranges, lemons, and citrons exhibited in April, 1827. 

Coombe Royal, Devon, Sept. 25. 1833. 

On training the Peach Tree. 37 

The fruits received excited the admiration of ourselves and 
every one who saw them, both for magnitude and colour. Their 
weight and dimensions were as follows : — 

One citron, measuring 18fin. round the long, and 17 in. round the short, 
circumference, and weighing 36 oz. 

One citron, 18f in. by 16|in. ; and weighing 37ioz. 
One green citron, 15 in. by 14iin. ; and weighing 17JOZ. 
One lemon, 1 H in. by 9 in. ; and weighing 5 oz. 
One unripe lemon, 11^ in. by 8f in.; and weighing 7§oz. 
One orange, 9J in. by 9^ in. ; and weighing 6J oz. 
One orange, 10| in. by 9§in. ; and weighing 6|oz. 
One orange, 9| in. by 9J in. ; and weighing 5 oz. 

Among the leaves which enveloped the fruit, one of those of 
the citron measured 10f in. in length, and 6| in. in breadth; 
and the others were large in proportion. 

On tasting the fruit, we found the oranges without much 
juice; but the citrons and lemons were full of juice, and most 
excellent. Of the oranges and citrons we made a most delicious 
preserve ; and the lemons were used for culinary purposes. — 

Art. XII. On training the Peach Tree. By Mr. Edward Callow, 
Author of a Treatise on the Cultivation of the Mushroom. (See 
VIII. 213.) 


I trust the result of a long and successful practice in training 
the peach tree will not be refused a place in your pages, or 
be thought undeserving the attention of your readers. I profess 
no new theory of training, and, indeed, suspect that, perhaps, the 
many that have been sent abroad to the world, tend rather to 
bewilder than to instruct, and to draw the attention of the gar- 
dener to fantastic forms, instead of simply teaching him to observe 
the dictates of nature. 

The peach tree will, for the first few years of its growth, endure 
to be trained in almost any form, and may, for a short period, 
bear fruit under almost any mismanagement; but when a tree is 
trained to a shape very different from what it would naturally 
assume, it can, I conceive, have a life of but short duration. The 
weak and diseased trees which are so frequently seen against our 
fruit-tree walls (the miserable state of which is generally attri- 
buted to soil, situation, or climate) are more frequently produced 
by improper treatment than any other cause ; for it is common 
in the practice of horticulture to attribute all failures to natural 
causes, when, in truth, many of them are the effects of our own 
folly or inattention. 

In my first attempt at training the peach tree, I followed the 

v 3 

38 On training the Peach Tree. 

fan manner, but found the lower branches to become soon weak, 
and, in a few years, to decay altogether, leaving the under 
parts of the wall naked and unsightly; and, in such cases, re- 
planting after eight or ten years became necessary. But this 
was not a decay from age ; it was produced by the lower branches 
having been laid at a less angle than others, which deprived them 
of their due proportion of sap. While striving to obviate this 
difficulty, I was struck with the form of the lower branches of 
some large elms, which, though they projected ever so far ho- 
rizontally, still had their extremities always inclined upwards. 

Taking these branches for my guide, I altered my mode of 
training, and, by turning up the extremities of the branches*, 
so as to give to all an equal inclination and equal curvature, 
convex towards the horizontal line of the earth, I was enabled 
to maintain all parts of the tree in equal vigour. This mode of 
training has continued to be my practice upwards of thirty years, 
and, under it, the trees have grown to a large size, and have 
continued in a full state of health to a considerable age. 

Mr. Knight has observed " that each variety of the apple tree 
has its own peculiar form of growth, and this it will ultimately 
assume, in a considerable degree, in defiance of the art of the 
pruner." This observation is most correct with regard to all 
standard fruit trees, and it is in some measure applicable to those 
trained against walls. We may see a whole tribe of plants with 
a tendency to assume some decided form, and again, in the va- 
rieties, marks of slight variation ; yet all this is totally disregarded 
in a tree placed against a wall; its branches are then compelled 
by shreds and nails to follow a course forced upon them by the 
often capricious will of the gardener. But Nature, though she 
appears to be awhile submissive, soon tires of undue restraint, 
and sickness and disease in the trees are the inevitable conse- 
quences of forcing her to abandon her accustomed habits. 

The sketch herewith sent (Jig. 5.) is that of a white nectarine 
tree, now growing in the gardens of the Honourable and Reverend 
George Neville Grenville, at Butleigh : this will illustrate my 
ideas of shape and form, and, from its age and size, your readers 
will be enabled to form some estimate of the merits of the plan. 
This tree was planted in 1810; it completely covers a wall of 
] 2 ft. high, and extends to 44 ft. in width ; its sides are of equal 
strength, and the curvature of the branches gives it a pleasing 
appearance. Its produce, when thinned to four fruit per square 
foot, will be from about 150 to 180 dozen; a quantity not un- 
usual for it to bear. 

I agree with Mr. Lindley [in his excellent Guide to the 
Orchard and Kitchen Garden"] in recommending the annual 

* This seems to resemble Mr. Havward's mode of training peach trees. 
See VIII. 653. 

On training the Teach Tree. 


shortening of the young wood ; 
for this is necessary to insure 
a succession of bearing shoots, 
without which the crops must 
be partial and defective. In- 
deed, I have practised the 
method of pruning approved 
of by that writer, and have 
nothing to add to his brief 
observations, but my entire 
concurrence in them. 

The soil of the border in 
which the nectarine tree above 
referred to, and many others, 
were at the same time planted, 
is a strong loam ; the border 
was made 12 ft. wide, 2 ft. 
deep, and the bottom paved 
with flag stones : no dung 
nor any manure was used in 
making the border, or at any 
subsequent period. Insects 
were particularly attended to, 
and, whenever they appeared, 
they were carefully destroyed. 
In dry weather the trees were 
washed with the engine twice, 
and sometimes three times a 
week. Disbudding was prac- 
tised; no more shoots wereleft 
in thesummerthan were neces- 
sary for producing fruit the 
next year. The fork only 
was used for stirring the bor- 
der (which was frequently 
done during the summer 
months), but in the winter it 
was slightly dug with the spade, 
and laid in ridges : no vege- 
tables were sown or planted on 
it, except a few lettuce or en- 
dive near the walk. Whenever 
a luxuriant shoot or large 
branch was to be taken out, it 
was done in the months of 
June or July [so that the wounds made were always healed over 
before winter]. The trees, when in blossom, were protected by 

d 4 

4fO Successful Mode of securing 

bunting: to effect this, boards six inches wide were fastened 
tinder the coping ; to these boards iron rods were fastened : on 
these the bunting was suspended by rings ; each piece of bunt- 
ing was of the size of the tree; and in the daytime it was 
drawn from the sides to the middle, and fastened to the wall. 
This covering not only protected the blossoms, but the tender 
shoots also; and prevented the formation of those large blis- 
tered leaves, which are so destructive to the young wood, and 
which render it quite unfit for producing fruit. The trees being 
kept thin of wood, not more than four fruit, on an average, were 
left, at the final thinning, on a space of one square foot. 

On the first appearance of the aphides, Scotch snuff was 
thrown on the extremities of the shoots ; no curled leaf was re- 
moved before the snuff was laid on, nor until the shoot advanced 
in growth and had formed two or three clean leaves; the curled 
leaves were then taken off, and the tree washed with the engine. 

Although so much has been written on the pruning, training, 
and management of peach trees, all that is necessary to be known 
may be reduced to a very few words, and carried into effect by any 
person who will attend to the following short directions: — Use 
a strong loam for the border ; never crop it j add no manure j 
keep the trees thin of wood by disbudding, and the early re- 
moval of useless wood; shorten each shoot, according to its 
strength, at the spring pruning; elevate the ends of the leading 
branches, so that they may all form the same curvilinear inclin- 
ation with the horizon: and, what is of the utmost importance in 
the culture of the peach, at all times keep the trees in a clean and 
healthy state. I remain, Sir, yours, &c. 

Edward Callow. 
Butleigh, near Glastonbury, Dec. 28. 1833. 

Art. XIII. A successful Mode of securing a Crop of Fruit on Pear 
Trees. By Mr. B. Saunders, Nurseryman in the Island of Jersey. 


The fact that many disappointments are experienced by gar- 
deners, and also by amateurs, in their endeavour to procure 
crops of many fine sorts of pears, is so well known, that it needs 
only to be mentioned to be assented to. The practical appli- 
cation of the following suggestion will, however, remove, in 
many instances, these disappointments, and insure good crops. 

There are many varieties of pears, which, every year, blos- 
som very abundantly ; and yet, to the great disappointment of 
the cultivator, the whole of the flowers fall off without setting 
a single fruit, although the soil and situation may be very con- 

a Crop of Fruit on Pear Trees. 41 

genial, and every care has been taken in planting, &c. This is 
the case with the Duchesse d'Angouleme, and with many others 
I could mention. The trees of these varieties, according to my 
observations, devote the whole of their strength and sap to the 
production of a superabundance of blossoms ; but, unless they 
are assisted by art, they have not sufficient strength to set their 
fruit. In order, then, to remedy this defect, and to assist nature 
as much as possible, I have adopted the following plan, with 
great success and satisfaction, for the last three years : — 

Take a pair of scissors (such as are used for thinning grapes), 
and go over the corymbs of flowers, or rather of flower-buds, as 
soon as they are sufficiently elongated to allow the points of the 
scissors to pass between them (that is, some days before the 
blossoms are expanded), and thin them ; leaving only five or six 
blossoms in each, according to the size of the corymb : always 
preferring to leave the flowers which have the stoutest stalks, 
and those which are nearest the centre. This operation has the 
effect of diverting the sap to the flowers which remain, and gives 
them sufficient strength to set from one to three fruits in each 
umbel ; which will prove a sufficient crop, and well repay the 
labour bestowed. Another mode, less tedious than the above, 
is also practised here, with success, on young trees. It consists 
in deferring that part of the pruning of them which is termed 
shortening the young wood, until the blossoms are in about the 
same state as is described in the above directions for thinning, and 
then shortening them back to the required length. This also 
checks the progress of the sap, and enables the tree to set fruit very 
freely. I am aware that my plan is a tedious one, and one that is 
almost impracticable on a large scale ; but it is decidedly an 
excellent plan for dwarf trees in gardens, whether they are cul- 
tivated in the quenouille mode, against walls, or as espaliers ; as 
these trees come within the reach of the hand, of a pair of steps, 
or of a ladder. In the hope that these remarks may, through 
your indulgence, avail my fellow-labourers in horticulture, at the 
coming season, I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Bernard Saunders. 
Nursery, Island of Jersey, Dec. 6. 1833. 

We recommend the above article to the particular attention of young 
gardeners. The system of disbudding advised in the preceding paper by 
Mr. Callow, and that of thinning out blossoms suggested in the above paper 
by Mr. Saunders, are applicable to all fruit trees ; and, if generally adopted, 
would insure important results. We know an instance of a large apple 
orchard, the property of a commercial gardener in Kent, in which a knife has 
never been used : every thing is effected by disbudding, and pinching out 
young wood with the finger and thumb. The proprietor is not a scientific gar- 
dener ; and he adopted the above practice from no particular theory, but 
simply from his own observation and experience, to save labour, and to 
insure good crops of large fruit. We hope to see his orchard next summer, 
and to report on it. — Cond. 

42 Purple Broccoli from Slips. 

Art. XIV. On growing large Gooseberries for Exhibition. 
By Mr. M. Saul. 

In the year 1827, I sent you an account of the mode then 
practised in this county, of training gooseberry trees, so as to 
make them produce large show fruit. (See III. 421.) At that 
time, it was generally supposed that to obtain fine show goose- 
berries it was necessary to train the trees; and that, if so treated, 
in five or six years they would be found to have become strong, 
and would be sure to produce large fruit. The result of seven 
years' experience, however, proves that training is quite unneces- 
sary. Gooseberry bushes are only found to produce fruit suit- 
able for exhibition when they are four or five years old ; because 
the fruit after that age decreases in size, though it increases in 
number. Gooseberries rarely, if ever, produce fruit of a very 
large size for more than two years together ; and generally only 
one season. The mode usually now practised here is, to take a 
gooseberry tree out of the nursery in its second year. The next 
year (being the first after transplanting) it is not allowed to 
bear any fruit ; but the year following, that is, in the fourth year 
of its age, it is in its prime, and will produce its largest and 
finest fruit. We seldom hear of the same tree producing equally 
fine fruit for even two years in succession : the Bumper, which 
produced the largest berry in 1832, weighing SOdwts. 18grs. 
(IX. 98.), this year (1833) did not produce any berry weighing- 
above 22 dwts. 5 grs. ; and many other examples might be given. 
[The weights of the largest gooseberries grown in 1833 will be 
found (in p. 96.) under the head of Provincial Societies.] There 
are fewer new gooseberries going out this season than last. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

M. Saul. 
Sidy ard Street, Lancaster, Dec. 6. 1833. 

Art. XV. On propagating the Purple Broccoli from Slips, and on 
the Agency of Manure prepared from Sea Weed in improving various 
Vegetables. By Mr. T. Rutger. 

On reading Mr. Kendall's article upon the propagation of cab- 
bages from slips (IX. 226.), I feel inclined to draw the attention 
of your readers to the growing of purple broccoli in the same way; 
a practice which was adopted, some years since, in the west of 
Cornwall, and, for aught I know, may be still continued there. 
The variety thus treated seemed to be rather peculiar in its 
habits, and compact and handsome in its growth. The head 

Agency of Manure from Sea Weed. 43 

being removed for culinary purposes, the method was to let the 
stump remain, which had already thrown out sprouts* below; 
and these, on being left to grow, showed no indication to form heads 
for that season. In the month of June, the sprouts were suffi- 
ciently advanced to be slipped off; and, after being exposed a day 
or two in the sun to cauterise the wound, they were planted out 
in the usual manner. In two or three weeks they had taken 
root, and in the course of the autumn made fine stocky plants. 
I have seen many, instances of the broccoli thus grown having 
heads three feet in circumference, and as close and compact as 
possible; but this extraordinary luxuriance was, I believe, prin- 
cipally owing to the nature of the manure used. 

This manure consisted principally of sea weed, of the genus 
t/'lva, several varieties of which are drifted on the sands in im- 
mense quantities in stormy weather. The weed forms a principal 
article of manure to the farmers, as well as to the market-gar- 
deners in the neighbourhood of Penzance and other parts in the 
west of England, and is sought with avidity by both classes after 
a heavy gale, it being found, from experience, to be an excellent 
manure for a single crop. The farmers in that neighbourhood 
mix it up with earth collected from furrows ploughed at certain 
distances in the field, and with sea sand, and, thus mixed, it ra- 
pidly decomposes, and soon becomes fit for use. The market- 
gardeners and cottagers frequently make use of it as a manure, in 
its raw state, for onions, potatoes, &c. For onions, the ground 
is so prepared, that, after a layer of it is spread over the surface, 
there may be a sufficient quantity of earth to cover it about two 
or three inches thick; after this has been levelled, the seeds 
are sown and raked in, and the produce, in many instances, is but 
little, if any thing, inferior in size to the onions imported from 
Lisbon. For potatoes, it is used either by putting a layer of it 
over the sets, whether in furrows or beds, and afterwards covering 
it with earth ; or putting a layer of it first, placing the sets upon it, 
and then a covering of earth. In reference to the kidney potato, 
I think I may safely aver, that in no part of England are po- 
tatoes of this description to be found equal in quality to those 
grown in the neighbourhood of Penzance; where, by extraordi- 
nary labour and care, they are frequently brought to market from 
the open ground by the middle of May. The sort principally 
grown for an early crop is known there by the name of " the 
Yorkshire kidney." I am not certain if this be its proper ap- 

* The following fact evinces the capacity of broccoli for forming sprouts : — 
" Two dozen of broccoli, a dozen of which were very fine and fit for table, 
were, within the last few days, cut from one stem, grown in the garden of 
Mr. Lewis, nurseryman, of Chelmsford." {Bury and Nomuich Post, May 29. 
1833.) See also a notice of a broccoli plant which had stood six years, and 
produced good heads from sprouts every year, VI. 492. — J. D. 

44 Culture of the Carrot for constant Supply. 

pellation, but it forms a long, handsome, flattish, tuber, with the 
crown of a purplish hue. 

With regard to the broccoli noticed above, in the ordinary 
course of garden culture, it forms a head averaging about two 
feet in circumference; its flavour is excellent, and, as such, it may 
be well recommended to notice ; more especially as, by its being 
propagated from slips, it is secured from any variation from its 
natural habit. I am, Sir, yours, &c. 


Shortgrove, Essex, Oct. 1833. 

Art. XVI. On the Mode of securing a Supply of young Carrots 
throughout the Year. By Mr. T. Rutger. 


In cases where young carrots are required all the year round, 
the following mode of culture will be found to answer in pro- 
ducing them. 

In the first week of August, sow a crop of the short-horn 
kind in a cold frame, and a crop to succeed it in the third week 
of Auo-ust, also in a cold frame, the latter of which will be at 
least two months after the first in coming in. Early in January 
sow a crop on a slow hot-bed, under glass ; and early in 
February, on a slow hot-bed, under hoops and mats; in the suc- 
ceeding months, sow occasionally in the open ground. 

The above brief directions are, of course, sufficient, as there is 
no occasion for entering into details about soil, thinning, &c, 
which every one conversant with gardening knows : but perhaps 
a question may arise as to the necessity of sowing in frames in 
the month of August : it must, therefore, be understood, that 
these crops are to serve through all the winter ; and, therefore, it 
will be found that glass will be of essential service, as the weather 
grows cold ; and not only glass, but a covering of mats also will 
be necessary, during the night, in severe weather. One thing, 
however, must be attended to in the use of glass ; namely, to be 
careful to give sufficient air at all times to keep the plants from 
getting drawn. 

Abercrombie is, in my opinion, deficient upon the culture of 
this esculent for the purpose of having it young all the year 
round ; and I much question if his method will answer fully in 
the most favourable situations, as to soil and climate, that Britain 
will afford. I remain, Sir, yours, &c. 

Skortgrove, Essex, Dec. 1833. T. Rutger. 

We have rectified Abercrombie's account in the new edition 
of our Enci/c.'of Gard. now publishing, § 4fl21. — Cond. 

Cultivation of Sea-kale at Bath. 4.5 

Art, XVII. Remarks on the Cultivation of Sea-kale, as practised by 
the Bath Gardeners. By Walter William Capper, Esq. 


Perhaps the following peculiar method of cultivating sea-kale 
by the Bath gardeners may be acceptable to some of your 
readers. As this manner is apparently very unnatural, 1 am 
induced to preface it by describing the habits of growth of the 
plant, which grows naturally on the sandy shores of Sussex and 
Hampshire, and also many other places round the coast of Eng- 
land. The buds of some of these plants, during the winter, are 
subject to be covered several inches deep with the drifted sand, 
so that, in the spring, the young heads which push through it 
have their leaves quite close together. Their appearance, when 
in this state, being like small cabbages, must have first induced 
the inhabitants to eat them ; and their delicacy and succulency, 
added to their precocity, must have ultimately led to their culti- 
vation in gardens. This took place probably about the middle 
of last century. (See Encyc. ofGard. new edit. § 4299.) During 
my visit to Southampton last year, I saw sea-kale several times 
in the market which had been taken from the shore, but it was 
very inferior to that raised by the gardeners there. 

In the first volume of the Transactions of the Horticultural 
Society it is recommended, in a paper dated 1803, to grow sea- 
kale under large earthen pots : but these are very expensive, and 
difficult to manage; besides, the plants thus treated are not so 
productive as they are by the Bath method. My instructor in 
this method was Mr. M'Pherson, who cultivated a large garden 
opposite the South Parade at. Bath ; and, although it is upwards of 
thirty years since he taught me, I do not find that his method 
has bee" improved upon. 

The seed is to be sown very thin early in April, on a bed of 
4 ft. wide, which is to be kept clear of weeds during the summer. 
It is certainly the best way to raise your own plants ; but, as a 
year is lost in so doing, I should recommend the owners of small 
gardens to procure them from some neighbouring nursery, as 
they will cost there only from 35. to 5s. per hundred, and a 
season is saved. In taking them up, be careful that their roots 
are not broken, or dried by exposing them to the atmosphere ; 
for in either case the plants will not thrive with so much vigour 
the following summer. 

Having procured the plants in the month of March or April, 
select a part of the garden sloping to the sun : its breadth from 
east to west should be wider than its depth frpm north to south, 
that the rains may the sooner run off the ground. The soil 
should be light, and dug two spades deep, with a moderate 
quantity of rotten dung well intermixed. Particular attention 
should also be paid that every clod is well broken ; for the roots 

46 Cultivation of Sea-kale, 

run very deep. Then mark out the whole of the ground from 
east to west into divisions of 2 ft. 3 in. each ; down the centre of 
the second and every other division put in the plants one foot 
apart : these divisions I shall call the beds, and the others the 
paths ; but remember to begin with one path, and finish at the 
farther end with another, and put short strong stakes at the 
corners of every bed. During the summer these paths are to be 
dug over at least three times, to the depth of 10 in., in order to 
render the soil extremely fine ; but, should it be of a close texture, 
then remove part of it, and bring, in the place of what you 
remove, an equal quantity of sand. On no account use riddled 
ashes, instead of sand ; for their rugged surfaces injure the soft 
cellular vessels of all roots, and hurt their soft expanding leaves. 
The plants will not be sufficiently strong, the second year of 
their growth after planting, to be worth forcing with hot manure ; 
but they will be worth the trouble of covering with the soil from 
the paths : besides, they must be cut off' to increase the number of 
their suckers. About the third week in February, when the 
weather is dry, mark out the paths 2 ft. 3 in. wide, and when the 
soil is finely broken, lay it upon the beds 8 or 9 in. thick ; so that 
the beds and the paths, when covered, will appear like c in fig. 6 . 
As spring advances, examine the plants by removing the soil 

with your hands, and when they are grown 7 or 8 in. high, cut 
them off a little below the bottom leaf: their heads will be found 
perfectly white, and all the leaves growing close together. 

As you gather the heads, throw a little soil over their roots. 
Although the buds have grown in soil, very little will be attached 
to them ; and this little is easily removed by plunging them into 
water, holding them by the upper end of the stem. 

If the weather is settled about the end of April, the beds are 
to be entirely uncovered ; this operation will appear to many to 
be most extraordinary ; but it is essentially necessary, otherwise 
the few small heads that may be left uncut will go to seed, and 
injure the plant for the two following seasons. The gardener 
must take a sharp bright spade and commence at the end of each 
bed and throw the soil down into the paths, cutting off every 
head or parts that may be higher than the original level of the 
beds (in Jig. 6. a b) before the soil was first placed upon them. 
The vital principle in the roots of the sea-kale is so great, that 
they cannot be injured by being" cut through; as will be soon 

as practised by the Bath Gardeners. 47 

seen by the number of suckers or offsets that will arise from 
their roots. During this second summer, the beds must be 
kept free from weeds, and the paths dug as before, and the 
plants carefully examined, retaining only four or five of the 
largest suckers at regular distances round their stems. If the 
heads of these plants had been left uncut, every one of them 
would have gone to seed during the summer, and injured the 
plants for the two following summers ; besides, by cutting them 
off, they throw up a numerous offspring, to select buds from for 
future growth. The following winter the plants are to be forced, 
and, before the frosts commence, the beds are to be covered with 
a little long litter, to prevent the frost from penetrating the soil. 
About the middle of December, remove the litter from that 
portion you intend to force, and cover the beds, as you did 
before, with the soil from the paths ; then cover that soil 2 ft. 
high or more, and also fill the paths with hot manure, so that 
the whole may be on a level, as shown at d in Jrg. 6. 

The following Directions are for the Third Year: — In about 
the fourth week the heads will be fit to cut : to do which, 
remove the manure with a fork, then displace the soil with your 
hands in a very gentle manner, otherwise the leaves will be 
broken, for they are extremely tender ; cut the heads off a little 
below the bottom leaf, and cover the roots again with soil and 
manure to keep the frost from injuring them. In proportion to 
the number of beds, the period of forcing must be divided ; but 
where they are numerous, and hot manure is to be regularly had 
in abundance, it might be wheeled upon the beds and paths as 
it is made, which will give a regular weekly supply : but, where 
no manure is to be had, the plants are to be covered with the 
soil, and gathered, as before mentioned. The plants, beds, and 
paths are to be managed exactly as they were directed to be 
during the preceding summer ; but on no account suffer the 
beds to be raised even an inch above their original level, although 
the roots are become much thicker. They are still to be cut 
through with the spade where they are too high, otherwise the 
beds will be spoiled. After the manure and soil are removed 
from the beds during the third spring, dig up every other plant, 
leaving the others 2 ft. apart, and they will fully occupy the beds. 
Each individual plant during the third summer will consist of 
many stems, and each of these will send up many suckers : to 
retain the whole would not only weaken the plant, but would 
produce the sea-kale of diminutive growth; therefore leave only 
four or five of the strongest to each stem, and remove the rest : 
those retained will appropriate to themselves the nourishment of 
those removed, and become larger in consequence. 

During the Fourth and future Years, the plants are to be 
managed according to the directions given for the third ; but 

48 Cultivation of Sea-kale at Bath. 

should too many stems arise from the main root, they must be cut 
off. As soon as the plants cease to produce abundantly, new beds 
are to be made ; the seeds for which may be saved from a few of 
the finest plants, by leaving their heads entirely uncovered. 

To dress Sea-kale. — Mr. Gibbs, the eminent pastry-cook and 
restaurateur at Bath, favoured me with the following method of 
dressing sea-kale : — Tie the sea-kale in bundles, boil it in plenty 
of water with a little salt in it, for 20 minutes, observing to let 
the water boil before it is put in ; have a toast ready, dip it in 
the water, put it on the dish and the sea-kale upon it ; pour a 
little white sauce over it, consisting of an equal quantity of veal 
gravy and cream thickened with flour and butter. If desired, 
a less rich sauce may be made by leaving out the gravy, and 
substituting milk for the cream. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Walter William Capper. 
Hanley, near Malvern, Worcestershire, Dec. 12. 1833. 

The excellence of the sea-kale sold in the Bath market is well 
known. The specimen sent to us by Mr. Capper, two years 
ago, was of a very superior description ; the heads were much 
larger than are usually seen about London, and much more suc- 
culent. We found it also much richer in taste when dressed. 
It is easy to conceive that sea-kale, grown in loamy manured 
soil, will have a richer taste than such as grows in a wild state 
among the barren sands of a sea-shore, or is grown in sandy 
soil in a garden. In the two latter cases, the soil must be de- 
ficient in the nutritive matter requisite to produce that degree of 
richness, joined to succulency, which is so desirable in this vege- 
table, and which the Bath gardeners succeed so well in produc- 
ing. The Bath mode of growing this vegetable we have seen 
practised by some market-gardeners about Fulham, and also in 
some private gardens, but it is by no means so general as it de- 
serves to be. Perhaps it may be alleged against this mode of 
culture that the thick covering of soil put over the plants will 
retard their progress in spring more than the usual coverings of 
sand, ashes, or blanching-pots: because the sun's rays will pene- 
trate through the latter more readily than through the former: 
but, admitting this to be the case (which, no doubt, it will be, 
to a certain extent), the saving of the first expense and annual 
breakage of these blanching-pots, and the superiority of the 
article produced, will surely afford ample compensation for the 
retardation of the crop for a week or ten days. It will be seen 
that sea-kale can be grown in the Bath manner with the greatest 
ease at any season, by covering the rows with warm dung, more 
especially if that dung be partially or wholly protected from 
rain. — Cond. 



Art. I. Catalogue of Works on Gardening, Agriculture, Botany, 
Rural Architecture, fyc, lately published, tvith some Account of 
those considered the most interesting. 

RENNIE, James, A.M., Professor of Zoology in King's College, 
London, &c. : Magazine of Botany and Gardening, &c. In 
monthly numbers, 4to. 

Having noticed this work (IX. 351.) on its first appearance, we 
should not have again recurred to it, but for the following letter 
from Professor Lindley, which we leave to speak for itself: — 

" Dear Sir, In Berrow's Worcester Journal of the 28th 
Nov. 1833, I have been shown the following advertisement: — 
' Published on the 1st of every month, the Magazine of Botany 
and Gardening, British and Foreign. Edited by J. Rennie, M.A. 
Professor of Zoology, King's College, London ; assisted by some 
of the most eminent botanists in Europe. Each number contains 
eight plates of the most rare and valuable specimens of plants, 
executed by an eminent artist, and coloured from nature ; also, 
sixteen quarto pages of original matter. The numbers already 
published contain a variety of articles by Professor Rennie, 
Colonel Capper, Professor Lindley, a valuable article on Botany 
by Mrs. Marcet, Professor Burnett, Sir Wm. Jardine, Mr. Jas. 
Munro, M. Adolphe Brongniart, Mr. W. Moorcroft, Mr. George 
Don, Mr. Jesse, Rev. John Fleming, M. Bremontier, Mr. Doyle, 
Dr. G. Johnston, Mr. Henry Marshall, Mr. R. Brown, Mr. John 
Donaldson, and many others of equal talent. London : pub- 
lished by G. Henderson, 2. Old Bailey, Ludgate Hill ; and sold 
by all booksellers in town and country.' 

" From the ingenious manner in which this is worded, it must 
doubtless be imagined by the public, as it was by the person who 
called my attention to the paragraph, that this original matter is 
furnished to Mr. Professor Rennie by those writers whose names 
he has made use of. But, as I am not ambitious of the honour of 
being considered one of this gentleman's contributors, I shall be 
very much obliged if you will be so good as to allow me to state, 
through the Gardener's Magazine, that no original matter what- 
ever has been either supplied or promised to Mr. Professor 
Rennie by me. He has availed himself of some passages in 
works written by me, as he also has of others in the works of 
several of the writers mentioned in the advertisement ; and this 

Vol. X. — No. 48. E 

50 Poynter's Cottage Gardener. 

is, I presume, what is meant by being ' assisted by some of 
the most eminent botanists of Europe;' but, if so, the public 
should understand it rightly. Yours, faithfully. — John Lindley. 
January 2. 1834." 

Poynter, Thomas, Market-Gardener at North End, Fulham : 
The Cottage Gardener; being a Sketch on useful Gardening, 
designed for the Use of the Labouring Cottagers of England. 
Pamphlet, 8vo. London, 1833. Is. 6d. 

This is an excellent little work, which may be described as 
strictly practical, without pretensions either to theory or science. 
The author states, in his introduction, that he does not " presume 
to instruct the gardeners of noblemen and gentlemen," but to 
give a " brief sketch, as short and clear as possible, and at a price 
that may let it circulate in almost every cottage in England," of 
the " times, seasons, and methods of cultivating such articles as 
may be useful to English labourers." The work is arranged in 
two divisions : the first contains general observations " on cot- 
tage gardens, soils, cultivation, manure, and tillage, digging, 
hoeing, sowing, transplanting, propagation, layers, budding and 
grafting, sowing of seeds, weeds, and on the climate of England:" 
the second division contains a cottage gardener's calendar for 
every month in the year. There is an appendix, in three di- 
visions : the first is on " cucumbers, cauliflowers, and sea-kale and 
blanching;" the second on "fruit trees and fruit shrubs, and 
their management;" and the third on "flowers and shrubs." 

In the paragraph on " cottage gardens," the author gives the 
following, as what he would " choose," if he had a cottage to 
build and a garden to lay out : — "A four-roomed house, con- 
sisting of a kitchen, small parlour, two bed-rooms, wash-house, 
something of a cellar, and a pantry. The house should nearly 
front the mid-day sun. To the west, a cow-house and pigsties ; 
at the eastern end, a tool and barrow shed; but situations may 
be such as to place these more advantageously elsewhere. For 
extent of garden, let us take our old Saxon king Alfred's allow- 
ance. A rood, or 40 square poles, of land, nearly facing the 
south or south-west ; a gentle slope, if we can get it so ; and if it is 
sheltered from the north, and particularly from the north-east, 
the better. Ten rods of land, well cultivated, will furnish a 
cottager's family, in the way in which it is now supplied, with 
vegetables : but I am thinking of helping to keep a cow, or goats, 
or a pig or two." (p. 8.) 

The remarks on the different operations of culture, and espe- 
cially on tillage, are grounded on the theory of Tull. The most 
valuable part of the work is the calendar, in which the author 
gives practical directions from his own experience. 

The work may be described as calculated for those labourers 

Library of Landscape-Gardening. 51 

who are rather superior to the common class. For labourers who 
can scarcely read, the best gardening tract yet produced is The 
Practical Directions (6d.) of Charles Lawrence, Esq. (VII. 216.); 
and for those who can read and think, and who have ground 
enough to keep a cow, and perhaps their own cottage to build, 
we would recommend, above all other works, Denson's Peasants 
Voice (VII. 80.); and next to this, our own Cottage Manual, 
(VI. 292.) It gives us great pleasure to see tracts of this kind 
multiplied ; because we feel certain that they must do immense 
good to the great mass of society. We expect shortly two 
similar publications, more scientific than any of the above, from 
the pens of Professor Rennie and Mr. Main. 

Wall is, Jo/171, Timber-surveyor, Belvidere Road, Westminster 
Bridge Road, Lambeth : Dendrology ; in which are facts, 
experiments, and observations, demonstrating that trees and 
vegetables derive their nutriment independently of the earth ; 
and also observations on decay and defects in trees, together 
with a brief method of pruning. London, 1833, 8vo. 

A piece of folly. To review the book seriously, would be like 
breaking a butterfly upon the wheel. 

Wood, William, Nurseryman, at Maresfield, Sussex, and at the 
Barriere du Roule, Paris : A List of Roses. In a folio 

The first list in this sheet contains 800 names, with short de- 
scriptions annexed to each, but which are not classed in any 
manner whatever. There are minor lists: viz., of 14 varieties of 
moss rose, with descriptions; 10 of the perpetual-flowering and 
hybrid roses ; 31 of Noisettes ; 14 of climbers ; and 71 of China 
roses and their hybrids. It is also stated, that the nursery con- 
tains 123 sorts of the best Scotch roses, and 234 sorts of the 
best Dutch. Mr. Wood's nursery at Maresfield, of about 20 
acres, which we visited in September last, is in a fine airy situa- 
tion, and the soil is of a saponaceous loamy description; both of 
which circumstances are highly favourable for the growth of 
roses, and of nursery articles generally. 

Art. II. Literary Notices. 

A Library of Landscajpe-Gardcning, edited by J. C. Loudon, 
is now in preparation, and the first number, in 8vo, price 2s. 6d., 
will very shortly appear. This work will be comprised in three 
8vo volumes (each complete in itself), which will be sold sepa- 
rately, or together, at 205. each. The first volume will contain 
the whole of the Picturesque Works of the Rev. Wm. Gilpin, 
originally published in 14 volumes, at about 10/., and now nearly 

E 2 

52 Architectural Magazine. 

out of print. The second volume will contain reprints, abridg- 
ments, extracts, or reviews, of all the British works on Landscape- 
Gardening, from the days of Shenstone to the present time, 
the cost of which, in separate volumes, would amount to nearly 
100/., and most of which cannot be obtained at any price, being 
out of print. The third volume will consist entirely of trans- 
lations of works on Landscape-Gardening, from the French, 
German, and Italian, only one of which has hitherto appeared 
in English. Each volume will be accompanied by notes and 
graphic illustrations by the editor. The notes and graphic illus- 
trations will have one single object in view, viz. that of illustrating 
the text as to the principles or practice of Landscape-Gardening 
and Architecture, and Taste or Criticism, as applied to these 
arts, or to rural matters generally. No miscellaneous notes will 
be admitted, and no attempt made to render the work what may 
be called an ornamental publication. Utility to young gardeners 
and architects, and to country gentlemen and amateurs of the 
rural arts, will be the editor's sole guide in making annotations 
himself, or in selecting those of others. 

The great object of the editor, in producing this work, is to 
furnish a course of study preparatory to his Encyclopaedia of 
Landscape-Gardening, in one volume 4to, which will contain a 
summary of principles, and an extensive series of designs, illus- 
trative of their application to the laying out of every description 
of country residence, from the cottage to the palace. It was 
originally the editor's intention to publish this Encyclopaedia first, 
and the Library afterwards ; but, recollecting that it was chiefly 
through the perusal of the works which he intends shall compose 
the Library, and through sketching from some of the scenes 
therein described, that he acquired his own knowledge of Land- 
scape-Gardening, he has determined on publishing the Library 
first, and the Encyclopaedia afterwards. 

The works of Gilpin will be published in the order in which 
they first appeared ; commencing with the Essay on Prints ; next 
the Observations on the Wye; then those on Cumberland and 
Westmoreland ; and so on. Those contributors to the Gardener's 
Magazine, who may possess Gilpin's works, are invited to send 
notes; more particularly " An Amateur" (of Woodstock), Cau- 
sidicus, Dendrophilus, Selim, J. F. M. D. (of Shrewsbury), and 
W. T. B. (of Coventry). — J. C. L. Baysxvater, Jan. 1834. 

The Architectural Magazine and Review ,- or Journal of Im- 
provement in Rural and Domestic Architecture and Furniture, 
and in the Arts more immediately connected therewith ; forming 
a perpetual Supplement to the Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, 
and Villa Architecture and Furniture ; conducted by J. C. Loudon ; 
will appear on April 1., and be continued quarterly: price 5s., 
with numerous engravings on wood. 



Art. I. General Notices. 

The Enjoyment of Reading. — We said a word or two on this subject in 
our preceding volume (p. 728.) ; and, on account of its great importance to 
every individual, we cannot help again adverting to it. We recommend those 
who have not taken in the Penny Magazine from its commencement, at least 
to purchase No. 95., for September 28. 1833. It is most gratifying to reflect 
that there is not a human being, endowed with health and the ordinary con- 
dition of the human faculties, that may not participate in what Sir John Her- 
schel appears to consider the greatest of human pleasures. It is delightful to 
foresee that, when the whole of society shall be so far educated as to derive 
pleasure from reading, and when books are as common as bread and potatoes, 
the hardest-worked agricultural labourer or mechanic, when he goes home 
from his day's toil, may plunge at once into intense enjoyment by taking up a 
book. The most gratifying circumstance respecting this enjoyment is its 
universality, and its applicability to all countries, all future ages, and to every 
human being in tolerable health and above destitution. It is equally appli- 
cable to man, whether in prosperity or in adversity ; whether in prison or free ; 
and even, to a certain extent, whether in health or sickness. Another gratifying 
prospect anticipated from the result of universal reading is, universal improve- 
ment of worldly circumstances. Let any taste become general, and the regu- 
lations and habits of society will accommodate themselves to that taste. The 
hours of labour, at present, afford barely time for eating and sleeping; but 
when reading becomes a necessary of life to every, even the lowest, class of 
society, they will be reduced so as to afford time for that enjoyment also. 
Surely, if nothing else were to be gained by a system of national education, 
but the power of conferring so much happiness on millions, it would deserve 
the patronage of every benevolent mind, and be worthy the adoption alike of 
governments professing to be paternal or to be representative. But the main 
object which we have now in view is, to impress Sir John Herschel's statement 
strongly on the mind of the young gardener, so as to encourage him, above all 
other earthly things, to cherish a taste for reading in himself, and in all those 
with whom he may have any thing to do. Another point to which we wish 
to direct attention is, the necessity, when a national system of education is 
established, of adding to every school, not only a garden, a workshop for 
teaching the simpler operations of the mechanical arts, and a kitchen for 
teaching the girls cookery, but also a circulating library for the benefit of the 
whole parish. In furtherance of these objects, we cannot resist giving the 
following short extract from Sir John Herschel's address: — "Of all the amuse- 
ments which can possibly be imagined for a hard-working man, after his daily 
toil, or in its intervals, there is nothing like reading an entertaining book, 
supposing him to have a taste for it, and supposing him to have the book to 
read. It calls for no bodily exertion, of which he has had enough, or too 
much. It relieves his home of its dulness and sameness, which, in nine cases 
out of ten, is what drives him out to the alehouse, to his own ruin and his 
family's. It transports him into a livelier, and gayer, and more diversified and 
interesting scene ; and, while he enjoys himself there, he may forget the evils 
of the present moment, fully as much as if he were ever so drunk, with the 
great advantage of finding himself the next day with his money in his pocket, 
or, at least, laid out in real necessaries and comforts for himself and his 
family, — and without a headach. Nay, it accompanies him to his next 
day's work ; and, if the book he has been reading be anything above the yery 
idlest and lightest, gives him something to think of besides the mere me- 

E 3 


Foreign Notices : — France, 

chanical drudgery of his every-day occupation, — something he can enjoy 
while absent, and look forward with pleasure to return to." ..." If I were to 
pray for a taste which should stand me in stead under every variety of circum- 
stances, and be a source of happiness and cheerfulness to me through life, and 
a shield against its ills, however things might go amiss, and the world frown 
upon me, it would be a taste for reading." {Penny Magazine, vol. ii. p. 375.) 
Gate-stoppers are frequently found great annoyances, both in the approach 
roads to gentlemen's houses, at their entrance lodges, and also in garden and 
shrubbery walks. There is a most abominable one, for 
example, a few paces within the entrance to the garden of 
the Horticultural Society at Chiswick ; which I, being a 
short man, and, like all short people, being generally look- 
ing up, have frequently nearly fallen over. Now, there is 
an excellent fall-down gate-stopper, invented by Messrs. 
Cottam and Hallen \_fig. 7.], which you have mentioned 
in your Supplement to the Encyclopaedia of Agriculture, 
and which only costs about a shilling, if of the least size, 
such as is suitable to a garden gate. There is also a most 
ingenious self-acting gate-stopper described in the Quarterly 
Journal of Agriculture, vol. iii. p. 236. ; by which, the mo- 
ment the half of the gate begins to be opened, the stopper 
begins to be lowered ; and when the gate is wholly open, 
the stopper is level with the ground. This last is a Scotch 
invention, and must cost a good deal more than that of 
Messrs. Cottam and Hallen ; but it is so ingenious, that I 
should strongly recommend its adoption in all pleasure- 
grounds. Messrs. Cottam and Hallen have promised me 
that they will procure one from the Kirkaldy foundery, where this last-men- 
tioned gate-stopper was first made, and exhibit it in their museum in Winsley 
Street. — J. S. B. London, September, 1833. 

Art. II. Foreign Notices. 


THE Garden of M. Boursaidt, in the Rue Blanche (IX. 145.), has under- 
gone some important changes since you saw it in 1829, on account of the 
deranged state of the proprietor's fortune. The large green-house which ran 
along the highest part of the garden has disappeared, and its place is filled 
by an espalier of peach trees, with a trellis of vines, or rather festoons of 
vines formed by planting a row in front of the wall, about 10 ft. distant from 
it ; and leading a shoot from the top of each prop to the top of the wall. 
The Araucaria excelsa, the tub of which is sunk several feet deep in the 
earth, touches the top of the house, and wants room. The Wistaria Con- 
sequawa flowers all the year round, and begins to bear seed. The greater 
part of the plants in this garden is now for sale, and I believe, even the 
land_ will be sold also. In the latter case I tremble for the existence of this 
admirable garden. — L. L. L. Paris, July 6. 1833. 

The Nursery and Seed Business, as it appears to me, is in a better position 
here than in England j that is to say, it is progressively increasing, in con- 
sequence of the increasing interest taken in every thing relating to the im- 
provement of the country, and especially of agriculture. The cultivators of 
ornamental plants are perhaps suffering a little ; for, if it were not for some 
fashionable _ flowers, such as roses and georginas, they would not be able to 
support their establishments. One reason of this is, that they have increased 
in number amazingly within these few years. — V. Paris, Bee. 28. 1833. 

The Country Seats between Havre and Rouen, which you recommended me 
to visit, I found in miserable order as compared with seats of similar extent 

Holland and the Netherlands, Cape of Good Hope. 55 

in England. That in best keeping was Mailleraie, which was in about as 
good order as I have generally found Park Place, near Henley on Thames. 
Landin surpassed everything which I have seen in France. The elevated 
situation of the house, the noble bend of the river, its richly wooded banks, 
the extensive prospect over a flat country in front, and the island of fruit 
trees in the Seine, some hundreds of feet below the eye, all conspire to impress 
the mind with the most sublime emotions. One enjoys these feelings not the 
less by their contrast with those excited by the anxiety of the guide to point 
out seats and summer-houses. I asked to see some of the remains of the 
plaster of Paris shepherds and sheep ; and a few fragments of the former, 
collected in the corner of a root-house, were pointed out as all that remained. 
At Rouen I found Prevost and Vallet in their respective nurseries, which 
were in tolerable order; but Calvert and Co. were gone. I was disappointed 
in the botanic garden, but it contains some fine old specimens, and, among 
these, I was most struck with the size of the Italian reed [Jrundo Z>6nax], 
which is well worth introducing more extensively into British pleasure-grounds. 
: — Henry A. Browne. Rouen, Dec. 1833. 

Steam-digging Machine. — M. Wronski, a celebrated mathematician at Paris, 
has, according to the Paris papers, discovered a new system of applying steam 
to carriages, digging machines, hoes, picks, ploughs, &c. ; so superior to any 
thing hitherto known, that a French company has bought his patent for four 
millions of francs, {he Temps.) 


Agricultural and Botanical Society of Ghent. — The fiftieth exhibition of this 
Society will take place March 15th next. It is to be celebrated as a jubilee, 
and prizes are offered to strangers, as well as to members of the Society. 
Among the prizes are, a gold medal for the best collection of 20 or more plants 
in flower, and silver medals for the best collections of camellias and of amaryllis. 
Mr. Maddison of Wondelyem, about two miles from Ghent, who sent us a 
printed prospectus containing the above and a variety of other information, 
says : — " As many of the prizes are for strangers, it may, perhaps, be worth 
your while to publish the prospectus in your Magazine for February next. 
Should you or any of your friends feel inclined to visit Ghent during our 
jubilee, I should feel happy in being of service to them. I am known to 
Mr. William Dennis of the King's Road, to Mr. Gawie, who is now with 
Mr. Lowe at Clapton, and also to Mr. Knight of the King's Road, Chelsea. 
I cultivate principally pelargoniums and georginas ; but any plants for the 
open ground, such as alstroemerias, and such as recommend themselves by their 
beauty, are what 1 particularly seek after. Independent of my collection of 
English pelargoniums, I cultivate about 100 foreign ones, which I have re- 
ceived from Vienna and Paris ; and, after the example of gentlemen in this 
country, I am always happy to offer them in exchange for other plants, either 
to gardeners or amateurs. Since residing in this country I have built a new 
green-house, with a span roof; and, by a very simple contrivance, I can raise 
the stand within a few inches of the glass. Were my green-house of iron, 
instead of wood, and warmed by hot water, instead of by fires, I should con- 
sider it as nearly, if not quite, the very best that could be made. I am, Sir, 
yours, &c. — John Maddison. Wondelyem, near Ghent, Dec. 10. 1833. 


The Government Garden is undergoing various improvements, which, when 
completed, I shall send you some account of. In general, it may be observed, 
that a new stimulus to gardening and agricultural improvements has been 
given throughout the colony since the present governor came into office. 
Something also must be attributed to the increasing prosperity of Sydney and 
Van Diemen's Land, which are our principal foreign markets for cattle, sheep, 
and various descriptions of agricultural produce. {Extract from a private 
Letter to D. B., dated Cape Town, Sept AS, 1833.) 

E 4 

56 Domestic Notices : — 

Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture. — Sir, 1 have perused 
your Encyc. of Cottage Arch, with great pleasure. It is a book which has 
long been wanted. What would I have given for such a book when I first 
started in life : even now, at the eleventh hour, I am delighted with it. I 
regret that I was not in England at the time your work was in progress. Tf I 
had, I should have sent you one or two designs for small cottages, which I 
have been in the habit of thinking nearly perfect in their kind. One of them 
was very similar in its general plan to Sir Robert Taylor's beautiful villa at 
Richmond, only on a smaller scale. [We shall feel much obliged to Colonel 
Thomson for plans and elevations of small cottages such as he mentions, 
and to any of our readers, to whom an opportunity offers, for ground plans 
and elevations of Sir Robert Taylor's villa: both would be exceedingly suit- 
able for our Architectural Magazine. Colonel Thomson next describes an im- 
proved roasting-oven, which will form an article in the first number of our 
Architectural Magazine ; and one which, we think, will be of very great value to 
the public. He then concludes his letter with the following paragraph : — ] 

If you should deem these details useful to your numerous readers, you are 
at liberty to insert them in any future edition of your work ; for there will no 
doubt be many. [The work is stereotyped ; and, consequently, the number 
of impressions which may be taken being unlimited, no new edition is required. 
All corrections, additions, and improvements to the work will be given in our 
Architectural Magazine, which is intended to serve as a perpetual supplement 
to the Encyclopaedia of Architecture, in the same manner as the Gardener's 
Magazine is a perpetual supplement to the Encyclopaedia of Gardening, E. of 
Plants, &c] My object [continues Col. Thomson] is general utility; and I 
know of no subject which will contribute so largely to the comfort and happi- 
ness of Englishmen all over the world, as a practical improvement in this 
branch of domestic economy, which may have the effect of overcoming in 
some degree that rooted prejudice in favour of long open kitchen ranges, 
which roast the poor cook as well as the meat, and consume as much coals in 
one day as would do the work often properly constructed furnaces. Wishing 
you every success in your useful career, I am, Sir, yours, &c. — Robert 
Thomson, Lieut, -Col. Royal Engineers. Cape Town, Oct. 30. 1833. 


Swan River. — The vines in the botanic garden are flourishing luxuriantly ; 
and the rapid progress the vine has made in the colony, wherever properly at- 
tended to, has established beyond a doubt that both the soil and climate are 
admirably adapted to its cultivation. We have not the slightest doubt that a 
peculiarly rich flavour would be imparted to the grape; if we may judge from 
the exquisite perfection of other fruits. It is much to be regretted that 
Waters, one of the most successful of the market-gardeners of Perth, has 
had his premises consumed by fire. He was in the habit of furnishing a 
regular supply to the Perth market. (Morning Chronicle, Dec. 27. 1833.) 

Van Diemeji's Land. — I send you a box of seeds, and should be glad to 
have some seeds or plants from you in exchange, &c. — William Davidson. 
Government Garden, Hobart Toivn, Nov. 2. 1833. 

We have sent Mr. Davidson's letter with an order to get the box of seeds, 
to Mr. Lowe of Clapton, who, having a collector at Sydney, will be best able 
to ascertain what articles will be most suitable for Mr. Davidson, from whom 
we should be glad to receive an account of the state of gardening and agricul- 
ture, &c, in the colony. — Cond. r 

Art. III. Domestic Notices. 

THE Floricultural Impostor at Reading. (IX. 491.) — Sir, The following facts 
concerning this person may, perhaps, be of service to brother florists and nur- 

England. 57 

serymen : — During last summer, a man of middle stature, rather stout, and 
shabbily dressed, called on me, and represented himself as a Mr. Archer of Shef- 
field, florist, soliciting orders. The man, by his general conversation, his apparent 
knowledge of floriculture generally, and his detail of several transactions of 
gentlemen, friends of mine, at Norwich (some of which I knew to be correct, 
such as certain flower-roots, &c, having been sent from Sheffield to these 
individuals, whose names he mentioned), succeeded in counteracting, in some 
degree, the unfavourable impression I had at first formed of him, from his shabby 
appearance ; for which, by the by, he accounted by the plausible excuse of 
continued travelling, and having to visit so many customers in ordinary cir- 
cumstances of life, who, he said, would be afraid of giving him orders were he 
dressed as a gentleman. I showed him over my nursery ; and he particularly 
noticed the dwarfness of some of the georginas, of which he expressed great 
admiration. He examined my pinks and carnations, and continually referred 
to a catalogue which he had with him, that showed the number of prizes each 
flower had obtained in the year; and which, he said, he published annually : 
it appeared to be edited by a Mr. Archer. I gave him an order for some tulips, 
pinks, and carnations ; upon condition, however, that I was to flower them 
before I paid for them. He also showed me some tubers of dwarf georginas, 
of, as he said, very valuable varieties, worth two guineas each, brought for the 
Duke of Marlborough ; but, the duke not paying his last bill, he refused to 
leave them : but said, that, as the season for planting them was wearing away, 
he would not, as he wished to encourage all amateur florists, object to let 
me have them for a few shillings. So I purchased them, after consulting 
with a friend, who was present, as to whether the man was or was not an 
impostor. But the smallness of the sum to be risked induced me not to give 
a hint of my suspicion ; for, although the man certainly played his game well, 
and possessed a very smooth tongue, there was, nevertheless, a something 
about him which created a doubt. The tubers were very neatly packed and 
labelled, and certainly had the appearance of being something choice. He 
also had tulip roots, labelled, &c, in the same style; but these, he said, were 
for a gentleman who had ordered them, and, therefore, not for sale. On 
going to the nursery the next morning, one of my foremen found eight or ten 
of the dwarf georginas (which, when growing the day before, the impostor 
had so much admired) with their tops cut from the roots, stuck into the 
ground, and the roots gone. Suspicion, of course, immediately attached to 
this fellow ; and it was strengthened by my calling, a day or two afterwards, 
on a florist a few miles from Reading; and who questioned me respecting 
him, as he said that the man had called on him with some tulip bulbs and 
tubers of georginas, with the same tale respecting the duke as he had told 
me ; and also stated that I had given him a 100/. order, &c, endeavouring, at 
the same time, to prevail on this person to purchase. He, not being a grower 
of tulips, declined doing this ; and thought that there was something wrong 
with the tubers of georginas, as they appeared to him to have been in a grow- 
ing state, and fresh taken out of the ground. He, nevertheless, gave him an 
order for some pinks and heartseases, which were to be sent in my parcel. 
This person keeps an inn ; and the fellow, not having yet succeeded in his 
plans, proposed their going in and having dinner, &c, for which he would pay. 
Dinner was provided and eaten ; and, afterwards, something as a " wetter " 
was introduced. In the course of the chat which followed, the fellow 
managed, under some pretence, to leave the room ; and, I need scarcely add, 
did not return, but left the landlord to settle the reckoning. He entered his 
orders in a book, in which there appeared many names, familiar to me, of per- 
sons in this neighbourhood, who had, apparently, given him large orders. He 
made free use of your name, and of the names of several other gentlemen who 
had, he pretended, called at his nurserv, &c. —Myles Priest. Reading Nursery, 
Dec. 12. 1833. 

The Floricultural Impostor at Hereford. — This worthy of the alias family 
honoured a most respectable inn in this city, a short time ago, with his favours 

58 Domestic Notices : — 

for several days ; sallying forth amongst the brethren of the tulip as well as of 
the turnip tribe ; soliciting orders, and exhibiting a nursery catalogue, together 
with a card on which appeared the words, " Joseph Ashworth, Florist, Roch- 
dale, Lancashire ; " and also a collection of flower-roots, in a violet-coloured 
bag, some of which he disposed of in this neighbourhood : though surely those 
were not a portion of what cost him five shillings per peck, as his price for 
one tulip, he stated, was fifty pounds. However, No. 43. of this Magazine 
(IX. 230.) awakened my suspicions, which I speedily laid before " mine host" 
(Mr. Wild) ; who, on inspecting his customer's bed-room, found he was gone. 
The landlord, with commendable alacrity, got a constable, and both rode off 
in the direction of Ledbury (16 miles hence); and, although two hours after 
the impostor at starting, came up with him just as he had commenced dis- 
pensing his favours at the Feathers Inn, in that town. Mr. Wild demanded 
and received his bill, which amounted to several pounds ; and, moreover, as 
his Rosinante was knocked up, he required the amount of phaeton-convey- 
ance great part of the way back to this city ; which being paid likewise, Mr. 
Green, alias Gern, alias Ashworth, was rather unceremoniously excluded from 
the snug shelter of the Plume of Feathers. I should have mentioned that it 
was only the presence of the constable with Mr. Wild that enabled him to 
succeed so well, as this empowered him to say, " Pay me my bill, or you shall 
return with us to Hereford in custody." Many circumstances respecting the 
affair are quite amusing; but it would take up too much room to relate them. 
The fellow's memory is astonishing, as I have been told by several persons in 
this neighbourhood : gardeners who had lived in different situations, where 
he had called, years ago, he recollected well, though they had scarcely spoken 
to him before. Putting his barefaced lies out of the question, I never heard 
of so finished a character, or one so likely to succeed in his attempts to 
cheat. I am, Sir, yours, &c. — Win. Godsafl. Hereford, Jan. 1. 1834. 

The Floricidtural Impostor at Hull. — A person, calling himself Richard 
Evans, nurseryman and florist, of Edgbaston, near Birmingham, was in Hull 
last week, professing to sell the bulbs of tulips and ranunculuses of a superior 
description, with particular names attached to them. His custom was, to 
receive money for all roots under five shillings, and to give credit for those 
above, till after blooming. He succeeded in dealing with several of our 
florists; and, from one, obtained sixty tulips in exchange for fourteen of his 
own boasted superior ones. He has also taken orders for georginas ; amongst 
others, from the curator of the botanic garden, which he visited. He appears 
to have a thorough knowledge of flowers, and knows the name of almost 
every florist in the kingdom. He has been at Sheffield, York, &c. He left 
Hull for Beverley on the morning of yesterday week, but forgot to pay for his 
lodgings. On Saturday he departed from Beverley, leaving a bill of 1 Is. 8d. 
unliquidated at the Packhorse. It is supposed that he has gone north through 
Scarborough and Whitby, where he knew there were florists' societies. He 
had a quantity of printed cards with him ; and generously promised to leave 
three sovereigns as premiums for the Hull florists' shows. (Weekly Dispatch, 
Dec. 30. 1833.) 

Vegetation under Glasses, ivithout Change of Air. — Dr. Aiken, the secretary 
to the Society of Arts, read a letter addressed by Mr. N. B.Ward to Mr. R.W. 
Solly, in which the former states that, nearly four years ago, he observed, on 
the surface of some moist mould in a large bottle loosely covered with a lid, 
in which he had buried the chrysalis of a Sphinx, some minute specks of 
vegetation. A plant of Poa annua and one of Aspidium had made their 
appearance. Curious to observe the growth of plants in such a confined 
situation, he placed the bottle outside one of his windows, with a northern 
aspect, where they remained more than three years ; during which time the 
lid was never removed, nor was any water given to them in that period. The 
plants grew very well : the Poa annua flowered the second year, but did not 
perfect any seeds ; and the Aspidium produced four or five new fronds every 
year. They ultimately perished, in consequence of the admission of rain, 

England. 59 

-which rotted them. The experiment has been repeated on more than sixty 
species of ferns, and with uniform success. The bottom of a box being pre- 
viously covered with broken pieces of brick, tile, &c, the ferns are planted in 
a compound of vegetable mould, sand, and Sphagnum palustre L. ; they are 
then watered most copiously, and the superfluous water allowed to drain off, 
for several hours, by means of a hole in the bottom of the box. A plug is 
then put in tight, the box covered with a glazed lid, and no farther care is 
required than that of placing the box in the light. In this state, ferns will 
grow for years without any fresh water. A box placed on one of the Society's 
tables, and which attracted great attention, contained, among others, the fol- 
lowing species : — Jsplenium lanceolatum, ylsplenium Jdiantum nigrum, Jdian- 
tum pedatum, Jdiantum pendulinum, .Blechnum boreale, Cyathea fragilis, 
&c. ; with four or five species of mosses growing in the same box, planted in the 
beginning of last May. Mr. Ward adds, that many other plants which delight 
in humid situations, and which he had previously attempted, in vain, to grow 
in town, succeed equally well under this plan of treatment ; such as the 
double-flowered Anemone nemorosa, Listera nidus avis ? &c. ; and he feels 
well convinced that the deteriorating influence of town air depends more upon 
mechanical than upon chemical causes. {Lit. Gaz. p. 793., Dec. 14. 1833.) We 
saw some of the above-mentioned glasses and plants at the November Meet- 
ing of the Linnasan Society. — Cond. 

The Establishment of a Botanical and Horticultural Garden at Sheffield (IX. 
464. 700., X. 93.) will, we are informed on good authority, be shortly effected. 
The time for choosing a curator will, we believe, when determined on, be 
advertised. As the performance of the objects of any public body is depend- 
ent on its officers, and as, in the case of a botanic garden, a curator is the 
most important of all the officers employed, we trust we may be excused 
submitting a word in relation to the choice of one. We conceive that the 
candidates should be rigidly examined as to their professional qualifications ; 
and that but little attention should be paid to any testimonials, farther than 
they relate to moral character. This last quality is of great consequence in 
a public servant; and, as its validity is dependent on length of practice, 
attestations of its fixedness may be well : but as, in the case of professional 
qualification, no evidences, no testimonials, would be equal to those which 
a competent examiner would elicit from the candidates themselves, we think 
it would be the duty of every committee, engaged in the choice of a profes- 
sional officer, to institute, either in one or more of their own body, or in the 
person of a professor of established reputation, hired for the occasion, the 
examination suggested. This would completely set aside the chance of all 
undue advantage, which local candidates must, we think, have over the more 
distant ones. A curator of the present day should, we need not remark, be 
a proficient in every department of practical botany; and familiar with the 
principles of those sciences which are more immediately connected with the 
art of gardening. — J. D. 

Brugmansmsuaveolens. — Sir, A magnificent plant of Brugmansza suaveolens 
flowered this year in the gardens of Roger Taylor, Esq., of Firsthwaite, near 
the Lake of Windermere. It was, when I saw it (Oct. 20.), 9 ft. in height, 
and presented 43 fully expanded flowers ; the milky-white trumpets of which 
were each 1 ft. long (including the peduncle) and 6 in. in diameter at the 
upper part ; emitting, at " dewy eve," a delicious fragrance. The diameter of 
the stem, at the ground, was l^in. ; and its height to the first branch, 4 ft. 
The leaves upon this part were 2 ft. long, inclusive of the petiole, and 12 in. 
broad : but what is remarkable is, that all the leaves above the fork were 
decurrent on one side. The plant was raised from a cutting this spring ; and, 
on the 4th of May, was 18 in. high. About the latter end of July, the flower- 
buds appeared, the plant being then about 7 ft. in height. Early in October, 
the flowers began to expand : the plant was now in full beauty, and continued 
so for nearly a month. — T. A, B. Easthivaite Lodge, Lancashire, Dec. 24. 

60 Domestic Notices : — 

Shrubs and Flowers hi bloom on the \5th of Nov., 1833, at Easthwaite 
Lodge, Lancashire. — Fuchsia gracilis, which I find to be perfectly hardy ; the 
stem not killed down to the ground, but pushing out branches, in spring, to 
within a few inches of its top. One of these plants reached the height of 6 ft. 
this year, and was literally covered with bloom. The Warratah camellia also 
has resisted the frosts of the last four winters, without other protection than 
having the ground mulched about its roots. Irish heath, Colutea arborescens, 
Kklmia serotina, .Erica Tetralix and ciliaris, J'rbutus CTnedo, Finca major, 
and Rhododendron ponticum. 

Dec. 24. There is now a Rhododendron ponticum, with flowers upon it, 
in a sheltered situation ; Fiburnum Tinus ; Yucca filamentosa, a few flowers 
left out of 150, the stern was 5ft. high; Hydrangea hortensis, rose-coloured 
and blue; Polygala Chamaebuxus, -Tlex virginica, <Spartium scoparium L. 
(Cytisus «coparius i/c), Cobce v a scandens (6'aprifdlium japonicum and sem- 
pervirens), Calampelis scabra, Fiburnum Tmus hirta, i/yperieum ^ndros8e v - 
mum, Ferbena chamaedrifolia, Cydonia japonica, .Daphne altaica, double sweet- 
briar, yellow Chinese rose, dark red Bengal rose, and about six or eight other 
varieties of Chinese roses ; several varieties of Pelargonium ; Rosa Champ- 
neydna, with trusses of fifty and sixty flowers in each ; a Noisette grandi- 
flora (standard) ; a moss and some common roses, which were transplanted 
late in spring ; 4'nthemis nobilis fl. pi., chrysanthemums, Geum coccineum, 
iupinus polyphyl'us, Gilirt capitata, nasturtiums, Lopez/a coronata and race- 
mosa, ^thanasia annua, Oenothera Lmdleydna, and several others ; .Mimulus 
luteus, Eschscholtzia californica (rises from self-sown seeds), Ammdbium 
alatum (the same), Biscutella erigerifolia, ^enecio elegans fl. pi., Campanula 
Trachelium, Pumaria glauca ; .Lychnis, two or three varieties ; Papaver, three 
or four varieties ; Geranium Wallichianum, Convolvulus minor, Galinsogea 
trilobata, Lobel/a fiilgens, Agapanthus umbellatus, Madia elegans; geor- 
ginas, many varieties; nigellas ; lupines, many varieties; cyanus, delphinium; 
German stocks and asters, several varieties ; Xeranthemum annuum, claries, 
wallflowers, Russian and other violets, hollyhocks, malvas, ^4'rabis alpina ; 
snapdragons, including a very handsome variety from New Holland; red 
candytuft, yellow hawkweed, a few pinks, several varieties of aster, &c. 

This list would have been much more extended but for some severely 
frosty nights early in October ; and the terrific gales of wind, and a deluge of 
rain, which we have lately experienced; which have torn up or beaten down 
a great number of my best flowers. — T. A. B. Esthwaite Lodge, Lancashire, 
Dec. 24. 1833. 

Benthdm'iafragifera. — By referring to our Floricultural Notices, p. 69., it 
will be found that specimens of the flowers and fruit of this eminently beautiful 
hardy evergreen shrub have been sent us from Cornwall. The general observer 
may form an idea of it by imagining Cornus florida covered with the flowers 
of Stuartwz Malachodendron, and the fruit of J'rbutus £/ x nedo but rather larger. 
We want words to express our admiration of this shrub, and the interest we 
feel in the associations which are connected with it. It is named in compli- 
ment to George Bentham, Esq., the secretary to the Horticultural Society, 
a distinguished botanist ; but we consider it as commemorating also the name 
of that gentleman's uncle, the greatest benefactor to mankind, in our opinion, 
that has lived since the commencement of the Christian era. "We could not 
have desired a finer plant to perpetuate such a name. The Rev. W. Fox, in 
his admirable sermons on Christian Morality, says, " the late Jeremy Bentham 
was the ablest expositor of what was really Christian morality, the true law of 
the Lord as to social duty, that our country or the world has yet produced. 
The whole of his writings are proofs and illustrations of the position, that we 
shall find our own greatest happiness in the promotion of the greatest happiness 
of others." (p. 58.) Benthanua fragifera, beautiful as it is, is so easy of pro- 
pagation, that it will soon be in every cottage garden. — Cond. 

O'xalis crendta. — We have received a number of communications, laudatory 
of this plant, as a substitute for, or an auxiliary to, the potato; as a tart 

Scotland. q | 

plant ; as an ingredient in salads ; and even as an herbage plant for cattle : but 
having (IX. 78. 232. and 618.) afforded our correspondents an opportunity of 
saying enough to direct the attention of the public to it, so as to induce them 
to give it a fair trial, we think we have done enough for the present. In the 
course of our late tour we saw the O'xalis crenata in many gardens, growing 
luxuriantly to stems and foliage, and producing few tubers, in very rich soils'; 
and growing less luxuriantly, but still without producing many tubers, in dry 
sandy soils. The truth is, the tubers are not produced till a certain reduction 
in the temperature of the atmosphere checks the elongation of the under- 
ground stolones ; which, when so checked, accumulate their sap in the form of 
tuberosities at their extremities : which tuberosities are, consequently, nothing 
more than stunted stolones or underground shoots. The demand for the plant 
has proved profitable to many nurserymen (IX. 470.),* one of whom informed 
us that he had an order for a bushel of tubers. — Cond. 

Grafting Pears on the Extremities of the Shoots of old Pear Trees trained on 
Walls, Mr. Saul informs us, is practised with so much success by an eminent 
clergyman in the neighbourhood of Lancaster, that the scions form blossom 
buds and spurs the same year that the graft is put on, and produce fruit the 
year following. The scions are inserted either on the points of the shoots, or 
the shoots are shortened back, according to the room there may be for the 
shoots produced by the scion ; these shoots are either trained straight forward, 
or wholly, or in part, turned back towards the bole of the tree. More than 
this an intelligent gardener does not require to be told. — Cond. 

Madura aurantwea. — A fine specimen of this fruit has been sent us by 
Dr. Mease, from Mrs.M'Mahon's garden near Philadelphia, as before. (VI. 103. 
fig. 22.) It is about the size of a large orange, and though evidently gathered 
before it was fully ripe, yet the seeds, which may be compared to those of the 
common flax, only three times larger, are plump, and appear as if they would 
grow. We have distributed them, along with those which were sent us of 
Benthamk. — Cond. 

The Sarracen Pear, a specimen of which has lately been sent to Mr. 
Saul from Mr. Saunders, nurseryman in Jersey, and which is not described in 
either the Horticultural Society's Catalogue, or in Lindley's Guide, is thus 
characterised: — It is oblong, about. 4§ in. by 4 in. in diameter; the skin on the 
shaded side is at first green, but becomes pale yellow at maturity. The side 
next the sun is tinged with brownish red, dotted with grey : the flesh is almost 
melting, of a sweet, rich, and partially perfumed flavour ; the seeds are long, 
pointed, not well matured, and of a black hue. This fruit is excellent, and will 
keep from one year to another. There are few pears which so highly merit 
cultivation as this variety. The specimen sent weighed 15 oz. — M. Saul. 
Lancaster, Dec. 6. 1833. 

Uvedale's St. Germain Pear. — A fine specimen of this pear has been sent 
us by Dr. Hamilton of Plymouth : its dimensions are, " 13| in. for the trans- 
verse, and 16 \ in. for the longitudinal diameter ; and its weight is 1 lb. \\\ oz. 
The tree from which these pears were gathered has, in former years, produced 
fruit of a considerably larger size, and in much greater abundance, than in the 
present season, and five years since a pear was gathered from it which 
weighed above 2Jlbs. — William Hamilton. 15. Oxford Place, Plymouth, 
Nov. 14. 1833." 


Modes of heating by Hot Water. — Mr. M'Nab, the excellent curator of the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden, was on a tour in England in the month of Decem- 
ber, with a view to ascertain, from ocular inspection, the best mode of heating 
by hot water. We had the pleasure of seeing him a few days before he left 
London, and, we believe, he considers, with us, that the best plan is Kewley's, 
provided manufacturers could be found to make joints as completely water- 
tight as Kewley does, and to repair such pipes when they go wrong. The 
next best plan he also agrees with us in considering to be the level system, of 

62 Domestic Notices : — Ireland. 

which the most extensive manufacturers in the kingdom, we believe, are Messrs. 
Cottam and Hallen, of Winsley Street, Oxford Street. — Cond. _ 

Horticultural Garden at Edinburgh. — A certain sum is to be given annually 
by government, under certain conditions, to improve this garden. (Scotsman, 
Dec. 21. 1833.) 

Botanic Garden at Edinburgh. — The sum of 8000/. is expected to be granted 
by Parliament, next session, for the completion of the Edinburgh Botanic 
Garden. (Scotsman, Dec. 21. 1833.) 

Agricultural Museum. — Professor Low, the scientific teacher of agriculture 
in the University of Edinburgh, has long been engaged in forming, at his own 
private expense, an agricultural museum ,• and we are most happy to learn, 
from the Scotch newspapers, that government has lent pecuniary aid to so 
useful an undertaking. Whether any exhibition of the kind instituted by 
Messrs. Drummond at Stirling, and followed by Mr. Lawson of Edinburgh, 
and Messrs. Dickson and Turnbull of Perth, is to be combined with this 
museum, we have not learned ; but we are most happy to see the government 
of the country taking an interest in such national objects. We hope the time 
is not far distant when a sum will be advanced to complete the Thames tunnel, 
and another to establish the Horticultural Society's garden at Chiswick on a 
permanent footing. If this is not done by government, we hope that, when 
the metropolis and its environs are put under one system of self-government, 
they will have a metropolitan garden, either at Chiswick or elsewhere, worthy 
of the first city in the world, and open to all its citizens. — Cond. 

In the Western Counties, the damage done to plantations from the violent 
gales of December exceeds anything of the like nature which has occurred 
during the last 20 years. Every landed proprietor complains of serious loss 
from this cause, and it seems not improbable that home timber will fall in 
price from the extraordinary quantity of it thrown on the market. At Castle 
Kennedy, near Stranraer, the residence at one time of the great Lord Stair, 
and where the trees were planted in sections, squadrons, and lines, after 
the order of some of his battles, the wind has demolished what the axe- 
man had been long taught to spare,- and this is merely a specimen of what 
has taken place at least all over this part of Scotland. (Dumfries Courier^) 


Gardening and Agricultural Improvements appear to have received a new 
stimulus in several of the Irish counties. We arrive at this conclusion from 
the accounts of newly formed societies, and superior productions, which we 
see in the Irish country papers sent to us ; and also from the success which 
has attended the publication of an Irish Farmer and Gardener's Magazine. 
We have also been informed, both by a Dublin bookseller and by some 
of our publishers in London, that a great number of our Encyclopaedia of 
Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture have sold in Ireland. Our particular 
friend James M'Lean, who has lately travelled through the country for com- 
mercial purposes, assures vis that he has seen cottages erected between 
Belfast and Newry on platforms in our manner ; but, Mr. M'Lean being no 
architect, this information must be taken with due allowance. — Cond. 

Cuscuta nepalensis and PassipTbra edulis in Ireland. — Sir, Until the last week 
of last month, I had a large plant of Cuscuta nepalensis in full flower upon 
an olive planted against a south wall : it was a beautiful object, and most fra- 
grant, before it was killed into its roots, which it was by the fall of the 
thermometer to 25°. It had previously stood, with but little injury, two 
nights of frost at 29°. From the depth the roots of Cuscuta penetrate into 
woody plants, and its great vitality (which I have found from the difficulty of 
eradicating it from some plants it had accidentally established itself upon), I 
anticipate that it will retain its vitality over the winter, and will next year 
" string its pearls again." Close to it, on the same wall, stands uninjured a 
Passiflora edulis, with 12 fruits upon it nearly ripe, and some flowers expanded. 
It has been only protected at night by a mat. — Robert Mallet. Capel Street, 
Dublin, Dec. 1832. 

Florkultural and Botanical Notices. 63 

Art. IV. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of new Plants, and of 
old Plants of Interest, supplementary to the latest Editions of the 
" Encyclopcedia of Plants, 1 ' and of the " Hortus Britannicus." 

Curtis' s Botanical Magazine; each monthly Number containing eight plates ; 

3*. 6d. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, King's Professor of 

Botany in the University of Glasgow. 
Edwards's Botanical Register ; each monthly Number containing eight plates ; 

4s. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, F.R.S., Professor of Botany 

in the London University. 
Sweet's British Flower-Garden ; each monthly Number containing four plates ; 

3s. coloured, 2s. 3d. plain. Edited by David Don, Esq., Librarian to the 

Linnaean Society. 
Loddiges's Botanical Cabinet; each monthly Number containing ten plates; 

5s. coloured, 2s. 6d. partly coloured. Edited by Messrs. Loddiges. 

Some Facts and Considerations which have a general Relation to Floriculture. 

Mr. Telfair is no more. — Ever since the death of his accomplished lady, 
which took place the preceding year, our valued friend, as he himself had 
informed us, seemed to have lost every earthly tie; and, after a violent illness 
of only five days, he breathed his last on July 14. 1833. In his death, science 
has to deplore the loss of one of her most ardent votaries, and society one of 
the best of men. (Dr. Hooker, in Bot. Mag., Dec. 1833, t. 3286.) 

The Publication of Loddiges's Botanical Cabinet was terminated on Dec. 2. 
1833. — " Having been enabled to complete our twentieth volume, and thus 
to place 2000 plants before the public, our labours are closed ; the precarious 
state of our draughtsman's health not permitting him to go on any farther. 
We cannot take leave of our kind friends without expressing our sincere 
gratitude for the encouragement with which they have favoured us, in our 
humble attempts to illustrate a small portion of a most attractive branch of 
natural history." (Botanical Cabinet, Dec. 2. 1833, at the close of the text 
appended to t. 2000.) 

Mr. Drummond. — " It is very much through the instrumentality of Dr. 
Graham that Mr. Drummond has been enabled to accomplish his long and 
successful journeys in the southern states of North America ; where, amidst 
many dangers, and notwithstanding the severest attacks of fever and cholera, 
he has amassed a collection of upwards of one thousand species of plants. 
The Nuttalk'a Papaver, and the little-known Sarracenk psittacina, are among 
the most interesting that have been sent home in a living state. From Texas 
and New Mexico it is expected that his collections will be still more valuable." 
(Dr. Hooker, in Bot. Mag., Dec. 1833, t. 3287.) 

Mr. Hitchen's celebrated Collection of succulent Plants, of the more striking 
of which we have given a long list in IX. 114., has been purchased by Mr. 
Frederick Mackie of the Norwich Nursery. This gentleman has printed a 
list of the duplicates which he offers for sale ; but we are happy to learn from 
him that it is his purpose " to keep the collection as complete as possible, 
and to add to it as opportunity may offer." 

Aquatic Plants are generally very beautiful, either in their flowers or their 
foliage ; or remarkable for the singular manner in which they have been con- 
structed, to enable them to pass their lives amidst the water. Unless provided 
with floating apparatus, the small quantity of air contained in their leaves 
would be insufficient to support them on the surface of the water ; and they 
would sink and drown, like animals themselves. But, to prevent this occur- 
rence, we always find some curious and beautiful contrivance : such as a 
distention of the leafstalk, till it assumes a swollen and gouty aspect [in 
the genera Pontederia, Trapa, Utricularia] ; or the construction of myriads of 
air-chambers in the solid stem itself [Typha, iSparganium, iVympha3 N a, Sagit- 
taria] ; or the roots distended into vegetable swimming bladders [Jussieiia ] ; 

64? Floricultural and Botanical Notices, 

or, as is the case with Limnocharis Humbdldta, some special alteration of 
other parts. In this plant, the midrib of the leaf is so enlarged and filled 
with air, as to render it impossible for the leaf to sink, although loaded with 
thrice the weight it has to carry : not, however, all the midrib, but only the 
under side of it, by which means [aided by the marginal portions of the 
expansion of the leaf] any upsetting of the leaf, or application of the breathing 
side (which is the upper) to the surface of the water, by which it would be 
smothered, is effectually prevented. (Dr. IAndley, in the Botanical Register 
for Jan. 1834; in the description of the beautiful stove aquatic plant Limno- 
charis Humboldtw, which we have noticed in IX. 488.) 


III. Hanunculacete. 

1600. ^CONPTUM. 
14205a Stoerckzd/iMOT B. C. Stoerck's ^ A or 4 au B Austria 1824. D co Bot. cab. 1991 
Whether this be the A. Stoerckianum Rchb., we have not the means to ascertain ; nor whether it 
be A. paniculatum var. Stoikianum of M. Seringe in Dec. Prod. i. 60. 

A very showy species (Bot. Cab., Dec). Baron Stoerck was the first to 
make successful application of the extract of aconite to the alleviation of 
chronic rheumatism, inveterate gout, old tumours, &c. 

XI. Capparidece. 

1904. CLEO'ME. 
+16719 dendroldes Schult. tree-like » i_J or 5 ... P Brazil 1828. S s.l Bot. mag. 3296 

By the synonymes exhibited in the Bot. Mag., this is the same as C. arborea 
of Hort. Brit. No. 16719.; and, if so, it was introduced to Britain in 1817, 
and flowers in " jn.jl." The figure in the Bot. Mag. is from a plant which 
flowered in a garden in Madeira. " Though the colour of the flowers is rather 
singular than brilliant, this is a very striking plant, with its curious candela- 
brum-like flower-spike and handsome foliage." (Bot. Mag., Jan.) 

XXIV. Malvdcece. 

2005. NUTTA'LL/J. 

Papaver Grah. Poppy-flwd. & A ° r 3 au R.P Louisiana 1833. S p.l Bot. mag. 3287 

Seeds of this species were sent, in the spring of 1833, from Louisiana, by 
Mr. Drummond ; " these have been distributed to different gardens, and have 
probably produced flowering plants in several collections." Farther on, it is 
stated that plants of it have flowered in the botanic garden of Glasgow; that 
of Edinburgh ; Cunningham's nursery, Comely Bank ; the garden of Mr. Neill, 
and that of David Falconar, Esq., of Carlowrie. A " highly ornamental " 
species : " it appears to be quite hardy." Stems numerous from the crown 
of the root, each of which bears several flowers ; and these are severally pro- 
duced on long axillary peduncles. " Corolla of five petals, campanulate, 
large [according to the picture, more than 2 in. across], red purple." (Bot. 
Mag., Dec.) 

XL VI. Cdctece. 

1474. OPU'NTIA. 
+12598 brasiliensis Willd. Brazilian * ZD cu 25 Y Brazil 1816. C s.l Bot. mag. 3293 

The figure published is from a specimen produced in a Madeira garden. 
*' O. brasiliensis, though of comparatively recent introduction to Madeira, now 
occurs in several gardens at Funchal, without the slightest care or attention." 
It flowers chiefly in May or June, and bears the greatest proportion of fruit 
in August or September; but it both flowers and fruits more or less through- 
out the year. " It rises with a perfectly straight, erect, slender, but firm and 
stiff, round stem, to a height of from 10 ft. to 25 ft., and even 30 ft.; very 
gradually tapering to a point, from a diameter, at the base, of from 2 in. to 
6 in. ; and is furnished all the way up with short, mostly horizontal or declin- 
ing branches, spreading round on all sides, not more than a yard in any part 
from the main stem, and gradually becoming shorter upwards ; often alto- 
gether ceasing near the summit. The whole plant resembles a straight taper 
pole, artificially dressed up with branches." The ultimate points are obovate, 
and resemble leaves in appearance and thickness ; and, from the prominent 

supplementary to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 65 

parts of their edges, flowers are produced all over the plant. They are of a 
bright lemon colour, H in. in diameter. The stamens evince, when touched, 
a slight irritability. Fruit subglobose, from 1 in. to If in. in diameter; of a 
delicate transparent yellow; smooth, except being studded with tufts of 
chestnut-coloured bristles. The flesh of the fruit is of a yellowish white 
colour, juicy, with a fine acid, somewhat resembling an indifferent, hard- 
fleshed, or unripe plum ; with a smell and slight flavour like those of the 
leaf-stalks of garden rhubarb." (Bot. Mag., Jan.) 
LXV. Thymelce'cE, 

87. PIMELE^A. rBot mag. 32S8 

29126a gracihflora Hook. s\ender-calyzed Ht \ | or 3 my. jn W King George's Sound 1830 ? C p.l 

" May be easily mistaken for P. sylvestris " (IX. 364.) ; but comparison 
will prove it quite distinct. " It is extremely pretty, and flowers freely in the 
green-house in common peat soil ; and retains its snowy blossoms, which are 
disposed in rather lax heads, for a considerable length of time. It was raised 
from seeds sent by Mr. Baxter : " we suppose, to the Glasgow Botanic Gar- 
den ; but this is not stated, nor whence the drawing had been derived. (Bot. 
Mag., Dec. 1833.) 

LXXVII. Leguminosce. 

1968. ^NTHY'LLIS. 
17625a Webbiana Penny Webb's ^ A or | my jl Pa.Ro Teneriffe 1829. S 6.1 Bot. mag. 3284 

Communicated to the Botanical Magazine by Mr. Cameron, of the Botanic 
Garden, Birmingham. It was introduced by Philip Barker Webb. " It is 
an extremely delicate and pretty species." Its principal charms are its heads 
of rose-coloured flowers, pretty pinnate leaves, and the white silky pubes- 
cence which invests the whole of its herbage. " It is hardy, and should be 
cultivated on a dry soil." {Bot. Mag., Dec.) 

1980. ADE'SMIA. 

uspallat^nsis Gill. Uspallatan J* I pr 1 jl Y Chile 1832. C s.l Sw. fl. gar. 2. s. 222 

" It evidently varies a good deal in the number of its leaflets, and also in other minor points : 
circumstances which dispose us to hesitate in recognising as distinct species [the uspallaWnsis] 
the A. h6rrida and A. trijuga." (D. Don.) 

A slender, thorny, diminutive shrub, which is interesting in its branched 

spines ; in its abruptly pinnate leaves, whose leaflets are pretty in their small- 

ness ; in its rich, yellow, red-streaked, small, pea-shaped blossoms, which are 

produced in few-flowered terminal racemes ; and in its legumes, which, " when 

full grown, are particularly pretty, from the long feathery hairs with which they 

are adorned." A. uspallatensis is in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, where it has 

been raised from seeds obtained of Mr. Cuming. Uspallata is a plain abo.ut fifty 

miles long, and six broad, on the eastern Andes. ( The Brit. Flow. Gard., Jan.) 

1985. iUPPNUS. 

17717a incanus Grah. hoaxy-herbaged Ht \ l>r 3 jn.o Pa.Li Buenos Ayres ? 1832. S s.l Bot. mag. 3283 

" It approaches very near to L. multiflbrus of Encyc. Method, iii. 624." {Dr. Graham.) 

Described as " a very handsome species, raised by Mr. Neill from seeds of 
it sent by Mr. Tweedie of Buenos Ayres," and as flowering " freely in the 
green-house at Canonmills [Mr. NeilPs], in June, 1833." The leaves are 
figured of from seven to ten leaflets ; and the star formed by them, as rayedly 
arranged, is described as of " about 6 in. across." The raceme of flowers is 
" a foot and a half long." The flowers are not very large, but they are 
numerous ; the corollas are of a pale lilac colour : and these features, added 
to those of the hoariness of the plant's herbage and the graceful form of the 
leaflets, must render the species a very interesting one. (Bot. Mag., Dec.) 

iupinus, a species of, named, probably by Dr. Lindley, albifrons, is 
figured in the Botanical Register for January. It is only stated to be " a new 
shrubby Californian species, figured from the garden of the London Horticul- 
tural Society." A fuller account, it is promised, will be supplied in the next 
number. The figure exhibits a very pretty species. 

Mr. David Douglas, " in his first visit to the shores of the Columbia, 
detected no less than seventeen species of lupine; and several species 
have rewarded him on his second visit, as well as in California." (Dr. 
Hooker, Bot. Mag., Dec. 1833, t. 3283.) 

Vol. X. — No. 48. f 

66 Floriculhiral and Botanical Notices, 

XCVI. Hutdceee. 


gracilis Grah. graceful H-|_Jprl?jl? Li N.Holl. 1831. C p.l 

A " rather graceful little shrub, with pendulous, twiggy, very leafy branches;" 
leaf two lines long, fleshy, semicylindrical ; flowers ten lines across, terminal, 
solitary, freely produced. The whole herbage has a resinous perfume. E. gra- 
cilis is possessed by Mr. Cunningham, Comely Bank Nursery, Edinburgh. 
(Dr. Graham, in Jameson's Phil. Journ., January, 1834.) 

CXXIII. Oxalidece. O'xalis crenata (IX. 618.) will never answer for 
general culture. One of my plants was in flower as early as the middle of 
July. The plant is now 12 ft. in circumference : it was cut down, last week, 
with the frost. I put my spade under it, and did not perceive a tuber. I 
have taken up several plants that I struck from cuttings, and have found 
nothing but fibres. — J. D., sen. Waterbeach, near Cambridge, Oct. 17. 1833. 

Mr. D. Beaton, gardener to W. Gordon, Esq., of Haffield, near Ledbury, 
Herefordshire, in a letter to Dr. Hamilton, Plymouth, on Oct. 4., states that 
he has " ascertained that the succulent stems of the O. crenata are an excel 
lent substitute for rhubarb in tarts ; and agreeable, with full one third less of 
sugar than rhubarb requires, to the most fastidious palate." Also, that it, 
" when boiled with water till quite soft, and, after the water has been drained 
off) beaten up with new milk, makes an excellent dish for children, who, in 
general, appear very fond of it in that state." Mr. Beaton farther states that 
the herbage of O. crenata, which is produced in prodigious abundance in 
light deep soils, is a superior green fodder for cattle in summer. " Cows, 
horses, and pigs eat it with avidity, after it has been given them two or 
three times : cows do not acquire a relish for it so readily as the others. The 
more the plant is cut, the more it grows." 

Mr. Maund, in his Botanic Garden for January, has published a figure of 
O. crenata, and offers numerous remarks in relation to it. We quote some of 
them: — " Its stems are tender, succulent, and admirably suited to the pur- 
pose of yielding a grateful acidity to salads [as suggested in IX. 618.]; as well as 
forming a delicious tart, which,probably, no one but ourselves has tried." [Mr. 
Beaton has, as is shown above. See, also, in p. 87.] Our next quotation, in 
part, answers the question suggested by Dr. Hamilton, in IX. 618. : — " We 
have boiled the tubers, and find them to be quite as agreeable as the potato : 
so similar, that they may be eaten without the difference being observed. When 
roasted, they indicate a deficiency of farinaceous substance ; therefore, to give 
the comparison of nutritive matter contained in the potato and oxalis some 
decided shape, we have separated the starch and gluten from a like weight of 
each. We find that one avoirdupois ounce of oxalis produces 42 grains ; 
whilst 1 oz. of potato, similarly treated, produces 106 grains." Mr. Maund 
has tried various modes of cultivating the plant. In the course and issue of 
these, he has noticed that stems, allowed to recline on the earth, have emitted 
tubers from their under side; and that others, about which a little earth had 
been drawn, have produced an increased proportion of tubers. He has 
accordingly suggested that the mode of culture which will induce the greatest 
productiveness may consist in laying the stems, and covering them to a shal- 
low depth " with light rich mould, as they proceed in growth, leaving only, 
perhaps, 6 in. of the end of each shoot out of the soil; or, as no emission of 
tubers takes place till late in summer, the stems may remain spread out on 
the surface of the bed, in all directions, till about August ; and then receive 
a covering of 2 in. thick of light compost, nearly to the ends of the stems. . . . 
Every stem is capable of being made productive." Mr. Maund states that 
" Mr. Cameron has observed some of the tubers of O. crenata exposed to 
frosts ; notwithstanding which, they vegetated in the spring." 

CXXIX. Uneas. 
921. zrNTJM. 
412<z Cumingi B. C. Cuming's H i_J or | su Y Chile 1830. C p.l Bot. cab. 1996 

supplementary to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 67 

A pretty little plant, introduced by Mr. Cuming. Its brilliant flowers are 
produced during nearly the whole of the summer. It requires the green- 
house. (Bot. Cah, Dec.) Messes. Loddiges, doubtless, possess the plant: 
Mr. Dennis does also. 

CXXXL PassiflbrecB. 

1923. PASSIFLO'RA. % Decaloba Dec 

kermesina Lk. # 0. crimson {sepals and petals) |_ EI spl 20 all sea C ... 1831. L r.l Bot. reg. 1633 

" Brought from the Berlin Botanic Garden, to the London Horticultural 
Society's Garden, by Mr. Bentham, in the autumn of 1831 ; and it has been 
almost ever since in ilower. It is, beyond all comparison, the most beautiful 
species in cultivation, except P. racemosa. Its flowers have a richness of 
colour which art cannot imitate ; they are produced in very great abundance, 
at almost all seasons.; and, in consequence of the length of the slender stalks 
from which they singly hang, the whole plant has a graceful aspect, which is 
unrivalled even among passion-flowers. Unfortunately, it is propagated with 
considerable difficulty, no part of the stem, striking from cuttings except what 
is very woody and completely formed; and this, which is always at the bot- 
tom of the stem, can scarcely be procured without cutting down the whole 
plant. Requires a hot and damp stove." ( Bot. Reg., Dec.) The leaves are 
three-lobed, green above, of a wine colour beneath. 

PASSIFLO'RA. \ Dysosmia flc." [Sot. re g. 1634 

.gossypiii'ulia Desv. Cotton-tree-lfd. fl_ E] cu 8 au W W. Indies, Mexico, Lima lb31. C r.l 
.Synonyme: " P. £ibiscifblia Dec. Prod. iii. 331. " (Lindley.) 

A herbaceous perennial species, requiring the stove in Britain. Its flowers 
(white) are not showy or very large ; and its leaves not striking, but illustrate 
the planf s specific name, in showing a resemblance to those of the cotton 
tree. The green-stalked glands of its leaf-stalks, and of its airy pinnate 
Involucres, are beautiful objects. [Bot.^Reg., Dec.) 

By misapprehension or oversight, ail the species of Passifl&ra, MurucMa, and Tacsbnia, in Hort. 
Brit, p. 269, 270., are marked as evergreen twiners (£_) : none of them entwine, all climb and 
are evergreen (jj_). 

CXLVI. Galacmea;.. 

fS887d ram&sa D. Don branched-?ra/?er. jg _A1 er 2| jlau W Chile 1831. S p.l Sw.fl.gar.2.s.223 

This pretty species is figured from Mr. Knight's nursery, Chelsea. Its 
white flowers are smaller than those of F. appendiculata, which are of a pink 
colour ; but they are, perhaps, more numerous, and the branched inflorescence 
presents them more amassed. F. ramdsa grows abundantly on the hills near 
Valparaiso, in Chile. In Britain it thrives in a mixture of sandy peat and 
loam, and perfects an abundance of seeds. (The British Flower-Garden, 

Of F. appendiculata, Dr. Lindley has published a figure in the Bot. Reg... 
for Jan., and pronounces this and F. sonchifolia to be identical ; and states 
that " F. ramosa would have but slender claims to being preserved [in the rank 
of a species], if it were not for the absence of pubescence from its inflo- 


CLXX. J&ricetR. 

1341. ANDRO'MEDX [L s..p Bot. mag. 3285 

f 11044 ialicifolia Commerson Willow-lfd. BH_J.or 3? my P.Gsh Mauritius, Madagascar 1828? 

Hitherto we possess only figures [of this species] made from native specimens." (Dr. Hooker.) If 

this be the fact, A. .salicifolia Wat., of Hort. Brit. No. 11044., is a distinct species or variety. 

\ That this latter is a distinct species is probable from Mr. Sweet's referring it to the genus 

L-ybnia. See his Hort. Brit., ed. 2. p. 331. 

Introduced, from the woods of the Mauritius, by the late Mr. Telfair, into 
the garden of the late Robert Barclay, Esq. ; and thence to the Birmingham 
Botanic Garden. The flowers borne by the specimen received by Dr. 
Hooker, in May, 1833, were of a greenish hue, "partaking little of the fine 
purple so remarkable in drawings from living native specimens." The species 
in Britain " needs the protection of a warm green-house." The flowers are 

f 2 

68 Floricultural and Botanical Notices^ 

produced in terminal and lateral racemes. The glabrous lance-shaped leaves 
are white beneath. (Bot. Mag., Dec.) 
CLXXIV. Campannlacece. 

611a PETROMA'RULA Pers. 8; A. Dec. {Petra, a rock, maron.m herb; habitat.) 5. 1. Sp. 1.— 

5172 pinnata Pers. winged-//rf. £ .AJ or 3 au Pa.B Candia 1640. D r.l Sw.fl.gar.2.s.l24 
Phyteuma pinnatum W. 'and others ; Hort. Brit. No. 5172. 

This very rare and very interesting species is figured from Messrs. Young's 
nursery, Epsom ; where, under the judicious and skilful treatment of Mr. 
Penny, " planted in the open ground in May, in rich loamy soil, it grew 
vigorously, and threw up from 40 to 50 stems, which began to blossom 
towards the end of August." P. pinnata " is frequent on the rocky shores 
and mountainous parts of Candia, and also on Mount Baldo in Italy." A 
consideration of the probable circumstances of these localities may explain 
" the great difficulty attending the cultivation of the plant in this moist cli- 
mate," and may suggest means to surmount the difficulty. " In Britain it 
requires, in winter, the protection of a frame or green-house. It may be 
increased slowly by division." (The British Flower-Garden, Jan.) 

CLXXV. Lobeliacese. 

609. LOBE^LT^ 5113. puberula. 

2 glabella Hook, smoothish-herbaged & A or 3 B.P Louisiana 1832. DJp.l Bot. mag. 3292 

" This is a highly interesting addition to our garden lobelias, and was intro- 
duced last year by Mr. Drummond, who sent the seeds from Jacksonville in 
Louisiana," we suppose to the Glasgow Botanic Garden. " Its nearest affinity 
is perhaps with L. syphilitica, but its inflorescence is less dense and vastly 
more elongated [1 ft. long], its flowers smaller, of a brighter colour. . . . 
Corolla bright purplish blue." (Bot. Mag., Jan.) 

odorata Grah. fragrant-Jlwd. !U lAI fra I aut W Buenos Ayres ? 1832. D p.l 

It possesses but little beauty, beyond that of a lively green tuft of herbage : 
its perfume, which resembles that of the blossoms of the hawthorn, is remark- 
able in the genus. Mr. Neill of Canonmills has raised the plant from seeds 
sent to him by Mr. Tweedie. (Dr. Graham, in Jameson's Phil. Journal, 
January, 1834.) 

CLXXXVI. Composites. 

2337. ^'STER 21309 punlceus. 

2 demissus Lindl. dwarf ^ A or 2 au B English gardens 1820 ? D co Bot. reg. 1636 

" It is a very compact herbaceous plant, not exceeding 1J or 2 ft. in height, 
with very pale green leaves, and a corymbose inflorescence comprehending 
masses of bluish flowers, which appear in August, long before those of the 
true A. puniceus. It is among the handsomest of the genus." It is in the 
London Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the Liverpool Botanic Garden. 
(Bot. Reg., the figure in December, the text in January.) 

2409. HELTA'NTHUS. Subgenus Leighza Cass. 

specibsus Hook, showy-inflor. O or 5 s.n R Jorullo ? 1833. S co Bot. mag. 3295 

Dr. Hooker, who has named the plant as above, is not certain of its affi- 
nities ; he suspects that it may be a species of Tithdm'a. It is, apparently, 
a very ornamental, and, therefore, very desirable plant. To Mr. Edward 
Leeds of Manchester, who has lately commenced business there as a nursery- 
man and florist, W. Higson, Esq., of Manchester, sent a packet of seeds from 
the Botanic Garden, Mexico. From them have arisen, under Mr. Leeds's 
care, several species of plants not known in the neighbourhood of Man- 
chester. Among them, from seeds labelled " Composita speciosa," arose the 
plant figured, and named by Dr. Hooker Helianthus speciosus. " Only one 
seed vegetated ;" consequently, only one plant has flowered, and this " an unfor- 
tunately early frost has cut completely off:" therefore the plant is, very pro- 
bably, lost to the country. It appears that it is an annual, large, bushy, and 
in outline conical, with large leaves, the earlier and lower undivided, the later 
and upper deeply divided, and three-lobed. The head of florets (the flower) is, 
by the picture, about 3 in. across, and the rays of a red or orange red colour 

supplementary to E?icyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 69 

" The first head of flowers (flower) which appeared was at the termination of 
the main branch, and quite erect, and afterwards each lateral branch threw out 
a flower at its extremity, rather in a horizontal direction, the end of the flower- 
stalk inclining upwards." (Bot. Mag., Jan.) 

Cephalophora glauca Cav. — I would recommend this annual to attention, 
not for the beauty of its flowers, for they have no conspicuous beauty, but for 
the delightful fragrance of its herbage : it resembles that of a ripe melon. 
The whole plant is, even its seeds are, fragrant; and a little of it put amongst 
clothes gives them a most agreeable perfuine. I would have this generally 
known, that the plant, which, though not showy in its flowers, is an interesting 
one, may be more generally cultivated. It requires no particular treatment : 
raise it on a hot-bed in spring, and plant it out when up. — G. M. Elliott. Caul, 
Sept. 18. 1833. 

CXCI. Corner Dec. Benthaim'a fragifera. (IX. 367.) Mr. John Roberts, 
gardener to J. H. Tremayne, Esq., of Heligan, St. Austle, Cornwall, most 
kindly sent us, on Dec. 26. 1833., specimens, bearing ripe fruit, leaves, and 
flower-buds, of this newly "introduced and highly interesting hardy evergreen 
shrub. Mr. Roberts is the person who has the happiness to be the first who 
raised this plant ; with whom it flowered for the first time in Europe, and who 
supplied the specimens from which the drawing published in the Botanical 
Register was taken. His plant of Benthamia fragifera is 16 ft. in height and 
covered with fruit. It has been out in the open ground for eight years, with- 
out any protection, not even a mat. It is planted in stiff* clay, and at a great 
elevation. The forward state of the flower -buds on the specimens, suggest 
that the flowers of the plant are displayed early in the year ; though, we pre- 
sume, not so early as those of the Cornus mascula: the leaves of Benthamia 
fragifera resemble, a good deal, those of the C. mascula; but are, we think, 
more elegant. The involucral leaves, which first defend, and then garnish, 
the heads of flowers, are large and showy; as is evinced in some dried spe- 
cimens which one of Mr. Roberts's assistants had given him to send us. The 
heads of ripened fruit are orbicular, depressed, more than 1 in. across, of 
a tawny red, and on a peduncle 3 in. long. A bush studded with these, partly 
pendulous by their weight, and abounding in its neat green glossy leaves, must 
be, in a bright autumn day, a very lovely object. We have distributed the 
seeds, obtained from the fruits sent by Mr. Roberts, to botanic gardens and 
nurseries. The shrub, it is stated in the FloricuUural Cabinet, may be increased 
by cuttings, planted in loam under a hand-glass. 

CXCV. Asclepiddese. 

775. MARSDEW.4. 

flavescens Cun. yellowish-,/Zwd. $_ □ fra ? 20 ? Ysh N. Holl. 1830 ? C s.l Bot. mag. 3289 
Nearly allied to M. viridiflbra Br. 

Discovered by Mr. Allan Cunningham on the sea-shore at the Illawana 

district, in lat. 34^°, New Holland, whence he introduced living plants of it to 

Kew, where they flower throughout the summer months. The figure exhibits 

a twining branch, which bears opposite petiolate lanceolate leaves waved at 

their margin, and stalked axillary cymes of green flowers whose corollas are 

wheel-shaped. (Bot. Mag., Dec.) 

778. CEROPE v GIA. 

Lush« Grah. Dr. Lush's Jfc E3 cu 8 ? s Lead Bombay 1833. O pi 

Leaves lanceolate-linear, on short petioles; peduncles axillary, cymose; 
corolla | in. long, leaden-coloured, and glabrous on the outside, deep purple, 
and slightly hairy within. This plant flowered in a stove in the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, in September, 1833. Dr. Graham received it, in February, 
1833, from his " friend, Dr. Lush of Bombay." (Dr. Graham, in Jameson's 
Phil. Journ., January, 1834.) 

CXCVII. Gentihneas. 

464. VILLA'RS/^. „ , „ , .„„, 

chiUnsis B. C. Chilian =*= _AJ or 1 jn Pa.Y Chile 1832? D r.l Bot. cab. 1994 

F 3 

70 Floriciiltural and Botanical Notices, 

" Has been very lately introduced. . . . The flowers are very pretty, and 
open a few at a time, in succession, each lasting but a short while." (Bot. 
Cab., Dec.) 

CC. IPolevionidcece. 

459. G11.1A. « Ipomopsis. 

aggregata D. Don txtfteA-inflar. £Sor3jl S N.W. America 1822. SanJG s.I,gai\2.s.21S 
G. aggregata D. Don in Eilinb. Phil. Journ., 1322 ; Cdntua aggregata Ph. ; Gilifl pufchiHIa Dou. ; 

Ipomopsis elegans Lindl. 
This is the plant noticed by the name of G. pulchella in IX. 705. : G. aggregata is the name 

which proves to have been anteriorly applied. 

" When G. aggregata is in blossom, few plants of this family surpass it in 
beauty. It is very nearly related to G. coronopifolia, but they are botanically 
distinguishable. G. aggregata is figured from Mr. Knight's collection. (Brit. 
Floiu. Garden., Dec.) 

CCIX. Gesneress. 

1698. GE'SNER.4. (Dr. Lindley has thus spelled the word. Gesn&na is more usual; but, perhaps, 

not so proper.) 
15332a Sutton j Booth Capt. Sutton's &E)or2jl S Rio Janeiro 1833. C r.l Bot. reg. 1637 

" Introduced by Captain Sutton, who found it growing in a wood ; its 
beautiful flowers attracted his attention, and induced him to dig up the plant 
and bring it home. On his arrival in England, in March, 1833, he presented 
the choice collection which he had formed of orchideous and other interesting 
plants, to Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., and Geo. Crocker Fox, Esq., Grove Hill, 
Falmouth ; in the garden of the latter, G. Suttoni flowered in July, under the 
judicious management of Mr. Friend. It bears some resemblance to G. bulbosa, 
but is evidently distinct from that species, differing from it in foliage, and its 
flowers are larger, and have a broader outstretched upper lip." ( Wm. Beattie 
Booth, A.L.S., who has described, drawn, and named the giant, as published 
in the Bot. Reg., Dec): 

CCXVII. Big?ionvdceas. Bignonia venusta. Of this superb climber two most 
striking specimens, abounding in clusters of brilliant orange-coloured tubular 
blossoms, 2iin. long, were sent us on Jan. 2. 1834, from the stove of Robert 
Trevor, Esq. of Tingrith, near Woburn, by his excellent gardener, Mr. George 
Phillips. This charming plant was first figured in the Botanical Register for 
Jan. 1818, Hi. 249., and from a plant which had flowered in Lord Liverpool's 
residence at Coombe Wood. At the date mentioned the plant was also in 
the nursery of Messrs. Whitley and Co., Fulham, and that of Mr. Colvill, 
Chelsea. Now it is, we trust, more common ; for its ready growth, and 
extreme beauty when in blossom, render it, at least one of, the most desirable 
of stove climbing plants. We have been favoured by Mr, Phillips with the 
following facts on his practice in the culture of it : — 

" B. venusta appears to like free scope for its roots. We have here two 
flowering plants, which are planted in the back corners of the bark bed, in 
boxes 1 ft. square and 5 ft. deep, formed of perforated boards, and filled with 
a mixture of sandy loam and leaf mould. The roots have passed out of the 
boxes into the decayed bark of the bark bed, in which there is always a gentle 
heat, and in which they grow and spread very freely. We water liberally with 
the drainings from the hot-beds and rain water. The plants are trained per- 
pendicular with a single stem, now 3 in. in girth, to the points where they 
touch the rafter; and to this point the branches, when they have done 
flowering, are always cut back, while at the same time the bark bed is reno- 
vated and the roots reduced. When the grape vines are in this house we 
train the bignonia along two wires close under the rafters, over the path, a foot 
from the glass. When the grape vines are taken, out we lead the shoots of 
the bignonia down the rafters ; and, in its flowering season, it may be said to 
cover the whole house; and it has a most splendid appearance. In 1831, 
1832, the B. venusta began flowering on Oct. 3. ; in 1833, two or three weeks 
later. It continues blossoming between three and four months, and some of 
the finest specimens have upwards of 70 flowers in a corymb. A branch 
introduced into the green-house has flowered sparingly. Cuttings of the young 
shoots when about 9 in. long will strike root freely in a hot-bed," 

supplementary to JLncyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 71 

CCXX. Verbenacece. 

1749. FERBE^NA. 

sulphurea D. Don saiphureous-corollaed SUA] or 1 au Su Chile 1832. C s.l Sw.fl.gar.2.s.221 
" Nearly related to V. crithmoides and radlcans of Gillies and Hooker." 

Stems many, procumbent. Leaves deeply pinnatifid. Flowers of a sulphur 
colour, larger than those of V. multifida, thickly arranged in a capitate spike. 
V. sulphurea is figured from the collection of W. Christy, jun., Esq., Clapham ; 
in whose collection it flowered in August, 1833. The plant is, apparently, 
perennial, and forms a close spreading patch. It appears to prefer a loamy 
soil, and grows luxuriantly in the open border during summer, but requires 
the protection of a pit or frame in winter. Cuttings of it root very readily. 
(The British Flower-Garden, Jan.) 


CCXXXII. CommeUnevd. 


8189a pilbsa Leh. hairy-herbaged ^ A cu 2| aut B.P Louisiana 1832. D co Bot. mag. 3291 

This is closely related to T. virginica and T. subaspera, " from both of 
which it differs in the extremely hairy leaves and flower-stalk, and calyxes, 
and in the smaller flowers ; and from T. virginica var. pildsa Lindl. by the 
very hairy (not simply ciliated) and vastly broader and shorter foliage. From 
Dr. Lehman's T. pilosa it only seems to depart in the absence of glands on 
the pedicels and calyx." The flowers are " numerous, produced in ter- 
minal umbels from the axils of two opposite bracteas. The petals, filaments, 
and hairs of the filaments, are of a bright purplish blue ; anthers yellow." 
Sent by Mr. Drummond to the Glasgow Botanic Garden. ( Bot. Mag., Jan.) 

CCXXXVIII. Amarylh'deie. 


79i6« kermeslna Booth caxmme-perianthcd tf ES'or 1 ... Car Brazil 1833. CTl.p.s Bot. reg. 1638 
Synonyme. It appears to rank next to A. &dvena Bot. Reg. t. 1125. fig. 1., and A. intermedia 
Bot. Beg. t. 1148. ; but is perfectly distinct from both, and, indeed, from any species with which 
we are acquainted. {W. B. Booth.) 

A beautiful species, introduced by Lieut. Holland of the Royal Marines, 
Miss Street of Penryn, to whom Lieut. Holland presented bulbs of it, pos- 
sesses the plant from which the figure and description have been derived. 
Herbage glaucous; scape about 1ft. high; flowers pediceled, 3 or 4 in the 
umbel; perianthium suberect, about 2\ in. long, funnel-shaped, slightly bell- 
shaped, of a deep carmine colour, marked with darker veins. The figure and 
description are communicated by Mr. W. B. Booth. (Bot. Beg., Jan.) 


versicolor iJ. % P. various.cld. {sepals) & Alspl2jn Chile 1831. D l.p Sw.fl.gar.2 s.20i 
\ aurantlaca D. Don, Gard. Mag. ix. 622. 

On this synonymy, Mr. D. Don has offered this remark in the British Floiver-Garden for Dec. 
i 1833, at foot of t. 220. : — " We are now satisfied of our A. aurantlaca being identical with A. 
versicolor of Ruiz and Pavon ; which name must [as it is of earlier date], therefore, supe"sede* 
that which we have applied." 

CCXXXIX. IridecB. 

148. LIBE'RT/^ Spr. (Mademoiselle M. A. Libert de Malmedy, a Belgian ; " femme ve"ritablememV 
savante et modeste," to whom the French flora is indebted for a great number of new and 
interesting species.) 16. 1. Sp. 4. — 
Synonymes. This genus was separated from Sisyrinchium by Dr. Brown, who gave to it the name 
of Renealmz'a : a name applied by Linnaeus, but subsequently suppressed by Smith, to some or 
all of the species of the modern genus Alpinia ; but as the genus Renealmz'a has been restored, 
upon good grounds, by Roscoe, it becomes necessary to adopt, from Sprengel, the appellation 
JAb&xtia for the genus of Brown, which is a most natural one. The Libertz'fl of Dumortier is 
H6sto of Trattinick, and Funkz'a of Sprengel ; and Libe>t?'fl of Lejeune scarcely appears dif- 
ferent from Brown's [? from i?romus]. (Dr. Hooker, Bot. Mag. 3294.) 
Libertz'a Spr., Rene&lmz'a R. Br., Na»matostigma Dietrich. The Libertza of Lejeune, or Mi- 
ch elaria of Dumortier, is considered, with good reason, to be a j?r&mus. (Dr.Lindley, Bot. 
Reg. 1630.) 
+1368 grandiflbra R. Br. large-flowered £ A] or U an W N. Zeal. 1822. D p.l Sw.fl.gar.2.s.6* 

[Bot. mag. 3294 
1368a formosa Grah. handsome j£ Al or 1§ my W Chiloe 1831. D p.l Bot. reg. 1630 

+1369 paniculata R. Br. panicled £ .A) or 1| W N. Holl. 1823. D p.l 

' +1370 pulchella R. Br. pretty £ _AI or 1 ap.jl W N. Holl. 1823. Dpi 

That distinguished collector of plants, and other productions of nature, 
Mr. James Anderson, found Libertia formosa in Chiloe, and growing on the 

F 4 

72 Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 

sea-shore within reach of the waves. He communicated seeds of it to 
Mr. Low of the Clapton Nursery, from which have arisen the plants figured. 
The picture in the Bot. Reg. is from a plant which flowered in Mr. Low's 
nursery ; that in the Bot. Mag. from a plant which has " flowered beautifully 
in Mr. Cunningham's nursery, at Comely Bank, Edinburgh." The leaves are 
linear, sword-shaped, and nearly all radical. The stem, unbranched, has its 
lower part garnished with about three leaves, and is terminated by a head of 
white flowers. The flower resembles that of the TradescanU'a virginica nivea, 
but is obviously smaller. The plant's " rootstocks form a number of crowns 
by which it may be propagated, and it will probably ripen seeds in the green- 
house." We have ventured to prescribe the frame as the fitter habitation. 
(Bot. Reg., Dec. 1833 ; Bot. Mag., Jan. 1834.) 

CCXL. OrcUdece. 

CY'CNOCHES Lindl. [Not explained, but probably from kyknos, a swan, which the flower may 
be fancied to resemble.] [Bot. cab. 2000 

Loddigfesw Lindl. Loddiges's £ £2 or 1 my Surinam. 1830. D p.moss.potsh. 

This plant produces very extraordinary flowers. " Dr. Lindley has given it 

the above name, and has published it in his excellent work the Genera and 

Species of Orchideous Plants." Messrs. Loddiges received the plant from 

Mr. Lance. They " have preserved it in the stove planted in moss and 

broken bits of pot, and suspended from a rafter ; but it has not yet increased." 

(Bot. Cab., Dec.) 

2524. CIRRH^A. [Bot. cab. 1999 

Warrearca B. C. Mr. Warre's £ 23 or * ... Y.var Brazil 1831 ? D p.moss.potsh 

Discovered by Mr. Warre, who communicated it to Messrs. Loddiges. " It 
bears a strong resemblance to the other species. They are all highly in- 
teresting and curious plants, well deserving every possible care in cultivation. 
Like the others, it will admit of occasional increase by separating its offsets." 
(Bot. Cab., Dec.) 

CYRTOCHPLUM H. 8f Kth. (Kyrtos, convex, cheilos, a lip ; form of the labellum.) 20. 1. 

flavescens Lindl. straw-cld.-./Zwo'. ^E3 orl jn Mexico 1830. D p.r.w Bot. reg. 1627 

The handsome flowers, borne in a raceme, have yellow sepals and petals, 
and a labellum yellow, spotted with red. " It is interesting not only for its 
beauty, but also as being the first species of the genus which has yet blos- 
somed in Europe. Its flowers, like those of the other species, turn yellow in 
drying. Possessed by R. Harrison, Esq., of Aigburgh. It was imported by 
Mi*. Tate. (Bot. Reg., figure in November ; text in December.) 

CCXL VII. AsphodelecB. 

3338. HESPEROSCO'RDUM Lindl. (Hesperos, the west, skordon, garlic ; a native of the western 

world, and allied to the genus .4'llium or Garlic.) 6. 1. Sp. 2. — 
28178a lacteum Lindl. white-perianthed. tf A pr H jl W California 1833. O co Bot. reg. 1639 

H. lacteum has " very much the aspect of some white-flowered allium. 
Mr. Douglas, who found it in California, sent thence bulbs (cormi) of it to the 
London Horticultural Society, in whose garden it flowered, for the first time 
in Europe, in July, 1833. It seems to grow freely in any sort of soil, and 
will probably thrive if left to its fate in the open border all winter." 
H. lacteum is very like the H. hyacinthinam, from which it differs in having 
smaller flowers ; and especially in these being disposed in a less compact 
umbel, with the stalks (pedicels) rather more than twice as long as the flowers 
themselves. (Bot. Reg. Jan.) 

CCLVI. Kroidece. 

331a ANTHXTRIUM Schott fy Endlicher. (Anihos, a flower, oura, a tail ; the floriferous spadix 

tail-shaped.) 4. 1. 
" Messrs. Schott and Endlicher have lately, in a very elaborate memoir, separated (and, we think, 
rightly) the American plants usually referred to Pathos from that genus, and have given them 
the new name of Anthfirium. The type of the genus Pdthos, in the acceptation of these learned 
botanists, is the P. scandens Bot. Reg. 1337." {Lindley.) 

[Bot. reg. 1635 
+2784 gracile Lindl. slender-spadixed £ !2S cu f my.jn. G Trinidad, Demerara 1825. Sk s.p 
Pbthos gracilis Rudge, Hort. Brit., No. 2784. 

It has little beauty when in flower ; but its spikes of crimson berries give 
it a pretty appearance when in fruit. It requires a treatment similar to that 
of epiphytal orchideous plants. (Bot. Reg., Dec.) 

Retrospective Criticism. 73 

Calddium pinnatifidum. The flowers of certain species of Jroideae have been 
found to disengage heat in the course of their flowering ; and in Jameson's 
Phil. Journ. for January, 1834, there is a statement of the degrees of heat 
which Dr. Schultz has observed the flowers of Calddium pinnatifidum, as pro- 
duced in a hot-house in the Berlin Botanic Garden, to evolve. The flowers 
of a spadix blossom and decay " in the space of about twelve hours, and are in 
their greatest perfection between 8 and 10 in the evening." Dr. Schultz did 
not, previously to 5 o'clock, afternoon, find the flowers of a spadix evince a 
greater temperature than that of the place in which they were kept : this was 
6 1"2° Fahr. " At about 6 o'clock the flower, which had been previously without 
any smell, gave out a very powerful odour, and indicated, on trial, 65" 1°; at 
7 o'clock, 70-2°; at 8 o'clock, 74'7°; at half past 8, 76°; at 9, 78°; at 
10 o'clock, 81°; and this last appeared to be the greatest height, since there 
seemed to be no farther increase up to 1 1 o'clock. During the increase in 
temperature evinced by the flowers, the disengagement of the odour likewise 
increased. This became so powerful that the place was impregnated with an 
ammoniacal vapour. In the morning the temperature of the flowers had fallen 
to the temperature of the air," which, it is inferable from the absence of a 
mention to the contrary, had remained uniform throughout the period named. 

Art. V. Retrospective Criticism. 

Corrections. — In IX. 672. line 2. for " salicifolia," read " salicariaefolia." 

Corrections to the Encyclopedia of Gardening, new edition. — The only cor- 
rections which we have yet (December 20.) received are the following, by 
the much esteemed and venerable President of the Horticultural Society, who 
may be truly called the father of scientific gardening in England. We esteem 
it an honour to ourselves, and a great advantage to our readers, that our 
Encyclopaedia has received corrections from such a quarter : we are sincerely 
grateful for them, and ardently hope that they will be continued by the same 
excellent authority as the work proceeds. Mr. Knight's corrections to Part I. 
are as follows : — 

§ 9. and § 46. There is no direct mention whatever, I think, in the older 
of the Homeric poems [the Iliad] of gardens ; but the vine and the fig were 
then raised, and, I conclude, cultivated in enclosures; for wild animals and 
birds must have been vastly more numerous in those days than in our own. 
There are parts in that poem which prove that the author, and probably his 
countrymen, had not been wholly inattentive to the vegetable kingdom. One 
of these only I shall now mention. Homer applies the epithet " seed- 
destroying " to an aquatic tree thrown down by the Scamander. I think there 
can be no doubt of its being a male poplar or male willow. As malleable 
iron was wholly unknown at the period when the older Homeric poem was 
composed, and as it appears to have been well known when the Bible was 
written (I mean the earlier parts of it), there appears much probability of 
the Iliad being the older. 

§ 12. The common gardener will here suppose our sycamore to be meant, 
and not the fig mulberry, .Ficus *Syc6morus L. 

§ 14. The peach tree was not introduced into Egypt till long after the 
Augustan age. The " Persaea " of Pliny (the tree alluded to in your para- 
graph) was a totally different species of fruit ; and none now exists which 
corresponds with Pliny's description. The edible part of the fruit described 
by Pliny appears, I think (I speak from memory only), to be enclosed in a 
kind of shell; and he speaks of its excessive sweetness, "praedulcis suavitas." 

§ 15. Irrigation is, I think, mentioned in the Iliad. A peasant is described 
conducting a rill of water to irrigate his ground, or garden, which I suppose it 
to have probably been. 

§ 88. I pointed out to Sir Joseph Banks, as he has stated, the lines in 

74 lletrospective Criticism. 

Martial, which he and I conceived to prove that the Romans possessed hot- 
houses. Martial says, that winter was commanded to bear the fruits of autumn. 

" Autumnum sterilis ferre jubetur Hyems," 

are, I think, his words, but I quote from memory only ; and fruits could not 
possibly be ripened in Rome during winter without fire heat; and, as the 
Romans heated their houses with flues, the advantage of applying those flues 
to their fruit houses could never have escaped them. 

The most important information which you will, I think, be able to give to 
the modern gardener respects the chemical changes which take place in the 
sap of trees, and the motions of the sap at different periods of the year. That 
it descends in our trees through the bark (I exclude the palm tribe generally), 
from the leaves, cannot be questioned ; nor that it ascends through the albur- 
num into the leaf: but that a portion of the fluid, which has become true sap 
in the leaves, passes from the bark into the alburnum, and there joins the 
ascending current, and feeds the young shoots and leaves, is not generally 
understood by gardeners ; nor that the fruit is fed by similar means ; nor that 
the sap is deposited in the alburnum, to afford materials for leaves, or to feed 
the blossoms and young fruit of the succeeding spring. The coagulum which 
gives the matter of the new layer of bark in the spring is derived from the 
same source, though the arrangement of the vessels and fibrous texture of the 
bark is given by the fluid which descends by the bark. I remain, dear Sir, &c. 
— T. A. Knight. Downton, Dec. 17. 1833. 

Analysis of Soils. — In one of Mr. Johnson's communications on horticul- 
tural chemistry (V. 404.), directions are laid down for the analysis of soils, 
with so much clearness and simplicity, that I am hopeful that the day is not 
far distant when every gardener, who deserves the name, will be able to 
analyse soils for himself, and scrutinise every improvement in then* manage- 
ment with the discriminating eye of a philosopher. There is, however, a slip 
of the pen, or of the types, in the description of the process ; which, though 
it cannot cause inconvenience to those skilled in chemistry, may prove to the 
tyro a considerable impediment. In soils where iron is present, it may, as the 
author of the paper directs, be separated from the other ingredients by dis- 
solution in muriatic acid. Into this solution we are directed to drop gradually 
" a solution of prussiate of iron." Instead of the latter substance, prussiate 
of potass is, I apprehend, meant. The prussiate or hydrocyanate of iron is 
the precipitated, not the precipitating, salt. Having followed with complete 
success the plain rules laid down in this paper for the analysis of soils, I 
recommend them to those of my professional brethren who may be disposed 
to enter on such investigations. — Ephehicus Horticultor. Nov. 1. 1833. 

Fountains for the London Squares. (IX. 539.) — No one launches out ever 
so little in print, but he finds the small fry of the Aristarchus tribe ready at 
their post to give their veto, or their fiat, to whatever even the humblest may 
assay. My London-square fountains have come in for their share ; and, among 
the sapient remarks directed against their adoption, none, I think you will say, 
are more amusing than the objection made against them from the ducking His 
Majesty's liege subjects must inevitably get, if they walk on the weather side 
of one of my 60 ft. jets in a windy day. If a man were to build a villa proxi- 
mate to the Falls of Niagara, one might truly say, that, under the favour of 
a brisk wind, he might find himself rather oftener than he liked in a Scotch 
mist ; but to suppose that any thing short of a hurricane would throw a jet of 
water 60 ft. in height, and of proportionate diameter, more than its own 
elevation in a lateral direction, looks very like the suggestion of one of the 
wise men of Gotham ; and, if blowing a hurricane, why need the jet play at all ? 
The same art that bids it rise triumphant into air can bid it sleep; and 
therefore, as far as that goes, I must think, " cadunt quaestio et argumentum'* 
[the question and argument both fall]. — William Mason,jun. Necton, Nor- 
folk, Nov. 1833. 

Mr Ballard's Treatise on the Nature of Trees, and the Pruning of Timber 

Retrospective Criticism. 75 

Trees, reviewed in Vol. IX. p. 687. — Sir, J. M., in his review of this work, 
states that the author is " chargeable with misrepresentation, for asserting that 
the sole object of the forest pruner is to obtain bulk of stem." He then states 
that " length of stem and clearness from knots, whether dead or alive, con- 
stitute the strength and value of timber ;" and infers that these qualities 
cannot be obtained without the aid of the pruner. Now, in no part of the 
Treatise is it asserted that the primer's sole object is to obtain bulk of stem ; 
and in chap. iv. is the following sentence : — " The pruning of timber trees 
may be said to have for its object, first, to advance the growth and bulk of 
trees; secondly, to improve their form; and, thirdly, to improve the quality of 
the timber." Each of these objects is treated of in a separate chapter. I 
leave you, therefore, to decide whether it is I or J. M. that has been guilty 
of misrepresentation. 

J. M. states that " it is well known that the oak sheds its sprays, and the 
larch many of its lower branches." This wonderful and admirable provision 
of nature may be well known, but I have never seen any account of it, 
except in my own Treatise. J. M. considers the natural shedding of sprays 
an argument in favour of pruning ; I would ask him if, because trees shed their 
leaves, he would consider this an argument in favour of taking their leaves 
off? Leaves are not shed until they have performed the functions for which 
they were designed ; neither are sprays shed so long as there is sufficient 
space for their growth : nothing is lost through having the parts shed pre- 
maturely ; for, in the works of nature, when the intended effect is produced, 
the cause is withdrawn. Yet some men will rely on their own judgment, in 
preference to the unerring rules of nature. 

I cannot agree with J. M. in his notion, that the oak, beech, &c, if permitted 
to stand alone without the aid of pruning, would only form vast bushes, 
wholly worthless to the builder. A very little observation of the nature and 
growth of trees will lead to a different opinion. 

As J. M. states that length of stem and clearness from knots constitute the 
value of timber, perhaps the following extracts from my Treatise may give a 
hint how timber possessing these qualities may be procured : — " Some imagine 
that whenever a stem is free from branches it is owing to pruning, or to the 
browsing of cattle ; but this is not the case, it is natural to a timber tree, be 
its situation what it may, to have a certain portion of its stem clear of 
branches. . . .There are no pruners in the uncultivated forests, whence we 
have the long pines and deals imported, with often 30 ft. or 40 ft. clear stem 
before the branches begin. These trees have grown without the assistance of 
the pruner ; and they have shed boughs that were far above the reach of 
cattle. These forests clearly prove that trees have the power of shedding such 
sprays as are useless or unnecessary ; for a tree could not reach the height 
of 30 ft. or 40 ft. without a great number of branches. It must have branches 
when but 1 ft. or 2 ft. high ; the number and size of these branches must 
increase, as the tree increases in height ; and a tree 30 ft. in height must 
have a great number of branches ; yet we have the stems of trees 30 ft. high 
without a single branch. How do the advocates for pruning reconcile this to 
their philosophy ? Will they assert that the stem is stretched, or protruded ; 
so that the boughs, first situated near the ground, are, by the growth and 
lengthening of the stem, lifted up farther from the earth ? This they cannot 
say ; yet they will have great reluctance in admitting the existence of this 
natural shedding of sprays ; for no person who well understands the subject 
will ever prune under the idea of improving the shape or increasing the 
quantity of timber. . . .It is impossible that a tree can be thrifty with a long 
stem, without lower boughs, in an open and exposed situation. It is equally 
impossible that a tree can, when closely surrounded by others, as it would be 
in a grove, have large and long spreading lower boughs, and a short strong 
stem. If we want long-stemmed timber, we must have it from the grove 
or wood ; if short and large, we shall find it in the detached and exposed tree. 
The pruner never can, with all his imaginary skill, procure, from the detached 

76 Retrospective Criticism. 

and exposed tree, timber long-stemmed and free from knots, as from a grove ; 
neither can he from the thickly planted grove obtain short and strong stems. 
In spite of all his endeavours, trees will persist in trying to suit their shapes to 
their situations. There would be some little more reason in the attempts of 
men to direct the growth of trees, were they by any means to present obstacles 
to prevent the growth of such parts as they wished not to grow ; and to leave 
only such parts open and at liberty as they wished to grow. What should 
we think of him who, wishing to divert a river at any point, attempted to do 
so by lading out the water as fast as it ran, instead of presenting an obstacle 
to the progress of the stream, where he wished to stop it ? Verily, we should 
think it was the work of a madman. ... It should be considered, that the 
form of a tree is not the effect of accident or chance, but the result of princi- 
ples incessantly acting, and given for securing the most advantageous shape 
for the peculiarities of situation. As trees have not the power of locomotion, 
there is a necessity for their possessing the power of varying their forms 
according to their situations. It is the nature of a tree to take that shape 
which is best calculated for effecting the greatest quantity of growth capable 
of being produced in the situation it may chance to be in." ... I am much 
gratified by J. M.'s complimentary observations ; and I only wish he had read 
the Treatise more attentively. I am, Sir, yours, &c. — Ste2)hen Ballard. Ledbury, 
Dec. 13. 1833. 

Mr. Munrd's Mode of training the Oak for the Production of kneed, or curved, 
Timber for Naval Purposes. (IX. 557. 714.) — Sir, In answer to the first 
objection of a " Journeyman Gardener" (IX. 714.) to my mode of training the 
oak for naval timber (IX. 557), I need only state that nothing is more easy 
than to prevent the upper part of the trunk decaying down to the first knee : 
the top has only to be rounded off like the head of a walking-cane, and a few 
of the buds allowed to remain on close by the cicatrix, until the bark shall 
have closed over the amputation. Should these shoots dare to make a pull for 
the advantage, let them be kept down till the curved shoots are able to fight 
their own battle. 

The second objection is, that trees or shoots, when supported by posts or 
otherwise, become too weak to support themselves when the said props are 
removed. Mercy on us, Sir I only think on this : a " Journeyman " is surely 
thinking of tall marrowfat peas, and not of trees. Does he imagine all the 
world wrong, and himself only right ? Such an idea is common to many, no 
doubt ; but let us consider what is the use of a post to a tree. Is it not 
to support it until it shall gather strength to support itself? Why are 
one-year-old grafts, or one-year buds supported in a nursery ? Is it not 
with the view of strengthening them, rather than to render them feeble ? 
However, a " Journeyman" thinks differently, and, consequently, is of opi- 
nion that the action of the wind would cause sad twisting and creaking 
among the knees and curves : but even supposing his notions to be correct, 
in a forest consisting of 50, or 100, or 1000 trees, it would only be a few 
of the outside trees that would suffer, while affording shelter to the rest. 
Now, Sir, in my opinion., this said " Journeyman " either forgets, or does 
not understand, the nature of the tree upon which he writes. Is there on 
earth's wide green surface, among all the varied tribes of trees, one which 
stands more firmly than the oak amidst the angry howl of stormy Boreas's 
blast, or one that with equal bravery and native strength of stem stretches 
out his bare and rugged arms unscathed amid the tempest's rage ? This pro- 
perty is not acquired by age, but is innate and observable in an oak tree of 
any age. 

The third objection made by a " Journeyman" is a misrepresentation. He 
says, I should find difficulty in supplying my six or eight shoots with an 
equalised quantity of nourishment. This is, by the way, a specimen of his 
attentive perusal of my paper. Pray, is any mention made therein of six or 
eight shoots ? Can he not see that from four shoots, trained as I direct, 
eight knees can be obtained ? " Tell it not in the ' Carse of Gowrie,' publish 

Retrospective Criticism. 77 

it not in the streets of ' Inchture ! ' " Is it possible for any one to be so 
ignorant of the art of cutting up of wood as not to see the mode in which 
this may be done ? For example, cut one of the branches through at five ft. 
from the stem, and the part taken off will form a knee or curve ; and when 
the trunk is split up the middle, the half of the trunk, and the remaining half 
of the branch, will form another knee : thus, from four branches trained at 
right angles, and situated alternately on the trunk, each extending, say 10 ft. 
from it, eight knees or curves can be obtained; and this, I think, without much 
confusion. " A Journeyman " cannot, however, comprehend this ; and it is 
a great chance if he does so yet. Oh, no ! he can see nothing but a mass of 
confusion, caused by his own six or eight shoots. He tells me that the two 
uppermost branches would have a strong pull for the advantage ; and why so ? 
The pear tree is an upright-growing tree, yet we do not find that there is any 
great inequality among the branches of a well-trained pear tree, neither are the 
uppermost branches strongest, but quite the reverse. 

The fourth objection is, that twigs, bent when young, will not keep their 
form ; as trees and branches, when bent downwards from their natural position, 
have a strong tendency to rise upwards. I may here remark that no candid 
reader will, I think, say that I recommend bending branches below their natural 
position. After this need I go on farther ? Really, Sir, the whole of the 
objections amount to nothing, and may be refuted in a few words. 

In every lawn in which there are old oak trees, instances occur of individual 
branches extending horizontally, to a far greater distance than I recommend, 
or than is necessary ; and it was this fact that led me to think, that, by 
aiding nature a little, the number of such branches might be increased, and the 
form of the curves secured. Surely, there is nothing unnatural in this ; par- 
ticularly with a species of tree so much inclined to shoot forth its branches in 
a horizontal direction as the oak ; although, after what a " Journeyman" has 
said, I do feel a little surprised that the wind allows any such habit. With 
regard to what I intend for curves becoming only slight bends, the thing is 
impossible ; for whenever the curve is formed, and the shoot takes its upright 
position, the weight which the top will acquire, from year to year, will increase 
rather than diminish the bend. In relation to the very odd, original, and 
entertaining method proposed by a " Journeyman Gardener," for producing 
timber for future navies, I should like to know what extent of surface of 
plantation would be required, containing trees of stronger growth, to be 
employed as blinders ; and how many miles of this outside row of crooked 
progeny would be wanted to build a 74-gun ship ? It does not follow that 
seeds of a crooked variety should produce a crooked progeny. It is not so 
with the seeds of weeping ash ; the same condition holds good among the 
animal and human tribes. This reply shall be the last, as it is the first, I have 
ever made to an anonymous attack. I am, Sir, yours, &c. — James Munro. 
Brechin Nursery, Dec. 12. 1833. 

Mr. Whiddoiis Mode of cultivating Onions and Asparagus. — Sir, As Mr. 
Mitchell, in his answer (IX. 626.) to my remarks (IX. 323.), quotes Dr. 
Lindley's Outlines of the Principles of Horticulture, I wish to refer him to 
Dr. Lindley's Principles of Botany. In the latter work he will find passages 
which, in my opinion, do not at all coincide with some in the former work. Mr. 
Mitchell requires from me a philosophical reason for my mode of cultivating 
plants. In compliance with his request, I will state, as far as I am able, the 
principles on which I act. I have always been taught that soils afford a fixed 
abode to plants, and are also the medium of the principal, if not the whole, 
of their sources of nourishment ; that the earths of soils, exclusive of the 
organic matter which they contain, are of no other use than enabling the 
plant to fix itself; that the fluid matters of the soil are absorbed by the fibres 
of the roots, and carried up through the alburnum to the leaves, which are 
the lungs of plants, and which exhale a part of the water of the sap propelled 
to them, decomposing the remainder, and retaining carbonic acid gas, &c. 
For the purpose of decomposition, they inhale atmospheric air, absorb carbonic 

?;& Retrospective Criticism. 

acid gas in the night-time, and give out oxygen during sunshine. These 
appear to me to be the opinions of the latest writers on the subject of vege- 
table physiology. Does it appear by them that the roots absorb atmospheric 
air from the soil ? They do not. (See Phil. Mag., vol.xx. p. 307.) Mr. 
Mitchell also says that my mode of culture will exclude moisture from the 
roots ; but he must be aware that that excellent practical gardener, M'Phail, 
recommends treading melon beds, to retain moisture. (Encyc. ofGard. § 3273.) 
I have followed his recommendation, and have, in consequence, had crops 
superior to those of my neighbours. I am confident that better crops than 
mine were not grown even at Slapton. Mr. Mitchell seems to have a great 
respect for cooks who delight in " sound rating and onion-throwing ; " but I 
think most of what will please my employer. — William Whiddon. Frost's 
Nursery, Leamington, Warwickshire, Dec. 29. 1833. 

In transplanting a Tree, ive should pilace its Sides or Phases opposite those 
Points of the Compass which they faced before Transplantation. (IX. 580.) — C. 
M. W. but reiterates the practice described by Virgil in his Georgics, book ii. 
ver. 265. to 272.— Ephebicus Horticultor. Nov. 1. 1833. 

Mr. James Hart's Notes on the Mode of cultivating Early Potatoes, ivhich is 
practised in the Neighbourhood of Dublin. (IX. 589.) — Sir, Mr. Hart begins by 
asserting that " persons have whole acres of potatoes rotting about Dublin 
every spring." This is not true ; and I challenge him to name instances of 
such wholesale failures. " The cause is assigned to every thing but the right 
thing." Why, surely it will be conceded to us of the sister isle (confessedly 
low as we are in rural improvement) to understand the cultivation of the 
potato at least. " The Irishman's mode of planting the potato is to cover 
the seed potatoes with dung in the drills to keep them warm, and to spreaa 
out the cut seeds, or sets, in the barn, to keep them from rotting : both acts 
have just the opposite effect with early potatoes." I deny that either of these 
acts is injurious to early potatoes. If the potatoes have not been damaged, 
and if the sets are properly cut ; that is, so as to have one or more eyes to 
each, it matters not whether they lie thinly on the floor, or are thrown up in 
a heap ; but the former practice I always prefer. If Mr. James Hart had 
only asked a few questions of his neighbours in Mud Island, any of the old 
women there could have informed him that early potatoes are never planted 
in drills in the neighbourhood of Dublin, but in beds from four to five feet 
wide (called ridges in Ireland), which have deep alleys or furrows between 
them, and are, in appearance, exactly like the asparagus beds in the market 
grounds about London ; and that it is only the general crops, on a more exten- 
sive scale, that are grown in drills. It is unnecessary for me to make any 
remarks on Mr. Hart's reasons for planting his potatoes " over the dung," and 
his would-be-learned lucubrations on the benefit of the atmospheric air. These 
need only be read to be rightly appreciated. We are informed that " air, heat, 
and water " (he has forgotten light) " are the causes of vegetation, and air the 
mainspring." Mr. Hart is also entirely mistaken when he says there is no 
advantage in " planting potatoes earlier than the middle of March." Let him 
visit Rush, Skerries, Malahide, &c, or any place in that portion of the county 
of Dublin called Fingal, and he will learn how and when early potatoes are 
obtained for the Dublin market. I can assure him that at present he is a 
mere novice in the art of growing early potatoes. I shall take my leave of 
Mr. Hart for the present ; but strongly recommend him, before he commits 
himself again on this subject, to take a few lessons of his near neighbours the 
Mud Islanders, who are perfectly competent to instruct him in this branch of 
his profession. I must observe that Mr. Hart's conclusion is in perfect 
keeping with his essay. He says: — " If all this be observed," meaning the 
information he has imparted, " the early potato will be plentiful enough about 
Dublin next summer." In the name of common sense, what does he mean ? 
I am, Sir, yours, &c. — Martin Rowan. Fulham Nursery, Dec. 19. 1833. 

Conditions under which Crops of Turnip Plants lucre, and were not, ravaged by 
the Beetle. (IX. 505. 63 L) — Sir, I sowed seeds of the white Norfolk turnip 

Retrospective Criticism. 79 

upon a piece of ground previously manured with good moist horse dung, and 
trod in the seed well, immediately after sowing ; I also sowed at the same 
time some of the same seed upon another piece of ground a few yards distant, 
without either manuring or treading : the results were, in the former case, 
every plant escaped the beetle's ravages ; in the latter, three fourths of the 
plants were eaten off by the beetles. A friend sowed, in the usual way, seeds 
of turnip upon a piece of garden ground, and the plants were eaten off; 
he sowed a second and third time, with the same result ; he then well 
manured the ground, sowed again, and the whole escaped. Another gentle- 
man, a farmer, sowed part of a large field immediately after ploughing it, 
indeed following the plough ; the remainder a few hours afterwards : the sun 
being bright all day. On the former the young plants all escaped, and on the 
latter the greater part of them were eaten off This case was not one made 
by way of experiment, but was quite an accidental circumstance ,' a neigh- 
bour, however, noticing it, asked the proprietor the reason, but he was unable 
to explain it, or to state more than the facts already named. The gentleman 
who asked the reason had himself tried liming the ground after sowing it, and 
sooting it in the same way ; also sowing radish seed with the turnip seed, as 
severally recommended in different parts of your Magazine, but without the 
desired effect : in the latter case, particularly, he found that, after the beetles 
had eaten the radish plant, they attacked the turnips. 

I am of opinion that the only practicable and effectual preventive of the 
beetle's ravaging the crops of turnips is to sow the seed when the ground 
is fresh and moist, and to roll it well, in order to preserve the moisture, 
manuring also with moist dung if possible; as it is observable, in the 
first case I have mentioned, that the moist manure and treading preserved 
the crop ; in the second case, the moist manure alone ; and in the third case, 
the fresh, and consequently moist, mould. I think also my opinion is farther 
confirmed by the fact, that a wet summer produces, generally, an abundant 
turnip crop, and a dry one the reverse. It would also appear that a moist 
day should be preferred for sowing turnip seeds, and if the weather should 
be so dry that sowing with moisture could not be farther adopted than by 
sowing immediately after the mould is turned and is consequently fresh, 
would not the application of the water cart have the desired effect ? [In 
Encyc. of Agr. § 2692. 2d edit., will be found a figure and description of a 
machine for sowing turnips and watering them at the same time.] I may 
observe, that my opinion is founded upon a different principle to that sug- 
gested in IX. 505. ; and I would request the reader to remark that I do not 
say the plan I recommend will have the effect of destroying the beetles, but 
of preserving the crop. Rusticus of Godalming, as it appears by the extract 
in IX. 631., thinks that the eggs of the beetle are on the seed; but, if that be 
the case generally, I would ask, why, in the cases given above (the same seed 
being used for both plans in each case), were the plants not equally affected ? 
I do not ask this in the spirit of contradiction, but to stimulate your readers 
to farther examination on this very important subject. — Myles Priest. Reading 
Nursery, Dec. 12. 1833. 

In addition to our quotation, in IX. 631., from Rusticus, we shall here give 
another of his remarks : — " I had always observed that there was the greatest 
quantity of grubs on very young plants, and that they were very various in 
size, and that it was not till the plants were a fortnight or three weeks old 
that the beetles appeared in any quantities ; yet there were some beetles from 
the |very first coming up of the plant." A writer in The British Farmer's 
Magazine, for November 1833, p. 426., reviews Rusticus's discovery, and 
applauds its great probable value, should it be proved to be true; but objects 
to Rusticus's asserting that the young plants of turnips are more extensively 
ravaged by the grubs of the beetle than they are by the beetle itself, and con- 
tends that it is by the beetle itself that the injury and destruction are achieved. 
It may be well to remark here, that the grub of a beetle and the perfect beetle 
are in some species very similar : we know not whether they be so or not in the 

80 Queries and Answers. 

turnip beetle. The remainder of the reviewer's objections are included in 
these words. " Turnip-seed, committed to properly prepared ground, makes 
its appearance on the fourth day. Now, suppose that the eggs of the insects 
are attached to the seed, as is represented by Rusticus, is it probable that they 
can be transformed first into grubs, next into chrysalides, and lastly into 
perfect beetles, in the short space of five, or six, or even fourteen days ? This 
is for Rusticus to explain ; and it is to be hoped that his description only is 
erroneous, not his doctrine." The same writer offers some strictures on 
Rusticus's act of steeping in brine the seeds of turnip ; but these, as he has 
misunderstood Rusticus, we need not notice. We have accurately given, in 
IX. 632., the experience of Rusticus, in his own words, on this point. — J.D. 

Art. VI. Queries and Answers. 

WHAT are the Heat and Moisture best adapted for the Production of the various 
Fruits ? — Since too much dryness is certainly injurious, and too much moist- 
ure is generally believed to be so, what is the best medium of moisture for the 
flowering of the various descriptions of fruit trees ? The horticulturist can, 
in a great measure, command temperature ; and he knows, in regard to it, 
what to aim at : but moisture has been less attended to, at least as regards its 
quantity in measurable terms. The indications of the hygrometer ought to 
be attended to with as much care as those of the thermometer. Ought there 
not to be a series of experiments commenced, in order to determine the quan- 
tity of both heat and moisture best adapted for the production of the various 
fruits? — R. Turnham Green, Nov. 5. 1833. 

Plants, the Leaves of which will strike root. — I should like to see, in your 
Magazine, a list of those plants the leaves of which will strike root, and form 
plants ; such as Bryophyllum calycinum, Kalanchoe crenata, Gloxinia, A'\oe, 
&c. — T. Rutger. Shortgrove, December, 1833. 

An Essay on variegated Plants, pointing out how Variegations are produced, 
and their Uses, if any, in ornamental Scenery, with Lists of the most beautiful 
variegated Trees, Shrubs, and Plants, is desired by Mr. Rutger, and also by 
T. G. and J. W. 

Self-acting Gate. — Might not a machine be contrived by which any interior 
gate of the approach (where it is necessary to have interior gates) could be 
opened on the passage of a carriage wheel over a certain part of it fixed on 
the road ; the weight being made to act on some concealed portion of the 
machinery, by which the gate would be opened, and remain open sufficiently 
long for a carriage, &c, to pass, and then shut of itself? — T. A. B. Easthwaite 
Lodge, Lancashire, Dec. 24. 1833. 

Parker's sympathetic gate (fig. 8.) is of this description. On the approach 
of a carriage, the gate opens, apparently by its own volition, and closes again, 
after the carriage has passed through, without any apparent cause. The effect 
is produced by small plates let into the ground at short distances from the 
gate, which, when the carriage wheels roll over them, descend like a weighing 
machine, and act upon certain levers concealed in a trunk under the ground. 
By means of these levers, a toothed wheel is made to revolve, and to turn a 
toothed pinion affixed to the swinging post or axle of the gate, and thus to 
throw it open, or to close it. (Encyclopaedia of Agriculture, 2d edit., § 3107.) 

In the Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture will be found 
figured and described (§ 831.) a most valuable description of gate, for the 
lodges to the approach roads of country residences, which we would most 
earnestly recommend to the attention of master gardeners, land stewards, and 
country architects and builders. This gate ( fig. 9.) is the invention of 
Mr. Saul of Lancaster, and the object of it is to enable the gate-keeper to 
open the gate in the night time, from his bed-room, without the trouble of 
dressing, or going down stairs. So benevolent a design ought to be seconded 
by every gardener. In fig. 9. g represents a horizontal shaft placed in a tunnel 

Queries and Answers. 


made across the road directly under the gate, working at one end on the heel 
of the hanging post by a pinion at h, and at the other by a bevelled pinion at i, 
on the upright shaft k. This shaft has a pinion which works into another at /, 
on the axle of which is the winch m, which is supposed to be at the bedside of 
the gatekeeper- (Eneyc. of Cottage Architecture, § 831. See also VIII. 163,) 

Spontaneous Vegetation of Broom in a Wood after a Fire. — Sir, The follow- 
ing facts I can vouch for ; perhaps they may excite enquiries not altogether 
unprofitable. About seven years ago, the branches broken off by the wind, in 
one of my plantations, being carried off, the twigs were gathered and burned. 
In a year or two, but where the ground was burned, and amidst the charred 
remains of the fire, some plants of the common broom (Spartium scoparium £., 
Cytisus scoparius Lk.) appeared, and grew vigorously. This seemed odd to 
me, and I showed them to some of my family; but the same burnings, and the 
same growth of the same sort of plants, have since been twice repeated. This 
I cannot account for by even the vaguest guessing. I am sure there were no 
broom plants among the small branches burned ; and, if there were, the seed 
must have been consumed : in fact, we have only a very few plants of broom 
on the grounds. Then whence came the seed ? For I do not believe in 
vegetable creations in our times, though Ray seems to countenance something 
of that kind by his " seminal tinctures" in the earth; and, even if the earth 
preserved the function to originate without parentage, fire does not seem to 
be the engine to eifect such an operation. The fire weed in America, and 
other particulars of the same kind, will, of course, suggest themselves to you. — ■ 
George Ensor. Ardress, Dec. 20. 1833. 

Grottoes at Painshitt and Ascot Park. — You would confer an obligation upon 
myself and others of your distant subscribers, by giving detailed descriptions 

Vol. X. — No. 48. g 

82 Queries and Answers* 

accompanied by plans, of the so much admired grottoes at Ascot Park and 
Painshill ; the latter of which ( V. 569.) you say that you consider the finest 
in Europe. — T. A. B. Esthivaite Lodge, Lancashire, Dec. 24. 1833. 

Plans of these grottoes, to be of any use, must be so large as not to suit our 
work ; indeed, it is hardly possible to convey useful practical ideas of grottoes, 
cascades, and similar rustic-work, by plans or sketches of any kind. We 
recommend all who wish to form any such structures to visit, in company with 
an ingenious stone-mason, who should be employed to execute them, the best 
models, however distant they may be. Painshill will repay a journey from any 
part of the island. — Cond. 

Splitting the Rools of felled Trees with Gunpowder. — Sir, I observe this pro- 
cess going on in Kensington Gardens. Can you or any of your readers inform 
me if this is done on a principle of economy ; or, if not, on what other prin- 
ciple it is preferred to the common mode of splitting roots with wedges ? — 
.7. B. Kensington, January, 1 834. 

Arranging the Colours of Florists' 1 Flowers. — Sir, Your recent remarks on 
taste, as it regards the variety of colours produced in the grouping of flowers, 
has induced me to look back to II. 309. of your Magazine. I have long 
been inclined to the ideas there expressed, though I have never been able 
to. carry them into full effect for want of materials. Being now, however, 
more fortunate in hyacinths, tulips, ranunculuses, &c, and particularly in 
chrysanthemums (of which I have nearly a perfect collection and a great 
number of plants), I intend to try the effect upon a large scale. But a know- 
ledge of colours and tints is necessary ; for, although we may take the seven 
primary colours as a guide, yet the difficulty is to know where ivhites, blacks 
(which in hyacinths and ranunculuses we nearly have), browns, &c, should be 
placed. An elucidation, therefore, of what you aptly term " a natural system 
of colours " and tints (and, if accompanied by coloured figures, so much the 
better) would be of great use to many who, like myself, have neither 
milliners nor artists at hand to apply to. I therefore beg, as a favour, 
your assistance in this matter, and should be particularly glad to see the 
information in your February Number ; as, early in March, chrysanthemums 
should be parted and planted. 

If you would fill up the sketch in the last paragraph at II. 312., it would 
doubtless go far towards realising, at least in the rising generation, your ideas, 
which seem founded on truth and nature. 

The colours of chrysanthemums are usually called pink, blush, white, buff, 
yellow, orange, brown, salmon, red, crimson, lilac, and purple (?). Yours, &c- — 
Solus. Bagshot Heath, Dec. 10. 1833. 

With regard to the difficulty of disposing of whites, blacks, and browns, in 
the arrangement of flowers, it may be adopted, as a rule sufficient for most 
practical purposes, that whites look well beside every other colour, even 
blacks and browns ; that blacks look best next to greens, reds, and whites; 
and that the same will hold good as to browns. In arranging hyacinths in a 
bed, or chrysanthemums on a stage, all the varieties having the same colour 
for a ground should be placed together ; for example, all the reds : but, to pre- 
vent the monotony that would result from salmon running into crimson, and 
crimson into lilac, there may be introduced between them streaks of white, and 
sometimes of black or brown, to keep up the harmony. It must be recollected 
that, in arranging flowers according to their colours, something of botanical 
arrangement must also be kept in view. That is, all those varieties which 
approach the nearest to each other must be placed the closest together. This 
may frequently be done, and harmony preserved, without the introduction of 
either whites or blacks ; but, where it cannot, whites or blacks will afford the 
desired contrast. It is difficult, if not impossible, to give detailed directions 
on this subject without the aid of coloured plates ; and, even in that case, 
much must be left to the taste and feeling of the operator. We would recom- 
mend our correspondent to store his mind with ideas on the subject from the 
works of Burnet, and of Phillips, on Painting; or, if these works be too 

Queries and Answers. 83 

bulky for his purpose, we would recommend a small work, by a scientific 
house-painter, Mr. Hay of Edinburgh, entitled The Laws of Harmonious 
Colouring, §c, by D. R. Hay. If our correspondent possesses our Encyclopedia 
pf Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture, or even Part xn. of that work, he 
will there find (§ 2013.) how highly we think of Mr. Hay's Essay ; and he will 
be able to conceive in what way it will be useful to him in the arrangement 
of his flowers. — Cond. 

Jasidne perennis, Housionia ccerulea, Gentiana verna, and other Species. — I 
should feel greatly obliged, if Mr. Penny, or any other of your numerous 
correspondents, who have been in the habit of growing these plants, would 
inform me of the best mode of cultivating them ; both in pots and in the free 
ground ; the best soil and situation for them, and any other particulars 
respecting their culture, that may have come under their notice or observ- 
ation. I have frequently bought these plants of the London nurserymen, but 
in every instance they have very soon dwindled away and died. I have been 
told that a portion of coal-ashes is beneficial to the growth of Jasione perennis : 
is this correct ? An early answer to these questions will oblige a constant 
subscriber to both of your Magazines since their commencement, and an 
ardent lover of the beauties of Flora. — R. T. Jan. 1. 1834. 

Tree Mignonette. — In IX. 232. Mr. Elles states that the common migno- 
nette may be grown to any height required, or at least to any reasonable 
height. He says, " We have it here from 4 to 10 ft. high." He furthermore 
goes on to state that he has one plant about 8 ft, in circumference at the base, 
&c. Now, I should feel greatly obliged to Mr. Elles, if he would take an early 
opportunity of informing me, as well as some others of the readers of this 
Magazine, of the method he pursues to obtain plants of i?eseda odorata 
frutescens, so decidedly superior to any plants of the kind that I have ever 
seen or heard of before. The plants I have grown have not averaged more 
than 3 ft. or 3| ft. — Id. [See Elliot's mode of culture, IX. 702.] 

Tree Mignonette. — Mr. Elles of Armagh writes (IX. 232.) that he had a 
plant of mignonette 10 ft. high and 8 ft. in circumference at its base. I should be 
glad to learn Mr. Elles's mode of rearing the little darling to such perfection. 
Assuredly he has nursed the pygmy reseda into O'Mignon, the celebrated Irish 
giant. — T. A. B. Easihwaite Lodge, Lancashire, Dec. 24. 1833. 

Grafting and Budding of Roses. — I am informed, upon respectable authority, 
that roses will not succeed by grafting them in the common way, but will take 
freely by rind-grattmg. The scallop or French mode of budding has also 
been found to succeed well in spring. — R. T. Jan. 1. 1834. 

[The writer next makes some requests, and states some things as facts, 
which he ought to be aware can only receive attention from an Editor when 
accompanied by the writer's name and address. In the mean time, he may 
refer to the new edition of our Encyc. of Gard., now publishing.] 

Gordonia pubescevs and Lasianthus, Malachodendron ovdtum, and Big- 
nonia capreoldta. — The most suitable culture for these plants is desired, as 
it regards soil, situation, propagation, &c. I have frequently bought the 
first three species mentioned, and as often lost them. Is peat soil indis- 
pensably necessary for their cultivation, or are they more tender than other 
common hardy shrubs, so that they require some kind of protection in 
winter ? As far as Bignonfa capreolata is concerned, I have no trouble in 
keeping or growing it; but, although I have had three plants for these ten 
years, I have never succeeded in flowering them. One Bigndnza has been 
constantly kept in the stove in a pot, one in the green-house in a pot, and one 
planted outside of the green-house, and brought inside, and trained up the 
rafters ; yet, with all chis, I have never once flowered it during the whole of 
the above period. — Id. 

Chrysanthemum sinense and indicum. — I possess 40 varieties of these de- 
lightful autumnal flowers, 38 of which I never fail to blow every year ; but 
although I have had the yellow warratah, and the yellow Indian chrysanthe- 
mum, for some years, I have never once induced either of these to flower 

g 2 

84 Covent Garden Market. 

under any mode of treatment that I have pursued. Any information on this 
point would be desirable. — R. T. Jan. 1. 1834. 

Berberis vulgaris asperma. — Is there any such thing as the true stoneless 
berberry ? I perceive it is in the Horticultural Fruit Catalogue. I have re- 
ceived plants for it from various sources, but they have always proved, when 
grown in my garden, nothing but the common wild berberry. Is it only an 
accidental variety, that is apt to run back to its original state in particular 
soils and situations? — Id. 

Taxus baccdta. — Is it necessary for the berries of the common yew tree to 
lie and rot one year before sowing, in the same manner as haws ? — Id. 

Lemon Seeds. — Can any of your correspondents inform me, if the seeds or 
pips of a lemon be extracted from the pulp, and thoroughly cleansed, whether 
in this state they will retain their vegetative properties for two years ; and, if 
they are found to do so, whether the seeds are not best kept in white sand till 
it is convenient to sow them ? — Id. 

On the best Mode of packing Peaches, Grapes, and Strawberries, to send to a 
Distance. — In answer to " A Constant Reader's" query on this subject (IX. 
723.), I beg to offer the following account of the modes I usually practise: — 

For peaches my plan is this : I procure a box of a size proportionate to the 
quantity of fruit that I wish to send, some tow, and some silver paper. I cut 
the paper into small squares, and place one square smoothly round each 
peach ; after this, I put a small quantity of tow carefully and evenly around 
the paper. Into the bottom of the box I put a thin layer of dried moss, on 
which I put the fruit as closely together as possible, and in the following 
manner : I pack two layers without anything more between them than the 
paper and tow which surround them ; I then carefully support a thin board 
by three nails from the outside, so that the board may not press too much on 
the fruit below ; this board forms a second floor, on which I pack two layers 
more ; and so on. If melons are required, they may be closely packed in the 
lower chamber, or in the top part, if any vacant space remain ; but care should 
be taken to fill up any vacancy well with tow. 

Grapes I pack as follows : Into the bottom of a box I put a shallow layer 
of clean bran ; I then place in closely a layer of bunches of grapes that are 
perfectly dry, and from which all the decayed berries have been carefully 
removed ; I then strew in as much bran as will cover them, and so on till the 
box is filled ; taking care to shake the box gently as I proceed, that the bran 
may fill up every crevice, and prevent the bunches from being displaced during 
their journey. The person who unpacks the fruit may easily clean away the 
bran, by blowing smartly through the bunches with a small pair of bellows. 

For packing strawberries, I provide a quantity of small upright wicker 
baskets made to hold from a pint to a quart each ; I fill them by putting the 
fruit in very closely together as I gather it; I then tie the baskets down care- 
fully, and closely pack them in an upright position in a large flat basket made 
for the purpose. Strawberries, thus packed, will be quite fit to go to the table 
after one day's journey; and it is advisable never to attempt to send this fruit 
to a distance which will require it to be two days on the road. 

I have practised the above modes for several years, and I shall continue to 
adhere to them until I am fully convinced that I can adopt better ones. I am, 
Sir, yours, &c. — Thomas Wilson, Gardener to the Rt. Hon. the Earl De la Warr. 
Buckhurst Park, Sussex, Dec.2\. 1833. 

Art. VII. Covent Garden Market. 

The Capacity of the Measures used in Covent Garden Market. — To the 
information given on this subject by Mr. Bevan (IX. 380.), that gentleman 
has since added the following : — 

There are four sizes of punnets, which leaves the capacity of this measure 
very uncertain, unless the particular variety is indicated. From Mr. Bevan's 
experiments the greatest capacity of the 

Covent Garden Market. 


Sieve is 
Half sieve 
Quarter sieve 

Cubic inches. 
■ 1644 

Cubic inches. 

- 248 

- 228 

- 90 

- 60 

Largest punnet 
Second punnet 
Third punnet 
Least punnet 

But as, in practice, they may not be filled to the maximum, it maybe inferred 
that, relatively to a bushel, the proportion will stand as follows : — 

- 1 bushel. 12 Large punnets - 1 bushel. 

- 1 bushel. 16 Second punnets 1 bushel. 

- 1 bushel. 32 Third punnets - 1 bushel. 
48 Least punnets - 1 bushel. 

In other words, they may be considered as follows : — 

Sieve equal to - ^ bushel. Large punnet - 5± pints. 

Haifa sieve - - 1 peck. Second punnet - 1 pottle. 

Quarter sieve - 1 gallon. Third punnet - 1 quart. 

Least punnet - 1| pint. 

(London and Edinburgh Phil. Mag., third series, vol. ii. p. 406. and p. 482.) 

2 Sieves 

4 Half sieves 

8 Quarter sieves 



The Cabbage Tribe. 

£ s. d- 

£ s. d. 

Cabbage, per dozen : 




Plants or Coleworts 

2 6 


Savoys - - 


Brussels Sprouts, per f sieve 



German Greens, per dozen 



Broccoli, per bunch : 




Purple ... 



Tubers and Roots. 

rper ton 



Potatoes - -J per cwt. 


5 6 

(.per bushel 

2 3 


Kidney - - 

2 6 


Scotch - - 

2 3 

2 9 

JerusalemArtichokes,per half 




Turnips, White, per bunch 



Carrots, per bunch 



Horn ... 



Parsneps, per dozen 


1 3 

Red Beet, per dozen 


1 6 

Skirret, per bunch 



Scorzonera, per bundle 


1 6 

Salsify, per bunch 


1 6 

Horseradish, per bundle 



Radishes : 

Red, per dozen hands (24 to 

30 each) - 


1 6 

White Turnip, per bunch 


The Spinach Tribe. 

c . . Cper sieve 

Spinach ^ er ha i f s ie V e - 


2 6 
1 6 

Sorrel, per half sieve - - 



The Onion Tribe. 

Onions : 

Old, per bushel 

3 6 


For pickling, per half sieve 

2 6 


Ciboules, green, per bunch 


Leeks, per dozen bunches - 



Garlic, per pound - - 



Shallots, per pound 



Asparaginous Plants, 

Salads, $c. 

Asparagus, per 100 



Second size « 




2 6 


Sea-kale ... 


2 6 

Lettuce, Cabbage, per score 



Endive, per score 

1 6 


Celery, per bundle (12 to 15) 



Small Salads, per punnet . 

Q 2 


Watercress, per dozen small 

bunches . . ' 



Pol and Sweet Herbs. 
Parsley, per half sieve 
Tarragon, dried, per doz. bun. 
Fennel, per dozen bunches 
Thyme, per dozen bunches 
Sage, per dozen bunches 
Mint, per dozen bunches - 
Peppermint, dried, per dozen 

bunches - - 

Marjoram, dried, per doz. bun. 
Savory, dried, per doz. bun. 
Basil, dried, per doz. bunches 
Rosemary, per dozen bunches 
Lavender, dried, per doz. bun. 
Tansy, per dozen bunches 

Stalks and Fruits for Tarts, 

Pic/ding, Sjc. 
Rhubarb Stalks, forced, per 

ZEdible Fungi and Fuci. 
Mushrooms, per pottle 
Morels, dried, per pound 
Truffles, per pound : 


Foreign, dried 


Apples, Dessert, per bushel : 


Golden Pippins - 

Ribston Pippins - - 

Golden Nobs 

Baking, per bushel 


Pears, Dessert, per dozen : 

Beurre d'Hiver . . 

Ne plus Meuris - - 

Bon Chretien 


Baking, per half sieve 

Almonds, per peck 

Walnuts, per bushel - 

Chestnuts, Spanish, per peck 

Pine-apples, per pound 

Grapes, per pound : 

White Portugal 

Black Portugal 

Oranf?^ f P erd0zen 
uranges £ per hundred 

Bitter Oranges, per hundred 

Le-ns f^f^M '- 
Sweet Almonds, per pound 
Brazil Nuts, per bushel 
Barcelona Nuts, per peck - 
Spanish Nuts, per peck 

l o 

1 3 


£ s. d. 












1 4 



























































86 Provincial Horticultural Societies : — 

Observations. — The unusual and uninterrupted openness of the season 
has enabled the growers to continue supplying the market regularly ; so that 
little fluctuation has at present taken place in the prices of vegetables, which 
have been brought in tolerable quantities, and of excellent quality. This has, 
in a measure, remedied the apprehended scarcity from the preceding dry 
weather in August, September, and October ; so that foreigners, who visit 
our market, frequent!}' observe that we experience here no difference in winter 
and summer ; that we are equally well supplied in the different seasons with 
the respective articles, which with them is not the case. This is in a great 
measure true, but not altogether attributable to the causes which they assign, 
but rather to the extraordinary industry of the cultivators, and, I presume, 
the higher state of the art of horticulture, as practised here, compared with 
that where even the climate does so much to assist it. 

Forced asparagus is now becoming general, and of good quality : a fine 
specimen of it has been seen, imported from France, evidently under a different 
system of culture, as it closely resembles the new variety of Grayson's in its 
natural state. We have yet to acquire the knowledge how this is to be 
obtained here. On referring to the Bon Jardinier for 1834, I find the plan 
described there, and it would, I think, be well worth inserting in your Magazine. 

Of sea-kale we have a good supply, of excellent quality ; and, I believe, in 
this we stand unrivalled ; for few foreigners, to this time, appear even to esti- 
mate its true value as a vegetable, and have not as yet brought it into culture 
generally. From our intercourse with France, the culture of it there is likely 
to become more general, as it is highly recommended to the attention of 
the public in the work referred to before. Broccoli has been furnished in 
tolerable abundance, and, should the present open season continue, will be so 
throughout the spring, as there appears to be a large breadth planted out 
late in the autumn. In no article has there been more evident improvement 
(from competition), most of the extensive growers having a variety or two 
peculiarly their own, effected by hybridising one or more good sorts. The 
supply of colewort cabbage has also been very general ; and even in this 
article there is evident improvement, as most of the growers pay more attention 
to the variety in use for it. Formerly it was generally the large loose Battersea 
cabbage planted out for the purpose of bunching; now the dark-green Lan- 
cashire colewort is extensively cultivated, and gives to the grower an equal 
return, as the quantity from an acre is quite equal to the former, from being 
planted closer in the rows. Turnips have been generally good ; the late-sown 
crops rather small. Carrots, owing to the prevalent drought in the summer, 
have not been so fine as usual, but have been in moderate supply. Potatoes 
continue to be furnished in quantity of good quality, but maintain an equal 
price. This is, I believe, owing to the general deficiency of the crop. 

Apples are supplied altogether from our own growth ; very few foreign have 
yet been imported, or are likely to be, as our own stock is yet very good : 
indeed, with tolerable seasons, we shall always have enough, as our plantations 
are now much more extended, and, from the introduction of so many new 
varieties, generally more productive. Of pears we have no supply at present : 
it will require time, care, and attention to effect a change in this article, equal 
to the present demand for it. — G. C. 

Akt. VIII. Supplement to the Notices of the Provincial Horticultural 
Societies for 1833. 

In our last Number (IX. 751.) we promised to give, in a supplement, all 
the notices of meetings of the provincial horticultural societies which might 
be sent to us between the middle of October, 1833, and January 1. 1834. 
We now redeem our pledge ; and we are glad, at the same time, to notice 
some newly formed societies, which will be found mentioned under their 
proper heads. 

Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Cambridgeshire ', Cornwall. 8 7 


Bedfordshire. — Bedfordshire Agricultural Society. Oct. 9. Some very 
large cabbages were shown by Samuel Crawley, Esq. M.P. ; the heaviest of 
which weighed 40 lbs., and the lightest 30 lbs. ( Weekly Dispatch.) 

_ Berkshire. — Kindbury Florists'' Society. June 22. This show, limited to 
pinks, is remarkable for being the first pink show established in England. The 
present was its 54th anniversary. 

Cambridgeshire. — The Cambridgeshire Horticultural Society. Nov. 20. The 
prizes were given for grapes, apples, and pears, chrysanthemums, and culinary 
vegetables. Among the latter were two dishes of the O'xalis crenata, and it 
was stated that the stalks of this plant form an admirable substitute for those 
of rhubarb in pies and puddings. We, however, have tried them, and think 
them rather insipid, resembling vegetable marrow much more than rhubarb. 
A glass of honeycomb, taken without disturbing the bees, and weighing 14 lbs., 
gained a prize. This Society gives two distinct sets of prizes to cottagers : 
one for productions exhibited, and the other for the best cultivated gardens. 
Both cannot fail to do much good. (Cambridge Chronicle, Nov. 22. 1833,) 

Cornwall. — Royal Horticultural Society of Cornwall. Oct. 23. Sir Charles 
Lemon, the President of the Society, addressed the meeting, and expressed 
the pleasure he felt, again to see so beautiful an exhibition of flowers and fruit. 
Amongst the brilliant collection, it was impossible to pass over some beautiful 
specimens of exotics, grown in the open air by Mrs. Fox of Falmouth. 
Amongst the fruit there were some very fine specimens of pine-apples, &c; 
and amongst the cottage articles several which proved that the attention of the 
Society to that branch of its objects had not been wasted. Miss Warren, 
whose name was already known as a benefactress to the Society, had contri- 
buted a collection of 330 specimens of indigenous plants, beautifully preserved 
and arranged ; and Miss Fox a collection of cryptogamous plants. He added, 
that the new heath which was discovered by a lady, five years ago, in the 
neighbourhood of Truro, had been lately found by Professor Henslow on 
Poole Heath, in Dorsetshire ; and that the parish of Mylor, in Cornwall, con- 
tains, growing naturally, every species of English heath. He then exhibited 
specimens of a variety of pinaster, the singularity of which consisted in the form- 
ation of the cone, which was longer than that of the common pinaster, and 
sharp at the points : its growth is likewise different, being in a zigzag form. 
A paper was read on this subject, at a Meeting of the London Horticultural 
Society. (See Report, IX. 727.) Sir Charles concluded by saying, that, the 
close of the second season having now arrived, it was impossible to refrain 
from an expression of some surprise and pleasure that the Society had made 
such progress in so short a time. General and universal botany has received 
augmentations at its hands, by the new plants brought to our knowledge by 
members of the Society. The Gesneria of Captain Sutton, which will in 
future bear his name, is determined to be a new species ; and the same may 
be said of an Amaryllis, brought home nearly at the same period by Lieut. 
Holland, of the Royal Marines. Last year several new plants were brought 
into notice by members of the Society ; such, for instance, as the Passiflora 
Sullivam, raised from seeds procured by Lieut. James Sullivan, R.N. ; the 
BenthamM fragifera, &c. The lists of prizes were then read over. The col- 
lection of fruit was very extensive, comprising several handsome well-grown 
specimens of pine-apples, and a large assortment of grapes, melons, pears, and 
apples. Some white currants, raspberries, peaches, and cherries were also 
exhibited. Among the peaches we remarked a yellow-fleshed variety from the 
garden of S. S. Street, Esq., of Penryn. A dish of oranges, grown in the 
open air, without the aid of glass, attracted general admiration. The assort- 
ment of flowers was not so extensive as usual. A fine plant, in flower, of a 
species of Hedychium, from the garden of Michael Williams, Esq., of Tre- 
vince, was much admired. Although not a new plant, it is one which is seldom 
seen in such perfection. We were also pleased to see some of our favourite 
plants, such as Borbnia pinnata, Polygala grandiflora, P. cordif olia, and Ferbena 

g 4 

S& Prov. Hort. Soc. : — Devonshire, Essex, Leicestershire, 

vendsa. Thirty-eight cottagers' prizes were given ; and Captain Parkyn, the 
honorary secretary, took occasion to notice the great improvement which had 
taken place in the gardens of this useful class of society. (Cornwall Royal 
Gazette, Oct. 26. 1833.) 

Devonshire. — North of Devon Horticultural Society. Oct. 9. The pre- 
vailing flowers displayed upon this occasion were the various kinds of the 
georgina which have found their way into this neighbourhood ; and these, of 
which there was almost an infinity of brilliant specimens, were most fancifully 
and elegantly disposed, agreeably to the varied tastes of their cultivators, in 
crowns, stars, and other devices. The letters R and F (Rolle and Fortescue), 
at the head of the room, were formed of oak leaves and acorns with much 
ingenuity. The entrance to the room, from the foot of the stairs, was pro- 
fusely dressed with evergreens and flowers. On looking at the fruit table, we 
were highly gratified to see the variety and quality with which it was stored. 
The pines and melons were of the finest description, both in size and flavour. 
There were peaches, plums, and almost every other kind of table fruit, in great 
perfection, and a large collection of apples and pears. A dish of grapes of the 
Black Hamburgh, grafted on the White Muscat of Alexandria, belonging to 
Mr. Griffin, was much noticed : the berries had altered their appearance, and 
assumed that of the grizzly Frontignac, but had not the flavour. The culinary 
vegetables, taken generally, far surpassed any we had ever before seen in this 
part of the county : celery, broccoli, peas, onions, potatoes, carrots, parsneps, 
&c, were all excellent. Mr. Burge, nurseryman, produced two superior speci- 
mens of mushroom vegetable marrow [?] ,• and there was a fine specimen, 
much admired, of Emmett's Camberwell double-curled parsley, exhibited by 
R. W. Dickenson, Esq., of Ilfracombe. Every person, we believe, who took 
a view of the room appropriated to the cottagers' use, will say that it merited 
a very large share of the praise bestowed upon the exhibition. (County and 
North Devon Advertiser, Oct. 1 1. 1833.) 

Essex. — Chelmsford and Essex Floral and Horticultural Society. Nov. 30. 
On this day thirty ladies and gentlemen, members of the Chelmsford and Essex 
Floral and Horticultural Society, paid a visit, by invitation, to the Hyde, the 
seat of J. Disney, Esq. F.H.S. R.S.A., and President of the above Society, 
to view his winter fruits, and were highly delighted with the various sorts of 
apples, pears, grapes, melons, &c, all named and numbered according to Lind- 
ley's arrangement. After viewing the same, the worthy president explained to 
the company the best sorts for cultivation, for table, and for culinary purposes ; 
and recommended the use of ornamental flower-pots, made by Mr. Christy of 
Broomfield, from models by himself, instead of the plain sort now used for 
rooms. [We should be glad to know where these pots are to be had or seen 
in London.] After viewing Mr. Disney's excellent collection of sculptures, 
and some beautiful landscapes painted by Mrs. Disney, the company examined 
a chain bridge built from Mr. Disney's own architectural design, on an entirely 
new plan. [We should be most happy to receive a sketch and some account 
of this bridge, for our forthcoming Architectural Magazine.] The president 
then pointed out the different trees in his gardens and grounds from which the 
fruits were gathered, with methods of keeping and pruning : he likewise re- 
commended the keeping of hedgehogs in enclosed gardens, for the destruction 
of slugs and snails. The park grounds and walks appeared to be laid out 
with great taste and judgment. After above three hours' stay, the company 
departed, highly gratified with the attention paid them by the worthy president 
and family. (Chelmsford Chronicle, Dec. 6. 1833.) 

Leicestershire. — Leicester Horticultural Society. Sept. \2. The fruit 
was in great abundance, and of excellent quality ; but the flowers were not so 
numerous as was expected, owing to the severe storms of the 30th and 31st of 
the preceding August. Some fine georginas were, however, shown, and many 
prizes were awarded. Mr. Warner was by far the most successful candidate. 

Melton Mowbray Florists' Society. — May 2i. This was the first show of 
the Society, and was entirely for tulips. The flowers were very fine, and were 
much admired. 

Middlesex, Norfolk. 89 

Taimvorth Horticultural Society. — May 1 . This was the first exhibition of 
this Society also, and prizes were given for auriculas, fruits, and culinary vege- 
tables. Among the latter were some black and white Spanish radishes, exhibited 
by Mr. Buck, which were very much admired. 

Middlesex. — London. Meeting of Market-Gardeners. Dec.\0. A meet- 
ing of market-gardeners and others interested in the new markets of the 
metropolis was held this day at the Freemasons' Tavern, and Mr. Wilmot 
was called to the chair. The secretary read " the report of the sub-committee 
appointed at the last special general meeting of the Market-Gardeners' Society, 
to ascertain the extent, accommodation, and tolls of the fruit and vegetable 
markets newly formed, with other matters connected therewith." With refer- 
ence to the Portman Market, the report was altogether favourable. The com- 
mittee called the attention of the meeting to the extent of the yearly waggon 
and basket stands of this market ; the width of its gangways (the two latter 
being secured from the weather by well-adapted coverings) ; the number of 
its shops, sufficient without excess, and those spacious and equal to a great 
share of business ; a casual market, which is closely attached ; and, almost to 
an unlimited extent, commodious, extensive, and cheap stabling. The ap- 
proaches are good, as well as the roads; and all combine to secure attention 
and support. In adverting to the Hungerford Market, the committee say, the 
commodious size of the projected stands is highly deserving of the best atten- 
tion of the meeting, and particularly of those to whom room is a material object ; 
as a basket stand is not only joined to that of the waggons, but another, of 
considerable dimensions, directly opposite, on the other side of the gangway, 
may also be secured. Mr. Hutchins moved a resolution, that the projected 
accommodation offered by the Court of Directors of the Hungerford Market 
Company cannot be accepted on the terms proposed, viz. 15/. per annum for 
the rent of a cart and pitching stand. After some conversation, the resolution 
was carried unanimously. A great loss annually occurring to market-gardeners 
in and about the metropolis, from the non-return of baskets, sacks, &c, or 
their injury by carelessness on the part of the porters and others employed in 
the various markets, certain resolutions, having for their object a prevention 
of this evil, were put and carried unanimously. Thanks were voted to the 
chairman, and the meeting separated. {Morning Chronicle, Dec. 12. 1833.) 

Metropolitan Society of Florists and Amateurs. — Meetings are held at the 
Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, the first and third Tuesdays in every 
month, at six o'clock in the evening, to afford opportunities of giving any in- 
formation the members may think interesting, of proposing any thing they may 
consider advantageous, and of introducing any thing they may possess new. 
At such meetings, written communications, or papers upon the nature or cul- 
ture of flowers, or other matters connected with floriculture, given to the 
Society, will be laid before the members, proposals for new members received, 
and subjects relating to the objects of the Society discussed. 

At the meeting, October 9., it was resolved, " That those of the Society 
who attend the meeting shall be allowed to present lists of any superior articles 
of stock they have to supply, and lists of any articles of stock they may 
require ; and that such lists, or so much thereof as the members presenting 
them wish, shall be inserted in the circular for the next meeting, and forwarded 
to the members as soon as possible." It was further determined, " That any 
member being in want of stock offered, or being able to supply the stock 
required, and forwarding a letter, postage free, to that effect to the chairman 
of the committee, at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, he shall be imme- 
diately referred to the parties concerned." [We have seen eight lists of the 
description alluded to ; five of articles offered, and three of articles wanted. 
The idea is good, and is worth adopting by other societies.] 

Norfolk. — The Launditch Norfolk Association for promoting industrious 
Habits among Servants, Cottagers, and Labourers. Oct. 30. The sum of 551. was 
distributed in premiums of from 5s. to 51. amongst forty-six individuals. 
Among the prizes were the following : — Onions : Edmund Dye of Mileham 

90 Prov. Hort Soc. : — Northumberland, Oxfordshire? 

grew 11 stone 6^ lbs. on 15 yards of ground; and Thomas Gant of Litcham 
grew 18 stone 6 lbs. from 24 yards. Potatoes : Thomas Ward of East 
Bilvey grew 7 bushels and 1 peck from a rod of ground, or what was equal 
to 388 sacks 2 bushels an acre, which at 4s. a sack, the present price of po- 
tatoes, would quote 77/. 14?. 8d. an acre. William Rawlinson of Lexham 
grew 12 bushels 3^ pecks from 63 yards; and William Seaman of the same 
place grew 1 1 bushels from 57 yards. ( Weekly Dispatch, Nov. 4.) 

Northumberland. — Newcastle Botanical and Horticultural Society. Oct. 25. 
We particularly noticed 12 very large oranges, and 7 large shaddocks, grown 
in the garden of J. C. Anderson, Esq., Little Benton ; and 2 1 sorts of pears 
from the garden of the Rev. J. Cook, Newton Hall, near Alnwick, for which 
silver medals were awarded extra ; likewise a large Santa Cruz pine-apple, 
weighing 6 lbs., grown in the garden of William Russell, Esq., Brancepeth 
Castle. The articles shown were of the very first description. {Newcastle 
Courant, Nov. 2.) 

Nottinghamshire. — Nottingham Floral and Horticultural Society, Bromley 
House. A great number of prizes were distributed for georginas and fruits. 

Oxfordshire. — Henley Horticultural Society was established, Nov. 4. 
1833, and a printed copy of its rules, &c, has been sent to us. Nothing can 
be more respectable than the list of patrons and patronesses, &c, and we 
need hardly add that we most sincerely wish it success. 

Oxford, Dec. 20. Mr. Wheeler has procured a dozen sorts of chrysanthe- 
mums from British seeds, said to be of great merit, which will be sold to the 
public next spring, as noticed in our advertising sheet. 

Somersetshire. — Bath and West of England Agricultural Society. Dec. 17. 
This Society embraces territorial improvement generally ; including planting, 
and, to a certain extent, gardening. At this meeting Captain Scobell and the 
Marquess of Lansdowne confirmed, from their own experience, the advantages 
of adding gardens to the cottages of the poor. The Marquess of Lansdowne 
observed, that, if the granting of an allotment to a labourer did not lead to 
his keeping a pig, it would not have attained its object. Mr. Hall submitted 
a new plan of fencing, the principle of which was, strength from position, 
rather than from substance. The usual system is to have perpendicular posts 
plunged 2\ ft. in the ground ; but, in the plan he now proposed, the posts 
need only be placed 8 or 9 inches in the ground. [We suppose, the ground 
plan of the fence must be zigzag in direction, and the posts inclined inwards ; 
but we shall write for particulars.] ( Weekly Dispatch, Dec. 23.) 

Surrey. — Dorking Horticultural Society. Sept. 28. 1832. This was the 
first exhibition for fruit and georginas. The chief prize for the latter was 
gained by Mr. Wood of Deepdene. 

April 19. 1833. The principal objects of attraction at this meeting were, a 
new calceolaria, shown by Mr. Wood ; and some apples, with an account of 
the mode of keeping them, by Mr. Lelliott. 

May 25. A new alstrcemeria was shown by Mr. Scott. 

June 23. An extra-premium was given to Mr. March, for a collection of 
Spanish iris. 

August 27. This meeting was by far the largest. Mr. March showed the 
best pine, and Mr. Wood the best melon. Twenty-six prizes were distributed. 

Sej)t. 28. An anniversary meeting was held, and resolutions passed, illus- 
trative of the objects of the Society, which, it was stated, had then increased 
to 100 members. 

Sussex. — Newick Horticultural Society. Sept. 12. Nearly 500 productions 
were exhibited for competition. Among the plants sent by nurserymen were 
the following : — Mr. Cameron, Uckfield, exhibited a superb bouquet, for 
which he obtained the Society's silver medal. It consisted of about 200 fine 
georginas, some fine German asters and a great variety of other flowers. 
The novelty of its form and its beauty were much admired. Mr. Cameron 
also presented twenty sorts of apples selected from 150 of the most approved 
varieties, and numerous plants in flower. He presented a specimen of the 

Somersetshire, Surrey, Sussex, Warwickshire. &l 

six weeks' turnip, and also a sample of the Maltese turnip : the former was 
considered deserving the attention of the agriculturist, from its hardy nature 
and the quickness of its growth. The peaches which obtained the first and 
second prizes were from trees furnished by Mr. Cameron a few years ago. — 
Mr. Wood of the Woodlands Nursery, Maresfield, exhibited about 100 pots 
of fine plants ; nearly 200 sorts of georginas, which were much admired ; a 
very splendid collection of China and Noisette roses, and 150 sorts of apples 
and pears. He also exhibited about 100 vases of cut flowers, and a variety 
of specimens of curious oak, ash, alder, elm, &c. The flowers were remark- 
ably fine, and were very much admired. Mr. Mitchell of Piltdown exhibited 
a fine collection of heaths, with some stove and green-house plants, georginas, 
and German asters. A splendid seedling georgina, upwards of 5 inches in 
diameter, raised by Mr. Read, was greatly admired, and received the name of 
Lord Abergavenny. Mr. Pierce of Piltdown exhibited some fine plants of 
the Wistaria Consequaw« ; a collection of fruits, including several varieties of 
filberts, nuts, &c. ; some beautiful French and African marigolds ; and a 
splendid bouquet, for which he obtained the Society's silver medal. {Sussex 
Advertiser, Sept. 16. 1833.) 

Warwickshire. — Birmingham Botanical and Horticultural Society. Through 
the kindness of Messrs. Pope and Sons, we have been favoured with an account 
of several meetings of this Society, which had not before been sent us. We 
regret to say that we received Messrs. Pope's parcel too late to allow us to 
do more than give a very cursory notice of its contents. 

July 17. and 18. The plants were exhibited in a temporary erection, 80 ft. 
by 20 ft., on a fine terrace in the garden, and marquees were erected for the 
company on the extensive and undulating lawn below. Above 3000 persons 
were present, including all the nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood. 
Numerous fine plants were exhibited, and the general brilliancy of the scene 
exceeded all description. (Arises Birmingham Gazette, July 22. 1833.) 

Sept. 18. and 19. This show was also very brilliantly attended. The stove 
plants, the georginas, and the fruit elicited warm admiration. The vegetables 
were so numerous, that they were exhibited in a separate tent. {Ibid., 
Sept. 23. 1833.) 

Oct. 16. and 17. The prize for the rarest plants in flower was gained by 
Messrs. Pope and Sons, who exhibited Nierembergia intermedia, Portulaca 
grandiflora B. M., Portulaca Gillies« Hook., (Selago Gilliesw Hook. (Ibid., 
Oct. 21. 1833.) 

Deritend and Bordesley Floral and Horticultural Society. — It should be ob- 
served, that Deritend and Bordesley are extensive and populous suburbs of 
Birmingham ; and that a gentleman residing in Bordesley, Mr. Kendall, was 
chiefly instrumental in establishing this Society. The principal objects aimed 
at are, to encourage horticulture and floriculture in a populous district, and to 
disseminate useful information and new plants among all who possess a fond- 
ness for horticultural pursuits. To render the Society as useful as possible, a 
portion of its funds are set apart for the purpose of giving prizes to such 
cottagers and artisans (subscribing each 2s. 6d. per annum) as shall exhibit. 

May 2. This was the first meeting of the Society, and a number of articles 
were exhibited. Some of the most beautiful plants were from the stoves and 
gardens of Mr. Kendall, Mr. Willmore of Oldfield, and Messrs. Pope and Sons. 
Among the vegetables were some heads of asparagus, forced by Mr. Kendall, in 
four days, by hot water. 

May 30. This was the second show of the Society, and the first at which 
prizes were given to artisans : eleven of these prizes were distributed ; three 
of which were gained by one individual, Mr. C. Hopkins. A number of beautiful 
plants were lent by the Botanical and Horticultural Society ; a pleasing proof 
of the harmony subsisting between the two Societies. (Birmingham Journal, 
June 1. 1833.) 

June 20. A remarkably fine display of roses was sent by the Earl of Brad- 
ford; and a Gloriosa superba, from the stove of John Willmore, Esq., of 

92 Provincial Hart. Soc. : — Wiltshire ; Yorkshires 

Oldford, was much admired. Twenty-two prizes were given to artisans j and 
the stand devoted to the articles exhibited by this class presented a most 
gratifying display. (Arises Birmingham Gazette, June 24. and July 1. 1833.) 

August 1. Carnations, georginas, and gooseberries were the principal articles 
exhibited. There were twenty-one artisans' prizes. The largest gooseberry, 
the Roaring Lion, weighed only 21 dwts. 12grs. (Ibid., August 12.) 

Sept. 12. A superb crown of georginas, from the gardens of Messrs. Pope 
and Sons, excited great admiration. Twenty-five prizes were given to artisans ; 
among the names of the successful competitors, we observe that those of 
Amos and Chaplin occur most frequently. (Birmingham Journal, Sept. 1. 1833.) 

Nov. 21. This was perhaps the most brilliant exhibition of the season. 
The chrysanthemums, the stove and green-house plants, and the splendid col- 
lection of fruits (the latter exhibited chiefly by Mrs. Wakefield), vied with each 
other in exciting admiration. Only ten artisans' prizes were given. (Birming- 
ham Advertiser.) 

Wiltshire. — Salisbury Annual Pink Show. June 21. Some very fine 
flowers were exhibited ; and prizes were gained by Messrs. Squib, Chinn, and 

Yorkshire. — Barton Georgina Show. Oct.l. Mr. William Blown of 
Mount Pleasant, seedsman, exhibited a very splendid collection of georginas, 
in the shop of Mr. Hattersley, druggist, which was visited by hundreds of the 
inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood, who expressed their high gra- 
tification at the interesting sight. A remarkably fine bouquet, which com- 
pletely filled the window, called forth especial admiration. This is the second 
exhibition of the kind in Barton, but it is by no means likely to be the last. 
(Hull Advertiser, Oct. 11. 1833.) 

Doncaster, Retford, and Baivtry Horticultural Society. — Sept. 24. The show 
of fruit and vegetables, particularly of the former, was very extensive, and in 
point of size extraordinary. These occupied one table ; on another the plants 
were arranged, and on the right the georginas displayed their varied and 
splendid beauties. Although the season for the cultivation of these elegant 
flowers has on the whole been so unfavourable as to warrant the expectation 
that in this respect the exhibition would be defective, the reverse of disappoint- 
ment was experienced ; and, as the eye glanced along the stage which supported 
them, the contrast presented by the varied hues was striking and truly grati- 
fying. During an exhibition of this nature, there is one subject which cannot 
fail to strike the attention of the observer : viz. the degree of perfection which 
can be attained by the application of skill and labour in cultivation. As the 
importance of this is fully manifest, the encouragement of societies of this 
description is the means of conferring gratification and benefit upon the com- 
munity at large. (Doncaster, Nottingham , and Lincoln Gazette. Sept. 27. 1833.) 

Hull Florists' Society. — Oct. 7. The display of georginas was most splendid. 
The flowers, of which there were some hundreds, were in the highest state of 
perfection, and imbued with the richest hues. From the testimony given on 
this occasion of the ability of the florists of this town and neighbourhood to 
cultivate the georgina, we are induced to believe that they are capable of com- 
peting with any other society of the kind in the kingdom. Few other articles 
were exhibited. (Hidl Advertiser, Oct. 11. 1833.) 

Dec. 23. This show was for chrysanthemums, and some remarkably fine 
flowers were exhibited. Among the names of the chrysanthemums exhibited 
we observed the following, which we cannot find either in the Hortus 
Britannicus, or in Mr. Haworth's excellent paper on chrysanthemums in this 
Magazine (IX. 218.). Pak tseen yong Kokfa, and yung sham hong Kokfa, 
Mr. D. Brown ; white velvet, expanded light rose, and imperial lilac, Mr. 
W. Dennis ; tufted yellow, and quilled red, Mr. T. D. Dobson ; golden- 
fringed yellow, Mr. Priest; dark crimson, Mr. Robert Oglesby; shining- 
fringed white, embroidered yellow, and dark orange, Mr. Hodgson (gardener 
to H. Blundell, Esq.) ; golden-feathered yellow, tall strong-scented rose, im- 
perial red, Spanish crimson, and superb orange, Mr. Anderson ; Dutch pink. 

Wales. 93 

Cox's buff, and quilled brown, Mr. Wharton. We hope that cuttings of these 
sorts, supposing them to be really new, will soon find their way to the London 
Horticultural Society, and thence, with proper names, to the commercial 
gardeners throughout the country. 

Sheffield Horticultural Society. — Sept. 25. Georginas formed the floral part 
of the exhibition, and the display was most superb and extensive. One of the 
townsmen was particularly successful in carrying off prizes for this description 
of flowers, and another of them produced a seedling of a darker colour than 
any yet grown, and so remarkable for beauty and accuracy that it will not be 
easily surpassed. A beautiful design, formed of georginas, a representation 
of the Wharncliffe arms, was prepared by Mr. Harrison. Our attention was 
also arrested by a splendid leaf of the talipot tree. His Grace the Duke of 
Devonshire was a very extensive and most successful contributor to this exhi- 
bition. In fruit there was nothing so rare and estimable as the Ispahan 
melon. The grapes were truly excellent, and so were the pines. In vegetables 
we have never seen finer endive or better cucumbers, and the celery was of a 
first-rate description, as well as the broccoli and savoys. In fact, without 
descending farther to particulars, we may safely affirm that a better exhibi- 
tion will not occur this year in England. This is but the third year of the 
Society's existence, and yet it can vie with any similar institution in its pe- 
riodical displays. We are happy to observe a decided improvement every 
year. (Sheffield Iris, and Weekly Dispatch, Sept. 30.) 

Some of the heads of celery exhibited at the August show measured 3 ft. 
6 in. in length, and 9 in. in circumference, after the outer leaves were 
stripped off. ( Weekly Dispatch, Sept. 30.) 

We understand that the subscribers to the Sheffield Botanic Garden increase 
daily, and that there can be no doubt of its being speedily carried into exe- 
cution. (Ibid.) 


Glamorgan and Monmouthshire Horticultural Society. — Sept. 25. No pines 
were exhibited ; the nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood having " con- 
curred in the exclusion of those costly and luxurious productions, in order to 
allow of larger and more numerous prizes being granted to industrious cot- 
tagers." Among many new varieties of apples and pears lately introduced into 
Glamorganshire, a Marie Louise pear, exhibited by John Moggridge, Esq., of 
Gabalva, excited great admiration. Mr. Miller of Bristol sent some very 
fine georginas and German China asters. 

Swansea and Neath Horticultural Society. — Nov. 28. The room was orna- 
mented with a good collection of chrysanthemums, interspersed with choice 
flowers and some fine winter fruit, especially apples. We mention this, as we 
consider it as proving the capability of this country to produce apples equal to 
any county in England, certainly for a space of nearly 30 miles. The apples 
from Yniscedwyn satisfied every wellwisher of horticulture, that, even so high 
up the valley, the coldness was no barrier to their full maturity ; and at this 
meeting the apples from Fairy Hill, beyond Cefn Bryn, called forth the appro- 
bation of our best gardeners, and gratified every amateur present. The speci- 
mens sent by the Rev. S. Phillips (12 in number) were well ripened, formed, 
and coloured; and we judge (and, we think, accurately) that from the lower 
part of Gower to nearly the top of the Swansea Vale there is hardly a spot 
on which the apple might not be planted with profit. We are glad to hear 
the Society purposes giving additional prizes to cottagers of young and valuable 
trees, provided they can show their means of planting them ; the thought is 
pleasing : and we hope this Society, in a few years, will be awarding prizes for 
the fruit grown on trees planted by its instigation ; thus demonstrating that 
there is more in it than merely collecting flowers, fruit, and vegetables, to 
gratify the eyes of the subscribers for the day. The Chaumontel pears from 
Sketty Hall and Singleton, and the Ribston pippins from Heathfield, deserve 
the highest praise. These last were part, we believe, of 400 gathered from 

94 Provincial Horticultural Societies: — Scotland^ 

one tree, and were superb fruit. We think we are correct in saying that Mr. 
Calvert Jones was the gentleman who introduced the Ribston pippin into this 
county, upwards of 40 years ago. Twenty-two cottagers exhibited flowers, 
fruit, and vegetables, for rewards, in the year, and they received amongst them 
56 prizes, amounting to 91. 5s. Last year there were but 13 exhibiters, an.d 
the amount of their prizes was 4/. 10?. (Cambrian. Nov. 30. 1833.) 


Fifeshire. — The Dunfermline Ancient Society of Gardeners is among the 
most ancient horticultural societies in Scotland ; its first minute is dated 
Oct. 16. 1716 j and among its members it has possessed one duke, one marquess, 
six earls, seven lords, eight knights, two colonels, six captains, three lieu- 
tenants, four ensigns, one professor, six ministers, seven advocates, two writers 
to the signet, twenty-one doctors and surgeons, and one hundred and ten 
gentlemen of landed property. This enumeration will serve as much as any- 
thing to show the estimation in which it was held in its early days : and we 
find on the 10th of October, 1722, the following subject for an essay given 
out to David Bowie, gardener : — " On the circulation of the sap in vege- 
tables, and a reason why brambles, allars (alders), and sallows are of such 
large pith, and put forth larger growth the first year than those of smaller 
pith, such as oaks, box, &c." Nothing more is said than that the thanks of 
the meeting were given to the orator. How Mr. Bowie acquitted himself we 
can only guess : the subject given him would be a puzzler to the vegetable 
physiologists of the present day. We likewise find that there were committees 
of this Society held in Edinburgh and Cupar ; from which it would appear 
that there were at that time no horticultural societies in these towns. (Scots- 
man, July 6. 1833.) 

At the October meeting of this Society, prizes were awarded for vegetables 
and fruit as follows : — Carrots : for the heaviest 3, which weighed 7 lbs. 
10 oz., Mr. Fowlis, Fordel; for the next 3, 7 lbs., Mr. Hogg, Pitfirrane : — 
Apples : 3 Yorkshire Green, weighing 2 lbs. 5 oz. ; 3 Stoup Leadingtons, 1 lb. 
15oz. ; 3 Gansel's Bergamot pears, weighing 2 lbs. H oz. j the largest one 
13|oz., and measuring in circumference Hi inches; the largest apple mea- 
suring 12^ inches in circumference. Mr. John Reid, Pittencrieflf, exhibited a 
bottle gourd, weighing 15f lbs. (Ibid. Nov. 20. 1833.) 

The Kirkaldy Horticultural Society was established on the 1st of August, 1833, 
by twelve practical gardeners. Their first meeting was held Sept. 12., when 
seventy members were present (chiefly amateurs), and prizes were awarded 
for a great number of floricultural and culinary articles. The prize schedule 
for 1834 enumerates the article for which prizes will be given, and concludes 
with the following excellent subject of competition for young gardeners : — A 
prize will be given to " the apprentice or journeyman gardener, employed by 
any member of the society, who produces the largest collection of species 
(excluding varieties) of British or exotic plants, gathered and dried in flower 
or fruit, and named and arranged according to the natural system : the collec- 
tion to be delivered to the secretary before the 1st of September, accompanied 
by a sealed note (motto outside), enclosing the address of the competitor, and 
a declaration that the plants were gathered by him since the 24th of September, 
1833. The collections to be returned." — John Sang, Sec. 

Lanarkshire. — Glasgow Horticultural Society. June 2 1 . Several specimens 
of the choicest flowers were shown, the vegetables were early, and excellent; 
and the fruits were of the finest quality. A new and splendid amaryllis from 
the botanic garden, and some very fine May duke cherries, from Erskine 
House, excited much attention. The latter did great credit to the very 
excellent gardener, Mr. Shiells. 

Mid-Lothian. — Edinburgh Horticultural Society. Dec. 12. The secretary 
exhibited several large blanched specimens of the prickly cardoon, or cardon de 
Tours, from the garden of Thos. Guthrie Wright, Esq., Duddingstone Cottage 
(Mr. John King, gardener), and stated that the blanching had been accom- 

Ireland. 95 

plished by using hypnum moss in place of straw ropes^ the former material being 
preferable, as communicating no bad flavour to the cardoon. The Society's 
premium for the best collection of seeds of evergreen trees and shrubs saved in 
Scotland was given to Mr. John Street, gardener at Biel, who sent a parcel con- 
taining considerable quantities of common laurel, Portugal laurel, and laurus- 
tinus, with small quantities of the seeds of Chinese arbor vitas and sweet bay. 
Very fine bunches of black Hamburgh and white muscadine grapes were then 
placed on the table, the produce of a flued wall at Erskine House garden, 
without the aid of glass, and gathered on the 4th inst. (See VIII. 671.) 
A letter from Mr. George Shiells was read, mentioning that the family had 
been supplied with such grapes since the end of October, and that there were 
still about thirty bunches remaining. — The committee, lastly, called the 
attention of the meeting to several excellent articles, both fruits and roots, 
the produce of the Society's experimental garden, which did great credit to 
Mr. Barnet as a cultivator ; and to a collection of Chrysanthemum indicum in 
flower, remarkable for the dwarfish size of the plants, grown in this way by 
Mr. Handasyde of Fisherrow. There was also a cluster of sweet oranges 
from the garden of Count Flahault, at Tulliallan, where six had been pro- 
duced on a plant 2 ft. high. A communication was read to the meeting on the 
forcing and blanching of Buda kale, by Mr. James Mackintosh, gardener at 
Archerfield. The kale are planted in boxes, which are introduced successively 
into the mushroom-house, where the kale are at once forced and blanched 
(light being excluded), while the production of mushrooms is not interrupted. 
{Weekly Dispatch, Dec. 16. 1833.) 

Stirlingshire. — The agricultural exhibition of Messrs. Drummond of 
Stirling, noticed in our preceding volume (p. 447.), is continued annually, and 
goes on prosperously. Similar exhibitions have been opened at Edinburgh, 
by Mr. Lawson, seedsman there; and at Perth, by Messrs. Dickson and Turn- 
bull. The local benefits which will result from these exhibitions are immense. 
We should think they will be found to have as great an effect on the agricul- 
ture of their vicinities, as the publication of the Farmer's Magazine, in the 
beginning of the present century, had on the agriculture of the Lowlands of 
Scotland generally. 


Battinasloe Horticultural Society. — Aug. 14. For fruit, flowers, and vege- 
tables : the latter were remarkably fine. There were several cottagers' 
prizes ; Martin M'Niel, and Dalton Kelly were the most successful among 
the cottage competitors. {Dublin Evening Mail, Aug. 26. 1833.) 

Connaught Horticultural Society. — Oct. 12. This show was principally for 
fruit and vegetables. Among the latter were 12 heads of celery exhibited by 
Mr. Johnstone, gardener to the Earl of Clancarty, which weighed 54 pounds. 
One of carrots, exhibited by the same gardener, weighed 4 lbs. 2 oz. {Galway 
Advertiser, Oct. 19. 1833.) 

Cork County and City Horticultural Society. — Dec. 16. A very numerous 
meeting of the nobility and gentry of the neighbourhood assembled to establish 
this Society. Major Beamish concluded an eloquent speech as follows : — 
" I trust that the country gentlemen, that the landed gentry of the county, 
will come forward with enlightened minds and liberal pockets on this occasion. 
They are, of all classes of the community, the most interested in the pro- 
motion of horticultural societies. By these means it is that the cultivation of 
land and the breed of cattle are improved, old and injudicious practices 
abolished, good systems of farming introduced, and the farm brought, as it 
ought to be, as nearly as possible, to the condition of the garden. By these 
means, also, are order, cleanliness, and industry, which are inseparable from 
good farming, induced among the small holders and peasantry ; agricultural 
profits increased, and the wealth and happiness of both the owner and occu- 
pier of the soil promoted ; while the scientific investigations to which the 

96 Obituary. 

advancement of these noble objects must necessarily lead, will teach us all 
how to 

' Find tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing.' " 

{Cork Evening Herald, Dec. 20. 1833.) 

Kilkenny Horticultural Society. — Nov. 7. We are extremely happy to find 
that a horticultural society is about to be established at Kilkenny, under the 
auspices of our scientific and much esteemed correspondent, Mr. Robertson, 
nurseryman there ; whose valuable papers, both in the Horticultural Transac- 
tions and in this Magazine, must be well known to our readers. A newspaper 
{Kilkenny Journal, Nov. 16.) has been forwarded to us, containing the rules of 
this Society, and we have no doubt but that it will contribute very essentially 
to the promotion of horticultural and botanical knowledge in that part of 

Having now given such slight notices as our limits will allow, we cannot 
conclude this article without reiterating our satisfaction at the very general 
increase of horticultural and floricultural societies ; the rapid distribution of 
new plants ; and the great improvement which has taken place in the gardens of 
cottagers. Our indefatigable correspondent, Mr. Saul, informs us that the 
largest gooseberries grown this year are the Red Wonderful, 27 dwts. 17 grs., 
grown at Ormskirk, by Mr. Ralph Moon; the Yellow Gunner, 25 dwts. 
2 grs., at Chester, by Mr. Coppack ; the Green Peacock, 23 dwts. 4 grs. 
at Houghton Lane, by Mr. John Wood ; and the White Eagle, 23 dwts., 
grown at Hooley Hill, by Mr. William Williamson. Mr. Saul adds, that 
the largest gooseberry grown in 1832, as he before stated (IX. 98.), was 
a green one, Bumper, which weighed 30 dwts. 18 grs. (above an ounce and 
a half) ; a size which no gooseberry has this year attained. Those who are 
desirous of seeing more minute details of the fruits and flowers shown in 
Lancashire and the adjoining counties will find them in the Florists' Gazette, 
published annually at Manchester, price 3s. — J. W. L. 

Art. IX. Obituary. 

Died, at Kingsmeadows, Peebleshire, on August 28. 1833, Mr. Sherare, 
aged 78 years. He had lived as gardener at Kingsmeadows 33 years. His 
health had gradually declined through the last eighteen months of his life, and 
he expired without, apparently, suffering much pain. His son, a young gar- 
dener, who has a good knowledge of chemistry, and is one of our most 
promising correspondents, after stating the above facts, adds, " I have now 
neither father nor mother, brother nor sister : all are gone to their ' long 
home;' while I, the youngest of seven, am left behind to mourn their loss." 

Died, at Brentford, November 22. 1833, in the same house in which he was 
born, Mr. Hugh Ronalds, nurseryman and seedsman, aged 74 years. The 
Brentford Nursery was established, nearly 100 years ago, by the father of the 
late Mr. Ronalds ; and it continues, and we hope will long continue, in his 
excellent family. The late Mr. Ronalds was a most amiable man and a warm- 
hearted friend, and was enthusiastically fond of his profession. He was well 
skilled in fruits, especially apples, as is evinced by his Pyrus Malus Brent- 
fordiensis, beautifully illustrated by drawings from nature, on stone, by his 
daughter Elizabeth ; and he had great skill in raising flower seeds, for which 
the nursery has been long celebrated. From the ardent admiration which we 
have heard Mr. Ronalds express for Pain's Hill, Esher, and other fine old 
specimens of modern landscape-gardening, we are convinced that, had he turned 
his attention that way, he would have displayed superior taste in laying out 



APRIL, 1834. 


Art. I. Notes on Gardens and Country Seats, visited, from July 27. 
to September 16., during a Tour through Part of Middlesex, Berk- 
shire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Hamp- 
shire, Sussex, and Kent. By the Conductor. 

(Continued from p. 7.) 

NuNEHAM COURTENAY, a Seat of the Archbishop of York, is a 
place which has long been celebrated. We first saw it in 1804, 
when we visited it in the course of our walking tour. The 
orangery, and the flower-garden laid out by Mason, were then 
in great perfection. The roof, front, and two ends of the orangery 
were movable ; and the orange trees, being planted in the soil, 
when the frame was removed, and the ground turfed over, 
appeared as if growing in the open lawn. The trees were then 
in vigorous growth, and covered with flowers and fruit. These 
trees no longer exist, having been destroyed, partly through 
the difficulty of heating the house in the winter season ; but 
chiefly, as report states, through the carelessness of the gar- 
dener, who succeeded the worthy old man who had charge of 
them in 1804 1 . The present gardener, Mr. Brodie, informed 
us that he had seen pieces of the trunks of these trees nearly 
1 ft. in diameter. The flower-garden is now overgrown with 
elms and other common trees ; the number of the flower-beds is 
reduced, and the shapes of most of those remaining have been 
altered. The covered seats are either removed, or in a dilapi- 
dated state, and the same may be said of the statues, busts, and 
therms. Nevertheless, we recognised the scene at once, by the 
three low arched entrances of a small summer-house. This 
spot is no longer fit for growing flowers, from its being now 
too much under the shade of lofty trees. Extensive architectural 
alterations have been made in and about the house and offices, 
and improvements in the kitchen-garden have just been com- 
menced, by doing first what is too frequently left to be done 
Vol. X. — No. 49. h 

98 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats: — 

last, viz. building a good gardener's house. As it rained fast 
during the whole of the time we were here, we had little oppor- 
tunity of examining things in detail. Nevertheless, we saw at 
a glance that the handsome terrace which has been added in 
front of the house is badly contrived, with reference to its con- 
nection with the pleasure-ground ; a proof, in addition to those 
which we are continually observing, of the necessity of villa 
architects having a general knowledge of landscape-gardening. 
The direct fault of this terrace is, that the outlet from it to the 
grounds is badly placed. The terrace ought to have been re- 
turned at the south end, and the outlet so arranged as that the 
waik proceeding from it should liave advanced in a straight line, 
and on a level, for at least some distance ; whereas, in its present 
state, the walk takes a sudden turn, and ascends ; two of the most 
undignified and unartistlike circumstances that can be imagined 
in such a situation. The arrangement of the going and re- 
turning walks in the pleasure-ground at Nun eh am has always 
been unsatisfactory, and we recollect the old gardener, Stephen- 
son, who showed us the original plan for laying out the grounds 
by Brown, acknowledging that this was allowed to be the case. 
The objection might be entirely done away with by means of a 
judicious terrace, but certainly not by the present one in its 
present state. If we have leisure, we may, perhaps, at some 
future opportunity, give a general idea to our readers how this 
is to be done ; but, as to do it justice would require several 
engravings, we have not time to enter into it at present ; we 
shall only say that nature has done much at Nuneham Cour- 
tenay ; and that art, judiciously exercised, might render the 
pleasure-ground worthy of the place. One of the worst features 
about the park is the approach road ; which, from the lodges, 
first ascends a hill by a direct line, and then descends to the 
house, having it full in view. Nothing can be worse, either in 
point of convenience or effect, than such an approach ; and the 
evil can only be avoided by circuitous sweeps, disguised by 
scattered trees, so that the house shall not be seen at all, till the 
stranger arrives within a few yards of it; and finds himself on a 
level with, or, if possible, rather under the level of, the ground 
of the entrance front. This should be done in such a manner 
that the steepness of the road should in no part exceed one in 
forty. There are some formal unconnected clumps and belts, 
bounded by straight undisguised clipped hedges in the outer 
part of the park, and various other deformities there, which, of 
course, will be done away with as the improvement of the place 

Baldon House, opposite Nuneham Courtenay, was, in 1804, a 
residence of some note, and it has still in the grounds many of 
the elements of a fine place ; such as abundance of wood, and 
a surface varied by undulations, with a good soil for pasture and 

Baldon House, Blenheim. 99 

trees. The plantations are much in want of thinning. By judi- 
ciously managing the fences of both parks which border the road, 
the one park might be made to lend great effect to the other. 

Blenheim. — August 11. On the evening of our arrival, we 
went to the great gates of the approach from Woodstock, and 
entered, hoping to catch the last rays of the setting sun lingering 
on the towers of the palace, and to see the deep broad shade 
thrown on the surface of the lake by the colossal bridge, and 
the massive oak woods beyond ; a spectacle which we had often 
enjoyed with delight in former times. The view altogether 
disappointed us ; for, looking down on the lake, the surface of 
which is more than 100 ft. below the eye, half of it appeared 
quite green with aquatic weeds. Next morning we proceeded 
to the same gates with greater deliberation ; but, previously to 
describing what we saw, it may be necessary to state that such 
were the care and study of the architect to connect his work with 
what surrounded it, and to give note of preparation of what 
was to follow, that he commenced his grand entrance by an outer 
entrance of ordinary width, between four piers connected by short 
walls. This narrow entrance leads to a square area about 100 ft. 
on the side, which forms the outer court to the triumphal arch 
of the gateway. The outer piers of the narrow entrance are be- 
ginning to decay ; and out of one of them is growing a young 
ash tree, 5 ft. or 6 ft. in height, and out of the other a sycamore 
of about the same size. This affords a suitable note of pre- 
paration for the state of the lake, the bridge, and the exterior of 
the palace. The head, or dam, of the lake is so much out of 
repair, that it does not retain the water so high as it ought to do 
by several feet ; and the water of the stream, instead of falling 
over the cascade as it used to do, finds its way under ground, 
and rises up like springs in the bed of the river and in the flat 
ground below. The joints of the masonry of the bridge are 
becoming the nidus of plants, and in a year or two this building 
alone will produce a tolerable flora. The side entrance, through 
which strangers are admitted to see the house, is beginning to 
be dilapidated, and 3, large portion of stone from the architrave 
over the gateway has lately splintered off and fallen down. The 
grand court of honour seems in better repair than any other 
part. The side courts require jointing, and protection by the 
repair of the roofs and copings. On first appearing before the 
entrance-gate of the outer court, one of the striking effects used 
to be the long architectural vista, seen through the first court, 
across the court of honour and across the third court; but this 
is now destroyed, in consequence of a hot-house having been put 
up in the third or stable court, which obtrudes its end across 
the line of archways. The duke has turned that court into a 
kind of melon, hot-house, or rubbish ground ; and a strange 

h 2 

100 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

place it is, taken altogether. On entering the grand hall, we 
were struck by the long vistas through doors to the right and 
left; and also by the view through two doors to the lawn in 
front : on turning round, and looking towards the bridge, the 
long straight avenue passing over it, and having in its centre, 
at a certain distance, the lofty column crowned by the statue 
of Queen Anne, completes the impression of dignity and gran- 
deur. This avenue was formerly continued in a straight line 
for six or eight miles through the Ditchley and Heythrope 
demesnes, including the mansions of each in the line of the 
avenue. There is something very grand, and at the same time 
very sociable, in the idea of thus connecting three magnificent 
residences. We see from these straight lines, right angles, and 
lengthened vistas, how well Vanbrugh understood grandeur of 
effect, both in architecture and in the principal features of its 
accompaniments. The architecture at Blenheim has trifling 
faults of detail ; such, for example, as the combination of the 
obelisk and the pilaster with the recesses cut into the latter at 
the side entrance ; but, taking the pile altogether, we know 
nothing like it either ancient or modern. Some attempts were 
made, during the late duke's time, to improve the terminations 
of the towers; and even the present duke has tried an expe- 
riment of this kind : but, if it is allowable to make an attempt 
to improve one part, why not attempt to improve the whole? 
But this would be absurd ; because the palace would then no 
longer be the work of Vanbrugh, or the national monument 
raised in honour of the first duke. In justice to the memory of 
both the great architect and the great warrior, we think every 
thing removed, either by the late or the present occupier, ought 
to be restored ; and no farther liberties taken by the present or 
future possessors. Indeed, there must be something defective 
in the arrangement by which the heirs of the great Marlborough 
hold this property ; otherwise neither these alterations could 
have been made, nor the lake and the building have been 
suffered to be so much injured by neglect as they now are. 

After seeing the house, by the permission, of the duke we were 
shown through the private garden. Much has been said re- 
specting this garden, but there is, in truth, nothing remarkable 
in it; and the duke can only wish it to be kept private, in order 
to prevent his walks being intruded upon by the numei*ous 
visiters, who, every day in the year, come to see the house and 
grounds. Those who have seen Blenheim before this private 
garden was fenced off, will recollect the bank of lawn, commenc- 
ing at the library front of the house, and extending to the cas- 
cade. They will also recollect the portion beyond the cascade, 
partly below it, containing some fountains ; and partly above it, 
where there used to be some old mutilated statues. The lawn 
in front of the library, and these two portions of the grounds, 

Blenheim. 101 

are included in the duke's private garden ; the extent of the 
three scenes being estimated at about 80 acres. There seems 
no reason why the occupier of such a place as Blenheim should 
not have a private garden, in the same manner as he has private 
apartments ; but it is surely not allowable that, for this purpose, 
he should monopolise all that is by nature, as well as by the 
art which had been exercised before his time, the finest part of 
the grounds. What is, perhaps, as bad as this monopoly is, 
that a part of the grounds, still left open to the public, is dis- 
figured by the main walk being included in what is now the pri- 
vate part, and by the necessity, which has been thus occasioned, 
of forming a new and smaller walk parallel to it. The one walk 
is separated from the other by a high fence, stuck full of furze 
bushes, so as to render it impervious to the sight : a very great 
deformity, and one which shows, on the part of those who put 
it there, an utter disregard of the general beauty of the place. 
We shall now notice the details of the duke's private garden. 

Near the house, and from that to the cascade, the surface is 
sprinkled with choice trees and shrubs, planted in dug patches, 
in the usual manner. These patches seldom contain more than 
a single tree or shrub, or a standard rose, with a few flowers 
round its base. There are at the same time a number of large 
patches or masses, containing azaleas, rhododendrons, and other 
flowering shrubs, intermixed with flowers. Some of these masses 
are bordered by young oaks, twisted so as to form a wreath, 
care being taken, in pruning them, never to cut the leaves. In 
some cases, the common oak is used for this purpose, and in 
others, the Turkey: both form very beautiful edgings. The 
subsoil being "stonebrash" or rock, before the patches could 
be planted, a quantity of rock or stonebrash was dug out, and 
the excavation filled with earth. In consequence of the porous 
rocky bottom, this earth is washed in, and in part lost in the 
interstices of the substratum, so that the surface of many of the 
beds or patches is 7 in., and in some cases as much as 1 ^ ft., 
below the level of the adjoining lawn. This is a very great de- 
formity; and, indeed, the edgings both of the walks and beds, 
throughout the whole place, partake of the same character of 
harshness. Mr. Jones, who has been head gardener to His Grace 
at White Knights and Blenheim since the year 1802, is as well 
aware of these faults as ourselves, but has not hands enough tq 
remedy either them, or several other equally glaring defects. 
No expense, or, perhaps, we should rather say, no effort, has 
been spared to obtain not only fine plants, but also large speci- 
mens of them. There are quantities of large Magnolz'a conspicua, 
tree paeonies, purple magnolias, PavzVz carnea and rubra, choice 
azaleas, kalmias, hybrid rhododendrons, wistarias, and, in short, 
of all the more rare and beautiful trees and shrubs procurable at 

h 3 

102 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats: — 

the nurseries ; a long straight line of tulip trees, and another 
long straight line of trees of Magnolm conspicua. There are 
many circular masses of heaths, which seem to thrive here re- 
markably well. Erica stricta is now between 3 ft. and 4 ft. high, 
forming magnificent bushes, and covered with flowers. .Erica 
mediterranea grows most vigorously, and has already attained 
the height of 5 ft. The same may be said of E. australis ; and 
all the other hardy species are proportionately vigorous. Among 
the trees which thrive remarkably well here are, the tulip tree, 
Judas tree, Virgilia, Ailantus, Nyssa aquatica, liquidambar, sas- 
safras, and the Balearic box, which, like the common box, is 
of a much more beautiful green when grown under the shade of 
trees than when fully exposed to the sun. There are some old 
trees of Catdlpa, 30 ft. high, with heads from 30 ft. to 50 ft. in 
diameter, now covered with flowers. Among the other old trees, 
besides the oaks, are some deciduous cypresses and Lombardy 
poplars ; but the greater part of both these latter have been cut 
down since we last saw the grounds in 1810. The poplars were 
generally considered to be the oldest and finest in England ; the 
few which remain are decayed at the top, and cannot last many 
years. The deciduous cypresses are also decaying ; though large, 
they are smaller than those at Syon. There is a Portugal laurel, 
the branches of which are 100 yards round at the base; those 
of the Portugal laurel in Eastwell Park, in Kent, are consider- 
ably larger. A green-house in a tent-like shape has been formed 
at one angle near the house; and a handsome rustic shed, open 
on all sides, and covered with shingles, has been erected in the 
interior of the grounds. There are various other covered seats, 
but none of them are good. There is a circular piece of green 
trelliswork, with gilt balls, which we consider the ne pins ultra 
of bad taste and absurdity. It would disgrace a cockney tea- 
garden ; and the sooner it is swept away from the grounds at 
Blenheim the better. So much for the details of all that part of 
what is called the duke's private garden, which lies between the 
palace and the cascade. 

We shall next say one word on the manner in which the single 
plants, and the small groups and masses, have been distributed 
over the lawn. This has not been done with much taste. They 
are too equally scattered over every part, so that breadth of 
effect in the lawn is in a great measure destroyed : they might 
have been sufficiently distinct to show the individual beauties of 
the plants, and yet, at a distance, have formed large groups and 
masses. We do not object to the introduction of the two 
straight lines of rare trees before mentioned; on the contrary, 
we think they afford an agreeable contrast to the prevailing 
character of intricacy and variety ; but we do decidedly object 
to the spotty frittered appearance, which every one possessing a 

Blenheim. 103 

painter's eye must allow to be the result of the numerous single 
plants and groups introduced by the duke. 

Beyond the lake, and above the cascade, is formed what is called 
the rock garden. It may occupy an acre, and is surrounded by a 
fence, rather too conspicuous, both from within and without, of 
rude flagstones set on end. The doors in this fence are formed 
of similar stones, turning on pivots, so as to turn either way, as 
easily as a common turnstile. We passed very hastily through 
this garden, but we saw it sufficiently to enable us to form a de- 
cided opinion, and to rank it with the rockwork at Syon, and that 
in the beautiful alpine garden of Lady Boughton, near Chester. 
(VII. 55 1.)* The styles of the three rockeries are totally dif- 
ferent, though their object is the same, viz. that of displaying to 
advantage alpine plants. The object of Lady Boughton is, to 
show a range of the summits of rocky hills; that at Syon, to 
display a ridge of massive blocks of stone intermingled with 
vegetation ; and that of the Duke of Marlborough, to show 
rocky scars on the face of a steep bank. One great advantage 
which the latter has is, the possession of abundance of stone of 
the same kind (viz. the limestone of the locality), abounding 
with organic remains. There is nothing particular in the dis- 
position of the stones in the scars; but the stairs, which pass 
obliquely through them from one scar to another, and thus con- 
nect different horizontal galleries, are very well managed. Each 
plant has a separate nidus, with appropriate soil ; and the more 
rare sorts are numbered in a particular manner by the duke. 
On a wooden tally, 9 in. long and 1 in. broad, painted lead 
colour, there is about an inch on the upper part painted yellow : 
on this an upper row of black dots represents hundreds, a lower 
row tens, and the lowest units. Among the plants are a number 
of rare alpine species in general mixture ; and sometimes, if we 
are correct in our recollection, green-house species are intro- 
duced among them. Where the rockwork is so extensive as it 
is here, much more effect would be produced by keeping the ex- 
otic species by themselves, for the purpose of producing a dis- 
tinct succession of scenes. This principle, indeed, ought to be 
extended to the disposition of even the hardy alpines, which 
should have appeared in masses of one order in one place; 
but neither at White Knights, nor at Blenheim, has the duke 
ever shown any taste for beauty, but as displayed in objects 
taken singly. The stones composing the rockwork are a good 
deal covered with moss, which takes off from their new and raw 
appearance. On the whole, this rock garden, defective as it 

* We have since heard that this rockery has been removed. We should 
have been very much gratified by a plan and view of the flower-garden and 
the rockery at Hoole House, but we find that it cannot be obtained. — Cond. 

h 4- 

104? Notes on Gardens and Country Seats ; — 

is, appeared to us the only redeeming point in the duke's 
gardening operations at Blenheim. The greater part of his 
other works we regard as injurious to the character of the 
place ; and in this respect we agree with our elegant and en- 
lightened correspondent " An Amateur." (See IV. 87.) 

It has been said by some that the Duke of Marlborough would 
have made an excellent gardener : we cannot allow this, taking the 
word gardener in a general sense. We have seen no evidence, 
either at White Knights or Blenheim, of taste or skill in garden- 
ing as an art of design : we have seen a great love of rare plants, 
without well knowing what to do with them, and that is all. 
If the duke had been brought up a gardener, therefore, we do 
not think he would ever have risen higher than a mere cul- 
tivator ; he would certainly never have been either a Kent or 
a Brown. A thousand reflections arise out of the circum- 
stances connected with the present ruinous state of this princely 
demesne, but we repress them ; only observing that the character 
which we heard of the Duke of Marlborough, in Woodstock and 
Oxford, is very different indeed from that which the Duke of 
Wellington bears in the neighbourhood of Strathfieldsaye. 

Oxford. — August 13. We passed this day chiefly in looking 
at the colleges and other public institutions. The ancient garden 
of Trinity College used to be remarkable for its yew hedges, 
which are now overgrown, and getting naked below. Yew 
hedges were planted against walls in former times, because gar- 
deners had nothing better to cover them ; but they should now 
give way to the ornamental climbing and creeping shrubs, of which 
five hundred species and varieties might here be introduced 
and named. The narrow border in front of the wall might be 
stocked with numerous species and varieties of bulbs to flower in 
spring, and these might be succeeded by annuals for summer 
display. The effect would be most splendid throughout the 
year, and the names being added to each species might be the 
means of exciting a taste for plants in many of the students. 
In all probability, however, the yew hedges are considered as 
much a part of the college as the stone walls against which they 
are placed, and, of course, neither will be removed. 

The garden of St. John's College is under the care of Mr. 
Fairbairn, who is introducing various improvements, and intends 
ultimately to have, if possible, an approximation to an arboretum, 
with the different species named. This is as it ought to be, 
and we could wish to see the same thing attempted in every 
college garden. What all these gardens, without any exception, 
might excel in, would be, climbers and creepers on their boundary 
walls, and mignonette in the crevices of their paved open courts, 
and at the bases of the walls of the gravelled courts, as Mr. 
Fairbairn has successfully exemplified in the gravelled court of 

College Gardens at Oxford. 105 

St. John's. The garden at St John's is considered the largest 
college garden in Oxford. 

The walks belonging to Magdalen College are conducted 
through meadows on raised banks about 30 ft. broad, between 
ditches containing running water, about 10 ft. broad and 4- ft. 
deeper than the surface of the meadows. The walk along the 
centre of the raised bank is about 10 ft. wide, leaving 10 feet on 
each side to be varied by trees. Through the framework formed 
by the stems of these trees and the undergrowths, the meadows 
and country beyond are seen to great advantage ; and, in ad- 
vancing along, so admirably do the trees come in, that there is 
not a point, whichever way the eye turns, from which a perfect 
landscape might not be transferred to paper. This is saying as 
much for such a walk as can be said in a landscape point of view ; 
the improvements which the gardener ought to make in it are, to 
substitute American and other choice trees and shrubs for the 
common sorts, and to introduce herbaceous plants, taking care 
that this is done in such a manner that one genus at least may 
prevail in one place, and not that a uniform mixture should be 
maintained throughout. This principle, we trust, Mr. Fairbairn 
will keep in view in his improvements in the college gardens, 
and more especially in his introduction of laurels, box, holly, yew r , 
ivy, &c.j as undergrowth, instead of elm suckers, and elders. 
We recommend him to study Bear Wood. (IX. 679.) 

The walks in Christ Church meadow differ from those of Mag- 
dalen chiefly in having a greater breadth of turf on each side, 
and in being more thinly planted with trees; and they might be 
improved in a similar manner. For the scattered trees in the 
meadows of both colleges others might be substituted, and added, 
so as to form an arboretum. Christ Church avenue is much 
injured since we last saw it, by the decay of the top branches 
of many of the trees. The area of the quadrangle of Christ 
Church is a level square of turf, with a basin (possessing till lately 
a fountain) in the centre, and surrounded by a broad terrace 
walk about 3 ft. higher than the turf. The sunk area might 
easily be rendered a most beautiful flower-garden, like that of the 
Tuileries. In the private garden here are two fig trees, said to have 
been planted by Cardinal Wolsey, and a very old mulberry tree. 
The fig trees, which are against a wall, have been cut down so 
often, that they show no shoots older than twenty or thirty years, 
and, as these proceed from stools concealed by the surface soil, 
no stranger could discover that the trees are old : in truth, they 
may rather be considered as suckers from the old trees which 
formerly stood on the same spot. They bear every year; and, a 
few days ago, a plate of ripe figs from one of them was exhibited 
at the Oxford horticultural show. The mulberry tree is a large 
and venerable fragment, supported by numerous wooden posts, 

1 06 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

and bound and tied together by iron hoops and rods. The heart 
wood is entirely rotted out, and the circumferential wood is sepa- 
rated into parts, round each of which the bark is advancing in a 
manner which promises ultimately to give them the appearance 
of so many separate natural stems, as we frequently find to be 
the case in the very old olive plantations in Italy; for example, at 
Terni. In the upper part of the tree is a thriving plant of the 
common elder, which has this year made a shoot 5 ft. long. 

The kitchen of Christ Church College is 40 ft. square and 
40 ft. high, lighted from a lantern in the centre of the roof. 
There are three fireplaces, each 20 ft. wide; one of which, for 
roasting, has a grate formed of upright iron bars 4| ft. high, 
forming a grating about 9 in. distant from the brickwork which 
forms the back of the fireplace. When roasting is to be per- 
formed, a vertical stratum of coals is filled in between the grating 
and the brickwork, and six tiers of spits, each between 1 3 ft. and 
14 ft. long, and each having on it six or eight joints, or twelve 
or thirteen fowls, are placed on the racks, and set in motion by 
the smoke-jack. The dripping from the whole drops into the 
same dripping-pan, and every separate article is basted with the 
combined dripping so produced. Thus, if ducks, geese, turkeys, 
fowls, pork, beef, mutton, venison, veal, and lamb, were all 
roasting at the same time, each of these articles would be basted 
with the combined fat of ducks, geese, turkeys, fowls, pork, beef, 
mutton, venison, veal, and lamb. On expressing our surprise 
at this to one of the under-cooks who attended us, she informed 
us that she believed none of the gentlemen knew of the practice ; 
but that the two or three tutors or poorer students who remained 
during vacations, and who dined sometimes on one joint roasted 
by itself, expressed their satisfaction at its goodness. It is not 
a little instructive to reflect on this fact. Here are a number of 
young men of the first rank and wealth in the kingdom, who 
affect, and indeed have a right from their station in society, to be 
epicures, eating what would disgust the humblest mechanic or 
poorest tradesman. If these frequently dine on meat roasted 
along with other sorts in a close oven, they are still aware of the 
difference in flavour between such meat and that roasted by 
itself in a free current of air ; but these noble epicures, who 
would, no doubt, be shocked beyond measure at the idea of 
eating meat which had been roasted or baked in a baker's oven, 
on account of its having been exposed to the exhalations of 
other kinds of meat supposed to be roasting in it at the same 
time, are yet faring every day on what is a great deal worse both 
in reality and idea. There is a curious old gridiron in the 
kitchen at Christ Church, 5 ft. square, with iron wheels. It is 
said that formerly, when meat was dressed on it, a hole in the 
floor was filled with lighted charcoal, and, the gridiron being 

Nurseries at Oxford. 107 

charged, it was wheeled over the fire, and afterwards wheeled off 
and on as it became requisite. The larders, and all the other 
subordinate arrangements of this kitchen, are of a very clumsy 
and imperfect description, badly lighted and ventilated, and 
altogether unfavourable to cleanliness. Properly ventilated 
roasting-ovens would not only roast every kind of meat with its 
proper flavour, as well as it is done before an open fire in a 
private gentleman's house, but they would save a great deal of 
fuel and labour. Let Mr. Sylvester, or some such engineer, be 
consulted, and we will venture to say that modern innovations 
on long- established forms will be adopted in the utensils and 
the arrangements of college cookery, whatever others suggested 
for the gardens and grounds may be rejected. 

August 14. We this day looked at the different Oxford 
nurseries. In 1804, there were only two gardens of this de- 
scription ; that of Mr. Tegg, and that of Mr. Penson. There 
are now four others. Still the taste at Oxford is more for 
the sensual, than for the intellectual part of gardening. The 
principal products of all these nurseries are culinary vegetables 
and fruits ; and the next, showy and fragrant flowers. What 
the gentlemen of the colleges desire most, is what the preacher 
Huntington says was preferred by the cookmaid at the place 
where he was gardener, viz. "a flower in a pot, and one that 
would stand." A geranium, a rose, a night-smelling stock, and 
mignonette, we were informed, would sell, but not any of the 
new calceolarias or fuchsias, because in the rooms of the col- 
leges they would not " stand." Forced fruits, such as straw- 
berries and cucumbers, pay remarkably well. 

Tegg's Paradise Nursery has been in his family upwards of a 
century. When we first saw it, in 1804, it contained scarcely 
any thing more than a common market-garden, but it possesses 
now many of the rarer and more expensive plants ; decidedly 
the most valuable nursery collection at Oxford. Among the 
camellias are C. reticulata, C. japonica fimbriata, and all the best 
varieties of Mr. Press. Almost all the new shrubs which have 
been recommended in this Magazine are to be found here; 
a number of them we certainly did not expect to see. We 
cannot say much for the manner in which they are propagated 
or cultivated, speaking comparatively with the London nur- 
series ; and, as to order and neatness, Mr. Tegg sets them at 
defiance. The truth is, the ground is his own, and he is too 
independent to care about making the most of it. In one re- 
spect, it put us in mind of the Monkwood Nursery, where, as 
its owner, Mr. Smith, informed us (VIII. 1 13.), he allowed 
the rarest plants and commonest weeds to grow up together 
" in a friendly manner." Mr. Tegg has been very successful in 
propagating a number of hardy things; among other shrubs, 

108 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats:—* 

Z)aphne pontica from cuttings as stocks for the rarer species, and 
variegated hollies from cuttings, 

Pensdn's Nursery adjoins the Botanic Garden ; but he has 
other grounds, of greater extent, along the London road. Mr. 
Penson, senior, is 92 years of age, and in vigorous health. 
The articles produced are chiefly fruits and showy flowers. 
There are apple trees here, on a wet bottom, of small size, of the 
burr-knot kind, and upwards of 80 years of age, which bear well 
every year, producing very little wood, and abundance of fruit; 
and a black cluster grape, above 100 years of age, the roots of 
which have also got down to the wet bottom, which produces 
scarcely any fruit. Some parts of this nursery were passably 
clean ; but a part of it, facing the main street of Oxford, on the 
outside of the Botanic Garden, though neatly laid out in flower- 
beds, was, in respect to cleanliness, far below the economic 
point. Mr. Tegg's nursery is in an obscure part of the town, 
and its disorderly state chiefly concerns himself; but Mr. Pen- 
son's nursery forms the very eye of the city when entering it 
from London ; and, as a point of honour, he ought to keep it in 
the very highest order. 

Bates's Nursery is about two miles from Oxford, on the Ban- 
bury road, and ranks, we believe, in point of age, the next to 
Penson's. Mr. Bates chiefly grows florists' flowers, and the 
commoner forest trees and shrubs ; he also grows culinary vege- 
tables. He has 13 acres thus stocked; and, in point of clean- 
liness, his ground is superior to the two preceding nurseries. 
He seems to have raised some good seedling georginas, in flower- 
ing which he is much annoyed by earwigs, which eat the flower 
while in the bud, and he is in consequence obliged to enclose 
some of the buds in small calico bags, kept distended by a 
ring of fine wire inside. The opening of the flower is retarded 
by these bags ; and, in very hot weather, this may be an advan- 
tage, as, by opening slower, it may possibly open better. Mr. 
Bates endeavours, like other gardeners, to catch the earwigs in 
hollow tubes, formed of tubular flower stems of rhubarb and 
other plants, and in small pots of hay and moss turned down on 
the tops of the props. 

Fairbairn's Nursery is close to the garden of St. John's. It is 
of very limited extent, but contains several forcing-houses and 
pits, and a number of good things. Mr. Fairbairn's great object 
in this nursery is to force strawberries, cucumbers, and flowers ; 
finding that, at Oxford, these pay better than any thing else. 
One of his forcing-houses is heated by a smoke-flue from one of 
Witty's stoves, which has been improved in construction by Mr. 
Edwards, ironmonger, of Oxford. Mr. Fairbairn has another 
garden, chiefly for growing fruits and culinary vegetables, which, 
being at some distance, we did not go to see. The pits, in 

Nurseries at Oxford. 109 

which he grows cucumbers all the winter, were heated by hot 
water. The pipes are conducted along the bottom of the pit; 
over these are placed narrow one-inch boards, about an inch 
apart, and over these a layer of turves. On these turves is 
placed a bed of mould, 18 in. thick, in which the plants are 
grown. We do not altogether approve of this plan, which, under 
a careless gardener, must be liable to some of the principal ob- 
jections to a common hot-bed, viz., that of over-heating the roots, 
and that of having no power to produce a dry atmosphere. One 
pipe under the bed, and one over it at the front, would, we think, 
have been better. 

Humphrys's Nursery is on the Banbury road ; and we are 
much mistaken if it will not be in time the first of the Oxford 
nurseries. Mr. Humphrys has only been here a year or two; 
and he has had every thing to contend with, the ground, before 
he got it, having been just enclosed from a common. He told 
us that he was one of the first who assisted in establishing the 
Clapton Nursery Library in 1826; and he was also the first 
who proposed the establishment of a garden library for the use of 
the Oxford gardeners, which has ended in a gardening and 
natural history society and library, extensively supported by 
the gentlemen of the colleges and of the surrounding country. 
Mr. Humphrys has already built a dwelling-house and some 
forcing-houses. He brought with him here an excellent col- 
lection of tulips, which he grows in a bed under an awning 
like that of Mr. Groom. He has also raised several seedling 
georginas of a superior description, and grows a number of 
the liner annual flowers for seed. For this last department of 
gardening, the soil of Mr. Humphrys's nursery is particularly 
suitable. Eschscholtz?V?, which scarcely ripens its seed at all 
about London, ripens it well here. Indeed, we have no doubt 
that the growing of flower-seeds might be carried to a very 
considerable extent in this neighbourhood, on account of the 
shallow calcareous soil and dry rocky subsoil. Mr. Humphrys's 
ground is admirably situated ; and, as he appears a most indus- 
trious as well as most intelligent man, we have no doubt of 
his meeting with the success he deserves. His grounds were 
in good order and keeping. 

Jeffery's Nursery is quite new, and chiefly cropped with culinary 
vegetables. Part of it is laid out, however, with considerable 
taste, and is devoted to flowers and shrubs ; among which were 
some valuable new sorts. We have no doubt it will be a good 
nursery in a few years. We noticed here a plant of Calliopsis 
bicolor, with the dark-coloured part of the petals extending to 
the very tips, which alone were yellow. Seeds should be saved 
from this individual; but we saw no one in the nursery whom we 
could recommend to do this. The grounds were in good order, 

1 10 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

and surrounded by a dead hedge of thorns, very ingeniously 
constructed. This nursery, and that of Mr. Humphrys, were 
in better order and keeping than any of the other Oxford nur- 

The Botanic Garden at Oxford is a venerable establishment. 
It is entered by a noble stone aixhway, through which is seen a 
vista to the other extremity of the garden. The two principal 
hot-houses have elevations of stone, massive and grand in an 
architectural point of view, but scarcely suitable for preserving 
plants, much less for growing them. There ai*e two other hot- 
houses with very steep roofs, adjusted to the angle recommended 
by Boerhaave as admitting the greatest number of the sun's rays 
during the winter solstice. The walls of the garden appear to 
be about 2 ft. thick, and 12 ft. high, with a coved Gothic cornice 
on each side, under an elevated Gothic coping. The whole wall 
is composed of large blocks of smoothly dressed stone, and forms 
the noblest garden wall, speaking architecturally, which we have 
seen in any country. Comparing this botanic garden with all the 
others in Britain, it as far surpasses them in an architectural point 
of view, as it is inferior to the best of them in botanical riches. 
When we first saw it, in 1804, it was a very poor and apparently 
neglected garden, hardly worthy of being called botanical ; but 
since it has been put under the direction of Mr. Baxter, the 
present curator, it has been in all respects wonderfully improved : 
the number of species, as it appeared to us, has been more than 
tripled ; and the whole is in far better order and keeping. Mr. 
Baxter has also raised the entire surface of the garden 10 in., 
and has brought into culture a space outside, the surface of which 
he has also raised. All this he has effected without any extra- 
assistance, in the course of a great number of years, doing a little 
during the winter of each. It is, indeed, altogether extraordinary 
that Mr. Baxter has been able to accomplish this, since he has 
not half the number of men requisite for keeping such a garden 
in proper order. In proper oi'der, indeed, it is impossible that 
it can be kept ; we merely say that it is wonderful that it should 
be so good as it is. In showing us round, Mr. Baxter pointed 
out some box and yew hedges 9 ft. broad, which must be as old 
as the garden itself. The branches of yew are, in many places, 
grown together by a sort of natural inarching. These hedges 
are of no use whatever; and are injurious by occupying space, 
and affording a harbour to slugs, mice, birds, and other vermin. 
The cistern for aquatics is a parallelogram trough of boards, 
lined with copper, about 2 ft. wide, divided into squares of one 
foot each, so that each plant is kept perfectly distinct. The upper 
surface is about 3 ft. from the ground, so that all the plants are 
near the eye. In this aquarium the plant which was the most 
rare to us was the Caltha natans. The stages for alpines are built 

Botanic Garden at Oxford. Ill 

solid of brick ; each step is 9 in. wide, and the thickness of a brick 
higher than the one below it. The pots are thus kept cool, the 
worms are prevented from entering them, and the plants are 
presented advantageously to the eye. There is a considerable 
collection of willows, and a surprising number of new plants, 
considering that none are purchased, and that there is but little 
to exchange with other botanic gardens for them. Some of the 
newest articles have been contributed by our good friend, Mr. 
Cameron of the Birmingham Garden. Near the entrance gate 
is what is believed to be the oldest and largest Christ's thorn 
(Paliiirus aculeatus) in England : it is about 20 ft. high, and would 
extend wider were it not surrounded by other plants. It is now 
beautifully in bloom, a circumstance which adds greatly to its 
value as an ornamental shrub, there being very few of these which 
flower in August. There is an ^ristolochia here, the leaves of 
which always produce a portion of green leaf on the under side, 
slightly attached in the middle, and showing a surface like that 
of the upper side. Whether this is a disease, or a peculiarity of 
growth, Mr. Baxter has been unable to ascertain. There are 
numerous fine plants of Yucca gloriosa in one part of the garden; 
and Mr. Baxter finds that suckers of this species require 12 years' 
growth before they come into flower, and that afterwards they 
flower every 4 or 5 years. He had five yuccas in flower at once, 
a year or two ago, some of them having flower stems 15 ft. high. 
The two principal compartments of the garden are devoted to 
herbaceous plants ; the one to British and the other to European 
and American species : the arrangement in both cases is Linnaean. 
So badly are the flues in the hot-houses constructed, that Mr. 
Baxter informed us it required a whole afternoon's attendance to 
the fire to generate any sensible heat. In the central green-house 
there is no flue at all, but a small iron stove against the back wall 
behind the stage ; and, what will amuse gardeners who have not 
seen the contrivances of the same kind on the Continent, there is a 
small iron four-wheeled waggon, which, in severe weather, is filled 
with burning charcoal, and drawn backwards and forwards along 
the front path by the gardener. There can be little doubt but that 
Bobart, who was a German, and the first gardener here, imported 
this waggon from his own country. In the library and museum, 
Mr. Baxter pointed out to us the herbariums ofGerarde,Dillenius, 
Morrison, and other old and eminent botanists; the first two 
volumes of Rudbeck's Campi Elysii, folio, full of wood en- 
gravings of plants of all countries, very scarce ; this being the only 
copy of the first volume in England. There are only three copies 
of this volume, and six of the second, in the world: all the rest, 
with the whole of the copies of the remaining ten volumes of the 
work, were destroyed by fire; and grief for their loss is supposed to 
have occasioned Rudbeck's death. Every young gardener knows 

1 1 2 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

the genus Rudbeckm, named after this eminent, but unfortunate, 
botanist : he will now have some interesting ideas, which he can 
associate with the name when he sees the plant. It is much to 
be desired that a Biographical Dictionary of eminent Botanists 
and Naturalists were published, from which gardeners and others 
might draw a few ideas to associate with the commemorative 
names of plants. We made an attempt at this, in the first pages 
of our notes to the Encyclopaedia of Plants ,• but, finding that we 
could not do it satisfactorily, for want of proper data, we gave it 
up. It would require a German botanist to undertake such a 
herculean task. 

Besides the relics before-mentioned, we saw the original draw- 
ings for a work on fungi by Dillenius, as well as the dried spe- 
cimens from which he drew and engraved, with his own hands, 
the plates for his work on mosses. Passing over many other in- 
teresting articles, we shall conclude by stating that we saw a num- 
ber of the original drawings made from nature, by three artists, 
for Mr. Baxter's excellent work, British Phcenogamous Botany. 
We were happy to learn, from different sources, as well as from 
Mr. Baxter himself, that this work is exceedingly well received, 
as, indeed, it ought to be. We are persuaded that, when the 
nature of the work is known, and that it will be completed in 
about six volumes, there will not be a scientific young gardener, 
or any young man or woman whatever, desirous of forming an 
acquaintance with British plants, who will not become possessed 
of it. Some persons that we have met with about London con- 
found Mr. Baxter's British Phcenogamous Botany with Mr. Sower- 
by's English Botany ; but the important difference between them 
is, that the latter contains all the species, and the former only 
one species of a genus. The English Botany will consequently 
be much more extensive than the British Phcenogamous Botany ; 
which last will not cost more, uncoloured, than Si. As there 
are but a few genera of British plants, of which it can be desir- 
able for a gardener, or, indeed, any person who is not a 
scientific botanist, to know all the species, we certainly think 
Mr. Baxter's work perfectly sufficient for every practical man. 
Whoever knows the characters of a genus, and has seen the 
typical species, can, generally speaking, easily make out from 
botanical descriptions, or even short specific characters, any 
of the species. Those who want to do more than know the 
principal species, and at the same time to save themselves the 
trouble of discovering species from descriptions, may have re- 
course to Mr. Sowerby's excellent work, in which the whole of 
them are figured, and may be recognised at a glance. For our 
own part, we think that gardeners and most other persons 
should endeavour to become acquainted with the genera and 

Botanic Garden at Oxford. 113 

the principal species only ; for a great deal of valuable time 
may be as good as lost by a young gardener, in acquiring a 
knowledge, or rather in recollecting the names, of obscure plants, 
which might be more profitably employed in acquiring a general 
knowledge of other branches of natural history, and chemistry. 
The beau ideal which a young gardener ought to aim at is, a 
general knowledge of every thing; and a power of directing the 
whole of his attention and faculties to any one subject, so as to 
make himself master of it, if requisite. 

The last thing which Mr. Baxter showed us was his own 
study, or library ; and certainly it is by far the most complete 
one which we have ever seen in the possession of any British 
botanic gardener. That which approaches the nearest to it 
is the library of Mr. Shepherd, at Liverpool ; but Mr. Baxter's 
is twice as rich. It contains all the works on British botany, De 
Candolle's principal works, Sprengel's, Roemer and Schultz's, 
&c. Mr. Baxter showed us some leaves of dried specimens 
prepared for the work on mosses, of which he published three 
numbers some years ago ; but, as Dr. Hooker informs us [English 
Flora, vol. v. p. 130.), " the work was never completed, Mr. 
Baxter having died after the third number." We are happy to 
inform Dr. Hooker and his readers that it was the work only 
that died, and not the author; for Mr. Baxter now is, as we 
hope he may long continue to be, in excellent health and spirits. 
With all Mr. Baxter's knowledge, he is one of the most modest 
and unassuming of men. 

It is much to be regretted that the city of Oxford has not a 
botanic garden suited to the rank which it holds as a British 
university. Were a small sum contributed by each of the col- 
leges yearly, even the present garden might be rendered doubly 
efficient: more especially if the adjoining ground, at present 
occupied by Mr. Penson, were added to it, and a part or the 
whole of the meadows of Christ Church. But the situation is 
altogether bad ; and, for a botanic garden worthy of Oxford, a 
dry, open, ample, airy piece of ground should be selected, 
outside of the town ; say somewhere about Jeffery's Nursery. 
The present botanic garden might still be continued as such, on 
a smaller scale, so as to suit the income destined for its support. 
Till lately there has been a great want of botanical taste among 
the Oxford professors; but we hope that a taste for botany, 
as well as a taste for geology, is now dawning upon them ,• and, 
whenever it does, they will soon produce a botanic garden 
worthy of themselves. We are sure that the stocking of the 
different college gardens with new and ornamental articles, and 
naming them in the manner contemplated by Mr. Fairbairn, will 
contribute much to this effect. After a botanic garden is es- 
tablished, a zoological garden will follow ; and, perhaps, ulti- 
Vol. X.— No. 49. i 

114 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

mately, a public ornamental garden surrounding the whole city, 
as a breathing zone. (See V. 686.) 

The two principal ironmongers in Oxford are Ploughman 
and Edwards; the former has an economical modification of Meth- 
ley's fireplace (V. 238., and Encyclopaedia of Cottage Architec- 
ture, § 2061. fig. 1843.), which deserves general adoption. The 
fuel chamber is narrowed at the bottom, by the back and sides 
being beveled inwards ; and the price is greatly reduced, by 
the front bars and the grate being of cast iron unpolished, and 
plain beads being substituted for enriched mouldings. This fire- 
place may be seen in some of the parlours of the Golden Cross 
Commercial Inn, Oxford. Mr. Edwards manufactures, besides 
the improved form of Witty's furnace mentioned in p. 108., an 
excellent light and strong hand-glass of tinned iron ; a barrow 
engine, the frame of which is wholly of iron ; an excellent tin 
roaster ; and an oval tin hip-bath, which may also be used as a 
child's bath, foot-bath, sponging-pan, or washing-tub. We have 
sketches of these articles, which we may probably give in our 
Architectural Magazine. Mr. Edwards has applied one of his 
improved Witty's furnaces to a baker's oven in Oxford, which 
we examined, and to some bakers' ovens on a large scale in 
London, which we intend to see. The advantage is, a great 
saving of fuel, by the consumption of the smoke ; and of labour, 
by avoiding the trouble of cleaning out the soot every time the 
oven is used. He has also applied these furnaces to the boilers 
of breweries and of wash-houses. 

The road to Wantage is through a hilly country, badly culti- 
vated ; and it is everywhere in want of having the surface soil 
deepened by such an instrument as Finlayson's harrow or as 
Wilkie's grubber ; but it will require another and a reading 
generation of farmers to introduce these implements. We passed 
only one or two gentlemen's seats, but we observed a number of 
well-kept cottage gardens, richly ornamented with China roses, 
hollyhocks, and many of them with georginas. The splendour of 
the roses on one cottage, in a remote situation, exceeded any- 
thing of the kind between it and London : the trees were at least 
20 ft. high, and were covered with a mass of bloom. We lately 
saw a lady to whom the present Mr. Lee's grandfather, about 
forty years ago, showed the first China rose which he had to 
propagate from, as a great curiosity. In some of these gardens 
were Kerna japonica and Aucuba japonica, both green-house 
plants thirty years ago. 

Wantage is a small dull town, but still there are some neat 
little gardens about it. The country continues hilly, and badly 
cultivated, till within a few miles of Newbury. 

Benham House, Keppel Craven, Esq. — August 1 4. The grounds 
are limited ; but, from the proximity of the woody scenery of 

Benham House, Hampstead Park. 1 1 5 

Hampstead Park, to a stranger they appear boundless. There is 
a fine piece of water in the bottom, and the lawns are very 
well varied with trees ; but, the owner having resided many years 
abroad, the house has been long unoccupied, and the grounds 
are in a state of neglect. We examined the kitchen-garden, 
in which the mode of heating hot-houses by hot water was first 
displayed by Mr. Bacon, when he rented Benham House ; but 
the hot-houses are now pulled down, and the garden let out to 
a market-gardener. 

Hampstead Parlc,formerly Hampstead Marshal, Earl of Craven, 
adjoins, as we have just observed, Benham Park, and, in the 
language of landscape-gardening, appropriates the whole of its 
scenery. The most remarkable part of this park is an elevated 
situation, where, on a piece of table land, a magnificent palace 
was commenced by William Earl of Craven, in 1662. The 
legend of the place is, that this palace was erected by the first 
Earl of Craven (well known for his gallantry in the wars under 
Gustavus King of Sweden) for the daughter of James VI., the 
widowed Queen of Bohemia, to whom, it is said, he was privately 
married. This earl inherited great wealth from his father, who 
was a citizen of London. It was for this same queen that the 
magnificent gardens of Heidelberg were planned, and partly 
executed, by Solomon Caus, one of the most celebrated archi- 
tects and engineers of his time. In his published plans of the 
Heidelberg gardens [Hortus Palatinus Heidelberg^, S,c., 1620) is 
a design for an orangery, with the idea thrown out of heating it 
by steam. In all probability, this orangery was the largest then 
in Germany. It is a remarkable circumstance, that, though these 
two magnificent places were formed for the Queen of Bohemia, 
she never enjoyed either of them. She was driven from Heidel- 
berg, by her first husband's defeat at Prague, before the gardens 
there were finished; and she died the very year after the palace 
of Hampstead Marshal was commenced. The Earl of Craven 
never married again, and, after his death, his titles and estates 
went to a distant relation. 

The architect of the palace at Hampstead Marshal was Sir 
Balthazar Gerbier, who died in 1667, and is buried in a small 
church adjoining the site of the palace ; where, also, was buried 
Gideon Hickson, " who was smith and farrier to the abovesaid 
noble earl, and who died in the year 1677." This palace was 
burned down in 1718; but the grand piers for the gates of the 
garden scenery, amounting to 1 2, each about 20 ft. high, and 
superbly decorated with sculpture, still remain ; as does the 
kitchen-garden, with an elevated terrace forming one side of it. 
We were informed by Mr. Dawkins, the gardener here, that a 
London architect has recently proposed to remove these piers to 
Coombe Abbey, the earl's seat, near Coventry. We hope no 

i 2 

116 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats: — ■ 

such sacrilege will be perpetrated. We would rather recommend 
recourse being had to the original plans for the palace and its 
accompaniments ; and, as the site is elevated, and commands 
extensive prospects on at least three sides, we would realise all 
the accompaniments, such as terraces and gardens, and build 
walls representing the general outline of the house. We would 
raise these walls to the intended height of the basement floor, 
and on this level platform, we would form a flower-garden, or 
even a plain area of smooth turf, from which the views of the 
surrounding country might be enjoyed. We would even go a 
step farther, and carry up the walls so as to terminate them a few 
feet higher than the platform, irregularly, distinctly indicating the 
openings for the windows, &c, and varying the whole with vege- 
tation, so as to make it appear like a ruin. The situation is well 
adapted for a magnificent house, from its dry gravelly soil, as well as 
from its elevated surface ; and we only wonder that any one should 
reside, even for a month or two, in such a low, dull, damp situation 
as Coombe Abbey, who had an opportunity of building here. The 
kitchen-garden intended for the palace contains seven acres, and 
the walks, which are of turf, were originally of such a width as 
to admit of a carriage driving all round and through the garden. 
The kitchen-garden in those days, it must be recollected, formed 
a part of the pleasure-ground, and, in correspondence with this 
idea, the terrace above mentioned is on that side of it which is 
opposite to the house. This magnificent terrace is now used as 
a rabbit warren. The walls of the kitchen-garden are most 
substantial, being built of sound brick, and well protected with 
stone copings. Against one of them the original fig trees still con- 
tinue to bear excellent crops. There is a commodious gardener's 
house, with large lofty rooms; and some new hot-houses have 
been commenced. One of these, a peach-house, is heated by 
steam, by Messrs. Bailey of Holborn, the iron pipes being cast 
so as to imitate cables, in allusion to the late earl's fondness for 
maritime pursuits. The present residence of Hampstead Park 
is more than half a mile from this ancient garden, on a declivity 
in the lower part of the grounds. It is very pleasingly situated, 
and, though it was originally nothing more than a keeper's lodge, 
it is now enlarged, and has been rendered fit for the residence 
of a wealthy family. As both the additions to the house and to 
the grounds have been made by degrees, and without any pre- 
viously concerted plan, with a view to unity of system and effect, 
it is not to be expected that much instruction can be derived 
from studying the general arrangement of this residence; but 
there is a great deal of variety in the details, and nothing can 
exceed the excellence of the culture of the flowers and shrubs. 

There are several separate flower-gardens, each laid out 
with taste, and planted with the choicest species and varieties. 

Benham House, Hampstead Park. 1 1 7 

Two of these flower-gardens have the beds surrounded, by 
edgings of box, with gravel walks between, and open trelliswork 
summer-houses in the centre ; and another has the beds on turf, 
and contains an octagon tea-room, very tastefully designed, and 
neatly finished and furnished. Under a wide-spreading common 
sycamore, of which there are many fine specimens at this 
place, projecting from a steep bank, there is a level semicir- 
cular platform bounded by a parapet wall, the coping to which 
is formed by a groove 6 in. wide and deep, on the top of the 
wall, filled with soil, and planted with sedums, saxifrages, and 
other rock and wall plants. The view over this parapet is to a 
wild wooded glen, with a rising bank of natural wood beyond ; 
altogether a romantic scene. There are several green-houses, 
rather too green for our taste, because the woodwork is painted 
of that colour ; but the plants within are excellently grown, 
as are those in a small hot-house. There is a wall for accli- 
matising tender plants, and for showy roses and climbers, on 
which, among other fine things frequently before named, are 
Biliardiera longiflora, which is found perfectly hardy, and is 
now covered with its beautiful purple fruit. On the lawn in 
front of the house are numerous beds, rustic boxes, and several 
architectural ornaments, such as vases, &c. : but the latter, being 
placed on the turf, without any mural connection with the house, 
or any conspicuous architectural basement, are decidedly ob- 
jectionable. Another garden contains a rustic arcade covered 
with creepers, which is very fine ; and, in short, throughout the 
place there may be seen almost all the usual garden ornaments 
of the rustic and trellis kind. There is a boundary fence of 
woodwork, sawn and turned by machinery impelled by a water 
wheel ; and so great are the economy and expedition produced 
by the employment of this power, that five men saw, plane, turn, 
and put together, in one day, nine panels of fence, each 9 ft. 
long, and 9| ft. high. There are numerous hybrid rhodo- 
dendrons and azaleas, the types of most of which have been 
originated by Mr. Gowen, in the gardens at Highclere, and 
a variety of other articles and contrivances, of ingenuity and 
interest, all of which are admirably managed by the gardener, 
Mr. Dawkins. 

From the garden scenery on the declivity we went down to the 
Vale of Kennet, in which, on the centre of a broad expanse of the 
river, where the water is 14 ft. deep, is an octagon bathing hut 
surrounded by a rustic veranda. This is connected with both 
banks of the river by wooden bridges, from the ends of which 
proceed gravel walks for fishing from. These lead to a fishing 
house, and to stews, in which we were shown some remarkably 
large trout, pike, and numerous eels; and chub, which is only 
used here for feeding the other fish, though it is sometimes sold 

i 3 

118 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats. 

in London for carp, which it greatly resembles. The scales of 
this fish were sold, a few years ago, to the London jewellers for 
105. 6d. a pint. We also saw here, for the first time in England, 
the crawfish, of which we had seen, in 1813, great numbers in 
the moist meadows on the Vistula at Warsaw and Cracow. 
They are here in little esteem, and are seldom used, though 
they are there considered as delicate as shrimps, and are thought 
to make one of the best of soups. We were surprised to find 
that, though the trout and the pike may be fed advantageously 
in stews, eels cannot. The manner in which the fish are caught 
at the weirs here is very simple and ingenious. Below the 
sluices is placed an iron grating the whole breadth of the stream, 
and rising nearly to the height of the water in the dam. Beyond 
the rise it declines into a gutter, which leads to a tank or box at 
the side. The large fish which are let out by the sluices are 
thrown over into this gutter, which is also grated, so as to pre- 
vent their escaping otherwise than down a slope on one side to 
the box or chest. In this way as many fish are caught as are 
wanted, and no more, especially eels. 

The Kennet is one of those rivers that exhibit the pheno- 
menon of ice forming in the bottom, and we were informed here 
by the Earl of Craven's fisherman, that, in severe winters, the ice 
forms with such rapidity in those parts of the river that are 
shallow, and where, of course, the stream is rapid, that, in one 
night, a complete dam has been formed across the stream, of 
such a height as to throw the water over the adjoining banks. 
The water thus thrown over also freezes, and the consequence 
would be, a complete inundation of the valley above, if the fisher- 
men did not take effectual means to break up this dam. It is 
observed that, when the bottom of the river is frozen, one good 
effect is the result, and this is, that, when it thaws, the pieces of 
ice, which float up from the bottom, bring all the weeds with 
them ; thus thoroughly cleaning the river. Observing a circular 
pond of stagnant water close by the margin of the Kennet, we 
asked the fisherman whether he had observed what took place 
in this pond when the river froze at the bottom. He perfectly 
understood the question, and answered that this pond, and all 
other stagnant water, froze at top. Some years ago, Mr. T. A. 
Knight made an attempt to explain the cause of running water 
freezing first at the bottom, in the Transactions of the Royal Society ; 
and the same interesting subject has been discussed by various 
correspondents in our Mag. Nat. Hist., v. 91. 303. 395. 770. ; 
but the phenomenon has only lately been explained satisfactorily 
in Jameson's Philosophicaljournal. It is there shown that it pro- 
ceeds from the motion of the water, mixing the frozen laminae at 
top with the water below, till the whole mass becomes cooled 
down to the freezing point, when crystallisation takes place, 

Gardening in the Neighbourhood of Ramsgate. 119 

beginning at the bottom and sides, as it does in the case of 
crystallisation of salts. Every gardener may prove the truth of 
this theory, if he will take the trouble of keeping the water of a 
small pond in motion, by stirring it while freezing. Possibly, 
if thorns were dragged through the water of canals full of weeds, 
by men on the banks of both sides, during the frosts of winter, 
when labour is cheap, the weeds, when a thaw should take place, 
might be separated from the soil at the bottom of the pond or 
canal more cheaply and effectually than they could by mowing. 
This might be tried on a small scale. 

(7b be continued.) 

Art. II. Remarks on the State of Gardening in the Neighbourhood of 
Ramsgate. By Calycanthus. 


Allow me to submit, for the perusal of your distant corre- 
spondents, a few casual observations on the state of gardening 
in this neighbourhood. 

The natural formation of the country is not favourable for 
any display of the picturesque. Almost the whole of it is 
arable, and in a very high state of cultivation ; indeed, there is 
but one park, properly so called, in the Isle of Thanet, and 
that is 

Qiiex, the Seat of J. P. Powell, Esq. — There is no particular 
beauty in any part of this park; and the house is singularly ill 
placed. I believe there is no sea view, even from the roof. 
Mr. Powell is an amateur in the science of bell-ringing, and has 
erected several fantastic and grotesque belfries in different parts 
of his grounds : one of them forms a prominent landmark to 
vessels off the coast. 

Piermont House, at Broadstairs, known to gardeners as For- 
syth's Villa, formerly a celebrated place for plants, is and has 
long been sadly neglected ; and there is not much, in any part 
of the outline, to redeem the present state of the details of its 
pleasure-ground. The mansion stands high, and too much 
exposed ; but the view from it is pleasing. 

There are several villas in the neighbourhood, of which East 
Cliff Lodge, M. Montefiore, Esq. ; Ellington, Major Garratt ; 
and Hartsdown, Taddy, Esq., are, I think, the most con- 
siderable. There are no striking features in any of these, 
farther than the natural beauties of sea, land, and trees com- 
bined ; the last very sparingly. At East Cliff there has been 
considerable expense incurred in the erection of towers, tur- 
reted walls, &c, of flint. The effect is curious, but petty and 

120 Notices of some Country Seats 

The Farmers of the Isle of Thanet are, in general, a well 
educated and rather superior class. Their gardens are well 
supplied with showy flowers, and, in many cases, laid out with 
considerable taste. Many of the farm houses and buildings are 
of flint; and this material gives a picturesque and pleasing effect 
to simple forms. 

As I write merely for the benefit of my brother-gardeners, I 
shall not refer to the numerous published descriptions of the 
Isle of Thanet farther than to observe that they either omit, or 
give a very slight notice of, the village of Dumpton, between 
Broadstairs and Ramsgate, and by far the most woody and 
rural spot in the isle, generally so bare of trees. 

The Villa of R. Croft, Esq., presents no particular feature of 
beauty, and is suffering much from neglect ; but near it is one of 
the prettiest farm houses I have ever seen. It is a genteel and 
commodious building, with stuccoed front and cottage roof, pro- 
jecting considerably. A dell, formerly a chalk pit, is in front of 
the house, and produces an excellent effect of shadow under 
two fine specimens of the ash and walnut ; and very agreeably 
deceives the eye as to the extent of ground. 

As to Nurseries, there are none which can interest the scientific 
gardener or botanist. Fraser's, at Ramsgate, contains a fair 
assortment of common and showy plants, and the usual kinds 
of fruit and other trees. Mr. Fraser himself is a man who 
deserves to be placed in a more favourable situation : he has 
travelled much ; his manners are pleasing, and his attainments 
considerable ; but there is no demand or custom in the neigh- 
bourhood for anything out of the common way ; and necessity 
compels him to devote his attention to the growth of that which 
will remunerate him. 

The Growth of Ivy here is, I think, superior to what I have 
ever seen elsewhere, both in rapidity and vigour. The soil, 
being for the most part a very thin layer of loam on a sub- 
stratum of chalk, is admirably adapted for all evergreens. Of 
trees, the walnut, the ash, common elm, and wych elm, espe- 
cially the latter, attain the highest perfection. To sum up the 
whole, this is the land of agriculture, not of horticulture. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Ramsgate, Oct. 3. 1833. Calycanthus. 

Art. III. Notices of some Country Seats in the North-Eastern Counties 
of England. By G. W. 

In your tour through England, in 1831, you did not visit the 
north-eastern counties, where there are some very splendid 

in the North-Eastern Counties. 121 

seats. I have, therefore, resolved to send you a short descrip- 
tion of some of the most magnificent of them, thinking that they 
may not be uninteresting to some of your readers. 

Lambton Castle, the seat of the Earl of Durham, an elegant 
Gothic edifice by Bonomi, is situated on a sloping bank close to the 
river Wear, six miles from the flourishing town of Sunderland. 
The principal drive emerges from the great turnpike road be- 
tween Durham and Newcastle, and passes over three miles of a 
well-wooded park. The other approach leaves the Sunderland 
road close to a bridge where the road to the town of Chester le 
Street crosses the Wear. This, although the shorter drive, is 
by far the more picturesque one ; as it winds over a lofty surface. 
The river, before arriving at the castle, is crossed by a splendid 
stone bridge of one arch ; the four corners being surmounted 
with the figures of four lambs cut out of solid stone. After 
leaving this bridge, the road winds up a valley, over which there 
is an elegant chain bridge which connects the pleasure-grounds. 
The principal view is from the south side of the castle. A 
spacious terrace extends the whole length, from which, casting 
the eye over the machicollated wall (which is 20 ft. above and 
20 ft. under ground) to the deep expanse below, the lambs may 
be seen sporting close to the banks of the river with the tide 
flowing past, and the banks on the opposite side rising to a 
stupendous height, well clothed with old timber, and backed 
with an extensive deer park. Artificial borders for hardy and 
half-hardy shrubs and climbing plants occupy a considerable 
space along the south front, and are seen with fine effect from 
the terrace. 

The pleasure-grounds extend almost a mile to the west, 
through the middle of a wood that overhangs the river. There 
is a flower-garden, with a conservatory and banqueting-room ; 
and, at a small distance from this, a piece of enclosed ground, 
occupied with pits and frames for the propagation and preserv- 
ation of plants. The whole of the grounds, which are kept in 
excellent order, are under the management of Mr. Younger, an 
able and experienced florist from London. 

The kitchen-garden is half a mile to the east of the castle, 
and is approached by various walks leading through coppice 
woods appropriated chiefly to the preservation of game. The 
garden comprises eight acres ; four of which are enclosed in the 
form of a square, on a declivity close to the river. The hot- 
houses stand upon a terrace fifteen yards wide, and occupy the 
whole extent of the north wall. In the centre is a superb green- 
house with pine stoves, vineries, and peach and fig houses at 
each end, making a range of 500 ft., besides a range of pits and 
frames in a slip on the east. From the terrace walk, in front of 
the hot-houses, the view over the garden is superb. In the 

122 On the Advantages of visiting Gardens, 

middle of the garden is a reservoir, encircled with rockwork, 
interspersed with a profuse collection of plants. A portion of 
the east and south borders is sometimes inundated, being con- 
tiguous to the river ; and is often, from its low situation, subject 
to injury from spring frosts. The garden was laid out fifteen 
years ago on the most improved plan ; and every department 
was finished in the most magnificent style. The house for the 
principal gardener, Mr. Rule, is built on an eminence near the 
garden, and is the largest, best finished, and most commodious 
gardener's house in the north of England. The pleasure-ground 
that surrounds this house accords well with the building. Some 
of your juvenile correspondents of late have complained of the 
want of proper accommodation for the gardeners' assistants, 
which at most places is neglected. Here, however, the case is 
different ; for thei*e are two very commodious well-furnished 
rooms for four young gardeners, who superintend the forcing- 
houses, &c. In all its various departments this garden is well 
managed ; and it is particularly remarkable for excellent grapes 
and peaches. Before concluding, I may mention that the castle 
and all the adjoining buildings are lighted with gas, supplied 
from works erected solely for that purpose. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Staffordshire, Oct. 14. 1833. G. W. 

(To be continued.') 

Art. IV. On the Advantages "which Gardeners may derive from in- 
specting the Gardens of others ; and on the Destruction of different 
Insects. By R. T. 


I think it is very much for the benefit both of ourselves and 
others, when we can take a peep at the grounds of our brethren, 
and, having made our observations, embrace the most favourable 
opportunity of exposing what we see amiss, in hopes that, when 
we call again, we may find an alteration. Now, Sir, as I know 
of no better plan for doing this effectually, and without giving 
offence to individuals, than publishing it in your Magazine, 
perhaps you will allow me to state a few objectionable things 
which, I doubt not, many others have often observed as well as 
myself, and which are all easily to be remedied. Having the 
good fortune to serve a gentleman who keeps a horse for my 
accommodation, I have frequent opportunities both of improving 
myself, and also of detecting the errors of others. 

At one place where I called, I was no sooner shown into a 
vinery, than the noise of wasps was so great, that one would 
have almost imagined a swarm of bees had taken possession of 

and on the Destruction of Insects. 123 

the house. I could not help expressing my surprise ; and, 
having asked my conductor why they did not employ people to 
destroy their nests, I was told that they did ; but that they did 
not find many. I then enquired what they were paid for each 
nest, and he told me three-pence. This at once accounted for 
what I had seen and heard. If gentlemen wish their labourers 
to toil all their dinner time, and all their leisure hours in the 
evening, nay, perhaps half the night, in search of nests, and yet 
not to destroy above half a dozen, arid to receive no higher a 
reward than three-pence each, it is no wonder that very few are 
found. One shilling each is the lowest that ought ever to be 
given for a wasps' nest. But the best method to insure their 
destruction is to pay sixpence each for every queen wasp that 
can be caught in the spring, when the wasps are collecting 
materials with which to build their nests. This not only 
reduces the price by one half (as every queen has a nest), but 
it also destroys the wasps before they have done any mischief: 
whereas, by only paying for the nests, the men will often be 
tempted to let the queens escape. Besides, the nest may, per- 
haps, have acquired the size of a peck measure before it is 
found, and several thousands of wasps from it may have been 
destroying the fruit for months. So effectually have I known 
wasps destroyed by killing the queens early in the season, that, 
where it has been done, there has not been a single nest near 
the premises, while other people have had them in abundance. 

I beg now to call your attention to another of the common 
enemies of gardens, I mean the earthworms, which are often 
so numerous in bark beds, that they get into the pots, and do 
great injury to the pines and other plants plunged therein; and, 
although they are to be kept down without using what I am 
about to recommend, yet, as there are so many who seem not to 
know an effectual means of destroying them, it may not be amiss 
to inform such how it may be accomplished without danger or 
difficulty. After turning the tan in the usual manner, take some 
common salt, say about a quarter of a pound to a light ; let it be 
dry and broken fine ; throw about half of it on the bed as regu- 
larly as you can ; fork the surface over about the depth of the 
pots ; then throw on the other half, and plunge the pots as 
usual. This will destroy all the worms it touches, and will pre- 
vent others from coming up from the bottom of the bed ; and 
the quantity of salt used will not injure the plants, even if the 
roots get out of the pots. 

Worms and stagnant water are also great enemies to plants 
in large pots, especially when standing on the borders in green- 
houses during the winter, or on the ground out of doors in 
summer. A correspondent has recommended tubs for orange 
trees standing hollow from the ground, on this account; but 

124 Garden of the Rev. Thomas Gamier, 

where these are not used, take a piece of slate the size of 
the bottom of the pot, and place it where the pot is to stand ; 
then take three small stones, or any thing else, and place them 
between it and the pot: this will permit the water to drain 
away, and prevent the worms from getting in. 

Worms and slugs are also very destructive to crops of potatoes, 
especially if it happens to be a wet season for planting ; and 
many persons suppose that the bad crop is owing to the wet 
having rotted the sets, when, upon examination, it has been 
found that they have been destroyed by worms and slugs. To 
prevent this, as soon as the potatoes are cut, spread the sets thinly 
on the ground, and throw a small quantity of quicklime over 
them ; then turn them up together, when the moisture of the 
potatoes will cause the lime to slake, and form a thin coat over 
the sets, which will save them. If the sets (or whole potatoes, 
where these are used) are too dry to slake the lime, they may 
be sprinkled lightly with water previously to putting the lime on. 

Another thing looks very bad in many collections of plants; this 
is, a dirty flower-pot, oftentimes as green all over as the leaves 
of the plant it contains. To prevent this green accumulating, 
take care that all empty pots are kept clean ; and, in a wet day, 
let a man take a few pots of each size, and, looking over the 
houses, let him gently turn any plants out that require it, and 
put them into clean pots of the same size. This may be easily 
done without making a litter. 

Perhaps some of your readers will think the above hardly 
worth sending to your Magazine ; but there are others who are 
not so well informed, and who, like myself, are glad of any 
friendly hint, and thankful for any information they may receive. 
It is for such I write : and should you think this worthy your 
notice, I may, perhaps, at some future time, trouble you again. 
The foregoing remarks being applicable at this season of the 
year, I thought it best to begin with them. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Middlesex, Feb. 1834. R. T. 

Art. V. Descriptive Notice of the Garden of the Rev. Thomas 
Gamier, at Bishopstoke Vicarage, Hampshire. By the Conductor. 

We called at this place, August 20. 1833, and the following 
notice of it was made the same evening, at Southampton. 

Bishopstoke Vicarage, the Rev. Thos. Gamier. — August 20. 
This is a place of an acre or two, on a bank facing the south, 
remarkable for its wall, covered with choice half-hardy plants, 
and its lawn, ornamented with the finest American shrubs and 

at Bishopstoke Vicarage, Hampshire. 


most select trees. It is a perfect gem of botanical beauty in the 
foreground, heightened in effect by interesting gleams of distant 
scenery, seen between and over fine oaks and elms, on the lower 
part of the declivity. 

In order to give our readers a correct idea of the details of 
this garden, so exceedingly rich in choice plants, we applied to 
Mr. Gamier for a ground plan ; and he has obligingly had one 
prepared for us, of which Jig. 1 1. is an engraving. He has also 
sent us a small view of the vicarage house. (Jig. 10.) The fol- 
lowing are the details of the plan : — 

1. Rhododendron maximum, new. 2. Pink-flowering thorn. 3. Bed of a variety of choice roses. 
4. Bed of pinks in summer, China asters in autumn. 5. C6rnus florida. 6. .Rhododendron, 
a new variety. 7. .Rhododendron catawbiense. 8. Small bed of Kerbena chamsedrifblia. 

9. Large azalea. 

10. .4'rbutus. 11. Portugal laurel. 12. Laurustinus. 13. Bed of heartseases. 14. Variegated 
rhododendron. 15. .Rhododendron dadricum atro-vlrens. 16. Large narrow-leafed bay. 

17. Rhododendron ponticum. 18. Two superb elms. 19. Bed of a variety cf herbaceous 


20. Azalea /edifblia (indica alba). 21. Round bed of herbaceous plants. 22. Rhododendron pun- 
ticum. 23. Rhododendron, hybrid. 24. Rhododendron, hybrid. 25. Oval bed of pelar- 
goniums, stocks, and sorts of Rbsa odorata. 26. Laurustinus. 27. Rhododendron rbseum. 
28. Kalmza lalifolia. 29. Clump of American plants. 

30. Humea elegans. 31. Oval bed of choice herbaceous plants. 32. Large Rhododendron 

arbbreum. 33. Pxbnia Moutan. 34. Rhododendron alta-clerense. 35. Magnblz'a grandi- 
flbra, 26 ft. square. 

Growing under veranda : — 36. Camellz'a japonica wzyrtif olia. Camellia striped, orange-leafed myrtle, 
and citron. 37. Magnificent broad leafed myrtle. 38. Camellia japonica atrorubens. 

39. Camellz'a jap6nica, double white 40. Camellia jap6nica Pompbnia. 41. Camellz'a 

jap6nica p&oniceflbra, and double striped ; and stand of pelargoniums. 

42. Magnolia grandiflbra. 43. Rbsa Banksz'^. 44. Magnblz'a purpurea. 45. Jasmlnum 

revoKitum. 46. Magnblz'a grandiflbra, 30 ft. high. 47. Noisette rose. 48. Long bank of 
the choicest American plants, chiefly consisting of the new hybrid rhododendrons ; and in. 
eluding all the new varieties of Azalea indica. 49. Fibiirnum lucidum. 

50. Aiicuba japonica. 51. Vase containing pelargoniums, blue lobelias, and Lophospermum eru- 

bescens. 52. Rhododendron catawbiense, variety. 53. Standard Magnblz'a grandiflbra. 

54. Vase, containing scarlet pelargoniums and Maurandya Barclayaraa. 55. Standard Camellz'a 
jap6nica. 56. Azalea rhododendron, hybrid. 57. Magnolias purpurea. 58. Vase, contain- 
ing pelargoniums, and Ferbena charcuedrif blia. 59. Very large elm, with seats. 

60. Rhododendron arbbreum. 61. Vase of scarlet pelargoniums, and pink Maurandya [? semper- 
flbrens]. 62. Ricus elastica. 63. Red cedar. Juniperus virginiana. 64. Bed of pinks in 
summer, China asters in autumn. 65. Aiicuba japonica. 66. Nerium plenum [? N. Oleander 
var. splendens]. 67. Round bed of scarlet and white varieties of georg'ina. 68. Oval bed of 
herbaceous plants. 69. F6chsz'a gracilis. 

70. Chionanthus [?] fulgida. 71. Berberis riiversifblia. 72. Yucca gloribsa. 73. Oval bed of 
Rbsa odorata and of Calvert's Noisette roses. 74. Pinus Webbz'ana. 75. Oval bed of tree 

and dwarf roses. 76. Azalea indica alba. 77. Large standard single-flowered camellia. 

78. Oval bed of varieties of hybrid rhododendrons and azaleas. 79. Rhododendron arbbreum. 

80. Large mass of rhododendrons. 81. Round bed of choice azaleas. 82. Rhododendron mag- 

nolitefdlium. 83. Azalea nudiflbra coccinea. 84. Bed of varieties of georginas. 85. iigiis- 
trum lucidum. 86. Kalmza latifblia. 87. Aristotelz'a Mdcqui, new variety. 88. Bed of 

hydrangeas. 89. Arauc&ria imbricata. 


Garden of the Rev. Thomas Gamier, 

92. Edwardsz'a grandiflbra. 
95. Large vase. 96. Rhododcn- 
98. Oval bed of choice herbaceous 

102. Malachodendron ovatum. 

90. Clump of rhododendrons. 91. Round bed of georginas. 

93. Three fine elms in a group. 94. Photinia serrulita. 
dron microphyllum. 97. Very large rhododendron, 

plants. 99. A very large spreading oak tree, with seats. 

100. Bed of choice herbaceous plants. 101. Magnolia auriculfcta. 

103. Magnb/z'a glauca. 104. Very large clump of rhododendrons. 105. Cotoneaster micro- 
phylla. 106. Bed of sorts of Chinese chrysanthemums. 107. Rhododendron azalea, hybrid. 
108. Bed of twelve of Calvert's new varieties of Rbsa odorata and standard perpetuals. 109. Gor. 
dom'a pubescens. 

110. Dracaena australis. 111. Standard Cydbnia japonica. 112. Azalea. 113. Bed of choice 
azaleas. 114. Magnblz'a citriodbra. 115. Raabnz'a Moutan jbsea. 116. Ryrus spectabilis, 
large. 117. Edwardsz'a grandiflbra. 118. Large arbutus. 119. Daphne p6ntica. 

120. Chimonanthus fragrans. 121. Large Rhododendron catawbiense. 122. Large rhododen- 

dron and large bay tree. 123. Kalmz'a latifblia. 124. Oval bed of choice herbaceous plants. 
125. Magnblz'a conspicua. 126. Magnblz'a cordata. 127. Round bed of Lobelz'a fulgens and 
of double tuberoses. 128. Magnblz'a maxima. 129. Eriob6trya jap6nica. 

130. Round bed of tree and dwarf roses. 131. Magnblz'a Thompsom'dtta. 132. Magnblz'a pur- 

purea. 133. Magnbha maerophylla. 134. Oval bed of dwarf georginas. 135. ^'rbutus 

procera. 136. Magnbha acuminata. 137. Clump of rhododendrons. 138. Bed of pelar- 

goniums, border of German stocks. 139. Covered seat made with reeds. 

140. Fuchsz'a microphylla. 141. Rhododendron Smfthzz. 142. Clump of evergreens and rhodo- 
dendrons. 143. Oval bed of choice azaleas. 144. Round bed of camellias. 145. Piebnia 
Mo&tan papaveracea. 146. Cupressus lusitanica. 147. Magnblza glauca. 148. Round bed 
of azaleas. 149. Weeping willow. 

150. Berbe ris fascicularis. 151. Osmunda regalis. 152 Oval bed of herbaceous plants. 

153. Plnus occidentals. 154. Oval bed of Calvert's Noisettes. 155. Rhododendron arbbreum 
maximum. 156. Rhododendron rbseum. 157. Oral bed of herbaceous plants. 158. Aris- 
totfelz'a Mdcqui. 159. Magnblza purpurea. 

160. Bed for georginas. 161. Arauchria ferasiliana. 162. Dracaena ovata. 163. Cedar of 

Lebanon. 164. Magnblza glauca. 165. raccinium uliginbsum. 166. Rhododendron (old) 
maximum. 167. Kalmz'a latifblia. 168. Single red camellia. 169. Rhododendron alta- 


170. Magnbl/a tripetala. 171. Oval bed of Cydbnia jap6nica, red and white. 172. Large azalea. 

173. Round bed of georginas. 174. Magnblza Thompsonzazia. 175. Round bed of Ferberia 
chama;drifblia and of Thunbergz'a alata. 176. Ribes sanguineum. 177. Rhododendron 

ponticum. 178. Rhododendron. 179. Oval bed of azaleas. 

at Bishopstoke Vicarage, Hampshire. 


180 Bed of Ferbena venbsa. 181. Sopkbra jap6nica pfndula. 182. ^E'sculus rubictfnda (rbsea 

' Bot Ree) 183. Robima hispida arbbrea. 184. Bed of herbaceous plants. 185. Chionan- 

thus marftima. 186. Oval clump of rhododendrons. 187. ^t'rbutus longifbha. 188. Cra- 

fce'eus Axarblus. 189. .Rhododendron catawbiense. 
190 Mvrtle 191. Large yellow azalea. 192. Variegated holly. 193. Broussone *a papyrifera. 

194 C'h'ionanthus virginica. 195. Juniperus bermudiana. 196. Round bed of azaleas. 

197. Large American bed. 198. Late-flowering azalea. . 199. Magnblw auriculata 
200. Oval bed of varieties of Lobelia. 201. Sophbra Jap6n>ca 202 Oval bed for flowers. 

203 .Erica arbbrea. 204. Rhododendron, new variety. 205. Rhododendron. 206 Raphfo- 

lepi's indica. 207. JPiex wyrtifblia. 20a Bed of anemone-flowered georgmas. 209. Cun- 

210. to^Td a of C v e arfe«es of pelargonium, 211. Diosp*rus ibtus 212 ffj*** ggg 
213 Rhododendron (new) maximum. 214. Large Kalm«z latifbha. 215. -Pnnos nepaiensis. 
Ill cSS^^r^W 217. ijhamnus latifblius. 218. Chinese arbor-vita,, Thuja onentahs. 

220 LLfMignblSllala.' 221. Cuprgssus pendula t ? Schubert disticha pendula] 222. Round 
bed of Uly of the valley/ 223. Mvrtle. 224. Hydrangea. 225. Rhododendron, new 

variety 226 Arbutus 227. Bed of Scotch roses. 228. Rhododendron. 229. Sch.nus 

230 Holly 231. Oval bed of American plants. 232. Bed of dark China rose. BlWta 

lattfolium 234. Rhododendron. 235. Round bed of sorts of -Erica 236 Eugenia. 

237 Rhododendron. 238. Rhododendron, a new variety 239. Dayafia ^enbouttg. 

240 Kicco gloribsa. 241. Variegated rhododendron. 242 Pkyw discolor. 243. Round 

24 \u:mP American plants q ^^^ 

250 S L e e C dlingrho 2 d 4 odend 1^ °' ^l^myrsinelL^Ua 63 . £& Large bed of rhododendrons 

^U. seeanng rn u Virgilia lutea. 255. Dwarf hollyhocks 256. Bed of 

hoUyK 257 Round bed of Lobeha specibsa, &c. 258. Laburnum. 259. Rhododen. 

260. d B O eS'o V f a do e u y b.e tulips in spring, scarlet pelargoniums in summer. . . m. ■**££** &jft £ 

greens and large trees. 268. Entrance to kitchen-garden, with trellis. 269. coverea km 
wood. 270. Undulating ground, with large trees. 

128 Garden of the Rev. Thomas Gamier, 

The first thing we saw, on entering Mr. Garnier's grounds, was 
a Magnolm grandiflora against the house, 27 ft. high and about 
25 ft. wide, which was transplanted in the month of August, 
when in flower, 12 years ago, without sustaining the least injury; 
the l'eason being, that every root and fibre was preserved, and 
the latter not exposed to the air for more than five minutes. 
There are other magnolias against the house, equally high. The 
wall, against which are trained so many fine plants, has been 
built about six years, and is about 10 ft. high, with a coping 
projecting about nine inches, and a copper trough to collect the 
rain which falls on it ; the latter is found to be a great protection 
to the roots of the shrubs, and to the herbaceous plants below. 
Among the plants on the wall, the more uncommon are several 
of the New Holland species, of the genera Acacia, Metrosideros, 
Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, &c. 

The herbaceous plants, at the base of the wall, are several 
AmaxyWidece ; ixias, and other /rideee; and a good collection of 
mesembryanthemums. Among the plants on the lawn are 
groups of camellias, which stand the winter without any pro- 
tection, the loquat, myrtles, tree rhododendrons, araucarias; ^ v bies 
Webbmwtf, and other rare species ; all the magnolias, including 
maxima, and that variety of conspicua which is named citriodora ; 
the former has flowered, but it dropped without the colour having 
been ascertained. We must, from necessity, pass over the names 
of a great number of other valuable plants, as well on the lawn 
as on the wall, and conclude by noticing a very neat span-roofed 
conservatory, designed by Mr. Page, and placed on a plinth of 
three steps, which forms a termination to the terrace walk. 
The outer border of this walk is ornamented with vases, placed 
at regular distances. 

Among the general principles which regulate Mr. Garnier's 
management, we shall mention three of preeminent importance : 
first, he arranges all his flowers and shrubs in masses of one 
kind, even to the varieties of Georgia, by which he produces 
brilliant masses of the same colour ; secondly, all his groups and 
masses are of plain forms, such as circles, ovals, squares, and 
parallelograms, in the genuine English manner, adopted by 
Mason in the flower-garden at Nuneham Courtenay, and by the 
late Major Price, in the flower-garden at Mongewell ; thirdly, 
he transplants the azaleas, rhododendrons, and other American 
shrubs every year, and at any season of the year, so as to keep 
every individual plant detached from the rest, though close to 
them (we saw some beds of azaleas and rhododendrons, which 
had just been removed, looking perfectly well, notwithstanding 
the extraordinary dryness of the season) ; and, fourthly, his great 
secret in acclimatising, or, in other words, in enabling tender 
plants to stand the winter in the open air, is to have a perfectly 

at BisJiopstoJce Vicarage, Hampshire. 129 

dry subsoil. The owners of gardens will see, from this, that, 
when a flower-garden or shrubbery is planted, the work is but 
commenced, and that the care and labour afterwards must be 

We have been subsequently informed that the exotic plants 
against the conservatory wall are covered, during the most severe 
weather in winter, with common garden matting. The coping 
of this wall has a copper guttering, making an entire projection 
of eight inches, which, besides keeping off all perpendicular rain 
from the wall and the border at its foot, is a protection from 
perpendicular cold. The soil required for each exotic planted 
against this wall is renewed every other year ; and, in order to do 
this to the larger articles, the gravel of the terrace walk in front 
requires to be removed. 

The American shrubs grow so vigorously in the groups on 
the lawn, that they are taken up and replanted every two years, 
generally in the month of September. The azaleas and rho- 
dodendrons are taken up with large balls of earth, and the 
ground is so well watered, at the time of replanting, that the 
plants never lose any of their leaves. They are placed at such 
distances as nearly to touch one another ; so that, if they were 
not taken up, and placed farther apart, every two years, they 
would soon form a matted thicket, and display blossom only 
on their upper surface ; whereas, by keeping each plant distinct, 
it displays its blossoms all round from the ground to the summit. 
The soil in which these American plants are grown is composed 
of two thirds of sandy peat and one third of rich loam. The 
loam is absolutely necessary to promote the vigorous growth of 
azaleas, rhododendrons, and almost all kinds of American shrubs. 
[See p. 33.] 

The great advantage of this garden is, its being situated on 
a very dry subsoil, without which it is in vain to try to accli- 
matise such plants as, from the list below, will be found to grow 
freely, some on the open lawn, and others against the conserva- 
tory wall. The great mischief to all tender plants is produced 
by the late hoar-frosts in March and April, which are generally 
followed by very hot sunny days ; but, when exotics are planted 
in a genial soil placed on a very dry subsoil, and in a warm 
sheltered situation, they ripen their wood so well in the autumn, 
that they are much better conditioned to resist hoai'-frosts, and 
that scorching of the young leaves, which is produced by suc- 
ceeding sunshine, than such as are planted in rich soils : though 
the latter may grow more luxuriantly, they never can ripen their 

The following list of the ligneous plants which were growing 
against this wall, when we saw it, was furnished by Mr. Ingram, 
formerly foreman to Mr. Page : — 

Vol. X. — No. 49. k 


Garden of the Rev. Thomas Gamier. 

Caprifolium flexudsum,japonicum, spe- 

Punica (rranatum, G. plenum, G. 

jRosa odorata, elegans, microphylla, 

lutescens, Banksi^, B. lutea, 

Charles the Tenth. 
.Myrtus communis, c. flore pleno, c. 

romana, c. variegata. 
Celastrus scandens. 
Clematis florida fl. pleno. 
Daphne indica, Dauphfnii (hybrida). 
Pittosporum Totiira. 
Wistaria Consequibza, frutescens. 
N lea fragrans. 
Acacia dealbata. 
Tecoma (Bignonia) grandifldra, ra- 


The following list of trees and 
the turf, is also furnished by Mr. 

Magnolia: grandifldra, g. ferruginea, 
g. exoniensis, conspicua, cordata, 
maxima, Thompsoniarca, longifdlia, 
acuminata, auriculata, pyramidata, 
Soulangeana, tomentdsa, citrioddra, 
tripetala, macrophylla, purpurea, 

Pseonia Moutan, M. rosea, M. jpapa- 

Piptanthus nepalensis. 

Cyddnia japonica, j. alba. 

J'rbutus Jndrachne, serratifdlia, lon- 
gifolia, canariensis. 

Daphne pontica. 

Phamnus latifdlius. 

.Myrtus communis. 

Prinos glaber, verticillatus. 

Punica Granatum, G. flavum. 

Cdrnus florida. 

Ribes sanguineum, new var. 

Virgilia capensis. 

Staphylea trifdlia. 

Aralia spindsa. 

Gleditschia horrida. 

Osmunda regalis ^. 

Yucca gloridsa, filamentdsa, variegata. 

Phormium tenax. 

Cotoneaster microphylla. 

Eriobotrya japonica. 

Pinus iongitolia, Webbiawa, Cembra. 

Cunninwhamia lanceolata. 

Chimonanthus fragrans, f.grandifldrus, 
f. luteus. 

Magnolia Soulangiawa, gracilis, pur- 

Tiburnum rugdsum, odoratissimum. 

Metrosideros lanceolata. 

Plumbago capensis. 

Fuchsia gracilis. 

Cinnamdmum Camphora. 

Solly a heterophylla. 

Lophospermum erubescens. 

Clethra arbdrea. 

Eucalyptus obliqua. 

Ceandthus azureus. 

Camellia japonica Pomponia,]. plena 
alba, j. atrorubens. 

Citrus decumana, Aurantium. 

shrubs, which stand singly on 
Ingram : — 

Stuartia virginica. 

Malachodendron ovatum. 

Pigustrum lucidum. 

Chimonanthus maritima, virginica. 

Photinia serrulata. 

Schubertia disticha, d. pendula. . 

Juniperus bermudiana. 

Cupressus lusitanica. 

SopJibra japonica, j. pendula. 

Edwardsia microphylla, grandifldra. 

Gorddnia pubescens. 

Salsdla fruticdsa (Chenopddium fru- 

jE'sculus rubicunda (rdse&Bot. Reg.), 

carnea, pallida. 
Pavia flava. 
Phuja orientalis. 
Cataljm syringceibWa. 
Aristotelia Mdcqui. 
Berberis ilicifdlia, sibirica, aristata, 

sinensis, repens. 
Mahdnia ^quifolium, fascicularis, di- 

Robinia hispida. 
Broussonetia papyrifera. 
Dracaena australis. 
Araucdria imbricata, brasiliana. 
Eight hybrid rhododendrons. 
Phododendron arbdreum, Smiths, 

catawbiense, rdseum, pdnticum. 

In the American beds are the following shrubs : — 

Camellia japonica alba, j. carnea, j. 
myrtifdlia, j. anemonifldra, j. fim- 
briata, j. rubra, j. rubra plena, j. 
semiduplex, j. pseomcefldra, j. Wel- 
bankii, j. flavescens, j. Pomponia. 

Azalea sinensis, pontica, p. glauca, 
p. albifldra, p. tricolor, p. josea, 
p. globdsa, p. discolor, p. cuprea ; 
indica alba, i. purpurea plena, i. 
aurantiaca, i, phcenicea, i. hybrida, 

Floricidtaral Memoranda. 


calendulacea ; c. crocea, c. chry- 
solecta, c. grandifldra, c. splendens ; 
nudifldra alba, n. corymbosa; n. 
crispa, n. globosa, n. mirabilis, n. 
magnifica, n. papilionacea, n. rosea, 
n. rubescens, n. staminea, n. v\o- 
lacea, n. versicolor, n. versicolor 
major ; tricolor, viscosa ; v. odo- 
rata, v. crispa, v. vittata, v. pubes- 
cens, v. rubescens j nitida, glauca, 

hispida, salicifdlia, coccinea, coc- 
cinea major, concolor, spuria spe- 
ciosa, cuprina, poincianifldra, prece- 
dentior, mixta triumphans, nobilis, 
venustissima, flaveola, praestantis- 
sima,insignis, neplus ultra, venusta, 
gloria mundi,speciosissima, Smiths, 
Smithra coccinea, erythrae v a, Car- 
ton/, Herbertidna, 

Art. VI. Floriculiural Memoranda. By Mr. T. Rivers, Jun., 
Sawbridgeworth, Herts. 

White Sc/izzanthus, White Clar/aa, fyc. — I have long been 
amused with the propensity which some flowers, after being intro- 
duced to our gardens, show to vary in colour when propagated 
by seed. To a man of leisure and observation, it would be worth 
while to notice how many years, on the average, elapse before 
this generally takes place. It reminds me much of the varied 
hues of tame pigeons, tame rabbits, &c, so totally opposite to 
the sober tints of their wild progenitors. 

The same season that the Potentilla Russellmwa came from 
seed, being a regular hybrid between P. formosa and P. atro- 
sanguinea, I had a seedling as nearly as possible the same, with- 
out artificial aid. In the summer of 1833, after seeing, in IX. 
465., a notice of Mr. Priest's white schizanthus at Reading, I 
observed one here in a bed of seedlings, pure white, with the 
yellow eye of the original. Clarkz'a pulchella has also sported 
into purity; but, of all the freaks of nature, those displayed in the 
georginas are the most wonderful. About twenty years since, I 
remember my father purchasing some " very rare plants called 
dahlias," of Messrs. Lee and Kennedy of Hammersmith : the 
first season, though taken great care of, they would not bloom, 
but put forth plenty of elder-like leaves, till the frost killed them ; 
the next season they showed a few flowers, and, as is often the 
case with novelties, gave all our brilliant anticipations a terrible 
blow; for who could admire such dingy, copper-coloured, and 
dull purple star-shaped flowers ? and who but the initiated could 
suppose that all the brilliant and superb varieties now in cultiva- 
tion could spring from such an origin ? 

Crocuses. — Nothing is perhaps more interesting than raising 
seedling crocuses. They bloom in three years, and it is wonder- 
ful to see the variety that will be found in one bed ; not only in 
their colour, but in their time of flowering. Some of the varieties 
have varied as much as six weeks, and thus produced a regular 
succession of bloom. 

Roses. — Perhaps my taste maybe singular and formal, but 

k 2 

] 32 Floricultural Memoranda. 

roses always appear to me to have the prettiest eflfect when 
budded on neat stems, varying from 1 ft. to 4 ft. in height : they 
are more easily removed, are nearer to the eye, and their per- 
fume is more readily inhaled. They will soon get over the 
habit of throwing up suckers, which with some is an objection, 
if care is taken, when they are removed, to disbud the lower part 
of the stem, and to take off those roots which seem to have a 
tendency to throw up suckers. When thus treated, they form 
pretty compact heads, and yet not lumpish, if properly pruned. 
We shall soon have as many roses in November as we used to 
have in June : some recent additions to our perpetual roses from 
France are likely to prove extremely valuable. I hope next 
summer to send you a new descriptive catalogue of roses, more 
worthy of attention than my last, which, I should tell you, was 
also my first. 

Pillars of Roses. — One of the prettiest floral fancies of the pre- 
sent day is that of forming pillars of roses. These pillars consist of 
roses trained on iron stakes, from 12 ft. to 15 ft. high, well 
painted ; and they form the most durable, as well as the most 
picturesque, objects in garden scenery. During the ensuing 
summer, I intend to make an accurate list of all the Noisette 
roses that are suitable for training in this mode. These, with 
some of the He de Bourbon varieties, added to the already 
numerous and decided climbing roses, will make a magnificent 
display. Merely to show how a heap of clay may become a 
mount of beauty, I last spring levelled and made circular a large 
quantity of white and blue clay, dug from a pit to contain water : 
on this, with a small portion of dung and pit sand to each plant, 
I planted some of all the hardy climbing roses. The effect is 
now beautiful ; and another summer it will be a mount of rose 
pillifrs, each from eight to ten feet high. 

The best Stocks for Roses. — A prejudice is often found to exist 
against budded roses, and this has arisen principally on account 
of improper stocks being used. Most decidedly, roses never 
bloom so finely as when budded, and the most proper and durable 
stock is Rosa, canina, with its varieties; while Rosa, arvensis is, 
perhaps, the worst. In our nursery we have a great variety of 
soil in a small extent of ground. We have fourteen acres of 
strong dark clay ; secondly, and within ten yards of the clay, 
seven acres of sand ; and then eight acres of fine soapy loam, 
and at a short distance rich loose black vegetable soil. I need 
not say, all this is very convenient ; in our clay dressed with 
sand, roses grow to admiration ; and you will think I pursue my 
(genus) Rosa with some ardour, when I can assert with safety 
that this season we have 25,000 rose stocks, budded and to bud, 
exclusive of our numerous China roses and roses upon their own 
roots. In truth, from June to October, the air of our nursery 

Floricultural Memora nda. 133 

is " redolent of roses." The late Sir John Malcolm, once joking 
me on my passion for roses, said that I should have breakfasted 
with him in Persia ; for, when on his embassy there, to compli- 
ment him, they raised an immense heap, or rather mountain, of 
rose leaves (it being the season for gathering them), and made 
him take his morning repast on its summit. 

Alpines and Herbaceous Plants we grow extensively; and 
the following is, perhaps, the most economical as well as the 
most pleasing method of growing all those of delicate habits 
and small flowers. On the north side of a hornbeam hedge 
is a raised platform, 3 ft. wide, formed of two brick walls, 
each 18 in. high and 4 in. thick, with a hollow space between 
them, 3 ft. wide, filled with earth, and paved with slates or 
tiles bedded in mortar. On the tiles are placed the pots, very 
close together, not plunged in the summer, being shaded by 
the hedge, and kept 'well watered, they flourish admirably; 
and, when the different species bloom, they are placed so 
much nearer the eye, that their beauties tell with more effect. 
On the front edge a painted slip of deal is nailed to small piles 
let in the brickwork. This gives a finish to the whole, and 
prevents the pots from being displaced. A hornbeam hedge is 
better than any other, for in summer there is plenty of shade ; 
but, in autumn and spring, as it loses the greater part of its 
foliage, it admits the sun and air. The worms, the greatest of 
all enemies to alpine plants in pots, are in this manner com- 
pletely baffled, and the plants seem to enjoy the trifling elevation, 
as if they were growing on their native rocks ; besides which 
(this is the economical part), they are never removed to winter 
quarters, but stand here all the season, merely covered with 
fern about nine inches thick, laid high in the centre of the 
platform, and over the fern a single covering of small Prussian 
mats, which are much better than the large mats. They are 
the exact width of the platform ; and, from the fern being elevated 
in the middle, and their close texture, all the heavy winter rains 
run off. As the wind is apt to displace these mats, some poles 
are laid on each outer edge, which keeps them firm. My plat- 
form has been covered this last month or five weeks, from the 
end of December to the end of January; and, in spite of the very 
heavy storms that we have had, we find the plants all dry and in 
excellent order. Keeping them from superabundant moisture is 
a great object ; for frost, if it gets through the fern and mats, 
has no injurious effect, if the mould in the pots is dry. At in- 
tervals of mild weather, in February, they should be uncovered. 

T. Rivers, Jun. 
Nursery, Sawbridgeivorth, Herts, 
Feb. 1834. 

K 3 

134 Culture of Yxice and Gladioli. 

Art. VII. A Note on the Cidture of Yxice and Gladioli. 
By Mr. T. Rutger. 

Feeling dissatisfied with what I had seen of the flowering 
of these bulbs in the nurseries round London, as well as with 
those under my own care, I was resolved to try the effect of a 
different soil from that generally recommended [which is, we be- 
lieve, heath mould, with an admixture of a small proportion of 
loam], and not cramming so many of them together in a pot as 
is usually done. The soil used was, one half rich loam, with one 
fourth of rotten dung, and one fourth leaf mould, both well 
decomposed and mixed up together with the loam : the pots 
were well drained, and a layer of the sittings of the dung and 
leaf mould was put over the drainings. Of the smaller sorts of 
bulbs I put only two or three into a 48-sized pot ; of the larger, 
only one in a pot of the same size ; and of the largest, only one 
in a 32-sized pot. During their growth, and particularly when 
near flowering, the bulbs were liberally supplied with water. 
Under this mode of treatment, my desires were fully realised, 
and my bulbs produced fine flowers, far superior to any others 
that I have ever seen grown in pots. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Shortgrove, Essex, Feb. 1834. T. Rutger. 

Art. VIII. The Result of Experiments tried with Coal Cinders as 
Drainage for Pots. By Mr. Henry Turner, Curator of the Botanic 
Garden, Bury St. Edmunds. 


Having seen an account in this Magazine (I. 224.) of a quan- 
tity of Chinese chrysanthemums being destroyed by having coal 
cinders placed in their pots for drainage, I resolved to try the 
effects of these cinders on other plants ; and I am induced to 
send the result for your publication (if you think it worth a 
place), from observing that cinders are recommended for pot 
draining, in a communication to a contemporary gardening pe- 

Early in May, 1833, I potted the following twenty species 
of plants, using cinders instead of potsherds. The plants, being 
duly marked, were placed among others in the collection; and 
they, consequently, received the same attention that the other 
plants did, which were drained in the usual manner. In the 
beginning of October, I examined the plants drained with coal 
cinders, and found them in the following state: — 

Coal Cinders as Drainage for Pots. is 5 

Number and Names of the Plants. State in which they were found, 




4 Delphinium sinense - 




2 Cirsium afrum - 



4 Silene maritima - 





2 Silene maritima flore pleno 



2 Soldanella alpina 



4 Papaver orientale 




2 iythrum alatum - 



2 Erythrolae s na conspicua 



2 JErigeron glabellus 




2 purpureus 

■ - 



2 Phlox tardiflora Penny (longiflora Siveet) 



2 crassifolia 




4 subulata - 




2 Oenothera macrocarpa 



2 missouriensis 



2 acaulis - - 



2 speciosa - - 



2 Pyrethrum inodorum flore pleno 




4 vfsclepias bombacina 




2 Clematis Viorna - - 



It will be perceived that, out of fifty plants, twenty-eight died, 
and ten were so sickly that I threw them away : twelve only 
remained in a healthy state. 

Cinders or coal ashes are also injurious to some plants, when 
the pots containing them are plunged in the coal ashes, as it will 
appear by the following fact. The varieties of Chrysanthemum 
sinense, which were cultivated in this garden in 1832, were 
plunged about 2 in. below the rims of their pots, at the base of 
a south wall, for flowering. After flowering (late in November) 
they were taken up with their roots hanging in all directions 
over the pots, and plunged in a two-light frame, one division of 
which was rilled with cinder ashes, and the other with common 
garden soil. In March, 1833, the whole of those plunged in 
the ashes were pale and sickly, while those plunged in the soil 
were all robust and healthy ; thus proving that coal ashes, as 
well as cinders, are detrimental to some plants, among which the 
Chinese chrysanthemums may probably take the lead. 

If any of your correspondents would proceed in the prosecu- 
tion of the enquiry of how far cinders may be used for draining, 
or what kinds of plants they injure, and what they do not, and 
would publish the results in your Magazine, the facts contributed 
could not, when they had become numerous, but avail the de- 
duction of some useful general inference. In relation to this 
object, I contribute these. I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

H. Turner. 
Botanic Garden, Bury St. Edmunds, 
Dec. 5. 1833. 

K 4 


Machine for removing Plants in Tubs. 

Art. IX. Description of a Machine for removing Orange Trees and 
other Plants in large Tubs or Boxes. By Mr. John Davidson, 
Gardener to the Marquess of Ailsa, at St. Margaret's, Middlesex. 

In consequence of the great inconvenience hitherto experienced 
in the removal of large orange trees, in tubs or boxes, from the 

orangery to the plea- 
sure-grounds, &c, I 
lately got made for the 
Marquess of Ailsa, by 
Messrs. Cooper and 
Hall, Drury Lane, 
London, a machine 
which answers the pur- 
pose exceedingly well, 
and of which I send 
you a sketch. {Jig. 12.) 
This machine is of 
an oblong form, 4 ft. 
10 in. long, 4 ft. wide 
in the clear, and 3 ft. 
8 in. high. It is fixed 
upon three cast-iron 
wheels ; two of 30 in., 
and the other of 1 8 in. 
in diameter ; the latter 
turning in a swivel, 
and acting as a guide 
to the machine. The 
frame is of oak, with 
a movable back, as 
shown in the sketch ; 
and it is fastened by 
means of four strong 
iron pins dropping into 
iron plates upon the 
oak frame ; which dif- 
fers from the others 
hitherto used in this 
country, in having no 
bottom. When a tree 
is to beemo ved, this 
movable back of the 
machine is taken off, 
and the machine 
pushed to the box, 
thereby, in a manner, 

Premature Shriveling of Grapes. 137 

clipping it ; the back is then to be replaced, and two iron bars, 
with link ends, placed under the box ; four chains from the 
rollers are then hooked into the link ends, and the chains are 
afterwards wound upon the rollers by means of a cast-iron wheel 
and pinion attached to the axis of the same, and worked by four 
hand-winches. This being done, the tree and box remain sus- 
pended in the centre; and there is a stopper to each pinion 
wheel, by the removal of which the chain is unwound, and the 
tree is, when required, lowered down gradually with rapidity 
and ease. 

This machine possesses many advantages; namely, two men 
are hereby enabled to carry trees of upwards of a ton weight, 
which commonly require eight or ten men to effect their removal 
by a common truck. Also, in some instances, the entrances of 
orangeries or other houses are too contracted in height to 
admit of trees being removed upright, and it necessarily takes 
much time and labour to get them out safely by a common 
machine ; whereas by this one, the difficulty is entirely obviated ; 
for, by winding the chains on one of the rollers more than 
the others, the head of the tree becomes depressed in propor- 
tion, and the purpose is effected without any additional labour 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
St. Margaret's Gardens, John Davidson. 

Nov. 22. 1833. 

Art. X. On the premature Shriveling of Grapes in Forcing- Houses. 
By Mr. J. D. Parkes, F.H.S., Nurseryman, Dartford. 


A Variety of causes have been assigned for that disease in 
forced grapes which produces a shriveled appearance in the 
footstalks of the bunches, and also a want of size and colour in 
the berries ; more especially in the Frontignans and muscats. 
Some consider that it proceeds from the roots being too deep in 
the ground ; others think that it is occasioned by the temperature 
of the earth in which the root grows (when vines are planted 
outside the house) being so much lower that that of the atmo- 
sphere within; and some attribute the disease to a want of air. 

Having observed that early forced grapes are in general free 
from this disease, and that it never occurs to grapes grown in 
the open air; and having found, in a house under my care, that 
some bunches immediately over a steam-pipe were free from it; 
I have come to the conclusion that the cause is, stagnation of 
cold moist air ; and the remedy, the application of artificial heat, 
to such an extent (even in summer, when the weather is cloudy) 

138 On the Coiling System of 

as to admit, every warm day, of opening the windows sufficiently 
to occasion a free circulation of air. 

A gardener, to whom I stated this as my opinion of the subject, 
has practised my plan every year since, with the most complete 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Dartford Nursery, Jan. 20. 1834. J. D. Parkes. 

Art. XL On the Coiling System of cultivating the Vine in Pots. By 
Mr. John Mearns, F.H.S., Gardener to his Grace the Duke of 
Portland, Welbeck, Nottinghamshire. 


As I have communicated an account of my coiling system of 
cultivating the vine in pots to several persons, and have also 
given a statement of my experiments to the London Horticul- 
tural Society, I feel it to be a duty also to lay my practice 
before you. 

This coiling system is certainly a completely new feature, and, 
I think, a very valuable one, in the art of grape-growing. Is it 
not a matter of great importance that, in consequence of my 
discovery, a gardener, who may goto a situation, in the autumn, 
where no grapes have previously been growing, may be en- 
abled to produce there easily, for the ensuing season, from 500 
to 1000 bunches of fine grapes ? All that are wanting to enable 
any gardener, so circumstanced, to do this, are, the prunings of 
the vines from any garden, that would otherwise be thrown 
away, and, of course, a convenient frame, pit, or house, for 
growing them in. If abundance of shoots can be procured, 
and there is a sufficient extent of frames, &c, either temporary or 
permanent, two, three, or five thousand bunches may thus be 
produced in a garden where grapes were never seen before. 

The coiling system is nothing more than taking a long shoot 
or cutting from a vine, cutting out all the buds except a few at 
the upper end, and then beginning at the lower end, and coiling 
the shoot round and round, say from three to six or eight times, 
the inside of a pot of 12 or 14 in. or more in diameter. The shoot 
may be of any length, from 6 ft. to 30 ft., and it may be entirely 
of last year's wood ; or the greater part of it may be of old 
wood, provided 3 or 4 ft. at the upper end be of new wood ; 
because, as every gardener knows, the buds from young wood 
are more certain than those from old wood of producing blossom 
the first year. The vine being coiled round in the pot, and 
plenty of drainage being put in the bottom, take care that the 
end of the shoot left out of the pot, on which the fruit is to 
grow, be not injured at the point where it separates from the 

cultivating t7ie Vine in Pots. 139 

coll. This shoot may be 2 or 3 ft. long ; and, to keep it steady, 
it may be tied to a stake, or coiled round two or three stakes. 
After this, fill up the pot with a rich loamy soil, pressing it 
firmly against the coil, as if you were making firm the end of a 
cutting. Unless this is done in such a manner as to bring every 
part of the coil in close contact with the soil, it will not root so 
readily as it otherwise would do. The next operation is, to 
wrap up all that part of the stem which is above the pot with 
moss, and this moss must be kept constantly moist till the grapes 
are formed. The pot should now be plunged in bottom heat, 
either in a pit or forcing-house ; but, wherever it is plunged, 
care must be taken to regulate the temperature of the atmo- 
sphere of the house, in such a manner as to prevent the top of 
the vine from being excited before the roots. If this should 
happen, the young shoots produced will soon wither for want of 
nourishment. Abundance of air, therefore, should be given for 
several weeks, so as never to allow the temperature of the atmo- 
sphere of the house, frame, or pit, to exceed 45° or 50°, while the 
temperature of the medium in which the pots are plunged may be 
as high as 65° or 70°. When, by examination, you find that fibres 
are protruded from the coil, the temperature of the atmosphere 
may then be gradually raised, when the buds will break, and 
the shoots will grow apace. 

The shoots proceeding from that part of the stem above the 
pot should be led up to within 8 or 10 in. of the glass, and there 
trained, at that distance from it, towards the back of the pit or 
house. It is needless to state to the practical gardener, that 
each shoot will require to be shortened, freed from laterals, &c. 
Each vine will produce from three to twenty or more bunches, 
according to the length of coil and variety of grape. I have 
now (Jan. 17. 1834) upwards of 200 coiled branches in pots, 
and nearly fifty of them in action ; some with twenty bunches 
of fine grapes on them. 

I was asked the other day, whether vines so treated would not 
require frequent shiftings into larger pots ; or, at least, to be 
shifted once a year. To this I answered, that while we had a 
plentiful supply of prunings from our own vines, or could pro- 
cure them from those of our friends, the best mode would be to 
treat the plants, after they had borne one crop, as we do the 
roots of asparagus and other plants that we force ; that is, to 
throw them away. If, however, you should wish to keep the 
coiled plants a second year, and the pots should be found to be 
too full of roots, turn out the ball, shake the soil from the coil, 
and cut away all the roots close to the shoot ; then repot it as 
before. If this be done in winter, the plant will produce an 
excellent crop the following season ; probably a better one than 
if the roots were allowed to remain, and the ball shifted into a 

140 Coiling System of cultivating the Vine. 

larger pot or box. The pot or box is in either case soon 
filled with young vigorous fibres, like a hatch of young maggots, 
each eager for food, and consequently sending it up in abun- 
dance to supply the crop above. Can there be a doubt but that 
this is a far superior mode to keeping pots, or even fruit-tree 
borders, filled up with old inert roots ? 

Before my bunches are clearly developed, I have thousands 
of eager mouths or spongioles, extending along the coiled shoot, 
and each gaping for food ; some of these rootlets are 3 ft. long, 
and, before the vines are out of blossom, many of them are 6 ft. 
in length, and matted round and round the pot. You will 
easily understand, from this, how important it is to supply vines 
so treated with liquid manure, either by watering from above, or 
by a supply from a saucer or feeder from below. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Welbeck Gardens, Jan. 17. 1834. John Mearns. 

Since we received the above account from Mr. Mearns, we have heard the 
article on the same subject, to which he alludes, read before a meeting of the 
Horticultural Society. In this paper, the names of a number of varieties are 
mentioned, which had been thus fruited; including the muscadines, black 
clusters, black Hamburgh, black Damascus, black Tripoli, muscat of Alex- 
andria, &c. Mr. Mearns also mentions that, hearing of a new and fine variety 
of muscat, called the Candia, which had been a few years ago introduced 
into the Duke of Buccleugh's gardens at Dalkeith, he wrote last autumn to 
Mr. Macdonald, the gardener there, for some of the primings of this vine, 
and that he had, at the time the paper was written (Feb., 1834), plants of the 
Candia at Welbeck, from coils of the prunings received, with numerous bunches 
of fruit on them, which would ripen in April and May next. 

We regard this discovery of Mr. Mearns as one of considerable importance, 
not only as showing what may be done in the particular case of the vine, but 
as tending to familiarise practical gardeners with some points in vegetable phy- 
siology. It is clear that the coiled shoot is a reservoir of nutriment to the 
young growth ; in the same manner as the tuber of the potato is an accu- 
mulation of nutriment for the young shoots which proceed from its buds or 
eyes when planted. To a certain extent, long shoots of any tree whatever, if 
buried in the soil, either coiled or extended, and two or three inches or feet of 
their upper extremities kept out of the ground, would produce leaves, blos- 
soms, and even fruit, the first year : but those shoots which, from their nature, 
do not freely emit fibres, or do not emit them at all, would perhaps not set 
their fruit; or might even cease to produce leaves in the course of a few 
months. The reason, in that case, would be, that the reservoir of nourishment 
soon becomes exhausted, if it is not supplied from the soil ; and that the only 
mode by which the shoot can obtain nourishment from the soil is by means of 
fibres, which it has either no power of producing at all, or cannot produce in 
sufficient abundance. The advantages of the coiling system are, that an almost 
unlimited number of fibres or mouths are produced by it in a very limited 
portion of soil; and that this soil can be rendered of the most suitable de- 
scription for the given plant, supplied abundantly with liquid manure, and 
renewed almost at pleasure. The use of cutting off all these fibres or mouths, 
when they get too long, is merely to keep them within a limited space ; for 
when a fibre elongates, unless it has, at the same time, room to branch out, 
so as to produce other fibrils, it can take in no more nourishment than when 

Defence of the Cropping of Borders. 141 

it is short, say an inch long; because the nourishment is only taken in by the 
spongiole, or point of the fibre. The whole art of rapid cultivation, both in 
ligneous and herbaceous vegetables, proceeds on this principle. The Lan- 
cashire gooseberry grower has recourse to it, when he shortens the roots of 
his plants at a certain distance from the stem, every two or three years ; thus 
causing them to emit fibres, for which he prepares a circular trench of rich 
soil round each tree. (See III. 421.) Mr. Mearns's mode of treating the 
peach, and other fruit trees, described in the succeeding paper, and the mode 
of cultivating cabbages, and other plants of that kind, by pricking out from the 
seed-bed, and transplanting and re-transplanting into rich soil, instead of 
sowing where the plants are finally to remain, all proceed on the principle of 
multiplying the mouths, and increasing the supply of rich food, within a limited 
space. The result of this is, both in ligneous and herbaceous plants, that 
maturity is obtained with less magnitude than in a natural state, and in a 
much shorter time. The essential principle is the abundant supply of rich 
nutriment ; and the same principle produces exactly the same results in the 
animal kingdom. Hence the small-sized early-fatting varieties of cattle, sheep, 
swine, &c. 

Where a plant or animal is grown or reared chiefly to be consumed as 
food, the application of this principle seems desirable and advantageous ; but 
where the natural character and beauty of the plant or animal are desiderata, 
a more natural mode of treatment, or one more resembling that which is 
generally followed, is requisite for attaining the end in view. 

All intricate operations of culture, such as those of the coiling system, the 
chambering of the roots of trees, taking up and replanting, particular modes of 
training, ringing, &c, it should never be forgotten either by gardeners or 
their employers, are only calculated for places where abundance of men are 
kept, and where also there is considerable skill in at least one or two of these 
men. When these and similar operations are attempted in places where there 
are scarcely hands enough to keep a garden in order by the common practices, 
failure is certain to attend either the new practice or the old ones, and pro- 
bably both. — Cond, 

Art. XII. A Defence of the Practice of Cropping the Borders in 
■which Wall-Fruit Trees grow ; and various Considerations in re- 
lation to the Culture of Wall-Fruit Trees. By Mr. John Mearns, 

The practice of preserving the borders in front of wall trees 
from crops is, I have observed, repeatedly recommended and 
applauded in your Magazine: I beg to state, however, that, 
from long and attentive observation, I consider my wall trees 
to have been benefited rather than injured by a judicious 
cropping, if a proper supply of water, in the swelling season, 
where the ground is dry, be administered. But, even if the 
trees were not benefited by it, I would advocate the cropping of 
the borders ; because I consider south borders, protected by 
14-ft. or 16-ft. walls, of much greater importance in producing 
the supply of vegetables necessary for a family, than any other 
part of a kitchen-garden. Borders thus protected bring forward 
so many autumnal, winter, and spring crops, that, if some little 
sacrifice of the fruit crop should arise from growing vegetables 

142 Culture of Wall- Fruit Trees. 

upon them, it cannot come into competition with the loss of 
culinary products which must result from not cropping them. 
I have here about 12 acres of good kitchen-gai'den, and yet I 
should be loth to fallow any of my south borders. One crop 
must follow another in quick succession, but I am careful that 
each successive crop is different in affinity from the last ; and, by 
such attention, I consider the ground well prepared with an 
abundance of choice food for the next desired article, so that no 
injury is produced to my fruit. 

Standard Fruit Trees in Kitchen-Gardens. — I wish that those 
who advocate so strenuously the retaining of south borders free 
from all crops, had rather taken up their pens to condemn the 
notorious practice of planting open standard fruit trees all over 
otherwise fine kitchen-gardens; their papers might then have 
produced some useful effect. Those who are short of garden 
ground, and have but little room to spare, are obliged to pro- 
cure all they can in the least compass ; and this object, in kitchen- 
gardens in which fruit trees must be grown, may be much 
promoted, with little sacrifice of culinary vegetables, by the 
adoption of pendent trees of only one shoot. It is needless to 
plant standards at random all over noblemen's and gentlemen's 
gardens. To do so evinces a bad taste, because such trees take 
off the good effect of a well-laid-out, and otherwise well-managed 
garden, and are most unsightly as well as most injurious cum- 
berers of the ground ; and, consequently, ought to be discarded 
wherever they can possibly be dispensed with. Substitute, as 
a compensation, an elegant display of numerous well-managed 
espaliers judiciously fixed, and pay a nice attention to wall trees. 
No one need fear having plenty of fine fruit upon the " old an- 
tiquated fan form of training," if a due and judicious attention 
be paid to the trees at all times. The spur-bearing kinds 
require the spurs to be kept short, and not trimmed too early in 
the summer, so as to excite the embryo blossom buds to burst 
prematurely into shoots : when this precaution has been ob- 
served, an abundance of blossom buds will be formed, and in 
every part of the trees, for the following season. If the intended 
bearing branches are made to droop as much as they will bear, 
this posture will check the superabundant sap, and induce fruit- 

On destroying the Insects "which infest Fruit Trees. — It is of 
the utmost importance to the success and general well-being of 
all fruit trees, that they be kept perfectly clear from insects, para- 
sites of all sorts, and all extraneous matters. Winter is the best 
season in which to operate for effecting this object ; and, with 
regard to fruit trees trained against walls, we ought to commence 
by loosening all of them from the wall, and giving them regular 
and judicious pruning. After this, begin upon the main stem, 
even below the surface of the earth, by removing a portion of 

Culture of Wall-Fruit Trees. 143 

the soil, and diligently scrape or pare, if the case be such as to 
require it, every part, even to the extremity of each branch. 
Afterwards wash the whole of the wall most completely with the 
following preparation: — Take strong lime-water, after it has 
settled into a perfectly clear state (so that none of the lime re- 
mains, farther than what it holds in solution), and mix in it about 
a fourth part of strong tobacco liquor ; some soft soap, 1 lb. to 
a gallon ; and about 1 lb. of flower of brimstone, or of sulphur 
vivum, either will answer : if some black pepper, ground very 
fine, be added, it will be an improvement. This preparation 
will clear the wall most completely from every kind of insect. 
After the trees are again dry, have a mixture ready, composed 
of the above ingredients, but in stronger proportions; and, 
instead of the lime-water, use chamber-lie, or the strong drain- 
age of a farmyard ; and, lastly, thicken it to the consistence of 
good thick paint, with quicklime dissolved in it. Take painters' 
brushes of different sizes, and coat the trees completely over 
with the mixture, not leaving a chink, or the axil of a bud, 
without working the mixture well into it. Use the whitest lime 
you can get for the purpose, that, when dry, you may readily see 
where the brush has missed. It is best to coat every part com- 
pletely over two or three times, and it will kill everything that is 
not concealed in the bark. In pear trees, the insects of the last 
class are our greatest pest. I wish some one would be kind 
enough to inform us how to get rid of the warty pest, which does 
not, I believe, commit its greatest ravages in that state. Will 
Rusticus of Godalming be so kind as to give us the history of 
this destructive insect ? I think we have no enemy so resistless 
as this ; all others fall beneath the above dressing. [See IX. 
328. 332. and 498.] 

On limiting the Extension of the Roots of Wall Trees. — I am a 
strong advocate for confining the roots of wall trees, as well 
as those of grape vines ; and I assure you that, if it is judi- 
ciously executed, it is a most excellent practice. I only allow 
18 in. for the depth of soil in my borders, upon a well-laid paved 
bottom, hollow underneath ; with a flue, or hot-water pipes, if 
either of these can be had, in the hollow; the joints being 
securely cemented, to prevent the roots from striking through 
into the chambering. I wall in my roots at 6 or 8 ft. from the 
main wall, although less will be sufficient ; and place plugs in 
shafts, through the paved bottom, at suitable distances, to enable 
me to drain it perfectly in very rainy weather, heavy falls of 
snow, or rapid thaws. Let the soil in which the trees are 
planted be used as soon as it can be got together, by paring it 
off a fine pasture field, or a fine sheepwalk, taking the turf only 
about 3 in. thick ; if not very good, 1 to 2 in. will suffice, and the 
fresher it is used the better. 

144" Culture of Wall-Fruit Trees. 

On removing Wall Trees, and renewing the Soil for them. — 

1 would renew my borders, and remove my trees, every three or 
four years. By removing part of the soil from the surface every 
two or three years, and by cutting off the matted roots, about 

2 ft. from the confining wall, taking out soil and all, and filling 
up the vacancy with fresh turfy soil, recently pared, and roughly 
chopped, the trees will do well for thirty years. The removed 
soil is excellent for most other horticultural purposes. Fine 
training is of importance, as far as appearance goes ; but pro- 
ductive trees and fine fruit can be produced without much 
attention being paid to that part of the art, as I have very fre- 
quently witnessed. By attention to cleaning and chambering, 
these desirable results will be found to be effected with much 
more certainty, and the processes recommended to be well worth 
all the expense they may occasion. If I did not crop my bor- 
ders, when of the above width, and conducted upon the above 
principle, the sacrifice would not be of such consequence as the 
loss of the whole of a border 12 ft. or 16 ft. wide, as there would 
still be a fair space left for many of the most important culinary 
vegetables ; but with such a mode of treatment as that which I 
have recommended, there is no fear of impoverishing the trees by 
light crops of any kind. 

The soil which I use for the most important purposes is the 
turfy surface from the top of a high limestone rock of the brown 
magnesian kind. It has been a confined sheepwalk time out of 
mind. I like it best fresh, and only coarsely chopped for my 
borders, so as to encourage a rapid fermentation about the 
roots; this I take to be of far greater importance than time 
thrown away by fine training in slow hands. 

Chambering of Borders. — It may be judged by many, that my 
method of chambering borders for fruit trees is an expensive 
one; but it is much better, where stone and lime are readily at 
hand, to incur the attendant expense, than to sacrifice the whole 
of a 12-ft. or 16-ft. border. Our cold wet bottom requires it; 
but, even upon a more congenial subsoil, I should recommend 
a secure and well-walled chambered bottom, and the frequent 
removal of the trees, and renewing of the soil, to insure good 
crops; but upon no occasion whatever should I mix rotten 
dung with it as a manure : the chopped turf above mentioned 
I consider at all times the best. I chambered last season a front- 
age of my graperies of 200 ft.; and have admitted much of the 
heat of the flues, and atmosphere of the houses, underneath the 
borders. I have rafters and lights to put over these borders in 
the early part of the season, and these can be connected with a 
hollow wall round the vine roots, so as to admit a free circulation 
between the heated air beneath the glass and that in the chamber 

Culture of Wall-Fruit Trees. 145 

below the border. I intend to chamber about 200 ft. of vinery 
frontage this season, and I am now preparing for it. 

It may be well to state to you, that I have planted all my old 
vines again, and that they have made remarkably fine wood. 
An old Muscat has 22 fine bunches of grapes upon it. I put in 
a branch of the same vine, 10 ft. long, without roots, which has 
made excellent wood, and produced a fine bunch of grapes : the 
black Damascus and black Tripoli have done the same. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
WelbecJc Gardens, Ollerlon, Sept. 16. 1833. John Mearns. 

Further Observations on confining the Roots of Wall Trees, fyc. — 
I am very certain that the peach, plum, apricot, &c, if judici- 
ously planted and attended to, require but a very small space 
for their roots to extend in. A depth of 14 to 16 in. is better 
than a greater ; and a parallelogram of 9 ft. by 4 ft. is an extent 
of sufficient capacity for a tree to cover profitably with its roots. 
By attending to this, but a very small portion of the 12-ft. to 16-ft. 
borders will be lost, as 3 ft. is the proper distance at which to 
keep general crops from the walls, where there are proportion- 
able borders. A few small things, which require protection, 
may be put close under the walls, and upon the chambered bor- 
ders, and will do no harm. The bottom of the walled pits for 
each tree should be paved, and neatly set in good mortar (I 
mean, with the stone squared, and mortised joints) upon che- 
quered brickwork ; two to three or four layers deep, as the state 
of the bottom may be, leaving three or four holes at the lowest 
places for the wet to drain off. Plant the trees in fresh turfy 
soil of a fine mellow hazel loam ; and, as required, mix fresh- 
chopped turf occasionally with a little of the same. In the course 
of five or six years it will be found that the roots have got much 
matted round the walls, and that the tree has lost much of its 
usual vigour in consequence, the fruit being not so fine : when 
such is the case, cut out a trench from a foot to a foot and a half 
broad round the walls which were put to confine the roots, and 
take out the soil and roots completely to the bottom, filling the 
space up again with the usual fresh-chopped turf. Take off the 
top soil from the roots, and fill up with the fresh, forking it well 
in amongst the roots, and mixing it with the remaining soil as 
far as can safely be done. The trees will soon display an extra- 
ordinary degree of vigour, with rarely the least appearance of 
gum or canker, and will bear the finest fruit. 

It is an excellent method to take the trees completely out of 
the pits every five or six years ; and to renovate the soil with the 
fresh-chopped turf, taking part of the exhausted soil out, before 
planting the trees again. If done with a judicious hand, a 

Vol. X. — No. 49. l 

146 On forcing Asparagus, 

plentiful crop of fine fruit is obtained the same season. I beg 
to state that this is the best method to manage all wall fruits, 
with some variation in the chambering. For peaches, nectarines, 
apricots, plums, and grape vines in forcing-houses, it exceeds 
every other method, and the less animal manure is used for all 
these the better. J. M. 

Welbeck Gardens, Jan. 17. 1834. 

Art. XIV. On forcing Asparagus ; by Mr. T. Rutger: 'with an 
Account of the French Method, translated from the " Bon Jar- 
dinier" for 1834. 


In the routine of framing, I conceive the forcing of asparagus 
to be one of the most simple practices to accomplish ; and, when 
any thing like a proper treatment is given, success is certain. 
Nevertheless, as that treatment is not generally known, a few 
hints upon the subject may, perhaps, not be amiss. 

In every department of forcing (blanching excepted), the 
nearer we can bring the article forced to the state of perfection 
which it exhibits in the natural state, the better. This, I think, 
will be conceded by every one conversant with gardening ; and 
the consequences which will naturally follow the adoption of 
such a rule are, that a higher degree of flavour will be obtained, 
as well as a more natural appearance in the article, whatever it 
may be. 

With regard to the asparagus which is brought to Covent 
Garden Market during the forcing season, I have observed most 
of it to be nearly as white in the part grown above ground as in 
that below ; which is no doubt occasioned either by excess 
of bottom heat, or for want of light and air, or both combined. 
A sad mistake this in the cultivators, whoever they may be. 
Defects may be excusable in some kinds of fruits or vegetables, 
which are very difficult of culture; but, in growing asparagus, I 
conceive there is no reason why any difficulty should exist; nor 
will it argue any thing in favour of the practice, to attribute it to 
the desire of bringing the shoots earlier into the market, as, by 
planting the roots a fortnight or three weeks sooner, this might 
be accomplished. The fact is (and I write from experience), 
that, in growing asparagus in artificial heat, the slower the pro- 
cess the better. The heat below should be very moderate, and, 
as soon as the buds appear above ground, all the light and air 
that can be given with safety should be freely rendered ; and by 
this means the asparagus, instead of presenting the blanched 
appearance which it often does, would not only assume more of 

with an Account of the French Method. 147 

its natural hue, but its flavour would be improved, and its size 

Since writing the above, I have met with a paragraph in your 
Magazine (p. 86.) which hints that a further knowledge is ne- 
cessary to be acquired in this country, in order to produce 
asparagus of a good quality; and I should be glad to see what 
the Bon Jardinier for 1834 says upon the subject, although I 
think enough has been given in your Fncy. of Gard., with respect 
to the preparation of beds, roots, &c, for the purpose. It is in 
the after-treatment, I conceive, that the fault principally lies. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 
Shortgrove, Feb. 1834. T. Rutger. 

FORCING Asparagus, as practised in the Neighbourhood of Paris. 
— In compliance with Mr. Charlwood's suggestion (p. 86.), 
and with the wish expressed by Mr. Rutger, we translate the 
passage alluded to, which is as follows: — Asparagus is ob- 
tained in winter and early spring on uncovered dung beds, or 
on dung beds covered with glazed frames, by various methods ; 
of which the two following are those most generally used by the 
gardeners in the neighbourhood of Paris. 

Forcing White Asparagus. — By this mode asparagus is forced 
without removing the plants from their places in the open gar- 
den. The asparagus beds are laid out 4 ft. wide, and paths 
2 ft. wide are left between them. The beds are made up, and 
manured with more than ordinary care, and they are planted 
with four rows of plants ; the rows being a foot apart, (which 
leaves a space 6 in. wide between the outside row and the path, 
on each side of the bed), and the plants being 9 or 10 in. from 
each other in the row. The beds are carefully attended to, and 
cultivated during three years. Forcing is commenced in the 
fourth year, from December till March, according to the de- 
mand. The paths are hollowed out to the depth of 18 or 20 in., 
and the earth taken from them is thrown on the beds : the paths 
are then filled up with hot dung well trodden down, and glazed 
frames are put upon the beds, the frames being filled up to the 
glass with hot dung. The beds are raised 3 in. or 4 in. by the 
earth thrown upon them from the paths, and this is done to in- 
crease the length of the blanched shoots of asparagus. Twelve 
days after putting on the frames, a little of the dung in them is 
lifted up with the hand, in order to see whether the asparagus 
has begun to push : when it has, all the dung is taken from the 
inside of the frames, and the heads of asparagus are cut as they 
attain the desired size. The sashes should not be more than 
6 in. from the soil. The heat is kept up by renewing and stir- 
ring the clung in the linings, and by covering the frames with 

l 2 

14-8 Short Communication. 

straw during the night, and in bad weather. In April, the 
frames are taken away, and the dung is removed from the paths, 
which are again filled with the earth which was thrown on the 
beds. The plants are then allowed to rest a year ; but the 
second season they may again be forced, and so on alternately, 
as long as the produce is satisfactory. The asparagus thus ob- 
tained is called white asparagus by the Parisian gardeners, as 
the heads have very little colour; but there is another kind, 
which is called green asparagus, which may be raised by the 
following method : — > 

To force Green Asparagus. — From December to March, beds 
of hot dung, 4 ft. wide and 2 ft. high, are made successively as 
required ; and these beds are covered 3 or 4 in. deep with ve- 
getable mould, or rich black earth ; on this are placed the frames, 
which are covered with straw to increase the heat. When the 
beds are in a proper state, they must be planted with asparagus 
plants three or four years old ; or with old plants from beds 
about to be destroyed, the roots having been first reduced to an 
equal length, say 8 or 9 in. The roots are placed in the beds 
on end, so close together as to support each other, and so as to 
have their buds all nearly of the same height, mould being 
pressed between the plants with the hand, so as to fill up all 
vacuities. The frames and sashes are then put on, and the 
asparagus soon begins to push. The shoots are small, but very 
green. As the roots do not continue throwing up shoots more 
than a fortnight or three weeks, it is necessary to make but few 
beds at a time, to renew them often. This green asparagus is 
chiefly used in Paris, cut into small pieces, as a substitute for 
green peas. (Le Bon Jardinier for 1834, p. 187.) 

Art. XV. Short Communication. 

THE Seed of the common Cowslip, sown in the garden, it is well 
known, produces numerous varieties ; particularly many with 
blossoms more or less of a red colour, which may be considered 
as the first approach towards a polyanthus, and are often very 
brilliant and beautiful. A red-blossomed cowslip in my garden 
this year produced some very large heads : I had the curiosity 
to count the individual blossoms on one of the stalks, and found 
them amount to 173; there were two other stalks about the 
same size, besides nineteen smaller ones. Thus, there were 
produced, by one cowslip root, the large number of 685 pips or 
blossoms; viz. three large bunches containing 173 each, and 
nineteen smaller ones producing together 166. — W. T. Bree. 
Allesley Rectory, Aug. 20. 1833. ^ 



Art. I. Catalogue of Works on Gardening, Agriculture, Botany, 
Rural Architecture, SfC, lately published, with some Account of those 
considered the most interesting. 

Clarke, Alexander Cowden, Author of " Tales in Prose from 
Chaucer :" Adam, the Gardener. 12mo, pp. 279. London, 

The objects of this little work are, to instil into the minds of 
youth a love for " the beautiful face of Nature, its green fields, 
the shining sun, and the sailing clouds ; " to convey to them, 
at the same time, a taste for gardening and natural history ; and 
to implant in them humane feelings and liberal opinions. As a 
work of gardening, it cannot be considered as addressed to the 
practical man ; and therefore we do not feel ourselves called 
upon to enter into its details of cultures, though, as far as we 
have examined them, they are unobjectionable. To all those, 
however, who wish to imbue the minds of youth with a love of 
rural nature and* a taste for the cultivation of the earth, we can 
most strongly recommend it as one of the best of books. It 
is written in an easy and attractive style. 

Boyle, J. Forbes, F.L.S., late Superintendent of the Honourable 
East India Company's Botanic Garden at Saharunpore : 
Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural 
History of the Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of 
Cashmere. In 4to parts, with coloured plates, 205. each. 1834. 

Part II. has just appeared : it supplies descriptions of the 
plants figured in the eighteen plates published in the first part, 
and contains eleven additional plates. Of these one is devoted 
to an exhibition of sections of the geology of the parts of 
country spoken of, and the ten plates bear pictures of plants 
to which the following names are applied : — Polygala iifyrsi- 
nites, furcata, crotalaribides, triphylla; Silene Falconermwa; 
.Lychnis fimbriata ; Leucostemma latifolia, angustifolia ; Arena- 
r\a.fesfoico\des ; Gossypium herbaceum, arboreum ; Eurya acumi- 
nata ; .Hypericum japonicum ; Cedrela serrata ; Cissus rosea, 
capreolata ; Geranium IAnd\ey d?mm ; Impatiens bicolor, glandu- 

Booth, J. and Sons, Proprietors of the Flottbeck Nurseries, 
Hamburgh : A Catalogue of the Hardy Plants in their Col- 

L 3 

150 Charlwood's Catalogue for 1834. 

lection. Parti. Hardy Plants. 8 vo, pp. 116. Hamburgh, 

This is an exceedingly well got up catalogue ; and it is printed 
on much better paper than is generally the case with German 
publications. It will be particularly useful to the English 
reader, by giving him the German names of all the plants in 
general cultivation; and it were much to be wished that similar 
catalogues were prepared by eminent French and Dutch nursery- 
men. Honourable testimony has already been paid in this 
Magazine, by Professor Agardh (IX. 417.)? to the science, 
liberality, and industry of the Messrs. Booth. 

The arrangement of this catalogue is popular, and quite cha- 
racteristic of the German school. It is divided into, fruit trees ; 
forest trees, for park and forest scenery ; fir trees, for shelter- 
hedges ; ornamental trees, for groups ; evergreen trees, for 
groups ; berry-bearing trees ; weeping trees ; plants for orna- 
menting graves (these are choice perennial spring flowers, and 
different kinds of periwinkle) ; twining and climbing plants ; 
hedge plants ; peat-earth plants ; trees and shrubs for use in 
laying out grounds ; perennial herbaceous plants (those which 
are evergreen being designated by marks); middle-sized georginas; 
double-flowered dwarf georginas; double anemone-flowered 
georginas ; pseonies ; auriculas ; carnations and pinks ; hearts- 
eases (18 sorts, with names); new select flowers; culinary vege- 
tables; hops; and ^4'corus Calamus, which is sold by the hundred. 
The second part of this catalogue will contain house plants. 

C/mrlwood, Geo?ge, Seedsman, 14. Tavistock Row, Covent 
Garden : A Catalogue, for 1834, of American and other Tree, 
Shrub, and Herbaceous Plant Seeds, imported for sale. A 
folio sheet, for being sent by post. 

This catalogue enumerates 420 articles ; and has, besides, a 
postscript, stating that a further collection of seeds from the 
Southern States is daily expected ; of which a supplementary list 
will be immediately printed. The prices put to all the articles are 
remarkably low ; in some cases, twenty-six sorts of herbaceous 
plants for a shilling ! A great many tree and shrub seeds are 
included in this catalogue : for example, 24 species of pines, 
10 of oaks, 8 of birch, 10 of walnuts and hickories, 5 of magno- 
lias, 7 of ash, 10 of i?ibiscus, 6 of / v lex, &c. Whoever has a 
good gardener, and wishes to rear an arboretum, or to have a 
good collection of herbaceous plants, cannot go a cheaper way 
to work than by sending for this catalogue and making a selection 
from it. 

Dennis and Co.: A Catalogue, for 1834, of Pelargoniums and 
Georginas. Printed on a folio sheet, to be sent by post. 

This catalogue exhibits a rich store of varieties of pelar- 

Dennis and Co.'s Catalogue for 1834. 151 

goniums and georginas, distributed into sections, according to the 
colours of the flowers. The price of almost every variety is 
affixed to it, and in the georginas the height also. In both 
families, a good many varieties " have been struck off the last 
published catalogue, to make room for those of more recent date 
and far greater beauty, which are denoted by an asterisk before 
each name.'"' With the merits of the latter we have not had an 
opportunity to become personally acquainted, but we are assured 
that they are of a high quality. Among the varieties of estab- 
lished excellence we observe habranthum, marked at from 5s. to 
1 5s., according to the size of the plant; Dennis's Queen Adelaide, 
Lord Ravensworth, and Ne plus ultra, each at from 5s. to 105. ; 
Queen of Scots, 2s. 6d. to 5s. ; fusco superb, 3s. 6d. ; Weltje- 
dnum, 10s. to 20s. ; queen of roses, 2s. 6d. to 5s. 

Among the georginas, the following kinds are, we have learned, 
those of real merit, and deserving culture generally. We retain 
the star to those marked as new ones : — White : fimbriata alba, 
3s.; king of the whites, 2s.; paper white, 5s.; queen of the 
whites, 3s. 6d. Striped, spotted, or shaded with lilac or purple : 

* alba purpurea, 45. ; * Ariel (no price to this) ; * Desdemona, 5s.; 
guttata major, 5s. ; pencilled white, 35. 6d. ; queen of Belgium, 55.; 

* queen of dahlias (georginas), Is. 6d. ; * Rosette, 3s. 6d. ; striata, 
35. 6d. Blush, &c. : Anne Boleyn, Is. 6d. ; * blanda perfecta, 5s. 
Lilac : * fair Devonian, 3s. 6d. ; Levitt's lilac, 2s. 6d. ; * superb 
lilac, 2s. 6d. Rose-colour, pink, &c. : * Diana, 3s. 6d. ; Lady 
Grenville, 3s.; lastingrose, 2s.; surpasse-triomphe, Is. 6d. ; Wells's 
densa, Is. 6d. Yellow: * Com us, 3s. 6d. ; jaune insurmount- 
able, 5s.; * Jason, 3s. 6d. ; king of yellows, 5s.; * sulphurea per- 
fecta. Spotted or striped with red or purple : * Algernon Sydney, 
5s. ; picta, 2s. Buff and salmon-coloured: Flora Macdonald, 5s. ; 
maid of St. Leonard's, 3s. 6d. ; * aurantia speciosissima, 7s. 6d. ; 
aurantia pallida, 2s. 6d. ; * emancipation, 2s. 6d. ; globe orange, 
2s. ; Prince of Orange, 3s. 6d. Red : * Constantia perfecta, 5s. ; 
Lady Sydney, 2s. ; * Remus, 3s. Striped or shaded with orange : 

* Lovely's Lord Grey, 5s. ; * picta formosissima, 5s. ; Zebra, 
Is. 6d. Scarlet: Barrett's William IV., 2s.; beauty of Ches- 
hunt, 2s-; * beauty of the vale, 5s.; coccinea multiflora, 3s. 6d.; 
*coccinea perfecta, 10s.; Duchess of Richmond, 2s.; * Den- 
niszY coccinea, 10s.; globosa, 2s. 6d.; * oculus solis, 3s. 6d.; 

* Phoebus, 5s.; scarlet perfection, 10s. : * Widnall's rising sun, 
3s. 6d. Ruby-coloured : * beauty of Campden, 10s. 6d. ; * Spring- 
field rival, 5s. ; Widnall's perfection, 5s. Shaded rose, shaded 
purple, &c. : Adeliza, 2s. 6d. ; Elliott's king, 3s. 6d. ; * Lady 
Harcourt, 2s. 6d. ; metropolitan, 3s. 6d. ; * perfe'cta major, 5s. 
Crimson: Justinia, 3s. ; * Walter Boyd, 7s. 6d. Striped or shaded 
with black or white : Levick's commander in chief, 3s. 6d. ; Le- 
vick's incomparable, 2s. 6d. Purple : Lord Liverpool, 3s. 6d. ; 

l 4 

152 Rennie's Handbook of Gardening. 

* Voltaire, 35. 6d. ; Wilmot's superb, 2s. 6d. Dark maroon, 
purple, puce, &c. : Black Prince, 2s. 6d. ; * beauty perfect, 5s. ; 
Dawson's victory, 2s. ; * erecta, 5s. ; * Granta, dark claret, fine- 
cupped petals, 10s. 6d. ; * Lord Althorp, 5s. ; * nigress, 3s. 6d. 
Globe-flowered : Circe, 3s. 6d. ; compacta, scarlet and orange, 
3s. 6d. 

Of the new kinds, marked by an asterisk, there are eighty, 
besides those with that mark which we have quoted. 

Mennie, James, M.A., Professor of Zoology, King's College, 
London: The Handbook of Gardening. 18mo. London, 
1834. Is. 6d. 

This little book, produced at the instigation of Mr. Menteath, 
jun., of Closeburn, deserves to be favourably received by the 
public, from the excellence of the intentions of the parties con- 
nected with it. In our opinion, however, it is by no means the 
sort of work calculated to attain the end in view. Such a book, 
indeed, could not be produced by a mere London author. The 
man who, of all others that we know, either in Scotland or Eng- 
land, could produce the best " Handbook " for the Scotch cot- 
tager is Mr. Gorrie ; and, if we are not mistaken, we mentioned 
this to Mr. Menteath when he applied to us, above a year since, 
on the subject of a " Handbook" for Scotch cottagers. All 
that the Scotch cottager wants might be contained in one number 
of Chambers's Information for the People, and sold for 2,d., in- 
stead of being swelled out into an eighteen-penny volume, by 
mere size of type. Such a number of Chambers's, joined to 
his number on cookery (No. xvii.), the latter being altered a 
little, and rendered more economical, would form a useful four- 
penny-worth to every working man who had a wife and a 
home. Let us hope that Messrs. Chambers will produce such 
a number. 

Alien, William Ely, Gardener to the Rev. M. G. Edgar, Red 
House, Ipswich : A Treatise on an entirely original System 
of cultivating Cucumbers, Melons, and Sea-kale, forcing Broc- 
coli, Potatoes, &c. &c. ; with an Address to the Gardeners- 
of Suffolk, and a practical Critique on " Smith's Treatise." 
Pamph. 8vo, pp. 28. Ipswich, 1834. 5s. 

This work has the great attraction of being concise ; no small 
merit in this bookmaking age. We also found, on looking it 
over, that the end in view is proposed to be obtained, not so 
much by the use of new machinery, as by an improved use of 
the machinery already in existence. In what the " entire ori- 
ginality" of the system consists we have been at a loss to discover, 
and we therefore think that the author is somewhat unreason- 
able in his demand of 5s. for the same quantity of printing and 

Allen on cultivating the Melon, tyc. 1 53 

paper as we sell for 6d., independently of our engravings. On 
looking over the work, we find that Mr. Allen's seed bed " is 
made up in the third week of October, and that it is a common 
bed," with long manure at the bottom and rotten manure at the top, 
&c. To maintain a beautiful dark green foliage on the cucumber 
plant during winter, it is recommended to make up new beds, 
and remove the plants into them ; or to refresh the interior of 
the old ones in the following manner : — "In the middle of 
November, although there is a lively heat in the bed, the air of 
the frame (more particularly in foggy weather) is found to be in 
a very impure and unwholesome state. In such cases, after two 
or three successive dull and foggy days, and [during which] the 
lights have been kept continually close, on the first fine day after, 
take the lights off; [then] place a hand-light over the pots of 
plants ; take a sponge and wash the inside of the frame all round ; 
wipe it dry; and, if the weather permits, the lights may remain 
off an hour or two. A little cold will not signify; it will make 
the plants hardy. Stir the mould, wash the lights, and put them 
on the frame; distribute the pots about the bed, and, the impure 
air which had collected during the foggy days being entirely 
obliterated [dispersed], the plants will show visible signs that 
they are in a more healthy atmosphere. Although V. C. has 
been attached to my name, M.D. has not ; but, I think, every 
one will see how feasible the following observation is : — Where 
an invalid has been confined to one room for several weeks, 
perhaps months, when a fresh person enters that room, the im- 
pure air is instantly discovered, which has collected by the room 
being so much confined. Is it not possible that a fresh room, 
well aired and warmed, would prove beneficial to the invalid, if 
removal was possible?" (p. 4.) 

This idea of purifying the air of a cucumber frame appears to 
us rational, though, we believe, the good effected is not so much 
by purifying the air ; that is, removing from it any deleterious 
gases or poisonous matters held in suspension ; as by getting rid 
of that excess of moisture which air in hotbeds always contains 
in the winter season. Hence it is that cucumbers do so well in 
the winter season in hot-houses, where the air is always drier 
than in frames. 

Under the head of " Peculiar System of Cultivation " (p. 10.), 
we were surprised to find so little that can be considered pecu- 
liar. The following sentence, however, may perhaps come under 
this head : — " After a fruit has been impregnated two days (for 
I have proved that to be the best and most proper age to direct 
all virtue to the fruit), by pinching out the eye at the fruit, the 
one before and after, and stopping the runner, is the way in 
which my fruit has been made to run so far before my neighbours'. 
If this operation is performed before the fruit is two days old, it 

1 54 Sutton on the Destruction of the Turnip Fly. 

is not of proper age to receive the virtue which is directed to it ; 
consequently it will make large at one end, and grow ugly." 
(p. 12.) 

By the address to the gardeners of Suffolk, it appears that the 
author is distinguished as a prize-cucumber grower ; and, by his 
practical critique on Smith's Treatise (noticed IX. 692.), that he 
is not on very friendly terms with one Suffolk gardener, at least. 
We have no doubt, however, of the author's merits as a practical 
man ; and, as a proof of his own confidence in his success in 
growing cucumbers, we subjoin a challenge, which, he says, he 
has made public : viz., that he " will grow six cucumbers against 
any person in the county of Suffolk, none less than twenty 
inches, for ten sovereigns." (p. 24.) 

Sutton, John, of Fisherton Anger, near Salisbury, Wilts : An 
Important Discovery for the Destruction of the Turnip Fly ; 
presenting a Certain Method to prevent the Ravages com- 
mitted on the Turnip Plant by that Insect. 12mo, pp. 24. 
105. to subscribers ; 1 2s. 6d. to non-subscribers. 

Mr. Sutton's plan is starvation. He states, that, as soon as 
the land is turned up and prepared for the seed, the eggs which 
had been deposited in the ground, and are thus brought to the 
surface, are vivified by the warmth, and that the fly or beetle is 
in full action by the time the first leaves appear, according to 
the ordinary practice of sowing immediately after the land is 
ready ; but that, if the sowing be delayed for a fortnight, and 
every weed be destroyed as fast as it appears, the beetle will die 
from starvation in a few days, and the seed may then be sown in 
perfect safety. He farther alleges that he tried an experiment, 
by sowing the same seed in earth under ordinary circumstances, 
and in similar earth which had first been baked in an oven ; 
and that, in the former case, the plants of turnips were destroyed 
by the beetle, while, in the latter, no beetle appeared. Is it 
not, as the writer in the British Farmer's Magazme, whom you 
have quoted in p. 80., suggests, too much to concede that the 
beetle can become hatched from the eggs, and in full exercise of 
its organs of destructiveness, in the short period which inter- 
venes between the sowing of turnip seeds and the rising of the 
plants, as Mr. Sutton has advanced that it can and does ? — C. L. 

Purvis, M. A., De 1' Agriculture du Gatinais, dela Sologne, et du 
Barry ; et des Moyens de l'ameliorer. 8vo, pp. 1 68. Paris, 


The author, in company with M. Vilmorin, made an agricultu- 
ral excursion from Paris through the districts mentioned, in what 
year he does not state, but we presume it must have been in 
1833. They passed the first day at Fromont, examining the 
horticultural establishment of M. Soulange-Bodin, with which 

Poiteau and Vilmorirts Bon Jardinier. 155 

they were highly gratified. Afterwards, quitting the Seine, and 
passing by Fontainebleau, they arrived at the siliceous plain of 
table land known as the Plateau de Gatinais. A few leagues far- 
ther, beyond Nogent, they arrived at Barris; an estate of upwards 
of 1200 acres, belonging to M. Vilmorin. The nature of the soil 
of this estate (an argillaceous sand) is detailed at length, accom- 
panied by the particulars of several experiments tried upon it by 
chemical analysis. The kind of culture practised by M. Vilmo- 
rin, during the last thirty years, on this estate is next described. 
Under this head we find that a considerable portion of it is 
planted with trees of different kinds, European and American ; 
including a number of species of oaks and pines, the cedar of 
Lebanon, and the larch. M. Vilmorin has made extraordinary 
exertions to render this tract of poor soil productive ; and, pos- 
sessing, as he does, a scientific knowledge both'pf agriculture and 
horticulture, he has been eminently successful. The original 
price of the land, and its present value, are not given, but we 
have no doubt of the difference between them being immense, 
from the improvements it has undergone. 

We are glad to find that the Corsican pine (Pinus Laricio) 
grows in the poor soil of M. Vilmorin's estate with extraordinary 
vigour. Sown where it is intended finally to remain, it has, in 
eight years, attained the height of twelve feet; having grown 
eight feet during the last three years. This tree, in Corsica, 
M. Vilmorin states, grows to the height of 150 feet, and would 
make excellent masts for ships, were not its timber rather too 
pondei'ous for that purpose, (p. 78.) 

Poiteau, A., and Vilmorin: Le Bon Jardinier, Almanach pour 
l'Annee 1834. 12mo. Paris, 1834. 

A new edition of this excellent work continues to be pub- 
lished annually ; preceded by a short notice of the principal im- 
provements of the past year. There is scarcely any thing in 
the notices which precede the present edition that is not already 
well known to the English reader ; unless we except a new 
variety of winter wheat with reddish flowers, said to be very pro- 
ductive ; viz., Froment blanc dliiver djleurs rougeatres (Xriticum 
candidum). We should suppose that this variety may be obtained 
of M. Vilmorin and Co., Paris. 

Nees von EsenbecJc, T7i. Fr. Lud. t Phil, et Med. Doctore, &c. : 
Genera Plantarum Floras Germanicae Iconibus et Descrip- 
tionibus illustrata. 

Of this excellent work, whose scope and character we have 
made known in IX. 451., the second fasciculus has just reached 
us. The genera illustrated in it are, Typha, £parganium, 
-^'coruSjCalla, /rum, Juncus, Luzula, Triglochin, ScheuchzenVz, 
Peratrum, Tofield/a, Smilax, Puscus, Asparagus, Convallaria, 

156 Literary Notices. 

Polygonatum, Maianthemum Wiggers, Streptopus, Paris, and 

Prince, Robert William, Author of a " Treatise on the Vine, &c;" 
aided by William Prince, Proprietor of the Linnasan Botanic 
Garden and Nurseries : The Pomological Manual ; or, a 
Treatise on Fruits ; containing Descriptions of a great Number 
of the most valuable Varieties for the Orchard and Garden. 
In two Parts, 8vo, Part I. pp. 200, and Part II. pp. 216. 
New York, 1832. (See IX. 612. and 354,.) 

This work, we have no doubt, is found of considerable use in 
America ; and to cultivators in this country, who, like Mr. Saul, 
are fond of introducing American fruits, it will also afford gra- 
tification. Most of the varieties enumerated in Mr. Prince's 
work are, we believe, in the collection of the Horticultural 
Society's garden at Chiswick, and we therefore leave their merits 
to be determined, in due time, by Mr. Thompson there. It is 
rather to be regretted than otherwise; that there should be, among 
many nurserymen and cultivators of fruits, a greater desire for 
novelty than for excellence. 

Our readers will recollect that we gave a notice of Mr. Prince's 
work previously to its appearance (in IX. 612.) ; and also that 
there is another work on American fruits, entitled Kenrick's 
New American Orchardist, reviewed in IX. 354. 

Art. II. Literary Notices. 

Dr. Lindley's Lady's Botany is now in the press. It will 
form an 8vo volume, and be illustrated by numerous plates. It 
is intended that this work shall be a familiar introduction to the 
natural system of botany, on the model of Rousseau's celebrated 

Hints on Landscape-Gar dening (Andeutungen liber Land- 
schaftsgartnerei), with an account of their practical application at 
Muskau, is announced by a bookseller at Stuttgardt as about to 
be published. The author is Prince Puckler-Muskau. The 
work is to appear in monthly 8vo numbers, at about 15s. sterling 
each to subscribers, and 205. to non-subscribers. It will be 
illustrated by 44 views and 4 plans, many of them coloured, and 
will contain a description of the park of Muskau. The whole, 
it is calculated, will be completed in 10 numbers. Subscribers 
in England may send their names to Richter and Co., Soho 
Square. We shall give the essence of each number, as we 
receive it, in this Magazine. 



Art. I. Foreign Notices. 

Paris, Feb. 3. 1834. —The prefect of the Seine has kindly permitted the 
Horticultural Society of Paris to have a part of the Town Hall, for a winter 
exhibition of flowers and fruit ; and accordingly one is to be held on the 27th 
of the present month, which will last till the 2d of March. It is expected that 
this show will be very brilliant. The weather has been uncommonly mild 
here : georginas, nasturtiums, mignonette, and many other summer and autumnal 
flowers were in full beauty in November ; and the eccremocarpus [Calampelis 
scabra], and the lophospermum [L. erubescens] remained in blossom during 
December. Towards the end of the month, the crocuses, violets, Christmas 
rose, winter aconite [Eranthis hyemalis], snowdrops, and many other early 
flowers, came into bloom ; and in January the almond trees, hyacinths, and 
tulips began to open their flowers. Altogether, the season has been a most 
extraordinary one; and, even in December, when sitting under the warm 
circular wall in the Gardens of the Tuileries, and looking down the garden, it 
was scarcely possible not to fancy ourselves in spring. 

Our horticulturists have been busy lately trying experiments on the culture 
of the potato ; the English root, as it was called only a few years ago pretty 
generally throughout France, and which the gourmands of the French pro- 
vinces are only now beginning to consider fit for any thing but for feeding pigs. 
The Parisians know better ; and so many potatoes are eaten in Paris, that, some 
years ago a market was established expressly for this root ; and this market 
is now one of the largest, if not the very largest, of the vegetable markets in 
Paris. Apropos of culinary vegetables, M. Vilmorin has just introduced a new 
kind of spinach, with leaves as large as those of a lettuce [our Flanders 
spinach, we presume]. This variety, which was originated near Lille, is very 
warmly recommended. 

It has been discovered that the name Beurre ranee, given to one of the 
Flemish pears, is quite a mistake. The discovery has occasioned a good deal 
of laughter among the horticulturists of Paris ; and, thinking it may amuse you, 
I will tell you all the story. It appears that the pear was originally brought 
from the commune de Rans, in Hainault, and there is no doubt but the name 
ought to be Beurre de Rans ; instead of which, it is called ranee, a word 
which signifies rancid or rank-tasted, like stale butter, and which, of course, 
becomes ridiculous when applied to a pear. 

I was very glad to see, in the Bon Jardinier for 1834 [seep. 155.], a cut and 
description of the marked tallies given in your Hortns Britannicus. I think 
this mode of marking tallies excellent, and well deserving of imitation in 
France, though, for my own part, as I am very stupid at either learning or 
remembering any thing new. I like your Roman method [VIII. 32.] much 
better ; on the same principle that I prefer plain writing to short-hand ; though 
the comparison is not quite correct, as short-hand has the advantage of taking 
up less time ; while one would be as long in making the hieroglyphics as the 
plain figures ; nay, perhaps longer, as the hieroglyphics would require us to 
think and recollect, and be particular in the shape and position of the lines and 
dots, &c, which the others do not. — P. 


Munich, July, 1833. — I know not whether, during your stay here, you 
observed the great meadow before the town, where what is called the October 

158 Foreign Notices : — 


festival is held. This meadow is enclosed on the west by a range of gentle 
acclivities, disposed somewhat in the form of an amphitheatre. Every year, 
in October, a great multitude of people from all parts of the kingdom assemble 
at this festival, which was established by the Agricultural Society, for the 
exhibition of agricultural produce, and for the granting of premiums to the 
producers of objects worthy of reward. 

Those farmers who distinguish themselves by their agricultural labours, or 
by the quality and genuineness of the breed of their horses, bullocks, sheep, 
and pigs, receive publicly, from the hands of the minister for the home de- 
partment, and in the presence of the king and the whole court, the prizes 
previously awarded to them by the decision of agricultural judges. Public 
games and horse-races are connected with this solemnity. Thus, besides the 
great utility of this annual festival in encouraging and improving agriculture, 
it affords to the mere spectator a most pleasing spectacle and much genuine 
enjoyment. On these amphitheatre-like heights, where the Bavarian people, 
like the aneient Greeks at the Olympic games, annually assemble, a picturesque 
plantation has been laid out by order of the king. This plantation is to 
serve as an enclosure and background to a building, which is to have the 
character of a monument, and in which the busts of eminent national artists 
and men of letters will be placed. The plantation is in the natural style of 
landscape-gardening ; and, though it is as yet of little height, it has a very 
picturesque effect, which will be greatly increased when the architectural ob- 
jects are finished. 

I must also mention that our beautiful English garden, a plan of which I 
have sent you, is about to receive a new and magnificent ornament. The first 
grand view of the garden, or that which is seen on entering as you come from 
the town, has hitherto, notwithstanding all the natural beauty produced by 
the simplicity of the planting, been felt to want a suitable architectural object, 
to serve as a resting-point for the eye of the spectator. This object our 
monarch's love of art is now about to supply. A circular temple of red 
marble, 54 ft. high and 23 ft. in diameter, will soon adorn this fine garden 
scene. The grand effect of this temple will be greatly increased by its site. 
It is to be erected on a hill of considerable height, formed, indeed, by art, but 
in the true style of natural gardening. Here, the eye of the delighted pro- 
menader will enjoy, not only a view of this beautiful garden scene, with the 
waterfall and the river in rapid motion below him, but also of the city, with 
its lofty towers, in the background ; and, looking over the city, he will have, 
in the distant south, the prospect of the majestic chain of the Tyrolese Alps. 

Full three years must yet elapse before this grand garden scene can be 
finished. If you should visit Munich after that period, you will see it in a 
complete state, and I hope you will be pleased with its execution. I am 
always yours. — Sckell. 

Stuttgardty Oct. 6. 1833. — Sir, Not having succeeded in getting employed as 
a court gardener, another young man and myself have resolved on commencing 
business as nurserymen. I have bought a piece of ground in the neighbour- 
hood of Friedericksthor, which, in point of' soil, shelter, and locality, is well 
adapted for our purpose. Here I hope that we shall by and by be able to 
show one of the first nurseries in Germany. We shall have an arboretum, 
and a scientific arrangement of herbaceous plants, and my partner will give 
lessons in botany. I have published a translation of Dr. Lindley's Outlines of 
the Principles of Horticulture {Hauptgrundscetze des Gartenbaues, Sfc. ; von John 
Lindley ; ausdem Englischen von Willi. Hertz. 12mo. Stuttgardt, 1833.), a copy 
of which I beg you to accept; and my partner and myself intend commencing, 
in spring, a weekly or monthly Gardener's Magazine. We shall establish a 
garden library, and take young men as apprentices or pupils, whom we shall 
engage to instruct in every thing that relates to gardening and botany. 

But, as we have a great deal to struggle with, I must entreat 'your assistance, 
and that of all my other kind friends in England. We shall be happy to 
receive books, seeds, plants, cuttings, bulbs; in short, every thing that you can 

Germany, Australia. 159 

spare, and whether the works or other articles be considered in England new 
or old. I shall always be happy to send you some gardening books in return, 
and I expect very soon to forward to you a copy of a new edition of Walter's 
Gartenbuch, very much augmented, and adapted to the present state of the 
science, which I am now passing through the'press. Any thing which you, or 
any gardener who is kind enough to befriend us, may have to spare, may be 
sent to Messrs. Nebinger, Bange, and Co. London. I remain, Sir, yours sin- 
cerely, — Wm. Hertz. 


Sydney, August 10. 1833. — It was only the other day that I got your letter 
of 1829, by the hands of your correspondent, Mr. Frederick A. Meyer. I was 
out of town when he arrived, in 1830, and he went immediately up the country 
on an engagement of three years. Meyer has succeeded in establishing several 
vineyards, from which wine and raisins have been made. The colonists have 
now caught a fever for vineyards, and they are in course of preparation all 
over the country. Meyer has got some land on advantageous terms, and is 
planting on his own account. I hope he is now in the road to wealth ; at 
least it should be so, for to his practical knowledge and enthusiasm may, in a 
great measure, be attributed the spirit that now pervades the colonists on the 
subject of vineyards. One gentleman, a Mr. Manning (see II. 368.), is form- 
ing, under Meyer's direction, a series of terraces around a sand hill, for a vine- 
yard, which will cost 800/. or 1000/. — John Thompson. 

Botanic Garden at Sydney. — In order to give an idea of the value attached 
to botany and natural history in this colony, we give the following estimate of 
the expenses of the botanic garden, and the colonial botanist, Mr. Robert 
Cunningham, late of Kew, with the remarks on it of a newspaper editor: — 

Colonial botanist - 

Assistant ditto - - - 

Overseer and gate-keeper, at 8d. each per diem 

Two collectors of specimens in the interior, at 16/. each 

per annum - 

Rations and clothing to 30 prisoners of the crown, and 

three apprentices, at 6d. each per diem 
Forage and farriery for two cart horses 
Tools, implements, and incidental expenses 

This is a large sum to pay for the science of botany. We have the same 
objection to this establishment as to that of zoology. Zoology, and minera- 
logy, and astronomy, and botany, and other sciences, are all very good things ; 
but we have no great opinion of an infant people being taxed to promote 
them. An infant community cannot afford to become scientific for the benefit 
of mankind. If old rich countries want local information in science, let 
them send their travellers to us. Public establishments in science are very 
apt to degenerate into jobs, though we say not this of our present colonial 
astronomer or botanist. We think highly of the talents and industry of both. 
Still, we are not for taxing a young colony for the promotion of science. Let 
our rich men promote it by private subscription. In America, such taxes 
have only become common of late years. They were two centuries old before 
they agreed to spend their money in this way. We must, first of all, people 
the country; we must build houses, and enclose farms, and dig wells, and 
make tanks, and dams, and reservoirs, and irrigate our lands, and procure all 
the necessaries of life, before we can spare money for the sciences and fine 
arts. We might as well give salaries to painters, sculptors, and chemists, as 
to botanists, astronomers, and museum collectors. (Sydney Monitor, July 20. 
























160 Domestic Notices : — 

Art. II. Domestic Notices. 

A SCHEME for a Metropolitan Garden Society and Benevolent Fund was pro- 
posed to us, two years ago (VII. 689.), by Mr. Ramsay the nurseryman, and has 
lately been laid before us more in detail by a most enthusiastic and intelligent 
gardening amateur. We do not publish this scheme, because, on due con- 
sideration of the rapid changes which are taking place in society (we allude par- 
ticularly to the projected municipal system), we think several parts of the plan 
are objectionable. For instance, we decidedly disapprove of charitable pro- 
visions of any kind being made for healthy able-bodied men or their children. 
One part of the scheme submitted to us was to educate the children of 
gardeners ; but we see no good that could result from educating the children 
of this class at the expense of a society, since it would in the end be merely 
saving the pockets of those who employ gardeners. A national system of 
education will, we trust, soon set all questions on this head at rest. We 
dislike, also, the idea of looking to the patronage of persons of title, merely as 
such, for the main support of any institution whatever. The time is gone by 
for any other patronage than that of the public generally. When the metro- 
polis is once governed as a whole, it will soon have a metropolitan garden, 
supported, like other metropolitan institutions, at the general expense. In 
the mean time, rather than see any new garden establishment of the kind 
proposed, we would wish that of the Horticultural Society to be better sup- 
ported, and even assistance advanced to it by government, as in the case of the 
Edinburgh gardens, (p. 62.) — Cond. 

A General Cemetery, of 52 acres, is projected at Notting Hill, near Bays- 
water, by J. F. Carden, Esq., who was the first to bring forward, in an effective 
manner, the idea of public cemeteries in England, in 1824. Since that time 
nine general cemeteries have been established in different country towns. 
We dislike the idea of cemeteries and botanic gardens being made private 
speculations, and would have them formed and maintained at the expense of 
the municipal societies under whose government they were situated ; but we 
suppose the time is not yet arrived for this state of things. 

A Bazaar for the Sale of Plants in Pots, and cut Flowers, is about to be 
opened in the Pantheon, Oxford Street, London. The Pantheon is an im- 
mense building, which, for nearly 30 years, owing to some peculiar circum- 
stances in the tenure by which it was held, has been unoccupied. It has 
now, however, become the property of some persons of capital, and of great 
spirit and taste, who are remodelling the entire premises, so as to render it 
one of the most splendid bazaars in London. Among other departments, 
there is a saloon, exclusively devoted to the exhibition of pictures and statuary, 
which will be open to the public gratuitously; a new and most valuable fea- 
ture. There will also be a conservatory for the reception of plants for sale. 
This building, which forms an entrance to the bazaar from Marlborough Street, 
will be 85 ft. long, 25 ft. wide, and about the same height. The roof is cur- 
vilinear, of iron, and glazed on all sides. It will be heated by hot water, and 
the side sashes will open for ventilation. It is proposed to range along the 
two sides of this conservatory a series of small stages, and to let out the 
ranges at so much per foot frontage. The price mentioned to us by Mr. 
Walker, one of the proprietors, is so remarkably low, and the chances of sale, 
in a place which from 10,000 to 15,000 persons will probably pass through 
daily, so great, that we should think nurserymen and other growers of plants 
would find it well worth their while to send here some of their handsomest 
specimens. The architecture of the. conservatory, which is by Sydney Smirke, 
Esq., is in the Indian Gothic style, and very handsome and appropriate. 
Mr. Smirke has favoured us with some sketches, which we shall probably 
engrave at an early period. A plan, and farther particulars of the other parts 
of the building, will be found in our Architectural Magazine. 

The Stamford Hill Horticultural Reading Society, established Nov. 6. 1833. 

England. \q\ 

— The objects of this Society are, to advance knowledge in the various de- 
partments of gardening, farming, forest planting, natural history, and rural 
economy, by the circulation of books ; and by establishing a reading-room, in 
which the subscribers can meet on certain evenings to peruse any books then 
in the library, and to introduce a visiter upon payment of a stated sum : it will 
also serve to bring together those subscribers who wish, by information afforded 
to one another, or by bringing specimens of plants, &c, to facilitate such 
knowledge. These advantages, which can rarely be attained by any single 
individual, even at a great expense, may thus be placed within the reach 
of the whole Society at a trifling cost. The business of the Society is 
to be managed by a committee of twelve persons, assisted by a treasurer, 
secretary, and librarian, all of whom are to be chosen by the subscribers at the 
annual meeting in January ; the other general meetings will be held in April, 
July, and October. The property of the Society is to be vested in three trustees, 
to be chosen at the first general meeting. The entrance money is 10*., and the 
quarterly payments 2s. 6d. Honorary members are to pay one guinea per 
annum, or to commute for this sum by one payment of five guineas. The 
rules and regulations, which are 19 in number, have been drawn up and 
printed. They may be had of Messrs. Low and Co. of the Clapton Nursery. 
This institution seems a very excellent one, and well worthy of imitation, 
wherever there are three or four gardeners, and a dozen or two of gardening 
amateurs. To the latter, the practical man, as he is at present circumstanced, 
must chiefly look for the purchase of books ; because what can a man at work 
in a nursery, who has only 12*. a week, spare for this purpose ? The journey- 
man or apprentice in private service is scarcely better off, and every thing, 
therefore, in the way of outlay of money, must depend on the master gardeners 
and amateurs. 

Emigration of Gardeners. — A correspondent, under the signature of 
Gracchus Colonus, recommends Prince Edward Island, in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence (which, he says, he knows well), New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
and Cape Breton, as the most desirable parts of North America for gardeners 
to emigrate to. " These countries," he says, " are wholly free from the 
fevers, agues, and other distressing disorders, which ravage both the United 
States and the Canadas ; and by going to them, the emigrant avoids the long 
and tedious land journey, which, in all probability, awaits him if he land either at 
Quebec or New York. In Prince Edward Island, especially, which was called by 
the French the granary of Canada, and which contains upwards of 1,000,000 
acres, and 40,000 inhabitants, no spot can be fixed upon more than ten miles from 
the sea. Land, of good quality, may be rented at Is. per acre on a long lease, 
or the freehold may be purchased at from 15s. to 30s. per acre. A very able 
work, on the British colonies in North America, has been published by a 
Mr. M'Gregor. I do not at all agree with the politics of the author, but, on 
account of his clear and unvarnished statements, I would recommend his book 
to the attentive perusal of all who intend to leave this country. [An Account 
of Prince Edward Island has also been recently published by Swale, of Great 
Russel Street, Bloomsbury.] 

" In conclusion, allow me to address a few words to such of my brother 
gardeners as are hesitating whether they shall emigrate, or stay here. Pray, 
gentlemen, what is the end you propose to yourselves by your labour ? Is it 
not to acquire independence, if you can ; and to leave your children comfort- 
ably provided for, but, above all, well educated ? If you can accomplish this 
in another country in a very few years, while there is little chance of your ever 
doing it here, is it not worth while to remove ? If you go to New York, or 
Quebec, the price of land is nearly as high as it is here ; and there is, of 
course, great competition in trade and business. If you proceed up the 
country, a trackless wilderness, solitude, and disease, in all probability await 
you. Is it not better to go to a place where your journey terminates with 
the voyage, while at the same time land is so cheap that you may either at 
Vol.X. — No. 49. M 

162 Domestic Notices : — 

once, or very soon, establish yourselves and your children in independence 
and comfort? 

" In writing this letter, I am actuated solely by a sincere wish to benefit 
my brother gardeners. Should you, Sir, think it worth a place in your work, 
I shall afterwards submit to you a few details, with which it may be advisable 
that the emigrant should be acquainted. — Gracchus Colonus. London, Jaw. 16. 

A British Gardener has just returned from the south of Russia, where he 
has been for two years in the service of a wealthy nobleman. His treatment 
by this individual was as good as the circumstances of the country permitted ; 
but these circumstances were such as to render it next to impossible for any 
person, in the capacity of a servant, to enjoy even a tithe of the comforts which 
he does in every other part of Europe. If this gardener were to publish his 
journal, or even as much of it as he told us, it would be highly instructive; 
but we know, from personal experience, that such is the tyranny of the Rus- 
sian government, and the want of principle among all ranks in that country, 
that the mere publication of such a journal might injure British gardeners 
already settled in the neighbourhood of Moscow and Petersburgh. This 
notice is intended to put gardeners on their guard, and to remind them of what 
we have stated in the Encyc. of Gard. } § 7784. 2d edit., and Encyc. of Agr., 
§ 661. 2d edit. 

Mr. Brackenridge, late gardener to P. Neil], Esq., an excellent botanist and 
cultivator, is engaged as gardener to an eminent banker in Berlin ; for which 
city he left London on March 7. We hope to hear from him frequently. — Cond. 

Growing Ferns and other Plants in Glass Cases. — We lately (March 6.) 
had the pleasure of seeing the most extraordinary city garden we have ever 
beheld, viz., that of Mr. Ward of Wellclose Square, a gentleman enthusiastically 
devoted to botany. Along the tops of all the walls of his dwelling-house, of 
the offices behind, and of the wall round the yard, even up the gable ends and 
slopes of lean-tos, is a continuation of boxes or troughs, about 14 in. wide, 
filled with soil and divided crosswise by tiles, so as to form distinct compart- 
ments about 1 ft. by 6 in., in each of which one species of plant is grown. We 
should suppose there must be at least room found in this way for 1500 
species. The sloping roof of a shed is wholly covered with soil, and divided 
into compartments by slips of wood; in these compartments sedums, saxi- 
frages, and other succulents are grown. In the open yard there are two or 
three trees ; the best of which, for a London garden, Mr. Ward considers to 
be the fig. It thrives amongst smoke and dirt, and shows a broader leaf, and of 
a more intense green, than any other tree ; and this either as a standard or 
against a wall. Next to the fig, the J v cer Pseudo-Platanus is found to be 
the most prosperous. In the interior of Mr. Ward's house, there are boxes 
in every window, some on the outside, and others on the inside, containing 
plants. These boxes are from 8 in. to 1 ft. in width, in length equal to the 
breadth of the window or its sill, or window seat ; and the sides are from 
18 in. to 2 ft, in height. About 6 in. of the lower part of the sides, and the 
bottom, are of wood, put together so as to be watertight ; and the upper part 
of the sides, and the top, are wholly of glass. In the bottom, soil, stones, 
moss, &c, are placed ; and ferns and other plants are planted, and duly 
watered. This being done, and the superfluous water drained off through a 
plug-hole in the bottom, which is afterwards closely stopped, the close lid is 
put on the box, and seldom, or never, afterwards taken off. The plants are 
found to require no fresh supply of water for months, and some plants 
will live for years without any; and, as the lid is never taken off, they can 
have no fresh supply of air, otherwise than by the expansion produced by 
increased temperature forcing out a portion of air through the impercep- 
tible interstices of the lid; and, when the temperature is reduced, draw- 
ing air in, through the same interstices, by its contraction. This, no doubt, 
will take place more or less every day. The great advantage of admitting air 
only in this way is, that it is, as it were, sifted, or filtered, from the impurities 

England. 163 

which float in it ; which impurities, and not any thing in its chemical com- 
position, are now generally understood to be the cause why the air of London 
is less favourable for both animal and vegetable life, than the air of the 
country. Mr. Ward has grown plants in boxes of this kind for three years 
with the greatest degree of success ; and he is now getting a box prepared, 
5 or 6 ft. square, and nearly 10 ft. high, in which he intends to have a rock- 
work covered with vegetation. In our next Number will be found a paper on 
this subject, by Mr. Ward : in the mean time, we have, at this late period, 
only time to state, that the success attending Mr. Ward's experiments opens 
up extensive views as to then- application in transporting plants from one 
country to another ; in preserving plants in rooms, or in towns ; and in 
forming miniature gardens or conservatories, either in rooms or on the inside 
or outside of windows, as substitutes for bad views, or for no views at all. 
Mr. Ward has no doubt, that by boxes of this kind, with requisite modifica- 
tions, he could transport plants from any one country in the world to any 
other country. In Mr. Ward's drawing-room, we found a magnificent spe- 
cimen of Melianthus major coming into bloom ; and his herbarium contains 
nearly 25,000 species, arranged according to the natural system, and placed in 
boxes on a highly improved plan. — Cond. 

A Smoke-consuming Furnace, formed of bricks, has been invented by Mr. 
Ambrose Winder of Dale End, Birmingham, which possesses all the good qua- 
lities of Witty's patent gas furnaces; and, in addition to this, it costs little more 
than a common furnace, in the erection and materials. Two of these furnaces 
have been fitted up in this garden, for heating two narrow houses lately erected 
for the Society by Mr. Thomas Clark, jun., Lionel Street, which answer well 
the purpose for which they were intended. — David Cameron. Botanic Gar- 
den, Birmingham, March 4. 1834. 

A great Improvement in the Garden Engine has recently been made by Mr. 
Read (inventor of the improved syringe, Encyc. of Garcl., 2d edit. § 1419.). 
In consequence of having a reserved power of condensed air, he can throw 
the water in a fine shower to a much greater distance than can be done by the 
common engine, and this with much less labour to the operator. — Cond. 

Catching Moles in the Neck of a broken Bottle. — Take two common beer 
bottle necks, set them in the burrow with their wide ends outermost, facing the 
hole both ways ; make them firm with a couple of sticks to each, crossing 
each other over the bottle necks, close to their widest ends ; exclude light 
and air by a piece of turf or the like, and the trap is set. The mole, coming 
to the bottle-neck, finds the way plain, and squeezes herself in. She would 
get through, were she able to hold her hind feet on the glass to push her head 
and fore legs through ; but here she fails, and is generally found squeezed in 
so hard that a stick is wanted to force her out. This mode of snaring was 
practised, if not invented, by a farmer in Banffshire in the early part of the 
seventeenth century; and it is likely that, though it might then have been 
generally known there, it has since been lost sight of in the adoption of 
less simple though more portable snares. By this means the poorest cottager 
might ensnare this unwelcome guest in his garden, whilst he might not be able 
to spare either his pence to buy, or his time to make, any other trap. — 

A new Description of Earthenware Tally {fig. 13.) made by Messrs. 
Doulton and Watts, High Street, Lambeth, promises to be both durable and 
economical, especially for herbaceous plants, and also for plants in pots. 
We have given figures of five sorts, each of the full size, except Nos. 1. and 2., 
which have a portion of their lower ends broken off. No. 1. is 9|in. long; 
No. 2. is 8| in.; No. 3. is 6 in.; No. 4. is 4 in.; and No. 5., for pots, is 2 J in. 
The cost of the largest size is, we believe, about 16,?. per gross; that of No. 2. 
125. ; of No. 3. 85. ; and of No. 5. 45. It will be observed from the engraving, 
that the numbers are impressed on the beveled surface of the top ; and that, 
over the number, there is a letter in Nos. 1, 2. and 4. The intention of 
the letters is to enable the enumeration to be carried to an indefinite extent, 

m 2 

IQ4, Domestic Notices : — 


England. 165 

notwithstanding the circumstance that not more than three figures, or 999, 
can be got in the width of the top of any one tally. The number 999, however, 
repeated as often as there are letters in the alphabet, would give upwards of 
25,000, which is as many species as are to be found in the open air in any 
botanic garden in Europe. By doubling and otherwise combining or changing 
the position of these letters, the enumeration might be carried to almost any 
extent. The projection in the head of No. 5. is intended to rest on the rim 
of the pot. The great advantages expected from these tallies are, as we have 
said above, economy of first cost, and durability. — Cond. 

The Oxford Botanic Garden. — It is stated in the newspapers that the late 
Dr. Williams, who was for forty years professor of botany at Oxford, and 
who, of course, had the general management of the garden, has bequeathed 
to it 500/. Dr. Daubeny, an eminent chemist and physiologist, as well as 
a botanist, has been appointed successor to Dr. Williams. — Id. 

Mr. Penny, late botanist in the Epsom Nursery, has joined Mr. Young, of 
the Milford Nursery near Godalming, which will henceforward be carried on 
under the firm of Young and Penny. One of the first collections of hardy 
plants in the country may therefore soon be expected at Milford ; and, as a 
number of new hot-houses and pits have recently been erected there, the 
collection will not be deficient in house exotics. — Id. 

Kirk's Nursery, Coventry. — We are happy to find that our correspondent 
Mr. Kirk, of whom, when we called on him in 1831 (see VII. 411.), we 
formed a very high opinion, has commenced business for himself. Mr. Kirk 
was many years foreman to the late Mr. Weare, and, in fact, appeared to us 
the only man in or about Coventry who really understood the nursery busi- 
ness. He is an excellent practical botanist, a most successful cultivator, and, 
from information which we have received from some gentlemen in the neigh- 
bourhood, we can assert, with the greatest confidence, that he is a good, an 
honest, and a most industrious man. He has also been very ill used by his 
late employers, Weare's successors. Most sincerely do we wish him success ; 
and we entreat all our brother gardeners in that part of the country to enter 
into our ideas on the subject. Let every one only imagine himself in Mr. Kirk's 
situation. — Cond. 

The celebrated Collection of Orchidecs which belonged to the late Mrs. Ar- 
nold Harrison of Liverpool was purchased by Mr. Knight, Exotic Nursery, 
in the beginning of February last. — Id. 

Plants in Floiver, at Shortgrove in Essex, on January 31. 1834. — Sir, The 
extraordinary mildness of the present winter, it is likely, will cause some of 
your correspondents to make their observations upon vegetation, the progress 
of which, in some species of plants, has, perhaps, never been paralleled at this 
season of the year. I herewith transmit to you the names of a few ; they are 
such as have come under my notice at Shortgrove, where the soil is by no 
means favourable to early vegetation, nor is the situation in any wise con- 
ducive to the promotion of premature growth. 

Cerasus iauro-Cerasus (common laurel), iigustrum lucidum var. flori- 
bundum (Chinese privet), wallflower, crocuses in variety, snowdrops, Kerrc'a 
japonica, J?6sa semperflorens and indica minor, Cheiranthus mutabilis, 
anemones, polyanthus, ^'rabis alpina, hepaticas, narcissus, sweet alyssum, 
marigolds, periwinkle ; Chrysanthemum sinense, several varieties ; common 
yew (Taxus baccata), Phillyrea latifolia, sloe tree (Prunus spinosa). Ca- 
lampelis scabra is beautifully in flower in a garden at Saffron Walden. Fil- 
berts are in bloom, their catkins decaying, or fallen off. Gooseberry bushes 
partially in blossom, with fruit as large as sweet peas. Pssonia Moutan and 
M. £>apaveracea, with flower-buds the size of large cob nuts, tfambucus 
nigra (common elder) in leaf. I am, Sir, yours, &c. — T. Rutger. Short- 
grove, Jan 31. 1834. 

Plants in Bloom at Bury St. Edmunds, and other Parts in the East of England, 
early in December, 1833. — The hawthorn was in bloom in the picturesque 
grounds of the Rev. Edw. Mathew, Pentlow Hall, Cavendish, Suffolk ; an entire 

M 3 

1 66 Domestic Notices : — England. 


branch, of considerable length and great beauty, overhanging a rivulet among 
other old deciduous trees. It would be endless to name the plants and 
shrubs which displayed their unusual but interesting beauties during the extra- 
ordinary season up to January, 1834. At East Cliff, Ramsgate, the superb 
seat of Moses Montefiore, Esq., the laburnum and lilac were in flower at the 
end of December, and the pelargoniums blooming freely in the clumps. On 
my return to the botanic garden which I have established in the Abbey 
Grounds, Bury St. Edmunds, Eranthis hyemalis and Crocus biflorus were in 
bloom, with Salvia fiilgens, Hepatica triloba, Cyclamen cdum, Primula 
veris, and several species of Narcissus. — N. S. Hodson. Abbey Grounds, 
Bury St. Edmunds, Jan. 1834. 

The Primida vidgaris was in flower here on Nov. 18. 1833; and the Eran- 
this hyemalis on Dec. 4. 1833. — W. T. Bree. Allesley Bectory, near Coventry. 
.A friend has remarked to us that the crocuses have this spring flowered less 
vigorously and less satisfactorily than after winters whose severity and length 
had given them a considerable period of absolute repose. He instanced 
several species of plants whose habit is to display their flowers or leaves in 
early spring as being in the same case. This is likely; as incessant excite- 
ment must abate energy. Plants in every region, even in tropical ones, ex- 
perience a season of rest ; and, it is assumed, when they resume their growth, 
proceed with such an increase of effectiveness, as compensates for the interval 
of inertness. — J. D. 

Magnolia conspicua. — This charming tree is now magnificently in bloom in 
Messrs. Chandler's nursery, both in pots under glass and in the open garden. 
A fine specimen, in a pot, was exhibited at the Horticultural Society's meet- 
ing, on March 4., when it was stated to us that the number of blooms open 
at one time in the nursery, the day before, was estimated at 18,000. Why this 
tree of white tulip-like flowers, now so cheap, should not be more common, 
wo are utterly at a loss to understand. It will grow even in the smoke of 
London. — Cond. 

Berberis Aqutfolium Ph., Mahonia Aqidfotium Nutt. — This truly beautiful, 
and as yet rare, hardy evergreen shrub has been for the last six weeks beau- 
tifully in flower in the Chiswick Garden. It is a plant worth its weight in 
gold; and nurserymen ought to endeavour to get hundreds of it from Phil- 
adelphia. Another beautiful Berberis has lately been introduced by Mr. 
Knight of the Exotic Nursery. — Id. 

Arboretums, we are happy to find, are gradually rising up in the private 
grounds of gentlemen in different parts of the country. Near Theobalds, 
in the grounds of William Harrison, Esq., F.R.S., there is one said to con- 
tain as complete a collection of the genus Pinus as the pinetum at Drop- 
more; and at Somerford, near Wolverhampton, in the grounds of Edward 
Monckton, Esq., there is a collection of thorns said to comprise upwards of 
seventy species and varieties, besides all the species and varieties of other 
hardy trees and shrubs which have of late years been purchasable in the 
nurseries. There is an arboretum forming at Wardour Castle; one at Leigh 
Park near Havant, the seat of Sir George Staunton ; and several, we are in- 
formed, in the northern counties of England, of which we should be glad to 
have accounts. This is a sort of improvement which we like very much to 
see going on. When we consider the number of trees and shrubs in the tem- 
perate regions of Asia and South America, independently of North American 
trees and shrubs, which remain to be introduced into the country, the mind is 
lost in admiration of what must be the ultimate richness of our woody scenery. 
On the other hand, it is interesting to contemplate the result of transplanting 
the trees and shrubs of the temperate regions of Europe into the temperate 
regions of every other part of the globe. Nature has given to every particular 
country some peculiar product ; and it is for civilised man to collect, improve, 
and equalise these products in every country, subject only to certain limitations 
of climate. In everything which regards civilisation and refinement, the ulti- 
mate tendency is to equalisation. — Id. 

Calls at Suburban Gardens. 167 

Art. III. Calls at Suburban Gardens. 

We introduce this article occasionally, chiefly for the sake of showing that 
we are unceasing in our endeavours to procure information respecting all that 
is going on in the gardening world. 

Nov. 14. and 15. — Called upon professionally to visit the neighbourhood 
of Greenhithe. We were much gratified by the appearance of the cottage 
gardens by the roadside ; in which the chrysanthemums were in fine bloom, 
together with georginas, China roses, French and common marigolds, and, 
owing to the mildness of the weather, many other flowers not usually blossom- 
ing at this season. Near Shooter's Hill, we had the pleasure ofseeing the neat 
and economical double cottages, with 2\ acres of land laid to each, built by 
our correspondent, William BardwelI,Esq.,architect,andfiguredanddescribe"d 
in our Kncyclopcedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture, § 477. We were 
much gratified with their substantial and architectural appearance ; which was 
the more striking when contrasted with the rude hovels erected around them 
by the occupants ; as pigsties, sheds for fuel, &c. Passing our friend Park's 
nursery, we observed many good things in it, and an appearance of order and 
neatness throughout. At a short distance beyond Dartford, a piece of ground 
is now being laid out under the direction of our gifted architectural corre- 
spondent, E. B. Lambe, Esq.; a plan of which we hope, one day, to lay before 
our readers, as a specimen of the economical distribution of a number of 
cottage villas over a very limited space. This space, being full of inequalities, 
affords a fine exercise for the ingenuity of the artist. The boundary of no one 
villa will be seen from its windows, while all of them will have a distant 
prospect of the Thames, and of the Essex coast beyond. Respecting the 
grounds which we were called on to look over, we shall say nothing at present, 
farther than that they display one of the most striking instances of the effect 
of contrast that can well be imagined. From one part of the house, which is 
placed in an elevated situation, is seen an extensive prospect up the Thames ; 
and from the other we look down a precipice into a wooded glen, of four or 
five acres, the sides of which are of chalk rock, upwards of 100 feet high, and 
crowned with lofty woods. We hope, by and by, to do justice to this place, 
and to the ingenious young architect, Charles Morring, Esq. , who is erecting 
a beautiful Tudor villa, in Portland stone, for the proprietor. It is seldom 
that we find so much taste in those who profess at once to be architects and 
builders ; but the progress of architecture and building will, we believe, lead 
to the blending of both professions ; at least, with regard to all buildings of 
moderate extent ; in the same manner that, in a few years, most head gar- 
deners will be landscape-gardeners. 

Passing Messrs. Cormack and Sinclah-'s Nursery, on our return, we were 
gratified by observing the deep reds, purples, and yellows of the still remaining 
leaves of the oaks, acers, birches, sorbs, thorns, liquidambars, and other 
American trees, which we are so anxious should be introduced in every park 
and pleasure-ground. 

Nov. 27. — Colville's Nursery. The principal articles in flower were, chry- 
santhemums, AmatyWidecB ; some forced polyanthus narcissuses, and heaths ; 
Oncidium flexudsum, which has been in flower for several months, has now 
a stem 11 ft. in length. Several other orchideous epiphytes are swelling 
their seed-pods ; and the seeds of others, ripened and sown in the same house, 
are now germinating. The milk tree (Galactodendron utile Hum.) is in a 
thriving state, about 2 ft. high; and the stem, when very slightly pricked, gives 
out abundance of milk. 

Knight's Exotic Nursery. Mr. Knight has just returned from a tour in 
France and the Netherlands (p. 7.) ; where he purchased various new and 
valuable articles. The Chinese azaleas (IX. 474.) are in a thriving state, and 
many of them have formed blossom buds, as have the tree rhododendrons, all 
of which will make a splendid show in the spring. In the stove, Mr. Scott 

hi 4 

168 Calls at Suburban Gardens. 

pointed out to us that the dependent fibres from the epiphytes all pointed to 
the nearest wall, except when they were fixed to a pot or a piece of wood ; 
in which case they adhered to the solid material. The cause of their pointing 
to the wall, Mr. Scott supposed to be the principle of attraction of gravitation. 

In the Fulham Nursery, the fine large specimen of the Fulham oak (which 
is the original tree) still retains all its leaves, and these continue to be of a 
deep green colour, while the American oaks have lost their leaves. The 
_4rundo Z)6nax, or Italian reed, has here withstood the last three winters, in- 
stead of dying down to the ground, as is generally the case when the weather 
is very severe. The plant now presents a series of bamboo-looking rods, 
from 5 ft. to 15 ft. in height, having altogether a very Oriental appearance. 
We would strongly recommend this reed as a lawn plant, for appropriate 
situations, in extensive grounds, or for adding to the interest of those multum 
in parvo gardens which are generally found in suburban streets. In these 
latter gardens, appropriate situations are out of the question ; they are more 
to be considered as museums of living plants ; since within a plot of a few 
square yards may frequently be seen the cedar of Mount Libanus, the 
swamp cedar, the rhododendron of North America, the yucca from the same 
country, and the aucuba, and cydonia of Japan, the lilac of Persia, with the 
arbutus of Ireland and Italy, &c. This is all very proper, and consistent 
with the idea of every ornamental garden being a museum of greater or less 
extent, according to the space it affords and the means of the proprietor. 

The Villa of Horsley Palmer, Esq., at Parsons Green, Fulham. Mr. Perkins's 
mode of heating by hot water, adopted here in 1831 (see IX. 202.), con- 
tinues to give perfect satisfaction. The houses were in beautiful order, and, 
with the conservatory at the mansion, exhibited a splendid display of chrysan- 
themums. Several camellias were in flower, including Press's eclipse. Cana- 
rina Campanula, trained in the form of a cone to the height of five feet, dis- 
played a great many of its bell-shaped flowers, terminating the lateral shoots 
like the bells of a Chinese pagoda. This most elegant plant is too much 
neglected. When well cultivated, it is capable of being rendered an object of 
very great beauty and also one of curiosity. We intend to revisit this place in 
the spring. 

Clarence Lodge, Hodgson, Esq. The conservatory is, as usual, in 

beautiful order, and very splendid. Some of the acacias form large and hand- 
some trees, and will soon be covered with bloom, which they will retain 
all the winter. The view from the garden front of the house, over a valley, 
is agreeable ; but the system of walks on that side is not good, and every 
thing on the entrance front is, in our opinion, decidedly bad. 

The Hammersmith Nursery. Upwards of forty varieties of chrysanthemums 
are in bloom, but none of them luxuriantly so. Various reasons prevented 
Mr. Cornelius from attending to them sufficiently, but he has promised to 
produce a very superior display next season. Chimonanthus fragrans, on a 
western exposure, is thickly covered with blossom buds, many of which are 
already expanded, and perfume the air for some distance round. It is per- 
fectly astonishing to us, that, after all which we have said in favour of this 
plant, it should be so little known and cultivated. It is as hardy as the 
common privet, and therefore ought to be in every street garden ; whereas it is 
not in one in five thousand. One plant, trained against a house in the way 
that vines, jasmines, and the Virginian creepers commonly are, would remain 
in bloom from December till March, supplying blossoms for perfuming the 
rooms within, every day during that period. When the chimonanthus ceased 
flowering, perfume might be supplied by pots of hyacinths, violets, or migno- 
nette ; while Caprifolium italicum and chinense (Lonicera flexuosa), the flowers 
of the latter of which are among the sweetest of the English gardens, come into 
bloom in May, and continue till September. 

Floriculiural and Botanical Notices. 169 

Art. IV. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of new Plants, and of 
old Plants of Interest, supplementary to the latest Editions of the 
" Encyclopedia of Plants," and of the " Hortus Britannicus." 

Curtis' s Botanical Magazine; each monthly Number containing eight plates ; 

3«. 6d. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, King's Professor of 

Botany in the University of Glasgow. 
Edwards's Botanical Register; each monthly Number containing eight plates ; 

4s. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, F.R.S., Professor of Botany 

in the London University. 
Sweet's British Floiver-Garden ; each monthly Number containing four plates; 

3s. coloured, 2s. 3d. plain. Edited by David Don, Esq., Librarian to the 

Linnasan Society. 
Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. Second Series. Vol. I. 

Part V. 4to. Pages 343. to 418. London, 1834. 

Facts and Considerations which have a general Relation to Floncidture. 

Species of Plants, neiv to Britain, received from South America by the London 
Horticultural Society, from their Collector, Mr. David Douglas, during the Years 
1831,1832, 1833. — In the recently published part v. of the Society's new 
series of their Transactions there is a report, by G. Bentham, Esq., the secre- 
tary, " on some of the more remarkable hardy ornamental " species which 
have been received within the time stated, and a notice of some of the cir- 
cumstances which have directed Mr. Douglas's researches. For the latter, 
see the report in the Transactions. Of the plants enumerated in the report, 
the following had been previously, from time to time, published in the Bota- 
nical Register, and have been notified to our readers ; namely, iupinus rivu- 
laris, Clarkza elegans, Calandrinia speciosa, ffinothera densiflora, Madia 
elegans, Stenactis speciosa, Nemophila aurita, .Mhnulus roseus, Calochortus 
luteus, Calliprora lutea, Hesperoscordon lacteum, and several species of 
Polemoniaceae. For the names of the last, see our IX. 705, 706. In addition 
to these, the report communicates the characteristics and names of several 
species not previously described ; figures are added of six of them. Of all 
of these we have transcribed short notices into our following two-monthly 
catalogue. A second report, it is stated, of additional species of plants raised 
from seeds transmitted by Mr. Douglas, will shortly be laid before the Society. 

An Instance of the Economy which is observable in every Part of Nature. — • 
" Pyrus crenata D. Don is found naturally in the highest of the mountainous 
parts of Northern India, from an elevation of near 12,000 ft. downward to 
9000 ft., and lower. Nature seems to have intended it to brave the utmost 
inclemency of climate ; for, in its own country, in the earliest spring, the 
leaves, while still delicate and tender, are clothed with a thick white coating 
of wool ; and the flowers themselves are so deeply immersed in an ample 
covering of the same material, as to bid defiance to even Tartarian cold. But 
in proportion as the extent of the distribution of the plant descends towards 
the plains, or as the season of warm weather advances, it throws off its fleecy 
coat, and at length becomes as naked and as glittering with green as the trees 
which have never had such rigour to endure. In England it scarcely acquires 
any part of its natural woolliness, but is as naked as our common beam tree." 
(Dr. Lindley, in Bot. Reg., t. 1655., March.) The leaves of the ^E'sculus 
Hippocastanum, while enfolded in the bud, are plentifully invested with wool, 
which is absent when the leaves have become expanded. Pubescence is deci- 
duous off the young leaves of the beech tree and those of man}' plants : it 
seems also, in exotic pubigerous plants cultivated in Britain, variable, according 
to the dryness or moistness of the season, in the quantity developed. 

The University Botanic Garden, Gottingen. — From our friend M. C. A. 
Fischer, the inspector of this garden, we, on March 9., received a packet of 
seeds; two copies of the Index Scminum Horti Academici Gottingensis, 1S33; 

170 Floricultural and Botanical Notices, 

and a communication, dated Feb. 3. 1834, from which we transcribe the fol- 
lowing information : — "I now have the pleasure to send you some seeds for 
one of your friends, if you do not make use of them yourself. It would be very 
agreeable to me to have some additional correspondents, through whose ser- 
vices, reciprocated by mine to them, our garden might be benefited. I send 
two copies of our Index Seminum [or catalogue of seeds offered in exchange], 
from which any friend can choose out the species he desires. Seeds, whe- 
ther imported or ripened in Britain, of any new or interesting plants, will be 
welcome; as likewise any thing new of an agricultural description. Our 
botanic garden has been extended by the addition of ten acres, and part of 
this space will be appropriated to the plants of agriculture ; so, you see, that 
any thing new will be of great importance Send all letters to the Ha- 
noverian Office, Duke Street, Piccadilly." 

The seeds received we have sent to our friend Mr. George Penny, (late 
botanical cultivator in the Epsom Nursery, now) nurseryman, Milford, near 
Godalming, Surrey; who, we doubt not, will prove a correspondent of great 
value to our friend M. Fischer. Some of the seeds in the packet bear names 
additional to those published in the Hort. Brit, and in this Magazine ; and, as 
it is probable that plants will be raised from most of them by Mr. Penny, and 
that the species will thus be added to the British national collection, we take 
this timely opportunity of registering the names of the species seemingly not 
before in cultivation in it. Before we do this, however, we may just express 
our admiration of a plan which is adopted in the Index Seminum : that of 
giving, in footnotes, at the bottom of the columns of names, the characteristics 
of those species, mingled amongst the rest, which Schrader, the botanical pro- 
fessor at Gottingen, has described and denominated : — 

Achyranthes uncinulkta Schrad. H. or it C. G. H., Syn. Paronychia capeiisis 'Eckl. [This is 
described in the Index} ; Achyropappus schkahrioldes H. Ber. XI) ; v/conltum ochrantbum Led. 
A ; ^pArgia v<5rna Salzm. Q ; -4'rabis declinata Schrad. ; A'xabis lildcina Schrad. ; Archangelica 
decurrens Led. A ; Arenaria stenophy^la Led. A > Artemisia aprlca Led. A ; .^'triplex crassi- 
fblia Led. O ; ^-Ivena pulchella Link, Q ; Berberis mltis Schrad. $£ [described in the Index as a 
dwarf much-branched shrub from North America ; with simple oblong oval leaves, serrulate 
towards the apex ; and with dark purple berries] ; 2?<5tula grandis Schrad. ^f [described in the 
Index as assimilating closely to 13. papyracea : it is from North America] ; .Supteurum multinerve 
Dec. A j Calandrinia discolor Schrad. ; Cardamine nasturtiana Bert. ; Carduus myriacanthus 
S<rfzm. O ; Ceratochloa pendula Schrad, Q ; Chardima xeranthemoides Desf. O ; Chenopbdium 
chilense Schrad. O ; Chenopodium hirclnum Schrad. O [in the Index it is stated to be a species 
from Brazil, with a leaf like that of opulifblium, but larger ; that it is from 4 ft. to 6 ft. high ; and 
has the odour of C. olidum] ; Cineraria gibbbsa Guss. A) ; Clematis Zathyrifulia Bess. A j -Ferula 
sulcata Desf. (3 campestris A 5 Goldbachin torulbsa Dec. O ; Gymnustyles pterosperma J. _QJ ; Gyp- 
suphila stricta Bung. A ; Leonurus glaucescens Bung. A ; Xepidium Gussonz Schrad. Q), Syn. 
Thlaspi pubescens Guss. ; /-ychnis pusilla Lie. j\j ; J/elilblus hamosa Bess. O ; Monulepis trifida 
Schrad. O ; Nasturtium erectum Trcv. SHI ; NicottJma micrantha H. Par. O ; Ononis brevifblia 
Dec. O mQ) ; Polemonium dissectum Bchb. A j Silene Cserfeii Baumg. A ; Silene juvenilis Delil. 
O; Silene neglecta Ten. O; Sisymbrium incanum Bernh. O; Solidago grandiflura Desf. A. Of 
the three following, Cineraria auriculata Led. A ar >d Prigeron ciliatus Led. Q are published in IX. 
112., but without authorities; and iJanunculus angulatus Presl A in IX. 241., but with a different 
authority. — J. D. 


IV. VapaverdcecB. 

3369x. ~PLATYSTE y MOtf Benth. {Platys, broad, stemon, stamen ; filament obcordate.) 13.6. Sp. 1.— 

calif6rnicus Benth. Californian O or 1 au Y California 1833. S s.l Hort. trans. 2. s. 1. 405 

Synonyme : Genus BoothM Douglas MSS. Mr. Bentham has felt himself obliged to supersede this 

name, as he conceives that it would not be distinguished by foreigners from the genus Bootia 

Wallich. Mr. Bentham has written Platystemon calif6rnicum : but is not stemon masculine ? 

A low, branching, erect, pale green, annual plant, partially pubescent. Leaves 
alternate, oblong, lanceolate, obtuse, entire. Peduncles axillary, solitary, 
6 in. long, tipped by an erect, fragrant, pale yellow flower, rather larger than 
that of Helianthemum vulgare. The plants last year raised from the seeds 
sent home by Mr. Douglas flowered very sparingly ; but fine dried specimens 
received with the seeds evidence it a plant of considerable beauty. It is one 
of high interest to the botanist, "from forming the connecting link between 
the jRanunculacese and Papaveraceas. It has close affinity with Eschscholtzk 
through the genera Platystigma and Dendromecon." {Bentham, in Hort. 
Trans., 2d series, i. 405, 406.) 

supplementary to Encyc. of Plants a fid Hort. Brit. 1 7 1 

3369i/. PLATYSTI'GMA Benth." °~ {Platys, broad, stigma ; stigma ovate.) 13. 1. Sp 1 _ 

Ymekxe Benth. linear-#"a\ £ | pr § ... Y California 1833. S ... Hort. trans. 2. s. 1. 406, 407 

The description of the genus and species is from dried native specimens. 
Living plants have not yet flowered in Britain. " It resembles, in habit, Pla- 
tystemon californicus ; but it is smaller, more tufted, and widely distinct in 
botanical characters. The flowers are yellow, rather smaller than those of the 
Platystemon." (Bentham.') 

3369*. DENDROME N CON Benth. (Dendron, a tree, me/con, a poppy ; shrubby habit and affinity ) 

13. 1. Sp. 1. — 

rigida Benth. stiff-habtted ti. |or2? ... Y? California 1833. S ... Hort. trans. 2.s. 1.407 

Mr. Bentham has written Dendromecon n'gidum ; as mekon is feminine, we have written rigida. 

This is described from native specimens ; but it is possible that Mr. Douglas 
sent home seeds from which, if sown, plants may by this time have arisen. 
" A densely leafy, rigid, smooth, little shrub. Leaves lanceolate, denticulate, 
wrinkled, rigid. Peduncles axillary, one-flowered. The flowers appear to be 
yellow, and nearly as large as those of Papaver nudicaule." It is a very 
remarkable plant in this order, on account of its shrubby stem and coriaceous 
leaves and capsules." (JBentha?n.) 

3370. ESCHSCHO'LTZ/^. 
28369a crdcea Benth. saffron-petaled -* A or 1 jl.o Saf California 1833. S co Hort. trans. 2.S.1.407 

In general habit, foliage, and size of the flower, E. crocea closely resembles 
E. californica ; but promises far to surpass it in the rich orange colour of the 
petals. E. crocea is equally hardy, and appears to flower even more freelv. 
It is botanically distinguished from E. californica by the widely expanded 
limb of that curious appendage of the peduncle beneath the insertion of the 
calyx which is characteristic of the genus, and by the long attenuated point of 
the calyx. (Bentham) 

Mr. Douglas has also sent home dried specimens and seeds of other species 
of Eschscholtzk : these Mr. Bentham has described and named caespitdsa, 
tenuifolia, Aypecoides (whose flower resembles that of ifypecoum grandi- 
fiorum) ; " but no seed of them has vegetated." 


13793a heterophylla Benth. various-lvd. 2e ? A ? pr. 1 ? ... O.R California 1833. S co Hort.trans.'2.s.'l.i08 
crassifdlia Benth. thick-lfd. ^ ? A ? pr. 1? ••• O.R California 1833. S co Hort.trans.2.s.l.408 

Described from dried specimens. A plant or plants of one of the species 
has been raised in the Horticultural Society's garden ; and, although the 
plant or plants died, it is hoped that more will be raised from a share of the 
first imported seed, which had been reserved. " The flowers of both species 
are of an orange red, about the size of that of Papaver Argemone : they do 
not appear likely to be so ornamental as many others of the poppy tribe now 
in cultivation." {Bentham.} 

XLV. Grossuldcece. 

719 RI K BES. 

f28130 punctatum R. $ P. dotted-//^. * pr 3 ? Y.G Chile 1826. Ceo Bot. reg. 1658 

A figure of a plant is published in the Bot. Beg. for Nov. 1829, t. 1278., which Dr. Lindley has 

there named R'ibes punctatum, and identified by the same references as those given in t. 1658; 

but with the latter figure and description he does not couple any mention of, or reference to, 

the figure and description at 1. 1278. 

A rather pretty evergreen shrub, remarkable for the shining yellowish green 
appearance of the leaves, and the short bunches of yellowish flowers. It is 
hardy enough to live in a dry border without protection ; and would probably 
succeed extremely well in the south of England, in rocky situations. The 
species has been cultivated in the Horticultural Society's garden for several 
years. {Bot. Reg., March.) 

5059 nigrum 

2 bacca flavida yellowish-berried 3£ cu 4 Wsh C co 

This may not be a variety of nigrum ; but it resembles nigrum in habit and appearance wholly. 
All that I know of its history is, that W. Oldham, Esq., when residing at Rickinghall, near 
Diss, Norfolk, presented, on Oct. 2. 1827, cuttings of it to the botanic garden at Bury St. Ed- 
munds, Suffolk, as of " the green-berried black currant; " and stated that it had been received 
into his neighbourhood from that of Bath. The cuttings were planted, grew, and formed plants, 
which bore berries not green but obscurely yellow, flavoured like those of the black currant ; 
and, besides, plenty of branches for other cuttings, which were supplied to several persons who 
,' had asked for them : among others, to (1 believe) J. Sabine, Esq., for the London Horticultural 
Society. — J. D. 

1 72 Floricultural and Botanical Notices, 

XL VI. Cactece. 

1474. OPU'NTIA. 

fcylindrica Dec. cyVmAxic-branched * ZD gr 6 ... S Peru 1799. C s.l Bot. mag. 3301 
Cereus cylindricus Hort. Brit., No. 12578. ; Opuntia cylfndrica Hort. Brit, p. 479. 

This very interesting species, which has not yet flowered in Britain, has at 
length flowered in a Madeira garden. The flowers are produced, several 
together, just below the ends of the branches, rather small and inconspicuous, 
about 1 in. in diameter, scarlet. O. cylindrica " is truly intermediate between 
Cereus and Opuntia." {Bot. Mag., Feb.) 

Cereus triangularis will, like Cucumis Melo, the Melon Plant, emit Boots into 
contiguous Water. — In the end of 1833, I was shown, in the hot-house of the 
Rev. Edward Mathew, Pentlow Hall, Cavendish, Suffolk, Cereus triangularis 
rooting freely into water. The plant was standing near a leaden cistern 
occupied by water and growing plants of Aympha2 v a caerulea and minor. 
The Cereus triangularis had extended some of its branches within a short 
distance of the water, and these had emitted roots freely into the water. — 
N. S. Hodson. Bury St. Edmunds, Jan. 1834-. 

LXXIII. 'Rosacea;. 

1522. .RCrSA 13470 indica. [Sw.fl.gar. 2.s. 229 

nivea D. Don white double-flowered Noisette's *or3jt W.R Gardens 1831? CI 

Imported from France, by Mr. Dennis, nurseryman, Chelsea, under the name of Aime Vibert ; 

and is doubtless a hybrid production, most probably originated between Boss, indica and B. mos- 

chata. (Z». Don.) 

Flowers very full of snow-white rather crumpled petals ; the outer petals of 
the expanded flowers, and the exterior petals of the flower-buds, are of a deep 
red colour. From forty to fifty flowers, disposed in a corymb, terminate some 
of the shoots ; and, as all the shoots evince a propensity to produce flowers 
wood-shoots for cuttings are but sparingly supplied. {The British Floiver- 
Garden, March.) Mr. Dennis has informed us that he has also imported 
a beautiful variety, whose habit is in the mode of the " four-seasons " 
variety : it has rather large flowers, full of petals, which have a lilac-purple 
ground, and are striped with white. He also possesses the double-flowered 
Macartney, the flowers of which are beautiful, full of petals (double), and 

LXX1V. VomdcecB. 

1507. PYMtUS. 
■f-12951 crenata D. Don notched-//^. 1 or 15 my.jn W Nepal 1820. G c Bot. reg. 1655 

The fine large leaves of this species render it to be desired in the shrub- 
bery ; its flowers, too, are ornamental. It is to be increased by grafting on 
the whitethorn. The figure is from a plant in the London Horticultural 
Society's garden. See also in p. 169. {Bot. Beg., March.) 

LXXVII. Leguminosce. 

10566a retiisum Lindl. blunt-7/a\ * l_J or 1| my O.S N. Holl. 1830. C s.l.p Bot. reg. 1647 

" A smaller plant than G. bilobum. Its flowers are of the same rich orange 
yellow, but in smaller heads ; and their keel is not purple, but of the same 
colour as the other petals." According to the figure, each head is composed 
of about twenty flowers : the heads are both terminal and axillary. Mr. 
Knight, Chelsea, possesses it ; he raised it from seeds collected by Mr. Bax- 
ter. " It is a pretty green-house plant, easily propagated by cuttings." {Bot. 
Beg., Feb.) 

1945. SCO'TTW. 
17311a la? Vis Lindl. smooth-branched * | | or 3 jn.s? Y.S N. Holl. 1833. C s.p Bot. reg. 1652 

A third species of the rare genus Scottifl. Mr. Knight, Chelsea, has raised 
it from seeds collected by Mr. Baxter. " It differs from S. dentata, not only 
in its flowers having no tinge of red, and in its narrower, more finely toothed 
leaves, but also in its branches being altogether free from the numerous rough 
projecting points which are found upon those of both the other species." 
S. laeVis is " a delicate green-house plant : it requires a cool shelf in the 
winter, and abundant ventilation." {Bot. Beg., Feb.) 

supplementary to Encyc. of Plants and, Hort. Brit. 1 73 

1980. ADE'SMIA. r_Sw.fl.gar. 2.s. 230 

viscbsa Gill. # Hook. clamray-herbaged 36 ? * ? | or 3 au Y Chile 1832. C lt.l 

A very pleasing species ; spineless, of upright growth and elegant leaves, 

which consist of from 9 to 14 pairs of small oblong crenated leaflets ; the 

flowers are produced 8 or 10 in a raceme, which, where present, terminates a 

branch ; the corolla is of a rich gamboge yellow, and large for the genus. 

Messrs. Allen and Rogers, nurserymen, Chelsea and Battersea, have raised 

the A. viscosa. (The British Flower-Gar den, March.) 

"1985. XUPFNUS. 

17706a nanus Benth. dwarf Jk Q or 1 ? jl.s B.Va California 1833. S s.l Hort. trans.2.s. I. pl.14. fig.2 

Is elegant from the number of its flowers and their variegated colour. 
Leaves much like those of L. bicolor. It produces freely flowers and seeds, 
and is a desirable ornament of the garden. The Horticultural Society has 
already distributed seeds of it. (Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. 410.) 
;densiflorus Benth. dense-inflor. O or § jl.s W.Pk California 1833. S s.l Hort. trans.2.s. 1.410 
Leaves of about nine leaflets, covered with fine soft hairs. The flowers 
grow in whorls which nearly touch each other ; the corollas are white, deli- 
cately stained with pink; they are also a little speckled at the base of the 
vexillum. L. densiflorus probably requires shade. (Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 
2d ser. i. 410.) 

28462a albifrons Benth. hozry-herbaged *_Jor3§s.n Dp.B California 1833. C s.l Bot. reg.1642 
Very near L. ornatus ; from which it differs in its shrubby habit, short leaves, long and slender 
racemes, and rather smaller deep blue flowers. {Benth. in Hort. Trans. 2d ser. i. 410.) 

The flowers are in racemes 1 ft. in length. " Although not so handsome as 
L. ornatus, it is well deserving of cultivation. It is not, perhaps, hardy 
enough to bear the rigour of our winters without protection ; but it seems to 
thrive in a glass pit, and would probably succeed in the front of a south wall, 
covered from wet in winter. It seems not to seed freely, and does not 
increase readily by cuttings. (Bot. Reg., figure in Jan., text in Feb.) 
. leptophyllus Benth. narrow-leaffefed' O or 1 jl.s B.Li California 1833. S s.l 

A species not so pretty as many others. It is remarkable for its narrow 
leaflets and hairy surface. The corollas are elegantly coloured with bluish- 
lilac, and there is a deep crimson stain in the middle of the standard. The 
species probably delights in shade. (Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d. ser. 1.411.) 

IHort. trans. 2.s. 1.411 
hirsutissimus Benth. most bairy-herbaged O cu § ? jl.s P.R California 1833. S s.l 

Interesting botanically. Its leaves are spotted with pale green, in the man- 
ner those of a Pulmonaria are with white ; the corollas are of a reddish purple 
colour. (Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. 1.411.) 

CHI. Malpighiacese. 

1395a. STIGMAPHY'LLUM Hit. {Stigma, a stigma, phyllon, a leaf; stigma foliaceous.) 

10. 3. Sp. 6.— 20. ? 
aristatum Lindl. awned./fo". $_ □ or 20? Y Brazil 1832? C p.s.l Bot. reg. 1639 

A handsome plant. The leaves are stalked and arrow-shaped, and are dis- 
posed in pairs at intervals along the branches : these are long, slender, and 
twining. The flowers, which are yellow, each as broad as a shilling, and of 
five fringed petals, are placed, from three to five together, in an umbel. The 
umbels are stalked, and in pairs, from the axils of the opposite leaves. " The 
different species of this genus are common in Brazil." S. aristatum is figured 
from the stove of Mrs. Marryatt of Wimbledon, who had received it under the 
name of Banisten'a auriculata ; " which is quite another species, but of the 
same genus." 

>uriculatum {Lindl. ?) auricled (Ifd. ?) £. □ or 10 ... Y Brazil 1820. C p.s.l Cav. dis.255 

Banisten'a auriculata Cav., Hort. Brit. 11746. 

The scandent species of Malpighiacea: ascend by means of an entwining habit (J; !___) rather than 
by means of tendrils of any kind (____ ___)• Accordingly, the sign $_ may be substituted in Hort. 

Brit, for the sign ___, in those of the species to which it is attached in the genera Byrs6nima, 
Galphimia, Gae'rtnera, Thryallis, Hiraj\z, Triopteris, Banisteria, Heteropteris. 

CXIX. Zygophyllece. 

1304a. FAB A'GO Led. Bean Caper. {Faba, a bean ; leaves resemble those of a bean.) 10. 1. Sp. 2—6 ? 

major B.Don larger 4_£ A or 4 jl.s W.Saf Syria 1596. S gra.l Sw.fl.gar.2.s.226 

Zygophyllum Fabago X.'Hort. Brit. 10886. " We willingly follow Mr. Brown in separating this 

species from Zygophyllum, from which it is distinguished by several important characters; 

1 74; Floricultural and Botanical Notices, 

' especially by the position of the radicle in respect to the hilum." — D. Don, who cites, from Lede- 
bourandhis own examination, five other zygophyllums which are probably referable to the genus 

F. major appears to delight in a gravelly loam. In the Chelsea Botanic 
Garden, planted at the foot of the rockwork, near the edge of the gravel walk, 
it has attained the height of 4 ft., and blossomed abundantly. The whole herb 
has the smell and taste of Capparis spinosa. {The British Flower-Garden, 

CXLVII. ? Lhnndnthees R. Br. in London Phil. Mag., July, 1833, new 
series, vol. hi. p. 70. and 71. 

The place of this new order is not absolutely determined. It includes the genera Limnanthes R. Br. 
and Floerkea Willd. 

LIMNA'NTHES R. Br. Marsh-flower. {Limne, marsh, anthos, flower ; the plant's habitat.) 

Sp. 1.— 
Douglasw R. Br. Douglas's Ji. O or ... W.Y California 1833. S m.s Hort.trans.2.s.lA09 

An interesting plant, from the elegance of its flowers and foliage. It is a 
prostrate pale-green annual, with finely divided rather succulent leaves, and 
five white striated petals with a yellow base. The flowers are of about the 
size of those of the Campanula rotundifolia, are slightly fragrant, and very 
pretty. From the habit of this plant, it seems to require a damp and shady 
situation, where it will probably remain in flower for a month or six weeks. 
It is propagated by seeds, which are produced in tolerable plenty. (Bentham, 
in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. 409.) 


CLXIX. Sapotese. 

f4490 monopyrenum Swx. one-stoned £ □ or 30 "W W.Indies 1812. C r.m Bot.mag.3303 

Figured and described from a tree which grows in the neighbourhood of 
Funchal, Madeira. This tree forms rather an elegant evergreen one, about 
30 ft. high, and with a trunk not exceeding 1 ft. in diameter. All parts of the 
tree are, while young, milky, as is shown when they are cut or broken. The 
leaves (oval) are smooth and shining above ; beneath beautifully satiny, with 
pale rust-coloured close-pressed silky hairs. The leaves, before they fall, turn 
to a beautiful deep rich red, variously marbled or mottled with yellow or 

white Flowers very small, scentless. . . . Fruit a shining purplish black 

ovato-oblong drupe, about 1| in. long and half an inch broad; the drupes are 
always produced in great abundance; and are eatable, but not esteemed. 
(Bot. Mag., Feb.) In the London Horticultural Society's collection at 
Chiswick, a shrub of this species is trained over the interior face of the back 
wall of one of the green-houses : the plant's leaves, especially their rusty 
satiny surface, are most beautiful objects. 

CLXXXVI. Composites. 

2340a. PERICA'LLIS D. Don. {Perikalles, very pretty; radial ligulas beautiful.) 19. 2. Sp. 8.— 

Tussilaginis D. Don. Coltsfoot-//^. £ lAJ or 1 w.sp Li Teneriffe 1829. S s.l Sw.fl.gar.2.s.228 
Cineraria Tussilaginis Heiit., Hooker in Bot. Mag. 3215. ; Senecio Tussilaginis Lindt. in Bot. Reg. 
1550. Mr. D. Don has, in the place cited, investigated the structure and affinities of this plant; 
and deems it a form of a distinct and natural genus, which he has characterised, and named 
Pericallis. To it he would refer this plant, and Cineraria crutinta, aurlta, lactea, lanata, multi- 
flbra, joopulifblia, and ?«alva?f&lia. The genus Pericallis has, he has remarked, the habit of 
ITussilago, the involucrum of Othonna, and the corolla of Senecio. 

Pericallis tussilaginis D. Don is an ornamental and desirable plant. See 

IX. 106. Mr. Don deems it perennial if kept in a green-house. (Brit. Floiv. 

Gard., Feb.) 

2253a. KENTROPHY'LLUM Neck. {Kentron, a spine, phyllon, a leaf; leaves very spiny.) 19. 1. 

f 20440 arborescens Hook. shrubby *s | | or 6 au.n Y Spain 1731. C s.p Bot. mag. 3302 

Onobroma arborescens Spr., Carthamus arborescens L. 

This singular and not unornamental plant " has stood out of doors, in the 
Dublin College Botanic Garden, for the last two winters, in a sheltered bor- 
der, flowering freely in autumn, and throwing out many side-shoots from its 
woody stem. Both flowers and leaves have an agreeable musky smell." (Mr. 
J. T. Mackay.') " Its lively yellow [heads of] flowers, nestled among the 

supplementary to Encyc. of Platits and Hort. Brit. 175 

bright green foliage, were in perfection to the very end of November, when 
our figure was taken." (Dr. Hooker, in Bot. Mag., Feb.) 

2323. HELICHRY^SUM 20992 bracteatum. 

2 involdcro albido whitish-involucred O or 3 jl.o Y Camb. bot. gard. 1833? S co 

A living plant or plants of this remarkable variety was growing, in 1833, in 
the Cambridge Botanic Garden • whence derived, and when, I either omitted 
to ascertain or have forgotten. — J. D. 

2337. ^'STER. 
f21332 eminens W. tall-stemmed ^ A or 7 s.o B United States ... D co Bot. reg. 1614 

2 virgfneus Nees pure vrhiterayed & A or 3 s.o W.Y United States ... Deo Bot. reg. 1656 
" A. junceus H. K., A. longifolius Lain., A. virgineus Nees Synops. Ast, A. eminens var. virgineus 
Nees Gen. et Sp. Ast., A. albus of English gardeners." (Bot. Reg. 1656.) 

This species is characterised by its involucrum • which consists, in all the 
varieties, of a few very narrow rather leafy spreading scales, which seem as if 
they all originated from the same circle, and have a somewhat squarrose 
appearance. The rays of some varieties are of a violet colour ; of others, light 
blue; and, in A. eminens var. virgineus, white. (Bot. Reg., March.) This last 
variety is doubtless figured from the Horticultural Society's collection. 

CXCI. Caprifolidcece. 

892. flBU'RNUM. [Bot reg. 1650 

7129a cotinifblium D. Don Cotinus-lfd. 3£ or 10 my.jn W.Pk Himalayan mountains 1830 ? LI 

Common in the Himalayas, at elevations of from 5000 ft. to 7000 ft., in 30° 
N. lat. In Britain it proves tolerably hardy. It much resembles V. Lantana: 
its leaves have the same wrinkled grey aspect, its branches the same mode of 
leafing and budding, and its fruit a very similar form ; but the flowers are 
much larger, more coloured with pink, and neither flat nor slightly bell-shaped,' 
but of a distinct obconical figure. (Bot. Reg., Feb.) 

CXCV. Asclepiddese. 

778. CEROPE^GIA. (Keropegion, a lampstand or candelabrum ; resemblance borne by the 

flowers as disposed in umbels.) 

+6213a LusIim Grah. Mr. Lush's & _| 23 cu ... o G.P E. Indies 1833. O p.l Bot. mag. 3300 

Itjias great affinity with C. acuminata Box., especially in the structure of the flowers. The leaves 

of C. Lushii are narrow, thick, fleshy, veinless ; those of C. acuminata, broader, not fleshy, and 

have lateral veins which emanate from the midrib. 

C. Lushw is not showy, but is graceful. " Many of the ceropegias are 
possessed of considerable beauty, and are highly ornamental to the bushy 
and uncultivated places in which they grow. They are, too, esculent • and are 
used, either raw or stewed, in curries by the natives. Of one species, C. bul- 
bosa, the root resembles a small turnip, no less (according to Dr. Roxburgh) 
in appearance than in flavour,* and its leaves taste like purslane." (Bot. 
Mag., Feb.) 

At the foot of p. 737. in Vol. IX. it is stated, that, at a show, on June 26. 

1833, of the Norwich Horticultural Society, 

"Ceropegia stupeUtefdrmis, a curious little plant, raised by Mr. Hitchen, and now flowered for the 
first time, was exhibited by him, and received the large silver medal." Is this an undescribed 
species ? It probably is. 

H6i/a carnosa will emit Roots into the Mortar of Walls, which collect there the 
Means of supporting the Plant. — In Sept. 1833, Mr. Shepherd, sen., the 
venerable and respected curator of the Liverpool Botanic Garden, showed me, 
in a stove there, a plant of H6y« carnosa in full bloom growing from inter- 
stices of the wall, into which it had established its roots ; the part of the plant 
which intervened this point of attachment and that of the pot in which the plant 
had originally grown had died away. I have a plant which has rooted firmly 
into a wall in a green-house here, perhaps to follow the course of the plant at 
Liverpool. — N. S. Hodson. Botanic Garden, Bury St. Edmunds, Jan. 1834. 

CXCIX. Convolvuldcece. 

491. IPOMCE*-A. [Bot. mag. 3297 

rubro-caerCtlea Hook, reddish-blue-corollaed ^ ? J| E3 spl. 8 ? s.n B.R Mexico 1833? S p.l 

" A twining smooth plant, with herbaceous branches. Leaves heart-shaped, 
acuminate. Peduncles axillary, bearing from three to four flowers. Corolla, 
in bud, white, with the limb of a rich lake red • which, when the corolla is fully 
expanded, becomes of a fine purplish blue There are, perhaps, few, if 

1 76 FloriciiHural and Botanical Notices, 

any [of the species of Ipomoe v a in our collections], that can equal, in the 
beauty of the flowers, I. riibro-cserulea : for the opportunity of figuring which 
we are indebted to John Allcard, Esq., of Stratford Green, Essex ; in whose 
stove, and that of his neighbour, Miss Loxley, plants have been in flower the 
[? which] last two months. The seeds from which they have arisen were col- 
lected in the province of Guanaxuato, in Mexico, by Mr. Samuel Richardson, 
an officer in the Anglo-Mexican mining association ; who presented them to 
J. D. Powles, Esq., of Stamford Hill, who has liberally distributed them." 
(Bot. Mag., Feb.) 

CCXI. Scrophidarinece. 

65. CALCEOLARIA 27994 arachnoidea. rSw.fl.gar.2.s.227 

var. refulgens D. Don refalgent-corollaed £ _AJ or 1 jn.s Bt.Ru.R Eng.hyb. 1833 ? D 
Raised by Mr. Gillen (gardener to Mr. M'Intosh, at the East India Docks), from seeds which had 
been cross-impregnated between two of the numerous varieties originated between C. arach- 
nOidea and C. corymbbsa. (Brit. Flower-Garden.) 

Flowers cymose. Corolla of a bright rufous red, the upper lip very short ; 

lower one large, inflated, nearly round Mr. Gillen sent us specimens of 

several others, equally beautiful, which he had raised in the same way. {Brit. 
Flower-Garden, Feb.) 

CCXIII. Soldnees. 

3474. NIEREMBE'RGJ/f. 

filicaulis Lindl. thread.&'A-e-stemmed £ |A1 or I my Li Mexico ? 1833. C p Bot. reg. 1649 

A newly introduced species. Mr. Tate of the Sloane Square Nursery com- 
municated the specimen figured. In Britain " it is a pretty green-house 
perennial, requiring to be kept in an airy place ; and may be easily multiplied 
by cuttings." It differs from N. gracilis in being generally glabrous, not 
pubescent ; in its corolla being of a lilac, not a grey, colour ; " the tube of its 
corolla is also shorter; and its stamens covered with glandular hairs." Ac- 
cording to the picture, the plant is a very pleasing one in its slender herbage, 
garnished with numerous flowers, whose red-lilac corollas are 1 in. across, 
and have in their centre, at the throat of the tube, a conspicuous yellow spot. 
The segments of the stigma are apposed to the anthers in a remarkable man- 
ner. (Bot. Reg., Feb.) 

CCXlV. Acanthdcece. 

58a. BELOPE'RONE Nees. (Belos, an arrow, perone, a strap or band ; connectivum arrow-shaped.) 

2. 1. Sp. 3.— 
oblongata Nees ob\ong-lfd. « □ or 3 s Ro.P Brazil 1832. C p.l Bot. reg. 1657 
Beloptrone Nees von Esenbeck, in Wallich PI. As. Rar. 3. 102., Justice oblongata Lk. fy Otto. [The 
figure of Dr. Hooker's Justfcz're nodosa, in Bot. Mag. t. 2913., exhibits a plant apparently dis- 
tinct ; and Dr. Hooker speaks of them as distinct : the synonyme applied to No. 27986. in Hort. 
Brit, seems, therefore, wrongly placed.] 

A pretty species, of, according to the figure, a free full habit, copiously clad 
in willow-like leaves ; and adorned at the tips of its branches with axillary 
spikes of flowers, whose corolla is 1a in. long, and of a rosy purple colour. 
It is " easily cultivated, and may be easily multiplied by cuttings. The draw- 
ing was made in September, 1833, in the nursery of Mr. Knight, Chelsea." 
(Bot. Reg., March.) 

CCXX. Verbendcece. 

1745. ZAPPA\ZvX4 (rather than Zapawza, as in Hort. Brit.) 15624 nodiflbra (knotted-inflor.). 

rosea D. Don losy-corollaed £ .A] pr $ Jl Pk Chile 1832. D p.l Sw.fl.gar.2.s.225 

A pretty little perennial plant for cultivating in a pot or upon rockwork. 
Mr. Knight, Chelsea, possesses it. Its creeping leaf-clad shoots or branches 
emit roots very readily ; and they form a miniature tuft of verdant herbage, 
from which numerous flower-stems arise ; which,, with their branches, are ter- 
minated by little dense heads of small flowers, with rosy or pink corollas, 
marked with a yellow spot. " It is nearly if not quite hardy." (The British 
Floiuer-Garden, Feb.) 

CCXXI. Labiates. 

, 74. MONA'RD.4 618 fistulbsa. [Bot. mag. 3310 

fibre maculato Hook, spotted-lipped ^ A or 3 su Pa.RoSpot New Orleans _ 1832. Deo 
M. mentheefblia Graham, in Bot. Mag. 2958. 

Leaves ovate, acuminate. Heads of flowers rather large. Corolla about 

supplementary to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 177 

1 in. long, pale rose-coloured ; the upper side of the lower lip spotted with 
deep purple. Like every Monarda, ornamental. It is in the collection of the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden. (Hot. Mag., March.) Westringfa Dampieri (Bot. 
Mag., 3308.) and cinerea (Bot. Mag., 3307.) are figured in the Bot. Mag. for 
March, and from the Kew collection. Both are pretty in their rosemary -like 
leaves, and white corollas sprinkled with little rosy spots. These species had 
flowered in October. A habit of flowering so late in the year must increase 
their interest in the green-house. 

CCXXVIII. Coniferce. Several species of Pinus, likely to prove valuable 
additions to our stock of timber trees, have been raised in the garden of the 
Horticultural Society, from seeds received from Mr. Douglas, who has dis- 
tinguished them by the names Sabinidna, monticola, amabilis, nobilis, grandis, 
insignis, and Menzieszi. The living plants are yet too young to be eligible for 
botanical description. (Bentham, in Hort. Tram., 2d ser. i. 404.) 


CCXXXIV. Bromelikceas. 

957. BILLBE'RG/^. [Bot. mag. 3301 

purpHreo-rosea Hook. vurpte-jxtaled rosy-sepaled jS E) or 2 n Ro.P Brazil 1831. Sk r.m 

It will, perhaps, yield in beauty to but few of its tribe. The leaves are 
broad, 1^ ft. long, edged with strong prickles. The scapes are from one to 
three in number, longer than the leaves, of a reddish purple colour. The 
flowers are arranged in a compound spike, from 8 in. to 10 in. long; and, 
although they are not individually large, they are numerous : and, in their 
number, i - osy sepals, and purple petals, constitute an ornamental species. It 
was introduced by Mrs. Arnold Harrison ; and has flowered, in the Liverpool 
Botanic Garden, in 1832, 1833. (Bot. Mag., March.) 

CCXL. Qrclridece. The Cape Species of Or chideoits Plants. — We presume 
that it is impracticable to cultivate them permanently in Britain, by any means 
hitherto discovered; for the roots, although, when first imported, they flower, 
afterwards disappear. They should be planted in sandy loam, and kept in as 
light a green-house as possible: for it is probable that the reason of their dis- 
appearing is the want of light during their growing season in this country. 
(Bot. Beg., March, t. 1653.) 

2484. BARTHOLrNyi. 
f22512 pectinata fi. Br. pectinated-lipped A [Z3 el J au Pa.V C.G.H. 1787. O s.l Bot. reg. 1653 

Of great interest in its kidney-shaped leaf, in its flower's lip cut into long 
linear segments resembling the teeth of a comb, its rarity, and the great diffi- 
culty of cultivating it in this country. It is figured from the collection of 
Messrs. Rollisson, nurserymen, Tooting. (Bot. Reg., March.) 

2540. ONCI'DIUM. 
22690a ciliatum Lindl. fringed-lipped £ E3 or § n Y.R Brazil 1818. D p.r.w Bot. reg. 1660 

A pretty little species, closely allied to O. barbatum. The picture exhibits 

four flowers in a raceme, which terminates the unbranched short slender 

scape. The flowers vary in colour : sometimes being yellow spotted with 

red, and sometimes of a brownish orange. Mr. Knight, nurseryman, Chelsea ; 

Sir C. Lemon, Carclew, Cornwall; and the London Horticultural Society 

possess plants of this species. (Bot. Beg., March.) Many of the orchideous 

epiphytes are found to succeed if tied to short pieces of branches of trees with 

rugged bark : none succeed better on this plan than the different species of 

Oncidium. (Bot. Reg., Feb.) 


album Hook. v/hite-perianthcd ^Eorln W. Trinidad 1833. D p.r.w Bot. mag. 3306 
Dr. Hooker finds great difficulty in referring this plant to its proper genus. 

Sent from Trinidad, by Mr. David Lockhart, along with a very accurate 
drawing by Mr. J. Lockhart, to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where it 
flowered in Nov. 1833. Leaves linear, not very narrow. Flowers rather large, 
white. ( Bot. Mag., March.) 

Vol. X. — No. 49. n 

1 78 Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 

2571. CALA'NTHE. 

densiBora Lindl. dense-racemed £ [23 or f o Y Sylhet 1832 ? D Bot. reg. 1646 

A terrestrial species. It grows very freely in loam and decayed vegetable 

matter, in a damp stove. The leaves of C. densiflora, as those of the other 

species, are pleasing objects ; its flowers, which are not large, are disposed in 

a dense raceme : they are pendulous in some degree. W. W. Salmon, Esq. 

[? where resident], and Messrs. Loddiges possess plants of C. densiflora. 

(Bot. Beg., Feb.) 

f22747 nocturnum L. night-fragrant £ BJ or 1 o.n Y.W W.Indies 1816. D p.r.w Bot. mag. 3298 

The flowers, though scentless during the day, yield at night, like the greenish or 
yellowish white flowers of many other species of plants, a very powerful odour. 
Linnaeus compares that of the flower of E. nocturnum to that of the flowers 
of Lilium candidum L. Dr. Hooker remarks, that, " to us, even by day, there 
is a faint smell resembling cucumber." Messrs. Loddiges had, and may still 
have, E. nocturnum : it is in the Liverpool and Glasgow Botanic Gardens. 
(Bot. Mag., Feb.) 

CCXLIII. Musdceae. 


pulverulenta Lindl. dusted-leafed tf TA1 or 2 il G.S S. America? 1830? D p.l Bot. reg.l64S 

A species of not large proportions, but one possessed of considerable 
beauty. " It is impossible to imagine any thing more delicate than the blue 
[pulverulent] bloom which thickly covers the underside of the leaves [these 
have, too, a narrow edging of red] ; or more brilliant than the vivid scarlet of 
the flower-leaves or spathes, among which nestle, as it were, a few bright- 
green flowers." (Bot. Beg., Feb.) 

CCXLV1I. Asphodelea. 

3283. TRITELEFA Hook. (Treis, three, teleios, perfect; as the plant produces three stamens with 

fertile anthers, the other three are barren.) Sp. 2. — 
28010a laxa Benth. lax-umbelled tf _AI or 1| Dp.B California 1832? O p.l Hort. trans.2.s.!.pl.l5.f.2 

A very handsome plant. Its flowers are about the size of those of Brodiae v <z 
grandiflora, and of the same deep blue colour. They grow in a lax umbel; 
but, notwithstanding the length of their stalks, stand nearly erect : the scape 
is, however, apt to be procumbent if not supported. T. laxa seeds freely, and 
will probably soon be rendered common. ( Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. 
413.) For a suggestion on culture, see under Cyclobothra in the next page. 

CCLI. ~LilidcecB. 

3339. CALOCHO'RTUS. The order iiliacea? includes numerous plants of distinguished beauty ; 

but, surely, few among them surpass, in elegance of habit and beauty of petal, the Caloch6rti. 
Of the genus Calochortus, three species are registered in p. 476. of Hort. Brit. ; namely, nitidus, 
macrocarpus, and eiegans. Of these, <51egans is now referred to the genus Cyclobothra : see 
below. Thus, of Calochortus there are but two species enrolled in Hort. Brit. A third species, 
C. luteus, is described in this Magazine (IX. 240.) ; and now the following have to be added. The 
whole, from first to last, have, we believe, been introduced by Mr. David Douglas. 

[Hort. trans. 2. s. I. pi. 15. f. 1 
28186a splendens Don. splendid-corollaed $ _AJ spl 1| au.s Li California 1832? O s.p 

This elegant species has very much the appearance of C. macrocarpus. It 
is, perhaps, less branched ; and the leaves are shorter. The petals are paler- 
coloured, and have a small dark spot at their base. The bulbs of it, trans- 
mitted by Mr. Douglas, have grown freely; and many have already been 
distributed. (Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. 411.) 

[Hort. tran3. 2. s. 1. pi. 15. f. 3 
28186J venustus Dou. handsome-corollaed tf _AJ spl au.s California 1832? O s.p 

C. venustus resembles C. macrocarpus in the size of the flowers. It dif- 
fers from both macrocarpus and splendens in several botanical points; and 
" by the colour of the petals, which is a pure white, with the lower part 
marked in streaks of deep red on a yellow ground ; and with a spot near the 
extremity of each petal, much resembling a drop of blood. C. venustus, like 
C. splendens, is a very handsome species, and has been raised in a sufficient 
quantity for distribution. (Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. 412.) 

Retrospective Criticism. 179 

3337 CYCLOBO'THRA. Of this genus, which is closely allied to Caloch6rtus, two species are 

registered in p. 475. of Hort. Brit. ; namely, C. purpCirea and C. barbata. To these the species 

hitherto called Calochortus elegans, and the following species introduced by Mr. Douglas, are 

now to be added : — fHort, trans. 2. s. 1. pi. 14. f. 1 

pulchella Benth. pretty-Jlwd. 5 A or 1 au.s Y California 1832 ? O p.l 

The stem is about 1 ft. high, much branched ; each branch terminated with 
an umbel of two or three pendulous flowers issuing from the base of a green 
leaflike bract, longer than the peduncle. The leaves are narrow, linear 
lanceolate, 3 in. to 5 in. long, placed at the ramifications of the stem and 
branches. The sepals are of a greenish hue, and ovate lanceolate form ; the 
petals longer, much broader, of a bright yellow colour, and bordered with a 
beautiful but delicate fringe, C. pulchella produces seeds in great abundance, 
and will probably become as common as a fritillary. (Bentham, in Hort. 
Trans., 2d ser. i. 413.) 

SlbaBentk. v/hite-petaled 5 A or 1 au.s W California 1832? Op 

C. alba is closely allied to C. pulchella ; but the flowers are larger, the petals 
both longer and broader, "of a whitish colour, and not fringed at the margin. 
(Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. 413.) 

All the species of Calochortus, Cyclobothra, and Triteleia are probably 
hardy; they seem only to require a shady situation, an da warm and light soil 
which is effectually protected from wet in winter. But, as they are all at 
present extremely rare, they have hitherto been taken up as soon as their 
leaves had died, and kept dry until the roots had begun again to shoot. 
{Bentham, in Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. 414,) 

Art. V. Retrospective Criticism. 

Corrections. — Mr. Rangecroft. In IX. 675., for " Mr. Haycroft," read 
" Mr. Rangecroft." This gentleman, now long since dead, when gardener to 
the late Duke of Portland, at Bulstrode, was a most successful cultivator of 
exotic plants. He was the first who induced Nelumbium speciosum, Mag- 
nolia purpurea, and, our informant, Mr. Main, believes, Ixora_ coccinea, to 
flower in Britain. Under his culture, too, those rarely flowering plants, Port- 
land^ grandiflora and Catesbse v a spinosa flowered frequently. In X. p. 10. 
line 6. from the bottom, for " bridges," read " hedges." 

The Gardener's Magazine as a monthly Publication. — I must think your 
Magazine would meet with more extensive circulation if you would publish it 
monthly, at Is. Gd. or 2s. Two months is too long a time from one feeding of 
the mind till the next. Although coarse-feeding animals thrive best with 
feasting and fasting; still man is not so gross in his mental appetite, but that 
he could digest and turn to more use a little monthly, than he can a large dose, 
if he be crammed with it only every alternate month. — H. T. Bury St. Ed- 
munds, Dec. 3. 1833. 

Several correspondents having expressed a similar opinion, we have de- 
termined on complying with their request, and on publishing the Magazine 
in future monthly, at Is. M. — Cond. 

On the fraudident Practices of Gardening Authors. (V "III. 289. IX. 116.492.) 
—We have received a long letter from " A Constant Reader," full of severe 
criticism on " An Enemy to Deceit." It would occupy three of our pages, 
and would be of very little interest to any but the parties concerned. The 
object of " A Constant Reader" is to defend the late Mr. Stewart of Valley- 
field, for having published a paper, stating that he grew his pines without 
moist bottom heat; and afterwards, when he employed tan for that purpose, 
for not publishing a notice of the inefficiency of the mode which he had pre- 
viously recommended to the public (VIII. 289. IX. 116.) Our opinion is, 
that " An Enemy to Deceit" did quite right in exposing the discrepancy be- 
tween Mr. Stewart's paper and his subsequent practice; and we only regret 
that the exposure did not take place in Mr. Stewart's lifetime. — Cond. 

Heating by Hot Water at Munich. — With reference to your complaint 
(VIII. 67.) of my not having done justice to the Gardener's Magazine, 

x 2 

180 Retrospective Criticism. 

I am sorry to have unintentionally given you offence; but, in truth, if I had 
acknowledged my obligations to specific works, I must have quoted, not only 
your Magazine, but also the Transactions of the Horticultural Society., and 
other journals, which, for brevity's sake, I included under the appellation of 
English publications. I confess, however, that none of these works furnished 
me with so many explanations and observations relating to the before-named 
object as your valuable Gardener's Magazine; for the communication ot 
which, in particular, I therefore return you my warmest thanks. Since 1 sent 
you my tract, I have made a much more extensive application of hot water, as 
a method of heating, in the large green-house at Nymphenburg, and with 
equal success. I refer for your opinion to a brief account which I have given 
of it in the Landwirthschaft/ichen Wochenblatte for 1832, No. 33., together 
with the illustrating engravings. [We shall translate the article, and give it, 
accompanied by engravings, in a future Number.] With respect to the plan of 
the boiler, the account may be of some interest to the English reader, as I do 
not remember to have seen one of similar form mentioned, either in your 
Magazine or in any other English journal. — Sckell, Munich. July, 1833. 

Mr. Anderson' 's Paper on the Drooping Ash, published in the Berlin Horticultural 
Transactions, and translated by us in the Gardener's Magazine. (IX. 596.) 
— Mr. Anderson, on reading his paper re-Englished by us, and finding it did 
not convey the sentiments contained in his original communication sent to 
Berlin, naturally enough concluded that we had mistranslated his paper, in 
transferring it from the Berlin Transactions to our pages. In this, however, he 
was decidedly mistaken ; and the error must have arisen in the translation of 
his original paper from the English into German. In confirmation of this 
view, we give the following extract from vol. vi. of the Berlin Transactions, 
p. 313., in which it will be seen that M. Borchmeyer is contending against 
the supposed opinion of Mr. Anderson, that the weeping ash is a distinct 
species : — " M. Borchmeyer of Darfeld communicated his experience 
respecting the drooping ash, and more particularly relating to the opinion of 
M. Fintelmann, that the drooping ash should be considered a different species 
from the common ash, as the plants raised from its seeds retain the property 
of drooping. This opinion M. Fintelmann communicated to the Society at a 
meeting held December 4.1825. Against this, M. Borchmeyer stated, at a 
meeting held August 9. 1829, that, amongst 1000 seedlings, raised from seeds 
produced by the drooping ash, some of which were from 6 ft. to 7 ft. high, not 
•one showed the least inclination to droop, nor any other mark by which it 
could be distinguished from the common ash. 

The Variegated Acer (A. Pseudo-Platanus) and the Purple Beech. M. 
Borchmeyer also stated his experience respecting these trees ; which is, that a 
few seedlings out of a great many resemble the parents, while the rest assume 
the common form. These two statements, made from experience, show the 
correctness of the prevalent idea that the varieties mentioned of the ash, acer, 
and beech have no claim to be considered species ; and this is the opinion 
which Mr. Anderson maintained in his paper. — Cond. 

Mr. Munrd's Method of training the Oak, fyc, for Timber for Naval Pur- 
poses, (p. 76.) — We have received a long reply to Mr. Munro, but we really 
do not think we could publish it with sufficient profit to our readers. We 
will print the essence of it, however, if the writer will bring it into a quarter 
of a page. — Id. 

'Culture of Tulips and Ranunculuses. — Sir, In the preface to the fifth edition 
of your valuable Encyclopaedia of Gardening you earnestly request the assist- 
tance of every reader willing to correct an error or supply a deficiency ; you 
will, therefore, I trust, pardon th£ following details of part of the culture of' 
tulips and ranunculuses. 

As to tulips, I observe that you recommend rotten dung and mould, about a 
foot thick, and not above two or three inches from the base of the bulbs. The 
florists around me avoid dung in any shape or modification ; for bulbs, planted 
even in a frc sh soil, quite free from dung, are sure the first year to have far too 

Queries and Answers. 181 

much colour, from the soil being too rich. The same bed will last for three 
plantings, that is, three years, with no more than trenching it each year two 
spades deep ; the fourth year, half the mould may be replaced by fresh mould, 
but free from any sort of dung. The bed being planted is to be sheltered 
from rains for about a fortnight; and, when the bulbs have shot out leaves 
above ground, it should be defended by a netting spread upon hoops, which 
must be raised as the tulips get higher, and the sides and ends protected by a 
fence of netting or wirework. This is absolutely necessary, on account of the 
scratching of dogs and cats, which otherwise would destroy many blooms. 

With respect to the Ranunculus Beds, I observe you recommend placing 
rotten dung at five inches below the surface; but the florists here say nine, 
certainly not less than eight inches ; and that, if the dung were placed nearer, it 
would cause the flowers to become blighted. The bed, after it is made, is, for 
a week before planting it, covered with matting, or canvass, or hoops; but on 
fine days it is uncovered, and raked into ridges to dry : for the ground at this 
season (February) has much more moisture than is required to make a ranun- 
culus root swell and vegetate ; and if this precaution were omitted, the pro- 
bable result would be the rotting of many roots. In planting, the roots are 
inserted with the thumb and forefinger, about an inch over the crowns, and the 
bed is again protected for about three days, till its surface gets settled. As to 
the time of planting ; roots planted in November are undoubtedly best for 
increase and strength, but February is the month for planting for a young 
show. Hereabouts there is no planting before the 14th ; and, this year, some 
of the best growers did not plant till the 24th of the month. As soon as the 
shelter of mats or canvass is taken away, the bed should be covered by 
netting supported on hoops, which should continue till the awnings for pro- 
tecting the bloom is put up. Ranunculus seed, sown in autumn (say early 
in November), and effectually protected from frost and wet, will produce 
stronger plants, and more likely to flower the second year, than spring-sown 
seed ; although it is advisable to save some seed for spring sowing. I should 
have observed before, that a ranunculus bed will last two years, with only 
stirring the second year ; observing not to go down to the dung. Rotten 
sheep dung, the shoveling of a sheep pen, is a good substitute for rotten 
cow dung, which frequently cannot be got. 

Heartsease (Fiola tricolor) is now certainly become a florist's flower. I 
hope to see, in the edition of the Encyclopcedia of Gardening now publishing, 
some instructions for its culture. [See VIII. 573., and Encyclopaedia of Gar- 
dening,ed. 1834, art. Viola, in the General Index.] I remain, sir, yours, &c. — 
A Florist and a Reader. Wallingford, Feb. 26. 1834. 

Art. VI. Queries and Answers. 

Cobbett's Gardening. — Sir, I should like much to see one or more of your 
correspondents, who are good practical kitchen-gardeners, take up the subject 
of Cobbett's gardening, in order that its merits may be fully discussed; and to 
show how far his system may be considered as applicable to, and available for, 
the purposes of gentlemen's gardeners. 1 have reason to believe that Mr. 
Cobbett's book has been extensively influential among the higher orders of 
society ; and that in some instances, and perhaps not a few, it has been the 
means of raising disputes between gardeners and their employers. Whatever 
merits the book may be possessed of, it will lose nothing by a fair and candid 
enquiry, and its faults, whatever they may be, will not be increased. — An Ad- 
mirer of good Gardening. Feb. 1834. 

Impressions of the Leaves of Plants. (IX. 629. 719.) — Complete directions for 
this purpose will be found in Murray's Book of General Knoivledge, p. 566. 
This work was published in 1823. — J. G. 

Internal Temperature of the Stems of Plants. — Sir, I have a remark or two 
to offer, which, although they may convey no information, may, if respondents 

N 3 

182 Queries and Answers. 

please, excite some. Mr. Gordon, in his highly ingenious paper, in the Ma- 
gazine of Natural History, V. 121., remarks that plants, as well as animals, 
have the faculty of preserving a certain degree of temperature, be that of the 
medium in which they are placed what it may. " For instance," he remarks 
that " t the temperature of the. interior of the stem of a tree will seldom sink 
below 56°, although that of the atmosphere be not higher than 20°." Mr. 
Gordon imputes this effect, " in a great measure, to various chemical processes 
going on within their different organs ; yet," he remarks, " it is very clear 
that it must arise also from other causes ; for it continues to be generated, 
though in a less degree, even in winter, when every chemical action within the 
plant is almost entirely suspended." On this curious subject I regret that I 
have no information to communicate ; it is information I seek ; and, to the 
end of obtaining it, I would, with your permission, place under Mr. Gordon's 
observation the following extract from Jameson's Philosophical Journal for 
June, 1828, p. 204. : — " Schutzer and Haider inserted thermometers into the 
stems of trees, so deep that the bulb reached the centre of the tree. The 
same was done into a dead stem. From the results of these experiments, 
vegetables appear to retain a certain medium temperature, which cannot, how- 
ever, be considered as originating from heat evolved by the functions of the 
plant, as the dead stem afforded the same temperature as the living ; but can 
be satisfactorily explained by a reference to the bad conducting power of the 
vegetable fibre and the wood, by which the temperature of the surrounding 
aerial strata penetrates but slowly into the interior of the plant." To the 
identity of temperature in the quick and the dead, I have one empirical fact 
to oppose, taught me some years since by a nurseryman of much arboricul- 
tural experience, the excellent Mr. Samuel Curtis of the Glazenwood Nursery. 
It is, that a dead branch is invariably warmer than a live one ; and that the 
difference is, to a practised hand, so perceptible, that he would (in summer 
only, I believe, though) engage to pass blindfold through the branches of a 
tree, and distinguish, by the difference in temperature alone, every dead 
branch from the living ones. He instanced this to me at the time by several 
examples ; and I really imagined I could perceive a difference. " It stands to 
reason," he remarked, " that a bundle of tubes, as in the living branch, 
through which watery juices are perpetually circulating, should be cooler than 
a dead branch, in which the tubes are all destitute of watery juices." — An 
Asker. May, 1832. 

Destroying Insects by Decoctions of Cliamomile Floiuers. — In the Irish Gar- 
dener's Magazine it is said, not only that decoctions, or the leaves dried and 
powdered, of the common chamomile (J'nthemis nobilis) will destroy insects, 
but that " nothing contributes so much to the health of a garden as a number 
of chamomile plants dispersed through it. No green-house or hot-house should 
be without chamomile in a green or in a dried state ; either the stalks or flowers 
will answer. It is a singular fact, that if a plant is drooping and apparently 
dying, in nine cases out of ten, it will recover, if you place a plant of chamo- 
mile near it." Have any of your readers tried the chamomile in any way as a 
remedy for insects in England ? — John Brown. Westerham, Kent, Feb. 1834. 

The relative Degrees of Effect on Vegetation of several Sorts of Manure. 
(IX. 628.) — In making a few remarks, in the way of answers to these 
queries, I shall arrange the manures included in the list referred to according 
as they appear to me to deserve precedence by their effects on vegetation, 
placing the most powerful or active first, and confining my remarks to those 
sorts of which experience enables me to speak with some degree of con- 

1. " Night Soil not dry." This, although the most disgusting of the ordi- 
nary manures, is, perhaps, the most powerful. It is not only active, but more 
permanent in its effects than some others of the active manures. When de- 
siccated, or rendered dry, it is less powerful in its active qualities; these being 
partly neutralised by the lime used in drying it. In this shape, however, it is 
less repulsive in its application, and as permanent in its effects. 

Queries and Answers. 1 83 

2. " Pigeon or Poultry Dung" forms a very powerful manure in raising 
excellent crops of turnips in the fields ,• but its effects will not reach through 
an ordinary farm rotation. 

3. " Vetches, fyc, ploughed in" Under this article may be included all 
sorts of green manure. Amongst the most active plants employed as manure, 
I have found the [wild species of the genus] iSinapis, ploughed in fresh in the 
bottom of turnip drills, at the rate of twenty tons per acre. The produce 
brought by auction 12/., while the rest of the field, manured with twenty tons 
of farm-yard dung, brought only from 91. to 10/. per acre. Other weeds, such 
as nettles, thistles, ragwort, &c, produce crops superior to farm-yard dung. 
Potato stems, fresh ploughed in, on clover lea for wheat, I have found to pro- 
duce crops exceeding by two bolls per acre in quantity, with more propor- 
tionate weight of straw, the other parts of the same field manured with 
farm-yard dung, but otherwise under the same circumstances. The steins 
from three acres of good potatoes will manure an acre for wheat to much 
better purpose than fifteen tons of farm-yard dung, the usual quantity allowed 
in that part of the rotation ; clover after wheat being the crop which generally 
precedes fallow. Under the head of " green manure," I may mention an 
experiment I this year made with pea-straw converted into dung without 
the aid of cattle. Having something of that sort on hand, about the middle 
of last May, and being in want of some loads of manure to finish a potato 
field, I had the peas threshed at the mill, and the straw and chaff carried to 
the side of the potato field, and made up like a large hot-bed, giving each layer 
of straw an ample watering. Fermentation soon commenced; and, by the fifth 
day, the mass was so far decomposed as to be easily filled into the carts. 
The effluvium in filling was almost intolerable. It was in this state laid in the 
bottom of the drills ; the sets of potatoes were planted above, and the earth 
ploughed over the whole. Notwithstanding the dry nature of the ground, 
and the dry state of the weather in the summer months, the part of the field 
manured with decomposed pea-straw yielded a better return than where farm- 
yard dung was applied, 

4. " Pig's Dung." I have found it a strong manure ; but I apprehend it 
contains something not favourable to vegetation, if applied to any thing like 
excess in a recent state. 

5. " Sheep's Dung." When the sheep are lodged at night in winter in a 
fold or field, and so managed as to have to walk over the ground where they 
previously lay, so as to tread in the dung with their feet in going out and in, 
the beneficial effects will be observable for three years on the poorest soils, if 
dry. Eating off turnips with sheep is followed by the same result. 

6. " Horse Dung" very slightly fermented, I should say, might come next 
in order for cold lands, and cow dung for hot or dry lands ; and neither the 
one nor the other is fugacious in its effects. 

7. " Liquid Manure" (urine) is active and powerful, but the effects not 

8. " Soot" might have ranked among the first kinds of manure as to ac- 
tivity, if applied to green crops immediately before, or during the time of rain ; 
but soot, like liquid manure, is of an intoxicating quality, producing a rapid 
growth at the expense of after-crops. 

9. " Bone Dust" being now very popular, might have appeared earlier in the 
list ; but, from observing a proportion of human bones, from the trenches of 
Leipsic and Waterloo, bleaching among others on the surface of turnip fields, I 
could only bring myself to make one trial before I made the discovery. Those 
farmers whose feelings allow them to hasten the process of converting the 
bones of our brave defenders into vegetable matter, may find a powerful 
auxiliary in bone dust, with little " expense of carriage." 

10. " Lime" being merely a stimulant, I do not include it in the list ; and I find 
my limits prevent me from noticing farther the other odds and ends men- 
tioned by your correspondent. — Archibald Gorrie. Annat Gardens, Oct 29. 

N 4 

1 84- Queries and Answers. 

The Value of green Vegetables as Manure was strikingly proved by me in 
the spring of 1833. I had a trench opened of sufficient length to receive six 
sets of potatoes; under three of these sets I placed green cabbage leaves; but 
the other three had nothing but the soil. When the crop was dug up, the 
plants over the cabbage leaves yielded about double the produce of the 
others. — J. D. Parkes. Dartford Nursery, Jan. 1834. 

Artificial Lawns. — In answer to Mr. Thomas Woodcock, we have com- 
piled the following from the writings of Mr. Sinclair. The finest English 
lawns, we are informed by Mr. Sinclair, who had more experience, as he had 
more science and skill, in this department, than perhaps any man of his time, 
with the exception of Mr. Lawson, are composed of the following grasses, — 
Festuca duriuscula, Festuca ovina, Jgrostis capillaris and vulgaris, Avena 
flavescens, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Cynosurus cristatus, Poa pratensis, 
iolium perenne var. tenuifolium, THfolium repens and minus. If these seeds 
be sown in April, on a soil thoroughly drained, well pulverised, and properly 
consolidated by the roller previously to sowing, they will produce a beautiful 
lawn in two months ; and by frequent mowing, in the course of a year, it will 
be undistinguishable from one of old turf. — Cond. 

Variegated Plants, (p. 80.) — Sir, Your correspondent Mr. Rutger wishes 
for information as to variegated plants ; how variegations are produced, and 
their uses, if any, in ornamental scenery. Being far from partial to such 
plants, I am ill qualified to comply with his wishes; but, with your permission, 
will do my best. The origin of variegation has, doubtless, been in some 
caprice of nature. Many persons attribute it to disease; in which opinion I 
am inclined to concur. 1 have never heard of any authenticated plan by 
which variegated seedlings could be insured, nor which could induce a self- 
coloured plant to bear variegated leaves. Grafting or budding is the only 
means with which I am acquainted for perpetuating or multiplying variegation, 
except in the case of a variegated species ; as, for instance, Aiicuba japonica. 
Next, as to the use of variegations in ornamental scenery, I consider it very 
limited. When introduced into landscapes, on a large scale, they tend to 
destroy all repose, and to fritter away effect. The situation to which I think 
them best suited is the verge of a shrubbery flower-garden, where, if judi- 
ciously placed, they may harmonise with the gay tints of the flowers, and con- 
nect them with the more sombre hues of the surrounding shrubs. Variegated 
evergreens are useful in a winter garden, serving, in some measure, to com- 
pensate the eye for the deficiency of flowers during winter; and in small 
groups of shrubs on a lawn they might, if placed with judgment, be an acqui- 
sition. Most nursery catalogues furnish the names of approved variegated 
shrubs ; but by far the handsomest, in my opinion, is the golden-edged holly. 
I saw, at the Clapton Nursery, while conducted by Mr. Mackay, variegated 
sycamores, and a numerous assortment of variegated shrubs. I believe 
Mr. Mackay paid much attention to them; but, not having been lately at 
Clapton, I do not know whether Mr. Low keeps up the collection. I am, 
Sir, yours, &c. — Calycantlms. Hastings, Feb. 1834. 

Our correspondent has evidently a painter's eye, and we invite him to 
become a contributor on the subject of landscape-gardening; a department of 
the art which it is one of the great objects, of this Magazine ?o render 
familiar to the young gardener. We are convinced that there is no other 
mode of increasing the picturesque beauty of country residences, in con- 
junction with their gardenesque improvement, than that of diffusing a taste 
for picturesque beauty, and a knowledge of the means of producing it among 
practical gardeners. The time for employing landscape-gardeners at high 
prices is, in a great measure, gone by ; as is also that of employing high-priced 
architects. A taste for the beautiful in nature and art is spreading widely 
among practical men and the middle classes of society ; and we trust that in 
another generation these two classes will act reciprocally upon each other, so 
as to create a demand for beauty of every kind, and more especially in land- 
scape-gardening and architecture everywhere; and to produce a supply among 

Queries and A?is*wers. 185 

practical gardeners, builders, carpenters, and masons, as extensive as the 
demand. To accelerate this important result is the great object of the Gar- 
dener's Magazine, and also that of the Magazine of Architecture. — Condi. 

Hedges as a Barrier against Cattle. — I know none speedier or better than 
the Canadian poplar (P. monilifera), as it forms, in a few years, an impene- 
trable living palisade against cattle. It should be planted eighteen inches 
apart, in double rows; and, when sufficiently grown, it may headed down 
every alternate year. — J. Robertson. Kilkenny, Jan. 6. 1834. 

The Turin or Lombardy poplar (P. dilatata) is very available for enclosing 
compartments for shade or shelter in a nursery or other garden, and this at a 
cheap rate. Plants about eight feet high, placed two, or three, or four inches 
asunder in the boundary lines, give, in the same year, useful shade and shelter. 
They were thus employed in Wood's Nursery, Huntingdon, in 1820, and pro- 
bably still are. Hedges of yew were also used for the same purpose, but these 
are of low growth. Arbor vitse (I think the American) is also applicable to the 
same object ; as is proved by a hedge of it in Malcolm's Nursery at Ken- 
sington. It doubtless grows much faster than yew. — J. D. 

A magnificent Conservatory is now erecting at Dalkeith House for the Duke of 
Buccleugh. — It has a dome 40 ft. in diameter, and, I am told, will cost more 
money than was ever before laid out for a plant-house in Scotland. The 
architect is Mr. Burns of Edinburgh ; to whom, or to Mr. Macdonald, I 
would recommend you to apply for particulars. — H. B. Gogar, Jan. 1834. 

We should be much obliged to either of the gentlemen mentioned for a 
description and sketches of the house alluded to. — Cond. 

Lucombe's new Evergreen Oak. — Sir, I do not recollect seeing Lucombe's 
new evergreen oak noticed in any of your publications. I think it may be 
well recommended to form a part in planting for ornament. It is a fast grower, 
and assumes a handsome pyramidal appearance, considerably resembling the 
old Lucombe oak, but, I think, with smaller leaves, which retain their ver- 
dure throughout the winter. — T. Rutger. Shortgrove, Feb. 1834. 

We should be glad to know where this oak can be purchased ; and how, 
where, and when it originated? — Cond. 

The Wicken Tree. — Can any of your Lincolnshire friends inform me to 
what tree this provincial term applies ? I find it mentioned in the Gentleman's 
Magazine. — T. Rivers, jun. Sawbridgeivorth, Feb. 1834. 

This name may possibly be corrupted from quicken tree; and quicken tree, 
mountain ash, rowan tree, are three names for the Morbus aucuparia. — J. D. 

Splitting the Roots of felled Trees. — Sir, In reference to J. B.'s question on 
splitting the roots of felled trees with gunpowder (p. 82.) I have found it to 
lessen the labour considerably, by preparing them to be split afterwards with 
wedges to the sizes wanted; and, upon the whole, I think it maybe con- 
sidered as economical. My method was, to bore a hole, of an inch in diameter 
and about six or eight inches deep, and to fill it up one third with gunpowder ; 
and, after placing a reed filled with the powder down one side of the hole to 
reach the charge, and of sufficient length to stand up a little above the top, 
the remainder of the hole was filled up with perfectly dry sand ; after which a 
small quantity of powder was placed on the top, in contact with the reed, and 
some combustible matter placed over it in such a way as, on a person firing it, 
sufficient time might be given for his escape. Another method was, to plug 
up the hole with a wooden peg, and afterwards to make a hole on one side, 
down to the powder, by driving down a small iron pin, or with a long gimblet 
of small bore; on either of which being removed, the hole was filled up with 
powder, and fired, as above ; but, as I found filling the hole with sand to be 
equally efficacious, and more simple in its process, I finally preferred it. I am, 
Sir, yours, &c. — T. Rutger. Shortgrove, Feb. 1834. 

Houstonm ccerulea. In answer to R. T. (p. 83*)* — Houston?'*? caerulea, 
when grown in pots, requires to be potted in a mixture consisting of half peat, 
one fourth light loam, and one fourth sand. The pots ought not to be over 

186 Queries and Answers. 

Urge, and should be well drained. During summer, the plants should be 
placed out of doors, in a situation where they are shaded from the midday 
sun. They should be kept rather moist, and frequently watered lightly over 
head. In winter, thej^ may either be placed in a cold frame or in the green- 
house. The plants ought to be divided once or twice during every season. 
With this treatment, the plants grow freely and flower profusely. There 
must, however, be some defect in the treatment of the Houstom'a, as generally 
practised, otherwise this beautiful little plant would not remain so scarce. 
When treated as a hardy border plant, it requires to be planted in a light peat 
soil, and to be kept rather moist ; it should be occasionally divided. It requires 
to be narrowly observed during winter, as the frost frequently throws the 
plants out of the soil, when they ought to be immediately replaced; as a few 
hours' sun or cutting wind would completely dry up the small fibrous roots. 
Most of the plants of Houstom'a caerulea, which are left in the borders during 
winter, are killed from this cause, and not by the severity of the winter. — 
E. B. March, 1834. 

Chimondnthus frdgrans, — In reply to the query of your correspondent F.F. 
(IX. 630.), I may state that I have found a Chimonanthus fragrans planted 
in a mixture of leaf mould, peat earth, and dung, thrive exceedingly well. It 
is trained against a wall of a southern aspect, and has had no protection in 
winter since it was planted, now four years ago, except some straw pegged 
round the lower part of the stem. It is at present six feet high, and extends 
eight feet in width, and is showing' most profusely for blossom. The snails 
were very fond of it ; but by surrounding it while young by a trench of soot, 
I have succeeded in saving it from destruction. — E. P. Surrey, Dec. 1833. 

To preserve any Plant from Slags or Snails, I always throw some soot in a 
circle a few inches distant from the plant ; and I have never found the soot 
injure any plant when used in that way. — Id. 

Roses for Hedges. — I see some queries on hedges in your Magazine, and in 
reply I may state that I think no plant more ornamental for hedges than the 
.Rosa villosa. I have had a hedge of this species these twenty years, about 10 ft. 
or 8 ft. high, which is a sheet of bloom every May ; and throughout the 
rest of the season flowers with the Boursault, Noisettes, and other hybrid 
' China roses, which are budded on it. — J. Robertson. Kilkenny, January 6. 

A small Caterpillar which attacks Rose Bushes. — Sir, I shall be much obliged 
to you if you will inform me, through the medium of your Magazine, of any 
method of destroying a small caterpillar, which has for the last three summers 
infested the rose bushes in my garden. It makes its appearance early in June ; 
it is small, about as long as my nail, and of a yellowish-green colour; it eats 
away the under side of the green leaf, causing the upper side to turn brown, 
and appear as if it were scorched with fire ; thereby disfiguring the plant ex- 
ceedingly, and injuring the bloom. I take great delight in my garden ; and, 
having been much annoyed at this continual depredation, my gardener has 
tried every means we can think of to get rid of it : such as putting soot in the 
ground, strewing the leaves with brimstone, &c, but without effect. Can 
you, or any of your correspondents, help us to attain our object ? I am, Sir, 
yours, &c. — Frances Barnard. Gosfield Hall, Essex, Feb. 15. 1834. 

Hand-picking is one of the most effectual modes ; but, unfortunately, it 
cannot be resorted to till a great part of the mischief is done. Has not our 
correspondent confounded together two distinct insects ? The insect which 
most " injures the flowers " of roses, by eating into them while in the bud, is, 
we believe, the caterpillar of one of the sawfly tribe. The insect which eats 
a ringworm-like course, that afterwards turns brown, between the two sur- 
faces of the leaves of rose bushes, is Microsetia ruficapitella ; of whose habits 
a description is given in the Entomological Magazine, vol. i. p. 422. — .7. D. 

Have any hybrid Varieties of the various Species of Cyclamen been originated? 
— I have for some years past taken great pains to cross the C. coum and C. 
vernum with the C. persicum and C. repandum; and the latter with the C. 

Queries and Answers. 187 

persicum ; but my hopes have always been disappointed. I can discover very 
little difference between C. coum and C. vernum, with the exception of the 
leaf, which, in the latter, is marked something after the manner of the C. per- 
sicum. With respect to the C. persicum, there are two varieties ; one marked 
with red at the bottom of the corolla, the other perfectly white. I have raised 
between forty and fifty seedlings from the latter ; all of which have come 
with the red eye ; and out of as many seedlings which I had from the varie- 
gated flower, I have never found one perfectly white. I therefore apprehend 
that the white is merely a scarce variety. With respect to the C. coum and 
C. vernum, I have always found the seedlings come true to their respective 

There are, I believe, six distinct species of this genus at present known ; 
and three or four varieties of the C. /iederaefolium, and two of the G. persicum ; 
but, if 1 mistake not, the Dutch, many years ago, possessed a greater number, 
either as species or varieties. [Twelve varieties and species, more or less 
distinct in flower, leaf, and habit, will be found figured in colours in Abraham 
Munting's Naauivkeurige beschryving der Aadgewassen, commonly called Mun- 
ting's Herbal; fol. Leyden, 1696.] Notwithstanding my want of success 
hitherto, I do not intend to desist from my attempt to procure a variety of C. 
persicum, C. coum, and C. repandum, unless some of your correspondents will 
be good enough to state some satisfactory cause why these flowers should not 
mule as well as many other genera. 

[Among the Primulaceae scarcely any hybrids are known. The varieties of 
polyanthuses and auriculas, obtained by cross impregnations, are not direct 
hybrids, as they are obtained from between previously extant varieties.] 

The species of Cyclamen are plants which no one having the least taste for 
flowers, and having the convenience of a green-house or frames, should be . 
without. The C. vernum begins to bloom in November, and the C. coum 
about the end of December, and they continue in flower for some months; the 
C. persicum can be made to bloom from October to June; about the latter 
month the C. europae v um comes into flower, and this is succeeded by the 
C. Aederaefolium : so that one or other of this pretty genus is constantly in 
bloom. I have known plants of the C. vernum and C. coum to produce up- 
wards of forty flowers each ; thus enlivening the dreary months of winter 
with their elegant bloom. — E. London, Jan. 18. 1834. 

Of the white-petaled variety of C. persicum there are, I believe, in cultiva- 
tion a sub-variety with fragrant flowers, and one with flowers less or not at all 
fragrant ; and of the red and white petaled variety, similar sub-varieties. A 
memorandum lying by us (whence copied we know not) advises us of a 

C. persicum petalis pluribus. " Mr. H. Jackson of Old Lakenham ex- 
hibited a fine double cyclamen, a seedling variety of the C. persicum, with the 
mother plant." (Norfolk and Noriuich Horticultural Shoiv, April 28. 1830.) 

A rare kind of 6'yclamen is figured as C. europae v uin in Sweet's Floiver- 
Garden, t. 176. (? 1st series), from the collection of Mr. Knight, Chelsea ; 
where it has borne, and may still bear, the name of C. hungaricum. This kind 
is a very interesting one, in its rarity, orbicular leaves, their redness on the 
subface and marbling on their surface, pretty flowers (which are not, however, 
that I know, prettier than those of any cyclamen), and the fragrance of these. 
— J.D. 

A few Observations on the Odours of Flowers, -^Yris persica is delightfully 
fragrant to me ; and, finding it not so to some, I, in February, ] 833, submitted 
flowers of it to the testing of 54 individuals: 41 pronounced it delightful; 
4 slightly scented; 8 devoid of scent; and 1 declared it fetid. A plant which 
flowered in our stove in December, 1833, was declared agreeably scented by 
17, and devoid of scent by 10. Plants flowering at this time (Feb. 1834) in 
the borders have been pronounced fragrant by 9, and scentless by 14. 

Anemone nemorosa I find sweetly scented, and so do 23 out of 30 persons 
to whose judgment I have submitted its flowers ; the remaining 7 persons 
could not perceive the slightest fragrance, 

188 London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

Cyclamen persicum. I have heard and read a great deal about " sweet- 
scented varieties of this plant." I have never met with one that appeared 
scented to me. A fine plant exists in this garden : but neither last year 
nor this could I perceive any scent from it, and at least three fourths in 
number of the persons whom I have requested to smell it, have pronounced 
it delightful; but a few, like myself, could not perceive it odorous at all. — 
Henry Turner. Botanic Garden, Bury St. Edmunds, Feb. 26. 1834. 

Garden Hedges either for Shade or as a Shelter for Fruit Trees. — I am sur- 
prised that I never find the evergreen oak recommended for this purpose, as, 
when it has established itself, it runs up speedily, bears cutting well, and never 
robs the borders with its taproots, as others do. — John Robertson. Kilkenny, 
Jan. 6. 1834. 

Ripening Fruit. — Have gardeners come to any conclusive opinion on the 
efficacy of coloured walls in ripening fruit ? or on the effect of inclined planes, 
or the geometric centre of circles for the same purpose ? These are subjects 
which it may be hoped will attract the attention of our societies, if not already 
decided. — Id. 

Disease in the Moorpark Apricot. (IX. 723.) — I do not consider the fol- 
lowing as a full answer to the query of J. S. H., but it will go a certain way 
towards it. Three or four years ago, I was exceedingly mortified by losing 
several branches of two trees of the Moorpark apricot, and also by an indica- 
tion of a still more extensive devastation thereof, by a want of rotundity and 
firmness in the young shoots. Being at a loss as to the cause of such a pheno- 
menon where formerly health and fruitfulness existed, and being unable to 
gather from any quarter the desired information, I began to inspect rather 
minutely the whole of the remaining branches, and perceived near their base 
a flattened and darker appearance than usual. Although I could not, with the 
naked eye, discover any puncture, still I imagined that such might have been 
made ; consequently, I cut into such parts as presented the above appearance, 
and was astonished at the quantity of living creatures which were there dis- 
covered eating the inner bark, and a part of the soft wood, or alburnum, and, 
withal, spreading disease for a considerable distance around them. If I 
remember correctly, these maggots varied from a quarter to three quarters of 
an inch in length, and were of a light colour. This happening in the spring, I 
cut away every diseased part, and applied a composition of soft soap, sulphur, 
and Scotch snuff, in order to destroy any remnant of the enemy, if by chance 
such were left behind. — ./. Smith, Gardener to Dykes Alexander, Esq. 
Ipswich, Jan. 14. 1834. 

Art. VII. London Horticidtural Society and Garden. 

Dec. 3. 1833. — Read t A statement of observations and discoveries con- 
nected with the culture of melons ; by the Author of The Domestic Gardeners 
Manual. An account of the Averrhda Carambola, and particulars respecting 
the mode of cultivating it; by James Bateman, Esq. 

Exhibited. [In our report of the objects exhibited, we omit to mention the 
names of many which, though objects of merit, are already well known to be 
so by our readers.] Buddle« madagascariensis and tasseled blush Chinese 
chrysanthemum, from Mrs. Marryatt. Fruit of Physalis peruviana, from 
J. Ryley, Esq. Chrysanthemum sinense Wheeleri««z«M, and six other seed- 
ling varieties, from Mr. Isaac Wheeler, Beaumont Buildings, Oxford. Gon- 
gor« atropurpurea, and fruit of Averrhoa Carambola, from J. Bateman, Esq. 
A " white-blossom " potato ; from Mr. G. Hawkins, Hythe, Kent : its weight 
was 2 lbs. 6 oz. 

Presented. Flora Batava, No. 90.; by His Majesty the King of Holland. 

Read. Notes on the growth, under different circumstances, of the O'xalis 
crenata; by Mr. Thomas Corbet t of Maryland Point Nursery. 

London Horticultural Society and Garden. 189 

Exhibited. Golden pippins, true; from Mrs. General Vansittart, Binfield 
Lodge, Great Marlow. Specimens of tallies, from Messrs. Doulton and 
Watts. (See p. 161.) 

From the Society's Garden. Thirty-five sorts of kitchen and table apples ; 
Beurre Ranee pears and Easter bergamot, off standard trees. 

Feb. 4. — Presented. Cinquieme Notice sur les Plantes rares cultivees dans 
le Jardin de Geneve, par Messrs. A. and P. de Candolle; presented by the 
authors. Succincta Relazione del Viaggio fatto in Abruzzo dal Cavalier Te- 
nore neiP esta. del 1829; presented by S. Tenore. Osservazioni e Notizie 
relative alle Larve pregiudicevoli alia Pianta de Gran Turco (Zea Mays) ; pre- 
sented by the author, Dr. Carlo Passerini. Osservazioni sopra alcune Larve 
e Tignole del' Ulivo; presented by the same author. Memoria sopra due 
specie d' Insetti nocivi alia Vite delle Procris ampelophaga ed all' Cavolo 
arboreo ; presented by the same. Osservazioni sul Baco dannegiatore delle 
Ulive, e sulla Mosca in cui si transforma; presented by the same. 

Read. A communication on a method of producing grapes from vine cut- 
tings the first season; by Mr. John Mearns, F.H.S. A second communication 
from Mr. Mearns on this subject was read at the meeting on Feb, 18. Mr. 
Mearns has also favoured us with a description of his mode, (Seep. 138.) A 
Report on Experiments on the comparative Growth of two Pine-Apples, by 
Mr. Donald Munro. 

Exhibited. Apples gathered on Feb. 3., in the garden of Col. Tweedy of 
Bromley ; communicated by T. C. Palmer, Esq. Govenz'« superba, from 
J. Bateman, Esq. Amaryllis aulica, from Sir C. Lemon, Bart. From the 
open ground, Jcacia dealbata and Raphiolepis rubra, from Rev. T. Gamier. 
From Messrs. Chandler, these varieties of Camellza japonica, — eclipse, 
punctata or invincible, J?osa mundi, Park's rose-striped, wlthaeaeflora, and car- 
nation Waratah. A splendid plant of Cereus speciosissimus, from the open 
border, from Mrs. Lawrence. 

Als r j,from the Garden of the Society. Apples (the best of these apples for 
the table are marked *; for kitchen use f; all of them have been frequently 
remarked upon) : -j-Alfriston, *Cockle pippin; *Braddick's nonpareil, very 
abundant bearer; Tulip, -(-French crab, Reinette Diel ; Calville malingre, a 
great bearer; Baxter's pearmain, * Scarlet nonpareil, * Court pendu plat, 
*Golden Harvey, Belledge, *f London pippin, *Reinette du Canada, -f Royal 
russet, -(-Hormead pearmain, * Robinson's pippin, Royal reinette, -[-Bedford- 
shire foundling, *New rock pippin, *f Burn's seedling, Rose de China, -(-Bra- 
bant bellefleur, Norfolk Paradise, Rhode Island greening, Black crab, Martin 
nonpareil, Hay's incomparable, Red everlasting, American black. Beurre 
ranee pears, from standards. Lord Bagot's seedling pine-apple. Flowers : 
Justicia Adhdtoda, E'pacris purpurascens, Primula prae'nitens, ylcacia deal- 
bata, from the open air; iVis tuberosa, Jmygdalus macrocarpa; Primus 
sibirica, cerasifera, Pseudo-Cerasus ; /J'rbutus yindrachne, Camellia sp. Capt. 
Druminond, and the following varieties of C. japonica, — elegans, imbricata, 
Aitonia, 7t!6sa sinensis, carnation Waratah, double white, splendens. 

Feb. 18. — Presented by G. Bentham, Esq., secretary, vols. i. and ii. of the 
Dictionnaire du Bon Jardinier, and Catalogues of the Trees, Shrubs, &c, in 
the Nurseries of Messrs. Audibert of Tarascon. By the author, Recherches 
anatomiques et physiologiques sur le Marchantia polymorpha, par M. Mirbel. 
Tomes i. ii. and iii. du Cours de Culture et de Naturalisation des Vegetaux, 
par A. Thouin. 

Read. A communication on the management of bark-beds, by Mr. John 
Jackson. A programme of the regulations to be observed at the ensuing 
exhibitions at the Society's garden. These are announced to take place at 
the garden, for the exhibition of choice specimens of fruit or flowers, on the 
four following days, May 10., June 7., July 5., September 13. ; to these 
exhibitions all persons, whether fellows of the Society or not, are invited to 

Exhibited. Camellia reticulata, from Messrs. Chandler and J. Allnutt, Esq. 

1 90 London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

Protea speciosa ; Acacia dealbata, stricta, sp. ; StreKtzfa reglnae, Astrapse'a 
Wallichw, Anemone hortensis, a species of Tropas'olum, Newtown pippins 
and specimens of flower-glasses from Mrs. Marryatt. A hybrid amaryllis, 
from between A. Johnsom and A. pulverulenta ; from Sir A. Hume, Bart. 
Tubers of the Batavian potato, from H. Hollist, Esq. 

Also, from the Society's Garden. Apples : New rock pippin, a very good 
dessert apple, a seedling from the Newtown pippin; Rose de China; Rother 
Borsdorffer, not of much merit in this climate, nor are any of the the Bors- 
dorffers, compared with what they possess in Germany ; Norfolk beaufin, 
Grey queening, Royal russet, Winter queening ; London pippin, Baxter's 
pearmain, Dutch mignonne, Court pendu plat, Cockle pippin, these have fre- 
quently been remarked upon as good apples ; Reinette Diel, Morden round, 
Grange's pearmain, Braddick's nonpareil, a very abundant bearer ; Green 
nonpareil, scarcely equal to the Old nonpareil ; Yorkshire greening, Pomme 
violet, French crab, Scarlet nonpareil, American black, Bedfordshire found- 
ling, Belledge; Red everlasting, one of Mr. Braddick's apples, from America, 
showy, but not rich. Pears : Beurre ranee, from a standard ; Winter bon 
Chretien, from a wall. Flowers : Gastonia palmata ; Jcacia dealbata, from 
the open air ; Azalea indica hybrida, Oncidium carthaginense ; the following 
varieties of Camelk'a japonica, — imbricata, Colvilh, double white, elegans, 
£>apaveracea, princeps, carnation Waratah, splendens, sp. Capt. Drummond ; 
Berberis Jquifolium, J'ris tuberosa. 

For Distribution at the Meeting. Cuttings of Early purple Guigne cherry ; 
Thompson's pear, a sort received originally from Belgium, without a name, 
about the size of a Passe-Colmar, of excellent flavour, ripe in December. It 
is undoubtedly a new sort, and likely to be quite free from canker ; and is a 
good bearer. 

March 4. — Read. An account of some experiments made in the garden 
of the Society with a view to ascertain the relative productiveness of the tubers 
and sets of potatoes, by Dr. Lindley. 

Exhibited. Royal nonpareil, William Shakspeare, Duke of Gloucester, 
and Golden Harvey apples, and Hardenpont pears, from Thomas Hunt, Esq. 
Six sorts of camellias, and a seedling sort, said to be sweet-scented, from Mr. 
Steel of Richmond. Flowers of camellias, .Rhododendron arboreum album, 
R. album hybridum, and Acacia verticillata, from William Wells, Esq. 
Berberis, a new simple-leafed species of, from Chile, from Mr. Joseph Knight. 
Camelha Hawiesidna, and a seedling from C. japonica splendens, from J. All- 
nutt, Esq. 

From the Garden of the Society. Fifteen kinds of apples, on two of which, 
the Yorkshire greening and Northern greening, there was this remark at- 
tached by Mr. Thompson : — These two good sorts of kitchen apple are often 
confused. The Northern greening is the soundest keeping kind ; it has often 
a projection at the base, like the lemon pippin, but its flesh is 'very different, 
being crisp with a brisk acid juice. Flowers : the following varieties of 
Camellk japonica, — imbricata, splendens, Young's seedling, Aitonk, Chand- 
ler/, Parks;?, .Rosa sinensis, carnation Waratah, corallina, princeps, papave- 
racea, large semidouble Waratah, decora, elegans, double white, ?;mliflora;. 
Ribes punctatum, Berberis Jquifolium, .Leucojum pulchellum, /Vis tuberdsa, 
Ornithogalum nutans, Begom'a ^eraclei/o/iz»??, .Erica Peziza and trossnla, 
E'pacris paludosa and pulchella, Echeveria gibbiflora, Azalea indica phcenicea 
and indica hybrkla. Cuttings of the following kinds of pears were sent for 
distribution, — Beurre Bosc, an abundant bearer as a standard ; Comte de 
Lamy, a hardy, not very large, but very rich autumn pear, excellent as a 
standard : Monarch, Beurre ranee, Bon Chretien fondant, quite melting and 
cool ; Grumkower Winterbirne. This last sort was originally received from 
Dr. Adrian Diel of Nassau Dietz. It was discovered at Grumkow, near 
Riigenwalde, in the further or Prussian Pomerania (Hinterpommern), about 
three miles from the Baltic. It has proved to be a very good pear, even on a 
standard in the garden. Size rather large, with yellow buttery flesh. 

Covent Garden Market. 


Art. VIII. Covent Garden Market. 

The Cabbage Tribe. 

Cabbage, per dozen : 

Plants or Coleworts 
Brussels Sprouts, per § sieve 
Broccoli, per bunch : 

j [Purple ... 

Kidneybeans, forced, per 

Tubers and Boots. 
rper ton 

Potatoes - -t per cwt 

Cper bushel 

Kidney - 

Scotch ... 

New, per pound 
Jerusalem Artichokes, per half 

sieve - - - 

Turnips, White 
Carrots, per bunch : 

Old - 

Horn . .. - 

Parsneps, per dozen 
Red Beet, per dozen 
Skirret, per bunch 
■Scorzonera, per bundle 
Salsify, per bunch 
Horseradish, per bundle 
Radishes : 

Red, per dozen hands (24 to 
30 each) 

White Turnip, per bunch 

The Spinach Tribe. 

SP-ch [plrhllTsieve I 
Sorrel, per half sieve 

The Onion Tribe. 
Onions : 

Old, per bushel 

Ciboules, green, per bunch 
Leeks, per dozen bunches - 
Chives, per dozen roots 
Garlic, per pound 
Shallots, per pound 

Asparaginous Plants, 
Salads, Sfc. 
Asparagus, per hundred : 

Large - - 


Small - . . 

Sea-kale, per punnet 
Cardoons, per bunch (three) 
Lettuce, per score : 




£ s. 



s. d. 



1 6 


2 6 
2 6 


1 6 



2 6 

4 10 





2 6 

2 6 



1 3 






1 6 
1 6 
1 3 
1 3 



1 6 




1 3 





3 6 






2 6! 




Endive, per score 
Celery, per bundle (12 to 15) 
Small Salads, per punnet 
Watercress, per dozen small 

Burnet, per bunch 

Pot and Sweet Herbs. 
Parsley, per half sieve 
Tarragon, per dozen bunches 

Fennel, per dozen bunches - 
Thyme, per dozen bunches 
Sage, per dozen bunches 
Mint, per dozen bunches 
Peppermint, dried, per dozen 

bunches ... 
Marjoram, dried, per doz. bun. 
Savory, per dozen bunches . 
Basil, dried, per dozen bunch. 
Rosemary, per dozen bunches 
Lavender, dried, per doz. bun. 
Tansy, dried, per doz. bunches 

Stalks and Fruits for Tarts, 
Pickling, %c. 

Rhubarb Stalks, per bundle 
Edible Fungi and Fuel. 

Mushrooms, per pottle 
Morels, per pound 
Truffles, per pound : 

English - - - 

Foreign - - 

Apples, Dessert, per bushel : 
Nonpareils - - - 
Newtown Pippins 
Baking, per bushel - 
American - - 

French - - - 

Pears, Dessert, per dozen : 

Bon Chretien 
Almonds, per peck 
Strawberries, forced, per oz. 
Chestnuts, French, per peck 
Pine-apples, per pound 
Grapes, per pound : 
Hot-house ... 
Portugal, White - - 
Cucumbers, frame, per brace 

^"^erhunTred " I 
Bitter Oranges 

*-*™{!S&4- : 

Sweet Almonds, per pound 
Brazil Nuts, per bushel 
Spanish Nuts, per peck 
Barcelona Nuts, per peck - 


£ s. d. 













1 3 

2 6 




1 1 










2 6 



1 10 



2 6 






2 3 




£ s. d. 
2 6 


2 6 

2 6 

2 6 

2 6 



3' 6 




2 10 









1 15 







Observations. — The weather, since the last report, having continued fine 
and open, little interruption has taken place in our general supplies, which 
have been regular, and quite equal to the demand. To the present period the 
season has been unusually mild, without the slightest interruption from frost; 
so that the growers have been enabled to carry on their operations at the 
least possible expense or difficulty. They, however, still "complain of the 
want of encouragement in the shape of demand and good prices for many of 
their articles (which cannot be produced but at considerable expense), such 
as asparagus, sea-kale, &c. It will, however, I think, be found that these 
articles are now supplied in so much greater abundance, from the increased 
cultivation of them, that the produce must necessarily be disposed of at less 
prices, comparatively, to allow the public to consume them extensively; 
whereas heretofore they have been considered so exclusively articles of in- 
dulgence as to be confined to the tables of the rich. They are now more 
generally consumed, but certainly at less nominal cost. Rhubarb is now so 

192 Obituary. 

generally and so extensively cultivated, as to form, at this season, one of the 
leading articles ; and, from the strenuous competition, many fine early varieties 
are to be observed, from the natural ground, almost superseding the forcing of 
it after this period. Of early cabbages we have had as yet but few ; but, when 
we consider the early season, it is extraordinary to observe them of such 
excellent quality and at such moderate prices. Of broccolis the supply has 
been limited within the last two or three weeks, the later varieties having 
already been forced into the market by the extreme mildness of the season. 
It is only on the retentive soils that any can be preserved for the present and 
ensuing months. It has been heretofore usual to have an abundance up to 
the time for early cauliflowers in May and June. Radishes from the open 
ground are plentiful, allowing but little opportunity for the disposal of the 
forced, which has been our usual source of supply during the months of 
March and April. A great many run coleworts have been brought to market 
during the last month, so that a large surface of soil must have been cleared, 
which will, I think, render our supplies during the months of April and May 
rather short, unless peas should be furnished at a much earlier period than 
usual, which, from the continued improvement in the sorts now generally cul- 
tivated, and the openness of the weather, may be confidently anticipated. I 
have heard of many being already in bloom, which is extraordinarily early. 
Considerable fears are entertained for the crop of fruit, owing to the pre- 
cocious state of the season, many of the early varieties of pears and plums 
being already in full bloom. Of all other articles the supplies have been 
generally good ; and from the river having been uninterruptedly open, potatoes 
have come to hand in tolerable abundance, and at prices little varying from 
the former report. Our stock of apples continues good, with a promise of 
regular supplies for some time to come, which will of course supersede the 
necessity of importation ; a few cargoes only have been brought in, the duty 
of 4s. per bushel almost excluding the commoner varieties. Of American apples 
we have had a large importation, from time to time, during the season, some 
few of excellent quality, the greater part in bad condition. The Newtown 
pippin is at all times a tender apple, and requires to be picked carefully and 
packed very securely, to insure a chance of success in getting it here in good 
condition. — G. C. 

Art. IX. Obituary.. 

Died, at New Cross Nursery, Deptford, March 13., Mr. George Sinclair, 
F.L.S., H.S., &e., nurseryman, in the forty-eighth year of his age. Mr. Sin- 
clair was many years gardener to the Duke of Bedford, at Woburn Abbey, 
and conducted there, under the direction of Sir Humphry Davy, an extensive 
series of experiments to determine the nutritive powers of the British grasses 
and herbage plants. It was there also that Mr. Sinclair composed the Hortus 
Gramineus Woburnensis, a national work, which embodies the results of the 
experiments alluded to, and is the most important of its kind that ever was 
published. Mr. Sinclair was also the author of various other publications 
or articles, the last of which, we believe, was the Treatise on useful and orna- 
mental Planting, published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge. In the history of British agriculture, the name of George Sinclair will 
hold a conspicuous station in all future times, as the introducer of a new and 
improved system of laying down lands in grass. Mr. Sinclair had a consider- 
able knowledge of chemistry, and was a good vegetable physiologist; hence 
all that he wrote bore a character of scientific enquiry, as well as of prac- 
tical skill. As a man, few stood higher in our estimation ; and it may be 
truly said, that he was esteemed and beloved by all who knew him. His 
early death, we believe, may be chiefly attributed to the profound grief which 
preyed on him after being suddenly bereaved of an only daughter, who died 
in April, 1833, about the same time that Mr. Sinclair lost his father and his 
uncle. (See IX. 512.) 



MAY, 1834. 


Art. I. Notes on Gardens and Country Seats, visited, from July 27. 
to September 16., during a Tour through Part of Middlesex, Berk- 
shire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Hamp- 
shire, Sussex, and Kent. By the Conductor. 

(Continued from p. 119.) 

LlTTLECOT Park, General Popham. — Aug. 16. This is a fine 
old place of the sixteenth century, with both the house and the 
grounds in perfect preservation. Taking it altogether, we 
hardly know of such another : Wroxton, near Banbury, bears 
a remote resemblance to it. The house lies in a deep secluded 
bottom on the river Kennet, enclosed by walled gardens ; which 
are surrounded by a park consisting of high ground under turf, 
and laid out in avenues and lines, chiefly of elms and beeches, in 
the geometrical style. The approach-road forms an avenue of 
elms 30 ft. wide and a furlong in length, which brings the 
stranger to the enriched iron gates in front of the venerable 
mansion. It is characterised by high roofs covered with tiles, 
by various gable-ends projecting from them, and by magnificent 
cathedral-like windows, reaching from the ground to the eaves. 
The entrance is through iron gates and palisading, to a circular 
platform ; to the right and left of which are flower-gardens and 
shrubberies, planted with shrubs and flowers now considered 
common, but kept in the very highest order. At the west end 
of one of these gardens is a raised platform, or terrace, from 
which the park and all the pleasure-gardens are overlooked. 
Having obtained permission from the general to see the place, 
we passed on to the kitchen-garden. In this garden, the first 
things which we observed were glass frames, in M. Lindegaard's 
manner, for ripening peaches and nectarines against the walls, 
without fire-heat. These frames occasion very little trouble ; 
and the fruit comes in between the forced peaches and those 
ripened on the open wall. There are a number of hot-houses 
and pits, in which pine-apples, melons, and other articles are 
Vol. X. — No. 50. o 

194- Notices of some Country Heats 

admirably grown. On one wall there are several apricot trees, 
which, Mr. Groom, the gardener, informed us, the general con- 
sidered to be as old as the place : they bear abundantly every 
year. A branch of the river Kennet passes through the lower 
part of the garden, in a straight walled canal: thus affording an 
opportunity of growing excellent watercresses, and of keeping 
crawfish, eels, and other fish in stews. There is a pond for 
carp, surrounded by a rockwork or ridge of flints, planted with 
strawberries, the fruit of which ripens a fortnight or three weeks 
sooner than that in the open garden. 

This is one of the very few places which we have seen which 
come entirely up to our ideas of high order and keeping, even 
to the melon-ground and the back sheds. The walks in the 
flower-gardens are chiefly of turf, and the flower-beds are brimful 
of soil ; so that the line carried round them, though distinct, is 
perfectly soft and delicate. The grass is smoothly mown ; and 
the decayed flowers are pinched off daily by women. The 
general not only allows as many men and women to be employed 
as are necessary to keep the place in perfect order, but he pays 
the men 3s. a week more than is given in the neighbourhood, 
and allows half-wages during sickness. The gardener here, 
Mr. Groom, is the son of the gardener to Sir Charles Cockerell, 
at Seisincote, Gloucestershire: a place which we saw in 1806, 
when it was highly kept; and which, we are informed, still con- 
tinues to be one of the best kept places in England. The readers 
of Sir Walter Scott's works will, no doubt, recollect the singular 
tradition which he mentions respecting Littlecot Park. The 
story is related at length in the Beauties of England and Wales; 
and the room in which the tragical scene took place is said to be 
still in existence. 

(To be continued.') 

Art. II. Notices of some Country Seats in the North-Eastern Counties 
of England. By G. W. 

(Continued from p. 122.) 

White Hill, near Chester le Street, is the seat of John Cook- 
son, Esq., who succeeded to the estates on the demise of his 
father, Isaac Cookson, Esq., in 1832. That liberal patron of 
gardening lived for more than half a century at this delightful 
place; and to him it is indebted for the many great improve- 
ments that were made in it under the management of his inde- 
fatigable gardener, Mr. Crossling. The road, for half a mile 
from Chester le Street to the end of the approach, is one of the 
most picturesque imaginable : it winds up a valley, occasionally 

in the North-Eastern Counties. 195 

intersected by a considerable brook. The inhabitants of Ches- 
ter le Street have their gardens tastefully laid out on the sloping 
banks of this brook, which are called " Bishop's waste ; " and 
are let for the small acknowledgment of a sixpence or a shilling 
yearly. I have often been delighted, in the summer evenings, 
to observe industrious mechanics and their families amusing 
themselves in their little gardens : some engaged in rearing 
those wholesome vegetables so necessary for the comfort of their 
families | others trying to excel in the cultivation of auriculas, 
polyanthuses, stocks, rockets, hollyhocks, &c. I have seldom 
seen better vegetables, fruits, and flowers grown than in these 
small gardens ; and the only reason I can assign for this is, the 
desire which each has to surpass the others. The principal 
objects in the view from White Hill house, which is situated on 
an eminence, are, the towering steeple of Chester le Street church, 
and Lambton and Lumley castles. The appearance of the 
latter is peculiarly grand. The pleasure-ground is suitable to 
the house, and is well embellished with clumps of various dimen- 
sions. The south front and west side are partly covered with 
a metal trelliswork entwined with China roses, having other 
kinds budded on them; and a very large arbutus projects from 
a wall that connects the house and conservatory. A splendid 
specimen of ArauccLria excelsa, which is planted in the middle of 
the conservatory, is an object of great attraction to visiters. 
The principal approach js on the north front, near to the mar- 
gin of a very deep valley, with Chester le Street brook rolling 
along its pebbly bed. After the eye has glanced from this valley, 
a, rich agricultural country opens to view, with the township of 
Pelton in the distance. The kitchen-garden is a parallelogram, 
enclosing two acres, and having one on the outside. There is 
a very neat green-house, with a good collection of pelargo- 
niums ; having 60 ft. of vinery at one end, and 120 ft. of vinery 
and peach-house at the other. A movable peach-house, 30 ft. 
in length and 6 ft. in breadth, is placed against one of the best 
peach and nectarine walls in the north of England. This wall 
has a metal coping, projecting several inches, which answers 
very well as a protection to the trees. In an east slip there is 
a flued pit for melons, surrounded by a yew hedge 4 ft. high and 
2 ft. thick in front ; the ends sloping to the back, which is 7 ft. 
high: this hedge is universally admired, owing to the neat man- 
ner in which k is kept. Mr. Crossling has been upwards of 
twenty years head gardener ; and, in all the departments of his 
profession, can seldom be equalled. He is a very successful 
grape and peach grower, having had them ripe in March. The 
garden, pleasure-ground, and, indeed, every part of these grounds, 
be it ever so obscure, are always in the highest order and keep- 
ing. The cause of this is, Mr. Crossling's systematic method of 

o 2 

196 Country Seats in the North-Eastern Counties. 

apportioning the work, and doing every thing when it ought to 
be done. Well do I recollect the expression he used to make 
use of: that " a garden well kept was easily kept." It was his 
practice to hoe quarters planted with vegetables soon after they 
were put in the ground, which not only destroyed all seed-weeds 
in their germinating state, but loosened the soil, and admitted 
heat and air to penetrate to the roots of the plants ; thus acce- 
lerating their growth. Many gardeners never think of applying 
the hoe and rake to a piece of ground until it is completely 
covered with weeds ; and, often, not before these have shed their 
seed : if they would think of the old proverb, that " a stitch in 
time saves nine," they would not be so dilatory. The length of 
time it takes to clean a quarter overrun with weeds, and one 
with the weeds scarcely making their appearance, must be 
obvious to every one ; not taking into account the crop that will 
soon make its appearance if the weeds have seeded. White 
Hill is (for, I understand, the present proprietor is following the 
example of his father) one of the best kept places in England : 
for my part, I have seen none equal to it. In most places 
in the north of England, assistants and garden labourers have 
from four o'clock on the Saturday afternoon to themselves, as 
an equivalent for the half hour they work over the ten hours 
during the week : at White Hill the regulation was, to drop 
work at five o'clock p. m. during the week, except on Saturdays, 
when the labourers left off at three. This regulation, so bene- 
ficial to the assistants, in place of increasing work, diminished it. 
Mr. Crossling, who is one of the best of masters, and who is 
universally respected, used to say, that men, if they employed 
their time well, might do as much work in nine hours and a half 
as in ten hours and a half, the usual period. There is one dis- 
interested trait in his behaviour to his young men which I cannot 
let pass unnoticed, particularly as it regards a practice in all places 
of any magnitude in his neighbourhood : that is, never exacting 
any premiums from them, notwithstanding their wages, privi- 
leges, &c, are as good as any in their vicinity, and their oppor- 
tunities of acquiring a knowledge of their profession a great deal 
superior ; for never did a master pay more attention to instruct 
men, provided their conduct is worthy of it, than he does. 

Lumley Castle, built in the reign of Edward I., is situated on 
the brow of a hill, commanding views over a well-wooded valley 
of the first description. The principal drive leads to the west 
front ; the ascent to the great entrance-hall is by two divisions 
of stairs, parallel with the building, forming a spacious resting- 
place before entering. From this is seen the river Wear, 
formed into a beautiful sheet of water by means of a dam. Half 
a mile farther is the town of Chester le Street, with its ancient 
church and lofty spire, the highest in the north of England. In 

Landscape-Gardening of Germany and England. 197 

one side of the church, which was built prior to the castle, are 
the statues of many of the forefathers of the Lumleys ; likewise 
that of St. Cuthbert, whose remains had lain here 1 1 5 years, when 
the monks, expelled by the Danes, fled with them toRipon. Lum- 
ley Castle is a quadrangular edifice, with four majestic octangular 
towers ; remarkable for being the resting-place of James I. of 
Scotland, on his way to ascend the throne of England. The 
castle is seen from the great London road for five miles, and is 
much admired by travellers. This noble building has not been 
inhabited by any of the proprietors, the Earls of Scarborough, 
for thirty years. The garden, which is small, is situated in a 
valley to the east of the castle ; and has been let for many years 
to Mr. Earl, who, besides being a good gardener, is also a florist. 
Staffordshire, Nov. 1833. G. W. 

Art. III. Observations on the Landscape-Gardening of Germany, a$ 
compared ivith that of England. By the Chevalier Charles Sckell, 
Director-General of Gardens in the Kingdom of Bavaria. 

I have read, with much gratification, the notices, in several 
Numbers of your Magazine, of our gardens here, and our ma- 
nagement of them. The manner in which you express yourself 
is indeed very flattering ; and I should say that you had done 
our gardens and our art too much honour, had I not conceived 
that I found, in the opinions of several foreigners who have 
visited us, and particularly of your own countrymen, in some 
measure, the confirmation of your views, particularly with regard 
to our gardens in the natural style. This favourable judgment 
may be readily adopted, without disparagement to the English 
gardens, as the two styles of gardening are, in my opinion, essen- 
tially different. 

When I speak of the English style of gardening, I mean only 
as it is exhibited in the grand and beautiful specimens which 
Brown, Kent, and a few others, have left us ; not that which, in 
these latter times, is so often practised in laying out garden 
grounds in England, and which has as little relation to the truly 
creative art of gardening, as the pictures of our modern painters 
have to the works of Raphael. 

Considered with respect to real landscape beauties, picturesque 
effects, and grand imaginative characteristics, the English garden 
style is, in the present times, markedly retrograde. When I 
was in England, in 1817, 1 found the gardens in the new English 
style, as I met with it, for the most part oppressed with the 
burthen of their own ornaments. The immense multitudes of 
plants which, since the commencement of the present century, 

o 3 

1 98 Landscape- Gardening of Germany 

have been brought from all parts of the world to Europe, and 
more especially to England, supplies the landscape-gardener with 
an inexhaustible fund for decorating his grounds. There are thus 
to be found numerous varieties of trees and shrubs, which, either 
by their elegant growth, the picturesque disposition of their 
branches and foliage, or by their beautiful flowers, belong to the 
first class of ornaments for landscape-gardening. The palette 
of the landscape-painter, if I may so express myself, is now 
loaded with such a mass of colours and tints, that his means are 
superabundant, compared with the work of art which he has to 
create. That picturesque keeping, those rich ornaments, and 
those magic charms, whereby the scenes of the landscape-garden 
are distinguished from natural landscape, all afford resources of 
which the landscape-gardener is enabled to avail himself; and 
these have become so multiplied (for, compared with those known 
even in Brown's time, they are increased tenfold), that the artist- 
gardener is really involved in great embarrassment, to prevent 
the superabundance of forms and colours, which he finds at his 
command, from presenting a painful confusion of objects, instead 
of uniting to form a perfect and beautiful whole. 

It might have been supposed that this richness of vegetation 
would be highly advantageous to landscape-gardening in Eng- 
land, where, formerly, the most classical models of the natural 
garden style were to be found ; and that it would have given 
immensely increased facilities to the artist for the execution of 
his work : but, according to my experience, as I have already 
stated, I found quite the contrary. Amidst the disproportionate 
abundance of his materials, the artist knows not which to take 
first: one is scarcely chosen, when he is attracted to another; 
then to a third, a fourth, and so on. Each tree, and each shrub, 
has some particular charm to recommend it, and, finally, that 
none may be lost, he grasps them all. 

Thus I found the English gardens a real chaos of unconnected 
beauties. Shrub adjoined shrub, and tree approached tree ; but, 
instead of being disposed in grand masses, the separate kinds 
were brought together only in small groups, as if the given 
space, extensive as it might be, could contain plantations of 
every species of plant. In such gardens, picturesque beauty is 
sacrificed to a wilderness of forms and colours, and the result is 
only an immense mosaic. Simplicity, the foundation of true 
beauty, is entirely lost : the elevated grandeur of form, the de- 
lightful distribution of varied colouring, the magical interchange 
of tints, the delicate transitions from light to shade, from the 
bright glowing objects of the parterre to the dark groves of deep 
retiring plantations, no longer appear ; for these effects can only 
be produced by the employment of trees and shrubs correspond- 
ing in kind. England has lost all that had raised gardening to 

compared with that of England. 199 

the rank of a fine art; and even the old beautiful models of 
gardening iu the natural style, I found, had been compelled, in 
obedience to modern taste, to draw the veil of fashionable orna- 
ment over their original charms. 

Such, at least, was the state in which English gardening ap- 
peared to me, when I saw it in practice some fifteen years ago : 
whether there is now a return to the former simplicity ; whether 
the employment of the new productions of foreign regions has 
been directed with more aesthetic [exalted] judgment, and with a 
more artist-like feeling of the beautiful; in a word, whether the 
noble simplicity of the old masters is again in vogue, I know 
not; but I most earnestly wish it to be so. If I have been far 
from estimating our Munich gardens in point of art above the 
English, it must be regarded as only conditionally; for I repeat 
that here the question is respecting the grand works of the early 
period, and not the later productions of modern confusion in the 
gardening style. The former only were the sublime examples 
whereby the artist who created the great structures of art here 
was guided. These were the examples which were always in his 
mind as guides, in the path he had cut out for himself, for carry- 
ing the early taste in English gardening to perfection, and thus 
creating a new style, which I call the German, and consider the 
foundation of classical garden art. 

That thus our German landscape-garden style, though built 
on the English, as the English was on the Chinese [ ? ], is yet, in 
its best models, essentially distinct from the English, is what I 
shall here endeavour farther to illustrate. 

The old English garden style, even at the period when it was 
most flourishing, was always exposed to the reproach of a too 
great simplicity, and too little alternation in its pictures, scenes, 
forms, and colours ; and this reproach, which was perhaps cor- 
rect, had reference to some of the greatest works of the kind. 
The wish to avoid these faults may be the main cause why, at a 
more recent period, the English garden became so superfluously 
overloaded with petty forms, and too great a variety of plant- 
ations and flower ornaments; as, in avoiding one error, a greater 
is often committed. In this respect, I can say, with confidence, 
that we Germans have been fortunate. Whether it is to be 
accounted for by our not having within our power the endless 
variety of plants which the English gardener possesses, many of 
which cannot be grown in our soil and climate, or by more cor- 
rect views having guided our gardeners, I do not pretend to 

Be this, however, as it may, I believe I can venture to assert 
that the true German garden style exhibits, in its classical purity, 
a just medium between the too great simplicity and excessive 
ornament of English gardens : but that here I only mean the 

o 4 

200 Leafing of Oak Trees, 

best of our German gardens, the number of which is yet too 
small, is what I scarcely need to mention ; for our Germany has 
also an abundance of abortions in what, either here or in Eng- 
land, may be called " symmetrical order made gardens." 

Simplicity without monotony, and richness without superfluity, 
indicate the genuine German garden style ; and thus give the 
German garden a place between the old and the new English. 
Another and yet more essential distinction is found in the ap- 
propriate distribution of the several kinds of trees and shrubs, 
particularly in respect to the colour of their foliage, the structure 
of their leaves, their size, and the form of their growth. 

Had you, Sir, been here at any other period of the year 
than the latter end of it ; had you, for instance, viewed our 
gardens in the month of May or September, you would, I think, 
have admired the manner in which they are planted ; the artistical 
calculation exercised in the employment of colours, and forms, 
and transitions, and contrasts ; and the judicious consideration, 
everywhere visible, of the character of the trees, as to their 
capability of producing a cheerful or a grave, a grand or a 
mysterious, impression, according as the garden scene, the archi- 
tectural subject, or any particular natural accident, might require 
such character. Had you seen these in their full pei'fection, you 
would, I think, have found a much greater peculiarity in the 
formation of our gardens than you then observed. 

The essence of that peculiarity is, however, very difficult to 
be pointed out to any one who has not seen an example of it. 
Nevertheless, it is explained, as far as a subject can be explained 
which depends so much upon the feelings of the artist, in the 
Beytragen der bildenden Gartenkunst, von L. Friedr. von Sckell, 
Miinchen, 1 823 ; a work which is well known to you. 

Munich, July, 1833. Sckell. 

Art. IV. Remarks on the Leafing of Oak Trees, and the Tints of the 
early Foliage. By the Rev. W. T. Bree, A.M. 

The most inattentive observer can hardly fail to have remarked 
that there is a very considerable difference (a difference, perhaps, 
of not less than a month or six weeks) in the period at which 
different individuals of the same species of oak (Quercus .Robur) 
expand and shed their leaves : those, of course, which assume 
their foliage earliest in the spring, losing it earliest in the 
autumn ; and vice versa. Accordingly, it is very common to see 
one oak tree in full verdure, while its next neighbour, only a few 
yards distant in the same wood or hedgerow, is perfectly bare, 
or, at most, with its buds only bursting. It is an equally obvious 

and Tints of the early Foliage. 201 

emark, that these trees vary no less in the tints which they 
exhibit on first coming into leaf; and, again, nearly as much so 
when they are preparing to lay aside their honours in the autumn. 
" The budding oak," says Gilpin, " displays great variety." 
Of the vernal tints, which, if not so rich and luxuriant in the eye 
of the painter, are yet exceedingly tender and beautiful, some 
are of a delicate green, others rich brown, yellow, bright sul- 
phur-coloured, red almost approaching to scarlet, with innumer- 
able intermediate gradations of colour. It strikes me that these 
obvious facts might be turned to good account by the planter, 
whether his chief object in planting be profit or ornament. If 
there be any truth in the received opinion, that, " of trees of the 
same species, those which expand their leaves last in the spring, 
and shed them last in the autumn, afford the best timber," it 
would surely be worth any one's while, who plants for profit, to 
select his oaks accordingly. Again, in mere ornamental planting, 
much advantage might result from paying attention to the dif- 
ferent tints exhibited by the foliage, respectively, both in spring 
and autumn. It is easy to conceive the happy effect which 
might be produced either by harmoniously grouping together 
individuals of the same hues in their early foliage, or by judi- 
ciously contrasting those of different ones. A whole grove or 
avenue might be formed, which, at that most interesting season of 
the year, when the leaves are yet tendei', should display, through- 
out its entire extent, a regular series of graduated tints, or any 
other combination of colour, according to the taste or fancy of 
the planter ; and a corresponding effect would, if I mistake not, 
be visible also in the autumn. In one part of the park or plea- 
sure-ground it may be desirable that a particular spot should be 
occupied by oaks which come into leaf the earliest of their 
kind ; while, in another, it may be no less an object to introduce 
such as retain their leaves to the latest period in the autumn. 
Even in the case of single trees, it may, according to circum- 
stances, be of some importance to the landscape, whether the one 
selected for a particular situation be early or late in its period of 
leafing, of one colour or another. Innumerable, in short, are 
the arrangements, the agreeable contrasts and combinations, 
which might be formed by paying attention to the above cir- 
cumstances. I do not pretend to lay down precise rules for the 
guidance of the planter ; I merely throw out a few hints, in the 
hope of drawing attention to an interesting subject, which appears 
to me to have been more neglected than it deserves.* With 
most planters, and, I believe I may say, with all nurserymen, 
oaks are oaks, and that is all : no regard whatever is had to the 
individual varieties of our native oak, unless, indeed, these be of 

* See Whately's Observations on Modern Gardening, sect, xiii., for general 
rules as to the massing and disposition of the different tints of foliage. 

202 Planting for Picturesque Effect, 

a very marked and unusual character. Now, if there were a 
call, on the part of purchasers, for the early or the late leafing 
varieties, or for those of this or that particular tint or form of 
foliage, nurserymen would soon learn to sort their oaks accord- 
ingly, in order to meet the demand of their customers ; or 
planters, by sowing the acorns and raising their own oaks, 
might adopt the same method themselves. Nothing could be 
easier than to do this ; for the oak is a tree which developes the 
peculiar characters which I have above alluded to, at a very early 
stage of its existence ; even the very first season it springs from 
the acorn, as will be obvious to any one who will but examine a 
seed-bed when the young trees are first coming up in the spring. 
There he will see some in broad foliage, while others are only 
just emerging above the ground. Every variation of colour, 
also, will be perceptible, as much as in trees of mature age ; 
and these peculiarities, it is to be observed, are constant in the 
individuals, and are retained throughout life : as is the infant 
seedling, in regard to its period of leafing, and the tints of its 
foliage, so is the full-grown oak. Even extreme old age is not 
found to retard the expanding of the leaves, or to affect their 
colour. I consider a bed of seedling oaks, exhibiting, as it does, 
such diversity of colour and of form in the foliage, a most 
interesting object for contemplation ; and I have sometimes 
fancied that even more of the future characters of the mature 
tree, such as its propensity to run tall or short in the stem, 
spreading in the limbs, and the general style and figure of the 
head and branches, might almost be predicted at this early 
period : but this, perhaps, is mere idle speculation. 

I may add, that the same discrepance in the period of assum- 
ing and shedding the leaf is observable in other trees besides the 
oak, especially in the horsechestnut, the beech, and the ash. 

Allesley Rectory, Feb. 21. 1834. W. T. Bree. 

Aut. V. On producing Picturesque Effect in Plantations, as tvell as 
Shelter and Profit. By Mr. T. Rutger. 

Perhaps there is no country in the world that can compete 
with our own, in offering to the eye of the traveller such a diver- 
sity of scenery, in connection with the comforts of civilisation. 
We may not be able to boast of so much highly picturesque 
and truly sublime scenery as some of our Continental neighbours ; 
yet the almost constant variety of hill and dale, and wood and 
water; extensive parks, with the mansions of noblemen attached ; 
numerous villas, adorned with lawns and shrubberies ; together 
with the neat cottages, verdant meadows, and fields skirted with 

as well as for Shelter and, Profit. 203 

stately trees, &c, which appear in quick succession to the view 
throughout our cultivated districts, cannot but be felt and ad- 
mired by all who have a taste for refinement ; and I think that, 
in scenery of this description, our own country vies with any 
other in the world. But, while nature has been thus profuse in 
her gifts to some districts, by affording facilities for embellish- 
ment, she has been less so in others. Hence we have also our 
widely extended and barren heaths, with plains, so called, of 
vast extent, furnishing scarcely a shrub, or tree, to attract 
the notice of the inquisitive traveller, or to afford shelter or 
shade to man or beast. These, half a century ago, when tra- 
velling could not be so expeditiously effected as at the present, 
must have acted, for many hours in succession, as a dead weight 
on the minds of such as were the admirers of beautiful scenery. 
In some districts, however, something has been done towards 
removing this unvaried and dreary aspect by planting; which, 
if prosecuted with the spirit that it deserves, will, in a few years, 
add much beauty to those parts of our country which are at 
present so dreary and uninteresting. From the extension of the 
practice of planting, pecuniar}' advantages will also be derived, 
by affording, not only shelter to the flocks and herds feeding on 
the plains, but, also, by giving to the proprietors of such districts 
a prospect of being ultimately remunerated with a good per- 
centage for property expended in the planting. In the mean 
time, it may be observed, that utility ought not to be taken solely 
into the account, by those who feel inclined, and have the means 
in their power, to enrich the more dreary parts of our country 
with " living green." Sound judgment and good taste should 
also be exercised, to combine embellishment with utility, and 
then, in all such projected improvements, much of beauty would 
be the result, as well as much of advantage. 

In travelling, a few weeks ago, through a part of Suffolk, 
namely, between Newmarket and Thetford, I was particularly 
struck with the singular appearance of a number of straight un- 
connected belts of trees, of nearly equal width, planted in various 
directions on the open lands in that district, some of which were 
of great length ; the object of these, I found, was to afford 
shelter to the stock grazing there. The principle, as such, I 
admitted at once to be good ; I could not help, however, con- 
demning the mode of carrying it into effect. Had these belts 
been disposed of advantageously, in curves of unequal width, and 
clumps been here and there introduced with judgment, much of 
the picturesque might have been accomplished, with an equal 
degree of utility ; and, instead of presenting such a stiff uni- 
formity, with scarcely any apparent design, parklike appearances 
might have been gained, which, to the eye of the tourist, would 
have been interesting, particularly as a large portion of the road 

204 Sketch of a Flower-Garden, 

is straight, being, in some instances, from two to four miles in 
length, without the least turn ; a prospect which must be at all 
times tedious to the traveller, and especially so when passing 
over an open country. 

If these remarks should be permitted to meet the public eye 
through the medium of your Magazine, and be deemed worthy 
of consideration by any of your readers, the end I have in view 
will be answered; namely, that of suggesting that wherever plant- 
ing is carried on with a view to utility, it ought also to be 
accompanied with taste. Thus giving as much beauty to the 
scenery as there may be a capability of producing, according to 
local advantages or disadvantages, of whatever nature they may 
be. To accomplish this, a person of accredited judgment might 
be employed with advantage. T. Rutger. 

Short grove, Essex, Nov. 1833. 

Art. VI. A Sketch of a Flower- Gar den, with Remarks. 
By Mr. T. Rutger. 

Should you conceive the accompanying sketch {Jig. 14.) for 
a flower-garden worth a place in your Magazine, it is at your 
service. A section, viz. one half of it, was laid down, some years 
since, at Woolmers, Herts, in front of a green-house which was 
standing on a lawn. The design was by Mr. Lewis Kennedy, 
and it was at that time much admired. 

Strictly geometrical flower-gardens, on a small scale, may, per- 
haps, but in few instances, be deemed desirable by gardeners ; as 
they are generally composed of narrow gravel walks, box edgings, 
portions of grass dotted with shrubs, &c, in connection with the 
clumps, which occasion a vast deal of labour to keep them neat 
and clean. This, however, is essentially necessary to render them 
attractive, and to afford pleasure to their owners. Notwithstand- 
ing these objections, geometrical gardens are frequently desired, 
particularly by ladies, whose recreations partly consist in viewing 
and admiring the beauties of Flora. 

The selection of a proper site for a garden of this description 
should be the first thing attended to : a short and convenient 
distance from the mansion is desirable ; and if on a level all the 
better. If within the precincts of the kitchen-garden, and walled 
round, of course a fence is unnecessary ; but, if placed in the 
shrubbery, a wire, or some other fence, will be requisite to keep 
out rabbits and other vermin. I prefer the shrubbery, or pleasure- 
ground, as being, in my opinion, more appropriate, than to have 
the flower-garden attached to the kitchen-garden. From the 
principal walk, as near the house as convenient, a branch walk 

with Remarks. 


'/&?"} &! 1 1 { */° eai Jr^r; 


S rat *rJ limi&^ 

Z-l Lli.^l^vj;;; r«rCfJI2:^l^S i^€Z"JL^L"fsiSl 0LYrsfi!*=5ybssJ Sti! 

Iffiisi IfFiSfl 


>^ ?> • * ,*"»""■ „ — ■"a" .*" ,a -s °/ 

a, Gravel walks, with box edgings where no grass. b, Rosaries, or for georginas, or for roses and 
georginas alternately. c, Clumps for small American plants. d, Grass, dotted with shrubs; 
or pots with green-house plants, sunk in the ground. e, Flower-beds. 

206 Culture of Cape Ericas. 

should be made to lead off to a sufficient distance, so as to-admit 
of shrubs being planted round, to hide it from the view ; and, 
after passing through, it may lead into the principal walk again. 
An arbour, or small reading-room, is almost indispensable, par- 
ticularly when the garden is at a considerable distance from the 

A lawn in the front of a house should never be appropriated 
to this species of garden, as it will admit of nothing desirable, 
when compared with what it will destroy; besides, seclusion is 
necessary to render a flower-garden a desirable retreat. 

On the supposition that the accompanying sketch were to be 
laid down, an arbour or recess might be placed at either or 
both ends; and if the situation were convenient for water, with a 
little alteration, a fountain, or vase, with a small pond for gold 
and silver fish, might be placed in the centre. 

Sfiortgrove, Essex, Feb.' 1834. T. Rutger. 

Art. VII. On planting Cape Ericas in the free Soil, and sheltering 
them tvith a sashed Frame. By Mr. Robertson, Nurseryman, of 

Few see ericas in their native perfection : stunted and im- 
poverished, a great proportion of those preserved in our green- 
houses must be rather considered as botanical specimens than as 
ornamental plants ; and it requires no small amount of skill and 
attention (both which they unremittingly demand) to keep them 
alive. To diminish this labour, and to enjoy ericas in greater 
perfection than is usually done, I constructed, some time since, 
a small frame for their reception ; and prepared a border within 
it, into which I turned the plants early last summer, in the hope 
of seeing them there display beauties to which I had before 
been a stranger. This hope has been fully realised by their 
luxuriant growth; and by their vivid and abundant bloom, 
which has continued in beauty much longer than the ordinary 
term. Never having seen or read of any thing of the kind having 
been done before (though the idea is simple, and such as might 
naturally suggest itself [see I. 374., IX. 584.]), I have thought 
it advisable to give you a description of my frame, and of the 
manner in which I prepared the soil for the reception of the 
plants ; though, it being merely an experimental attempt, I did 
not carry it to the extent which, I am now convinced, it merits. 
The frame is a three-light one, each sash 3 ft. 6 in. ; in front it 
is 9 in. deep ; and, at the back, 4 ft. 6 in., though it should here 
have been 6 ft. high, as the heaths have already outgrown it. 
The border has, at bottom, 6 in. of loose stones, covered with 
6 in. of fine sifted rotten loam mixed with sand, good peat being 

Culture of Plants in Glass Cases. 207 

scarce here. Over this is a stratum of sandy peat, 16 in. or 
18 in. deep. The sorts planted were, Erica ignescens, cruenta, 
coccinea, Bowledna, hybrida, caffra, vestita, cerinthoides, Pe- 
tiveridna, mammosa, PatersomVma, cyllndrica, Eweridna, vil- 
16sa, longifldra, longifolia, Bletm [? bella], verticillata, veritri- 
c6sa, and some others. During summer, the plants require 
frequent watering, all possible air on temperate days, and 
shading on scorching sunny ones. The shading may be effected 
by a mat; and the ventilation by tilting up the glass at the 
ends, so as to produce a thorough current of air. In winter, 
the same attention to air is necessary, but no water should be 
given : the plants should be screened from rains ; and, of course, 
covered up, should severe frosts occur. In Ireland, however, we 
rarely have frosts to a degree which requires more protection 
than the glass will afford (p. 62.) ; and I am persuaded that a 
number of the Cape ericas are sufficiently hardy to stand our 
winters in the open air. Some have with me, and I have planted 
out others on trial ; but this they cannot be said to have had, 
since, for these three years back, we have had no frost that would 
destroy a pelargonium. I have little doubt of ericas succeeding 
on the sea-coast, which is of a still milder temperament. The 
situation that the frame was unavoidably placed in has not had 
an hour's sun during the winter, yet not one plant has damped off. 
Kilkenny, Jan. 6. 1834. J. Robertson. 

Art. VIII. On grotving Ferns and other Plants in Glass Cases, in the 
midst of the Smoke of London ; and on transplanting Plants from 
one Country to another, by similar Means. By N. B. Ward, Esq. 

I was accidentally led, about four or five years ago, to make 
some experiments on the growth of ferns, &c, in closely glazed 
vessels, from the following circumstance. I had buried the 
chrysalis of a sphinx in some moist mould in a large bottle 
covered with a lid. The insect attained its perfect form in about 
a month, when I observed one or two minute specks of vegeta- 
tion upon the surface of the mould. Curious to observe the 
developement of plants in so confined a situation, I placed the 
bottle outside one of my windows with a northern aspect. The 
plants proved to be one of Poa annua, and one of Nephrodium 
[Aspidium Swz.~\ Pilix-mas. In this situation they lived for more 
than three years, during which time no fresh water was given to 
them, nor was the lid removed. The fern produced four or five 
new fronds every year ; and the Poa flowered the second year, 
but did not ripen its seeds. Both plants ultimately perished, 
from the admission of rain water, in consequence of the rusting 

208 Culture of Plants in Glass Cases. 

of the lid. I have repeated this experiment, with uniform suc- 
cess, upon more than sixty species of ferns belonging to the fol- 
lowing genera : — ^splenium, Aspidium, ^diantum, i?lechnum, 
Cheilanthes, Davallm, Dickson/a, Dood/a, Grammltis, Hymeno- 
phyllum, Lycopodium, Nephrodium, Niphobolus, Polypodium, 
Pteris, and Xrichomanes. Various other plants, vascular as 
well as cellular, and more particularly those which delight in 
humid situations, succeed as well as the ferns. Among others 
may be enumerated : — O'xalis Acetosella, Jnemone nemorosa, 
Dentaria bulbifera, Paris quadrifolia, Veronica montana, Listera 
(Neottia) Nidus avis, &c. The method of proceeding is very 
simple. The ferns, &c, may be planted in boxes of any size or 
shape, furnished with glazed sides and a glazed lid. The bottom of 
the box should be filled with nearly equal portions of bog moss, 
vegetable mould, and sand ; and the ferns, after planting, should 
be most copiously watered, and the superfluous water allowed to 
drain off through a plughole in the bottom of the box: the plug 
is then to be put in tight, the glazed lid applied, and no farther 
care is requisite than that of keeping the box in the light. In 
this way many plants will grow for years, without requiring any 
fresh supply of water. It is scarcely necessary to point out the 
advantages which this plan (subject to some modifications, ac- 
cording to the nature of the enclosed plants) offers to the horti- 
culturist, and to the physiological botanist. To the one, it 
furnishes a ready mode of importing most plants, without risk, 
from the most distant regions of the globe ; and, to the other, the 
opportunity of making more accurate experiments than have 
hitherto been practicable, on many important points connected 
with vegetable economy; such as on the germination of seeds, and 
the developement of plants in various kinds of air and soil, &c. : 
but upon this part of my subject I need not here enlarge. The 
numerous experiments I have already made have, I think, 
established one important fact, that the air of London, when 
freed from adventitious matter, is as fitted to support vegetable 
life as the air of the country. I cannot conclude this short 
account without expressing my warmest acknowledgments to the 
Messrs. Loddiges, who have at all times furnished me with every 
plant I required from their invaluable collection. 

Wellclose Square, London, N. B. Ward. 

March 6. 1834. 

We have before (p. 163.) suggested that miniature conservatories might be 
constructed and managed in rooms, in the same manner as Mr. Wood con- 
structs and manages his glazed cases for ferns. A little farther consideration 
will convince any one, that even large green-houses and conservatories might 
be constructed in the smoky air of London, on the same principle ; and kept 
free from the grosser impurities of the atmosphere, by causing all the air which 
should enter them to filter through fine cloth. The purity of the ah* in living- 
rooms might also be increased by filtration. — Cond* 

Gardens of the Misses Gamier. 209 

Art. IX. Descriptive Notice of the Gardens of the Misses Gamier, 
at Wickham, near Fareham, in Hampshire ; by the Conductor : 
ivith a Monthly Calendar of the Work done, and of the principal 
Flowers produced ; by Mr. James Moore, Gardener to the Misses 

In the course of oar tour, in the autumn of 1833, we called 
at the villa of the Misses Garnier, near Wickham, which has 
long been celebrated for its flower-garden ; and, much as we 
had heard of it, from Mr. Page of Southampton, Mr. Young of 
Epsom, and other nurserymen aii^d gardeners, it very far sur- 
passed our expectations. 

The grounds are fiat, with no exterior advantages whatever, 
and therefore the merits of these gardens are entirely dependent 
on art. The walks and beds are laid out according to the ground 
plan (fg. 15.); the beds are most judiciously planted; and the 
order and keeping of the whole are of the very highest and most 
refined description. In this respect, the garden at Wickham be- 
longs to the same class as the gardens of the Rev. Thomas Garnier, 
at Bishopstoke ; of Mrs. Corrie, near Birmingham ; Mrs. Robert 
Phillips, near Cheadle ; Lady Boughton, near Chester; Mrs. 
Starkey, at Bowness ; and a few others. The first view of the 
garden of the Misses Garnier, when the door marked a in the 
plan (fg. 15.) was opened, which looks into it from the garden 
forming the entrance court, struck us with astonishment and 
delight ; the bold masses of brilliant-coloured flowers in the fore- 
ground, and, afterwards, the succession of masses of flowers, with 
their intervening glades of turf, extending to a considerable dis- 
tance, till the colours were almost lost in the boundary plantation, 
produced a landscape of the most brilliant kind. In walking 
round, we found the walks brimful of gravel, with the turf edging 
nowhere deeper than half an inch. The beds, in some places, were 
planted in masses of one or two species or varieties ; in others, 
by the different species of one genus ; and, in some, by a miscel- 
laneous assemblage. The plants were in all cases, except those of 
creepers and the kinds planted in masses, placed at such dis- 
tances from each other, as not to touch when in full growth and 
bloom, in consequence of which every individual plant was 
covered with flowers from the base to the summit; but the 
creepers were sufficiently close together to cover the whole of 
the beds with their foliage. Pelargoniums, China asters, stocks, 
and other plants intended to display masses of flower of one 
colour, were also planted so as to cover the entire bed. 

The woody plants consist of roses, climbers, and twiners, with 
rhododendrons, azaleas, and other American and peat-earth 
shrubs, and of the larger exotic shrubs and flowering trees. 
The roses are displayed in a rosary, in masses on the lawn, or 
singly as standards ; the climbers cover trellised arches, or sup- 

Vol. X. — No. 50. p 


Gardens of the Misses Gamier, 

ports of trelliswork {Jig. 16.), or of three or four iron rods, 
as shown mjig. 17. ; the twiners run up poles ; the low American 
shrubs are partly disposed in masses, and partly as single plants ; 
and the larger shrubs and ornamental trees are distributed along 
the margin of the garden, and also scattered throughout, as will 
appear by the details of the ground plan. From the drawing- 
room window at d, there is a vista to the trellised arch e, and 


1. to 5. Herbaceous plants. 6. Perpetual roses. 7. and 8. Roses edged withpansies. 9. German 

stocks edged with pansies. 
10. Trellis enclosed by herbaceous borders. 11. Delphiniums and digitalises. 12. Calceolarias and 

potentillas edged with Fiola cornuta. 13. and 14. Herbaceous plants. 15. Hollyhocks edged by 

various China roses. 16. Crotalaria elegans. 17. American plants, with CJrtisus elongatus 

in the centre. 18. Lobelia in sorts. 19. Collection of best pinks. 

20. American and large-growing shrubs, with tree roses forming vista to arch. 21. and 22. Hollies 

twined with honeysuckles and roses, and blended with flowering shrubs. 23. and 24. American 

and large-growing shrubs. 25. Pelargoniums. 26. Roses in the centre, with herbaceous 

plants in the two borders. 27. and 28. Large shrubs, hollies, &c. 29. American plants edged 

with Geranium sanguineum. 
SO. to 33. Forest trees, evergreens, and shrubs. 34. Ferb^na chamaedrifblia, a bed of. 35. Salvia 

splendens. 36. to 47. Forest trees, evergreens, and flowering shrubs. 48. Hollyhocks. 49. to 

53. American shrubs, backed by hollies and honeysuckles, with trees behind, and broken to 

supply a view of the contiguous ground. 54. Rosary, comprehending a fine collection of roses, 

enclosed by evergreens, flowering shrubs, &c. 55. Collection of phloxes. 56. Scarlet arbutus. 

57. Leonbtis Leontirus. 58. Tree rose. 59. Pedestal of Caprifblium flexubsum. 
60. TJbsa bracteata, andcaprifolium in sorts. 6L Daphne Dauphi'nz'z (D. hybrida), and Gaulthena; 

prociimbens. 62. Andr6meda arbbrea. 63. Fuchsia cunica, edged with LobehVz triquetra. 

64. MagnblzVj conspicua. 65. Sophbra japimica var. pendula. 66. Cupressus sempervlrens. 

67. Xupinus mutabilis var. Cruckshanksiajwx. 68. Caprif61ium, sorts of, over cross-shaped basket. 

69. Polygala latifolia. 
79. Yiicca gloribsa. 71. Halimod«?ndron argenteum. 72. Hydrangea hortensis. 73. Petunia 

phcenicea. 74. Basket of Verbena chamasdrifolia. 75. Tripod basket of pelargoniums. 

76, Corraj^a speciosa. 77. Yiicca aloefblia. 78. Magnolia Soulangea»«. 79. Rhododendron 

at Wickham, near Fareham, Hampshire. 


another to an old oak tree at^ The kitchen-garden is entered by 
the door marked b in the plan (Jig. 15.); and there is a green-house 

catawbiense. 80. Basket of plants in pots. 81. Cytisus purpureus, standard. 82. Kalnua 
latifblia. 83. Raliurus aculeatus. 84. Tree rose. 85. Photfnia serrulata. 86. Schubertra 
disticha. 87. Brugmansw suaveolens. 88. Birberis ^quifblium. 8a Kolreuterza paniculata. 

90. Cytisus elongatus. 91. Upright cypress. 92. Tecoma capensis pyramidahs. 93. Tree rose. 
94. Ameldnchier Botryapium. 95. Fuchsia arborea. 3& Magnbtfa tripetala. 97. Basket ot 
pelargoniums. 98. .Ligustrum lucidum. 99. Mimulus glutinbsus. 

100. Juniperus virginiana. 101. Crataegus Azarblus. 102. P&bma Moutan papaveracea. 

103. Obelisk clothed with ^pios tuberbsa. 104. Tropa^olum tricolbrum. 105. Rhododendron 
alta-clerense. 106. Kalmza latifblia. 107. Periploca gr^ca. 108. Rhododendron arbbreum. 
109. P&bnia Moutan. 110. Cupressus sempervlrens horizontals. 111. Cross basket of Capri, 
folium gratum. 112. Rhododendron Snrithw. 113. Chionanthus virgfnica. 114. Xan- 

th6xylum clava Hereulw. 115. Weeping ash. 1 16. Broussonetza papyri fera. 117. Cerasus 
nigra. lia Large holly. 119. Viburnum strictum. _ 

120. Hemlock spruce (Pinus canadensis). 121. Holly. 122. Cedrus Libani. 123. Rhodo- 

dendron atropurpiireum. 124. Gymn6cladus canadensis. 125. A cer Pseudo-Rlatanus. 

126. Holly. 127. Rlnus Cembra. 128. J'rbutus procera. 129. Viburnum lucidum. 

130. Ph6rmium tfenax. 131. Camellia, sorts of. 132. Fuchsia grandiflbra. 133. Basket of 

Russian stocks. 134. Rbsa Boursaulta, pedestal. 135. Aralia spin&sa. 136. Tilia europa; a. 
137. ^tragene austriaca, pedestal. 138. vTbies excelsa. 139. Rhododendron ponticum. __ 

140. Piptanthus nepalensis. 141. Hydrangea hortensis. 142. Tree rose. 143. Rhododendron 
maximum. 144. ilex rayrtifblia. 145. Psbnia Moutan. 146. Sophbra japonica pendula. 
147. Eriobotrya jap6nica. 148. Tree rose. 149. Magnbk'a glavica. 

150. Caragana frutescens. 151. Magnblia grandiflora. 152. Tree rose. 153. Madura aurantiaca. 
154. Tree rose. 155. Catalpa synn^ceibWa. 156. Noisette rose. 157. Laurus nobilis, with 
georginas. 158. Six tree roses, with herbaceous plants ; evergreens near the house. 159. Hollies, 
honeysuckles, China roses, herbaceous plants in front. 160. Seats. 161. Trelhsed arches. 

P 2 


Gardens of the Misses Gamier : — - 

c, besides pits, frames, &c. ; and a reserve garden at g, for 
keeping up a stock of herbaceous plants, roses, &c, for the lawn 
or flower-garden. The trees on the walls of the kitchen-garden 
are trained with the greatest neatness, and completely cover 
the wall from the ground to the coping ; the wall borders were, 
when we saw them, very slightly cropped, and in some places 
not cropped at all. Every part was in the best order ; and, 
indeed, there was an appearance of freshness, health, and vigour, 
in all the gardens and scenery, which, joined to the fineness of 
the day, completed the effect of their gaiety and beauty. 

There are a few buildings, or artificial ornaments, in these 
grounds, of a simple rustic description, such as the seat 

formed of moss and hazel rods {Jig. 19.); trellised arches for 
climbers (Jigs. 20. and 21.) ; rustic vases (Jig. 18.) ; and iron rods 
for roses and other slender-growing shrubs. (Jigs. 16. and 17.) 


January, 1833. — During this month there is but little doing in the flower- 
garden. The gravel walks are kept clear of weeds, and neatly rolled, and the 
turf is swept once a week, or oftener, as it may require. Honeysuckles, 
clematises, and other deciduous climbing plants, are now pruned and tied. If 
the weather is mild and dry, the coverings are removed from the half-hardy and 
green-house plants which have been kept out during the winter, to prevent 
them from damping off; it is necessary, however, to replace the coverings 
carefully before the sun is off the plants. Slugs must be destroyed when the 
weather is mild, by hand-picking or lime water ; the latter method I find the 
most effectual, being careful to let it settle ivell before using it, otherwise it 
leaves a whiteness on the leaves of the plants. 

Floricultural Calendar. 213 

The productions of the flower-garden at this season are not numerous; its 
beauty depending chiefly on the green turf and evergreens, among which the 
laurustinus is one of the most conspicuous, being now in full flower. Cydonia 
japonica, common China roses, and the winter aconites, are also now in 
bloom; and in mild seasons Neapolitan violets, Jnemone coronaria, A. hor- 
tensis flore pleno, Aubrietza ^esperidiflora, -Daphne collina, and neapolitana, 
Aletris aurea, white queen stocks, and a few varieties of heartsease. 

February. — We now begin to be more busy in the flower-garden. The 
roses are pruned, except the evergreen varieties ; and the borders are well 
dressed with strong stable manure, which is dug in a spade deep. Young 
plants are put in to fill up any vacancy. Old plants that are become very 
luxuriant are taken up, with as much earth as will adhere to then* roots, and 
replanted. This checks their growth, and causes them to produce less wood 
and finer flowers. A good heap of compost is now prepared, in which the 
more delicate kinds of half-hardy and green-house plants are to be planted in 
May and June. Ranunculus roots are now planted. The turf and gravel walks 
and the destroying of slugs, require to be attended to as in the last month. 

We have but few flowers to boast of during this month, and what we have are 
cbiefly Cyddnia japonica, laurustinus, daphnes, and a few common China and 
Noisette roses. These roses flower nearly all the year in Miss Garnier's garden, 
and, contrasted with the dark green foliage of the common hollies, against 
which they are planted, have a beautiful effect ; flowering among the branches 
to the height of twenty feet ; and I think it is owing to their being protected 
by these hollies that they afford flowers during the winter months. 

March. — About the beginning of this month, I proceed to pot the geor- 
ginas, and place them in a cold frame or pit. German stocks and asters, and 
other tender annuals, are now sown on a slight hotbed. Lobel&a specidsa 
and L. fulgens are potted and placed on a frame in a gentle heat. The seed 
of georginas must be sown in large pans, and likewise placed on a gentle heat. 
The seeds of Wicotiana fragrans, Lobeh'a bicolor and gracilis, and other 
green-house plants intended for the open borders, are also sown during this 
month. The edgings of the gravel walks are now cut with the edging-iron : 
I mention the edging-iron more particularly, as this is the only time in the 
year that I cut the edges with it, as I always cut them after, throughout, with 
shears. The gravel is turned over, and fresh gravel added, filling the walks 
so full as not to allow the edges to be more than half an inch in depth. The 
turf is now repaired where it has been destroyed by the drip of trees or 
any other cause ; and pots of hyacinths and tulips are plunged into the bor- 
ders, to produce flowers in April and May. The flower-garden is now 
beginning to be more gay. The daphnes and cydonia still continue in bloom. 
Polyanthuses, hepaticas, single and double crocuses, periwinkle, Cyclamen 
cdum, »Saxifraga oppositifolia, i?hododendron dauricum var., and R. dauricum 
var. atrovirens, are now in bloom. 

April. — At the beginning of this month the turf is swept, rolled, and 
mowed ; the flower borders are edged, carefully stirred up, and broken as fine 
as can be with the garden prong : I defer using the rake until next month. 
Seeds of hardy annuals are now sown in the open borders. The coverings of 
moss, coal ashes, &c, are partially removed from the half-hardy and green- 
house plants. Caprifolium flexuosum, Jasminum revolutum, and all the 
varieties of evergreen roses, are now pruned and trained. Seedling georginas, 
which were sown last month, are now pricked out on a slight hotbed, covered 
at night with mats. Cuttings of Ferbena chamaedrifolia, pulchella, Lamberti, 
&c, Salvia splendens, coccinea, involucrata, angustifolia, cardinalis, and Gra- 
haim, are now planted on a slight hotbed under hand-glasses, to produce 
plants for turning into the open borders in June. Heartseases are propagated 
by cuttings during this month ; seeds of hollyhocks are sown, and tuberoses 
potted for late flowering in the open borders. The box edgings are also cut 
down during this month. 

The following shrubs and herbaceous plants, which are in bloom, are, Mag- 

p 3 

214 Gardens of the Misses Gamier : — 

nolia consplcua, Hikes sangulneum, Andromeda! dealbata, O'robus vernus, 
Erythronium dens canis, Pris verna and persica; Phlox subulata, Carolina, 
divaricata, setacea, nivalis, and veYna ; Veronica verna, Gentidna verna, Sol* 
danella alpina, iychnis alpina, Sanguinaria canadensis, Polemonium reptans, 
Claytdnia virginica, fritillarias, tulips, and hyacinths, narcissuses, double poly- 
anthus, double wallflowers, &c. 

May. — During this month the flower-garden takes up my whole time and 
attention; which you are no doubt well aware that such a garden as this must 
do, if proper attention be paid to it. I am, however, a real lover of plants 
myself, and I am proud to say I am supported and encouraged by my em- 
ployers in every respect, which makes the arduous task I have to perform a 
source of delight. I now take away the remaining part of the coverings from 
the half-hardy and green-house plants, adding fresh soil to such as are standing 
on turf. The borders are now raked down, but not broken very fine, as the 
borders not only look better for not being raked so very smooth, but the 
plants thrive better, and the soil keeps more open and healthy. I now sow 
on a warm border, or slight hotbed, a succession of annual flowers, such as 
German asters, German stocks, clarkias, Oenotheras, &c. Those sown in 
March are now planted out, and the cuttings of salvias, verbenas, &c, being 
now sufficiently rooted, are potted off, to strengthen them for final transplant- 
ing next month. Sweet peas are now sown for late flowering. The roses are 
carefully examined twice or thrice during this month, to destroy a little brown 
grub [that of one of the Penthredinidae *], which infests them at this season ; 
the most effectual method of destroying which is by picking them off. The 
borders of heartsease, &c, are now watered, late in the evening, with clear lime 
water, which I have found to be an excellent method of preserving the flowers 
from the depredations of slugs and other insects. Lobelia speciosa and ful- 
gens are planted together in a bed. The flower stems of phloxes and many 
other strong-growing herbaceous plants, are thinned out, cutting away about a 
third part, as I have noticed that the plants which have been thinned 

* It is only the enthusiastic gardener who can fully feel the evil of this 
insect's ravages. To have manured, dug, planted, pruned, and taken suckers 
away from one's rose bushes in beds, and, as they sprout in spring, to be 
painting in imagination the rich, the brilliant display of their variedly beautiful 
blossoms in July ; and, in the midst of this anticipation, to be compelled to 
perceive that hidden enemies are working a frustration of your exulting hopes, 
is annoying, vexing, saddening, chagrining, mortifying, &c. The enemies are 
the caterpillars (grubs, maggots, or larva?) of, I believe, one of the sawfly tribe 
( Penthredinidae), which, when full grown, just previously to their changing into 
the pupa state, are about half an inch long, about as thick as a crow's quill, 
usually brown in the body, sometimes rather glaucous, with the head black. 
Before, however, any one of them has attained this state, it has done a world 
of mischief ; has eaten into, through, and out of, possibly, and not very impro- 
bably, half a dozen " roses in the bud." The caterpillars are quite minute at 
first, and begin to eat and do mischief before the sprouting shoot, in which the 
embryo rosebuds are, has attained more than half its length. While the shoot is 
lengthening, the caterpillar is feeding unremittingly (except during the changings 
of its skin) j and, by the time that the shoot has become developed, and the rose- 
buds it bears obvious, one, two, several perhaps, sometimes all, of the buds in 
a cluster, are found incapacitated from blooming by the ravages effected within 
them, and sometimes down their peduncles, by the caterpillars mentioned. To 
what species of insect does it belong ? Does it proceed from eggs deposited 
by the parent fly upon the branches of the rose bush in the autumn preceding ? 
I have met with the caterpillars of the rose-eating insect by the middle of April. 
I once found a minute caterpillar, not very dissimilar, inside the bursting bud 
of a species of willow ; and another, still more like it, on the common honey- 
suckle. — J. D. 

Floricultural Calendar. 215 

always produce the finest flowers. The turf is now mown once a week, and 
the gravel is attended to as in the preceding months. Of all the flowers which 
adorn the garden during this month, those of the Psebnia Moutan and Moutan 
joapaveracea are the most showy ; but there is also now in bloom Magnolz'a 
Soulangeawa, and M. acuminata. Azalea indica alba and purpurea (which in 
this garden have survived the winter for the last four years, only protected by 
a slight covering of furze) are now beginning to expand their beautiful 
bloom ; also Ledum latifolium, Kalmz'a glauca, Caragdna frutescens, Robinia 
hispida, Halesk tetraptera, Faccinium stamineum, Mahonk fascicularis and 
Jquifolium, and Ribes missouriense. Of the herbaceous plants that flower during 
this month, the following are the most showy : — /Vis pumila, Veronica gen- 
twrioides and repens, Geatidna acaulis and alpina, Erpetion reniformis, Cam- 
panula punctata, Erythrse N a aggregata, Trillium grandiflorum, ffinothera 
pumila, Saponaria ocymoides, O'xalis flava and floribunda, Potentilla rupes- 
tris; Aquilegia sibirica, grandiflora, and canadensis; Pentstemon campanulatus, 
Erodium romanum, Trifolium uniflorum, Calceolaria rugosa, ^sphodelus albus, 
Adyseton saxatile, Oenothera Lindleya«a and bifrons, Clarkfa pulchella, Schi- 
zanthus pinnatus (the annuals having been sown in September, and kept in 
a frame during winter), and heartsease in almost endless variety. 

June, — The first object of my care, at the beginning of this month, is the 
rosary, which I carefully examine, in order to destroy any grubs that may yet 
remain; and also the green fly (A v phis) which infests the roses at this season, 
which is easily killed with tobacco water. I put half a pound of the best shag 
tobacco to a gallon of hot water, and as soon as the infusion has become cold, 
I dip all the buds and infested parts of the young shoots into it, letting them 
remain a few seconds in the water. If they are very much infested, I go over 
them a second time. After this I wash them with clean water; and I am 
amply rewarded for my trouble with clean, beautiful, well-blown flowers. I 
now plant out georginas, mostly on borders by themselves, from 4 ft. to 5 ft. 
apart each way. By planting them at this distance asunder, and growing 
them with single stems, they produce larger flowers, and do not attain more 
than two thirds of the height they usually reach when planted only two or three 
feet asunder. I now plant out in a bed by themselves all the varieties of cal- 
ceolarias, which have been forwarded for this purpose in a frame. Nothing 
can exceed the beauty of a bed of this beautiful tribe of plants. The follow- 
ing green-house shrubs are now planted in the turf: — Acacia lophantha and 
dealbata; Fuchsz'a conica, gracilis, arbdrea, and /ycioides; ikfimulus gluti- 
nosus, Corrae v « speciosa, Lavatera triloba, Othonna [?] septemfida, Lupinus 
mutabilis var. Cruckshankzaw?^, Bordm'a denticulata, Leonotis Leonurus, 
Humea elegans, and Polygala latifolia. I also place on the turf baskets of 
pelargoniums, ixias, and sparaxises, German stocks, Sehizanthus Hooken, 
and Ferbena chamasdrifolia. In the borders are planted all the dwarf sorts of 
fuchsias and cinerarias, pelargoniums, teucriums, cistuses, E'pacris grandi- 
flora, .Dolichos lignosus, escallionias, arctotises, Sutherlandza frutescens, 
Genista canariensis, heliotropiums, &c. Young cuttings of sweet-scented 
and other China roses are planted in a shady border under hand-glasses. 
I prefer this month to any other for striking roses, as the cuttings soon form 
roots, and most of them will flower in autumn. Tuberoses are now planted 
in the rosary ; and these, with the perpetual-flowering roses, keep up a con- 
tinual bloom in this part of the garden till October. The productions of the 
flower-garden during this month are numerous and beautiful. The azaleas, 
kalmias, rhododendrons, and some species of Andromeda, are now in full 
bloom. The fragrance of the azaleas, together with that of a bed of pinks of 
about thirty varieties, German stocks, honeysuckles, &c, quite perfumes the 
garden. In this month we have also in bloom the beautiful Wistaria Con- 
sequchia, Hovea Celsz, Sutherland^ frutescens, Arctotis aureola, Phlox ovata, 
amce v na, and reptans ; Arthropodium paniculatum, Arnopogon Dalechampw, 
Coronilla montana, Zupinus polyphyllus and polyphyllus albus ; O'robus 
/athyroides, Cineraria cruenta and alba, ,4'ster alpinus, Lychnis fulgens, Po- 

p 4 

216 Gardens of the Misses Gamier : — ■ 

tentilla Hopwoodidna and formosa, Papaver bracteatum and orientale, Cistus 
vaginatus and crispus,Helianthemum formosum, Pssbnia Reevesw, albiflora, albi- 
flora Hume?, albiflora fragrans, &c. ; Delphinium exaltatum, Trollius asiaticus 
and intermedins, Pentstemon Scouleri and pubescens, Fierbena pulchella and 
Aubletia, Erinus /ychnideus, Lubinza atropurpurea, E'pacris grandiflora, Petunia 
nyctaginiflora, gigantea, and phcenicea; Nierembergia gracilis, Ramonda py- 
renaica, .Dodecatheon Mead?'«, Hakea acicularis, Watsonia fulgida, Gladiolus 
byzantinus, Salvia angustifolia and cardinalis, Alonsoa intermedia, Corrae v a spe- 
ciosa; ffinothera speciosa, cheiranthifolia, and acaulis ; Fuchsirt gracilis, conica, 
globosa, microphylla, coccinea, /ycioides, and microphylla grandiflora ; Ther- 
mopsis /abacea ; Pris .riphioides, versicolor, variegata, cristata, &c; Veronica 
caucasica and latifolia, Czack?'a Liliastrum, *Scilla peruviana, Allium flavum, 
i/emerocallis flava, Funk?a ovata, Zephyranthes grandiflora, Pinum trigynum 
and flavum, Ribes speciosum, Lobel?'# lutea, Sellidifolia, caerulea, and bicolor ; 
Campanula piimila and pulla, Aquilegia glandulosa, Magnolia cordata and 

July. — The flower borders are now cleared from weeds where any appear, 
and raked over ; and the stems of all the plants that are past flowering are 
cut away. I find that many kinds of herbaceous plants, if cut down as soon as 
the first bloom is past, will shoot up a second time, and produce some good 
spikes of flowers in September. The rosary, which consists of nearly 200 
varieties of roses, is now in high beauty. I look them over about twice a 
week, and cut away every flower that is overblown. The borders are also 
raked over, to give the whole a neat appearance. The baskets of ixias, spa- 
raxises, and lapeyrousias being now past blooming, the pots which they 
were in are taken out, and the baskets refilled with German stocks, pelar- 
goniums, &c, which continue in bloom until October. The annual flowers, 
sown in May for succession, are now planted out. Cuttings of fuchsias, 
calceolarias, linums, anagallises, pelargoniums, and many other half-hardy 
and green-house plants, are now planted in a shady border under hand- 
glasses. The turf and gravel walks, edges, &c, are attended to as in the 
preceding months. The large hollies in the shrubberies, which grow very 
luxuriantly here, now present a beautiful appearance, being covered with roses 
from the bottom to the very top. The sorts are, the common and pale blush 
China, Noisette, bengalensis, scandens, Madame d'Arblay, burnetdeaved, 
Single Macartne}', the Dundee rambler, Boursault?'?, and Posa ruga. The 
standard roses, which are situated on the turf, also have roses of the perpetual- 
flowering kinds planted against their stems, which takes off that stiff appear- 
ance which the naked stem of a tree rose always presents. The shrubs and 
herbaceous plants which flower here during this month are very numerous. 
The following are the most rare and beautiful kinds : — Echinacea hetero- 
phylla; Gentidna crinita, sept^mfida, lutea, and cruciata; Pilium candidum, 
longiflorum, japonicum, bulbiferum, spectabile, concolor, &c; Vallota pur- 
purea, Habranthus robustus; Alstrcemerz'a Sims?'?', Hookeri, Pelegi'ina, and 
Pelegnna alba; Jsclepia? carnosa and pulchra, Phyteuma orbiculare and 
hemisphae'ricum, Lobeh'a pubescens, caerulea, colorata, senecioides, mucro- 
nata, gracilis, &c. ; Campanula speciosa, carpathica, nitida, pyramidalis, aggre- 
gata, azurea, &c. &c. ; Wahlenberg?« grandifldra, Polemonium caeruleum, 
caeruleum flore albo, and gracile; Primula farinosa, Jnchusa paniculata and 
ochroleuca, Marica caerulea, Cypella Herbert?'; Gladiolus Colviil«,natalensis, and 
blandus; Salvia Graham?, chamaedryoides, &c; Commelfruz tuberosa, Schizan- 
thus retusus, Phexia virginica, Oenothera glauca, Fraser?, and triloba ; Calan- 
drinia grandiflora, Baptisia australis; Dianthus Fischer?, latifolius, and his- 
panicus ; Silene regia and compacta, O'xalis Deppe?, .Lychnis vespertina flore 
pleno and flos cuculi ; Potentilla americana, Russell?«??a, &c. ; Geum cocci- 
neum, majus, &c; Dryas octopetala; Delphinium elegans, sinense, grandi- 
fldrum, &c. ; Jconitum variegatum, Halleri, and albidum ; Dracocephalum 
altaiense, argunense, and roseum ; Streptocarpus Rexra; Pentstemon pulchellus, 
Millen, ovatus, roseus, venustus, atropurpureus, &c. ; Ferbena chamasdrifoliaj, 

Floricultural Calendar. 217 

Lamberti, venosa. &c. ; Maurandya Barclayaraa, semperflorens, and a new seed- 
ling of a pale lilac purple colour; .Mimulus ringens, rivularis, and variegatus ; 
Geranium lancastriense, sibiricum, sanguineum, and Wallichidnum ; iupinus 
pere'nnis, &c. ; tfenecio elegans, white and red double-flowered ; Pascalia 
virginica [? Helianthus diffusus], Centrocarpha chrysomela, Gazania rigens, 
Cypripedium spectabile ; Calceolaria bicolor, Atkmsidna, pendula, corymbosa, 
Hopedna, epsomensis, angustifolia, integrifolia, arachnoidea, jalantaginea, and 
many seedling varieties ; Linaria alpina and trfstis, Bouvardia triphylla, with 
some varieties of phloxes, veronicas, sisyrinchums, saxifrages, annual Oeno- 
theras, clarkias, silenes, marigolds, &c. &c. 

August. — The edgings of box are now neatly cut, and the flower-borders 
are weeded and cleaned, cutting away all the stems of herbaceous plants that 
are past flowering, and filling up every vacancy by plunging in pots of Lobelia 
fulgens, Thunbergia alata, mesembryanthemums, hybrid calceolarias, and 
others, Schizanthus retusus, &c, which have been potted and grown for this 
purpose. Under this system of management, this garden is kept in full 
beauty throughout the summer. The pinks, being now past blooming, except 
four or five kinds that continue in flower till October, I plant out between 
them a quantity of German stocks, which were sown in June and potted for 
this purpose. These soon become strong plants, and flower beautifully, until 
destroyed by frost. The evergreens in the shrubberies are now pruned so 
that each plant may stand separate. Gathering seeds is also attended to 
every fine day. The flower-garden is now more beautiful than in any other 
month of the year. The georginas are in full bloom, consisting of more 
than a hundred varieties. The hollyhocks are also in full flower : some 
are planted in beds in the centre of the garden, others among the shrubs, 
which, towering up over the evergreens, are grand beyond description, some 
of them having attained the height of 17 ft. To grow them to this height, at 
the season for planting I dig a hole for each plant 2 ft. deep, and put in three 
or four shovelfuls of strong stable manure. There are now in flower in 
this garden forty-six double varieties of these beautiful flowers ; thirty-four 
of which I have raised from seed myself within the last four years. The 
principal bloom of roses is now past; yet there is still a good show of 
the perpetual-flowering kinds, such as the yellow Noisette, odorata, flaves- 
cens, semperflorens, Barclayarca, indica alba, purpurea, Fraseriawa, and, that 
most valuable of roses, the crimson perpetual. The following shrubs and 
herbaceous plants are in flower : — Ceanothus aziireus ; Lobelia fulgens, spe- 
ciosa, cardinalis, &c; Jsclepias tuberosa and nivea, JS'ryngium maritimum, 
Kalosanthes coccinea and odoratissima ; Campanula fragilis, />ersicaef61ia 
flore pleno and flore albo pleno, rhomboiuea, zaticsefdlia, Trachelium, lactiflora, 
&c. ; Gentidna asclepikdea, Pneumonanthe, Saponaria, &c ; iilium cana- 
dense, Ipomoe v a coccinea, Spigelia marilandica, Ferbascum phceniceum, Ly- 
simachia -Ephemerum and verticillata, Nolana grandiflora, Grevillea ?-osmarini- 
folia, Gladiolus floribundus flore albo ; (Salvia splendens, involucrata, coccinea, 
fulgens, bicolor, bracteata, chamsedryoides, and wiolacea ; Oenothera mis- 
souriensis, longiflora, and teraxacifolia ; Epilobium Hallen and angustifolium, 
Eutaxia wzyrtifblia; Andromeda pulverulenta, speciosa, and poliifolia; Sapo- 
naria calabrica, Dianthus arbiiscula, .Lychnis coronata, iythrum diffiisum, 
Mesembryanthemum spectabile, &c. &c; Macrotys racemosa, Argemone 
grandifldra, &c. ; Cistus salviaefolius, creticus, &c. ; Helianthemum formosum, 
Clematis florida and flore pleno, Phlomis tuberosa, Physostegia speciosa^ 
Tecoma capensis ; Salpiglossis, many varieties ; Pentstemon speciosus, Richard- 
son?', Digitalis, &c. ; Chelone glabra, Thunbergk alata; Digitalis ambigua, 
lanata, ferruginea, fulva, and purpurea alba ; Fuchsia multifldra, virgata, &c. ; 
Tigridia pavonia and conchiflora, Erodium Gussoni, Amorpha Lewisii; Lupinus 
mutabilis, mutabilis var. CruckshanksiaVzzw, arboreus, perennis, &c; O'robus 
Fischeri, Polygala latifolia, J'pios tuberosa, Coronilla iberica, iathyrus 
grandiflorus and tuberosus, Z)61ichos lignosus, Jnagallis africana and Monelli 
grandiflora, Catananche cserulea and ca3rulea bicolor ; Lidtris spicata, pumila, 

2 1 8 Gardens of the Misses Gamier : — 

sphaeroidea, and intermedia ; Centrocarpha hfrta major, Arctotis grandifldra, 
&c. ; Feratrum nigrum ; and the following kinds of the genus Phlox, — Thomp- 
sons, paniculata, p. alba, and p. grandis, acuminata, odorata, variegata, ma- 
culata, excelsa, triflora, tardiflora, corymbdsa, Wheeleri, reflexa, americana, 
carnea, suaveolens, glaberrima, Listonzana, amoe v na, nitida, elegantissima, &c. 
Some varieties of veronicas, geraniums, monardas, and tradescantias are also 
in bloom. 

September. — I now embrace every opportunity that occurs to collect seeds 
of all the most rare and choice plants. This requires strict attention, and 
takes up a considerable part of my time during this month. The flower- 
borders are again looked over, hoed, and raked, and all decayed flower-stems 
are cut away as they appear. I now also look over the georginas, and cut off 
all overblown flowers, except a few of the most beautiful kinds, which are 
left for seed. Cutting away the decayed flowers not only gives the plants a 
much neater appearance, but causes the succeeding flowers to blow much 
finer than they otherwise would do ; as, if all the seed were left to ripen, the 
blossoms would be thereby deprived of much nourishment. The turf and gravel 
are attended to in every respect as usual. Of all the shrubs which adorn the 
garden at this season, the Jcacia lophantha and A. dealbata are the most beau- 
tiful. These two plants were turned out from the green-house in June, and 
planted on the turf in a mixture of loam and peat, with a third part of manure 
from a decayed hotbed. The A. lophantha was, when planted out, 5 ft. high ; 
and the A. dealbata was 3 ft. high. The former has now attained the height 
of 10ft., and its branches extend 18 ft. in circumference; and the latter has 
attained the height of 8 ft. I shall take both plants up next month, put them 
in large tubs, and place them in the green-house for the winter. 1 doubt not 
that Jcacia dealbata will stand the winter in the open garden, protected by 
furze, when the wood is become more mature. I have little hopes of A. 
lophantha ever surviving the winter in the open garden. They must, how- 
ever, both be left out another season, as they will be too large to be taken up ; 
and the result will form a subject for an article in a future Number of the 
Gardener 's Magazine, if you consider it will be of any service to your numer- 
ous readers. [We shall be happy to receive this article.] The three follow- 
ing are also beautiful plants for setting out on the turf, — JLupinus mutabilis 
var. Cruckshanksidmis, Polygala latifolia, and that superb green-house plant, 
Leonotis Leonurus, which is now standing on the turf 6 ft. high, with twenty- 
four spikes of flowers, which will expand before the end of the month. This, 
as well as the Polygala, will be taken up next month, and placed in the 
green-house during winter. The above, and many other green-house shrubs 
treated in like manner, become very large, and add considerably to the beauty 
of the garden during the summer months. During this month we have in 
flower, besides georginas, hollyhocks, tuberoses, &c, the following shrubs and 
herbaceous plants: — Funkk subcordata, Zephyranthes Candida, Alstrosmeria 
psittacina and Pelegrina, jLeucojum autumnale, Paliurus aculeatus, Lobeha 
Tiipa, coelestis, &c. ; Chirdm'a /inifolia, Fuchsia arborea, Cassia marilandica, 
Andromeda speciosa, Dianthus pungens, O'xalis Bowie?, .Lythrum virgatum, 
Potentllla Hopwood/ama, &c. ; Chelone obliqua and barbata, Ferbena venosa, 
&c. ; Antirrhinum molle, &c. ; Mimulus glutinosus, Erodium multicaule, Cro- 
talaria elegans, Genista canadensis, Z/upinus versicolor, .Lotus jacobse x us, 
Wistana frutescens, Erythrina Zaurifolia, Erythrolae^na conspicua, Humea 
elegans, Tagetes lucida, Echinacea purpurea, Gaillardz'a bicolor and aristata, 
Othonna [?] septemfida, Tradescantia virginica and flore rubro pleno. Several 
varieties of phloxes, liatrises, campanulas, Oenotheras, asters, salvias, delphi- 
niums, pentstemons, German stocks, German and China asters, and a few 
varieties of pinks, still continue to bloom. 

October. — The leaves of elms and many other deciduous trees and shrubs 
are now beginning to fall ; the flower-garden therefore requires to be swept 
over daily, which is done the first thing every morning, as I never suffer a 
barrow or a broom to be seen in the flower-garden later in the day than one 

Floricultural Calendar. 219 

o'clock, if I can avoid it. I now begin to take up the more tender green- 
house plants, and pot them, and place them in their winter quarters, letting 
such kinds as will bear a slight frost remain a little longer. Should there be 
any appearance of frost, I cover at night with worsted netting some of the 
more choice kinds, such as Fuchsia arborea, Polygala latifolia, Zupinus mu- 
tabilis var. Cruckshanksi«?ras, and some others that are still in full bloom. 
By this means I have often kept them uninjured till the end of the month, 
when the fear of losing them by frost prevents my leaving them out any longer. 
Georginas are taken up as soon as they are touched by the frost, laid out in 
the sun to dry, and afterwards packed in boxes, and placed in a dry situation 
secure from frost. The flower-garden is still very gay ; but I now expect 
every day to be the last. The nights hitherto have been favourable, and there 
is now, October 10., a great number of plants in bloom, such as Lobelia lutea, 
Aellidifolia, bicolor, speciosa, unidentata, caerulea, &c. ; Campanula speciosa; 
O'xalis floribunda, Deppei, and Bowiei; Z/ychnis vespertina; Potentilla Rus- 
seWidna, formosa, americana, and Hopwoodiarca ; .Delphinium exaltatum, 
Gavmerdnum, and elegans ; Magnolia grandiflora, Leonotis Leonurus ; Pentste- 
mon pulchellus, venustus, roseus, ovatus, digitalis, Richardsoni, &c. ; Ferbena 
venosa, Lamberti, Aubletk, pulchella, &c. ; ilfimulus glutinosus, Erodium 
Gussoni, Crotalaria elegans, Sutherlandz'a frutescens, Coronilla glauca, Cata- 
nanche bicolor, Arctotis aureola and grandiflora ; tfenecio elegans, red and 
white double-flowered j Linaria triornithophora, alpina, and tristis; Arnopd- 
gon Dalechampii, petunias and nierembergias, Nicotiawa fragrans, all the kinds 
of salvias aforenamed, a few kinds of phloxes, eleven kinds of fuchsia, annual 
Oenotheras and clarkias, China roses and the crimson perpetual. 

November. — The half-hardy and green-house plants being now all taken up 
and removed to their winter quarters, I proceed to cut away the stems of the 
herbaceous plants, &c. ; and the borders receive a good dressing of leaf- 
mould previously to being dug ; which I perform during this month and De- 
cember if the weather permit. I now screen all the half-hardy plants, such as 
Amorpha Lewisii, Azalea indica, cistuses, and fuchsias, that are left to stand 
the winter in the open garden, with furze or baskets of wickerwork, which I 
find answer much better than close coverings, as the plants are not so liable 
to damp off, and mats are easily thrown over at night should the weather be 
very severe. I also cover with coal-ashes or moss the roots of Erythrina 
/aurifolia, Tagetes lucida, Bouvardia triphylla, Watsonia fulgida; O'xalis 
Bowiei, floribunda, and Deppeij Zephyranthes grandiflora, Alstrcemerk psit- 
tacina, &c, to protect them from frost. The turf is now swept over twice a 
week, and mown once during this month, if it be mild open weather. There 
are but few flowers to speak of during this month ; still the garden is not 
without its charms. We have now the large bright red fruit of Crataegus 
Oxyacantha major and Azarolus, the snowy white berries of Symphoria race- 
mosa, and the large glossy green hollies, some almost covered with fruit, and 
others intermixed with a few clusters of Noisette and common China roses, 
which still continue to expand among their branches. All tend to enliven the 
scene at this dreary season. 

December. — Very little is doing in the flower-garden during this month. If 
any borders remain to be dug, they are now finished ; and, to such as are 
planted annually with lobelias, German stocks, verbenas, &c, I give a good 
dressing of strong stable manure, and dig them over two spades deep. By 
thus preparing the beds, the plants root deeper, and produce finer flowers 
than they would do if the ground were not prepared ; and, should the summer 
prove dry, they do not require half the watering they would do if the beds 
were dug only half the above depth. The turf is now mown down close for 
the last time this season. If the weather is open, I always mow the last time 
during this month, as I have proved by experience that the later I mow in 
autumn, the finer the turf always is in the following spring. It may not be 
requisite in all gardens to mow so late as December, but much, of course, 
depends on the mildness of the season and the situation of the garden. The 

220 Gardens of the Misses Gamier. 

garden here lies rather low, and the soil is a strong loam ; consequently the 
grass continues to grow until near Christmas. I now collect a good heap of 
leaves, and mix a considerable portion of fresh-slacked lime with them to 
hasten their decay; and, by turning them over twice or thrice during the 
ensuing summer, they make fine mould for the flower borders the following 
winter. The productions of the flower-garden during this month are less 
numerous than in any other during the year ; yet even now it is not without 
some objects of beauty, or even a few flowers. The Christmas rose (HeWe- 
borus niger) is now beginning to expand ; a few anemones are also still in 
bloom ; and the .Daphne neapolitana, which continues in bloom the whole 
year, is now in great beauty. In fragrance, this plant is not inferior to the 
jasmine or the sweetest rose. Among the evergreens (on which the beauty of 
the garden chiefly depends at this season), the gold, the silver, and the green- 
edged varieties of Plex ^quifolium are objects of great beauty. 

Thus far have I attempted to give a correct account of my 
method of managing the flower-garden during each month in 
the year. There are many more plants than 1 have enumerated 
which flower here during the summer months ; but those named 
deserve a place in every good flower-garden. 

Wickham, near Fareham, Hants, James Moore. 

January 10. 1834. 

This communication must very much avail the young gardener, both in the 
notice of the successive operations needful to the satisfactory management of 
the flower-garden, and also, and not less, in the detailed naming of the genera 
and species of plants which most contribute to its splendour. A few words 
may be added on hardy bulbous plants, whose efficient service in the object of 
decoration seems not much insisted on. No plants are more beautiful at any 
time ; but as several genera of them (Galanthus, Crocus, iVarcissus, Fritillaria, 
Trichonema, SciWa in some of its species, Tulipa, Erythronium, Gagea) dis- 
play their very pretty flowers earlier than the time at which herbaceous plants 
generally are coming into flower, no plants are then so beautiful. Happily, 
no plants, also, are more free of culture and increase. Only two con- 
ditions are, perhaps, imperative with them ; a soil not adhesive, and absolute 
exemption from disturbance while they are in a state of growth. As to soil, 
though freedom from adhesiveness be its essential requisite, it is capable of all 
degrees of farther adaptation to the various species of bulbous plants cul- 
tivated, by regulating its degree of dryness, and increasing its richness and 
friableness by the admixture of manure, leaf-mould, sand, &c, and by appro- 
priating to bulbous plants, in preference, those beds or borders which are at 
once most sheltered, and have the sunniest aspect. That bulbous plants 
should not be disturbed at all while in a growing state, every gardener well 
knows ; and to every one beginning to be a gardener, bulbous plants will soon 
teach the fact. The disturbing of them while growing may be rendered needless 
by marking on a label the kind and colour wanted in any particular spot, 
placing there that label ; and affixing to a clump of the required kind, that in- 
cludes plants enough to spare some, a label stating its kind and partibleness. 
In obedience to the same condition of not disturbing bulbous plants while 
growing, invariably divide and transplant such of them as you wish to part, or 
deem to need it (most bulbous plants will, perhaps, grow three years without 
becoming choked by their own offsets), as soon as ever they have ceased 
growing ; a state which they have reached when their leaves have become 
of a brown colour. Then dig up, part, and replant them forthwith ; and of 
course recollect to occupy the blanks observed and labelled in spring with the 
kinds and colours noted as wanted in them. The bulbs are now, once for all, 

Management of the Vinery. 221 

in their places, ready to follow their natural habit of emitting roots in autumn 
for the acquisition of energies to flower freely and finely in the following 
spring. There is trouble in this mode, and so, unluckily, there is in every 
other ; and by myself the " once for all " mode is preferred, as absolving one 
from the after-care of " I must get in my bulbs " on this, that, and the other 
day (as unexpected occupation may cause you to defer the day), and the 
annoyance of seeing them lie sprouting and shooting, and tacitly chiding you 
for inconsiderately disabling them from flowering so as " to charm all human 
eyes" in the spring succeeding. — J. D. 

Art. X. On the Management of the Vinery. 
By A Young Gardener. 

In order to prevent the fruit from suffering from the effects 
of damp (an evil so often complained of in vineries), the young 
wood should always be kept thin, by taking the tops from the 
shoots, three or four joints above the fruit; and not allowing 
them to ramble through the house, shading the fruit from the 
sun, and preventing the free circulation of air among the bunches 
and berries. For the same reason, the lateral shoots, which 
push from the young wood, should be cut or pinched off at the 
first or second joint, so as not to endanger the bursting of the 
bud on the main shoot. 

It is well known, that every place from which the sun and air 
are partially excluded is sure to be damp : the walls of a house, 
for instance, which are covered with ivy, if it is not in a very 
dry situation, will be found wet and uncomfortable in the inside.* 
When this is considered, it will appear evident, that, upon the 
same principle, the vinery in which the wood is not properly 
thinned must suffer in the same manner, though in a less degree. 
Particular attention should be given to the thinning of the fruit ; 
taking out most berries in the heart of the bunch ; leaving those 
towards the extremities ; and making the whole very thin. 
Those kinds of grapes the bunches of which are of a branchy 
nature, such as the black Hamburgh, the Syrian or white Nice, 
&c, should always be stretched out a little, and tied up with a 

* Ivy, when not fully grown, may be liable to the objections of our corre- 
spondent ; but when it has grown a sufficient time to clothe the face of a wall 
with its foliage, no covering whatever can more completely protect it from 
moisture. Our correspondent's objections apply with their full force to deci- 
duous plants of every kind trained against the walls of houses; and both 
deciduous plants and evergreens afford protection and breeding-places for many 
kinds of insects, slugs, &c. We have known snails and earwigs infest bedrooms 
two and three stories from the ground, in houses, the walls of which were 
covered externally with ivy. For this reason, we would never have any de- 
scription of plant, either deciduous or evergreen, trained on a cottage close to 
the windows. On walls wholly without windows, or architectural ornaments 
of any kind, ivy will form a valuable protection from rain, and also a non- 
conductor of heat, either from without or within. — Cond. 

222 Cultivation of the Peach Tree. 

small piece of matting, that they may have room to swell, and 
be kept from crowding each other. This is not only a means of 
preserving the bunches from damp, but also of having better- 
swelled and finer-flavoured berries. It is a common practice 
with those who have fruit in their vineries, when the season is far 
advanced, to keep up the temperature of the house, throughout 
the night, with artificial heat, and to let their fires go nearly out 
when the morning dawns. [See p. 18.] I do not, however, 
approve altogether of this plan. Let any person go into a vinery 
in the morning, before it is aired, and when the sun is shining 
upon it, he will feel the atmosphere moist ; and, on examining 
the fruit, will perceive that it is covered with dew. Now, if this 
moisture be allowed to remain for any length of time, it certainly 
must prove injurious ; and to remedy the evil seems to be an 
object worth attention. 

A very small degree of artificial heat will be found sufficient 
throughout the night; but, as soon as the sun arises in the 
morning, and shines upon the house, by increasing the temper- 
ature, and giving a sufficient quantity of air, the moisture will 
be expelled, and the atmosphere of the house will become dry. 
It may not be unnecessary to remark, that the fruit should be 
often examined ; and, if there are any of the berries on which the 
damp has taken effect, they should be carefully picked off; as, 
if they are suffered to remain, the damp will soon spread over 
the whole bunch. 

Mid-Lothian, Sept. 18. 1833. A Young Gardener. 

Art. XI. Notes on the Cultivation of the Peach Tree. 
By Mr. James Hart. 

The garden of Sir F. N. Burton, of Burcraggy, county of 
Clare, lies on a limestone rock, varying from 2 ft. to within a 
few inches of the surface : the soil is a pure black loam, probably 
of the same chemical qualities as the yellow; it has the same 
unctuous feel. The peach trees growing some years ago in this 
soil and garden could not be surpassed for health, and they bore 
the most abundant crops of the finest fruit that could be possibly 
produced. I dare say the crop of 1813 is still remembered in 
some parts of the county of Clare. Neither mildew nor fly was 
to be seen on these trees, nor any disease whatever. I had them 
covered one spring with bast mats ; but the last spring that I 
was there they were not covered at all, yet neither did the trees 
suffer in the smallest degree from the severity of the weather, 
nor did the crop of fruit which followed show that any injury 
had been sustained. One might fancy that these trees enjoyed 
the privilege of growing among the rocks ; they had the appear- 

Cultivation of the Peach Tree. 223 

ance of being quite happy. As the garden was small, I had to 
crop the borders : the crops were winter spinach, early peas, 
and turnips, and these allowed the borders to be clear during the 
summer, when I had them mulched about 3 in. thick, with rotten 
dung from the old hotbeds. The peach tree cannot endure 
dung that has any strength in it to be dug in among its roots, 
although it bears the moisture from the dung when filtered 
through the earth to its roots very well. To the peach tree, 
strong dung in among the roots is almost instant death ; and 
is at least sure to bring on the mildew, and that so abundantly, 
as totally to prevent the recovery of the tree. 

The above facts suggested to me, that, in making borders for 
peach trees, when the soil is not naturally suitable, and has to 
be excavated and carried off, and a loam substituted for it, it 
will be well to have a part of the excavated border, say to the 
depth of 3 ft., filled up with large pieces of rock, or lumps of 
stones, reaching from the bottom to within a few inches of the 
surface. This provision would prevent the roots from lying in 
superabundant moisture, and at the same time keep them out of 
harm's way, and the hazard of being cut with the spade in stirring 
the ground. The heat of the stones, and the moisture collected 
about them, would attract the fibrous parts of the roots into con- 
tiguity with the stones, and so prevent them from foraging about 
the surface of* the soil in quest of heat and moisture. The cutting 
of the roots in digging the borders is injurious to the trees in 
the highest degree ; for trees that are so treated, although they 
grow vigorously through the summer, are still unhealthy, and 
become the victims of mildew and fly in the peach tree ; fly and 
caterpillar in the plum tree; and caterpillar in the gooseberry 
bush. The soil and climate are the chief essentials for the health 
of all plants, and eminently so for that of the peach tree, which, 
in regard to the soil eligible to it, cannot be kept in health unless 
in a strong sound loam : no mixtures of soil suit it. The plum 
tree, the gooseberry bush, and the currant bush, do very well on 
any soil, provided you do not cut the roots of either in digging, 
not even by digging dung in among them. Mulch the plum tree 
with rotten dung, and, when required, loosen the earth with a 
fork; dung the gooseberry bush and currant bush, and cover 
the dung applied with earth, as I have mentioned in a former 
note on these two. (VIII. 694>.) The ground must be kept rich 
about these three, and no curtailment of their roots allowed ; 
if they be not preserved in this condition, but left to poverty, 
and exposed to a lessening of their roots, they will soon be 
attacked with disease, and be rendered a prey to the caterpillar, 
the fly, or the mildew. 

Gardeners have lone: known which is the kind of soil most 
conducive to the health and welfare of the peach tree. As early 

224 Laying out and Planting of Fruit-Gardens. 

as 1809, I had a considerable quantity of border made of a yel- 
low loam for peach trees, for W. S. Poyntz, Esq., of Cowdray 
Lodge, Sussex. I think it was rather light, but it was the best 
to be had. In general it has been, not the want of a knowledge 
of the fittest soil for the peach tree, but the want of knowledge 
of the after-management, that has caused it frequently to make 
such a pitiful figure. 

The whole of these remarks relate to the nectarine tree equally 
with the peach tree. James Hart. 

Drumcondra, Dublin, Sept. 21. 1833. 

Art. XII. On the Laying out and Planting of Fruit-Gardens. By 
Mr. John Jennings, of the Shipton upon Stour Nursery. 

I wish to direct your attention to the laying out of fruit- 
gardens. What are termed kitchen-gardens are, in point of 
fact, fruit, flower, and culinary vegetable gardens, presenting to 

a, Pond of water for the use of the garden. b, Walks. c, Entrance at the sunk fence. 

d, Borders for wall-fruit trees. e, Strawberry zone. /, Raspberry zone. g, Currant zone. 
A,Gooseberry zone. i, Cherry zone. k, Plum zone. /, Pear zone. m m, Apple zone. 

Culture ofCereus speciosissimus. 225 

the eye an incongruous mass, and ill adapted to the vigorous 
growth of any article that they contain. It is my wish to see 
one garden exclusively appropriated to the growth of fruit, and 
another to that of culinary vegetables. Let each be kept dis- 
tinct : the flower-garden should be void of fruits and culinary 
vegetables ; the kitchen-garden of fruits and flowers ; and the 
fruit-garden of culinary vegetables and flowers. Impressed with 
this idea, I have sent the accompanying sketch {Jig. 22.) of a 
garden for fruit only; and I think that this or some other 
similar plan ought to be generally adopted. If some such plan 
were adopted, it would at once strike at the root of the per- 
nicious practice of digging and cropping among fruit trees; the 
injurious effects of which have been so often pointed out in this 
Magazine that they require no farther comment from me. I 
would recommend the zones to be planted as described in the 
figure ; taking care to keep the different sorts in their proper 
places, because, by so doing, the fruits, that are generally 
ravaged by birds, &c, might be easily protected from them by 
covering the whole centre with netting, in the manner the cherry 
garden is covered at Hylands. (III. 596.) 

The wall is an octagon, with a border for trees on each side ; 
and a sunk fence, with a hedge of common holly and hawthorn, 
surrounds the whole; thus making an impenetrable fence, and 
facilitating the draining of the garden, should it be found 
necessary. John Jennings. 

Day's Nursery, Shipton upon Stoar, Feb. 26. 1834. 

Art. XIII. Short Communication. 

THE Cereus speciosissimus at Woodhall gardens, in Renfrew- 
shire, attains an extraordinary size and beauty. The late excel- 
lent Mr. Henderson, gardener there, used soil composed of two 
parts of rich loam, three of decomposed manure, and one consist- 
ing of equal quantities of peat, sand, and broken tiles. The plant 
is placed in a large pot, and trained to the back trellis of a pine 
stove ; where, in July, 1833, when I saw it, it occupied a surface 
of 84 square feet, and had 300 flowers all open at the same time. 
Mr. Denholm, the present gardener, gives this and other species 
of the Cactus family a more ample supply of water than is 
usually done, while they are maturing their flower-buds; and to 
this he attributes, in a great measure, the vigour of the bloom. 
In winter, when the plant is in a state of rest, little or no water 
is given. — Juvenis. Glasgow, March 7. 1834. 

Vol. X — No, 50. 



Art. I. Transactions of 'the Horticultural Society of London. Second Series. 
Vol. I. Part III. 4to. London, Hatchard. 

28. Journal of Meteorological Observations for 1829. By Mr. W. B. Booth, A.L, S. 

Twenty-six pages of figures, and a plate of diagrams. 

29. Description of various Modes of heating by Steam for Horticultural Purposes. 
By Mr. Henry Stothert, Civil Engineer, Bath. Read Feb. 21. 1832. 

One of the most economical modes of applying steam to the heating of 
hot-houses is, to apply it to a bed or mass of loose stones. This mode 
appears to have been first adopted by Mr. Hay of Edinburgh, in 1807 (V. 443., 
and VIII. 330.) ; and has been subsequently applied, by the same eminent 
garden architect, to a number of pine and melon pits in different parts of 
Scotland. It has also been adopted in England, and on a very extensive 
scale, in connection with heating pipes and cisterns of water, at the nursery 
of Miller and Co. at Bristol. Nothing can be more simple than this mode of 
applying steam. The bed of stones to be heated may be about the usual 
thickness of a bed of tan or dung ; the stones may be from 3 in. to 6 in. in. 
diameter, hard round pebbles being preferred, as less liable to crumble by 
moisture, and having larger vacuities between. The pipe for the steam is 
introduced at one end of the bottom of this bed, and is continued to the 
opposite end. It is uniformly pierced with holes along the two sides, so as 
to admit of the equal distribution of the steam through the mass of stones. 
The steam-pipe may be of any dimension, it being found that the only differ- 
ence between a large pipe and a small one is, that the steam proceeds from 
the latter with greater rapidity. The steam only requires to be introduced 
once in twenty-four hours in the most severe weather; and, in mild weather, 
once in two or three days is found sufficient. After the steam is turned on, 
it is kept in that state till it has ceased to condense among the stones, and, 
consequently, has heated them to its own temperature. This is known by 
the steam escaping, either through the soil over the stones, or through the 
sides of the pit ; or, when a mass of stones is enclosed in a case of masonry, 
as in the stone flues of the Bristol Nursery, the point of saturation is known 
by the safety-valve of the boiler being raised. When we consider the small- 
sized pipes that may be used for conveying and delivering steam by this mode 
of its application, there can be no doubt that it is the cheapest mode of heat- 
ing on a large scale known ; and when we revert to the circumstance of its 
never requiring to be applied oftener than once in the twenty-four hours, and 
reflect that this renders all night-work unnecessary, the superiority of the plan 
does not admit of a doubt. In VIII. 330., there is a copious account, illus- 
trated by engravings, of the application of this mode of heating to certain pine 
and melon pits in Scotland, taken from the Memoirs of the Caledonian Horti- 
cultural Society ; but the description is so encumbered with words, and the 
engravings with letters, that the simplicity of the plan is rendered, at first sight, 
23 so intricate by them,as,no doubt, 

to deter many from adopting it. 
Those, however, who wish to 
know all that has been said on 
the subject, will revert to that 
article, as well as peruse the 
present one. Stothert's appli- 
cation of steam to beds of stones 
may be thus abridged : — 

For heating Pine Pits. — Figs. 
23. and 24. represent a mode of 

Transactions of the London Horticultural Society. 227 

obtaining bottom heat by means of " a cistern of water heated by small steam- 
pipes, which are introduced near the bottom, leaving only sufficient drainage 
to take away the condensed water. The depth of water in the cistern is about 
1 ft. ; which is warmed, generally about twice a day, by means of two one-inch 
steam-pipes, each going to the farther end of the cistern, and returning again 
in the opposite direction, as shown in^g. 23.: by this means the heat is very 

easily distributed. At each end 
of the cistern, a small passage 
(a) is left, for the purpose of 
ascertaining the temperature of 
the water ; and this passage will, 
if left open, admit considerable 
humidity to the house or pit. 
Across the cistern are laid joists, which support a paving of stone or brick, 
laid without mortar, on which is placed a bed of broken stones or bricks^ 
about 1 ft. in thickness, which, towards the top, are about the size commonly 
used for macadamising the public roads : this is again covered with a bed of 
ashes, in which the pots are placed, as in the usual way." 

For Bulbs and Cacti, " a 
paved water-tight bottom may 
be built on stones, or any suit- 
able support, with a declivity of 
1 in. in 10 ft., to any convenient 
point for the purpose of drain- 
age, as shown in Jigs. 25. and 
26. Channels are formed about 
3 in. deep, and the same width, 
crossing each other, as shown 
in fig. 26. ; which also repre- 
sents two small steam-pipes, 
each three quarters of an inch 
in diameter, closed at the far- 
ther end, and having perfor- 
ations about one tenth of an 
inch in diameter opposite each 
other, and in the middle of the 
channels. The result is, that, when steam is admitted into the pipes, it is 
discharged in opposite directions, through the orifices, filling the whole space 
of the channels with hot vapour j the channels being covered with brick or 
stone, jointed without mortar, as shown in Jig. 26. The vapour which per- 
colates between the joists is arrested by a bed of stones or broken bricks, 
similar to those used in Jig. 24., and about 14 in. in depth above the paved bot- 
tom : on this, again, is placed a bed of sand, about 1 ft. deep, in which the 
pots are plunged to any suitable depth. The vapour is so completely arrested 
by the strata of stones and sand beneath the pots, as to communicate a heat 
congenial to the health of the plants, without the least excess of moisture." 

For Melon Pits, a hollow chamber is formed over the bed of stones that 
cover the steam-pipes, as in the plan for pines. (Jigs. 23. and 24.) " Imme- 
diately over the bed of stones are laid joists, supporting a paved bottom, 
jointed without mortar, on which is placed another bed of stones, &c, about 
8 in. thick ; and on this is placed the mould containing the plants. The 
objects of these arrangements are, first, to obtain a perfect uniformity of tem- 
perature ; and, secondly, to prevent the possibility of" any of the roots receiving 
injury from heat, should they accidentally strike through the mould into the 
bed of stones ; both of which objects are perfectly attained. Figs. 27. and 
28. represent an elevation and plan of a melon pit erected for W.W. Salmon, 
Esq., at Devizes, showing also the mode of heating the atmosphere of the 
pit by flues of loose stones heated by steam-pipes. The arrangement of 
these pipes, and the paved bottom channels for vapour, &c, are precisely the 

Q 2 

228 Transactions of the London Horticultural Society. 

same as above de- 
scribed ; but, in lieu 
of the bed of broken 
stones, &c, bricks 
are here placed edge- 
wise, one over the 
other, four deep, ar- 
ranged in the same 
manner as for burn- 
ing in a kiln : over 
these bricks is laid 
a flat cover, jointed 
close without mor- 
tar; and, on this, 
the mould contain- 
ing the plants." 

For Aquatic Plants. 
— Fig. 29. " shows 
a mode of warming a 
cistern or reservoir 
of water for the preservation of aquatic plants, as erected at Mr. Miller's 
nursery at Clifton, in front of one of the green-houses, and having a glass 
29 roof. Steam is ad- 

mitted by a pipe, 
three quarters of an 
inch in diameter, 
having perforations 
of about one tenth 
of an inch at each foot in length ; the extremity of the pipe being closed, the 
steam issues through the small apertures, filling the whole internal area of the 
large pipe in which it is enclosed, and imparting an equable temperature to the 
whole extent of surface. This effect cannot be obtained by applying steam 
in the common way, when but a small increase of temperature is required ; 
as the water immediately in contact with the pipe where the steam is admitted 
would absorb nearly the whole of its heat, till it arrived at a temperature far 
beyond what could be allowed in a case of this kind. The dimensions of the 
reservoir alluded to are about 3ft. by 3 ft. 6 in., and 20 ft. long. The external 
pipe is 4- in. inside in diameter ; and the condensed water from it is taken away 
by a small inverted siphon at the farther end." 

Heating the Atmosphere of Conservatories, Hot-houses, §c. — Figs, 30, 31-, 
and 32. "represent a mode of heating water in pipes by the agency of steam. 


Transactions of the London Horticultural Society. 229 

32 It is well known, that, by the common hot- 

yW^M ii^^^ WiMW^M water apparatus, the heating of an extensive 
and unconnected establishment of houses by 
one fire is impracticable in most cases ; but, 
in the mode here represented, the extent of 
application is in a manner unlimited, whatever 
be the number or situation of the houses 
requiring heat. It likewise combines all the 
advantages of steam, as a conductor of heat, 
with that of a bulk of water as a retainer. 
The first adoption of this mode was in a 
forcing-house, belonging to Mr. Sturge, near 
Bath. The water-pipes were 8 in. in diameter, 
and about 28 ft. long. The steam-pipe, of 1 in. 
in diameter, entering at the centre of one end, 
and proceeding in rather an inclined direction to the other, is then returned, 
still inclining, and passed out at the bottom of the bore immediately under the 
place where it entered : it is then formed into a siphon (b) about 3 ft. deep, 
whence the condensed water is conveyed away. A smaller pipe is also con- 
nected with the top of the large one, to receive the increase of water by 
expansion when heated ; which, as the large pipe cools, returns into it again. 
Fig. 32. shows the arrangement of the front pipes under the floor. The air 
being admitted from the air-chamber underneath, through an opening extend- 
ing the whole length of the pipes, and passing through the upper chamber on 
each side of the pipes, is discharged through the grating into the house. The 
arrangement of the back pipes is similar. Shallow cisterns are connected 
with the upper part of the pipes, about 18 ft. from each other, by means of 
hollow screws, which admit the water to pass to and fro reciprocally ; the 
capacity of the cistern is more than sufficient to receive the increased bulk of 
the water, which expands when heated, and returns again into the pipes as 
the water cools. The external diameter of the front pipes, in this instance, 
is 13 in. ; and of the back pipes, lOjin. : each set of pipes is divided in the 
middle of their length, except that the nearest division of the front pipes 
returns about half-way round, the end being in length rather more than 60 ft. 
These water-pipes have 1J in. steam-pipes j extending in them their whole 
length, and returning again, preserving a regular inclination throughout. The 
back pipes have steam-pipes, of 1 in. in diameter, passing through them in 
a similar way ; and the feeding-pipes are so arranged, that either division of 
the pipes may be heated separately, or in conjunction with the rest. Another 
advantage attending this mode of applying heat is, that, as no returning pipes 
are necessary, as in the common hot-water apparatus, the bulk of water is 
doubled, with the same extent of heating surface ; and the retaining power of 
the apparatus is doubled accordingly. The cisterns are farther serviceable for 
regulating the humidity of the house, which can be done with the greatest 
accuracy by attending to the covers." 

Mode of heating the Atmosphere of Conservatories, Hot-houses, fyc, by Steam 
discharged into Cases of Masonry or Brickwork. — Figs. 33. and 34. " represent 
a mode of heating, by introducing steam into cases of stone or brick- 
work, filled with rubble-stones, or pieces of broken brick. This mode 
is equally applicable to the largest and smallest establishments. The 
agent being steam, it possesses the same facility of application as 
steam applied to hot-water pipes, and, consequently, the same ad- 
vantages ; and may be adopted in conjunction with hot-water pipes 
or not, as it may be thought desirable. Fig. 33. represents a cross 
section of a case of masonry or brickwork, suitable for a green- 
house of 14 ft. wide, with glazed roof, and 2 ft. 6 in. of glass in front. 
Fig. 34. shows a view of the same, with part of the front taken away at each 
enjd to show the inside. The steam-pipes are placed about 4 in. above the 
bottom, and have perforations of about one tenth of an inch in diameter ; 

Q 3 

230 Paxton's Magazine of Botany, 

which vary from 15 in. to 18 in. asunder throughout their whole length, but 
become more frequent at the farther end, which is closed. The general 
direction of the holes is upwards, except some few in the bottom, to keep the 
pipe clear of condensed water. The case being built inclining towards the 
most convenient spot for draining, the condensed water is taken away by 

a small siphon, about 3 in. or 4 in. deep, as shown in fig. 34. A steam-pipe 
of 1 in. diameter is sufficient for a case of 50 ft. in length ; and, if proper 
attention be paid to the dimensions and distance of the holes, which, in this 
instance, need not be above one sixth closer at the farther end than at the com- 
mencement, the temperature at one end of the case will scarcely differ perceptibly 
from that at the other ; an effect utterly unattainable in the best constructed 
fire-flue, which, in appearance, it so much resembles. There is, however, no 
particular proportion of the height to the breadth ; that depending entirely on 
convenience. Where freestone cases are used, it is found necessarj' that 
they should receive two or three coats of linseed oil, to prevent the escape 
of steam through them. It is better to give moisture to the house by steam- 
cocks fixed at the top of the cases, as shown in fig, 34. \ humidity can then be 
regulated at pleasure." 

Art. II. 1. Paxton's Magazine of Botany and Register of Flowering Plants. 
By Joseph Paxton, F.L.S. H.S., Editor of the Horticultural Register, &c. 
Nos. I., II., and III., for February, March, and April, 1834. Small 4to„ 
2s. each. 

2. Maund's Botanic Garden. In monthly Numbers. Small 4to. Is. each. 

3. Harrison's Floricidtural Cabinet. In monthly Numbers. 8vo. 6d. each. 

4. Harrison's Gardener s and Forester's Record. In monthly Numbers. 8vo. 
6d. each. 

5. Paxton's Horticultural Register. In monthly Numbers. 8vo. Is. each. 

In the introduction to Paxton's Magazine of Botany, we are informed that 
the high price of some botanical periodicals " places them beyond the reach of 
most flower cultivators : while the cheap periodicals, although unobjection- 
able in respect to price, are manifestly defective in other points of greater 
importance ; the plates they contain bearing but little resemblance to the plants 
they are intended to represent. To obviate these objections, each number of 
the Magazine of Botany will contain four engravings of plants, of the natural 
size, beautifully coloured from original drawings," &c. (p. 2.) The work 
may, therefore, be considered as something intermediate between the Botanical 
Register, monthly, at 4s., and the Floricultural Cabinet, monthly, at Qd. It 
has no pretensions to being an original botanical work; and, therefore, it 
may fairly be compared with Maund's Botanic Garden, and the Floricultural 
Cabinet. In estimating its value relatively to these works, the first observ- 
ation which we shall make is, that figures, " beautifully coloured," of plants 
already in the nurseries and gardens, are of no value whatever to the practical 
gardener, beyond that of being ornaments in the line of his profession. What 
reading gardener, for example, who could afford to expend in books 2s. 
monthly, would give that sum for a work, the principal recommendation of which 
is, that it consists of finely coloured engravings of such plants as Ribes san- 
guineum, Schizanthus retusus, Petunia violacea, and Streptanthera cuprea 
(the four plants figured in Paxton's No, i.), all of which have been in the 

Mannd's Botanic Garden, fyc. 23 1 

nurseries for several years ? The same may be said of the figures of plants 
in Maund's Botanic Garden, and in Harrison's Floricultural Cabinet. All 
three works we consider to be out of the question with reference to the 
reading gardener, as far as it respects their figures. We shall next compare 
them as to their letterpress, meaning that part of it which treats of culture 
and management. Here we find that Maund's work is exceedingly^ meagre, 
as compared with either Paxton's or Harrison's. The two latter, in point 
of the quantity and quality of the practical information which they contain, 
appear to us to be as nearly as possible on a par ; and, therefore, considering 
that the price of the one is 2s., and of the other only 6c?., we need not say 
which we think best suited for the practical cultivator of flowers. Harrison's 
Cabinet, indeed, we consider to be one of the most useful of the floricultural 
periodicals of the day, as it is also, we believe, by far the most extensively 
circulated; and though its coloured figures, which vary from one to six in 
each number, are inferior both to Mr. Maund's and to Mr. Paxton's in exe- 
cution, yet they are sufficiently accurate to give a tolerably good idea of what 
they are meant to represent. Compared with the figures in Mr. Maund's 
work, we greatly prefer those in the Floricultural Cabinet, as approximating 
nearer to the natural size ; for, in the Botanic Garden, they are so reduced, 
and the large, as well as small, confined to so diminutive a square, that a 
general observer can scarcely obtain a really useful impression on his mind, of 
the natural appearance of the plant. Notwithstanding this, however, Mr. 
Maund's publication has done a great deal of good ; but Harrison's Cabinet, 
as may be expected from the lowness of its price, and the great quantity of 
excellent practical matter which it contains, will penetrate much farther into 
the mass of society. 

To return to Paxton's Magazine: on looking over the three numbers before 
us, we find them distinguished by the same characteristics as the Horticultural 
Register. There is, however, less general carelessness with regard to language, 
but there are more plagiarisms ; though not quite so many quotations from the 
Gardener's Magazine. As plagiarisms from that work, we refer to some or 
all of the woodcuts in pages 12. 23, 24. 36. and Yl., which are either fac- 
similes of cuts that first appeared in the Gardener's Magazine, or very trifling 
variations from them, taken without the slightest acknowledgment. With 
respect to plagiarisms in the Horticultural Register, we shall only refer to the 
article signed Peter Mackenzie (vol. ii. p. 512.), and to the Notes on Mildew, 
in the same volume (p. 327. and 328.), the latter with cuts ; because, having 
spoken to Mr. Paxton on the subject, he promised to discontinue these plagia- 
risms, and we believe he has done so. The quotations, however, from our work 
are as numerous as ever ; there being, in the Horticultural Register for April 
last, no fewer than five articles from the preceding number of the Gardener's 
Magazine, and these too inserted under the head of Original Communi- 
cations ! ! ! Two of these articles have engravings, one of which was taken from 
a drawing made, at some expense, from a tin model sent to us ; while Mr. 
Paxton had nothing more to do than to tell his wood engraver to copy it from 
our woodcut ; the expense to him thus being not a tenth part of what it was 
to us. This is not only ungenerous in Mr. Paxton towards us, hut unjust 
towards the public ; for it is deceiving the public, to call that original which 
has already appeared in another work. We cordially approve of cheap 
publications, and of cheap Gardener's Magazines among the rest; but this 
cheapness should be produced by fair competition, otherwise it will soon 
cease either to benefit the public, or to act as a stimulus on the competing 
parties. It is perfectly allowable to quote from a magazine into a larger per- 
manent publication, and the contrary. It is even fair to quote from a maga- 
zine that has been several months before the public, into another magazine ; 
or to quote from a magazine treating on one subject, into a magazine which 
treats on another subject : but the sense of justice, implanted by civilisation 
in the human breast, must tell every man that it never can be fair, in the 
editor of one magazine, to fill his pages from another magazine of the same 

q 4- 

232 Works on Gardening, Agriculture, fyc. 

kind, which has just appeared. Every one who knows any thing about getting 
up a magazine, knows that to receive a MS. communication and an original 
sketch or perhaps model, or to have liberty to inspect the original and make 
a drawing from it, having afterwards to prepare these for the printer or the 
engraver, is a very different thing from printing or engraving from articles 
already engraved or printed. We may safely state that, on an average, the 
expense is treble in one case what it is in the other. Now, supposing it were 
lawful to copy the greater part of one magazine, just after its appearance, 
into another magazine sold at the same price ; it is evident that, while the 
magazine containing original matter was losing, the other which copied from 
it would be making a handsome profit. The losing magazine would have no 
alternative, but either to give up appearing, or to adopt the practice of the 
other, and to take its articles ready prepared from some other published work. 
Both magazines, in consequence of this, would be rendered almost worthless 
to the public. This is an extreme case, put hypothetically, to show what 
unfair competition is, and what would be its consequences to individuals and 
the public. 

A good deal of borrowing, and some plagiarism, were carried on for some 
time by Mr. Harrison. The article on the pronunciation of botanic names, 
in No. i. of the Floricultural Cabinet, was taken verbatim from us, without the 
slightest acknowledgment ; and one number of the Gardener's Record, we forget 
which, was almost entirely made up from the Gardener's Magazine. Having 
written at that time to Mr. Harrison, he has since been more moderate, and 
we hope he will continue to be so. 

We may observe here, that numerous articles are taken verbatim, both by 
Paxton and Harrison, from the Gardener's Magazine, which we had translated 
for that work, from the French, German, or Italian, and the name of the ori- 
ginal work is given as the sole authority. This is a most disingenuous mode, 
altogether unworthy of that straightforward conduct which alone can per- 
manently insure public confidence. Much as we deprecate this practice, we 
do not consider it nearly so bad as that which Mr. Maund commenced some 
months ago, noticed IX. 457. The amount of injury which would be done 
by Mr. Maund to us, or to any other person from whom he might choose to 
quote in the manner described in the page referred to, might possibly not be 
very great; but a more disingenuous mode of quoting, or one more repug- 
nant to our feelings, we have not met with since we commenced our literary 

Though we have travelled far from Paxtori 's Magazine of Botany, we return 
to it to say, that we think it will be very useful to the manufacturers of 
articles which are decorated with figures of plants ; such as cotton-printers, 
porcelain manufacturers, paper-hanging manufacturers, &c. To botanists it 
is of no use ; as the plants are neither new, nor described with scientific 
accuracy. Gardeners who wish to become acquainted with the newest plants, 
and the proper method of describing them botanically, will consult the Bo- 
tanical Register, the Botanical Magazine, or Sweet's British Flower-Garden ; 
and for the gardener who does not pretend to much botanical knowledge, the 
amateur in moderate circumstances, and the floricultural operative, there is 
the Floricultural Cabinet. 

Art. III. Catalogue of Works on Gardening, Agriculture, Botany, Rural Archi- 
tecture, fyc, lately published, with some Account of those considered the most 

THE Journal of Botany, being a second Series of the Botanical Miscellany : con- 
taining figures and descriptions of such plants as recommend themselves by 
their novelty, rarity, or history, or by the uses to which they are applied in 
the arts, in medicine, and in domestic economy ; together with occasional 

General Notices. 233 

botanical notices and information. By Wm. Jackson Hooker, LL.D, F.R. 

A. & L.S. &c. Parts I. and II. 8vo. London, 1834. 

We are glad to see a new series of this work commenced at a reduced 
price. To botanists in every part of the world, it will be alike interesting 5 
and even the mere horticulturist, and the general reader, will occasionally find 
scraps " in the arts, in medicine, and in domestic economy," which will interest 
him. For example, it is stated that the inferiority of the dried figs of Madeira 
is owing to the radiation of heat from the figs while drying ; in consequence of 
which, instead of their becoming properly dry, moisture is deposited on them 
from the warm circumambient atmosphere, (p. 32.) In Dalmatia, a botanist, 
without stirring from the spot where he was sitting, could at once collect 
twenty-one different species of plants, of which only two are to be found in 
Germany, (p. 79.) Observations on some of the classical plants of Sicily, 
by John Hogg, M.A. F.L.S. &c. (p. 98.) contain many curious notices, in 
addition to those, by the same writer, which will be found in our Mag. Nat. 
Hist., vol. iii. p. 105. But we refer the reader to the work itself. 

The Practical Irrigator or Drainer. By George Stephens, Land- Drainer, Irri- 
gator, &c. A new edition. 8vo. London, 1834. 

Having before given some account of this work (V. 317.), and characterised 
it as " plain and practical," we have only now to state that this new edition 
has received considerable additions and improvements, and that we think 
the work, taken altogether, is the best extant on the subjects upon which 
it treats. 

An Address to the Owners and Occupiers of Land in Great Britain and Ireland, 
on the important Discovery of the Decomposition of common Salt, for the Pur- 
poses of Manure ; whereby an Acre of Land is prepared for the Reception of 
any Crop, at a Cost of Ten Shillings only. By Henry Kemp. Pamph. 8vo. 
London, 1834. 

The substance of this pamphlet of 72 pages is, that soda, sown on poor 
land, at the rate of 10*. worth per acre, will add a third part to the agricultural 
produce ; that the author has discovered a cheap mode of liberating soda from 
common sea salt : but that, before he discovers this to the public, he must 
either have a reward from parliament, or a handsome subscription. If he 
cannot get either, perhaps he will try Mr. Sutton's mode of publishing, (p. 154.) 

The Calendar of Nature ; or Natural History of the Year. With twelve designs, 
by George Cattermole. 12mo. London, 1834. 

This is a reprint of a work, by the late Dr. Aikin, with additions to the 
letterpress, and a series of most beautiful wood engravings. It is well cal- 
culated for giving young persons a taste for natural history, and for reminding 
all, in a few words, of the characteristics of each month. We can therefore 
strongly recommend it to them who either love the country, or who wish to 
infuse a taste for its peaceful occupations and harmless enjoyments into their 


Art. I. General Notices. 

A Statistical Society, that is, a society for collecting and arranging facts 
of every kind, as well agricultural as topographical, moral, political, &c, 
was formed in London, on March 14th. It may be considered as a branch 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Knowledge ; and, what that 
association is likely to effect for science, this is intended to do for the social 
condition of mankind. A Statistical Society was founded three or four years 

234 Foreign Notices: — North America. 

ago in Paris, and similar societies are now forming in other countries. This 
disposition of mankind to associate together for common objects, will lead, at 
no distant period (viz., at the time when representative governments shall have 
become general), to European, American, and Cosmopolitan Societies, com- 
posed of members of all the governments of Europe, America, or the world, 
meeting together to devise plans for the good of all mankind. Among these 
will be, universal education, a universal system of weights, measures, and 
moneys, one common language, one common law, and universal freedom of 
commerce. As to the question of peace or war, there will be very little 
danger of the latter, when it is not the interest of any particular class of men 
to make it. — Cond. 

To poison Moles. — Collect earthworms, kill them, and mix them with the 
powder of nux vomica. After the mixture has remained in a heap twenty- 
four hours, strew a few of the worms in the holes and paths of the moles. 
(Bulletin Universel.^) 

Art. II. Foreign Notices. 


The Magnificence and Splendour of the Forests of North America are peculiar 
to that division of the world. " In Europe, in Asia, in Africa, and even in 
South America, the primeval trees, how much soever their magnitude may 
arrest admiration, do not grow in the promiscuous style that prevails in the 
great general character of the North American woods. Many varieties of the 
pine, intermingled with birch, maple, beech, oak, and numerous other tribes, 
branch luxuriantly over the banks of lakes and rivers, extend in stately gran- 
deur along the plains, and stretch proudly up to the very summits of the moun- 
tains. It is impossible to exaggerate the autumnal beauty of these forests ; 
nothing under heaven can be compared to its effulgent grandeur. Two or 
three frosty nights, in the decline of autumn, transform the boundless verdure 
of a whole empire into every possible tint of brilliant scarlet, rich violet, every 
shade of blue and brown, vivid crimson, and glittering yellow. The stern in- 
exorable fir tribes alone maintain their eternal sombre green. All others, in 
mountains or in valleys, burst into the most glorious vegetable beauty, and 
exhibit the most splendid and most enchanting panorama on earth." (M'Gre- 
gor's British America, 1831.) 

To render the woods of Europe in some degree like those of America, we 
have only to plant American trees. All of those which produce the brilliant 
colours spoken of by Mr. M'Gregor, are as hardy as the native trees of Britain. 
They are chiefly oaks, acers, birches, liquidambars, pines, &c, of different sorts, 
all of which may be purchased, in plants of three and four years' growth, in 
our principal nurseries ,• or, in the state of seeds, from those seedsmen, such 
as Mr. Charlwood, who import American seeds on a large scale. 

Art. III. Domestic Notices. 

KENSINGTON Gardens. — The woods in these gardens, which we have before 
described as thin with excessive thickness, have undergone a second weeding 
in the course of last winter ; and they will bear several more thinnings in 
succeeding years, till the trees have sufficient room to admit of their putting 
out lateral branches, and thus preventing the masses from being seen through. 
It is also said to be the intention of government to take down the boundary 
wall of the south side of the garden, and substitute an open iron railing. If 
this be done on the south side, where there are no houses along the park 
road, it is to be hoped that it will also be done on the Bayswater side. There, 
besides the great improvement which it would be to the entrance to London by 
Oxford Street, it would abate a great public nuisance : the numerous angles 

Domestic Notices: — England. 235 

formed by the crooked line of the wall, and the numerous buttresses raised 
from time to time to keep it from falling, forming receptacles for every de- 
scription of filth. The inhabitants of Bayswater petitioned for the removal 
of this wall some years ago, and they were answered by putting the question, 
will the inhabitants pay the expense ? We now, in our turn, ask who will 
pay the expense of taking down the south wall ? since there are no houses close 
to the road, which can be called on to do so ? Till we know to the contrary, 
we shall conclude that the expense is to be incurred by government, for the gra- 
tification of that part of the aristocracy who drive along the park road close to 
the wall, in order to enter the gardens by the south gate. Either Kensington 
Gardens are public property, or they are not. If they are, they ought surely 
to be managed with a view to the whole of society, and not merely to the 
gratification of a small part. 

We never speak of these gardens without being ready to exclaim, How 
delightful and instructive they might be made, by the addition of a great variety 
of American and other exotic trees and shrubs ! but the time does not seem 
arrived for expecting any thing of this kind. Even in Hyde Park, where a 
number of trees are now planting, no kinds are made use of, but the very 
commonest sorts ; and this, while in many of the nurseries there are hundreds 
and thousands of large forest trees, choice oaks, acers, horsechestnuts, sweet 
chestnuts, ashes, birches, purple beeches, American limes, liquidambars, tulip 
trees, gleditschias, robinias, deciduous cypress, cedars, pines, firs, and dozens 
of other genera, so large, that, in a year or two, if not sold, they will have to 
be burnt. 

The Zoological Gardens have lately received presents of herbaceous plants 
from the Kew, Edinburgh, and Glasgow Botanic Gardens. We hope each 
genus will be planted by itself, so as to form irregular, scattered, straggling 
groups along the borders ; and that they, and also one specimen of each of the 
better kinds of trees and shrubs, will be named in a conspicuous and durable 

At the Metropolitan Flower Show held at the Crown and Anchor tavern, 
April 16., there were a number of very fine specimens of choice green-house 
plants ; many fine hybrid rhododendrons, some very beautiful Ghent azaleas ; 
and, as might be expected, a great many choice auriculas. There was one of 
the finest specimens of H6ve« Celsi which we ever saw, and one equally re- 
markable of Dillwym'a glycinefolia ; both, we believe, as well as a number of 
the Ghent azaleas, sent by Mr. Harrison of Cheshunt, one of the greatest 
encouragers of gardening in the neighbourhood of London. There was a fine 
collection of named auriculas sent by Mr. Groom, and an assortment by Mr. 
Glennie, which last seemed to have carried off most of the prizes. The 
number of persons who came to view this exhibition was very considerable; 
and if it were found practicable to continue it for two or three days at a small 
rate for each person, there can be no doubt that it would tend to spread a 
taste for fine flowers, and more firmly to establish this very useful society. 

Grapes and Strawberries were exposed for sale in Covent Garden market 
early in April, and we find by the Cork Constitution newspaper of March 29th, 
that grapes and pine apples were sent off from Lord Doneraile's garden on the 
28th of March. 

Grafts of the best Varieties of Apples and Pears are advertised to be sold by 
Mr. Saul of Lancaster, at 4d. each. Why should not nurserymen and the 
horticultural societies who have gardens, do the same thing ? 

The Sheffield Botanical and Horticultural Garden is commenced; and Mr. 
Marnock, late gardener at Bretton Hall, is appointed curator. Mr. Marnock 
was also the successful competitor in the plan for laying out the garden: 
a circumstance which does him great honour, and will be no small advantage 
to the garden ; since not only gardens and grounds, but even houses, and 
other architectural and engineering works, are often materially injured in the 
execution, from the want of accordance between the mind of the designer and 
that of the executor. The second prize for a plan was given to Mr. Taylor, 
an architect of Sheffield, There were other plans also exhibited, which, it is 

236 Domestic Notices : — Scotland. 

said, possess considerable merit. We should like to see the whole of them ; 
and this gratification their authors might easily afford us, by sending us tracings 
and descriptions. — Cond. 

The Colony at Lindfield is flourishing : we have now six cottages for labour- 
ers, with an acre and a quarter of land, which we let for 3s. a week each ; we 
have six more with the same quantity of land at 2s. 6d. a week each ; and other 
«ix with still the same quantity of land, at 2s. a week ; that is, eighteen in all. 
Besides those, we have seven cottages more, with from five to six acres of land 
attached to each ; all tenanted, and going on well. The school farm, culti- 
vated mostly by the boys, is also in excellent order. — Wm. Allen. Paradise 
Roiv, 2Mh of the third month {March), 1834. 

The Milford Nursery. — We all went out to call on Mr. Young, agreeably 
to your recommendation, and were highly gratified. Mr. Penny is a most 
interesting person, enthusiastically devoted to botany, and evidently hoping 
and believing that he will be able to make this nursery the first in the 
world. Mr. Webb, the proprietor, gives them every encouragement, and they 
tell us that he has promised to open a correspondence for them with the prin- 
cipal nurseries and botanic gardens on the Continent ; independently of the 
seeds, which he will, of course, send to Milford in preference to any where else. 

You are no doubt aware that Mr. Webb, assisted by M. Bertholet and 
Decandolle, is about to publish a flora of the Canary Isles, and that many 
of the plants which will appear in that flora are already at Milford, though 
their names have not been published. We found Messrs. Young and Penny 
sowing a large collection of seeds collected by Brotero and others, in South 
America, which had been sent them by Mr. Webb, and many of the seeds 
which you sent (p. 170.) are already up. They have just finished building a 
green-house 100 ft. long, a pit of the same length, a stove 50 ft. in length, and 
a turf pit 360 ft. long, and 6 ft. wide, exclusively devoted to fine specimens 
from the Canaries, Teneriffe, Madeira, and South America. We saw in it 
some fine statices, alstrcemerias, mahonias, berberis, &c. They are preparing 
a border about 500 yards in length, and 9 ft. in width, in which to display 
their more choice herbaceous plants and flowering shrubs ; and, as to trees, 
you are aware what an extent their arboretum occupies. All this, we take 
it upon us to state from recollection chiefly, but the following list of plants in 
flower was given us in writing by Mr. Penny : — Cineraria cena, Ononis pe- 
duncularis, Taxanthema puberula, .Lotus spectabilis, Cytisus tetragonocladus 
(a new species, allied to C. canadensis, both fragrant), Scrophularia elongata, 
Sempervivum cruentum, .Euphorbia atropurpiirea, Lavatera acerifolia, Fiola 
pulmonensis.— S., W., and E., M. Guildford, March 23. 1834. 

Scions of a new seedling Pear, which we have called Haydon's seedling, 
have been sent us by a correspondent of that name, residing at Mount Radford, 
near Exeter. The seed was sown in 1823, and the tree is now a standard, 
16 ft. high. The fruit is ripe about the middle of October, and is remarkable 
for its luscious sweetness, but it does not keep. It began to bear in its ninth 
year, and appears to produce abundantly. This fruit has twice obtained a 
prize. — Sam. Hay don. Mount Radford Terrace, near Exeter, March 19. 1834. 

We have sent the scions to the Horticultural Society's garden, and shall be 
glad to taste the fruit, when the season for doing so arrives. — Cond. 


f Woodhall Gardens, Renfreivshire. — On calling here, during a short tour 
which I lately made, I was agreeably surprised to find that, in addition to the 
gardener's lodge or shed, in which with the rest of the young men I cooked 
my victuals andslept some years ago, a good-sized room was built, well lighted, 
with a good fireplace, and fitted up with writing-desks, tables, and book- 
shelves. There is a lobby between this and the cooking-room, so that the 
noise produced in that room, by those who do not read, is not heard in the 
reading-room. This last circumstance I consider an important one. A room 

similar to this at Woodhall is wanted in almost every garden in Scotland 

Juvenxs. Glasgow, March, 1834. 

Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 237 

Art. IV. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of new Plants, and of 
old Plants of Interest, supplementary to the latest Editions of the 
" Encyclopedia of Plants," and of the " Hortus Britannicus." 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine; each monthly Number containing eight plates ; 

3«. 6c?. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, King's Professor of 

Botany in the University of Glasgow. 
Edwards's Botanical Register; each monthly Number containing eight plates ; 

4s. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, F.R.S., Professor of Botany 

in the London University. 
Swee£ s British Floiver-Garden ; each monthly Number containing four plates; 

3s. coloured, 2s. 3d. plain. Edited by David Don, Esq., Librarian to the 

Linnaean Society. 

Dicotyledonous Polypetalous Plants. 

IX. Cruciferw. 

1827a. STREPTA'NTHUS Nut. (Streptos, twisted, anthos, flower ; claws of petals twisted.) 

15. 2. Sp. 2. — 
obtusifblius Hook, blunt-lfd. O or 1| au.s Ro Arkansa 1833. L s.l Bot. mag. 3317 

A pretty plant, much resembling Moricandia arvensis. The stem is simple 
or branched ; the leaves are glaucous, elliptic, stem-clasping. The branches 
terminate in long racemes of numerous flowers ; whose petals are of a fine 
rose colour, with a very deep lake-coloured spot at the base of each limb. A 
second species, named S. maculatus, is known in America ; but we are not 
informed that this has yet been introduced to Britain. {Bot. Mag., April.) 

XLVI. Cdctece. 

1472. CE'REUS. "• [of bot. i. 49. with a figure 

28299a splendidus splendiA-corollaed «. i 1 spl 1 s.n S Mexico 1831. Paxton's mag. 

" Epiphyllum Hitch^nz [the name of the author of the epithet not stated], scarlet flowers, nearly 
8 in. in' diameter " Hitchen in Gard. Mag. Feb. 1833, vol. ix. p. 114. ; Epiph.yllum splendidum 
Paxton in his Magazine of Botany, i. 49., with a coloured figure, April, 1834. 

Its flower, in size and splendour, far surpasses the flower of any other 
species or variety at present known. We obtained it from Mr. Hitchen's 
celebrated collection of succulent plants, while this collection was in the 
possession of Mr. Hitchen ; who has since sold it to Mr. Frederick Mackie, 
nurseryman, Norwich [see p. 63.]. Its flowers were stated to be 10 in. broad ; 
which we feel not the shadow of a doubt about, as ours, though [produced 
by] a very small plant, in October, 1833, measured, when in full blow, 8 in. in 
diameter. Neither the C. speciosissimus, nor even the C. grandiflorus, will 
bear a comparison with it in size of flower. Its flower is entirely destitute 
of that beautiful purple so characteristic of the flowers of the C. speciosissi- 
mus ; and has something of an orange colour, all the petals being nearly 
transparent. In point of the shape of the flower, and in some other respects, 
it bears a good deal of resemblance to the C. speciosissimus. {Paxton's Ma- 
gazine of Botany and Register of Flowering Plants, April.) 

LXXVII. Leguminosa?. 

+2154. LABLA^VIA. (The name Lablab means, in Arabic, simply, a twining plant; and is applied 

indiscriminately to the convolvulus and many others of similar habit. I have, besides giving it 
a Latin termination (which should, I think, be always done in the case of barbarous words 
adopted in botanical nomenclature as generic names), also changed the 6 into v : a liberty which 
the genius of the Arabic allows. — D.Don.) 17.4. Sp. 5. — 

19484 vulgaris as in Hort. Brit., except that the figure in Sw. Fl. Gar. 2. s. 236. is preferable to that in Bot. 
Mag. 896. 

2 purpurea Dec. 

Ldblab purpureus G. Don in Hort. Brit. No. 19485., D61ichos purpureus Jac. 

3 albiflbra Dec. 

Ldblab bengalensis G. Don in Hort. Brit. No. 19486. ; Dolichos bengale~nsis Jac. ; and Mr. D. Don 
teaches, in Sw. Fl. Gar. 2. s. 236. (and, in doing so, goes farther than Decandolle), that the follow- 
ing names are but synonymes of this variety : — D61ichos albus Lour., D. Ldblab Gartner, Ldb- 
lab nankinicus Savi, and Ldblab leucocarpus Savi. 

Labldvia vulgaris is cultivated in India, China, Egypt, and many other 
countries of the East, and also in the West India Islands, on account of its 
legumes, which are prepared and eaten in the manner those of kidneybeans 

238 Floricultural and Botanical Notices, 

are in Europe. It is an extremely showy plant ; and is admirably suited for 

being trained to trelliswork or over a veranda. Mr. Little, nurseryman, 

King's Road, Chelsea, has cultivated it for some years as an ornamental 

plant ; and he finds it to be quite as hardy, and to require the same treatment, 

as the kidneybean. Its seeds ripen in the open air. (The Brit. Flow.-Gard., 


CLVII. i?<?goMiaceae. 

2654. BEGCrNM. r_Bot. reg. 1668 

f28661 heraclci/blia Schlecht. & Cham. Heracleum-lfd. & .Al or 2 all sea Ro Mexico 1831. O r.m 
B. radiata Graham in Edin. New Phil. Journ. July, 1833. 

It is a very free-growing hot-house plant, producing its rosy flowers in 
every month of the year. All that it demands at the hands of the cultivator 
are, heat, moisture, and a full exposure to light. If kept too much in the 
shade, the flowers lose the bright rosy tint which is natural to them, and with 
it their beauty. Some of the leaves produced by this species are 7 in. across. 
Plants of it are in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, the London Horticultural 
Society's garden, and in other gardens. (Bot. Reg., April.) 

Dicotyledonous Monopetalous Plants. 

CXC. Cinckonkceas. 

389. M ANE'TTI^. [Sw. fl. gar. 2. s. 233 

glabra Cham. & Schlecht. smooth-surfaced $_\ |or5?au.d S Buenos Ayres 1831. C p.l 

M. cordifblia Hooker in Bot. Mag. t. 3202., Gard. Mag. 9. 107. 

" It is, doubtless, the M. glabra of Chamisso and Schlechtendal; who enumerate, in the Linntza, 

several other nearly related species, differing chiefly in the degree of pubescence, and in the 

proportions of the calycine segments. — D. Don. 

This is an exceedingly elegant plant : its delicate and graceful form, and its 
long (li in.), tubular, scarlet corollas, contrasted with its broad deep green 
leaves, render it one of the most beautiful objects that can well be conceived. 
Mr. Neill of Canonmills, near Edinburgh, has raised and possesses this plant. 
It thrives in soil composed of peat and loam. " It will doubtless succeed 
well in the open border during summer." (The Brit. Flow.-Gard., April.) 

CXCVI. Kpocynece. 

ALY'XI A R. Br. In the Bot. Mag. for April, this genus is much elucidated. Mr. Allan 

Cunningham has supplied the distinctive characters, synonymes, and habitats of eleven species. 
A. actinophylla Cun., spicata R. Br., tetragbna R. Br., stellata R. Sj S., /aurina Gaudichaud, 
obtusifulia R. # S., scandens R. 8; S., Gynopbgon R. fy S , rfaphnoldes Cun., ruscifblia R. Br., 
iuxifblia R. Br. Dr. Hooker has added to these the names of six other species, which are also 
known ; namely, A. odorata Wall., stellata R. Br., calophylla Wall., lbcida Wall., olivaeformis, 
and Torreszarea. This enumeration is accompanied by a figure of A. aaphnoldes Cun., and one 
of A. ruscifblia R. Br. ; and detailed descriptions, by Mr. Cunningham, of these two species. 
From these descriptions, and those in the enumeration, we revise the species given in Hort. Brit. 
p. 67. and 580. 
532. ALY'XIA. 

4373. Gynopbgon R. §• S. bearded-styled fl| | or 5 ... W Norfolk Island 1831. C p.l 

Gynopbgon Alyxia Forster, Alyxia Forsterz Cun. MSS. 1830, Loudon's Hort. Brit. No. 28594. 

4374 (faphnuides Cun. Daphne-like «( j fra? 5? W Norfolk I. 1831. C p.l Bot. mag. 3313 

4374a ruscifblia R. Br. Butcher's i I fra 5 au.n W N. Holl. 1820. C p.l Bot. mag. 3312 
A. Richardsbnz Swt., Loudon's Hort. Brit. No. 4373. ; Gynopbgon pugioniformis Cun. MSS. 1828; 

Alyxia pugionif6rmis Cun., Loudon's Hort. Brit. No. 28595. 
More of the species enumerated above may be extant, alive, in British collections; but it is not 
stated that more than the three which we have tabulated are. 

The alyxias are not attractive-looking shrubs; but their foliage is pleasing: 
and the leaves are, in several of the species, disposed four in a whorl ; the 
flowers, small and white, are, in A. ruscifolia, " exceedingly fragrant, smelling 
like jasmine; " and, it appears, in some other species as well. (Bot. Mag., 


stellaris Lindl. stat-ei/ed-corollaed £_ □ or 10 ? au Ro.Y Rio Janeiro 1831. R p.l Bot. reg. 1664 
Its characters approach nearly to those of E. puWscens Willd. 

A tender, stove, climbing plant, introduced by the Hon. Robert Gordon to 
the Horticultural Society. In the month of August, its flowers [which are 
represented as produced in corymbose clusters, each of about fourteen flowers, 
and these severally wider, in the spread of the limb, than a shilling is broad] 
perfume the part of the hot-house in which it is placed with a delightful smell 
of primroses We have named it with reference to the coloured eye of 

supplementary to Encyc. of Plants and Hort. Brit. 239 

the corolla ; which, being deep rosy red in the centre, with five starry lobes, 
bordered with a sort of orange yellow, gives a striking appearance to the 
flowers. E. stellaris grows readily in peat and loam ; but is scarcely to be 
propagated except by cuttings of the root. (Bot. Reg., April.) 
CXCIX. Convolvuldcece. 

491. IPOMCE'A. [Bot. mag. 3315 

4083a Horsfallia: Hook. Mrs. Horsfall's %_ □ spl 20 d.ja Ro Africa? East Indies? 1831? C p.l 

" Unquestionably one of the most beautiful of all the species to descriptions 
of which I have had access, as well as of a most extensive collection of spe- 
cies of the genus in my herbarium. The seeds, from which plants of it have 
been raised, were received by Charles Horsfall, Esq., Everton ; under the care 
of whose very skilful gardener, Mr. Henry Evans, the plants produced their 
lovely blossoms, in great profusion, during December, 1833, and Jan. 1834: 

a season when so gay a visiter to the stove is particularly welcome 

Leaves quinate, upon rather long petioles. Peduncles axillary, about as long 
as, or longer than, the petiole, bearing a dichotomous cyme of many flowers. 
Corolla funnel-shaped, spread at the top to the width of a penny-piece ; of a 
very deep rich and glossy rose colour, equally dark within and without. {Bot. 
Mag., April.) 

CCXI. Swophularinece. 

1775. LINA^RI A \ ii. Prostrataj. [S s.l Sw. fl. gar. 2. s. 235 

15789a circinata D. Don curve-lfd. S~?-*?£?^? A?_J°r§ jn.jl Y N. Africa ? Buenos Ayres ? 1833. 

A pretty species, with small revolute leaves, arrow-shaped at the base ; and 

with a good proportion of flowers, whose corollas are " larger than those of 

L. vulgaris." It is, therefore, among small prostrate plants, a showy one. 

Mr. Anderson of the Chelsea Botanic Garden has raised the species from 

exotic seeds. (The Brit. Floiv.-Gard., April.) 

1783. MI'MULUS. [i. 54. with a figure 

Smitlm AT?-. Smith's £ _AJ or § f.n Y.Spot Eng. hyb. 1832. D p.l Paxton's mag. of bot. 

M. Smiths and M. Youngw, which bear a very close resemblance to each 
other, are the most beautiful kinds of ilfimulus known. M. Smithw is a 
hybrid, raised probably between the M. rivularis and M. variegatus. It par- 
takes much of the habit of M. rivularis, and produces flowers profusely. 
(Paxton's Magazine of Botany, April.) Mr. Dennis, nurseryman, Chelsea, 
possesses plants of the M. Smiths. 

Scrophidarinece § 3 Gratiolece. 

1787a. ARTANE^M A D. Don. (Artao, to append, nema, a filament ; a tooth is borne on one side of 

each of the longer filaments.) 14. 2. Sp. 1. — [Bot.mag31C4 

fimbriatum D. Don fi'mged-corollaed £ i | or Sjn.aut Pa.B Moreton Bay 1830. C p.l 

Torema? scabra Grah., Loudon's Hort Brit. No. 29293., Bot. Cab. i990., Bot. Mag. 3104., Gard. 
h Mag. 9. 707. 

We consider it essentially distinguished from Torenz'a by its deeply-parted calyx, the serrated lobes 
of its corolla, the structure of its stamens, the form and consistence of its capsule, and, finally, 
by its large succulent placenta?. — D. Don. 

Artanema fimbriatum will be found, although usually treated as a green- 
house plant, to succeed in the open border during the summer months ; freely 
producing its blossoms and ripening its seeds. It should be planted in a 
mixture of peat and loam ; and is increased by seeds or by cuttings. The 
plant has a good deal of the aspect of a .Mimulus ; its blossoms are large and 
showy ; and we consider it an interesting addition to the gardens. Mr. Neill 
of Canonmills, Edinburgh, Messrs. Loddiges, and, doubtless, others, possess 
the plant. (The Brit. Flow.-Gard., April.) 


CCXXXVIII. Amaryllises. 

969. AMARY'LLIS 7992 aulica " seems liable to much variation. We [Dr. Hooker] have represented 
a splendid variety, in Bot. Mag. t. 2983., with green lines in the centre, running nearly the whole 
length of each petal ; with a very obsolete glandular disk ; and with long narrow glaucous-leaves. 
Between this variety, and the variety platyp<kala Lindley in Bot. Reg. t. 1038., and the original 
A. aulica Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 444., our present plant [figured in the Bot. Mag. for April, 1834, 
t. 3311.] seems intermediate. The points in which our plant differs from the A. aulica Ker are, 
the petals are less sharply acuminate, and the base of the petals is of a darker green. The bulb 

240 Retrospective Criticism. 

was presented to the Glasgow Botanic Garden by - — Pearson, Esq. ; who had brought it from 

the neighbourhood of Rio Janeiro, in Brazil, where it is a native." \Bot. Mag., April.) A. aulica 

itself, and all varieties of it, are, when in flower, superb plants. 
935. ISME N N£ 7642 Amaneaes 

2 sulphurea Herb, sulphureous -flmd. t El or 3 ... Su Eng. hybrid 1829. O s.p Bot. reg. 1665 
It has been originated from a seed of Ismene Amaneaes which had been fertilised by the pollen of 

I. calathlna Herbert. [In Hort. Brit., the neuter adjective calathinum is wrongly associated with 

Ismene, instead of the feminine calathlna.] 

A very ornamental hybrid ; and interesting, in evidencing the great change 
which has been wrought by the impression of' the male species. The colour 
of the flower is intermediate ; and the scent, though powerful, is not delight- 
fully fragrant as in calathina, nor so disagreeable as that of Amaneaes. The 
constitution is vigorous, like that of the former species ; from which it 
also inherits a more robust stature and less attenuated leaves. (Herbert in 
Bot. Beg., April.) 

CCXL. Qrchidece. 


luridum LindU lur'iA-flwd. £ El or 1 s.n G.Y.Br Brazil 1832. D r.w.lpotsh Bot. reg. 1667 

Although it cannot be compared for beauty with Catasetum tridentatum, it 
is, nevertheless, an interesting species. The spots en the lip are of the 
deepest and richest ruddy brown ; while the horns of the column may be 
compared to the fore legs of some spider, lurking in the bosom of the flower 
to seize upon the victims that may enter it. Plants of this species are pos- 
sessed by Messrs. Loddiges, Mr. Knight, Mr. Bateman, and the London 
Horticultural Society. 

CCLI. AAliacecd. 

3337. CYCLOBO'THRA Swt. (Kyklos, a circle, bothros, a pit ; a circular depression, which is 

nectariferous, in each petal.) 6. 1. Sp. 5.— 

Ititea Lindl yettow-petaled tf .AJ or 1| au.s Y Mexico 1827. O p.l Bot. reg. 1663 

C. barbata Swt. in Brit. Flow.-Gard. 1. s. 273., Loudon's Hort Brit. No. 28170., where the synonyme 
Fritillaria barbata Kth. should, according to what follows, be cancelled. 

" When this plant was first introduced, it was supposed to be the same as the Fritillaria barbata 
v published in M. Kunth's account of the plants discovered by Humboldt and Bonpland ; but we 
learn, from the last volume of Romer and Schultes, that that species has a bearded horseshoe mark 
on its sepals, no trace of which can be found in the plant now figured. We are, therefore, unwill- 
ingly obliged to amend the name by which this has hitherto been known : a name which would 
be untenable even if Fritillaria barbata were the same plant, because it [expressive of the bearded 
inward face of the petals] is equally applicable to every species of the genus. {Bot. Reg., April.) 

Cyclobothra alba and pulch£Ua, described in our last, in p. 179., are figured in the Bot. Beg. for 
April; C. pulchella Bot. Beg. 1662. ; C. alba Bot. Beg. 1661. In Bot. Meg. 1662., a synopsis of the 
known species of the genus is supplied, which are shown to be nine in number; but only four, or 
at most five, of these have been yet introduced (alive) into Britain. 

CCLVI. Aroidece. 

2672. CALA y DIUM. [Bot. mag. 3314 

23489a fragrantissimum Hook, most fragrant .£ fl_ □ * ? fra fc Crea.R Demerara 1832? C s.p 

Introduced from Demerara, to the Liverpool Botanic Garden, by C. S 
Parker, Esq. It is a species with an extending rooting stem ; petiole 2 ft. or 
more long ; expansion of the leaf 1§ ft. to 2 ft. long, oblongo-cordate. Spathe 
almost 9 in. long, cream-coloured, in its lower part richly tinged with red. 
" The whole inflorescence yields a fragrance, which I [Dr. Hooker] can only 
compare with that of the Olea fragrans, but far more powerful." (Bot. Mag., 

Art. V. Retrospective Criticism. 

Correction. — In " hedges of yew are of low growth," in p. 185., lines 14. 
and 15., for " low " read " slow." 

Decandolle' s Theory of the Botalion of Crops. — In the February Number 
of the Gardener's Magazine is an article entitled an " Investigation of the 
theory of the rotation of crops ; by the author of the Domestic Gardener's 
Manual ;" a very interesting subject to the gardener and vegetable physio- 
logist. The writer seems to claim at least a share of priority in the discovery 
of what is termed " De Candolle's theory ; " assuming that trees and plants 
emit exerementitious matter into the soil, hurtful to some and favourable to 
the growth of other plants. In the progress of scientific knowledge, it is not 

Retrospective Criticism. 241 

at all uncommon to find different men simultaneously discovering the same 
physical facts ; and we are not sure but Mr. Shirreff of Mungoswells, East 
Lothian, a scientific farmer, might also claim kindred with this popular bant- 
ling ; for it is several years since he recorded the same opinions, in an essay 
on " The gregarious nature of grasses." [See Quart. Jour, of Agric., vol. ii. 
p. 242.] Gardeners, of all others, have an excellent opportunity of investi- 
gating this theory ; and we recommend this and similar articles to their serious 
attention. (G. in the Dundee, Perth, and Cupar Advertiser, March 14. 1834.) 

Directions for dissolving Indian Rubber by Means of Pyroligneous Ether. 
[IX. 243.] — When a work is put forth in the style which distinguishes the 
Encyclopaedia of Gardening, it is but reasonable to expect correctness at least 
in the information it professes to afford, beyond all other publications. A 
specimen of that correctness may be found in the Number for April, 1833, 
which contains directions for dissolving Indian rubber by means of pyroligneous 
ether. Had you known any thing of the matter, you must be aware that 
" pyroligneous ether" will not act upon caoutchouc in any way. What was 
the solvent you might intend under that name is not to be divined. — Anon. 
with the Hereford postmark, Feb. 17. 1834. 

[We sent this letter to Mr. Mallet, and have received the following reply.] 

I have returned the anonymous note which you sent me. Although ad- 
dressed to you, I am alone responsible for the charge which it contains. This 
note is full of mistakes. The writer first mistakes you, the conductor of the 
Magazine, for the author of my notice respecting the solution of Indian 
rubber; secondly, he mistakes the Encyclopaedia of Gardening for the Gar- 
dener's Magazine ; thirdly, he mistakes the number in which the article in 
question occurs ; and, lastly, he mistakes in the general assertion of his note, 
viz. " that pyroligneous ether will not act upon Indian rubber in any way." 
As this is a simple assertion of fact, it does not admit of argument : I, therefore, 
only say, if the author of the note remains incredulous on the subject, and 
will venture to come forward, I will send } 7 ou some of the solution for his in- 
spection. A word or two more may possibly enlighten him as to the origin of 
his mistake. The fluid to which the name of pyroligneous ether is applied, 
differs much in its properties, as obtained from different manufactories : some 
of it will dissolve Indian rubber, and some of it will not. For the truth of 
this he may have the authority of Berzelius : — " Les contradictions que pre- 
sentent ces donnees sur des experiences aussi simples, paroissent indiquer 
qu'il existe plusieurs especes d'esprits pyroligneux qui ont de l'analogie sous 
certains rapports, mais different les uns des autres par quelques-unes de leurs 
proprietes." {Traite, &c, torn. vi. p. 674.) I confess myself to blame in 
not having noticed this in my former observations upon this menstruum. 
However, since I made that communication, I have found that there is no 
solvent of Indian rubber so good for gardening and most other purposes, as 
refined coal tar, sold under that name by drug merchants, which is only com- 
mon coal tar deprived of water by boiling. — Robert Mallet. 24. Capel Street, 
Dublin, March 19. 1834. 

Mr. Munro's Suggestion (p. 551.) for the Formation of a Sylvan Society 
I am much pleased with,.and I agree with him in almost all he says on the 
subject. I seldom pass by other people's woods or plantations but my fingers 
itch to thin, and weed, and prune out. In short, as Mr. Munro has truly 
said, " the greater proportion of our woods, from neglect or mismanagement, 
look as if they belonged to nobody." — W. T. Bree. Allesley Rectory, near 
Coventry, Warwickshire, Oct. 19. 1833. 

The Oak Trees which turn away their Heads from the South-west (p. 548.), 
described by Mr. Clarke, are by no means peculiar to his part of the country 
[Poole, Dorsetshire]. Years ago, I was much struck with the same thing in 
the Isle of Wight, and have often said, that, were I ignorant of the points of 
the compass, I could immediately discover them by looking at an oak tree. 
Even in Warwickshire, in exposed situations, the oak trees show their aversion 
to the south-west, by turning away their heads from that quarter. — Id. 

Vol.X. — No. 50. R 

242 Queries and Answers, 

Art. VI. Queries and Answers. 

TRAINING the Branches of Espalier Trees downwards. — I shall feel obliged 
to any of your readers for their opinions on the following suggestion, as to 
planting standard apple and pear trees behind espaliers, and training the 
branches down over the front. Would it have the effect of increasing the 
fruitfulness of the trees by the inclination of the branches downwards ? — Jas. 
Mitchinson. Pendarves, March 20. 1834. 

Training Trees on Trelliswork arched over the principal Walks of a Garden. 
— Would it not be making the most of a garden, to have trees trained to trellis- 
work over the middle and cross walks ? Suppose standards were planted, 
their branches might be trained over to the side opposite to that of the stem 
and roots, which would give an inclination downwards, the real effect of 
which I should be glad to be informed of ? Would not iron bars, an inch 
square, fixed in stones, and placed at proper distances, with cross-bars from 
one upright to another, as stiffeners, and small rods of a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, put through holes at about 8 in. distance, make a very light and cheap 
trellis for this purpose ? It would also be very durable, if kept well painted. 
— Id. 

The Wyken Pippin Apple. — I think I have heard that this favourite apple 
was raised from seed in the neighbourhood of Coventry, and that every cottage 
garden in that part of Warwickshire has a tree or two of it growing in it. Can 
any of your readers tell me if this is correct, and where the parent tree is to 
be found ? The tempestuous wind at the beginning of last September blew 
down the finest old apple tree in this nursery ; the stem of which measured 
more than 5 ft. in girth ; its branches extending many yards. We suppose 
this tree to have been about eighty years old ; it was a Wyken pippin ; and 
plants from it were easily distinguished by their peculiarly upright growth 
when the trees were young, and by the flatness and spotted yellow skin, with 
a rich aromatic flavour, of the fruit, when it was ripe. — T. Rivers, jun. Saw- 
bridgeworth Nursery, Feb. 1834. 

[In the second volume of this Magazine (p. 486.) our correspondent will 
find all the particulars of which he desires to be informed.] 

Packing Grapes, (p. 84.) — The following is the mode of packing grapes 
which I adopted with success for many years, having to send them nearly 
three hundred miles. A box having been prepared, a bed of clean wool, well 
separated, was laid in the bottom, on which a layer of grapes was placed ; each 
bunch being separately enveloped in tissue paper. A portion of wool was 
then introduced between each bunch, and all the interstices filled up with it, 
and then a layer of wool put over the top. For a second layer, a small ledge 
of wood was fixed at each end in the box at the level wanted, and a thin board 
made to fit in easily, so as to fall down upon the ledges ; in the board there 
were two finger-holes made with an inch centre-bit ; and the board, being fixed 
down upon the ledges, with a couple of small brads at each end, driven in 
half-way, a second layer of grapes was laid in as above, and so on for a third 
layer, if wanted. I think Mr. Wilson will find the above method of fixing in 
the separation board an improvement upon his mode ; at least I preferred it, 
after trying both ways. The finger-holes I also found very convenient for 
getting out the board, after drawing the small brads with a pair of pincers. In 
cases where wool is an object, or may be thought too expensive, moss well 
dried, cleaned, and thrashed, will be found a tolerably good substitute ; but 
the superior elasticity of the wool renders it preferable. — T. Ridger. Short- 
grove, Feb. 1834. 

The Cornish Hollick. — There is an Allium grown in some of the cot- 
tagers' gardens in Cornwall, which is commonly called there hollock, or 
hollick, and the tops of which are used by the common people for making 
pies. I should be glad to know its botanical name ; also the botanical name 
that is attached to the variety of Allium Cepa, called the potato onion. — 
T. Rutger. Short-grove, Jan. 1834; [As to the latter, A. Cepa var. aggregatum.] 

at Bishopstoke Vicarage, Hampshire. 


most select trees. It is a perfect gem of botanical beauty in the 
foreground, heightened in effect by interesting gleams of distant 
scenery, seen between and over fine oaks and elms, on the lower 
part of the declivity. 

In order to give our readers a correct idea of the details of 
this garden, so exceedingly rich in choice plants, we applied to 
Mr. Gamier for a ground plan ; and he has obligingly had one 
prepared for us, of which Jig. 1 1. is an engraving. He has also 
sent us a small view of the vicarage house. {Jig- 10.) The fol- 
lowing are the details of the plan : — 

1. Rhododendron maximum, new. 2. Pink-flowering thorn. 3. Bed of a variety of choice roses. 
4. Bed of pinks in summer, China asters in autumn. 5. Cornus fl6rida. 6. Rhododendron, 
a new variety. 7. .Rhododendron catawbiense. 8. Small bed of Ferbena chamsedrifblia. 

9. Large azalea. 

10. -4'rbutus. 11. Portugal laurel. 12. Laurustinus. 13. Bed of heartseases. 14. Variegated 
rhododendron. 15. .Rhododendron d'ailricum atro-vlrens. IB. Large narrow-leafed bay. 

17. .Rhododendron p6nticum. 18. Two superb elms. 19. Bed of a variety cf herbaceous 


20. Azalea fedifblia (indica alba). 21. Round bed of herbaceous plants. 22. .Rhododendron p6n- 
ticum. 23. Rhododendron, hybrid. 24. Rhododendron, hybrid. 25. Oval bed of pelar- 
goniums, stocks, and sorts of .Rosa odorata. 26. Laurustinus. 27. .Rhododendron rbseum. 
28. Kahlua latifblia. 29. Clump of American plants. 

SO. Humea eiegans. 31. Oval bed of choice herbaceous plants. 32. Large Rhododendron 

arbbreum. 33. Psebnia Moutan. 34. .Rhododendron alta-clerense. 35. Magnblz'a grandi- 
flbra, 26 ft. square. 

Growing under veranda : — 36. Camellia jap<5nica wzyrtif olia. Camellia striped, orange-leafed myrtle, 
and citron. 37. Magnificent broad.leafed myrtle. S8. Camellia jap6nica atr6rubens. 

39. Camellia jap6nica, double white 40. Camellia japonica Pompbnia. 41. Camellia 

jap6nica p&oniceflbra, and double striped ; and stand of pelargoniums. 

42. Magnolia grandiflbra. 43. .Rbsa Banksi^. 44. Magnblz'a purpurea. 45. Jasmlnum 

revolatum. 46. Miignblia grandiflbra, 30 ft. high. 47. Noisette rose. 48. Long bank of 
the choicest American plants, chiefly consisting of the new hybrid rhododendrons ; and in- 
cluding all the new varieties of Azalea indica. 49. Viburnum lucidum. 

50. A&cuba japonica. 51. Vase containing pelargoniums, blue lobelias, and Lophospermum eru- 

bescens. 52. Rhododendron catawbiense, variety. 53. Standard Magnblia grandiflbra. 

54. Vase, containing scarlet pelargoniums and Maurandya Barclay<$»a. 55. Standard Camellia 
japonica. 56. Azalea rhododendron, hybrid. 57. Magnblz'a purpurea. 58. Vase, contain- 
ing pelargoniums, and FerbSna chamsedrif blia. 59. Very large elm, with seats. 

60. Rhododendron arbbreum. 61. Vase of scarlet pelargoniums, and pink Maurandya [? semper- 
flbrens]. 62. Flcus elastica. 63. Red cedar. Juniperus virginiana. 64. Bed of pinks in 
summer, China asters in autumn. 65. A-acuba jap6nica. 66. JVerium plenum [? N. Oleander 
var. spiendens]. 67. Round bed of scarlet and white varieties of georgina. 68. Oval bed of 
herbaceous plants. 69. Fuchsia gracilis. 

70. Chionanthus [?] fulgida. 71. Herberts diversifblia. 72. Yucca gloribsa. 73. Oval bed of 
.Rbsa odorata and of Calvert's Noisette roses. 74. Pinus Webbiana. 75. Oval bed of tree 

and dwarf roses. 76. Azalea indica alba. 77. Large standard single-flowered camellia. 

78. Oval bed of varieties of hybrid rhododendrons and azaleas. 79. .Rhododendron arbbreum. 

80. Large mass of rhododendrons. 81. Round bed of choice azaleas. 82. .Rhododendron mag- 

nolicefblium. 83. Azalea nudiflbra coccinea. 84. Bed of varieties of georginas. 85. Zigds- 
trum lucidum. 86. Kalmia latifblia. 87. Aristotelia Mdcqui, new variety. 88. Bed of 
hydrangeas. 89. Araucaria imbricata. 

Vol. X. — No 49. 



Garden of the Rev. Thomas Gamier, 

90. Clump of rhododendrons. 91. Round bed of georginas. 92. Edwardsza grandiflbra. 

93. Three fine elms in a group. 94. Photinia serrulata. 95. Large vase. 96. .Rhododen- 
dron microphyllum. 97. Very large rhododendron. 98. Oval bed of choice herbaceous 
plants. 99. A very large spreading oak tree, with seats. 

100. Bed of choice herbaceous plants. 101. Magnolia auricul&ta. 102. Malachodendron ovatum. 
103. Magnb/za glauca. 104. Very large clump of rhododendrons. 105. Cotone&ster micro- 
phylla. 106. Bed of sorts of Chinese chrysanthemums. 107. Rhododendron azalea, hybrid. 
108. Bed of twelve of Calvert's new varieties of .Rbsa odorata and standard perpetuals. 109. Gor- 
dbnza pub£scens. 

110. Dracaena australis. 111. Standard Cydbnia japonica. 112. Azalea. 113. Bed of choice 
azaleas. 114. Magnblz'a citriodbra. 115. Peetmia Moiitan rbsea. 116. Ryrus spect&bilis, 
large. 117. Edwardsza grandiflbra. 118. Large arbutus. 119. Daphne p6ntica. 

120. Chimon&nthus fragrans. 121. Large .Rhododendron catawbiense. 122. Large rhododen- 

dron and large bay tree. 123. Kalmz'a latifblia. 124. Oval bed of choice herbaceous plants. 
125. Magnblz'a conspicua. 126. Magnblz'a cordata. 127. Round bed of Lobelz'a fulgens and 
of double tuberoses. 128. Magnblz'a maxima. 129. Eriob6trya jap6nica. 

130. Round bed of tree and dwarf roses. 131. Magnblz'a Tbompsonz'dwa. 132. Magnblz'a pur- 

purea. 133. Magnblz'a macrophylla. 134. Oval bed of dwarf georginas. 135. ^4'rbutus 

procera. 136. Magnblz'a acuminata. 137. Clump of rhododendrons. 138. Bed of pelar- 

goniums, border of German stocks. 139. Covered seat made with reeds. 

140. Fuchsz'a microphylla. 141. .Rhododendron Smithz'z. 142. Clump of evergreens and rhodo- 
dendrons. 143. Oval bed of choice azaleas. 144. Round bed of camellias. 145. Pxbnia 
Moiitan papaveracea. 146. Bed of rhododendrons. 147. Yucca gloribsa. 148. Horse- 
chestnut, with a seat. 149. Deciduous cypress. 

150. Myrtle. 151. Oval bed of herbaceous varieties of Pssbnia. 152. Portugal laurel. 

153. Kalmz'a latifblia. 154. .Rhododendron m&ximum, new variety. 155. Az&lea indica 

alba. 156. Cupr^ssus lusitanica. 157. Magnblz'a gla6ca. 158. Round bed of azaleas. 

159. Weeping willow. 

160. Birberis fascicul&ris. 161. Osmunda regalis. 162. Oval bed of herbaceous plants. 

163. Plnus occidentals. 164. Oval bed of Calvert's Noisettes. 165. .Rhododendron arbbreum 
maximum. 166. Rhododendron rbseum. 167. Oval bed of herbaceous plants. 168. Aris- 
totfelza Mdcqui. 169. Magnblza purpurea. 

170. Bed for georginas. 171. Araucaria brasiliana. 172. Dracaena ovata. 173. Cedar of 

Lebanon. 174. Magnblz'a glauca. 175. Kaccinium uliginbsum. 176. .Rhododendron 

maximum, old variety. 177. Kalmza latifblia. 178. Single red camellia, 5 ft. high. 

179. .Rhododendron &lta-clerense. 

180. Magnblz'a tripetala. 181. Oval bed of Cydbnia jap6nica, red and white. 182. Large azalea. 

at Bishopstoke Vicarage, Hampshire. 


183 Round bed of georginas. 18*. Magnblia Thompsoniana. 185. Round bed of Verbena 
chamaidrifblia and of Thunbergia alata. 186. Kibes sanguineum. 187. Rhododendron 

ponticum. 188. Rhododendron. 189. Oval bed of azaleas. , . . ■, , x 

190 Bed of Ferbena venbsa. 191. Sophbra japonica pendula. 192. ^B'sculus rubicunda (rosea 

' Bot Res ) 193. Robinia hi spida arbbrea. 194. Bed of herbaceous plants. 195. Chionan- 
thu's marrtima. 196. Oval clump of rhododendrons. 197. ^'rbutus longifbha. 198. Cra- 
taegus Azarblus. 199. Rhododendron catawbiense. 

200 Myrtle 201. Large yellow azalea. 202. Variegated holly. 203. Broussoneha papynfera. 
204 Chionanthus virginica. 205. Juniperus bermudiana. 206. Round bed of azaleas. 

207 Large American bed. 208. Late-flowering azalea. 209. Magnblia auriculata. 

210 Oval bed of varieties of Lobelia. 211. Sophbra jap6nica, 212. Oval.bed for flowers. 

213 £rlca arbbrea. 214. Rhododendron, new variety. 215. Rhododendron. 216. Raphi6- 
lepi's indica. 217. i^lex rayrtifblia. 218. Bed of anemone-flowered georginas. 219. Cun- 
ninghamia lanceolata. ,,. .... ., 

220 Round bed of varieties of pelargoniums. 221. Diospyrus ibtus. 222. Gleditschza h6rrida. 
223 Rhododendron maximum, new variety. 224. Large Kalmza latifblia. 225. i'rinos 

nepalensis. 226. Catdlpa syringceibWa. 227. Rhamnus latifblius. 228. Chinese arbor-vita?, 
Thuja orientalis. 229. Berberis fascicularis. , . 

230 Large Magnblia tripetala. 231. Cupressuspendula [? Schubertw disticha pendula]. 2o2. Bound 
bedof lily of the valley. 233. Myrtle. 234. Hydrangea. 235. Rhododendron, new 

variety 236. Arbutus. 237. Bed of Scotch roses. 238. Rhododendron. 239. Schinus 

240 Holly 241 Oval bed of American plants. 242. Bed of dark China rose. 243. .Ledum 

'latifblium. 244. Rhododendron. 245. Round bed of sorts of £rlca. 246 Eugenia. 

247 Rhododendron. 248. Rhododendron, a new variety. 249. Davaua denticulata. 

250 Yticcct gloribsa. 251. Variegated rhododendron. 252. Vkvia discolor. 253. Round 

clump of American plants. 254. Magnolia cordata. 255. IMex stricta 256. A rbutus 

specibsa. 257. Oval bed of China roses. 258. Azalea. 259. Rhododendron. 

260. Seedling rhododendron. 261. Ammyrsine fiuxifblia. 262. Large bed of rhododendrons. 

263. Dark Kibes sanguineum. 264. Virgilia lutea. 265. Dwarf hollyhocks 266 Pyius 

nepalensis 267. Bed of hollyhocks. 268. Round bed of Lobelia specibsa, &c. 269. Laburnum. 

270 Rhododendron, in varieties. 271. Bed of double tulips in spring, and scarlet pelargoniums 

' in summer. 272. Bed of single tulips in spring, and of heliotropes in summer. £16. con- 

servatory 274. Cytisus purpureus. 275. The wall, covered with a collection oi choice 

plants rSee p. 129.] 276. The inner circle, occupied by tree roses and dwarf georginas ; 

the two next circles, different sorts of dwarf roses ; outer circle, collection of herbaceous plants 
of the brightest colours. 277. Fence of evergreens. 278. Shrubbery of evergreens and 

large trees. 279. Entrance to kitchen-garden, with trellis. 

281. Undulating ground, with large trees. 

* I 8 

280. Covered seat of wood. 

128 Garden of the Rev. Thomas Gamier, 

The first thing we saw, on entering Mr. Garnier's grounds, was 
a Magnolm grandifldra against the house, 27 ft. high and about 
25 ft. wide, which was transplanted in the month of August, 
when in flower, 12 years ago, without sustaining the least injury; 
the reason being, that every root and fibre was preserved, and 
the latter not exposed to the air for more than five minutes. 
There are other magnolias against the house, equally high. The 
wall, against which are trained so many fine plants, has been 
built about six years, and is about 10 ft. high, with a coping 
projecting about nine inches, and a copper trough to collect the 
rain which falls on it ; the latter is found to be a great protection 
to the roots of the shrubs, and to the herbaceous plants below. 
Among the plants on the wall, the more uncommon are several 
of the New Holland species, of the genera Acacia, Metrosideros, 
Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, &c. 

The herbaceous plants, at the base of the wall, are several 
Amaryllises; ixias, and other irideae; and a good collection of 
mesembryanthemums. Among the plants on the lawn are 
groups of camellias, which stand the winter without any pro- 
tection, the loquat, myrtles, tree rhododendrons, arau car ias; ^4 N bies 
WebbmW, and other rare species ; all the magnolias, including 
maxima, and that variety of conspicua which is named citriodora ; 
the former has flowered, but it dropped without the colour having 
been ascertained. We must, from necessity, pass over the names 
of a great number of other valuable plants, as well on the lawn 
as on the wall, and conclude by noticing a very neat span-roofed 
conservatory, designed by Mr. Page, and placed on a plinth of 
three steps, which forms a termination to the terrace walk. 
The outer border of this walk is ornamented with vases, placed 
at regular distances. 

Among the general principles which regulate Mr. Garnier's 
management, we shall mention three of preeminent importance : 
first, he arranges all his flowers and shrubs in masses of one 
kind, even to the varieties of Georgia, by which he produces 
brilliant masses of the same colour ; secondly, all his groups and 
masses are of plain forms, such as circles, ovals, squares, and 
parallelograms, in the genuine English manner, adopted by 
Mason in the flower-garden at Nuneham Courtenay, and by the 
late Major Price, in the flower-garden at Mongewell ; thirdly, 
he transplants the azaleas, rhododendrons, and other American 
shrubs every year, and at any season of the year, so as to keep 
every individual plant detached from the rest, though close to 
them (we saw some beds of azaleas and rhododendrons, which 
had just been removed, looking perfectly well, notwithstanding 
the extraordinary dryness of the season) ; and, fourthly, his great 
secret in acclimatising, or, in other words, in enabling tender 
plants to stand the winter in the open air, is to have a perfectly 

Covent Garden Market. 


Art. VII. Covent Garden Market. 

The Cabbage Tribe. 

Cabbage, per dozen : 


Plants or Coleworts 
Broccoli, per bunch : 
■_ White 


Peas, forced, per punnet 
Kidneybeans, forced, p. hund 

Tubers and Roots. 

c per ton 

Potatoes - -J per cwt. 

t per bushel 

Kidney, per bushel - 

Scotch, per bushel 

New, per pound 
Jerusalem Artichokes, per half 

Turnips, White, per bunch 
Carrots, per bunch : 

Old - ... 


Horn - ... 

Parsneps, per dozen 
Red Beet, per dozen 
Skirret, per bunch 
Scorzonera, per bundle 
Salsify, per bunch 
Horseradish, per bundle 
Radishes : 

Red, per dozen hands (24 to 
30 each) 

Red Turnip, per bunch . 

White Turnip, per bunch 

The Spinach Tribe. 

SP-^f^rLT/sieve I 
Sorrel, per half sieve - - 

The Onion Tribe. 
Onions : 
Old, per bushel 
For pickling, per half sieve 
Ciboules, green, per bunch 
Leeks, per dozen bunches - 
Chives, per dozen roots 
Garlic, per pound - - 

Shallots, per pound 

Asparaginous Plants, 
Salads, $c. 
Asparagus, per 100 


Small - . 

Small, per half sieve 
Sea-kale, per punnet 
Lettuce, per score : 

Cos ... 

Cabbage ... 



£ s. 



s. d. 



1 9 





3 6 








2 6 



1 6 








1 6 
1 6 

1 6 
1 6 







1 3 







1 3 


1 6 




2 6 




Endive, per score 

Celerv, per bundle (12 to 15) 

Small Salads [P" half sieve 
{.per punnet - 
Watercress, per dozen small 

Pot and Sweet Herbs. 
Tarragon, per dozen bunches 

Fennel, per dozen bunches 
Thyme, per dozen bunches 
Sage, per dozen bunches 
Mint, per dozen bunches - 

Peppermint, dried, per dozen 

Marjoram, dried, per dozen 

bunches ... 
Savory, dried, per doz. bun. 
Basil, dried, per doz. bunches 
Rosemary, green, per dozen 

bunches - - 

Lavender, dried, per doz. bun 
Tansy, dried, per doz. bunches 

Stalks and Fruits for Tarts. 

Pickling, Sjc. 
Rhubarb Stalks, per bundle 

Edible Fungi and Fuci. 
Mushrooms, per pottle 
Morels, per pound - 
Truffles, per pound : 


Foreign, dried 

Apples, Dessert, per bushel : 
Gazettes » 


French ... 

Sourings - - - 

French Crabs 
Almonds, per peck 
Straw oerries, forced, per oz. 
Pine-apples, per pound 
Grapes, per pound : 


White Portugal 

Purple Portugal 
Cucumbers, frame, per brace 

O-W-ftr" hundred I 

Bitter Oranges, per hundred 

*~ [plrhunTred I 
Sweet Almonds, per pound 
Brazil Nuts, per bushel 
Spanish Nuts, per peck 
Barcelona Nuts, per peck . 


£ s. d 








1 10 















2 10 


1 10 








1 10 








1 4 






Observations. — The market has been better supplied with the articles usual 
at this season, than could have been expected from the prevalence of cold wind 
and severe frosts at night, during the present month (up to this date); but a 
comparison of prices will at once show that a deficiency in supply does and 
must necessarily continue to exist for some time to come. Of early spring 
cabbages we have had a tolerable quantity, at fair prices, offering an induce- 
ment to the growers to send them to market prematurely, which will be the 
cause of a deficiency in the ensuing month. The price of coleworts has in- 
creased during the last fortnight materially. Of asparagus the supply of forced 
begins to diminish very perceptibly, and, as the natural has not yet come to 
hand in any quantity, the price of it is considerably higher. Forced sea-kale 
is also almost exhausted, and the natural is realising a better price than it did 
some time since. Spinach comes to hand plentifully, at a reasonable charge. 

244 London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

Broccoli is furnished in very limited quantities, bringing excellent prices. The 
stock of old onions is getting very short, and, from the prevalence of cold 
weather, rather in demand : within the last month they have doubled in value. 
Old carrots are getting scarce, and as we have no supply of young or new, and 
cannot expect any quantity for some time to come, they will undoubtedly be 
much dearer. Of potatoes we still have abundance, of excellent quality, from 
all parts ; but the supply to the metropolis is now so generally furnished direct 
from the Thames, that we have little to do in them until the new are furnished 
in June or July, when this market usually leads in that article, for price, quan- 
tity, and variety. During the last month we have had two or three cargoes of 
Dutch apples, which have kept us in tolerable supply; but for this, our stock 
would have been extremely low: at present it does not exceed a few hundred 
bushels per week. Of American apples there are yet some few in hand, of good 
quality, but, of course, high in price., Strawberries begin to be furnished regu- 
larly, and, since the introduction of the new varieties, of good size and quality. 
Some few pines have also been sent, realising a fair remunerating price ; never- 
theless, they are not at all abundant. Forced grapes are also in moderate 
supply, but not much in demand, as the prices will plainly indicate. Of peas 
we have had a few small parcels (forced), but at present they are not much in 
demand. — April 15. 1834. 

Art. VIII. London Horticultural Society and Garden. 

March 8. 1834. — Read. Hints concerning the culture of Melons (par- 
ticularly those of the Hoosainee varieties of the Persian families) as aquatic 
or amphibious plants ; by G. J. Towers, Esq. 

Exhibited. Rhododendron arboreum, from Sir C. Lemon, Bart. Anemone 
hortensis superba, and four other varieties ; from Mr. James Young, Epsom. 
Phaius grandiflorus, from Mr. G. Mills. Camelha reticulata, and japonica 
Colvillz, from Messrs. Chandler. Cockscomb cauliflower, from Col. Hallen ; 
communicated by T. Hoblyn, Esq. [the seeds of this remarkable variety had 
been received from Italy.] 

Also, from the Garden of the Society. Camellias, narcissuses, Primula ver- 
ticillata, Cassia laevigata, Berberis Jquifolium and fascicularis, three sorts of 
Ribes, EYia stellata, .Euphorbia bilabris, Echeveria gibbiflora, &c. ; also four- 
teen sorts of apples. 

Distributed. Scions, from the Society's garden, of the Brabant bellefleur, 
Gravenstein, Pennington seedling, and Boston russet sorts of apples ; and of 
the Beurre d'Aremberg and Forme de delices sorts of pears. 

Price of Tickets of Admission to the ensuing (see p. 189.) Exhibitions at the 
Society's Garden. It was announced, that the price of the tickets would, after 
April 1., be 5s. each : their original price was 3,?. 6d. each. 

April I. — Read. Meteorological Journal for the year 1833, kept in the 
Society's Garden. 

Exhibited. A seedling heartsease, from Mr. T. Thompson, gardener to 
Lady Gambier, Iver, Bucks. A species of Kennedy^, native of New Holland, 
from Boyd Miller, Esq. A seedling auricula, from Mr. Wilmer, Sunbury; 
and ornamental species of green-house plants, from Mr. Glenny and Mrs. 

Also, from the Garden of the Society. Lachna2 v a eriocephala, Gompholobium 
polymorphum, Chorozema Henchmanni, Gesnera Douglasw, Indigofera spe- 
ciosa, Ornithogalum arabicum, Rlbes aureum prae v cox, and several other 
well-known interesting plants. 

Scions, from the Society's garden, for distribution, were provided of the 
following varieties of apples : — Red Astrachan, Brickley seedling, Reinette du 
Canada, Pearson's plate, and Gloria mundi; and of the Fondante d'Automne 
kind of pear. 



JUNE, 1834. 


Art. I. Notes on Gardens and Country Seats, visited, from July 27- 
to September ] 6., during a Tour through Part of Middlesex, Berk- 
shire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Hamp- 
shire, Sussex, and Kent. By the Conductor. 

{Continued from p. 194.) 

HiGHCLERE, the Earl of Caernarvon. — Aug. 14. Whoever 
has noticed our remarks on the subject of situation, called forth 
by Bear Wood (IX. 679.), and by Caversham Park (X. 1.), will 
readily conceive that we were delighted with the natural features 
of Highclere. Perhaps, taking the latter altogether, we may 
venture to call it one of the finest places, as far as ground and 
wood are concerned, that we have ever beheld. 

" Highclere is situated just at the point where the chalk 
downs (extending northwards, from the village of Kingsworthy 
on the south of Winchester, to Highclere, a distance of above 
twenty miles) are suddenly interrupted ; their northern escarp- 
ment forming two remarkably bold hills, which are the dis- 
tinguishing features of the place, and conspicuous landmarks 
to the surrounding country. One of these, called Sidon 
Hill, is very beautifully wooded : it constitutes the southern ex- 
tremity of the park at Highclere ; and, commencing about half 
a mile to the south of the mansion, it rises about 400 ft. above 
the valley which lies below it, and 948 ft. above the level of the 
sea. The other, called Beacon Hill, is an outlier to the chalk, 
and is exactly 900 ft. above the level of the sea : it is entirely 
devoid of wood, and its remarkably square and obtuse outline, 
and abrupt termination, together with its smooth surface, form 
a striking contrast to the rich woods of Sidon Hill. These hills 
are separated, by a valley of moderate depth, from the plateau 
of chalk on which the mansion stands. The chalk terminates 
about a quarter of a mile from the house; and the remainder of 
the park, and the adjacent woods, extending between two and three 
miles to the north, are entirely upon diluvial clay, gravel, and 
Vol. X. — No. 51. s 

24-6 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats: — - 

sand, in endless interchange. There are two large pieces of 
water : one of these, called Milford, covers between twenty and 
thirty acres of ground ; it is nearly surrounded with natural 
wood, in part of which, on a steep slope, are some very large 
beech trees. The other lake is called Dursmere, and, though 
not so much varied in its contour as Milford, is yet surrounded 
by beautiful scenery." 

In proceeding from Newbury to Highclere, the road passes 
through a richly cultivated country, having in some places a 
parklike character. In one part, the effect of the trees and 
turf, on both sides of the road, lead the traveller to believe 
that he is passing through a park. Advancing a little, we come 
to a mansion intended for Gothic ; and we cannot help feeling 
regret that a builder of so little taste should have been at work 
in such a scene. The road continues in rather a grand style 
for a cross country road, passing a curious corner clump of larch 
trees, which, we were informed, constitute the remains of a nur- 
sery, and which are now 50 ft. high : these trees, small and 
naked in the stem, look like a gigantic crop of oats, rather than 
larches ; and present a striking example of how much the cha- 
racter of a tree may be changed by the circumstances in which it 
is grown. Shortly beyond these larches, and apparently forming 
the termination of a straight line of the road, appears the arch- 
way, which is the main entrance into the park of Highclere. 
The general effect is exceedingly good ; but the architectural 
details are objectionable, pilasters being used, not at the angles 
as supports, but in the middle of the wall as ornaments. After 
passing the arch, we find that the first part of the approach 
road leads through a thick wood of oaks, hollies, and beeches ; 
as we advance, the eye penetrates to a deep and wild glen on 
the right; shortly after, the scenery opens to the day, and a 
sequestered glade, of three or four acres, surrounded by wood, 
appears to the left : advancing onwards, the wood thickens, and 
gradually approaches close to the road on the left, while the 
scenery opens to the right ; and, the road making a gentle turn, 
the upper part of a circular temple, surrounded by a colonnade, 
and surmounted by a dome, appears on a knoll at a short dis- 
tance across a woody vale. The road advancing among park 
scenery, in which exotic trees, such as hoary-leaved limes, 
cedars, &c, begin to be introduced, we see the same temple 
crowning the summit of a bold promontory, to which we gra- 
dually ascend. The effect of this temple is exceedingly good, 
not only from the approach, but from every other part of the 
grounds. Its architecture is faulty, inasmuch as its colonnade is 
interrupted, and the wall which supports its dome is not shown 
above the entablature ; but these faults are lost in the feeling of 
gratification experienced on observing .such an object placed 

Highclere. 247 

In so fitting a situation. Pausing at this temple, and looking 
from it to the lower grounds, we observe a large sheet of water 
losing itself, in three directions, among well-tufted woods. The 
stranger may now be considered as initiated in the charms of 
the place, and he advances forwards, expecting the continuation 
of what he has hitherto experienced, new beauties at every 
step. Nor is he disappointed : for, on the one hand, Milford 
Water, and varied views of rich distant scenery, supply the most 
ennobling landscapes ; while, on the other, the two striking hills 
which form the boundary of the park are leading features. In 
addition to these objects, the house is seen, for the first time, 
when we are about three quarters of a mile distant from it; it is 
soon lost again, and we do not catch another glimpse of it till 
we are very near it. Its first appearance is exceedingly grand, 
standing on an elevated table land, backed by the two hills 
before mentioned, and commanding a most extensive range of 
distant country in front. All that we shall farther say of the 
approach is, that the wood on each side of it is disposed so 
admirably that there is not a tree that we could wish to alter. 
The prominences and recesses of the masses correspond with the 
elevations and declivities of the surface in some places, thus fol- 
lowing up and increasing the variety indicated by nature ; while 
in others they are found on declivities, so as to create variety and 
intricacy where none naturally existed. There is scarcely a 
point, along the whole of this approach, at which an artist might 
not stop and sketch a landscape that would be well-proportioned 
in its great component parts; and at least harmonious, if not 
striking, in its details. Arriving at the pleasure-ground, we 
discovered that the house, the road to it, and some of its 
accompaniments, are unfinished ; and, therefore, we shall not 
consider them as subjects of criticism. The mansion-house, 
which was much altered within, and entirely cased with Bath 
stone without, by the late earl, who died in the spring of the 
year 1833, leaving it unfinished, is a square building, showing 
three facades, each about 110 ft. in extent of frontage. The 
style of architecture adopted is the Grecian Ionic, as used in 
the Erectheum at Athens. The casing with Bath stone, we 
think a needless expense, when it is known that walls of 
brick, covered with Roman cement, are much stronger and 
much more durable than any wall of brick conjointly with 
stone. The elevations of the three sides, nearly completed, 
are plain, and unobjectionable; with the exception of double 
pilasters at the angles, instead of returned ones, which does 
away with the idea of pilasters as representations of pillars 
of support. The chimney tops are also much too low, and 
very unarchitectural in their forms. The terrace basement 
is wanting ; but this, with various other appendages, will 

s 2 

248 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

no doubt be added before the place is completed. In the 
interior are some good-sized rooms, particularly the library. 
Notwithstanding all this, we are of opinion, that, to produce a 
house suitable to the situation, the cheapest and best way would 
have been to pull the whole down and rebuild it. The views 
from the house, on the entrance front, are singularly grand. To 
the right, they command the park scenery, with its high hilly 
outline of wood as the boundary, and the temple beforemen- 
tioned seen rising from a wooded valley. To the left lies the 
valley of the Kennet, several miles in width ; a rich hilly corn 
country rising beyond. The principal view from the lawn 
front forms a striking contrast to those already mentioned. In 
this view we look down to a smooth grassy hollow, and up to the 
wild woods of Sidon Hill. To the left of this, the Beacon Hill, 
with its bold outline and bare surface, the latter partially con- 
cealed by a wooded eminence rising from the valley right before 
it, forms a fine contrast to the rich wooded scenery of Sidon. 
This last-mentioned hill is ascended by a spiral drive, partly 
open, and partly wooded, which terminates unexpectedly in a 
triumphal arch, through which the eye looks down on the house, 
the pleasure-ground, and the whole park, as on a map. The 
substratum of this hill being chalk, the turf has the smooth 
character belonging to the downs or pastures of chalky districts ; 
and this circumstance, together with the wild manner in which 
sloe thorns, junipers, and other native shrubs have risen up on 
it, forms a remarkable contrast to the smooth polish of the 
pleasure-ground, and its groups of rhododendrons and magno- 
lias, below. From the east front of the house is seen, within the 
pleasure-ground, upon a raised platform, a very handsome Pal- 
ladian temple, roofed, and having a floor, but open on all sides. 
It is a most impressive and delightful object, and is in correct 
architecture, though now somewhat out of repair. This temple 
(like the circular one on the border of the approach road) is 
seen from many points of view in the grounds, and always with 
excellent effect. 

" The beauties of this place are entirely the creation of the 
last two Earls of Caernarvon, father and son. When Henry 
George, the first Earl of Caernarvon of the Herbert family, 
succeeded his uncle in 1769, the place consisted of a small 
pleasure-ground on two sides (the east and south) of the man- 
sion-house, and a long avenue of beech trees, included between 
two quickset hedges, which connected the pleasure-ground with 
Sidon Hill. This hill, which is now covered with the most luxu- 
riant vegetation, had then only five beech trees, and a few ash 
and oak. To the north of the house, a series of enclosed fields 
and a rabbit warren extended to Milford Water, then subdi- 
vided into three ponds, with the natural beech wood before- 

Highclere. 249 

mentioned upon its longest side. Before his improvements were 
commenced, Lord Caernarvon called in the assistance of the 
celebrated Brown, whose plan is still preserved in the mansion 
at Highclere, though it was not followed. It serves to show the 
great superiority which a proprietor of cultivated taste, who resides 
upon his demesne, and makes himself master of its capabilities, 
will always possess over the professional landscape-gardener, 
taking a transient view, and forming his plan upon undigested 
data and imperfect knowledge of local details. Lord Caernar- 
von began his operations by partially destroying the avenue 
leading to Sidon Hill, throwing down its boundary hedges, and 
laying down the arable fields in grass on its right and left ; thus 
including Sidon Hill within the park, and extending the latter up 
to the foot of Beacon Hill, now apparently, though not actually, 
within it. Then, turning his attention northwards, the park 
was carried over all the fields and rabbit warren between the 
mansion-house and Milford Water ; which last, having its three 
subdivisions formed into one lake, was, with its adjoining woods, 
thrown also into the enclosed grounds. Very extensive plant- 
ations stretching from the natural beech wood, along the eastern 
side of the park, and forming a rich woodland boundary, next 
occupied Lord Caernarvon's attention. After this, his planting 
operations upon a large scale were carried to the northwards : 
Dunsmere Water, in short, a multitude of operations, followed ; 
every successive year producing some extension or developement 
of his original plans, which were not only pursued with un- 
abated activity during his own life, but were continued by his 
son, the late Earl of Caernarvon, with equal ardour. A curious 
memorandum book was kept by the first Earl of Caernarvon 
[which has been shown to us]. It records many interesting facts 
connected with his improvements, chronicles the planting and 
progress of his favourite trees, gives the dates of his successive 
operations, and must be regarded as a document of great local 
interest. The mode of preparing and removing large trees 
described by Sir Henry Steuart, was largely practised by Lord 
Caernarvon, sixty years ago. Many of the beech trees, now of 
large dimensions, in Sidon Vale, to the right and left of the old 
avenue, were so removed soon after 1770. In 1795 and 1796, 
many large beech trees were transplanted to the north of the 
house; again, in 1798 and 1799, others were transplanted; 
again, in 1800; and to various spots, and at various intervals, 
between these periods and since. These attempts were almost 
invariably successful. To show how thoroughly Lord Caernarvon 
had appreciated the principles of this practice, we copy an extract 
from his memorandum book, written at least forty years ago : — 
" ' The best way of planting large beech trees of any size is, to 
cut in the lateral branches, not close to the body, in the begin- 

s 3 

250 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

ning of February ; and, in the autumn following (or even in the 
same spring), to cut round the roots, and fill the earth in ; letting 
it stand till the succeeding autumn, or longer, by which time the 
tree will have made young branches and young roots, and be in 
vigour, and fit, upon removal, to push immediate roots. It 
should be taken up without cutting the roots much more, and 
put into a hole with the earth in mud, filled in and well staked. 
The young roots will immediately strike, and the young branches 
shoot. Planting in earth made thick mud is an excellent way. 
The tree should be planted level with the ground ; it suffers, if 
sunk below the level of the ground. The top or leading branch 
of a beech, indeed of any tree, should not be cut off.' 

" When riding round the grounds at Highclere, the fine taste 
which dictated the position of the masses of trees, and of single 
trees, is obvious : how much attention was bestowed upon this 
point by the above-named nobleman, another extract from his 
memorandum book will show ; and it will, at the same time, 
afford a useful lesson to all planters and place improvers. 

" ' In planting single trees about the house, great care should 
be taken not to hide the house from essential parts of the park ; 
for, though they might be of advantage, when seen from the 
house, yet, viewed from Smart's Hill, Tent Hill, Hopgood Hill, 
also from Guines's Coppice, the head of a single tree may hide 
the house, though you may see under it from the house. Great 
care has been taken in placing the present trees ; which might 
have been placed better, choosing their position from the house 
only, but, I think, could not have been placed any where else, 
taking into consideration the necessity of keeping the view of the 
house clear for the beauty of the above-named spots, giving at 
the same time sufficient grove near the house. The best way to 
ascertain the position of a tree is to fix a white pole, with a 
white rag hung to it, and then ride round the park to the heights 
from whence the house is seen. Till I adopted this plan, I was 
obliged to take away trees inadvertently planted, which is ex- 
tremely mortifying.' 

" The fine cedars which adorn the immediate environs of 
the house were (with the exception of two, raised from a 
cone brought immediately from Lebanon, by the celebrated 
Oriental traveller, Dr. Pococke) all raised from seeds by the 
first Earl of Caernarvon ; and the largest of them was planted 
out between the years 1773 and 1778. These fine trees may 
serve to dissipate a commonly prevalent error, which attri- 
butes to the cedar of Lebanon the character of slowness of 
growth ; and to show planters that this most stately of evergreen 
trees actually makes a progress superior to most trees in our 
climate. A fine specimen, upon the lawn opposite to the north- 
western angle of Highclere House, was planted there in the 

Highclere. 251 

spring of 1778, being then 4 ft. high, and having been raised 
from a cone gathered at Wilton in 1772. Being measured on 
the 5th July, 1832, its circumference, at 3 ft. from the ground, 
was 10 ft. 2 \ in.; another, immediately to the south of it, being 
examined at the same time, measured 10 ft. 3 in. ; a third, in the 
park to the north of the house, and close to the back entrance, 
measured 10 ft. 6 in. : but it is useless to multiply instances. 
Beeches planted about the same time are not nearly so large. 
The first Lord Caernarvon, who not only thus improved his 
grounds, but also added largely to his mansion, and gave it a 
third front to the north, died in 1812. His plans were actively 
pursued by the late earl ; who, bringing to the task taste of 
the highest order, added most materially to the magnificence 
of his demesne. A large extension of Milford Water, not yet 
completed according to his views ; the creation of the exotic plant- 
ations surrounding it; a new line of approach to the house, the 
alteration and improvement of which occupied much of his at- 
tention during the latter years of his life, and were left incom- 
plete ; and the creation of the curious collection of American 
plants scattered through the shubberies in the pleasure-grounds, 
are among the operations of the late Lord Caernarvon. We 
have spoken of the magnificent cedars which adorn the lawn 
at Highclere. The heath- mould plants, usually denominated 
American, are not less striking. Unfavourable circumstances 
of local climate, which hardly allow an arbutus to protract a 
wretched existence, induced His Lordship to rely principally 
upon rhododendrons and azaleas for the decoration of his 
shrubberies. To extend the garden varieties, and protract the 
flowering season of the family, became an object which, most 
actively pursued, has been attended with uncommon success. 
By means of hybrid intermixture, the season for these beautiful 
flowers, beginning about the end of April, lasts till the middle of 
July, almost three months. The very splendid rhododendrons, 
brilliant to the highest degree with their crimson corollas, of 
the variety obtained between the .Rhododendron arboreum of 
Nepal and M. catawbiense, and named, by Dr. Lindley, after 
the Doomsday name of Highclere (Alta-Clera), .Rhododen- 
dron alta-clerense [see Bot. Reg., vol. iv. t. 1414., and VII. 
472.*], come into flower about the third week in April, and 
are succeeded by a multitude of splendid varieties both of 
-Rhododendron and Azalea, ending with the crosses obtained 
between Rhododendron maximum and Azalea autumnalis rubra. 

* In this page, Mr. Gowen, the originator of all these hybrids, is spoken of 
as the gardener at Highclere. This is erroneous ; Mr. Gowen should have 
been designated an amateur of gardening; Mr. Carton was the gardener at 
the time the first hybrid rhododendrons were raised, and one variety (see 
Hort. Brit. 29193.) is named after him. 

s 4 

252 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — ■ 

The number is continually increasing; and, however per- 
plexing to the botanist, who will have the disagreeable task 
of distinguishing between indigenous species and these endless 
horticultural varieties, yet it must be owned that to this art 
of hybridising the flower-garden is,, and will be, indebted for 
a great accession of beauty and enjoyment. Of the many 
achievements of this nature at Highclere, the most striking is 
to be found in the crosses effected between R. arboreum and the 
hardy species. These hybrids, which as far surpass the com- 
mon rhododendrons as the new double Scotch roses do the old 
wild ones, are perfectly hardy, exceedingly floriferous, and can- 
not be surpassed in splendour. Of the azaleas, the most splendid 
are bred between the fine garden varieties of Azalea calendu- 
lacea and Azalea nudiflora var. rubescens ; and it may be pre- 
dicated of all these hybrids, that they possess a much greater 
tendency to profuse flowering than the unadulterated species. 
[Some account of the origination of these will be found in VII. 62.] 
The history of the hybrid R. alta-clerense is curious in the 
way of floricultural anecdote. To obtain it had been a great 
desideratum ; but the specimens of R. arboreum at Highclere 
had shown no disposition to flower. The only places in England 
where it then (1826) flowered were Hylands (Mr. Labouchere's), 
and at the Grange. From the latter place an umbel was obtained 
and conveyed to Highclere in a tin case. By means of its 
pollen the flowers of R. ponticum and R. maximum were fe- 
cundated, and about 1800 seedlings were raised, many of which, 
after supplying his private friends, Lord Caernarvon desired 
might be distributed among the nurserymen. This was done in 
the spring of 1831. Those which were retained at Highclere 
have now attained a flowering age, and form extensive shrub- 
beries round the house." 

The pleasure-grounds are about 100 acres in extent, and con- 
tain many fine specimens of exotic trees and shrubs, among 
which were tulip trees, black walnut, deciduous cypress, Virgili# 
lutea, and Magndlz'tf acuminata and tripetala. The climate is 
so severe, that M. obovata and the stuartias can hardly exist. 
Among the shrubs, a large-leafed variety of Cotoneaster micro- 
phylla insulated on the lawn, its branches covering a space of 
thirteen yards in circumference, is a very conspicuous object. 
The formation of these shrubberies, we were told, was an 
arduous operation : the ground has been made to the depth of 
between three and four feet, and the mould was carted from the 
park woods in the vicinity of the lakes, a distance of nearly two 

" The climate of Highclere, as might be expected from 
its situation, immediately under the northern termination of an 
extensive range of bleak woodless downs, is very unfavourable 

Highclere. 253 

to horticulture. The profusion of lichens and green moss upon 
the trees attest its humidity. Many shrubs which endure the open 
air well at Newbury, only five miles off, live with difficulty here ; 
and the only counterbalancing advantage is a comparative ex- 
emption from autumnal frosts. The site of the house is about 
600 ft. above the level of the sea. Cunningham/a lanceolata 
lives out well in a shrubbery in the pleasure-ground. Among 
the rhododendrons is a healthy specimen of the very scarce 
.Rhododendron campanulatum (Nepal), which has not yet 
flowered. It has the habit of a sturdy bush, or rather, perhaps, 
of a small tree. Its leaves are about the size of those of R. 
catawbiense, and are of a very deep green on the upper surface, 
but beneath are covered with the deepest cinnamon-coloured 
pubescence. [This rare and beautiful rhododendron has lately 
flowered with Messrs. Loddiges, and in Mr. Knight's Exotic 
Nursery. The corolla is white spotted with lilac, large, and bell- 
shaped.] We noticed two beds, containing nearly 100 bushes of 
hybrids between Azalea and .Rhododendron. The method lately 
pursued, as before mentioned, is to mass the varieties and species 
as much as possible together. Thus, Andromeda: acuminata, 
forming a small bed, is very ornamental. .Erica vagans is so 
treated, and kept compact by an annual cutting in with the 
garden shears; Menz'iesia caerulea, gualtherias, and the close- 
growing vacciniums, are all so treated, and with great effect. 
Indeed, small low shrubs, like the humbler rhododendrons, 
andromedas, vacciniums, and ericas, planted in large shrub- 
beries, produce no effect compared with what they do when 
indulged with a space to themselves, where they are free to 
show their natural habits. ^Spiraea trilobata is very handsome, 
when so treated ; as are S. bella and S. #riaef61ia. Ribes san- 
guineum grows rapidly at Highclere, but dies suddenly in the 
middle of summer, when three or four years old, in whatever soil 
or exposure it has hitherto been placed. Of Crataegus grandi- 
flora and tanacetifolia there are fine specimens, near the 
house : the yellow fruit of the latter is eatable, resembling an 
apple, but more insipid. iVymphae'a advena thrives exceedingly 
in Milford Lake, and is very hardy. Among the rarer aquatics 
is Auphar minima. A double-flowering American sagittaria 
has increased rapidly. Pinus DouglaszY appears to be of very 
rapid growth, and extremely suitable to the climate. Xilia 
heterophylla is a tree of very fine foliage, and apparently of rapid 
growth. The progress of ^4'cer macrophyllum has been very 
rapid ; and it seems probable that most of the trees from north- 
western America, near the regions of the Columbia River and 
noi-th of it, will find in England a very congenial climate. Vir- 
gilia lutea flowered profusely at Highclere last spring, in racemes 
of moderate length, inodorous and not showy, being hidden in the 

254 Notes on Gardens tend Country Seals : — ■ 

exuberant foliage. A specimen of Magnolia conspicua, in the plea- 
sure-ground, grafted upon a stock of Magnolia acuminata, is in 
all respects more vigorous than one raised in the usual manner 
upon a stock of Magnolia obovata; its foliage is deeper in colour 
and thicker in substance, and its flowers much more numerous. 

" A fine weeping ash, also in the pleasure-ground, which had 
remained for several years stationary in height, suddenly made 
a strong perpendicular shoot nearly 10 ft. in length, which now 
forms the head of the tree; its luxuriant branches having quite 
overwhelmed the original tree. Quercus fastigiata, on the 
banks of Milford Water, is interesting, from its perpendicular 
habit, resembling that of the Lombardy poplar." 

Besides the shrubs above enumerated, we noticed Z)iospyros 
virginiana, Nyssa aquatica, ISfegiindo JraxlmfbYia. ; Liquidambar, 
both species ; Dirca palustris, 3 ft. high, with a stem 6 in. in 
diameter ; Z£ubus nutkanus, which has the habit of the Virginian 
raspberry, and bears an eatable fruit, resembling the cloud- 
berry in size and appearance; B. spectabilis, and several other 
species ; all the new species of Berberis and Mahonia ; a com- 
plete collection of named vacciniums ; all the azaleas, both of 
the British and Continental nurseries, besides numerous new 
hybrids already mentioned, some of which were still in flower, 
while on others the capsules, impregnated with a view to new 
varieties, were nearly ready to gather ; and a good collection of 
roses, standards, and dwarfs, among which was the Highclere 
seedling, one of the most beautiful of the tea-scented China 
roses and a free flowerer throughout the whole season : budded 
in May, these roses will flower in the August of the same year. 
The best stock for this and the other China roses is the B. 
Banksz'tf?. Among the herbaceous plants, which were now in 
splendid beauty, producing most brilliant masses of colour in 
groups on the lawn, were, Z/ilium tigrinum and L. canadense, and 
Yucca glaucescens, which has the habit of Y. filamentosa, flower- 
ing yearly, but much more freely, with larger and more numerous 
blossoms, and more elegant foliage. This plant was first given 
to the nurseries from Highclere. Campanula lactiflora forms a 
fine lawn plant, either singly or in large masses ; the lobelias, 
georginas, lupines, phloxes, potentillas, asters, gladioluses, pe- 
tunias, mimuluses, and many of the new Californian plants in- 
troduced by Douglas, added to the beauty of the scene. It 
deserves particularly to be remarked, that the dark purple candy- 
tuft and Clarkz'tf pulchella form the best masses when mixed 
with mignonette, and the same may be said of other showy but 
naked-stemmed annuals ; and, farther, that all these flowers, and, 
in general, all the ornamental shrubs, are introduced in masses ; 
sometimes, as in the case of the snowberry, of one species 
only; and in others, as in i?ubus, Erica, i^hododendron, &c, 

Highclere. 255 

of several species and varieties of the same genus. If the great 
woods of the place were to be planted over again, this principle 
would be more attended to, with regard to the forest trees ; but 
it must be recollected, that, when these woods were planted, 
about the middle of the last century, and, indeed, not till near 
the end of it, there was not, in any nursery in the island, above 
a dozen kinds of forest trees to be procured, in quantities suffi- 
cient for making large plantations. 

In a walled flower-garden, on a declivity facing the south, 
and concealed by wood, are innumerable valuable plants. The 
exterior of the wall is varied by piers and arches of ivy, the 
panels between being filled in with choice deciduous climbers 
and roses. In this garden we found fine collections of car- 
nations, pinks, and other florist's flowers ; beds of hybrid ixias, 
and other hybrid iridese, raised by that enthusiastic vegetable 
hybridiser, the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert of Spofforth, 
brother to the late Earl of Caernarvon, whose garden has been 
described by a correspondent. (VI. 531.) We were delighted 
to find here that Gladiolus natalensis propagates so readily by 
offsets, that one bulb will produce 100 in a season, which, when 
well treated, will flower the following year. We trust soon to 
see it in every cottage garden. Cypella Herbert/, a beautiful 
ixia-like plant, was in flower. In the plant stove there is a good 
collection of epiphytes, well grown, especially rhinanthera. 
Plumier/a bicolor was in flower; and also a large plant of La- 
gerstroe v m/a indica, besides numerous smaller or more common 
articles. The crops of grapes, peaches, and pines, in the houses 
and pits in this garden, were good. To produce a moist heat 
from hot-water pipes in the pine-pits, Mr. Carton (the very 
excellent gardener) had them covered with moss, which he 
watered occasionally with clear water ; and, if we remember 
correctly, occasionally with horse-dung water, in order to pro- 
duce ammoniacal gas to destroy insects, and carbonic gas to 
nourish the plants. The practice of watering with horse-dung 
water, we believe, originated with Mr. Pillans, late foreman to 
Mr. Forrest at Syon, and now head-gardener to Lord Ducie at 
Woodchester Park, near Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire; 
who, we hope, will favour our readers with an account of this 
and some of his other new and valuable practices. We observed 
a number of vines, in pots, raised from the eye the same season, 
which were expected to produce several bunches of fruit each 
the next year. The cuttings of the vines are first planted in 
very small pots, and shifted, as they advance in growth, into 
pots of larger size, till the latter are, at last, a foot in diameter, 
when they are placed in large saucers, and fed with liquid 
manure. The pots are placed at the back of the house, close 
under the glass, and the shoots are trained on wires down the 

256 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats : — 

slope, so as to give the leaves every advantage of sun and heat. 
It is expected that each vine will produce five or six bunches of 
grapes ; those of Mr. Pillans, similarly treated, having produced 
450 lb. of grapes from seventy pots; the vines, when the fruit 
was ripe, not being more than eighteen months from the eye. 
This may be considered as the extraordinary result of extra- 
ordinary skill, attention, and perseverance. It may be useful 
and commendable in gentlemen's gardens ; but, as it requires 
much more labour, as well as skill, than can be afforded by most 
persons who wish to grow grapes, it is not intended to super- 
sede the simpler and more certain modes. It may be con- 
sidered as a prize essay. 

The kitchen-garden is here but a secondary object of attention. 
The soil is naturally a strong clay ; but part of it has lately been 
greatly improved by burning some of the subsoil, and mixing it 
with the surface. The operation is performed, during the sum- 
mer season, on the spot, by heaping up a coating of clay upon a 
ridge of fagots, and setting; fire to the latter, in the manner 
explained in detail in our Encyclopaedia of Agriculture. The 
clay is put on in rough spadefuls, and, when the burning is com- 
pleted, it is spread over the ground from which it was taken, at 
the rate of a good dunging. There is here a very good gar- 
dener's house ; and we found in it an excellent garden and 
miscellaneous library, belonging to Mr. Carton. Among his 
miscellaneous books were the Waverley novels and the Cabinet 

After spending several hours in seeing the grounds about the 
house, we drove down to the sheet of water called Milford. 
This was a favourite spot of the late Lord Caernarvon. As a 
piece of home lake scenery, it is beautiful ; and, as altogether the 
work of art, with the exception of the sloping bank covered with 
natural wood, it is admirable. A large wood, remarkable for 
the size and richness of its hollies, is connected with this natural 
beech wood by extensive plantations of fir and larch. The 
holly wood, which is called Penwood, possesses great beauty. 
The undergrowth of the woods and islands of this lake of Mil- 
ford Water is entirely composed of rhododendrons, azaleas, 
kalmias, and other American evergreens, which attain a vast size, 
and sow themselves. There are numerous Nepal hybrids here ; 
and they are found to stand the drought better than the common 
sorts. Altogether, we do not know any place in the country 
where there is such a great extent of American trees and shrubs. 
There are even some exotic aquatics in the water ; and it is in 
contemplation to scatter the seeds of many of the most beautiful 
of the North American annuals in the woods, as is now doing at 
Dropmore. Among the native trees are some very large beeches, 
one of which is 18 ft. in circumference at 3 ft. from the ground, 

Highclere. 257 

and 24 ft. close to it. Another larger-stemmed tree, close to this, 
is 13 ft. 8 in. in circumference, at 3 ft. from the ground. There is 
a large ash, near these beeches, which is 13 ft. 8 in. close to the 
ground ; and there is an ash in the park 16 ft. 8 in. in circum- 
ference at 3 ft. from the ground. These large trees are supposed 
to be aboriginal. 

" The summit of Beacon Hill is crowned with a very fine 
British entrenchment. Several barrows at the foot of the hill 
were opened some years ago, and found to contain burnt bones, 
spear and arrow heads of bronze, and some small ornaments of 
thin gold, which had obviously been used as a covering to a 
nucleus long since decayed. The elevated barrows had con- 
tained the bones of warriors; the smaller ones, which were only 
slightly elevated above the surrounding ground, contained smaller 
bones (apparently either those of females or young people), which 
were unaccompanied by implements of war." 

After this slight outline of the leading features of Highclere, 
it remains for us to give our general opinion of its beauties. 
Taking it altogether, then, and considering it as a whole, and 
with reference both to nature and art, we know of no inland 
place to equal it. There are more striking portions of ground 
at many places ; for example, the brow on which the house is 
situated at Pain's Hill, with the river below : there are more 
romantic situations, as at Hafod ; situations in which rocks and 
a natural river have a prominent effect, as at Auchincruive ; or 
rocks without a river, as at Hawkstone : there are more striking 
situations by art, and where architecture is included: as in the 
view of Blenheim, on entering the Woodstock gate ; or of the 
enchanted valley, at Alton Towers : but, decidedly, in our 
opinion, there is no place in England where so much dignity of 
character, so much elegant variety, and so much cultivated 
beauty, is preserved throughout a place of such great extent. We 
set little value on the rhododendrons and other pleasure-ground 
ornaments, compared with what we think of the style of planting 
which has been everywhere adopted, of the formation of the 
water, and of the distribution of the views of the house. The 
ground floor of the house is not sufficiently raised ; and the 
direction of the approach to it might be improved. There are 
several minor points which may also admit of correction ; and 
the woods, and plantations of American shrubs on the lawn, 
like all others that are intended to continue to look well, will 
require constant thinning : but all these things are as nothing 
in the scale, when weighed against the natural beauty of the 
grounds, and the judicious disposition of the woods, groups, 
and scattered trees. We know no place in which the trees are 
as well disposed over so great an extent of surface. Por- 
tions of Pain's Hill, Caversham, Esher, and a few other places, 

258 Notes on Gardens and Country Seats. 

may be compared with Highclere ; but these are only portions, 
not in all exceeding a few acres : while here we have a park three 
or four miles in length, and averaging a mile in breadth. Let 
the reader who has an opportunity compare the planting which 
has been done in the park at White Knights, both that done by 
the original planter about the same time as that at Highclere, 
and that done under the direction of the Duke of Marlborough, 
and say in which is the superiority of taste and judgment. 
There are few, however, who can profit from the study of such 
places as Highclere and Pain's Hill; and this is the reason 
why we have always heard the former place mentioned for its 
hybrid rhododendrons and azaleas, and the latter for having 
been the first where rhododendrons were raised from American 
seeds ; and never, either of them, for the disposition of the trees. 
There is, however, one point, in respect to Highclere, which, 
we have no doubt, will come home to the bosoms both of gar- 
deners and their employers ; and an important point it is : that 
is, that all the American trees and shrubs, which now make such a 
conspicuous figure there, were raised on the spot, either from seeds 
procured from America, or from plants which had ripened them 
in this country. We are assured that not more than 20/. have 
been paid at Highclere for nursery plants during the last 
twenty years. Perhaps we shall be blamed by nurserymen for 
mentioning such a thing. We should deserve blame, however, 
much more, if we were to preserve silence. The reason why 
gentlemen have had recourse to raising American plants from 
seed, is because more has been charged for the plants by the 
nurserymen, than many gentlemen could afford to give. So far 
from blaming gentlemen for raising trees from American seeds, 
we commend them for it; and we are persuaded that nursery- 
men would do so likewise, if they saw the result in its true 
light; viz. the spreading of a taste for foreign trees and shrubs. 
Persons in business may rely upon this, that there is not one 
gentleman in a hundred, who can afford to purchase plants from 
a nurseryman, who will take the trouble of rearing them from 
seed for himself. Gentlemen who are not rich, or those whose 
expenditure in matters of improvement or taste treads closely 
on the heels of their incomes, may become their own nursery- 
men ; but the effect of wealth is, in almost all cases, to induce a 
desire for ease, and to purchase the results of labour, rather than 
to labour to produce results. Besides, were the practice alluded 
to to become general, the seed business would be greatly in- 
creased; and, in this case, what difference could it make to 
a nursei'yman whether he derives a profit from importing and 
selling seeds, or raising plants from these seeds? The truth 
is, all businesses and all pursuits are continually changing 
with the progress of society. This complaint, of gentlemen 

Kitchen- Garden containing One Acre. 259 

becoming their own propagators, has been repeated for the last 
thirty years : but have not nurserymen multiplied tenfold during 
that period ; and, if so, what is the reason? As well might we 
say that no gentleman ought to lay out his own grounds : but, 
if this were the case, where would have been Woburn Farm, 
White Knights, Pain's Hill, and Highclere ? The truth is, 
that, without such deviations from commonplace routine, there 
would neither have been landscape-gardening, in the modern sense 
of that expression, nor would the business of a nurseryman 
have extended beyond that of a mere grower of fruit and forest 
trees. Highclere is an example of what the late Sir Uvedale 
Price always held forth to the world ; viz., that any gentleman 
who wished to make his place what it ought to be, ought to study 
the subject of planting and laying out grounds himself. This 
is precisely what the last two proprietors of this place have 
done ; and Highclere, in its present state, is the result. 

For the passages in inverted commas in the foregoing article, 
we are indebted to a gentleman better acquainted with the loca- 
lities of Highclere, than we could be by our transient visit. 

Art. II. A Series of Designs for laying out Kitchen-Gardens. By 
Mr. T. Rutger. Design 1., Containing an Acre xvithin the Walls. 

In offering a series of what may be considered as work- 
ing-plans for the formation of kitchen-gardens, I deem it neces- 
sary to enter a little into detail upon the subject. In the first 
place, it must be understood that I do not offer these designs as 
standards of excellence, not be improved upon or excelled ; but 
rather that I submit them to draw, from the more experienced, 
observations or designs serving to illustrate such principles and 
rules as will tend to effect the object in view. In the designs 
there will be nothing of a fanciful description introduced (except 
when a flower-garden may be given) ; utility and convenience 
only being studied. They are likewise intended to be so com- 
posed that one may assist another ; either by enabling the de- 
signer to add to one from another, or to reduce one to the 
size of another, as it may be thought desirable in laying out 
the ground. 

I am aware that much has been written about the aspect and 
situation of kitchen-gardens ; pointing out the advantages and 
disadvantages of each, according to the views of various writers 
upon the subject. However, without offering an opinion 
upon these points, and believing that, in most instances, a 
southern aspect is approved of, the following series will be 
arranged accordingly ; and as to situation, this must be left to 


Design for laying out a Kitchen- Gar den, 


10 30, JO. 

-J ' I 


a a, Fruit-garden, and for potherbs, h b, Culinary department, 
with espaliers. c c, Forcing department. d d, Department 
for compost, mixing dung, &c. e e, Ranges for melons and 

i cucumbers. /, Pine stove. g, Peach house. k, Vinery. 
i i", Pits. k, Back shed. / /, Mushroom sheds, or for 

other purposes. m m m, Water basins, or places for pumps. 

the judgment of those 
who may think any 
of the plans worthy 
of being adopted, in 
part or wholly, as the 
groundwork of their 

With regard to 
form, it will be seen 
that I favour the ob- 
long, with the slip 
made circular on the 
south, or point of 
principal entrance : 
this, in my opinion, 
falls in better with an 
adjoining shrubbery 
than a straight fence 
would do, should a 
shrubbery be pro- 

Espaliers being ob- 
jected to by some and 
approved of by others, 
they must be left to 
the will of such as 
like to adopt or dis- 
card them. How- 
ever, I consider them 
both useful and orna- 
mental, and that, in 
both respects, they 
more than compen- 
sate for the injury 
which it is thought 
by some they do the 

The height of walls 
must also be left to 
the judgment of the 
designer; only in this 
case I beg to observe, 
that, if, according to 
the scale of these de- 
signs, there is not a 
sufficient space be- 
tween the back wall 

Gardener's House for a North-East Angle. 261 

of the gardens, and the frames or houses in the rear, for the latter 
to receive the full influence of the sun's rays, even on the shortest 
day, more space must be given. It must be noticed, also, that, 
although the forcing-houses will be named and particularised in 
the references, it is not intended that they should be adopted 
any farther than may be approved of, or deemed necessary, with 
such alterations as may be found requisite to make them answer 
better for their intended purposes. If room cannot be afforded 
behind the frame ground for compost, &c, the space in front 
of the frames can be appropriated for that purpose; and, 
in that case, some other place must be found for working the 
dung for the frames. With respect to the slips, they will appear 
uniform in the plans; but, as it may not be convenient in every 
case to follow this rule, any other convenient form can be sub- 
stituted. The pathways that it may be deemed necessary to 
place in and through the quarters will be left to discretion. 

With these few preliminaries, I submit to you the ground 
plan of No. 1. of the series {Jig. 35.}, which contains barely an 
acre within the walls, including the forcing department : this, not 
being available for crops, is compensated by the entrance ground. 
If side slips are wanted, reference may be made to plan No. 2., 
in which a difference will also be made in laying out the quarters 
of the garden. T. RutGer. 

Skortgrove, Essex, 1834. 

Art. III. Design for a Gardener s House, adapted for the North- 
East Angle of a walled Kitchen-Garden. By Mr. Robertson. 

Having, in preceding articles, given designs for gardeners' 
houses, suitable for being placed on the four side walls of a 
kitchen-garden, we now proceed to give designs for the four 
angles, which will complete the series. We are happy to find 
that these designs have directed the attention of gentlemen to 
the manner in which their gardeners are lodged, in different parts 
of the country ; and that new houses, in some cases, and addi- 
tions to old ones, in others, have been the consequences. We 
have now before us three beautiful sketches of gardeners' houses 
which have been thus originated, and which we shall probably 
give, after the present series is completed. 

Another improvement which has taken place, connected with 
gardeners' houses, is the removal of trees, shrubs, climbers, &c, 
which often used to cover them in such a way, as not only to 
render ventilation utterly impossible, but even to exclude the 
light. Some very handsome and commodious gardeners' houses 
have been, from this cause, rendered very unwholesome. 

The present design (fg. 36.), like those which have preceded it, 
Vol. X. — No. 51. t 

262 Gardener'' s House for a North-East Angle. 




The principal floor contains: — a, Entrance from the angle formed by the garden walls, b, Kitchen, 
c, Parlour. d, Bedroom. e, Bedroom. /, Office, with desk and book-shelves on two sides. 
g, Wicket, to which the men come in by the back door, h, and through which they are admitteJ, 
one at a time, into the office,/, where they are paid. i, k, I, Places for ashes, coal, and wood. 

The cellar floor contains : — m, Staircase. w, Kitchen and bakehouse. o, Boiler. p, Oven. 
q, Flue from the oven, for the purpose of heating a mass of stones, to communicate warmth to the 
whole house, in the manner explained at length in the article on cottage husbandry and architec- 
ture. (VI. 139.) r r, Two root cellars. s, A beer cellar, or lumber place. There is no 
other floor to this house, it being intended for a gardener with a small family. 

Strictures on disposing Plants in Masses. 263 

has not the slightest pretension to ornament ; the object of these 
designs being merely to show the arrangement of the rooms, 
and the connection of the walls with those of the garden, in 
such a manner as that any country mason or bricklayer might 
build from them. 

Art. IV. Strictures on disposing Plants in Masses. 
By Calycanthus. 

The system of disposing plants in masses, so frequently and 
ably advocated in this Magazine, is becoming very general, and 
certainly produces a much better effect than the tedious mono- 
tony of an indiscriminate mixture. In the practice, however, of 
this superior method, it should be remembered that the groups 
and masses ought to be considered as parts of a whole, and, as 
such, should harmonise and unite with each other, with regard 
to form and colour. Without attention to this point, the 
several disunited and independent parts will no more form a 
gardenesque landscape, than the colours arranged on a painter's 
palette will of themselves form a picture. I have known more 
than one small garden spoiled by a disregard of proportion, the 
shrubs and flowers being disposed in groups of far too large a 
size. In sitch a situation, a single plant, or a group of two or 
three, must be considered to bear the same proportion to the 
whole, as much larger masses or groups bear in the case of a 
park. Although I approve, as I have said above, of the prin- 
ciple of placing different species in groups and masses, I think 
that there are cases in which this, like all other principles, may 
be carried too far. In a small flower-garden which I very much 
admire, I have seen a group, composed of myrtles and China 
roses, planted alternately in quincunx order, the larger plants 
being in the centre ; and, in my opinion, a better effect was pro- 
duced than if the two species had been in separate masses: the 
rich green colour of the myrtles' leaves, forming a ground to the 
beautiful white of the flower ; the light and elegant foliage and 
pendent bloom of the rose ; the mingled colour, and the asso- 
ciations connected with both, made an impression upon me 
which I shall not easily forget. In the same garden there is a 
group consisting of an acacia, a sumach, and a laburnum. The 
light feathery elegance of the acacia, the broader and more 
shadowy plumes of the sumach, and the pendulous clusters of 
flowers of the laburnum, compose a little picture of the most 
highly finished character. 

Gardeners might find much instruction from an examination 
of cottage gardens, in many of which I have seen a degree of 
good taste that is not always found where there is more reason 

T 2 

264 Defects in the Management of Fruit Trees. 

to expect it. In such gardens, it often happens that very strik- 
ing effects are produced by a judicious disposition of plants of 
the most common description ; and I think it would be a 
very useful study to endeavour to imitate them with plants of 
more rare and choice species. I was once much struck by a 
particular effect (not, however, of sufficient general interest for 
a place in your Magazine) produced by a plant of the common 
hop ; and it was not until after many trials that I could find a 
substitute for it among more choice plants : at length, however, I 
succeeded to my own satisfaction by means of one of the genus 
Clematis ; the species I do not with certainty know, as it has 
never flowered during the three years that it has been in my 

In small gardens, nothing can be more unpleasing than a 
want of neatness and high finish ; it reminds me of a flower- 
painter of the last century, who used the most dingy and sombre 
colours that he could find, saying that he imitated Raphael, and 
painted for posterity. In the case of a small garden, it should 
be remembered that, whatever may be the beauty of the design, 
constant attention, and the frequent removal of plants, are in- 
dispensable : three or four years of neglect would leave nothing, 
either to posterity or the designer himself, but a tangled and 
matted thicket of such plants as might come off conquerors in 
the struggle for life incident to want of sufficient space. 

Hastings, April, 1834. 

Art. V. On Defects in the Management of Fruit Trees. 
By Mr. Robert Errington. 

Although so much has been said and written about various 
modes of training and managing fruit trees, you may, perhaps, 
yet spare room for a few more remarks on the subject. It will 
be generally admitted, I think, even by most practical men (by 
the by, a class rather slow to admit any thing which implicates 
themselves), that the cultivation of fruit trees generally is not 
so successful as might be desired, and, from long practice, ex- 
pected. My attention is at this time called to the subject by some 
remarks of yours, IX. 671.? in which you say, " We shall be much 
surprised, if, when the doctrine of disbudding comes to be gene- 
rally understood, it does not effect a very considerable change 
in the mode of managing every description of fruit tree which 
requires to be trained in any particular form, or kept within 
any particular bounds less than what are natural to it." Your 
remarks I consider just in a very considerable degree; and hence 
appears the propriety, and, I may fairly say, necessity, of adding 
philosophical to practical knowledge in our profession. The com- 

Defects in the Management of Fruit Trees. 265 

mon expression among us, that " leaves make roots, and roots 
make leaves," is either not sufficiently understood, or not allowed 
to regulate practice. It is difficult to say whether the ill success of 
most gardeners, as to producing permanency and productiveness 
in fruit trees, arises from the mismanagement of the top or of the 
root. In one instance, we see borders, as they are called, made 
by an excavation deep enough for the bed of a river, which is 
filled with materials containing richness more than sufficient to 
grow the bloated tree to the size of an immense standard. Here, 
while the soil is new, and possessing some strength, the ill-fated 
gardener may ply his nippers all the year round in removing 
robbers and superfluities of his own creation ; and in two or three 
years may rival the globe for willow twigs. By degrees, the 
immediate proportion of manures contained in the soil becomes 
entirely decomposed, and, by the villanous spade culture on the 
top, the soil comes to as fine tilth as though it were riddled. 
Thence, in wet seasons, ensues entire stagnation, and, in very 
dry ones, mildew and other baneful diseases. These evils arise 
in consequence of the soil's losing nearly all assistance from the 
purifying and invigorating efforts of the atmosphere ; for it is 
either swamped or baked, and in both cases it is, at it were, her- 
metically sealed. In another case, borders are made by trenching 
abundance of manures into loose sandy soils on a hot gravelly 
bottom ; better adapted for barley and turnip culture than for a 
class of trees of which sound loams are the " life and soul." 
Here, at first, while the dung lasts, together with moderately 
moist seasons, the trees appear to flourish in grand style, and 
the proprietor chuckles over them, well pleased that he did not 
follow the advice of those who (knowing the unstable character 
of such soils) suggested to him the necessity of strengthening 
the staple : all this, he now perceives (or thinks he does, at least), 
would have been unnecessary expense. The manures in such 
soils, once exhausted in producing the mere framework of a 
tree, which the soil can never long maintain, nothing more is 
needed than a heavy crop of fruit for a season or two, a burning 
hot summer, and some spade culture over the surface roots, to 
complete the career of this tree, and then the sooner it is set fire 
to the better. Certainly top-dressing will do much in such a 
case (especially if the spade is unknown to such a border), but 
can never give that stability and endurance to the tree, and that 
flavour, quality, and weight to the fruit, which are the constant 
effects of a good loamy soil. Then, as to top management, 
which may be said to comprehend, mode of training, summer 
disbudding, summer stopping, thinning the fruit, winter pruning, 
&c. : assuming (what, I presume, will be readily granted) that, in 
a cool damp climate like that of Britain, light, heat, and a cir- 
culation of air are of immense importance, in regard of the 

t 3 

266 Vines and Vineries. 

fructification in fruit trees, do we find anything like proper at- 
tention paid to these important principles ? Exceptions there are, 
we know ; but what is the most general practice ? Shoots are 
crammed in, as though the quantity and quality of the fruit were 
to be determined by the number of these alone ; or probably, in 
the tender stone-fruit trees, the young wood hanging from the 
wall till nearly August, is thereby deprived of all the advantages 
arising from the accumulated heat of the wall; and trees of this 
description I have noticed, which had received all the attention 
possible in their winter pruning, at a time when light and heat 
were comparatively of little importance to them, and which were 
yet left in the summer to the above ill fate. 

It may now be fairly expected, that, after having pointed out 
the defects in the present practice, I should have something new 
to offer on the subject ; but you must be aware, that to treat it 
in all its bearings would occupy more space than you could 
spare. I will, however, if agreeable, in a future Number, offer 
my ideas on the management of fruit trees, and will give you the 
skeleton of a plan I should adopt, were I going to lay out a new 
kitchen-garden, and allowed to follow my own plans entirely. 

Oulton Park, Cheshire, Jan., 1834. R. Errington. 

We shall be happy to receive the proposed communication. — - 

Art. VI. Notes on Vines and Vineries. By An Experienced 

The border in front of the vinery should be from 30 to 40 ft. 
in width, and should be formed of loamy soil, sharp sand, and 
at least a fourth part of well-rotted horse-dung. The vines may 
be planted on the outside of the front wall, but the stems should 
be taken through it below the level of the surface, so that they 
may never appear on the outside. When it is desired to swell 
the fruit to a large size, the border should be well watered every 
evening in the swelling season, and covered during the day with 
litter, to prevent evaporation. The most desirable sorts of plants 
in a vinery are Money's muscat eshcolata, Tottenham Park 
muscat, white frontignac, red frontignac, Money's West's 
St. Peter's, Money's eshcolata superba, black Hamburgh, black 
Constantia, black prince, and white Hamburgh. This last grape 
is not so well known as it ought to be. It is by some confounded 
with the Syrian; but it ripens much earlier, and, when it is 
grown in heat, it is an excellent grape. Others mistake it for 
the white Portugal; but the latter grape has a much thicker skin, 
and its juice is more watery. The white Hamburgh, when it 
ripens, is somewhat speckled with red. In order to have very 
late crops of grapes, the house should be kept very dry, by 

Modes of training Wall Trees. 267 

giving air every fine day, and supplying no more fire heat during 
winter than is barely sufficient to keep out the frost. If the 
house is in the neighbourhood of much coal smoke, the laps 
between the panes should be puttied, and the putty should be 
such as will not crack ; which is effected by putting 1 lb. of 
white lead into every 10 lbs. of putty previously to using it, and 
using, instead of common linseed oil, which dries and shrinks, 
sweet or train oil, which dries slowly, and causes the putty to 
take a firmer hold of the glass. 

When the rafters of a house are 25 or SO ft. long, there will 
require to be three tiers of sashes; and these, if put in accord- 
ing to the usual plan, would require the rafter to be very deep 
in its upper part. To prevent this, cut the fillets which support 
the sashes, not in the form of parallelograms, as is usually done ; 
but in the form of right-angled triangles, of the full breadth of 
the fillet at one end, but diminishing to a quarter of an inch at 
the other. The wires on which the vines are trained ought to 
be 7 in. or 7^ in. from the glass. 

In planting the vines, first open a hole, then set a pot con- 
taining a plant in it ; next break the pot with a hammer, but 
take care not to break the ball of earth ; then take the outside 
fibres and roots, that appear on the surface of the ball of earth, 
and spread them out, covering the whole with soil, and after- 
wards watering and shading. 

When fruit is swelling and ripening, care ought to be taken 
to admit abundance of air, for nothing is more injurious to grapes 
than damp, especially if the berries are close on the bunch. The 
damp first seizes the footstalk of the berries ; they will then 
shrivel, or turn red, and, when tasted, will be found sour. In 
damp weather, the best mode of expelling the damp is to have 
a good fire in the daytime, and to give abundance of air ; by 
which means the moisture evaporated is carried off into the 
exterior atmosphere. S. A. M. 

Hampstead, November, 1833. 

Art. VII. Notice of some Modes of training Wall Trees, practised 
in the Gardens of Hopetoun House. By Mr. James Smith, Gar- 
dener there. 

From the extent of walls in this 
place, the various trees are trained 
in different shapes. Of the finer 
apples and best late pears, some 
are trained horizontally, and others 
in the half fan form ; and, as you 
seem not to have noticed the last- 
T 4 


Culture of the Onion. 

mentioned method, I beg leave 
to send you the following sketches 
and descriptions of it : — Fig. 37. 
represents a tree one year from 
the graft, newly planted, and 
afterwards cut down to two buds 
on each shoot. Fig. 38. represents 
the same tree two years old, and 
fan-trained. Fig. 39., the same tree 
three years old, cut back and 
fan-trained. Fig. 40., the same 
tree, six years old, fan-trained ; the shoots brought down in a 
curvilinear form to the horizontal direction ; and the different 

years' growth 
marked 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5, 6. The 
centre is still 
trained in the 
fan form, and 
the branches are 
brought down 
yearly; until the 
tree reaches to 
the top of the 
wall, where the 
fan-training ter- 
minates, and the 
branches are 

trained forward horizontally. Nothing more is necessary than to 

keep the trees in good order, and to encourage the leading shoots. 

Hopetoun House Gardens, Feb. 3. 1834. James Smith. 

Art. VIII. On the Culture of the Onion by Solving and Transplanting. 
By Mr. Wm. Taylor, Gardener, Liverpool. 

About the latter end of May, make up a seed bed of light 
soil, and raise it 6 in. above the level of the path round it, in 
order to keep it very dry. A bed Sh, ft. wide, and 18 ft. long, 
will require half a pound of seed. By the latter end of August, 
the bulbs will be about the size of peas, and will be ready to be 
taken up, that they may be kept dry during the winter. About 
the middle of the following February, plant them in drills, about 
8 in. apart, with the bulbs from 4 to 6 in. apart in the row, and 
cover them with a full inch of soil. Some rich manure may be 
laid in the bottom of the drill, if convenient. In this manner 
I have grown a crop of onions, averaging from 14 to 16 oz. each. 

Lorton Street, Liverpool, Jan. 13. 1834. 

Physiology of Plants. 269 


Art. I. The Physiology of Plants, or the Phenomena and Laws of Vegetation. 
8vo, 298 pages. London, 1833. 

This very interesting little volume is, we believe, by Mr. Murray, whose 
Manual of Chemistry was noticed in IX. 607. The work is divided into thirteen 
chapters, which treat of the distinction between animal and vegetable being, 
the composition of the plant, the root, the stem, the blossom, seeds, the phe- 
nomena of germination, the ascent and circulation of the sap, the peculiar 
secretions of plants, the condensation and retention of moisture by trees, 
parasitic vegetation, extremes of temperature in relation to vegetation, aquatic 
vegetation, purification of the atmosphere, eccentricities of plants, relations of 
light and electricity to plants, age of* plants, &c: and, under these heads, the 
work contains a mass of interesting facts and phenomena in relation to vege- 
tation, from the germination of the seed to that period when, deprived of the 
animating principle, the plant becomes the subject of that purely chemical 
agency which finally accomplishes its total decomposition. 

As the excretory organs of plants are now engaging the attention of several 
of your correspondents, it may not be out of place to give the author's ideas 
upon the subject : — "In a variety of experiments made with the hyacinth 
raised in a bulb glass, and supplied with distilled water, I constantly found 
that the water in which the fibrils were extended became soon impregnated 
with carbonic acid gas, when excluded from all external sources of its produc- 
tion ; and, by the addition of a little lime-water in the first instance, I some- 
times had an interesting deposition, on the sides of the glass, of minute rhom- 
boidal crystals of transparent carbonate of lime. It seems to me, therefore, 
that the functions of the root are twofold, and that it is composed of two 
classes of organs, one of which act as absorbents, and the other as excretory 
vessels : the former appear to be resident in the spongelets, and the latter in 
the cortical pores. It is worthy of remark, as connected with this question, 
that coloured fluids, which find an easy ingress through the spongelets, will 
not pass through the cortical orifices. The superfluous egesta occasioned by 
an unusual richness of the soil cannot be evolved in a sufficient ratio by the 
foliage. During the presence of the sunbeams, leaves cast off oxygen, while 
the carbon of the carbonic acid gas is appropriated and assimilated : but it is 
by no means probable that the entire quantity of carbonic acid gas which rises 
in the stem during the day can be constantly decomposed amid the various 
changes of light and shade, to make no mention of the liquid matter which 
has been evolved." 

In treating of the blossom (chap, v.), the author adverts to it as the found- 
ation of the beautiful system of Linnaeus, upon which he passes the highest 
eulogium, while he asserts that "what has been lauded as the natural system is 
the most unnatural jumble of incongruities that ever was collected together." 

We shall next give a few extracts from an interesting part of the chapter, 
where it is demonstrated by experiments " that, in the sunbeam, each indivi- 
dual colour of the chromatic series, as arranged upon the painted disc of the 
flower, denotes the evolution of a peculiar grade of temperature, in exact 
unison with that evolved in the same tints of the prism. The late Sir W. 
Herschel found that a delicate thermometer, placed in the violet ray of the 
solar spectrum, indicated an acquired temperature of 2° above the ambient 
atmosphere. The green exhibited an increase of 2-25°, and the maximum 
of temperature in the red ray amounted to 4*5833 Fahr." In verification of 
these facts, the author refers to experiments by which he discovered, from the 
degree of caloric that followed the formation of a peculiar colour, produced 
by the chemical union of different substances, " that each colour of the pris- 
matic series displays, at the instant of its evolution, a corresponding and 
peculiar temperature. The results yielded, for violet, 1°; blue, l'5°j yellow, 

'270 Report of Devon and Cornwall Bot. and Hort. Soc. 

2'5°; and red, 7*5°, above the mean temperature of the substances employed 
for the formation of the different colours. 

" I shall now give the temperature of various flowers, ascertained by a very 
delicate and sensitive thermometer, being the result of experiments made by 
me during the years 1822 and 1823. On a stage in the shade, the Richards 
aethiopica was 55° Fahr.; the A'osa odorata, pale blush, 56°; and Amaryllis 
Johnsoni 57 . When the air was 54 - 5° Fahr., the Kerria japonica flore pleno 
indicated 56°, and the double red anemone 57'5°. These exhibitions prove a 
temperature peculiar to each individual colour. From a numerous list of 
experiments I shall select a few, in the order of the prismatic series : — 

While Flowers 
Sept. 9. 1822, at 6| P. M. 53-5 c 

May 21. 1823 - . 58"5 
May 31., noon - - 81 

July 2*., 5 p.m. 

Daisy - 52-5° 

Bramble - 59-5 

Pond-weed 57'5 

Narcissus 80"5 

M C Semidouble >,-,.,- 
66 I campanula j 675 

May 21. 1823 
May 30. 
May 31. 
July 24. 

Blue Floiuers. 
. 54-0° Bluebell - 55-0° 

- 70-5 Blue iris - 71 '5 

- 75 Gentianella 77 

- 63"5 Bee larkspur 67 


May 26. 

Yellow Flowers. 


f Leontodon f 
60° < T'araxacum V64° sunshine 

t (Dandelion) J 
63 do. 68 

70-5 do. 73 

70-5 Goldenbalir?]73 

r Yellow- •} 
82 1 horned J- 85 

t poppy J 
Ju, y2 4. 5p.m. 57-5 [^ r yel-] 61 

At noon 



May 31., noon 81° 


Julv 24. 54 

Red Flowers. 


Double red ? 
pasony 5 
Adbnis au- 7 70 
tumnalis J 
do. 77 

Rose - -"J 58 
chalcedii- )• 


nica (scar- I 
is) J 

89° sunshine. 

sun, clouds 
sun, bright 


.let 13'chnis) J 61 

^ to 

" White flowers do not differ materially in the heat evolved from them 
from the ambient air, either in sunshine or shade; and it is probable that 
they decompose less atmospheric air than flowers of other colours. The tem- 
perature of flowers is always higher than that of the surrounding air during 
sunshine, white flowers, perhaps, excepted. It is quite remarkable to notice 
the effect produced on them by even a cloud passing over the solar disc. In 
such circumstances, while the air was 71°, the flower of the Adonis was only 
72° ; but on the returning gleam, the temperature rose 4°. The comparison 
between the air and flower was always made under similar circumstances." 

From a detail of experiments made by Theodore Saussure, it appears 
evident that the inflorescence is more destructive of oxygen than the leaves. 
A beautiful reason is assigned for the sleep of plants, for the shutting of the 
corolla at night to preserve the parts of fructification from the cooling effects 
of radiation to a nocturnal sky, and for the similarity of colour that exists in 
flowers found in similar elevations and latitudes ; but for these we must refer 
the reader to the work itself, as well as for a mass of other interesting facts. 
Among these we may notice a dissection of the leaf, and an analysis of the 
fluid contained in the pitcher of the iVepenthes distillatoria, which throw much 
light upon the circulation of the sap ; and also an able exposure of some 
modern speculations respecting life and motion, which the author calls " the 
most wild and visionary fancies that ever were promulgated." — Scientice et 
Justitite Aviator. King's Road, Chelsea, April 26. 1834. 

Art. II. Catalogue of Works on Gardening, Agriculture, Botany, Rural Archi- 
tecture, Sf-c, lately published, with some Account of those considered the most 

FOURTH Annual Report of the Committee of the Royal Devon and Cornivall Bo- 
tanical and Hortiadtural Society. Pamphlet, 8vo, 101 pages. Plymouth, 
1834. 2s. 

When we mention that this Report is drawn up by our correspondent, Dr. 
Hamilton, the honorary secretary to the Society, our readers will readily sup- 

Doyle's Flower- Garden, Sfc. 271 

pose that it contains some curious and interesting matter. There are remarks 
on promoting the comforts of cottagers, on the O'xalis crenata, on collecting 
manures, &c, &c. Dr. Hamilton does not think, with us, that the tubers of 
the O'xalis crenata are produced by the checking of the underground stolones 
from the decline of temperature late in autumn. " This," he says, " would 
be a very philosophic mode of accounting for the formation of these tubers, 
were it not that the plant is a native of a region to the south of the line, little 
elevated above the ocean, within the tropics, and where the lowest tempera- 
ture does not descend farther, according^ to Humboldt, than 55° 4' of Fahren- 
heit ; and this at a season the reverse oT that at which the tubers begin^to 
appear with us. October, in Peru, corresponds with the vernal month of 
April on the north of the line; at which time the circulation of the sap is in 
full vigour, and the temperature cf the year increasing, instead of diminishing : 
hence, unless we assume that the plant has altered its habits since its intro- 
duction into this climate, we must ascribe the late formation of the tubers to 
some other cause than the reduction of temperature checking the prolongation 
of the stolones, and causing an accumulation of sap in their extremities." p. 43. 

The Flower-Garden, or Monthly Calendar of Practical Directions for the Cul- 
ture of Flowers. By Martin Doyle, Author of" Hints to Small Farmers," 
" Practical Gardening," &c. 12mo, 170 pages. Dublin, 1834. 

The aim of this work, like that of all those in which Mr. Doyle is engaged, 
is excellent ; and though we do not think it calculated to be so useful as his 
Practical Gardening, still it will serve to spread a taste for flowers. The 
objection we have to the work is, that tender articles, florists' flowers, and 
plants that require extraordinary care, are not sufficiently marked out from 
those that require only ordinary care. Something, we think, should have 
been done to point out the beauty of wild flowers, and to mark out such of 
them as are known to be capable of great improvement by cultivation, and 
cross fecundation. It is of importance to impress on the mind of every 
man who has a garden or a field to cultivate, that nature gives only the rude 
materials, the sloe and the crab, and that it is for man to render them sub- 
servient to his purpose, to form plums and apples from them, by cultivation ; 
and that cross fecundation is, next to abundance and concentration of nourish- 
ment, one of the most important points of culture. 

The First Report of the Oxford Botanical and Natural History Society, esta- 
blished August 30. 1831 ; with the Rules of the Society, a List of Members, 
and a Catalogue of the Books in the Society's Library. Pamphlet, 8vo, 20 
pages. Oxford, 1832. 

The object of this Society is to promote the study of natural history in 
general ; and more particularly botany and horticulture. This object it will 
endeavour to accomplish, 1st, by reading original communications, or extracts 
from useful and interesting works on these subjects ; 2dly, by occasional lec- 
tures ; 3dly, by the purchase of periodical and other books relating to these 
departments of knowledge ; and 4thly, by the formation of a library, herba- 
rium, &c, for the use of the members. 

Donations of books, drawings, prints, specimens, &c, connected with natural 
history, from those who may wish to promote the object of the Society, will 
always be acceptable. 

The rules are twenty-seven, the catalogue includes seventy distinct works, 
and the lists of presentations are considerable. Ten different periodicals are 
taken in. The terms of subscription are 10s. on entrance, and Is. a month after- 
wards. Persons residing at a distance from Oxford do not receive books till 
they have been two months in the possession of the Society. 

It appears from this pamphlet, that when we stated on the authority of Mr. 
Humphreys (109.), that the establishment of a garden library for the use of 
the Oxford gardeners was first proposed by him, we were in error. Possibly 
we may have misunderstood Mr. Humphreys. 

272 General Notices. — Foreign Notices. 


Art. I. General Notices. 

A COMMUNICATION by means of Steam between India and England. — I hail 
with anxious impatience the establishment of this mode of communication, 
by means of which, seeds and plants will have a chance of surviving the 
transmission, beyond any thing they nr>w possess, even under the most atten- 
tive treatment and greatest solicitude for their preservation. From my own 
personal experience, as well as from that of hundreds of others, 1 know that 
it is the second crossing of the equator which forms the most formidable ob- 
stacle in the way of prosperously conveying such objects as plants ; but if the 
period of the voyage can be shortened to within little more than two months, 
safety, whether the line be crossed twice or not, will be almost certain. — 
N. Walilch. Botanic Garden, Calcutta, Nov. 22. 1833. [See IX. 83. for 
an abstract of Dr. Wallich's excellent precautions, advice, and practice, on 
transporting living plants from India. In the Scotsman of May 3. it is stated 
that the steam communication with India, by means of the Red Sea, has com- 
menced; the Hugh Lindsay steamer having left Bombay, Feb. 1., and reached 
Suez, March 4.; a distance of 3400 miles in about a month. There is a 
regular steam packet between Falmouth and Malta, which makes the voyage 
in sixteen days, and all that is wanting is another steam packet between Malta 
and Alexandria, and this would bring the whole voyage from Bombay to 
London within two months.] 

The Many-stemmed Mulberry (ilforus multicaulis) is said to be greatly su- 
perior to all the other species and varieties in the number of leaves which it 
produces, as well as in the quantity of nutriment which these leaves contain. 
Plants may be obtained from M. Guerin, at Honfleur, near Havre, and from 
M. Soulange-Bodin, at Fromont, near Paris. (L' Agronome, vol. i. p. 187.) 

The fragrant-flowered Variety of Cyclamen persicum. ( 187, 188.) — I may say 
that we have now a small plant of this variety, with about a dozen flowers, 
which completely scents a large room. It is possible, however, that Mr. Turner 
(188.) is right with regard to his plant, for I have some idea that the persicum 
which we had some years since had no scent, and that I purchased the parent 
of the present plant on account of its perfume. — F. L. S. May 2. 1834. 

If F. L. S.'s idea, that the flowers of the parent of his present plant were 
also fragrant, be accurate, we learn from it that the fragrance of the flower 
is, in this variety, hereditary. — J. D. 

Art. II. Foreign Notices. 

The Gardens of General Vandamme at Cassel are celebrated. The general 
halted one day at the castle of Prince Piickler-Muskau, in Silesia, and talked 
a great deal to him about his house and gardens. " Among other things, he 
stated that the whole garden was surrounded with iron railings of different 
patterns, all of which he had taken out of German churches ; and that his 
cellar was not badly filled with wine, also out of German convents." Curi- 
ously enough, the prince was afterwards of a party that took Cassel. " 1 had 
then," says he, " an opportunity of satisfying my curiosity about Vandamme's 
pleasure-grounds. I found all exactly as he had told me, but suffered no re- 
prisals to be made upon him ; only I had one old wine cask, on which was 
written, in great letters, Aus dem Kloster Molk, brought out of the cellar into. 
daylight, and divided it among my men." (For. Quart. Review, May, 1834, 
p. 392.) 

JDom estic Notices : — Engla nd. 27 '3 


Hobart Town, Van Diemerfs Land, Oct. 11. 1833. — " Among the valuable 
seeds and plants introduced into the colony by Mr. Sams, recently returned 
to us by the Indiana, are two from the Mauritius, indigenous to that island; 
namely, the Mowrung and Teifain'a, the latter named after Mr. Telfair, the 
late eminent botanist and scholar of that place. The Mowrung is a most 
beautiful quick-growing plant, bearing a pod of about 5 or 6 in. in length, 
filled with black seeds about the size of a small bean or large pea. In its 
young state, the leaves and pods, and also the roots, are eatable, it thus proving 
a most useful and palatable esculent. Should it thrive in this island, which, 
with the care usually bestowed by Mr. Davidson of the government garden, in 
inuring plants of similar latitudes to the climate of this place, and the great 
success already attending his exertions, it may be expected will be the case, 
it will ultimately prove a valuable acquisition to the colony. The Telfairk is 
also a diadelphous plant, bearing a seed about the size of a kidneybean, 
covered with a reticulated skin, and climbing up any supporter to a towering 
height. Both plants have been recently introduced into England. 

" A new species of Eucalyptus was lately discovered by Mr. Backhouse, in 
the course of a journey that gentleman made to Mount Wellington. It is a 
stately tree, resembling the stringy bark, or E.robusta; and grows in abund- 
ance near the highest range of forest vegetation at the foot of the perpendi- 
cular basaltic columns, with a seed-vessel resembling in shape a Grecian urn. 
All along the same place the beautiful mountain-grass tree with its elegant 
white spikes is now in full bloom, covering the whole space around. This 
species of Xanthorrhce'a is different from, and still more elegant than, theRisdon 
grass tree, so common in sandy places on the Richmond side of the river. 
Persons fond of ornamenting their gardens with the beautiful shrubs and 
flowers of this island should not be deterred from transplanting them, under 
the apprehension that they will not bear removal from the shady situations in 
which so many of the most elegant are found ; for, when carefully removed 
with the sward, so as not much to disturb the roots, and watered for a few 
days, they will often thrive to admiration, shooting their roots with facility 
through the pulverised and loose soil of the garden, 

" Mr. Sams, we have great pleasure in stating, besides the very valuable 
collection of plants which he has brought out under his own care, and those 
which he formerly sent while in England, has established, under the sanction 
and patronage of the queen, a regular communication with Mr. Aiton of the 
royal gardens at Kew, from which he will, from time to time, receive such 
as are still wanting in the colony, and will send home, in return, such indige- 
nous seeds and plants as, from their beauty or rareness, deserve to be brought 
under the notice of the intelligent English botanist." (Hobart Town Courier, 
Oct. 11. 1833.) 

Art. III. Domestic Notices. 


The Botanic Garden, Oxford, seems destined to undergo considerable im- 
provements. Dr. Daubeny, immediately on being elected professor, had a 
plan engraved of the garden as it is, and another plan indicating extensive 
additions and alterations. The additions are, chiefly, the proposed use of the 
space without the walls (mentioned p, 110.), which had hitherto been turned 
to little account ; and the alterations are, chiefly, turning the western division 
of the garden into a place for displaying the natural arrangement, and erecting 
two green-houses. The plans have been kindly sent to us by Mr. Baxter, and 
they are accompanied by an Address, dated March 14th, from Dr. Daubeny, 
to the President and Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians in London, 
by whom he was elected. From this Address we make the following interest- 
ing extract : — 

" The Physic Garden comprehends a space of nearly five acres of ground, 

274 Domestic Notices : — Englan d. 

of which, however, only three are enclosed within walls, the remainder lying 
chiefly betwixt the latter and the river Cherwell. Its contiguity to the water 
has at all times rendered the situation subject to damp ; but the most serious 
evil incident upon such a locality, namely, the liability to flooding, seems now 
to be removed, owing to the large quantities of new soil which have from time 
to time been introduced, and which have raised its general level considerably. 
Neverthless, as that which is brought in has not always been of a good quality, 
the addition of many fresh loads of soil, of a better description, seems even at 
the present time to be required, for the sake of the plants therein cultivated. 

" The whole of the space within the walls has hitherto been applied to the 
elucidation of the Linnasan system, the eastern division being chiefly occupied 
by British, the western by exotic plants, arranged after that method. The 
increasing interest, however, felt in the present day for the natural method of 
arrangement, seems to render it desirable that this latter half should henceforth 
be set apart for its illustration : but, in order to accomplish this, it will be 
necessary to gain some additional space, which can only be done by removing 
the double yew hedge that traverses the centre of the garden, and which has 
long been regarded as objectionable from harbouring vermin. 

" The space without the walls has hitherto been turned but to little account ; 
but it seems desirable that, in future, a portion of this ground should be de- 
voted to plants employed in medicine, agriculture, or the arts : the former 
being enjoined to be cultivated in some part of the garden by the original 
framers of the statute relating to the Sherardian Professorship ; the latter 
being particularly insisted on in the will of that munificent benefactor to the 
establishment, the late Professor John Sibthorp. 

" The remainder might be made available for the purposes of an Experi- 
mental Garden, for ascertaining the effects of soils, or of chemical agents, 
upon vegetation, and for other researches of a similar description. 

" The only means which we possess at present for the cultivation of aquatic 
plants being a few narrow cisterns, or tanks, lined with copper, which are 
placed at the farther extremity of the garden, a basin of considerable size 
seems a desideratum, for which the centre of the space enclosed within the 
walls would afford a convenient site, 

" The houses existing at present for the reception of exotics areas follows : 
A stove-house, 30 ft. long, 14 broad, and about 12 in height, very badly con- 
structed, having glass only on one side, and much out of repair. Two green- 
houses, each 30 ft. long, 10 wide, 14 ft. in height in front, but only 10 at the 
back, extremely ill-constructed for most kinds of plants, and likewise in very 
bad repair. Lastly, a green-house, in the centre of the western division of 
the garden, without any glass on the top, and very indifferently supplied with 
light from windows in its southern front. It is 66 ft. long, 13| in height, and 
in the centre 22 wide, narrowing at the sides. These houses were erected 
about a century ago, at a time when the mode of constructing green-houses 
was but ill understood, and when the cultivation of hot-house plants was al- 
most unknown. The decayed condition of the frames, timbers, &c, involves 
a considerable annual expense ; for it would appear, taking an average of the 
last five years, that no less than 60/. per annum is required for keeping these 
and the other buildings connected with the establishment even in their present 

" Up to the period of the erection of the new bridge over the Cherwell, 
near Magdalen College, a house had been kept up for the professor of botany, 
who is indeed expressly enjoined to reside, if possible, at the garden. In the 
year 1795, however, the improvement of the approaches to the bridge occa- 
sioned the pulling down of the house, and one of the green-houses was then 
converted into the purposes of a library and lecture-room, which is conse- 
quently now the only apartment of which the professor can avail himself, 
whether for the purposes of private study or of public instruction. This room 
is of the same size as the largest of the green-houses already specified, and 
serves as the depository both of the library and the herbarium. 

Domestic Notices • — England, 275 

" The library consists of about 1900 volumes, comprehending the valuable 
and curious collection of botanical books presented by Consul Sherard, con- 
sisting of about 600 volumes ; that originally belonging to Bobart, one of the 
keepers of the garden, and probably others, which maybe estimated altogether 
at about 280 volumes ; the library of Dr. John Sibthorp, amounting to about 
750 volumes ; and the remainder bequeathed by the late Professor Williams, 
or given to the Sherardian library by his executrix. The books appear in 
many cases to be suffering severely from damp, owing to their having remained 
for many years at the farther extremities of a room heated by only a single 
fireplace at its centre. The library also contains a most valuable and exten- 
sive series of dried plants obtained from various quarters ; amongst the donors 
of which I may specify Dr. Morrison, who first held the professorship, and 
Consul Sherard, who endowed it, and whose Herbarium alone is said to con- 
tain 12,000 specimens : there is also a collection, occupying no less than 72 
folio volumes, purchased of Mr. Charles du Bois by the first Professor Sib- 
thorp ; one by Professor Dillenius, intended to illustrate his Muscologia ; 
another very extensive one, presented by Lord Macartney ; and a small but 
nicely arranged series of plants made by Dr. Thomas Shaw, the traveller, in 
Barbary, Greece, and Egypt, and referred to in his work. To these I shall 
have to add, a large Herbarium accumulated by the younger Dr. Sibthorp in 
Greece and Turkey, one presented by the East India Company, and another 
of Australian specimens, which have hitherto been deposited, for want of 
proper room, in the Ratcliffe library ; my own collection, illustrative of the 
natural system, which, being chiefly made at Geneva, is richest in Swiss plants ; 
and another, of British ones, presented by the Rev. R. Walker, author of the 
Flora of Oxfordshire. There is also a collection of minerals, shells, and 
corallines, made by that indefatigable naturalist, the author of the Flora 

" The only other building which need be noticed is the gardener's house, 
the bed-rooms of which are damp and unhealthy, from being placed on the 
ground floor contiguous to a stagnant ditch. The rooms are also all of them 
extremely confined, and especially the gardener's own private study. 

" From the above statement of the present condition of the establishment 
of the Oxford Botanic Garden, it will appear that the most pressing want is 
that of better houses for stove and green-house plants, the present ones, and 
especially the stove-house, being not only too confined, but also so miserably 
constructed, that all hopes of cultivating rare and curious exotics, as is usual 
in other public gardens of the same description, must be abandoned, until 
better are obtained. I think, too, that a mere reference to the large annual 
expense of maintaining them, even in their present imperfect state of repair, 
will make it appear that the most advisable, as well as, eventually, the most 
economical plan, would be that of pulling down all, except the principal 
central green-house, to the ground, and erecting new ones in their place. 

" Considering, also, the extent and value of the present collections; the 
probability of future additions ; the difficulty of rendering them so extensively 
useful as it is to be wished they should become, whilst crowded within the 
present narrow limits ; the circumstance that, by the will of the late Professor 
Sibthorp, no less than 100/. a year is expressly directed to be applied from 
the proceeds of his estate to the purchase of books, so soon as the Flora 
Grceca shall have been completed; and the injury sustained by these, as well 
as by the dried plants, in consequence of the necessary application of the 
present library to the purposes of a lecture-room ; I feel strongly impressed 
with the necessity of erecting, with the first money that can be raised, after 
that provision which seems indispensable for the plants has been made, one 
additional room at the least for the reception of books, and a small private 
study for the professor, both on the first floor, having underneath suitable 
offices for a servant, who should take charge of the apartments and their 

" The particular mode in which these several objects may best be secured 

276 Domestic Notices : — England. 

will, of course, remain open for farther consideration ; but it may be suggested, 
that the new building required might stand in the place of the old green-house 
now adjoining the library, having its front towards the High Street, projecting 
about 10 ft. beyond the Danby Gateway, from which it would be separated by 
a interval of about 10 ft.; whilst on the opposite side of the latter a new 
green-house of a better construction might be substituted for the present one, 
a uniformity of appearance towards the street being kept up by adding some 
rooms at the back with a corresponding frontage. If this were done, I would 
suggest appropriating the room so obtained at the back of the green-house as 
a depot for the seeds, roots, and dried plants ; the ground-floor being parti- 
tioned off, in the manner shown in the plan, into several small rooms for the 
two former, whilst the upper story constituted one entire gallery for the recep- 
tion of the valuable Herbarium. In the event, however, of any arrangement 
being made with the street commissioners, by which the ground represented in 
the design as in their occupation should be secured for the purposes of the 
botanic garden, a better plan would seem to be that of erecting the new apart- 
ments at the back of the present library, with a frontage towards the High 
Street ; by which means the necessary accommodations would be obtained, 
without any corresponding building being required on the opposite side of the 
Danby Gateway for the sake of uniformity. With respect to the large green- 
house in the centre of the western division of the garden, I conceive that it 
might be made more suitable for the purposes for which it was designed, if the 
present roof were removed, and a skylight were placed in its stead ; or even 
in its present form, though nearly useless for plants, it might be made service- 
able as a lecture-room. The two additional houses I would recommend to be 
erected are, one for green-house plants on the western side of that last alluded 
to, of the dimensions stated in the plan, and a corresponding building on the 
eastern side of the library for stove plants, in lieu of the present one, which I 
should then recommend to be pulled entirely down. Lastly, the gardener's 
house might be improved by an addition to the size of the little study on the 
left, and by erecting another story in which sleeping-rooms might be placed. 

" The liberal donation of 500/. three per cent consols, which the executrix 
of the late professor has intimated her intention, in compliance with the wishes 
of her late brother, of contributing to the garden fund, will enable me, should 
these views meet with the sanction of the garden committee, to accomplish 
some part of the objects above pointed out ; but, for the fulfilment of the re- 
mainder, I must chiefly depend on the contributions of the respective colleges 
and of their individual members, together with those of others, who, it is 
hoped, may feel disposed to place the botanic garden more nearly on a par 
with the other public establishments of this university, and who may desire to 
render it better adapted to the demands of modern science, more adequate to 
the supply of that information, with respect to the properties and uses of 
plants, which by the new medical statute every candidate for a degree in 
physic in Oxford is expected to acquire, and more nearly corresponding to the 
scale on which in other universities such institutions are at present conducted." 

A Committee has been named, of which Dr. Daubeny is one, and a sub- 
scription commenced, to which various sums have been put down, from 11. to 

The Sheffield Botanic Garden. — The two plans for laying out this garden, 
which received prizes, have been sent for our inspection, and we have been 
very much gratified by examining that of Mr. Marnock. The second best 
plan (by Mr. Taylor, an architect), though neatly drawn, and displaying con- 
siderable taste for picturesque beauty, is yet altogether unfit for a garden of 
culture. It is no disparagement to Mr. Taylor's talents as an architect, to 
say that he is not also a gardener. The care and attention with which Mr. 
Marnock has gone into the subject, and the provision which he has made for 
every description of culture, evince a mind deeply imbued with knowledge of 
his profession ; and we should not be surprised if this garden should ultimately 
be one of the first, in point of completeness of arrangement, in the kingdom. 

Domestic Notices: —England. 277 

In thanking the Committee for having authorised Mr. Marnock to send us 
the plans, we beg to congratulate them on their having met with so able a 
curator. — Cond. 

A Society for encouraging Cottagers in the Cultivation of their Gardens has 
been established at Trim ley in Surrey, chiefly, we believe, through the exertions 
of Mr. Lance, the author of the Cottage Farmer. — Id. 

Dropmore, it is said, has beeu described, and illustrated with beautiful 
engravings, in a work prepared under the direction of the late Lord Grenville 
a short time before his death, and now printing for private distribution. We 
hope some friend will procure us the sight of a copy. — Id. 

The Pantheon Bazaar, Oxford Street, for the sale of plants, &c, mentioned 
p. 160., is now completed. It well merits the attention of the commercial 
florists and nurserymen in the neighbourhood of the metropolis ; and we hope 
it will at once serve as an outlet for a large portion of their produce, and as a 
school for promoting a taste for flowers. — Id. 

Several Plans of Conservatories and other plant buildings have lately been 
shown to us by Mr. Wm. Crosskill of the Beverley Foundery, constructed 
almost entirely of cast iron. Considering the quantity of metal employed in 
pilasters, architraves, cornices, &c, we were surprised at their cheapness ; but 
we were most gratified by a mode of giving air by the sympathetic and instan- 
taneous movement of valves. There is nothing new in the idea of doing this, 
but it is seldom that we find it successfully carried into execution on a large 
scale. The floor of a conservatory erected by Mr. Crosskill, for R. Bethel, 
Esq., M.P., at Rose Park near Beverley, is entirely paved, with the exception 
of openings 10 or 12 ft. apart every way, in which standard trees are planted. 
Over the circle or square of earth round each tree, there is a cast-iron grating, 
in two pieces, so as to fit into each side of the stem, for the purpose of 
admitting air and water to the soil. In consequence of this arrangement, every 
part of the conservatory may be used as a drawing-room, or promenade, like 
the winter gardens of Berlin. (V. 251.} — Id. 

The Broad Walk in Kensington Gardens is now (April 30th), after theS3 
genial rains, being harrowed up with Finlayson's harrow drawn by six horses. 
After the gravel has been hand-picked from large stones, and made even with 
rakes, it will be rolled by a very heavy horse roller, and will require no more 
attention, except once or twice rolling, for a year or two. This may afford 
a hint to gardeners, for the management of approach roads, where they are of 
great extent. — Id. 

Mr. Samuel Currie, gardener at Stanley Hall in the neighbourhood of 
Wakefield, has lately left England with a view of establishing himself as a 
market- gardener at Washington, in the United States. We have no doubt of 
' his ultimate success. — Id. 

The Great Cherry Tree of Withermarsh Green is the name applied to a 
cherry tree now growing on Withermarsh Green, in this parish (Stoke Nayland, 
Suffolk), and this name I consider it well entitled to hold ; as, among a vast 
number of its kind, which are to be found in this and the adjoining parishes 
(it being quite a cherry district), I have never seen one worthy of being com- 
pared with it, either as to size or beauty. It is of the kind which produces 
the small red cherry. Several of the lower branches have been, at different 
times, lopped, and others have been injured by cattle, or they would long ere 
this have nearly reached the ground. The height of the tree, from the ground 
to the tip of the upper boughs, is 46 ft. ; the girth of the trunk, at twelve feet 
from the ground, is 9 ft. ; the girth of the three principal arms, near the trunk, 
is about 5 ft. ; the spread of the branches, from north to south, is 74 ft. j the 
spread of the boughs, from west to east, 62 ft. — J. -D. Hoy. Stoke Nayland, 
Suffolk, Feb. 11.1834. 

There is scarcely a lovelier object than a cherry tree in blossom. The leaves 
are yet absent, and every branch a rich wreath of snow-white graceful blossoms. 
What a feast to the eye and to the heart it must be, to pass through the cherry 
district above spoken of early in May ! — J. D. 

Vol. X. — No. 51. u 

278 Domestic Notices: — England. 

Gedrus Deodara Rox. — Dr. Wallich, of the Calcutta Botanical Garden, has 
sent us some seeds, for distribution, of this very interesting tree. His letter 
is dated Nov. 22. 1833. He speaks of the seeds as, then, received " about a 
fortnight ago from Kumaon," and expresses his hope that they may reach us 
in a vegetative state. He adds: — " Those which I have sowed here have 
come up in ten days from the time they were put into the ground. Contrary 
to my express orders, they had been taken out of their cones before being for- 
warded to me from the hills; but I expect ample supplies of fresh and good 
cones, of which I will send you a proportion. There is in the box, also, a phial 
of seeds, of 

" The White Nelumbium specibsum, a most lovely flower, more lovely to my 
eyes, than the pink-coloured one." 

We received the seeds on May 12. 1834. Those of the Cedrus Deoddra, 
in four sealed phials, were all devoid of life, and some of them nearly rotten. 
A white mould was obvious among the seeds towards the necks of the vials, 
where it coated, also, the end of the cork, and, partially, the inward face of 
the phial. The source of this may have been some fermentation among the 
seeds themselves,* the dampness of the cork when put in; or some damp- 
ness which it had acquired subsequently. The oily matter which surrounds 
the embryo in the Coniferse, and is plentiful in the seeds of this species, had 
partially come through to the surface of the seed, and appeared in blisters 
under the integument. The embryoes (polycotyledonous) were flaccid and 
yellow. Just for the chance of any one of the numerous seeds growing, we 
have sowed them ourselves: had they been perfect, we should have sent 
them, as Dr. Wallich wished, to various cultivators. 

Since the above was written, we have received a small quantity of the 
deodar seeds from Mr. Auben of the East India House, sent by direction of the 
Chairman of the Company. These seeds are in quite the case of those above 
named, but drier. Along with them, Mr. Auben forwarded extracts from 
letters from Dr. Wallich ; one of which we quote : — " The deodar cedar is, of 
all others, the most desirable to introduce into England. It is equal in state- 
liness and magnificence to the Lebanon cedar, and far superior to it in the fra- 
grance of its wood, which is incredibly durable. The tree will stand the cli- 
mate of the North of Europe, beyond all doubt." Dr. Wallich, besides again 
noticing that the seeds had germinated with him in ten days in the open ground, 
has added, " and under glass, in my own room, in eight days." 

The seeds of the Nelumbium, twenty-two in number, we have distributed 
in pairs to Mrs. Lawrence, Mrs. Marryatt, Messrs. W. Young and Penny, 
Loddiges, Low, Knight, Campbell, Bevan, Baxter, and Allcard ; and C. A. 
Fischer, Gottingen. 

Our friend, Dr. Wallich, remarks that seeds, roots, or growing plants, of 
all rare species, exotic to India, and especially of South American species, 
will be always welcome to the botanic garden at Calcutta; and we hope that 
some of the friends named above will be able to contribute, at least in some 
degree, to the gratification of Dr. Wallich's wishes. 

Two Specimens of Brompton Stock, the one red and the other white, have 
been sent to us from the garden of Mr. Cullen, of the Brown Bear, Green- 
hithe, of extraordinary luxuriance and beauty. The principal spike of flowers 
on the red stock is a foot in length, and it is surrounded by twelve others, 
varying in length from 9 in. to 6 in. The number of flowers fully expanded 
on the central spike is twenty, not one of which is faded ; and there are nearly 
as many on each of the twelve side spikes. Most of the flowers are upwards 
of an inch and a half across. The central spike of the white stock is 14 in. in 
length, and there are thirty flowers on it fully expanded, and many of them above 
2 in. across : nine of the lower flowers have thrown out secondary flowers or 
spikes from their centres ; and it is evident that all the flowers on this spike 
have a similar tendency. There are only two side spikes to this white stock, 
each with about 15 flowers fully expanded. The leaves are upwards of 9 in. in 
length; those of the red stock are not quite so long. The stem of the white stock, 

Calls at Nurseries and Suburban Gardens. 279 

in the thickest part, is three fourths of an inch in diameter; that of the red rather 
more than half an inch. The total height of the red stock from the ground 
is about 2§ ft., and that of the white 2 ft. Had we received these flowers in 
time, we should have sent them to the Horticultural Society's exhibition. 
When at Greenhithe, May 6., we were shown some very fine Brompton stocks 
in the garden of Mr. Wilson the surgeon there; and a purple Brompton stock 

in the garden of Foster, Esq., covered with bloom, which Mr. Foster 

assured us had remained in that state, summer and winter, for upwards of 
two years. It formed quite a large shrub. — Cond. 

Art. IV. Calls at Nurseries and Suburban Gardens. 

VAVXHALL Nursery, Messrs. Chandler and Son. — April 26. In the show 
house, we found a very splendid display, more especially of hybrid rhododen- 
drons, Ghent azaleas, Azalea indica Smithra, Cape heaths, and acacias and 
other plants from New Holland. The plants in the other houses were, as 
usual, beautifully grown, and in excellent order. A few camellias and Mag- 
nolia Soulangeawre were still in bloom on a wall with a western exposure ; 
and the pelargonium-house was in an advanced state, some of the varieties 
having already expanded their flowers. There was a rich collection of tree 
paeonies in the open air, showing great abundance of bloom; which, however, 
from its advanced state, and the cold east winds so long prevalent, will, we 
fear, not expand freely. The appearance of Magnolia Soulangea?2« here, and 
at Brown's Nursery at Slough, induces us strongly to recommend that variety 
as coming into flower later than conspicua, purpurea, or gracilis, as being 
more agreeably scented than any of these, and as being much hardier. Messrs. 
Chandler have a number of plants, the evergreen American varieties of that 
beautiful genus Berberis; ultimately these varieties will find their way into 
every collection. From one species they have raised young plants, from seed 
ripened in their own nursery. 

Mr. Groom's Tidip Show commenced April 26., but, owing to the severity 
of the weather, the flowers were not so far expanded as it was expected that 
they would be. On the whole, however, they promise well. Mr. Groom's 
pelargoniums are remarkably well grown this season ; and he has also a stock 
of Fuchsia longiflora ; which was lately advertised by the original grower, as 
having a flower 6 in. long ! Mr. Groom has also a large stock of -Mhnulus 
Smithw. Both here, and at Mr. Chandler's, it is found a great advantage to 
this plant to set it in a pan of water. 

The Surrey Zoological Gardens are continually undergoing improvement in 
a gardening and architectural point of view, altogether independently of the 
valuable zoological additions which they are always receiving. Among 
the latter was a young rhinoceros. These gardens now include 15 acres, 
besides some exterior paddocks, which are available for the uses of the animals. 
We are happy to find that almost all the trees and shrubs in the arboretum 
here are named on tallies 3 or 4 ft. high, so that they do not require the 
spectator to stoop, nor are they liable to be hidden by the leaves or branches. 
Mr. Watts, who is now the head gardener here, has a just idea of what ought 
to be done, and is filling the gravel walks to the brim, and softening the out- 
lines of the dug masses. In the grand dome is a most ingenious portable 
apparatus for heating by hot water, invented by Mr. Morgan, which we intend 
to give an account of in an early Number. 

Colvill's Nursery. — April 28. A splendid show of forced flowers and 
shrubs, and various articles in flower in the hot-houses and green-houses. 
Some standard tree roses, varieties of the JR. indica, in pots, were covered 
with bloom, and were very brilliant as well as fragrant. These roses require 
very little forcing, compared with the common Provence rose ; and, when this 
is generally known, and the new fragrant varieties are spread over the country, 
rosebuds at Christmas will be common in every village. 

u 2 

280 Calls at Nurseries 

The Chelsea Botanic Garden looks, as usual at this season, remarkably well. 
We found our excellent friend the curator as busy as ever, and as happy as a 
man can be who enjoys good health, a clear conscience, and a competent in- 
come, and who is fully occupied in a pursuit altogether to his taste. He 
pointed out to us a row of the different varieties of (Scilla non scripta, which 
were planted by the late Mr. Haworth the day before he died ; a Windsor 
pear, grafted on a quince stock in a cankered state, and beside it a St. Ger- 
main pear on the same kind of stock, very healthy ; which would seem obviously 
suggesting, as Mr. Anderson mentioned, the idea, that, to dwarf the Windsor 
pear, it must be grafted on some other pear^ which had been previously grafted 
on a quince stock and had thriven. Mr. Anderson has turned out against his 
walls a number of New Holland shrubs, which, in the dry sandy soil of the 
Chelsea Garden, may probably live through the winter. We saw several new 
alpines, and some new hardy trees and shrubs from Nepal and Peru. 

Exotic Nursery, King's Road. — Mr. Knight is erecting some new plant 
houses and pits, some of which are being heated by Mr. Weeks, on a new and 
ingenious plan. Three pits or small houses will be heated from one boiler 
at one end ; either all three at once, or two, or one at a time, as may be con- 
sidered desirable. 

A considerable importation of plants from China has been sent to Mr. 
Knight, by J. Reeves, Esq., F.H.S., &c, of Clapham, which is expected to 
contain several new species. — Cond. 

On May day we had a pleasant stroll through Mr. Knight's houses, in com- 
pany with the most able foreman, our very intelligent friend, Mr. Alexander 
Scott. The more mentionable of the plants which we therein saw belong to 
the orders Orchideae, Ericese, .Rhodoraceae, Leguminosae, and Yrotedcece. 

Mr. Knight's collection of tropical Orchideae is becoming eminent ; for, in 
addition to his original stock of these plants, and to his having added to it, by 
purchase, the stock of W. Cattley, Esq., he has farther added to it, by pur- 
chase, so lately as February last, the collection of the deceased Mrs. Arnold 
Harrison. The relatives of this amiable lady had found her favourite plants 
but a painful and ever-present remembrancer of their bereavement, and so 
resolved to remove them from their sight ; and Mr. Knight has become the 
fortunate possessor of them. Mr. Richard Harrison has, however, still a fine 
collection of Orchideae. Mr. Scott has given us the following outline of the 
contents of the collection lately Mrs. A. Harrison's : — " It is rich in the tribe 
Vdndece, which is eminently occidental. There are species of the genera On- 
cidium, Stanhopea, Zygopetalum, Gongora, Corysanthes, Catasetum, Maxil- 
laria, Bifrenaria, Acropora, Peristeria, &c. In the tribe Epidendreae it is 
also rich in species of the genera Brassavoh*, Cattleya, Epidendrum, Bletz'a, 
&c. ; and in the tribe Malaxideae, in species of the genera Pleurothallis, jStelis, 
Liparis, CceTia, Pholidota, Ceelogyne, Bolbophyilum, E x ria, Dendrobium, &c. 
Among the small flowering kinds, there are species of Sauroglossum, Neottia, 
&c. The collection lately Mrs. A. Harrison's includes about 160 named or 
known species ; and there are, besides, several which have not yet flowered in 
this country." The plants of this part, and of the whole of Mr. Knight's Or- 
chideae, are looking in satisfactory health and growth, although Mr. Knight 
believes that the stove at present assigned to them is not every way congenial 
to their welfare, and is, in this belief, now having built a new one, which he 
conceives will be more so. This enterprise cannot fail to earn its own reward, 
nor, we trust, to produce the excellent effect of promoting greatly the insti- 
tution of collections of Orchideae among Mr. Knight's customers and visiters. 
Only very few of the species are now flowering : Maxillaria aromatica, with 
its rich yolk-of-egg yellow cinnamon-scented flowers, is the most pleasing of 

In iMceae § .Rhodoraceae, the following plants are noted in our memoranda. 
The two well-known often-mentioned trees of .Rhododendron arboreum 
are bearing heads of their lovely flowers, although fewer of these than they 
have, in some seasons, produced. Upon one tree the flowers are somewhat 

and Suburban Gardens. 281 

smaller, and are grouped into denser heads than are those upon the other. 
The corollas of the two trees are not of the same colour,, although both are of 
the variety called the scarlet-flowered tree rhododendron. Mr.. Scott showed 
us, also, one or two plants of the pink-flowered tree rhododendron, and of the 
white-flowered tree rhododendron. Of the scarlet and pink flowered varieties, 
plants are here on sale ; but those of the pink-flowered are yet high-priced. 
The last of the flowers (beautiful, indeed, they are!) of the R. campanulatum 
were now falling. They had been in perfection in the second week in 
April ; and as many as thirteen had been counted in a head. This exquisitely 
ornamental plant (see IX. 485.) is asserted to be nearly hardy in Britain : it 
is from Nepal. Mr. Knight has a store of seedling plants of "it. A few hy- 
brids of the R. pontico-arboreum kind were placed in the ranks of the plants 
in the conservatory ; and, though " hybrids," as some would reproachfully 
term them, were ornamental in their heads of pretty blossoms. In a frame 
were plants of those interesting dwarf species, i?.Chamsecistus, lapponicum,and 
chrysanthum. The plants of R. Chamascistus were flowering rather freely : 
their pale delicate corollas, large for the plant, are very pleasing. In this 
frame were also a plant of the white-corollaed Menziesz'a poliifolia, from Ire- 
land ;. plants, in flower, of the M. cserulea, from Scotland ;. and of the Cha- 
maeledon (Azalea) prociimbens, also from Scotland, and in flower. Of aza- 
leas in the houses, the most superb was a plant of the. A. /edifolia (indica 
alba). It was more than a yard high, its branches spread almost 4 ft., and the 
large white corollas well-nigh touched each other over the whole of the upper 
part of the plant. The flowers give out, too, a pleasant delicate odour. Of 
A. sinensis we saw some last flowers. There is a peculiar beauty in the 
colour of the corolla of this species. Of A. indica, purple-flowered, double, 
two plants bore flowers. The rarer Chinese kinds of Azalea, introduced by 
Mr. M'Gilligan (IX. 474.), are, we learned, doing very well; and that plants 
of them, for sale, at moderate prices, are expected to be ready in autumn. 

In Leguminosae the most beautiful of the plants in flower (except the Wis- 
taria Consoquawa within the conservatory, and one in the open air) was Ken- 
nedys dilatata : it is a lovely green-house twiner. The other plants we noted 
are, Acacia pentadenia Lindl. and cordata, Oxylobium retusum, Gastrolobium 
retusum, Pultense v « villosa, and Adesmia viscosa: of the last, a plant 10 ft. 
high, has stood out through the winter, unhurt, trained to a western-aspected 
wall. Of the Leguminosae raised by Mr. Knight, from seeds collected by Mr. 
Baxter, the following are the names of some : — Gompholdbium venulosum, 
capitatum, Knightwwmm, tenue ; Burtonz'a conferta, Dillwynja? glycinefolia, 
Chorozema ovatum, Scott/# las v vis, and some others. 

In Vvotedcece the foremost objects are two blooming plants of Telopea 
speciosissima, each more than 6 ft. high, topped by striking (as Telopea signi- 
fies) heads of flowers. The stock of plants of banksias and dryandras raised 
from Mr. Baxter's seeds has been much reduced by sale; those left are looking 
well, and amongst them we were shown plants, two or more, of the rare 
Hemiclidia Baxterc. BankszVz Goodii, raised here, is dead, and is, therefore 
probably lost to Britain. 

Of other plants noticeable (without mention of the orders to which they 
belong) are the following: — Pergularia odoratissima, whose fragrance perfumed 
the stove in which it, with the Orchideae, grows; Solly « heterophil la in the 
open air, wholly unscathed by the past semblance of a winter, abounding in 
deep green leaves, and showing buds of countless blossoms which will adorn 
it through the summer. Cephalotus folhcularis; Dionse v a Muscipula, plenty 
of; and ^splenium Nidus ; Aponogeton distachyon, Begdm'a keracleifdlia, Pit- 
cairma albiflos, and Lantana Sellozin the stoves: and, in other compartments, 
these : — Anthocercis littorea, Bor6n/a serrulata, Sarracema flava, Ribes spe- 
ciosum, Gevardia ^uercifolia, Sparaxis grandiflora, Alstrcemeria oeulata, Hya- 
cinthus amethystinus, Funkia Sieboldtiawa, Phlox verna, Primula pusilla, 
Zappara'a nodiflora var. rosea, and Trillium grandiflorum. — J. D. 

Dennis and Co.'s Nurseries, Chelsea, May 8. — The grounds in the King's 

U 3 

282 Calls at Nurseries 

Road present an improved appearance. Numerous beds have been formed, 
and several of them furnished with a somewhat extensive stock of hardy 
bulbous plants. No kinds of plants are capable of contributing more to the 
interest and beauty of the hardy flower-garden, and yet we know not that any one 
professedly cultivates a collection of them for sale ; we are glad that Mr. Dennis 
seems to purpose to do this henceforth. A considerable aggregate of species 
and varietiesof thefollowing genera are already obvious in the beds: — iVarcissus, 
Z/eucojum, (Sfcilla, Muscari, Fritillaria, Erythronium, Tidipa, Amaryllis, and 
iilium. A contribution towards a collection of irises, as well the creeping 
root-stocked species as the bulbous, is also apparent. Alstrcemen'a pulchella 
has here, in the free soil, without any protection, exhibited growing verdant 
herbage, undestroyed by frost through the past winter; while that of A. 
Pelegrina, growing beside it, has been destroyed by frost more than once. A 
collection of florists' tulips, in three beds, one of the beds under an awning, is 
now blooming: they are very beautiful, and among them are choice kinds. A 
bed of about forty strides long has been made, in a comparatively shaded part, 
of heath mould, and planted with plants for stools of the choicer varieties of 
hardy azaleas; these have been layed: some of the little intervals in the bed 
have in them herbaceous plants which love heath mould : Helonias bullata is 
one of these. In pots, in gentle hotbeds, the choice Chinese asters have been 
advanced, in the hope of gathering from them well-ripened seeds in the 
autumn. In two beds of plants of Clarke, some of the plants are showing 
flowers : the whole from seeds sown, probably, as those of many annual plants 
should be in October of the previous year. 

In the nursery in Grosvenor Row, we noted as follows: — The pelargo- 
niums, in their numerous varieties, and an extensive stock of them, are look- 
ing in just the youth of their beauty ; they will not be fully blown till 
June. We asked for the names of a few of the now most esteemed varieties, 
and gained the following : — Ne plus ultra, Jack of Newbury (this is of a com- 
pact habit of growth), Admiral Napier (its flowers are splendid), Smith's mag- 
niflorum, diadematum, Adansdm, concessum, nonpareil, Weltjiedmivi, Master 
Walter, Clarissa«?»H, fulminans, olympicum. Among the unpublished seed- 
lings, three possessed of surpassing qualities are in flower ; one of these, which 
is to be called Dennis's perfection, is in the mode of Smith's magniflorum, but 
its petals have a fine purple tint, and they form a rounder flower. Some tiny 
youngsters, but a few months old, from seeds, are under culture; in the hope, 
doubtless, of their surpassing, like some of their precursors, all others known 
before them. Of heartseases, now adopted into the florists' affections, and 
named distinctively in their varieties, Mr. Dennis cultivates a collection : 
several of the kinds are in bloom, and are beautiful. The following names are 
those, Mr. Dennis has told us, of desirable kinds : — Invincible, Bang up, Jessica, 
Prince George, Sol, Pamela, Orestes, violacea, Maid of Athens, John Bull, 
Appleby's William the Fourth, Lydard's William the Fourth, Lady Bath, 
Painted lady, Allen's Adelaide, Kentish hero, Crimson bicolor, Lilac major: of 
these we were struck with Bang up (what an elegant name I) and Pamela. Of 
additional names told us here, and at Mr. Hogg's, Paddington, these are 
some : — Achilles, Othello, Reform, Sailor boy, Hill's butterfly, Bunney's Queen 
Adelaide, and Ajax. Of the varieties of georginas, a most extensive stock of 
young plants is provided, for supplying the orders of the season, and for plant- 
ing out in the King's Road Nursery for display in autumn. Some of the kinds 
already show flower-buds, and one kind, The Maid of St. Leonard's, has a 
flower expanded. Of the objects which, in the general collection, came under 
our eye, we name the following : — Plants of Cereus splendidus (see p. 237.) : 
of Pereskia Bleo, of several gloxinias, of Ribes specidsum, three fine plants of 
Rhododendron Russelha?zz»n just going out of flower, ikf fmulus Smiths flow- 
ering ; Primula cortusoides, a group of; a stock of plants of Lobelia speciosa, 
purpurea, fulgens, splendens, cardinalis, and of a scarlet-flowered new variety, 
in the way of cardinalis, but with its inflorescence much branched. We shall 
add, because they interest us, Symplocarpus foe'tidus, Stktme Armeria white 
corollaed, and the hardy trolliuses ; the last, in the shaded low-lying soil of 

and Suburban Gardens. 283 

this nursery, are more vigorous and beautiful than persons accustomed to see 
them just living and flowering in dry sunny borders can well conceive. — J.D. 

Drayton Green. — May 4. Since our last visit (IX. 517.), Mrs. Lawrence 
has considerably extended her flower-garden, erected a very handsome green- 
house, a house for forcing plants, a large mass of rockwork, with rustic arches, 
a basin and fountain, and introduced a number of statues and other sculp- 
tural or architectural objects. The place is now such a gem of picturesque 
beauty and botanical riches as is not elsewhere to be found in the neighbour- 
hood of London. The plants are most admirably grown, and it is only doing 
justice to Mrs. Lawrence and her gardener, Mr. Cornelius, to state that the 
order and keeping of the whole are such as to put it entirely out of our power 
to find fault. 

Among the plants in flower, in the open garden, were some of the most 
splendid bushes of double-blossomed furze we have ever seen, a large tree 
paeony covered with bloom, and a splendid hybrid rhododendron, which was 
afterwards exhibited at the Horticultural Exhibition, May 10. Among the 
herbaceous plants was a fine collection of heartseases. In the green-house 
there were, a select collection of beautiful heaths finely in bloom, all the newest 
and most rare New Holland shrubs, and all the finest pelargoniums. 

Greenhithe. — May 5. The villa of Mr. Foster is formed on a surface com- 
posed of old chalk-pits, heaps of chalk rubbish that have been accumulating 
for centuries, and chalk cliffs ; and it is remarkable for the great variety and 
romantic character of the scenery which it contains in so small a space. The 
walks display a perpetual change of scene ; they are chiefly of turf, but some 
of them near the house are gravelled. One walk, along a ridge, affords a 
remarkably fine specimen of what may be called the elegant picturesque. It 
is an irregular continuous glade of the smoothest turf, losing itself, on each 
side, under the branches of the beautiful trees and shrubs. The outline, thus 
formed, is as full of variety and beauty as can well be imagined. The breadth 
of this glade or walk is sometimes only 10 ft. or 12 ft., and sometimes 50 ft. or 
100 ft. There are two retired glens of smooth turf, completely shut out from 
the world by high banks, covered with trees and shrubs ; not in dense mono- 
tonous masses, but sufficiently thin and scattered to allow the plants to display 
something of feature and character. On these banks there are some fine old 
thorns, profusely covered with bloom. In short, there is an appearance of 
nature, and, at the same time, of elegance, pervading all the plantations here, 
from their thinness, irregularity, and the uneven surface on which they are 
placed, which never can be produced by thick equidistant plantations on level 
ground, and neglect of thinning out the trees. Near the house there is a steep 
bank cut into grassy terraces, which have a fine effect j and, on the side of 
another very steep hill there are scattered groups of pines and spruce firs, which 
reminded us of scenery which we have seen in Sweden. The whole of this 
place was in perfect order and keeping ; and it gave us no small pleasure to 
find that Mr. Foster agreed with us in preferring a garden often yards square, 
kept in the most perfect order and richness that a garden is susceptible of, to 
one of a hundred acres, kept as gentlemen's grounds commonly are kept. We 
saw here a purple Brompton stock, between three and four years old, and 
several feet high. It was magnificently covered with bloom ; and had been in 
much the same state, Mr. Foster informed us, for the last two years. 

The Cottage Villa of Mr. Wilson, Surgeon, though not nearly so extensive as 
that of Mr. Foster, is yet formed on the same description of surface, full of 
variety, and kept in the highest order and neatness. It also contains some 
good plants, especially natives, Miss Wilson being a good practical botanist. 
We saw a remarkably fine plant of .Lithospermum purpiireo-caeriileum, of 
which rare species there is a habitat in this neighbourhood. A summer-house 
on the summit of a hill in this garden is embosomed in fruit trees, so as to 
exclude all the scenery immediately around it ; and to direct the eye far into 
the county of Essex, several miles up the Thames, and down that river nearly 
to the Nore; — Cond. 

u 4 

284 Floricultural and Botanical Notices, 

Art. V. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of netx Plants, and of 
old Plants of Interest, supplementary to the latest Editions of the 
" Encyclopcedia of Plants," and of the " Hortus Britannicus" 

Curtis' s Botanical Magazine; each monthly Number containing eight plates; 

3s. 6d. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Hooker, King's Professor of 

Botany in the University of Glasgow. 
Edwards's Botanical Register; each monthly "Number containing eight plates ; 

4s. coloured, 3s. plain. Edited by Dr. Lindley, F.R.S., Professor of Botany 

in the London University. 
Sweet' s British Flower-Garden; each monthly Number containing four plates; 

3s. coloured, 2s. 3d. plain. Edited by David Don, Esq., Librarian to the 

Linnaean Society. 

Dicotyledonous Polypetalous Plants. 

III. Hanunculdcece § spuria. 

1596. PJEO^NIA. (By some, from Pteon, a noted physician of antiquity ; by others, and with 

much more probability, from Pceonia, a mountainous country of Macedonia, where some of the 

species grow wild. — D. Don.) 

14094 Moutan H. K. " The M. papaveracea appears to be really the normal form of the species, as the 

late Mr. George Anderson suggested." (D. Don.) [Sw .fl.gar,2.s.238 

var. variegata D. Don particoloured-peta/ed Sk spl 1| ap.jn W.P Eng. hybrid? ... L p.l 

A low-growing bushy kind, branching from the ground, and scarcely woody. 
Flowers about 6 in. across. Petals white, stained with a deep rose colour in 
various parts; the base marked with numerous radiating streaks of violet and 
purple. Anthers yellow. The Earl of Mountnorris, whose successful culture 
of the tree pseony has been rewarded by the production of several splendid 
varieties, far excelling any of those imported from China, has been so fortunate 
as to raise the present fine variety also, which is remarkable for its dwarf and 
almost herbaceous habit. It has been raised from seeds of the P. M. joapa- 
veracea, which His Lordship supposes had been accidentally fertilised by some 
of the herbaceous species. 

All the varieties raised at Arley [we suppose, those whose names are registered in Hort. Brit. 

p. 482.] were from papaveracea, and not from Banksz'i, as the gardener had inadvertently stated. 

The tree pseonies are propagated by layers, which should be twisted a little ; and the soil best 

i adapted for them is a mixture of vegetable earth and fresh meadow loam. (The British Flower- 

Garden, May.) 

LVI. Mi/rtdcece § Chamcelauciece. 

1495. CA'LYTHRIX Lab. (Kalyx, a calyx, and ihrix, a hair; the remarkable hairlike terminations 
of the calyx. Not from kalyx, and trixos, triple, as some explain it : misled, perhaps, by Labil- 
lardiere, the describer of the genus, having spelled the word Calytrix. — Bot. Mag., May, 1834.') 
12. 1. Sp. 12. — [C s.l Bot. reg. 409 

■f-12833 glabra B. Br. glabrous -Ifd. and bracted it] | or 4 ap.jn W Australia and V.D.I. 1818. 

tl2834 virgata Cun. twiggy-branched * |_J